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Full text of "The Scripture Gospel defended, and Christ, grace and free justification vindicated against the libertines ... In two books, the first, A breviate of fifty controversies about justification ... The second upon the sudden reviving of Antinomianism ... and the re-printing of Dr. Crisp's sermons with additions .."









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THE € 

Scripture Goipel defended, 


Chrift, Grace and Free Juftification Vindicated 

Againft the Libertines, 

Who ufe the namesof CHRIST, FREE GRACE and I 
JUSTIFICATION, to fubvert the Gofpel, and Chrt- 
ftianity, and that Chrift, Grace and Juftification, 
which they in zealous Ignorance think they plead 
for, to the injury of Chrift, the danger of Souls, and 
the fcandalizing of the weak, the infulting of Adver- 
feries, and the Dividing of the Churches. 
Yec charitably differencing the wordy Errours of unskilful 
Opiniaters, from their Praftical Piety : And the miftaken 
Notions of fome Excellent Divines, from the grofs Liber- 
tine Antinomian Errours. 

1 In Two Books. 

Thefirft, ABreviate of Fifty Controverfies about Juftifica- 
tion 5 written about thirteen years paft, and caft by till 
now, after many provocations, by Prefs, Pulpit and Back- 

The fecond upon the fudden reviving of Antinomianifm, 
which feemed almoft extinft near Thirty four years : And 
the re- printing of Dr. Crifp's Sermons with Additions; with 
twelve Reverend Names prefixed for a decoy, when fome 
of them abhor the Errour of the Book, and know not what 
was in it, but yielded by furprize only to declare that they 
believed him that told them that the Additions were a true 

Copy* / , 

By RICHARD BAXTER, an Offender of the Offenders of the 

Church, by Defending the Truth and Duty which they 
fight againfi 

Lux oculos vexat, ubi noctui lumink ofor^ 
Putrida fufpeffi vex&bunt ulcera taftus. 


Printed for Tho. Parkhurfi, at the Bible and Three 

Crowns, at the lower end of dbeapftde. \6go. 

HEB.II«5>& Without Faith it is impojfible 
to pleafe God: He that comet h to God muft 
believe, that He is, and that He is the Rewarder 
of them that diligently feek^ him. 

Luke I p. 17. Well) thou good Servant. Becaufe 
thou haft been faithful in a very little, have thou 
Authority over ten Cities- So Mat. 25. 21. 

Mat. 25. 34, 40, 46- Inherit the Kindgom prepa- 
red for you from the Foundation of the World: For 

I was hungry and ye gave me Meat In as 

much as ye have done it to one of the lea ft of thefe 

my Brethren, ye have done it to me \ And thefe 

fhall go into Everlafting Punifhment, and the Righ- 
teous into Life Eternal. 

Gen. 22. 1 6, 17, 18. By my felf have I faorn, 
faith the Lord, becaufe thou haft done this things 
and haft not withheld thy Son &C 

John 16. 27, The Father himfelf loveth you, be- 
caufe you have loved me, and have believed that 
I came out from God. 

1 John 3> 12, 13. Whatfoever we ask, we receive 
of him, becaufe we keep his (Commandments, and do 
thofe things that are plcafing in his fight, and this 
is his Commandment that we believe on the Name 
of his Son Jefus Chrift and Love one another. 

Rev. 3. 4. They Jhall walk, with me in vjhite,for 
they are worthy. 

Rev. 3. I a Becaufe thou haft kept the Word of 
my Patience^ I will keep thee, &c. 

MaK 7. 29. For this faying go thy way, the De- 
vil is gone out, &C. 

Mat. ?• 20. Ewept your Righteoufnefs exceed 
the Righteoufhefs of the Scribes, and Pharifees, yon 
ft all in no cafe enter into the Kingdom of Hea- 

Mat. 12. 36, 37. Every idle Word that Men Jhall 
fpeak^, they Jhall give account thereof in the day of 
Judgment. For by thy Words thou Jhalt he Jh- 
fiified, and by thy Words thou foalt be Condemn- 

Jam- 2. 24. Tou fee then that by Works a man 
is J u fiified, and not by Faith only. So v. *3« to 
the end. 

Rom. 8. 29, 30. Whom he foreknew, them he pre- 
deftinated to be conformed to the Image of his Son, 
* that he might be the, firft born among many Bre- 
thren : And whom he did predefiinate. them he al- 
. fo called : And whom he called them he alfo ju- 
stified, and whom he jufiified them be alfo glori- 

Luke 18. 13, 14. / tell you, This man went 

down -Jufiified rather than the other. 

PrOV. 17. 15* He that Jufiifieth the wicked, and 
he that condemneth the Juft, even they both are 
abomination to the Lord. 

Of Faith imputed to Right eoufnefs, and our be- 
ing Justified by Faith, See Rom. 3. 30, 26. Rom. 
4. II, 22, 23, 24. He that confidereth the different 
fence^ of £)yAnyj2., J)magoti<; and J)ygteo<rvvti> ( the fir ft 
ufually fignifytng the Practical or Preceptive mat- 
ter that is Righteoufnefs, the fecond Active ef- 
ficient Juftification, and the third the State of 
the Jurt/ Qualitative or Relative, or ipfam Juftiti- 
am, will the better expound the Word Justifi- 
cation as it is in our Translations. 


Romi 4. 24, 25. For fa alfo to whom it fhall be im« 
puted ( not is before we believe, ) if ( a Conditi- 
onal ) we believe on him that rai/edupjefa our Lord 
from the dead: Who wa4 delivered for our offences \ 
and was raifed again for our Jufiification : ( Not 
only obeyed and fuffered for our Justification, 
but was raifed for it. ) && tW SiKaiwiv npfy, effici- 
ently to mak$ m juft relatively and qualitatively, and 
fo to juftify m,andconfequently to judge, m juft. 

Exodus 23. 7. I will not juftify the wiekgd. Obj. 
Kom. 4 5. He juftifieth the ungodly, Anfvv. Tes : 
By making him Juft by Pardon , Adoption and 
Godlinefs : As he hGaleth thefick^andraifeth the dead, 

Acts 2. 38. Repent and be baptised every one of 
yen in the name of the Lord Je fas, for the remiffion 
of fins , 13.38. By him all. that believe are Juftified 
from all things from which ye could not be juftified by 
the Law of Mofes, See Titus 3. 6, 7. 1 Cor. 6.8, g, 
10, 11. Rom. 2. 13, 14. 1 Peter 1. 16, 17. 2 Cor. 

Rev. 20- 12, 13, And the dead were jpdged out 
of thofe things which were written in the Books ac- 
cording to their works, &c. ( Which is oft laid in 

John 5". 22. 29. The Father judgeth no man, but 
hath committed all Judgment to the Son, and hath gi- 
ven him authority to Execute Judgment. — — They • 
that have Done 4oOod to the RefurreSion ofLife y 
and they that have done evil to the Refurrettion of dam- 

2 Tim. 4* 7) 8. / have fought a good fight. 
— Henceforth there is laid up for me a Crown of 
Right eoufnefs , which the Lord the righteous Judge 
fljallgive pie at that day, and not to me only, but to all 
that love his appearing* 

IA 32 Sec 

See Heb. 6. 10. i Cor. i?. 58. Col. 3* 24. HebJ 
11. 26. 2. Thef. 1. 5> 6, 7- Mat. 5. 12. ■■ 

Mat. 6. 2. 4. 6. & 7. 12. & 10.41.42. & ip. 29; 
1 Cor. 9. 17. Rom. 2. 5. 10. Mat. 7. 4. 

I Joh. 1.9. 7/ ire w*/e/} our fms> he is faithful 
and j itft to forgive hs our fins ^ and to cleanfe us from 
all unrighteoufnefs. So Rom. IO. 10. 13. 

Mat. 6. 14,15. If ye forgive men their trefpaffes^ 
your heavenly Father will forgive you: But if ye for- 
give not men. — - Neither will. 

I Joh. 3.17* Let no man deceive you ; He that 
doth Rigbteoufnefs is Righteous. 

Ifa. I. 16, 17, 18. Ceafeto doevilStC. Come now 
If your fins be red as crimfon. 

Ift. 55. 6, 7. Seek, the Lord while he may be 
founds &CO Let the wicked for fake his way, &C. Let 
him return to the Lord and he will have mercy on 
hint) &C 

Acts 10. 35. In every nation he that fearetb 
God and worketh Rigbteoufnefs is accepted of 

Rev< 2 2. 14. Blejfed are they that do his Com* 
tnandments^ that they may have right to the Tree 
of Life , and may enter in by the Gate into the 

John 3. 18. He that believetb not is condemned al- 
ready^ becaufe^ &C. 

Rom. 8. 9. If any man have not the Spirit of 
Chrift, the fame is none of his. See alfo^VQrk*^. 5. 
7. 14. 

2 Cor. 15-5- Jefus Chrift is in you except ye be re- 

Col- 1. 27. Chrift in you the hope of glory. 

iSeeEph. 2. What the Elett are before Convcr- 

lCor« 6. 9, 10, IX. Know ye not that the un- 

righteous Jhall not inherit the Kingdom of God ? Be 
not deceived, neither fornicators - > And fuch were 
fome of yon : But ye are wafhed, ye are SanElified, hut 
ye are juftified in the name of the Lordjefus, and by 
the Spirit of our God. 

I Thef 6. 10. God is not unrighteous to forget your 
voorkand labour of Love. 

Phil. 2. 1 3. Workout y$ur Salvation with fear and 
trembling: For it is (Sod that worketh, See. 

ReV. 2> & 3. Read the promifes to him that over- 

Mat. 6. Ip, 20* Lay up for your j elves a treafure tn 

Luke 1 6. p. JMakg you friends of the Mammon of 
unrighteoufnefsy that when you fail they may receive 
you into the everlafting habitations. 

Gen* 4. 7. Ifthoudoft welljhah thou not be accept- 
ed ? But ifthou y &CC 

Luke 13.3. 5. Except ye repent ye' Jhall all pe- 

Mat. 1.8. 3. Except ye be converted and become as 
little Children, yejliallnot enter into the Kingdom of 

Heb. 5. 9- Ele is become the Author of Eternal 
Salvation to all them that obey him, 

Luke Ip. ij.Thefe mine Enemies that would not 
Jjhould reign over them. 

Heb. 10. ^. Cafi not away your confidence which 
hath great recompenfe of reward, ^9. We, are not of 
them that draw bdck^ tQ perdition, but of them that be- 
| lieve to the faving of the Soul. 

Mat. 18. 32, 35. thou wicked Servant, I forgave 
thee all that debt, becaufe, &C. fo (hall my heavenly 
Father do alfo to you if you from your .hearts forgive not 
%very one his brother their trefyaffes. 


The Anfwer to all this by the 

I. By the Infidels, [ The Scripture is not the Word 
of God. ] 

II. By the Mahometans in fpecial : [The followers 
of Chrift altered it. ]] 

III. By Papifts, Scripture is to us buf^vhat the 
Church declareth of ft ; I. The reading of it^ and re- 
jetting fupplemental Tradition by the Fulgar t caufeth 

IV. By the Quakgr, It is the light within us that is 
' our Rule. 

V. The Enthufiafts, or Fanaticks, We muft try 
Scripture by the Spirit, and not the Spirit by 
the Scripture : (the Apoftles Spirit by ours, and 
not our low meafure by theirs- ) 

VI. Thefeekers. The Scripture muft firft be 
recovered by a true Miniftry. 

VII. The Cabbalift and Familift 3 If u not to be 
underftQod Literally^ but Myftically. 

VIIL The Antinomian Libertine : The 'written 
word} or at leaft all that prefcribeth duty and hath con- 
ditional promifeS) is but a Covenant of works. The Cove- 
nant of Grace is only the Spirits Effectual work,: 1 will, 
and you (hall. 

A Breviate of the Doctrine of 


Dilivered in many Books, 


In many Propofitions, 
And the Solution of 50 Controverfies about it. 


1. To end fuch Controverfies. 

2. To confute Rafh Cenfurers and Errours. 

3. To inform the Ignorant. 

4. To procure Correction from wifer men, if I 

Occafioned by fome mens Accufation of me 
to others, that will not vouchfafe their Inftru- 
dtion to my felf 

And by the Erroneous and dangerous Writings and 
Preachings of fome well-meaning men, fuch as 
Mr. TroHghton,&c. who at once miftake and 
mifreport God's Word and ours, and fight in the 
dark againft Chriftian Faith and Love. 


Printed for Tho. Partyurfi, at the Bible 2ad Three 
Crowns, at the lower end of Cheap fide. 1690. 

The Preface long ago written. 


IT was the Army and Sectarian Antinomians (more 
fitly called Libertines) who firfi called me in the 
year 1645. and 1646. to fiudy better than 1 had 
done the Dottrine of the Covenants and Laws of 
Gody of Redemption and Juftification ; I fetcht my 
firfi refolving thoughts from no Book^ but the Bible 9 
fpecially Mat. 5, and 6, and 25*. Grotius de Satif- 
fa&ione next gave me more light. While I was con- 
fldering many mens friendly Animadverfions on my 
Aphorifms, and anfwering fome ( that more differed 
from each other than from me ) it increafed light ,e fpe- 
cially the Animadverfions of Mr. George Lawfon; 
My Writings again fi the Antinomians had fuccefs be* 
yond my expectations, though fome good men of the 
Party called Independent^ having more heat than light , 
deceived by the notions of fome that had fpoken injitdi- 
cioufly before them\ caft out fufpicions and contradi- 
ctions in a jealoufie that I encroached on the honour of 
Free Grace: 1 mean finch men as prefaced the Book^ 
called The Marrow of Modern Divinity, which on 

pretence of Moderation is Antinomian or Libertine i 
and very injudicious and un found : And others Books 

(fuck as Paul Hobfons, Mr. Sakmarihes, Bunyan 
on the Covenant Sydzc.) which ignorant ly fuhverted the 
GofpelofChrifij came out on the fame bufinefs , and 
revealed mens mifiakes on pretence of revealing the 
My fiery of Free Grace. 

John Goodwin was then, and before, publidnng hi* 
Judgment of Jufiification, and Mr, Walker, and 
Mr, Roborough wrote again fi him, with great difpa~ 
rity of light and firength. But becaufe J. G. turned to 
the ArmjmanS) prejudice cryed down his Dolhixe of 

A 2 J4tf* 

lhe Fretace. 

J uflif cation^ ( and it was not all to be approved. ) 
Mr. Gataker publifljed many things to the likepurpofe^ 
and among the reft, the Narrative of Mr. WotCOns 
Cafe, referred to many London Divines, and decided 
by them*? Of my fufpenfion of my Aphorifms, and of my 

Comtftswirh Mr Craudcn, Mr. Eyres, Mr. War- 
iner, and afterwards with Dr. Tully, / need not here 
make particular mention. The ?noft that Iconverfi with 
fee me d of my Judgment : The reft ( befide the Ani- 
madvert crs on my Aphonfms) who freeliefi fpake of me 
behind my back^> would none ofthemfpeakjo me. Va- 
va(or Powell W Mr. Ed. Bagfhaw, were two of the 
chttf. Many worthy men publifhed the fame Dotlrine 
which I averted $ efyecially Mr. Gibbons of Black- 
fryars C in his Sermon in the Morning Lectures at 
£*. Giles) Mr. Benjamin Woodbridge, Mr. Hotch- 
kis, Mr. Thomas Warren, Mr. Graile, and Mr. 

Jeflop^ laboured to prove that Br. Twiffe meant the 
fsiK.e, who feems to Jpeakfor Eternal Immanent Jttfiifi- 

camn : And Mr. Truman, and Lud. Le Blankes 
Thefesat Uft came out (after the Thefes Salmurienfes, 
and the Breme Divines, Lud. Crocius Conrad. Ber- 
gius, and the Berlin, Johan. Bergius) as clear as any. 

B:\ttht prattue of fome (who wanted the humility 
and diligence which were neceffary to learn the Truths 
which they knew not) was juft the fame with that of the 
1 relates in Councils j or a thouj and years, even to put 
it to the Vote of men of their own mind, or to lean on 
the names of fome of their Predeceffors who were men of 
note, and efpecial/y to cry down thofe that heard them 

And lately came out a Book^ of one Mr. Trough- 
tpvisofthe fame temper with the reft. He allarmeth 
the Nation* as if the Enemy were at the Gates. He is 
a man that hath been blind from his Infancy or early 
Childhood.and I fappofe nevtr read a Bookfinthttb ^ a d 


The Preface. 

fome one to read to him, and he under taketh to tell the 
fenfe of Vroteftant Writer s, and Fathers, and the words 
and fenfe of Mr. HotchkiS and me, and fitch others ^ 
whom he fiercely affaulteth as Jais and the Churches Ad* 
verfaries : And the good man heapeth up untruths m 
matter of faH in falfe reciting his Adverfaries words 
and fenfe. Befides his Libertine falfe Doctrine, ( as 
that the Covenant or Vromife of Jufiification hath no 
Conditions , no not Faith , andfuch like J and abufeth 
the Authors whom he citeth. I thought once to have be- 
fiowed two or three days worl^ in anfwering him, but I 
defifted, partly becaufe he was one of thofe that had 
written at the rate of fome former Adverfaries, who had 
fo formed their Affaults, that they had lefr me little to 
anfwer but a Mentiris, which is fo unpleafng a task^y 
that they that mo(t deferve it cannot bear it. And it 
hath been my lot fmce 1662. in which the powerful 
Ringleader Morley began, to have fo many fuch Books 
written againft me, andfuch reports divulged of me, as 
if the Devil had been ftndying to prove, Rom 3. 4. 
that every man is a Lyar, to be true in a fenfe beyond 
the meanings and to bring all Hi ft or y at leaf of Difpu- 
ters into dij credit, and to make it become a valid con~ 
fequence [It is (aid and written by a domineering, 
or an ambitious, or an erroneous, or angry Ad- 
verfery; Ergo it is falfe.] Andalfo I was loth .to fay 
that againft the man that his Book required : For I 
hear he is a very' hone (i man, and not only blind-, but a 
fujferer for Nonconformity with the reft; and when 
he was a Child, his Grand-father^ Grand-mother, and 
other kindred in Coventry if ere my hearers and lo- 
ving friends, and godly people : His Father and Mother 
my very near Neighbours, and weekly, an ^ almoft daily 
company, have asked my Counfel, what they jhould do 
with a blind Boy that was much inclined to Learning, 
and I encouraged them to further him, not fort feeing his 

A 3 fnares. 

The Preface. 

fnares, 3. And I perceive that judiciotu Readers have 
no need of an Antidote again ft fo wtak^ a Poifon. He 
that gave me the Animadverfions anfwered in the end, 
told me, He had fcarce patience to read him. And 
as to thofe that arefo weak^as to need an anfwer to fitch 
a Book^, it's like they arc too weak^to understand one ; 
cr will thinly him in the right that hath the laft word,and 
that may be he that liveth longeft. The great fault of 
the good man is that which is too predominant in all Cafes 
in corrupted Nature, even an unhlimbled under- 
ftatlding, which doth not fufficiently fufpett it [elf, 
wuch lefs is acquainted with its own Ignorance^ hut 
when it moft mtftaketh, doth raoft confidently rage. 
Who would thinks that fuch a man could be ignorant 
how unfit he was who never faw their Books, to under- 
take fuch account as he giveth of Fathers, Proteftant 
Ivrittrs, or m his chofen Adverfaries i When his Fea- 
dtr hath read to him fome parcels of our Writings, 
how hnoweth he what he omitteth, or what explications 
fae never read ? And how uncapable mu(l his memory 
7ieeds be of retaining and laying all together out of fo 
many Volume s, and making a charge, and pacing a 
judgment thereupon, unlefs his memory be greater far 
than Bijhop Hall faith Dr. John Reynolds reading 
and memory was friext to a MiracleJ which his grofs 
falfifications Jhew that it is not. 

And 4. I found fo many ready to write on the fame 
SubjeSifor my fenfe, that I the more thought it need- 
lefs to my [elf. Sir Charles Wolfley hath lately done 
f> very judicioujly* I have lately per u fed divers Manu- 
fcripts that are fuch prepared for the Prefs : One of 
Mr. William MznningS,anot her of Mr. Cltrke Son to 
Mr. Samuel Gierke (WJDr.Twiffe hath a Latine 
JDifputatiou to the fame fenfe, ) and fome more {all 

But }et J fit II hear fome London Brethren ufe to 
v , caft 

The Preface. 1 

cafi out their fufpicions, afperfions and cenfures behind 
my back^ , and fome in their Conferences when they 
meet ; Whereupon I drew up this Taper of Explicatory 
Propofitions and Controversies, only to let them truly 
know my fenfe, and long after gave it that honeft 
Dr. Annefley, at whofe houfe fometimes fome meet of 
different Judgments in fuch thihgs, defiring.him but to 
get it read to them, and to procure me their Animad- 
verfions on what they did any of them diflike ; inftead 
of their unprofitable Obloquy when I cannot hear them 5 
for this I fhould take for a great brotherly kindnefs : 
But it is now near a twelve month that I have waited 
in hope of it, bfo cannot procure a word to this day \ 
which mak°th me think it needful topublifh that which 
J intended but for their private view. Tet one that 
to me profrffed diffent, feemed to take it well that I 
intreated his Reafons, and promifed to give them me^ 
but never did. Nor hath any one yet anfwered, 
I. My Confeffion ; 2. My Disputations of Jufi if ca- 
tion 5 3. My Apolopy (to many -,) 4. My fmallTraEl 

of Saving Faith to Bi s hop Barlow ; f. ASy'Treatife of 
Juftifying Righreouihefs to IV.Tully. 

This week An honeft judicious moderate Friend (that 
is more a Lonf enter than a Diffentcr* as far 'as J can. 
judge, fent me the Notes which 1 anfwer in im> Utter- 
end, as partly his own, and partly others \ whicl 
as eppofeng them^ but as tending to elucidate the whole 
Caufe)- 1 here adjoyn, though all or mo(l here faid % is 
faid elfewhere before, which. I mention, left you thinkjhat 
J took all for his own Opinion which he cited out of Dr. 
Owen, who him f elf reformed much of his forme? "Judg- 
ment about Dollrine and Government before he died. 
The Lord heal his Church by Light, Love and Humi- 
lity, which is torn by Ignorance, Uncharitableneis 
and Pride, Amen. 

A 4 Tha 

The Prologue* 

r ■ 11 

§. i..f | 1HE Doctrine of the JufHfication 
of finful man, by Chrift as our 
Redeemer, Saviour and Judge, is 
of(o great moment, that it Siould 
be Skilfully taught to all that are Catechifed. And 
yet by the Unskilfulnefs of Teachers, is become a 
foot-ball of Strife aod Contention,and of Wrathful 
Cenfures, and Reproach, among thofe who are 
moil zealous for the fafe and honourable preferva- 
rion of it, and really differ more in the Terms and 
Methods which they think muft preferve it, | than 
in the inward pra&ical fenfe of the matter it- 

§. 2. Two things conftitute this itch or lepro- 
iy rather of ftrife, which experience maketh us 
fear is uncurable : And thefe two are one. Igno- 
rance : .. Ignorance of the cafe : And Ignorance of 
our Ignorance. But what Ignorance is it ? I am 
grieved to know and fpeak it. It is Ignorance of 
-words or the art of fpeaking^ of Grammar and Lo- 
gick. O what a plague did JSHmrod bring on the 
Worlds and what a Babel hath it been by the con- 
fuflon of language to this, day I How vain hath 
peaceable Dr. Wilkins attempt of an Univerfai Cha- 
racter proved ? My good old highly valued Friend, 
Mv-Johv Eliots long ago wrote to me, that to 
make the Hebrew the Univerfai Language, and to 
fet up ft Godly Magiftracy in the world were the 
two things yet to be done for Univerfai Concord 
and Reformation : Alas, good man? Abi'wceU 


The ^Prologue. 

Um, &c. If you can get the Earth to drink up the 
flood of Perfecution call: out againft you in New- 
En gUnd^xt is rvell. Little did I think when I was a 
Schoolboy Learning my Grammar, that I fhould 
live to find that the Chriftian World is all in con- 
fufion, Divifi- n, Wrath, Schifm, War, and Bloodt 
am- much, if notmoftly for wane of Skill in words 
or Grammar I 

But indeed were there one Univerfal Language 
it would not be enough to heal us. For we are 
moftly fo dull of nature,& fo flothful in our Studies, 
and io apt to fpeak as our parents or firft Matters 
or Company teach us, that we are utterly difagreed 
and unrecondleable about the fenfe ofbur ommon 
words in our Mother Tongue. So that if Englijh 
were the only Language of, the World, we fhould 
ftill be difagreed : I have been a great comtemner 
of vain oilentation in Critical or Verbal Skill : But 
I fee that rightly ufed about things neceflary, it 
mutt be a principal help to end moil of our Contro- 

§. ?. Though fupernatural Revelation far ex- 
ceedeth the meer light of Nature, and the teach- 
ings of the Creation, yet the difficulty of learning 
and fpeaking many Languages, without which we 
cannot Preach abroad in the World, and the Uni- 
verfal Wars about words that take up and corrupt 
mankind, do make me read the lyPfalm. with 
great regard, and not think fo hardly as 1 have been 
tempted to do y of Gods dealing with the heathen 
and generality of mankind, while the Heavens de- 
clare the glory of God, and the firmament fheweth 
his handy works, while day unto day utters Know- 
ledge and while Sun Moon, and Stars, do Preach 
God with fo loud a voice, and their found goeth 
through all the World and there is no Nation or 


The Trologue. 

Harp and Trumpet , or elfe who can know what is Piped 
or Harped, or can prepare hi mf elf to the Battle ? So we 
unlefs we utter words eafy to he under ft ood, how Jlia/l 
itbeknovon what isfpoken ? But we fpeakjnto the air y 
v. 9 But confufion and ambiguity are notiinftrudtive, 
but deceitful to the fimple. 

2. So they talk much of Imputation^ and neither 
know nor tell you what Imputation is : But take it 
moftly to be that which even Dr. Crifpe calleth a 
charging God with falihood;as if it were his Repu- 
ting, Reckoning, Efteeming or Suppolingus to be 
what indeed we are not, or to have done or fufler- 
ed what we did not, or to have what we have not : 
Whereas Paul meaneth nothing (& ^%*» fignifi- 
eth nothing ) but a true accounting us to be what 
we are, and to have done w r hat we did, and to have 
what we indeed have. And to impute righte- 
oufnefs to us, figniheth bat truly to Repute, Ac- 
count or Judge us Righteous. Thofe that are here 
moil inclined to miitake, ^ fliould the rather take 
Mr. BradJJnm to be impartial, becaufe he was for 
Independent Church Government ( tho (harp a- 
gainft Separation. ) And in the Preface to his Eng- 
3i(h edition of his little Book of Juftification, he 
hath in a few lines laid enough to end all this Con- 
troverfy , by a true explaining in what fenfe 
Chrifts Righteoufnefs is imputed to us, and how 

?. And do they tell us with aoy agreement what 
Righteoufnefs of Chrift they call Imputed ? Some 
fay only the Paflive, fomealfo the Active ? Some 
alfo the habitual, and fome alfo the Divine. Much 
lefs agree they to what EfFe&s it is imputed, and 
how far. 

4. Alfo the name of Faith is ufed without a due 
and true explication \ of their meaning. One by 


The Trclogue. 

Faith meaneth not Faith ^ but Chrifts Righteouf- 
nefs. Another calls it an Inftrument, and yet de- 
nieth it to be the rl credere that is, the Ad of Faith 
indeed, as if any thing elfe was that inftrumenc A- 
nother faith it is but one Phyfical aft, and not like 
contrading, a Moral complication of many Phyfi- 
cal Ads : One faith it is but one Act, and all other 
Ad:s of Faith he that looketh to be Juftified 
by denieth the Dodrine of Grace or true Juftifi- 
cation, and fo leave men to defpair becaufe they 
can never tell which that (ingle is, and how to ef- 
cape the damning Do&rine of Juftification by 
works. One faith it is the Underftandings aflent : 
Another that it is the Wills recumbency, or truft: 
One faith it is only Faith in Chrift that Juftifieth, 
and not in God the Father or the Holy Ghoft : One 
faith it is only Faith in Chrifts Prieftly Office, and 
not in Chrift as Prophet or King-, fome fay it is not 
Faith in his whole Prieftly Office, either his Inter- 
ceffion or Heavenly Priefthood, but only in his 
Sacrifice and Obedience. Another that it is only . 
the trufting on his Imputed Righteoufnefs : Ano- 
ther that it is none of all thefe,. but only the belief 
that we are already Juftified by Chrift. One faith 
we are juftified only at once by the firft numerical 
A& of Faith, and never by any after Ad: : Another 
that an A& of the fame Species continued] our Jufti- 
fication. And this confulion is from the vain fan- 
tafy of men, that will divide and mince and yet 
will not fufficiently diftinguifli: and know not that 
by Faith is meant our becoming Chriitians and con- 
tinuing fuch. 

5. So they talk loud againft Works in the Cafe of 
Jultification, and know not what either Paul or , 
James or Chrift meaneth by works. But they dream' 
that Works md -^#/are of the fame fignification* 


The ^Prologue. 

As if every humane Aft were that which Paul 
meaneth by porks, contrary to his exprefs explica- 
tion : And fo to be Juftihed by Faith muft be to 
be Jufiitied by Works. One faith, we will grant 
Justification by Faith, if you take it aright, to be a 
going wholly out of our felves and denying all our 
own righteoufnefs, and going to Chrift and his 
Righteoufnefs alone. But is their chofen Metaphor 
£ of Going oa/-, and Going to ] an A5t or no AEt ? If 
an Aft, than it is works, if they may be believed. 
If no Acl, then their meaning is, we confefs that yon 
are Juftifiedby Believing^ you do not believe : Ton are 
Juftified by Faith, if Faith be nothing ; and by coming 
toChriftlFyoH come not to him y or it be nothing. Such 
is the ience of thefe Confounders and Corrupters. 

But thefe and many fuch miflakes are to be open- 
ed in their proper place. 

That which I here intend is ( not a confutation 
of this or that writer, but ) to give them a breviate 
of my own Judgment, who will not read what I 
have largely written in many books long ago, pre- 
tending that the length of the books is their rea- 
fon ; and yet have not fo much confcience as to 
fufpend their cenfures, no nor their back-biting,falfe 
accufations of that which they have not leifure to 
underftandor read -, They judge hard cafes which 
they never digefted by any anfwerable Study ; and 
Scruple, not Judging and Slandering perfons un- 

Corrupting the Gofpel, andfo excellent a Sub- 
jeft as the Doftrine of Grace, and of the Office and 
Merits and Judgment of Chrift, and fo of Chrifti- 
anity it felf,is a matter that confcience fhould more 
tenderly fear, than wearing a Surplice, or kneeling 
at the Sacrament,or communicating with a Church 
that ufeth the Common-Prayers. To think thofe 


The Prologue. 

unworthy of their Communion that ufe fuch Cere- 
monies or forms of prayer, and at the fame time to 
prophane fo high a part of the name of God, as is 
his Grace in Chrift, and his Juftif ying, Governing 
and Saving works, and this ( quoad verb a ) by cor- 
rupting it even in Eflentials, and then to defame as 
erroneous thofe that are not as Ignorant and Erro- 
neous as themfelves, and to foment malice and er- 
rour and Sefts by fuch lying defamations : This is 
a Nonconformity which I earneftly defire that no 
man that loveth Chrift, or Free grace, or the 
Church or his own Souljmay ever take for his duty 
or his honour, or rafhly as a fequacious admker of 
any miftaken leader be ever guilty of: What is 
{training at a Gnat and fwallowing a Camel,if this 
be not? And of how ill a conftitution is fuch a blind 
and partial confcience? 

I fhall here ftudy brevity, and firft explain the 
Dodrine of Grace, and Righteoufnefs andjuftifi- 
cation, in fome felf-evident Propofitions. And next 
briefly refolve about fifty doubts or Controverfies 




i. fm yr mk He nature of Jufiif cation explained. 
\ Controv. I. Whether it be anlmma 

nentAft in God, and from Eternity. 
Cont. II. Whether the Covenant of Grace be made 

only with Chrid ; or with us alfo. 
Cont. Ill Whether the Covenant of Grace have 

any condition required of us. 
Cont. IV. Whether our performance of the Con* 

ditien efficiently jufiify us. 
Cont. V. Whether we are juftified by Chrifis 

righteoufnefs imputed to us : And whether the 

Scripture fay we are. 
Cont. VI. In whatfenfe is Chrifis Righteoufnefs 

imputed to us. 
Cont. VII What Righteoufnefs oflChr/fi is it 

that is ours and imputed to us ; the : taffive, 

the Active, the Habitual y or the Divine, or 

Cont. VIII. Whether Chrifis Righteoufnefs be 

the Efficient, Material^ or Formal caufe of our 

Righteoufnefs, or Jufiification ? 
Cont. JX. Whether the Vnion between Chrifl 


The Contents, 

and believers be not fo near as maketh them 

the fame Subject, and Jo the Accident ofChriJls 

righteoufnefs , to be cuts in it (elf. 
Cont. 10. Are we not Jo righteous by an ZJniori 

with thrift as we are Jvaners by our Vn ion 

with Adam. 
Cont. XL Is not Chrijls Righteoufnefs ours : as 

our fins were his by imputation ? 
Cont. ix- 'Doth Chrifts Righteoufnefs caufe our 

Sanftification, in the fame fort of Caujality as 

it caujeth our Juftification ? 
Cont. Xllf. Is it faith itfelf thai is f aid to be 

imputed to us for Righteoufnefs ' 7 oronlyChrift y 

or Chrifis Righteoujnefs. 
Cont. XIV. Whether Grace be Grace and free if 

it have any condition. 
Cont. XV, Whether Repentance be any condition 

of Pardon and Juftification^ and to affirm it y 

ao not equal it with Faith, 
Cont. XVI. Wliether faith juftify us as a meri- 
torious caufe or as a difpofitive caufe of re- 

ceivingjufifcatio^y cr as a meer condition, 

or an Inftrumental caufe. 
Cont. XVII. Is Juftifying faith an aft of the 

under (landing or of the Willi 
Cont. XVI i I. Of the diflinffion of fides quce 

and fides qua Juftificat, what it meaneth. 
Cont. XIX. Whether we arejuflifed by the Lam 

of Innocency. faying, obey perfectly , and live. 
Cont. XX. Whether by works , Paul means a£fs 

in genere, or what fort of Atts* 

B : Cont. 

j he t^ont^nts. 

Cont. XXL Are any works of man meritorious* 
Cont. XXII. Is obedience a part ofjuflifying 

Cont. XXIII. Is any more neceffary to the keep* 

ing or not lojing our Jufiification, than to its 

Cont. XXlV. Is Pardon and Jujlificat ion perfett 

thefirft moment? 
Cont. XXV. Is nolle punire, or non punire, 

( not punijking ) true pardon? 
Cont. XXVI. Is future fin pardoned before? 
Cont. XX VII. Is any one punifhed for pardoned 

fin ? 
Cont. XXVIII. Is punifhing one thatChrifl died 

for, unjufl punifhing one fin twice. 
Cont. XXIX. Are regenerate believers, under 

any guilt of any but corretlive punifhment, or 

fhouldask pardon of any other> 
Cont* XXX. What is it to be judged according 

to our works ? 
Cont. XXXI. What Law is it thatPaulcalleth 

the Law of works which cannot juflify ? 
Cont. XXXII. How and why it is fo called. 
Cont. XXXIII. What is Pauls drift inhisdif- 

putes about Juflificaticn. 
Cont. XXXIV, What is the drift of James. 
Cont. XXXV. Muft a believer any way plead 
bis Faith, Repentance orHolinefs to his Jufiifi- 

.cation, or trufl to themi 
Cont. XXXVI. Hath Jufiificat ion and S aha* 
t ion the fame conditions ? Do thofe work^fave 
m that do not jufiify us i Cont. 

The Contents. 

Cont. XXXVII. Have we any Juftifcatzon a- 
gainftfalfe accujations ( of Infidelity^ &c. ) 

Conr. XXXVIII. Voth faith juftify as a righte- 
oufnefs ? or any perfoual righteoufnefs in fuh- 
ordination to Chrifl s ? Abundant Scripture 
proof of the affirmative. 

Cont. XXXIX. Is Gods accepting Chrifts righte- 
oufnefsfor us, the imputing of it} 

Cont. XL. Whether Chrifts fufferings merit E- 
ternal life for us feeing the Law f aid ^ T)o this 
and live , and not fuffer and livf. 

Cont. XLI. Whether Chrifl heing the end of the 
law for righteoufnefs, prove that Adams firfl 
law juflifieth us as fulfilled by Chrifl . 

Cont. XLII. Whether the fufferings of Chrifl 
merit our freedom from nothing but what he 
fuffered in our fie ad. 

Cont. XLHI. And fo whether Chr ids fufferings 
merit not our freedom from habits andafls of 
fin, which Chrifl had not. 

Cont. XL1V. And fo whether his fufferings re- 
deem us from Spiritual death , feeing we fuffer- 
ed it, and not he. 

Cont. XL V. Is this the reafon of our delive- 
rance from the curfe of the law, becaufe wefufi- 

I fered the equivalent of everlafling Hell Fire 
in Chrifl. 

Cont. XLVI. Is it true that Chrifts attive obe- 
dience only merit eth Heaven for us, and there- 
fore that only meriteth Santtification ? 

Cont. XLVIL Is it true that Repentance can 

B 2 be 

The Contents. 

be no condition of Juftification becaufe it fol- 
loweth it. 

Qu. XLVIII. How can faith and repentance 
give a right to the righteoufnefs of Chrifi^ 
which muft firfi give us that faith and repen- 

Qu. XL1X, Is it true that we muft be practical 
Antinomians unlefs we hold that only Chrifts 
Attive righteoufnefs merited grace and glory 
for us. 

Qu. L. Is this proved by, Rom. 7. 4. 

The Conclufion. 

C « ) 

A Breviate of the Boffirine of 
J unification. 

Pr. I. T"TT TEfliuft firft agree, what Right e- 

\/\/ 0H f ne f s #•; Right eonfnefs is for- 

▼ V mally a Relation: And there-* 

fore muft have the definition of a Relation: I 

need not tell Schollars what that is. 

2. The fubjeet of this Relation, is* firft mens 
aSHons and habits, and their Titles and Rights, and 
then their Per/ow as the fubjed of thefe. 

?• Righteoufnefs is a Relation to the Rule or 
Law : And is an Agreeablenefs thereto: If it be 
Gods Law, it is Righteoufnefs before God. If but 
mans, it is but humane Righteoufnefs. 

4. As a Law hath two parts; the precept and 
the retribution of reward and punifhmenc, fo there 
are two forts of unrighteoufneis and righteoufnefs : 
As to the precept, Obedience is Righteoufnefs, 
and Sin is Unrighteoufnefs. As to the Retributi- 
on, Right to Impunity and to the promifed Re- 
ward is the Perfons Righteoufnefs, and fo contra- 

5. Righteoufnefs materially is either, 1. Parti- 
cular, in fome one caufe, or few caules : 2. Or 
Vniverfal and perfect in all caufes. 

6 Righteoufnefs particular is either in fome 
fmall matter that we are not made happy by, 2.0r 
in fome great caufe which our happineis dependeth 

7. The firft Law required perfonal perfect con- 
ftant obedience on pain of death ; and fo juftifieth 
none without it. B 3 %. 4 4am 


8. Adam was the Father of all mankind, from 
whom they fpring, but he did not foreprefent the 
Perfons of all that were to fpring of him, as if his 
obedience without their own woald have juftified 
any of them at age. If Adam had not finned, Ca- 
in ihould have been condemned if he finned 3 and 
fo others. 

. 9- The firft Law being broken, man was made 
uncapabie of either part of Juftification by it 5 ei- 
ther as one that finned not, or as one that was not 
by it to be condemned. And fo it w ; as no more 
to him a Promife or Covenant of Life ; the Con- 
dition being now become impoflible, and fo no 
condition ; and the threatning becoming as a Sen- 

10. This Law neither gave, mentioned or own- 
ed any Surety, Subftitute, or Mediator. 

1 1 . But the blefled Lawgiver our Creator would 
not fo lofe his Creature, but the eternal word pre- 
sently interpofing, undertook mans Redemption, 
and God gave man a new Law of Life, or a Cove- 
nant of Grace, promising him a Mediator in the 
fullnefs of time, and giving him freely for his fake 
both pardon of his fin, and right to Life, on the 
Terms of Grace therein prescribed : and command- 
ing him future obedience, efpeciaHy in the recep- 
tion of his Grace, and ufe of the mans of Grace 
appointed him. 

12.- This Law of Grace was made to ) Adam the 
lapfed head of all mankind, and fo to all mankind 
in him : And it was renewed to Noah in the fame 
capacity : fo that all falien mankind was put under 
this Law of Grace in that firft Edition of it, made 
to Adam, and Noah. And were neither left I 
lefs, nor utterly defperateas under the nieer damn- 
ing violated Law, which now no more offered 


C J ) , 

Life to any, the condition being become of natu - 
ral impossibility : God is not to be fuppofed to fay 
now to finners, tf yon be not Sinners yon Jhall live ; 
when it's known that they are. 

13. Abraham, being eminently righteous.* ac- 
cording to this Law of Grace, and Believing a fpe- 
ciai promife of God, and not withholding his only 
Son in his obedience to his command, God made 
with him moreover a Covenant of peculiarity, fu- 
peradded ro the common Lavv of Grace. In which 
he chuieth out his Seed as a peculiar Holy Nation, 
from whom the Mejfiah Ihould come, in whom all 
the Nations of the Earth Ihould be blejftd. This pro- 
mife was renewed to Jfaac ( and Jacob ) Gen. 26. 

4, 5* Becanje that Abraham obeyed my Voice and kept 
my Charge, my Commandments, my Statute's, -and my 

14. This Covenant of Peculiarity with Abrfc 
ham, nulled not the common Law of Grace made 
to mankind, nor was it ever nulled or abrogate, 
but perfected after: Though men make them- 
ielves uncapable of the benefits. 

15. God ufeth none of fallen mankind according 
to the feyericy of the firft Law, but givech ro all 
men undeferved forfeited Mercy, and bindeth 
them to ufe fome means for their recovery •, to re- 
pent in hope, and to receive and thankfully ufe 
the meafures of mercy which he vouchfaiech them. 
And all men fhall be judged according to that edi- 
tion of the Law of Grace which they were under, 
and the receiving and^ ufing the Grace or Mercy 
which was given or offered them. 

16. When the peculiar Seed was formed into a 
Nation, God gave them by Mofes a peculiar Law, 
which exemplified the Holwefs of the jfr/? Law, ' but 
had the Promiles and Grace of the iecond, witjj 

B 4 [the 


the peculiar additions*, and plainlier pointed out. 
the Mefliah to come but by a way of operous Ce- 
remonies^ and fevere Difcipline, fuitable to their 
rude minority. 

17. In the fulnefs of time, Chrift was conceived 
by the Holy Ghoft, in a Virgin, and beipg God 
and Man, as made by the Will of the Deity, was 
made a Subjed under a Law peculiar to himfelf, 
according to his peculiar works ; and this Law 
given to our Mediator had three parts. 1. That he 
mould perfe&ly obey the Law of Innocency fo far 
as it w r as fitted to his cafe, and overcome the 
Tempter. 2. That he fhould perfe&ly keep the 
Law of Mopes, fo far as it agreed to him. 3. That 
he fhould perfe&ly do all that was proper to the 
Redeemer, in being a Sacrifice for (in, clearing 
and publiihing the New Covenant 5 fealing it by 
Miracles, rifing again, inftituting his Word, Sacra- 
ments and Mini dry, afcending, giving the Spirit, 
interceding in Heaven, &c his promifed reward 
being the fuccefs of his undertaking, the faving of 
his Church and his Glory, in the glorifying of God 
the Father : This is the peculiar Law to the Me- 

18. That which is called The Covenant between 
the Father and the Son, is this Covenant made to 

2nd with Chrift Incarnate, and the fore-decreeing 
thereof, with the Prophecies of it. If there be more, 
it is paft our reach. 

19. Chrift perfectly fulfilled all that he under- 
took, and this as the fecond Adam $ not a Na- 
tural Root, but a Voluntary Sponfor: Notour 
£ubftitute or Servant fent by us, but chofen by 
tl:e Father, and lent by him to do all his Will for 
Mans Redemption. 

20. As he took the common Nature of Man, (o 


Ci ) 

the fins of all, and not only of the Eled were the 
caufes of his fufferings, and laid upon him, and the 
frmts of his fuflferings and merits were fome com- 
mon, and fome peculiar t6 the Ele<ft. 

21. He being not as Adam, our natural Parent, 
was not meerly by natural generation to convey 
his benefits to the Redeemed ; but by fuch means 
as he fhould chufe, and Man confent to, even by a 
holy Covenant or Contrad, being alfo* his Do- 
drine, and his Law in feveral refpects •, which Co- 
venant having great and precious Promifes, is 
Gods Inlirument of Donation and Condonation, 
and our title to all the bleflings promifed ; by 
which God doth give us right to Pardon and Sal- 
vation: This Law of Gr^ce is the Rule of our du- 
ty, and the Rule by which we (hall be judged, 

22. This Law or Covenant givetha Conditio- 
nal Pardon to all in the tenour of it, with Adop- 
tion and Right to Life Eternal : But adual Par- 
don and Right accrueth to none, till the Condi- 
tion be performed,whichis to be Believers,or their 
Infant feed dedicated to God by Covenant Con- 

25. This Condition is not that we our felves 
make God amends or fatisfadion,or give him any 
thing that hath any merit in Commutative Jufiice, 
or do any kind of work which (hall make the re- 
ward to be of debt, and not of grace: But it is 
\jhe Belief of , and Confent to the Covenant of Grace, 
and the Believing Acceptance of the gifts and grace of 
the Covenant, according to their nature, and for their 
proper ufe $ and is the fame thing which is to be 
profefled in Baptifm, which is the folemnizing of 
this mutual Covenant, andinwfeich God the Fa- 
ther, Son and Holy Ghoft, do give them felves to 
us, for grace and glory, and we give up our felves 


( 6 ) 

by 'confent to him, believingly accepting his grace, 
and penitently renouncing the lufts of the flefh, 
the world and the Devil 5 and Co are facramentally 
inverted in a ftate of Juftification, Adoption and 
Spiritual Life. 

24. The profefiion of this Faith and Confent in 
Baptifm, maketh men vifible Chriftians and 
Church* members; and true heart- confent in Faith 
maketh men Living and Juftified Members. 

25. This belief and content, or performance of 
the Condition, is not the Efficient Caufe of our 
Pardon or juftification, but is the neceffary difpofi- 
tion or qualification of the Receiver^ in the very nature 
of the Act fuit able and needful^ and by Divine Insti- 
tution and Promife made the Condition and acceptable. 

26. Though we are not capable Receivers of 
Juftification, till we thus penitently and believing- 
ly confent, yet w r hen we do fo, it is the merit of 
Chrifis Righteoufnefs by which we are jufiifed : For 
the Covenant of God is but his Infirument by 
which he giveth us Chrift fto'be our Head) and 
Life in and with him,* and fo giveth us Justifica- 
tion as procured by his Merits. 

27. Juftification is a word of many fenfes : fome- 
times it fignifieth [making m righteom~] fometimes., 
the Law 'or Covenants virtual judging m righteous y it 
being the Bale of Judgment: fometimes Goes 
efieeming US righteous in his own mind: fometimes 
for a Juftifying h Evidence or Witnefs : fometimes 
by apology of an Advocate : fometimes by the Sen- 
tence of the Judge: and-fometime for the Execu- 
tion of that Sentence. But the notable fpecial forts 

are three, Making jufi y Judging jufi y and Vfing as 

jufi: And they that will difpute of Justification, 
and not tell in what fenfe they take the word, do 
but abufe their time and talk. 

%$. No 


28. No man is judged righteous by God, that is 
not firft made righteous. 

29. . He that is made righteous, is jufiifiable in 
Judgment, and virtually jufiifed ( in Law. ) 

30. No (inner is made righteous as to the Precep- 
tive part of the Law of lnnocency ; it being a contra- 
diction to have been a (inner and no finner. 

31. Pardon of fin doth not make the fad done 
to be undone*, or not done, nor the fin to be no fin, 
nor not to have deferved punilhment : But it re- 
mitted! the punifhment and the fault, fo far as it in- 
ferreth puni(hment ? becaufe of the merit and (atif- 
fadtion of the Mediator 5 and delivered! the finner 
from that which he was bound to fuffer by the 
violated Law. 

32. To make a man righteous before God that 
hath finned, all thefe things muft concur: 1. He 

muff have a Mediator that wuft anfwer the Ends of 
the Law that condemneth him, and fo merit eth his Jll- 

ftification. 2. This Saviour mud make him a 

Pardoning and Jufttfying Covenant, to convey the 
right of the purchafed benefits to him. 3. He 
' himfelf {by grace) muji perform the Conditions of that 
Covenant 5 accepting the free gift believingly accord- 
ing to its nature and ufe. 4. Upon this the Cove- 
nant (by virtue of the forefaid Merit of the Me- 
diator) mufi effeClually jufiife him. 

33. Though we. have no Righteoufnefsof our 
own, that is fo denominated by the Law of lnno- 
cency, yet have we a Righteoufnefs to plead for 
our Justification from its Sentence, which by our 
Mediator was performed to it ? by which the i aw~ 
giver hath received fatisfa&ion ; and we muft have 
the perfonal fubordinate Righteoufnefs required by 

the Covenant of <}race. 

34. All that are made righteom, are efieemed and 
judged righteous , and ufed as right com. 35. Par- 

(8 ) 

55- Pardon of Sin, and Right to Life, are not that 
Righteoufnefs which anfwereth the Precept of the 
Law: But they are that Righteoufnefs which ju- 
ftifieth us againft the Accufation, [that we are not 
to befaved, but to be dammd7\ 

35-. Qirifts P erf eft Obedience to the Law of In- 
nocency, exempteth us from the neceffity of per- 
fect obedience to it, and from all duty of obeying 
it as the condition of life : But he did not Repent 
and Believe in obedience to his own Law of Grace, 
to exempt us from the neceffity of Repenting and 
Believing, which we muft do our felves by his 
grace, or periih. 

