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Full text of "The practical works of the Rev. Richard Baxter, with a life of the author, and a critical examination of his writings"


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Th e Dedication of the whole ......••*. 1 

A Premonition 17 



Chap. I. There remaineth, therefore, a rest for the people 

of God 26 

II. This rest defined 30 

III. What this rest presupposeth , . . . 37 

IV. What this rest containeth 46 

V. The four great preparatives to our rest 70 

VI. This rest most excellent, discovered by reason ... 97 

VII. The excellencies of our rest 106 

VIII. The people of God described 171 

The conclusion 199 



Dedication 203 

Preface 204 



Chap. I 240 

II. Motives to study and preach the divine authority 

of Scripture 246 

III 258 

IV. The first argument to prove Scripture to be the 

Word of God 268 

V. The second argument , 298 

VI. The third argument 305 

VII. The fourth argument 317 

VIIL Rest for none but the people of God, proved .... 336 
IX. Reasons why this rest remains^ and is not here 

enjoyed 339 

X. Whether the souls departed enjoy this rest before 

the resurrection = 348 




Chap. I. Use 1. — Showing the unconceivable misery of the 

ungodly in their loss of this rest 361 

II. The aggravation of the loss of heaven to the un- 
godly 371 

III. They shall lose all things that are comfortable, 

as well as heaven 395 

IV. The greatness of the torments of the damned dis- 

covered 415 

V. Use 2. — R.eprehending the general neglect of this 

rest, and exciting to diligence in seeking it . . 437 
VI. An exhortation to seriousness in seeking rest .... 455 
VII. Use 3. — Persuading all men to try their title to 
this rest ; and directing them how to try, that* 

they may kno\v 482 

VIIL Further causes of doubting among Christians . . . 505 
IX. Containing an exhortation, and motives to examine 517 
X. Containing directions for examination, and some 

marks for trial ..,,,,..,. , 529 





My dear Friends, 

If either I or my labours have any thing of public use or 
worth, it is wholly, though not only, yours ; and I am convinced, 
by Providence, that it is the will of God it should be so. This 
I clearly discerned in my first coming to you, in my former 
abode with you, and in the time of my forced absence from you. 
When I was separated by the miseries of the late unhappy war, 
I durst not fix in any other congregation ; but lived in a military, 
unpleasing state, lest I should forestall my return to you, for 
whom I took myself reserved. The oflfers of greater worldly 
accommodations, with five times the means which I receive with 
you, was no temptation to me once to question whether I should 
leave you : your free invitation of my return, your obedience to 
my doctrine, the strong affection which I have yet towards you 
above all people, and the general, hearty return of love which I 
find from you, do all persuade me that I was sent into this world 
especially for the service of your souls. And that even when I 
am dead I might yet be a help to your salvation, the Lord hath 
forced me, quite beside my own resolution, to write this treatise, 
and leave it in your hands. It was far from my thoughts ever 
to have become thus public, and burthened the world with any 
writings of mine ; therefore have I oft resisted the requests of 
my reverend brethren, and some superiors, who might else have 
commanded much more at my hands : but see how God over- 
ruleth and crosseth our resolutions. 

Being in my quarters, far from home, cast into extreme lan- 
guishing by the sudden loss of about a gallon of blood, after 
many years' foregoing weaknesses, and having no acquaintance 

VOL. XXfl, B 



about me, nor any books but my bible, and living in continual ex- 
pectation of deatb, I bent my thoughts on my 'Everlasting 
Rest;' and because my memory, through extreme weakness, was 
imperfect, 1 took my pen and began to draw up my own funeral 
sermon, or some helps for my own meditations of heaven, to 
sweeten both the rest of my life and my death. In this condi- 
tion God was pleased to continue me about five months, from 
home ; where, being able for nothing else, I went on with this 
work, which so lengthened to this which here you see. It is no 
wonder, therefore, if I be too abrupt in the beginning, seeing I 
then intended but the length of a sermon or two ; much less 
may you wonder if the whole be very imperfect, seeing it was 
written, as it were, with one foot in the grave, by a man that 
was betwixt living and dead, that wanted strength of nature to 
quicken invention or affection, and had no book but his bible 
while the chief part was finished, nor had any mind of human 

r~ ornaments if he had been furnished. But O how sweet is this 

! Providence now to my review, which so happily forced me to 
that work of meditation which I had formerly found so profitable 
to my soul, and showed me more mercy in depriving me of other 
helps than I was aware of, and hath caused my thoughts to feed 
on this heavenly subject, which hath more benefited me than 

5 all the studies of my life ! 

^" And now, dear friends, such as it is I here offer it you ; and 
upon the bended knees of my soul I offer up my thanks to the 

L merciful God who hath fetched up both me and it, as from the 
grave, for your service ; who reversed the sentence of present 
death, which, by the ablest physicians, was passed upon me ; 
who interrupted my public laboiu's for a time, that he might 
force me to do you a more lasting service, which, else, I had 
never been like to have attempted : that God do I heartily bless 
and magnify, who hath rescued me from the many dangers of 
four years' war, and after so many tedious nights and days, and 
so many doleful sights and tidings, hath returned me, and many 
of yourselves, and reprieved us till now to serve him in peace ', 
and though men be ungrateful, and my body ruined beyond hope 
of recovery, yet he hath made up all in the comforts I have in 
you. To the God of mercy do J here offer my most hearty 
thanks, and pay the vows of acknowledgment which I oft made 
in my distress, who hath not rejected my prayers, which in my 
dolor I put up,^ but hath, by a wonder, delivered me in the 
8 Arriba Concil. de Gratia et Liber Arbit. 1. i. c. 10, 


midst of my duties ; and hath supported me this fourteen years 
in a languishing state, wherein I have scarcely had a waking hour 
free from pain ; who hath, above twenty several times, delivered 
me when I was near to death : and though he hath made me 
spend my days in groans and tears, and in a constant expecta- 
tion of my change, yet hath he not wholly disabled me to his 
service ; and hereby hath more effectually subdued my pride, 
and made this world contemptible to me, and forced my dull 
lieart to more importunate requests, and occasioned more rare 
discoveries of his mercy than ever I could have expected in a 
prosperous state. For ever blessed be the Lord, that hath not 
only honoured me to be a minister of his Gospel, but hath also 
set me over a people so willing to obey, and given me that suc- 
cess of my labours which he hath denied to many more able and 
faithful ; '' who hath kept you in the zealous practice of godli- 
ness when so many grow negligent, or despise the ordinances of 
God ; who hath kept you stable in his truth, and saved you from 
the spirit of giddiness, levity, and apostasy, of this age ; who 
hath preserved you from those scandals, whereby others have so 
heinously wounded their profession, and hath given you to see 
the mischief of separation and divisions, and made you eminent 
for unity and peace when almost all the land is in a flame of 
contention, and so many that we thought godly are busily de- 
molishing the church, and striving in a zealous ignorance 
against the Lord. Beloved, though few of you are rich or great 
in the world, yet for this riches of mercy towards you, 1 must 
say, ye are my glory, my crown, and my joy ; and for all these 
rare favours to myself and you, as I have oft promised to pub- 
lish the praises of our Lord, so do I here set up this stone of 
remembrance, and write upon it, ' Glory to God in the highest : 

■* Nam cum gaudere in hoc omnes fratres oportet, turn in gaudio communi 
major est episcopi portio. Ecclesiae enim gloria praspositi gloria est. Quantum 
dolemus ex illis quos tempestas inimica prostravit ; tantum laetamur ex vobis, 
quosdiabolus superarenon potuit. Hortamur tamen per comrnunemfidem, per 
pectoris nostri veram circa vos et simplicem charitatem ut adversarium prima 
hac congressione vicistis, gloriam vestram forti et perseveranti virtute tenea- 
tis. Adhuc in seculo sumus ; adhuc in acie constituti, de vita nostra quotidie 
dimicamus. Danda opera est, ut post hsec initia, ad increnienta quocjue ve- 
niatur, et coiisummetur in vobis, quod jam rudimentis foelicibus esse coepistis. 
Parum adipisci aliquid potuisse : plus est quod adeptus es posse servare; 
sicut et fides ipsa et nativitas salutaris, non accepta, sed custodita vivificat. 
Nee statim consecutio, sed consummatio hominem Deo servat, ut John v. 14. 
— Cyprian, Epist. vii. ad Rogat,, &c. p. (mihi) 19, 



hitherto hath the Lord helped us : my flesh and my heart failed, 
but God is the strength of mv heart, and my portion for ever.' 

But have all these deliverances brought us to our rest ? No ; 
we are as far yet from it as we are from heaven. You are yet 
under oppression and troubles, and I am yet under consuming 
sickness ; and feeling that I am likely to be among you but a 
little while, and that my pained body is hastening to the dust, 
I shall here leave you my best advice for your immortal souls, 
and bequeath vou this counsel as the legacv of a dying man, 
that you may here read it and practise it when I am taken from 
you ; and, 1 beseech you, receive it as from one that you know 
dolh unfeignedly love you, and that regardeth no honours or 
happiness in this world in comparison with the welfare and salva- 
tion of your souls ; yea, receive it from me as if 1 offered it you 
upon my knees, beseeching you, for your souls' sake, that you 
would not reject it, and beseeching the Lord to bless it to you ; 
yea, as one that hath received authority from Christ to com- 
mand you, I charge you in his name, as ever you will answer it, 
when we shall meet at judgment, and as you would not have 
me there be a witness against you, nor all my labours be charged 
against you to your condemnation, and the Lord Jesus, your 
Judge, to sentence you as rebellious, that you faithfully and 
constantly practise these ten directions : 

L Labour to be men of knowledge and sound understandings. 
A sound judgment is a most precious mercy, and much conduceth 
to the soundness of heart and life.'^ A weak judgment is easily 
corrupted ; and if it be once corrupt, the will and conversa- 
tion will quickly follow. Your understandings are the inlet or 
entrance to the whole soul ; and if you be weak there, your 
souls are like a garrison that hath open or ill-guarded gates; and 
if the enemy be once let in there, the whole city will quickly be 
his own. ignorance is virtually every error, therefore let the 
bible be much in your hands and hearts : remember what I 
taught you on Deut. vi. 6, 7. Read much the writings of our 
old, solid divines, such as Perkins, Bolton, Dodd, Sibbs, espe- 
cially Doctor Preston. You may read an able divine when you 
cannot hear one : especially, be sure you learn well the principles 
of religion. Begin with the 'Assemblies' Lesser Catechism,' 
and then read the greater; and, next. Master Balls', with the 

« Male autem vivitur, si de Deo non bene vrediXur^—Jugust. de Chit. 
1. V. c. 10. 


^Exposition,' and then Doctor Ames' 'Marrow of Divinity/ now 
Englished, or Usher's. If you see men fall on controversies before 
they understand these, never wonder if they are drowned in errors. 
I know your poverty and labours will not give you leave to read 
so much as others may do ; but yet a willing mind v*'ill find some 
time, if it be when they should sleep, and, especially, it will spend 
the Lord's day wholly in these things. O be not ignorant of 
God in the midst of such light ! as if the matters of your salva- 
tion were less worth vour study than your trading in the world. 
2. Do the utmost you can to get a faithful minister when I 
am taken from you, and be sure you acknowledge him your 
teacher, overseer, and ruler; (1 Thess. v. 12, 13; Acts xx. 
28 ; Heb. xiii. 7, 17;) and learn of him, obey him, and submit 
to his doctrine, except he teach you any singular points, and then 
take the advice of other ministers in trying it. Expect not that 
he should humour you, and please your fancies, and say and do 
as you would have him ; that is not the way of God, for the 
people to rule themselves and their rulers. If he be unable to 
teach and guide you, do not choose him at first ; if he be able, 
be ruled bv him, even in things that to you are doubtful, except 
it be clear that he would turn you from the truth; if you know 
more than he, become preachers yourselves ; if you do not, then 
quarrel not wlien you should learn : especially, submit to his 
private over-sight, as well as public teaching. It is but the least 
part of a minister's work which is done in the pulpit: Paul 
taught them, also, from house to house, day and night, with 
tears. (Acts xx. 20, 31.) To go daily from one house to ano- 
ther, and see how you live, and examine how you profit, and 
direct you in the duties of your families, and in your preparations 
for death, is the great work.'^ Had not weakness confined me, 
and public labours forbidden me, I should judge myself heinously 
guilty in neglecting this. In the primitive times, every church 
of so manv souls as this parish had many ministers, whereof the 
ablest speakers did preach most in public, and the rest did the 
more of the less public work, which some mistake for mere ruling 
elders.'^ But now, sacrilege and covetousness will scarcely leave 

•' Wliicli since I have dealt in with comfortable success. See my ' Re- 
formed Pastor.' 

■•■ Clemens Alexand. saith, " In all bodies there are two ranks ; those that 
better them by superiority and governing, and those that serve, as parents 
and children, magistrates and sul)jects, &c. And so in the church, that part 
which hettercth it bc-loi;geth to the presbyters, and that which serveth to the 
deacons." Here is no mention of any other office, — Stromat. lib, vii. initio. 


maintenance for one in a church ; which is it that hath brought 
us to a loss in the nature of government. 

3. Let all your knowledge turn into affection and practice ; 
keep open the passage between your heads and your hearts, that 
every truth may go to the quick. Spare not, for any pains, in 
working out your salvation ; take heed of loitering, when your 
souls lie at the stake ; favour not yourselves in any slothful dis- 
temper : laziness is the damnation of most that perish among 
us. God forbid you should be of the mad opinion of the world, 
that like not serving God so much, nor making so much ado to 
be saved : all these men will shortly be of another mind. Live 
now as you would wish you had done at death and judgment. 
Let no scorns dishearten you, no differences of opinion be an 
offence to you : God, and Scripture, and heaven, and the way 
thither, are still the same. It will do you no good to be of the 
right religion, if you be not zealous in the exercise of the duties 
of that religion. Read often the fifth and sixth chapters of the 
third part of this book. 

4. Be sure you make conscience of the great duties that you 
are to perform in your families. Teach your children and ser- 
vants the knowledge and fear of God ; do it early and late, in 
season and out of season. Pray with them daily and fervently; 
remember Daniel's example, (Dan. vi.,) and the command. 
(1 Thess. V. 17.) Read the Scripture, and good books to them ; 
restrain them from sin ; keep not a servant that will not learn, 
and be ruled. Neighbours, I charge you, as you will shortly 
answer the contrary before the Lord your Judge, that there be 
never a family among you that shall neglect these great duties. 
If you cannot do what you should, yet do what you can ; especi- 
ally, see that the Lord's day be wholly spent in these exercises. 
To spend it in idleness or sports, is to consecrate it to your flesh, 
and not to God, and far worse than to spend it in your trades. 

5. Beware of extremes in the controverted points of religion. 
When you avoid one error, take heed you nm not into another, 
especially if you be in the heat of disputation or passion. As I 
have showed you, I think, the true mean in the doctrine of justi- 
fication and redemption, so I had intended to have writ a pecu- 
liar treatise with three columns, showing both extremes, and the 
truth in the middle, through the body of divinity, but God takes 
me off. Especially beware of these times : antinomianisni 
comes from gross ignorance, and leads to gross wickedness. 
Socinians are scarce Christians : Arminianisin is quite above 


your reach, and, therefore, not fit for your study in most points. 
The middle way which Camero, Ludov. Crocius, Rlartinus, 
Amyraldus, Davenant, with all the divines of Britain and Breme, 
in the synod of Dort, go, 1 think is nearest the truth of any that I 
know who have written on those points of redemption and univer- 
sal grace. And for the points of predestination, and the nature of 
the divine influx on the will in the working of grace, which are 
most hotly agitated, and where the heart of the controversy seems 
to lie ; I think I had never yet the happiness to read, or speak 
with the man that himself understood them : and those, least, that 
are usually most confident. As for separation, the mischief of it 
lies not in the bare error of judgment, but in the unchristian and 
church-dissolving division and alienation which thence follovv- 
eth; contrary to that humility and love which is the visible 
character of Christians, and to that oneness which is still in 
Scripture ascribed to the visible church. Alas, that pride and 
ignorance should have such power among believers, that men 
cannot be of several judgments in lesser points, but they must 
needs be also of several churches ! God will make us value 
peace and union a little more, before we shall taste of the per- 
fect everlasting peace and union : yea, before we shall see the 
blessing of union in the church. Wounding is a dividing; heal- 
ing is a re-uniting. A building is of many stones or pieces or- 
derly conjoined; a church is an aggregation of individuals; an 
association of believers. What then, is it to demolish, but to 
•separate and disjoin ? And what is it to dissolve churches, but 
to break their association ; to reduce them to individuals ; to 
cut them into shreds ?^ As for the differences, in way of govern- 

f Doubtless, in Cyprian's time, every particular, completed church was 
guided and ruled by a society of presbyters, having all authority to teach ; 
the chief of whom was chosen constant moderator and president, and called 
the bishop ; and under these were the deacons : and both presbyters and presi- 
dent ordained by others of the same office, and chosen or accepted by the peo» 
j)le. So that then there was no bishop over many churches, but only the pre- 
sident to many ministers in one church ; nor did they once claim a power 
over the officers of another church : nor was there such a thing as a presby- 
ter that was no church governor, but merely a teacher : nor such a thing, I 
think, as a presbyter that had no authority to teach : nor such a thing as a 
church ruled by the vote of the people. " Salvo inter collegas pacis et con- 
cordiae vinculo (there is the chief use of synods) qucedam propria quae apud 
se semel sunt usurpata, quidani, retinent. Qua in re, nee nos vim cuiquam 
faciraus, aut legem damns ; cum habeat in ecclesife administratione volun- 
tatis sua; arbitrium liberum unusquique pra?positas, rationem actus sui Domino 
redditurus." This was written to the Bishop of Rome — an undoubted testi- 
mony against his usurped power, by blessed Cyprian, in Epist. Ixxii. p. 217, 


ment between the moderate presbyterians, independents, episco- 
pal, and erastian, I make no doubt but if men's spirits stood not 
at a greater distance than their principles, they would quickly be 
united. But of all the four sorts, there are some that run so 
high in their principles, that they run out of the hearing of peace 
or truth. Will God never put it into the hearts of rulers, to 
call together some of the most godly, learned, moderate, and 
peaceable of all four opinions (not too many), to agree upon a 
way of union and accommodation, and not to cease till they have 
brought it to this issue ? To come as near together as they 
can possibly in their principles : and where they cannot, yet to 
unite as far as may be, in their practice, though on different 
principles ; and where that cannot be, yet to agree on the most 
loving, peaceable course in the way of carrying on our different 
practices; that so, as Rup. Meldenius saith, we may have unity 
in things necessary, liberty in things unnecessary, and charity in 
all. The Lord persuade those who have power to this pacifica- 
tory enterprise without delav. 

For anabaptism and antinomianism, I have written against 
them in two other books (s and more shall do against the latter, if 

(edit. Goulartii.) By the fonseiit of a synod, yea, in the ordination of their 
church guides, though the people cannot call them alone, without the elec- 
tion and ordination of other church guides, who are fittest to judge of their 
abilities ; yea, are the people also to judge of their lives, and no officer 
ordinarily to be put on them without their consent ; if the same Cyprian, with 
a whole synod, were not mistaken. *' Plebs ipsa maxime habet potestatem 
vel eligendi dignos sacerdotes, vel indignos recusandi." — Eplst. Ixviii. Read 
the rest ; which testimony 1 add, to show I am far from running into extremes 
against independency : and if they will read Goulartius' notes, they shall see 
that they are more beholden to Geneva presbvterians than they are aware of: 
yea, Pamelius himself confesseth as much as I say. But let the people re- 
member that they choose not ministers whom they must rule, but church 
guides and rulers, whom God hath frequently charged them to obey, as cor- 
porations choose magistrates to govern them, and not to be governed by 
them. Yet more plainly, Cyprian in initio Concil. Carthage to 87 : — 
Bishops, he saith — " Superest ut de hac re singuli quid sentiamus proferamus 
neminem judicantes, aut k jure communionis aliquem si diversum sinccrit 
amoventes. Neque enim quisquam nostrum ejiiscopum se esse episcoporum 
constituit, aut tyrannico terrore collegas ad obsequendi nocessitatem adigit, 
cum habeat omnis episcopus pro licentia libertatis etpotestatis sua» arbitrium 
proprium, tanique judicari ab alio non possit, quam nee ipse potest alterum 
juilicare. Sed expectemus universi judicium Domini nostri Jesu Christi, qui 
unus et solus habet potestatem et proponendi nos in ecclesise sute "^uberna- 
tione, et de acta nostro judicandi." Can more be said against the pope, or 
any bishop of many churches, or any tliat claim a decisive judgment of doc- 
trinal controversies.' In ' Open Cypriani/ (edit. Pamel. et Goulart,) pp 
443, 444. 
B Since done in my ' Confession and Apology.' 


God will). But my guilty friends are offended with me for what 
I have done. I dare not, therefore, be silent, as being the officer 
and ambassador of Christ, and not of men ; God spoke effectu- 
ally against them by those wondrous monsters in New England. 
But wonders are overlooked where the heart is hardened, and 
God intends to get his justice a name. The fearful delusions 
that God hath formerly given them over to, and the horrid con- 
fusion which they have introduced where they have sprung, hath 
spoken fully against both these latter sects. The weeping eyes, 
the bleeding sides, the lacerated members, of these churches ; the 
reproached Gospel, the disappointed reformation, the hideous 
doctrines, and unheard-of wickedness that hath followed them ; 
the contemned ordinances, the reproached, slandered, and eject- 
ed ministers^ the weak that are scandalised, the professors apos- 
tatised, the wicked hardened, and the open enemies of the Gospel 
that now insult : all these do ascribe them more plainly to England 
than words can do, and cry loud in the ears of God and man. 
What will be the answer, time will show : but, from Rev. ii. 
14 — 16, 20 — 22, &c., we may probably conjecture. 

6. Above all, see that you be followers of peace and unity, 
both in the church, and among yourselves. Remember what I 
taught vou on Heb. xii, 14. He that is not a son of peace, is 
not a son of God. All other sins destroy the church conse- 
quentially, but division and separation demolish it directly. 
Building the church is but an orderly joining of the materials j 
and what then is disjoining, but pulling down ? Many doctrinal 
differences must be tolerated in a church. And why, but for 
unity and peace ? Therefore, disunion and separation is utterly 
intolerable. Believe not those to be the churches' friends that 
would cure and reform her, by cutting her throat. Those that 
say, no truth must be concealed for peace, have usually as little 
of the one as the other. Study Gal. ii. 2 ; Rom. xiv. 1, &c. ; 
Acts xxi. 24, 26 ; 1 Tim. i. 4, and vi. 4 ; Tit. iii. S, 9. I hope, 
sad experience speaks this lesson to your very hearts, if I should 
say nothing. Do not your hearts bleed to look upon the state 
of England ; and to think - how few towns or cities there be, 
where is any forwardness in religion, that are not cut into shreds, 
and crumbled as to dust, by separations and divisions ? To 
think what a wound we have hereby given to the very christian 
name. How we have hardened the ignorant, confirmed the 
doubting ; and are ourselves become the scorn of our enemies, 
and the grief of our friends; and how many of our dearest, best 


esteemed friends are fallen to notorious pride or impiety ; yea, 
some to be worse than open infidels; these are pillars of salt, see 
that you remember them. You are yet eminent for your unity, 
steadfastness, and godliness ; hold fast that you have, that no 
man take your crown from you; temptations are now come near 
your doors, yet many of you have gone through greater, and, 
therefore, 1 hope, will escape through these. Yet, lest your 
temptation should grow stronger, let me warn you, that though 
of your own selves men should arise speaking perverse things, to 
draw disciples after them ; (Acts xx. 30 ;) yea, though an angel 
from heaven should draw you to division, see that you follow 
him not. If there be erroneous practices in the church, keep your- 
selves innocent with moderation and peace ; do your best to re- 
form them, and rather remove your dwellings, if vou cannot live 
innocently, than rend the church. It must be no small error 
that must force a separation. .Justin, a holy, learned martyr, 
(in ' Dialog, cum Triphone,') who was converted within thirty- 
one years of John's death, and wrote his first Apology within 
fifty-one, (and therefore it is like he saw John's days,) profes- 
seth, that if a Jew should keep the ceremonial law, so he did not 
persuade the Gentiles to it as necessary, yet if he acknowledge 
Christ, he judgeth that he may be saved ; and he would embrace 
him, and have communion with him, as a brother. And Paul 
would have him received that is weak in the faith, and not un- 
church whole parishes of those that we know not, nor were ever 
brought to a just trial. You know I never conformed to the 
use of mystical, symbolical rites myself, but only to the deter- 
mination of circumstantials necessary m^^enere; and yet, I ever 
loved a godly, peaceable conformist, better than a turbulent 
nonconformist. I yet differ from many in several things of con- 
siderable moment, 8cc.^ As my 'Aphorisms of Justification,' 

•> Of which I may say, as famous Camero : Etsi non spondebam fore ut 
omnibus arrideret, attamen nunquam veritus sum iiequis piorum eo offen- 
deretur, quasi is causam adversariorum juvaret. Nam nullus inde quicquara 
potuit exculpere, quod causae quam agebam, obesset, et is sic institutus est, 
ut ubique seuteutiam adversarii non niodo petat, sed feriat etiam et ju<rulet. 
(2uod siquis eum paium aptum et coiicinnum judicet, ecjo quidem certe id 
neque iudig-nor, iieque doleo, ut qui sciam probe, quam sit asquum et ration! 
cousentaiieum, ut siat iti hoc S'^nere liliera hominum judicia. Taiitum id 
peto (quod a bonis viris impetraturum me facile coufido) ne hie obruar praeju- 
diciis, neu me quis nisi aduionitum et vi veritatis victum, neque cedenteni 
tamen existiniet damiiauduni. Utinam me sic vobis purgariui I Quod si cui 
vestrum ullus adhuc ha;ret scrupulus, mihi rem fecerit et pergratam, et ap- 
prime utilem; si mecura volet aperte agere, mihique vel agnoscendi errorem 


show (as is explained in my ' Confession*). And yet if I should 
zealcv<sly press my judgment on others, so as to disturb the 
peace of the church, and separate from my brethren, that are 
contrary minded, I should fear lest I should prove a firebrand in 
hell, for being a firebrand in the church; and for all the interest 
I have in your judgment and affections, ] here charge you, that 
if God should give me up to any factious, church-rending course, 
against which I daily pray, that you forsake me, and follow me 
not a step. 

And for peace with one another, follow it with all your might; 
If it be possible, as much as in you lieth, live peaceably with all 
men. (Rom. xii. IS.) Mark this : when you feel any sparks of 
discontent in your breast, take them as kindled by the devil from 
hell, and take heed you cherish them not. If the flames begin 
to break forth in censoriousness, reproaches, and hard speeches 
of others, be as speedv and busy in quenching it, as if it were 
fire in the thatch of your houses : for why should your houses 
be dearer to you than the church, which is the house of God ? 
Or than your souls, which are the temples of the Holy Ghost ? 
If any heart-burnings arise, do not keep strange, but go together 
and lovingly debate it, or pray together, that God would reconcile 
you ; or refer the matter to your minister, or others ; and let 
not the sun go down on your wrath ; hath God spoken more 
against any sin than unpeaceableness ? If you forgive not men 
their trespasses, neither will your heavenly Father forgive you, 
which made Ludovicus Crocius say, that this is the measure and 
essential property of the least degree of true faith, ' Syntag.' 
lib. iv. c. 16. If you love not each other, you are no disciples 

ei, vel tuendae atque illustraudae veritatis copiam facere, prulatis rationibus 
ac testimoiiiis S. Scripturae, quibus vel cedere, si contra me faciuiit vel si 
minus, respondere queam. — Ccnner. in Epist. Resp. nd Theol. Jjeidens. Oper. 
fol. p. 71f), vel ut Augustin. " Sicut lectorem meum nolo mihi esse dedi- 
tuin, ita correctorem nolo sibi. llle me non aniet amplius qiiani catholifam 
(fidem : iste se nou amet amplius quam catholicam) veritatem. Sicut illi dico, 
noli meis Uteris quasi Scripturis Cauonicis in servire ; sed in illis et quoil nou 
credebas, cum iuveneris, incunctanter crede, in istis auteui, quod certum nou 
habebas, nisi certum intellexeris, noli firmiter retinere, Ita illi dice ; noli meas 
literasex tua opiuione vel conteniione, sed ex diviua lectione,ve] inconcussa 
ratione corrigere. Si quid in eis veri comprehenderis, existendo non est meum : 
at intelligendo, et amando, et tuum sit, et meum. (Siquid autem falsi conviceris 
errando fuerit meum.) Sed jam cavendo nee tuum sit nee meum." — /lug\ 
Ptoem. 1. 3. de Trin. This is all 1 desire of the readers of my writings ; 
Hoc erga me omnes observare vellem, quod erga te ipse servavi ; ut quic- 
quid improbandum puiant in scriptis meis, nee claudant subdolo pcctore, nee 
ita reprehendant apud alios, ut taceant apud me. — Aug. Epist, ad Hieron. 
inter opera. Hieron, torn, iii, fol. 164. {edit, Ameibach.) 


of Christ; nay, if you love not your enemies, and bless not them 
that curse you, and pray not for them that hurt and persecute 
you, you are no children of God. The wisdom from above is 
first pure, then peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, &c. 
(Jam. iii. 17.) O remember that piercing example of Christ, 
who washed his disciples' feet, to teach us, that we must stoop 
as low to one another. Sure, God doth not jest with you in all 
these plain Scriptures. I charge you, in the name of Christ, if 
vou cannot have peace otherwise, that you suffer wrongs and re- 
proaches, that vou go and beg peace of those that should beg 
it of vou ; yea, that you beg it on your knees of the poorest 
beggar, rather than lose it. And remember, Rom. xvi. 17, 18. 

7. Above all, be sure you get down the pride of your hearts. 
Forget not all the sermons I preached to you against this sin. 
No sin more natural, more common, or more deadly. A proud 
man is his own idol ; only from pride cometh contention. There 
is no living in peace with a proud person ; every disrespect will 
cast them into a fever of discontent. If once you grow wise in 
your own eyes, and love to be valued and preferred, and love 
those l)ost v.^ho think highest of you, and have secret heart- 
risings against any that disregard you, or have a low esteem of 
you, and caiuiot endure to be slighted, or spoke evil of; never 
take yourselves for Christians, if this be your case. To be a true 
Christian without bumilitv, is as liard, as to be a man without a 
soul. O, poor England, how low art thou brought by the 
pride of ignorant zealots I Dear friends, 1 can foretell you, with- 
out the gift of prophecy, that if any among you do fall from the 
truth, mark which is the proudest, that cannot endure to be con- 
tradicted, and that vilify others, and those will likely be they ; 
and if ever you be broken in pieces, and ruined, pride will be 
the cause. 

8. Be sure you keep the mastery over your flesh and senses. 
Few ever fall from God, but flesh-pleasing is the cause ; many 
think that i)y " flesh" the Scripture means our in-dwelling sin, 
when, alas ! it is the inordinate, sensitive ajipetice that it chargcth 
us to subdue. Nothing in the world damneth so many as flesh- 
pleasing, while men generally choose it as their happiness instead 
of God. O remember who hath said, " If ye live after the flesh, 
ye shall die," and, " Make no provision for the flesh, to satisfy 
its desires." (Rom. viii. 5 — 7, and xiii. 14.) Think of this when 
you are tempted to drunkenness, and gluttony, and lustfuluess, 
and worldliness ; and when you would fain have your dvt'ellings 


and states more delightful. You little think what a sin it is, 
even to please your flesh, further than it tends to help you in the 
service of God.' 

9. Make conscience of the great duty of reproving and ex- 
horting those ahout you : make not your souls guilty of the 
oaths, ignorance, and ungodliness, of others, hy your silence. 
Admonish them lovingly and modestly, but be sure you do it, 
and that seriously. This is the first step in discipline. Expect 
not that your minister should put any from the sacrament, whom 
you have not thus admonished once and again. Punish not 
before due process. 

10. Lastly: be sure to maintain a constant delight in God, 
and a seriousness and spirituality in all his worship. Think it 
not enough to delight in duties, if you delight not in God. 
Judge not of your duties by the bulk and number, but by the 
sweetness. You are never stable Christians till you reach this. 
Never forget all those sermons 1 preached to you on Psalm 
xxxvii. 4. Give not way to a customary dulncss in duty : do 
every duty with all thy might : especially, be not slight in secret 
prayer and meditation. Lay not out the chief of your zeal upon 
externals, and opinions, and the smaller things of religion. 
Let most of your daily work be upon your hearts : be still sus- 
picious of them ; understand their mortal wickedness, and de- 
ceitfulness, and trust them not too far. Practise that great 
duty of daily watching : pray earnestly that you be not led into 
temptation. Fear the beginnings and appearances of sin. 
Beware lest conscience once lose its tenderness. Make up every 
breach between God and your conscience betime. Learn how 
to live the life of faith, and keep fresh the sense of the love of 
Christ, and of your continued need of his blood. Spirit, and 
intercession ; and how much vou are beholden and enffatred to 
him. Live in constant readiness and expectation of death, and 
be sure to get acquainted with this heavenly conversation which 

' Fateor ins'.tam esse nobis corporis nostri cbaritatem. Fateor nos luijus 
fjerere tutelain. Nee neiro iiiilulg^endum illi, serviendum iie<^o. Multis eiiini 
serviet, qui corpori servit, qui pro illo nitiiiuui timet, qui ad iilud oniiiio refert ; 
sic j(ereie nos del)fmus, iion tan((uain jiropter cor])iis vivere del)eauius, sed 
tanquam non possimus sine corpore. Hujus nos niniius anu;r linioribus in- 
(juietat, solicitudiiiiljus onerat, contuineliis ohjicit. Monestuin ei vile est, cui 
corpus nimimn cliaruin est. i\ijatur ejus 'lilii^cntissima cura ; ita tanien ut 
cum exi^et ratio, cum dignitas, cum fides, mittendum in ignem sit. — Seneca 
Epi.it. xii. p. rj43. Happy wi-re many a Christian if they liad learned this 
lesson wliiih an infidel teaclictli tlieni. 


this book is written to direct you in ; which I commend to your 
use, hoping you will be at the pains to read it, as for your sakes 
I have been to write it ; and I shall beg for you of the Lord, 
while I live on this earth, that he would persuade your souls to 
this blessed work, and that when death comes, it may find you 
so employed, that I may see your faces with joy at the bar 
of Christ, and we may enter together into the everlasting rest. 

Your most affectionate, though unworthy teacher, 


Kidderminster, Jao. 15, 1649. 






Right Worshipful, 

This first part of this treatise was written under your roof, 
and therefore I present it not to you as a gift, but as your own ; 
not for your protection, but for your instruction and direction : 
for I never perceived you possessed with that evil spirit, which 
maketh men hear their teachers as their servants, to censure 
their doctrine, or be humoured by them rather than to learn. 
Nor do I intend this epistle for the publishing of your virtues : 
you know to whose judgment you stand or fall. It is a small 
thing to be judged by man's judgment : if you be sentenced as 
righteous at the bar of Christ, and called by him, the blessed of 
his Father, it matters not much by what name or title you are here 
called. All saints are low in their own esteem, and therefore 
thirst not to be highly esteemed by others. He that knows 
what pride hath done in the world, and is now doing, and how 
close that heinous sin doth cleave to all our natures, will scarcely 
take him for a friend who will bring fuel to the fire ; nor that 
breath for amicable, which will blow the coal. Yet, he that 
took so kindly a woman's box of ointment, as to affix the his- 
tory to his Gospel, that wherever it was read, that good work 
might be remembered, hath warranted me, by his example, to 
annex the mention of your favours to this treatise, which have 
many times far exceeded in cost, that which Judas thought too 


good for his Lord. And common ingenuity commandeth me 
thankfullv to acknov/ledge, that when vou heard I was suddenly 
east into extreme weakness, you sent into several counties to 
seek me in my quarters, and, missing of me, sent again to fetch 
me to your house, where for many months I found a hospital, 
a physician, a nurse, and real friends, and, which is more than 
all, daily and importunate prayers for my recovery : and since 
I went from you, your kindnesses still following me in abun- 
dance : and all this for a man that was a stranger to you, whom 
you had never seen before but to burden you ; and for one 
that had no witty insinuations for the extracting your favours, 
nor impudence enough to return them in flatteries ; yea, who 
had such obstructions between his heart and his tongue, that he 
could scarcely handsomely express the least part of his thank- 
fulness, much less able to make you a requital. The best return 
I can make of your love is, in commending this heavenly duty 
to your practice j wherein I must entreat you to be more dili- 
gent and unwearied, because as you may take more time for it 
than the poor can do, so have you far stronger temptations to 
divert you. It being extremely difficult for those that have 
fulness of all things here, to place their happiness really in 
another life, and so set their hearts there, as the place of their 
rest, which yet must be done by all that will be saved. Study 
Luke xii. 16 — 22, xvi. 19, 25 ; and Matt. xix. 23. How little 
comfort do all things in this world afford to a departing soul ! 
My constant prayer for you to God shall be, that all things 
below may be below him in your hearts, and that you may 
thoroughly master and mortify the desires of the flesh, and 
may live above in the Spirit, with the Father of spirits, till 
you arrive among the perfected spirits of the just. 

Your much obliged servant, 



Concerning the alterations and additions in this second 
edition, I thought meet to give you this brief account, though 
I could have found in my heart to have supplied divers other 
defects through the book, especially in the beginning of the 
first and second part, where the effects of my weakness were 
most evident ; yet, because the stationer persuaded me that it 
would be an offence to those that had bought the first edition, 
I forbear. Yet, because I knew no reason why any should deny 
me leave to correct or amend my own work, especially for once, 
I have made these necessary alterations and additions following. 
1 . 1 have corrected several passages (especially in the beginning 
of the first and second part) which I found to be most liable to 
exception, or misinterpretation : and more I had done, would 
my friends have been entreated to have informed me of what 
they disliked. Also, some passages I have more cleared, that 
were offensive, by touching on the late public quarrels, which I 
could have gladly blotted out to avoid distaste, if conscience 
would have given me leave : but he that will cast off all books 
which contain any thing disagreeing from his judgment, shall 
read or profit by few in the world. 2. I have added one chap- 
ter, (the ninth,) in the second part ; which, being promised in the 
beginning, in the method propounded, was forgotten. Also, I 
have added the eleventh chaj)ter in the third part, containing a 
more exact inquiry into the nature of sincerity, and the use of 
marks ; which I judged of necessity, as being of so great con- 
cernment both to men's comforts and to their safety : and I 
hope none will think it needless curiosity. Also a preface, I 
have added to the second part, both for defence and fuller ex- 
plication of the doctrine therein contained ; wherein, also, I 
expect to be free from the censure of needless curiosity, with all 
those that know how much the peace and welfare of our souls 
depend on the right apprehension of the verity of the Scrip- 
tures. Lastly, I have added many marginal quotations, especi- 
ally of the ancients j which, though some may conceive to be 



useless, and others, to be merely for vain ostentation, yet I con- 
ceived useful, both for the sweetness of the matter, (concerning 
which I refer you to the perusal, to me it seemed so in the 
reading,) as also to free myself from the charge of singularity. 

If any say, that I should have prevented this by all greater care- 
fulness at the first, I answer, 1. That which is past cannot be 
recalled : it is well if it can be repented of and amended. 2. I 
wrote so much of it in so exceeding debility of bodv, that it 
was much wonder that my understanding was not utterly dis- 
abled. 3. And I was distant from home, where I had no ])ook 
but my Bible, and therefore could not add the consent of au- 
thors. If you say. There was no such haste, but I might have 
stayed till I had been better able and furnished, I answer, 1. Little 
reason had I to expect to have survived till now, yea, or two 
months longer. 2. Who knows not how little we are masters 
of our own, that knows the interest of our friends, who are often 
importunate for that which others distaste ; which, though it 
be a poor excuse for doing evil, yet may sometimes partly ex- 
cuse the unseasonable doing of good. 3. I repent not my haste, 
though I do my imperfections : for God hath been pleased to 
give the book such unexpected acceptance, that I have reason 
enough to hope, that the good it hath done this one year, 
already, is greater than the hurt which the imperfections have 
done. 4. And I am so conscious of my own imperfections, 
that I know they will appear in all that I do, and, therefore, I 
doubt not but there is still that which deserves correction, and 
would be, if I were to amend it a hundred times. If great 
Austin so frequently and passionately confess so much by himself, 
who am I, that I sliould hope of better ? So much of this 
second edition. 

Concerning the book itself, let me advertise you, that the first 
and last part were all that I intended when I begun it, which I 
fitted merely to my own use ; and, therefore, if you find some 
strains of self-application, you may excuse them. And for the 
second part, it fell from my pen besides my first intention, but 
was occasioned partly by assaults that I had often suffered 
in that point, and partly by my apprehensions of the exceeding 
necessity of it, and that to the main end which I intended in 
this book. Who will set his heart on the goodness of a thing, 
that is not certain of the truth, or part with his present delights 
till he is sure he may have better ? And, because I have only 
in brief given you these reasons which most prevailed with 


myself, having then no authors by nie, I wish you would read 
Grotius, and the Lord Du Plessis " Of the Verity of Christian 
Religion," (especially chap. 25, 26, and last,) both which are 
translated into English.'* The third part I last added ; the four 
first chapters, for the use of secure and sensual sinners, if any 
of them should happen to read this book : the three last, for 
the godly, to direct and comfort them in afflictions, and espe- 
cially to persuade them to the great duty of helping to save 
tlieir brethren's souls ; the seven middle chapters, for the use 
both of the godly and the ungodly, as being of unspeakable 
concernment to all. So that all parts of this book are not fitted 
to the same persons. 

Some, I hear, blame me for being so tedious, and say. All 
this might have been in a lesser room : such I would inform, 
that in thus doing, I have more crossed myself than them, hav- 
ing naturally such a style as, because of brevity, is accused of 
obscurity; and had much ado to bring myself to this which they 
blame ; and did obey my reason in it, against my disposition. 
For, as I thought my views of this glory should not be short, 
nor my speeches too contracted, so I considered that I speak to 
plain, unlearned men, that cannot find our meaning in too nar- 
row a room, and that use to overlook the fulness of significant 
words. As they must be long in thinking, so we must be long 
in speaking : or else our words fall short of the mark, and die 
before they can produce the desired effect, so great is the dis- 
tance between these men's ears and their brains. Besides, I 
know I am to speak to men's affections, which vet lie deep, and 
far more remote. How guilty I am myself, let others judge ; 
but surely I approve not tautologies, or a tedious style, or the 
heaping up of useless matter or words; nor can I choose but judge, 
those Tostatuses impudently proud, who think the world should 
read nobody's works but theirs. Yet if the length of my discourse 
do but occasion the reader's longer thoughts on this so sweet 
and needful a subject, I shall scarcely repent of my reprehended 
tediousness. And I confess I never loved affectation, or too 
much industry about words, nor like the temper of them that 
do. May I speak pertinently, plainly, piercingly, and somewhat 
properly, I have enough. I judge, as judicious Dr. Stoughton, 
out of Seneca, that, " He is the best preacher that feels what 

» And since I have written a supplement, called * The Unreasonableness of 



he speaks, and then speaks what he feels." I confess, also, that 
I had made the first and fourtli parts of this book much longer ; 
but that upon my return home, (to my books,) I found in Mr. 
Burrough's 'Moses's Choice,' and others, the same things 
already abroad which, 1 intended. And had I been at home, 
when I begun this, or read so much on the like subjects as I 
have since done, I think I should have left out all or most that 
I have Written ; yet do I not repent it; for God, that compelled 
me to it, knows how to make use of it. If this apology satisfy 
not, I offer the plaintiff these three motions to take his choice : 
1. Either let it alone, and then it will do you no harm : 2. Or 
if you will needs read it, blame the author, and spare him not, 
so you will but entertain the truth, and obey what you are con- 
vinced to be your duty : 3. Or set on the work and do it better, 
that God's church may yet have more help in so needful a busi- 
ness. But no more of this. Were not the success of my labour 
more desirable to me than the maintenance of my esteem, I 
should think three lines long enough for apology. 

But the chief thing which I intend, in this premonition, is, 
to acquaint each reader with the main design of this book, and 
to beseech him, for his soul's sake, that he will use it accord- 
ingly. Though the right comforting of the soul is a matter of 
great moment in life and at death, and worth much more la- 
bour then I have here bestowed, yet the ends which I intended 
are of far greater weight. Though I have heard many pious 
men say, ' Let us study how to come to heaven, and let others 
study how great the joys are,' yet have I found, by reason and 
experience, as well as Scripture, that it is not our comfort only, 
but our stability, our liveliness in all duties, our enduring tribu- 
lation, our honouring of God, the vigour of our love, thankful- 
ness, and all our graces • yea, the very being of our religion, 
and Christianity itself, dependeth on the believing, serious 
thoughts of our rest. The end directeth to, and in, the means. 
It is the first thing intended, to which all the actions of our 
lives must aim : ^ mistake in this, and you are lost for ever, 
except you rectify your mistake in time. To know what is 
indeed your end and happiness, and heartily to take it so to be, 
is the very first stone in the foundation of religion : most souls 
that perish in the christian world, do perish for want of being 
sincere in this point. Men have learned in books, that God is 

'' Gibeouf saitb that nothing is desired properly at all, but the ultimate end. 


the chief Good, and only the enjoyment of him In heaven will 
make us happy ; but their hearts do not unfeignedly take him 
to be so. Most men take the present contentments of the flesh, 
consisting in pleasures, profits, and honours, to be their happi- 
ness indeed. This hath their very hearts, while God hath the 
tongue and knee ; this is seriously sought after, while God is 
hypocritically complimented with ; heaven is heartlesslv com- 
mended, while the world is eagerly pursued ; Christ is called. 
Master, while this flesh bears all the sway : only because they 
cannot choose but know that the world will shortly leave them 
in the grave, and this flesh, which is so cherished, must lie rot- 
ting in the dust ; therefore, they will allow God the leavings of 
the world, and Christ shall have all that the flesh can spare; so 
far they will be religious and godly, lest they should be thrust 
into hell ; and they look for heaven as a reserve, when they can 
keep their worldly happiness no longer. This is the self-de- 
luding religion of thousands. 

Reader, I pray God bring this close to thy heart, that it may 
awake thee to a godly jealousy, to see that thy heart deceive thee 
not in this one point. O, how many professors of zeal in religion, 
of much knowledge, and excellent tongues, and blameless conver- 
sations in other things, do yet so eagerly mind the world and the 
flesh, and subtlely evade every danger, and distinguish themselves 
out of every duty that isvery dear,or inconsistent with their worldly 
happiness, that it is most evident they never cordially took God for 
their portion and happiness ! When men lay not this foundation 
in sincerity, they may build all their lives to little purpose, and 
the fall will be great when this sand deceives them. When they 
take this first principle, but as a notion into the brain, and never 
lay it dee)) and close to the heart, all their lives after are spent 
in hypocrisy, and all their duties increase their delusion, except 
God call them back again to review their souls, and lay that 
foundation which before they had neglected. Therefore, is it 
said, that to be carnally minded is death, and if ye mind or live 
after the flesh, ye shall die ; and that the carnal mind is enmity 
to God ; and if any man love the world, the love of the Father 
is not in him ; '^ and it is so hard for rich men to enter heaven ; 
and you can scarce find any saint in Scripture charged with 
covetousness, because it is as possible the devils should be saved, 

<^ Rom. viii. o— S, 13; 1 John ii. 15. Vide excellent ' Epist. Colombani 
Hcrbin. de pr£Esentis vitas vanitate, miseria,' &c. iu Usser. Arniach. Veteruin 
Epist. Hibern. Syllog.' pp. 7, . 


as the man that finally takes up his chief rest and happiness in 
any thing below God. And what is the cause of all this mis- 
chief, but that men do not seriously and frequently think, first, 
of the certain truth, and then, of the sweet, inconceivable ex- 
cellencies that wait for them, if they will renounce the vanities 
of the world, and cleave heartily to God in Jesus Christ ? Be- 
sides, if men do not apprehend the excellency of this ' Rest,' 
they cannot value Christ, or his blood that purchased it, and 
therefore they cannot indeed be Christians; nor is it once know- 
ing what heaven is that will serve the turn : if we have not a 
continual or frequent taste of it in our souls, we shall live in 
continual danger of being overcome. When temi)tatious take 
you up into the mountain, and show you the kingdoms and glory 
of the world, and say, ' All this will I give thee ; ' if, then, you 
have not a greater and surer glory in your view, what danger 
are you in ! O that the nefarious miscarriages of professors of 
piety in this age, did not witness it to our sorrow, and the shame 
of our profession I Not a day but the devil will be casting thee 
a bait ; either sports, or mirth, or filthy lusts, or the pleasing of 
thy appetite in meats and drinks, or reputation, or rising in the 
world, or fears of men, or some such thing; and if thou have 
been newlv in the consideration of thy rest with God, it will 
make thee trample upon them all ; but if that be forgotten or 
imdervalued,. all is gone. Besides, what life and vigour will it 
maintain in all our duties ? How earnestly will that man pray, 
that believingly and seriously apprehends what he prayeth for ? 
How, also, will it fill the soul with love, when men do every day 
view the face of love itself, and warm their hearts in these hea- 
venly contemplations ? And if it were but to make our religion 
delightful to us, it would have greater use than the mere pleasure 
of that delight, as I have showed in the conclusion of the book : 
how cheerfully would men go on through labour and suffering, 
if once they had that delight in God which a heavenly life would 
aflford. When life and joy, seriousness and sweetness, go to- 
gether, it will make men profitable, victorious, and persevering 
Christians. In a word, you can neither live safely, profitablv, 
piously, conscionably, or comfortably ; nor die so, without be- 
lieving serious considerations of your rest. 

And now, reader, whatever thou art, young or old, rich or 
poor, I entreat thee, and charge thee, in the name of thy Lord, 
who will shortly call thee to a reckoning, and judge thee to 
thine everlasting, unchangeable state, that thou give not these 


things the reading only, and so dismiss them with a bare ap- 
proval ; but that thou set upon this work, and take God in 
Christ for thy only rest, and set thy heart upon him above all. 
Jest not with God : do not only talk of heaven, but mind it, 
and seek it with all thy might; what greater business hast thou 
to do ? Dally no longer, when thy salvation lies at the stake, 
O turn off the world before it turn thee off; forsake thy fleshly 
pleasures before they forsake thee ; and thou find that God also 
hath forsaken thee. Wink at these withering beauties ; and 
shut thy mouth against these pleasant poisons. Remember 
what they will all be to thee, when thy friends are weeping over 
thee, and looking for thy winding sheet; nay, when God shall 
say, Give account of thy stewardship, thou shall be no longer 
steward : thou fool, this night shall they require thy soul ; whose 
then shall these things be ? Lord, how do men think so care- 
lessly of that day, which they cannot choose but know is near, 
and will make so great a change with them ! Surely (saith 
noble Du Plessis),'^ if all the world were made for man, then 
man was made for more than the world. Hearken, all you 
worldlings and flesh- pleasers, the God of heaven chargeth you, 
upon your allegiance, to change your pleasures. He offereth 
you delights beseeming men; yea, the joys of angels; and 
commandeth you to renounce the pleasures of sin, and delights 
that only beseem a beast. Will you not take his offer ? Take 
it now, lest he never offer it you more. He commandeth you, 
as ever you will see his face in glory to your comfort, that now 
you turn your thoughts seriously to him, and to that glory : 
dare you deny, or neglect to obey ? If you will not part with 
your merriments and vanities for that which is infinitely better, 
be it now known to you, you shall shortly part with them for 
nothing ; yea, for hell fire ; and you shall leave them with 
groans and horror ere long, if you will not leave them for Go^ 
and glory now. Spit out these venomous, fleshly pleasures, 
man ; come near, and taste of the heavenly delights. What say 
you ? will you resolve ; will you covenant with God this day, 
and do it? Do I speak to a post, that cannot feel; or to a 
beast, that is incapable of heaven ? Will you pass over my 
words, as if they concerned you not ? The great God that put 
this doctrine into your bibles, and put this message into my 
mouth, and bid me speak it to thee in his name, will one day 

^ Epist, before the ' Verity of Christian Religion.' 


speak to thee so rousingly himself, as will make thine ears to 
tingle, and that rocky heart of thine to tremble, in despite of all 
thy security and stupidity. If thou have now sinned away thy 
fear and feeling, that thou takest a sermon but for words of 
course, believe it, God will shortly bring thy fear and thy feel- 
ing again. It had need to be very precious liquor, which the 
drunkard shall then pay so dear for ; and excellent content 
which the lustful must so smart for ; and great honours and 
riches, for which thou must lose thy hopes of heaven. If thou 
hadst never heard or read of these things, there were the more 
excuse j but if, when thou knowest of it, thou will needs run 
into the fire, into the fire shalt thou go : but when thou feelest 
the pain, thou shalt bethink thee of thy folly ; and when heaven 
is lost, remember thou mightest have had it, and that upon very 
reasonable, easy terms, if thou wouldest. Nothing but thy own 
wilfulness could have shut thee out. I have warned thee : let 
God do his will. 

And for you that fear God, and have made him your portion, 
your end, and rest, and are the heirs of this kingdom, let me 
entreat you, more frequently to look homeward, and mind your 
inheritance. Should we not think oft of the state we must be 
in for ever ? Do you not perceive that God tumbles you up and 
down the world, and crosseth your desires, to weary you out of 
it ; that he setteth loose the winds to raise those storms, that 
may make you long for the harbour, and may toss you to his 
breast ; that he makes your dearest friends afflict you, and those 
that you took sweet counsel with, and went up with to the house 
of God as companions, to be scorpions to you, that so you might 
not have here a resting place for the sole of your foot ? O, learn 
God's gracious meaning, and look upwards ! When others are 
roving after opinions, and running from sect to sect, and, with 
contentions and vain j anglings, are firing the church of Christ, 
do you tlien retire yourselves from these vanities to your God ; 
humbly converse with him ; and think, believingly, of your 
everlasting converse with him ; and thus fire your souls with his 
rays of love. For my own part, even when I am constrained (as 
teachers oft are more than the people) to study controversies, 
though they be necessary, and in themselves about precious 
truths, and though I prosper in my studies, yet do 1 find most 
sensibly that they discompose my spirit, and waste my zeal, my 
love, and delight in God, even by the interruption and diversion 
of my contemplations ; so that I long to have done with them, 


that I may be more near to God. Disputings often lead to en- 
vyings and heart-burnings, and those to hating our brethren, 
and that to open violence and bloodshed, even of the saints, to 
persecutions of ministers, and setting ourselves against Christ's 
apparent interest for our own ; but heavenly meditations calm 
the spirit, and, by winning our souls to the love of God, do not 
only cause us to love our brethren, but to love them in God, 
which is the only right love. And thus all men shall know that 
you are Christ's true disciples, by your loving one another; for 
he that loveth, dwelleth in God, and God in him. When they 
that hate their brethren are murderers ; and we know that no 
murderer hath eternal life abiding in him.'' The living God, 
who is the portion and rest of his saints, make these, our carnal 
minds, so spiritual, and our earthly hearts so heavenly, that loving 
him and delighting in him may be the work of our lives ; and 
that neither I that write, nor you that read this book, may ever 
be turned from this path of life, lest a promise being left us of 
entering into rest, we should come short of it through our own 
unbelief or negligence.^ 

May 17, 1651. 

e John xiii. .'54, 35, and xv. 12; 1 John iii, 15, and ii. 'J — 11. 
f Heb. iv. 1. 



HEBREWS iv. 9. 

There retmineth, therefore, a rest for the jieoijle of God. 


Sect. I. It was not only our interest in God, and actual frui- 
tion of him, which was lost in Adam's covenant-breaking fall, 
but all spiritual knowledge of him, and true disposition towards 
such a felicity. IMan hath now a heart too suitable to his estate: 
a low state, and a low spirit. And (as some expound that of 
Luke xviii. 8) when the Son of God comes with recovering 
grace, and discoveries and tenders of a spiritual and eternal 
happiness and glory, he finds not faith in man to believe it.^ 
But as the poor man that would not believe that any one had 
such a sum as a hundred pounds, (it was so far above what he 
possessed,) so man will hardly now believe that there is such a 
happiness as once he had, much less as Christ hath now pro- 
cured. When God would give the Israelites his Sabbaths of rest 
in a land of rest, he had more ado to make them believe it, than 
to overcome their enemies and procure it for them ; and when 
they had it, only as a small intimation and earnest of a more 
incomparably glorious rest through Christ, they stuck there ; and 
will yet believe no more than they do possess, but sit down and 

a Recedentes enim ab unius et vcri Dei consideratione aifectuque in ilium 
unico, in varias jam, et particulares corporis concupiscentias prolapsi sunt. 
Dsinde ut solet fieri, cum in multa incidissent desideria, in eorum jam habi- 
tum seusim trausiere : adeo ut deserere ipsa metuerent. Hinc jam et metus 
et voluptates in aniniam irrepsere : mortaliaque sapere incepit. Nolens enim 
concupiscentias reliiiquere, mortem metuit, ac separationem corporis liorruit. 
Rursus eadem cupiens ut voti compos fieret, casdes exercere, atque jura violare 
didicit. Abutens igitur iafcelix anima corporalibus particulatim actionibus, 
corporisque oblectata specie, ac voluptafem bouum suum esse arbitrans, falsa 
ac seducta honesti nomine abusa est : ijjsumque verum bonum voluptatem 
esse putavit. Voluptatis igitur amore deteiita, variis haec modis operari c^pit. 
— Athan, 1. i. con, gen, trcmslat. 


sa}', as the glutton at the feast, ' Sure there is no otlier heaven 
but this : ' or if they do expect more by the Messiah, it is only 
the increase of their earthly felicity. The apostle bestows most 
of this epistle against this distemper ; and clearly and largely 
proves unto them, that it is the end of all ceremonies and 
shadows to direct them to Jesus Christ, the Substance; and that 
the rest of Sabbaths'' and Canaan should teach them to look for 
a further rest, which indeed is their happiness. My text is his 
conclusion, after divers arguments to that end ; a conclusion so 
useful to a believer, as containing the ground of all his comforts, 
the end of all his duty and sufferings, the life and sum of all 
Gosjjel promises and christian privileges, that you may easily be 
satisfied why I have made it the subject of my present discourse. 
^^^lat more welcome to men, under personal afflictions, tiring 
duty, successions of sufferings, than rest ? What more welcome 
news, to men under public calamities, unpleasing employments, 
plunderings, losses, sad tidings, &c., which is the common case, 
than this of rest ? Hearers, I pray God your attentions, inten- 
tion of spirit, entertainment, and improvement of it, be but half 
answerable to the verity, necessity, and excellency of this sub- 
ject, and then you will have cause to bless God, while you live, 
that ever you heard it, as I have, that ever I studied it. 

Sect. 2. The text is, as you may see, the apostle's assertion 
in an entire proposition, with the concluding illative : the sub- 
ject is rest; ^ the predicate, it yet remains to the people of God. 
Jt is requisite we say somewhat briefly : 1 . For explication of the 
terms ; 2. Of the subject of them. 

"Therefore," i.e., it clearly follows, from the former argument, 
'^there remains: " 1. In order of speaking, as the consequence 
follows the antecedent, or the conclusion, the premises ; so there 
remains a rest, or it remains that there is another rest. 2. But 
rather, in order of being, as the bargain remains after the earnest, 
the performance after the promise, the antitype after the type, 
and the ultimate end after all the means ; so there remains a 
rest, " to the people of God. " God hath a twofold people 
within the church : one his only, by a common vocation,'^ bv an 

^ Lege de hoc epistolam FJieronymi ad Dardanum, torn. iv. fol. (edit. 
Amerl)ach,) 28 — 30, ubi etiam de authoritate hujus Epist. ad Hebr. et modo 
canoiiem disceniendi. 

"^ De Sabbato spiritual! per Sabbatum antiquum figuratum. Vide S. Maca- 
rium in Homil. xxxv. p. (inihi) 434. 

"1 Heb. X. 30 ; Micali it. 8; 2 Pet. ii. 20 ; John ii. 23 ; Heb. vi. 4— G, and x. 

28 THE saint's 

external acceptation of Christ, and covenanting, sanctified bv the 
blood of the covenant so far as to be separated from the open 
enemies of Christ, and all without the church, therefore not to 
be accounted common and unclean in the sense, as Jews and 
pagans are ; but holy, and saints, in a larger sense; as the nation 
of the Jews, and all proselyted gentiles, were holy before Christ's 
coming. These are called branches in Christ, not bearing fruit, 
and shall be cut off, &c. ; '^ for they are in the church, and in 
him, by the aforesaid profession and external covenant, but no 
further. There are, in his kingdom, things that offend, and men 
that work iniquity, which the angels, at the last day, shall gather 
out and cast into the lake of fire ; ' there are fishes, good and 
bad, in his net; and tares, with wheat, in his field.s The son of 
perdition is one of those given to Christ by the Father, though 
not as the rest ; these be not the people of God my text speaks 
of. 2. But God hath a peculiar people that are his by special 
vocation, cordial acceptation of Christ, internal, sincere cove- 
nanting, sanctified by the blood of the covenant and Spirit of 
grace, so far as not only to be separated from open infidels, but 
from all unregenerate Christians, being branches in Christ, bear- 
ing fruit ; and for these remains the rest in my text.'' 

1. To be God's people, by a forced subjection, i. e., under 
his dominion, is common to all persons, even open enemies ; 
vea, devils : this yields not comfort. 

2. To be his by a verbal covenant and profession, and external 
call, is common to all in, and of, the visible church, even 
traitors and secret enemies ; yet hath this many privileges, as 
the external seals, means of grace, common mercies, but no in- 
terest in this rest. 

3. But to be his by election, union with Christ, and special 
interest, as before mentioned, is the peculiar properties of those 
that shall have this rest. 

Sect. 3. Quest. But is it to a determinate number of persons, 
by name, or only to a people thus and thus qualified, viz., per- 
severing believers, without determining by name who they are ? ' 

^ John XV. 2, G. f Matt. xiii. 41." « John xvii. 12. 

'' Lege Zuiuglii fidei Ration, ad Carol, v. p. .540. Tom. secund. De Eccles. 

■' Quid est prffiscientia, nisi scientia futurorum? Quid autem futurum est 
Deo, qui omnia supersreditur tempora ? Si enim res ipsas in scientia haliet, 
non sunt ei futurce, sed pra;sentes. Ac per hoc non jam praescientia, sed tan- 
tum scientia dici potest. — Jugttstin. 1. ii. ad Simplkicoi. q. 2. Cavendum 
est ne falsa quadam imag-iuatione, actum voluntatis divinffi quasi prsteritum 
cogitemus. — ticotus, in 1, dist. 40. 


Answ. I purpose, in this discourse, to omit controversies ; only, 
in a word, thus : 1. It is promised only to persevering believers, 
and not to any particular persons by name. 2. It is purposed, 
with all the conditions of it, and means to it,to a determinate 
number, called the elect, and known byname, which evidently 
foUoweth these plain propositions : 

1. There is few will deny that God foreknows, from eternity, 
who these are, and shall be, numerically, personally, by name. 

2. To purpose it only to such, and to know that only these 
will be such, is, in effect, to purpose it only to these. 

3. Especially, if we know how little knowledge and purpose, 
in God, do differ. 

4. However, we must not make his knowledge active, and his 
purpose idle, much less to contradict each other, as it must be, 
if, from eternity, he purposed salvation alike to all, and yet from 
eternity knew that only such and such should receive it. 

5. To purpose all persevering believers to salvation, and not 
to purpose faith and perseverance absolutely to any particular 
persons, is to purpose salvation absolutelv to none at all ; yet 
I know much more is necessary to be said to make this plain, 
which I purpose not (at least here) to meddle with. 

Sect. 4. I. Quest. Is it to the people of God, upon certainty, 
or only upon possibility }^ 

Answ. If only possible, it cannot thus be called theirs. 

1. While they are only elect, not called, it is certain to them, 
we speak of a certainty of the object, by divine purpose, for they 
are ordained to eternal life first, and therefore believe; and not 
first believe, and therefore elected. 

2. When they are called according to his purpose, then it is 
certain to them by a certainty of promise also, as sure as if thev 
were named in that promise ; for tiie promise is, to believers, 
which they may, though but imperfectly, know themselves to 
be; and though it be yet upon condition of overcoming, and 
abiding in Christ, and enduring to the end, yet that condition 
being absolutely promised, it still remaineth absolutely certain 

^ 1. Theirs, by purpose, before conversion. Acts xiii. 48. 2. Tiieirs in law 
title, or by j(roiiiise, after conversion. " (2uuin aeciwiliiiriiun illud hoc uiuun 
prsestat juxta Arniiniuni, ut reddat saluteni honiinum rem contingentem, et 
libratani in ancipiti, isne rem tantam inipense attectasse dicendus est qui vult 
esse collocatani in loco taui lubrico, ac veluil teuui filo pendentem, adeo ut 
vel levissimo moinento inipeliatur ad perniciein? — AmyruU Defens. Doct. 
Calvini, p. 115. 

30 THE saint's 

upon promise : and, iiideetl, if glory be ours only upon a condi- 
tion, which condition depends chiefly on our own wills, it 
were cold comfort to those that know what man's will is, and 
how certainly we should play the prodigals with this, as we did 
with our first stock. But I have hitherto understood, that in 
the behalf of the elect, Christ is resolved, and hath undertaken, 
for the working and finishing of their faith, and the full effect- 
ing his people's salvation ; and not only gives us a (feigned) suf- 
ficient grace, not effectual, leaving it to our wills to make it 
effectual, as some think ; so that, though still the promise of 
our justification and salvation be conditional, yet God, having 
manifested his purpose of enabling us to fulfil those conditions, 
he doth thereby show us a certainty of our salvation, both in 
his promise and his purpose. Though God's eternal purpose 
gives us no right to the benefit whatsoever, (some lately say to 
the contrary,) it being the proper work of God's law or covenant, 
to confer right or due ; yet the event or fruition of it is made 
certain by God's unchangeable decree, his eternal willing it, 
being the first and infallible cause, that, in time, it is accom- 
plished or produced. 


This Rest defined. 

Sect. 1. Now let us see, 1. What this rest is. 2. What 
these people, and why so called. 3. The truth of this, from 
other Scripture arguments. 4. Why this rest must yet remain. 
5. Why only to this people of God. 6. Wliat use to make of it. 

1. And though the sense of the text includes in the word 'rest,'^ 
all that ease and safety, which a soul, wearied with the burden 
of sin and suffering, and pursued by law, wrath, and conscience, 
hath with Christ in this life, the rest of grace ; yet, because it 
chiefly intends the rest of eternal glory, as the end and main 
part, I shall confine my discourse myself to this last. 

' I doubt nut but the Holy Ghost, by this sabbatism, or rest, intends the 
whole estate of reconciliation, peace, and happiness purchased by Christ : 
but because that fulness and perfection in glory is the chiefest part, in com- 
parison whereof the beginning in this life is very small, I may very well ex- 
tend the text to that which itself inteuds as the principal part ; but I exclude 
not the beginuiugs here, though I purpose uot the handling of them. 


Definition. Rest is the end and perfection of motion. The 
saint's rest, here in question, is the most hayjpy estate of a 
Christian, having ohtained the end of his course : or, it is the 
perfect, endless fruition of God, by the perfected saints, accord- 
ing to the measure of their capacity, to which their souls arrive 
at death ; and both soul and body must fully, after the resurrec- 
tion and final judgment. 

Sect 2. I. I call it the estate of a Christian, though perfec- 
tion consists in action, as the philosopher thinks, to note both 
the active and passive fruition, wherein a Christian's blessedness 
lies, and the established continuance of both."^ Our title will be 
perfect, and perfectly cleared ; ourselves, and so our capacity, 
perfected ; our possession and security for its perpetuity perfect ; 
our reception from God perfect ; our motion or action in and upon 
him perfect : and, therefore, our fruition of him, and conse- 
quently our happiness, will then be perfect. And this is the 
estate which we now briefly mention, and shall afterwards more 
fully describe and open to you, and which we hope, by Jesus 
Christ, very shortly to enter upon, and for ever to possess. 

Sect. 3. II. I call it the most happy estate, to difference it, 
not only from all seeming happiness, which is to be found in the 
enjoyment of creatures, but also from all those beginnings, fore- 
tastes, earns, first fruits, and imperfect degrees, which we have 
here in this life, while we are but in the way. It is the chief 
good which the world hath so much disputed, yet mistaken or 
neglected, without which the greatest confluence of all other 
good leaves a man miserable ; and with the enjoyment of which, 
all misery is inconsistent. The beginnings, in our present state 
of grace, as they are a real part of this, may also be called a 
state of happiness : but, if considered disjunctly by themselves, 
they deserve not that title, except in a comparative sense, as a 
Christian is compared to men out of Christ. 

Sect. 4. III. I call it the estate of a Christian, where I mean 
only the sincere,regenerate, sanctified Christian, whose soul, hav- 
ing discovered that excellency in God through Christ, which is 
not in the world to be found, thereupon closeth with him, and is 
cordially set upon him. I do not mean every one that, being born 
where Christianity is the religion of the country, takes it up as 
other fashions, and is become a Christian he scarcely knows how, 

>" Beatis non actus proprie, sed status couvoiiit, inquit. Guil. Gibouul', 
quod tamen caute iatelligendum est. 

32 THE saint's 

or why • nor mean I those that profess Christ in words, but in 
works deny him. I shall describe this Christian to you more 
plainly afterwards. It is an estate to which many pretend, and 
that with much confidence ; and because they know it is only 
the Christians, therefore thev all call themselves Christians. But 
multitudes will at last know, to their eternal sorrow, that this is 
onlv the inheritance of the saints, and only those Christians shall 
possess it, who are not of the world : and, therefore, the world 
hates them who have forsaken all for Christ, and having taken 
up the cross, do follow him, with patient waiting, till they in- 
herit the promised glory." 

Sect. 5. IV. I add, that this happiness consists in obtaining the 
end, where I mean the ultimate and principal end, not any end, 
secundum quid, so called subordinate, or less principal. Not the 
end of conclusion, in regard of time ; for so every man hath his 
end 5 but the end of intention, which sets the soul to work, and 
is its prime motive in all its actions. That the chief happiness 
is in the enjoyment of this end, 1 shall fully show through the 
whole discourse, and, therefore, here omit. Everlasting wo to 
that man who makes that his end here (to the death), which, if 
he could attain, would not make him happy. Oh, how much doth 
our everlasting state depend on our right judgment and estima- 
tion of our end ! 

Sect. (). But it is a great doubt with many, whether the obtain- 
inent of this glory may be our end; nay, concluded, that it is mer- 
cenary ; yea, that to make salvation the end of duty, is to be a 
legalist, and act under a covenant of works, whose tenour is, 'Do 
this and live.' And many that think it may be our end, yet think 
it may not be our ultimate end, for that should be only the glory 
of God. [ shall answer these particularly and briefly. 

1. It is properly called mercenary, when we expect it as 
wages for work done ;" and so we may not make it our end ; 
otherwise it is only such a mercenariness as Christ commandeth. 
For, consider what this end is ; it is the fruition of God in Christ : 
and, if seeking Christ be mercenary, I desire to be so mercenary. 

2. It is not a note of a legalist neither : it hath been the 
ground of a multitude of late mistakes in divinity, to think that 

» Col. i. 12; Acts xxvi. 18, and xx. 32; John xv. 19; Matt. x. 38; Luke 
xiv. 27 ; Heb, x. 3C, and vi. 15. 
" Viz. liy way of merit strictly so called. 


'Do this and live," is only the language of the covenant of works.P 
It is^ true, in some sense it is ; but in other, not. The law of 
works only saith, "Do this," that is, perfectly fulfil the whole 
law, "and live," that is, for so doing: but the law of grace 
saith, " Do this and live" too ; that is, believe in Christ, seek 
him, obey him sincerely, as thy Lord and King ; forsake all, 
suffer all things, and overcome; and by so doing, or in so doing, 
as the conditions which the Gospel propounds for salvation, you 
shall Hve.i If you set up the abrogated duties of the law again, 
you are a legalist : if you set up the duties of the Gospel in 
Christ's stead, in whole or in part, you err still. Christ hath his 
place and work ', duty hath its place and work too : set it but 
in its own place, and expect from it but its own part, and you 
go right ; yea, more, how unsavoury soever the phrase may 
seem, you may, so far as this comes to, trust to your duty and 
works ; that is, for their own part ; and many miscarry in ex- 
pecting no more from them, as to pray, and to expect nothing the 
more, that is, from Christ, in a way of duty : for if duty have 
no share, why may we not trust Christ, as well in a way 
of disobedience as duty ? In a word, you must both use 
and trust duty in subordination to Christ, but neither use 
them nor trust them in co-ordination with him. So that 
this derogates nothing from Christ : for he hath done, and will 

P It was Simon Magus's doctrine, that men are not saved according' to reli- 
gious works, but according to liis grace, as Irenajus repeateth it. — Lib. ii. 
advers. Hceres. c. 20. 

1 Notandum est alium esse loquendi modum contra J udaismum et contemp- 
turn gratiae, alium contra securitatem et abusum gratia^. Cum disputatuc 
contra Judaismum sive justitiam operum, utPaulus in Rom. et alibi fecit, turn 
docemur sola fide hominem justificari, h. e. Nihil in nobis placere Deo nisi per 
abnegationem meriti et acceptationem contra doni evangelici. At cum dispu- 
tatur contra securitatem, et docetur quid respectu amicitiee divinie nobis agen- 
dum sit, ut Jacobus fecit, et hodie vel maxime necesse est, ut D. Tossanus iu 
disp. contra pseude evangelicos,et alii pie etprudenter jam pridem monuerint; 
tunc negatur solam fidem sufficere et praecipiuntur omnia quee quoquo modo 
prosunt; sive disponant ad fidem, sive in iis consummetur fides : sicut quse- 
queres fineet elFectibussuisconsummatur, &c., sive praesens jam amicitia pep 
ilia firmetur iti dissiliat, vel etiam augeatur quod ad efFectus aliquos et hoc 
modo quasi impleatur. — Conrad. Berg. Prax.Cathol .Dissert, vii. r. 991. Saith. 
Parens : Videtur notandum quod Deus praestationem prbmissionum suarum 
videtur k nostra obedientia suspendere : non suspendit, sed illam cum ista con* 
nectit tanquam cohaerentia, &c. Infidelibus promissiones facta sunt irritfe, 
non Dei culpa, sed ipsorum perfidia : quoniam promissiones foederis sunt 
mutuse obligatiouis. Nee ideo sunt incertse : quoniam Deus in electis obe- 
dientiam operatur per gratiam suam immutabiliter. — Par, in Gen, xviii. 19, 
p. (mihi) 1163. 


34 THE saint's 

do all his work perfectly, and enable his people to do theirs : 
yet he is not properly said to do it himself;'' he believes not, 
repents not, &c., but worketh these in them : that is, enableth 
and exciteth them to do it. No man must look for more from 
duty than God hath laid upon it ; and so much we may and 

Sect. 7. II. If I should quote all the scriptures that plainly prove 
this, I should transcribe a great part of the Bible: I will bring none 
out of the Old Testament ; for I know not whether their autho- 
rity will here be acknowledged ; but I desire the contrary 
minded, whose consciences are tender of abusing Scripture, and 
wresting it from the plain sense, to study what tolerable inter- 
pretation can be given of these following places, which will not 
prove that life and salvation may be, yea, must be the end of 
duty. " Ye will not come to me, that ye might have life." (John 
V. 39, 40.) " The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the 
violent take it by force." (Matt. xi. 12.) " Strive to enter in at 
the strait gate." (Matt. vii. 13 ; Luke xiii. 24.) " Work out your 
salvation with fear and trembling." (Phil. ii. 12.) "To them 
who, by patient continuance in well-doing, seek for glory, and 
honour, and immortality, eternal life. Glory, honour, and peace, 
to every man that worketh good," Sec. (Rom. ii. 7, 10.) " So 
run that you may obtain." (1 Cor. ix. 24.) "A man is not 
crowned, except he strive lawfully." (2 Tim. ii. 5.) " If we suffer 
with him, we shall reign with him." (2 Tim. ii. 12.) "Fight the 
good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life." (1 Tim. vi. 12.) 
"That they do good works, lay up a good foundation against the 
time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life." (1 Tim. 
vi. 18, 19.) " If by any means I might attain to the resurrection 
of the dead ; I press toward the mark for the prize of the high- 
calling," &c. (Phil. iii. 14.) "Blessed are they that do his 
commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, 
and enter in by the gates into the city." (Rev. xxii. 14.) " Come, 
ye blessed of my Father, inherit, &c. For I was hungry, and 
ye," &c. (Matt, xxv.) " Blessed are the pure in heart, &c. They 
that hunger and thirst, &c. Be glad and rejoice, for great is your 
reward in heaven." (Matt, ix.) " Blessed are they that hear the 
word of God, and keep it." (Luke xi. 28.) Yea, the escaping 
of hell is a right end of duty to a believer. " Let us fear, lest a 
promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should 

' Christ believed for us legally, or so far as the law required faith, but not 
as it is the coudilion or command of the new covenant. 


seem to come short of it/' (Heb. iv. 1 .) « Fear him that is able 
to destroy both soul and body in hell ; yea, whatsoever others 
say, I say unto you, Fear him." (Luke xii. 5.) "I keep under 
my body, and bring it into subjection, lest, when I have preached 
to others, T myself should be a cast-away." (1 Cor. ix. 27.) 
Multitudes of scriptures and Scripture arguments might be 
brought, but these may suffice to any that believe Scripture.^ 

Sect. 8. III. For those that think this rest may be our end, but 
not our ultimate end, that must be God's glory only : I will not 
gainsay them. Only let them consider, what God hath joined, 
man must not separate. The glorifying himself, and the saving 
of his people, as 1 judge, are not two decrees with God, but one 
decree, to glorify his mercy in their salvation ; though we must 
say, that one is the end of the other : so I think they should be 
with us together intended. We should aim at the glory of God, 
not alone considered, without our salvation, but in our salvation. 
Therefore, I know no warrant for putting such a question to 
ourselves, as some do. Whether we could be content to be damn- 
ed, so God were glorified ? Christ hath put no such question 
to us, nor bid us put such to ourselves. Christ had rather that 
men would inquire after their true willingness to be saved, than 
their willingness to be damned. Sure I am, Christ himself is 
offered to faith in terms for the most part respecting the welfare 
of the sinner, more than his own abstracted glory. He would be 
received as a Saviour, Mediator, Redeemer, Reconciler, Inter- 
cessor, &c. And all the precepts of Scripture, being backed 
with so many promises and threatenings, every one intended of 
God as a motive to us, do imply as much. If any think they 
should be distinguished as two several ends, and God's glory 
preferred; so they separate them not asunder, I contend not. 
But I had rather make that high pitch, which Gibieuf and many 
others insist on, to be the mark at which we should all aim, than 
the mark by which every weak Christian should try himself. 

^* I speak the more of this, because I find that many moderate men, who 
think they have found the nieau between the antinomian and the legalist, 
yet do foully err on this point. As Mr. F., in the ' Marrow of Modern Divinity/ 
a book applauded by so many eminent divines, in their commendatory epistles, 
before it : and because the doctrine ' That we must act from life, but not for 
life ; or in thankfulness to him that hath saved us, but not for the obtaining 
of salvation,' is of such dang-erous consequence, that I would advise all men 
to take heed of it, that regard their salvation. 1 Cor. xv.ult. ; 2 Cor. iv. 17, 
and v. 10, 11; 2 Pet. i. 10, 11. I here undertake to prove that this fore-men- 
tioned doctrine, reduced to practice, will certainly be the damnation of the 
practiser : but I hope many autinomians do not practise their own doctrine. 

D 2 

36 THF. saint's 

Sect. 9. IV. In the definition, I call a Christian's happiness, 
the end of his conrse, thereby meaning, as Paul, (2 Tim. iv. 7,) 
the whole scope of his life. For as salvation may, and must be, 
our end, so not only the end of our faith, though that princi- 
pally, but of all our actions ; for as whatsoever we do, must be 
done to the glory of God, whether eating, drinking, &c., so must 
they all be done to our salvation. That we may believe for sal- 
vation, some will grant, who yet deny that we may do, or obey 
for it.*^ 1 would it were well miderstood, for the clearing of 
many controversies, what the Scripture usually means by faith. 
Doubtless, the Gospel takes it not so strictly, as philosophers do; 
but, in a larger sense, for our accepting Christ for our King and 
Saviour. To believe in his name, and to receive him, are all 
one :" but we must receive him as King, as well as Saviour : 
therefore, believing doth not produce heart-subjection as a fruit, 
but contains it as an essential part : except we say, that faith 
receives Christ as a Saviour first, and so justifies before it take 
him for King, as some think ; which is a maimed, unsound, and 
no Scripture faith."" I doubt not but the soul more sensibly 
looks at salvation from Christ, than government by him, in the 
first work : yet, whatever precedaneous act there may be, it 
never conceives of Christ, and receives him to justification, nor 
knows him with the knowledge which is eternal life, till it con- 
ceive of him, and know him, and receive him for Lord and King, 
Therefore there is not such a wide difference between faith and 
Gospel obedience, or works, as some judge.'' Obedience to the 
Gospel is put for faith ; and disobedience put for unbelief, oft- 
times in the New Testament. But of this I have spoken more 
fully elsewhere. 

V. Lastly : I make happiness to consist in this end obtained j 
for it is not the mere promise of it that immediately makes per- 
fectly happy, nor Christ's mere purchase, nor our mere seeking, 
but the apprehending and obtaining, which sets the crown on 
the saint's head. When we can say of our work, as Christ of 
the price paid, ''It is finished;" and as Paul, "I have fought a 
good fight, 1 have finished my course : henceforth is laid up for 

' The scriptures before cited, do prove both. 

^ John i. 12. ^' See more of this hereafter. 

" In this point of works concurring in justification, I am wholly of Dave- 
nant's judgment, ' De Justicia Actuaii.' I will not speak so harshly for works, 
nor in describing faith, as Mr. Mead's sermon doth : yet I believe he meant 
orthodoxly. See Diodate's notes on James ii., and abundance more cited iu 
my ' Confessiou,' 


me a crown of salvation." (2 Tim. iv. 7, 8.) O that we did all 
heartily and strongly believe, that we shall never be truly happy 
till then. Then should we not so dote upon a seeming happiness 


What this Rest presvpposeth. 

Sect. I. For the clearer understanding yet of the nature of 
this rest, you must know : 

1 . There are some things necessarily presupposed to it. 

2. Some things really contained in it. 

1 . All these things are presupposed to this rest. 

1. A person in motion, seeking rest. This is man here in the 
way ; angels and glorified spirits have it already : and the devils 
and damned are past hope. 

Sect. II. 2. An end toward which he moveth for rest : which 
end must be sufficient for his rest ; else, when it is obtained, it 
deceiveth him. This can be only God, the chief good. He that 
taketh any thing else for his happiness, is out of the way the first 
step. The principal damning sin, is to make any thing besides 
God, our end or rest. And the first true saving act, is to choose 
God only for our end and happiness. 

Sect. III. 3. A distance is presupposed from this end ; else 
there can be no motion towards it. This sad distance is the wo- 
ful case of all mankind since the fall : it was our God that we 
principally lost, and were shut out of his gracious presence^ 
Though some talk of losing only a temporal, earthly felicity; 
sure I am, it was God that we fell from, and him we lost, and 
since are said to be without him in the world ; and there would 
have been no death, but for sin; and to enjoy God without death, 
is neither an earthly, nor temporal enjoyment : nay, in all men 
at age, here is supposed, not only a distance from God, but also 
a contrary motiqn : for sin hath not overthrown our being, nor 
taken away our motion : but our well-being, and the rectitude 
of our motion. When Christ comes with regenerating, saving 
grace, he finds no man sitting still, but all posting to eternal 
ruin, and making haste towards hell ; till, by conviction, he first 
brings them to a stand ; and by conversion, turn first their hearts, 

y The only cause of this evil is aversion from good ; as a coachman, if he 
let the horses run headlong over bauks, or which wa> they will, &.c,—^thanas, 
lib. i. cont, Gent. 

38 THE saint's 

and then their lives, sincerely to himself. Even those that are 
sanctified and justified from the womb, are yet first the children 
of Adam, and so of wrath : at least, in order of nature, if not in 

Sect. IV. 4. Here is presupposed knowledge of the true ultimate 
end, and its excellency, and a serious intending it.^ For so the 
motion of the rational creature proceedeth : an unknown end is 
no end ; it is a contradiction. We cannot make that our end, 
which we know not ; nor that our chief end, which we know 
not, or judge not to be the chief good. An unknown good 
moves not to desire or endeavour : therefore, where it is not 
truly known that God is this end, and containeth all good in 
him 5 there is no obtaining rest in an ordinary, known way, 
whatsoever may be in ways that by God are kept secret.^ 

Sect. V. 5. Here is presupposed, not only a distance from this 
rest, but also the true knowledge of this distance. If a man have 
lost his way, and know it not, he seeks not to return ; if he lose 
his gold, and know it not, he seeks it not : therefore, they that 
never knew they were without God, never yet enjoyed him ; and 
they that never knew they were naturally and actually in the 
way to hell, did never yet know the way to heaven."* Nay, 
there will not only be a knowledge of this distance, and lost 
estate, but also affections answerable. Can a man be brought 
to find himself hard by the brink of hell, and not tremble ? or, 
to find he hath lost his God and his soul, and not cry out, * I am 
undone;' or can such a stupid soul be so recovered ? This is the 
sad case of many thousands, and the reason why so few obtain this 
rest : they will not be convinced, or made sensible, that they are, 
in point of title, distant from it ; and in point of practice, con- 
trary to it. They have lost their God, their souls, their rest, 
and do not know it, nor will believe him that tells them so. 
Whoever travelled towards a place which he thought he was 

^ Bonum illud quod est finis hominis, operatis malum, bonum est particu- 
lare, non universale et summum. DtAugustin. Peccare est deficere ab eo 

quod summum est, ad id quod minus est. Prolabitur et propria imbecil- 

litate et depravatione deturbatur ac dejicitur ad honum particulare, et iufe- 
rius, frustra ibi quaerens rationeni summiboni. — Gibieuf. 1. 2. de Liber, c. 20. 
sect,, 2. p. 424. Nemo fdelices dixerit, quibus non est foelicitatis intellectus ; 
ut Senec. ' De Vit. Beat.' c. 5. 

a I speak all this of men of age, converted by the word, not of those sanc- 
tified in infancy, 

•> I mean those that were converted at years of discretion, and received not 
holiness insisenbly in their infancy, as I doubt not but many thousands do. 


at already, or sought for that which he knew not he had lost ? 
" The whole need not the physician, but they that are sick.** 
(Matt. ix. 12.) 

Sect. VI. 6. Here is also supposed, a superior, moving cause, and 
an influence therefrom, else should we all stand still, and not move 
a step forward towards our rest ; any more than the inferior 
wheels in the watch would stir, if you take away the spring, or 
first mover. This primum movens is God. What hand God 
hath in evil actions, or whether he afford the like influence to 
their production, I will not here trouble this discourse and the 
reader to dispute.'^ The case is clear in good actions. If 
God move us not, we cannot move : therefore, it is a most 
necessary part of our christian wisdom, to keep our subordina- 
tion to God, and dependance on him ; to be still in the path 
where he walks, and in that way where his Spirit doth most 
usually move. Take heed of being estranged or separated 
from God, or of slacking your daily expectations of renewed 
help, or of growing insensible of the necessity of the continual 
influence and assistance of the Spirit. When you once begin 
to trust your stock of habitual grace, and to depend on your 
own understanding or resolution for duty and holy walking, you 
are then in a dangerous, declining state. In every duty remember 
Christ's words, " Without me ye can do nothing ;" (John xv. 
5 ;) and, " not that we are sufficient of ourselves, to do any 
thing as of ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God." (2 Cor. 
iii. 5.) 

Sect. VII. 7. Here is supposed an internal principle of life in 
the person. God moves not man like a stone, but by enduing him 
first with life, not to enable him to move without God, but 
thereby to qualify him to move himself, in subordination to God 
the first Mover. What the nature of this spiritual life is, is a ques- 
tion exceeding difficult.'^ Whether, as some think, (but, as I judge, 
erroneously,) it be Christ himself in person or essence, or the 

" Qui rixas et disputationes inanes de hac re sapienter pensabit, et simul 
rei ahitiidinem et humani ingenii imbecillitatem, mirabitur procul dubio ho- 
minum pervicaciam, et audacem ignorantiani, qui nee adhuc banc litem et 
animorum aeerbitatem deponere volunt ! Qui tandem produxit inter pontifi- 
ciorum doctissimos protracta hac contentio? viz. inter Jesuitas et Domini- 
canos, quos prajdeterminantes vocant ! Frustra tandem conciliante Aribal 
(ut ex D. Petavii et Richardi scriptis contra August, et Vincent. Lirinensem, 
et aliorum patet.) Quid tandem profecerunt nostrorum de hisce dissidia? et 
tamen nee unauimes sunms qui videmur unanimes. O quando coguoscent 
Theologi quam minimum de inscrutabilibus hisce norint prfficipue de aciibus 
Dei immanentibus, qui sunt ipsius essentia ! 

•^ 1 speak not here de §rati& operante, but de gratid operatd ; not of the 

40 THE saint's 

Holy Ghost personally ; or as some will distinguish, with what 
sense I know not, it is the person of the Holy Ghost, but not 
personally. Whether it be an accident or quality; or whether 
it be a spiritual substance, as the soul itself; whether it be 
only an act, or a disposition, or a habit, as it is generally 
taken; whether a habit infused, or acquired by frequent 
acts, to which the soul hath been morally persuaded; or 
whether it be somewhat distinct from a habit ; i. e. a power j 
viz., potentia proxima intelligendi, credendi, volendi, ^c, 
in spiritualibus ; which some think the most probable.^ A 
multitude of such difficulties occur, which will be difficul- 
ties while the doctrine of spirits and spiritualities is so dark 
to us, and that will be while the dust of mortality and cor- 
ruption is in our eyes. This is my comfort, that death will 
shortly blow out this dust, and then I shall be resolved of these 
and many more. In the meantime, I am a sceptic, and know 
little in this whole doctrine of spirits and spiritual workings, 
further than Scripture clearly revealeth, and think we might do 
well to keep closer to its language. 

Sect. VIII. Here is presupposed before rest, an actual motion : 
rest is the end of motion : no motion, no rest. Christianity is not a 
sedentary profession or employment, nor doth it consist in mere 
negatives. It is not for feeding, or clothing, &c., that Christ 
condemns. Not doing good, is not the least evil : sitting still 
■will lose you heaven, as well as if you run from it. I know 
when we have done all, we are unprofitable servants ; and he 
cannot be a Christian, that relies upon the supposed merit of his 
works, in proper sense ; but yet he that hides his talent, shall 
receive the wages of a slothful servant. 

cause, but the effect ; for I doubt not to affirm, so far as these obscure things 
are known to us on the ordinary grounds, that it is the very essence of God 
"Nvhich worketli grace on the soul ; for it is his vdle eff'ectivum, his will. God 
needs do no more to jiroduce the creature or any ((uality in it, but only to will 
it, as Dr. Twisse saith, and Bradvvardine more fully and peremptorily: and 
God's will is his essence. I speak on the supposition of God's immediate ope- 
ration ; for if God work grace by angels, or any second causes, then it cannot 
be thus said of the act of the second cause, at least so certainly : hut of God's 
act it is still true. So Clemens .'Mexandr. As God's will is his work, and that 
is called the world; so his will is man's salvation, and that is , called the 
church. — Cl.Al. Pa-dagog. 1. i. c. 6. 

^ Nos enim qui totam fideni in carne adrainistrandum credimus, immo et 
per carnem cujus est. et os, ad profereudum optimum quemque sermonem, et 
lingua ad non blaspheniandum,et cor ad non iiidignandum, et manus ad ope- 
randum et largiendum, tam vetustatem homiinsquam novitatem ad moralem, 
nun ad substantialem differentiam pertinere del'endinius. — Terlul, 1. J)e 
Aiima, c. xlv. p. (inihi) 412. 


Sect. IX. 9. Here is presupposed, also, as motion, so such 
motion as is rightly ordered and directed toward the end ; not 
all motion, labour, seeking, that brings to rest.^ Every way 
leads not to this end ; but he whose goodness hath appointed 
the end, hath in his wisdom, and by his sovereign authority, 
appointed the way. Our own invented ways may seem to us 
more wise, comely, equal, pleasant ; but that is the best key 
that will open the lock, which none but that of God's appoint- 
ing will do. O the pains that sinners take, and worldlings take, 
but not for this rest 1 O the pains and cost that many an ig- 
norant and superstitious soul is at for this rest, but all in vain ! 
How many have a zeal for God, but not according to know- 
ledge ; who, being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going 
about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted 
themselves to the righteousness of God : nor known, " that 
Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that 
believeth." (Rom. x. 2 — 4.) Christ is the door 3 the only way 
to this rest. Some will allow nothing else to be called the way, 
lest it derogate from Christ. The truth is, Christ is the only 
way to the Father ; yet faith is the way to Christ ; and Gospel 
obedience, or faith and works, the way for those to walk in, that 
are in Christ.^ There be, as before, many ways requisite in 
subordination to Christ, but none in co-ordination with him ; so 
then it is only God's way that will lead to this end and rest. 

^Cuna enim homo sit per naturam mobilis, et si honesta sponte sua refugit, 
non tamen ii. motu quievit. Movetur itaque non jam quidem ad virtutem, 
nee ad videndum Deum ; sed quae non sunt, versans vires suas perverlit ; abu- 
teus his ad eas, quas excogitavit concupiscenlias carnis ; est quippe condita 
libera; potest bona uteligere, ita et adversari, &c. — Alhanas. lib. 1. cont.Gen. 

E Object. If many conditions are required in those that are to be justified, 
then we are not justified of mere grace. Answ. 1 distinguish of conditions. 
If many conditions are required in the justified which bear proportion with 
tiod's justice, I grant all. But if the conditions which are required in those 
that must be justified do bear no proportion with God's justice, I deny that 
it thence follows that justification is not of mere grace. For it is not all con- 
ditions that are excluded by grace, but those which may bear the nature of 
merit. Camero, in * Op. Fol. impres.' p. 3(i.') ; " Cum is^itur operit)us justifi- 
catio negatur, vis justificandi meritoria negatur." John Crocius ' De Justif.,' 
disput. xii. p. G'Jfi. So Rivius Tractat. de Redemp. Dr. Fownds, of ' Christ's 
three Offices;' Rivet. < On Genes.,* and generally our divines, against the 
papists, do oppose the merit of works, as the point wherein our dilference 
lieth. They make it all one to say that works do not justify, and they do not 
merit: meaning by works, as Paul doth, such as make the reward to be not 
of grace, but of debt. (Rom. iv. 3, 4.) But obedience to Christ, as a condi- 
tion only, they deny not. 

42 THE saint's 

Sect. X. 10. There is supposed, also, as motion rightly or- 
dered, so strong and constant motion, which may reach the end. 
If there be not strength put to the bow, the arrow will not reach 
the mark : the lazy world, that think all too much, will find this 
to their cost one day. They that think less ado might have 
served, do but reproach Christ for making us so much to do : 
they that have been most holy, watchful, painful, to get faith 
and assurance, do find, when they come to die, all too little. 
We see, daily, the best Christians, Avhen dying, repent their 
negligence : I never knew any, then, repent his holiness and 
diligence. It would grieve a man's soul to see a multitude of 
mistaken sinners lay out their wit, and care, and pains, for a 
thing of nought, and think to have eternal salvation with a wish. 
If the way to heaven be not far harder than the world imagines, 
then Christ and his apostles knew not the way, or else have de- 
ceived us ; for they have told us, " that the kingdom of heaven 
suffereth violence; that the gate is strait, and the way nar- 
row; and we must strive, if we will enter ; for many shall seek 
to enter, and not be able,"^ which implies the faintness of their 
seeking, and that they put not strength to the work ; and, " that 
the righteous themselves are scarcely saved." If ever souls ob- 
tain salvation in the world's common, careless, easy way, then 
I will say there is a nearer way found out than ever God, in 
Scripture, hath revealed to the sons of men. But when they 
have obtained life and rest in this way, let them boast of it; till 
then, let them give us leave, who would fain go upon sure 
grounds, in point of eternal salvation, to believe that God knows 
the wav better than thev, and that his word is a true and infal- 
lible discovery thereof. 

I have seen this doctrine also thrown by with contempt by 
others, who say, ' What, do you set us a-working for heaven ? 
Doth our duty do any thing ? Hath not Christ done all ? Is not 
this to make him a half Saviour, and to preach law ? ' 

Answ. It is to preach the law of Christ : his subjects are not 
lawless.' It is to preach duty to Christ : no more exact a 

h Matt. xi. 12; Matt. vii. 13 ; Luke xiii. 24, 25 ; 1 Pet. iv. 18. 

' Age Marcion, omnesque jam cemmiserones et credibiles ejus haeretici, 
quid audebitis dicere ? Resciditne Christus priora priecepta, noa Decidendi, 
noil adulterandi, non furandi, non falsum testandi, diligendi patrem et matrem ? 
An et ilia servavit, et quod deerat, adjecit ?—Tertul. udvers. Marcion, lib. 4. 
c. xxxvi. p. 524. Christus interrogatus &, quodam, praeceptor optime, quid 
faciens vitem aeternam possidebo ? De prseceptis creatoris, au ea sciret, id 
est, faceret, expostulavit : ad coritestandum prseceptis creatoris vitani acquiri 
sempiternatn.— 7b'<t(i. ubi supa. 


requirer of duty, or hater of sin, than Christ. Christ hath done, 
and will do all his work, and therefore is a perfect Saviour j 
but yet leaves for us a work too. He hath paid all the price, 
and left us none to pay ; yet he never intended hjs purchase 
should put us into absolute, immediate, personal title to glory, 
in point of law, much less into immediate possession. What 
title, improperly so called, we may have from his own, and his 
Pather's secret counsel, is nothing to the question : he hath 
purchased the crown to bestow only on condition of believing, 
denying all for him, suffering with him, persevering and over- 
coming.'^ He hath purchased justification, to bestow only on 
condition of our believing ; yea, repenting and believing.^ That 
the first grace hath any such condition, I will not affirm ; but 
following mercies have ; though it is Christ that enableth also 
to perform the condition. It is not a Saviour offered, but re- 
ceived also, that must save : it is not the blood of Christ shed 
only, but applied also, that must fully deliver ; nor is it applied 
to the justification or salvation of a sleepy soul ; nor doth Christ 
carry us to heaven in a chair of security. Where he will pardon, 
he will make you pray, " Forgive us our trespasses ; " and where 
he will give righteousness, he will give hungering and thirsting. 
It is not through any imperfection in Christ, that the righteous are 
scarcely saved ; no, nor that the wicked perish, as they shall be 
convinced one day. In the same sense as the prayer of the faith- 
ful, if fervent, availeth for outward mercies, in the same sense it 
prevajleth for salvation also ; for Christ hath purchased both. 
And as baptism is said to save us, so other duties too. Our righte- 
ousness, which the law of works requireth, and by which it is 
satisfied, is wholly in Christ, and not one grain in ourselves ; nor 
must we dare to think of patching up a legal righteousness of 
Christ's and our own together : that is, that our doings can be 
the least part of satisfaction for our sins, or proper merit. But 
yet ourselves must personally fulfil the conditions of the new 
covenant, and so have a personal, evangelical righteousness, or 
never be saved by Christ's righteousness j therefore, say not it is 

'' Ut actus justificandi, sic ejus modus et ratio tota dependet kDei volun- 
tate. — Johan. Crocius cle Justif. Disput. xii. p. 656. 

