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Full text of "The true and only way of concord of all the Christian churches .."


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T R U E 




Of all the 

Chriftian Churches : 

The defirablenefs of it, and the detection 
of falfe dividing Terms. 

Opened by 

Hichard Baxter/ 


Printed for John Hancock at the Three Bibles 

in Popes-head-alley, over againft the 

Royal Exchange in Comfyl, 1 6 So. 

Act. 15.28. ItfeemedgoocttotheHolyGhofiandto us, 
to lay uponyou no greater burden than the fe necejfary 

Rom. 14. 17, 18. 'The Kingdome of God is not meat 
and drinks but right eoufnefs, and peace and joy in 
the Holy Ghofi : for he that in thefe things ferveth 
Chrifiis acceptable to God and approved of men. 

2 Tim. 4. i, 2. I charge thee before God and the Lord 
Jefny Chrifiy who fliaU judge the quich^ and the dead 
at his appearing and his Kingdome r Preach the 
word, be infiant infeafon and out of feafon. 

Aft. 4-19. Whether it be right in the fight of God 9 tc 
hearken to yon more than unto God, judge ye. 

I Thef. 2. 15, 16. They pleafe not God and are con 
trary to all men, forbidding us to fpeak^to the Gen- 
tiles that they might be faved, to fill up their fit 
ah ay : for the> wrath is come upon them to the h* 

Mr. Jones of the Heart and its Soveraign^. 344 
Id fit quod jure fit : Tyrants are but great Lords o 
Nullities, by the exemption of the Will and fou 
from, and the frown of Heaven upon all bruitil! 
injuftice and force. 

Readhimalfop. 23. 





To the Honourable and Reve- 
rend Dr. George Morley , late Lord 
Bifhop of Worcefler j and now of 
Wmchejler: and Dr. <Peter Gunning } 

■ Lord Bifhop of Ely. 

T is now about eighteen years 

fince you and many others were 

appointed by his Majefties com- 

miffion with divers of us who 

defired fbrne Reformation of the 

Church Difcipline and worfhip, to confi- 

der what Alterations of the Liturgy were ne- 

A 2 ctfary 

The Preface. 

ctffary and expedient for the fat is faction of ten- 
der confeiences, and the rejloring and continu- 
ance of peace and, Unity to the Churches under 
his Majefties protection and government. His 
Majefties Gracious Declaration about Ecclefiajli- 
cd Affairs, had before fhewed fb much of 
his Wifdome and care to attain this Unity, 
as we thought hadalmoft done the cure ; the 
differences about Church Government and 
moft of the reft being thereby as we hoped 
fairly ended : As ( with the help of the 
Reverend Dr. Sparrow now BifTiop of AV- 
wich, and Dr. Pier [on rlow Bifhopof Chefier) 
you maintained that no Alteration was necejfa- 
ry to the f ends, lb I with others endeavoured 
to prove the contrary : But fince > the faid 
Declaration being dead, fuch Alterations 
were made as greatly increafed our Impoffi- 
bility of Conforming : we never treated with 
you for Presbyterian Government, or Indepen- 
dent, but for Unity and peace ; Nor did we 
herein offer you any worfe than Anh-bifhop 
Ufhers Form of the Primitive Epifcopal Go- 
vernment, ( which I had declared my judge- 
ment of before in print ) ; And I never heard 
of the name of Epifcopal Presbyterians, or 
Presbyterian Archbifhops till or late. And 
we thankfully accepted much lefs than that 
for/v, as granted in his Majefties forefaid 
Declaration. As I doubt not but you ftili 


The Preface. 

think that your way was beft for the heal- 
ing of the Church and Land; fb I know 
that I have greatly incurred both your diC 
pleafiires for what I have faid and done 
againft your way. One of you fhewed it 
in a Printed Letter long ago, which when 
I had anfwered I caft that afide for Peace, 
(believing that the opening of fbmany mi- 
ftakes in matter of flift , would not be ea- 
fily born: ) The other of you fince told 
me, that be would Petition authority that ive 
might- be compelled to give our Reafotis ; as 
if we kept up a Schifni and would not tell 
why ! I rejoiced at the motion , and offer- 
ed to beg leave on my knees to do it. Since 
then your Mr. Walton in his Life of Bi- 
fhop Sander fon hath called me by name to 
remember our debate aforefaid. I know 
not of any two men living , that I am 
now more obliged to give an account to 
of my continued diffent, than unto you. 
My judgement is not in my own pow- 
er nor in yours. Many are dead who 
were in that confutation : You and I by 
Gods great mercy are yet alive , and may 
review our actions before we come to the 
Bar of God , which is like to be fpeedily 
tome, and to you it cannot be far off, efpe- 
cially to the elder of you ; fb that I fup- 
pofe that all three of us are really beyond 
A i the 

The Preface. 

the motives of any perfonal worldly inte- 
reft : what is this world to us who are 
taking our farewel of it for ever ? All. the 
doubt then remaining is, whether your terms 
or[ thofe defired hy tx , are the true way of. 
Love and Concord ? and which are the true 
caufes of Schifins , and the attendant 

I doubt not but you ftill think that the 
good which you have done doth far weigh 
down all the direft and accidental hurt. 
What that Good is, you know better than 
I : Dr. Heylw in the Life of Arch-Bifhop 
Laud tells us whatfbme accounted then moft 
defirable; And how much more defirable 
it is to open the Church doors fb wide as 
that moderate Loyal Romanifts may come 
in ? as they did in Queen Elizabeths firft 
years, and to reconcile them by nearer ap- 
proaches or conceflions , rather than to go 
further from them to unite with a few in- 
confiderable Puritans , whofe principles are 
againft the Power and Wealth of the 
Church, we have often heard from others : 
As alfo that the ejection of the near two 
thoufand non-conforming Minifters, was the 
Churches deliverance from them that w r ould 
have done more hurt within, than they can 
do without. The converted Prieft Mr. Smith , 
In his Narrative of the Popifh Plo^ dedicated 


to the King, nameth more reafbns, which 
I will not name , which fbme were mo- 

For my part, as with fear I forefaw, lb 
with grief I fee , fb many hundred Mini- 
fters under the reftraints and penalties which 
you know of, of whom I have better 
thoughts than you have : believing from 
my heart, by the acquaintance which I 
have had with very many, that notwith- 
f landing the faulty former anions of 
fome few of them, and the unjuftifiable 
fcruples of others , you cannot name that 
Nation under heaven out of our Kings Do- 
minions, which hath this day 16 many Mi- 
nifters, more found in do&rine, heart and 
life, and liker to further mens falvation , 
than thofe that in Englmd have been^filen- 
ced and call out. Name that countrey if 
you can ! And I believe that Chrift hath 
given us no fupernumeraries of fiich ufe- 
fulmen; but if all faithful Minifters Confor- 
miils and Non -conformifts were employed 
and encouraged , they would be ftill too 
few to do the work upon the ignorant, un- 
godly and vicious which is to be done. 
And considering how many fouls a faith- 
ful Minifter may hope to edifie and fave , 
I confider then how many thoufands are 
like to be lofers where fiich are loft and 
A 4 want- 

The Prefate, 

wanting. It grieveth ray foul to fee what 
advantage Satan hath got in England , againft 
that Christian Love which is the lite and 
charafter of Chrifts difciples , and to caufe 
wrath, envy, hatred and ftrife, when God 
faith, He that hateth his brother is a murde- 
rer, and no murderer hath eternal life tn him y 
i Job. 3. i <>. It grieveth me to fee preachers 
againft preachers, and Churches againft 
(Churches, and in Prefs and Pulpit, Learn- 
ing and Oratory imployed to render bre- 
thren odious, and keep up a heart war a- 
gainft each other , and all this (O fearful ) 
as in the name of Chrift, and as for thefafe- 
ty of the Church and Kingdorne. To fee 
families againft families, and father againft 
fon, and as Guelphes and Gibtlrms Cities and 
Countreys in their ordinary difcourfes (at 
the leaft ) accufing , contemning , and re- 
proaching one another ! It grieveth me to 
think how much fir ft the honour, and then 
the fuccefs of the Mmiftry on both iidcs is 
hereby hindered , and what temptations 
fbme have to further injuries which I am 
loth to name: And how by all this the 
wicked and Infidels are hardened, the weak 
are fcandalized, the Papifts are encoura- 
ged to defpife us all, and many turn to them, 
fcandalized bv our difcord, fects are advan- 
taged, the Church and Kingdome by divi- 


The Preface. 

fions weakened , and the King denyed the 
comfort which he might have in a loving, 
united and concordant people. 

I believe that you diflike all this as well 
as I : All the queftion hath been and ftill 
is, which is the true way of Cure. And one 
would think that i. the nature of the thing, 
and 2. the experience of all the Chriftian 
world, 3. and our own new' experience 
thefe leventeen or eighteen years, might 
refbive men of lower parts than ours ! Is 
there no better way to the Churches con- 
cord, than that which muft caft out either 
fuch men z&you or /, and that fb many? 
Can a wife Phyficion ( a true Peace- ma- 
ker ) find out no remedy which may bet- 
ter avoid the forefaid evils ? O what a lofs 
had England in the removal of fuch heal- 
ing men , as Bifhop Vfher , Hall , Dave- 
mnt$ Broxvnrig^ &c. Far was I and am I 
from liking any former injury to fuch men, 
by Covenant or abufe. But it hath been 
ever the juft milery of the perfecutors of 
worthy men, to have the itone fly back on 
their own heads, and to be themfelves un- 
done by ftriving to undo others, while they 
firfl: make, and then ftir up a multitude of 
enemies for their own defence, who elfe 
would be friends and live in peace. 


. Jj am fully perfwaded that in this book 
I have told you a righter way of Chrifti- 
an Church concord; more divine, fiire, 
harmlefs, and comprehenfive , fitted by 
Chrift himfelf , to the intereft of all good 
men, yea of the Church and all the world. 
I offer it firft to you, that you and pofte- 
rity may lee what it was that I defired ; 
and that if I here err you will faithfully 
deteft my errour, that I may repent be- 
fore I die , and may leave behind me the 
recantation of this and all my other mi- 
flakes and mifcarriages , as I intend to do 
upon juft conviction. But do it quickly or 
elfe I am not like to fee it : And I pur- 
pofe not to provoke you by any confuta- 
tion, but to improve your evidence for my 

And to anfwer the earnefl: demand of our 
Reafbns by you the Lord Bifhop of Eli , I 
have alfb published an Hiftorical Narra- 
tive of our cafe and judgement in another 
Book called, The Non-conformifls Plea for 

If ( much contrary to my expectation ) 
you fhouid be convinced that Theft Terms 
of Vwty Wd Concord, are righter than thofe 
which von (above all men that I know) 
have cvf. equally helpt to bring us under, 
I Irjmbly crave that you will life as much 


The Preface. 

earneftnefs and diligence to procure the 
Churches concord by promoting them, as you 
did for that which you then thought lighter. 
I have here opened thole reafbns which made 
me believe that the fourteenth and fifteenth 
Chapter to the Romans decideth our contro- 
verfie; and is to be underftood as I then 

If it prove the neceffary Truth which is 
here offered you, I befeech you fee that pre- 
judice refill it not. It would be a happy 
work could we procure the reviving of 
Chriftian Lov^, Unity and Concord , that 
all Chrifts fervants might ft rive together 
for the hallowing of Gods name , the promo- 
ting of his KJngdome and the doing of his will 
with Love and Concord as // is done in Hea- 
ven. And when inftead of worldly wealth 
aiijd grandure we are contented with our 
daily bread, and inftead of cruelty to the in- 
nocent or weak , we bewail our own fins , 
and forbear and forgive one another, and 
inftead of tempting men to the evil of wrath, 
and making battering Cannons and tearing 
engines of Schifm, \Ve ceafe to be over-wife 
in our own conceits, and to judge , defpife 
and mine others, then we ftiall be in a hope- 
ful way to this : we (hall then receive him 
that is weak even in the faith, (much 
more about our leflcr masters ) even as 


The Preface. 

Chrift received us, and not to doubtful 
difputations ; and he that pleafeth God by 
that in which his Kingdome doth confift, 
will be alfo approved by us ; and we fhall 
better learn what that meaneth , I will 
have mercy and not facrifice, and that 
none of our Church power is given for 
deftru&ion but for edification ; and fb we 
fhall not condemn the guiltlefs , nor finite 
the Shepherds and fcatter the ijocks, and 
then hunt them about as Schifmaticks, and 
fee the mote of diflent from a formality, ce- 
remony or word , in their eye , while we 
fee not this great beam in our own. How 
joyfully fhould we die, might we leave be- 
hind us by our endeavours a healed Church 
and Nation, and fee firft this defired unity, 
which would be the ftrength, eafe and jcTy of 
Minifters and people, King and Subjects, and 
a hopeful pattern to the divided Churches a- 
broad to imitate. If you will not contri- 
bute your help hereto, thofe will who fhall 
have the honour and comfort of being the 
blefled inftruments of our concord, it God 
have fb much mercy for us. 

I once more repeat to you the pacificators 
old defpifed words, 


The Preface. 

Si in Neceffarits fit VnitM ; in non-neceffariis 
Libert ar, 
InutriJq;Ckxrit<i$, optimo certe loco effent 
res noftrx. 

Pardon this freedome, and accept this Ac- 
count of the reafbns of all his former and la- 
ter diflent from you? judgement, words 
and way, to 

Tour unfeigned, 

Nov. !$» 


Richard Baxter. 



• o <5^ 'T -1 'Jr. <5r '3s <3f> <3r' w- " cifr J£ * <3r <?.■ ^r <Jr, & ," " : ^ 




UPon the review of this book I find 
fome things, which may be to fome an 
occafwn of offence, if this premoniti- 
on prevent it not. 

L Some may think when I fay [Diocefan 
Prelacy, Arch Bi\hops and Patriarchs are not 
to be made neceffary to Univerfal, or fubor- 
dinate Church Concord, as bang uneatable terms 
or means thereof] that I fpeak againfl the 
Lawfulnefs of all Epifcopacy, when Ifpzafc but 
again fl fitch neceffity of that fort. IQww there- 
fore 1 . that I meddle not w/th the que fl ion , 
Whether every particular Church ( of Pa/lor , 
and people affociate for perfonal Church Com- 
munion , fucb as Ignatius defer ibeth ) fljould 


The Premonition. 

have a BijJjop with his Presbyters and Dea- 

2. Nor with the quejlion whether theft jhould 
have Arch-Bifoops overthem y as fuccejjours to 
the Apofiolical and other general Over feers of the 
fir (I age y in the ordinary continued parts of their 

3. Nor whether Patriarchs, Diocefans and 
Lay Chancellours as officers of the Kjngj exer- 
afwg under him fitch Government of the 
Church as belongeth to Kjngs ( according to our 
Oath of Supremacy ) be lawful^ to which infuch 
exercife all ftbjects mufr for Confcience fafo 


4. Nor whether it was well done ( or of Di- 
vine appointment*) that about temporal mat- 
ters as well as Church Controversies , the Bi- 
(hops were chofen arbitrators by the ancient 
Chriftians , and fo did that which Chriftian 
Magi fir ates now mufi do y till upon the conver- 
jion of Princes and States the faid Power of 
externals circa &qt2l fell into their hands. 

5 . Nor yet if Diocefans become the fole Bi- 
fbeps ( infimi ordinis ) over many hundred 
Parifjjcs , all the Bijfjops and Parifb Churches 
under them being put down , and turned into 
Curates and Chapels (partes ccclefiae infirm; 
fpeciei), whether a Mimjler and every Sub- 
ject ought yet to live quietly and peaceably under 
tb:m. It is none ofthefethat are the queftions 
nhich I decide, J I It* 

The Premonition. 

II. In my confutation of Mr. Dodwell^ 
fome may miflake me y /u if I denied that our 
Religion bad come down to us by a continued 
fuccejfion from the Apo files? or that the mini fie- 
rial office in fpecie , or that the Vmverfal 
Church had ever been without a trice Minijlrv 
or Religion: I have proved where our Church 
was in all ages before Luther, in my ficond 
book agamfl Johnfbn alias Terret : Nor do I 
fay what I do, to avoid deriving our Minijleri- 
d fuccefjion from Rome : For Hiftory puts me 
out of djubt \ that the multitude of uncap able 
Popes and Sch/fns will prove a far greater in- 
terruption of Canonical and Legitimate faccefjion 
At Rome, than can be proved of England, and 
perhaps than hath happened to almojt any other 
Church in the world. And I am fully fit is fie Jy 
that the prefent Church of England as Natio- ' 
nal, deriveth its fuccejfion from the ancient 
Brittijh and Scottijh Church > and no? from 
Rome ; and that Chrifiiamty was the Religion 
of England long before Gregory, or Augu- 
ftine the Monks days ; and that notwithfland- 
ing Gildas his f mart reproofs^ when the Brit- 
tijh and ScottijJj Clergy and people difclaimed 
all obedience to the Pope, and would not Jo 
much as eat or lodge in the fame houfe with 
Gregory 7 ^ Clergy , the perfons were better, or 
^at leajjk their doctrine and Religion more found? 

£<0 thin 

The Premonition. 

than that which Rome did afterwards, obtrude. 
And as the blood of this nation though called 
English \ xvillupon juf confideration be found to ' 
be- twenty, if not an hundred fold, more Brit- 
tifh than either Roman , Saxon or Normaq, 
Jo the Ordination of the Bi flops is derived Jo 
much more from the Brktains and Scots than 
from Romzyis that AuguiHne the Monks fuccef 
fours were afterward almofl quite extjnff y onl\ 
one Wini a Simonift being left in anno 66$. 
the refi of the Bijhops being all of Brittifb ordi- 
nation : All which with much more of great im- 
portance isfo fully proved {after Ufher) byM. J. 
Jones of Ofweftree /4*e Chaplain to the Duke of. h 
York, in an excellent Hi floricalTreati/e hereof 
called [ Of the Heart and its right Soyeraign ] 
that 1 am firry that book is no more commonly 
bought and read. 

But with al I miijl fay that this oar certain 
fucceffion difproveth tbePapiftsand Mr. Dod- 
wells plea , for the neceffity of their fort oj 
Epifcopal Canonical uninterrupted fmcpfj^m\ 
For (as the Bijhops of Denmark have they 
fucceffion but from Bugenhagius Pomeranu 
x "Presbyter his ordination r fo ) Ajdan .and Fi 
nan that came from Scotland out ofColnm 
b&nus Monaftery y mre^no Bifhops -#s BedaJ^ % 
others fully te/l/fe : And after Beda and others j, 
. Mr. Jones hath cleared it, that.it i?& not oni \ 
the Northern Bifhops that were, or dm tied by A: 



The Premonitipn. 

wand Finan and Dhuma, but that the Z>;- 
Ijops of the whole land hadrthtir ordinal ton ac+ 
''ived from them and fuch : ju they , and tk 
vhom they ordained : fo that the deny:??* of 
'he Validity of the Ordination by Preibytfrs \ 
%aktth the fuccefjion of the Epifcopal Church of 
England; and proveth it on thdt Jappofiti- 
w y interrupted : And if they derive it from 
Rome, it wiHbe as much fhaken* 

III. In perufall fnd that I have more than 
iHce mentioned fo?ne things in - this treat ife y "an?- 
h he repetition may be an offenfe to forne: -To 
rhichlfay, \ s That this is nftal in controver- * 
*ksj where fever al objections and occafwns'.csJl 
r cr the fame material anfwer. 2. But 1 confefs 
it is the effect of my haft and weaknel?; tynd 
H is my judgement while I think that I write m 
veed/efs books, that I fhould rather write any 
Sne that is truly ufeful with fuch im perfecti- 
ons of manner and ftyle as only fo far df^'acc 
*hc author , than for want of time^ to leave it 
undone j to the lofs of others : But if it be freed- 
[els, it is a greater fault to write it , than to 
write it no more accurately. 

My detr friend y and judicious brother 
Mr /John Corbet t hath newly puhlifhed afmall 
\book to the fame pxrpofe with this y of the true 
ftate of Religion and lntereft of the Church, 
with a difcourfe of Schlim, winch I commend 



cF? '/o cr )1P^ cifr lCT <£2 



The Firft Part. 

T-fifc Reafons for Chrijiian Unity and 
Concord^ after the nature of it defers 
bed : and how much may be hoped for 
on earth. 
Chap. i. The Text opened: The Doctrines na- 
med: The method propofed. P a g e *- 
Chap. 2. The Nature of Unity : and this Unity 
of the Spirit opened. p. 10. 
Chap. }. The neceffity and benefits of this Unity 
and Peace to all men. p. }o. 
Chap. 4 ? The Vmty of the Spirit is the welfart 
of the Church. P-45- 
(44) Chap. {. 


The Contents. 

Chap. 5. This Vnity is for the good of the 
World, (without the Church), p. 6 J . 

Chap. 6. It is d/te to the honour of Chrlfi and 
amiable to God. p. 7* • 

Chap. 7. What obligations are on all Chrifli* 
ans to avoid finful divisions and difcord y and 
to promote this unity and peace. p. 7 5 . 

Chap. 8. What fort and meafure ofVnionmay 
or may not be hoped for on earth. p. 7^. 

C hap . 9 . That Chriji who commanded our Vmon 
hath himftlf prefer ibed the terms. p. 9 8 . 

Chap. 10. No humane terms not madebyChrifi 
or his Spirit extraordinarily given to the Apo- 
files are necejfary to the Being of particular 
Churches ^ but divers humane Acls are necejfa- 
ry to their exiflence. p. 1 00. 

Chap. 1 1 . The danger of the two extremes ; 
And fir (I of defp airing of r Concord, and unjuft 
tolerations. p. 1 14. 

Chap. 1 2 . The fin and danger of making too 
much neceffary to Vnion and Communion* 

p. 11 9. 

Chap. 1 3. To cry out of the mif chiefs of Tole- 
ration and call for fharper execution y while 
dividing fnares are made the terms of Union 
is the work of ignorant y proud and mdignant 
Church defiroyers* p. 1 2 <j • 

• 1 


The Contents. 

The Second Part. 

- ' 

THe Terms of Concord. 
Chap. i. In G<&eral y tvhatarg the trut 
and only terms of Church Concord^ and what 
■not. P- 1 ^* 

Chap." 2. Injiances of Gods defcription of thefe 
terms in Scripture . p. 1 4 3 . 

Chap. i. The tr ue terms of CathoUck Union and 
Concord more particularly defer ibed y as the 
chief means of hope for the Churches peace. 

p. 162. 

Chap. 4. What are the terms necejfary for the 
continuance of this Communion \ and what 
are the caufes of ab faff ion and excommunica- 
tion. V 1 !!* 

Chap. 5 . What are the terms necejfary to the of- 
fice and exerafe of the Sacred Minifiry. p.200. 

Chap. 6. what is necejfary to the Conftitution y 
adminiftrationand Communion of Jingle Chur- 
ches. p.228. 

Chap. 7. 


The Contents. 

Chap. 7. what are the neceftary terms of Con- 
cord of thofe (ingle Churches with one ano- 

- tber y in- the- fame KJngdome , or in divers. 

p. 243. 

Chap. S. What ns necejfary to the Civil peace 
and 1 Conwrd of Chrijlians > and what is the 
part of the Chrifiian Magifirate about Reli- 
gion y as to his promoting or tolerating mens 
doftrines or practices therein. p. 2 4S . 

Chap. 9. Qb]ettions anfwered about Toleration 
efpeciatly. p. 267. 

Chap. 10. A draught or Specimenoffuch Forms 
as are mentioned for Approved and Tolerated 
Minifters. V**19* 


_ : . 

The Third Part. 

. - 

Of Schifm. 

' Specially the f dp dividing Terms ofyhion y 
. and other Cmfes of Schijm. 
*hap. 1 . What $ C H1SM is : and rvhat are 
it s C 'art fa s and effects, ■ •• ; - ■ p. I. ■ 

). 2- 

The Contents. 

Chap. 2. The true Preventions and Rem/ies 
of Schifm. p. 1 6. 

Chap. 5. More of the fame : twenty things nc- 
ctjfary hereunto. p. 26 . 

Chap. 4. The Catholick Church will never" unite 
in the Papacy. p. 29. 

I . What the Papi/ls opinion u of the Term of 

Vnion. 2; The fifth Monarchy m opwbn of 

Campanella de Regno Dei , an&fome other 

Papifls^ That it is really anVniverJal Kjhg- 

dorne which is claimed by the Pope. ^ $* The 

Chrifiian world will never nnite iri one 


Chap. ^. The Catholick Church will never unite 
in Patriarchs or any humane Church officers 
or forms of Government. p. 41 . 

Chap. 6. The Catholick Church will never 
unite in General Councils , as their Head, 
or necejfary center or terms of Concord* 

p. 52. 

Cha p.7. The Catholick Church will never unite 

tn a Multitude of pretended articles of faith 

not proved certainly to be Divine^ norinfub- 

fcribing to or owning any un necejfary doubtful 

opinions or practices, p. 60. 

Ch^p. 8 # The Catholick Church will Hever unite 
by receiving all that is now owned by the 
Greek or Latine Churchy the Abafline, Ar- 
menian, the Lutherans^ 0r Calvinifts, or in 
a full Cohforinity to any divided parly which 
\ ' addtth 


The Contents. iff 

dddeth to the primitive fmplicity in her terms 
of Concord. ^ r p. 6S. 

Chap. 9. The pretended neceffity of an uninter- 
rupted fucceffive ordination by Diocefan Bi- 
Jhops will never unite the' Churches ( but is 
; Schifmaticd} Mr. Dod wells book hereof con- 
futed. P*7?- 
Chap, 10. None of thefe terms will unite a 
National Churchy ajfociated Churches, nor well 
any Jingle Church : Though by other means a 
compet&tt Union may be kept in fome Chur- 
ches 7 notwithstanding fome fuch Schifmatical 
inventions, as lejfer difeafes defroy not na- 
ture, p. 104. 
Chap. 11. The fever ity and force of Magi- 
flrates denying necejfary Toleration, andpu- 
nifoing dijfenters from uncertain unnecejjary 
things, will never procure Church Union and 
Concord, but divifion. p. 107. 
Chap. 12. Excommunicating and Anathema- 
tizing in fuch cafes will not do it. p. 1 1 2. 
Chap. rjY Any one unlawful uncertain do- 
ctrine, oath, Covenant , profeffion, fubfcri- 
ft ion or praffice fo impofed, will divide. 

p. 116. 

Chap. 14. Unlimited Toleration will divide 

and wrong the Church. * p. 1 1 8. 

Chap. 15. The Catholick Church will never 

unite in a- reception and fubfcription to every 

word, verfe or book of the holy Scripture as in 


The Contents. 

~~our Tr inflations, or any particular Copy, nor 
other -wife known y but fome will ft ill doubt 
of the Divine authority of fome parts. 

p. IJ4. 

Chap. 1 6. The Church will never unite in any 

mens Commentaries on the Bible. p. I2j. 

Chap. 17. A fummary recital of the true terms 

of Concord y and of the Caufes of Schifm* 

p. 1 J* 

Id quod natura remittit 

Invida jura negant. Ovid. 


L v 

C 2] 

and moll zealous members, ftill cryed out aloud 
for pity and help, I had not chofen this fubjeft at 
this time. But after the complaints, and exhorta- 
tions and tears ofthewifelt and belt menlincethe 
days of Chnft, after the long miferies ol the Church 
and the long and coftly experience of all ages,the 
deftroy ing Spirit of divifion ftill poflelfeth the moft,and 
maketh fome of the poffefled to rage and foam & tear 
themfelves and all tnat are in their power 5 it haunt- 
cth the holy alTemblies and difquieteth the lovers of 
unity and peace^and by the fcandals which it raifeth it 
frighteneth children and unliable perfons out of 
their /eligion and their wits., And therefore af- 
ter the many books which 1 have written for Vnity y 
Love and Peace , and the many years preaching ; 
and praying to that end, I find it yet as neceffary 
as ever to Preach on the fame Subject, and to recite^ 
the fame things, and while I am in this Taberna-* 
cle which I mult fcortly put off, to ftir you up, 
that after my deceafe you may have it inremenu 
brance ( 2 Pet. 1. 12, 13, 14J And could I perfuade 
the Churches of Chriffc to feek by falling and fervent 
prayer, the difpoilefling of -this diitra&ing Spirit/ V by 
which only this evil kind goethout^} our languilh- 
ing hopes might yet revive. 

If Pad found it necefTary to cry down divifion , l 
and plead for Unity fo frequently and fo vehement- 
ly as he doth, to thofe new planted Churches of 
Romti- Corinth^ - Ephep^ G alalia, Philippic Thcffaloni- 
ca y &c/~ which had been founded by the means of 
miracles, and~had To much of the fpirit of Unity 
and Community > and had Apoltles among them to; 
preferve their peace: what 'wonder if we that are 
much ignorant of the ^pofties minds, and of the 
Primitive pattern, and have left of the Spirit, 
have need tobeltiil called upon to findy to keep the 


C 5 3 

Vnity oftheSfirit in the bond offtdC&Thty that \r. • 
"Twenty or an hundred Sermons for Purity, ana 
fcarce one with equal Zeal for "Unity gnd Pi 
do not fufficiently difcern that Purity and Ptaci 
are the inseparable fruits of the wifaom 
from above, which live and die together, J a 3" 4 
and with them the fouls and ipoietbs of be- 

This famous Church of Epkefns is it which P ... 
x j4£t. 2c. had lb long laid our his labours in ; even 
publickly <k from houfe to houfe,nightand day^vinh 
■tears : which was famous for its great- „ A n 
nefs , and the open profeftion of Chrilt *, *$ 2o°*Li 
where even the priceofthe vain unlawful 
books which they openly burnt came to fifty thoufand 
pieces of lilver. * This is the Church Aft. 19. 19. 
that firft of the feven is written to by ^s^B^sCon^ 
XM\&,Rev. 2. Whofe works, -labour jeci-re of the 
and patience, even without fainting, [tyme^Wb 
were known and praifed by theLord f \ f Rev. 2. 2,5, 
Which proved and difbroved the falie 4> 5> (• 
Apcftles-, which hated the deeds of the Nicolaitans : 
And yet Paul faw caufe, Atb. 20,30. to foretell them 
prophetically of their temptations to divifion \ that 
they fhould be tryed by both extreams as other 
[Churches were and arc \ that en one fide grievous 
Wolves or Church tyrants flwdd enter net faring the 
flck^nd en the other (Idc,<?/ thewfehes feculdmen wife 
I peaking fervcrfe things to draw away difciples(by Schiim 
& feparation)^r r,W. And to this excellent Church 
he feeth caufe here to urge thePerfuafives to the yigii 
lant prefervation oiVmty^ in this Chapter. 

Having in the three firft Chapters inftruded therr* 
in the high myfteries of Election, Redemption and 
the fruits thereof, and magnified the richts of 
Grace in Chrift, and the fpi ritual knowledge there- 

B 2 


of, that we may know whatVfe he principally in- 
tended , he here beginneth his application, i. With 
a moving reafon from his Perfon and Condition^ v. ]. 
L Ijhe PrifonercftheLord^} As ifhefhouldfay \_As 
ever yon will regard the doctrine and counfel of your 
Teacher ^A Chrifts Apoftlc^ now / am in bonds for the 
deftrine which I preach ] 2.. With words of ear- 
ned' requeft [_ I befeech you ~] 3. With the matter 
of his requeft, 1. In general, that £ they wall^ worthy 
the calling wherewith they were called ] £ez.a need 
not have avoided the vulgar and proper tranfbtion 
Oi d>;ia$^nd put quod convenit for worthy^OV worthinefs 
can fignifie nothing but moral congruity. 2. S/w^//y 
this worthinefs couiifteth in the holy and healthful 
conftitution of their fouls and the cxerciie there- 
of; In their inward difpofition, and their aiifwer- 
able practice. 

1 . The inward qualifications are \.[_All lowlinefs^ 

2 . f mcekntfs 3 3 • L Love. ] 

2. The fruits of thefe are, \.Long-fnffering\ 2. For- 
hearing one another : 3. And Studying to keep the 
Z-nity of the f fir it in the bond of peace : ] Which Vmty 
is particularly defcribed in the Terms and reafons 
of it which are (even. 1. One Body. 2. One Spirit. 

3. One hope. 4. One Lord. 5. One faith. 6. One 
Baptifm. 7. One God and Father who is above all 
and through all and in the??} all~] But negatively, not 
in an equality of Grace in all the members ; for 
that is various according to the meafure of the gift | 
of C,r;fl, the free Benefactor. 

Ijmufl pafs by all unneceilary explication, and the J 
'handling of the many ufeful Leilbns which offer, 
themfelves to us in the way: fuch as thefe fofli 

Deft. 1 . It §1 odd not depreciate the ccunfels of Chrifis j 
Miniftcrs 7 that they arefent cr written from a prifovn 



cr bonds J?ut rather procure their greater acceptancr.when 
they are not imprilbned for evil doing, but for 
Preaching or obeying the Gofpel and Law of Chriir, 
it is their honour, and the honour of that 
which they fiiffer for:why elfe keep you daysof thankf. 
giving and Commemoration of the Martyrs ? On 
the perfecutors part Chrift is evil fpoken of or I 
phemed, but by the iiifferers he is glorified, 
and therefore he will glorifie them. I was l l 
once blamed for dating a book [_ our of the Common 
gaol orprifon in London ~] as if it reflected on the 
Magiflrate ■ But I imitated Paul , and mentioned no- 
thing which the Rulers took fof a difeocour^as t'.itir 
actions (hewed 

Doct. 2. Befeeching is the mode and language of 
wife and faithful P afters , in pleading for Vnity an£ 
agai?:fi Schrfm in the Church. For they are not Lords 
over the flocks, but helpers of their faith: They 
have no power of the fword , but of the v/ord. 
They rule not by conftraint, bur willingly, norfuch 
I as are conftrained by them , biit Voluntiers : Iris 
[ not the way to win Love to God, to Pallors or to 
I one another, to fay, Love me or 1 will lay thee in a 
gaol : ftripes are ufeful to caufe fear andtiraerotis 
obedience, but not directly to caufe Love. And 
hated Preachers feldom prefper in Converting or 
Edifying fouls , or healing difordered, divided 

Do-ft. $• Though Grace find us unworthy^ it tnak± 
rth men fitch as waikjworthy of their tyigh and hutvtTp? 
ly calling: that is, in ia fiiitable cohverfation, anfwer* 
able to the principles of their faith and hope. Chri- 
ftianity were little better than the falle Religions 
of the- world , ifit made men no better. If Chrift 
made rot his difciples greatly to differ from the 
difcij.les of a meerphiloicpher, he would not be 
B 1 thdug 

• ) C 6 J 
fought greatly to differ from them himfelf;The 
/niitsof his do&rme «nd fpirit on oar hearts and lives 
are the proofs and witncfs of his truth : we wrong 
fcim heinqufly when wc live but like other men : 
And we weaken our own and other mens faith,by ob- 
juring a great evidence of the Chriftian Verity. And 
tliofe that are of eminent holinefs and righteouf- 
nef$ . cf life, are the great and powerful preachers 
of faith, and fhew men by proofs and not only by 
words that Chrift is true. 

Doct. 4. Lowlinefs is a great fart of Chriftian wor : 
thiptfei and a neceffary caufe of Chriftian Vnity and 
fcact. This ^ita mms rstTitve^offiwnf is but the 
lame thing winch Pauldfe where (A'cl. 20, 19. ) tells 
this fafne Church, that he pra&ifrd towards them 
cxemplarily himfelf. Lowlinefs ^of mind contain- 
eth.both low and humble thoughts oFourfelves, 
and low expectations as to honour and refpeft from 
others-, with a fubmiffive temper, that can ftoop 
and yield, and a deportment liker to the lower fort 
of people, than to the (lout and great ones of the 
world. As Mat. 5. to be poor in fpirit is to have 
?. fpirit fit for a ftate of poverty, not in Love with 
riches, but content with little, and patient with 
all that poor men muffc endure, (oLowhnefs ofmind^isa 
difpoftion and deportment, not like the Grandees of 
the world, but fuited to Lofy perfons and Low 
things, condefcehding to the loweft perfons, em- 
ployments and indignities or contempt that (hall 
be baft upon US, A proni high-minded perfon, that 
kjooking ibr preferment and mull be fomebody 
in the world, is of a fpirit contrary to that of Chri- 
ttitipiryj and will never lie even inthe-facred Edifice, 
ppr be a healer, br.t a troubier of the Church of 
Chri'b, and mutt be "converted and become as a lit- 
tle child, before lv; can enter iLto the; Kingdom 



of heaven, Mat. iS. 3. And indeed only by felfifh- 
nefs and pride have come the divifions and con- 
tentions in the Church, even by thofe that have 
made it the means of their domination to cry down 
divilion, becaufe they muft have all to Unite in them, 
in Conformity to their opinions, Intercfl> and wills. 
A humble foul that can be content to follow a Cru- 
cified Chrift , and to be made of no reputation 
( Phil. 2. 7. Heb. 12. 1,2,3.) and to be a fervant 
to all, and a Lord cf none, and can yield and ftoop 
and bedefpifed, when ever the ends of his office do 
require it,is a Chriftian indeed and fit to be a healer. 

Do£t. 5. Mcehnefs or Lenity is another part of 
Chriftian worth wefs, and a neceffary caufe of Vniiy and 

Though in fome this hath extraordinary advan- 
tage or difadvantage in the temperature of the bo- 
dy, yet it is that which perfonsofali tempers may 
be brought to by grace. A boifterous, furious or wild 
kind of difpofition, is not the Chriftian healing fpi- 
rit. If paffion be apt to ftir, wifdom and grace 
muft reprefs it, and Lenity muft be our ordinary 
[temper : we muft be like tame creatures, that fami- 
liarly come to a mans hand, and not like wild things 
ithat flye from us as un tradable : other wife how 
will fuch in Love and peace and fociable concord > 
iever carry on the work of Chrift ? 

Doft. 6. Love to each other is a great fart cfChrz- 
\ftian voorthinefs, and a moft neceffary caufe efVmty 
\andpeace. Of which I hope to fay fo much by it felt 
J(ifGodwillJ as that I fhall here pafs it by. Itbeing 
the very Heart and Life olVnity. 

Doft. 7. Long- fuflcring ox a patient mind not rdft^ 
or hafty, is another part of Chriftian worthinefs , an4 
a neceffary Caufe ot Vnity and peace. 

B 4 Mxx#- 

C S 3 

' Mcly.$o$v{j.U hath mere in it than many well con- 
fider of : I know it is commonly taken for re fir aim 
of anger by pattern long-Bering : But I think that it 
chiefly fignifieth here and elfevvhere in Tads Epiftles, 
that deliberate flownefs and calmnefs of mind which is 
contrary to pajfwnate hafie and rathnefs: When a paf- 
donate man is hafty and rafh and cannot flay to hear 
another fpeak for himfelf nor to deliberate of the 
matter and fearch out the truth, nor forbear revenge 
while hethinketh whether it will do good or harm , 
or what the cafe will appear in the review, this 
Longanimity will ftay men and compofe'their minds, 
and caufe them to take time before they judge of opi- 
nions, practices or perfons, and before they venture 
to fpeak^ or do \ left what they do in hade, they re- 
pent at leifure : It appeafeth thofe paffions which 
blind the judgment when wrath doth precipitate 
men into thofe conceptions, words and deeds, which the 
imuft after wifh that they had never known. Hafty 
rafhnefs in judging and doing,foi want of the patienc 
& lenity of & flow' deliberating mind,is the caufe of mod 
errors, Herefies and divifions, and of abundance of fij 
and mifery in the world. 

Do<ft. 8. Be aring, Supporting and forbearing one an- 
other in Love, is another part of Gofpelworthinefs, an, 
needful means of Vnity and peace. 

Doubtlefs to forbear each other patiently undei 
injuries and provocations is a great part of the duty 
here meant \ But both Bezj* who tranflated it [fufti 
nentes~] and the Vulgar Latine which tranflateth 
it [_fapportantes^\ feemed to think that £vtfx^ VOi 
fignifieth fomething more. While we are imperfecft 
finful men, we {hail have need of mutual fuppcrc 
and help, yea we (hall be injurious, provoking and 
troubleforae to each other : And when Chriftians 
(yea 'Church Paltors) are fofar from fupporting 
— -' • and 

c 9 n 

and fuftainingthe weak, that they cannot fo much as 
patiently bear their cenfures,negle<fts,or other effedte 
ofweaknefs, Unity and peace will hardlv profper, 
much lefs if their fpiritual Nurfcs become their chief 

Doct. 9. Vnityofthe fpiritismoft necejfary to the 
Church of thrift and to its fever al members, though their 
meafures of Grace be divers. 

Dodt. l o. The bond of Peace muft preferve this Vnity. 

Dodt. 1 1 . This Vnity confifteth in thefe feven things ^ 
J. One body y 2. One fvirit, 3. One Hcpe,±. One Lord, 5, 
One Faith y 6. One Bapttfm, 7. One God. 

Dodt. 12. TlnsV?nty mnfi be (titdied carefully , 
and diligently endeavoured and freferved, by all the faith- 
ful members of the Church. 

Thefe laft Dodtrines being the fubjedt which I 
defign to handle,! (hall fpeak of them together in the 
following Order. 

I. I (hall tell' you, What the Vnity of the fpirit is 
which is fo necejfary. 

I I. I fliall tell yoviyWhat neceffity there is of this Vni- 
ty, and what are its happy fruits. 

III. I fliall open the feven particulars in which 
it doth confift •, and defend the fufficiency of them to 
the life here intended in the Text. 

I V. I fliall open the nature and terms of coun- 
terfeit Unity. 

V. I fliall open the Nature and mifchiefs of the 
contrary (Divifion. ) 

VI. I fhall (hew you wlnt are the cnejfliesand 
impediments of this llniiy- V I L I 

" VII. 1 fliall fhew you, What are thefiudy and en- 1 
deavour, and the bond of peace, by which this Unity 
muft be kept. 

VIII. I (hall conclude with fome directions for\| 
Application, orUfe-of all. 


The Nature ofVnity^ mi this Unify of the [ft- 
Tit, opened. 

i. TTTHat II N IT Y in General is /and what 
VV T7;/j Vnity of the fpiritm fpecial, I fliall 
open in thefe following connexed propofitions. 

i ,1 muft neither here confound the ordinary Reader 
by the many Metaphyseal difficulties about UNI- 
TY; nor yet wholly pafsthemby, left I confound 
him for want of neceflary diftinftion. 

2. UNITY is fometimes the attribute of an 
Vmverfal, which is but Ens r adonis \ or a General 
Inadequate partial conception of anexiftent lingular 
being : and fo Allmen are O NE as to the fpecies of 
Humanity ; And all Living things are One in the 
Genusof Vitality \ And fo of Bodies, Subftances, Crea- 
tures, &c. It is much more than this that we have be- 
fore us. 

2. Some think that the word CONE] or 
[UNITY] fignifieth only Negatively an Vndi- 
vidednefs in the thing it felf : But this conception is 
mere than Negative, andtakethin firft in Compounds 
that peculiar Connexion of part shy one form, and in 
finifk fvintual lehigs, that more excellent ivdivifible 


C n 3 

fltntiality and exiftencc*, whence the Being is intelligi- 
blc as fuch afubfifte nee as is not only undivided in it 
felfy but divifible or difference able from all other CX- 
jilent or polfible beings, fo far as it is one. 

4. Palling by thediftintftion of Vnum perfe &per 
accidensj and fome fuch other, I fhall only further 
diftinguifh of Vnity according to the differences of 
the Entities that are called One : Where indeed the 
difference of Things, maketh the word N E of 
very different figmfications. 

5. G O D is Supereminently and moft perfectly ONE, 
as he is E N S, B E I N G : No Creature hath Vmty 
in the fame perfed fort and fenfe as G O D is One. 
He is fo ONE as that he is perfectly fimpleand 
indivifible : and fo as that he cannot be properly a 
J\>rt y in any compofition. 

6. Therefore GOD and the World , or any 
Creative are not compounding parts*, for a partis 
! ]efs than the whole : And that which is lefs is not 

7. Yet (Wis more Intimate to every creature than 
^any of its own Parts are : no form is more inti- 
mpate to the matter, no foul to the body, no for- 
imalvertue to afpirit, than God is to all and every 
{being : But his Perfection and the Creatures Imperfection 
lis fuch, as that creatures can be no addition to God, 
nor compounding parts, but like to Accidents. 

8. The fame muftbe faid therefore of Chrifts 
Divine and humane natures. The Schoolmen there- 
fore fay that Chubs 'foul, and body are Parts of his 
humane nature: but his Godhead and manhood are 
not to be called Parts of Chrifi: Becaulc the God- 
head can be no Part of any thing. 

9. When Paul faith that God is toVt* lv ™,n 
All in All things, he meaneth not that he is for- 

all things themfelves : But yet net that he is lefs, 


C 12] 

or is more diftant from them thantheyVw m , but is 
eminently fo much more, as that the title is bel&pjm 
him : fo he is laid here, Eph. 4. 6, T0 ^ W/wj toV-TJ 
T0Pj £tt? 7t£v 7&v y Kdl Jtct mvravy Kctl hr -mriv wjx/V ] 

the Father of all, above all, and through all, and! 
iq ns all : And 1 Cor. 12. 16. it is faid that the fame 1 
6W wcrketh all in all, as to the diver City of operations : I 
He is the moft. intimate prime Agent in all that 
a&eth (though he hath enabled free Agents to de- 
termine their own afts morally to rfci* or that, 'for J 
0* nunc, &c.) For in Him we live and move and have ; 
mtr Being •, for we are his offspring, AH. 17. 

10. Somewhat like this muft be faid of the fpe- 1 
cial Union of Chrift and all true believers: As to J 
his Divine Nature, (and fo the Holy Ghoft) he is as I 
the Father, Intimately in all, but more than the form 
of all or any : But he is fpecially by Relation and J 
Inoperation in his members, as he is not in any others : 
So Col. 3. 11. Chrift is faid to be mvr&h met All in 
All, that is to the Church : And fol conceive that it 
is in a Pa five or Receptive fenfe that the Church is faid 
to be the fidnefs of him that flleth all in all, Eph. 
1. 23. Whether it be fpoken of Chrifts Godhead j] 
only, or of his humane foul alfo, as being to the 
Redeemed world what the Sun is to the Natural il- j 
luminated world, I determine not : But which ever J 
it is, Chrift filling all in all, the Church is called j' 
his fnlnefs as being eminently .pofTeiTed and filled Im 
him, as the Head is by the humane foul more than the 
hand or other lower parts. 

1 1. The Trinity of Per fans isfuch> as is no way 
contrary to the perfedt Vnity of the Divine efience •, , 
As the facilities of Motion, Light and Heat in the 
Sun, and of 'Vital Attivityjntellettion and Volition in 
plan, is not contrary to the Unity of the eflence of 
the foul : ( yet maa is not fo perieftly One as God is.) 

X2. The 

I 13 3 

1 2 . The Vnity of a /pirtf in itfelf, is a great Image 

1x Likenefs of the Ditra? Vnity \ As having no 
feparable Parts, as paffive matter hath, but being 
One without divifibility \ even one Eflential Fame or 
Virtuous fubftance. 

M. The mod Urge extenfwe Vnity (as far as 
|£*r«tt may be faid to have extension or Degrees of 
Ejfence) is likeft to God; And the Unityofa**^ 
terial atome is not more excellent than the Vnity 
of the material part of the world, made up of fucli 
Atonies. ( Whether there are fuch Atomes phyficai- 
ly indivifible I here meddle not, but the fliaping of 
an Atonic into cornered , hollow and fuch other 
fhapes, is to common reafon a palpable contra- 

14. Whether there be any one paffive Element 
I ( Earth, Water or Air) any where exiftent in an 
i Vnion of its proper Atomes, without a mixture of 

any other Element, is a thing unknown to mor- 

15. So is it whether there be any where exiftent 
a body of the united Atomes ofthefeveral paffive 
Elements without the adtive. 

16. ThcmixtBeings known to us do alhconfifl: 
of an union of the paffive and attive Elements (or 
of the re united?) 

1 7. We perceive by fenfe what Vnion and Dfui- 
fin of Paffive matter is, which hath feparable parts: 
But how far fpirits are paffive(as all nnderGod are in 
fome degree,) and whether tWtPaJfivuy fignifieany 
kind of Materiality as well as Sdfta?;tiality, ai\d 
how far they are extenfive, or partible , or have 
any Degrees analogous to Parts, and fo what their 
Vnity is in a pofitive conception, and how fpirits 
are Many, and how One, and whether there be ex- 
iftent OneUniverfal (pirit of each kind Vegetative, 


C i4 3 

fenfitive, and Intelle&ive, and whether they are 
both One , and many ill feveral refpe&s, with ma- 
ny fuch like queftions , Thefe are all paft hu- 
mane certain knowledge in this life: Many it 'is 
certain that there be : But whether that Number here 
be Quantity difcreta r and how they are Individuate 
and diftinguilhable , and how 'tis that Many come 
from One or two in generation, are queftions too 
hard for fuch as I. 

1 8. But we lee inPaffive matter, that the parts 
have a natural propenfity to Vnion f and the aggre- 
gative inclination is fo ftrong, as that thence the 
Learned Dr. Gliffon {Lib. de Vita Namra) copioufly 
iilaintaineth that all Matter hath Life or a Natural 
Vital felf-moving Vertue, not as a compounding 
part, but as a formal inadequate conception : In 
which though I confent not, yet the Aggregative 
Inclination is not tobedenyed: Ail heavy terrene 
bodies haften to the earth by defcent, and all the 
parts of Water would unite*, and Air much more. 

19. ThegrofTer and more terrene £ny Body is, 
the eafilier the parts of it continue in a local re- 
paration*, you may keep them eafily divided from 
one another, though they incline to the whole : 
But liquids more haften to a clofure •, and Air 
yet much more. 

20. Whether this their ftrong inclination to 
Vmtyfie a natural Principle in the paffive Elements 
themfelves, or be caufed by the Igneous Attive 
part which is ever mixed with them, and whofe 
Vnity in it felf is more perfect \ or whether it 
principally procfeed from any fpirituai fubftance 
which animateth all things, and is above the Igne- 
ous fubftance, I think, is too hard for man to de- 

21. Bet 

C '5 1 

21. But fo great is the Union of the whole 
Igneous fubftance that is within our knowledge, that 
we can hardly tell whether it have divifible fc- 
parable parrs, and more hardly prove that there 
are any pans of it a&ualiy ieparated from the reft, 
even where by Termination and Reception in the 
rajfive matter there is the mofl notable diftinttion. 
The Light of the Sun in the air isO^and that Light 
feemeth to be the effect of the prefent fubftance of 
the folar fire, and not a quality or motion locally di- 
ftant from it : A burning-glals may by its Recep- 
tive aptitude occafion a combuftion by the Sun- 
beams in one place which is not in another. But 
thofe beams that terminate on that glafs are not 
leparated from the reft. As there are in Animals fixed 
fpirits which are conftitutive parts of the folid mem- 
bers , and moved fpirits which carry about the 
humours, and yet thefe are not feparated from each 
other : fo the Earth it felf , and its grofler parts , 
have an Igneous principle ftill refident in them, as 
fire is in a flint , or fteel , and indeed in every 
thing : And this feemeth to be it which many call 
Forma telluris : But that all thefe are not contigu- 
ous or united alfo to the common Solar fire , or 
Igneous Element, is not to be proved. The fame 
Sun-beams may kindle many things combuflible 
and light many Candles, w T hich yet are all one un- 
divided fiery fubftance, though by the various Recep- 
tivity of matter, fo varioufly operating, as if 
there were various feparate fubftances. And as 
all thefe Candles or fires are One with the folar fire 
in the Air , fo are they therefore One among them- 
felves : and yet not One Candle j becaufe that word 
iignifieth not only the common fire, but that fire 
as terminated and operative on chat ©articular Mat- 
ter. The fiars are many : but whether they be not 


L 16 ] 

alfoOtf* fiery fubftance,diverfifyed only by Contract h 
on and Operation of its parts upon fome finable 
Receptive matter ( or contrafted (imply in it felf) 
without reparation from all other parts , is more 
than we are able to determine. 

22. They that hold that non datur vacuum? mult 
hold that all things in the world areO^ by moll 
intimate conjundion or Union of all the parts 
of being : And yetdiftinguifhable fevefal ways. 

23. We conftantly fee a numerical difference of 
fubflances made by Partible Receptive matter? when 
yet the informing fiibftance in them all? is One in it 
felf thus varioufly terminated and operating: ib 
one Vine or Pear Tm?liath many Grapes or Pears nu- 
merically different •, And many leaves and branches 
and roots? And yet it is one vegetative fubftance which 
animateth or a&uateth them all *, which confrfteth 
not of feparated parts : And that Tree which is thus 
principled, is it felf V ] nit ed to the Earth? and ra- 
dicated in it ' is a real part of it ? as a mans hair is 
an Accident ? ( or as fome will call it -, an Ac- 
cidental part) of the man, or the feathers of a bird: 
And confequently the forma arbarvs or its vegetative 
fpirit , and the forma telhtrisaiG not feparated, but 
One. And we have no reafon to think that there 
is not as true an Union between that forma tellurls? 
and the forms or fpirits of the fan, flats, or other 
Globes of the fame kind, as there is between the 
fpirits ofthe£^rr/?and plants. So that while Vege- 
tative Spirits are many by the diverfity of Receptive 
cr Terminative matter , ( and perhaps other ways 
to us unknown \ yet feem they to- be all bat One 
thus diverfifyed , as One foul is in many mem- 

24. Seeing the Nobleft natures are moll perfect 
in VrJty (and the bafeft moft -divifible) we have 


c 17 1 

no reafon to think that the Vital .principles of the 
divers faititive Animals ( tfteedy foch ) are not a; 
much One as the divers principles cf plants or ve- 
getables arc. 

25. And as little reafon have we to think that 
there is no fort of Vnity among the divers In:d- 
leftual fubflanccs , feeing their nature is yet more 
perfeft, and liker to God, who is perfectly one. 

26. It is not to be doubted but the Vnivtrft of 
created being is pne^ confifting of parts cOmpagU 
nated and Vntred, though the bond oiit&Qtanft be 
not well known to us. 

27. But it is certain that they are all Vrited in God 
(though we know not the chief created Caufe of Uni- 
ty y) and that though it be below him to be the tnfdri 
mingfudoi the world,yct is he wore than fuch a foul to 
it:& ofHimflnd through Him and to Him are all things, 
who is AH things in all things, above allzvAihrcrgh. 
fdl and in us all (as is aforelaid ) : and being more 
intimate t& all things as their proper form, is the 
fi<j} Vniung principle of all being, as he is the fir lb 
'■Caufe and the End of ail. And yet it is Above the 
Creatures to be accounted parts of God', for they are 
not his Conftitutive parts ( who is iao&fimple ) but 
flow from him by his Cauftl efflux, and fo are by 
many not falfly called, Vna emanatio Diving or a 
continued efteft cf one Divine creative or efficient Ffc 
lition ', All One as In and Of and To One God y 
and as compaginated among themfelves, and yet 
Many by wonderful incomprehenfible diverfities : 
Ab itno Omnia. 

28. God isfaidto he More Ow withfomc Crea- 
tines than with others, as he opcratcth more excellent 
effects in one than in others, and as he is related to 
thofe effefts:but not as his effence is Nearer to One than- 
to another. - . 

G 29. Accord- 


C i3 1 

29. Accordingly his Vnfon with the Intellectual 
Spirits, and fouls of men is laid to be vemrer, than 
with Bodies, and his Communion anfwerably : But 
that is becaufe they are the Nobler product of his 
Creating or efficient Power and Wil). 

30. And fo he is faidtobemore VnitedtohoYj 
fouls than to the unholy, to the Glorified than to 
the dammed-, Becaufe he maketh them Better, and 
communicateth to them more of his Glory and the 
efrcftsof his Power, Wifdom and Love. As the Sun 
is more United to a burning-glafs , or to a place 
where it fnineth brightly, or tofome excellent plant 
which jt quickneth, than to others. 

3 1. Accordingly we mull conceive of that Vnion 
(before mentioned Tbtf. 10.) of Chrift with Be- 
lievers here, and with the glorified hereafter, as 
to his Divine Nature ', which may well be called 
my (Heal, and is of late become the fubjeft of fome 
mens contentious oppofition, and is matter of diffi- 
cult enquiry to the wifeft. And yet it is hard to fay 
that in all their hot oppofition any i'ober men are in 
this difagreed: Fori.it is by fuch commonly con- 
ferred that the Spirit of Chrift doth operate more 
excellent effe&s on believers than en others, and 
an the BlefTed than on the damned ; even making 
them liker unto God. 2. And that this Holy fpint 
is by Covenant related to them, to operate for the 
ftiture more conftanrly and eminently in them than 
in others. 3 . And that this Spirit proceedeth and is 
fent from the Father and the Son to do thefe works. 
4. And that Chrift is Related to each Belie vivo and 
each Ghrifyed foul, as one in Covenant felf-ob- 
liged (or a Promifcr ) thus by his Spirit to operate I 
on them. 5. And that he is thus Related to thei 
whole Church or fociety of fuch perfons, whereof j 
each Individual is a part* 


I 19 ] 

So that all this fet together telleth us, that every 
Believing and every Glorify ed foul is faid to be Uni- 
ted to Chrift in all thefe feveral conjunct refpects 
(as to his Godhead) i. In that he eminently ope- 
rateth Grace and Glory in them, that is, Holy Life, 
Light and Love, by the HolyGhofi : And this he 
doth ( as God doth all things ) per effentiam, and 
not as diftant by an intermediate Vertue which is 
neither Creator nor Creature: As the very Sun- 
beams touch the illuminated and heated object. 2. By 
a moral-relative Union by Covenant to that indi- 
vidual perfon , to do fuch things upon him. 
( As husband and wife are United by Covenant for 
certain ufes. ) 3. By a Political Relative Vnion , 
as that perfon is a member of the Church or Poli- 
tical body, to which Chrift is United by Promife 
as aforefaid : who denieth any of this, and who af- 
fefteth more ? 

32. And then our Vnion with ChriRs humane na- 
ture ( befides the General and ' fpecial Logical Vnion, 
as he is a Creature, a Man, of the fame Nature with 
us ) can be of no Higher or Nearer a fort : But 
differeth from the former, fo far as the Operations 
and Relation of a Created Medium differ from thofe 
of the Creator : That is, 1 . The humane nature is 
honoured and ufed by the Divine, asafecond caufe 
of the forefaid eflfe&s of Grace and Glory on us. 
2. The humane Nature (being of the fame fpecies 
with ours)is by a Law,obligation and confent,related 
to each Believer and to all the Church, as the Root, 
and chief Medium, Adminiftrator and Communica- 
tor of this Grace and Glory •, and fo as our Rela- 
tive Head in the forefaid Moral and Political fenle* 
communicating thofe Real Benefits. 3. And Chrift 
in his Humanity is the Authorifed Lord and Cover- 
nour of all inferiour means andcaufes, by which 
G z any 

[20 1 

any Grace and Glory is conveyed to us ( as of 
Angels, Minifters, Word, Sacraments , changing 
Providences, &c. ) 4. Bur whether his own Humane 
Soul per effentiarn & immcdiatam attingentiam ,do ope- 
rate on all holy fouls ^ and ib bcPbyfically alfo Vnited 
to ibemSS the Sun is to the quickened plants or 
animals, I told you before, I know not yet, but 
hope ere long to know. 

3,3. Chriits Divine Nature is United to his bu- 
rn ane, in a peculiar fort, as it is not to any other 
creature. But it is not by any change of the Di- 
vine : but by that peculiar pofleffing operation and 
Kelatio/j, which no other created being doth partake 
*mMethodo °^r 2nd which no mortal cancom- 
TjioUgi.^ prehend y of which I have faid more 
Pott. 2. elfewhere. * 

34. All Creatures as fuch are United in God 
as the Rootorfirft caufe of Nature: All Believers 
aud Saints are United in Chrift as the Head of the 
Church, as aforefaid *, and in the Holyfpirit as the 
principle of their falsification. 

35. The Political Relative Union of fuch Saints 
among themfelves, is intelligible, andfure-, as hav- 
ing One God) one Hea'd y one Holy fpirit : But (as 
I laid before ) how 7 and how far their very fub* 
fiance is One^ by an Unity analogous to Phyfkal 
Continuity ( like the folar Light, &c. ) and how far 
and how they are fubftantially divers-, and how j 
and how far the fpirit of Holinefs doth in a pecu- 
liar manner Unite the fubftances of Holy fouls among 
themfelves, (byAnalogie to the Illuminated Air, 
o^r.) and how .all fouls and Angels are individuate 
and diftinguifhed, lfay again is pad our reach. 

36. Seeing Vnion is fo naturally defired 
as Perfection by all creatures known to us, it is I 
great inordinatenefs and folly to fear left death I 

will 1 

Z 21 3 

•will by too near an Union aid our individua- 

37. And as things ftnfibk arc the firlt known by 
man in ficfh , and we fee that among them Union 
dcitroyeth no part of their fubftance ; but a laid 
or Atom is the fame thing in Union with others as 
it \v9uld be if feparate, or iblitary , and a drop 
of water hath-astrueand much exifiing fubftance 
in the Ocean, as in its feparate ftate, and lb of a 
particle of Air \ we have reafon to conclude 
no worfe of the igneous Element , nor yet of fas-- 
fitive or Intellectual fpirits : For 1. How far they 
are paffive and partible ( being many ) we know 
not. Moll of the old Fathers, cfpeciallv the Greeks 
( as Faiiftus Regienfis cited them in the book whi. h 
MMnmertus anfwered ) thought that God only was 
totally Immaterial or Incorporeal ; And it mult 
not be denyed that every creature ddth pan a Deo, 
is paflive as from God the firft cajife; and many 
Philofophers think that all Paffivity is a confequer.t or 
proof of anfwerable Materiality * ? And many think 
that we have no true notion o{fnbftantia r befides 
Relative (as it doth fubfifi of it felf and fubfisre 
accidentibus) but what is the fame with Materia 
fimjjima. 2. But fuppofing all this to be otherwife, 
fpirits being true fnbjlances, of a more perfect na- 
ture than grofle bodies, as they are more inclined 
to Union inter fe, fo there is as little ifnorlefs dan- 
ger that they fliould be lofers by that Union, than 
that a drop of wat,er Ihould be fo : For the per- 
fection of the higlieft nature, muft needs be more 
the perfection of all the Parts ( Phy Ileal or intelli- 
gible ) than the perfection of the loweft : And the 
uobleft inclineth not to irs ownlofi , by dd'Iiing 
Union which to tbc lowcil is no lo& 

c i i?. ft 

L22 3 

sS. It is called in the Text £ The Vnity of the 
fpirit 3 i - As it is One fpccies of Spiritual Grace 
which all the members are endowed with, which is 
their Holinefs, or Gods Image on them which is cal- 
led;, The Spirit in us, becaufe it is the immediate 
and excellent work of Gods fpirit: As the Sun is 
faid to be in the room becaufe it fhineth there. 2. 
As the Spirit is the efficient caufe hereof. 3. And be-, 
caufe this One fpirit in all the members inclineth them 
to Vnity •, even as the foul of every animal inclin- 
eth it to prefervethe Unity of all its parts, and 
to abhor wounding and feparation, as that which 
will befits pain andtendeth to its deftru&ion, by 

3 9. The Holinefs,or fpiritual qualification of fouls, 
which is called The Spirit^ is Holy or Divine , Life, 
Light and Love y or the holy difpolition of the fouls 
three natural faculties, Vital Power ( or Activity) 
Vnderfianding and Will. As all men have One fpecies 
Of humanity , fo all Saints have this One fpirit. 

40. Though Quickning ( by holy Life) and Illu- 
mination be parts of fanSrif cation ( or this fpirit ) , 
yet the lalt part £ Love 3 is the compleating per- 
fe<ftive part, and therefore is oft called SavBifca- 
Hon fpecially, and by the word [Spirit"] and [ Love ] 
is oft meant the fame thing. And when the fpirit 
is faid to be gi\sen to Believers, the meaning is, that 
upon and by believing the wonderful demonftra- 
tions of Gods Love in Chrift , the habit of holy 
Love is kindled in us. 

41. This holy Love which is Gods linage, (for: 
God 'is Love) ufually beginneth at things vilible , 
as being the neareft objects to man in ftefh ; And as 
We fee God here as in aglafs, fo We fir ft fee the Glafs, 
before we fee God in It y And accordingly we firft 
fee the Gopfatfi and Lovelimfs of Gods blejjings to 

C « "J 

r#,and of/W people, and of good werJs and rfefew ; 
But yet when we come up to the Love- of God, it is He 
that is the chief 'eft objett, in whom all the Chard 
Love is centred : fo that we thenceforth Love God for 
himfelf •> .and all his fervants and mr or .(•/> 

/^£ and imprefs on them. And our tJmon by 
Z>w would not be perfect, if it United us toge- 
ther only among our [elves, and did not Unite us 
all in God and our Redeemer. So that the Vmty 
of the ffirit is the Love of Cod in Chrift and cfdll the 
faithful, ( yea and of all men fo far as God appear- 
eth in them ) to which Cods fpirit ftrongly tnflin- 
eth all true believers \ including hoiy Life and 
Lights as tending to this Vnity ot fpirit ud Love. 

42. Therefore Love is not dilbnelly named after, 
among the particular terms of Vmty> as faith and 
hope are *, becaufe it is meant by that word {JLhere 
is One fpirit. ] 

43. The love and Vt&ty of Chriftians as in Ono 
Church, fuppofeth in Nature a Love to man as mar;, 
and adefire of the Vmty and concord of mankind: 
As Chriftianity fuppofeth humanity. 

44. But Experience and Faith allure us that this 
humane Love andLWy is wofjlly corrupted, and 
muchlolb,and that though mans foul be convinced by 
Aatural light, that it is good, and have a genera ! lan- 
guid inclination toit,yetthis is fo weak & uncftc&u- 
al, as that the principles of wrath and divifwn prevail 
againft it,and keep the world in miferable confiifon. 

4.5. It is the predominancy of the corrupt feffifh 
inclination which is the great Enemy and deftroycr of 
Love and Vnity. 

46, Chriftianity is fo far from ccrnningall our 
Love to Chiiuian? , that it is net the lenft u(c 
of it to revive and recover our Love to Men as Men : 
ib thai no men have a full and healed Love iowzv- 

' C 4 kj:d. 

I 2*1 

, , and defire of universal Unity, but believers. 

47. The pureft and ftrcngelt Love and c^/Vyis 
., fail. And it is not genuine Chriffianity if ic 

do not incline us to Love all men as men, and all 
p'ofcfled Chrijt'ians as fuch, and sH Saints as Saints'-, 
according to their various degrees of amiablc- 

48. Love and Unity which is notthn$ ivniverfal, 
partaketh of wrath and Sahifm./ For he that lov- 
eth but a part of men, doth not love the reft j and 
he that is United but to apart ( whether great 
or fmall ) is Schifmatically divided from all the 

49 . But Lave to All, muft not be Equal to all y 
nor our* Unity with ail Equal, as on the fame terms, 

the fame degree. As the Goodnefs of meer 
tamty , and the meer Profeffwn of ChriflUnity is 
lefs, and ib lefs amiable, than is the Goodneis of 
tf ue falsification \ Co our Love and Unity muft be 
divcriified. All the members of the body muft be 
Loved, and their Unity carefully prclcrved : But 
yet not E fully # ? but the heid?s an bead, and the 
heart as an heart , and the ftomacb as a flomach , 
and all the eflential parts dsEfjcntial, without which 
it is not a humane body: apd all the integral parts 
as ftch, but diverfely according to their worth and 
ufe : The eye as an eye, and a tooth but as a tooth. 
Goodnefs being the objeft of Love, and Love being 
the life of our Vmy % it varieth in degrees as Good- 
neis varicrh. 

50. That Love and U?uty wliich is fmccre in 
kjidy may be mix: with lamentable wrath and 
fybifm ( as nil our Graces are with the contrary 
fin in oar unperfedl ftate : ) Not but that ail Clvi- 
iV.ans have An habitual inclination to Umvcrfal Lo:'r 

rity 3 but the aft may be hindied.-by the want of 


I *5 1 
due information , and by faii'e reports and njilre- 
prefentations of our brethren, which hide their 

amiablenefs, and render them to fuch more odious 
than they are. 

51. Sincere and genuine Love and Vnity hath 
an Univerial care of all mankind, and is very apt 
to enquire and take knowledge how it goeth with 
all the world, and fpecially with all the Churches : 
For none can much love and defire that which they 
mind not, cr take no thought of. And this is the 
chief News which a true Chriftian enquireth af- 
ter, whether Gods name he hallowed, his Kingdom 
ccmey and his will be done on Earth ) as it is done in hea- 
ven : And of this he is follicitous even on his death- 

52. The Vnity of the fpirit inclineth men to mourn 
much for the fefts,Schifms, divifions and difcords 
of believers } and to fmart in the fenfe of them, 
as the body does by its wounds. And they that 
bewail them not, are fo far void of the Vnity of the 

53. The Vnity of the fpirit helpeth a man great- 
ly to diltinguifh between wounding and healwg 
Doctrines, wounding and healing courles of practice, 
and between woundi?ig and healing pezfons, even as 
Nature teacheth us to difcern and abhor that 
which would difmember or divide the body, as 
painful and deftruftive. 

54. Therefore holy experienced Chriftians who 
have nrofi of the Vnity of the fpirit , are moft againfb 
the .dividing impofitions of Church Tyrants , and alfo 
againftthe quarrelfom humour and caufelefsfcparatio-r.s 
of ftlf conceited Singularifts whether Dogmatical Or 
jl'pcrjhtiom *, who proudly overvalue their own con- 
ceptions, forms and modes ofworfi.ipand do&rine, 
a;i J thence aggravate all that they di&ke into the 


C 26 1 

fhape of Idolatry, Antfchriftianifm, falfe worfhtp, 
or fome fuch hainous fin, when the beam of felt- 
conceit and pride in their own eye, is worfe than 
the mote of a modall imperfe&ion of words, me- 
thod or matter , in anothers eye. 

55. The Vnity q{ the fpir it inclm- 
Rom. 14. 17. 8n $. e th men to hope the belt of others, 

5. C i° r 2 I2 2 ,&I ti!1 we know ^ to be untrue : and 

to take more notice of mens vertues 
than of their faults, and love covereth fuch infirmities 
as may be covered ^ & beareth with one anothers bur- 
dens, while we confider that we alfo may be tempted. 
. 56. The Vnity of the fpirit teacheth and inclin- 
eth men to yield for peace and concord to fuch law- 
ful things ( whofe practice doth truly conduce to 
unity : ) yea and to give up much of our own right 
for unity and peace. 

57«This Love and Vnity o£ the fpirit inclineth men 
to vigomirs Endeavours for concord with all others j 
fo that fuch will not flothfully wi(h it but diligently 
feek it: They will purfue and folia* peace with all 
men , Hcb. 12. 14. as far a$ is pojfiblc , and as in 
them lietby Rom. 12. 18. They that are true Peace- 
lovers are diligent Peace-makers } if it be in their pow- 
er and way. 

58. This Love and Vnity of the fpirit, will pre- 
vail with thg fincere, toprofecute it through diffi- 
culties and oppofitions, and to conquer all : And it 
teacheth them at the firft hearing to abhor back-bi- 
ters , and llanderous cenlurers, who on pretence 
of a (blind) zeal for Orthodoxnefs or Piety or Purity of 
worihip, are ready to reproach thole that are not 
of their mind and way in points where difference 
is tolerable : And when children that are toft up and 
and carried to *and fro, ( Eph. 4-. 14. ) with eve- 
ry wind cf dcilnnc , are prefenrly filled with diftaft 


[2 7 ] 

and prejudice, when they hear other mens tole- 
rable opinions, forms and orders aggravated, the 
right Chriftjan is more affected with difpleafurea- 
gainftthe felt-conceited reproacher,who is employed 
by Satan (though perhaps he be a child of God) 
againft the Love and Vmty of believers. 

59. The more any man hath of Love and Vnity 
of the Spirit , the greater matter he maketh otVm* 
verfal Vmty, and the more Zealous he is for it. A 
fmall fire or Candle giveth but a faint and little 
light and heat, and that but a little way. But 
the Swi-light and heat extendeth to all thefurface 
of the earth, and much farther •, and that fo vi- 
goroufly as to be the life of the things that live oa 
earth: loftrong love isextenfive. 

60. The more any man hath of Love and the 
Vnity of the fpirit, the more refolved and patient 
he is, in bearing any thing for the furthering of 
Vnity. If he muft be hated for it, or undone for it ; 
if his friends cenfure and forfake him for it •, If 
Church Tyrants will ruine him, he can joyfully be 
a Martyr for Lnyi and Vnity •, If Dogmatifts con- 
demn him as an Heretick , he can joyfully bear 
the cenfure and reproach. If blind fuperftitious 
perfons charge him with Luke-warmnefs , or fin- 
ful confederacies, or compliance, or corrupting 
Gods worlhip, or fuch like as their errour leadeth 
them, he can bear evil report, and to be made of 
no reputation, and to be flandered and vilifyed 
by the Learned, by the Zealous, by his ancient 
friends , rather than forfake the principles , af- 
fections and practice of Univerfal Charity , Vnity , 
and peace. 

61. Though Perfection mud be defired, it is but 
a very imperfect Unity which can b~ reafonably 
hsped for oa earth. 

6z. Tterc 

61. There muft go very much mfdom, goodnefs 
and careful diligence J.O get and keep Vnity and /Vdf * 
in- our own fouls, (it being that healthful equal 
temperature and harmony of all within us which 
few obtain ) And moll have a difcord and War 
or difquiet in themfelves. But to have a family of 
fuch is harder, and to have a Church of fuch yet 
harder *, and much more to have a Kingdom of fuch, 
and a conjunction of fuch "Churches •, and moil of 
all to bring all the world to fuch a ltate : And they 
that have a War in themfelves, are not fit to be the 
Peace-making healers of the Church(in that degree,). 

63. Yet as every Chriftian hath fo much con- 
cord y and peace at home as is neceflary to his fal- 
vatibn, fo we may well hope that by jufl; endea- 
vours, the Churches may have fo much , as may 
preferve the ejfentials of Chriftianity and Communion, 
and alfo may fortifie the Integrals, and may much 
^ncreafe the greatnefs and glory of. the Church, and 
much further holmefs and rigbteoufnefs in its members, 
and remove many of theYcandals and finful con- 
tentions, which are the great hindercrs of piety , 
and are Satans advantages againft mans recovery and 
falvation .: This much we may feek in hope. 

64. Defpair of fuccefs is an enemy to ail paci- 
ficatory endeavours, and low and narrow defigns 
fliew a low Spirit, and a little degree of holy love 
and all other uniting grace. 

65* An earnelt defire * of the worlds Con- 

* c , I verfwn , and of the bringing 

* Such as now work- . -f , , ' , - 
ah in Mr. Liiats in m the barbarous , ignorant, in- 
Km England, and fidels and impious, to the know- 
Mr. TUmas Go»ge ledge of Chrift, and a holy life, 
jn Ew'and towards 

the Weljhi & in many worthy Mi miters whofuffer the reproach 
anH perfections of men becaufethey will notconfent to be 
a: li±ts put under a bufbd. 


doth (hew a large degree of charity, and of the 
VnUy oftheffirity which would fain bring in all men 
to the bond of the fame Unity, and participatiou 
of the fame fpirit. 

66. The moft publick endeavours therefore of 
the good of many, of Churches, of Kingdoms , 
of mankind, are the moft noble and moft befeem^ 
ing Cbrifiianity, though it's poflible that an hypo* 
crite may attempt the like , to get a name, or 
for other carnal ends. 

67. And it is very favoury and fuitable to the 
Vrtity of the fpirity to hear men in prayer and thankf* 
giving^ to be much and fervent for the Churches, 
and for all the world , and to make it the firft 
and heartieft of their requefts, that Gods name 
may be hallowed, his Kingdom come, and his will be 
done on earth as it is done in heaven, and not to be 
almoft all for themfelves,or for a fe£t,or a few friends 
about them, as felfifh perfons ufe to be. 

68. A very fervent defire of Vnion confined to 
fome few, that are miftaken for ail or the chief 
part of the Church, with a oenforious undervalue 
ing of others, and a fecret defire that God would 
weaken and difhonour them, becaufe they are a- 
gainft the opinions and the intereft of that fedt 
or party, is not only confftent 'with Schifm, (as 
I faid before) but is the very ftate ofSchtfm f cal- 
led Herefie of old ) : And the ftronger the defire 
of that inordinate feparating Unity is, as oppofite 
to the Common Vrtity of all Chriftians, the greater is 
the Schifm : Even as a bile or other apofteme or 
inflammation, containeth an inordinate burning col- 
lection or confluence of the blood to the difeafed 
place, inftead of an equal diftribution, 


I lol 

m ami m, ■ i 


I L 7&e ntcejjity and Benefits of this Unity W 

I I.TpHE Necefllty and excellency of the Vnity 
X of the fpirit and peace, will appear in thefe 
refpe&s. 1 . For the good of the particular perfons 
that poflefs it. 2. For the good of Chriftian fo- 
cieties. 3* For the good of the uncalled world. 
4. For .the Glory and well-pleafing of Jefus Chrift 
and of the Father : of thefe in order. 

1. For the good of each particular perfon that 
pofTefleth it. 

1. It is the very Health and Holinefs of the foul, 
and the contrary is the very ftate otfin and death. 
What is Holinefs but that Uniting Love by which 
the will adhereth to God and delighteth in his 
Goodnefs as it ihineth to us in his works, and 
fpeciallyinChriftand in all his members ( and in a 
common fort in all mankind ? ) And what is the 
unholy ftate of fin and' death, but that Con'raUednefs 
and retiring to our SELVES, by which the felfifh per- 
fon departeth from the due Love of God and others , 
and of that holinefs which is contrary to this his 
felfifhnefs? So far as any mans Loveiscontra&ed, 
narrowed, confined to himfelf> and to a few, fo 
far his foul is indeed unfanftified and void of the 
Vnity of the Spirit , or the Spirit of Vnity. If a man 
lived in baniihmejit or a prifon uncapable of do- 
ing others any good, yet if he have that Love 
and fpirit of Unity which inclimth him to do it 
if he could, this is his own health and re&itude , 


I 31 1 

and acceptable unto God. Little do many Reli- 
gious people think bow much they do miftake 
wiholincfs and fm it felf, for a degree of hotmef* 
above their neighbours / When they contract and 
narrow their Chriftian Love and Communion to 
a party, and talk again ft the Churches of Chrift 1 
by difgraccful and Love-kiliing cenfures and re- 
proaches, as being not holy enough for their Com- 
munion ; this want of the (pint of Love and Uni- 
ty , is their own want of holinefs it felf. Jt was 
the old deceit of the Pharifees, which Chrift the 
meftengcr and mediator of love condemned , to 
think that holinefs lay more in furifices and Ri- 
tual obfervances, and in a ftrid keeping of the Sab- 
baths reft and fuch like, than in the Love of God 
and all men : And the leflbn that Chrift twice fet 
them to learn was, £ I will have mercy and mt fa- 
enfice. ] He hath moft grace and holinefs who hath 
molt of the fpirit of Love and Unity. 

2. It is the fouls neceflary qualification for that 
life of true Chriftianity which God hath command- 
ed us in the world. It is this inward Health which 
muft enable us to all our duty. 

i. Without this fpirit ofVnity we cannot per- 
form the duties of the firft table unto God : Our 
facrifkes will be as loathfome as theirs defcribed 
Ifa. n and I fa. 58. If we lift not up pure hands 
without wrath, and wrangling (or difputingj (for 
fo I would rather tranflate A&Htyurtiw^ 1 Tim. 2. 
3. than £ doubting ] ) our prayers will not be ac- 
ceptable to God : Though it be Chrifts worthhuf 
for which our prayers and fervices are accepted , 
yet there muft be the fubordinate worthinefs of 
neceflary qualification in our felves. For Chrift 
himfelf hath annexed fpecially the exprefs menti- 
on of this one qualification in the Lords prayer 


n 32 3 

it felf [Forgive m ourtrefpaffis as we forgive them that 
trefpafs againft ^ 3 and herepeateth it after, [ For 
if ye forgive men their trcfpaffes , your heavenly Father 
Will forgive you your trefpaffes ; but if ye forgive not 
men their trejpajfe}, -neither will your heavenly Father 
forgiveyou~\ Mat. 6.13, 14. Love is here included 
in [forgiving ~] asacaufe initseffeft: And Chrift 
rather nameth [forgiving^ than [ Love~], becaufe 
men may pretend to that aft which is fecret in 
the heart, but if it fhould not work in the necef- 
iary fruits ( of which forgiving others is one ) it 
would be but a vain pretence. 

And here I intreat the Reader to confider a 
while the Angularities of this paflage of Chrift. j. That 
men that mult trull in Chrift s merits and median- 
</#, muft yet be told of fuch an abfolute neceffity 
of a Condition or qualification in themfelves. 2. That 
Forgiving others as an Act of Love-, is fingled out 
as this qualification. 3. That this condition muft be 
put into the very prayer it felf , that our own 
mouths may utter it to God. 4. That it muft be 
annexed to this one petition of [Forgivenefs~] ra- 
ther than any of the reft,w here men are apt to con- 
fefs their own neceffity, and where many are readi- 
ed to think that Gods mercy and thrifts merits 
and mediation muft do all without r.ny condition 
on their part : They that know that [their daily 
bread]] and [deliverance from temptation and evil J 
mutt havefome care and endeavours of their own, 
are yet apt to think that the Fofgivenefs of fin 
ueedeth nothing on their part but gashing and ; 
receiving. ] 5. That Chrift fhould after fingle out 
this one claufe to repeat to them n by urgent 
application. And yet how little is this laid to 
heart ? 


L 33 ] 

^nd indeed thefirfl: word in the Lords prayer [Oh, 
7 athcr "J teacheth us the feme leilbn, How needful 
i qualification Love and Vnity are to all that wiil 
:ometoGod in prayer: He that teacheth us that 
:o Love our- neighbour as our [elves is the fecond (um- 
nary Commandment, and even like to the firft, 
which is Love to God ffor it is Loving God in his 
Likenefson his works ) doth here call us; in all our 
prayers to exprefs it, by Praying for our brethren as 
"or our felves. O that men of wrath and wrangling 
,vere truly fcnfible what affeftions fhould be expref- 
ed by that word 10 VR FATHER]-, and with 
what a heart men fliould fay Q G 1 V E US ] and 
FORGIVE US] and how far ZVS] m.uft 
extend beyond [ M E ] and beyond [OUR PAR- 
TY] or £ oar fide ] or \j>ur Church'] in the divi- 
iers fenfe. I tell you if you will be welcome to God 
n your prayers or any other religious fervices, you 
nuft come as in Vnion with Chrift and with his Uni- 
/erfal Church : God will receive no one that cometh 
:o him as alone and divided from the reft ? As you 
nuft have Union with Chrift the Head, fo muft you 
lave with his Body : A divided member is no mem- 
)er, but a dead thing. Little think many ignorant 
>erfons of this, who think that the fmgularity and 
mallnefs of their feft or party is the necelTary fign 
:>f their acceptance with God : Becaufe they read 
* Fear not little flocl^:] As if [a little fiockl niufi: fe- 
rrate from chrift s little flocks for fear of being ted 
reat t And as if his Floch^ which then was but a 
ew hundreds muft be no greater, when the King- 
lomsof the world are become his Kingdoms? Yet 
uch have there been of late among us, w 7 ho firft be- 
ame ( as they w 7 ere called) Puritans, or Presbyteri- 
m when they fawthem a fmall and fuffering party, 
tot when they profpered and multiply ed, the? 

D turned 

Cm 3 . 

turned Independents or Separates, thinking that the 
former were too many to be the true Church. And 
on the fame reaion when the Independents profpered 
they turned Annbaptifts-, And when j/.^ profpered, 
they turned Quaker s> thinking that unlets it were a 
ftfiall and flittering party it could not be the Little 
pckjof Chrifi. As if he that is called The Saviour 
of the world, would take it for his honour to be the 
Saviour only of a few Families or Villages, and his 
Kingdom muft be as little as Bethlehem where he was 

Should they take the fame courfe about their Lan* % 
guagc, and fay, that it is not the language of Canaan I 
but of the beaft) if it grow common, and fo take up | 
with a new one^ that it might be a narrow one, the fol* 
ly of it would difcover it felf : And what is the.; 
excellency of a Language but figmfcancy and exJ] 
tenfive community ? And what greater plague fince ; 
Adams fin hath befaln mankind, than the divifionof j 
tongues? as hindering communication, andprqpa- ; 
gation of the Gofpel ? And what greater bleffing as | 
a means to univerfal Reformation could be given i 
men, than an univerftl common language ? And j 
what is the property of Babel but divifion and con- j ! 
fufion of tongues ? And doth not all this intimate j 
the neceffity of a Union of minds ? 

While we keep in the Unity of the Body and 
rit, we may, we muft ftrive for fuch zfmgularity, 
confilteth in an excellency of degree, and endeavoi 
to be the befl and holieft perfons, and the ufefullei 
members in the body of Chrift. But if once y 
muft feparate from the body as too good to be memjj 
bers of fo great or fo bad a lociety, you perifh. 

God will own no Church which is fo Independent 
not to be a member of the ttniverfal, nor any perjbl- 
who is fo independent, as not to come to him a| u 


C 35 1 

ill Communion with all the Chriftians in the world. We 
mnft not approve of the faults of any Church or Chr i- 
ftian, and lb communicate with their fin by Volun- 
tary confent : But difowning their fin, we muft own 
them asChnfts members, and have communion with 
them in faith and Love, and holy profeflion of 
both ; and while we are abfent in body, muft be as 
prefent in fpirit with them, and ftill come to God 
as in communion with all his Church on earth, and offer 
jp our prayers as in conjunction with them, and not 
3S a feparated independent thing, 

2. And as our Vnity is part of our neceflary 
"itnefs for duties of holy worfoip, fo is it alfo for 
duties of the fecond table, that is, of Jufiice and 
Charity to men : And this is evident in the nature 
of the thing. No man will be c;-:a& in Jkftici till 
pC do as he would be done by : And who can do that 
who Loveth not hi; neighbour as himfelf ? What is 
put unity but our Love toothers as our f elves ? And 
pow can we do the works of Love without Love ? 
It is divided SELF that is the caufe of all the 
pomercifulneis and injuftice in the world. Unity 
tnaketh my neighbour to be to me as my felf, and 
l iis Intereft and welfare to be tome as my own, and 
ais lofs and hurt to be as mine : And were he in- 
deed my felf, and his welfare and his hurt mine 
pwn, you may judge without many words how I 
jhould ufe him •, whether I fhould (hew him mercy 
m his wants and mifcry? whether I fhould rejoice 
with him in his joy, and mourn with him in his for- 
rows ? whether I fhould fpeak well or ill of hirn be- 
hind his back ? and whether I fhould perfecute him, 
;md undo him ? whether I fhould defame him and 
kvrite books to render him odious, and to per- 
jfwade the rulers that he is unworthy to have the 
dberty of a Chriftian or of a man y to preach, to 

D 2 pray, 


pray, to be converfed with, or to live ! Would not 
*imnng Love make a wonderful change in forne mens 
judgements, fpeeches and behaviour, and make thofe 
men good Chriftiam, or good Moralifts at leaft, who 
now when they have cryed up Morality., and Cha- 
rity and good works, would perfwade men by the 
Commentary of their practice, that they mean 
Malignity^ cruelty, and the propagating of hatred 
and all iniquity ? Where'there is not a dominion of 1 
LOVE and UNITY, there is a dominion of 
SELFISHNESS and EN MIT Y-, and how \ 
well thefe will keep the Commandments which are ' 
all fulfilled in LOVE, how well they I 
Ron^ 13. 12, i^ wi jj do g 00( { t0 a n merly € (p ec ially to^ 

Gil. 6.6 7 8. them of the honjJwld of faith, and p: 

voke one another to Love and to gooi 
works, it is eafie for any man to judge. Once afie 
nate mens hearts from one another, and the Life 
will (hew the alienation. 

3. This UNITY of SPIRIT (and fpirtt 
of unity) is our neceflary prefervation againftywj 
of commiffion ( as well as of omifTion as aforefaid ). 
even againft the common iniquities of the world 
LOVE and UNITY tyrannize not over infe- 
riours, contrive not to tread down others thaii 
ive may rife, and to keep them down to fecure oui 
domination : They opprefs not the poor, the weak 
or innocent : They make not fnares for other men 
Confctences, nor lay ftumbling-blocks before them| 
to occafion them to fin, nor drive men on to ft 
againft Confcience, and fo to hell, to fhew mens at 
thority, in a thing of nought. Had this ruled ii 
jAhab and his' Prophets, Micbaiah had not been fmit 
ten oh the mouth, nor fed in a Prifon with the brea 
and water of affliftion •,'. nor had Elijah been huntel 
after as the troubler of Jfrael : Had this unity itj 


C 37 3 
fpirit ruled in Jeroboam, and in Rekoboam, one had not 
itretcht out his hand againft the Prophet, nor the 
Other defpifed experienced Counfellours, to make 
heavier the burdens of the complaining people. 
Had it overcome the S E L F I S H N E S S of the 
'Kings of Ifrach their Calves and High places had 
not engaged them againft the Prophets, and been 
their ruine. Had it prevailed in the Kings of Ju* 
dah and their people, Jeremy h?id not been laid in 
:the dungeon, nor had they forbid Amos to prophetic 
at the Kings Chapel or his Court, nor had they 
mocked the mejft'gers of God, and defpifed his prophets , 
till the wrath oj d arofc and there was no reme- 

dy, 2 Chron. 26. 16. 

Had this Spirit oiVnity been in the perfecting 
Jews, they would not have counted Paul a pefi'dent 
fellow, and a mover of fedition among the people, nor 
have hunted the Apoftles with implacable fury, nor 
have forbidden them to preach to the Gentiles that they 
jnght be faved, and have brought Gods wrath upon 
themfelves to Xhsmerrnoft^ 1 Thef. 2. 15, 16. 

Had this Vnity of (pint prevailed in the NicoUi- 
ioms and other hereticks of old, they had not fo 
?arly grieved the Apoftles, and divided and diiho- 
soured the primitive Church, nor railed fo-n: 
Sects and parties among Chriftians, nor put the Apo- 
,tle$to fo many vehement obteftations againft them, 
md fo many (harp objurgations and reproofs : \ T or 
|iad there been down to this day a continuation for 
o many hundred years, of the Churches woful di- 
tra&ions and calamities by the two forts of affii- 
:ters, viz.. the Clcrgie Tyrants on one fide, and the 
.warms of reftUfs Sectaries on the other. 
, And if the Spirit of Vnity ruled in the people, there 
vould be lefs rebelling, repining and murmuring 
igainft Governours, but fubjs&s wonld render to 
D ji ai! 



all their af//^ : tribute to whom tribute > cufiome to whom, 
'cufiome^ fear to whom fear is due, and honour to whom 
honour, Rom. 13. 7 . They would owe nothing to any 
man but to Love one another, V. 8. For he that loveth > 
another hath fulfilled the Law: For th'^, Thou f) alt riot 
commit adultery, Thou fn alt not kill, Thou fli alt not ft eal, , 
Thou (lialt not betir falfs witnefs, Thou jhalt not covet , 
and if there be any other Commandment, it is briefly 
comprehended in this faying, Thou (l)alt Love thy neigh* I 
hour at thy f elf . Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: 7j 
Therefore Love is the fulfilling of the Law^V.g, ic> I 
Love is long-fujfering and kind :, Love envyeth not : I 
Love vaunteth not it felf (or is not rajk) nor is-M 
puffed up, doth not behave it felf u?ftemly ', feeketh not J 
her twn, is not eafly provoked (or fercely angry ), fl 
thwkttb no evil, rejoyceth not in iniquity, but rejoyceth 1 
in ( or with ) the truth : Z.o-z/* beareth for conceal- J 
^/jj rf// things, believeth all things, hepeth all things y ' * 
endureth all things, 1 Cor. 1 3 . 4, ' GX. 

Did the l^/iry of the fpirit and Lew prevail, it 
would undomofi; of the Lawyers, Attorneys, Soli-? 
citors, Pro&ors: It would give the Judges a great 
ideal of eafe : It w 7 ould be a moil effectual corrector 
of the prefs, of the pulpit,' of the table talk of ca- 
lumniators and backbiters •, It would heal factious 
preachers and people, and many a thoufand fins it 
would prevent. In a word. Love and Vnity are the 
rnoft excellent hem. They are a Law emmenter : For 
it is to fuchthat the Apoftle faith, there needeth no 
I :aw : that is, no forcing conflraining Law which firpi 
rofeth ah unwilling fubjeel : For what a man Loveth, : 
he need not be c en ft rained 10 by penalties : And mer 
peed nor many threats to keep thirn from beating cr 
robbing or ilandering themfelves : And did they but 
. GWand the Church, and their Neighbours, anc" 
vn fpijlsj as they dp their bodies. , piery anc 


C 39 D 

juftice and concord and felicity would be as com- 
mon as humanity is. 

As the beft phyficions are moft for ftrengthening 
nature, which is the true curer of difeales, lb he 
that could ftrengthen Unity and Love, would fooa 
cure moft of the perfecutions, fchifhis, reproa- 
ches, contentions, deceivings, over-reaching, rafh- 
cenfuring, envy, malice, revenge, and all the inju- 
ries which felfifhnefs caufeth in the world. 

4. The Vmtyof the fvint is necellary to tht fnl- 
nefs of our joy, and the true'confolation of our lives : 
A private iclfifh Spirit, hath very little matter to 
feed his joy *, even his own poor narrow and inter- 
rupted pleafures : And what are thefe to the trea- 
I fures which feaftthe joy and plealiire of a publick 
mind ? \iLorjt Vnite me as a Chriftian to all Christi- 
ans, and as a man to all the world, the bleffings of 
Chriftians and the mercies of ail the v;orld are mine. 
When I am poor in my own body, I am rich in milli- 
ons of others, and therefore rich in mind : When 
I amfick and pained in this narrow piece of fiefh, I 
am well in millions whofe health is mine : and there- 
fore I am well in mind : when I am neglefted, abu- 
fed, flandered, perfecuted in this vile and perifhing 
body, I am honoured in the honour of all my bre- 
thren, and I profper in their profperity, I abound in 
their plenty, I am delivered in their deliverances •, I 
poflels the comfort of all the good which they poflefs. 

Objecft. By the fame reafon you may fay, that you are 
holy in their holinefs, and righteom in their right eoitf- 
nefsy which will be a fanatical hind of comfort to un- 
godly perfons. 

u4nfxv. He that is himfelf unholy and unrighteous 
hath not thisVnity with holy righteous perfons ; Ha 
that hath not the fpirit, hath not the unity of the 
fpirit : This frivolous objection therefore goeth 

D 4 upon 



"upon a miftake, as if this Vnity were common to 
the ungodly. But to thofethat have the fpirit of 
Unity indeed, the comfort of all other mens holiness 
is theirs, and that in more than one refped. i. By 
fome degree of caufal participation \ As the com- 
mon health of the body is extended to the benefit 
of each particular member *, And the common pro 
fperity of the Kingdom, doth good to the partial 
larfubje&s : Goodnefs in all men is of a communi- 
cative nature •, as Light and Heat are: And there- 
fore as a greater fire, much more the Sun, doth 
fend forth a more extenfive Light and Heat than ; 
fpark or candle ; fo the Grace of Life in the Vh&* 
body of Chrift, doth operate more powerfully fo: 
every member, than it would do were it confined to 
that member feparatedly : As in the holy Jffemblie. 
we find by fweet experience, that a conjunction o; 
many holyfou^s doth add alacrity to every one in 
particular : And it is a more lively joyful work, and 
likerto heaven, to pray and praife God with many 
hundreds or thoufands of faithful Ghriftians, than 
with a few, Iknow not how the conceit offingu- 
larity may work on fome, but for my part Gods 
praifes fung or faid in a full affembly of zealous, fin 
cere and ferious perfons, is fo much fvveeter to me 
than a narrower Communion ( yea though many 
bad and ignorant perfons fliould be prefent ) thai 
I muft fay that it is much againfb my will, wheu 
ever I am deprived of fo excellent a help. 

2. And as Efficiently fy Objectively a holy foulb 
this Unity of fpirit hath apart in the bleflings am 
Graces of all the World. He can know them and 
think of them ( fb-far as he hQne with them ) with 
fuch pleafiire as* he r.hinke'th of his own. Forwha 
ihould' hinder him ? Do we not fee that husband and 
wife are jpieafed by the Riches anc'-honourqf each 


t4I 1 

other, becaufe th&t Vmon maketh all to be common 
to them ? Are not Parents plcafed tq fee their chil- 
dren profper, and every one delighted in the well- 
fare of his friend? what then if all the world were 
as near and dear tons as a husband, a child, or a 
bofome friend ? would it not beourconftantplea-# 
fure to think of Gods bleflings to them, as if they 
n ? A narrow fpot of ground doth 
yield but little fruit, in comparifon of a whole 
Kingdom, of all the earth : And he that fetcheth his 
content and pleafure from fo little a clod of earth as 
his own body , mull have but a poor and pitiful plea- 
fure in comparifon of him that can rejoice in t ;e 
good of all the world. It IsV.-riting Love, which is 
the great enriching, contenting and felicitating art. 
( An Art I call it as it is a thing Learned and prafti- 
fed by Rule, but more than an Art, even a Nature as 
to its fixed inclination.) 

3 . And Union makgth other mens Good to be all 
ottrsy (as efficiently and objectively, fo alfo) finally : 
As all is but a means to one and the fame end in which 
we meet : It is my ends that are attained by all the 
Good that is done and pojjejfed in the world. They 
that have One holy fpirit, have one end. The Glori- 
fying of God in the felicity of his Church, and the 
perfection of his works, and the Fulfilling and 
Pleafmg ofhisblelfed xvill'm this his Glory, is the 
end that every true believer doth intend and live for 
in the world: And this One End, all Saints, all An- 
gels, all Creatures are carrying on as means. If I 
be a Chriflian indeed, I have nothing fo dear to 
me, or fo much defired as this Pleafmg and Glorify- 
ing of God, in the good and perfection of his works : 
This is my Interelt : In this he muft gratific me that 
will be my friend: All things are as nothing to me, 
but for this : And in this all the world, but lpeciaQv 


C 42 1 

all Saints are continually ferving me : In ferving 

God they are ferving me •, while they ferve my 

chiefeft end and intereft. If I have a houfe to build, 

or a field to til), or a garden todrefs, do not the la- 

I bours of all the builders and workmen ferve me, 

*and pleafe me, while it is my work that they do. 

This is no fancy but the real cafe of every wife and 

holy perfon : He hath fet his heart and hope upon 

that end, which all the wprld are joyntly carrying 

on, and which {hall certainly be accomplifhed. O 

blefled be that Infinite Wifdom and Love^ which 

teacheth this m[dom y and giveth this V rating Love 

to every holy foul ! All other wayes are dividing, 

xarrevpy poor and bafe : This is the true and certain 

way for every man to be a poflefTour of all mens 

blejfixgs, and to be owner of the good of all the 

world. They are all doing our Heavenly Fathers 

will, and all arc bringing about the common end 

which every true believer feeketh. It is this bafe 

and narrow SELFISHNESS and inordinate 

contraftednefs of Ipirit, and adhering to individual 

intereft y which contradifteth all this, and hinder- 

ethus from the prefent joyful tafte of the fruits of 

UNITY which we now hear and read of. 

Yea I can dye with much the greater willingnefs, 
becaufe (befidesmy hopes of heaven) I live even 
on earth when I am dead : I live in all that live, 
and (hall live till the end of all. I am not of the 
mind of the felfijh perfon, that faith, when 1 am 
dead*, all the world is dead or at an end to me : 
But rather, God is my higheft objeft : His Glo- 
ry and complacency is my End : Thefe fhine and 
are attained more in and by the whole Creation 
than by me: while thefe go on, the End is attain- 
ed which I was made for : And I fliall never b 
fcparated living or dead from the univerfal Churc 


L 43 1 
or univerfal world : fo that when I am dead, my 
end, my intercft, my united fellow-Chriftiansand 
Creatures will ftill live. If I loved my friend better 
than my ftff, it would be lefs grief to me to be ba- 
nifhedthan for him to bebanifhed : And fo it would 
be lefs grief to me to dye, than for him to dye. 
And if I loved the Church and the world but half 
as much more than my felf, as my reafon is fully 
Convinced there is caufe, it would feem to me in- 
comparably a fmaller evil to dye my felf than that 
the Church or world fhould dye. As long as my 
Garden flourifheth, I can bear the death of the fe- 
veral flowers, whofe place will the next fpring be 
fucceeded by the like : And as long as my Orchard 
liveth I can bear the falling of a leaf or an apple, 
yea of all the leaves and fruit in Aut^pm, which 
the next fpring will repair and reftore in kind, 
though not thole individuals. What am I that 
the world fhould mifsme, or that my death fhould 
be taken by others or by me, for a matter of any 
great regard ? I can think fo of another, and ano- 
ther can think fo of me : But unhappy felfiflmefs 
makethit hard for every man or any man to think 
fo of himfelf. Did UNITY more prevail in 
men, and SELFISHNESS lefs, it would more 
rejoice a dying man, that the Power, Wifdom and 
Goodnefs of God, will continue to (hine forth in 
the Church and world, and that others fhall fac? 
ceed him in ferving God and his Church when he 
is dead, than it would grieve him that he mull dye 

Yea more than all this, this Holy UNITY will 
make all the Joyes of Heaven to be partly ours. 
Even while we are here in pain and forrows, we 
are members of the Body, whofe Beit part is above 
with Chrift} and therefore their joyes are by par- 



ticipation ours, as the pleafure of the head and 
heart cxtendeth to the fmalleft members. Would 
it be nothing to a mother if all her children, or 
to a friend if all his friends, had all the profperity 
and joy that he could wifh them ? 