3& To make a man righteous implieth, that he 
was before unrighteous : But to judge him righte- 
ous, fuppofeth him to be righteous ; yet either ac- 
cufed of unrighteoufnefs, or accufable ; Juftification 
here fuppofing either attual or virtual Accufation. 
« 37. The Law is the Virtual Accufer, but that 
fpeaketh nothing but truth 3 (jviz,. that we finned 
and deferved damnation.) Satan IS the Attual Accu- 
fer, and the Father of Lies. 

38. We (hall not be jaftified by denying the 
true Accufation of the Law, but by denying the 
falfe Accufation of Satan : That we' are finners 
Ciuft be granted ; and that our fin deferved BtU : 
But (that we- have no part inChrift, that we are 
unpardoned, unreconciled finners, that we are 
unbelievers, impenitent, unre generate, unholy, or hypo- 
crites, muft be denied, or weperifh : As aifo that 
hereupon we ought to be damned, ancfyiot to be glorified* 

39. By this it is very plain how far a man mull 
bejuftified in Judgment by his own perfonal Righ- 
teoufnefs;and alfo how to understand, A/^/?. 2 5. and 
all the defcriptions of the laft Judgment, and the 
Reafons there afligned of the Sentence 5 and what 


it is to be Juftified or Condemned by our words, 
and to be judged according to our works, or what 
we have done in obedience or difobedience to the 
Law of grace ; and what is meant in James by be- 
ing juftified by works, and not by faith alone. For 
though Chrifts right eoufnefs is to be then honoured, 
it is not his part, but ours, that is by him to be£**- 
mined and Judged. And it istheZ^n? of Grace by 
which we muft be judged, which prefcribed us the 
Conditions of Pardon and Salvation. The perfor- 
mance of which muft therefore be the caufe of the 
day to be Examined and Judged. 

4. To juftify a mans Right to Salvation is to jufti- 
fy the man when his right is the thing tried : There- 
fore the caufes of our Right to Salvation are necef- 
fary caufes of our Jufltfication. All this is plain* 
and I think, not by aChriftian to be denied : And 
is not here enough to be the matter of our Chrifti- 
an peace and concord in this one point ofJnftificatiotf. 
But we are not fo happy ; It is a greater number of 
Controverfies that the teachers of Chriftians have 
raifed about it, than many hours willferve to han- 
dle. I will name fome that are too many, and yet 
far from all, and give you my fenfe of them plain- 
ly and briefly, that you may truly underftand the 
matter and me. 

Com. 1. Paffing by all the old quarrels, about 
Chrifts Per fon, by the Arrians, Nefiorians^Eutychi- 
ans, Monothelites, Phantajiafia^xid abundance more, 
about Justification itfelf, the firft that Ifhall men- 
tion is that which a few great and worthy men 
have unhappily raifed, Whether Jufiificaticn be not 

an Immanent ail in God, artdfo eternal: This they 

aflert, and I deny : There is nothing in God but 
God i Nothing therefore that hath beginning and 


( io ) 

end, but all is Eternal. But Relations and Extrin- 
ficl^denominationsj find alfo Effects may begin and 
end. The world was not from Enernity : God did 
not make it from Eternity, nor was the creator of 
it from Eternity, in proper fpeech. And yet no A<5t 
as it is- in God had beginning or end -, for it 
is God himfelf. But Gods Eflential will or word 
is not called creating till it actually create. So is it 
in Justification : Nothing is new in God, befides 
Relation and Denomination ^ but much is new by 
and from God. Justification is a tranfient act of God. 
It is the aft of his Covenant and his Judgment and 
Execution. Therefore he that faith Eled Infidels 
are juftifiedfrom Eternity, Contradi&eth Gods 
word, that faith we are juftified by faith, and till 
then are under Condemnation. 

Cont. 2. Whether the Covenant of Grace, be made 
only with Chrift, or with us alfo ? The firft is put into 

a Catechif m where I am forryer to find it, than in 
Maccovim, Cluto,Coccews and Cloppenburgius. The' 
Covenant made with Chrift is not the fame that 
is made between Chrift and us, and which we ce- 
lebrate in Baprifm. It is not only Chrift that is bap. 
tized^hxiz all his members -, And baptifm is the mu- 
tual Covenant* We are the receivers of the Relation 
to God the Father, Son and Holy Ghoft, and we are the 
Tromifers (■ the word Reftipulation is too prefumptU- 

ous. ) If we are not Covenanters, we can be noCo- 
venmt breakers, nor have right to the benefits of 
fach a Covenant: It is the fame thing that in 
feveral refpeits is called a Law and a Covenant. 
And if we are not under Chrifts Law we are 
Lawlefs, or not hisSubje&s. DenyChriits Law and 
Covenant to us, and you will fubvert allChriftiani- 
ty and deny the rule of judgment and Justification, 


( II ) 

Cont. 3. Whether the Covenant of grace have any 
condition required of us. 

Anf Here we firfi fhew our weaknefs in con- 
tending about the word C Condition ] while we a- 
gree not of the fenfe, though till men made a diffe- 
rence on this ill occafion, there were few words 
that men were more agreed in ( of fuch a Sub- 
ject. ) And the word we muft ufe, hath no other 
name that I remember which our Grammar hath 
taught us to call, fuch Conjunctions by as C If 3 is* 
but C Conditional^ nor any other name that Law 
and Civil ufe hath taught us to call the thing de- 
fined by but [ CONDITION'} without circumlo- 
cution,uncouthnefs orobfcurity. The common de- 
finition of Lawyers is that it is, C Ltx *ddita ne~ 
getio qua dome prafietur event urn fufpendit : It is in 
our cafe the Mode of the Law or Promife requiring 
a Duty or Moral Aft or qualification-, on the frcfeme 
or ab fence, performance or non-performance whereof the 
Law or Donation annexethor fufpendetltthe event. This 
is a Condition as it is in th^Laxv or Covenant, ot Pro- 
mife, being but its Modus : But as it is in the 
perfon and performance , it is £ Moral Aft Of 
qualification, required by the Law, or Promife, to 
which it annexeth, and till it be performed fuf- 
pendeth the event. Natural or m@erly contingent 
conditions that are not moral, belong not to our 
enquiry. ( As if it be a fair day to morrow. If fuch 
a fhip come fafe home ! If I live fo long, &c. ) 

Some define a condition here to be any Moral 
medium of obtaining a benefit ex pafta: But I. A 
Law r hath its conditions, and fo hath a Donation or 
promife, when there is no proper mutual paftum or 
, Covenant. 2. There are other Moral media ex pa&o 
befides conditions ( as are all fimple duties.) 3- But 


thefe definers cannot congruoufly deny the Gofpel 
Covenant of grace to have conditions of our Jnftif- 
cation and Salvation : For none but an Infidel can 
congruoufly deny that Faith and Repentance are 
conditions of our Juftification and Salvation, if e- 
very Moral medium be a condition which is expaSo. 
Is faith,and is repentance no means ? And are they 
not required of us ? and do we not profefs them 
at prefent and promife them for the future $ 

Sometimes the fame thing is a moral caufe and a 
Condition of the Event. And fometimes it is a me er 
Condition and but fine quanon, aadno proper caufe* 
ufually in Moral Conditions there is fomething in 
the Nature of the matter for the fake of which the 
Donor or Lawgiver maketh it neceffary ; which 
is its aptitude as a means to fome of his ends. , * 

If Faith had no more fitnefstobe the condition 
ofJufHfication thant^e/zef or hatingCod^xxd itGod- 
limfs or Holinefs had no more fitnefs to be theCondi- 
tionofour Salvation than wickednefs, they would not 
have been deputed to this place, Office and Honour. 

Faith is no Condition of Gods making the promife 
( He abfolntely made fome Conditional promifes, and 
Others only on conditions performed by Chrifh ) But 
it is the condition of our right to orpofleffionof 
the thing promifed-, or of the event. 

Either che deniers of conditions deny all or but 
fome. If all then they deny that Chrift performed 
any conditions. If but fome, they deny either the 
name only ^ or the thing alfo. If the name only. i. Is 
it worth their Zeal and Contention ? 2. Are they 
not (ingular ; and Angularity in the ufe of words 
tendethto cauflefs quarrels. 3. Why do they not 
commend to us fome better name for the fame 
thing ? Grammar and common ufe hath taught us 
this. Dr. Twijfe hath fomjd another, oft and ok 


C t"j ) 

laying that C Faith is a difpofitive caufeofjufkificati- 
w.^ I diflikenot his notion, fave that, i. It is too 
general there being more difpofitive caufes befides 
Conditions. 2. That it is not Political enough as 
theSubjed requireth( or Civil. ) 3. That it is in 
two words when one is better ; and 4. That the 
very terms C Caufe ] is liable to miftake. For faith 
is no efficient canfe of Juftification , principal - nor in- 
ftrumental : We muft not afcribe fo much to it. 
Nor is it a final caufe, nor the formal caufe. But it 
is as the Dr. fpeaketh Difpofttio SabjeEli recipients : 
Not a natural 5 but Moral dijpofition 3 Yet madefuch 
by Gods inftitution, becaufe the very nature of the 
adt containeth zfitnefs to its receptive Office 5 even 
as it is the believing acceptance of fuch a free and 
wonderful gift to fuch fpecial ends and ufes. 

2. But if it be not the Name only but the thing 
defined that is denied the Gofpel is denied, and that 
which is of neceflity to Salvation is denied. To de- 
ny faith to be necejfary to Pardon, Juftification -and 
Salvation as a moral means congruous in its nature and 
inftituted of God, is infidelity or open prophanenefs : 
Nor can thofebe meet Preachers of the Gofpel that 

Two waysScripture fheweth thatjuftification'and 
Salvation are given conditionally. 1, By the plain 
Conditional Phrafe, and 2. By the conditional de- 
scription, in the mode of the promife : To inftance 
in k few Texts among a multitude, Mar. 16. 16. 
He that believeth and is baptized Jhall be faved^and he 
that believeth not jhall be damned. 

Rom. 4. 1%. To whom itfiall be imputed, if we 
believe on him that raifed up Jefm our Lord from the 

Rom. IO. 9, 10. For if thou Jhaltconfefs with thy 
mouth theLordJefus andfhalt believe in thy heart that 

C God, 

( i4 ) 

Cod raifed him from the dead, thou Jhall be faved. For 
with the heart man believeth to righteoufnefs, and with 
the mouth confejfwn is made unto Salvation. 

Joh. 1*12. To as many as received him to them 
gave he power to become the Sons of God y even to them 
that believe in his name. 

joh. 3. 19. 18, 16. %k 6. throughout. 

Mat. 6 14. 15. If ye forgive men their tref- 
pajfes,your heavenly Father will forgive yon* But ifyc 
forgive not, Sec. 

Luk. 13. 3, 5. Except ye repent ye {hall all /*%- 

Ads 10. 35. In every nation he that feareth God 
andworketh righteoufnefs is accepted of him. 

Ads 8. 37. If thou believeft with all thy he&rt thou 

maift* ( i.e. Be baptized for the remiffion of 

But I have recited fo many Texts of this fort in 
my Confejfwn and other books, that I will here for- 
bear unneceflary recitals. Mat. 5. alone may fuf- 
fice, and all the Texts that fay, Faith is imputed for 
or to nghteoufnefs^andthat we arejuftifiedbyit. 

Furthermore; 1. If the Baptifmal Covenant 
have no condition, then none is to be prerequired 
in the perfon to be baptized, nor his promifcof any 
demanded. But the confequent is falfe .• Elfethe 
baptifm inftituted by Chriit and ever pradifed ia 
the Church is falfe. 

And here you fee what a Baptifm thefe men 
would make : If they practice it according to this 
principle 5 and how they would overthrow our 
Chriftianity, and baptize Infidels. 
, The major is evident becaufe, where no condi- 
tion is required of God or impofed, there none 
fhould be required or impofed i>y the Mini- 
iter. And if fo in Baptifm, Tri*y not alfo 

in Abfolution and the Lords Supper. 

2. If the Promife of Pardon and Juftification 
be Abfolute without any condition, then either 
to All men, or but to fome. If to All, then all are 
juftified. If but to fome, to whom? If you fay to 
the Eletti no man knoweth them, while they are 
unbelievers : and fo neither the Perfon nor the 
Minifter can apply that Promife to any fingular 
man : If you fay, To Believers, you grant Faith to 
be 3. necejfary, moral antecedent: Andiffb, whence 
can you imagine it to be fuch, but Aptitudinally in 
the Nature of the Aff ( receiving Chrift, which 
fome call it S Inftrumentality ) and A finally by 
Godslnftitution in the Tenor of his Word: Now 
this is i- In the Tenor or Mode of the Precept, 
and that makethit a Duty. 2. In the Tenor or 
Mode of the Promife, and that maketh it if* Con- 
dition : In what other refpe& do they ( exclufive- 
ly ) feign it neceilary ? 

Obj, As an Antecedent ? Anf That fpeaketh 
but the Order : But what Antecedent is it ? 

Obj> As a fign ? Anf. Of what? and why Is it 
as a fign of Election ? But Holinefs, the Love of God, 
and man, &c. are figns of Election, and yet not pre- 
requifite to baptifm and pardon. And whence is 
it that this fign of Election is prerequifite, but that 
Gods precept made it a duty, and the promife a condi- 
tion i Grant it a fign, the queflion is (till of the 
reafonofthis figns neceffity to J 'unification. 3. If 
Signification be the thing neceffery, it muft be ei- 
ther to God, to the Sinner, or to the Baptizjer. Not 
to God, that needs no notice by figns: arid fo it 
would follow that before God Elect Infidels are 
juftified, which is falfe, as is oft proved : And to 
the Minifter it if not certainly known: Nor may 
he baptize anyraeerly as Elect, if he could know 
C z it 

( i6 ) 

it (by revelation) before Faith. Nor might 
fuch a perfon claim it, Nor do believers ufually at 
the very firft know their Election. It's pity that 
any catechized perfon fhould be fo ignorant as to 
deny fo plain a Truth as it is that the Promife ma- 1 
keth Faith antecedently neeeflary to Juftitication 
under the form of an apt condition $ when no nfed 
phrafe can fpeak the thing to us fo intelligibly and 
truly as this doth. 

Ohj It is prerequifite as an Inftrument f Anf. Of 
this I Ihall fpeak by it felf anon. By an Inftrument 
\ I hope when confidered they will not mean any 
proper efficient Injtrwnem of Juftification ( Though 
in exciting, the acts of Sanctification in us it may 
be called our Instrument and Gods by us :) But ju- 
ftifying is wholly and only Gods Act, and the Co- 
venant as an Act of oblivion, and Grace is his In- 
ftrument giving us our Right to impunity and Life y ( in 
which our Conftitutive, Juftification doth confift ) 
But they mean a Metaphorical Receiving Inftrument, 
and to receive Chift is but the very effence of Faith, 
which they call the To credere, and fo to be jufti- 
fied by Faith as it receiveth Chrift^ and as a recei- 
ving In [frumenty and as it is the Jo credere in fpecie y 
are all one. And all this is true, if you ask but 

for wfeat Natural aptitude God made Faith the Con- 

dition of Juftification: And it's more aptly called 
by the forefaid Dr. Caufa difpofitiva •? and yet more 
aptly djfioftio receptiva moralis,neceihry and fuccefs- 

ful, aptitudinally in its Nature, and A5luaHy by the 

tenor of Gods Promife or Donation, making it a 
Condition : that is, faying [ He that believeth fljalt 
be jufiified and faved, and he that doth not J be 

damned. ] If God had not given Chrift and L oy 

a Promile of this Tenor, £ If thou believe thonfhalt 

rhave Chrift and Life, ] it's aptitude would have 


( 17 ) 
had no ufe. If the King by an A& of Oblivion 

fay' E All Rebels and Makfaftort that thankfully come 
and take out their pardon, and lay down arms (hall live, 
and the reft Jhall be unpardonable. ] Here, I. The 
Ad; of Oblivion is the pardoning Inftrument, and 
the receivers Title and fundamentum juris* 2. The 
Reception is made a Condition by the A& being 

the modus donandi feu condonandu 3. Next this 

Condition is performed. 4; And next the effed; 
followeth from it's proper efficient caufes, e. g. 
fuppofe, 1. The Kings Clemency. 2. His Sons 
Interceflion. 3. The A& of Oblivions Inftrumen- 
tality. 4. The Offenders performing the Condi- 
tion, which doth but make him a capable Recei- 
ver of the Effect. 5. And laftly, the Miniffers in- 
strumental applicatory fealing, delivering and inve- 
ftiture. This is all plain, to men that by preju- 
dice fight not againrt the light. 

And that the Promifes of Salvation, or Glory 
( and perfeverance ) have their Conditions, I will 
not for fhame and tedioufnels ftand to prove to 
fuch as you. 

Obj. But he that performeth a Condition may boafi 
and afcribe fomewh at to himfelf* 

Anf. 1. I find many that thus argue the pro- 
neft of moft Christians toboaft of, or to defend 
their honour and the honour of their^party againfi 
any that would vilifie them ; and do afcribe fome- 
thing to them, even to be the beft fort of men. 
2. God boafteth of his Servants, and afcribetb 
much to them, viz* to have his Image, the divine 
nature, to be the Salt and Lights of the Earth, his 
Jewels, the Apple of his Eye, &c. He bids them 
turn themselves, fave themfelves and work ouc 
their Salvation, and keep themfelves in his Love 
and continue in his Love, &c 3. If faying that 
C 3 they 

( i8) 

they believe and repent, and give up themfelves to 
God in Chrift be culpable boafting then all that 
have been baptized on fiich a required profeflion, 
have thereby finned, and all the Chriftian bap- 
tifm hath been fin. 4. No man is a Chriftian, ju- 
ftified, or can be faved that cannot fo boaft ( that 
he is not an Infidel, but a Penitent Believer. ) 5. Is 
it a matter of boafting that God commandeth when 
he commandeth us to repent and believe the Go- 
fpel ? If he freely pardon condemned Sinners for 
the fake of Chrifts Sacrifice, Righteoufnefs and 
Interceftion, on Condition, that they do not final- 
ly refufe the gift, but believingly accept it accord- 
ing to it's Nature, and all this by his Grace ; is this 
matter of boafting ? May a pardoned Traytor boaft 
of his Merit to the King, if the Condition of his 
pardon be, that he (hall not refufe it, and fpit in 
the Kings face, or continue a rebel? 

Obj. Where all is of Grace, and Faith it felf given 
and promife d by the Covenant, there the Covenant is 
not Conditional. 

Anf 1. As to the giving of Faith, itwellftands 
with Gods method both to Command it as a du- 
ty, and to make it a Condition of his Promife, 
and to give his Word and Spirit to caufe us to per- 
form it. It is a fi&ion that thefe may not confift, 
and he fubverteth the Gofpel that faith they do 
not confift. 2. As to the Promife, God indeed 
hath promifed to Chrift, to give him a k^d, and 
to draw them to him, &c. But the Covenant 
irade with particular men, and fealed and folemni- 
2ed in baptifm doth not promife Faith and Repen- 
iance^ which are firft given, but prerequire them as 
the neceflary qualification of the adult. And this 
is the Covenant that we fpeak of. 3. It is a Con- 
dition of Pardon, Jufiification and Acceptance, that 


C *9) 

we enquire of. Therefore it is the Promife ofthefe 
that we muft mean: Now I ask whether the Pro- 
mife of Pardon and Justification be a Promife of Faith, 
or whether it be not a Promife to pardon andjufti- 
fie Believers only and their Seed, and fo prerequi- 
ireth Faith. 

Obj. But you -call the many parts of one Covenant 
by the name of many Covenants. Anfi I hope we 
fhall not be called in matters of Catechifm to Me- 
taphyfical or Logical quibbles deVmtate & Indivi- 
duatione. Which is too hard for mens wits about 
things natural or moral That is one in fome re- 
fpe<5t which is many in others. There is fome fort 
of Unity of all thellniverfe, even of all Creatures: 
And fo there is of all Gods Law.s and Covenants : 
either the Obje&iors fpeak de nomine or de re : If 
but of the Name £ One, ] they (hall call it One if 
that will pleafe them,and let them only diftinguifh 
the Parts of that One : If they will fay that the 
Covenant made by the Father with the Mediator, 
and the Law made for him, are one and the fame 
with the Covenant made by the Father and Son and 
Holy Spirit with us, and that our Baptifmal Cove- 
nant is no Covenant, but only a part of the Cove- 
nant of which that with Chrift aforefaid is another 
part, I will not ufe their phrafe, but let me under- 
stand them that it is only the Name of [Ow or 
Two 2 that they contend about, and we will fit 
our words accordingly : I think on feveral ac- 
counts they are to be called Divers Covenants : If 
they diflike it, let us enquire whether the various 
Precepts of one Covenant make not various du- 
ties to Chrift and to us ; and whether the various 
Promifes of it have not various Conditions, fome 
to be performed by Chrift and fome by us. Our 
prefent Qiieftion is, Whether that part of the 

C 4 Cove- 

( 20 ) 

Covenant which promifeth ar$ giveth Pardon of 
fin, Juftification, Adoption, and right to Glory, 
have any Condition, as the Modus of the gift ? 
We will rather follow them in unmeet terms, 
than leave them thence a pretepce to confound 
names and things, 4 and hide their errour by the 

All Divines, ancient and modern, reformed and 
and unreformed, that I know of, agreed with us 
in the conditionally of the faid Promife, and by 
the form of Baptifm ihewed the Churches confent 
till Maccovim in Holland, and Dr. Crifpe and other 
Antinomians in England began to fubvert the 
Gofpel on pretence of magnifying the freenefs of 
Grace ; and yet they durft never attempt to alter 
the Form of Baptiftn ; as this Opinion will re- 
• ■■ ■ » • ■- ' ■»*> ^ 

Coritr. 4. By what hath been faid, the fourth 
Controverfie is already refolved^ viz* Whether our 
performance of the Condition of Juftification doth effi- 
ciently jnftifie us? Some fay 5 becaufe we fay that 
Chrift doth not juftifie us till we perform the con- 
dition by believing, that therefore we make our 
own Faith or performance to juftifie proximately, 
and Chrift but remotely, and fo to do more than 
Chrift to our Juftification. 

jipf. 1. As to the phrafe, Scripture faith, that 
we are juftifie d by Faith, that word not fignifying an 
efficiency ', but a receptive qualifying condition ; but 
it never faith, that Faith doth juftifie us, much lefs 
that we by it juftifie ourfelves: Our performance 
or Faith is no efficient caufe 5 but as to two parts 
of cur Juftification it hath a twofold Office : 1 . As 
to our Juftification by the Merits of Chrifts Righ- 
teoufnefs ^gainft this charge {that damnation u due 


( II ) 

to m for fin] our Faith is the Condition of our P*r- 
^ and J unification 5 that is, the metal qualifica- 
tion which God hath made neceflary to make us 
capable receivers of it i As laying down Arms,and 
taking his Pardon thankfully, may make a Rebel 
capable of Pardon f but doth not pardon him) if 
the pardoning A& lay [This fhall be the Condition: ] 
And by his # "Pardon he is jnfiifiable againft the 
charge of being liable to death. 

2. But as to the fubordinate part of Jifftification y 
againft the falfe charge that we are no Believers, nor 
repent^ andfo have no pan in chrift\ here our own 
Faith is the very Matter of Righteoufnefs by which 
we muft be in tamum rfo far) juftified : As truth 
and innocency is againft every falfe accufation ; 
And to fay that becaufe Chrifts Merits juftifie us 
not before and without our Faithand performance 
of the Condition, therefore our Act juftifteth us 
more than Chrift, or efficiently at all, is a thing 
unworthy of an anfw-er, being below the thoughts 
of an intelligent Difputer. How much the capa- 
city or incapacity of the Receiver doth as to all the 
various changes in the world, both $)hyfical and 
moral, when yet efficiently it doth nothing, is not 
wholly unknown to any fober thinkitig man. As 
. the fame fun-fhine maketh a Weed ft ink, and a 
Rofe fweet 5 fo the fame Ad of Oblivion, or 
conditional Juftifying Law or Covenant, doth ju- 
ftifie the capable, and not the uncapable, though 
no mans Faith doth effed any part of his own Jufti- 
fication. Mr. Troughton, and fuch others denying 
Faith to be the Condition of our Juftification by 
the Promife, hath drawn me to fpeak the largelier 


(22 ) 

«■ i ■■■ " '■■■ '«■ ' ■ * " , * ' •■■■'■• ' " ' ' ' * '» " . ■ ■ ■ II — *-^ 

Contr. ff Whether we arejuftijied by Chrifis Righ- 
teoufnefs imputed to us : and whether the Scripture fay 
fo. , 

Anfi The Scripture oft faith, that Faith is impu- 
ted to us for Righteoufnefs ; and that is, Faith in 
Chrift : And it faith, that Righteoufnefs is imputed, 
or reckoned to us, that is, we are reckoned or re- 
puted righteous, Rom. 4. 11, 22.6. And that fin is 
#6t imfuted, that is not charged on us to punish- 
ment, or damnation, Rom. 5. 13. & 4. 8. Pfal. 32. 
<v. 2. ? Cor. 5. 16. The words of Imputing Chrifis 
Righteoufnefs to us, I find not in Gods Word y and there- 
fore think them not neceflary to the Churches 
peace or fafety. But as for the fenfe of thofe 
words.no doubt but it may be good,& the Papifts 
themfelves own them in the fame fenfe as many 
ProteftantDivines profefs to ufe them,as Ihave proved. 

Contr. 6. In what fenfe is Chrifts Righteoufnefs im- 
puted to us ? 

Anfw. It is accounted of God the valuable con- 
sideration, fatisfadion and merit (attaining Gods 
ends) for which we are (when we confent to the 
Covenant of Grace,)* forgiven and juftified againft 
the condemning Sentence of the Law of Innocen- 
cy, and reconciled and accepted of God to Grace 
and Glory. 

Q^ But did not Chrift reprefent our perfons in his 
Righteoufnefs^ fo that it is imputed to us as ours, as if 
&e our f elves had been and done what he was and did 
as righteous ? 

Anfi This being the very heart of all the Con- 
troverfie,(hould bejdecided only by Scripture, and 
nothing added or diminifhed. That Chrift is the 
fecond Adam, and called fyy"*> a Sponfor* Surety 


(23 ) 

orlnterpofer, and a Mediator between God and 
Man, that fuffered for us, the juft for the unjuft, 
a price, and a facrifice, is all found infcripture. 
Wife and peaceable men here will be as fearful 
of humane Inventions and Additions as in Difci- 
pline or Ceremonies at leaft. But becaufe all are 
riotfuch, we muft fpeak to men as they are. There 
are feverai forts of Sureties or Sponfors. 

Few reprefent the very ptrfon, at leaft not all: If 
men will needs impofe on us their own word of 
Refrefentation s for peace fakeiwe accept it, in a 
found fenfe. In a limited fenfe it is true that Chrift 
reprefented m $ that is, he fuffered in our ftead, that 
we might not fuffer : He obeyed, and was per- 
fectly righteous as Mediator in our Natures^ and 
fo far iirour ftead, as that fuch perfed Righteouf- 
nefs fhould not in our felves be neceflary to our 
Juftificacion. But he did not abfolutely reprefent 
us; he was not cur Delegate : Our perfons did 
not in a Law-fenfe do in and by Chrift what he 
did, or poffefs the habits which he poflefled, or 
fuffered what he fuffered : Nor doth God account 
us fo to have done, for that were to miftake. I 
haverendred a multitude of reafons to prove this 
in my Treatife of Juftifying Rtghtewfnefs : The 
contradi&ion is enough that we are accounted ne- 
ver to have finned, becaufe Chrift never finned 3 
and yet we are accounted to have fuffered or fatif- 
fied for fin, becaufe Chrift did fo 3 or at leaft that 
we need a pardon by his blood, and muft ask for 
pardon, and muft fuffer correcting punifhments,and 
long be without neceflary grace and glory, when 
yet we are accounted never to have finned, but 
from birth to death to have fulfilled all Gods Law 
in Chrift. I have fully proved that this DoCirine 
fubverteth thefumof all the Gofpel and Religion, 
to which I refer you. Contr. 

( M) 

Contr. 7. What Righteoufnefs of Chrift is it that is 
ours, and imputed to ns^ the Pa/five, the AElive> the 
Habitual^ or the Divine, or all ? 

■ Anfw. Divines are here fallen into four Opi- 

I. Many of our moft famous Divines fay, that 
it is only Chrifts fufferings that are imputed to 
us as our Righteoufnefs to Juftification ; being 
Juftitia Meritt, the reft being Juftitia Perfona, to 
qualifie Chrift to merit for us- Thus Partus, Scul- 
tetus y Wenddine, Beckman* Vrfine, Pifcator, Olevian, 
Camero with his followers,and many more: Thefe 
are far from thinking that we fulfilled all the Law 
in Chrift, or are righteous becaufe he fulfilled it. 

II. The fecond fort think that the A&ive and 
Paflive Righteoufnefs are imputed to us as our 

III. The third fort are for the Paflive, A&ive 
and Habitual imputed. 

IV. The fourth think fo alfo of the Divine, 
(which is the Deity it felf; for there is nothing in 
God but God) Andrew o pander is for our Justifi- 
cation by the Divine Eflence, but I think rather 
by Communication than Imputation. Thus hath 
cur weaknefs diftra&ed and difgraced us. But 
Mr. Bradfhaw truly noted, that if the fenfe of Im- 
putation were well agreed of, the reft might well 
be reconciled^ viz.. that no Righteoufnefs of 
Chrift is imputed to us in theifcrid: fenfe of Repre- 
fentation, as if we our felves were legally ac- 
counted to have been done or fuffered, what Chrift 
did, was and fufFered. But in the juft fenfe of Im- 
putation all is imputed to us, that is, Chrifts Ha- 
bitual, Active and Paflive Righteoufnefs, ful- 
filling his own part of the Covenant, advanced in 


f>> ) 

dignity by the Union of the Divine nature and 
perfection was the true meritorious caufe of 
our Juftification, and not any one of thefe a- 

» . . . ■ ■ ■ •• ■ ,. ! ■ I tt | | , 

Cont. 8. Whether Chrifts righteoufnefs be the effici- 
ent > material OV formal caufe of our Right eoufnefs and 
Juftification. i 

Anf. Its pity that poor people mull be thus 
tempted with Controverfies of Logick. But what 
remedy ? Chrifts righteoufnefs as materially and 
formally his, merited our Juftification: But for the 
accidental relation of righteoufnefs in Chrift, to 
be the accidental relation of righteoufnefs to every 
believer, is impoffible unlefsthe Subject be the 
fame: If Chrift be the believing (inner, and as 
many perfons as there be fuch, or all thefe be the 
fame perfon with Chrift, then his individual righte- 
oufnefs is formally theirs, elfe not. For as noxa ca- 
putfequitur, fo no accident is the fame numerically 
in various Subje&s. They that deny this Vented 
but the fame advantages to have believed Tran- 
fubftantiation, and renounce the common princi- 

But that Chrifts righteoufnefs is the meritorious 
caufe of ours, is paft doubt. And therefore they 
that affirm and they that deny it to be the material 
caufe (which is the common Doctrine of Pro- 
teftant difputers) do but differ about a name. For 
if Adam had merited his own glorification had noc 
his works been both the meritorious caufe, and.the 
material ? that is, the matter of that meritorious 
righteoufnefs : And why may we not fay fo of 
Chrift ? It is therefore the material becaufe it is 
the meritorious, that is, the meriting matter. For 

righteoufnefs being a Relation hath ftri&ly no 


matter, but a Subjett. And Chrifts Atts andhabks 
wpre the firft Subjetl of that righteoufhefs of his 
perfon whofe merit juftifieth us : But the believer 
is the Sttbjeti of his own perfonal righteoufnefs thus 
merited by Chrift. It's pity that holy things fhould 
be brought down to fuch Logical trifling ; but 
more pity that Church teachers that will do fo, 
fhould abufe them by their ignorance in their own 
way. The matter of the righteoufnefs which me- 
riteth our Juftification from the Laws damnation 
of us, is Chrifts own righteoufnefs 5 ( unlefs by the 
matter you mean the Subject perfon.) But the mat- 
ter of om fubordinate righteoufnefs is in and of our 
felves,of which anon. 

. , — , ' ■>■ ■ . ' " « 

Cont. 9. Whether the Vnion between Chrift and 
believers be not fo near^ as maketh them the fame 
Subjeft, and fo the accident of Chrifts righteoufnefs to 
be ours? 

Anf. So fome think, but this tremendous my fie- 
ry muft not be rafbly and profanely handled. In a 
Union Specifick of humanity, all mankind is one 
with Chrift that is, of one Species of humane na- 
ture : And fo that which is predicated of one as 
fuch, is predicated of the other. 

In a Political Vnion Chrift as the head, and the 
Church as the body make one Society as part scon- 
ftituting the whole. And fo whatever is predi- 
cated of a part meerly as a party is predicable of 
both : But that which is predicated of the whole 
as a whole is properly predicable of neither alone: 
And that which is predicated of the Head as a 
head, is not predicable of the body, nor that of the 
head, which is proper to the body, nor that of one 
member which is proper to another. But fome 
things by way of Communication may be predi- 

v %j J 
cated of the whole, for the fake of a part. So the 
Church is called (infill and imperfed; for our 
fake, though Chrift be not fo : And it is eminent- 
ly holy and glorious,becaufe Chrift is fo ; that is,/e- 

cnndum quid. 

But no Vnion will make us righteous and perfo- 
naliy happy by anothers righteoufnefs and fyappi- 
nefs, unlefs it were a perfonal Union, ( natural or 
Legal at leaft as to Relative rights. ) The qqieftion 
then is whether every believer be one per [on with 
Chrift ? And if ft), whether one natural perfon^ or 
one Legal (as a lawful vicarim is. ) They that hold 
the firft plead that the fame Spirit that is in Chrift, 
is the fame divine nature, and maketh us one natu- 
ral perfon. But where doth the Scripture fay fo ? 
The Sun is not one. individual with every Plant 
that it quickened), nor every plant with it. A net- 
tle or rofe is not the Sun, nor is it the illuminater 
of the World, that maketh day, &c But they have • 
fo much from the Sun as it communicateth 5 and no 
more. So we are not Chrift, nor the Eternal and 
Natural Son of God, nor infinite in Wifdom and 
Goodnefs, nor perfe&ly juft and glorified, as 
Chrift is : But we have from Chrift fo much of 
the Spirit as he communicateth 5 And nothing is 
curs meerly becaufe it is his, and we one perfon 
with him ; but becaufe he Communicateth it to 
us : What further real Union there will be in our 
glorious perfection we cannot well know till we 
are there. But in this imperfe&lon our Union is 
not fuch as far as I underftand it, as maketh us one 
natural perion with Chrift 3 And furely it 
cloth not make his proper accidents to be our acci- 

And as to that which fome call a Legal or Repu- 
tative perfonal Union* it muft be proved before in 


( 28 ) 

isafferted. And as I know no word of God that 
fpeaketh fuch a thing, as that Thrift and we areim- 
putatively one perfon 3 fo I know that they that 
will affentit of their own heads, prefume far in a 
tender point ; and if they fhould fay that we are 
[imply and ad omma one perfon, it were not by 
Chriftian ears to be endured : If they will fay that 
it is but in fome refpeds and to fome certain ufes, 
f^as a Servant, that payeth his Mafters creditor by 
order in fome fenfe reprefenteth him in that one 
adtion ) they muft limit it carefully and fhew to 
what ufes we are one perfon, left they do they 
know not what : And they muft fhew what fort of 
perfon they mean ? Whether Chriftbe made the 
lame perfon with each believing (inner, and fo take 
our bad denominations -> or each (inner be made 
the perfon of Chrift 3 and have his glorious deno- 
niinations,or a third fort of perfon is made of both, 
and what that is ? If meer perfonal Unity make us 
righteous by imputation,becaule Chrift is fo, either 
it muft be as Chrift is righteous, in full perfe&ion 
(reputatively ) or elfe but according to the meafure 
of our receptivity : The firft none will affirm that 
underftand what they fay : And the fecond brings 
the effed no higher than we grant - 7 The foot doth 
not underftand as the head doth-, though it be a 
part of the fame natural body, and may have its 
peculiar Ulcers and Difeafes: A crab and a fweet 
apple may grow on the fame Tree : Certainly we 
have a perfon proper to our felves, which hath its 
own defe&s and evils, and hath no more from 
Chrift than he communicateth. 

Cont. IO. Art we not n got eons by b tin gone with 
Chrift - y as we arefmners by Vnion with Adam? 

Anf 1. We were but feminally and virtually 


C *9> 

in Adam, and not perfonally ( as I have opened in 
my difpur. Of Original fin:) And fo we were 
but virtually in Chrift when he fuffered and obey- 
ed, and we were unborn. 

2. Nay our derivation from Adam was by na- 
ture, but from Chrift by his voluntary Gift and Con- 

2. Had we not finned in Adam, and yet had 
finned our felves w r e had been unrighteous : And 
fo it is, though we finned not in Chrift, and yet are 
finners our felves againft him. 

Our radical righteoufnefs in Adam would have 
happily difpofed us to perfonal obedience ^ as-^- 
dam himfelf was who yet fell: And our radical 
righteoufnefs in Chrift, is yet a more happy prepa- 
rative to our neceflary duty to him, which is righte- 
oufnefs alfo, which he that hath not (hall be con- 
demned. I know that many fay that [(Adam had 
conquered that temptation, or at leaft had never 
finned, all hispofterity ftiould have been confirm- 
edagainft all future fin and danger as the Angels 
be in Heaven : But I dare not add to the Word of 
God ; and I find no fuch thing there, though I hear 
what others fay : And if that were true, thefirft 
Covenant would have ceafed upon Adams obedi- 
ence, as it did upon his difobedience, and all the 
World would have been under either no Law, or 
fome Law to us unknown. The firft Adam was a 
living Soul, indeed, and the fecond is a qmclzning Spi- 
rit. And as in Adam all die, fo in Chrift fiall all be 
made alive , but every man in his own order . And as 
we are not railed, nor yet delivered from all our 
fin ormifery by our Union with Chrift as foon as 
we believe, fo neither from all guilt and unrighte- 
oufnefs h but muft daily pray, forgive us our ttefi- 
P«ffes, and deliver us from the evil. If our Union 

D prefently 

( jo ) 

prefently made all ours that is Chrift s y and that as it 
is his, yea or as much as we need it, we were then 
highly dignified indeed. Marriage giveth the Wife 
her felfno further propriety in the Husbands fi- 
xate nor ufe of it, than he communicateth by the 
contract : And neither that nor generation itfelf, 
give Wife or Child the Husbands or Fathers learn- 
ing, innocence or health. 

Cont. IT. Is notChrifts righteoufnefsours y as our 
fms were his, by imputation ? 

Anfi Yes, As much at leaft> or more. But take 
heed of making Chrifts Gofpel by your mending 
it, and of making him no Chrift while you would 
make him more merciful according to your own 
conceits.Iknow it is laid once that he was made fin for 
u$± W 7 ho knew no fin , that we might be made the righte- 
onfnefs of G&d in him&ut as we are not properly righte- 
oufnefs) much lefs Gods righteoufnefs, but are made 
righteous, and fo the inftances or demonftrations 
of the righteoufnefs of Gods fo expofitors common- 
ly agree that by fin is meant a Sacrifice for fin. Or 
by being £ made fin ] is meant being ufed as if he 
had been a finwr. Undoubtedly if God imputed or 
accounted Chrift a finner, and if he were truly fo 
by any means, practice or tranflation, he muft be 
by fin hateful to the moft holy God, ( even to him- 
felf)and would have in him lb great a part of Hell, 
and Divine defertion, as is not confident with his 
perfonal perfection, or the hypoftatical Union, ^ as 
far as we can conceive : And if indeed God im- 
puted to him the fins of all the eledfc, fo as firft to 
make the very fins themielves to become Chrifts 
own fins by imputation, then Chrift lutfered for 
his own fins, and muft be more odious to God than 
any ordinary finner 5 and all good men that knew 


Q 1* ) 
it by him muft have judged accordingly : For fin, 
& especially the fins of fo many millions & fo great, 
muft needs render him whofe own they are, really 
finful, hateful and miferable. Any of which to fay 
of Chrift is blafphemy. 

Chrift undertook th^t guilt of our fin which is 
nothing but the obligation to punifhment, and that 
fuch puni/hment as befeemed him to undergo. 
There is a guilt ofFaft, and a guilt o{ crime, and 
a guilt of punifhment. Chrift undertook the laft, 
but neither of the former, as in themfelves confi- 
dered, unlefs as by connotation relatively he may 
be faid to be guilty of the fin meerly becaufe he un- 
dertook to fuffer for it ; which is improper fpeech. 
Chrift condefcended to the admiration ' of Angels 
in taking on him our nature, and our punishment, 
and fuffering for our fins ; but hisholinefs would 
not fuffer him to undertake our fin it felf, or take 
it to be his own fin : Nay confidering the commu- 
nication of attributes which Divines aflert from the 
hypoftatical Union, men fhould tremble to think 
of laying aground of calling it The Sin of God, by 
the fame reafon as 5 Att$ 20. it's faid, [ The blood of 
God. ] Its a fad cafe that partiality canfo much 
prevail, as that they that cry out of fome doubtful 
words as damnable herefies, do yet think it tolera- 
ble language to fay, that by Imputation of the very 
fin itfelf to Chrift as his fin, he was the greateft fin- 
ner, the greateft Murderer, Lyer, Adulterer,^. 
in the world. I befeech you abftain from fuch 
words till you find them in the Scripture. Chrift 
never was reputed of God afinner, who did fo 
much to fhew his hatred of it. Nor ever took our 
fin unto him, any furrher than to fuffer for it to ex- 
piate it : And if this be the fimilitude by which we 
sfiuft underftand how his Holimfs and BighttoHfnefs 
D2 is 

C v ) 

is made ours, it will make all very plain. It is ours, 
or imputed to us, fo far as to be reputed the true 
caufe of our Juftification, Adoption, San&ification 
and Glory, as our fin was the caufe of his fuffering 
and death. 

Cont. 12. Doth not Chrifts righteoufnefs caufe our 
Salification in the fame fort of caufality as it cauf 
eth our J unification? 

Anf The effects are divers, but both from the 
fame meritorious caufe. But it is more unapt to 
fay that it is the material caufe of ourSanctification 
than that it is the material caufe of our righteouf- 
nefsjThough it merit both;Becaufe our habitual and 
actual holinefs hath a nearer material caufe in itfelf 
which our pardon and meer adoption have not. 

Cont. 13. When it is J aid that faith is imputed to 
us for right eoufnefs is it faith indeed that„ is meant or 
Chrifts Righteoufnefs believed on ? , 

Jinf. A if range and bold queftion. What occafi- 
on hath the Holy Ghoft given us to raife fuch a 
fufpicion, that when it is fo often faid by him that 
Faith is imputed ox accounted for righteoufnefs, men 
fhould make a doubt whether it be Faith indeed 
that he meaneth ? If it be not , the context is fo 
far from relieving our underitandings*, that it con- 
tributed! to our unavoidable deceit or ignorance. 
Read over the Texts and put but [ Chrifts Righte- 
mfnefs ] every where inftead of the word [ Faith*f\ 
and fee what a fcandalous Paraphrafe you will 
make. The Scripture is not fo audacioufly to 
be Corrected : It's wifer to believe Gods Word 
than to contradid it on pretence of expounding it. 

Obj. But it is faid alfo that .Kighteoufnefs is 

■imputed: And that muft be either Chrifts Right eouf 

* nefs 

( V ) 

nefs or our own : But not our own 5 therefore Chrifts. 

Anf. We are not now queftioning whether 
Chrifts Righteoufnefs be imputed to us\ Though it be 
not the Phrafe of the Scripture, I have (hewed you 
that it is true, in a found fence. But the queftion 
is, Whether Faith be imputed for righteoufnefs. And 
what is the meaning of ail fuch Texts ? To have 
righteoufnefs imputed to ur, plainly fignifieth to be 
Reckoned, Accounted, Reputed or Judged righte- 
ous. And it's ftrange that it muft not be our own 
righteoufnefs^ that is imputed or reckoned to us as 
our own: If it were never fo well proved, thac 
the very Habits and Ads of Chrift are by Gift or 
Union made our awn in themfelves, and not only 
as the caufes of their eiFe&s, yetftill our own they 
would be,and the righteoufnefs given by them our 
own, in order of nature before they are im- 
puted, accounted or reckoned to us as our own. 
Some way that righteoufnefs which is reckon- 
ed to conftitute us righteous is furely made our own. 

Pfal 106. 30, zi.Phinehas's executing Judgment, 
it is faid to be accounted to him for righteoufnefs. 

And of Abrahams ]ui\iRcmonGodfaith,BecaufethoH 
haft done this foe- What mart that ever read the Bible 
can doubt, but that every man that will be faved 
muft have a perfonal faith, repentance and holinefs, 
which is called righteoufnefs many hundred times 
in the Scripture, befides the righteouihefs that was 
or is in Chrift ? And will not Cod reckon him 
righteous that is * righteous ? He that doth 
righteoufnefs is righteous ? And (hall it not be 
imputed to him? if God account not a man a be- 
liever, can he be juftified and faved ? Chrifts 
Righteoufnefs hath made Satisfaction for all our 
iins, and for our unrighteoufnefsas to the Law that 
doth condemn us : But he made us not lawlefs, 

D 3 but 

( 34 ) 

but put us under a Law of Grace, which faith 

£ He that believeth (hall be faved, and he that belie- 
veth not pall be damned. ] And muft we not be 
judged by this Law ? and be juftified or condemn- 
ed as we keep or break it ? wonderful is the pow- 
er of prejudice that any good men that read the 
Scripture can doubt whether Chrift himfelf hath 
made us a Law of Grace, according to which as 
performers or non- performers we muft be juftified 
ss righteous in fubordination toChrifts Righte- 
ofifaefs or elfe be condemned, as neglecters of fo 
great Salvation ? Is any thing plainer in all the Go- 
fpel ? 

Ob]. Wtfaitis theObjcSt, and not the Aft ; Chrift s 
Righteonpaefs and not our Faith ; the Gold and not the 
Hand that taketh it y that is our Riches and Righte- 

Anf, i. No queftion but the Faith that we talk 
of, is Faith in Chrift^ even the Believing Recei- 
ving of a Saviour and his Grace freely given his. 
And therefore Chrifts Righteoufnefs is ever con- 
noted when we talk of Faith: For. what is the 
very Specification of the A6t but the Object ? But 
it is not the ejfence of Chrift or his Righteoufnefs, 
that conftituteth Faith 3 but Chrift in ej]e cognito 
& objeffivo, even as it is not the efience of Sin 
that conftituteth Repentance, but the notion of Sin 
in effe cognito as an Objed. And there is no doubt 
but Chrift is the^ouls Riches which Faith recei- 
ved. But if the King by Law fhould reftore all 
the Rebels in Ireland to their Eftates, and give 
them their Lives, that Jay down Arms, and ask 
Mercy and accept it, if it come to the Tryal whe- 
" ther they are Accepters or Ref lifers, their Accep- 
tance muft be fo far their juftifying Righteoufnefs, 
though their Lives and Eftates be iheir Treafure, 


C v ) 

and the Kings Aft be their Title to it. 

Faith is reckoned or imputed to be that which 
by the Redeemer himfelf is required of the Sinner 
to make him partaker of Chnft and his Benefits, 
Reconciliation and Salvation 3 and it is no other 

Chrifts Righteoufnefs is not imputed^ to us in- 
ftead of our Faith and Repentance and fincere ho- 
linefs, which is made by himfelf the condition of 
Life. As he died not for the Sins which we were 
neve? guilty of, and are no lias, fohis Righteouf- 
nefs is not inftead of that Righteoufnefs which by 
his Grace we have, but inftead of that which we 
have not : Not inftead of our being penitent Belie- 
"vers and fandified before we die, but inftead of that 
perfect innocency which we want: Not that we 
are reputed perfect innocent obeyers, becaufe he was 
fuch ; but that our want of it lhall not hinder our 
Juftification or Adoption., Grace or Glory. Chrift 
hath done all his part, but he hath appointed us a 
neceiTary part which muft be done by our felves? 
and though without him we can do nothing, yet 
by him we muft believe and be new Creatures, 
and by him that ftrengtheneth us we can do fome- 
things and muft work cut our Salvation, while 
he worketh in us to will and to do. 

The purchafe then and Donation is by Chrift, 
but the voluntary acceptance is by us, by the opera- 
tion of his Grace; which is not to make up any 
deficiency in Chrifts part, or to be a fapplement to 
his Righteoufnefs, nor to bear any part of the 
fame office in our Juftification ; but it's that which 
fubordinately is required of us as the Condition of 
Pardon and Life, by his own Law or Covenant of 
Grace. And fo far it is imputed to us for Righ- 

D 4 Cohtr. 

C 36 ) 

Contr. 1 4. Whether Grace be Grace > or Free, if it 
have any Condition ? 

jtnfi As free and great as God will have it, but 
pot fuch as the wicked man would have ir, who 
would be faved from pain, but not from Sin, or 
without any Condition required of him. The 
Covenant is made conditional, for the ufe that the 
commands are made 3 to bring man to his Duty, 
and to convey the Benefit in a fapiential congruous 
way ; but not as requiring a price for the Bene- 
fits : He that pardoneth a Traytor on condition 
that he thankfully accept it, and will not fpit in 
the Princes face, and rebel again, doth pardon 
freely without a price. And as our Duty and Act 
deniech not that it's Grace by which we do it 5 fo 
the neceffity of Grace thereto denied) it not to be 
our Duty or our Att when we believe. The Co- 
venant giveth fome Mercies abfolutely, but not all. 
He that would be from under all Conditions of Gods 
Promifes, would be from under all Law, and all 
threatnings: For what kind of Law is that which 
hath no Conditions of Reward and Punifhment. 

Obj. But when the Condition it [elf is promifed, it 
is equal to 'ab folate. 