' Adjunxit plane et addidit legem, certa nos conditione et sponsioue con- 
striiigens, ut sic nobis dimitti debita postulemus, ut ipsi debitoribus nostris 
dimittimus, scientes impetrari non posse quod pro peccatis petimus, nisi et 
ipsi, &c. — Cyprian, in Oral, Dominic, sect, xvii, p. 314. Lege Clem. Aiex- 
andr. Stromat. lib. 2, paulb post init, against those that cry down law and 
fear. (Gal. ill. 3.) 

44 THE saint's 

not duty, but Christ ; for it is Christ in a way of duty. As duty 
cannot do it without Christ, so Christ will not do it without 
duty : but of this, enough before. 

And as this motion must be strong, so must it be constant ; 
or it will fall short of rest. To begin in the Spirit, and end in 
the flesh, will not bring to the end of the saints. The certainty 
of the saints' perseverance doth not make admonition to con- 
stancy unuseful : men, as seemingly holy as the best of us, have 
fallen off. He that knew it impossible, in the foundation, to 
deceive the elect, yet saw it necessary to warn us, that he only 
that endureth to the end, shall be saved."" Read but the pro- 
mises, (Rev. ii. and iii.) " To him that overcometh." Christ's 
own disciples must be commanded to continue in his love, and 
that by keeping his commandments j and to abide in him, and 
his word in them, and he in them. It will seem strange to 
some, that Christ should command us, that " he abide in us." 
(See John xv. 4 — 10, and viii. 31 ; 1 John xxii. 4, 28.) 

Sect.XI. 11. There is presupposed, also, to the obtaining of this 
rest, a strong desire after it. The soul's motion is not that 
which we call violent or constrained, (none can force it,) but free. 
As everything inclines to its proper centre, so the rational crea- 
ture is carried on in all its motion, with desires after its end. 
This end is the first thing intended, and chief desired, though 
last obtained. Observe it, and believe it, whoever thou art ; 
there never was a soul that made Christ and glory the principal 
end, nor that obtained rest with God, whose desire was not set 
upon him, and that above all things else in the world whatso- 
ever. Christ brings the heart to heaven first, and then the per- 
son. His own mouth spoke it, " Where your treasure is, there 
will your heart be also." (Matt. vi. 21.) A sad conclusion to 
thousands of professed Christians. He that had truly rather 
have the enjoyment of God in Christ, than any thing in the 
world, shall have it ; and he that had rather have any thing 
else, shall not have this, except God change him. It is true, 
the remainder of our old nature will much weaken and interrupt 
these desires, but never overcome them. The passionate mo- 
tion of them is oft strongest towards inferior, sensible things ; 
but the serious, deliberate will or choice, which is the rational 
desire, is most for God. 

Sect. XII. 12. Lastly: here is presupposed painfulness and 

" Matt. xxiv. 13 ; Mark xiii. 13, 22 ; Acts xiii. 43, and xiv. 22 ; Rom. xi. 22 j 
Col. i. 23 ; Heb. viii. 9 ; Jam. i. 25. 


weariness in our motion. This ariseth not from any evil in the work 
or way, for Christ's yoke is easy, his burden Hght, and his com- 
mands not grievous :» but, 1. From the opposition we meet with; 

2. The contrary principles still remaining in our nature, which 
will make us cry out, " O, wretched men I" (Rom. vii. 24.) 

3. From the weakness of our graces, and so of our motion. 
Great labour, where there is a suitable strength, is a pleasure ; 
but to the weak, how painful ! With what panting and weari- 
ness doth a feeble man ascend that hill which the sound man 
runs up with ease. We are all, even the best, but feeble. An 
easy, dull, profession of religion, that never encountereth with 
these difficulties and pains, is a sad sign of an unsound heart. 
Christ, indeed, hath freed us from the impossibilities of the 
covenant of works, and from the burden and yoke of legal 
ceremonies, but not from the difficulties and pains of Gospel 
duties. 4. Our continued distance from the end, will raise 
some grief also ; for desire and hope, implying the absence of 
the thing desired and hoped for, do ever imply also some grief 
for that absence ; which all vanish when we come to possession. 
All these twelve things are implied in a Christian's motion, and 
so presupposed to his rest. And he only that hath the pre-re- 
quisite qualifications, shall have the crown. Here, therefore, 
should Christians lay out their utmost care and industry. See 
to your part, and God will certainly see to his part. Look you 
to your hearts and duties, in which God is ready with assisting 
grace, and he will see that you lose not the reward." O, how 
most Christians wrong God and themselves, with being more 
solicitous about God's part of the work than their own, as if 
God's faithfulness were more to be suspected than their unfaith- 
ful, treacherous hearts ! This rest is glorious, and God is faithful; 
Christ's death is sufficient, and the promise is universal, free, 
and true. You need not fear missing of heaven through tlie 
deficiency or fault of any of these. }iut yet, for all these, the 
falseness of your own hearts, if you look not to them, may undo 
you. If you doubt of this, believe the Holy Ghost. " Having 
a promise left us of entering into his rest, let us fear lest any of 
you should seem to come short of it." (Heb. iv. 1.) The pro- 
mise is true, but conditional. Never fear whether God will 
break promise, but fear lest you should not truly perform the 
condition, for nothing else can bereave you of the benefit. 

" Prov. iv. G ; Malt. xi. 36 ; 1 John v. 3. 

" That salvation is given /^er modmn jnmniii Dr.Twisse saith oft, cent. Cor« 
viii, is past all clouht. 




What this Rest containeth. 

But all this Is only the outward court, or at least not the 
holiest of all. Now we have ascended the steps, may we look 
within the veil ? May we show what this rest containeth, as 
well as what it presupposeth ? But, alas 1 how little know I of 
that whereof I am about to speak. Shall I speak before I 
know ? But if I stay till I clearly know, I shall not come again 
to speak. That glimpse which Paul saw, contained that which 
could not, or must not, be uttered, or both.*! And if Paul had 
had a tongue to have uttered it, it would have done no good, 
except his hearers had ears to hear it. If Paul had spoken the 
things of heaven in the language of heaven, and none under- 
stood that language, what the better ? Therefore, I will speak 
while I may, that little, very little which I do know of it, rather 
than be wholly silent. The Lord reveal it to me, that I may 
reveal it to you ; and the Lord open some light, and show both 
you and me his inheritance : not, as to Balaam only, whose 
eyes the vision of God opened, to see the goodliness of Jacob's 
tents, and Israel's tabernacles, where he had no portion, but 
from whence must come his own destruction :'' nor as to Moses, 
who had only a discovery, instead of possession, and saw the 
land which he never entered.^ But as the pearl was revealed 
to the merchant in the Gospel, who rested not till he had sold 
all he had, and bought it :* and as heaven was opened to 
blessed Stephen, which he was shortly to enter, and the glory 
showed him, which should be his own possession.*^ 

Sect. I. \. There is contained in this rest, 1. A cessation from 
motion or action ; not of all the action, but of that which hath 
the nature of a means, and implies the absence of the end. 
When we have obtained the haven, we have done sailing. When 
the workman hath his wages, it is implied he hath done his 
work. When we are at our journey's end, we have done with 
the way. All motion ends at the centre, and all means cease 
when we have the end. Therefore, prophesying ceaseth, 
tongues fail, and knowledge shall be done away ; that is, so far 

1 2 Cor. xii. 4. ' Num. xxiv. 15, and xvi. 5. 

» Deut. xxxiv. 1—4. ' Matt. xiii. 44— 46. 

» Acts vii. 55, 56. 

EviRtAktlNG kEST. -4/ 

as it had the nature of a means, and was imperfect.'^ And so 
faith may be said to cease : not all faith, for how shall we know 
all things past, which we saw not but by believing ? How shall 
we know the last judgment, the resurrection of the body 
beforehand, but by believing ? How shall we know the life 
everlasting, the eternity of the joys We possess, but by believ- 
ing ? But all that faith, which, as a means referred to the 
chief end, shall cease. There shall be no more prayer, 
because no more necessity, but the full enjoyment of what 
we prayed for. Whether the soul pray for the body's resur- 
rection, for the last judgment, &c., or whether soul and 
body pray for the eternal continuance of their joys, is to me 
yet unknown ; otherwise, we shall not need to pray for what we 
have, and we shall have all that is desirable. Neither shall we 
need to fast, and weep, and watch, any morie, being out of the 
reach of sin and temptations. Nor will there be use for instruc- 
tions and exhortations : preaching is done, the ministry of man 
ceaseth, sacraments useless, the labourers called in because the 
harvest is gathered, the tares burned, and the work done, the 
unregenerate past hope, the saints past fear for ever, much less 
shall there be aiiy need of labouring for inferior ends, as here 
we do, seeing they will all devolve themselves into the ocean of 
the ultimate end, and the lesser good be wholly swallowed up 
of the greatest. 

Sect. II. 2. This rest containeth a perfect freedom from all the 
evils that accompanied us through our course, and which neces- 
sarily follow our absence from the chief good. Besides our free- 
dom from the eternal flames, and restless miseries, which the 
neglecters of Christ and grace, Umst remedilessly endure; an in- 
heritance which, both by birth and actual merit, Was due to us as 
well as to them. As God will not know the wicked so as to owii 
them ; so neither will heaven know iniquity to receive it : for there 
entereth nothing that defileth, or is unclean ; all that remains 
without.^ And, doubtless, there is not such a thing as grief and 
sorrow known there : nor is there such a thing as a pale face, id 
languid body, feeble joints, undble infancy, decrepit age, pecCant 

" (1 Cor. xiii. 8.) There are two excellent parts of our glory, which 
I have here omitted, and only put them among the adjuncts, which should 
Eot have been done. 1. That we shall he members of the heavenly Jeru- 
salem, and so glorify God in that blessed society. 2. That we shall 
see the face of our glorified Redeemer; and his person shall ever- 
lastingly be glorified in us. Were it again to do, I should more largely treat 
of both these, as principal parts of our glory and felicity, 

y Rev. xxi. 27. 

48 THE saint's 

Immours, dolorous sickness, griping fears, consuming cares, nor 
whatsoever deserves the name of evil. Indeed, a gale of groans 
and sighs, a stream of tears, accompanied us to the very gates, 
and there bid us farewell for ever. We did weep and lament, 
when the world did rejoice; but our sorrow is turned into joy, 
and our joy shall no man take from us.^ God were not the 
chief and perfect good, if the full fruition of him did not free us 
from all evil. But we shall have occasion to speak more fully of 
this in that which follows. 

Sect. III. 3. This rest containeth the highest degree of the 
saints* personal perfection, both of soul and body.^ This neces- 
sarily qualifies them to enjoy the glory, and thoroughly to par- 
take of the sweetness of it. Were the glory ever so great, and 
themselves not made capable by a personal perfection suitable 
thereto, it would be little to them. ,There is necessary a right 
disposition of the recipient, to a right enjoying, and affecting. 
This is one thing that makes the saints' joys there so great. 
Here, " Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, nor heart conceived, 
what God hath laid up for them that wait for him." For this 
eye of flesh is not capable of seeing it, nor this ear of hearing it, 
nor this heart of understanding it ; but there the eye, and ear, 
and heart, are made capable ; else how do they enjoy it ? The 
more perfect the sight is, the more delightful the beautiful 
object. The more perfect the appetite, the sweeter the food. 
The more musical the ear, the more pleasant the melody. The 
more perfect the soul, the more joyous those joys, and the more 
glorious to us is that glory. Nor is it only our sinful imperfec- 
tion that is here to be removed ; nor only that which is the fruit 
of sin, but that which adhered to us in our pure naturals. 
Adam's dressing the garden, was neither sin nor the fruit of sin : 
nor is either to be less glorious than the stars, or the sun in the 
iirmament of our Father : yet is this the dignity to which the 
righteous shall be advanced. '^ There is far more procured by 
Christ, than was lost by Adam. It is the misery of wicked men 
here, that all without them is mercy, excellent mercies, but with- 
in them a heart full of sin shuts the door against all, and makes 
them but the more miserable. When all is well within, then all 

» John xvi, 20—22. 

 Beata vita est conveniens naturae suas : quae non aliter contingere potest, 
quam si primum saiia mens est, et in perpetua possessione sanitatis sune. —  
iseneca, de vit, heat. c. 3. 

'> Gen. ii. 15; Dan. x. 13. 


is well indeed. The near good is the best, and the near evil and 
enemy the worst. Therefore will God, as a special part of his 
saints' happiness, perfect themselves, as well as their condition. 
Sect. IV. 4. This rest containeth, as the principal part, our near- 
est fruition of God, the chiefest good. And here, reader, wonder 
not if I be at a loss, and if my apprehensions receive but little of 
that which is in my expressions. If, to the beloved disciple that 
durst speak and inquire into Christ's secrets, and was filled with 
his revelations, and saw the New Jerusalem in her glory, and 
had seen Christ, Moses, and Elias, in part of theirs; if it did not 
appear to him what it shall be, but only in general, that when. 
Christ appears we shall be like him,'-" no wonder if I know little. 
When I know so little of God, I cannot know much what it is 
to enjoy him. When it is so little I know of my own soul, 
either its quiddity or quality, while it is here in this tabernacle, 
how little must I needs know of the infinite Majesty, or the state 
of this soul when it is advanced to that enjoyment ! If I know 
so little of spirits and spirituals, how little of the Father of spirits I 
Nay, if I never saw that creature which contains not something 
unsearchable ; nor the worm so small, which affordeth not mat- 
ter for questions to puzzle the greatest philosopher 1 ever met 
with; no wonder, then, if mine eyes fail, when I would look at 
God, my tongue fail me in speaking of him, and my heart in 
conceiving.*^ As long as the Athenian superscription doth so 
too well suit with my sacrifices, " To the unknown God," and 
while I cannot contain the smallest rivulet, it is little I can con- 
tain of this immense ocean. We shall never be capable of 
clearly knowing, till we are capable of fully enjoying ; nay, nor 
till we do actually enjoy him. What strange conceivings hath 
a man, born blind, of the sun, and its light ; or a man born 
deaf, of the nature of sounds and music 1 so do we yet want that 
sense bv which God must be clearly known. I stand and look 
upon a heap of ants, and see them all, with one view, very busy 
to little purpose. They know not me, my being, nature, or 
thoughts, though I am their fellow-creature ; how little, then, 
must we know of the great Creator, though he with one view 
continually beholds us all. Yet a knowledge we have, though 

<= 1 John iii. 2. 

^ O qui perpetua mundum ratione gubernas, 
Terrarum ccelique sator, qui tenipus ad sevum. 
Ire jubes, stabilisque maneus das cuncta moveri ! 
Principium, rector, dux, semita, terminus idem ; 
Tu re((uies tranquilla piis, tu ceruere finis ! &c. — lioetius, 
Vid. Gerson. part. iii. ,Aiphabet.DiviniAmorisj cap. IJ, Egregie de attributis 
VOL. X.\ll. Ji 

50 THE saint's 

imperfect, and such as must be done away. A glimpse the 
saints behold, though but in a glass, which makes us capable of 
some poor, general, dark apprehensions of what we shall behold 
in glory, if J should tell a worldling but what the holiness and 
spiritual joys of the saints on earth are, he cannot know it ; for 
grace cannot be clearly known without grace : how much less 
could he conceive it, should I tell him of this glory ! But to the 
saints I may be somewhat more encouraged to speak ; for grace 
giveth them a dark knowledge, and slight taste of the glory. 

As all good whatsoever is comprised in God,*^ and all in the 
creature are but drops of this ocean ; so all the glory of the 
blessed is comprised in their enjoyment of God : and if there be 
any mediate joys there, thev are but drops from this. If men 
and angels should study to speak the blessedness of that estate in 
one word, what can they say beyond this, ' That it is the near- 
est enjoyment of God?' Say, 'They have God;' and you 
say, 'They have all that is worth the having.' O the full joys 
offered to a believer in that one sentence of Christ's ! I would 
not, for all the world, that one verse had been left out of the 
Bible : " Father, I will, that those whom thou hast given me, be 
with me where I am, that they may behold my glory which 
thou hast given me." (John xvii. 24.) Every word is full of 
life and joy. Jf the Queen of Sheba had cause to say of Solo- 
mon's glory, "Happy are thy men, happy are these thy servants 
that stand continually before thee, and that hear thy wisdom,"'' 
then, sure, they that stand continually before God, and see his 
glory, and the glory of the Lamb, are somewhat more than 
happv : to them will Christ " give to eat of the tree of life, 
which is in the midst of the paradise of God ;" and " to eat 

et excellentiis iliviuis expatiautem. Beatitudo sumitur objectivt' et fornialiter: 
quod beatos facit ipso frueiites, hoc est, diviiia bonitas, qua; est summuin bo- 
nuin. Beatitudo autem lormalis est ipsa fruiiio, &c. — Stella in Luc. 10, torn, 
ii. p. 45. 

*= God is defined to be one that wanteth nothing, and is sufiicient for him- 
self, and full of i)imself, in whom all things do consist, and who himself 
giveth being to all, saith Athanasius, lib. i. cont. Gentil. God is by na- 
ture incorporeal, neither subject to sight nor touch. He is most powerful, 
and nothing hoideth him ; but he holdeth or containeth all things, and ruleth 
over all. — Idem ibid. 

f 1 Kings X. 8. Some interpret most of those scriptures in the Revelations, 
of the church's glory on earth : and then it would hold a minore. Tu es 
recreatur omnium qui dixisli, Venile ad me omnes qui laboratis, &c. Anima 
enim quae est in te, rudicata in centro suo et recreata, et quieta est; quae 
veio in te non est, multis vanis phantasmatibus fatigatur. Tu sufficientissi- 
nius es ; qui te habet, totum habet ; qui non, mendicus est, et pauper, quia 
quicquid prater te est, non reficit, uou sufticit. — Cerson. part. iii. Jljikabet. 
Amoris. Divini, cap. 14. 


of the hidden manna," (Rev. ii. 7, 17.) Yea, "He will make 
them pillars in the temple of God, and they shall go no more out : 
and he will write upon them the name of his God, and the name 
of the city of his God, New Jerusalem, which cometh down 
out of heaven from God, and his own new name." (Rev. iii. 12.) 
Yea, more, if more may be, " He will grant them to sit with 
him in his throne." (Rev. iii, 21.) "These are they who come 
out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made 
them white in the blood of the Lamb ; therefore are they before 
the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple : 
and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them : and 
the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, 
and lead them unto living fountains of water ; and God shall 
wipe away all tears from their eyes. (Rev. vii. 14, 15, 17.) 
And may we not now boast with the spouse, " This is my be- 
loved, O daughters of Jerusalem !" And this is the glory of the 
saints ! O blind, deceived world, can you show us such a glory? 
" This is the city of our God, where the tabernacle of God is 
with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his 
people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.'* 
*' The glory of God shall enlighten it, and the Lamb is the light 
thereof." (Rev. xxi. .3, 2-1.) "And there shall be no more 
curse, but the throne of God and the Lamb shall be in it, and 
his servants shall serve him, and they shall see his face, and his 
name shall be in their foreheads. These sayings are faithful 
and true, and these are the things that must shortlv be done." 
(Rev. xxii. 3, 4, 6.) And now we say, as Mephibosheth, 'Let 
the world take all besides, if we may but see the face of our 
Lord in peace.' If the Lord lift up the light of his counte- 
nance on us here, it ])uts more gladness in our hearts than the 
world's increase can do. (Psal. iv. 6, 7.) How much more, 
when in his^ light we shall have light without darkness ; and he 
shall make us full of joy with his countenance. " Rejoice, 
therefore, in the Lord, O ye righteous ; and shout for joy, all ye 
that are upright of heart ;" and say with his servant David, "The 
Lord is the portion of mine inheritance ; the lines are fallen to 
me in pleasant places : yea, I have a goodlv heritage : I have 
set the Lord always before me : because he is at my right hand 
I shall not be moved : therefore my heart is glad, and my glory 
rejoiceth ; my flesh also shall rest in hope : for he will not leave 
nie in the grave, nor suffer me for ever to see corruption. He 

8 Psal. xxxvi. 9 ; Acts ii. 28, and Psal. xxxiii. 1. 



will show me the path of life, and bring me into his presence, 
where is fulness of joy ; and at his right hand, where are pleasures 
for evermore." (Psal. xvi. 5,0,8 — II.) " Whom, therefore, 
have I in heaven but him, or in earth that I desire besides him ? 
jVly flesh and my heart have failed, and will fail me j but God 
is the strength of my heart, and will be my portion for ever ; 
he shall guide me with his counsel, and afterwards receive me 
to glory ; and as they that are far from him shall perish, so it is 
good, the chief good, for us to be near to God." (Psal. Ixxiii. 

The advancement is exceeding high : ^ what irreverent, 
damnable presumption would it have been, once to have thought 
or spoken of such a thing, if God had not spoken it before us ! I 
durst not have thought of the saint's preferment in this life, as 
Scripture sets it forth, had it not been the express truth of God. 
What vile unmannerliness, to talk of " being sons of God," 
" speaking to him," " having fellowship and communion with 
liim," " dwelling in him and he in us ;" if this had not been 
God's own language ! How much less durst we have once 
thought of" being brighter than the sun in glory;" of '' being co- 
heirs with Christ; of judging the world; of sitting on Christ's 
throne ; of being one with him;" if we had not all this from 
the mouth, and under the hand of God ! But hath he said it, 
and shall it not come to pass ? Hath he spoken it, and will he 
not do it ? Yes, as true as the Lord God is true, thus shall it 
be done to the man whom Christ dclifrhts to honour. " The 
eternal God is their refuge, and underneath are the everlasting 
arms : and the beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety by him, 
and the Lord shall cover them all the day long, and he sha?l 
dwell between their shoulders." (Deut. xxxiii. 27, 28.) " Surely, 
goodness and mercy shall follow them all the days of their lives, 
and then they shall dwell in the house of the Lord for ever." 
(Psal. xxiii. 6.) O Christians ! believe and consider this. Is 
sun, and moon, and stars, and all creatures, called upon to praise 
the Lord ?' What then should his people do ? Surely they 
are nearer him, and enjoy more of him than the brutes 
shall do. All his works praise him, but, above all, let his saints 
bless him. (Psal. cv. 10.) O let them speak of the glory of his 

i> Admodum cautfe legenda existimo, quae post alios D. Gibieuf. scribit de 
nostri deificatione in 1. ii. de Libert, c. xxvii. sect. 8—10, &c. ; ut et qua? Aug', 
in P 1- xlii. et Serm. ki. de verb, Evaug. ab ipso citata. John i. 12} 
1 Jobn i. 3; 1 John iv. 15, 16. 

i Psal. cxlviii. 


kingdom, and talk of his power : to make known to the sons of 
men, his mighty acts, and the glorious majesty of his kingdom. 
(Ver. 11, 12.) "Let his praise be in the congregation of his 
saints ; let Israel rejoice in him that made him : let the children 
of Zion be joyful in their King. Let the saints be joyful in glory : 
let them sing aloud upon their beds. Let the high praises of 
God be in their mouth ; for the Lord taketh j)leasure in his peo- 
ple, and will beautify the meek with salvation." (Psal. cxlix. 1, 
2, 4 — 6.) '" This is the light that is sown for the righteous, and 
gladness for the upright in heart. (Psal. xcvii. 11.) Yea, 
"this honour have all his saints." (Psal. cxlix. 9.) If the 
estate of the devils, before their fall, were not much meaner 
than this, and perhaps lower than some of their fellow-angels, 
surely their sin was most accursed and detestable. Could they 
aspire higher ? And was there yet room for discontent ? What 
is it, then, that would satisfy them ? Indeed, the distance that 
we sinners and mortals are at from our God, leaves us some ex- 
cuse for discontent with our estate. Tlie poor soul out of the 
depth cries, and cries aloud, as if his Father were out of hearing : 
sometime he chides the interposing clouds, sometime he is 
angry at the vast gulf that is set between ; sometime he would 
have the veil of mortahty drawn aside, and thinks death hath 
forgot his business ; he ever quarrels with this sin that separates, 
and longs till it be separated from the soul, that it may separate 
God and him no more : why, poor Christian, be of good cheer ; 
the time is near, when God and thou shalt be near, and as near 
as thou canst well desire : thou shalt dwell in his family ; is 
that enough ? It is better to be a door-keeper in his house, 
than enjoy the portion of the wicked. Thou shalt ever stand 
before him, about his throne, in the room with him, in his pre- 
sence chamber. Wouldst thou yet be nearer ? Thou shalt be 
his child, and he thy father ; thou shalt be an heir of his king- 
dom ; yea, more, the spouse of his Son ; and what more canst 
thou desire ? Thou shalt be a member of the bodv of his Son, 
he shall be thv head ; thou shalt be one with him, who is one 
with the Father. Read what he hath desired for thee of his 
Father. " That they all may be one, as thou. Father, art in me, 
and I in thee, that they also may be one in us ; and the glory 
which thou gavest me, I have given them, that they may be one, 
even as we are one ; I in them, and thou in me, that they nuiy 
be made perfect in one, that the world may know that thou hast 
sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me." (John 

54 THE saint's 

xvii. 2 — 23.) What can you desire yet more ? Except you 
will, as some do, abuse Christ's expression of oneness, to con- 
ceive of such a union, as shall deify us ; which were a sin one 
step beyond the aspiring arrogancy of Adam ; and, I think, be- 
yond that of the devils. A real conjunction, improperly called 
union, we may expect ; and a true union of affections. A moral 
union, improperly still called union, and a true relative union, 
such as is between the members of the same politic body and the 
head : yea, such as is between the husband and the wife, who are 
called one flesh. And a real communion, and communication 
of real favours, flowing from that relative union. If there be any 
more, it is acknowledged unconceivable, and consequently un- 
expressible, and so not to be spoken of. If any one can conceive 
of a proper real"^ union and identity, which shall neither be 
a unity of essence, nor of person with Christ, I shall not oppose 
it : but to think of such a union were high blasphemy. Nor 
must you think of a union, as some do, upon natural grounds, 
following the dark mistaken principles of Plato and Plotinus. 
If your thoughts be not guided and limited by Scripture in this, 
you are lost.^ 

Quest. But how is it we shall enjoy God? 

Answ. That is the fifth and last we come to. 

Sect. V. This rest containeth a sweet and constant action of all 
the powers of the soul and body in this fruition of God. It is not 
the rest of a stone, which ceaseth from all motion, when it at- 
tains the centre. The senses themselves, as I judge, are not 
only passive in receiving their object, but partly passive and 
partly active. Whether the external senses, such as now we 
have, shall be continued and employed in this work, is a great 
doubt. For some of them, it is usually acknowledged they shall 
cease, because their being importeth their use, and their use 
implieth our estate of imperfection : as there is no use for eat- 
ing and drinking, so neither for the taste. But for other senses 
the question will be harder ; for Job saith, " I shall see him 
with these eyes." 

But do not all senses imply our imperfection ? If Job did 
speak of more than a redemption from this present distress, as 
it is like he did, yet certainly these eyes will be made so spiritual, 
that whether the name of sense, in the same sense as now, shall 

^ 1 take not the word ' real' as opposite to feigned, but to relative. ee 
Mr. Wallis's Answer to the Lord Brooks fully on this. 

I De hoc lege Car. CausaU; vo!. ii. Exercit. 1. iv. fol. 66, 67. 


befit them, is a question. This body shall be so changed, that 
it shall be no more flesh and blood,™ for " that cannot inherit the 
kingdom of God;" (1 Cor. xv. 50;) but "a spiritual body, 
(ver. 44.) "That which we sow, we sow not that body that 
shall be ; but God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and 
to every seed his own body." (1 Cor. xv. 37, 38.) As the ore is 
cast into the fire a stone, but comes forth so pure a metal, that 
it deserves another name, and so the difference betwixt it and 
the gold exceeding great : so far greater will the change of our 
bodies and senses be ; even so great, as now we cannot conceive. 
If grace make a Christian differ so much from what he was, that 
the Christian could say to his companion, ' Ego non sum ego/ 
' I am not the man I was ;' how much more will glory make 
us differ ? We may then say much more, ' This is not the body 
I had, and these are not the senses I had.' But because we 
have no other name for them, let us call them senses, call them 
eyes and ears, seeing and hearing : but thus conceive of the dif- 
ference ; that as much as a body spiritual, above the sun in 
glory, exceedeth these frail, noisome, diseased lumps of flesh or 
dirt that now we carry about us ; so far shall our sense of seeing 
and hearing exceed these we now possess : for the change of 
the senses must be conceived proportionable to the change of 
the body. And, doubtless, as God advanceth our sense, and en- 
largeth our capacity; so will he advance the happiness of those 
senses, and fill up with himself all that capacity." And certainly 
the body should not be raised up and continued, if it should not 
share of the glory : for as it hath shared in the obedience and 
sufferings, so shall it also do in the blessedness : and as Christ 
bought the whole man, so shall the whole partake of the ever- 
lasting benefits of the purchase. The same difference is to be 

•" I think the apostle speaks of flesh and blood in a proper sense, and no* 
of sin : for them that say the flesh is but the soul's instrument, and therefore 
should no more suffer than a cup, because poison was put in it ; or a sword 
for killing a man, &c. they may find this objection fully answered by Tertul- 
lian, lib. de Resurrect. Carnis. c. xvi. p. 410, where he both shows that the 
instruments may suffer according to their capacity, and that the flesh is more 
than a mere instrument to the soul, e\en a servant and an associate. 

" Nos vero etiam virtutes carnis opponimus ; ergo et bene operator tene- 
bitur pra'-mio. Etsi anima est qute agit, et impellit in omnia; carnis obse- 
quium est : dum non licet aut injustum judicem credi aut inertem ; injustum, 
si sociam bonorum operum a praemiis arceat ; inertem, si sociam malorum k 
suppliciis secernat. Quuni humaua censura eo perfectior liabeatur, quo 
etiam ministros facti cujusque deposcit, nee parcens, nee invideus illis, (juo 
minus cum autoribus, aut pcenfe aut gratia' comraunicent fructum.— T^a/M/. 
lib, de Resurrect, Carnis^ c. xvi. p. (mihi) 410, 

56 THE saint's 

allowed for the tongue. For though, perhaps, that which we 
now call the tongue, the voice, the language, shall not then be : 
yet, with the forementioned, unconceivable change, it may con- 
tinue. Certain it is, it shall be the everlasting work of" those 
blessed saints, to stand before the throne of God and the Lamb, 
and to praise him for ever and ever. As their eyes and hearts 
shall be filled with his knowledge, with his glory, and with his 
love ; so shall their mouths be filled with his praises. Go on, 
therefore, O ye saints, while you are on earth, in that divine 
duty. Learn, O learn, that saint-beseeming work : for in the 
mouths of his saints his praise is comely. Pray, but still praise: 
hear and read, but still praise :° praise him in the presence of 
his people ; for it shall l)e your eternal work : praise him, while 
his enemies deride and abuse you : you shall praise him, while 
they shall bewail it, and admire you. O blessed employment, 
to sound forth for ever, " Tiiou art worthy, O Lord, to receive 
honour, glory, and power !" (Rev. iv. 11.) And "Worthy is the 
Lamb who was slain, to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, 
and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing ; for he hath 
redeemed us to God by his blood out of every kindred, and 
tongue, and people, and nation 5 and hath made us unto our 
God, kings and priests." (Rev. v. 9, 10, 12.) "AUelujah, 
salvation, and honour, and glory, and power, unto the Lord 
our God : praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear 
him, small and great. Allelujah : for the Lord God omnipotent 
reigneth." (Rev. xix. 1, 5, 6.) O Christians ! this is the blessed 
rest ; a rest without rest : for, " they rest not day nor night, 
saying. Holy, holy, holy. Lord God Almighty, which was, and 
is, and is to come." (Rev. iv. 8.) Sing forth his praises now, ye 
saints ; it is a work our master Christ has taught us. And you 
shall for ever sing before him the song of Moses, and the song of 
the Lamb : " Great and marvellous are thy works. Lord God 
Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints." 
(Rev. XV. 3.) 

Sect. VI. And if the body shall be thus em})loyed, O how shall 
the soul be taken up ! As its powers and capacities are greatest, 
so its actions strongest, and its enjoyments sweetest; as the bodily 
senses have their proper aptitude and action, whereby they re- 
ceive and enjoy their objects, so doth the soul in its own action 
enjoy its own object,' by knowing, by tliinking, and remember- 

° Psal. xxxiii, 1,2, and cxlvii. 


ing, by loving, unci by deligbtful joying : this is the soul's en- 
joying.P By these eyes it sees, and by tliese arms it embraceth. 
If it might be said of the disciples with Christ on earth, much 
more that behold him in his glory, " Blessed are the eyes that 
see the things that ye see, and the ears that hear the things that 
ye hear ; for many princes and great ones have desired, and 
hoped, to see the things that ye see, and have not seen them," 
&c. (Matt. xiii. IG, 17.) 

Knowledge of itself is very desirable, even the knowledge of 
some evil, though not the evil itself. As far as the rational soul 
exceeds the sensitive, so far the delights of a philosopher, in 
discovering ^i the secrets of nature, and knowing the mystery 
of sciences, exceed the delights of the glutton, the drunkard, 
the miclean, and of all voluptuous sensualists whatsoever ; 
so excellent is all truth. What then is their delight, who 
know the God of truth ? What would I not give, so that all 
the uncertain, questionable principles in logic, natural philoso- 
phy, metaphysics, and medicine, were but certain in themselves, 
and to me ; and that my dull, obscure notions of them were but 
quick and clear ! O, what then should I not either perform or 
part with to enjoy a clear and true apprehension of the most 
true God ! How noble a ^ faculty of the soul is the understand- 
ing ! It can compass the earth ; it can measure the sun, moon, 
stars, and heaven ; it can foreknow each eclipse to a minute, 
many years before : yea, but this is the top of all its excellency, 

P It is only by thy soul, and implanted understanding, that God can be be- 
held and understood. — Atlianas. 1. 1. cont. Gentil. When we speak of seeing 
God, we must take heed of expecting a proper, immediate sight of his essence, 
more than the creature is capable of. See what great Camero saith : Scho- 
lastici homines acuti quideni, sed in hoc argumento nimis acuti : invisibilis 
est Deus vel angelis, quibus ad Dei conspectuni nulla peccati labes, sola na- 
tura; imbecilitas (creatune enim sunt) adituni interclusit. — Camero, Priclecf. 
de Verho Dei, cap. 7. p. (operuni in fol.) 41.^. Neque pugnant ista cum eorum 
sententia ([ui beatitudiiiem huniaiiani in Dei li'uitioue collocant. Neque 
enim frui Deo aliud quicquam est quani potential, sapientia;, bonitatis divinaj 
fructuni percipere queni creaturae modus et ratio fei're potest. Id vero sane- 
titas ea animffi est quani dixinius, et corporis ilia gloriosa iinmortalitas. Ne- 
que diversum est quod Scripturaa docent, in Dei visione nostram fcelicitatem 
esse sitam : nam videtur Deus, experiundo quis sit, et qualeni se erga nos 
prffistat, &c. — Camero, ibidem. Hsec autem adhuc inysteria existimo. 

1 Jam vero Nosse quantum ametur, quamque falli nolit humana natura, 
vel hinc intelligi potest, quod lamentari quisque saua mente mavult, quam 
liEtari in amentia. — j4ug. de CivitA. 11. c. 37. 

' Scalig. Exercit. 17. Sect 3., dicit voluntatem nihil aliud esse quam intel- 
lectum extensum, ad habendum et i'aciendum id quod cognoscit. Vid. D. 
MaUowski Colleg, in disp, 18. vit, Pibonis de Just. Passiva. 

58 THE saint's 

it can know God, who is infinite, who made all these ; a little 
here J and more, and much more hereafter. O the wisdom and 
goodness of our blessed Lord ! He hath created the under- 
standing with a natural hias and inclination to truth and its 
object ; and to the prime truth, as its prime object : and lest 
we should turn aside to any creature, he hath kept this as his 
own divine prerogative, not communicable to any creature, viz., 
to be the prime truth. And though I think not, as ® some do, 
that there is so near a close between the understanding and 
truth, as may produce a proper union or identity ', yet, doubt- 
less, it is no such cold touch or disdainful embrace, as is between 
these gross, earthly heterogeneals. The true, studious, con- 
templative man knows this to be true ; who feels as sweet em- 
braces between his intellect and truth, and far more than ever 
the quickest sense did in possessing its desired object. But the 
true, studious, contemplative Christian knows it much more ; 
who sometime hath felt more sweet embraces between his soul 
and Jesus Christ than all inferior truth can afford. I know some 
Christians are kept short this way, especially the careless in 
their watch and walking ; and those that are ignorant or negli- 
gent in the daily actings of faith, who look when God casts in 
joys, while they lie idle, and labour not to fetch them in by 
believing : but for others, I appeal to the most of them. 
Christian, dost thou not sometime, when after long gazing hea- 
venward thou hast got a glimpse of Christ, dost thou not seem 
to have been with Paul in the third heaven, whether in the body 
or out, and to have seen what is unutterable ; art thou not, 
with Peter, almost beyond thyself, ready to say, " Master, it is 
good to be here ?'' O that I might ever see what I now see ! 
Didst thou never look so long upon the Son of God, till thine 
eyes were dazzled with his astonishing glory ; and did not the 
splendour of it make all things below seem black and dark to 

' Brook's ' Union of the Soul and Truth.' In vita aeterna praecipuum et 
omnis hominis boiium summum est suavissima contemplatio, seu visio Dei, ut 
nobis paterne faveutis. Suave est intellip;ere favorem Uei paternum ; suavius 
eum amatum gustare; ethoc suavius, gustato acquiescere, et contentum esse: 
omnium vero suavissimuni. Scire nos iutellecto Dei favore perfrui, et semper 
fruituros esse. — 3fat. Martinius C'athoL Fid. 1. 3. c. 9. Beatorum foelicitas 
base erit, quod visuri sunt Deum, h. e. intellectus ipsorum quantum in crea- 
tum et finitum intellectum cadere potest, divinitatem plene et perfecte cognos- 
cet et coiuemplabitur. Voluntas autem ad Deum cognitum inclinabitur, in 
eoque tanquam summo bono tranquillissime; foelicissimoque amore acquies- 
cet. Corpora quoque beatorum suas gloriosas quasdam dotes accipient, &c. 
— Gear. Calutus 121 Efitom, Jlieo, p. 6(J. 


thee when thou lookedst down again, especially in tliy day of 
suffering for Christ, when he usually appears most manifestly to 
his people ? Didst thou never see one walking in the midst of 
the fiery furnace with thee, like to the Son of God ? If thou 
do know him, value him as thy life, and follow on to know him,' 
and thou shalt know incomparably more than this ; or, if I do 
but renew thy grief to tell thee what thou once didst feel, but 
now hast lost, I counsel thee to remember whence thou art 
fallen, and repent, and do the first works, and be watchful, and 
strengthen the things which remain ;" and I dare promise thee, 
because God hath promised, thou shalt see and know that which 
here thine eye could not see, nor thy understanding conceive. 
Believe me. Christians, yea, believe God, you that have known 
most of God in Christ here, it is as nothing to that you shall 
know; it scarcely, in comparison of that, deserves to be called 
knowledge. The difference betwixt our knowledge now and 
our knowledge then, will be as great as that between our fleshly 
bodies now and our spiritual, glorified bodies then ; for as these 
bodies, so that knowledge must cease, that a more perfect may 
succeed. Our silly, childish thoughts of God, which now is the 
highest we can reach to, must give place to a more manly 
knowledge. All this saith the apostle, " Knowledge shall vanish 
away ; for we know in part, &c. But when that which is per- 
fect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. 
When I was a child, I spake as a child, 1 thought as a child, I 
understood as a child, but when I became a man I put away 
childish things ; for now we see through a glass darkly, but then 
face to face : now I know in part, but then I shall know even 
as also I am known.^' (1 Cor. xiii. S — 12).) 

Marvel not, therefore, Christian, at the sense of that place 
of John xvii. 3, ^ how it can be life eternal to know God and 
his Son Jesus Christ : you must needs know, that to enjoy God 

' Hos. vi. 2, 3. » Rev. ii. 5, and iii. 2. 

^ Scoti glossa est vera, viz. ut cognoscant te amando et fruendo. Vid. Sco- 
tum ill 4 senten. distinct. 48. q. 1. p. 256. Vita sterna est cognoscere : vivere 
est motus deiectabilissimus, qui iion est sine amore. Delectatio eiiiiu est 
opus amoris, unde in vit^ aeterna est cognitio quae amor. Intellectus enini 
quodam naturalissimo amore scire desiderat. Et hoc desiderium est quod in 
se gestat veritatem. Et qui scire desiderat, veritateni scire desiderat. Scire 
igitur hoc desiderium, est apprehendere desideratum in desiderio. Unde qui 
concipit Deum esse charitatem, et fiiiem desiderii, scilicet bonitatem, ille 
videtquomodo in apprehensione charitatissatiatur desiderium anirnae,— Crtr</. 
Causanus,\Exercitat. 1. 10, fol. (raihi) 184. 

60 THE saint's 

and his Christ is eternal life, and the soul's enjoying is in know- 
ing. They that savour only of earth, and consult with flesh, and 
have no way to try and judge hut by sense, and never were ac- 
quainted with this knowledge of God, nor tasted how gracious 
he is, these think it is a poor happiness to know God : let them 
have health and wealth, and worldly delights, and take you the 
other. Alas, poor men, they that have made trial of both do 
not grudge you your delights, nor envy your happiness, but pity 
your undoing folly, and wish O that you could come near, and 
taste and try as they have done, and then judge ; then continue 
in your former mind if you can ! For our parts, we say with 
that knowing apostle, though the speech may seem presumptu- 
ous, "We know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth 
in wickedness ; and we know that the Son of God is come, and 
hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is 
true ; and we are in him that is true, in his Son Jesus Christ : 
this is the true God, and eternal Life." (1 John v. 19, 20.) 
Here one verse contains the sum of most that I have said. The 
Son of God is come to be our Head and Fountain of life, and so 
liath given us an understanding, that the soul maybe personally 
qualified and made capable to know him (God) that is true, 
the prime Truth; and we are brought so near in this enjoyment 
that we are in him that is true, not properly by an essential or 
personal union, but we are in him by being in his Son Jesus 
Christ. This, that we have mentioned, is the only true God, and 
so the fittest object for our understanding, which chooseth 
truth ; and this knowing of him, and being in him, in Christ, is 
eternal life. 

Sect. VII. And, doubtless, the memory will not be idle or useless 
in this blessed work, if it be but by looking back to help the soul 
to value its employment. Our knowledge will be enlarged, not 
diminished ; therefore, the knowledge of things past shall not be 
taken away : and what is that knowledge, but remembrance ? 
Doubtless, from that height, the saint can look behind him and 
before him ; and to comiKire past with present things, must 
needs raise, in the blessed soul, an inconceivable esteem and 
sense of its condition. To stand on that mount, whence we can 
see the wilderness and Canaan both at once ; to stand in heaven, 
and look back on earth, and weigh them together in the balance 
of a comparing sense and judgment, how must it needs trans- 
port the soul, and make it cry out. Is this the purchase that 
cost so dear as the blood of God ? No wonder : O blessed 


price, and thrice blessed love, that invented and condescended 1 
Is this the end of believing; is this the end of the Spirit's work- 
ings ? Have the gales of grace blown me into such a harbour : 
is it hither that Christ hath enticed my soul ? O blessed way, 
and thrice blessed end ! Is this the glory which the Scriptures 
spoke of, and ministers preached of so much ? Why, now I see 
the Gospel indeed is good tidings, even tidings of peace and 
good things ; tidings of great joy to all nations^ Is my mourn- 
ing, my fasting, my sad humblings, my heavy walking, groan- 
ings, complainings, come to this ; are all my afflictions, sickness, 
languishing, troublesome physic, fears of death, come to this; 
are all Satan's temptations, the world's scorns and jeers, come 
to this ; and, now, if there be such a thing as indignatioti left, 
how will it here let fly ! O vile nature, that resisted so much, 
and so long such a blessing : unworthy soul ! Is this the place 
thou camest so unwillingly towards : was duty wearisome ; was 
the world too good to lose ? Didst thou stick at leaving aP, 
denying all, and suffering any thing for this : wast thou loath to 
die to come to this ? O false heart, that had almost betrayed 
me to eternal flames, and lost me this glory 1 O base flesh, that 
would needs have been pleased, though to the loss of this feli- 
city ! Didst thou make me to question the truth of this gloiy ; 
didst thou show me improbabilities, and draw me to distrust the 
Lord ; didst thou question the truth of that scripture which 
promised this ? Why, my soul, art thou not now ashamed that 
ever thou didst question that love that hath brought thee hither ; 
that thou wast jealous of the faithfulness of thy Lord ; that thou 
suspectedst his love when thou shouldest only have suspected 
thyself; that thou didst not live continually transported with 
thy Saviour's love ; and that, ever, thou quenchedst a motion 
of his Spirit ? Art thou not ashamed of all thy hard thoughts 
of such a God ; of all thy misinterpreting of, and grudging at, 
those providences, and repining at those ways that have such an 
end ? Now, thou art sufficiently convinced that the ways thou 
calledst hard, and the cup thou calledst bitter, were necessary ; 
that thy Lord hath sweeter ends, and meant thee better than 
thou wouldst believe ; and that thy Redeemer was saving thee, 
as well when he crossed thy desires as when he granted them, 
and as well when he broke thy heart as when he bound it up, 
O, no thanks to thee, unworthy self, but shame, for this received 
crown ; but to Jehovah and tlie Lamb be glory for ever, 
y Luke i. 19, aud ii. 10 ; Acts xiii. 32. 


Thus, as the memory of the wicked will eternally promote 
their torment, to look back on the pleasures enjoyed, the sin 
committed, the grace refused, Christ neglected, and time lost ; 
so will the memory of the saints for ever promote their joys. 
And as it is said to the wicked, " Remember that thou in thy 
lifetime receivedst thy good things ; " so will it be said to the 
Christian, " Remember that thou in thy life time receivedst thine 
evils ; but now thou art comforted, and they are tormented." ^ 
And as here the remembrance of former good is the occasion of 
increasing our grief, " I remembered God, and was troubled ; 
I called to remembrance my songs in the night ;" (Psal. Ixxvii. 
3, 6 ;) so there the remembrance of our former sorrows adds 
life to our joys. 

Sect. VIII. But O the full, the near, the sweet enjoyment is 
that of the affections, love, and joy ; it is near ! for love is of the 
essence of the soul, and love is the essence of God : " for God 
is love." How near, therefore, is this blessed closure ! The 
Spirit's phrase is, " God is love, and he that dvvelleth in 
love dvvelleth in God, and God in him." (1 John iv. 8, 16.) 
The acting of this affection, wheresoever, carrieth much delight 
along with it, especially when the object appears deserving, and 
the affection is strong ; but oh ! what will it be when perfect 
affections shall have the strongest, perfect, incessant acting upon 
the most perfect object, the ever-blessed God ! Now the poor 
soul complains, O that I could love Christ more ! but I cannot : 
alas ! I cannot ; yea, but then thou canst not choose but love him : 
1 had almost said, forbear if thou canst. Now, thou knowest 
little of his amiableness, and therefore lovest little ; then thine 
eye will affect thy heart, and the continual viewing of that per- 
fect beauty will keep thee in continual ravishments of love. 
Now thy salvation is not perfected, nor all the mercies pur- 
chased, yet given in ; but when the top-stone is set on, thou 
shalt, with shouting, cry 'Grace, grace ! ' Now thy sanctification 
is imperfect, and thy pardon and " justification not so complete 
as then it ^ shall be j now thou knowest not what thou enjoyest, 

^ Luke xvi. 25. 

" I know it is commonly said that justification hath no degree?, but vet i* 
is taken for several acts, whereof that of Christ absolving and acquittin"- us 
at the last judgment, is the most complete justification, as Mr. Burgess, in 
his last lectures on justification, affirraeth. 

'' Creaturae rationalis alia beatitude nee potuit, nee potest esse, nee poterit ; 
nisi ut agnoscens A quo non solum facta, xed etiam a quo rationalis facta, 
majorem dilectionem exhibeat bono Creatori, quam sibi, Neque ei esse pos- 


and therefore lovest the less : but when thou knovvest much Is 
forgiven, and much bestowed, thou wilt love more. Doth David, 
after an imperfect deliverance, sing forth his love : " I love the 
Lord, because he hath heard my voice and supplications ? " 
(Psal. cxvi. 1.) What think you will he do eternally; and 
how will he love the Lord, who hath lifted him up to that glory ? 
Doth he cry out, "O how I love thy law 1 " (Psal. cxix. 97.) 
"My delight is in the saints on earth, and the excellent." 
(Psal. xvi. 3.) How will he say, then, 'O how I love the 
Lord, and the King of saints, in whom is all my delight I ' 
Christians, doth it now stir up your love, to remember all the 
experiences of his love ; to look back upon a life of mercies ? 
doth not kindness melt you, and the sunshine of divine goodness 
warm your frozen hearts ? What will it do, then, when you 
shall live in love, and have all in him, who is All ? O the high 
delights of love, of this love ; the content that the heart findeth 
in it ; the satisfaction it brings along with it I Surely, love is 
both work and wages. 

And if this were all, what a high favour, that God will give us 
leave to love him ; that he will vouchsafe to be embraced by 
such arms, that have embraced lust and sin before him ! but this 
is not all.*= He returneth love for love ; nay, a thousand times 
more : as perfect as we shall be, we cannot reach his measure 
of love; Christian, thou wilt be then brimful of love; yet 
love as much as thou canst, thou shalt be ten thousand times 
more beloved.'^ Dost thou think thou canst overlove him ? 
What, love more than love itself ! were the arms of the Son of 
God open upon the cross, and an open passage made to his 
heart by the spear, and will not arms and heart be open to thee 
in glory ; did he begin to love before thou lovedst, and will not 

sit, uUa'enus ratio, nisi ei possit Creatoris inesse dilectio. Quia nee est alia 
quae vera sit sapientia, vel intelligeiitia creaturae rationalis, nisi dilectio 
Creatoris; inquatanto inagis minusve est dilectio sui, quanto niagis miuusve 
dilectionem exhibet Creatori. — Fulg. lib., 1. ad Monini. c. 18. 

" Dum Deum sibi sufficere cogjitas, quid aliud cogitas nisi Deum amare in 
sequicquid amat aliud a se ? et rationem amandi res,non esse earum, sed sui 
ipsius bonitatem, Amabit aliquid extra se : et pereg-rinabitur loiigius a se si 
amorem ejus excitari conce&seris ab eo quod externum illi est. Amat ea quae 
sunt extra se, sed amat ea in se : qui seipso contentus nunquam commoratur, 
nunquam peregrinatur extra se. — Gibieuf. lib. 2. c. xxvii. p. 4b3. s. 7. 

^ John xi. 33, 35, 36 ; Cant. i. 5 ; v. 2 ; vj. 9, and iv. 9, 10, &c. Ibi nee 
minor erit laudatione nostra dilectio, nee inferior dilectione laudatio ; erit 
enim plena nostra laudatio, quia tune in nobis erit Dei proximique perfecta 
dilectio. Tunc laudabimus et habebimus ; tune hahebimus et amabimus; 
tune satiabimur cum delectatione, et delectabimur cum satietate.— i'M/g«/<, 
Epist. iv, ad Prob. c. 7, 8. 

64 THE saint's 

he continue now : did he love thee, an enemy ; thee, a sinner ; 
thee, who even loathedst thyself: and own thee when thou 
didst disclaim thyself; and will he not now immeasurably love 
thee, a son ; thee, a perfect saint ; thee, who returnest some 
love for love : thou wast wont injuriously to question his love; 
doubt of it now if thou canst. As the pains of hell will con- 
vince the rebellious sinner of God's wrath, who would never 
before believe it ; so the joys of heaven will convince thee 
thoroughly of that love which thou wouldst so hardly be per- 
suaded of. He that in love wept over the old Jerusalem near 
her ruins; with what love will he rejoice over the New Jerusa- 
lem in her glory ? O, methinks 1 see him groaning and weeping 
over dead Lazarus, till he forced the Jews that stood by to say, 
" Behold how he loved him ! " Will he not then much more, 
by rejoicing over us, make all (even the damned if they see it) 
to say. Behold how he loveth them ? Is his spouse, while black, 
yet comely : is she his love, his dove, his undefiled ; doth she 
ravish his heart with one of her eyes ; is her love better than 
wine ? O, believing soul, study a little, and tell me, what is the 
harvest which these tirst-fruits foretell ; and the love which 
these are but the earnest of ? Here ! O here is the heaven of 
heaven ! this is the saint's fruition of God ; in these sweet, 
mutual, constant actings and embracements of love, doth it 
consist. To love, and be beloved : "These are the everlasting 
arms that are underneath." (Deut. xxxiii. 27.) " His left hand 
is under their heads, and with his right hand doth he embrace 
them." (Cant. ii. G.) Reader, stop here, and think awhile what 
a state this is. Is it a small thing in thine eyes to be beloved 
of God ; to be the son, the spouse, the love, the delight of the 
King of glory? Christian, believe this, and think on it; thou 
shalt be eternally embraced in the arms of that love, which 
was from everlasting, and will extend to everlasting : of that 
love, which brought the Son of God's love from heaven to earth, 
from earth to the cross, from the cross to the grave, from the 
grave to glory : that love, which was weary, hungry, tempted, 
scorned, scourged, buffeted, spit upon, crucified, pierced; which 
did fast, pray, teach, heal, weep, sweat, bleed, die : that love 
will eternally embrace them. When perfect, created love, and 
most perfect, uncreated love meet together, O the blessed meet- 
ing ! It will not be like Joseph and his brethren, who lay upon 
one another's necks weeping ; it will break forth into a pure 
joy, and not such a mixture of joy and sorrow as their weeping 


argued ; it will be loving and rejoicing, not loving and sorrow- 
ing: yet will it make Pharaoh's (Satan's) court to ring with 
the news, that Joseph's bretluen are come ; tliat the saints are 
arrived safe at the bosom of Christ, out of the reach of hell for 
ever. Neither is there any such love as David's and Jonathan's; 
shutting-iip in sorrows, and breathing out its last into sad la- 
mentations for a forced sej)aration : no, Christ is the powerful, 
attractive, the effectual Loadstone, who draws to it all like itself. 
" All that the Father hath given him, shall come unto him ; 
even the lover, as well as the love, doth he draw ; and they that 
come unto him, he will in nowise cast out." (John vi. 37 — 39.) 
For know this, believer, to thy everlasting comfort, that if these 
arms have once embraced thee, neither sin nor hell can get 
thee thence for ever r*^ the sanctuary is inviolable, and the rock 
impregnable, whither thou art fled, and thou art safely locked up 
to all eternity. Thou hast not now to deal with an inconstant 
creature, but with him, with whom is no varying nor shadow of 
change, even the immutable God. If thy happiness were in 
thine own hand, as Adam's, there were yet fear ; but it is in 
the keeping of a faithful Creator* Christ hath not bought 
thee so dear, to trust thee with thyself any more. His love to 
thee will not be as thine was on earth to him, seldom and cold, 
up and down, mixed, (as agueish bodies,) with burning and 
quaking, with a good day and a bad : no. Christian, he that would 
not be discouraged bv thine enmitv, by thy loathsome, hate- 
ful nature, by all thy unwillingness, unkind neglects, and churlish 
resistances ; he that would neither cease nor abate his love for 
all these, can he cease to love thee, when he hath made thee 
truly lovely ? He that keepeth thee so constant in thy k)ve to 
him, that thou canst challenge '' tribulation, distress, persecu- 
tion, famine, nakedness, peril, or sword, to separate thy love 
from Christ if they can.'"' (Rom. viii. 35.) How much more 
will himself be constant ! Indeed, he that produced these 
nmtual, embracing affections, will also produce such a mutual 
constancy in both, that thou mayest confidently be persuaded, 
as Paul was before thee, " that neither death, nor life, nor 
angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor 
things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, 
shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in 

" Prima erat perseverantiffi potestas, Bonum posse iion tleserere. Novissima 
erit fcelicitas perbevcrautia", Bonum non posse deserere. — Jus', de Corr. et 
Grat, cap. 9. 


66 THE saint's 

Christ Jesus our Lord." (Rom. viii. 38, 39.) And now are we 
not left in the apostles' admiration ? What shall we say to these 
things ? Infinite love must needs be a mystery to a finite capa- 
city. No wonder if angels desire to pry into this mystery -J 
and if it be the study of the saints here, to know the height, 
and breadth, and length, and depth, of this love, though it 
passeth knowledge : this is the saint's rest in the fruition of 
God by love. 

Sect. X. Lastly : The affection of joy hath not the least share 
in this fruition. It is that which all the rest lead to, and con- 
clude in ; even the inconceivable complacency which the blessed 
feel in their seeing, knowing, loving, and being beloved of God. 
The delight of the senses here, cannot be known by expressions, 
as they are felt ; how much less this joy ! This is the "white 
stone, which none knoweth but he that receiveth ;" ^ and if 
there be any "joy which the stranger meddleth not with,' 
then surely this, above all, is it. All Christ's ways of mercy tend 
to and end in the saints' joys. He wept, sorrowed, suffered, 
that they might rejoice ; he sendeth the Spirit to be their com- 
forter; be multiplieth promises, he discovers their future hap- 
piness; that their "joy may be full :" he aboundeth to them 
in the mercies of all sorts ; he maketh them lie down in green 
pastures, and leadeth them by the still waters ; yea, openeth to 
them the fountain of living waters ; that their joy may be full : 
that they may thirst no more ; and that it may spring up in 
them to everlasting life.^ Yea, he causeth them to suffer, that 
he may cause them to rejoice ; and chasteneth them, that he 
may give them rest; and maketh them, as he did himself, " to 
drink of the brook in the way, that they may lift up the head," 
(Psal. ex. 70 And lest, after all this, they should neglect their 
own comforts, he maketh it their duty, and presseth it on them, 
commanding them to " rejoice in him always, and again to re- 
joice." And he never brings them into so low a condition, 
wherein he leaves them not more cause of joy than of sorrow. 
And hath the Lord such a care of our comfort here ; where, 
the Bridegroom being from us. we must mourn?' Oh ! what 
will that joy be, where the soul being perfectly pr-epared for joy^ 

f 1 Pet. i. 12; Eph. iii. 18. 
e Rev. ii. 17 ; Prov. xiv. 10. 

''John XV. 11; xvi. 24, and xvii. 13; Psal. xciv. 12, 13; 1 Thess, v. 16; 
Psal. xxxii. 11, and xxxiii, 1, &c. 
' Matt. ix. 15. 


and joy prepared by Christ for the soul, it shall be our work, 
our business, eternally to rejoice ! And it seems the saints' joy 
shall be greater than the damned's torment ; for their torment 
is the torment of creatures, prepared for the devil and his 
angels :^ but our joy is the joy of our Lord ; even our Lord's 
ou'n joy shall we enter: " and the same glory which the Father 
giveth him, doth the Son give to them;" (John xvii. 22;) " and 
to sit with him in his throne, even as he is set down in his 
Father's throne." (Rev. iii. 21.) What sayest thou to all this, 
O thou sad and drooping soul ? Thou that now spendest thy 
days in sorrow, and thy breath in sighings, and turnest all thy 
voice into groanings : who knowest no garments but sackcloth, 
no food but the bread and water of affliction ; who minglest thy 
bread with tears, and drinkest the tears which thou weepest ; 
what sayest thou to this great change ; from all sorrow to more 
than all joy ? Thou poor soul, who prayest for joy, waitest for 
joy, complainest for want of joy, longest for joy ; why, then, 
thou shalt have full joy, as much as thou canst hold, and more 
than ever thou thoughtest on, or thy heart desired. And, in 
the meantime, walk carefully, watch constantly, and then let 
God measure out thy times and degrees of joy. It may be he 
keeps them till thou have more need : thou mayest better lose 
thy comfort than thy safety ; if thou shouldst die full of fears 
and sorrows, it will be but a moment, and they are all gone, and 
conclude in joy inconceivable. As the joy of the hypocrite, so 
the fears of the upright are but for a moment. And as their 
hopes are but golden dreams, which when death awakes, do then 
all perish, and their hopes die with them ; so the saints' doubts 
and fears are but terrible dreams, which, when they die, do all 
vanish ; and they awake in joyful glory. For " God's anger 
endureth but a moment, but in his favour is life : weeping may 
endure for a night, darkness and sadness go together, but joy 
Cometh in the morning." (Psal. xxx. 5.) O blessed morning, 
thrice blessed morning 1 poor, humble, drooping soul, how 
would it fill thee with joy now, if a voice from heaven should tell 
thee of the love of God ; of the pardon of thy sins ; and should 
assure thee of thy part in these joys ? O, what then will thy 
joys be, when thy actual possession shall convince thee of thy 
title, and thou shalt be in heaven before thoa art well aware ; 
when the angels shall bring thee to Christ, and when Christ 

^ Matt. XXV. 


6S THE saint's 

shall, as it were, take thee by the hand, and lead thee into thy 
purchased possession, and bid thee welcome to thy rest, and 
present thee inispotted before his Father, and give thee thy 
place about his throne ! Poor sinner, what sayest thou to such 
a day as this ? wilt thou not be almost ready to draw back, and 
to say, What I, Lord, I, the unworthy neglecter of thy grace ! 
I, the unworthy disesteemer of thy blood, and slighter of thy 
love ! must I have this glory? "Make me a hired servant, I 
am no more worthy to be called a son :" but love will have it 
so ; therefore must thou enter into his jov. 

Sect. XI. And it is not thy jov only ; it is a mutual joy as well 
as a mutual love : is there such joy in heaven at thy conversion, 
and will there be none at thy glorification : will not the angels 
welcome thee thither, and congratulate thy safe arrival? yea, it is 
the joy of Jesus Christ ; for now he hath the end of his under- 
taking, labour, suffering, dying, when we have our joys ; when 
he is " glorified in his saints, and admired in all them that be- 
lieve."^ We are his seed, and the fruit of his soul's travail, 
which, when he seeth, he will be satisfied. (Isa. liii. 10, 11.) This 
is Christ's harvest, when he shall reap the fruit of his labours ; 
and when he seeth it was not in vain, it will not repent him 
concerning his sufferings; but he will rejoice over his purchased 
inheritance, and his people shall rejoice in him. 

Yea, the Father himself puts on joy, too, in our joy : as 
we grieve his Spirit, and weary him with our iniquities, so he is 
rejoiced in our good ™ O how quickly here he doth espy a return- 
ing prodigal, even afar off: how doth he run and meet him ; 
and with what compassion falls he on his neck, and kisseth 
him ; and puts on him the best robe, and a ring on his hand, 
and shoes on his feet, and spares not to kill the fatted calf, 
that they may eat and be merry ! this is indeed a happy meet- 
ing ; but nothing to the embracements and the joy of that last 
and great meeting. 

Yea, more yet ; as God doth mutually love and joy, so he 
makes this his rest, as it is our rest. Did he appoint a Sabbath, 

1 2 Thess. i. 10. 

™ Quomodo passiones non esse in Deo, et tamen delectationem, paudium et 
amorem esse in Deo scholastic! asserunt. Vid. in Aquin. cont. Gentil. I. 1, 
q. 90 — 92, et sum. 1, &c. Sed lia;c nobis incoinprehensibilia et incog;nita ex- 
istimo. Nam ut Aristot. in 2 Metapb. asserit, •' Intellectns noster sic se 
habet ad prima entium qnse sunt manifestissima in natura, sicut oculus ves- 
pertilionis ad solenj." Referente Tiioma. cout. Gemil. 1. i. c. 3. ubi plura 
de hac re videre est. 


because he rested from six clays' work, and saw all good, and 
very good ? What an eternal sabbatism, then, when the work of 
redemption, sanetification, preservation, glorification, are all 
finished, and his work more perfect than ever, and very good 
indeed ! So the Lord is said to rejoice, and to take pleasure in 
his people. (Psalm cxlvii. 11, and cxlix. 4.) O, Christians, 
write these words in letters of gold ; " The Lord thy God in 
the midst of thee, is mighty : he will save : he will rejoice over 
thee with joy : lie will rest in his love : he will joy over thee 
with singing." (Zeph. iii. 17-) O, well may we then rejoice in 
our God with joy, and rest in our love, and joy in him with 
singing. (See Isa. Ixv. IS, 19.) 

And now look back upon all this ; I say to thee, as the angel 
to John, "What hast thou seen ? " or if yet thou perceive not, 
draw nearer, come up higher, come and see : dost thou fear 
thou hast been all this while in a dream ? Why, these are the 
true sayings of God. Dost thou fear, as the disciples, that thou 
hast seen but a ghost, instead of Christ;" a shadow instead of 
rest ? W^hv, come near and feel : a shadow contains not those 
substantial blessings, nor rests upon the basis of such a founda- 
tion truth, and sure word of promise, as you have seen these do. 
Go thy way now, and tell the disciples, and tell the humble, 
drooping souls thou meetest with, that thou hast, in this glass, 
seen heaven ; that the Lord indeed is risen, and hath here ap- 
peared to thee ; and behold he is gone before us into rest ; and 
that he is novv' preparing a place for them, and will come again, 
and take them to himself, that where he is, there they may be 
also. (John xiv. 3.) Yea, go thy ways, and tell the unbelieving 
world, and tell thy unbelieving heart, if they ask what is the 
hope thou boastest of, and what will be thy rest. Why, this is 
my beloved, and my friend, and this is my hope and my rest. 
Call them forth, and say, " Behold what love the Father hath 
bestowed upon us, that we should be the sons of God;" (1 
John iii. 1 ;) and that we should enter into our Lord's own rest. 

Sect. XII. But, alas ! my fearful heart dare scarce proceed : 
methinks I hear the Almighty's voice saying to me, as to Elihu, 
" Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without know- 
ledge ? " (Job xxxviii. 2.) 

But pardon, O Lord, thy servant's sin : I have not pried into 
unrevealed things, nor, with audacious wits, curiously searched 
into thy counsels ; but, indeed, I have dishonoured thy holiness, 

" Luke xxiv. 37 — 39 ; Mark xvi. 7, 

70 THE saint's 

wronged thine excellency, disgraced thy saints' glory, hy my 
own exceeding, disproportionable portraying. I will bewail, 
from my heart, that my conceivings fall so short, my apprehen- 
sions are so dull, my thoughts so mean, my affections so stupid, 
and my expressions so low and unbeseeming such a glory. But 
I have only heard by the hearing of the ear : O let thy servant 
see thee, and possess these joys ; and then I shall have more 
suitable conceivings, and shall give thee fuller glorv, and abhor 
my present self, and disclaim and renounce all these imperfec- 
tions. " I have now uttered that I understood not ; things too 
wonderful for me, which I knew not. Yet I believed, and there- 
fore spake." (Job xlii. 3.) Remember with whom thou hast 
to do : what canst thou expect from dust, but levity ; or from 
corruption, but defilement ? Our foul hands will leave, where 
they touch, the marks of their uncleanness ; and most on those 
things that are most pure. " I know thou wilt be sanctified in 
them that come nigh thee, and before all the people thou wilt 
be glorified." (Lev. x. 2, 3 ; Numb. xx. 12; Deut. xxxii. 51.) 
And if thy jealousy excluded from that land of rest, thy servants, 
JMoses and Aaron, because they sanctified thee not in the midst 
of Israel, what then may I expect ? But, though the weakness 
and irreverence be the fruit of my own corruption, yet the fire 
is from thine altar, and the work of thv commanding. I looked 
not into thine ark, nor put forth my hand unto it without thee. 
O, therefore, wash away these stains also in the blood of the 
LamI) : and let not jealousy burn us up ; lest thou affright the 
people away from thee, and make them, in their discouragement, 
to cry out, " How shall the ark of God come to us ? Who is able 
to stand before this holy Lord God ? Who shall approach and 
dwell with the consuming fire ? " (2 Sam. vi. 9 ; 1 Sam. vi. 20; 
Matt. xxvi. 14.) Imperfect, or none, must be thy service here. 
Oh ! take thy Son's excuse, " The spirit is willing, but the flesh 
is weak." 


Tliefour great Preparatives to our Rest. 

Sect. I. Having thus opened you a window toward the 
temple, and showed you a small glimpse of the back parts of 
that resemblance of the saint's rest which I had seen in the 
Gospel-glass, it follows, that we proceed to view a little the 


adjuncts and blessed properties of this rest ; but, alas ! this 
little which I have seen makes me cry out, with the prophet 
Isaiah, (chap. vi. 5 — 7,) "Wo is me, for 1 am undone, because 
I am a man of unclean lips, and dwell in the midst of a people 
of unclean lips ; for mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of 
Hosts ! " Yet, if he will send and touch my lips with a coal from 
the altar of his Son, and say. Thine iniquity is taken away, and 
thy sin purged, I shall then speak boldly; and if he ask, Whom 
shall I send, 1 shall gladly answer, "Here am I, send me." (Ver. 
8.) And why dotli my trembling heart draw back ? Surely, 
the Lord is not now so terrible and inaccessible, nor the passage 
of paradise so blocked up, as when the law and curse reigned. 
Wherefore, finding, beloved Christians, " that the new and 
living way is consecrated for us, through the veil, the flesh of 
Christ, by which we may with boldness enter into the holiest, 
by the blood of Jesus, 1 shall draw near with the fuller assur- 
ance." (Heb. X. 20—22.) And finding the flaming sword 
removed, shall look again into the paradise of our God : and 
because I know that this is not forbidden fruit, and, withal, that 
it is good for food, and pleasant to the spiritual eyes, and a tree 
to be desired to make one truly wise and happy, (Gen. iii. 6,) 
I shall take, through the assistance of the Spirit, and eat thereof 
myself, and give to you, according to my power, that you may 
eat. For you. Christians, is this food prepared, this wine 
broached, this fountain opened ; and the message my Master 
sends you is this hearty welcome, which vou shall have in his 
own words, " Eat, O friends ; drink, yea, drink abundantly, O 
beloved." (Can. v. I.) And, surely, it is neither manners nor 
wisdom for you or me, to draw back or to demur upon such an 

And, first, let us consider of the eminent antecedents, the 
great preparations ; that notable introduction to this rest ; for 
the porch of this temple is exceeding glorious, and the gate of 
it is called beautiful : and here offer themselves to this distinct 
observation, these four things, as the four corners of this porch. 

1. The most glorious coming and appearing of the Son of God. 

2. His powerful and wonderful raising of our bodies from the 
dust, and uniting them again with the soul. 

3. His public and solemn proceedings in their judgment, 
where they shall be justified and acquitted before all the world. 

4. His solemn celebration of their coronation, and his en- 
thronizing of them in their glory. Follow but this fourfold 

7? THE saint's 

stream unto the head, and it will bring you just to the garden 
of Eden. 

Sect. I. And well may the coming of Christ be reckoned 
into his people's glory, and enumerated with those ingredients 
that compound this precious antidote of rest : for to this end it 
is intended ; and to this end it is of apparent necessity. For 
his people's sake he sanctihed himself to his office : for their sake 
he came into the world, suffered, died, rose, ascended: and for 
their sake it is that he will return. Whether his own exaltation, 
or theirs, were his" primary intention, is a question, tliough of 
seeming usefulness, yet, so unresolved, for aught I have found, 
in Scripture, that f dare not scan it, for fear of pressing into the 
divine secrets, and approaching too near the inaccessible light. 
I find Scripture mentioning both ends distinctly and conjunctly, 
but not comparatively. This is most clear, that to tbis end will 
Christ come again to receive his people to himself, " that where 
he is, they may be also." (John xiv. 3.) The Bridegroom's de- 
parture was not upon divorce ; he did not leave us with a pur- 
pose to return no more : he hath left pledges enough to assure 
us; we have his word in pawn, his many promises, his sacra- 
ments, which show forth his death till he come, and bis S])irit to 
direct, sanctify, and comfort, till he return. We have frequent 
tokens of love from him, to show us he forgets not his purpose, 
nor us. We behold the forerunners of his coming, foretold by 
himself, daily come to pass. W^e see the fig-tree put forth her 
branches, and therefore know the summer is nigh. We see 
the fields white unto harvest : and though the riotous world 
say, " Our Lord will be long a-coming," yet let the saints lift up 
their heads, for their redemption draweth nigh. Alas ! fellow- 
Christians, what should we do, if our Lord should not return Ii' 
What a case are we here left in ! What ! leave us among 
wolves, and in the lion's den, among a generation of serpents, 
and here forget us ! Did he buy us so dear, and then cast us 
off so : to leave us sinning, suffering, groaning, dying daily, 
and come no more to us ? It cannot be ; never fear it : it can- 
not be. This is like our unkind dealing with Christ, who, when 
we feel ourselves warm in the world, care not for coming at 
him ; but this is not like Christ's dealing with us. He that 

" Of the iiiau Clirist, i;e\t the glory of the Godhead. Rom. xiv. 9; 2 
Thess. i. 10 ; Tit. ii. 14. 

i> Matt. xxiv. 32, 48, and x. 16; Psal. Ivii. 4 ; Matt. iii. 7, The ancient 
Christians siill worshipped in the churches with their faces eastward, to 


would come to suffer, will surely come to triumph ; and he that 
would come to purchase, will surely come to possess. Alas ! 
where else were all our hopes ? What were hecome of our 
faith, our prayers, our tears, and our waiting ? What were all 
the patience of the saints worth to them ? Were we not left 
of all men most miserable ? Christians, hath Christ made 
us forsake all the world, and be forsaken of all the world; 
to hate all, and to be hated of all^ and all this for him, that we 
may have him instead of all ? And will he, think you, after all 
this, forget us, and forsake us himself? Far be such a thought 
from our hearts. But why stayed he not with his people, while 
he was here ? Why must not the Comforter be sent ? Was 
not the work all on earth done ? Must he not receive the recom- 
pense of reward, and enter into his glory ? Must he not take 
possession in our behalf? Must he not go to prepare a place 
for us ? Must he not intercede with the Father ; and plead his 
sufferings, and be filled with the Spirit, to send it forth ; and re- 
ceive authority, to subdue his enemies ? Our abode here is 
short ; if he had stayed on earth, what would it have been to 
enjoy him for a few days, and then die ? But he hath more in 
heaven to dwell among ; even the spirits of the just of many 
generations, there made perfect. Besides, he will have us live 
by faith, and not by sight. O fellow-Christians, what a day 
will that be, when we, who have been kept prisoners by sin, by 
sinners, by the grave, shall be fetched out by the Lord himself ; 
when Christ shall come from heaven to plead with his enemies, 
and set his captives free ! It will not be such a coming as his 
first was, in meanness, and poverty, and contempt : he will not 
come to be spit upon, and buffeted, and scorned, and crucified 
again : he will not come, O careless world, to be slighted and 
neglected by you any more. And yet that coming, which was 
necessarily in infirmity and reproach for our sakes, wanted not 
its glory. If the angels of heaven must be the messenger.^ of 
that coming, as being " tidings of joy to all people :"'" and the 
heavenly host must go before, or accompany the celebration of 
his nativitv, and must praise God with that solemnity, "Glory 
to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will towards 
men;" O, then, with what shoutings will angels and saints at 

signify their continual expectation of Christ's coniint^, wlio they thoLij;ht 
shouhl appear in the cast; from that of Matt. xx. 27; John xvi. 7, and 
xvii. 4 ; Heb. xii. 2; Luke xxiv. 26; Johnxiv. 3; Heb, vii. 25,26; Gal. iii, 
14 ; Eph. iv. 8, 9. 
r Luke ii. 22. 

74 THE saint's 

that day proclaim, " Glory to God, and peace and good will to- 
wards men !" If the stars of heaven must lead men from remote 
parts of the world to come to worship a child in a manger; how 
will the glory of his next appearing constrain all the world to 
acknowledge his sovereignty ? If the King of Israel, riding on an 
ass, made his entry into Jerusalem with hosannahs, "Blessed he 
the King that comes in the name of the Lord : peace in heaven, 
and glory in the highest ;"* O with what proclamations of bless- 
ings, peace/ and glory, will he come toward the New Jerusalem ! 
If, when he was in the form of a servant, they cry out, " What 
manner of man is this, that both wind and sea obey him ?"* what 
will they say when they shall see him coming in his glorv, and 
the heavens and the earth obey him ! " Then shall appear the 
sign of the Son of Man in heaven, and then shall all the tribes of 
the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man coming in 
the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory/'" O Christ- 
ians, it was comfortable to you to hear from him, to believe in 
him, and hope for him. What will it be to see him ? The pro- 
mise of his coming and our deliverance was comfortable. What 
will it be thus to see him, with all the glorious attendance of 
angels, come in person to deliver us }^ " The mighty God, the 
Lord hath spoken, and called the earth from the rising of 
the sun to the going down thereof. Out of Zion, the 
perfection of beauty, God hath shined. Our God shall come, 
and shall not keep silence ; a fire shall devour before him, and 
it shall be very tempestuous round about him. He shall call to 
the heavens from above, and to the earth, that he might judge 
his people. Gather my saints together to me, those that have 
made a covenant with me by sacrifice ; and the heavens shall 
declare his righteousness ; for God is Judge himself," Selah. 
(Psalm 1. 1 — 6.) This coming of Christ is frequently mentioned 

s Luke xix. 33. t Matt, viii. 27. 

" Mark iv. 41, and xxiv. 30. 

^ Sloicis constans opinio est quod consurapto liumore, niundus hie omiiis 
iguescet. Et Epicureis de elemeutorum conflagrationcj et raundi ruiua, 
eadem ipsa sententia est. Loquitur Plato partes orbis nunc inuudare, uuncr 
alteriiis vicibus ardescere. Et cum ipsuni niundum perpetuum et iusolubilem 
diceret esse fabricaturn ; addit tamen ipsi artifici Deo soli et solubilem esse 
et mortaiem. Ita nihil inirum est, si ista moles ab eo quo extructa est de- 
struatur. — Minut. Felix. Octii. p. (mihi) 394. Cum teuipus advenerit quo 
se mundus renovaturus, &c., omni flagrante materia uno igne, quicquid nunc 
ex disposito lucet ardebit. Nos quoque fcelices aniinae et aeterna sortitias, cum 
Deo visum erit iterum ista nioliri, &c. Foelicem filium tuum, Marcia, qui 
ista (mortuus) jam ijovit. — Senec. Consol, ad Marciam, 



in the prophets, as the great support of his people's spirits till 
then. And whenever the apostles would quicken to duty, or 
comfort, and encourage to patient waiting, they usually do it by 
mentioning Christ's coming. VV-'hy, then, do vve not use more 
this cordial consideration, whenever we want support and com- 
fort ? To think and speak of that day with horror, doth well 
beseem the impenitent sinner, but ill the helieving saint. Such 
may be the voice of a believer, but it is not the voice of faith. 
Christians, what do Ave believe, and hope, and wait for, but to 
see that day ! This is Paul's encouragement to moderation, to 
" rejoicing in the Lord alwavs; The Lord is at hand." (Phil. iv. 
4, 5.) It is " to all them that love his appearing, that the Lord, 
the righteous Judge, shall give the crown of righteousness at that 
day." (2 Tim. iv. 8.) Dost thou so long to have him come into 
thy soul with comfort and life, and takest thyself but for a for- 
lorn orphan, while he seemeth absent ? And dost thou not much 
more long for that coming which shall perfect thy life, and joy, 
and glory ? Dost thou so rejoice after some short and slender 
enjoyment of him in thy heart ? Oh ! how wilt thou then rejoice ! 
How full of joy was that blessed martyr, Mr. Glover, with the dis- 
covery of Christ to his soul, after long doubting and waiting in 
sorrows 1 So that he cries out, ' He is come ! he is come !' If 
thou have but a dear friend returned, that hath been far and long 
absent; how do all run out to meet him with joy ! Oh ! saith 
the child, 'My father is come !' saith the wife, 'My husband 
is come !' And shall not we, when we behold our Lord in his 
majesty returning, cry out, ' He is come ! He is come 1' Shall 
the wicked, with inconceivable horror, behold him, and^ cry out, 
Oh ! yonder is he whose blood we neglected, whose grace we re- 
sisted, whose counsels we refused, whose government we cast 
off ! And shall not then the saints, with inconceivable gladness, 
cry out, 'Oh ! yonder is he whose blood redeemed us, whose Spirit 
cleansed us, whose law did govern us ! Yonder comes he in 
whom vve trusted, and now we see he hath not deceived our 
trust ; he for whom we long waited, and now we see we have 
not waited in vain ! O cursed corruption, that would have had 
us turn to the world, and present things, and give up our hopes, 
and say, 'Why should we wait for the Lord any longer ?' Now 
we see, that " blessed are all they that wait for him." Believe it, 
fellow-Christians, this day is not far off. " For yet a little 

y That the sight of Christ in glory will be no blessedness to the damned, 
vid. Scoium in 4 Seiiten. Dist, xlviii. q, 1, p. 256. contra Thorn. 

76  THE saint's 

while, and he that comes will come, and will not tarry." And 
though the unbelieving world, and the unbelief of thy heart, 
may say, as those atheistical scoffers, " Where is the promise of 
his coming ? Do not all things continue as they were from the 
beginning of the creation ? " Yet, let us know, " the Lord is 
not slack of his promise, as some men count slackness: one day 
with him is as a thousand vears, and a thousand years as one 
day." (2 Pet. iii. 3, 4, 8, 9.) 1 have thought on it many a time, 
as a small emblem of that day, when I have seen a prevailing 
army drawing towards the towns and castles of the enemy. Oh 1 
with what glad liearts do all the poor prisoners within, hear the 
news, and behold their approach ! How do they run up to 
their prison windows, and thence behold their friends with joy ! 
How glad are they at the roaring report of that cannon, wliich 
is the enemy's terror ! How do they clap each other on the 
back, and cry, 'Deliverance, deliverance !' While, in the mean 
time, the late insulting, scorning, cruel enemies begin to speak 
them fair, and beg their favour ; but all in vain, for they are not 
at the disposal of prisoners, but of the general. Their fair usage 
may make their conditions somewhat the more easy, but yet they 
are used as enemies still. (Matt. xxiv. 27.) Oh ! when the con- 
quering lion of the tribe of Judah shall ajjpear with all the 
hosts of heaven : when he shall surprise the careless world, as 
a thief in the night; when as the lightning, which appeareth in 
the east, and shineth even to the west, so shall they behold him 
coming : what a change will the sight of this appearance 
work, both with the world, and with the saints ! Now, poor 
deluded world, where is your mirth and your jollity ? Now, 
where is your wealth and your glory ? W^here is that profane 
and careless heart, that slighted Christ and his Spirit, and with- 
stood all the offers of grace ? Now, where is that tongue that 
mocked the saints, and jeered the holy ways of God, and made 
merry with his people's imperfections, and their own slanders ? 
What ! was it not you ? Deny it if you can. Your heart con- 
demns you, and " God is greater than your heart, and will con- 
demn you much more." (1 John iii. 20, 21.) Even, when you 
say, " Peace and safety, then destruction cometh upon you, 
as travail upon a woman with child ; and you shall not escape." 
(1 Thess. V. 3.) Perhaps, if you had known just the day and hour 
when the Son of Man would have come, then you would have 
been found praying, or the like 5 but you should have watched, 
and been ready, because you know not the hour. But for that 


faithful and wise servant, whom his Lord wlien he comes shall 
find so doing ; " 0, blessed is that servant : verily I say unto 
vou (for Christ hath said it), he shall make him ruler over all 
his goods." (Matt. xxiv. 42 — 47.) " And when the chief Shep- 
herd shall appear, he shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth 
not away." (I Pet. v. 4.) O, how should it then be the character 
of a Christian, " to wait for the Son of God from heaven, whom 
he raised from the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the 
wrath to come!" (IThess. i. 10.) And with all faithful diligence, 
to prepare to meet our Lord with joy. And seeing his coming 
is on purpose "to be glorified in his saints, and admired in all 
them that believe," (2 Thess. i. 10,) O, what thought should 
glad our hearts more than the thought of that day ! A little 
while, indeed, we have not " seen him, but yet a little while, 
and we shall see him." (John xiv. 18.) For he hath said, "I 
will not leave you comfortless, but will come unto you." We 
were comfortless, should he not come. And while we daily 
gaze and look up to heaven after him, let us remember what the 
angel said, " This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into 
heaven, shall so come, in like manner, as ye have seen him go 
into heaven." (Acts i. 10.) While he is now out of sight, it is a 
sword to our souls, while they daily ask us, " Where is your 
God?" (Psal. xlii.) But then we shall be able to answer our 
enemies ; " See, O proud sinners, yonder is our Lord." O now. 
Christians, should we not put up that petition heartily, " Let 
thy kingdom come ; for the Spirit and the bride say, Come, 
And let every Christian that heareth and readeth, say, Come." 
and our Lord himself saith, " Surely I come quickly, amen; 
even so, come. Lord Jesus." (Rev. xxii. 17j 20.) 

Sect. n. The second stream that leadeth to paradise, is that 
great work of Jesus Christ, in raising our bodies from the dust, 
uniting them again unto the soul.^ A wonderful effect of infi- 

'■ Many heathens believe a resurrection, as Zoroaster, and Theopompus, 
and Plato. And the stoics' opii;ion was, that the world would he dissolved by 
fire or water, and all things brought to a better state, or to the first golden 
age again. Read Seneca, Natural. QuEest. 1. iii. c. 26 — 30. Utrumqne (dilu- 
vium et conflagratio) cum Deo visum est ordiri meliora, Vetera fiuiri : cap. 27. 
Omne ex iutegro animal generabitur; dabiturque terris homoinscius sceleruin 
et melioribus auspiciis natus : cap. 30. Optima et noxa carentia expectant 
nos, si ex hac aliquaudo fcEce in illud evademus sublime etexcelsum ; tran- 
quillitas animi et expulsis erroribus absoluta libertas. — Senec. Epist. 1. ii. 
Ep. 75. Aspice nunc ad ipsaquoque exempla divinjE potestalis : lux moritur 
in nocteni et tenebris usque quaque sepelitur. Funestatur mundi honor: 
omnis substantia deuigratur ; sordent, silent, stupent cuncta; ubique justi- 


nite power and love. Yea, wonderful indeed, saith unbelief, if 
it be true. What, saith the atheist and sadducee, shall all 
these scattered bones and dust become a man? A man drowned 
in the sea is eaten by fishes, and they by men again, and these 
men by worms ; what is become of the body of that first man ; 
shall it rise again? Thou fool (for so Paul calls thee), dost thou 
dispute against the power of the Almighty : wilt thou pose him 
with this sophistry : dost thou object difficulties to the in- 
finite strength ? Thou blind mole ; thou silly worm ; thou 
little piece of creeping, breathing clay ; thou dust ; thou no- 
thing: knowest thou who it is, whose power thou dost question ? 
If thou shouldst see him, thou wouldst presently die. If he 
should come and dispute his cause with thee, couldst thou bear 
it : or if thou shouldst hear his voice, couldst thou endure ? 
But come thy way, let me take thee by the hand, and do thou 
a little follow me; and let me, with reverence, as Elihu, plead 

tium est, quies rerura ; ita lux amissa lugetur. Et tamen rursus cum suo 
cultu, cum dote, cum sole, eadem et Integra, et tola universo orbi reviviscit, 
interficiens mortem suam noctem ; rescindens sepulturam suam, tenebras ; 
li£eres sibimet existeiis, dnuec nox reviviscal cum suo et ilia suggestu; redac- 
cenduntur euim et stellarum radii, quos matutina succensio extinxerat. Re- 
ducuntur et siderum absentia, quas temporalis distinctio exemerat. Redor- 
nantur et sj)ecula lunae, quae menstruus numerus adtriverat. Revolvuntur 
hyemes et aestates et verna, et autumna, cum suis viribus, moribus, fructi- 
bus. — Terlid. de Rtsur. c. xii. p. 409. Die mihi, philosophe, quid plena 
cognoscis ? putonon auderet te dicere quod parvulam vel miuimam creaturam. 
Scio quod iiou peifecte cognoscis minimum atomum in sole ; nee niininunn 
pulverem terrae : nee minimam guttam aqua. In omni namque corpusculo, 
infinitae figurse lineares, superficiales et corporales, diversse numero, quanti- 
tate, et qualitate, et specie continentur. Quare etiam correspondentur con- 
clusiones geometricae infinitae etiam sese ordiiiabiliter consequentes, ita quod 
posterior sciri non potest nisi per priorem. In omni quoque corpuscula infi- 
nitae species numerorum, et infinitae conclusiones. Arithuieticfe continentur, 
&c. Harum autem conclusionuni infinitarum demonstrative scibilium quod 
scis ? &c. — Bradwardin. de Cau^a Dei, 1. I.e. i. corol. 32. Mira ratio ! de 

fraudatrice, servatrix : ut reddat, intcrcipit : ut custodiat, perdit : ut iutegret, 
vitiat; ut etiam anipliet, prius decoquil. Siquidem uberiora et cultiora resti- 
tuit quam extermiuavit. Re ver^ fcenore, interitu, et injuria, usura, et lucro 
damno, semel dixerim universa conditio recidiva est. Quodcunque conve- 
ueris, fuit; quodcunque amiseris, niliil non iterum est; omnia in statum 
redeunt, quern abscesserint ; omnia incipiunt, cum desierint : Ideo finiuntur, 
ut fiant ; Nibil deperit nisi ad salutem. Tolus ijitur hie ordo revolubilis 
rerum, testatio est resurrectionis mortuorum. (Jperil)us earn praescripsit Deus, 
antequam Uteris. Praeuiisit tibi naturam magistram, submissurus et pro- 
phetiam, quo facilius credas prophetise, discipulus naturae ; quo statim ad- 
mittas cum audieris, quod ubique jam videris j nee dubites Deum carnis 
etiam resuscitatorem, quem omnium noris restitutorem. — Tertul. uhi supra. 
Read on further much of these excellent sayings there in him, which are so 
savoury to me, that I could not but take some of them. 


for God ; and for that power whereby I hope to arise. Seest 
thou this great, massy body of the earth : what beareth it, and 
upon what foundation doth it stand ? Seest thou this vast ocean 
of waters : what Hmits them, and why do they not overflow and 
drown the earth : whence is that constant ebbing and flowing 
,of her tides : wilt thou say from the moon, or other planets : 
and whence have they that power of effective influence ; must 
thou not come to a cause of causes, that can do all things ? 
And doth not reason require thee, to conceive of that cause as 
a perfect intelligence, and voluntary agent, and not such a blind 
worker and empty notion as that nothing is, which thou callest 
nature ? Look upward ; seest thou that glorious body of light, 
the sun : how many times bigger it is than all the earth ; and 
yet how many thousand miles doth it run in one minute of an 
hour, and that without weariness, or failing a moment ? What 
thinkest thou ; is not that power able to effect thy resurrection, 
which doth all this : dost thou not see as great works as a re- 
surrection every day before thine eyes, but that the common- 
ness makes thee not admire them ? Read but Job, xxxvii. 
to xli., and take heed of disputing against God again, or 
ever. Knowest thou not, that with him all things are pos- 
sible ; can he make a camel go through the eye of a needle ; 
can he make such a blind sinner as thou to see, and such a 
proud heart as thine to stoop, and such an earthly mind as 
thine, heavenly ; and subdue all that thy fleshly, foolish wisdom ? 
And is not this as great a work, as to raise thee from the dust, 
wast thou any more unlikely to be, when thou wast nothing, than 
thou shalt be when thou art dust : is it not as easy to raise the 
dead, as to make heaven and earth, and all of nothing ? But if 
thou be unpersuadable, all I say to thee more is, as the prophet 
to the prince of Samaria (2 Kings vii. 20), "Thou shalt see that 
day with thine eyes," but little to thy comfort; for that which 
is the day of relief to the saints, shall be a day of revenge on 
thee : there is a rest prepared, but thou canst not "enter in 
because of unbelief." (Heb. iii. 19.) But for thee, O believing 
soul, never think to comprehend, in the narrow capacity of thy 
shallow brain, the counsels and ways of thy Maker ; any more 
than thou canst contain in thy fist the vast ocean. He never 
intended thee such a capacity, when he made thee, and gave thee 
that measure thou hast, any more than he intended to enable 
that worm, or this post, or stone, fully to know thee. Therefore, 
when he speaks, dispute not, but believe, as Abraham, who 

so THE saint's 

considered not his own body now dead, when he was about a 
hundred years old, nor yet the deadness of Sarah's wombj he 
staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief, but was 
strong in faith, giving glory to God ; and being fully persuaded, 
that what he had promised, he was also able to perform. And 
so, "against hope, beheved in hope." (Rom. iv. 18—21.) So 
look thou not on the dead bones, and dust, and difficulties, but 
at the promise. (Isa. xxvi. 20, 21.) Martha knew her brother 
should rise again at the resurrection : but if Christ say, he shall 
rise before, it must be believed. Come, then, fellow-Christians, 
let us contentedly commit these carcasses to the dust : that pri- 
son shall not long contain them. Let us lie down in peace, and 
take our rest, it will not be an everlasting night, or endless 
sleep.^ What if we go out of the troubles and stirs of the world, 
and enter into those chambers of dust, and the doors be shut 
upon us, and we hide ourselves, as it were, for a little moment, 
until the indignation be over-past ? Yet, behold the Lord cometh 
out of his place, to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their 
iniquity : and then the earth shall disclose us, and the dust shall 
hide us no more. As sure as we awake in the morning, when 
we have slept out the night, so sure shall we then awake. And 
what if, in the meantime, we must be loathsome lumps, cast out 
of the sight of men, as not fit to be endured among the living : 

'^ Lactant. 1. vii. c. 25. Some lately came near the Jew's belief in this : Jii- 
(loei etiim clicunt fiuuriim es>e ut Israelitae soli ex morte in vitam revocentnr; 
Christian! vero populique alii omnes non resurgant. — Buxtorf. Si/n. Judaic. 
c. 1. p. 25. Itaqiie hi Christianos solos resurrecturos asserunt. But, on the 
contrar}', saith Tertullian : Caternm demutationem eliani post resurrectio- 
nem consequutuius est inferos jam expertus : Adhinc enim definimus carnem 
quidem omni modo rcsurrecturam, atque illam ex demutatione suj)erventura 
hahituni an^eliciim suscejJturain, &c. Vide i)!ura. — Ttrtul. 1. de minima. 42. 
Cum enim utrumc|ue proi)onitur, corpus atque animani oecidi in geheiinain, 
distinguitur corpus ab anima; et relinquitur intelligi corpus, id quod in 
promptu sit ; caro scilicet, cpite sicut occidetnr in gehennain si iion magis a 
Deo timueiit oecidi, ita et vivificabilur in vitam seternam si maluerit ab ho- 
minibus potius interfici : proiude siquis occisionem carnis atque animas in 
gehennam ad interitnm et finem utriusque substantiae arripiet, nou ad sup- 
plicium (quasi coasumendarum nou quasi puuiendarum} recordetur ignem 
geheunae ssternum prjEdicari iu pnenam leternam, et iude seteruitatem occi- 
sionis agnoscat, propterea humanse ut temporali prastimendam. Tunc et 
aeternas substantias credet, quarum tetcrna fit occisio in poenam. Cert^ cum 
post resurrectionem, corpus et anima oecidi habeaiit k Deo in gelieiinani, 
satis de utroque cnnstabit, et de carnali resurrectione, et de Eeterna occisione. 
Absurdissimum alioquin, si idciico resuscitata caro occidatur in gehennam, 
uti fiuiatur: quod et non resuscitata pateretur. In hoc enim reficietur ne sit, 
cui non esse jam evenit. — Terliil. lib. dc Resur. Carnis, c. 35. p. (milii) 41U. 
Acts xvi. 25—27 ; 2 Cor. v. 1—4. 


what, if our carcasses become as vile as those of the beasts that 
perish : what, if our bones be dug up, and scattered about the 
pit brink, and worms consume our flesh. Yet we know that our 
Redeemer liveth, and shall stand at last on earth, and we shall 
see him with these eyes. And withal it is but this flesh that 
suffers all this ; and what is this comely piece of flesh, which 
thou art^ loath should come to so base a state ? Is it not a hun- 
dred years since it was either nothing, or an invisible something. 
And is it not most of it for the present, if not an appearing 
nothing, seeming something to an imperfect sense ; yet, at best, 
a condensation of invisibles, which, that they may become 
sensible, are become more gross, and so more vile. Where is all 
that fair mass of flesh and blood which thou hadst, before sickness 
consumed thee? annihilated, it is not; only resolved into its 
principles ; show it me if thou canst. Into how small a hand- 
ful of dust or ashes will that whole mass, if buried or burnt, re- 
turn : and into how much smaller can a chemist reduce that 
little, and leave all the rest invisible. What, if God prick the 
bladder, and let out the wind that puff's thee up to such a sub- 
stance, and resolve thee into thy principles ? Doth not the 
seed thou sowest die before it spring ; and what cause have we 
to be tender of this body ; oh, what care, what labour, what 
grief and sorrow hath it cost us ; how many a weary, painful, 
tedious hour ! O my soul, grudge not that God should dis- 
burden thee of all this : fear not, lest he should free thee from 
thy fetters : be not so loath tliat he should break down thy 
prison, and let thee go : what, though some terrible earthquake 
go before ; it is but that the foundations of the prison may be 
shaken, and so the doors fly open ; the terror will be to thy 
jailor, but to thee deliverance. O, therefore, at what hour of 
the night soever thy Lord come, let him find thee, though with 
thy feet in these stocks, yet singing praises to him, and not fear- 
ing the time of thy deliverance. If unclothing be the thing thou 
fearest, why it is that thou mayest have better clothing put on. 
If to be turned out of doors be the thing thou fearest, why re- 
member, then, when this earthly house of thy tabernacle is dis- 
solved, thou hast " a building of God, a house not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens." How willingly do our soldiers 
barn their huts, when the siege is ended, being glad their work 
is done, that they may go home and dwell in houses. Lay down, 
then, cheerfully this bag of loathsome filth, this lump of cor- 
ruption ; thou shalt undoubtedly receive it again in incorruption» 


82 THE saint's 

Lay down freely this terrestrial, this natural body ; believe it, 
thou shalt receive it again a celestial, a spiritual body. And 
though thou lay it down into the dirt with great dishonour, thou 
shalt receive it into glory with honour : and though thou art 
separated from it through weakness, it shall be raised again, and 
joined to thee in mighty power. When the trumpet of God 
shall sound the call, "Come awav, arise ye dead ;" (1 Cor. xv. 
42 — 45 ;) who shall then stay behind ? Who can resist the 
powerful command of our Lord ; when he shall call to the earth 
and sea, " O earth, give up thy dead! O sea, give up thy dead?" 
Then shall our Sampson break for us the bonds of death. And 
as the ungodly shall, like toads from their holes, be drawn 
forth whether they will or no ; so shall the godly, as prisoners of 
hope, awake out of sleep, and come with joy to meet their Lord. 
The first that shall be called, are the saints that sleep ; and 
then the saints that are then alive shall be changed. For Paul 
hath told us, by the word of the Lord, " That they which are 
alive, and remain till the coming of the Lord, shall not prevent 
them which are asleep. For the Lord himself shall descend 
from heaven with a shout, v/ith the voice of the archangel, and 
witii the trump of God ; and the dead in Christ shall rise first. 
Then they which are alive, and remain, shall be caught up to- 
gether with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air ; and 
so shall we ever be with the Lord. Wherefore, O Christians, 
comfort one another with these words."^ This is one of the Gos- 
pel mysteries : " That we shall all be changed in a moment, in 
the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump ; for the trumpet shall 
sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall 
be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption ; 
and this mortal, immortality. Then is death swallowed up in 
victory. O death, where is thy sting ? O grave, where is thy 
victory ? Thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through 
our Lord Jesus Christ." (1 Cor. xv. 51 — 57.) Triumph now, O 
Christian, in these promises; thou shalt shortly triumph in their 
performance. For this is the day that the Lord will make ; "we 
shall be glad and rejoice therein." (Psalm cxviii.) The grave 
that could not keep our Lord, cannot keep us : he arose for us, 
and by the same power will cause us to arise. " For if we believe 
that Jesus died, and rose again ; even so them also which sleep 
in Jesus, will God bring with him." (1 Thess. iv. 14.) Can the 

^ 1 Thess. iv. 15—18. That it is the same body that shall rise, and how far 
changed, see Chr. Beckman, in Exercit. xxiv. p. 475. 


head live, and the hody and members remain dead ? O, write 
those sweet words upon thy heart, Christian, " Because I Hve, ye 
shall live also." (John xiv. 19.) Assure as Christ lives, ye shall 
live : and as sure as he is risen, we shall rise. Else the dead 
perish. Else what is our hope ; what advantageth all our duty 
or suffering? Else the sensual epicure were one of the wisest 
men; and what better are we than our beasts? Surely our 
knowledge, more than theirs, would but increase our sorrows ; 
and our dominion over them is no great felicity. The servant 
hath ofttimes a better life than his master, because he hath few 
of his master's cares. And our dead carcasses are no m.ore comely, 
nor yield a sweeter savour, than theirs. But we have a sure 
ground of hope. And besides this life, we have " a life that is 
hid with Christ in God ; and when Christ, who is our life, shall 
appear, then shall we also appear with him in glory." (Col. iii. 3, 
4.) O let not us be as the purblind world, that cannot see afar off; 
let us never look at the grave, but let us see the resurrection 
beyond it. Faith is quick-sighted, and can see as far as that is; 
yea, as far as eternity. Therefore let our hearts be glad, 
and our glory rejoice, and our flesh also shall rest in hope; for 
he will not leave us in the grave, nor suffer us still to see corrup- 
tion. Yea, " Therefore, let us be steadfast, unmoveable, always 
abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as we know our 
labour is not in vain in the Lord." (1 Cor. xv. SS.)*^ 

= 1 Cor. XV. 13, 14, 17 — ly, 30 — 32. Read Athanasius de Incarn. 
Verbi throug-hout, who fully proveth tliat there sliould have been no resur- 
rection, had not Christ died ; and that he died for all, so far as to raise them. 
It is more large than to be here transcribed; only a touch of it I will give 
you. And that he might recover man into the excellencies of iucorruption, 
Avho was turned into corruption ; s^nd might recover them from death, by 
the subjecting of his own body, and by the grace of resurrection he took, 
them from death, even as a brand out of the fire : for when the Word knew 
that the death of man was no way else to be dissolved, unless he himself did 
die for all men, and that it was impossible that the Word himself could die, 
as being the immortal Son of God ; he took to himself a body which could 
die, that the Word, which is over all, being partaker thereof, might become 
fit to die for all ; and that by the inhabiting Word, it might remain incor- 
ruptible, and now corruption might be banished from all by the excellent 
glory of a resurrection. And so offering the body v/hicli he had assumed to 
death, as a sacrifice free from all spot, he expelled death from all, who were 
shortly to be like him, that is, dead, l)y the offering of the like. For the 
Word, being over all, he offering to God the animated temple and instrument 
of his body, fulfilled that for all which in death was due. And in that com- 
merce, in which he was made like to all, the incorruptible Son of God did me- 
ritoriously clothe all men with iucorruption, — yJthanas. cle Incarn. Verhi, 


84 THE saint's 

God made not deatli, but Christ overcame it, when sin had 
introduced it. Death is from ourselves, but life from the Author 
and Lord of life. The devil had the power of death till he was 
overcome by death ; (Heb. ii. 14, 15 ;) but he that liveth and 
was dead, and is alive for evermore, hath now the keys of death 
and hell. (Rev. i. 18.) That the very damned live, is to be 
ascribed to him ; that they live in misery, is long of themselves. 
Not that it is more desirable to them to live miserably, as there 
they must do, than not to live ; but as God's glory is his chief, 
if not only end, in all his works, so was it the Mediator's chief 
end in the world's reparation. They shall, therefore, live, 
whether they will or no, for God's glory, though they live not to 
their own comfort, because they would not. 