The nearer and fironger this holy UNITY is, 
the more joyfully will a believer here look up, and 
fay, Though 1 am poor or fick or fuffer, it is not 
fo with any of the bleffed ones above: My fellow 
Chriftiansnow rejoyce in Glory : The Angels with 
whom I fhall live for ever are full of Joy in the vifi- 
on of Jehovah : My blelTed Head hath Kingdom 
and Power and Glory and Perfedion. Though I 
am yet weak and muft pafs through the gates of 
death, the Glorified world are triumphing in per- 
petual JoygL Their Knowledge, their Love, their 
Praifes of ood, are perfect and everlafting, be- 
yond all fears of death or any decay or interrupti- 
on. UNITY giveth us a part in all the Joyes 
of earth and heaven : And what then is more defin- 
able to a Believer ? 

5. And in all that is faid it appeareth that 
UNITY is a great and necefTary part of our 
preparation for [offerings and death : without this 
men want the principal comforts that (hould fup- 
port them : They that can fetch comfort neither 
from Earth nor from Heaven, but only from the 
narrow intereft of themfelves, are like a withering 
branch that's broken from the tree, or like a lake 
of water feparated from the ftream, that will fopn 
dry up: A fclfijl) per fon hath neither the motives to 
right fuffering, nor the trueft cordials for a dying 
man. Something or other in this fwfnl SELF 
will be ftill anrifs \ Andaielfifh perfon will be ftill 
caring, fearing or complaining : Becatife he can 
take but little ■pleafure, in remembripg that all u 

I 45 1 
well in Heaven, and that if he were mthin^ God 
would be (till Glorified in the world. Therefore the 
more felfiflj true Chnftians are, the lefs is their peace, 
and the" more their hearts do (ink in fuffering : 
Their Religion reachcth little higher than to be 
Hill poring on a finful, confuted heart, and asking, 
How fhould I be allured of my own falvation^? 
When a Chriftian that hath more of the Spirit of 
UNITY, is more taken up with fvveeter things, 
ftudying how to Glorifie God in the world, and 
rejoycing in the aflurance that his name fliall be hal- 
lowed, his Kingdom fhall come, and his Will lhall 
be done, yea and is perfectly done in Heaven : 
that which is firfl: in his dcfires and prayers, is 
ever the chiefelt in his thanklgivings, and his Joyes. 


The VNITT of the Spirit in the welfare of 
the Church. 

II. A S the UNIT Y of the Spirit is the per- 
J\. fonal welfare of every Chriftian, fo is it 
the common inter eft of the -Church, and of all Chrifti- 
an Societies, Kingdoms, Cities, Schools and Fami- 
lies : And that in all thefe refpe&s. 

L UNITY is tbtvtry life of the Church ( and 
of all Societies as fiichj. The word LIFE is 
fometime taken for the LIVING PRINCI- 
PLE or FORM, and fo the SOUL is the 
LI F E of a Man, and the S P I R 1 T as dwelling 
and working in u«, is the Moral or holy-fpiritual 


L 40 J 

L I F E of the foul, and of the Church as myftical : 
And fometime LIFE is taken for the V N 10 N 
of the faid vital principle with the .Organical Bo- 
dy, or matter duly united in it felf : And fo the 
UJSf I O N of foul and body is the Life of a man \ 
and the Vnion of the Political Head and Body is 
the Life of political Societies : And fo the Vnion of 
Chrifi and the Church is the Life of the Church •, 
And thellnion of the members among themfelves, 
is ( as the union of the parts of the organical body) 
the neceflary Difpofitio materia, without which it 
cannot have Union with the Head *, or the effeft 
of Vnion with the Vital principle, andfo thellnion 
which is effential to the Church. As that is no 
Body whofe parts are not united among themfelves, 
nor no Living Body which is not united to the foul 
( and in it felf) \ fo that is no Church or no Socie- 
ty which is not Vnited in it felf-, and no Chriftian 
Society or Church which is not united unto 

It isagrofs overfightof them that look at no- 
thing but the Regeneration of the members, as ef- 
fential to the Church, and take Vnityto be but a 
feparable Accident. Yea indeed Regeneration it 
felf confifteth in the Vniting of perfons by Faith 
and Love to God and the Redeemer and to the body 
of the Church : And if Vnion be Life, then Divi- 
fion is no Lefs than Death : Not every degree of 
divifion : For fome breaches among Chriftians are 
but wounds : ( But to be divided or feparated from 
Chrifi , or from thellniverfal Church which is his 
body,.is Death it felf: And even wounds mull have 
a timely cure, or elfe they threaten at leaft the pc- 
rifhing of the wounded part.) 

II. unitx 

II. UNITY is the healthy eafe and quit t of the 
Church and all Societies, as well as of each perfon : 
And Divifwn is its [mart and fain: And a divided 
difagreeing Society is a wounded or fick Society j 
in continual fufferingand difeafe: But how eafie, 
fweet, and pleafant is it, when brethren dwell to- 
gether in Unity ? when they are not of many minds, 
and wills and way es*, when they ftrive not againft 
each other, and live not in wrangling and contenti- 
on, when they have not their crofs interefts, wills 
and parties, and envy not or grudge not againft 
ji each other : But every one taketh the common in- 
tereft to be his own •, and fmarteth in all his bre- 
, threns fufferings and hurts : when they fpeak the 
' fame things, and mind the fame intereft, and carry 
on the fame ends and work? 

Ofoelix hominum genus 
Si veftros animos Amor 
Quo coelum regitur> regat, faith Bottim* 

Many contrivances good men have had, for the 
recovering of the peace and felicity of Societies ; 
And they that defpaired of accomplifhing it, have 
pleafed themfelves with feigning fuch Societies as 
they thought moft happy: whence we have Plato\ 
Common- wealth, Moors'Vropia, Campaneltis Civi- 
tas folts-, &c. But when all is done, he is the wifefl 
and happieft Politician, and the belt friend and be- 
nefactor to Societies and to mankind, who is the 
skilfulleft contriver, and belt promoter of U N I- 
TING LOVE. I know that this is f like Life 
in man ) a work that requireth m^jc than Art : 
But yet I will not fay hoc non eft Wtis,fed pietatis 
opHs y as if art did nothing in it : It is Gods work 


C43 1 

bkfllngmhns endeavours. Even in the propagation 
of natural Life, though Dem&folvivificant, God is 
the Quickener, and Fountain of all life* yet mafiis 
the Generator ( even if it prove true that the foul is 
created) : And God will not do it without the aft 
of man : So God will not blefs Churches, and 
Kingdoms and Families, with Vniting-Love, without 
the fubordinate endeavours of man : And the skill 
and honefty of the endeavourers greatly conduceth 
to the luccefs of the work : Men that ftand in a 
fignificant capacity (as Rulers and fublicl^Teachers 
do ) may do much by holy Art to promote Uniting* 
Love in all Societies •, By contriving an Uniting of In- 
tereftsj ( and not by cudgelling them all into the 
fame Temples or Synagogues as prifoners into a 
Jaile) \ and by diligent clear teaching them the ex- 
cellency and necefTity of Unity and Love, and mi£ 
chiefs of dividing felfijlrnefs : But of this more after 
in due place. All the devices in the world for the 
felicity of Societies which tend not unto Unity, and 
all wayes of Unity which promote not Love, are 
erroneous and meerly frivolous : And all that are 
Contrary to Love are pernicious, whatever the con- 
trivers pretend or dream. 

III. UNITY is the ftrength and prefervation of 
Societies, and Selfiflnefs and Divifwn is their weaknefi, 
their diffolution and their mine. As in Natural, fo 
in Political Bodies, the clofeft and perfedeft Union 
of Parts, maketh the firmeft and moft durable com- 
pofition. What is the ftrength of an Army but 
their UNITY ? When they obey one General 
Commander^and cleave infeparably together, and 
forfake not f|fc another in fight, fuch an Army 
would conquer far greater multitudes of incoherent 
feparable men : when every Souldier thinketh how 


C 4 | 
to fliifc forhirafelf,and tojare his own h 
ever become of others, a few run away fir ft, and 
fhewthe reft the way, and they are quickly all in 
conquered fugitives: when they that retolve [We 
mull all Hand or fall together, and we will not Live 
or eleape alone \ It is more the Army than my Life 
that 1 would prcferve] thefe are feldom over- 
come by any policy or power. What is the con- 
queft of an Army, but the routing and fcattering of 
ihcm? The ftrength of compofed bodies lyeth i.a 
the § ,iber of parts moft ivftpavahly conjoyned. 

Small Cities and Republicks are made a prey, to po- 
tent Princes, becaufe they are inefficient for their 
own defence, and are hardly Vnked with their neigh- 
bours for mutual prefervat.ion. An United flame 
of many Combuftibles confumeth all without refi- 
ftance *, when divided fparks and candles have no 
fuch power: Divided drops of rain are eafilyborn, 
iwhen United ftreams and floods bear down all be- 
fore them. He can break afingle thread, that can- 
pot break a cord that is made of multitudes. And 
j:hough the chief ftrerigtfik of the Church of Chrifc 
pc not in themfelves, but in their God and Head, 
;et God fittcth every thing to the ufe that he de- 
r; iit to, and makerh that creature, that perfon, 
:hat fociety ftrong, which he will have to be moft 
afe and durable, and to do the works and bear the 
burdens that require ftrength. Though we have all 
>.ne God and Clirijl arid Spirit, yet are there great va- 
ictyof gifts and graces*, and as there are ftrong 
ndweakChriflians, lb there are ftrong and weak 
Churches and Common-weal 

O what great things can that Church or King- 
lom do, which is fully United in it felf ! What 
,reat affaults can they withftand and ov rcome i 
lut the Devil himfelf knoweth that a Kingdom or a 

E houfe 

houfe divided cannot fhtnd, Matth. 12. 25, 26. And 
therefore by fome kind of Concord 
Mark 5. 24, 25. ( whatever it is ) even Satans King- 
Luke 11.17, 18. dom is upheld: And by Difcord it 
is that he hopeth and laboureth to 
deftroy Chrifts Kingdom. And he that would have 
Chrifts Kingdom to be flronger than the Devils, 
inn ft do his part that it be more United, and lefs 
divided. All living creatures perifh by the diflblu- 
tion of parts : what Concord and Difcord do in 
Kingdoms and all focieties, he muft be ftupidly ig- 
norant that knovveth not after fo long experience of 
the world. Therefore they who agree in errour, arc 
hardlieft convinced (which is the Roman ftrength) 
and fliey take their own Concord for an evidence 
of truth : And thofe that difagree and divide and 
wrangle, are apt to be drawn atlaft to fufpettif not 
forfake that truth in which they are agreed. Con- 

w„. ± . a cord corroborateth even rebels and 
* Sunt noxium eft , * . . f , _ „• r 

fi miuts defit thieves in evil, much more the fer- 

W, iti pernioi- vants of God in good. * 

ofnm eft fi fit in * 

mails: Ptr-jerfosquippe unit as coYroborat dim concordant, & tan- 
to magis incwrigibilts quant unanimesfac it. Greg. Moral. 1. 33. 

O unhappy people of God (faith Hierome in PfaL Si.] 
that cannot fo well agree in good as wicked men do h 
evil! But, by his leave, there is more Unity anc 
Concord among all Chrifts true fervants, thanamonj 
any wicked men : elfe the Devils Kingdom woulc 
be (tronger and perfecier than Chrifts. 

Obj. But this of Jeromes is a common faying-) an< 
common experience feemeth to confirm it. Ho\ 
unanimous were the Sodomites in affanlting the houfe c 
Lot? a/;d what multitudes everywhere agree in Ignt 
ranee and enmity to the godly ? and how divided an 
qHarretfmt an the Religions fort ? ^ h 

-/&/. The queftion whether Chrijls Kingdom or Sa- 
faris hath more Vnity and 'Concord, requireth a diftindt- 
er kind of anlwcr; which is, I. UNITY is one 
thing, and fimilitude is another. 2. Attivc Concord 
or Union of excellent coherent and cooperative na- 
tures, is one thing, and Negative non repugnancy of 
dead or bafcr creatures is another. 

1. As there is a great fimilitude between incohe- 
rent fends or drops of rain, lb is there between un- 
godly men : They are very like in their privations 
and ungodliness : but this is no Vnity at all. But the 
faithful are not only Like, but Vnited } as many drops 
in one Ocean, or as many Candles united in one 
flame, or many Sun-beams in one Sun and aire. 
* All thele fands, or dull or dead bodies, quarrel 
'not among themfelves, becaufe they are unacrivebe- 
•ings, whole nature is to lyeftill, while parents and 
children and brethren may have many fallings out: 
;And yet there is that Vnity in Parents and Children, 
inclining them to the Loving Communion of each 
other, which is not in the fand or duft or dead. 
^ And fo wicked men in fome cafes have not thofe 
rvital principles which are necefTary to an attire 
quarrel, and yet may have far lefs Vnion than the 
Godly in their fcandalous difcord. Swine and 
Dogs will not ftrive or fight for Gold or Lands or 
iLordfliips, as men do 5 nor Aflesfor the food or de- 
dicates of men ; nor yet for our ornaments or gay 
poaches : Brutes never contend for preheminence 
t n Learning, nor fall out in argumentation as men 
Jo \ Becaufe their faculties are as dead to all thele 
things : And that which moveth not, doth not ftrive : 
b wicked men ftrive not w T ho fliall pleafe God bell, 
br who fliall be foundefl in the faith, or the grcat- 
il enemy to fin, which is the commonell contenti- 
on of good men, (while lome of them mijtake fome 
E 2 ftrit 

• * 

fins for no ffns, and fomg take thofe to be fins that 

are none *) But Brethren that 
* See M rff/e/s nota- oft faU out ha t more ^ 

ble . Diicouric ot this ', ' J . 

Ufa camloth.DQSt.i. 0'> than r dangers that never. 

think of one another, or than 
fel]ow-travellers that quietly travel in the way. 
Godly perfons are all clofely United in one God^ one 
Chrift-, one faith, one hope? one bond of Love to one ano- 
ther^ one windy and onedefignand work, as to the 
main. There is no fuch Vnion as this among the un- 
godly. It's true, that they all Agree by way of jft 
militude, in being all blind, all bad, all worldly and 
fleihly, all void of Gods fpirit, and all enemies to 
the godly : But fo all dead Carkafles agree in being 
dead, and all toads agree in being toads and poyfo- 
nous : And yet when the fable feigneth the belly 
and the hands and feet to fall out, becaufethe hands 
and feet muft labour for the belly, they had then 
more Vnity than feveral Carkafles, toads or ferpents 
that never fall out : yea if a gowty foot be a tor- 
ment to all the Body, it hath yet mors Vnity with 
the body than another mans foot hath that putteth 
it to no pain. 

But yet the perfetteft Vnity hath alfo cafe and 
ftrength, and fafety. Things United are durable. 
Death when it creepeth upon decaying age, doth it 
by gradual feparations and difTolution : The fruit 
and the leaves firft fall from the tree, and then one 
branch dyeth, and then another : The combined 
parts of our mttritiom juices are firft loofened^ and 
then feparated in our decaying bodies - n and then the 
pained parts feel the ill effefts : The hair falleth off-, 
The teeth rot and fall out: and we dye by degrees, 
as by a coalition of parts we lived by degrees in our 
generation and augmentation i 

£ VtfM!*b tMof'h 4* ™th Bottiw, * Qmne quod eft, torn 


C 53 1 

diu ntanet & fubfxftit, quam dm fit unum ;fed inter it & 
diffolvitur quart do unum effe defer it. We live while 
we are One : We dye when we ceafe to be One ; and we 
decay when by feparaiion wc-haften towards it ; and 
we grow weak when by loofcvefs we grow more fe- 
parable. Therefore all Loosening opinions or princi- 
ples, which tend to abate the Love and Vnity of 
Chriftians, arc weakening principles and tend to 
death. Schifms in the Church, and feuds or wars in 
the Commonwealth, and mutinies in Armies, are the ap- 
) proaches or threatnings of death : Or if fuch fe- 
! vers and bloody fluxes prove not mortal, the cure 
mult be by fome excellent remedy, and Divine cle- 
'. mency and skill. DifcordiaOrdinum eft rcipublica ve- 
• nenum, faith Livy. For ( as Saluft. faith) War is 
: eafily begun ( as fire in the City eafily kindled, ) but 
to end it requireth more ado. And the end is feldom 
in the power of the fame perfons that began it ; much 
jlefs will it end as eafily as it might have been pre- 
, vented. It's like the eruption of waters that begin 
•at a fmall breach in the damm or banks, but quick- 
ly make themfelves a w r ider pafTage. Prov. 26. 17. 
; He that paffeth by and medleth with ft-rife which is not 
! to him, ts likf one that taketh a dog by the ears. Prov. 
17, 14. The beginning of ftrife is as when one letteth 
\cut water : therefore leave off contention before it be 
1 medled with for exafperated or ftirred up to rage J 
, As paffion inclineth men to ftrive, rail or fome way 
: hurt, fo all difcord and divifion inclineth men to a 
i warring deprefiing way againft others •, 
.As Gregory faith * [When perverfe * Moral. 1. 9. 
\minds are once engaged ad ftudium con- 
; trarietatis, to ajtudy of contrariety, they arm themfelves 
[to oppugne all that is f aid by another, be it wrong *r 
right ', for when the perfon through contrariety is dif 
*f' iCa fing f o them, even that which is right, when fpoken 

E 3 by 

by him is difpkafing. P$i& when this is the ftudy of 
each member, to prove ail falfe or bad that another 
faith or doth, and to difgrace and weaken one ano- 
ther, what ftrevgth, what fafety> what peace, what 
duration can be to that fociety ? 

IV. UNITY is alio the BEAUTY, and 

Comeliness of the Church and all focieties: Perfect 
UNITY without Diverfuy is proper to God. But 
ab Vno omnia : that all the innumerable parts of his 
Creation, fhould by Order and VNITT make 
ONE UNIVERSE or world \ that all the 
members of the Church of Chrift, of how great va- 
riety of gifts, degrees and place foever fhould 
make one Body, this is the Divine skill v and this 
Order and Vmty is the Beauty of his works. If the 
Order and Vnityoi many Letters made not words, 
and of many words made not Sentences, and of ma- 
ny fentences made not Books* what were their ex- 
cellency or ufe ? If many Note s ordered and united 
made not Harmony, what were the pleafure of mu- 
fick or melody ? And how doth this Concord make 
it differ from a difcordant odious noife ? The Unity 
of wellordered ?*faterials is the Beauty of an Edi- 
fice : And the Unity of weti-ordered and proportioned 
members, is the fymmetrie and Beauty of the Body. 
It delightcth mans nature more to read the hiftory 
pf Loves, and amiable concord f which is the charm- 
ing fnare in tempting Luit books) than to read 
of odious and ruinating difcords : And no doubt 
but the many hiftories of finful difcord, and their 
cfFedts are purpofely recorded in Scripture, to make 
it the more hateful to all believers : This is the 
o: the recorded malice of Cain to Abel y of the 

Gqn. 4. 8, p. 
8c 1 3. 7. &C. 

19. 4. & 26. 

20. & 27.41. 

& 2,1. 36. & 

34. 25, &(;• 
& 49. & 50. 

Exod. 2. 13. 
& 16. 2. & 
Numb. 21. 

judg. $.& 
12. & 20. 

1 Sam. 18. & 

2 Sam. 3. & 
15.& 19. 

1 King.i2.&c. 

C 55 3 

effect of the Zfafo/divifion of tongues •, 
ofthedifagreementof the fervaats of 
Abrahatmud Lot •, of the envy of Jo- 
fephs brethren, and of Efaus thoughts 
of revenge againft Jacobs and of ja- 
cobs fear of him \ of the difcord of La- 
ban and Jacob ; of the bloody fad of 
Simeon and Levi, and Jacob's dying de- 
tcftation of it and his curfe 5 of the 
two Hebrews that ftrove with each 
other, and one of them with Aloft s\ 
of the Israelites murmur ings and mu- 
tinies againft Aloft s ; Abimelech\ cru- 
elty againft his brethren •, of the tribe 
of EphrawSs quarrel with Jephta *, and 
the lfraelitcs with the Benjamites and 
their war ^ of the envy of Sad againft David, and 
his purfuit •, of his and Doegs cruelty againft the 
Priefts ; of Abftloms rebellion againft David •, of 
Joabs murders and his death •, of Solomons jcaloufie 
and execution ofAdonijab •, of Rehoboams foolilh dif- 
ference with his fubje&s, and the lofs of the ten 
tribes, and Jeroboam's reign \ of the continual wars 
of Jnda and Jfracl \ of the many malicious adtions 
of Priefts and people againft Jeremiah^ Amos and 
other Prophets and Meflengers of 
God :, of the perfecuting cruelty of 
Herod againft Chrift and the Infants, 
in his jealoufies about his Crown •, of 
the Jews malicious and foolilh oppo- 
fition to Chrift, of Chrifts difciples 
ftriving which fhould be the Greateft, 
and the afpiring requeft of James and 
John i of thefnort diflention of Pad and Bam* 
&c. Are not all thefe, unpleafant hiftories to us, 
and written to make difientions odious ? To this end 

E 4 it 

2 Cbron. 7,6. 
16. Mac. 2. fc 
3. Luke 22. 

& i$.?9,4°< 
1 Cor. ?. 
& 3, fee. 

I 56 3 

it is that we have the fad hiftorv of the early con- 
tentions between the Jewifliand *he Gentile Chrifti- 
ans about Circumcifion, and the Law,- and^the re- 
conciling affembly, Act. 1 5. To this end we have 
the fad hiffcory and fharp reproofs of the factions 
and fidings ' among the Corinthians •, of the falfe 
Apoftks envy raifed againft Paul among the Corin- 
thians and .Galatians-, and of thofe that preached 
Chriftout of envy and in ffrifc, to add affli&ion to 
his bonds, Phil 1. of the many herefiesthat rofe up 
even in thofe firft Churches to trouble, defile them 
and difgrace them •, To this end we have the abun- 
dance of (harp rebukes of contentious pfrfons, and 
fuch as furove about words, and genealogies and the 
Law } -and the reproofs 01 many of the Afian Chur- 
ches, -Rev. 2. & 3. and the odious defcription of the 
hereticks, 2 Pet. 2. cjrjtid.&c. not only as cor- 
rupters of dodtrine, but in a fpecial manner as Sepa* 
y at? (hmd dividers of and from the Chriftian Chur- 
ches. To this end we have the fad predictions that 
two forts flhould arife and tear the Churches, Aft. 20. 
Grievom wolves that fhonld not [pare the flock*, and 
fome of themfelves that fhonld fpea\ perverfe things 
to draw away dtfcip'es after them. To this life we 
have fo many vehement obteftations, and exhortati- 
ons againft difcord and divifions *, even in thofe 
times of vigorous Love and Concord : fuch as 
1 Cor. 1. ic, chr. & 3. &c Phil. 2. 1, 2, &c. 3. I4> 
15, 16. and abundance fuch, of which hereafter. 
And even thofe thi - r Matter are taught not 

to be 'too forward i&f&feg thi rnhte'in amthcrs eye, 
moft yet be intreated to Mark * Divtfi- 

oris and offences and 'avoid then: whereas they 

tfen tended to be t 

of Chrif., and to' fpcak^more ' fpi- 


L 57 3 

of Knowledge than theApoftles did, it was no ill 
cenforioufncfs to judge, that being the Caufes of Di- 
vifwns and offences? contrary to Chrifts do&rine of 
Love? Vnity and peace 9 they did not ferve the Lord 
Jefits { whofe great and laft command was Love, 
which he made the Nature and character and badge 
of histruedifciples) but by thofe good words arid 
fpeeches deceived the hearts of the fmple and de- 
ceivable. Here there are four words elpecially to 
be noted : 1. 2gi&hojl* y which we translate good 
words, is commonly tranflated flattery *, but as Bez.a 
well noteth, it fignifieth a /peaking of things that are 
plaufible in tkemfelves for fomc good that is in 
them, and that are pretended to be all fpoken for 
the hearers good 5 as Satan pretended when he 
tempted Eve ? yea, perhaps to be necefftry to their 
ialvation, or to make them the moft knowing and 
excellent fort of Chriftians. r. kvKoyl & y which fig- 
nifieth both to Blefs them as minifters do that defire 
their happinefs, and to praife them and fpeak well 
or highly of them ; And fo almoft all fefts and di- 
vided bodies are gathered by flattering the hearers 
into a conceit that thus they (hall become the fureft 
and moft excellent Chriftians *, and all others are 
far inferiour to them. 3. wsfia,;, It is the Hearts 
of fuch hearers that are deceived, and not their 
heads or reafon only or chiefly : For the good words 
firft take with them by moving their Paffwns or affe- 
ctions •, And then the Praife, fair promifes and 
fpeeches kindle a kind of fecret fpiritual pride and 
ambition in the heart, as Satans words did in Eve 
to-be as Gods in Knowledge: And the Heart thus 
infected and puft up promoteth the deceit of theun- 
derftanding. 4. And this is ffi dyji'/jw? hominwm 
minimemalornmi as 2frz,*tranflateS; It is not fimple 

fools-, but fa\\ fimple pcr'ons as we call harmiefs or 


innocents, (as the Vulgar Latinc tranfiates it ), well 
meaning men, or not ill men : People that fear God 
and have good defires and meanings, are for want 
of Judgement and watchfuliiefs overcome by divi- 

; And on the contrary, the amiable examples of 
Vnity and Concord, and their happy efFefts, are re- 
corded in Scripture, to make us in Love with them ; 
but none fo eminent as that of the firft Chriftians. 
It is very remarkable, that when Chrift would (hew 
the world the work of his Mediation in its notable 
effects, and when he would fhew them the excellency 
of hisdifciples about the common world, and of his 
Church under the Gofpel above that under Adofes 
L^w, he doth it by fhewing them in the power and 
exercife of Vniting Love. Love was it which he came 
to exercife and demonftrate (his Fathers and his 
own ) : Love was that which he came to kindle in 
their fouls, and bring them to poflefs and prattife : 
Perfeft Love is the perfedl felicity which he hath 
promifed them : Love and Unity are the matter of 
his laft and great Gommand : Thefe are the Chara- 
cters of his genuine difciples, and of the renewed Di- 
vine Nature in them : It was Love and Vnity which 
muft in them be the witnefs of Chrifts fpirit and 
power, to convince the unbelieving world •, And | 
therefore it is Love and Vnity which is the matter of 
his laft excellent prayer for them : John 17,22,23, 
24,25. 07-15.12,17. (£-13.34. 1 John 3.14,23. 
& 4. $1. And all thefe his preparations, precepts, 
examples, and prayers, were accordingly exempli- 
fied in the wonderful Love and Concord of his fol- 
lowers. Whdn the day of Penteco(t was come, in 
which the Holy Ghqft muft be mpft eminently com- 
municated to them, they were ail with One accord in 
tost place, Ads 2.1. The Apofdes had an Vnanirnity 

and I 

n 59 1 

and Concord before, proportionable to the meafure 
of their grace, which was preparatory to their recep- 
tion of the eminent gift of the Spirit,which increafed 
their unanimity. Andi;. 41, 42, 43 7 44o 45* 4 6 - the 
three thousand that were fuddenly added to the Churchy 
continued ffedfafily in the Apoftles dottrine and fellow- 
ihip, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers : And 
all that believed were together, and had all things com- 
mon , and fold their pojfeffions and goods , and parted 
them to all men as every man had need : And they 
continuing daily with one accord in the Tcmpley and 
breaking bread from hoitfe to hcufe, did eat their meat 
with gladnefs and finglenefs of heart , praifmg Cody and 
having favour with all the people. 3 What greater de- 
monitration could be given that Chrift is the great 
Reconciler , the meflenger , gift and teacher of 
Love, the Prince of Peace, and the great Vniter of 
the divided world, both with his Father and Him- 
felf, and with one another. 

In this text Atts 2. and marvellous example , you 
fee the defign and work of the great Reconciler : 
When men fall out with God, they fall out with one 
another: when they depart from the only Center of 
Vnityy they can have no true Unity among them- 
felves: when they lofe the Love of God, they lofe 
the Love of jMan as for Gods fake and intereft. And 
he that cannot fee and Love God in man, can fee 
nothing in man that is w T orthy of much love : As he 
that loveth not a man for his foul and its operati- 
ons, more than for his body, loveth him not as a 
man : And few have any great Love to a dead 
Corpie. Cicero could fay, It is your foul that wefpeak^ 
to, and converfe with ; were that departed we fJiouldfpeak 
to you no more. God is more to every man, than 
his foul : If God were not their life andamiable- 
nefs, ail men would be unlovely loathfome carkafies: 


C 6o 1 

Therefore wicked men that cannot Love God and 
Goodnefs, can Love none thoroughly but themfelves 
and for themfelves, or as Bruges by a low or fenlitive 
kind of love : For it is felf that they are fallen to 
from God and Man : And yet whiles/is carnally 
and inordinately loved inftead of God and Man, it 
is but deftroyed and undone by that inordinate ido- 
latrous love : And he that loveth Himfelf to his own 
deftru&ion ( with a Love more pernicious than ano- 
thers hatred ) doth love his friends but with fucha 
kind of killing love: (as I have feen fome Brutes 
kill their young ones with the violence of their love, 
that would not fuffer them to let them alone. ) 
Thusall love to man, faving a pernicious love, doth 
dye, where the love of God and goodnefs.dieth: 
And Cain giveth the world the firft fpecimen or in- 
ftance of depraved nature, in envy and wrath, and 
finally in the murder of his Brother, and undoing 
Himfelf y by fetting up and adhering inordinately to 

But when Chrift reconcileth God and Man, he re* 
concileth Men to one another : For he teacheth men 
to love God in Man, and Man for God, with a Ho- 
ly, noble, reafonable kind of Love : And fo to love 
allmen^ as far as God hath anlntereft in all : And 
to Love all Chrifiians with an eminent Love,as God 
is eminently interefled in them. And this is 
Chrifts work on the fouls of men •, and much of his 
bullnefs which he came for into the world. And i 
therefore he would have his firft Difciples to give 
the world fuch a Jpecimen of Love in this extraor- 
dinary way of Community : For as extraordina- j 
ry works of Power, (that is, Miracles) muft be 
wrought by the firft Preachers of the Gofpei , to 
fhew Chrifts power , and convince the unbelieving 
world • ibitwas as needful that then there (hculd be 


C 61 1 

extraordinary works of Love , to (hew Chrifls Love, 
and teach them the great work of Love which he 
came to call and bring men to : For the fir It Book 
that Chrift wrote, was on the Hearts of Men, (which 
no Philofopher could do ) :, lnfle(hly tables he wrote 
LOVE "TO GOD and MAN by the finger 
of his Spirit , ( many a year before any Book of the 
New Teftament was written). And as his Do- 
ctrine was '£ Love one another ] and £ Love your ene- 
mies, forbear and forgive, &c. ] fo his firft Churches 
mult extraordinarily exemplifie and exprefs this do- 
dxine, by living in this extraordinary community, 
and felling all, and diftributing as each had need : 
And afterwards their Love-feafis did long keep up 
fome memorial of it : For they were the firjtfheet, 
as it were, of the New Book which Chrift was pub- 
lifhing : And, LOVE was the fumm of all that 
was imprinted on them : And their Practice was to 
be much of the Preaching that muft convert the 
world. Chrift was not a meer Orator or teacher of 
Words : And, non magna loquimur, fed vivimm, was 
the profeffion of his difciples : He came not meerl;/ 
to talk, and teach men to talks, but to Do, and 
teach men to Do- 7 even to do that himfelf which 
none elfe ever did, and to teach his followers to do 
that which no other fort of men did in this world: 
But this leadeth me up to the next life of Unity. 

V. The SPIRIT of UNITY and LOVE is the 
Great means of the Churches increafe : There is a 
twofold augmentation of the Church : i. Intrinfick 
and Intenfive ', when it Increafeth in ail Goodnefs,and 
hafteth to perfection : And it is this Vital principle 
o£VmtingLove,orthe Spirit of Vnity, which is the 
immediate caufe of this. 2. Extenfivt, when the 
Church is enlarged, and more are added to it : And 


t 61 1 

it is a Life of Vniting Love among Chriftians, that 
mult do this as much or more than preaching : Or 
at leaft, if that preaching which is but the effeft of 
Knowledge, produce Evangelical Knowledge in the 
hearers, yet a Life of Love and Vnky is the adapted 
means of breeding Love and Vnity, the Life of Re- 
ligion in the world: Light may caufe Light:, but 
Heat muft caufe Heat \ and it. mult be a Living 
thing that mxxQ: generate life, by ordinary caufation : 
That which cometh from the Head, may reach the 
Head, and perhaps the Heart, but is not fo fit to ope- 
rate on Hearts as that which cometh from the heart. 
Undoubtedly if Chriftians did commonly live in 
fuch .Love and Vnity among themfelves, and fnevv 
.the fruits of common Love to all about them, as 
their Great mafter and his Religion teacheth them, 
they would do wonders in converting finners, and 
enlarging the Church of Jefus Chrift. Who could 
Hand out againft the convincing and Attractive 
power of Uniting Love? Who could much hate 
and perfecute thofe that Love them, and ihew that 
Love ? This would heap melting coals of fire on 
their heads. Our Saviour knew this when he made 
this his great Leflbnto his difciples, and when he 
prayed ( Joh. 17. 21,22,23, 2 4-) ov ^ r anc * over 
f for them which jhould believe on him, through the 
Apoftles word, f that they all may be One, as thoit Fa- 
ther art in me^ and I in thee, that they alfo may be one 
in us, that the world may believe that thou haft fent me : 
And the Glory which thou gavefi me I have given them, 
that they may be One even as we are One : I in them, 
and thon in me, that they may be made perfeti in One, 
and that the wdrld may know that thon haft fent me, 
and haft loved them as thou haft lovedme'}, O when 
will Chrift revive this blelTed principle in his follow- 
ers, and fet them again on this effectual way of 



preaching, that Love may draw the world into the 
^Churches Vnity ? Some look for new miracles for the 
converting 01 the now-forlaken Nations : what God 
will do of that kind we know not', for he hath not 
told us : But Holy Vniting Vniverfal Love is a thing 
which he hath ftill made our certain duty •, and 
therefore we are all bound to feek and do it : And 
therefore we may both pray and labour for it in 
hope : And could we but come up to this known du- 
ty, we flioiildhave a means for the worlds converfi- 
on, as effectual as miracles, and more fweet and plea- 

Obj. But why then is the world ftill unconverted^ 
when all true Chrifttans have this love f 

Anf. i . Alas, thofe true Chriftians are fo few y 
and the hypocrites that are felfifh worldlings are fo 
many, that the poor people that live among pro- 
fefled Chriftians, do judge of Chriftia-nity by thofe 
falfe profeflburs, who are indeed no Chriftians : 
Men fee not the hearts of one another. Thou- 
fands of ungodly perfons, for intereft, education 
and cuftome take on them the name of Chriftians, 
who never werefuch indeed by heart-confent. When 
thefe counterfeit Chriftians live like Infidels, men 
think that Chriftians are no better than Infidels : 
For they think they muft judge by the greater num- 
ber of fuch as go under theChriftian name. But 
if the world could tell who they be that are truly 
Chriftians at the heart, they would fee that they 
have that fpirit of Love, which is not in unbelievers. 
2. And alas the Love avAtlmw even of true Chri- 
ftians is yet too imperfeft, and is darkened and ble- 
mifhed with too n uch of the contrary vice : were 
Chriftians pf r/e£?Chriftians,they would indeed be the 
honour of their pro feflion. Then Love wofild be the 
powerful principle of all their works } which would 


C 6 4 1 
tafte of its nature, and, as it is faid of Wine, Judg. 
9. 13. it cheer eth God and man, fo I may fay, God 
and man would be delighted in the fweetnefs of thefe 
fruits : For with fueh Sacrifice God is well pleafed, 
Heb.i$.,i6. But alas what crabbed and contrary 
fruits, how foure, how bitter do many diftempered 
Chriftians bring forth ? If it will increafe the Church, 
and win men to .the Love of Chriftianity , to be re- 
viled or perfecuted , to -be contemned and neg- 
lected, to be feparated from as perfons unworthy of 
our love and kindnefs, then Chriftianity will not 
want propagaters : The pouring out of the Spirit, 
w r as the firft planting of the Chriftian Church : And 
whercthere is moft of Love, there is moll of the 
fpirit. As there needeth no forcing penal Laws, to 
compel men to obey God fo far as Love prevaileth 
in them •, fo if Love were more eminent in the 
Church Paftors and Profeflbrs, that they preached 
and ruled and lived towards all men in the power 
of fincere and fervent Love, there would be lefs 
pretence for all that violence, oppreffion and cru- 
elty, which hath been long exexcifed by the worldly 
Clergy, and fo much the more odiouily by how 
much the more the facred name of Religion hath 
been ufed for its juftification or excufe, 

and Perfe&ion of the Church : And therefore there 
will be in Heaven much greater Love, and much 
nearer UNITY, than there is of the deareft 
friends on earth, yea greater and nearer than we can 
now diftinftly underltand. 

And again I fey, that they that in thinking of the 
ftate of feparated fouls, do fear left all fouls do 
*lofe their individuation, and fall into one common^ 
foul, do foolifbly fear a greater Unity than is to be 


C ^ 1 

expefted. (And yet nothing elfe about the fouls 
Immortality is lyable to a rational doubt : For, 
i. Its fitbfiance certainly is not annihilated: 2. Nor 
its formal ejfential Virtues loft, by mutation into 
fome other (pedes -, 3 . Nor doth the Activity of luch 
an Alllve nature ceafc, 4. Nor will there want ob- 
jells for it to aft upon j. Were it well confidered 
that L O V E is as Natural to a foul as Heat is to 
the Sun, that is, an effeft of that Aft which its very 
eflence doth perform \ 2. And that our UNITY 
is . an Unity of LOVE ( Voluntarily performed ) 
it would much abate fuch felfifli fears of too much 
Unity : For who ever feared too much Love ? too 
extenfive, or too intenfive ? too large, or too near 
a Union of minds ? And as the beloved Apoflle 
faith, that GOD IS LOVE as a name which 
fignifiethhis eflence, why may not the fame be faid 
of fads, which are his Image ? that A SOUL IS 
LOVE? Not that this is an Adequate conception 
|of£ SOUL (much lefs of GOD); but of the 
partial or inadequate Conceptions, it feemethto 
be the chiefeft. The SOU L of Man is a Pure ( or 
Spiritual) fubftartce informed by a Virtue of Vital atti* 
vity, Inte/le£lion } and Volition y ( which is L OV E ), 
informing ( or animating ) an organical body for tl 
time, and feparable at the bodies diffolution. And as 
;the Calefattive Virtue is the Effence of the Fire 
;( though not an adequate Conception of its effence •, 
jFor it is a pare fukfiance formally indued with the Fir- 
ute Motive, Illuminative and Calef active) and the 
aft of Calefaftion is its eflence as operative on a 
due recipient ) e 9 fo LOVE is the fouls effence in 
the faculty or Virtue, and its Effence as operative 
ion a due objeft, in the Aft : which Aft though the 
foul cxercife it not ad ultinmm peffe by fuch 3 Natu- 
ral neceffity as the fire, heateth ) yet its Nature or 

F Effence 

L66 1 

EiTence immediately exercifeth it, though in a freer 
manner : yen, forne Adls of Love quoad fpecifcatio- 
nenk though not quoad exercitium .axe exerciled as 
neccffarily as calefa&ion by the fire : yea more, 
though now in the body the exercife by cogitation 
and fenfe be not fo neceflary, we cannot lay that in its 
fcparated ftate it. will not be fo : yea yet more, even 
in the body the LOVE of a Mans SELF and 
of felicity, Gr pleafbre, feeme-thtobeadeep, con- 
. fiant or unceffant Ad of the foul, though not fen- 
Holy obferved. And if L O V E be fo far eflential 
to it, the perfection of Love is the fouls perfection, 
and the exercifes of Love are the chief operations of 
the foul : And confequently the perfection and 
glory of the Church (which is but a conjun&ion 
of holy perfons) confifteth in the fame Uniting 
Love, which perfe&eth fouls. 

And indeed "Uniformity in circumftantials , and in 
external Polity w T ere but a Carkafs or Image of Unity 
without Uniting Love which is its foul : As much 
external Union in good as we are capable of, doth 
advantage Vnity of fpirit : But all Union in evift 
and z\\ in xnntxeffary circumftantials , which is mana- 
ged to the diminution ofChriftianLove, are to the 
Church, but as the glory of adorned cloathing, or 
monuments or pictures to a carkafs : And the 
Church-Tyrants that would thus Unite us, and fa* 
crifice Love and the means of it to their fort of Vn\ 
ty> are but like the Phyfician that prefcribed a ficfl 
man a draught of his own heart blood to cure hit 
The Inquifitors that torture mens bodies to favel 
their fouls, are not more unskilful in their pre-j 
tended Charity to fave men, than is he thathm-J 
dereth or deftroycth I^ove, while he feeketh the 
Churches Unity in humane Ordinances by fraud 
fear : When they have killed any Church by Love- 


C6 7 1 
killing fnares and practices , and glory that it h 
•united in Papal power, fplendor and decrees, it is 
but as if they cut all a mans nerves ? or caft him 
into a Palfie, or killed him, and gloried that they 
have tyed his limbs together with ftrings, or bound 
them all up in the fame Winding-fheet and Coffin. 
That edifieth not the Church, which tendeth not to 
fave, but to deftroy mens fouls. 


This T) nit y con&uceth to the good of the world 
( without the Church. ) 

§. i. TpHe chief hopes of the Heathen and Infi- 
X del world confift: in their hopes of being 
brought into the faith and Church of Chriftians-: 
And as God addeth to the Church fuch as fhall be 
faved, fo the means that our charity muft ufe to 
fave them, is to get them into this ark. The mea- 
fure of their other hopes, or what poffibility there 
is of their falvation I have elfewhere plainly opened : 
It fufficeth us here to remember , that no man cometh 
to the Father but by the Son, and that he is the Saviour 
of his body , however he be called alfo the Saviour of 
the world. 

jj. 2. And as in nature it is the principle of life 
in the feed and w r omb, which is the Generating 
Caufe of formation and augmentation of the fatw. 
And it is the vital powers in Man, which maketh 
Jiis daily nourifhment become a living part of /*/>>;- 
felf, and caufeth his growth - y So is it the Spirit in 
the Churchy that is Gods appointed means to quicken 

F z and 

C 63 1 

and convert the Infidel world. And it is thofe- 
Chriftian Countreys which are adjoyning toMaho*. 
nutans and Heathens, that fhould do moll to their 
converfion : who have far eafier means than others 
by proximity and converfe to do it, and therefore 
arc under the greateft obligations to attempt it : 
As alfo thofe remoter Countreys that are mofl in 
amity and traffick with them. 

£. 3. And as Inftruttion by evidence mufl do much, 
fo this Vniting Spirit of Love mull do a great part of 
this work*, and that both as it worketh inwardly on 
our felves in the Communion of Saints, and as it 
worketh outwardly by attraction and communica* 
lion, to draw in and aflimilate others. 

$. 4. L The Churches Vnity of Spirit doth fortifie 
and fit it for all its own offices in order to the con- 
verfion of the world : All parts are better qualified 
for the work, by that Wifdom, Goodnefs and Life 
which they mud work by : And each member par- 
taketh of die common ftrength which their Unity 
caufeth. An united Army is likcft to be victorious : 
Their routing is their flight and overthrow : And 
the Army or Kingdom that is Mutinous or in Civil 
Wars, or not unanimous, is unfit to enlarge do- 
minion, and conquer others : They will have work 
enough at home. 

§.5. Were but Chriftian Princes and people 
united , as they would be a terror toTurtyh and 
other Infidel Opprefibrs (and in likelihood eafily 
able to vanquifh them "l fo they might eafily contri- 
bute their endeavours to inftrud and convince thefe 
Infidels with probability of greater fuccefs y than 
any attempts have yet had upon them. They might 
with greater advantage fend out and maintain men 
of Learning and other fittjefs to perform it. The 


L 69 ] 
Eaftern Chriftians by divifions were broken off 
from the Greeks : The Greeks by divilion ( and wick- 
ednefs) fell into the hands of the Turks: The di- 
vifions of the Weftern Nations furthered their 
Conqueft, and hindred the Greekj recovery : The 
divifions of the Military forces loft Talefime and 
• fruftrated their vaft labours and expences : Loll al- 
io Armenian aids , and dellroyed the hopeful be- 
ginnings of the Converfion of the Tartarian*: The 
divifion of Chriftian Princes, hath fet up the Papal 
Kingdom as the Umpire of their feuds. That 
which hath done fo much to deftroy Churches and 
Kingdoms, and hath murdered many hundred thou- 
fand Chriftians, and gone far towards the extirpa- 
ting of true Chriftianity out of much of the (for- 
merly Chriftian) World, muft needs unfit us all to 
recover the World, and convert unbelievers. 

5J. 6. And were but Chriftian Preachers and Pa- 
llors United , inftead of their pernicious Church- 
deftroying contentions, how great things might 
their united diligence have done ! If nil the mif- 
chicvous unskilful proud wrangling , and worldly 
ambitious ftrife by which the Chriftians were divi- 
ded into Ncftorians, Emychians, Monothelitcs, Than- 
tafiafts, Doxatifts, Novattans, and their Anathema- 
tizers^c. had been turned into an united force and 
diligence, by Light and Love to have converted In- 
fidels, What a happy cafe had- the World been in ? 
And what blefiings had that part of the Clergy- 
been, that now have left their Names and Hiftory 
to reproach and fhame ? 

tf. 7. II. And as Efficiently, fo'Objeclively and 
Morally theVmon of Chriftians tendeth to cenvertthe 
World, as it is notorious that their divifions have 
hindered their Converfion. Men commonly fufp' (X 

F 3 them 

C 70 u 

•theni to be deceived or deceivers, that do not agree 
among themfelves. They that reverence united 
Chriltians , defpife them when they fee them fall 
into diyifions, and learn of themfelves to condemn 
them all, by hearing them revile and condemn each 
other. Chrift had never made it fo great a part of 
his 1 prayer to his Father, that his difciples might be 
One, even as the Father and he were One, to this 
end £ that the World may know that the Father fent 
him'] if this their Union had not been a fpecial 
means of convincing unbelievers. And this was 
not by a Political Union of the reft of his Difciples 
under fome One of them as the Governing Head of 
all the reft : For no fuch Head was fet over them 
•by Chrift, nor ever claimed or exercifed any fuch 
authority: But it was a holy Union of Minds in 
knowledge and faith, and of Hearts in Love, and 
pf Life in their published Doftrine and their Com- 
munion and Converfation. The common Sun-light 
maketh all mens fight (whofe Organs and Vilive 
faculty are found ) to agree: and though a man 
hath two eyes, they fee unitedly as if they were one : 
The more united fuel make one fire, the more pow- 
erful it is to kindle on all other combuftible matter 
near it. When many Minifters of the fame or fe- 
veral Churches agree, it much availeth to procure 
the belief and obedience of their flocks. And when 
Paftors and people agree, it ftrongly inviteth the 
reverence and confent of thofe without. By wil- 
ful diflenfions we are fcandals and fnares to unbe- 
lievers, and if Chrift ians live not in Unity, Love 
and Peace, they rob the world of a great appointed 
means of their conversion : And they who for fo 
doing do juftly exclaim againft perfecutors and bin- 
derers of the Gofpel , fliould alfo remember how 
much they participate in that guilt, while the Love 


cf Chriftiansto one another is madealmofcas need-l 
ful as preaching to the winning of mens Love col 
faith and holinds. 

£.8. As in the folemn finging of Pfalms, the 
harmony of concenting well tuned voices, inyiteth 
the hearers to joyn with them by delight, when 
bawling "confufion and difcord ( one linging one 
time and another another ) is loathfome and tire- 
iome and driveth men away: f^o would the IV. 1 
concent of Chriltians have won unbelievers to the 
Love of Chriftian faith and piety, when their divi- 
fions and wicked lives have had contrary lamenta- 
ble effeds : wo to the world becaufe of offences, and 
wo to them by whom offences come. 


The Unity of Christians is due to the lionour of 
Qhrift) and is p leafing and amiable to God. 

#. i. TT is not only Miracles that are Chrifts .wit-. 
JL nefs in the world. Thje fpirit qf Prophceif 

alfo is called his mtnefa Rev. 19. 10. And if many 
Prophets (hould all fay that they fpeak fromChrift, 
and (peak contrary things, rad charge each other 
withfalfhood and deceit, would this be to his honour 
or to the credit of their teflimony ? It is the great 
Concord of the prophecies, promifes and types of 
the Old Teftament with the hiftory and doftnnc of 
the New, and the great concord of all the writers of 
the New Teftament among themfelves, which 
greatly facilitated our belief both of the Old and 
F 4 New. 

C 7*3 
New'. And all Infidels who accufe the Scriptures of 
untruth, do accufe it alio of contradiftions : And if 
they could prove the later; they would prove the 

$. 2. And the fpirit of Holinefs as it regenerateth 
and faa&iSeth Turners from generation to genera- 
tion, is no lefsa witnefs of the Truth and Love and 
Glory of Ch-rift, than prophecies and miracles : The 
fame fpirit that is the author of prophecie andfa- 
cred dofrrine, is alfothe author of believers reno- 
vation to the image of God. And Illumination is 
not the leaft or laft part of this fandtifying work: 

"'ft is the light of the world, and his word and 
irit are given to enlighten blinded minds, and to 
bring them out of darknefs into his marvellous light, 
and frcm the power of the Prince of darknefs and 
from doing the works of darknefs, to the Father of 
Lights who giveth wifdom liberally to them that ask 
it, that they may walk as Children of the light. 
' 'Light is lifiially called Glory: Heaven is the place of 
the greatefl Light>and greateft Glory : And heaven- 
ly wifdom in believers, is much of their Glory here 
begun, in which their Father, their Saviour and their 
fanftifier is glorified. Whatever therefore obfcu- 
reth or diminifheth this facred Light in Saints, op- 
pofeth that Glory of God and o»jr Redeemer which 
rouft appear and fhine forth in them. The holy 
Learning of his difciples is the honour of the hea- 
venly Teacher of the Church: All true believers are 
taught of God : were they no wifc'r, nor no better 
than other men, where were the teltimony and the 
honour of their Teacher? and who would believe 
that he were a happier Teacher than Philofophers ? 
or that he were the true Saviour of the world that 
doth not iave his own difciples from fin and folly ? 
No wcjider that God hath no pleafurein fools, and 


C 73 1 
that the foolifh fhall not Hand in his fight, when 
they are fuch a dilhonour to Chrift and him : what 
fellowfhip hath Light with darknefs ? 

And who knoweth not that difagreement proveth 
ignorance and errour, in one party at lealt ? When 
they hold.and plead for contrary opinions, both can- 
not be in the right. And when this is but in dark 
and difficult matters, of no great influence on our 
hearts and lives and future hopes, it is tolerable -, 
and no more to be wondered at, than that we are yet 
but imperfeft men in flefh, and in this low and dark- 
fome world : But when it amounteth to that which 
maketh Chrlttians judge it neceflary to anathematize 
one another, and tocafl:9ut each other from their 
communion as intolerable, and perhaps to feek 
one anothers deftruftion, do they not loudly pro- 
claim their (hameful ignorance to the world ? 

$. 3- I know that difcipline muft be exercifed and 
the precious feparated from the vile, and this efpe- 
cially for the honour of Chriftianity. For if the 
Church be as a Swinefty,andthe clean and unclean, 
the ibber and the drunken, the chafte and the for- 
nicators equally members of it, fuch a fociety and 
their religion will be contemned. For fin is a reproach 
to any people. 

But calling a felon or murderer in 
Jaile doth much differ from a civil Prov - *4- 34- 
war. For the Church to caft out the * 6m ^ 
impure that repent not, is neceflary jer.23 4°* 
to their honour •, but to divide and & 29. 18. 
fubdivide among themfelves is their Sc/^2.12. 
reproach, though the dividers have *F 44- 8 - 
never fo fair pretences. " ]' 

£.4. I know alio what pretences £22.4. 
againft herefie, &c. the dividing lefts . 

: had in all ages. They have pretended that 


[74 3 

they only being the true Church, the condemning 
and rejecting of all others was neceflary to the 
Churches honour : But is it indeed to the honour 
of theChriftian name, that fo great bodies for fo 
many ages have continu'd to condemn and anathema- : 
tize each other ? That the Greek Church condemn- 
ed! the Weftern, and the Weftern them ? That the 
Eaftern and Southern are feparated from both? 
And the Weftern Chriftians fo divided among them- 
felves ? Who that is not a ftranger to man and hi- 
ftory knoweth not that it hath been to exercife a Do- 
minion over others, and alfo to extol the skill of 
their underftandings, as fpeaking rightlier than 
others, when they ftrove about ambiguous words, 
that very much of their anathematizing hath been 
ufed ? And when the Pope hath anathematized the 
Patriarch of Conftantinofle^ he hath anathematized 
him again : yea fo hath the Patriarch of jilexandria 
-alfo. And when the three parties (the Orthodox, 
the Neftorians and the Eutychians ) for fo many 
ages have continued anathematizing each other, the 
dilhonour falleth on them all in the eyes of beholders, 
and no party recovereth their honour with the reft. 
^.Undoubtedly it is they that God .(hall make the 
blefled inftrumentsofreftoring the neceffary means' 
of Concord, and thereby of reviving Chriftian Love 
and peace, that will be the chief and honourable 
agents for the repairing of the honour of the Chri- 
ftian Church, if ever it be repaired in this world. 
All parties feem agreed in this, even they that moft ; 
foolilhly and cruelly tear and diftradthe Chruch, ■ 
that it mull be Love and Concord that at laft muft heal 
it, and recover .its glory if ever it be healed. And ' 
how much Chrift is pleafed to rfee his Tervants live 
in Love and peace, his office, his nature, his many 
and 7chement Commands do tel! us. 



t 75 3 



III. What obligations are on all Chrift tans to 
avoid fwful divifwns and difcord y and to pro- 
mote this Unity and peace. 

J. 1. TT^Rom what is already faid it is eafie to ga- 
it/ ther,that many and great obligations are 
on all Chriftians to be promoters of Concord and 
enemies of difcord and divifions. I. The many 
and exprefs commands of Chrift in Scripture do ob- 
lige them. This is no dark or controverted point, 
written in words which are hard to be iinderftood, 
but plainly uttered and often urged : Yea when fe- 
veralof Gods commands are mentioned, this is ftill 
preferred before mod others that can be imagined 
to (land in competition againfl: it : As the uniting 
Love of Godh called the ^r/? and great Co?nmand y io 
the uniting Love of man is called the fecond like to 
that and thefiimm of the fecond table, and xhz ful- 
filling of the Law. It is not mentioned as an Accident 
of the New Creature, but as an ejfential part; not 
as the high qualification of fome rare Chriftian, but 
as that which is necejfaryand common to all that are 
the living members of Chrift : Not only as needful 
to fome inferiour ufes, but as neceflary to all the 
great Ends of our Religion, preferred before facri- 
fee and all the rituals, and not to be difpenfed with, 
on any pretence. % 

£.2. II. No man therefore can be an obedient 
ant of Chriftthat feekcth not to keep the Vnty 


I 76 1 

of the ffirit in the bond of peace : If he that 
breaketh one of the leaft commands and teachcth men 
fo to do, (kail be called Leaf; in the Kingdom of God, what 
fhall he be called, and where fhall be his lot that \ 
breaketh the greateft ? 

'$. $. ."III. The Love of God our Father and of 
Chrift our Redeemer doth oblige us : For if he that 
lovethnot his brother whom he feet h daily, cannot 
Love God whom he never faw ', how much lefs he that 
loveth not the multitude of believers, and fo great an \ 
intereft of GocJ in the world, as is that unity and j 
concord of the body of Chrift t And if he that doth 1 
or doth not good to one of the leafi of the fervants of] 
Chrift, is fuppofed to have done it or not done it to 
himfelf, how much more he that doth or omitteth 
that which Chrift and his whole Church is fo much 
concerned in ? 

$. 4. I V. The Love of our own fouls obligeth us, 
confidering how many and great impediments dif- 
cord doth raife againft all grace and duty, and 
againft our holineis, comfort and falvation : And 
how much Chriftian Love and Concord do conduce 
to the prefervation of all grace, and to the attain- 
ment of Glory : All men in true Concord are our 
helpers, and all men in difcord are our hinderers, 
and tempters. How fair and eafie is the way to 
Heaven among true Loving and agreeing Chriftians ? 
and how hard is it where divifions and contentions 
take place ? 

$. 5. V. The Love of our neighbours fouls ob- 

h us to this : That which is bell: for us is beft 

for them. Alas, carnal minds deceived by fin need 

not to have the way to heaven made harder, nor to 


C 77 3 

be tempted by the difcords of Chriflians to defpife 
them : Their own malignity and the devils tem- 
ptations, when \vc have doneourbcft may fuflke to 
deceive them and undo them : Every Chriltiaa 
ihould be a helper to the falvation of all about him, 
<and a fouldier under Chrifl, to fight againft Satan as 
he is the great divider and deftroyer. As ever 
therefore we pity the fouls of finners, and would 
not be guilty of their damnation, we fhould keep 
the Unity of the fpiritin the bond of peace. 

$. 6. V I. Our Love to the Church and Sacred 
Miniflry doth oblige us. Our Difcords unfay too 

{)Owerfully what Chrifts Minified fay, when they 
et forth the power of grace, and the excellency of 
Chriftianity ! All the oppofition of the arguments 
I and reproaches of Quakers or malignant prophane 
; enemies is of far lefs force againlt the Gofpel, than 
i the difcords of profeifed Chriflians. The labours 
1 of many worthy Miniflers have been hindered, and 
j their hearts even broken with fuch finful and fcan- 
dalous divifions •, when the enemies hit us in the 
teeth with thefe, we are afhamed and cannot deny 
the fa ft, though we can deny their falfe conclufions. 
How much of the defigns of Satan and his agents 
have lain in dividing the fervants of Chriffc ? Some 
of the moderate and peaceable Emperours in the 
more flourifhingftateof the Church and Empire, by 
the difcords and mutinies of factious Chriflians were 
made a- weary of their Crowns : Yea fome ofthofe 
that the hafty hereticating Orthodox party too na- 
ttily pronounced hereticks and heretical ( fuch as 
Theodofim junior, Zeno, j4r?aftafm^ Juftinian, &c. ) 
were tired out with labouring in vain to keep the 
Chriftian Bifhops in Peace, and by Hiftorians 
are recorded to be men of better qualities. tharf 


C 7 8 3 

the Bifhops : And one of them {Anaftafuu ) laid 
down his Crown and told them he would not be the 
Ruler of fuch contentious and unruly men, till the 
necefiities of the people brought them to remorfe, 
and to intreathimto continue Emperour, and pfo* 
friifed toceafe their mutinous contentions. 

'And what thedivifions in the Church of Rome did 
tofhameand thus far abafethe Papacy, is paft all 
doubt : When there have been in many generations 
iometimestwoand fbmetimes three called Popes at 
once, when fome Kingdoms owned one and fome '' 
another, and w 7 hen they often fought it out, and (as 
Viftor the third and many another ) got their pre% 
tended right by Viftory, not by the Word but by 
the Sword , When one Pope for forty years toge- 
ther lived in France at Avignion^ and the other at 
Home j When they fought it out with many Empe- 
rours and Kings , When Italy was kept by them 
many ages in divifions and bloody wars , and when 
the very Citizens of Rome and their Popes were 
put to fight it out at home in their ftreets 7 . And 
when the Popes have excommunicated the people of 
Rome it felf ( where then was the Church of Rome f ) 
All this Church hilt ory recordeth to their perpetual 

And have not the difTenfions between Luther and 
Caroloftadivu-i and ZuingUuSy Lutherans and Calvinifisj 
to name no more, been a reproach to the Reformati- 
on fas I faid beforej. As we Love the Church then, 
and as we regard the honour and fuccefs of the Mi- 
niftry, and would not have Chrifts hpufe and. 
Kingdom fall or be fhaken or difgraced by our fin-ful 
difcords, Let us keep this fpiritiial Unity and 

$.7. VH. 

§.7. VII. And indeed Experience is not the Ienft 
of our obligations : A danger never tryed, is iel- 
dom fo cauteloufly avoided as thpfe into which we 
have formerly fallen, and out of which we I 
ftarrowly efcaped. They that have read Church- 
Hiftory", what the factions and herefies of the Bi- 
fhopsand people have done from thedayes even of 
the Apoftles to this day : Yea, they that have but 
feen and felt what Religious difcords have done in 
this generation, even at home in England, Scotland 
and Ireland, and yet do not hate fuch difcord as 
death, and love peace and fpiritual unity as life 
and health and fafety, they are hardened pafl: all 


What fort and meafure of Vnity may not^ or 
may be groundedly hoped for on earth. 

#. 1. TPHe Prognofticks in difeafes are needful to 
JL direft Phyficians in their attempts : He 
cither pretendeth to Cure incurable difeafes, 
and thereby doth but torment the Patient and haften 
death, or elfe will haftily prevent the Crifi?, or will 
open inflammations before the time, may be .called 
aPhyfician or Surgeon, but will prove a hurtful or 
pernicious enemy. Some difeafes will admit of no 
better than palliating and delay: Some that arc 
curable , are made mortal by temerarious, bafte. 
V. 'ho will break the Egg to get the Chicken before 
it is ripened by nature for exciufion? Yet huh the 
Church had too many fuch Mid wives th Stm 



abortion and untimely birth, and cannot flay till na- 
tures time 5 fuch mifchievous Surgeons as arepre- 
fently lancing unripe apoftemes : Lt is of mifchiev- 
ous confequence to expert fuch Concord , and ac- 
cordingly fet upon the haftening of it, which cer- 
tainly will never be : And it is of gre&t and necef- 
ftfryllfe, to know how much, and what Vnity may 
be expe&ed , in the Church militant , and whan 

$. 2. I. Negatively : I. It is certain that Chrifti- 
ans will never be all of one ftature or degree of 
grace. The Apoftle hath fully opened this, 
1 Cor. 12. and here Eph. 4. and Rom. 14.(^15. and 
elfewhere. Some will be of more blamelefs lives, 
and Tome more offenfive : Some will be more fruit- 
ful and ufeful in the Church than others ', fome will 
have greater gifts than others for that end: fome 
will be more patient and meek, and others more 
paflionate and hot : fome will be more confiderste 
and prudent, and fome more rafh and of indecent 
carriage : fome will be more humble, and conde- 
fcending, and abhorr pride much more than others 
will do : fome will be more zealous, and fome more 
frigid or lukewarm : fome will be much more 
heavenly , and make lefs of earthly things than 
ethers : fome will be more felf-denying and pati- 
ent under fufferings, and fome will too much feek 
their own tranfitory things, and with greater impa- 
tience bear both crofies from God and injuries from 
man : fome will be more cheerful and rejoy.ee in 
God, and the hope of Glory., and others will be 
more fad and timerous and heavy : Some wilhhave 
a ftrong faith, and fome a weak : Some will have 
allured fealed hopes, and others will be doubting 
of their falvation : But in nothing will there be 



c si : 

more certain and notable difference, than in mens 
knowledge and conceptions of fpiritual things. Un- 
doubtedly there is fcarce a greater difference 
Vifages, than there is of InteUtttual tpprehe-nfions : 
Nay, perhaps the likenefs of all mens faces is greater 
than of their undcrftandings. Some will ftill know 
little, (and none very much, but J others compa- 
ratively much more: Some that know much in one 
kind, wiH be ignorant in others : And as all men are 
not of the fame Trade, nor all Scholars profecute 
the fame ftudies, but fome excell in one thing, and 
fome in another, and fome in nothing, fo in reli- 
gion fuch proportions and differences of underftand- 
ing there will be. 

$. 3. No obferving man that con verfethwith man- 
kind one would think could be ignorant of this : 
And yet the talk and actions of too many Church- 
Leeches in moll parts and ages of the Chriftian 
World, hath fhewed that they did not well under- 
stand it. If univerfal, conftant, undenyable expe* 
rievce be not enough to prove that it is fo, and hath 
been fo , and therefore will be fo , Let the certain 
Caufesof it be confidered. 

1 . Men are born of mtel different Intellectual com- 
flexions, and degrees of capacity: fome are ldeots 
3r natural fools •, fome are half fuch : fome are 
^ery flegmatick and dull of .wit, and mult have long 
:ime and teaching to learn a little \ and of memo 
:ies as weak to retain what they- learn : fome have 
laturally ftrong wits, and as ftrong memories. ' If 
:hcfe be bred up in the fame houfe, will they there- 
ore have the fame knowledge and conceptions? 

§. 4. 2. And as men naturally differ in quicknefs 

md dulnefs of wit, fo they do in the temperature 

!|)f all their humours and bodies, which ac-ciden- 

' ally will caufe great difference in their minds. A 

G fanguine 

fonguine man hath ufually other thoughts and per- 
ceptions than a phlegmatick man -, and aphlegma- 
tick man hath other thoughts and fenfe of things, 
than the cholerick have ; And the melancholy 
mandiffereth from them all, and often from him- 
felf. As thefe tempers varioufly affeft the phan- 
tafie and the paffions, fo confequently, they do ufu- 
ally the Intelledt and the Will. 

£. 5. 3 . The Countreys that men are born in, if 
not by the air and foil, at lead; by the great diver- 
sity of Languages, Laws,Governments and Cuftoms, 
do make much difference in mens conceptions : As 
we fee by experience in the difference of many 

$.6. 4. The very fins or merits of Parents may 
do much to the hurt or benefit of Children-, part- 
ly by corrupting or bettering their bodily tempe- 
rature , and partly by Gods curfe or blefling on 
their fouls: As I have fully proved in my Second 
Deputation of Original Sin. 

$. 7. 5. And were there no other caufe of dif- 
ferent conceptions than the different education of 
children by their parents , it would make a very 
great difference in the witld. When one is brought 
up in Learning, and another in barbarifm •, one in 
teading and hearing Gods Word, and another in 
contemning and deriding it: One is taught to re- 
verence Gods name and truth , and another to 
blafpheme them or defpife them : One is taught one 
Religion and another another : One is taught to 
lay all his falvation on that which another is taught 
to abhorr. And it is not only in Divers Lands , but 
in the fame Cities, Towns and Streets, yea, among 
men that publickly profefs the fame Religion in 
Name and Generals, that this difference is found* 


C 8 3 3 

$.8. 6. And if Parents make no difference, yet 
Schoolmafters often will : With their Grammar lear- 
ning , one teacheth his Scholars to deride fuch 
or fuch a party of Chriftians as Hereticks , He- 
teroclites or anomalous •, and others fay the fame 
of others , as they themfelves do like or diflike ; 
And Boyes ufually take deeply their Matters dictates, 
efpecially if they be cunning and malignant, and fuch 
as the Devil and flefh befriend. 

$.9. 7. And it is no fmall difference, that G?w- 
pany and Converfe caufe : Even among Children and 
Servants in families,and Boys at School: from whom 
they are as apt to receive ill impreffions as from 
evil Teachers. And therefore variety of compa- 
ny in Youth , is like to breed variety of fenti- 

5$. 10. 8. And the different Books which they 
read, will make the like difference : while one 
writeth againft that which another proclaimeth to 
be excellent, and necelfary, and all fet off the matter 
with fuch plaufibility and confidence as young and 
unexercifed perfons are unable to fee through and 
perceive the error. 

§. 1 1 . 9. And when they go abroad in the world, 
the difference among thofe that they converfe with 
all their lives, may well be expedted to caufe much 
difference in their thoughts. If they be fet Appren- 
tices, one falls into a family of one mind, and ano- 
ther of another : And fo if they be fervants : And 
their friends and companions will occaiion as 
much: And if they marry, the different judgements 
of Husbands and Wives may do the fame. 

§. 12. ]o. And efpecially when differences in 
Religion have already got pofieffion of all man- 
kind ( in fome degree ) and they fet themfelves to 
enquire after the nature of thefe differences, and 
G 2 being 

being at Srfl unskilful are unable to try and judge 
aright, they mult needs fall into great variety of 

$.13. 11. And the great difference among 
Treacher s and Paftors of the Church will be as pow- 
erful a caufe of difcord to youth and learners, as al-> 
mod any of the reft : while one Preacher condemn- 
ed that as a dangerous errour, and frighteneth them 
from it as a heinous fin, which another extolleth as 
fteceflary truth or duty. And yet thus it is in many 
particulars even where men profefs the fame Reli- 
gion : witncfs the many loads of books that are 
written by the Papifts againft each other*, As the 
Dominicans* againft the Jefuites, and the Jefuites 
againft them -, The Janfenifts againft both, and 
their odious charges of higheft falfe do&rines and 
crimes in their provincial Letters, and the Jefuits Mo- 
rals : Gnlielmm de fantlo Amore and his partners 
againft the Fryars •, The fecular Priefts againft the 
regulars, fuch as Watfon in his Quodlibets, and abun- 
dance more fuch like : And in what Countrey al- 
moft or City do not preachers in fome meafure dif- 
fer, and breed diverfity of fenfes in the people ? 
Which Paul foretold even in the pureft times and 
Church, that of their own [elves fiould men arife 
fpeaking perverfe things to draw away difciples after 
them. Befides the grievous Wolves that (hould enter 
and devour the flock^ Adt. 20. 30. It mnfi be that here- 
fies miift arife, that they that are approved may be made 
manifeft. In Corinth fome were of Paul, and ibme 
of Apollo and fome of Cephas, and they had fuchdi- 
vifions as fhewed them to be much carnal ', At Rome 
they judged anddefpifed one another about meats 
and drinks and d.ayes : Rom. 14. d-15. And fome 
cattfed divifions and offences contrary to the doUrine 
which they had learned, Rom. i6 9 16, 17. In Galatia 


LS S 1 

they had Judaizing teachers that troubled them. 
And at Antioch fome taught them that except they 
Were circumcifed and kept the Law of Moles they could 
not be javed, Aft. 1 5. 1, &c. In Afia fome Churches 
had Nicolaitansj and fuch as taught them to eat 
things offered to Idols, and to commit fornication, and the 
wwan JezabelrW feduced them : and fome had fuch 
as Diotrephes that received not the brethren and caft 
out thofe that did, and prated even againft the beloved 
Apoftle with malicious words: Divers Churches had 
perverse difputers, about the Law and genealogies, and 
fuchasfirove about words that prof ted not, but to the 
fubverting of the hearers ; and ibme vvhOLfe dottrine 
fretted like a Cancer, who fubverted whole houfes, whole 
mouths were to be (topped: And the Coloilians had 
fuch as were for humane ordinances, touch not, tafie 
not, handle not, and for worfripping Angels, and pry- 
ing into unknown things : Col. 2. And Paul telleth 
the Philippians that fome preached Chrtft, not fin- 
cerely but in envy and fir if e to add afflittion to his bonds , 
whom yet he filenced not, but rejoyced that Chnfi was 
preached even by fuch : And he foretelleth Timothy 
that in the later dayes much falfe doftrine fhould 
be vented, And even then he had none like minded to 
Timothy that naturally fought the Churches good \ 
but all fought their own ( too much) and the things 
of Jefus Chrift too little. And the Apoftle John 
met with fuch as he would not have Chriftians bid 
Good fpeed to, nor receive them into their houfes ', And 
James was putfharply and largely to reprove fuch as 
in conceited wifdom would needs be Mafters, and 
had the caviout wifdom which is from beneath, and is 
earthly, fenfual and devilift, producing firife, confufion y 
and every evil work^, Jam. 3. And could it then be 
cxpefted that all Chriftians be of the fame opinions 
in all things? 

G 3 J. 14. 12. But 

L 86 1 ' 

$. 14.; 12. But now this temptation to differences 
of judgement is grown much greater, in that the 
Chriftian world is fo publickly and notorioufly di- 
vided into different parties. The Greeks are one 
party •, the Armenians and Georgians fomewhat dif- 
fer ? The Syrians and the Abaffines and Copties in 
Egypt and other Eaftern and Southern Countreys, 
are of divers fentiments in many things : The Pa- 
pifts differ from all"-, and the Proteftants from them \ 
and too many divifions are among themfelves •, 
which I need not name. And can it be expefted that 
in fuch a world, particular Christians fhould be found 
without their perfonal differences ? 

$. 15. 13. And the variety of Governments, and 
Laws, will alfo produce the like difagreements : 
While one Prince or State is of one mind, and ano- 
ther of another \ One is a Papift, another a Prote- 
ftant, one a Lutheran and another Reformed, one a 
Greek and another againft ail forts of Christians} 
And in the fame Kingdom in one age the Prince •'is 
of one mind, and in the next his Succeffbur of ano- 
ther. And this mnft needs cauie difagreement in 
the Subjects. 

f. 16. 14. And even the variety of Gods provu 
dences will occafion diverfity of thoughts : when 
Tome are in health and fome in ficknefs, fome in 
wealth and fome in poverty, fome high and fome 
low, feme favoured and preferred, and fome per- 
secuted, iraprifcned^flandered and diftrefled, whence 
different impreffions will arife. 

§- 17.^15, Yea mens different trades and callings 
v;il! occafion different impreffions-, whileft their bu- 
finefs leadeth theiji feveral wayes and into feveral 
companies, and altering eiriployments. 

?. 18. 16. Andalmofl ail men have fome diffe- 
rent interefts ^ The Teacher and the Hearer, the 



c 8 7 : 

Landlord and the Tenant, the Souldier and the 
Countrey-man,the buyer and the feller, the matter 
and the fervant, the ruler and the fubjeft, which 
will occafion different inclinations. 

$.19. 17. And men have great difference of tem- 
ptations, and provocations, from Satan. and from 
men : fome Satan tempteth one way, and fbme ano- 
ther ; fbme are abufed and provoked by one fort of 
men, and fome by another •, fome are called out to 
difputes with one Se<ft, and fome with another : 
And when they are engaged they ufually bend all 
their ftudies one way, and little confider what may 
be (aid on the other fide, or of other matters? 

§. 20. 18. And when once a man hath received 
fome one great opinion y true or falfe, it draweth on 
abundance of confequences, which thofethat recei- 
ved not that point did never think of. 

$. 21. 19. And fome have much more*/we and 
teifnre to ftudy, and happy counfellours to help 
them. And fome follow hard labour and have lit- 
tle leifure to read, hear or think, or elfe live retired- 
ly where they have little notice of affairs, and mifs 
the help of found and faithful counfeilours and hel- 

$.22. 20. Laftly, Gods own Grace is free, and 
given to men in great diverfity \ fome that have 
the fame fpirit have more illumination, and fome 
lefs, as the Apoftle at large declareth, 1 Cor. 1 2. and 
elfe where. There is one Glory of the Sun, and 
another of the Moon faith Pauls And as one ftar 
differs in glory from another, fo doth one man in 
gifts and underftanding •, And the face of the whole 
Creation fheweth that God delightetrTto make a 
wonderful diverfity in his works •, fcarce two ftones 
in the ftreet, two fheep, two beafts, two birds, two 
fifties, two trees, arc, fo like, but we may know 7 one 
G 4 from 

from another by their differences : No nor two 
fons of the fame parents, or two of the offspring of 
any animals. 

And is not all this joyned to the conftant experi- 
ence of all ages, enough to prove, that even among 
Christians, and good and tolerable Chriftians, yea 
among all, there will ftill be differences in degrees 
of knowledge and virtue^ and cqnfequently dif 
cords in fome matters of Religion, higher or lcwejc 
more or lefs ? 

• <5. 23. 1 1. It is therefore certain that while there 
will be difcord in Judgement, there will be alfo dif 
cord in profejftons, and in prakice. For honeil mens 
profeffions and practices will agree with their judge- 
ments in the main. Even Paul add Barnabas will 
part when their judgements lead them fo to do. 
When men have not the fame meafure of skill and 
accuratenefs in exprefling their own minds, and in 
fpeaking properly, grammatically, logically, fignifi- 
cantly, agreeably to the thing fpoken, nor the fame 
skill in defining, ordiftinguifhing, or lifting the true 
fenfeof words, they will really differ, and they will 
verbally differ, and feem to moft unskilful judges^ to 
differ really when they do not. 

§,24. It is not therefore to be expefted that if 

fome men think that Ung dotirmal 'confejfions formed 

in mens private words, or Liturgies 01 other humane 

formes, have nothing in them untrue, or evil, or 

which all men may not confent to, therefore all 

ethers Qiuft think fo too, and fay as they : who can 

think that in manv thoiifand uncertain words, all 

can and muft be of the fame mind, and ap- 

e them all alike? Or that honeft men can lye, 

that they afTent to what they do not ? 

§ 25. And 

C 8p3 

$. 25. And if mens judgements differ about mat- 
ters of practice, in eflentials, integrals or acci- 
dents, their practice will accordingly differ. He 
thatjudgeth a thing unlawful will not do it, if he 
fear God and be truly confcionablc. Had Images 
been lawfully nfed in places or excicifes of Gods 
worfhip, yet it was inhumane and unchriftian in 
thofe Bifhops and Councils who curfed from Chrift 
all that were of the contrary mind, and pronounced 
it an intolerable herefie, and eje&ed and filenced 
diflenters, andraifed wars and bloodfhed for fuch a 
difference : Much more unchriftian was it for the 
Roman Pope to rebel againft his proper Prince, the 
Greek Emperour, and alienate the Wcflern Empire 
from him, to the French, on that account, and to 
excommunicate and depofe Emperours as hereticks 
called Iconoclafts, as if Imagery had been an Arti- 
cle of faith, or a neceflary univerfal Command of 
God: For how can that be aherefie that is not a 
plain denyal or fubverfion of any neceflary article 
of faith or praftice ? And fure no fuch for Images is 
in the Creed or Decalogue. 

§. 26. The fame I may fay of many other Reli- 
gious practices .• As St. Panl fpeaketh of meats and 
drinks anddayes^w. 14. or 15. fo mufl we fay of 
all things that are of no greater neceflity : If men 
in all thefe muft be brought to uniformity and pra- 
<ftifing in the fame mode, it mult be either by argu- 
ment and perfwafion, or by force : The firft we are 
fure will never do it, in all things, though it may in 
many : All the twenty reafons before mentioned 
prove it \ and many hundred years experience much 
more •, It is certain to all fave blinded perfons, that 
all Chriftians will never be in all things of a mind, 
about Lawful and Unlawful, Duty and Sin : And 
it's as certain, that force will never do it : St. 


faith of things indifferent, that he that doubteth is 
damned if he eat ^ bee anfe he eateth not of faith : For 
whatfoever is not of faith ts fin. Ungodly perfons 
that have no true Confcience may go againft their 
falfeConfciences for worldly ends,and wilfully fin for 
fear of men-, But fo will no true Chriftian, unlefs in 
ihehourof fuch a temptation as Peters, by a fall 
from which he will rife again to a ftronger refolu- 
tion than he had before : No found believer will 
fell his foul to fave his flefh, 'nor hazard heaven by 
wilful fin to fave his intereft on earth. So that this 
way of forcing men to pra&ife contrary to their 
Confciences, in points in which good and tolerable 
Chriftians differ, will but make up Churches of 
wickect men that have no confcience, joyned with 
one party that is therein agreed. And I lhall fhew 
you in due place, that they will never devife what to 
do with the Co&feiegable dilfentets, that fhall not be 
far worfe than a charitable and peaceable forbear- 

$. 27. III. It i3j certain that there will never be 

fo great Concord, as that all Difputings, oppofition } 

and paffionate m& injuriom words and writings will 

ceafe among all forts of Chriftians ; No nor among 

all that are honeft and upright in the main. For as 

long as one taketh that for a dangerous errour or 

fin which another taketh for a neceflary truth or 

duty, men will (even on Gods account) think ill 

of one another, and in fome meafure (peak ill as they 

think. They that know that they mult not call 

^ood and good evil y nor put darknefs for light, and 

tight for darknefs, will abufe and injure one another in 

s where they confidently err : A Lutheran, 

though pious", will (peak and difpute againft a Cal- 

.", and a Calviniit againft aLmheran; And fo 


C 91 1 

of many other Parties. And though it is greatly to 
be wifhed that all Chriftians had humble thoughts 
of their own underftandings, and would ftay till 
they know well what they fay, before they talk: 
much againit things or perfons, and though it be 
fo with wife and eminently fober humble men, yet 
with too many it is far otherwife, and like fo to 
continue. Perverfe difputings and (hameful back- 
bitings, and fpeaking evil of things and perfons not 
underftood, have fuch unhappy caufes in the rem- 
nants of dark corrupted nature, that they feem to 
be like to live till a golden age or heaven do cure 
them. Talking and writing againft one another 
even of the fame Religion, yea praying and preach- 
ing againft one another muft be expefted in fome 
degree : I would I need nor fay, fikncing and perfe- 
cting one another ', yea excommunicating and 
anathematizing among the worfer fort of men ? 
fuch ufage as NazSwz.cn had from one of the fa- 
mous General Councils, and fiich ufage zsCbryfoftom 
had from fuch Bifhops as Theophilm Alexand. and 
Epiphamus and a Council of other Bifhops, and fuch 
as abundance of excellent men in molt ages have 
met with in the like kind and way, may beexpe&ed 
again till Bifnops and all Chriftians beq^ne more 
wife and refined perfons. 

jj. 2:8. II. But (affirmatively) there is yet 
an excellent fort and degree of Unity and Concord 
to be fought with hope among Chriftians, worthy 
of all our utmoft labour : Yea there is a true and 
excellent Unity and Concord which all true Chrifti- 
do already enjoy : confiding in the following 

§. 29. L All 


£. i's>. I. AUChriftians (truly fuch) believe in 
One God \ and believe the incomprehenfible Trinity , 
and believe Gods Effential Attributes wid Grand Rela- 
tions to man. They believe that he is Infinite in Zw- 
menfity and Eternity and Perfection, even a moll P.er- 
feEt Spirit i Life? V rider ft anding and Will, molt Power- 
ful, Wife and Good, the Creator and preferver, the Go- 
vernor's and the End of all, of whom and through whom 
a^nd to whom art all things \ in whom we Live and 
Move and have our being ; Moll Holy and True and 
Merciful and Jufl ? whom we are bound to believe 
and trufl and love and ferve, and obey and praife 
with all our heart and mind and ftrength: and per- 
fectly and everlaflingly to fee, Love and Praifehim, 
( to Pkafe Him and be Pleafed in Him ) in Glory, is 
the end and happinefs of Saints. 

$. 30. II. All true Chriflians believe in One Me- 
diator between God and man, Jefus Chrift, the Eter- 
nal Word, God, and one in Efience with the Father, 
Incarnate, alfuming the whole Nature of man, con- 
ceived by the holy Gholt, born of the Virgin Mary, 
and was holy, harmlefs, undefiled, feparate from fin- 
ners, fulfilling all righteoufnefs, and overcame the 
Devil ar4 the world, and gave himfelf a Sacrifice 
for mans fin, by fuffering a curfed death on the 
Crofs, to ranfome us and reconcile us unto God ; 
and was buried and went to the departed fouls in 
hades, and the third day rofe again from the dead, 
having conquered death: And having declared the 
new Covenant or Law of Grace, and commanded 
l\h Apoftlesto preach the Gofpel to all the world, 
nod promifed them to fend the Holy Spirit, he 
aicendcd mto Heaven before their faces: The laid 
Covenant of Grace is fummarily this [ that where- 
as all have finned and come fhort of the Glory of 

God ; 

God,fin by one man entring into the world and death 
by fin, and fo death and condemnation parted upon 
all, in that all have finned •, God fo loved the world 
that he gave his only begotten Son that whofoevcr 
Believeth in him fhould not periih, but have ever- 
lafting life \ that is, God freely giveth to loft un- 
done finners Himfelf to be their reconciled God 
and Father, Jefus Chrift to be their Saviour, and the 
Holy Ghoft to be their San&ifier, if they will Be- 
lieve and Truft him and accept the gift, and will in 
ferious Covenant (which Baptifm celebrateth ac- 
cordingly) give up themfelves to him, Repenting of 
their fins, and confenting to forfake the Devil, the 
world and the Flefh as oppofite to God, and iincere- 
ly ( though not perfectly ) obey Chrift and his Spi- 
rit to the end, according to the Law of Nature and 
his Gofpel inftitutions, that fo they may overcome 
and be Glorified for ever. ] 

And they believe that Chrift will come at laft in 
Glory and judge all men according to his Laws and 
to their works]. 

§.31. III. And they all believe that the Holy 
Spirit, being God and one in Effence with the Fa- 
ther and the Son, proceeding from the Father and 
(ov by) the Son, is the Great Witnefs, Agent and 
Advocate of Chrift, before, at, and after his com- 
ing into the world incarnate •, by his gifts of Pro- 
phecy, Miracles and San&ification, convincing fin- 
ners and drawing them to Repent and Believe, and 
dwelling in Believers as an operating caufe of Di- 
vine Life and Light and Love, thus Uniting them 
to God in Chrift their Head, and to each other in 
Faith and Love, by which they are gathered to him 
as his Church or body, having the forgivenefs of 
their fins, and the adoption of Sons, and right to 



the heavenly inheritance •, And living in holy com- 
munion on earth, their fouls at death are received 
to happinefs with Chrift, and their Bodies fhall be 
raifed, and foul and body Glorified at the laft with 
Jefus Chrift and all the blefled, in the perfeft Vifion, 
Love and joyful Praife of the molt Glorious Je- 

§. 32. And as I. All Chriftians agree in this 
Belief, fo alfo 1 1. They all folemnly in and by the 
Baptifmal Covenant, and their holy Euchariftical 
Communion and other duties Profefs the Confent of 
their mils to thefe Relations to God their Creatour, 
Redeemer and San&ifier, and to his Church or body, 
and their thankful Acceptance of the forefaid Gifts: 
And they profefs and exprefs their feeking-defires 
hereof, according to the Contents of the Lords 

£33. III. And as to Practice they all agree in 
profeffing and promifing obedience to Chrift, ac- 
cording to the Law of Nature, the Decalogue and 
all his Written Laws, fb far as they underftand 
them, and their defire to Learn them to that end. 

$.34. All fincere Chriftians agree in the true and 
Hearty Confent to all this \ And thefe are the true 
faved Church of Chrift, called Invifible, becaule their 
Hearts- confent is Invifible. All other Baptized and 
Profeffing Chriftians with them, agree in the Prof ef- 
fort of all this -, And are called The Church-vifible, 
their Profeffwn being vifible. And all this being truly 
included in Baptifm, which is our entrance into the 
Catholick ( or Univerfal ) Church, in this before 
delcribed confifteth our Catholick Communion in 
Chrift s body, as fpiritual or invifible and as vifible. 

£35. II. But 

$.3 5- n. But befides this Univerfal Church-Uni- 
on and Communion, for ORDER and Advan- 
tage to our great end, God hath inftituted the O R- 
D E R of Chriftian AfTemblies or Particular Chur- 
ches *, which are to the Vnivcrfal Church as Cities zxA 
Corporations to a Kingdom : Which are the nobleft 
and molt priv Hedged parts of the Kingdom •, buc 
yet not effential parts, but eminently Integral : For 
it may be a Kingdom without them, and would be iF 
they were all disfranchifed and laid common. And 
if Apoftles and Evangelifts as Itinerant Preachers, 
convert and baptize men, they are part of the 
Church Univerfal before they are gathered into di- 
ftindl focieties under proper Pallors of their own. 
The Eunuch A&. 8. was baptized into no particular 
Church, but into the univerfal only \ and fo were 
many others : And meer Baptifm as fuch without any 
additional contract, doth no more. If thoufands 
were Converted in America, or caft there without 
Paftors, they were parts of the Univerfal Church, 
if baptized Profeffing Chriftians. And before the 
Apoftles ordained any fixed Bifhops or Paftors of 
particular Churches, the Church Univerfal was im 
being though fmall. 

£. 36. But thefe particular Churches being a great 
part of Chrifts Institutions, and neceflary not only 
by Precept, but as a means to the Well being of the 
Univerfal, and the Edification of it and the particu- 
lar members ; It mult be endeavoured,and that with 
good hope of fuccefs, that there may fo much Parti- 
cular Church-Vnion be obtained and maintained as 
(hall much conduce to its great and excellent ends. 
That is, 1. So much as that in them, God the Fa- 
ther, Son and Holy Ghoft may be Publickly, fo- 
lemnly, and conftantly confefled , by found do- 
or ine, 


ftrine, holy worfhip, and holy difcipline and con- 

2. So much as that hearty Chriftian Love may be 
excrcifed and maintained, and Chriftians edified in 
Communion of Saints. 

3. So much as that God fhall accept them, delight 
in them and blefs them, their converting, edifying 
and comforting fouls, hearing their prayers and 
praifes, and owning them by his Miniftry, Cove- 
nants and grace, and differencing them from the 
people that do not thus confefs and worfhip him, 
and promoting hereby their falvation. 

And if this much be attained, it is not to be vilifi- 
ed for want of more, nor blotted with reproachful 
names ; but acknowledged with thankfulnefs and 

§.37- HI. And yet there is a further degree of 
concord to be hoped for and endeavoured, and that 
is the concord of thefe particular Churches with one 
another: That they may all Profefs, 1. The fame 
faith, and ncceflary dottrine •, 2. and the fame Love 
to God and one another ', 3 . and the fame Hope of life 
eternal, 4. and may offer to God the fame neceflary 
and acceptable fort of worfhip, viz.by preaching and 
applying his holy word, recorded in the holy Scri- 
ptures, preferving and reading them, calling upon 
his holy name by Confeffion, prayer, thankigiving 
and praifes, and nolding refpedtrve communion in 
the ufe alfo of the Sacraments of his Covenant •, 
and exercifing in fome meafure fjch holy Govern- 
ment and Difcipline, by Paftors overfeeing their fe- 
veral flocks, as he himfelf by his inftitution hath 
made univerfally neceflary. And all this, though 
not in perfection, nor every where with the la ire 
degree of purity and care, yet fo far, 1 . as that 


[97 3 
Gods word and ordinances be kept up in fi 
in all parts and refpedts ncceflary. to fill vat ion , 
2. and as may tend to the edifying of the Chur 
by Love, and concord in neccilory things and their 
mutual help by counfel, and ftrength by that 
concord, 3. and the avoiding of pernicious' feuds 
and diviiions. 

§. 38. The means by which this is to be done, 
1. by communicatory Letters, 2. by Synods, 3. and 
by Civil Governors, is after in due place to be ex- 

Thus much of Chriflian Vnity and Concord may 
be well hoped for upon juffc endeavours here on 
earth: But neither Perfection in thefe, nor thpfe un- 
weceffkry terms of Concord which fome have tcng ta- 
ken to be neceflary. 

£. 39. And indeed fo muzhas may be hoped for, is 
fo very hardly to be obtained, that if we trufted not 
to Gods extraordinary Grace, more than to any 
natural probability that appeareth to us id man, we 
Ihould be ready to defpair that ever Chriftians 
fhould live long in fo much peace and concord : 
And though the great difficulty fauft not kill out 
hopes, it mull much quicken us to ft renuous endca-. 
vours : Of which more anon. Satan is fo great an 
enemy to it, and every fin in man is fo much agWft 
it ( as every difeafe in the body is againlt its eafe 
and peace ), and the multitude and malignity of 
fins and finners is fo great, and the very healers fo 
few and faulty and unskilful, and dofo much againfi: 
their own defired ends, that inftead of accufing 
the providence of God, we fhould thankfully won- 
der that "there is fo much peace and concord as 
there is, and that all men live not as enemies to 
each others in continual war \ or that the devour- 
ing Pikes leave fo many of the lelfer fi!h alive, and 

H the 

the weak and innocent are not wholly a prey to 
the oppreflbrs. 

C H A P. IX. 

That Chriji him/elf who commanded the Unity 9 
Love and Concord of Christians y did prefer ibe 
the mceffary terms. 

§. i. TF it be once proved, that Chrift himfelf 
JL hath prefcribed the conditions or terms of 
Chriftian Union and Communion, what remaineth 
to Chriftians, but to enquire What are thofe terms ? 
Whereas for want of that neceflary fuppofition, 
while men think it is left to them, no manknoweth 
who fhould do it, and the Pope prefcribeth his terms, 
and others prefcribe their terms* and almoft each 
Sed hath different terms. 

$.2. That Chrift did prefcribe them , I (hall 
prove I. Antecedently, a Can/is, 1 1. Confequently, 
ab Effects-, 1 1 1. By proving the neceflary exclufion 
of any other competent prefcribers. 

f< 3. I. Antecedently it is proved from i. The 
univerfal necefllty of the thing , 2. And from the 
office of Chrift to do things of fuch univerfal necef- 
fity, and his faithfulnefs therein. 

$.4. 1. There are few Chriftians fo ignorant or 
inconfiderate r but will confefs that the Vnim of 
Chriftians is neceflary > not only to the edification 
and well being, but to the very being of the Church. 

( both 

C 99 1 

( both univerfal and particular. ) For what is a 
Church, but many Chrifiians united and affociated for 
Church-ends ? Pull all the Bricks or Timber of the 
houfe afunder , and it is no houfe : Pull all the 
Planks and parts of a Ship afunder , and it is no 
Ship : Pull all the leaves and fentences of a Book 
afunder , and it is no Book : Pull all the parts of a 
mans body afunder, and there remaineth no body 
of a man, confidered formally, but only materially, 
and in their aptitude to re-union at the refurre- 
ftion. An Army disbanded and diffipated , is no 
Army. And certainly it is no Church, that hath not 
Church -unity of parts. 

2. And all that believe in Chrift, believe that he 
came into the world to call and gathef his Church, 
and to fave them s and that he lent his Word, his 
sVlinifters and Spirit to this end. He is the principle 
of life to the Church his body ; who firft by aggre- 
gation uniteth them to himfelf and one another, 
and then is their conftitutive and governing and 
quickning head. It is his undertaken office firft to 
make all his own members, and then to govern, pre- 
ferve, edifie and fave them. And how can Chrift 
make his Church, without uniting the members f Can 
he build his houfe, and never fet the bricks, ftones 
or timber together ? Can you make a Clock or 
Watch, without adapting and uniting the parts? 
And can Chrift gather , build, compaginate and 
unite his Church, and not fo much as tell men ( ei- 
ther Paftors or people ) what are the Conditions and 
terms of union, and the cement or folder that muft 
unite than ? 

§. 5. And all Chriftians confefs Chrifts fufficiency 
For his office , and his perfedt faithfulnefs in per- 
forming it. He wanted neither Power, Wifdom, 
nor Love ( or Will ) to gather his own Church or 

H 2 body; 

C 10 ° 3 

body : He was faithful as Mofes in all Gods houfe. 
And he that fulfilled all the righteoufnefs of the 
Law, and whatever was impofed on him as a hum- 
bled fatitfter of Juftke, furely no lefs fulfilled all that 
belonged to him as the grand Adminiftrator, and 
Benefaftor , and Executor of Gods mercy and his 
awn will, and as Head over all things to his Churchy 
Eph. i. 22, 23. 

§. 6. Nay, as he was the i&jr and Law- giver of 
the Church, who was togi've them all theh Vniver- 
fal Laws (binding all men ) could he be fuppofed to 
have done this faithfully, if he had left out the 
very terms of Church- unity and concord , when 
fuch' unity is effential to theGhurch? Did he fend 
the Apoftles to difciple and baptize all Nations, and 
be in Gods houfe ( the Church ) as Vaul calleth Ti- 
mothy [_Pillars and bafes of truth'} yea, foundations y 
and Mafter builders, that muft gather his Church out 
of all the world, and yet never tell them What 
a Church is ? that is, how the parts muft be 
united ? 

As he is the Teacher of the Church, did he nevfcr 
teach them ib neceflary a thing , as what effential 
Church-unity is ? • Thefe are fuch imputations againfl 
Chrift, as feem to deny him to be Chrift , As he 
would deny God to be God, that would deny his 
providence and government of the world. 

$. 7. ChriftsLaw is to be both the Rule of our 
actions and his judgement. And if he have left out 
fb great a point as the cffentiating terms of Church 
Vriton, what momentous afts of our lives are left to 
be ungoverned and uniudzed by the Laws of 
Chrift? . ' 

§. 8. Above 'ail men thofe are bound to confent 
to what I fay, who hold thafChrifts Laws have not 
left fo much as a ceremony undetermined, and that 


nothing may be added or diminiflied in his wor" 
Ihip. How much lefs then hath he left the eflenti- 
ating terms of Church-unity unprefcribed ? 

§. 9. 1 1. And confequently ah ejfettis we find,that 
Chrifi did it. 

1. He plainly declared what maketh a Chriftian. 
2. He declared how all Chriftians fhouldlive in love 
and concord. 3. And how the coalition of thefe 
Chriftians maketh his Church. 

§. 10. I. It had been ftrange, if he that came into 
the world to make men Chriftians, had never told men 
what a Chriftian is. And if he that fent his Apoftles 
to make Chriftians, had fet them to do they knew 
not what, and never told them what a Chriftian is, 
and confequently what they muft perfwade men to. 
And if he that promifed Juftification, Pardon, A- 
doption and Glory to all true believers ( that is, to 
true Chriftians,) had yet never told them how they 
may know that they are fuch ? And that he that 
commanded fo much Chriftian duty, publick and 
private, and required Chriftians to fuffer fo much 
for his fake, and to look for a reward in Heaven, 
Ihouid yet never tell them what Chriftianity is ? If 
Chrift made Chriftianity, (that is, the Laws and de- 
fcription, objects and principle) then he made a 
Determinate thing: If not, hath he left it to man 
to make Chriftianity ( objectively J? Then how fhall 
we know to whom he gave this power? And how 
many feveral [pedes of Chriftianity (or faith ) may 
be made in the world? 

£. 11. It is evident in Scripture, that Chrift [em 

his Apoftles , and that he taught them what- to 

preach, and particularly that heAfatth. 28. 19, 20* 

T Qo and Difdple me all Nations y baptizing them 

H 5 m 

C 102D 

in the Name of the Father , the Son and the Holy Ghoft ] 
teaching them to obfcrve all things whatever I com- 
manded yoH.~] And it is certain, that a Baptized perfon 
was then accounted a Chrifiian^nd Baptifm was their 
Chriflening -, and that this was the Omrch entrance , 
and vifibk fymbol of a Chriftian and Church-mem- 
ber: And that all Chrilts Church hath fo accounted 
of baptifm to this day : and true Tradition is in no 
one point fo full and conftant as in this. And more- 
over the very nature of the thing it felf declareth 
it. Is not he a Chriftian that believeth according 
to the fenfe of the inftitution, in God the Father, 
Son and Holy Ghoft, and by a folemn Vow and Cove- 
nant devoteth himfelf to him as hps God and Father, his 
Redeemer and Saviour, and his San&ifkr and Comfor- 
ter, and the mtnefs ofChrifi ; and that hereupon hath 
right to justification, adoption, and the heavenly inheri- 
tance : Who is a Chriftian, if this be not ? 

5$. 12. The fenfe of ' the CathofokjCharch is fo no- 
torious in this, that I think there is little difagree- 
ment about it. The Papifts confefs it : The Prote- 
ftants confefs it : See but Voffii Thefes de Baptifmo, 
and Davenant de Bapt. and efpecially Gatakers Ani- 
madverfions on that of Davenant : All confefs, that 
all the antient Churches held, that to the duly quali- 
fied receiver , all fin was pardoned in baptifm, and 
the perfon put into a ftate of life : And therefore 
was a member of the Church. 

£. 1 $. II. And thatChriit commanded all Chri- 
ftians to take each other as brethren, and to live in 
Love j and that all men by this were to know them 
to be his difcipjes, is fo fully revealed in Scripture, 
that it is needlqfs among Chriftiansto prove it. 

III. As 

L 103 3 

III. As alfo that fuch Chriftians united to him 
their Head, are eo nomine his Church \ and living in 
this Love , live as the members of his Church 
muft do. 

f. 14. And here three things are to be noted, 
1. That what was done by the Holy Spirit as given 
extraordinarily to the Apoftles as founders or Ax- 
chitefts. of the Church, to lead them into all truth, 
was truly done by Cfcri/i himielf } the Holy Ghoft 
fa extraordinarily given being his promifed Agent. 

2. That yet this work of Inftituting Baptifm as the 
terms of Chnrch-union y he would not leave to the Spi- 
rit in the Apoftles, but was the immediate author 
of it himfelf. 

3. But yet two things hereabout he left to the 
Apoftles, 1. To explain to the baptized the true 
fenle of the general words in the baptifmal Cove- 
nant : 2. And to inftitute part of the terms of 
Particular Church Order andVnity: who according- 
ly fetled ( or ordained ) Elders, Bifhops or Paftors, 
in every particular Church , which at firft was for 
the moft part in every City ( or great Town ) 
where the Gofpel was received by any competent 
number ; and after they added Deacons and Dea- 
coneffes or Widows ad melius effe only , and they 
taught them. by word and writing to obferveall that 
Chriji commanded. 

$.15. III. And as I have proved, i.That it 
muft be done, 2. And that Chrift did it, fo 3. It is 
part of our proof, that no other did it or could 
do it. 

1. No other had authority to inftitute Church- 

Eflentials, and to give fuch neccffary mivcrfal Laws. 

2. No other came early enough to doit, but as his 

H 4. Minlfters 

L *°4 J 
Miniftcrs after Chrift had done it. 3 . No other had 
v/iiuomand fitnefs enough for in i nor were fit to 
agree to make Church efientials. 4. DefaVto Hifto- 
ry proves they did it nor. 5. To undertake it, is 
to invade Chrifts office. The Apoftles themfelves 
found it done to their hands : Much lefs can any 
ordinary Paftors fince prove any authority from 
God, or any true capacity in themfelves for fuch 
a work. 

$. 16. And if, any pretend to it, they muff be fuch 
as lived before Chrift hafl- any Evangelical Church 
(tbatis, of the fame fpecies as hath been fince the 
inftitution of Chriftian baptifm) or fuch as have 
lived only fince. The former came not in as com- 
petitors : The latter were too late to be the doers 
of that which was done before. Union iseflential 
to the* Church in general: Theneceflary terms of 
Union are eflential to it in fpecie as the Chriftian 
Church : For necejfarmm eft fine cjiw res effe non po- 
left : It's no Chriftian Church, without the neceflary 
terms of Church union. And therefore before thofe 
terms were firft made or inftituted, there was no 
Church of that fpecies : and after there was fuch a 
Church, and confcqnently fuch terms of its Union, 
none could make them, they being made before. 