Anf. 1. If that be true, ftill it is conditional 
.Why do you not fay fo then, net that it hath no 
Conditions, but that it is a conditional Promiie 
equal to an abfolute ? 2. But flay a little :' Is the 
condition promifed to all that the conditional pro- 
mife is made to ? even to all that hear the Gofpel, 
or that are baptized- If you fay that the conditi- 
onal Promife is made to none but the Elect, you 
deny the Gofpel, which is to be preached to all 
the World 3. Will you caft out Baptifm by 
this Argument ? and io vifiblc Chriftianity ? Or 


( n ) 

will you new mold it into an abfolute Form ? Or 
will you fay that it is no Covenant? If you fuppofe 
not God the Father, Son and Holy Ghoft to be 
there given to us with pardon and right to Life 
upon condition of our believing acceptance, and 
that we there profefs that acceptance which is the 
Condition, you fuppofe not that it is Baptifm in- 
deed. And when your little notions fhall lead 
you to deny Gods Law and Covenant GolpeJ, 
Baptifm, and fo Chriftianity as vifible, they are 
fcarce fit notions to make you pafs for Orthodox, 
and to be turned againft others as erroneous, 
4 But how is it that God promifeth the Conditi- 
on it felf? and to whom? I find, Prov. 1.23. Turn 
you at my reproofs behold J will pour out my Spirit to 
you?, I will make known my Words unto you ? Is it 

£ if you do fir ft tum.~\ Then there is fome degree 
of turning neceflary as a condition to the promi- 
fed fpecial gift of the Spirit.^ Or is it [ that yoa 
may turn /] Then God prornifeth his Spirit and 
Word to help even thole to turn, that yet turn 
not •, which muft fuppofe fome Condition of con- 
fent or non-refiftance required which they could 
perform. I find, that it's all mens duty to pray, 

and I read [] As\^ and ye Jhall have, feeh^and ye fhall 

find, &c. ] And fo that to ask and feek faving 
Faith, is a Duty to him that hath but common 
Faith. And God commandeth no man to ask or 
feek in yain : A meer command to u(e means im- 
plieth that they are not vain. God then giveth 
( as Dr. Twijfe oft faith as out of: A uguftine) the 
pojfe credere where yet the a£t of Faith doth not 
follow : and it is not a meer Paffive, but an A- 
dive Power. And where he giveth Grace which 
caufeth the A<5t it felf, did God Promife, it be- 
fore hand to that man any more than to others ? 


( J« ) 

He promifeth Chrift to call all his Ele&: But 
this giveth no right to any individual Perfon be- 
fore he is born, or before he believeth : There- 
fore not to the firft Faith. For God to tell men, 
what he will do with his EIe6t is one thing ; and 
to enter into Covenant with a man, and give a 
right thereby is another. This Covenant hath it's 

Contr. 1 5*. Here comes in alfio the Contr over fie whe* 
ther Repentance be any Condition of Pardon, or Jufti- 
^cation ? And whether to affirm it be not to equal it 
with Faith ? 

Anfi Read thefe Texts of Scripture and judge, 
Ez.eks 14. 6. & 18. 30. Luk, 13. 3, 5. Aft. %. 38. 
&8. 22. & 17.30, 31. &26. 18, 20. Mar. 1.4. 

fyt 24.47. Aa. ). 31. & 11. 18. & 13. 24. & 

20. 21. Luk. 15. 7. &c. 

2. Faith in Chrift as it is the remedying Grace 
ever fuppofeth Faith in God as God, and Repen- 
tance towards God, A&. 20. 21 as it's end, and is 
connoted when it is not expreft. He that faith, 

[] Take me and trufi me as your Phyfician and J will 

cure yon~] implieth, i. If you defire to be cured. 
2. If you will take my Medicines. To believe in 
Chrift, is to truft that through his Mediation a pe- 
nitent returning Sinner ftiall be pardoned and ac- 
cepted of God and faved. Holineis is the Souls 
health, and Chrift believed in is the remedy : Re- 
pentance and Holinefs are neceflary as the end for 
themfelves, and Faith in the Mediator is neceflary 
as the ufe of the Remedy. The Office or Nature 
of thefe is not the fame, though both be Conditi- 
ons. Yet as Repentance is the change of the 
Mind, fo repenting of unbelief is Faith itfelf, de- 
nominated with refpect to the terminus a quo. Un- 

C 39 ) 
happy wits fet things as oppofite, which God hath 
connexed and made coordinate. 

Contr. 1 6. Whether Faith juftifie m as a merito- 
rious Caufe, or as a difpofitive C^ufe of receiving Jufii- 
fication, cr as a meer Condition, or as an Inftrumental 
Caufe ? 

Anf. t If thefe Logical names had never been 
ufed,pl-ain Ghriflians would have underftood what 
is neceflary without them. 
'• I. That the Promife maketh Faith a Condition, 
making unbelief a Hop to the benefit, and Faith 
the removal of that flop, is paft all doubt. And 
the Promife being the Donative Inftrument, and its 
Condition being its Mode, the intereft of a Condition 
is molt certainly the formal Law-intereft that Faith 
hath as to our Juftification. 

2. And Dr. Twijfe's forementioned name of 

Caufa difpofitiva, i, e. recipiendi, is undoubtedly alfo 
apt, and fignifieth both the Nature of the Aft, and 
the Office of it as a Condition : For in both refpe&s 
it is the necejfary qualification of the Patient or Re- 
ceiver, i. e- naturally and legally necejfary 5 fiich as 
difpofaio materia is faid to be in Phyficks. 

3. And as for the notion of an Inftrumental Caufe 
of Justification, it is paft doubt that properly taken 
neither Faith, nor any adi of ours is any fuch, nor 
doth juftifie us efficiently at all : But if any be fb 
fond of the invented notion of an fo ft ru went, as 
that they will ufe it, though unaptly, they muft 
fay, 1. That it is not an Efficient, but a Recipient 
Inftrument. Dr. Kendall calls it like Boys catching 
the Ball in their Hats, or as a Spoon is in eating : 

But it is not an Inftrument of Phyfical Reception, 
but Moral. To Trufi is ho more a Reception, than 
to Love, The adive Acceptance of a Saviour given 


(40 ) 

vmh his benefits, is a Moral Receiving of him, which 
difpofeth m as the Condition of the Covenant to re- 
ceive Juftification, that is 5 to be ju/tified. And in 
this lax fenfe, you may call it all thefe if you 
pleafe -, viz* a Condition, a Difpofitive Caufe, and a 
Receiving Infhumem. 

4. A Meritorious Caufe it is not in a Commuta- 
tive or ftricl fenfe. But if you will call that me- 
ritorious which is pleafing to God as congruom to his 
free gift and defign of grace, whence fomeare called 
Worthy in the Gofpel, fo the thing is not to be de- 
nied s and (o all are reconciled. 

Contr. 17. Isjuftifying Faith an aft of the under- 
fianding or will t 

Anf. Both, and therefore it is no one Phyfical 
ad only, nor Inftrumental in a ftri£t Phyfical 

Contr. 18. What aft of Faith is it that juftifeth 
as to the Ob je ft I whether only the belief of the truth of 
the Promife, or of the whole Gofpel alfo, or the affiance 
on Chrifis Right eoufnefs, or on his Truth, or on his Inter- 
cejfion, or taking him wholly for our Saviour, Prophet, 
Friefi and King? And whether Faith in God the Fa- 
ther, and the Holy Ghoft, do juftife ? or all thefe ? 
And if but one, which is it ? and whether all the rest- 
ore the works which Paul excludeth from J ' unification ? 

Anf To fay that only one Phyfical adl of Faith 
is it that we are juftified by, and all the reft are 
thole works, is a perverfe corrupting of Chriftiani- 
ty, and not to be heard without deteftation. For 
it will utterly confound all perfons, to find out 
which that one act is, which they indeed can ne- 
ver do. And it will contradid the fubfiance of 
all the Gofpel ; There is no fuch thing as Faith in 


( 4* ) 
Chrift, which containeth not )# or includeth not 
Faith in God as God, both as he is our Creator, and 
as reconciled by Chrift, and as the Giver of Chrift: 
to us, John 3. 16. and as the end of all the work 
of Redemption. Nor is there any fuch thing as 
Faith in Chrift which is true and faving, that in- 
cludeth not, or connoteth not the Knowledge of 
Chrift, and Love, and Defire, and Thankfulness, 
and Confent : Nor did ever God tell us of a Faith 
in Chrifts Imputed Righteoufnefs only that muft 
juftifie us^ which is not alfo a Faith in his Perfon, 
Do&rine, Law, Promife and Example ; and his 
Inter ceflion in the Heavens. And to fay that only 
the A<5t of Recumbency on Chrifts Righteoufnefs 
as imputed to our Juftification, is that a6t of Faith 
by which we are juftified, and that Believing in 
God, his Majefty, Truth, Wifdom, Goodnefs,and 
the believing in Chrift as he is the Prophet, 
Teacher, King of the Church, and the Refurre- 
&ion, Life, and Judge of all ; and believing in the 
HolyGhoft, as the Sandifier, Comforter, and 
Witnefs and Advocate of Chrift, and believing 
and trufting th£ Promife of God for Life Eternal, 

or for any grace except Chrifts Righteonfnefs impu- 
ted, that all this Faith in God, in Jefus Chrift and 
the Holy Spirit, and all our Love to Chrift, and 
defire after him, and prayer for his grace, and 
thankfulnefs for it, &c are all none of the Faith 
which Juftification is promifed to, but are the 
Works by which no man is jtiftified, and that he is 
fain from grace, that feeketh to be juftified by 
fuch works, that is, by true Faith in God as God, 
and in Chrift as Chrift : This is a new Gofpel ful> 
verting Chrifts Gofpel, and making Chriftianity 
another thing * and this without any countenance 
from the Scripgjre, and contrary to its very fcope. 


c 40 

The Faith by which we are juftified, is one 
Moral a& containing many Phyfical ads, even our 
fiducial Confent to the Baptifmal Covenant, and 
dedication of our felves to God the Father, Son 
and Holy Ghoft, to be our Reconciled God, our 
Saviour, and our San&ifier, to give us Pardon, 
Adoption, Holinefs and Glory, which is our Chri- 
ftianity it fe If a* fitch. 

Contr. 18. But though this be the Faith qua? JU- 
ftificat, which juftifieth us, is it not only Recumbency 
on thrifts Imputed Righteoufnefs, qua talis, which hath 
the Office of Inftrumentality, and is fides qua jufti- 

Jinf. Such quibbling and jingling of a meer 
found of words is ufual in ludicrous Difputations 
of Lads: But it's pity it iliould pafs as the laft re- 
medy againft plain truth in fo great a matter. Firft 
it muft be remembred that no Faith juftifieth effi- 
ciently, and therefore neither qua nor qua juftifi- 
cans is to fignifie any fuch thing, but a meer Moral 
qualification of the recipient fubjed: 5 fo that to be 
juftified by Faith, is but to be juftifled by it as that 
which God hath promifed Justification on as the 
qualifying Condition : But if it be not the fame 
thing that is here called Fides qua and qua, but in 
the firft part they fpeak of the Habit, and in the 
fecond of the Aft, had it not been plainer to fay, 
\The fame Habit of Faith hath fever al Afts, as be- 
lieving in God, in Chrifts Interceffion, Kingdom, &C. 
but none of thefe Aft s do jufifie us, but one only ; viz. 
tftifting to the Imputation of his Righteoufnefsf] And (b 

both the qua and qm is [denied to all Ads fave 
that one. This is their plain meaning, which is 
denied to be truth, and is a human dangerous in- 
vention. Yet it's granted them, that it is not every 


( 43 ) 
Ad of Faith that is made the Conditioi) of Juftifi^ 
cation or Salvation : It is neceflary that the formal 
Objed, Gods Veracity ^ be believed to make it true 
Faith s and that the Gofpel or Covenant of Grace 
be believed with Confent, as aforefaid, to make 
it to be the true Chriftian Faith, in eflence 5 and 
it's of neceffity that every thing be believed 
which we know that God revealeth. But it is the 
Chriftian Faith that hath the Promife of Justifica- 
tion, and that not any one fingle Ad of it, but all 
that is eflential to it, and that which belongeth but 
to its Integrity^ bene ejfe, when it exifteth, is alfb 
fo far conducible to our Juftification, (as Abrahams 
believing that Jfaac fhould live and have feed, 
when he went to facrifice him) yet Juftification 
may be without fome Ads, as Salvation may 
without many due Ads of Obedience, when yet 
fincerity of Obedience is neceflary, and thofe Ads, 
if done, have their place with the reft as means of 
Salvation ; fo here : But Saving Faith is denomi- 
nated from the eflential part : The nature of Faith 
is in order of nature antecedent to its Office : The 
nature of it in genere is to believe all that God 
faith : The nature of it infpecie is to believe in 
Chrift, and confent to his Covenant : The integrity 
of it is to believe all that we find revealed. The 
Office of it as the Means of Juftification, is to be 
the condition of the Juftifying Covenant or Law* 
That which fome call the Instrumentality, is the 
very nature of the Ad, the T * credere infpecie fc 
Believing in Chrift is the T ° credere^ and that's it 
that they call an lnftmmwt of receiving him as 
fuch. But the ™ credere even in fpecie, Faith in 
Chrift, doth not juftifie qua talis ^ as that Faith, bun 
as k is that qualifying Condition which the Pro- 
inife annexeth Juftification to ; without which it 


( 44 ) 
would riot have done it. Had the Prbmife been 
ibfolute, it had pardoned us before, and without 
Faith. The nature of the A<5t is like the metal of 
Gold or Silver, and the tenor of the Juftifying Co- 
venant is as the Kings Stamp, that maketh it cur- 
rant Coin. It is Faith in order of nature before 
it is the Juftifying Condition. 

The qud juftificans therefore fhould fpeak, not a 
diftinft Act from the other Ads of the Chriftian 
Faith as fuch, but the relation of the fame Ads to 
the benefit- Omnis fdei dftvu qui jufiificat, confide- 
rari pot eft- quatenm jufiificat. 

Contr. 19. Whether wt are justified by the Law of 
Innocency faying. Obey perfectly and live t 

Anfi This is one of the chief points of all our 
difference : Some fay, that becaufe Chrift fulfilled 
it for us, we are juftified by that Law as fulfillers 
of it: This is it that Mr. Anthony Wotton hath be- 
llowed mod of his Learned Treatife de Reconci- 
liatiom to confute. The Law juftified Chrift, but 
not US, for it never faid, Thou, or another for thee 
{halt obey.'] Nor doth it know a l r icarim obediently 
am poena ; nor take Chrifts Perfon and ours for the 
fame : Therefore we are not juftified by that Law, 
but condemned by it : And it cannot condemn and 
juftifie the fame man. But we are juftified by 
another Law, Covenant or Promife by Chrifts 
fulfilling the Law of Innocency, and making over 
to us the benefits. 

Contr. 20. Whether by Works be meant A&s in ge- 
neral, or only fuch Atts as are adverfe to Faith in 
Chrift , and make the reward to be of debt, and not of 
grace ? 


(45 ) 

Anf. The laft is the Apoftles Expoficion of 
them. Chrift faith, we are juftified by our words ; 
James, by our works ; and all the Scripture that 
fpeaketh of Juftification, afcribeth it to fome 
A<5ls : It is ^according to our worlds : ] And Faith is 
an Ad, yea many Ads. 

Obj. But it jufiifeth not as an Alt, but as an In- 

Anf That is, not as an Act or good Ad in ge- 
nere, but as this Alt in fpecis ; viz* Believing on 
Chrift s Right eoufnefs : But that is the ri credere ; that 
\s,As this Act: But it is not fo, unlefs you add [As 

it is this congruous Alt,or Acts authorized by Gods Co- 
venant to this Office.] So we will grant, that no Ad 
juftifieth as an Aft, or as a good Alt $ but as a con* . 
gruom good Act appointed thereto. 

As is faid before, To believe in God, and in 
Chrift as Chrift, and in the Promife of Salvation, 
and to believe the evil of fin, and the need of a 
Saviour* and to defire him, and be thankful for 
him, and pray for pardon, are not the works that 
Paul fpeaketh againft, but fome belong to the Ek 
fence, and fome to the Integrity and Accidents of 
that Faith by which we are juftified. Yet a foolifli 
perfon may contradid himfelf, and hold his own 
Faith, as well as his Love, or Defire, or Prayer, to 
be meritorious,as making the reward not of grace : 
Such mad contradidion may fuppofe Faith to be 
the works which it denieth. 

Cont. 21. Are any works of man meritorious ? 

. Anf Not in point of Commutative Juftice, thae 
giveth one thing for another to the commodity of 
each ; as in buying and felling. 

2. Nor yet in diftributive Governing Juftice as 
making any good due to us by the Lawoflnno- 
cency or Works, E 3- But 

( 4& ) 

5. But as God hath freely given us Chrift and 
Life by a Law of Grace , on condition of fuitablc 
acceptance and ufe fo he that performed} this con- 
dition's called worthy, and the contrary unworthy in 
the Gofpel * and did not men abuie it, they might 
with all the ancient Churches ufe the word merit 
in the fame fenfeas worthinefs. Asa good natured 
Child that humbly and thankfully taketh money 
or. meat when his Father giveth it him, is faid to 
deferve it of him, better than he that fcorneth it 
and him. So our merit is but of paternal Governing 
Jufticein the Kingdom of Love, according to Gods 

Law of Grace in Chrift. 

■ - i ■» ■. . ■ ■ . ^ .i . ■ < 

Cont. 12. Whether obedience be apart of Faith, or 
we are juftifiedby obedience. 

JAjk i . To believe in Chrift at fir ft is an act of 
obedience to God, who commandeth us fo to dp : 
But it is but Subjection to Chrift which that act in- 
cluded], ihat is, taking him for our Lord and Savi- 
our to~be obeyed, which is virtually all future obe- 
dience asks root, but not actually. 

2. Actual obedience to Chrift is not faith, but 
the fruit of faith, and part of our performance 
of the Covenant which we made with him, and 
neceflary to the continuance of our Juftification 
and to our Salvation, as all the Scripture fully 

Cont. 2% . Whether any more be necejfary to the 
continuance or not jofing our Justification, than to the 
beginning of it. 

Anf. Yes, i. More acts of the fame faith. 
2. Praying for pardon. 3. Forgiving others, as 
Chrift exprefly tells us. 4- Sincere Love and Obe- 
dience to Chrift unto the end. 


( 47 ) 

Cont 14. Is Pardon and Justification perfect the 
fir ft moment ? 

Anf No. 1. AH the .punifhment is not yet ta- 
ken off: We have yet much penal want of Grace, 
and the Spirits Operations, and Communion with 
God. x. We have not right to the prelent remo- 
val of all the punifhment. 3.. Many more fins 
hereafter muft be pardoned. 4- Much means is yen 
to.be ufed for final Juftification. 5. That final 1 Jus- 
tification only is perfect. 

Cont. 2£. Is nolle pmire or non^punire a pardoning 
of [m ? It's Dr. Twijfes Controversy. 

Anf Yes, In fome degree, to a capable perfon 
that is, to a finner 5 But not to one that is no fin- 
ner, or before one hath a being. 

Cont. 26. Is future fin pardoned before htxd. 

Anf Future fin is not fin, and therefore not ca- 
pable of pardon, nor the perfon for it .• But it may 
be pardoned virtually, though not actually : A ge- 
neral grant of pardon may be given, which is condi- 
tional and vircual,and (hall actually pardon it when 
it is. 

» ■■■ ■ ' * ■> ' l » * — " "I " ■ ■■ ■ > Bill I 

Cont. 27. Is any one punifiedfor fin that is par- 
doned ? 

Anf Not in the fame thing and degree that he 
is pardoned : But every man that is pardoned in 
this life, is yet correctively puniibedin that de- 
gree that he is unpardoned, For pardon is yet im- 
perfect here. 

Cont. 28. Is it not unjiift to pttnijh him that Chrifi 
died for- evm one (in twice ? 

E 2 Anf 


~fAnf No, Unlefs it were the fame perfon that 
fuffered, cr the very fame puniihment that was due 
( and all that was due ) were expected again 3 and 
unlefs it were againft our mediators will. But all is 
contrary in this cafe*. 1 . The Law bound no one to 
fuffer but the offender. 2. Therefore Chrifts fuf- 
fering was not the famepunifcment which the Law 
did threaten, but it was Satisfaction inftead of it ; 
which is the Tantnndem, not the idem quod debitum 
fuit, but redditio aqahalentis alias indebiti, as the 

Schoolmen call it. For noxa caput feqmtur ; the Law 
threatened not a furety, but only the firmer, and 
vhi alivt* folvh -, fimul aliud folvitur. 3. And Chrift 
himfelf never fatisfied with any other intent 5 and 
therefore it is according to his will, that they that 
tread underfoot the blood of the Covenant where- 
with they were Sandified, as an unholy thing, and 
do defpight to the Spirit of Grace, fhould fufler the 
far forerpunifliment, Heb. 10. Yea it is Chrift him- 
felf that will have itfo, and that doth fo judge, 
them, and inflict this punifhment for the contempt 
of grace. 

And it is his will that his own members be pu~ 
nifhed by corredion, notwithftanding his fuffer- 
ings : As many as he loveth he doth rebuke and 
chaften : And Chrift doth not wrong himfelf : The 
end of his fuffering never was to excufe the redeem- 
ed from all fuffering, nor to make believers lawlefs. 

Cent. 29. // a man after his regeneration and 
Faith } ever obliged to any but temporal punifliments, or 
need to asl^pardon of any other ? 

Anf. Obliged is a w r ord >that needeth explicati- 
on : The very Law of nature yet in force maketh 
everlafting punifhment due to a believers fins, till 
God forgive them : But they are forgiven, ( and 


(49 ) 

the obligation diflblved) through Chrift by the 
Covenant of Grace to a true believer as foon as com- 
mitted ( at leaft if they be meer fins of infirmity ) 
becaufe of his general repentance and continued 
faith : But yet in order of nature the Guilt and due- 
nefs of punifhment is before theremiflion of them. 
And believers muft' ask pardon while they live. 
i. Becaufe every fin thus needethit; and asking 
is part of the expreffion of that faith and repen- 
tance which is our condition of pardon. 2. They 
muft ask the continuance of that pardon which 
they have. 3. And they muft ask itill for executive 

remiffion; which is, nottopunijb, poena damni vel 

fenftis - 3 Body or Soul, and fo for more of Gods for- 
feited Grace and Spirit, and the fenfe of his Love, 
and Communion with him. 

Cont. 30. What is it to be judged according to our 
works , or what we have done in the body ? 

An[. To be Judged is the genus : To be Jufiified 
or Condemned are the Species. This openeth all the 
Controverfy. It is not according to our works as they 
are congruous to the Law of Innocency or works 5 
But as judged by the Law of Grace 3 Therefore it 
is not the fam* works which Paul excluded from 
Juftification, for we ihall not be judged according 
to them. 2. And according to them, is as much as 
James meaneth, when he faith, we are jufiified by 
them: It's all one, that is, the Law of Chrift our 
Redeemer requireth fincere obedience of all than 
fhall be faved,by his blood and merits from the con- 
demnation of the Law of Innocency;and according- 
ly mens right to Chrift & Salvation (hall be judged 
of: Their right to life through Chrifts merits and 
free gift, fliall be jufiified who were fincerely pe- 
nitent believing obeyersto the end> and no others. 
E 3 Cont* 

C 50) 

9tmm * ' ' ' ■ " ■ • 

Cont. 31. What Law hit that Paul caKeth the law 
of works y and laboriously proveth that its works do not 
jufiify u*. 

A'4. It is the Mofaical Jewifli Law, as is all a- 
long evident 3 and not the Law of Innocency, as 
made to Adam ; though ccnfequently afortiore y its 
certain that we have no works by which that will 
juftify us ( either perfonalor imputed.) The words 
£ He that doth them fhaB live in them ] do not mean, 
He that is nofimtr, according to the Law of per- 
fection : For 1. All men were finners before, and 
fo this Lawfhould have been only a condemnation 
in the form of a promife. 2. And this Law 
prefcribeth Sacrifices and Prayers for pardon of 
iin 5 which the firft Law of Innocency knew 

Cont. 32. How and why then is this called a Lav? 
of works ? Which juftify no man ? 

Anf Becaufe it impofeth ftridnefs in a multi- 
tude of laborious Tasks and Ceremonies, and rigo- 
roufly punifheth the breakers ofit^ 2. The hereti- 
cal teachers had falfly feparated the Law from the 
promife of Chrifts juftifying jigjiteoufnefs and 
grace, which was the fence and end of the Law : 
And Paul proveth that without the Vromife and 
thrifty the Law is but a carkafs of fruitlefs works 
without a Soul, and cannot juftify. . 3. But yet a be- 
lieving Jew being juftified by faith in thepromifed 
feed, was to obey Mofes Law (incerely as his mare- 
rial obedience to God his Redeemer; as we are 
now to obferve the Sacraments inftituted byChrift 
as part of our iincere obedience, neceflary to Sal- 


C jfi'3 

Cont. 33. What is Pauls drift in ^11 his dtfpntesa- 
bout purification} 

Anf. 1. Primarily, to prove the neceffity- of a 
SavioursSacrifice,Righteoufnefs and^Interceflion to 
fave and juftify us, and that the doing or Mofes 
Law, how excellent foever efteemed by the Jews, 
would not juftify without him. 2. To prove that 
the Gentiles may be faved by faith without the 
Law, as well as the Jews by Faith with it : And 
that it bindeth not the Gentiles, and is abrogate to 
the Jews, and that the Law of Chrift fucceedeth it. 
Heconfuteth their trufting to the keeping of their 
Law inftead of Chrifts Righteoufnefs, and the 
promife of Grace and their obtruding their 
Law upon the Gentiles as necetfary to Salva-. 

Cont. 34. What is the drift of St. James? 

Anf. That bare believing the Gofpel to be true, 
will not ferve to any mans Salvation without obey- 
ing Chrifts Commands ; Nor will juftify any mans 
Title to Salvation, or prove him acceptable to 
God. It is the fame Juftification before God ( and 
not only in confcience or before men (that Pad 
and James fpeak of, and the fame inftance of Abra- 
ham they bring, but by C Works ] they mean not the 
fame thing, as is before explained. 

Cont- 3 5". Muft a believer truft at all to his fait h t 
'repentance, or holimfs^ or plead it any way to bis Jufti- 

Anf. It muft be trufted or pleaded inftead of 

nothing that is Chrifts part, nor for any thing but 

its own part. But a part it hath, as is confefled, and 

for that part it muft be trufted and pleaded ; and 

£ 4 no 

no man muft truft to be faved without faith re- 
pentance and obedience, Heb. 12. 14. Mar. 16. \6. 
Zltk. i3.3 ? 5. I conclude all in Dr. Preftons words, 
Treatife ofFaith. p. 44, 45. And of the Attributes, 
jp.71. C" Juflffying Fauh (defined ) is aGraceor 
c * habit infufed into the Soul whereby we are enabled to 
v believe , not only that the Meffiah is offered to us y 
Ci but alfo to take and receive him as a Lord and 
* c Saviour that is y both to be faved by him and obey 
V him. 

u No man believeth Juftification by Chrift but his 
" faith is mainly grounded on this Word of God: 
cc In Scripture we find that Jefus Chrift is come in 
€i the fleijh,and that he is the Lamb flain for the for- 
ic givenefs of fins: That h'e is offered to every crea- 
ci ture : That a man muft thirft after him, and then 
" take up his Crofs and follow him : Now come 
" to a believer going out of the World, and ask 
" him, what hope he hath to be faved , he will be 
" ready to fay, I know that Chrift is come into the 
" World, and offered up,and I know that I am one 
c ' of them that have a part in him : I know that I 
" have fulfilled the conditions, as that Ifhouldnot 
cc continue willingly in any known fin, that I fhould 
" love the Lord Jefus,& defire to ferve him above 
gi all : I know that I have fulfilled thefe conditions, 
<c and for all this 1 have the word for my groun^c^c 

So far Dr. iWefton. 


Cont. 36. Hath Juftification and Salvation the 
fame conditions ^and do works fave us, which do not ptfli- 
fie us. 

Anf. i. The works which JWexcludethfrom 
Juftification he excludeth from faving us, Eph. 2. 
5. 8, 9 Ttt. 3. 5. fo Jam. 2. 14, &c 2. Juftification 
begun and our right given to Salvation have the 


fame condition. $. Juftification in the laft Judg- 
merit, is the juftifyingof our right to Glory, and 
hath the fame condition with our glorification, Mat. 
25. Come ye blejjed, &c. But more isneceflary to fi- 
nal Juftification and Salvation, than to our firft 
right, as is before fliewed. 

Cont. 37. Is there any fuch thin gas a Juftifying 
w again fi Sat am falfe accufations : As that a believer 
is no believer ', impenitent ', an hypocrite , &C. Some fay 
the Devil will not be fo foolifh, knowing that 
God knoweth all. 

Anf. If Juftification relate not to Accufation, 
Divines have hitherto much wronged the Church 
in maintaining it fo commonly as they have done. 
If it do, i. It is either to a true or a falfe acqifati- 
on. Againft a true accufation no man can be juftifi- 
ed, but muft confefs the charge. If it befaid that 
we finned, and that this fin deferveddeath^ it muft 
be confefled, and we cannot be juftified directly a- 
gainft this charge .• ForG^/rand Right eoufnefs can- 
not confift as to the fame particular caufe. But if 
it be faid^ 1. That we are unbelievers, impenitent, 
hypocrites,^. 2. Or that we have no part in 
Chrift, 3. Or that we are not pardoned, accepted, 
reconciled and adopted for his meritorious righte- 
oufnefs and interceffion, and were not thus confti- 
tuted juft ^ 4. And that therefore we have no right 
to life, but ought to be condemned : Ail thefe are 
falfe accufations againft which we may and muft 

2. And Satan is a Lyar and a Murderer and the 
accufer of the brethren : And his knowledge hun- 
dred not his malice from falfly accufing Job to God 
himfelf, nor from tempting Chrift himfelf to the 
moft odious fin. 

3. Bat 

( *4 ) 
3. Bat ic fufficeth us that Juftification relateth 

not only to Actual Accufation, but to Virtual^ yea 
to Poffible : And if God declare the Righteoufnefs 
of his Servants by his Light, Sentence or Execu- 
tion, though none accuie them, either Satan or 
Conference, it ftill relateth to poffiblf Accufation. 

They that deny all this, muk needs fay that at 
Judgment ( and before as to any Sentence ) there 
will be no Juitification at all, becaufe no Accusa- 
tion true or falle: And If no Juftification ( oor 
Condemnation ) then no Judgment, which is all 
contrary to an Article of Faith. 

Contr. 38. But though all this prove th*t we are 
juftified by Faith, yet not as a Righteoufnefs 5 fo that 
it is que ft ioned whether any perfonal Righteoufnefs con- 
futing in our performance of the Condition of the Co- 
venant , be that which we are juftified by here or at 
loft, in fubordination to Chrifts Righteoufnefs [which 
needs no iupplement from us ? ] 

Anf. 1 . This Qaeftipn is either ofthe Thing* 
or of the bare Name of Righteoufnefs; (whether it 
fhould lobe called.) 

1. As to the Thing, it is fully proved already, 
that Faith, Repentance and Obedience are of flat 
necefifity to our Salvation 5 and therefore to the 
Juftifying of our Claim oi Right to that Salvation : 
And therefore to Juititie the Perfoms to that Right 
and Claim (that he is one that truly hath fuch right.9 
For the 'verfon is juftified by the juitifying of his 
Caufe : I fuppofe none of this will be denied. 

2. And as to the Name; 1. The definition will 
prove it apt : That which is Righteous, denomina-. 
teth the fubjed: accordingly. Every Caufe in 
Judgment is Righteous or Unrighteous : And the 
Perion is Righteous fo far as his Caufe is fo : If it 


( n 

be (aid againft a Believer, that [he hath no right to 
Chrift, and Glory] his* Right is his Righteoufnefs- as 
againft this Charge : This Right is no natural be- 
ing at all, but a Moral Relation, called Duenefs. Yet 
this is his J ufiifying Righteoufnefs. But the f undo* 
went urn of that Right is quid abfohtum. 

It is an abfurd contradiction to fay that a man 
hath any Righteoufnefs that doth not fo far conftitme 
iphteous ; as it is to fay that a man hath Learn- 
ing, Wit, Honefty, Goodnefs, which do not fo far 
make him Learned, Wife, Honeft or Good : Or 
the Paper hath whitenefs that maketh it not white. 

3«, But we ever diftinguilh between Total Righ- 
teoufnefs and Partial, in tantum or fecundum quid: 
And between that Righteoufnefs in tantum which 
Salvation is laid on, and that which is of [mall con- 
cern : And alfo between Chrifis part and mans. 
And fo we ftill fay, i. That Chrifis part needeth 
no fupplement from ours $ nor do we perform the 
leaft that belongs to him. 2. But his own Law, 
Will and Covenant, hath laid anecejjary part on us. 
3. That by this we are no further juftined than in 
tawk'nty as it is a Righteoufnefs of ours ; that is^ 
Faith in it felf, as fuch, juftifieth us only againft 
the falfe Charge of Infidelity 5 Repentance only 
againft the faife Charge of Impenitency 5 HolineS 
and Sincerity againft the falfe Charge of unholi- 
nefs and hypocrifie, &c. But, as the Condition of the 
Covenant , they prove our right to Chrifi and Life : 

And fo as the Donation in the Gofpel is the Titulm 
feu fundamentum juris \ fo Faith and Repentance are 
the Conditio titttli. 

There is a Partial Righteoufnefs which every 
wicked man may have, which entitleth no one to 
Salvation. The Devil himfelf may be falfly ac- 
cyfed, and be juftifiable againft that accufation : 


( 5* ) 

But the tenor of Gods Covenant maketh this in 
queftion to be a Righteoufnefs on which Salvation 

Yet we fay that nothing of ours, or in us, is a 
Righteoufnefs that would do any thing to our Sal- 
vation, without the Righteoufnefs of Chrift. 

Obj- This is like the Papifts, who fay y That Chrift 
merited to make our actions meritorious : So you fay, 
That Chrifts Righteoufnefs purchafed a perfonal Evan- 
gelical Righteoufnefs for m, by which we are juftified. 

Anf Yes: by which we are juftified, i . Againft 
the Charge of Infidelity , lmptnitency\ and Infince- 
rity, and final Vngodlinefs : And 2. By which our 
title to Chrift and his Righteoufnefs, and purchafed be- 
nefits muft be juftified, as by the Condition of the 
free gift. And to deny this, is to deny or fubvert 
the whole Gofpel. As to the talk of Popifh Me- 
rits, I will not be fo vain as to divert on that oc- 
cafion. He is no true Chriftian that really denieth 
that Chrifts Righteoufnefs hath procured a perfo- 
nal Righteoufnefs in and of us, confifting in our 
conformity to the Conditional Mode of the Pro- 
mife of Chrift and Life. We may differ in words, 
while we mean the fame thing : But as for him that 
denieth the things I know that he can be no better 
than prophane. 

Righteoufnefs is denominated as related, i. To 
the Precept and Condition of the Law of Innocency : fo 
the erroneous fay, We are fo righteous by Chrifts 
Righteoufnefs imputed : And the orthodox fay, We 
have no fuch Righteoufnefs. 

2. As related to the bare Precept of the Law 
of Chrift fince the Fall ; which requiring perfe- 
ction, (that is, making it a duty) we have no fuch 
Righteoufnefs, and therefore daily ask for par- 

3- To 


3- To the Tenor or Mode of the Promifingandpe^ 
nal part of the Law of Chrift * which giveth pardon 
and Life on Condition of penitent believing accep- 
tance and confent ; and cofitinueth it on Condition 
alfb of fncere obedience to Chrift our Redeemer, 
and God in him : and fo we (hall be judged, and 
either jnfiified or damned, as we have or have not 
this perfonal Righteoufnefs : Chrift in Judgment is 
not to try his own part, but oms; He that is not 
thus juftified (hall be damned. 

And as to the Libertine or Antinomian errour 
( that this performing of the Condition of the Pro- 
mife is no right eoufnefs, but only Chrifis imputed is 
Right eoufnefs, becaufe it anfwereth not the perfed 
Precept, though it anfwer the impofed Condition of 
the Promife, and that it is not to be called Righte* 
onfnefs, nor we fo far as is aforefaid to be juftified by 
it 5 I appeal to Scripture and the reafon of the 

The Words Juft^ Juftice, Righteous and Rightt- 
teoufnefs, Juftifie and Juftification, being viewed in 
the Concordance, and examined will lhew you, 
that God fn Scripture many fcore or hundred 
times giveth fuch Names to our Perfonal Qualities 
and Atts : And what is that man that dare deny 
this conftam language of the Scripture ? Doth he 
take Gods Word for his rule ; or will he fhame 
himfelf by faying that in all thefe God fpeaketh 
unfitly, and that he can mend his Language? See 
but Gen* 6. 9. Prov. 17. 15, 26. & 20. 7. & 24. 
16. lfa. 26. 7. Ezek- 18. 5,9. Mat. l. 19. & 13. 
49. Luk. 2. 25. & 20. 20. & 23. 50. Aft. io. 22. 
Rom. 2.13. Jam. 5.6. 2 Pet 2.7. Exo. 13.7. 
Ben. 25. I. Jer.$. 11. Mat. 12. 37. Luk. 18. 14, 
I Cor- 6. II. Jam. 2. 21, 24,25, Rom. 3. 26. Ezek. 
32* I3» &C. £«j^48, 18. />/*/. 35, 24. Bph. 4. 24. 

2 Cor. 

V. 5° ) 

2 Cor. g. 9. Mai. 6.33. & 5. 20. Ezekz 3* 20. I Sam. 
26. 23. I Pet. 3. 14. Gal. 3. 6. Rom. 4-5,9, 22. 
Jam. 2. 23. Gal. 3. 6. Mat. 5. 20, Gen. 15 . <5. 
i?ei/.ip.8. 1 Job. 2. 19. &3.7,io. 2?a. 2. 5,21. 
& 3. 13. 1 i^ff. 2. 24. J^. 3. 18. P/e£. 1.9. &7. 
2. & 11.33. &12. II. 2 7tf».2.22. &4. 8 a 1 Ii/», 
6. 11. Phil. I. II P>fe. 5. 9- &6. 14- I Cor. 15. 
34. 2 Cor. 6. 7, 14. & 9. IO. Rom. 6. 13, l6 5 18, 

19, 20. & 8 4, 10. & 10. 5,6, 10. & 14. 17. ^#. 
10. 35. & ^3- 10. Z,*^ I. 75. Mat. 5.6. & 21. 
32. Zepb.2. 3. Dan. 12.3. & 4. 27. £«£. 1 8. 20. 
& 33. 12. //*. I. 27. &5. 23. &2<5. 9, 10. &32. 

17. & 64. 5. & 61. 3. Prov. 10 2. &ii.4,'5,tf, 
18,19, fri2. 28 &13.6. &15. 9. &21.21. 
P/*/. 106. 3. JDft*. 6. 25. P/*/. 1 1. 7. & 15. 2. & 
23.3. Mat. 10,41- Rom. 5. 7. 2 Pa. 2.8. Jam. 5; 
16. I jT/tfz. 1.9. Rev. 21. 12. 1 Per. 3. 12. & 4. 18. 
ife£. II. 4. 2 Zw. 4. 8. Rom. 2. 5, 6. &C, £/*£. I. 
6. Mar. 2. 17. 3/^r. 25. 37, 46. & I 3. 43. Mai. 
3. 18. Hah. I. 4, 13. ^/tfor 2.6. Ifa. 3. 10. & 57. 

1. & 60. 21. Eccl. 8. 14. Pro?/. 24. 24, & 15. 29, 
28, 19. 6. & 14 32. & 12. 26. Pfal. 146. 8. & 1. 
5,6. & 5. 12. &32. 11. 8c 33. I. &34- I5>I7, 
19,21. &58.II. & 97.11,12. Num. 23.10. Gen. 

18. 23, 24, 25-, 26, 28. & 7. I. Mat. 6. 14, 15. & 
18. 35. Mar. 1 1. 25, 26. . £/*£. 6. 37. I Job. I. 9. 
Jkfor. 4 12. Act. 26. 18. Mar. I. 4. & 16. 16. I#. 
24.47. Att.1.3%. & 10. 43. 2 Cor. 7. 10. P/e£. 
5. 9 ifow. IO, 9, 13. -4#. 16. 31. & 11. 14, 2, 21. 
y^f. 10. 22. Prov. 28. 18. £pfe, 2. 8. I Cor. 1 5. 2. 
Rom.%. 24. 7er.4. 14. I Pa. 3. 21. Jam. I. 21. & 

2. 14. & 5'. 20, 3W. 23. I Cor. I. 21. & 7. 16. 
I 7*w. 4. 16. .ytfff. 2.40. fo'tt. 22. 14. Pfal. 37. 40. 
Gen. 22. 16. & 26. 5. I jfotf. II. 34. Luk. 19. 17. 
jfofe. 16. 27. Luk. 13. 3, 5. Job. I. .II, 12. & 3. 
16, 18, 19, I Tim. 4. 8. /fc&. 4. I. i?ei/. 20. 12, 13. 


C 59) 
I Pet. I. 17. Bed 12. 14. Rom. 14. 10. 2 Cor. jr> 

I fet light by their Judgment, that fet light by 
all thefe plain Words of God, and can diftort 
them to their humane or felf-chofen opinions. 

I had thought here to have ended, but fince the 
writing of this, Objectors have railed fome new 
jmade Controverfies. 

Qll. 39. Whether the Acceptation of Chrifis Righ- 
teoufnefs be the Imputation of it I 

Anf. Language is fo ambiguous, and fome men 
do fo (unskilfully) abufe it to vain Controver- 
fie, as if they had been hired to ferve the defign 
of our late Bruitift s, who make Reafon and Speech 
to be our Mifery, proving man more unhappy than 
the beafts. 1. Either you mean [ the Imputation 
of it to Chrift,'] or [to us*'} 2. And that either 
to fain man in general, or to this or that individual 
Perfon in particular. 

1. To Accept and to Impute are not Words of 
the fame fence. But when Chrift had performed 
all that he had undertaken, as the Condition of his 
Mediatorial Covenant, or the Law of Mediation 
impofed on him, it was at once both accepted to 
the ends of that Covenant and his performance* 
and alio imputed to him, that is, He was truly reckon- 
ed to have fulfilled all Righteoufnefs. 

2. Fain man was thenreckpned to be (as to price 
and merit) Redeemed, God fo far pardoning them y 
or not imputing their fin to them, as to make them a 
general Pardon on Condition of a believing due 
3cceptance 5 & committing to his Minifters the Word 
of Reconciliation, befeeching them in Chrifts 
ftead to be perfonally and actually reconciled to 
God, 2 Cor. 5, ig y 20. 

. 3- Chrifis 

(6o ) 

3- Chrifts Righteoufnefs was thus accepted of 
God as loon as performed : but it was not then as 
fo performed imputed to any fingular Perfon, to his 
per fond attual J vilification. For it Was accepted be- 
fore we were born, or believed : But it, was not fo 
imputed to our actual J unification before we were 
born or believed.* 

Righteoufnefs is imputed to us, if we believe, Rom. 
4. 24. And Faith is imputed to us for Righteoufnefs : 
And he that believeth not is condemned already, and 
under the curfe, when yet Chrifts Rk hteoufnefs was 
accepted long before : If they fay that there is a 
new Acceptation of it for every Sinner jufi when he 
believeth, and that it is this that they mean \\ an- 

fwer, that as long as men take liberty to make 
new phrafes about fupernatural myfteries, which 
are not in Scripture., and to ufe thefe to the form- 
ing of new Creeds or Articles of Faith, they will 
be fo long in acquainting the World with their 
meaning, that we ihall never come to an end of 
Controverfies, nor to the true underftanding of 
one another .• for few fuch men underftand them- 
felves ; but when they confound the matter and 
the readers with their new ambiguous phrafes, 
they cry out againft thofe that would fearch out 
their meaning, as if they did but Cavil with their 
Words, and difiinttion and underftanding were the 
way of Confufon and not theirs. 

We grant that the Juftification of every Belie- 
ver is a new Effett of Chrifts Righteoufnefs : And 
if they will call this a new Acceptation by God of 
Chrifts Righteoufnefs, or ufe any other new made 
unmeet or gibberifli Words, if they will but ex- 
pound them as they go, we fliall the better bear 

Qu, 40. 

(yt ) 

^ __i u___ L — i- ,«■ ' ' '■■ — -— ~T- 

Qu. 40. Whether it follow that Chrifis Offerings 
( or Pa (five Obedience ) did not merit Eternal Life at 
ail for us, becaufe it was only Active Obedience which 
the Law of Innocency fo rewarded \^Do this and livej 
not [Suffer and live ? ] 

Jmf. t. Their foundation- err our animateth the 
affirmative. They falfly think that it is that Law of 
Innocency which juftifieth us, which doth chrfe and 
condemn us, and not juftifie us at all ; but it is the 
Gofpel,or Law of Faith and Grace that juftifieth us. 

2. The Merit of Chrifis Right eon fnefs is t$be 
reckoned principally as juftifying us, according to 
the tenor of the Law or (Covenant made only to tftm as 
Mediator : That Covenant laid on ChvlR fitch duty 
as was made the Condition of the Tromife, and made 
him a fpecial Promife upon that Condition or Duty.: 
He performed the latter for the former. The mac : 
ter of his undertaken Condition or Duly was 
threefold, r. To fulfil the Law of Innocency ; 
2. And the Law of Mofes ; 3. And divers Media- 
torial ads proper to himfelf •, (as to farisfie Juftice 
by his fufferings, conquer Satan and Death, work 
his Miracles, (freC) To perform this whole Condition of 
his Covenant^ was to merit of God-Man Juftifica- 
tionand Salvation : The pan of this was but pan 
of his Merit fnaterialiy confidered, j^ftifying him- 
Self againft any charge from that Law which he 

fulfilled : But his Mediatorial Acbs^ and fo his Suf- 
ferings were another part, by which he was juftified, 
and merited Righteoiuheis and Life for us : And 
therefore the Obje&ion faliiy iuppofeth that it is 
only Adams Law that juftified Chriii, and accord- 
ing to which he merited for m^ whereas it was the 
\itorial Cove?tant or Law which made his Suf- 
g part of the Condition of the Pramile made to 
him for himfelfand us. F His 

His own Glory was merited by death on theCrofs, 
Phil.2.J$>9. Therefore alfo ours. By his blood he en- 
tered into the Holieft, having obtained eternal Redemp- 
tion for us. His blood not only purgeth our Consciences 
from dead works , toferve the living God, but for this 
oaufe he is the Mediator of the New Tejl anient, that by 
means of death, for the redemption of the tranfgreffions 
under the fir ft Teftament, they which are called might 
receive the Premife of Eternal Inheritance, Heb. 12. 
14, 15. Heb. 10. IO, 1 4. By one offering he hath per- 
fected Jor ever them that are fanttified. He hath re- 
conciled us in the body ofhisflefh through death, to prc- 
fent us holy, and unblameable^ and unreprovable in his 
jfi^ht. Col. I. 22. To eat Chrifts fle(h, and drinks his 
blood, is to believe his Sacrifice, which yet is that 
which hath the Promife of Life. 

Indeed the reafon of this Obje&ion would deny 
alfo Chrifts A&ive Obedience to merit our Salva- 
tion : For by the Law of Innocency Chrift merited 
for none but himfelf: For that Law promifeth 
Life to none but them that perfonally obey, and ne- 
ver mentioned obeying by another, nor knows any 
Vtcarinm ant obediewU aut poena. It isonlyGods 
Covenant with the Mediator as fuch, that gave 
him right to make us righteous, to pardon and to 
' faveus : And that Covenant giveth it (as is (aid) 
on the whole Condition. It is true, that Life is 
oft efpecially afcribed to Chrifts Refurre&ion and 
Life, and deliverance from guilt to his Death 
But that is not becaufe his Death is no part of thei 
Meritorious Caufe of our Life, or Holinefs and; 
' Glory, nor his Life a Meritorious Caufe of our 
Pardon by fulfilling all Righteoufnefs •, but becaufe 
Guilt was it.that was to be expiated by his Death ! 
as a Sacrifice, and fo it did but purchafe by plea*' 
„ fing God, the gift of our life : But his Refurretfion) 


and heavenly Interceffion did more than purchafe, 
even further communicate and perfed our Life. 
Chrifts Death was in order of Nature firft fatif- 
fa&ory for fin, and then meritorious of Life ; and 
his perfect Active Obedience was firft and direct- 
ly meritorious both of Pardon and Glory. 

I pafs by the Controverfie which Mr. Gataker 
moft infifteth on, Whether to deliver from Death, 
and to give Life, be not all one ? And whether 
according to the Law of Innocency, he that had no 
fin or guilt of Commiflion or Omiifion, had not 
right to the Life there given ? 

Qu. 41. Whether Chrifts being the End of the Law 
for Righteoufnefs^doth fignife that he fo fulfilled Adams 
Law in onrftead, as that it juftifieth us by Fac hoc 
& vives. 

Anf 1. The affirmers quite miftake Mofes and 
Paul, in thinking that it is the Law of Innocency, 
which the words cited by Paul defcribe ; when 
indeed it was Mofes Law of Works, which had Sa- 
crifices and Promifes of Pardon, which the other 
had not (of which before.) 2. Chrift is there faid 
to be the End of all the Law as to its (hadows, 
types, and conjunct Promifes. The Law was given by 
Mofes, but Grace and Truth ( that is, the things 
promifed and typified) cam by Jefus chrift. The 
confounding of thefe Laws confoundeth many in 
thefe Controverfies. 

I Qu. 42. Whether the fufferings of * Chrift merit our 
freedom from nothing but what he fujfered i* our 

Qu. 43. And whether hence it follow that his Of- 
ferings merit not our deliverance from death fpiritual 
agid habitual^ or aRml pravity, becaufe Chrift fujfered 
fkemnot? f 2 Anf 


Anf, Toihe^d. The affirmation of the firft is 
a corrupting addition to the Word of God. i. He » 
filtered not paay temptations, which yet by the 
fufferings we are freed from. 2. He 
fl-ife/ many relative evils, as bad Parents, 

bad Teachers, a bad Wife, and all the attendant ' 
croiles in baying and kiting, crofles from bad Te- 
nants, or Landlords, arc. which the merit of his 
filtering' delivered! many/rom. 3. He fuffered 
i nt of an accufing Conscience. 4. Nor 
Godshatrecfqrdifpleafure. 5. Nor the many mi- 
feries whichiin in its own nature bringeth to the 
So|il (as painful cares, fears,fru{Erations,deceits,(^c:.) 
<5. K ...pticn in the grave. 7. Nor the final 

Sentence {Go ye cur fed trap ever lafting fax ^ 8. Nor 
the proper Execution of that Sentence. 