But whatsoever is the cause of the wicked's resurrection, 
this sufficeth to the saint's comfort, that resurrection to glory is 
only the fruit of Christ's death : '^ and this fruit they shall cer- 
tainly partake of. The promise is sure : " All that are in their 
graves shall hear his voice, and come forth." (John v. 28.) 
" And this is the Father's will which hath sent Christ, that of all 
which he hath given him he should lose nothing, but should 
raise it up at the last day ; " (John vi. 39 ;) " and that every 
one that believeth on the Son may have everlasting life, and he 
will raise him up at the last day." (Ver. 40.) If the prayers 
of the prophet could raise the Shunamite's dead child, and if 
the dead soldier revived at the touch of the prophet's bones, 
how certainly shall the will of Christ, and the power of his death, 
raise us. The voice that said to Jairus' daughter, " Arise ; " and 
to Lazarus, " Arise, and come forth," can do the like for us. 
If his death immediately raised the dead bodies of many saints 
in Jerusalem ; if he gave power to his apostles to raise the dead ; 
then what doubt of our resurrection ? And thus. Christian, 
thou seest that Christ, having sanctified the grave by his burial, 
and conquered death, and broke the ice for us, a dead body and 

'' Fiducia Christianorum, resurrectio mortuorum ; illam credentes surnus, 
hoc credere Veritas cogit. Veritatem Deus aperit, sed vulgus irridet, existi- 
maiis nihil superesse post mortem. — Tertul. de Resur. Carnk in initio, p. 40(;. 
IC you would see more of tlie resurrection, and its enemies confuted, read 
(Jypriaii. ' De Resur.,' Athena^. ' Ser. de. Resur.,' Ambros. ' De fide Resur.,* 
August. Steuchus Eujjubin. ' De Perenni Philosophia,' Job. Baptista Aurelius 
* De Mortuorum Resur.,' Mar. Ficin. ' De Immort. Animae.,' Petr. Opiner- 
sensis ' De Resur.' and ' Immortal. Anim.,' Leouh. Lessius 1. ' De Provid.' and 
I. ' De Immort. Animaj,' Caspar Contarenus cont. Pet. Pomponatium., 
besides every common-place book, and ' Zancb. deOper. Dei,* p. 3. 1. iii. c 8; 
C'alviu. adv. Libtrtiu, xxii. 5 and in Psychopaunichia, &c, 


a grave is not now so horrid a spectacle to a believing" eye ; "^ 
but as our Lord was nearest his resurrection and glory when he 
was in the grave, even so are we : and he that hath promised to 
make our bed in sickness, will make the dust as a bed of roses. 
Death shall not dissolve the union betwixt him and us, nor turn 
away his affections from us ; but in the morning of eternity he 
will send his angels, yea, come himself, and roll away the stone, 
and unseal our grave, and reach us his hand, and deliver us alive 
to our Father. Why, then, doth the approach of death so cast 
thee down, O my soul ; and why art thou thus disquieted within 
me ? The grave is not hell : if it were, yet there is thy Lord 
present ; and thence should his merit and mercy fetch thee out. 
Thy sickness is not unto death, though^ I die, but for the glory 
of God, that the Son of God may be glorified thereby. Say not, 
then, he lifted me up to cast me down, and hath raised me high 
that my fall may be the lower ; but he casts me down that he 
may lift me up, and layeth me low that I may rise the higher. 
A hundred experiences have sealed this truth unto thee, that 
the greatest dejections are intended but for advantages to thy 
greatest dignity, and the Redeemer's glory. 

Sect. III. The third part of this Prologue to the Saint's Rest, 
is the public and solemn process at their judgment, where they 
shall first, themselves, be acquitted and justified ; and then, with 
Christ, judge the world. Public I may well call it, for all the 
world must there appear : young and old, of all estates and na- 
tions, that ever were from the creation to that day, must here 
come and receive their doom. The judgment shall be set, and 
the books opened, and the book of life produced ; " and the 
dead shall be judged out of those things which were written in 
the books, according to their works, and whosoever is not found 
written in the book of life, is cast into the lake of fire." (Rom. 
ii. 16, and xiv. 10 j Rev. xx. 12 — 15.) O, terrible ! O, joyful 
day ! Terrible to those that have let their lamps go out, and 
have not watched, but forgot the coming of their Lord : joyful 
to the saints, whose waiting and hope was to see this day. 
Then shall the world behold the goodness and severity of the 
Lord : on them who perish, severitv ; Imt to his chosen, good- 
ness : when every one must give account of his stewardship, 

^ Mors et vita duello conflixere mirand6 : rex mortuus, regiiat vivus. la 
hoc duello mors et vita iu arenanti descenderunt : sed tandem vicit vita, et 
gloriose exiit, de sepulchro, de inorte ipsa triumphaiis. Irrideatuus erg'o mor- 
tem et cum apostolo dicamus, ubi mors victoria tua ? — Stella in Luc, xxiv. 
p. 378. torn. ii. Psa!. xlii. ; John xi. 4 i Psal, cii. 10. 



and every talent of time, health, wit, mercies, afflictions, means, 
warnings, must be reckoned for ; (Matt, xxiv., and xxv. 5 — 7 ; 
Rom. i. 22 j) when the sins of youth, and those which they had 
forgotten, and their secret sins, shall all be laid open before 
angels and men ; when they shall see all their friends, wealth, 
old delights, all their confidence and false hopes of heaven, to 
forsake them ; ^ when they shall see the Lord Jesus Christ, 
whom they neglected, whose word they disobeyed, whose mi- 
nisters they abused, whose servants they hated, now sitting to 
judge them ; when their own consciences shall cry out against 
them, and call to their remembrance all their misdoings. Re- 
member at such a time, such or such a sin ; at such a time 
Christ sued hard for thy conversion ; the minister pressed it 
home to thy heart, thou wast touched to the quick with the 
word; thou didst purpose and promise returning, and yet thou 
cast off all. When a hundred sermons, sabbaths, mercies, 
shall each step up and say, I am witness against the prisoner ; 
Lord, I was abused, and I was neglected ; O, which way will 
the wretched sinner look ! O, who can conceive the terrible 
thoughts of his heart ! Now the world cannot help him; his 
old companions cannot help him ; the saints neither can nor 
will ; only the Lord Jesus can : but, oh ! there is the soul-killing 
misery, he will not; nay, without violating the truth of his 
word, he cannot ; though otherwise, in regard of his absolute 
power, he might. The time was, sinner, when Christ would, 
and you would not ; and now, oh ! fain would you, and he will 
not. Then he followed thee, in vain, with entreaties; O, poor 
sinner, what doest thou ; will thou sell thy soul and Saviour for 
a lust : look to me, and be saved ; return, why wilt thou die ? 
But thy ear and heart were shut up against all. Why, now thou 
shalt cry. Lord, Lord, open to us ; and he shall say, " Depart, 
I know you not, ye workers of iniquity." (Matt. vii. 22, 23.) 
Now, mercy, mercy. Lord ; O, but it was mercy you so long set 
light by, and now your day of mercy is over. What then re- 
mains, but to cry out to the mountains, Fall upon us ; and the 
hills, O cover us from the presence of him that sits upon the 
throne I But all in vain ; for thou hast the Lord of mountains 
and hills for thine enemy, whose voice they will obey, and not 
thine. Sinner, make not light of this; for, as thou livest, ex- 

f Quae tunc erit fidei gloria? quae poena perfidiae, cum judicii dies venerit. 
Quae Icetitia credentium ? quae moestitia perfidorum ? noluisse istic prius cre- 
dere et ut ere Jant jam redire non posse ?—Ci/p. ad Demetrian, sect. xxi. p. 330, 


cept a tliorough change and coming in to Christ prevent it, 
which God grant, tliou shalt shortly, to thy inconceivable horror, 
see that day. O, wretch, will thy cups then be wine or gall ; 
will they be sweet or bitter ; will it comfort thee to think of thy 
merry days, and how pleasantly thy time slipped away ; will it 
do thee good to think how rich thou wast, and how honourable 
thou wast 5 or will it not rather wound thy very soul to remem- 
ber thy folly, and make thee, with anguish of heart, and rage 
against thyself, to cry out, O wretch, where was mine under- 
standing ! Didst thou make so light of that sin that now makes 
thee tremble : how couldst thou hear so lightly of the redeeming 
blood of the Son of God ; how couldst thou quench so many 
motions of his Spirit, and stifle so many quickening thoughts as 
were cast into thy soul ? What took up all that life's time 
which thou hadst given thee to make sure work against this day ; 
what took up all thy heart, thy love, and delight, which 
should have been laid out on the Lord Jesus ? Hadst thou room 
in thy heart for the world, thy friend, thy flesh, thy lusts, and 
none for Christ ? O, wretch, whom hadst thou to love, but 
him ; what hadst thou to do, but to seek him, and cleave to him, 
and enjoy him ! Oh ! wast thou not told of this dreadful day a 
thousand times, till the commonness of that doctrine made thee 
weary ; how couldst thou slight such warnings, and rage against 
the minister, and say he preached damnation : had it not been 
better to have heard and prevented it, than now to endure it ? 
O, now, for one oifer of Christ, for one sermon, for one day of 
grace more ; but too late ; alas ! too late. Poor, careless sinner, 
I did not think here to have said so much to thee ; for my busi- 
ness is to refresh the saints ; but if these lines do fall into thy 
hands, and thou vouchsafe the reading of them, I here charge 
thee, before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge 
the quick and the dead at his appearing, and his kingdom ; 
(2 Tim. iv. 1 ;) that thou make haste and get alone, and set 
thyself sadly to ponder on these things : ask thy heart,^ Is this 
true, or is it not ; is there such a day, and must 1 see it ? O, 
what do I then ; why trifle I ; is it not time, full time, that I 
had made sure of Christ and comfort long ago ; should I sit still 
another day, who have lost so many ; had I not rather be found 

s Nee ignoro plerosque coiiscieutia meritorum nihil se esse post mortem 
inagis optare cjuam credere . nialunt enini extingui penitus, quam ad sup- 
plicia reparari. (Quorum error augetur in seculo et lihertate remissa, et Dei 
patientia maxima : cujiis quanto judicium tardum, tauto magis justum est,— 
Minut, F/aiix. Oclav. p. 39(). 

88 THE saint's 

one of the holy, faithful, watchful Christians, than a worldling, 
a good fellow, or a man of honour : why should I not, then, 
choose it now ; will it be best then, and is it not best now ? 
O, think of these things ! A few sad hours spent in serious 
fore-thoughts is a cheap prevention ; it is worth this, or it is 
worth nothing. Friend, I profess to thee, from the word of the 
Lord, that of all thy sweet sins, there will then be nothing left, 
but the sting in thy conscience, which will never out through all 
eternity ; except the blood of Christ, believed in, and valued 
above all the world, do now, in this day of grace, get it out. 
Thy sin is like a beautiful harlot : while she is young and fresh, 
she hath many followers ; but when old and withered, every one 
would shut their hands of her : she is only their shame ; none 
would know her. So will it be with thee : now thou wilt venture 
on it, whatever it cost thee ; but then, when men's rebellious 
ways are charged on their souls to death,** O that thou couldst 
rid thy hands of it ; O that thou couldst say. Lord, it was not 
L Then, Lord, when saw we thee hungry, naked, imprisoned : 
how fain would they put it off. Then sin will be sin indeed, 
and grace will be grace indeed ; then, say the foolish virgins. 
Give us of your oil, for our lamps are out. O, for some of 
your faith and holiness, which we were wont to mock at ; but 
what is the answer, " Go buy for yourselves ; we have little 
enough ; would we had rather much more." Then they will be 
glad of any thing like grace ; and if they can but produce any 
external familiarity with Christ, or common gifts, how glad are 
they ! Lord, we have eat and drunk in thy presence, prophesied 
in thy name, cast out devils, done many wonderful works ', we 
have been baptised, heard sermons, professed Christianity : but, 
alas ! this will not serve the turn. He will profess to them, I 
never knew you ; depart from me, ye workers of iniquity. O, 
dead-hearted sinner, is all this nothing to thee ! As sure as 
Christ is true, this is true ; take it in his own words : " When 
the Son of Man shall come in his glory : and before him shall 
be gathered all nations ; and he shall separate them one from 
another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats : and 

^ Hear a heathen : " Sic certe vivendum est, tanquam in conspectu viva- 
mus. Sic cogitandum tanquam aiifjuis in pectus intimum inspicere possit, et 
potest. Quid enim prodest ab homine aliquid esse secretum ? Nihil Deo 
clausum interest animis nostris, et cos^itatiouibus niediis intervenit. — Senec. 
Epist. ml Luc. 83. p. 711. torn. ii. Which words Zuinglius repeating, 
calls him " virum sauctissinuim." — Tom. oper. ii. p. 118. Declar. de Pec. 


he shall set the sheep on the right hand, and the goats on the 
left." (Matt. XXV. 31.) And so on, as you may read in the text. 
But why tremblest thou, O humble, gracious soul ? Cannot 
the enemies and slighters of Christ be foretold their doom, but 
thou must quake : do I make sad the soul that God would not 
have sad ? (Ezek. xiii. 22.) Doth not thy Lord know his own 
sheep, *' who have heard his voice, and followed him ? " (John 
X. 27.) He that would not lose the family of one Noah in a 
common deluge, when him only he had found faithful in all the 
earth ; (Gen. vii. I — 3, and xix. 22 ;) he that would not over- 
look one Lot in Sodom ; nay, that could do nothing till he went 
forth : will he forget thee at that day ? " Thy Lord knoweth 
how to deliver the godly out of temptation, and to reserve the 
unjust to the day of judgment to be punished ; " (2 Pet. ii. 9 ;) 
he knoweth how to make the same day the greatest for terror 
to his foes, and yet the greatest for joy to his people. He ever 
intended it for the great distinguishing and separating day j 
wherein both love and fury should be manifested to the highest. 
(Matt, xiii.) O, then, " Let the heavens rejoice, the sea, the 
earth, the floods, the hills ; for the Lord cometh to judge the 
earth : with righteousness shall he judge the world, and the 
people with equity." (Psal. xcvi. 11 — 13.) But, especially, 
" Let Sion hear, and be glad, and her children rejoice ; " (Psal. 
xcviii. 7 — 9 ;) for, " when God ariseth to judgment, it is to 
save the meek of the earth." (Psal. xcvii. 8.) They have 
judged and condemned themselves many a day in heart-breaking 
confessions, and therefore shall not be judged to condemnation 
by the Lord ; " for there is no condemnation to them that are 
in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit." 
(1 Cor. xi. 31.) And, " Who shall lay any thing to the charge 
of God's elect ? " (Rom viii. 1, 33.) Shall the law ? Why, 
" Whatsoever the law saith, it saith to them that are under the 
law; but we are not under the law, but under grace : for the 
law of the Spirit of life, which is in Christ Jesus, hath made us 
free from the law of sin and death." (Rom. iii. 19, v. 1, vi. 14, 
and viii. 2.) Or shall conscience ? Why, we were, long ago, 
"justified by faith, and so have peace with God, and have our 
hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience 3 and the Spirit bearing 
witness with our spirits, that we are the children of God." (Heb. 
X. 22.) "It is God that justifieth; who shall condemn ? " (Rom. 
viii. 16.) If our Judge condemn us not, who shall ? He that 
said to the adulterous woman, " Hath no man condemned thee ? 

90 THE saint's 

neither do I condemn thee ;*' (John viii. 11 5) He will say to 
us, more faithfully than Peter to him, " Though all men deny 
thee, or condemn thee, I will not." (Mark xiv. 31.) "Thou 
hast confessed me before men, and i will confess thee before 
my Father, and the angels of heaven." (Matt. x. 32.) He, 
whose first coming was not " to condemn the world, but that 
the world through him might be saved ;" (John iii. 17 ;) 1 am 
sure, intends not his second coming to condemn his people, but 
that they, through him, might be saved. He hath given us 
eternal life in charter and title already, yea, and partly in pos- 
session ; and will he after that condemn us ? When he gave 
us the knowledge of his Father and himself, he gave us eternal 
life ; and he hath verily told us, " that he that heareth his 
word, and believeth on him that sent him, hath everlasting life, 
and shall not come into condemnation, but is passed from death 
to life." (John v. 24, and xvii. 8.) Indeed, if our Judge were 
our enemy, as he is to the world, then we might well fear. If 
the devil were our judge, or the ungodly were our judge, then 
we should be condemned as hypocrites, as heretics, as schis- 
matics, as proud, or covetous, or what not ? But our Judge is 
Christ, who died ; yea, rather, who is risen again, and maketh 
request for us : for, " all power is given him in heaven and in 
earth, and all things delivered into his hands ; and the Father 
hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he 
is the Son of man." ' For, though God judge the world, yet 
the Father, immediately, without his Vicegerent, Christ, judgeth 
no man, but hath committed all judgment to the Son, that all 
men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. 
Oh what inexpressible joy may this afford to a believer, that 
our dear Lord, who loveth our souls, and whom our souls love, 
shall be our Judge ! Will a man fear to be judged by his dear- 
est friend, by a brother, by a father, or a wife by her own hus- 
band ? Christian, did he come down, and suffer, and weep, and 
bleed, and die for thee, and will he now condemn thee ; was he 
judged, and condemned, and executed in thy stead, and now 
will he condemn thee himself ; did he make a bath of his blood 
■for thy sins, and a garment of his own righteousness for thy na- 
kedness, and will he now open them to thy shame 5 is he the 

' Rom. viii. 34, 35 ; Matt, xxviii. 18; John xiii. 3; John ix. 22, 23, 27. 
That Christ's judging- power according to his human nature, is not the prin- 
cipal, primitive, supreme; but only the supreme delegate derived power, is 
certain ; sicut Scolus, in 1. iv. Sent. Dist.48. qu. i. p. 25(i. (mihi.) 


undertaker for thy salvation, and will he be against thee ; hath 
it cost him so dear to save thee, and will he now himself destroy 
thee J hath he done the most of the work already, in redeeming, 
regenerating, and sanctifying, justifying, preserving, and per- 
fecting tliee, and will he now undo all again : nay, hath he be- 
gun, and will he not finish ; hath he interceded so long for thee 
to the Father, and will he cast thee away himself? If all these 
be likely, then fear, and then rejoice not. Oh what an unrea- 
sonable sin is unbelief, that will charge our Lord with such un- 
mercifulness and absurdities ! Well, then, fellow-Christians, let 
the terror of that day be ever so great, surely our Lord can 
mean no ill to us in all : let it make the devils tremble, and the 
wicked tremble; but it shall make us to leap for joy : let Satan 
accuse us, we have our answer at hand ; our surety hath dis- 
charged the debt. If he have not fulfilled the law, then let us 
be charged as breakers of it : if he have not suffered, then let 
us suffer ; but if he have, we are free : nay, our Lord will make 
answer for us himself. " These are mine, and shall be made 
up with my jewels : for their transgressions was I stricken, and 
cut off from the earth ; for them was I bruised and put to grief: 
my soul was made an offering for their sin, and I bore their 
transgressions. They are my seed, and the travail of my soul : 
I have healed them by my stripes ; I have justified them by my 
knowledge." (Isa. liii. 5, 8, 10, H.) " They are my sheep ; 
who shall take them out of my hands ? " (John x. 28.) Yea, 
though the humble soul be ready to speak against itself, " Lord, 
when did we see thee hungry, and fed thee," &c., yet will not 
Christ do so. This is the day of the believer's full justification. 
They were, before, made just, and esteemed just, and by faith 
justified in law; and this, to some, evidenced to their consciences. 
But now they shall both, by apology, be maintained just ; and, 
by sentence, pronounced just actually, by the lively voice of the 
Judge himself; ^ which is the most perfect justification. Their 
justification by faith, is a giving them title in law, to that apo- 
logy and absolving sentence which at tliat day they shall actu- 
ally receive from the mouth of Christ ; by which sentence, their 

k Observ, That a complete and full absolution from all sin, is not enjoyed 
till the day of judgment. Mr. A. Burgess, of ' Justification,' lect. xxIk. p. 258. 
The Scripture^ not only in this privilege of remission of sin, but in others 
also, makes the complement and fulness of them to be at the day of judg- 
ment : Eph. i. 7, and iv. 30 ; Rom. viii. 23; 1 Joha iii. 2; Matt. xix. 23. 
Mr. A. Burgess ubi supr. 

92 THE saint's 

sin, which before was pardoned in the sense of the law, is now 
perfectly pardoned, or blotted out by this ultimate judgment. 
(Acts iii. 19.) Therefore, well may it be called the time of re- 
freshing, as being to the saints, the perfecting of all their former 
refreshments. He who was vexed with a quarrelling conscience, 
an accusing world, a cursing law, is solemnly pronounced righte- 
ous by the Lord, the Judge.' Though he cannot plead Not guilty, 
in regard of fact, yet, being pardoned, he shall be acquitted 
by the proclamation of Christ : and that is not all ; but he that 
was accused as deserving hell, is pronounced a member of Christ, 
a son of God, and so adjudged to eternal glory. The sentence 
of pardon, passed by the Spirit and conscience within us, was 
wont to be exceeding sweet ; but this will fully and finally re- 
solve the question, and leave no room for doubting again for 
ever. We shall more rejoice that our names are found written 
in the book of life, than if men or devils were subjected to us ; 
and it must needs affect us deeply with the sense of our mercy 
and happiness, to behold the contrary condition of others ; to 
see most of the world tremble with terror, while we triumph 
with jov ; to hear them doomed to everlasting flames, and see 
them thrust into hell, when we are proclaimed heirs of the king- 
dom ; to see our neighbours, that lived in the same towns, came 
to the same congregations, sat in the same seats, dwelt in the 
same houses, and were esteemed more honourable in the world 
than ourselves ; to see them now so differenced from us, and by 
the Searcher of hearts, eternally separated. Thus, with the 
great magnificence and dreadfulness of the day, doth the apostle 
pathetically express : " It is righteous with God, to recompense 
tribulation to them that trouble you ; and to you who are 
troubled, rest with us ; when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed 
from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire, taking ven- 
geance on them that know not God, and obey not the Gospel of 
our Lord Jesus Christ ; who shall be punished with everlasting 
destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glorv 
of his power,^' &:c. (2 Thess. 1, 6 — 10.) And, now, is not here 
enough to make that day a welcome day, and the thoughts of 
it delightful to us ? but yet there is more. We shall be so far 
from the dread of that judgment, that ourselves shall become the 
judges. Christ will take his people, as it were, into commission 

' The sins before faith are forgiven ; not so as that they are not committed, 
but so as if they had not been committed. — Clem. Jkxund. Stromal, 1. iv. 


with him ; and they shall sit and approve his righteous judg- 
ment. Oh fear not now the reproaches, scorns, and censures, 
of those that must then be judged by us: did you think, O 
wretched worldlings, that those poor, despised men, whom you 
made your daily derision, should be your judges ; did you believe 
this, when you made them stand as offenders before the bar of 
your judgment ? No more than Pilate, when he was judging 
Christ, did believe that he was condemning his Judge ; or the 
Jews, when they were whipping, imprisoning, killing the apostles, 
did think to see them sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve 
tribes of Israel. " Do you not know," saith Paul, " that the 
saints shall judge the world : nay, know you not that we shall 
judge angels ? " (1 Cor. vi. 2, 3.) Surely, were it not the word 
of Christ that speaks it, this advancement would seem incredible, 
and the language arrogant ; yet even Enoch, the seventh from 
Adam, prophesied of this, saying, " Behold, the Lord cometh 
with ten thousand of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, 
and to convince all that are ungodly among them, of all their 
ungodly deeds, which they have ungodly committed ; and of all 
their hard speeches, which ungodly sinners have spoken against 
him." (Jude 14.) Thus shall the saints be honoured, and the 
" righteous have dominion in the morning." (Psal. ix. 14.) 
O, that the careless world were " but wise to consider this, and 
that they would remember their latter end ! " (Deut. xxxii. 29.) 
That they would be now of the same mind as they will be when 
they shall see the "heavens pass away with a noise, and the ele- 
ments melt with fervent heat ; the earth also, and the works that 
are therein, to be burnt up." (2 Pet. iii. 10.) When all shall be 
on fire about their ears, and all earthly glory consumed ; " for 
the heavens, and the earth, which are now, are reserved unto fire 
against the day of judgment, and perdition of ungodly men." 
(2 Pet. iii. 7.) But, alas ! when all is said, " the wicked will 
do wickedly ; and none of the wicked shall understand ; but the 
wise shall understand." (Dan. xii. 10.) Rejoice, therefore, O 
ye saints, yet watch ; and what you have, hold fast till your Lord 
come ; (Rev. ii. 25 ;) and study that use of this doctrine which 
the apostle propounds. " Seeing, then, that all these things 
shall be dissolved, what manner of persons ought ye to be, in 
all holy conversation and godliness : looking for and hasting to 
the coming of the day of God^ wherein the heavens being on 
fire, shall be dissolved, and the elements melt with fervent heat." 
(2 Pet. iii. 11, 12.) But go your way, keep close with God, 

94 THE saint's 

and wait till your change come, and till this end be ; " for you 
shall rest, and stand in the lot at the end of the days." (Dan. 
xii. 13.) 

The fourth antecedent, and highest step to the saints' ad- 
vancement, is their solemn coronation, enthronizing, and receiv- 
ing into the kingdom. For, as Christ, their Head, is anointed 
both King and Priest, so under him are his people made unto 
God both kings and priests; (Rev. i. 5 ;) (for prophecy, that 
ceaseth) "to reign and to offer praises for ever." (Rev. v. 10.) 
** The crown of righteousness, which was laid up for them, shall 
by the Lord the righteous Judge be given them at that day." 
(2 Tim. iv. 8.) "They have been faithful to the death, and 
therefore shall receive the crown of life." (Rev. ii. 10.) And 
according to the improvement of their talents here, so shall 
their rule and dignity be enlarged, (Matt. xxv. 21, 23,) so that 
they are not dignified with empty titles, but real dominions : 
for Christ " will take them and set them down with himself on 
his own throne; (Rev. iii. 2 1 ;) and will give them power over the 
nations, even as he received of his Father ; (Rev. ii. 26 — 28 ;) 
and will give them the morning star. The Lord himself will 
give them possession with these applauding expressions : " Well 
done, good and faithful servant, thou hast been faithful over a 
few things, I will make thee ruler over many things : enter thou 
into the joy of thy Lord." (Matt. xxv. 21, 23.) And with this 
solemn and blessed proclamation shall he enthrone them : 
" Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared 
for you from the foundation of the world." Every word full of 
life and joy. " Come ;" this is the holding forth of the golden 
sceptre, to warrant our approach unto this glory. Come now 
as near as you will : fear not the Bethshemite's judgment, 
for the enmity is utterly taken away. This is not such a 
*'come" as we were wont to hear. " Come, take up your cross 
and follow me :" though that was sweet, yet this much more. 
"Ye blessed;" blessed indeed, when that mouth shall so pro- 
nounce us. For though the world hath accounted us accursed, 
and we have been ready to account ourselves so, yet certainlv, 
those that he blesscth are blessed, and those whom he curseth, 
only are cursed ; and his blessing shall not be revoked : but he 
hath blessed us, and we shall be blessed. " Of my Father ;" 
blessed in the Father's love as well as the Son's, for they are 
one. The Father hath testified his love in their election, dona- 
tion to Christ, sending of Christ, accepting his ransom. Sec, as 


the Son hath also testified his. " Inherit ;" no longer bondmen^ 
nor servants only, nor children under age, who differ not in pos- 
session, but only in title from servants; (Gal. iv. I, 5 — 7j) but 
now we are heirs of the kingdom, (Jam. ii. 5,) coheirs with 
Christ. " The kingdom ;" no less than the kingdom. Indeed, 
to be a King of kings, and Lord of lords, is our Lord's own 
proper title ; but to be kings and reign with him, is ours. The 
fruition of this kingdom, is as the fruition of the light of the 
sun, each have the whole, and the rest nevertheless. " Prepared 
for you;" God is the alpha as well as the omega of our blessed- 
ness. Eternal love hath laid the foundation. He prepared the 
kingdom for us, and then prepared us for the kingdom. This 
is the preparation of his counsel and decree, for the execution 
whereof Christ was yet to make a further preparation. " For 
you;" not for believers only in general, who without individual 
persons are nobody ; nor only for you, upon condition of your 
believing, but for you personally and determinately, for all the 
conditions were also prepared for you. "From the foundation 
of the world ;" not only from the promise after Adam's fall, as 
some, but, as the phrase usually signifieth though not always, 
from eternity. These were the eternal thoughts of God's love 
towards us, and this is it he purposed for us, (Matt. xxv. 20, 
21, 34, 35 ; Rev. ii. and iii.) 

But a greater difficulty ariseth in our way.*" In what sense is 
our improvement of our talent, our well-doing, our overcoming, 
our harbouring, visiting, feeding, &c., Christ, in his little ones, 
alleged as a reason of our coronation and glory ? Is not it the 
purchased possession and mere fruit of Christ's blood ? If 
every man must be judged according to his v.orks, and receive 
according to what they have done in the flesh, whether good 
or evil ; and God " will render to every man according to his 
deeds ;" (Rom. ii. 6, 7 ;) and give eternal life to all men, if they 
patiently continue in well-doing, and give right to the tree of 
life, (Rev. xxii. 14,) and entrance into the city, to the doers of 
his commandments : and if the last absolvins: sentence be the 


™ See what is after cited in cap. vii. sect. 2. In die judicii (juoniam foediis 
gratise vim legis sen juris obtiiitt (promulgatuni est eiiim in toto urbe terra- 
rum per prjEcones iduneos) idununi probaudum crit : niniirum, nos liabuisse 
conditiouem fcederis gratia*, scilicet fidem. Itaque i)roferenda erunt in medio 
opera; presertim cliaritatis tanquam illius condilionis, hoc est, fidei, effecta 
alque argumenia demonstrativa, ut vulgo Inquiuitur il posteriori. — D. Ju. 
Placeus, in Tkes. Salniur. vol. 1, p. 34 ; Lege et Tlusin, 43 — 45, of that most 
solid dispute of Justification. 

96 THE saint's 

completing of our justification, and so "the doers of the law be 
justified;"(Rom. ii. 13;) why,then, what is become of free grace; 
or justification by faith only ; of the sole righteousness of Christ 
to make us accepted ? Then, the papists say rightly. That we 
are righteous by our personal righteousness ; and good works 
concur to justification. 

Answ. I did not think to have said so much upon controversy ; 
but because the difficulty is very great, and the matter very 
weighty, as being near the foundation, I have in another book 
added to what I said before, certain brief positions, containing 
my thoughts on this subject ; which may tend to the clearing of 
these and many other difficulties hereabouts, to which I refer you. 

But that the plain, constant language of Scripture may not be 
perverted or disregarded, I only premise these advertisements by 
way of caution, till thou come to read the fuller answer, 

1. Let not the names of men draw thee one way or other, 
nor make thee partial in searching for truth ; dislike the men 
for their unsound doctrine ; but call not doctrine unsound, be- 
cause it is theirs ; nor sound, because of the repute of the writer. 

2. Know this, that as an unhumbled soul is far apter to give 
too much to duty and personal righteousness, than to Christ ; so 
an humble, self-denying Christian is as likely to err on the other 
hand, in giving less to duty than Christ hath given, and laying 
all the work from himself on Christ, for fear of robbing Christ 
of the honour ; and so much to look at Christ without him, 
and think he should look at nothing in himself: that he 
forgets Christ within him. As Luther said of iVlelancthon's 
self-denying humility, " Soli Deo omnia deberi tarn obstinate 
asserit, ut mihl plane videatur saltem in hoc errare, quod Chris- 
tum ipse fingat longius abesse cordi suo quam sit revera — Certe 
nimis nuUus in hoc est Philippus." He so constantly ascribes 
all to God, that to me he seems directly to err, at least in this, 
that he feigneth or imagineth Christ to be further off from his 
own heart than indeed he is. Certainly he is too much nothing 
in this." 

" Read Mr. Rich. Hooker's ' Discourse of Justification,' how far works 
concur: and Mr. Mede's Sermon on Luke ii. 13, 14; and on Matt. vii. 21 ; 
and on Acts x. 4 ; and on Nelieni. xiii. 14, 22; and Matt. x. 41. And, Dave- 
nant de Justitia Habituali et Actuali, most fully and solidly. Agnitionem 
accepit homo boni et mali; bonum est autem obedire Deo et credere ei, et 
custodire ejus pra;ceptum, et hoc est vita hominis. Quemadmodum non obe- 
dire Deo malum, et hoc est mors ejus. — Ircetieus adv. Hcereses, 1. iv. c. /(i. 


3. Our giving to Christ more of the work than Scripture 
cloth, or rather our ascribing it to him out of the Scripture way 
and sense, doth but dishonour, and not honour him ;" and de- 
press, but not exalt his free grace ; while we deny the inward, 
sanctifying work of his Spirit, and extol his free justification, 
which are equal fruits of his merits we make him an imperfect 

4. But to arrogate to ourselves any part of Christ's preroga- 
tive, is most desperate of all, and no doctrine more directly 
overthrows the Gospel, almost, than that of justification by the 
merits of our own, or by works of the law. 

And thus we have, by the line and plummet of Scripture, 
fathomed this fourfold stream, and seen the Christian safely 
landed in paradise ; and, in this four-wheeled fiery chariot, con- 
veyed honourably to his rest. Now, let us a little further view 
those mansions, consider his privileges, and see whether there 
be any glory like unto this glory ; read and judge, but not by 
outward appearance, but judge righteous judgment. 


This Rest most excellent, discovered by Reason. 

The next thing to be handled is, the excellent properties of 
this rest, and admirable attributes, which, as so many jewels, 
shall adorn the crown of the saints. And first, before we speak 
of them particularly, let us try this happiness by the rules of the 
philosophers, and see whether they will not approve it the most 
transcendently good : not as if they were a sufficient touch- 
stone, but that both the worldling and the saint may see, when 
any thing stands up in competition with this glory for the pre-emi- 
nence, reason itself will conclude against it. Now, in order of 
good, the philosopher will tell you, that by these rules you may 
know which is best. 

Sect. J. 1. That which is desired and sought for itself, is better 

° Take heed lest thou love the Gospel, because it hath always glad tidings, and 
thou canst not abide the precejits or threatenings, because they speak hard 
things to thee. There may be a carnal gospeller, as well as a popish legalist. — 
Mr. Burgess, of Justification, lect. xxviii. p. 256. Dicimus Deum judicare 
secundum opera, quia prout ilia fuerint vel bona vel mala, aut feternani 
vitam consequemur, aut seternam damnationeni. Sed non inde sequitur, 
opera causas esse nostra salutis. — Pet. Mart, in Rom, ii, p. (mihi) 88. 
VOL. XX 11. H 

98 THE saint's 

than that which is desired for something else : or the end, as 
such, is better than all the means. This concludeth for hea- 
ven's pre-eminence. All things are but means to that end. If 
any thing here be excellent, it is because it is a step to that ; 
and the more conducible thereto, the more excellent. The sal- 
vation of our souls is the end of our faith, our hope, our dili- 
gence, of all mercies, of all ordinances, as before is proved. It 
is not for themselves, but for this rest, that all these are desired 
and used. (1 Pet. v. 9; 1 Thess. v. 8 ; 2 Tim. ii. 10.) Praying 
is not the end of praying, nor preaching the end of preaching, 
nor believing the end of believing. These are but the way to 
him, who is the way to this rest. Indeed, Christ himself is 
both the way and the rest, the means and the end, singularly 
desirable as the way, but yet more as the end. (John xiv. 6.) If 
any thing that ever you saw or enjoyed, appear lovely and de- 
sirable, then must its end be so much more. 

Sect. II. 2. In order of good, the last is still the best; for all 
good tends to perfection. The end is still the last enjoyed, 
though first intended. Now, this rest is the saints' last estate. 
Their beginning was as a grain of mustard-seed, but their per- 
fection will be an estate high and flourishing. They were taken 
withDavid from the sheep-fold, to reign as kings for ever. Their 
first day was a day of small things, but their last will be an 
everlasting perfection. They sowed in tears, but they reap in 
joy. If their prosperity here, their res secunda, were desirable, 
much more their res ultimce, their final blessedness. (Psal. 
cxxvi. 5.) Rondeletius saw a priest at Rome, who would fall 
down in an ecstasy whenever he heard those words of Christ, 
Consicnimattim est, "his finhhed;" but observing him careful 
in his fall ever to lay his head in a soft place, he, suspecting the 
dissimulation, by the threats of a cudgel quickly recovered 
him.P But, methinks, the forethought of that consummation and 
last eatate we spake of, should bring a considering Christian 
into such an unfeigned ecstasy, that he should even forget the 
things of the flesh, and no care or fear should raise him out of 
it. Surely, that is well which ends well, and that is good which 
is good at last; and, therefore, heaven must needs be good. 

Sect. III. 3. Another rule is this : That whose absence or loss 
is the worst or the greatest evil, must needs itself be best, or the 
greatest good : and is there a greater loss than to lose this rest ? 
If you could ask the restless souls that are shut out of it, they 

P RondeletiuSj in Method. Curan. c. cie Catalep. p. 98. 


would tell you more sensibly than I can ; for as none know the 
sweetness like those who enjoy it, so none know the loss like 
those who are deprived of it. Wicked men are here senseless 
of the loss, because they know not what they lose, and have the 
delights of flesh and sense to make them uj3, and make them 
forget it : but when they shall know it to their torment, as the 
saints do to their joy, and when they shall see men, from the 
east and west, sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the 
kingdom of God, and themselves shut out ; (Luke xiii. 29 ;) 
when they shall know both what they have lost, and for what, 
and why they lost it, surely there will be weeping and gnashing 
of teeth. He that loses riches may have more, and he that 
loseth honour may repair it ; or if not, yet he is not undone. 
He that loseth life may save it ; but what becomes of him that 
loseth God; and who, or what, shall repair his loss ? (Mark viii. 
35.) We can bear the loss of any thing below : if we have it 
not, we can either live without it, or die, and live eternally 
without it: but can we do so without God in Christ? (Matt, 
vi. 33.) As God gives us outward things as auctaries, as over- 
plus, or above measure, into our bargain, so when he takes them 
from us he takes away our superfluities, rather than our neces- 
saries, and pareth but our nails, and toucheth not the quick. 
But can we so spare our part in glory ? You know whose 
question it is, " What shall it profit a man to win all the world, 
and lose his own soul?" Will it prove a saving match? Or, 
" What shall a man give for the ransom of his soul?" (Matt, 
xvi. 26.) Christians, compare but all your losses with that loss, 
and all your sufferings with that suffering ; and I hope you will 
lay your hand upon your mouth, and cease your repining 
thoughts for ever. 

Sect. IV. 4. Another rule is this : That which cannot be given 
by man, or taken away by man, is ever better than that which 
can ; and then 1 hope heaven will carry it ; for, who hath the 
key of the everlasting treasures, and who is the disposer of the 
dignities of the saints ? Who saith, "• Come ye blessed, and 
go ye cursed ?" Is it the voice of God, or of mere man ? If 
" every good and perfect gift cometh from above, from the 
Father of lights," (James i. 17,) whence, then, cometh the gift 
of eternal light with the Father ? Whose privilege soever it is 
to be key-keepers of the visible churches here below; surely no 
mere man, but the man of sin, will challenge the keys of that 
kingdom, and undertake to shut out, or take in, or to dispose 

H 2 

100 THE saint's 

of that treasure of the church. We may be beholden to men, 
as God's instruments, for our faith, but no further ; for " who 
is Paul, or who is ApoUos, but ministers by whom we believed, 
even as the Lord gave to every man ?" (1 Cor, iii. 4.) Surely, 
every step to that glory, every gracious gift and act, every deli- 
verance and mercy to the church, shall be so clearly from God, 
that his very name shall be written in the forehead of it, and 
his excellent attributes stamped upon it, that he who runs may 
read it was the work of God ; and the question may easily be 
answered, whether it be from heaven, or of men; much more 
evidently that glory is the gift of the God of glory. What, can 
man give God, or earth and dust give heaven ! Surely, no : and 
as much is it beyond them to deprive us of it. Tyrants and 
persecutors may take away our goods, but not our chief good ; 
our liberties here, but not that state of freedom ; our heads, 
but not our crown.i You can shut us up in prisons, and shut us 
out of your church and kingdom, but shut us out of heaven if 
you can. Try in lower attempts. Can you deny us the light of 
the sun, and cause it to forbear its shining ? Can you stop the 
influences of the planets, or deny us the dew of heaven, or com- 
mand the clouds to shut up their womb, or stay the course of 
the flowing streams, or seal up the passages of the deep ? How 
much less can you deprive us of our God, or deny us the light 
of his countenance, or stop the influences of his Spirit, or for- 
bid the dew of his grace to fall, or stay the streams of his love, 
and shut up his overflowing, everflowing springs, or seal up the 
bottomless depth of his bounty ? You can kill our bodies, if he 
permit you ; but try whether you can reach our souls. Nay, it 
is not in the saints' own power to give to, or take away from 
themselves this glory : so that, according to this rule, there is no 
state like tbe saints' rest ; for no man can give this rest to us, 
and none can take our joy from us. (John xvi. 22.) 

Sect. V. 5. Another rule is this : That is ever better or best 
which ever maketh the owner or possessor himself better or 
best : and surely, according to this rule, there is no state like 
heaven. Riches, honour, and pleasure, make a man neither 
better nor best : grace here makes us better, but not best ; that 
is reserved as the prerogative of glory ."■ That is our good which 

1 Decrescere summuin bonum non potest. — Senec, Epist. Ixvi. p. 644, 
Mortalia eminent, caduut; detenintur, crescunt; exhauriuutur, implentur : 
tlivinorum una natura est. — Ibid, p, C45. 
 Ut Seneca de vita beata abunde contra Epicureos probavit. 


doth us good, and that doth us good which makes us good ; 
else it miiy he good in itself, hut not good to us. External 
good is at too great a distance to he our happiness. It is not 
bread on our tables, but in our stomachs, that must nourish ; 
nor blood on our clothes or skin, but in the liver, heart, and 
veins, which is our lile.^ Nay, the things of the world are so 
far from making the owners good, that they prove not the least 
impediments thereto, and snares to the best of men. Riches 
and honour do seldom help to humility; but of pride they oc- 
casionally become most frequent fomenters. The difficulty is 
so great of conjoining graciousness with greatness, that it is next 
to an impossibility : and their conditions so rare, that they are 
next to inconsistent. To have a heart taken up with Christ and 
heaven, when we have health and abundance in the world, is 
neither easy nor ordinary. Though soul and body compose but 
one man, yet they seldom prosper both together. Therefore, 
that is our chief good which will do us good at the heart 3 and 
that is our true glory which makes us all glorious within; and 
that the blessed day which will make us holy and blessed men ; 
which will not only beautify our house, but cleanse our hearts ; 
not only give us new habitations, and new relations, but also 
new souls and new bodies. The true knowing, living Christian 
complains more frequently and more bitterly of the wants and 
woes within him, than without him. If you overhear his pray- 
ers, or see him in his tears, and ask him what aileth him, he 
will cry out more, 'Oh ! my dark understanding! oh I my hard, 
my unbelieving heart !' rather than, 'Oh ! my dishonour !' or 'Oh! 
my poverty !' Therefore, it is his desired place and state, which 
affords a relief suitable to his necessities and complaints. And 
surely that is only this rest. 

Sect. VI. 6. Another rule is, that the difficulty of obtaining 
shows the excellency: and, surely, if you consider but what it cost 
Christ to purchase it ; what it costs the Spirit to bring men's 
hearts to it; what it costs ministers to persuade to it; what it 
costs Christians, after all this, to obtain it; and what it costs 
many a half-Christian that, after all, goes without it : you will 
say, that here is difficulty, and therefore excellency. Trifles 
may be had at a trivial rate, and men may have damnation far 

s Quoniodo non summa faelicitate et vera tranquillitate fruerentur, quibus 
nihil est quod divinae voluntati reluctetur, niiiil quod turbet et k mente Dei 
alieuet, nihil quod desidereiur extra voluutatem Dei ? — 3Iuscul, in Malt, \\, 
Jom, i. p. 127. 



more easily, ft is but to lie still, and sleep out our days in care- 
less laziness.' Jt is but to take our pleasure, and mind the world, 
and cast away the thoughts of sin, and grace, and Christ, and 
heaven, and hell, out of our minds ; and do as the most do, and 
never trouble ourselves about these high things, but venture our 
souls upon our presumptuous conceits and hopes, and let the 
vessel swim which way it will ; and then stream, and wind, and 
tide, will all help us apace to the gulf of perdition. You may 
burn a hundred houses easier than build one ; and kill a thou- 
sand men, than make one alive. The descent is easy, the ascent 
not so. To bring diseases is but to cherish sloth, please the ap- 
petite, and take what most delights us ; but to cure them, will 
cost bitter pills, loathsome potions, tedious gripings, abstemious, 
accurate living; and perhaps all fall short too. He that made 
the way, and knows the way better than we, hath told us " it is 
narrow and strait," and requires striving ; and they that have 
placed it more truly and observantly than we, do tell us it lies 
through many tribulations, and is with nnich ado passed through. 
Conclude, then it is surely somewhat worth that must cost all 

Sect. VII. 7. Another rule is this : That is best, which not only 
supplieth necessity, but affordeth abundance." By necessity 
is meant here, that which we cannot live without; and, by 
abundance, is meant a more perfect supply, a comfortable, not 
a useless abundance. Indeed, it is suitable to a christian state 
and use, to be scanted here, and to have only from hand to 
mouth; and that, not only in his corporeal, but in his spiritual 
comforts. Here we must not be filled full, that so our empti- 
ness may cause hungering, and our hungering cause seeking and 
craving, and our craving testify our dependance, and occasion 
receiving, and our receiving occasion thanks returning, and all 
advance the glory of the Giver. But when we shall be brought 
to the well-head, and united close to the overflowing fountain, 
we shall then thirst no more, because we shall be empty no 

* Bion dicere solebat, facilem esse ad inferos viam, nam illic homines adire 
clauiisoculis. — Laert.X. iv.c. 7; Quod ille dixit quia luorieritibus claiiduntur 
oculi ; no3 dicere possumus de mentis ccEciiate et socordia. Facilis descensus 
Averni, &c. 

" (^uicquid prseter te est, non reficit, non sufficit; si ad tempus sufficit, con 
tamen perpetuo satiat quin adhuc amplius quasratur ; qui autem te habet, 
satiatus est ; finem suuni habet ; uon habet ultra quod (luaerat ; quia tu es super 
omne visibile, audibile, odorabile, gustabile, tangibile, sensibile. — Gers. par. 
3. Alphabet. Divini Amoris, cap. xiv. 


more. Surely, If those blessed souls did not abound in their 
blessedness, they would never so abound in praises. Such bless- 
ing, and honour, and glory, and praise to God, would never 
accompany common mercies. All those Allelujahs are not, 
surely, the language of needy men. Now, we are poor, we speak 
supplications, and our beggar's tone discovers our low condition j 
almost all our language is complaining and craving, our breath 
sighing, and our life a labouring. (Prov. xviii. 23.) But, 
surely, where all this is turned into eternal praising and rejoicing, 
the case must needs be altered, and all wants supplied and for- 
gotten. 1 think their hearts full of joy, and their mouths full 
of thanks, proves their state abounding full of blessedness. 

Sect. VIII. 8. Reason concludes that for the best, which is so 
in the judgment of the best and wisest men. Though it is 
true the judgment of imperfect man can be no perfect rule of 
truth or goodness ; yet God revealeth this good to all on whom 
he will bestow it, and hides not from his people the end they 
should aim at and attain. If the holiest men are the best and 
wisest, then their lives tell you their judgments ; and their un- 
wearied labour and sufferings for this rest, show you they take 
it for the perfection of their happiness. If men of the greatest 
experience be the wisest men, and they that have tried both 
estates, then, surely it is vanity and vexation that is found be- 
low, and solid happiness and rest above. If dying men are 
wiser than others, who, by the world's forsaking them, and by 
the approach of eternity, begin to be undeceived ; then, surely, 
happiness is hereafter, and not here : for though the deluded 
world, in their flourishing prosperity, can bless themselves in 
their fool's paradise, and merrily jest at the simplicity of the 
saints, yet scarce one of many, even of the worst of them, but 
are ready at last to cry out with Balaam, " O, that 1 might 
die the death of the righteous, and my last end might be like 
his ! " Never take heed, therefore, what they think or say 
now ; for as sure as they shall die, they will one of these days 
think and say clean contrary. As we regard not what a drunken 
man says, because it is not he, but the drink ; and when he 
hath slept he will awake in another mind ; so why should we 
regard what wicked men say now, who are drunk with security 
and fleshly delights, when we know beforehand, for certain, 
that when they have slept the sleep of death, at the furthest, 
they will awake in another mind. Only pity the perverted un- 

104 THE saint's 

derstandings of these poor men, who are beside themselves ; 
knowing that one of" these days, when, too late experience 
brings them to their right minds, they will be of a far different 
judgment. They ask us, ' What are you wiser than your fore- 
fathers ; than all the town besides ; than such and such great 
men, and learned men?' And do vou think, in good sadness, 
we may not, with better reason, ask you, ' What are you wiser 
than Enoch, and Noah ; than Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Samuel ; 
than David and Solomon ; than Moses and the propliets ; than 
Peter, Paul, all the apostles, and all the sons of God, in all ages 
and nations, that ever went to heaven ; yea, than Jesus Christ 
himself?' Men may be deceived ; but we appeal to the unerring 
judgment of wisdom itself, even the wise, all-knowing God, 
whether " a day in his courts be not better than a thousand 
elsewhere;" and whether "it be not better to be doorkeepers 
there, than to dwell in the tents of wickedness?" (Psal. Iviii. 10.) 
Nay, whether the very " reproaches of Christ (even the scorns 
we have from you, for Christ's sake and the Gos])ers,) be not 
greater riches than all the treasures of the world?" (Heb. xi. 
25, 26.) If wisdom, then, may pass the sentence, you sec 
which way the cause will go ; and " wisdom is justified of her 
children." (Matt. xi. 19.)^ 

Sect. IX. Lastly : another rule in reason is this : That good 
which containeth all other good in it, must needs itself be best. 
And where do vou think, in reason, that all the streams of good- 
ness do finally empty themselves ? Is it not in God, from whom, 
by secret springs, they finally proceed ? Where, else, do all 
the lines of goodness concentre ? Are not all the sparks con- 
tained in this fire ; and all the drops in this ocean ? Surely, the 
time was when there was nothing besides God, and then all 
good was only in him.^ And even now the creature's essence 
and existence are secondary, derived, contingent, improper, in 
comparison of his, " who is, and was, and is to come ;" whose 

'= Oiiffirendum est (ut summum bonum) quod not fiat iuilies deterius ; cui 
non poss'u obstari ; quo ijil melius possit optari. Quid hoc est ? Animus: 
sed hie rectus, bonus, magiius. (2uid aliud voces huiic quam Deuni in 
humaiio corpore hospitantem? Hie animus tarn in equitem Romanum, 
quam in servuni j)otest cadere. Quid est eques Romanus ? aut libertinus ? 
aut servus ? Nomina ex anibitioiie aut ex injuria nata. Sub^ilire in cceIuuj 
ex angulo licet ; exsur^e modo, et te quoque dignuiu iingeDeo ? finges autem 
non auro, non argento. Non potest ex hac materia imago Deo expritni simi- 
lis. — Senec. Epist. xxxi. ad Luc. torn, ii. p. 583. Who would think these 
were a heathen's words ? 


name alone is called, " I am." What do thine eyes see, or 
thine heart conceive desirable, which is not there to be had ? 
Sin, indeed, there is none ; but durst thou call that good ? 
Worldly delights there are none ; for they are good but for the 
present necessity, and please but the brutish senses. Brethren, 
do you fear losing or parting with any thing you now enjoy ? 
What ! Do you fear you shall want when you come to heaven? 
Shall you want the drops when you have the ocean ; or the light 
of the candle, when you have the sun : or the shallow creature, 
when you have the perfect Creator ? " Cast thy bread upon the 
waters, and after many days thou shalt find it." (Eccles. xi. 1.) 
Lay abroad thy tears, thy prayers, pains, boldly, and unweari- 
edly : as God is true, thou dost but set them to usury, and shalt 
receive a hundredfold. (Matt. xix. 29.) Spare not, man, for 
state, for honour, for labour, if heaven do not make amends 
for all, God hath deceived us ; which who dare once imagine. 
Cast away friends, houses, lands, life, if he bid thee : leap into 
the sea, as Peter, (Matt. viii. 35,) if he command thee : lose 
thy life, and thou shalt save it everlastingly ; when those that 
saved theirs, shall lose them everlastingly. Venture all, man, 
upon God's word and promise. There is a day of rest coming 
which will fully pay for all. All the pence and the farthings 
thou expendest for him, are contained, with infinite advantage, 
in the massy gold and jewels of thy crown. When Alexander 
had given away his treasure, and they asked him where it was, 
he pointed to the poor, and said, " In scriniis," In my chests. 
And when he went upon a hopeful expedition, he gave away his 
gold ; and when he was asked what he kept for himself, he an- 
swers, " Spem majorum et meliorum," The hope of greater and 
better things. How much more boldly may we lay out all, and 
point to heaven, and say, it is in scriniis, in our everlasting 
treasure ; and take that hope of greater and better things, in- 
stead of all. Nay, lose thyself for God, and renounce thyself, 
and thou shalt at that day find thyself again in him. Give him 
thyself, and he will receive thee upon the same terms as Socrates 
did his scholar, iEschines; who gave himself to his master, be- 
cause he had nothing else, "Accipio, sed ea lege ut te tibi mclio- 
rem reddam quam accepi :" that he may return thee to thyself 
better than he received thee.y So, then, this rest is the good 

y Machines pauper Socratis auditor: nihil, inquit, diguum to inveni quod 
dare tibi possim : et hoc modo pauperein me esse sentio. Jtaque doiio tihi, 
quod uuum habeo, meipsum. Hoc munus rog-o, quaiecuiujue est, boni consu- 

106 THE saint's 

which containeth all other good in it. And thus you see, ac- 
cording to the rules of reason, the transcendent excellency of 
the saints' glory in the general. We shall next mention the 
particular excellencies. 

The Excellencies of our Rest. 

Yet let us draw a little nearer, and see more immediately 
from the pure fountain of the Scriptures, what further excel- 
lencies this rest affordeth. And the Lord hide us in the clefts 
of the rock, and cover us with the hands of indulgent grace, 
while we approach to take this view. And the Lord grant we 
may put off from our feet the shoes of irreverence and fleshly 
conceivings, while we stand upon this holy ground. 

Sect. I. And first, it is a most singular honour and ornament, 
in the style of the saint's rest, to be called the purchased pos- 
session ; that it is the fruit of the blood of the Son of God ; 
vea, the chief fruit ; yea, the end and perfection of all the fruits 
and efficacy of that blood. Surely, love is the most precious 
ingredient in the whole composition ; and of all the flowers that 
grew in the garden of love, can there be brought one more 
sweet and beautiful to the garland, than this blood ? Greater 
love than this there is not ; to lay down the life of the lover. 
And to have this our Redeemer ever before our eyes, and the 
liveliest sense and freshest remembrance of that dying, bleeding 
love still upon our souls I O, how will it fill our souls with per- 
petual ravishments, to think, that in the streams of this blood 
we have swum through the violence of the world, the snares of  
Satan, the seducements of flesh, the curse of the law, the 
wrath of an offended God, the accusations of a guilty con- 
science, and the vexing doubts and fears of an unbelieving heart, 
and are passed through all, and are arrived safely at the breast 
of God ! Now we are stupified with vile and senseless hearts, 
that can hear all the story of this bloody love, and read all the 
dolors and sufferings of love, and hear all his sad complaints, 
and all with dulne&s, and unaffected. He cries to us, " Behold 

las cogitesque alios cum multum tibi dederint, plus sibi reliquisse. Cui 
Socrates ; Quid ni tu, iiiquit, mihi maguura niuiius dederis, uisi forte parvote 
ffistimas? Habeo itaque curae, ut te melioreai tibi reddain quam accepi. — 
Senec. de Bene/. 1. 1. c. viii. p. 3^5. 


and see ; is it nothing to you, O, all ye that pass by ? Is there 
any sorrow like unto my sorrow?" (Lam. i. 12.) And we will 
scarce hear or regard the dolorous voice, nor scarce turn aside 
to view the wounds of him who turned aside, and took us up to 
heal our wounds at this so dear a rate.^ But, oh ! then our 
perfected souls will feel as well as hear, and, with feeling appre- 
hensions, flame again in love for love. Now we set his picture, 
wounded and dying, before our eyes, but can get it no nearer 
our hearts than if we believed nothing of what we read ; but, 
then, when the obstructions between the eye and the under- 
standing are taken away, and the passage opened batv/cen the 
head and the heart, surely our eyes will everlastingly affect our 
heart. And while we view, with one eye, our slain, revived Lord, 

^ If Clirist came to bear the curse which was against us, hovv should he be 
made a curse but by taking that death which the curse lay in ? And if the 
death of our Lord was the redemjition of all men, and by his death the middle 
wall id' partition was broken down, and the gentiles called, liuw should he 
invite us to himself if he were not crucified ? for it is ouly on the cross that 
men die ^vith their arms stretched out. — Athanas. lib. dc Incitrn. T'crbi^ 
Ha?c eniui cum sit principalis et suninia hominis faelicilas secundum animam, 
nun poterat conferri nisi per principale et summum humanse reilemptionis, et 
pro peccatis nostris saiistactionis principium sacrificium, viz. Messiffi. — Jos. 
De l^oisin dc Lege Dwlna, c. 8. p. 1*7. Lege et eundem Vcisin Theolog. 

Jndaeor. 1. 2. c. 5. pp. 293, 29-4 Quid mirum si caput pro membris accepit 

curationem, quam tamen in seipso non babuit necessariain ? Nonne et in 
membris nostris SEepe pro unius infirniitate alteri adhibetur curatio ? Dolet 
caput et in brachio fit coctura ; doleut renes, el fit in til)ia ; ita hodie pro 
totins ccirporis putredine, cauterium quoddam infi)tum est in capite Christi. — 
Bern. Serm. 30. de Tempore. Facessat ergo maeror, tristitia fugiat ; eliminetur 
dolor ; rancor abscedat ut iiceat vacare et videre cum Moysi visionem banc 
grandem ; qualiter Deus in ventre virginis concipiatur, decipiatur diabolus, 
recipiatur perditum, indebitum accipiatur ! Totum me trahit afFectio, sed 
oratio deficit; dives cogitatio vocis paupertate confunditur. — Bern. Sertn. 24. 
in Die Natal. Quid aeque mentem cogitantis impinguat? Numen Jesu mel 
iu ore, in aure melos, in corde jubiijeus. Omiiis cibus qui non conditur hoc 
sale infatuatus est. Scri[)tura quae non fuerit interlita oleo tanta; devotionis, 
est itisi|)ida. — Bern. Serm. 23. Non ca]iio ine prae laetitia, quia iUa majestas 
naturam suam naturae meae carnis et sanguinis suhlevat; et me miserum in 
divitias glorias sua;, non ad horani, sed in sempiternum includit ; fit frater 
mens dominus meus ; et timorem domini fratris viiicit affeclus. Doniine Jesu 
Christe, liheuter audio te regnantem in ccelis ; libentius nascentem in lerris; 
libentissime cruceni, clavos ct lanceam sustinentem. Haec siquidem effusio 
rapit affectum me.um ; et istorum memoiia incalescit cor n\&nn\. — Bern. Serm. 
23. in die Natal. For all the great seeming difference among us about the 
grace of Christ, it is fully agreed between the Calvinists and Lutherans, saith 
Hottonus, Ne guttulam quidem salutis extra Dei gratiam in solo Christo 
Mediatore quaerendam esse, &c. Quod in ipso, per et propter ipsum solum, 
non propter nierita sua, pondus asternae gloria; sint recepturi, cum Deus in ipsis 
non eorum merita, sed sua dona coronaturus sit. — lloltonus de Toler. Christ- 
ian, pp. 59, (iO. 

lOS THi-; saint's 

and with the other eye, our lost, recovered souls, and transcend- 
ent glory, these views will eternally pierce us, and warm our 
very souls. And those eyes, through which folly and lust have 
so often stolen into our hearts, shall now be the casements to 
let in the love of our dearest Lord for ever. Now, though we 
should, as some do, travel to Jerusalem, and view the Mount of 
Olives, where he prayed and wept, and see that dolorous way 
by which he bare his cross, and entered the temple of the 
holy grave 3 yea, if we should, with Peter, have stooped down 
and seen the place where he lay, and beheld his relicts; yet these 
bolted doors of sin and flesh would have kept out the feeling of 
all that love. But, oh ! that is the joy ! We shall then leave 
these hearts of stone and rock behind us, and the sin that here 
so close besets us, and the sottish unkindness that followed us 
so long, shall not be able to follow us into that glory. But we 
shall behold, as it were, the wounds of love with eyes and hearts 
of love for ever. Suppose, a little to help our apprehensions, 
that a saint, who had partaken of the joys of heaven, hath been 
translated from as long an abode in hell, and after the experi- 
ence of such a change, should have stood with Mary and the 
rest, by the cross of Christ, and have seen the blood, and heard 
the groans of his Redeemer. What, think you, would love have 
stirred in his breast or no ? Would the voice of his dying Lord 
have melted his heart or no ? O, that 1 were sensible of what I 
spea]v 1 With what astonishing apprehensions, then, will re- 
deemed saints everlastingly behold their blessed Redeemer ! I 
will not meddle with their vain, audacious question, who must 
needs know, whether the glorified body of Christ do yet retain 
either the wounds or scars. But this is most certain, that the 
memory of it will be as fresh, and the impressions of love as 
deep, and its working as strong, as if his wounds were still in 
our eves, and his complaints still in our ears, and his blood still 
streaming afresh. Now his heart is open to us, and ours shut to 
him : but when his heart shall be open, and our hearts open, oh ! 
the blessed congress that there will then be ! What a passionate 
meeting was there between our new-risen Lord and the first 
sinful, silly woman that he appears to ! How doth love strug- 
gle for expressions, and the straitened fire, shut up in the breast, 
strive to break forth ! (John xx. 16 ; Matt, xxviii. 9.) " Mary!" 
saith Christ : " Master ! " saith Mary : and presently she clasps 
about his feet, having her heart as near to his heart as her 
hands were to his feet. What a meeting of love then, there 


will be, between the new glorified saint and the glorious Re- 
deemer ! But I am here at a loss, my apprehensions fail me, 
and fall too short ; only this, I know, it will be the singular 
praise of our inheritance, that it was bought with the price of 
that blood ; and the singular joy of the saints, to behold the 
purchaser and the price together with the possession. Neither 
will the views of the wounds of love renew our wounds of sor- 
row : he whose first words, after his resurrection, were to a 
great sinner: "Woman, why weepest thou?" (John xx. 13 5) 
knows how to raise love and joy by all those views, without 
raising any cloud of sorrow, or storm of tears at all. ("2 Sam. 
xxiii. 16, 17.) He that made the sacramental commemoration 
of his death to be his church's feast, will surelv make the real 
enjoyment of its blessed purchase to be marrow and fatness. 
And if it afforded joy to hear from his mouth, " This is my 
body which is given for you," and "This is my blood which 
was shed for you;" what joy will it afford to hear, "This 
glory is the fruit of my body and my blood !" And what a merry 
feast will it be, when we shall drink of the fruit of the vine new 
with him in the kingdom of his Father, as the fruit of his own 
blood ! David would not drink of the waters which he longed 
for, because they were the blood of those men who jeoparded 
their lives for them, and thought them fitter to offer to God, 
than to please him.^ But we shall value these waters more 
highly, and yet drink them the more sweetly, because they are 
the blood of Christ, not jeoparded only but shed for them. They 
will be the more sweet and dear to us, because they were so 
bitter and dear to him. If the buyer be judicious, we estimate 
things by the price they cost. If any thing we enjoy were pur- 
chased with the life of our dearest friend, how highly should we 
value it ! nay, if a dying friend deliver but a token of his love, 
how carefully do we preserve it, and still remember him when 
we behold it, as if his own name were written on it ! And will 
not then the death and blood of our Lord everlastingly sweeten 

'I Hanc gratiam Christus impertit pretio sanguinis, &c. Hanc sequamur 
omnes : hujus sacraniento et signo censeamur. Hie nobis vitae viam aperit : 
hie ad paradisum reduces facit : hie ad coglorum regna perducit : cum ipso 
semper vivimus, facti per ipsum filii Dei : cum ipso cxultahimus semper 
ipsius cruore reparati. Erimus Christiani cum Christo simul gloriosi; de 
Deo Patre beati, de perpetua voluptate ]a;tantes semper in co:i«ipectu Dei, ct 
agentes Deo gratias semper. Neque euim poterit nisi l.-ctus esse semper, et 
gratus, qui cum morii fuisset obnoxius, factus est de immortalitate securus. 
— Ci/pr. ltd Demetrian, verbis ultimis. 

1 10 THE saint's 

our possessed glory ? Methiiiks they should value the plenty 
of" the Gospel with their peace and freedom at a higher rate, 
who niav remember what it hath cost ; how much precious 
blood ; how many of the lives of God's worthies and witnesses, 
besides all other costs! Methinks, when I am preaching, or 
hearing, or reading, I see them as before mine eyes, whose blood 
was shed to seal the truth, and look the more respectively on 
them yet living, who suffered to assert it. O, then, when we 
are rejoicing in glory, how shall we think of the blood that re- 
vived our souls, and how shall we look upon him whose suffer- 
ings did put that joy into our heart! How carefully preserve 
we those prizes which with greatest hazard we gained from the 
enemy ! Goliah's sword must be kept as a trophy, and laid up 
behind the ephod : and in a time of need, David says, "There 
is none to that." (I Sam. xx. 9.) Surely, when we do divide 
the spoil, and partake of the prize which our Lord so dearly 
won, we shall say indeed, " There is none to that." How dear 
was Jonathan's love to David, which was testified by stripping • 
himself of the robe that was upon him, and giving it to David, 
and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his 
girdle ; and also by saving him from his father's wrath ! How 
dear for ever will the love of Christ be then to us, who stripped 
himself, as it were, of his majesty and glory, and put our mean 
garment of flesh upon him, that he might put the robes of his 
own righteousness and glory upon us ; and saved us, not from 
cruel injustice, but from his Father's deserved wrath ! Well, 
then. Christians, as you used to do in your books, and on your 
goods, to write down the price they cost ; so do you on your 
righteousness and on your glory, write down the price, " The 
precious blood of Christ."'^ 

Yet understand this rightly : not this highest glory was in strict- 
est proper sense purchased, so as that it was the most immediate 
effect of Christ's death. We must take heed that we conceive not 
of God as a tyrant, who so delighteth in cruelty, as to exchange 
mercies for stripes, or to give a crown on condition he may 
torment men.*^ God was never so pleased with the sufferings of 

^ By the redundancy of which merit, after satisfaction thereby made unto 
his Father's justice for our debt, tliere is a further purchase made of grace 
and glory, and of all good things in our behalf. — Dr. Rnynold's Life of Christ, 
p. 402. (Isa. xxvii. 4 ; Lara. iii. 3;i ; Ezek. xviii. 2;<, 32.) 

•^ O. Nonne bona effecta est mors Christi per modum objecti.' Nonne 
summe aniabilis taiujuam iiisirunieiitum praecipuum salutis nostra; ? R. (juod 
dicitur mortem Christi esse iiistrumentum nostras salutis iion excedere ratio- 


the innocent, much less, of his Son, as to sell his mercy properly 
for their sufferings : fury dvvelleth not in him, nor doth he 
willingly correct the sons of men, nor take pleasure in the death 
of him that dieth. But the sufferings of Christ were primarily 
and immediately to satisfy justice that required blood, and to 
bear what was due to the sinner, and to receive the blow that 
should have fallen upon him, and so to restore him to the life 
he lost, and the happiness he fell from ; but this dignity, which 
surpasseth the first, is, as it were, from the redundancy of his 
merit, or a secondary fruit of his death. The work of his re- 
demption so well pleased the Father, that he gave him power to 
advance his chosen to a higher dignity than they fell from, and 
to give them the glory which was given to himself; and all this 
according to his counsel, and the good pleasure of his own will. 
Sect. II. The second pearl in the saint's diadem, is, that 
it is free. This seemeth, as Pharaoh's second kine, to de- 
vour the former ; and, as the angel to Balaam, to meet it with 
a drawn sword of a full opposition. But the seeming discord 
is but a pleasing diversity, composed into that harmony which 
constitutes the melody. These two attributes, purchased and free, 
are the two chains of gold, which by their pleasant twisting, do 
make up the wreath for the heads of the pillars in the temple of 
God. (I Kings vii. 17.) It was dear to Christ, but free to us. 
When Christ was to buy, silver and gold were nothing worth, 
prayers and tears could not suffice, nor any thing below his 
blood ; but when we come to buy, the price is fallen to just 
nothing : our buying is but receiving, we have it freely, without 
money, and without price.'^ Nor do the Gospel conditions make 

nem medii: quod antera additur illam esse nobis summe amabilem, veruin 
est; sed supposito Dei ordiue, qui earn et sibi in sacrificium, et nobis iu re- 
demptioneni constituit. Nou sic porro intelligitur aliquid esse bonuui per 
modum objecti : sensus enim est, iliud esse tale, ut secuudum se sit amabiie: 
cujusmodi nequaquam est mors Christi, nee cujusvis alterius. — Gibieiif,\.2. 
de Libert, c. 22. sect. 11. p. 441. 

'' Yet our crown may truly be said to be our due; for God giveth it as 
a righteous Judge: But it is not due as a debt upon our merit, but a 
gift upon a testament, or upon promise. (2 Tim. iv. 7.) So Polycarp. 
Epist. ad Philip, (edit. Usserii, p. 22,) saith, that "Ignatius, Zozimus, 
Rufus, and Paul, did not run in vain, but in faith and righteousness." 
Et ad debitum sibi locum a Domino cui et compassi sunt, abieruut : quia 
non hoc seculum dilexerunt, sed eum qui pro ipsis et pro nobis mortuus, 
est, &c. ; because they loved not this world, but him that died and rose for us 
and them, they went to the place which was due to them, [ofetXifievou avTo7s) 
from the Lord, with whom also they suffered : and Ignatius, another of John's 
disciples, doth most frequently use the phrase of " worthy" and *' deserving," 

112 THE saint's 

it the less free, or the covenant tenor before mentioned contra- 
dict any of this. If the Gospel conditions had been such as are 
the laws, or payment of the debt required at our hands, the 
freeness then were more questionable ; yea, if God had said to 
us, ' Sinners, if you will satisfy my justice but for one of your 
sins, I will forgive you all the rest^' it would have been a hard 
condition on our part, and the grace of the covenant not so 
free, as our disability doth necessarily require. But if all the 
condition be our cordial acceptation, surely we deserve not the 
name of purchasers : thankful accepting of a free acquittance 
is no paying of a debt. If life be offered to a condemned man, 
upon condition that he shall not refuse the offer, I think the 
favour is nevertheless free ; nay, though the condition were, 
that he should beg, and wait before he have his pardon, and take 
him for his Lord who hath thus redeemed him : and this is no 
satisfying of the justice of the law ; especially when the con- 
dition is also given, as it is by God to all his chosen ; surely, 
then, here is all free, if the Father freely forgive the Son, and 
the Son freely pay the debt ; and if God do freely accept that 
way of payment, when he might have required it of the princi- 
pal, and if both Father and Son do freely offer us the purchased 
life upon those fair conditions, and if they also freely send the 
Spirit to enable us to perform those conditions, then what is 
here that is not free ? Is not every stone that builds this temple 
free stone ? O, the everlasting admiration that must needs 
surprise the saints to think of this freeness ! What did the 
Lord see in me that he should judge me meet for such a state ? 
That I, who was but a poor, diseased, despised wretch, should 
be clad in the brightness of this glory ! That I, a silly, creeping, 

as in the title to his epistle to the Romans, he calls them " worthy of God, 
worthy of eminency, worthy of bJessetlness, worthy of praise, worthy of faith, 
worthy of chastity, gruuiided in love and faith," &c. : and in the epistle itself 
he often useth the same phrase of himself, " That I may be worthy to see 
your face, as I much desire to deserve ;" and so often he speaks of deserving 
his martyrdom, even through the whole epistle. This was the language of 
this apostolical man : yet he, no doubt, spoke of deserving and merit only in 
an evangelical, and not a legal sense. So Tertullian : Nou enim carnis 
restitutionem negavit si compensalionem mercedis opposuit ; cum ipsi com- 
jiensatio debeatur, cui dissolutio dejiutatur, scilicet cann.— Tertul. lib. de 
Anima, c. iv. p. (edit. Pamel.) 418. ; sic idem Tertul. lib. de Resur. Carnis, 
c. xvi. )i. 410. inquit : Beneticiis Deus (liberare) debet. But all this is meant 
of n dehitinn ex promisso gratio only. This is evident in the following sen- 
tence : (2uicquid omnino homini .\ Deo prospectum at(|ue promissum est, 
nou solum anima;, verum et carni scias debitum. — J'eitul. L de Resur. 
Cam, cap. v. p. 408. 


breathing worm, should be advanced to this high dignity ! That 
I, who was but lately groaning, weeping, dying, should now be 
as full of joy as my heart can hold; yea, should be taken from 
the grave, where I was rotting and stinking, and from the dust 
and darkness where 1 seemed forgotten, and here set before his 
throne ! That I should be taken with Mordecai from captivity, 
to be set next unto the King ; and with Daniel from the den, to 
be made ruler of princes and provinces : and Avith Saul from 
seeking asses, to be advanced to a kingdom ! O, who can fa- 
thom unmeasurable love ? Indeed, if the proud-hearted, self- 
ignorant, self-admiring sinners should be thus advanced, who 
think none so fit for preferment as themselves, perhaps instead 
of admiring free love, they would, with those unhappy angels, 
be discontented yet with their estate. But when the self-deny- 
ing, self-accusing, humble soul, who thought himself unworthy 
the ground he trod on, and the air he breathed in, unworthy to 
eat, drink, or live, when he shall be taken up into this glory I 
he who dare scarce come among, or speak to the imperfect 
saints on earth, because he was imworthy; he who dare scarce 
hear, or scarce read the Scripture, or scarce pray and call 
God Father, or scarcely receive the sacraments of his covenant, 
and all because he was unworthy, for this soul to find itself wrapt 
up into heaven, and closed in the arms of Christ even in a mo- 
ment ! do but think with yourselves, what the transporting, 
astonishing admiration of such a soul will be ! He that durst not 
lift up his eyes to heaven, but stood afar off, smiting on his 
breast, and crying, " Lord, be merciful to me a sinner 5" now 
to be lift up to heaven himself! He who was wont to write his 
name in Bradford's style, " The unthankful, the hard-hearted, 
the unworthy sinner," and was wont to admire, that patience 
could bear so long, and justice suflfer him to live ; surely he 
will admire at this alteration, when he shall find by experience, 
that unworthiness could not hinder his salvation, which he 
thought would have bereaved him of every mercy ! Ah, Christian, 
there is no talk of our worthiness or unworthiness ; if worthiness 
were our condition for admittance, we might sit down with St. 
John and weep, " because none in heaven or earth is found 
worthy ; but the Lion of the tribe of Judah is worthy and hath 
prevailed;" and by that title must we hold the inheritance : we 
shall offer there the offering that David refused, even praise for 
that which cost us nothing. Here our commission runs, " Freely 
ye have received, freely give :" but Christ hath dearly received, 


114 THE saint's 

yet freely glves.^ The Master heals us of our leprosy freely; 
but Gehazi, who had no finger in the cure, will surely run after 
us, and take something of us, and falsely pretend, it is his mas- 
ter's pleasure. The pope, and his servants, will be paid for 
their pardons and indulgences, but Christ v/ill take nothing for 
his. The fees of their prelates' courts are large, and commuta- 
tion of penance must cost men's purses dear, or else they must 
be cast out of the synagogue, and soul and body delivered up to 
the devil : but none are shut out of that church for want of 
money, nor is poverty any eyesore to Christ. An empty heart 
may bar them out, but an empty purse cannot : his kingdom of 
grace hath ever been more consistent with despised poverty than 
wealth and honour, and riches occasion the difficulty of entrance 
far more than want can do, "for that which is highly esteemed 
among men, is despised with God :" and so it is also ; " the 
])oor of the world, rich in faith, whom God hath chosen to be 
heirs of that kingdom, which he hath prepared for them that 
love him." 1 know the true " labourer is worthy of his 
hire :" and, " they that serve at the altar, should live upon 
the altar :" and, " it is not fit to muzzle the ox that tread- 
eth out the corn :" (James ii. 5 ; 1 Cor. vi. 4 — 13 :) and I 
know, it is either hellish malice, or penurious baseness, or 
ignorance of the weight of their work and burden, that makes 
their maintenance so generally incompetent, and their very 
livelihood and subsistence so envied and grudged at ; and that 
it is a mere plot of the prince of darkness, for the diversion of 
their thoughts, that they must be studying how to get bread for 
their own and children's mouths, when they should be preparing 
the bread of life for their people's souls ; but yet let me desire the 
right-aiming ministers of Christ, to consider what is expedient as 
well aswhat is ]a\vful,'and that the savingof one soul is better than 
a thousand pounds a year, and our gain, though due, is a cursed 
gain,vvhich is a stumbling-block to our people's souls : let us make 
the free Gospel as little burdensome and chargeable as is possible. 
I had rather never take their tithes while I live, than by them 
to destroy the souls for whom Christ died ; (1 Cor. ix. 18, 19 ;) 
and though God hath ordained, that " they which preach the 
Gospel should live of the Gospel," yet I had rather suffer all 

e Ad caelestis Hierusalem non ascendunt consortium, nisi qui toto corde 
profitentur, non proprii operis sed divini esse niiineris quod ascendunt. — 
Prosp. Sen. 31. Lege et ejus Carni. de Ingrat. c. xlv. 

* Lege Zuingl. de hac re contra catabapt. optime disserentem. Tom. ii. in 
Eccl. p. 47. et passim. 


things than huider the Gospel; (Rom. xiv. 13, 15, 20,21 5) 
and it were better for me to die than that any man should make 
this my glorying void. (Rom. xv. 1, 2; 1 Cor. ix. 12 — 15.) 
T'hough the well-leading elders be worthy of double honour, 
especially the laborious in the word and doctrine, yet if the 
necessity of souls and the promoting of the Gospel require 
it, I had rather preach the Gospel in hunger and rags, than 
rigidly contend for what is my due ; and if J should do so, yet 
have I not whereof to glory, for necessity is laid upon me; yea, 
woe be to me if 1 preach not the Gospel, though I never received 
any thing from men. (1 Tim. v. 17; 1 Cor. iv. 10—12 ; ix. 16.) 
How unbeseeming the messengers of his free grace and kingdom 
is it, rather to lose the hearts and souls of their people, than to 
lose a groat of their due ; and rather to exasperate them against 
the message of God, than to forbear somewhat of their right, 
and to contend with them at law for the wages of the Gospel, 
and to make the glad tidings to their yet carnal hearts seem to 
be sad tidings because of this burden ! this is not the way of 
Christ and his apostles, nor according to the self-denying, yield- 
ing, suffering doctrine which they taught. Away with all those 
actions that are against the main end of our studies and calling, 
which is to win souls ; and woe be upon that gain which hinders 
the gaining of men to Christ. I know, flesh will here object 
necessities, and distrust will not want arguments ; but we who 
have enough to answer to the diffidence of our people, let us 
take home some of our answers to ourselves, and teach ourselves 
first before we teach them. How many have you known that 
God suffered to starve in his vineyard ? 

But this is our exceeding consolation, that though we may 
pay for our Bibles, and books, and sermons, and, it may be, paid 
for our freedom too, to enjoy and use them ; yet as we paid no- 
thing for God's eternal love, and nothing for the Son of his love, 
and nothing for his Spirit, and our grace and faith, and nothing 
for our pardon, so shall we pay nothing for our eternal rest.^ 
We may pay for the bread and wine, but we shall not pay for 
the body and blood, nor for the great things of the covenant 

s Antequam gratia justificetur ut Justus efficiatur iuipius, quid est nisi im- 
pius ? Quern si debitum sequeretur, quid ejus uierito nisi supplicium redde- 
retur? — August. Epist.lQQ. De me omniuo nihil pra!sumam. Quid enim 
attuli boni ut niei misereris, et me justificares ? Quid in me invenisti nisi 
solapeccata; tuum niliil aliud nisi natura quam creasti ; caetera mala me a 
quae delevisti. Non ego prior ad te exsurrexi, sed tu ad me excitanduui veuisti, 
— August, Enar. 1. in Psal. Iviii. 

I 2 

116 THE saint's 

which it seals unto us ; and, indeed, we have a vahiable price 
to give for those, but for these we have none at all : yet this is 
not all : if it were only for nothing, and without our merit, the 
wonder were great; but it is, moreover, against our merit, and 
against our long endeavouring of our own ruin. O, the broken 
heart that hath known the desert of sin, doth both understand 
and feel what I say ! What an astonishing thought it will be to 
think of tiie unmeasurable difference between our deservings 
and our receivings ; between the state we should have been in, 
and the state we are in ; to look down upon hell, and see the 
vast difference that free grace hath made betwixt us and them ; 
to see the inheritance there, which we were born to, so different 
from that which we are adopted to ! O, what pangs of love will 
it cause within us, to think. Yonder was my native right, my de- 
served portion ; those should have been my hideous cries, my 
doleful groans, my easeless pains, my endless torment ; those 
unquenchable flames I should have lain in ; that never-dying- 
worm should have fed upon me ; yonder was the place that sin 
would have brought me to, but this is it that Christ hath 
brought me to ; yonder death was the wages of my sin, 
but this eternal life is the gift of God through Jesus Christ 
my Lord. Did not I neglect grace, and make light of the offers 
of life, and slight my Redeemer's blood a long time, as well as 
yonder suffering souls ? Did I not let pass my time, and forget 
my God and soul, as well as they ; and was not I born in sin 
and wrath as well as they ? O, who made me to differ ?'^ Was 
my heart naturally any readier for Christ than theirs, or any 
whit better affected to the Spirit's persuasions ? Should 1 ever 
have begun to love, if God had not begun to me ; or ever be will- 
ing, if he.had not made me willing; or ever differed, if he had 
not made me to differ ? Had I not now been in those flames, if 
I had had mine own wav, and been let alone to mine own 
will ? Did I not resist as powerful means, and lose as fair ad- 
vantages, as they ? And should 1 not have lingered in Sodom 
till the flames had seized on me, if God had not in mercy carried 

'' Sed nos earn gratiara volumus Pelagiani aliquanclo fateantur, qua futurae 
gloriai raagnitudo, non solum proniittitur, veruni etiani crcditur et speratur ; 
nee solum revelatur sapientia, verum etiam amatur ; iiec suadetur solum omne 
quod bonum est, verum et persuadetur. Non enim omnium est fides, &c. — 
August, de Gral. Christi, c. 10. Uiide coguoscimus Dei esse, et ut bonum 
facere velimus,et ut bouum facere valeamus. — Fulgent, lib. 1. adMonim. cap. ix. 
Multa Deus facit in iiomiue bona, qua; non I'acit homo ; nulla vero f'acit 
homo, quit" non I'ucit Deus ut facit homo. — August. 1. ii. ad Bonif. cap. 8. 


me out ? O, how free was all this love ; and how free is this 
enjoyed glory ! Doubtless this will be our everlasting admira- 
tion, that so rich a crown should fit the head of so vile a sinner; 
that such high advancement, and such long unfruitfulness and 
unkindness can be the state of the same persons ; and that such 
vile rebellions can conclude in such most precious joys : but no 
thanks to us, nor to any of our duties and labours, much less to 
our neglects and laziness : we know to whom the praise is due, 
and must be given for ever ; and, indeed, to this very end it was, 
that infinite wisdom did cast the whole design of man's salvation 
into the mould of purchase and freeness,' that the love and joy of 
man might be perfected, and the honour of grace most highly 
advanced, that the thought of merit might neither cloud the one 
nor obstruct the other, and that on these two hinges the gates 
of heaven might turn. So then, let " Deserved" be written on the 
door of hell, but on the door of heaven and life, "The free gift." 
Sect. III. Thirdly, The third comfortable attribute of this rest is, 
that it is the saint's proper and peculiar possession. It belongs to 

' It is a fond conceit of the antinomians, to think that justification and sal- 
vation are not free, if given on condition ; as long as the condition is but ac- 
ceptance, and the freeness excludeth all our merit of satisfaction. The like 
may be said of the conditionality of sincere evangelical obedience to the con- 
tinuance and consummation of our justification, and to our salvation. In 
both which points, 1 desire those men that will not receive the truth from me, 
to receive it from learned Placeus in 'Thes. Salmurieus,' vol. i. p. 32, 34. I 
will recite but two theses, which contain most that is misliked in my apho- 
risms. Thes. xxxvii. : Fide justificamur ; non tanquam parte aliqua justitiie, 
aut opere quod suo quodam pretio et merito justificationem nobis impetret, 
aut dispositione aniniae ad introductionem justitiae inhaerentis ; sed tanquam 
conditione fcederis gratiae quam Deus a nobis idcirco exigit, loco conditionis 
foederis legalis (quas nobis carnisvitio facta est impossibilis) quod ea nihil aliud 
Mt, quam doni justitiae in Christo Jesu per evangelium nobis oblati accieptatio, 
qua fit ex Dei pacto gratuilo ut ilia justitia nostra sit. Mark, he saith, 
' in Christo,' for Christ is first accepted, and so righteousnesness in and with 
him ; not the gift without the person. Thes. xli. About justification by 
works : Id ipsum fortasse hue ratione commodius explicabitur, opponitur 
justificatio accusation!: a duahus autem accusationibus premimur in foro 
divin(j. (la reference to tlie tlircatening and the righteousness of the two cove- 
vants.) Primutn objicitiir, nos esse peccatores ; lioc est, reos violatae condi- 
tionis, quae ioelere leguii lata est. Deinde ohjicitur, no? esse infideles ; hoc 
est, non praestitisse conditionem foederis gratiae : videlicet fidem. Ab accusa- 
tione priore, sola fide justificamur, qua Christi gratiam et justitiam amplec- 
timur. A posteriore, justificamur etiam operibus, quateiuis lis fides ostendi- 
tur. A posteriore, justificationem respiciens Jacobus aflirmavit merito, ex 
operibus justificari hominem et non ex fide tantum. Paulus vero respiciens 
ad priorem, sola fide hominem sine optribus justificari, multis rebus neces- 
sariis addixit. This is phiin truth. So also Diodate in his ' Annotation on 
Jam. ii. ;' Ludovicus De Dieu, Phil. Codurcus, and our Mead, say more for 
works, though I believe they meant orthodoxly. 

118 THE saint's 

110 other of all the sons of men; not that It would have detracted 
from the greatness or freeness of the gift, if God had so pleased, 
that all the world should have enjoyed it : but when God hath 
resolved otherwise, that it must be enjoyed but by few, to find 
our names among that number must needs make us the more to 
value our enjoyment. If all Egypt had been light, the Israel- 
ites should not have had the less; but yet to enjoy that light 
alone, while their neighbours live in thick darkness, must make 
them more sensible of their privilege. Distinguishing, sepa- 
rating mercy afFecteth more than any mercy. If it should rain 
on our grounds alone, or the sun shine alone upon our habita- 
tions, or the blessing of heaven divide between our flocks and 
other men's, as between Jacob's and Laban's, we should more 
feelingly acknowledge mercy than now, while we possess the 
same in common. Ordinariness dulleth our sense ; and if 
miracles were common they would be slighted. If Pharaoh had 
passed as safely as Israel, the Red Sea would have been less 
remembered; if the first-born of Egypt had not been slain, the 
first-born of Israel had not been the Lord's peculiar ; if the rest 
of the world had not been drowned, and the rest of Sodom and 
Gomorrah burned, the saving of Noah had been no wonder, nor 
Lot's deliverance so much talked of. The lower the weighty 
end of the balance descends, the higher is the other lifted up ; 
and the falling of one of the sails of the windmill, is the occasion 
of the rising of the other. It would be no extenuation of the 
mercies of the saints here, if all the world were as holy as they ; 
and the communication of their happiness is their greatest de- 
sire ; yet it might perhaps dull their thankfulness, and differ- 
encing grace would not be known. But when one should be 
enlightened, and another left in darkness ; one reformed, and 
another by his lusts enslaved ; it makes them cry out, with the 
disciples, " Lord, how is it, that thou wilt reveal thyself to us, 
and not unto the world ? " (John xiv. 22.) When the prophet 
shall be sent to one widow only of all that were in Samaria, 
and to cleanse one Naaman of all the lepers, the mercy is more 
observable. (Luke iv. 24 — 27.) Oh ! that will surely be a day 
of passionate sense on both sides ; when two shall be in a bed, 
and two in the field ; the one taken, and the other forsaken. 
For a Christian, who is conscious of his own undeserving and 
ill-deserving, to see his companion in sin perish, his neighbour, 
kinsman, father, mother, wife, child, for ever in hell, while he 
is preferred among the blessed ; to see other men's sins eternally 


))Iagued, while his are all pardoned ; ^ to see those that were 
wont to sit with us in the same seat, and eat with us at the table, 
and join with us in the same duties, now to lie tormented in 
those flames, while we are triumphing in divine praises ; that 
Lot must leave his sons-in-law in the flames of Sodom, and the 
wife of his bosom as a monument of divine vengeance, and escape 
with his two daughters alone ; here is choosing, distinguishing 
mercy ! Therefore, the Scripture seems to affirm, that as the 
damned souls shall, from hell, see the saint's happiness, to 
increase their own torments, so shall the blessed, from heaven, 
behold the wicked's misery to the increase of their own joy ; and 
as they looked on the dead bodies of Christ's two witnesses, slain 
in the streets, and they that dwelt on the earth rejoiced over them 
and made merry, (Rev.xi. 10,) andas the wicked here behold the 
calamities of God's people with gladness, so shall the saints look 
down upon them in the burning lake, and in the sense of their own 
happiness, and in the approbation of God's just proceedings, they 
shall rejoice and sing, "Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, 
and wast, and shalt bo, because thou hast thus judged ; for they 
have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given 
them blood to drink, for they are worthy. Allelujah, salvation, 
and glory, and honour, and power to our God ; for true and 
righteous are his judgments." (Rev. xvi. 5, 6.) And as the 
command is over Babylon, so will it be over all the condemned 
souls, " Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles 
and prophets ; for God hath avenged you on her." (Rev. xviii. 
20, and xix. 7, S.) By this time the impenitent world will see 
a reason for the saints' singularity while they were on earth, and 
will be able to answer their own demands, Why must you be 
more holy than your neighbours ? even because they would fain 
be more happy than their neighbours : and why cannot you do 
as others, and live as the world about you ? even because they 
are full loth to speed as those others, or to be damned with the 
world about them. Sincere singularity in holiness, is, l)y this 
time, known to be neither hypocrisy nor folly. If to be singular 
in that glory be so desirable, surely to be singular in godly living 
is not contemptible. As every one of them knows his own sore, 
and his own grief, so shall every one of them feel his own joy : 

^ We shall there look upon them for ever who gazed on us for a time ; and 
the short fruit of cruel eyes beholding us in persecution shall be then recom- 
pensed with our everlasting beholding them in their sufferings. — Ci/p. ad 
Demetri. s, xxi. p. 330. 

120 THE saint's 

and if they can now call Christ their own, and call God their 
own God, how much more then upon their full possession of 
liim ! for as he takes his people for his inheritance, so will he 
himself he the inheritance of his people for ever. (2 Chron. vi. 
29; Psal. xvi. 5, xxxiii. 12, Ixvii. 6, and Ixxviii. /I.) 