If any that came after did or {hall hereafter at- 
tempt to make fuch terms, it muft be new ones, 
and not the lame that conftituted the firft Church :• 
and then their Church will be new, and not of the 
fame fpecies as the firft. Indeed God did make 
new Laws of Admim 'ft ration, and fo may a Kingdom^ 
without changing the conftitution : but not new 
<: en ftitutmg terms : Governing Laws which follow the 
Crrij (tit mien, are not to make the Kingdom a King- 
dom, or the Churoir a Church : but to preferve 
Church and its order 3 and promote its wel- 
fare ; 

c io 5 n 

fare: and the Oath of Allegiance maketh a man 
a Subject , without fubferibing to the Governing. 
Laws : But as a Subject he confenteth to live under 
thofeLaws: and if he break them, he is punifliable 
according to them , and for breaking fome of them 
may be cut off: and for fome crimes a man may be 

. But yet excommunication muft be diftinguifhed : 
That which totally cuts a man. off from the Church, 
muft be but a ientence upon proof that he hath 
firft morally cut ofFhimfelf: Letter crimes muft be 
punifhed with the lefler excommunication , which 
is but a fufpenfion , and that which Paul fpeaketh 
of, 2 Theft! 3 . 1 5, Tet take him not for an enemy, hut 
admonijh him as a brother. 

§. 17. By all this it is moft evident, that Cbrift 
himfelf the Inftitutor and maker of his Church, 
hath made the terms of effential Catholic^ Vnion \ 
and that we have nothing to do herein, but to find 
out what are the terms that he hath made, and 
not to enquire what any men fince have made or ad- 
ded, as being not authorized thereto. 

C H A P. 

C 106 3 


No humane terms, not made by Chrift, or his 
Spirit extraordinarily given to the Apoftks % 
are Neceflary to the Being of Particular 
Churches : But divers humane a£ts are ne- 
cejfary to their exiftence, and adminiftration. 

§. i. TRVlvers men fpeak diverfly of this matter: 
jLJ i. Some fay that no form of the Polity 
of particular Churches is of Divine inftitution, but 
that God hath left all the forming of them to the 
will of man. 

2. Others fay, that no form of them is lawful but 
what is of Divine inftitution. 

And of the firft, fome fay that Chrift inftituted 
the Papal form, and fome fay General Councils, the 
fummam Poteftatem to the univerfal -Churchy and left 
it to them to form particular Chnrches. Others lay 
that Magiftrates are to do it : And others that the 
Liocefane Bijhops of every Nation in National or 
Provincial Synods may do it. But all agree that the 
form of particular Churches mult be made, by fome 
that had authority from Chrift to do it 

$.2. Of the fecond fort (who hold no form of a 
particular Church lawful, but what is of Divine in- 
ftitution ) fome hold that only a Diocefan Church 
( that hath many Congregations and Altars} is of Di- 
vine inftitution, and that the Parochial are not Chur- 
ches but Oratories^ or 0apelsy.pt parts of a Church:- 
Others hod that only Parochial Churches (of one 
Altar cr afociatcd for prrfonal Communion in prefence ) 


C 167 ] 

are of Divine inftitution : fome that both Dioce- 
fane and Parochial Churches are of Divine inftitu- 
tion; and fome that thefe and Provincial, National, 
Patriarchal ( and the Papal) are of Divine inftitu- 
tion : Thus do mens judgements vary. 

$.3. A third fort hold that God hath inftituted 
fomeChnrch /om/befides the Univerfal, and left men 
to make others : And here fome think that God in- 
ftituted Patriarchal and left them to make the Bio- 
cefan.znd Parochial: fome hold that God inftituted 
only the Diocefan and left them power to make the 
Patriarchal and the Parochial : lome hold that he 
made only the Parochial (I mean fingle focieties ajfoci- 
ated fox prefect pergonal Communion ) and left them by 
voluntary affociations to make the greater over 

$. 4. Among thefe opinions let us firft try whe- 
ther Chrift hath inftituted any Church form befides 
the univerfal, and 2. what that is. 

u I. And 1. if Chrift hath inftituted a holy Chri- 
u ftian fociety for ordinary holy Communion and 
cC mutual help in Gods publick worthip and holy 
" living, confiding of Paftors authorized and ob- 
Cc liged to Teach, and Guide, and fpeak for the flock 
" in Gods publick worfhip and adminifter his Sa- 
u craments according to Chrifts word, and of a flock 
" obliged to hear them, learn, obey and follow fuch 
ct their condutt to the forefaid ends]/ then Chrift 
u hath inftituted a form of a particular Church, and 
u its policy. But the antecedent is true, as ihallbe 
proved : And the confequent or major is proved, 
a definite . id dcnominatum \ This definition contain 
th s Eilentials of a Church. No man can deny that 
to be a Chriftian Church which hath this defini- 

§, 5. Here 

L iq8 3 

$. 5. Here ft ill it is fuppofed that the Spirit in 
the Apoftles, who were deiigned to be founders and 
mafter-builders, and to gather and order Churches, 
and teach them to obiervc all Chrifts commands, 
was Chrifts prdmifed Agent ( as Tertnllmn calls 
him ) and that Chrift did what the Spirit did 
.by the Apoftles in their proper work, to which he 
was prdmifed them as their Guide \ as it is afore- 

£ 6. And that Chrift and -his Apoftles inftituted 
facred ordinary Aflemblies of Chriftians for holy 
worfhip and Communion, is fo clear in the New 
Teftament that it were vain to prove it. 

$. 7. And 2. as notorious and pad doubt it is 
that the^end of thefe Aflemblies was fuch as is here 
mentioned •, 3. And as plain that fuch Paftors as 
are here described were fet over all thefe Congre- 
gations, and authorized and obliged to the forefaid 
work, that is under Chrift the great Teacher, 
Prieft and Ruler of the Church, to Teach them 
Gods word, to intercede under Chrift for them to 
God, and from Chrift to them in prayer and Sacra- 
ments, &c. and to Guide them by that called the 
Keyes of the Church, difcerning whom to receive by 
Baptifm, whom to reprove, exhort, comfort or ab- 
folve, j4tt. 14.23. Jet. 20. \Tim.i. Tit. 1. and 
many other places fhew this. 

j>. 8. And it is no lefs plain that the people were 
bound to continue in their do&rine, communion 
and prayer, and to obey them in that which they 
were ccmmiflioned to do: Heb.i^. 7, 13,24. & 10. 
25, 26. 1 Thcf. 5. 12, 1 3. 1 Tim. 5. 17. cr 20. and 
many other places •, fo that the form of fuch 
Churches as confift of fuch Congregations and 
their Pallors is paftall denyaland juft doubt. 

. §. 9. And 

C 109 3 

0. 9. And as to all other Church- forms (Clafficaf 7 
Diocefan, Metropolitical, Provincial, National, Pa- 
triarchal and Papal, it isthefe only that fall under 
reafonable doubt and controveriie. And 1. for 
Clajfical Churches, I can fay but this, 1 . That the Ge- 
neral commands of holding Chriftian Love and 
Concord, and doing all to edification require fuch 
Churches as live near together to be helpers to each 
other, and that counfel and correfpondency is ne- 
ceflary hereto, which the Churches have (till lauda- 
bly exercifed by Synods : And if thefe adbciations 
for order-fake be agreed on, as to ftated times and 
numbers and bounds, it is but the circumftantiating 
of a known duty : And if any will call this a diftinlb 
Policy of Church-form, I contend notagainft their li- 
berty of fpeech, while we agree de re : But I judge 
it perillous to give the fame name to fuch an Aflem- 
bly or Aflbciation as to a Church of Chrifh in(titution \ 
left it fednce men to think that the word is not 
equivocally ufed. If the Agents of feveral Kingdoms 
met at a common Dyet, I had rather not call them a 
fuperiour Kingdom, were their meeting never fo ne- 
ceffary. An Affembly that is the Pars Imperam of 
one body Politick, having Legiflative powder, is one 
thing •, and an Ajfembly of Agents or Princes for 
meer concord and ftrength and help of diftind: King- 
doms, Schools, Armies, &c. is another thing. And 
I know no proof that fuch Councils muft be ordina- 
ry, or at ftated Times and places, but fometimes that 
is belt, and fometime not, as the cafe ftandeth, as 
even the Papifts confefs. And when they begin to 
degenerate from a Council for Concord to a Majefty 
or higheft Governing power, it's time to crofs their 
claim and interrupt the occafions of it. 

$. 10. And if men at fuch Ciafies, and Councils 
choofe one to keep order as ^moderator, yea if they 


C no] 

fix him, it is but the circumltantiating of* the Aflem* 
blies work : But if he will claim hereupon a diftintt 
order y office , and proper political Church-relation y 
fo as hence to make himfelf the Regent part of a fpe- 
cies&i a Churchy yea and claim this as of God and 
unalterable, I cannot juftifie fuch a Church-form. 

$.ii. This holds as to the Prefidents of all ranks of 
Synodsj Claffical, Diocefan, Metropolitical, Provin- 
cial, National or Patriarchal. To ufe them as Pre- 
fidents of Councils for Concord is one thing * 7 and 
to ufe them as the Pars Imperans, or the conftitutive 
heads of a diftinft Church-)/?* cies is another. Arch- 
Biihop vflier told me himfelf his judgement, that 
Councils were but for Counfel and Concord, and 
not for the Government of each other or any of 
the members *, and that they had no proper Govern- 
ing power either over their Minor part, or over any 
abfent Bifhops : Though each Bifliop was (till the 
Governour of his own flock, and their power over 
their flocks was exercifed with the greater advan- 
tage by their Concord in Councils. Dyets and 
Councils of diftind independent Bifhops are notdi- 
ftinft forms of policy or Churches. 

$. 12. And if this hold true, that the Councils 
themselves are not thereby Rettors of a -diftindt poli- 
tical fociety, but for Concord of many, then it will 
follow that a Prefident of fuch a Council, whether 
Diocefan, Provincial, National or more General, is 
not as fuch a Reftor of the Bifhops under him and 
their people, but only the Orderer or Guide of the 
Modes and Circumftances of the Council as fuch. 
And therefore could the Pope prove a right to pre- 
fide in General Councils ( orbis £omani> vel orbis ter- 
rarim) which he cannot, it were no proof that he 
is Regent Head of the Church univerfal. The fame 
1 may fay of the other Prefidents. 

fii* If 

C in 1 

$. 13. If it hold that God inftituted only Con- 
gregational ox Parochial Churches (as for prcfent Com- 
munion) then it muft needs follow that none of the 
reft inftituted by man, have power to deprive luch 
fingle Churches of any of the Priviledges granted 
them by Chrift : And therefore whereas Chrift hath 
made the terms of Catholick Communion himfelf, 
"and hath commanded all fuch to worfhip him pub- 
lickly in holy Communion under faithful Pallors 
chofen or at lealt confented to by themfelves (which 
many hundred years was the judgement of the 
Churches), no humane order or power can deprive 
them of any of this benefit, nordifoblige them from 
any of this duty, by juft authority. 

§. 14. Nay feeing that the univerfal Church is 
certainly the higheft fpecies, none hath authority 
on pretence of narrower Communion in lower 
Churches, to change Chrifts terms of Catholic!^ Com- 
munion, nor to deprive Chriftians of the right of 
being loved and received by each other, or difob- 
lige them from the duty of loving and receiving 
each other. Humane power made by their own 
contracts, cannot change Chrifts Laws, nor the 
Priviledges or forms of Chrifts own Churches. 

$. 15. They that fay that thefe feveral Church 
jpecies are of God, muft prove that God inftituted 
them;and that can be only by Scripture: ox elfe that he 
gavefome power to inftitute them fin ce Scripture 
times : which till they prove, none are bound to 
obey them, at leaft when they over rule Chrifts own 

£. 16. To devife new fpecies of Churches with- 
out Gods authority and impofe them on the world 
( yea in his name ) and call all diffenters fchifma- 
ticks, is a far worfe Ufurpation than to make and 
impofe new Ceremonies or Liturgies, 

h 17- 

t 112 3 

$. 17.. Dr. Hammond (Differt,cont. Blond. & An- 
not. in Aft. 1 1 . & faff. ) affirmeth that it cannot be 
proved that the order of fubjett Presbyters was 
exiftent in Scripture times -, and confequently hold- 
eththat Biihops had but fingle Congregations fas 
Jgnatipu fpeaketh with One Altar). Now if Dio- 
cefans, Metropolitans, Provincials, Patriarchs, or 
Pope as conftitutive of Church-fpecies were made 
after j either th.efe new Churches were made by the 
Biflwps of Parochial Churches, or by thofe that were 
No Bijhops or Pallors of any Churches at all ( For 
the Apoitles were dead, and no inftitution of thefe 
but Scriptural can be truly proved. And other 
Churches befides the Cttholkk^ and Parochial, or 
fingle, fdiftinft from a compound of Churches ) 
there were then none. ) For the lower to make the 
higher Churches, is that which they will not grant, 
who grant not that Presbyters may propagate 
their own fpecies , and deny that power afcendeth 
abinferioribiis. And that men of 770 Church, mad? 
all thefe new Chmchfpecies is no honour to them. 

$. 18. Two contrary opinions herein now reign : 
One of the Papifts that think Chrift inftituted the 
Pope with power to make inferiour Church fpecies. 
The other is, that Chriftor his Apoftles inftituted 
Diocefans, giving them power both as rulers to 
make Parijh Churches (or Chapels) under them, 
and by Co7:traB or Confent to make the highefi fpecies 
over them, (Provincial, National, Patriarchal, 
and fay fome Papal.) But as to the Papifts 
i'o much is faid agamft their fuppofition that it's 
not hereto be confuted : And it's certain that .fin- 
gle Church order was conftituted by no Pope, and 
that all the Apoftles had power thereto. And 
as for the latter, which affirmeth the lower de~ 
grees wO make the higher, we ftiil want the proofs 



C us 

of their authority foto do : of which more ai 

$.19. As for them that lay that it is MkgU 
firates that have power to make new Jpecies of 
Churches, I grant them that whatever alterations 
of Church-Orders may be made, Magiftrates may 
do much in them. The Power of Princes, and 
the Guidance of Paftors, and the Consent of the 
people have each herein their fpecial place - Bun 
what thefe alterations or additions are which 
they may make, is the chief queftion : Both the Ca- 
thoUcl^ Church , and Jingle Church ajfemblies being 
inftituted by Chrift are not left: to them. The 
ciramftantiating of other Afiemblies and Afibcia- 
tions are left "to them, to be done according to 
Gods general Law : But that making new Po- 
litical Societies that are properly called Chur- 
ches, or Religious bodies conlifting of the Pars 
regens, & pars fubdita, is left to them by Chrift:, 
I 'never faw proved, any more than the making 
of new Sacraments. But if that could be proved, 
yet that thefe humane Churches or their makers 
may change thofe that are of Divine institution vz 
deprive them of their priviiedges, or forbid them 
commanded duty., cannot be proved. 

§.20, And it is certain, ). That if Princes or 
Bifhops or the people did inftitute Diocefan, or 
Metropolitan, Provincial or Patriarchal Churches, 
they may yet make more and other fpecies : And 
who knoweth how many new forms of Churches 
we mayyetexpedt ? 2. And they that made them,' 
upon good realonmay unmake them, or alter %hcnt 
when they pleafe. 

§. 2T. But though the Legislator and not the Sub* 
jefis be the inftitutor of the Vniverfal and particH.Ur 
Church-policies, yet men are the confiitutiv? mattery 

I and 

and mans confent and faith is the difpofuio materia 
without which the form\s not received : and mans 
welfare is part of the finalcaife^ and Miniiters are 
the ivftrumerns (and Gods word written and 
preached ) for the gathering of Churches by fuch 
qualification of the perfons, and alio of revealing 
thelnftkution of Chrift, and inverting of particular 
perfons in their Church-relations. 

5$. 22. By all this it appeareth that as it be- 
longeth to Chrift to inftitute the political fpecies 
of Churches (though circumltantiating may be left 
to man), at lead: undoubtedly of the Vniverfal 
and of the [ingle fpecies, fo it belongeth to Chrift: 
and not to man to inftituteand defcribe r/wV terms 
of Union : For this is the very inftitution of the 
Jpecies : And we are not to receive humane Church- 
policies without good proof of mens authority to 
make them, and irnpofe them. 


The danger of the two extreams : And fir (I of 
defpairtng of any Concord, and of unfufi To- 

$. & QOme men having feen the Chriftian world 
O folong in Sefts and contending parties, do 
think that there is no hops oiVnity and Concord, and 
therefore that all fhould be left at liberty : And others 
think that there is no hope but on terms fo wide as 
lhall take fuch a§ Chrift receivethnoty nor would have 
us receive. And on fuch accounts there were very 
early great contentions about the qualifications of 



C "5 3 

the baptizers and baptized, and the validity of bap- 
tifm, and about re-baptizing. 

As to the Baptizers, fome thought that only 
Priefts fhould baptize ( none appropriated it to Bi- 
fliops): fome thought Lay-men might baptize in 
cafe of neceflity, and fome thought that women alio 
might do it : And fome thought that though women 
or Lay men might not do it lawfully, yet fattum va- 
let, being done, fuch fhould net be re-baptized. 
And fome thought that thofe that were baptized 
even by Priefts that were Schifmatkk?* (or as they 
called them Heretic 1 ^ when they feparatcd from 
common Concord and Commnnion) mult be re- 
baptized And they thought that if they were 
baptized in fuch aSchifmatical ( or Heretical ) fo- 
ciety, by whomfoever, it was not into the true 
Church. In this cafe Cyprian and the African Bi- 
fhops with Firmilian and his Collegues, were in the 
wrong, when the Bifhop of Rome was in the right. 
And the Donatifis thought they were but of Cyprians 
mind : For it feems they had there the greater num- 
ber of Bilhops 5 And the greater number went for 
the Church, and the lefs for hereticks : andfo they 
called themfelves the Church ( though out of Africa 
the number againft them, or that meddled not in the 
quarrel was far greater. J And all this arofebut by. : 
theconteftsof two men for the Bifhoprick of Car- 
thage, fome following one and fome the other. 

£. 2. This errour of Cyprian and the Donatifts, 
arofe 1 . from their not fufficiently diftinguifhing the 
Church universal, from the Ajfociated Churches of their 
ICountrey •, nor w 7 ell confidering that Baptifm as 
Ifuch is but our entrance into the universal Church, 
and not into this or that particular Church. 2. By 
;an abufive or equivocal irfe of the name £ HeretickJi 
their doftrine being true of Hereticks ftridlly fo 

1 2 called. 

IT n6 3 

called, who deny in baptizing any eflential part of 
Christianity., but falie of Hereticks laxly fo called, 
that are only Schifmaticks, or deny only or corrupt 
fome lower "dodtrines, precepts or practices of Re- 

£. 3. Therefore the Council of Nice truly de- 
cided the cafe by diftinttion, decreeing the re-bap- 
tizihg of fome (fas fuch as the Paultnifis baptized) 
and not of others. That is, All that had not true 
Chriltianbaptifm confuting of all the true eflentials, 
were to be re-baptized, and not others, whatever 
particular Church they were of. 

§.4* Hereupon alfo among the Roman Doftors, 
it hath been a great debate, whether the Priefis In- 
tention was necefiary to the validity of baptifm : 
The true anfwer to which is this. 

It is one queftion what is necefiary to the juftifying 
of the Priefc, before the Church ? and another before 
God? and another queftion what is neceffary to the 
validity of baptifm to the receiver before the Church ? 
and another before God ? And fo I anfwer- 

Suppofing that no man (hall fuffer for anothers 
fault, but for his own : 1. If the Pneft profefs an In* 
tention to baptize in general, and exprefs it in the 
true words of baptifm, his aft ex parte fui isvalidc*?- 
ramecclefia though he diftemble. 

2. If the Prieit diflemble, his act is a crime and 
(hall bepuniflied by God. 

3 . If he profefs not to intend to baptize the perfon, 
or to intend it in general, but to corrupt it in the 
EiTentials, it is as a Minijiration invalid coram Eccle- 
fta and fhould be done again. 

4. If the adult perfon baptized profefs baptifmal 
Confent diffemblin%ly^ it is valid baptifm coram ecclefia, 
as to what the Church mult do upon it, but invalid 
as to what God is to do as the performer of the Co- 
venant. 5. If 

C 117 1 
5. Iftheperfon baptized do not fo much as /)>-<?- 
fefs c onfenty or profefs not to content, nor to intend 
to be then baptized, it is no baptifm before God or 
the Church. 

6. If he profefs to be baptized in general, but 
deny any Effcntral in particular, it is not the 
Chriftian baptifm, but muft be better done. 

$. f.' When any came in fo great errour as that 
the Church fcarce knew whether it was an Elfential 
part of faith and baptifm that was denyed, it made 
the Controverfc hard about their re-baptizing. Ma- 
ny thought that the fkcftinitm and Ariam denying 
Chrifts Godhead as of the fame fubftance with the 
father, denyed an eflcntial article, and were to be 
re-baptized if they fo entred at firft : Our Socimans 
are much worfe, that deny Chrifts Godhead in a ful- 
ler fence. And howdcth he believe inChrift that 
believeth him not to be God, which is molt emi- 
nently eflential to him ? 

$. 6. They that are over-bold in altering Chrifts 
terms of Church Union and Communion, making 
them lefsor more or other,if they knew what they do, 
would find themfelves more concerned in thefe con- 
troversies of baptizing and re- baptizing, and confe- 
quently greater corrupters, than they have thought. 

Jj. 7. To think that Church Vnion is impojfikle is to 
deny that there is any Church, and confequently any 
Chrift. To think that neceilary Concord in Com- 
rmnion is impoflible, is fo great a difparagement to 
the Church, as tempteth men by vilifying it to doubt 
of Chriftianity : For if Christians cannot live in 
Unity of faith and love and converfe, what is t 
Chriftianity? And fuch defpair of Concord 
make men fufpend all endeavours to attain it : For 
Defpair ufeth no means. 

I j j. 8. And 

t "83 

£. 8. And to take into the Church of Ghrift fuch 
as want the EfTentials, and Chrift would not have re- 
ceived, is to corrupt his Church, and bring in Con- 
fufion, and fuch as will difhonour him, and will be 
more hurtful in the Church than they would be with- 
out : like rebels in a Kingdom, or mutineers in an ' 
Army, or enemies in a Family: The nearer the 

$.9. It is for this ufe efpecially that Chrift hath 
committed the Church Keyes to. the Paftors : And 
the Key of entrance is the Chief. Therefore he that 
pdgcthwhoutobe Baptized^ exercifeth the chief aft 
of the Church Keyes: And he that Baptized was held 
to have the Power of judging whom to baptize : 
which was never denyed to the Presbyters* till after 
for order fome reftrained them. 

$.10. It is aftrange contrariety of fome Paftors 
to themfelves, who judge that all Infants of Hea- 
thens, Jews, Turks or wicked men are without ex- 
ception to be taken into the Church, if any igno- 
rant Chriftian will but offer them, and fay over a 
few words \ and the Adult alfo if they can but fay 
over the Creed by rote, and a few words more *, 
and thus fill the Church with Enemies of Chrift - 7 
and yet when they are in, deny them Communion 
unlefs they will ftriftly come up to many humane 
unnetejfary impfttions •, as if far ftrider obedience to 
men ( perhaps in ufurpations ) were neceflary, than 
to Jefus Chrift. 

(.xi. How far Infidels, Catechumens, or Hereti- 
cal or Schifmatical AfTemblies may be tolerated in the 
world about us by JMagiftrates, is not here to be en- 
quired, but hereafter : But that the Churches them- 
felve§ Ihould not corrupt their own Communion by 
taking and keeping in uncapable perfons, the na- 
ture of the Church and difcipline, and its ends, and 


E iif> 1 
the reproof of the Churches, Rev. 2. cr 5. and the 
judgement of the Univerfal Church do tell us. 


The fin and danger of making too much nccejfary 
to Church Union and Communion. 

$. 1. A Ddition to Chrifts terms are very peril- 

JLx. loirs as well as diminution : When men 

will deny either Church entrance or Commnmon to any 

that Chrifi: would have received, becaufe they come 
not up to certain terms which they or fuch as they 
devife. And though they think that Chrifi: giveth 
them Power to do thus, or that reafon or neceffity 
juftifieth them, their errour will not make them 
guiltlefs : Imputing their errour to Chrift untruly, i$ 
no fmall aggravation of the fin. 

0. 2. Nor is it a fmall fault toufurp a power pro- 
per to Cfflfc : to make themfelves Law givers to his 
Church without any authority given them by him: 
Their Miniftry is another work. 

§. 3. And it is dangerous Pride to think them- 
felves Great enough, Wife enough, and Good 
enough, to come after Chrifi and to amend his work, 
and do it better than he hath done. 

§.,4. Much lefs, when they hereby imply anaccu- 
fation againft him and his inftitutions, as if he had 
nor done it well, but they mult amend it, or all will 
tie intolerable. 

5$. 5. And indeed Mans work will be like man, 
weak and faulty and full of flaws, when Gods 
work will be like God, the eflfeft of Alfufficience, 
power, wifdom and Love. 

I \ §.6. And 

L no] 

5J. 6. And the merciful Lord and Saviour of the 
Church, that came to take off heavy burdens and in- 
tolerable yokes, will not take it well to have men 
come after him and as by his authority, to make his 
eafie yoke more ftrait, and his light burden heavy, 
and to call or keep out thofe that he hath Redeem- 
ed and doth receive, and to deal cruelly with thofe 
that he hath fo dearly bought, and tenderly loveth. 

$. 7. And indeed it is ofter for mens owp inte- 
reft, and dominion, to keep up their power and ho- 
nour of fuperiority, that men thus ule the fervants 
of Chrift, than truly to keep clear the Church, and 
to keep out the polluters. • 

£. 8. But when it is done by too much ftrittnefs and 
as for Church-purity, yet this alio hath its aggrava- 
tions : For men fo far to forget themfelves, that 
they are fervants and not Lords, finners that have 
need themfelves of mercy, unfit to be too forward 
to call the firftftone, to feem more wife and holy 
than Chrift, is but fpecious offending him. 

$.9. And as fpiritual priviiedges excel temporal, 
fo is it an aggravated Tyranny, to deprive Chrifts 
.fervants of benefits fo precious, and fo dearly 
bought. As it was not with Silver and Gold that 
we were Redeemed, fo neither for the enjoying of 
Silver and Gold. Communion with Chrift, his bo- 
dy and blood and his Saints in his Ordinances, is a 
bleffing fo great, that he that robs fuch of it that 
have right to it, mayanlwer itdearlier than if he 
had rob'd them of their purfes: Owhat then hath 
the Roman ilfurper done that hath oft interdicted 
whole Kingdoms of Chriftians, theufe of holy pti- 
. viledges and duties ! 

§. ic. Little do many men, that cry up faith 

, ?nd Orthodoxnefs and Catholictfm and obedience, 

andcry do;ynHcrefie r Scuifni, Errouj: and Difobe- 


dience, believe how much guilt lyeth on their fouls, 
and without Repentance how terrible it will prove, 
to be charged with the cruelties which they have 
ufed to good Chriftians, in reproaching them and 
calling them out of the Church, and destroying 
them as Hereticks and Schifmaticks, that fliould 
have been loved and honoured as Saints. But 
fome men cannot fee by the light of the fire, till 
they come fo near it as to be burned. 

$.iu Thefe felfmade or over-doing terms of 
Church-Union and Concord, will prove the cer- 
taineft Engines of Schifm :, And none are fo hei- 
nous Schifmaticks, as they that make unneceflary 
terms of Union, and then call all Schifmaticks that 
confent not to them. For i. thefe are the Leaders 
of the diforder, when other fort of Schifmaticks 
ufually are but followers : 2. Thefe do it by Law, 
which is of molt extenfive mifchief, even to all 
that are fubjedt to them, when others do it but by 
local praftice, extending but to thofe that are 
about them, or the particular aflemblies which 
they gather. 3. Thefe make the Schifm unavoi- 
dable, when private Seducers may be refilled : 
For it is not in the power of good men to bring 
their judgements to the fentiments of every or 
any diftator, or yet to go contrary to their judge- 
ments. Illicit um fiat pro impojfibili. 4. Thefe ag- 
gravate the crime by pretending power from God, 
and fathering Schifm on fo good a thing as Go- 
vernment, and caufing it as for Unity it felf. 
5. They condemn themfelves by crying down 
Schifm, while they unavoidably caufe it. 

§. 12. And this over-doing and making unne- 
ceflary termes, unavoidably involveth them in 
the guilt of perfecution ', and when they have be- 
gun it, they know not where to Hop, Suppofe 


L hi 3 
'they decree that none fhall preach the Gofpel, or 
aflemble for holy Communion in publick Wor- 
fhip, but thofe that fubfcribe orfwearor promife 
- orprofefsor do, fomevvhat accounted finful by the 
perfons commanded, and not neceflary indeed, how- 
ever eiteemed by the impofer ( who yet perhaps 
calls it but Indifferent). . It is certain that no ho- 
neft Chriftian will do that which he judgeth to be 
fin: It is certain that other mens confident talk will 
not make all men of their minds, to take all for law- 
ful which they take for fuch : what then will the Im- 
pofers do ? They wjll make ftridt Laws to punilh 
ieverely all that diibbey : For lay they, Our com- 
mands mult not be contemned, nor difobedience to- 
lerated : fo do the Papifts as to the Trent Oath, &c . 
fo did Charks the fifth, a while about the Interim ; 
and To many others. Thefe Lawsthen muft be exe- 
cuted f The Pallors muft be caft out •, the preachers 
filencecj •, They ftill believe as Daniel did about pray* 
ing, and "the Apoftles about preaching, that God 
commandeth what men forbid, and it is a damnable 
fin to forfake their calling and duty, no lefs than fa- ■ 
criledge, and cruelty to fouls, and deferring the 
Church and worfhip and caufeof Chrift:, and the 
people will ftill believe that rio mans prohibition can 
excufethem if they forfake Gods publick worfhip 
and comply with fin. The Prelates will fay that all 
this is but errour, wilftlnefs, and rebellion, and they 
can prove the contrary. Their words will not 
change the judgement of diflenters." The Paftors 
and preachers then muft be fined, imprifonedor ba- 
il iihed for preaching, and the people fo; publick 
vvorfhippingGod: when they are fined they will go 
on: when they are out of prifon they will return to 
their work: nothing is left then to remedy it, but 
etcher perpetual imprifonnientjbanifhmcnt or death. 
• ' When 


. When this is done, more will ftilirife of the fame 
mind and continue the work that others weredifa- 
bled to perform : And the Prelates that caufe this 
will be taken by the fuflering people for thorns and 
thirties, and grievous Wolves that devour the 
flocks, and the military Minifters of the Devil : The 
indifferent common people knowing their Neigh- 
bours to be confcionable men of upright lives, will 
become of the fame minds, and look on the persecu- 
tors as the enemies of good men and of publick 
peace, that do all this by pride and domination. 
The ungodly rabble of drunkards, prophane fvvear- 
ers, adulterers, and fuch like, for the molt part ha- 
ting Godlinefs and ftrid living, will cry up the Pre- 
lates, and triumph over the fufferers : And thus the 
Land will be divided ; the Prelates and other pro- 
fecutors with the dirty malignant rabble of the li- 
centious will make one party, and thefe will call 
themfelves Orthodox and the Churchy The fuffer- 
ers and all that pity them and like them better than 
the Perfecutors will be the other party. The con- 
junction of the debauched and malignant rabble 
with the Prelates and their party will increafe fober 
mens difaffe&ion to them, and make men take them 
for the patrons of impiety : And how fad a condi- 
tion muft fuch Churches he in! To fay nothing of 
the ftate concuffions and difeafes that ufually follow. 
Whatever ignorant men may dream, thefe prog- 
nofticks are moft certain, as any man that can difcera 
effedts in moral caufes, may fee, and as hiftory and 
fad experience prove to all men of reading, obfer- 
vation and underftanding. 

§.13. AndinPaltors of the Church, this will be a 
double crime and fhame •, becaufe 1. It is their of- 
fice to gather and edifie Chfifts flock, and not to (cat- 
ter and afflict them : 2. Becaufe they fhould moft 

. xate 

t "4 2 

imitate Chrift in tender bowels, gentlenefs and long- 
futFering, bearing the Lambs in their armes, and not 
breaking the bruifed reed, nor quenching the fmoak- 
ing flax : Nurfes or Mothers ufe not to kill their 
Children for crying, nor to turn them out of doors 
becaufe they are unclean, nor to cut their throats to 
make them fwallow bigger morfels, inftead of cut- 
ting their meat : Much lefs to caft them off for obey- 
ing their father. 3. Becaufe it is fuppofed that 
they beft know the will of Qirifly and fhould be bell 
acquainted with the wayes of peace. And there- 
fore fhould undcrftand Rom. 14.^ 15, Him that is 
voeakjnthe faith Receive *, but not to doubtful difpntati- 
ens. The Kingdom of God is not meats and drinks, but 
righteoufnefs, peace and jey in the Holy Ghofi : And he 
that in ihefe things ferveth Chrifl, is acceptable to God, 
and approved of men, that is, of wife aad good men, 
but not of proud perfecutors, Rom. 14. 17, 18. 
Wherefore receive ye one another a* Chrifl alfo received 
to the Glory of God. Rom. if. 7, If the people were 
jSchifmatical and inclined to fall in pieces, the Guides 
and builders (hould foder and cement them, and as 
pillars and bafes in the Church which is the houfe of the 
living God ( as Timothy is called ) fhould bear them 
ijp that they fall not by divifion. 

$. 14. In a word, whoever will impartially read 
Church Hiftory, efpecially of the Councils and 
Popes, fhatl find that the felf-conceited Ufurpation 
of proud Prelates, impofing unneceflary devices of 
their own ( profeffions or practices ) on the Chur- 
ches, and this with proud and fierce impatience to- 
ward diflenters, and ufurping a Legiflation which 
Chrifl never gave them, hath been the great caufe 
of much of the hatred, fchifms/perfecutions, wars, 
rebellions againft Emperoursand Kings, falfe excom- 
munications, interdicts, and the difgrace of Chrifti- 


C 125 3 

ftianity, weakning of the Church, and hindering the 
Converfion of Jews and Infidels, and been a chief 
Granado, Thunderbolt or Wild-fire, by which Sa- 
tan much profpered in (terming of the Church. 


To cry out of the intolerable mifchiefs of Tolera- 
tion y and call for /harper execution^ while di- 
viding fnares are made the terms ofVmon, is 
the rvork of ignorant y prpud and malignant 

$. 1. HpO tolerate all evil that pretendeth Reli- 
A gion, is to be no friend to Religion, Go- 
vernment or peace. To tolerate no error in Reli- 
gion, is for no Prince to tolerate himfelf, his wife, 
his child, or any onefubjed : And to pretend to 
this, is to crave felf-deftrudtion ( mqm enim lex 
jnftior ulia eft> &c. ) and to proclaim himfelf igno- 
rant,yea grofly ignorant, what is a Church, a Pallor, 
a Government, a Chriftian, or a Man. 

§. 2. Multitudes of Books are Written for and 
againft Toleration : They that ]i ^treioweft ufually 
write for it (EvenJrr.TayloP&^lliberty of Provhc- 
eying before he was aBifhop, was thought a com- 
mendable or tolerable Book ). But molt are againft 
it that are in power, and think they can force others 
to their wills. But it is wife and juftand impartial 
men, that are here the difcerners of the truth, whole 
judgements are not biafled by intereft or paflion, nor 
blinded by unacquaintednefs with their adversaries 


L 126 ] 

or their caufe, or perverted byufing only one ear 1 
and one eye.He knoweth not mankind, who knoweth 
not how greatly ( not only the common gang, but ) 
even learned men, yea, and zealous religious men, 
are to be fufpefted in their evil characters and re- 
ports of thofe that they are fpeaking againft as ad- 
versaries. It grieveth me to know and think, how 
little molt adverfaries in this cafe are to be be- 

§.3. To defcribe the due bounds of Toleration is 
far from being impoffible, or very difficult to an 
understanding and impartial man : But to ftop the 
mouth or rage of Contradifters , and to reconcile 
the multitude of ignorant, proud , tyrannical, un- 
charitable^ interested, factious, partial men tofuch 
certain meafures, is next impoffible, and never yen 
even among the Clergy was attained, fince the Spirit 
of infallibility , fimplicity and Love departed, and 
the Spirit of darknefs, pride and malignity in molt 
places got the upper hand. 

§. 4. Many and many Books of this nature I have 
lately read, that cry down liberty and Toleration, 
and call for greater feverities, and defcribe thofe 
whole ruine or fufFerings they plead for, as ignorant- 
ly and falfly, as if they talkt of men at the Anti- 
podes, whom they had never feen, and as if they 
had never heard their Caufe-, and as cruelly, as if 
they had been preaching to Souldiers, and confuting 
jahnBaptift, or preaching a Vifitation Sermon to 
Bonner or Gardiner •; And yet the falfhoods or inju- 
ries fet off, with fo great confidence, and well com- 
pofed words, and zeal againft Ichifm, and error, 
and efpecially for the Church and Government, that 
it grieveth my foul to think, how difficult fuch men 
do make it, to ftrangers that mult know all on 
trult from others, and men of other bufinefs, that, 


cannot have while tofearch into the truth, to efi 
deceit and the confequent mifchiefs : Zeal for piety 
is not more abufed by Se&aries, than zeal for them- 
selves, and their power and wealth, called Zeal for 
the Church and truth and order, is abufed by bad 
domineering men. Or clfe the world had not been 
embroiled by the Clergy thefe twelve hundred years 
at leaft, nox Rome arrived at its pernicious Great- 
netej and power to deftroy. 

0. 5. And let mens different Religions or Opinions 
be never fo many and notable, yet every where the 
fame plea againtt Toleration is ufed , and the fame 
Arguments feem good for every party that is in 
power. In Jafan and China, and Heathen Lands, 
they can copioufly declaim againfl the mifchiefs of 
tolerating Chriftianity: The Papifts think torment- 
ing Inquilitions, and burning Chriflians, and mur- 
dering thoufands and hundreds of thoufands better 
than to tolerate Froteftants. The Lutherans cry 
down the toleration of Calvinifts : What need I 
name more ? As the Papifts fay , that every Seft 
pleadeth the Scripture, fo we may fay, that every 
powerful party, be their caufe never lb falfe , cry out 
againfl tolerating others^ though in the truth. 

$. 6. And doubtlefs Concord even in perfection is 
fo defirable, that it's eafie for a man to let forth the 
beauty and excellency of it : And difcord is fo bad, * 
that it's eafic to declaim againfl it : But for him 
that Caufctb it, to do it, is felf-condemnation. And 
for him that falfly defcribeth the caufe, and jnflifieth 
the Schifmatick, and accufeth the innocent, tow 7 rite 
Books and preach Sermons againfl Schifm and To- 
leration, is but delufion tending to their own fhame, 
and others deceit and mine. 

(. 7. And he never was a good Mufician, Builder, 
Watch-maker, nor good at any Art or Science, that 


t 1233 

thought all diverfity was difcord : He that would with 
zeal and learning write a Book to prove that a 
Lute or Organs muft not be tolerated, if each firing 
and key be not of the fame found-, or that all the 
parts in a Clock, Watch, Building, &c. muft be of 
the lame fhape and magnitude, or all men of one 
language or complexion, &c. would fcarce get fo 
much credit as molt ofourHereticaters do, when 
they call for fire and faggot and Jaylors, as more 
meet and able confuters of eiror than them- 

$.8. The men on whom they cry for vengeance, 
cither are really religious , or not : If not, it's a mar- 
velthat they are not of the accufers mind, being 
fuppofed to follow the upper fide : It's poflible that 
fome advantage may turn a man that hath no reli- 
gion, out of the Kings high-way, into fome Secta- 
rian cottage, efpecially in fome ftorms : But it's very 
rarely that Gain goeth not for Godlinefs, and the 
way of reputation , eafe and profit, for religion, 
with fuch as indeed have none at all. But if they 
are ferioufly religious, they take it as from the Law 
of the Almighty, the King of King* and Lord of 
Lords •, to whom all men are lefs than the vilelt 
worms to us : and they take it to be that which they 
lay their falvation and everlalting hopes on •, be- 
lieving that God will bear them out, and if they dye 
for it, will reward them with the crown of Glory ; 
They believe that they (hall be damned in Hell for 
ever, if they break Gods Law, and obey man againft: 
him:And in this cafe it fhould not be hard to reafona- 
ble men, efpecially Bifhops and Teachers, to know 
what means and meafures are mceteft to be ufed 
with fuch men ; and when he that muftfufFer, hath 
flelh that is as unwilling to fuffer as other mens, it 
fhould be coniidered how far Satan ufeth the flelh for 


hisintereft, and how far the Pallors of the Church 
fliould take part with it -, when as St. Pad faith, 
He thai doubteth is damned if he eat^ becaufe he eateth 
not of faith. 

$. 9. There is no heed to be taken by mens crying 
out againft error or fchifm, to difcern who is the 
erroneous or Schifmatick. None more cry out 
againft them than the guilty : Who condemneth er- 
ror and fchifm more than the Papifts, and who are 
greater caufes and authors of them than the Pope ? 
As our common prophane rabble are fo great hy- 
pocrites, that they live quite contrary to their 
Baptifmal Vow, and the Religion which they nomi- 
nally profefs,and yet commonly cry out againft hypo- 
rifie,and call all men hypocrites that feem to be feri- 
ous ifi living as they vowed and profefs - 9 even fo the 
*reateft Schifmaticks and Hereticks, partly in blind- 
nefs , and partly to avert both men and conference 
"rom accufing themfelvesj, do ufually firft cry down 
5chifmaticks and Hereticks, and perhaps pi each and 
write molt vehemently againft them. I take a man 
:o be never the more Orthodox, Catholick, or of 
:he true Church, for crying up the true Church, Ca- 
cholicifm and Orthodoxnefs, and crying down the 
:ontrary, and accufing others. 

§. 10. I have long obferved with the belt judge- 
ment I have, that ufually thofe Divines that write 
noft for Peace and Reconciliation of hot conten- 
ders, are men of clearer judgement than others, and 
jfually fee further into the caufe, than either of the 
[ierce contending parties : Though the Turks in po- 
licy give fome liberty to Chriftians, as a necelfary 
Iprefervation of their Empire •, and the Socinians have 
touch pleaded for peace and concord, partly byne- 
'ceffity for themfelves, and partly from common 
tight of reafon •, yet among real Reformed Chrifti- 

K ans# 

L no 3 

ifis, the grcateft judgement is found in the greateft 
Pacificators : iiich as Le Blanks,-, J&myrald y Fhacetts y 
Caviero, Lud. Crocms^ Bergius> Marnnms y CalixtHSy 
JDalUttfy Blondel, Vfierj Davenant , Hall, Morton y 
Chillmgworth, and fuch others : Darknefs doth belt 
fit thelSpirit of contention. 
: §• n. There is nothing in humane a&ions that is 
free from inconveniences \ efpecially adtions of pub- 
lick confequence. And the collecting and aggrava- 
ting of fuch inconveniences., and making tragical 
exclamations thereupon ,' without looking to the 
mifchiefs that men imagine mull: be the remedy, or 
feeing the evils on the other fide, is the common 
practice of thefe Church-Mountebanks. Howeafi.e 
is it to fay Q If we be not all of one Religion, it 
will cherifh contention , bring Minifters into con- 
tempt, fcandalize the weak , harden the enemies, 
raifefa&ions, (hake the peace of Kingdoms] and 
more fuch like : How eafie is it to fay C If men be 
tolerated to break the Laws, and gather Conven- 
ticles, fouls will be poyfoned, error propagated, 
Chriftianity difgraced, &c. ] When in the mean 
time i. Their courfe tendeth not at all to mak§ 
men of one Religion : 2. Nay, they plead for that 
which is the great divider : where do fire and 
hanifhmcrit or prifons caufe true faith , or make, 
men think that their perfecutors are in the right }\ 
Is there any thing in the nature of the thing lb to 
perfwade men ? nay what more inclineth men toj 
think that other mens opinions are falfe, than to 
feel that their practice lis hurtful ? All will fay, Do 
men gather graces of thorns , or figs of thiftles ? By 
"their fruit they may be known. If it be forcing fome 
-to diflemble, and deftroying the reft, that they 
mean, by fmakuig men of »one religion] thus faith 
Tmnlltan did the Heathen perfecutors : Solkndinen 


C 13x3 

factum & pacem voctrtt. But i. This will not do,:. 
France, Ireland, Bclgia, and Queen Mary in England 
tryed it in vain : God will ftill have fomc that (hall 
be (erioufly religious, and fliall fear him more than 
man, and not fell their fouls to fave their bodies: 
If you have no hope of making men to be of one 
\ Religion, but by making them to be of no Religion 
(as all are that fear not God more than man) 
your hopes are vain as well as wicked. There is 
fo full teftimony given to the world, that there is 
a God and a life to come , that ftill fome men will 
believe it , and will think whither they muft go 
next, and therefore will not forfake their religion 
through fear, feeing that is to forfake their God, 
and their falvation. 

2. And if you could accomplilh it , it were 
not worth your labour: If all the Princes on earth 
fhould force their fubjeds to be of One Religion > 
it would be their own : And then five parts of fix 
w r ould be Heathens and Mahometans , and of the 
ifixth part a third or fourth would be Papifts, and 
labove two parts of the other three would have 
[foul corruptions, for which they would beftarply 
cenfured by the reft. Is it not better that in Congo, 
China, &c. Chriftianity is tolerated, than that they; 
had all continued of their One Religion ? And fo 13 
it that the Turks do tolerate the Greeks and other 
Chriftians. And I think if Spain had both Papifts 
and Proteftants , it were better than to have but 
Papifts only i And if the Swedes, Danes and Saxons 
did tolerate the more Reformed, it would do more- 
good than harm. If Prelacy were banifhed out of 
Scotland and England, many would think it better 
to tolerate it. 

j §. I*. It is certain, that Unity and Concord 's 
ffioft defirable j and as certain that thefe over- doers 

K 2 do 

C 1323 

do deftroy it , while they lay it upon impoflible 
terms. 1. The moffc defirable Concord is in common 
perfection of wifdom and tolinefs : But it's certain it 
will not be j nor are any perfect 

2. The next defirable Concord is in fuch high 
degrees of Wifdom and Goodnefs, as that all Chf i- 
ftians befirong and excellent r and err not notably in 
a word, cereTnony or mode : But it is certain, this 
is not tobeexpe&ed. 

3 . The next degree defirable is, that all fhould 
be fo far teachable and perfwadeable , as to yield to 
every truth and lawful impofition , when reafon 
is fet before them : But it is certain ihis is not 
to be expected : And he that denyeth it, knoweth 
not man* 

£. 13. A Pe&ce-maker therefore muft underftand 
1. What Concorde already among all Chriftians, and 
what is of neceffity to Communion with the Church 
univerfal: 2* And what more is neceflary to Com- 
munion in a particular Church. 3. And what more 
is neceflary to the Aflbciation and Concord of fuch 
particular Churches : 4. And what is necefiary only 
to eminency, praife and fpecial encouragement : 5. And 
what is neceflary to meer humane neighbourhood 
and converfe. 

And accordingly he fhould ftudy, i . How all men 
may be ufed like men, and all peaceable men as 
peaceable : 2. How all Chriftians may be ufed as 
Chriftians: 3. How all the members of particular 
Churches may hold fuch Concord as the ends of j 
their fociety require : 4. How all fuch Churches 
may keep fuch Love and Correfpondency as tendeth 
to the good of all. 5. And how eminent Chriftians 
may be ufed according to their worth : 6. And how 
herefie and fin may be fupprefled without contra- 
dicting any of thefe epds. 

$5. 14. 

$.. 14. If once Xmnccejfary terms of Unity and Con- 
cord^be taken for ntcejjary, even multitudes of ho- 
neftwell meaning men, will hence bend nil their 
ftrength to do mifchief : They will think that all. 
Peace-makers mull promote theft terms : and all 
muft be ufed as Schiimaticks that are againit them : 
and fo all. the fore-mentioned accufations , cruelties 
and perlecutions will ( alas ) go for the work even 
of Peace-makers : And fo the common engine of 
Church-divifion and perfecution and difcord, will 
be preaching and writing againit Schifm, and crying 
up peace , and aggravating diflent as a heinous 
crime, even when it is a duty, and making ail odious 
as far as they can that are not of their mind, 

K ? The 


C 135 3 

^ c3? <^ vS <3d <iT en cfo CO <l£ d& ciT ci& <5fc *j& cT: ci£ o& tCb & 


The Second Part. 

T7>£ Terms of Qoncord. 


In general, What are the true and only terms of 
Church-Union and Concord, and what not ? 


$• I - f | ^HE true works of a Peace-maker 
confifteth, i. In finding out the 
true and neceflary terms of Con- 
cord, and difcerning the evil and 
inefficiency of the falfe terms : 2. In finding out 
the meet and neceflary Inftruments and helps : 3. In 
diicovering the Hinderances and Enemies : and 4. In 
faithful profecuting his known duty. And thefirft 
is not the leaft. 

§. 2. Having proved what Chrift himfelf hath al- 
ready done in inftituting the terms of Unity and 
Concord, I fhall here further fhew, 1. In General 
what thefe Terms are and mud be, and what not. 

II. What Texts of Scripture defcribe them. 

I I I. Particularly and diftinftly what they are. 

I V. I (ball anfvver foine of tke objections that are 

W 4 made. 

C ^6 3 
made againft them. And V. The falfe Terms (hall 
.be dete&ed and confuted in the third Part. 

$. 3. I. In General, the terms of Catholick Unity 
and Concord, neceflary to all Chriftians mult be tfnd 
are , I. Only things Great and needful, 1 1. Only 
things True and Sure •, III. Only things plain and 
intelligible : I V. Only things of Gods inftitution 
or authority, V. And but Few and not very many 
as to matter of Knowledge and belief. 

§.4. If they were not fuch, mans known inca- 
pacity would make them unfit to be any means of 
fjhe intended end : And this is fully proved by all 
the foregoing proofs of unavoidable diverfity that 
will be found in men : And I will here add yet 
more profs that Concord is To very difficult as that 
it will not be had on any ftrifter terms : and when 
all is done it will be very imperfect in this life. 

§. 5. The great difficulty of Concord doth fur- 
ther thus appear. 

1. It cannot be expected but that the greateft 
part of men will be of low capacity, and partial, and 
ignorant 1 and therefore uncapable of underftanding 
higher terms than thefe. 

2. Thp Greater number, or too many will be 
bady though their profeft Religion be Good: And 
bad men will be ftillfelf-troublers, and troublers of 
others : There is no Peace faith my God to the 
wicked : They are like the troubled Sea that calteth 
up mire and dirt, '■ Ifa. 46. Piety and true Concord 
niuft grow together. There will be in Chrifts 
Kingdom things that offend and men that work ini- 
quity : There will be Pallors and people that are 
Worldly, Covetous, Lovers of themfelves, Lovers 
of pkafures more than of God, proud, boalters, 
haters of thofe that are good^ itriving who lhall 

\ - * be 

C ^37 J 
be greateft : And thcfe will be unfit materials in the 
building, as to fulftmity, peace and concordt 

3. Yea there will be Satans Souldiers and bitter 
enemies to true piety in the Miniftry and all ranks of - 

' men : In the fame houfhold as he that was born af- 
ter the flefhdid perfecutc him that was born after 
the Spirit, even lo, faith St. Paul, is it now •, and fo 
it will be. The firft born man was a murderer of 
his own brother, becaufe his works were evil and 
his brothers good. 

4. And Chrift faith that the Rich (liall hardly en- 
ter into heaven , And yet we fee the Rich will be the 
Rulers: It hath been fo and will be fo, and muft be 
ib. And if they are as ufually bad as Chrift and his 
Apoftles tell us, then bad men wiM rule : And operari 
feqaitur ejfe : As men are, they will do: Great men 
will have worldly felfifh interefts clean contrary to 
the intereft of Chrift and his dodtrine : And how 
great influence Rulers have as to concord or divili- 
on is eafily known. 

5. And hitherto the Paftors of the Churches have 
been, alas, fuchas Gregory Naz,ianz*en, Ifidore Pelufi* 
ota and many others have defcribed (to fay nothing 
oiGildas or Salvia??, or the fad Characters that raoft 
parties give of one another, and the accufations thr t 
Affiitters bring againftthofe whom they afflift, and 
which the fufferers give of them.) If Paul then 
muft fay, All feek^ their own, and not the things that 
are Jefa Chrift s, no wonder if it be fo now ; and 
that even General Councils havj fadly anathema- 
tized one another* and thoufands of Bifliops or Pa- 
llors have been curfed from Chrift by the reft. 
And how much power proud turbulent ignorant 
and worldly Paftors have to hinder the Churches 
Concord, hath been found by too long and fad ex- 

6, And 

C 138 3 

/ 6. And mans nature is fcnfad and Jlothfnl 7 md it 
/ will" colt fo dear, by long and hard ftudytobe wife 
indeed, and by mortification and felf-denyal to be 
truly goody that few are likely to attain it. 

7. And education, company, friends, and falfe 
writers anjl teachers, will ftill cherifh fa&ion and 
difcordiil the world. 

8. And diftance and difacquaintance will leavq 
open mens ears to back-biters, (tenderers and falfe 
reports. Men will think it uncharitable not to be- ■ 
lieve fuch, e.g. as Learned Hiftorians, Doftors and 
their Pallors are. 

9. And the wars and crofs- inter efts of Princes 
and States have hitherto by jealoufies fomented di- 
vifions in the Church. 

1 o. And the falfe wayes and termes of Concord 
will be kept up in oppofition to the true, and will 
not be the leaft impediment. 

11. And Laftly, Even the Wife and Good that 
muft be the Peace-makers, are fuch but in part, and 
have in them too much of the folly, errour and fin. 
.of others, which will hinder their work, yea and 
make them alfo troublers of themfelves and others. 

§. 6.' Thefe being not doubtful conjeftures but 
certain Prognofticks, the remedy muft be fuited to 
£he Patients capacity. 

. And I. Neceflary Eflentials all Chriftians are and 
mult be agreed in : But unneceflary things fuch as 
I have defcribed ^are never like to be commonly 
\mited in, nor is it necedary that they fhould : It 
ficmed good to the Holy Ghofi arid to the ^pofiles to 
impofe nothing on the Church, but Neceffary things^ 
jiff. 15. It was the deceivers and falfe Teachers 
which vvOLiklhave done otherwife : Agninft whom 
f>L PmL doth copiouily and Zcaloufly difpnte, in 


t 139 1 

his Epiftles to the Roman s^ Corinth ians 7 Galatians v 
Coloffiansy &c. To pretend that as necefTary which 
is not fo, or to command that as necefTary and 
caufelefly to make it neceflary which is not fo in ic 
felf, and which we may cafily know* will never be fo 
judged of, nor received by all, is but to rack and 
tear the Church, and do niifchief for an unneceffary 

. $.7. II. As it is certain that nothing but Truth 
can be fit matter for the Churches Concord, fo in 
muft be certain Truth : that is, not only fuch as 
whoever believeth is not deceived, but fuch as may 
be difcerned by ascertaining Evidence by all^bber 
willing Chriftians-, Not only fuch as the Learned 
may be fure of, but all that muft take it as certain 
in their profeffion:, For no man muft; make afalfe 
profeffion, and fay he is certain when he is not. 
Not that all that maybe called certain^ muft needs 
exclude all doubting \ but that the Afient be pre- 
valent againft fuch doubting : Nor do I mean that 
it muft be certain by natural evidence # , It is enough 
if it be fo by Divine Revelation : And if any be fo 
weak that they perceive not fome necejfary revealed 
truth to be certainly fo revealed, they muft be put 
on no more than to fay, £ 1 do> though not with cer- 
tainty, believe it, ~\ And no probability ffluft be im- 
pofed on mens, profeffion, when there is notable 
danger on the contrary fide, if they fhould miftake. 

$.8. IIL Therefore the terms of Union muft be 
only things plain and intelligible to all fober ml- 
Ung minds : For all perfons of dull wits and di- 
verting bufinefs cannot attain fuch certainty or 
fi m belief of things which they cannct under- 
it nd :• Belief without underloading is but a- 


r C HO ] 

dead notion or name, or. rather a contradi- 

£ 9. As for the Popifh doftrine of Implicit e faith, 
it is no true belief of any thing but that General ve- 
rity in which they lay the particulars are implicitely 
• contained. We mult all believe implicitely in God, 
that is, That whatever God revealeth is true : But he 
thatbelieveth no more but this, is falfly faid to be- 
lieve other things •, For he may believe this, who ne- 
ver underftood that God revealed any thing in par- 
ticular : He that never heard of Chrifi or the refitr- 
retticn may believe that all Gods revelations are true : 
But to call this, an Implicite belief of Chrifi and the 
Refurrettionj is but to equivocate, and call that be- 
lieving a thing, which is no believing of it: If they 
hold that to believe that the Church (that is, the Pope 
and his Councils ) is infallible in acquainting us with 
matter of faith 2 is all that is neceifarytoialvation, 
though they know not what the particulars are, let 
them fay fo plainly, and not call this a believing of 
other things, or a believing in Jefm Chrifi, or. his 

§. 10. IV. And it is only things of Divine Autho- 
rity that can be the neceflary terms of univerial 
Unity or Concord, fuppofing the neceflary media 
of bringing them to mens notice : Had we lived 
in the time and place where Chriftandhis Apoftles 
did preach and work their Miracles, it had been 
• one thing to determine what were then preached 
as the neceflary articles of faith, and another 
thing, how we come to hear, know and under- 
ftand them : It muft have been by our ears, eyes 
and intellects, that we knew and perceived what 
was laid and done. And fo now ltanding at the 
difknce of many ages, certain" hiftory or tradi- 

c hi : 

tion muft bring that to our notice, which our eyes 
and ears would then have brought to it : But ftill 
the Law and terms of Vnion are no lefs Divine, 
whatever means do help us to underftand them ; 
And as for them that will make humane terms 
leem necefl'ary to Catholic^ Vnion or Commmion y 
that they deceive themfelves and others and fhall 
never attain the end, but tear the Church by fuch 
ill engines, is eafily thus proved. 

$.11. The Catholick Church never did or will 
agree what humane power it is to whom this work 
belongeth : whether it be a Pope or Council, or 
fome univerfal Monarch, or a Council of Princes 
by agreement \ Never fuch a thing was, or will be. 
Popes and Councils were but in one Empire, the 
chief Ecclefiaitical Governours under the Empe- 
rours Civil Government*, and not over the world - 7 
nor was there ever fuch a thing as a General Coun- 
cil of all the Chriftian world, but only General as 
to one Empire : Nor did any of thefe Councils 
take on them to make Conftitutive terms of the 
Univerfal Church or its Union •, but only to pre- 
ferve, declare and expound them, and to make 
fubordinate governing Canons. And if they had 
undertaken more, no wife man can imagine that all 
Chriftians will therefore confefi the right of fuch a 
claim, and fo fubmit to it. The proof of their 
authority will be fo obfeure, that as fuch as I can- 
not fee it, fo there will be fo many no wifer than 
I am, as that the exclufion of all Chriitians that are 
but of our fize will never ftand with Catholick 
Unity. And if it were poffible ro fatisfie all the 
prcfent age, 1. that fome have fuch authority from 
God, 2.andwho-they are, 3. and how far it extend- 
ed"), yet ftill fjch will fucceed them in whom the un- 
certainty and difient will be revived. What need- 


L 142 2 

cth there more proof than mans incapacity and the ex- 
perience of fo many Generations? All Chriftians agree 
mChriftianity : All Chriftians never agreed on any hu- 
mane terms of Unity ', Pope, Council, or Monarch, 
One Empire hath pretended to agree in Councils,but 
have been fofar from it, as that they have been the 
occafion of their greateft difagreements •, witnefs 
even the Great ones, Con(t..\. JEphef. \.&z. Cake- 
don, which fome blefled and fome curfed for many 
generations after •, and that at Constantinople that 
made the decree de tribm capitnlis divided even the 
Roman Church fo far as that for one hundred yearsr 
a gfeat part of it renounced the Roman Bifhop, and 
fet up another Patriarch agr.inft him. And AbaflU 
and other extra-imperial Churches were never under 
the Roman or Imperial Government. 

£. 1 2. V. And that the terms of Catholick unity 
mull not be very many things is evident from the 
forefaid Incapacity of the molt to comprehend ma- 
ny things •, and alfofrom the confeifionof almoft 
all forts of Chriftians : Even the Papifts who have 
advanced the Chriftian Religion to the monftrous 
magnitude of their vaft and numerous Decrees of 
Councils are forced yet to make them almoft all 
unneceflary under the name of Impticite belief, and do 
narrow the neceilary articles 
Of this I have written at f the Chriftian faith almoft 
large in my hft Confuw- t0 an a nnihilation,whiIe they 

tionof Johnfon, Which is - , . 7 • , ^ ' 

the true church-, or for a g r ^ not whether it be ne- 
our Churches perpetual ceflary explicitely to believe 
vifibility. the life, death, refurredtion, 

mediation, judgement, yea 
6r being of Chrift himfelf, or any more than that 
there is a God and an Infallible Church : Of which 
fee Francifc. de fantta Clara his Dew, Natttra 7 Gratia y 

at large: And 

C 143 D 

And thofc of our fclves that cjcft Minifters and 
Chriftians for diflcnting from feme of their owa 
impofitions, arc yet contented to admit fuch as fub- 
mit to themfclves, upon very low terms of Chriiti- 
an knowledge, to the Sacraments and Communion 
of the Church. And indeed heknoweth not man, 
who knoweth not, that univerfal unity and concord 
will never be had upon the terms of Many, dark, 
uncertain, humane, or unneceflary things, but only 
on the terms of things Few y fare, plain, divine and 


Some infiances of Gods defer if Hon of thefe terms 
in the words of the Sacred Scriptures. 

$. i. T Have before proved, that Chrifl: inftituted 
JL the terms of Catholick Unity in Scripture, 
and have cited fome texts on the by. It will not 
be amifs for conviction to fet divers texts together, 
which will fullier open the terms themfelves. 

§. 2. The words of the inftitution of Baptifm 
before mentioned are the moft convincing, Matth. 
28. 19, 20. l G% ye and difciple all Nations, baptising 
them in the Name of the Father , and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghofi, teaching them to obferve all things 
whatfoever I have commanded you> and lo 7 I am vcith 
yon alway even to the end of the world. 3 

Here Chrifl; himfelf fendeth his mefiengexs, and 
prefcribeth them their^work, and maketh the term's 
ofBaptifm the Entering and Conftitutive terms of 
his Church which they were to gather: But the Ad- 
miniftring or Governing terms are larger , even 


'I C 144 1 

teaching them all things which Chrift hath commanded 
them. And this was a Law not only for that age 7 
but to the End of the world. 

$. 3. It is the fame in fenfe which reduceth all the 
terms to [Believing in Jefus Chrifi'} as including 
Belief in the Father and the Holy Ghofi, John 1. 12. 
As many as received him, to them gave he power to be- 
come the fons of God, even to them that believe on his 

John 3. 14, 15, 16, 18, 36. Whofoever believeth in 
him jhall not ferijh, but have everla(ting life; He that 
believeth on him is not condemned — r-He that believeth 
on the Son, hath everlafting life. 

John 17.3. This is life eternal, that they might know 
thee the only true God, and Jefus Chrifi whom thou hafi 

John 14. 1. Te believe in God, believe alfo in me. 

John 15. I, 2, 3. Now are ye clean through the word 
that I have fpokento yon, abide in me and I in yon, &c. 
See John 6. 

Mark 16. 16. Preach the Gofpel to every creature l 
He that believeth and is baptised, foall befaved, and he 
that believeth not, (hall be damned. 

It will be needlefs to repeat all words to the fame 
purpofe, Matth. 18. 6. He that offendeth one of thefe 
little ones that believe in me, it were better a mill-flone 
were hanged about his neck^, &c. And yet mult Bifhops 
curfe fuch from Chrift, and excommunicate them ? 
Mar, 1.15. 70^6.29,69. ^7.39. #4. 35*38.. 
& 11. 27, 42. & 12. 36. & 13. 9. & 16. 3° v 3 J- 
d- 17. 20, 21. (pi6.$i. &z.i\,2i. &y. 53* 
e-16.27. (£-7.3.1. ^8.30. & 10. 42. & w. 
26,27. d-5.24. & 6. 35,4^47- (£-7.38. & 
12.46. Atts 10. 42. & %. 14. (£-8.37. G*i3-3 9. 
& 16. ll. & 19.7. & 18.8. & 17.4, 34. & 14. 1. 
& 13- 12*48. And all thefe believers (no doubt 


C 145 J 

of no hard numerous hum*e articles ) lived in Love 
and Communion, Atts 2. 44. 0^4. 32. fo Rom. 3. 22. 
The Righteoufnefs of God by faith in Jefus Chrifi is unto 
all and upon all them that do believe , for there is no 
difference. & 4. 11, 24. Abraham is the Father of all 
them that believe^ and right eoufnefs fliall be imputed to 
them all: Rom. 10.9, 10. If thou confefs with thy 
mouth the Lord Jcfus y andfhalt believe in thy heart that 
God raifed him from the dead, thou ftaltbejaved: For 
with the heart man believeth nnto righteoufnefs) andwith 
the mouth confeffwn is made unto falvation , Gal. 3. 22. 
&2. 16. Heb. 1 1. 6, &c. & 10. 39. &4- 3. 1 John 
3,23. & 5. 1,5, 10, 13. 

£. 4. Other texts that add Repentance to Faith, 
ipeak but the fame lenfe, adding the exprefs menti- 
on of the terminus a qno 9 as well as of that ad quern: 
as Mar. 6. 12. Z,^ 13.3, 5. ^^2.38. 0^3- I y. 
^8.22. (^17.30.(^26.20. Mattb. 9.13. Luke 
24. 47. Atts 5. 31. & \1. 18. & 20. 21. & 26.20. 
2 77w. 2. 15. 2JPrt. 3.9. Luke 10. 13. d" 15.7,10. 
2 Cor. 7. 10, 1 1. 

§>. 5 . Chrift himfelf the Law giver and Judge doth 
oft in his explications lay his acceptance of men on 
Z few great) plain, fare neceflary things: He lummeth 
up the whole Law into the two great Commands, 
the frft and the fecond like Pinto it) even the Love of 
God and Man : and when he tells one that had lived 
foberly and jufily , that yet he lacked one thing) 
Luke 18. it is but this plain great neceflary duty, to 
prefer his heavenly reward, and hopes, and Chrifb 
to bring him to it, before his wealth and prosperity 
on earth : This was not a great Volume of hard opi- 
nions, but one plain and neceflary duty, not hard to 
know, but hard to an unbelieving worldly heart to 
be willing to do. So in his great Sermon on the 
. Mount, Matth. %. it is not many dark opinions or 

L finall 

c i 4 6 : 

Itnall ceremonious pra&ices that he pronounceth 
blejfednefs on, but the pure in heart, the poor in fpirit, 
the- merciful) the peacemakers, and fuch as fnffer for 
righteoufnefs fake : And in ail his moft excellent Ser- 
mons and Prayers, John 5. & 6. & 10. & 1 3. ^14. 
cKi 5. or- 16. d- 17. what have you but our common 
Catechifm truths ? Which of the controverfies of 
contenders, or what nice opinions are there decided 
or propounded ? 

Nay, hehimfelf oft diftinguifhing tells men, that 
God will have mercy and not facrifce, and reproveth 
the Pharifees that were ftrict in tything mint, annife 
and cummw, and neglefted the great matters of the 
Law, Mercy, truth andjuftice, and that troubled the 
" Church with their ceremonies, zndworflripved God in 
vain with their traditions 5 teaching for doctrines the 
commandments of men, Matth. 15. 

Yea, when he defcribcththe Judgement to come, 
it is not many hard opinions that he layeth life and 
death on, but on loving, relieving , vifning his mem- 
hers, yea, the lca(l of his members, yea, himfelf in 
them : And he condemneth thofe that do it not even 
to the leajl : What then fhall they furFer, that inter- 
dict and anathematize Kings and Kingdoms, and he- 
reticate great part of the Church of Chrift v yea, 
the Pope and his Councils of military Bifhops than 
Jiave rifen to their greatnefs , and conquered the 
Chriftian Nations by this art of Anathematizing or 
curfing Kings and Subjects from Chrift. 

$. 6. We find Chrift preaching alfo to divers (ingle 
pcrfons , as to Nathanael, to the Samaritan woman, 
John^.. to the blind man, John 9. to the Can aavitifh 
woman and others ; and he never went beyond theie 
few, plain, divine and neceffary terms. 

§. 7. And he fent out his difciples to preach but 
the fame doUrim that he had <!one^ even to/ 

and , 

C 147 1 

and believe the Gofpel : and Devils were fnbject to them 
that preached this fliort plain truth -, who I fear 
are the Mafters of many that {pin a finer web. And 
John Baptift went but the fame way : And among 
the counfels which he gave to the many ibrts that 
flocked to him, fee whether any of our Engines of 
heretication and divifion and filencing are to be 
found. All the four Gofpels are flrangers to fuch 

$. 8. And the very Controverfal Epiftles of 
St. Paul that were written to confute Seducers , 
were written by the fame fpirit, and go the fame 
way. The fumm of all is, Repentance towards God y 
and faith towards our Lord Jefus Chrift : The do&rine 
of faith in Chrifi, and the abrogation of the burden*, 
fome Ceremonious Jewijl) Law , and that the Gentiles 
were not bound to keep it, is the fumm of his do&rine. 
He fummeth up all the Law in LOVE, Rom. 13. 
and in living foberly, righteoufly and godly in the 
world, following the fpirit, and mortifying the lulls 
of the flefh, living a holy and heavenly life in love 
and unity and peace. And whereas pride and igno- 
rance then began the dividing way, and condem- 
ning Chriftians for tolerable differences, he oft and 
plainly reproveth and confuteth this : But moftfuUy 
andpurpofely to the Romans, Chap. 14. & 15. Him 
that is weakjn the faith receive ye, bin not to doubtful 
difputations for not to judge his doubtful thoughts) 
inltancing in differences about meats and dayes *, Let 
not him that eateth, defpife him that eateth not ', and let 
not him which eateth not, judge him that eateth ', for 
' God hath received him : Who art thou that judgefi ano- 
ther mans fervant ? to his own mafter he ftandeth or fal- 
leth : Tea, he frail be holden up, for God is able to make 
him ft- and. Let every man be fully per fwaded ( or af 
fured) in his own mind: He that regardeth a day, re* 

L 2 gardtth 

C 148 3 

gardcth it to the Lord, &C. But why doftthou judge thy 
brother? or why dofi thou ftt at naught thy brother ? 
For we foall all ftand before the judgement-feat of ^ 
Chrift. Let us net therefore judge one another any 
more f hut judge thvs rather that no man put a /tum- 
bling blocl^ in his brothers way - // thy bro- 
ther be grieved with thy meat? now walkeft thou not 
charitably : Deftroy not him with thy meat for whom 

Chrift dyed. For the Kingdom of God is not meat 

and drinks? but ri^hteoufnefs and peace and joy in the 
FJoly Ghoft. For he that in thefe things ferveth Chrift? 
is acceptable to'God and approved of men. Let m there* 
fore follow after the things that mal^e for peace? and 
things wherewith one may edifie another. For meat de- 
ftroy not the worhjf God. All things indeed are pure y 
but it is evil for that man that eateth with offence* It 
is good neither to eat fie ft)? or drinks wine? nor any thirg 
whereby thy brother ftumbleth or is offended or made 
Weakj- — -And he that doubt eth is damned if he eat? be- 
caufe he eateth not of faith : For whatfoever is not of 
faith is fin. Ch. 15. We then that are ftrong ought to 
bear the infirmities of the weak^? and not to pleafe onr 
felves : Let every one of m pleafe his neighbour for his 
good to edification. For even Chrift pleafe d not himfclf? 
&c; Now the God of patience and- confolation grant yen 
to be like-minded one towards another according to Chrift 
Jcfus : That ye may with one mind and one mouth glori- 
fie God even the Father of our Lordjefa Chrift : there- 
fore receive ye one another at Chrift alfo received m to 
the glory of God. 

$.9. I know not what can be fpoken more plain 
and home to thecafein hand, and the humane un- 
neceflary impofitions which have fo many ages torn 
the Churches of Chrift : And yet all this is nothing 
to the Impofers. The different expofition of this 
one part of Scripture hath had a great hand in the 



L 149 1 

calamitous diftractions, filencings, imprifonmcnts, 
fcatterings that have been exercifed in many Nati- 
ons of the world. The controverfie lycth here : 
The One fide fay, that All this wot fpoken by St. Paul 
only of fnch things indifferent as the Church had net fetled 
by any. Law, and would not fo fettle \ but that it's no- 
thing to fuch as the Chi:', ch cither hath or will fo com- 
mand: This opinion hath carried it in England and 
other Nations of the world. Being once commifli- 
oned to plead this caufe by his Mnjcfty among 
others, I then prefumed to fay, i . That St. Paul here 
writeth not only to the laity, but to all the Roman 
Church ? That therefore he writeth (as Chrift, 
Rev. 2. & •$. to the Angel? of the kx^n Churches, ) 
to the Rulers of the Church as well as to the People. 
2. And therefore he forbiddeth thole Rulers what 
heforbiddeth others:, and fo forbiddeth them the 
impofing of any thing contrary to this his full de- 
termination. 3. Yea himfelf was an Apoftle ard 
a Church-Govemour of as great authority as thofe 
that he wrote to *, And thefehis words fignified his 
own judgement and what he would do himfelf. 
Yea they were as good a Law, as any the Remans 
could make that he wrote to. Therefore when an 
Apoftle by the Spirit of God, fhall write thus plain- 
ly and peremptorily to Priefts and people thus to 
tolerate and receive each other, he that now ex- 
poundethit with an [except the Church otherwlfe de- 
cree'] maketh this the fence [I do by all the fe great 
re af oris charge and perfwade yen not to ji'dj^e^ defpife op 
rejeft one another unUfs you decree to do it :> or not to 
make fucb rejccting'Lav~s, unUfs yon make them 7\ And 
the Holy Ghoft ipeaketh hot in the holy Scriptures 
at this rate. 

$. 10. Yea I prove from the arguments uftd by 
St. Paul that he extended his fpeech to the Clergy 

L 3 ©I 

L 15° 1 

or Rulers as well as to the people, and fo forbad 
them making fuch Laws : fAnd indeed the knack of 
making Church- Laws, ( without the Holy Ghoft in' 
Apoftolick perfons) was not as then4earnt and 
u(ed "by the Churches ): i. Becaufe St. Pad argu- 
eth from Univerfal reafons : 2. and from Moral and 
necelfary arguments, and 3. Speakethby the Spirit 
and Apoftolical Authority. 

$.11. I. His reafons touch not onlyfonie lingu- 
lar perfons and cafe, but the cafe of all Churches 
in all Ages : He argueth from the difference between 
well-meaning Chriftians as Weal^ and Strong, as 
doubting and as affured, as nriftaken and as in the right , 
as in danger of being damned if they att doubtingly, 
and of (tumbling and being offended, &c. Now fuch 
weak, mijftaken Chriftians in fuch matters ever have 
been, and ever will be, and fo the reafon from their 
cafe and neceffity will hold in all Countreys and 
Ages to the end. 

§. 12. II. And many great and prefling Moral 
reafons that all Chriftians are bound by are 
here heaped up. 1. One is from Chriftian Love 
to brethren. 2. Another from humane Com- 
paflicn to the weak. 3. Another is froip Gods 
own example, who receiveth fuch, whom therefore 
wemuft not rejeft. 4. Another is from Gods pre- 
rogative to judge ^ 5. and another from his pro- 
priety in his own fervants. 6. Another is from 
our having no fuch judging po^er in fuch cafes. 
7. Another is from Gods Love and mercy that will 
uphold fuch. 8. Another is becaufe what: men do 
as to pleafe God, mult not be condemned without 
riefceffityr.but a holy intention cherifned, fo it be 
in forbidden things. 9, Another is that men 


c 151 3 

muft not go againfl: Confciencc in indiilcrent 
things. 10. Another is from Chrifts dreadful 
judgement which is near, and which we our U 
mult undergo, and muft be that final decider of 
many things which here will not be fully decided. 
11. Another is from the fin of laying {tumbling-- 
blocks and occafions of offence. 12. Another js 
from the danger of crofllng the ends of the death 
of Chrilt, deftroying fouls for whom he dyed. 
13. Another is that it will make our good to be M 
fpoken of. 14. Another is that the Kingdom ofGod y 
or the Conftitution of Chriftianity and the Church 
lyeth in no fuch matters, but in righteoufnefs and peace 
and joy in the Holy Ghoft. 15. And another than 
Chrifiis p leafed in this without the other, and God 
acceptetb fuch. 16. Another is that fuch are appro- 
ved of men, that is, This righteoufnefs, peace and 
holy joy without agreement in fuch Ceremonies and 
by-matters, beareth its own teftiinony for appro- 
bation to the judgement of all impartial men \ hu- 
manity and Chriftianity teach us to love and ho- 
nour fuch. 17. Another is from our common ob- 
ligation to live in peace with all. 18. Another is 
from our obligation to do all to the edifying of one 
another. 19. Another is becaufe Gods nwr^elfe is 
deftroyed bym. 20. And our own lawful afts are 
turned into fin when they hurt another. 21. Ano- 
ther from the obligation that lyeth on us to deny 
our own liberty mmeat^v&ie, &c. to avoid the hurt- 
ing of another that is weak. 22. Another is from 
the damnation o( fuch as are driven or drawn to acl 
doubtingly. 23. Another is from the fpecial d 
and mercy of the frrongthat fhould bear the infitv 
mitics of the weak. 24. Another is from the com 
mon duty of f leafing others for their good and edify* 
inf. 25. Another is from the example of Chrifi 
L 4 him- 

jmiifdf that pfea/^ w* himfclf. 26. Another is 
from Gods patience to us. 27. Another is from 
our great obligation to imitate Chrift. 28. Ano- 
ther, becaofe indeed this is the true way to Love 
and Mnity, that wirfe one mind and one mouth we may 
glortfie Gcd, while we lay not our concord en impof 
iible terms. 29. Another is in the concluding pre- 
cept, becaufe Chrift receiveth tu and it is to Gods 
Glory : therefore wc muftthus receive each other. 
If all thefe moral arguments fignifie no more than 
this [Receive and tolerate fuch till you make Laws 
again ir 'it'] I cannot underftand the argumentations 
of God or lioly men. 

£ 13. III. And to conclude, Pad fpake by the 
Holy Ghoft and by Divine authority himfelf, and 
his words recorded are part of Chrifts Law in- 
dited by the Spirit:, and no man that cometh after 
him or to whom he wrote, had power to contradidt 
or obliterate it. AH this methinks fhould fatisfie 
men of the meaning of fo full adecifionof an eafie 
cafe about things indifferent, which it's ftrange that 
fo many yet for nothing do oppofe : And that the 
authority of an Apoftle in Sacred Scripture, the 
peace of the Church, and the fouls and peace of all 
diifenters and doubting perfons, fhould feem fo 
contemptible to them, as not to weigh down their 
humour and domineering will, in an unncceflary and 
indifferent thing? But it is |Jie nature of fin, efpeci- 
tllly Pride, to be imreafonable and unseat cable, and 
the troublcr of the foul, the Church, the world. 

§. 14. The fame Apoftle in the Epiftles to theO 

rintbians, i.e. \.v. 10. &c. importuneththem to peace 

And unity, and fharply reprehendeth their dhifions 

(i.e. 3 J He defiretfitnera to beppfettly cenjoynedm 

fame mind? and in the fame judgement \ But- what 


C iS3 1 

are the terms and means of fuch a union ? Is it that 
they all unite in Cephas (Peter) or in One Patriarch 
or Pope? Or that they adhere to men with greater 
eftimation ? No, but contrary. It is this that di- 
vided them, while one was for Paul, and another for 
jipollos, and another for Cephas : He calls them to 
unite inChrift alone, and not to think of men above 
that which is written, nor to be puffed up for one 
againft another, nor to take any Pallors as the Lords 
of their faith j but as Mmijlersof Chrifv andftewardsof 
his myfteries^ given for their good, and helpers of their 
joy and edification : c. 3. & 4. He tells them that 
neither is he that planteth any thing, ricifhzr be that 
watereth, bnt God that giveth the increafe : and he that 
planteth and he that water eth are one : C. 3. v. 7^8, p. 
And in cafe of eating things offered to Idols, as to 
fo much as was lawful in it felf, he charge:!) them 
to deny their liberty when it will be a ftumbling- 
blocktothe weak, and tells them that he will -never 
eat fief: while the world ftandeth, if it make his brother 
to offend: c. 8. 13. Telling them that when they fin 
fo againft- the brethren and wound their weak Co?ifcience y 
they fin againfi Chrift\ v. 12. And he himfelf would 
labour for his bread, and not take a lawful and dae 
maintenance from them, when he faw it would hin- 
der his fuccefs, c. 9. and would rather dye, than a;y 
flwuld make void this his glory ingy V. 15. To the Jews 
he became as a Jew, to gain the Jews, and to the weak 
he became as weah^to gain them., and was made all things 
to all men that he might by ad means jave fame, V. 20, 
21,22,23. His rule is, Give nooffence to Jews, or 
Greeks or to the Church of God : even a,s J pleafe all 
wen in all things, net feeling my own profit ', bat the pro- 
ft of many that they may be faved, c. 10. V. 32, 33. 
Their divifions at the Communion he reproyeth, 
th. 11. notcaufedby ceremonious impofitions*, but 


L J 54 1 
their own partiality and felfiihnefs. The great dif- 
ference among Chriftians in gifts and ftrength he 
largely openeth, c. 12. to fhevv them that all this 
mult ftand with unity, and that yet there malt be 
no Schifm in the body, but the members mult have the 
fame care one of ' another ", v. 25. yea the lefs comely 
farts muft have the more care^ v. 23, 24. 

And ch. 15. 1, 2, 3. he givethus this fum of the 
Gofpel which he preached f Mr cover brethren I de- 
clare to you the G off el which I preached, which alfo 
you have received, and wherein ye ftand, by which alfo 
ye are faved if ye hold faft what 1 preached, to you, 
tmlcfsyou believed in vain : (Are not here the terms of 
Chriftian unity and faivation y For 1 delivered to 
you firfi of all that which I alfo received, how that 
Chrift dyed for our fins, according to the Scriptures, 
and that he was buried and rofe again the third day ac- 
cording to the Scriptures, and wasfeen, &C. whence our 
refurre&ion is proved. Here is nothing but the 
common articles of the Creed •, and this was the 

Indeed St. Tad is an Anathematizer too, but it is 
not of men that differ about words or humane forms, 
but of all them that love not the Lord Jefm Chrift, 
1 Cor. 16. 22. 

$.15. The fame Apoftle fharply reprehendeth the 
faults of the Galatians-, But what is it for? not for 
differing about things unneceflary, but for making 
fitch nccejfery that were not : For which he wilheth 
thofe cut off' that troubled them. And he concludeth 
311 with this uniting true Canon, c. 6. v. 15, 16. 
\For in Chrift Jcfiu neither Circumcifton availcth any 
thing, nor imcircumcifion, but a 'New Creature : And 
as many as walk according to this Canon (or Rule ), 
peace be on them and mercy and on the Jfrael of God :J 
Can any thing be plainer ? No, fay the battering 


Z »5S 1 

Canoneers, \_As many as wall^ according to this Cu 
non, but conform not to all our Canons or Decretals, 
let them have no peace or mercy, but be cut off from the 
Jfraclof tSod^) lb contrary is the Papal Spirit to 

And Paul there giveth alfo this rule and the rca- 
fon of it : c. 6. I, 2. {Brethren if a man be overta- 
ken in a fault, ye which are [fir it Hal re ft ore fitch a one 
in the fpirit of meehnefs, conftdering thy fclf left thou 
alfo be tempted : bear ye one another s burdens and fo 
fulfil the Law of Chrift : And becaufe he knew that 
felf efteem and contempt of diflenters lay at the 
root of impatience towards others, he addeth { If 
a man think himfelf to be fomething (to whom all 
muft needs confent ) when] he is nothing, he deceiveth 
himfelf. ] 

£. 16. The fame Apoftle to the Ephefians accu- 
rately openeth the terms of Chriftian Unity and 
Church Concord in my Text •, purpofely defcri- 
bing both the end, the infiruments and the terms : ib 
that I know not how we could have defired more. 
The End is {For the perfecting of the Saints, for the 
worl^ of the Miniftry, for the edifying of the body of 
Chrift, till we all come in the unity of the faith, and 
of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a perfeti man, 
to the meafure of the ft at are of the fulnefs of Chrift. *That 
we henceforth be no more Children toffedtoandfro and 
carryed about with every wind of detlrine by the fight 
of men and cunning craftinefs whereby they lye in wait 
to deceive \ but (peaking the truth in love may grow up in 
him in all things which is the head, Chrift, From whom 
the whole body fitly joy ned together and compacted by 
that which every joint fupplyeth according to the effectual 
xvorkjng in the meafure of every part, maketh- irxrcafe 
of the body to the edifying of it felf in love, J 


1 156 1 

Can all the Canons in the world attain more 
Concord and higher ends than thefe expreft ? 

And the hftmments are the gifts which Chrifl: 
gave to men, even toApoftles, Prophets, Evange- 
lifts, Paftors andTeachers, and the loving endeavours 
of all believers. 

$.17. And the Terms of all this Union and Con- 
cord 'are thefe feven, 1. One Body, ( of Chrifl: the 
only Head, that is, all true Chriftians in the world ) 

2. One Spirit ( given by Chrift to quicken, illumi- 
nate and Santtifie and confirm and comfort them. ) 

3. One Hope of their calling (that is, the Glorious 
coming of Chrifl and our Heavenly Glory.) 4. One 
Lord ( the King, Head and Saviour of the Church. ) 
5. One Faith, (that is, Chrift Unity, exprelled in the 
Churches Creed or common profeffion. ) 6. One 
Baptifm, fthat is, One folemn entrance into the Church 
and Covenant of God in the publick^ profeffion of this 
one faith. ) 7. One God and father of all, who is 
above all, and through and in tu all. ] But all this 
confiding in various degrees of grace and gifts, ch. 

4. v. 1,2,3, 4>5> 6 >7- 

Thefe are Gods own terms of Chriftian Unity 
and Concord, fufficient in their kind, but judged in- 
efficient by the ignorant, proud, tyrannical Church- 
tearing Spirit. 

And to fhut out falfe anathematizing, he con- 
cluded! with pronouncing [_Grace to all them that 
Love cur Lord Jefns Chrift in ftncerity J whoever con- 
demn them. 

$. 18. The fame Apoltle leaveth the fame Canon 
to the fhilifpmm, c. 1. %\ 15, 16. Though fome 
preached Chrift not (incerely but of contention, fitppofing 
to add affliction to hubonds^ fo far was he from Men-. 
cing them cr forbidding men to hear them, that he 
rejoyced that Chrift- was preached, though in -pretence 
and constntioufly. And 

1 157 u 

And ck 2. \>i, 3. he mofl vehemently impor- 
tuneth them to be like minded? of the fame Love, 
of one accord, and of one mind : But how can that be, 
and on what terms ? [Let nothing be done through 
flrife and vain glory, but in lowlinefs of mind, let each 
efieem other better than themfelves. Not fay [_fay as 
1 fay or be fdent. [] Look not every man on his own 
things, but every man on the things of others (And not 
tread down others that you may be great - nor 
think of your own cafe arid reafons only J Let this 

mind be in you which was alfo in Chrifc Jefm who 

being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be 
equal with Cod y but made himfelf of no refutation, and 
took^iifon him the form of afervant,&c* This is the 
Paftors pattern. Let him that is Greater than 
Chrift refufe to itoop fo low. 

And his Canon for the Concord is ch. 3 . 1 3, T4, 15, 
16. To confefs our felves imperfeft, feekersofper- 
fediOn, preffing forward for the prize. [ Let as 
many as be perfect be thus minded (This is your mea- 
fure here) and if in any thing you be otherwife minded, 
Godfiall reveal even this unto you : Neverthelefs where- 
^to we have already attained, let m wallaby the fame rule y 
let w ?nind the fame thing.2 As if he laid, while you 
agree in true Chriftianity, take it for granted that 
you will all have imperfeftion, for I have fo my 
felf, and therefore there will be different judge- 
ments in tolerable cafes ; but let this be your Ca- 
non •, notwithftanding fuch difference, while you 
prefs towards perfe&ion, walk^ by the Rule of Chri- 
itian Love, in fcarching after the will of God, and 
mind with Concord the great things which you are afl 
agreed to purfne ^ And bear lovingly with each other 
in leffer differences, and God in this way will teach 
you more. 

i $4 19. The 

0. 19. The fame doftrine he delivereth to the 
Colojfians, reprehending thofe that would lay Chrifti- 
an faith or Concord on their will-worship, worldly ru~\ 
diments and ordinances, Touch not, tafie not, handle not y . 
after the Commandments and dotfrine of men, in things 
which have a foew of wifdom, in voluntary humility 'and 
rieg letting the body ; in worshipping Angels and intruding^ 
into unfeen things, vainly puff t up by flejldy minds : And. 
infteadof this he exhorteth them to hold the Head] 
Chrift, who is the true wifdom and bond of unity, 
and believe that in him they are complete ; and to take\ 
keedlefi any fp oil them ("of their faith love and con^ 
cord ) by Philofophy ( pretending greater fubtilty ) \ 
and vain deceit, after the traditions of men, and after ■ 
the rudiments of the world, and not after Chrift, in^ 
whomdwclleth all the fulnefs of the Godhead bodily, in 
whom we are compleat7\ And he inftances in fome 
fuch fhares, J_ Let no man judge you in meat or drinks 
or in refp'eff of an holy day, or new Moon, or of the Sab- 
bath 1 which are a f,;adow of things to come, &c. ]' 
that is, Let no man bring you under fuch Laws, 
and lay falvation or unity and Concord on them. 

And ch. 3. he largely {heweth that in the New 
Man there is neither Greek, nor Jew y circumcifwn or un\ 
circumcifion, Barbarian or Scythian, bond or free, but 
Chrift is all and in all : And that the true bond 
of perfection is charity by w 7 hich the peace of God 
muft rule in their hearts that are called into One 
body. And the fubordinate Canons are [bowels of 
mercy, ki'adnefs, humblenefs of mind, meeknefs, long* 
Suffering, forbearing one another, and forgiving one- 
another ~> if any man have a quarrel againft any, even as 
Chrift forgave you,fo do ye. 3 

£. 20. If any fay, Thefe are not precepts for 
Church-Governours but for fubjedts : I anfwer ftill, 
They are the precepts of the Holy Ghoff by an 


Apoftle that had more authority- than any of our 
Church-Governours, and that to all the Churches 
about their common duty, unity and intereft, bind- 
ing them and binding us, even all the Churches. 

s\2i. It would Teem tedious to recite all other 
texts to the fame purpofe : His prohibitions of vain 
difputes and janglings about the Law and genealo- 
gies, and his confining men to the common dottrine 
of Chriitianity, and his warning men to preach no 
new ox other doctrine, may be fcen in the Epiftles to 

. Timothy and Titus. 

$.22. And it is much to be obferved, i. That 
all the hereticks of thofe times pretended to greater 
vvifdom and curiofity than the Chriftian Churches 
had, and by fuch pretences brake their Concord, as 

,may be feen in all the Epiftles, efpecially Col. 2. ($* 
Jam. 3. 

2. And yet that whenever the Apoilles or Chrift 
himfelf, Rev.?. & 3. cenfure any fuch hereticks to 
be forfaken and calt out, it is never for any little mat- 
ter, but for denying fome common article of the faith 
i as Chrifts Incarnation, the Refi irreclion, &c. ) or 

, for fome grofs wicked doctrine and practice, (as 
fornication and eating things offered to idols, or re- 
belling againft Rulers, &c.) Which (hews what 
then were the terms of Church unity, and by what 
Canons they were governed, by Gods appoint- 

£. 23. I will, add that one great warning otPdtti, 
which fummctii up all, 2 Cor. 11. 3. a propheiie of 
the deceit and corruption of the Churches*, [would 
to God you could bear with me a little in my folly (as 
proud corrupters account it ) and indeed bear with 
me : For I am jealous over you with godly jealcnfie. 
For /have efpeufedyou 10 one husband (and not to Ulitr- 
\at I may prefentyon as a chafe Virgin to Chrift : 


L 160 J 

But I fear left by any means as the Serpent beguiled Eve 
through his fubtilty ( flattering her with the hopes of 
higher knowledge) fo your minds fiould be corrupted 
from the fimplicity that is in Chrift.^ Chriftianity is 
not a fnare for mens wits, but a way to their ial- 
vation : It is a plain and fimple thing though moft 
myfterious: i. It confiftethof fimplicity of dottrine, 
a few, great plain and neceffary things, and not of 
philosophical curious fubtiltles, though it forbiddeth | 
not but encourageth the utmoft improvement of 
reafon and true learning, efpecially for method, elu- 
cidation and defence. 

2. It is a fimple and fpiritual worflrip that it com- 
mandeth, for God is a fpirit and will be fo worfhip- 
ped in fpirit and in truth. The Schifmaticks con- 
tended whether in this Mountain or at Jerufalem~\ but 
Chrift rebuked that contention. 

3. And it is a fimple fort of Government or Di- 
fcipline that Chrift hath inftituted •, commanding 
himthatwillbeGreatefttofeek his preeminence in 
being moft ufeful and humble y as zfervant unto 4ll-> and 
not as the Rulers of the world to be called Benefa- 

tiors and graciout Lords, not as Lording it 

1 Pet. 5. 2 3 3. over Gods heritage but di examples to the 

flock ' Not imiting with the fword, but 
leaving force to Civil Magiftrates. 

4. And it is a fimple converfation that Chrift by his 
Law and example hath prefcribed, and his fervants 
ufed : This was Paul's rejoycing^ the teftimony of his , 
Confcience^ that in fimplicity and godly fincerity y not in j 
flejhly wifdom, he had his converfation in the world, 

2 Cor. 1. 12. Wiiclom mult go with innocency : 
but it is not worldly carnal wifdom, but luch as con- 
fifteth in knowing God in Chrift -, to be wife to fal* 

jf.24, Now 

C 161 ] 

$. 24. Now this fourfold Chriftian-fimplicity* 
jPohI forefaw the Serf em on pretence of finer wit and 
fubtilty would draw the Church to forfake, till (as 
Erafmns faith) it became a point of wit to be a 
Chriftian :■ and this would be (.and hath been ) the 
corruption of the Churches. 

1. The fimplicity of Do&rine i$ turned by Coun- 
cils and by other Dictators into multitudes of un- 
neceflary and uncertain notions, to fay nothing of 
the falfe ones. In the clear difcovery of the fence 
and method of the facred dqftrine, we muft ufe our 
greateft skill and accuratenefs : But falvation, peace 
and concord is not to be laid on the fine elucidati- 
ons, and numerous articles of mens wits. 

2. The fimplicity of Chriftian mrjhip is corru- 
pted, and turned into fuch pageantry of Ceremo- 
nies and formalities ( to pafs by much worfe ) that 
fpiritual worfhippers find it exceeding unfuitable to 
:hem, in much of the Chriftian world. 

3. And. how far and dolefully the fimplicity of 
Church-Government or Difcifline is loft, in more 
places than the Papal Kingdom, needs not many 
words to tell him, that can compare things old and 

4. And what wonder if the honeft fimplicity of 
mverfation perifh with the reft, and carnal intereft 

md fraud and falfhood, and opprefiion reign by 
arnal wifdom ? Thus hath the fubtile ferpent. 
:orrupted the Churches by drawing them from the 
amplicity that is in Chrift. 


I 162 ] 


III. The true terms of Catholick Unity am 
Concord more particularly defer ibed, as tin 
principal means of hope for the Churches 


f. i. *T*He falfe terms having been the engines ol 
X Schifm and Church-diftra&ions, it is th< 
opening of the true terms that muft be the cure. 
withf which I fhall begin, becaufe Rettum efi index 
fui & obliqui. And here are diftinftly to b( 
laid down I. What are the terms of entering 
into Chriftian Catholic^ Church-Vnity and, Comma 
vion ' i II. What are the neceffary terms of con- 
tinning it * and what are the caufes of abfeiffion ei- 
ther by apoftafie or excommunication ? 1 1 1. What 
are the terms neceffary to the office and exercife of tht 
j acred Mniftry ? I V. What are the terms neceflary 
to the confutation, admlniffration and Communion h 
Jingle Churches. V. What are the terms neceflary 
to the concord of fuch Jingle Churches among themfelve: 
ZS&ffociated or corresponding for mutual help. V I. And 
what is neceffary to the civil peace and concord of Chri- 
Jlians^in'Kingdoms^ Cities and Families. Of the le il 


§.2. I. u Nothing but Baptifm truly received ism 
ceffary to entrance into the ft ate of Vnion xcith the vi 
u fible Church called Catholick^ or Vniverfal. 

5$. 3. I before fhewed that Chrift himfelf inftitu 
ted the terms, in the inftitution of Eaptifm, ant 


L I&3 J 

that herein all Chriftians are agreed. The proof of 
this is fo full that nothing but grofs ignorance or 
wilfylnefs can make it a matter of doubt, i . In the 
fore-cited inftitutibn •, 2. In the conftant judgement 
and pra<ftice of the Univerfal Church, through ail 
places and ages fince the inftitution of baptifm to 
this day. 

1 . That Baptifm hath been flill u[ed 7 no one that 
knoweth Church hiftory can deny. 

2. That it harh been ufed to this end-, to be the en- 
trance into the Church univerfal and vifible Christian 
ft ate-, is as undenyable. About Infant baptifm the 
Anabaptifts doubt \ But they alfo deny Infants to be 
Chriftians or Church-members : and we prove to 
them both together, by Chrifts command to Difciple 
Nations baptizing them : They confels thai Baptifm 
is the Church entrance as well as we. 

3. And all that are truly baptized perfons are Chri- 
ft tans or vifible Church members, till they revolt or are 
call out, all the Chriftian world from thedayes of 
the Apoftles are agreed. 

4. And as all vilihle Covenanters in baptifm have 
-been taken for vifible Chriftians, fo all ftneere heart- 
Covenanters have ever been fuppofed by the Church" 
to have by Baptifm a fealed and delivered pardon 
of fin, and right to adoption, and everteftinglife. 

All this is fo evident that it is labour in vain to 
prove it, that this hath been the conftant content of 
the Chriftian world, and «fo continueth to this day: 
And all that are Chriftians are ftill in all Countries 
thus baptized. 

$. 4. And if Baptifm be the common fymbol qf 
Chriftianityi and the common making of a vifible 
Chriftian, then it muft needs be the . conftitutivt 
term or qualification Efficient to mens firft Church* 
Vnion and Communion : which is commonly con- 
fefled. M 2 0. 5. 

l &$ i 

$5. If there be any place for contention here, it 
rntift be only about the validity of mens Received 
baptifm : 1. As to the Minifter and his part : 
2. As to the mode and Ceremonies: 3. As to the 
tjoalificatlonofthe receiver or baptized. 

§. 6. I. As to thefirft, though all be not agreed 
in point of Duty xvho foonld baptize, yet fo great a 
number. of the Chriftran world are agreed as to the 
diiy of baptifm received de necejfitate medii, that 
the diilenters are fo few as that we need not fear any 
great difagreement hereabout. The very Roma- 
nics maintain the validity not only of the Baptifm 
received by hercticks and wicked Priefts, and fden- 
ced and (afpended Priefcs, but alio of Lay-men, yea 
of women : But de officio all are agreed that where it 
is poffible a lawful Minifter of Chrift fhould do it. 
Only a few Anabaptifts fay that it mult be only one 
that was baptized at age himfelf : And one or two 
Singularifts ( whether in ignorance or defigft I know 
not ) think it the apteft medium to unchurch the 
Reformed Churches, that they have no true Pr lefts 
for want of due fucceflion of ordination, and conse- 
quently n§ true Sacraments, becaufe God owneth no 
Afts but fiich as are commiflioned or appointed by 
him ; and consequently no Covenant :, and confe- 
quently no Gbvmantpromife and benefits, of pardon, i 
juitification andfalvstion : But this is after at large 
to be detected and confuted. 

$. 7. The great difficulty is of the neceflary qua- 
lification of the baptized : And there i.the Ana- 
baptifts keep put Infants: But beiides Baptifm and 
Church mtmkerjhip, they deny them no offices that 
their age is capable of : And they are ready to re- 
ceive them ail by baptifm as foon as they come to the 
life of due underftanding : And thefe delaves are 


but few in companion: And i.the ancient Chui% 

dies compelled now to be baptized, but only recei- 
ved them that voluntarily came, or were duly 
brought. 2. And if men will fray without or keep 
their Children out, they wrung thcmfclvcs and 
theirs, but this breaketh no unity of the Chriftian 

$.8. There have been alfo i^ftiousperfons that 
tye the validity of Baptifm to their feu:s: fuch as 
were fpecialiy the Donatifts, fupppfing that their 
Prelates had the trueft call and power; and that all 
others were Sectaries or Hereticks, and therefore 
their baptifm null and void and "to be iterated : But 
though in other arrogancies ibmc follow them to 
this day, yet few if any in the nulling of bap- 

$. 9. But a greater and longer ftir there bath 
been about Creeds and profejfiom required as Tefts to 
excufe men from herelie. But yet it is to be noted, 
that few of thembythefe altered the form of bap- 
tifm, but there took up with the ancient Creed, 
( the Apoftles and the Nicene o^ConftaminGpolitane ) 
and required wo more \ but only impofed the reft 
on Bifhops, Priefts or others afterwards. 