Yet he delivereth fome Believers from all thefe, 
and all from ibme, by the merits of his fufferings* 
For it was not they/*/* fame punifhmem that w f asdue 
to all Believers that he fuffered, but that which 
was fit to make hhn a meet Sacrifice, which was 
the t ant undent lei d^mvdens^ confideratis con fide- 

Ad 43. The affirmative Tubverteth our Faith. 
Chrifts Death merited the full pardon of all par- 
doned (in : But the pardon of fin is the pardon of 
the deferved punilhment of fin (and of the fin as 
related to that puniflhment.) But certainly the pri- 
vation of Gods iliuLriinatingjfandifying Spirit, and 
its helps and fruits, is a great part of the puniihmenc 
of fin, i^/. 81. II, 12. Rom. I. 28. 2 Thef 2. 10,12. 
To be given up to mens own counfels, wills, lulls, 
vile affe&ions, to a reprobate mind 5 to have eyes 
and fee not, hard hearts to believe lies, &c. Sin is 
no farther pardonccj ['than this puniihment is by 
landtifying grace \ d, and removed 


( & 

The Scripture doth not afcribe to Chrifts Sacri- 
fice, fome part only of our pardon of TitT bufthe 
whole, Rev. j. 5. He wafihed us from oar fins in 
his blood; and fo he is the propitiation for 
them, 1 John 2. 2 . & 4. 3 • Be made purgation of 
them on the Crpfs, Heb. 1. 4. He died Kfc them, 
and gave himfelf for them, 1 Cor. 15.9. $41. 1. 4. 
1 Pa. 3.18. //<?£. 10.12. & p.2&. ife 3: s 5. Whom 
God hath fet forth to be a propitiation through 
Faith in his bipod, for the reriiiffion of fins that are 
paft, Atts 22. 16. & 13.3^^. And the poena 
damni is part of the punifhment to be foi*givei> : 
Therefore, Rom. 4. 7. Blejfek 'are they nv jijes 

are forgiven 7 &c. But no nian is blefled riiat is mr 
holy, and feparated from Qod : As we all finned 
and came fhort of the Glqry : pf God, and fpiritusl 
£>eath is by the obje&er confeffed to be part of 
our puniflbmje.nt iip pardon' Contained) therwinijrioa 

And it is fajfly fuppofed that Chn h is 

not fecondarily meritorious of more / .W, 

even of all that his A&ive Obedience meriteth s 
of which before. 

Pardon is, i. Injure^ a ' Remiffionbf me Obli- 
gation to punifhment ; giving us Jiu Impumtatis 5 
and this giv.eth us Right to all that §race and blef- 
fednefs, which by (in we loft a Rip 

2. Declarative by Sentence, vyhicli us a 

jits jiidtcatHm. 

3. Executive, which adlually free:h the 
pawa damni & jenfits. And lb Saiiccinca^ion is a 
part of Executive Pardon; s it giyetli what 
for (in we -were penally deprived of this is all 
pjain and fure. 

r 3' Qh. 

( 66 ) 

Qll. 44. Seeing we our felves bear that part of the 
Curfe which tieth in Death fpiritual^ doth it follow that 
Chrifts Sufferings were not to free us from it, when we 
bore it y and not he? 

jinf It is not denied that part of the punifli- 
menc of finis born by the Elect themfelves,( which 
the former Objecters deny :) And therefore that 
frardon is not abfolutely perfect at firft : Death 
and Divine denials of the Spirit and Grace, are 
fuch penalties- And Chrift died not (nor obeyed) 
to fave us from that which we are not to be faved 
from, but was excepted from Pardon. But the 
Objecter can never prove that the Merit of Chrifts 
Sufferings (though he fufiered not fpiritual death, 
or privation of Gods Image ) doth not free us, 
1 . From fo much of fpiritual death or pravity as 
we are freed from : 2. And from the duration of 
it for ever : Or elfe it merited not one half our 
pardon. To be wafhed from our fins in his blood, 
can be no left than to be freed from the guilt 
which is the obligation to punifhment firft, and 
confequently from the puniihmenC it felf. 

Qu, 45. Is this the reason of our deliverance from 
the Law, and being dead to it y becaufe we fnffered ever- 
iafiing Hell fire equivalently in Chrifts fufferings. 

Anf: When men once depart from the Scrip- 
ture, their corrupt additions hardly keep bounds. 

x. It's well that this Obje&er implieth, that it 
was not the Idem, but the ^£quivakns that Chrift 
fuffered, as to our debt. 

* 2. That which ihade Chrifts Sacrifice to be 
equivalent to our endlels damnation 9 was not that it 

\yk$ ^S great a proportion of fufferirig { poena fenfus 

W dami) as all ours 'together would have been 1 


(6 7 ) 

But becaufe the dignity and perfe&ion of the per- 
fon made it an apt means for God that would par- 
don us, to accept as a Sacrifice, and fo as fit a 
means to the ends of Government, as our damna- 
tion would have been (and fitter. ) This is the 

3. We fuffered not damnation at all in Chrift 5 
nor doth God or his Law fake or reckon us to 
have done fo ; but only to receive the pardon and 
other benefits freely given us, which he in the 
perfon of a Mediator, and not in our per/on me- 

4. We are dead tothMLaw, both as a Covenant 
of Perfection, and as the Law of Mofes to the 
Jews, becaufe Chrift nailed the latter to his Oofs, 
or did abrogate it as fuch to the Jews, and to thofe 
Gentiles that needed to be Profelytes ; and the 
former ceafed by the Fall and Promife 5 (But it is 
the Jewifh Law that Paul fpeaketh of ) And alfo 
in our believing acceptance of this liberation, and of 
the Law of Chrift. 

Qy. 46. Is it true that Chrifis Attive Obedience 
only merit eth Heaven for us ; and therefore it only we- 
riteth the Spirit or Holinefs which is but Heaven 
begun i 

Anf. Both are falfe : His Active and Paflive 
Righteoufnefs merit Pardon, Holinefs and Glory. 
And their proof from [Fac hoc & vives*] is upon 
a great miftake, and no proof. 

Qu. 47. Is it true-, that becaufe Regeneration is the 
beginning of Hfavcn, and Chrifis Obedience imputed 
giveth a right to the whole y therefore it giveth a right 
to the beginnings and therefore Repentance which foU 
loweth Jufiification can be no Condition of it? 

F 4 M* 

( 63 ) 

[, It is a fancy (pun by a a miftaken mind, to 
oppofe the plain. Vv r ord of God. 

i. If it would hold, it would exclude Faith as 
well as Kcpr.tance, from being a Condition or An-, 
tecedent.to Juflification, contrary to the Gofpel \ 
For Faith is as much a grace of the Spirit as Re- 
pentance- If. j And it is not true that impenitent In- 
fideka^jpftified, though they may be predefti- 
H4te to.De^iTrft called, and then juftified, and then 
glorified, Rom. 8. 30. 

. That which goeth before Pardon f and that 
as a Condition ) goeth before Juflification : But 

stance goeth before Pardon, Atts 5, 31. Luke 
3. 3. ASs 2.38, & 3. 19. &8. 22. 

: 3 1.$. /:%<4- 12. But of this I have given 
£$ge %ivpt elfewhere. • . 
, 3. All the gracqof tne Spirit is a preparation 
for Heaven jBui: that eminent gift of the Spirit, 
>vhich in Scripture is called the Seat $ Eamefi, and 
fin!: Fruit* is pronged ijpon repenting m&believwg, 
arid therefore followed! them, and is, 1. The Habit 
of Divine Love, which is the New Nature, and 
more change £r ft feed of grace: 2. And the Spi- 
rit related to us as an in-dvveliing,pofIefling Agent 
of Chrift to fanctifieus to the end. 3. And in thofe 
times to many, the extraordinary gifts of Mi- 
racles, Tongues,G ! T. 

1. Faith ajid Repentance went before Baptifm 
in the Adult, even as a Condition of it and its be- 
nefits, Markjl.q. Acts 13. 34. & 1 9. 4. Matt. 3. II. 
Jdm I. 26. Markl6. 1(5. John 4. I. Atts 2. 38, 41. 
8t$. 12, 13,36,37,38. & 9. 18. & 22. 16. But 
that gift :of the Spirit which is called the Earmft, 
Scaifindfirft Frxitjvas either given in,or after Bap- 
tifm ordinarily ( though to Cornelius before) but 
not before faith and Repentance. It is called there- 

( 6 9 ) 

fore^ £ Baptising with the Holy Ghofc. J See Mat., 

3. it. Atts 1. 5, & 2. 33. 38, & 8. 15. 17, & ip.2. 
jSo/«. y. 5. Tit. 3. 5 

2. And the Spirit is faid to be promifed and 
given to believers, after faith, and becaufe they 
were adopted fons : Eph. 1. 13. /Voz>. 1-23. is*/. 

4. 6.& 3.14. -Rd/»w 8. 15,16. 30. 2 Cor. 1. 22. & 

5. 5. Therefore pur Divines commonly put fow- 
non as giving the firft ads of 'Faith arid Repentance 
before 1 Santtific,athn y zs Rom. $.30. doth before 
Juftift<;ation and Glorification, And yet Faith and 
Repentance are gifts of the Spirit too, and fo are ma- 
ny commoner gifts in unian&ified men: But as 
the daylight is teen before the Suo~riiing, and as 
Satan is not faid to poflefs all that he tempteth ; 
So force gifts of the Spirit, and fome motions and 
operations of it, go before the proper giving of the 
Spirit itfelf, and his poffeiling qs. 

3. It is no abfurdity, biit the wife order of God, 
that one gift of the Spirit (ball be antecedent to 
another, and the reception and exercife of it by 
us, be a condition of that other. For God will 
morally induce us to our duty by fuitable 
motives. He that denieth this fubverteth the 

4. 1 have elCewhere^at large proved the falfhood 
of this Do&rine^that Impenitept Infidels are jufti- 
ified by the imputation ©f Chrifts Jlighteoufnefs. It 
is enough that Clinics righteoufneis is reputed by 
God to be the meritorious caufe of all our grace 
even of iaftification before we are juftified. 

Qu. 48. How can faith or repentance entitle us to 
thatrighteoufnefs ofChrifi which mafi firft give m a 
right to themselves and all Grace} 

Anf. u Faitb and Repentance give us not a Ti- 

( 70 ) 

tie in ftri&fence,but theCovenant orPromife ; that 
is, the Gofpel Donation is our Title, and Faith and 
Repentance are but Conditions of our Title, which 
on feveral accounts make us morally capable^e- 
cei vers of Right. 

2. Chrifts Righteoufnefs did merit all grace of 
God, before it juftifieth us, * and we are reputed 
righteous by it. It is a great error to fay that we 
muft be reputed righteous by Chrifts Righteouf- 
nefs given and imputed to us to that ufe , before 
we can have any fruits of the merits of his righte- 
oufnefs. Even the outward call of the Gofpel is a 
fruit of it. 

Qu. 49. Is it true that we muft be praBical Ami- 
nomians nnlefs we hold that only Chrifts active righte- 
oufnefs merited grace and glory for us? 

Qu. 50. Is this proved by Rom. 7. 4. 

Anf 1. Some mens words are ufed to hide the 
fenfe, and not to open it. What is the meaning of 

Fr attic al Antinomianifm ? Is it tO be the Oppofers of 

all Gods Laws ? or only fome and which ? And 
doth he not mean that the judgment muft be nrft 
agaioft them. 

How far are we under the Law 3 and how far 
not? 1. The Law oflnnocency as a Covenant re- 
quiring perfeft, perfonal obedience as the necefla- 
ry condition of life, we are not under. It ceafed by 
the firft fin, ctffante fubditi capacitate : We muft not 
fuppofe that (iod faith to allfinners : ToHJhall be 
faved if yon be not finners. Conditionepr&tqritaLex 
tranflt in fententiam. 

2. We are not under the Law of Mofes as fiich; 
even that which.was written in ftoneis done away, 

2 Cor. 3 7, &C ; j 

IfthisbeAntinomianifmJ am anAntinomianthat 
1 written fomuch againftthem. 3. We 

( 7* ) 

3. We are only under the Law of Chrift, into 
whofe hand all power is given : And that is 
i. The Law of reprieved and redeemed nature: 
2. All his fupernatural revelation, and fo much of 
Mofes Law as he hath aflumed. If the objeder 
think that we are under any other, fo do not I, ex- 
cept the fubordinate Laws of men. 

2. That Law of Grace which we have, and 
that freedom from the Law of Works, are me- 
rited both by Chrifts Active and Paffive righteouf- 
" ■■-■ n* ' ■» > ■ ■ ■■■ » »■ i n . » ■■■. ■ ■ ' — •«-« 

-dd. Qxi.io.Rom.'j.^. hath no fuch thing, but 
only that Chrift hath delivered men from the bon- 
dage of the Law of works which did neither juftily 
nor fan&ify, and hath fubjeded and engrafted us 
junto himfelf, that we might by him be made holy 
unto God. 

[ Conclufion.~\ 

THe Reader may now perceive what abun- 
dance of great notional errours fome men 
have corrupted the Doctrine of Juftification with, 
by prefumptuous (pinning webs out of their own 
fancies, raifingone errour out of another, departing 
from the Word of God. 

I. A radical errour is, that the Law of Inno- 
cency made to Adam is it that juftifieth us, 
by itsfac hoc & vives^sfnlfillwg it in Chrift. 

II. Another is that it is that Covenant of 
perfection which Paul meaneth by the Law 
of Works, and the fac hoc, &c. And that the Jews 
Law was fuch as made Inaocency its condition of 
life, III. That 

(72 ) 

III. Thattbefenreof-^^r^Lawwas, [^Dothis 

>h tbyfelf or another, or elfe thou or thy furety flail 

IV. That Chrift did obey and fuffer, merit and 
f$jpisfy, in fo foil and ftria a reprefenting and 1 per- 
flating every one oftheEledt, as that they did 
and fuftered it in and by Chrift, in the fence of the 
Law of Works, or in Gods account ; and that it 
was no: in the third perfon of a mediator, to com- 
mi inicajLe the Effects freely as he pleafed by ano- 
tht :r Covenant. And fo that Gods imputing righte- 
ou inefs to us, is his accounting us to have done 
3p d fuftered in Law fenfe what Chrift did. This 
is the root of all the reft, fubverting the Gofpel 

V. And fo that God accountcth US to belnnocent, 
aud never to have finned by Omiflionor Com- 
rr iiflion from birth to de^th, and to have all that is 
n 'quired to merit Heaven, becaufe we did it in Chrift 5 
a nd aifo to have [offered in Chrift for our fins, the 

c urfe threawed to us, and ( as the laft obje&er 

i aith ) eternal damnation equivalently : And fo we 
I iad fin and no fin : And Chrift muft die and we 
fniuft pray, for the pardon of that fin, which in Gods 
account or imputation w r e never had. 

Y L When theText tells us tlm,[Faith is imputed 
to m[orRighteou[ne[sf\ & that [Righteoufne[s is imput- 
ed to believers ] that is, [They are accounted righteous 
according to the juftifying Covenant of Grace, upon thtir 
believing in Chrift, [or his meritorious Righteou[ne[s and 
Sacrifice, giving them, by the new Covenant their graci- 
ous relation, tpGod the Father, Son and Holy Gho[i } 
\tyth right to further Grace and Glory, they tell US 
that [ h Faith ] is not meant [ Faith ] but [ Chrift s 
Jijghteoufne[s, 3 and by C Right eoufne[s imputed tons, 2 
IS meant [Gods accounting us to have done all that 


( 73 > 

Sighteoujnefs by Chrift which he did for us. ] 

Many more fuch humane inventions corrupting, 
our Faith ( at leaft in notion) too many fight for, as 
if they were neceflary truths of God. 


REader, the Author of the following objections is 
Mr. Stephen Lob : / had thought not to have 
named him, till 1 faw but Ye ft er day his Books of Free 
Grace, which I never before^ heard'of, though it was 
printed almoft ten year ago : It is fo considerable a con-, 
futationof Antinomian err ours that 1 commend it to 
thy reading. 

And being my felf in great pain expelling death, and 
like to write in thefe Contr over pes no more, that I have 
once more as a Speculator or Watchman blown the 
Trumpet to warn men of the danger of the Other Gof- 
pel that fubverteth the Gofpel of Chrift, I have this 
Peace of Confcience that the blood of the f educed will 
not be required at my hands. 

And if that M. $.of Mr. Stone o/New-Eng-' 
land which Mr. Lob/o praifeth, may by him be yet re- 
covered, I intreat his endeavour : In which I cannot 

doubt but Mr. Increafe Mather will ajfift him^ tho his 
name be prefixt among the twelve. 

And I commend tofome honeft Bookfeller to reprint 
Mr. Thomas Welds Hiftory of the New-England 
Antinomian Libertinifm, it being out ofprefs. 

And I hereby intreat Mr. William Manning of 
Suffolk ( if living ) to Trim the excellent Treatife of 
J uftif cation of his which I have long ago read. And 
Mr. Samuel Clerk C Author of the Alinot. )to Print 


his found freatife ( which J long ago read ) m the f am 

And though my own Judgment be for the Imputation 
ofChrifts Pafive, Attive, and Habitual right eoufnefs y 
dignified by the Divine as the full andthefole meritori- 
ous caufe of allGrace andGlory^as making up the conditi- 
on of his Mediatorial Covenant impofed on him by 
God$ Tet I intreat the Learned Reader to perufe the 
Writings of thofe great Divines that are for the Impu- 
tation of the? affive only ( Urfine, Olevan, Paro- 
us, Scultetus, Wendeline, Beckman, and the reft, 
withCzmero* PlacaSUS, and all that party of famous 
French Divines who all effectually confute the falfe 
fenfe of Imputation of the Active Righteoufnefs which 
Mr. Bradfhaw confuteth with many others ( as if we 
had done it byChri(t % and were our felves the Subjects 
of it, and arejuftified by that Law that condemneth w.} 

Jan. 20. 1690. 

R. B. 


C 7? J 

ilw Anfxver tofome Animadverfions of a 
Friend j tending to the further expli- 
cation of fomepaff ages which through 
brevity were not under flood. 

§. i. jT^IR, Your notes have fo much Judgment 
^^ and moderation and fo little, if any 
^% thing contrary to what I aflert, that 
^^* they require nothing from me , but 
a repeated explication of that whidh you observed 
not as before explained : But when it is enough 
for me to explain my own Words and Do&rine, 
you put me on another task to feek after the ex- 
plication of another mans •■> which I am not oblig- 
ed to on any account, but for your Satisfa&ion. Ic 
is enough for me to fpeajc true Do&rine in the 
moft intelligible manner that lean without exa- 
mining whether other mens expreflions be found 
or apt, 

§. 2. I begin with your own Notes: And i. I 
hope that few are fo ignorant ( that meddle in 
thefc matters) as to doubt of what you fay, that 
no one term much lefsone Metaphor or fimilitude 
can adequately exprefs any of the Myfteries of 
Grace, and no one Metaphor muft be carried too 
far $ Omne fimile eft mam dijfimile : And all fct to- 
gether fo far as they are thereto intended muft in- 
ftrud us. 

§. 3. I know none but the Socinians that think 
a Mediator and aSponfor inconfiftent; or deny 
Chrift to be a Sponfor. And methinks your words 


( ?& ; 

for their confitlency, import a greater diiference 
between them than there is. Jj is part of Chrifts 
Mediation to be a Sponfor : Thefe terms there- 
fere exprefs no difference but betvyeen the whole 
and the part. 

But what a Sponfor Chrift is, is all the doubt 
which I a little opened, and you pafsby. It is not 
agreed by expofitors what the vyord tyyw* mean- 
eth in that one only place of Scripture where it is 
ufed- Very learned expofitors think that as Mo fa 
was called Gods Mediator or Sponfor- to the people as 
being his Spokeiman and in his name aflpring 
them that this was Gods Covenant which he would 
perform, and returning the peoples anfwer to God, 
and praying for them but not undertaking for them, 
and perforating them : ; fo Chrift is here likened to 
him, and called the Mediator and Sponfor of the new 
and better Covenant, not as he perfonateth or un- 
dertaketh for Covenanting Subjects, ' but only as 
he reprefentethGod the Father to man, and is his 
Sponfor to us. 

But as Paul faith he is not a Mediator of one, fo 
I fee no: biit ( though chiefly he be Gods Sponfor 
to man)yet withal, .he be there called a Sponfor aifo 
as well as a Mediator for man to God : But all the 
doubt is what a Sponfor for man he is. 

And firlt we muft enquire what Covenant he is a 
vforof? No doubt but Gods Covenant with 
the Mediator as fiich, is prfe % and Gods and the Me- 
diators Covenant with man folemnized in baptifm 
is another : And yet no doubt but thefe two have 
fuch relation as that in fome fort or refped they 
may be called one. He. that faith they are not two 
is plainly confuted by the conftitutive defining 

patTS, fhe Divers' Parties y Matte* ', Terms and Ends. 

It was net faid to Chrift, but by Chrift, [ Rr 


C 77 ) 
and believe in Chrift, or be damned. ] Pardon and 
Salvation are not offered to Chrift to be received 
by Faith in himfelf. Yet as the Laws of the Land 
though feveral, are One Inftr amentum Regiminis : So 
wc call all the Laws of Nature ufually Angularly. 
The Law of Nature, ( and fo we fay. The Civil 
LatVy the Canon Law, Gods Law, See. ) Now the 
queftion is, what Covenant Chrift was the Spon- 
sor of? i. In his own proper Covenant he did 
Spondere & pr aft are, to fuffer for us, and to obey 
for us^ ( in the juft fence in due place explained, ) 
to rife and afcend for us, to intercede for us, to 
Teach us, Guide us, give out his Spirit, and to 
Juftifie and Sanctifie and Glorifie his chofen:. So 
that it was part of his Undertaking and Performance 

to do all this for us ; and this may well be called his 
becoming a Sponfor for us, and to be made to us, fi'if- 

dom, Righteoufnefs, Sanftification and Redemption. ' 

In our Covenant with Chrift, he is the Impofer 
and Stipulator, and we are to Promife for our y&rr, 
to be done by his promifed help: Bur on Gods 
part y it is in this that he is the Sponfor, and not in 
the former , where God the Father is the Promifer 
to Chrift, and not Chrift to himfelf as a Covenan- 
ter : So that it is in one Covenant that he proml- 
feth to God for Man^ and in another that he promi- 
feth for God to Man : And the queftion is which of 
thefe Covenants it is that the Apoftle calleth him, 
the Surety of? If you fay that the Apoftle taketh 
bofrh here as parts of One, and (o meaneth both ; I. 
-find no proot of this in the Text : And if it were 
fo, it is all one; for it were then fpoken of the 
* whole, but refpedively to what Chrift did in the ttfa 
which are the parts : Indeed it is efW>tw, and not 
^kS»'ji», that is the Covenant .mentioned in the 
Text : and as Grotins in prafat. ad not as in N. T. 

G hath 


hatlrcopioufly (hewed, it is a Divine Difpofal, 
Law, Impofition,. or Statute containing the terms 
of Life, that is meant. by cfti^'wi .• And cap. 7. 22. 

as it is faid, yer Jeffs was made a fumy of a better 
Teftament. And c. 8.6. He hath obtained a more 
excellent Mmjhy> by how much he is the Mediator of 
a better Covenant £ which was ftablijhed on better Pro- 
mfes. 2 It is che fame thing which our Tranflators 
call a Teftament in one Chapter and a Covenant in 
the other, and it feems that a Surety and a Medi- 
ator here do mean the fame thing in Chrift: And 
the whole context fheweth that it is Gods Pro- 
inife or Covenant, and Law of Grace made to 
man that is here meant, and that ChriftsOffice and 
Undertaking and Performance is prefoppofed. And 
fo it is the Fathers Sponfor and Mediator to man' 
that is meant here dire&ly, and mans Sponfor and 
Mediator towards God by Connotation ; but fo as 
in other Texts, as Cap. p. 15. that part alfo is di- 
rectly exprefTed, and Chrifts death made a part of 
his Mediation. ! 

§4- The Queftion being not then whether 
Chrift be Mediator, or Sponfor , or the Second A- 
dam, but what theie words fignifie, that which is 
to be noted by the Reader is, 1. What it is here- 
on that we aftert 5 and v^ hether that be enough. 
1. And what it is that we deny as too much, and 

§ 5. 1. And for the firft I explained it here, 
and more fully in my Treat, of Juftifying Righte- 
ciifnefs : And to repeat as oft as any one will call 
for it that hath not leifure to read it already done 
is tedious. In (hort [" Chrift in the Common 
" Nature of man made under the Law of Innocen- 
"cy, of Mojes and that proper to the Mediator, 
" did in the undertaken Perfon of a Mediator, Spon- 

k ' for 

I 79 ) 
£ for, interpofing Friend and Saviour, perfe$ly ftl- 
" fil all thefe, and give up himfelf to {offering as 
u a Sacrifice for Mans Sin, that by the Merit and 
"Satisfaction of him that was God and Man, and 
" Mans undertaking Mediator and Sponfor, doing y 
* and fullering becaufe we had finned, and defer- 
" ved fuffering, and that for our fakes, and partly 
" in our ftead, the ends of God as Governour by 
" the Law of Innocency, and Mofes might be ob- 
" tained to his Glory, without our fulfilling of 
" thofe Laws or Suffering theXleferved Penalty, 
" and God in confiftency with his Wifdom, Holi- 
' r nefs and Juftice, might for thefe Merits and Sa- 
" tisfa&ion of Chrift give gll things into his Hands 
"as the Redeemer, even all Power in Heaven 
" and Earth, and make him Lord of the Dead and 
" Living, and Head over all things to the Church, 
"and give him the Keys, and commit all judg- 
" menu to him ; that by the will of the Father 
" he might make with fain redeemed Man a Law 
" and Covenant of Grace, giving thenr Himfelf in 
" incomprehenlible Union, and with himfelf his 
" indwelling fan&ifying comforting Spirit of A- 
" doption, with a ' ovenant Right to Pardon, Ju- 
" ftification, Adoption and Glory, i^they will pe- 
"nitently accept it, by a fiducial pra&ical belief: 
"And calling Sinners, to this Faith and Re- 
''pentance, and effectually drawing his Ele£i, 
r might by this Covenant give them as foon as 
" they fo believe, an actual right to that impuni- 
14 ty, Grace and Glory which was antecedently 
"given conditionally to all. And might finally 
" perform all this to them. 

In plain and full words, this is that we affert, 
and the Office which by the Word Sponfor, Medi- 
ator and Second 'Ad*m we mean, 

G 2 §5-1 

§. 5. I have elfe where told you that there are 
many forts of Sponfors. i. There is one that An- 
tecedently maketh himfelf a Party in the Covenant 
and Bond : As when my Friend is bound with me 
in the fame bond for a Debt or Duty: If the Law 
to Adam had been fuch as this, took in Chrift alfo 
into the fame bond, and had meant [One of yon 
Jhall perfectly obey orfujfer 3 ] Then that Law would 
have had nothing againft Adam at all, becaufe all 
was fulfilled by Chrift : And it bound but dif- 
jun&ively, one or the other. Then thrifts Obe- 
dience or Suffering would not have been fatisfa- 
Bio, which is folutio aquivakntis alias indebiti, & 
folutio recufabilis ; but i^ would have been folum 
ejufdem & non recufabilis according to the bond. 

2, There is a fubfequent Sponfor that was not 
before bound, but as a Friend after interpofeth, 
and offereth ( not in the Perfon of the debtor, 
but yet in his ftead ) to pay the debt : and this 
upon fuch terms as to the Debtors deliverance as 
he thinks «beft ; andfb may take him as Debtor 
to himfelf, and put various limits, and Condi- 
tions upon his Difcharge: And fuch a Sponfor 
is Chrift for Man. Many more diftinctions of 
Sureties are here confiderable. 

3. But forfie men take a Surety here to be the 

fame Perfona civilis, quamvis non natwralis, with 

the Offender and Debtor ; as if we did Legally, 
Morally or Civilly that which Chrift did naturally : 
As indeed an allowed Reprefentative, Servant, 
or Agent and Attourney is : If I be bound to 
pay an hundred pound, the Law and Bond meant 
not that I muft needs do it with my own hands, 
but if I fend my Servant or Friend with the 
Money, it is Civilly, Legally and Morally done by 
Tue, becaufe he was my lawful Inftrument : I did 
it by him. II. The 

c *o 

II. The Do&rine then, which I deny as fub- 
verting the Chriftian Religion is efpecially thefe 
three errours following. 

I. That the true meaning of Adams Law or 
Covenant was to bind him or his furety disjunctive- 
ly ^ s vit. Thou (halt obey thy felt or another 
(Chrift ) for thee,or elfe thou (halt die, or Chrift 
for thee. ] i Gods Word faith no fuch thing. 

2. Then Chrift had been an Antecedent Sponfor. 

3. Yea and a party equally bound. 4.. Then 
a Saviour and Grace had been by that Law .• 
which is falfe. 5. Then Adam had been no Sin- 
fter 5 for it was but He "or Chrift and not He and 
Chrift that were bound to keep the Law, by this 
Doctrine. 6. Then no Death had been due to 
Adam. 7. Then that Law was not broken at all : 
for it bound but disjunctively, 8. Then the Law 
condemneth no man. 9. Then our Death and the 
Curfc of the Earth were injuries, for we kept the 
Law by Chrift. 10. Then the Law of Innocen- 
cy is it by which we are juftified (which is falfe. ) 
11. Then there is no place for pardon. 12. Nor 
for a new Law to give us pardon upon terms or 
new Conditions : This is to fubvert the Gofpel. 

Yet this is commonly faid by the adverfaries, 
that Adam after his fall was juftified by that fame 
Law, as faying, Do this and Live, becaufe he kept 
it by 'Chrift, or Chrift in his Name and ftead, fo 
that it juftifieih Adam : ( which Mr. Wot ton de Re- 

conc. hath at large coufdted. ) If they fay that the 
fame Law or Covenant commanded Adam to obey 
perfectly and his fitrety alfo in his Bead conjunctly, 
and condemned both Adam for Sin and his Sure- 
ty for the fame, then both muft fuffer as both 
muft obey = and each beareth his own part. It 
is a fundamental fiction leading on many other 
G 3 errours 

(82 ) 

.crrours, to fay that the Law oflnnocency as it 

commanded Adam Obedknce^, or as it threatned 
Death to hirnwzs fulfilled by Chrift for him That 
Law commanded Adam only Ferfonal perfett perpe- 
tual Obedience : It mentioned or meant no ficari- 
us obedient i& ant poena : JDum alius folvit, aliudfolvi- 

tur. Anothers obeying or fuffering was no fulfil- 
ling of the Law asi/ commanded Adam : The Law 
commanded} each fubject diftinctly and perfonal- 
ly : Chrift fulfilled all the Law as it obliged him- 
felf, and thatjV Adams Redemption who had bro- 
ken it : But the fame Law as it pbliged Adam was 
broken by Jdam r and not kept by him or any for 
him : It is not that Law that gave man a Saviour, 
but the Mercy of the Offended Lawgiver. To fay 
the Hoc fac, e ; - viyes, in that Law giveth us right 
tp Life, and juflifieth us as perfect obeyers, and fo 
tip Sinners, is to deny the Gofpel 

Many fay indeed that Chrift fatisfied the Law r for 
iis: but r. That proveth that the Obligation of it 
on US was not fulfilled: Yot fan sf action is folutio recu- 
fabtlistantidem, loco fohttionis ejufdem. 2. But it is 
an improper fpeech to fay that [the Law is fatisfied'} 
And it meaneth no more but that^ C the end of Go- 
vernment by that Law is obtained. J And it is pro- 
perly fai is faction only to the Lawgiver, and not to 
the Law: For the Law in it's fence admits not of 
fatisfaftion, (though it hath nothing againft it : ) 
It is only thefubjetts Obedience that it command- 
eth, and his death as fatisfaction for fin that it de- 
manded]. It is the Lawgiver as he is above his own 
Law and hath power to pardon, that is fatisfied: 

Though as tropically fome fay, that Finis Legis est 
Lex, fe we will not contend with them that tro- 
pically fay, Christ fatisfied the Law, while they 

mean but that he fatisfied the Lawgiver in obtain- 

( %3 ) 

ing the End of the Law. But Chrift perfectly ful- 
filled the Law as it obliged himfelf, upon his Spon- 
fion. And that Law juftiried him,but no man eiie. It 
is only the New Covenant that, juftifieth us. 

II. The fecond Errour to' the fame purpofe, is, 
that though Chrift and Adam were two Natural 
Perfons? yet they were One Verfon in a Civil? Legal 
or Reputative fenfe, in Chrifts obeying and fufter- 
ing 3 and lb diat what Chrift did and differed in 
his own Natural Perfonjkie did and fuffered in Adams -j 
and every Eledfc mans Chil y Legaf, or Reparative 
Per/on. This is but the, confequent of the former 
Errour. He may be called our Reprefenter in a li- 
mited fenfe, in t ant um & ad hoc ( for there is no 
hope of holding our oppofers to Scripture phrafe :) 
But fuch a ftrictfull perforating Reprefentition as 
is here defcribed, denieth the fubitance of the 
Gofpel- There are indeed feveral Cafes in which 
one in Law or Civil fenfe doth perfonate another : 
, When the Law allowed) one to do the thing by 
another, that thing is morally done by himfelf; e.g. 
by my Servant, Proxie, Attorney, Agent, in Cafes 
io allowed by the Law. It is I that pay the debt 
which my Servant, or_any Vicarim allowed by Law- 
payeth for me in my name. Chrift did not t 
pay or (offer in our names as our Legal Perfbn 3 
but for us and in our (lead as tfnbfequtm Sponfor 
in the perfori of a Mediator ; fo that it cannot be 
faid that ive did it Legally by him ; elfe all the fore- 
nainfid abfurdities would follow 5 and fpecially 
that Legally we never fimed, and never deferved 
punifhment, nor need either Pardon, or the Sa- 
crifice of Chrift for Pardon/ Irs certain that Chrift 
never finned, but obeyed • perfectly from firft to 
laft : And if we did this Legally by him, we- finned . 
not in Law fenfe, that is, not truly at all. When 

G 4 v we 

we (hew that it is a palpable contradi&ion to fay, 
that we were perfectly obedient in and by Chrift, 
fi-bm birth to death, and yet that Chrift muft fuf- 
iei for our fins; it's ftrange to fee how fome men 
latisrie themfelyes with wriggling, or huddling out 
a few uifignificaat words, unfit to fatisfie any 

And if Chrifts Habitual Perfe&ion be alfo fo 
imputed to us, in a Legal fenfe, we were habitually 
perfect from birth to death* Whence it is that fome 
after t an equality of fuch Perfection in all Chri- 
ftians : The consequents I will not trouble you 
with reciting •, nor ftay to enquire whether alfo 
his Divine highteciifefs beoursin fuch a Law fenfe/ 
and fo Man be deified. 

Hither '>-• ft was our Legal Perfon before we 
rccrt Lorn j or from the time of our being, or from 
the time of our believing only. i. Before we had a 
Being we were no finners, nor bound to obey ; 
and therefore needed not to obey or fuflfer by ano- 
ther. 2.-. When we were born, we were not in 
Chrift', and perhaps not Believers till old Age : 
And fo the Elect mould Legally be juft while they 
are Infidels, and never fin even in their ftate of 
* Enmity. 3. If only fince believing we were fo 
perfonated by Chrift, then his Righteoufnefs is 
Rot imputed to us for all the time of our unrege- 
neracy, and then we never finned in Law fenfe af- 
ter our believing. If they fay that infuffering he 
reprefemed us as unregenerate, and in his obedience 
as Believers only, then he' fuffered not for our 
fins after believing, nor obeyed to merit pardon 
of our fins before. If they fay that/0 far as we are 
finntrs^we legally fuffered in him,, and as Believers 

further to' merit glury we obeyed by him, die con- 
tradiction of this is (hewed before. If we obeyed 


( »5T > 

fo far as to merit glory by the Law of Works* 
then we never finned : And if we fuffered in him* 
for all fins of Omiffion and Commiflion, we me- 
rited glory without any other obedience : For the 
Law requireth nothing but Innocency as neceflary 
to life. He that hath no fin, doth perfectly obey. 
And pardon of all fin of Omiflion and Commifiion, 
is the pardon of al! punifhment of S t nfe and Lofs, 
and fo of the lofs of promifed Life. 

Befides that, one that is reputed to have Legal- 
ly fulfilled the Law, mult be unjuftly corrected 
by the punifhment of temporal afflictions cr death/ 
or lofs of the Spirit and Grace, and hath prefent 
right to the reward of that Covenant, or delive- 
rance from ail penal evil at led!-, fo that this 
Doctrine of ftrict Legal perfonating Reprefenta- 
tion, overthroweth the New Covenant and Law 
of Chrift, and all his Kingdom of Grace, and all 

III. The third fundamental Errcur which we 
deny and oppofe, is, that the Vnion -between Chrift 
and (the Electa fay feme, or) Betitvewt&y others) 
is fo near, as that his very per [oval Holinefs, Right e- 
oufnefs and Sufferings, are in Law fenfe truly our Ho- 
linefs, Righteoufnefs and Sufferings as toe accidents of 
ourperfons: As if Chrift and Adam, and every 
Chrifiian, were one and the fame? fubject of Holi- 
nefs, Righteoufnefs, Suffering, Merit or Satisfa- 
ction. Yet they dare not fay that the Union (like 
the hypoftatical) warranteth fuch a community of 
Properties or Attributes, as that we may be faid 
to be Divinely Righteous, perfectly Holy, never 
to have finned^ to have fatisfied for our felves, to 
have merited our own Salvation, and many fuch 
like; as feeing the evil of the confequents, though 
not of the premifes. 


r 86 ) 

And here fometime they. abufe the fimilitude of 
I a Husband and Wife ; whereas they are diftiacc 
perfons, and one is not wife, juft or guiltleis, be- 
caufe the other is fo * nor hath the Wife' any pro- 
priety fo much as in extrinfick goods.* but by con- 
trad: in the proportion granted by tfeie Husband. 

Some abufe the iimilitude of a Head and Mem- 
bers ; whereas Natural Head and Members make 
one Natural Body ; but fo do not Chrift .and Be- 
lievers: And a Political Head and Members are 
diftinift perfons, and one is not guiltlefs, righteous, 
wife or good, becaufe the other is fo. But of this 
more before, and elfewhere. Some here abufe 
die fimilitude of Chrifts being the fccond Adam, 
which you here (though not to this Errour) inCiii' 
upon. And then they feign us, i. To have been 
otherwife in Adam than we were 5 2. And his fio 
to be otherwife imputed to us than it was ; And 
3. The iimilitude to extend further than it doth. . 

I. They feign us to have been Perfonally m 
Adam, whenas we were but feminally in him, and 
perfonally from him. 2. They feign us to have 
been in him by a certain Covenant, more than we 
were by Natural In-exiftehce : And that his (in was 
arbitrarily by God through that Covenant, imputed 
to us further than we were guilty of it by any na- 
tural In-being or derivation : As if God made all 
men iinners by his arbitrary imputation of that to 
them, which in their natures they were not really 
guilty of: And as if our guilt oiAdams fin,were juft 
of the fame fort as his 3 yea, and our guilt and his 
guilt were individual accidents of the fame indi- 
vidual perfons. But this (which Dr. Twiffh oft ccn- 
futeth in moft of his Books) I have fo largely and 
lately cleared in my published Difputations of 
^/fin, that you fhall excufe me for net red- 

j it here. 3. The 

( 87 ) 

?. The guilt of Adams {jn being ours by Natu- 
ral Derivation, Cometh to all alike , entirely (accord- 
ing to the fubjeCts capacity,) and neceffarily, with- 
out the confent of Parent or Child: Were Adam 
and all Parents unwilling to communicate it in ge- 
neration, it would neverthelefs be done : But 
Chrift being not a Natural, but a contracting vo- 
luntary Root and Caufe, doth communicate the 
fruits of his Righteoulrtefs only voluntarily by gift 
of Contract, at the time, in the manner, and mea- 
fure,and on the terms that he feeth meet. 

Here it ik obfervable, i. That both Generation 
and Regeneration have much unfearchable : How 
Souls generate Souls, and how the Spirit of Chrift 
communicateth^Srace to Souls, will never here be 
clearly apprehended, John 3.8. 

2. But it s certain that the Soul of the Parent is 
not the Soul of the Child, butibme caufe of it$and 
fo that they are not one ptrfon. 

3. We were nor perfons in Adamt perfon, ei- 
ther the fame or diftintt. 

4. But Adam caufed us, not as a man maketh a 
garment, houfe,<^c but as one Candle doth light 
another, by (bme myfterious communicatiorrof its 
effence: {bform&femtiltipHcant, by the Divine be- 
nediction Uncreafe and multiply [\ and primary cau- 

f: Though we were not perpmally, hat virtually 
and feminally in Adam, yet when that/^d becomech 
a per [on, that person is from Adam, and io niufl pro- 

portionably be guilty : For who can bring a clean 
thing out of the effence of an unclean ? 

6. Adam had the common Nature of all men fpe- 
cifically, and radically, and canfatly, though as. their 
nature individually conftitute thfeir perfons y they 
exifted/iQt in him (as extra can/am.) 

7. So 

( 88 ) 

7. So Jefus Chrift did more affame the common 
Nature of fain Man, than the perfons of any, or the 
JN 'atnrezs extra can/as, conftituting the individual 

8. Bormm efl ex caufis integrity malum ex paniaii: 

Any defeat maketh fin, but good maft ■ have entire 
caufes- Adams (in caufeth Original fin in all, ixpfi* 
vatione caufationis bom : But if Adam had not finned, 

every fin of their own would have made his Chil- 
dren unrighteous. 

9. Chrift having fuffered in the common nature 
of man fo far did it in their ftead, and if you will 
needs (o call it, fo far reprefented fallen mankind, 
as that if they will personally receive him by faith, 
in the New Covenant, they lhall not perifh for 4* 
dams fin (or their own) Tuppofing that the parent is 
the accepter for the Infant ) none perilh for Origi- 
nal fin alone, without the addition of negle&ed and 
refufed grace and remedy. 

io. It is not only the Spiritual off- fpring that 
Chrift was a fecond Adam to, but partly to all man- 
kind : For by a refurredtion ( though not to glo- 
ry ) all men are made alive by Chrift, Joh. 5. 22, 
23, 29. 1 Cor. 15. And allimve a general conditi- 
onal reconciliation and pardon, 2 Cor. 5. 19,20. 
Joh. 3. 16. So thata&ual Juftification refulteth to 
no man from Chrifts meer representation of him, 
but from his free donation by the New Cove- 

1 1 . It's doubtlefc that all and only the holy feed, 
or faithful, are juftified a&ually by Chrifts Righte- 
oufnefs : But in what fence it is imputed to them 
is all the doubt. 

12. It's alfo doubtlefs that Chrift fuffered in our 
fieadihut in what fenfe & how far is all the doubt.- 
Becaufe 'we deferved it y he voluntarily afliimed it, to 


t °9 ) 
demonftrate Gods Juftice, Mercy and Wifdom,and 
deliver us. You fay before that, Vltwaftrizieft 
Juftice that was (hewed on Chrift. J I would not 
ftrive about the word : It was ftritteft Juftke as 
upon Chrift : It vt&sperfett Juftice as to the ends 
of Government : But it was not ftritteft Juftke as 
to us, nor as ftri&eft fignifieth the ftrfcfc fulfilling 
or executing of the threatning of the Law : For 
it was not fo executed , but the finner mercifully 

§. *6. You note that Chrift muft take our guilt 
on him or elfe he could not take our punifh- 
ment. . 

Anf i. He took not the ReatumfaBi y or the 
Reatum cdp& : For, i. Our guilt was the accident 
of one Subjett^ and that which Chrift -took of ano* 
then Therefore the accidents were not the fame. 
2. Elfe fin however taken in its reatus culpa 
would have made him culpable, and formally a (in- 
ner, and hateful to God, and like to Satan : Which 
he was not. 

2. He took Upon him the Reatum poena feu obli- 
gationem adpcenam: But not ours individually the 
- fame $ but one of his own inftead of ours : Chrifls 
guilt and ours were divers accidents of divers per- 
sons. The obligations nor the Subjetts were not the 
fame. Our obligation to puhiflimerit was an ad of 
the- Law which we broke : So was not Chrifts : 
That Law never bound him to punifhment : But 
his own voluntary undertaking and his Fathers im- 
pofition. Our guilt was the occafion and reafon of 
Chrifts aflumed guilt: As our puniihment indi- 
vidually was not it that he fuffered , but his own 
punifhment to prevent ours. He fuffered the juft 
For the unjpft, to redeem us to God. God tells us 
plainly that Chrift fuffered for our fins, and was 


19° J 
made fin, that is, a Curfe or Sacrifice for fin for us, 
that we might notfuffer. And cannot we receive 
this plain Gofpel, without fptnning fo many addi- 
tional webs of our own ? Chrifts taking our guilt 
and punithrnent is no more, but his voluntary Of- 
fering in our ftead, that we might be pardoned, not 
by that fufferiiig immediately, but by his free do- 
nation in the Law of Grace, in his time and on his 

§. 7- " You note that though we are juftified 
"by our own Faith, Repentance, and Obedience to 
tc the Gofpel againft the falfe charge of being un- 
" believers,impenitent and ungodly; Yet to be free 
" from the curfe of the Law, and obtaining right 
" to life, it is Chrifts Righteoufnefs that we muft 
<c plead. 

4Af. Very true thus , i. It is only Chrifts 
Righteoufnefs that we muft plead as the Satisfying 
and meriting cauie : 2. It is only the free Donati- 
on of the New Covenant which we muft plead as 
our Tit le or Fundament urn juris y and conveying caufe 
of right. 3. It is our Faith and Repentance (in vari- 
ous refpe&s) which we muft plead as the conditio 
tituli praftita which is the neceftary moral recep- 
tive difpoiition of the Subject receiving. Thefe 
things are all very plain and lure. 
§ 8. Youfeem to doubt whether by the Law 

of Works. Pdul meant not the Law of Innocency: And 

firft you feem to miftake me as if I had faid that he 
meant only the Ceremonial Law : I fay no fuch 
thing. But rhe whole Law of Mofes y confidered 
meerlyas a law, and by the Jews ill feparated from 
Faith, and Grace was an operous Yoak, and of fe- 
vere penalties to the tranfgreftburs ; and though 
it gave pardon for fome faults, it was not meerly 
for the task of facrificing but for the great Sacri- 

( 9< ) 
fice typified : The Law as a Law doth only 'Com- 
mand, and threaten and promife life to them that 
do all things written, but gave not grace to do it. 
The Jews left out the true fence of the types arid 
promife which intended the Mefliah, in whom k 
was that the promiflbry part of theLa w was made ; 
and thought the very task of duty or works would 
procure their acceptance and pardon when they 
failed. If you are not fatisfied with this reafon why 
Paul calleth it the Law of Works, find out a better if 
you can : But moft certainly that is a great miflake 
that Mofcs and Paul defcribe the Law of Innocen- 
cy ? It's tedious to recite the proof. 

i. It's enough that the Law oflnnocency as a 
Covenant was before ceafed, ceffante capacitate fub- 
ditorum : When all men had 2000 years been Ori- 
ginally and Actually finners, will you feign God 
with all that folemnity to make fuch a Law as 

this, £ / know and yon mufi know that no Son of A- 
dam is Innocent : And 1 make now a Law that if yon 
are, and will continue innocent yon pall live : Elfe 
you (hall die? This is too grofs to be feigned of 

2. It is enough that when the Law was made 

they were all under attual mercy which was the grace 

of the new pardoned Covenant. 

3. Yea that the Covenant of Grace had fo long 
before teen made with all fallen mankind in Adam 
and Noah 7 and renewed to Abraham with fpe- 
cial promifes ■/ And doth God now repeal or 
hide it. 

4. What need we more proof than fo many 
Laws about Sacrificing and Confefling for forgive- 
nefs? Which the Law oflnnocency knew not. 

And why elfe did God deliver the Law as a God 
of Redeeming mercy, lam the Lord thy Cod that 


^ 9 Z ) 
brought thee out of Egypt* proclaiming his namtf, 

Exod. $4*6, j/ The Lord, the Lord <3od Merciful 

and Graaoiu, for giving Iniquity, Tranfgrefjwn and Sin. 

6. Peruieall the Contexts in Pan ,and you will 
be fatisfied. See Camero de tnplice fader e ( which 
Dr. Bolton ( of Liberty ) was (o taken w 7 ith and 
magnifieth,and <-mhony B urges of the Law,proving 
Mofes Law to belong to a Covenant of Grace. But 
I have more fully opened all this in my Methodus 
TheclogU. No doubt but Pauls difputes have great 
difficulty 5 but this much is very plain. 

§ g. Your next question is about the nature of 
Faith , whether if it be placed in the will, and include 
conftnt, it be not confounded with Love, whofe objett is 

I have anfwered this oft and largely in divers 
Books, and therefore muft here be excufed from 
"faying any more than this, viz.. i. You muft 
diftinguifh between Faith Phyfically taken, and 
Faith morally taken. 2. Between its formal a& and 
its material. 

L Phyfically fome one natural a&, conflicted 
by one Objed is called Faith : But morally taken 
it comprehendeth divers Phyfical Aits, both of the 
Intellect and Will s And as it is Juftifying and 
Saving it is fo taken : Yea morally it is fomerime 
in Scripture taken largelier, for our Chriftian 
Faith, as God the Father, Son and Holy Ghoft the 
Promife, Grace and Glory are all the conftituting 
Objeds of it in their truth and goodnefs; and fomd- 
time more narrowly as altogecher diftind from 
Hope and Love •, It is taken in the firft fenfe when 
it is (aid to be the condition of Juftification and 

And here what you faidof the neceffity of con- 
joyning the many fiaiiliiudes which exprefsChrifts 



Office to us, when but one of tliem in a Text is na* 
med, the fame muft be faid of Faith in Chrift. A 
'Mora! ait which hath many Phyfiqjl acts, muft be 
named by iome one> the reft being connoted or in> 
plied , for it would be uncomely to name them all 
in every mention of it. 

Notealfo, that the name is varied according to 
what is fpecially noted in the Object, fomedme 
Truth, fometime Goodnefs : So Chrift faith, [ Tfo 
Father hath loved yon^ becanfe ye have loved mc. And 
Panly Grace be to all them that love the Lord %efm in 
fincerity. If any man love not the Lord Jefv^ kt him 

be Anathema Maranatha. And Chrift, Luke 14. 26. 

and Mat. JO. He that loveth any better than Xtbrift^ 
cannot be his Difciple. And to be a Difciple, a Chri- 

fiian and a Believer r are all one in Scripture. .•; But 
when it is the Goodnefs of another Objett that is 
mentioned* the Act is another thing. 