Sect. IV. A fourth comfortable adjunct of this rest is, that 
it is the fellowship of the blessed saints and angels of God. Not 
so singular will the Christian be, as to be solitary. Though it 
be proper to the saints only, yet is it common to all the saints ; 
for what is it but an association of blessed spirits in God ; a 
corporation of perfected saints, whereof Christ is the head ; the 
communion of saints completed ? Nor doth this make those 
joys to be therefore mediate, derived by creatures to us, as here ; 
for all the lines may be drawn from the centre, and not from each 
other, and yet their collocation make them more comely than one 
alone could be. Though the strings receive not their sound and 
sweetness from each other, yet their concurrence causeth that 
harmony which could not be by one alone ; for those that have 
prayed, and fasted, and wept, and watched, and waited together, 
now to joy, and enjoy, and praise together, methinks should much 
advance their pleasure.^ Whatsoever it will be upon the great 
change, that will be in our natures perfected ; sure I am, ac- 
cording to the present temperature of the most sanctified human 
affections, it would affect accordingly : and he who mentioneth 
the qualifications of our happiness on purpose that our joy may 
be full, and maketh so oft mention of our consociation and con- 
junction in his praises, sure doth hereby intimate to us that this 
will be some advantage to our joys. Certain I am of this, fel- 
low-Christians, that as we have been together in the labour, 
duty, danger, and distress, so shall we be in the great recom- 
pense and deliverance ; and as we have been scorned and 
despised, so shall we be crowned and honoured together ; and 
we who have gone through the day of sadness, shall enjoy to- 
gether that day of gladness ; and those who have been with us in 

^ Verissimum certe est, Deutn qui sufficit sibi, suflBcere quoque Sanctis 
suis ; qui hoc verum arbitratur, earn sententiani amplectetur oportet, sanctos 
nihil amare extra Deum ; amare quidem alia a Deo, amare ilia quiE sunt ex- 
tra Deum ; sed ita ut ainoris iilius Divina Bonitas, non ea quae creaturaruni 
propria, principiuni sit. Qui secus de Sanctis existiniant, et satis esse censent 
eos amare quaecunque amant, propter Deum, etsi prseter et extra Deum, irro- 
gant illis non niediocreni iiijuriam : non enini patiuntur beatorum nientes 
totas in Deo quiescere et abscondi : sed partem inde abstrahuut; ali(juid 
earum extra Deiun versari coutendentes. — Gibieiif, J. ii. c, 27, s. vii. p. 4B4. 


persecution and prison, shall be with us also in that palace of con- 
solation. Can the wilful world say, If our forefathers and friends 
be all in hell, we will venture there too ? ™ And mav not the 
Christian say, on better grounds. Seeing my faithful friends are 
gone before me to heaven, I am much the more willing to be 
there too ? Oh ! the blessed day, dear friends, when we that 
were wont to enquire together, and hear of heaven, and talk of 
heaven together, shall then live in heaven together ; when we 
who were wont to complain to one another, and open our doubts 
to one another, and our fears, whether ever we should come 
there or no, shall then rejoice with one another, and triumph 
over those doubts and fears ; when we who were wont formerly, 
in private, to meet together for mutual edification, shall now, 
most publicly, be conjoined in the same consolation. Those 
same disciples, who were wont to meet in a private house for 
fear of the Jews, are now met in the celestial habitation without 
fear ; and as their fear then did cause them to shut the door 
against their enemies, so will God's justice shut it now. Oh ! 
when I look in the faces of the precious people of God, and be- 
lievingly think of this day, what a refreshing thought is it ! Shall 
we not there remember, think you, the pikes which we passed 
through here ; our fellowship in duty and in sufferings ; how 
oft our groans made, as it were, one sound, our conjunct tears 
but one stream, and our conjunct desires but one prayer ? and 
now all our praises shall make up one melody, and all our 
churches one church, and all ourselves but one body ; for we 
shall be one in Christ, even as he and the Father are one. It 
is true we must be very careful in this case, that, in our thoughts, 
we look not for that in the saints which is alone in Christ, and 
that we give them not his own prerogative, nor expect too great 
a part of our comfort in the fruition of them : we are prone 
enough to this kind of idolatry. But, yet, he who commands 
us so to love them now, will give us leave, in the same subordi- 
nation to himself, to love them then, when himself hath made 
them much more lovely : and if we may love them, we shall 
surely rejoice in them ; for love and enjoyment cannot stand 

"• Socrates Critoni vehementer suadenti ut si vitam ipse suam ne^li^eret, 
certe liberis etiam turn parvulis et amicis ab ipso pendentibus servaret iiico- 
lumem : Liberi, iiiquit, Deo qui niihi eos dedit, curffi eruiit ; ainicos hiiic dis- 
cedeiis iuveiiiam, vobis aut similes aut etiani meliures, ne vestra quidem 
coiisuetudiiie diu cariturus quandociuideni vos brevi eodeiu estis conniiigr;Uuri. 
—Erusm, /Ipoth, l.iii. ex Pluton. Ztnophon, 

122 THE saint's 

without an answerable joy. If the forethought of sitting down 
with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets in the king- 
dom of God, may be our lawful joy, then how much more that 
real sight and actual possession ! It cannot choose but be com- 
fortable to me to think of that day, when I shall join with Moses 
in his song, with David in his psalms of praise, and with all the 
redeemed in the song of the Lamb for ever ; when we shall see 
Enoch walking with God, Noah enjoying the end of his singu- 
larity, Joseph of his integrity. Job of his patience, Hezekiah of 
his uprightness, and all the saints the end of their faith. Will 
it be nothing conducible to the completing of our comforts, to 
live eternally with Peter, Paul, Austin, Chrysostom, Jerome, 
Wickliffe, Luther, Zuinglius, Calvin, Beza, Bullinger, Zanchius, 
Paraeus, Piscator, Camero ; with Hooper, Bradford^ Latimer, 
Glover, Saunders, Philpot, with Reighnolds, Whitaker, Cart- 
wright, Brightman, Bayne, Bradshaw, Bolton, Ball, Hildersham, 
Pemble, Twisse, Ames, Preston, Sibbs ? " O foelicem diem 
(said holy Grynaeus) quam ad illud animarum concilium pro- 
ficiscar, et ex hac turba colluvione discedam ! " " O happy day, 
when I shall depart out of this crowd and sink, and go to that 
same council of souls ! I know that Christ is all in all ; and 
that it is the presence of God that maketh heaven to be heaven. 
But, yet, it much sweeteneth the thoughts of that place to me, 
to remember that there are such a multitude of my most dear 
and precious friends in Christ ; with whom I took sweet counsel, 
and with whom I went up to the house of God ; who walked 
with me in the fear of God, and integrity of their hearts : in 
the face of whose conversations there was written the name of 
Christ ; whose sweet and sensible mention of his excellencies 
hath made my heart to burn within me. To think such a friend, 
that died at such a time, and such a one at another time ; Oh ! 
what a number of them could I name ; and that all these are 
entered into rest ; and we shall surely go to them, but they shall 
not return to us. It is a question with some, whether we shall 
know each other in heaven or no. Surely, there shall no 
knowledge cease which now we have, but only that which im- 
plieth our imperfection ; and what imperfection can this imply ? 

" Junius writeth in his life, of a man tliat so esteemed him, that he di^^ged 
up a turf of the ground where he stood, and carried it home ; how, then, 
should we love the habitation of the saints in light ! By this example you may 
see how worshipping of saints, relics, shrines, images, was brought in by 
honest zeal (misguided). 


Nay, our present knowledge shall be increased beyond belief. 
(2 Cor. V. 16.) It shall indeed be done av/ay, but as the light 
of candles and stars is done away, by the rising of the sun; which 
is more properly a doing away of our ignorance than of our 
knowledge : indeed, we shall not know each other after the 
flesh ; nor by stature, voice, colour, complexion, visage, or out- 
ward shape. If we had so known Christ, we should know him 
no more ; nor by parts and gifts of learning, nor titles of honour 
and worldly dignity ; nor by terms of affinity and consanguinity, 
nor benefits, nor such relations ; nor by youth or age ; nor, I 
think, by sex : but by the image of Christ, and spiritual relation, 
and former faithfulness in improving our talents, beyond doubt, 
we shall know and be known. Nor is it only our old acquaint- 
ance, but all the saints of all ages, whose faces in the flesh we 
never saw, whom we shall there both know and comfortably 
enjoy. Luther, in his last sickness, being asked his judgment," 
whether we shall know one another in heaven, answered thus, 
" Quid accidit Adamo ? Nunquam ille viderat Evam," &c., 
i. e. How was it with Adam ? He had never seen Eve : yet he 
asketh not, who she was, or whence she came ; but saith, ' She 
is flesh of my flesh, and bone of my bone.' And how knew he 
that ? Why, being full of the Holy Ghost, and indued with the 
true knowledge of God, he so pronounced. After the same sort 
shall we be renewed by Christ in another life, and we shall know 
our parents, wives, children, &c. much more perfectly than 
Adam did then know Eve ; yea, and angels as well as saints, 
will be our blessed acquaintance and sweet associates. We 
have every one now our own angels, then beholding our Father's 
face; and those who now are willingly ministering spirits for 
our good, will willingly then be our companions in joy for the 
perfecting of our good ; and they who had such joy in heaven 
for our conversion, will gladly rejoice with us in our glorification. 
I think, Christian, this will be a more honourable assembly than 
ever you beheld ; and a more happy society than you were ever 
of before. Then we shall truly say, as David, " I am a com- 
panion of all them that fear thee: when we are come to Mount 
Sion, and the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, 
and to an innumerable company of angels ; to the general as- 
sembly and church of the first-born, which are written in hea- 
ven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men 
made perfect, and to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, 

° Melch. Adam in vita Luth. 

124 THE saint's 

and to the blood of sprinkling." (Acts xii. 15 ; Matt, xviii. 10 ; 
Luke XV. 10, and xvi. 22; Heb. i. 7, &c., and xii. 22—24; 
Psal. cxix. 16.) We are come thither already in respect of 
title, and of earnest and first-fruits ; but we shall then come into 
the full possession. O beloved, if it be a happiness to live 
with the saints in their imperfection, when they have sin to im- 
bitter, as well as holiness to sweeten their society, what will it 
be to live with them in their perfection, where saints are wholly 
and only saints ; if it be a delight to hear them pray or preach, 
what will it be to hear them praise ; if we thought ourselves in 
the suburbs of heaven when we heard them set forth the beauty 
of our Lord, and speak of the excellencies of his kingdom, what 
a day will it be when we shall join with them in praises to our 
Lord in and for that kingdom ! Now we have corruption, and 
they have corruption ; and we are more apt to set awork each 
other's corruption than our graces ; and so lose the benefit of 
their company while we do enjoy it, because we know not how 
to make use of a saint: but then it will not be so. Now we 
spend many an hour which might be profitable, in a dull, silent 
looking on each other, or else in vain and common conference ; 
but then it will not be so. Now the best do know but in part, 
and therefore can instruct and help us but in part ; but then we 
shall, with them, make up one perfect man. So then, I conclude, 
this is one singular excellency of the rest of heaven, that we are 
" fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of God." 
(Eph. ii. 19.) 

Sect. V. Fifthly, Another excellent property of our rest will be, 
that the joys of it are immediately from God. Nor doth this 
contradict the former, as 1 have before made plain. Whether 
Christ, who is God as well as man, shall be the conveyer of all 
from the divine nature to us ; and whether the giving up the 
kingdom to the Father do imply the ceasing of the Mediator's 
office; or whether he shall he Med'mtorjruitio7iis, as well as 
acquisitionis ; are questions which I will not now attempt to 
handle. But this is sure : we shall see God face to face, and 
stand continually in his presence, and consequently derive our 
life and comfort immediately from him. Whether God will 
make use of any creatures for our service then ; or, if any, of 
what creatures, and what use, is more than I yet know. It 
seems that the creature shall have a day of deliverance, and 
that into the glorious liberty of the sons of God : (Rom. 
viii. 21 :) but whether this before, or at the great and full de- 


liverance, or whether to endure to eternity, or to what parti- 
cular employment they shall be continued, are questions yet too 
hard for me. When God speaks them plainer, and mine un- 
derstanding is made clearer, then 1 may know these : but it is 
certain that at least our most and great joys will be immediate, 
if not all. Now, we have nothing at all immediately, but at 
the second, or third, or fourth, or fifth hand, or how many, 
who knows ? From the earth, from man, from sun and moon, 
from the influence of the planets, from the ministration of an- 
gels, and from the Spirit and Christ ; and, doubtless, the fur- 
ther the stream runs from the fountain, the more impure it is. 
It gathers some defilement from every unclean channel it 
passeth through. Though it savours not, in the hand of angels, 
of the imperfection of sinners, yet it doth of the imperfection 
of creatures ; and as it comes from man it savours of both. 
How quick and piercing is the word in itself! yet many times 
it never enters, being managed by a feeble arm. Oh ! what 
weight and worth is there in every passage of the blessed Gos- 
pel ! enough, one would think, to enter and force the dullest 
soul, and wholly possess its thoughts and affections : and yet 
how oft doth it fall as water upon a stone ; and how easily can 
our hearts sleep out a sermon time ; and much because these 
words of life do die in the delivery, and the fruit of our con- 
ception is almost still-born \^ Our people's spirits remain con- 
gealed, while we who are intrusted with the word that should 
melt them, do suffer it to freeze between our lips. We speak, 
indeed, of soul-concerning truths, and set before them life and 
death ; but it is with such self-seeking affectation, and in such 
a lazy, formal, customary strain, like the pace the Spaniard 
rides, that the people little think we are in good sadness, or that 
our hearts do mean as our tongues do speak. I have heard of 
some tongues that can lick a coal of fire till it be cold. I fear 
these tongues are in most of our mouths, and that the breath 
that is given us to blow up this fire, till it flame in our people's 

P Quanquam enim sistendo in gradu nature ; creatura rationalis praser- 
tim, habeat ordinem ad Deura ; possitque ilium et nosse, et ainare ; noii nisi 
tamen in creaturis id potest. Amat Deum ; sed quern cognoscit, et ut ilii per 
lumen naturae proponitur; cognoscit autem ilium duntaxat in creaturis ; turn 
in seipso turn in aliis. At in ordine gratiae, novit Deum ut in se est, et illi 
immediate et non per creaturas uuitur ; unde procedit ejus immohilitas sive 
immutabilitas, et beata aeternitas quam perfectam et integram habet in statu 
gloriie : cum aiioqui creatura; omues in proj)ria quoque specie proprioque or- 
dine sint mobiles possuntque deficeie, &ic. — Gibituf. lib, 2. de Libert. Dti, 
cap. 27. sect. ii. p. 487. 

126 THE saint's 

souls, is rather used to blow it out. Such preaching is it that 
hath brought the most to hear sermons, as they say their creed 
and pater-nosters, even as a few good words of course. How 
many a cold and mean sermon that yet contains most precious 
truths! The things of God which we handle are divine ; but 
our manner of handling too human : and there is little or 
none that ever we touch, but will leive the print of our fingers 
behind us ; but if God should speak this word himself, it would 
be a piercing, melting word indeed. How full of comfort are 
the Gospel promises ! yet do we oft so heartlessly declare them, 
that the broken, bleeding-hearted saints, are much debarred of 
their joys. Christ is indeed a precious pearl, but oft held forth 
in leprous hands : and thus do we disgrace the riches of the 
Gospel, when it is the work of our calling to make it honourable 
in the eyes of men ; and we dim the glory of that jewel by our 
dull and low expressions, and dunghill conversations, whose 
lustre we do pretend to discover, while the hearers judge of 
it by our expressions, and not its genuine proper worth. The 
truth is, the best of men do but apprehend but little of what 
God, in his word, expresseth, and what they do apprehend they 
are unable to utter. Human language is iiot so copious as the 
heart's conceivings are ; and what we possibly might declare, yet 
through our own unbelief, stupidity, laziness, and other corrup- 
tions, we usually fail in ; and what we do declare, yet the dark- 
ness of our people's understandings, and the sad senselessness 
of their hearts, do usually shut out and make void. So that 
as all the works of God are perfect in their season, as he is per- 
fect; so are all the works of man, as himself, imperfect: and 
those which God performeth by the hand of man, will too 
much savour of the instrument. If an angel from heaven should 
preach the Gospel, yet could he not deliver it according to its 
glorv; much less we, who never saw what they have seen, and 
keep this treasure in earthen vessels. The comforts that flow 
through sermons, through sacraments, through reading, and com- 
pany, and conference, and creatures, are but half comforts ; and 
the life that comes by these is but half a life, in comparison of 
those which the Almighty shall speak with his own mouth, and 
reach forth to us with his own hand. The Christian knows by 
experience, now, that his most immediate joys are his sweetest 
joys : those which have least of man, and are most directly 
from the Spirit. That is one reason, as I conceive, why Christ- 
ians who are much in secret prayer, and in meditation and 


ontcmplation, rather than they who are more in hearing, read- 
ng, and conference, are men of greatest life and joy, because 
they are nearer the well-head, and have all more immediately 
from God himself: and that I conceive the reason also, why we 
are more indisposed to those secret duties, and can more easily 
bring our hearts to hear, and read, and confer, than to secret 
prayer, self-examination, and meditation, because in the former 
is more of man ; and in these we approach the Lord alone, and 
our natures draw back from' the most spiritual and fruitful duties : 
not that we should therefore cast off the other, and neglect any 
ordinance of God. To live above them, while we use them, is 
the way of a Christian : but to live above ordinances, as to live 
without them, is to live without the compass of the Gospel lines, 
and so without the government of Christ. Let such beware, lest 
while they would be higher than Christians, they prove in the 
end lower than men. We are not yet come to the time and 
state where we shall have all from God's immediate hand. As 
God hath made all creatures, and instituted all ordinances for 
us, so will he continue our need of all. We must yet be con- 
tented with love-tokens from him, till we come to receive our 
all in him. We must be thankful if Joseph sustain our lives, 
by relieving us in our famine with his provisions, till we come to 
see his own face. There is joy in these remote receivings, but 
the fulness is in his own presence. O, Christians ! you will 
then know the difference betwixt the creature and the -Creator, 
and the content that each of them affords. We shall then have 
light without a candle, and a perpetual day without the sun ; 
" for the city hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, 
to shine in it ; for the glory of God doth lighten it, and the 
Lamb is the light thereof:" (Rev. xxi. 23:) nay, there shall be 
no night there, and they need no candle, nor light of the 
sun ; for the Lord God giveth them light, and they shall reign 
for ever and ever." (Rev. xxii. 5.) We shall then have rest 
without sleep, and be kept from cold without our clothing, and 
need no fig-leaves to hide our shame: for God will be our rest, 
and Christ our clothing, and shame and sin will cease together. 
We shall then have health without physic, and strength Avithout 
the use of food ; for the Lord God will be our strength, and the 
light of his countenance will be health to our souls, and marrow to 
our bones. We shall then, and never till then, have enlight- 
ened understandings without Scripture, and be governed without 
a written law : for the Lord will perfect his law in our hearts, 

128 THE saint's 

and we shall be all perfectly taught of God. His own will shall 
be our law, and his own face shall be our light for ever. Then 
shall we have joy, which we drew not from the promises, nor 
was fetched us home by faith or hope. Beholding and possess- 
ing will exclude the most of these. We shall then have com- 
munion without sacraments, when Christ shall drink with us of 
the fruit of the vine new, that is, refresh us with the comforting 
wine of immediate fruition, in the kingdom of his Father. To 
have necessities and no supply, is the case of them in hell; to have 
necessity supplied by the means of creatures, is the case of us on 
earth; to have necessity supplied immediately from God, is the case 
of the saints in heaven; to have no necessity at all, is the preroga- 
tive of God himself. The more of God is seen and received with, 
and by the means, and creature here, the nearer is our state like 
that in glory. In a word, we have now our mercies, as Benjamin 
had Joseph's cup ; (Gen. xliv. 1 2 ;) we find them at a distance from 
God, and scarcely know from whence they come, and understand 
not the good-will intended in them, but are oft ready to fear 
they come in wrath, and think they will but work our ruin. 
But when we shall feed at Joseph's own house, yea, receive our 
portion from his own hand ; when he shall fully unbowel his 
love unto us, and take us to dwell in Goshen by him ; when we 
shall live in our Father's house and presence, and " God shall 
be all and in all ;" then we are, indeed, at home in rest. 

Sect. VI. Sixthly, Again, a further excellency is this : it will be 
unto us a seasonable rest. He that expecteth the fruit of this 
vineyard in season, and maketh his people as trees planted by the 
waters, fruitful in their season, he will also give them the crown 
in season. He that will have the words of joy spoken to the 
weary in season, will sure cause that time of joy to appear in 
the meetest season. And they who knew the season of grace, 
and did repent and believe in season, shall also, if they faint 
not, reap in season. (Mark xii. 1 ; Luke xx. 10; Psal. i. 3 ; 
Isa. I. 4 ; Gal. vi. 9.) If God will not miss the season of com- 
mon mercies, even to his enemies, but " will give both the 
former and the latter rain in their season, and the appointed 
weeks of the harvest in its season," (Jer. v. 24, and xxxiii. 20,) 
and by an inviolable covenant hath established day and night in 
their seasons ; then, sure, the harvest of the saints and their 
day of gladness shall not miss its season. Doubtless, he that 
would not stay a day longer than his promise, but brought Israel 
out of Egypt that self-same day that the four hundred and 


thirty years were expired ; neither will he fail of one day or 
hour of the fittest season for his people's glory. (Exod. xii. 40, 
41 ; Jer. viii. 70 And as Christ failed not to come in the ful- 
ness of time, even then when Daniel and others had foretold 
his coming; so in the fulness and fitness of time will his second 
coming be. He that hath given the stork, the crane, the swal- 
low, to know their appointed time, will surely keep his time ap- 
pointed. When we have had in this world a long night of sad 
darkness, will not the day breaking and the rising of the Sun 
of Righteousness be then seasonable ? When we have endured 
a hard winter in this cold climate, will not the reviving spring be 
then seasonable ? When we have (as St. Paul, Acts xxvii. 7, 9) 
sailed slowly many days, and much time spent, and sailing now 
grown more dangerous ; and when neither sun, nor stars, in 
many days appear, and no sm.all tempest lieth on us, and all 
hope that we shall be saved is almost taken away, do you think 
that the haven of rest is not then seasonable ? When we have 
passed a long and tedious journey, and that through no small 
dangers, is not home then seasonable ? When we have had a 
long and perilous war, and have lived in the midst of furious 
enemies, and have been forced to stand on a perpetual watch, 
and received from them many a wound, would not a peace with 
victory, be now seasonable ? When we have been captivated 
in many years' imprisonment, and insulted over by scornful foes, 
and suffered many pinching wants, and hardly enjoyed bare 
necessaries, would not a full deliverance to a most plentiful 
state, even from this prison to a throne, be now seasonable ? 
Surely, a man would think, who looks upon the face of the 
world, that rest should to all men seem seasonable. Some of 
us are languishing under continual weakness, and groaning 
under most grievous pains, crying, in the morning, * Would God 
it were evening !' and, in the evening, ' Would God it were 
morning!' weary of going, weary of sitting, weary of standing, 
weary of lying, weary of eating, of speaking, of walking, 
weary of our very friends, weary of ourselves. Oh ! how oft 
hath this been mine own case : and is not rest vet seasonable ? 
Some are complaining under the pressure of the times; weary 
of their taxes, weary of their quartering, weary of plunder- 
ings, weary of their fears and dangers, weary of their poverty 
and wants, and is not rest yet seasonable ? Whither can you go, 
or into what company can you come, where the voice of com- 
plaining doth not show, that men live in a continual weariness, 
VOL. XX [r. K 

130 THE saint's 

but especially the saints, who are most weary of that which the 
world cannot feel ? What godly society almost can you fall 
into, but you shall hear by their moans that somewhat aileth 
them ? Some weary of a blind mind, doubting concerning the 
way they walk in, unsettled in almost all their thoughts ; some 
weary of a hard heart, some of a proud, some of a passionate, 
and some of all these, and much more : some weary of their 
daily doubtings, and fear concerning their spiritual estate ; and 
some of the want of spiritual joys, and some of the sense of 
God's wrath ; and is not rest now seasonable ? When a poor 
Christian hath desired, and prayed, and waited for deliverance 
many a year, is it not then seasonable ? When he is ready 
almost to give up, and saith, ' I am afraid I shall not reach the 
end, and that my faith and patience will scarce hold out ; is not 
this a fit season for rest ? If it were to Joseph a seasonable 
message, which called him from the prison to Pharaoh's court j 
or if the return of his Benjamin, the tidings that Joseph was 
yet alive, and the sight of the chariots which should convey 
him to Egypt, were seasonable for the reviving of Jacob's spi- 
rits ; then, methinks, the message for a release from the flesh, 
and our convoy to Christ, should be a seasonable and welcome 
message. If the voice of the king were seasonable to Daniel, 
(Dan, vi. 19, &c.,) early in the morning calling him from his 
den, that he might advance him to more than former dignity, 
then methinks that morning voice of Christ our King, calling us 
from our terrors among lions, to possess his rest among his 
saints, should be to us a very seasonable voice, W^ill not Ca- 
naan be seasonable after so many years' travel, and that through 
a hazardous and grievous wilderness ? Indeed, to the world it 
is never in season. They are already at their own home, and 
have what they most desire. They are not weary of their pre- 
sent state. The saints' sorrow is their joy, and the saints' wea- 
riness is their rest : their weary day is coming, where there is 
ao more expectation of rest, but for the thirsty soul to enjoy 
the fountain, and the hungry to be filled with the bread of life, 
and the naked to be clothed from above, for the children to 
come to their Father's house, and the disjoined member to be 
conjoined with their Head. Methinks this should be seldom 
unseasonable. When the atheistical world began to insult, and 
question the truth of Scripture promises, and ask us, ' Where is 
now your God ? Where is your long-looked-for glory ? Where 
is the promise of your Lord's coming?' O, how seasonable. 


then, to convince these unbelievers, to silence these scoffers, to 
comfort the dejected,waiting believer, will the appearing of our 
Lord be ! We are oft grudging now that we have not a greater 
share of comforts; that our deliverances are not more speedy and 
eminent; that the world prospers more than we; that our 
prayers are not presently answered, not considering that our 
portion is kept to a fitter season ; that these are not always win- 
ter fruits, but when summer comes we shall have our harvest. 
We grudge that we do not find a Canaan in the wilderness, 
or cities of rest in Noah's ark, and the songs of Sion in a 
strange land ; that we have not a harbour in the main ocean, or 
find not our home in the middle way, and are not crowned in 
the midst of the fight, and have not our rest in the heat of the 
day, and have not our inheritance before we are at age, and have 
not heaven before we leave the earth; and would not all this be 
very unseasonable ? 

I confess, in regard of the church's service, the removing of 
the saints may sometimes appear to us unseasonable; therefore, 
doth God use it as a judgment, and therefore the church had 
ever prayed hard before they would part with them, and greatly 
laid to heart their loss ; therefore are the great mournings at the 
saints' departures, and the sad hearts that accompany them to 
their graves; but this is not especially for the departed, but for 
themselves and their children, as Christ bid the weeping woman ; 
therefore, also, it is, that the saints, in danger of death, have 
often begged for their lives, with that argument, " What profit 
is there in my blood, when I go down to the pit ?" (Psal. xxx. 9.) 
"Wilt thou show wonders to the dead? Shall the dead arise 
and praise thee? Shall thy loving- kindness be declared in the 
grave ; or thy faithfulness in destruction ? Shall thy wonders 
be known in the dark, and thy righteousness in the land of for- 
getfulness ? " (Psal. Ixxxviii, 10.) " For in death there is no re- 
membrance of thee ; in the grave who shall give thee thanks ?" 
(Psal. vi. 5.) And this it was that brought Paul to a strait, 
because he knew it was better for the church that he should re- 
main here. I must confess, it is one of niy saddest thoughts, to 
reckon up the useful instruments, whom God hath lately called 
out of his vineyard, when the loiterers are many, and the harvest 
great, and very many congregations desolate, and the people 
as sheep without sheplierds ; and yet the labourers called 
from their work, especially wlien a door of liberty and oppor- 
tunity is open; we cannot but lament so sore a judgment, and 

K 2 

132 THE saint's 

think the removal, in regard of the church, unseasonable. I know 
1 speak but your own thoughts ; and you are too ready to over- 
run me in application, 1 1 fear you are too sensible of what I 
speak, and, therefore, am loath to stir you in your sore. I per- 
ceive you are in the posture of the Ephesian elders, and had ra- 
ther abate the violence of your passions ; our applications are 
quicker about our sufferings, than our sins : and we will more 
quickly say, this loss is mine, than, this fault is mine. But, O 
consider my dear friends, hath God any need of such a worm as 
I ? Cannot he a thousand ways supply your wants ? You know 
when your case was worse, and yet he provided ; hath he work 
to do, and will he not find instruments ? And though you see 
not for the present where they should be had, they are never the 
further off for that. Where was the world before the creation ; 
and where was the promised seed, when Isaac lay on the altar ? 
Where was the land of promise, when Israel's burden was in- 
creased ; or, when all the old stock, save two, were consumed 
in the wilderness ? Where was David's kingdom when he was 
hunted in the wilderness ; or, the glory of Christ's kingdom, 
when he was in the grave ; or, when he first sent his twelve 
apostles ? How suddenly did the number of labourers increase 
immediately upon the reformation by Luther ; and how soon 
were the rooms of those filled up, whom the rage of the papists 
had sacrificed in the flames ! Have you not lately seen so 
many difficulties overcome, and so many improbable works ac- 
complished, that might silence unbelief, one would think, for 
ever ? But if all this do not quiet you, for sorrow and discon- 
tent are unruly passions, yet at least remember this ; suppose 
the worst you fear should happen, yet shall it be well with all 
the saints ; your own turns will shortly come ; and we shall be 
housed with Christ together, where you will want your ministers 
and friends no more. And, for the poor world, which is left be- 
hind, whose unregenerate state causeth your grief; why, con- 
sider, shall man pretend to be more merciful than God ? Hath 

1 These words were written by the author to his friends and congregation, 
who could then discern no probability of his much longer surviving, and upon 
the late death of some very useful ministers. Postea enim affectione liy- 
pochondriaca iniiumerabilibus fere siipata symptomatibus per ainios 14. labo- 
rasset, cum in longam tandem et inexpuguabiletn inciderat del)i]itatem et 
contabescentiani, et demum in narium hjeniorrliagiam, ad lib. 8. et iiide in 
atrophiani, pro deplorato a medicis peritissimis relictus est. In qua tanieu 
atrophia in>nien=a Dei bonitate debilis adhue supervivit; raodis etiam postea 
mirabilibui ex orci faucibus saepius ereptus. 


not he more interest than we, both in the church and in the 
world ; and more bowels of compassion to commiserate their 
distress ? There is a season for judgment as well as for mercy; 
and if he will have the most of men to perish for their sins, and 
to suffer the eternal tormenting flames, must we question his 
goodness, or manifest our dislike of the severity of his judgment ? 
I confess we cannot but bleed over our desolate congregations j 
and that it ill beseems us to make light of God's indignation ; 
but yet we should, as Aaron when his sons were slain, (Lev. x. 3,) 
hold our peace, and be silent, because it is the Lord's doing ; 
and say, as David, " If I (and his people) shall find favour in the 
eyes of the Lord, he will bring me again, and show me them, 
and his habitations ; but if he thus say, I have no delight in 
thee ; behold, here am I, let him do with me as seemeth good 
unto him." (Psal. xxxix. 9; 2 Sam. xv. 25, 26.) I conclude, 
then, that whatsoever it is to those that are left behind ; yet the 
saints' departure, to themselves, is usually seasonable. I say 
usually, because I know a very saint may have a death'' in some 
respect unseasonable, though it do translate him into this rest. 
He may die in judgment, as good Josiah ; (2 Chron. xxxv. 24;) 
he may die for his sin. For the abuse of the sacrament many 
were weak and sickly, and many fallen asleep, even of those who 
were thus judged and chastened by God, that they might not be 
condemned with the world. He may die by the hand of public 
justice; or die in a way of public scandal. He may die in a 
weak degree of grace, and consequently have less degree of 
glory. (Luke xix. 17 — 19.) He may die in smaller improve- 
ments of his talents, and so be ruler of but few cities. The best 
wheat may be cut down before it is ripe ; therefore it is promised 
to the righteous, as a blessing, " that they shall be brought 
as a shock of corn into the barn in season." (Job v. 26.) Nay 
it is possible he may die by his own hands; though some divines 
think such doctrine not fit to be taught, lest it encourage the 
tempted to commit the same sin f but God hath left preservatives 
enough against sin, without our devising more of our own ; 
neither hath he need of our lie to his glory. He hath fixed that 
principle so deep in nature, that all should endeavour their own 
preservation, that 1 never knew any whose understanding was 
not crazed or lost, much subject to that sin ; even most of the 
melancholy are more fearful to die than other men. And this 
terror is preservative enough of that kind ; that such commit- 
 Secundum quid. >* Mr. Capel * Of Tempt.' 

134 THE saint's 

ting of a heinous known sin, is a sad sign, where there is the free 
use of reason ; that, therefore, they make their salvation more 
questionable; that they die most woful scandals to the church: 
that, however, the sin itself should make the godly to abhor it, 
were there no such danger or scandal attending it, &e. But to 
exclude from salvation all those poor creatures, who in fevers, 
frenzies, madness, melancholy, &c., shall commit this sin, is a 
•way of prevention, which Scripture teacheth not, and too uncom- 
fortable to the friends of the deceased. The common argument 
which they urge, drawn from the necessity of a particular re- 
pentance, for every particular known sin; as it is not universally 
true, so were it granted, it would exclude from salvation all men 
breathing ; for there was never any man, save Christ, who died 
not in some particular sin, either of commission or omission, 
great or small, which he hath no more time to repent of, than 
the sinner in question : but yet, this may well be called un- 
timely death :' but in the ordinary course of God's dealing, you 
may easily observe, that he purposely maketh his people's last 
hour in this life, to be of all other to the flesh most bitter, and 
to the spirit most sweet ; and that they who feared death through 
the most of their lives, yet at last are more willing of it than ever, 
and all to make their rest more seasonable. Bread and drink 
are always good ; but at such a time as Samaria's siege, to have 
plenty of food instead of doves' dung, in one night's space ; or 
in such a thirst, as Ishmael's or Sampson's, to have a supply of 
water by miracle in a moment, these are seasonable. So this 
rest is always good to the saints, and usually also is most season- 
able rest. 

Sect. VII. Seventhly : A further excellency of this rest is this ; 
as it will be seasonable, so a suitable rest : suited, 1. To the 
natures. 2. To the desires. 3. To the necessity of the saints. 
1 . To their natures. If suitableness concur not with excellency, 
the best things may be bad to us; for it is not that which makes 
things good in themselves, to be good to us. In our choice of 
friends, we often pass by the more excellent, to choose the more 
suitable. Every good agrees not with every nature. To live in 
a free and open air, under the warming rays of the sun, is excel- 
lent to man, because suitable : but the fish, which is of another 
nature, doth rather choose another element ; and that which is 
to us so excellent, would quickly be to it destructive. The 
choicest dainties which we feed upon ourselves, would be to our 

' Secundum quid. 


beasts, as an unpleasing, so an insufficient sustenance. The 
iron which the ostrich well digests, would be but hard food for 
man ; even among men, contrary appetites delight in contrary 
objects. You know the proverb, " One man's meat, is another 
man's poison." Now, here is suitableness and excellency con- 
joined. The new nature of saints doth suit their spirits to this 
rest ; and indeed their holiness is nothing else but a spark taken 
from this element, and by the spirit of Christ kindled in their 
hearts, the flame whereof, as mindful of his own divine original, 
doth ever mount the soul aloft, and tend to the place from 
whence it comes. It worketh towards its own centre, and 
makes us restless, till there we rest. Gold and earthly glory, 
temporal crowns and kingdoms, could not make a rest for saints. 
As they were not redeemed with so low a price, so neither are 
they endued with so low a nature. These might be a portion 
for lower spirits, and fit those whose nature they suit with j but 
so they cannot a saint-like nature. (1 Pet. i. 18, 23.) As God 
will have from them a spiritual worship, suitable to his own 
spiritual being, so will he provide them a spiritual rest, suitable 
to his people's spiritual nature. As spirits have not fleshly 
substances, so neither delight they in fleshly pleasures : these are 
too gross and vile for them. When carnal persons think of 
heaven, their conceivings'^^ of it are also carnal; and their notions 
answerable to their own natures. And were it possible for such 
to enjoy it, it would surely be their trouble, and not their rest, 
because so contrary to their dispositions. A heaven of good 
fellowship, of wine and wantonness, of gluttony and all volup- 
tuousness, would far better please them, as being most agreeing 
to their natures. But a heaven of the knowledge of God, and 
his Christ ; and a delightful complacency in that mutual love, 
and everlasting rejoicing in the fruition of our God, a perpetual 
singing of his high praises : this is a heaven for a saint, a spiritual 
rest, suitable to a spiritual nature. Then, dear friends, we shall 
live in our element. We are now as the fish in some small ves- 
sel of water, that hath only so much as will keep him alive ; but 
what is that to the full ocean ? We have a little air let in to us, 
to afford us breathing ; but what is that to the sweet atid fresh 
gales upon Mount Sion ? We have a beam of the sun to lighten 
our darkness, and a warm ray to keep us from freezing ; but 
then we shall live in its light, and be revived by its heat for ever. 
Oh ! blessed be that hand which fetched a coal, and kindled a 
fire in our dead hearts, from that same altar, where we must 

136 THE SA1NT*S 

offer our sacrifice everlastiiiglv. To be locked up in gold, and in 
pearl, would be but a wealthy starving; to have our tables with 
plate and ornaments richly furnished without meat, is but to be 
richly famished ; to be lifted up with human applause, is but a 
very airy felicity ; to be advanced to the sovereignty of all the 
earth, would be but to wear a crown of thorns; to be filled with 
the knowledge of arts and sciences, would be but to further the 
conviction of our unhappiness; but to have a nature like God's 
very image, holy as he is holy ; and to have God himself to be our 
happiness, how well do these agree? Whether that in 2 Pet. i. 4 
be meant, as is commonly understood, of our own inherent re- 
newed nature, figuratively called divine, or rather of Christ's 
divine nature without us, properly so called, whereof we are also 
relatively made partakers, I know not ; biit certainly were not 
our own in some sort divine, the enjoyment of the true divine 
nature could not be to us a suitable rest. 

2. It is suitable also to the desires of the saints : for, such as 
their nature, such be their desires ; and such as their desires, such 
will be their rest. Indeed, we have now a mixed nature ; and 
from contrary principles, do arise contrary desires : as they are 
flesh, thev have desires of flesh ; and as they are sinful, so they 
have sinful desires. Perhaps they could be too willing, whilst 
these are stirring, to have delights, an«l riches, and honour, and 
sin itself. But these are not prevaling desires, nor such as in 
their deliberate choice they will stand to; therefore is it not they, 
but sin and flesh. These are not the desires that this rest is 
suited to, for they will not accompany them to their rest. To 
provide contents to satisfy these, were to provide food for them 
that are dead. " For they that are in Christ, have crucified the 
flesh, with the aflfections and lusts thereof." (Gal. v. 25.) But 
it is the desires of our renewed natures, and those which the 
Christian will ordinarily own, which this rest is suited to. 
Whilst our desires remain corrupted and misguided, it is a far 
greater mercy to deny them, yea, to destroy them, than to satisfy 
them ; but those which are spiritual, are of his own planting, 
and he will surely water them, and give the increase. Is it so 
great a work to raise them in us ; and shall they after all this 
vanish and fail ? To send the word and Spirit, mercies and 
judgments, to raise the sinner's desires from the creature to God, 
and then to suifer them so raised, all to perish without success; 
ibis were to multiply the creature's misery ; and then were 
the work of sanctification, a designed preparative to our 


torment and tantalizing, but no way conducihle to our happy 
rest. He quickened our hungering and thirst for righteousness, 
that he might make us happy in a full satisfaction. Christian, 
this is a rest after thy own heart ; it containeth all that thy 
heart can wish; that which thou longest for, prayest for, labour- 
est for, there thou shall find it all. Thou hadst rather have God 
in Christ, than all the world ; why there thou shalt have him. 
Oh ! what wouldst thou not give for assurance of his love ? 
Why, there thou shalt have assurance bevond suspicion : nay, 
thy desires cannot now extend to the height of what thou shalt 
there obtain. Was it not a high favour of God to Solomon, 
to promise to give him whatsoever he would ask ? Why, every 
Christian hath such a promise. Desire what thou canst, and 
ask what thou wilt as a Christian, and it shall be given thee ; not 
only to half of the kingdom, but to the enjoyment both of 
kingdom and king. This is a life of desire and prayer ; but 
that is a life of satisfaction and enjoyment. Oh ! therefore, that 
we were but so wise, as to limit those which we know should 
not be satisfied ; and those which we know not whether 
or no they will be satisfied; and especially those which we 
know should not be satisfied ; and to keep up continually in 
heart and life, those desires which we are sure shall have full 
satisfaction. And, oh ! that sinners would also consider, that see- 
ing God will not give them a felicity suitable to their sensual 
desires, it is, therefore, their wisdom to endeavour for desires 
suitable to the true felicity, and to direct their ship to the right 
harbour, seeing they cannot bring the harbour to their ship. 

3. This rest is very suitable to the saints' necessities also, as 
well as to their natures and desires. It contains whatsoever 
they truly wanted ; not supplying them with the gross-created 
comforts which now they are forced to make use of, which, like 
Saul's armour on David, are more burden than benefit. But 
they shall there have the benefit without the burden ; and the 
pure spirits extracted, as it were, shall make up their cordial, 
without the mixture of any drossy or earthly substance. It was 
Christ, and perfected holiness, which they most needed, and 
with these shall they here be principally supplied : their other 
necessities are far better removed than supplied in the present 
carnal way. It is better to have no need of meat, and drink, 
and clothing, and creatures, than to have both the need and the 
creature continued : their plaster will be fitted to the quality of 
their sore. The rain which Elias's prayer procured was not 
more seasonable, after the three years'" drought, than this rest 

138 THE saint's 

will be to this thirsty soul. It will be with us as with the dis- 
eased man, who had lain at the waters, and continued diseased 
thirty-eight years, when Christ did fully cure him in a moment; 
or with the woman, who, having had the issue of blood, and 
spent all she had upon physicians, and suffered the space of 
twelve years, was healed by one touch of Christ. (Luke viii. 43 ; 
Mark v. 25.) So, when we have lain at ordinances, and duties, 
and creatures, all our lifetime, and spent all, and suffered much, 
we shall have all done by Christ in a moment : but we shall see 
more of this under the next head. 

Sect. Vlll. Eighthly : Another excellency of our rest will be 
this, that it will be absolutely perfect and complete ; and this 
both in the sincerity and universality of it. We shall then have 
joy without sorrow, and rest without weariness : as there is no 
mixture of our corruption with our graces, so no mixture of 
sufferings with our solace. There are none of those waves in that 
harbour, which now so toss us up and down : we are now some- 
times at the gates of heaven, and presently almost as low as 
hell; we wonder at those changes of Providence towards us, 
being scarcely two days together in a like condition. To-day 
we are well, and conclude the bitterness of death is past ; to- 
morrow sick, and conclude we shall shortly perish by our dis- 
tempers ; to-day in esteem, to-morrow in disgrace ; to-day we 
have friends, to-morrow none ; to-day in gladness, to-morrow in 
sadness : nay, we have wine and vinegar in the same cup, and 
our pleasantest food hath a taste of the gall. If revelations 
should raise us to the third heaven, (I Cor. xii. 7,) the mes- 
senger of Satan must presently buffet us, and the prick in the 
flesh will fetch us down ; but there is none of this inconstancy, 
nor mixtures, in heaven. If perfect love cast out fear, then 
perfect joy must needs cast out sorrow ; (I John iv, 18 ;) and 
perfect happiness exclude all the relics of misery. There will 
be a universal perfecting of all our parts and powers, and a 
universal removal of all our evils : and though the positive part 
be the sweetest, and that which draws the other after it, even as 
the rising of the sun excludes the darkness ; yet is not the 
negative part to be slighted, even our freedom, from so many 
and great calamities. Let us, therefore, look over these more 
punctually, and see what it is that we shall there rest from. In 
general, it is from all evil. Particularly, first, from the evil of 
sin ; secondly, and of suffering. 

First : It excludeth nothing more directly than sin ; whether 
original, and of nature 3 or actual, and of conversation : for there 


entereth nothing that defileth, nor that vvorketh ahomination, 
nor that maketh a he. (Rev. xxi. 27.) When they are there, 
the saints are saints indeed. He that will wash them with his 
heart-blood, rather than suffer them to enter unclean, will now 
perfectly see to that; he who hath undertaken to present them 
to his Father, " not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, 
but perfectly holy, and without blemish, will now most certainly 
perform his undertaking.'"' (Ephes. v. 27.) What need Christ 
at all to have died, if heaven could have contained imperfect 
souls ? " For to this end came he into the world, that he might 
put away the works of the devil." (1 John iii. 8.) His blood 
and Spirit have not done all this, to leave us, after all, defiled. 
" For what communion hath light with darkness ; and what 
fellowship hath Christ with Belial ? " (2 Cor. vi. 14.) He that 
hath prepared for sin the torments of hell, will never admit it 
into the blessedness of heaven ; therefore. Christian, never fear 
this : if thou be once in heaven, thou shalt sin no more. Is not 
this glad news to thee, who hast prayed, and watched, and la- 
boured against it so long. I know if it were offered to thy choice, 
thou wouldst rather choose to be freed from sin than to be made 
heir of all the world. Why, wait till then, and thou shalt have thy 
desire : that hard heart, those vile thoughts, which did lie down 
and rise with thee, which did accompany thee to every duty, 
which thou couldst no more leave behind thee than leave thyself 
behind thee, shall be now left behind for ever. They might ac- 
company thee to death, but they cannot proceed a step further. 
Thy understanding shall never more be troubled with darkness : 
ignorance and error are inconsistent with this light. Now thou 
walkest like a man in the twilight, ever afraid of being out of 
the way; thou seest so many religions in the world, that thou 
fearest thy own cannot be only the right among all these ; ^ 

" "If a man should defer his study of any art or science till the writers thereof 
did fully and unitedly consent, it would be as vain a thing, as if a man did 
purpose his journey from London to York, but should make a vow not to set 
forward till all the clocks in London strike together." — Fulbeck's Directions 
to study the Law, pp. 2, 6. The writers in all sciences differ, not from the 
uncertainty of the sciences, but their own imperfection; yea, in history, 
which reporteth matter of fact, Livy against Polybius, Plutarch against Livy, 
Sigonius against Plutarch, Zamphilius against Dio, whom he inter[)reteth 
and abridgeth. Non est litigiosi juris scientia sed ignorantia. — Cic. de Fini- 
bus, lib. 2. " The best and most grave man will confess, that he is ignorant of 
many things," saithCic.Tuscul. 3. Solon was not ashamed to say, " that in his 
old age he was a learner ;" and Julianus the lawyer said, " that when he had 
one foot in the grave, yet he would have the other in the school." Arrogantius 

140 THE saint's 

thou seest the vScripture so exceeding difficult, and every one 
pleading for his own cause, and bringing such specious argu- 
ments for so contrary opinions, that it entangleth thee in a 
labyrinth of perplexities ; thou seest so many godly men on this 
side, and so many on that, and each zealous for his own way, 
that thou art amazed, not knowing which way to take : and 
thus do doublings and fears accompany darkness, and we are 
ready to stumble at every thing in our way ; but then will all 
this darkness be dispelled, and our blind understandings fully 
opened, and we shall have no more doubts of our way. We 
shall know which was the right side, and which the wrong ; 
which was the truth, and which the error. Oh! what would we 
give to know, clearly, all the profound mysteries in the doctrine 
of decree, of redemption, of justification, of the nature of grace, 
of the covenants, of the divine attributes, &c. ; what would we 
not give to see all dark scriptures made plain, to see all seeming 
contradictions reconciled ! Why, when glory hath taken the 
veil from our eyes, all this Avill be known in a moment ; we shall 
then see clearly into all the controversies about doctrine or dis- 
cipline that now perplex us. The poorest Christian is presently 
there a more perfect divine than any is here. We are now, 
through our ignorance, subject to such mutability, that, in points 
not fundamental, we change as the moon ; that is cast as a just 
reproach upon us, that we possess our religion with reserves, and 
resolvedly settle upon almost nothing ; that we are to-day of one 
opinion, and within this week, or month, or year, of another ; 
and yet, alas 1 we cannot help it. The reproach may fall upon 
all mankind, as long as we have need of daily growth. Would 
they have us believe before we understand ; or say, ' We believe,' 
when indeed we do not ? Shall we profess ourselves resolved 
before we ever thoroughly studied; or say, 'We are certain' when 
we are conscious that we are not ? But when once our igno- 

loquor quam verius, si vel nunc dico me ad perfectionem sine ullo errore scri- 
bendi jam in istaaetate venisse. — August, de Bono Persever. c.2i. Vide plurima 
talia, c. 20, 21, &c. 24, et Prolog. Retr. et contr. Priscil. c. 11. Epist. 7. ad 
Marcel, et Proem, lib. 3. de Trin. TuUius inquit (imllum unquam verbum 
(juod revocare vellet emisi.) Q^^s laiis etsi praeclarissima videatur, tamen 
credebilior est de nimium fatuo quani de sapiente perfecto : nam et illi quos 
vulgo moriones vocant, quanto magis a, sensu communi dissonant, magisque 
absurdi et insulsi sunt, tanto magis nullum verbum emittunt quod revocare 
volint : quia dicti mail, vel stulti, vel incommodi pcEnitere, utique cordatorum 
est. De hominibus Dei, qui Spiritu Sancto acti locuti sunt, dici potest. Ab 
hac ego excellcntia tam longe absum, ut si nullum verbum quod revocare 
vellum protulert), fatuo sim quam sapienti similior. Vide ultra, August. 
Epist. 7. ad Marcellinum. 


ranee is perfectly healed, then shall we be settled, resolved men; 
then shall our reproach be taken from us, and we shall never 
change our judgments more; then shall we be clear and certain 
in all, and cease to be sceptics any more.'' Our ignorance now 
doth lead us into error, to the grief of our more knowing brethren, 
to the disturbing of the church's quiet, and interrupting her 
desirable, harmonious consent ; to the scandalizing of others, 
and weakening ourselves. How many a humble and faithful soul 
is seduced into error, and little knows it ! Loth they are to err, 
God knows, and therefore read, and pray, and confer, and yet 
err still, and confirmed in it more and more : and in lesser and 
more difficult points how should it be otherwise ? He that is 
acquainted amongst men, and knows the quality of professors 
in England, must needs know the generality of them are no 
great scholars, nor have much read or studied controversies, nor 
are men of the most profound natural parts ; nor have the 
ministers of England much preached controversies to them, but 
were glad if their hearers were brought to Christ, and got so 
much knowledge as might help to salvation, as knowing that to 
be their great work. And can it be expected that men, void of 
learning, and strength of parts, unstudied and untaught, should, 
at the first onset, know those truths, which they are almost in- 
capable of knowing at all ; ^ when the greatest divines, of clear- 
est judgment, acknowledge so much difficulty that they could 
almost find in their hearts sometimes to profess them quite be- 
yond their reach ? Except we will allow them to lay aside their 
divine faith, and take up a human, and see with other men's 
eyes the weight and weakness of arguments, and not with their 
own,* it cannot be thought that the most of Christians, no, nor 

" Nam incaute cretluli circumveniuntur ab bis quos bonos putaveruiit. 
Mox errore consimili jam suspectis omnibus ut improbos metuuut, etiam quos 
optimos sentire potuerunt. Nos proiiicle soliciti quod utrinque in oinni ne^otio 
disseratur; et ex altera parte plerunque obscura sit Veritas, ex altera lateat 
niira subtilitas, quae nonnunquam ubertate dicendi, fidem confessae probatii)nis 
imitetur : diligenter quantum potest singula ponderemus, nt arg-utias quidem 
laudare, ea vero quas recta sunt eli^ere, probare, suscipere possimus. — Miniit. 
Felix. Octav. p. (mibi) .36(5. 

y In toto genere disputandi, plerumque pro disserentium viribus et eloquen- 
tial potestate, etiam perspicuvK veritatis conditio mutetur. Id accidere perno- 
tum est auditorum facilitate, qui dum verborum lenocinio a rerum intentioiii- 
bus avocaiitnr, sine delectu assentiuutur diclis omnibus, nee a, rectis falsa 
secernuiit, nescieiites inesse et in incredibili verum, et in verisimili nienda- 
cium. — Miniit. F<zlix. uln. sup. 

'■ Didicimus singulas quasque haere'^es intulisse ecdesiae proprias questio- 
nes, contra (juas diligejitius UetV.nderctur scriptura diviua, quam si nulla talis 

142 THE saint's 

the most of divines, should be free from erring in those difficult 
points, where we know they have not headpieces able to reach. 
Indeed, if it were the way of the Spirit to teach us miraculously, 
as the apostles were taught the knowledge of tongues, without 
the intervening use of reason ; or if the Spirit infused the acts 
of knowledge, as he doth the immediate knowing power, then 
he that had most of the Spirit would not only know best, but 
also know most : but we have enough to convince us of the con- 
trary to this. But, oh 1 that happy, approaching day, when error 
shall vanish away for ever ; when our understanding shall be 
filled with God himself, whose light will leave no darkness in 
us ! His face shall be the Scripture, where we shall read the 
truth ; and himself, instead of teachers and counsels, to perfect 
our understandings, and acquaint us with himself, who is the 
perfect truth. No more error, no more scandal to others, no 
more disquiet to our own spirits, no more mistaking zeal for 
falsehood; because our understandings have no more sin. Many 
a godly man hath here, in his mistaking zeal, been a means to 
deceive and pervert his brethren, and when he sees his own error, 
cannot again tell how to undeceive them ; but there we shall all 
conspire in one truth, as being one in him who is that truth. 

And as we shall rest from all the sin of our understandings, so 
of our wills, affection, and conversation.'' We shall no more 
retain this rebelling principle, which is still withdrawing us from 
God, and addicting us to backsliding. Doubtless, we shall no 
more be oppressed with the power of our corruptions, nor vexed 
with their presence ; no pride, passion, slothfulness, senseless- 
ness, shall enter with us ; no strangeness to God, and the things 
of God ; no coldness of affections, nor imperfection in our love ; 
no uneven walking, nor grieving of the Spirit ', no scandalous ac- 
tion, or unholy conversation : we shall rest from all these for 
ever : then shall our understandings receive their light from the 
face of God, as the full moon from the open sun, where there is 
no earth to interpose betwixt them ; then shall our wills corre- 
spond to the divine will, as face answers to face in a glass ; and 

necessitas cogeret. — y^ug-. cle Bono Persev. c. 20. IMulta ad fidem catliolicain 
pertineotia, duin lia*reticoiuiii callida inquietudiiie exagitautur, ut auversiis 
eas defend! possiut, et coiisideraiitur diligeiitius.et iiitelligmitur clariiis, et iii- 
siatitins prsJicantur ; etab adversario iiiota quaestio, discendi existit occasio. 
— Aug. de Civ. lib. 16. c. 2. 

"■ Prima libertas voluntatis erat, posse non ptccare ; novissima eiit, niulto 
major, iiuii posse peccare. I'rinia iiuniortalitas crat jiosse iion iiioii : novissi- 
ma erit, niuUo major, iion posse mori. — yJug. dc Corrupt, el Crat. c. 9, 11. 


the same, his will, shall be our law and rule, from which we 
shall never swerve again. Now our corruptions, as the Anakims, 
dismay us ; and, as the Canaanites, in Israel, they are left for 
pricks in our sides, and thorns in our eyes ; (Josh.xxiii. 13 j) and 
as the bondwoman and her son in Abraham's house, (Gen. xxi. 
9,) they do but abuse us, and make our lives a burden to us ; 
but then shall the bondwoman and her son be cast out, and 
shall not be heirs with us in our rest. As Moses said to Israel, 
" Ye shall not do after all the things that we do here this day, 
every one whatsoever is right in his own eyes, for ye are not as 
yet come to the rest and to the inheritance which the Lord your 
God giveth you. (Dent. xii. 8, 9.) I conclude, therefore, with 
the words next to my text ; " For he that is entered into his 
rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from 
his." (Heb. iv. 10.) So that there is a perfect rest from sin. 

Sect. IX. 2. It is a perfect rest from suffering : when the 
cause is gone the effect ceaseth. Our sufferings were but the 
consequents of our sinning, and here they both shall cease toge- 
ther. I will show particularly ten kinds of suffering, which we 
shall there rest from. 

1 . We shall rest from all our perplexing doubts and fears ; 
it shall no more be said that doubts are like the thistle, a bad 
weed, but growing in good ground; they shall now be weeded 
out, and trouble the gracious soul no more.'' No more need of 
so many sermons, books, and marks, and signs, to resolve the 
poor doubting soul : the full fruition of love itself hath now re- 
solved his doubts for ever. We shall hear that kind of language 
no more : What shall I do to know my state ? How shall I know 
that God is my Father, that my heart is upright, that conversion 
• is true, that faith is sincere ? Oh ! I am afraid my sins are un- 
pardoned ; oh ! I fear that all is but hypocrisy ; I fear that God 
will reject me from his presence ; I doubt he doth not hear my 
prayers ; how can he accept so vile a wretch, so hard-hearted, 
unkind a sinner, such an undervaluer of Christ as I am ! All 
this kind of language is there turned into another tune ; even 
into the praises of him who hath forgiven, who hath converted, 
who hath accepted, yea, who hath glorified a wretch so unwor- 
thy; so that it will now be as impossible to doubt and fear, as 
to doubt of the food which is in our bellies, or to fear it is night 
when we see the sun shine. If Thomas could doubt with his 
finger in the wounds of Christ, yet in heaven I am sure he can- 
^ Dr. PrestoH ' Of Effectual Faith,' p. 24. 

144 THE saint's 

not ; if we could doubt of what we see, or hear, or taste, or 
feel, yet 1 am sure we cannot of what we there possess. Surely, 
this will be comfort to the sad and drooping souls, whose life 
was nothing but a doubting distress, and their language nothing 
but a constant complaining. If God would speak peace, it 
would ease them, but when he shall possess them of this peace, 
they shall rest from all their doubts and fears for ever. 

Sect. X. 2. We shall rest from all that sense of God's dis- 
pleasure, which was our greatest torment, whether mani- 
fested mediately or immediately ; " for he will cause his 
fury towards us to rest, and his jealousy to cease, and he 
will be angry with us no more." (Ezek. xvi. 42.) Surely, 
hell shall not be mixed with heaven. There is the place 
for the glorifying of justice, prepared of purpose to mani- 
fest wrath, but heaven is only for mercy and love. Job doth 
not now use his own language, " Thou writest bitter things 
against me, and takest me for thine enemy, and settest me up 
as a mark to shoot at," &:c. (Job iii.j xiii. 26 ; xvi. 12 — 14; 
and vii. 10.) O, how contrary now to all this! David doth 
not now complain, " that the arrows of the Almighty stick in 
him : that his wounds stink and are corrupt ; that his sore runs 
and ceaseth not ; that his moisture is as the drought of summer; 
that there is no soundness in his flesh, because of God's displea- 
sure, nor rest in his bones because of sin ; that he is weary of 
crying, his throat is dried, his eyes fail in waiting for God ;" 
(Psal. xxxviii.;) "that he remembers God, and is troubled;' 
that in complaining his spirit is overwhelmed ; that his soul 
refuseth to be comforted ; that God's wrath lieth hard upon 
him, and that he afflicteth him with all his waves. (Psal. Ixvi. 
3.) O, how contrary now are David's songs ! Now he saith : 
I spake in my hi;istc, and this was my infirmity." (Psal. Ixxvii. 
2, 3.) Here the Christian is often complaining, Oh ! if it were 
the wrath of man, 1 could bear it; (Psal. Ixxxviii. 7 ;) but the wrath 
of the Almighty, who can bear ? Oh ! that all the world were 
mine enemies, so that I were assured that he were my friend ! 
If it were a stranger, it were nothing ; but that my dearest 
friend, my own father, should be so provoked against me, this 
wounds my very soul I If it were a creature, I would con- 
temn it, but if God be angry who may endure ? If he be 
against me, who can be for me ? And if he will cast me down, 
who can raise me up ? But, oh ! that l.lessed day when all these 
dolorous complaints will be turned into admiring thankfulness; 



and all sense of God's displeasing swallowed up in that ocean 
of infinite love ; when sense shall convince us that fury dwelleth 
not in God : and though for a little moment he hide his face, 
yet with everlasting compassion will he receive and embrace us ; 
when he shall say to ISion, " Arise and shine, for thy light is 
come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee." (Isa. Ix. 2.) 
Sect. XI. 3, We shall rest from all the temptations of Satan, 
whereby he continually disturbs our peace. What a grief is it 
to a Christian, though he yield not to the temptation, yet to be 
still solicited to deny his Lord : that such a thought should 
be cast into his heart : that he can set about nothing that is 
good, but Satan is still dissuading him from it, distracting him 
in it, or discouraging him after it ! What a torment, as well as 
a temptation is it, to have such horrid motions made to his 
soul, such blasphemous ideas presented to his fantasy 1 Some- 
times cruel thoughts of God, sometimes undervaluing thoughts of 
Christ, sometimes unbelieving thoughts of Scripture, sometimes 
injurious thoughts of Providence; to be tempted sometimes to 
turn to present things, sometimes to play with the baits of sin, 
sometimes to venture on the delights of the flesh, and some- 
times to flat atheism itself; especially when we know the trea- 
chery of our own hearts that they are as tinder or gunpowder, 
ready to take fire, as soon as one of these sparks shall fall upon 
them.'^ Oh ! bow the poor Christian lives in continual disquiet- 
ness, to feel these motions : but more, that his heart should be 
the soil for this seed, and the too-fruitful mother of such an off- 
spring; and, most of all, through fear, lest they will at last pre- 
vail, and these cursed motions should procure his consent. But 
here is our comfort ; as we now stand not by our own strength, 
and shall not be charged with any of this ; so when the day of 
our deliverance comes, we shall fully rest from these tempta- 
tions : Satan is then bound up, the time of tempting is then 
done : the time of torment to himself, and his conquered cap- 

"^ Non nobis certanduin est cum umbra asini, sed cum veris militibus qui eo 
magis metuendi suntquo minus videri ilnobis possunt. Possuntenim nosonini 
ex parte incaatos et quasi coecos adoriri. Et quales sunt hostes ? Audacia 
promplissimi, viribus robustissimi, artibus callidissimi, diligentiaac celeritate 
infatigabiles : machinis et armis omnibus munitissimi, puo^nandi scientia ex- 
peditissimi; denique tales sunt quibus nihil ad veram militiam deest. — Zan- 
chius, tova. 3. lib. 4. de Pugnat. Dcomon. cap. 21. p. 213. I Tim. iii. 7 ; 2 Tim. ii. 
26; Ephes. vi. 11. Ratio est, quia Satan et omnes daemones sunt captivi 
Christi : victoria igitur carta est electis Dei contra diabolum : non ex ipsis, 
ipsorumque viribus; sedexChristo Christique gratia. — Zunch. torn. 3. lib. 4. c. 
21. pp.214, 21G. 


146 THE saint's 

tives, those deluded souls, is then come, and the victorious saints 
shall have triumph for temptation. Now we do walk among 
his snares, and are in danger to be circumvented with his me- 
thods and wiles ; but then we are quite above his snares, and 
out of the hearing of his enticing charms. He hath power 
here to tempt us in the wilderness, but he entereth not the holy 
city. He may set us on the pinnacle of the temple in the earthly 
Jerusalem ; but the new Jerusalem he may not approach. Perhaps 
he may bring us to an exceeding high mountain, but the Mount 
Sion and city of the living God he cannot ascend : or, if he should, 
yet all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them, will 
be but a poor despised bait to the soul which is possessed with 
the kingdom of our Lord and the glory of it. No, no, here is 
no more work for Satan now. Hopes he might have of de- 
ceiving poor creatures on earth, who lived out of sight, and only 
heard and read of a kingdom which they never beheld, and had 
only faith to live upon, and were encompassed with flesh, and 
drawn aside by sense. But when once they see the glory they 
read of, and taste the joys they heard of, and possess that king- 
dom which they then believed and hoped for, and have laid aside 
their fleshly sense, it is time, then, for Satan to have done : it is in 
vain to offer a temptation more. What 1 draw them from that 
glory; draw them from the arms of Jesus Christ; draw them 
from the sweet praises of God ; draw them from the blessed 
society of saints and angels ? draw them from the bosom of 
the Father's love, and that to a place of torment among the 
damned, which their eyes behold I Why, what charms, what 
persuasions, can do it? To entice them from an unknown joy, 
and unknown God, were somewhat hopeful ; but now they 
have both seen and enjoyed, there is no hope. Surely, it must 
be a very strong temptation that must draw a blessed saint from 
that rest. We shall have no more need to pray, " Lead us not 
into temptation," nor " to watch and pray that we enter not 
into temptation;" (Matt. vi. 13, and xxvi. 41;) nor shall we 
serve the Lord as Paul did, in " many tears and temptations ;" 
(Acts XX. 19 ;) no : but now they who continued with Christ in 
temptation, shall by him be appointed to a kingdom, even as his 
Father appointed to him, (Rev. iii. 10,) that they may eat and 
drink at his table in his kingdom. (Luke xxii. 28 — 30.) "Blessed, 
therefore, are they that endure temptation; for when they are 
tried, they shall receive the crown of life which the Lord hath 
promised to them that love him :" (James i. 12 :) and then they 



shall be saved from the hour of temptation. Then the malig- 
nant planet Saturn shall be below us, and lose all its influence, 
which is now above us exercising its enmity : and Satan must 
be suffering, who would have drawn us into suffering, as Bu- 
choltzer wittily, "Ubi Saturnus non supra nos, sed infra nos con- 
spicietur luens poenas, pro sua in nos seevitia et malitia." 

Sect. XII. 4. We shall rest also from all our temptations 
which we now undergo from the world and the flesh, as well as 
Satan ; and that is a number inexpressible, and a weight, were it 
not that we are beholding to supporting grace, utterlv intolera- 
ble. Oh ! the hourly dangers that we poor sinners here below 
walk in ! Every sense is a snare ; every member a snare ; every 
creature a snare ; every mercy a snare ; and every duty a snare 
to us. We can scarcely open our eyes, but we are in danger. If 
we behold them above us, we are in danger of envy. If we see 
sumptuous buildings, pleasant habitations, honour and riches, 
we are in danger to be drawn away with covetous desires : if the 
rags and beggary of others, we are in danger of self-applauding 
thoughts and unmercifulness. If we see beauty, it is a bait to 
lust ; if deformity, loathing and disdain. We can scarcely hear 
a word spoken, but contains to us matter of temptation. How 
soon do slanderous reports, vain jests, wanton speeches, by that 
passage, creep into the heart 1 How strong and prevalent a 
temptation is our appetite, and how constant and strong a watch 
doth it require 1*^ Have we comeliness and beauty ? what fuel 
for pride! Are we deformed? what an occasion of repining! 
Have we strength of reason, and gifts of learning ? oh ! how hard 
it is not to be puffed up ! (2 Cor. xi. 3, and i. 12, &c.) To seek 
ourselves ; to hunt after applause ; to despise our brethren ; to 
niislike the simplicity that is in Christ, both in the matter and 
manner of Scripture, in doctrine, discipline, in worship, and 
in the saints ; to aff"ect a pompous, specious, fleshly, service of 

<• Of meats and drinks, read Clemens Alexand. Pasdago^. lib. 2. c. 1. excel- 
lently; as also C.2 — 4 ejusd. Some men live to eat, as the beasts do, whose belly 
is all their life ; but our Master comman<leth us to eat that we may live ; for 
nourishment is not our business, nor is flesh-pleasing our aim and purpose : 
but our nourishment is for our mansion here, which reason onlereth for incor- 
ruptibility hereafter; and therefore we must make choice of food, and it must 
be plain or simple, and not such as must have tuo much stir or labour to 
prepare it, or is too curious, &c. ; it being; for life, and not for delights and 
full provision. And our life consisteth of health and strength; for both which, 
nothing is better than a light ayd easy diet, as being most helpful to digestion 
and agiliiy of the hody. — Ciem. Alex, Padagog. lib. 2. c. 1. Take heed of 
those meats that entice us to eat theui when we are not hungry, beguiling our 
appetites by their deceits. — Qem, Alex, ubi sup, 


148 THE saint's 

God, and to exalt reason above faith. Are we unlearned, and of 
shallow heads and slender parts ? how apt, then, to despise 
what we have not, and to undervalue that whieh we do not 
know; and to err with confidence, because of our ignorance: 
and if conceitedness and pride do but strike in, to become a 
zealous enemy to truth, and a leading troubler of the church's 
peace, under pretences of truth and holiness ! Are we men of 
eminency, and in place of authority ? how strong is our tempta- 
tion to slight our brethren, to abuse our trust, to seek ourselves, 
to stand upon our honour and privileges; to forget ourselves, 
our poor brethren, and the public good : how hard to devote 
our power to his glory from whom we have received it : how 
prone to make our wills our law, and to cut out all the enjoy- 
ments of others, both religious and civil, by the cursed rules and 
model of our own interest and policy ! Are we inferiors and 
subject ? how prone to judge at others' pre-eminence, and to 
take liberty to bring all their actions to the bar of our incompe- 
tent judgment ; and to censure and slander them, and murmur at 
their proceedings I Are we rich and not too much exalted ? Are 
we poor and not discontented, and make our worldly necessi- 
ties a pretence for the robbing God of all his service ? If we be 
sick, oh ! how impatient : if in health, how few and stupid are 
our thoughts of eternity! If death be near, we are distracted 
with the fears of it : if we think it far off, how careless is our 
preparation I Do we set upon duty ? why there are snares too : 
either we are stupid and lazy, or rest on them, and turn from 
Christ ; or we are customary and notional only. In a word, not 
one word that falls from the mouth of a minister and Christian, 
but is a snare ; nor a place we come into ; not a word that our 
own tongue speaks; not any mercy we possess; nor a bit we put 
into our mouths, but they are snares ; not that God hath made 
them so, but through our own corruption they become so to us : 
so that what a sad case are we poor Christians in, and especially 
they that discern them not 1 for it is almost impossible they 
should escape them. It was not for nothing that our Lord cries 
out, " What 1 say to one, I say to all, Watch." We are like 
the lepers at Samaria ; if we go into the city, there is nothing 
but famine ; if we sit still, we perish. (Deut. xii. SO, and vii. 25; 
Hos. ix. 8; Psal. Ixix. 22; Prov. xx. 25, xxii. 25, and xxix. 6, 
25 ; 1 Tim. vi. 9 ; Job viii. 8, 10. 

But for ever blessed be omnipotent love, which saves us out 
of all these, and makes our straits but the advantages of the 


glory of his saving grace. And " blessed be the Lord, who hath 
not given our souls for a prey; our soul is escaped as a bird out 
of the snare of the fowler ; the snare is broken and we are 
escaped." (Psal. cxxiv. 6, 7-) No, our houses, our clothes, our 
sleep, our food, our physic, our father, mother, wife, children, 
friends, goods, lands, are all so many temptations ; and ourselves, 
the greatest snares to ourselves. But in heaven, the danger and 
trouble are over; there is nothing but what will advance our joy. 
Now every old companion, and every loose fellow, is putting up 
the finger, and beckoning us to sin, and we can scarcely tell how 
to say them nay. ' What,' say they, ' will not you take a cup ? 
Will you not do as your neighbours ? Must you be so precise ? 
Do you think none shall be saved but puritans ? What needs all 
this strictness, this reading, and praying, and preaching ? Will 
you make yourself the scorn of all men ? Come, do as we do, 
take your cups, and drink away sorrow.' Oh ! how many a poor 
Christian hath been haunted and vexed with these temptations : 
and it may be father, or mother, or nearest friends will strike in, 
and give a poor Christian no rest : and, alas ! how many, to their 
eternal undoing, have hearkened to their seducements ! But this 
is our comfort, dear friends, our rest will free us from all these. 
As Satan hath no entrance there, so neither any thing to serve 
his malice ; but all things shall there, with us, conspire the praises 
of our great Deliverer. 

Sect. XIII. 5. And as we rest from the temptations, so also 
from all abuses and persecutions which we suffer at the hands of 
wicked men. We shall be scorned, derided, imprisoned,banished, 
butchered, by them no more ; the prayers of the souls under the 
altar, will then be answered, and "God will avenge their blood 
on these that dwell on the earth." (Rev. vi. 2, 10; 2 Tim. iii. 
12.) This is the time for crowning with thorns, buffeting, 
spitting on ; that is the time for crowning with glory : (Rom. 
viii. 17 '^o^^ ^^^^ ^'^^^' ^s decreed on. That whosoever will live 
godly in Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution ; then they that 
suffered with him, shall be glorified with him.*^ Now we must be 

• Matt. X. 22, and xxiv. 9 ; 2 Thess. i. y, 10 ; John xv. 18—20, xvii. 14, vii. 
7, V. 23, and xvii. 22 ; 1 Cor. iv. 9, 13 ; Lam. iii. 45 ; Heb. x. 33 ; Isai. viii. 
18 ; Luke vi. 22. Ignatius, E|)ist. ad Roman., calls his condemnation to mar- 
tyrdom the punishment of the devil, because his judges were but the devil's 
mouth and instruments : fire, the cross, the cruelty of wild beasts, cutting off, 
separating, breaking of my bones, renting of my members, destruction of my 
whole body, and the punishment of the devil (/cJ/Vacris Tov5iafiu\ov'); let theiu 

150 THE saint's 

hated of all men for Christ's name-sake, and the Gospel ; then 
will Christ be admired in his saints that were thus hated. Now, 
because we are not of the world, hut Christ hath taken us out 
of the world, therefore doth the world hate us ; then, because 
we are not of the world, but taken out of their calamity, there- 
fore will the world admire us. Now, as they hated Christ, they 
will also hate us ; then, as they will honour Christ, so will they 
also honour us. We are here as the scorn and offscouring of all 
things ; as men set up for a gazing-stock to angels and men, 
even for signs and wonders amongst professing Christians; they 
put us out of their synagogues, and cast out our name as evil, 
and separate us from their company : but we shall then be as 
much gazed at for our glory, and they will be shut out of the 
church of the saints, and separated from us, whether they will 
or no. They now think it strange that we run not with them 
" to all excess of riot, speaking evil of us;" (1 Pet. iv. 4;) they 
will then think it more strange, that they ran not with us in the 
despised ways of God, and speak evil of themselves ; and more 
vehemently befool themselves for their carelessness, than ever 
they did us for our heavenliness. A poor Christian can scarcely go 
along the streets now, but every one is pointing the finger in 
scorn, but then they would be glad of the crumbs of his happi- 
ness. The rich man would scarcely have believed him that would 
have told him, that he should beg for water from the tip of 
Lazarus's finger. Here is a great change ! We can scarcely now 
pray in our families, or sing praises to God, but our voice is a 
vexation to them. How must it needs torment them then, to 
see us praising and rejoicing, while they are howling and lament- 
ing ! How full have their prisons often been, and how bitter 
their rage ! How have they scattered their carcasses on the 
earth, and delighted themselves in the blood of saints ! How 
glad would they have been, if they could have brought them to 
ruin, and blotted out their name from under heaven !' How 

all come upon me, so I but deserve to obtain Christ. — Ignat. Edit. Usser, p. 86. 
Agesilaus dicere solitus est, se vehementer admirari eos non haberi in sacri- 
legorum nuniero, qui laederent eos qui Deo supplicarent vel Deum veneraren- 
tur. Quo inuuit, eos non tantum sacrilegos esse qui Deos ipsos aut templo- 
rum ornatum spoliarent; sed eos maxima qui Deorum ministros et praacones 
contumeliis afiiciunt. — ^myl. Prob. 

f In memorial of the Irish massacre, where the number of the murdered in 
one province doubled all that the French massacre slew, vide Clark's ' Mar- 
tyrology.' Luke xxvi. 44 ; Psal. Ixxxiii, 4, and ii. 4. God taketh the re- 
proaching and injuring of believers as done to himself : and what other way 


have tliey prepared, like Haman, their gallows ! And if God 
had not gainsaid it, the execution would have heen answerable ; 
"But he that sitteth in heaven did laugh them to scorn, the 
Lord had them in derision." Oh ! how full were their hearts of 
blood, and their hands of cruelty ; so that the next generations, 
that knew them not, will scarcely believe the fury of their pre- 
decessors' rage. Blessed be the Guardian of the saints, who hath 
not suffered the prevalency of that wrath, which would have 
over-done the gunpowder treason, the Turkish slavery, the 
Spanish inquisition, and the French massacres. But the Lord 
of hosts hath often brought them dtjwn, and his power and 
justice have abated their fury, and raised to his name everlasting 
trophies, and set up many a monument for remembrance, which 
God forbid should ever be forgotten, " So let all thine incu- 
rable enemies perish, O Lord." (Judg. v. 23.) " When the 
Lord maketh inquisition for blood, he will remember the precious 
blood which they have shed ; and the earth shall not cover it 
any more." (Psal. ix. 12.) They shall pursue, but as Pharaoh, 
to their own destruction :^ and where they fall, there we shall 
pass over safely, and escape them for ever. For our Lord hath 
told them, " that whither he goes they cannot come." (John 
vii. 34, 36, and viii. 21, 22 ; Rev. xii. 16 ; Heb. xi. ; Matt, xxvii. 
29, 30.) When their flood of persecution is dried up, and the 
church called out of the wilderness, and the New Jerusalem 
cotne down from heaven, and mercy and justice are fully glori- 
fied, then shall we feel their fury no more. There is no cruel 
mockings and scourgings; no bonds, or imprisonments; no sto- 
ning, or sawing asunder; tempting, or slaying with the sword; 
wandering in sheep-skins, or goat-skins, in deserts and moun- 
tains, dens or caves of the earth ; no more being destitute, 
afflicted, tormented. We leave all this behind us, when once 
we enter the city of our rest; the names of Lollards, Hugonots, 
&c., are not there used ; the inquisition of Spain is there con- 
demned ; the statute of the six articles is there repealed ; and 
the law de hcereticis comburendis more justly executed ; the 
date of the interim is there expired ; no censures to loss of 
members, perpetual imprisonment, or banishment. Christ is 

can reproach and dishonour touch God, hut as they thcit trouble his possesions 
do injure the owner? And as to wron^ the soldiers is t) wrou^ the com- 
mander, so is it a contempt of the Lord to vex those that are dedicated to him. 
— Clem. Alex. Strornat. lib. 7, 
8 Pictos a^nos adorant, vivos devorant, inquit Claud. Thaurinens. 

152 THE saint's 

not there clothed in a gorgeous robe, and blhidfolded; nor do 
they smite him, and say, ' Read who struck thee :' nor is truth 
clothed in the robes of error, and smitten for that which it most 
directly contradicteth ; nor a schismatic wounded, and a saint 
found bleeding ; nor our friends smite us, whilst they mistake us 
for their enemies : there is none of this blind mad work there. 
Dear brethren, you that now can attempt no work of God with- 
out resistance, and find you must either lose the love of the 
world, and your outward comforts, or else the love of God and 
your eternal salvation ; consider, you shall in heaven have no 
discouraging company, nor any but who will further your work, 
and gladly join heart and voice with you in your everlasting joy 
and praises. Till then, possess your souls in patience; bind all 
reproaches as a crown to your heads ; esteem them greater 
riches than tiie world's treasures ; account it matter of joy, 
when you fall into tribulation. You have seen that our God is' 
able to deliver us ; but this is nothing to our final deliverance : 
he will recompense tribulation to them that trouble you; and 
to you that are troubled rest with Christ. Only see to this, 
brethren, that none of you suffer as an evil-doer, as a busy- 
body in other men's matters, as a resister of the commands of 
lawful authority, as ungrateful to those that have been instru- 
ments of our good, as evil-speakers against dignities, as oppo- 
sers of the discipline and ordinances of Christ, as scornful re- 
vilers of your christian brethren, as reproachers of a laborious, 
judicious, conscientious ministry, &:c. " But if any of you suffer 
for the name of Christ, happy are ye, for the Spirit of God and of 
glory resteth upon you." And if any of you begin to shrink, and 
draw back because of opposition, and are ashamed either of 
your work, or your Master, let such a one know to his face, 
that he is but a base-spirited, cowardly wretch, and cursedly 
undervalueth the saint's rest, and most foolishly overvalueth the 
things below ; and he must learn to forsake all these, or else he 
can never be Christ's disciple ; and that Christ will renounce 
him, and be ashamed of him, before his Father and the angels 
of heaven. But for those that have held fast their integrity, and 
gone through good report, and evil report, and undergone the 
violence of unreasonable men, " let them hear the word of the 
Lord ; your brethren that hated you, that cast you out for my 
name-sake, said. Let the Lord be glorified ; (they had good 
words, and goodly pretences;) but he shall appear to your joy, 
and they shall be ashamed." (Isa. Ixvi. 5.) " Your Redeemer is 


strong, the Lord of hosts is his name. He shall throughly 
plead your cause, that he may give rest to his people, and dis- 
quietness to their enemies." (Jer. 1. 34.)'^ 

(i. We shall then also rest from all our sad divisions, and ' 
unchristianlike quarrels with one another. As he said, who 
saw the carcasses lie together, as if they had embraced each 
other, who had been slain by each other in a duel, " Quanta se 
invicem amplectuntur amicitia, qui mutua implacabili inimicitia 
periere !" "How lovingly do they embrace one another, being 
dead, who perished through their mutual, implacable enmity \" 
So how lovingly do thousands live together in heaven, who lived 
in divisions and quarrels on earth 3 or, as he said, who beheld 
how quietly and peaceably the bones and dust of mortal enemies 
did lie together, " Non tanta vivi pace essetis conjuncti;" "You 
did not live together so peaceably; so we may say of multi- 
tudes in heaven now all of one mind, one heart, and one employ- 
ment, You lived not on earth in so sweet familiarity. There is 
no contention, because none of this pride, ignorance, or other 
corruption ; Paul and Barnabas are now fully reconciled. There 
they are, not every man conceited of his own understanding, and 
in love with the issue of his own brain, but all admiring the 
divine perfection, and in love with God, and one another. As 
old Gryneus wrote to his friend, " Si te non amplius in his terris 
videam, ibi tamen conveniemus ubi Lutherus cum Zuinglio opti- 
me jam convenitj"'' *' If I see you no more on earth, yet we shall 

•• De qua iniquitate sasvitise, non modo crecum hoc vul^us exsultat, sed et 
quidam vestruin, &c. Quasi non totum quod in nos potestis, nostrum sit ar- 
bitrium, Certe si velim, Christianus sum, tunc ergo me damnabis, si damnari 
velim. Quum vero quod in me potes, nisi velim non potes, jam meae volun- 
tatis est ([uod potes, non tuaj potestatis. Proinde et vulgus vane de nostra 
vexatione g-audet ; proinde et nostrum est gaudium quod sibi viiidicant qui 
malumus damnari quam Ti IJeo excidere. Contra, illi qui nos oderunt, dolere, 
non gaudere debebaut, consecutis nobis quod eligimus. — I'ert. yjpu. c. 49. 
Lulve xxi. 19 ; Job xxxi. 35 ; Heb. xi. 25 ; Jam. i. 2 ; Dan. iii. 17; 1 Thess. i. 
7; 1 Pet. iii. 17, and iv. 14, 15 ; Jud. 8; 2 Pet. ii. 10. Dicturus es me Mani- 
cha'um ; sed ut maledicus, non ut veridicus. — August. Oper. Jmperf. n. 55, 
Luke xiv. 26, 27, 30 ; 2 'i'hess. iii. 2.- Inde est quod ibidem sententiis vestris 
gratias agimus, ut est aemulatio rei divinae et humanae, cum damnamur 4 
vobis, a Deo absolvimur. — Tcrtul. Apol. verbis ultintis. 

' Absit ut talis sit ilia vita, ubi est animae nostrce ipsa Veritas vita! Ubi 
nemo fallit, fallitur nemo; hie autem homines faliunt et falluntur; miseri- 
oresque sunt cum mentiendo failunt, quam cum mentientibus credeudolallun- 
tur. Usque adeo tameii rationalis natura refugit falsitatem, et quantum ))Otest 
vitat errorem, ut falli iiolint etiam tjuicunque amant fallere. — ylug. Enchlrid, 
cap. 17. Lege Praefat. D. Hemmiugii ante Postii. de Dissidiis et Scandalis. 

'' Melch. Adam in vita Grynaei. 

154 THE saint's 

there meet, where Luther and ZuingHus are now well agreed." 
There is a full reconciliation between sacramentarians and ubi- 
quitarians, Calvinists and Lutherans ; remonstrants and contra- 
remonstrants; non-conformists and anti-disciplinarians, conform- 
ists and non-conformists, are terms there not known. There is 
no discipline erected by state-policy, nor any disordered popular 
rule ; no government but that of Christ ; no bitter invectives, nor 
voluminous reproaches ; the language of Martin^ is there a 
stranger ; and the sound of his echo is not heard. No record- 
ing our brethren's infirmities ; nor raking into the sores which 
Christ died to heal. How many sermons zealously preached, 
how many books studiously compiled, will then by the authors 
be all disclaimed ! " How many backbiting, slanderous speeches ! 
How many secret dividing contrivances," must then be laid upon 
the score of Christ, against whom and his saints they were com- 
mitted ! The zealous authors dare not own them ; they would, 
then, with the Ephesians,burn their books, (Acts xix. 19,) and 
rather lose their labour than stand to it. There is no plotting 
to strengthen our party ; nor deep designing against our 
brethren. And is it not shame and pity, that our course is now 
so contrary ? Surely, if there be sorrow or shame in heaven, we 
shall then be both sorry and ashamed to look one another there 
in the face ; and to remember all this carriage on earth ; even 
as the brethren of Joseph were to behold him, when they re- 
membered their former unkind usage. Is it not enough that all 
the world is against us, but we must also be against one another? 
Did I ever think to have heard Christians so to° reproach and 

* Two books full of the langiiagje of hell, iu bitterest scorns at the ministry 
and discipline, thought to be written by one Overton. Non oportet nos mi- 
rari super haereses istas, sive quia sunt : futurce enim praenunciabantur ; 
sive quia fidem quorundam subvertunt ; ad hoc enim sunt, ut fides habendo 
tentaiionem, habeat etiam probationem. Vane er^o et inconsiderate plerique 
hoc ipso scandalizantur, quod tantum haereses valeant quantum sint. — Tertul. 
lie Prcescript. initio. 

•n Quemadmodum vero in multas et varias sectas scissa est catabaptistarum 
liseresis, itaiu hoc omnes unatiiiniter consentiunt, ut pra;dicatoribus veritatis 
negotium exhiljeant, et eos er^a auditores tauquam seductores suspectos red- 
daut. — Epist. Leo Jiida ante Bullbi gerinn contra Catab. 

" Horret animus cogitanti immania ilia judicia, conatus, facta, quibus hie 
inundus, et ipse Christianus orbis plus satis circumfluit; impietatem specie 
pietatis, iuhumanitatem specie charitatis, injustitiam prsetextu juris, intus 
spiraiitia et foris contestantia. — Junius Irenic. in Psal. 122. torrs. 1. p. 690. 

» Si Calvinus, quam a na^ura insitam habebat, vehementia ea ipse adversus 
perditos sophistas usus est, ut interdum etiam modum non tenuisse videri 
possit J rogo raoderatissimos istos homines, quibus nimium incalescere riden- 


scorn Christians ; and men professing the fear of God, to make 
so little conscience of censuring, vilifying, slandering and dis- 
gracing one another ? Alas ! if the judgment be once perverted, 
and error hath possessed the supreme faculty, whither will men 
go, and what will they do ? Nay, what will they not do ? Oh 1 
what a potent instrument for Satan p is a misguided conscience! 
It will make a man kill his dearest friend, yea, father or mother, 
yea, the holiest saints, and think he doth God service by it ; and 
to facilitate the work, it will first blot out the reputation of their 
holiness, and make them take a saint for a devil, that so they 
may vilify or destroy him without remorse. Oh ! what hellish 
things are ignorance and pride,^ that can bring men's souls to 
such a case as this ! Paul knew what he said, when he commanded 
that a novice should not be a teacher, lest, being lifted up with 
pride, he fall into the condemnation of the devil. (1 Tim. iii. 6.) 
He discerned that such young Christians that have got but a 
little smattering knowledge in religion, do lie in greatest dan- 
ger of this pride and condemnation. Who but a Paul could 
have foreseen, that among the very teachers and governors of so 
choice a church as Ephesus, that came to see and hear him, 
that pray and weep with him, there were some that afterwards 
should be notorious sect-masters ?■" " that of their own selves 

tur quicuuque ipsorum more non frig'ent, ut pro quo, et in quem dicatur, 
paulo attentius expendant ; neque heereticos illos spiritus ex ingenio suo me- 
tlantur. — Bezain Epist. Prafat. ante Calvini Tractatus Theologicos. 

P Me quoque non latet, turbulentos homines movendis seditionibus, Satanas 
esse flabella, ut in evang'elii odium placidos aliosque homines inflammet. Jta 
nostro saeculo, sub evangelii nascentis initia, barbaros homines armavit, qui 
legibus, judiciis, et omni politiae helium ex professo indicerent. Sed ab evan- 
gelio recedere, ut seditionibus obviam eatur, nimis perversum est. — Calvin, de 
Scandalis. Read Bishop Hall's twenty-ninth soliloquy, called ' The Spiritual 
Bedlam,' p. 109. Religion is torn into divisions and fragments ; the swarm is 
up, and settles into so many places, as without great mercy they will never be 
got into one hive. — Mr. Vine's Sermon on Numb. xiv. 24. p. 23. 

1 Quod multos videmus hoc vel illo errore captos a recta via abduci, nun- 
quam nisi justa Dei vindicta accidit; vere August, superbiam nominat here- 
sewn omnium matrem ; nullus enim unquam extitit erroris magister, quem 
non prava ambitio in suum praecipitium extulerit. Scimus Deum parvulis 
fidum esse doctorem ; proinde qui arrogantia turgent, eos non mirum est ab 
hac schola pulsos vagis suis speculationihus sursum et deorsum raptari. 
Quotquot hac nostra state a pura evaiigelii doctrina proJapsi falsorum dogma- 
turn cceperunt esse authores, repericnius omnes superbia; morbo correptos, 
ingenii tormenta sibi et aliis fabricasse. — Calv. de Scandalis. 

' Are not the errors which are rife among us, either by infecting persons 
of place and quality grown into that boldness ; or by carrying away Barnabas 
also, crept into that credit ; or by spreading far and wide, risen to that strength ; 
that they do face, if not seem able to put into danger of routing, our common 


men should arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away dis- 
ciples after them?" (Acts xx. 30.) Who then can expect better 
from any society now, how knowing and holy soever ? To-day 
they may be orthodox, unanimous, and joined in love; and per- 
haps, within a few weeks be divided, and at bitter enmity, 
through their doting about questions that tend not to edify.* 
Who that had seen how lovingly the godly of England did live 
together, would have believed that ever they would have been so 
bitter against one another 3 that we should fall upon one another 
for the very same duties ; and that professors of religion should 
oppose and deride almost all that worship God out of conscience, 
which others did before them through profaneness ? Did I not 
think, that of all other, the scorning at the worshippers of Christ, 
had been a sure sign of a wicked wretch ? But I see now we 
must distinguish between scorners and scorners, or else I fear 
we shall exclude almost all. I read, indeed, in pagan writers, 

faitl), public worship, authorised ministry, long and much-expected, and 
promised reformation. — Mr. Vine on 2 Pet. ii. 1. p. 2. 

^ Altera pestis est opinionum varietas et disseiitio in ecclesia: quae ut his 
temporibus Jesuitarum inipulsu valde increbuit, ita tamen neque nova vobis, 
neque mira videri debet. Ut enim palatorum, sic judiciorum magna est 
varietas ; et ut muitae facies hominum, sic et corda diversa ; ut Hier. advers. 
Pelag. lib. 3. Dr. Humfredus Jesuitis. part 2. 'in Epistola Dedicatoria. Mul- 
tos subvertunt, abducentes ipsos praetextu cognitionis, ab eo qui universa 
creavit, &c. Velut qui altius quid ac majus halieant quod ostendant Deo, &c, 
Probabiliterquidem inducentes per verborum artificium simplices ad quaerendi 
modum ; verum improbe perdentes ipsos, iu eo quod maledicam et impiam 
ipsorum mentem efficiunt, &c. Nam error per seipsum non ostenditur, ne ut 
deuudatus deprehendatur, sed amiculo splendido callide ornatus, utetiam ipsa 
veritate veriorem seipsum exhibere videatur imperitioribus, per externam ap- 
parentiam. — Ircnccus advers. Hares, p. 1. ProcEm. Diligenler insistendum, 
ne quid ex peste (luaj grassatur ex vicinia, fidelibus curae uostrae commissis, 
convictu, colloquiis, et quotidianis, qu£E vitari non possuut, disceptationibus 
affletur. Serpit enim facile contagio, et nisi malo obviam iretur, falsorum 
doctorum astus, et ha'reticorum consortium infirmorum fidem proculduhiu 
vitiarent. Evaiigelii ergo praecones sese exerceaut iii refutatioue pontilicio- 
rum, aiiabaptistaruui et Socinianorum, c&c, ab illis enim magnopere metuen- 
dum, tum quia illis permixti vivimus, tum quia eorum ))lerique miro quodaui 
studio ardent doctriu'-e suaj disseminanda;. — Andrnldus de Pace hita' £van- 
gelicos CoHstituend. ji. 24(>. Yet Cyprian saith,l"hey that live in discord and 
difference, and have not peace with their brethren, though they were slain for 
the name of Christ, yet cannot escape the crime of dissention with brethren : 
because it is written, "He that hateth his brother is a murderer, and ye know 
that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him." He cannot live with 
Christ that had rather imitate Judas than Christ. What a sin is this, which 
cannot be washed away with the baptism of blood ! What a crime, that can- 
not be expiated by martyrdom! — Ci/prian. de Oral. Doni. sect. 18. p. 315. 
What martyrs, then, are they that lose their lives in war against their brethren 
confessed to be godly ! 


that the Christians were as cruel as bears and tigers against one 
another: Ammianus Marcellinus' gives it as the reason of Julian's 
policy, in proclaiming liberty for every party to profess and 
preach their own opinions, because he knew that cruel Christians 
would then most fiercely fall upon one another; and so by liberty 
of conscience," and by keeping their children from the schools 
of learning, he thought to have rooted out Christianity from the 
earth. But I had hoped this accusation had come from the ma- 
lice of the pagan writer; little did I think to have seen it so far 
verified ! Lord, what devils are we unsanctified, when there is 
yet such a nature remaining in the sanctified ! Such a nature 
hath God in these days suffered to discover itself in the very 
godly, that if he did not graciously and powerfully restrain, they 
would shed the blood of one another; and no thanks to us, if it 
be not done. But I hope his design is but to humble and shame 
us by the discovery, and then to prevent the breaking forth.^ 

Object. But, is it possible such should be truly godly ? Then, 
what sin will denominate a man ungodly? 

' Ammian. Marcel, in vita Juliani. 

" Oh quain beati eruiit in illo die judicii niagistratus illi qui subditos non 
modo honestis legibiis, judiciis, et discipliua pra?clare rexeruiit : sed etiam 
uinnium maxime in hoc studium incubueruut ut incorntpta religio apud suos 
excultasit; doctriua coelestis per fidos, eruditos, et constantes ininistros sit 
tradita, et ingens hominuni multitudo per spiritum et verbum renata in 
conspectum Christi prodeant, quae tali magistratui seternas gratias agant ! 
Econtra quam infcelices qui, &c. Religionem per varias corruptelas passi sunt 
adulterari '. — fVigandus in Epist. ante Com.in Proph. John xxiii. 8 — 12, 14. 
Vse muudo k scandalis. Ecce fit, ecce prorsiis inipletur quod Veritas ait ; quo- 
niam abundavit iniquitas, refrigescet charitas multoruni. Quae sibi jam fida 
pectora tuto refundantur ? In cujus sensus tota se projiciat secura dilectio ? 
Quis denique amicus non formidetur, quasi futurus inimicus, si potuit inter 
Hieronymum et Ruffinum, hoc quod plangimus, exoriri ? O misera, et mise- 
randa conditio ! O infida in voluntatibus amicorum scientia praesentium ubi 
nulla est prasscientia futurorum 1 Sed quid hoc alteri de altero gemendum 
putem, quando ne ipse quidem sibi homo est notus in posteruni ? Novit euim 
utrumque vix forte nunc qualis sit; qualis autem postea sit futurus ignorant, 
Augustine, in that excellent, christian pacificatory epistle. Ad Hieron. inter 
opera. Hier. torn, iii. fol. 159. Leonum feritas inter se non diinicat. Serpen- 
tum morsus non petit serpentes, &c. et tu homo a feris ratione praeditus, ah 
expertibus vincaris ? Tu operam des ut feritate et abalienatione vincas 
caetera ? et in tuo ipsius iiaturse funere triumphator tibi videaris ? — Junius in 
Jrenic. Excellentis. in Psal. cxxii. tom. 1. (operuui) p. 687. 