§. 10. And is there now any caufe of difcord 
here ? 1. AllChriftians have been made fuch by bap- 
tifm from the Apoftles dayes till now. Is there any 
thing in the world that ever came down to us by 
more certain, uniform, confenting tradition? The 
very fame words of baptifm which Chrift did infti- 
tuteare every where u fed to this day : And if all 
ages and Countreys have ftiil baptized perlbns as 
believers, or Chriftians, and yet be not agreed what 
Chriftianity is, or what the faith is that baptifin 
.requireth, it will be a ftrange incredible fname to 
them. But eyen, Hicrome and Hillary that cry out 

M 3 of 

L 106 J 

of their new Creeds, do tell us that in Baptifm the 
old one was ftill ufed, to which they did appeal 
And though the Greeks and Latines differ about 
thefa fltiotjttei and fome fmall new claufes are found 
in the Creed that were not in the old Copies which 
are now found on Record, they are not fo faftious 
or vain, as to nullifie Baptifm by any of thofe diffe- 
rences. For the Qjeed is but pare of the £xf option 
of Baptifm, and Baptifm is true Baptifm, if no other 
Creed or words were ufed but it felf. 

2. And there are few Chriftians yet that will re- 
fufe any of the truly ancient Creeds \ of which 
more anon. 

£. ii. 3. It is true that there are fome humans 
ceremonies which fome Churches adjoin to Baptifm, 
and by others are rejected or omitted. The molt 
of the ancient Churches ufed the taping of m*1\ and 
honey, the wearing of a white garment, and Chrifme : 
and now fome ufe the tranpent Image of the Crofs as 
a fymbol of our engagement to a Crucified Chrip , which 
others omit as taking it to be fo far participant of 
the nature of a Sacrament of the Covenant of 
Grace, as that it is an ufurpation of Chrifts prero- 
gative, for any men without his inftitution to ap- 
point : But yet all thefe Churches that differ in 
thefe Ceremonies agree that the validity of Baptifm 
dependeth not on them. Whether they be ufed or 
bmittea, the perfon is neverthelefs baptized. 

§.12. Qu. Butwhatisitthatisneceffarytothe being 
and validity of baptifm ? 

Anfw. This was partly anfwered before. 1 . It is 
neceflary to the validity of it in for Ecclepa, that 
both the baptiz.tr and the adult baptised (or the per- 
fon that is .authorized to Covenant for the infant) 
do Profefsfo intendrred Baptifm, and not to do it ia 
teaft or to other ends ; And it is neceflary to its effi- 

cacy to pardon and falvation, that this, profeffion 
of the Baptized be ilncere, and that he do it from 
the heart : And it is neceflary to free the baptizer 
from Gods difpleafure that his intention be iin- 

2. It is neceflary that the words of Baptifm be 
fuch as exprds all the Ellence of it ; fuch as are 
thofeof Chrift which all Chriftians ufe [IBapnzc 
thee in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghoft. 2 And that no contradictory words 
which nullifie thefe be added. 

3. It is- neceflary to the validity of it in the judge- 
ment of the Church, that the adult perfon, (and the 
Parent or pro- parent for the Infant) do feem or 
profefs to underftand all the words of Baptifm, fo far 
as is eflential to it : For ignorantis non efl con* 

4. It is neceflary to the validity of it to real par- 
don and falvation that he not only feem to imder- 
ftand it, but really do fo. 

5. It is accordingly neceflary that the per fori 
confent to all the effence of the Covenant, that is, 
feem and profefs to do it, to the Church, and realty 
do it, to fatisfie God, and obtain pardon and life 
by it. 

6. It is not abfolutely neceflary to the validity, 
that the Creed or any other profeffion be ufed, by 
the baptized, befides the words themfelves [ / be* 
lieve in God the lather Son and Holy Ghoft, and give 
up my felfto him in this Baptifmal Covenant V] Becaule 
mderftanding and cenfent may be exprefled by thofc 

7. But it is ufually neceflary to the bene efe, or 
the left performance of baptifm that the adult per- 
fon ( or the Parent of Infants ) do in larger words, 
profefs his underftfmding, belief and cjonfent to 

M 4 baptifm: 

baptifm : And it is left that thefe words be not too 
many nor too few, and that they be for the molt 
part one unchanged form •, Left ignorance or he- 
refie deprave baptifm by change and variety of 

8. To this end the Churches of Chrift have ftill 
t]fed the Creed as the fummary form of Profejfion of 
faiths As the Lords Prayer is a fummary form of our 
Defires, and the Decalogue of our rule and pro- 
feffion of pra&ice. But becaufe Aflent is fuppofed 
to imply Confent to the particulars Affented to, 
though but Generally profeffed, therefore the 
Church hath more rarely omitted the Creed in the 
projeflion of Aflent, when yet they have accepted 
of a more General profelfion of Confent to the Co- 
venant, and promife of obedience. 

5>. But if the adult do before-hand as a Catechu- 
men learn the Creed, Lords Prayer and Decalogue, 
and give the Paftor a fatisfa&ory account of his 
competent underftanding of them, then that may be 
fuppofed, and only a General profeffion of faith, 
confent and fubjedion, be ufed' at the time and in 
the words of baptifm. And fo much of the con- 
ftitutive caufes of baptifm. ; 

<$. 13. II. cc Though no more than Baptifm bp 
cc eflentially Neccjfary, becaufe fo great a work 
cc ihould be well donej and ignorance and errour 
cc are very common, it is meet that the Church 
cc require [ ah underftanding Affent to the com- 
" mon Articles of the Creed, and an under-- 
" (landing Confent to the Lords Prayer and De- 
cc caIogue \ and in general to all that he under- 
cc ftanderh to be Gods Word, Belief and fincere- 
* c Obedience. ] And therefore that the adult per- 
'■ fon, (and Parent of the Infant) be one that 
•> - - 4C hath 

"hath before been Catechized or examined 
* herein. 1 

$. 14. Though I confent to Ger. Vojfutsand others 
that there is no proof at all that the twelve Apo- 
ftles made the twelve Articles of the Creed rcipe- 
dtively, every one making one, as fome have feign- 
ed - 7 and though I deny not what he and Bifhop 
Vflier and many others fay, of the two or three Arti- 
cles being not found in the moll ancient Copies or 
Records, and though I verily confent to Parker de 
Defcenfu and many others, that the words of Baptifm 
were the firfr Creed, and that the Creed was brought 
in by degrees as the Expofition of the Baptifmal 
profefllon, and that at firft it had but three Articles 
[_1 believe in (and give uf my f elf to ) Cod the Fa- 
ther ^ Son and Holy Ghofi'] , Yet 1 take the Creed in 
the fence at lealt to be of neceflary ufe to the ends 
now mentioned, and I think we may fay fo much as 
is of greateft antiquity to be Divine and the word of 
God, and a [fecial fart of his word more neceflary to 
be believed than many other parts. 

£. 15. For, 1. Though we receive not the pre- 
tended Traditions of Rome or any Church that 
fhall be obtruded on us without proof, or as a coi- 
fing the Scripture of infafficiency •, yet we never de- 
nyed that the Apoftles preaching Was Gods Word 
before they wrote it, and as well as their writing. 
It being eight years after Chriibs Afcenfion (as is 
commonly fuppofed ) before the firlt part of the 
New Teftament was written by St. Matthew, and 
rear an hundred years after his incarnation that the 
laft was written by St. John i and only four or five 
of the twelve Apofties having left us any of their 
writings, it were intolerable to deny that the con- 
ftant preaching of them and all the reft to their 


death, was not done by the infpiration of the fame 
infallible fpirit as their Writing was, and fo was the 
Word of God. 

§. 16. 2. And it is certain that Baptifimwas then 
as common as Chriftians, and that nothing was 
footer done by the Apoftles, nor more conftantly, nor 
with greater concord and concent, than difcipling per- 
fons and baptizing them : For this was the fumm 
of their firft appointed work v in which Chrift pro- 
mifed to be with them to the end. 

$.17. 1. It is certain that the Apoftles did ad- 
minifter Baptifm as wifely and holily according to 
Chrifts will, as any that ever did come after them : 
And therefore that they did not take up with mens 
bare laying of three words f I believe in God the 
Father? Son and Holy Ghoft~] without underftand- 
Ing what they faid : All following ages Cathechi- 
2ed or examined the adult before baptifm, and to 
this day we would take the contrary courfe for an 
abufe : Therefore no doubt but the Apoftles did it 
and appointed it. 

$.18. 4. And this is plainly imply ed in the Scri- 
pture when believers are all laid to be inlightned, 
and tranflated from darknefs to light, and to know 
Godandjefm Chrift as being life eternal, Eph. 1. 18. 
Aft. 26. 18. Joh, 17. 3, &c. and to be wife to fal- 
vation ; and indeed when they are faid to Believe ; 
For believing fuppofeth under ft anding : And when 
Peter faith that Baptifm fiaveth, not the wa filing of the 
filth of the file fi) y but the anfwer of a good confidence to* 
wards God. And when all the Chriftians in the 
world as far as we have any notice from the Apoftles 
dayes, have been baptized after Profeffion of faith, 
we have no reafon to doubt ? but that the Apoftles 
ufed and appointed the requiring of it. 

$. ig. 5. In doing this, it is no doubt but what they 
required of the Confeflburs from their mouths was 
flwrt and plain, or elfe thofe multitudes of men and 
women who were in a fhort time baptized, would 
neither have had capacity nor time to do it : But 
thew r ordsof the Teachers and baptizers in explain- 
ing the faid articles were large, and many : For 
we find that it was their common preaching 

$. 20. 6. It is moll probable (by the rcafon of the 
thing and the hiftory, j4tt. 2. and elfewhere) that 
at the firft no form of words was required and ufed 
befides the form in baptifm, but that the people 
being inftrufted in the fenfe of thofe words, there- 
upon profelfed under ft anding, belief 'and confent. (And 
no more is eflentially neceflary ) But that after a 
Creed in terms was the common form which was 
ufed by ProfefTors in order to baptifm : 1 . Bccaufe 
fo many thoufands being baptized, the matter be- 
ing fhort, and meerly Divine, they could not be 
fuppofed to be left to much variety of expreflion : 
Divine, great, necel&ry things rauft be fpoken with 
fo much caution as may avoid errour, herefie, cor- 
ruption and abufe : And if every ignorant man 
and w r oman were left to ufe only words of their 
own devifmg to exprefs the Chriftian faith, it 
would be of confounding and difhonourable con- 

2. And the great care that then was ufed that 
all Chriftians might be of one faith and fpeak the 
fame things, and that the herefies then arifing 
might be fupprefled, doth imply that this neceflary 
means was then ufed by thofe that commanded 
that all be done to edification and unity and in 

3. And 

L *7* J 

3. And many expofitors think that this Creed is 
it that Paul meant by the depofimm and form of whol- 
fome words to Timothy. 

4. But the fuileft proof is univerfal hiftorical 
tradition and confent of the Chriftian Churches, 
who have ever ufed Catechizing and the Creeds the 
profeffion of faith, in order to baptifm, and this as 
from the Apoftles, without the leaft notice of any 
other original of it : Thete is fome difference in 
words between that recited by IrenaM, and two re- 
cited by TertHlUany and that which we now ufe, and 
fome little difference between that of Marcelim 
in Epiphanim^ and that of Aquileia in Rnffinus^^nd 
ours now ufed : And the forming of the Nicene 
Creed in other words doth Ihew that the Churches 
took not themfelves to be fo tyed to the fame 
words of the former Creed as not to alter any 
part of them: And it is fuppofed that before the 
Nicene Creed, the Greeks Church had a Creed that 
had as much of the words of the Nicene as of that 
called the Apoftles. And no doubt it was the 
wifclom of the Apoftles and the Churches, not 
to lay too much on particular words, and make 
them feem eflential to baptifm or more neceifary 
than they were : And to this day if any in other 
words exprefl the fame thing, he may be baptized. 
But ad melius ejfe and for concord and fafety the 
Churches that ftill agreed in words of the fame 
fence, and moftly the lame words as to all that ex- 
plained the efientialsof Chriftianity, found it more 
and more needful to agree in every word, and leave 
men no room for dangerous diveriity ^though over 
and above they may explain their minds. ) From 
whence it was that fo great contentions have rifen 
about fome fingle word, as 'the Nicene cuoin©- and 
the Latines Filioque> left the Creed fhould be altered 

— . 

L J 73 J 
at the will of man, and the ChriftLin faith feem to 
be an uncertain mutable thing. 

5$. 2 i. By all this it is evident that the Church 
mult make Baptifm the term of Chriftian Catholick 
unity and concord as neceiTary ad effe, and the 
Creed as needful and apt ad bene ejfe ordinarily. 

$.22. There is a controverfie raifed (as afore- 
faidby Donatifts and other Sectaries, fo) now by 
the Papifts, whether the perfon baptized mult nor 
alio own, i. the Miniftry in general, 2. the parti- 
cularMinifterthatbaptizeth him, 3. and the parti- 
cular Church into which he is received •, 4. andfub- 
jedt himfelf by profeffion to fuch paftoral power. 
To all which I (hall diftin&ly anfwer . 

$.23. I. To the firft, i.what is connoted is not 
alwayes a neceiTary part of the contract : A man 
cannot be baptized but he mult know that fome one 
hath power to baptize him. 

2. It is more needful of the two that the Ayofto- 
lical office and power be known and believed than 
the fitccejfive ordinary Miniftry : Becaufe the belief of 
the truth of the Gofpel more dependeth on t^eir 
teftimony, as commiiTioned and qualified with tnofe 
extraordinary gifts of the fpirit which are its feal 
and proof. 

3. it is of great ufe to our faith and obedience to 
underftand that Chrilt hath fettled an authorized 
Miniftry to preferve and preach his Word, and ad- 
minifter his Sacraments, and guide his Churches to 
the end of the world, and he that knoweth not this; 
wanteth an integral part of Chriftianity, and a greau 
and needful help to his edification and falvation. 

4. Yet none of ttiefe are abfolutely neceflary to 
theelTenceof Chnftianity : If any lived where the 
minilterial office were not known, or fhould by mh- 


C 174 3 

leading fo far err as to think that any judicious Chri- 
ftian, or any Chriftian Magiftrate, or mailer 'of a 
family, might preach and adminifter the Sacraments, 
if yet this man believe in God the Father, Son and 
Holy Ghoft, as his Creator, Redeemer and Sanfti- 
fier, and be accordingly devoted to him in baptifm, 
this man (hall be faved, notwithftanding his igno- 
rance or errour about the Miniflry, yea though he 
knew not of the office of the Apoftles, but took 
them for lay men. For the promife is, that whoever 
believeth in Chrift flail not perijh 1 but have everlafting 
life, Joh. 3. 16, 18. by what means foever he was 
converted to the faith : It is not only, [ He that is 
converted by a Prielt fhall not perifh ] Nor is it 
ever faid f He that believeth in the Apoftles or Priefts 
fhall not perifh 3 , but he that believeth in Chrift 
( which eflentially includeth the belief in the Father 
and the Holy Ghoft ) And therefore JW calleth 
them carnal as guilty of Schifm that faid I am of 
fW,andI of Cephas \ becaufe they were not bap- 
tized into the name of Paul or Cephas, but of Chrift : 
And he thanketh God that he had baptized few of 
tfr;t\}, left they fhould fay that he had baptized 
them into his own name. 

And yet are the Apoftles foundations or bafes and 
pillars in the Church, becaufe Chrift ufed them as the 
firft great keepers of his word and feals, and the 
means of converting unbelievers, and it's hard and 
r?;re to believe in Chrift without knowing and be- 
lieving that they were his eommiiTioned Minifters. 

$'. 24. II. But, though it be a duty to chdofe a 
true Minifter to 6e baptized by, yet it is not at all 
necefTary to the validity of baptifm to know that 
the baptizer is fuch : Indeed not one of many can 
be fure, as not having fcen his ordination, nor 


C '75 3 

knowing of his neceffary qualifications : Many 
things may deceive them, and all baptifm by Lay- 
men isnot null, as the Fathers held, and the Papifts 
now hold and confefs. 

§.25. III. And as to reception into a particular 
Church, I have proved before that it is no work of 
baptifm as fuch, but a confequent aft (in order of 
nature alwayes, and oft of time. ) The Eunuch, 
Att. 8. was baptized into no Church but the Uni- 
verfal. There be fome few rigid miftaken brethren 
called Independents in New England that think in- 
deed that all baptized perfons muft be baptized into 
a particular Church, but others even of that party 
are wifer herein. It is very fit that every one that can, 
be a member of fome particular Church: But fome 
cannot fas Travellers, Merchants, Ambalfadors, &c. 
who refide among Infidels only, and thofethat live 
in Countreys where the Paftors by tyranny refufe 
to admit any to their communion who will not fay 
or do fome unlawful thing. ) But yet Baptifm as 
fuch is no fuch thing, nor hath fuch an effeft. Much 
lefs is it a profeffion that fuch a particular Church is 

$.26. IV. And as to fubjeciion to the Clergie, It is 
true that Baptifm effentially fnbjetteth us to Chrifi ', 
and this includeth an obligation to obey him in all 
things which we know to be his Law:, Anditistras 
that juft obedience to the Guides of the Church is 
his command : But it followeth not that every man 
hnovoeth this, nor that every difobedience unchurch- 
ethus : It is his command that we pray continually, 
and in all things give thanks, and that we fpeak not 
an idle word,and ufenot vain }eafting,crr.But it nul- 
lified not Chriftianity that we culpably offend in 


. C 176 3 

one of thefe : Nor doth our baptifm contain our 
promife that we will never fin, nor that we will obey 
a command which weunderftand not : but that we 
will be Chrifts fubjedts and obey him fincerely, fo as 
that when we fail by weaknefs we will renew our 
repentance. Chriftalfo commandeth every child, 
fubjeft, wife, fervant to obey their parents, Princes 
and Magiftrates, Husband and Matter' ', And he that 
is baptized bindeth himfelf alio to obey thefe Laws 
fincerely if he know them. But it followeth not 
that it is effential to Baptifm to oblige us to fubje- 

tftion.to parents, husbands, matters, but only to 
Chrift who commandeth us to obey them. Even 
as fubjefts take not an Oath of Allegiance to every 
Juftice, Conftable, or Meffenger, but only to the 
King, who yet commandeth us to obey his Judges, 
Juftices, Conftables, &c. 

$. 27. To pretend that Baptifm as fuch doth fub- 
jett men to the Bifhop of Rome , or to the BHhop of 
Alexandria, Antioch, Parity London, or to the Paftor 
of a fingle Church, is a perverting the fence of it, 
and to be anfwered as the Apoftle did others, Were 
ye baptized into the Name of Paul ? 


L 177 J 


II. What are the terms neceffary for the con- 
tinuance of Church-Communion ? and what 
are the /awful Caujes of abfciffion or Excom- 
munication ? 

$. 1. TT is granted that as there is fomewhat 
J. more neceflary to the continuance of our/w- 
don, juftification and right to glory, than was to our 
firfi reception, fo alfo to our continuance as members 
of the Catholick Church : That is, the bare profef 
fion of faith and confent and fubje&ion, or Cove- 
nanting with Chrift for future fincere obedience, is 
enough to our firft reception by baptifm: Butfome 
performance di this Covenant is neceflary to our con- 

The reafons are, 1. Becaufe.the Covenantor pro- 
wife is neceflary, not meerly for it f elf, but for the 
performance-fake, to engage us to do what we pro- 
mife. 2. And as a known falfe Covenant is null as 
to the benefit of the Covenanter, though not as to 
his obligation, fo at the entrance a mans vcordis his 
credible profeffwn •, but if he by notorious wilfulnefs 
violate this word prpromife in any efTential point, 
he then fo far nullifieth his verbal profeffion as to his 
benefit, and proveth his Covenanting to be falfe.' 
And therefore all difciplined Churches do caft out 
grofs impenitent violaters of that Covenant in 
ftch efTential parts;. 


C i?3 3 

$. 2. But what is fuch violation, and for what 
fin men are to be caft out, is a difficult queftion in 
fome inftances. 

1. 1 take it for a furerule that no man is to be 
further cut off from the univerfal Church by fen- 
tence, than hefirft morally departeth or cuts off him- 
felf. For the Pallors have not their power for de- 
ftruttionbut for edification : And their office is fub- 
fervient to (Chrift, who came not to deftroy mens lives 
but to fave them, even to feik^ and to fave the loft. 
They are not to be hurtful but helpful to mens fouls. 

£•3, 2. He therefore that apoftatizeth or deny- 
eth any one eflential article of Chriftianity, cuts off 
himfelf firft, and is to be declared by the Churches 
fentence to have fodone, if he repent not: If he 
timely repent, it mult prevent the fentence. 

$.4. 3 . Whatever fin amounteth to an evident 
refufal of promifed fubje&ion to Jefus Chrift, cuts 
off the finner morally from Chrift, and if he prevent 
it not by repentance, he is to be fentenced accord- 
ingly by the Church \ who do but thus declare who 
depart from Chrift and cut off themfelves. 

§. 5. 4. Every fin is not a renouncing of our alle- 
giance or fubjettiou to Chrift, nor to be cenfured by 

1. There are fins of meer infirmity or imperfettion 
in duty •, as imperfection of Tincere faith, love, 
hope, obedience, prayer, &c. 2. There are fins of 
fudden paffion and furjprize which the will habitually 
abhorreth, and the finner quickly repenteth of. 
3. There are fins of ignorance which a man knew 
not to be fins. 4. There, are fins of meer forget- 
fulnefs. 5. Yea it is not all prefumptuous fin that 
is a renouncing of our fubjedtion : A faithful man 
knoweth that the leaft fin fhouid be avoided, and 
he may know that vain jelling or idle words are a 

fin i 

C 179 I 

fin i And he may be often guilty of thefe by fome 
degree of preemption, that is, he may be tempted 
to think that all men being finners, fuch a fin may 
Hand with grace, and for want of due excitation 
not fear it or fly from it becaufe it is a little one, as 
he would do from perjury, murder or fome greater 
fin : No (mail evils or danger doth fo much fufcitate 
the foul to refill and avoid it as a erearer doth : 
no man is fo careful to avoid the prick of a pin as of 
a Ivvord : This want of fufcitation through the 
imallnefs of the thing, maketh lefs refiftance and fo 
fome degree of prefumption in all men. 

$.6. 5. No one Aft of fin fufficiently repented 
of, is matter for a jufl excommunication, be the fin 
never fo great •, For the penitent are pardoned : If 
the Repentance be before the excommunication, it 
preventeth it : For the firfl part of difcipline is to 
perfwade the (inner to repentance, as being intend- 
ed for his recovery and falvatiun : and excommuni- 
cation is never jufl but when the finner will not re- 
pent. As under the Law of Innocency death was 
the wages of any fm, but uader the Gofpel faith 
and repentance are the remedying conditions ' 7 fo ac- 
cordingly though Adam was call out of Paradife for 
the firfl fin, none are to be call out of the Church for 
any fin nicer ly <u a fin y but as not repented of by a 
believer. I fay not that this is the Magiflrates rule 
inpunifhing the body, but the Pallors in excommu- 

§. 7. 6. Yea the time and means of admonition 
for bringing the finner to repentance mult be com- 
petent, and fuch as are fuitable to a rational hope 
of his repenting, and not as fome Lay Chancellors 
do, if a few rough words make them notreperitippfe- 
fently excommunicate him •, nor pro forma to fay 
thrice ladmcnifliycH^ladmeni^you^ XkdmonifiyMJ 

N 2 " and 

. -and then £ I excommunicate yon* ] It is not a jeafi> 
ing matter, nor to be paft as haftily as an angry 
word. The Tinner mult be gravely and ferioufly 
told of the evil of his fin, and if it be fomething 
which he taketh for no fin, he mull be convinced 
by Scripture proof, and mult be heard fpeak for 
himlelf with pa'tifcace \ and if he hear not a more 
private admonition, he mud be reproved before 
the Church, that many may confent for the more 
authoritative convidtion, and for' the warning of 
others, and that the Church may thereby clear them- 
felves as not contenting to the fin, i Cor. 5. And the 
excommunication is only to pais at lalt, when re- 
pentance juftly feemeth hopelefs. 

5$. 7. But yet there is much difference herein to 
be made in refpeft of the difference oi fins and of 
perfons: 1. A fin of errour or ignorance, or con- 
troverted, as alfo a fmaller fin, requireth a longer . 
time of patience for the finners convi&ion before 
he be judged to be impenitent : But a notorious fin 
againlt the light of nature, or plaineft proof, and 
of molt fcandalous confequence, muft have fhorter 
time of patience : yet To much as that the finners paf- 
fion may be over, and he may have leifure well to 
confider of the evil, and of the Churches reproof. 

$. 8. As gravity, convincing reafon, companion 
and patience are certainly lieceflary, fo it feemeth 
very convenient at leaft that when the finner is 
admonifned before the Church, the Congregati- 
on }oyn with the Paltor in earneft Prayer to God 
for his convidion and repentance, and If that pre- 
vail not at once, in tolerable cafes to do it again, 
before the finner he caft out : Ye ought to monrn r faith 
St. Paul, 1 Cor. 5. Men will not cut off a corrupt 
jnember of the body haftily, nor till fiat neceflity, 
BOt without fenfe of pain. 

jj. 9 . It 

L ™ l J 

$.9. It is not every fin that a man repenteth not 
of, that is a juft caufe of excommunication : Fcr 
there is no man living that hath not fome I 
which he no otherwife repenteth of," than as in 
neral he hateth a!l fin fo far as he knowtthit: For 
every man hath fins of ignorar.ee, and every man 
hath fome degree of errour, and fbme faithful men 
have more than others, and take fbme fins to be 
ties or no fins*, and fome have darker minds than 
others that are hardly convinced and cannot per- 
ceive the force of an argument againft the p. 
dice before received. And fome are educated where 
ibmefins are praifed, and converfe with fuch per- 
fons as by their parts and intcreft: in them harden 
them in their errour \ How many thouland .zealous 
Papifts, Neftorians, Eutychians, Greeks take others 
for hereticks by miftake, and perhaps by words and 
anions wrong or perfecute them, and never repent 
of it,becaufe they err? How many Lutherans Hin- 
der Cahimfts, and they the Lutherans, and Papfts 
and Proteftants oft make each others matters feem 
otherwife than they are *, Yea fo do Coxfomiifts and 
Nonconformifls, Anabaftifts and Fadobaptijrs and 
moil that diiagree, and yet repent not, thinking • 
that to be true that is not, and fo that «th r-: Co 

$.10. Therefore two things muft concur in the fin 
that deferveth an Excommunication from Catholic!: 
Communion. 1. That it be fuch as fome call a 
Mortal (in, that is, u Not a fin of mcer infirmity and 
ignorance', which may confifl with fine eye Love to 
God and holinefs, and fubjcclion to the G 
of Chrifit hut a fin which in an impenitent perji 
vetb the abfence of fach S 'ubjeB ion and Love : And 
the mark of this is, u That it be a fin whidife f6 
tch in the fewer of Y 





X 1 82 3 

Cc that is fincercly willing to leave it , and which mufl 
u he known to be fin by all that are truly willing to 
u know it : A fin chat men may know if they are - 
willing, and had rather keep than leave. 2. And 
that it be nnirepented of? and fitch as due information 
and perfwafion with patience , do not bring the /inner to ' 
repent of. A heinous, mortal, wilful fin unrepent- 

£11. By this it appeareth, who is to be fen- 
tenced cut off from the Catholick Church, and 
who not None but thofe thatfirfl really depart, 
becaufe the fentence mull be true and juft : And this 
departure is either dired, by Apoilafie, renouncing 
God the Father, the Son or the Holy Ghoft, or fome 
efTential part of Godliaefs or Chriftianity : 2. Or 
indirectly, when men deny not any of thefe in words, 
but in works do that which is evidently inconfiftent 
with them, and may be fo difcerned by any willing 

§. 12. And hence it appeareth, 1. that the num- 
ber of thefe is greater than the Pallors that call off 
true difcipline do acknowledge. That is, Ail thofc 
that are guilty of living in fuch fins as the common 
light of nature detefterh to every willing mind., 
( fuch as are fornication, adultery, drunkennefs, per- 
jury, malignity, perfecution, flanderous preaching 
Or fpeech, hating others, clpecially for good, &c. ) 
and areobflinate in refufrngto repent and amend. 
And, alas, how great a number live in our Churches 
never excommunicated nor publickly admonifhed 
who lye in fuch fins and will not repent? The Pa- 
piftsPrieftsthcrrtfelves conform' by unjuft oaths and 
profeffing to aflent and confent to 'many Decrees and 
Carwns of Councils which are faife and finful,and by 
irany other finful practices. Their very perfecution 
of 'men better than themfelves onfalfe pretences of 
: herefie 

L 183 3 

herefle and fchifm, is a crime that many were they 
truly willing might foon know. Drunkennefs, whore- 
dom, lying, perjury, prophane fwearing, curfing 
and (tendering, covetous and proud opprefling, and 
many fuch like, yea even profefled Saduceifmand in- 
fidelity and deriding ferious Godlinefs, are all too 
common in the world *, Yet few of all thefe are 
ever excommunicated. 

jj. 13. 2. Yet hence alio it is plain that the com- 
moneft fort of Excommunications for thefe tliou- 
fand years at leaft have been but the ads of carnal 
tyrannical ufurpation like a plague or publick war 
or fire to the Churches. 

Viz.. I. Anathematizing men for a dark ambigu- 
ous word or phrafe, though inept, and though in 
the obvious lence by undifcerned confequence it 
might be inconfiftent with the eifentials of Religion, 
is tyrannical and unjuft. 

0. 14. 1. When the words only are bad, and the 
man doth not fo mean them, this is no hereiie in the 
man. If that word which figniiieth God, or Hea- 
ven, fhould in another language, or by misinforma- 
tion be ufed to fignifie, Satan or Hell, and fo have 
opprobrious epithets annexed, this were no blaiphe- 
my or errour in the man. For he ufed the words 
as fignifications of his mind : And they are not Na- 
tural but arbitrary figns. Elfe all unskilful fpeakers 
would be hereticks : Yea all men would be damned ^ 
For there are few words but are ambiguous, or of 
many fenfes, and are good in one fence and bad in 

§. 15. 2. And zsjlrnefu'j hath well noted, there 
is fo harmonious a connexion between all the Mo- 
ral parts of Heligion, that if you deny any one, by 
conlequence it will overthrow the reft ; arid every 

N 4 c:rc}ir 

C 184] 

errcur (though not in Hiftory, topography, Gene- 
alogy, Chronology, crc. yet) in morality wrongeth 
yeafubverteth the foundation. 

£.16. 7f. And (not only Davenant^ Morton* 
Hati^ but) all peace-making Divines are agreed 

* that unfeenconfequencesarenot to be taken for a 
mans judgement, rather than the contrary truths 
which he profefiedly owneth. 

§. 17.. For inftances, i- will over-pals the word 
o^in©-, and not refolve the Corttroverfie whether 
EufcbiPuCtfarienfis proved by D.Petavius and others to 
have been indeed an Arian, after all his great labours 
in his Hiflory, his Pr^aratio & Demonftratio Evan- 
gelic^ ought to have been cut off from the Catho- 
lick Church-: or whether Confl amine juftly chid A- 
lexandcrasweWas Arm for their contention? Nor 
whether Hilary juftly blamed the making of New 
Creeds, beginning with the Nkene, Nor whether 
Juftin and all the reft of the Ancient Fathers whofe 
wordsP "etavtm citeth asfpeakingasthe^W^,{houId 
have been Excommunicated. Doubtlefs the denyal 
of Chrifts Godhead is the denyal of his Effence. But 
there be fubtile Schoolmen that think the word 
Zfiibftancel is fpoken of God but equivocally or 
metaphorically, yea fome and no fmall men or num- 
ber fay the fame of Ens it felf, which yet the Sco- 
tifts cbntradift them in : And many choofe rather 
to call God A Pure Aft, than a fubftance : And thefe 
men think that they that know not what fubftance 
meanethas fpoken of God^fhould not excommunicate 
men for denying Chrift to be [_ofthe fame fabfiance2 
unlefsthey better underftood the fubjeft: And they 
think that Damascene that iubtiily calfeth God [ aV*-* 
cri& 5 muft needs be as guilty as they that denyed 
Chnft to be f ouc^&j •, and that where there is no 

• fibfiance^ th; re is no [famefubftame 3 And therefore 

. ->• ■ thinking 

C 185 3 

thinking that fome men mean the fameword hereti- 
cally, and fome well, they wilh that the word had ne- 
ver been put into a Creed, which muft be the teft of 
all Church-members: Though the word be true.- 

$, 18. But there are abundance of other hercfles 
that 1 may fafely inftance in, 
as Philaftrius * yea and Epi- Sec what I have recited 

vkamm have defcribed them. H^SS^W* 
\ n 1 ^ r book againft Johnfon 

I am afhamed to mention fome called fa ich » J tht ; rut 
ridiculous heretics in Pbilaftri- ekireb'] in the end. 
ue> ( as calling the ftars by the 
names of living Creatures, and other better. ) And 
divers in Epiphamus are not much worfe. But I will 
fpeak only of three or four that have made the 
greateft divifions in the Church. 

§. 19. I.Cyprian with his African Councils with 
FirmilUn judging for the re-baptization of thofe 
baptized by hereticks, was judged a herefie, which 
their Countreymen the Donatifts followed : Yet An- 
gufline faith that Cyprian was no heretick for it. And 
indeed, it had been but juftly diftinguifliing of men 
called Hereticks, as 1 before laid the Council of Nice 
did,naming the Paiilwijts^nd all had been ended.But 
if not, this was no jult caufe of Excommunication. 

§. 20.I I. The fame I may fay of the unhappy Con- 
troverfie of the time of Eafier *, about which Vtfior 
andPflfycrdtejftrove-, wherein Iremus fo much re- 
proveth Victor, as moil wife and good men ever fince 
have in their judgements done. 

§.21. III. And truly I think en feveral accounts 
that the Novatian herefie was not fuch as defer ved 
Excommunication from the Cathoiick Church, 
though they iinfully feparated from thofe concor- 

C 186 1 

dant particular Churches, which by advantage got 
the name of the Catholick. For 1. wife men are 
not agreed what the herefie was : But the skilfulleit 
agree that it was not a denyal of pardon before God in 
another world, to the penitent, but only of Church- 
pardon and admittance to Communion : And Ibme 
of their aqjufers told them that their firft founders 
denyed fuch Church-pardon only tothofe that deny- 
ed Chriji or lapfed againft ChriftUnity in time of per- 
fection (good Chriftians that came out of prifons 
being too unwilling to receive thofe when the ftorm 
was over, that had faved themfelves by denying the 
jfaith )> and that the denyal of it to other criminals 
came in after by degrees on fuppofed parity of rea- 
ibn. 2. And I find itconfeffed by their adverfaries 
that the wicked lives of the Catholicks occafioned 
this addition •, and that the Novatians were other- 
wile Orthodox, and of better lives than moft of the 
Orthodox. 3. And I find that the proudeft and 
worft Bifhops ( fuch as Jsfefiorim ) were their fharp- 
elt Adverfaries, and that the beft lived lovingly and 
as brethren with them : Cbryfofiom once threatned 
their Bifhop in Conftantinople, but went no further, 
and recalled it at the next w r ord. Anient and 
Vrodm kindly kept peace with them. And though 
Socrates and Socmen are by many accufed as being 
Novatians, for fpeaking well of them, I fee no rea- 
fon to believe it ", unlefs every man that choofeth 
rather to fpeak truly of diflenters, than malicioufly 
and flanderoufly, be therefore of their opinion. 
But if it were fo, it would be fo much the greater 
honour to the Novatians, with them that dilcern, 
that we have po ancient Church-hiftcrians that 
Write more credibly than Sccrates and Socmen , 
or in whom the footfteps of veracity may by a 
itranger be eafilier difcerned : If their hiftorians are 


C i87 3 

nieft, it's like they were not the worft men. And to 
ay, £Letmen be never fo pious, fuch an opinion 
uts them off from Chrift ] defcrveth indignation 
ather than confutation. 

. §. 22. IV. Neftoriw hlmfelf was fo turbulent an 
memy to hereiie and toleration, that while he would 
leeds be an Orthodox perfecutor he fell under the 
reputation of being a molt damnable heretick : His 
Leal arole againft the fuppofed herelie of calling Mary 
Jso7wt<^ the mother or parent of God', But he never 
knyed that {he was the mother of him that is God: 
Hereupon Cyril ( as turbulent a man and more, if 
Ifjdore Pelufiota and other good men fay truej charged 
aim with aflerting two perfons in Chrift, as well as 
two Natures : which his own exprefs words deny : 
And who belt knew his own opinion but himfelf ? 
On the other fide the JVeftorians accufed the Cyrilli- 
ans of herefie, as cm founding the two Natures, and 
blafphemoufly making a Creature God, and faying 
that God was but fo many months or fo many years old. 
Though the extraordinarily Learned David Derodon 
have written to prove Neftorim Orthodox, and Cyril 
an Eutychian heretick, yet truly it is evident in the 
Jhiftory and their writings that they meant the fame 
thing, and flrove but about words, and skilful 
jfpeaking, in which Cyril carryed it by his greater 
learning, and by Neftorim his fucceeding St. Chryfo- 
ftome in the hatred of the Court. 

Plainly, One fpake of the concrete, and the other 
of the abftratt : One of Him that was God, and the 
other of the Godhead, and both true : Neftorim fpake 
formally ( that is, ftriftly, for denomimtio eft a forma) 
and Cyril Materially: Neftornu faid, Mary 
the Parent of the Deity or of Chrift as God, but only of 
the humanity and partly of the Union \ and therefore 

C 188 ] 

was not aptly to be called The Mother of God, but 
Chriftj who is God ] ; Cyril fa id that Mary was not the 
Caule or Parent of the Godhead, but yet becaufe of 
the Union of the two Natures was to be called Th 
Mother of God : And is it not evident that thej 
drove but about words? which Sophronim in Coun- 
cil after plainly opened, and could not be heard* 
O doleful ! that two mens finful driving whe 
fnould be judged to fpeak bed,, while they meant 
the fame thing and did not know it, fhould fe£ mof 
of the Chridian world under Anathema's and in 
flame of wrath and mutual condemnation to this 
very day! Butfuppofe fome difference had been in 
their fence, was it any renouncing of Chriftianity- 
and fuch as cut them off from Chrid ? 

£. 23 . V. Cyril fo carry ed it by wit and Grandeur, 
and the countenance of the Court that all went for 
right that he had faid. And he had faid ( as is yet 
vifible in his writings largely cited by Derodon, ) 
that Chrifts Natures were mo before the Virion ( as if 
the humane had exided before ) and afterward but 
one. Eiuyches imitated him, and was accufed for it- 
other wife : Diofcorm honouring his predeceilbur 
Cyriltook his part, thinking that which carryed it 
then would carry it now : But the Court and dream 
was changed and he was deceived u* and when they 
had fought it out and Flavian Bifhop of Conflantinople 
was mortally hurt, Emyches went for the heretick,and 
yet the name of Cyril was honoured dill as Orthodox. 
And now that Church war was revived, which drew 
dreams of confecrated blood, andfhookthe Empire, 
and dolefully continued! to this day. The baniflied 
Eutychians prevailed in the Ead and South, and evert 
beyond the Empire as far as Ethiopia •, and the Abah 
fnesi Copies^ and others are called by many EutychU 


1 189 1 

an hereticks, who know not what that herefic is, but 
only* honour the names of Cyril and Diofcorm, and 
condemn thofe that, condemned them; and being 
now, from a later propngater of the party called 
Jacobites, are the greateft number cf Chriftians in 
thole Countreys. And thus the pride and contention 
of Prelates under pretence of zeal againft herefic and 
errour, have fet the nicer names of differing leaders 
to be the means and marks of Scbifm to this day. 

£. 24. And that ftill it was the fame thing that 
they meant, will appear to a diiigent reader of the 
hiftory, and the contenders words : The undenya- 
ble truth is (as NazJanzene before lamented J few 
Bifhops were learned underftanding men, but fuch 
as the more ignorant fort of our Curates, and too 
many of them worldly, proud and factious, follow, 
ing the Court and thole Patriarchs that w r ere molt 
able to promote or ejeft them, after Chriftian Em- 
perours had once made them the Rulers of the 
Countreys and the Judges of all Chriftians even in 
fecular affairs : And when one Sophromw or few 
others opened the cafe rightly to them, they ei- 
ther underftood it not, or bawFd it down and fet up 
a cry, Away with the Heretic}^. The Entychians fol- 
lowing Cyril fpake unfitly :, and faid [Chrift had two 
natures before the union and but o?ie after, becaufe uni* 
tedy and union maketh one of two^] But it is appa- 
rent ( as Derodon hath proved ) that Cyril ( and fo 
his ignorant followers ) did not think that Chrifts 
humane nature did exift before the union, and fo 
that ever they were divided, but that in order of 
nature the exiflence is intelligible before the union., 
and fo that they were but one as being undivided, 
not denying them to be ftill diftinguilhable, and fo 
to be what Nejtarw and the Orthodox meant by 
C two] asbemg^ifffif but not divided. 

§. 25. 

I i9o 1 
$.25. And Derodon hath alfo proved that CyA 
( and fo the Eatychians) when they called* thefa 
[One] did mean [One perfon]~ miftaking the fenk 
of the word [Nature] and meaning by [Nature] 
the fame that the Orthodox meant by [ Perfcn ]. 
And fo the opening of two words, would have 
ended all their Controverfie, and proved that they 
meant the fame thing and knew it not \ that is, 
I. diftinguifhin'g between [One undivided] and 
\_One undiftinguifoed]. 2. Opening what they 
meant by Nature and Perfon : But, alas, this was no 
work for thofe famous General Councils, but to cry 
out [Anathema to Neftorius, Anathema to Eutyches, 
Anathema to Diofcorus*, Holy Leo, Holy Cyril, &cf\ 
thefe were their arguments. And Diofcoriu as bad 
as his adverfaries or worfe, excommunicated Leo 
the Bifhop of Rome, and went the Anathematizing 
way : And (b much of Religion was placed in cwrfmg 
one another,, that there were fcafce any Bifhops in 
the world that were not curfed by one another. 

$. 26. VI. And the difference between the Greeks 
and Latines about the words [hypofiafes & Perfona] 
had almoft come to the fame extremity : When 
Hierome himfelf that liked not [ three hypofiajes ] 
Was accufed of herefle, and was fain to fly to his 
haptifmal Creed for refuge, and to prove that he was 
a believer becaufe he was baptized* 
* Greg.Na\iaxyne. But *one wifer.than the reft had 
the unufual good fuccefs as to con- 
vince them that by the two words it was the fame 
thing that they meant, and did not know it. 

$. 27. V 1 1. The next calamitous Anathemati- 
zing fell out about the owning or difowning of the 
Council of Chalcedony becaufc of the forefaid Nefrr.yizn 


L *9* J 

and Eutychian quarrels : And fo doleful was the cafe, 
that it became the teft of the Orthodox in one 
Countrey to Curfe or Anathematize that CoiwciU and 
in another to Qtrfe all that did not receive it. Efpo 
cialJy when one Emperour was for one fide, and the 
next for another, the Curfing varyed accordingly, 
for the moft part. 

$. 28, But that which added grievoufly to the 
Calamity was, that the fame Bifhops that under one 
Emperour curfed the Council, under the next cur- 
fed thofethat owned it not, and thus moft fcanda- 
loufly anathematized themfelves, even one party 
this year, and another the next. I fay nothing but 
what Binivu and Baronim and fuch others fay. 

#. 29. VII I. The next fad Anathematizing was 
about the Monothelites : They that faid that Chrift 
had but One Will and One Operation were curfed as 
Monothelite hereticks, and they that laid He had 
wo were curfed by the Monothelites : And thefe were 
no narrow petty Sefts, but Emperours and great 
General Councils were for them. Binius faith, that 
the Council of Conftantinople called Quinfextum that 
made the Trull Canons, were Monothelites , and yet 
that they were the fame Bifhops that had conftitu* 
ted the fifth Council, fo that thofe alfo were Mono- 
thelites \ And in the reign of Philippics he faith a 
Council of the Monothelites was fo great that there 
were befid.es the reft Innumerable Biftops out of the 
Eafi. And thefe and their adverfaries kept on the 
curfing trade of Religion, one fide curfing under one 
Emperour, and the contrary under the next. 

$. 30. And (O doleful cafe) even thefe alio 
feem fully to me to contend about nothing but bare 
words, and really agreed and did not know it, partly 
following theftream for worldly intereft, and partly 


C 192 3 

having not skill enough to explicate ambiguous 
words and ftate the Controverfie. Who knoweth 
not that ever read any Metaphyficks, how many 
fenfesthe word {One'] or [Vnity] hath ? and how 
the fame thing in feveral refpefts may be faid to be 
One or Two ? And was this difcuffed in any of thefe 
Councils ? Which ? where? and when ? 1. Two 
thing!; may concur to oneeffeft, where, lay the fub- 
tilelt Philofophers, mate rially they are two caufes y but 
formally and properly but one , Allfet together make 
but one caufe ( being ejufdem generis ) and are but 
many farts of that one caufe, though many things : 
And fo fome called Chrifts Wilis One as being but One 
caufe in thefe School-mens fenfe of the fame effeft. 
For the Deity operateth only per ejfentiam and hath 
no effect in God himfelf. 2. And as Voluntas and 
operatio fignifie the Internal principle of the effeft, n^ 
one can doubt but Chrifthad two; for the Diviner^ 
elfential Will, and the humane faculty or Aft, were 
not the fame principle or thing : But Objectively 
they are One *, that is, The Divine Nat fire or prin- 
ciple and the humane do will the fame thing, and con- 
tradift not one another. 3. And the Controverfie 
is the fame as the former with the Eutychians : Chrift 
hath but One Will as oppofite to Divifwns ', One as 
#ztf divided: but Taw "as intellectually aifiinguijliable. 
Two as denominated aprincipUs from two natures , 
one as 1 . from Oneperfon y and 2. as undivided, and. 
3 . as terminated on One objett. \ doubt not but had 
this been thus opened to them, all the fober men 
would have did, we are all agreed in it. And yet 
this wordy difference maketh the name "of an Ana- 
thematized herefie to this day. 

£. 3 t . IX. The next curfing difference arofe about 
?.-<jueltion whether Chrifis body en earth was corruptible 


C 193 ] 

*r nbf O theunhappy fpint of felf conceited a'oa* 
thematizing Prelates ! The affirmers were called 
cormpticoU and reproached as blafphemers of the 
Chrilt, and the worfhippers of that which was cor- 
ruptible. The denyers were called Pbantafafticbj 
and made hereticks, the affirmers getting the lafl 
prevailing vote :, And alas, the Emperour Jufhman 
out of his great zeal for the honour of Chrift, pro- 
ved one of the hereticks; and is fo branded to this 
day , yea and perfecuted the corrupttcoLu as here- 
ticks." Where will hereticating, curfing and perfe- 
ctiting Hop or end ? And yet one word of juft di- 
ftin&ion had ended all this, had it been duly ufed 
and received, thrift* Body was potentially and as 
to the natural quality of flefh lyable to or capable 
of corruption : But not aElually corrupted, and not 
corruptible in refpeft to Gods decree, that it fhould 
hot actually corrupt. And yet even holy Hilary Tittav. 
held not only this errour but fomewhat more - 7 His 
words are fo bad I aril loth to cite them. 

$. 32. X. The next lamentabl? Schifm and 
Curfing arofe from the Decree of the Conftantinopo- 
titan Council de tribm capitulis. The Curfing one 
another for owning cr not owning the Council ofChal- 
cedon flill continuing :, and Learned Theodoret with 
Theodore of Mopfuejt and Ihw having been formerly 
by Diofcorm Epbefine Council condemned and de- 
pofed as Ncflorian hereticks, and the Council of 
Chalcedon having reftored them upon their juft fub- 
fcriptions, a crafty Entychian perfwaded the Empe- 
rour, that he might reconcile all the Emychiahs to 
the Council of Chalcedony if he would hue condemn 
fome ill words in the writings of thefe three Bi- 
fhops:, which the Emperour called a General Conn . 
cil together prefently to do. The one half the Bi- 

O fhop" 

I l $4 1 

flicpsabfent thought this was a condemning in pan 
of the Chalcedon Council-, And Vigilim Bifliop of 
Rome being then at Conftantinofle refilled to fubferibe, 
and after excommunicated Menn* the Patriarch 5 
The Emperour caufed him to be dragg'd through, 
theftreets by a rope, to reconcile him: The flames 
of the Church were by this Council much increafed, 
and by condemning three dead mens writings, the 
living were more engaged in a. doleful war. At 
lait Pope Vigilim. confented to the Council ; where- 
upon a great part even of the Weftern Churches 
and Italy feparated from and renounced the Pope, 
and chofe them another Patriarch ( at Aquileia ) 
to be their chief Church-Ruler in his ftead. And 
this continued about an hundred years, till Sergio* 
reconciled them : fo far was the univerfal Church • 
even then from taking the Pope or Church of Rome 
for the Head, or any effential part of the Church- 
Univerfal. And all this was about the Expofition 
of fome doubtful words in three mens writings : 
And can any fober man- now think that the right 
or wrong Expofition of every mans, or thofe three 
mens writings, was a thing that falvation lyeth on ? 
or that thefe are the terms of Chriftianity and 
Church memberfhip ? 

§.33- It would be but matter of fhame and for-, 
jo w to go on, and add the later and more fhame] 
fnl inftances of Anathematizing, efpecially about' 
Imigesjfeveral Emp.erours and Councils hereticating 
each other. What an Engine the Pope and Prelates 
made Cnrfmg men from Chnft, to get dominion over 
Emperours and Kings, to fubdue Kingdoms, and to 
turn Love and peace into wrath and wars and blood- 
flied and pernicious diviilons : To recite their damn- 
ing of L-yahy under the name of the Hemician he\ 
reflc : their damning all that (about Tranfubftan- 

tiation ) 

C 195 1 
tiation ) renounced not the belief of all their k 
and rational perception of fenfate things • and that 
renounced not alio the belief of all the found mens 
fenfes in the world, and confequently the belief of 
God : as he is the God of Nature, making his re- 
velation to our underftandings by our fenfes :, ma- 
king it neceflary to falvation to take God for the 
deceiver of the fenfes (or apprehenllons by fenla- 
tion )*of all the world. How they have decreed 
the burning or exterminating of all others, that do 
not thus believe Tranfubftantiation, and depofing 
temporal Lords that will not exterminate them, and 
abfolving their Subjects from their Oaths and Alle- 
giance, and giving their dominions to others. Did 
I but recite to you how ridiculoufly they hereticated 
Gilbert Porretane and fome otter learned men, and 
how fuch expofed the Councils of Bifhops to fcom 
by detecting their ignorance by fome queftions which 
they could not anfwer •, fhould I tell you what work 
their long and numerous Schifms, and two or three 
Popes at once made for the great Councils of Con- 
fiance and Bafil \ and alfo what work thofe Coun- 
cils made themfelves, it might melt the heart of a 
lover of Christianity into grief and tears, 

£. 24. I conclude this, that the hereticating and 
Curfing men for doubt&l words, or Wjarit of skill 
inaptnefsof expreffions, yea or for errours which 
cfeniift with faving faith in Chrift, is fo far from be- 
ing a means of the Churches good, that it hath 
been the grand engine of Satan to. exercife Tyranny, 
excite hatred, and Schifm and Rebellions, and do 
molt lamentable mifchiefs in the world, and there- 
fore carefully to be avoided. 

£.35. 1 1. And what 1 have .(aid of words, I may 
partly fay of actions : Anathematizing men for 

O t 

C 196 3 

doubtful anions, or for fuch faults as confiil with 
true Chriflianity, and continued fubjeftion to Jefus 
Chrift, is a fmful Church-dividing means. 

$. 36. More particularly I fhall fhew after in the 
third part of this book, that it is not all the fame 
things that make a man uncapable of prefent Commu- 
nion in this or that fingle or particular Church, or in 
a compound Church, Diocefane, Metropolitans 
Provincial or National (or Imperial) whicl#make 
him uncapable of continuing in the Univerfal 
Church. Muchlefs doth every continued difobedi- 
cnce to a Bifhops or Councils Canons or Commands 
make him Excommunicable from the Church Uni- 

§.37. But molt abominable was it in the Ro- 
man Popes and Prelates, to (hut up all Churches, in- 
terdttt whole Kingdoms, and excommunicate the inno- 
cent people, becaufe a Kingdifpleafed them, or deny-. 
cd them fubjeftion or obedience. And as old Ro- 
bert Grofrhead Bifliop of Lincoln in his Epiftle to 
Pope Innocent IV. recorded by Matth. Taru, truly 
tells them, It is the wo-,\ of Satan, and next Anti- 
chrifiianity one of the great eft fins in all the world, thus 
to filcnce Chrift s Admifters, and hinder the preaching of 
the Word of God, and the exercife of his pubikk^Wor- 
jhip : Which it concerneth al! unjuit Silencers to 

$. 38. But yet fomewhat more tyrannical and 
abominable is it, for one man, the Bifhopof Rome, 
to damn all the Church of Chrift on earth that will not 
be his Subjefts as the Vicar-General of Chrift, 
and own his Usurpation, and So to cut off and 
damn the far greateft part of the Chriftian world. 
But the beft is procul a Jove, procul a fulmine, the 
remote Churches feel it not, and do but deride it, 
and to the nearer parts his thunderbolt doth not 


L 197 1 

kill all fo many nor kindle fo many fagots as once 
it did; nor is any one ever the more condemned 
by God for inch Papal condemnations. 

$.39. But when I ipeak of particular Church* 
Communion, 1 fliall flicvv, that there is lome lawful 
fufpenfnon ( called by fome the Minor excommunica- 
tion ) which cuts not a man oft" from Communion 
with any Church, much Ids from the univerfai or 
from Chrift. 

5J.40. Not approving of or pra&ifing a doubt- 
ful or indifferent humane form of Liturgy, or 
ceremony or circumftance or mode, is no juft 
caufe of cutting off a man from the Univerfai 
Church. Becaufe notwithftandingthat, he may be 
a true Chrifcian and a member of Cbrift and his 
Church, and therefore mull not falfly be declared to 
be none. 

$.41. Not taking this or that man to be ones 
Bifhop or Paftor who is obtruded, yea or juftly let 
over that Church, ncr yet particular afts of difo- 
bedience to him meerly as filch, are no good proo's 
that a man is no true Chriftian or member of Chrift 
and his Church •, and therefore are no juft caufe to 
Sentence or declare him none : For the fentence muft 
be true. Many things in fiich cafes may caufe a 
man to err, which do not unchriften him or cut him 
off from Chrift. 

$. 42. The difbwning and refilling fome humane 
forms of Profeffion of faith, called Creeds, or for: e 
doubtful (though lawful ) fub'fcriptionsj protpil 
declarations, Covenants or oaths ( much lefs fa lie 
ones J are no juft caules of Excommunicating that 
man who profefleth all the eilentials of Chriitia 
nity, and whatever is neceilary tofalvation. 

jf.43. The condemning of fome fuch hnmanr 
Creeds, Articles, Forms, Covenants, ptcnufes 

O 3 oaths. 

C 19? D 

oaths, though unjuftly, is no juft caufe of fuch ex- 
communication \ becaufe all men being known to 
be fallible, a good Chriitian paay miftake another 
mans ( or many mens ) words : And the mifun- 
derftanding of a man ( or many men ) may (land 
with Chrillianity, piety and falvation. 

£. 44. It is not all that maketh a man uncapable 
of local Communion with this or that particular 
Church which unchrifteneth him, or maketh Jiim un- 
capable of continuing in the Church-univerfal, as 
ihall be after proved. 

" $. 45, Nay a man maybe a Chriflian in the Uni- 
vcrfal Church, who is a member of no particular 
Church, as is before (hewed : As 1. fome newly 
Baptized, as the Eunuch, Att. 8. 2. Some Chrifti- 
ans that live among Infidels, where is no Paftor or 
Church : As if one were now Converted in any 
Heathen Land, or call thereafter^ or called as an 
Embaffador or Merchant to live there. 3. Some 
poor vagrant perfons that have no dwelling \ as 
Pedlars, Tinkers, and fuch others that go from 
place to place : and fome others. 

$.46. Therefore if a manfliouldfo far err as to 
think that he were not bound to be a member of 
fome particular Church, it may conllfl with his be- 
ing a member of the llniverfal Church. 

5$. 47. Some few brethren called Independents, 
think that none are members of the Church-llniver- 
jal but thofe that are members pf fome particular 
Church •- But it is but few of them, and they are 
miflaken : As Corporations are the mod regular 
parts of the Kingdom, but not the whole King- 
dour, T° particular Churches are the moil regular 
parts of the tiniverfal Church, but not the whole : 
as hath been proved by inftances, 


L 199 J 

£. 4.8, Yea (though \vc need lay no fhefs on 
this ) I doubt not but in cafes of rieceflky an c 
profeflion of Chriftianity, and enttinginto the Co- 
venant of God, dorh make a man aChiiftian e 
without baptifm it felf. As if a Bible or good 
book or fpeech convert a rfian among Infidels where 
there is no oneto baptize him : Sr. Fetcr faith, It is 
not the outward wafliing that faVeth, but the an- 
fvver of a good Confluence to God (in the holy 
Covenant.) And it is a difhonourable dextrine 
againft God and Chriftianity to fay that God layeth 
his love and mantfalyation ib much on a Ceremony, 
as to damn or deny an upright holy foul for want 
of it, or to give grace to none but by that Cere- 
mony, though it be of Gods inftitmioru I am fure 
St. Paul faith, Elfe were year Children unckm, httt 
-now are they holy, I Cor. 7. 14. And it Holy before 
baptifm, (becauie the Parents are fo and do devote 
them to God and God accepts them ) then Baptiftn 
doth but folemniTie this dedication and inveft them. 
It is the folemn Govena?nwg with God, that is the 
chief part of baptifm, and is it which, the ancient 
Churches meant, when they pleaded for the necefil- 
ty of baptifm to falvation • Though it is, nogdoubt, 
a duty, where it may be had j and the thing figged 
is neceflary tofalvation. 

$$. 49. The Keyes of Admiffion and exdufion as 
to the Church univerfal, and falvation are not gi 
abfolntely to the Paftors, but only to exercifeon t 
Irfied perfons : And every man herein hath mere, 
power as to his own entrance or ejection thzn the, 
Paftors have : They debut judge a man to be iv/.^r, 

; accprding to Chrifts Law, and not what /. 
not : no man can niake a man a Chriftian ypitfawt I 
felf, nornnchriftianhim without himfelf; nor can all, 
men and devils do fo much to it as himilif : Grief 

O 4 . hath 

C ICQ ] 

hath not put ourfalvation or damnation fo much in 
any ones power as our own. 

$. 50. A falfe and unjuft fentence of excommu- 
nication doth no more to damn a man than a falfe 
abfolution doth to fave him: But till the fallhood 
is known, others for order fake mqft avoid the per- 
son., if it be done by a juft power, and not notori- 
oufly abufed to the fubverfion of order or the 
Church -, otherwife npt. But the injured perfonis 
Hill a member of the Catholick Church ••> And is 
not difobliged from his Communion with it, and 
publick worfhipping of God, becaufe a Paftor un- 
juftly forbiddeth him : Though he mult give all due 
fatisfa&ion, and feek his right in a regular way. 


J 1 1. What are the terms necejfary to the Office 
and Exercife of the Sacred Minifiry ? 

5J. 1. 'T^He Schifms in the Church are far more 
X among the Clergy than the people, and 
have been moftly exercifed by Bifhops militating 
againft each other, and anathematizing each other 
as hereticksor as not fubmitting to the challengers 
of fuperiour jurifdidion : Or elfe in the Bifnops li- 
lencing Chrifts Minifters for not obeying them as 
they expert: HARD WORDS forwantofan 
equal skill in fpeaking,and JURISDICTION 
or fuperiority through pride and a carnal mind, 
contended for by. the Clergy againft' each other, 
Have torn the Church, and confounded States, and 
been the Ihame of Chriftianity in the eyes of In- 


C 201 ] 

fidels, and brought us to the low and broken ftate 
that we are in. 

$J. 2. The great caufe of all this hath been the 
introduction of ignorant or bad men into the la- 
tred Paftoral Office. And the remedy doth not 
yet feem very hopeful to us : And operari fcquitur 
efje : As the man is fo will he do. A good tree will 
bring forth good fruit, and t contra. An ignorant 
man will err : An erring man will do evil and not 
repent: none will do more mifchief againft the 
Churches peace, than an erring Ruler, that Can do 
it, and thinkeph that he Ought to doit: worldly 
men will prefer their worldly intereft, before the 
interelt of Chriftianity and mens fouls : The car- 
nal mind is not fubjed to the Law of God, nor 
(while fuch) can be : But the Proud while they 
will not obey God, will rage againft the belt that 
obey not them. Read Church- Hift or y, and you'll 
fee it proved. 

$. 3. Such as the cboofers are, fuch ordinarily the 
chofenaxz like to be: God and the ancient Chur- 
ches fet three locks to this door, for the fafety of 
the Church •, that 10 great a matter fhould not be 
difpofed of without a manifold confent ; 

I. The perfon to be Ordained and the Ordalners 
were made the Judges who fhould be a Mimftcr of 
Cbrlfi in the Church- Univerfal, as being qualified by 
God thereto. 

I I. The People and the Ordainerswerc to choofe 
or confent who (hould be their Pajlors in particular. 
The people and the Presbyte rs choie the Bijlwp : and 
the Bijlop and people conlenting, chofe the Pre shy 


III The 

r 202 1 

III. The Magiftrate was judge whom he would 
countenance or tolerate. But Gods Law was the Ride 
which all thefe were to obferve in judging. 

$. 4. But all men are corrupt, and fome more 
than others : And they like thofe belt that are 
likeft themfelves,or at lead moll agreeable to their 
intereft and defires. This chain -hath been long 
broken : fometimes the Bifhop of Rome hath claim- 
ed the choice of Bifhops, and given the Bifhops 
the choice of the Presbyters : ibmetime he hath 
given the people the choke of their Bifhops, but 
claimed to himfelf the power of invefting and infti. 
tuting them. Sometime Emperours and Kings have 
ufed this invefting power, leaving ftill the people to 
choofe. In Englandnow the King really choofeth all 
Bijhopsj commending them to the Dean and Chapter 
pro forma : And the Bifhop only choofeth whom he 
mil ordain a Minifttr in fpecie : And one called the 
Patron choofeth who f mil be the Parijl) Prieft, and the 
Bifhop my ft infinite and induti him \ but according to • 
the Law, and the choofmg and confenting liberty is 
wholiy taken from the people. 

5$. 5. 1 .How the Popes formerly chofe and yet 
choofe where it is in their power, I need not tell 
them that know htftory and the world : nor yet 
what Presbyters fuch Bifhops chofe : nor is it any 
wonder that fuch choofers ferved their own intereft, 
nor that the chofen ferve it. 

2. How Princes, and Patrons and Prelates have 
chofen, hiftory tells us: And Chriftwho faith, Hm 
hard it is for the 'Rich to enter into the Kingdom of 
heaven, teacheth us to expett that ordinarily Rich 
ruen (bould not be the bell ( to fpeak foftly ). And 
the Rich will rule \ and will choofe according to 
their interefts and the-:r appetites, 

3. And 

C 203 1 

3. And when the people had their choice, in fome 
places* they chofe hereticks or ignorant men ; In 
other places tbey chofe vitious men : In molt places 
they followed the Court or Great men, when, 
ever they interpofed : and too often divided from 
each other by diftgreement, or caufed tumults in 
X he choice. And then what wonder if the (acred 
office was corrupted to the doleful detriment and 
danger of the Churches, when the choofers were 
but fuch as thefe ? 

§. 6. The things necefTary to the facred Miniftry 
(Bifhops or Presbyters) are I. Either to the2to>/f, 

I I. Or to the Well-being ; III. Or to the Exercife. 

jj.7. I, To the Being are NecefTary, I. A true 
efficient cwfe* 1 1. The true conftitative caufes, 

III. A due Terminus or End . 

$.8. I. The true efficient caufe here is necefTary 
to the effeft, it being the Fundamentum of the Rela- 
tion. And this is, 1. Primary (or Principal) 
which is Jefus Chrift the Lord Redeemer, and the 
Churches King and Head : 2. Inftmmental *, and that 
is, The Law of Chrift, which is as a Charter to the 
Church, firft telling the Choofers , and receiver 
what to do, and then Giving the Tower and Impo* 
fmg the Obligation on the perfon chofen, confenting 
and ordainecl. 

$ 9. II. The necefiary Conftitative Canfes are 
I. Matter (orthefiibjeft.) 1 1. The necefTary Dif- 
pofitionof that Matter : III. The form \ as in Phy- 
sical beings it is fo, fo Relations have fomewhat 

' C\o. I. The 

C 204 D 

f 10. - L The Subjeft or Matter is A Man : 
II. The neceflary Difpofition is, 1. That it be a 
Male and not a Woman. 2. That he have theufe 
of Reafon, or natural wit and fpeech. ?• That he 
be aChriftian. 4. That he have neceffary abilities 
for the eflentials of the office-work. And thofe 
are } 1. The underftanding at leaft of the Eflen- 
tials of Religion and Miniftry. 2. A Will to per- 
form the work of the Miniftry. 3 . Ability of ut- 
terance to do it, and all the neceffary executive 

i. 11. III. The Form of the Office is, 1. In 
ON conjunft: 2. In fpecial Authority to perform 
the Office-work, and obligation to perform it. Which 
work is, 

1. To be a Teacher under Chrift the chief 

2. To be a Priefi or Intercejfor, to guide the 
Church in worfhip and fpeak in their name and on 
their behalf to God, and intercede for them, and 
as from God to adminifter his Seals or Sacraments. 

3. To Rile the Church and particular Believers 
in things' fpiritual, not by force or fword, but by 
opening and directive applying Gods Word^ and exer- 
fifing the Church Keyes y as judges who is to be re- 
ceived or cafi qm^ loofed or bound according to the 
Word of God. The Form conhlteth of thefe 

.tf. 12. HI. The End or Terminus of the Sacred 
Office-, that is, of the Authority and Obtiganon y 
is, 1 , Proximately, the Worh^ to be done. 

2, The neccilkry obje&s of that work j 1. Par- 

C ;o 5 1 

ticular perfons •, i. Infidels and ungodly men to be 
converted, 2. Chriftians and godly men to be edified. 
2.Societies- 1 . The Church Univerfal to be increafed 
and edified. 2. Particular Churches to be taught, and 
guided and led in worfnipand difciplinc. 3. The 
nccefTary effetts ( here named ) to be intended. 

All that 1 have named and no more is necellary to 
the Being. 

i. i{. About all thefe there are divers errours 
brought in by the arrogance and ignorance of men, 
which hinder the concord and peace of Chriftians: 
And I. About the Efficient Caufe. 

Too many falfly perfvvade the world that the 
ORDAINERS are the efficient Caufes of the 
Tower or Office : yea that their Inten- 
tion can alter the [pedes inftituted by 5ce Mr * DodmiL 
Chrift, in the conveyance of it to this or that per- 
fon : As if when Chrift and his Apoftles have de- 
fcribed the office in its parts, and commanded that 
a Bifhop or Presbyter be chofen"' and ordained to 
fuch particular work and ends, an Ordainer mighc 
now give him half this power without the reft; 
And when he maketh Eifnops or Presbyters they 
fhall have no more power than the Ordainer was 
willing, or intended, or did particularly exprefs : 
Than which nothing is more falfe. For it is Gods 
Law, that is the lpecifier and donation, and the 
Ordainer doth but minifterially inveft and deliver 
poileffion of what the Law gave, and commanded 
him to deliver. 

The Kings Law' or Charter givcth power to the 
Citizens to chooie a M.ijor, and deferibcth all his 
power and work, and ordereth the Recorder to 
Swear him and deliver him the t-nfigma. Here nqw, 
i.TheEleftorsdobut determine of the perfon to re- 
ccive the power, but do not at all $vvc it.. 2. The 


C 206 1 

King by his Charter as the instrument- giveth it : It re* 
fults hence as every Jiu a titulo fen fundamento jnris. 
3. The Recorder only Minifterially delivereth pof- 
feflion by inveftiture. Now if the Recorder or 
Choofers fhall fay, [We choofe yon or deliver you 
power a< Major according to the Kings Charter, but yon 
frail have but fo much kfs~] than. the Charter giv- 
eth, this diminution is a nullity ? -For they havener 
power to choofe another kind of Major than that de- 
scribed in the Charter, nor to make his power more 
or lefs •, but he may exercife what the Charter 

Let them not deceive men by making a Verbal { 
ftrife of it. If they will call either electing or tnvefting 
|[ a Giving of the Power ] I will not contend againft 
their liberty of fpeaking as unfitly as they lift, if 
they will but well explain it. But the thing is plain 
and fare, that 1. the eleftion doth but determine of 
the Receiver j 2. and that the Invefting act is but Z 
minifterial publick delivery of a Right which refult- 
eth immediately from the Charter or Law of Chrift : 
If a Bifhop lay [ 1 ordain you to the office of a Pref- 
byter ] the Scripture mull tell us what that is. If 
the Bifhop lay [_ Take the office of a Presbyter, but 
preach not, or only preach and adminifler the Sacra- 
ments, or do both, but you (hall have none of the Church 
Keyes,or power of difctpline] it isnull,asto the reftraint. 

There is no contradt freer than that between a 
husband and wife, as to the choice of perfons. 
And yet when a woman choofeth a man for her 
husband, it is net (lie that (properly J. giveth him 
the Ruling power •, (he did but choofe the receiver y 
God by his Law is the Giver: If fhe bargain with 
him that he fhall not be her Governour, it is null 
becaufe againft Gods Law: And fo it is in the pre- 
fent cafc e If the power of Ordination and Church 


C 2C 7 1 

Government can be proved to be fetled by Chrifl on 
the Presbyters either conjunct with the Bifliop or 
alone, he that ordaineth a Presbyter by virtue of 
Chrifts inftitution, cannot deprive him of that pow- 
er by his own will and aft, by faying, Ton flail have 
no fuch power : For God is the defcriber and the 

$. 14. Yea fome would perfwade men that the 
very office of Presbyters is of humane inftitution ; As 
fome Papiits in the Council of Trent would have 
had it pafs that Chrift having made the Pope, the 
Pope maketh the office of Bilhops, and they hold 
their power from him, fo fome Prelates would have 
it believed that Chrift only inftituted the Order of 
Bilhops, and thatBiftiops made the Order of Sub- 
ject Presbyters, and that after Scripture-times*, there 
being none till then exiftent, but the word [Presby- 
tei\ in Scripture, everywhere fignifying only a Bi- 
fhop. Which thofe that are againft the diftindt 
order of Bifhops thankfully accept, and fay that in- 
deed Suhjett Presbyters having no ordaining power area 
hnmane invention hnce Scripture-times, and that God 
inftituted no fuch order : But the difference, is that 
thefe lay man had no authority to do it, and bid the 
other prove by what authority it was done, and 
where the Bifiiops had fuch power given them to 
make a new fpecies, order or office of facred Mi- 
nifters*, But the other lay that it- was well done: 
But proof is all. 

§. 15. And here come in many other Church-di- 
drafting contentions : As 1. Whether any Bifliops 
Ordination be valid that holdeth not his Power 
from the Pope ? 2.. Whether >he be a true Bifhop 
that is not Canonically ordained by three Bifnops ? 
3. Whether he be a trueBilhopthac is not rfiofeu 
or confented to by the people and Presbyters of his 


C 20S 3 

Church? 4. Or if he have but the minor part? the 
reft not being a llo wed or called to choofe? 5. .Or if 
the major part be againfthim ? 6. Or if three neigh- 
bour Bifhops be for him and ordain him Bifhop, 
and many more be againft it, or forbid it ? 7. Whe-* 
therhebe a true Presbyter that is not ordained by 
a Bifhop of diftintt and fuperior Order : And whe- 
ther an uninterrupted fucceffion of fuch ordination 
is neceflary ? 8. Whether he be a true Bifhop that 
is ordained only by Presbyters ? 9. Whether he 
may be a true Bilhop or Presbyter that hath no 
Ordination ? 10. Or he that hath no Elect ion but 
the Kings ot the Patrons, nor other proved Confent 
of the people in. Whether he be a true Bilhop or 
Presbyter that the King alloweth not or forbiddeth? 

12. Whether the Ordination of hereticks be null? 

13. Whether the Ordinations of prohibited, de- 
graded or excommunicate Bifhops be null ? Abun- 
dance of fuch controverfies ignorance and fadlion 
have torn the Churches with. 

£. 16. I. As to the firft I need not anfwer it to 
any but Papifts, and as to them, I and others have 
laid enough that is unanfwered. 

£. 17. II. As to the fecond, where the Churches 
agree to take none for a Biihop that is not ordained 
by three, four or more, that perfon cannot be the 
Bilhop of that particular Church which by fuch 
agreement doth refufe him: Not for want of any 
thing neceflary to a valid ordination, but for want 
of the Confevt of the people or fubjetts that are to re- 
ceive him : For he cannot be their Paflor againft 
their will. But the Ordination of One may make a 
man a Minifter in the Churchumverfaly unfixed ; 
and to a particular Church, if the receivers of him 
-co content ■ ^.18. 

L 209 ] 

(. 18. Ill As to the thirft, Ek&ionoft fignifi- 
tth the iirft determining nomination diftinft trom 
after concern : This is notneceflary to the office or 
power : But Consent isncceilary at leaft to the excr- 
cife : and therefore to the office which is for that ex- 
ercilc. If people were as much under Princes for 
choollng Guides for their fouls* as a daughter in 
her fathers houfe is under her father for the choice 
of a husband ( which yet I never faw proved to be 
fo ), yet as he can be no husband to her without her 
content, though ihe culpably deny confent, fo is it 
here s he can be no Paflor to them till they con- 

$.19. IV. and V. In all Societies where confent is 
neceilary, the confent muft be either of All or of the 
Moftyov elfethey will divide. 

$. 20. VI. Tothe(ixch,The queftioh of the Va- 
lidity of the Ordination dependeth not on it; but 
on the peoples acceptance and confent : if ten Bi- 
fhops ordain one man Biihop of a Church, and three 
ordain another to the fame Church, and one a third 
f ( as fometimes there have been divers ordained 
Popes) that only is the true Biihop whom the 
Church which he is to be over, cenfenteth to. Other 
dccilions will not ferve. 

$.21, VI t I will anfwer this largeiier by "'' 

in the third part : Here I only fay, 1. fo far 

Ordination is necelfary, the Ordination of a 

is neceflary : But the queftion is* fthat a Bi 

If he be defined by the Power of ordaining 

fome think there is no fuch : becaufe by the 

nons the Presbyters were to joyn in Ord 



C 210 ] 

Others think that when none elfe are there, any one 
Presbyter may ordain alone. If he be defined by 
the Power of Ordaining [imply, or of having a Nega- 
tive vote in ordaining, the doubt is whether every 
Presbyter have not Power to ordain, as in nature the 
Propagation of its own fpecies is common to all 
living things. Either. Ordination is a Governing att 
of fuperioiity, or a propagation of the fpecies. If the 
later, Presbyters may doit. If the former, then Bi- 
fhops cannot ordain Biihop? as fuch, nor Arch-bi- 
fhops ordain Arch-bifhops, nor Patriarchs ordain 
Patriaerhs, nof any one ordain a. Pope : And yet of 
old Deacons and Presbyters were made Popes, that 
were not before fo much as Bidiops, Formojus bein^ 
thefirft Bifhopof Rome that had been a Biihop be- 
fore, and therefore condemned and executed dead, 
the Canons forbidding any to remove from one-feat 
to another, faith Arch- bifhop Vfier, [Jerome ad E~ 
vagr. affureth us that at Alexandria from the dayes 
of St. Mark, till Demetrius the Presbyters made their 
Bifliop, ergo they may make Presbyters : They that 
can do the greater can do the lefs. ] And Dr. Ham- 
mond concluding that there is no proof that in Scri- 
pture-times there were any fubjeft Presbyters di- 
ftinft from Bifhops, maketh it hard to be proved 
that there fhould be any fuch at all:, and whether 
the making of a rank of Presbyters that have no 
power of Ordination be not a. changing of Scripture 
order and a fin? Yet even fubjed Presbyters (made 
fince Scripture-time ) concurred in ordinations, and 
do partly to, this day. 

2. If a Bifhop be defer ibed by his aftual fuperiority 
over Presbyters, then faith the forefaidDr. Hammond, 
there was none in Scripture-times. 

3- If, a Bifhop be defcribed by being over 3-! 
Cmrch compounded of divers Parifh Churchts, ( or 


[211 ] 

Congregations that have Altars ) there can none 
fuch be proved to be in the world for about two 
hundred years after Chrilt, ( befides Apoitles and 
Icinei ants, whole Province was indefinite and not a 
particular Church ) nor of long after faving sit 
Home dud Alexandria. There was none fuch when 
Ignatim's Epiftles were written. 

4. But if the chief or only Paftor of a (ingle Church 
( that hath mum alt are ) yea of a City Qourch, be 
to be called a Bijbopi then multitudes now called 
nicer Presbyters have been fuch Bifliops, and have 

And as to' a Negative Vote in ordaining, that 
( if it were proved it felf ) proveth no dtftihSk or- 
der or office, but for order -fake a prerogative in the 
fame office. The queftion is yet undecided even 
among Schoolmen and Bifliops, whether a Bifhop 
and Presbyter differ only iiradn (as the foreman 
from the reft of the Jury, or a Jufticeof Quorum 
or a chief* Judge or Juftice, from the reft) oralfo 
Or dine or Sfctit, ( as a Juftice and a Conllable. ) 
Saith Arch-bifhop Vfner with Biihop Reignolds and 
many other Bifhops, Ad ordinem pertinet ordinare , 
and they .are cjufdem ordinis , which others deny. 

0. 22. But not to anticipate my fuller anfvver 
to this cafe, I briefly anfwer, that Gods Law or 
Charter giving the Minifterial power to the duly 
qualified receiver, no Ordination doth more than to 
determine ( \iflth th<J people jf confent)' who is the qiui* 
lifted receiver, and for the fake of Order, and the 
Churches notice, to declare his right and folenwly in* 
w(t him. And God hath not appropriated this 
declaring and inverting power, fo to their Prelates 
diftinft from Presbyters ( that I ever found ) as that 
the Church fnould receive none but of their ordina- 
tion. What men decree is one thing/ and what, 

P t God 

C 212 3 

God crdaineth is anotner. Where an order is fit- 
led by men according to Gods allowance and gene- 
ral rules, there the people fhould ceteris paribus re- 
ceive him that is molt regularly commended to 
them. But if they receive one lefs regularly fent 
them, if he want nothing neceifary to. the Being of 
the office, lie is their Paftor who is fo received by 
them. When Juftices of the Peace" did marry the 
people in England, the Marriage was valid before 
God/as truly as when the Clergy did it. The fame 
-is a Efficient designation of the Recipient perfon 
in fbme times, places and circumftances, which is 
not at. others. And when the Perfon is but Deter- 
mh:ed of and consented to, Gods word authorized 

$.23. VIII. The anfwerto the feventh qu.fti- 
■on fervethtothe eighth: They were true Bilhops 
v;hom the Presbyters made at Alexandria \ and 
thofe in the North of England who fas Beda faith ) 
were made by Scots Presbyters. 

g. 24. I X. He may be a true Bifhop or Presby- 
ter that in cafes of neceflity hath no Ordination at 
all : (much more "he that is ordained but by Presby- 
ters ) The proof lyeth in thefe things let toge- 

1. As h laid* Gods L*w or charter giveth the 
right or power to the duly qualified, determined and 
chofen perfon: But in cafes of ncceffiiy a qualified 
perfon may be determined of and chofen without any 
Ordination: Therefore he may have the right or 
authority without. 

2. Such nccefity. there mav be in fevcral cafes: 
As i. If by good books men be Converted among 
Infidels where no Bifhop or Ordained Mmift§r can 


C 213 3 

bchad: They muft not therefore forbear Church- 
ailemblies and publick worihipping God, and bap- 

?. In cafe that many Chriltians be bmifhed or 
caft upon forraign lands where no Mir. to ' 

be had. 

3. In cafe that pcrlecntors banifh or deftroy all 
ordained men, and will iuffer no other to come 
among them, or them to fetch ordination. 

4. In cafe that all the Bifhops or Ordainers trrtx 
cither hereticks or tyrants, and will-ordain none but 
on fome finful terms. 

5. In cafe that men living under Bifr.ops do 
forge Orders and pretend that they are ordained 
when they are not, and the people knox it not: 
Their adts now are of full authority or validity to 
the innocent people, though God will condemn the 
pretender for his fin. This cafe I have oft known 
my fclf, and in my "youth lived under fuch as was 
after difcovered. And the opponents themfelves 
here cenfefsthat Preemption may ierve turn to the 
people, when they cannot detect it. And indeed 
few people in England know any othervvife than by 
preemption thnt their Bifhops or Pallors are or- 
dained. And if it were true that Presbyters Ordi- 
nation were nu! 1 , vet when the ordained after great 
itudy belicvah it valid, and the people cannot know 
the contrary, here is a Prefiimed utlzboih to the 
ordained and the people:, that is, valid adrainiftra- 
tisns and receptions without ordination. 

ij; 2. And indeed the like cafes prove it by 
parity of reafon. 

Ordination to the Miniftry is but like Coronation 

to a King, or publick marriage to Confenters, or 

like lifting and the faramemim mtlitare to a Souldi- 

er, or like public,^' authorizing to a Phyficion, a 

P j School- 

C 214 1 

School matter, &c. and not all fo much as b*fUf£tfr 
to make aChriftian: But an hereditary or Elefted 
King, is a King before hi; Coronation \ and mar- 
riage privately contra&ed and publickly profeffed, 
is valid before God before the folemniz^tion by a 
Minifter, and in cafe of ncceffity without it : And 
a Souldier may be truly fuch by contract without 
Colours or Oaths : And a man may be a Lawful 
Phyficion or School-mafter in cafe of nccefiky with- 
out a Licenfe or publick authorizing. Yea one may 
be a Chriftian before God, yea and before men, 
that openly profeiTeth and Voweth the Baptifmal 
Covenant, though in cafe of neceffity (when either 
a Minifter or Water cannot be had ) the walhing be 
wanting. And we are not to feign God to make a 
difference here without proof, or to lay more ftrefs 
on an outward a£t of man and point of order than 
he doth. 

£. 26. 3. And as to the Nature and life of the 
thing, Or^r is for the fake of the thing ordered, and 
the perfons for whofe good it is *, And therefore 
not to be fet againft: them. 

i 27. 4. AndChrift himfclf hath oft taught us 
this way of judging : When he bids us,Golcayn??hat 
this meaneth, I will ftmfe mercy and not facrifice. And 
when he oft reproveth Jews and Samaritans for ftri- 
ving about circumftancesjfetting them againft fpi- 
ritual worfhipping of God *, And when he faith, 
The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for 
the Sabbath •, And Paul when he faith, Alt t 
yours, whether Tmlox sfpollos, and Let all be done to 
•Edification. All which tell us that the End is a cer- 
tain Canon to the means, and to be preferred 5 and 
that Morals muftjbc preferred before Rituils, and 
Rituals never fet againft them, j And (Rethinks they 

liioddbeoi 1 ripture to 


1 M* ] 

have unchangeably fixed all Rituals, and yet confefs 
that Morals are fixedly determined. 

$.28. 5. And even Popes have been taken for 
Popes upon Election before Coniccration : And 
Arch-bilhops with us have no fuperiours to Confe- 
crate them, but fuch lnferiours as promife them 
obedience at their own Ccnfecration. 

55. 29. X. Tothetenthqueftion, There be fome 
called Eraftians who hold the King to be fo mixta 
perfonaMkc Melchiz.edeck> as that he is alfo the chief 
Priefi) and hath the chief power of Ordinaiion, and 
that he might adminiller the Sacraments if he would, 
and that his Appointment is an Ordination, which the 
people are bound by reception of the perfon to 
confent to. There are others that think t 
though the inverting ad mult be performed by a 
Bi/hop, yet he is bound by the Kings choice and 
command to do it, as a Minifler of God and the 
King. But as I never law either of thefe well pro- 
ved, fo very few comparatively receive them, and 
therefore they will never unite the Churches. And 
Chrifts giving the power of the Keys himfelf to 
the Apoftles and their Succeflburs in the Miniftry, 
fcemeth to me to comradid them. Sure I am that 
Chrifts Church hath not thus been founded or edifi- 
ed : And yet Magiftrates have a great and honou- 
rable part even in the Government of the Church. 
I fpeak not for all thofe Popifli Councils and Ca- 
nons which nullifie all Ordinations of Biihops either 
choten or prefented by Civil Rulers or Great men 
that are Secular ; nor of thofe that pronounce even 
a Pope an Ufurper that is fo introduced : But of 
Councils and pradiceof the founder ages that vyerc 

P 4 lew- 

t 216 2 
2. However if Clergy and people were proved 

to be bound- to Consent to whomfoever the Prince 
ihall chpofc, yet till the^ do confer*, he is noBHhop 
to them: You may (could that be proved) prove 
them culpable -for not consenting, but not prove him 
fheir Btfop ' as the Scripture, and ail Church cu* 
ftorne and Canons and Reafon Ihew. 

§. 30. XL To the eleventh cafe I anfwer r That 
the Priefts or people finwhodifobey a lawful com- 
mand of the King (and not other wife, ) But fin 
or not fin, it nuilineth not the Ordinntion or Pneft> 
hood-, meerly that it is againft the will of the Prince. 
All the Biftops and Priefts in the world ( or molt ) 
were made againft the will of Princes for three hun- 
dred years : And Chrift gave the Keyes to other. 

$.31 XII. and XIII. To the twelfth andthiiv 
teenth cafes I anfwer together, If a heretick whofe 
denyal of an eflential of Chriftianity is notorious and 
jnaketlWnm equal to an Apoftate, ordain, his Adt is 
null as without all authority h And the mans Prieft- 
hood or Epifcopacy is null, if he have not a fuffici- 
ent caufe and proof of it befides or without this; 
The fame I (ay of one excommunicate for fuch a 

But if the Herefie be only a fchifm or fome lower % 
errour confiftent with Chriftianity and Pi icfthooc^ 
or the excommunication only on fuch acauie, then 
the ordination (infcnfu paffwo) is not null, meer- 
ly on that account that it was done by fuch 3 hr,r~ 
tick or excommunicate man (As is cpmmonly 
- agreed on). 

But yet if this Btfwp or Presbyter be ordai led by 
? heretick or excommunicate man of a lower order* 


C«7 1 

(o this or that particular Church, ceteris paribus the 
people may feercaion to refufe him, and tonleftjf to 
another that h:\th a better ordination, (unlefi in a 
Church fo corrupted that the Ordainers and 
communicators authority is not to be regarded 
and held up, (which hath too oft fain out.) But 
regularly none ought to ordain a man to any 
Church before the election or confent of the flock, 
though it may ferve adejfe officii, if the ookfent come 

But if three Biihops ordain one man to be Bifhop 
of fuch a Church, and three others ordain another 
to the fame, that is the true Bifhop quoadeffe, which 
the Church to which he is ordained doth accept, by 
their tmfem before or after. Yea though it were 
the worler party of Bithops that ordained that 

£. 32. As to the point of fuccefllve-right-ordk 
nation uninterrupted from the Apoftles, I hope af- 
terward indue place to prove, that to the Church- 
univcrfal fuch there hath been de fafto in all the ne- 
ceffary parts : But that to any particular Church, or 
any individual per forts miniftry, fuch uninterrupted 
courfe of ordination in being, notice or proof, is 
utterly unnecefiary ; apd that the Papacy hath no 
fuch to (hew. 

£.33. To conclude, To the Beingofxhz true Re- 
lation of a Bifhop or Presbyter, is neceflary only, 
j. The Subject., which is a Qualified Chriftian - 
{efficiently notified $nd offered. s 2. 1 he Fundamentmn 
ReUtiom6, Chrifts Lap cr Charter giving him his 
power and obliging him to his work. 3. The mu- 
tual content of Pallor and flock in the Relation to 
a particular Church, is partly pijh rcii y and 

partly as it is Gods means, a modtu 
Jit 10 titulu 4, The Terminus of one ordained to 


. [ 218 D 

the gathering of Churches fine titulo or not to any 
particular Church, is objectively firft men uncon- 
verted to be called, and next men converted to be 
edified : and as Effecfts, the work to be done and the 
good to be done by it. And in thofe ordained to 
particular Churches, it is the work and the effeft 
on them. 5. TheCorrelate is, 1. Chrift to whom 
we are related as his Minifters, as' the efficient of 
our office \ 2. The people to whom we are related 
as the end ; and that i.we are Minifters to the 
worldto be converted, 2. To the Univerial Church 
to be edified, 3. and moftly to particular Churches 
to be guided. 6. The Relatum then is, fich a per- 
fon Authorised and obliged to Teach, Worjlnp and 
Rule under Chrift the Prophet, Prieft and King of the 
Church the foreiaid flocks or Chriftians to the fore- 
laid ends.. 

§. 34. II. So much for what is neceflary to the 
Being of the facred office : Now w 7 hat is neceflary 
to the mil being. And indeed, though the Eflential . 
Unity of the Church lye not upon this, yet the Peace 
andConcord of it doth, and that fo much as that no 
other means without this will attain it. And the 
want of what is neceflary ad bene effe in the Midi- 
ftry and Bifhops, is it that hath caufed the common 

§ 35. And I. Nothing is more wanting hereto 
better qualifications in the perlbns : 1. That 
there be aftrung.wit, and good acquired gifts of 
knowledge, and a ftrcng and lively faith from Di- 
vine iiiimimation, and good acquaintance with the 
les of God : A Pallor or Teacher Ihould not 
• know the tli of Chriftianity, which every 

Jfothe hue-grab and many 

L 219 1 

Accidents. And both eflentials and integrals fhould 
be known by him by a more clear, diftinft and or- 
derly underftanding, not only above the vulgu* fdc- 
Hum, ( common Chriftians ) but above the better 
iort of the flock. And feme ftorc of natural and 
common knowledge called Learning is needful here- 
unto: But efpecialiy more illumination, faith and 
holy wifdom, and skilfulnefs in matter, fence and 
method of the word of God. 

$.36. Where Gods Word is not by the Teacher 
clearly underftood and firmly believed, and he is 
not well acquainted with the work of his office, it is 
not any formalities of Ordination, confent or Ti- 
tles that ufe to make up theft defers as to the fuc- 
cefs. To fay what God can do, is little to this bufi- 
nefs : He can make an Aft to preach to Balaam : 
He can work by fools and ignorant men and here- 
ticks: But Scripture and all ihe common experience 
of ages aifureth us that it is not his ordinary way, 
and that he rarely blefleth fuch with great fuccefs, 
but worketh according to the qualifications of the 
'Inftrument and the Receivers. And let a mans til 
ties ant: ordwatio?i be what they will, weak men w 7 ill 
do fcvfeakiy, and ignorant men will do ignorantly, 
and erring men will do e-rroneoufly, and the Gofpel 
will be wronged, the people will be hurt or lofers, 
and enemies will deride and fcorn. 

$.37. When Ariftotle faith that Wife men are by 
Nature to Rule, and fools and ignorant perfons to be 
.', he meant not 1 fuppofe that this gave wife 
men formal Power \ but that this was the materia 
difpfitio receptroa j as Gold and Silver are to be the 
Kings Coyn, but are not fo.quJt tana: fo only wife 
Chnftians are receprhe matter of Minifterial power, 
and the ivifer the better. And when one appeareth 
.to be of eminent wifdom above ail the reft, ceteris pa- 

C 220 ] 

ribm, the ordainers and people are directed and 
bound by God to choofe that man. And what fcru- 
p!es foever rife about his Ordination, ufually God 
worketh by excellent worthy men, and as lignt can- 
not be hid, fo holy wifdom will be known and va- 

$.38. 2. But LOVE or HOLINESS isne- 
ceifary ad bene effe as well as wifdom : Heat caufeth 
heat : And we have need of facred Heat as well as 
of Light. Love kindleth love : A Paftor fliould 
excel the Flock in Love to God, to Chrift, to Holi- 
nefs, to Gods word and work, and to all the peoples 
fouls, and fliould fpeak all from the Zeal of Love :• 
As the Nurfes milk fhould have the warmth of Na- 
ture. Cold heartlefs preachers ufually reach not 
the heart and have but cold and imall fuccefs. 
Here alfo God worketh ufually according to the 
means : And how can he betaken for a found Be- 
liever of fo great over-whelming things, as we have 
•to fpeak of, that fpeaketh only of them fieepily and 
tcoldly ? 

§.39. 3. And as wifdom and z*e atom Love, Co exe*. 
cutive Activity, but efpecially, Taking- utterance is 
neceffarytothe well-being of the facred-office, and 
the fuccefs. Though it be not the tricks of vain hu- 
mane art and affeftacien which mult do our work, 
yet is it a free and moving utterance of holy mfdcm r 
faith and Love. "And words are not all : Holy ex- 
ample of living in blamelefnefs, j uftice, humility, 
felfdenyal, meeknefs and patience mud be but 
work : And diligence in doing all the good we can. 
What examples are there this day among us of one 
or two holy, humble, meek and patient and unwea- 
ried labourers even in a filenced, Suffering and low 
condition, men of no extraordinary parrs, but with 
ordinary parts of extraordinary labour and pati- 

cnce, that whole Countreys have caufe to blcfs God 
for: I will venture to name three fuch, i. Mr. ? 
Efiors in JStcw fingUndy that hath translated all 
Bible into that mod barbarous language, prea 
to the Indians about forty years, and gathered di- 
vers Churches among their. (And verily I would 
the Jefuites had never done worfe work than $$htt 
they did ( with feveral Fryars ) in Cmgo, Cljhia, 
Jatoifa &c. which is their greateft honour. ) 2. Mr. 
John Davy ; I hear yet living, who bath thefe fifty 
years or near been employed in reconciling the Lu- 
theran and Calvinift Proteftants, not without fuc- 
cefs, as Helmjiadt, Brcmc, Hdflia and other places 
know *, Though much more might have been ex- 
pected if the wars of Princes and the obftinacy of 
contentious Divines had net hindred. 3. Our Mr. 
Timnc. Gouge, an ejc&cd filenced Minifter, who hath 
fct np about fourfcore Schools in Wales, for thcu- 
frinds of Scholars, given away many thouland books 
to them, relieved many poor honeft eje&ed Mini- 
Iters, got the Bible y the Praciice of Piety, the Whole 
Duty of Man printed in Weljb, and vifiteth the Coun- 
ties there (though aged) once a year. 

Gods work muftbe done as car trade and bufinefs 
andnoton the by, as taking up the place ahdtims 
which mens flefhly and worldly interell and work 
can fpare. 

Had the Church fuch mm enow as I have dc- 
fcribed, and as forhe have been ( ileii as Cyprian, A> 
&anz,ene, BafdjCJoryfoflom^ AtticiiSyPhclpUy H;cwn f 
JaUgujtinfy Ambroje, Martin, Salvian, &c. and f:ch 
as Mclantlhcn, Biichcktef, Eitcer, Phaoim, Mujluh& 7 
Martyr, Calvin, Beza, V,fae, Olevian, Pa,^m, Ca* 
mfro, Piiceusy Molincus, DalUiu, Blondel, Ch^^kr^ 
SadeljLcBU/nkj &c. and fuch as we have had ma- 
ny in Englaid, jew:!> Cr:ndal } Field, pignolds) Vjl rr, 


t 222 3 

Morion^ HaH, D^venant^ Cbillingwortb^ Hrfder fljam r 
Dod-y Ball y Bradjliaw-, Gataker, &c. and fuch as yen 
through Gods great mercy we have many, ( I fa^ 
had the world enow fuch as thefe, the light would I 
fcatter the difmal darknefs,.and they would carry 
onChriltsintereft in the Churches, againft the op- 
pofition of Ufurpers, hereticks and contenders : 
For even a few fuch have broke through armies of ; 
Philiftines to fetch men the facred waters of life. 
And it is not fcruples and quarrels about their or- 
dinations or fuch like as would fruftrate their en- I 

f. 40. 1 1. It is greatly needful to the well-being 
of the iMiniftry and the fuccefs, that DoVtrine be kept 
found: And therefore, i.That the Chriflian fimpli- 
city be retained, and many fubtile and curious decifi- 
ons be not made necelfary : A few great:, neceffary 
certain truths, are eafilier preferved than multi- 
tudes of uncertain controverted niceties. 

2. It is needful that fuch as are ordained Mini- 
fters, be tryed men, of found undemanding in that 
which they mult teach and do, and therefore thai? 
both the ordainers and the hearers try them. This 
account of their underftanding is better than the im- 
posing of humane forms upon them for fubferipti- 
on : Not but that Teachers fliould know more than 
the flock, that is, than the eiTentials •, nor that I 
prefume to condemn all the Churches that impofe 
their Confeffions to be fubferibed in their own and 
not in Scripture-words, while they keep only to ne- 
ceffary certain things : But I. (hall afterward prove, 
that this way, though tolerable, is not belt, but ms 
, neceffary and danger 'om, 1. the Scripture affording 
us apt words enow to form our Confeffions in, 
which are paft Controverfie ; 2. and there, being 


Z 226 1 

no probability of bounding mens Iinpofiticns of. this 
kind, when once they fee upon this way, 3. and 
moft Confeflions of that nature now extant Laving 
fome needlefs words which other Churches or good 
Chriftians do diflent from : 4. And the ancient 
Creeds unclerftood ( whicluhe ordainers mufttry ) 
and the old Catechiftical Verities being fufficient to 
this ufe. 5. And there being means of retraining 
men from preaching and vending herefies which are 
more fafe and congruous. 

3. I add therefore that a certain Confeflion con- 
taining the certaineft and needfulleft Integrals of 
Religion fhould or may well be drawn up as a Law, 
forbidding all upon meet penalties to preach or 
fpeakagainflthem ; without any fubfenbing, pro- 
mifing or profefling. 4. And upon proof of the 
violating of flich a Law, and preaching againfi: fuch 
articles it is fufficient that both the Church and the 
Chriitian Magiftrate in their feveral ways mav 
judge them, and by juft penalties corred them (of 
which more after in due place. ) For it is very hard 
io to form long Confeflions (beyond the old 
Creeds, Lords Prayer, Decalogue, and the General 
belief of Scripture) and this not in Scripture-terms, 
which (hall not have fome words, which found and 
honeft Minifters cannot aflent to, ( without lying, 
which they will not do): But to (Hence many words 
which yet w 7 e conceive true, and forbear (peaking 
againftfome things which yet he cannot protefs -af- 
fent to,there are very few fober men but will do. And 
an errour never fpoken or written hurts not others, 
nOr is tobe judged being not known \ Non afparers 
here is as non effe. And if it be vended, the perfon 
may be judged as well as if he hadfworn, fubferi- 
bed or promifed. And they that will tell- u^ yet 
what evil may befall fecret whimpering errours with- 

C 2> 4 3 

out fuch oaths, fubfcriptions or promifes, do' bf 
this over-doing dangeroufly undo-, and left: mart 
ihould be man and the Church imperfect, on pre- 
tence of avoiding a poflible unavoidable hurt, they 
Vv 7 ill let up knaves that will lay any thing, (hut out 
honeft men^ and neceflkate divifions* confufions ] 
and perfections, where they can never {top on 
this iide banifhing or killing, or ^continued itfipri- 
foning multitudes of faithful men, and never the 
more attain their ends. Sound doftrine may be 
kept up as far as is to be hoped, by the aforefaid 

$*4i. II J. It is greatly needful to the Well-being 
of Miniflry and Church that Gods public^ worjhip and 
Sacraments be kept pure. Not that any thing done 
by man wiil be void of imperfection* but that it be 
fiichas is acceptable to God, honourable to Religi- 
on, and profitable and fuitable to the flock, and to 
good men. 

To which end, i. ChriftUn fimplkity 'here alfo is 
neceflary \ That it be not Corrupted or clogged, 
with things uncertain, ncedkfs? curious? nor yet much 
defetthe? not confuted, diforderly, much lefs erro- 
neous, fuperltitious, ludicrous, undecent, falfe or 

2, It is needful that men to be ordained be tryed 
and known to be fuch as can fpeak to God and men 
without fuch unfufferable mif-performance. 

3. And that they be refponfible to the Church 
and Magiftrate for what they fay and do. 

Of Liturgies I am to fpeak in the third Part ^ Only 
here 4. I add that fit words, and fpiritml life? are 
the body and fori of worfnip, and one mult not be 
pleaded againft another, nor any by Formality nwti- 
fit holy worfhip and turn it into a Carkgfs or a lifele.fi 

image * 7 

E 225 3 

imaged Nor yet on pretence of J]>iritnality con- 
demned the frequent ufe of the fame words (com* 
monly called Forms ) whether prepared by the, 
fpcaker who bell knoweth what he needeth, or 
agreed on by the Churches in fit cafes and meafures, 
for greater Concord. 

5J. 42.. IV. It is needful to the well-being of the 
Minlftry and Churches that allPafiors in their places 
be not only allowed to ufe Chrifts true DiftipUne, but 
that it be expelled and really dene in every Church \ 
jand that this Difciplirie be neither caft afide, nor 
\tormfted and turned into malignant war againft the 
pod, nor into tyranry and uilirpation. 

$. 43. What this Difcipline is, is opened before: 
t is defcribed by Chrift in ALitth. 1 8. Jf thy bro- 
ler trefpafs againft tbee> tell him his fault between thee 
pid him, If he hear thee thou haft won thy brother. If 
)e hear thee not, take with thee two or three : If he hear 
m them, tell the Church : If he hear not the Churchy 
him be to thee as a Heathen or a publican ] Serious 
onvincing admonition mult be ufed fwith due pa- 
ience ) to bring a (inner to repentance. And more 
niblick admonition after private •, And ths perfon 
rntenced unfit for Christian Communion, wftep re- 
jfing all he fheweth himfeif utterly impenitent, 
ind he mull be reconciled, abfolved and received 
/hen he giveth the Church juft proof of his true 


$.44. 1. It is a great corruption of this Difci. 
line, when it is exercifed by Lay-Chancellors or 
ther Lay-men, to whom the Keyes of the Church- 

overnment were never committed by Chrift. 