Iluppofe you will confefs that no Faith in Chrift 
and the Promife juftifieth us, which doth not ia 
that famfe initant include, 1. A belief of the* Goodv 
nfifs, as well as the Truth of both. 1 A wIMing- 
neis to receive Chrift and Grace as good 5 and a 
.confent to the offer- And if theie muft concur in 
tire fame inftant as neceflary Conditions of our Ju- 
ftification or Reception of Chrift and Grace,, call 
them how you will, and fay, Confentis an Effctloi 
Faith or a pan of it, all's one to me : But I .will 
fay, that Co^Jcnr is an Effect of one Ait of F mth ^IriB:^ 
lyj#kjp*i viz. jijfent$ but a part of it taken for 
Juftifying^ Saving Faith. 

II. After many and long thoughts of this matter, 
Itiu.ik they that will pretend to exactnefs,muft fay, 
that Trnfi \s the Formal u4£l oiFmh.zs Trufiinefs or 
Fidelity 10 the Formal Object : And that the Mate- 



rial Alb is threefold, Jiffent, Confent and Prattice ; 
and Done of thefe, no not Affent is the Formal Aft. 
Both ^f and Fides figniEeTrutt - y yea and Credere 
too. iVnd fo FidesyUS it fignifieth Fidelity, and Fides ■, 
as itfignuieth Faith or Tufl-^rQ the Formal Object 
and Act. / Aftem to the Truth of the Gofpel, be- 
caufe I Tmfi the Veracity or Fidelity of the Author. 
I Confent to the Covenant, bccaufe-I TV*/? the Re- 
vealer, Offerer and Iromifer. I actually give up my 
f elf to Chrift, becaufe 1 Truft himMx. Pemble Vindicate 
Crat. hath accurately opened this. 

I have in my Aphorifms, and oft faid, that a 
GhrifHan ihould rather try his Faith by the Con- 
fencing *dt, than tlier^/^^becaufe many a One 
caniior Eiid that they can Truft Chrift, that yet find 
Cdnle.iT.. t>ut 1 explain this, or recall it, as not well 
fpoken : For indeed, though it be Confent by which 
we may furely know oar Intereft in the Juftifying 
Covenant (Ipeciaily 'when practically exprefl;,) yet 
Affiance or Truft is the Formal Ail ;of Faith, and 
thdt'Gwfentis but the Material. For if we Truft 
Ciot Ghri/ls Eideiity;. we can neither AJfent, Confent 
or Frattife* But when I fpake as aforefaid, I fol- 
lowed : the fcnle of rooft complaining Chriftians, 
who k\y y They c tint at Truft Chrift, meaning by 
7*7*/?, tluijQutetingofthe mind, which is but an ef- 
feck of Tr.uft :~ Whereas at that time they -take 
Chrift to be Truft y^ and a f efficient Saviour , but are 
hindered from the- applying and quieting Effe ft, by 
Ignorance, or doubting of their onw Truftinefs, and 
not of the Truftinefs of Chrift. 

If 1 be tedious in' relating again my old fimili- 
tudes, you muft ; Wame your iel'f that are the caufe. 

Only,©ne Phyficisn can cure the Plague : Some 
flander liim as a deceiver : He promiieth to cure 



all that will take him for their Phyfician, and 
troft him : Tmfiing or believing him here included} 
materially , Believing his Word, Conferring to be his 
Fatients, and coming to him for Phyjlck* 

A Prince in India buyeth the Iriili Rebels that 
had forfeited their lives, of the # King, that they 
may lay down Arms, and go wirfi him, and be- 
come his Subjeds: He promifeth to every one of 
tbem a Lordfhip in India, a fafe Ship thither, and 
pardon here 5 fome call him a Deceiver, and 
diftruft him : He tells them, if they Tmft him, he 
will perform all this. Here Trufi y the Formal Act y 
includeth as the Material AVvs, 1. AJfemng to his 
Word as True, 2. Confenting to his Offer and Terms 5 
J. Tragically venturing to lay down Arms, and go 
with him in the Ship, and forfake their own 

b Such is Faith in Chrift,when it is made the Con- 
dition of Jollification and Life. The Formal and 
Material Atts together COnftitUte Faith, and not the 
Formal^ or one of the Material ( Ailent ) alone. 
( Nor hath Biihop Downame well .confuted Mr. 
Pemble about the Formal Att.) In a word ( true 
andpHn) ttaptifm, our Chrifiening, beft tells us 
the Eilence of J unifying Faith : For that ; is the 
Sealing to ,w the Jujtrfying Covenant, that it may 
adually and folermiiy deliver to .us our part in 
Chrift, and ri^fht to Farcon and Life, which is gi- 
ven us on no lower terms, than the Fiducial A fftnt, 
Con/em and Dedication, pvoktikd by U3 ejfentially in 

§ to. Your next doubt is about the various Ob- 

\jetts of Faith in exercife ('Gods Omnipotency, 

( Truth, &c. ) and the various ufcs of Faith ac- 

H 2 cord- 

cordingly. This is the point which Mr. Lawfon 
and I feemed fomewhat to differ about: And I 
have in my Treatife of Juftification faid fo' much of 
it, that you (hall now excuie me from any more 
than telling you, that in Sandtification, where one 
a& really produceth one effetf: on cur hearts, and 
another a& another effect, each effe& muft be 
afcribed to its proper act. But you muft not think 
it is fo in our Juftification or Adoption, where that 
which we receive is a RIGHT, Jus impumtatis & 
vita, which is not the Immediate Effett of our AtJ % 
no nor any Effect of it at all, but of Gods Donative 
Covenant, of which our Faith is but a Conditioned 
no Efficient Caufs of our Right. And therefore I 
doufit not ftill to fay, that we are thus juflifed 

as much by a Confeming to Chrifts Teaching and 
Sanctifying Grace, as by Confeming to be jxftifi- 
ed by hu Right ecufnefs -, or by fiducial taking 
him for our Teacher, Interceflbr jxid King, as 
taking him for a Satisfier and Meriter for us; 
Indeed it is undivided Taking Chrift as Chrift, 
that is the Juftifying Condition, John i. 10,1 1,1 2. 
I John 5. 10, 11, 12. 

§ 11. In the end you defire me to anfwer. 
What R'ghteoufmfs is meant, Rom. ?. By the obe- 
dience of one many are made righteous. 

Anf The meaning is, By the Merit of Chrifts 
AEiive and Pa (five ( yea Habitual ) Right eon fnefs 
( alfo ) exalted in dignity by his Divine perfection, 
all fain Mankind is Conditionally pardoned, And hath 
the gift of Life, enacted in the Law or Covenant 
of Grace* and aU true Believers have by that Co- 
venant aUuaRy given them a Right of Union with 
Chrift, and roith him Pardon and Adoption, or Right 
jo Grace and Glory, and have the Spirit of HoHnefs 


( 91 ) 

m the fir fi fruits. All this is included in that 

§ 12. Laftly, you ask, What Righteoufnefs Faith 
is imputed to ? Whether that which is by Chrifts obe- 
dience, and by Faith , be the fame ? and perfect or un- 
perfetl ? 

Anf Here alfo you may take the blame 
that I lay things long ago fo' oft faid. By 
Righteous is meant JujHfable in general : And 
rhe plain meaning is, Chri(i having merited, and 
freely given Pardon and Life to all finners that 
will fiducially accept his purchafed Gift, it is not 
now keeping the Law of Innocency or Works , but 
only the faid fiducial Acceptance of Chrifi and his 
free Grace that is required on their part to their 
Right or Juftification. If by Imputed we meant, 
Reputing it the MATTER of our total Righteouf- 
nefs, then it were an unfound ienfe. But (brief- 
ly and plainly) Faith in Chrift is reckoned to 
us as the Matter of our imperfect perfonal fubordi- 
nate Righteoufnefs, and as the Instituted Medium 
of oht Reception of our Vnion with Chrift, and our 
Right to Pardon and Life for the Merit of his 
Righteoufnefs. And I think this is plain and full. 
For Righteoufnefs to be imputed, is meant no 
more, but chat God accounteth the perfon Righte- 
ous : Bat the imputing Faith to this, is but 
to reckon it to be what it is, i. As the Mat- 
ter of ones 2. As the Medium or Condition of 
the other. 

§ 13 • You here give me an Epitome of Dr. 
John Owens Book^ of Juftification, which you judge 
tlpsbeft thai you have feen, and fay it is faithfully 

H 3 collected, 

( <?s ) 

collected, to fave me rbe labour of reading it, to 
fhew me how nearly we agree. 

Anf. I have perufed the Book, but being now 
abfent from it, cannot judge whether you have 
rightly epitomized or recited it, and therefore 
fhall ipeak to it as yours^ and not as his : Thank- 
ing you for endeavouring to lpare my labour, 
but not for calling me to judge of other mens 
Writings. Only I^muft fay, I am glad of fo 
much Moderation ss is in it 5 but I better un- 
derstand many other Books of Juftitication ; 
eipeciaily Mr. Truman, Sir Charles Wolfey, Mr. 
Gibbons Sermon, Mr. Wotton, Mr. Gatakpr, a Ma- 
nufcript of Dr. Twiffes ( though I agree not with 
him in his exclufion of Chrifts Adtive Righte- 
oumefs as juftifying us,) Le Blanks Plactus, yea 
John' Goodwin, Mr. Hotckkis, and many others, 

§ 14. You take Impiting Right eoufnefs to be the 
foundation of Reputing hs righteous, and not the fame 

Anf. The Controverfie is de re, or de nomine. De 
re we agree that a man mud be made Righteous be- 
fore he is Reputed fo. De nomine I deny that St. 
Taul by imputing doth mean making us Righteous. 
t^otM is by all confeffed to fignifie Accounting, 
Reckoning or Reputing: Making us Righteous goeth 
before Reckoning it to us on account. John Goodwin 

will tell you of many more fenfes of Imputation 
than you .recite, and more confiderable. 

§• If. II. You fuppofe an Imputation of Righte* 
oufnefs to us, which was not ours before that Imputati- 
on. Anf Again de re there is a Donation of inch : 
But de nomine I deny that this is it that the Scrip- 
ture calleth Imputing. You 

( 99 y 

You make this to contain two Aft s> and you 

Name three, I. A grant or Donation of the thing it 
frtfto be ours. 2. A wiliof dealing with hs accord- 
ingly. $ . An actual fo dealing with hs. 

Anf. I De nomine y I deny that hoytlo^t doth in 
Scripture figniiie the giving of Righteoufnefs to him 

that had it not : but the reckoning ic 'on account to 

him that by gift firft had it. u Nor doth it pri- 
marily fignifie willing to «/^, and fifing as righteous, 
but only by confequence inferreth it. 

But 2. De re here is no Explication how Impu- 
ting is giving, or how .Higbteonfnefs is given hs: There 
is noqueftion but all the Righteoufnefs that we 
have is given us by God : But the very heart of 
the Controverfie is, How the Righteoufnefs of Chrift: 
is given hs and made ours : In that Righteoufnefs is 
found, i. The Matter. 2. The Form. i. The 
matter is, I. The Habits. 2. fhe Afts of Chriii 
in the Divine and Humane Nature : Are tbefe gi- 
ven us, and do we poffefs them in themfdves? 
The AEts are pzft t and fo are nothing novo; and 
nothing is no bodies actual pofleiiion. The Acts 
and Habits were Accidents which fine interim can- 
not pals from Subject to Subject : Divers Subjects 
prove diverfity of Accidents 2. The Form is a 
- Relation, and Co an Accident alfo : And they muft 
needs be tw6 Accidents, that are Formal Righ- 
teoufnefs in thrift and us, unlefs we are the 
fame Subject Perion. Therefore neither matter 
nor Relative form in Chrift and Man is the 
fame individual Accident. How then is it ours J 
What is there in it beiides matter (tha (abject 
and fundament am) and 'form? It's plain chat, 
I • The Benefits are given hs, and are oar o&n by 
that Gift; All that conlilt in jure r in right, (as 

H 4 to 

C i op ; 

to Chrift, to the Love of the reconciled Fa- 
ther, the Communion of the Spirit^ to further 
Grace, Pardon, Glory) are all given us inftru- 
1 mentally by the new Covenants donative Act; 
The inherent habits, and the Ads are given us 
by the Holy Ghoft And 2. Thele Benefits be- 
ing given us for the Sacrifice, and Merits of 
Chriit, the price is faid by a Metonymy of 

for the ijfect 1 to be given its, becautc it 
is given for us : It was God the Father to whom 
Chrift $ud the price of our Redemption, and 
gave his Active and Pailive Righteoufnefs for us : 
But Morally and Rcpntatively it is no Dno eet 
phrate to fay that is given to us which is given 
for us in our neceifity and to purchafc us all 

If the King would ranfom all his Subje&s that 
are Slaves to the Turks ^ and paid a million for 
their Freedom, he may well be laid to give 
them a million, though it be but a Mctonymi- 
cal Speuh, feeing he gave it for them : Though 
it was the Freedom or Benefits and not the 
Money which indeed they received: And fo it 
is here : So God giveth us Chrilts Righteoufnefs, 
Merits and Satisfaction \ but not properly the 
things themfelves. If there be any more to be 
laid as given us, I lhould have been glad to 
know what it is : but your Words lhew it not. 

'.re it the very fame Individual Righteouf- 
nefs that Chrift hath, Ads, Habits and Formal 
Relation made in themfelves our own accidents, 
I follow that we are really perfect in 
;, Habits and Relation, and need neither more 
increale of Grace, nor lhould pray 
no; uie means for any, nor are \ye li- 

( ici ) 

able to any corrective Penalty, nor to any want 
of the Spirits help, but have prefent right to 
all thai is oue to a perfeft righteous man; with 
much more iuch, which is all falfe. 
Yet is it truly and fitly faid that Chrifi is our 
teoufnefsj that is, the pur chafer and giver of 
it ; and that he is made of God to us Wifdom^ 
Riahieoufnefs) Salification and Redemption, on the 

account: Yea though fome deny it, his 
Righteoulnefs may be caked the material caufe of 
our Right eoufnefs, as ours is our J is ad mpnni- 

& vitam, becaule it is the matter of it's 
meritorious .canfe. For \{ .Adam had merited Life 
lis meritorious Acts and Haoits would 
ha\ 7 e been fitly called, the matter of his^ Right c- 
}, that is, of the fundamcntum Relationis 9 
Yec this is the difference: Adams Right or Re- 
& would have refulted immediate- 
ly from his own Acts and Habits compared 
with the Law; whereas ours refuketh from 
Ghrifts Merits or Right eonfnefs, not immediate- 
ly as ours in it felf, but mediately as paid for 
us to God, and the Benefit (of Right and Righ- 
teoufnefs) given us by the Covenant, for the 
faid Merit of our Mediator. 

§ \6. Next you fay, that this Imputation fup- 
pofeth not the Perfon to. have done and Of- 
fered himfelf what is imputed to him, and note 
their miftake that fuppoie the Doctrine of Im- 
putation to imply that Chrift did commit our 
Sins, and w r e perform his Righteoufnefs. 

jipf. This granteth much towards Concord.- 
But I hope you understand that the Queftion 
IS not whether we did thy finally do and faffer 


C I02 } 

what Chrift did, even in our Natural Perfons? 
but whether v;e did it Morally, Legally, Civilly, 
Jleputatively, as a Man acteth by an Infimmem, 

Attorney, Ficar, or Perfonating Reprefenter, lo 
chat the Law reputeth it his Act, Why did 
you not note this, and tell us whether you de- 
ny this alfo, as well as pur Phyfical perfor- 
mance ? If you deny not this our Legal or Mo- 
ral doing and fuffering in and by Chrift, you did 
not fairly in your Defcription of the Mind of 
your oppofers, as far as ever I could underftand 
ihem^ But U you deny this, our agreement ieem- 
eth very fealible. But then you muft go over 
the Explication of Imputation and Donation of 
Chrifts own Righteoufnefs again, and better 
tell us what you mean by them, than thefe delcrib- 
ed words do. 

§ 17. Next you tell us of Imputation, t. Fx 
li juftitia. 2. Ex Foluntaria Sponfione. 3. Ex injuria. 
u 4. Ex gratia. 

1. "Things imputed ex juftitia you fay are, 
I. " For Federal Relation, as Adams fin. 2. For 
u Natural Relation, and that only as to form temporal 
" Effects. 

Anf Here we muft fuppofe by your former ex- 
plication, that by Imputation you mean not Eftima- 
tive reckoning or accounting that to a man which he be- 
frrehath^but^ I. Donation. 2. Vfagecongruoujly and 
will fo to ufe one. But Adams fin was no gifjt 
to us, and came not by donation 3 Nor is Donation, 


2. What you fay of Adams fin being ours by 
Covenant Relation, as diftinft from Natural Relate 

,on, isunfound, and the matter needeth fuller ex- 

( 10} ) 

plication, which as aforefaid I have attempted 
in my Deputation of Original Sin. And as unfound 
is it that Natural Relation brings none but Tempo- 
ral Evil. It cannot be proved, nor is to be affirm- 
ed, that withont natural derivation , we derive by 
meer Covenant the guiu 01 Adams fin 5 no nor 
that Covenant derivation is before the natural, nor 
yet that it goeth any fan her, or that we contract 
any more guilt by Covenant, than we do by na- 
ture 5 but the Law of nature it felf.and Gods 
congruous Covenant is that which virtually judieth 
us guilty, when natural derivation hath made m guilty 
( as Dr. Tmjfe oft as aforefaid. ) 
Do you n-ean that guilt refulteth from Gods 

part of the Covenant, or from Adams, or from 
his Pofierities ? Not fromow/, for we exiftednot) 
and made no fuch Covenant. Not from Adams 
part ( antecedent to Natural Derivation. ) For 
1. No man can prove that ever Adam made 
fuch a Covenant. 2. Or that God gave him any 
fuch power j ( much lefs Command ) to bring fin 
and death on his Pofterity by his Confent, or 
Will, or Contract,- further than 'by the Law of 
Nature they muft derive it from him if he fin- 
ned. 3. Not by Gods Covenant att : For, 1. No 
fuch Covenant of God can be (hewn , that 
made men finners further than Natural Deri- 
vation did, 2. Elfe Cod fnould be the Author 

°f f m y ev en of all mens Original fin, if -his Ar- 
bitrary Covenant made them finners, where nature 
did not. 

Nay more, it is not meer Natural Relation, 
much lefs fuch Covenant Relation that doth it, 
( for Relation doth not fo operate of itfelf ) but 
it is that Generation which caufeth Fundamen- 

( * c 4 ) 

t-dllyat once both the Relation of Softs and the ad- 

hercnt guilt. 

And in my forefaid fecond Difputation I have 
proved that Natural derivation ( even from 
nearer Parents ) deferveth more than Temporal 

§ 1 8. II. Your fecond ex volant arid Sponfone 
you exemplify in Onifmns and Judah to Jacob, 

^/ i. There is no talk of Imputation in 
either of the Texts, as to the receiver: Much 
lefs of an Imputation which is Donation. In- 
deed Paul undertaketh to pay Omfimus's debt 
to Philemon ; and fo bids him fet the debt, on 
his account; that is, take him for the pay-maf- 
ter ; If this be Imputing the debt to Paul, we are 
agreed that fo (not our reatm culpa, but /><?#*) 
our debt of piwifhment was imputed to thrift, that 

is, he undertook to bear it for us: Paul gave 
not the money to Onefimns , but for him (by 
promife. ) He was not an antecedent fumy, but 
a confequem ? He did not promife to pay it in 
Oncfimm Legal perfon j Nor is the payment pro- 
perly imputed to Ontfimm as any way done 
by him , but only the Effetted benefit given 

And Judah only undertaketh to bring Benja- 
min again, or elfe to bear the blame for ever. 
No doubt but Chrift undertook our ranfom, 
and alfo to effect our adtual deliverance. If 
you will call this C Giving or Imputing his own 
Righteoufnefs to us> fo as that in fe it is made 
the fame accident of every believer befides giv- 
ing them the benefits of that which he 


( ioy ) 

gave to God for them , I will not imitate 

III. That of Bathflieba, I Kin. I. 2 1, taketh 

Imputation as the Scripture doth. • For account* 
ing and reckoning them to be (inners, and ufing 
them accordingly, and not as you do for mak- 
ing them fuch by making anothers Fad or guilt 
to become theirs. All thefe inilances are for 
what I affert* None of them mention any 
fuch thing as imputing one mans Acts or Ha- 
bits to another fo »as to make them or repute them 
to be really his. 

IV. Your fourth fort of Imputation ex ?nerd 

gratid you fay is the imputing of that which be- 
fore that act we had no right to : And you do well 
to fay there is no other inftance of it in Scrip- 
ture .- But you do not well to fay without ' 
proof that' this is it that's meant, Rom. 4. God 
tnaketh us Righteous by donation before he imput- 
eth it to us: Imputation there is Reckonings Ac- 
counting, and Judging a man to be what he is. 
Abraham had Faith before God imputed Faith 
to him for Righteoufmfs : And that Faith was 
fuch a Righteoufnefs as God imputed it to be. To 
fay, it was an imperfect one, is no wonder : A- 
braham had none perfonally or properly infe but 
what was imperfect. 

The fum of all our Controverfie is , what 
Righteoufnefs believers have? You before noted 
that Righteoufnefs as it is a conformity to the 
preceptive part of the Law, is one thing, and as 
it relateth to the retributive part, and is our 
Jus impunit^tU & vita it is another. The Do- 
ctrine which I bend all thefe words againft is, 
that we <muft have, or. have, as our own any fuch 

9 righteotif- 

(io 7 ) 

righteoufnefs as is a conformity to the preceptive part 
of the Law of innocency , whether done by ns or 
Chrift. Prove that we have any fuch Righte- 
oufnefs, and J yield all the caufe to them that 
plead for the Imputation which I deny. If 
we have fuch a Righteoufnefs we have no fin, 
nor ever had , in the ienfe of the Law : And 
have no need of Chrifts Sacrifice, or are capa- 
ble of pardon or puniihment. I dare plead no 
Righteoufnefs as mine but [_fubordinately as a 
condition and medium^ my faith or performance of 
the conditions of the Covenant and its gifts , and 
principally my right to impnnity and life for the fake 
of the Merits^ Sacrifice and Interceffwn of Chrift^ 
freely -given by him in the New Covenant.'} It 
was Chrifts perfect Righteoufnefs which merit- 
' eth mine, but I have no perfect Righteoufnefs 
of my own, either in me, or done by me, by 
my felf or by my Inftrument or Vicar, nor 
given to me , faving as metonymically, that is 
Aid to be given to me which was given for 
me, and the Efteds or fruits of it given to 
me: Befides my imperfed: Faith and fincere de- 
votion to Chrift , I know of no Righteoufnefs 
that- 1 have, but that which faveth^ me from 
the Laws Condemnation , and giveth me 
right to life , which is not perfed obedience 
to the precept made mine, but pardon of dif- 
obedience , and a freely-given Adoption , me- 
rited by another whole merits were never mine 
fo much as by proper gift or imputation, 
though figuratively they may be fo called mine. 
I tire my felf and you with tedious repetitions be- 
caufe I find that without them I am not underftood. 
Therefore your next inference that fanlfpeah^ 


( io8 ) 

eth of that which was not ours before Imputation y 
is not true, as is proved. 

And your fecond that the imputation of Faith 
as a work,, is not of Grace , is cloudy ', or untrue, or both. 
If by a work, you mean a work in Commuta- 
tion obliging God, or any work which maketh 
the reward to be of debt and not of Grace, it's 
true that if faith were fuch a work it would 
be an a& of Juftice fo to judge it- But Faith is no 
fuch work ; and therefore it would beerrourfo to 
judge it. But if by a workjyou mean but a Moral att y 
as made by the Law of Grace the condition of par- 
don and life,then to Impute, Repute or Judge it to 
be what it isfo made, is an ad of Truth and Juftice, 
but fuch Truth and Juftice as is Evangelical, 
and confident with Grace , and is founded on 
Grace : It is Grace, that we have a Saviour to 
purchafe and give all: It is grace that we are 
not under the Law of Inriocency which juftift- 
eth none but the innocent and perfect that ne- 
ver finned: It is Grace that we have a Cove- 
nant and Law of Grace, which maketh fincere 
faith a Mediate or Subordinate Righteoufnefs 3 
requiring no more at our own hands inftead of 
what the Law of innccency required : It is of 
Grace that as this faith is the matter of this 
fubordinate Evangelical Righteoufnefs, fo it is 
the receptive medium of our right to Chrift y 
pardon and life which is our full faving righte- 
oulnefs. It being therefore of Grace that it is 
made fo, and alfo that we are made believers, 

it muft be of Grace, though of Truth, and gra- 
cious Juftice, that it is reckoned or imputed to us* 
for Righteoufnefs. 

By debt oppofed to Grace, Faul meaneth not, 


( **J 

Debit urn, Dwnefs, by free gift thankfully accept ed^hut 
quod debetur ex apart* propria dignhate^ a Workman 
earneth his wages. 

§ 19. Your Defcription of the Imputation cf 
Chrifts Righteoufnefs, is either to be uncierftood 
as fpoken in proper words, or as figurative. If 
the latter, it's unintelligible fti]l till explained : 
If the firft, it is that fame Do&rine which I 
take to fubvert all the GofpeU viz,. " That {God 

u maketh an effectual Grant and Donation of a true, 
" real j perfett Righteoufnefs, even that of Chrifi 
" himfelf , to all that believe , accounting it as 
" theirs. 2 

God accounted^ not Chrifts Divine Righteouf- 
nefs to be our Righteoufnefs, nor yet his Humane 
Habitual Righteoufnefs. nor his Obedience to 
the L*w proper to the Mediator, ftor his Obe- 
dience to the Law of Mofes (which as fuch bound 
not you or me,) nor his perfect fulfilling the 
Law of Innocency, nor his fatisfactory Sac 
for fin, nor his Refurrection, Afcenlion, Inters 
ceflion, &c. But he only accounteth thefe t 
the Caufes of our Righteoufnefs, and not our Righ- 
teoufnefs it felf Though the Meritorious Gaufe 
may be called the Meritorious Matter in a re- 
mote fenfe, as purchafing the free Gift of our 
Formal Righteoufnefs. 

Though this alfo is but an unneceiTary 1. 
cal name, the thing being without it plainlier 
opened, Relations having properly no Material 
Caufe, and the Subject being it thac is uiuaiiy 
£0 called* and our Jus being our Formal Righ- 
teoufnefs, and the Covenant Donation tne Fun- 
damentum Juris, and Chrifts Meritorious Righ- 

C 109.) 

teoufnefs being but the caufe of that Fundament 
ntm or Tit dm , it can be called the Matter of 
our Right but in a remote fenfe, and fuch a Mat- 
ter as is without us, paid for us, but not ours in 
it felf y but the CAVSE of that Relation which 
is ours. 4 

The plain inconfiftency of a Ferfett Confor- 
mity to the Law made our own, with Chrifts dying 
for fin, and our need of pardon, con fir awed a 

great part of the famoufeft Divines of the laft 
Age, to go too far, in my Judgment, in exclud- 
ing Chrifts Active, and Habitual Righteoufnefs* 
to our Juflification, and confining it to the Fat 
fiveoi)ly: Such as Olevian, Vrfine, Pifcator^ Fa* 
ram, Scultetm, Wendeline, Beckman^ and others in 
Germany^ and Camero, with his moft Judicious 
and Learned followers in Trance 5 and E)r« Twijfe 
( whofe M. S. I before mentioned ) Mr. Wotton^ 
Mr. Gatakgr and others in England: And yen 
the two laft, I think, go not fo far as the reft. 
But Mr. Bradjhan? truly, told them, that it is 
not the excluding the Active from Imputation 
that muft untie the knot, but the taking Impu- 
tation it felf in a found fenfe, and forfaking the 
unfound rigid notion of it, both as to the Active 
and Paflive Righteoufnefs. Grotim dt Satufattionc 
hath gone the middle way, and if that Book 
had been more ftudied,. fewer would have made 
us a new Gofpel in terms, who, I hope, in fenfe 
do mean better than they fpeaL 

§ 20. In your explication you further owri 
the fubverting fenfe 3 w^ That Chrifts perfect 
" Right eoufnefs is made the Righteottfmfs^ of Belie* 
* vers ( forma dat nomea ) and is accordingly 

I "judged 

( »o ) 

"fagged, efteerned and reputed theirs, being by free 
"Gift made theirs to all ends and purpofes, where* 
cC to it would have ferved, if it had been their own, 
a without any fitch Imputation, Donation or<:om- 
* c mmication, and God dtaleth with them accord- 

Anf. This is plainer dealing than we had be- 
fore. If this were true, 

i. We are as righteous as Chrift. 

2. We may deny that ever we were finners^ 
for had we done all this our felves, that is, kept 
the Law perfectly from firft to laft, we had ne- 
ver finned. 

3. We had never deferved punifhment 5 

4. Nor needed a Sacrifice 5 
$. Or a Pardon; 

6. Nor ihould we, during the time of our un- 
'regeneraey, have been left under ipiritual death, 
or at leaft, -after believing, be left under remain- 
ing {in, and a body of death ; 

7. Nor have been penally deprived of any help 
of the Spirit v 

8. NorofUny Communion with God •, 

9. Nor fo long be kept out of Heaven, or the 

10. Nor ever have been corre&ed 5 

11. Nor ever had need of Word, Prayer or 
Sacraments for the helping us to renewed Par- 

1 2. Nor ever have died and rotted in a grave ; 

13. Nor would the Magiilrates Execution of 
Juftice on us T for our crimes be owned as Gods 

14. All ism would have the fame degree of 
Innccency and Holinefs. 

■ . »5- It 

( III ) 

iy. It would have been a wrong to us, when 
we had perfe&ly kept the Law of Innocency, to 
fufpend our right to Pardon and Salvation upon 
new Conditions in a new Covenant. 

i6. We having perfectly kept the Law of Inno- 
cency as to the death, as foon as we believe, can- 
not be under another Law of the Redeemer that 
hath the true ufes of a Law. 

17. Our own adions ( befides Chrifts ) are not 
capable of Reward or Punifhment. 

18. All the Texts of Scripture that mention in- 
herent or practical perfonal Righteoufnefs, would 
contradid: our imputed Righteoufnefs, or make usj 
fupererogate, and be more than perfectly righte- 

19. We need not fear that any new crime ffoould 
diminish our Righteoufnefs which is perfed, and 
can neither increafe or decreafe. 

20. Whether we fhould not be as righteous on 
Earth (even under Davids or Peters fin) as in Hea- 
ven? and whether we fliould be Deified by being 
divinely righteous, and jultified by Gods Eflentiai 
Righteoufnefs, as Andr.Ofiander taught, I leave to 
be con(idered,as you further explain your fei£ 

So much to your Epitome, which if I wrong 
you by judging it ali your own, it is long of youf • 
feif that own it as aforefaid in the grofs : If the 
Dr. be wronged, it is by you, and not by me. 

§ 21. In the conclusion you do no more peace- 
ably than provcdly pronounce us in a manner 
agreed, enumerating the particulars in which we 
confent : But I have told you wherein we are not 
agreed in words, nor in fenfe,if thole words be not 
mif-ufed, whatever we are in latent fenfe. 

I 2 I 

.( i WO 

I ftill grant that Cbrift fuffered,yea and obeyed, 
in lome fore, in our ftead, though not in ourperfon, 
Civil, or Legal, fo as that we are Legally reputed 
the doers of it by or in him : And that his affir- 
ming our Nature, and being the fecond Adam, a 
voluntary Sponfor and Mediator, was a necefTary 
reafon of the application of the fruits to us 5 and 
that we areas certainly and happily juftified and 
glorified, as if we had been the doers and fatisfiers 
our felves (To many as are faved $ ) But not on the 
fame reafons, nor in the fame method or manner 
of conveyance : Nor when in judgment we are ac- 
cufed as having finned and deferved death, can we 
deny it, & plead that we w r ere innocent by another, 
or by imputation, as we fhould have been, had we 
been innocent our felves : But we muft plead par- 
don, and a free gift of life, through the merits, 
fatisfa&ion and interceflionof a Saviour. 

§ 21. And to all before faid, I may add, That 
they who account all the Laws obligations on each 
gerfon to be fulfilled by Chrift, (and not only fatif- 
fadion given for our not fulfilling them, r. Muft 
fuppofe that oneperpm of Chrift to have been Le^ 
gaily as many per fons as he died for (or juftifieth :) 

•For the Law laid as many diftintb obligations on them* 
as they were perfons, and laid them only on their per- 
Jons. It faid. Thou Adam, ThouEve, Jhalt perfonally 
obey perfectly, or die : And the Law of Nature, and 
of Mofes\ faid in fenfe , Thou Solomon , Thou 
Manaffes, (and fo of ail others) fhalt do all things 
commanded, and not fin: Now that in all Chrifts 
Obedience he was Legally and imputatively fo ma- 
ny ieveral perfons, Adam, Eve, Solomon, Manaffeh^ 

2nd fo that none of thefe broke Gods Law, I find 

£ * - * ■ - ■ no t 

( n3 ) 

not in the Scripture. If you fay, Adam was Legally 
as many perfons as are born of him in fin, I deny it : 
He was the Root of all his Pofterity, and they 
were in him feminally and virtually, but not perfi-- 
-natty, aBnally, or imputatively j But by one mans 
difbbedience, as their Root and Caufe, many are 
made finners : And by one mans obedience, as the 
Root and Caufe, all Believers are made righteous, 
It is enough that one Saviour and Mediator in a 
third perfon of his own did and fuffered that which 
by its merits and value (as attaining the Ends of the 
Law and Government) procured our deliverance 
from a neceffity of perfed obeying as the Condi- 
tion of Life, and from guilt and mifery, and is be- 
come the Root, Head and Donor of Grace and 

2. And if (as you fay) it be the very thing that is 
imputed to us as ours, to all intents, as if we had 
done it, why have you not told us, whether it be 
4// that Chrifi did, or but fome t and what f and how 
from Scripture you prove the diftribution ? and 
whether we have not thus, a Righteoufnefs, which 
is bothtoo much,2X\& too little. 

L Too much : For we were not obliged by the 
Law to be born of a Virgin, by the Holy Ghofi, to 
fafi forty days, to turn Wa$u into Wine, to cafi out 
Devils, to heal all difeafes, and rai/e the dead, to in- 
dite the Go/pel, and fend out Apoftles*, &c. If you fay 
that fo much only of Chrifts Obedience is in itfelf 
mr own, as we muft elfe have done our felves, I 
ask the proof of the limitation. 

And II. Is it not then too little, if it muft be the 
Idem, and not the oSLquwakmi For fome of us are 
bound to the Offices of Parents, and fome of Huf- 
bands and Wives, fome of Servants, fome of JMagi- 


( "4 ) 

ftratcs, fome of Souldlers y fome to actions proper 
to the M., totheoW, and other conditions which 
1 Chrift was never in : We are bound to monifie 
our finful litfis, to pray for pardon end \ grace ', to re- 
ceive a pardon offered y to yield to the mortifying mo- 
tions of the Spirit y &e. which Chrift was not capable 
of. It was enough that he undertook all that was 
fit for him, and neceflary by equivalency to fatif- 
fie, and merit a free gift of grace and glory for us, 
and that he performed the undertaken conditions 
and duties of all that Law whkh was laid on him $ 
without doing all the fame things which were laid 

§. 22. And one thing more I defire you to 
note, which Grotius de\fatisf hath minded us 
of, viz,. The great difference that there is be- 
tween the cafe of a Rector and a Creditor, and 
between a Subject and a Debtor^ or a Debt of 

Obedience or Tunifhment and a Debt of Money : 
For the name of Debt occafioneth fome men to 
run the fimilitude of a Creditor and Debtor beyond 
the bounds- The Law requireth not a Debitor pe- 
cunU, I. To pay the very fame individual money 
which he borrowed, but the fame fum. 2. Nor to 
pay it by his own hands. But the Law of God ob- 
ligeth every Subject to every individual act which 
it commandeth. 2. And obligeth every man to do 
it all in his own perfon and not disjunctively by him- 
felfora Vicar. That Chrift is limitedly and only to 
certain ends and ujes a Vicarim foena in the perion 
of a Mediator ■, is not becaufe the Z,^n? as made to 
Adam required or accepted it, but the Lawgiver 
as above his Law. The Law that bound Chrift is ful- 
filled $ . but the Law that bound Adam ana every 


( **5 ) 

man is not fulfilled ' finlefs that fame itian do himfcIF 
all the lanfe things which it commanded him. 

§ 23. I conclude all with thefeprofeffions of my 
opinion of all thefe Controverfies. 

1 1 believe that theLiber tines (commonly called 
Antinomians) whole Dodrines I have in many 
Books oppofed, do ufe thole ill Notions, and Me- 
thods which on pretence of magnifying Chrift and 
free grace, do by plain confequence wrong Chrift 
and Grace,and Subvert the Go/pel, and fhould rather 
be t'henee denominated, than from their denying the 
Law. <( The Law of hnocency as a Covenant^ and of 
Mofeszs Jewiih being truly ceafed.) 

II. J believe that yet moft of thofe that thus err 
in hotiotts, are Rot fo bad in their Judgment of the 
matter it felfzs their mfords import $ but that want of 
Skill in terns and Mtthodhath fedueedmen of dull 
witsjflight popular ftudies,and undigefted thoughts, 
to fpeak worfe than they think, and had they more 
exa<5t diftinguifhing and expreffive Skill,they would 
"(hew -that they mean moftly as others do. 

■III. I believe that unskilful contending with 
the Papifts h&h occafioned all this, while in the 
heats ofGontroverfy men bend all their wits to dis- 
grace the Doctrine of their adversaries, not fear- 
ing enough unfafe expreffions and contrary ex- 
treams while they feem to ferve their prefent turn: 
And then departing from Scripture terms as necet 
fary to fet their hearers far enough from their ad- 
verfaries ? are next carried into a multitude of new 
made articles or notions, contrary alfo to Scripture 
fenfe, when they have once thus left the words. 

IV. I believe that moft honeft ,plain, lefs learned 
ChrifUans, and the throughly ftudied and learned 


( "6 ) 

Teachers, agree in the true fence of the Doctrine 
of Juftification which the halfftudied contenders 
make to feem more difficult than it is, and muddy 
it by their unlearned queftions and words. That is, 
all plain Chriftians hold, that [ Chrifi God and 
Man is our only Saviour who obeyed, fujferedandin- 
terceedeth for us, as a Mediator, and is become as re m 
deemer the Lord of all^even of Nature, Grace and Glory^ 
and hath merited, pur chafed and made a Covenant and 
Law of Grace, that whoever believeth in him Jhall not 
perijh, but have evtrlafiing life $ offering his Grace to 
all, and eff equally giving it to fome ; And that as our 
King and Lord Redeemer he governeth us by this 
Law, and requireth Faith and Repentance of all that 
will be pardoned, and pncere obedience to the end, of all 
that will be glorified ; and as he par done th allpaft 
fin at our Converfion, fo to thofe that believe and 
fincerely obey him, he pardoneth all their follow- 
ing fms m , and as he maketh them righteous by giving 
them his Spirit to perform the conditions of pardon, a- 
doption and Salvation, and by forgiving all their fins, 
and freely giving them right to life Eternal, for the fake 
of his Sacrifice and Merits, fo he accordingly virtually 
jufiifeth them by his Covenant, andfo efteemeth them, 
and willfoufe them,and will fo judge them finally by his 
Sentence hereafter, and will receive them as fojufiified 
and adopted to his GloryJ] 

This all agree in till wranglers trouble them; 
and this much is enough. 


Defence of Qirifb 


nt <t§wtzx 

Againft the 


Commonly Called, 

Antinomians or Libertines; 


Ignorantly Blafpheme CHRIST on Pretence 
of extolling Him. 




An Orthodox Zealot, 


A Reconciling Monitor. 


On the occafion of the reviving of thofe Errours, and the Re- 
printing and Reception of Dr. Crifpes Writings, and the dan- 
ger of fubverting many Thoufand honeft Souls by the No 
tions of Free Grace, and juftification, rnifolfcderftood and 
abufed by injudicious, unftudyed, prejudiced Preachers. 

By Richard Baxter. 

London, Printed for Tho. TArkhurft at the Bible and Three Crowns t 
at the lower Bni of CbwfGtei near Mmq^CbtfeU 1690, 

T O T H E 


the Second Book. 

Since the Writing of all that followeth, I have 
feen the New Edition of Dr. Crifp's Ser- 
mons : There are prefixed to it^ twelve Re- 
verend Names^ Mr. Griffiths, Mr. Cockains^ 
Mr. Chancysy Mr. Howes, Mr. Alfops, Mr. Nat. 
Mather, Mr. increafe Mather, Mr. Knowles, Mr. 
Powels, Mr. Turners, Mr. Surest -^r. Gammons. 
The Preface is Mr. S Crifpes invettive again ft me r 
unnamed, with the Citation of fome Trenchers Words 
as contrary to mine. 

1 mitft defire thofe Conformifts that wiU write 
the next friendly debate, and will charge Here fy on 
the Non-Coriformifts, that they will lay the charge 
on none^ bat the guilty ; and that they take not all 
whofe Names are prefixed to be of the judgment of 
Dr. Criipe ( a Conformist ) : For I am paft doubt y 
that Four or Five of them are again ft it. If yon 
tok, why then did they give their Names to be han- 
ged up like a Sign before the Door of a Houfe of 
Scdttttior?, it's likf they have fomething more to fay 

A z * for 

To the ReaJer. 

for it than I know of ? But their Words fhew you 
that they only teftifis the Sermons to be the Drs. 
even. They are men of Peace, and inclined to gra* 
tifte others in attefting a truth, and J fuppofe, in- 
tended not to promote untruth by it. 

But 1 fee the corrupting Defign is of late, grown fo 
high, that what feemed thefe Thirty Four Tears fop- 
prejfed, now threatneth a> a torrent to overthrow the 
Gojpel, and Chriftian Faith, and to- deny the trti? 
Office of Chriji as, Mediator and his Grace and 
Right eonfncfi, by feeming ignorant ly to extol them :. 
And Satan defigneth to make us a common fcom to 
Papifts and Malignants\ by the palpable grofaeft 
cf fuch mens undeniable Errours. And therefore I 
dare neither aive them my Name, nor be Jilent in 
fuch a common fcandal and danger* while I can [peak 
and write. 

It ojfendeth me that I mtift but briefly name their 
err ours, inftead of a large confutation of them, while 
the whole Scripture is again ft them ', but I have done 
it oft largely > which they will not anfwer. And the 
Bookfelkr s will Print no Books that are targe andinfen- 
fible of our danger ', thinks th;y are but few that need it. 

One errour the Preface addeth to the hundred, 
which were it a truth, would carry the caufe for them, 
and bring me to a recantation, viz.: That Chrift 
and the Eleft are one and the fame Perfon. It 
is net a Relative perfonality that is the que ft ion ; 
for fo Chrift himfelf had many Perfons, as one and 
the fame man may have the Perfon of a Pother, of 
a flu'baxdy cf a M T after, of a King, &c- Bat it 
is Phyftcat or Subftantial Perfonality, which Mr. 
Crifpe faith, is more than natural, we being one 
Spirit, and Bone of his Bone, and FleJI? of his F lefts* 
And if this be fo, I JhaU grant that we are as righ- 
teous as Chrift, and Chrift now in Heaven Qand 


To the Reader.* 

not on the Crofs only ) is guilty of all cur fins*, and 
was indeed as they call him y the greateft blafphemsr, 
hater of God, adulterer, &c. in the World. 

But j. if all the Elctl be really many diftinlb 
Perfons, then, either Chrifl wit ft be alfo as many 
dift.ncl Per font , or not be the fame P erf on with them 
all, or any of them. But the Elect art many di- 
ftintt Perfons, and Jhall be fo for ever : Peter was 
not Paul or John : They do not the fame Atts i 
They be net guilty of the fame numerical fins : Every 
vian jhall anfwer for all that he hath done in the 
Body, and rot for all that all others of the Elecl: 
have done. All the Elttl fmll not ft on the twelve 
Thrones , as Ap' files : All did not Preach the 
Cofpel as Paul did, nor Per feme as Paul did: Over-* 
throw difiinff individuation here or in Heaven, and 
how difmal will be the con feculence ? And. here, will 
not each man- have right to anoihers Houfe, Wife y 
Food, Goods, if they are but one Perfon ? 

To be one in Spirit, is no ?mrc to be one perform 
than feeing by the fame Sun- tight mahcth all. Eyes 
to be one Eye. For the Spirit is not cur perfonality. 

And if you wake Chriji to be many Millions of 
Perfon*, where is his Vnity in himfeif, or with any m 

2- Jf Chrrfi a?id the FleEl, be' all one, and the 
fame Perfon, then the Ele£h are really God himfclf : 
For the Perfon of Chrift, is God : Thefe men are 
unfit to confute the Schools who have long maintain- 
ed that the very human nature of Chrift, is not a 
fart of his 'Perfon, but an accident of it ; becaufn 
he is but one Perfon, which is the fecond in Trinity 
from Eternity, and is God (of which fee Derodon 
de Suppolito- ) And if we are all one God, then 
God ftffers when we fuffer, and God judgeth himfelf 
yyhen he judgeth us : May not Men pray to fuch 
then, and \Yorfirip> them as Gad'> <*vd Truft in tht>*n 

A 3 as 

To the Reader. 

as Gods * Is not %hti Idolatry worfe than Image- 
Worjhip, or than Anti-chriftianity ? 

3. If Chrijt and the Elett be one and the fame 
T erf on, ,then Chrift fmneth when ever they fin : And 
Chrift fujfered for his own fin, even that which he 
by them committed : And then he pardoneth his own 
jm ', C or who pardoneth him ) ? But all this ii falfe. 

4. And it would follow, that all the Eleli are Me- 
diators to themfelves, and dyed for their own fins, 
and pardon their own* fins, and juftify themfelves, and 
believe in themselves, and fave themfelves. 

5. And are all Chrift? s threatnings again ft him- 
[elf which are againft m ? Doth Satan overcome 
kim y when ever he overcome th m f Is his Law made 
for himfelf, that is made for m ? Doth he command 
a Father to correal Chrift, when he commandeth him to 
corrdl his Children ? Doth the Magistrate hang 
Chrift when he hangeth a AialefaUor^ tho* Eleit r 
( that fmneth by fur prize. ) 

6. Where there are divers Bodies, and divers Souls, 
and divers Vnderftandings^ and divers Wills, there are 
divers Perfons : But of all thefe, in Chrift and li$ 
there is a divcrftty. 

I believe- that the IJnion between Chrift and the 
Glorified, will be neerer than we can well now conceive : 
But not fuch as will make m one and the fame Per- 
fon with Chrift. 1 have read in Phanatick^ Fryers, 
fuch at Barbanfon, and Benedi&us de Benedifti?, 
and m Gibienf the Oratorian, of our Deification, 
and being Coded with God, and that it is the only 
perfection to know no being but God : And I have 
read of fuch Heathen as Wcr flipped Demon-Gods, 
that once were men. And it is the top of the now 
prevalent Bruitifm, cr Saddncifm, to believe that all 
Souls are but one God, and as Candles that are far 
■dividuate by the Oily Matter , when exwtt, are all 


To the Reader. 

§ne in the common Air ; and that there is nothing hut 
God and Matter. But I hope few good Chrifiians 
mil fo far lofe the knowledge of themfelves^ as to 
take themfelves to be the fame Terfon with him that 
is God : Angels forbad John to Worfhip them, tho 9 
he took^ them not for God. Do thofe Churches ex- 
ercife Difripline upon fuch as are one P 'erf on with 
Chrifl f Do they Excommunicate Chrifi for fin ? 
No wonder that Dr. Crifpe chargeth David as 
fpeaking untruth, for complaining of his fin, and Gods 
difpleafnre j tho' John fays, tie is a Lyar that faith 
he hath no fin-, and all God?s Saints havt profefs'd 
Repentance ; but I read not that Chrifi did ever 
Repent of fin. 

J doubt fome will think that I feign Mr. Crifpe to 
fay what he doth, not, his words are thefe : 

Fir fly He accufeth me as faying £To fay t)lir 
Union with Chrifl: fo makes us Plefh of his Flefh, 
than we are the fame PERSON with Chrift ; 
this is fo grofs, that I will not beftow time to 
confute it- ] He anfwers Q u Nor cannot as long 
M as that Text is in our Bibles ; we are Mem- 
M bers of his Body, of his Flelh, and of his Bones 5 

ic Ephefi 5 God faith, He that is joyned to 

Cc the Lord, is one Spirit-, which is more than a 
cC Political Member, or a Natural Member either.] 
/ believe that it is more than Political, but not fuch 
as maketh us one Perfon with Chrifi. Andrew 
Oflander, is condemned by Proteflants for feigning 
that the Effence of Cjod is our Righteoufnef. Neftorius 
was condemned by General Councils, as fuppofad to 
feign Chrifi to have two Perfons : What would thefe 
Councils have fudged of them that feign him to have 
Million of Perfons, or Millions, to be all on? Per- 
fon with him ? 

A 4 As 

To the Reader. 

As t$ Mr. Crifpes £piftle, it calleth more for 
Titty , than Confutation : He pretendeth out of his 
Notes, to tell what 1 Preached at Pinners-Hal], 
Jan. 17. 1673. an ^ ^ U S- X1 - l6 74- (/* longfince.) 
And he begins with a grofs untruth, that J faid > £ L( - A 
ct mans firft: believing is by external Arguments, 
cc not by the Operation of the Spirit, but his after- 
tc believing is by the Spirit.] / do not believe that 
the man purposed to lye, but trufted h s falfe Ears y 
and Notes. The World \noweth how voluminoufly 
J have written to the contrary : Never fuch an 
Opinion came into my head : But contrarily I have 
copioujly proved, that even common Faith, much more 
the firft )ufttfying faith, is the work of Gods Spi- 
rit : : My Cathoiick Theology, proveth it all ap 
large. I doubt not but both firft and fecond Faith . 
is by -Script are Argument } but never dreamed that it 
was not the Work of the Spirit : Indeed I find few 
tf his accufir.g Notes, that be not falfificatiom by 
Jus defective or patcht Recital. 