" This was written upon the war in Scotland, the death of Mr. Love, the 
imprisonment of many more, and an ordinance for the sequestering of all 
ministers that would not go to God on their errands, in fasting and prayer, or 
in thankgivings for their successes. And an order made to put out all minis- 
ters from the cities, market towns, and garrisons, that subscribed not their 

158 THE saint's 

Answ. Or else I must believe the doctrine of the saints' 
apostacy, or believe there are scarcely any godly in the world. 
Oh ! what a wound of dishonour hath this given not only to the 
stricter profession of holiness, but even to the very christian 
name ; were there a possibility of hiding it, I durst not thus 
mention it. O Christian, if thou who readest this be guilty, f 
charge thee before the living God, that thou sadly consider how 
far is this unlike the copy ! Suppose thou hadst seen the Lord 
Jesus, girded to the service, stooping on the earth, washing his 
disciples' dirty feet, and wiping them, and saying to them, "This 
I have done to give you an example, that if your Lord and 
Master have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one ano- 
ther's ;" would not this make thee ashamed, and tremble ? Shall 
the Lord wipe the feet, and the fellow-servant be ready to cut 
the throat ? Would not thy proud heart scorn to stoop to thy 
Master's work? Look to thyself; it is not the name of a pro- 
fessor, nor the zeal for thy opinions, that will prove thee a 
Christian, or secure thee from the heat of the consuming fire. 
If thou love not thine enemy, much more thy christian friend, 
thou canst not be Christ's disciple. It is the common mar :, 
whereby his disciples are known to all men, "that they love 
one another." Is it not his last great legacy, "My peace I 
leave with you, my peace I give unto you." (Matt. v. 44 ; John 
xiii.35, and xiv. 17.) Mark the expressions of that command, 
" Jf it be possible, as much as in you lieth, live peaceably with 
all men." (Rom. xii. S.) " Follow peace with all men, and 
lioliness." (Heb.xii. 14.) ^O the deceitfulness of the heart of 
man ! that those same men, who lately in their self-examina- 
tion, could find nothing of Christ so clear within them as their 

y In TertuUian's time it was otherwise with Christians, He saith the hea- 
thens did especially mark out the Christians by the work of love and their 
great liberality ; ' See,' say they, ' how they love one another;' (for they them- 
selves, saith he, hate one another) ; and ' How ready are they to die for one 
another !' for they themselves are more ready to kill one another. — Tertul. 
y^oZ. cap. xxxix. Alas I how is the case altered now, when the mark of 
heathens is so common upon Christian?, and those that think themselves the 
best of Christians ! And Justin Martyr, before him, saith, ' We, Christians, 
■who before preferred the ^ains of money and farms before all, now do brinjf 
forth our private estates for common use, and bestow them on all that need : 
we who hated one another, and killed one another, and, throu2;h niorosity, 
never feasted with any but our familiars ; now, since the coming' of Christ, we 
are all of one table : we pray for our enemies, and labour to persuade those 
that unjustly hate us, that living after the honest precepts of Christ, they 
might have hope of the reward from the Lord God, as well as v/s.—Justin 
Martyr, Apol. ii. 


love to their brethi-en, and were confident of this, wlien they 
could scarcely discover any other grace, should now look so 
strangely upon them, and be filled with so much bitterness 
against them! That the same men, who would have travelled 
through reproaches many miles, to hear an able faithful minister, 
and not think tiie labour ill-bestowed, should now become their 
bitterest enemies, and the most powerful hinderers of the suc- 
cess of their labours, and travel as far to cry them down! It 
makes me almost ready to say, O sweet, O happy days of per- 
secution, which drove us together in a closure of love ! who 
being now dried at the lire of liberty and prosperity, are crum- 
bled all into dust by our contentions. But it makes me seriously^ 
both to say, and to think, O sweet, O happy day of the rest of 
the saints in glory ! wheu as there is one God, one Christ, one 
Spirit, so we shall have one judgment, one heart, one church, 
one employment for ever I When there shall be no more cir- 
cumcision and uncircumcision, Jew and gentile, anabaptist, 
paedobaptist, Brownist, separatist, independent, presbyterian, 
episcopal : but Christ is All in All. We shall not there scru- 
ple our communion, nor any of the ordinances of divine wor- 
ship ; there will not be one for singing, and another against it ; 
but even those who have jarred in discord, shall all conjoin in 
blessed concord, and make one melodious quire. I could wish 
they were of the martyr's mind, who rejoiced that she might 
have her foot in the same hole of the stocks in which Master 
Philpot's had been before her. ^But, however, I am sure they 
will joyfully live in the same heaven, and gladly participate in 
the same rest. Those whom one house could not hold, nor one 
church hold them, no nor one kingdom either ; yet one heaven 
and one God may hold.^ One house; one kingdom could not 
hold Joseph and his brethren ; but they must together again, 
whether they will or not; and then how is the case altered 1 
then every man must straight withdraw, wliile they weep over, 
and kiss each other. O how canst thou now find in thy heart, 

^ Christ that would not have us to be contentious, nor envy at wicked men, 
but that by bearing and gentleness we should lead others from their reproach- 
iugs and lusts. — Just. Mart. Apol. ii. 

^ The cause of all our mischief lieth in making dark points to be articles 
of our creed, as if salvation lay on them. Nihil pestilentius in ecclesia docerl 
potest, quam si ea quae neccssaria non sunt necessaria fiant : hac enim tyran- 
nide conscientiaB iUaqueantur, et libertas fidei extinguitur; mendacium pro 
veritate, idolum pro Deo, abominatio pro sanctitate colitur. — Luther refei'ente 
Hen. Hoffriero Sa.ron, Evangel, p. Ill), Mark these words of Luther. 

160 THE saint's 

if thou bear the heart or face of a Christian, to be bitter or inju- 
rious against thy brethren, when thou dost but once think of 
that time and place, where thou hopest in the nearest and 
sweetest familiarity to live and rejoice with them for ever? I 
confess their infirmities are not to be loved, nor sin to be tole- 
rated, because it is theirs. But be sure it be sin which thou 
opposest in them; and do it with a spirit of meekness and com- 
passion, that the world may see thy love to the person, while 
thou opposest the offence. Alas ! that Turks and Pagans can 
agree together in wickedness, better than Christians in the 
truth 1 That bears and lions, wolves and tigers, can agree toge- 
ther, but Christians cannot ! That a legion*^ of devils can ac- 
cord in one body, and not the tenth part of so many Christians in 
one church ! (Matt. v. 9 ; Luke viii. 30.) Well, the fault may be 
mine, and it may be theirs ; or more likely both mine and theirs: 
but this rejoiceth me, that my old friends who now look strangely 
at me, will joyfully triumph with me in our common rest. 

Sect. XV. 7. We shall then rest from all our dolorous hours, 
and sad thoughts which we now undergo, by participating with 
our brethren in their calamities. Alas ! if we had nothing on our- 
selves to trouble us, yet what heart could lay aside sorrows, that 
live in the sound of the church's sufferings? Jf Job had nothing 
upon his body to disquiet him, yet the message of his children's 
overthrow, must needs grieve the most patient soul. Except 
we are turned into steel or stone, and have lost both christian 
and human affection, there needs no more than the miseries of 
our brethren, to fill our hearts with successions of sorrows, and 
make our lives a continued lamentation. The church on earth 
is a mere hospital ; which way ever we go, we hear complain- 
ing; and into what corner soever we cast our eyes, we behold 
objects of pity and grief: some groaning under a dark under- 
standing, some under a senseless heart, some languishing under 
unfruitful weakness, and some bleeding for miscarriages and 
wilfulness ; and some in such a lethargy that they are past 
complaining ; some crying out of their pining poverty : some 
groaning under pains and infirmities; and some bewailing 
a whole catalogue of calamities, especially in days of common 
sufferings, when nothing appears to our siglit but ruin ; '^ fami- 

'' Quibus est communis amor, bis idem dolor est commune malum. — Na- 
Zianz. ' 

= When Cbrist's doctrine came first into the world, it was the fruit of it, for 
some ages, to make people lay by war, and turn to peace ; and is it not sad 


lies ruined; congregations ruined; sumptuous structures ruined; 
cities ruined; country ruined; court ruined; kingdoms ruined. 
Who weeps not, when all these bleed ? As now our friends' dis- 
tresses are our distresses, so then our friends' deliverance will be 
part of our own deliverance. How much more joyous now to join 
with them in their days of thanksgiving and gladness, than in the 
days of humiliation in sackcloth and ashes! How much then 
more joyous will it be to join with them in their perpetual praises 
and triumphs, than to hear them now bewailing their wretched- 
ness, their want of light, their want of life, of joy, of assurance, 
of grace, of Christ, of all things ! How much more comforta- 
ble to see them perfected, than now to see them wounded, weak, 
sick, and afflicted ? To stand by the bed of their languishing as 
silly comforters, being overwhelmed and silenced with the great- 
ness of their griefs, conscious of our own disability to relieve 
them, scarce having a word of comfort to refresh them; or if 
we have, alas, they be but words, which are a poor relief, when 
their sufferings are real ; fain we would ease or help them, but 
cannot : all we can do, is to sorrow with them, which alas, dotli 
rather increase their sorrows. Our day of rest will free both us 
and them from all this. Now we may enter many a poor 
Christian's cottage, and there see their children ragged, their 
purse empty, their cupboard empty, their belly empty, and po- 
verty possessing and filling all. How much better is that day, 
when we shall see them filled with Christ, clothed with glory, 
and equalised with the richest and greatest princes ! O the sad 
and heart-piercing spectacles that our eyes have seen in four 
years' space 1 In this fight a dear friend is slain ; scarce a month, 
scarce a week, without the sight or noise of blood ; surely there 
is none of this in heaven. Our eyes shall then be filled no more, 
nor our hearts pierced with such dreadful sights, &c. Our eyes 
shall never more behold the earth covered with the carcasses of 
the slain. Our mourning attire will then be turned into the 
white robes and garments of gladness. Oh I how hardly can our 

that now it should work so contrary, as an occasion? Athan. 'De Incarn. 
Verb.' saith of men of war, as soon as ever ihey entertained the doctrine of 
Christ, presently they lay by their desire of war, and betake themselves to hus- 
bandry; and the hands which they were wont to warm with iron, they de- 
light now to stretch forth in inuocency, in earnest prayer; and instead of 
war, which they waged against one another, they now join in arms against the 
devil and evil spirits, and so conquer them by the chastity and virtue of the 

VOL. xxri, M 

162 THE saint's 

hearts now hold, when we think of such, and such, and such a 
dear christian friend slain or departed ! O how glad must the 
same hearts be when we see them all alive and glorified ! But a 
far greater grief it is to our spirits, to see the spiritual miseries 
of our brethren ; to see such a one with whom we took sweet 
counsel, and who zealously joined with us in God's worship, to 
be now fallen off to sensuality, turned drunkard, worldling, or a 
persecutor of the saints ! and these trying times have given us 
too large occasion for such sorrows ; to see our dearest and most 
intimate friends to be turned aside from the truth of Christ, and 
that either in or near the foundation, and to be raging confident 
in the grossest errors ; to see many near us in the flesh, con- 
tinue their neglect of Christ and their souls, and nothing will 
waken them out of their security ; to look an ungodly father or 
mother, brother or sister, in the face ; to look on a carnal wife, 
or husband, or child, or friend, and to think how certainly they 
shall be in hell for ever, if they die in their present unregenerate 
estate ! Oh ! what continual dolors do all these sad sights and 
thoughts fill our hearts with from day to day ; and will it not 
be a blessed day when we shall rest from all these ? What 
Christian now is not in Paul's case, and cannot speak in his lan- 
guage ? " Besides those things that are without, that which 
Cometh upon me daily, the care of all the churches; who is 
weak, and I am not weak ? Who is offended, and I burn not ? " 
(2 Cor. xi. 28, 29.) What heart is not wounded to think on 
Germany's long desolations ? Oh ! the learned universities ; 
the flourishing churches there that now are left desolate ! Look 
on England's four years' blood, a flourishing land almost made 
ruinate ; hear but the common voice in most cities, towns, and 
countries through the land, and judge whether here be no cause 
of sorrow ; especially, look but to the sad effects, and men's 
spirits grown more out of order : and is this not cause of asto- 
nishing sorrows ? Look to Scotland, look to Ireland ; look al- 
most every where, and tell me what you see. Blessed be that 
approaching day, when our eyes shall behold no more such 
sights, nor our ears hear any more such tidings ! How many 
hundred pamphlets are printed, full of almost nothing but the 
common calamities ! so that it is become a gainful trade to di- 
vulge the news of our brethren's sufferings ; and the fears for the 
future that possessed our hearts, were worse than all that we saw 
and suffered : nay, have not many died with the fears of that 


which, if they had lived, they had neither suffered nor seen ? It 
is said of Melancthon,'' that the miseries of the church made 
him ahuost neglect the death of his beloved children ; to think 
of the Gospel departing, the glory taken from Israel, our sun 
setting at noon-day, poor souls left willingly dark and desti- 
tute, and with great pains and hazard blowing out the light that 
should guide them to salvation ! What sad thoughts must these 
be ! ^ To think of Christ removing his family ; taking away both 
worship and worshippers, and to leave the land to the rage of 
the merciless : these were sad thoughts. Who could then have 
the harp in hand, or sing the pleasant songs of Sion ? (Isa. Ix. 
11 — 14.) But blessed be the Lord, who hath frustrated our 
fears, and who will hasten that rejoicing day, when Sion shall 
be exalted above the mountains, and her gates shall be open 
day and night, and the glory of the Gentiles be brought into it, 
and the nation and kingdom that will not serve her shall perish : 
when the sons of them that afflicted her shall come bending unto 
her, and all they that despised her " shall bow themselves at the 
soles of her feet ; and they shall call her the city of the Lord, 
the Zion of the Holy One of Israel ; " (Isa. Ix. 21, 22 ;) when her 
people also shall be all righteous, even the work of God's hands, 
the branch of his planting, who shall inherit the land for ever, 
that he may be glorified. When that voice shall sound forth, 
" Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all ye that love 
her : rejoice for joy with her, all ye that love her 5 that ye may 
suck, and be satisfied with the breasts of her consolation ; that 
ye may milk out, and be delighted with the abundance of her 
glory." (Isa. Ixvi. 10, 12.) Thus shall we rest from our partici- 
pation of our brethren's sufferings. 

Sect. XVI. 8. We shall rest also from all our own personal 
sufferings, whether natural and ordinary, or extraordinary, from 
the afflicting hand of God. And though this may seem a small 
thing to those that live in continual ease, and abound in all kind 
of prosperity, yet, methinks, to the daily afflicted soul, it should 
make the fore-thoughts of heaven delightful ; and I think I shall 
meet with few of the saints but will say, that this is their own 
case/ O the dying life that we now live ! as full of sufferings, 

'' Cainerar. in vit. Melanct. 

" See Neh. i. 4, and ii. 3 ; Psal. cxxxvii. 

f Maxima fiuasquEE bona solicita sunt ; nee uUi fortiinffi minus bene quam 
optiniae creditur. Alia foeiicitate ad tuendam fcElicitatem opns est, et pro ipsis 
qua successeriint votis, vota facienda sunt. Quo altius ali(|uid surrexit, vergit 
protinus in occasum. Neminem porro casura delect ant ; miserrimam ergo 

M 2 

164 THE saint's 

as of days and hours ! We are the carcasses that all calamities 
prey upon : as various as they are, each one will have a snatch 
at us, and he sure to devour a morsel of our comfort. When 
we bait our bulls and bears, we do but represent our own con- 
dition ; whose lives are consumed under sut-h assaults, and spent 
in succession of fresh encounters. All creatures have an enmity 
against us, ever since we made the Lord of all our enemy ; and 
though we are reconciled by the blood of the covenant, and the 
price is paid for our full deliverance, yet our Redeemer sees it 
fit to leave this measure of misery upon us, to make us know for 
what we are beholden, to mind us of what we would else forget, 
to be serviceable to his wise and gracious designs, and advan- 
tageous to our full and final recovery. He hath sent us as lambs 
among wolves ; and sure there is little rest to be expected. As 
all our senses are the inlets of sin, so they are become the inlets 
of our sorrow. Grief creeps in at our eyes, at our ears, and al- 
most every where : it seizeth upon our heads, our hearts, our 
flesh, our spirits ; and what part doth escape it ? Fears do de- 
vour us, and darken our delights, as the frosts do nip the tender 
buds ; cares do consume us, and feed upon our spirits, as the 
scorching sun doth wither the delicate flowers : or, if any saint 
or stoic have fortified his inwards against these, yet he is naked 
still without ; and if he be wiser than to create his own sorrows, 
yet shall he be sure to feel his share ; he shall produce them as 
the meritorious, if not as the efficient cause. What tender 
pieces are these dusty bodies ! What brittle glasses do we bear 
about us; and how many thousand dangers are they hurried 
through ; and how hardly cured, if once cracked ! O the mul- 
titudes of slender veins, of tender membranes, nerves, fibres, 
muscles, arteries, and all subject to obstructions, exhesions, ten- 
sions, contractions, resolutions, ruptures, or one thing or other, 
to cause their grief; every one a fit subject for pain, and fit to 
communicate that pain to the whole ! What nobler part is there 
that suffereth its pain or ruin alone ? whatever it is to the sound 
and healthful, methinks to such as myself this rest should be 
acceptable, who in ten or twelve years' time, have scarce had 
a whole day free from some dolour. Oh I the weary nights and 

necesse est, non tantum brevissimam vitara eorum esse qui mag^no parant 
labore quod majore possiileant; operose assequuiitur quae volunt ; anxie 
tenent quas assecuti sunt. Nova; occupationes veterihus substituuntur ; spes 
spem excitat ; ambitioneni auibitio, miseriarum non finis quaeritur, sed ma- 
teria mutatur. — Sen, de hrev. vit. 


davs ; oh I the unserviceable, languishing weakness ; oh ! the 
restless, working vapours ; oh ! the tedious, nauseous medicines, 
besides the daily expectations of worse ! And will it not be de- 
sirable to rest from all these ? There will be then no crying out. 
Oh ! my head, oh ! my stomach, oh 1 my sides, or oh 1 my 
bowels : no, no, sin, and flesh, and dust, and pain, will all be 
left behind together. Oh ! what would we not give now for a 
little ease, much more for a perfect cure ! How, then, should 
we value that perfect freedom ! If we have some mixed com- 
forts here, they are scarce enough to sweeten our crosses ; or if 
we have some short and smiling intermissions, it is scarce time 
enough to breathe us in, and to prepare our tacklings for the next 
storm. If one wave pass by, another succeeds ; and if the night 
be over, and the day come, yet will it soon be night again. Some 
men's fevers are continual, and some intermittent ; some have 
tertians, and some quartans ; but, more or less, all have their 
fits. O the blessed tranquillity of that region, where there is 
nothing but sweet continued peace ! No succession of joy there, 
because no intermission. Our lives will be but one joy, as our 
time will be changed into one eternity. O healthful place, where 
none are sick ! O fortunate land, where all are kings ! O place 
most holy, where all are priests ! How free a state, where none 
are servants, save to their supreme Monarch ! For it shall come 
to pass, that in that day the Lord shall give us rest from our 
sorrow, and our fear, and from the hard bondage wherein we 
served. (Isa. xiv. 3.) The poor man shall no more be tired with 
his incessant labours ; no more use of plough, or flail, or scythe, 
or sickle ; no stooping of the servant to the master, or the tenant 
to the landlord ; no hunger, or thirst, or cold, or nakedness ; no 
pinching frosts, nor scorching heats. Our very beasts who suf- 
fered with us, shall also be freed from their bondage ; ourselves, 
therefore, nmch more : our faces shall no more be pale or sad ; 
our groans and sighs will be done away ; and God will wipe away 
all tears from our eyes. (Rom. viii. 19 — 22; Rev. vii. 15 — 17. 
xxi, 3, 4.) No more parting of friends asunder, nor voice of 
lamentation heard in our dwellings. No more breaches, nor 
disproportion, will be in our friendship, nor any trouble accom- 
panying our relations ; no more care of master for servants, or 
parents for children, or magistrates over subjects, or ministers 
over people ; no more sadness for our study lost, our preaching- 
lost, our entreaties lost, the tenders of Christ's blood lost, and our 
dear people's souls lost 3 no more marrying, nor giving in mar- 


riage, but we shall be as the angels of God.s O what room 
can there be for any evil, where the whole is perfectly filled with 
God ! Then shall the " ransomed of the Lord return and come 
to Sion with songs, and everlasting joy upon their heads : they 
shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee 
away." (Isa. xxxv. 10.) Hold out then a little longer, O my 
soul ; bear with the infirmities of thy earthly tabernacle ; en- 
dure that share of sorrows that the love of thy Father shall im- 
pose ; submit to his indignation also, because thou hast sinned 
against him ; it will be thus but a little while ; the sound of thy 
Redeemer's feet are even at the door; and thine own deliver- 
ance nearer than many others. And thou who hast often criedj 
in the language of the divine poet, Herbert, 

" Sorrow was all my soul ; 1 scarce believed, 
Till grief did tell me roundly, that I lived," 

shalt then feel, that God and joy is all thy soul ; the fruition of 
whom, with thy freedom from all these sorrows, will, more 
sweetly, and more feelingly, make thee knov/, and to his eternal 
praise acknowledge, that thou livest. 

And thus we shall rest from all afflictions. 

Sect. XVn. 9. We shall rest also from all the trouble and pain 
of duty. The conscientious magistrate now cries out. Oh ! the 
burden that lieth upon me ! The conscientious parents, that 
know the preciousness of their children's souls, and the constant 
pains required to their godly education, cry out, Oh ! the bur- 
den ! '* The conscientious minister above all, when he reads 
his charge, (2 Tim. iv. 1,) and views his pattern ; (Mark iii. 20, 
21, &c. ; Acts XX. 18, 31 ;) when he hath tried awhile what it 
is to study, and pray, and preach, according to the weight and 
excellency of the work ; to go from house to house, and from 
neighbour to neighbour, and to beseech them night and day with 

s 'ladyyeXoi, pares angelis. Hymo expoundeth this too boldly, and I think 
falsely. Quod viri in suo sexu resurgent, faminiE in sexu muliebri, erunt 
habentes membra genitalia, non autem voluntatem coeundi. — Horn, in Dom. 
18. in Matt. xxii. I see no ground to conceit such a difference of sex 

^ Tunc erit in nobis vera, perfecta, excelsa humilitas, cum et in carne, et 
in mente nostra, nulla remanserit prava cupiditas, nee cogitationibus fatiga- 
bitur spiritus, nee laboribus macerabitur corpus. Nulla erit solicitudo certa- 
minis, sed perfecta erit securitas pacis. Nulla nobis erit justitiae indigentia, 
sed cum delectatione securitas plena. Ibi erimus enim perfecta celsitudine 
beati, quia perfecta erimus Deo carnis et spiritus hnmilitate subject!. — Ful' 
gent. Ep. 4. ad Prob. c. 7, 8, The Work of the Ministry, Read Lockier on 
Col. i. 2<). p. 524, &c. ' ' , 


tears, and, after all, to be hated and persecuted for so doing, 
no wonder if he cry out, O the burden ! and be ready to turn 
away with Jonas ; and, with Jeremy, to say, " I will not make 
mention of him, nor speak any more in his name ; for his word 
is a reproach to us, and a derision daily; but that he hath made 
his word as a fire shut up in our bones and heart, that we are 
weary of forbearing, and cannot stay." (Jer. xx. S, 9.) How long 
may we study and labour before one soul is brought clear over to 
Christ ! and when it is done, how soon do the snares of sensu- 
ality or error entangle them ! How many receive the doctrine 
of delusion before they have time to be built up in the truth ; 
and when heresies must of necessity arise, how few of them do 
appear approved ! The first new, strange apparition of light 
doth so amaze them, they think they are in the third heaven, 
when they are but newly passed from the suburbs of hell, and 
are presently as confident as if they knew all things, when they 
have not half light enough to acquaint them with their ignorance; 
but, after ten or twenty years' study, they become usually of the 
same judgment with those they despised. And seldom doth a 
minister live to see the ripeness of his people ; but one soweth 
and planteth, another watereth, and a third reapeth and receiveth 
the increase. Yet were all this duty delightful, had we but a 
true proportion of strength. But, to inform the old ignorant 
sinner, to convince the stubborn and worldly wise, to persuade 
a wilful resolved wretch, to prick a stony heart to the quick, to 
make a rock to weep and tremble, to set forth Christ according 
to our necessitv and his excellencv, to comfort the soul whom God 
dejected, to clear up dark and difficult truths, to oppose with 
convincing arguments all gainsayers, to credit the Gospel with 
exemplary conversations, when multitudes do but watch for our 
halting ; Oh ! who is sufficient for these things ? So that every 
relation, state, age, hath variety of duty : every conscientious 
Christian cries out, O the burden ! or, O my weakness that 
makes it so burdensome ! But our remaining rest will ease us 
of the burden. Then will that be sound doctrine, which now is 
false, that the law hath no more to do with us ; that it becomes 
not a Christian to beg for pardon, seeing all his sins are perfectly 
pardoned already ; that we need not fast, nor mourn, nor weep, 
nor repent; and that a sorrowful countenance beseems not a 
Christian : then will all these become truths. 

Sect. XVIII. 10. And, lastly, v/e shall rest from all those sad 
affections which necessarily accompany our absence from God j 

168 THE saint's 

the trouble that is mixed in our desires and hopes, our longings 
and waitings, shall then cease. We shall no more look into 
our cabinet, and miss our treasure ; look into our hearts, and 
miss our Christ ; nor no more seek him from ordinance to or- 
dinance, and inquire for our God of those we meet ; our heart 
will not lie in our knee, nor our souls be breathed out in our 
requests ; but all conclude in a most full and blessed fruition. 
But because this, with the former, are touched before, I will say 
no more of them now ; so you have seen what we shall rest from. 
Sect. XIX. The ninth and last jewel in our crown, and blessed 
attribute of this rest, is, that it is an eternal rest. This is the 
crown of our crown ; without which, all were comparatively 
little or nothing. The very thought of once leaving it, would 
else embitter all our joys ; and the more would it pierce us, be- 
cause of the singular excellencies which we must forsake. It 
would be a hell in heaven to think of once losing heaven : as it 
would be a kind of heaven to the damned, had they but hopes 
of once escaping.^ Mortality is the disgrace of all sublunary 
delights. It makes our present life of little value (were it not 
for the reference it hath to God and eternity), to think that we 
must shortly lay it down. How can we take delight in any 
thing, when we rememi)er how short that delight would be j 
that the sweetness of our cups and morsels is dead as soon as 
they are but once past our taste ! Indeed, if man were as the 
beast, that knows not his suffering or death till he felt it, and 
little thinks when the knife is whetting, that it is making ready 
to cut his throat, then might we be merry till death forbid us, 
and enjoy our delights till they shall forsake us ; but, alas ! we 
know both good and evil ; and evil foreknown, is in part en- 

' Transit hora, transit et poena; non accidunt sibi,sed cedunt potius etsuc- 
cedunt. Non sic gloria, non sic reuumeratio ; non sic mercts ipsa laboris ; 
rescit vicissitudinem, nescit finem ; maiiet toto simul, et manet in aeternum. 
Sufficit nunc cuique diei malitia sua ; nee laboruni suuni poterit reservare 
sequent! ; sed omnium nierces laborum in una ilia die reddetur, cui alter non 
succedit : guttatim poena bibilur, aliquando sumitur ; per niinutias transit ; 
sed in remuneratione torrens est voluptatis, et fluminis impetus ; torrens in- 
undans Isetitiae, flunien glorise, et fiumen pacis. Flumen plane est ; sed quod 
affluat; non quod fluat vel effluat. Fiumen vocatur, non quod transeat, vcl 
pertranseat, sed quod abundet. Nobis non favum mellis ; purisbimum vero et 
liquidissimum niel reposuit Deus ipsum, lastitiain, gloriam, pacem, aniaeni- 
tatem, felicitatem, jucunditatem et exultationeni thesaurizavit nobis Deus 
noster ; haec omnia unum ; ut sit participatio Hierusalem in idipsmn ; et hoc 
unum et id ipsum non nisi Ipse; erit enini Deus omnia et in omnibus. Hffic 
merces ; hiEc corona nostra, hoc brsevium nostrum ; ad (iuodutiqiie curramus 
ut comprehendamus, — Bern, Serm, 145. iJe temp. 


durcd ; and thus our knowledge increaseth our sorrows. (Eccles. 
i. 1 8.) How can it choose but spoil our pleasure, while we see 
it dying in our hands ! How can I be as merry as the jovial 
world, who have mine eye fixed upon eternity ! When methinks 
I foresee my dying hour, my friends waiting for my last gasp, 
and closing my eyes, while tears forbid to close their own ; me- 
thinks I hear them say. He is dead. Methinks I see my coffin 
made, my grave in digging, and my friends there leaving me in 
the dust : and where, now, is that we took delight in? O but me- 
thinks I see, at the same view, that grave opening, and my dead, 
revived body rising ; methinks I hear that blessed voice, ' Arise 
and live, and die no more.' Surely, were it not for eternity, I 
should think man a silly piece ; and all this life and honour but 
contemptible : I shall call him, with David, a vain shadow ; and 
with the prophet, nothing, and less than nothing, and altogether 
lighter than vanity itself. It utterly disgraceth the greatest glory in 
mine eyes, if you can but truly call it mortal. 1 can value nothing 
that shall have an end, except as it leads to that which hath no 
end ; or as it comes from that love which hath neither beginning 
nor end. I speak this of my deliberate thoughts ; and if some 
ignorant or forgetfid soul have no such sad thoughts to disturb 
his pleasure, I confess he may be merrier for the present ; but 
where is his mirth when he lieth a- dying? alas ! it is a poor 
happiness that consists only in the ignorance or forgetfulness of 
approaching misery ; but, O blessed eternity ! where our lives 
are perplexed with no such thoughts, nor our joys interrupted 
with any such fears ; where we shall be " pillars in God's 
temple," (Rev. iii. 12,) and go out no more. O, what do 1 say 
when 1 talk of eternity ! Can my shallow thoughts conceive at 
all what the highest expression doth contain ? To be eter- 
nally blessed, and so blessed ! Why, surely this, if any thing, 
is the resemblance of God : eternity is a piece of infiniteness. 
Then, O death, where is thy sting ? O grave, where is thy 
victory ? Days, and nights, and years, time, and end, and 
death, are words which there have no signification ; ^ nor are 
used, except perhaps to extol eternity, as the mention of hell, 
to extol heaven. No more use of our calendars or chronology : 
all the years of our Lord, and the years of our lives, are swal- 
lowed up and lost in this eternity. While we were servants, we 

^ Habet aeternitas suiim simul, in quo sunt omnia quae siniul sunt loco vel 
tempore, et quae sunt diversis in locis vel temporibus ; ut Auseleni referente 

170 THE saint's 

held by lease ; and that but for the term of transitory life ; but 
the son abideth in the house for ever. (Gal. vi. 8.) Our first 
and earthly paradise in Eden had a way out, but none that 
ever we could find in again ', but this eternal paradise hath a 
way in (a milky way to us, but a bloody way to Christ), but no 
way out again ; " for they that would pass from hence to you,^' 
saith Abraham, " cannot." (Luke xvi. 24.) A strange phrase ! 
Would any pass from such a place if they might ? Could they 
endure to be absent from God again one hour ! No, but upon 
supposal that they would ; yet they could not. O then, my 
soul, let go thy dreams of present pleasures ; and loose thy hold 
of earth and flesli.^ Fear not to enter that estate, where thou 
shalt ever after cease thy fears. Sit down, and sadly, once a 
day, bethink thyself of this eternity : among all the arithmetical 
numbers, study the value of this infinite cipher, whicb, though it 
stand for nothing in the vulgar account, doth yet contain all our 
millions, as much less than a simple unit. Lay by the per- 
plexed and contradicting chronological tables, and fix thine eye 
on this eternity; and the lines which remote thou couldst not 
follow, thou shalt see all together here concentred. Study less 
those tedious volumes of history, which contain but the silent 
narration of dreams, and are but the pictures of the actions of 
shadows ; and, instead of all, study frequently, study thoroughly 
this one word, 'eternity,' and when thou hast learned thoroughly 
that one word, thou wilt never look on books again. W^hat ! 
live, and never die ? Rejoice, and ever rejoice ! O, what sweet 
words are these, ' never and ever ! ' O, happy souls in hell, 
should vou but escape after millions of ages ! and if the Origenist 
doctrine were but true ! O miserable saints in heaven, should 
you be dispossessed after the age of a million of v/orlds ! But, 
O this word, ' everlasting,' contains the accomplished perfection 
of their torment and our glory. O that the wicked sinner would 
but soundly study this word ' everlasting,' methinks it should 
startle him out of his deadest sleep ! O that the gracious soul 
would believingly study this word ' everlasting,' methinks it 
should revive him in the deepest agony ! And must I, Lord, 

' De coexistentia rerum in Dei aeternitate, lege Arribara plenissimo. Al- 
var. ' de Aux.' lib. ii. disp. 8. Balthaz. Navarrer. in i. part. 'cont. 28. Cajet.' 
et in i. p. q. 2-1. a. 3. Ferrar. ' cont. Gent.' lib. ii. c. 66, 67. Sic Nazar. &c. 
et e cont. vid, Tv\iss. ' De Scientia Media,' p. 81. et alibi jiassim. Earlo. 
* Exercit.' 5. Durand, dist. Iviii. q. 3. Bona, in i. sent. dist. 35 et 39, a. 2. 
q. 3. 


thus live for ever ? Then will 1 also love for ever. Must my 
joys be immortal ; and shall not my thanks be also immortal ? 
Surely, if I shall never loose my glory, I will also never cease 
thy praises. Shouldst thou but renew my lease of these first- 
fruits, would I not renew thy fine and rent ? But if thou wilt 
both perfect and perpetuate me and my glory, as I shall be thine, 
and not mine own, so shall my glory be thy glory ; and as all 
did take their spring from thee, so all shall devolve into thee 
again ; and as thy glory was thine ultimate end in my glory, 
so shall it also be mine end, when thou hast crowned me with 
that glory which hath no end. And "to thee, O King eternal, 
immortal, invisible, the only wise God, shall be the honour and 
glory, for ever and ever : amen." (2 Tim. i. 17.) 

And thus I have endeavoured to show you a glimpse of the 
approaching glory : but, O, how short are my expressions of its 
excellency ! Reader, if thou be an humble, sincere believer, 
and waitest with longing and labouring for this rest, thou wilt 
shortly see and feel the truth of all this ; then wilt thou have 
so high an apprehension of this blessed state that will make 
thee pity the ignorance and distance of mortals ; and will tell 
thee then all that is here said is spoken but in the dark, and 
falls short of the truth a thousand fold. In the mean time, let 
this much kindle thy desires, and quicken thine endeavours. Up, 
and be doing; run, and strive, and fight, and hold on, for thou 
hast a certain, glorious prize before thee. God will not mock 
thee : do not mock thyself, nor betray thy soul, by delaying or 
dallying, and all is thine own. What kind of men dost thou 
think Christians would be in their lives and duties, if they 
had still this glory fresh in their thoughts ? What frame would 
their spirits be in, if their thoughts of heaven were lively and 
believing? Would their hearts be so heavy, and their counte- 
nance so sad ? Or would they have need to take up their comforts 
from below ? Would they be so loth to sufl^er, and afraid to die ? 
or would they not think every day a year, till they did enjoy it ? 
The Lord heal our carnal hearts, lest we enter not into his Vest 
because of our unbelief. 


The People of God described. ' 

Sect. I. Having thus performed my first task of describing 
and explicating the saint's rest, it remains that now I proceed 

172 THE saint's 

unto the second, and show you what these " people of God" are, 
and why so called, for whom this blessed rest remaineth ; and 
I shall suit my speech unto the quality of the subject. While 
I was in the mount, 1 felt it was good being there, and there- 
fore tarried there the longer ; and were there not an ex- 
treme disproportion between my conceivings and that subject, 
yet much longer had I been. And could my capacity have con- 
tained what was there to be seen, I could have been contented 
to have built me a tabernacle there. Can a prospect of that 
happy land be tedious, or a discourse of eternity be too long, ex- 
cept it should detain us from actual possession, and our absence 
move us to impatience ? But now I am descended from heaven 
to earth, from God to man, and must discourse of a worm not 
six feet long, whose life is but a span, and his years a? a post 
that hasteth by ; my discourse also shall be but a span, and in a 
brief touch I will pass it over. Having read of such a high and 
unspeakable glory, a stranger would wonder for what rare crea- 
ture this mighty preparation should be, and expect some illus- 
trious sun should now break fortli ; but, ])ehold, only a shell full 
of dust, animated with an invisible rational soul, and that recti- 
fied with as unseen a restored power of grace ; and this is the 
creature that must possess such glory. You would think it must 
needs be some deserving piece, or one that brings a valuable 
price. But, behold, one that hath nothing, and can deserve 
nothing, and confesseth this, yet cannot, of himself, confess it 
neither, yea, that deserveth the contrary misery, and would, if 
he might, proceed in that deserving; but being apprehended by 
love, he is brought to him that is all, and hath done and de- 
served all, and suffered for all that we deserved ; and most affec- 
tionately receiving him, and resting on him, he doth, in and 
through him, receive all this. But let us see more particularly 
vet, what these " people of God" are. 

They are a small part of lost mankind, whom God hath from 
eternity predestinated to this rest, for the glory of his mercy, and 
given to his Son, to be by him in a special manner redeemed, 
and fully recovered from their lost estate, and advanced to this 
higher glory : all which Christ doth, in due time, accomplish 
accordingly bv himself for them, and by his Spirit upon them. 
To open all the parts of this half-description to the full, will 
take up more time and room than are allowed me. Therefore 
briefly thus : 

1 . I meddle only with mankind, not with angels ; nor will I 


curiously inquire whether there were any other world of men 
created and destroyed before this had being ; nor whether there 
shall be any other when this is ended. All this is quite above 
us, and so nothing to us : nor sav I the sons of Adam only, be- 
cause Adam himself is one of them. 

2. And as it is no more excellent a creature than man that 
must have this possession, so is it that man, who once was lost, 
and had scarcely left himself so much as man. The heirs of 
this kingdom were taken, even from the tree of execution, and 
rescued by the strong hand of love from the power of the prince 
of darkness, who having taken them in his snares, did lead theni 
captive at his will : they were once within a step of hell, who 
must now be advanced as high as heaven. And though I men- 
tion their lost condition before their predestination, yet I there- 
by intend not to signify any precedency it hath, either in itself, 
or in the divine consideration."^ That question 1 dare not touch, 
as being very suspicious that it is high arrogancy in us to dispute 
of precedency in the divine consideration ; and that we no more 
know what we talk of than this paper knows what I write of: 
when we confess, that all these acts in God are truly one, and 
that there is no difference of time with him : it is dangerous to 
dispute of priority or posterity in nature ; at least of the decree of 
the means, which is but one. 

3. That they are but a small part of this lost generation, is 
too apparent in Scripture and experience. " It is the little 
flock to whom it is the Father's good pleasure to give the king- 
dom." If the sanctified are few, the saved must needs be few: 
fewer they are than the world imagines ; vet not so few as some 
drooping spirits deem, who are doubtful that God would cast 
off them, who would not reject them for all the world ; and are 
suspicious that God is unwilling to be their God ; when yet they 
know themselves willing to be his people. 

4. It is the design of God's eternal decree to glorify his mercy 
and grace to the highest in this their salvation ; and, there- 
fore, needs must it be a great salvation. Every step of 

™ Intellectum animae iiostrje oculum noctuam esse considerans, in i^iio- 
rautia sola quietem illius iiiveiiio : melius est enim tarn fidei catholica! qiiam 
j)liil(»sophije,faterl csecitatem iiostram, quam asserere tanqiiam evicleiitia qua-, 
non quietant intellectum; evidentia namque qiiietatiVa est, iiit|iiit modtste 
Cajetan. in torn. 1. p. q. 22. Art. 4. Etsi Arriba hoc sapienter dictum sui;il- 
lat, lib. 1. cap. I'A. And if so great a man as Cajetan be forced to this, after 
all his search and disputes upon these points, then inferior wits may well ease 
themselves in a like modest resolution. 

174 THE saint's 

mercy to it was great ; how much more this end of all those 
mercies, which stands next to God's ultimate end, his glory ! 
God cannot make any low or mean work to be the great business 
of an eternal purpose. 

5. God hath given all things to his Son, but not as he hath 
given his chosen to him ;" the difference is clearly expressed by 
the apostle. He hath made him " Head over all things to his 
church." (Ephes. i. 22.)° And though Christ is, in some sense, 
a ransom for all, yet not in that special manner as for his peo- 
ple. He hath, according to the tenor of his covenant, procured 
salvation for all, if they will believe ; but he hath procured for 
his chosen even this condition of believing.P 

6. Nor is the redeeming of them by death his whole task ; 
but also the effecting of their full recovery: he may send his 
Spirit to persuade others j but he intends absolutely his prevail- 
ing only with his chosen. And as truly as he hath accomplished 
his part on the cross for them, so truly will he accomplish his 
part in heaven for them, and his part by his Spirit also on them. 
And of all that the Father hath thus given him, he will lose 

But this is but a piece of their description, containing God's 
work for them, and on then-; let us see what they are also in 

" See John xvii. 2, a clear place. Sin ex prfficeclente priEvaricatione natural! 
corruptioni mortales tenebantur obnoxii, g;ratiainque imaginis diviiisE pcr- 
dideraiit ^ quid facto opus fiiit ad hujusmodi recuperaudam gratiara ? lllius 
sane, illius hoc opus erat, qui ab initio, cum non essent, condidit omnia ; 
divini scilicit verbi ; ipsius enim intererat, corruptibile hoc ad incorruptionem 
revocare, ac pro omnibus rationabiliter patri satisfacere. — Athanas. lib. 1. dc 
Incarnut. I'erbi. Vide uote'^ p. 83 of this volume. 

" Christ taking to himself a body of the mass, and in all things like to ours, 
because we were obnoxious to the death of all coriuptibleness, he delivered it 
lo death for all, and offered it to God the Father. — j4than. ubl supra. Lege 
Parffii Irenic. cap. 24. p. 124. art. 5 and G. For the Word, the Son of the 
Father being above al!, might meritoriously alone recover all things, and 
suffer for all men, and was alone sufficient to appease the Father for all men. 
— Athanasius uhi supra; where he so often repeateth Christ's dying for 
all, anil particulaily to procure tliem a resurrection, as if he could not incul- 
cate it sufticiently. Vide Clem. Alexand. Stromal, lib. 7. prope initi. 

I' That faith is properly called the condition of the covenant, and jus- 
tifieth as a condition, besides what I have said in my confession, I refer 
you to Master Wotton ' De Reconcil.' part 1. lib. 2. c. 19, where you have the 
attestation of our chief divines. And, indeed, he must be a wiser man than 
I that can reach to know, how faith can directly justify under any other notion 
than that of a condition; that apprehensive nature which makes men call it 
an instrument, being only its aptitude to its oflice, and not the formal reason 
of its justifying. 


regard of the working of their own souls towards God, and their 
Redeemer, again.i [These people of God then, are the (1) part 
of the (2) externally called, (3) who being by the (4) Spirit of 
Christ (5) thoroughly, though (G) imperfectly regenerate, are 
hereupon (7) convinced, and (8) sensible of that (9) evil in sin, 
(10) that misery in themselves, that (11) vanity in the creature, 
and that (12) necessity, (13) sufficiency, and (14) excellency of 
Jesus Christ, that they (15) abhor that evil, (16) bewail that 
misery, and (17) turn their hearts from that vanity, and (IS) 
accepting of Christ for their (19) Saviour and (20) Lord, to 
bring them unto (21) God the chief good, and present them 
(22) perfectly just before him, do accordingly enter into a (23) 
cordial covenant with him, and so (24) deliver up themselves 
unto him, and herein (25) persevere to their lives' end.] 

I shall briefly explain to you the branches of this part of the 
description also. 

1 . I say, they are a part of " the externally called," because 
the Scripture hath yet showed us no other way to the internal 
call, but by the external. "For how shall they believe on him 
of whom they have not heard ? And how shall they hear with- 
out a preacher ?" All divulging of the substance of the Gospel, 
whether by solemn sermons, by writing, printing, reading, con- 
ference, or any other means that have a rational sufficiency, for 
information and conviction, are this preaching ; though not 
alike clear and excellent. The knowledge of Christ "" is none of 
nature's principles :^ the book of the creatures is no means alone, 

1 They that would see this work of God on the soul, handled most exactly, 
judiciously, scholastically, and briefly, let them read Mr. Parker's excellent 
'Theses de Traductione peccatoris ad vitam.* If you cannot get the book, 
it is in the end of 'Ames, against Grevincho,' but maimed of fifteen Theses 
left out ; though I own not every controverted assertion in it. 

"■ Ego dice, voluntate quidem non est homo Justus ; nee natura potest sed 
medicina poterit, quod vitio non potest. — August. 1. \. de Nat. et Grat. c. 43. 

^ Quicquid illud est quod extriusecus oculis et mentibus hominum objici- 
tur, destitutum est ilia via Sj)iritus quee sola potest homines abducere a pec- 
cato, et ad vitse spem efficaciter revocare. — Amyrald. Defens. Calv. p. 154. 
Quomodo causa ilia supernaturalis intellectum liberet a nativis quibus occu- 
patur tenebris, mens humana non coniprehendit. EfFectum summo Dei bene- 
ficio persentiscimus ; rationem operationis non tenemus. — Amyrald, Defens. 
Doct. Calv. p. 200. Some confidently do, with Grotius, appeal to antiquity 
in the points of universal sufficient grace and free-will, concerning which, 
see Chamier, Bogerman's ' Annotations on Grot. Piet.' et Usher ' Ecdes. Brit. 
Prim.,' what the ancient church thought and did against Felagius. So Jo. 
Lacius ' De Pelag. Comment.,' Nic. Bodichir. in ' Sucin. Romonst. Videlius,' 
&c. Yet, the truth is, most if not all the fathers of the first two or three 
hundred years, speak in a language seeming to lean strongly that way ; and 

176 THE saint's 

much less a sufficient means to teach the knowledge of Christ. 
It may discover mercy, but gives not the least hint of the way of 
that mercy : it sjjeaks nothing of God incarnate; or two natures 
in one person ; of Jesus the son of Alarv ; of Christ's surety- 
ship, and suffering for us, rising, ascending, mediating, return- 
ing ; of two covenants, and their several conditions, and the 
reward of keeping them, and penalty of breaking them, &c. It 
is utterly silent in these things. And to affirm that the Spirit 
calls or teacheth men where the word is not, and where the 
creature or nature speaks not, is, 1 think, a groundless fiction. 
There is the light of the eye, and the light of the sun, or some 
other substitute external light necessary to our seeing any object. 
The Scripture and certain revelations from heaven, when and 
where such are, is the sim of external light : the understanding 
is our eye, or internal light ; this eye is become blind, and this 
internal light in the best is imperfect ; but the external light of 
Scripture is now perfected : therefore the work of the Spirit now 
is, not to perfect Scripture, or to add any thing to its discovery, 
or to be instead of a Scripture where it is wanting, much less 
where the Scripture is : but to remove the darkness from our 
understanding, that we may see clearly what the Scripture 
speaks clearly : before the Scripture was perfect, the Spirit did 
enlighten the prophets and penmen of Scripture both ways: but 
now I know no teaching of the Spirit, save only by its illumina- 
ting or sanctifying work ; teaching men no new lesson, nor the 
old without book ; but to read with understanding, what Scrip- 
ture, nature, creatures, and providences, teach." The asserting 

therefore Calvin and Scultetus in ' Medul. Pat.' charge them with no less than 
Pela°;ius's error : yet perhaps their laying the blame of evil actions on man's 
will, and persuading men's wills, may occasion men to charge them so far, as 
if therefore they supposed natural sufficiency; or they spealc of free-will as 
opposed to fate, nature, and coaction, as you may find very many of them 
favourably interjireted by Chamier. Panst. tom. 3. lib. .3. c. 16. 

" As when Christ had opened tiie eyes of the man born blind, he did but 
give him a jiower to see what present oljjects the sun or other external lights 
sliould reveal, but not the actual sight of all the objects in the world, nor of 
any without external light; he must yet travel to Rome, to India, &c. if he 
will see them ; so God's illumination by the Spirit, doth give men ability to 
see, but not without external revelation by the word ; and they must travel bv 
long, jiainful study, from truth to truth, before they know them. See Heb. v. 
11 — 14, fully for this. Lutherus de Cicerone, si sermonibiis convivalibus 
creditur, 120, dicit, Cicero vir sapiens et sedulus multa fecit, et passus est. 
Spero Deum ipsi et similibus ipsi propitiuni futurum. Dicant nobis Lutherus et 
Zuinglius hoc sperant peccare gravius ; irao viderint ne dum culicem colant, 
elejihautem devorent. — Pureus, Irenic, 28. p. (mihi) 245, 2i(). 


of any more, is proper to tlie enthusiasts. If the Spirit's teaching 
did without Scripture or tradition reveal Christ, surely some of 
those millions of poor blind pagans would have before this be- 
lieved, and the christian faith have been propagated among 

2. That these people of God are but a part of those that 
are thus externally called, is too evident in Scripture and ex- 
perience. "Many are called, but few chosen:" but the inter- 
nally, effectually called, are all chosen : " for whom he called, 
them he justified; and whom he justified, them he glorified." 
(Rom. viii. 30.) The bare invitation of the Gospel, and men's 
hearing the word, is so far from giving title to, or being an evi- 
dence of Christianity and its privileges, that where it prevails not 
to a thorough conversion, it sinks deeper, and casts under a 
double damnation. 

3. The first differencing work I affirm to be regeneration by 
the Spirit of Christ ;" taking it for granted, that this regenera- 
tion is the same with effectual vocation, with conversion, with 
sanctification ; understanding conversion, and sanctification, of 
the first infusion of the principle of spiritual life into the soul, 
and not for the addition of degrees, or the sanctifying of the 
conversation, in which last sense it is most frequently taken in 

^ See Mr. Rich. Hooker, in his 'Discourse of Justification,' and Pet. Mar* 
tyron Rom. c. 3. p. 157, showcth fully bow the Spirit goeth before faith, and yet, 
in the increase, foUowetli after it. Fides est pars sanctitatis ; nostra ergo 
fides fluit ex electione. Neque necesse est ut fides et sanctitas sit idem : suf- 
ficit si modo fides sit pars sanctitatis nostras ; et qnis dubitat sanctificari nos 
fide perinde atqiie ulla alia (lualitate sancta ? Ut Jud. 3.; Acts. xv. 9. 
Itaqne non tantiini coujuncta est fides ciiin sanctitate in uno ct eodem sub- 
jecto ; sed fides est formaliter sanctitas nostra; non quideni integralis, scd 
partialis; quemadmodum etiani spes et charitds.— Dr. 7\i'iss. emit. Corvin. 
p. 222. Cum Dominus per Ezsk. dicit, " Cor lapideum auferam etdabo," 
&c., utique per gratiae suae illuminatioiien niutat hominis voluntatem. Hffic 
est mutatio non huniani arbitrii, sed dextrae excelsi : per quam filii hominum 
graves corde, qui diligunt vanitatem, et quaerunt mendacium, ad diligendam 
et quaerendam veritatem, non ipsi bonani voluntatem asserunt, sed ii Domino 
donum bonae voluntatis recipiunt. — Fulgent, de P'erii. Prced. cap. 16. Sicut 
in nativitate carnali omnem nascentis hominis voluntatem praecedit operis 
divini formatio : sic in spiritnali nativitate qua veterem hoiniuem deponere 
Jncipimus, ut novum, qui in justicia et sanctitate veritatis creatus est, indua- 
mus : nemo potest habere bonam voluntatem motu proprio, nisi mens ipsa, 
i. e. interior homo noster renovetur ac reformetur ex Deo. — Fulgent, de In- 
carw. c. ly. Fulgentius saith, ubi sup. c. 23, 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9, " Alteri 
fides in eodeni spiritu." Non ergo spiritum sanctum quia credimus, sed ut 
crederemus acce|)imus. 


178 THE saint's 

This spiritual regeneration'^ then, is the first and great qualifi- 
cation of these people of God; which, though habits are more for 
their acts than themselves, and are only perceived in their acts, 
yet by its causes and effects we should chiefly inquire after. To 
be the people of God without regeneration,^ is as impossible 
as to be the natural children of men without generation ; see- 
ing we are born God's enemies, we must be new-born his sons, 
or else remain his enemies still. O that the unregenerate world 
did know or believe this ! in whose ears the new birth sounds 
as a paradox, and the great change which God works upon the 
soul, is a strange thing : who, because they never felt any such 
supernatural work upon themselves, do therefore believe that 
there is no such thing, but that it is the conceit and fantasy of 
idle brains ; who make the terms of regeneration, sanctification, 
holiness, and conversion, a matter of common reproach and 
scorn, though they are the words of the Spirit of God himself; 
and Christ hath spoken it with his mouth, "that except a man 
be born again, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." The 
greatest reformation of life that can be attained to, without this 
new life wrought in the soul, may procure their further delusion, 
but never their salvation.^ 

This regeneration I call thorough, to distinguish it from 
those slight tinctures, and superficial changes, which other men 
may pertake of; and yet " imperfect, " to distinguish our present 
from our future condition in glory ; and that the Christian may 
know, that it is sincerity, not perfection, which he must inquire 
after in his soul. 

Sect. III. Thus far the soul is passive. Let us next see by 
what acts this new life doth discover itself, and this divine spark 
doth break forth ; and how the soul, touched with this loadstone 
of the Spirit, doth presently move toward God. The first work 
I call " conviction," which comprehends knowledge, and assent. 

^ De necessitate regenerationis, et Christi adventu ad earn procurandam, 
lege Athan. ' de liicaru. Verbi.' 

y Sananda est itaque (Juliane) hiimana, Deo miserante, natura ; iion te 
inaniter dedamaute, tauquam sana laudanda. — August. Operis Imperf. lib. 2. 
ji. 8. John iii. 3. 

^ I mean that this is not a sufficient way to their salvation, but yet it may 
con'luce to the good of others, to restrain their vicious actions, and somcwliat 
more. — Ddnaus cont. Bcllar. ad Tom. Cont. 4. p. 231. Mea seutentia haec 
est nt Christiauus judicetur legitimus, quisquis fuerit in ecclesia lege et jure 
fidei divinamgratiam consecutus. — Cyprian. Eplst. 7G. ad Magnum. Aliter 
pectus credentis abluitur, aliter mens homiais per fidei merita niandatur; 
ut Cyprian. Epist. 76. ad Magnum. 


It comprehends the knowledge of what the Scripture speaks 
against sin and sinners ; and that this Scripture which so speaks^ 
is the word of God himself. Whosoever knows not both these, 
is not yet thus convinced. It comprehends a sincere assent to 
the verity of the Scripture ; as also some knowledge of ourselves, 
and our own guilt, and an acknowledgment of the verity of those 
consequences, which, from the premises of sin in us, and threats 
in Scripture, do conclude us miserable. It hath been a great 
question, and disputed in whole volumes, v/hich grace is the first 
in the soul ; where faith and repentance are usually the only 
competitors. In regard of the principle, the power, or habitj 
which soever it be that is infused, they are all at once ; being 
-indeed all one ; and called several graces from the diversity of 
their objects and subjects, as residing in the several faculties of 
the soul; the life and rectitude of which several faculties and 
affections, are in the same sense several graces; as the German, 
French, British seas are several seas. And for the acts, it is 
most apparent, that neither repentance, nor faith, in the ordi- 
nary strict sense, is first, but knowledge.'' There is no act of 
the rational soul about any object preceding knowledge. Their 
evasion is too gross, who tell us, that knowledge is no grace, or 
but a common act ; when a dead soul is by the Spirit enlivened, 
its first act is to know ; and why should it not exert a sincere 
act of knowing, as well as believing, and tlie sincerity of know- 
ledge be requisite as well as of faith ; especially when faith in the « 
Gospel-sense, is sometimes taken largely, containing many acts, 
whereof knowledge is one ; in which large sense, indeed, faith 
is the first grace. This conviction implieth also the subduing 
and silencing, in some measure, of all their carnal reasonings, 
which were wont to prevail against the truth, and a discovery of 
the fallacies of all their former argumentations. 

2. As there must be conviction, so also sensibility : God works 
on the heart, as well as the head; both were corrupted, and out 
of order. The principal of new life doth quicken both. All 
true spiritual knowledge doth pass into affections. That religion 
which is merely traditional, doth indeed swim loose in the! 
brain ; and the devotion which is kindled but by men and 

'^ Ista gratia quarn Deus vasis misericordiae gratis douat, ab illuminatione 
cordis incipit: et honiiiiis voluntatem non boiiain inveiiit ipsa; sed facit 
atque ut eligatur, ipsa prius digit: iieque suscipitur, aut iiligitur, nisi hoc 
ipsa in cord^ liominis operetur. Ergo ut suscejitio et deslderiuin gratia;, opus 
estipsius graliae. — Fulgtnt.de Vcrit. PrctiL c. 15. 

N 2 

ISO THE saint's 

means, is liot in the mouth, and cold in the stomach. The 
work that had no higher rise than education, example, custom, 
reading, or hearing, doth never kindly pass down to the affec- 
tions. The understanding which did receive but mere notions, 
cannot deliver them to the affections, as realities. The bare 
help of doctrine upon an unrenewed soul, produceth in the under- 
standing but a superficial apprehension, and half assent, and 
therefore can produce in the heart but small sensibility. As 
hypocrites may know many things, yea, as many as the best 
Christian, but nothing with the clear apprehensions of an ex- 
perienced man j so may they with as many things be slightly 
affected, but they give deep rooting to none. To read and hear 
of the worth of meat and drink, may raise some esteem of them, 
but not such as the hungry and thirsty feel; for by feeling they 
know the worth thereof. To view in the map of the Gospel, the 
precious things of Christ and his kingdom, may slightly affect; 
but to thirst for, and drink of, the living ^-aters ; and to travel, 
to live in, to be heir of that kingdom, must needs work another 
kind of sensibility.*^ It is Christ's own differencing mark, and 
I had rather have one from him than from any, that the good 
ground gives the good seed deep rooting ; but some others en- 
tertain it but into the surface of the soil, and cannot afford it 
depth of earth. The great things of sin, of grace, and Christ, 
and eternity, which are of weight, one would think to move a 
rock, yet shake not the heart of the carnal professor, nor pierce 
liis soul unto the quick ; though he should have them all ready 
in his brain, and be a constant preacher of them to others, yet 
do they little affect himself: when he is pressing them upon the 
hearts of others most earnestly, and crying out on the senseless- 
ness of his dull hearers, you would little think how insensible is 
his own soul, and the great difference between his tongue and 
his heart. His study and invention procure him zealous and 

^ Deus autem ne fideles obliviscantur illius mortis in qua haeserunt, facit 
perpetuo ut odor ipsius tain fcetidus, et tarn in?uavis, feriat ipsorum nares. 
Jiam manent reliquiae illius mortis perpetuo dum hie vivimus : ut ex his 
aestimeut quanta in morte jacuerint antequam coeperuut vivificari cum Chris- 
to, et recentem ipsius retineant memoriam. — Rolloc. in Col. 2. 12. p. (niihi) 
141. Neque profecto qui extra Christum est, serio sentit se mortuum esse 
priusquam incipiat esse in Christo, et degustare illam quae ex ipso solo fluit 
vitam tarn suavem et jucundam, postquam semel degustarunt homines, non 
tantum sentire incipiunt mortem illam in ([ua jacuerunt, sed etiam ab ea totis 
animis abhorrent ; neque ulla conditione vitam illam quam sentire incipiunt 
cum ea commutarint. — Rolloc. ibid. p. 142. 


moving expressions, but they cannot procure him answerable 
affections. It is true, some soft and passionate natures may 
have tears at command, when one that is truly gracious hath 
none ; yet is this Christian, with dry eyes, more solidly appre- 
hensive and deeply affected, than the other is in the midst of 
his tears ; and the weeping hypocrite will be drawn to his sin 
again with a trifle, which the groaning Christian would not be 
hired to corSmit with crowns and kingdoms. 

The things that the soul is convinced and sensible of, are 
especially these in the description mentioned. 

1. The evil of sin. The sinner is made to know and feel that 
the sin which was his delight, his sport, the support of his cre- 
dit and estate, is indeed a more loathsome thing than toads or 
serpents, and a greater evil than plague or famine, or any other 
calamities f it being a breach of the righteous law of the Most 
High God, dishonourable to him, and destructive to the sinner. 
Now the sinner reads and hears no more the reproofs of sin, as 
words of course, as if the minister wanted something to say to 
fill up his sermon ; but when you mention his sin, and stir in 
his wounds, he feels you speak at his very heart, and yet is 
contented you should show him the worst, and set it home, 
though he bear the smart. He was wont to marvel what made 
men keep such a stir against sin ; what harm it was for a[man to 
take a little forbidden pleasure : he saw no such heinousness in 
it, that Christ must needs die for it, and most of the world be 
eternally tormented in hell. He thought this was somewhat hard 
measure, and greater punishment than could possibly be de- 
served by a little fleshly liberty, or worldly delight, neglect of 
Christ, his word, or worship ; yea, by a wanton thought, a vain 
word, a dull duty, or cold affection. But now the case is al- 
tered : God hath opened his eyes to see that inexpressible vile- 
ness in sin, whieh satisfies him of the reason of all this. 

2. The soul in this great work is convinced and sensible, as 
of the evil of sin, so of its own misery by reason of sin. They 
who before read the threats of God's law, as men do the whole 

° Nulla offensa Dei est venialis de se, nisi lantummodo per respectum ad 
diviDam misericordiam, quae non vult de facto quamlibet offensam imputare 
ad mortem, cum illud possit justissime. Et ita concluditur quod peccatum 
mortale et veniale, in esse tali non distinguuntur intrinsece et essentialiter, sed 
solum per respectum ad divinam gratiam, &c. — Gerson. de Vita Spirit. Corol, 
1. Some Papists, then, confess the damning merit of every sin. 



stories of foreign wars, or as they behold the wounds and the 
blood in a picture, or piece of arras, which never makes them 
smart or fear : now they find it is their own story, aiid they 
perceive they read their own doom, as if they found their names 
written in the curse, or heard the law say, as Nathan, " Thou 
art the man," The wrath of God seemed to him but as a 
storm to a man in a dry house, or as the pains of the sick to the 
healthful stander-bv, or as the torments of hell to a child that 
isees the story of Dives and Lazarus upon the wall ; but now he 
finds the disease is his own, and feels the pain in his own bowels, 
and the smart of the wounds in his own soul. In a word, he 
finds himself a condemned man, and that he is dead and 
damned in point of law, and that nothing was wanting but 
mere execution to make him most absolutely and irrecoverably 
■miserable.'^ Whether you will call this a work of the law or 
-Gospel, as in several senses it is of both ; the law expressing, 
and the Gospel intimating and implying, our former condemna- 
tion ; sure I am, it is a work of the Spirit wrought, in some 
measure, in all the regenerate: and though, some do judge it 
unnecessary bondage, yet it is beyond my conceiving how he 
.should come to Christ for pardon who first found not himself 
guilty and condemned, or for life who never found himself dead^ 
" The whole need not a physician, but they that are sick." 
Yet I deny not, but the discovery of the remedy as soon as the 
misery, must needs prevent a great part of the trouble, and 
make the distinct effect on the soul, to be with much more dif? 
ficulty discerned. Nay, the actings of the soul are so quick, 
and oft so confused, that the distinct order of these workings 
may not be apprehended or remembered at all ', and perhaps 
the joyful apprehensions of mercy may make the sense of 
misery the sooner forgotten. 

3. So doth the Spirit also convince the soul of the creature's 
vanity and insuflficiency.^ Every man naturally is a flat idolater ; 

<* Quisquis desolationeni noii r.ovit, iiec consolationem agnoscere potest. 
Et quisquis consolationem iguorat esse necessariam, soperest ut not) haheat 
gratiam Dei. Inde est quod homines seculi negotiis et flagitiis implicati, 
dun! miseriam non sentiunt, non attenduut misericordi^m. — Hern. Serni. 31 . 
de Temp. Humiliation, though it do not properly cleanse your halids, yet it 
plucks off the gloves, and makes them bare for washing. — Mr. Vine's Serin'. 
on Jam. iv. 8. p. 12. 

B Fecit Deus hominem ad se, fecit ilium sui capacem, et regno suo astemft 
destinavit : cumque ipse sit immurtalis, infinitus, aiternus, quies, &c., efficit. 


our hearts turned from God in our first fall, and ever since the 
creature hath been our god. This is the grand sin of nature. 
.When we set up to ourselves a wrong end, we must needs err 
in all the means. The creature is to every unregenerate man 
his God and his Christ. He ascribeth to it the divine preroga- 
tives, and alloweth it the highest room in his soul : or if ever 
he come to be convinced of misery, he fleeth to it as his saviour 
and supply. Indeed, God and his Christ hath usually the name, 
and shall be still called both Lord and Saviour ; but the real 
expectation is from the creature, and the work of God is laid 
upon it. How well it will perform that work the sinner must 
know hereafter. It is his pleasure, his profit, and his honour^ 
that is the natural man's trinity, and his carnal self that is 
these in unity. Indeed, it is that flesh that is the principal idol : 
the other three are deified in their relation to ourselves. It was 
our first sin to aspire to be as gods ; and it is the greatest sin 
that runs in our blood, and is propagated in our nature from 
generation to generation. When God should guide us, we 
guide ourselves; when he should be our sovereign, we rule our- 
selves.' The laws which he gives us, we would correct and find 
fault with; and if we had had the making of them, we would 
have made them otherwise. When he should take care of us. 

nos etiam capaces et appetentes immortalitalis, infinitatis, quietis, &c. Sed 
in se acnon in nobis ; ut se nobis finein dedit, non nos ipsos; sed homo excinit, 
&c., nen tamen ab ilia capacitate et desiderio, hsec enim est ejus natnra et 
esseptia. Sed (res stupenda) ilia omnia indesinentur appetit, quseritve; sed 
in seipso non in Deo adversus quem non minus perfidus quam miser ; et ideo 
misei" quia perfidus rebellavit. Et haec est origo vitiorum, &c., quia coudi- 
tus est capax et appetens celsitudiiiis, sed in Deo ; etsi a Deo separatus pergit 
appetere celsitudinem ; sed in se ; et hsec est superbia ; quia honoris est 
ciipidus ; sed in Deo permit honorem sectari, sed sibi et in se ; et haec ambi- 
tio, &c. Lege ult. Gibieuf. de lib. 1. c. 21. sect. 6". p. 136. 

' Etsi qui primum peccat per recessum k Deo peccat, quia tamen peccando 
sibi ipse se afiixit, quando deinceps peccat non jam per nudum recessum a. Deo 
peccat, sed per adha^sionem ad seipsuni ; qua? est illi quasi secunda quffidam 
sed adulterina iiiclinatio, substituta in loco germanas illius, et sincerse quam 
Creator omnipotens inseruerat, eamque paulatini debilitaus et obscurans. 
Dixi non per nudum recessum a Deo, quia ilia ipsa adhaesio inordinata ad 
seipsum, constat recessu k Deo, tauquam esse formali, et nialigno spiritu de- 
pravationis et inordinationis sua-. — Gib. lib. 2. de Libert, c. 19. sect. 22. j). 422. 
Hie est status hominis lapsi ; quem amorem propriuui conimuiiiter non cul- 
pamiis ; de quo afiiriiiare licet nihil aliud esse nisi ilium niorem quern initio 
preatur.'B Deus nobis iiiseruit; sed a Deo avulsimi, et ad nos ipsos derivatum 
et detortura. — Gibieuf. lib.l. c. 21. sect. 7. p. 3(j. 

184 THE saint's 

and must, or we perish, we will care for ourselves : when we 
should depend on him in daily receivings, we had rather keep 
our stock ourselves, and have our portion in our own hands : 
when we should stand at his disposal, we would be at our own; 
and when we should submit to his providence, we usually quar- 
rel at it ; as if we knew better what is good or fit for us than 
he ; or how to dispose of all things more wisely : if we had the 
disposal of the events of wars, and the ordering of the affairs 
of churches and states, or the choice of our own outward con- 
dition, it would be far otherwise than now it is j and we think 
we could make a better disposal, order, and choice, than God 
hath made. This is the language of a carnal heart, though it 
doth not always speak out. When we should study God, we 
study ourselves ; when we should mind God, we mind our- 
selves ; when we should love God, we love our carnal selves ; 
when we should trust God, we trust ourselves ; when we 
should honour God, we honour ourselves ; and when we should 
ascribe to God, and admire him, we ascribe to and admire our- 
selves : and, instead of God, we would have all men's eyes and 
dependance on us, and all men's thanks returned to us, and 
would gladly be the only men on earth extolled and admired by 
all. And thus we are naturally our own idols : but down falls 
this Dagon, when God doth once renew the soul. It is the 
great business of that great work, to bring the heart back to 
God himself. He convinceth the sinner : 1. That the creature, 
of himself, can neither be his god, to make him happy j 2. Nor 
yet his Christ, to recover him from his misery, and restore him 
to God, who is his happiness. This God doth, not only by 
preaching, but by providence also ; because words seem but 
wind, and will hardly take off the raging senses, therefore doth 
God make his rod to speak, and continue speaking, till the sin- 
ner hear, and hath learned by it this great lesson. This is the 
great reason why affliction doth so ordinarily concur in the work 
of conversion ; these real arguments, which speak to the quick, 
will force a hearing, when the most convincing and powerful 
words are slighted. When a sinner made his credit his god, 
and God shall cast him into lowest disgrace ; or bring him that 
idolized his riches into a condition wherein they cannot help 
him, or cause them to take wing and fly away ; or the rust to 
corrupt, and the thief to steal his adored god in a night, or an 
hour J what a help is here to this work of conviction ! Wheu 


a man that made his pleasure his god, whether ease,"* or sports, 
or mirth, or company, or gluttony, or drunkenness, or cloth- 
ing, or huildings; or whatsoever a ranging eye, a curious ear, a 
raging appetite, or a lustful heart, could desire, and God shall 
take these from him, or give him their sting and curse with 
them, and turn them all into gall and wormwood ; what a help 
is here to this conviction 1 When God shall cast a man into a 
languishing sickness, and inflict wounds and anguish on his 
heart, and stir up against him his own conscience, and then, as 
it were, take the sinner hy the hand, and lead him to credit, to 
riches, to pleasure, to company, to sports, or whatsoever was 
dearest to him, and say, ' Now, try if these can help you ; can 
these heal thy wounded conscience? Can they now support 
thy tottering cottage ? Can they keep thy departing soul in 
thy body, or save thee from mine everlasting wrath ? Will they 
prove to thee eternal pleasures, or redeem thy soul from the 
eternal flames ? Cry aloud to them, and see now whether these 
will be instead of God and his Christ unto thee.' O, how this 
works now with the sinner ; when sense itself acknowledgeth the 
truth, and even the flesh is convinced of the creature's vanity, 
and our very deceiver is undeceived 1 Now he despiseth his 
former idols, and calleth them all but silly comforters, wooden, 
earthly, dirty gods, of a few days old, and quickly perishing ; he 
speaketh as contemptuously of them as Baruk of the pagan 
idols, or our martyrs of the papists' god of bread, which was 
yesterday in the oven, and is to-morrow on the dunghill ; he 
chideth himself for his former folly, and pitieth those that have 
no higher happiness. O poor Croesus, Caesar, Alexander, thinks 
he, how small, how short, was your happiness I Ah, poor 

«" Finis operantis malum est bonum. Bonum est principium at finis malj 
eo modo quo malum utroque gaudere potest ; estque axioma receptissimum ; 
nemo intendens in malum operatur, et proinde ille etiam qui facit malum, 
iuteudit bonum. — Ohservat. Dionysius. Aliud esse quod fit, aliud quod ap- 
petitur. Appetitur bonum, fit malum ; dum scilicet bonum inordinate appe- 
titur, dum appetitur bonum inferius eo, cui destinati sumus, et quod appetere 
tenemur. — Gibieuf. lib. 2. de Libert, c. 20. sect. 2. p. 424. Sed qusestio est, 
utrum prius sit in peccato, vel aversio k Deo, vel conversio adcreaturam. —  
Resp. Aversionem praecedere, conversionem autem indebitam sequi : nee 
uUum esse peccatum nisi praecesserit aversio 'k Deo ; conversio namque ad 
creaturam, non est indebita et inordinata, nisi prout importat inhaasionem 
absolutam ad creaturam, et derelictionem Dei : atque adeo nisi subest aver- 
sioni k Deo tanquam formae. — Gib, lib. 2. c. 20. sect. 5. p. 425, This aveision 
from God is from him both as the first and last, the principium et finis, the 
lirst Ruler, and the chief Goodj as Gib. ubi sup, sect. 8. 

186 THE saint's 

wretches ! Base honours ; woful pleasures ; sad mirth ; igno- 
rant learning ; defiled dunghill ; counterfeit righteousness ! 
Poor stuff to make a god of: simple things to save souls 1 Wo 
to them that have no better a portion, no surer saviours, nor 
greater comforts, than these can yield, in their last and great dis- 
tress and need ! In their own place they are sweet and lovely ; 
but in the place of God, how contemptible and abominable I 
They that are accounted excellent and admirable within the 
bounds of their own calling, should they step into the throne, 
and usurp sovereignty, would soon, in the eyes of all, be vile 
and insufferable. 

4. The fourth thing that the soul is <;onvinced and sensible of, 
is, the absolute necessity, the full sufficiency, and perfect excel- 
lency, of Jesus Christ. It is a great question, whether all the 
forementioned works are not common, and only preparation^ 
unto this ? They are preparatives, and yet not common ; every 
lesser work is a preparative to the greater; and all the first works 
of grace, to those that follow : so faith is a preparative to our 
continual living in Christ, to our justification and glory. There 
are, indeed, common convictions, and so there is also a common 
believing ; but this, ds in the former terms explained, is both a 
sanctifying and saving work : I mean a saving act of a sanctify-r 
ing soul, excited by the Spirit's special grace. That it precedes 
justification, contradicts not this ; for so doth faith itself too : 
nor that it precedes faith, is any thing against it ; for I have 
showed before, that it is a part of faith in the large sense : and 
in the strict sense taken, faith is not the first gracious act, mucl\ 
less that act of fiducial recumbency, which is commonly taken 
for the justifying act ; though, indeed, it is no one single act, 
but many, that are the condition of justification." 

This conviction is not by mere argumentation, as a man is 
convinced of the verity of some inconcerning consequence by 
dispute ; but also by the sense of our desperate misery, as a man 
in famine, of the necessity of food j or a man that had read or 

" Chamier saitb, " Fidem esse causam justificationisnego : tunc enim jus- 
tilicatio non esset graluita, sed ex nobis ; at est fides mea gratuita, neque uUam 
liabet causam jir?eter Dei misericordiam. Itaque dicitur fides justificare, noii 
quia efficiat justifieationem ; sed quia efficitur iu justificato, et requiritur in 
justificato, adeo ut nemo qui fruatur usnrationis,justificatus sit nisi, qui habeat 
hauc fidem ; neque ulius habeat banc fidem qui non sit justificatus. — Chamier, 
toni.iii. lib. 13. c. 6. And if it be no cause, it is certainly no proper instrument. 
It is, saitli Cham, "tantum ratio, sen modus ageudi," c. (i. sect. C, 7. 


heard his sentence of condemnation, is convinced of the absolute 
necessity of pardon ; or as a man that Hes in prison for debt, is 
convinced of the necessity of a surety to discharge it.° Now 
Xhe sinner finds himself in another case than ever he was aware 
of; he feels an insupportable burden upon him, and sees 
there is none but Christ can take it off. He perceives that he 
js under the wrath of God, and that the laws proclaim him a 
rebel and an outlaw, and none but Christ alone can make his 
.peace : he is a man pursued by a lion, that must perish, if he 
find not present sanctuary. He feels the curse doth lie upon 
him, and upon all he hath for his sake, and Christ alone can 
myke him blessed : he is now brought to this dilemma, either 
he must have Christ to justify him, or be eternally condemned ; p 
he must have Christ to save him, or burn in hell for ever ; he 
must have Christ to bring him again to God, or be shut out of 
his presence everlastingly ; and now no wonder if he cry as the 
martyr, Lambert, " None but Christ, none but Christ 1 " It is no^ 
gold, but bread, that will satisfy the hungry ; nor any thing but 
pardon that will comfort the condemned. " All things ai-e novy 
but dross and dung ; " (Phil. iii. 7 — 9 ;) and what we counted 
gain, is now but lo|s in comparison of Christ : for, as the sinr 
ner seeth his utter misery, and the disability of himself, and all 
things to relieve him, so he doth perceive that there is no saving 
mercy out of Christ : the truth of the threatening, and teno|r 
of both covenants, do put him out of all such hopes. There is 
none found in heaven or earth that can open the sealed book, 
save the Lamb : without his blood, there is no remission ; and 
without remission, there is no salvation. (Rev. v. 3 — 6 ; Heb. 
ix. 22, and xiii. 12.) Could the sinner now make any shift 
without Christ, or could any thing else supply his wants and save 

" That this was not per soltitionem stride sumptani, sed per satisfactionem, 
viz. lion per solutioneni ejusdem (neque insensu moraii vel legali) sed tanti- 
dem, vide Doctis. Parkerum ' de Descendu Christi,' p. 108; et Rivetuui 'in 
Disputal. de Satisfac. •,' et Ball. ' de Foedere ;' et Cameronem saepius, ut 
Oper. Fol. p.3();5, &c. But fully on this question, though in a contracted style, 
is Grotius ' de Satisfaclione.' 

1* Etsi in negotio justificationis magna periculo erratur, prout ea de re 
controversia procedit inter nos et pontiticios, utruni, viz. gratia Dei justificar 
tio vobis coutiugat, an meritis nostris. Mark, the question is not of the cun- 
ditionality of obedieace to Christ, but of merit. Attamen prout inter nos et 
])iscatoreui controversia iiistituitur, passivave tantum an etiani activa Christi 
ybedieutia justificemur coram Deo, uuUo prorsus erralur periculo. Utrobique 
eiiim justificationis causae Dei gratia? et Christi meritis ascribuntur, non 
iutem operibus uostris. — Doct, Twiss, contra Corvinum, p. 3. 

188 THE saint's 

his soul, then might Christ be disregarded ; but now he is con- 
vinced that there is no other name, and the necessity' is absolute. 
(Acts iv. 12.) 
2. And as the soul is thus convinced of the necessity of Christ, 
' so also of his full sufficiency. He sees, though the creature 
cannot, and himself cannot, yet Christ can. Though the fig- 
leaves of our own unrighteous righteousness are too short to 
cover our nakedness, yet the righteousness of Christ is large 
enough : ours is disproportionable to the justice of the law, but 
Christ's doth extend to every tittle. If he intercede, there is no 
denial ; such is the dignity of his person, and the value of his 
merits, that the Father granteth all he desireth : he tells us him- 
self, "that the Father heareth him always." (John xi. 14.) 
His sufferings being a perfect satisfaction to the law, and all 
power in heaven and earth being given to him, he is now able to 
supply every of our wants, and to save to the uttermost all that 
come to him. (Heb. vii. 25.) 

Quest. How can I know his death is sufficient for me, if not 
for all J and how is it sufficient for all, if not suffered for all ? 

Answ. Because I will not interrupt my present discourse with 
controversy, I will say something to this question by itself in 
another tract, if God enable me.i 

3. The soul is also convinced of the perfect excellency of Jesus 
Christ, both as he is considered in himself, and as considered in 
relation to us ; both as he is the only way to the Father, and as 
he is the End, being one with the Father. Before, he knew 
Christ's excellency as a blind man knows the light of the sun j 
but now, as one that beholdeth his glory. 

And thus doth the Spirit convince the soul. 

Sect. IV. 3. After this sensible conviction the will discovereth 
also its change, and that in regard of all the four forementioned 

1. The sin which the understanding pronounceth evil, the will 
doth accordingly turn from with abhorrency. Not that the sen- 
sitive appetite is changed, or any way made to abhor its object ; 
but when it would prevail against the conclusions of reason, and 
carry us to sin against God, when Scripture should be the rule, 
and reason the master, and sense the servant : this disorder and 
evil the will abhorreth. 

2. The misery also which sin hath procured, as he discerneth, 

t See Davenaijt's 'Dissertation,' and Dailseus's 'Apology,' and Amiraldus 

* against Spanliemius.' 


SO he bevvaileth. It is impossible that the soul now living, 
shouhi look either on its trespass against God, or yet on its own 
self-procured calamity, without some compunction and contri- 
tion. He that truly discerneth that he hath killed Christ, and 
killed himself, will surely, in some measure, be pricked to the 
heart. If he cannot weep, he can heartily groan ; and his heart 
feels what his understanding sees. 

3. The creature he now renounceth as vain, and turneth it 
out of his heart with disdain. Not that he undervalueth it, or 
disclaimeth its use ', but its idolatrous abuse, and its unjust 

There is a twofold sin : •" one against God himself, as well as 
his laws, vvhen he is cast out of the heart, and something else 
doth take his place. This is that I intend in this place. The 
other is when a man doth take the Lord for his God, but yet 
swerveth in some things from his commands : of this before. It 
is a vain distinction that some make, that the soul must be 
turned first from sin : secondly, from the creature to God : for 
the sin that is thus set up against God, is the choice of some- 
thing below in his stead j ^ and no creature in itself is evil, but 
the abuse of it is the sin ; therefore, to turn from the creature, 
is only to turn from that sinful abuse. 

Yet hath the creature a twofold consideration : first, as it is 
vain and insufficient to perform what the idolater expecteth, and 
so I handle it here ; secondly,* as it is the object of such sinful 
abuse, and the occasion of sin ; and so it falls under the former 
branch of our turning from sin, and in this sense their division 
may be granted. But this is only a various respect ; for, indeed, 
it is still only our sinful abuse of the creature, in our vain ad- 
mirations, undue estimations, too strong affections, and false 
expectations, which we turn from. 

' This sin directly against God himself, as it is *in the understanding- and 
speech, is called blasphemy : but as it is in the judgment, will, affections, and 
action altogether, it is called idolatry, or atheism. Great Athanasius approves 
of this distinction of sin, in his judicious ' Discourse of the Sin against the 
Holy Ghost.' He saith, between sin in the general, and blasphemy, this is 
the ditference — " He that sinneth, transgresseth the law; he that blasphemeth, 
committeth impiety against the Godhead itself." 

' Ut enim debitus amor nostri non est, nisi prout includit ordiuem ad Deum ; 
ita auior nostri inordinatus nequit intelligi, nisi prout importat recessum a 
Deo. — Glbieuf. lib. 2, de Liberia t. Dei, cap. xix. sect. 32, p. 422. 

' Peccare est subjici creaturae contra ordinem Dei, ut Gibieuf. lib. * De 
Libertat. Creat.* p. 4, Et qui peccat semper appetit bonum particulare ; 
ut idem Gibieuf, et Bradwardin., et Aquiu., et Twiss., et plerique scholastic!. 

190 > THE saint's 

,^ There is a twofold error very common in the description of 
the work of conversion : the one, of those who only mention the 
sinner's turning from sin to God, without mentioning any receiv- 
ing of Christ by faith ; the other, of those who, on the contrary, 
only mention a sinner's believing, and then think they have said 
all : nay, they blame them as legalists, who make any thing but 
the bare believing of the love of God in Christ to us, to be part 
of the work, and would persuade poor souls to question all their 
former comforts, and conclude the work to have been only legal 
and unsound, because they have made their changes of heart, 
and turning from sin and creatures, part of it, and have taken 
up part of their comfort from the reviewing of these as evidences 
of right work. Indeed, should they take up here without " Christ, 
or take such a change instead of Christ, in whole or in part, the 
reprehension were just, and the danger great ; but can Christ 
be the way where the creature is the end ? Is he not the only 
way to the Father ; and must not a right end be intended be- 
fore right means ? Can we seek to Christ to reconcile us to God, 
while in our hearts we prefer the creature before him ; or doth 
God dispossess the creature, and sincerely turn the heart there- 
from, when he will not bring the soul to Christ ? Is it a work 
that is ever wrought in an unrenewed soul ? You will say, 
" that without faith it is impossible to please God." ^ True ; 
but what faith doth the apostle there speak of ? " He that 
Cometh to God, must believe that God is, and that he is a re- 
warder of them that diligently seek him." The belief of the 
Godhead must needs precede the belief of the mediatorship; and 
the taking of the Lord for our God, must, in order, precede the 
taking of Christ for our Saviour, though our peace with God do 
follow this : therefore, Paul, when he was to deal with the 
Athenian idolaters, teacheth them the knowledge of the Godhead 
first, and thelMediator afterwards. But, you will say, 'May not 
an unregenerate man believe that there is a God ? ' True, and 

" Peruse Master Pemble of this ' Vindic. Graliw,' p. 135, where he shows 
you what darkness and coufusion is in the writings of many learned men, by 
their restraining^ conversion to the bare act of believing, not so much as men- 
tioning any other grace. And that to rejjeiit, to love God, and our neighbour, 
to abstain from evil, to practise duties, are as proper parts of true conversion, 
as faith ; and that the Scripture gives no ground for any such restraint, but 
joins repentance and other godly acts with faith. 

" Heb. xi. 16. Besides, though the person please not God, nor his actions, 
so as for God to justify them, or to take delight in them as gracious ; yet some 
actions of wicked men, tending to reformation, may please God in some re- 
spect, secundum (fuid ; as Ahab's humiliation; 


SO may he also believe that there is a Christ ; but he cannot 
more cordially accept of the Lord for his God than he can accept 
of Christ for his Saviour. In the soul of every unregenerate 
man, the creature possesseth both places, and is both God and 
Christ.^ Can Christ be believed in, where our own righteousness 
or any other thing is trusted as our Saviour ; or doth God ever 
thoroughly discover sin and misery, and clearly take the heart 
from all creatures, and self-righteousness, and yet leave the soul 
unrenewed ? The truth is, where the work is sincere, there it is 
entire ; and all these parts are truly wrought : and as turning 
from the creature to God, and not by Christ, is no true turning ; 
so believing in Christ, while the creature hath our hearts, is no 
true believing. And therefore in the work of self-examination, 
whoever would find in himself a thorough sincere work, must 
find an entire work ; even the one of these as well as the other. 
In the review of which entire work, there is no doubt but his 
soul may take comfort. And it is not to be made so light of as 
most do, nor put by with a wet finger, that Scripture doth so 
ordinarily put repentance before faith, and make them, jointly,'' 
conditions of the Gospel ; which repentance contains those acts 
of the will's aversion from sin and creatures before expressed. 
It is true, if we take faith in the largest sense of all,^ then it 
contains repentance in it ; but if we take it strictly, no doubt 
there are some acts of it go before repentance, and some follow 

Yet it is not of much moment which of the acts before-men- 
tioned we shall judge to precede, whether our aversion from sin, 
and renouncing our idols, or our right receiving Christ, seeing it 
all composeth but one work, which God doth ever perfect wherei 
he beginneth but one step, and layeth but one stone in sincerity ; 
and the moments of time can be but few that interpose between 
the several acts. 

If any object, 'That every grace is received from Ciirist, 
and therefore must follow our receiving him by faith,' I an- 
swer. There be receivings from Christ before believing, and be- 

^ Quum inter se comparantur et ilistinguuntur, seu ilistincte a nobis consi- 
ilerautur, salutis illius partes : turn fides respectu justificatiouis rationera 
habet coiiditionis praerequisitaj; nemo eiiim justificatur nisi per fidem ; re- 
spectu autem sauctificatioiiis (i.e. a holy life, and holy motions of the heart,) 
habet se ut ejus causa. — Doctis. Ludov. Capellus, in Thes. Salmur. vol. 2. p. 
110. sect. 39. 

" As it is put for all obedience to the commands proper to the Gospel, 

192 THE saint's 

fore our receiving of Christ himself. Such is all that work of 
the Spirit, that l)rings the soul to Christ ; and there is a passive 
receiving of grace before the active. Both power and act of 
faith are, in order of nature, before Christ, actually received ; 
and the power of all other gracious acts is as soon as that of 
faith. Though Christ give pardon and salvation upon condition 
of believing, yet he gives not, in the first degree, a new heart, a 
soft heart, and faith itself, nor the first true repentance on that 
condition ; any more than he gives the preaching of the Gospel, 
the Spirit's motion to believe, &c., upon a pre-requisite condi- 
tion of believing. 

Sect. V. 4. And as the will is thus averted from the fore- 
mentioned objects, so, at the same time, doth it cleave to God 
the Father, and to Christ. Its first acting in order of nature, 
is toward the whole divine essence ; and it consists, especially, 
in intending and desiring God for his portion and chief good : 
having before been convinced that nothing else can be his hap- 
piness, he now finds it is in God, and therefore looks towards 
it. But it is yet rather with desire than hope ; for, alas ! the 
sinner hath already found himself to be a stranger and enemy to 
God, under the guilt of sin and curse of his law, and knows there 
is no coming to him in peace till his case be altered ; and, there- 
fore, having before been convinced, also, that only Christ is able 
and willing to do this, and having heard his mercy in the Gospel 
freely offered, his next act is, secondly, to accept of Christ for 
Saviour and Lord, I put the former before this, because the 
ultimate end is necessarily the first intended, and the divine es- 
sence is principally that ultimate end ; (John xiv. (j ;) yet not 
excluding the human nature in the second person : but Christ, 
as Mediator, is the way to that end ; and, throughout the Gospel, 
is offered to us in such terms as import his being the means of 
making us happy in God. And though that former act of the 
soul toward the Godhead, be not said to justify as this last doth, 
yet is it, I think, as proper to the people of God as this ; nor 
can any man, unregenerate, truly choose God for his Lord, his 
portion, and chief good 5 therefore do they both mistake : they 
who only mention our turning to Christ, and they who only 
mention our turning to God, in this work of conversion, as is 
touched before. Paul's preaching was " repentance toward 
God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ." (Acts xx. 21, v. 
31, xi. 18, and xxvi. 20.) And life eternal consists, first, in 


knowing the only true God, and then Jesus Christ, whom he 
hath sent. (John xvii. 3.) The former is the natural part of 
the covenant, to take the Lord only for our God ; the latter is 
the supernatural part, to take Christ only for our Redeemer. 
The former is first necessary, and implied in the latter. 

Though repentance and good works, Sec., are required to our 
full justification, at judgment, as subservient to, or concurrent 
with, faith ; yet is the nature of this justifying faith itself con- 
tained in assent, and in this accepting of Christ for Saviour and 
Lord: and I think it necessarily contains all this in it; some 
place it in the assenting act only, some in a fiducial adherence, 
or recumbency ; I call it accepting,*^ it being principally au 
act of the will ; but yet also of the whole soul. "^ This accepting 
being that which the Gospel presseth to, and calleth the receiv- 
ing or accepting Christ : I call it an affectionate accepting, » 
though love seem another act quite distinct from faith, and if 
you take faith for assent only, so it is ; yet I take it as essential 
to that faith which justifies. To accept Christ without love, is * 
not justifying faith. Nor doth love follow as a fruit, but im- 
mediately concur; nor concur as a mere concomitant, but essen- 
tial to a true accepting. For this faith is the receiving of Christ, 
either with the whole soul, or with part ; not with part only, 
for that is but a partial receiving : and most clearly, divines of 
late conclude, that justifying faith resides both in the understand- ' 
ing and the will ; therefore, in the whole soul ; and so can- 
not be one single act. I add, it is the most affectionate ac- 
cepting of Christ ; because he that loves father, mother, or any 
thing more than him, is not worthy of him, nor can be his dis- 
ciple ; (Luke xiv. 26 ;) and consequently not justified by him. 
And the truth of this affection*^ is not to be judged so much by 

^ So Dr. Preston's judgment is, and Dr. Wallis against the Lord Brook, * 
p. 94. It is anacceptingof Christ offered, rather than the belief of a proposition 
affirmed. So that excellent philosopher and divine. Love to Christ whether 
it be not essential to justifying faith ; see more of this in the positions of 
justification. Love to Christ must be the strongest love. To accept is only 
velle bonum oblatum, and to love, as it is in the rational appetite, is only 
velle bonum too (as Aquinas often) ; so that faith, as it is in the will, (in its 
most proper act,) and love as in the same faculty towards the same object, are 
but two names for one thing. But this with submission. The objections are 
to be answered elsewhere. 

■^ Scriptura fere utitur verbo Kafx^av^iv, quod propter sophistas est tutius. 
lllud tribuitur tidei multoties ; John i. 12, ubi Jansenius, &c. et Bellarm. 
Credere est Christum recipere. — Johan. Crocius de Just, Disj'. 12. p. Gb7, 

•i Dr. Sibbs's « Soul's Conflict.' 


194 THE saint's 

feeling the pulse of it, as by comparing it with our affection for 
other things. He that loveth nothing so much as Christ, doth 
love him truly, though he find cause still to bewail the coldness 
of his affections. ^ I make Christ himself the object of his ac- 
cepting, it being not any theological axiom concerning himself, 
but himself in person. I call it an accepting him for Saviour 
and Lord. For in both relations will he be received, or not at 
all. ^It is not only to acknowledge his sufferings, and accept of 
pardon and glory, but to acknowledge his sovereignty, and sub- 
mit to his government, and way of saving ; and I take all this to 
be contained in justifying faith. The vilest sinner among us 
will accept of Christ to justify and save him, if that only would 
serve the turn to his justification. 

The work (which Christ thus accepted of, is to perform) is, to 
bring the sinners to God, that they may be happy in him : and 
this both really by his Spirit, and relatively in reconciling them, 
and making them sons ; and to present them perfect before him 
at last, and to possess them of the kingdom. This will Christ 
perform : and the obtaining of these, are the sinner's lawful ends, 
in receiving Christ j^ and to these uses doth he offer himself unto 

5. To this end doth the sinner now enter into a cordial cove- 
nant with Christ. As the preceptive part is called the covenant, 
so he might be under the covenant before, as also under the offers 
of a covenant on God's part. But he was never strictly nor 
comfortably in covenant with Christ till now. He is sure by the 
free offers, that Christ doth consent, and now doth he cordially 
consent, himself ; and so the agreement is fully made ; and it 
was never a match indeed till now. 

6. With this covenant concurs a mutual delivery; Christ de- 
livereth himself in all comfortable relations to the sinner, and 
the sinner'^ delivereth up himself to be saved and ruled by 

^ Fides considerat Christum ut redemptorem, adeoque sanctificatorum nos- 
trum, inquit. — Cawero Prceiect. in Matt, xviii. 1. f. 78. 

f The pitch of your love, if it be a right conjugal love, is upon the person 
of Christ rather than any thing that comes from him, saith Burroughs on 
Hosea, p. 603. Irenaeus, lib. 1. p. 6., saith, that the Valentinians would call 
Christ their Saviour, but not Lord : justifying faith is the accepting Christ 
both for Saviour and Lord, 

e Christo servabatur, omnia retro occulta nudare, dubitata dirigere, praeli- 
bata supplere, prsedicata repraesentare; mortuorum certe resurrectionem, non 
niodo per semetipsum, verum etiam in semetipso, probare. — Tertul. in Lib. de 
Resurrect, Carnis in principio, p. 405. 

^ Si jgitur tradideris ei quod tuum est, id est, fidem in eum, et subjectionem, 


Christ. This which I call the delivering of Christ, is his act in 
and by the Gospel ; without any change in himself. The change 
is only in the sinner to whom the conditional promises become 
equivalent to absolute, when they perform the conditions. Now 
doth the soul resolvedly conclude, I have been blindly led by the 
flesh and lust, and the world, and the devil, too long already, 
almost to my utter destruction j I will now be wholly at the 
disposal of my Lord, who hath bought me with his blood, and 
will bring me to his glory. • And thus the complete work of 
saving faith consisteth in this covenanting, or mystical marriage, 
of the sinner to Christ. 

7. And lastly, I add, that the believer doth herein persevere 
to the end ', though he may commit sins, he never disclaimeth 

percipies ejus artem, et eris perfectum opus Dei. Si autem non credideris ei, 
et fue:eris manus ejus, erit causa imperfectionis in te, qui non obedisti; sed 
non in illo qui vocavit. Ille enirn misit qui vocarent ad nuptias; qui autem 
non obedierunt ei, seipsos privaverunt regia ccEna. Sed ille qui non conse- 
quitur earn sibiniet suas imperfectionis est causa. Nee enim lumen deficit 
propter eos, qui seipsos excoecaverunt, &c. — Irenaus adv. Hares, lib. iv. c. 7&» 
' So Dr. Preston tells you frequently. And in the primitive times none were 
baptised without an express covenanting, wherein they renounced the world, 
flesh, and devil, and engaged themselves to Christ, and promised to obey him, 
as you may see in Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, and others, at large. I will 
cite but one for all, who was before the rest, and this is Justin Martyr: speak- 
ing of the way of baptising the aged, he saith, " How we are dedicated to God, 
being renewed by Christ, we will now open to you. As many as being per- 
suaded, do believe these things to be true which we teach, and do promise to 
live according to them, they first learn by prayer and fasting to beg pardon of 
God for their former sins, ourselves joining also our prayer and fasting. Then 
they are brought to the water, and are born again, or baptised, in the same 
way as we ourselves were born again : for they are washed with water, in the 
name of the Father, the Lord and God of all, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
and of the Holy Ghost. Then we bring the person thus washed and instructed, 
to the brethren, as they are called, where the assemblies are, that we may 
pray both for ourselves and for the illuminated person, that we may be found, 
by true doctrine and by good works, worthy observers and keepers of the com- 
mandments, and that we may attain eternal salvation. Then there is brought 
to the chief brother, (so they called the chief minister,) bread, and a cup of 
wine, washed, which taking, he offereth praise and thanksgiving to the 
Father, by the name of the Son and Holy Ghost : and so awhile he cele- 
brateth tiianksgiving. After prayers and tlianksgiving, the whole assembly 
saith Amen. Thanksgiving being ended by the president, or chief guide, and 
the consent of the whole people, the deacons, as we call them, do give to every 
one present part of the bread and wine, over which thanks were given, and 
they also suffer them to bring it to the absent. 'J'his food we call the eucha- 
rist; to which no man is admitted but only he that believeth the truth of our 
doctrine : being washed in the laver of regeneration for remission of sin, and 
that so liveth, as Christ hath taught.' — Jpol, 2. This, then, is no new over- 
strict way, you see, 


196 THE saint's 

his Lord, renounceth his allegiance, nor recalleth, nor repenteth 
of his covenant, nor can be properly said to break that covenant, 
while that faith continues, which is the condition of it. Indeed, 
those that have verbally covenanted, and not cordially, may yet 
tread under foot the blood of the covenant, as an unholy thing, 
(Heb. X. 29; Matt. xxiv. 13 ; Rev. ii. 26, 27, and iii. 11, 12 ; 
John XV. 4 — 6, 9, and viii. 31; Col. i. 23; Rom. xii. 22,) 
wherewith they were sanctified by separation from those without 
the church ; but the elect cannot be so deceived. Though this 
perseverance be certain to true believers ; yet it is made a con- 
dition of their salvation, yea, of their continued life and fruit- 
fulness, and of the continuance of their justification, though 
not of their first justification itself. But eternally blessed be 
that hand of love, which hath drawn the free promise, and sub- 
scribed and sealed to that which ascertains us, both of the 
grace which is the condition, and the kingdom on that condi- 
tion offered. 