§.45. 2. Itis a great corruption whenitisdone 
ily by an officer of another fpecies than Chrift ever 

Q $.46. 

C 226 3 

$.46. 5. It is an ufurpation and corruption 
when it is clone by the Paftor of fome otjjer Church, 
and not by the proper Paftor of the Church where 
the finner liveth. Such is Papal Ufurpation, when 
the Bilhop of Rome will be judge in London. 

$. 47. 4. Efpecially when iuch a pretender liveth 
far from the place, where perfons and actions are 
not half known, and that only by great charge and 
travel. When the Paftor and people of the pre- 
fent Church may eafily know all, and it belongeth td 
them, who are executively either to communicate 
with him or avoid him, which diftant ftrangers have 
noppportunity or occafion to do, further than by 
declared confent. 

$. 48. 5. ft is a heinous corruption of it to Ex- 
communicate men in a prophane worldly manner, 
without wife, ferious, patient endeavours to apply 
Gods word to the finners cafe andconfeience, to 
bring him to true repentance and amendment. 

§.49. 6. And it is yet more heinous abufe, to 
excommunicate the faithful, for a fearful avoiding 
fin in fome impofed Oath, Covenant, Profeffion, 
promife, fubfaiption, or unneceflary Ceremony or 
Form ^ and efpecially withal to retain in Church- 
Communion multitudes of Infidels, Adulterers, For- 
nicators, Perjured perfons, drunkards, railers, (ten- 
derers, oppreflburs, hereticks, fcorners at piety 7j 
&c. And it's yet worfe to caft out men for not fub 
fcribingtofomelye, falfe dodrine or wicked thing, 
or for refufing down-right heinous fin. And yel 
worfe is it, to make Difcipline an engine to de- 
throne Kings and embroile , confound or fubduc 
Kingdoms, and enflavethe earth. 

$$. 50. The lower firft degrees of Church-Go 
vernment, which is but doftrinally to teach men anc 
reprove them, all Pallors muft ufe, or they omi 


C **7 3 

rhe efiential work of their office. But the full pro'- 
fecution of it to excommunication or publick repen- 
tance is rather needful to the Well-being than to the 
Being of the Churches and Miniftry : efpecially 
when the Chriftian-Magiftrate doth his part. No 
doubt but the Magiftrate may admonilh a finner, and 
command him to make publick ConfefTion in the 
Church, and may fhame the impenitent, and forbid 
familiarity with him, yea and Church-Communion 
when the cafe is notorious or judged by the Paftor : 
But it is the Paftors office to judge of his crimc^ im- 
penitence, and repentance, in order to excommuni- 
cation and abfolution \ and herein the Magiftrate is 
not to take on him the Paftors work, but to com- 
mand the Paftor and people to do their duties. 

£.51. III. So much of the neceflaries to the Being 
and Well being of the Miniftry, As to the exercije, 
it may be gathered from what is faid. There is 
further neceflary to it : 1. Natural ability, poffibi- 
lity, liberty and opportunity - 7 and the peoples ac- 
ceptance, confent and reception. 2. And as to 
the Well-being and fuccefs, 1. The great diligence 
and skill of the Minifter ; 2. The forwardness and 
teachablenefs and zeal and concord of the flock ; 
3. The Concord of the Minifters and Neighbour 
Paftors, 4. And the countenance and encourage* 
ment of faithful Magiftrates will much promote it. 

Q^z CtfAP, 

C 228 3 


IV. What is necejfary to the CenJiitution y Ad- 
miniftration and Communion of Jingle Chur- 
ches ? 

$. 1. TYY f_ fugle} and £ Particular'} Churches 
Jlj I ftill mean thofe that are compounded 
of many. Chrifiians, but not of many Churches. 

And I take not the word [ Church } in any of the 
laxe fenfes, ( for civil, or occafional meetings, or 
fbcieties, or for every religious concourle of Chri- 
ftians, as a Synod, an accidental day of fafting and 
prayer, &c. ) nor for a meer Community or neigh- 
bourhood of Chriftians, . nor for a Chriftian King- 
dom or City, governed by the Magiftrates fword : 
But for a proper Church as political confuting of Pa- 
fior and flock. 

#. 2. When the Apoftles ordained them Elders in 
every Churchy Aft. 14, 23. it (ignifieth that they fet- 
led thefe Elders as the proper fixed Church-guides 
of thofe Churches } Not that they had no Minifteri- 
al power elfewhere, but that this was their proper 
fpecial Charge or Province. As a Licenfed Phyli- 
cion that hath a particular Hofpital or City, is a 
Phyficion every, where that he cometh, and not 
breaking order may exercife his Art, but he may not 
invade another mans Hofpital or Province, nor is 
bounds the other is to medicate that Hofpital, &c. 
So a Minifter of Chrift lawfully invited, may Preach 
and Adminilter Sacraments, yea and Difcipline in 


C^9 3 

any other Church pro tempore, not as a Lay-man , but 
as a Minifter in office. But he is not bound to tat e 
the Charge of another mans flock, nor may intrude 
diforderly, but as a helper or on juft call. 

£. 3. *Iitiuis appointed to ordain £uch Elders in 
every City, which is all one as in every Church : not 
that every City then had a Church •, nor that he was 
to ordain Elders in the Cities that had no Churches : 
nor that he was forbidden to ordain Elders in 
Countrey Villages : Nor that he was tyed either to 
ordain many Elders in every Church or City, or yet 
to ordain but One in one City, or one Church. But 
becaufe de facto there were few or no Villages then 
that had Chriftians enow to make a Church of de- 
ferable confidence , therefore they were congregate 
commonly in Cities and great Towns, where the 
Chriftians of the neighbour Villages joyned with 

£. 4. Every fuch tingle Church then by the Apo- 
llles order had their own Pafior ( one or more ) and 
every iuch fixed Pafior knew his proper Charge and 
flock. And in the time when the Epiltles oilgnati- 
m were written, every fuch Church had One Bi- 
fhop over the other Elders, and ufualiy fome fellow 
Elders and Deacons, *and a fingle undivided Church 
was known by theft notes of Unity £ '£r ?«Vq t$ k- 
jca»;ot'*, &c In every Church there is one Alt or ( or Al- 
tar place , fyaittoi&LW ) and one Bifliop with his. fellow 
Presbyters and Deacons ~\ Whence Mr. Mede well no- 
teth the certainty that then no Church of one Altar 
Was denyed ^Biihop, and 720 Bifliophad more Churches 
With an Ahar than one. That is, no other AJfembly 
for fiated,Communi: n . 

$$.5. Yet ecctfionafynd fu:ordinate Communion 
pans of 'a Church may hold : Thofe called Indepen- 
dents deny not but that in perfection or for w?nt 
Q^ of 

C 230 3 

of a large room, the fame Church may meet by 
parts in feveral places at once : And all confefs that 
a Pariffr Church may admit of Chapels andOrato* 
ries, where diftant and weak perfons may frequent- 
ly meet, that yetfometimes muft come to the Pa- 
rifh Church. And families that have fick perfons 
may Communicate with neighbours joyning with 
them. But thefe are not Churches but parts of 

$. 6. God hath not faid juft how many perfons 
muft make a fingle Church, no more and no lefs, 
determinate^ : buthe hath given us fufficient notice 
tp guide us by the work and end, and by his general 
precepts and examples. 

$.7. cc A fingle Church isafociety of Chrifiians of 
cc Divine inftitution, confifiing of one Pafior or more 
* c as the Guiding part, and a competent number ofpri- 
f* vate Chrifiians as the Guided part, ajfociated by Con- 
" fent for per final prefential holy Communion and mum - 
€L al a(fifiance y in holy DoEtrine, holy worjhip of God, 
u holy order , and holy Converfation, for the edification, 
ic preservation and falvation of that Church, and the 
u welfare of the Church univerfal of which it is apart, 
€C and the Glorifying and P leafing of God our Creator, 
?? Redeemer and Sanftifier. 

§. 8. To open the parts ofthis definition obferve, 

is That as in defining a Sacrament, fo in defining 
a Church, we mention the Divine Infiitution, becaufe 
it is not human Sacraments or humanly-invented 
Churches that we treat of. 

$.9. 2. Note that only Chrifiians make a Chrifii- 
** Church ( as is oft faid) Profeffed Chrifiians the vi- 
fible Church, and fwcere heart cohfenters the myfti- 
cal regenerated fayed Church. 

[231 1 

J. io. 3. ft is not any other company of Cliri- 
ftians, but a fociety or Governed affociation that we 
ipeak of as ftrittly called a Church. 

$. 11. 4. The Paftor s and yfod^ are the eflential 
conftitutive parts: It may be a Community without 
a Paftor , but not a Politic, or Ecclefiaftical Socie- 
ty. While the Paftor liveth it is fuch a Church in 
effe exiftente : when the Paftor is dead, it is an ex- 
iitent Community, and virtually and morally a Poli* 
tied Church , becaufc by the Law and the peoples 
refolution another is to be feafonably chofen. As 
an eleftive Kingdom in the interregnum is virtually 
and morally a Kingdom : But if the purpofe of 
chofiag a SucceiTour be changed, the Kingdom and 
fo the Church is dilTolved, or changed into fome- 
what elfe. 

$. 12. 5. It is indifferent to the being ( though 
not ufually to the well-being,) of a Church, whether 
it have one Paftor or many. 

$. 13. 6. The number of the people though not 
precifely determined mull be competent to the Ends 
of the Society : If it be Greater ovfmaller than is ne- 
cejfary to the Ends, it is no Church of this defined 
focies: As Logicians fay ofthefubjeft of other re- 
lations : If a Boat or Ship be no bigger than a 
fpoon, it is not a fioat or Ship, but equivocally: 
And it may be fo big as to be no Boat or Ship , 
when it is uncapable of the Ends. A Family is too 
fmall to be a City : And a Kingdom or the world 
is too big. Difpoftio materia eft neceffaria ad recepti- 

$-14-7. It is impoffible to be a Church without 
the cement of Confent, profefTed or cordial : If ma- 
ny be forced into a Temple not consenting, it is a Pri- 
fon, and they are not a Church. If they confent on- 
ly to meet on other occafans, or for foflle occafional 
Q^ 4 aft 

C 232 3 
aft of Religion, it is not thereby made a Church. If 
they be commanded to confent and do not, and if in 
only be their duty r it maketh them not a Churchy 
but only proveth that they^k to be one. No 
Law or command maketh a -Church without Con- 
lent. But this Confent may be divers waies expref- 
fed : The plaineft & moll obliging way is belt ; but 
is not abfolutely neceflary : Infome times and cafes 
it may be more needful than at others : efpecially 
at the firft gathering and forming of a Church : 
; fometime ordinary Communion or attendance fpe- 
cially of perfons born in that Church, may fignifie 
neceflary Confent. It's pity then that men fhould 
be fo weak as fome, to make exprefs Covenanting of 
tach member with the Church and Paftor neceflary, 
and others to decide it •, when it is laudable ad bene 
effe but not neceffary ad effe. But fame fignification of 
Confent is neceffary ad ejfe, that is, A Confent to be a, 
member of thefociety, andfnbmit to the Pafior 7 and 
hold Communion with the Church to the Ends in the de- 
finition. And the plainer this is expreft, it is the fit- 
ter to fatisfie the Church and oblige the perfon. 
But whether the Confent be fignified by words , 
writings or deeds is undetermined. No man can 
have the great priviledges of a member either of 
theuniverlal or particular Ctiurch againft or with- 
out his will and confent : And no Miniiter not 
contenting can be a Paftor to any. The Relation 
of a Church member confiftethina Right to great 
benefits due to norefuferor unwilling perfon, and 
in obligation to duty contracted by Confent, be- 
sides the obligation of Gods Command. We can no 
further prove any Company of Chjriftians to be a 
Church than : we can prove that they Confent to 
Cburdb relation for Church Ends. 

$. 15. Chriftianity it felf confifteth in a believing 
Confent to the Covenant of Grace •, and as no man 
is a Chriftian nor hath right to Chrift and his faving 
benefits without Confent, fo no man can have right 
to the Sacraments that feal and deliver this Cove- 
nant and benefits without confent : No Chriitian in 
his wits is for the Baptizing of any adult perfon 
that confenteth not-, And the Lords Supper is a 
ilal of the fame Covenant, and no more due to non- 
conienters than Baptifm. And as it is not enough 
to fay [_l am willing to be Baptized, but not by a 
Miniiler, or not in the order appointed by Chrift 3 
fo it is not enough to fay j[ I would have the Sacra- 
ment and Communion with the Church, but I will 
not fubmit to the Minifiry^ Dolfrine, Worjhip or Di~ 
fcifline of that Church]. For this is as great a 
contradiction as to fay L I w iU be a fervant to you, 
but I will not work or obey hut only have my wa- 
ges] or £ J will be a Soidier, but I will not fight but 
be paid ], He that will have Communion with the 
Church, muft confent to the Miniftry, Worfhipand 
Difcipline of that Church in which Communion con- 

$. 16. And if a Minifter (hall be foimpofedon, 
as that any man or .woman may come when they 
pleafe, and force him to give them the Sacrament of 
Communion, without confenting to take him for 
their Pallor, or to be taught or guided by him, 
(yea or give him fatisfa&ory notice that they know 
what the Sacrament is, or who Chrift is ) he is a 
flave and not a Pallor : Baferthan any School-ma- 
iler, Philofopher, or Phyficion, that are not forced 
to take a Scholar, Pupil or Patient againft their wiiJ, 
or that will not take them for their Teacher or 
Phyficion, and obey them. 

< $. 17. Yet if on this pretence any Bifcop or Pa- 

C 2 34 3 
ftor will impofe unneceflary Covenants, promifes 
or profeflions on the Church or any Christians, and 
make their wills a Law, and oblige men to give 
them any other Belief or Obedience than truly belong- 
eth to the Paftoral Office ,and fo will fet up a tyranny 
inftead of a Chriftian Miniftry, they are not here- 
in to be obeyed,left we be guilty of the corruption. 

jj. 18. Yea if every integral part of the Paftors 
power and the peoples duty be put into fuch Pro- 
mifes or Contracts, and the people required to pro- 
fefs their Confeat, as a neceflary condition of their 
Communion, it is finful tyranny, contrary to Gods 
Law and common reafon and the conftant pradtice 
of the Primitive Church. Chrift himfelf requireth 
unto Baptifm no other Confent as neceflary, lave to 
the cffentials of Religion. A thoufand Integrals 
/nay be unknown to the Baptized, and are fo to 
moft Chriftians : It is our duty never to think, (peak 
or doamifs; But Chrift: maketh not fuch duty ne- 
ceflary to our Baptifm, Chriftianity or Church Com- 
munion. It is the duty of every member of a An- 
gle Church, to hear, believe and obey the Paftor 
in many things where thebeft may fail. To ex- 
communicate a man therefore for not fubfcribing 
or profefling aflent to fome , unneceflary doubtful 
form,for not being convinced by a Lay-Chancellours 
fayings in a doubted cafe, or for not paying the 
Court Fees, or for not appearing the day that one 
is fummoncd to appear at the Chancellours Court, 
and fuch like, are but tyrannical Schifmatical afts. 

The King himfelf is fatisfied with the Oaths of 
Allegiance and Supremacic, and doth not require all 
the fubjefts, no nor the wifeft Lawyers or Judges , 
tofwear, fubfcrihe or profefs, that they affent and 
confent to all the Laws of the land, 

jj. 19. 8. The great Controverile of the age 


C 235 3 

and many ages, is about the true and formal diffe- 
rence between the loweft; fpe cies of Churches > which 
is called A particular or jingle Church, and an ajfo- 
ciation of Churches or a compound Church : That we 
may not confound them, nor make ameer gradual 
difference inthefamefpecies to pafs for a fpecifick 
difference. And there is more lyeth on this than 
molt obfervc. And therefore I determine it here in 
the definition. 

i . It is commonly granted that there mult be 
Chriftian AiTemblies fixed for ordinary Communion 
in Gods worfhip. 2. And it is agreed that thefe 
Aflemblies cannot be held without the officiating 
and conduft of Minifters of Chrift, authorized to 
teach and adminifter the Sacraments (Though 
there be alfo another fort of aflemblies , even for 
fome Religious exercifes, which may be held by 
Princes, Judges and other Lay-men. ) 3. And it 
is by Grotim and many others manifefted, that Chrifl 
formed his Churches more to the fimilitude of the 
Synagogue than the Temple ftate of order and 
worfhip. 4. And it is agreed that though Apo- 
Itles , Evangelifts, and other itinerant Preacher* 
might gather Sacred Aflemblies where they came, 
and were as tranfient temporary Pallors to them, yet 
the Apofties were guided by the Spirit to fettle 
Elders in every Church, as is proved before. 

But here men make a great and diftrafting Con- 
troverfie, 1. Whether this firlt Church-fpecies 
may not conlift of many Congregations, yea, many 
hundreds or thoufands ? 2. And whether every 
Church of the loweft fpecies muft have a Bifhop ? 

$. 20. To decide this Controverfie I do in the de- 
finition exprefs the fpecification of this Church re- 
lation from the End, as all fuch kind of relations 
mull be. It mud be a fixed aflbciation of Chriftians 


1 236 1 

£ for per fond ^refcatid Communion and ajfifiance in ho- 
ly dottrw'e , worjhip, &c. ] This definition is ne- 
ccflary and herein fufficient. 1. It is neceffary that 
a difference be noted between a (ingle Church and 
a Comfofition of Churches'. Becaufe, 1. Several ends 
(hew us that they are not univocaly called Churches 
hut are of feveral forts. 2. The ;firft is pall con- 
troverfie of Divine inftitution: The other are by 
ibme men taken for Divine, by fome for Lawful 
humane, and by fame for finful inventions, and ad- 
ditions to Gods appointed order. Things .that io 
much differ muft be differenced. 

2, It is fufficient as 1. Affigning the true fpeci- 
fying end, 2. and avoiding all extreams. 

1. It affigneth the true end : For that Churches 
of fuch a fort , for that end were fettled by the 
Apoftles, none deny : 2. It juftly differ enceth them 
from all other focieties ; 1. There may be occafi- 
onal meetings of Part of a Church , for want of 
room, or liberty, in private houfes, Chapels , or 
Oratories •, Independents, Presbyterians and Dio- 
cefans grant this : But thefeftill acknowledge them* 
felves to be b\xt parts of a larger fociety confenting 
to the fame fpecifying ends *, and aflembling fome- 
times with that larger body andfometimes apart, 
by reafon of impediments, fage, weaknefs, diftance, 
weather, perfecution &c ) : And though a Parijh 
( as many ) have far more than can meet at once 
tcgether,yet, 1 . Still the ends of the affociation is for 
that fort of Communion : 2. Some of a family may 
' meet one day and ibme another and fome a third. 
|j .Every error and corruption altereth not the fpecies 
ci the Church : The individuals that fail and ab- 
fent themklvcsmake notParochial Communionto 
he another thing for other ends. A Parochial Church 
then js the lowcft and firft trnefpeci.es of CHurcheg. 

2. And 

C 237 1 

2. And this diftinguifheth it from all Compound 
Churches , which are not for Prefect Ordinary Com* 
mnmon in publick worfhip and Difcipline, but only 
for Diftant Communion by Officers, Delegates or Let- 

i. A Synod is for Confutation, and not purpofe- 
ly congregated for ordinary Communion in worfhip, 
and the Churches which fend their Bilhops or 
Paftors thither have not perfonal prefential Com- 
munion one with another ever the more •, but on- 
ly mediate by Delegates or Officers. They may 
dwell a thoufand miles or more, from one another. 
1 If all the Schoolmafters in feveral Kingdoms fhould 
hold Provincial, National, or much larger Synods for 
, agreement in'Teaching and Governing their Schools, 
i this would not confound fuch a Synod with 
a School, as if they were of the fame Species of fc- 

2. This diftinguifheth a fingle Church from the 
, Papal pretended unherfal policy *, And from a Patri- 
archal Church, and from a Provincial*, and a Dio* 
cefan Church in the fenfe now ufed : For thefe are 
compounded offeveral fingle Churches , and they are 
not a fociety at all afTociated for ordinary perfonal 
prefential Communion in Gods worjliip and holy living : 
Only they are all under one General Govemour y 
110t ufing to meet them] r elves nor ever feeing one ano- 
ther. Now if to be under oneabfent General Bi- 
fhop be that which fpecifyeth a fingle or particu- 
lar Church, then All that called the Roman Catholick 
Church is but one fingle Church, compounded of no 
Churches : Or one Patriarchal or Provincial Or Na- 
tional Church, were the loweft fpecies, and a fingle 
Church, and fo the Dioce 'fans were none. 
. But if that which makethit a fingle Church of 
the loweft fpecies were that no Biihop is under 


them, but that they are under one fole Bifliop, then 
i.Ifall England had but one Bifhop fas many tell us 
all Abaffa hath but one called the Abunah ) or if a 
Patriarch put down all the Bifhops under him, this 
Church of his would bebutafingle Church. 2. And 
then there would be no fuch thing as a Church aflb- 
ciated for perfonal prefential Communion^hkh I have 
proved that the Apoftlesby the" fpirit fettled. 

£. 2 1 . Thofe that tell us that a Diocefan Church 
is the firft or Ioweftj^c*V/ of Divine inftitution, 
do either mean by a Diocefs fuch a fbcicty as we 
now call a Parifh, affociated for prefential Commu- 
nion 7 or a Churcn made of many fuch affociated un- 
der one Bifhop : If the firft, they differ only about 
the name, in which they go againfl our commor 
ufe, and are not intelligible by the vulgar. Though 
in old Church writers a Diocefs is fometimes taken 
as greater than a Province and fometime as lefs, and 
a Parifh and a Diocefs are fometimes ufed for 
the fame, and fometime not, yet that diverfity of 
naming hindreth us not from knowing the difference 
of the things , either as defined , or as commonly 
now denominated a Parifli Church and a Diocefs. 
And if their meaning be to prove that fmgle Churches 
effentiated by their Affociation for Prefent perfonal 
Communion, are not of Gods inftitution , no intel- 
ligent impartial Chriftians will believe them, who 
underftand the Scripture and theftate of the pri- 
mitive Churches, and the reafon of the thing. Did 
men believe this , they would believe that Chrift 
had inftituted no Church order or form at all ^ 
Much lefs being to be faid for the reft than this. 
And even thofe few that fay that no form of Church 
Government is fettled by God y do yet grant thatfet* 
led congregations for ordinary worfhip and mutual 
help with their guidingPafiors are of Divine right •, and 


C 239 1 

fo confute them felves \ unlefs they mean only that 
Paftoral Government of compounded Churches is 
not jure Dvvino. 

f. 22. And fome called Presbyterians diftin- 
guifh between a WorJJnpping Church, and a Governed 
Church i and tell us that the lowelt Governed 
Church Ihould confift of divers mrjhipping Churches. 
It may fometime contein divers Subordinate by* 
meetings as Chapels for them that rauft needs be oft: 
abfent from the full aflembly: But that it nwft 
have many fitch, or that it mnft or may have many 
full fettled worfhipping Churches, that perfonally 
communicate ftilt diftantly only in their feveral 
Parches* is contrary to Scripture, antiquity and 
reafon, and deriyeth the firft: inftituted Church 

Thorndikts firft books which fetch the reafon of 
Church Government from Aflemblies , were far 
truer than his later, in which he feemed to dream 
of a humane univerfal Policy. 

f. 23. Either a Bifliop as diftinft ( in Order or 
Degree) from Presbyters is neceflary to the Being 
of a Church of Divine inftitution, or not : If not % 
then it may be a Church without fuch a Bifhop, 
and have accordingly the rights of a Church ( in 
the proper political fenfe now intended by the 
word C Church. 1 ) And then the old fayings 
would not be true, 1. Of Ignatius that [to every 
Church there is one Attar, and one Bifhop with his 
fellow Presbyters and Deacons 3 2 - Of Cyprian, that 
abiEfifcopmibi Ecclefia:. -$. Of Hitrome and Others, 
Ecclefia eftplebs adnnata Epifcopo. 

If yea, then 1. Our Parifh Priefts are true Bilhops, 
or elfe the Parifh Churches are no true Churches, 
but Chapels, as wanting an eflential part. 2. And 
then there are no Churches in England of the low- 


1 240 3 

fcfi: fpecies ( for prefent Communion, &C. ) 3. And 
then it will be hard to confute them that fay, No 
form of Church Government is jure Divino or in- 
ftituted of God. 4. And the. form of Government 
being the fpecifying form of the policy or Churchy 
it will follow that God hath inftituted no Churches 
but the univerfal as headed by Chrift. 5. And if 
you will confefs to the Separatifts that we have no 
Churches of Gods inftitution y you will never heal their 

£. 24. I am therefore pall att doubt* that if it 
can be proved that a Bijhopis' neceffary to every true 
Church, xk^t every P arifli Jhoufd have a Bijhcpy and 
if Arch-bi(hops-be good and meet, the EUocefam 
fhould be their Arch-bidiops. :• And that depofing 
the Parifh Bifhops and Churches is a heinous cor- 
rupting crime. But if Bifhops be not neceflary 
to a Church as fuch, the cafe is otherwife. 
. $.25. It is therefore of great importanceithat 
(ingle Churches be neither too great nor tod fmaU. 
If too [matt, they will want 1. the honour of. fol- 
nefs, 2. and the cheering help of praifing God in 
great afiemblies, b- and the mutual counfel and 
vigilant help of many, 4. and the fafe guidance 
of many Presbyters ( or a Biihop and Presbyters) 
which a few people cannot expeft. 

And if it be too great, it will 1 . hinder the com- 
fort of thofe that want room in the Church altera- 
bly, 2. or caufe the Church to degenerate intcano- 
therfort offociety. 

It is beft therefore that it fhould be as Great as 
that all the peopld who are conftant worlbippers 
of God on the Lords days may meet in one place, 
where they have liberty, Chapels or lefler meetings 
being allowed to the aged, weak, fick or. very 
diftant ", yet all that are able coming fometime to the 
common Church. $. 26.. The 

E 2*1 1 

$. 26. The firft degenerating of (ingle Churches 
grew 1. out of the ambition of the Pallors to, ex- 
tend their power as far as they could 5 2. and ouc 
of a defire in the people to fee their afiemblies as 
honourable for greatnefs, number, and concord as 
they might v 3- and out of a conceit that one City 
fhould have but one Bifhopand lb be one Govern- 
ed Church. 

And hereupon at Alexandria and Rome they be- 
gan to have feveral fixed Chapels in the fame City 
and neighbour villages, and theBifhopto fend Cu- 
rate-Presbyters to them as he pleafed, yet fo that 
at firft they communicated frequently in the Bi- 
fhops Church. After that thefe Presbyters were 
fixed and gave them the Sacraments where they 
came: After that they were tyed to come to the 
Bifhops Church for communion but at Eafier, Whit- 
fontide, or fome great and rare feafons ; After that; 
they were fo many and far off, that they were no 
more obliged to come at all , or to hear or fee 
the Bifhop, but only to be distantly ruled by him, 
j and their Presbyters. Then many Comtrey Parifies. 
gq£ Bifhops : But the City Bifhops difagreeirig with 
them, long after got them down. 

§. 27. Were it true that every City in the old 
fenfe fhould have a Bilhop and but one, it would 
follow that every Corporation or great 'town or Bo- 
rough (called Market Towns) in England fhould 
have one •, the word [ ** a/? j fignifying fuch of 
old. And were it fb, and the Countrey Parifhes 
adjoyning made Chapels and diflributed according- 
ly to the feveral Towns, it would be like the old 
ftate of the Church about three hundred and four 
hundred and five hundred years after Chrift, and 
much better than it is, though nou as it fhould 

§. 28. .$j. The remote ends are mentioned in 
the definition, viz.. the right worfliipping and 
obeying God, the welfare of the Church-uni- 
verfal (for the parts all contribute to the per- 
fection of the whole)-} and the glory and plea- 
ling of God are the common ultimate end 
of all. 

$. 29. By all this it appeareth what is neceflary 
to make a particular Church,, and to make a man 
a member of it : And that it is not neceflary here- 
to that the perfon be a member of a Compound 
Church j Dioceftn, Provincial, Patriarchial, Nati- 
onal pr Papal ( whatever it be to fome of thefe 
on any other accounts ) : Nor yet that he make 
any unneceffary profeflion, promife or Cove- 

$. 30. But to the a&nal Communion withfuch a 
Church in exercife, the nature of the thing maketh 
it neceflary that the people confent and be guided 
by their Pallor in the circumftances belonging to 
his office, which are neceflary ingenere (to be fome 
way determined ) but not neceflary in fpecie vel in- 
dividuo( this rather than rW). For inftance : Tfcey 
that will .have communion in publick worfhip', 
mud meet in fome capacious place , at fome day, 
fome hour i If any one will not come to that place, 
at that time appointed , he feparateth from that 
Communion in that ad.- The Scripture mull be 
read in fame Tranjlmon, fome order. If any fay 
I will not Communicate with you unlefs you ufe 
another tranjlation, another order ( without verfcs, 
and Chapters) or read fome other parts, he ib far 
feparateth from that Church : In fmging Pfalms if 
he will not joyn in that Vcrfion, that Pialm, that 
Tune which the Church ufeth, he fo far fepara- 
teth ; If he will not hear the Preacher unlefs he i 
*- change 

C 243 3 
change his text, his method, or ufe notes, or no 
fiotes, and fo in fuch cafes will not follow but lead, 
he feparateth fo far : for all cannot be leaders , 
and be of one mind. But if the Mini ft cr will 
fay, CYou (hall not communicate with us unleft" 
you will fwear , or fay, or do fome unnecefiary 
thing] it is he then that is the divider, and un~ 
juftjy cafteth out a Chriftian. 


What are the necejfary terms of Concord of theft 
Jingle Churches with one another 7 in the fame 
KJngdome or in divers. 

§. 1. HT Hat they be under the Government of a 
A Chriftian Magiftrate is neceflfary to the 
well-being or great advantage of them, though not 
to the being, of which more in due place. 

jj. 2. That they live as neighbour Churches in 
Unity of faith and love, and avoid all things con- 
trary, and to their power help each other accor- 
ding to need and 1 opportunity, is their duty. 

$. 3. It is neceflary that they agree in all things 
neceflary to the communion of men as members 
of the Church univerfal, mention'd before j and 
in all things efiential to particular Churches. 

£. 4. If any one excommunicated juftly far he- 
refie, apoftafie, or impenitence , in any crimes, 
fliall. offer to defile and endanger any other Church 
by intrufion or deceit,the Church which caft him out 

R 2 is* 

C 244 3 
is bound by the Laws of Love and Coijcord, to fend 
notice to ftich endangered neighbour Churches of 
the perfon and his cafe, to prevent their hurt: 
And unlefs the Church that caft him out have cri- 
minally forfeited their credit, other Churches are 
bound by the Law of Charity to take their fentence 
as probably juft, and not to receive the eje&ed 
perfon, till he have either proved his fentence un- 
tuft , or profefs repentance. Not that they are 
bound abfolutely to exclude him and deny him au- 
dience ( though yet they claim no fuperiority over 
the Church that excommunicated him ; ) but 
as neighbours and parts of the fame Church uni- 
verfal, they mull hear both fides before they deny 
any Chriftian communion that claimeth it} at leaft 
when his allegations have great probability of 
truth, and feem to weigh down all that they have 
received againft him. 

And they may abfolvethe Criminal upon a juft 
profeliion of true repentance , but fuch a pro- 
feflion will not Hand with a refufal to confefs " 
the fame Church where the man finned, without 
fome fpecial probable reafon ; it being that Church 
which is molt wronged by the fcandal, and hatf 
heard the caufes* 

§. 5. If any Church (in the lame Kingdom or 
another) be accufed of violating the Chriftiar 
faith, or of any crime which Christians are bounc 
to difown by avoiding the criminal, it is the duty 
of the accufed Church to be ready to fatisfie the 
offended Churches , by anfwering the accufation ; 
not as to Rulers by thereafons of obedience, but as 
to Chriftian neighbours by the rule of common 
equity and love, and for the prefer vation of unity 
and peace. 

f. 6. If the charge be but general, ( that the 



Church is guilty of herefie or unfoundnefs in the 
faith) it is the duty of the accufed Church to fend to 
theoffended the Profeffion of their Faith and Reli- 
gion, which need to be no more than this, which 
the offended ought to take as fatisfaftory. 

u We hereby profefs that we ft and to our Baptifmal 
<c Covenant, fducially believing in God the Father ', Son 
"and Holy Ghoft, our Creator, Redeemer TiV.dSan- 
u Vtifer, and give up our [elves to him accordingly in 
u thefe Relations , Believing t\ie articles of all the 
P Creeds in which the universal Church ever agreed, 
iC and defiring the things contained in the Lords Pray- 
cc er, and consenting to obey the ten Comman dements as 
<c delivered to us in nature and by Chrift ; and we 
4t profejs our obligation and Confent, to Believe, Love 
<c and obey all that we do or ft all underftandto be the re- 
u vealedword of G od, even the f acred Canonical books of 
(i Scripture,cind in this common Beliefs and Love and pra- 
4C fticejo livein the Communion of the unniverfal Church 
CL of Chrifi : Renouncing the Devil, the world and the 
ct flejh as they are enemies to any of this, and all do- 
cc Etrines, de fires and practices, contrary hereunto, fo 
"far as unfeignedly to endeavour to refft and cver- 
" come them, and when we err and fin, to rife by true 
tc repentance ', Aid all thif in Hope of the Love of God 
"the Father, the Grace of the Son, in our Pardon, 
u J unification and Adoption, and the Communion of 
"the Holy Ghoft, and of the Perfeftion of thefe and 
" of our felves with the Church in everlafting 
u Glory. 

This may be briefly exprcft in Baptifm and to 
prefent perftms that may receive our explications 
where they doubt of our understanding or firicerity : 
But to diftant fufpe&ing perfons or Churches, fuch 
largenefs is ufeful-, and this is enough. 

R 3 $. 7- Bat 

C 246 1 

$.7. But. if any particular herefte or mW be 
charged 6n a neighbour Church, it is not to be 
believed without proof, nor they to be difclaimed 
till the charge be fent to them, and their defence 
be heard ', And herein they ought to offer fatisfattion 
to the offended Church, 1. By denying the charge if 
falfe'i 2. By explaining words and actions which are .. 
ambiguous and to be fuf petted: 3. In controverted 
cafes , ' by renewing the forefaid profeffion of all that 
is neceffary explicitly to be held, and promiftng to re* 
nounce any opinion or practice as foon as they perceive 
it contrary thereto', 4. And in all cafes of words or 
deeds exprefsly contrary to Gods doElrine or Law, or I 
which they fiall be convinced to be fin full, to confefs the . 
err our or crime, and humbly crave the prayers of the 
Church for pardon, and profefs their purpofe of future 
reformation. ] 

This is the means, and this is enough for the 
offenders fatisfa&ion : And if the errour be no real 
and difcerned denyal of any neceflary article of 
faith, but an undifcerned remote confequential 
contrariety, with which the profefled holding of 
that particular neceflary article which they feemto 
overthrow may Hand, that Church (or perfon) is 
not to be rejected from Communion, or here- 

For itiftance, If a Church be accufed to be Neflo- 
rians, or ^Eutychians, '. or Mpnothelites, their anfwer 
ought to be L Mary is the Mother of Chrifl: who is 
God, and in that fenfe, of God, but not of the 
Deity , or as <God j And £ Chrifl s Natures , 
Wills, and operations, are two as difiinQ, but not two 
as divided. 3 But if they have not fo much ( eaiic ) 
skill to explain themfelves , but lay ruddy as 
'Neftorias Q / wtil not fay that God was two or three 
months old 2 or as Cyril and Eutychim and Dioj co- 

L ^47 J 

rus ^Chrifls natures were two before the Union, but 
fnce One and not Two'}, if withal they profefs that 
they believe Chrifb to be true God and true man in 
one perfon, and do not deftroy, deny or confound 
the Godhead and manhood or any other eflential 
point of faith or religion , they ought not to be 
hereticated or reje&ed. 

$ 8. No Church hath power or duty to deny 
any other Communion to another Church or per* 
Ton, but fuch as they had power to grant them. 
But to remote perfons or Churches, never feen 
by them ( as in other lands or Countries) they can 
grant them no Trefential local Communion but 
only Mental : Therefore they can ejett them from 
none but mental : They cannot take from them 
what they never had nor are capable of : But we 
in London never had local Communion with them 
of Vienna, Paris, Rome, &c. nor ever faw them. All 
therefore that they can do is to account thofe Here- 
ticks or wicked or Apoftates,whom before they ac- 
counted good Christians, and to declare that they 
own them not as fellow Chriftians, and would 
not communicate with them, did they live among 
them •, and to warn others that are in danger 
of them to avoid them , and this not as an act of 
Government aver them, but of common Chrifti- 
an duty for the honour of our common religion and 
in charity to others. The juft renouncing of men- 
tal or local Communion by equals, or neigh- 
bours, much differs from a Governing commanding 
excommunication , forbiding other Churches as their 
fubje&s to communicate with fuch on certain penal- 
ties*, which is the ufurpation of popes, Patriarchs 
and fome others who claim fuch governing power 
without proof. 

% I 

C 248 1 


V I. What is neceffary to the Civil Peace and 
concord of Chriftians , and what is the fart 
of the Qhrifiian Magiflrate about Religion, 
as to his promoting or tolerating mens docirmes 
or practices therein. 

§ 1. T^He contentions of the world here callus 
A to refblve thefe feveral doubts, 1. Who 
it is that fhouldhave the power of the fword 
or Magiftracy ? 2. How it is to be ufed towards all 
men as men in fociety ? 3. How it is to be ufed 
for the fervice of Chrift and good of the Church? 
in encouraging fome and tolerating others , and 
keeping peace among them all ? 

$. 2. It is here fuppofed that the fub- 
jeft is undcrftood , and that we are agreed what 
the Magiftrates power is, atleaft^re, though not 
de defmtione vel de nomine : that is, it is the power 
of Governing by the [word, that is, of making Laws* 
and judging according to them, and execming them by 
outward force on mens bodies or efiates. And fb it is 
contradiftinguithed from the power called Mini- 
ftcrial, Pajloral, Prieftly or JLcclefiaflical V which is 
the gathering and guiding of Chriftian Churches 
by Gods word preached, expounded and applyed. 
The nature of each and their differences I have 
formerly opened in a fmall treatile written purpofe. 
ly or that fubjedl to end the Eraflian controver- 
fie. (And Bifliop Biljon fully openeth them in his ex- 
ccileat book ofGhriftiai^ Obedience &c.) The Ma- 

L *40 J 

giftrate hath power forcibly to fefee on offenders 
cftates and bodies, to imprifon, mutilate, fcourge, 
ftrike and kill them that deferve it, and to make 
Laws and judge men unto fuch punifliments, The 
Mnifiers of Chrifl: or Pallors of the Churches have 
no fuch power but only to declare Gods Laws to 
the people, and convert and baptize the wicked 
unbelievers, and teach them the w T ordand will of 
Chrifl:, and guide them in publick worfhip, and 
Communion , and judge who is capable there- 
of , and to require the people in the name of 
Chrifl to love and receive the worthy, and to a- 
void the unworthy, and to refolve the peoples 
particular doubts , and by perfonal application 
to pronounce and declare Gods acceptance of pe- 
nitent believers, and his promife to lave them , 
and his decree to condemn the ungodly, unbelie- 
vers, impenitent and Hypocrites. 

$. 3. This difference is commonly acknowledg- 
ed by the generality of fober Chriftians : But one 
(chifmatical Writer againft fchifm, will needs call 
this PaftoralpowxrCWff/w, coercive ^or forcing alfo, 
though he confefs that it is not a power to touch 
mens Bodies or eflates •, that fo by calling out all 
differencing names, he may hide the acknowledged 
difference of the power, and execution. And his 
reafon" for this errour^ nomine is, {becaufe, fufpenfwn 
and excommunication are executed on the involunta- 
ry ', and compel thofe that believe the power, and fear 
them, to obey. 2 Where, 1 . The word compel contz'ineth 
the confulion *, compelling the mind by meer argu- 
ment , being not the compelling by corporal force 
Vvhich we are fpeaking of : 2. And every man that 
chideth, reprovcth or threatneth a finner, ufually 
doth it to the involuntary : And if he believe him 
and yield, he will obey; And if you argue from 


L 250] 

his future danger or differing, it is the fear of it that 
moveth him : But the fear of Gods declared threat- 
nings, is not the fame as the fear of mans ftripes, 
impnfonments , unlefsc^c. 3. And excommunica- 
tion worketh on no mans body further than it work- 
eth on his confcience to make him a voluntary a- 
gent. If you denounce damnation againlt him, it 
moveth him no further than hebelieveth you as ap- 
plying to him the word of God. If you forbid 
him to be prefent or take the facrament, and he 
refufe to obey, you may not forcibly thruft him 
out, without the Magiftrates confent, but only fuf- 
pend your own aft of delivery, or depart: If you 
command the people to avoid him, they will no fur- 
ther obey you than they perceive Gods au- 
thority in your words, and are convinc't in Con- 
fcience of their duty : And every ferxnon may thus 
compel men : And all that judge thefentenceunjuft 
and powerlefs , will defpife it. 

£. 4. 1. There are four or five opinions about the 
polFefTors of this forcing power by the fword or 
violence : The firft of them that fay, It belongeth 
to all Magiftrates Chriftian and unchriftUn. The 
fecond of them that fay, It belongeth only to 
Chriftian Magiftrates: The third of them that fay, 
It belongeth to Orthodox Magiftrates or Catholick 
only and not to Hereticks : The fourth of thofe 
that fay, that the Judicial fart in cafes of Religion 
belongeth to the Pope, Prelats or Presbyters, and 
the executive only to the Magiftrate. The fifth 
of thofe that fay that both judicial and execu- 
tive belong to the Pope, Prelats and Priefts : I may 
add a fixth of them that fay, it is radically in the 
' people. 

5- 5. 1. As to the firft> it is undoubtedly true., 
ir you diftinguifli between the Office , Power, and 


the aptitude of the perfon to perform it. The 
Office of a Supreme Ruler is the fame in all, but 
all are not equally capable of performing it. That 
is , It is the lame as defcribed by Gods command of 
their performance. As he commandeth infidels to 
believe and communicate with the Church, but not 
to communicate before they believe :, fo he com- 
mandeth Infidel Princes to believe and to govern 
the Chriftian affairs : but to govern them as they 
are capable. The common Laws of nature, juftice 
and peace among Chriftian fubjetts, an Infidel Prince 
may and muff: lee executed : The Laws of Chrift 
revealed fupernaturally, he oijght to underftand , 
believe and execute : But till he underftand and 
believe them, he cannot execute them. And there- 
fore wants the difpofition and ability to do what he 
had command and authority to do }but to do it only 
in the due manner, to which his fin difableth him : 
and fo his Power is in him incomplete. 

§. 6, I confefs it is a very hard queftion, How 
an Atheificanbcfaid to have any Governing right 
from that God whom he denyeth, any more than 
aConftable from the King from whom by rebellion 
he revolteth : And alfo fince all power in Heaven 
and earth is given to Chrift, how an infidel that 
renounceth him can be faid to be authorized by 
him. And I can no othervvife refolve it, than by 
diftinguifhing of a King or ruler, that is fuch [im- 
pitcher, and one that is fuch but [ecundum quid : 2. 
One that is tolerated in the place by God the So- 
veraign, and one that is alfo approved: 3. One that 
the people are bound to obey only in tmuim for 
civil order, peace and fafety *, and one that they 
muff: obey in matffrs of Religion, and whom God 
•will not condemn as an Ufijrper in part. The cafe 


is much the fame as that: How far fubje&s that ar e 
neceflitatedto live under a Foolifh Prince muft obey 
him ^ which is, i. So far as it is no wrong to another: 
2. So far as is neceflary to the due honour of the of- 
fice which he poffefleth : 3. So far as is needful to the 
common peace, order and fafety, and to our own , 
and to the ends of Government;. But fo as ftill 
to defire a better, and by juft means to endea- 
vour it, but not by fin, or that which is worfe 
to the Common-wealth than his Foolifhnefs is, 

£. 7. 1 1. ' m The fame anfwer mutatis mutandis will 
ferve to the fecond : A Heretick truly fo called 
or a wicked man, or perfecutor hath radical re- 
mote power to all a Princes work * 7 But he hath im- 
mediate full power to no more than he can do ac- 
cording to Gods Laws : and in fo much he is to be 
obeyed , and in nothing that is agaijift them. 

§. 8. III. The office of Orthodox Rulers is 
the fame fundamentally and radically .* But their 
full neareit Power is greater becaufe their Capa- 
city is greater. But yet even they are never to 
be obeyed againft the Laws of God, which give 
them their power and limit it, and are theirs and 
their fubje&s higheft rule. 

$ 9. I V. The Papifts commonly , and many 
Prelatifts , and fome Presbyterians fay, that about 
caufes of Herefie, or Church Communion , the 
Church is to judge and the Prince to execute the 
Churches judgement. But with great difference*, 
ibme Presbyterians only fay that riz Magiftrate 
ought upon the bare judgemyttrof the Church to 
force the excommunicate perf^From theAflembly 
if he intrude ; And the Independents will fay as 


C2 S 3 1 

much as this : And indeed this is but to keep peace 5 
it being due to a family that none intrude againlt 
their will : feutyet as a Prince or Judge may right 
a fervant, child or wife, fo may they the excom- 
municate , when it is proved that they are wrong- 
ed - 7 And therefore may to that end reexamine 
the caufe. 

But other Presbyterians and Diocejans fay that 
when the Church hath excomunicated a man, the 
Magiftrate is bound to force him by imprifonment, 
fines , or corporal penalties to repent and be re- 
conciled ; And the Papifts fay that men judged He- 
reticks he muft burn or bani(h ' which is all falfe, 
as (hall be proved in the third book. 

$. 10. V. The fifth fort hold , that as Mclchi- 
zedek, and Chrift were both Priefts and Kings , fo 
it fhould be now : And fome fay ( before confuted ) 
that every King is the chief Prieft •, and others that 
the chief Prieft: Ihould be King •, and that the Pope 
is the univerfal Monarch having both fwords, Spi- 
ritual and Corporal : But as to the execution , 
Bifhops are to obey him in excommunicating He- 
reticks (that is, his adverfaries) and Kings ia 
killing or banifhing, otherwilehe maydepofe both 
Kings and Bifhops : But againft this more in ,due 

fc 11. VI. As to the Radical power of the peo- 
ple I have faid fo much againft it in my Chrifti- 
an Directory in confutation of Richard Hookers Eccle- 
fiafiical Policie , that I need to add no more. In 
my Political Aphorilmes I. more fully opened this. 
I conclude with the common Chriftian judgment, 
that the Civil Magiftrate only hath the power of 
Ruling by the fword, 

f. 12. It 

4* 12. II. As to the fecond cafe, How the Ma* 

jriftrates power is to be itfed towards all men in Common^ 
I anfwer in fhort, i. All are agreed that the good 
of the Commonwealth is the end of Government, 
as the Terminus of a Relation which eflentiateth it : 
It is not government univocally but equivocally 
which is not for the common good, really or vi- 
fibly, intentionally, really or pretendedly. 

$. 13. 2. Every true member of the Common- 
wealth hath a right to a part in this common good ? 
till he forfeit it. . 

$. 14. 3.' Every member hath not "an equall right 
becaufe all have not equal capacity or wor- 
th inefs. 

£. 15. 4. It is as hard aqueftion : How far an 
Atheift or Infidel is a rightful member oi a Common- 
wealth, as how far fuch a one may be a rightful 
Governour. And, 1. It is certain that as to obli- 
gation he is a fubje&ofGodand man, and bound 
to obey : as an Atheift King pofTeffing the place 
is bound to rule well, and linnqth by not doing it; 
2. It is certain that as a man, he hath a fundamen- 
tal conditional right to the priviledges of a good 
fubjecfi, that is, if he will be fuch a one. 3. A 
Negative not-knowing God or Chrift, much 
differeth from a pofitive denying him, rebelling and 
oppofing : As Catechumens that know not God 
or Chrift are not Anathematized as deniersand op- 
pofersare-, becaufe they are teachable, and coming 
towards the Church,though not of it \ fo in a Christi- 
an Commonwealth, fuch are members in a large 
fenfe, fecundam quid -> and forfeit not their lives , 
liberties or eftates, but are only candidates as to 
the rewards and preferments and fpecial priviledges 
of worthy members , who either rule or have a 


t 25s 3 

voice in choofing Rulers. But being willing to learn 
to know God and Chrift, they fhould with 
love and kindnefs be encouraged and drawn on, 
4. But in a Kingdom of fuch as know not God or 
Chrift they mnfthave rule and priviledgesbecaufe 
there are no fitter to have them : But fuch a 
Kingdom is to God nootherwife his fubje&s than 
fuch a perfon before defer ibed is. 5. But thofe 
that after fufficient inftru&ion deny and oppofe 
God as God, do forfeit the protection and com- 
mon liberty of fubjedts in a Kingdom, that confef 
feth God-, and thofe that deny Chrift in aChrifti- 
an Kingdom and oppofe him as Chrift, do forfeit 
the Common protection of Chriftian fubjeds : But 
wife rtiferi think that becaufe the Deity is ofNa- 
tural Revelation by all Gods works to all men as 
men , and Chrift only of fupernatural revelation 
by the Gofpel. and the work of faith more difficult, 
therefore the oppofers of a Deity, forfeit their 
lives' if -they continue obftinate:, but the enemies 
of Chtiftonly forfeit their place in a Chriftian Com- 
monwealth and fhould be banifhed if obftinate: As 
the meer ignorance of him, keepeth fuch out of the 
Church till they believe: But then denying or op- 
pofing Chrift defervetiv ejection with anathema. 

£. 16. 5 . All men then muft by the 'Magiftrate be 
ufed as men according to their natures, and not 
as bruits, and therefore muft be inftru&ed and 
ruled by Laws of reafon , and led towards Chri- 
ftianity and the hopes of future felicity: And if 
they fin againft the Law's of humanity, they fo far 
forfeit the priviledges of humanity *, or are to be 
punilhed as the ends of the fociety require. 

§j] 17. III. To the third queftion, how Magi- 
gifixacie ( or the fword or forcing power ) is to 


C 256 ] 

be ufedj for Chriftandfor his Church, and on Chri- 
ftians as fitch*) who is to be rewarded, punifhed or 
tolerated for the Churches Vnity and edification and 
prefcrvation. I anfwer, I. In general •, Men Ihould be 
ufed as men 5 Chriftians as Chriftians : The weak as 
weak •, The ftrong as ftrong, and the eminently wife 
and good as fuch : The criminal as criminal. And 
all this with chief refped to the laws of God and 
the common good* 

£. 18. II. More particularly, 1. Negatively : 
1. The Magiftrate cannot make men Believers by 
thefword: He cannot make the ignorant wife, nor 
the v\ icked godly at the heart. 

§. 19. 2. He ought not to force men to lie, by 
profefling themfelves to be what they are. not, or 
to know or believe or do what they do not : There- 
fore he may not make a Law that All men (hall 
be compiled to profefs themfelves Chriftians, j>r Godly 
perfons^ or any that are not fuch indeed ^ And, there- 
fore none mult be compelled to it , becaufe no 
man knoweth who are fuch : but every man mull 
be the voluntary profeflbr of his own faith and 

0. 20. 3. He ought not to force the weak to 
profefs that they are ftrong , or know or believe 
more than they do : either to profefs thofe meafures 
of wifdom , thofe Articles of faith that are not ef- 
fentials , or thofe meafures of affedion or pradice 
which are proper to ftrong Chriftians : And for not 
profefling fuch things , or Covenanting accordingly 
he may not deny them any priviledges belonging to 
Chriftians as fuch, but only fuch as are proper to 
wifer and ftronger Chriftians. 

§. 21. 4. Princes and other Magiftrates may not 
make themfelves the Lidors or executioners to the 


Ctergie, to punifh men with fines, imprifonment 9 
banilhmcnt or death co nomine becaufe they Hand 

xcommunicateby the Clergy, without trying whe- 
ther it was rightly or wrongfully done, and whether 
the crime be fuch as fhould be Jo punifhed by them. 
Excommunication if juft is it felt a dreadful punifh- 
.nent,& no man is to be punifhed for being punifhed.' 

fit be for not ttfintingfiJUt muftjfirft be lure that it 
>vas a crime : i. And that God hath appointed this 
bay to force men to repentance : 5. And that fuch 
forced repentance muft go for true. 

But when the excommunication is unjuft, the Ma- 
l^iftrate muft not fecond it with oppreflion : It is 
:nongh to be lb much wronged by the Clergy, more 
liould not be added for that cauie, nor muiUheMa- 
*iftrate fuppofe the Clergy to be unerring, and fo 
ay by the perfon of a Judge himfelf and become the 
Hind executioner of their fentence. 

, $. 22. 1 1. Affirmatively - 7 The Chriftian Magi- 
strates Office is, "QTo promote the common 
c good of the people, and their falvation, and the 
f pleafmg and glory of God, by preferving and 
; < promoting Piety, Love, Juftice and pea r ce, even 
; c mens obedience to all the Laws of God, in Nature 
tc and Scripture* 

§. 23. Therefore asthemeans, 1. He mud pro- 
mote to his power the due publication or preaching 
of the Gofpel, and thefubordinate means that are 
needful thereunto: 2. He muft by juft means reftrain 
and punifh the grofs violators of Gods Laws*, and 
muft encourage the obedient and good. 

§. 24. Therefore, III. He mult deal differently 
&ith his fubjecls as they differ/, according to this* 
common diftribution : They are 

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§. 25. I. The immies and vfpofers of Chriftiani- 
ty are, 1. To be wifely and foberly reftrained 
from any effectual dangerous hindering of it : By mo- 
derate means if they are moderate , and by grea- 
ter ieverity if they be violent and inhumane. 

2. As far as obltinacy maketh them uncapable, 
Light and Love Ihould be ufed to win them with 
the example of our better lives : In meeknefs ih- 
ftrufting thofe that oppofe themfelves , if 1 God per- 
adventure will give them repentance to the acknow- 
ledging of the truth, that they may efcape out of 
the fnareof Satan, 2 Tim. 2. 26. 

§. 26. II. The Neglc&crs ofChriftianity are to 
be inftrufted and excited : And therefore, 1 . By 
perfwafion , 2. or neceflary moderate penalties , 
conftrained only to Hear w r hat can be faid for 

§. 27. 1 1 L The feekers or willing candidates are 
to be clearly aud skillfully and patiently taught ; 
and encouraged by love. 

§. 28. IV. Eminent Chriftiansare to be made 
the Teachers and Rulers of the reft - 7 and to-have 
praife and bell encouragement. 

§. 29. V. The middle fort of Chriftians mult. 
be governed and inftrudted , with encouragement 
to grow, and the body of a Chriftian .Common- 
wealth well ordered will be mod of fuch. 

§. 3 o. V I. The ignorant, faulty and weak muft be 
pityed and gently ufed, but as children, under more 
teaching, reftraint and neceflary rebukes, than bet- 
ter men. S 2 S. 31. VII. 

C 263 3 

§. 3 i. VII. Thofe that are not yet entred in-. 
to any particular Churches Communion, under 
any known particular Pallor, if neceflarily fuch (as 
perfons that have no dwelling, but wander up and 
down, as Pedlars '&€.) are tobepityed and (of- 
fered, if we cannot help them to better. Thofe that 
being baptized only into the univei ial Church ( as 
wanderers children &c. ) and are not come to 
knowledge ordefirey fliould be taught , andperfwad- 
ed into Church order as a fecond fort of Catechu- 
mens: Thofe that are hin^red by the diforder or 
perfecution of the place and times , muft be pityed 
and patiently born with. 

fi 32. VII I. Thofe that fepar ate from one or 
other particular Churches, if by fome great crime, 
and abufe mult be ufed according to their fault as 
is after (hewed about Prattice : But if either by 
tolerable weaknefs , or outward ncceflity they de- 
part but from o-ae Churchy they muft be received 
into others: If from all particular Churches (as 
fome called Seekers ) and not from the univerfal , 
they muft be ufed as the feventh fort (thofe not 
yet entred. J 

§.33.1 X.Thofe that are caft out nnjuftiy muft be 
pityed and allowed entrance into another Church : 
Thofe that are caft out juftly muft 1. remain under 
that penalty and flianie till they repent-, 2. And alfo be 
further ufed according, to their crime } whether 
murder, fornication .theft^perjury^c.as the Law pu- 
nifheth fuch offenders: If itbeior Infidelity orApo 
ftalle , they muft be ufed as the Churches defertcrs 
or adverfaries, as aforefaid , and reftrained from 
oppolmg it. 

§. 34. X. 

C 26 1 1 

$. 34. X. The Papifts fliould beufed as men and 
as the faultier and wcakci fortofChrillians, but f:> 
as, 1. May fecure Princes from being »n 
fubjefted to a foreign llfhrper or being abufed by 
him or his Agents-, and as may fecure the people 
from the efficacy of their laws, forburning r killing 
and exterminating them : 2. And fo as they may 
be foberly rcftrained from fuch feducing and hurt- 
ing the fouls of others as is after proved to be 

$. 35. XI, Diocefans that are as Arch-Btfxps and 
deftroy not Parilh Churches , Epifccpacy and Dis- 
cipline , are to be numbred either with die Promo- 
ted or Tolerated party as they are taken by the 
Rulers for the Beft or fecond. But thofe that would 
unchurch fitrijh Churches and make them but Chapels, 
and.fetuponly one tribunal for the Difcipline of many 
hundred Pari^es, and thereby make Difc'ipli?/e Im- 
poffible, and deprive particular Churches of the Rights 
given ihembjtbc fpirit of Chrift in his Apbftles, 
or would fiknce and penecutc faithful Minifters , 
or opprefs the flocks, fliould be ixftrained from fucji 
abufe and Tyranny by the Prince. 

£. 36. XII. The very fame I fay of the Synods 
and ClafTes of Presbyters, whether provincial or 

0. 37. XIII. Churches are not to be diicounte- 
nanced meerly becaufe they are lb independent , as 
not to be over and under each other in a regimental 
way , no more than Scholes of Grammer or phi- 
lofopy or other fciences or arts : But the Magi- 
strate mult make them Dependent on him as his go- 

S j verned 

C 262] 

verned fubjetts •, and mult exhort them to thai 
dependence on each other as is neceflary to their 
mutual help and peace , and moderately urge them 
hereto for Religion fake. 

$. 38. XIV. Adverfc, contentions, militate 
Churches, mult be reftrained from abufmg one 
another, and deftroying Chriftian Love and peace : 
And Juftices of the peace fhould keep peace among 
them and correct railers, flanderers and peace- 

£. 39. XV. But the main care: concerneth pra- 
Bice ; And here the found in faith-, the Charitable, the 
peaceable -'and ofgoodConverfation, fhould be pro- 
moted, praifed and maintained, with fpecial favour 
and approbation. 

§. 40. XVI. The meerly Tolerable ( as to 
Dottrine, Charity and converfation ) ihould be de- 
fended and kept in peace. 

$. 41. XVII. The Intolerable mult be fuppref- 
fed or reftrained according to the quality of their 

§. 42. To thefe great ends ( as Campanella .would 
have every Sovereign to have three forts of Coun- 
cils under him, One for Learning and Religion, an- 
other for Civil affairs and another for War, fo) 
it may be wifhed however that the Prince have a 
Council that Ihall fpecially take care of Religion 
and the neceffary fahferxknt learning : And that there 
be drawn up tl>ree feveral Catalogues or Layvsfor 
thefe various ranks of Chriltians : That is, 

I. The 

C 26} 1 

I. The foredefcribcd necclfary parts of Chri- 
ftianity and Communion, ( the Baptifmal Cove- 
nant, Creed , Lords Prayer 2nd the Eilentials 
of Miniftry and Communion) which all Tolerated 
Minifters (hall fisbferibe to or profefs, having alfo 
Teftimonials of their competent Abilities , Piety 
and peace ablenefs. 

II. Some of the great This fceond may befpar- 

f fort of imrds added , e A d > . ,f .*g th ' rd r be ?*} done - 
. * , r i ^\-l Ami lnftead of both may 

[ that are needful, plain wU be a C2ta!ogue of do J _ 

I and Certain , and there- ft rines erroneous or doubr- 

: fore it is beft in the very fal w bich none (hall preach 
\ words of Scripture which ' or Pf°P a g*e, of which after, 
all agree to, and this to be confented to by the ap- 
proved and preferred Minifters , who (hall have the 
, Temple^ andpublick countenance and maintenance^ 

1 1 I. A Catalogue of Doctrines of fo great ufe 
. as that none be fuftered to Preach or privately 
1 difpute againft them-, And a Catalogue of fins, 
which none may commir.And thofe that break either 
of thefe Lavvs,and fubferibe not to the Eilentials firft 
mentioned to be judged Intolerable (till reformedjm 
the Miniftry. Who fhall be judged Intolerable 
in the Commonwealth, the firft rank of enemies here 
confidered fneweth. And what private members 
fhall be Tolerated in the Churches may be gather- 
ed from what is faid, viz.. Thofe that joyn 
with the Tolerated Minifters, and violate not this 
laft Prohibiting Law, by incorrigible oppofition to 
the Truth here intimated, or by wicked or unpeace- 
able behaviour. 

§. 43. It is here fuppofed that the Catalogue inv 
pofed on the Approved maintained Minifters be 
not of too many things , nor of any, but great 

and fare : And they that will nfceds ftretch it to the 
utmoft of plain and certain truths, need no other 
Catalogue of the third rank: And were it not that 
men are very inclinable to overdo in rigor againft 
diflenters, I fhould rather leave out the third Cata- I 
logue •, And that which the Tolerated be forbidden 
to Preach againft, Ihouldbebutthefame Catalogue j 
which the Approved muft fubfcribe, and fp two will 
jbc enough, fo be it that all unpeaceable preaching as 
to the manner be reftrainedby the Juftices of peace. 

£. 44. This rule the antient Churches followed : 
and when they fupprefled the intolerable herefies, 
they tolerated theNovatians even in Conftantino- 
pk : And the worft Bifnops were moft againft their 
toleration (as Neflorius and fuch like) , apd the 
beft dealt gentlieft and lovingly with them, and 
thereby did more for the 'peace of the Church 
than the overdoers. The Lordly turbulency of 
Tbeophihis and Cyril with Epiphanies filly paffion, 
fet all on a flame againft Chryfofiome and his Joanni- 
tes, which the wifdom and peace of tvyo peaceable 
Patriarchs foon quenched. 

£. 45. That the Integrals to be fubfcribed by 
the Approved Ministers be not toq many, is requi- 
fite, 1 . Becaufe it is not many things that are nece£ 
iary to be preached :Readthe preachings or dodtrine 
of Cltrift and his Apoftles , and you may foon fee 
this : And they need to fubfcribe no more than 
they need to preach. 2. Becaufe elfe overdoing 
Will be undoing - ? and unavoidable diflent will caufe 
divifions and diftra&ions. 

And for the fame reafon it fhould be written if 
poflible in the very words of Scripture , which 
though fonie deride, is of great moment: Becaufe 
nothing more tcndeth to avoid divifion by-dilTent : 
•for all arc agreed dfthc truth of the Scripture, 


C 265 1 

and even they that underftand not the words con - 
fefs them to be true, and take not the liberty to 
except againft them as they will againft the words 
of fallible men. The objections againft this are 
anfw ered after. 

§. 4.6. Penalties muft not be equal, as offences are 
not equal : As the ^prm^ are not ejettedlor every 
fault, fo the Tolerated are not to bzfilenced for every 
fault. A prophase fwearer payeth twelve pence an 
oath: And fome faults of ^preachers are not worfe: 
Cut lbme are fo great at firft , and others by the ad- 
dition of impenitencie and incorrigiblenefs, as that 
they forfeit their Toleration. 

§. 47. Thofe are to be accounted Intolerable 
who do more hurt than good, and whofefilencing 
and fuppreffion will do more good than harm. 
All men are faulty and do fome barm: And few 
are fo bad as to do no good: But that which pre- 
vailed^ muft prevail in the judgement of the Ma- 
giftrate. And yet when the fuppreffion of a hurt- 
ful perfon will do by accident much more hurt to the 
Church or Commonwealth than he doth fas it may 
fall out) he is not to be fo hurtfully fuppreffied. 

J. 48. Thofe therefore are intolerable in theMr- 
mftry , 1. who through ignorance or difability are 
utterly inefficient for the V ceflary adts of the of- 
fice ;• and fo will marr and -dif^race the work 
appointed them, and make Religious exercifes 

• \ Th ° fethat arehereticks in a drift fenfe, that 
k, that deny any Article of faith or practice ne- 
cellary to Salvation, or preach that which plainly 
overtnrowcth it. 

3. Thofe that are againft or utterly corrupt any 
2? T? ? C r h urch -^er, or of thepublick 

worlhipfo corrupted, or that it tendethto more hurt 
t-ian good to the aflembly. 4 , Thofe 

c 266 : 

4.. thofethat will not profefs the Eflentials of 
Chriftianity , Miniflry and Church Communion. 

5. Thofe that live fuch fcandalous and wicked 
lives as difgrace the Miniftry, and do more hurt 
than they do good. 

6. Thofe that will notpromife and perform 
neceffary diligence in the work of the Miniftry 
which they undertake, but idly negleft the flock. 

7. Thofe that by malignity and misapplication 
of truth, turn their preaching or difcourfe to the 
reproach of ferious godlinefs, making people think 
that it is needlefs, or hypocrifie. 

8 . Thole that will not promife and perform fub* 
jettion to the fupream Governours of the Kingdom 
or Republick. 

9. Thofe that will not forbear fuch reviling of 
Tolerable difTenters, as tendeth plainly to deftroy 
love and peace, and to turn publick afiemblies 
into ftages of malignant ft rife. 

10. Thofe whofe Religion or opinion is for burn- 
ing , deftroying or exterminating either all dif- 
fenters, or the innocent or tolerable, while they 
call them Hereticks •, or that are for the fubje&ing 
of Kings or States or people to foreign Ufurpers, 
or for giving fuch a foreign Ufurper power to ex- 
communicate, djepofe, . or murther Kings or tempo- 
ral Lords, and abfolve their fob- 
jetts from their Oaths of allegi- 
ance, or force them to deftroy or 
exterminate their innocent or to- 
lerable fubjefts ; and that exempt 

the Clergy from iubjeftion to Kings. 

<$. 49. The j4pproved,Tolerable and Intolerable thus 
diftmr;uifned and thus ufedby the Magiftrate, will 
beft aiifwer the ends and intereft of Chriftianity ,and 
the Laws of Chnli, and will do as much to prefer ve 


See more againft 
the Magiftrates o- 
verdoing in the 
third Part. 

C 267 1 

.ove, Unity and peace as is on earth to be expeftcd 
vhich all other contrary ways will unavoidably 


Objeff/o&s anfoered. 

J. 1. i.QOme objedt againft any reftraint in Re~ 
O Ugion, and the countenancing and pre- 
ferring of one fort before others, and fay that the 
Magiftrate (hould equally tolerate all, or elfe he 
will difcontent thofe that are but tolerated, and 
much more thofe whom he ufeth as intolerable ^ 
But this is fo unchriftian and unreafonable that I 
think it needlefs to fay much againft it. Few men 
that believe there is a God and a life to come, 
and that religion is mans duty and interefb, can 
believe that God hath appointed Government for 
no higher ends than our bodily peace and fafety. 
If men once believed what divers Popes have writ- 
ten, that the office of the Prieft excelleth the 
Kings, as far as the foul excelleth the body, and as 
the Sun excelleth the Stars \ it would caufe religi- 
ous people to fet as light by Kings, as they do by 
thefe worldly things which Kings have power over. 
§. 2. 2. Obj. But each party thinly themfehes in 
the right , and Kings and Parliaments are falli- 
ble, and if they trouble thofe that are in the right , they are 
fcrfectttors : if ethers , yet they fli all be accounted fo. 

Anfw. Being is before Thh^ing : either the King 
is in the right, or the fiffirers : If they are in the 
Right, either their caufe is evident and fuch as a 


willing diligent petfon may underftand, or not. 
If it be' clear, the Prince is a perfecutor that troiir 
bleth them. If it be too hard for him, he is unfit 
to be an adtive man againlt them \ for he cannot 
do it in faith and therefore finneth, and may be 
a perfecutor for ought he knoweth. If he or 
they be ignorant through wiifulnefs or negligence, 
it will not excufe them. If their eaufe feem clear- 
ly good to them , and clearly bad to him, one 
of them mull . needs be finfully erroneous •, and it 
is the erring party that God is againft, who will be 
the final judge. 

. §. $. 3. Obj. Bnt it is a thing that Princes an<x 
Statesmen are ignorant of : they are not bred up in tht 
jlndy of Religion : Bifoops and Clergy-men are liker to 
underhand fitch matter s^ and it is their veork± 

Anj. 1. God hath commanded that Kings ai)d 
all Rulers ftudy his word: As Justices fliQuM 
know the Kings Laws, the King and they fhould 
know Gods Laws. It is as truly their office tc 
Rule by them, as it is the Miniiters to Teach and 
Guide by them. Government by the Sword and 
Church Government by the word and Keys are tp 
beexercifed according to the fame Law of God*,and 
both have their ufe about caules Ecclefiaftical , b 
which wc fwear the King to be fupreme as tc 
that part which is to be done by the fword or cor- 
poral force. 

2. This objection long ufed by Popes and their 
Prelates hath been fufficlently confuted by them- 
felves : Church hiftory putteth us quite pall 
doubt that it went ill with the Church while the 
Clergy had all the power of Religion: It hat! 
been Popes and Prelates and Priefts that have 
worfe corrupted Religion and dilgracedthe Churcl" 
and embroiled the world in religious quarrels and 


Schifms , than ever Emperors and Kings hare 
done. Thirteen hundred years lamentable expe- 
rience confuteth fuch thoughts as many have and 
<is I have fometime been tempted to my felf , 
how well it would go with the Church if the difpo- 
ial of all matters ofReligion were rather in the hands 
of the Bifhops and Clergy, than of Kings and Parlia- 
ments. Nay rarely are any Magiftrates fo hot for 
tperfecution and religious cruelty as the Bifhops 
land Clergy or thofe that are ftirr'd up by them, 
againft diflenters -or one another. The doleful 
devaftations and Schifms about Neftorianifm, Eu- 
fcychianifm, and fuch like, were caufed more by 
the Bifhops than the Magiftrates : And though Con- 
'ftantins and Valens did much againft truth and 
ipeace, it was by their Clergies inftigation. He 
that will confider the lives of Conjl amine M. Tbco- 
■dofms Senior, and Theodofins Junior, Aiaftafms^ 
<&x. andof CW/w, Otho, the Henries and others 
ifince in the Weft , will fee how much ado the 
■Emperors had to keep the Prelates from Schifms, 
-and confufions: And he that readeth but the Laws 
of the Spamft, French and Englifh Kings, will fee 
•what ado Kings had to keep the Bifhops and Priefte 
from filthy fornication and utter corruption ot 
♦their function. 

$.4. 4. Obj. But if Princes meddle with Pa/tors, 
Preachers and Religion, when far more of them are 
bad than good, and erroneous than in the right, it 
wh ft follow that more good will be hindered by them than 
evil, and in mofi places the befi will be perfumed by 
them, and the worfi approved and preferred. 

Anfw. 1. And was it not fo, and worfe under 
the Popes and their Prelates ? Let their own hifto- 
rians judge. 2. Nay it hath been ill Clergymen 
that haVfc inftigated Princes to do moft of the 


Ci 7 o3 

chief to the Church that they have done. 3. Th 
tells us the calamitous cale of mankind, but nc 
at all how to help it. 4. This argument fhoul 
urge Princes to amend, but not to negled thej 
duty for fear of doing it amifs. By the like argi 
ment in Mofcovy they have put down preaching 
faying, Moll: will preach amifs. And others p^ 
down all praying fave the reading of impofe 
words, faying that moftelfe will pray amifs. Aqi 
fo thefe would reltrain Princes from Governin< 
Bilhops and Preachers and matters Ecclefiaftical 
layings Elfe they will do moft amifs. 5. But it i 
fuppofed that Princes have their Councils •, An 
as they confuk with Lawyers in matters of Law 
and with Soddiers in matters of War, and witl 
Phyficions in matters of that profeffion, fo the 1 
will confuk with Divines fas they are called ) i 
matters of Divinity and Religion. 

#. 5. Obj. 5. But Religion is to be perfwaded an 
not forced, which will but make hypocrites. 

j4nfi We cannot force men to know or believe 
and we ought not to force them to lie : But the 
may be reftrained from doing notorious mil 
chief, and conftrained to hear that they ma 

$. 6. Obj. 6. But that which you thinh^wrongfeen 
eth right to them, and every mans Conscience is hi 
Law, and he mufi obey it> and whatfowcr u not c\ 
faith is fin. 

Ar.f. 1. None but the Atheift or irreligious tak 
all Religion to be uncertain : Man is naturally Anil 
mal religiofum, made to ferve God in order to fij 
ture happinefs : And Religion were no Religion : 
a man could have no fatisfattory notice of it 

2. N 

C 271 1 

2. No mans Confcience is his Law no more than 
it is the Law of the land. It is but as his eye in 
reading it, a difccrncr of the Law. And niilfofce 

3. No man ought to take evil for good, nor to 
do evil becaufe he thinketh it good ; but firft to 
life means for information, and then to judge bet- 
ter, and then to do better. 

4. Though whatever is not of faith is fin, yet 
whatever is of errour is of fin too and not of faith. 
And we are not for forcing men againfl; their con- 
fcience to any thing unneceflary , or any thing 
which they are uncapable of, but for reftraining 
them from that mifchief which an erring judge- 
ment leavcth them to, and putting them onnecef- 
fary duty which they can do : fhould they not be 
forced to feed their children if their Confidences 
be againft it ? Or to pay their debts , or their 
taxes, tythes and other dues ? 

§. 7. Obj. 7. On the othrr fide frme {and more) 
mil fay that any toleratien of diver fity in Religion^ es- 
pecially of Affemblies,is contrary to the unity and har- 
mony which jhould be among Chriftians, and mllcherifj 
heart-burnings, and caufe differences in the State, and 
foment feditions and rebellious, no dtfcord having worfe 
effects than thofe about religion. 

Anfw. t. To tell us that men are dark and 
lelfifh and proud and pafllonate, and therefore con- 
tentious, and that this is the calamity that fin hath 
brought on all the world, is but to tell us what we 
all muft know : But what's that to the Cure ? All 
fin, and all difcord is contrary to our defired con- 
cord, and is our reproach : But fhall no Turners 
therefore be endured ? Ye fuffer fools gladly, faith 
St. Paul, feeing you yourfelves are wife. 2. Will 
your way of violence make this better or far worfe? 


t 2 7 2 3 

Will men that really have any religion forfake it 
for fear of any thing that you can do againft them? 
It is not Religion if it fet not God above man. 
When they fufFer by you , will . they like you or 
your opinions the better for hurting them? or the 
worfe? If ever you let them out of prifon, will 
they not come out more alienated by exafperati* 
on ? . If you force the timerous or hypocrites to 

"diflemble to favethe flefh, will they not hate you 
and your dottrine the more as that which foul and 
body are both opprefied by? And will not their 
fufferings move companion in the people., and your 
cruelty alienate thofe that elfe would never have 
forfakenyou ( what a fhameful thing is it to hear 
and read mens tragical outcries againft neceflary 
toleration ( which Chriftianity and humanity plead 
for ) while they are the caufes of that which they 
exclaim againft, and are furioufly making it ten- ■ 
fold worfe ?) If diverfity in Religion be fuchan 
evil, caufe it not by your unneceflary Laws and 
Canons, and making engines to tear" the Church 
in pieces, which by the ancient fimplicity and 
commanded mutual forbearance would live in fuch 
a meafure of Love and Peace, as may be here ex- 
pelled. Are men liker to hate you, or to plot 
rebellions for being gently ufed as men, or cruelly 
like Haves or dogs? Nay Haves are freemen in 

• comparifon of thofe that are diflenters from the 
Pope, if he get them in his power. Though it 
be but for reiufing to deny belief to all mens fenfes, : 
and confequently to Gods natural revelation. If 
you can cure all mens errours, do it (but begin at 
Home). But killing is not curing in the fenfe of S 
wife Phyficions or Patients. Your way curether- 
rour as the mm th; t was angry with the Look- 
ing-glafs for ihewing him his ugly face, did cure 


C^7* 1 
if by breaking it into twenty pieces , and then it 
fliewed him twenty ugly faces for one. 

TherQ ai;e no tolerated forts among us here thnt 
are more accuied by all for feditioufneis and rebelli- 
on when they once got fome feeming ftf ength, than 
the Anabaptifts and the people called the fifth Mo- 
narchy men. But have they ever feven at Munfier) 
made any fuch horrid daughters in the world as the 
great enemies of Toleration have done? Did they 
ever murder 200000 people that lived peaceably 
at once, as the Irijh Papifts did ? Or forty thoufand 
if not ( as fome fay ) twice as many, as they did 
at the French Maffacre ? Or fo many thoufands 
if not millions ( fay fome ) as were kill'd of the 
Alingenfes and Waldenfes in France, Fiedmo?it, Italy, 
Germany*. &c. Or did they ever ufe Christians as 
the Inqnifition hath done ? Or did they ever ufe 
Emperors as Henry the fourth and fifth, and/vr- 
iertck^ were ufed ? Or kill two Kings fucceffively, 
is Henry the third and Henry the fourth df France 
A/ere killed. 

Nay did ever the Novatians, yea or the furious 
5 relatical Donatifts make fuch bloody work as hath 
)een made by Bifhops , Councils and Emperors 
or the fupprelTing of difTenters t What hath 
)een done at Alexandria, Antioch, Ccnftantinople? 
femfalcm, Rome, I have elfewhere (hewed. The 
ate publifher of his travels in Egypt ( Vanejlup a 
loman, they fay a Jefuite ) tells us that Egypt is 
leprived of her ancient fort of inhabitants, de- 
frayed for following Diofcorus, and that Juflinian 
:illed no Iefs than two hundred thoufand of them. 
believe not his number. But if this be true , 
he tyrannical hereticaters are the Pikes in the 
; )ond, and a far more bloody and devouring fort of 
nen, than molt of thofe that they deftroy asintole- 
iabfe. T 3- Buc 

c 274 1 

3. But it is'not yet divers Religions that is the 
fubjeft in difpute: every different opinion orpra- 
dice, or diverfity in foffie frnall point in Religion, 
is not a divers Religion. He knoweth not what Re- 
ligion is that thinketh that there are as many diffe- 
rent Religion's as there are controverfies among reli- 
gious pcribns. In a word, Bear a little or you mtrft 
bear more. 

5$. 8. Obj. 8. But the tolerated will feducethe ig* 
nor ant ^ and poifon Souls : And therefore are no more 
to be tolerated than murderers, fouls being more pre- 
ciom than bodies. 

s-lvfw. 1 . Who have poifoned the Church and fouls 
with more errors and more palpable; than the Pa< 
pilis who are molt againft Toleration ? 2. The 
incerly Tolerated being ditcountenanced by Autho- 
rity, have lefs advantage to deceive men than the 
Approved if as erroneous. $, We plead for retrain- 
ing men from poifoning fouls by dangerous do 
ftrincs, and not for tolerating that. But every dif 
ienter or miftaking perfon is not fuch a poifone? 
of fouls. 4. The Tolerated {peaking in publickan 
more refponftblc and more eafily conviftedof then 
fault , than thole that doit fecretly where then 
are no witnetles \ And this your violence canno 
hinder. 5. As their errors wili be openly known ; 
io you have advantage openly to confute them* ant; 
to keep the people right. 

\\ 9. Obj. y. But dtffcraing teachers mil ptnfay wfo , 
the Approved Teacher s fay, and hinder their Work, afi\ 
jlcal the hearts of the people from them y and make then 
calling burdenfome io them. 

Affw. 1 . They are to be retrained from prcachisj 
apinltany great fnre necefiary do&rine or pra&io 

2. Chriffc never fent out his Minifters with 
fufpoft ion that none told contradiftthenij b\ 


t 7*0 

with that light and ftrength which which was to 
overcome contradiction. Do you fo debafe and 
difgrace your felves and your religion, as to think 
or fay that: it cannot profper if any be but fullered 
to fpetft againft you ? 

3 jJDoth the work of Chrift afford you no more 
comfort, than {hall leave you thus burdened if any 
will but gainfay yon t How unlike Chrifts .Miniftcrs 
or Chrift ians do you fpeak? 

4. Have not you that have found doctrine, Gods 
promife, the Rulers countenance, maintenance and 
honour, much more to fupport you, than they that 
are fuppofed to have none of thefe ? 

5. If you tolerate not tlicir open preaching , 
their fecrct endeavours, and your feemmg cruel- 
ty together, will alienate more from you, and 
make you not only neglected but abhorred. 

$. 10. Obj. 10. The number of the erroneous iri/I 
ivcretfe by a toleration. 

A'ifw. And the number of the ungodly that will 
fay, fwear, or do anything for worldly refpefts, 
will increafe by your miftaken way of fuppreffing 
them. 2. It is better that tolerated honeft Chrifti- 
ans erring in tolerable cafes do increafe, than that 
they be banifhed or deftroyed, and a worldly Bjfi- 
niftry thereby life up, abhorred by the religions 
and heading the malignant and prophage agauUfc 
fcrious piety. 

3. Violence and Tyranny again ft good men for 
tolerable error, hath already increafed that fame 
ferror more than wifer means would have done , 
and hath introduced worfe. 

4. We have found where I lived ( in tyontjjfcr- 
I flrire and the neighbouring Counties, Warmchjhrrci 

ISufordjJjire and Shropshire} in the late times of li- 
berty in Religion , that an unanimous * humble , ! 
T 2 able, 

L 216 1 

able, diligent Miniflry frequently and lovingly 
confulting and all agreeing, did more effectually lup- 
prefs herelie , error and fchifm, than violence ever 
did or would have done. The next Parifh to me 
had, a grave, learned, fober Anabaptift, R, ofD. 
that had great advantages •, and yet almoft|ll our 
flocks were kept from the infe&ion : In my own 
Charge(a great Parifh of many thoufand fouls) where 
I was above j 4. years, we had no one feparateaf- 
iembly, nor one feftaiy that I remember, favetwo 
Or three apoftate Infidels ( or Socinians ) and two 
or three Papifts. A faithful agreeing Miniflry 
with the advantage of a good caufe, we found 
fjfficient to fhame all the Sedaries , and fruftrate 
moft of their endeavours, and to keep the people 
unanimous and right. 

§. 11. Obj. 11. If every one that will may fet up 
for a preacher and gather a congregation , or tf the 
ignorant people jhall all choofe their own Teachers, we 
fljall have ignorance , error and confiifion. 

Anfw. u I told you that every one that will 
may not turn preacher. The Tolerated are to pafs 
their proper tryal as well as the Approved, before 
they receive their Toleration. 

2. The Churches commonly chofe their own 
Bt&ops or Pallors for near a thoufand years after 
Chrift, or had a Negative confenting voice at leafl : 
And many Canons did confirm it, yea and decrees 
of the Popes themfelves : yea when the Popes and 
Emperours in Germany ( the Henries &c. ) ftrove 
about the inverting power, it was yet granted that 
the people fliould have their electing or free con- 
rfenting power continued. And no man can be 
Really their Pallor till they confent: And your contra- 
ryconrfe will make worfe work. 

3. Ojr 

C 2 77 ^ 

3. Oar way is of all other the fafeftj Two or 
three locks keep the Churches treafure iafelh 
We fay, none fhall be approved but by three par- 
ties confent, nor Tolerated but by two or three." 
The Ordainers are to content to him as 3/t$*ifier 3 to$ 
the people as their Minifter ', and the Magiftratc as a 
Tolerated Mini ; ft er : or if any unordained be tolerated- 
(which I determine notj at leatt the People and the 
Ruler muft confent, and that upon a juft tdcimonial 
of his ability, Piety and fitnefs for fuch toleration. 

4. And yet we ipeak this but of Paftors j not 
denying but Teachers, and Catechixxrs maybe .im- 
pofed on children/infidels, and others that are not in 
Communion with any particularChurch. 

§. 12. Obj. 12. Ten would have the Church Arti-. 
cles , at leafi for the Tolerated, in Scripture phrafe : 
And what's the phrafe without the right fence t How 
eafily may Hereticks creep in under Juch phrafe s as fe- 
deral men put federal fences on? 

Anfw. 1. Is there not Truth enough in all, the 
Bible in intelligible words neceflary to falvatioa 
and Church Communion ? Is the Scripture as in- 
efficient as the Papifts make it, without their fug* 
plemental Traditions or Decrees ? And had not the 
Holy Gholt skill to {peak even things neceilary in 
■ tolerable intelligible phrale ? who are they that are 
wifer to reform it? 

2. Almoft all words are ambiguous and may 
be diverfly underftood: your own invented expo- 
sitions will be as liable to be wreftcd by Hereticks as , 
the Scripture. It is ridiculous preemption to. talk 
of making any Law 7 , profeifion or Articles that 
a falfeHeretickniaynoc fubferibeto. 3. But there 
is another remedy againft them : while they ccn~ 
veal their hcrefie, $ey arenp Heretich in the judg- 
ment of the Church. Non aj>p*rcre here is as net? eft, 

T 3 when 

tshen tlicy divulge it, the judicatures mull correft 
them. Its vanity to dream that the Law is faul- 
ty as long as it is but fuch as men can brea!^: or 
that any Lavy can be made which none can break: 
But as they break them, they are to be judged. 
4. And we mull not rack and divide the good, for 
tear of fuch letting in the bad. 1 The Churches 
Concord and peace is of moreiegard than the 
keeping out of feme fecret Here tick : yea of old 
lie was not called a Heretick that did not fepa- 
rate from the Church. All good men agree to 
the word of God, but all will nof agree to every 
word of yours, 

f. 13. I conclude, In humane affairs there is 
nothing without imperfection, weaknefs and incom- 
njodity : and to pretend the cure of thefe by im- 
poffibilities, or mifchiefs , is the way of fuch as 
thefe Thirteen hundred years have been the true 
khiimaticks and diftra&ers of the Church. 


L ^7P J 


A dr Might or fpeclmen of fitch Forms as are' be- 
fore mentioned, for the Approved, and the 
Tolerated Mimfiers. 

$.1. *TTThi$ Chapter fhould have gone before the 
1 ninth -.But I thought to pafs it by,left it feeni 
prefumptuous. But the observation how ordinarily 
men mifcarry in this work, hath perfwaded me to 
run the hazard of mens cenfures. 

§. 2. I /The form to befubferihed by the Appro- 
ved Minifiry. 

cc JL A. B. do ferioufly as in the %fL form 
<c fight of God profefs, that as I have common to jii 
"been in Baptifm devoted by the cbriftians, 
<c facred' Covenant to God the H^M*; 
"Father, Son and Holy Ghoft f Mark !*•<*• 
lC renouncing the Devil , the world and the 
"fleih, fo far as they are his enemies \ fo I do 
"unfeignedly Believe in God the Father, Sou 
" and Holy Ghoft, and confent ftill to that Cove- 
nant, in hope of the grace and Glory promiied, 
" obliging my felf to continue by the helpofthac 
Cc grace, in Faith^Lpvc andfivcere obedience to the end. 

T 4 More 

E 280 ] 

Heb. 11. 6. 
1 Cor. 8. 4. 

Mac. 28. 19- 
J6h. 4. 24. 
Pfal 90. 2. 
Gen. 17. 1. 
Heb. 4. 1 3. 
Luk. 18. 19. 
Pfal. 1 17. 2. 
Deut. 52. 4. „, 

Ge. i. Aft. 17. 
Gen. 1.27. 
Li?k. 10. 27- 
job. 17.3. 
Mac. 4. 10. & 
19. 17. 
Gen. 3. 
Rom. 5. 12. 
& 3. 23. 

Gen. 2.1 7- 

More particular !x 

iC §. 3. I. I do unfeignedly Believe 1. 
u That there is one Only God an 
u infinite Spirit of Life , underftand- 
tc ing and will, moll perfectly powcr- 
" ful, wife and good •, incomprehen- 
" fibly Three in One, and One ( ef- 
cc fence) in Three ( called perfons or 
" fubfiftences by the Church ), the 
" Father, the Word and the Spirit, of 
if whom and through whom & to whom 
"are all things, he being the Creator, 
cc preferver, Governour, and the ulti- 
H mate End of all : Our abfolute owner, 
" our mofl juft Ruler, and our moft 
f gracious and amiable Father and be- 
" nefadlor. 

cc 2. I believe that this God created 
u all the world , things invifible and 
" vifible •, And made man in his 
,c own Image, forming a fit Body, and 
" breathing into it a fpirit of Life, 
" understanding and will •, fitted and 
u obliged to know, love and fervehi? 
" Creator , giving him the inferior 
■" Creatures for thisufc, making him 
" their Owner, their Governour and 
" their End, under God : But fpecial- 
cc ly forbidding him to eat of the Tree 
cc of knowledge, on pain of death. 

u 3. The woman being tempted by 

itaii, and the man by the woman 

ci both fell by wilful fin , from theii 

!? Holincfs, Inrioctncy and Happinefs, 

+ : ' into 

L Mi J 
4 into a ftate of Privity , Guilt and 
c < mifery,under the ilavery of the Devil, 
c ' world and flefh, under Gods vindi- 
cc ftive Jufticc and the condemnation 
" of his Law. Whence finful, corrup- £ p | 1# 2t ^ 
$ ted, guilty and miferable natures are 
^ propagated to all mankind : And no 
<c meer Creature is able to deliver 
" us. 

" £.4. 1 1. I believe that God fo loved 
" the world,thathegave hisonlySonto j | i,. 4# I4# 
" be their Saviour: Who being God Joh. /. i\ i 4 *. 
u and one with the Father, took our f Tim. 2. 5. 
"Nature, and became man*, being con- j- ak - f -35- 
" ceived by the Holy Ghoft,born "of the i^i jj"J£ 
V- Virgin Mary, named Jefus the Chrift •, Heb. 2. 14/ 
44 who was perfectly holy, without fin, -Mat. 3. 15. 
^fulfilling all righteoufnefs, and being H ^l/\ 2 t' 
"tempted overcame the Devil and ^ ' 2 \^ 
" the world, and after a life of humi- j cor.15.V4. 
$i liation, gave himfelfafacrifice for our Aft. 3. 9/ 
"fins, by fufTering a curfed death on & 3- 21 - 
"theCrofs, to ranfome us and recon- ^uki'l*' 
" cile us unto God, and wasbnryed, A(t.o.' 2 fi 
"and defcended to Hades, and con- Heb r. 25,25. 
" queririg death, the third day he role" Eph. 1.23, 
u again:And having fealed the New Cc- R . . c 24 * 
" venant with his blood, hexominand- " • y?. 

" ed his Apoftles to preach the Gofpel joh. 5. 22. & 
*•'- to all the world , and promifed the *7'j i a h 3» ■ 
" HolyGhofband after forty daiesafcen- . 
" ded into heaven,where he is God and 4 
" man,the glorified Head, over all things 
"to his Church, all power being given 
" him in heaven and earth, our prevail- 
"ing Intercefibr withGod thcFaihcr, 


L 2*2 J 

Luk. 24. 47,. " to prefent us & our fervice acceptable 

Mac.28.1 9,2p « to God, and communicate Gods grace 

Mark 16.15, « and mercies unto us-, to Teach us, 

1 • U Govern, protect and judge us , and 
"to lave and blefs andglorifie us. 

Joh. 3. 1 £. ic ^5-2.By the new Teftament>Cove- 

1 joh. 5. ir, "irant or Law of grace, God through 

22. u t f ie aforefaid Mediation of Jeius 

Joh.i.io,ii, u chMy doth freely give to fallen 

Gal. 3. 27,28.* a mankind, Himfelf to be their Recon- 

& $. 24. u riled God and Father, his Son to be 

1 Pet. $.8, 9- " their Saviour, and his holy Spirit to 

Tit : 2. 4 i4? 3 " " be their fandifier and comforter, if 

1 Pet. 5. 2i. "they will accordingly believe, and 
Mat. 28. 20. "accept the gift, and by faithful to- 
Heb. 5. 9. <i venant give up themfeivesto him ia 

icr.lt it iC tliefe Relations i Repenting of their 
i€ fins , and contenting to fqrfake the 
<c Devil , the world and the'flefh fo far 
u as they arc enemies to God and their 
a falvation,and iincerely to obey Chrift, 
"his Laws and his Spirit to the end, 
u bearing the Crofsand following him 
" though through fufferiags, that they 
c f may reign with him in Glory ; Ail 
u which God will faithfully perform. 

Joh. 16. i 3 . « $.6. 1 1 1.l Believe that God the Holy 
Eph. 2. 20. " S p- r - t p r0C eeding from the Father , 

2 Tim. 2 \T U an( * ^ rom ( 0r k)0 ^ ^ 0n> WaS §* VCI1 

' l xl \ <c to the Prophets , Apoftlesand Evan- 

Joh.3.^6. # " gelifts, to be their infallible Guide in 

Rom. 8. 9 . " poaching and recording the do&rine 

Gai.4.6. " of falvation , and to be the great 

" witrjefs of Chrift and his truth , by 

"his manifold Divine operations. 


L »j J 

" And that he is given to quicken , il- Tic. 3. $, $. " 
" luininate and landtifie all true be- Kcb.12.14* 
"lievers, and to fave them from the ko'^.bViI^ 
" Devil, the world and the flefhes tern- Heb. 5.' 9. # 
" ptations, from (in, and from fpiritu- 
" al mifery. And that the Holy Scrip- 

* tures indited by this Spirit, are to be 
u believed , loved and obeyed as the 
u word of God. 

u f . 7. 2. 1 believe that all who by true 1 cor. n. 
" Confent are devoted to God in the Mar, 16. 16. 
ic forefaid Baptifmal Covenant, and fo J oh - »• *}***• 
" continue, are one fanftified Church or Ephi 4 ' r **V 

* Body of Chrifl, and have Communion Rom.8.1. 
tc in the fame fpirit of faith and Love, Aft.25.18. 

" and have forgivenefs of their fins*,and Ro™-j4-& i * 
" having one God, one Chrifl;, one lThef -5-^r 
"•fpirit, one faith, one Baptifm, and Rom. 16.1** - 
"wie Hope of Heavenly Glory, are 17. 

" bound to keep this unity of the fpi- Joh.i$.i. to 
cc rit in the bond of peace, in the Do- p ^ T 10 ' 
"iftrine, worfliip, order and converfa- ^^'7.21*22. 
' c tion and mutual helps , which Chrifl; 1 cu 7. 14. ' 
" hath by himfelf or his Apoftles com- Rom. 11- 17. 
"manded, avoiding uncharitable con- GaI -3 f i?»?7> 
u tentions,divifions, injuries andoffen- 
" ces. And that the Baptized Covenan- 
;c ters and external Profeilbrs of the 
u forefaid Covenant confent are the vi- 
u fibJe Church univerfal, and fuch as 
H we mull have outward Communion 
u wi«h, though only the fincere belie- 
" vers and confenters fhall be faved. Joh. 12. 26. 
" f 8. 3.I believe that at death the 2 Cor '5- «>*i 
a fpirits of the juftified go to happinefs Aft 8 ' 

£ with Chrift, and the fouls of the wick- A a # l ' 7 ; t u 


aThef.i. 7,8. 
Joh.$. 28,29. 
Mar. 25.46. 
Matth. 13. 

10, 1 r. 
Rev. 22. 

. C 2S4 1 
u cd to mifcr y. And that at the end of 
u this world, Chrift will come in glo- 
" ry, and will raife the bodies of all 
"men from death, and will judge all 
cc according to their works : An<J 
" that the Righteous fhall go into ever- 
c< lafting life , where being perfe&ed 
<L themfelves, they fhall fee God, and 
u perfectly love and praife him in Joy, 
"with Chrift and all the Glorified 
a Church: And that the reft (hall go 
ct into everlafting punifhment, where 
<c their worm never dyeth and their 
fire is never quenched. 


1 1. Confent tyd 

Rom. 12. 1. 
Joh.i.u, 12. 
Dew. 10. 1 z. 
Rom. 8. 8. 
Heb. ii.Sc 
12.28, 29. 
Ifa. 56. 4, 5. 
<^$S-2,3 ; 4 5 6. 

Rev. 22, 17. 

Luk. 14. 26, 


2Pet.3.u 3 i2. 

1 Vet. 1.4, 5- 

2 Pet. 1. 3^4. 
Tic. i. 3, 4. 
Mat. 7. 5.: 

£.9, II. A SI Believe thus in God, the 

-"> Father,Son and Holy Ghoft, 

according to the Sacred Scriptures, 

and the Creeds and conftant Profeffiort 
of the univerfal Chriftian Church, fo 
I do unfeignedly continue to give up 
my felf prefently, abfolutely and refol- 
vedly, to this God my Creator, Re- 
deemer and San&ifier, according to 
the Covenant of grace : that 1 may be 
rcllgned to the will of God my Own- 
er, and obey the will of God my Ru- 
ler, and pleafe and reft in the Will and 
Love of God my Father, the Chiefeft 
End and Infinite Good : And renoun- 
cing all Idols and enemies of God and 
this his Covenant, I content though 
with the Crofs to follow Chrift rhe 
Captain of my Salvation to the death, 
defiring fill more of th^ Love of the 
Father, the Grace of the Son, and the 


rommunion of the Holy Spirit, aim 
joping for the promifed Glory, All 
vhieh I pray for according to that 
>rayer which Chrifl: hath left to be the 
umniary Dire&ory of our defires : 
3ur Father which art in heaven, &c. 

J. 10. 1 1 1. A Ccording to the forefaid z 1 1# lattice. 
JTjL Belief and Confent, As Aft! 27. 23." 
God hath obliged me, I do by Cove- PC 73.25,2^. 
&ant oblige my felf, by the help of D ^- 10 - ,2 - 
his Grace, fincerely to obey this God, 2 ^ on * 2C# 
my Creator, Redeemer and Sandificr, 2 Cor. 5. 8,^ 
according to the Law of nature, fum- Mae.$. 17,18, 
med up in the two Great Commands, *9- 
of Loving God with all our hearts, and J ^ 5 ; I0,I2 > 
our neighbours as our felves ; and in j . 1$. 7. 
the Ten Commandments as the Law 1 )*.$.2o,2F* 
of Chrift explained by him, with his Mac. 4-9, 10. 
fuperadded precepts and inftitutions : ^^*A?* 
By all which I am bound, to take God ^ io ^ # ^ 1 
only for my God, by believing, fear- ^89.7. 
ing, trufting, loving and obey ing him :, a Tim. 3^4. 
To avoid all Idolatry of mind and bo- l ^ II#2 ^ 
dy : To worfliip God according to his pf a i. V19. 97. 
Law, by learning and meditating on Jam. 4. 12. 
his word , by believing-holy fervent- £^;?fjf* 
prayer, thanklgiving and praife, and 
the holy ufe of the Sacrament of his 
Body and Blood : I mult reverently 
and holily ufe his name, and not by 
perjury or otherwife profane it : I muft 
keep holy the Lords day, efpecially in 
holy Communion with the Christian 
Allerablies, in the publick worfliip of 


Rev. 1. 10. 


Rom. 13. . 
Col. 3. 20. 
Deut. 27. 16. 
Rom. 12. ip, 
* 20. 
2 Sara. 23.3. 
Rom.i 3.9,10. 
Luk. 1 8- 2c. 
Mat. $.44,45. 
1 Jo.3.i5,i<5. 
1 Thef. 4, 6. 
Lev. 19. 11. 
Pro v. i?. 5. 
P&J. 15. 3- 
jtfat. 19. 19. 

*£» 7. 12. 

.B.Proptr to 
Miniflm of 
tha Qejfti. 
A A. 20. 20, 

jo. 21. 15,163 

2 Tim.4. 1,2. 

i Tim. 4» 16. 
fb« 3. 2, 3, 4, 

<£- 4.1,3,1*. 
& 1 Tim.3.4, 

5A *9- 
2Tim. 1.7,8, 

2 Tim. 2. ft* 

the end* 

God, and thankful commemoration 0! 
drifts Refurre&ion, and our redem- 
ption : I muft if I be a fuperiour, faith 
fully and holily govern my Inferiours: 
and as an Inferiour I muft honour anc 
obey my Parents , Magiftrates , nnc 
other fuperiours In power over me, 
I muft: not wrong my neighbour in 
thought, word or deed 5 in his Sou!, 
his Body, hisChaftity, Eftate, Right 
or Propriety } but muft do him all the 
good I can, and juftly give to all their 
own, and do as I would be done by, 
as Loving my neighbour as my felf : 
According to the Decalogue, God 
fpake all thefe words faying/ I am the 
Lord, Urc 

§.11.2. A Nd as the fpecial duty of 
J\ my office as in the Sacred 
Miniftry, I do Confent and Promife fin- 
cerely to perform that office for the 
flock over which I fhall be placed, or 
whereever I am called to cxercife it; 
Teaching them the doftrine of the Sa- 
cred Scriptures, efpecially the grcateft 
and moft neceflary parts, which 1 have 
here profefled , and nothing contrary 
thereto, fo far as by diligent ftudy I 
can difcern it : exhorting them to live 
by faith in love to God and man, and 
in the joyful hope of heavenly Glory 7 
in humility, felf-denial, temperance, 
patience, juftice, diligence and froic- 
fulnefs in all good works : To be loy- 

£ »0 

al and obedient to their fuperiours, « Tim.<5. itf, 

teachable to their inftru&OTs, haters Tit , ^ , '[ ft 

of finfal divifions and contentions, and , T ^ ^ x V 

lovers and followers of peace : To feek 1 5 . # 

firft the Kingdom of God and its righ- tot. & 5$. 

teoufnefs, to mortifie the flelh, and not "^ l 3- ■ il 

to overloye this world ^ To repent of t^^l^ 

fin, to refill temptations, to prepare 46,47,48,49. 

for death and judgement-, molt care- 1 Cor. 9. id, 

fully to pleafe, and quietly truft the tothttnd. 

will of God: And in the publick ce- m^I^Io. 

lebration of the Sacraments, and all Mat!i$*ff>9* 

the worfhip of God, and Guidance of Ifa. s. 2c. 

the flock, the fame word of God fhall 1 ****** 

be my Rule •, to which alio I will fin- 3 ' 4 " 
cerely endeavour to conform my whole 
Converfation •, not following after 
vain-glory, or filthy lucre, or lording 

it over the heritage of God, but feek- fj 
ing to pleafe and gtorifie Chrift, in my 
own and their falvation. • 

— — — * 

$.12. A Ndaslcxpedtmypartinthc c . social ^ 

Jljl benefits ot godly and peace- t y to jjffcj 
able Government, fo I do profeis to #* 
believe, and promife to teach and Ro l? , / . I5#v 
praftife accordingly, That there ^28.19. 
is no power but of God, and that- Rn- 1 Tim. 2. ft* 
lers are Gods Minifters for Good, not =>*• 
for deftruttion but edification, to be a Ipet - 2 * r fcM> 
terrourto evil doers, and a praifeto I5dI **]?* 
them that do well : and this under 
Chrift, to whom is given all Power in 
heaven and earth : That we muft pray 
for Kings and all in authority y that 


t 233 1 

h?ebin&i\K we may live a quiet and peaceabte 
life, in all godlinefs and honefty: 

Rom. 13.7.5. 