I am forty that he hath wronged the Memory of 
fuch good men as Mr. Fowler, avd Mr. Cole, by 
telling the World how unftudied, and yet how con- 
fident they have been in feme points. But he did 
worfe in citing Dr MaiUon, that incurred their Cen- 
fure for defending me in that very Pulpit, where he 
faith I Preach* d again ft fuch accusers as he j and 
was wholly of my judgment. Axel reciting Arch? 
Btfhop Uiher, who perufed my Confeflion written 
a\ainft the Antinomians, and altered not a word in 
j>, before J publijhcd it ; I got him and Mr. Gataker 
to read it ( and it was the laft Work that Afr. 
Gataker did in the World, as his Epiftle and his 
Sons fmw. ) 

Had the Prefacer read but that one Boo\>my Con- 
feflion, written in 1655. and there the explications 

To the Reader. 

of the Co v trover fie s , and the many /core plain 
Texts and Arguments, and the hundred Teftimonies 
of Synod, and Rroteftrat Divines, for the Dothine 
which I defend \ and fpecially if he have read my 
Exp'ication of all thefe Conxr over pes, m my Catoh- 
lick Theology, and Methodus, and Difpute */ Ju- 
dication, and of justifying Righteoufneis} and yet 
had calPdfor an anjwer to Mr. Cole or Mr* Fowler^ 
J fljculd have told him that he, and fuch as he, are 
too hard or deaf for me to anfwer. 

But he impertinently citeik other men, that fay, 
vce are jufttfied by Free Grace, and the Righteouf- 
nefs of thrifts and not by Works ; as if he would 
fat fly intimate that 1 deny it, when I neither truft 
to, nor know any Righteoufncfs that is not meerly 
Subordinate to the Right coufnefs of Chrift ; and take 
his R'ghteoufnefs Habitu I, Active and Paffive, to 
be the only and perfect Meritorious Caitfe of our Jn- 
ftifcation, and Salvation of Grace and Glory : And 
J wonder not, that Paul counted his own Right e- 
cufefs by the Law to bs dung in compa^ifon of be~ 
ing found in Chrift, having his Righteoyfnefs. But 
I abhor the opinion, that Ckrift's Righteoufnefs given 
us, is all without its, and none within in, when Chrifi 
dwelleth in m j as if 600 * Texts of Scripture were 
all falfe, that fpeak of the necejfity of an inherent 
and atlive Righteoufnefs, I abhor the opinioft cf 
any works necefjary to juflif cation or Salvation, or 
to any common Bltffings in the fenfe of Paul :, fitch - 
as make the reward to be of Debt, and not cf Grace. 
< 1 thinks few mtn living, are lefs tempted to mag* 
nify or truft to any worth of th.ir own, than 1 am. 
J lool^not for a bit of Bread, or an h urs Eafe y or 
Life* or the Pardon, or Acceptance of one Duty, or 
cf my Holieft Affections (fo faulty are they by their 
great Imperfettion) but meerly from the Free Grace of 


To the Reader. 

God, and the Merits and Interceffion of Chrift. 
But jhould I take all for Errour that this Preface 
rec teth as fitch, and all for truth that Dr. Crifpe 
and fuch men write • I Jhould look^ for wifer ?nen 
than him or Mr. Cole, to Anathematize me y rather 
as an A'iti-Gofpeiler , than a metr Antinomian. 
And I am the forryer for the prefixing of the Twelve 
Reverend Names, when 1 find by their Epiftles that 
they had read this Treface^fo full offalfe Citations and 
grofs Errour, and fay not a word again ft it, nor a- 
gat ft fuch a Book^ 

Mr. Cockain, in his Epiftle, directing it to them 
that live Godly in Chriffc Jefus, tells them^ that the 
Kingdom of God within them, fhall never be 
fhaken *, and the Divine Nature that hath fwallowed 
them tsp, (hall for ever fatisfy them with variety 
of Contentments. And is not that ours which is 
within us ? And is this Kingdom and Divine Na- 
ture^ nothing but that which Chrift did without us, 
imuted to be done by m ? And if this be no fub- 
ordinate Righteoufnefsj what doth the word ftgnify 
f$ ma y hundred times tfed in the Scripture f 

Let them but grant "juft if cation by Faith, and 
let them affign Faith what Office therein they can 
reafenably imagine, without flat denying all Pauls 
Dottrme, and they will confute Dr. Crifpe. Say but 
that Faith is imputed to us for Right eoufnefs, and 
give not the lye to Paul, and fare we fliall be recon- 
ciled. But if they Kill tell us that by Faith, Paul 
meaneth not Faith, but C drift's Righ*eoufnefs ; they 
m ft pr&ve that they have more than a Papal Power 
to m^k? God-s Word-, by making the Senfe^ when 
God maketb but .the Letter, before we can renounce 
the Scripture and believe them. And yet^ if they 
will expound imputation fobcrly, we foalhgrAnt them 
the matt er( that Chrift' s Righteoufnefs is accounted to us 


To the Reader. 

of God, m the only Meritorious Caufe of our Ju- 
stification and Salvation ) tho* we believe that by 
Faith, Paul meaneth Faith- 

But if they ft ill fay % that by Faith is meant only 
the Object of Faith, and not the Aft ; could we but 
get them to forbear Anathematizing Men for being fo 
Learned^ a* to under fiand Englifii^ we might yet hope 
at leaft, to keep the flame of their Zeal cut of the 
thatch within the Chimney j by telling them the dif- 
ference between the Object of Faith, as fucfb and 
the perfon that is the Object, otherwife confidered. 
In real Exiltence, Chrifi, tho not yet believed in, 
is the fole meritoricm Caufe : But it is only in effe 
COgnito, that Chrifi is the Object of Faith. And 
School-Boyes that have no damnable Learning, may 
teach thefe confident men, that the Objeft as an Ob- 
jeft believed, is the very form in fpecie of the Aft 
of Faith : It is an, Atl without it-> but not this 
Aft, vtTL* the Christian Faith. t As Jin in effe reali 
is damning, but in effe cognito objeftivo, it is the 
form of the Grace of Repentance • fo is it here. But 
jf they trill grant that by Faith is meant Faith, and 
not fay that Paul condemneth Jufiification by Faith , 
as being but purification by Works ; let them but 
tell m, how it jufiificth : / fay not efficiently at 
all\ but only as a meer receptive qualification: If 
they fay as an Efficient Inftrument, they give it 
much more than 1 do ; and lay it en the AH or 
the "jb Credere, as they fpeak : For, what elfe is 
the Infirument j I hope they mean not that Chrifi 
and his Right eoufnefs is but the Infirument: But of 
this, more after. 

1 thought it meet to hive recited many hundred 
Texts of Scripture , nhich they dreEtly contradiB 9 
y^hich good Men fiwuld rather believe than them : 
But if the Reader will perufe my ConfeffiOD , he 
will find it there done already. And 

To the Reader. 

And 1 thought it neceffary to commend the good 
Lives of many of them {excepting the Schifm and 
Vnrighteoufnef that Faflion doth involve them in ) 
left- the Grofnef of their Verbal Err curs, which corns 
from unskilfidncfs in Words and Methods, fnould tempt 
many to ytdge of the Men by their Words^ and Opinio 
ons ; and [hould harden the malignant to jtfftifie all 
their hard Cenfures andVfage of the Non-Confor- 
mifts for their fakes. And yet Mr. Crifpe is one 
of my [harp C en fitters, for charitably excufng Men 
from leffer Enours than his own ( while he falfify, 
cth my Wo>'ds about cur dijferenee with the Papifts.) 

/ h;tve [aid oft^ and long agoe, that I cannot be 
fo harden d aga ; nft God's miraculous Judgments in 
New- England) on Alrs % Hutchifon and Airs. Dy- 
er> and the Cafe of their Governour, and Mr. Wheer 
ler, recited by Mr- Weld, in his Book^ called, The 
Rife and Fall of Antinomianifme in New- England, 
4U to defpife thofe with the Scripture^ to hear Satan 
Jeeming an Angel of Light or Right eoufnefs. I once 
more counfel the?n that are prejudiced againft my 
Writings-) to read Mr. Bradfhaw {an Independant) 
cf Juftification, Mr. Truman's Grand Propitiati- 
on) Ant. Watton de Reconciliations, Mr. Gata- 
kcr against Sakmarfb, and on Lucius ^^Pifcator. 
Ben. Woodbridge ( the frft Graduate of the New- 
England Colledge, ) Mr. Thomas Warren, Mr. 
Hotchkins, Afr. Gibbons r/ Black- Fryers, his Le- 
cture at Giles, Placeus in Thef. Salmurienf. Teftar- 
-dus, Codurcus; but above all\ Vine. le Blancks 
Thefes 5 and the Breme Divines, S.Charles Wolfley 
cf Juftification , and the forcfaid Book^ of Mr. 
Weld a New-England C ongregational-man : The 
Subjeff .of which, J fuppofe two or three of the Twelve 
Evifthrs ( the two Air. Mathers, tf not Mr. Chancy 
*!fo ) will give you a truer Account of 7 than Dr. 


To the Reader. 

Stubs ( a man miferable in life and death ) did do. 

Once more I conculde, that if Chrift was one Per- 
fon with the EleEk, before they were men^ he was one 
Per fori with thofe that were no Perfons : If he we're 
one Per [on with them, before their Converfion y he was 
one Ptrfon with Millions of wicked men, and /laves 
of the Devil, and the haters, and per fecutors of Him- 
[tlf % and of Holinefs. And feeing they hold that 
this Vnion is not dijjolvable^ do they not feign him 
now in Heaven to be one Ptrfon with all the Elett 
wicked firmer s on Earth ? 

1 ft ill fay , / will not lofe my Charity as to the 
Perfons of tbefe blind Zealots, and Hnskilful Talkers : 
But how confcionably foever they live, it is no thanks 
to their ungodly unchriftian Doffirhe. If they prevail 
to ma\e England believe that eleft wicked Infidels are 
as righteous as Chrilt -, and that .it is impofftble that 
any fin jhould hurt them-> or that any Prayer or Du- 
ty (jwnld do them any good^ ( the exprefs Words of 
Dr. Crifpe ) and that to intend their own good by 
any y is to wrong the Free Grace and full jaiva- 
ticn by Chrift (with the reft like this): •, 1 ftmtld 
have more hope of the Turks and Heathens, than of 
that Land that receiveth and praftifeth thefe Prin- 
rifles, nctwithftanding Mr. Cokaiifs Benediction to 
thofe that prattife what this Doctor taught. 

The God of Truth a?id Mercy, fave a poor Nation 
from the extream Factions that run deeper daily into 
the guilt of Impenitency and doleful Divifions ; and 
let not fober Peace- makers mourn in dejpair, over * 
hopelefs Generation of felf-deftroyers, as having labour* 
ed for Peace in vain, 

Jan. 15. 1 6 




A further Advertifement 
to the READER. 

HE that will know whether I rightly cite Dr. 
Crifpe, muft read his own Bookj, efeciaUy y 
Lib. 2. Serm. 3, 4, 55 6, 7, 8. 15. and Vol- i. m Serm. 
9 7 10, 11. He is fo large? that I muft give you 
but a Tajie of his Dotlrine, in his own Words. 

Vol. 2. Serm. 3. pag. ( Edit. 1644.) 88, 89, 
90. It is Iniquity it felf that the Lord hath laid 

on Chrift. It is the Fault or Tranfgreffion it 

faf To fpeak^ it more plainly, Haft thou bee?i 

an Idolater, a Blaphemer, a Defpifer of God's Word, 
a Tr ampler on Him ? Haft thou been a Defpifer 
of Government, a Defpifer of thy Parents , a Mo- 
ther er, an Adulterer^ a Thief, a Lyar, a Drunkard} 
Reckon up what thou can ft again ft thy felf \ if thou haft 
Tart in the Lord Chrift, all thefe Tranfgreffions 
of thine become actually the Tranfgreffions 0/ Chrift? 
and fo ccafc to be thine , and thou ceafeft to be a 
Trarfgreffor? from that tiwe they were laid on Chrift, 
( which he oft faith, was before we were bom ) 
to the laft hour of thy Life : So that now thou 
art not an Idolater ', thou art not a Perfecutor, a 
Thief, or a Murtberer, (Why will not our Judges 
believe this > but hang innocent Men ? ) Thou 
art not an Adulterer, thou an not a finful Perfon^ 
( Why did Chrift then juftifie the confefling Pub- 
lican ? ) Reckon what Sin foever yon commit^ when 
you have part in Chrift, you ARE ALL that 
Chrift was } Chrift is ALL that you were, 2 Cot. 
5«2l. mark it well : Chrift is not himfelf fo 
complcatly righteous , but we are as righteotu as he 
was : Nor we fo compleatly finful^ but Chrift b&- 
came 7 being made fin^ as compleatly finful as we : 


To the Reader. 

Nay y more\ The righteoufnef that Chrifl; hath with 
the Fat her , we A R E the fame right eoufne ft ; 
that very ftnfulnef that we were , Chnft is made 
that very finfulnef before God } fo that here is a 
dirett Change : Chrifl: takes WvPERSONS, 
and Conditions^ and fiands in oht ftead ; we take 
Chrift's PERSON and Condition, and ft and in 
his ftead : What the Lord bheld Chrifl to be 9 
that he beheld his Adembers to be ; and what he 
beheld the Members to be in themfelves, that he be- 
held Chrifl himfelf to be. Chrifl: himfelf is not 

mere righteous^ thzn this Ptrfon\ and that Per fori 
is not more finfnl than Chnft was. 

Pag. 91, &c. He at large ftriveth to prove that 
it was not only the' guilt of fin , or the Puniflment 
that God pat on Chrifl, but the very fin it felf. 
So p. 108. ( Having well proved, that Imputation 
iignifieth not, That God lyed 7 or mif- reckoned, 
but only reckoned that to be , which truly is : 
He faith j £ That Chrifl became as really and tru- 
ly the Perfon that had all thefe fins, as he that 
did commit them really and. truly, had them : ] 
Readmore y Serm 6.pag. 1 39. There is not one Pdjfage 
of Scripture that fpeakj of imputing our fins to Chriit. 

Vol. 1. Serm. 10. pag. 242. For ANY HURT 
that fuch fins can do to #*, it is not poffible ; 
for Chrifl hath made fatisfattion. pag. 239. Tho* 
fins be committed y there is no peace broken, becaufe 
the breach of peace is fatisfied in Chrifl. p. 234, 

235. That they are to do, they are not to do it 
with ANYEYE to their own Advantage , that 
being already perfectly compleated to their bands 9 be- 
fore they do any thing : But with an Eye to glori- 
fie Cody and to ferve their Generation. And page- 

236, 237. he is large in threatning them that pray 
or do any thing for JLife } or furthering cur Salva- 


To the Reader. 

tion ; Do thiSj and live \ being the Voice of the 
Law 3 therefore we muSi do nothing that we may 
live-, ( or as elsewhere he faith ) to be ever the bet- 
ter for it. 

P. 230, 23 1 . There is not any Duty you perform*, 
when yon have attained the higheft pitchy that hath 
any prevalency cr availablenejs^ to produce to bring 
forth any the lesft Good to your feives : 1 fay <#- 
gain , There is nothing yon can do^ from wbe- ce 
you ought to expett any Cain to your feives by do- 
ing , yon ought not to feek to find in what yon 
do> &c — No Believer for whom Chrift dyed, fimdd 
have the leaf; Thought in his heart , of promoting 
or advanceing himfelf^ or any end of his owv y by 
doing what he doth, but to glorifie God, and do 

qooet to men 

Tou cannot propound or v tend to your feives any pof- 
fible Gain by Dmy\ &c- Why then do men plow, 
and fovv, and trade, and eat, &c. Is it not as 
much againft Chrift to do good for others, as 
for iny felf ? Is glorifying God inconfiftent with 
feeking to be faved ? 

Reader, I give thee but this Tafle, to pew thee 
how truly I cite him in all the reft. I have Five 
Arguments again ft ihefe Men. 1 . The Effential 
Nature cf Man. 2. The Nature of God , and 
his Government. 3. The Office and Work^ 0/ Chrift, 
and Grace. 4. The whole Bible. 5. The Confent 
of Mankind, efpecially Chriftizns. 

The difmd Effccls : 1. The confirming of Thou- 
fands in Popery, feeing our horrid Errors. 2. Har- 
dening Malignants in Intpenitency^ as being but a- 
gainft odiow Hereticks. 3. Seducing ignorant Zea- 
lots^ cheated by good Words and Names. 4. Threa- 
tening thz Land with uncurable Divifion % 5. Dif- 
affcCting Rulers agaivjl m a* ivtoHerable* 


To the TEACHERS of 
Dr. Crifpes Do£lrine. 

f~r^ H E laudable Convey [at ions of many of yon$ 
JL flxw, tk** y on are vot wholly void of Religion : 
hnt ifs no thanks to your irreligious Doctrine. It 
is no wonder that fuch men would cafv out Reafon 
from Religion ^ for their Religion fecmcth to be by 
mecr infiwcl : But if it muff be without Reafon^ 
it is hard that they will make it all agatnft Reafon. 
While Reafon is effenti.tl to man^ no wonder then if 
Religion meet with much Refislance\ and if \ as one 
of Mr. Crifpe's Authors faith, ( nigro Carbone 
notandus) That to caufeoneto believe in Chnfi^ 
be as great a Miracle as ChriJPs Refurredtion> 
and as great an Inftance of Almightinefs, as any 
Work that God hath made : No doubt , but it 
is a hard, and great , and fecial IVor^ and an cf» 
fett of Omnipotency, or elfe it were no effeft of God : 
For, omtns potentia eft Dei eft Omnipotentia. A 
Hand or tongue moveth ?iot but by Omnipotency - 
but all that God doth , are not equal Infcances or 
Demon ff rat ions of Omnipotency ; nor are they all Mi** 
racks ^ and as great Miracles as the Refmreilion of 
Chrilt. Js not the preaching of the Gofpel a means 
of mens believing ? And is that as great a Mira- 
cle as Chr ill's RefurrtEtion ^ that is .wrought by jo 
rational a means^ ufed by man f I am fure St. Paul 
fifed not fo much to prove the Truth of Chriftianity 
from this Medium [Tome believed ii\ e r g°y it is 1 
irue 3 as by the Rejurrettion of Chrift -* JNor is 
every Woman or Man* Belief as good a Proof th®t 
the Gofpel is true: 1 would not have Inf dels taught 
to fay^ .If God damn me for not believing, k will 
be for not doing that which is as great a Mira- 

B' Cfcr 

To the Teachers 

tic as Chrijlh Refurredlion , and as great an In- 
ftance of Almighty Power, as the making of Sua 
and Moon? and of the World : Overdoing is un- 

But if the men that J oppofe, be religious, 1 can- 
not deny but it muft be by Miracle or Madnefs : 
Confider avd judge. 

Is it any other to be for Rtligion, and to preach 
and labour , and fuffer for it, if it have no Good- 
nefs in it, and will do no good, and muft thus le 
believed? That is good that doth good. Dr. Crifpe 
is larve and earnefi in telling us* that nothino- that 
rce do, muft be done to do us any good, or give 
us the ka/l Gain or Advantage , nor muft fuch a 
Thought come into our hearts^ that we (l)all be ever 
the better far it - 7 for Chrift hath already done all 
that we need. And if it do us no good, it doth 
good to none. To God it can do none ; if we be 
righteous, what do we give him. Our goodnefs ex~ 
tendeth not to him , by adding any thing to him. 
Pfal. 16. 1,2. And to men it can do no good, if it 
can do none to our felves; for either thofe men be 
elect? or not : If they be elett, all their good was 
\erfetted by Chrift, as well as ours before they were 
bom ; And it will be as great an injury to Chrift* 
to endeavour to do them any good , as our felves : 
And this cither to their Souls or Bodies -, for Chrift 
hath pur chafed all good for both : Oh what an Anti- 
dote again ft Charity is here, and again ft doing good 
to aU men, efpccially to them of the Houjhold of Faith y 
and again ft feeding Chrift in his Members ! 

But if they are not elett, thefe men fay that Chriit 
dyed not for them, to pur chafe them any good, and to 
do them good, is impojjible - 7 and what a Wrong would 
it be to Chrift, for us to pretend to do men goodwith~ 
out him, or his vurthafe ? 


of Dr. Crlfpes Doctrine. 

'But they fay we muft do it in Thanl^fulnefs^ for 
beirvr faved. already : But what good is in that Thank- 
fulnejs, when it doth no good to God or man^ to our 
[elves or others ? Is not this to trufi to worlds ? AH 
Atts with them are Works; and Thank fulncfs is an 
A^i or Habit* 

And if we are never the better for Love^ Thanks^ 
and Praifes to God on earthy what the better Jhall we be 
for them in Heaven ? What do thefe men preach for ? 
What do they gather Churches for ? And what do they 
exercife firiftnefs for^ by their felf devifed . terms of 
their Church«Communion ? What do they write for 
and wrangle for^ while they frofefs that it is not to do 
any good) to God^ to them/elves^ to the eleft^ 0Y t0 *ke re*> 
probate ( which undenyably fo/loweth ) ? I l^now yen 
fpeak^for Faith , Prayer^ and Holinefs, and I think yen 
fray your felves : But to what end, Chrift fath 9 
ask and have, feek and find *, Dr. Crifpe fyitfc 
feek not to find : O think not that you foall be ever 
the better for fraying-) or any thing elfe that you do in 
the greatest heigth of Piety. Is Prayer only a Thankf> 
giving? I knew an old Man ( one Difhforth> by Cal- 
yerley n$ar Bradford in Yorkshire ) who went among 
the Followers of Hacket ^^Coppinger, called, Grim-, 
dletonians (from the Town where they lived) : And 
going for Novelty among them % they breathed on him^ 
and he came home fo tranfported, that he left his for- , . 
mer way of Praying in his Family % with Confeffion and 
Petition, and did all by Extafy, and Than\fgiving^ 
and Praife^ and fo continued about a Fortnight, and 
then returned to Humility ■> and relented {^hiir.fdf and 
his Son were my Informers. ) 

/ wonder that it is not fowith aU that think. fTfjfiqg^ . 
hearing f readings meditating^ and Sacraments do _.no : 
good: P&td alt from a fcttijh Expo prion of £ Db r 
fifais and live, 2 ** tf & forbid doing any thing that 

IJ?'5 ' $£ 

To the Teachers 

vr>e may live : And from an Vnchriftian Conceit that 
Chrift giveth hs all that he decreet h or purchafeth, 
as foon as the Price is paid : And that tecauie he 
frccth hs from the Law of Works, and, of lnnocency y 
he ?naketh us lawltfs 5 or is a Kino that hath no Lawsj 
vr Laws that are neither the Meafure of Duty or Jndg* 
ment, the keeping of which is no fubordinate Righteouf 
viefs irlTa-Utum , becaufe it is not as Chrift 's 5 * purcha* 
fing f rice 3 and ]uftiftth not primarily m,r °m tOtUOi: 
Or as- if Chrift commanded and gave a Righeoafnefs 
which is' no Rhhteoitfriefs ; and that becaufe all jufti* 
fymg is not making Righteous, therefore making 
Righteous is no Juftifying, ner any part of it. Its 
a \hame\o_ftay to ate many Ttxts rgiirTt thefe men^ 
tvhere the -whole Bibfc^ but efptcially all ChriiPs own 
Preachings and Parables, arc fo expre(ly sgahft th m 7 
that I adrnire with what face thefe inert prdfefs to be- 
lieve the Scripture. And 1 wonder not that jome of 
them fay, that all the written Word is a Covenant of 
Workiy and only the Spirits inward Wor\ is the Cove- 
nant of Brace : And when th<y tell us ( as CriTpe, 
p. 242. Vol.* 1 • Ed. 1.) That for any hurt that fuch 
fins' can do tr?, ir is not pofiible, for Chrift hath 
made fatisfadiioH- / wonder why they freach again ft 
that which doth no hurt*, and why they excommunicate 
wen for fin* y and why they fcruple Perjury, Liturgies, 
P a^if^ Communion , or any Point of Conformity \ yea, 
why fomc of them willfuffer rather than conferrn, when 
it is impoffible for any fin to hart them : Why do 
y<mr hearers pay you for Preaching again ft a harmlefs 
thing ? Why mal^e yon fo much Complaint againft 
IJmeformeo.nefs ? Sin doth God no hurt ; it doth not 
the Eletl any hurt by your Dottrine; for Chrift hdth 
fitisficd and born all : And the Reprobate are nn* 
capable of goody for want of fatis faction for them. 
I 1 ray you do not fpeak^ow this Boftrim to the World :■ 


of Dr. Crifpes Do&rine. 

// you do, I jhall be glad that yon are confined to your 
[educed ignorant Congregations. Jf you will tell the 
Worlds If you are elect, no fin can poflibly hurt 
you ; whatever Murders, Adulteries, Perjuries you 
commit it is none of your fin^but Cbrifts : It cannot 
be his and yours too ; and if not eieft, you have 
no hope ; and if you be eleft, you will be never 
the better for praying, conlidering, charity, or 
any Ad of Religion , or Juftice , which you do., 
nor muft once think to gain any thing by it: Horn 
many Converts is this like to make ? And what would 
fuch a Nation come to ? I hope- few of the publicly 
Preachers that you call fcandaluus, preach fo fcanda- 
loujly as this. I have one Re que ft to you, that if you, or 
any other be questioned by the Judges for Murder, A- 
dultery, Falfe-witncfs, Perjury, or Robbery y you will 
not fay as Dr. Crifpe hath taught you £ / am no 
Murderer, Adulterer perjured Robber y &c. It is Chriffc 
that is fuch a one, and not I \ it cannot be my fin, whzn 
he hath made it his ] » for I doubt, neither the Judge? 
or Ju r y well believe yon : If you believe not me, ask 
the Judges,^ whether it be you or Chrilt that is the fin* 
ner ? I doubt it is you that will, be hang*d 9 

If you fay-) £ for what may not ignorance fay ~\ 
That it is not ac the Bar of man^ but of God only, 
that Chnft is the finner, and not we : / Anfwer, 
Know you not that Judges and Princes are Goa*s Ojfi- 
cers, and that the Judgment is tie Lords ; and that 
what they do accordi?ia to his Willy he d>th by them : 
Pie doth not command Rulers to hang nien fur a fit) 
that is none of theirs. All mens Judgments are Nul- 
\hties, that are againfi the fore- known Judgment of 
Qod: It is the King that pumflh'th when the hang r 
man execu'eth : God punifjeth men by Rulers^ ar c 4 
doth it righteoufly, 

P 3 I uritf 

To the Teachers, &c. 

I writs all this , the rather becaufe Mr, Cokain, 
in his Preface, exhorteth Preachers to go on where the 
Dr. left : / httmbly befeech them fir ft to read and 
believe, Mat. 5. & 6. and 7, 8. and 13. 18. 25. and 

all the Sermons and Parables of Chrift ; and not down- 
right to give him the I it* and call it exalting him : 

And for them that report that there are no fuch Words 
in Dr. Crifpe, as I report, \ wonder not while they 
think that lying can do them no hurt, and is not their 
fa, but Chrifts. 

■ And they that believe they are under no Law, may 
believe that they have no Tranfgreffion, nor Chrift: for 
them, when they had -never any. And to them that 
talk of inherent Right eoufnefs, as Itfs neceffary than 
God hath made it \ I defire them but to mari^ what 
Chrift faith of it, and to remember that fin is much 
of Hell^ and holinefs of Heaven : And that Chrift: 
came to fave his People from their fins , as more righ- 
teous than the Scribes and Pharifees inherently, and \ 
to make them a peculiar People jealous of good Works, and 
holy as God is holy ; and to bethink them whether to 
di! grace the Builaina, be to honour the Architect ; and 
whether the worth, or the worthlefnefs of the Work-, 
more honour the Work-men \ and whether the Cure of 
the Sick^ difconour the Phyfitian : And whether to 
fay , that my Clocks or Watch will go by artificial 
mea/^s,—or only no longer, than the Worl^ mans Finger 
only moveth it, do more honour the Artift : And whether 
the Pfalms would fo much call us to glorifie Cod for 
his Works, if all that is afcribed to his WorkjiWere 
taken from his Honour, the Lord teach us better to 
under ftand that Word, that makcth the fimple wife, 
and not to fet Chrift againfi himfelf , and again ft 
his own Honours, Government and Laws, 


<& A »& A ^ *&<&»&& »&*&*& 


Defence of Chrift> 





Ortho- £^\ /JP, Having my fclf, and the Congre* 
gatioh which I am Related to, been in 
danger of the Errours called Antino- 
miaii \ I wrote to yon^ to intreat you, 
who have done fo much heretofore^ to Conquer and Ex- 
tirpate thofe Errours^ to get the London Minifters^ 
to publifl) their Judgments again fi Dr. Crifpe^ Book y 
and Juch other s y novo Re-printed, and rifing up with 
re- nerved danger. 

Reconcil. You did fo, and I anfwered you j 
l- That 1 thought it not feafonable, till the ac- 
ceptance and fuccefs of that Book and fuch others, 

B 4 W<J$ 

% Prefatory. Chap. i. 

made our danger fo notorious and great, as would 
clearly juftify our Confutation : I have written 
on that Subjedt fo much already, i. In my Confef- 
fion of Faith. 2. In my Apologies againft Mr. Crau- 
don, Mr. Aaires^ and others. 3. In my Deputati- 
ons of Justification. 4. In my Life of Faith. 5. In 
my Juftifywg Rightconfaefs , and there againft Dr. 
Tally ; , and my laft Ammadverfions on Mr. Cart- 
wright. 6. In my Catholick^ Theology, efpecially tha 
five iaft Chapters- 7. And in my Methodus Theo- 
logies All which, are unanfwered to this day, that 
I know not why I fhould be forward to write much 
more : For they that will not read this that hath 
been fo long written, are not like to read it if 
1 yet write more. 

And I am fo fearful of ftirring up the hidden 
fpark of this mifchief, that having written Four- 
teen Years ago a (hort Decifion of a multitude of 
thefe Controverlies, I fufpended it, left it fhould 
kindle New Oppofitions.- 

2. And 1 told you, that we have now fbch pub- 
lick and dangerous Controverlies, about RoyaIty r 
Prelacy, Conformity, &c\ that it is very unfea- 
fcnable to make a noife of the Errours and Facti- 
ons among the Tolerated, though they ihculd 'fomt- 
\vhat increafe by advantage of our filence, till we 
fee what poblick lettlement there will be. 

3. And I coafefs, I have an opinion that ac- 
cidentally the Books which ycu fear, will fo 
effectually confute thetnielves, that they will occa- 
sion more good among fober knowing Chriftians* 
than hurt to the ignorant profeflbrs, that will be 
toft up and down with every wind of Dottrine. 
For, 1. The whole tenour of the Bible is againft 
them. And will not Ghriftians read the Bible ? 
2,- The Divine Nature on the Soul, and all Chri- 

Chap, i." Prefatory. ^ 

ftian Experience is againft them. And will not 
Chriftians know that Work and Doftrine of Gods 
Spirit in them ? 

For Inftance, i. Will they that are faved from 
Atheifm ever believe that the molt Holy God is 
the maker of fins, yea, and made his own Son 
the greateft finner in the World, when the Devil 
himfelf cannot make one man a flnner, but only 
tempt him to be fuch ; yea, that God made himfelf 
(in the fecond Perfon) a (inner. 

2. Will Chriftians eafily believe, that our Savi- 
our came to deliver us from fin, by making him- 
felf worfc than any of us, and becoming the great- 
eft hater of God andGodlincfs,the greateft Infidel, A- 
&c. in ail the World, and confequently like the 
Devil, hated of God, and having a Hell in him- 
felf ? All Chriftians believe that our fins were 
laid upon Chrift as to their penalty, that he was 
VicariHs poena, that he fuffered for us, the jufl: for 
the unjuft, to reconcile us to God, and that he 
was made for us, a Sacrifice for fin, that we 
might be healed by his ftripes, and wafbedin his 

But what Chriftian can believe Dr. Crifpe and 
his Sectaries, that Chrift took not only the pu- 
nifhment and guilt (rekistm j>&™ ) but ail the very 
iins thcmfelves of all theEleft, habitual and aftual, 
privative and pofitive, of omiffion and com million, 
and fo really became the moft wicked man in all 
the World - 7 and that he faveth us from fin, by 
becoming a thoufand times worfe himfelf, than 
any of us ; when it cannot be proved that any one 
Devil had fo great a hand in mans fin, as to 
ftiake all our fins his own ? And Dr. Crifpe well 
vindicateth God from falfe Imputation of that fin 


4 Prefatory. Chap. I. 

to Chrift, which was not his : But it is by Blaf- 
phemy, making that his, which was never his, 
even the very fins of all the Elect. 3. And do you 
think any Soul that hath the Spirit of God, and 
readeth and believeth the Scriptures can believe 
this Dr. that no (in can pojfibly hurt the Eleft, be- 
caufe they are fully faved already by Chrift ? 
And that it is againft Chrift and his Grace, to 
intend our Salvation, or any good to our felves 
by any Duty we do, or to look to be ever the 
better for praying, obeying, believing, but mult 
do all only in thankfulnefs, and for the good of 

4. Do you think that a man ( not to fay a 
Chriftian ) can believe that the torments of the 
Stom^ Gout, Collie^ Convulfion^ &c % are no hurt, 
or no caitigatory Penalty ? And that it is no hurt 
or punifhment for an Eleft Perfon to be under 
decays of Holinefs, increafe of Sin, prevalen- 
cy of Temptations, the terrours of God, and lofs 
of his Confolations, and fears of Death : He that 
can believe all this , may believe Tranfxbfikns 
nation againft all the fenfes of mankind. A Hun- 
dred of fuch Inftances may be named, which have 
fo ugly a countenance, that men that love their 
Souls, will be affrighted from Amnomianifm^ by 
the reading of them. And I further tell you, 
that too fudden and eager difputing againft He- 
rcfy, doth but engage men to ftretch their wits 
to find out what to fay to defend it, and to take 
thofe for Enemys to God and them, who fhame 
their folly. 

And I muft confefs, that tho' I am much for 
MinifteriJ aflbciations and confultations in order, 
to Concord and mutual Edification ; I am not 
piuch for the way of deciding do&rinal Contro- 


Chap. i. Prefatory. | 

verfies by majority of Votes, remembring what 
Councils have done that way theie 1300 Years, 
and how often either errour or unskilful decif- 
fions have the greater number ; fo that tho* now 
with us, they will confent againft errours ; it may 
be, taken for a precedent for erroneous plura- 
lities, to Tyrannize or tread down truth hereafter. 
Ortho. But Jhall we therefore let Herefy fprcad 

ReconciL No, But you will let it pafs uncured, 
whether you will or not : You let noc ignorance,and 
pride, go unrefifted : But if it were not uncured, 
there would be no futh Herefies. If all the Mi- 
nisters in England fubfcribe a deteftation of grofs 
ignorance and pride, do you think it would cure 
them ? Doth it cure Atheifm, Infidelity, Drun- 
kennefs, Luft, though all Preachers condemn them ? 
If you can prevail with thefe risen, to read 
and confider but one half of that which I have 
written on thefe Subjects, inflead of reviling that 
which they never read or tryed, you will not need 
to call for more Confutations of them. 

Ortho- But a Confutation jhort and newly pubs, 
lifted, will be read by thefe that will not read Books 
old and large* 

ReconciL I have fbid fince your firfl; motion, 
to fee whether there be like to be any apparent 
neceffity of any renewed oppofition to this infefti^ 
on y and I acknowledge, that now fome necellity ap- 
peareth to me, in the new and zealous attempts 
of the erroneous : But God in great mercy, hath 
raifed up many that are fitter to oppofe them> 
than I that in pain and languifhing weaknefs, 
have time little enough to meditate on my ap- 
proaching change. But becaufe the erroneous have 
karn'd of the transformed Angel of Light, and 


6 An Hundred of Chap. z. 

bis pretended Minifters of Righteoufhefs, to call 
their Errours, the Preaching of Cbrifl^ and Free 
Grace, and to fay, that all they Preach not ChnJ} 7 
but the Righteottfnefs of man , that wrong not 
Chrift as much as they -, I (hall by God's help 
attempt briefly to try, whether indeed they Preach 
pbriftj or Preach aoamft him •, and whether they 
Exalt him, or Devy him \ and whether they Preach 
up tree Grace , or as Enemies Reproach it. And. 
I (hall publifti a brief Decifion of the many Con- 
troverfies of Juftification, which I call by thefq 
Fourteen Years, left 1 fhould provoke any to re- 
vive the allayM quarrels : But their new and 
earned Attempts, do now call it out, by telling 
us, that this evil Spirit is again at work, and call- 
eth us to a renewed Defence of Truth. 


An Enumeration of the Errours which have corrupted 
Chriitianity, and fnbverted the Gofpel. 

ReconciLvyEhve I give you a Confutation of the 
J3 Errours of the Anti-Gofoellers^ I will 
promife thefe two things : 

i. I will here give you a Catalogue of their 
Errours which I am to Confute. 2. I think it 
needful to caution you, what to think of the Per- 
fons, that you Cenfure them not too hardly, tho* 
the Errours as worded, be very great. 

I. And 1. As the general Fault of their Er- 
rours, is the confounding of things which greatly 
differ i fo by this, they corrupt the Dottrine of 
Adams Communication of fin and guilt to his po- 
sterity, and thereby raife more dangerous Errours, 


Chap. x. their £rrours defcriled. 7 

They feign. that God made a Covenant with Ada^ 
(and alfhis Pofterity fay fome, as in him J that 
if he flood, God would continue him and his Po- 
sterity \ and if he fell, God would take it as if 
all his Pofterity then perfonally, finned in him ; 
and fo, that either we were all then perfonally 
in him, or God by Imputation would take us to 
have fo been : And fo that God's Covenant and 
Imputation, made Adams fin, ours, further than it 
is by natural propagation •, not truly diftinguifh- 
ing between our being Personally in him, and be- 
ing but Virtually ^ and Stminally in him : And 
feigning God to make AA*m not only the Natu- 
ral Father and Root of Mankind, but alfo Arbi- 
trarily* a Conltituted Reprefenter of all the Per- 
sons that fliould , fpring from him; and fo that 
God made them finners> that were none, and that> 
before he made them men. 

I L \V hence they infer, that Chrift was by Gods 
impofitron and his own fponfion, made the Legal 
Reprefentative Perfon of every one of the Eleft 
taken Angularly ; fo that what he did for them, 
God reputeth them to have done by him. 

III. Hereby they falfly make the Perfon of 
the Mediator, to be the legal Perfon of the fin- 
Ber, and deny the true Mediatorfhip. 

IV. But they cannot agree, when this Perfo- 
nating of the Eleft began : Some fay, It had no 
beginning, but was from Eternity ; becaufe Elefti- 
on was from Eternity, and we were Elefted -in 
Chrift •, and fo were Per fens from Eternity in him. 

V. Others fay, That it began at the making 
of the World, Chrift being then the fir/t of G6ds 
Works in a Super -angelical Nature, emaning 
from the Divine, which contained all our PeMbns 
in it i as the Beams are of, or in the Sub* 

VI- Others 

8 An Flundred of Chap 2. 

VI. Others fay, that this Perforation began at 
the giving to Adam the firft Law or Covenant of 
Jnnocency, and that Chrift was a perfon in the Bond 
or Covenant: And that the meaning of it. was, 
Thou or Chrift fcrfonating thte y Jbatt perfeftly Obey • 
or Thou or He jhatt Die the threaded death for Sin. • 

VII- Others fay, that this Perfonation began at 
the making of the Promife, Gtn, 3. of the Sad of 
the Woman, &•<:. And fo 5 that Chrift perforated 
none under the firft Covenant. 

VIII. Others fay, that it began at Chrifts Incar* 
nation, when he took the Nature of Man, and there- 
with all our Perfons. 

IX. Others fay, that it began on his Crofs, or at 
leaft, at his Humiliation, and that he only fuffered 
in our perfons. 

X. Others fay, that it begins at our Believing 
and our Union with Chrift by Faith 5 and then he 
by Union perfonateth us. 

XI. They deny Gods Covenant or Law of Inno* 
cerjey, that required our Perfonal Obedience, as the 
condition of Life. 

XII. They forge a Law that God never made* 
that faith, Thou, or thy Surety, Jhall Ckty Perfettly> 
or Dye. 

XIII. They falfly fay, that God juftifyeth none 
that are not really or imputatively perfectly Inno- 
cent, Obedwit, and fuch as never Sinned^ but kept 
all that Law. 

XIV. They confound Gods Covenant with Chrift 
as Mediator, impofing on him his Mediatorial part* 
and the Covenant of the Father and Son, with 
fain Man, impofing on them the terms of Recovery 
and Life. 

XV. They hold that the firft Law ( and fome 
of then* alfo Mofu r % Law) is done away as to 


Chap. %. of their Errours defcribed. ^ 

all the Eleft, but is ftill in force to ali the Re- 
probates, and was in force to Chrift: But whe- 
ther it bound him to Obedience as our Repre- 
fentative antecedently to mans fall, or only con- 
fequently, they are in their confulion at a lofs. And 
they hold that its curfe and penalty fentenced af- 
ter the fall by God, fell on all the Reprobate and 
on Chrift? but none of it on any of the Eleft, as 
having been fuftered by Chrift fully for them. 

As I have faid, The promiilary part of that 
Law ceafed, and fo did the condition of the pro* 
mife, by mans fin making it impoflible $ but the 
threat did tr an fire in fententiam : And if Chrift 
was antecedently in the bond of Obedience for us, 
he was bound not to Eat of the forbidden Tree, 
and bound to drefs the Garden, and bound to take 
Eve for his Wife, &c. which are all falfe. 

If he were bound by it as our reprcfentative 
after the fall, it bound him when it ceafed, and 
bound not us, which is falfe : And therefore it 
was only the Law of perfeft Innocency anew im- 
pofed on himfelf, by the Mediatorial Covenant 
that bound him. 

And if the Penal Sentence and Curfe, be Exe- 
cuted on all the Reprobate, then it is not ceafed :< 
And then it muft be a Penalty, and that Curfe, even 
on the Eie£t before they believe, becaufe till then, 
they have no part in Chrift. And after they 
believe, they muft bear part of that Penalty, called 
a Curfe, which was fixed, and not reverfed and 
pardoned ; that is, The privation of thofe degrees 
of Grace,Peace,and Joy,which they fhould have had 
if there had been no fin : The Curfe on the Earthy 
Sorrow in Child-bearing* and Death : Thefe ceafe 
not now to bePenals, but are SandtiSed Penalties. 
A Curfe turned to a Blefllng i an Evil made a 


io An Hundred of Chap. 2. 

Medicine to our good \ Correction is truly Penal, 
tho' profitable; Chriit fufFered to attain his own 
Ends* and not to crofs them \ His Ends was noc 
co free the Elect from his own Government, or 
Corre&ing Juftice. 

XVI. They affirm, that the Covenant is made 
only with Chriit, for us, but not with us : As it God 
made none with man, and Baptizing and Cnrifti- 
a'nity were not Covenanting. 

XV II. They feign God to have made an eternal 
Covenant with his Son \ that is, God impofing on 
God, the Law of Mediation. 

XVIII. They moll dangeroufly affirm, that Chrifl 
took not only the punilhment of our fin, and that 
guilt, or Rettumpxn^ which is an alTumed obliga- 
tion to fufler the punifhment deferved by us, (to be 
Vic arms poea<£) but til our very Sins the mf elves : the 
very Bjjencc of the Sin of all tbeEktt j the Reatnm 
Culpa : Sq that, tho 7 he never did fin himfelf, yet 
ail our fins, habitual and aftual, pofitive and pri- 
vative, of commifiion and omiffion, became truly 
and properly Chrifts own fins : And fo, that he was 
truly judged a hater and blafphemer of God and 
Holinefs, and the greateft murderer, adulterer, 
thief, lyar, perjured Traytor in all the World, the 
fins of all the Eleft being truly His fins. Of which 
Dr.Crifp is pofitive and large. 

XVI11I. They fay, that God laid thefe fins of 
ours on him? and made him properly fin for us> and 
not only a Sacrifice for fin : And fo, that God is the 
Maker of the greateft Sin. 

XIX. They fay, that Gods Imputation being truly 
but the accounting one to be what he is 5 had not 
God made him a Sinner, his imputing or reckoning 
him fuch, had been a Lye ; which is true, tho' they 
infer Falfhood from it, taking Imputation of Sin, 
ftriftly for a true Efthnatioir. XX. They 

Chap. 2. their Errours defcriled. n 

XX. They that make this Imputation to be be- 
fore the Incarnation, make God to make himfelf 
this great Sinner \ that is, Chrift while he was 
meer God : And fo make us a wicked God. When 
Satan can but Tempt us to fin, and its not proved 
that any one Devil is guilty of all mens fins, they 
make God guilty of all ; yea? they that lay it on 
Chrift only after his Incarnation, lay it on him that 
is God. 

XXI. They that feign Chrift to have perfonated 
us in his firft Covenant of Redemption, make us by 
him, to have Covenanted to Redeem our felves, 
and to do the Mediator-work. 

XXII. They feign Chrift to have made fuch an 
Exchange with the Eled, zi that having taken all 
their Sins, he hath given them all his Righteouf- 
nefs j not only the Fruit of it, but the Thing in it 
fdf : So that they are as perfe&ly Righteous as 
Chrift himfelf, and fo efteemed of God. 

But here they differ ; i. Some fay we have only 
all his Pajjive Righteoiifwfs : Some fay alfo all his 
Atttve: 3, Others alfo all his Habitual: 4. Others, 
all his EJfemial Divine Rijvbteoufntfs - y and fo are 

XXIII. This perfect Righteoufnefs, they fay we 
have at leaft from the time of Chrift's death, be^ 
fore we were born, or had any perfonal Beeing. 

XXIV. Hereby they muft needs feign Chrift, and 
us to be one and the fame Subjeft ; or elfe the 
fame Acciderits, Habits, Adls and Relations to be 
in divers Subjects? (till the fame, which is a contra- 

XXV. Hence they fay, that the eled have no fir^ 
becaufe it is ajl Chrift 7 s,and cannot be his and theirs 

XXVI. They fay that Ghrift having perfeftly 

G done"' 

12 An Hundred of Chap. 2, 

done the Work of a Saviour, we are perfectly fa- 
vcd, and want nothing neceifary to Salvation. 

XXVII. They fay ai] fin paft, prefent, and to 
come, are pardoned, even that not committed 
( that is no fin. ) 

XXV III. They fay, that it is not poffible that fin 
can do an eleft Perfon any hurt, Chrift having been 
a perfect Saviour from it all ; fo Dr. Crifpc. 

XXIX. They fay, that no Prayer, or Duty, or 
Act of Man, am do us any good, or further our 
Salvation, Chrift only having done it already for 
us : fo Crifpe. 

XXX- They add 5 that to pray,hear,read,obey, or 
do any Dutv,^ * means to our own GqoJ^t Salvation^ 
is to fin againft the Free Grace of Chrift : But that 
we muft do it, 1. In thankfulnefs to Chrift, that 
hath faved us. 2. And for the good of others. 

As if it were not 2s injurious to Erne Grace-, to 
feck other mens Salvation as our own ; or we might 
not do good in love to our felves, as weil as to our 
Neighbours : Or, as if we ought not to plow, fow, 
labour, eat, drink, build, &c. for our good ; 
bccaufe Chrift is all: By this it feemeth, that 
Dr. Crifpe did not preach or write his Books to do any 
good; becaufe he took that to be a deny a] of Chrifts 

XXXI- They fay, that under Mofes Law, David 
and theEkft, were not pardoned, till they had fa- 
crificcd: But under the Gcfpel? all the~ele£t are 
abfolutely pardoned, without any delay, or condi- 
tion) or means on their part ; as if there had been 
fo vaft a difference between the Fruits of Chrift> 
and the way of his Juftification, then and now. 

XXXII. They fay, that Pardon and Juftification 
src abfolutely perfeft at thefirft, and fo no more 
fin to be after forgiven, nor any^puni'&ment to be 
remitted or removed, XXXIII. 

Chap. z. their Err ours defcriled. |Jjj 

XXXIII. They fay, that no eleft perfon fuffereth 
any the leaft punifhment*, becaufe all is forgiven, 
and Chriftfufferedall-, and that no Pain or Corre- 
ction is now penal, or for fin. 

XXXIV. They talk of our being freed from the 
Law, in fo undiftinguifhing univerial Words;, 
they knew no Law, but that of Innocency to ^jffam, 
and that of Mofes to the fcivs, and thought it wefre 
a priviledge to be lawlefs, or that Chrifl:had no 
Law ; and fo there were no Tranfgreffibn. 

XXXV. They hold , that Chrilt was to fcatfl- 
Maker, and fo muft infer, that he was no Kinfe, 
and had no Laws of his own, to Govern or Jndgp 
by-, and fo deny a chief Part of his Office,- and 
his Kingdom, and Government, who is King of 

XXXVI. They fay, If God fhould punifh any fin 
of the eleft, it would be injnftice-, becaufe it is all 
punifhed already on Chrift, and the Debt -is f ally 
paid by him. 

XXXVII. They take GodVCovenantsand Laws 
to be things fo different, as that a LaWMs-hotChis 
Covenant, nor his Covenant a Law: 'Whereas 
AiaQmn fignifieth both ; that is> God's Statnte^Law, 
containing the determinate Terms of E)aty , Re* 
ward and Punifhment,- Life and Death r-a*)d both 
have the fame parts, his Law having Precepts, 
Prohibitions, Promifes, and Threatnihgs \ and 
his Covenant, as his hath the fame: c> And when 
it its rwQmn, it becometh a mutual Covenant by 
mans Confent ; and the Law bindeth Subjafts to 
that Confent. 

XXXVIII. They are fo- much for aChrrfl with* 
out us, that they write as if the Work pf Chrift 
within usr and by us, were a Difhonour to Chrift, 
that caufeth it, if we praife it : As if the Praife 

C i o$ 

24 An Hundred of Chap. 2,. 

of the Stru&ure were a difhonour to the Builder ; 
or the Cure were a difhonour to the Phyiitian^ or 
the Glory of the World, if praifed, were a diiho= 
rouringof God. God praifethhis Servants, and 
their Grace and Works - but if we praife them, 
thevfov, we rob Chrift of his honour. 