Sect. VI. And thus you have a naked enumeration of the 
essentials of this people of God : not a full portraiture of cheni 
in their excellencies, nor all the notes whereby they be discerned; 
both which were beyond my present purpose. And though it 
will be part of the following application, to put you upon trial ; 
yet because the description is now before your eyes, and these 
evidencing works are fresh in your memory, it will not be un- 
seasonable, nor unprofitable for you, to take an account of your 
own estates, and to view yourselves exactly in this glass, before 
you pass on any further. And I beseech thee, reader, as thou 
hast the hope of a Christian, yea, or the reason of a man, to 
deal thoroughly, and search carefully, and judge thj'self as one 
that must shortly be judged by the righteous God ; and faithfully 
answer to these few questions which I shall here propound. 

I will not inquire, whether thou remember the time or the 
order of these workings of the Spirit : there may be much un- 
certainty and mistake in that ; but 1 desire thee to look into thy 
soul, and see whether thou find such works wrought within thee ; 
and then, if thou be sure they are there, the matter is not so 
great, though thou know not when or how thou camest by them. 

And first, hast thou been thoroughly convinced of an universal 
depravation, through thy whole soul ; and an universal wicked- 
ness through thy whole life ; and how vile a thing this sin is ; 
and that by the tenor of that covenant which thou hast trans- 
gressed, the least sin deserves eternal death ? Dost thou con- 
sent to this law, that it is true and righteous ? Hast thou per- 


ceived thyself sentenced to this death by it, and been convinced 
of thy natural, undone condition ? Hast thou further seen the 
utter insufficiency of every creature, either to be itself thy hap- 
piness, or the means of curing this thy misery, and making thee 
happy again in God ? Hast thou been convinced, that thy hap- 
piness is only in God as the end ; and only in Christ as the way 
to him, and the end also as he is one with the Father ; and 
perceived that thou must be brought to God by Christ, or perish 
eternally ? Hast thou seen hereupon an absolute necessity of 
the enjoying Christ ; and the full sufficiency that is in him, to do 
for thee whatsoever thy case requireth, by reason of the fulness 
of his satisfaction, the greatness of his power, and dignity of 
his person, and the freeness and indefiniteness of his promises ? 
Hast thou discovered the excellency of this pearl, to be worth 
thy selling all to buy it? Hath all this been joined with some 
sensibility; as the convictions of a man that thirsteth, of the 
worth of drink ; and not been only a change in opinion, pro- 
duced by reading or education, as a bare notion in the under- 
standing ? Hath it proceeded to an abhorring that sin; I mean 
in the bent and prevailing inclination of thy will, though the 
flesh do attempt to reconcile thee to it ; have both thy sin and 
misery been a burden to thy soul; and if thou couldst not 
weep, yet couldest thou heartily groan under the insupportable 
weight of both ? Hast thou renounced all thine own righteous- 
ness ? Hast thou turned thy idols out of thy heart ;'^ so that 
the creature hath no more the sovereignty, but is now a servant 
to God and to Christ ? Dost thou accept of Christ as thy only 
Saviour, and expect thy justification, recovery, and glory, from 
him alone ? Dost thou take him also for Lord and King ? And 
are his laws the most powerful commanders of thy life and soul ? 
Do they ordinarily prevail against the commands of the flesh, 
of Satan, of the greatest on earth that shall countermand ; and 
against the greatest interest of thy credit, profit, pleasure, or 
life ; so that thy conscience is directly subject to Christ alone ? 
Hath he the highest room in thy heart and affections ; so that 
though thou canst not love him as thou wouldst, yet nothing 

'' In one word, the very nature of sincerity lieth in this ; when Christ hath 
more actual interest iu thy heart, esteem, and will, than the flesh ; or when 
Christ hath the supremacy or sovereignty in the soul ; so that his interest 
prevaileth against the interest of the flesh. Try by this as an infallible mark 
of srrace. 


else is loved so much ? Hast thou made a hearty covenant^ to 
this end with him; and delivered up thyself accordingly to him ; 
and takest thyself for his and not thine own ? Is it thy ut- 
most care and watchful endeavour, that thou mayest be found 
faithful in this covenant ; and though thou fall into sin, yet 
wouldest not renounce thy bargain, nor change thy Lord, 
nor give up thyself to any other government for all the 
world ? if this be truly thy case, thou art one of these 
people of God which my text speaks of: and as sure as 
the promise of God is true, this blessed rest remains for thee. 
Only see thou abide in Christ, and continue to the end ; for 
if any draw back, his soul will have no pleasure in them. 

But if all this be contrary with thee, or if no such work be 
found within thee, but thy soul be a stianger to all this, and thy 
conscience tell thee, it is none of thy case; the Lord have mercy 
on thy soul, and open thine eyes, and do this great work uj)on 
thee, and by his mighty power overcome thy resistance : for ™ in 
the case thou art in, there is no hope. Whatever thy deceiving 
heart may think, or how strong soever thy false hopes be, or 
though now a little while thou flatter thy soul in confidence and 
security; yet wilt thou shortly find to thy cost, except thy 
thorough conversion do prevent it, that thou art none of these 
people of God, and the rest of the saints belongs not to thee. 
Thy dying hour draws near apace, and so doth that great day of 
separation, when God will make an everlasting difference between 
his people and his enemies : then wo, and for ever wo to thee, 
if thou be found in the state that thou art now in. (Deut. xxxii. 
25.) Thy own tongue will then proclaim thy wo, with a thousand 
times more dolour and vehemence, than mine can possibly do 
it now. O that thou wert wise to consider this, and that thou 
wouldest remember thy latter end ! That yet while thy soul is 
in thy body, and a price in thy hand, and day-light, and oppor- 
tunity, and hope, before thee, thine ears might be open to instruc- 
tion, and thy heart might yield to the persuasions of God ; and 
thou mightest bend all the powers of thy soul about this great 
work ; that so thou mightest rest among his people, and enjoy 

^ Whether thy infant baptism will serve or no, I am assured thy infant 
covenant will not now serve thy turn : but thou must actually enter covenant 
in thy own person. (John xv. 4 — G ; Matt. xxiv. 13 ; Heb. x. 38^ 39.) 

™ I speak net this to the dark and clouded Christian, who cannot discern 
that which is indeed within him. 


the inheritance of the saints in light ! And thus I have shown 
you who these people of God are. 

Sect. VII. And why are they called the people of God > You 
may easily from what is said discern the reasons. 

1. They are the people whom he hath chosen to himself from 

2. And whom Christ hath redeemed with an absolute intent 
of saving them ; which cannot be said of any other. 

3. Whom he hath also renewed by the power of his grace, 
and made them in some sort like to himself, stamping his own 
image on them, and making them holy, as he is holy. 

4. They are those whom he embraceth with a peculiar love, 
and do again love him above all. 

5. They are entered into a strict and mutual covenant, where- 
in it is agreed for the Lord to be their God, and they to be his 

6. They are brought into near relation to him, even to be his 
servants, his sons, and the members and spouse of his Son. 

7. And lastly, they must live with him for ever, and be per- 
fectly blessed in enjoying his love, and beholding his glory. 
And I think these are reasons sufficient, why they peculiarly 
should be called his people. 


And thus I have explained to you the subject of my text; and 
showed you darkly, and in part, what this rest is ; and briefly 
who are this people of God. O that the Lord would now open 
your eyes, and your hearts, to discern, and be affected with the 
glory revealed ! That he would take off your hearts from these 
dunghill delights, and ravish them with the views of these ever- 
lasting pleasures ! That he would bring you into the state of 
this holy and heavenly people, for whom alone this rest remain- 
eth I That you would exactly try yourselves by the foregoing 

200 . THE saint's everlasting rest. 

description ! That no soul of you might be so damnably de- 
luded, as to take your natural or acquired parts, for the charac- 
ters of a saint ! O happy and thrice happy you, if these sermons 
might have such success with your souls, that so you might die 
the death of the righteous, and your last end might be like his I 
For this blessed issue, as I here gladly wait upon you in preach- 
ing, so will 1 also wait upon the Lord in praying. 










Richard Baxter devoteth this part of this Treatise, in testimony of his 
unfeigned love to them, who were the first to whom he was sent, as fixed, to 
publish the Gospel : and in thankfulness to Divine Majesty, who there pri- 
vileged and protected him : 

Humbly beseeching the God of mercy, both to save them 
from that spirit of pride, separation, and levity, which hath 
long been working among them ; and also to awake them 
thoroughly from their negligence and security, by his late heavy 
judgments on them : and that as the flames have consumed 
their houses, so the Spirit of God may consume the sin that wa§ 
the cause ; and by those flames they may be effectually warned 
to prevent the everlasting flames; and that their new-built houses 
may have new-born inhabitants ; and that the next time God 
shall search and try them, he may not find one house among 
them, where his word is not daily studied and obeyed, and where 
they do not fervently call upon his name. 




Because it is a point of such high concernment, to be assured 
of the divine authority of the Scriptures ; and all men are not 
of one mind in the way of proving it j and because I have not 
handled this so fully as the difficulty and weight of the subject 
doth require, as intending only a few arguments by way of digres- 
sion, for the strengthening of weaker and less exercised Christ- 
ians : I have thought meet, therefore, a little more fully to ex- 
press my mind in this preface, being loth to stand to enlarge 
the book any further. And that which I have to say, is to three 
sorts of persons distinctly. 

The first is, to all those that believe not the truth of the 
Scriptures. Open pagans live not among us : but pagans pro- 
fessing Christianity, are of late too common, under the name of 
libertines, familists, seekers, and anti-scripturists. Had I not 
known it by experience, and had conference with such, I should 
not speak it. And there is a remnant of paganism and infidelity 
in the best of Christians. The chief causes which pervert the 
understanding of men in this point, in my observation, are these 
two : 1 . When men have deeply wounded their consciences by 
sinning against knowledge, and given the victory to their fleshly 
lusts; so that they must either deeply accuse and condemn them- 
selves, or deny the Scriptures ; they choose that which seemeth 
the more tolerable and desirable to them, and so rather con- 
demn the Scripture than themselves. And what malefactor 
would not do the like, and except against the law which doth 
condemn him, if that would serve his turn ? And when men 
that are engaged in a sinful course, do see that the word of God 
doth speak so terribly against it, they dare not live in that sin 
while they believe the Scripture, because it is still awaking and 


galling their guilty consciences ; but when thev have cast away 
their belief of the Scripture, then conscience will let them sin with 
more quietness. These men believe not the Scriptures, principal- 
ly, because they would not have them to be true, rather than be- 
cause they do indeed seem untrue; for their fleshly concupiscence 
having mastered their wills, their wills have also mastered thpir 
understandings ; and so, as in a well-ordered, gracious soul, all 
goes straight forward ; in these men all is perverted, and moves 
backward. These men refuse their physic, because it is un- 
pleasant, and not because it is unwholesome: yet at last their ap- 
petite so mastereth their reason, that they will not believe any 
thing can be wholesome which goes so much against their 
stomachs. At least this makes them the readier to pick a 
quarrel with it, and they are glad to hear of any argument 
against it. Ahab believed not the message of Micaiah, not be- 
cause he spoke falsely, but because he spoke not good of him 
but evil : men will easily be drawn to believe that to be true, 
which they would fain have to be true ; and that to be false, 
which they desire should be false. But, alas, how short and silly 
a cure is this for a guilty soul ; and how soon will it leave them 
in incurable misery ! 

2. Another reason of those men's unbelief, is the seeming con- 
tradictions that they find in the Scriptures, and the seeming im- 
possibilities in the doctrines of them, which so far transcend the 
capacity of man. To the former, let me say this much : 1. Jt 
is merely through our ignorance, that scriptures seem contra- 
dictory. I thought myself once that some places were hardly 
reconcilable, which now I see do very plainly agree : plainly, I 
say, to them that understand the true meaning of the words. 
There are no human writings, but lie open to such exceptions of 
the ignorant. It is rather a wonder that the Scriptures seem not 
to you more self contradicting, if you consider, but 1. That they 
are written in another language, and must needs lose much in 
the translation, there being few words to be found in any lan- 
guage, which have not divers significations. 2. That it being 
the language also of another country, to men that know not the 
customs, the situation of places, the proverbial speeches, and 
phrases of that country, it is impossible but many words should 
seem dark or contradictory. 3. Also, that the Scriptures are of 
so exceeding antiquity, as no books else in the world are like 
them. Now, who knows not that in all countries in the world, 
customs alter, and proverbial speeches and phrases alter 3 which 


must needs make words seem dark, even to men of the same 
country and language that live so long after. We have many 
English proverbs, which if in after ages they should cease to be 
proverbs, and men finding them in our writings, shall construe 
them as plain speeches, they would seem to be either false, or 
ridiculous nonsense. The like mav be said of alteration of 
phrases. He that reads but Chaucer, much more elder writers, 
will see that English is scarce the same thing now, as it was then. 
Though the sacred languages have had no such great altera- 
tions, yet by this it may appear, that it is no wonder, if to the 
ignorant they seem contrary or difficult. Do not the mathema- 
tics, and all sciences, seem full of contradictions and impossi- 
bilities to the ignorant ; which are all resolved and cleared to 
those that understand them ? It is a very foolish, audacious 
thing, that every novice, or young student in divinity, should 
expect to have all difficulties resolved presently, or else they will 
censure the Scriptures, and speak evil of the things they know 
not, instead of censuring themselves; when yet these men know, 
that in the easiest science, yea, or basest manufacture, they must 
have time to learn the reasons of them. It is usual with raw 
scholars in all kinds of studies, to say as Nicodemus did at 
first of regeneration, 'How can these things be?' '^Methinks 
such frail and shallow creatures, as all men are, should rather 
be so sensible of their own incapacity and ignorance, as to be 
readier to take the blame to themselves, than to quarrel with 
the truth. It is too large a work for me here to answer all the 
particular objections of these men against the several passages 
of Scripture : but if they would be at the pains to inquire of 
their teachers, or study what is written to that end, they might 
find that the matter is not so difficult as they imagine. Besides, 
what Althamar, Cumeranus, Sharpius, and others have purposely 
written for reconciling the seeming contradictions in Scripture, 
they mav find much in ordinary expositors. Junius answereth 
two-and-twenty cavils, which Simplicius the pagan raised, and 
after him the antinomians used against Moses's ' History of the 
Creation.* And he was fit for the work, having for a year's 

* Sed queniadmodum apud eos qui semel providentiam probe perceperunt, 
non niinuitur, aut peril fides providentJEe ob ea quae non comprehetiduntur ; 
ita neque scripturae divinitati per earn totam dilfusae quidquam detrahitur, 
ex eo quod ad singulas dictiones imbeciilitas nostra non possit adesse arcano 
spleudori doctrinaj qui in tenui et contempta locutione delitescit. — Orii^en. 
Philocat, (per Tariuum, Grffico-Lat. edit.) pj>. (milii) 12, 13. 


time continued in the desperate error of atheism himself. But the 
fullest confutation of these blasphemous conceits, are in the pri- 
mitive fathers, as Origen against Celsus, Tertul. Athanas. &:c. ; 
where they shall find that the worst of pagans brought forth 
these monsters, and by what weapons they were destroyed. 

2. And what, if you could not see how to reconcile the seeming 
contradictions of Scripture ? When you see arguments sufficient 
to prove them to be the word of God (which I doubt not but you 
may see, if you will search impartially and humbly), methinks 
common reason might then conclude, that all that God speaks 
must needs be true, though our blindness hinders us from a dis- 
tinct discerning of it. 2. The like I say of the seeming impos- 
sibilities in Scripture : is any thing too hard for Omnipotency 
itself ? The atheist derides it, when he hears of the opening of 
the Red Sea, of the standing still of the sun, &c. But, dost thou 
believe that there is a God ? If thou dost, thou must needs 
know that he is almighty : if not, thou hast put out the eye of 
reason ; for most pagans in the world have acknowledged a God. 
Canst thou think that all things thou seest are made and pre- 
served without a first cause ? Do the heavens keep their courses, 
and the earth produce that variety of beautiful creatures, and 
the death of one cause the life of the other, and all kept in that 
order of superiority and inferiority, and all this without a first 
cause ? If thou say that nature is the cause, I would fain 
know what it is that thou callest nature j either a reasonable 
being and cause, or an unreasonable. If unreasonable, it could 
not produce the reasonable spirits, as are angels, and the souls 
of men ; for these would be more noble than itself : if reason- 
able, is it not then God himself which thou dost call by the name 
of nature ? To be the first reason, being, and cause of all, is to 
be God. And then let me ask thee, dost thou not see as great 
works as these miracles every day and hour before thine eyes ? 
Is it not as great a work for the sun to move, as to stand still : 
to move 10,388,442 miles an hour, being 166 times bigger than 
all the earth ? Is it not as hard a matter for the sea to move, 
and keep his times in ebbing and flowing, as for it to open and 
stand still ? Is it not only the rarity and strangeness that makes 
us think one impossible, when we see the other daily come to 
pass ? If it were but usual for the sun to stand still, every man 
would think it a far more incredible thing that it should move, 
and so move. Why, then, cannot God do the lesser, who daily 
doth the greater ? The like I might say of all the rest, but that 


it were too long to insist on them ; and for the truth of the 
history, it is proved afterwards. 

2. I would further ask these men : Must not a soul that is 
capable of immortal happiness, have some guide in the way 
thereto ? If they say no, then they either think God unfaithful 
or unskilful, who having appointed man an end, hath not given 
him direction thereto in the means. If they doubt whether man's 
soul be immortal, and whether there be a life of happiness to 
some, and misery to others, to be expected after this, I have said 
enough against that doubt in this book following ; and further 
let me ask them,** How comes it to be the common judgment of 
all nations, even the most ignorant Indians, that there is a life 
after this, where the good and the bad shall be differently re- 
compensed ? This the ancient barbarians beheved, as Herodo- 
tus testifieth of the Getae, (lib. iv. ;) and of the Egyptians, Dio- 
dorus Siculus, (lib. i. Biblioth. numb. 93.) The very inhabitants 
of Guinea, Virginia, Guiana, Peru, China, Mexico, &c., do be- 
lieve this, as you may see, ' Descrip. Reg. Africse, Guianae,' (cap. 
21, 24.;) Acost. (lib. v. c. 7, S ;) ?Iugh Luiscot. (part. i. 
cap. 25;) Joannes Lerius, (cap. 16 3) Sir Walter Raleigh, 

1* Socrates being near death, (apud Platonem, Cicerone interprete,) said 
thus : " Magna me spes tenet, judices, bene mihi eveuire quod mittarad mor- 
tem. Necesse est enim ut sit aiterum de duobus, ut aut sensus omnino mors 
omnes auferat, aut in alium quendam locum ex his locis morte migretur. 
Quamobrem, sive sensus extinguitur, morsque ei somno similis est, qui non- 
nunquam etiam sine visis somniorum, pacatissimam quietem affert; Dii boni, 
quid lucri est emori ? autquam multi dies reperiri possunt, qui tali nocti ante- 
pouantur ? &c. Sin vera sunt qua; dicuntur, migrationem esse mortem in 
eas oras, quas qui vita excesserunt, incolunt; id multo jam beatius est, te, 
cum ab iis, qui se judicum numero haberi volunt, evaseris, ad eos venire, qui 
vere judices appellentur, &c. convenireque eos qui justi et cum fide vixerint. 
Haec peregrinatio mediocris vobis videri potest ? Ut vero colloqui cum Orplia?o, 
MusiEO, Homero, Hesiodo, liceat, quanti tandem aestimatis ? Equidem SEepe 
mori si fieri posset, vellem, ut ea quae dico, mihi liceret inveuire. Quanta 
delectatione autera afficerei, &c. Ne vos quidem, judices, ii qui me absol- 
vistis mortem timueritis; nee enim cuiquam bono mali quidquam evenire 
potest, nee vivo nee mortuo ; nee unquam ejus res aDiis immortalibus negli- 
genlur, &c. Sic Socrates. Qusedam et natura nota sunt, ut imniortalitas 
animas penes plures, ut Deus noster penes omnes. Utar ergo et sententia 
Platoiiis alicujus jironuntiantis, omnis aninia est immortaiis. Utar et cou- 
scientia popuU coutestantis Deum Deorum. Utar et reliquis communibus 
sensibus, qui Deum judicem pradicant 'Deus videt' et 'Deo commendo.' At 
cum aiunt ' mortuum quod mortuum' et ' vive dum vivis' et post n)ortem 
omnia fiuiuntur, etiam ipsa] tunc nieminero et cor vuigi cinerem a Deo de- 
putatum, et ipsam sapientiam seculi stultitiam pronunciatam. Tunc si et 
htereticus ad vulgi vitia vel seculi ingenia confugerit, discede, dicam ab 
Ethnico, haretice, etsi unum estis omnes," &c, — Tertul. lib. deResurrect. 
Cam, cap, 3. , . . 

PREFACE. 20f) 

Sec. What poets speak not de Taitaro, campis Elysiis, 
Manibus? and so do philosophers of best note, except Galen, 
Epicnrus, Plinius, &e. As for Pythagoras, and his master, 
Pherecides, the Druids, the Indian Brahmins, Socrates, Plato, 
Cicero, Seneca, they all acknowledge it. Lege Marcilium 
Ficinum ^de Immort. Anim.j' yea, Aristotle himself saw this, as 
appeareth ^De Anima,' (lib. i. context. 65, 66, lib. ii. context. 
21, lib. iii. context. 4, 6, 7, 19, 20.) Sme then the light of 
nature discerneth it. 

Yet, if these men say that there must be a guide and law for 
souls in their way to happiness, and yet deny that the Scripture 
is it, I would fain know of them which is it, and where it is to 
be found. Hath God any other word or law in the world above 
this ? Sure, neither Plato nor Aristotle did ever call their books 
the word of God ; and Mahomet's ' Alcoran' is far more unlike 
to be it than theirs. If they say that reason is the only guide 
and law, I reply, 1. Reason is but the eye by which we see our 
directory and law, and not the directory and law itself: 2. Look 
on those countries through the world that have no Scripture- 
guides, but follow their reason, and see how they are guided, 
and what diflferencc there is between them and Christians, as 
bad as we are; and if you think of this well, you will be ashamed 
of your error. Indians have reason, as well as we ; nay, look 
into the wise Romans, and the great learned philosophers, who 
had advanced tlieir reason so high, and see how lamentably they 
were befooled in spirituals ; how they worshipped multitudes of 
idols, even taking them for their gods, whom thev acknowledged 
to be lecherous, adulterous, perfidious, bloodv, and wicked. 
Read but Justin's 'A])olog.' Athenagoras, Tertullian's ' Apolog.,' 
&c., Origen's 'Cont. Ccls.' Arnobius, Lactantius, Clemens 
Alexand. Protreptic. Miniitius Felix, Athanas.j &c., fully of 
this. Most certainly, either the Scriptures are God's word and 
law, or else there is none in the known world ; and if there be 
none, how doth the just, true, and righteous God govern the 
rational creature, so as to lead him to the happiness prepared 
for him ? But of this in the fourth argument following. 

3. I would entreat these men, but soberlv, to consider this : 
what if there were no full, absolute certainty of the truth of 
Scripture or christian religion, but it were only probable, which 
no considerate man can deny, were it not the wisest vvav to re- 
ceive it ? What, if it should prove true that there is a hell for 
the wicked, what a case are you in then ! You know your 

VOL, XX n» p 


worldly happiness is a very dream and a shadow, and a brutish 
delight, which is mixed with misery, and quieteth not the soul, 
and perisheth in the using. If you do lose it, you lose but a 
toy, a thing of nothing, which you must shortly lose whether 
you will or no j but if you lose heaven, and fall into endless 
misery, it is another kind of loss. Methinks, then, that com- 
mon reason should persuade men to venture all, though it were 
at uncertainty, upon that religion which tells us but of a possi- 
bility of a heaven and a hell, rather than to venture on a possi- 
bility of everlasting misery, for a little bestial pleasure, which is 
gone while we are enjoying it ; yea, and when even in this life 
these sensual men have not near so much content as the Christian. 
Verily, if I doubted of the truth of the christian religion, I durst 
not be of anv other; but should judge it the wisest course, to 
venture all 1 had in this world upon the hopes that it propound- 
eth ; yea, mere madness to do otherwise. If men that are at a 
lottery will venture a small sum for a possibility of a great one, 
though they know there is but one of twenty that shall get it, 
how much more would any wise man leave a little vanity, in 
hope of everlasting glory, and to avoid everlasting misery, though 
it were uncertain : but, most of all, when we have that full cer- 
tainty of it as we have ! 

4. Lastly: I would have these men consider, that though we 
doubt not but to prove that Scripture is God's full and infallible 
law, yet, if it were so that this could not be proved, this would 
not overthrow the christian religion. If the Scriptures were but 
the writings of honest men, that were subject to mistakes and 
contradictions, in the manner and circumstances, yet they might 
afford us a full certainty of the substance of Christianity, and of 
the miracles wrought to confirm the doctrine. Tacitus, Sueto- 
nius, Livy, Florus, Lucan, Sec, were all heathens, and very fal- 
lible ; and yet their history affords us a certainty of the great 
substantial passages of the Roman affairs which they treat of, 
though not of all the smaller passages and circumstances. He 
that doubteth whether there was such a man as Julius Caesar, or 
that he fought with Pompey and overcame him, &c., is scarce 
reasonable, if he knew the histories; so, though IMatthew Paris, 
INIalmsbury, Hoveden, Speed, Cambden, and our own parlia- 
ments that enacted our laws, were all fallible men, and mistaken 
in divers smaller things, yet they afford us a full certainty that 
there was such a man as William the Conqueror, William Rufus, 
&:c. ; that there were such parliaments, such lords, such fights 


and victories, Sjc. He that would not venture all that he hath 
on the trutii of these, especially to gain a kingdom by the ven- 
ture, were no better in this than mad. Now, if Scripture were 
but such common writings as these, especially joined with the 
uncontrolled tradition that hath since conveyed it to us, may it 
not yet give us a full certainty that Christ was in the flesh, and 
that he preached this doctrine for the substance, and wrought 
these miracles to confirm it, and enabled his followers to work 
the like, which will afford us an invincible argument for our 
Christianity ? Therefore, Grotius, &c., and so the old fathers, 
when they disputed with the heathens, did first prove the truth 
of christian religion before they came to prove the divine au- 
thority of the Scriptures ; not that we are at any such uncer- 
tainty, or that any Christian should take up here, as if the 
Scriptures were not infallible and divine ; but being now speak- 
ing to another sort of men according to their capacity, I say, if 
it were otherwise, yet might we have certainty of our religion. 
I shall say somewhat more to these men in speaking to the rest. 
The second sort that I shall speak to, are the papists. I find 
the chief thing that turns them from the reformed churches, and 
confirms them against us, is, because they think they cannot 
otherwise maintain their Christianity, but by deriving it from 
their church. The first question, therefore, that papists will 
dispute on with us, is, 'How know you the Scriptures to be the 
word of God ?' For they fondly suppose, that because it cannot 
be known without the help of tradition, or human testimony, 
that, therefore, this must be only the testimony of the true 
church, and that must be some visible church, and that church 
must be presently in being, and must be judge in the case, 
and must be infallible in the judging ; and all this can 
agree to no other church; and, therefore, that theirs is the 
only true church. And thus the particular church of Rotne 
will prove herself the only or universal church. To stand here 
to confute these vain, ungrounded conclusions, would be to 
digress too far, and make this preface too long. Yet something 
I wrote against their pretended papal infallil)ility, and of the un- 
certainty of their faith ; but, being persuaded by others to insert 
no more controversy here, I reserve it for a fitter place. Only I 
would desire briefly any papist to show, whether their doctrine 
do not leave the whole christian faith at utter uncertainty, and 
consequently destroy it, as much as in them lies ? For seeing 
they build all upon the supposed infallibility of the church and 



that churcli*^ is the present church, and that is the Roman 
church only ; and that is only the pope, as the Jesuits and most 
papists say ; or a general council, as the French : see what a case 
they hring Christianity to with their followers ! Every man 
that will believe the Scripture, yea, or the christian faith, must, 
1. Believe or know that Rome is the true church. 2. That it 
hath authority to judge of God's word, and of the christian faith, 
which is truly it, and whicli not. 3. That this authority was 
given by God's word (this must be known, before men can know 
that God hath a word, or what it is). 4. That they are infallible 
in their judgment. 5. That Peter was at Rome, and was their 
bishop, and conferred this sovereignty on them as his suc- 

6. That each particular pope is a true pope, and lawfully 
called ; which all the world must know, that know neither him, 
nor when, nor how, he was called. 7. That the pope determines 
it as a matter of faith ; otherwise, they confess he may err, and 
be an heretic. 8. And thoy must know where is the proper 
subject of infallibility, whether in the pope or council, or they 
know not which to build on, which yet they are far from agree- 
ing on themselves. 9. When two or three popes sit together, 
which is no new thing, the world must know which is the right, 
for all the rest may err. 10. Or, if they join a council in the 
infallibility, they must be certain that Christ hath given councils 
this infallibility. 11. And that this is only to a council of Ro- 
manists. 12. And so that the Roman church is the universal 
church, and not only a part, as other churches are. 13. And 
that they are free from error in council, and not out of it. 14. 
That the council be general and lawful, else they confess it may 
err. 15. Therefore, all men must he certain that it be sunnnon- 
e<l by the pope. IG. And that the bishops that constitute it, 
are lawfully called. 1/. And that the poj)e doth ratify the acts 

* Vi(k' Crt J?. ' lie Valcnt.' torn. iii. tlisp. 1. qUsest. 1. pmict. 7. sect. 12 : et 
liellarmin. 111). i>. 'tie Sacrament.' in ^en.cap. xxv. : et Suarez. 'do Fide,' 
disiiutat. V. sect. 4, 7; et disputat. xi. sect. 3: Beilar. lib. i. ' tie Conciliis,' 
c. 4. et I'J. el lib. ii. c. 2. Yet sonietiuies tlicy seem so jnous as to prefer 
the Scfiptui'e belore the churcli. Nuncjuani sane niihi venit in mentem ec- 
clesia; judiciiiui sacionim voluminum authoiitati antelerre, qua; Spiritiis 
coelcstis afflatn exarata fiiisse tiini Petri) coutitennir, ciiin et pucri, qui lie 
prinioribus quidem labris divina luoiiunienta attigerunt, satis iiitellit;anf, 
vera; cccles;aj rationem sine verbi Dei integritate, quse fidei sedes est atque 
lundaineutiiin, constare iiUo nuido pusse, (Sic. — Payiui D' Jnthatl. Defvns. 
Cvnc.'l'i iihul. cv)il. Kemnil. lib. ii. p. (miiii) 202. Sed de alioruiu iuipu- 
deutia, vide Cathol. Orthodox, tract. 1. q. ix. p. 94. 


of this council, as well as call the councils ; else they conclude 
that they are unlawful, or may be fallible. He that knows not 
all these, cannot be certain that Scripture is God's word, no, 
nor of the truth of the christian faith, according to the papists' 
grounds. And can all the world be certain of them ; or, are all 
their laicks certain ; yea, or their clergy ; yea, or any man ? 
Adrian VI. tells us, ' that the pope is fallible :' and shall we 
not believe the pope himself, confessing his own ignorance ? 
though councils have decreed against councils, and popes against 
popes, over and over. Yet we must needs believe them infallible, 
or forfeit our Christianity according to their doctrine : that is, 
we must either renounce both experience, sense, and reason, or 
our faith. Is not this the way to drive the world again to 
heathenism ? And whether all the world lose not the certainty 
of their Christianity, when there is an interregnum upon the 
death of a pope, let them further study. I am fully certain, 
that the christian world in Peter's days, did never pretend to 
hold their faith upon his mere infallibility. Nor did Justin, 
Irenseus, 1 ertuUian, Cyprian, or any of the ancientest that ever I 
met with, hold their belief of Christ or Scripture on the infalli- 
bility of the bishop of Rome. The contrary I shall manifest in 
a more convenient place. I will only add this question : ' How 
doth the pope and his council know the Scripture to be God's 
word?' If they believe it on their own authority, that is, be- 
cause themselves say so, then they are self-idolizers. And what 
makes them affirm it to be so ; or what reason have they for 
their belief? If they believe by any convincing reason, proving 
Scripture to be a divine testimony, then why may not the clergy, 
out of council, and others also, believe on the same grounds ? 
Else the faith of the pope and his council will not have the same 
grounds with the faith of the people or church besides ; and 
then it is another faith ; and so either the people or the pope 
are heretics. And why are we blamed for not believing on the 
authortiy of the pope and council, when the pope and council 
themselves believe not on that, that is, their own authority ? I 
hope they will not turn enthusiasts, and pretend to private ex- 
traordinary revelations of the Spirit. If they say, they receive 
the Scripture by tradition of the ancient church, and so on their 
credit ; why may we not know, as well as they, what the 
ancients say in the point ? And is it not the honestest way^ ' 
if they knew more herein than we, to produce it, and show us" 
what and where the ancients speak ? If they have it merely 


upon verbal tradition, have not other men as good ears as the 
pope and his council ; and, therefore, being as honest, to be 
as well credited in such reports ? And if it be their office to keep 
traditions,*^ have they been so careless as to lose all the rest of 
the things which Jesus did, which John saith will fill so many 
volumes ; and also the traditions which themselves suppose Paul 
to have delivered unwritten to the Thessalonians and others ? 
Shall we believe them infallible, that have already so deceived 
us ? 

And for those that think it of absolute necessity, that the 
church have some judge for final decision of controversies about 
the sense of Scripture ; and that judge it so absurd a thing for 
every man to be judge; and, therefore, they think we must needs 
come to Rome for a judge. 1. I would know whether they 
speak of fundamentals, and such other points as are plain in 
Scripture, or smaller points that are dark : for the former, what 
need is there of a judge ? No Christian denieth fundamentals, 
and heathens will not stand to the papal infallibility. A teacher, 
indeed, is necessary for the ignorant, but not a judge. It is the 
vilest doctrine that almost ever Rome did forge, that funda- 
mentals themselves are such to us, because they determine them; 
and that we cannot know them but on their authority: yea, the 
church (that is the pope) may by his determination make new 
fundamentals. If they were not impudent, this abomination 
would never have found so many patrons. They ask us, how 
we know fundamentals ; and which be they? I answer, Those 
things which God hath made the conditions of salvation. And 
what if we take in both them and more, that so we may be sure 
not to miss of them, so we go but to plain and weighty truths, 
what danger is that? 2. Seeing all Christians in the world do 
hold the fundamentals (else thev are not truly Christians), why 
are they not fit deciders or judges of them, as well as the pope ? 
3. And for lesser and darker points, by what means is the pope 

^ So far have the Romanists been from being faithful keepers of their pre- 
tended additional traditions, that by depraving: the monuments of anticjuity, and 
by adding a multitude of legends and forged writings, to advance their own ends, 
tliey have done the church of Christ more wrong' than ever they are able to 
repair ; as the late King truly told the Marquis of Worcester in his printed 
conference. But the vanity and forgery of llieir pretended monuments is 
fully manifested by our Dr. James, and Cook's ' Censura Patrum,' Erasmus, 
Uavenant, Blondellus, (on the by, in all his writings,) but most fully in 
liis ' Examen Decretalem ;' so our Dr. J. Reynolds^ on other parts ; and many 
more have opened their folly. 


and his council able to determine them, and to decide the con- 
troversy ? If by any rational means, what are they? and why 
may not as rational men decide it as truly ? 4. Will it not be 
as hard a question, who shall judge of the meaning of the 
pope's decretals or canons, where they are doubtful ? and so in 
mfinitum. I see not but the council of Trent speaks as darkly 
as the Scripture, and is as hard to be understood. 5. If God 
leave a point dark and doubtful, will it not remain so, Avhatso- 
ever confident men may determine ? G. If God have left a 
certain means, and infallible judge, for determining all controver- 
sies, and expounding scriptures, why then is it not done, but the 
church left still in such uncertainties and contentions ? As some 
anabaptists among us do boast of a power to work miracles, 
and yet we can get none of them to show their power in one ; 
just so doth the church of Rome boast of an infallibility in de- 
ciding of controversies, yet they will not infallibly decide them. 
If they should grow modest, and say, they do not determine 
what is certain in itself, but what we are to rest in ; I answer, 
so Christ thought them not all fit to be decided, and therefore 
hath left many in doubtfulness 5 and is it not as fit that we should 
rest in Christ's decision, and his judgment concerning points, fit 
to be cleared and decided, as in man's ? The palpable mistake 
of that one text, 2 Pet. i. 20, that no scripture is of private 
interpretation, hath misled many men in this point; for they 
think it speaks of the quality of the interpreter, as if private 
men must not interpret it ; when the text plainly speaks of the 
quality of the subject. The true paraphrase is evidently this, 
q. d. Besides the voice from heaven, giving testimony to Christ, 
we have also in the Old Scriptures a sure word of prophecy tes- 
tifying of him (for to him give all the prophets witness), where- 
unto ye do well to take heed, as to a light shining in a dark 
place, &c. But then you must understand this, that no pro- 
phecy of Christ in the Old Testament is of private interpreta- 
tion; that is, it is not to be interpreted as speaking only of those 
private persons who were but types of Christ, of whom indeed 
it literally and first speaks. For though it might seem as if 
the prophets spoke of themselves, or of the tvpe onlv, who was 
a private person, yet indeed it is Christ that the Spirit that 
spake by them intended : for the prophecy came not in old 
time by the will of man that spoke them, and therefore is not 
to be interpreted privately of themselves, or what they might 
seem to intend j but holy men spoke as they were moved by 


the Holy Ghost : and therefore his meaning must be looked to, 
and he intended Christ the antitype. For example, David said, 
"Yet will I set my King on my holy hill of Zion." (Psal. ii.) 
You must not interpret this of David only, a private person and 
Lut a type ; but of Christ the public person, and antitype. 

But I must spend no more words here on this kind of manner. 

Let me adventure on a few words to the ministers of the 
Gospel ; not of advice (for that was judged presumptuous in my 
last, though but to the younger) but of apology. Though the ac- 
ceptance of this treatise be far beyond what I expected; yet some 
have signified to me their dislike of some things in this second 
part, of which I think it my duty to tender them satisfaction. 

1. Some say it is a digression. Answ. And what hurt is 
that to any man ? I confess it was fitted at first to my own 
use (as all the rest was), and why may it not be useful to some- 
body else ? My business was not to open a text ; but to help 
Christians to enjoy the solid comforts which their religion doth 
afford ', the greatest hinderance whereof in my observation, is 
a weak or unsound belief of the truth of it. And, therefore, 
I still think that the very main work lieth in strengthening their 
belief. So that I am sure I digressed not from the way that 
led to my intended end. 

2. Othershave told me that I should not have mixed controversy 
with such practical matter. Answ. And some, as wise, tell me they 
l)ad rather all were omitted than this. For the truth must be known 
before the goodness will be desired or delighted in. It seems 
to me the ordinary cause of backsliding, when men either 
begin at the affections, or bestow most of their labour there, 
before they have laid a good foundation in the understanding. 
And they are scarce likely to be the longest winded Christians, 
nor to die for their religion, that scarceknow why they are Christians. 
Methinks it is preposterous for men to bestow ten or twenty 
years in studying the meaning of God's word, before they well 
know or can prove that it is God's word. As the Italians men- 
tioned by Melancthon, that disputed earnestly, that Christ was 
really in the bread, when they did not well believe that he was 
in heaven. If fundamentals be controverted, it concerns us to 
be well seen in such controversies. However, if this be unuse- 
ful to any man, if he will but let it aloncj it will do him no 

3. Some blame me for making so much use of the argument 
from miracles ; and, withal, they think it invalid, except it be 

PRliFACE. 217 

apparent truth which they are brought to confirm. Answ. 1. 
If it be first known to be truth, there need no miracles to prove 
it. 2. Do not all our divines use this argument from miracles? 
3. And I do not by using this, hinder any man from producing 
or using as many more as he can. 1 nowhere say, that this is 
the only argument. 4. If these men were as wise as they 
should be, they would take heed of shaking the christian cause, 
and striking at the very root of it, for the maintaining of their 
conceits. 5. If they take down the chief arguments which con- 
firm it, what do they less ? 6. Search the Scripture, and see, 
whether this were not the chief argument, 1. Which succeeded 
then for bringing men to believe ; 2. And which Christ himself 
laid the greatest weight on, and expected most from, Nathaniel 
believing upon Christ's telling him of his conference at a dis- 
tance. (John ii. 48, 49.) Upon his beginning of miracles at Cana, 
in Galilee, he manifested forth his glory, and his disciples believed 
on him. (John ii. 1 1.) The Jews, therefore, inquired for signs, 
as that which must confirm anv new revelation to be of God, 
(Johnii. 18, and vi.30; 1 Cor. i. 22.) And though Christ blame 
them for their unreasonable, unsatisfied expectations herein, and 
would not humour them in each particular, that they would 
saucily prescribe him ; yet still he continued to give them mi- 
racles, as great as they required. Though he would not come 
down from the cross to convince them (for then how should he 
have sufferred for sin ?) yet he would rise again from the dead, 
which was far greater. They that saw the miracle of the loaves, 
said, "This is of a truth the prophet that should come into the 
world," (John vi. 14.) "John," say they, "did no miracle; 
but all that John spake of this man was true : and many be- 
lieved on him there." (John x. 4 1 .) "Many believed when they 
sawthe miracles which he did." (Johnii. 23. See also Acts iv. 16; 
John vi. 2, vii. 31, xi. 47 ; Acts vi. 8, and viii. 6, 13; Gal. iii.5; 
Acts ii. 43; iv. 30, v. 12; vii. 36, xiv. 3; Heb. ii. 4.) And 
Christ himself saith, " If I had not done the works that no man 
else could do, ve had had no sin in not believing." (Johnxv.24.) 
And therefore he promiseth the Holy Ghost to his disciples, to 
enable them to do the like to convince the world. (Mark xvi. 17, 
18.) Yea, to do greater works than he has done. (John xiv 12.) 
And he upbraideth, and most terribly threateneth the unbelievers 
that had seen his mighty works. (Matt. xi. 20, 21, 23 ; Luke 
X. 13.) Yea, the blaspheming of the power by which he wrought 
them, and his disciples afterwards were to work them, and 
ascribing them to the devil, he niaketh the unpardonable sin. 

218* PREFACE. 

(Matt. xli. 31, 32) See also Matt. xi. 2 — 4, xiii. .54, and 
xiv. 2 ; Mark vi. 2, 14 ; John v. 19, 20, and vii. 3.) He tells 
them, "The works that I do, bear witness of me." (John v. 30, 
and 10, 25.) "Believe not me, believe the works that I do." 
(John x. 37, 3S.) "Believe me for the very works' sake." 
(John xiv. 11.) And how did the apostles preach to convince 
the world ; but partly by telling them of Christ's resurrection, 
the greatest of all his miracles, and his other works ; and 
partly, by doing miracles themselves? They tell them, he 
was approved of God by signs and wonders. (Acts ii. 22, and 
vii. 36.) They declared also what miracles and wonders were 
wrought by the apostles. (Acts xv. 12.) And Paul vindicated 
the credit of his own apostleship, and so the truth of his testi- 
mony, to the Corinthians thus : "Truly the signs of an apostle 
were wrought among you in all patience, in signs and wonders, 
and mighty deeds." (2 Cor. xii. 12.) The way of bringing men 
to believe in those days, is thus expressed, " How shall we escape, 
if we neglect so great salvation, which at the first began to be 
spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed to us by them that heard 
him?" (Heb.ii.3,4.) There is sense to the first receivers, and then 
tradition to the next. " God also bearing them witness both with 
signs and wonders, and divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy 
Ghost, according to his will."*^ And who dare question this wit- 
ness of God ? And fear fell on them all, and the name of Jesus 
was magnified, and men converted by the special miracles that 
Paul did. (Acts xix. 11, 12, 16 — 19.) 1 will say no more to 
the opposers of the sufficiency of this argument, but wish them 
to answer or learn of that blind man, (John ix. 10;) Can a 
man that is a sinner do such miracles ? VV^e know that God 
heareth not sinners. Or, hear Nicodemus, We know thou art 
a teacher come from God, for no man can do these miracles, 
except God be with him ; John iii. 2. Natural reason shows 
us, that God being the true and merciful Governor of the world, 
the course of nature cannot be altered, but by his special ap- 
pointment, and that he will never set the seal of his omnipo- 
tency to a lie ; nor suffer the last and greatest inducement of 
belief, to be used to draw men to falsehood : for then how de- 
plorate were the condition of mankind ! 

Object. But you will say. False prophets may arise and show 
signs. And antichrist shall come with lying wonders. Answ. 

« Observe this text well, and it will help you to answer the question, How 
know you the Scripture to be the word of God ? 


These are all lying wonders, indeed ; seeming to be miracles, 
when they are not. Object. But the great question is, how we 
shall know which are miracles indeed, when poor mortals may 
be so easily deceived by superior powers ? Answ. For the dif- 
ference between true miracles and false, Camero, Prideaux, and 
most divines that write of this argument, have handled it; to 
whom I refer you. I will only say this more, that we need not 
be curious in this inquiry. For if any doubt, whether miracles 
may not be wrought to delude, 1 would add these qualifications 
to that medium, and thus form the major proposition, that doc- 
trine, or those books, which were attested by apparent, frequent^ 
and uncontrolled miracles, must needs be of God. But such is 
this, &c.; a wonder wrought once or twice, may easier deceive, 
than that which is done one hundred times. A wonder in a 
corner may be blazed falsely to be a miracle; but Christ had so 
many thousand witnesses, as of the miracle and the loaves ; and 
five hundred at once that saw him after his resurrection, and the 
apostles appealed to whole churches, even when they had secret 
adversaries, who might easily have disproved them, if it had not 
been true ; and they spake with tongues before people of many 
nations ; and it was not one, nor one hundred, but the multi- 
tudes of Christians that had one gift or other of this sort, either 
miracles especially so called, or healing, or prophesying, or 
tongues, &:c. (See 1 Cor. xii. from ver. 1 to 12, and Mark xvi. 17.) 
But especially no uncontrolled miracles shall ever be used to 
deceive the world. Two ways doth God control even the seeming 
miracles of deceivers. 1. By doing greater in opposition to 
them, and so disgracing and confounding them, and the authors, 
and the cause. So God did by the magicians in Egypt ; by the 
exorcist, in Acts xix; and by SimonMagus^ as church history tells 
us. In this case, it is no disparagement to God's mercy or faith- 
fulness, to let men work false wonders ; for he doth but make 
them the occasion of his triumph, that the victory of truth may 
be more eminent, and men's faith more confirmed. 2. Also, by 
some clear and undoubted truth, either known to common rea- 
son, or by former scriptures, doth God often control deceiving- 
wonders. For if they are used to attest an undoubted falsehood, 
then the former established truth contradicting them, is sufficient 
controlment. So that, as God will never set his own proper seal of 
a true miracle to an untruth, so neither will he suffer a seeming 
miracle to go uncontrolled when it may endanger the faith and 


safety of mankind. Nor can it be shown that ever he did other- 
wise ; whereas, the miracles of Christ and his disciples were 
uncontrolled, frequent, numerous, apparent, prevalent, and 

Object. Then if miracles be wrought now, they will infer a 
new Scripture. 

Answ. No such matter ; they will prove the testimony to be 
divine, where it is certain that they are wrought to confirm any 
testimony ; but no more. God may work them without man, 
to stir up men's hearts, and rouse them to repentance,^ and not 
to confirm any new testimony ; or he may enable men to work 
them for attestation of formerly-revealed truth. 

Object. But wicked men may do miracles. 

Answ. But not when they please, nor for what they please, but 
as God pleases. Wicked men may be witnesses of the truth of 

I conclude with the argument. That which was the great 
argument used by Christ and his apostles to win the world to 
believe, should be the great argument now for every man to use 
to that end with himself and others ', but that was this from 
miracles ; therefore, &c. 

4. The same men that make this exception are offended, 
that I over-pass some other arguments, which are taken to be 
the chiefest; as scripture efficacv, and the witness of the Holy 
Ghost to the consciences of ))elievers. 

Answ. 1. Why should I be tied to do that which so many 
have done already ? 2. 1 never intended the full handling of 
the point, but two or three arguments to strengthen the weak. 
And may I not choose which I thought fittest, as long as I 
hinder no man to use what other he please ? 3. The efficacy 
is either on the understanding, or on the will and affections. If 
on the understanding, then it is the belief of scripture-truth 
which is thus effected : and so the argument should run thus : 
Whatsoever is so effectual as to persuade men of its truth or 
divinity, that is true or divine ; but the Scripture is such, &c. I 
need not speak of the major. ^ Or if the efficacy be on the will 
and affections, then it presupposeth, that it is first believed to be 
true. For nothing works on the will, but by means of the un- 
derstanding. But I neither dare, nor need to show the weak- 

' Vide Suarez ' de Fide,' disp. iv. sect. 10. 

s Lege R. Baronium Apol. tract, ix, puiict. 6. assert. 3. pp. 729, 730, ple- 


ness of such arguments ; the papists have done too much in it, 
as their writings generally will show you. See Vane, Cressy, 
Richworth's 'Dialogues,' Martin, Stapleton ; and most run 
that way. 

4. ''And for the testimony of the Spirit, it consisteth, 1. In 
its testimony by the miracles which it enabled the apostles to 
effect for the sealing of their doctrine. 2. And in the sanctify- 
ing illumination of our understandings to see that which is 
objectively revealed. So that this testimony is the efficient and 
not objective cause of our behef in this latter sense. If men 
should judge of the canon of Scripture by the immediate tes- 
timony of the Spirit, as if this were some exterior revealer of 
what is divinely inspired, we shoiild then have as great variety of 
canons almost as of persons. Men talk of this in mere disputes, 
but I know not the man that would undertake to determine of 
the canon by retiring into his heart, and consulting merely with 
the Spirit within him. 

5. Another great exception of the same men is, that I seek 
to satisfy reason so much of the Scripture's authority : and the 
reasons which they urge against my reasoning, are these two. 
It is too near the Socinian way. Answ. Socinians will believe 
nothing without reason or evidence from the nature of the thing 
revealed : that is, they believe nothing at all as certain : for if 
the thing be evident, it is, as such, the object of knowledge, and 
not of belief. I will believe any thing in the world which I know 
certainly that God speaks or revealeth ; though the thing in it- 
self seem ever so unreasonable. For I have reason to believe, 
or ratlier to know, that all is true which God revealed, how im- 
probable soever to flesh and blood. Is it not a shame that 
learned men should charge this very opiuiim in Chillingv/orth, 
Dr. Hammond, and others, as guilty of Socinianism? and there- 
by, 1. Make the papists brag, that we cannot confute them, but 
on Socinian principles ;' 2. And make young scholars, through 
prejudice, turn off from the true ways of defending scrijjture 

'' Vide Doctis. Rob. Baron Apodix. arl Jos. Turnebullum, p. fi26, 629 ; et 
tiact. ix. pp 2, 9(), et 733. Maximopere dauuiainus illos qui, &c. Vi(Je 
etiam Vegam. lib. ix. ; ' De Justificat.' c. 47 ; Greg. Valent. toin. iii. disj). 1. 
quaest. 1. punct. I. sect. 5 ; et Suarez. disp. iii. ' de Fide,' sect. 3; et cout. 
vide Stapletoii. ' Controv.' iv. quaest. 3, an. ii. resp. ad arg. 1 ; et in ' Defeus. 
Autliuiitat. Eccles.' lib. iii. cap. 12. sect. 11; Malder, in ii. 2, qutest. 1. 
art. 1 , sect. 8 ; ' Mel. Canit.' Ii!). ii. de loc. cap. 8. 

' Read Viilelim's * Ilatioiial'i Theolos;. against Veronius,' and throughoutj 
how far reason aud uatuial principles may be used in disputes of diviuity. 


authority; to the great wrong, (1.) Of their own souls. (2.) 
And of their people. (3.) And of the protestant. (4.) And 
christian cause. 3. And how could all the wits of the world do 
more to advance Socinianisni than these men do, by making 
men believe that only the Socinians have reason for their religion? 
which if it were true, as nothing less, vvlio would not turn to 
them ? 4. And what more can be done to the disgrace and 
ruin of Christianity, than to make the world lielieve that we have 
no reason for it ? nor are able to prove it true against an ad- 
versary ? What would these men do if they lived among Christ's 
enemies, and were challenged to defend their religion, or prove 
it true ? Would they say, as they say to me, ' I will believe and 
not dispute?' Christ's cause would then be little beholden to 
them. And how would they preach for the conversion of infidels, 
if they had not reason to give them, for what they persuade 
them to ? How will they try the spirits, and try all things, and 
hold fast that which is good, but by discourse ? But it seems, 
these men themselves have no more reason for their believing in 
Christ, than in Mahomet or antichrist. Tiiey are good Chris- 
tians and teachers that while ! 

But the great argument is this, They say, and great ones write 
so, that the divine authority of Scripture is, principiicm inclemon- 
strabile, a principle not to be proved, but believed ; for no 
science proves its principles. 

To which I answer, 1. Wlien our R. Baronius and others do 
afftrm it to he j^rincipium indemonstrabile, it is not as if it were 
not at all demonstrable, but that it is not demonstrabile per 
allam revelationem ; but they acknowledge that it contains in 
it those characters of the divine authority, which by reason or 
discourse may be discerned. 2. It is therefore improper to say 
it is credendum, a thing to be believed first, and directly, that 
these books are God's word, seeing it is, by consequence, con- 
fessed that it is a point to be known by the aforesaid evidence ; 
therefore, not first to be believed. 3. And, otherwise, they con- 
tradict themselves when they bestow whole volumes to prove that 
it is part of the formal object of faith, (which answers the cur 
credis ?) and yet to affirm it to be principium primo credendum, 
which makes it the material object of faith ; for in this sense it 
cannot be both, as I shall show. 4. How the divine authority 
of Scripture is the principium reliyionis ChristiancB, and how 
not, would hold a long debate of itself. Our R. Baronius him- 
self saith, that when we say all Christians should resolve their 


faith into the divine and canonical authority of Scripture, they 
do not mean that this is the only way of resolving faith, as If no 
other way were possible or available to salvation, but only that 
this way is the most convenient, profitable, and certain j yea, 
and is necessary, too, in those churches where the Scriptures are 
known, * Apolog. advers. Turnebul.' (Tract, i. cap. 2, Observ. i. 
pag. 46,) which words show how far Scripture is a principium. 
5. As theology, Christianity, and all religion, do presuppose 
reason, as all morality presupposeth naturality, so it is evident 
that some of the principles of religion, or of Christianity, must 
be first proved by reason ; and so we may compare it to those 
inferior sciences, whose principles must be proved by superior 
sciences, though not by the same science. Though Scripture, 
in point of excellency, should not be said to be inferior to reason, 
yet in point of order it mav, as still pre-requiring or pre-sup- 
posing reason -. as the form is after the matter, and the habit 
after the faculty. 6. Those characters of divine authority which 
divines mention, may, at least some of them, be demonstrated 
to others, as prophecies fulfilled, and all to ourselves ; therefore, 
the scripture authority is not an indemonstrable principle. 7. 
The very being of all belief lieth in this, that it be an assent to 
the truth of an enunciation on the credit of the testifier or re- 
vealer. Now, if we must first believe Scripture to be God's 
word, and not know it, then we must believe it on the credit of 
the revealer ; and then it is by some other revelation, or by itself. 
If by some other, then how know I that other revelation to be 
of God ? and so in infinitum ; but if [ believe it to be of God, 
because it revealeth itself to be so, as our divines say, then*this 
self-revelation is, 1. Either by way of proper testimony, or, 2. 
By objective evidence, to be discerned by reason. If the former, 
which must be said, or it cannot be the material object of faith ; 
then either I must believe every book that affirms itself to be 
divine, or else I must have some reason to believe this, so affirm- 
ing of itself, more than others; and these reasons will be things 
known and not believed. But if the latter, by objective evi- 
dence,'^ which is it that divines generally say, then why do they 

^ Vide Baron, tract. 9. per totum. Authoritateni Scripturae duplici mojo 
Deus apud nos contestatur. 1. \i\ eo quod eandem oiiiavit notauclis qualitati- 
bus et praerogativis supra omnia humana scripta. 2. In eo quod omnium suo- 
rum corda spiritu suo afi'icit ; ut ar^noscant veritatem suam iu scriptis illis 
micantem. — Rivtt. Cntholic. Orthodox-, in Tractat, prinio quasst. xii. p. 131. 
col. 2. 


not observe that this is to unsay what they have said, and to say 
plainly, that it is a thing to be known, and not strictly be- 
lieved, that this is God's revelation ? Things evident, are the 
objects of knowledge; things testified, are the objects of faith, 
as testified. 

8. Yet I confess, that when we first know this or that to be 
a divine testimony, we may, in a second place, believe it ; for 
it is revealed in Scripture, " Thus saith the Lord," &c. : and so 
the same thing may be, and is, the object of knowledge, and of 
belief; but it must, in the rational order, be known first, and 
not believed first ; for, else, as is said, I should believe every 
writing so affirming itself divine, or else believe the affirmation 
of this without evidence and reason. 9. And, indeed, what else 
can be the meaning of our divines, when they tell us that all 
faith is resolved into the credit or authority of the testifier and 
revealer ? as our Baronius, ' Apol. cont. Turnebul.' (Tract, iii. 
sect. 3, cap. iv. pag. I OS,) saith, faith dependeth upon two prin- 
ciples, which must necessarily be foreknown, that a thing may 
be believed on one's authority, as Suarez rightly observeth, 
(Disp. ii.) 'De Fide,' (sect 4, 5, and Disp. iii. sect. 12, sect. 1.) 
One is, that the party doth speak this ; the other is, that he is 
one worthy to be believed. Mark, he saith these two must be 
fore-known, and not fore-believed. Though I know what he and 
others say, to make it both the objectum formale et materiale in 
several respects ; but that can be but secondarily, as 1 said. As for 
their siniilitudefrom the sun, which reveals itself and other tilings; 
besides that objects of sense and reason much differ in this, and 
similitudes prove nothing ; in a sound sense, I grant the thing 
inferred by it : to wit, that Scripture revealeth particular truths 
to belief by way of divine testimony or affirmation ; but it re- 
vealeth itself to be God's testimony, first, to knowledge, by its 
own characters orexcellenciesjseconded by the external testimony 
of miracles ; and then, 2. By testification to belief. Learned 
Hooker, ' Eccles. Polit,' (lib. ii. and iii.) hath showed, that it is 
not first to be believed that Scripture is God's word, but to i)e 
proved by reason, which he affirmeth is not very difficult demon- 
stratively to do. I dare stay no longer on tliis, (referring the 
more exact discussion to some fitter place ;) only, if Scriptures 
cannot be proved to be God's word by reason, 1. Why do all 
our divines, in their common places, bring reasons to prove it ? 
2. How will they deal with pagans and enemies ? 01)ject. But 
they still tell you, the Spirit is only sufficient, when all reasons 


are brought. Ansvv. That is to remove the question ; or, when 
the question is of the objective sufficiency, they answer, of the 
efficient, rectifying and elevating the faculty. 2. Who knows 
not that a man may believe or know the Scripture to be God's 
word, without any more than a common help of the Spirit ? 
The devils and damned believe, or know it, and so doth many 
an ungodly man here ; but a saving knowledge or belief doth 
indeed require a special grace of the Spirit. 

In a word, if reason were of no more use here than some make 
it, as it were in vain to preach or write in this point for Christi- 
anity, so it would follow, that he that is drunk or mad, or an 
infant, if not a brute, were the fittest to make a Christian, which 
is so vile an imagination, that I dare say he that hath the best 
and rightest reason, and by consideration makes the most use of 
it, is the best Christian, and doth God best service ; and that all 
sin is on the contrary, for want of right reason, and the using of 
it by consideration. But methinks I should not need to plead 
for reason, till beasts can speak and plead against me ! but, yet, 
I must tell you, if you heard the accusation, you would excuse 
my apology. 

If none but the ignorant be an enemy to knowledge, sure none 
but the unreasonable is an enemy to reason. 

6. But the greatest offence of all is, that I lay so much upon 
human testimony and tradition, which some think uncertain : 
some think that it would make our faith too human, and some 
think it is too like the papist's arguings. 

To all which I answer, 1. See whether the best of our divines 
do not the like. I will name some of the choicest that ever the 
reformed church enjoyed. Rob. Baronius saith, ' Apol. con. 
Turnebul.' (Tract, ii. punct. 2, p. 680:) The testification of the 
present church is a condition necessarily requisite for our be- 
lieving the Scripture authority, because faith comes by hearing. 
2. From the consent of all the present church, or all Christians 
now living, the chiefest argument may be drawn to prove the 
authority of any canonical book. 3. From the perpetual and 
universal tradition and practice of the whole church from the 
apostles' time to ours, we may have a human persuasion, and 
that certain and infallible, of the divine and canonical authority 
of those books which were still undoubted, or which some call 
the protocanonical. Doctor Whitaker saith it belongs to the 
church: 1. To be a witness and keeper of the Scriptures ; 2. 
To judge and discern between Scriptures which are true and 


genuine, and which are false, suppositious, and apocryphal ; 3. 
To divulge them; 4. To expound them. * De Sac. Script.;' 
(quaest. iii. cont. 1, c. ii. p. 203, 204 ;) and in his *Duplicat. 
Advers. Stapleton,' more fully, (p. 47.) Which of us knows 
not the necessity of the ministers of the church ; and that it is 
safely and wisely appointed of God ? so that to contemn the 
ministry and testimony of the church, is nothing else but to err 
from the faith, and rush into most certain destruction. See 
more, (p. 15, 58, 59, &c., 364, 60, 62, 69, 77, 78, 438, 119, 
328.) Davenant alloweth of historical tradition, * De Judice 
Controv.' (p. 1 1, sect. 3, 24, 27, 30, 31, 32.) The like might 
be showed out of Camer., Cham., Ames., and divers ^ others, but 
that I must not enlarge. 

2. I would have the contrary-minded tell me how they know, 

* without human testimony or tradition, that these are the same 
books which the prophets and apostles wrote ; and wholly the 

* same : that they are not depraved and wilfully corrupted : 
that these are all : how know you that one of the Books of 
Esther is canonical and the other apocryphal ? Where is the 
man that ever knew the canon from the apocryphal before it was 
told him, and without tradition ? I confess, for my own part, 
I could never boast of any such testimony, or light of the Spirit, 
nor reason neither, which without human testimony or tradition 
would have made me believe] that the Book of Canticles is 
canonical, and written by Solomon, and the Book of Wisdom 
apocryphal, and written by Philo, as some think ; or that Paul's 
Epistle to the Laodiceans, which you may see in Bruno in 
^ Epist.,' Sixtus Senensis, and others, is apocryphal, and the 
second and third Epistles of John canonical. Nor could I have 
known all or any historical books, such as Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 
Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, &c. to be written 
by divine inspiration, but by tradition ; nor could 1 know all or 
any of those books to be God's word, which contain mere posi- 
tive constitutions, as Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, &c., were it 
not for the same tradition ; nor could I know that anv of those 
books were written by divine inspiration, which contain, besides 

' Cheniiiitius examen Coiicil. Trident, par. i. p. (mihi) 109 — 111, &c,, is 
so full, that, ill his eight sorts of tradition, he not only saith much more than 
J liere do, but in some of them satisfieth Andradius himself. Vide Andrad. 
Defens. Concil. Trident. lib. ii. p. (mihi) 217, usque ad 230. Nemo ex scrip- 
toribus ecclesiasticis qui continuata temporum successione ab apostolis hue 
usque vixerunt usquam in scriplis suisin memoriam redigere eos dignatus est. 
— Euseb. Hut, Eicles. lib. iii. cap. 19. loquens de libris Apocrjph. 


such history and positives, nothing but the truths which are known 
by the hght of nature, without further supernatural revelation, 
if it had not been for tradition ; nor could I have known those 
books to be written by divine inspiration, which speak of mere 
supernatural things, (either historical, as Christ's incarnation, 
resurrection, &c., or doctrinal,) had not tradition or human testi- 
mony assured me that these are the books which those holy 
men wrote, and that such undoubted, uncontrolled miracles 
were wrought for the confirmation of their doctrine. Further, 
I would know. How doth an illiterate man know but by human 
testimony: 1. Whether it be indeed a Bible that the minister 
reads ? 2. Or when he reads true, and when false ; and whe- 
ther any of those words be in the Bible which men say are in it ? 

3. Or that it is truly translated out of the Hebrew and Greek ? 

4. Or that it was originally written in those languages? 5. 
Or that copies were authentic out of which they were translated ? 
6. Or how will they know many Jewish customs, or points in 
chronology, geography. Sec, without which some scripture can 
never be understood ? 7. Or how do the most learned critics know 
the true signification of any one word of the Hebrew or Greek in 
Scripture, or any other book, yea, Latin or English, or any 
language, but only by tradition and human faith ? 

Yea, there is ijo doubt but in some cases tradition may save 
without any Scripture ; for, 1. Men were saved, from Adam to 
Moses, without Scripture that we know of: and, as Dr. Usher 
well observeth, one reason why they might be without it, was 
the facility and certainty of knowing by tradition ; for Methu- 
selah lived many hundred years with Adam, and Shem lived 
longer with Methuselah, and Isaac lived fifty years with Shem; 
so that three men saw from the beginning of the world till Isaac's 
fiftieth year."" 2. And thousands were converted and saved by 
the doctrine of the apostles and primitive preachers, before it 
was committed to writing : so many Jews in the captivity had 
not the Scripture. 3. And if any among the Abassines, Arme- 
nians, or ignorant papists, do believe in Christ upon mere tra- 
dition, (no doubt they may,) who can question their salvation ? 
for Christ saith, that " whosoever believeth in him shall not 
perish," which way soever he was brought to believe. Will you 
hear Irenaeus in thivS, who lived before popery was born ? " Quid 
enim et si quibus de aliqua modica quaestione disceptatio esset ? 

■» Vide Euseb, Nireinberg. de Orig. Scni)turaBj praecipue, lib. 1 — 3. 



Nonne oporteret in antiquissimas recurrere ecclesias ?" (Marl<, 
he saith not * ad ecclesiam Romanam, vel ad unum principem.') 
*' Jn quibus apostoli conversati sunt, et ab eis de praesenti quaes- 
tione sumere quod certum et re liquidum est? Quid autem 
si neque apostoli quidem scripturas reliquissent nobis ; nonne 
oportebat oidinem sequi traditionis, quam tradiderunt iis quibus 
committebant ecclesias ? Cui ordinationi assentiunt multae 
gentes barbarorum eorum qui in Christum credunt, sine charac- 
tere vel atramento scriptam habentes per Spiritum in cordibus 
suis salutem, et veterem traditionem diligenter custodientes, &:c. 
Hanc fidem qui sine literis crediderunt, quantum ad sermonem 
nostrum barbari sunt ; quantum autem ad sententiam et consue- 
tudinem et conversationem, propter fidem per quam sapientissimi 
sunt, et placent Deo, &c. Sic per illam veterem apostolorum tra- 
ditionem, ne in conceptionem quidem mentis admittunt quodcun- 
que (haereticorum) portentiloquium est."('Adv.Haeres.' lib.3.c.4.) 
As for those that think it favours the papists to argue thus 
for tradition, they are quite mistaken, as 1 have showed after- 
wards. The papists build on the authority of the church's de- 
cisive judgment; but I use only the church's testimony. The 
papists, by the church, mean, 1. The present church; 2. Only 
their own Romish church ; 3. And in that only the pope, or 
council, as infallible judge. But I mean, 1. The universal 
church through the world ; 2. Especially the ancient church 
next to the apostles; 3. And therein the godly writers and 
Christians generally. The papists ground all on the church only, 
and think that we must first know the true church, who is the 
judge, before we can know the Scripture. But I value, in some 
cases more, the testimony of heathens, Jews, and all heretics," 
an enemy's testimony being most valid against himself: and I 
use not their testimony only, as they are of the church, or as 
Christians, but also as men endued with sense and reason, and 
the common remnants of moral honesty. In one word, the 
papists receive the Scriptures on the authoritative, infallible 
judgment of their own church, that is, the pope : and I receive 
it as God's perfect law, delivered down from hand to hand to 
this present age, and know it to be the same book which was 
wrote by the prophets and apostles, by an infallible testimony of 

" Origen against Celsus gives you many. Vide lib. 8. et Aug. ' de Civit. Dei,' 
lib. 12, : et testimonium Porphyrii 'in (^yril.' lib. 10: 'contra Julian.' et 
Hieronym. ' adver. lib. Vigilant.' Plura vide in '.^nnot. Grot, ia lib. de Verit. 
Religionis' praecipue, in lib. 3. 


' rational men, friends, and foes, in all ages. And for them that 
think tiiat this lays all our faith on uncertainties, I answer, 1. 
Let them give us more certain grounds. 2. We have an 
undoubted, infallible certainty of the truth of this tradition, as 
I have after showed. He is mad that doubts of the certainty of 
William the Conqueror's reigning in England, because he hath 
but human testimony. We are certain that the statutes of this 
land were made by the same parliaments and kings that are 
mentioned to be the authors ; and that those statutes which we 
have now in our books are the same which they made j for there 
were many copies dispersed. Men's lands and estates were still 
held by them. There were multitudes of lawyers and judges, 
whose calling lay in the continual use of them ; and no one 
lawyer could corrupt them, but his antagonist would soon tell 
him of it, and a thousand would find it out. So that I do not 
think any man doubteth of the certainty of these acts being the 
same they pretend to be. And in our case about the Scripture, 
we have much more certainty, as 1 have showed. These copies 
were dispersed all over the world, so that a combination to cor- 
rupt them in secret was impossible. Men judged their hopes 
of salvation to lie in them, and therefore would sure be careful 
to keep them from corruption, and to see that no other hand 
should do it. There were thousands of ministers, whose office 
and daily work it was to preach those Scriptures to the world, 
and therefore they must needs look to the preserving of them ; 
and God was pleased to suffer such abundance of heretics to 
arise, perhaps of purpose for this end, among others, that no 
one could corrupt the Scriptures, but all his adversaries would 
soon have catched him in it : for all parties, of each opinion, 
still pleaded the same Scriptures against all the rest, even as 
lawyers plead the law of the land at the bar against their ad- 
versaries. So that it is impossible that in any main matter it 
should be depraved. What it may be in a letter or a word, by 
the negligence of transcribers, is of no great moment. 

Indeed, the popish doctrine of traditions, such as you may 
find in * Richworth's Dialogues,' leads directly to heathenism, 
and builds all our Christianity on such certain uncertainties, 
yea, palpable untruths, that it is a wonder that they who be- 
lieve them renounce not their Christianity. 

But the great objection is, that by arguing thus, our faith is 
finally resolved into human testimony, and so is but a human 

530 I'REFACE. 

Answ. If I said that those that make this objection, show 
that they know not what faith is, nor what the resolving of it is 
which they mention, I should not wrong them ; but because I 
would give them a satisfactory account of my belief in this great 
point, I will more particularly answer the several questions 
which use to be here raised. 

Quest. Why do you believe the incarnation, death, and resur- 
rection of Christ, with all the rest of the articles or doctrines of 
your faith ? 

Answ. Because they are the word of God, or God hath testi- 
fied or reported them, or hath revealed them to the world as 
true; so that I have no higher or further reason to believe 
them to be true, but only this, God hath spoken them. 

Quest. How know you that God hath revealed or testified 
these things ? 

Answ. There are many questions comprehended in this one, 
or else it is very ambiguous. In regard of the object, it is one 
thing to ask how I know it to be revealed ; and another, how I 
know it is God that revealed it ? In regard of the act, the 
words " How know you ?" are doubtful. You may either 
mean, in your inquiry, by what principal, efficient cause, or by 
what nearest efficient, or by what means or convincing argu- 
ments, or by what naturally requisite means, or by what instru- 
ment ? all these must not be confounded. 

Quest. How know you (that is, by what moving reasons) that 
these things are revealed ? 

Answ. I need not arguments ; my senses of seeing and hear- 
ing tell me. 

Quest. Bnt how did the prophets and apostles know that 
they were revealed to them ? 

Answ. Some by internal sense, who had it by inspiration, 
and some by external sense, who heard it from God, or Christ, 
or angels, or read the tablet which he wrote. 

Quest. How did the other believers in those times know that 
these things were revealed to the prophets or apostles ? 

Answ, By their own testimony. 

Quest. How knew they that their testimony was true ? 

Answ. I have answered this at large in the fourth chapter, 
and third section. If it had not been revealed to them, they 
could not have revealed it to others. 

Quest. But how do we in these times know that these things 
were revealed to the apostles ? 


Answ. Some few parts of the world knew it only by un- 
written tradition ; but most of the churches know it by the 
Scripture which those holy men wrote, containing those doc- 

Quest. But how know you that these Scriptures were written 
by them ? 

Answ. By infallible tradition." 

Quest. But how know you that they be not, in the substance, 
corrupted since ? 

Answ. By the same infallible tradition assuring my reason of 
of it, even as I know that the statutes of the land were made by 
those kings in parliaments whose names they bear ; and as I 
know that the works of Aristotle, Cicero, Virgil, Ovid, &:c., were 
made by them, and are not, in the substance, corrupted ; yea, 
far greater certainty doth tradition afford us. 

Quest. But though you are thus assured of the revelation, 
yet how know you it is divine, or that it was God, indeed, that 
did reveal it ? 

Answ. You must know, as presupposed, that themselves 
affirm that God revealeth this to them, both by their speech to 
those that heard tliem preach, and by this Scripture which 
affirms itself to be of divine inspiration. 

Quest. But how did they know themselves that they were not 
mistaken ? 

Answ. 1 . Those whom God inspired, or to whom he spake, 
knew certainly, by an inexpressible sense, that it was God him- 
self, and no delusion. God never speaks so extraordinarily, but 
by the same act he both makes known the thing revealed, and 
himself to be the speaker. 2. Besides, they were fully certain 
it was no delusion, by the frequent, uncontrolled miracles which 
Christ did, and which he enabled them to do themselves. See 
more, chap. iv. sect. 3., where this is more fully answered. 

Quest. But how shall we know that they delude us not, and 
that the Scripture saith true in affirming itself to be of divine 
inspiration ; for we must not believe every person or book that 
so affirmeth ? 

Answ. I have answered this in the before-cited chapter and 

To which I add : 1 . There are such characters p of verity and 

° See Chemnit. Exam. Concil. Trident, part i. p. (mihi) 113, out of Origen, 
Eusebius, and Austin, showing the use of this sort of tradition, 
p Vide Greg, de Valent. Analys. Fid. lib. 1. c, 25. 


majesty in the Scriptures themselves, that may very strongly per- 
suade us of the verity of them, at least as heing exceeding pro- 
bable. Especially the exceeding spirituality and purity of them, 
and the high, strange design of God manifested about the way 
of advancing his glory and saving mankind ; which design, in 
all the parts of its excellency concatenated, was not laid open 
by one person only, nor in one only age ; but was in doing 
many hundred years, and opened by many several persons at 
that distance, so that it is impossible that they should lay their 
heads together to contrive it. Also,! the fulfilled prophecies 
show its verity. And if any one part have not these characters 
so evident on it, yet it is certain, because it is attested by the 
rest, or some of them, that have them. 2. But that which 
fully persuades me, being thus prepared by the quality of the 
writings, is the many apparent uncontrolled miracles^ which the 
apostles themselves did work, who wrote those books. God 
would not have enabled them to confirm a false, deluding testi- 
mony, and that of such a moment, by miracles, and such mira- 
cles. 3. And when I have once thus believed, I am much con- 
firmed, both by the experience I have of the power and sweet 
relish of the doctrine of the Scriptures on my own soul, and 
the efficacy of it on the souls of others ; and also in that I find 
all the rational causes of doubting of the truth of Scripture to 
be removed. 

Quest. But when you make miracles your great argument, 
how know you that those miracles were indeed wrought ? 

Answ. By infallible tradition, partly by the instrumentality of 
Scripture, and partly by other writings, and universal confes- 
sion : as I know that Julius Caesar conquered Pompey, and 
William the Norman won England. 

Quest. But did you at first believe the Scripture on these 
grounds ? Or can it be expected that unlearned people should 
understand the certainty of this tradition ? 

Answ. 1. I first believed that the Scripture was God's word, 
merely upon the common, uncontradicted affirmation of my 
teachers ; and so do most others that I meet with : and so pro- 
ceed to see the more certain arguments afterwards. 2. Yet if 
they were wisely and diligently taught them, the unlearned are 
capable of knowing the infallible certainty of that tradition; yea, 
and the certainty of the truth of the translation in the substance; 

1 Phlegon in lib. 13. of his Annals, confesseth the miracles done by Peter, 
as Origen saitU* lib. 2, contra Celsum. 


and that you do read truly the Scripture to them, &c. For 
there is a human testimony which is certain ; and so a human 
faith ; yea, more certain than my own sense. Sense hath ahvays 
greater evidence than beHef ; but not so great certainty some- 
times. I will rather believe ten thousand sober, impartial wit- 
nesses, that say, they see or hear such a thing, having no con- 
siderable contradiction, than I would believe mine own eyes or 
ears for the contrary. 

Quest. But is that faith divine and saving, when men take 
the Scripture for God's word merely on report, or other weak 
arguments ? 

Answ. It is a faith that lies open to great danger by tempta- 
tion, when the weakness of the grounds shall appear ; and will 
have much weakness in the mean time : but yet it may be divine 
and saving. For still this man's faith is resolved into God's 
veracity or authority. Though on weak grounds he take the 
Scripture to be revealed by God, yet he believes it to be true 
only because God spoke or revealed it. So that the error not 
lying in the formal or material object of faith, but only in the 
arguments persuading that it is from God, this destroys not the 
soundness and truth of the belief. 

Object. But how know we that the miracles were wrought to 
confirm the truth of these books ? 

Answ. They were wrought to confirm the testimony of the 
men, whether delivered by word or writing. And this by writing 
is that part of their testimony which the church now enjoyeth. 

Object. But all that wrote the Scripture did not work miracles. 

Answ. Their testimony is confirmed by those that did. 

Quest. Into what, then, do you ultimately resolve your faith ? 

Answ. If you imderstand the phrase of "resolving faith'* 
strictly and properly, so it is resolved only into the credit or 
veracity of the speaker, as being the cause of the verity of 
he proposition which I believe, even the principal, efficient 
cause ; the knowledge of whose infallible verity doth, above all, 
and only in that kind, cause me to believe the things revealed 
to be true. 

But if you take the phrase of " resolving faith" in the largest 
sense, as it containeth not only its resolution into its formal 
object, but into all its causes in their several kinds, so it is re- 
solved thus : 1 . As I have said, I resolve my faith into the 
prime truth, that is, into God's infallible veracity, as the only 


formal object, or full, proper, efficient of the verity of proposi- 
tions believed, and the principal reason of my belief. 2. I re- 
solve my belief into God's revelation or testimony, as the prin- 
dpium patefactionis, or the naturally necessary means of appli- 
cation of the former, which is the principium certitudinis (it is 
Rob. Baronius's own distinction. ('Apodix. Tract.' iii. c. 6. 
p. 123.) Yet I am forced to dissent from Baronius, in that he 
makes this revelation to be part of the formal object, though 
the veracity of God revealing, and not the truth of God with- 
out revelation, be the formal object of belief. Yet I con- 
ceive the said revelation to be no part of the formal object, 
but a natural means of the production of the material objeci 
by the formal object which is its efficient; and that not directly 
of the immediate material object, but of the remote only : for 
the immediate material object is the truth of propositions, and 
the remote is the proposition which is true. Now, the revela- 
tion is directly a production of the proposition, as such; but 
not of the verity of it directly. We, therefore, believe it to be 
true, because the true God spoke it ; though, in a second place, 
the patefaction may be said to produce the verity of the thing. 
S. I resolve my belief into the characters of divinity which are 
found in Scripture, and into the uncontrolled miracles by which 
it was attested, as the principal motive conjunct, by which I 
am persuaded that it was God, and no other, that was the au- 
thor or revealer. 4. I resolve my belief into human testimony, 
or infallible tradition, rationally, not authoritatively infallible, as 
the means of discovering to me the matters of fact, viz., that 
the apostles did write : that this delivered to me is the writing; 
that it is all; that such miracles were wrought; that the Scrip- 
tures are not depraved in any material points, or out of design; 
which books are canonical, and which not. Had I been the 
person to whom God from heaven, or Christ on earth, did reveal 
these truths immediately, then this resolution of my faith should 
be into my senses (made use of rationally); I should have known, 
by external sense, what Christ spoke, and what not ; what mi- 
racles he did ; and, by internal sense, that it was God, and no 
other, that inspired me ; and, by both, that it was Christ, and 
no other, that spake and wrought miracles. But seeing I live 
at so great a distance, and God revealed not these things to 
me immediately, but to the apostles, and they to others, and 
they to others, and so down to this day : therefore tradition 


must do that for me which sense did to the first receivers ; as 
I say what sense did for them, that human testimony doth for 
us, or must carry it between their senses and our senses, and so 
to our reason. 5. I resolve my belief into all truths revealed in 
Scripture, as into the material object, if it were not too im- 
proper to call that a resolving of it into that which answers the 
quid credis, and not cur credis, or the cui ? 6. 1 resolve it 
into the books or writings, as the authentic instrument reveal- 
ing God's mind : not into the words, as in this or that language, 
or as considered in themselves, but as considered in relation to 
the truths which they express, viz. as they are signifiers of all 
those enunciations which they contain. 7. I resolve my belief 
into reason or understanding, as the nearest vital, efficient cause. 
8. I resolve it into the Holy Ghost's illumination or grace, as 
into the remote efficient, enabling and causing me to believe 
sincerely and savingly, but not into any internal testimony of 
the Spirit, as the object of my faith. 

I know our Baronius opposeth Spalatensis for one of the 
points which I here assert, ' Apol. Tract.' ix. punct. 4, 5, p. 71 1 
— 714, &c. Were it not that I have been too tedious already, 
I would answer those arguments of Baronius, which is very easy 
to do; but to the unprejudiced and considerate I think it will 
seem needless, or, at least, is fitter for another discourse. 

And thus having catechised myself to give men an account 
of my belief, and help those that are weaker herein, I shall con- 
clude all with two or three words of advice to the reader. 

1. Beware that you exclude not, in your arguing, any cause 
or necessary medium of your faith, by quarrelling too eagerly 
with other men's grounds : many men run upon this dangerous 
rock. Lest they should give too much to reason, or to tradition, 
or the church, or miracles, some further exclude them than will 
stand with the rationality, and safety, and honour of Christianity. 
Set not those things in opposition which may and must consist 
in co-ordination, or subordination to others. 

The removal of one necessary cause may destroy the effect ; 
or of one pillar, may pull down the house ; or of one of the ne- 
cessary parts, may kill the man; though all the rest be let 
alone, or more regarded than before. It is no whit derogatory 
to the law of the land, to say, I must read it with my eyes, and 
by the help of spectacles, and must receive it with my hands or 
ears, from a herald or other proclaimer, &c. 


2. Take heed of denying the perfection of Scripture in deed, 
while you maintain it in words. Two sorts I would warn 
of this. 

1. Those that plead for traditional doctrines.' To these I 
have spoken elsewhere : ' Appendix to Treatise of Baptism.' 

2. Those that are so eager as to tie all men to their exposi- 
tions of Scripture, and censure all for heretical that differ from 
them therein. When we have disputed and contended ourselves 
a-weary, and wrangled the church into flames and ashes, yet 
that which God hath spoken obscurely, and so left difficult in 
itself, will remain obscure and difficult still ; ^ and that which is 
difficult through the weakness and incapacity of unlearned men, 
will be far better cleared by a rational explication than by a bare 

' Unde ista traditio ? utrumne de dominica et evangelica authoritate de- 
scendens ? An de apostolorum mandatis atque epistolis veniens ? Ea enim 
facienda esse quae scripta sunt Deus testatur ad Joshuam ; uon recedat liber 
legis ex ore tuo, &c. Si ergo aut evangelio prsBcipitur, aut in apostolorum 
epistolis aut actibus coutinetur, observetur divina haec et sancta traditio. 
QujE ista obstiuatio, quaeve praesumptio, humanam traditionem divinae dispo- 
sitioni anteponere? nee animadvertere indignari et irasci Deum, quoties 
divina praecepta solvit et praeterit humana traditio ? Mark vii. 8 ; 1 Tim. vi. 
3. Consuetudo sine veritate, Vetustas erroris est; propter quod relicto errore 
sequamur veritatem. — Cyprian. Epist. 74. ad Pomp. pp. 229, 230. The 

same place of Cyprian is vindicated by Dr. Whitaker ' De Sac. Scrip.' cont. 1. 
Q. 6. de ' Perfect. Scrip.' mentioned also by Goulartius on Cyprian, ibid. 

* Doctissimi Nazianzeni consilium ab omnibus Christianis audiendum, 
"Divina contemplare, verum in terminis maneto; loquere quae suntSpiritus; 
et si possibile est, nihil aliud. Ne patris naturam nimis curiose rimator, 
unigeniti essentiam, Spiritus gloriam, unam in tribus deitatem ; utere verbis 
consuetis. Ratio pertineat ad sapientiores. Sufficiat tibi ut habeas funda- 
mentum ; super aedificeut artifices." Utinam soli artifices super aedificarent ! 
Utinam superstrucliones suas multas et poene infinitas cum paucis et planis 
fundamentalibus pari afFectu et honore suscipiendas non commiscerent ! Si 
hoc conentur, decet tamen pios et prudentes Christianos discernere, inter 
prima ilia pauca ciedibilia a Christo et apostolis immediate revelata, et innu- 
meras illas deductiones theologorum pro cuj usque ingenio et opinione cum 
fundamentalibus in eundem locum contrusas. — Davenant. Adhort, ad Pacem 
Eccks.pp. fi7, 88. It was sound counsel that Pomeranus gives the minis- 
ters of God's word, (ne tot articulis, &c.,) that they should not, with so 
many articles, and creeds, and confessions, confound the minds of plain 
Christians, but that they should draw up the sum of their belief into some 
few heads. Nothing hinders but that professors and licentiates in divinity 
may busy their thoughts, and spend their hours upon the knotty and ab- 
struse questions of that sacred faculty ; but why should the heads of ordinary 
Christians be troubled with those curious disquisitions ? — Dr. Hall's • Peace- 
maker,' sect. 16. pp. 118, 119. I pray read the rest of that small treatise, 
and his ' Pax Terris,' a smaller, but both worthy of all our serious studying. 
Read Usher's excellent Sermon on Ephes. iv. 13. before King James, June 
20, 1624, throughout. 


canon. O when will the Lord once persuade his churches to 
take his written word for the only canon of their faith ; and that 
in its own naked simplicity and evidence, without the determi- 
nations and canons of men, which are no parts of our creed, hut 
helps to our understandings, and bounds to our practice in mat- 
ters circumstantial, which God hath left to man's determination ! 
When will the Lord persuade us not to be wise above what is 
written j but to acknowledge that which is unrevealed in the 
word, to be beyond us ; and that which is more darkly revealed, 
to be more doubtful to us ! Then the hot contentions of the 
church about the mysteries of God's decrees, and nature and 
order of his immanent acts ; the nature and way of the workings 
of the Spirit on the soul, &c. ; with a hundred quarrels about 
mere names and words, will be more lovingly and brotherly de- 
bated, without such alienation of affections and reproachful 

Two things have set the church on fire, and been the plagues 
of it above one thousand years; 1. Enlarging our creed, and 
making more fundamentals than ever God ' made. 

2. Composing, and so imposing, our creeds and confessions 
in our own words and phrases. 

When men have learned more manners and humility than to 
accuse God's language as too general and obscure, as if they 
could mend it, and have more dread of God, and compassion on 
themselves, than to make those to be fundamentals or certain- 
ties which God never made so ; and when they reduce their con- 
fessions, L To their due extent, and, 2. To scripture phrase, 
that dissenters may not scruple subscribing, then, and, 1 think, 
never till then, shall the church have peace about doctrinals." 

* Ausim confirmare, majorum tam veterum haeresium, quam praesentium, 
dissidiorurn partem, iu ecclesia hinc praecipue natam fuisse et esse, quod con- 
cilia, episcopi, doctores ecclesise, nullo discrimine, quaevis scliolaruin dogf- 
mata, et cathedrarum placita pro articulis fidei catholicae vindicarunt, parique 
ad salutem necessitate credenda conscientiis imposuerunt : ex quavis vero 
interpretationis Scripturaium discrepantia, nimis facile haereses vel schismata 
fecerunt. — Parceus in Iren. p. (uiihi) 19. Vide et pp. 14 et 15. All peace- 
making divines still harp upon this string-, and yet some call it Socinian. If 
any man would see more of the evil of making- points necessary which God 
made not so, you may throughout Conrad. Bergius's ' Prax. Cathol.' see 
enough ; and the words of very many divines, Lutherans and Calvinists, to 
that end. 

" Chillingworth, page last of the Preface. Shall men be judged Socinians 
for advancing the Scriptures as the only rule ? I pray read well what that ex- 
cellent divine Dr. Stoughtou hath written expressly and earnestly for what I 


It seems to me no heinous Socinian motion which Chillingworth 
is blamed for, viz. Let all men believe the Scripture, and that 
only, and endeavour to believe it in the true sense, and promise 
this, and require no more of others ; and they shall find this not 
only a better, but the only means to suppress heresy, and restore 
unity, &c. 

If you say men may subscribe to Scripture, and yet misinter-' 
pret it, I answer, so they may do by human canons. If you 
say, they may preach against fundamentals, or evident truths, 
while yet they subscribe the Scripture misunderstood, I answer, 
1. All such weighty truths are delivered expressly, or very 
plainly. 2. I hope God will once not only bring into use 
ministerial power, but also teach magistrates to rule for 
Christ to the restraining of such as shall so palpably offend, as 
openly to contradict what they subscribe. 

But that was the third and last word of advice I here intend- 
ed : viz. That seeing the Scripture is the sacred, perfect law of 
the most high God, that man would use it reverently, and that 
magistrates would restrain men that would bring God's Word 
into contempt, under pretence of preaching it ; ^ that every 
ignorant fellow, whose tongue has caught a lax, may not run 
into the pulpit to ease himself; nor any one have leave to dis- 
gorge himself in the holy assemblies, that hath got a surfeit of 
pride and self-conceit. Oh ! if you knew the weakness of poor 
people, and how apt they are to be deceived, you would not 
give deceivers liberty to do their worst ! You that will not 
give men leave to persuade your wives to adultery, your children 
to lewdness, your soldiers or subjects to rebellion or treachery, 
should surely be as regardful of men's souls, and the honour of 
Christ. And you that will not give every fool leave to go in 
your names on an embassage, who would but disgrace you, 
should not let men speak publicly, as in the name of Christ, 
that cannot speak sense, to the shame of our profession ; nor 
should men turn preachers, as the river Nilus breeds frogs, saith 

now urge, in his form of wholesome words, about forming church confes- 

* Ordiuationes eorum temerariae, leves, inconstantes : nunc neophytos col- 
locant, nunc seculo obstrictos nunc apostatas uostros, ut gloria eos obligent, 
quia veritate non possunt. Nusquam facilius proficitur quam in castris 
rebellium, ubi ipsum esse iilic, proniereri est; itaque alius hodie episcopus, 
eras alius ; hodie diaconus, qui eras lector; hodie presbyter, qui eras laicus ; 
nam et laicis sacerdotalia inuuera inj ungual. — Tt^rtul, de Prascript, advers. 
Hares, c. 4 1 . 


Herodotus, when one half moveth before the other is made, and 
while it is yet but plain mud. 

But I must make this preface no longer. I pray observe 
that in the margin, and see whether our times be not like Ter- 

Reader, as thou lovest thy comforts, thy faith, thy hope, thy 
safety, thy innocency, thy soul, thy Christ, thine everlasting 
rest ; love, reverence, read, study, obey, and stick close to the 
Scripture. Farewell. 

4pril 2, 1652. 





Sect. 1. We are next to proceed to the confirmation of this 
truth, which, though it may seem needless in regard of its own 
clearness and certainty, yet in regard of our distance and infi- 
delity nothing more necessary : but, you will say, to whom will 
this endeavour be useful ? They who believe the Scriptures are 
convinced already ; and for those who believe it not, how will 
you convince them ? Answ. But sad experience tells, that those 
that believe, do believe but in part, and, therefore, have need of 
further confirmation; and, doubtless, God hath left us argu- 
ments sufficient to convince unbelievers themselves, or else how 
should we preach to pagans; or what should we say to the 
greatest part of the world, that acknowledge not the Scriptures ? 
Doubtless the Gospel should be preached to them; and though 
we have not the gift of miracles to convince them of the truth, 
as the apostles had, yet we have arguments demonstrative and 
clear, or else our preaching would be in vain; we having nothing 
left but bare affirmations. 

Though I have all along confirmed sufficiently by testimony of 
Scripture what I have said, yet I will here briefly add thus much 
more, that the Scripture doth clearly assert this truth in these 
six ways. 

1. It affirms, that this rest is fore-ordained for the saints, and 
the saints also fore-ordained to it. " God is not ashamed to be 
called their God, for he hath prepared for them a city." (Heb. 
xi. 16.) "Eve hath not seen, nor ear heard, nor heart con- 
ceived, what God hath prepared for them that love him." ( I Cor. 
ii. 9.) Which I conceive must be meant of these preparations 
in heaven ; for those on earth are both seen and conceived, or 
else how are they enjoyed ? To sit on Christ's right and left 


hand in his kingdom, shall be given to them for whom it is pre- 
pared. (Matt. XX. 23.) And themselves are called "vessels 
of mercy, before prepared unto glory." (Rom. ix. 23.) And in 
Christ we have obtained the inheritance, " being predestinated 
according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the 
counsel of his own will." (Eph. i. 11.) " And whom he thus 
predestinateth, them he glorifieth ; " (Rom. viii. 30;) " For he 
hath, from the beginning, chosen them to salvation, through sanc- 
tification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth." (2Thess. ii. 13.) 

And though the intentions of the unwise and weak may be 
frustrated, and " without counsel purposes are disappointed," 
(Prov. XV. 22,) "yet the thoughts of the Lord shall surely come 
to pass; and as he hath purposed, it shall stand. The counsel 
of the Lord standeth for ever, and the thoughts of his heart to 
all generations;" (Isa. xiv. 24;) therefore, " blessed are they 
whose God is the Lord, and the people whom he hath chosen 
for his own inheritance." (Psal. xxxiii. 11, 12.) Who can be- 
reave his people of that rest which is designed them by God's 
eternal purpose ? 

Sect. II. Secondly: The Scripture tells us that this rest is 
purchased, as well as purposed for them ; or that they are re- 
deemed to this rest. In what sense this may be said to be 
purchased by Christ, I have showed before, viz., not as the im^ 
mediate work of his sufferings, which was the immediate payment 
of our debt, by satisfying the law, but as a more remote, though 
most excellent fruit ; even the effect of that power, which by 
death he procured to himself. He himself, for the suffering of 
death,^ was crowned with glory, yet did he not properly die for 
himself, nor was that the direct effect of his death. Some of 
those teachers who are gone forth of late, do tell us, as a piece 
of their new discoveries, that Christ never purchased life and 
salvation for us, but purchased us to life and salvation :^ not 
understanding that they affirm and deny the same thing in seve- 
ral expressions. What difference is there betwixt buying liberty 
to the prisoner, and buying the prisoner to liberty ? Betwixt 
buying life to a condemned malefactor, and buying him to life ; 
or betwixt purchasing reconciliation to an enemy, and pur- 
chasing an enemy to reconciliation ? but in this last they have 

* Paul Hobsoii. 

*> I confess the latter is the more proper expression, and oftener used ia the 


242 THE saint's 

found a difference, and tell us that God never was at enmity 
with man, but man at enmity with God, and therefore need not 
be reconciled : directly contrary to Scripture, which tells us 
that God hateth all the workers of iniquity, and that he is their 
enemy: (Exod. xxiii. 22; Psal. xi. 5, and v. 5; Isa. Ixiii. 
10; Lament, ii. 5 :) and though there be no change in God, 
nor any thing properly called hatred, yet it sufficeth that there 
is a change in the sinner's relation, and that there is something 
in God which cannot better be expressed or conceived than by 
these terms of enmity : and the enmity of the law against a 
sinner, may well be called the enmity of God. However, this 
differenceth betwixt enmity in God, and enmity in us ; but not 
betwixt the sense of the fore-mentioned expressions : so that 
whether you will call it purchasing life for us, or purchasing us 
to life, the sense is the same, viz., by satisfving the law, and re- 
moving impediments, to procure us the title and possession of 
this life.'^ 

It is, then, by the "blood of Jesus that we have entrance into 
the holiest." (Heb. x. 19.) Even all our entrance to the fruition 
of God, both that by faith and prayer here, and that by full 
possession hereafter. Therefore do the saints sing forth his 
praises, " who hath redeemed them out of every nation by his 
blood, and made them kings and priests to God." (Rev. v. 10.) 

Whether that el; amXvTpcoa-iv tvj<; %epmoi-^<7€u<;, in Eph. i. 14, which 
is translated " the redemption of the purchased possession," do 
prove this or not; yet 1 see no appearance of truth in their 
exposition of it, who, because they deny that salvation is pur- 
chased by Christ, do affirm that it is Christ himself who is there 
called the purchased possession."^ Therefore did God give his 
Son, and the Son give his life, and therefore was Christ lifted 
up on the cross, " as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilder- 
ness, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but 
have everlasting life." (John iii. 15, IG.) So, then, I conclude 

'The phrases are used from the effect to the affection, as we say, i.e. Goil 
doth tliat to nil n, as tiuiiiies ilo ; and even to the elect before conversion, he 
5.tands, as we may say, engaged liy iiis laws as a just judge, to do tliat which 
en< inies do, and thence is said to be tlieir enemy, tliough his decree is to deal 
in mercy with them. Else, speaking oF enmiiy properly, I say as Clemens 
AleJtandrinus doth of God : viz., we say that God is an enemy to no n>an, for 
he is the Creator of all ; anrl there is nothing comes to jiass but what he will : 
hut we say that those are enemies to him that do not obey him, and walk not 
by his precepts, for they bear an enmity to his testament. — Clemens ,4Uxundri' 
mts, Stromut. lib. 4. 

•i Paul Hobsou. 


either Christ must lose his hlood and sufferings, and "never see 
the travail of his soul," (Isa. liii. 11,) but all his pains and 
expectation be frustrated, or else there remaineth a rest to the 
people of God. 