_., , :r lue ^ m au g OUUUCls ana nuneny: 

^ > |i That fubjefts muft obey their Rulers 

Jam. 3.1,114, in all things lawful belongingto their 

i£ \6, 17. office to command ;and not refill, rebel 

Jud, 8, a, 10. or ^ c f ec jitious : That they muft give 

honour,reverence and tribute to whom- 

foever they are due : And all this not 

only for fear of man, but in Confci* 

ence as hereby obeying God. 

The Renunciation, 

r A ^ c * as * ^* v ^ t ' Tlls un f e ^g n ^dly profeded my 
jLjl Belief, my Content andpromifed Practice ^ 
fo I heartily Renoimce all Do&rines, Defires and 
Practices contrary to any part of this Profeflion : 
And if by errour I hold or ihall hold any thing 
contrary thereto, asfoonas I difcern fuch contra- 
riety 1 will renounce it. 

. Efpecially I Renounce Atheifm, Polytheifm and 
Idolatry of Mind or Body: All Infidelity , Anti- 
'chriftianity and falfe Chrifts: Profanenefs, ungod- 
linefs, and malignant enmity to God and Holi- 
neis : All contempt of Gbds fpirit and his word : 
All ferving the, Devil, the vforld or the flefh as 
enemies to God or Holinefs : All felfifhnefs, Pride 
and hypocrifie, perjury and taking Gods name in 
vain, fupctftition, profanation of Gods holy day, 
and contempt of his publick or private worfhip: 
All Rebellion againft my parents, Prince or other 
Rulers ; All murder, adultery and fornication , 


theft and deceit, lying and lalfe witnefs bearing, 
and all other injury againft the life, health, cliafti-* 
ty, eitate, or reputation of my neighbour } All 
finful difcontent with my eftate and coveting that 
which is anothcrs : And whatever is impious, un- 
charitable or unjuft ; From all thefe I defire to be 

PArticularly to approve my fidelity to my Ru- 
lers, I renounce all dodtrines and practices 
of Rebellion, (edition or Schifm : I believe not 
that fubjects nOay take up Arms or ufe any force 
or confpiracy, to violate the Rights, Authority 
or Perfons of thole in fiiprcme Power over them i 
I believe not that by any Laws of God or Man 
the Bilhop of Rome hath the right of Governing 
3lT the world , or all Chriftian Kings and King- 
domes, nor the King or Kingdome of England, fit 
particular, in matters fecular or religious • Nor 
that it is the duty of this Kingdome or the King, 
to fubjeft themfelves unto him and obey him: 
Nor that the laid Bithop of Rome hath any true 
Hthority or right, to impofe oaths on Kings or 
pther temporal Lords, or othervvile oblige them 

1:0 judge their fubjedts to be Hercticks, who deny 
:he Popes univerfal Supremacy over all die Chur- 
:hes on earth , or who deny that the univerfal 
Church hath any Vifible Head but Chrift; or whs 
relieve that the truly confecrated Bread and Wine 
n the Sacrament of the Lords Supper remain true 
Bread and Wine after the Confecration, or that 
)elieve they are not to be adored as their God, 
hor the Wine to be denyed to the Laity commu- 

i heating: Nor may the Pope oblige Kings or any 
>thers to exterminate, burn or kill or punilh any fuch 
U as 

C 290 3 

as hereticks , nor excommunicate Kings or tempo, 
ral Lords for not doing it •, nor depofe there 
^being excommunicated, nor give their Kingdomes 
or Dominions to others , nor authorize any tc 
kill them, or to raife arms againft them, and tc 
invade their Countreys by hoftility : Nor hath Ik 
right or authority to forbid Kingdomes or Courr- 
treys the publick -celebration of Gods worfhip 3 
or holy Chriftian Communion \ Nor to oblige 
any Rulers or others to deftroy any as Hereticta 
or judge them fuch, becaufe they are fo judged 
by the Pope or Councils ^ And I believe not that 
the Clergy are exempted from obedience to the 
Secular Powers, or from being judged and punifh- 
edby them^ by any Laws of God, or any valid 
Laws of man, not made or confented to by the 
fa id Powers : And I unfeignedly believe that ii 
any Pope , or Council how great foever do de- 
cree, or aflert any of thefe things which I have 
hereby renounced and difdaimed , or fhall here- 
after decree or aflert any of them, they err, and 
lin againft God in ib doing, and are not to be be- 
lieved therein, nor do oblige any thereby to obej 
them. And all this I profefs as in the fight ol 
God my Judge without fraud or diflimulation k 
the fincerity of my heart. 

THe errours which men flionld be reftrained^ 
from preaching or propagating are innume 
rable, and not neccYlary to be all put into a fub- 
fcribed or profeflcd renunciation, fo they be actu- 
ally forborn. I will recite part of a Catalogue oJ 
falfe and doubtful dangerous points , not fit to be 
published by preachers. 


r 291 3 

I. Of the nature and adts of God. 

1 . That God is corporeal or material. 

2. That God is eflentially only in Heaven, or in 
lome finite fpace. 

3. TbatGodhathpartsandisdivifible. 

4. That God hath the parts or fhape of humane 
todies, headj face, eyes, hands, feet, &c . proper- 
ty lo called. 

5. That God is the Univerfe or whole world, 
or that he is meerly or properly the foul of the 
world, as his body ;, and fo but a part of the world. 

6. That God or anyefTential of God, is really 
lew, changeable or finite. 

7. That God can fuffer hurt, or hath proper real 
*rief and paflion. 

8. That God knoweth not all that hath been^ is^ 
or will be, and all that is intelligible. 

o. That Gods own eflential perfe&ion, good- 
lefs, and love is not the ultimate and chief objeft 
>f mans love, to be loved chiefly for himfelf as 
! noft amiable, and above our felves and all things 
xeated* but that he is only or chiefly to be loved 
i our Benefaftor , or as good to the creature ; 
find fo that man is Gods end, and his own chief 

nd ultimate end, and not God mans chief and ul- 
timate end. 

10. That God is the firft and chief, or any pro- 
ber caufe of fin •, or that God doth by efficient 
demotion as the firft caufe predetermine every 

lans mind, will, tongue and members, to every 
I Drbidden ad that is done, as it is determined to 
I nd fpecifyed by the objed with all its forbidden 
i ircumftances and modes: and lb to every lie, 
I erjury, hatred of God and goodnefs, murder, &c. 
\ nat is committed. 

U 2 11. That 

11. That God ruleth the world only as an en- 
gine by phyfical motion , and doth not rule any 
free agents by moral means as precepts, prohibiti- 
ons, promifes, &c. in any a<fts, faving as thefe 
are parts of his phy fically neceffitating motion. 

1 2. That God may or ever doth lie •, or by his 
infpiration, or his works of nature or providence, 
necefiitate innocent perfons defatto, or oblige any 
as a duty, to believe that which is falfe. 

13. That God hath fo committed the affairs of 
this world to Angels , or any creatures or na- 
tural means, as not to mind them, or particularly 
govern and difpofe of them himfelf. 

14. That God is effentially or virtually abfent 
from the effects which he caufeth. 

15. That God hath not power to do any 
more or otherwiie than he doth, though he 

16. That Gods will is not the fountain, and the 
meafure of all created good : or that things are not 
good becaule they are willed by God. 

17. That Gods proper and abfolute will, de- 
lire arid decree may be difappointed and not come 
to pals 

18. That fomewhat of or in the creature, may 
be a true or proper caufe of fomewhat ( not only 
relative, but ) real in God, or make a real change 
on God. 

19. That God hath no vindictive, or punifhing,] 
and no rewarding juftice. 

20. That God may be formally conceived of and 
comprehended by man, and not only known ana- . 
logically and as in a-glafs. 


II. Of 

C ^93 3 

1 1. Of the Bleffcd Divine Trinity. 

1. That there are three Gods, or three divine ef- 
fences or fubftances. 

2. That the Trinity are but Three Names of 
God, or three relations of him to the crea- 

3. That they are Three ptrts of God. 

4. That the three Perfons are one God only 
in fpecie, as Abraham, Ifaac and Jacob are One 
man, becaufe they have but one humane fort of 

5. That one perfon in the Trinity is in time or 
dignity before or after other, or greater or lefs 
than other. 

6. That in the Trinity there are three Fathers, 
three Sons, or three Holy Ghofts. 

7. That the doftrine of the Trinity is contradi 
&ory or impoffible to be true, 

8. That it is unnecefTary to be believed or 

9. That there are no Impreflions or notes of 
the Trinity on the foul of, man, or any other known 
works of God. 

10. That the works of Creation, Redemption 
or Sandtification are no more eminently or other- 
wife afcribed in Scripture to any one Pcrfbn in the 
Trinity than to the other. That Creation is no 
lotherwife afcribed to the Father, than to the Son 
and Holy Ghoft, nor Redemption to "the Son, than 
to the Father and the Holy Ghoft, nor Sandtifica- 
tion, Confolation and Sealing to the Holy Ghoft, 
than to the Father and the Son, and fo that they 
are not hence relatively diftinguilhable to us and by 
us at all. 

U 3 III. Of 

'C 29+ li 

1 1 1. Of the Perfonof Jefus Chrift. 
i. That Chrift is but a Creature, or not eter 
, nal •, or not of the fame Divine Effence as is th< 

2. That Chrift hath no humane created foul 
but the Divine nature was to his body inflead of; 
foul. f 

3. Or that a fuperangelical created nature, uni 
ted to his Divine nature was inftead of a human< 
foul to his body. 

4. That Chrifts body was not derived from th< 
Virgin Mary, but only pafTed through her, as watei 
through a Channel. 

5. That the iMother of Chrift alone was as mud 
the caufe of his foul and body, as our Fathers anc 
Mothers both are of ours. 

C. That the Virgin Mary was not the Mother ol 
him that was God and man. 

7. That fhe was the Mother and adual caufe 
or procreator of the Godhead, and of Chrift as 

8. Thatjefus Chrift was two Perfons, a Divine 
and Humane. 

9. That he had not two diftinguilhable natures, 
viz,, the Divine and Humane. 

10. That he had not two diftinguilhable under- 
ftandings, wills, and operations. 

1 1. That the Body of Jefus Chrift was incorrup- 
tible in and by its own nature and conftitution, and 
not only by its' union with the Deity, and by Gods 
will, decree and prefervation. 

12. That he was begotten by Jofefh or fome 
other man. 

13. That 

L *9S 3 

13. That Chrifts humane nature, foul or body, 
fuffered no real pain, nor was car abb of fuffer- 

14. That he vrasnotof the line of David after 
the flefh. 

15. That he had original fin, guilt or ?i- 

16. That Chrift is not now God and man in 

17. That the Glorified Body of Chrift is now 

formally flefh and blood, fo called univocally as 

ours, having the fame formal 

conftitutive eftence *. * s f e r J? e feconHCoun- 

o -t-u t> cl i ^ al at Ntct reciting and 

18. That every Pneftmaketh approving the former 
Bread and Wine by the Confe- General council of 
cration in the Eucharift to be- conflan : which in 
come no longer Bread and °*5 d, !JP b ^ y c °J" 
Wine, but the very Body, Flefh &m^dSsdpiiS 
and B16od of Chrift, or that 

God fo maketh it , or the Priefts fpeaking thole 
words : And fo that all the confecrated Bread and 
Wine fince Chrifts days till now arc made Chrift's 
flefh and blood, andyethisflelhand blood no whit 

19. That all believers are by union part of the 
Natural Perfon of Chrift. 

20. That the humane nature of Chrift is now 
(the Godhead , or is become a proper part of 
the fecond Perfon in the Trinity as fuch. ( And 
here prefumptuous men rnuft take great heed of 
raedling too far : fome Scholaftick Divines fay, It 
vS errourto fay that Chrifts humane nature is a 
Van of bis perfon *, becaufe his Perfon was perfefr 
from eternity, and the Divinity cannot be a Part 
Df any thing: Others fay that It iserrour to fay 
:hat the Humane nature is no part of Chrift : And 

U 4 fceu 

C 2 9 6 ] 
feeing it is no part of the Divine Eflence, or na- 
ture, therefore it is a part of his perfon : Others 
fay that it is only an Accident of Chrift: fome 
think that if it were not for fear of the clamours 
of Ignorant Hereticaters that will call it Neftori- 
anifm, it were found eft and fafeft to fay, that the 
word Perfon is equivocal : And that as it is taken 
for the fecond eternal perfon in the Trinity, the 
humane nature is no part of it : But as it is taken 
Relatively for the Perfon of the Mediator , the 
humane nature is a part. And fo that Chrift hath 
two perfoQs, but not univocally but equivocally fo 

IV. Of the Holy Ghoft and the Holy Scri- 

i . That the Holy Ghoft is but a creature, or 
not God of the fame effence with the Father and 
the Son. 

2. That the Holy Ghoft is but the Angelical na- 
ture or ipecies; and as the diabolical nature and 
many Devils are called fingularly [the Devil^} fo the 
many Angels are called [the Holy Spirit. ] 

3. That the Immortal part of man called his 
Sfirity is the effence of the Holy Ghoft. 

4. That the Holy Ghoft as operative on man, is 
not a valid witnefs of the truth of Chrift and Chri- 
ftianity in the world. 

5. That the Holy Ghoft did not impregnate the 
Virgin Mary, or that Chrift was not conceived by 

6. That Adam had not the Holy Ghoft, or true 

7. That the Prophets fpake not by the Holy 
Ghoft ^ Or that their prophecies are of Private 
interpretation , that is , objectively to be inter- 

C ^97 1 

preted, of fuch private perfons and things as they 
immediately fpake of, and which were but types of 
Shrift or grace. 

8. That the Holy Ghoft in the Prophets was 
not the Spirit of the Redeemer, and fent by 

9. That the miracles of Chrift and his Apoftles 
were not wrought by the Holy Ghoft. 

10. That the Holy Ghoft may kt the feal of 
true uncontrolled miracles to a lie. 

n. That the Canonical Scriptures were not in- 
dited by the Holy Ghoft, as infallible records of the 
Divine will. 

12. That they are but for a time, till a per- 
fefter Law is made , called , Q The Law of the 
Sprit. 2 

13. That they are imperfeft without the fupple- 
ment of Roman Tradition , as part of the Rule 
qf faith and life. 

14. That they were but occafional writings, ne- 
ver intended for the univerfal law or rule of faith 
and holy living. 

j 5. That there are in the true original, as they 
came from the Apoftles, fome errours. 

16. That in the pre fent received Originals there 
is any errour inconliftent with true faving faith and 

17. That we are not bound to believe the Holy 
Scriptures to be Gods word, but by the authorita- 
tive propofal of the Church of Rome, that is, A 
general Council fubjeft to the Pope, or called or ap- 
proved by him as authorized thereto by Chrift : or 
that we muft believe that the Pope or Council are 
authorized by Chrift, before we are bound to be- 
lieve in Chrift himfelf. 

1 8. That 

C 298 1 

i-8. That the Scriptures are not intelligible in 
neceflary things, till the Church, Council, Pope 
or Fathers expound them to us. 

19. That the Scriptures have no fuch imprefs or 
excellency, by which they manifeft themfelves to 
be of God, fuppofing neceflary conveyance and mi* 
nifterial explication. 

20. That we muft not underftand [any text of 
Scripture, but as the confent of ancient Fathers ex- 
pounded! it. 

21. That the Spirit now given to Popes, Coun- 
cils , or to individual Christians is as much the 
Rule of faith and life, as the holy Scriptures : or 
that the Spirit is not given now to us only to teach 
us to underftand, believe , love and praftife Gods 
word indited by the more eminent infpiration of 
the Apoftles and Prophets, but alfo to inlpire us 
as infallibly to know more than is revealed in the 
Scripture, and that as needful to Salvation : Or that 
it is not fo much the Spirit extraordinarily infpiring 
the Apoftles, as the Spirit as infpiring ourfelves, 
which is every mans rule of faith and life. 

22. Tnat the Light which is in Heathens, Infi- 
dels , and all men, is this Spirit , and fufficient 

23. That men muft believe the Scripture with- 
out reafon for their believing it : or muft believe it 
to be Gods word without feeking any proof that it 
is his word. 

24. That it is meritorious to believe the Scri- 
pture to be Gods word, without knowing any 
proof or reafon of it, this being an infuied faith, 
and proof making it but acquired. 

25. That we muft believe Gods word no further 
than we have evidence of truth from the nature of 
the matter revealed. 

26. That 

26. That Mahomet is the Paraclet prcmifcclby 

V. Of the Creation. 

i. That this world was from eternity, and not 
made in time. 

* 2. That an evil God made this earth, or a mid- 
dle God between the perfed God and the evil one 
( As old Hereticks varioufly fpake. ) 

3. Or that fuch an evil, or middle God made 
the body of man. 

4. Or that fuch an evil, or middle agent made 
the woman. 

5. That God made fin, and death and difcrder 
before fin deferved them. 

6. That when God had made this world, he left 
it to the Government of certain Angels, who fell 
and neceffitated man to fall. 

! 7. That the World is Gods body, and he the 
Soul of it, and no more. 

8. That the world came by chance, or by a for- 
tuitous conflux of atomes, and was not made by 
Gods wife and powerful word or a&ion. 

9. That there is nothing in the world but mat- 
ter and motion, and the various fhapes of matter 
paufed by motion : or at leaft , nothing but 
God and matter and motion , and its modal ef- 

10. That the world is Infinite, as being made by 
that infinite God, who made it as great and good 
as he was able, and therefore infinite in his own 

VI. Of Angels and Spirits, and Heaven. 

1. That men can certainly tell the fpace, num- 
ber and crder of all the celeftial regions, orbs, or 


C 300 3 

fpaces, and the number of Angels, or when the 
firft were made. 

2. That this world or earth was made by An-' 
gels only. 

3. That the fallen Angels were neceffitated by 
God to fin, and to tempt man. 

4. That God hath fo left to Angels the Govern- 
ment of this world, as not to govern it himfelf, fave 
by foch leaving all to their free contingent a- 

5. That all that which fcripture afcribeth to the 
Holy Ghofl is done only by Angels. 

6. That we may know which are our Guardian 

7. That men may choofe their own guardian An- 
gels or fpirits. 

8. That we mult pray to Angels though we fee 
them not or have no fpecial notice when they hear 

9. .That Angels lulted after women and begat 
Giants of them before the deluge. 

10. That they fight with each other for the go- 
vernment of the Kingdoms of this world •, ( even 
the good Angels among themfelves.) 

VII. Of Man, as man , in his nature and firft 

1. That mans foul is God, or part of God. 

2. Or is only apart or ad of an univerfal foul 
of the world, and is no fingular or individual fub- 
ftance in each one. 

3 . That the foul is but a quality, motion or acti- 
on of a higher agent. 

4. That the foul is mortal and dieth with the 
body } being either annihilated, or afleep^ or funk 
into ameer potentta? or hath no knowledge, will, 


C 301 1 

fenfe or a&ion - 7 or is fwallowed up in the univer- 
sal foul fo as to lofe its proper or numerical ex- 

5. That mans foul is of the lame fpecies as 
the bruits. 

6. That mans fpirit only is immortal and con- 
tinued! after death, but not his foul. 

7. That mans foul or fpirit was from eternity. 

8. That it was made before this earth, and finned 
in a former body, and was thruft for punifliment 
into this body and world. 

9. That the fouls departed of men , are fent 
back into beafts, or at lead into other men, and fo 
are oft born. 

10. That mens fouls are fallen Angels. 

11. That Adams foul was made firft male and 
female before it was incorporate. 

12. That Adams body was the cloathing that 
God made him after he finned , having no body 

13. That neither foul nor body was made af- 
ter Gods image ( as Eptphanim ill affirmeth ). 

14. That mans Vital faculty, Intellect, and Will, 
are but accidents of his foul. 

15. That the foul is moved but as an engine by 
an extrinfick caufe, and hath not any Eflential felf- 
movingform or power. 

16. That no man can do more orlefs or other- 
wife than he doth , becaufe God as the firft mover 
neceffitateth all his a&ions. 

17. That the will hath no habits, but a meer 
power and liberty. 

18. That Adam and Eve had no holinefs, or 
holy inclination to love God as God and to obey 
him, but a meer neutral poffibility. 

19. That 

C 302 1 

i p. That Adam had not help or ftrength fuf- 
cient, or necefiary power to have forborn his firlt 

> 20. That man was made only to be an inha- 
bitant of earth, as Angels are of heaven -, and is 
not capable of an higher habitation. 

VII I. Of fin, Orignalandfubfequent. 

i. That God is as much the Caule of all fin, as 
he is of darknefs and fiich other privations : and 
that he made Adam fin •, or that he irrefiftibly pre- 
deter mineth every ones will to every forbidden aft 
which it doth. 

2.That the Devil irrefiftibly neceflitated Adam to 
(In, and fo fome fuperior cauie did the Devils. 

3. That fin is not only the occafion of much 
good, but a proper caufe, andasfuch is decreed, 
willed and cauled by God. 

4. That God made a Covenant with Adam, that 
if he finned, all that came of him fhould be repu- 
ted finners, farther than tl\ey were really feminally 
in him, and by natural in-being and derivation were 
partakers of his guilt, and corruptions , and fo 
that God made them finners by his arbitrary im- 
putation, when naturally they were not fo. 

5. That Orginal fin necefiitateth every fin of 
omiflion or att which ever after folio weth in the 

6. That fin being a meer privation, all are by 
nature deprived of all moral good, and fo all are 
equally evil,and as bad as thofe in hell,notwithftand- 
ing any thing that the Redeemer hath done to pre- 
vent it. 

7. That infants have no Original fin •, no guilt 
of Adams fin, and no finful pravity of nature. 

8. That 

C 303 1 

3. That Infants have no participation of guilt 
of any nearer parents fin, but Adams only, and 
God doth notinflift any punilhment on children 
for their fathers fin, becaufe of their derived guilt 
by nature. 

9. That therefore Infants have no need of 
a Saviour to fuffer for their fin, nor of a par- 

1 o. That Infants need not the Holy Ghoft to 
fanftifie them, by killing any finful pravity or 
inclination in them. 

11. That fin was not the caufe of death. 

12. That fin deferveth not hell, or an everlaft- 
ing puniihment. 

I*. Of Redemption and the Covenant of grace 
made to Adam and Noah. 

1. That God made no promife, Covenantor 
gift of grace to Adam after his fall. 

2. That God made the Covenant of grace only 
to Adam and the eleft, and not to all mankind 
in him, no not as it is a Conditional Covenant. 

$. That all except the eledt, or moft or many 
at lead are (till under that firft Covenant of In- 
nocency made with Adam, as prefcribing to them 
and requiring of them finlefs innocency or perfe- 
ction as the only condition of their falvaticn :, As 
if God ftiil faid to finners, I will fave you if you are 
not finncrs. 

4. That the Covenant of Grace was made only 
to and with Chrift, and no other. 

5. That there was and is an eternal Covenant 
of Redemption made between God the Father and 
the Son, which is neither Gods Efience, a Divine 
Pertbn or Decree , but a proper Covenant. 

6, That 

C 304 3 

6. That God gave no grace, pardon or falva- 
tion by Covenant , till Chrifts incarnation. 

7. That the fame faith objectively confidered, was 
aeceffary to falvation under the firft edition of the 
Covenant of grace as under the laft, v&. to be- 
lieve that Jefus the fon of Mary is or muft be the 
Meffiab , and that he muft die for fin, and rife again 
and intercede in heaven, and return to raife us and 
judge the world. 

8. That Chrifts Difciples were not in a ftate 
of juftification till they believed all this. 

9. That-all men fhall not be judged as they believed 
and kept (or brake) the condition of the Covenant 
in that edition which they were under, but all 
according to the tenor of the laft edition. 

* 10. That no faith in God as gracious andSher- 
ciful to finners, and as pardoning fin, was neceflary 
before Chrifts incarnation. 

1 1. That God before did pardon fin without any 
refpett to the future facrifice, and merit of Chrift as 
mans Redeemer. 

1 2. That no fouls were glorified or received to 
heaven and happinefs , till Chrift's refurredion , 
but referved in fome Limbus till then. 

X. Of the Covenant made with Abraham, and 
Mofes Law, and the Ilraelites. 

1. That Abraham was the firft true Believer, or 
the firft to whom a promife or Covenant of Grace 
was made. 

-:. That the Covenant of Grace was made to 
no other people in the world, but the Ilraelites 
were Gods whole vifible Church on earth , and did 
not only add to them a Covenant of peculiarity. 

$ That this promife to Abraham and- his feed 
in whom all Nations of the Earth fliould be blefled , 


C 305 3 

extended no way to the believing Gentiles. 

4. That all Heathens children that were circum- 
cifed were certainly faved, if they died before actu- 
al fin. 

5. That Mofes Law bound men to no fpiritua! 
duty, nor promifed any future reward or happinefs 
jfter this life. 

6. That Mofes Law was given by an evil God or 
m\ Angel. 

7. That Mofes Law was the fame as the Law 
or Covenant of perfect innocency firil made for 

8. That all the world was bound to keep Mo* 
fes Law as fuch even the judicial and ritual parts 
of it. 

9. That under that Law God gave no grace to 
obey him. 

1 o. That the converted Jews arc {till bound to 
seep Mofes Law. 

11. Yea and all converted Gentiles now; 

12. That we are bound to form our Church go-' 
jernment according to the Mofaical or Jewilh. 

XL Of Redemption by Chrift incarnate \ and 
he Gofpel or laft edition of the Covenant of 

1. That Chrift brought no more Grace than was 
.s ordinarily given before his incarnation. 

2. That he was habitually or actually a (inner* 
;uilty of original or aftual fin. 

3. That Chrift was properly reputed a (Inner by 
iod, or a proper finner by imputation, in that he 
00k our fin to be his own, or God took him to be 
nilty of the fault of all our fin •, and not only 
nethat undertook to bear the punifhraent dc* 

red. • 

X 4. That 

I 306 3 

4. That Chrift was as guilty of our fin as we wen 
of Adams. 

5. That Chrift was habitually or adtually holy 
and fulfilled all righteoufncfs in the Legal perfoi 
of every elect perfon, or of every true bdiever, ft 
that the Law therefore judgeth them to have beei 
what Chrift was, or done what Chrift did thereia 
they doing it in him. 

6. Thar Chrift was not a fatisfying facrifke for fin 

7. That Chrifts fatisfa&ion and merit were noi 
fufficient for their proper ufe and effed, withoui 
our fatisfatt'on and merit to make up their defeft. 

8. That Chrift was not the Saviour of the world 
*or that God did not fo love the world as togiv< 
his only fon, that who ever believeth in him fhoulc 
not perifn but have everlafting life. Or that Goc 
hath made no iuch promife or grant to all to whon 
the Gofpel cometh, that if they repent and belie v< 
in Chrift they fhall be pardoned and faved : or tha 
this conditional univerfal pardon was no fruit 
Chrifts death. 

9. That none buttheeleit have any mercy pur 
chafed by the death of Chrift, nor are bound tob 
thankful to him for any fuch, 

10. That Chrift fufFered the fame pains of hell. 
hatred of God, and torment of Confidence, whic 
all the eledt fhould elfe have fuffered. 

11. That Chrifts Righteoufnefs and facrifke ar 
not the true meritorious caufe of our righteoufnefs 
pardon, juftification and falvation. 

12. That* Chrift muft be oft really facrificed. 

13. That Chrift at his laft fupper did make th 
bread and wine become his real body, then living 
and that it was broken and his blood fhed by hirr 
felf really before he was crucified by the Jews. 

14. That Chrift felt no real pain (ai*St. Hilar 
Ficlav. ill faid ). 15. Tha 

C 307 3 

15. That Chrill died not but another in his 

16. That Chrift took not his body into Hea- 

17. That all power is not given to Chrift,nor are 
Kings and Magiftrates his Miniiters, nor hold their 
power by him. 

18. That Chrift is no Law-giver, and made no 
Law r . 

19. That he is not our fufficient interceftbr with 
God, by whom we may have accefs and accep- 

20. That Chrift fendeth not forth his fpirit to 
be his ag^ntand witneis to the end of the w world, 
in fanttifying his ele£t. 

XI L Of Faith , Repentance and fanftification, 

1. That Faith, repentance, holinefs and obe- 
dience are not necefiary in us to our falvation, be- 
caufe Chrift was righteous for us , and repented 
and believed in our ftead. 

2. That believers are under no Law of God. 

3 . That he may be pardoned and faved who for- 
beareth only the outward Afrs of fin through maer 
fear, and is abfolved by aPrieft, though he love fin 
better than holinefs, and had rather keep it than 
leave it. 

4. That loving others , and doiag them good 
land no harm is all the Love of God and Holinefs 
that is necefiary to falvation. 

5. That Faith and Repentance are of nature or 
by meer natural power and free-will, and not the 

ift of grace through Chrill. 

6. That God giveth grace equally to ail till good 
provers make a difference* 

X % f. That 

C 3083 

7. That men may be holy in the reftored Image 
of God without the grace of the Holy Ghoft. 

8. That men need not the Spirit of God to help 
them to pray or preach. 

9. That the fins of fandified perfons, are not 
judged by God to be theirs ; and that he feeth them 
notandhateth them not, nor punifheth them with 
any correding punifhment. { 

i o. That they that have the fpirit need not ftudy 
for matter, method, words or afFedion. 

11. That they are perfed, or their duties perfed 
who have the fpirit , becaufe all the fpirits works 
are perted. 

12. That the day of grace may be fo paft; with 
fome, as that fincere faith, and repentance, and a 
changed will that loveth holinefs , and confenteth 
to the Covenant of grace, maybe rejeded of God, 
and unavailable to falvation. 

XIII. Of Juftification and pardon. 

1. That God forgiveththe deferved punifhment 
of no fin , but requireth it of the finner himfelf, 
and Remiffion is only the deftroying of finful dif- 
pofitions and preventing future fin, and not for- 
giving the punifhment of what is paft, or will be. 

2. That Chrift's facrifice and righteoufnefs is not 
the meritorious caufe of our pardon, Juftification, 
adoption and Salvation. 

3. That Chrifh is not the Lord our righteoufnefs, 
or made of God to us, wifdom, righteoufnefs, fan 
dification and redemption •, nor we made the Righ- 
teoufnefs of God in him: or that it is not the Righte- 
oufnefs of God by faith in Jefus Chrifl: , which jufti- 
jfieth us. 

^ 4. That Chrift fuffered for his own fin, being 
jg ither adually a finner, or our fins made properly 


his own fin, ( in the guilt of culpability, and not 
only of punifhmentj before lie fiiffered for them. 
And fo that he was by real imputation or Divine 
reputation, the greateft Atheift, infidel, malignant, 
murderer, adulterer, &c. in the world, thefe fins be- 
ing in their forms, or culpable guilt tranflated from 
all the eled on him. 

5. That all the eled were juftified from eterni- 
ty, or before they were born, or while they were no 
true believers, by that juftification which the Scrip- 
ture meaneth when it faith we are juftified by faith. 

6. That the eledt are juftified by the Law of in- 
nocency made to Adam, or the Law of works 
made to and by Mofes to the Jews \ becaufe they 
were Legally in Chrift fulfilling them , and did 
perfectly fulfill them in him. 

7. That the fenfe of the Law of innocency was, 
C Thou or Chrift for thee fhall be innocent and o- 
bey perfe&ly to the end, or die ]. 

, 8. That the Gofpel Covenant or Donation is 
1 not Gods juftifying inftrument , gift or Law. 

9. That God reputeth us to have been perfe&Iy 
innocent from our birth to our death ( or at leaft 
fince our believing) becaufe we were fo Legally 
in Chrift, and yet reputeth us fuch finners as need a 
Saviour, and Chrift fuffered for our fins , though 
we were fo innocent. 

10. That the eled have no need of f pardonat 
all, becaufe they are perfectly obedient by imputa- 

1 1. That at leaft we need no pardon of any fin 
committed fince we believed, fave only of tempo. 

Iral corre&ion. 
12. That pardon and juftification a&ually remit 
all fin at once that is yet to come, (and is yet no 
fin ) as well as that which is paft and prefent. 
X 3 n. That 

I 310 ] 

1 3. That pardon and juftification arc perfcft as 
foon as we believe. 

14. That therefore no true penalty, no not cor- 
jje&ivc'is inflicted or remaineth after our firft 

1 5 .Therefore to fuch none of their wants of grace 
or Communion with God, nor permitted fin, nor 
fuffering nor death, are any true punifhments for 
fin, for the demonftration of paternal juftice. 

16. That therefore no believer muft pray for 
the pardon of fin fit being perfe&ed already) nor 
feek* for it of Chrift by faith* 

lji That therefore there is no further condition 
or means to be ufed by us for pardon of new fins , 
or for fuller pardon. 

18. Therefore there is no other or perfefter ju- 
ftification at the faft judgement. 

19. That faith is not imputed to us for Righte- 

2o.That againft the falfe accufationsphat we were 
impenitent, infidels, ungodly, hypocrites] we need 
no' perfonal Repentance, faith, piety or fincerity , 
to juftifie us as the righteoufnefs contrary to this ac- 
cusation, but only the imputed righteoufnefs per- 
formed perfonally by Chrift himfelf. 

21. That 'we (hall not be judged according to 
our works, nor in any refpedt juftified before God 
by our works, nor is St. ^/^.ffotobeunderftood, 
nor Chrift that faith, By thy words thou fljalt be jufti- 
fie d , and by thy words thoti foalt be condemned* 
Mat. 12. 

22. That men are juftified by the works of the 
Law of Mofes oiolinnocency^ or fome other works, 
which muft be joyned to the righteoufnefs of Chrift, 
to make it fufficient to its proper part or office '; 
and are not only fubordinate thereto. 

23. That 


L 5 11 J 

23. That we are juftified by faith, only in our 
Corffciences } as knowing that we are otherwile 
juftified before God. 

24. That we are juftified only by inherent righte. 
oufnefs -, and that pardon of fin and acceptance for 
Chrifts merits and mediation, is none of our jufti- 
fication at all. 

25. That a man unjuftified mult believe that he 
is juftified, that thereby he maybe juftified (tak- 
ing juftification in the lame fenfe). 

26. That God doth net make men juft befjre 
he fentenceth them juft. 

27. ThatChrift juftifieth only by his Prieftly 
Office and not by his judicial fentence. 

28. That we are juftified by no aft of faith, but 
only by the aft of refting on (or. alfo accepting) 
Chrifts imputed juftifying righteoufnefs. 

29. That being perfeftly juftified by thefirftaft 
of faith, we are never after juftified as to continu- 
ation, by any aft after that firft inftant. 

30. That to expeft juftification by believing in 
God the Father, or the Holy Ghoft,and in Chrift as 
Chrift, in his perfon and whole office of a faviour,and 
ncc onlybytheforefaidfingle aft, is to feek juftifi- 
cation by works,reprehended by Paul^or unlawfully. 

3 1. That faith or repentance are not by Gods gift 
or promife made any conditions neceflary to be 
done by us, through his grace, that we may have 
right to Chrift or pardon or juftification. 

32. That our believing in Chrift is of equal 
impoflibility to us as our perfonal perfeft innocency. 

33. That to believe Heaven, and that God will 
glorifie us for the fake of Chrift, and as a Re ward- 
er of them that diligently feek him, is no aft of 
that faith which juftifieth \ as a Condition of jufti- 
fication orfalvation. 

X 4 34- ™t 

34- That it is all mens duty to believe that they 
are eledt. 

35. That juftifying faith is] only a fuH aflurance 
that we are elect. 

36. That true faith is inconfiftent with doubting 
pr imperfection. 

37. That it is unlawful to truft to any thing ir» 
us or done by us as a means or condition of par- 
don or falvation, though but fubordinate to 

38. That no meer death-bed faith or repen-l 
tance is accepted to falvation or pardon, becaufel 
good works are part of the condition. 

39. That there is no degree of pardon given by 
God to any but the eleft that are faved. 

40. That all praife that is afcribed to any thing 
in our feives or done by us, or to any fubordinate 
ad of man, as a means to our falvation or final jo- 
llification, is a difhonour to God and our Saviour, 
andderogateth from his glory. 

XIV. Of Baptifm. 

1 . That Baptifm was inflituted only for the firft 
times, or for reception of Infidel countreys when 
converted, and not for to be continued in Chrifti- 
an Countreys and Churches. 

2. That outward Baptifm by water will fave the 
adult that have not true Repentance, and faith 
and fincere confent to the baptifmal Covenant. 

3- That all the children of Infidels, Heathens, 
Hereticks or wicked men are certainly faved , if 
they be baptized and have Godfathers profeffing 
Chriftianity ( though thofe Godfathers be wicked 
hypocrites, and take not the infants by adoption; 
or ctherwife as their own, nor really intend to 
educate them as they promife ) and if they die 


before they actually fin •, and that this is certain by 
the word of God. 

4. That all the baptized are delivered from a!i 
culpable pravity of foul, or inherent iin. 

5. That it is certain that all b^tized Infants of 
what parents foever, have fpecial grace infufed 
into their fouls by the Holy Ghoft in Bap- 

6. That baptifm entering all into the Catholick 
Church, obligeth all the baptized totheBiihop of 
Rome as the fupreme head or paftor. 

7. That the Infants of believers dedicated to 
God are holy only as legitimate and not baftards, 
but are not as a holy feed under promife to be en- 
tered into the Church and Covenant of God by 
baptifm •, but all baptized in Infancy mull be 
taken as no vilible Chriltians till they are rebap- 

8. That none that fin grofly after baptifm, are 
upon their repentance to bs received into the com- 
munion of the Church. 

9. That it is not neceflary to baptifm of the 
adult that they make any covenant, promife or 
vow to God, nor to the baptifm of Infants that 
Parents or Proparents devote them to Chrift by 
entering them into an obliging Vow or Cove- 

10. That Baptifm was not inftituted to inveft 
the baptized in his right to pardon and life, but 
only to enter him into the viiible Church, where as 
a difciple he may learn how to come to iuch right 
and pardon hereafter. 

1 1. That the adult duely baptized have no right 
to the Communion of the Church, though they 
profefs to continue their Covenant-content, and 
none difprove the truth of their profcflion , uiv 


L 3H J 

lefs they have fome higher qualification and 

X V. Of the Lords Supper. 

i. That the Lords Supper is but an ordinance 
for young or carnal Chriftians ; but they that have 
the Spirit muft live without it, as being above out- 
ward figns and ordinances : And'fo of the Lords 

2. That the Bread broken and Wine poured 
out to be eaten and drunk, are not the reprefenta- 
tive Sacramental body and blood of Chrift delive- 
ring us the real benefits of his facrifice, to be recei- 
ved by faith. 

3. That after the words of Confecration duly 
uttered, there remaineth no true fubftance of bread 
or wine, but all is turned into the very body and 
blood of Chrift. 

4. That the wine may juftly be denyed the Lai- 
ty, and they be required to communicate by recei- 
ving only the bread confecrated •, or the body of 
Chrift, as they call it, without the other half of 
the Sacrament. 

5. That Chrifts flelh and blood is really and pro r 
peiiy facrificcd by the Prieft. 

6. That ordinarily the Prieft is to partake alone 
and the people only to be Spe&ators. 

7. That the confecrated hoft being Chrifts body 
is to be adored as very God. 

8. That this facrifice is to be offered by the Prieft 
for the living and the dead, arid to eafe the pains 
of Purgatory. 

9. That God himfelf here deceiveth the foundeft 
fenfes of all men, making that to be no bread or 
wine which their fenfes and intelle&s of things as 
fenfate, apprehend as fuch. 

10. That 

L 31* J 

10. That it is herefie and dcferveth cxterminati- 
n or death to deny thefe things of the Sacrament, 
nd to believe our ienfes that there remaineth true 
read and wine after Confccration. 

ii. That unbelievers and wicked men in the 
ucharift, truly eat the real body of Chrift. 

12. That the bare receiving of the Sacrament, 
tough without true faith and repentance , will 
rocure pardon of fin from God, and Salva- 

XVI. Of the Church. 

i. That the Church of Chrift , as vifible, is 
dH or ceafed, or hath been loft fince the Apo- 
tles days, fo that there was a time when Chrift 
iad no vifible fubje&sand difciples. 

2. That the Church differeth from Heathens 
nd Infidels only in opinion, and not in real ho- 

3 . That only the Clergy or Rulers are the Church 
)f Chrift. 

4. That Chrift hath inftituted a vicarious vifible 
.-lead of all the world, or of all the Church on earth, 
Hider himfelf, to whom all Chrift ians muft be fub- 
eft, as their chief Paftor. 

5. That this Head, or univerfal Church Mo- 
narch is the Bifhop of Rome : or elfe a general 

6. That this Head or chief Ruler ( Pope, Coun- 
cil or both ) hath univerfal Legiflative power, to 
make Laws obliging the whole world, or the whole 

7. That this Head is made the judge to all 
Chriftians, what lhall be taken for articles of faith, 
and what for herefie •, and all are bound to believe 
fuch judgement, or at leaft to acqqiefce in fubmifii- 
ontoit. 8. That 

L 316 J 

8- That no one is bound to believe the Scriptui 
or the Chriftian Verity, but for or upon the prop 
fal of the Pope, Council or both, 

9. That iuch judgement and propofal is certai 
and infallible. 

lo.That this Church and its authority muft be b< 
lieved to be given by Chrift, before men can belie v 
in Chrift himielf. 

ii. That this Pope, Council or both have powe 
from Chrift to excommunicate fuch as deferve ex 
communication throughout all the world, and t< 
j udge who deferve it. 

12. Tiiat the Pope hath power to call genera 
Councils out of all Chriftian Churches or nation! 
on earth and to prefide in them, and to approve oj 
rejeft and invalidate their decrees. 

1 3 . That all Churches are bound to fend Bifhops 
or Delegates to fuch Councils, if required by the) 

14. That a General Council approved by the 
Pope is infallible in all points of faith - , elfe not. 

' 15. That the Pope, or Council, or both may 
judge all Chriftian Kings, anddepofe fuch as they 
judge deferve it, and give their Countreys to others, 
and difoblige their fubjetts from their Oaths of 

36. That they may interdict Gods worfhip to 
whole Countreys and Kingdomes, and the Clergy 
muft obey fuch interdi&s. 

17. That whom they or the Clergy judge here- 
ticks, all are .bound to avoid as hereticks, be 
they never fo falfly judged fuch. 

18. Tiiat at leait in or dine ad fpiritualia the 
Pope hath power over Princes and their Crowns. 

uj. Taa| the Clergy owe nor obedience to 
Pfiace^ nor may be Judged by them. 

20. That 

C 317 1 

20. That the univerfal Church can have no er- 
rour in any point which God hath revealed in his 

21. That the univerial Church hath erred, or 
may err in points eflential to Chriftianity, or ah- 
folutely neceflary to Salvation •, ( and fo be- 
come no Church , and Chrifb no King or Head 
Df it.) 

22. That no one is a meriiber of the univerfal 
Church, who is not a member of fome particular 

23/ That none are in the univerfal Church 
who are not the fubjedts of Diocefan Bilhops. 

24. That a man not baptized by one that hath 
Ordination from a Diocefan Biftiop, is no member 
of the univerfal Church. 

25. That a member of the vifible Church cannot 
be certainly known, becaufe it cannot be known 
what is eflential to a Chriftian, feeing it depends 
on the fufficiency of the propofal of truths, 
which cannot be known of many or raoft. 

XVII. Of Gods worfhip, preaching and Mini. 
Iters, and his day. 

1. That there are more Gods than one, and fe- 
Veral Countreys may worlhip their feveral Gods. 

2. That if we keep our hearts to God, we may 
bow down before Images as Idolaters do. 

3. That it is not neceflary that we actually love 
God above once a year, or once a month, or week 
at moft. 

4. That if we fear Gods wrath, and love one 
another, we may be faved without any other love to 

5. That 

L 318 J 

5. That no higher Love to God is neceflaryi 
than to .love him for our felves and others, as a 
Benefa&or and means to the Creatures good. \ 

6. That Gods word is not to be trufted as infal- 
libly true. 

7. That becaufe God will be fpiritually worfhip- 
ped, outward bodily worfhip is not neceffary to 

Spiritual perfons. 

S. That he that loveth , trufteth and ferveth. 
Godfo, as yet he loveth, trufteth and ferveth thci 
flefh and the world and finful pleafure more pre- 
valently, may yet be faved without more. « 

9. That outward worfhip without inward love 
and holinefs may ferve to Salvation. 

10. That we may give Divine worfhip to An- 
gels , or glorified fouls , or to the Crofs or I- 

1 1 . That if prayer move not or change not 
Gods will, it is needlefs to ufe much prayer. 

12. That it is lawful to require the people to 
pray and praife God in an unknown language, in- 
stead of words which they underftand, and fuch 
prayer and worfhip they mufl preferr or ufe if the 
Pope, or Bifhpps command it. 

13. That any man may make himfelf or become 
a Paftor or Teacher of the Church in office, wha 
thinketh himfelf fit, without mans election, or or- 

14. That none are true Minifters of Chrift whb 
are not fent by the Billiop of Rome, or fome autho* 
rized by him, or ordained by fuch. 

15. That no Minifters are owned as fuch by 
Chrift, nor are the Sacraments adminiftred by them 
valid, that are not ordained by Diocefans, or by 
fuch as had an ordination themfelves by an unin- 
terrupted fucceffion from the Apoftles down by 


L 319 3 
Diocefan Bifliops ; ( or a Canonical fuccef- 
fion. ) 

16. That all Minifters ought to ceafe preaching 
the Gofpel, and all Churches or perions publick 
worfhipping God, who are forbidden by the Pope 
( as fome fay ) or by Bifhops fas others fay) or by 
the King or Magiftrate (as others) . 

17. That it is finful for Presbyters to preach 
(Tay fomej or to pray (fay others) publickly in any 
other words , fave thofe that are written down 
for them or prefcribed , by the authority ei- 
ther of Pope, Council, Bifhops or Civil Magi- 

18. That it is finful to inftrufrthe people, or 
to pray to God or praife him, in a form of words 
premeditated, or prefcribed by any other, or agreed 
on in Councils. 

19. That it is finful to joyn with any Pallor, 
who fpeaketh any unlawful words, in preaching, 
prayer or other miniftration. 

2c. That it is unlawful to hold Communion 
with any Church, where fcandalous finners are pre- 
fent, or are tolerated members. 

21. That men may lawfully change the efTential 
or integral parts of Gods commanded wor- 
fhip, by diminution, or additions of the like. 

22. That fpiritnal men are not bound to be 
members of particular Churches, or put themfelves 
under the guidance of any Pallors. 

23. That all the people are bound to believe all 
that to be Gods word which the Bifhop, or Prieils 
tell them is fo. 

24. That the people are bound to do in Gods 
worfhip whatever Bifhops (or other Rulers J 
command them , without examining and judging 
whether it be agreeable to the Law of God. 

25. That 

L 320 J 

25. That Pope, Bifhops or Priefh can forgive 
(in even as to the punifhment in another life, by 
immediate pardoning power in themfelves, and not 
only by preparing men for pardon, and offering 
and declaring it, and delivering it minifterially by 
application from Gods word, and in order hereto 
judging who are capable of Conlblatory and Sacra- 
mental applications. 

26. That God pardoneth in heaven all that the 
Pried pardoneth on earth, though erroneoufly and 
by miftake. 

27. That God will condemn to hell , all that 
an erring or malicious Pope, Bifhop or Prieft con-, 

28. That it is lawful to feparate from and dif- 
own Communion with all parties of Chriftians dif- 
fering in things not neceflary to Gods acceptance , 
except that one party which we judge to be rightelt 
or allowed by the higher powers. 

29. That the firft day of the week was not fe- 
parated to Divine worfhip in commemoration of 
Chrifts refurre&ion , by the Spirit of Chrift in 
his Apoftles, or is not to be obferved to that 
holy me, any more than any other day. 

30. That it is lawful to fwear unneceflarily, and 
to ufe Gods name lightly and vainly in our 1 

31. That perjury is lawful for our fafety, or in 
obedience to man. 

32. That Popes, Councils or Bifhops can difc 
folve the obligations of our Vows to God , or 
Oaths -of fidelity to Princes , though the matter, 
be lawful and good, and other wife God difTolve 
them not. 

33. That 

L 321 ] 

3 3 . That all Oaths and Vows are to be inter- 
acted as not binding us longer than it is for our 
tommodity or fafcty. 

34. That we may take Oaths impofed in words 
vhofe common fenfe is falfe or finful though not 
>therwife expounded by the impofer , becaufe in 
harity we muft fuppofe always that our Rulers 
nean nothing againlt Gods word, or their own, 
>r the peoples good. 

3 5. That it is unlawful to break any Vow or 
Dath which was unlawfully impofed on us by man, 
>r unlawfully taken by ourfelves, though the mat- 
er of it be good or lawful. 

36. That no Vow bindcth us to that which we 
vere bound to before. 

That all Vowing is finful*, and all fwearing when 
awfully called, for the attefting truth and ending 

XVIII. Ofourduty to our Rulers and Pallors, 
.nd their duty. 

1. ThatChriftianity fo nu'llifieth all natural and 
ivil relations or obligations, that Children, fub- 
fedts and fervants owe nothing to Parents,Rulers or 
Rafters, but what they are bound to in meer juftice 
ind gratitude to them as benefa<ftors, or by volun- 
tary confent and promife. 

2. That Parents owe nothing for their children 
^ut bodily provifion, and not to educate them in 
tiodly and Chriftian doctrine and practice. 

3. That Princes may feektheir own pleafure and 
wealth againft the common good, or above it. 

4. That they may lawfully make war upon neigh- 
•our Countreys, only to enlarge their power or 
dominions , or fatisfie their pride, paffion or wills. 

Y <. That 

t 322 2 

5. That they, or Bilhops, may fine, itapriib: 
banifh or put to death all Subje&s that are not < 
their religion, or may compell all to thofe wa^ 
of worfhipping God, which they fhall judge bej 
be they right or wrong. 

6. That Gods Laws are not obligatory to Kinj 
and Kingdonies. 

7. That Princes or people may preferr th« 
worldly intereft he fore the intereft of Religior 
Souls and God} or may fet them in oppofitic 
againfl it. 

8. That Princes muft imprifon , or otherwi: 
punifh fuch as are excommunicated and not abfo 
ved by the Clergy, without knowing whether tt 
caufe be juft or unjuft, by their own exploration. 

9. That Princes may break Oaths and Cov< 
nants when their intereft requirethit. 

10. That fubjefts have no liberty or propriety i 
anything, cither life, wives, children, or eftate 
but what is at the meer will of Princes to difpofc 1 
as they pleafe. 

11. That it is lawful for fubjetts to difobeytl 
authority and commands of the higher powers, b 
caufe Chrift hath freed us from fubje&ion to men. 

12. That all Governing authority is originally 
the people and by them given to Rulers on wh 
terms they pleafe. 

13. That therefore the people may depofea 
Princes where they fee caufe, or may call them I 
their bar and judge aad punifh them, having the] 
fdves the higheft governing power. 

14. That if Princes injure the people, the[ 
pie may therefore rebel, take arms againfl; the;|| 
and depofe them. 

1 j. Contrarily that no people may defend th? 
lives, houfes or pofterify, nor the chajtity ofthf 

wiv i 

ives,by refuting any Tyrants,or agamft the will of 
.ulers, that have no true authority to deftroy them. 
\6. That fubjeds may break their oaths of al- 
legiance, whenever their own worldly ends re- 
quire it, or if the Pope difoblige them. 

17. Tiiat if one King wrong another , the 
'wronged King may deftroy all the others innocent 

1 8. That no wa% is lawful. 

19. That it is lawful to defame and difhonour 
Princes if they are finners, though the contempt 
tend to difable them from neceflary government. 

20. That none but fan&ified perfons have true 
Governing power or dominion. 

2i- That children are bound to obey their pa- 
rents, fubje&s their Princes, and fervants their 
Mailers, in nothing but what they think is wifely 
or juftly commanded them, though it be good or 
lawful in it felf 

22. That Parents may not teach children forms 
ofCatechifm or prayer \ nor command them any 
duty which the child will but fay is againft his Con- 
fcience,nor reftrain him from any fin which he plead- 
eth Confcience for. 

23. That Chr Lilian Parents in want may fell their 
Children for flaves to Idolaters or Infidels, for 

24. That Children may difobcy their parents in 
any matters of Religion, if the Pope, Bifhop or 
Prieft fo command them. 

XIX. Of Duties to our .equals or neighbours as 

1 . That no man is bound to love another but 
for his own fake, and fo far as he is bmeficial to 
him. i 

Y 2 2. Thar 

C 324 1 

2. That we arc not bound to do another a great- 
er good to the leaft hurt to our felves. 

3. That men are not bound to love and preferr 
the common good of multitudes, of their Coun- 
trey, or the world,before their own commodities or 

4. That no killing of malefactors is lawful by 
laws and judgement. 

5. That it is lawful to kill %ur enemies , for 
meer private revenge, or to prevent fome evil to- 
our felves, though they are innocent. 

6. That it is lawful to have many wives at 

7. That it is lawful to put away wives, or 
for wives to depart, whenever their flelhly or world- 
ly Intereft feemeth to require it. 

8. That it is lawful to commit adultery, at leaft 
by the husband or wives confent. 

9. That fornication is no fin , or no great 

10. That it is lawful when our need doth urge 
us, to rob, fteal, defraud or opprefs others. 

11. That refutation or reparation is no 

12. Tnat it is riro fin to deceive another by bor- 
rowing when we are unable and unlikely to repay, 
and do conceal this. 

1 1. That it is not a duty for them that are able, 
to labour in fome lawful ufeful calling, for their 
own maintenance and the common good. . 

14. That it is lawful to lie-'for our commodity 
when it hurts not others. 

1 5. That it is lawful by backbiting, flandering and 
falfe witnefs to difgrace our enemies, or bereven- 

" £ed on them. 

16. That 

16. That it is lawful forjudges knowingly or 
rafhly to pafs unjuft judgement againft the innocent 
or juft , and for advocates or others to pro- 
mote it. 

1 7. That it is lawful for the poor to covet other 
mens goods* and for men to defire and endeavour to 
draw from others whatever feemeth defirable or 
needful to our felves. 

1 8. That it is no (in to love the world, flefli and 
life, better than God, Chrift, grace and glory. 

1 9. That it is no fin to be dilcontent and impati- 
ent in our fufferings, nor a duty to deny our flefh- 
ly pleafure, profit or reputation, and life , for 
God and for fpiritual and everlafting benefits. 

20. That it is no duty to love our enemies, for- 
give wrongs,and forbear each other in their infirmi- 
|ties and provocations. 

XX. Of Death, Judgement, Heaven and 

1. That the fouls of believers go not to Chrift 
and happinefs, nor the fouls of the wicked to mi- 
fery before the Refurreftion of the body at the laft 

2. That there is no Refurreftion of the body -, at 
ieaftof the wicked or of Infants. 

3 . That Chrift will not come in glory to judge the 

4. That we fhall not be judged according to what; 
Are have done in the body. 

5. That the faithful fhall not be juftified and judg- 
ed to life everlafting. 

6. That the wicked fhall not be condemned to 
lell, or everlafting punifhment with the Devils \ 
Wt without holinefs men may fee God and be 



C 3Z6 3 

7. That no man can know that he hath certain 
right to Salvation, 

8. That there is a fire of Purgatory where 
thole that after fhall be faved mult make penal 
fatisfaftion for fome of their fins, and from which 
the Popes pardons, and maffes and other mens me- 
rits may deliver fouls. 

9. That the juftified fhall not live in Glory with 
God and Jefus Chrift and the Angels and the tri- 
umphant Church. 

10. That there is an aereal life of trial before 
the final judgement, where the juftified and wick- 
ed fouls fhall again live under conditions of yet 
winning or lofing their heavenly glory. 

11. That the Devils and damned fhall all be 
delivered at laft „ and either be faved, or have 
another life of tryal. And the Glory of the blef- 
fed alfo will have an end, and they muft by revolu- 
tion be tryed in flelhhere again. 

1 2. That it is not a duty to feek firft the King- 
dome of God and its righteoufnefs and lay up a 
treafure in heaven , and there have our hearts 
and converfations ; and thence to fetch our mo- 
tives and our chiefeft hopes and comforts, un- 
der all the fufferings of this tranfitory life , and 
the expe&ation of our certain change. 



THis or fuch a Catalogue of dangerous do- 
ctrines is not to be renounced by Miniftcrs, 
but to lie before the Church Rulers to tell them 
what to forbid Minifters to preach, and moderate- 
ly and wifely to rebuke or reftrain the offenders 
as wifdome fliall direft them , according to the 
quality of the perfons and the offence , and their 
.frequency, obftinacy, or impenitency in offend- 
ing. Not that every one fhould be eje&ed or 
filenced that holdeth or preacheth any one fuch 
errour ; but only thofe who confideratis confi* 
derandis , are found to de more* harm than 


The Third Part 


O R 

The Falie Dividing Terms and Me.ins 
O F 



Vi?at Schifm is y and Ttihdt arc its Car 
and Ejjccis. 

Lf^CHISivi (or Divisions among ChrifKans ) j •' 
/j by me Common CoM&aqm of all Chriii 
a fin againft God, and a difhonour,and I 
and danger to the Church, but efpecklly to the gui 
But what it is, and who esc the guilty, men are ik 
much agreed on : Each Parry laying it upon the otl;;r, 
and one taking that for Damn&bU : 5'rA//w,wh:chanoc::;r 
aiketh for his greateft Duty : And while the guilty ::;c 
10 better known, the Diviiici; is continued, and j 

L SeB : II. SCHISM or Diviflon ( or Rents ) am 
feftftianSjia confiderablc: 

A* | M 

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' [4] 

Sect. III. Of all the fins that men charge on one 
another, there is none ufed by Accufers more partially, 
and lefs rcgaixkibly, than the charge of Herejie and 
Schifm ; the words ufii&lly iignifying no more but that 
the accufed differ in judgment from the accufers, and. 
are not (o obedient* to them in matters of Religion. 1 
as they expeil : Infbrriich that whoever can but get 
upper mofi 9 or get the major Vote,;. -doth ufually make 
it his advantage to call kimftlf OrtSkdox and Catholicity 
ai:d all Diiicnters Heretkh and Sclifmaticks. By which 
means Herefie and Schifm are greatly promoted, whil$ 
many that elfe would hate and oppofe them, are tempt* 
ed by this ufage, to take the words to be but proud 
mens reproach of the innocent. 

Seft.IV. The full opening of all die parts of Schifm, 
will be a work lb long is may tire- the Reader : I w3l 
therefore firft give fbme notice of them tranfiently and 
briefly.and then examine fbme things th^t are by others . 
fiippofed to be theCaufes, and fhew how oncapaWe di- 
vers means are of being terms of real Union and Con- 
cord, which fbme men venditate as the only or neceP 
fary terms. 

SeB. V. i. A Schifm. made by Many, is in fbme re- 
fpefts worfe than by Ftty, and in fbme not all fb bad. 
The fins of many hath more guilt than of one : Their 
ill fuccefs is like to be greater :.; Thofe will fall in 
with the multitude, who would d$pife a lingular tem- 
pter. TheSfofc^tifts prevailed in Zpicahy their num- 
ber : It feemeth by their Bilhops in their Councils, that 
they were the. greater part : It is not impcfsible for the far 
greater nu??:bcr to be m&Schifmaticks&ut yet the guilt of 
fingulafity is more upon a Jingle Separatifl, or few, that. 
dare feparate from the whole, or mod of the Churches.' 

SeB. VI. a. The B?[hopsand ~P afters are liab'e to the 
fin of Schifm, as well as the ignorant people : Yea, as 
Mutinies feklom happen in an Army, at leaft to any 



great danger, unlets they be headed by fume Comman- 
der ', to ieldom hath there been any Heretic or Schifm 
in the Church, of which ibme Bilhops have nut been 
she Leaders, or Chief Promoters, tince Bifliops were 
^reat in the world at leaft ; and before, they, or (ome 
Elders were the Chief 

To inftance in Pauhts Samofet. Apolllnarhts, Ncvatus 
ind his followers, Msixirmmts, and the Donatijls, Ne- 
lorhis, Diofcorus, Sevents, and the multitudes more, 
jvhich Church-Hiftory mentioneth, and which made 
;jp the Councils at Ephef. z. Arrinene, Sinnium, Milan* 
livers at Confiantimple, Alexandria, and multitudes 
nore, would be but to fappofe my Reader a ftranger 
D filch Hiftory, which here I mull not do j for then I 
:annot expect that he fhould take my word. 

Sett. VII. It is a far greater fin in Bijhops and Pa/tors 
o be Schifmaticks, than in the People, becaufe they are 
uppoied to know more the Gocd of Concord, and the 
mans, and the Mijchiefs oiSckijm, and the Caufes and 
xxmedm : And it is their Office to be the Preachers of 
/ and Peace, and to fave the People from the temp- 
ations which would draw them into luch guilt. 

Sect. VIII. Bilhops and Paftors have greater tempta- 
iens to Schifm than the People, and therercre have been 
) frequent in the guilt : especially Pride and Covetou£ 
efs in them hath ftronger Faith. And i. Strivingv/ho 
iall be Greatefi, and have Rule ; 2. Who (hall be 
bought Wifefi and moft Orthodox, have been the caufe 
if moil of the Schifins in the world: And 3. Some- 
iines, ('efpecially with the Presbyters and People) it hath 
een who (hall be thought the Befi and Holiefi per- 
ms : But the two former have done much more than 
lis, Goodnefi being that which corrupt nature doth 
ot fb much contend for, or the reputation of Holing, 
; tor Greatntfi and Wisdom, the commoner baits of 
(ride. Therefore Controverfies, and poiver, and 
A a 3 Riches > 


Riches, have been the ufiial matters of Dlflenfion. 

SeB. IX. 3 .True Learning tendeth to prevent and end 
Controverhes, which Ignorance cherifheth fas it did 
with the Egyptian Monks, that turned Anthropomor- 
phites.J But a /mattering m Learning, which amounts 
hot to fblidi'ty, and a fettled mind, is the common caufe 
of Herefies and Schifin, while praters muft needs be 
taken for wife, and to know more than others, while 
they know nothing as they ought to know. 

Seel. X. 4. Yet when the very Matter of a dividing 
Herefie is laid upon much Learning, or fiibtle Notions,! 
or any words or things very hard to be underftood,it fel-j 
dom f preadeth far, and liveth long : Becaufe it muft coft 
men dear to underftand it ', and humane nature is floth- 
ful, and multitudes will not be at long and hard ftudy 
to know what is right or wrong : Therefore fiich as the 
Rofie Crucians, Behmens, &c. do but little harm. 

Sec}. XL 5. It is not only feparatingfrom the Churchy 
but caufm^ dmifions and contentions in a Church, which 
in Scripture is reproved as {infill Schifin ; And indeed 
this is rhe commoneft acception of the word, as may tx 
fcen, Rom. 16.17. 1 Cor. 1.10. & 3. 3.6c 11. 18 
Matth. u. x^.Luk. la.yz, 5*3. z Cor. 12. 25. Thej 
that by ill Doctrine, orabufe of each other ; or cauflefi 
quarrels, do difturb the Churches Peace, and caufe dif- 
affe&ion, murmurings, and unbrotherly diftance, arc 
guiity of Schifm, though they feparate not. 

Sec}. XII. 6. Separating from a Church isfometimes «' 
greater, and fometime a kfs fault than dividing in * 
Church, and fometime no fault, but a duty : It isagra* 
ter fault 1 . When the Church is by the Separater falfl) 
accufed of greater crimes; 1. And when it tendeth t(i 
greater hurt. It is a kfs fault when a man removed 
from one Church to another, though caufelefly,yetwitl 
lefs accufation of that Church, and lefs detriment to th< 
common Caufe. It is no fault when there is juft caufe 
V h done in ajar!: manner. 

Sett. XIII. 7. Separating from the XJnlverJai Church 
('which is the Univerfality of Chriftians as Headed by 
ChriftJ is feparating from Chrift, and ever damnable, 
and is Apoftafie. 

Sett. XIV. But to feparate from (bme Accident or 
I Integral part of the Church Unwerjal, is not to (epa- 
rate from the Church : To differ from Chriftians in 
any thing effential to Chriftianity, is to apoftatize, or 
feparate from the whole Church, and fb it is (k mate- 
ria) to renounce the university of Chriftians: But to 
difter from the whole Church in fbme accident or in- 
tegral, is not to f eparate from it. 

Sett.XV. To feparate from any one Church, upon 
a reafbn common to all, is fb far to feparate from all j 
And upon a reafbn that is againft the ej/ence of all, it 
is to feparate from all as Churches. 

Sett. XVI. To iepai-ate from any Church by denyal 
of fbme one effential fart of Chriftianity, though all 
the reft be confefs'd, is Here fie in the (tritt fenfe^ and 
Apoftafie in a larger fen fe : and to deny all Chrift anity, 
is Apojlafie in the ftrift fenfe : But the ancient Chri- 
ftians called it Herefie, when men feparated into di- 
ftinct oppofmg Bodies as parties, from the generality 
of Chriftians, for the cherifhing of any dangerous er- 

Sett. XVII. It is lawful to feparate from particular 
Churches in all the degrees and Cafes following. 1 . It 
is lawful to abate our efleem of any Church or Paftor, 
as they are lefs worthy, or more corrupt or culpable, 
and to value more the more worthy. 

Sett. XVIII. 2. It is lawful to remove ones dwelling 
from one City or Parifh to another, for the juft rcafons 
of our worldly Affairs, and thereby to remove from 
other Churches : And it is lawful to do the fame fo: 
the good of our Souls, when one Minifter is bad, or 
lefs fit for our Ediffcation, and one Church more cor- 
A a 4 mpt 

rbrt nnd culpable, ai>d others more- (bund and pure, 
and their Communion more conducible to oar Sal- 
vation. . 

/. XIX. 3. Tarifi bounds being but humane hi-. 
:'::ns for <?rakr fake, it is lawfuil to be of a Church 
icigbhowr Panfo, inftead of ones oivn Varifli CI: 

we have the allowance of the higher Powers^ 
c& without that, in cafes of true necej/itj., or when; 

k confiderancus^ the Benefit is evidently greater « 

inj? hurt that it is like to do. For no man hath 

- to bind me to that which is to the danger or 

detriment of my Soul, .unlcii fat leaftj (bme greater 

;s intcreii of the Community require it. 

rx? Pariili have an ignorant, unfound Teacher* 

v/eak, dull, dangerous, or unprofitable, care'ef^ 

or Scandalous, vicious Paftor, yet tolerable rather than 

.. : e none, or judged tolerable by the Rulers : and 

me aext Parimhave an able, holy, faithful Pallor, by 

^Jtcrp I am more abundantly edified • I am not bound: 

1 ins Commands to truft the condu-ir oi' my Soul 
tlic forrner, or to deny my (elf the benefit of the 

-, when I cannot remove my dwelling : For mens 
p -:~cc is not to dtftruciion^ but to edification ; and Or* 
i iv the 7 it&g Ordtred, and not againil.it. My 
is more Cbrifts and my ovjn^ than the Riders. 
I am not unthankiully to neglect the helps oS . 
roe by Chn 

' qmg of his 3udj. merely beoiufe a rnai 
h :ne io to do. 
?. XX. 4. Even Pope Nicholas- and fame oi . 
. ounciis forbad all men to hear Mall from a 
t Prieit,: Prote: cants (liould not be iefsflnct : 
[t Is as lawfull to depart frojti the Pariili-Prieft tor 
y a Drunkard, a Scorner at Godiineis, a Periccu^ 
par, aa -"naiificient Guide of Souls, as for being a For- 
:r. And many. Councils forbid me hearing Here- 


19 J 
'.XXI. y. There i$fc great difference Btopeefi 
and Teachers xh. 

to tome p< 

n Kigh Language 
for learned e&i to the people 

oversight, do little or no more 
to fume of the ignorant, than none : And God 
. to work on Souls by Means, and according to 
the aptitude ol* Allans : and therefore Heathens that 
have no Preachers are unconverted. And men are not 
to fonake the ordinary helps and hopes of their Sal- 
vation tor ParillvOrder, or mens Commands: Chrift 
twice lent the Pharhees to learn the meaning of [ I will 
ha-ve mercy and vet facrijke* J Souis arc better than 
Ceremonies, as the Redeemer of Souls will judge. 
Sect. XXII. 6. Where we cannot joyn with any 
tion without fin, impofed on us, by Profefc- 
pn, Subscription, Covenants, Oaths, Declaration, Pra- 
ctice or Omiision, it is a Duty not to joyn with 

Seel. XXIII. 7. W hen the Paftor is an Uuirper, 
and hath no true title to that place, it is no Schilfn 
So delert him : By many Canons of .Councils, and it 
feemeth to me by Scripture, the Bifhop is an Ufiirpe? 
who hath not the content of his Flock, and of the 
Ordainers. Much more he that is utterly Intolerable 
Insufficiency, Hercfie, Ty wickednefi or 

Malignancy againft that Piety which he ihould pro- 

cl XXIV. 8. Where one Dbcefan Bifnop hath 
$any hundred Parifhes under h'm, which have no 
)thcr Biihop, and 10 are not taken for Churches but for 
'Jhippels or farts of a Churchy (by them that take a 
Bifnop to be a constitutive part cf a Church there he 
hat goeth frcm his ? arifh? but not out cf fbe Diccejc^ 

(eparateth from his Diocelan, doth not £; 


- [IO] 
from that particular Church, as they efteem it. 

Sett. XXV. 9. If the Temples and Tythes be given 
to a Prieft or Bifhop not lawfully called, nor content- 
ed to by the Flocks, and another be lawfully called, 
whom the Ma gift rate cafteth out of the Temples and 
Tythes, or denyeth them to him, it is the Peoples 
duty to adhere to the Paftor that \sjuftly called: And 
k is not alwayes a duty to adhere to him whom the 
Magiftrate impofeth, nor a fin to withdraw from him. 
The Churches met againft the Magiftrates will above I 
three hundred years. 

$e&. XXVI. 10. If a lawfull Biihop or Paftor be 
fet over the Flocks, and either Magiftrate or Synod 
unjuftly depofe him becaufe he refufeth (orae herefie 
or fin, and fet up another in his ftead, efpecially, one j 
juftly fufpected of unfbundnefi, the People are not j 
hereby diiobliged from their hrft Paftor, nor obliged 
to the latter : But yet if the latter be tolerable, the I 
Magiftrates Countenance may be fi> great an advan- | 
rage to the one, and difadvantage to the other, efpe- 
rialiy in cafe of Pertccution, as may make it their du- , 
ty in point of Prudence tor the hrft Paftor and People : 
to content to the Change. And the fame is to be (aid 
of the abuf lVe depofition by a Synod. 

Sett XXVII. 1 1. If the Parifh Mnifier be law- 
fol iy called, and the Pi f bop not fo, he that feparateth 
or.lv from the Diocefan and not from that Parifh- 
Church, is not guilty of Schifm : The fame I fay of i 
leparating from an unlawfull Arch-Bilhop or Metro* I 

Seel. XXVIII. :i. Ifthe^iwof the 0#Ve, Church-, 
PoLxie or Form* be unlawhill, it is a duty to feparate 
from that fpeci*s : On which account we feparate from 
the Papal Church, the (pedes of an Unii/erfal Church 
m HeacUd h <me Man without Chrifts Inftitution be- 
ing unlaw&ll ; though we feparate from no -Material 

' part 

part of Chrifts own universal Church, as fiich, and 
ib related. And as the Mais Sacrifice leemrii to be 
of another Jpecies than Chrifts Sacrament ; (o the N 
Prieft feemeth to be a new jftecies ot Office ( and un- 
lawfully The cafe of Patriarks and other Church-Olh- 
ces and Forms of mans invention, is after to be fpo 
ken of. 

Sett. XXIX. 8. There is a great deal of difference 
between the feveral local feparations of men, accord- 
ing to their leveral reafbns and mutual feparation* : 
No meer local feparation without the mental is Schifm, 
or fin. A man can be but in one place at once, and 
is locally feparate or abfent from all Churches in the 
World fave one. 

Seel. XXX. He that feparateth from a true Chimb* 
acculing it to be no true Churchy cateris paribus is 
of the hlgheft degree of Separation, except that which 
is from al^ or from many. And he that fcparatah 
as falfly accufmg the Doctrine, Wodhipj Difcipline 
or Converfation of the Church to be luch as that a 
good Chriftian may not lawfully hold Communion with 
them therefore, is in the next degree of Schifm : But 
he that withdrawerh from one Church only for «t 
greater convenience or profit, or tor purer Doctrine, 
Worfhip, Difcipline or Practice in another, is guilt/ 
either of no Schifm, it he have juft cau-e, or of little, 
if he have not juft caufe ; while he no further accufcrii 
the Church. 

Seel. XXXI. To feparate unwarrantably from a pure 
and found Church, is a worfe Schifm ( ceteris pari- 
bus ) than to feparate from an impure, unlound, ?,. 
dated and undisciplined Church. And to feparate from 
many (ceteris Paribus I is wovfe than trom one. 

Seff.XXXll If the I vlagiftrate caft true Paftors 
and Churches out of his favour, and out of the Tem- 
ples and Tythes, and forbid their Meetings, and pej'- 


fecute them unjuftly, it is fchifmatical in any to call 
thele men Schifmaticks, and to deny Communion with 
them, as holding and calling them tmlavjfaL Ccwven* 
tides) as long as it is not fo. To. feparate from a trz*. 
hibited Church may be Schifrn^ as well as from an aU 
lowed one, when it is unjtlft. 

SecJ. XXXIII. 9. To feparate in mind from the 
Dctlnne cf Faiths or in heart from the Lcve of Truths 
Wcrjlnf or Brethren is dangerous mental Schifrn in thofc 
that ordinarily aftemble with them. 

Seel. XXXIV. And all dividing Opinions, and Do* 
6trines 5 and Practices, tending to open Schifrnare fchii- 
matkal according to their degree; foch are taiie ac- 
cufing thoughts of the Churches Doctrine, the Mini- 
fters Preaching, the Churches Worfhip, Order or Go- 
vernment, or of the peribns of the Paftors or the 

.Seer. XXXV. 1 o. Secret im&ance or unbelief of 
neccjl'ary things, is inconfiuent with that interna; 
en that maketh the Church Myfacal. Negatives may 
be Schifrn as well as Pofitives. 

SeB. XXXVI. 11. It is alio #tf«7tt/Sehifin, when 
men hate, or love not Gods Word and Worfhip, and 
the Communion cf Saint-, and the Servants of Gcd, 
but love Pleafures, Sin, Deceivers and Dividers better. 

Seti. XXXVII. 12. Cenfaring, reviling, {hindering, 
defaming Rulers, Teachers or People, or ether Chur- 
ches of ChriiTr, by tongue or writing, in Pulpits m 
in common talV, efpeciaSly by -published faiie Invc-- 
£tives, is Sehifinatical : Of which many Contr< 
tills and Disputants are guilty, and many that re- 
proach opprelied' Churches and Perfbns, are feb 
tical, in calling ethers Schifmaticks and Hercticfcs. 

Sett. XXXVIII. 1 3. Printing, preaching or pi> 
blifhing Herefos, cr any falfc dividing dochnv. 
in its degree fchnmatical. 

L X 3J 
Sett. XXXIX. 1 4. Making ones (elf uncafahU of 
Communion, and doing that which deiervcth Excom- 
munication, is a rending ones felt morally and by merit 
from the Church. 

;.XL. 15. Caufelcfs renouncing C6mmunion with 
true Churclc:, eipecially alio letting up Anti-churches 
unwarrantably againft them, is Schiim, according 
to the degree; before delcribed ; yea to hold Churches 
in other Cumtreys uncapable of Communion, and un- 
juftly condemn them as Hereticks, is Schifm. 

Sec 1 :. XLI. 16. The more men draw with them 
into Sohffin, the more ceteris paribus it is aggrava- 
Ebd : And the Leaders and zealous Promoters are mod 

:'. XLII. 1 7. It is aggravated Schifm to oppofe Re- 
ccnakrs, cr the healing Doih'i'ncs and Practices that 
c proper means of unity, and to reproach, viiiHe 
{ fife them. 

Sect. XLUI. 18. The greatxfl and commoriefl: 
Schifm is by Dividing Laws Mid Canons* which caufe- 
leilv frlevce Mimfiers* Jcatter Flocks*, and Decree the 
uniilii Excommunication of Chrifrians, and deny Con> 
•n to thoie that yield not to {infuli cr unnecefla* 
ty itl-made terms of Communion : And Periecution, 
and Excommunications in the executing of fuch Laws, 
are Schifei in its virulent exercii?. 

Sect. XLIV. 19. It is therefore fchifeatical to de- 
ny neceilary toleration of Diflenters, and Liberty for 
iiich to worfhip God in (everai places, who by una- 
voidable difference of judgement in tilings tolerable, 
I cannot without violence to their Confidences meet in 
the fame place. 

For inftance, fuppofe the Parifh-Chu relies have the 
tift of Organs, and forae cannot be perlivaded but it 
s fin: As the reft will not be deprived of the Mufick 
ifor their lakes, fo it is unjuft and ichkmatical that 


they fliould be denyed leave to worfhip God elfe- 
where without it. So if a Church will caft men fronl 
the Sacrament, becaufe they dare not ft, or ft and, or 
kneel, and will not allow them otherwile ellewhere 
to receive it. There is no pofsibility of Concord 
without tolerating fome differing perfons and Aflem- 

Sett* XLV. io. The worftSchifnt being that which 
is a feparation from the univerfal Church, it folio weth ^ 
that the moft jchifmatical Church-Tyranny is that which 
unjuftly excludeth men from the univerfal Churches 
vifible Communion ( for from the ffciritual they cannotj 
fuch are, i . The Anabaptifts , that undifciple all 
Infants : %, Thofe that deny Chriftendome to fuch 
as dare not ufe or receive the tranfient Image of the 
Crofi as the engaging dedicating Symbol of Chrifti- 
anity, or the Children of fiich whole Parents dare not 
fo prefent them, nor yet commit the Covenanting for 
them to men called Godfathers inftead of themfelves. i 

3. The Seekers, that fay, all the Vifible Church is loft. 

4. But the greateft Schifmaticks are the Pope and 
Papifts, who unchurch all the Chriftian World fave 
the Se6i: or Subjects of the Pope. To cut off Chrifts 
members from his Body Vifible, or deny men their 
place in the uriwerfal Church, is a far heinoufer Schifm 
than to caft them out of, or rend them from a f&tm 
cular Church only. 5. And the fame guilt is on them 
that by un'juft Excommunications pretend to cut meir 
off from the Church univerfal : eipecially by unjuft 
hereticating whole Parties, Countreys or Kingdoms, 
or interdicting whole Kingdoms Gods publick Wor- 
ship, as the Pope* hath often done. And efpecially* 
when on filch Pretences they excommunicate Kings, 
and raiie warres in Kingdoms, and embroil the Chri- 
ftian World in blood. 

• Sect. XLVL The greateft Caufca of Schifins, I have 

- opened 

opened in the forefaid Scheme, and die Preface %o 

my CathoL Theologie, viz. 

I. 'For Perfbns, i. A Contentious Clergy, 2. Un- 
wife and wicked Rulers, 3. The deceived people. 

II. For Qualities, ( 1 ) Remotely, 1 . Selfiihnefs and 
Worldlinels in Hypocrites : 2. Hatty Judging of things 
not well underftood (the common vice of Mankind 
3. Slothfulneis in Students. (%) Needy: 1. Pride, 
or want of Self-acquaintance : 2. Ignorance and Er- 
ror: 3. Envy, Malice and Bittemels. 

III. The infbumentai Engines of Schifiii are, 1 . In 
General, Corrupt departing from the Chriilian Sim- 
plicity : 2. Particularly: 1. From Simplicity of Do- 
ftrine by Dogmatifts -Words and Notions : 2. From 
Simplicity of Practice by iuperftitious Additions : 
3. From Simplicity of Dilcipline by Church-Tyranny 
irid dividing Laws and Impositions. 

Sect. XJLVIL The miichievous Effeffs of Schifiii I 

liave alio there named. 1. The Corruption of Do- 

Brine by Wranglings. 2. The Corruption of Worfbip 

)y faction, partiality and wrath. 3. The Corrupri- 

m of Difcipline by Tyranny or Partiality. 4. Self- 

ieceit by falfe Zeal : y. The deftruction of Holinefs 

nd a heavenly Converlatioru 6. The Deflxu&ion ok 

-ove, and the life of Wrath, and manitold injuries. 

\ The corrupting and undoing of Civil Rulers, by 

pprefsion, partiality, injuftice, periccution, and warren 

'. Expoiing the innocent to fianders, hatred and per- 

pfution. 9. Hardening the, ignorant, unbelieving and 

.ngodly to their perdition. 1 c. Hindering the Suc- 

eis of the Gofpel. 11. Corrupting the Churches, 

weakening them, ihaming them, and Strengthening 

leir enemies, and drawing down Gods Judgments 

*i them. 1 2. Shaking the Civil peace, grieving good 

: 'oilers, Teachers and People. 1 3. Cherifhing all Vice, 

tid hindering all men of the comforts and benefits 


bf peaceable Communbn with <3od .and Dht anotl 
Whoever are guilty of true Schiffn or DivHVons, ar 

gui'ty of all thefe consequent nriRhicfs in a refpccKv 


•CHAP. It ' 
The true Prez entices and Remedies of Schifm 

Sett.lJ^T^'O tell men what fliould be dotie for Unity 
J and Peace, a\td for Salvation, is far.eafie 
than to bring men to the Practice of it. And as it i 
hard to prevail even With one man, for all the Re 
cjuifites herefb, fo if mod of the Chriftran World wen 
ib happy as to be thus qualified, yet as one dhca'cc 
part doth trouble and endanger the whole body, fi 
the reft of tile world by their badnefs would kc, 
common diiqu'etments and troi b es \ fo that it is ik 
rnore a vnfetl Ccnccrd, than vc-yftct Knowledge and He 
thiefs 9 which we can hope for in this World. 

Scci: H. i. It is prefuppqfed, that Chrift the grea< 
Peace-maker hath dene much (andmoft ) to this Woii 
Til racy. He hath reconciled us to God ; he hat! 
mace hhiiieif thi Qnter of our Unity : He hath give* 
us found Dccrr'ne to lead us out of dividing Dark 
nefs : He hath made us fuch juft ahd holy Laws, a: 
all tend to Unity, Love and Peace: He hath leftu: 
his own perfect ana inii table example: He hath pre 
f ribed the j(nr terns of our Unity and Peace: H< 
hath made LoVC an ^ Meekneis, and forbearing, 
f .-raving, and all 1 healing Principles and Practices, 
the Conditions of kis Promiies, and the great Dutie 
and Marks of his Diiciples: He hath difgraced and 
ftriclly forbidden all dividnfc qualities and actions; 


[ »7 ] 
all uncharitablenels, cenfuring, wrath, malice, envy, 
backbiting, evil-fpeaking, difcord, contention, re- 
venge, &c. He hath threatned to fhut out the guilty 
from his Kingdom: He hath inftituted Church-dilci- 
pline to (hut them out of his Church till they re- 
Bent : He poured out the Spirit of Love and Concord, 
miraculouuy at firft on his Difciples, making them of 
one heart and mind, even to a voluntary Community 
of their goods : He prayed that they all might be 
One in him : He hath appointed his Minifters to preach 
up Love, Concord and Peace throughout the world : 
He hath inftituted particular Churches for the exercife 
>f Love, Concord and holy Communion : He giveth 
:o all true Chriftians the Spirit of Love and Peace^ 
md every one hath fo much of thefe ('as a new Na- 
Wtvc) as they have of his Spirit and facing Grace. All 
his and more hath Chrift done himlelt for his Peo- 
ples Unity, Love and Peace. 

Seel. ill. a. Under Chrift the chief Instruments of 
bncord muft be tint faithful Minifters of Chrift , whofc 
uty hereto I have before defcribed. Particularly, 
. They muft be men ol: more eminent knowledge 
nd gifts than the higher ibrt of the Flock : or elfe if 
he People once perceive that they are equal to them, 
hey will delpife them, and turn Preachers, and let 
p for themf elves : 2. And then fiich Minifters being 
.ot able to deal with Sectaries and Hereticks, will be- 
ray the Caule of God, and the adverfaries will carry 
way the Hearers : And it will be eafie to bring fuch 
erfbns into Contempt, and then the Truth wilFfufter 
nth them : God Htteth men to do the work that he 
r ill ble(s them in : Not that every Congregation 
iuft needs have fiich an eminent man; for a great 
■ight will (hine to other Parilbes, and an able man 
t one Parifh may be ready to help the next, and to 
mfute Gainlavers, and may keep up the Credit of 
B b tfc 


.the Miniftry : But it is fiich that muft preferve the 
Unity and Concord of Believers , and preferve the 
Church from Schifm. 

Sect. IV. 2. And if Minifters do not alia live in ho- 
linefs, juftice, charity, free from Heihiy lufts and plea- 
sures, and unfpotted of the world, as freer than other 
rnen from a proud, a worldly and a covetous mind, 
dividers wlii defpife them, and ignorant people will 
(ufpe6t the Caufe for their fakes, and many unfetled 
well-meaning perfbns will fall from them, and turn 
to them that they think live a more ftrict and pious, 
and humble and charitable life. The Minifters Life 
as well as Doitrine is needful to remedy Schifm. As 
men fly from a Carrion or a ftinking place in the 
houfe, fb will the people from Priefts of a corrupt 

Sett. V. 3. And it is necellary, 1. That a Preach- 
er be skilled in the particular Controverjtes that the 
Church is in danger of: %. And that he skilfully^ 
2ealoufly and frequently preach up the neceffity ancf 
excellency of Unity, Lo<ve and Peace, and the fm and 
danger of the contraries : That men may by right 
Reafon and the Fear of God, be taught to make as 
much Confcience of thele as they do of other great 
Duties and Sins, and may not be without preferring 

Sett. VI. 4. And it is fpedally neceffary, that a 
Preacher know how to deal with the Perfons as well 
as with the Caufe : and that is not to rail at them, 
and render them fhamefull and odious whom he would 
win, nor publickly to expofe them to contempt, much 
lefs to dander, abufe or .opprefe them ; But with Evi- 
dence managed with meeknefs, love and tendernefs to 
convince them, and make them feel that all cometh 
for their own good, from unfeigned Love ; as Mufcu- 
hts won the Anabaptifts by feeding and relieving them 




in Prifbn,till they fought to him for inftru£tion, and Were 
difpofed to hear it. Nature fly eth from hurtful things and 
perfons : Had the Enmity been put at firft between the 
Woman and the Serpent, Eve had not been lb eafily 
feduced. Too many Bifhops and Preachers go about 
to cure Schifm as a man would bring Birds to the Net, 
or Filhes to the Bait, by fhouting and throwing Stones 
at them ; or as one would get the (warm of Bees in- 
to the Hive by beating them ; or as one that would 
get a Wife by deriding and railing at her ; or as a 
Phyfician that would get practice by mocking his Pa- 
tients inftead of medicining them. Men know better 
than fb, how to bring an Oxe to the Yoak, or a Horfe 
or Dog to hand, or to tame any Bird or Beaft that is 
wild and frightful It's true, that as a Malefaitor is 
hanged for the good of the Common-wealth rather 
than his own, (b a defperate (educing Heretick or 
Divider may be juftly rendered as contemptible as he 
deferveth, to keep others from being; deceived by him : 
But all that we hope to win mull h>e otherwile ufed, 
.eproach and difgrace maketh the Medicine fb bitter 
which fhould be fugaredj that with one of many it 
will not go down. Scorn and reviling is the way to 
drive them further from us. 

SeB. VII. y. And Minifters Patience with tolerable 
.{Tenters, while they worfhip God with forae dine- 
nce from them, in their own Ademblies, is a ne- 
ceffary prevention of worfer Schifm. Thus (bme 
peaceable Bifhops kept peace and love with the No- 
vat ians, when others by contrary in cans made more 
Schifms ; ( As Eplphamm faith Audita by intemperate 
foolifh oppofition was driven from the Church: ) 
What hurt will it do me, to let people hear another 
Teacher, whom they preferre before me, and can 
more profit by ? If I am for Organs, for Images, for 
Crofting, &c, what hurt is it to let others meet and 
B b i worihip 


worihip God without them? But when Preachers havi 
not prfonal worth to keep up their Reputation, am 
then rait atthofe that do not value them, they do but 
make themfelves more vile : And when they are fo 
proud, that if people leave them, and preferre ano- 
ther, they cannot bear it, but think to remedy it by 
making odious or vilifying thofe that undervalue them, 
they do but as all proud men do, even crofs and more 
debafe themfelves, and make that a Schifin which was 
but a perlbnal negledl. 

Sett. VIII. 3. And the Chriftian Magiftrate muft 
be a principal Inftrument of remedying Schifin. And 
very much may he doe by wifdom, moderation and 
right means, which I have mentioned before ; when 
wrong wayes do but increafe the Schifm. 

Sett. IX. 4. And the ancient and wifeft fort of 
good Chriftians muft be great Inftruments herein 
They muft be Examples to the Younger of Love, 
Peace and Concord : They muft oft tell them how 
good and amiable a thing it is for Brethren to dwell 
and meet together in Unity, and open the fin and a 
danger of Divilion. Age, Grace and Experience mel- 1 
low and fweeten the Spirits of ripe Chriftians, when c 
the Young are green and harfh and lowre. 

Sett. X. But among all thefe there are fbme men rr 
in all Ages, whom God ftirreth up to a fpecial zeal for i 
Chriftian Concord ; And though the ftate of the place £ 
and times which they live in, or their own weaknefs, - 
may make ibme of them propofe fome terms which in £ 
better times would be unreafbnable fas Erafmus, Cafii 
fancier , Wicclins^ and others did J yet it is that healing; \ 
Spirit that muft be a prime mover in all the work, if \ 
ever Concord be obtained : Such have been Melon*, i 
Bon? Mufculzis, Bucholzer, Junius, Joh. Ger. Veffius, r : 
Camerc, Ludcvicus CapeUr/s, Placaus, Teftardm, Amy- 
rahlr/s, Blonde!!, DalUrrs, the Breme an4 Britfy Di- 

L " x J 

vines at Dort, and by their means, the Decrees of tl 
Synod are Pacificatory ; Calixtus and his Afiociat 
Johan. Bergius, C'cnfad. Bergius^ Ludov. Croch/s 9 
purge, Archbifhop Ufher, Biihop Hall, Bilbop Dave 
nant, Dr. Ward, Dr. Vveficn, Mr. Whately, Mr. burner, 
Chtllinpvorth, and many more : But before all, [fchr. 
Dury and Mr. Le Blanke. As fome men that lhidy the 
Revelations or Chronologie, or Genealogies, &c. are rea- 
dier in tho£ particular Subjc\3s, than other men though 
of greater parts - y fo they that ftudy the Churches peace, 
in J the Concord of differing Chriftian?, ufaal)y are 
fitter for that work than others. 

Sett. XL There is one (ore of men that hare written 
many things excellently for Peace* even the Sociuiayis^ 
who being Hereticks, have thereby done much harm. 
Divers of them have laid down in general tho'e Rales 
uid Terms which might much have furthered the 
Churches Peace, if the fame things had been Written 
yy men of Name and Reputation. Wbat &ontk$s 
vas, or what Rupert us Mddmws was, f am not fare j 
ome (ay they were Socinians, and fome d<^iy k : Ii.tr 

am (urc> if they were heretical, their excellent Pre- 
ep^s for Love and Peace may rife up m j«$gri 
gainft Orthodox Persecutors, Schifoatleks. aad 
p ilers: Many that are hnovm to b bok, have 

rritten much for peace;; and Satan had ?;reat 

■rentage of it, to bring all earndl rrtith-r, : t tt peace 
ata lufprdon: fo that arm 

retreat of Church-w. tor the • 

;*g of our confuniing flames hot he is prefer 
fed to be guilty of fame FfertfS^ za$ to 
ially need of Charity or cok-rar. 

ox* that haymg; loft his T 
fills cut off Or if fit be about a 
re concerned m, that a man bd 
.'■■otk% tq Truth a 

fufpe£ted to be of the mind of CaffanJer, Wicelux, Gro* 
tiusi or fiich as they : Even Jacob Behmens writing 
lo much for Lwe, and againft Wrath^ hath made fbme 
fufpedt a Treatife that is written for any extenfive 
Chriftian Love : Could Satan but engage a man of ill 
fame to preach and write fervently for any funda- 
mental! point of Religion, I am afraid with many it 
would make it fiifpe&ed. 

Sect. XII. It is alfb of great moment for the prevent- 
ing or remedying of Schifm, to -choofe a fit feafon tc 
manage the remedies. Were not men very proud anc 
felfifh, the fitteft feafon would be times of Civil peac< ; 
and profperity : And indeed a common peace of many 
Countreys will hardly be well profecuted in any other 
times ; becaufe it needeth fedate minds , and quiet en 
tercourfe, and friendly communication ; which warr 
and exafperations are againft : Nor is it a fit time t( 
heal a particular perfbn^ when he is fined, imprifoned 1 
perforated, or opprefled : For his fenfe and pafsion wil 
flop his ears, and drive him further from thofe tha- 
he fuffers by : ( fb far are they miftaken who tab 
violence and foverity to be the wayj. But yet Pre* 
jfieritj hath greater hinderances of Love and Peao - 
than Sufferings : F<?r then ufaally the lovers of till 
World f called in Scripture the Enemies of God ) a 
they ftrive moft for wealth and power, do obtain it • 
And being made Lords and Prelates, they think ther ft 
is no fare and honourable Peace, but by all mens fob • 
mifsion to their wills and dilates : Pride never know 
eth the way of Peace, but trufteth to infiilting pafsic » 
nate violence, which cureth Schifm, as Brandy wil 
do a burning Feaver : which may rarely be lodged ii 
fuch frigid matter as may accidentally cure it, whid 
ordinarily would kill : And a Schifmatick may be fuel 
a rimerous worldling, as that fuffering may drive hin 
into outward complyance : But Conscience fb refpe£l 


eth God, as to count man and all that he can do as 

j nothing. Religion is a worfhipping and obeying GoJ 

e as G A : and whoever preferreth any mans Power or 

• intereft before him, (6 far hath no true Religion 

at all 

Bat if a fufferer be? to be cured, it muft not be by 
him by whom he fuffereth, but by another that pi- 
ieth him and lamenteth his fiifterings. But ufiially 
Pride ana carnal Confidence in Profperity hinder men 
:rom that condcfleiifion and moderation which is ab- 
oluteiy neceiiary to Love and Peace : Wantonnefs 
;; aid Contention are the ufaal fruits of greatness, full- 
^(s and worldly eafe : (b that Civil Peace and Re- 
igious are too often ftrangers } and being dryed in 
:he Sun-fh:ne we are crumbled to duft. And it is Gods 
ordinary way to caft contentious Wranglers into the 
^uni^ce, and melt them till they may be caft into one 
noM : Ridley and Hooper were reconciled in Priion. 
iVhen men that fell out are all taken Captives by a 
:ommon Enemy, they are iboner reconciled. When 
nen all fuller for the fame common Caufe, and are 
ogether in Gaols, or Banifhment, or reproach, then go 
rie whether .they will hearken to peace. It was the 

«reat fhame of the Englifh Fugitives in Qj. Maries 
ayes to fall out at Franhford in their Exile. In a 
vord, both Profperity and Adverfity have their pro- 
>er heips and hinderances of Concord , but ufiially, 
es of common Civil Peace, are the hopeful] eft times 
o treat for a common Religious peace • but for imxli- 
quarrelling fartks, common fullering is a better 

Seff. XIII. Whoever will be the Inftruments of hea'- 
ng Schifms, muft neceflarily prrferve his Reputation 
ith thofe that he would- heal, or at leaft withthe com- 
>n fort of religious perfbns: For if once he be com- 
mon v ill fpoken of, the beft things which he fej 

5b 4 will 

will be defpifed : Jf he be a Prince, if he be comnii 
ly reputed a found and a good man, all that he dot! 
will have a good interpretation : But if he be take 
either for an enemy to Piety, or to the Do&rine whici 
prevaileth, all that he doth will be fufpe&ed for a<9 
of malice. Confiantius is praifed by Hilary himfelf an< 
.many others, for a man of laudable difpoiition am 
coriverfation ; and yet his being for the Avians^ mad 
^11 ill taken that he did, and he did much that de 
ferved it : Theodofius junior and AnaJfaJim were ver 
pious Emperours, and great lovers of Peace, and ftre 
nuoufly laboured to have kept the Bifhops from Schifh 
and Church-warrs ; but being fiippofed to fa voir 
mod that party which the others called Hereticks, al 
that they -did was ill interpreted, and fofpe&ed to b 
in favour to the Hereticks. It is therefore very ne 
ceflary that a Peace-making Prince be down-righ 
honeft: and impartial, and fhew himfelf confcionablt 
in all his Actions, and a lover of Mankind, and in- 
jurious to none, but a fpecial favourer of the good, 
and an enemy to Wickednefs, Debauchery and Ma- 
lignity in all. For this will make people love and trufl 
him, without which nothing will be done. 

And what I fay of Princes, I muft fay of Pafton 
and Preachers : If a man be never fo zealous for Con- 
cord, if he be commonly fiippofed to be an ignorant 
m : an, cr a wicked man, or an unconfcionable crafty To- 
liticia?iy or a Heretick or dangeroufly erroneous, or 
one that is partial, or hath any ill Principles or De* 
figns, or a Perlecutor, or whimfical Fanatick, all his 
Eadeavours are like to do but little good : The gene- 
ral love and honour that Arch-bifhop Ufher, Bifhop 
Da-venant, Dr. frefibn, Mr. Gataker^ Mr. Fenner, Mr. 
Wattcn, Dr. Stoughtcn, &c. had with all forts of fbber 
men in England, made thofe conciliatory, moderating 
Principles to be regarded, which from other men 


L x ) J 

have been received with fuipicion, if not conrempr 
and (corn. 

Sebl. XIV. Were there no more (aid of all this fiib- 
jeet but that of Ruvertus Mtldenius cited by Lonra-* 
J-ts Rergius, it might end all Schifms if well under- 
ftood an4 uicd, vk» Si in NECESSsiRIIS fit 

optimo certe loco ejjtnt res noftrte. Unity m things ne* 
* eejfarj) Liberty &s unnecejfarjyditi Charity, in bctl\ 

would do all our w 

Sett. XV. Or briefly all muft be done, i. By the 

m LIG HT of Reafbn and Sacred Truth adapted to 
the Underftandings ol* the people, and fca(bnab!y pro- 
pofed with good advantage to convince them. 2. By 
the L O VE of Paftors, Rulers and Difienters, heap- 
ing coals of Fire on their heads. 3. By the rOTVER 
ot Magiftrates, encouraging men of Truth, Piety 
and peace, and retraining men from propagating in- 

. tolerable Errors, and all forts from violating the Laws 
of Humanity, Chriftian Sobriety and Charity, and 
the publick peace, and not permitting them on pre- 
tence of Religion openly to revile and abufe each 
other, (b as to keep up mutual hatred and diabolical 
Calumny, and by licentious tongues to wrong each 

Thcfe few things 'would better heal the Churches, 
than all the violent and compound Medicines which 
worldly Juglers and unskilful Mountebanks have long 
tryed in vain. 



More of .the fame fuhjeft ; Twenty things ne- 
ceffary in all that will deliver the Church 
from Schifm. 

Seff.I.Y\EcauCe this dividing . $&Mt goeth not eafily 
J3 out, I fhall repeat ari$ lumme up the com- 
mon Duties of all men that will herein fucceflefully 
ferve the Church : for it is not every man that is fit 
for fb excellent a work, though every man be bouncf 
to it in his place : The lad Experience of the World 
affureth us, that hitherto few skilful and effe&ual Phy- 
ficians have been found. 

Seff. II. In fhort, all men that will promote the 
Churches concord, whether Magiftra'tes, Paftors or Peo- 
ple, muft obferve all thefe following things, as the ne- 
ceffary means, which if they be wanting, yea but one of 
them, the Churches will be fo far dif^uieted, and dip 

i. The forefaid fimple Terms of Union mull be 
underftood and received, and folfe and enfiiaring terms 
muft be avoided. 

*2. Magiftrates muft preferre Chrifts intereft before 
their own, and fee that their own lyeth in preferring 
his : and muft value confcionable upright men, though 
diflenters in tolerable cafes, and not encourage their 
imconfcionable enemies. And muft keep peace among 
the Clergy and among all. 