XXX-1X. They feem to hold, that Chrift doth 
.all the Work of our Salvation, immediately, with- 
cout Inftruments, or Means : And all that is afcri* 
bed to.fubordmate Caufes, were derogate from 
■him": And fo Apoftles, Miracles, ^cripture, Wri- 
c f5ngs* Preaching, were no Means of Good, or tor- 
jhitd Chrift r as if Sun and Moon, Angels and 
Men, difiionoured God. 

XL. While they fay,that no Duty muft be done, 
for our own good, or falvation, they deftroy natu- 
ral ncceflary felf love, and direftly would drive out 
fill -true -Religion from the World, and harden aH 
the-wic^duixurjgodlinefs/by taking away thofe 
Motives, without which: no men are converted, or 
favefl^«KH?eptfro'r)i-fih. " 

:;fjXU^?Ehcy hold, that whatever Law or Promile 
in Scripture-, hath any condition, is part of the Law 
of Works ; And that the Law or Covenant of 
Grace, yiafdrily of what God will adtually and ab- 
folut^ly himfeireiTed, or that Effi'cience it felf; 
as if the Gofpel were a .Law of Works: 

XLIL Accordingly, they hold, that God doth 
not mkke any conditional Promife, or threatning 
a means of his Spirit, or Chrifts communicating 
©f Free Grace : And & that the Gofpel hath no 
conditional Promifes , tho' there be -conditional 
Words} not understanding that God, who is 
Life, Light, and Love •, Power, Wifdora and 
Goodiiefs-, worketh by all three, and printeththe 
feage of ail on his Eleftr working by efficient Mo- 

Ch$p. 2. their Errours defcriled. r ^ 

tion, fapiental Order, and amorous attraftive com* 

XL I II. They hold, that no mens fins were the 
caufe of Chrifi* % Sufferings, but the Elefts : And 
that the reft are damned for want of a fufficient 
Sacrifice offered for them. 

XL1V. They hold, that all the Mercies that the 
Non eleft have in all the world, are given them 
without the Purchafe oi* Chrifi. 

XLV. Yea, many hold, that none but the Ele<3 
have any Grace, or any Mercy : becaufe it will 
end in their Damnation: And fo Conference hath 
no juft Accufation , in Hell, or here, as for any 
finning againft Mercy, nor do they owe God 
thanks for any. 

XLV1. Whereas God hath made, through Chrifi , 
a general Aft of Grace, or Gift of Chrifi, Par- 
don, and Life eternal, to all ther World, on con- 
dition of fiducial Acceptance of it as a Free Gift, 
and commanded the Offer of it to ail ; and will 
doubly condemn the final Refufer; and by this 
Gofpel-gift, as his Inftrument, pardoneth, and 
juftifieth the believing accepters. Thefe men de= 
ny the very being of this Gofpel- Aft: They deny 
it to be either Chrffii Law, or Covenant , or 

XLV II. They hold, that Chrifi, in our ftead, 
did all that the Law bound us to do ; as if he 
had been a Husband, a Father, a Souidier. &c. 

XLV III. They fay, That Chrifts fatisfaftion 
by Sacrifice, was the the fohuiq^ ejufdem^ the pay- 
ment of the fame debts of fuffering that was due 
tp us - ? and not properly fatisfaftion, which is ? 
Redditio equivalent is, or tantidem alias in debit i : 
as if he had fuffered death Spiritual by lofs of 
Holinefs, and the torments of Hell by an accu- 

C 3 fing 

1 6 An Hundred of Chap. 2 . 

ling Confcience, and the hatred of God. 

XLIX. They fay, That by the Imputation of 
his Righteoufnefs, habitual and actual, we are judg- 
ed perfe&ly Juft-, that is, fuch as have no fin, yet 
he fuffered in our Perfon for our fins \ which we 
are reputed never to have. 

L. TThey fay, That the Inherent and Aftive 
Righteoufnefs which confifteth in our Faith, Re- 
pentance, Love, and fincere Obedience, wrought by 
Chrifl in us, doth not Conftitute us Righteous in 
Subordination to Chrifts meritorious Righteoufnefs, 
ill any part or degree i that is, than it is Righte- 
oufnefs, that in tanmm % maketh no man ever the 
more Righteous, than if he had it not •, q. d. 
Albedo qua non facit album, or Pat emit as qua non 
confntmt Patrem^ not diftinguilhng HKipe'fitl and 
particular Righteoufnefs. 

LI. They talk of Juilihcation, in meer igno- 
rant confulion \ not knowing the various fenfes of 
the Word, or the divers parts of the Work: 
They deride, that diftinftions which no reafon can 
deny; they confound J*Jhfying Efficiently, Justify 
trig Conftitntively, Juftifying Virtually by the Gofpel- 
67/V, or L-voo of Grace ^ Justifying by Evidence ^ 
Jjtfkifying by Witnefs^jHsiifying by Pita zndsJdvocatc, 
Jiiftifytng by Judicial Sentence^ and by Execution. 
They fee the Caufes againft each others, as if in 
were a thing that had but one Gaufe •, when they 
meet with the word ufed for Sentential Jyftifka- 
tion by decifive Judgment •, they Exclude all the in- 
cluded and fuppofgd Ads, that is, m<&ing Men juft 
Efficiently, conjHtHtive Matter and Form, or Subject 
and Relation \ the G off el Donation and Condonation 
and ali fuch previous Ads : And when they have 
done, not knowing what they affirm or deny ; they 
only cry up, the name of Chrifts Righteoufnefs- lm- 


Chap. 2. their Errours defcrihed. i j 

puted, not knowing what Imputation is, nor what 
fort of Caufe Chnfts Righteoufnefs is, whether Ef* 
ficient, or Material, or Formal by Conjiitution, and 
and think its true Meritorious Caufality is too Ik* 
tie. And in their defcription, exclude fentcmial 
dec -i five Juftification, which they had denominated 
it to be, making it to be only the Donation of 
Chnfts perfect Right eoufnefs as ill its Effence, to be 
ours-, and fo joyning the efficient and conftitutive 
Caufes, yet leaving out the lnftrumental Efficient* 
which is the Gofpcl Donation, or Covenant-Gift, and 
calling Faith the inftrumemal Caufe, which is no 
Efficient Caufe, but a Moral Reaption of the Free- 
Gift , and a Moral Qualification as a Receptive Con- 
dition^ for our Title to the pofleflion : And where- 
as God never Judged a man Righteous, till he had 
made him Righteous •, they fay, That to Juftify, 
is not to wake Righteous, but to judge Righteous 
and yet defcribe judging by making : Yea, and ex- 
clude the fentential Juitification at the day of Judg- 
ment, thinking that it is all perfectly at our firffc 
Jultification Sentenced. As if God the Father, 
Chrift as King, or Prophet, the Holy Ghoft, the 
Covenant of Grace, Faith, had no hand in our Ju- 
ltification, but Chrifts Righteoufnefs imputed only. 
LII. They talk much againlt being Juitified by 
the 1° Credere, the A£t of Faith ; and when they 
have done, ignorantly, are the maintayiers of in 
againft thofe that deny it. For when w.e fay 
that Faith doth not Juftify us, as that Phrafe fig- 
nifieth Efficiency > but that we are only faid to be 
Jnftifed-by it, as iignlfyinga Receptive Condition, 
or (Salification \ they fay, that it Juftifieth us 
as an inftrument which is an Efficient Caufe : 
And it is the very Aft or U Credere (or nothing) 
which they call that Inftrument : And thus they 

C 4 make 

18 An Hundred of Chap, £j 

make a War againft themfelves, while they igno- 
raitly accufe they know not what- 

L1II. They blindly take Paul by Works to mean 
nil humane Afts j when as 5 i . The whole fcope of 
his difputing, is, againft Juftifieation by the iVorks^ 
rohich are fet in opposition, or competition with Jufti- 
fieation by Chrift, and by Free Grace^ fuch as the 
Jews thought the keeping of Mofesh Law was \ 
which is the Law that he doth all along fpeak 
of. 2. And he expreflf defcribeth the Work* that 
lie excludeth,to be thoje that are fuppofed to make 
the Reward to be of Debt ( for the value of the Work) 
and not of Grace : And do they know any Prote- 
ft ant that is either for Juftifieation, or Salvation 
by any fuch Works, or for the being of any fuch ? 
3. And is not Faith a humane Att f And doth not 
Paid moft plainly and frequently fay, we are Jm- 
ft 1 fed by it ? Aud did he call Faith, Works? 

LIV. But to anfwer this, they erre as grofly, 
faying, that £by Faith imputed for Rightecufnefs ] 
and our being Juftified by Faith j is not meant the 
the Aft or Habit of Faith, but the Objeft, Chnsih 
RiglqtttHfhefs ; not flicking hereby to turn all fuch 
Texts into worfe than Ntnjence ; Put ChnsPs 
Righteoufnefs inftead of the Word [_ Faith 2 in all 
thofe Texts, and try how it will run? And why 
is Faith named if it have no part in the Senfe ? 
They fay, That it Juftifieth not as a Workj I fay, 
it Juftifieth not efficiently at all \ much lefs 
as a Work^ in Pad's fenfe, that maketh the Re- 
ward to be not of Grace, but of Debt. Nor doth 
it Juftify as an Act in gentre , for then> a quate- 
nns ad omxe, every AH would Juftify ; nor yet 
as a meer good Aft or Work^ : For then, every 
good A3 would Juftify as it doth. But we are 
Juftifkd by, 1 . This Faith in )]w*V,which is our F /- 


Chap. z. their Errours defcribed. jp 

due id Reception of Cbriff. 2. And that as it is 
formally made by God, the condition of our par* 
ticipiation of the Gift, which is Chrift and Ms 
Juftifying Meritorious Righteoufnefs. ChriiE 
is not inftead of Faith, and Faith is not inr 
ftead of Chnft : It is Chrift believed in, 213d 
received •, and not Chrift without belief and rz- 

And when they fay, That it is the OjjeH zvd 
not the Alt - 7 they mifltiply the Proclamations of 
their undiftinguifhing ignorance, unskilfully pre- 
tending to cliftinguifh : For the Objclt Ckrijjt 3 is 
confiderable •, 1- In effe reali, in himfelf. 2- Or 
in ejje objeltivo r which is, but in effe cognito^ in 
Idea or Notion : Chrift in effe reali^ indeed* Ja- 
itifieth us, by Dying for us, and Meriting for us, 
and doing that which Faith never did : But Chrift 
in effe objellivo, or cognito, and in our minds* is the 
form of this Faith in fpecie it feif, and not to be 
Juftified by the Alt of Faith in Chrift, is not to 
be Juftified by the Objed as fuch •, for the Ob- 
ject efTentiafly fpecifieth the All j thus illogycal 
heads confound Holy things. 

LV. But thefe that muft have the 01] ft of this 
Faith only to Juftify, exclude moft effential parts 
of the Object it felt The Baptifmai Faith, is 
not their Juftifying Faith : Belief in God the Fa- 
ther, and in the Holy Ghoft, is none of it , and 
fo God the Father, and the Holy Ghoft, are none 
of the Juftifying Objeft ; when as it is eflential 
to Chrift, as the Objed to be one with the Fa- 
ther, and fent by Him, and to be his exprefe 
Image, and the way to Him, &c. And to be 
Conceived by the Holy Ghoft, and to be attefted 
and to operate by him. 

LVL Yea, 

An Hundred of Chap. 2, 

LVI. Yea, thefe undiftinguifhers are fuch di- 
viders, that they exclude moll that is effential 
to Chrift himfelf, as Mediator, from being the 
Objeft of their Juftifying Faith : It is not his 
Prophetical Office, nor his Holy Example or Do- 
dirinej nor his Kingly Office, either in Legifla- 
tion or Judgment •, tho' it be as King, that he 
Juftifieth by Sentence and Execution : It is not 
any part of his Prieftly Office, but his Righteouf- 
neis, habitual, inftead of habitual and original Righ- 
teoufnefs; aftive, inftead of our aftive Righteouf- 
nefs ; and paflive inftead of our punifhment ; It 
is not his Prieftly Interceffion in Heaven, nor his 
giving the Holy Ghoft, nor his Railing, Judging, or 
Glorifying us, that are die Objeds of this Faith. 

LVII. But yet they will failacioufly feem fubtile 
by diftinguifhing, and fay, that tho' none of thefe 
are the Objefts of Fides qua Juftificat, Faith as 7«fti- 
fy* n & Y et ^ey are the Objects of Fides qu* Jufiificar, 
of that Faith which Juftifieth by another Aft, meer 
fallacy. 1. Here they muft take Faith for the Ha- 
bit j for if it were for the Atk, two divers Afts are 
not the fame. 2. How is that Habit qnajuftificat, 
when they fay only Reception by its Inftrumenta- 
lity Juftifieth •> and that's only the A& ? 3. But 
■qua fuiiificnt fallaciouily implyeth that Faith Ef- 
ficiently Juftifieth, whereas it is only a Dijpofitio 
Moralis Receftiva as a Conditio?i (and they deny 
its conftitutiveCaufality) and that {Fides qua JF* 
des, Jusiifieth at all) and as a difpofitive Con- 
dition, it is a belief in much more than Chrifts 
Imputed Righteoufnefs. 

LVIII. And thefe ill dividing men, pretending 
to fubtiky, telling us, that it is but one Aft of Faith 
by which it juftifieth, are fo far from being able 
to tell what that one Aft is, That, it is enough 


Chap. z. their Errors clifcrilecL z I 

to call all their Difciples into defpair, if, till 
they know it, they mull not know that they are 

LIX. For they feign it to be one only Phyfieal 
Ait, whereas, in Moral Subjects, an Aft comain- 
eth many Phyfieal Afts : Faith in Chrill is a Cove- 
nanting Aft, like a contraft of Marriage, or be- 
tween Prince and Subjefts, or Captain arxi Soldiers, 
which is many Phy ileal Afts. ' 

LX. Hereupon they are at a lofs in what facul- 
ty it is, whether the Intellects Alfent, or the Wills 
Content* or Affiance or Practical Obedience ; and 
whether it be one Aft only mtmero, or only /peac, 
and what individuates an Aft ? 

LXI. And they unavoidably call men upon their 
fuppofed Jufiifcationby works, while they feign all 
Afts, lave that one (they know not what) to be 
Works : Yea, many take every Aft to be Works , as 
is aforefaid. 

As when they fay, that it is only rcfting on Chrifts 
Rightcoitfmfs^ as made burs in it felf by 'imputation ; 
they hereby make the Belief of the Godhead, and 
of the truth of the Gofpel, and of the Life to 
come, and Repentance, and Confeflions, and Love 
to God and to Chrill, and Thankfulnefs, and Prayer, 
and Self-denial," to be all works of the Law, which 
Free Grace in this exciudeth. 

If Ajjent be that one Juftifying Aft, then he that 
thinketh it is Confent, or Hope, or Tr.uft •, or that 
denying his own RighteoufhdTs is any part of it, is 
fallen from Grace, by looking for Juftification by 

LX1I. They do.notonly fay, that Grace is not 
free, if it have any politive Condition, but alfo if 
it have any negative Condition ; that is, that if a 
pardon be offered a Traytor, on Condition that 


%z An Hundred of Chap. 2. 

he will not refufe it, caft it in the fire, and fpit in 
the Face of him than ofFereth it, or will not feek 
his Death : this is no free pardon, unlefs he may- 
have leave to hate and (tab the Prince that pardon- 
eth him. 

And here you fee what thefe take for Works ; e- 
ven fuch things as are neither Works nor Adls at 
2ll, but meer nothings. Not to refill;, oppofe, re- 
fufe, difpife Grace : not to believe the Devil and 
his agents, that call Chrift a deceiver, and that de- 
ny God and the life to come : I do not fay, that 
fuch meer negatives are all the condition of par- 
don and juftification ; but thefe are included in the 
pofitive condition , and yet to take any of thefe 
for any part of the condition, is fuppofed to be, 
to look for Juftification by Work*-* becaufe all fuch 
conditions are taken for Works, fave one fimple 
Aft of Faith. 

LXIII. This is becaufe they know not what a 
meer Condition is, when they have laid Salva- 
tion on the denial of it j when as it is no caufe 
at all (as fetch) of the efFefts, but as impofed, it 
is a bar put to the efFeft till the Condition be 
performed \ as the Lawyers fay, Lex addita nego- 
tio qua donee pr&fletiir event urn fa fpevd.it ; and as />£*"- 
formed, it is the removing of that impediment. O- 
pening the Windows? or not (hutting them is no 
caufe of the Light ; nor opening our Eye-lids any 
caufe of our feeing; but a removing of that which 
# bindereth the light: It is a neceJfary difpofition of 
the Receiver, but no efficient caufe of the efFecft \ 
and fo is Faith to our Juftification or Pardon. 

And therefore note? That whereas many Reform- 
ing Proteftants write for the inftrumentall Intereffc 
of Faith in our Juftification, I number not them with 
the forementioned fubverters of the Gofpel \ for 


Chap. 2. their Errors deferred. 23 

by Injtrumentality they mean no Efficiency, but Recep- 
tivity ; unhappily ufing the name of anlnftrument 
improperly and without due explication ; and as 
Dr. Twife tolerably calleth it, Can [am .dtfpofitivam 
fubjetti recipient is 5 fo Dr. Kendal likeneth it to 
boys playing at ball or cat? that make their hats 
the inftruments to catch the ball or cat in: This 
giveth them no efficiency fo that they only mif- 
carry by choofing an equivocal Name, and place- 
ing too much of the Controvcrfie on that Name, 
when there be proper words enough at hand •, and 
alfo' in that they diflinguifh not duly between 
Phyfical and Moral Reception , when they fliould tell 
us that Faith is not the Phyfical, but the Moral 
Reception of Chrift, to Receive infenfu Phyjico^ is no- 
thing elfe but to be the Paffive t tr minus &i -an Agents 
efficiency, and is fignified by Paffive Verbs. To 
receive Jnflificatto/7, Salification, Adoption Phyfi- 
cally, is nothing but Jufttficari, Sanftificari, &x. 
to be Juftified, Sanftified, Adopted: But to re- 
ceive Morally, is sJtcipere, to accept the gift by 
confent, and exercife that confent by contrad, 
and containeth (as is aforefaid) many Phyfical 
ACts i as to receive a Tutor, a Matter, a Phyfiti- 
an, a King, a Husband, &c. And fuch is Faith, 
a receiving (not of righteoufnefs only) but of 
Chrift with all his offered benefits. 

And when they fay, that other Ads or Graces. 
may be Conditio?*, but none but Faith is the Infiru- 
ment-j 1. Certainly that called by them Inltrumenta- 
lity, is but the ii credere-, the Aft it felfinfpecie, and 
the Condit tonality is the near eft reafon of its In- 
tereft in our Juftification- 2. And there is no- 
thing more in the Nature of Affent, Trufi, or any 
Adt of Faith, befides msec Acceptance or Confent^ 
why they fhould be called Receiving, than in Lwe 3 


zj± An Hundred of Chap, 2, 

Defr'Cj Gladnefs, Hope, or Setkhiv. 3. And Ac* 
ctyting Chrift as our Teacher, King, and Inter- 
cefior in Heaven? is as much conditional and ne- 
ceflary to our Juftification and Salvation, as ac- 
cepting his Juftitication and Deliverance from 
Puniihment. That which men are molt averfe to 
1 Love, Holinefs, and Obedience) is made the Con- 
dition of that which men more eafily accept. 

And indeed thofe that (in fenfn Phyfico) they 
call Other Conditional Acts, are but modifications, 
or parts of the fame Moral ACl which is the Con- 
dition- The Faith by which we are juftified, is 
that true Cbnftianny which includeth our believe- 
ing content to God the Father, Son, and Holy- 
Ghofti our belief of Chrift, and our thankful ac- 
ceptance of him to be our Teacher? Interceflbr or 
Prieft, and King, with his offered Grace 5 and that 
this acceptance is with Drfrc, Love, and ffl&ff§ 
cxpreft in a holy Contract or Covenant. This 
is the Souls Marriage with Chrift* and Allegiance 
to him, and it includeth the renouncing our truft 
in all Creatures, or in any Righteoufnefs of our 
own* fo far as they would ufurp the leaft part 
of -Guilt's Office, Work, or Honour. 

None of all this is Juftification by Works. 
LXIV. They erroneously tell us, That nothing 
is properly a Condition, which is it felf a Free 
Gift. As if God could not Command and Give 
the fame thing, and make his Command a con- 
gruous means of Giving. 

LXV. They erroneoufly hold, that nothing can 
be called a Condition of one Gift of the Cove- 
nant, which is not a Condition of all : Whereas 
God hath many Anticedent Gifts before any Con- 
dition be forauch asimpofed: Without any Con- 
dition, he gave us our Being, and gave us a Sa- 

Chap. z. their Err ours defcriled. z$ 

viour, and the Gofpel, and the conditional Co- 
<umant, and offers of Grace : And why may not 
the reception and ufe (or not reje&ing) of a for- 
mer Gift of Grace, be made a condition of the 
giving of more? To him that hath^ Jha/I be given z 
may not Faith be the gift of God ; and yet be the 
condition of Juftincatioir and Salvation ? 

LXVf. They erroneoufly hold, that when a man 
is once juftified, the continuance of his juftifica- 
tion 13 Abfolute* and hath no impofed conditions: 
contrary to Chrifts own words, Joh. 15, and ma- 
ny plain texts of Scripture. 

LXVlI. They erroneoufly put Free Grace and 
Free Will in fuch opposition, as if nothing could 
be an ad of Free Grace, which impofeth any con- 
dition on Free Will: which is true, if by Free 
Will they mean Freedom of Natural fufficiency, 
as Free without Grace from vitious habits and 
inclinations ; for we have no fuch Free Will : But 
thefe men know not what Free Will is, nor di- 
ftinguifh Freedom, from Prohibitions, and from 
Conftraint, and neceffitating predeterminating effi- 
cient Premotion, from Moral Freedom. 

LXVIIF. In fome points forementioned about 
Faith and Juftification, the unapt Words and Me- 
thods of fome Reformers give them advantage ; 
But Dr. Criffc and the grofs A«tiwmians , take 
Faith to be neither Caufe nor Condition of Jufti- 
fication, but meerly the receptive belief, that we 
are Juftified already (before we were born)-, fo 
that Faith juftifieth only in our confidences, which 
is but to be confeiqus that w r e are Juftified. 

LXIX." Accordingly Dr. Crifpe maintaineth, that 
Election and Juftiftcation are known only by two 
means, The Spirit within revealing it, and Faith 
receiving it ; that is , The Spirit inwardly fay- 

8 5 

2.(5 An Hundred of Chap. 2. 

ing, Thou art Elcft and Juftificd, and Faith be- 
lieving this ; fo that neither of thefe Juftifie us, 
but only make us know ir. 

JLXX. They naiitafce the meaning of the Wit- 
mfs of the Spirit •, As if it were but an inward 
Inspiration and Impulfe equal to a voice, faying, 
Tim art Eiett and Juftifitd - y Whereas it is an 
Inherent Imprefs, and lb an objeftive Evidencing 
witnefs 5 even the Divine Nature, and Image of God, 
and the habit of Divine filial Love, by which Gods 
Spirit marketh us out as adopted : As likenefs 
of the child to the Father, and love, are an evi- 
dencing witnefs of true Son-(hip: Anda£*Reafon 
is a witnefs that we are Men, And as Learning 
h a witnefs that we are Learned: So San&ity is 
an evidencing witnefs that we are the children of 
God; HcUiefs to \hi Lord^ is his Mark: And 
he that nameth the name ofChrifty departing from 
iniquity, hath Gods Imprefs : Yet there are other 
fubfequent parts of the Spirits witnefs; that 
is, 1 . Caufing us to exercife •, 2. And to know the 
Grace that he hath given us; 3. And exciting in 
us a joyful perception of it. 

LXXI. Hereby they deftroy the affurance and 
comfort of mod (if notalmoftall) true Chriftians 
in the world •> becaufe they have not that infpr- 
ration or certain inw 7 ard word of aflurance, that 
they aie Eleft and Juftified. I have known very 
few that faid they had it: And of thofe few, 
fome fell to Debauchery, and fome to doubting. 
And though Prophetical lnfpiration prove it felf 
to them that have it, its not poflible for others 
to know, but that a counterfeit Fanatick conceit 
may be it. 

LXXI I. Hereby the Ungodly are dangeroufly 
tempted to damning preemption, and fecurity : 


Chap. 2. their Errours defer ibed. ±j 

while, if they do but confidently believe that they 
are Eleft and Juftified, they are quieted in fin. 

LXXIV. Dr. Crifpe co'pioufly maintaineth, that a 
Man cannot be fure that he is Juftified either by 
Sincerity , or Vniverfal Obedience , or love to the 
Godly, or any fuch Grace} To the difnqnour "of 
Holinefs, the contradiction of Scripture, and tfte 
overthrow of the comfort of Believers* - 

LXXV. They tell us, that we mtfff not 
fee- times for Prayer, or other Worfliip,y but ffay 
till Gods Spirit move us, or tell us when to^Pfatf. 
As if God were not the God of Order, but cf 
Confufion ; and did not move us as reafonable 
creatures, by a rational guidance of us : They 
would be loth to follow their crooked Rule in 
common things, and to keep no fet-times for their 
Trading, Labours, Dyet and Reft-, and not to 
work or eat, or fleep, till the Spirit moveth then*. 
And God maketh ufe of Reafon and Order, in 
things Spiritual as well as in things Natural :- And 
the Spirits of the Prophets are fubjeft to 

LXXVI. They reprove us for perfwadiiig :: tln- 
converted Men to Pray> becaufe the Prayer of the 
Wicked is abominable *, and they fhould flay till 
they have the Spirit of Prayer : And is a Tavern 
or a Whore-houfe, a fitter place to get that Spi- 
rit, than on their knees by Prayer ? when God 
himfelf faith ; To thee foall all flefi come: jeek 
the Lord while he may be found ; call ufon him while 
he is near : Let the Wicked forfa^s his way $ &c. 
wicked Prayers of wicked men, that are but to 
quiet them in fin, are abominable ; and no prayer 
of an Impenitent unbeliever hath any promife of 
certain fuccefs. But Ahab, and Nineve^ and mil- 
lions of Sinners have found, that there are force 

D prayers 

2 8 An Hundred of Chsp. 2. 

prayers of the unregenerate, that are better than 
none- And do they think > when we perfwade 
them to Pray^ that we perfwade them to conti- 
nue Impenitent? No, it is but perfwading them 
to Turn and Live: For praying is a returning 
inotiQn, and we fay but as Peter , Repent and Pray 7 
if Wfha^s the thoughts of thy heart may be forgiven 
thee. Not to exhort men to Pray, is not to ex- 
hort- them to defire Grace, and true Converlion : 
^Cpmmon Grace, and Natural Self- lore have their 
defires, which are not all in vain ; its better to 
be necr the Kingdom of God, than to be difpi- 
fei s of it. 

God hath fixed the time of the .Lord's day, and 
the undifpofed mud not fay, we will not keep it 
till the Spirit move us; As it is a duty to Re- 
lieve the Poor, fo it is to Pray, as foon as God 
commandeth it; and none mull fay, I will not 
Give or Pray till the Spirit move me, but wait for 
more help of the Spirit in the way of duty. 

LXXVII. That, becaufe no man can come to 
Chrift too foon, therefore no man can too foon 
believe that he is Eleft and Juftified, though 
he have no evidence to prove it, and though he 
know not God, or Chrift, or the Spirit, or the 

LXXVIII. That men are bound to Believe that 
Chrift Believed for them, and Repented for them, 
and muft no more queftion their Faith and Re- 
pentance than they muft queftion Chrift (as Salt- 
may fj fpeaketh)? as if Chrift had had Sin to repent 
of, or a Saviour to fave him from it ; and, as if 
this were no Covenant-Condition required of our 
felves, as necefTary to our Juftification. They 
may next fay, Chrift that is Holy for them, lhall 
be Sayed ia ftead of them, 

LXXIX. That 

Chap, 2. their Err ours defer ihed. 29 

LXXIX. That to Believe, that we are Eleft and 
Juftified, is fides Diving a Believing the word of 
God, becaufe his Spirits witnefs of it, by infpi- 
ration is his word. 

LXXX. That nothing done by an unregenerate 
man, by common Grace, maketh him any fitter 
to Believe and be Converted, than if he were 
without it, becaufe it is fin. 

LXXXI. That it is no Grace, which is not 
unrefiftible ; and becaufe we cannot Merit it, we 
cannot refill:, and forfeit it. 

LXXXII. That Pardon and Juftification, being 
perfeft, the firft Moment of our faith, there- 
fore it is only one momentous Aft of Faith on- 
ly that Juftifieth us-, and no Aft of Faith it felf 
Juftifieth us after that hour. This is held by the 
more moderate fort, who fay not, that we are 
Juftified before Faith. 

LXXXIII. That we mult ad from Life, but 
not for Life -, as if Natural Life were not to be 
ufed for Spiritual Life. 

LXXXIV. They hold, That Sin being all (paft, 
prefent, and future J Pardoned at firft, we muffc 
not ask Pardon any more, but only the fuller Be- 
lief arid Senfe of pardon. 

LXXXV. They hold, that no Sin, or declining 
of a Juftified Perfon, fhould ever make him doubt 
of his Juftification. 

LXXXVI. They hold, that the meaning of Rontl 
8. 28. is, That all the fin that an Eled, or Jufti* 
iied man committeth, fhall certainly work for his 
greater good, when the Text fpeaketh but of 
Enemies and Sufferings, and all the Providences 
of God ; As if it were the way of God's Wife 
and Holy Government, fo far to encourage men 
to fin* as to affure all that love God beforehand* 

z that 

^0 An Hundred of Chap, i, 

that the more they fin, the better it {hall be for 
them* whereas he hath filled the Scripture with 
fo many terrible threatnings againft Sin andBackfli- 
ding. And? as if no Juffcified perfon, by fin, did 
ever gnow worfe than before, or love God lefs, 
or at ail difpleafe him. Or it were for our good 
to be worfe, and love God lefs, or difpleafe him, 
or lofe any meafures of Grace and Glory ( in 

LXXXV1I. They take Jullification in the Great 
day of Judgment, to be none of our proper Jufti- 
fication by Faith, becaafe that was done before j 
but a Declaration of k: As if Juftification had 
but one degree, and the. word but one fence ; or 
any were perfefter Jullification than that, and a 
Decifive Sentential Declaration, were not the 
moft eminent. 

LXXXVIII. Thofethat confefs works of Obe- 
dience to Ghrift? to be the Condition of Glorifi-? 
cation, yet deny it to be a Condition of Juftifica- 
ticn ip Judgment ^ when as to Juftifie us in Judg- 
ment, is to Juftifie our right to Imputity and 
Glory, and fo the Condition muft be the fame- 

LXXXIX. Though God oft, and plainly faith, 
That all men fhall be judged according to their 
works, and according to what they have done in the 
Body, [good or evil] *, and to judge, is cither by 
decifive fentence to Juftifie? or to Condemn; or 
executively to Reward and Glerify, or to Punifh -, 
yet many that Confefs that men (hall be fo Judg- 
ed^ do deny that they ihail be fo Juftifisd, though 
Justifying be Judging, 

XC. Though the w 7 ord ^According to their 
works'} do plainly fignify? The Caufe to be then de^ 
uded^ in order to the fentence of Salvation or 
Damnation; andChrift Mat. 25. and elfewhere, 


Chap. 2. their Err ours defcrihed. 3 { 

hath largely enumerated the parts of that Caufe, 
and call it Righteoufnefs, and that with a Ca*- 
fal particle; and though the Scripture mention 
our inherent and atted Rightcoufnefs, (in terms 
of the fame fignificationj above Six hundred times ^ 
and that as the thing that pleafeth God, and that 
he loveth, hateing the contrary, telling, us that 
the unrighteous fhall not enter into Heaven, &c w 
Yet do they feign, that all that Godlinefs which 
hath the promife of this Life, and That to come, 
and which God, is faid as a Righteous Judge to 
Reward and Crown, is mentioned only as a fign 
of the Elctt and Righteous, and of Faith, and not 
as the Caufe to be then decided, or as a Re- 
warded thing. And for whom is this^/foib- 
lemnly produced ? God knoweth us without Signs : 
His Light in our Confciences will make us know 
j our felves, by Internal Perception- And if it 
r be to confute the Devil and his fervants that (lan- 
der us, it is for want of Rightcoufnefs, and not 
only for want of figns of it, that we areaccuf- 
ed ; and it is more than figns that muft confute 
them for our Juftification. And the Judgment 
is not to be managed as at a human judicature^/ 
talking it out with every Perfon, but by an uni- 
verfally convincing Light, that at once can fnevv 
every man in the World his own particular cafe, 
as in it felf $ it is not Signi y but Rghtccnp/:/^ that 
hath the promifes of Reward : And there is no 
Righteoufnefs that fo far maketh not a man Righ- 
teous, and fo far Juftifiable. 

XCI. They ( fome of them) fay, that we fliall 
need no Juftification againft any falfe Accufation : 
For who fhould accufe us ? Chrift will not, Con- 
fidence will not \ and Devils, fay they, will have 
fomething elfe to do : And they, know that falfe 

D. 1 accufa- 

3 2 An Hundred of Chap. i. 

accufation will be in vain before fuch a Judge. The 
fum of this, is, that there will indeed be no day of 
Judgment , and no Juftification by decifive Sen- 
tence ; yea, and no Salvation ", for a&ual Glorifi- 
cation will be a Sentence, manifefted by Executi- 
on ( which Mr. Laxvfon thought was called the 
Judgment- ) And if no Judgment? then no Judge, 
no Reward, no Condemnation, and no Punifhment : 
If any Judgment, there muft be Perfons, and a 
Caufe to be tryed and judged, i. The Caufe of 
that day, will not be, whether Chrift be a fufficient 
Saviour, or have made fufficient fatisfa&ion ? It 
is not for Chrift to judge himfelf: It is not to 
judge God, whether he cledted us ? It is not to 
judge, whether we were of the Seed of Adam, or 
whether we ever finned ? Or whether the Law of 
Innocency condemn us \ And our fin deferve ever- 
lafting Punifhment ? There is no juftifying us a- 
gainft any fuch Accufation : It muft be all confefs'd 
we were the finful Children of Adam-, we de- 
ferved Condemnation. But the Caufe will be, 
|I. Whether we arelyable, by Guilt, to future Pu- 
nifliment? And againft this, our Pardon joftify- 
eth us. 2. And, whether we have Right to the 
Heavenly Inheritance ? And in this, the Gofpel- 
Donation, Covenant, or Promife, juftifieth us ; and 
both thro' the Merits of the Sacrifice, and Righ- 
teoufnefs of Chrift. 3. And the other part of 
the Caufe of that day, is, whether we have part 
in Chrift , and the Merits of his Righteoufnefs ? 
In which our Faith, and God's Covenant will ju- 
ftifieus. 4. And the Queftion, being, Whether 
this Faith be that which had the promife , and 
not a Counterfeit \ the defcription of it, by its 
A&s and Part, and not only by adventitious Signs, 
niuft be our juftifying Evidence : The faith that 


Ghap. 2. their Err ours defer tied. 33 

hath the Promife, is eflentially Chriftianity^ or a 
Covenant, accepting of God the Father, Son, and 
Spirit of Chrifi, as our Teacher, Prieft,and King,by 
affiance, expreffed in aflent, confent,and fubje&ion : 
And all that is effential to this •, yea, the neceffary 
integrality and modification have their parts in 
being the Caufe of the day. 

And as to the Cafe of Accufation •, 1. A Virtu* 
al Accufation by the Law, which we have broken, 
and condemneth us, requireth a Juftiftcation, if 
there were no more. 2. The Glory of ChrifP* 
Merits, Righteoufnefs and Grace, requireth a Ju^ 
ftification of us,againft our real Guilt. 3 . And is not 
Satan the Accufer of the Brethren, and that before 
God ? And did not his Malice fo work againfl: Job, 
though God contradi&ed him ? 

It is certain, that fencential and apologetical 
Juftification relates to Accufation ( virtual or a&u- 
al ) and Condemnation. Who frail condemn us, it 
is God thatjuftifieth us ? And if we are not juftifi- 
ed againfl: falfe Accufations, we [hall never be ju* 
ftified againfl; any. 

But we all confefs, that we are made righteous, 
efficiently by Grace, and conftkutively by Righte- 
oufuefs, in defpight of all Satans true accufations> 
and againfl all our own unworthinefs, ungodlinefs* 
( antecedently ) and guilt j and that before all 
Works and Perseverance, fave a true accepting 
Faith in Chrift : But if we fhall in judgment be, 
decifively declared righteous, by that which con- 
ftituteth us righteous i ( of which, no knowing 
man herein can doubt, God judging all things tru- 
ly as they are J then certainly will men by decifive 
declaration, be judged righteous, as being pardo- 
ned and adopted by the Merits of Cbrifi, and qua- 

D 4 lifieci 

34 dn Hundred of Chap. a. 

lilied by true Faith, Repentance and Obedience, 
for that Guifr. 

XCH. They abfurdly hold, that to be juflified, 
as to the fincerity of our Faith, from the charge of 
Hypocrifie, or unfoundncfs, it is not the Juftifica- 
tion of the Perfon : A contradiction that I am 
afhamed to be long in confuting. Is it the Faith 
and not the Perjon that is to be judged ? Is it 
not as it is the Perfons Faith ? What is it to ju- 
ftifie his Faith, but to juftifie him to be a true 6*- 
Ikvmg Cbrifti&n y and fo to be an Heir of the Pro- 
mife : The neceflary qualification of Faith ( if 
It be operative ) is as truly a part of the condi- 
tion of the Promifes,as that Faith be Faith indeed- 

Indeed fome found Divines fay, {_ That Faith 
jhfiifieth as as finntrs^ and Works jnftifitth our Faith ^ 
as i . ..wers. ] But they never meant that 

by justifying our F*ith y it iuftifieth not our Per- 
fons .:. But that we are at lirft, conftituted juft, 
and adopted, upon the condition of a confenting 
covenanting Faith, before we have time to fhew 
it by outward Works \ and that we are continued 
and judged, juilified and intitled to Life, on con- 
dition oi our Performance of the EfTentials of our 

XCill- They, hold, that we are juflified by the 
fame Law or Covenant of Innocency, which con- 
demned us : Becaufe, fay they, we have fulfilled 
it in, and by Chnft^ falily ( as is aforejaid) fup- 
pofijig, that Chnft w 7 as either fuch a Surety as was 
in the fame Bond , disjunctively with the princi- 
pal, or.elfe that the principal ( man ) was allow- 
ed to do his Duty, or bear his Suffering by ano- 
. ther : And fo they deny the Gofpel- Covenant* and 
Gift, vviiich is that indeed, which juftifieth us by 
. fchQ. way* of Rederppuon 5 falfly fuppcflng, that the 


Chap, x, their Errours clefcribed. *f 

very damning Law doth juftifie us, by way of Pre- 
vention, as innocent, as having fulfilled iz in Chrift. 
XC1V. They fuppofe, that Chrijt w jH not judge 
and juftifie us, according to any Law, by which 
he governed us, but only by declaring his abibiute 
Decree and Will ; giving no Reafon of his Sen- 
tence, from the caufe or different performance, or 
non- performance of the Perfons judged ; and fo that 
Judgment is no aft of Moral Government, or of 
Reward, contrary to all the Scripture. 

XCV. They falfly fuppofe, that Pardon of fi^ 
is no Juftification,conftitutive 3 or fentential; Be- 
caufe, fay they, that doth but fave us from Pu- 
nifhment ; but to be Righteous, is to be by impu- 
tation, fuch as have kept all the Law, and fo have 
never finned. But we have no fuch Righteohfnefs 
as they thus feign •, when the Queftion is, whether 
we are fmners ? We muft confefs it, and not plead 
that we have no fin. But when the Queftion is, 
whether we are to be condemned, Pardon is our 
Righteoufnefs •, and having the Pardon of all fin 
original, habitual and actual, of omiffion and com* 
miffion, we are in ft at it quo print ; and if that be not 
enough, to intitle us to -Glory, Adoption added 
to it, is: And fo our Right is juftified, 

XCV I. They fay, that to hold, that Chrifth 
Righteoufnefs and Merit, is to make our Faith, and 
holy Obedience, rewardable, is a Bapijh Dodrine 
againft Free Grace : As if Chrift had not cofae 
to fave his People from their fins, and to make 
them holy, and zealous of Love and good Works; 
or God were grown fo indifferent to his Image, and 
to Chnft within us, and fo forgetful of all his Pro- 
mifes of Reward, that he would accept and re- 
ward our Fidelity, and Obedience to Cbriftj rte* 
ver the more for all Chrft's meritorious Sacri- 

3 6 An Hundred of Chap. z. 

fice, Righteoufnefs and Interceffion, which is the 
only Price that purchafeth our Acceptance •> and 
as if Judgment fhould make no difference between 
mens rewardablenefs, but only judge ChriSt to have 
been a Saviour to the Eledt. 

XCVII. They devife a Plea for the juftifyingof 
all the wicked damnable Hypocrites in Judgment ; 
while they tell them that there will be no need of 
a Justification againft the Charge of Hypocrifie 
and Unholinefs,but only againft the Charge of being 
finners ; and fo they can fay, that all were finners 
as. well as they •, and that Chrifi was offered them 
as a Saviour that had made a fufficient Sacrifice 
for their forgivenefs : And they profefled to be- 
lieve in him, as their Saviour : And as to the 
foundnefs of their Faith* there will be no need of 
Juftification. And if Chrift {ay y I was hungry, and 
ye fed me not, I was naked, and ye cloathed me not, &c. 
They are taught to fay, The Righteoufnefs of their 
own perfonal Holynefs or Obedience, is none of the 
Caufe of the day, to juftifie them, or to be tryed, 
and juftified. 

XCVIII. Some fay, that Chrift Reconciled Man 
to God, but did not Reconcile God to Man •, be- 
caufe God was at no enmity with the Eleft, but 
loved them from Eternity -, and to the Repro- 
bate, he is unreconciled. It is true, that Chrift 
made no real change on God by his Reconcilia- 
tion : But by his Sacrifice, and Merits, and Inter- 
ceffion, he made it a thing Jnft and Meet for God 
to forgive and fave us, notwithstanding all our 
Guilt, all his Holinefs, Juftice and Truth ; and 
fo diilblving our obligations to punifhment,and re- 
moving the impediments of our Reconciliation ; 
he is by extrinfick denomination faid to be Re- 
conciled to us, when he is noway bound to Damn 


Chap. z. their Errours defcrihed. 37 

us •, and this without any change in God : But the 
Clouds being thus difpefled, that were between 
God and us, his Face as Reconciled, fhineth on 
us. God was in Chrifl: Reconciling the World 
to himfelf, by making them capable of perfonal 
plenary Reconciliation* by purchafing a Free Par- 
don to be offered to all \ tho' they have after need to 
be intreated to be perfonally and adtuallyReconcilcd 
to God, 2, Cor.$. 19,20. Gods Love of Benevolence, 
goer h before his Love of Complacence, tho' the 
change be really in the Objeft only. 

XCiX. Dr. Crijf$ h and all that fay, that our own 
Obedience and Duties and perfonal Righteoufnefs 
do us iji -yood, nor further our Salvation (Chrifl: 
doing all that ) and that it hindereth Salvation to 
do any thing for Salvation, do plainly make Hea- 
venly BiefFetinefs,and God himfelf, as fought,loved 
and enjoyed to be againfl: our Salvation. For all 
our Sandtity , is but our Love of God, and our Frui- 
tion of him : And the perfe&ion of this, is our 
Heaven and Happinefs ; and Holinefs is here the 
beginning of it : And if it be againfl: the Grace 
pf Chrifl:, to feek Heaven and the Fruition of God, 
and to be receptive of It by Holynefs, and to feek 
God, be the way to keep us from him (as not go- 
ing out of our felves to Chrifl: ) ; How then is 
Chrifl the way to the Father ? How doth he bring 
us to God ? Why doth he Sanftify us, and bid us 
feek and ftrive to enter ? Will Heaven be againfl 
Heaven, and God againfl: God to us ? If fo, then 
ftriving to be faved from Sin, and Hell, is the way 
to bring us to Sin and Hell } which none would hold, 
that knowethhow much of Hell Sin it felf is, and 
how much Holinefs is of Heaven. 

C. They falfly reproach the Orthodox that erre 
Jiot with them, as Enemies of free Grace, and as 

38 To moderate Mens ovbr-hot Chap. 3^ 

not going out of themfdvesy and by odious Words, as 
being for Justification by Works : When it is they 
themfelves that overthrow all Juftification, and the 
Gofpel,as Juftifying us, and Juftification by Faith it 
felf, calling it1« Credere^ and a Work : Ridicu- 
loufly, making!® Credere and F^Vfcjtofignify diver* 
ly : And tell us not when it is the Phrafe, and when 
it is the the Meaning, that they oppofe. ff it be 
the Phrafe that they oppofe? they condemn Chrift, 
and the Scripture \ that- fay, Men are Jufti- 
fied by their Words and Works. I If it betheSence, 
let them tell what that Sence is, which they 
accufej and not confound the Controverfies of the 
Nam, and of the Thing. Thofe that they reproach, 
Renounce all Works for Juftification or Salvation, 
that arrogate the leaft part of the Office, Merits, 
or Grace of Chrift \ or that make the Reward 
not of Grace, but of Debt : Yea, all that Ho- 
nour not Chrift and Grace, more than if he had 
not required them ^ and did not, as dwelling in us 
by his Spirit, caufe them, and make them accepta- 
ble to God : But we will not renounce Chrift living 
in us, nor the ufe, and worth of the Image of God. 


To moderate Mens over-hot Cen firing the 


Reconcil. jTTAving enumerated a Century of their 
JLJL EiToars,! fliall next tell you, how,and 
why 5 notwithstanding ail thefe groft Corruptions, 
you fhould moderate, and regulate your Cenfureof 
the Men, and of other fuch. 

Ortho, Ton kkvk told me fuffitUntly what to think 


Chap. 3 . Cenfuring of the Erroneous. 39 

of them, when you have t old me what they hold ; I waft 
neithtr judge of the Faith by the Man, nor forbear judg- 
ing of the Man by his Faith. Can any man judge 
too hardly of men that overthrow all Religion} They 
fern to me to be Atheists, Infidels ;Anti- Chrift ians ,Pro- 
phane, and open Enemies of all that is Holy and Good 3 
fave only the Name of God, and Chrifi, and Free 
Grace., and that Good which they ofpofe. 

This Char all tr of them y I gather from your own 

I. They deny the only true God, and feign or make 
us another God : The true God is Holy, and hateth 
fin : But they feign a God, who is the maker of fin ; 
yea, that made his own Son the greateft finntr in the 
World, by making all the fins committed by aU the 
Eletti to be really his fins, and fo making him the worfi 
of men. 

II. Tea, whereas Devils can but temyt men to fin^ 
they feign God to tranflate our fins themfelves Ef 

Jentially on Chrift, and fo to make him a finntr that 
could not be tempted to it. 

III. They make us another (pretended) Chrift, and 
fo deny the true Chrift, and fo are Anti-chrifts., 
The true Chrift had no fin, but only became a Sacri- 
fice for our fin ; which were laid upon him, no fur- 
ther than to fuffer for us, But they feign a Chrift? 
that was a hater of God, an Atheift, a Servant of 
the Devil, and the great eft finner in all the World 9 
and yet finned not himfelf. 

IV. They deny God dwelling in us as Love, and 
Chrifi liv'incr in us by his Spirit, by feigning us to 
be never the better for his Grace and inward Ope- 
rations, as to any furtherance of our Salvation -, as 
if the Life of Chrift within us, were not faving. 

V. They deny the great Ends, and ufe of a Savi~ 
cur, to fave us from Sin, as a means to fave 


4<d To moderate Mens over-hot Chap. 3. 

us from Hell, and as the means of our Glorificati- 
cn ^ and as a Prophet by his Dottrine and Exam- 
ple , to teach us how to feeh^and obtain the pur chafed 

VI. They deny the Holy Gkoft^ by denying that 
his Sanctifying Work and Grace, muft be efteemed 
andufedas a furtherance of our Salvation : Becaufc 
Chrift hath Javed us by himfelf already, 

VII. They deny the Gofpel, while th>y deny it to 
be the Law or Donation of God, which as an Act 
of Oblivion^ is his Inftrument of our Juftifcation 
and Pardon ; our Title to life (for TitultfS eft fun- 
damentum juris; J And as the Inftrument of our 
virtual Jnfti feat ion. 

VIII. They do as Anti-chriftians, deny Ch rift's 
Trophetical Office, by which, by Doffrine and Ex- 
ample^ he teacheth us what we muft do to be faved-j 
And his Kingly Office^ by which h: maMeth Laws 
to Rule us, or to Judge us by, as the impofed term of 
Life and Death. 

IX- They deny the Law of Innocency, and forge 
another of their own inflead of it, which nameth 
Chrift as infleadof us. 

X. They holdall the EleEt Lawk fs and fo no Sub- 
jttts of Chrift, while they fay y they are under no Law. 

XI. Hereby they deny God and Chrift 1 s Govern- 
ment by Law. 

XII. They have no humiliation for fin, and fay y 
they have no fin ^ for fince ChriFPs death , it is none 
cf theirs. 

XIII. They hold, that there is no fuch thing as 
fin in the World ( of the Elett ) becaufe Chrift toolkit 
from them ( before they were born or had it j ) and 
he hath none now in Heaven. 

XIV. They deny all Juftification by Faith ^ and 
fay? that it is not by Faith, bnt by the Objett of 
Faith only. XV, Tbef 

Chap. 5. Cenfuring of the Erroneous. 41 

XV. 'they make Chrifi no true Mediator ', but 
fitch a furety as was a party in the Bond with hs^ 
And fuffered for his own Cm 9 and was condemned by 
that Law of lnnocency for us. 

XVI. They deny Justifying Faith it f elf ^ while in- 
jlead of it they feign a meet belief that we are Ju- 

XVII. They harden ungodly mm in their damning 
prefumption 7 obtruding on them a beliefs that they 
are Eleft and Jutt$pcd 9 th<? ungodly ; and telling 
them, that this is coming out of themjelves to Chrifi ^ 
and that they cannot believe this too foon ; and that 
Chrifi hath Repented, Believed, and been Holy for 
them. . 