Sect. III. Thirdly: And as this rest is purchased for us, so is it 
also promised to us ; as the firmament with the stars, so are the 
sacred pages bespangled with the frequent intermixture of these 
divine engagements. Christ hath told us that " it is his vvill^ 
that those who are given to him should be where he is, that 
they may behold the glory which is given him of the Father :" 
(John xvii. 24 :) so also, " Fear not, little flock*; it is your 
Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom ;" (Luke 
xii. 32 ;) q. d. fear not all your enemy's rage, fear not all your 
own unworthiness, doubt not of the certainty of the gift ; for 
it is grounded upon the good pleasure of your Father. " I ap- 
point to you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me 
a kingdom, that ye may eat and drink at my table in my king- 
dom." (Luke xxii. 29.) But because I will not be tedious in the 
needless confirming of an acknowledged truth, I refer you to the 
places here cited : 2 Thess. i. 7 ; Heb. iv. 1,3; Matt. xxv. 34, 
and xiii. 43; 2 Tim. iv. IS; James ii. 5 ; 2 Pet. i. 11 ; 2 
Thess. i. 5; Acts xiv. 22; Luke vi. 20, and xiii. 28,29; 
1 Thess. ii. 12; Matt. v. 12 ; Mark x. 21, and xii. 25 ; 1 Pet. 
i. 4 ; Heb. x. 3A, and xii. 23; Colos. i. 5 ; Phil. iii. 20; Heb. 
xi. 16; Eph. i. 20; 1 Cor. xv.; Rev. ii. 7, 11, 17, &:c. 

Sect. IV. Fourthly: All the means of grace, and all the workings 
of the Spirit upon the soul, and all the gracious actions of the 
saints, are so many evident mediums to prove that there remaineth 
a rest to the people of God. If it be an undeniable maxim that 
God and naiure do nothing in vain, then it is as true of God and 
his grace. '^All these means and motions imply some end to 

' Intra nostrum rationalem spirituin est quaedam viva iniag'o divinje sapl- 
entiae : ad quain diiin respicimus, n)oveinur per qiieiidam diviuum inipulsuiu, 
ad pulsaiidum, ad peteiida, et quaerenda ea qua; sunt perficieutia iniaginem 
sive ipsain ad exeiiiplaris cont'orinitatem diiceutia. — Cusanus Exercital. lil). 
10. fol. (milii) 183. B. Yut 1 do not argue as some, that because the soul de- 
sireth, it must eiijuy : for God fulfiUeth but sound desires, which are his owa 
exciting' in us, whicli are limited desires. If a man desire to fly with wings, 
or to i)e as God, these desires God is not to fulfil. Of which read Camero 
Praelect. de Verbo Dei, cap. 7. p. (operum) fol. 4.5.i. Cum vitium creaturae 
angelicae (et humanae) dicitur, quod nou adhaeret Deo, hinc aptissime decla- 
ratur, ejus natura; ul Deo adhaereat con venire. Ouam porro magna sit laus 


244 THE saint's 

which they tend, or else they cannot be called means, nov are 
they the motions of wisdom or reasons : and no lower end than 
this " rest" can be imagined. God would never have com- 
manded his people to repent and believe, to fast and pray, to 
knock and seek, and that continually, to read and study, to con- 
fer and meditate, to strive and labour, to run and fight, and all 
this to no purpose. Nor would the Spirit of God work them to 
this, and create in them a supernatural power, and enable them 
and excite them to a constant performance, were it not for this 
end whereto it leads us. Nor could the saints reasonably attempt 
such employments, nor yet undergo so heavy sufferings, were it 
not for this desirable end. But whatsoever the folly of man 
might do, certainly divine wisdom cannot be guilty of setting 
to work such fruitless motions. Therefore, whatever I read of 
duty required, whenever I find the grace bestowed, I take it as 
so many promises of rest. The Spirit would never kindle in 
us such strong desires after heaven, nor such a love to Jesus 
Christ, if we should not receive that which we desire and love. 
He that sets our feet in the way of peace will, undoubtedly, 
bring us to the end of peace. (Luke i. 27.) How nearly are the 
means and end conjoined ! (Matt. xi. 12.) "The kingdom of 
heaven sufil'ereth violence, and the violent take it by force;" or, 
(as Luke xv. 1(5,) everv man presseth into it : so that the vio- 
lent apprehends the kingdom.^ Those whom he causeth to fol- 
low him in the regeneration, he will surely provide them thrones 
of judgment. (Matt. xix. 2S.) 

Sect.V. Fifthly : Scripture further assures us that the saints have 
the beginnings, foretastes, earnests, and seals of this rest here : 
and may not all this assure them of the full possession? The very 
kingdom of God is within them.^ (Luke xvii. 21.) They here, 

adhffirere Deo, ut ei vivat, inde sapiat, illo gaudeat, tautoque bono sine 
morte, sine errore, sine molestia perfruatur, quis cogitare digne possit, aut 
eloqui ? — August, de Civ. lib. 12. cap. 10. 

^ Mr, Burroughs thinks this is meant of the violence of persecution, but 
Luke's phrase confuteth that: the sense is, that the door being now set 
open, he that will crowd in first, doth get possession ; as the crowd, or common 
people did, while the rulers that pretended to the chief title, stood without the 
doors, or by unbelief refused to enter. 

s Atqui si lumen ipsum Dei illud verum, quod est in persona Christi, vitam 
in se continet, eaque vita cum lumine, quae committitur in carneni, peritura 
est, in quam vita committitur : plane sic perituris et ipse Thesaurus : peritu- 

ris enim peritura creduutur, sicut veteribus utribus novum vinum. Vita 

Jesu manifestatur : Ubi ? In corpore nostro : in quo? In mortali. Ergo 
in came plane mortali secuudum cuipara^ sed et vitali secundum gratiam. 


as is before snid, take it by force, they have a beginning of that 
knowledge which Christ hath said is eternal life. (John xvii. 3.) 
I have fully manifested that before, that the rest and glory of the 
people of God doth consist in their knowing, loving, rejoicing, 
and praising ; and all these are l)egun, though but begun here : 
therefore, doubtless, so much as we here know of God, so much 
as we love, rejoice, and praise, so much we have of heaven on 
earth, so much we enjoy of the rest of souls. And do you 
think that God will give the beginning where he never intends 
to give the end ? Nay, God doth give his people oftentimes such 
foresights and foretastes of this same rest, that their spirits are 
even transported with it, and they could heartily wish they might 
be present there. Paul is taken up into the third heaven, and 
seeth things that must not be uttered. The saints are kept 
by the pow-er of God through faith unto that salvation, ready 
to be revealed in the last time, wherein they can greatly rejoice, 
even in temptations : (1 Pet. i. 5, 6 :) and therefore the apostle 
also tells us, that they who now see not Christ, nor ever saw 
him, yet love him, and believing do rejoice in him with joy un- 
speakable and full of glory ; receiving the end of their faith, 
the salvation of their souls. (1 Pet. i. 8, 9.) Observe here, 
first, how God gives his people this foretasting joy : secondly, 
liow this jov is said to be fall of glory, and therefore must needs 
be a beginning of the glory : thirdly, how immediately upon 
this there follows " receiving the end of their faith, the salva- 
tion of the soul." And Paul also brings in the justified "re- 
joicing in hope of the glory of God." (Rom. v. 2.) And I 
doubt not, but as some poor Christians among us, who have 
little to boast of appearing without, have often these foretastes 
in their souls. And do you think that God will tantalize his 
people ? Will he give them the first-fruits and not the crop ? 
Doth he show them glory to set them longing, and then deny 
the actual fruition ? Or doth he lift them up so near this rest, 
and give them such rejoicings in it, and yet never bestow it on 
them ? It cannot be. Nay, doth he give them the " earnest of 
the inheritance;" (Eph. i. 14:) and "seal them with the 
Holy Spirit of promise;" (Eph. i. 13 ;) and yet will he deny 

Vide quantum et ilia vita Cbristi manifestetur. In re ergo aliena salutis, sed 
in substantia perpetua dissolutionis manifestabitur vita Christi aeterna, jugis, 
incorrupta, jam Dei vita ? aut cuj us temporis vita Domini manifestabitur in 
corpore nostro ? — Tertul. de Animas c. 54. p. edit. Pamel. 419. 2 Cor. i. 22, 
and V. 5, 

246 THE saint's 

the full possession ? These absurdities may not be charged on 
an ordinary man, much less on the faithful and righteous God. 
Sect. VI. Sixthly, and lastly: The Scripture mentioneth par- 
ticularly and by name, those who entered into this rest, as 
Enoch, who was taken up to God. So Abraham, Lazarus, and 
the thief that was crucified with Christ, &c. And if there be a 
rest for these, surely there is a rest for all believers. But it is 
vain to heap up scripture-proof, seeing it is the very end of the 
Scripture, to be a guide to lead us to this blessed state, and to 
discover it to us, and persuade us to seek it in the prescribed 
way, and to acquaint us with the hinderances that would keep us 
from it, and to be the charter and grant by which we hold all our 
title to it. So that our rest, and thereby God's glory, is, to the 
Scripture, as the end is to the way, which is frequently expressed 
and implied through the whole. There is no one that doubts of 
the certainty of this promised glory, but only they that doubt of 
the truth of the Scripture, or else know not what it containeth. 
And because 1 find the most temptations are resolved into this, 
and that there is so much unbelief even in true believers, and 
that the truth and strength of our belief of Scripture hath an 
exceeding great influence into all our graces, I shall briefly say 
something for your confirmation in this. 


Motives to Study and Preach the Divine Authority 
of Scripture. 

Sect. I. Thus*^ much may suffice where the Scripture is be- 
lieved, to confirm the truth of the point in hand, viz., the cer- 
tain futurity of the saints' rest. And for pagans and infidels who 
believe not Scripture, it is besides the intention of this discourse 

^ Sedquo plenius et impressius tarn ipsuni quain dispositiones ejus, et vo- 
luntates adiremus, instruiueiituni adjecit literaturre, siquis velitde Deo inqui- 
rfei'e, et iiiquisitum invenire, et invento credere, et credito deservire. Viros 
enim justitia et imiocentia di^tios Deum nosse et ostendere, a priniordio in 
seculuin emisitSpiritu Diviuo iimiidalos, quo pra;dicareiit Deum uiiicum esse, 
qui universa coudiderit, qui huminem de luiuio struxerit, &c., sed et obser- 
vantibus pra?niia destinarit, qui produclo sevo isto judicaturus sit suos cul- 
tores in vitae aeternae retributionem, profanos in ignem aque perpetem et 
jugem, suscitatis omnibus ab initio defunctis, et reformatis et recensitis ad 
utriusque meriti dispunctionem.— 7Vr^?</. JpoL c.' 18. operum edit. Pamel. 
p. 34. 


to endeavour their conviction. I am endeavouring the consola- 
tion and edification of saints, and not the information and con- 
version of pagans. Yet do I acknowledge the subject exceed- 
ing necessary, even to the saints themselves : for Satan's assaults 
are oft made at the foundation ; and if he can persuade them 
to question the verity of Scripture, they will soon cast away their 
hopes of heaven. 

But if I should here enter upon that task, to prove that Scrip- 
ture to be the infallible word of God, I should make too broad 
a digression, and set upon a work as large as that, for the sake 
whereof I should u^ndertake it ; neither am I insensible of how 
great a difficulty it would prove to manage it satisfactorily, and 
how much more than my ability is thereto requisite. 

Yet, lest the tempted Christian should have no relief, nor any 
argument at hand against the temptation, I will here lay down 
some few, not intending it as a full resolution of that great 
question, but as a competent help to the weak, that have no 
time nor ability to read larger volumes. And I the rather am 
induced to it, because the success of all the rest that I have 
written depends upon this : no man will love, desire, study, 
labour for that which he believeth not to be attainable. And 
in such supernatural points, we must first apprehend the truth 
of the revelation, before we can well believe the truth of the 
thing revealed. And I desire the Lord to persuade the hearts 
of some of his choicest servants in these times, whom he hath 
best furnished for such a work, to undertake the complete 
handling of it; to persuade them to which, I will here annex, 
first, some considerations, which also are the reasons of this 
brief attempt of my own, and may also serve to persuade all 
ministers to bestow a little more pains, in a seasonable ground- 
ing their hearers in this so great and needful a point, by a more 
frequent and clear discovery of the verity of tHe Scripture, 
though some, that know not what they say, may tell them that 
it is needless.* 

1. Of what exceeding great necessity is it to the salvation of 
ourselves and hearers, to be soundly persuaded of the truth of 
Scripture ! As God's own veracity is tlie prime foundation of 
our faith, from which particular axioms receive their verity, so 
the Scripture is the principal foundation quoad yatefactionem, 

• I have since written a supplement to tbis second part, called the • Un- 
reasonableness of Infidelity.' 

248 THE saint's 

revealing to us what is of God, without which revelation it is 
impossible to believe. And should not the foundation be both 
timely and soundly laid ? 

2. The learned divines of these latter times have, in most 
points of doctrine, done better than any, since the apostles, be- 
fore them ; and have much advantaged the church thereby, and 
advanced sacred knowledge. And sliould we not endeavour it 
in this point if possible above all, when yet the ancients 
were more frequent and full in it, for the most part, than we? 
I know there are many excellent treatises already extant on 
this subject, and such as I doubt not may convince gainsayers, 
and much strengthen the weak ; but yet, doubtless, much more 
may be done for the clearing this weighty and needful point. 
Our great divines have said almost as much against papists in this, 
as need be said, especially Chamier, and our Robert Baronius, 
Whitaker, Reignoldus, &c. But is not most of their industry 
there bestowed, while they put off the atheist, the Jew, and 
other infidels, with a few^ pages or none ? And so the great 
master-sin of infidelity in the souls of men, whereof the best 
Christians have too great a share, is much neglected, and the 
very greatest matter of all overlooked. Grotius, Morney, and 
Camero, above others, have done well ; but if God would stir 
them up to this work, I doubt not but some, by the help of all 
foregoers, and especially improving antiquities, might do it more 
completely than any have yet done ; which I think would be as 
acceptable a piece of service to the church as ever by human 
industry was performed. 

3. And ^ I fear the course that too many divines take this 
way, by resolving all into the testimony of the Spirit, in a mis- 
taken sense, hath much wronged the Scripture and church of 
God, and much hardened pagans and atheists against the truth : 
I know that the illumination of the Spirit is necessary : a special 
illumination for the begetting of a special saving belief, and a 
common illumination for a common belief. But this is not so 
properlv called the testimony of the Spirit ; the use of this is to 
open our eyes to see that evidence of scripture verity which is 
already extant ; and as to remove our blindness, so by farther 

'' Of the difference of sense, vision, illumination, and revelation, vide 
Macarii Ilomil. 7. edit. Palthen. p. 99. Cognosci sine fide Scripturaj pos- 
sunt, sive ex ecclesia- testiniouio, sive ex se noscantur. Ut liquido a^nos- 
cantur cum certa assentione aninii, opus est Spiritus illuminatione. — 
fVhitaker rectissime Duplicat, adv. Stapleton. lib. 3. c. 8. pp. 536, 53(). 


sanctifying, to remove our natural enmity to tlic truth, and pre- 
judice against it, which is no small hinderance to the believing 
of it ; for all the hinderance lieth not in the bare intellect. 

But it is another kind of testimony than this, which many 
great divines resolve their faith into : for when the question is 
of the objective cause of faith, how know you Scripture to 
be the word of God ; or why do you believe it so to be ? They 
finally conclude, by the testimony of the Spirit : but the Spirit's 
illumination being only the efficient cause of our discerning, 
and the question being only of the objective cau«e or evi^ 
dence, they must needs mean some testimony besides illu- 
minating, sanctifying grace, or else not understand themselves : 
and, therefore, even great Chamier calleth this testimony ' the 
word of God,' and likens it to the revelations made to the 
prophets and apostles, dangerously, I think. (Tom. iii. lib. 13. 
c. 17.) To imagine a necessity, first, either of an internal 
proper testimony, which is argumentum inartijiciale, as if 
the Spirit, as another person, spoke this truth within me, 
' The Scripture is God's word ;' or, secondly, of the Spirit's 
propounding that, objective evidence internally in the soul, 
which is necessary to persuade by an artificial argument, 
without propounding it first ab extra; thirdly, or for the Spirit 
to infuse or create in a man's mind an actual persuasion that 
Scripture is God's word, the person not knowing how he is so 
persuaded, nor why; or of any the like immediate injection of 
the intelligible species; I say, to affirm that the Scriptures 
cannot be known to be God's word, without such a testimony 
of the Spirit as some of these, is, in my judgment, a justifying 
men in their infidelity, and a telling them that there is not 
yet extant any sufficient evidence of scripture truth, till the 
Spirit create it in ourselves, and, wiihal, to leave it impossible to 
produce any evidence for the conviction of an unbeliever, who 
cannot know the testimony of the Spirit in me: and, ifideed, it 
is direct expectation of enthusiasm, and that is ordinary to 
every Christian. And it also infers that all men have the testi- 
mony of the Spirit, who believe the Scriptures to be God's 
word, which would delude many natural men, who feel that they 
do believe this, though some unsoundly tell us that an unrege- 
nerate man cannot believe it. 1 know that, savingly, he cannot; 
but undissemblingly, as the devil does, he may. But I leave this 
point, referring the reader that understands them, for full satis- 
faction about the nature of the Spirit's testimony, to learned 

250 THE saint's 

Robert Baronius,^ ' Apol. con. Turnebullum,' p. 733 ; and also 
to judicious Amyraldus, ' Thes. de Testim. Spir. in Thes. Sal- 
niuriens.,' vol. i, p. 122 : in both whom it is most solidly 

4. Doubtless, the first and chief work of preachers of the 
Gospel, is to endeavour the conversion of pagans and infidels, 
where men live within their reach, and have opportunity to do 
it. And we all believe that the Jews shall be brought in ; and 
it must be by means. And how shall all this be done, if we 
cannot prove to them the divine authority of what we have to 
say to them, but naked affirmation ? Or, how shall we main- 
tain the credit of Christianity, if we be put to dispute the case 
with an infidel ? 1 know somewhat mav be done bv tradition 
where Scripture is not ; but that is a weaker, uncertain means : 
I know also that the first truths, and those that are known by 
the light of nature, may be evinced by natural demonstrations ; 
and when we deal with pagans, there we must begin. But for 
all supernatural truth, how shall we prove that to them, but by 
proving first the certainty of the revelation ? As Aquinas, ut 
in marg., " to tell them that the Spirit testifieth it, is no means 
to convince them that have not the Spirit. And if they have 
the Spirit already, then what need we preach to convince them ? 
If the word must be mixed with faith in them that hear it, 
before it profit them further to salvation ; then we cannot 
expect to find the Spirit in infidels. He that thinks an unholy 
person may not believe the Scriptures to be the word of God, 
doth not surelv think that they may go so much further as our 
divines and the Scripture tell us they may do.° 

And to tell an infidel that it is principium indemonstrabile, 

• Pessime, nifallor, arguraentatur virdoctiss. Keckerman. SystemaleTlieol. 
lib. p. 179 : Soli electi habent fidem : ergo soli electi norunt quae sit noruia 
fidei. This will teach the vilest man to conclude that he is elect, because he 
knows the rule of faith. 

'" See also the Act of the Conference at Paris, 1565, July in the beginning-. 

n Ad primas veritatis manifestationem per rationes demonstrativas proce - 
denduni est. Sed quia tales rationes (i.e. ah evidentia rei) ad secundara 
verilatem haberi non possunt, uon debet esse ad hoc intentio, ut adversarius 
rationibus (i.e. are) convincatur, sed ut ejus rationes quas contra veritatem 
habet solvantur : cum veritati fidei ratio iiaturalis contraria esse non possit. 
Singulafis vero modus convincendi adversarium contra hujusmodi veritatem, 
est ex authorilate Scripturae divinitus confirmata niiraculis. Quae cnim supra 
rationem humanani sunt ; non credimus, nisi Deo revelante. — Aqnin. Cont 
Genlil. lib. 1. c. 9. Vid. etiam de hac re Spalatens. de Rep. Eccles. lib. 7. c. 9. 
sect. 17, IS, 21 ; et c. 2. sect. 8 et 22. 


that Scripture is God's word, and that it is to helieved, and not 
to be proved, as if the very revelation, Hoc esse testimonium di- 
vinicm, and not only the thing testified. Hoc esse verum, were 
not objectum scientice, sed puree fidei. This might sooner 
harden infidels, than convince them. Sure 1 am, that both 
Christ and his apostles used sufficient, in sua genere, convincing 
arguments to persuade men to believe, and dealt with men as 
rational creatures. Truly, saith Hooker," " It is not a thing- 
impossible, nor greatly hard, even by such kind of proofs so to 
manifest and clear that point, that no man living shall be able 
to deny it, without denying some apparent principle, such as all 
men acknowledge to be true. And Scripture teacheth us that 
saving truth, which God hath discovered to the world by revela- 
tion ; but it presumeth us taught otherwise, that itself is divine 
and sacred. And these things we believe, knowing by reason, 
that Scripture is the word of God." Again, saith he, ** It is 
not required, nor can be exacted at our hands, that we should 
yield it any other assent, than such as doth answer the evi- 
dence." Again, how bold and confident soever we may be in 
words, when it comes to the trial, sucli as the evidence is, which 
the truth hath, such is the assent; nor can it be stronger, if 
grounded as it should be." 

5. Is not faith a rational act of a rational creature ? And so 
the understanding proceeds discursively in its production. And 
is not that the strongest faith which hath the strongest reasons to 
prove the testimony to be valid upon which it resteth, and the 
clearest apprehension and use of those reasons ?p And the 
truest faith which hath the truest reasons truly apprehended and 
used ? And must not that, on the contrary, be weak or false 
faith which receives the verity and validity of the testimony 
from weak or false grounds, though the testimony, of itself, be 
the truest in the world ? Our divines use to say, concerning 

° Hooker, Ecoles. Pol. 3. pp. 102, 103. and lib. 2. pp, 73, 74. I pray read 
him there more fully opening this point. 

1' Reli^io omnis Christiana per apostolos tradita et scripta est, et super 
scripta prophetarum et apostolorum fundata. — Dr. Sutcliff. contra Bellar. de 
Monach. p. 11. See Dr. Jackson ' Of Saving Faith,' sect. 2. cap. 2. p. 143, 
&c. See since the first edition of this, a treati-e put forth by Dr. Hammond, 
called 'The Reasonableness of Christian Religion.' As for those that cry 
out of our producing of reason in this case, as if it were Socinianism, their 
faith is unlike to be strong whose reason is so weak, or who renounce reason ; 
else an infant, or a madman, would make the best Christian if reason were 
at such odds with faith as they imagine. 

252 THE saint's 

love to Christ, that it is not to be nieiisurcd by the degree of 
fervour so much as by the grounds and motives; so that if a 
man should love Christ upon the same reason as the Turk loves 
Mahomet, it vrere no true love : if he love him upon false 
grounds, it must needs be false love ; and, if upon common 
grounds, it can be but a common love. I will not conclude, 
that to believe in Jesus Christ upon the grounds that a Turk 
believes in Mahomet, or to believe Scripture upon the same 
reasons that the Turks believe the Alcoran, is no true faith, 
supposing that both have the like verity of their reasons ; but 
at best, it must be more weak and doubtful. 

6. Are the generality of Christians able to give any better 
than some such common reason, to prove the verity of Scrip- 
ture : nay, are the more exercised, understanding sorts of 
Christians able by sound arguments to make it good, if an 
enemy or a temptation put them to it : nay, are the meaner 
sort of ministers in England able to do this ? Let them that 
have tried, judge. 

7. Can thesuperstructurebefirm, where the foundation is sandy; 
"and can our affections and actions be sound and strongs when our 
belief of Scripture is unsound or infirm ? Surely this faith will 
have influence into all. For my own part, I take it to be the 
greatest cause of coldness in duty, weakness in grace, boldness 
in sinning, and unwillingness to die, &:c., that our faith is either 
unsound or infirm in this point; Pfew Christians among us, for 
aught I find, have any better than the popish implicit faith in 
this point, nor any better'i arguments than the papists have to 
prove Scripture the word of God. They have received it by 
tradition, godly ministers and Christians tell them so, it is im- 
pious to doubt of it, and therefore they believe it. And this 
worm, lying at the root, causeth the languishing and decay of 
the whole : yet it is usually undiscerned, for the root lieth 
secret under ground. Buf 1 am apt to judge, that though the 

P Origen expoundeth the words of the apostles, Luke xvii. 5, " Lord, increase 
our faith," thus : Having that faith which is not according to knowledge, let us 
have that which is according to knowledge. — 0»-igew, in cap. 10. ad Horn., • 
which Dr. Willet also citeth, and approveth in Comment, on Jud. sect. p. 
(mihi) 131. 

1 See this more fully in Dr. Preston ' On the Attributes,' pp. 61 — 64. 

^ See the danger and ill effects of believing Scripture on unsound grounds, 
excellently manifested by that excellent man of God, Mr. Pemble ; Vindic. 
Gratia;, pp. 218—220. If I am able to judge any thing of the methods of 
Satan's temptations, I dare say that this weapon is reserved usually for tlie 


most complain of their uncertainty of salvation, through want 
of assurance of their own interest, and of the weakness of the 
applying act of faith ; yet the greater cause of all their sorrows, 
and that which shakes the whole building, is the weakness of 
their faith about the truth of Scripture ; though, perhaps, the 
other be more perceived, and this taken notice of by few. There 
may be great weakness and unsoundness of belief, where yet no 
doubtings are perceived to stir. Therefore** though we could 
persuade people to believe ever so confidently, that Scripture is 
the very word of God, and yet teach them no more reason why 
they should believe this, than any other book to be that word ; 
as it will prove in them no right way of believing, so is it in us 
no right way of teaching. 

8. There is many a one who feels his faith shake here, who 
never discovers it : to doubt of our evidence, is taken for no 
great disgrace, and therefore men more freely profess such 
doubts ; nay, and some, perhaps, who are not much troubled 
with them, because they would be thought to be humble Christ- 
ians. But to question the truth of Scripture, is a reproachful 
blasphemy, and therefore all that are guilty here, speak not 
their doubts. 

9. Is not the greatest battery by all sorts of enemies, especi- 
ally made against this foundation ? The first place that the 
papist' assaults you in, is here ; How know you the Scripture to 
be the word of God ? The seekers will accost you with the 
like question ; How know you that your Scripture and your 
ministry is of God ? The famillsts and libertines do spit their 
venom here : and some Christians, by experience, are able to 
testify, that Satan's temptations are most violent here. Yea, 

last combat ; and that many a man's faith hath perished on this rock, both in 
life, and especially in the last agonies and conflicts with the power of death 
and darkness. — Pemble ubi supra. 

* Yet we acknowledge it belongs to the church : first, to be a witness and 
keeper of the Scriptures, which are true and genuine, and which are false and 
superstitious, or apocryphal : secondly, to divulge and preach the Scriptures : 
thirdly, to expound and iuterpret them. — Dr. IVhitaker de Sacra Scripturu, 
q. 3. cont. 1. c. 2. pp.203, 204. 

' 1 would fain know of any papist, why their church believes the Scripture 
to be the word of God ; if the laity must believe it upou the authority of the 
church, and this church be the pope and his clergy, then itfolloweth that the 
pope and clergy believe it on their own authority ; as Paraeus in Themat. 
Secul. XV. : Et quia papa solus vel cum prselatis est ecclesia, ideo papa et 
praelati Scripturae creduut propter seipsos. Laicos volunt credere Scripturis 
propter papam et praelatos. 

254 THE saint's 

and our own carnal, deluded reason, is most apt of all to stum- 
ble here. 

They talk of a toleration of all religions, and some desire that 
the "Jews may have free commerce amongst us : it will then be 
time for us, 1 think, to be well armed at this point. Let the ordi- 
nary professors of our time, who are of weak judgments, and fiery 
spirits, look to it, how they will stand in such assaults ; lest, as 
now, when they cannot answer a separatist, they yield to him ; 
and when they cannot answer an antinomian, they turn antino- 
mians ; so, then, when they can much less answer the subtle 
arguments of a Jew against Christ and the Gospel, they should 
as easily turn Jews^ and deny Christ, and the verity of the 

The libertines^ among us think it necessary that we should 
have such a toleration to discover the unsound, who hold their 
faith upon tradition and custom. I am no more of their minds 
in this, than of his, who would have a fair virgin to lie with 
him, and try his chastity, and make its victory more honourable : 
but if we must needs have such a trial, it is time to look to the 
grounds of our belief, that we may be ready to give a reason of 
our hope. 

1 0. However, though I were mistaken in all this, yet certain 
I am, that the strengthening of our faith in the verity of Scrip- 
ture, would be an exceeding help to the joy of the saints, and 
would advance their confident hopes of rest. For myself, if my 
faith in this point had no imperfection, if 1 did as verily be- 
lieve the glory to come, as I do believe that the sun will rise 

" Sicut in Polonia ubi non solum preces recitant, mala et criiniiiosa contra 
Christianos et enrum niagistratus coiitinentes, sed etiam ct audacter et sine 
oinui Cliristianoruin nietii ini])rimiint qua'cuiu|ue volunt, ut testatur ]5ux- 
torfius Syna^ogae Judaicae, c. 5. p. 170. Nam si ad divinai traditionis (viz. 
ill Scripturis) caput et origiiiem revertamur, cessat error huuiauus. Et quic- 
((uid sub caiigiiie et uube tenebrarum obscurum latebat, in luce veritatis aperr 

itur. In coinpendio est i^itur apu<l religiosas et siinplices nientes et erro- 

rem deponeie, atque inveniie et eruere veritatem. — (.'yprian. Efist. 74. ad 
Pomp. p. 231. 

-'' If a bare connivance at these divibious have already occasioned such a 
combustion, what do we think would a toleration do? A toleration of all 
sorts ol' sects, and schisms, and heresies;, and blasphemies, which is by some 
(and those more than a good many) , under the abused notion of liberty of con- 
science, so earnestly pleaded for ? For my own part, should this be once yield- 
edj (which 1 hope their e\es shall first fail that look for it,) I should look on 
it as the passing-bell to the church's peace and glory, if not to the true reli- 
gion of God ill this kjiigdom.— r^'i'ii/t^'A' Anaigntnent of Sej-aration, p. T6, 


again when it is set ; oh ! how would it raise my desires and my 
joys ; what haste should I make ; how serious should I be ; how 
should I trample on these earthly vanities, and even forget the 
things below ; how restless should I be till my right were assured 
to this rest ; and then, how restless, till I did possess it : how 
should I delight in the thought of death, and my heart leap at 
the tidings of its approach : how^ glad should I be of the body's 
decay ; to feel my prison moulder to dust ! Surely, this would 
be the fruit of a perfect belief of the truth of the promise of our 
eternal rest ; which, though it cannot be here expected, yet 
should we use the most strengthening means, and press on till 
we have attained. "Truly," saith Mr. Pemble, (Vindic. Grat. 
p. 219.) "this loose and unsettled faith is one of the fiery darts, 
and forcible engines of Satan, whereby he assaults and over- 
throws the hope and comfort of many a dying man ; who, 
having not strengthened himself on this point, by undoubted 
arguments and experiments, is there laid at where he lies open 
and unarmed, by such cunning cavils, shifts, and elusions against 
the authority of Scripture, that the poor man, not able to clear 
himself of them, falls into a doubting of all religion, and sinks 
into despair. 

Sect. II. Thus much I have purposely spoken, as to stir uo 
Christians to look to their faith, so especially to provoke some 
choice servants of Christ, among the multitudes of books that 
are written, to bestow their labours on this most needful sub- 
ject; and all ministers to preach it more frequently and clearly 
to their people. Some think it is faith's honour to be as cre- 
dulous as may be, and the weaker are the rational grounds, the 
stronger is the faith ; and therefore we must believe and not 
dispute. Indeed, when it is once known to be a divine testi- 
mony, then t!\e most credulous soul is the best. But when the 
doubt is, whether it be the testimony of God, or no, a man 
may easily be over credulous ; else, why are we bid, " believe 
not every spirit, but try them, whether they be of God, or not." 
And how should the false Christs, and false prophets be known, 
who would "deceive, were it possible, the very elect?" "To be 
given uj) of God to believe a lie," is one of the sorest of God's 

Some think the only way to deal with such temptations to 

y As Graserus, when lie saw his legs begin to swell with a drojisy, said, 
Isuge Deo sit laus et si;loria, quod jam uieii iastet liLerati) el hoiula giatissima. 
— Mdch, Jdatn.in I'lta Graseri. 

256 THE saint's 

blasphemy, is to cast them awav, and not to dispute them ;^ 
and I think the direction is very good, so it be used with dis- 
tinction and caution. The rule holds good against real blas- 
phemy, known to be such ; but if the person know it not, how 
shall he make use of this rule against it ? Further, it is sup- 
posed, that he who knows it to be blasphemy, hath arguments 
whereby to prove it such j else, how doth he know it ? There- 
fore, here lies the sin ; when a man is, by sufficient evidence, 
convinced, or, at least, hath evidence sufficient for conviction, 
that it is a divine testimony, and yet is still cherishing doubts, 
or hearkening to temptations which may feed those doubts; 
when a man, like Balaam, will take no answer. But he who 
will, therefore, cast away all doubts before he hath any argu- 
ments sufficient against them, or could ever prove the thing in 
question, he doth indeed cast aside the temptation, but not 
overcome it, and may expect it should shortly return again ; it 
is a methodical cure which prevents Si relapse. Such a neg- 
lecter of temptations may be in the right, and may as well be in 
the wrong ; however, it is not right to him, because not rightly 
believed. Faith always implies a knowledge, and the know- 
ledge usually of the matter and author of that testimony; divine 
faith hath ever a divine =^ testimony, and supposeth the know- 
ledge of the matter, when the faith is particular, but always of 
the author of that testimony. An implicit faith in God, that 
is, a believing that all is true which he testifieth, though we see 
no reason for it, from the evidence of the matter, this is neces- 
sary to every true believer : but to believe implicitly, that the 
testimony is divine, or that Scripture is the word of God, this is 
not to believe God, but to resolve our faith into some human 
testimony ; even to lay our foundation upon the sand, where all 
will fall at the next assault. 

It is strange to consider how we all abhor that piece of popery, 
as most injurious to God of all the rest, which resolves our 
faith into the authority of the church : and yet that we do ; for 
the generality of professors content ourselves with the same 
kind of faith. Only with this difference : the papists believe 

^ Tmpias argumentationes si ratio refutare non possit, fides irridere debet, 
quae ratiocinatioiies evertit, et in captivitatem redigit omnem intellectum ia 
Christi obsequium. — August. 

a Though some extend belief so far as to confound it with opinion. A 
natura ad niysteria, ab oculo ad oraculuni, a visu ad fidem, non valet con- 


Scripture to be the word of God, because their church saith so ;'^ 
and we, because our church, or our leaders say so. Yea, and 
many ministers never vet gave their people better grounds, but 
tell them, which is true, that it is damnable to deny it, but 
help them not to the necessary antecedents of faith. 

If any think that these words tend to the shaking of men's 
faith, I answer, first, only of that which will fall of itself; se- 
condly, and that it may, in time, be built again more strongly ; 
thirdly, or at least that the sound may be surer settled. It is 
to be understood that many a thousand do profess Christianity, 
and zealously hate the enemies thereof upon the same grounds, 
to the same ends, and from the same inward, corrupt principles, 
as the Jews did hate and kill Christ.'" It is the religion of the 
country, where every man is reproached who believes otherwise; 
they were born and brought up in this belief, and it hath in- 
creased in them upon the like occasions. Had they been born 
and bred in the religion of Mahomet, they would have been 
as zealous for him. The difference betwixt him and a Maho- 
metan is more, that he lives where better laws and religion 
dwell, than that he hath more knowledge or soundness of ap- 

Yet would I not drive into causeless doubtinga the soul of 
any true believers, or make them believe their faith is unsound, 
because it is not so strong as some others ; therefore I add, 
some may, perhaps, have ground for their belief, though they 
are not able to express it by argumentation ; and mav have ar- 
guments in their hearts to persuade themselves, though they 
have none in their mouths to persuade another ; yea, and those 
arguments in themselves may be solid and convincing. Some 
may be strengthened by some one sound argument, and yet be 
ignorant of all the rest, without overthrowing the truth of their 
faith. Some, also, may have weaker apprehensions of the 
divine authority of Scripture than others ;'^ and as weaker 
grounds for their faith, so a less degree of assent ; and yet that 
assent may be sincere and saving, so it have these two qualifica- 

'' Sequor te uon quo ducis, sed quo trains, inquit Scalijer ad Cardanum 
in Exerc. 

•^ He that doubts of this, let him see Dr. Jackson, of ' Saving Faith,' 
pp. 14<J, 147 ; and Mr. Finke's ' Sermons of the Sincerity of Love to Christ.' 

•^ Articulus vi. fideiJudaicie sic se habe: : Credo perfecta fide quod omne, 
quodcunque propheia; docuerunt et locuti fuerunt, Veritas sincera sit, Octavus 
auteni sic ; credo perfecta fide quod lex lota, jieritule ut ea hodierno tempore 
in manihus nostris est, ita per Deum ipsummtt Mosi tradita sit. — Buxtorf. 
Synagog. Judaica', cap. i, pp. 4, 5. 


258 THE saint's 

tions : 1. If the arguments which we have for believing the 
Scripture, be in themseh'es more sufficient to convince of its 
truth, than any arguments of the enemies of Scripture can be to 
persuade a man to the contrary ; and do accordingly discover to 
us a high degree, at least, of probability. 2. And if being thus far 
convinced, it prevails with us to choose this as the only way of life, 
and to adventure our souls upon this way, denying all other, and 
adhering, though to the loss of estate and life, to the truth of 
Christ, thus weakly apprehended. This, I think, God will ac- 
cept as true belief. 

But though such a faith may serve to salvation, yet when 
the Christian should use it for his consolation he will find it 
much fail him, even as legs or arms of the weak or lame, 
which when a man should use them, do fail them according to 
the degrees of their weakness or lameness ; so much doubting 
as there remains of the truth of the word, or so much weakness 
as there is in our believing, or so much darkness or imcertainty 
as there is in the evidence which persuades us to believe ; so 
much will be wanting to our love, desires, labours, adventures, 
and, especially, to our joys. 

Therefore 1 think it necessary to speak a little, and but a little, 
to fortify the believer against temptations, and to confirm his 
faith in the certain truth of that Scripture which contains the 
promises of this rest. 


Sect.I. And here itis necessary that we first distinguish betwixt, 
1. The subject matter of Scripture, or the doctrine which it con- 
tains : 2. And the words or writings containing or expressing 
this doctrine. The one is as the blood, the other as the veins 
in which it runs. Secondly, we must distinguish betwixt, I . Tlie 
substantial and fundamental part of scripture doctrine, without 
which there is no salvation : and, 2. The circumstantial and the 
less necessary part, as genealogies, successions, chronology. Sec. 

Thirdly: Of the substantial, fundamental parts, I. Some 
may be known and proved, even without Scripture, as being 
written in nature itself. 2. Some can be known only by the 
assent of faith to divine revelation. 

Fourthly: Of this last sort, 1. Some things are above reason, 
as it is without divine revelation, both in respect of their proba- 


bility, existence, and futurity ; 2. Others may be known by mere 
reason, without divine testimony, in regard of their possibility 
and probability, but not in regard of their existence and futurity. 

Fifthly: Again, matter of doctrine must be distinguished from 
matter of fact. 

Sixthly: Matter of fact is either, 1. Such as God produceth 
in an ordinary, or, 2. Extraordinary and miraculous way. 

Seventhly: History and prophecy must be distinguished. 

Eighthly: We must distinguish also the books and writings 
themselves: 1. Between the main scope, and those parts which 
express the chief contents ; and, 2. Particular words and phrases 
not expressing any substantial. 

Ninthly: Also it is one question, 1. Whether there be a cer- 
tain number of books which are canonical, or of divine autho- 
rity ? And, 2. Another question, what number there is of these, 
and which particular books thev are ? 

Tenthly : The direct express sense must be distinguished from 
that which is only implied or consequential. 

Eleventhly: We must distinguish revelation unwritten, from 
that which is written. 

Twelfthly and lastly: We must distinguish that scripture 
which was spoken or written by God immediately, from that 
which was spoken or written immediately by man, and but me- 
diately by God. And of this last sort, 1. Some of the instru- 
ments or penmen are known; 2. Some not known. Of those 
known, 1. Some that spoke much in Scripture were bad men; 
2. Others were godly: and of these, some were, 1. More emi- 
nent and extraordinary, as prophets and apostles ; 2. Others 
were persons more inferior and ordinary. 

Again ; As we must distinguish of scripture and divine testi- 
mony, so must we also distinguish the apprehension of faith by 
which we do receive it. 

1 . There is a divine faith, when we take the testimony to be 
God's own, and so ])elieve the thing testified as upon God's 
words. Secondly, there is a human faith, when we believe it 
merely upon the credit of man. 

2. Faith is either, first, implicit, when we believe the thing 
is true, though we understand not what it is ; or, secondly, ex- 
plicit, when we believe, and understand what we believe. Both 
these are, again, divine or human. 

3. It is one thing to believe it as probable, another thing to 
believe it as certain, 

s 2 

260 THE saint's 

4. It is one thing to believe it to be true conditionally, ano- 
ther to believe it absolutely. 

5. We must distinguish betwixt the bare assent of the un- 
derstanding, to the truth of an axiom, when it is only silenced 
by force of argument, which will be stronger or weaker as the 
argument seemeth more or less demonstrative. And, secondly, 
that deep apprehension and firm assent which proceedeth from 
a well-established, confirmed faith backed by experience. 

6. It is one thing to assent to the truth of the axiom, another 
to taste and choose the good contained in it, which is the work 
of the will. 

Sect. II. The use I shall make of these distinctions, is to open 
the way to these following positions, which will resolve the great 
questions on foot, how far the belief of the writtten word is of 
necessity to salvation, and whether it be the foundation of our 
faith, and whether this foundation hath been always the same ? 

Pos. 1. The object of belief, is the will of God revealed, or a 
divine testimony, where two things are absolutely necessary : 
first, the matter; secondly, the revelation.*^ 

^ We must, therefore, know it to be a divine testimony, before we can believe 
it fide divina. For if you do merely believe it to be God's word, it is either 
by a divine testimony or without; if without, then it is not fides divina, a 
belief of God; if by it, then why do you believe that testimony to be divine ? If 
upon another divine testimony, so you may run in infinitum. But you will 
say, the firsttestimony which witnesseth of truth doth also witness itself to be 
of God. Answ. If you mean, that it so witnesseth as a testimony to be merely 
believed, then the question, how you know it to be a divine testimony, will 
still recur in infinitum ; but if you mean that it witnesseth itself to be divine 
objectively to our reason, as having the evidence of a divine spirit and au- 
thority, then you say right. But, then, as this supposeth the use of other helps 
to our knowledge, as tradition by human, infallible testimony, &c., so this 
granteth that it is more properly known than believed to be a divine testi- 
mony. Yet this is not our resolving our faith into reason or human testimony, 
but a discerning by reason and the help of human testimony the marks of a 
divine author in the writing, and the miracles, &c.; and tlience also by reason 
concluding tiie divineness of that testimony into which my faith is resolved. 
As I detest their use of tradition, which would make it a part of God's law, 
to supply the defect of Scripture; so I detest that infidelity, which rejecteth 
all Scripture, save that which suiteth their reason, and where they can see the 
evidence of the thing itself. If I once know that God speaks it, I will believe 
any thing that he saith, though it seem ever so unreasonable : but yet I will 
see reason for the divineness of the testimony, and knovv that it is indeed God 
that speaks it, else I must believe every testimony which affirms itself to be 
divine : and for those that say they only believe Scripture to be God's word, 
because it so testifieth of itself, and do not know it, and so make it a ])roper 
act of faith, and not of knowledge, I ask them, 1. Why, then, do you not be- 
lieve (but hold him accursed) an angel from heaven, if he preach another 
Gospel besides this, and say; ' It is come from God ;' and so every one that 
saith, • I am Christ ?' 2. Why do you use to produce reasons from the objective 


2. All this revealed will is necessary'' to the completing of 
our faith j^ and it is our duty to believe it. But it is only the 

characters of divinity in the Scriptures, when you prove it to testify of itself ? 
Do you not know, tliatto discern those characters as the premises, and thence 
to conclude the divinity, is an act of knowledge, and not of faith ? Else you 
should only say, when you are asked, how you know Scripture to he the word 
of God, that you lielieve it, because it saith so, and not give any reason from 
the thing why you believe it. 3. And then how will you prove it against a 
Celsus, or Lucian, or Porphyry, or convince Turks and Indians ? 4. And why 
were tlie Uereans commended for trying apostolical doctrine, whether it were 
true or not? 5. And why are we bid to try the spirits whether tliey be of 
God ? What, if one of these spirits say as the old prophet, or as Ilabshakeh 
to Hezekiah, " that he comes from God, and God bid him speak," will you 
believe, or try by reason ? 6. Dotli not your doctrine make your belief to be 
wholly human, as having no divine testimony for the divinity of the first tes- 
timony ? And so what are all your graces like to prove, which are built 
hereon ? And what a sad influence must this needs have in all our duties 
and comforts ? If you fly to tlie inward testimony of the Spirit, as distinct 
from the sanctifying illumination of the Spirit, then the question is most dif- 
ficult of all, How you know the testimony of that Spirit to be divine ? unless 
you will take in the fearful delusion of the enthusiasts, and say, That the Spirit 
manifesteth the divinity of his own testimony. And then 1 ask. Doth it ma- 
nifest it to reason, or only to inward sense ? If to reason, then you come to 
that you fly from ; and then you can produce that reason, and prove it. If 
only to inward sense, then how know you but a counterfeit angel of light may 
))roduce more strange ettects in your soul, than these which you take to be 
such a manifestation .' especially seeing, (1.) AVe know so little of spirits, and 
what they can do. (2.) And we have still known those that pretended to the 
strongest sense of spiritual revelations, to have proved the most deluded per- 
sons in the end. 7. Doth not your doctrine teach men, in laying aside reason, 
to lay aside humanity, and to become brutes ? If faith and reason be so con- 
trary, as some men talk ; yea, or reason so useless, then you may believe best 
in your sleep ; and idiots, infants, and madmen, are the fittest to make Christ- 
ians of. 8. And what an injurious doctrine is this to Christ, and disgraceful 
to the christian faith ! 'J. And how would it harden infidels, and make them 
deride us, rather than believe I Thus much I am forced here to add, both 
because I see many teachers have need to be taught these princi})les (the more 
is the pity), and, 2. Because some reverend brethren, by their exceptions, 
have called me to it. In a word, reason rectified is the eye of the soul, the 
guide of the life; the illumination of the Spirit is the rectifying it. No 
small part of our sanctification lieth in tlie rectifying of our reason. The 
use oF the word, and all ordinances and providences, is first to rectify reason, 
and thereby the will, and thereby the life. Faith itself is an act of reason ; 
or else it is a brutish act, and not human. The stronger any man's reasoa is, 
the more strongly is he persuaded that God is true, and that he cannot lie ; and 
therefore whatsoever he saith must needs be true, though reason cannot dis- 
cern the thing in its own eviilence. He that hath the rightest reason hath 
the most grace. Sincerity, and consequently our salvation, lieth in the 
strength and prevalency of rectified reason over tne flesh, and all its interests 
and desires. But, without Scrijtture or divine revelation, and the Spirit's pow- 
erful illumination, reason can never be rectified in spirituals. By thus much, 
judge of the ignorance and vanity of those men, who when they read any that 
write of the reasonableness of christian religion, do presently accuse it, or 
suspect it of Socinianism. 
' AJ bene esse et fidei perfectiouem. t' Necessitate praecepti. 

262 THE saint's 

substance and tenor of the covenants, and the things necessa- 
rily supposed to the knowing and keeping of the covenant of 
grace, which are of absolute necessity to the being of faith, and 
to salvation. A man may be saved, though he should not be- 
lieve many things, which yet he is bound by God to believe. 
3. Yet this must be only through ignorance of the matter, or of 
the divineness of the testimony. For a flat unbelief of the 
smallest truth, when we know the testimony to be of God, will 
not stand with the being of true faith, nor with salvation. For 
reason lays down this ground. That God can speak nothing but 
truth ; and faith proceeds upon that supposition. 4. This 
doctrine, so absolutely necessary, hath not been ever from the 
beginning the same, but hath differed according to the different 
covenants and administrations. That doctrine which is now so 
necessary, was not so before the fall ; and that which is so ne- 
cessary since the coming of Christ, was not so before his coming. 
Then they might be saved in believing in the Messiah to come 
of the seed of David : but now it is of necessity to believe, that 
this Jesus, the son of Mary, is He, and that we lock not for 
another. I prove ic thus : That which is not revealed, can be no 
object of our faith ; much less so necessary : but Christ was not 
revealed before the fall ; nor this Jesus revealed to be He, be- 
fore his coming; therefore these were not of necessity to be be- 
lieved, or, as some metaphorically speak, they were then no 
fundamental doctrines. Perhaps, also, some things will be 
found of absolute necessity to us, which are not so to Indians 
and Turks. 5. God hath made this substance of scripture 
doctrine to be thus necessary,^ primarily, and for itself. 6. That 
it be revealed, is also of absolute necessity : but,' secondarily, 
and for the doctrine's sake, as a means without which believing 
is neither possible, nor a duty. And though where there is no 
revelation, faith is not necessary as a duty ; yet it may be neces- 
sary, I think, as a means, that is, our natural misery may be such 
as can no other way be cured ; but this concerns not us that have 
heard of Christ. T . Nature, creatures, and Providence, are no 
sufficient revelation of this tenor of the covenants. 8. It is 
necessary not only that this doctrine be revealed, but also that 
it be revealed with grounds and arguments rationally sufficient 
to evince the verity of the doctrine, or the divineness of the 
testimony, that from it we may conclude the former. 9. The 
revelation of truth is to be considered in respect of the first 

•> Primario et propter se. ' Secundario et propter aliud. 


immediate delivery from God : or, secondly, in respect of the 
way of its coming down to us, it is delivered by God immedi- 
ately either by writing, as the two tables, or by informing 
angels, who may be his messengers, or by inspiring some choice, 
})articular men ; so that few in the world have received it from 
God at the first hand. 10. The only ways of revelations that, 
for aught 1 know, are now left, are Scripture and tradition. 
For though God hath not tied himself from revelations by the 
Spirit, yet he hath ceased them, and perfected his scripture re- 
velations ; so that the Spirit only reveals what is revealed already 
in the word, by ilUiminating us to understand it. 11. The 
more immediate the revelation, cceteris paribus, the more sure; 
and the more succession of hands it passeth through, the more 
uncertain, especially in matter of doctrine. 12. When we re- 
ceive from men, by tradition, the doctrine of God, as in the 
words of God, there is less danger of corruption, than when 
they deliver us that doctrine in their own words ; because here 
taking liberty to vary the expressions, it will represent the truth 
more uncertainly, and in more various shapes. 13. Therefore 
hath God been pleased, when he ceased immediate revelation, to 
leave his will written in a form of words which should be his 
standing law and rule to try all other men's expressions bv. 

14. In all the fore-mentioned respects, therefore, the written 
word doth excel the unwritten tradition of the same doctrine. 

15. Yet unwritten tradition, or any sure way of revealing this 
doctrine, may suffice to save him who thereby is brought to be- 
lieve ; as if there be any among the Abassines of Ethiopia, the 
Coptics of Egvpt, or elsewhere, that have the substance of the 
covenants delivered them by unwritten tradition, or by other 
writings, if hereby they come to believe, they shall be saved. 
For so the promise of the Gospel runs, giving salvation to all 
that believe, by what means soever they were brought to it. 
The like may be said of true believers in those parts of the 
church of Rome, where the Scripture is wholly hid from the 
vulgar, if there be any such parts. 16. Yet where the written 
word is wanting, salvation must needs be more difficult and more 
rare, and faith more feeble, and men's conversations worse or- 
dered, because they want that clearer revelation, that surer rule 
of faith and life, Avhich might make the way of salvation more 
easy. 17. When tradition ariseth no higher, or cometh ori- 
ginally but from this written word, and not from the verbal 
testimonies of the apostles before the word was written, there that 

264 THE saint's 

tradition is but the preaching of the word, and not a distinctwayof 
revealing. IS.Sucli is most of the tradition, for aught I can learn, 
that is now on foot in the world, for matter of doctrine, but not for 
matter of fact. ID. Therefore the Scriptures are not onlv necessary 
to the well-being of the churchy and to the strength of faith, but, 
ordinarily, to the very being of faith and churches. 20. Not 
that the present possession of Scripture is of absolute necessity 
to the present being of a church ; nor that it is so absolutely 
necessary to every man's salvation, that he read or know this 
Scripture himself; but that it either be at present, or have been 
formerly in the church : that some knowing it, may teach it to 
others, is of absolute necessity to most persons and churches, 
and necessary to the well-being of all. 21. Though negative 
nnbehef of the authority of Scripture may stand with salvation ^ 
yet positive and universal, I think, cannot : or, though tradi- 
tion may save where Scripture is not known, yet he that reads, or 
hears the Scripture, and will not believe it to be the testimony 
of God, I think, cannot be saved, because this is now the 
clearest and surest revelation; and he that will not believe it, 
will much less l^elieve a revelation more uncertaia and obscure. 
22. Though all Scripture be of divine authority, yet he that be- 
lieveth but some one book, which containeth the substance of 
the doctrine of salvation, may be saved ; much more they that 
have doubted but of some particular books. 23. They that 
take the Scripture to be but the writings of godly, honest men, 
and so to be only a means of making known Christ, having a 
gradual precedency to the writings of other godly men, and do 
believe in Christ upon those strong grounds which are drav.'n 
from his doctrine, miracles, Sec, rather than upon the testimony 
of the writing, as being purely infallible and divine, may yet 
have a divine and saving faith. 24. ]\Iuch more, those that 
believe the whole writing to be of divine inspiration where it 
handleth the substance, but doubt whether God infallibly guide 
them in every circumstance. 2o. And yet more, those that 
believe that the Spirit did guide the writers to truth, both in 
substance and circumstance, but doubt whether he guided them 
in orthography; or whether their pens were as perfectly guided 
as their minds. 2C). And yet more, may those have saving faith, 
who only doubt whether Providence infallibly guided any tran- 
scribers, or printers, as to retain any copy that perfectly agrees 
with the autograph : yea, whether the most perfect copy now 
extant, may not have some inconsiderable literal or verbal errors, 


through the transcribers' or printers' oversight, is of no great 
moment, as long as it is certain, that the Scriptures are not 
de industria corrupted, nor any material doctrine, history, or 
prophecy thereby obscured or depraved. God hath not engaged 
himself to direct every printer to the world's end, to do his work 
without any error. Yet it is unlikely that this should deprave 
all copies, or leave us uncertain wholly of the right reading, es- 
pecially since copies were multiplied, because it is unlikely that 
all transcribers, or printers, will commit the very same error. We 
know the true copies of oiir statute books, though the printer 
be not guided by an unerring spirit. vSee Usher's 'Epistle to 
Lud. Capell.' 27. Vet do all, or most of these, in my judg- 
ment, cast away a singular prop to their faith, and lay it open 
to dangerous assaults, and doubt of that which is a certain 
truth. 23. As the translations are no further Scripture, than 
they agree with the copies in the original tongues ; so neitiier 
are those copies further than they agree with tlie autographs, or 
original copies, or with some copies perused and approved by 
the apostles. 29. Yet is there not the like necessity of having 
the autographs to try the transcripts by, as there is of having the 
original transcripts to try the translations by- For there is an 
impossibility that any translation should perfectly express the sense 
of the original. But there is a possibility, probability, and 
facility, of true transcribing, and grounds to prove it true, de 
facto, as we shall touch anon. 30. That part which was writ- 
ten by the finger of God, as also the substance of doctrine 
through the whole Scriptures, are so purely divine, that they 
have not in them any thing human. 31. The next to these, are 
the words that were spoken by the mouth of Christ, and then 
those that were spoken by angels. 32. The circumstantials are 
many of them so divine, as yet they have in them something 
human, as the bringing of Paul's cloak and parchments, and, 
as it seems, his counsel about marriage, &c. '^3. Much more 
is there something human, in the method and phrase, which is 
not so immediately divine as the doctrine. 34. Yet is there 
nothing sinfully human, and therefore nothing false in all. 35. 
But an innocent imperfection there is in the metliod and phrase, 
which if we deny, we must renounce most of our logic and 
rhetoric. 36. Yet was this imperfect way, at that time, all 
things considered, the fittest way to divulge the Gospel. Tliat 
is the best language which is best suited to the hearers, and 
not that which is best simply in itself, and supposeth that under- 

266 THi; saint's 

standing in the hearers which they have not. Therefore it was 
wisdom and mercy to fit the Scriptures to the capacity of all. 
Yet will it not, therefore, follow, that all preachers at all times, 
should as much neglect definition, distinction, syllogism, &:c., as 
Scripture doth. 37. Some doctrinal passages in Scripture are 
only historically related, and therefore the relating them is not 
asserting them for truth ; and therefore those sentences may be 
false, and yet not the Scriptures false : yea, some falsehoods are 
written by way of reproving them, as Gehazi's lie, Saul's excuse, 
&c. 38. Every doctrine that is thus related only historically, 
is therefore of doubtful credit, because it is not a divine asser- 
tion, except Christ himself were the speaker, and therefore it is 
to be tried by the rest of the Scripture. 39. Where ordinary 
men were the speakers, the credit of such doctrine is the more 
doubtful, and yet much more, when the speakers were wicked ; 
of the former sort are the speeches of Job's friends, and divers 
others ; of the latter sort are the speeches of the Pharisees, 
&c., and perhaps Gamaliel's counsels. (Acts v. 34.) 40. Yet 
where God doth testify his inspiration, or approbation, the doc- 
trine is of divine authority, though the speaker be wicked, as in 
Balaam's prophecy. 41. The like may be said of matter of 
fact;'^ for it is not either necessary or lawful, to speak such 
words or do such actions, merely because men in Scripture did 
so speak or do ; no, not though they were the best saints ; for 
their own speeches or actions are to be judged by the law, and 
therefore are no part of the law themselves. And as they ^re 
evil where they cross the law, as Joseph's swearing, the ancients' 
polygamy, &;c., so are they doubtful where their congruence 
with the law is doubtful. 42. But here is one most observable 
exception, conducing much to resolve that great doubt, whether 
examples bind; where men are designed by God to such an 
office, and act by commission, and with a promise of direction, 
their doctrines are of divine authority, though we find not where 
God did dictate ; and their actions done by that commission are 
current and exemplary, so far as they are intended or performed 
for example ; and so example may be equivalent to a law, and 
the argument, a facto ad jus, may hold. So Moses being ap- 
pointed to the forming of the old church and commonwealth 
of the Jews, to the building of the tabernacle, &;c. His pre- 
cepts and examples in these works, though we could not find his 

•* A facto ad jus ad licilum vel debitura non valet argum. 


particular direction, are to be taken as divine. So also the apos- 
tles, having commission to form and order the gospel-churches, 
their doctrine and examples therein, are by their general com- 
mission warranted ; and their practices in establishing the Lord's 
day, in settling the offices and orders of churches, are to us as 
laws, still binding with those limitations as positives only, which 
give way to greater. 43. The ground of this position is, because 
it is inconsistent with the wisdom and faithfulness of God; to 
send men to a work, and promise to be with them, and yet to 
forsake them, and suffer them to err in the building of that 
house, which must endure till the end of the world. 44. Yet 
if any of the commissioners do err in their own particular con- 
versations,' or in matters without the extent of their commis- 
sion, this may consist with the faithfulness of God ; God hath 
not promised them infallibility and perfection ; the disgrace is 
their own : but if they should miscarry in that wherein they 
are sent to be a rule to others, the church would then have an 
imperfect rule, and the dishonour would redound to God. 45. 
Yet I find not that ever God authorized any mere man to be a 
lawgiver to the church in substantials, but only to deliver the 
laws which he had given to interpret them, and to determine 
circumstantials not by him determined. 46. Where God owneth 
men's doctrines and examples by miracles, they are to be taken as 
infallibly divine; much more, when commission, promises, and mi- 
racles, do concur, which confirmeth the apostles' examples for cur- 
rent. 47-Sothatifanyofthekings or prophets had given laws,and 
formed the church, as Moses, they had not been binding, because 
without the said comniission ; or if any other minister of the 
Gospel shall by word or action arrogate an apostolical privilege. 
48. There is no verity about God, or the chief happiness of 
man written in nature, but it is to be found written in Scrip- 
tures,"^ 49. So that the same thing may, in these several 
respects, be the objecc both of knowledge and of faith. 50. 
The Scripture being so perfect a transcript of the law of 
nature or reason, is much more to be credited in its super- 
natural revelations. 51. The probability of most things, and 
the possibility of all things contained in the Scriptures, may well 
be discerned by reason itself, which makes their existence or 
futurity the more easy to be believed. 52. Yet before this 
existence or futurity of any thing beyond the reach of reason 

1 As Peter, Gal. ii. 12, 13. 

■n Sufficiunt quidem sanctae ac divinitus inspiratae Sciipturae ad omiiemiu- 
structionem veritatis. — Athcmas, lib. \.cont. Gentil, initio. 

268 THE saint's 

can be soundly believed, tbe testimony must be known to be 
truly divine. 53. Yet a belief of scripture doctrine as probable, 
doth usually go before a belief of certainty, and is a good pre- 
parative thereto. 54. The direct, express sense, must be believed 
directly and absolutely as infallible, and the consequences where 
they may be clearly and certainly raised : but where there is 
danger of erring in raising consequences, the assent can be but 
weak and conditional. 55. A consequence raised from Scrip- 
ture, being no part of the immediate sense, cannot be called 
any part of Scripture. 56. Where one of the premises is in 
nature, and the other only in Scripture, there the conclusion is 
mixed, partly known, and partly believed. That it is the con- 
secjuence of those premises is known ; but that it is a truth, is, 
as I said, apprehended by a mixed act. Such is a Christian's 
concluding himself to be justified and sanctified, &c. 57. 
Where, through weakness, we are unable to discern the conse- 
quences, there is enough in the express direct sense for salva- 
tion. 58. Where the sense is not understood, there the belief 
can be but implicit. 59. Where the sense is partlv understood, 
but with some doubting, the belief can be but conditionally ex- 
plicit ; that is, we believe it, if it be the sense of the word. 
60. Fundamentals must be believed explicitly and absolutely." 


The First Argument to prove Scripture to he the Word 

of God. 

Sect. 1. Having thus showed you in what sense the Scrip- 
tures are the word of God, and how far to be believed, and 

" Credere autem baec talia debenius IJeo, qui et nos fecit rectissime scientes, 
quia Scriptura? quidem perfectse sunt; quippe a verbo Dei et s[)iritu ejus 
dictata?. Nos auiem secundum quod miiiores sunius, et iiovissiuii a \erbo 
Dei et spiritu ejus, secundum hoc et scientia niy;tenorum ejus indi^jenius. 
Et lion est iniruiu si iu spiritualibus, ccelestibus, in his qua; habent reve- 
lari, hoc ])atiiuur nos : quandoquidem etiam eoruni quiB ante pedes sunt, 
(dico auteui quae sunt in hac creatura, quje et conteruntur a nobis, 
et videntur, et sunt nobiscum) niuit.i fuj;;erunt nostrani scientiam, et Deo 
hsec ij)ba coiniuiltimus. Oportet enini eum prai omnibus prasceliare. 
Quid eniui si tentenius exponcre causaui ascensionis Nili ? MuUa quideiu 
diciinus, et fortassis suasoria, ioriassis auiem iion suasoria ; quod auteni verum 
est et certuin adjacet Deo. Sed et volantium animaliuai hahitatio, eoruin 
qute \eris tempore ad\eiiiuut ad nos, et autumni receduut, cum in hoc mundo 
hoc ipsum (iat, i'ugit iioitrdm scieuliciiu, &c. — Jvcnaus adv, Hares, lib, 2. 
c. 47. 


what is the excellency, necessity, and authority of them, I shall 
now add three or four arguments to help your faith, whicli, I 
hope, will not only prove them to he a divine testimony to the 
substance of doctrine (though that be a useful work against 
unbelief), but also that they are the very written laws of God, 
and a perfect rule of faith and duty. (2 Tim. iii.lG.) My argu- 
ments shall be but few, because 1 handle it but on the by, and 
those such as I find little of in ordinary writings, lest I siiould 
waste time in doing what is done to my hands. 

1. "Those writings and that doctrine which were confirmed 
by many and real i' miracles, must needs be of God, and conse- 
seijuently of undoubted truth. But the books and doctrines of 
canonical Scripture were so confirmed : therefore, &c. 

Against the major proposition nothing of any moment can be 
said ; for it is a truth apparent enough to nature, that none but 
God can work real miracles, or, at least, none but those whom 
he doth especially enable thereto ; and it is as manifest that the 
righteous and faithful God will not give this power for a seal to 
any falsehood or deceit. 

The usual objections are these: first, antichrist shall come 
with lying wonders.*^ 

Answ. They are no true miracles : as they are repara xl/^vSovs, 
(2Thess. ii. 9,) lying, in sealing to a lying doctrine : so also in 
being but seeming and counterfeit miracles. The like may be 
said to those of Pharaoh's magicians, and all other sorcerers 
and witches, and those that may be wrought by Satan himself. 
They may be wonders, but not miracles."^ 

° See this arg'umeiit from miracles, managed bv Camero Prrelect. ' De Verbo 
T>ei,' (lol.) pp. 439—441, &c., and Grotius ' De Verit. Religioiiis Christian^.' 
Vide et Polaii. Syntag. lib. 1. c. 17. 

^ Donum et miracuiorum etiinguarum dandarum fiiisse et extraordinarium, 
et a soils apostolis (peculiar! privile^io dato k Christo) coiiferri soiituin, 
certo certius est.— Datiteus contr. Bellarm. de Bajitismo, p. 41;^. But this 
certio certiusis a mistake, if he intend to exclude all besides apostles. 

1 Nam ut jEcjyptiorum vatum nequaquam vis omnis aequari gratias potest, 
quae Mosi miraiidum est in modum collata. Sed exitus arjjuit, ^g-yptios 
praest!g;iis niti : Moysen vero quas gesserit, gessisse diviiiitu';. Sic ct eoruin 
qui Chrisii falso sibi nomen adsciscunt, et qui perinde ac Jesu discipuli vir- 
tutes mentiutitur et prodigia ; coarguuntur plane vel in oniiiis iniquitatis 
seductiones fallaces, 6ic.— 0rigen. com. Celsum, lib. 2. fol. (niihi) 2S. G. I 
ilo not not believe that God would have let the Eg'yptian sorcerers do so i^reat 
thinofs as they did, had not Moses been present, that so his miracles might 
discredit their wonders, and God be the more magnified by the conquest. 

^ I'ueruiit miracula ut bucciiiae atque pra;cones quihus evangeliuni com- 
mendabatur. Ut enim lex Mosis compluribus niiraculis in monte Sina; et 
per desertum aulhuritatcm sibi couciUavit, qua; postea destivei uiit cum d 

C«r« «cal/ Mt t» csiil tiK petMi dot 

at rmmi— ifitiiil, mm 1m %m ^^ry^ Iwt tfxadwiGwIyaa^ferlHi 
^0ms,ir,tvrr, imA40itkmmwmmtt.9m( tmatamakwA\m9t3kio 

,«»<. 'WM-«,«,ia.^fajJi«rirti,».^i.r.wteS 

^L^^i^A ^m m^^^s^A WSK^t^tt ^^f^ajl^t ^r^aai^^flr ■^^fl^b ^^^^^g^^^Bgi^^^^ ^Abs^ tftt^^Mnfl^vatf^^AflB 

BB^^Hl fl^K K^^I^^La Xl^BV^T ffj^l^ufU sl^^B^^K HK^^^Vl ^^H^^^^^V^^^^^^H. ^^^^^^L ^^^^^■^^^^^H^^^^H. 
^^W^^* ^^^ ^^^^^Pj •■*^>-'» ^^^i^^H^i^ m^h'^^9'^ nn^^^t^ ^^^•■ib^ibbW'^^ ■■■■■v •^■■••■■■^•^^^■^ 

-■Ml s winAf^ im G«l wnU «il: kwr «ak4 t» a fie. 

t<i* W ^. fmfi m mr if dt € hmmatumt ami fMkte ; w 

'iifu: . iei ia Ike fMifrfbcti ami afontfet «M «dC 

->¥)«WBe, wmU iHM Wfieve it ? 
i^ . 3i htuartu Usatek am t^iber 

r.%ft>w, I »»*ir^ 3pr« S!»T l«il«« te^eJier the 

y, UK •-« s i4» en. 

lammcs 3I7C ziK XviK dssnuim 
anmadk ami & iMoiies. ami $» iaoivs aoc^oir ar Mfe«e^ ao: "ms- 

«iA v^ry ^icesc am£ ^ .n&isesv 3r ^vij^ vnert; aamni ami 

VE^iifflirir uneHBS nit iMOKi^cun: jr^ ^nntin^^ imi isoaiK iir 3i« 

he £icSt Tise 3:. ^ sarfhenaicV mamfeagct ;ait ^ r 

— ^^ SataaV ^— mfe « » aB» anritas aamrV <toot . .^- 

is£ ^iittu^ a«r!iua;s,. tsuno;^ tTur ie^aurao!^ sti^3uc 

ctiniAi^amiSatata^gggMfeiBngAi. Jksz^r^saiu:vrt!aie<iBi&c:3/ 

:m: '^ Ttfeij* 3S7 JS5? i«f iinftiait aufttas.. secwcV aui- » 

» aa 4^^ *jc asuaiy »«MCTf «««' ^ir ■-• ' - ;--^- 
3&)» ^smi^e ami atsm:^ wcuki ^ifct;. 

a^ iiJX ami «?c«t x^ssancn;:*^ >wt »?c war ex:.»*?vT 

litifi^ o«C3cti.y^ ^ac rh«» ati^tkc ^nr 3u> -•> mi vr : . :» 

$ujfii» ^kuii4. lisaDi^. iit»i ^jjsna: tlw "i^Axi x. -^ 

« lfi$«t <7jiKan£» 4ft IlK^ >«£ tiit^ >iuL I. :>tab ^<; D^-tL <tt. CS.' 

272 THE saint's 

multitudes of his followers, whom he enabled, when he was gone 
from them, to do the like, to speak strange languages before 
multitudes, to heal the sick and lame, and raise the dead. And 
usually false wonders are done but among friends, that would 
have it so, and are ready to believe ; but Christ wrought his in 
the midst of enemies that gnashed the teeth, and had nothing 
to say against it. And I am persuaded that it was one reason 
why God would have Christ and all his followers have so many 
and cruel enemies, that when they had nothing to say against it, 
who doubtless would pry narrowly into all, and make the worst 
of it, it might tend to the establishing of believers afterwards. 
Again, usually false miracles, as they crept out in the dark, so 
they were not divulged till some after ages, and only a little 
muttered of at the present : but Christ and his apostles wrought 
and published them openly in the world. If the Gospel history 
had been false, how many thousand persons could have witnessed 
against it, seeing they appealed to thousands of witnesses then 
living, of several ranks and qualities, and countries ? It is true, 
indeed, the magicians of Egypt did seem to go far. But 
consider whether they were mere delusions, or real wonders by 
secret, natural means; doubtless, they were no miracles directly so 
called. And lest any should say that God tempted them by 
such above their strength, you may observe that he doth not 
suffer Satan to do what he can do, without a sufficient counter 
testimony to undeceive men. When did God suffer the like 
deceit as those sorcerers used ? Nor would he then have suf- 
fered it, but that Moses was at hand to overcome their delu- 
sions, and leave the beholders with full conviction, that so the 
enemies' strength might make the victory the more glorious. 
Balaam could not go beyond the word of the Lord. So that I 
desire all weak believers to observe this, That as God is the 
faithful Ruler of the world, so he will not let loose the enemy of 
mankind to tempt us by wonders, further than he himself shall 
give us a sufficient contradictory testimony. So that if we do not 
know the difference between a miracle and a wonder, yet God's 
faithfulness afibrds us a sufficient preservative, if we disregard 
it not. And if we should grant that Satan can work miracles; 
yet he being wholly at God's dispose, it is certain that God will 
uot permit him to do it, without a full contradiction ; and, 
therefore, such as Christ's miracles he shall never work. Else 
should the creature be remcdilcssly deluded by supernatural 
powers, while God looks on. 


Secondly: But the main assault I know will be made against 
the minor projjosition of" the argument, and so the question will 
be, tie facto, whether ever such miracles were wrought or not ? 
I shall grant that we must not here argue circularly to prove 
the doctrine to be of God by the miracles, and then the mira- 
cles to have been wrought by the divine testimony of the doc- 
trine, and so round. But yet, to use the testimony of the his- 
tory of Scripture, as a human testimony of the matter of fact, is 
no circular arguing. 

Sect. II. Toward the confirmation of the minor, therefore, I 
shall first lay these grounds : 1. That there is so much certainty 
in some human testimony, that may exclude all doubting, or 
cause of doubting jv or there is some testimony immediately 
human, which yet may truly be said to be divine : 2. That such 
testimony we have of the ^ miracles mentioned in Scripture. If 
these two be cleared, the minor will stand firm, and the main 
work here will be done. 

First : I will therefore show you, that there is such a certainty 
in some human testimony. Both experience and reason will 
confirm this. First, I would desire any rational man to tell me, 
whether he that never was at London, at Paris, or at Rome, 
may not be certain, by a human faith, that there are such cities ? 
for my own part, 1 think it as certain to me, nay, more certain, 
than that which I see : and I should sooner question my own 
sight alone, than the eyes and credit of so many thousands in 
such a case. And I think the sceptic arguments brought against 
the certainty of sense, to be as strong as any that can be 
brought against the certainty of such a testimony. Is it not 
somewhat more than probable, think you, to the multitudes that 
never saw either parliament or king, that yet there is such an 
assembly, and such a person : may we not be fully certain that 
there was such a person as King James, as Queen Elizabeth, as 
Queen Mary, &:c., here in England ; yea, that there was such a 

y De certitudine Histor. lege Reignoldum ' De Lib. Apocr. Prselect.' 124— 
126". Respondeo, esse quaudam famam, qua tanti esse debet ; tantiB, inquam, 
authoritatis, ac si rem ipsam oculis usurpassemus. Camer. 'Praelect. de Verbo," 
fol. p. 440. See there his full proof that these miracles of Christ and the 
disciples have such infaliibie testimony, and by what conditions certain fame 
may be known from uncertain. 

^ Fides humana non habet sua natura certitudinem infallibilem : quamvis 
sit fides humana, quae moraliter loquendo, evidens et infallibilis censetur ; ut 
quod Homa sit, quod ladi sint, &c. — Ames, in Disput, de Fidel Divin, Veritat. 
thes. 3. 


274 THE saint's 

man as William the Conqueror : may we not be certain, also, 
that he conquered England ; with many other of his actions ? 
The like may be said of Julius Caesar, of Alexander the Great, 
^'c.^' Surely, those who charge all human testimony with un- 
certainty, do hold their lands then upon an uncertain tenure. 

Secondly: It may be proved, also, by reason; for, 1. If the 
first testifiers may infallibly know it ; and, 2. Also by an infal- 
lible means transmit it to posterity ', and, 3. Have no intent to 
deceive ; then their testimony may be an infallible testimony. 
But all these three may easily be proved. I had thought to 
have laid down here the rules, by which a certain human testi- 
mony may be discerned from an uncertain ; but you may easily 
gather them from what I shall lay down for the confirmation of 
these three positions. 

For the first, I suppose none will question, whether the testi- 
fiers might infallibly know the truth of what they testify ? If 
they should, let them consider : First, If it be not matter of doc- 
trine, much less abstruse and difficult points, but only matter of 
fact, then it is beyond doubt it mav be certainly known. Se- 
condly, If it be those also who did see, and hear, and handle, 
who do testify it. Thirdly, If their senses were sound and per- 
fect, within reach of the object, and having no deceiving medi- 
um. Fourthly, Which may be discerned, 1. If the witnesses be 
a multitude ; for then it may be known they are not blind or 
deaf, except they had been culled out of some hospitals ; espe- 
cially when all present do both see and hear them : 2. When 
the thing is done openly, in the daylight : 3. When it is done 
frequently, and near at hand ; for then there would be full 
opportunity to discover any deceit. So that in these cases it is 

» Nothing commoner in Paul's Epistles than the mention of those miracles 
which were done among them and by themselves to whom he wrote. This 
had been stark madness., and not only folly in Paul, if he had lied. For he 
hrought not arguments remote from their senses to whom he wrote, but he 
mentioneth those miracles which they themselves did work to whom he 
■wrote ; yea, he provoked them to miracles, that from thence they might judge 
of his apostleship. There is no deceiver that dare do thus, especially if his 
deceit be called into question. We conclude, therefore, that the report of 
fame ought to be believed, the authors whereof have so commended the things 
reported to posterity,, that they might easily be discovered by them that lived 
in those times. — Camera in Prcelect. de Verho, folio, p. 441. The reasons why 
no more mention is made of Christ's miracles by pagan writers, you may find 
in Camero ' De Verbo Dei,' p. 441, where he shows also, as the malice, so the 
gross ignorance of Suetonius, Tacitus, and the best of their writers, both in 
the Syrian affairs and in the matters of the Jewish and Christian religion, 
which caused their palpable, ridiculous errors. 


doubtless, sense is infallible, and, consequently, those that see 
and hear, are most certain witnesses. 

2. Next let us see, whether we may be certain that any tes- 
timony is sincere, without a purpose to deceive us. And I take 
that for undoubted in the following cases : 1. Where the party 
is ingenious and honest : 2. And it is apparent he drives on no 
design of his own, nor cannot expect any advantage in the 
world ',^ 3. Nay, if his testimony will certainly undo him in the 
world, and prove the overthrow of his ease, honour, estate, and 
life. 4. And if it be a multitude that do thus testify, how can 
they do it with an intent to deceive? 5. And if their several 
testimonies do agree ; 6. And if the very enemies deny not this 
matter of fact, but only refer it to other causes, then there is no 
possibility of deceit, as 1 shall further, anon, evince, when I 
apply it to the question : 7. And if no one of the witnesses in 
life, or at the hour of death, did ever repent of his testimony, 
and confess it a deceit ; as certainly some one would have done 
for so great a sin, if it had been so. 

Thirdly : We are to prove, that there are infallible means of 
transmitting such testimony down to posterity, without depraving 
any thing substantial. And then it will remain an undoubted 
truth, that there is a full certainty in some human testimony, 
and that to posterity at a remote distance. 

Now, this tradition is infallible in these cases: 1. If it be 
(as before said) in matter of fact only, which the meanest 
understandings are capable of apprehending. 2. If it be also 
about the substance of actions, and not every small circum- 
stance. 3. And also if those actions were famous in their 

^ Quinam isti sint fortasse'quseritis ? gentes, populi, nationes, et incredu- 
lum illud genus humanum ; quod nisi aperta res esset, et luce ipsa clarior, 
nunquam rebus hujusmodi credulitatis suae commodarent assensum. An 
nunquid dicemus illius temporis homines, usque adeo fuissevanos, mendaces, 
stolidos, brutes, ut quas nunquam viderant ? vidisse se fingerent ? et quae 
facta omnino non erant, falsis proderent testimoniis aut puerili assertione fir- 
marent ? Cumque possentvobiscuin etunanimiter vivere, et inoffensas ducere 
conjunctiones, gratuita susciperent odia, et execrabili haberentur in nomine ? 
— Arnobius advers. Gentes, lib. i. p. (mihi) 46. Nee dixerit aliquis opuin 
assequeiidarum gratia eos id agere. Qui plerumque ue ad victuin quidem 
necessaria capiunt. Et si forte aliquid pree rerum inopia capere quandoque 
coguntur, sola sunt necessitate contenti. Cum ingens hominum multitudo 
ad Christianam doctrinam accesserit, et praedivites quidam, et ex his aliqui 
qui gesserint magistratus, et matronae insuper opulentae et nobiles, audebit 
ne aliquis gloricB cupiditate hos illosve suae affirmareChristianae religionis an- 
tistites fieri, &c. — Origen, cont. Celsu?n, lib. iii. fol. (mihi) 30. 


276 THE saint's 

times, and of great note and wonder in the world, and such as 
were tlie cause of public and eminent alterations. 4. If it be 
delivered down in writing, and not only by word of mouth, 
where the change of speech might alter the sense of the matter. 
.5. If the records be public, where the very enemies may see 
them ; yea, published on purpose by heralds and ambassadors, 
that the world may take notice of them. 6. If they are men 
of greatest honesty in all ages, who have both kept and di- 
vulged these records. 7- And if there have been also a 
multitude of these. 8. And this multitude of several countries, 
where they could never so much as meet to agree upon any 
deceiving counsels : much less all accord in such a design ; 
and, least of all, be able to manage it with secrecy. 9. If also 
the after-preservers and divulgers of these records could have 
no more self-advancing ends, than the first testifiers. 10. Nay, 
if their divulging and attesting these records, did utterly ruin 
their estates and lives, as well as it did the first testifiers. 
1 1. If there be such a dispersing of the copies of these records 
all over the vvorld, that the cancelling and abolishing them is 
a thing impossible. 12. If the very histories of the ene- 
mies never affirm any universal abolishing and consuming of 
them."^ 13. If all these dispersed copies through the world 
do perfectly agree in everything material. 14. If it were a 
matter of such moment in the judgment of the preservers, 
neither to add nor diminish) that they thought their eternal 
salvation did lie upon it. 15. If the histories of their enemies 
do generally mention their attesting these records to the loss of 
their lives, and that successfully in every age. 16. If these 
records and attestations are yet visible to the world, and that in 
such a form as none could coimterfeit. 17. If the enemies 
that lived near, or in those times when the things were done, 
do, 1. Write nothing against them of any moment.'^ 2. But 
oppose them with fire and sword, instead of argument. 3. Nay, 

"= I do confidently say, that for extrinsical testimonies contradicting these of 
the Scripture, there are none such at all to be found, unless you will take the 
sayings of such as were both born lonif after, and Mere professed enemies of 
the christian name. — Grolius de f'er. Jielio-. l\h. iu. p. (niihi) 168. And it 
is a strong confirmation, -when no man can produce one contradictory testi- 
mony of that age. De legis instauratione per Esdram, et an amissae, an 
tantum corruptee essent Scripture, lege Serrarii Prolegom. c. 12. q. 1. et quae 
colligit Euseb. Nieremb. ' de Orig. S. Scrip.' lib.iv. c. 19. 

^ Rabbini et aJii. 


if they acknowledge the fact, but deny the cause only.^ 
18. And if all the enemies were incompetent witnesses. 1. Wit- 
nessing to the negative, of which they could have no certainty. 
2. And carried on with apparent malice and prejudice. 3. And 
having all worldly advantages attending tlieir cause. 4. And 
being generally men unconscionable and impious. 19. If all 
these enemies, having all these worldly advantages, could 
neither by arguments nor violence, hinder people from believing 
these famous and palpable matters of fact, in the very age 
wherein they were done, when the truth and falsehood might 
most easily be discovered, but that the generality of beholders 
were forced to assent. 20. If multitudes of the most ingenious 
and violent enemies, have in every age from the very acting of 
these things to this day, been forced to yield, and turned as 
zealous defenders of these records and their doctrine, as ever 
they were oppcsers of them before. 21. If all these converts 
do confess upon their coming in, that it was ignorance, or pre- 
judice, or worldly respects, that made them oppose so much 
before. 22. If all the powers of the world, that can burn the 
bodies of the witnesses, that can overthrow kingdoms, and 
change their laws, could never yet reverse and abolish these 
records. 23. Nay, if some notable judgment in all ages, have 
befallen the most eminent opposers thereof. 24. And lastly, 
if successions of wonders (though not miracles as the first) have 
in all ages accompanied the attestation of these records. I sav, 
if all these tvventy-four particulars do concur, or most of these, 
T leave it to the judgment of any man of understanding, whether 
there be not an infallible way of transmitting matter of fact 
to posterity ? And, consequently, whether there be not more 
than a probability, even a full certainty, in such a human tes- 

Sect. III. 2. The second thing which I am to manifest, is, 
that we have such a testimony of the miracles, which confirmed 
the doctrine and writings of the IMble.'' 

And here 1 must run over the three foregoing particulars 
again ; and show you. First, That the witnesses of scripture 

^ Justin Martyr tellethTryphon, in his Dialogue, of the wickedness of the 
Jews, tiiat they sent out into all parts of the world their choicest men, to per- 
suade the people aj;ainst the Christians, that they are atheists, and would 
abolish the Ueity; and thai they were convicted of i^ross inipiely. And yet 
this mischievous industry of the Jews did not prevail. 

f Episcopi cornniuniter tunc habebaut potestatem faciendi miracula, inquit 
Dionysius, ' Carthu. ju Apocal.' c. 3. 

278 THE saint's 

miracles could, and did infallibly know the truth which they 
testified : Secondly, That they had no intent to deceive the 
world : and. Thirdly, That it hath been brought down to pos- 
terity by a way so infallible, that there remains no doubt whether 
our records are authentic. For the first of these, I think it will 
be most easily acknowledged. Men are naturally so confident 
of the infallibility of their own senses, that surely they will not 
suspect the senses of others. But if they should, let them have 
recourse to what is said before, to put them out of doubt. First, 
It was matter of fact, which might be easily discerned. Secondly, 
The apostles and others who bore witness to it were present, 
yea, continual companions of Christ, and the multitude of 
Christians were eye-witnesses of the miracles of the apostles.s 
Thirdly, These were men neither blind nor deaf, but of as 
sound and perfect senses as we. Fourthly, This is apparent ; 
1. Because they were great multitudes, even that were present, 
and therefore could not all be blind ; if they had, how did they 
walk about ? Fifthly, These miracles were not done by night, 
nor in a corner, but in the open light, in the midst of the people. 
Sixthly, They were not once or twice only performed, but very 
oft, of several kinds, by several persons, even prophets, and 
Christ himself and his apostles, in many generations ; so that, 
if there had been any deceit, it might have been easily disco- 
vered. Seventhly, and lastly, It was in the midst of vigilant 

^ Beholding the creatures with astonishment, they saw all confessing Christ 
the Lord : they that had their cogitations intent on men, as if they had been 
gods, comparing Christ's works with theirs ; they acknowledged that Christ 
only amongst men, was God, and the Sou of God, and our Saviour, when they 
saw that there was no such works wrought by men, as were by the Word of 
God. They that had believed devils to be gods, seeing them overcome by 
Christ, they were constrained to confess him only to be God. They, whose 
minds went after the dead, as being accustomed to worship gallant men when 
they were dead, whom the poets called gods, being better taught by our Sa- 
viour's resurrection, they confessed them to be false and liars, and that the 
Word of the Father was the only true God, who had the command of death. — 
Atlianas. de Incnrnat. T'erbi. Maxima est differentia inter, 1. Testificatio- 
nem primitivae ecclesiae quae fuit tempore apostolorum : 2. Inter testificatio- 
nem ecclesiae quae proxime post apostolorum tempora secuta est, quaeque 
primae ecclesiae testificationem acceperat : 3. Et inter testificatiouem praesentis 
ecclesias de Scriptura. Quae enim et nunc et antea fuit ecclesia, si potest 
ostendere testimonia eorum qui acceperant et noverant testificationem primae 
ecclesiae de germanis scriptis, credimus ei, ut testi probanti sua dicta : non 
autem habet potestatem statuendi aut decernendi aliquid de libris sacris, cujus 
non possit certa documenta ex testificatione primitivae ecclesiae proferre. — 
Chemnit. Exam. Cone. Tridentin. part. 1. initio, p. 80. Quisquisadhuc pro- 
digia, ut credat, inquirit, magnum est ipse prodigium, qui mundo credeute^ 
non credit. — Dr. Humfredus in Jesuitis7n, p. 166. August. 


and subtle enemies, who were able and ready enough to have 
evinced the deceit. 

So that it remains certain that the first eye-witnesses thenv 
selves were not deceived. 

2. Let us next consider whether it be not, also, as certain 
that they never intended the deceiving of the world ? 

First : It is evident that they were neither fools nor knaves, 
but men of ingenuity, and extraordinary honesty ; there needs 
no more to prove this, than their own writings, so full of enmity 
against all kind of vice, so full of conscientious zeal and hea- 
venly affections. Yet is this their honesty also attested by their 
enemies. Surely the very remnants of natural honesty are a 
divine offspring, and do produce also certain effects according to 
their strength and nature. God hath planted and continued 
them in man, for the use of societies, and common converse : 
for if all honesty were gone, one man could not believe ano- 
tiier, and so could not converse together. But now supernar 
tural, extraordinary honesty, will produce its effect more 
certainly ; if three hundred, or three thousand honest, godly men 
should say, they saw such things with their eyes, he is very 
incredulous that would not believe it. 

Secondly : It is apparent that neither prophets, apostles, nor 
disciples, in attesting these things, could drive on any designs 
of their own.^ Did they seek their honour, or ease, or profit, 
or worldly delights ? Did their Master give them any hopes 
of these ? Or did they see any probability of their attaining 
it ? Or did they see any of their fellows attain it before them ? 

'• Nemo jam infamiam incutiat : nemo aliud existimet : quia nee fas est ulli de 
sua religioiie mentiri. Ex eo enim quod aliud a se coli dicit, quam colit, et cul- 
turam, et honorem in alterum transfert: et transferendo jam non colit quod 
negavit. Dicimus, et palam dicimus, et vobis torquentibus lacerati et cruenti 
vociferamur, " Deum colimus per Christum," ilium hominem putate : per 
eum, et in eo se cognosci vult Deus et coli. — Tertullinn. Apologet. c. 11. 
Quod si falsa (ut dicitis) historia est ilia rerum, unde tam brevi tempore totus 
mundus ista religione completus est? Asseverationibus allecti sunt nudis, 
inducti in spes cassas, et in pericula capitis immittere se sponte temeraria 
desperatione voluerunt ? Cum nihil tale vidissent, quod eos in hos cultus 
novitatis suae possit excitare miraculo ? Immo quia hsec omnia ab ipso cer- 
nebant geri, et ab ejus pra;conibus qui per orbem totum missi beneficia patris 
et muuera hominibus portabant; veritatis ipsius vi victi, dederunt sese Deo : 
nee in magnis posuere dispendiis membra vobis projicere, et viscera sua lani- 
anda prcebere.— ^raofiJMS aduers. Gent. lib. i. p. 46, Julian coufesseth that 
those were the writings of Peter, Paul, Mark, Luke, which the Christians 
ascribed to them. 

280 THE saint's 

Thirdly : Nay, was it not a certain way to their ruin in the 
world ? Did not their Master tell them, when he sent them 
out, that they should be persecuted of all for his sake and the 
Gospel's ? Did they not find it true, and therefore expected the 
like themselves ? Paul knew, that in every city, bonds and 
afflictions did abide him. And they lay it down as a granted 
rule, that he that will live godly in Christ Jesus, must suffer 
persecution. Now I would fain know, whether a man's self, his 
estate, his liberty, his life, be not naturally so near and dear to 
all, that they would be loath to throw it away, merely to deceive 
and cozen the world ? All that I know can be objected is, that 
they may do it out of a desire to be admired in the world for 
their godliness, and their suffering. 

Answ. 1. Go see where you can find thousands or millions of 
men that will cast away their lives to be talked of. 

2. Did they not, on the contrary, renounce their own honour 
and esteem, and call themselves vile and miserable sinners, and 
speak worse of themselves than the most impious wretch will 
do, and extol nothing but God and his Son .lesus ? 

3. ]3id not their Master foretell them, that they should be so 
far from getting credit by his service, that they should be 
hated of all men, and their names cast out as evil-doers ? Did 
they not see him spit upon, and hanged on a cross among thieves 
before their eyes, some of them ? Did they not find by experi- 
ence, that their way was every where spoken against ? And 
the reproach of the cross of Christ was the great stumbling- 
block to the world ? And could men possibly choose such a 
way for vain-glory ? I am persuaded it is one great reason why 
Christ would have the first witnesses of the Gospel to suffer so 
much to confirm their testimony to future ages, that the world 
might see that they intended not to deceive them. 

Fourthly : Consider, also, what a multitude these witnesses 
were.' How could so many thousands of several countries lay 
the plot to deceive the world ? They were not only thousands 
that believed the Gospel, but thousands that saw the miracles of 
Christ, and many cities and countries that saw the miracles of 
the apostles. 

Fifthly : And the testimony of all doth so punctually accord, 
that the seeming contradiction in some smaller circumstances, 

• In unam coire qui potuerunt mentem Gentes regionibus disjunctje, ven- 
tis, cceli convexionibusque dimotae ? &c, — Arnob, ubi svpra. 


doth but show their simplicity and sincerity, and their agree- 
ment in the main.j 

Sixthly: And is it possible that no one of them would so 
much as at death, or in torments, have detected the deceit ? 

Seventhly and lastly : The very enemies acknowledge this 
matter of fact ; ^ only they ascribe it to other causes. They 
could not deny the miracles that were wrought : even to this 
day the Jews acknowledge much of the works of Christ, but 
slanderously father them upon the power of the devil, or upon 
the force of the name of God sewed in Christ's thigh, and such- 
like ridiculous stories they have : even the Turks confess much 
of the miracles of Christ, and believe him to be a great Prophet, 
though they are professed enemies to the christian name. 

So that I think by all this it is certain, that the first wit- 
nesses of the miracles of Christ and his apostles, as they were 
not deceived themselves, so neither had they any intent to de- 
ceive the world. 

3. We are next to show you, that the way that this testimony 
hath come down to us, is a certain infallible way. For, ^ 

1. Consider, it is a matter of fact j (for the doctrine we are 
not now mentioning, except de facto, that this was the doctrine 

2. They were the substances of the actions that they chiefly 
related, and that we are now inquiring after the certainty of. 
Though men may mistake in the circumstances of tiie fight at 
such a place, or such a place, yet that there were such fights 
we may certainly know. Or though they may mistake in smaller 
actions, circumstances, or qualifications, of Henry the Eighth, 

J Of the heathen ancient writers' attestations to the several histories of tlie 
Bible, I shall particularly say little, it btiiug- done so fully by Grotius ' De 
Ver. Christ. Rel.' lib. i. s. 16, 22. lib. ii. s. 7. lib. iii. s. 16. Tertul. tie pra;- 
scriptione affirmat ipsas authenticas apostolorum literas, hoc est ipsa scripta 
apostolorum suo adhuc tempore in ecclesiis apostolicis conservata extitisse. 

'' Eodem momento dies, medium ordem signante sole, subductaest. Deli- 
quium utique putaverunt, qui id quocjue sujier Cliristo praedicatum ncscierunt. 
Et tamen euui mundi casum relatum in archivis vestris habetis. — Tartul, 
Jpol. c. 21. 

' Every sect that acknovvledojeth God and Christ, hath those books as we 
have ; and every sect usinfj its testimony against the other, shows it was not 
falsified; for if it had, the adverse sect would have discovered it, as Grot, 
' De Verit. Rel.' lib. iii. s. 15. Irenteus, TertuUian, Cyprian, Lactaiitius, and 
the rest of the eldest fathers, fully manifest, that the several books of the New 
Testament were then current and uncorrupt in the church ; and alleg^e abun- 
dance of places in the same words, as tliey are now in our Bibles, as Justin 
Martyr, Arnobius, Lactantius, Atbenagoras, &c., do out of the Old, 

282 THE saint's 

of William the Conqueror, &c. ; yet that there were such men 
we may certainly know. Now the thing we inquire after is, 
whether such miracles were wrought, or not ? 

3. They were actions then famous through the world, "^ and 
made great alterations in states : they turned the world upside 
down : cities were converted, countries and rulers were turned 
Christians. And may not the records in eminent actions be cer- 
tain ? We have certain records of battles, of sieges, of succes- 
sions of princes among the heathens before the coming of 
Christ, and of the great alterations in our own state for a very 
long time. 

4. It was a formal record" in the very words of the first wit- 
nesses in writing, which hath been delivered to us, and not only 
any unwritten testimony ; so that men's various conceivings or 
expressions could make no alteration. 

5. These records, which we call the Scripture, have been 
kept publicly in all these ages ; so that the most negligent 
enemy might have taken notice of its depravation. Yea, God 
made it the office of his ministers to publish it, whatever came 
of it, to all the world, and pronounced a wo to them if they 
preach not this Gospel ; which preaching was both the divulging 
of the doctrine and miracles of Christ, and all out of these 
authentic records. And how then is it possible there should 
be a universal depravation, and that even in the narration of 
the matters of fact, when all nations almost, in all these ages 
since the original of the history, have had these heralds who 
have proclaimed it to the death ? 

"' The occasion of writings the several books of the New Testament, you 
may see in Chemnit. ' Exa. Concilii Trid.,' in the beginning. 

"Dico evangeliuniLucae quod tuemur apud ecclesias apostolicas, et jam uni- 
versas ab initio editionis suse stare. — Tertul. adv. 31arc. Vide Sibrand. Jiib- 
bert. ' De Principiis Christianorum Dogmatiim,' 1. 2. &c. Jam etiam quemad- 
modum dixinius, et mortui resurrexerunt, et perseveraverunt nobiscum annis 
multis ; et quid autem ? Non est numerum dicere gratiarum, quas per uni- 
versum mundum ecclesia .\ Deo accipiens, in nomine Christi per singulos dies 
in opitulationem gentium perficit, neque scducens aliquem, nee pecuniam ei 
auferens. Quemadmoduni enim gratis accepit a. Deo gratis administrat. Nee 
invocationibus angelicis facial aliquid, nee iucantationibus, nee aliqua ]>rava 
curiositate. Sed munde et pure et manifeste orationes dirigentes ad Doniinum 
qui omnia fecit, et nomen Domini nostri Jesu Christi invocans, virtutes 
secundum utibtates hominum, sed non ad seductioneni perfecit. Si itaque et 
nunc nomem Domini nostri Jesu Christi beneficia pra^stat et curat firmissime, 
et vere omnes ubique credentes in eum, &c. — Irencrus advcrs. Hereses, lib. ii. 
c. 57. Evangelium adulterasse alios nullos praeter Marcionistas quosdam 
hereticos norini, et Valentini sectatores, et eos forte qui a Lucano quodam 
prodierant. — Origen, cont. Celsum, lib. ii. fol. (mihi) 20. 


6. And It is most apparent that the keepers and publishers 
of these records, have been men of most eminent piety and 
honesty. The same testimony which I gave before to prove the 
honesty of the first witnesses, will prove theirs, though in a 
lower degree : a good man, but a Christian, was the character 
given them by their very foes. 