5. Men muft be taught to place their Religion in 
worfhipping God 'in Spirit and Truth ; and to ftudy 
the power and practice of Godlinefs, Sobriety, Juftice 
and Charity, more than Opinions, felf-exalting or Will- 




worfliip : and to love their Neighbours as themfelves, 
and do as they would be done by. 

4. Men muft learn of Chrift to fee the amiablenete 
of Sincerity and Holinc' ; under many differences and 
weakneilcs and (b love what is amiable, and bear with 
what is i.o'erable, an< wdon what is pardonable in 
all : and to receive t i weak, even in the Faith, but 
not to doubthill Deputations : and to (peak more of 
the Good that is in upright men than of the Evil : 
yea never (peak evil of any man till they be certain 
of the truth : nor then till they be well (atisfied, that 
it is like to do more good than harni 

5. Men muft labour to know themfelves, and be 
acquainted with their own fallibility and defe£Hbility, 
mutability and inefficiency, and to remember how 
much they have to be pardoned and tolerated, and lb to 
caft the firft ftone at themfelves ; to fly from Pride, 
and know how unmeet they are to be the Rule of 
alt mens Judgments and Practices, or to feem (b wife, 
as that none fhall be tolerated that differ from them, 
nor (peak publickly to God, but in the words which 
they prefcribe. 

6. Men muft not be too ftrange to one another, nor 
keep too diftant; for neerne(s and acquaintance re- 
concileth, and diftance cheriiheth falfe reports and 

I fu(picions, and men take liberty to hear, think and 
fpeak ill of ftrangers behind then* backs, which fami- 
! liarity would cure. 

7. None but Volunteers muft be taken for true 
' Chriftians, nor admitted to holy Communion, to re- 
ceive the Seals of Pardon and Life. 

8. To ufe more a friendly difcourfing way for con- 
vincing Diffenters, than di(gracefull, pafsionate, mili- 
tant difputations, (Though dangerous feducers muft be 
confuted by neceffary disputation. ) 

9. To abhorre Envy and Emulation <f the Oflf- 


lpring or oeininneis anu rriuey anu not to grudge a 
other mens efteem, that are preferred before us -> e{pe 
daily that Preachers and Paftors envy not the prefe- 
rence of other Teachers, nor murmur at their liberty 
honour or fiiccefs; but rejoyce with ~Paul y Phil, i 
that Ghrift is preached, though it be by Contentious 
men, that do it in Envy and Strife, to adde affli&ion 
to the aifli£led. 

10. To dread Perlecution and unjuft violence to 
men of Confcience, and not to force them to fin and 
damnation, by bearing down Confcience in unnecefla- 
ry things. 

1 1. To be well furniflied with holy Reafon and 
Ix>ve, and for Minifters to be confined to the uie of 
thefe, from all ufe of Violence by the Sword - and 
kept to their proper work and Government by the 
Word and* Church-key es* 

i %* To rebuke and frown away malignant and Re- 
ligious Galumaiators, Whi/perers, Cenfurers and Back- 

13. To teach the People wherein the uniting Sub- 
fiance of Religion doth confifl:, and what a fin ft is 
to be cenlbrious and feparate caufelefly from others^ 
and reprefent their different Opinions* Modes and 
Ckcumitances of Worfhip unjuftly odious, to ftirre 
up- otheir mens hatred and ieparatihg diftaftes : amj 
how great a fin and danger Schifhi or Divifioa is. 

14. To avoid all needlefs novelties and fingulan- 
cFes, and to keep to Vincent. Lerim?ifiss Meaiure* of 
holding to that which, bath e-zK? been received as ne- 
ttffart by the who vas. the primitive 
Faith and ReiigK- 

1 p. To avoid contending about rneer ambiguous 
wards* and fcver to agree of the fence of all the terms 
before you enter co . di&utarioxi- ; and tofei 



16. As Magiftrates muft be juft and impartial, 
:j people muft be taught to obey them under Chrift, in 
7 all lawfull things belonging to their Office, and that 
I as a part of their Obedience to God. 
i 1 7. Peace-makers muft be men of Piety and blamc- 
lefs Lives, that may honour their works, and not by 
fcandal harden adverfaries, nor lay Stumbling-blocks 
before the weak : and fiich as ftudy to do good to all. 

1 8. They muft fiibmit to men ot the loweft and 
weakeft ranks, and not defpife them, and the ftrong 
nuft bear the Infirmities of the weak, reftoring the 
fallen with the fpirit of meeknefs, remembring that 
they alfb may be tempted. 

19. They muft not expeft fiich a degree of Con- 
cord on Earth as is not to be expeited, left for want 
of it they be tempted to murmur at God, doubt of 
Religion, and make the breach wider by unjuft (e- 
verities againft the weak. 

a o. When any are accufed of Herefie or Scandal, 
they muft be ready with patience to give (atisfaction 
to others, to the Churches, to Rulers, to Equals, or 
Inferiors, Referring them to their Profelsion of Faith, 
and anfwering what is charged on them, and willingly 
amending what they are convinced is amifs. 

But all this and much more I have formerly written 
in a Book called, The Cure of Churcfj-divijions. 


Popery Q or the Papacie ) will never unite the 

SftJ.I.T Come now to prove the infufficiency and 

X ineptnels of the terms of Union which many 

men have deviled, and obtruded on the Churches : 


- • [3 ° ] . 

Repeating, that few things more divide, than falfe Mean, 
cf uniting, while thefe engage men to fetagainftall thai 
cannot yield to them. And I fliall begin withthe term 
of the 'Papal "party, as being the chiet Pretenders. 

Sech II. The Papifts think, that the way of Union 
and avoiding Schifm is, for one Man, the Pope of Rome. 
to be taken for the Universal Vicar of Chrift on Earth, 
even the governing Head under Chrift of all the Chriftians 
en Earth, yea, and of all the World, in order to make 
them Chriftfcns ; and that the Church on Earth is one 
filch politick Body, of which Chrift is the invifibl^ 
Head of influence, and the Pope is the vifible Head as 
to Government: And that none are of the vifible 
Church that are not the Popes Subjects, and that they 
that refufe fuch Subjection are Schijmaticks or Here- 
tic ks or Infidels : And that all that own Chrift, fhould 
be compelled by Sword or torment to own the Pope 
as his Vicar General. 

Sei~t. III. Campanella, de Regno Dei, openeth the My- 
ftery of the Fifth Monarchy, and alledgeth the texts that 
are brought for it, as intending Chrifts Reign on , Earth 
by the Pope as his Viceroy : And indeed it is an Uni- 
verfal Kingdom or Monarchy which they plead and 
ftrive for, under the name of the Univerfal Church : 
But in this they greatly differ, whether the Pope have 
the univerfal Power of both Swords, or but of one, 
that is, both Civil and Ecclefiaftical, and be really the 
King of all the World : And herein they are of three 
Opinions as to the Subject of this Power, and of three 
Opinions as to the degree. 

Sect. IV. As to ' the Pojfejfor of this Authority, 
i . One party fay that the Jumma Potefias is in the 
Pope ; i. Another faith, it is in the Pope pre fiding in a 
General Council, or in the Pope and Council agreeing', 
3. And another party hold that it is in ^General 
Council aicne, yet ib as that the Pope is the Head of 


4lhe Ifriiverfal Church, as the chief Prelate, andOrdi- 
4dinary Governour, though lubjeit to the Legifla- 
five and Judicial Power of the Council. 

Sett. V. And as to the Degree of Power, i. Some 
hold that the Pope is the Monarch of all the t Earth, 
having the chief Power of both Swords, and that 
the World is his Kingdom, as Gods Vicegerent. 

a. Others hold, that he hath direcHly only the Eccle- 
(iaftical Tower, but indireitly and in order to Spirituals 
he hath alfo the Temporal power ( of the SworclJ : Or, 
as the moft hold, that in his own Territories he hath 
both Powers as to Perjonal exercife ', but in other King- 
doms^ he can himfelf only execute the Church-power, 
but he may command Kings to execute the power of 
the Sword for Religion, according to his and his Bi- 
(hops decrees: and may force them to it by Ana- 
themas, and releafing their Subje&s from the Bonds 
of Fidelity, and giving their Kingdoms to others : As 
fbmt (ay, that the King may not be perfonally Judge 
Jn the Courts of Juftice, but he may make Judges, 
and force them to their duty, and depoft them if un- 
orthy. This differeth little from the former : The 
Monarchy is neverthelefs abfblute, though Kings be 
jthe Popes Officers or Liftors. 

3. But fome few hold that the Pope and Biihops 
avc no Power of the Sword at all, nor of forcing 
"ings to ufe it ; The Controverlie was hotly handled 
'hen Popes and Emperors were in Warrs : The Vc- 
umes written on both fides are pubxilhed by Goldafttts, 
:o which William Barkley and fome others in France 
lave added more. 

Seel. VI. Rightly therefore doth the Geograph. Nu- 
Vienfis call the Pope A King ; The Name of a Church 
naketh not a difference in the thing : There be fome 
:hat think that all Kings fhould be alio Priefts, and 
he Pone- will grant it fo far as to hold, that all Bi- 


{hops lhould be Maglftrates, and the Chief PfWjt 1 
Univerfal King. Cardinal Bertram in Biblioth. Patr. 
Ctith, God had not been wife, if he had not jet up juch a 
Monarch undtr him over the World. And in Paffagio 
feu Eidla Sixti quart i Philippo Palatine Rheni tn Fre- 
hero, Vol ^. pag. i6x. you may fee their Claim in 
thele words : [] Univerfos Chrifiianos Principes ac omnes 
Chrifii fideles requirere eifque mandare vice Dei, cujus 
Iccurn quamvis immeriti tenemus in terras f\ To reqmre_ 
all Ch'riflian Princes, and all faithful Chriftians, and 
to command them in Gods jitad, ivhofe place on earth 
we hold, though unworthy. J 

The Twelfth General Council, viz,, at the Late- 
rane, (ub Inmc. 3. and (bme at Rome under Greg. 7. and 
many others, put this Claim of theirs pad: doubt. 

Seel. VII. Now that the Univerfil Church will ne- 
ver unite in the Roman Papacy, I prove undeniably 
as foiloweth : 

1 . Becaufe Chriftians will never unite in an Agree- 
ment to for fake the Scriptures as Gods Word and Law : 
where they will ftiil find that he never inftituted fuch 
a Roman Monarch. The Papifts contrary Afferrion 
will never convince the World, when the Book it 
(elf is open before rhem. They will there find no, 
one man that ruled all the reft ; no one to whom 
Appeals were made : no one that ever claimed fuch a' 
power; much lefs that fettled any fiich at Rome', est 
that ever a word was left by Chrift to direct the 
Church to center in the Biihop of Rome : Nor that 
ever the Apcftles preached this to the Churches, which 
they muft needs have done, had it been eilential to the 
Church Catholick, or half as necciiary as the Papifts 
make it. 

Sect. VIII. 2. Becaufe in Scripture,Chriftians will (not 
only find nothing for it, but much againft it : which 
many Volumes having largely proved, ( '-Cbamier, 

J#hitahcr t 

>} Whitakers, White, and abundance more ) it would be 
,1 vain here to repeat. I commend to the Engi(h Reader 
I now but Dr. Challontrs imall Book, ot the Catbolick 

Sect. IX. 3. Becaufe, were it but as dark and doubt- 
ful and uncertain as common Reafon ana Difputcrs 
experience proveth it, the univerfal Church can never 
unite in a thing which (6 few can fee any certainty in, 
or evident proof of. 

SeSf. X. 4. Becaufe the greatlyeft reverenced Gene- 
ral Councils are againft it, limiting the Popes power 
:o his Diocefe, as Nice firft doth; and declaring hirm 
|:o be National, and of humane Infiituticn as being 

I*3ifhop of the Imperial City, and advancing Cowftan- 
■inople, from the fame Reafon as doth the Council of 
Zhalcedcn : Of which I have largely written againft 

Seel. XL 5*. Becaufe the Greek Church hath ever 
ield the Papacy to be of humane Inftitution: Proved 
'riefly ; 1. Becaule they ever held the Popes power 
ftand on the fame Foundation with the other Pa- 
fiarchs : But they ever held the other Patriarchs to be 
f Humane Inftitution ; which needs no proofs to men 
f Reading, 2. Becaufe they fet up Conflantinoflt 
rft next him, and then equal to him, and then above 
im: which they liad never done, had they taken the 
apacy to be of Divine Inftitution : For they never 
:etendcd any fuch foundation for the Biihop of Cpn* 
mf imples power ; and they were never (o defperate 
to fet up Mans Ordination above Gods. 3. Bo 
life they took his Power to be limited by the Laws 
the Empire, and him to be fub ! cct to the Empc- 
All which is known to men that knowChurch- 

XII. .6. Becaufe the common Rcafbn of Man- 

ftill difcern that a humane Monarchy of 

C c 'all 

all the Earth, is a 'dream and Impofsibility ; and 
no man is naturally capable or exercifing (uch 

Sect. XIII. 7. Becaufe while Baronms, Bin'uts, Cr< 
Surim, and other Hiftories of the Councils areexta 
and tlatma, Anaftajius, and other Hiftories of 1 
Popes, and while all the old Church-Hiftory is exta 
and all the Qtrman^ French, Italian, Belgick, Engt 
and other later Hiftories, the- horrid wickednefs 
Pones, and the Mifchiefs they have brought upon 
World, and the blood they have died to fettle tt 
Kingdoms, will be known to Mankind, and will : 
iuffer men univerfal'y to believe that God ever mi 
fiich Gover nours efiential to his Church, or neceffi 
to its Ui. 

553?. XIV. 8. Becaufe Kings and States will ne 
become all io tame and fervile, as to refign their Ki 
corns ib Far to an universal Monarch, and to becc 
his Subjects, efpecially after the fad experience of 

SeEt. XV. 9. Becaufe if the people were never 
blinds there will in all generations arife wife and Let 
cd peribns. who will know all thefe things, and ne 
content to Pbpery. 

Sect. XVI. 10. Laftly from Experience : The I 
veifal Church now doth not , nor ever did unita 
the Roman Papacy, and therefore never will 
That now they do not, is pail doubt with thofe 1 
know the Papifts are but the third or fourth par 
the Oiriftlan World Biffiop BramhaVAxAx they 
t tilth part. The great Empire of Ethiopia, 
:ians ir\ Egypt, S)ria 'McfcpGta???ia, that are k 
called by them NtJJ-cria?is and Eutychians or j 
who parted from the Gretksivpon the ejection of Du\ 

the Council of Cha!ced. r 7*,ikc Armenians, 
cr.S) Mmomtani) G tho'e (cattered in the.* 


fian Empire, die Greeks fcattcred throughout the 
Turkiili Empire, the Empire of Mofcovie, the King- 
doms of Suede?!., De?rmark, England, Scotland and Ire- 
land^ the Subjects of the Dukes of Saxony, Branden- 
burgh, Lunenburgb, Hanover, Ojnaburgh, Holficin, the 
Prince of Hajfia, the Palfgrave of the Rhine, Ducal 
PruJ/ia, Curland, Tranfilvama, all the Protefiant free 
Cities in Germany, Dantz,ick, and others tolerated in 
Poland, thofe in Hungary, fbme in Walachia and Mol- 
davia ', Belgia, railed the Low-Count reys, with Friefland, 
Embden, Geneva, &c. the Proteftant Cantons of Hel- 
vetia ; thofe in Rhcetia, in Piedmont, &c. and thofe to- 
lerated in France : Our Plantations in the JVeJl-Indies 
or America, viz. New-England, Virginia, Barbados, 
Bermudas, Jamaica, and the reft ; All thefe are Chri- 
ftians that unite not in the Pope, nor are (Libjeit to 

I know they fay that thefe are Hereticks and Scjbif* 
maticks, and no parts of the Church : But that is too 
ealie a way of arguing, and no Cure at all for Chri- 
ftians diicord. By this way of reafoning they may 
prove that all the ChrifHan Church or World is uni- 
ted in the Pope, if he had but ten Subjects, becaufe 
all the reft are no part of the Chriftian Church or 
World : as a mad man proved that all the World 
was his, becaufe he thought his Houfe and Land was 
all the World. But Chrift will not fo eafily lofc his 
Church, nor be difputed out of his Inheritance by fb 
grofi a fallacy : If you argue [None are pam of the 
Chriftian Church but the Popes Subjects : All the Popes 
Subjects unite in the Pope : Ergo, all parts of the 
Chriftian Church are united in the Pope, J You muft 
prove your Major to Chrift better than ever you did, 
before he. will be (6 depofed from his Kingdom, and 

Ilofe thofe whom he fo dearly bought. The Bifnop of 
I Q^ifrantino^le, Alexandria, Ephejus, Canterbury, may 
C c z lay 

fay the like, that none are Chriftians but their Subjects, 
but this is it that I lay the World of Chriftians are 
not united in. 

Sett. XVII. And as it is lb now, it was fo in the 
laft Age : And though lome of them cheat Women 
by telling them that all the Chriftian world before Lu- 
ther were united in fubje£Hon to their Popes, they 
muft burn all their own Church Hiftory and Coun- 
cils, and make men ignorant of what is paft in for- 
mer ages, before this will be believed by men that 
can read Latin and Greek ; certainly they do not be- 
lieve it themfelves : They cannot though they would : 
Was all the Weft {ubjevSl to the Pope, when lb many 
hundred thouland were murdered for being againft 
him.? When the Bohemians were fo perlecuted by 
warrs ? when Spain it felf hath been acculcd of luch 
Herefie ? when rnoft of Germany ftuck to the Empe- 
rours, and delpifed the Popes ? when France and Eng- 
land have been cenfiired and Interdicted by him, and 
obeyed not his Interdicts? when tor many Ages rnoft 
of Italy hath been a Field or warr, and fought againft 
him? when Koine it (elf hath lb oft driven him away? 
But cfpccialiy when upon the Conflantinopolitane De- 
cree de trihas Captulis, Pope Vigilws was forfaken by 
much of Italy and the Weft, and all his Succeflors 
for about an hundred years, and the Patriarch of Aqui- 
ieia let up as their Head inftead. of Rome, till Sergutk 
after reconciled them ? And all this while were not 
the Greeks, ) A / Iofcc r uites J Armenians, Syrians, Abajjinesfind 
all the reft before mentioned in Afid and Africa, Sec. 
from under the Pope? 

I have oft asked, and ask again, was all Chriflen- 
Acme fiib'jcft to 'the Pope, of whom their Melchior Ca- 
irns faith ( hoc. Ccr/i. cap. 7. fol. 2,01.) That not only 
the Greeks, hut almoft all the reft of the Eijhops of the 
whole tt'or Id have fought, tc itftrcy the Vrroiledges of 


the Church of Rome ', and indeed they had on their fidt 
the Arms of Emperours, and the Greater number of 
Churches : and yet they could never prevail to abrogate 
the Power of the One Pope of Rome ? ] 

Was all the Chriftian World under him, when 
their Raynsrius fuith, (cont. Wald. catal. in Ribl. Patr. 
To. 4. p. 773. ) \_The Church of the Armenians, and 
Ethiopians, and Indians, and the rejl which the Apcjtles 
converted, are not under the Church of Rome ? J 

Was all the Church under him before the Turks 
conquered the Greeks ? when the Greek Church alone, 
and the reft in the Eaftern Empire, were twice as 
many as all the Weftern Churches : and slbaffia, and 
all in the Eaft and South without the Empire, were 
alio from under him ? 

Yea and when their own facobus de Vitriaco wri- 

teth (Hifior. Orient, c. 77. ) who dwelt at Jerufalem, 

£ That the Churches of the Eafierly parts of Afla, alone ^ 

exceeded in number the Chrifians either of the Greek or 

Latine Church. ~] And their tirochardus, that lived alfb 

there, faith, that [_ Tloofe called Schifmaticks by us D are 

far better men than thofe of the Roman Church. 

I Seel. XVIII. If they fay, that at Icaft for the firft 

fix hundred years all the Church was governed by the 

Pope ? I an(wer, It is more probable which Marnixi- 

us and many Proteftants affirm, that for the fir ft fix 

hundred years there was not one Pa- 

pift in the world, that is, One that See all this fully 

took the Pope to have the Govern- R^ d in m £ 

r 11 1 i-i 1 Books a^nnft 

mg power over all the Church on Jobnfon, of the 

Earth. The oft cited words of Gre- Visibility of our 

rory the tirfb and Pelagws plainly Church, efpe- 

Aew, that they abhorred the Claim : QIZ K E ™ ! a<t 
-ri ■ -n ' r * cal\cd\_t'l'.ichis 

■1 he rope was trom the year 300. thctruj Chi.rcb, 
:ill 6 c c. and after thefrft Bijlwp in 
He Roman Empire, 1. Under Councils and Empe 
C c 3 rours 

,. C'38 ] 

rours^ a. Not Ruling the other Patriarchates, but 
fitting before them in Councils j 3. And this by Mans 
Ordination, only in one Empire ; 4. And- had no Rule 
in any of the extraimperial Churches in the World : 
even here with us the Britains reje£ted them, and the 
Scots would not eat or converfe with them. The Abaf 
fine Empire was never under them, nor thole of India- 
and Terfia : And the Councils in which they had the 
firft feat were but otorie Empire, as 'i$ after proved. 

And as for the firft three hundred years under Pa- 
gan Emperours, their own Writers confefs the Church 
of Rome was little fet by 5 that is, it had no govern- 
ing power over the reft, nor is there any pretence to 
think they had. 

The firft that talk'd very high, was Leo the firft, 
who called himfelf the Head of the Catholic k Church : 
But by \_CatholichT\ was then meant ufually the 
Churches in the Empire only, and by Head he meant 
the prime Bijhop in order, but not the Govemour of 
all : Nor was his claim, if he meant any, more ap- 
proved, by the Churches in that Age. Though the 
Council of Chalcedon highly applauded him and his 
Epiftle, as an advantage to carry their Caufe againfb 
T>io\corm (who had excommunicated the Pope ) and 
took him for the prime member of their Council, yet 
they thought meet in their Canons to declare, that it 
was but by humane, mutable right in the Roman 

Let them ihew us if they can, when and where the 
tmiveral Church en Earth ever nibkcied themfelves at . 
all to the Pope. Much lefs can they bring any pretenfe 
of it for the firft three hundred yeas : Had they any ' 
Meeting in which they agreed for it ? Did they all 
receive Laws, Ordination or Officers from Rome, or 
h*om its Emitlaries ? If wb were fb foolifh as to be- 
lieve that his precedence in .General Councils was a 

- proof 

>roofof the Popes Monarchy; yet It i prove 

:. That for 500 years there was in J Coun- 

il ; 2. And that it was not the Pope that prefided at 
V/ce; 3. And that thofe Councils vrt 
nd not truly Umyerfak 

But if all the Church ever had been fubjeS: to the 
'ope, as being at firft (except Jib \fjia) ialmoft con- 
ined to the Roman Empire, it doth nor that 

\ will ever be (b again when it is & into (o 

nany Kingdoms of the .World : The jefiiiiit at firft 
vere ail under the King of Sphin, and the Mahome- 
tans at firft all under one Prince, but they are not 
o now : Is it likely that ever all Chriftian, Mab 

Ian and Heathen Kings will tiifter all their C&ri 
Subjects to be under the Government of a For.' 1 
But their own Writers agree, that th< 
Jirft were difperfed into many Counvrevs bciiJcs the 
\Roman Empire, and that Ethiopia- was .d by 

the Eunuch mentioned Affs 8. initially (its like before 
Rome,) and fullyer by St. Matthew : And you may* 
fee in Godignu^ Alvarez,^ Tjamiarinsa Gcez,, and others, 
full evidence that they were never Subjects to the 
Pope of Rome. 

I conclude then, I. That Rohte is not owned this 
day as the bead of Unity by all Chriflians : 2. That 
it never was lb taken for the Governing and Uniting 
Head ; 3. And that the realbn of the thing fully 
proveth that it never will be Jo. 

I may adde, that indeed it is not known among 
themfelves who are the conferring Subjects of the 
Pope, or Members of their Church : It is indeed In- 
r uijihle^ or a Church not knowable* For, 1 . They 
are not agreed, nor ever like to be, 
tial qualification of a Member of the C lurch : Or 
what that Faith is that mud make a Member: Some 

Cc 4 (ay 

fay, it muft be the Belief of all the Creed explicitely ! 
others, of fbme few Articles ; others, that no more h 
neceflary ad ejje than to believe explicitly thai v God is^ 
and that he is a Rew order of ? good -works, and to be- 
lieve that the Church is to be believed : Of which fee 
Fr. a Sanci. Clara in his Deus, Natura, Gratia. 

2. And their forcing men into their Church with 
Tortures, Fire and Sword, leaveth it utterly uncer- 
tain who are Confenters, and who are in the Church 
as Prifbners, to fave Limbs and Life. 

And if they ever recover England, Scotland, Ireland, 
Germany, and the other Reformed Churches, it muft 
be by the Sword, and Warrs, and Violenfce, and ne- 
ver by force of Argument : And if they fhould con- 
quer us alL( which is their hope and truft ) it will not 
follow, that men are of their minds, becaufe they can- 
not or dare not contradict them, no more than becaufe 
they are dead. 

Experience, Reafbn and Scripture then do fully 
prove to men that are willing to know the truth, that 
the Uwuerfality of Cbrijlians will never be united to 
the Roman Papacy : Yea, that this Papacy is the 
greateft of all Schiims, i . By fetting up a falie Head 
ot Union ; and z. By cutting oft or renouncing three 
parts of the Chriftian World, even all Chriftians ex> 
ccpt the Subjects of the Pope, 


L4i J 


The Vnfcerfal Church will never unite in Pa- 
triarchs, or any other humane Form of Church- 

Se£t.I.\ J\ THether or how far fuch Forms may 
V V confifl with Union, is a Queftion that 
I am not now debating, any further than lhall be 
anon intimated by the way. But that they will never 
become the Bond of Union, or be received by all, and 
that to make any fuch thought NeceJJary to univerfal 
Unity, is Schifm, I am eafilyable to prove. 

Sett. II. And this ncedeth no other proofs than 
what are given againft uniting in the Papacy, in the 
former Chapter. As, i. Patriarchs and other humane 
Inftitutions being not of God but Man, the whole 
Church can never unite in them, i. Becaufe they 
will never all agree that any men have true Authority 
given them by God, to make new Ghurch-Ojpcers and 
Forms that fhall be neccflary to the Unity or Concord 
of the Church Univerfal. 

2. They will never agree who thofe men are that 
God hath given (ych power to, if they did fufpeer that 
fiich there are. A Prince hath no Power out of his 

3. They will never agree, that if man made fiich 
Forms or Offices, they may not unmake them again if 
they fee caufe ; or that their Acts bind all their Po- 
sterity never to refcind or change them. 

4. They will never find that all the Chriftian 

1 World ever agreed herein, and fb in all Pofterity is 
obliged by their Anceftors. 
5*. Much lefs will any ever prove that the Inftitu- 
tion was Divine. Sect. 

L4* J 

Sett. III. If any fay, that the Apoftles fettled this 
Form by the Spirit, the Univerfal Church will never 
believe it : For, i . No Scripture faith (b : 2. No true 
credible Hiftory faith fb: 3. If the Apoftles fettled 
Patriarchs, it was either as their own Succeifors, or as a 
new Office : And it was either by joynt content, 'or 
man by man, each one apart : But 1 . Had they fettled 
them as their Succelfours, they would have fettled 
twelve or thirteen ; But there were but five fettled at 
all, belides fome new petty Patriarchs (as at Aquileia 
when they caffc off Rome. ) 2. No Writer tells us of 
any meeting of the Apoftles to agree of fuch a Form. 
3. No nor that ever they fettled them. 4. Hiftory 
aflureth us that they were fettled only in One Empire, 
and not in the reft of the World, y. And that the 
Emperour and Councils of that Empire made. them. 
6. And therefore v/hen they were at firft but three 
they added at their pleafure two more, Confiantinople 
and yerufalem. 7. And none of all thefe pretend to 
Apoftolical Inftitution and Succefsionbut Antioch, that 
claimeth to be St. Peters firft Seat, and Rome to be 
his fecond, and that but as Biflhops, ( when that alio 
is a frivolous pretenfe.) Alexandria claimeth fuccefsion 
but from St. Ma^k, and Jerufalem from that St. "fames 
who (faith Dr. Hammond and others ) was none of 
the Apoftles, and Conftantinopfe from none at all,.' 
though above the reft. Councils (zsConftant. and 
Chalced.) profefsing that the Fathers and Princes made 
them what they were. 

Sect. IV. It is certain, that the Chriftian World is 
not now united in Patriarchs, nor ever was, nor ever 
will be. The Patriarchs of the reft of the Empire are 
all now broken off from the Church of Rome: Ccn- 
fiantinnple, Alexandria, Antiech and fervJalem, are all 
againft him : The Eaft had fouiy and the Weft but 
one, and are now at odds condemning each other. 


L4-? J 

li&Yefl: of the world have none, and had none. And 
is commonly confeiled, that as men let them up, (b 
fei may pull them down again. Yea, even in the 
d Empire many Churches were from under all the 
chs, as is commonly known. 
.'. V. And how Ihould thefe Patriarchs unite all 
ic ( hurch ? It mull be either by meeting or at di- 
ancc. As for their meeting, Princes that are fome 
Mahometans, and fbme Chriftians, of divers Interefts 
id Minds, will not fiiffer it : And neither by meet- 
lg or diftance can we be fecured that they will agree, 
ftien even under one Emperour that laboured to unite 
rem, they were among their Clergy like the Genc- 
als of fo many Armies, diftracting ( ard at laft de- 
Jroying.) the Empire by hereticating and perfecuting 
•he another. Thofe that have divided and undone 
hat Empire, are never like to unite the Chriftian 

Setl. VI. And what I fay of Patriarchs, I fay of all 
lumane Forms of Churches or Church-government ; 
md fo of fiich an Epifcopacy as is not ncceflary to the 
Deing of the Church. There are here three Vtiitinfl 
meftions before us : I. Whether the Paftoral Oiiice. 
be neceilary to Church-unity ? 2. Whether Paro- 
chial Epifcopacy be neceilary to it ? 3. Whether 
Diocefaii BiFnops diftinft from Archbifhops be neceffa- 
ry to it ? And you may adde a fourth, Whether Arch- 
Bifhops be neceifary to it, ( not diluting now the 
lawfulneis of any of all thefe ? ) 

Seel. VII. 1. Of the frft I have (poken before: 
No doubt but Chrifts univerial Church hath ever had 
Ter.rhcrs and PaiTors as the moft noble organical 
ipart ; And a Body may as well be without a Stomack, 
r or Lungs, as the Church be without them. 
(jAnd to a particular Church as fcUticaJ org^mzeclj 
or Governed, they are a confthutive part. But I have 







before fliewed reafbns to doubt whether yet it be n< 
celfary to falvation to eve-iy individual Chrifiian t 
know that the Mmiflry is an infiituted Office, and t< 
own fiich ; But this little concerneth our Caufe. 

Set}. VIII. 2. Parochial Epifcopacy, that is, th 
preeminence and government of one Presbyter callec 
a Bijhop over the reft in every /ingle Church, was earl) 
introduced to avoid the difcord of the Presbyters anc 
the Flock : In the time whe$ Ignatizxs Epiftles wen 
written, he tells us, That every Ghurch had One Altar, 
and one Riftwp with his fellow-Presbyters and Deacons, 
Whether this was of Apoftolical Inftitution, or a hu- 
mane Corruption, is difputed in (b many Volumes 
(by Petavius, SanBa Clara, Faravia, Whitenitto, 
Downham^ Hammond, Hooker, Bil/on, &c, on one 
lide : And Gerfom, Bucer,Beza, Cartwright, Salmafius, ft 
Didoclane, Jacob, Blondel, Parker, Paul Baine, &c. 
on the other,) that I think it not meet here to inter* 
pofe my thoughts. But that it is not effential to a 
Church, and that all the Church will not unite in it, 
appeareth as followeth. 

SeB. IX. j. They are not united in it now : The 
Reformed Churches in France, Belgia, Helvetia, and 
many other parts, are againft fuch Bifhops as necejfa- 
r y, and a diftinB Order. And in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, New-England, Ike. they are by fbme ap* 
proved, and by others not. 

z. Former Ages have had many pious Chriftians 
againft them, elpecially in Scotland, and among the 
J{/alden r es. 

3. The School-men and other Papifts are not 
themfelves agreed, whether Biihops and Presbyters 
are diftinct Orders. 

4. The Church of England even while Popiih de-« 
nyed it, and (aid they were but one Order, as you may 
fee in Spelman zs£lfreds Laws or Canons. 

y. Hierome 


^ 5-. Hierome and Eutycbius Alexandrinus tell us how 
"md why Epifcopacy was introduced at silexandria, 
: ^md that the Presbyters made them there. 

6. The Scots were long governed without them, 
\ 'as A&/"or and iWrf tell us.) And their Presbyters 
3,nade the fir ft Bifoops in Northumberland, as Pomera- 
-JjVfs a Presbyter made thofe in Denmark. 

7. Almoft all the Churches in Eaft and Weft as 
*rar as I can learn, have caft oft Parochial Bifhops (of 

■•'••' 'ingle Churches ) and in their ftead let up Diccejans 
% aver multitudes of Parities without any Biftiops un- 
J der them, but Curats only. 

~fl 8. While there is no hope of all agreeing whether 
it be a Divine Inftitution, and that of effential necefsi- 
m ty ) there is no probability that ever the Univerfal 
ijChurch will unite in them. 

9. The Diocefans we find will never yield to 

10. The reception of them will not unite the 
Church were it agreed on, it being more and greater 
matters that they difter about. 

I confefs that the ancient reception of them was ib 
general, and the reafon of the thing (6 fair, that I 
am none of thoie that accufe liich Epifcopacy as un- 
lawfull or Schifinatical, but rather think it conduceth 
to prevent Schifms : But, 1 . I am fatished that it will 
not be agreed to by all, %. Nor ferve for univerfal 
Concord were it agreed on, 3. And that it is Schifc 
matical to make them more necefiary than God hath 
made them, and to cut off Chriftians or Churches that 
cannot receive them. 

Seel. IX. Diccefan Epfcofacy ( by which I mean a 
y?wg/e v Bifhop over many hundred or {core Parities and 
iacred Aflembiies that have Altars, and are large 
enough to be (ingle Churches, or at leaft Many jucl\ 
without any Bijhops under him of thofe Churches) toill 


much lels ev.er upite the Univerfal Church, howevei 
hath obtained over very much of the Chriftian wor 
For firft more Churches by far at this day are agair 
//-, than againft Parochial Epifcopacy, and more Volun 
are written againft it ; and Men have a far grea; 
averfhels.to it, as more dangerous to the Church. 

Seel. X. 2. It is contrary to the Scripture Inftii 
tion , which let up Bifhops in all Jingle Church 
("whether the fame with Presbyters I now difpute n 
but they were fuch as then were received ; ) And the 
that think- iiich Single, or Parifh, or City Bifhops neo 
fary, will never agree to put them all down. 

Sect. XL 3. They turn all the Parifi-Churd 
into Chappels, or meer parts of one Church , and Tj 
church them all, in the judgment of thole that take 
Bifhop to be effential to a Church : And all will n< 
agree to Unchurch all fuch Panfms. 

I Sect XI I. 4. It maketh true Discipline as 11 
poflible, as is the Government ot lb many Icore < 
hundred Schools by one Schoolmafter, or Hofpitals'j: 
one Phyfician, without any other Schoolmafter or Pfy 
fician under him, ( but Ujloers and Apothecaries 
which all Chriftians will not agree to. 

Setl. XIII. 5. It is contrary to the Practice I 
the Primitive Churches, and cafteth out their fort \ 
Parochial Biihops , as I -have, ellewhere fully pi 

1 . From the Teftimonies of many, fuch as that 
Ignatirts belore cited. 

1. From the cuftom of choofing Bifhops by all 

3. And of managing Difcipline before all 

4. By the cuftom mentioned by Ttrtullian 
J-ufi'm Martyr, of receiving the Sacrament onely fror 
the hand of the Biftiop, or when he Confecrajed it 


[47] > 

5. By the cuftom of theBifhops onely Preaching, 
except in cafe of his fpecial appointment. 

6. In every Church the Bifhop fate on a high Seat 
with the Presbyters about him. 

7. The Bifhop onely pronounced the Blefling. 

8. Many Canons after , when the Churches grew 
greater, command all the People to be prefent, and 
communicate with the Bifhop on the great Feftivals. 
Thele and many more Evidences prove, That in the 
Primitive Times theBifhops had but fingle Churches, 
and every Altar and Church had a Bifhop. 

Sett. XIV. 6. The v try Species of the old Churches 

■ is thus overthrown, and the old office of Vresbytcrs 

therewith^ which was to be af fiftant Governors with 

the Bifhop, and not meer Preachers or Readers. And 

all thefe Changes ali Chriftians will not agree to. 

SeB. X V. 7. Efpecially the . fid Hiftory of 
Councils and Prelacy will deter them from fuch Con- 
cord ; when they find that their Afpiring, Ambition 
and Contention, hath been the grand Caufe of Schifms 
and Rebellions, and kept the Church in confufion, and 
brought it to the lamentable ftate in Eaft and Weft 
that it is in. 

Seel. XVI. 8. And conftant Experience will be 
the greateft hinderance : As in our own Age many 
good Men , that had favourable thoughts of Dicce- 
fan$ are quite turned from them, fince they faw Two 
thoufand faithful Minifters filenced by them ; and that 
it is the work of too many of them to caft out liich, 
and fet up fuch as I am not willing to defcribe : 
And fiich Experience After-Ages are like to have , 
which will produce the fame effects. When Expe- 
rience perfuadeth Men , That under the name of 
" Bifhops, they are Troublers , Perfecutors and Deftroy- 
crs, they will account them Wolves, and not agree to 
take them for their Shepherds. 



It will be (aid, That Good Bifiops are not fiich : It's 
true, and that there are Good Ones no fbber Man 
doubteth: But when 1300 years Experience hath 
told Men, That the Good Ones are few, in companion 
ot the Bad Ones, ever fince they had large Dominions 
and Jurifdi6tions : And when Reafon teils Men, That 
the worsts and molt worldly Mm , will be the moll 
diligent Jeekers of Juch Power and Wealth ; and that he 
that jeeketh them^ ts liker to find them^ than he that doth 
not \ and Jo that Bad men are ft ill I'ikefi to be Diocefans : 
And when the divided, fcattered, perfecuted Flocks, 
find that the work of (iich Men, is to filence the moil 
conjcionable Minifters, and to be Thorns and Thirties 
to the People , though they wear Sheeps cloathing , 
Men will-judge of them by their fruits, and the 
Churches will never be united in them. 

Sect. XVII. 9. The greateft Defenders of 

Epitcopacy fay fo much to make Men againft them, as 

will hinder this f *om being an uniting courfe. I will 

inftance now but in Pttavuis, and Doftor Hammond 

who lolloweth him, and Scohts^ who faith, Fr. % Sanffa 

Clara led them the way : Thefe hold, That the Apo flies 

fetled a Bijhop without any Jubjeff fort of Presbyters in 

every City and flngle Congregational Church : And 

Dod:or Hammond ( Annot. in Ait. 1 1 . d 7 " Difkrtat. 

1 adverfits Blcndel ) faith, Tl:at it cannot be proved that 

there were any Jubjeff Presbyters in Scripture-times ; but 

that the vjerd Presbyter every where in Scripture fig?ii- 

ficth a Biflwp ■: And if fo, 

1 . Men will know that the Apoftolical Form was 
for every Congregational Church to have a Biihop of 
its own. 

a. That no Biihop had more fetled Congregations 
than one : For no fiich Congregation could worfbip 
God, and celebrate the Sacrament of Communion , as 
thenthev conftantly did, without a Minifter j And one 



BiHiop could be but in one place at once, and fo with- 
out Curates, could have but one Aflembly. 

g. And Men will be inquifitive, By what Authority 
■Subject Presbyters, and Diocefan Bifhops and Churches 
Were introduced after Scripture-times ? in which they 
will never receive univerfal fatisfa£Hon. If it be fiid 
that the Apoftlcs gave Bifhops Power to make a fub- 
je£t order of Presbyters, and to turn Parifh or Congre- 
gational Churches into Diocefan, and fb to alter the 
iirfl Forms of Government, when they were dead ; this 
will not be received without proofs, which never will 
be given to fatisfie all : Nay, it will feem utterly im- 
probable, and Men will ask, 

i . Why did not the Apoftles do it themfelves, if 
they would have it done ? Was not their Authority 
more unqueftionable than theirs that fhould come af- 
ter ? If it be (aid that there were not qualified Men 
enow , it will, 

i. Be asked, Were there not like to be then greateft 
hoice upon tjie extraordinary pouring out of the 

3. Do we not find in Corinth Co many infpired gift- 
d perfbns in one Aflembly, that Paul was put to limit 
hem in their Prophecying, yet allowing many to do it 
>ne by one? And Atts 1 3. there were many Prophets 
.nd Teachers in Axntioch : And at Jerufalem more, and 

Ephefm , Ails ao. and at Ph'ilippi , Phil. 1. 1, z. 
lere were many Bifhops or Elders; And fuch Deacons 
s Stephen and Philip, &c. would have ferved for El- 
ers, rather than to have none. 

4. Doth not this imply, that after-times that might 
lake fb great a change, may alfb do the like in other 

y. And that Diocefansand fiibjeft Presbyters be but 
umane Inftitutions , and therefore Men may again 
hange them ? 

D d 6. Doth 

6. Doth it not dishonour the Apoftles, to fay that 
they fetled one Form of Government for their own 
Age, which ihould fo quickly be changed by the'r Fol- 
lowers into another Jpecies ? All thefe things,and much 
more, will hinder Univerfal Concord in Diocefans. 

Sett. XIX. Yet I muft add , that there is great 
difference between Diocefans both as to their Govern- 
ment, and their Perfbns, whence fbme Churches may 
comfortably live in Concord under them, though othei 
be divided and afflicted under them. 

i. Some Diocefans have Diocefles fb finall, that Di£ 
eipline is there a poflible thing : Others ( as ours iri 
England) have fbme above a thoufand,fome many hun^ 
dred, or fcore Pariihes, which maketh true Difcipline 

2,. Some Diocefans exercife the Church Keys of Ex- 
communication and Abfblution only themfelves. Others 
delegate them to Presbyters, ( and thereby tell the Peo* 
pie that Presbyters are capable of them. ) Others (which 
is the Cafe with us in England ) do commit them to 
Lay-Chancellors, who Excommunicate and Abfblveby 
Sentence, commanding a Prieft to publifh it. 

3. Some Diocefans may, if they pleafe , allow the 
Pariih-Prieft to be Epifiopus Gregis, and to exercife fc 
much of his true office in his Parifh, as fhall keep up 
fbme tolerable Purity, Order and Difcipline, themfelves 
receiving Appeals^ and being Epijcopi Taftorum. But 
this is rare , I know none fiich : But they leave the 
Parifh-Prieft no power fb much as to fufpend his own 
h£t in adminiftring Baptifm, or the Eucharift, or pro- 
nouncing decreed Excommunications or Abfblutions, 
when it is againft his Knowledge and Conference, no 
though the People profefs that they take him not fos 
their Paftor or Guide at all, or refufe to fpeak with him 
in cafe of Ignorance , fufpcfled Hcrefie or Scan- * 

4. Some 


4. Some Diocefans are learned, good and holy Men, 
and fet themielves to promote Godhncfs,and encourage 
the beft Minifters : filch we have had in Englaftd, ( as 
Grindall, Jewel, Ufier, and many more excellent Men.) 
But others, in jealoufie of their places, power and in- 
tereft, fufpeft and fet themfelves againft painful Preach- 
ers, and ftri£t Men, efpecially if they diilent from them, 
and take them for dangerous Enemies, and penecute 
them , and countenance the ignorant Rabble , to 
ftrengthen themielves againft them : So that particular 
Concord will be promoted by (ome Diocejans, but Uni* 
verfal Concord will never be fo attained by them. 

Seel. X X. There are many Learned Divines 5 who 
think that Forms of Church-Government are mutable, 
and not neceflary to all times and places : and that as 
Prudence may change other Rites, Circumftances and 
Orders, fb it may do this : And fbme Papifts are of this 
mind ; Read Card. Cujanus de Concordia, and Gtrjon de 
Auferibilitate Vapte j And the Italian Bifbops at Tre?-t y 
\vere for the dependance of Bifhops on the Pope,as the 
Maker of their Order, or Giver of their Power. And 
if fb, it is not capable of being neceflary to Catholick 
| Unity, which may it felf be changed. And mod: Pro- 
teftants and Papifts hold, that Men may turn Diocefan 
Bifhops again into Parochial, if they few caufe. And 
[allconfefs, that Man may fet up Bifhops ysjlt*. ttqui^ 
[ in every City, which in the old fenfe was in every great- 
[Town, like our Corporations, or Market-Towns,wh:ch 
[is greatly different from the Roman, or the Englijh, or 
[the French, or the Italian Diocefles. 

Sett. XXI. Yea, there are very Learned Divines, 
[that think no Form of Church-Government is "Jure 
Wivino , or of Divine determinate Inftitution ; fb 
[thought Doctor Edward Reynolds, late Bifhop of Nt r- 
vwich , and Doctor Stilling fleet doth not only think fb 
Ihimfelf, but hath cited great and many Patrons of that 

Dd i opinion^ 

r Vxl 

opinion, and brought a great many of Arguments for 
it in his Iremccn : Be thefe in the right or wrong, no 
Man of this opinion can believe any one Form oP Go- 
vernment necelfary to the Unity of the Church, or fit 
to be the terms of Univerfal Concord. And it is cer- 
tain that feme will ftill be of their opinion ( befides 
thole that account Diocefans unlawful. ) 

C HAP. V I. 

The TJniverfal Church ivill never unite in 
General Councils as their Head^ or as necef- 
Jary to *Onion. 

Sett. I. ^T^ Hoft that are not for the Abfblute So- 
J vereignty of the Bifhop of Rome over 
all the World, do yet many of them think that they 
are very moderate Men, if they hold but the Supe- 
riority of Councils above the Pope , or limit the 
Popes power to the advice and conlent of Councils j 
taking them to be neceffary to Unity : But the con- 
trary is very eafily proved • much more their inef- 

Sect. II. i . It is certain , that the Church had 
Union before there was any General Council : The 
firft at Nice was 310 years at leaft, it not more after 
the Birth of Chriih There is none pretended to be 
before that 5 by any judicious men. They that inftance 
in the Confutation of the Apoftles, Elders and Bre- 
thren at Jerujakm^ A£h 2. may eafily fee reafon to 
ronvince them , ■ that thofe were but the Apoftles, 
Elders and Brethren, that were ordinarily then refident 
at one City and Church : And fuchas pretended not . 
to be Governours of all the Apoftles , Elders and 


Brethren who then were abfent, about the world. 
The Popes and his Cardinals may fay they are a Gene- 
ral Council ; but who will believe them ? Thefe at 
Jerufakm were not lent from all the Churches , but 
one of the Churches fent to them , as fitteft to advife 
them , and as being men mod certainly, and eminent- 
ly infpired by the Holy Ghoft. 

It's true that Chrift and his Apoftles had a Govern- 
ing power over all the Church : And if they will im- 
pofe on us no other fort of General Councils as lb ne- 
cellary, but fiich as have fuch office, power and infal- 
libility, and dwell together in one houfe or place , and 
are not fent from other Churches as their Repreienta- 
tives, and can prove fiich a Power, we lhall fubmit to 
fuch a Council. Vwhius hath faid enough of that 
Novelty, and againft the Governing power of General 
Councils : That which was not eflential to the Church 
510 years, is not fb now. 

Seel. III. 1. If General Councils be the necefla- 
ry means of Union, it is either for their Laws, or their 
Judgment \ and it is either pail Councils^ prejent ones, 
or both. 

1 . If it be the Laws of paji Councils , then one 
Council that can make Laws enough at firft,may ferve 
without any After-Councils : And if it be enough that 
there have been General Councils, why is not the Church 
united by them? Then it is no matter if there never 
be any more. And why may not Ckrifls own Laws 
ferve for Church Union ? 

2. But if it be prefent Councils that are neceflary for 
Laws or Judgment ,l\\tn the Church is now no Church 
without them. 

Seer. IV. 3. There is now no General Council in 
the world, and yet the Church hath efiential Union. 
Nay, as it is long iince there was one ( In their own 
account) fo we know not whether ever there will be 


D d 2 more 

more : the Intereft of the Pope being againft 

SeB. V. 4. The great di(agreement that is about 
Councils in the Chriftian World , proveth that they 
can never be the terms of Univerfal Agreement. 

1 . It is not agreed who muft call them. 

x. Nor out ot what Chriftian Countries they muft 
come i whether all, or but feme; and which ; the Papifts 
laying that three parts of Chriftians may be abfent, or 
have no right to fend,being Hereticka or Schifinaticks ; 
and others think Vafijis to be Hereticks, Schifinaticks, 
and Antichriftian. 

3. Nor what Number are neceflary to make a 

4. Nor in what Countrey they muft meet. 

5. Nor what their work is. 

6. Nor what Power they have. 

7. Nor how far they are to be believed. 

8. Nor which a,re to be taken for approved Coun-s . 
cils,and which not. 

9. Nor what to do if they contradiit each other, 
or the Pope, or the Scriptures. 

1 o. Nor whether any more Councils be neceflary, 
than what are p^ft already. But the Pafifis themfelves 
hold. That they are not the ftated Head, or Govern- 
ing Power of the Church, ( elfe there were now no 
Church, becaufe there is no General Council ; ) but 
as a Confii! ration of Phyficians in extraordinary Cafes 
of the Churches maladies. 

Seel. VI. 5-. It is certain, That the Univerfal 
Church was never united in their fubjeciion to Coun- 
cils, yea, that even at the greateft Councils called Gene* 
ral,at Nice^ Constantinople^ Epbefus and Chalcedony and 
the reft, there were not Delegates from all the Churches 
without the Empire ; nor did they all fubjeft them- 
iclves unto them; yea, it is certain, That there never 


was an Umverfal Council of the Church through- 
cut the World: but that they were onely called General, 
as to one Empire, and (b were but as National Councils ; 
This I have elfewhere proved at large, in my Anfwer 
and Reply to Johnjon for the Churches Vifibility. 

I. By the names that did lubfcribe the Councils : 
One Jokan: Trefidis at Nice, is an Exception there eaii- 
]y anfwered. 

a. Becaufe the Roman Emperor called them ( what- 
ever Papifts (ay againft it to the Ignorant ) who had 
no power but of the Empire. 

3. Becaufe no Summons wasfent to any ( much left 
to all ) out of the Empire , as Hiftory acquainteth 

4- They were all under the five Patriarchs, and the 
Metropolitanes of the Empire : The Abajjincs fiib- 
je£tion to Alexandria, was (ince die revolt of Diofco- 

5. We read of no Execution of their Canons out of 
the Empire, by either calling out Bilhops, or putting 
them in. 

6. Theodoret giveth it as the reafon , why James 
Biihop of Nijibis was at the Council of Nice, becaufe 
Nijibis then obeyed the Roman Emperor, and not the 
Terjian, Hi ft. Sanct. Tat. cap. 1 . 

7. The Emperors oft decided their differences, and 
let Civil Judges among them, to keep order and deter- 
mine, and corrected them, and received Appeals , and 
cognifance of their proceedings ; All which,and more, 
prove evidently , that they were but Univerial as to 
that one Empire, ( nay rarely, or never fb much^) and 
not as to the world. 

Seft. VII. It is probable , if not certain , that 
there never will be an Univerlal Council \ unlefs (which 
God forbid ) the Chriitian Society fhould be reduced 
to a ftnall and narrow compafi, when we ai;e hoping 
its increafe : For, D d 4 1. The 


i . The differences who (hall call them , and the : 
reft before named, are never like to be agreed. 

i. Turks, Heathen and Nations in War againft 
other, or hating Chriftians, will never all content and 
fuffer it. 

3. The jealoufie that Chriftian Princes have of Pa- 
pal Tyranny, will never let them agree, to fend their 
Subjects to it : The Cafe of the Abajjines, Greeks, Ar- 
menians, Mofcovites, trotefiants, &c. .proveth this. 

4. The diftance is fo vaft, that the EaH and Weft 
Indians, and Ethiopians, cannot come fo far to anfwer 
the Ends of a General Council. 

5. Should they attempt it, their Number muft be Co 
unproportionable to the nearer parts, that it would be 
no true General Council , to fignifie by Votes the 
Churches fenfe. 

6. They could not all meet and confiilt in one room, 
if they were truly Univerfal. 

7. They could not all underftand each other, 
through diverfity of Language. 

8. Their prefent difference, and old experience,aflu- 
reth us, that they would fall altogether by the ears, and 
increafe the Schifm. 

9. They would not live to get home again fb far, to 
bring and profecute the Concord. 

1 o. The People and Priefts at home would not 
agree to receive them. 

Seel. VIII. Yea, it is certain, that it would be a 
mod heinous fin to call a true Univerfal Council, worfe 
than an hundred Murders. For, 

1 . If young Men came in no juft proportion , it 
would but mock the world, and prepare for Herefie, or 
Tyranny. If experienced aged Men came from 
America, Ethiopia, Armenia, &c. and the Antipodes,the 
.Voyage and Labour would murder them. 

z. Their Lofles would be unfpeakable to their 
Churches. 3: Yea, 


g. Yea, their ab fence (6 many years, would be to 
their Churches an unfufferable lols. 
* 4. The benefits were not like to countervail the lols: 
( if they did not hurt by differences, or error, or ty- 
ranny, it will be a wonder. ) 

Seel. I X. The fad Hiftory of Councils too fully 
proveth, that they have been lb far from being the 
caules of Concord , and Preventers or Healers of 
Schilms, that they have been one of the mod: notori- 
ous caules of divifion and diftra£Hon. Having proved 
this in a peculiar Treatile,(^4 Bre<viate of the Hiftory of 
Bifhops and Councils, ) Iraufl: not here repeat it. The 
Council of Nice did beft : But as Conftantine was fain 
to keep Peace among the Bifhops in perfbn, and burnt 
their numerous Libels againft each other, fo wife men 
[think he might another way have better (upprefled 
\Arianifm, and prevented the many contrary and divi- 
tded Councils, which this one did by one word occa- 
fion, and have prevented the Perfecutions which Va- 
yens and Conftanthts exerciled : And had the time of 
\Eafter been left at liberty ,perhaps it had as much made 
[for Peace. 

What the firft Council at Conftantinople did , the 
lad Cafe, and ladder defcription of Gregory Nazianz,ene 
tell us, whole character of the Birhops ( not Arians as 
ibme talk ) fhould not be read without tears by any, 
I whence he learned the danger of Councils,and relblved 
never to come to more. 

What all the Baftard Councils did at Ariminum, 
Sirimum, Alexandria, Milan, 6cc. I need not telL 

And what'Schilm and Blood (hed was occafioned by 
the firft and fecond Council at Epbefus:yc2L^hzt ftreams 
of Blood, Delblation, Schilm, and many Ages deplo- 
rable enmity and confufion were cauled by the Coun- 
cil of Calcedon , I need tell no one that hath read 



Church Hiftory. It is true indeed, that the Nefiorians 
and Eutychians were condemned In thefe, and the Mo* 
nothelites in many following : But whether mutual un- 
derftanding might not have made a better end. 1 ap* 
peal to a Thouiand years experience, and to the nature 
of the Herefies there condemned , which feem to be 
much formed in and by ambiguous words , which a 
good Explication might have better healed, than Ana- 
thema's and Bloodlhed. Of this I fpake before ( and 
often.) The Nefiorians faid,that Mary was not to be cal- 
led the Mother of God, but of Chrift. The Ortho- 
dox laid the contrary : when the Or- 
Ofthis more thedox never meant that fhe begat the 

before. Godhead^ and the Nefiorians never de- 

nied that fhe begate him that is Cod. 
Where then is the difference but in words, one fpeaking 
of the Abfirati ( Deity ) which the other never 

The Nefiorians were charged withholding two Ver~ 
fens in Chrift , inftead of two Natures : which yet 
Ncfiorim plainly denieth, but Cyril charged it on him 
by confequence, becaufe he refufed the name Stor'oKOf 
on the foresaid account ; thinking that denomination 
a rat tone formal'^ is mod apt. And it feems one took 
Nature in the femefenie, as others took Terfon^ meaning 
the (ame thing. 

The Eutychians aflerted one Nature only, but they 
meant that Chrift had but one Nature , as undivided, 
( which the Orthodox granted ) but denied not that 
the Godhead and Manhood were difiinB. And what 
was the difference theri,but whether the undivided God- 
head and Manhood fhould be called one Nature^ or two ; 
which truly in one fenfe was two, and in another one. 
The like was the Mcmihdites Herefie ( for and againft 
which were many Councils) about one or two Wills 


[?9] ^ 

ind Operations, no more difagreeing than as aforefaid, 
ibout the fenie ot [ One ] and i Two. ] And had 
jiot a wife Explication, and patient Reconciliation, done 

4 >etter (ervice, than Curfing did, whofe doleful eftedb 
Hatred, Hereticating and Schifm ) continue to this 
Should I come to the Councils about Images,and that 
Co?ifiantine , that decreed the Tribas Captulis , and 1 
he multitudes fince that have depofed Emperors and 
iings, railed Wars, fet up Popes, and Anti-Popes, &c. 
Vlas how fad a Hiftory would it be,to convince us that 

R Councils of Bifhops have caufed moft of the Schifins, 
Church-Tyranny , Rebellions and Confufions in the 
3hriftian world. And if the Popes have been reftrain- 
d, or depofed, or Schifms at Rome partly ftopt 
>y any, the flame hath quickly more broke out • and 
ondemned Popes have oft got the better of them: And 
f one Council hath faid, That the Pope is refponfible, 
pother hath determined the contrary : If Bafd and 
?ovfiance decreed, That a Council be called every tea 
'ears, it was not done,but was a mockery in the event, 
n a word, Councils of Bifhops have been but Church- 
Wmies, of which at hrft the Patriarchs were General^ 
ad afterwards Popes and Emperors, and came to fight 
t out for Vi£tory, the fequel being ufually Schifm and 
Calamity. And muft this be the only way of Univer- 
al Peace ? 




The 7Jniverfal Church voiV never unite in maw 
pretended Articles of Faith, not proved t 
he Divine : nor in owning unnecejfary doubt 
Jul Opinions or Practices as Religious, 
Worfhip of God \ notwithftqnding the pretenf \\ 
of Tradition. 


Se&. I. T Need fey no more for proof of this than i 
I feid in die firffc Part. If Preachers fey thai 
this or that is an Article of Faith ; If Popes fey it 
Councils fey it, this faying will never unite all Chri 
ftians in the belief of it. It is no belief of God whofi 
object h not revealed by God, and perceived Co 
be, and received as fuch. That the fecred Scripture 
are written by Divine Infpiration, Chriftians are com 
monly agreed : But that Popes, Prelates or Council 
(peak by Divine Infpiration, even when they expounc 
the Scriptures, all Chriftians neither are agreed, noi 6 
ever will be ; And till a man perceiveth that it is God 
that fpeaketh, or that the word fpoken is Gods Word, 
he cannot believe it with a Divine Faith, which ii 
nothing but believing it to be Gods Word, and truft- 
ing it accordingly. God is true, but men are LyersJl' 
Rom. 3. 

Sett. II. Before we can receive any thing as Truth 
from Man, we muft have evidence that it is true in- 
deed : And that muft be, 1 . Either from the nature 
of the thing, and its caufes ; 1. Or from fbme tefti- 
mony of God either concomitant (as Miracles 
were ) or fiibfequent, (in the Effects; ) 3. Or from 
our knowledge of the Veracity , Authority , Infpi- 
ration and Infallibility of the Inftrument or Speaker. 


If therefore any Church or company of men (hall tell 
us, that this is a Divine Truth or Article of Faith, 
no more of the World can be expected to believe 
them, than are convinced of it by one of thefe three 
proofs: The firft is th< cue of natural Revelation, and 
not now queftioned : The Second none but the Church 
of Rome do plead for their own belief, v;z. that they 
work Muscles, and therefore are to be believed in 
whatever they affirm to be the Word of God. Knot 
againft CbiBmgvmtb, and others of then*do ultimately 
refblve their Faith, or their proof of the truth of their 
Religion into the Miracles wrought in the Church 
pf Rome, by which God teftifieth his approbation of 
their Afiert ons : Other Chriiiians that may have 
fcnore miracles than Papifts, yet refolve not their proof 
of Chriftianity into them, but lay more ftrels on other 
|£vi< ence, and particularly on Chrifts and his Mini- 
(ters min ( a tefting the holy Scriptures and Gofpel 
:o be of Gcd. And when we can find juft proof of the 
Papifts Miracles, we fhall be willing to ftudy the 
picaning of them: But hitherto we have not found 
fecli proof. If any Council in Rcme, France, Ger- 
many or England ihall fay, TJsefe are Divine revealed 
Truth, and as fitch, you mufi believe, fubfcribe or [wear 
to them, the world will never agree in believing them, 
when no fbber man is bound to believe them, but as 
humane, uncertain and fallible witnefles, according to 
the meafiire of their Credibility. 

Sect, III. Long experience fully proveth this : No 
Age of the Church did ever agree in Articles of meer 
humane Aftertion \ (for that had been but a humane 
aith.j That which the Council of Nice faid, was 
denyed by the Councils at Strmium, Ariminum, &c. 
That which the Council at Epke r us the firft, and at 
Chalcedcn affirmed, they at the Council of Epkefus the 
fecond denyed ; That which the Monctholites under 

[ * j ] 

Thilipficus (innumerable Biihops faith Binim) affirmed 
many other Councils condemned: That which tb 
Council at Nice the fecond decreed for Images, wa 
condemned by many other Councils: That whicl 
the Councils at Fifa, Confiance and Bafil decreed tc 
be Articles of Faith, the Council at Florence and other, 
abhorre. Much lefs will a Provincial Synod, or a Con 
vocation, or a Parliament be taken by all the Chrifti 
an world to be infallible. 

SeB. IV. And indeed the obtruding of Falfhood^ 
or Uncertainties on the Churches, is a notorious caule 
of Schilm : For what can you expeft that men of 
Sobriety and Confcience lhould do in fuch a cafe? 
Dilcern the certainty of the thing they cannot ; not 
can. they believe that all muft needs be true, that is 
laid by a Synod,a Convocation or a Parliament : And 
they dare not lie, in laying they believe that which 
they do not : And to take all for Schilmaticks that 
dare not deliberately lie, or that let not up fallible 
men as Lords of their Conference inftead of God, is 
Schilmatical, unchriftian and inhumane. 

And as mens mere wills ought not to rule their 
underftandings, nor the will of Synods, of Bifhops, 
or others, to be the rule and mealure of our wills, la 
though we were never fo willing to believe all to 
be true that Councils of Biihops or Princes lay, yet 
are not our underftandings in the pmver of our wills. 
We cannot believe what we lift. To know or believe 
without evidence of truth, is to lee without light. 
Falfe Hypocrites may force their tongues to lay that 
they believe this or that at the Command of man ; 
but they cannot force themlelves indeed to believe it. 
How then can a 'book of Articles or the Decrees of 
Council, or the Laws of a Prince, bring the WorL 
to any unity of Belief, in things not evidently 
'.rod ? 


ScB. V. What I fay of Divine Faith, I fay of 
Toints of Relignvs Traftice : For though all tilings bi- 
lieved be not to be dene, yet all things to be dcm 
commanded by God, mult tirft be believed to be com- 
manded by him : And to believe and do , is fbmtv 
more than only to believe. 

Sett. V I. But it's one thing to fay, Tim is Gods 
Command ; and another to fay, This is our Command- 
*I he firft none will agree to, that lee not evidence to 
believe it. The fecond is, i . Either according to Gods 
Command ( to drive Men to obey it. ) z. Or be fide his 
Command. 3. Or againlt his Command. 

1. Thofe Laws of Men which are according to 
Gods Laws , thofe only will obey who difcern them 
fo to be, on that account : Therefore it muft be in evi- 
dent Cafes, or they will be no mealiire of Concord a* 

a. Thofe that are but be fides Gods Laws , Men 
fhould obey, fb far as they can find that the Comman- 
ders have power from God to make them ; And how 
few fuch will be matter of Univerfal Concord ? 

3. Thofe that are againH Gods Laws^ no good 
Chriftians will knowingly confent to. 

Seel. VII. And I have before truly told them ? 
what great diverfity of capacities and under {landings 
there be in the world, fo that even in common matters 
that are ftill before our eyes, at leaft in many or moll, 
few perfbns long agree : In matters of Fa£t at any 
dlftance, or matters of Prudence , Husband and Wife, 
Tarents and Children, Matter and Servants,daily differ : 
Mens faces fearce differ more than their underftand- 
ings : It is only in few, plain, eafie things, that all Men 
are agreed : And are ever all Chriftians like to agree- 
in many humane, dark opinions? Or will it be taken 
for certain to all Men, becaufe it Is fb to fome of clearer 
underftandings? or becaufe a felf-confident Impofer ve- 


vehemently aflerteth it ? They know not themfelvei,' 
they know no Man, that prefume to unite the Church 
this way. 

Sett. V 1 1 L Therefore the Popiflh numerous De- 
crees de Fide, are but fo many Engines of Schifm made 
on the pretence of declaring Points of Faith. If they 
were Articles of Faith before, they may be mantfeft to 
be io in the Divine Revelation, that is, the Holy Scri- 
ptures : But for the Council to tell a Man, £ This or 
That is in the Bible, but we cannot jhew you it there, nor 
can you find it if you fearch, hut you must take our 
words as infallible: ~] This is not a center that the 
Chriftian world will ever unite in. 

And if it be an Article of Faith, either the Church 
held it before the Council declared it, or not : If they 
did 5 thei, ,: was known without a Councils Declaration. 
And what need a Council to declare that which all the 
Church did hold before, and was in pollefiion of ? But 
ir not, then either it was an Article of Faith before^or 
not. If it was, then the Church before held not that . 
Faith, and fo was Heretical, Corrupt, or wanted Faich , 
and fo by their own reckoning ( who will not endure 
the diftinction of etlentials from the reft ) was no H 
Church. If not, then the Council declared that to be & 
an Article of Faith, which was none : It muft be fuch 9 tt 
before it can be truly declared fiich, elfe a falfe Decla 
ration that it was juch, did now make it fuch : But if 
they had openly proi:ef]ed,That by Declaring it an Ar- \ 
tide, they meant the Making one, they muit prove, 

i . That they are Prophets, and have new Revelati- . ft 
ons even of Faith. k 

2. And that the Scriptures were not {ufficient mea- la 
fares of the Churches Faith to the end of the : 

3. And that the Churches Faith is alterable and 
crefcent, and the old Church had not the lame Faith 

- which- < 

which the prelent Church hath. And will the Chri- 
ftian world any more agree in fuch abiurditics, than in 
a Quakers or Families profefling, that he (peakcth by 
Infpiration ? If the Members of the Council before 
they came thither, were no wifer nor honefter than 
other Men, nor their words more credible, how (hall 
we know that when they are there, they are become 
inlpircd, and their words are Gods own words ? 

But it it be (aid, That they ?ieither make new Ar- 
ticles of Faiths nor declare what is in Scripture by Expc- 
(ttionj but declare the Verbal Tradition of the Apofiles • I 

i . If fo big a Book as the Bible , contain not (b 
much as all the Churches Creed ; 

a. Where hath this Traditional Faith been kept till 
now ? If by all the Church, then it was held,pofle(k A 
md known before that Declaration : If but by part or 
:he Church, then it was but part of the Church th< t 
lad the true Faith, and one part was of one Religion, 
nd another part of another. 
And which part was it that kept this Tradition ? 
d how come we to know that they were rig! 
tan the reft, that had it not ? If it was Rome or 
en they had a Faith different from the reft of 
[Churches ; And how (hall we know that they are 
true and (bund as Rome ? 

But how hath this Tradition been carried on , ; 

ept right ? Was it by Writing, or by Word? If 

Writings , why are they not cited, feen and try 

>ther men can read as well as Popes and Councils ; 

iwritten, was it by publick Preaching , or prr 

alk ? If the former , then it was commonly kno 

id declared, before the Council declared it. It 

ivate Talk, how ftiall we be (ure, 

i. That they wrre honeft men that would 

E e private 

private the Publick Faith, especially being Preachers 
that by- office were to publifh it. 

a. And that it hath been well remembred and carried 
on without alteration. And were it preached or whim- 
pered, mans memory is fo frail, and words fb uncertain, 
that for the Church, or a piece of the Church to carry 
down from the Apoftles from Fathers to Children fo 
many Articles, ( mere than are in all the Bible) and 
fo hard and myfterious, and by many now controvert- 
ed, and this not by writing, and to be (lire that no 
miftake hath been made by oblivion, or mifexprefsion,. 
this is a thing that the Church will never unite in the* 
belief of. 

And Ava$ it in a fet form of unchangeable 7vcrds,thzt 
all thefe Articles ( or Expofitions ) were carried down 
till now, or not? If yea,we fhould have had that Form 
delivered us, as we have other Forms ( the Creed, Lords 
Trayer, &c ) If not, how (hall we know that the Fa- 
thers and Children had the fame underftanding of the 
matter, and changed not the Faith by change of words? ^ 
And it's like that all the Churches, fince the Apoftlesy 
delivered not theft Articles down in the fame words^ 
when in (everal Countries and Ages they f pake not the ^ 
feme language. And it is a wonder that they woulc 
never write their Faith, for their Children to learn 
when the Jews^ Deut. 6. and 1 1 . were commanded t< 
teach their Chi !dren,by writing the Law upon the very 
Pofts of their Hoafes, and their Gates: And it is is 
greater wonder , that Parents and Children fh ould 
through (b many Generations and Countries have ft 
unerring fare a memory. 

And it is ftrangehow their own Commentators come 
to differ about the (enfe of Thoufands of Texts ol 
Scripture, if the Churches Tradition have publickly 
and notorioufly delivered down the meaning of them 


If not , how Councils come to be the infallible 
Commentators, and Declarers of the Senfe of Scri : 

But if really foch men believe themfelves^ : t will be 
long before ether by fraud or force, they can make all 
others believe iiich things. 

Sett. I X. Gods wlfdom appointed a few great and 
neceflary things to be the terms of the Churches t 
and Love ; but Ignorance and Pride, by pretences of 
Enmity to Error and Herefic, have plagued and torn 
the Churches by Decrees and Canons, and led us into 
a Labyrinth, fb that men know not where they a *c,nor 
what to hold, nor what the Chrifti an Religion is, nor 
who are Orthodox, and who are not , fo great a work 
it is to underftand fuch Voluminous Councils, and then 
to be fare that they are all right, even when they con- 
demn and damn each other. That which hath been 
:he chief Cauie and Engine of Divifion, will never be- 
:ome the means or terms of the Unity or Concord of 
ill the Churches: But fuch are the multitude of un- 
ieceflary,uncertain humane Decrees, Laws and Canons 
)f Faith and Religion, whatever the proud and igno* 
fant fay to the contrary. 

Eei C H A Vi 



The Vniverjil Church will never Unite, by 
. receiving all that ts . now recen ed Ly 
Greeks, Latines, Armenians, Aballincs, 
Lutherans, Calvinifis, Diocefane, Presby- 
terians, Independants, Eraiiians, Anabap- 
tifts , or tn full Conformity to any of the 
frepnt ^Parties, which addeth to the Tri- 
mnzve Simplicity in her terms oj Commu- 
nion orJConcord. 

SeB.l. T Muft expert that the Evil Spirit which hath 
X long torn the Church , and made multi- 
tudes tear thcmfelves, and foam out Reproach, yea, and 
Blood againft each other, will prefently meet the very 
Title of this Chapter, with a charge of Pride againii 
the Writer, and fay, What are you,that you flwuld know 
more than all the Churches in the World ? And frejume 
to charge them all with fo great Error, as not to know 
the terms of Chriflian Concord, nor the way of UniverA 
fal Peace? 

But I anfwer, i. Is the Church now United in any 
of thele terms or ways ? Are they all Vapfls ? Are 
they all of the Greek Church, or Armenian, Abajjine, 
&c ? Are they all Lutherans, or Calvinifis, &c ? If not, 
why fhould you conclude that ever they will be? Or', 
that any of thele are congruous terms of Concord, 
and that the lame that doth not heal, will heal them I 
Will not Chriftians be the lame as now ? 

SeB. 1 1. They never were United on any of thefe 
terms. I have proved that they were never zllPapifts. 




And it will be cafily granted of the reft ( that they 
were sever ail Greeks , Li &c ) And that 

which never did unite the Church, ne^er will 

h III* If you think ail muft be united in any 
of thefe wayes, which of them is it ? And why that, 
rather thun any of the reft ? 

i . Moil: they all be of the Greek opinions? You ft e 
that the Japifts condemn them for Schijmaticks : And 
other Churches lament their manifold Corruptions : 
And the Eaflern Countries long lince divided from 
them. We have here in London a Greek Church new 
built, and Tolerated ; and their work is done fo igno- 
rantly and unreverently, that they have ufiially not 
twice the number of the officiating or present Priefts 
who join with them. 

2. Muft they all be Papifts ? Never was more Poli- 
cy and Cruelty ufed to propagate and prop up any 
Church under Heaven ; and yet they cannot prevail 
for Univerfai Subjection. Nay, many Kingdoms and 
Countries are fallen from them, while they ufed luch 
means to keep them , infbmuch that by many of the 
founded Churches, they are taken for no better than 
Antichriftian Hereticks. And even the Greek Church 
feparateth from them, and pronounceth them Schifma- 
ticks^nd Excommunicates them every year ; And they 
can never obliterate theHiftory of their horrid Sch'fms 
and Ufurpations,and inhumane Butcheries, which will a- 
lieriate many from them. Will all the world ever agree 
to the Dominion of one Ufurper ? Will they all believe 
the Monfter of Tranfubftantiation ? Will they all 
agree, That all the Senfes of all men are deceived, who 
think that they fee and tafte Bread and Wine,and there 
is none ? And that it is neceffary to Salvation , to re- 
nounce all our Senfes, and the Scripture, that oft: calls 
it Bread after the Confecration, i Cor. 1 1. Will all 
agree, That God, who cannot lie by Supernatural 

E e 3 Reve- 

Revelation, is the Father of all the lies to Senfe, that 
perceive real Bread and Wine, and deceiveth them all 
by his Natural Revelation ? Will all men believe,That 
every lying, fornicating, proud and covetous Prieft, 
even many Thoufands of them, can work Miracles at 
their plealures every day in the week , by making 
Bread no Bread, and turning it into Flefli and God. 
And that there are vifible Accidents .without a Subjedt,. 
even, a round nothing, a white nothing, a fweet no-, j 
thing, &c. And that there are no Jubflantial Jigns ' 
in that Sacrament of the thing Jignified? And that . ] 
ChrilTs true Fiefh was broken, and his Blood flied by 
himfelf in the Sacrament, before it was broken and 
flied on the- Croh? And that two General Councils, 
who decree as de F;Ve,that Chrift hath not now Flejh 
in Heaven, hath yet heavenly Flefh in the Sacrament. 
I know that Auguftine retraced (bmewhat as an over- 
fight that looked that way : But two General Coun- I 
ciis (th&t at Conftannncple, called the 7 th General by ' 
feme, 2nd that at Nice ^d ) which damned one an- 
other about Images, yet agreed in xkm^that Chrift hath 
not Flejl) in Heaven. 

The words are, ( Bin. p. 378. defin. 7. ) [Siquis 
urn confefkts fmrit Dcminum ncftrum Jefum Chrift urn 
feft Affumpionem animate rationale & intellectuals 
carnis Jimul Jedere cum Deo & Tatre, atque ita quoque 
rurfm venturum cum Pat em* Majeftatejudicaturum vk 
e vos"&mortuosi ncn amplim quidem Carnem, neque in* 

aim tamen^ ut vide at my ah its a quibits conpunBzts 
cjr, & maneat Bevs extra crajjitudlnem Carnis , Ana- 


id in this they £y, that the Ccnjlantin. Council 

which they are condemning, was in the right; fo that 

itize the Church of Rome, which think 

th Fltjh in Heaven, and in the Eucharift, 

deiifi yet faying that he hath a Body. And 

let . 

let thofe that would pervert the word [ Crajjhudinem 2 
note, that he doth not diftinguifh of Chrifts flefo and 
curs as two forts, and fay, extra carnem Crajjam, but, 
deny him to have^j/;,and fay, extra craffitudmem carnis^ 
as an eifential property ot fleih : And one of thefe 
Councils the Papifts own. 

Will ail Chriftians agree that every Prieft mud firft 
make his God, and then eat him ? or that he muft 
communicate alone without communion with the 
People ? or that he muft worfhip Bread and Wine as 
his God ? or that he may give a half-Sacrament of 
Bread without Wine, contrary to Chrifts Inftitution, 
the Apofties Do£h*inc, i Cor. 1 1 . and all the Churches 
conftant practice till of late. And that inftead of a 
Commemoration he -oftereth a real prefent Sacrifice 
for the quick and dead ? Will all agree to their Image- 
worfhip ? Why then did (b many Councils condemn 
it ? Will all agree that the Ailemblies pray in an 
unknown tongue ? He is mad with errour who be- 
lieveth that ever the Church Univerfal will receive 
all thefe and the reft, which pretended Infallibility 
maketh to be uncurable Errours in the impenitent 
Roman Sect. 

3. And briefly as to the reft, there is no Calvi- 
nifi believeth that ever all the Churches will receive 
the Luther ane Confubftantiation or Church-Images ? 
Nor any Lutherane that believeth. that ever all the 
Church will be of the way called Calvinifm , a Name 
even here in England honoured by many (that yet 
difbwn it as a note of SchifinJ and reproached with 
the bittereft (corn and accufations by others. 

Indeed the Behrnemfis^ the Quakers and fbme Ana- 
baptifts have faid, that all the Churches would at 
laft (and fhortly) be of their mind ; But few others 
believe them, nor have caufe. 

Seff. IV. That which hath divided the Churches 
Ee 4 will 

will never be the cement of their Concord : But eve^ 
ry one of thefe parties as Se£ts, by that- whence others 
denominate and oppofe them, have done fomething 
to divide the Churches : what the Greeks, Armenia 
ans 9 Neftorians, Eutychians or 'Jacobites have 'done, the 
Papifts and others tell you at 4 large : whatthe Abajjines 
do, by their Baptizings, and other Fopperies, I need 
not declare. What the Papifts do above all others, 
I have opened before. What the ~ Anabaptifts do, by 
differing from almoft all other Chriftians, is known. 
What the Diocefans have done in Councils, and by 
filencing others, &c. enow have fhewed. What In- 
dependents and their way have done towards Divi- 
fions and Separations, it is in vain in this Age in 
England -to "recite : And many wife men think, that 
the Presbyterians over violent reje&ing of all Epifco- 
pacy, fett'ng up unortiained Elders, and National 
Churches as headed by National Affemblies, &c. are 
divifive and unwarrantable ; As the lame men think 
their n^' <~g by the Scots Covenant ^ttte renouncing 
of the Preiacy to be the teft of National Concord, 
alfo was. 

And who can think that Eraftianiim, depofing the 
true ufe of Church-Government, as it hath begun, 
will not ftill more divide than heal ? 

Secf.V.' I deny not but Univerfal Concord may 
take m almoft ail fucb parties: but not as [itch, by 
receiving any of their Errours, but as Ckriftians, who 
agree in the common J TLjjmtials of Faith and Piety. 
We can unite v/ith fiber Ahabapifis, but not by be- 
coming Anabapifts. Christianity is our Religion, and 
with all that hold the Eflenti'als of Christianity, we 
can hold eflential Unity : And with thofe that hold 
the Integrals moft purely, we have more and neerer 
Concord than with the reft, that have more errours : 
And if any of thefe parties be founder than the reft, 


[73 J 
we love and honour them above the reft, and pre- 
ferre their Ahar.blies for our local Communion. But 
though my Parlour or Bed-chamber be a cleaner part 
of til) chin, or my Cole-houle, I 

will not idv therefore that the whole houfe muft be 
a Parlour or Bed-chamber ; or that the hand and the 
foot are no parts of the body becaufe they are not 
the head or heart ; or that all the body muft be an 
Eye or one of die Nobleit parts : St. Paul hath taught 
rp£ better than lb, i Cor. 1 2 : We muft expe£l that 
each party fhould labour to propagate that which 
they take to be the truth : But to force all to their 
layings, or perfecute or caft off all Diflenters, is fchiP 
matical, whatever be pretended. 


77je pretended Necejfity of an uninterrupted 
Canonical or Fpifcopal Ordination will ne- 
ver unite the Church, hut is Schifmatical : 
Mr. Henry Dodwells Schifmatical Treatife 
a^fiinfl Schifm confide red and confuted. 

§ I,T) Ecaufe the City of Rome hath not been 
Xj conquered and kept by Infidels, nor Chri- 
ftianity thence ejected, the Pap'fts think that they ex- 
cell other Churches in an uninterrupted Succefsion of 
ordained Paftors ; and therefore they bend their wits 
*to prove this neceftary to every true Church, and then 
to prove others to be no true Churches or Minifters 
of Chrift that want it. 

And becaufe they think that our Paftors can prove 

1£o luch continued Succefsion, unlets as derived to us 

from Rome, and that to acknowledge fuch a deriva- 
tion, Is to acknowledge them a true Church, on which 
we have and muft depend, therefore they moft ear- 
neftly manage this Argument againft us as their 

Sea. II. And there is lately a young unordained 
Student of Trinhj-CcU'-dge neer Dublin, come out of 
Ireland, to propagate this and. fuch like Doctrines in 
London , to which e&d he hath lately written a large 
and wordy Voiunx', as if it were only againft the 
Non-conibrmifls : Y\ hich being new, and the molt 
audacious and confident . attempt that ever I knew, 
made againft the reformed Churches, by one that 
faith himielf he is no Papift, and being the moft ' 
elaborate enforcement of the Papifts grand Argu-, 
ment on which of late they build their caufe, I think 
it needfiil to the Readers fatisfaction not to pals it 
by, though it will not ftand with, the order of this 
undertaken work, nor with my want of leifiire, to 
write a particular Anlwer to all the words of lb ex- 
ceeding proli>rand tedious a difcourfe. 

Sett. III. I have oft handled this cafe already, efpe- 
cially in my THfput. of Church-Government, Dijp. of 
Qrdmaticii , and in my Ecclefiaftical Cafes in my Chri- 
fiian Directory., and that more largely than I muft 
here doe : And the Reader that would fee more, may 
read the Proteftants Caufe fully vindicated againft 
Cornelius fmfenius ( a ftronger adversary ) by Gisk 
Vacuus in a mil Volume de dc, per at a cauja Papatus* 
But I (hall here firft briefly aikrt die Truth. 

Sect. IV. i. Ghriftand his Spirit in his Apoftles 
have already inftituted and defcribed the Office of the 
(acred Miniftry$ and determined what Power and 
what Obligations to the work it doth contain ; and 
what the work is to which they are defigned : (b 
that it is not left to any Church now to make or 

. amend, 

amend, or change the Office : what it is I have defcri- 
bed in the Second Fart. 

SeB. V. 2. Chi ift alfo, and his Spirit in his Apo- 
ftlcs, have told us what are the neceflary qualifications 
of fiich as ihall receive this Office, and be received into 
it : kriz* what is neceflary to the Being, and what to 
the Well-being of a Minifter of Chrift. And confe- 
quently who are utterly uncapable ; fo that Men may 
by Canons enforce the Execution of thefe Canons of 
Chrift, and may inftruft each other how to underftand 
them ; but they cannot make a Paftor of an uncapable 
unqualified perfbn, no more than they can make currant 
Coin of forbidden Mettal, or Meat of Stones , or a 
Wife ot a Male , Forma non recipitur nifi in materia 
dijpofita : As he that muft profefs Phyfick, or Philofb- 
phy, or Law, or Grammar, or Mufick, muft be tole- 
rably qualified to do what he profeffeth, or elfe he is 
but equivocally called a Phyfician,Philofopher,Lawyer, 
Mufician, &c. whatever Title, Licence, or Commit 
fion he hath : fb is it here. 

SeB. VI. 3. God hath told us in Scripture, that 
thefe fpecial qualifications are Chrifts own Gifts, con- 
ferred on Men for the work of the Miniftery, Ephef. 
4. 8,9, io,d^« 1 Cor. iz. And that the qualifying 
Men thus, is Gods calling them to the Office, and the 
Holy Ghoft is laid to fet them over the Church by his 
fpecial Gifts. 

SeB. VII. 4. But for preferving Order , and 
avoiding llfurpation, God hath defcribed how thefe 
Qualifications ihall be decerned and judged of, which 
is called the External Call ; which is, 

1. That the Perlbn (hall difeern them in himfelf, 
viz,, competent Faith and Knowledge , Willingnefs 
and Defire, and Ability for utterance and practice : For 
he that thinketh not himfelf capable, cannot confent • 
and he that confenteth not, is no Minifter. But no ' 


Man is to be the fole Judge of his own fitnefs'; elfe 
the moft felf-conceited would be the Invaders of the 

a. Therefore the Senior Faftors are ordinarily to try 
them, and judge of their fitnefs, and by Ordination 'in- 
vert them,by delivery, with the. power. 

3. The Peoples need of them, muft make them ca- 
pable of the Correlation, and their ccnfent is neceilary 
to their Reception : For no Man can be a Teacher tor 
thofe that will not hear, nor aPaftor to thofe that con- 
tent not to take him for their Paftor. 

SeB. VIII. y. The Ferjon recipient being truly 
found and determined of, Gods own Law doth of it 
felf give hirp his Pm>er,md Oblige him to his work. 
As it is not left to the Ordainers, to judge whether the 
Churches Jhall have Faftors or none-, or what the 
and Works of the office jhall be, nor what J^ualf cati- 
ons Jhall be necejjary to reception ', but only to difcern 
TV ho are the Men that God choofeth, and maketh moil 

' receptive, and (b to difcern Gods Will , which is the 
Ferfcn, and declare it and inves! himv fo it is not the 
Ordainer nor People that have the Office or Power to 
give to him that they ordain and choofe, but it refalt- 
eth directly from Chrifts concefsion in his Law : As a 
Woman choojeth her Husband, and the Mimfter celebra- 

1 teth Marriage for Order fake, but Gods Law giveth the 
Husband his power over the Wife. And as in a Cor- 
poration or City, the King by his Charter faith, [Eve- 
ry liar on fitch a day, fuch Perfons flail Chooje a Man 
thus qualified, to be their Mayor, and the Recorder jhall 
J wear him and imteft him; and I hereby grant him, thus 
Chef en and Swcrn,fuch and fuch Tower, and Command 
him to do thus ana thus, J Here the Electors do but 
determine of the qualified recipient Ferfon, and the Re- 

- corder in veil him, but his Power ariieth immediately 
from the Kings Charter : And if the Choolers or In- 

~ veiter 



vefter fay it (hall be more , or /f/5, or other, it is null 
that they fay , and {hall not infringe or change his 

Sect. I X. Now it is fuppofcd, that if a point of 
Oruer be omitted ; If the Eleition day by Fire or 
Plague, or War, be overpaft ; It the Recorder be dead, 
or refule his Office, that this doth not totally Null the 
Charter : One chofen a week after, in cafe of necefsi- 
ty, may have the Power : Or if that Years Election 
i hereby be made void, the Charter is not void, 
but will the next Year authorize the Pcrfbn chofen. 
V>r will not hinder this. And if one that had 
not u juit Election, or Inveftiture, fhouid intrude this 
Year,the Charter will authorize the next notwithfland- 
ing : Or if the Recorder that invefied the laft was an 
Intruder, the next may yet be truly authorized : Or if 
the Charter were, that every former Mayor fhall in- 
vert the next, it would not hinder a Succefsion , if a 
former had ufurped : For the Charter ftill reviveth it, 
and is fuppofed to appoint fuch means as are fufficient, 
if a circumftance fail. 

So is it in the prefent Cafe : If a Biffiop were an 
Ufurper, counterfeiting his cwn Ordination ; or if a 
Presbyter pretend himfelf a Bilhop , or to have Or- 
daining Power when he hath not , or if an unjuft 
Choice be made, the next Man hath (till a due way of 
entrance ; yea, and want of fuch a point of Order, 
when it is not fraudulently contemned or refufed, Nul- 
leth not the Office Power. Order is for the tiling 
ordered, and for the common good, and not to be pre- 
tended againft it. If the Phanfees that late in Mofes 
Chair were to be heard,and the High-Priefts that were 
then unlawfully called ( out of the true line, and buy- 
ing the Office of the Remans for money ) were to be 
lubmitted to in their Office , much more a Chriftian 
Pallor truly qualified by God , and chofen by the 


Flock, and approved -by Senior ?afiors, though there 
were lome point of Order wanting. 

Sett. X. Yea, in cafe of necessity were there no 
Ordination, but juft Qualification and Election, it would 
not nullifie the Office ; nor hath God promifed that no 
place {hall fall under fuch necefsity : For Chrift hath 
taught us, That He wiU have mercy, and not facrifice ; 
and that the Sabbath was made for man^ and not man 
for the Sabbath', and Paul and Apollo are fcr the 
Church. And as in Thyfick, or Soldiery, or Relief of 
the Poor, that muft be done by the Law of Nature, 
which cannot be done according to all the Points of 
an Ordering Law of Man ; fb is it here : It is meet 
for the fafety of Mens Health, that none pra£Hfe Thy- 
fick but a Lwenfed Vhyfician ; But in Cafes of Necefsi- 
ty, f "when Phyfiicians are wanting ) every one that 
hath skill may ufe it, and an able Man may be a Phy- 
fician unlicenfed, rather than fee Men perifh whom he 
may help. It hath been my own Cafe : In a great and 
poor Town where was no Phyfician,came an Epidemi- 
cal Tlurifee ; had they been neglected,moft had dyed ; 
Necefsity conftrained me to advife them, and they all 
recovered : Thereupon their Poverty and Importunity 
conftrain'd me to praitife Phylick many Years ( only 
gratis ) and God by it faved the lives of multitudes j 
fhould I think, in this cafe of Necefsity, that I finned, 
becaufe I took not a Licence, ( which refblving not to 
continue the Practice, I could not do : ) So I have 
known fome skill'd in Law, that have help'd many by . 
Council, though they were no Lawyers. 

So none may take up Arms as a Soldier without the 
King^s Commifsion : But in cafe Traytors arid Rebels 
fuddenlv endanger. King and Kingdoms, or Enemies 
invade the Land, every Man is a Soldier by th^Law ot 
Nature ; which alio eriabieth every Man to defend his 
." Life, Purfe, Houfe, Parents, Neighbors,againft Thiev 
and Murderers- ; The 

The Law of the Land ordtreth, That the Poor be 
kept by theParifhcs from Bej e relieve 

not Beggars othcrwite. But it the Parifhes through 

Poverty or Uncharitableneis ncglccr them^the 

re bindeth us to relieve them, rather T hem 


All Laws, for the meer Ordering of any Duty, fiip- 
pofe that the Duty mujt be done, and that as tendeth to 
its proper end, and not that on pretence of Order it be 
undone. If the Coronation oi* a King be not perform- 
ed regularly, he is K vg neverthekls by Inheritance, or 
Eleclion; and he is King before his Coronation. Mar- 
riage is valid before God,by mutual ccn-enr, before the 
Matrimonial Solemnisation , and whefethis cannot fee 
had, it is no Duty. If a Pridt wr,iud not marry Per- 
lbns, unlets they will makf tome unlawful Vromij^qy do 
(bme unlawful thing, it is lawful ( and may be a Duty) 
to marry themfelves, declaring it publickly to avoid 
Scandal , unleis the fcverity of the JLaw of the Land 
do accidentally make it unlawful : And in (bme Coun- 
tries the (infill courfe of Priefrsmay make this an ordi- 
nary Cafe. And no reafcn can be given, but that here 
it may be (b. 

Sect. X I. Many Cafes may fall out in which no 
Ordination, by Impofition of Hands,or prefent Solem- 
nity, may be neceiiary to this Office. 

I. In Cafe a Company oh Chriftians be Caftupon a 
remote liland, where no Orcainer can- be had, and yet 
(bme of them are qualified Perfons : Ir h Gnful for them 
to forbear G;xis Pub ick Worflik), therefore :hey muit 
choofe the fitted penon to perform ir, ijiz*i Preaching, 
v Prayer, Praife, Banr'zing, and the Lords Supper : And 
that Election fufficiently de£gneth the peiibn 3 
from Cbrifts Gtai'ier (hull iccei v e the V 
Power •, and be obliged to the Duty ( if Le con- 
fenL ) 

a. In 


%: In Cafe the Perfon be remote, and the Ordainers 
and he cannot meej: , or Perfecutors , or Tyrants, or 
other Accidents, hinder their Meeting, he may be Au- 
thorized by Letters, without any other Ordination: It 
is well known that this hath of old been pra£lifed,and. 
Bifhops have font fuch Letters of Ordination, ,tothofe 
abfent Perfbns that have fled from Ordination , and (b 
made them Bifhops. And it being but the defignation . 
of the recipient Perfon on whom Chrifis Law fhall 
confer the Office, that they have to do, there is no rea- 
(on to be given why they may not do it effectually by 

3. In Cafe that Death or Persecution hath left: none 
to Ordain, that are within reach of the Perfon to be 
Ordained : If Ordination by Diocefanes were ordinari- 
ly neceflary, yet in thofe Kingdoms or Countries where 
there is none,it cannot be had ; as in New-England, and 
lately in Britain , in Belgia, Helvetia, and other Coun* 

Some may fay , Ton ought to go for it, though as far 
as from America hither, and to Jeek it Beyond the Seas, 
and in other Lands, or flay till it may be had* But I 

1. In fome Countries the Governors will not differ 
Diocefane Ordination. 

a. Words are foon fpoken,but to fail from America 3 
hither, and that for every Man that is to be Ordained,is 
not fbon done ; fbme have not health to bear it at Sea j 
fome have not money to pay for the Voyage 

3. It is a finful lofs of a Years time, in which they 
might do God much fervice. 

4. A Years Voyage by Sea to and fro, may hazard 
their Lives, and fb fruftrate all their end. 

5-. Some Princes and States forbid their Subje£h to 
be Ordained in Foreign Lands , as we forbid Romifi 

. Ordi- 



Ordination , left it draw a Foreign Power on 

6. It is not lawful to deny God his Publick Wor- 
fhip, and our felves the benefit, by (6 long de- 

7. It is contrary to the temper of the Golpel,which 
ever fubjecteth Ceremony, Rites and External Orders, 
to Morals , and to Mans good , and the great: 

8. And it is a wrong to the honour of the Divine 
Nature, for Men to feign, that the Great, Wife, and 
Merciful Godjayeth fo great a ilrcfs upon a Ceremony, 
or Rite, or outward Order, as to damn Souls, and deny 
his own Worfhip, where it cannot be had. 

4. And this Ordination is not neceflary, in Cafe the 
Ordainers be grown (6 wicked, or heretical , as that 
they will ordain no good and orthodox Men, but only 
fiich as are of their own finful way. 

y- And in Cafe the Ordainers require, as neceftarv, 
any one unlawful thing, SilbfcriptionSjProfeCior^Vov/, 
or Practice. 

If any lay, That God wiil never permit us to fall 
under foch Necefsities, they muft prove it ; and Expe- 
■ience difproveth it. 

Seff. XII. And if in all filch Cafes no Ordination 
be neceflary, much lefs is Diccejane Ordination necefla- 
y in all Cafes and Places : As, 

1 . In Countries where no Diocefanes are , or are 

2. In Countries where they or their Ordination is 
lot endured by the Governors. 

3. In Countries where the People being in judgment; 
gainft it, will have no Paftor fb Ordained : It is not 
>etter to have none at all. 

4.. In Countries where liars do hinder it. 

F f 5. When 


^. WhenitheDiocelanesthemfelves will not venture 
to Ordain, for fear of fullering for it. 

6. In Countries where the Bifhops are fo corrupted, 
that they refufe all that are truly fit. 

7. Or where they refufe all whom the People either 
choofe,or will confent to ; and the Bifhop and People 
cannot agree on the fame Man. 

8. Or wherever the Diocefanes impofe unlawful Co- 
venants, Promifes, Profefsions, Subfcriptions, Vows,. 
Oaths, or Practices, without which they will not Or- 

On fbme or other of thefe accounts, a Romanift 
would not be Ordained by a Greek, or Proteftant , or - 
Arinenian, &c. and a Greek, or Proteftant, would not 
be Ordained by a Papift ; fiippofing fbmething to be 

9. But when a Parochial Bifhop may be the Or- 
dainer, in flich Cafes, the Validity will not be denied 
by moft Epifcopal Divines. 

1 c. And it is truly as valid in fuch Cafes , when, 
1 . Senior Presbyters, 2. that are authorized by the Ma- 
gistrate, 5. efpecially that are chief Paftors in Cities, 
and have Curates under them, do Ordain, though fbme 
deny to call them Bifhops. 

11. As the Eraftia?7s think that the Chriftian Magi- 
ftrate may defign the perfbn, by the Peoples confent, 
■without any other Ordination; fb Mu[ciil?ts and fbme 
other Proteftants think,that a fit perfbn defigned by the 
Magiftrarc , and accepted by the People , need not 
queftiori his Call to the Office * And it's hard to di£ 
prove them. 

ii. If the Opinion of many Papifts, and Prote- 
ftants hold true,' That a Bifhop differeth not from a 
Presbyter in Order ( or Office ) but in Degree, as the 
Foreman of a Jury, or the Prefident of a Synod or 



CoUedge, or Council of Suite, &c. ii. ; f uc no rea- 
fbn but the Magiilrate may make a Biihop of a Pref : 
byter, as he may make a Preiident of a Coilcdge, or a 
Mayor of a Corporation : For then the difference be- 
ing but in the Accidents of the Office, and the King be- 
ing Governor of the Church, as far as the Sword is to 
govern, and (pecially the determiner of meer Accidents 
and Circumflances^ circa facr a , why may he not let one 
Presbyter in degree above the reft ? Did not all the 
ftrife of Emperors for the power of inverting Biflhops, 
fignitie this much againft the Popes oppofition ? Both 
fides granted that the People and Clergy were to be 
the Choosers of a Biihop. And it was the old Canon, 
that no Bifhop fhould remove from Seat to Seat; fo that 
only Vresbyters^ and no former Bijhops , were made 
Bifhops of any particular City, ( or Deacons, or Sub- 
deacons fbmetime at Rome. ) By which it appeareth, 
that the Emperors power of Inveftiture amounted to a 
Negative voice, in the making of a Biihop. The 
Kings of Ifrael lent Lrvites to teach the People , and 
Solomon chole who fhould be the High-Prieft : And 
1 When the Romans after (old the Office, Chrift bids the 
■ cleanfed Lepers, Go and §mv themfelves to the High- 
Yriefti and offer , &c. 

Sect. XIII. f The Cafe of the Reformed Chur- 
I ches nullified by the Papilb, and whofe Ministers Of- 
fice and Authority is denied by them , is as follow- 

I. The old Bohemians and Waldenfes had different 
| degrees of Pallors, of which the Superior were called 
\Confeniors and Seniors of one Order , who prefided 
|among the Elders, but took not the Government of the 
"locks out of their hands, nor ruled without them,and 
fere chiefly above others in judging what Elders ( or 
[Minifters ) were to be removed from letter places to 
[greater : whofe Form of Government, moft like the 

F f 2 Ancients, 

-C«4l . 

Ancients, you may fee at large in the Defcriptions of 
Lafcitim and Ccmmenius. 

I I. The- Churches called Luther ane, ( Denmark, 
Sueden, Saxony, &c. ) have for the moft part fbiqe 
Epifcopacy called Superintendency ; but their Bifhops . 
not the power of the Keys from the Paftors of 
the feveral Parifhes. And they take not the power of 
Ordaining to be proper to the Bilhops : For the Bilhops 
of Denmark were made filch by Bugenhagius Vomera- 
l Presbyter j which they fuppofe doth null their 
Sliced : ive Power. 

And the Englijlj have Diccefane Bifhops and Ordi- 
>n by them, and as good a Succefsion,at leaft of 
Regular QtdSeatipn, as Rome hath had. 

113. The Churches called Presbyterian in Holland, 
France, Scotland, and other Countries, have Ordination 
by a Synod of the Pallors of particular Churches, of 
which fbme are the chief Paftors of Cities, and have 
Curates, or afsifting Presbyters, and therefore are fiich 
Bilhops as the Scripture, Ignatius, Tertidlian, yea, and 
Cyprian defer ibe : fo that, 

i . They think that as in Generation a Man beget- 
teth not an Ape, or Dog, but a Man , and an Horfe 
begctteth an Horfe , and every thing propagateth its 
own Jpecies ', And as Phyhcians make Phyficians, and 
Lawyers make Lawyers, &c. So Paftors make Paftors 
as far as belongeth to an Ofdainer, that is, preparing 
and determining the Receiver whom God lhall give 
the Power to, and oblige to the duty of that Of- 

2. But yet in the fame Order they think they have 
a true Epifcopacy as to degree, firft, in the forefaid 
f Paftors that have Curates • (econdly, in the Preli- 
< t e Synod. 

3. thefe Writers, Papifts and 
: the right, who expound the word 

t % ] 

[ Presbytery ] which laid binds on Timothy, \ ' 
fion of Presbyters, lyid therefore that fiich ha 1 
to Ordain. 

4. And they think that if after their feithflillefl: 
fearch, they fhould in this be miftaken againft their 
wills, God \v\il not therefore di(6\vn their Churches, 
Miniitry and Worfhip, no more than he will reject the 
Prayers of private Chriftians for their Errors and Im- 

I V. Thole that at prefent arc called Ncmconformijis 
in England, who • were (about 2 coo Ejected and Si- 
lenced, Anno 1662. Aug.~L\.) 