XVIII. They diretlly fight againfi all mens SaU 
vation, by telling them , that they ought to do no 
Duty inward or outward^ as a means of their Sal- 
vation^ left it be againfi Chrift and Free Grace 
which faveth them. And that nothing that they do % 
can do them any goody nor any fin 9 pojfibly can do 
them any hurt , bee aufe they are already per f eft, and 
faved only by Chrifi. 

XIX. They expofe Chrift ianity to the fcorn of In- 
fidels y by telling men, that it confifteth in that which 
every novice in Logick^ or Reafoning, knoweth to be im- 
poffible ; that one mans Sins^ and one mans Righte- 
oufne/s, fhould be made another s : * Not only fo far 
as that of hers partake of the Ejfefts ( Chrifi of our 
fins in fufferings, and we of the benefits of his Righ~ 
teoufnefs} which we all maintain j but that the thing it 
felf 9 is efjentially thus transferred : And fo the 
Accidents do tranfire a Subje&o in Subjeftum z 
And whereas Sin and Righteoufnefs, are Accidents 
in the three predicaments of Habit (or Privation) 
A&s 9 and Relation , they feign the Habits, Atts> 
md Relation, of odious deformity of all the Eleft*, 


44 *° Moderate Mens over- hot Chap. 3. 

meaning of a Word, may deny the Word, I 
yet hold fa ft the matter fignifyed by it And 
he that fpeaketh the greateft Errour in Terms 
not underftood, may mean and hold the troth* 

2. And Coniequences not difcerned, will not 
prove" a man to be a real Heretick, or one that 
holdeth not the truth, which by fuch confequen- 
ces he fubveneth : Therefore all Pacificators 
conclude, that Confequences are not to be char- 
ged too far, when not underftood. 

Or^ho. ' Who h.oixcth mens minds but by their 
Words? What ever they be to God who fearcheth 
the hearty they are damnable Hereticks in foro EcCle- 

Reconcil. I excufe not the Words which 1 have 
largely accufed : I would fave others from them, 
I confefs it is Words that the Church mult judge 
of, and judge by. But it muft be Words as fig- 
niiicant of the Matter, and of the Mind of the 
fpeaker. And therefore the Church muft try the* 
fpeakers meaning by informing and convincing 
queftionsand explications. I pray you tell me, 
when you are Catechizing your Parifliioners (young 
or old ) do you meet none that in ignorance 
fpeak words that fubvert the Foundation ? And 
yet when you better fearch their meaning, you 
may find that they mean better than they fpeak- 
I write againft ail their dangerous words, efpecially 
to fave others from being drawn by them to errour, 
and to Prevent the errour that the Church and Go- 
fpel may receive thereby. 

Ortho. But if they defend them^ they are Here- 
ticks: For how elfe Jhall we know whether they deny 
not Fundamentals ( 

Recjicil I will tell you how ; Ask him firft, 
whether he believe the Fundamental Truth ? If he 


Chap. £. Censuring of the Erroneous* 45* 

fay, yea : Ask him whether if he knew that his 
Confequence contradicted or fubverted it, which 
of the two he would let go ? And by that, you 
may know which it is that he holdeth fafteft. 

For Inftance, Ask fuch a one as Dr. Crifpe, whe- 
ther he would hold that Chrift was really a (inner, 
and God made him fuch, and the Effence of all our 
fins were his, and none of ours, if he knew that this 
were inconfiftent with the perfection and Office 
of Chrift, and the truth of the Gofpel ? Ask him 
whether he would hold that the fin of the EleCt can= 
not poffibly do them any hurt ^ nor any Duty that 
they do, be any means or help to their Good or 
Salvation, if he knew that this were contrary to the 
Gofpel and Free Grace, and tended to mens dam- 
nation? Ask him whether he would hold that our 
inherent and aCted Righteoufhefs did not, make us 
fo far Righteous, and no whit furthered our Jufti- 
tication or Salvation, if he knew this were a contra- 
• didion, and againft Chrift ? 

Ortho. By this Rule, we ftall judge none Here- 
ticks, but Infidels ; fvr who will exfrtjly renounce Chri* 
si i unity but they? 

Reconcil. The Word Bcmicks, is varioully ufed 
as men are inclined : 1. Of all that are (tiffin 
any hurtful Errour,againft found DoCtrine \ and fo 
all or moft Chriftians are Hereticks. For all have 
many Errours, and all men are too itifTin their own 
conceits. 2. For thofe that confequentially fubvert 

uimejius is not lingular, who faith fin Caf. Confc.) 
that Theology is fo concatenated, that every Errour 
by confequence(near or remote)fubverteth theFoun- 
dation. 1 would except only Genealogies,ChroQolos 
gies,Topography, Grammar, & fome Prophecies &: 
Politiyes : But of meer morals it is not improbable. 

E z 3- For 

46 To "moderate Mens over-hot Chap. 3. 

3. For all that Schifmatically feparate from 
the Apoftolieal Churches and their Communion, 
and gather Seftsto themfclves, for the promoting 
of their Errors ; I provoke you to name to me any 
Text of Scripture, that callcth any by the reproved 
Name of Hereticks, that did not feparate from 
the Catholick Church? Though all Schifmaticks 
be not Hereticks (for fome caufe divifions in the 
Church,- and yet depart not from it): Yet all He- 
reticks in 'cripture- fence were Schifmaticks ; for 
itfffrt; fignficth rot only the choofing of a new 
Bo&rine, but alio a new Separated Sedt and Church, 
for the promoting of it. 

Ortho. Fbcfe Libertines are generally Scparatifts. 

Reconcile You are hiftorically miflakcn: Dr. 
Cnfpc was a Conformift himfelf*, and fo have 
been many hundreds, who have held fome of the 
forementioned miftakes. Have you read Luther 
on the GaLithians ? And 'u£pinns, and Gallus^zxA 
Amh[dorphipis^ and Sthlujjelvergws, and abundance 
fuch Lutherans, who damn George Major for fay- 
ing, That Good works are necellary to Salvation, 
and that maintained, that they were hurtful to 
Salvation (tho 7 no doubt they meant, that con- 
fidence in them was hurtful). JHave you read 
Jflebin^ that turned from Antmomiam[m to be 
a P apt Ft Bifhop,and helpt to redtifie Lmh:r\ Phrafe, 
by calling him to oppofe him ? Have you read 
Learned Beza himfelf, and many? and many fuch 
excellent men, both Calvinifts and Lutherans, of 
imputed Righteoufhefs, and againft Imputing 
Faith for Righteoufnefs, and of the definition of 
Faith ? Till Camera, Placeus i Amyraldasfiapelltts^c- 
fiardns^. Codurciu, BlondelyDalUnsr, Drelincottrt ftopt 
£hem \ and before them Melanchthon, Sneer, and 
after- C & guts, Qkvian r Vrfm r Parens^ Sculte-mis, 


Chap. 3 Cen faring of the Erroneous* 47 

Wendeline-y Ludovitus Crocius^ Conradus Bergius y 
Johannes Bergitts, Martinins , and filch Other great 
Divines flopt thorn in Germany y How many fpeak 
indefenfibly ? How many Bifhops and Confor- 
mifts in England^ have held, and written unjufti- 
fiable words about Jjuftification ? Was Dr. Tdly 
a Non conform ift ? No, nor Mr. Rokrmoh, Mr. 
Wulkgr, and many fuch, before the Aflemblies 

Though Dr. GeH, Mr. Thomdiks* and many 
fuch did ill, in inveighing againft imputed Right coup 
fiefs ^ in undiftinguiihing wotds ; yet too many by 
a very ill fence and fort of it, gave them too much 
occafion ; which put fo many Learned, Judicious 
Divines to explain it, of whom in 'England the 
chief were Ant. Wot ton ^ Mr. William Br adjhaw 1 
Mr. Tho. Gataker, Bifhop Davenant, Bifliop Rolen 
Abbot y Mr. William Fenner^ and other Zealous 
Converting Preachers i fuch as John Rogers, Tho. 
Hooker., Tbo, Shepbard, and tlie ffyco - England 
Churches againft Mrs. Hutcbmfon^xA Mr Wheeler, 
that by Mr. Weld published the Narrative <f the 
Antinomian Error* 9 and of the ftrange Monfters 
from' Mrs. Dyer i and Mrs. Thitehinjon^ and her 
death; and of late, Mr- Ben'yWoodbndge, Mr. 
Tho. fiotch^s, Mr. Tho. Warrcn y Mr. Graile, Mr. 
■Jefop; but especially Mr. Truman, Mr. Gibbons 
of Black fryers, and Dr. Stillingfleet. It is not a 
thing unknown, that it was not only fuch as you 
call Separatifts, but many Bifnops and Confor- 
mifts, that in opposition to Popery, for want of 
diftinguifning, have fuch words about Imputation* 
as encouraged the Antinomians. Therefore you 
cannot take all as Hereticks in the Scripture-fence, 
who hold the fame Errors. 

E 3 Or tho. 

48 To moderate ftiens over-hot Chap. 3. 

- Ortho. Then we fall not hn tl is>> if 

men do not fegregatc thr,>ij/ives to propagate it, 

Rtconcil. You may know what opinions are per- 
nicious, ( or if you will Heretical) when you 
know not whether the man be a Heretick that 
owneth them : Ever, the Heretick Hereticating 
Papifts fay, there muft be ait obftinacy againlc 
lufficient Jight of evidence. 'And all tenati** 
oufnefs through prejudice, ignorance, or inca- 
pacity is not obftinacy. If your Schoiiar or Ap- 
prentice be feven years learning what you teach 
him, it may not by- that be proved obftinacy. 

The word Hemul^ is ufed as pleafe the {pea- 
leer, in yarkius fences. iQ Some call all Here- 
ticks that obftinately oppofe any Opinion for 
truth) which the Church determiheth to be Be- 
lieved. 2. Some call all Hereticks that gather 
any fegregate Church to maintain or propagate 
any Error. 3. Some call all Heretick~, who oppofe 
any Point eilentia?! to Chriftianity ', though but 
ignoraatly by remote ton Sequence. 4. -Some call 
thofe Hereticks, who deny feme one eflential Ar- 
ticle o£ Chriftianity, dire&ly and .knowingly, 
while they own the reft. 5. And fome, call none 
Her-eticks but thofe that joyn together* the de- 
fying of feme eflential Article dire&ly or by 
plain evidentr confequQn^, fchd'gathen>ifegregate 
Churches to propagate it? and do this obltinate- 
ly againft fufficient lights If you -will-life the 
Namz, tell men which oi Bhefe yc;i men 

Ortho. Tftut encoursaz Hctefie 5 it [0 

hard- to knorv a Htrtttt^'- May we not kwtv them 
by their Bourin: ? 

RecoxcU. Yc ;:now what is Error, and 

Heretical, when you know not the man to be 
an Heretick : do what you can juftly, to fave 


Chap- 3. Cenfuring of the Erroneous. 49 

men from their Error, without unjuft and uncha- 
ritable cenfuring of the perfons. To which end 
I remember you of the writing of worthy Dr. 
Fowler, that Holinefs is th?. defi^n of Chrijiianity : 
If then it prove that many of thefe that hold thefe 
bad opinions, are men of flncere Holinefs, then 
Chriftianity in them hath reached to itsdefig'n: Now 
I rind that the molt of them that I have known, 
Teem to me to be perfons of ferious Holinefs 
f notwithstanding their infirmities) : They are Zea- 
lous .towards God ; they greatly honour Chriffc ; 
they atfoid known Sin \ they live juftly and cha- 
ritably towards men \ yea 3 it is the Piety and Strict- 
nefs of the lives of many of them, which hath 
drawn many well-meaning ignorant perfons to 
their Errors. Bunnian, an unlearned Antinomkn- 
Anabaptift, wrote againft the forefaid Book of 
Dr. Fowler \ yet f abating his reparation) I never 
heard that Bunnian was not an honeft Godly man. 
If then he attained the defign of Chriftianity, 
• was he not a Chriftian? 

Ortho. Could he be Godly thjt /aid arid did fo 
much aaainft the Truths and Fo fftUvh to draw men 
to his Errors ? 

Reconcil. There is no man without many Er- 
rors : And do- not all defire that others fhould 
take that for Truth* which they take to be Truth ? 
And how few be there Id the world, that em- 
body not with fome Seft or Fa&ion, for the pro- 
moting of their Opinions ? And how few that 
do not over - vilifie and wrong thofe from whom 
they differ? 

And Bannians laft preachings give me hope that 
he repented of his Errors,; for he Zealonfiy prea- 
ched but the common acknowledged doftrine of 
ChriiPs readinefs to receive : and pardon conver- 
ted finners. E 4 Ortho, 

ftp To moderate Mens over-hot Chap. 3. 

Ortho. But unholy Dottrine will not make men 
tyoly, nor confift therewith, 

Reconcil. 1. It is Holy Dodrine, pra&ically re- 
ceived, that maketh them Holy *, and that which 
is Unholy, is 'received but notionally, and fo pre- 
vaileth not againft the power of truth* No cloubt 
but falfe unholy Dodtrine greatly tendeth to un- 
holinefs of heart and life; Therefore let us all 
do our t?eft to cure it. But it is not the lhar- 
peft cenfures, nor the greateft fiercenefs, or fou- 
left words, or punilhments, that are the right or 
wifeft way of cure : But the cleareft explication 
of the Truth, and the moft loving and meek in- 
truding oppofers, if God peradventure will give 
them repentance, to the acknowledging of the 

Ortho. I am fure General Councils^ and Heathens* 
Bilhops and Emperors alfo of 'old \ were fever e againft 

Reconcil. What will you fay> if I fully prove, 
that Hereticks themfelves, as* fuch 5 did not more, 
hurt to the Church, than the ftir and violence 
iiftd againft them that were accounted fiich, hath 
done, and flill doth? No, nor fo much hurt: 
But what need I more proof of this* than what 
Popery hath done thefe 800. or 900. years in the 
World ? Did Htreticks ever murder fo many 
.hundred thoufapds as thePapifts did of the WaU 
denfts, Bohemians , French ProteftantS) Dutch, Irttfu 
Engl ft, PoUnders, Hungarians, &c- by Wars, Mat 
facres, Inquifitions, &c. 

Ortho. fhofe men were not Hereticks y but mcnfaljly 
accnf^d of Herefie : Why inftance yon in Papifc 
. Tyrants I 

Reconcil. And who think you will be Judge who 

fhall fuffer as Hereticks? Will it not bethofe that 

' ' are 

Chap. $. Cenfuring of the Erroneous. j x 

are uppermoft, and get greateft itrength ? And arc 
thofe ufually the wifeft : Who is the Judge, now 
in the Turks Dominions? and among CJiriftians? 
vyho is Judge in Mufcovy^ where Preaching is for- 
bidden ? 

Ortho. But it is the Clergy that is the Judge of 
Here fie. 

Reconcil. And how fmall a part of the Earth is 
fo happy as to have the major part of the Cler- 
gy, wife, found, honeft and orthodox ? Whereas 
the Clergy fo powerful as in the Roman Kingdom ? 
And where more erroneous, or more cruel ? 

Ortho, But you tmtft inflance in times of tht 
Churches Purity , and not in the time of A-iti thrift 's 

Reconcil. Few of us are agreed, when the time 
of the Church-Purity ended, from the Apoftles 
days ^ till the Fall of the Pagan Empire, there were 
great Numbers of Hereticks in the Church ; and 
no Sword was drawn, or deflved> againltthem, by 
the Churches: And yet all the Number of that 
time, mentioned by Epipbanius^ hurt not the Church, 
fo much as the Pride and Contention of the Cler- 
gy, even before Dwclefiavs Perfecution, if Eufebius 
may be believed, lib. 8. c. 1. 

And for long time after, the Church abhorred 
the ufe of the Sword, or Violence, againft Here- 
ticks : Or elfe Martin had not with fuch abhor- 
rence, feparated from the Bifhops that were for the 
ufe of the Sword, againft the PrifcilUn Gnofticks. 

And whereas Anftin is cited as the chief that 
changed his mind herein, his inftance is but one, 
and it is ufually abufed. 1. It being not againft 
Herefie, but Schifm, that he writeth : The Dona- 
tifts were Prelatical Zealots, that thought them- 
felves the greater Number, and fo called them- 


5^ To moderate Mens over-hot Chap. 3. 

felves the Church ; for being the fuppofed Majo- 
rity in Africk^, and having the trueft Bifhop, as the 
Papifls and fome Preiatifts arrogate the Name of 
the Church on thofe Accounts : What Errour had 
they more than Cyprian, and all his pious Coun- 
cils had, raving their Faftioufnefs for their own 
chofen Biihop. 

2. And it was not this Shifm neither, that Au- 
ftin, was for Violence againft, but to reprefs Force 
with Force -, for the Donatifts ufed Murder and 

But come to the Times and Councils that fup- 
preffed Hereticks with the greateft Zeal, I have 
nothing herein to fay againft the Council of Nice ^ 
though fome good men think that they had done 
better to tolerate the E after- Day different j yea, 
and to have done lefs to ftir up Difputes about 
fiDne feubftance i Bun do you think Nejlorius 
did more hurt, by faying, That Mary was not to 
be called, The Mother of God ; but, f The Mother 
of him who is God, 3 than was done by banifliing 
him? Who was fo far from being a Sedary, that 
he was the greateft Patriarch, and fo deadly an 
Enemy to the tolerating of men, called Hereticks, 
that he began with urging the Emperour to pro- 
fecute them-, and was juftly fo ufed for his Vio- 
lence, as a Heretick himfeif: AnJ being banifh- 
ed, let up fo great a Party in Syria, and other 
Countries, to this day, called Nejtorians, as con- 
tinue the abhorrence of the Council of Calcedon 
2nd EpkcJliSy and the Church of Rome, and the 
great Divifions of the Chriflian Church , Would 
the tolerating of the accufed Phrafe have done 
fo much Hurt as this ? 

And did the Bilhops and Councils, that con- 
demned bis Adverfaries, Eituches and Dhfcrrns, 


Chap. 3 Cevfaring of the Erroneo us. fw 

and banifhed him that was the fecond Patriarch 
of the Eaft, do lefshurtto the Church, than it 
would have done, to have patiently inftrufled 
them in what fence Chrift's Nature remained Two* 
and to have granted, that in other fence and re- 
fpett, they might be called One, as agreeing and 
united ? When now the Entychian Jacobites, by 
Diofcorus Banifhment, fill the vaft Country of A* 
bafjia-j and many other Countries, in Divifions from 
other Churches, and Opposition to the Councft of 

And did the Monothelites do fo much harm, by 
faying, thatChrift might be faid to have but-One 
Will dnd 'Operation, (b? Concord, called One J as 
all the Councils and Bifiiops did, by their con- 
demning and profecuting them, till the Imperial 
Churches were by it broken all to pieces ? 

And did the three Words in the Writings of 
Theodora, Ibas and Theodore Moppufi, do fo much" 
hurt, as the Councils that condemned thefe Tria 
Capitida did, by woful Divifions ? 

Or did they, that fufttman called CommkoU, 
do more hurt, than he did, by murdering thou- 
fands, and wafting *Aigypt, and other Countries, 
by his blind Zeal againft Hereticks ? Surely there 
is no Comparison in the hurt* 

Epiphanuis himfelf rec'ordeth how much hurt He- 
reticating He&t did, againlt Andws and others cal- 
led Hereticks : And Lucifer C dam amis was made 
a Heretick, for his inordinate Zeal againft the Ad- 
rians themfelves. And I think few now doubt, but 
the blind Zeal of Epiphanivs hlmfel^ and of Cyril 
Alexand; and the Council that condemned Chry- 
fojiom, as if he were not hot enough againft Origin, 
did a great deal more harm than good : And thac 
Aniens and PvGcltfc, by their Indulgence to the Jq~ 


54 To moderate Mens over-hot Chap. 3, 

amus^ were fain to heal the Wounds that thofe 
mens Heats had made. And more than Socrates and 
Zoz-omene tell us, that the faid Attkus and Proclus 
did the Church more Service, agarnft the Nova- 
tians % by Gentlenefs and Liberty, than their Pre- 
cleceJIbrs ever did by their zealous Fiercenefs. 

The Church hath fufFered much by Setts and He- 
refie, but, I think, much more by the ignorant Ty* 
ranical Attempts of fupprefling them, and of fuch 
as are falfiy accufed of them. 

Ortho. But the Errours of former Times muft not 
fiop car Zeal againji Errowr % nor reconcile us to He- 

Rceoncil. But why do we not enquire how far, 
even the godly Orthodox-Minifters, in thefe times, 
alfo have been guilty of occafioning that which they 
jaftly reprehend ? 

I have feldom obferved any Herefle or Errour 
to rife up, but what the Orthodox were a culpable 
Caufe of : The Chief Rife of Anabaytifty hath been 
by our mofl vile Abu e of Infant^Baptifm, 1 Recei- 
ving all Infants of Atheifis and Infidels. 2. And 
that, on an unproved Title, and on the perfidious 
Vows and Sponfions of God- fathers and God- mo- 
thers, that never owned them, nor intended to per- 
form their Vows- 3. And forceing Minifters to 
b3ptife them againft their Judgments. 4. And 
worft of all, initead of caufing them at age, fo- 
Jemnly to renew their Chriftian Covenants, chea= 
ting thoufands of ignorant Souls, with a Ceremo- 
ny, called, Confirmation. 

So have the Scfaratifts rifen from the Corrupti- 
ons of the Clergy and Church, and their wicked 
Lives , and Tyrannical Impositions and Perfec- 
And fo have thefe Antiwmans rifen, firft, From 


Chap. J. Conjuring of the Erroneous. 55 

the Papifis Falfe Dodtrines , about their Good 
Works \ and next, From many godly Protectants^ 
feldom, and unskilful opening the Myftery of Re* 
demption and Grace, and preaching almoft all for 
Humiliation,. and too little of the wonderful Love 
of God, revealed in Jejns Chrifi , till Dr. Sibbes 
and fuch others, led them into another ftrein: 
And, thirdly, by their unskilful Managing the Do* 
ftrine and Controverfies of Juitification ; till the 
Bnme and French Divines abroad, and Da<vtna.nty 
jint. tVotton^ Rradjhaw, Gataker^ and fuch others 
at home , taught them to fpeak more diftin&ly 
and folidly, ( which Le Blancl^hath done above 
all before him. ) 

And they, that by Unskilfulnefs have occafion- 
ed other mens Extreams, ftiould not be over-rigo- 
rous agalnft them. 

Enquire into the Temper and Lives of mofl: of 
this fort of men, among us of late, Qeven Dr- Crifpe t 
Lane after Town, Walter Cradok, Salt mar fij 9 Den^ 
Hobfon-i and fuch other j and you will find, thac 
though they had their Temerities and Biemifties, 
they were in the main, Men, far from wicked and 
prophane Lives \ much more, Mr. Walker % Mr. Ro- 
borough^ Mr* Crandon^ Mr, Eyir, blind Mr. Troughs 
iar f Dr. Tally y and fuch other that came too near 

I will now inftance more largely , in one, who, 
in the Fervour of his Zeal,Preach'd at P inner s-HalL- 
Letture, and after printed a zealous ignorant Ser- 
mon, againft fuch of us, as judge not asconfufed- 
ly and erroneoufly as himfelf ; when I had avoided 
Preaching on any fuch SubjeQ;, and Printing what I 
had long before written on it, left I fhouid revive 
the Strife •, and yet he is known to be a worthy 
vertuous Man, 

I will 

y£ To moderate Mens over-hot Chap. 3. 

I will give you yet another Proof x that fuch 
may be ferious godly Men, who Preach a Dottrine, 
quoad ferba^ Heretical or Anti-evangelical. The 
Renovation of an unfan&ified Soul, requireth a 
Change fo great, on ail our Faculties, .as mud 
turn a meer natural man into a fpiritual \ and 
give a man a new End, new Principles, and a new 
Heart and Life ; and this by Divine transforming 
Influence : But to cure one of thefe Erroneous 
Men, there needs not fo a great Renovation, but 
only the better informing of an ignorant mans 
Judgment, that was carryed away by Education, 
Prejudice, the Veneration of his chief Teachers, 
and the weaknefs of his own dull undiftinguifh- 
irig Mind -, yea, perhaps, the Cure of his Igno- 
rance, in Grammar or Logick, in fome one word, 
.may make him Orthodox. ' 

. Could you but get out Prejudice and Ignorance, 
fo' far, as to teach thefe men but Two or Three 
Diftinitions , in all likelihood , it would cure 
them, E. G. 

1. To diftinguifh between a Surety antecedent, 
and fubfequent. 

2. To diftinguifh between the Righteoufnefs of 
Chrifl-j given Or imputed to us in Je it felf, (one 
mans Accidents made anothers ) and his Righte- 
oufnefs given us in its Effects and Benefits, repu- 
ted the fole meritorious Caufe- 

3. Between Justification by Efficiency, ( prin- 
cipal and inftrumental ) and juftifying us confti- 
tutively , ( as Matter and Form ) juftifying by 
Grant in Law, or by Evidence, or by Witnefs, 
or by an Advocate Defence, or by Judicial de- 
cifive Sentence, or executely ; and thefe, as fup- 
pofing adtual or legal Accufations. 

4. Between the Law or Covenant of Innocen- 


Chap. 3. Cenfuringof the Erroneous. ^y 

cy with Adam ; the Mediatorial Law or Cove- 
nant to Chrift \ the Common Law of Grace, 
maie with Adam and Noah - 9 the Covenant of 
Preculianity with Abraham-^ the Political Law of 
Mofcs to the Jews ; and the Law or Covenant 
of Chrift, of Grace, of Faith, by which Chrift 
doth Govern, and will Judge his vifible Church. 
Get unftudied dull heads, but to underftand 
thefe four diftinftions, and you cure them with- 
out a new regeneration : And doth not this prove 
that they are Godly? 

To inftance no more, but in the firffc ; an An- 
tecedent Surety is either, 1. A party in the 
Bond ; 2. Or an Inftrument of the party Bound. 

1. If two perfons be bound disjunctively (this 
or that J to a Duty or a Penalty, the bond is 
anfwered if either of them perform it- If the Law 
to Adam had either faid, thou, or Chrift for 
thee (halt perfectly Obey, (halt drefs the Gar- 
den, (halt take Eve for thy Wife ; or that thou 
or Chrift: (hall fuffer for not doing it •, then 
Chrift's performance had antecedently freed us 
from Guilt and Punifhment. 

2. Or if the Law had faid or meant, thou (halt 
Obey or Suffer by thy felf, or by thy fubftitute 
or per alium as a man may pay his debt by his 
Servant) or appear by his Attourney •, then Chrift's 
Righteoufnefs or Suffering would have proved us 

But a fubfeqwm Surety, who, after the guilt* 
doth voluntarily, as a Mediator, undertake the 
difcharge of the guilty, is no fir id or abfolute 
Reprefentative, but, as a Mediator, purchafeth 
the Captive, to receive his Grace on the terms, 
and to the ends, which by a Law or Covenant 
of Grace, the Mediator (hall appoint. 


$<> Reasons againjt a Chap. 4. 

C H A P. I V. 

J\4j Reafjns againft a tedious netdhjs Confutatun. 

$$&. 1. *Tp H E chief thing that I intended next 
JL to be done, that is, To Confute the 
Hundred Errors before named ^ I am, on further 
thoughts, difcouraged from performing: 1. Be- 
caufe, upon perufal, 1 find that I have already 
done it lb oft and largly in many Books unan- 
fvvered, that repetition is like to be difgracefully 
naufeous : 2. And they that will neither anfwer 
nor read what I have written 3+ years ago> or 
20, are not like to read what 1 fhall write now. 

In my Confeffionof Faith, Printed 1655. I have 
fo largely opened this Controverfy, about Jufti- 
ficationi Faith, and Works, in necefiary diftin&i- 
ons, and many fcore felf-evident Propofitions, 
and many fcore Arguments, and abundance of 
exprefs Texts of Scripture* and above an hundred 
Teitimonies of Proteitant Churches ConfeQlons, 
and eminent Divines, that I find very little need- 
ful to be added.: And why fhould I think they will 
read more that will not read that ? 

In ray Apologies, I have Anfweredthem that 
have oppofed, and have had no reply. 

In my Treatife of Juftlfication^ I have done it 
over again. 

In my Catholic!^ Theology, I have thrice over- 
done the fame by Explication and Confutation 

In my Treatife of Juftifying Right eon fnefs^ in a 
Difputation y and an Anfwer to Dr. Tally, and 
to Mr. Canwigbt, I have done the fame, perhaps 
top largly. 


Chap. 4. teJiousyntedlefs Confutation. 59 

In my Methods Tbeologi& 9 I have opened the 
Cafe methodically and briefly. 

In my Lift of Faitb^ I have clearly explained 
it : And muft I expect no Anfwer, and yet do all 
again ? 

2. But my great diflfwafive is^ that it will fwell 
the Book to fo great a magnitude, that few will 
read it; fhould I cite all, or moil of the plain 
Texts of Scripture that confute therm how greac 
a part of the Bible muft I Tranfcribe ? Yet do- 
they lay Salvation on points that no one Text of 
Scripture mentioneth. 

Sea. 2. 1. If t fhould cite all the Texts that 
prove that we are truly Sinners, though Chriffc 
hath been a Sacrifice for our fin, and that the - 
guilt of Fatt and Fault, on us, is not taken off" 
by Chrift's taking the penalty ; but we are verily 
finners ftill \ How great a part of the Bible may 
\ recite to prove it ? 

Sett. 3. 2. If I mult prove that Cjjirift is and 
was no finner, by true imputation of our fin, as 
to the guilt of Fatt or Fault, but only as a Sa- 
crifice bear the Penalty ; it would be a re- 
proach to the Adverfarics, to need a Confutati- 
on of their Blafphemy, and all the Gofpel would 
confute them. 

Selt. 4. # 3. Should I cite all the Texts tha£ 
prove us to need, and have an Inherent and Adt- 
ed Righteoufnefs by Grace, befides Chrilis Per- 
fonal Righteoufnefs Meriting for us, above fix 
hundred Texts of Scripture exprefly pove it* 
and how tedious and needlefs a work is this ? 

Se&. 5. 4. Should 1 prove that All Righte- 
oufnefs, fo far maketh Righteous; and that making 
Righteous, is a Juftifying, which goeth before 
Judging us Righteous v and that it is a putid con* 

F tradition;, 

6o Reafins agdivfi a Clmg. 4. 

tradition, to fay, that any Righteouftfefs doch not 
make Righteous, tntanpum^ School-boys would turn 
it into a derifion'of the oppofers. 

Sett. 6. 5. Should I prove by Argiiment>thatno . 
Accident can by ye fame numerically in divers. Sub- 
verts, nor nan-fin a S/tbjecto in Subjettiim 5 and fo the 
Habit, Art,and Relation of Righteoufnefs in Chrift's 
Perion, cannot in it felf be our Habit, Aft, or Re- 
lation, unlefs our Perfons,and ChrilTs, be really the 
fame-, every novice in Logick, would be too much 
cccafionedjxunfult over the ignorant gain-fayer. 

Seft. 7. 6. Should I prove,that to Juftify Effici- 
ently by making Righteous, and to Juftify Confti- 
tQtively (being our Righteoufnefs ) and. to Juftify 
by Plea, or by Witnefs,or by Evidence, and to Ju- 
ftify in Eftimation or Account, and to Juftify by 
deciflve Sentence of a Judge, and to Juftify Execu- 
tively, and to Juftify privately in Confcience, and 
to Juftify publickly before Rulers or the World, or 
niore publickly , at the Bar of God, are feveral fences, 
of the Word Jxfi;ficatton y and feveral forts ^ what 
man of fenfe would not pity the Confounder that 
denyeth it, and talk, as if the Word had but 
one fence ? 

Sccb. 8. 7. Should I prove that by Imputing* Paul 
meaneth truly accounting a man Just that, is fo ; rec- 
koning that to him which he hath, and "not feign- 
ing him to have what he hath not ; even Dr. Crifpe 
harh fpared me that labour, venturing to fay, that 
the contrary fence of Imputing, maketh God a Lyar, 
or deceived. God never judged a mail Righteous, 
that was not firft made fo. 

Sett. ^ 8. Should I prove, that by Works,?zu\ 
meaneth thofe that make not the Reward of Grace, 
but of Debt •, and James meaneth thofe that are 
She effects of Free Graw, and purely fubordinate 


to Chrift, as commanded by him ; the exprefs Texts 
do make it needlefs. 

Sell, io. 9. Should I prove, that Chriffc is our 
King, and Ruleth and Judgeth by his own Law, 
and hath not made us Lawlefs, and all Judgment or 
Rule is now committed to him 3 and that the very Law 
of Nature, is now his Law ; and alfo the Law of 
Supernatural Revelation, called by iW, the Law 
of Chnjl^ the Law af Faith and of Grace •, and by 
James ^the Law of Liberty ; the whole fcope of the 
Gcrfpel, faveth me that labour. 

Sell. 11. 10. Should I prove, that Chritt in efe 
objeftivoj as the Objed of Faith, is the very fpecify- 
ing form of that Faith it felf-, and fo, that to be 
Juftified by the Objeft as fuch, and not by jtbac 
Faith it felf, is a notorious putid Contradidion ; 
or fhould I fland to prove that Faith it felf, is 
faid by Paul? to be Imputed for Righteouirefs in 
meer fubordination to the meritorious Sacrifice and 
Righteoufnefs of Chrift, and in conjunction with 
Free Pardon and Adoption purchafed by Chrift \ 
how needlefs a work is this made by the Text ? 

Sett. ix. 11. Should I ftand to prove,that Elect 
Infidels* Atheifts, or wicked Men are not Juftified* 
while fuch ( fave as God maketh them Juft by Con- 
verfion & Pardon) all the Scripture tell us, it is ne«d- 
tefs, and that Eternal Ele&ing to Juftification, is not: 
Juftifyingv nor yet Chrifts dying for us, till He 
btgww to us y as well as for hs. 

Sell, 13 . 12. Should I ftand to prove, that men 
fell be judged according to their Works, and that 
God is the Rewarder of them that diligently feek: 
him i and that Chrift hath frequently promifed Re- 
wards, and that the fame Salvation, which, as to 
Vdnt % is no Debt 7 bttt meerly a Free Gift of Grace 
tbrougfr Ghnftiikjctv^f W the Qrder of Conveyance^ 

F af %mvi 

6% Reaftws againfl a Chap. 4. 

given on Condition as a Reward, that Fatherly Love 
may attain its ends by Sciential means, and not 
only by Povrer ^ Mrs ally producing Moral Ejfctts^ in 
conjunction with Lbve and Power \ and thus, that 
the pardoning and faving Aftsof the Covenant, 
impofe Conditions, as receptive qualifications, which 
yet are all the Effefts of Grace, the whole Scripture 
rnak'eth this a needlefs task, 

Sett. 14. 13. Should I prove the diftin&nefs ; 
r. Of the Law and Covenant of Innocency. 2. And 
of the Law and Covenant of Mediation. And, 
3> Of the Mediators Law and Covenant of Grace 
impofed on us, and fealed in Sacraments; And 
that the fame is both a Law and Covenant, and that 
the Covenant of Grace, is the Inftrumental Gift 
of Pardon and Jollification •> How much of the Bi- 
ble mufi: I transcribe ? 

Sttt. 15. The like I may fay, of mod of the reft, 
which I doubt, I have been too large in proving in 
all the fix, or feven, or eight Books before named. 
I thought alfo, to have diftin&ly anfwered th 
Printed Pinners- Hall Le&ure, but he that can no , 
find it more than fully anfwered, in the forefaid 
Books, either never read them, or Anfwers tofuch 
a man* will be vain. 

And I am forry, that the fame hand in another 
Lefture, elfewhere publifheth,that C" That any are 
* c brought to believe tn Jefus, is as great a Miracle, as 
cC the Refurrettion of Chrift from the dead} p. 223. 
" And after £ There is not a greater Inflame of 
<c the Tower of God in the whole World, than this-, in 
** -bringing over the heart of a /inner to believe in 
" Chnft.] 

If grieveth my Soul to think what Scandals are 
thus given by good Men to Papifts, Infidels and fre- 
pidketi Smners, and what work they will make 


Chap. 4. tedians y needk£s Confutation. 6y 

with it. No doubt but Faith is a great and difficult 
Work, and wrought by Almighty Power: For 
God hath no. other Powqr, but: Omnipoten^: 
omnis Dei Votkntia eft OmnifGuntia, quia -Infinita. 
Gods Power is his Efience : But the Inflates and 
Demonftrations of it, are as various as the Effe&s. 
Your Finger or Tongue, moveth not, but by Qna- 
nipotency : But every Motion or Fly, Is not 
as great an Inftance or Demonftration of Power, 
as Faith is. Nor Faith fo great an Inftance as the 
making of Angels, Men, Heaven and Earth, Sun, 
Moon, and Stars, their Natures, Motion and Or- 
der : Divines have hitherto taught, that Power is 
eminently manifefted in Creation and Natural Pre- 
fervation, tho' with Wifdom and Love •, and Wifdom 
Eminently manifefted in Government, and Love in 
Glorifying Ctho' they were conjunct in each) 
Man cannot work Miracles, and that fo great. And 
1 do not believe that God damneth all unbelievers, 
as for want of an Ad as great as the motion of the 
Sun, or making the World. 

And if it be a Miracle, and as great a one as 
Chrift's Refurre&ion, How can any believer doubt 
at all ? Why was Chrift's Refurreftion Prea- 
ched by the Apoftles, fo much as the Proof of the 
Truth of Ghriftianity,and not the Faith of every be* 
liever ? Then we need hob go far to prove the Chri- 
ftian Verity : Every poor Boy or Woman that be- 
lieveth, hath the fullcft Proof, and as great and 
miraculous as Chrift's Refurreftion. Why fend 
,we not Infidels and Doubters to this Miracle, which 
ft about them in all age^ in thoufands ; Over-doing 
is undoing. 

And yet no doubt, the Author faith truly, that 
Faith in Chrift is fo hard a Work, that he that never 
found it hard, hath none ( or hath it but in the feed, 

F 3 an4 

64 Rcafons dgahfi #, &c. Chap. 4. 

and yet unrooted, or untryed. But alas ! Infidels 
find: it too hard to them. 

To conclude, Inftead of the larger part of the 
Proof or Confutations which I intended ; 1. 1 (hall 
with this, Annex a brief Treatife,. refolding a mul- 
titude of Gontroverfies about Julftfication, which I 
hayfelaid by, about Fifteen Years. 

2. *I refer you to the forefaid former perform 
forrnance of it. 

3. Were I not difabled by Pain, and the ap* 
proa'chesof Death, I would be ready to Anfwer any 
fober, rational Obje&or. 

( 6$ ) 

5r#. i . X i\ /Hereas divers fay, they were drawn 
V V in to prefix their Names to this 
Drs. Book, becaufe they were told 3 that the Er- 
rours were expunged : Upon peruial, I find than 
it is ho fuch matter ; but in Vol. 3. Ser, 3,4. &c„ 
the Author rather more frequently inculcateth the 
WOrft of them, v f iz+. V %k4t fin cannot hurt any 
that are Elett^ or that Christ dyed for, 3 And 
that Dp I. Joh. h is a powerful means to keep them 
from finning^ to believe that if they fin f it ev 
them no hurt. J 

Sett. 2. The Text, drew him to ufe the Name 
of finning. £ / write to you, that you fin not. 3 
But did not the Contradidion of it to his Do- 
ftrihe convince him, /while, he read the Text a- 
gainfl; iinning ; judge whether he took cot the 
thing to be impoffible ? He faith, Tho' fuch do 
Murder, commit Adultery, Blafphemy, Idolatry, 
or any fuch thing, they are no Murderers, Adul- 
terers, &c. or Sinners \ becaufe it is Chnlt's fin, 
and not theirs, and cannot be his and theirs 500,-, 
fo that- they may live in the Ad, but cannot\fin> 

Object. But it was their fin once^ before it was 
Chrifis fin? 

Anfw. No -, He faith, that it wasChrift's fin, if 
not from Eternity, at leaft above Sixteen Hundred 
Years before we were born. And he that had 

F 4 pq 

66 A ?oft-fcript. 

no being, could have no fin : And Gods fore- 
knowledge of future fin, maketh not (in : Nay, 
he could not fore-know, that which would never 
be*, fo that indeed, Chrift could not take our fin' 
as his, which was not ours, nor ever would be 
$t ail : And if he had, yet I hope they will noc 
fay, that now in Heaven he is the greateft fin- 
ner. And-fo, there neither was, nor is, any fin 
in us or Chrift. 

Scot. 3. But as he repeateth this Errour,I will 
repeat my Lamentations and Warning to this 
tempted SeH . Hear it as SmuUtoris Tubam? the 
Watch-mans Trumpet, that would deliver, if it 
may be, more than his own Soul. 

1. Is it poflible, that that which is evil, and 
the greateft evil It felf, can be in hs 7 and done 
by hs^ and do us no hurt ? 

2. Can that do no hurt to the Eleft-, that mab 
eth fuch calamitous Confufions in the World ? 
What, that which filleth the Earth with the dark- 
nefs of Ignorance, Idolatry .Infidelity, bloody Wars, 
Perfections, Torments, Flames, Famine, Malig- 
nity, and yet do no hurt to any that are Eleft, 
no, not while they are fuch themfelves ? 

3. JDid jWcall himfelf mad againft the Saints, 
unworthy to be called an Apoftle, a wretched 
man, for that which did him no hurt ? 

4. Did David write all the lamenting Words 
of Pfal. 5 1 . and many others ^ and Aftph % Pfal. 77, 
&c. for that which did them no hurt? 

5. Did God pronounce all the Curfes, Lev. 26. 
and Dent. 27. eK againft that fin that will not 
hurt the Eleft that then lived ? 

6. Are the recitals of the Jews fins and punifh- 
ments, pfal. 78. and 105, 106. &c. of things that 
cannot hurt the Eleft? 

7- Did 

APvJt'ftript* 6f 

?. Did God fend the Jews into Captivity tq 
Babylon for iins that do the Eleft no hurt ; even 
for penitent Manaflhs** fins ? 

8. Are all God's threatnings in the whole Scrip- 
ture, even fuch as Chrift's Words, ~Job. 15. Heb. 6. 
Heb.iO- and Rev. 2, and 3- againft things that are fo 
h3rmlefs ? Muft we ferveGod acceptably with Re- 
verence and Godly Fear, becaufe he is a confuming 
Fire ; and becaufe it is a fearful thing to fall into 
the Hands of the living God, if no fin can pop- 
fibly do us any hurt ? 

9. Doth not this opinion contradift every Ar- 
ticle of the Creed, every Petition in the Lords 
Prayer, and every one of the Ten Commandements ? 

10. If it be no hurt to be tormented with pof- 
felfions of the Devil, to be Lunatick, Blind, Lame, 
Dumb, Toxn^&c. Why is Chrift fo Praifed 
for healing fuch, and why appealeth he to his 
Works againft unbelievers ? 

11. If it be no hurt to be mad, what is Bedlam 
good for? Or to be tormented with Stone, Col* 
Ucfa Convulfion, or any Difeafe; why will thefe 
Phanaticks fe?k to Phyficians, ufe Medicines, and 
groan in Pain ? Poflidcnius would confute his 
Tongue by a fower-face or a groan ; when he faid, 
O Pain^ thoH \h alt not make me confefs that thou arf 
(malum ) ill, or bad. 

1 2. Why do we not take up with the three 
firft Petitions in the Lords Prayer, if our own In- 
terefl be not next to be regarded and prayed for ? 

13. Why pray we for our daily Bread, if there 
be no hurt to want it -, or for the pardon of fin, 
if punifhment be impoflible, or hurt not i or a- 
gainft temptations and the evil one, and evil things, 
if they be no fuch ? 

14. Should 

6% A Vofi-fcrip. 

14. Should none pray .but Reprobates, if others 
tavc no hurt to deprecate ? 

15. Why fhould we companionate the poor, or 
lick, if fin do no hurt to them ? 

1 6. Why do men Plow and Sow, and Labour, 
and Eat, if Famine hurt not, and Labour do no 
gopd, becaufe Chrift hath done all ? 

'17. Why do Minifters Preach fo much againft 
fin, if it can do no hurt? 

18. What is it that we are to repent of, if fin 
do no hurt ? 

19- Why muft fafting, and watchfulnefs, and 
refilling temptations be ufed againft Luft> and o- 
ther fin, if it can do no hurt ? 

20, What is Baptifm, the Lords Supper, Con- 
felfion, and-Abfolution then for ? 

21. Why 'then fhould we exhort each other 
3aily, left any be hardened by this deceitfulnefs 
of fin? 

( 22. Why is he called Leaft, in the Kingdom 
pf God, who breaketh the .leaft. Commandemexit, 
and teacheth men fo"? 

; 23. Why is the Education of Children fb great 
a Duty, and he that fpareth the Rod, hateth his 
Child, if fin will do them no hurt ? 

24. What is God's Governing Juftice good for, 
in punifhing fin, if it hurt not ? 

25. Why muft Rulers be Juft, and a Terrour 
to them that do evil, if fin do no hurt ? 

26. How can that hurt any other Eleft Per- 
son , that hurteth not the finner himfelf ? 

27. Why is it worfe to be call into the Sea 
with a Miil-ftone, for fcandalizing the leaft, if than 
fcandal cannot hurt them ? 

28. Why do Libertines' labour to efcape Pri- 
fons, Banifhments, Fines, or Hanging for fin, if it 
•can do them no hurt? 29. Why 

AFoft-fitip. £ 9 

1 19. Why is man's nature afraid of Devils, and 
the Serpents feed* if they cannot hurt us ? 

30. Why hurt we others by Self- defence, and 
War, if nothing can hurt us ? 

31. Why hath God put fwr into our ? Nature, 
if nothing can hurt us? 

32. Was it no hurt to the Eled to-be- "Jong 
the Devil's Servants, and to have our Converfi- 
on fo long delayed, as with many it is f. 

33- Is lin worfe than fufFering, if it can do no 
hurt ? 

34. Is it no hurt to live and dye in terrible 
fear of Gods difpleafure, and in doubts of our 
everlafting ftate ? 

35. Is it no hurt to have Faith, Lpve, De- 
fire, and Joy, weak, and to have ftill the remnants 
of unbelief, and other fuch like fins ? 

36. Is it no hurt to lofe fome degrees of Love 
and Holinefs, which we have had? 

37. Is it no hurt accordingly to have the lefe 
of Glory in Heaven ? 

38. Why are thefe men for Separation and 
Church-Difcipline, if lin do no hurt ? 

39. Why pray they for Reformation, and 
Church-profperity, and the Thoufand Years Glo- 
rious State, if fin be fo harmlefs a thing? 

40. If all that Chrift Merited, be really the 
Elefts, immediately on his purchafe, are not ail 
the Eleft in Heaven already ; yea, before they 
had any being j whence then is all the grofs Ig- 
norance and JErrour, and blind Defence of Satans 
falfehoods, under the Name of Chrift and Truth? 
Why cenfure they Conformifls and others that 
differ from them ? If all that Chrift hath, be 
already ours, and we are as perfed as he, what 
can Duty, or more Grace,)! or Heaven, add 


JO Afyfl-fcript 

to us? And why would they have men read their 
Books, to do no good, and avoid no evil ? Is it to 
make up any iraperfeftion in the Obedience or 
Righteoufnefs of Chrift ? 

41. Did Chrift redeem us from under his own 
Government, and the Law of Grace ? Are we 
not under the Law fof Chrift and Faith, and Li- 
berty! to Chrift? Or is there any tranfgreffion, 
if no Law ? Or is it Law that we ftiall not be 
Ruled and Judged by ? 

42. Is it no greater Mercy and Grace, to make 
us like our Saviour in Holinefs, and Gods Image, 
and the Divine Nature, than not ? Are Chrift's 
Graces his difhonour ? 

43. Is it not a vile abufe of his Grace, to 
contemn it, becaufe it is our own ? And to 
take Righteoufnefs to Hand againfi Free Grace, if 
it be but our own ? And to pervert Pauls Words, 
that accounted as dung his own Righteoufnefs^ which 
he fets in competition or oppofition to Chrift, 
calling it that Righteoufnefs which was of (Mofcs) 
Law § when at the fame Word, he fets againft it a 
Righteoufnefs alfo made his own, which is by the 
Faith of Chrift. Could Chrifts Righteoufnefs Ju- 
ftify us, if it were not in fome kind of Caufaii- 
ty ( meritorious, material, or formal J made our 
own : Can an Accident of another Subject be an 
Accident of us ? And will not diftinft perfona- 
lity continue to Men* as well as to Angels for 
ever ? We abhor the thoughts of any Righteouf- 
nefs that is of our own poflefling or working, other- 
*wfe than as given and Wrought in us, by the Me- 
rits of Chrift, and the Free Gift of undeferved 
Grace ; or any that muft not by the fame Di- 
vine Power and Grace be continued. And all that 
pretendeth to the lcaft part of the Office or Per- 

a rojt-jcnpt. yj 

formance of Chrift ; but only what he freely 
giveth, and which advanceth the Honour of his 
Merits and Love, and tendeth to PJ ea f e and Glo- 
rify God, and- atcain the defigned End of Re^ ' 
deroption and Salvation* - 

A5^r^fc^ an prefixed.tothe 
Book, I leave tt to them/elves, u fptak their 

the Words tfrttft, as they are written (and* 
deed inculcated) to overthrow Chrifiiamtv\„d Hu 
mamty And I doubt not, but fome of tie refi JL 
of the fame mind, and had not read the Book or 
the Preface, fo as to know what was in them ' 


T n E 


pHAP.t. Prefatory. page i. 

Chap. 2. ^« hundred of their Er* 
rors defcribed. p. 6. 

Chap. 3. To moderate tk oyevhot Qen- 
yj ilrers of their Per fens. p. ,^8». 

Chap. 4. G(eaJons for prefent forbearing 
a tedious Confutation of them, as being fuU 
ly and often done by me already, and as 
further, needlefs. p. 58* 

fojt-fcript. p. 6 j. 

Three BOOKS Lately 

Publifned by Mr. BAXTER, and 
Printed for Tbo. (parkhurfl. 

i. "CNglilh Non-Conformity, ay under 
■L King CHARLES the Second; Tru- 
ly Stated and Argued. 

z. Knowledge and Love. 

3. Cain and Abel. 

THE Vanity of Continuing Ceremonies is 
the Worfhip of GOD; by a Minifierof 
the Church of England. 

An Healing Attempt ; Confcience Satisfied 
in Submitting Obedience to King WILLIAM 
and Queen. MARY. 


: -~" 


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