1 . Many of them, ( yea, moft that were above 44 
years old ) were Ordained by Biihops , ( of whom I 
am one. ) 

2. The Generality of the reft lived, when by the 
Rulers that had fuch poftefsion as they could not refift, 
Diocefane Ordination was forbidden, and another fc t 
up, and we heard not of five Biihops in England that 
did Ordain, and hardly knew how to procure it of 
thefe. And the Oath of Allegiance might have colt 
both the Bifhop and the Ordained their Lives, or Liber- 
ties at leaft, in the Times or Ufurpation. 

3. They were Ordained by a Clafsis, or Synod 
of Minifters, of whom fomc were chief City Pa- 
ftors that had Curates , ( which faith Grotius , de 
Imper. Sum. Vol were a fort of Bifhops ) and they 
had a Prefident. 

4. Some were not fatisfied with this, and were fe- 
cretly Ordained by the depofed Biihops. 

5. Some delired Confirmation of their Ordination 
aforefaid by the Synods, from filch Biihops as owned it, 
and had it ( from Biihop UJhtr at leaft, of others I am 
uncertain. ) 

6 t The Generality of diem that had any Parfon 

F f 3 or 


or Vicarages, or any endowed Cures in England, from 
the Year 1646, till the time tha£the W eftmmfter At 
fembly was Diifclved, had a formal authorizing Inftru- 
ment of Approbation from the (aid Aflembly, or Na- 
tional Synod (chofenby the Parliament j) of which 
the Catalogue in their Ordinance (heweth us, that di- 
vefs Bilhops were, by the Parliament, chofen Mem- 
bers. If any or all refilled to be there, the Countrey 
Minifters knew not that, but juftly took them to be 
parts of the Synod : And though this' was not an Ordi- 
nation by Tmpofition of Hands, they fiippofed that it 
was as valid to authorize them,as the A6ts before-men- 
tioned of fome ancient Bifhops, who ordained abfent 
Men. And the main Body of the late Eje&ed Mini- 
fters ( very few excepted ) were thus called,confirmed, 
approved, and put in , having alfb the Content or 
Election uftially of the Patron, and the People,and the 
then Rulers. 

Sect. X I V. And there were many that in thofe 
Times were only Ordained Deacons, and took the 
Synods Letters of Approbation, for the fubftance of an 
Ordination to be Presbyters, but wanting the Formali- 
ty, fubmitted to Diocefane Ordination, when the Dio- 
cefanes returned (of whom Dr. Manton wa^one.) Yea, 
divers fubmitted to be Re-ordained by the Diocefanes 
that had been Ordained Presbyters before. This is the, 
Nonconformifts Cafe, except ibme few Independents, that 
were not for formal Ordination,at leaft lb much as the 
reft : yet even of them, fuch as had Benefices in Anno 
164.6, 1647, 1643, had the Synods Appro- 

Seel. X V. To all this I muft add, That by the 
Diocefanes Silencing multitudes of thofe Minifters, 
whom the moft Religious accounted the moft able, ho- 
ly, powerful Preachers ( in the days of Queen Eliza- 
betbjKingjames, King Charles I. befides the a 000 


_C8 7 ] 
Silenced in the beginning of King Charles II.) the 
People that were mod ierious in matters of Religion, 
were ( except a few ) fo alienated from the Dioce- 
fanes, that moft of the ftri&er Religious Sort, would 
not choofe a Miniftcr that was for them and their Or- 
dination, and fo it would have made a more dangerous 
Schifm than was made. 

Sett. XVI. And as to the present (late and 
praitice of the Nonconform ifts, (prcmifmg that I (peak 
only of meer.Nonconformifts as iiich, and not Men of 
other Principles and Parties that Conform not,as Jeivs^ 
Turks , Socinians, Papifts, Familifts, Quaker s^ &c. ) let 
it be uriderftood, 

i. That they take all the Varices and Congregations 
of true Christians that have true Paftors to be true 
Churches of Chrisl : And they take fuch Minifters as 
Conform, to be notwithftanding that true Minifters-, 
though culpable ; and therefore they feparate not from 
any fuch Churches as no Churches, or from fuch Mini- 
far s as none. 

2. They take particular Churches aflociated under 
Diocefanes, Archbifhops, and Nationally under one 
King, and reprefented in one Convocation ot Synod, 
to be ftill true Churches, and fuch as may be lawfully 

I communicated with ; and thefe Diocefane, Provincial 
and National Aflociations to be laudable as they are 
rheer Afiociations for Concord, and though culpable in 
fome other refpe£ts, yet fuch as good Chriftians may 
lawfully live under (ubmifsively, and in peace. 

3. They think it lawful to preach and adminifter 
the Sacraments in the Parifh Churches, and have thefe 
1 7 years been call out, and kept oftt much againft their 
wills, and laboured, and hoped, though in vain, for 

4. It is not Communion with any Chriftian Church 
in Faith , Love, or Holy Worfhip , or any thing of 

F f 4 Gods 

C 8 8 ] 

Gods Inftitution,no nor any thing of Mans command- 
ing, but what they believe God hath forbidden them, 
which they deny. To deny to take many Covenants, 
Oaths, Professions, or to do fome Practices which upon 
their beft enquiry they verily believe to be great Sins, 
this is not feparating from any thing of God. 

* y. They do not depart from the Churches, but are 
caft out. The Minifters are Silenced and Ejected, as 
they verily believe, for not finning and hazarding their 
Souls. Minifters and People are exprefly by the Ca- 
non of the Church, Excommunicated ipfofaBo, (which 
is Jki fententia judicis ) if they but fay that there is 
any thing in the Conformity, which a good Chriftian 
may not with a good Comcience'do : The Canon is 
vifible and plain ; fb that they cannot poisibly avoid 
being caft out, and think that the Ejeclers are the 

6. When they are thus caft out, or driven away, 
they vet hold diftant Chriftian Communion with all 
Chriftians in one univerfal Church, one Spirit , one 
Lord, one God, one Faith, one Baptifmal Covenant,and 
one Hope, Epbef. 4. But local Communion they can 
have but in one place at once; and none are faid to 
Separate from all the Churches , where they are not 

7. The King by his Licence allowed them for a 
time to hold their own Aftemblies ; and the Confor- 
mifts themielves (wear the Oath of Supremacy ,and take" 
the King to be Supreme Governor in all Caufes , and 
over all Perfons Ecclefiaftical and Civil : And yet then 
accufed the Licenftd of Schiffn. 

8. Though there be fome things in the Liturgy 
which the Nonconformifts dare not' Declare Aflent and 
Content to, ( and therefore fiifter, ) yet they hold it 
lawful both to join in -Hearing , ; Prayer and Sacra- 
ments with the Pariih Churches and Conform ifts,in the 


L*9 J 
Lords days Worfhip and ufe of that Liturgy ; and 
many of them do (6 ordinarily : And others do not 
hold it unlawful,but are hindered by Preaching them- 
selves where they can, which they dare not forbear : 
And the People that hold it lawful, yet hold that better 
is to be preferred when they can have it. And he that 
preferreth aMinifter which he findeth mod Edification 
by, doth $ot therefore fcparate from all others, becaufe 
he is abfent from them. 

9. The Nonconform ifts have in their appointed 
Treaties for Concord, oftercd to ufe the Liturgy with 
fbme Emendations, and to fubmit even to the prefent 
Archbifhops, Bifhops, and other parts of the Church- 
Government, as is expreiTed in the Kings Declaration 
about Ecckjiaflical affairs. By which ( vifible in 
Print ) it may be feen how far they were from fepara- 
ting inclinations, but it could not by the Bifhops, be ac- 

1 o. But it is true withall, that many of the Com- 
mon People having conftantly preferred that which 
they thought they were bound to prefer , and feeing 
their former Pallors caft out and iilenced, thought they 
ought notwithftanding to adhere to them, and grew 
into fo hard thoughts of the Bifhops that filenced them, 
(about 2000 at once ) that they are more alienated 
than before from them and their Aflemblies • as Chry- 
fofloms yoannites were at Ccnfiantinofle^ till the kind- 
j nefs of Aniens and Vrcdus brought them back to the 
old publick Church. 

SeB. XVII. It is commonly confeffed by their 
fharpeft Accufers, that the Nonconformiils do well to 
forbear all that can be proved to be linful : And if 
they prove not Conformity f infill, they are content to 
foffer as real Schifmaticks. 

Sect. XVII I. We all agree of the necefsity of a 
continued SucceGion in theUniverfal Church, of the 



fame Faith, Religion, and Minifterial Offic^vhich we 
profeis and poffeis : We have no one new Article of 
Faith or Religion, nor any that have not continued in 
the Church ; we have no new Office : But that the Of- 
fice and Adminiftrations cannot pals as valid, unlels the 
particular Mmijler can prove, that he had Canonical 
Ordination from one that had the like , and he from 
one that had the like, and he from another that had the 
like, and ib up to the Apoftles • this we fiippofe irratio- 
nal, Ichifmatical , falle, and of malignant tendency 
againft the Church and Intereft of Chrift. 

Seel. XIX. Mr. Henry Do dwell is the Man that 

newly and copioufly promoted this Schifmatiad 
Error, in a Book pretended to be againft the Noncon- 
formifts Schtim, but difbwned by the Conformable 
Doctors themleives, { many of them. ) And indeed, 
notwithstanding the tedious wordinefs of it, it hath lit- 
tle in it, in companion of Janfenim long ago, fully an* 
fwered by Voetms. And though I told him over and 

iirft, that if he did not anlwer Voetius , and my 
dijlute of Ordination^ fhouldtake him but to labor in 
vain, as to ouu ufe,yet hath he taken no notice of either 
of them at all. If he intend it in any following Book,it 
is but fraudulent to lend out this great Volume firft, to 
do his work before he gave any notice of what is al- 

- laid againft him. Muft we write the fame things 

: as Men strife that will repeat the Arguments lb 
aft confuted?. 

7. X X. His Defign and Schilmatical Doctrine is 
thus laid. 

u j. Tliat the ordinary means of Salvation, are 9 in 
flfteilar perfofy confined to the Epific- 
mien to the place he lives m, as long as 
u be lives in it. 

u z. Tijat u>2 cannot he ajjhred that God will do for 

LS> X J 
tc m what is neceffary for Salvation on his fart J other- 
l "wife than by hrs exprefs p-omifes that he will 
" do it. 

" 3. Therefore we must have interest in his C 
" nant. 

" 4. Tloerejore we must have the Sacrament by which 
u the Covenant is tran(a£led. 

" y. Thefe as Legally valid, are to be had only in the 
" external Commumcn of the Vifible Church. 

" 6. This is only the Epifcopal Communion of the 
" place we live in. 

" 7. The Validity of the Sacraments, depends en the 
" Authority of the perfons by whom they are admini- 

" 8. No Minifiers have Authority of adminifiring Sa- 
" craments, but only they that have their Orders in the 
" Epifcopal Communion. 

" 9. This cannot be from God, but by a continued 
u SucceJJion of perfons orderly receiving Authority from 
" thofe who had Authority to give it them,(viz>.Bijhops) 
u from thofe fir ft times of the Apo files , to ours at 
" prefent. 

" 1 o. That the Holy Ghoft is the Infiituter of this 
u Order, and to violate it, by adminifiring without fuch 
" Ordination, is to fin against the Holy Ghoft, the Sin that 
" hath no other facrifice, and prc?wife of pardon. 

"11. That the Ordained have no more or other 
" power, than the Or darners intend or profefs to give 
" them. 

" 1 2. Tloat it is certain, that the Bifiops of all former 
cc Ages intended not to give Presbyters power of Ordain- 
f ing or Adminifiring out of their Subjection : Ergo 
* they have it not. 

SeB. XXI. This, and a great deal more to tin's 
purpofe, is his matter. 


' &9*] 

To gather all the Confufions , Contradictions and 
Abfurdities of that wordy Volume, would be tedious, 
and little ■ profitable to the Reader ; only theft three 
things in general I tell fiich as maybe in danger of' in- 
fe&ion by it. 

i. That he -never agreeth with his Adversaries of? 
the ft ate of the quefiicn, nor fo much as explicateth the\ 
terms, nor doth any thing befeeming a Difputant , tor 
make himlelt underftood. 

2. That not only by denied ( falfe ) Suppofiticns % * 
he maketh all his Difcourfe ufelefs to the Nonconform' 
mills, but alio at the iirft giveth them their Cauie, and 
ccnfirmerh them. 

j. That while in his Preface he difbwneth Popery,' 
it is the very fting of their Argumentation which he 
ufetli : And that which yet by confequence overthrow- 
eth not only the Churches, Miniftery, Sacraments an'd 
Salvation of the Proteftants, but of all Chriftians on 
£arth,and of none more certainly, than of the Papifts 
All which I undertake, when called, to prove. 

Sea. XXII. It were tedious to mention all 
ambiguous confounding terms : For a few ; 

1. He that layeth fo great a ftrefs on -Epifcopacy, 
never tells us what he meaneth by a Bifhop ; when he 
ought to know, that with the chief of his Adverlaries 
the Controvcrfie is very much in that : For (as Grotitis 
de Imper. Simm. Pol. and many others ) they take 
the chief Pafror of every .Parifh-Church ( efpecially 
that hath Curates under him) for a 

Baikal Jinft Bifho Pi at leaft if he bePaftor of a 
" Johnfon ofthis. City, or Town fo called of old ( vritai ) 
when others deny him to be a Bifhop 
tljat hath not many Altars or Parijhes under him. 

a, Some take him for a Bifnop that is but the prime 
Presby ter* qv different from there!]: but Grain, non or- 
dme, calfd Epifcopus Prafes : And others deny him tp 

■ - be 

be one, unlefs he differ Gradtt , as another Officer in 

3. Some take him to be a Bifhop, that hath no Prefi 
byter, but -Deacons under him, and that 111 a Jingle Afc 
f embly (as Doctor Hammond on Acl. 1 1 . & Dtjfertat.) 
Others deny him to be one , that is not ever Yresby- 

4. Some take him to be no Bifhop, that is not eleBed 
or confented to by the people, ( and the Clergy, if there 
be any ; ) Others hold him to be one, that hath the 
confent of neither, but only the Pope, or the Archbi- 
(hop, or the King electing and impoimg him,and fbme 
Bifhops conlecrating him. 

5. Some hold him to be no Bifhop, unlefs three 
Bifhops Confecrate him j Others fay,one may make him 

6. If three Bifhops Confecrate one, and three ano- 
ther, he tells us not which of thefe is the Birhop of 
that Church. Many more fuch Ambiguities you may 
fee examined in my Book , Of the Viftbility of the 
OW^againft Mr. [fohnfons alias Terrets Reply. 

Seel. XXIII. x. So he oft repeateth the necefsity 
of being in, and fubje£t to the Vtjible Church Unrccr- 
fa'U and never tells us what he meaneth by it ; when he 
muft needs know, that the nature or definition of it, is 
the very firft point of difference between us and the Pa- 
pifts. By the tenor of his difcourfe, the Reader may 
iulpeft that he meaneth fbme Univerfal Society of Men 
on Earth, under fome one vifible humane Head, either 
Monarchical, or Ariftocratical, or Democratical, a So- 
vereign who is Verfona Ctuilis, and Pars Imperans Con- 
fiirutix'a. But, if fb, Proteftants ( we at leaft ) deny 
any fiich, thinking this the prime efiential difference be- 
tween us and the Papifts, ( the fecond being whether 
the Pope or his Council be this Head ^ ) and he never 
tells who this fuppofed Head is. 


So he frequently talketh of neceflary Communion 
with a particular Church, and never tells us what he 
meaneth by it : Nor can I gather often, whether, he 
means a Diocefane Church, or a Provincial, or a Natio- 
nal. But I perceive that he meaneth not a Parochial ; 
when yet he knew that the Adverfaries take thole for 
particular Churches. 

Seel. XXIV. i. So he oft talks of the necefsity 
of Succefsive Canonical Ordination,and never defineth 
either Ordination, or Canonical Ordination ', when he 
muft know that ibme take Impofition of Hands to be 
ejj'ential to Ordination, and Ibme deny it, and hold that 
Letters mayjdoit on the abfent, befides other differen- 
ces. . 

i. And fbme take thofe to be obligatory Canons, 
which ethers contemn as of no authority. The Pa- 
pifts are not agreed what Canons are valid : And the 
Diflenters and this Dilputer are not agreed in England : 
Many, belidcs Dr. Heylin, lay, That the Popes Canon 
Law is yet in force in England, except fome Particulars 
that were call: out : Others believe not this ', what is 
foid againft the Authority of the Engliih Canons, I will 
not recite. 

3. And fbme take it for Canonical Ordination, if it 
be done by one Bi\hop and Presbyters , Others fay No, 
unlefs by three Bifiops. 

4. Some fay it is not Canonical, without the Clergies 
and Peoples Election or Content, ( as aforefaid ) and 
others find it neceflary to their Caufe to deny 

Seel. XXV. He calls Men oft to Catholick Unity, 
and never tells us what it is, or how it may be kn<Dwn. 
Abundance more fuch Ambiguities make his Difputes to 
. me unintelligible. 

Seel. XXVI. Or if he be to be understood in 
thefe and flich like, then he goeth all along by a beg- 
ging of the questions, which are denied. 1 . He 


i. He (hould have nuhcr proved, than ulcen I 
granted, that thole arc not Bifhops whom we hold to 
be fuch. 

x. And that it is not the Vifible Church, which we 
take for fuch. 

3. And that it is not a V articular Church, which we 
take for fiich. 

4. And that it is no Regular Ordination , which we 
take for fuch. 

y. And that it is ftp Catholick Unity, which we take 
for iiich : And fb of the reft. 

Seel. XXVII. a. He fiippofeth that there is but 
one ftpifcopal Communion in the places where Men 
live ; or never tells us, if there be divers Bifhops, 
which it is whofe Communion is io neceflary : when 
he knoweth that Grotuts thought that of old Churches 
were formed in imitation of the Synagogues, and that 
one City had divers Churches and Bifhops, as well as 
divers Synagogues. And Dr. Hammond thought that 
Rome, Antwch, and other Cities, had two Churches 
and Bifhops, one of Jews, and another of Gentiles y 
and that Teter and Paul had two Churches at Rome : 
And he knoweth, I fiippofe, not only that there were 
Novatian Bifhops in the fame Cities with the Ortho- 
dox, but that oft and long , Constantinople, Anticch, 
Alexandria , and many other places , had two at once 
by their Divifions , but none of them fb long as 

But perhaps he taketh it ro be enough to Cat! . 
cifm, or the Validity of Ordinances, if we be fcfc 
to thejftecies of Bifhops, and lb to any one that is Cou- 
fecrated rightly or wrongly • and lb that in Schi 
both are true Bilhops. But left he deny this , 1 
(pare to recite its Confcquent?. 

SeB. XXVIII. 3, He in his Preface, 
along, fiippofeth, Tloat no unlavful thing is in 

' f 9«] 

the Nonconformijls, as necejfary to their Minijlry or Com- 
munion ', which will as much fatisfie them, as if he had 
told them, 77^ Lying, Perjury, Covenanting deliberate- 
ly again ft Gods Precepts, and for the corrupting his [acred 
DpcJrine, Worship, Order, and Discipline , are lawful 
things. Did he ever hear them, and confute their Rea- 
fbns ? 

Sett. XXIX. 4. In fhort, he never proveth, but 

1. That when Gods Word defcribeth the Sacred 
Minifterial Office, yet the Ordainers will and words 
can alter it. 

i. That ■> the chief Paftors of particular Chu&ches, 
( even Cities that had all of old their feveral Bifhops ) 
are not true Bifhops, uniefs Men purpofe them to be fb 
in Ordination. 

3. That Presbyters who ordain with Bifhops, majr 
not in cafes of necefsity ordain without them j or it 
they do, it is a nullity. 

4. That in Cafes of Necefsity, Ability, Content, 
Ele£Hon and Opportunity may not defign the perfbn 
that fhall receive authority and obligation dire£Hy from 
Gods Law, without other Ordination. 

5. That any Church on Earth can prove an unin- 
terrupted Succefsion of Canonical Ordination , by Bi- 
fhops themfelves fb ordained. 

6. That fuch a Succefsion is neceffary ad ejfe 

J. That the Covenant of Grace fecureth not true 
penitent Believers of Pardon and Salvation,where they 
cannot have the Sacrament. 

8. That the Sacrament is null as to Mens Pardon 
and Salvation,if the Prieft bt not truly called, or have 

• not fiicceisive Epifeopal Ordination. 

9. That if a pr^fumptuous Title ( as he faith ) 
' may yet make all valid when Men fcem Epiicopally 


duined,and arc not ; Whether able godly Men ordain- 
by fach liki ( Pafto nod, 
chofen by Religious People, and lolemnly d< 

[iniftery in the face of the Cojig 
not a better prelumptuous Title, than notorious 
ignorant . I en, that (ay they were ordained 

by a Bifhop, when their Orders were forged, (of which 
ibrt there have been many ? ) 

i o. Whether he can prove that it is not Anabap- 
tiftry, to baptize all again that are baptized in the Re- 
formed Churches, that have no Dioceiancs ? 

1 1. Whether he abufe not Gods Word and Chur- 
ches, in feigning all fuch Reformed Churches,to live in. 
the Sin againft the Holy Ghoft, for ferving God with- 
out a Succcfsion of Epifcopal Ordination ? 

i z. Why is it that I cannot intreat him to anfwer 
Vottiusy de dejperata Caufa Tapatz.'s, that hath long ago 
confuted Jmfenim^ a far ftronger Advcrfary than he ? 
Nor my Dlipute of Ordination Twenty Years ago 
written, and yet unanfwered ? when I tell him we have 
not leifure to write over the fame things, as oft as Men 
provoke us to it. 

Sect. XXX. I will now cad before him thefe 
following >^otes. 

i. What proof hath he of Sacraments ( beGdes 
Sacrifices ) before Abraham's days ? And was there 
then no pardon of fin ? 

a. Were Women damned that were not circumci- 
ed ? Or were the uncircumcifed Children in tic Wil- 
Jernefs none of the Church ? 

3. Were not Infants in the Covenant of Grace, be- 
ore Circumcilion entered them, into the Covenant of 
Vraels peculiarity ? 

4. Why did Abraham think there had been Fifty 
ighteous perfons in Sodcm ? And in every Nation he 
hat feareth G r, is accepted 
' h'm, A :ts 1 c. G g Though 



5-. Though Sacraments under the Gofpel convey 
greater benefits, can he pro* e that it placeth greater 
necessity cf them, than the Law did? 

6. Sfeeing Chrift was not baptized till about thirty 
y^ars old, was he not Holy , and the Churches Head 
before? t 

7. Can he prove that theApoftles were ever bapti- 
zed ? Or were they net before true Christians ? 

8. The Apoftles had not the Lords Supper till near 
:s death, and yet had part in him before. 

9. W'dsFatil of this Mans mind, that (aid, He was 
not feht to baptise, but preach, and thanked God that he 
had haptz,cd fo few. 

1 o. Is not that Promife true,75W whoever believeth^ 
fnall not periy)Mt have everlafting life j* and that the 
pure in heart fiall fee God, &c? And will want of -a 
Sacrament then fruftrate all? 

1 1 . He prefumeth to iky, That God is obliged to make 
good the Sacraments of thoje that have but a preftr, 
cus - , feem'mg to have Epifcopal Ordinaticn,whtn 

they have net. And is not the reafbn as ftrong from the 
Peoples impofsibiiity of avoiding the danger, whei 
they can have no Sacraments, or none but from Mini' 
iters that had not Epifcopal Ordination ? 

1 1. What if the Succeinon have been interrupts 
Ipng ago in * • Egypt, Syria, or elfewhere ? An 

all damned t\ borniince? Or which way 

particular pei re remedy it, they cannot fend to 

Europe b.:C 

13. Ir Laymen ( as Frwnenthts and Edefus ) con- 
vert peribns are they a .\. that dye 
Con^erfiori, for want or an ordained Prieft, and Sacra- 
ments ? 

14. If Baptifm give the firft fancHfying Grace,then 
"hone but >ns are to \ 2 baptized* and that, 

... els, or wicked men. 

15. It 


i y. Tr is confefied that the Lor 
firmwg Men in 

both the Sacraments of the lame general nati 
to declare and confirm our nut: a! Faith, and the ( 
our ft 

1 6. The Sacraments are to Chriftlanity, what So- 
lemn Matrimony is to Marriage- which is valid be 
God upon private confent, but is ac 

and preventing Fornication , to fatisf e Men : our 
Church Title ordinarily depends on Baptilm, but God 
knoweth and accepted* heart confent. 

17. God iaith, Elfe ivere your Children unclt 

now are they holy, 1 Cor. 7. 14. Thei\ is not 

the Sacrament that first maketh them holy. And the 
feed of the Faithful have iuch Promifes as \ 
good againft the slnabavtifts. 

1 8. Children may dye before they can be baptized, 
and are they by that natural ncceinty damned ? 

19. If a Man live where the Priefts will not bap- 
tize, or give the Lords Supper, but on condition I 
we profefs fbme falfhood, or commit fbme fin, 
the Church of Rome, ) Muft we commit that Cm , or 
be damned, for want of the Sacrament ? 

io. Doth not this lay a neceiijy upon 
teftants in Italy, Spain, 

tiiga!,yez,Mt:*icoi?c;'i;,&:c. to leave their C - 
and travel to fbme Land where they may hav 
ments without GnfulCor and may have it from 

Men of right fiiccdii'e Ordination 
all thefe be able fb to- travel ? An 
that Land on Earth that will anl 
and can and will receive th 

2 1 . What if a thoufand I 
; and think, that the things impaled as 

mental Communion , .are : it be 


to be Miftakes, yea, the flnabaftifis Error: ) Can he' 
prove that all foch are damning Errors, for want of 
Sacraments ? 

ii. Gods Oath is alfo to confirm our Faith : And 
if a Man may be Saved that believerh Gods iVord, and 
knowcth not of his Oatk, why not he that believeth it, 
and hndweih not of' the Sacrammt ? 

1 3, Doth not his Do6h*ine make the Priefts the ab- 
fblute Lords of all Mens Souls, that can deny Salvj 
to any, or all Men, by denying them the Sacrament ? 
Is this the Senfe of their having the Power of the 
Key " 


2,4. Is not this abuSe of Tibi dabo Clave s , and the 
office of Key-bearingnthe knack by which Popes have 
fiihdued Kings and Kingdoms. 

* zf. Is not the Argument which this Man managcth 
againft the Reformed Churches , to prove them no 
Churches, and to have no Miniftery and Sacraments,the 
ittes of the Parifts , in which is their chief confi- 
dence, but often baifled ( as by Voetim againft Janfc- 
nim aforeSaid.) 

26. Nay, the Papifts themselves • are far more mo- 
derate than this Man ; for they take a Laymans Bap- 
tife, yea, a Womans to be Sufficient to Salvation, when 
[vlaii denicih it of all the moft learned and holy | 
Paftors$tliat have not uninterrupted EpifcopalOr.' 

a 7. Bifhops have too oft confpired to corrupt Gods 
Sacraments, (witnefs the Lateran Council fub Inncc.^.) 
and to interdict Kingdoms , and oppreis Princes and 
People and may do 16 again : And have the People no 
remedy againft them ? 

a 8. A Minifter juftly ordained, and unjuftly fue- 
led, or filenccd by a B'ihop, hath more authority 

?nts are not Nullities by 
fixe Rcmanijls, Cohfeflidn. 

19. m 


1 1C 

19. Is not this Mans Doctrine far grofler than Cj - 
yrians, and the Africans^ ( yea, the Donatifis ) that 
denied the validity of Heretick Baptiim. 

3 0. A Lay-Chancellor , in thcic mens judgments, 
ufeththe Keys of Excommunication and Abfoiution 
validly, and yet arc not the Sacraments or Ordination 
of the Reformed Churches aforelaid valid ? 

3 1 . Surrogate Pr lefts, by the Bifhops conlent, va- 
lidly Excommunicate, that arc no Bifhops. 

32. No People can be fare by this Mans Rule, that 
they have Sacraments, or (hall be laved, ( except by 
fallible preemption ) not knowing that their Prieft 
hath uninterrupted facceffive Ordination. 

3 jvWhen your preiumptuo: is Ordination is difcoyerr 
ed to be Null, mult all the People be Ile-l 
zed ? 

34. The Church of England giveth none the Lords 
er till 1 6 years old. Doth it become abiolutely 
neceilary to SaLva:lon, juft at that Age, and not be- 
Awie . 

35-. The Burial Office pronounceth all laved that 
never Communicated, (b they be Baptized , and not 
Excommunicate, nor kill theu&l 

36. What work would this Man make for Re- 
baptizers, if all the Proteftants of all Nations puft be 
Re-baptized, that have not the forefeid Ord 
ticn ? 

37. Is it fuitable to the defcxjption of God and his 
grace in Scripture, to believe that he layeth ail r 
Salvation upon Sacraments ] i by men Ord 
ed, as he defcribeth ? 

38. Are not we Reproaches Minlfters, as 
like to be good Pro:eitant5 ; as iiich'men as th's,chat lay, 

1. The Reformed Churches that have not Ep'ico- 
pal Ordination from uninter SucceiLon, aiv no 

>tryie Chore . G g 3 2. 1 


: Z. Have no true Minifters. 

3. Nor true Sacraments. 

4. Nor part in the Covenant of Grace. 

y. Nor hope of Salvation by promife from 

6. That their M r niitery and Sacraments is the Sin 
againft the Holy Ghoir. 

7. That the Church of Rome hath this uninter* 
rupted Succeihon (as he tells me. ) 

8. That,as will hence follow, the French Proteftants 
■ were Better turn Tnptjrs, than be as they are. 

U. XXXL There are as many and greater 
QhjhBioQs that I ftiould lay before him, about his Do- 
6rnne or an Uni-verfal Cbwck-tdicy, and that fort of 
Epiicc p-vjy which he rather (iippofeth, than proveth 
npceflary; arid liich other Points : But I will no more 
tire the Reader herein. 

I XXXII. All the definition of the Protefiant 
Riligfari that I can extort from him, is, Communicating 
with the Church of England, and thofe that it holds 
cmmuniGn with.. 

1 . And Co did the Papifts, faith Dr. HeyUnjm the be- 
ginning of Queen Elizabeths Reign, till the Pope for- 
bad them. 

1. The Church of England never renounced Com- 
munion with the Reformed Churches , which he re- 

3. A particular Church is no Standard of Religi- 
on : Nor England more than the reft. 

Sect. XXXIII. If he renounce Communion 
with aU thele Reformed Churches, and with the Rc- 
?77a?is aKS, what a'Scparatift is this Man^and how nar- 
row is his Communion, and into how (mall a number 
.hath he reduced the Univerfal Church ? If neither Pa- 
pifts, nor any Churches that haye not Ordina- 
tion from uninterrupted Succefiion, be parts . of the 


U - ~ D - 

Catholick Church, it is very little, if not I 

Sett. XXXIV. He thus tcachcth almoft all the 
Chriftian world, inftcad oi: Love andConcord, to Un- 
church, Unchrift-cn, and CoiuL-nn The 
Romans^on fuch accounts, already Unchurch all the 
reft. The reft will far more tafily prove,that Simony, 
Herefie, uncalled Popes ; uncapable ones, and mar. 
Schifrns have oft interrupted his defcribed Succcfiion at 
Rome: And (b Turks and Heathenshave matter given 
them againft us ail. Already by fuch kind of Schif- 
matical Principles,there are few parts of the Church on 
Earth, that are not by others Unchurched , and Un- 
church not others : But yet it is but few of them that 
have proceeded to that Anabaptiftical height, as t > 
lifie all their Sacraments and to expe<ffc that alnv> 
the Chriftian world fn-uld be again baptized. Yea, 
this is far more Schifmatical than common Anabap- 
tifm : For the Anabaptifts with us Re-baptize not them 
that were baptized at age by {uch Minifters as this 
Writer, and (uch others degrade • much lefs do they 
damn aimoft all the Chriftian world, or other Reform- 
ed Churches, and fay , They have no part in Gods 
Covenant of Grace, and Promife of Salvation , and 
that they fin againft the Holy Ghoft, 

g 4 CHAP. 

■ L IC 4J 


None of thefe terms will unite a National 
Church, or any J^ociated Churches \ nor 
iv ell any Jingle Church :. Though iy other . 
means, a competent ZJnion may be kept in 
(erne Churches, wtwithjtandifig jiichSchif- 
matical Courfes. 

§ I. *Tp H ET fame Reafbns which prove that none of 
J thefe terms will ever unite the Univerfal 
Churchy but that all are fitted to promote Divifions, 
will prove all?), that they tend of themfelves to the di- 
viding and diilraciing of all lefler Church Societies 
and Communions : Though yet we do not deny, but 
de facic^ a. particular Church may eafilier agree in zxi 
Error, or be kept in fome Concord under the fame 
Pallor, where a Sin or Error pre vaileth, than the Uni- 
verfal Church on Earth can. As the Church of Rome 
may agree in Popery, but all the Chriftian world will 
not : And as a great part' hath agreed in Arianifntj 
( called Chriftians, ) and a great part in Neftorianifm, 
and to this day in Eutychianifin, and in the Momtbe- 
lites Error, and a great part for Image-worfhip ; and 
as now many. Churches of the Proteftants agree in 
Confubfu imiation and Church-Images, and many in rc- 
jcclir :y 5 and many in afierting it ; but all agree 

not in any of thefe '(though the eldeft fort of Epifco- 
pacy, for ought appearcth, alnlofi all in many ages did 
acknowledge and agree in :)But yet that which hevei 
i the Univerfal Church, but tended to difcord,will 
have everywhere ulually no better a tendency. 

L 10 TJ 
§ II. Yet I have before enumerai 
culars, which arc needful and uictul to 
of a particular Church, which are not io to the Uni- 
verial : As tl be -Members ha Xu-» 

mental- Paftors, the lame Tranilation ot the Scriptures 
read to them, the lame V crhons and Tunes of PL 
when they meet together, the feme place and day, and 
hour of meeting : Pccaufe thefe in the nature of the 
thing vat necemry to Concord, and i dcord and 

Conriuion. And if divers Churches aflbefated, cm 
in a Kingdom, or divers Kingdoms, can agree in the 
fame comenient modes and circumftances ( as the 
fame Tranflat ion of the Bible fo far as they have one 
language , the lame day of Eafier , Annivcriarily to 
Commemorate Chriits Refurreef ion, as they do weekly 
on the fame firfc day, and fome Inch like ) it will be 
.ble, fo it be done by voluntary content, as a thing 
of convenience, and not of neceiiity, and without ty- 
ping over one another,or patenting or defiling 
jr, or turn it into an Engine of Rents 
and Schiim, by making it neceflary to their commu- 
nion, which is the unhappy end of mod humane im- 
pohtions of indifterent unneceiiary thing:. He I 
thinketh he hath hit on the titteft Ceremonies , Rites 
or Modes, is ieldom ever content with iiben-y to ufe 
them, but he mull force all. others ir he can to his wav, 
and take away the liberty of all thai 

ee it by fad ex ; thatmen thmfe theirF< 

and Ceremonies caft our, if all may not be compelled 
to ufe them, though many think their; I ihcy 

had rather have none of them, than have diem u 
terms of meer liberty ; left they t* ' the 

. or contradiction of thole that do r en. 

And fiich men are never content \ ' * n- 

cord in Gods own Inftiruiion^ - riceg 

"that are in penere r.eceL 

6 §in. 

§ 1 1 1. But (bme men arc ftiff in the Schifinatical 
Opinion, that though Churches of many Kingdoms 
may charitably differ in Ceremonies, and indifferent 
things, yet none in the lame Kingdoms (hould be tuf- 
fered fo to differ ( of which 1 (pake before. ) But, 

* i. Chrift hath given us no fuch different meafurcs 
of our Charity, Forbearance or Communion. 

2. The old Churches were quite- of another mind, 
as Socrates and Sozjmen (hew in leveral inftances. And 
it is known that in the fame Empire, every Bifhop had 
power to ufe his own Liturgy, and other Modes, ( as I 
inftanced in the Canon that requireth every man to 
bring his Form firft to the Synod to be tryed, and in I 
the contention between Bafil and the Church of Neoce- 
farea', and the ft life about Gregories and Ambrofes 
Liturgy, and fuch like. ) 

3. 1: was the Paftors and People of the fame Church . 
of Rome, that St. Taul giveth the Precepts of Forbear- 
ing and Receiving Diflenters in things indifferent to. 
And ftili mark, that he wrote not only to the Laity, but 
to the Rulers, (as is evident,) and therefore forbiddeth ■ 
them fiich narrowing Impofitions ; being himfelf alio 
a chief Paftor, ( an Apoftle ) and fo declareth his own 
judgment, as one that would himfelf make no fuch un- \ 
charitable impofitions. 

§ IV. We deny not but fome Churches have a 
while continued in laudable Concord, notwithftanding ■ 
fuch eniharing Impofitions. But, 

1 . It hath been but for a time , and this Worm 
hath fretted then: , ana it hath ended- in their great 
detriment at le 

2. And it was* not by thefe means, but by better 
faiifes, notwithftaiidifig theft difeafes : (b that as we 
anftver the Queftion, Whether a Papift may be laved ? 
ibdowe anKver the Queftion, Whether fuch Churches 
may have profperous Concord ? viz. 1. If the.Ellen- 


i 10 7 3 

tials of Chriftianity in Papifts, and of Communion in 
fiich Churches, be practically held, Co as to be more 
powerful than their Contraries, z. But not by their 
Contraries, but by overcoming them, one may be la- 
ved,and die other have peace ; even as we aniwer the 
:ian, Whether a Alan may live that taketh Poy- 
fon, or hath the Leproiie ? i. Not it it be prevalent 
according to its malignant nature. 2. But yea, if it be 
overcome by natural itrength or medicine. 

§ v . Cbdbrtguwrth ( our poweriiuieft Difputant 
againft the Papiits ) hath fully laid down the true 
Principles of Chriftian Concord ) and the Caufes of 
Schiim, even the making more necehary to Salvation 
or Communion, than is neceilary indeed. And the fa- 
mous Halts, though too bold, and fbmetime going a 
ftep too far, hath laid more againft thefe true Caufes of 
Schifm, with great Truth and Reafbn, than the Au- 
thors of it can well bear. But wtfdom ts juftified of 
all her children* 


The Severity a^d Force of Magiflrates , de- 
nying receffiry. Toleration, and punifhmg 
the Jx'efufers of unneceffary uncertain ftf~ 
geffed things, will never procure Church 
Vmiy and Concord, kit m time wcreafe 

- Druifions. 

§ I. "YJfJles of Schifm, fpeaking of having two Bi- 
JTjL fhops in aDiocels, faith ( pag. 223. ) Nei- 
ther doth it any way (aver of Vice or Mijdemeanor (in- 
ftancing in Aufttns doing it ignorantiy j) their pimijli- 


mmt fleets not, who imnecejjarily and wantonly go about 
to infringe it. 

The moil pious and wife Church Hiftorians extoll 
the two peaceable Bilhops of Ccnfiantmople, that qui- 
etly bore the Nonjraian Bilhops by' them, and gently 
reduced Chryfofioms Followers' the Joannites ; and di£ 
praiie Nefiarlos, and Kch other turbulent Prelates that 
persecuted them, on pretence of zeal againft Error ,and 
lome of them proved more erroneous themlelves. 

§ I L This crying out for the drawing of the 
Sword againft thole that differ in unncceilary things,is a 
great dishonour to the perlbns that tell men haw con- 
scious they are of their own inefficiency for their 
proper work 5 and a .reproach to the power of the'/ 
Keys, as if it lignified nothing without the Sword : 
And in all Ages JVlen of Ambition, and Tnfufficiency^nd | 
Unchantabknefs, have been thus calling to the Magi- 
strate to do all, when yet in general claim they have 
fct themfelves far above him, as being for the Soul, J 
when lie is but for the Body. 

§ III. But Experience hath ftill confuted them^nd j 
that which one Age for year) thus built,- the next! 
hath ordinarily puiiM down. Not but that orthodox- 1 
pious rrinces are an unlpeakabie bleiiing to the Churchy 
and the want of liicli are ordinary caules of fin, 
iliilrafricn, and milery: But ftich muft know and do 
their proper work, and not lerve the pride and humor 
or ambitious ignorant Clergymen,nor be their Li£lors 
or Executioner^ nor lend them the Sword to execute 
their wills. 

§ IV. Qonfiantine defended the Orthodox (yet of- 
fended greatly at their unpeaceablenels , and at laft 
-tempted r ;ome Avians, nicer! y becaule-^being 

&ppreifedj they were the greater pretenders to Peace*) 
" but i I down what the Father had let up. 

-One- Emperor fuppreiTed the E 


[ ic 9 

them up, and others proclaimed aired pa- 

cification. One Emperor pulfd down the 
lites, and another let them up. One Emperor pulfd 
cfown Church- and another let them up , aria 

General Councils changed, with them. And io on. 
in many other inftanccs. If this forcing co;: 
riuw generally taken, how many Kingdoms w 
the better tor it? or now do? not four lixtli parts 
of the world that are Heathens : nor above the fifth 
part of lix that are Mahometans : not moft of the 
other fisth pint that arc Papifts : The Presbyterians 
like it not in England : The Prelatiihs are not for it 
where the Presbyterians rule. Mow few Cpi 
juft of our mind ? and therefore in how few would it 
pleafe us, or accord mod ate us, 

§ V. And thole that are of the (ame mind in the 
main, yet rarely long agree in all things. I have before 
proved, and the notorious frate of Mankind proveth, 
That there is itigh a woriderft 'ity or mental 

capacities and appreheniions, that the befc will never all 
agree in any, but few plain s. To endea- 

vor by right means to brine" ail men to be wlie,anci to 
agree in all right Thoughts, Ahcccionsand PracK 
very good : But he that will reiolve to tolerate no Er- 
ror?- ( much mere diffent about (iifpecied unnca 

) fhali be a heinous oppreffor of maiiklnc.even 
of Chriftians for being but men.. Hew lew Subjects 
.muft fuch a Prince expect to have, that will cut e 
that are not of one intellectual complexion ? 

§ V I. And, as is aforefaid, when men think I 
God obligeth them to dli:cnt,the more honeft andcon- 
ftionable they arc, the more refolutely they will bear 
all fuHerings, and never yield to man, againft the Con- 
fcience of their Duty to Gcd ; (b that if you begin to 
juinifti fuch, there is no ending.till you have I 
them, ban ifhed them, or kept them e . And 


let all fbber Magiftrates think, what Councilors, fiich 
Clergymen are to them, that would have them, 

i . Choole out the moft Confcionabie and Religious 
for their Punifhments. 

a. And not ceafe till they have deftroyed them. 
*■ § VII. And doth not this tend to drive out true Con- 1 
Icience and Religion from the Land, when men that j 
have no Confcience , fhall pals for the obedient lau- 
dable Subiecb ? And fuch being capable ftill of Pre- 
ferment, fliallpoflefs the Churches , and be Rulers of 
the reftjand then w r hat can we expe£t,but that (iich will 
life Religious Diflenters as their Enemies, and reproach 
them with all malicious names ? And O what a {late is 
filch. a Land in ! 

§ VIII. And ( you are not infallible, Councils 
have erred ) what if it fhould prove, That thefe you 
deftroy are in the right , and you muft be judged of 
God as Perfecutors ? Let not Spleen or Pride make you 
fearlefs of fuch a fin and judgment. 

§ I X. Yea,if they fhould prove in the Wrong,yet 
you may be Perfecutors, if the Error be fuch that good 
men fhould bear with in each other , and God is the 
Avenger of all the wronged and oppreffed. And it is 
not difregardable that they do and fiifter all for him, 
though they miftake, as Paul . faith, Rem. 14. He that 
eateth^ eateth to the Lord; and he that eateth not *> to the 
Lord he eateth net : It is God that he intended to obey 
and plcale. And one hath need to look well about him, 
before he deftroy fuch. I dare fay, That that man 
hath truly no Religion, that; preferreth it not before 
the pleafing of men, and all worldly intereft ; for Re- 
ligion is our devotednefs to ferve and pleafe God : And I 
God is not taken for that mans God, that preferreth 
- any thing before him, ( as I faid before. ) 

§ X. However it is certain ,, That thus to fct 
Princes in a conftant Confliit againft Confcionabie 

' godlv 

godly men, is liker zWar againfi God and Confidence-) 
than any way to Peace and Concord. The Law will 
not yield, and < will not yield ; and God will 

keep up a Su^ccflion of Confcionablc men in the world, 
when Popes and Periecutors have done their worft : 
And humane frailty and fin will keep up aSucceii da 
of fb much wcaknefs, as that the belt, much more the 
weakeft, will have vain Scruples, Ignorance and Errors, 
which Prifons or Penalties will not cure; yea, uftially 
greatly increafe the malady by Exafpcration ;'and wile 
men will forefee a probability of the end, before they 
begin. Hypocrites may yield to fa vg their skins , but 
the truly Confcionablc will not : For to yield to what 
they think to be fin, is, in ^ their judgment, wilfully to 
chcofe damnation. 

§ X I. Let not the Clergy Tyrants ftill cant their 
vain Obje£Hon, [_ The?! Confidence n ill be a pretence for 
any Villany, which was not wade to be a ckak for fm^\ 
For it is not liberty tor any Villany that we are pleading 
for : who know eth not that abufied Reafcn is the pre- 
tence and plea for almoft all Villany in the world ? 
What then ? Muft not Reafbn be regarded ? The ufe 
and honor of it kept up, while man is man ? And all 
men have leave to plead Reafbn in their Caufe: And 
yet not all tolerated that Reafbn is pretended or abufed 
for. And what Reafcn is to Man, that Confidence is to 
Religious Men. Some Evils are fb great audinconfiftent 
with the publick good, that it is better all thofe were 
, banifhed or deftroyed, who pretend either Confidence or 
Reafion for them, than that theylhould be Tolerated; 
I and thefe are intolerable Evils. But what man thinks 
that it is fb with all Error or Faults ? much left 
all things indifferent, which fbme men have a mind to 
exercife their mafterfhip in commanding. Put firft the 
queifion to fbber Confcionable men ; Is it mere to 
common good 5 und intcreft of Honefty and Confcience, 


that all the Per (bus in a Nation be imprifbiled,banii}ied. 
or killed, that dare not (wear, lay and pra&iie all that 
is impoted on thcm,than that the Impolitions be altered 
or they forborn ? 

§ X 1 1. And I muft again fay- That this Church- 
Tyranny, as moil other fin, is moft againft the Owners 
of it : For it the faults of godly men that fcruple to 
lubferibe to Popes, Patriarchs, Dioceianes, Synods, Li- 
turgies, or Ceremonies, are not to be Tolerated, how 
much lefs a proud and perfecuting Clergy, or luch as 
abufe or exclude Church-Difcipline, or by floth,or un- 
gocily carnal Lives, do wrong their Office, and betray 
the Flock? 

§ XIII. And again I remember them, That Pa- 
yors muft govern the Flock, much like as men do their 
Wives : And let men but try how far weak andpaiiio- 
nate Wives mull: be Tolerated by them that w ill not do' 
or iuiicr worfe, and here pracliie accordingly 

C 11 A l\ >' I t 

KxQ$mrnv;:ic>itirg aii'd Af?dt h emit i zing, tit 
any of the forefjidCjfes^ is Sch/fmat/cal, s 
and not the kz\ig to "Tta:e.- ( 

§ I. ^TpHere need not much more be faid of this \ it 

X is already proved, That Chrifi himfelf 

hath in his Law , made the terms of the Union and 

Communion of his Members : As "the fame- Nature that 

formeth all our members in the womb, is alio the placer 

and arbiter of them: Therefore that which ]$ cot; 

-to Chrifts terms, yea, which is 'none of them, cannot 

prove the true terms and means of *Q>ncord. 

§ 1 1. Indeed no man ought to be Excommunicated 


btherwife than by Miniflerial Declaration and JtiJg* 
went,how tar he hath firlt departed from Union, and 
cut oft or Excommunicated himfelf. An impenitent 
Fornicator, Drunkard, Perferutor, doth cut oft bin* 
felf from the fir. or of God, and his part in Chrift>and 
th^ i his true Church : Therefore the Pallors 

may dtidto e that he doth fo. And if it become a Con- 
troverfie either defatio, whether he be ftich an one ; 
or de jure, whether this be true j the Pallors are the 
proper Judges, fo far as to re'blve the Confciences of 
the Flock, whether they inuft avoid thai &an, or com- 
municate with him. And this I think the Rational 
Mr. Hales would not have de A iied, though in his Trea- 
tife of the Keyes.he afierte'th only -a. Declarative, and de- 
nieth a Judicial Power : For his Reafcns (Lew that he 
only meant, th?t the Church hath no efficient Judg- 
ment to cut oft any man fromGhrift or his B^cy. tur- 
ther than he tirft cuts oft himfelf. And far be it from 
any Friend of the Church to fay,That it is the Bijixps 
Office to undo Souls, and to feparate any irom Chrift, 
fave only by declaring and judging that they i wilfully 
feparate themfelves, and therefore requiring: the People 
to avoid them, and binding them over to anfwer theii* 
fin at the Bar of God : The rell is the Devils work, 
and the impenitent Sinners, and not the Pallors of the 

§ III. And what, is faid againft the Magiftrates 
unfealonabk force, will nioftly hold againft fuch undue 
Excommunication, i. If the perfon belief that he 
is call out for Hot fbrlaking.his duty to God 5 he will re- 
joy ce that he is counted worthy to iiifter for.righteouf- 
nefe feke y remembring that Chrift laid; Theyfiailcafi 
you out' of their Synagogues: And this will bring no 
man to Repentance. 

§ I V. And, %. Then the Pallors will fall under thc^ 
mputatron of Tyranny and Verfecution^ and be taken 

H h ro 

to be Haters andHinderers of Confcionable men, and 
grievous Wolves that devour the Flock. 

§ V. And, 3. The Parties Excommunicate, will 
think that this doth not excufe them from the duty cf 
worfoipping God, and therefore they will aflemhle by 
themfelves for foch worftip ;and there they will think, 
That they are a better Church than thofe that cafi them 
out 5 and perhaps may Excommunicate their Excom- 
municaters, as the Bifbop of Alexandria and Confianti-' 
hople have done by the Bifliop of Rome : Or > more 
likely, delpife their Cenfiire , and go on , unleis the 
Sword be drawn to (upprefs them, ( to which only 
(iich Excommunicaters ufe finally to truft : ) And then 
what will follow, I have fliewed before. 

§ V I. And indeed we need no greater proof of 
the inefte&ualnefs of Excommunication in foch cafes, 
than the open confeflion of the lifers of it ; who, if 
they have not an A£t for Horning ( as they £all it in 
Scotland ) or to imprifon the Excommunicate , or 
punifh him by the Sword, confefs that their Sentence 
will be contemned : which is moft true. 

§ VII. Yet lad Experience further afliireth U9, 
That Papal Anathematizings, yea, and thofe of Gene- 
ral Councils, have been no fmallcaufe of Schifin, Con- 
fiifions and Rebellions: TheHiftory of this would fill 
a Volume. Alas! what did the Councils of Ephefz/s, 
Constantinople, Chalcedony and many others, b^ their 
Anathemas ? The ftate of Syria, Egypt, and Abajfia* 
&c. of thofe called Jacobites and Neficrianx, tells us to 
this day : And thefe Thunderbolts have been the 
Popes great Engines, to t>eat down Kings, and batter 
Kingdoms. It is the admiration of the world, i*ext to 
the foccefs of ignorant Mahomet, That a company of 
old Uforpers ( many of them fiicceffively being noto* 
rioufly wicked men, and (b judged -by Councils , and 
their moft flattering Hitter ians} ihould conquer Chri- 


(Kan Kingdoms and Empires, by fitting at home, and 
curfing men, and tellipg them, [ St. Peter it angry 
'with them 9 and will ke/p them out of Heaven , if they 
be not obedient to the Pope. ] But men that will be the 
Slaves of Sin, deferv^ to have their Reafon (b forfaken* 
to make themfelves ^he Slaves of Subjects. 

§ VIII. Yet ye are far from thinking, That 
juft Excommunication is of no ufe j God would not 
have the Church of Chrift to feem no better than the 
world ; it is a Society gathered out of the world by 
the (anetifying Word and Spirit, and as holy devoted 
to the moll holy God. And he would have the Church 
Vifible, to be vifibly the womb of the Triumphant 
Church, or the Sheepfold of Chrift, containing fuch as 
have a feeming or vifible right to (alvation, however 
Hypocrites do intrude : And therefore the Keys of the 
Church {hould be much of Kin to the Keys of Hea- 
ven, ib that he that is taken in or fhut out,may feem to 
the Chriftian judgment of probability to be taken in- 
to, or (hut out of a right to faivation. And therefore 
as impenitent wicked men (hould not be deluded in 
vain hopes, by being received to Church Communion ; 
fb neither (hould godly men , for pardoned or tole- 
rable infirmities, be fhut out of the Church,while God 
contmueth their vifible Title to faivation ; much le(s a 
Lay-Chancellor, or a Bifhop, Excommunicate Chrifts 
Members, for not paying their Fees, or for not kneel- 
ing at the Sacraments, or for not fubmitting to unne- 
ceflary Impofitions, or for holding fiich Things unlaw- 
ful, or fiich like.This way will never heal our breaches, 
or unke the Churches. 

Hh % CHAP. 


• • • ' 


Atiy One Vnlawjad\ Uncertain Ttoctrine, 
Oath, Covcnav: y ^ofetjJon 
Tract ice, fo twpcfeJ as necejfary to Com- 
munion, will be a,dividipg Engine. 

§ I. *""Jp His is proved :in lvhat is (aid before : For a 
1 Confcionable Man will 'hot wilfully and 
deliberately commit OtieSm^ to five his Liberty, Eftate 
or Life - though manjSmS be worfe ; For he that 
wilfully, commits one', virtually committeth many : 
And, as St. ^ames faith, Breaker k the whole Law. 

§11. Yea, though ' ;the matter of the Sin feem 
ktfitf a Believer will not think it a little Sin 9 to do it 
deliberat.eljj.2nd ftand to it by Covenant confent. The 
high places among the Jews feemed no great matter ■; 
but a good man would not have Covenanted never to 
endeavor any Reformation of them. 

§ III. A peaceable Man will live quietly in z\ 
Church that hath many Sins and Errors. 3 but "he dare 
not deliberately own or juftifie the leaft; I fhould com-, 
mumcate with no Church, on earth,, if I thought all 
the Minifters or Peoples Sins, yea^allthe Faults in their 
Prayers, . or Dodrrine, or Difcipline, were made mine by 
it; I will live peaceably with a Church that hath a 
faulty Doctrine , Liturgy' and Difcipline in Things 
Tolerable ; as if it were Lay-Chancellors power of 
the Keys, or Dioceianes too large Churches ( infima 
jhcciei : ) But I will not profefs, That I Afjmt, Confent 
toy and Approve all theft Faults, or any One of them j 
por will I Covenant never to endeavor in any place and 
calling to reform them, nor juftifie all that are guilty of 
them, § IV. 


§ I V. If one fin of Davids In numbring the 
People, was (b (brely puniflied • and one {in of Achans, 
of the Betbfljemites, of Uzzabs, of Uz&iabs, of Jo- 
fiahs, of Ananias ^ and Saphiras, yea, at Hrft of ^rfw 
and Eve ; if one falle Article of the Avians fo troubled 
the Church of Chrift ; and one Error about Images 
in Churches, fo corrupted the Church, and made fuch 
fad work in Councils and Kingdoms, a wife Man will 
not wilfully own one Jin. 

§ V. And indeed Chrift hath determined, That he 
that breaketh one of the leal} of ' bts Commandment s,and 
teacheth menfb,jhall be called the leafl in the Kingdom of 
God, Matth. 5*. As he that truly believeth God in one 
thing, will believe him in all which he knoweth to be 
his word ; fb he that obeyeth him truly in one thing, 
will obey all that he knoweth to be his Command, 
whoever be againft it. 

m § V I. And it is dangerous .for a mortal Worm to 
fet his law or will againft his Makers, and deftroy or 
punifli a Man for obeying God ; fufficient means 
fhould be ufed hrft to convince all Men,that the thing 
is evil, and that it is not God that doth command it ; 
elfe it is a letting up ones felf above God, and againft 
him, and faying, Tou Jhall not obey Gad, but me : But 
when death cometh,can you. fave either your ielf, or 
him, from the juftice ol that God, whom both you 
(hould have obeyed ? 

H h 5 CHAP. 


Vnlimited Tokratiw will wrong apd divide 
the Church. 

§ I. ALL fbber Men are (b far agreed in thi^that 

JljL I need not fay much of it ; no doubt there 

are intolerable Errors and Sins. And though Mr. Hales 

and others (ay, It is not Herejie, unlefi 
See Sir Thomas it be wilful , and we feldom know the 
Over burf slate* ^^juj f anot her i Yet in tnith, 
Plea for Tole- J J J . ' 7 r . . > 

r****l in An- *•■* 1S no 5 only formal Jukjetfi<ve 
fwer to A**> Here/ie , which maketh the Man an 
** Obftaculum, Heretick, which wemuft refift and re* 
Renouncing &x ^ ^ ^ matirid objetfvve Here- 
unlimited 1 o- ^ 7 , , i rx- i • i 

Ieration. A 5 whatever be the Divulgers mind, 

a. And alfo there is a wilfulnefs which 
is "Privative^ when the Will doth not its duty to di£ 
cover Truth and Error , as well as a pofitive willing- 
nefs to err ( which Auguftine faith, That few or none 
can have : ) And no mans will is wholly innocent in 
any culpable Sin or Error. 

§ II. Doubtlels mansConfcience is not properly 
his Lawmaker ', nor his Law, (though feme unaptly fay 
fo ) but only his decerning of that which is his Law j 
no more than the Lawyers eye, or reafbn, or skill,is the 
Law of the Land. And therefore to have an erring 
Confidence, taking that for Gods Law which is not, is a 
Sin ( where it was poflible to know it. ) 

§ 1 1 1. And therefore Gods Law is not fit$>ended y 
but violated by mans Error ; God hath not as many 
forts of Law as men have Opinions of it , %x Gonr 
fciences in Error- If a man fhould think that -God 


bindetb him to kill,fteal, flander, &c. this would not 
make any of thefe no fin, but it would be no finall iin 
in him, that would father fuch wickednefi on the moft 
holy God, and on his Law. If an erring Conlcience 
think that God forbiddeth our duty to Princes,Parents, 
Children, Neighbors, Juftice, Charity, c^c This would 
not diflolve any of his Obligations,but be an added fin 
in flandering God : Far be it from any (bber man to 
think, That the Magiftrate muft let all men do all the 
Evil which they will but pretend God and Conlcience 

§ I V. Nor is the Papal Do£lrine true or tole- 
rable, That Priefts^nelyare for mens Souls, and Prin- 
ces but for their Bodies, and Temporal Concerns • and 
fo that the Prieft is as much higher than the Prince, as 
the Soul is than the Body. Indeed the Miniftev of 
Chrift is to manage only the Word, which worketh on 
the Soul by the way of Senfe, and not of the Sword j 
but yet it is to be finally for the good of Souls,that the 
Magiftrate ufeth the Sword : As the voice toucheth 
the Ear, 16 doth the Sword theFlefh for the benefit of 
Souls, either the finners, or other mens. And verily 
he that laith otherwife, and placeth the bonum publi- 
cum, which is the end of Government, meerly in the 
bodies prolperity, difhonoureth and debaleth Magiftra- 
cy 9 and letteth Princes lower than Priefts, Parents or 
Friends. Godly men that believe the vanity of thing! 
Tranfitory and Corporeal , would have as low an 
efteem of the Means, as of the End, and lb of all 
Civil Rules, if they believed this. But he that is the 
King, as well as the great High-Prieft of the Church, 
for holy Ends , and for mens Salvation , hath made 
Princes his Officers lubordinate to him for thole' Ends^ 
as well as Paftors. I will not ftand here to confute one 
or two Scotijb Divines that have written againft me,for 
faying, 7to frimei and AUgiftrates are nm the Ale- 

Hh 4 dhtm 

diators Officer s^ and have their Power from Hint, into 
whofe Hands all Tower -in Heaven and Earth is given. 
Sober Thoughts in wile ChrifHans will lave me that 

§ V. And he that faith, By me Kings reign , and 
Will have Rings to be the Churches Nurjing-Fathers, 
will not take it for an excufe of their neglect, to lay, 
We were authorized onely for mens Bodies : It is not 
equally for all that have Bodies, nor for bodily Ends , 
but to lee -to the execution of Gods Law, by their Bie 
Subordinate Laws; and Gods Laws all look to higher 

§ VI. And he that laid, They are the Mimfiers of 
God to us for good , meant true and durable good , no 
doubt: And when he faith, That they are a Terror to 
evil doers, he meaneth luch as is contrary : to' the well- 
doing Xvhich they mull; encourage. And is Piety and 
Christianity none of that? He doth ^pot except Bla£ 
phemy, Idolatry, Oppofition to God, Chrift, Holinels, 
Heaven, Juftice or Charity, from the number of Evil 
Works, which are the worft of them. It is therefore 
certain, That Princes may and muft puniih many fins 
againA me Firft Table., -arid luch againit the Second 
as wo aid Ihelter themielves under pretence of Con- 

§ VII. But all the doubt is, What bounds here to 
fet, where it ts jo dan^irvzts to go too far. . And it is 
one of the inoft nectar} Gales of Confcience,which a 
Chriftian Prince rhith to ftudy and relblve; in which 
he muft neither hearken to a proud, envious, idle, 
worldly Clergy, n-x- to a;- judicious Zealots, nor to li- 
centious Herecickc. but -void Extreams. 

§ V I I j. Infhort, wh*t I have before laid, deci- 
deth the Cafe. 

i. rle muft Tolerate no one Sin how lmall loever, 
%hich L w^hin his Cog-iizance *uid Jurifuiftion^which 


j>*l ] 

he can indeed cure by righteous means, which will do 
more good than hurt. 

a. Thoughts, Heart Sins and Secret Sins are not 
within his Cognizance. 

3. To do the work of Parents, Taftors, Tutors, or 
Phyfkians, is no part of the Office to which he is ap- 
pointed and authorized. . 

4. But he may drive on all thefe to do their duties 
by due means. 

y. It is unlawful to (eek to cure a leffer Evil, with a 
greater : That is to be numbred with the things which 
the Prince cannot do , which he cannot do by lawful 
means, or fuch as do more hurt than good. 

6. The Mifchiefs before enumerated againft the 
Princes Safety and Honour , and againft Love , and 
Juftice, and Confcience , and Religion, are (b great, 
as that no Severity muft be ufed which procureth them, 
and doth not a greater good. 

7. The punifhing of (mall Faults by great Punifh- 
ments, is Injuftice, and Unlawful. 

8. Abundance of Infirmities, and humane Frailties 
and Errors, are (uch as muft be endured, (b they be but 
by Doctrine, Love and gentle Reproofs, rebuked and dif 
owned, without Punifhments Ecclefiaftical or Corporal , 
elfe there will be no Love or Peace. 

9. Preachers muft not be fuffered to perfiiade Men 
from the Faith, Love or Obedience of God in Chrift, 
againft any Article of the Creed , or Petition of the 
Lords Prayer, or Precept of the Decalogue, or any ef- 
fential part of the Chriftian Religion. 

1 o. If (uch (peak a damnable Error or Herefie by 
Ignorance or Heedle(he(s, they muft have a firft and 
fecond Admonition, and they will repent. But if they 
forbear not up<?n Admonition, they do it ft udioufly and 
wilfully, and fuch are to be Silenced till they Reform, 
becaufe the Preaching of one that oppofcth an ejfen- 


sial Point of Religion, will do more harm than good, 
except among Heathens, or where no better Preachers 
can be had. 

1 1. It will not be unmeet for the Rulers to draw 
up either a Catalogue of integral Points of Religion of 
great moment, which all fhall be forbidden to Preach 
orDifpute againft; or elfe a Catalogue of Errors coiv> 
trary to fiich, which none fhall have leave to propa- 
gate: But it is not every one that violateth the Law, 
thdt is to be forbidden to preach Chrifts Gofpel ; but 
leller pecuniary Mul&s, may be ftfficient punilhment 
to many ; and the bare denying them preferment or 
maintenance, and cafting them among the difowned 
that are but tolerated, may be better punilhment, and 
more effe&ual in cafe of tolerable Faults. , than the 
jfiore fevere. 

ix. Rulers fhould do much more to reftrain from 
Evils, than to conftrain to Religious Duties : And thofe 
Evils are of thefe forts. 

Firft, Such as blafpheme God. 

Secondly, Such as draw the Hearers Souls into dam* 
nable Error or Sin. 

Thirdly, Such as tend to overthrow the Honour and 
Safety of the Governors. 

Fourthly, Such as tend dire&ly to breed Hatred in 
men againft each other, and kindle the fire of Conten- 
tion and Enmity. 

Fifthly, Such as draw men from the common duties 
of fuftice towards Neighbors, or Relations, into Fraud 
and Injury. 

13. It is the greateft part of the Magiftrates duty 
about Religion, 

Firft, To fee Gods own Laws kept in Honour. 

Secondly, And to keep Peace by Church JufKces. 

imong Clergymen and People, that are apt to takeoc- 

afion from Religion, to abufe and calumniate one ano- 

ier. 14* Yet 

["j 3 

14. Yet Rulers may and mud compel Perfons that 
are grofly ignorant or erroneous, to hear what can be 
laid againft their Error, and for their Inftru£Hon : As 
Parents ( (b Magistrates ) may compel Children ( and 
Subje&s ) to be Catechized, and to hear Gods Word ; 
and may compel them to hear (uch Teachers as have 
the Rulers Licence, either as Approved, or Tolerated to 

1 5*. Men ought not to be compelled to receive the 
Sacraments of Baptifm or the Lords Supper , by the 
Sword or Force ; Decaufe it is to receive a fialed Par- 
don of Sin, and Donation of Chriit and Life ; which 
no unwilling person hath right to, or doth receive : For 
to (ay I am unwilling, is to (ay I receive not', and (0 the 
reception of the outward fign is Hypocrifie,Prophana- 
tion, and taking the Name of God in vain. 

1 6. Yet tho(e that are Baptized, and at Age, avoid 
Communion, are, after Admonition, to be taken for Re- 
vokers to far, and to be declared (uch as (b far caft 
themfelves from the Communion of the Church : And 
the Chriftian Magiftrate may well deny them many 
• Priviledges in the Commonwealth, which he fhould 
appropriate to (bund perfevering Chriftians. 

1 7. Places in Government, Truft, Burgefs-fhip^nd 
Votes in Elections of Governors, and (uch iike,are beft 
appropriated to the Approved part of Chriftians, and 
ibme the Tolerated ;but never granted to Apoftates^ 
proper Hereticks, or any that are intolerable. 

1 8.Paftors of the Churches fhould not be conftrairt* 
td to give the Sacrament of Baptifm, or the Lords Sup- 
per, to any one againft their Consciences- becaufe, 

Firft, It is their Office to be Judges, who is to be 
baptized, arid to Communicate. This is the power of 
:hc Keys. 

Secondly, If they may not judge of the very Ad 
fcrhkh they are to perform, they have not fo much as 


that judicium difcretimis , which belongeth to every 
man as a man r and (b muft aft brutiihly. 

Thirdly, If they may adminifter againft Confcience 
when they think it Sin, the fame region would hjold 
for all men to fin, whenever a Ruler commandeth them 
that j adgeth it no Sin : what Bounds (hall be fet againft 
abioiute blind Obedience ? 

Fourthly, Whereas the ObjeElion is from Inconve- 
niences, As, £ Then every Taftor may deny Men Sacra- 
ments. ~] 

I ai.fvver, i. So every Tutor, Phyfician, &c. may. 
#bufe his Truft. 

5L. Therefore men muft have care whom they 
choole and trull. 

P There are better Remedies than finful flavery in 
the Minifter, even conf lilting. with Synods of Mini* 
iters, or where Bifhops rule, appealing to them. 
. 4, The perfbns that expedt the Sacrament , may 
have it fixm ^bme other Paftor that is willing. It is 
a lefs inconvenience that a fingle perfon remove, or elfe 
communicate in t - ocher Aflembly, than that the Paftor, 
whole Office is to ui- the Church Keys, be enflaved to. 
fin againft his Confcience. 

5. We fuppofe that of ancient right, the Church is 
not to have a Pallor over them , whom they content 
not to : Then f^ce if the Church find themfelves 
wronged by the Paftors Faihthey have their Remedy. 
They may adrnoaifh the Paftor, and if he hear not, 
r^U the Bilhop. >ynod or Magiftrate (for I am not now 
determining the cafe of liiperi< r Bilhops,but tell what 
is thea£tual Remedy where (lichbear Rule:) And if he 
hear not the Clmrch, Synod, Bifhop or Magiftrate, they 
maydeferth:m,andchoo(e a fitter Paftor, and yet nei- 
ther Excommunicate nor Silence him , but the fame 
man may be more Citable to another Flock which 
will defire him. 

■ They 

L**5 J 

They that objeft Inconveniences in this motion, 
fhould confider, 

Firft, That a Milchief and Sin is worfe than an 

Secondly, That there is nothing defirable here 
without Inconveniences, which may ttirnifh an unwife 
Contender with ObjeBtons. 

Thirdly, That they that cry up the Canons and 
Traditions,Cuftom or judgment of Antiquity,Biihops, 
Councils, Fathers, and the Catholick Church, lhould 
not haftily fet their own Wit or Authority againft them 
all, who for 6 co, if not nearer iooo years after 
Chrift, did not only judge that Bifhops muft come in 
by the Peoples EleAion ana Content, but that he was 
to be accounted an Ufiirper, and no Bifhop of theirs, 
that had it not. 

Fourthly, And we have reafon-to think St. Cypriaft, 
and the Carthage Council of Bifhops,as wife as the 0£- 
jeclors, who, in the Cafe of Martial and Bafdides be- 
fore defcribed judged, that the People ought to forfake 
an uneatable [candalcm Pafior,thcugh other B'jfljcps (even 
he of Rome ) abfolved him : And that- the chief power 
<f chovfing or forjakwg was in them, and if they did 
4therwife,it was not the 'contrary Sentence of Bijhopsthat 
would .'.e'xcufe them before God. It is eafie to (ay \JSt. Cy- 
prian erred,and we are in the right, and this would cvw- 
throw,.all Government : ]] But neither the perfons t,ar 
obje£t, nor their Reafbns, have ever yet feemed to me 
iufficient, to make me prefer their judrrrreiU even in 
this before Cyprian, and the African Fathers. 

XI. In all probability FREE SACRA:. ::-'.>?TS 
adminiftred by (uch Minifters of Chrift as by 
ftian Magiftra tes. Licence are either Approved 
rated, would heal moft of all theDifcords about Reli- 
gion in 'England, I mean, Sacraments not confirainedlj, 
but freely given and received. 

I fhall 

1 fliall tell you why I think fb> by iirffeo; 

ces. • 

i. The Thing call'd StriS Fresbytery , [m£j a 
y<wer #f Claffes and National Ajfembliesy compoftd of 
Ordained and Unordained Elders, as a Judicature jvhofe 
Excommunication is to be enforced by the Magiftratts 
Sword ^ is approved by few of my acquaintance in 
England: But thofe that Vrelatifis call Presbyterians 
here, commonly are Minifters that defire but the exer- 
cife of fb much of their proper Office , and the free- 
dom of a Chrifiian and a Man y 2is not to be forced to 
adminifter Sacraments againft their knowledge and 
confcience to the uncapabie, becaufe a Lay-Chancellof 
or a Dioeefane that knoweth not his Neighbours and 
Flocks (b well as he, fhall (ay that they are worthy,and 
command him to renounce his knowledge in obeying 
them. And if God had made all fiich Minifters to be 
only the Lay-Chancellors, or the Diocefanes Agents or 
Servants, to Baptize, and give the Lords Supper only in 
the Chancellors or Bilhops name as a Mefienger, and if 
it be done amlfs, that not we, but the Chancellor or 
Bifhop fliould aniwer it to God^then we could joyfully 
thus obey themu But while we believe,That Wemuft 
anfwer our (elves for our own anions, and that we 
mult Baptize, and give the Lords Body and Blood , in 
Chrifts Name, and not the Biflhops, we dare not obey 
Men before God, nor renounce our own judgment in 
the matters of our own Office and Truft : Therefore 
it would (atisfie us, had we but freedom in our Minifte- 
rial a£tion, not to go againft our Confcience, however 
blind malice would make the wurid believe, that it is 
fbme Papal Empire, even over Prinzes, that we defire* 
Nay, we defire, That if the Magiftrate will allow US 
Parifh-Churches, and Maintenance, and Countenance 
in our work, that any perfon that cannot remove his 
dwelling without ^reat detriment, and cannot be JatiP 


ficd In our Order of Worfhip and Comtnunion,but can 
receive more Edification from another Minifter , may 
have leave to join in Communion with any otlu r Ap- 
proved or Tolerated Church, keeping the Laws of Loy- 
alty and peace : Why fhould lenvy anothers defires or 
benefits ? Or think it hard, that any can profit more 
by another, than by me? Or why fliould I be againft 

And we defire ( not that the People may be Or- 
dainer^or Church-Governors,or have the power of the 
Keys, but ) that if any Flock cannot be fatisfied , af- 
ter full hearing, to reft under the conduit of our Mini- 
ftery, they may freely choofe another, and remove us. 
And for my own part, as I never did, ,ib I wonder how 
any ingenious Minifter can obtrude himMf on any 
People , and pretend to be their Pallor againft their 
wills. As my Conscience condemneth it as againft God 
and them, fb Iconfefsmy Prudence is againft it for my 
felf, and I am not ib bafe as to endure fuch a life. 

ft. And as for the Party called Independant, I have 
reafon to think that it is the main of that Toleration 
which they defire. For Mr. Philip Nye, who led them 
more than any one man known to me , did purpofely 
write to prove, That the Chrijlian Magifirate may jet 
up Teachers, all over has Dominions, whom the People, 
upon his Command, are bound to hear : But that to take 
any for then PaJlors,he thought they might not be com- 

3. And even the Anabaptijls would be contented 
with the iame liberty, if they be but near as peaceable 
as Mr. Tombes was, v/ho wrote for even Parochial Com. 
munion, and perfaaded the Anabaptijls to it : Though 
few fo far followed him, moil, I think, would be con- 
tented with Free Sacraments, in which I include the 
Eucharifiical Lords-day worfhip. 

§ X X. And what harm will this do, where Love 


pfevaileth, and where Pride and Envy make riot ill 
Priefts to think all wrong them, that do not Adore or 
Idolize them,- or give them 'more than is their due ? 
What harm will it do me, if an hundred of my Pa- 
rifh hear and prefer another man, by whom they can 
profit more than by me ? What if they worfhip God 
in other ( (bund ) words , or in Cloaths of another 
make or colour, as long as they are reftrained from re- 
viling, and the breach of Peace ? Are' they any better 
in my Auditory with cenfuring or diifentiilg Jndg- 
ments, hearing me againft their wills, than where they 
tan freely join in Love and Peace ? If a bad or weak 
Minifter grudge at all that go to an able Conformift 
in the next Pariih, few wife^men will think that he 
doth it more for God, or for his Brothers Soul, than for 
himfelf: And yer that perfbn breaketh the Canon that 
goeth to the next Pariih, as weil as he that goeth to a 
Nonconformist. And why fhould we be more impa- 
tient with this man, than with that ? 

§ XXI. The Pamphlets that are fpread abroad 
for Rigor and Severity of late , under the pretence of 
Conformity, do many of them ; favor fo rankly of 
Church-Tyranny,- and a bloody Mind and Principles, 
and are made up of fuch Reafons, as give us juft cauft 
to foipe£t, that more of them are written byPapifts> 
than fbme think. I inftance in one called, [ * A Repre- 
"fentation of the State of Chrifkimtty in England, and 
a of its decay and danger from Sectaries^ as well as Pa- 
" pfts. Printed; 1 674, for Benjamin Tooke. j in which 
the State of Religion here is unworthily flandered;and 
the Follies of (bme few, fiich as the Jguakerstfixtcnded 
to be the State of our Religion, and words beleeming 
Mad-men, ( which we never hear ) fathered -onfthofe 
that he pleafeth to call Sectaries'*, and they are repre- 
sented as defpifers of the Creed , Lords Prayer, and 
Commandments* and what not, that is reverend, good 


and holy, and the Papifts much preferred before them> 
faying, [" That for one infallible old Gentleman at 
ft Rome we have Thousands of Hot Sprits in England, 
u that pretend to more of the Divine Perfections than 
u ever he did : For if the Holy Ghcfl doth perfonally in- 
u dwell in Se&arie V^*« they are perfonally poffeffed with 
"all the glorious Attributes of the Godhead^ pag. 26. 
" And 28. The Idolatry of the Papifts Will be as excu- 
u fable at the great day of Accounts, as the unreverent 
u Rudenefs, and fuperftitmts Sowrenefs of the Senary. 
" And p. 29. The grofs Ufurpation and Invaficn of the 
m Prieftly Office by Se&aries, to ereB Churches,&cc. throws 
* more dirt upon the Chriftian Religion, than the grojfeft 
u Errors in the Roman Church, &c. 

Anfw. 1 . I know none io worthy of the Name of 
Sectaries as the Papifts, that damn all Chriftians fave 
themfelves , and feign themfelves onely to be all the 

a. It's like by thefe Sectaries^ he meaneth thofe that 
are not Re-ordained, or have not ( uninterrupted ) EpiP 
copal Ordination. And if all fach Reformed Churches 
are (b much more dirty and injurious to Chriftianity, 
than the groffeft JErrors of the Papifts, it's better be of 
the Papal Church, than of them. 

3. Doth pretending to the help of Gods Spirit in 
Praying, and Preaching , and Living, arrogate more 
than pretending to Papal Infallibility in the Office of 
an Urriverfal Monarch, and Judge of the fenfe of all 
Gods Word ? The word [ Perfonal~] I have heard ufed 
by none but this, and foch Accufers: But what h# 
iheanej:h by it, who can tell ? 

Firft, If it refer to the Perfon of the Receiver, how 
can the Holy Ghoft dwell in any man , and hot dwell 
in his perfon ? 

Secondly, If it refer to the Perfon of the Holy Ghoft, 
what Chriftian, before this man, did ever doubt, (that 

I i took 

took the Holy Ghoft to be God ) whether the Perfm m 
as well as the Usenet of the Holy Ghoft, be every- 
where ? Doth not the Scripture fay, That the Holy Sp- 
rit dweller h in Believers ? Rom. 8. 1 1. i Cor. 3. 16* 
fL Tim. 1 . 1 4, &c. And God dwelleth in zts^ 1 Joh. 4. 
1 x. 1 jy 1 6. And that wt are an habitation of God by 
the Spirit, EphieCa. 11. Is Gods Word worfe than 
popery ? Or is not this to reproach God and his Word+ 
and Sprite mere than the Reformed Churches do by not 
having Bifbops, >vho are accufed by Mr. Dodwell+tofm 
again!! the Holy Ghoft? 

Thirdly, But if [ Per final ] fhould mean the mode 
and tide of Union,, as if by Hypoftatical Union like 
Chrifts, the Holy Ghoft and Believers be made one Per* 
fon^ who are thole Sectaries that hold fiich a thing,who 
fhewthe'ftate of tl. E : y - Ke'gion ? And this is one 
of the mai % tbu>. cry ouc againft TJeration, and tells us,. 
that [_"7. ere . n be no ft ability of Government in 
"England, till there be a jtttkment in Religion - y No 
"fettle: urn of Rclifrr, but by uniting Affections ; No> 
€t unt'mg : ffeawns) b$t by unity of Religion* j And fo. 
on : Therefore Rule** tntdjfc force all to be of one Re- 

Next to the thought of the Heathen and Apoftate 
Nations cafe, ic is one oi rlv. Gddcft to me, that Ru- 
lers and People that have too little ftuqicd (uch mat- 
ters, fhould lie under the ttmpiaron and horrid abufe 
of Clergymen, that write and talk at iuch a rate-as 
this mar* dorh. 

m 1. VII • he maintain, That there is no Union of Re* 
Tigion^ wherever men are not of one -opinion , form or 
mod,?., in every Circu>nfance^ Rite ox Ceremony ^ or every 
accident or $$egg£ of Faith ? Are any two men in the, 
world then oi" one Religion&ny more than of one vifage 
.01: ftature, &c? 

:_%< If thib man had Rulers that differed from him, as 


much as he doth from the Nonconformifts, would he, 
and could he,pre(ently change his judgment ? or would 
he falfly profefs a change, left he fhould not be of one 
Religion with his Prince ? or rather muft it not be hc y 
or fuch as he, that muft be theltandard of that one Re- 
ligion to all ? 

3. Doth he believe, That Prifbns or Flames will 
make men of one Affection ? Would foch ufagc win 
himfelf to love the judgment and way of thofe that he 
fiiftered by ? 

4- Or if men of many Opinions and Affections be 
forced into the fame Temple as a Prifon , doth their 
corporal prefence make them of one Religion and Af- 
feftion ? It is a doleful thing to hear Preachers of the 
Gofpel cry out for Blood, Flames, or Prilons, to make 
whole Kingdoms of one Religion*, conieiimg how unfit 
they are to do it themfelves, who have undertaken the 
Office that fhould do it : Woe to the Princes, Church 
and People, that have not wit and grace to efcape 
the dares of fuch ignorant Tyrannical Counfel- 

Abundance more fuch Pamphlets have lately endea- 
voured to deftroy Love and Peace, and infect the Land 
with Malice and Cruelty. 

§ X 1 1. The Reman Do&rine and Laws for ex- 
terminating, and burning Hereticks, is the top ana per- 
fection of this hypocritical wickedneis, which murder- 
eth Gods Servants, and depopulateth Countries^on pre- 
tence of Charity, Unity and Government. And when 
fb many Princes became guilty of ferving this bloody 
Clergy, ( that never knew what manner of fpirit they 
were of) it was Gods wifdom and juftice to permit the 
fame Councils of Biihops, and the fame Popes, to de- 
cree their Depofition, which decreed their Subjc&s ex- 
termination [Later an, fub Innoc. 3. ) what can be 
more contrary to Nature ? to Humane Intereft ? or to 

I i 2 . the 

the Daflrine , Example , -and Spirit of Chrift ? And 
whole blood is (afe, while (uch blood-fucking Leeches 
are taken for the Rulers of the world, and the Phyfici- 
ans of Souls? 

§ XIII. All this 5 I perceive, is on occafion of 
Objeftionsjjut faperadded to what I fullier (aid before, 
Tart II. Chap. 8. But I ftill fay, That Toleration muft 
have its due bounds, and not extend to intolerable 
Do£h*ines, Pra&ices or Perfons. 

To proceed then, Every one that will, muft not be 
Tolefated to be a publick Paftor and Preacher, no not 
of the Truth. For fbme inefficient men may by that 
winner bring a fcandal or (corn on the (acred Do&rine 
and Worihip of God ; and taking Gods Name pro- 
fanely arid in vain, is worfe than filence: much left 
fhouldmen be (uttered to preach or di(pute down anys- 
Point of Chriftian Faith or Duty. 

§ X I V. In a word , The Prince that will 
efcape the dangerous Extreams of Licentiou(he(s, and 
opprelling Persecution, muft, 

i. Have an eye to the Holy Scripture,and Apoftoli* 
cal Inftitution, and to the Law of Nature together, as 
hL Rule. 

2. He muft make the true publick Good , which 
lieth in mens fpiritual welfare,his end. 

"gl He muft make the promoting of Obedience to 
God and his Laws, the chief work of his Office and of 
his own Laws. 

4. He muft abhor and avoid all carnal Interefts, 
ccntrary to the Intereft of Chrift , and mens 
Souls . 

5". He muft do all with Caution frcm a Spirit of 
Love., and a Care to preferve mens fear of God. 

6. Henurft take heed of Partiality, or hearkning 
to jr& CQunfel either of Atheifts, prophane men, or of 
«fl ignorant, proud, and cruel Clergy: And muft 


L J 33J 
hearken to wife, pious, confederate, peaceable and ex- 
perienced Councilors, and avoid the examples both or 
Reboboam, and of Jeroboam, and be neither an Qp- 
preflbr nor a Corrupter. 

§ XV. And to conclude, good and wife men 
may well know their duty, whom to Jilence and ejetl, 
and whom to tolerate, if they arc but true to God, by 
this Qne Rule : They may, by hearing all the cafe and 
knowledge of the Perfbns, difeern 'whether that mam 
Treach'mg, confideratis confiderandis, %s clearly like to 
do more good or harm : and do accordingly. 

But then they muft not judge of good and harm, by 
carnal finful lufts and interefts, and by the counfels of 
felhfh partial men, but by wife and juft reafbn, guided 
by the Word of God. 

§ X V I. And in all doubtful Cafes, choofe the fa- 
fer fide ; and when the danger of overdoing is the 
greater ( as in cafe of Perfection ) rather do too little, 
than too much : And prefer not Ceremonies before 
Subftance, nor tything Mint, Annife and Cummin, be- 
fore Love, Truth and Judgment, and the great things 
of the Law: And be fore that you learn what this 
meaneth, I will have mercy, and not facrificc, 1 that 
you may not condemn or accufe the Guiltlefs, 

I i ^ CHA P. 

G*34 3 


The Catholic k Church will never unite in a 
Reception and Subscription to every Word y 
Verfe, or Blo- of the Holy Scripture, as it 
is in jny one Tr -inflation > or any one Copy 
in the Original now known. 

§ I. *TT* His needeth no other proof than the reafbn 
X of the thing, and common experience. 

i . All Translations are the work of imperfect fain 
lible men \ we have none made by the Spirit as work- 
ing infallibly in the Apoftle?, (unlefs, as fome think, the 
Greek of St. Matthews Goipel be a Tranflation.) The 
pretences of Invitation of the Seventy two that are 
laid to be the Authors of that Greek Tranflation of 
the Old Ttftammtjs not yet agreed on in the Church; 
nor whether it was more than the Tentateuch which 
they Tranflated. The Authority and Reafbns of 
Hierome ftill much prevail. 

Seel. I I. And the Vulgar hat me, moft valued by 
the Papifc is yet fo much matter of Controverfie be- 
tween them, that when S'txtus J^uintm had ftablifhed a 
corrected Edition* Clement the 8th altered it in many 
hundred places after. 

Setl. TIL And all Proteftants acknowledge the 
imperfe&icm of all their own Tranflations , Englijh, 
Dutch Fr/tnch,&£C. 

And in the &me Church of England, we have the 
publick prefcribed life of two different Tranflations of 
the Fjdlmsyons iometime directly contrary to the other, 

. as 

as Yea and Nay, and one leaving a whole Verfe which 
the other hath. 

Seer. I V. And we know of no man that pretend- 
eth to be lure that he hath a Copy of the Hebrew and 
Greek "Text, which he is certain is perfectly agre al e 
to the autography or hrft draught: Anu the muit 
of various Readings put us out ot all hope or ever ha- 
ving certainly lo perteel a Copy : All there: ore 
the marks ot humane traiity , which cannot be ue- 

Seel. V. And no wife and good man fhould de- 
liberately deny this, and ib juftihe falfly every humane 
flip. But yet there is no fiich difference among Copies 
or Tranflations, as fhould any way fhake our founaati- 
ons,or any point neceilary to falvation doth depenc up- 
on : For in all fiich points they ail agree. 

Seel. V I. Object. But ff Copes and Trarjlat^ns 
differ and err, how can ive make tbem our rulz >j ) o - 
ment ? 

Anfw. I fay again , They agree in as many things 
as we need them for, as a Rule of Judgment : And 
where they differ, it being in words of no fuch ufe and 
moment, that hindereth not our being Ruled by tfcrm 
where they agree. The Kings Laws may be w»-;ren 
in divers Languages for divers Countries of his oub- 
je£ts : And verbal diiierences may be no hinderance to 
their regulating ufe ; no more than the King himfcif 
doth iofe his authority, if his hair turn white. 

Sea. VII. ObjeiJ^X. Rut when then^mujl allfub- 
fcribe to^ if not to all the Bible ? Have you any otoer 
meajure or teft ? 

Anfw. We mud fubfcr'be, That we believe all Gods 
Word to be true, and all the true Canon of Scripture 
to be his Word, and that we will faithfully endeavor 
to difcern all the Canon T And we muft exprcil . 
fcr'be to the Eflentials of Chn(nanity,oi ; \/hich before 
and after. I i 4 Sett . 


SeB. VIII. It was a confiderable time before ma? 
ny Churches received the Eftftle of James, the 2d of 
Feter, that to the Hebrews, the Revelation, &c. And no 
doubt they were neverthelefs true Chrifti^ns : And if 
now any believe all the Eflenti^ls of Religion, and 
fhould doubt only whether the Canticles, or the Epifile 
to Vhilemon, or the two laft of John, or that of jude y 
were Canonical, he might for all that be a true Chri- 
stian, and more meet to be a Bifliop, than Synefots was 
before he believed the Refurre&ion, or Neffarws be- 
fore he was baptized, &c. 

SeB. I X. The Churches are not fully agreed to 
this day about the Canonical Books of Scripture % 
more than tke+Papifls call fbme Books Canonical,which 
we call Apocryphal. And it is laid that the Abaffmes 
and Syrians have divers not only as Ecclcfiaftical,but as 
Canonical , which We have not , nor know not of : 
Though we have good caufe to judge bell of our own 
received number, (by the proof well produced by 
Biihop Coufins, and many others ) yet have we no caufe 
to unchurch all Churches that differ from us. 

Set}. X. No Church therefore ought to caftoutall 
Minifters that doubt of fame words in any Tranflation, 
or Copy, or of fbme Verfe, Chapter, or Book, who hold 
the main, and all the necejj'ary Dotlrmes. No fiich Teft 
was impofed on the primitive Chriftians : And its fad 
to hear the report that even the found and humble 
Churches of Helvetia, fhould lately make it neceflary 
to the Miniftery, to fubfcribe to the antiquity of the 
Hebrew Doints ', though it may be a true and uftful Afc 




The Cat holick Church r jvill never unite in the 
fubjcribwg to any mens whole Commentcu 
rtes on the Bible. 

§ I. ^Tp His is yet more evident than the former. 
X i • They do not at this day, nor ever did 
agree in any mens Commentary : They have great 
refpeft to the Commentaries of fbme of the Ancients, 
and others,but fiibfcribe them not as infallible: Though 
the Trent Oath of Pope Furs , fwear men not to expound 
the Scriptures otherwife than according to the agreeing 
Expofition of the Fathers; it is well known, 

i . That they never told and proved to us, who are 
to be taken for Fathers, and who not. 

x. It's known that few or them have written large 
Commentaries, and fewer on all the Bible, if any. 

3. That they oft differ among themfelves. 

4. And the beft have confeffed their own Errors. 

c. And more have been found erroneous by others, 
and are by us at this day. 

6. Yea, they have caft out, and condemned one an- 
other ; as the Cafe of Nazianz^ne, Epiphanhts, Lhrj- 
foftom, Theophilvs Alexand. Cyril, and Theodotet , and 
many more befides Origen fheweth. 

6. The Tapifts ordinarily take liberty to differ from 
the Commentaries of divers of the moft Renowned of 
the Fathers. 

7. And the learnedfl men of the Tapifts themfelves 
do differ from one another. 

8. And no General Council that pretend to be the 
Judge of thefenfe of the Scripture, durft ever yet ven- 
ture to write a Commentary on it. 9 . No 

9. No nor any Pope ; nor any by his appointment, 
or a Council s,is written by any other, and by them ap- 
proved as infallible. By all wjiich, and much more,it 
is evident, That (ublcribing wholly to any Commenta- 
ry, will never unite the Churches of Chrift, 

Se&. I I. And no wonder , when that, i% God 
hath compofed the Scripture of fiich various parts , as 
that all are not of the feme necciity or intelligibility ; 
but fbme are harder than the reft\o be-underftood, and 
many hundred Texts are fuch, that a man that under- 
ftands them not, may be laved, 2. And Paftors as well 
as People, are of various degrees of underftanding, and 
all imperfect, and know but in part. 

Sect. 1 1 L Yet are good Commentaries of great 
ufe,as other teaching is; but not to be (ubferibed as 
the terms of the Unity or Liberty of the Churches. 

Sett I V. Nay, thofe particular Expofitions which 
General Councils (the Pretenders to deciding judg- 
ment ) have made, are not to be fubferibed as infal- 
lible , as I have before proved by the quality of the 
men, and by their many Errors, and contradicting and 
condemning one another. 




A Summary Recital of the true Terms of 
Concord , and fame of the true Caufes of 


THE Sum of all that is (aid of Schifm and Unity, 
is th!;. 
§ I. Schifm is an unlawful (eparating from one, or 
many Churches, or making Parties and Divifions in 
them, and is caufed ufoally, either 

i . By unskilful, proud Church-Tyrants, Dcgmatifis, or 
Super '{litiotts Perfons, by departing from Chrifis infiituted 
terms of Concord , the Chriflian Purity and Simplicity, 
and denying Communion to thofe that unite not on their 
finful or unnecefjary felj-devifed terms, and obey not their 
enfnaring Canons or Wills \ or malignantly forbidding 
what Christ hath commanded, and excommunicating and 
perfecuting men for obeying him. 

z. Or elft by erroneous fraud felf conceited Perfons,that 
will not unite arid live in Communion upon Chrifis infli- 
tuted terms , but feigning j( me Doctrine or i'raciice of 
their devifing to be true, good and Kceffary, which -is nor, 
or fomething to be intokrabfy fitful that is gc 
ful, do therefe* 

of ihe Church as unlawful, on pretence of choojmg a better 
ary way. 
§ II. 2,. Theneceffary means of Unity and Church 
Conccrd* are thefe. 

i. That every Catechized underftanding perfbn, 
prote(i.:ng Repentance, Belief and Confent to the Bap- 
tifinal Covenant,and the Children ot foch dedicated by 
them to Chrift be Baptized. And the Baptfeed ac- 

counted Chriftians having right to Christian Commu- 
nion, till their Profeffion be validly difproved by an I 
inconfiftent Profeffion or Con verfation ; that is,by fome 
Do&rine againft the Ellence of Chriftianity , or fbme 
fcandalous wilful fin, with Impenitence after fufficient 
Admonition : And that no man be Excommunicated, 
that is not proved thus far to Excommunicate himfelf : 
And that the Catechized or Examined perfbn be put 
upon no other profeffion of Belief,. Confent and Pra- 
Hice, as interpreting the Sacramental Covenant, but of 
the Articles of the Creed, the Lords Prayer and Deca- 
logue, underftood ; and the general belief of, confent 
to, and practice of all that he difcerneth to be the 
Word of <jo& 

%. That in Church Cafes and Religion, 

I. The Magiftrate have the qnely publick judgment 
whom he jha/I countenance and maintainor tolerate', and 
whom he flmll punifli, or not tolerate nor maintain : and 
never be the Executioner of the Clergies Sentence, 
without, or againft his own Conference and Judg- 

I I. That the Ordainers (being the fenior Paftors,or 
a Biihop or Prefident with other Paftors,which is to be 
left to the concurrent judgments of themfelves,and the 
people)be the Judges of the fitnejs of the Ordained per- 
fcn to be a Minifvcr of Chrifi , and the laid Paftors in 
their refpectlve particular Churches,be the Key-hearers, 
or fudges, who is to be Baptised, and admitted to Com- 
munion in the Church, and who not ', and not conftraiiv 
ed to Baptize, or to give or deny Communion there,by 
the judgment of others againft their Conferences, 
( though in cafe of forfeiture, or juft cauie, they may 
be femovjed/rom that Church , or from the facred 
Office. ) 

•III. That the People of that Church be the private 
decerning Judges, who fall be their Paftors, to whofe 


L x + l J 
Condlitl they will trufi their Sculs ; if not fb far as to be 
♦ the fir fi Elector s^x. lcaft fb far as to have zfree consent- 
ing or difj'enting power ; and they be not forced to truft 
their Souls with any man as a Paftor againft their Con- 
ferences-: And that every man be the private difcerning 
"fudge of his own Duty to God and Man, and of his fin 

forbidden ; and of his own fecret Cafe, whether he be- 
lieve in God and Chrift,and purpofe to obey him, or 
whether he be an Atheift, or Infidel, or fecretly wicked, 
and fb fit or unfit for Baptifm and Communion ;fb that 
though he be not to be received without the judgment 
of the Pafiors, yet he may exclude himfelf, if confeiozts 
of incapacity ; and therefore that none be forced by 
corporal Penalties or Mui£ts, to be Baptized,or to Com- 

5. That the Chriftian Magiftrate make three forts 
of Laws, one for the approved and maintained Churches 
and Pafiors ; another for the Tolerated j and a third 
fort for the Intolerable. 

I. And that a fufficient number of the ableft, fbun- 

• deft, and worthieft Minifters, be made the publick, 
approved, maintained Preachers and Paftors. And 
where Parifh Bounds are judged neceffary, that all 

j perfbns living in the Parifh be conftrained to contribute 
proper tionably to maintain the Parifo Minifters , and 
Temple, and Poor ; and to hear publickTe aching, and 
to worfioip God, either in that or fbme other Approved 
or Tolerated Church, within their convenient reach or 

1 II. And that the Tolerated Minifters ( tryed and li- 
cenced ) have prote&ion and peace in the publick exer- 
cife of their Miniftery , though not Approbation and 

1 1 1. But that the Intolerable be reftraihed by futabk 
j reftraints. 

4. That the Approved and Maintained Minifters be 

put to fiic'cribe their Belief of, Confent to, and refolved 
.practice or oo. Hence of all the Sacred Canonical Scri- 
pture s, fo far as by diligent fiudy they are able to under- 
stand them ', ' and more particularly of the Chrifiian 
Religion (ummarily contained in the Sacramental Cove- 
nant, and in the ancient Creeds received by the Univer- 
fal Church, the Lords Frayer, and the Decalogue, as it is 
the Law of Chrift, and expounded by him in the Holy 
Scriptures : And that they will be faithful to the King 
and Kingdom ; and as Minifters will faithfully guide 
the Flocks in holy Doctrine, lVor[hip, Discipline and Ex- 
ample of Life , labouring to . promote Truth, Holinefs 9 
Love, Peace and ^fufiice , for the foliation of mens 
Souls,the edfcation of the Church,and the glorifying and 
pleafing of God our Creator, Redeemer and Sanclifier. 

And that the faid Maintained Minifters be tyed by 
the regulating Laws which determine only fuch circum- 
ftances as in genere arc necejfary to be agreed in for Uni- 
formity, and common harmony : As of Time, Place,Pa- 
rifh Bounds, what Tranflktion of Scripture to ufe, what 
Verfion of Halms, what decent Habit, &c. not put to 
frofefs Approbation of all thefe 3 but required to uft 
them, and cenfared if they do not. 

y. That the Tolerated Minifters fubfcribe all the 
fame things, except thefe laft Regulating Laws for Cir- 
cumflances of Order. 

6. That either a Catalogue of Errors and Sins be 
drawn up in the Law which no Minifter fliail preach j 
or elfe it be left: to the Judges to difcern when any is 
proved to preach againft any neceflTary Article of his 
• iiiblcribed ProfefTicn : And it is meet that the Cata- 
logue prohibited to the Mamta'ined Minijiersfct larger 
than that prohibited to the TokratedXomt Errors being 
tolerable, which are not Of provable. And it is not the 
fir ft fault that fhould fnjpend or fdence either of thetfi, 
but obfiinacy after a firfv and fecond admonition. Tea, 


many lejjer Errors muft be puriifTicd only with congru- 
ous Muftis, or Rebukes, or after that with iofs of Main- 
tenance , that are not to be punifbed with SihttA 

7. That no other Tcft, Frofefton, Covenant, Sub- 
scription orPromile be required of any,as necellary to 
Miniftery or Communion,which may become dividing 
Snares and Engines : But only that where Papal Tyran- 
nies, or any other Usurpers, claim it dangerous to the 
^Church and Kingdom, the Ejjtntials of that Tapac)' or 
Ufurpation be exprcfly renounced by all that ivill have 
Maintenance or Toleration; yet not on this pretence 
making every claim of Patriarchs, Archbifhops , Bi- 
(hops, Councils, or Synods of Presbyters, which othei^ 
think to be a Ufurpation, to be fo dangerous as the Pa- 
pacy, and (b thq renunciation of them as neceflary ; be- 
caufe fiich exiftent per Ions ctaim not fiich Power, nor 
make fiich Laws, for depofing Kings, and murdering 
or exterminating DilTenters : which if they do, they 
muft be exprefly renounced : elle the keeping out ujurp- 
ing practice is enough. 

8. The Chriftian Magiftrate muft keep Te ace among 
all, both the Approved and Tohrated, and not luffer 
any unpeaceable Preaching or Dilutes ; which tend to 
deftroy Love , and ^uittnefs \ nor fuller railing Ca- 
lumnies againft each other , to be publifhed or 

§ 1 1 1. 1. Particular Churches and their Paftors 
fhould be fo far AJjociated, ac is neceffary to their mu- 
tual peace, concord and ftrength: And therefore fliould 
I keep frequent Synods for Correipondency to thefe 
l Ends ; and by Meflengers and Letters alio keep up their 
1 Brotherly Concord. a 

2. But whether thefe Affociations of fingle Chur- 
Iches {hould be headed by Diocefanes, Metropolitans, 
I Archbifhops, Primates, Patriarchs, moft think is a mat- 
lter of meer humane Prudence, 3. But 

L ^ J 

3. But certainly theMagiftrate mull fee , ttiat net 
ther the Synods, nor their Heads or Prefidents tyran- 
nize ; nor inftead of Aflemblies for Concord, become 
an Ariftocratical or Monarchical Church- Government; 
nor force not any to approve of them, or (ixch humane 
Forms of Churches ; much lefs that they infringe not 
the Rights and Liberties of the Churches formed by 
the inftitution of Chrift and his Apoftles. 

§ I V. Yet more briefly, 1 , Approving the befh 
1. Tolerating the Tolerable. 3. Sacraments free,and 
not forced. 4. The Intolerable reftrained. y. The 
teft of Toleration being this, Whether fuch Tolerated 
Worship do more good or hurt in true impartial judgment* 
6. Magifirates keeping all in peace*] would heal us<