7. They have been a multitude, almost innumerable. 

8. And these of almost every country under heaven. And 
let, any man tell me how all these, or the chief of them, could 
possibly meet, to consult about the depraving of ih^ history of 
the Scripture ? And whether it were possible, if such a mul- 
titude were so ridiculously dishonest, yet that they could carry 
on such a vain design with secrecy and success.P 

9. Also, the after-divulgers of the miracles of the Gospel, 
could have no more self-advancing ends for a long time than 
the first witnesses. 

10. Nay, it ruined them in the world, as it did the first, so 
that let any man judge whether there be any possibility that 
so many millions of so many nations should ruin themselves, 
and give their bodies to be burned, merely to deprave those 
Scriptures which they do profess ? 

11. Consider, also, when this sacred history was so dispersed 
over the world, whether the cancelling and extirpation of it ' 
were not a thing impossible, especially by those means that 
were attempted ?i 

12. Nay, there is no history of the enemies that doth mention 

" Even among the papists, the more learned and modest maintain the per- 
fection of the HebreV text of the Old Testament, as Arias, Paffninus, Vata- 
hlus, Cajetan. Quid est gens Judaeorum nisi quaedam scriniaria Christia- 
norum hajulans legem et prophetas in testimonium assertionis ecclesiae? — 
Aug. cont. Faust. Manichceum, lib. xii. c. 23. 

P There were some of the first copies kept till two hundred years after : and 
a book that was so dispersed in so many copies, and kept not by private men, 
but by the public diligence of the church, could not be falsified. Moreover, 
in the very first ages it was translated into the Syriac, the Ethiopic, the Ara- 
bic, and Latin tongues ; which translations are all yet extant, and in nothing 
of any moment differ from the Greek books. Besides, we have the writings 
of those that were instructed by the apostles themselves, or their disciples, 
who cite abundance of places out of the Scriptures in the same sense as we 
read them now. Nor was there any man then of such authority in the church, 
as that they who have obeyed him if he had changed any thing, as Irenaeus's, 
Tertullian's, Cyprian's free dissent from those who were then most eminent, 
doth show. Next to these times there succeeded men of great learning and 
judgment, who, after diligent search, did receive these books as remaining in 
their primitive purity. — Grotius de Ferit, Relig. lib. iii. sect. 15, 

284 THE saint's 

any universal abolition or depravation of these records. When 
was the time, and where was the place, that all the Bibles in the 
world were gathered together, and consumed with fire, or cor- 
rupted with forgery r"" Indeed, Julian thought by prohibiting the 
schools of learning to the children of Christians, to have extir- 
pated Christianity; but Christ did quickly first extirpate him. 

13. All those copies of those sacred writings do yet accord, 
in all things material, which are found through the world. 
And consider them if they had been depraved, whether multi- 
tudes of copies, which had escaped that depravation, would not 
by their diversity, or contradiction, have bewrayed the rest? 

14. It was a matter of such a heinous quality, both by the 
sentence of the law, and in the consciences of the preservers 
and divulgers of it, to add or diminish the least tittle, that they 
thought it deserved eternal danniation. And I refer it to any 
man of reason, whether so many thousands of men through the 
world, could possibly venture upon eternal torment, as well as 
upon temporal death; and all this to deceive others, by deprav- 
ing the laws which they look to be judged by; or the history 
of those miracles which were the grounds of our faith? Is not 
the contrary somewhat more than probable ? 

15. Furthermore, the histories of the enemies do frequently 
mention that these Scriptures have been still maintained to the 
flames. Though thev revile the Christians, yet they report this 
their attestation, which proves the constant succession thereof, 
and the faithful delivery of Christianity and its records to us. 
It would be but needless labour to heap up here the several 
reports of pagan historians, of the numbers of Christians, their 
obstinacy in their religion, tlieir calamities and torments. 

16. These records and their attestations are yet visible over 
the world, and that in such a form as cannot possibly be coun- 
terfeit. Is it not enough to put me out of doubt, whether Homer 
ever wrote his Iliads, or Demosthenes his Orations, or Virgil 

1 Antiochus did what he could, but left the Jews their Scripture entire in 
despite of him. Nam cum tot secula intercesserint, nemo tanien quic- 
quam addere vel auferre vel permutare ausus iuit: omnibus enim nostrae 
gentis hoiniiiibus insita quodainmodo atque ingenita fides est, credere haec 
JJei esse consulta, et his acquiescere, ac pro ipsis, si ita res posceret, libenter 
animam ponere. — Josejih. cont. Amnav.. lib. i. Sic el Euseh. Eccles. Hist, 
lib. iii. c. 10. Ita Philo, refereiite Eusehio, ' Praeparat. Evanj.' lib. viii. c. 2. 
Mirabile niihi videtur duohus annorutn miilibus, imo niajore tempore jam fere 
transacto, nee verhum unum in lege illius esse immutatum, sed centies 
unusquisque Juda!orum prius niorietur; quam legi Mosaicae derogabit. 


and Ovid their several works, or iVristotle his volumes of so 
many of the sciences, when 1 see and read these books yet 
extant; and when I find them sucli, that I think can hardly now 
be counterfeited, no, nor imitated? But if they could, who 
would have been at the excessive pains, as to iiave spent his life 
in compiling such books, that he might deceive the world, and 
make men believe that they were the works of Aristotle, Ovid, 
&c.; would not any man rather have taken the honour to 
himself? so here the case is alike Yea, the Scriptures, though 
they have less of arts and sciences, yet are incomparably more 
difficult to have been counterfeited than the otlier; 1 mean 
before the first copies were drawn. I would here stay to show 
the utter impossibility of any man's forging these writings; but 
that I intend to make that a peculiar argument. 

17. Whether any enemy hath, with weight of argument, 
confuted the christian cause ; whether, when thev have under- 
taken it, it hath not been only arguing the improbability,'' or 
assigning the miracles to other causes, or an opposing the doc- 
trine delivered by the Christians,'' rather than these miraculous 
actions in question ; I leave those to judge who have read their 
writings; yea, whether their common arguments have not been 
fire and sword. 

18. It is an easy matter yet to prove, that the enemies of 
Scripture have been incompetent witnesses; 1. Being men that 
were not present, or had not the opportunity to be so well ac- 

^ They think the Scripture miracles incredible ; aixl yet every age still hath 
such wonders as the next ages will not believe. AViiy is not the raining of 
manna or quails from heaven as credible as the raining of that grain about 
ten years ago in England ? It fell in many parts of the kingdom, h was like 
a withered wheat corn, but not so long, with a skin of a dark colour, which 
being pulled otF, the grain had a taste somewhat sharp and hot. J tasted it, 
and kept some of it long, which fell on the leads of the church, and of the mi- 
nister's house in Bridgnorth, where 1 preached the Gospel : and within this 
year I have seen grain that hath fallen twice since; of which the latter 
seemed the same with the first above-mentioned ; but the other was of a dif- 
ferent sort. Jan. ICfil. Tiberius, upon a letter from Pilate of the miracles, 
death, and resurrection of Christ, did move in the senate to proclaim him to be 
God; but they refused, because the motion was not first from themselves: 
but the emperor did abide in his opinion still. — Egesip. Anaceplial. Where- 
fore Tertullian bids them, '* Go look iu your registers, and the acts of your 
senate," iu ' Apol.' Vide Usher, ' Brit. Eccl. Prim.' p. 3, 4. 

* Notbeingable to resist such open truths, or say any thing against them, they 
will not deny what is written, but say they yet expect these things, and that 
the word is not yet come. — Athanas, de Incarn. Verbi. Malunt nescire, quia 
jam oderunt : adeo quod nesciunt, pieejudicant id esse, quod si sciaut, odisse 
uou poteraut. — Tertal. Jpol, 1. 

286 THE saint's 

quainted with the actions of Christ, of the prophets and apos- 
tles, as themselves or others, that do attest them. 2. Being men 
of apparent mahce, and possessed with much prejudice against 
the persons and things which thev oppose. This I might easily 
and fully prove, if I could stand upon it. 3. They had all 
worldly advantages attending their cause, which they were all to 
lose, with life itself, if they had appeared for Christ. 4. They 
were generally men of no great conscience, nor moral honesty; and 
most of them of most sensual and vicious conversation. This ap- 
pears by their own writings, both doctrinal and historical.'' What 
sensual interpretations of the law did the very strict sect of the 
pharisees make ! What fleshly laws have the followers of Ma- 
homet ! What vices did the laws of the heathens tolerate ! 
Yea, what foul errors are in the ethics of their most rigid moral- 
ists ! And you may be sure that their lives were far worse than 
their laws ; and, indeed, their own histories do acknowledge as 
much. To save me the labour of mentioning them, read Dr. 
Hackwell's apology on that subject. Surely such men are incom- 
petent witnesses in any cause between man and man, and would 
be so judged at any impartial judicature. And, indeed, how is 
it possible that they should be much better, when they have no 
laws that teach them either what true happiness is, or what is 
the way and means to attain it ? 5. Besides all this, their tes- 
timony was onlv of the negative, and that in such cases as it 
could not be valid. 

19. Consider, also, that all the adversaries of these miracles 
and relations could not, with all their arguments or violence, 
hinder thousands from believing them, in the very time and 
country where they were done : but that they who did behold 
them, did generally assent at least to the matter of fact'; so that we 
may say with Austin, either they were miracles or not : if they 
were, why do you not believe ? if they were not, behold the 
greatest miracle of all, that so many thousands, even of the 
beholders, should be so blind, as to believe things that never 
were, especially in those very times when it was the easiest mat- 
ter in the world to have disproved such falsehoods. If there 

' Of the general wickedness of the Romans themselves, and all heathen 
enemies to Christ, the testimonies are too lar^e here to be inserted. You may 
find enough in Just. Martyr's ' Dialog, cum Triph.' and ' Apologies,' &c. In 
Tertullian's < Apol.' et passim; in Origen. ' Cont. Celsum ;' Arnobius 'Ad- 
vers. Gent. ;' Lactantius's 'Institutions;' Athenagoras, Tatianus, Minutius 
Fcelix, ' Advers. Gentil. ;' Athanas. passim, IreujEus, Clemens Alexandrinus, 
passim ; and all the writers of those times. 


should go a report now of a man at London, that should raise 
the dead, cure the blind, the deaf, the sick, the possessed, feed 
thousands with five loaves, fijc. ; and that a multitude of his fol- 
lowers should do the like, and that a great many times over 
and over, and that in the several parts of the land, in the pre- 
sence of crowds, and thousands of people. I pray you, judge 
whether it were not the easiest matter in the world to disprove 
this, if it were false ; and whether it were possible that whole 
countries and cities should believe it ? Nay, whether the easi- 
ness and certainty of disproving it, would not bring them all 
into extreme contempt ? 

Two things will be here objected : first, that then the adver- 
saries not believing, will be as strong against it, as the disciples 
believing is for it. Answ. Read what is said before of the 
adversary's incompetency, and it mav satisfy as to this. Secondly, 
Consider, also, that the generality of the adversaries did believe 
the matter of fact, which is all that we are now inquiring after." 
The recital here of those multitudes of testimonies that might 
be produced from antiquity, is a work that my strait time doth 
prohibit, but is done by others far more able. Only that well- 
known passage in Josephus I will here set down : " In the time 
of Tiberius, there was one Jesus, a wise man, at least, if he 
was to be called a man, who was a worker of great miracles, 
and a teacher of such who love the truth, and had many, as 
well Jews as gentiles, who clave unto him. This was Christ. 
And when Pilate, upon his being accused by the men of our 
nation, had sentenced him to be crucified, yet did they not who 
had first loved him forsake him : for he appeared to them the 
third day alive again, according to what the prophets, divinely 

" Julian, when be scorneth Christ, doth acknowledge his miracles. " What," 
saith he, " hath this Jesus done worthy of memory, or of any account, in all 
his life, save that he cured a few blind, and lame, and delivered some from 
devils that possessed them?" &c. Hie est qui stellam signare fecit 
nativitatem, &c. In Judea natum ex Perside supplices adorare venerunt 
viri. — Athnnas. de Incarn. Verbl. Ea omnia super Cliristo Pilatus, 

et ipse jam pro sua conscientia Christianus, Caesari tum Tiberio nun- 
ciavit ; sed et CfBsares credidissent super Christo, si aut Csesares non essent 
seculo necessarii; aut si et Cliristiaui potuissent esse Caesares. — Tertiil. Jpol. 
c. xxi. Of the sun darkened in Tiberius's time, when Jesus was cruci- 

fied, and of the earthquake, Phlegon hath written in the thirteenth or four- 
teenth book, ' De Temporibus,' saith Origen ' Cont. Celsum,' lib. ii. fol. 
' (mihi) 21. The star that appeared at Christ's birth is mentioned by Pliny, 
lib. ii. c. 25. So do divers others, as Origen reports, ' Cont. Celsum.' 
Herod's killing; the children is mentioned in Augustus's taunt : " I had 
rather," saith he, '< be Herod's swine than his son, because he killed a 
son of his own among the rest."— i?/acro&. Saturnal. 

2S8 THE saint's 

inspired, had foretold concerning him, as they had done an in- 
numerable number of" very strange things besides. And even 
to this day, both the name and sort of persons called Christians, 
so named from him, do remain." Thus far Josephus, a Jew by 
nation and religion, Avho wrote this about eighty-six years after 
Christ, and fourteen years before the death of St. John, himself 
being born about five or six years after Christ. 

20. Consider, also, how that every age hath offered multitudes 
of witnesses, who before were most bitter and violent enemies, 
and divers of those men of note for learning and place in the 
world.^ How mad was Saul against the truth ! Surely it could 
be no favour to the cause, nor overmuch credulity, that caused 
such men to witness to the death, the truth of- that for which 
they had persecuted others to the death but a little before. Nor 
could childish fables, or connnon flying tales, have so mightily 
v/rought with men of learning and understanding : for some 
such were Christians in all ages. 

21. Nay, observe but the confessions of these adversaries, 
when they came to believe : how generally and ingenuously 
they acknowledge their former ignorance and prejudice to have 
been the cause of their unbelief. 

22. Consider, also, how unable all the enemies of the Gospel 
have been to abolish these sacred records. They could burn 
those witnesses by thousands, but yet they could never either 
hinder their succession, or extinguish their testimonies. 

23. Nay, the most eminent adversaries have had the most 
eminent ruin : as Antiochus, Herod, Julian, with multitudes 
more. This stone having fallen upon them, hath ground them 
to powder. 

* Josephus relates the life of John the Baptist as the evangelists do. The 
darkness and earthciuake at Christ's death is acknowledged by Phlegon, in 
lib. Chron. xiii. Lucian bids his tormentors search tlieir own clironicles, and 
they should find that in Pilate's time the light failed in the midst of the day, 
and the sun was darkened while Christ was suffering. TertuUian also ap- 
pealeth to their own chronicles, ' Apol.' And tliat it was no natural eclipse is 
known to astronomers. See Marcilius Ficiuus of the star. The death of 
Herod is set out by Jose|)hus, * Autiq.' lib. xix. c. 7. as by Luke. Jrenaeus 
affirmeth, that in his time the working of miracles, the raising of the dead, 
the casting out of devils, healing the sick by mere laying on of hands, and 
prophesying, were still in force ; and that some that were so raised from the 
dead remained alive among them long after. See Niceph. ' Eccles. Histor.' 
torn. 1. lib. iv. c. 23. And Justin Martyr saith that the gift of prophesying 
was famous in the church in his time, ' Dialog, ad Tryph.' And Cyprian and 
TertuUian mention the ordinary casting out of devils, and challenge the hea- 
then to come and see it. 


24. It were not difficult here to collect from unquestioned 
authors, a constant succession of wonders, at least, to have in 
several ages accomi)anied the attestation of this truth 5 and 
notable judgments that have befallen the persecutors of it. And 
though the papists, by their fictions and fabulous legends, have 
done more wrong to the christian cause, than ever they are able 
to repair ; yet unquestionable history doth afford us very many 
examples : and even many of those actions which they have de- 
formed with their fabulous additions, might yet for the sub- 
stance have much truth : and God might, even in the times of 
popery, work some of these wonders, though not to confirm their 
religion, as it was popish, yet to confirm it as it was christian; 
for, as he had then his church, and then his Scrij)ture, so had 
he then his special providences to confirm his church in their 
belief, and to silence the several enemies of the faith. And 
therefore I advise those who, in their inconsiderate zeal, are apt 
to reject all these histories of Providence, merely because 
they were written by papists, or because some witnesses to the 
truth were a little leavened with some popish errors, that they 
would first view them, and consider of their probability of truth 
or falsehood, that so they may pick out the truth, and not reject 
all together in the lump ; otherwise, in their zeal against popery, 
they should injure Christianity. 

And now I leave any man to judge, whether we have not had 
an infallible way of receiving these records from the first wit- 
nesses ? 

Not that every of the particulars before mentioned, are neces- 
sary to the proving our certain receiving the authentic records 
without depravation ; for you may perceive, that almost any 
two or three of them might suffice ; and that divers of them 
are from abundance for fuller confirmation. 

Sect. IV. And thus I have done with this first argument, 
drawn from the miracles which prove the doctrines and writings 
to be of God. But I must satisfy the scruples of some before 
I proceed. First, Some will question, whether this be not, 1 . To 
resolve our faith into the testimony of man : 2. And so make it 
a human faith : and so, 3. To jump in this with the papists, 
who believe the Scripture for the authority of the church, and 
to argue circularly in this, as they. To this I answer : 

First : I make in this argument the resolution of my faith 
into the miracles wrought, as testimonies divine to confirm 


290 THE saint's 

the doctrine. y If you ask, why I believe the doctrine to be 
of God ? I answer, because it was confirmed by many undenia- 
ble miracles. If you ask, why I believe those miracles to be 
from God ? I answer, because no created power can work a 
niiracle : so that the testimony of man is not the reason of my 
believing, but only the means by which this matter of fact is 
brought down to my knowledge. Again, our faith cannot be 
said to be resolved into that which we give in answer to your 
last interrogation, except your question be only still of the proper 
grounds of faith. But if you change your question, from What is 
the ground of my faith ? to What is the means of conveying 
down the history to me ? then my faith is not resolved into this 
means. Yet this means, or some other equivalent, I acknow- 
ledge so necessary, that without it, 1 had never been like to 
have believed. 2. This shows you also that I argue not in the 
popish circle, nor take my faith on their common grounds. For, 
first, when you ask them, How know you the testimony of the 
church to be infallible ? they prove it again by Scripture ; and 
there is their circle. But as I trust not on the authority of the 
Romish church only, as they do ; no, nor properly to the 
authority of any church ; no, nor only to the testimony 
of the church, but also to the testimony of the enemies them- 
selves : so do I prove the validity of the testimony I bring from 
nature, and well-known principles in reason, and not from 
Scripture itself, as you may see before. 3. There is a human 
testimony, which is also divine; and so a human faith, which is 
also in some sort divine. Few of God's extraordinary revela- 
tions have been immediate ; the best schoolmen think none at 
all f but either by angels, or by Jesus himself, who was man as 
well as God. You will acknowledge if God reveal it to an 
angel, and the angel to Moses, and Moses to Israel, this is a 

y Non fidem quEe verbis Dei habetur, etsi non prorsus nasci ex miraculis, 
attainen ex eis confirmari possumus credere. — Pet. Mart. hoc. Commun, c. 8. 
p. 38. Vide plura ibid. Lege VVhitak. Duplicat. adv. Stapleton. De Sac. 
Script, lib. i. c.3. pp. &5 — 57, &c., plenissiine de hoc disserent. Sic c. 4. 
p. 62, et C.5 et 6, de quatuor officiis ecclesiae circa Scriptur. viz. ut sit ta- 
bellio vel registrarius. 2. Vindex qui veras Script, il falsis vindicet. 3. Prae- 
co, qui Script. promulg;et et divulget. 4. Interpres. Vide etiani lib. ii. c. 5. pp. 
332 — .334, &c. Et triplex officiuiii ecclesiae dat Polanus Syntag. lib. i. c. 28. 

^ Non per alios dispositionem salutis nostra? cog^novimus, quam per eos per 
quos evangelicuni perveiiit ad nos ; quod quidem tunc praconiaverunt, postea 
vero per Dei voluntatem in Scripturis nobis tradiderunt. fundamentum et 
columnam fidei nostra? futurum, — Iren. adv. Har, lib. iii. c, 1. 

'■ Aquin. Sum. 3. q. 55. c. 2. 


divine revelation to Israel. For that is called a divine revela- 
tion, which we are certain that God doth any way reveal. Now, 
I would fain know, why that which God doth naturally and 
certainly reveal to all men, may not as properly be called a di- 
vine revelation,'' as that which he reveals by the Spirit to a few. 
Is not this truth from God, that the senses' apprehension of 
their object, rightly stated, is certain, as well as this, " Jesus 
Christ was born of a Virgin ?" &c. Though a saint or an angel 
be a fitter messenger to reveal the things of the Spirit, yet 
any man may be a messenger to reveal the things of the flesh. 
An ungodly man, if he have better eyes and ears, may be a 
better messenger or witness of that matter of fact which he 
seeth and heareth, than a more godly man that is blind or deaf, 
especially in cases wherein that ungodly man hath no provoca- 
tion to speak falsely; and, most of all, if his testimony be against 
himself. I take that relation, whereby I know that there was a 
fight at York, &c., to be of God, though wicked men were the 
witnesses. For I take it for an undeniable maxim, that there is 
no truth but of God, only it is derived unto us by various means. 
Sect. V. 2. And as I have evidently discovered the full cer- 
tainty of this testimony of man, concerning the forementioned 
matter of fact ; so 1 will show you why I choose this for my 
first and main argument ; and also that no man can believe 
without the foresaid human testimony. First, then, 1 demand 
with myself, by Avhat argument did Moses and Christ evince to 
the world the verity of their doctrine ? and I find it was chiefly 
by this of miracles ; and, surely, Christ knew the best argument 
to prove the divine authority to his doctrine; and that which was 
the best then, is the best still. If ourselves had lived in the 
days of Christ, should we have believed a poor man to have 
been God, the Saviour, the Judge of the world, without mira- 
cles to prove this to us ; nay, would it have been our duty to 
have believed ? doth not Christ sav, " If I had not done the 
works that no man else can do, ye had not had sin?" that is, 
your not believing me to be the Messias had been no sin : for 

'' Though I know it is only a testimony, or revelation without evidence, bk 
parte rei, that makes truth the object of faith, in a strict sense ; yet that which 
is revealed to reason and sense in its own evidence, is also certain objectively, 
and more certain sometimes, certitudine subjecti, as Hooker asjainst Mr, 
Travers. Sacra Scriptura quani apud homines noiidum Spiritu Dei, et vera 
fide donates habet authoritatem, propter quam ab illis incipit admitti, et au- 
diri tanrjuatn verbum Dei, habet ab ecclesise testimouio. — Polan. Synt, lib. iii, 
c. 28. 


292 THE saint's 

no man is bound to believe that which was never convincingly 

And I think that this is it which is called the sin against the 
Holy Ghost,'^ when men will not be convinced by miracles, that 
Jesus is the Christ. That which some divines judge to be the sin 
against the Holy Ghost, and opposing the known truth only out 
of malice against it, it is a question whether human nature be 
capable of. And whether all human opposition to truth be not 
through ignorance, or prevalency of the sensual lusts : and so 
all malice against truth, is only against it as conceived to be 
falsehood, or else as it appeareth an enemy to our sensual de- 
sires : else, how doth man's understanding, as it is an under- 
standing, naturally choose truth, either real or appearing, for its 
object ? so that, 1 think, none can be guilty of malice against 
truth, as truth ; and to be at enmity with truth for opposing 
our sensuality, is a sin that every man in the world hath been, 
in some measure, guilty of. And, indeed, our divines do so de- 
fine the sin against the Holy Ghost, that I could never yet un- 
derstand by their definition what it might be : some placing it 
in an act incompatible with the rational soul, and others making 
it but gradually to differ from other sins,'^ which hath cast so 
many into terror of soul, because they could never find out that 
gradual difference. 

The sense of the place, which the whole context, if you view 
it deliberately, will show, seems to me to be this : as if Christ 
had said, While you believed not the testimony of the prophets, 
yet there was hope ; the testimony of John Baptist might have 
convinced you 5 yea, when you believed not John, yet you 

' I confess I kept silent this opinion and exposition some years, because I 
knew no man that did hold it ; and I am afraid of rash adventuring- on no- 
velty, though resolved not to reject any revealed truth. But since, I find 
great Athanasius hath written a tractate on the sin af;;ainst the Holy Ghost, 
maintaining- the very same exposition which I here give, (or with very small 
difference : though I assent not to his ajiplication in the end of all to the 
Ariaus;) which being from one of so great authority, and explaining it more 
fully than I might do in this short digression, I desire the learned, who 
rejected my exposition, to peruse it ; where also you may find his confutation 
of the subtile, but unsound opinion of Origeu about this sin, as also of the 
opinion of Theognostus, though 1 know some do question that hook, but on 
■weak grounds. See my discourse of the sin against the Holy Ghost, in my 
tnird part of the ' Unreasonableness of Infidelity.' 

*> How Hunnius was assaulted with this temptation, " that he sinned against 
the Holy Ghost," you may read in his life and death : and it is still a common 
temptation. Matt. xii. 24, &c. ; Mark iii. 28 ; John v. 39, 43, 45 — 47 j John 
XV. 22, 24. 


might have been convinced by my own doctrine : yea , though 
you did not believe my doctrine, yet there was hope you might 
have been convinced by my miracles,'^ But when you accuse 
them to be the works of Beelzebub, and ascribe the work of the 
divine Power, or Spirit, to the prince of devils, what more 
hope ? I will, after my ascension, send the Holy Ghost upon my 
disciples, that they may work miracles to convince the world, 
that they who will believe no other testimony, may yet, through 
this, believe : but if you sin against this Holy Ghost, that is, if 
they will not believe for all these miracles, for the Scripture 
frequently calls faith by the name of obedience, and unbelief by 
the name of sin, there is no other more convincing testimony 
left, and so their sin of unbelief is incurable, and consequently 
unpardonable : and therefore he that speaketh against the Son 
of Man, that is, denieth his testimony of himself, it shall be 
forgiven him, if he yet believe this testimony of the Spirit, but 
they that continue unbelievers for all this, and so reproach the 
testimony that should convince them, as you do, shall never be 
forgiven, because they cannot perform the condition of forgive- 

This 1 think to be the sense of the text ; and the rather, 
when I consider, what sin it was that these pharisees committed; 
for surely that which is commonly judged to be the sin against 
the Holy Ghost, I nowhere find that Christ doth accuse them 
of; but the Scripture seemeth to speak on the contrary, " that 
through ignorance they did itj" (Acts iii. 17;) "for had they 
known, they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory." 
(I Cor. ii. 8.) And, indeed, it is a thing to me altogether in- 
credible, that these pharisees should know Christ to be the 
Messiah, whom they so desirously expected, and to be the Son 
of God, and Judge of all men, and yet to crucify him through 
mere malice ; charge them not with this, till you can show 
some scripture that charged them with it. 

Object. Why, then, there is no sin against the Holy Ghost, 
now miracles are ceased ? 

Answ. Yes -J though the miracles are ceased, yet their tes- 

« Deus ad confirmandum ea qus naturalem co^uitionem excedunt, opera 
visibiliter ostendit, quae totius naturae superant I'acultatem : ut patet in rairablJi 
curatione lai)s;uoruin, niorluorum suscitatione, coelestium corpurum niirabili 
imitatioiie ; et quod est mirabili huuiaiiaruin nientium inspiratione, ut idiota; 
siuiplices doao Spiritus Saiicti repleti, summaui sapienliaiu et i'acuudiam iu 
instanti cousequerenlur. — yJquin, cord. Gentih lib. i. c. 6. 

f Ex vetustissima antiquitate prodiit Veritas JDei, quceuain sit vera religio. 

294 THE saint's 

tiinonv cloth still live f the death and resurrection of Christ are 
past, and yet men may sin a<;ainst the death and resurrection. 
So that, I think, when men will not believe that Jesus is the 
Christ, though they are convinced by undeniable arguments, of 
the miracles which both himself and his discijDles wrought; this 
is now the sin against the Holy Ghost. And, therefore, take 
heed of slighting this argument. 

Sect. VJ. 2. And here avouM I have those men, who cannot 
endure this resting upon human testimony,'^ to consider of what 
necessity it is for the producing of our faith. Something must 
be taken upon trust from man, whether they will or not : and 
yet no uncertainty in our faith neither. 1. The mere illiterate 
man must take it upon trust, that the book is a Bible which he 
hears read ; for else, he knows not but it may be some other 
book : 2. That those words are in it, which the reader pro- 
nounceth : 3. That it 'is translated truly out of the original lan- 
guages : 4. That the Hebrew and Greek copies, out of which it 
was translated, are true, authentic copies : 5. That it was ori- 
ginally written in these languages : 6. Yea, and the meaning of 
divers scripture passages, which cannot be understood without 
the knowledge of Jewish customs of chronology, of geography, 
&c., though the words were ever so exactly translated. All these, 
with many more, the vulgar must take upon the word of their 
teachers ; and, indeed, a faith merely human, is a necessary 
preparative to a faith divine, in respect of some means, and|jr<e- 
cognita necessary thereto. Jf a scholar will not take his mas- 
ter's word that such letters have such or such a power, or do 
spell so or so; or that such a Latin or Greek word hath such a 

Cui confirmandaeDeus miranda testimonia addidit, quae essent velut perpetua 
quaedam ct autheutica sigilla veritatis diviuae. — Hemming, in Prwfat. ante 

s Nunc non ut olim sunt necessaria miracula ; priusquam crederet mundus, 
necessaria fuere ad hoc ut mundus crederet, ut ' Au!j. de Civ. Dei,' lib. xxii. 
c. 8. 

•> Yet do I believe that that of 2 Pet. i. 20. is generally mistaken ; as if the 
apostle did deny private men the liberty of interpreting Scriptures, even for 
themselves ; when it is in regard of the object, and not of the interpreter, that 
the apostle calleth it " private ;" as if he should say the prophets are a sure 
testimony of the doctrine of Christianity : but then you must understand that 
they are not to be interpreted of the private men that spoke them ; for they 
were but types of Christ the public person ; so Psal. ii., and xvi., &c. are to be 
interpreted of Christ, and not of David only, a private person, and but a type 
of Christ iu all ; as Philip answereth the question of the eunuch in Acts viii. 
Of whom doth the prophet speak : of himself, privately, or some other more 
public man ? This is, I think, the true meaning of Philip. 


signification ; when will he learn, or how will he know ? Nay 
how do the most learned linguists know the signification of 
words in any language, and so in the Hebrew or Greek Scrip - 
tures, but only upon the credit of their teachers and authors ? 
and yet certain enough too in the main. Tradition is not so 
useless to the world or the church as some would have it. 
Though the papists do sinfully plead it against the sufficiency 
ot Scripture, yet scripture sufficiency or perfection is only in 
suo genei'e, in its own kind, not in omni genere, not sufficient 
for every purpose. Scripture is a sufficient rule of faith and 
life ; but not a sufficient means of conveying itself to all gene- 
rations and persons.' If human testimony had not been neces- 
sary, why should Christ have men to be witnesses in the begin- 
ning; and also still instruments of persuading others, and 
attesting the verity of these sacred records to those that cannot 
otherwise come to know them ? 

And, doubtless, this is the chiefs use of ministers in the church, ^ 
and the great end of God in the stating and continuing their 
function ; that what men are incapable of believing, explicitly, 
with a faith properly divine, that they might receive implicitly, 
and upon the word of their teachers with a human faith. 

' I wish the papists would read Cyprian, 7. Epist. ad Pompeium, against 
tradition and their pope's supremacy ; and Clciii. Alex, saith the apostles' 
teaching ended in Nero's time. But, after that, about Adrian's time, those 
that devised heresies arose, as Basilides, who said Glancia was his master, who 
was Peter's interpreter : so Valentine, they say, heard Theodate, who was Paul's 
familiar ; and Marcion, being born in the same age, was conversant with them, 
as an old man with the younger : after whom he awhile heard Simon Peter 
preach; which being so, it is clear that these latter churches are innovated 
from the ancient true church, being heresies of adulterine note.— St rotnai.^ 
lib. vii. fine. You see heretics pretended tradition, and what church Clemeii 
turns us to ! 

^ Oportet discentem credere. — Aristot. in Analytic, post. Titus i. 7 ; 1 Cor. 
i. 4; xii. 24, and xvii. 21 ; Luke xii. 42; Heb. xiii. 3, 17, 24; 1 Tim. iii. 5 ; 
Acts XX. 28 ; 1 Tim. iii. 4, 5 ; 1 Pet. v. 2 ; 1 Cor. iv. 15. 

' If the revilers of the ministers of Christ, with whom this vicious age 
aboundeth, did i<now what power ministers had, both in the apostles' times, 
and many hundred years after, and what strict discipline was used, as they 
may see in holy Cyprian among others, they would not for shame charge us 
with tyranny and proud domination. It is wonderful that religion then had 
that awe and power on men's consciences, that they would make men stoop to 
public confessions and penitential lamentations, at the censure of the church 
guides, even when the censures were rigid, and when the magistrates did not 
second them, yea, when it was a hazard to their lives to be known Christians. 
And yet now Christianity is in credit, even those that seem religious, do judge 
Christ's discipline to be tyranny, and subjectiou to it to be intolerable slavery. 

296 THE saint's 

Every man should labour indeed to sec with his own eyes, and 
to know all that God hath revealed, and to be wiser than his 
teachers : but every man cannot bestow that time and pains 
i'^ ciie study of languages and sciences ; without which that 
knowledge is not now attained. We may rather wish than 
hope, ' that all the Lord's people were prophets.' The church 
of Christ hath been long in a very doleful plight betwixt these 
two extremes, taking all things upon trust from our teachers, 
and taking nothing upon trust : and yet those very men who so 
disclaim taking upon trust, do themselves take as much upon 
trust as others. 

Why else are ministers called the eyes and the hands of the 
body ; stev/ards of the mysteries, and of the house of God ; 
overseers, rulers, and governors of the church ; and such as 
must give the children their meat in due season ; fathers of 
their people ? &c. Surely, they clearly know truth and duty 
must be received from any one, though but a child ; and known 
error and iniquity must be received from none, though an angel 
from heaven. What, then, is that we are so often required to 
obey our teaching rulers in ? Surely, it is not so much in the 
receiving of new-instituted ceremonies from them, which they 
call things indifferent : but, as in all professions, the scholar must 
take his master's word in learning, till he can grow up to know 
the things in their own evidence ; and as men will take the 
words of any artificers in the matters that concern their own 
trade ;'" and as every wise patient will trust the judgment of 
his physician, excei)t he know as much himself; and the client 
will take the word of his lawyer : so also Christ hath ordered 
that the more strong and knowing should be teachers in his 
school, and the young and ignorant should believe them and 
obey them, till they can reach to understand the things them- 
selves. So that the matters which we must receive upon 
trust from our teachers, are those which we cannot reach to 
know ourselves, and therefore must either take them upon the 
word of others, or not receive them at all : so that, if these 

™ Hsec duo dictat ipsa ratio; primo, in mysteriis quae siiperant rationem, 
Hon uitendiim esse ratiocinantis lopcS., sed rcvelantis authoritate. Secundo, 
in conseqiientiis dednceudis aut uhscuris in religioiie interpretandis, maris 
fidendum esse ccetui in nomine Domini lepjitime con'jregato, quam privatis 
spiritibus, seorsim sapientibus, recalcitrantibus. — Dr. Prideuu.c, lect. xxii. ; 
J}e Auth. Eccl. J). 361. See Dr. Jackson's ' Eternal Truth of Scriptures,' lib. ii. 
c. 1-— (i. 


rulers and stewards do require us to believe, when we know not 
ourselves whether it be truth or not ; or if they require us to 
obey, when we know not ourselves whether it be a duty com- 
manded by God or not; here it is that we ought to obey them. 
For though we know not whether God hath revealed such a 
point, or commanded such an action, yet that he hath com- 
manded us to obey them that rule over us, who preach to us the 
word of God, this we certainly know. (Heb. xiii. 7.) Yet I 
think we are not so strictly tied to the judgment of a weak 
minister of our own, as to take his word before another's, that 
is more judicious in a neighbour congregation. Nor do I think, 
if we see but an appearance of his erring, that we should care- 
lessly go on in believing and obeying him without a diligent 
searching after the truth : even a likelihood of his mistake 
must quicken us to further inquiry, and may, during that in- 
quiry, suspend our belief and obedience. For where we are 
able to reach to know probabilities in divine things, we may with 
diligence possibly reach to that degree of certainty which our 
teachers themselves have attained, or at least to understand the 
reason of their doctrine. But still remember what I said before, 
that fundamentals must be believed with a faith explicit, ab- 
solute, and divine. 

And thus I have showed the flat necessity of taking much 
upon the testimony of man ; and that some of these human 
testimonies are so certain, that they may well be called divine. 
I conclude all with this intimation : you may see by this, of 
what singular use are the monuments of antiquity, and the 
knowledge thereof, for the breeding and strengthening of the 
christian faith ; especially the histories of those times. 1 
would not persuade you to bestow so much time in the reading 
of the fathers, in reference to their judgment in matters of 
doctrine ; nor follow them in all things, as some do." God's 
word is a sufficient rule ; and latter times have afforded far better 
expositors. But in reference to matters of fact, for confirming 
the miracles mentioned in Scripture, and relating the won- 
derful providences since, I would they were read an hundred 
times more : not only the writers of the church, but even the 
histories of the enemies, and all other antiquities. Little do 

" I may say of many of them for doctrine, as Fulbeck of Bracton, Briton, 
&c., Direct, p. 17 : Tliere be certain ancient writers whom, as it is not un- 
profitable to read, so to rely on them is dangerous ; their books are mouumen- 
ta adoranda; ruhiginis, of more reverence than authority. 

29S THE saint's 

most consider how useful these are to the christian faith. And 
therefore our learned antiquaries are highly to be honoured, 
and exceedingly useful instruments in the church. 

If yet any man be so blind that he think it uncertain whether 
these be the same books which were written by the apostles ; I 
would ask him by what assurance he hokleth his lands ? 1. How 
knoweth he that his deeds, conveyances, or leases, are not coun- 
terfeit ; or that they are the same that his forefathers made ? 
They have nothing but men's words for it ; and yet they think 
they are certain that their lands are their own. 2. And whereas 
they hold all they have by the law of the land, how know they 
that these laws are not counterfeit ; and that they are the same 
laws which were made by such kings and parliaments so long 
ago, and not forged since ? They have nothing but men's 
words for all this. And yet if this be uncertain, then any man, 
lord, or knight, or gentleman, may be turned out of all he hath, 
as if he had no certain tenure or assurance. And is it not evi- 
dent that those laws which are so kept and practised through 
all the land, cannot possibly be counterfeit, but it would have 
been publicly known ? And yet a word in the statute-book 
may be falsely printed. And much more certain it is that the 
Scriptures cannot be counterfeit, because it is not in one 
kingdom only, but in all the world that they have been used, 
and the copies dispersed ; and ministers in office still to preach 
it, and publish it. So that it could not be generally and pur- 
posely corrupted, except all the world should have met and 
combined together for that end, which could not be done in 
secret, but all must know of it. And yet many Bibles may be 
here or there mis-printed or mis-written ; but then there would 
be copies enough to correct it by. So that if it be uncertain 
whether these be the very books which the apostles wrote, then 
nothing in the world is certain but what we see. And why we 
may not as well question our eyesight, 1 do not know. I would 
believe a thousand other men's eyesight before mine own 

The Second Argument. 

Sect. I. I come now to my second argument, to prove Scrip, 
ture to be the word of God : and it is this : 


If the Scripture be neither the invention of devils nor of men, 
then it cm be from none but God ; ° but that it is neither of 
devils, nor merely of men, I shall now prove ; for, I suppose, 
none will question that major proposition. First, Not from 
devils ; for, First, They camiot work miracles to confirm them ; 
Secondly, Jt would not stand with God's sovereignty over them, 
or with the goodness, wisdom, and faithfulness of governing the 
world, to suffer Satan to make laws, and confirm them with 
wonders, and obtrude them upon the world in the name of God, 
and all this without disclaiming them, or giving the world any 
notice of the forgery j Thirdly,? Would Satan speak so much for 
God ? So seek his glory as the Scripture doth ? Would he so 
vilify and reproach himself, and make known himself to be the 
most hateful and miserable of all creatures ? Would he so 
fully discover his own wiles, his temptations, his methods of de- 
ceiving, and give men such powerful warning to beware of his 
snares, and such excellent means to conquer himself? Would the 
devil laysuch a design for men's salvation? Would he show them 
their danger, and direct them to escape it? Would he so mightily 
labour to promote all truth and goodness, and the happiness of 
mankind, as the Scripture doth ? Let any man tell me what 
book or project in the world did ever so mightily overthrow the 
kingdom of Satan as this book, and this Gospel- design : and 
would Satan be such an enemy to his own kingdom ? Fourthly, 
If Satan were the author, he would never be so unweariedlv and 
subtilely industrious, to draw the world to unbelief, and to break 
the laws which this book containeth, as his constant temptations 
do sensibly tell many a poor soul that he is ; would he be so 
earnest to have his own words rejected, or his own laws broken ? 
I think this is all clear to any man of reason. 

Sect. II. Secondly : That no mere men were the inventors of 
Scripture, I prove thus : If men were the devisers of it, then it 
was either good men or bad ; but it was neither good men nor 
bad ; therefore, none. 

Though goodness and badness have many degrees, vet under 
some of these degrees do all men fall. Now, I will show you that 
it could be neither of these ; and, First, Good men they could 

o I take it for granted that good angels could not be guilty of forging the 

P As Origen many times demands of Celsus, if magicians by evil powers 
could work miracles, would they do it for the leading men from siu to exact 
holiness and justice ? 

300 THE saint's 

not be ; for you might better say that murderers, traitors, adul- 
terers, parricides, sodomites, &c. were good men, rather than 
such. To devise laws, and father them upon God ; to feign 
miracles, and father them upon the word of the Lord ; to pro- 
mise eternal salvation to those that obey them ; to threaten 
damnation to those that obey them not ; to draw the world into 
a curse so destructive to all their worldly happiness, upon a pro- 
mise of happiness in another world, which they cannot give ; to 
endeavour so egrcgiously to cozen all mankind : if all this, or 
any of this, be consistent with common honesty ; nay, if it be 
not as horrible wickedness as can be committed, then I confess 
1 have lost my reason. Much less, then, could such a number 
of good men in all ages, till Scriptures were finished, be guilty 
of such inexpressible crimes : neither will it here be any evasion 
to say, they Avere men of a middle temper ; partly good, and 
partly bad : for these are not actions of a middle nature, nor 
such as will stand with any remnants of ingenuity or humanity. 
We have known wicked persons, too many, and too bad ; yet 
where or when did we ever know any that attempted any 
so more than hellish an enterprise ? False prophets have sent 
abroad indeed particular falsehoods ; but who hath adventured 
upon such a system as this ? i Mahomet's example, indeed, comes 
nearest to such a villany ; yet doth not he pretend to the 
hundredth part of so many miracles, nor so great as the Scrip- 
ture relateth, nor doth pretend to be God, nor any more than a 
great prophet : trusting more to his sword for success, than to 
the authority or truth of his pretended revelations ; not denying 
the truth of much of the Scripture; but adding his Alcoran, 
partly drawn from Scripture, and partly fitted with fleshly liber- 
ties and promises to his own ends. And doth not every man 
among us take that act of Mahomet to be one of the vilest that 

1 Saith Duplessis : Mahomet was an Arabian, one of Heraclitus's soldiers ; 
and, in a mutiny, chosen by the Arabian soldiers for their commander. In his 
Alcoran lie conlesseth himself to be a sinner, an idolater, an adulterer, given 
to lecherj' : his laws run thus : Avenge yourselves of your enemies ; take as 
many wives as you can keep, and spare not; kill the infidels ; he that fight- 
eth lazily shall be damned, and he that killeth the most shall be in paradise. 
He saith that Christ had the Spirit and powei* of God, and the soul of God; 
and that he is Christ's servant. See Alcoran Azoar, 2, 3, ; also, Azoar, 18, 
4, 11, 13. He confesseth that Christ is the Spirit, and Word, and Messenger 
of God ; that his dociriue is perfect, that it enlighteneth the Old Testament, 
and that he came to confirm it, yet denieth him to be God. Magnus fuit sanc- 
tus, magnus Dei amicus, magnus propheta, &c. Vid. Thom. Bradwin ' De 
Causa Dei,' lib. i. c. 1. Carol, part. 32, and Aquin, cont. Gentil. lib. i. c. 6. 


the sun hath seen ; and judge of the man himself accordingly ? 
So that I think it beyond doubt, that no one good man, much 
less so great a number as were the penmen of Scripture, could 
devise it of their own brain, and thrust it on the world. 

Secondly : And it is as certain that no bad men did devise the 
Scriptures. Could wicked deceivers so highly advance the glory 
of God, and labour so mightily to honour him in the world ; 
would they have so vilified themselves, and acknowledged their 
faults ; could such an admirable, undeniable spirit of holiness, 
righteousness, and self-denial, which runs through every vein of 
Scripture, have been inspired into it from the invention of the 
wicked ? ^ Would wicked men have been so wise, or so zealous 
for the suppression of wickedness ; or so earnest to bring the 
world to reformation ? Would they have been such bitter ad- 
versaries to .their own ways ; and such faithful friends to the 
ways they hate ? Would they have vilified the ungodly, as the 
Scripture doth ; and pronounced eternal damnation against 
them ? Would they have extolled the godly, who are so con- 
trary to them ; and proclaimed them a people eternally blessed ? 
Would they have framed such perfect and such spiritual laws ; 
and would they have laid such a design against the flesh, and 
against all their worldly happiness, as the scope of the Scripture 
doth carry on ? It is needless, surely, to mention anymore par- 
ticulars : I think every man, of the least ingenuity, that con- 
siders this, or deliberately vievveth over the frame of the Scrip- 
tures, will easily confess that it is more than probable that it 
was never devised by any deceiving sinner ; much less, that all 
the penmen of it in several ages were such wicked deceivers. 

So, then, if it was neither devised by good men nor by bad 
men, then surely by no men; and, consequently, must of neces- 
sity proceed from God. 

Sect. III. Secondly, That it proceed not merely fron) man, I 
also prove thus : That which was done without the help of 
human learning, or any extraordinary endowments of nature, 
and yet the greatest philosophers could never reach near it, must 
needs be the effect of a power supernatural ; but such is both 
the doctrine and the miracles in Scripture ', therefore, &:c. 

"■ Origen. contra Cels., Arnob., Tertul., Justin, Athanas., Clemens Alexan« 
in Protreptic, Athanag., Lactant., with the rest that dealt with the heathen, 
do mai^e the pure excellency of Christ's doctrine, above all others, one of their 
main arguments for the christian faith. Christiana fides si miraculis non 
esset approbata, Uouestate sua recipi debuit, inquit Miass^s Sylvius, ut Pla- 
tina, p. 32b. 

302 • THE saint's 

It is only the antecedent that here requires proof; which 
consists of these two hranches, hoih which 1 shall make clear. 

First : That the doctrine of Scripture was compiled, and the 
miracles done without the help of much human learning, or any 
extraordinary natural endowments.^ 

Secondly : That yet the most learned philosophers never could 
reach near the Gospel-mysteries, nor ever work the miracles that 
were then done. 

But I shall say most to the doctrine. For the proof of the 
former, consider : 

First : The whole world was, in the times of Moses and the 
prophets, comparatively unlearned.' A kind of learning the 
Egyptians then had, and some few other, especially consisting in 
some small skill in astronomy ; but it was all but barbarous ig- 
norance, in comparison of the learning of Greece and Europe. 
Those writings of greatest antiquity, yet extant, do show this. 
See also Doctor Hackwell, as before. 

2. As rare as learning then was, yet did God choose the un- 
learned of that unlearned time to be instruments and penmen of 
his choicest Scriptures. David, who was bred a shepherd, is the 
penman of those divine, unmatchable psalms. Amos is taken 
from a herdsman, to be a prophet. 

3. But especially in those latter ages, when the world was 
grown more wise and learned, did God purposely choose the 
W'eak, the foolish, the unlearned, to confound them : a company 
of poor fishermen, tent-makers, and such- like, must wrile the 
laws of the kingdom of Christ; must dive into the spiritual 
mysteries of the kingdom ; must silence the wise, and disputers 
of the world ; must be the men that must bring in the world to 
believe. Doubtless, as God sending David, an unarmed boy, with 
a sling and a stone against an armed giant, was to make it ap- 
pear that the victory was from himself ; so his sending these 
unlearned men to preach the Gospel, and subdue the world, was 
to convince both the present and future generations that it was 
God, and not man, that did the work. 

' Vide Wigandum in Method, ante comment, in miuores prophetas. 

* Nam si, fueruut omnes rudes et imperiti rerum, quorum opera Deus est 
usus in tradendo verbo, si non fuerunt summo loco nati, si nullis iiumanis in- 
structi prassidiis hanc rem agressi sunt, profecto oportet doctrinam ab iis pro- 
fectam esse plane divinara. — Camero Prakct. de Verho, p. 435. vid.ultr. Of 
the characters of divinity which the Scripture hath in itself, read judicious 
Amyraldus's ' Theses,* ' De Authoritate Scriplui'K in Thes. Salmuriens,' vol, 
2. p.43, &c. 


4. Also, the course they took in silencing the learned adver- 
saries, doth show us how little use they made of these human 
helps. They disputed not with them by the precepts of logic : 
their arguments were to the Jews, the writings of Moses, and 
the prophets ; and both to Jews and Gentiles, the miracles that 
were wrought : they argued more with deeds than with words. 
The blind, lame, the sick that were recovered, were their visible 
arguments. The languages which they spake, the prophecies 
which they uttered, and other such supernatural gifts of the 
Holy Ghost upon them ; these were the things that did convince 
the world : yet this is no precedent to us, to make as little use 
of learning as they, because we are not upon the same work, nor 
yet supplied with their supernatural furniture. 

5. The reproaches of their enemies do fully testify this, who 
cast it still in their teeth, that they were ignorant and unlearned 
men ; and, indeed, that was the great rub that their doctrine 
found in the world. It was to the Jews a stumbling-block, and 
to the Greeks foolishness ; and therefore it appeared to be the 
power of God, and not of man. This was it that they discou- 
raged the people with : " Do any of the rulers or pharisees be- 
lieve on him ? But this people that know not the law are 
accursed." (John vl. 48, 49.) 

6. To conclude, the very frame and style of these sacred writ- 
ings, do fully tell us, that they were none of the logicians, nor 
eloquent orators of the world, that did compose them. This is 
yet to this day, one of the greatest stumbling-blocks in the 
world, to hinder men from the reverencing and believing the 
Scriptures. They are still thinking, Surely if they were the very 
words of God, they would excel all other writings in every kind 
of excellency ; when, indeed, it discovcreth them the more cer- 
tainly to be of God, because there is in them so little of man. 
They may as well say, If David had been sent against Goliah 
from God, he would surely have been the most complete soldier, 
and most completely armed. The words are but the dish to 
serve up the sense in ; God is content that the words should 
not only have in them a savour of humanity, but of much infir- 
mity, so that the work of convincing the world may be furthered 
thereby. And I verily think, that this is God's great design, 
in permitting these precious spirits of divine truth, to run in 
the veins of infirm language, that so men may be convinced, in 
all succeeding ages, that Scripture is no device of human policy. 
If the apostles had been learned and subtle men, we should 

304 THE saint's 

sooner have suspected -their finger in the contrivance. Yea, it 
is observable, that in such as Paul, that had some human learn- 
ing, yet God would not have them make much use of it, lesttbe 
excellency of the cross of Christ should seem to lie in the enti- 
cing words of man's wisdom ; and lest the success of the Gos- 
pel should seem to be more from the ability of the preacher, 
than from the arm of God. 

Besides all this, it may much persuade us that the apostles 
never contrived the doctrine which they preached, by their sud- 
den and not premeditated setting upon the work. They knew 
not whither they should go, nor what they should do, when he 
calls one from his fishing, another from his custom : they knew 
not what course Christ would take with himself, or them ; no, not 
a little before he leaves them. Nay, they must not know their 
employment till he is taken from them. And even then is it 
revealed to them by parcels and degrees, and that without any 
study or invention of their own ; even after the coming down of 
the Holy Ghost, Peter did not well understand that the Gen- 
tiles must be called. (Acts x.) All which ignorance of his 
apostles, and suddenness of revelation, I think was purposely 
contrived by Christ, to convince the world that they were not 
the contrivers of the doctrine which they preached. 

Sect. IV. Let us next, then, consider, how far short the learned 
philosophers have come of this. They that have spent all their 
days in most painful studies, having the strongest natural en- 
dowments to enable them, and the learned teachers, the excel- 
lent libraries, the bountiful encouragement, and countenance of 
princes, to further them, and yet, after all this, are very novices 
in all spiritual things. They cannot tell what the happiness of 
the soul is, nor where that happiness shall be enjoyed ; nor 
when, nor how long, nor what are the certain means to attain 
it; nor who they be that shall possess it. They know nothing 
how the world was made, nor how it shall end ; nor know they 
the God who did create, and doth sustain it : but, for the most 
of them, they multiply feigned deities. 

But I shall have occasion to open this more fully anon, under 
the last argument. 


CHAP. V[. 

The Third Argumenf, 

Sect. 1. j\Iy third argument, whereby I prove tlie divine au- 
thority of the Scriptures, is this : " Those writings which have 
been owned and fulfilled in several ages by apparent extraordi- 
nary providences of God, must needs be of God : but God hath 
so owned and fulfilled the Scriptures : ei'go, thev are of God. 

The major proposition will not surelv be denied. The direct 
consequence is, that such writings are approved by God ; and if 
approved by him, then must they needs be his own, because 
they afiirm themselves to be his own. It is beyond all doubt, 
that God will not interpose his power, and work a succession of 
wonders in the world, for the maintaining or countenancing of 
any forgery ; especially such as should be a blander against 

All the work, therefore, will lie in confirming the minor : 
where I shall show you. First, By what wonders of providence 
God hath owned and fulfilled the Scriptures : and. Secondly, 
How it may appear that this was the end of providences. 

1. The first sort of providences here to be considered, are 
those that have been exercised for the church universal. Where 
these three things present themselves especially to be observed : 
First, The propagating of the Gospel, and raising of the church : 
Secondly, The defence and continuance of that church : Thirdly, 
The improbable ways of accomplishing these. ^ 

And, First, Consider what an unlikely design, ^ in the judg- 

" Vid. Polan. Synta^. lib. i. c\ 10. 

^ Miserandam nierito quispiiim illonun censebit ameiUiain qui cum vitu- 
perant crucein, non vident ejus virtutem orbem implessc uiiiversuui, ac ])er 
ipsain IJei notitiam, ac diviiia opera, ouinihus iuuotuisse. — Alhanas. lil). i. 
cont. Gentil. in prin. 

y It' all this be not sufficient proof of the resurrection of Christ, ynu may g'ather 
it froni the things that are continually done. For if the dead can work nothing, 
and it belong only to the living to work, and to manage human affairs, let 
any man then see and judge, and let him acknowledge the truth when he is 
taught by things visible. For could our Saviour work so many things in 
men, and by a wonderful power ))ersuade s\ich multitudes (invisibly) of Gre- 
cians and barbarians to believe in him, ami by the force of bis power induce 
them all to obey his doctrine .^ Dare any man yet doubt of Christ's resurrec- 
tion, and that he lives ; yea, that he is the life of ijejievers i" Ciui a dead 

306 THE saint's 

merit of man, did Christ send his apostles upon. To bid a 
few ignorant mechanics, Go, preach, and make him disciples of 
all nations. To send his followers into all the world, to make 
men believe him to be the Saviour of the world, and to charge 
them to expect salvation no other way. Why, almost all the 
world might say, they had never seen him : and to tell them in 
Britain, &c. of one crucified among thieves at Jerusalem, and 
to charge them to take him for their eternal king : this was a 
design very unlikely to prevail. When they would have taken 
him by force, and made him a king, then he refused, and hid 
himself. But when the world thought they had fully conquered 
him, when they had seen him dead, and laid him in his sepul- 
chre, then doth he arise and subdue the world. He that would 
have said, when Christ was on the cross, or in the grave ' that 
within so many weeks many thousands of his murderers should 
believe him to be their Saviour ; or within so many years, so 
many countries and kingdoms should receive him for their Lord, 
and lay down their dignities, possessions, and lives at his feet ;' 
would have hardly been believed by any that had heard him: 
and I am confident, they would most of them have acknow- 
ledged, that if such a wonder should come to pass, it must needs 
be from the finger of God alone. That the kingdoms of the 
world should become the kingdoms of Christ, was then a mat- 
ter exceeding improbable. But you may object that. First, It is 
but a small part of the world that believes. And, Secondly, 
Christ himself saith, that his flock is little. I answer. First, It 

man persuade men's minds to renounce their father's laws, and obey the 
precepts of Christ, or make an adulterer chaste, and the mausiayer and inju- 
rious to do no wrong ? If he be not risen, but still dead, how doth he Lianisli 
and overthrow all false gods ? For wherever his voice soundeth, and his faith 
is held, thence all idol worship is destroyed, and all the subtle deceits of 
devils disclosed ; and no devil can endure his holy name, but as soon as he 
hears it doth presently fall down. Is this, I pray you, the work of a dead 
irian, or rather, of ilie living God ? — yithanas. cle Incarnat, J'ej-hi. Christi- 
anis vero quid simile? Neminem pudet ; neminem poenitet : nisi plane 
retro non fuisse. Si denotatur, gloriatur. Si accusatur, non defendit : inter- 
rogatus, vel ultro confitetur ; damnalus gratias agit. Quid hoc mali est, 
quod naturalia niali non habet? timorem, pudoreni, tergiversationeni, poeni- 
tentiam, deploralionem ? Quid hoc mali est, cujus reus gaudet ? cujus accu- 
satio votum est; et poena felicitas ? — Tertullian. Jpolog: c. 1. Sed hoc 
agite boni piasides, nieliores multo apud populum, si illos Christianos immo- 
laveritis ; cruciate, torquete, damnate, atterite nos : probatio eiiim est iuno- 

centiffi nostras iniquitas vestra.- Nee quicquam tamen proficit exquisitior 

quffque crudelitas vestra; illecebra est magis sects ; plures efficiniur quoties 
metinuir 5i vobis. Semen est sanguis Christiauoruin. — TtrtulUan, j/jolog-, 
cap. ult. 


is a very great part of the world that are believers at this day, 
if we consider besides Europe, all the Greek church, and all the 
believers that are dispersed in Egypt, Judea, and most of the 
Turlis' dominions : and the vast empire of Prestor-John in Afri- 
ca. Secondly, Most countries of the world have received the 
Gospel ; but they had but their time : they have sinned away 
the light, and therefore are now given up to darkness. Thirdly, 
Though the flock of Christ's elect are small, that shall receive 
the kingdom ; yet the called, that profess to believe his Gospel, 
are many. 

2. Consider, also, as the wonderful raising of the kingdom of 
Christ in the world, so the wonderful preservation and continu- 
ance of it. He sends out his disciples as lambs among wolves, 
and yet promiseth them deliverance and success. His followers 
are everywhere hated through the world ; their enemies are nu- 
merous as the sands of the sea : the greatest princes and poten- 
tates are commonly their greatest enemies, who, one would 
think, might command their extirpation, and procure their ruin 
with a word of their mouths. The learned men, and great wits 
of the world, are commonly their most keen and confident ad- 
versaries; who, one would think, by their wit, should easily over- 
reach them, and by their learning befool them, and by their 
policy contrive some course for their overthrow. Nay, which 
is more wonderful than all, the very common professors of the 
faith of Christ are as great haters of the sincere and zealous 
professors almost, if not altogether, as are the very Turks and 
pagans; and those that do acknowledge Christ for their Saviour, 
do yet so abhor the strictness and spirituality of his laws and 
ways, that his sincere subjects are in more danger of them, than 
of the most open enemies : whereas, in other religions, the for- 
wardest in their religion are best esteemed. Besides the tempta- 
tions of Satan, the unwillingness of the flesh, because of the 
worldly comforts which we must renounce, and the tedious, strict 
conversation which we must undertake, these are greater op- 
posers of the kingdom of Christ than all the rest ; yet in despite 
of all these, is this kingdom maintained, the subjects increased, 
and these spiritual laws entertained and obeyed ; and the church 
remains both firm and stedfast, as the rocks in the sea, while 
the waves that beat upon it do break themselves in pieces. 

3. Consider, also, in what way Christ doth thus spread his 
Gospel, and preserve his church. First, Not by worldly might 
and power, nor by compelling men to profess him by the sword, 


SOS THE saint's 

Indeed, when men do profess themselves voluntarily to be his 
subjects, he has authorised the sword to see in part to the exe- 
cution of his laws, and to punish those that break the laws 
which they have accepted. But to bring men in from the world 
into his church, from paganism, Turkism, or Judaism, to Chris- 
tianity ; he never gave the sword any such commission: he 
never levied an army to advance his dominion ; nor sent forth 
his followers as so manv commanders to subdue the nations to 
him by force ; and spare none that will not become Christians ; 
he will have none but those that voluntarily list themselves 
tinder him f he sent out ministers, and not magistrates or com- 
manders, to bring in the world. Yea, though he be truly willing 
of men's haj)piness in receiving him, and therefore earnestly 
inviteth them thereto, yet he lets them know that he will be no 
loser by them ; as their service cannot advantage him, their 
neglect cannot hurt him ; he lets them know that he hath no 
need of them, and that his beseeching of them is for their own 
souls, and that he will be beholden to none of them for all their 
service ; if they know where to have a better master, let them 
take their course; even the kings of the earth shall stoop to 
his tern^.s, and be thankful too, or else they are no servants for 
him : his house is not so open, as to welcome all comers, but 
only those that will submit to his laws, and accept of him upon 
his own conditions ; therefore hath he told men the worst, as 
well as the best, that if they will be discouraged or frighted 
from him, let them go; he tells them of poverty, of disgrace, 
of losing their lives, or else they cannot be his disciples. And 
is not this an unlikely way to win men to him ; or to bring in 
so much of the world to worship him ? He flatters none, he 
liumoureth none; he hath not formed his laws and ways to please 
them. Nay, which is yet more, he is as strict in turning some 
men out of his service, as other masters would be ready to take 
them in. Therefore he hath required all his followers to dis- 
claim all such as are obstinate offenders, and not so much as to 

^ Formido ilia cessavit jam diu qua; divexare nos videbatur : et seqiic futu- 
rmn est ut in posterum cesset ; iiec externo ullo tiiiiore teneatur iioster con- 
veiitus. — Grig. cont. Cets. lib. iii. f. 33. Noii leve, itniuo prodigiosum 

fuit miraculum tarn brevi spacio teiiiporis Christi doctrinam potuisse per 
unlversuin orbeni diffuudi, cum tot baheret advcrsarios : et prfedicatonim 
esset alioquiu magna siiiiplicitas et ruditas quoad humanas artes. Intra 
20 vel 30 aunos Cbiisti praedicatio fere ubique audita est, ut Chrysostomus 
scribit. Pbilosophi auten» iiigeniosi et docti sua dogmata nisi sero admodum 
^xtra Graeciam protuleruut. — Pet, Martyr, hi Horn, 10. j). (milii) 781. 


eat, or be familiar uilh them. How contrary to all this is the 
course of the great commanders of the world, when they would 
enlarge their dominions, or procure themselves followers \'^ They 
have no course but to force men, or to flatter them. How 
contrary was Mahomet's course in propMgating his kingdom ! 
he levieth an army, and conquers some adjoining parties ; and, 
as his success increascth, so doth his presumption ; he enticeth 
all sorts to come to his camp ; he raakcth laws that would 
please their fleshly lusts ; he promiseth beautiful sights, and 
fair women, and such carnal delights in another world : in a 
word^ as his kingdom was planted, so hath it been preserved by 
no other ways, but force and flattery. But Christ hath not one 
word for either of these : his compelling men to come in, is but 
rational persuading. 

2, Nay, yet more than this, he makes his church to grow by 
sufferings; when others increase their dominions by the destroy- 
ing of their enemies, he increaseth his by suffering them to 
kill his subjects; an unlikely way, one would think, to make the 
world either love or serve him. There have been few ages, since 
the first appearing of the Gospel in the world, wherein the earth 
hath not drunk in the blood of believers. In the beginning it 
was a rare case to be a faithful pastor, and not a martyr. 
Thirty-three Roman bishops successively are said to have been 
martyred;'' thousands, yea, ten thousands slaughtered atatime; 
insomuch that Gregory and Cyprian cry out, that the witnesses 
who had died for the truth of the Gospel, were to men innu- 
merable, that thcAvorld was all over filled with their blood; and 
they that were left alive to behold it, were not so many as those 
that were slain ; that no war did consume so many : and the 
histories of the enemies acknowledge almost as much. 

Now, whether this be a likely course to gain disciples, and 
to subdue the world, you may easily judge. Yet did the church 
never thrive better than by persecution ; what they got not in 

" Ccrte (idem Sanctis vocibui! pascimus, spem erigimiis, fiiluciam fig^imus, 
tlisciijliiiain priEce|)toruni iiiliiloiniiius inculcationihus dcnsamus : ibidem 
etiam exliortationes, casti^ationes, et censura divina : nam et judicatur mag- 
no cum pondere, ut apud certos de Deiconspectu ; summum<jue futuri judicii 
jtra-judicium est, siquis ita deliquerit, x\t a. comniunicatione orationis et con- 
ventus, et omuis sancti coinmercii relegetnr. — Tertullkm j^polog-. c. 39. 
You liave liere tlie true description of the primitive cliurch censure, which 
was performed in one particular church, as the foregoing" words show. 

'' Some judicious historians do exempt divers of them ^as Hyg;inus, &c.) 
from the honour of martyrdom, and affirm that they were only confessors. 

310 THE saint's 

number, yet they got in zeul and excellency of professors; and 
seldom hath it lost more than in prosperity : yea, when the vul- 
gar professors have enjoyed prosperity, yet persecution hath 
ahnost ever been the lot of the zealous and sincere. 

And thus 1 have showed you those wonders of Providence, 
which have been exercised for the church universal. 

Sect. II. Secondly, Consider, next, what strange providences 
have been exercised to particular churches. I cannot stand to 
heap up particular examples ; you may find them frequent in 
the histories of the church ; wliat deliverances cities and coun- 
tries have had, what victories those princes have had, who have 
been their defenders ; as Constantine the Great, and many since : 
and what apparent manisfestations of God's hand in all. Yea, 
he that reads but the histories of latter times, where wars have 
been managed for defence of the doctrine of this Scripture, 
and obedience thereto, against the corruptions and persecutions 
of Rome,'^ may see more apparent discoveries of the hand of 
God ; yea, even in those wars where the enemy hath at last 
prevailed, as in Bohemia, in Zisca's time, in France, at Merin- 
dol and Cabriers. The history of Belgia will show it clearly: 
so will the strange preservation of the poor city of Geneva. 
But all these are further from us ; God hath brought such ex- 
periments home to our hand. If we should overlook the strange 
providences that produced the Reformation in the times of 
Henry the Eighth, Edward the Sixth, Queen Mary, Queen Eli- 
zabeth, and King James; yet even the strange passages of these 
years past, have been such that might silence an atheist, or an 
anti-scripturist : to see the various straits that God hath brought 
his people through; the unlikely means by which he still per- 
formed it; the unexpected events of most undertakings; the un- 
contrived and unthought-of ways which men have been led 
in ; the strange managing of councils and actions ; the plain 
appearance of an extraordinary providence, and the plain 
interposition of an almighty arm, which hath appeared in 
almost all our public affairs, in all which God hath not only 

<= Cum Romani in victoriosse antiquitatis menioriam templum singular! 
schemate facere decrevissent, ab omni ilia deoruui, iiiiuio da-moniorum mul- 
titudiiic, qusesieruiit usque quo durare posset tarn excelleutis ojieris tain 
operosa constructio ; respousum est, Donee virgo pareret. Jlli ad impossibili- 
tatem oracuhun retorquetites, templum seteriiuui solennem illam macliiiiani 
vocavenuit. Nocte autem cum virginali thalamo virgineus flos Marice egres- 
sus est, ita cecidit et confractum est illud niiral)ile et columnarium opus, ut 
vix appareant vestigia ruinarum, — Bernard, in Natal. Domini, seroi. 23. 


manifested a special providence, but also notably disowned 
men's sins, encouraged prayer, and fulfilled promises; though 
as to the particular exposition of some of his providences, wc 
may hear him say to us, as sometimes to Peter, " What 1 do 
thou knowest not now, but hereafter thou shalt know." 

Sect. III. Thirdly: Consider, also, of the strange judgments 
which in all ages have overtaken the most eminent of the 
enemies of the Scriptures.'' Besides Antiochus, Herod, Pilate, the 
persecuting emperors, especially Julian; church-histories will 
ac([uaint you with multitudes more : Fox's Book of Martyrs will 
tell you of many undeniable remarkable'^ judgments on those 
adversaries of pure religion, whose greatest wickedness is against 
these Scriptures, subjecting them to their church, denying them 
the people, and setting up their traditions as equal to them. Yea, 
our own times have afforded us most evident examples. Surely 
God hath forced many of his enemies to acknowledge in their 
anguish the truth of his threatenings, and cry out, as Julian, 
Vicisti Galilae. 

Sect. IV. Fourthly : Consider, also, the eminent judgments of 
God which have befallen the vile transgressors of most of his 
laws. Besides all the voluminous histories that make frequent 
mention of this, I refer you to Dr. Beard's ' Theatre of God's 
Judgments,' andthe book intitled 'God's Judgments upon Sabbath 
Breakers :' and it is likely your own observations may add much.^ 

Sect.V. Fifthly : Consider, further, of the eminent providences 
that have been exercised for the bodies and states of particular 
believers. The strange deliverance of many intended to martyrr 
doin, as you have many instances in the * Acts and Monuments;' 
besides those in Eusebius, and others, that mention the stories 
of the first persecutions. If it were convenient here to make 
particular mention of men's names, I could name you many, 

^ Ut memorias taceamus antiquas, et ultiones pro cultoribus Dei sa;pe 
repetitas, documeutimi recentis rci satis est, quod celeriter quodque in tanta 
celcritatc, sic granditer nuper secuta del'eusio est, ruinis reguiii, jacturis 
opuui, dispendio militum, diminutione castroiuni. Nee hoc caso accidisse, 
&c. — Cyprian, ad Demetrian. sect. 14. p. 328. 

« Not tliat miracles are still necessary, but special providences do much 
confirm. Nee jam opus est miraculis, cum in omnem terram verbum so- 
uuerit. — Doct. Humfredus Jtsuitin. part 1. p. 114. 

f How many churches in England were torn at once with terrible lightning ; 
and almost no place else but churches were touched, especially at the lower 
part of Devonshire, where many were scorched, maimed, and some had their 
brains struck out as they sat in church ! And at the church of Anthony, in 
Cornwall, near Plymouth, on Whitsunday, l(i40. See the relation in print. 

312 THE saint's 

who, of late, have received such strange preservations, even 
against the common course of nature, that might convince an 
atheist of the finger of God therein. But tliis is so ordinary, 
that I am persuaded there is scarcely a godly-experienced Chris- 
tian that carefully observes and faithfully recordeth the provi- 
dences of God toward him, hut is able to bring forth some such 
experiment, and to show vou some strange and unusual mercies, 
which may plainly discover an Almighty Disposer, making good 
the promises of this Scrijiture to his servants : some, in despe- 
rate diseases of body, some in other apparent dangers, deli- 
vered so suddenly, or so much against the common course of 
nature, when all the best remedies have failed, that no second 
cause could have any hand in their deliverance. 

Sixthly, and lastly: Consider the strange and evident dealing 
of God with the souls and consciences both of believers and 
imbelievers. What pangs of hellish despair have many enemies 
of the truth been brought to ! How doth God extend the spirits 
of his own people: bruising, breaking, killing them with terrors, 
and then healing, raising, and lillingthem with joys which they 
cannot utter ! How variously doth he mould them ! Some- 
times they are brought to the gates of hell, sometimes they are 
ravished with the foretastes of heaven: the proudest spirits are 
made to stoop ; the lowest are raised to an invincible courage. 
In a word, the workings of God upon the souls of his people, are 
so clear and strange, that vou may trace a supernatural causality 
through them all. ]3esides^' the admirable efficacy of them in 
changing men's hearts, and making them to differ from what 
they were, and from all others, in all holiness, righteousness, 
and self-denial. 

Sect. IV. Secondly : But though it be undeniable that all these 

fe' AVas it not near a miracle, that G<k1 wrought for Mrs. Honywood, when 
she threw the glass unto the wall, siijiu^, ' If this ^lass hreaU not, 1 maybe 
saved,' &c., and yet took it up whole ? 

^ See Cyprian's Epi^t. 1. to J^onat., expressing' the change on himself. At 
Dei per Christum instituts ecclesias, si forte expenstc cum aliorum populornm 
inultitudiiie coiiferantiir, veluti luminaria qiiBedara in niundo prajlucentia 
fniura! sunt. O"-''* enim non id fatuatur vol dcicriores fiuos()iie nostra; cccle- 
sia; quEe potiorum respectu inferiores sunt, noii longe plurimum bonitate 
prtestare aliorum jiopuloruni mtdtituilini .-' I'-xtat Athenis Dei ectlesia, man- 
suetior qua-dam et optinie insiiluta, ut (|nje Deo velit omnipotenti tuuctis in 
rebus sese morigeram exhibere. Est contra Atheniensium ipsa respublica 
seditiosa qnideni, et qvue nil prorsus cum Dei tadem fuerit ccclesia conipa- 
randa. Ilaud secus de alia quadani ecciesia dixerit, qua; Corinthi sit vel Alex- 
andriaB constituta, et ea quam seorsum habeat istarum urbium populus. — 
Origen. cont. Celsian, lib. iv. fol, (edit. Ascens.) 33, 


arc tlie extraordinary working; of God ; yet how do they confirm 
the a\ithority of Scripture ! How doth it appear that they have 
any such ends ? Answer : that is it I come to show you next. 

First : Some of these works do carry their end apparently 
with them, and manifest it in the event. The forementioned 
providences for raising and preserving the churchy arc such as 
show us their own ends. 

Secondly : They are most usually wrought for the friends and 
followers of Scripture, and against the enemies anddisobevcrsof it. 

Thirdly : They are the plain fulfilling of the predictions of 
Scripture. The judgments on the offenders are the plain fulfil^ 
ling of its threatenings, and the mercies to believers are the 
plain fulfilling of its promises. As for example ; as unlikely as 
it was, yet Christ foretold his apostles that when he was lifted 
up he would draw all men to him. He sent them upon an 
errand as unlikely to be so successful as any in the world : and 
yet he told them just what success they should find, how good 
to their message, and how hard to their persons. The promise 
was of old, to give Christ " the heathen for his inheritance, and 
the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession." (Psal. ii. 
2 — 5.) Christ promiseth to be with his messengers to the end 
of the world. Why now how punctually doth he accomplish 
all this ! What particular prophecies of Scripture have been ful- 
filled, and when, and how, hath already been discovered by 
others,' and therefore I shall overpass that. 

Fourthly: These judgments ''■ have been usually executed on 
oflfenders, at the very time when they have been either opposing 
or violating Scripture : and these mercies bestowed chiefly upon 
believers at such a time, when they have been most engaged in 
defence of or obedience to the Scriptures. 

Fifthly : They usually proceed in such effectual sort, that they 
force the enemies and ungodly to confess the cause : yea, and 
ofttimes the very standers-by; so do they force believers also to 
see, that God makes good his word in all their mercies. 

Sixthly : They are performed in answer to the prayers of be- 
lievers ; while they urge God with the promises of Scripture, 
then doth he appear in these evident providences. This is a 

• Morney, Grotius, Dr. Jackson's * Resolut.' part 2. &c. 

•' Ask them in New Knj^land whether Mrs. Hutchinson's and ISfrs. Dver's 
most hideous monstnuis births were not convincinj^ providences aj^ainst tlieir 
antitioniian, antiscriptural heresies, a? if God from heaven had spoken against 
them ? and yet Old England vAiii not take warning. See Nicephor. ' Eccl. Hist.' 
tom. l.lib. 4. c. 13, where Tertul., Jul., Capitolinus, Orosius, &c., do mention. 

314 THE saint's 

common and powerful argument, which most Christians may 
draw from their own experiences. Had we no other argument 
to prove Scripture to be the word of God, but only the strange 
success of the prayers of the saints, while they trust upon, and 
plead the promises with fervency, I think it might much 
confirm experienced men. What wonders, yea what apparent 
miracles, did the prayers of former Christians procure I hence 
the christian soldiers,^ in their armj^, were called the thundering 
legion ', they could do more by their prayers, than the rest by 
their arms. Hence Gregory was called @ocvi/.arovpyoi, from his fre- 
quent miracles among the heathen. And Vincentius reporteth, 
that Sulpitius Bituricensis did exj)el the devils, heal the sick, 
and raise the dead, by praying to God for them. When Myco- 
nius,"" a godly divine, lay sick of that consumption, which is 
called phthisis, Luther prayed earnestly that he might be reco- 
vered, and that he might not die before himself. And so con- 
fident was he of the grant of his desire, that he writes boldly 
to ]\Iyconius, that he should not die now ; but should remain 
yet longer upon this earth. Upon these prayers did Myconius 
presently revive, as from the dead, and live six years after, till 
Luther was dead: and himself hath largely written the story, 
and professed, that when he heard Luther's letters, he seemed 
to hear that voice of Christ, " Lazarus, come forth." Yea, so 
powerful and prevailing was Luther in prayer, that Justus Jonas 
writes of him, iste vir potidt quod voluit, that man could do 
what he would." 

What was it less than a miracle in Baynam the martyr, who 

' The legion of Malta, in the time of Mar. Aurelius, who procured by 
prayer both thunder on the enemies and raiu for the army. See the Eijistle 
of IM. Aurelius, in Justin Martyr's *Apol.' et Xiphilin. in vita Aurclii. And 
it is confidently averred by Tertullian's ' Ai)olos;et.' c. 5. with many more, as 
you may read at large in Pamelius' notes on TertuUiau's ' Apologet.' uota G4. 

n> Melth. Adam in vita Myconii. 

" O si audire velles et videre, quando a nobis adjurantur et torquentur 
spiritualibufi flagris, et verborum tormeiitisde obsessis corporibus ejiciuntur, 
quando ejulaiites et gementes voce humaua, et jjotestate divina fiagella et 
verbera seniieutes, venturum judicium confitciitur ! Veui, et cognosce vera 
esse quae dicimus. Et quia sic Deos colere te dicis, vel ipsis quos colis crede : 
aut si volueriset tihi credere, de te ipso loquetur, audieute te qui nunc tuum 
pectus obsedit : videbis iios rogari ab eis quos tu rogas ; timeri ab eis quos tu 
adoras, videbis sub manu nostra stare vinctos, et treniere captivos, quos tu 
suspicis et veneraris ut Dominos. Certe vel sic confundi in istis erroribus 
tuis poteris, cum conspexeris et audieris Deos tiios, quid sint, interrogatione 
nostra statim prodere, &c. — Cypriaii,, ad Demetrkim, p. 328. This is an 
excellent testimony. 


told his persecutors, ' Lo ! here is a miracle; I feel no more 
pain in this fire than in a bed of down : it is as sweet to me as 
a bed of roses ? ' So Bishop Farrar, who could say before he 
went to the fire, ' If I stir in the fire, believe not my doctrine ;' 
and accordingly remained unmoved. Theodorus the martyr, 
in the midst of his torment, had one in the shape of a young 
man, as he thought, came and wiped off his sweat, and eased 
him of his pain. 

But what need 1 fetch examples so far off; or to recite the 
multitudes of them which church history doth afford us ? h 
there ever a praying Christian here who knovveth what it is im- 
portunately to strive with God, and to plead his promises with 
him believingly, that cannot give in his experiences of most 
remarkable answers ? I know men's atheism and infidelity will 
never want somewhat to say against the most eminent provi- 
dences, though they were miracles themselves. That nature 
which is so ignorant of God, and at enmity with him, will not 
acknowledge him in his clear discoveries to the world, but will 
ascrilie all to fortune or nature, or some such idol, which indeed 
is nothing. But when mercies are granted in the very time of 
prayer, and that when to reason there is no hope, and that 
without the help of any other means or creatures, yea, and 
perhaps many times over and over, is not this as plain as if 
God from heaven should say to us, ' I am fulfilling to thee the 
true word of my promises in Christ, my Son ?' How many times 
have I known the prayer of faith to save the sick, when all 
physicians have given them up for dead?" (James v. 13 — 16.) 

" Among abundance of instances that I could give, ray conscience command- 
eth me here to give you this one, as belonging lo the very words here written. 
I had a tumour rose on one of the tonsils, or almonds, of my throat, round like 
a pea, and at first no bigger ; and at last, no bigger than a small button, and 
hard like a bone. The fear lest it should prove a cancer, troubled me more than 
the thing itself. I used first, dissolving medicines ; and alter, lenitives for 
palliation : and all in vain for about a quarter of a year. At last my con- 
science smote me for silencing so many former deliverances that I had in an- 
swer of prayers ; merely in pride, lest I should be derided as making ostenta- 
tion of God's special mercies to myself, as if 1 were a special favourite of 
heaven, I had made no public mention of them : I was that morning to preach 
just what is here written, and in obedience to my conscience, 1 spoke these 
words which are now in this page, with some enlargement not here written ; 
when 1 went to church 1 had my tumour as before, (for I frequently saw it in 
the glass, and felt it constantly.) As soon as I had done preaching, I felt it was 
gone, and hastening to the glass, I saw there was not the least vestigium, or 
cicatrix, or mark wherever it had been ; nor did I at all discern what became 
of it. I am sure I neither swallowed it, uor spit it out ; and it was unlikely 

316 THE sAint's 

It hath been my own case more than once, or twice, or ten 
times : when means have all failed, and the highest art or 
reason has sentenced me hopeless, yet have I been relieved 
by the prevalency of fervent prayer, and that, as the physician 
saith, ' tuto, cito, et jucunde ;'" ' My flesh and my heart failed, 
but God is the strength of my heart, and my portion for ever.' 
And though he yet keep me nnder necessary weakness, and 
wholesome sickness, and certain expectation of further neces- 
sities and assaults, yet am I constrained by most convincing 
experiences, to set up this stone of remembrance, and publicly, 
to the praise of the Almighty, to acknowledge that certainly 
God is true to his j)romises, and that they are indeed his own 
infallible word, and that it is a most excellent privilege to have 
interest in God, and a spirit of supplication to be importunate 
with him. 1 doubt not but most Christians that observe the 
spirit and providences, are able to attest this prevalency of 
prayer by their own experiences. 

Object. Perhaps you will say. If these rare examples were 
common, I would believe. 

Answ. I. If they were common, they would be slighted, as 
common wonders are. 

Secondly : Importunate prayer is not common, though formal 
babbling be. 

Thirdly : The evident returns of prayer are ordinary to the 

Fourthly : If wonders were common, we should live by sense, 
and not by faith. 

Fifthly: 1 answer, in the words of Augustin,P God letteth 
not every saint partake of miracles, lest the weak should he 
deceived with this pernicious error, to prefer miracles as better 
than the works of righteousness, wherel)y eternal life is attained. 

And let me now add, that if the Scriptures were not the word 
of God, undoubtedly there would have been as many wonders of 
Providence for the disgracing it, as have been for the defending 
it : and God would have destroyed the preachers of it, as the 
greatest abusers of him, and all the world, that should father 

to dissolve by any natural cause, that bad been hard like a bone a quarter of 
a year, notwithstanding ail dissolving gargarisms. I thought fit to mention 
this, because it was done just as I spoke the words bere written in this page. 
Many such marvellous mercies I have received, and known that others have 
received, in answer to prayer. 

P August. ' De Civitate Dei,' lib, xxxiii. 


such a thing on him. Can any man believe that God is the 
just and gracious Ruler of the world, (that is, thatt here is a 
God,) and yet that he would so long suffer such things to be 
published as his undoubted laws, and give no testimony against 
it, if it were not true ? As Perkins saith, ' Cases of Cons.' (lib. 
ii. c. 3. p. 130. sect. 1.) If it had not been God's word, the 
falsehood had been detected long ago. For there hath been 
nothing falsely said of God at any time which he himself hath 
not, at some time or other, opened and revealed ; as he did the 
false prophets. 

CHAP. Vil. 

The Fourth Argument. 

Sect. I. My fourth and last argument, which I will now 
produce to prove the Scripture to be the word and perfect law of 
God, is this: 

Either tlie Scriptures are the written word and law of God, 
or else there is no such extant in the world : but there is a 
written word and law of God in the world : erc/o, this is it. 

Here I have these two jjositions to prove; First, That God 
hath such a written word in the world. Secondly, That it can 
be no other but this. 

That there is such a word, I prove thus : If it cannot stand 
with the welfare of mankind, and consequently with that 
honour which the wisdom and goodness of God hath by their 
welfare, that the world should be without a written law, then, 
certainly, there is such a written law. But that it cannot stand 
with the welfare of the creature, or that honour of God, appears 
thus : that there be a certain and sufficient revelation of the 
will of God to man, more than mere nature and creatures do 
teach, is necessary to the welfare of man, and the aforesaid 
honour of God. But there is now no such certain and suffi- 
cient revelation unwritten in the world : therefore, it is neces- 
sary that there be such a revelation written. 

The proof of the major is the main task,'! which if it be well 

1 I do of purpose pass over those things which others have fully written of, 
because I would not trouble the world so often with the same words which 
others have said before us. In particular, to prove the absolute necessity 
that there must be some written word among and above others, great Camero 

318 THE saint's 

performed, will clearly carry the who e cause ; for I believe all 
the rest will quickly be granted, if that be once plain. There- 
fore, I shall stand a little more largely to prove it, viz., that 
there is a necessity for the welfare of man, and the honour of 
God's wisdom and goodness, that there be some further reve- 
lation of God's will, than is in mere nature or creatures to be 
found. And first I prove it necessary to the welfare of man, 
and that thus : If man have a happiness or misery to partake 
of after this life, and no sufficient revelation of it in nature or 
creatures, then it is necessary that he have some other revela- 
tion of it, which is sufficient. But such a happiness or misery 
man must partake of hereafter, which nature and creatures do 
not sufficiently reveal, (either end or means,) therefore some 
other is necessary. I will stand the largelier on the first branch 
of the antecedent, because the chief weight lieth on it ; and I 
scarce ever knew any doubt of Scripture, but they also doubted 
of the immortal state and recompense of souls ; and that usually 
is their first and chiefest doubt. 

1 will, therefore, here prove these three things in order thus : 
1. That there is such a state for man hereafter. 2. That it is 
necessary that he know it, and the way to be so happy. 3. That 
nature and creatures do not sufficiently reveal it. 

For the first, 1 take it for granted, that there is a God, be- 
cause nature teacheth that ; "■ and I shall pass over those argu- 
ments drawn from his righteousness and just dispensation, to 
prove the variety of men's future conditions, because they are 
commonly known ; and I shall now argue from sense itself, be- 
cause that works best with sensual men : and that thus. If the 
devil be very diligent to deceive men of that happiness, and to 
bring them to that misery, then sure there is such a happiness 
and misery : but the former is true, ^ er^o the latter. They 

hath done it fully, ' Prselect. de Verbo Dei,' c. 4 — 6, Operum, (fol.) pp. 4.^)0, 
451, &c., and shows how lamentably even the wisest of the philosophers were 
besotted and ignorant. 

' See Justiu Martyr, Serm. ad Gent., proving^ the unity of the Godhead out 
of the heathens themselves, Orpheus, the Sybils, Sophocles, Homer, Plato, 
Pythagoras, &c. 

* Hear what a heathen saith of the life to come. Miraris hominera ad 
Deos ire? Deus ad homines venit ; immo, quod propius est, in homines venit. 
Nulla sine Deo mens bona est. Semina in corporibus humanis divina dispersa 
sunt ; quae si bonus cultor excipit, similia origine prodeunt, et paria his ex (jui- 
bus orta sunt surgunt; si malus, nou aliter quam humus sterilis ac palustris 
necat, ac deinde creat purganieuta pro frugibus. — Senec, Epist, Ixxiii. p. 278, 
279. edit, Elsev. 1G72. 


that doubt of the major projjosition, do most of them doubt, 
whether there be any devil, as well as whether he seek our 
eternal undoing. I prove both together. First, By his temp- 
tation ; Secondly, Apparitions ; Thirdly, Their possessions and 
dispossessions ; Fourthly, His contracts with witches. I hope 
these are palpable discoveries- 

1. The temptations of Satan are sometimes so unnatural, so 
violent, and so importunate, that the tempted person even feels 
something besides himself persuading and urging him : he can- 
not go about his calling, he cannot be alone, but he feels some- 
what following him, with persuasions to sin, yea, to sins that he 
never found his nature much inclined to, and such as bring him 
no advantage in the world, and such as are quite against the 
temperature of his body. Doth it not plainly tell us, that 
there is a devil, labouring to deprive man of his happiness, 
when men are drawn to commit such monstrous sins ? ^ Such 
cruelty as the Romans used to the Jews at the taking of Jeru- 
salem ; so many thousand Christians so barbarously murdered ; 
such bloody actions as those of Nero, Caligula, Sylla, Messala, 
Caracalla, the Roman -gladiators, the French massacre, the 
gunpowder- plot, the Spanish inquisition, and their murdering 
fifty millions of Indians in forty two years, according to the tes- 
timony of Acosta, their Jesuit ; men invading their own neigh- 
bours and brethren, with an. unquenchable thirst after their 
blood, and merely because of their strictness in the common 
professed religion : 1 say, How could these come to pass, but 
by the instigation of the devil ? When we see men making a 
jest of such sins as these, making them their pleasure, impu- 
dently, and implacably against knowledge and conscience, pro- 
ceeding in them, hating those ways that they know to be bet- 

* Snadent autem miris invisibilibus modis, per illam subtilitatem suorum 
corporum, corpora homiiium non sentienlium penetraiulo, seseque cogitationi- 
hus eoruni per cjuajtlani iniaginaria, visa niisceiido, sive vigilautiuni, sive dor- 
iiiientium. — ^iig. de Divln. Diemnn. cap. 5. Nou potest daemon instruere 
novas formas in materiain corporalem, unde iiec per consequens in sensum 
ct iniaginationcin in quibus nil recipitur sine orgjano corporali ; unde reHn- 
quitur, ut alicjuid pra'existat in corpore, quoJ per quandam transniutationeni 
localem spiritiuun ct humoniin reducitur ad principia sensualium organorum ; 
ut sic videantur ab anima iniaginaria vel seusuali vjsioue. — Aquin. 1,<|. 16. 
a. 1. Experiniur niultas sa;pe nobis invitis nialas cogitatioiies in nientem ob- 
repere. Unde vero hae cogitationes ? Ab aliquo certe ag-eute eas commovente. 
Non il nobis; quia inviti illas patimur ; non ab angelis bonis, neque ;i Deo 
per illos, quia cogitationes malae sunt. A diabolis igitur sunt. — Zanch, 
torn. 3. lib. iv. <De Potent, Dasinou.' c. 1. p, lyi. 

320 THE saint's 

ter, and all those persons that would help to save them ; yea, 
choosing sin, though they believe it will damn them ; despairing, 
and yet sinning still : doth not this tell men plainly, that there 
is a devil ; their enemy ? When men will commit the sin which 
they abhor in others, which reason is against ; when men of 
otherwise a good nature, as Vespasian, &c., shall be so bloody 
murderers ; when men will not be stirred from sin by any en- 
treaty, though their dearest friends should beg, with tears, upon 
their knees ; though preachers convince them, and beseech 
them in the name of the Lord ; though wife and children, body 
and soul, be undone by it ; nay, when men will be the same 
under the greatest judgment, and under the most wonderful 
convincing providences, as appears in England, yea, under mi- 
racles themselves. 

Surely I think all this shows that there is a devil, and that 
he is diligent in working our own ruin. Why else should it be 
so hard a thing to persuade a man to that, which he is convinced 
to be good ? 

Sect. II. But yet if this be not evidence sufficient, the fre- 
quent apparitions of Satan in several shapes, drawing men, or 
frighting them into sin, is a discovery undeniable. ^"' I know 
many are very incredulous herein, and will hardly believe that 
there have been such apparitions. For my own part, though I 
am as suspicious as most in such reports, and do believe that 
most of them are conceits or delusions, yet having been very 
diligently incjuisitive in all such cases, I have received undoubted 
testimony of the truth of such apparitions ; some from the 
mouths of men of undoubted honesty and godliness, and some 
from the report of multitudes of persons, who heard or saw. 
Were it fit here to name the persons, I could send you to them 
yet living, by whom you would be as fully satisfied as I : houses 
that have been so frequently haunted with such terrors, that the 
inhabitants successively have been witnesses of it. 

Learned godly Zanchius, in his tom. S. lib. iv. cap. 10. * De 
Potentia Daemonum,' saith, " he wonders that any should deny 
that there are such spirits, as from the effects are called hags, 
or fairies, that is, such as exercise familiarity with men, and 
do, without hurting men's bodies, come to them, and trouble 
them, and, as it were, play with them. 1 could (saith he) bring 

" Lege Epistolam Vossii de Saiuuele apparente Saulo, in Joan. Beverovicii 
Epistolis i et D. Reignol. de Samuele apparente, in variis praileclionlbus de 
lib, Apoc. 


many examples of persons yet alive, that have experience of 
these in themselves. But it is not necessary to name them, 
nor indeed convenient. But hence it appears that there are 
such spirits in the air : and that when God permits them, they 
exercise their power on our bodies, either to sport, or to hurt." 
So far Zanchy. And he makes this use of it : " Of this (saith 
he), besides the certainty of God's word, we have also men's daily 
experience. These devils, therefore, do serve to confirm our 
faith of God, of the good angels, of the kingdom of heaven, of 
the blessed souls, and of many things more which the Scripture 
delivereth. Many deny that the soul of man remaineth and 
liveth after death, because they see nothing go from him but his 
breath ; and they come to that impiety, that they laugh at all 
that is said of another life. But we see not the devils ; and 
yet it is clearer than the sun, that this air is full of devils ; be- 
cause, besides God's word, experience itself doth teach it." Thus 
Zanchy pleads undeniable experience, (lib. iv. c. 20. p. 212.) 

Luther affirmed of himself'^ that at Coburge, he ofttimes 
had an apparition of burning torches ; the sight thereof did so 
affright him, that he was near swooning ; also, in his own gar- 
den, the devil appeared to him in the likeness of a black boar, 
but then he made light of it. Sozomen, in his Ecclesiastical 
History, writes of Apelles, a smith, famous in Egypt for working 
miracles, who, in the night, while he was at work, was tempted 
to uncleanness by the devil, appearing in the shape of a beau- 
tiful woman.y The like he tells of a strange apparition in An- 
tioch, the night before the sedition against Theodosius. Theo- 
dorus mentions a fearful sight that appeared to Gennadius, 
patriarch of Constantinople, and the threatening words which 
it uttered. The writings of Gregory, Ambrose, Austin, Chry- 
sostom, Nicephorus, &c., make frequent mention of apparitions, 
and relate the several stories at large. You may read in Lava- 
ter de Spectris, ^ several other relations of apparitions out of 
Alexander ab Alexandro, Baptista Fulgosius, and others. Ludo- 
vicus Vives, (lib. i.) ' Ue Veritate Fidei,' saith, "that among the 
savages in America, nothing is more common than to hear and 
see spirits in such shapes both day and night."'* The like do 
other writers testify of those Indians: so saith Glaus Mamms 
of the islanders. Cardanus de Subtilit. hath many such stories, 

'' Melch. Adam, in Vita Luther. 

y Sozomen. lib. vi. c. 28, lib. vii. c. 23. 

* Lavater, pp. 64, G5. ^ De Gent. Sep. lib. ii. c. 3. 


322 THE saint's 

So Job. Manliiis in Loc. Commun. CoUectan. (cap. 4,) de Malis 
Spiritibus, et de satisfactione.'^ Yea, godly, sober Melanctbon 
affirms, tbat be bad seen some sucb sigbts or apparitions liimself ; 
and many credible persons of bis acquaintance bave told bim, 
tbat tbey bave not only seen tbem, but bad mucb talk witb 
spirits; among tbe rest be mentions one of bis own aunts, wbo 
sitting sad at tbe fire after tbe deatb of ber busband, tbere ap- 
peared unto ber one in tbe likeness of ber husband, and anotber 
like a Franciscan friar; the former told ber tbat he was her 
husband, and came to tell ber somewhat; which was, that she 
must hire some priests to say certain masses for bim, which he 
earnestly besought ber ; then he took ber by tbe band, promis- 
ing to do ber no harm, yet bis band so burned her, tbat it 
remained black ever after, and so tbey vanished away. Thus 
writes Melanctbon. Lavater also himself, wbo bath written a 
book wboliy of apparitions, a learned godly protestant divine, 
tells us, tbat it was then an undeniable thing, confirmed by the 
testimonies of many honest and credible persons, both men and 
women, some alive, and some dead, tbat sometime by night, 
and sometime by day, have both seen and heard sucb things ; 
some tbat going to bed bad tbe clothes plucked off them; 
others had somewhat lying down in the bed witb them ; others 
heard it walking in the chamber by tbem, spitting, groaning ; 
saying, tbey were the souls of sucb or such persons lately de- 
parted ; tbat tbey were in grievous torments, and if so many 
masses were but said for tbem, or so many pilgrimages under- 
taken to the shrine of some saint, they should be delivered. 
These things, witb many such more, saith Lavater, were then 
frequently and undoubtedly done, and, tbat where tbe doors 
were fast locked, and the room searched, tbat there could be 
no deceit. 

" The like may he said of the apparition of good angels encouraging the 
godly. Cyprian, ' De Mortalitate,' p, (inihi) 345, saith, that one like a glori- 
ous young man stood by one of his fellow presbyters at his death, as he was 
afraid, and prayini:^ against death, and said to him, 'Are you afraid to suffer? 
Are you loatli to go forth ? What shall I do with you ?' as chiding him for his 
loathness to die for Christ. — Exam, Theol. In obsidione Nolanse civitatis, 
Nolanum cpiscopum felicem mortuum conspectum fuisse a niultis civitatem 
illaiii defendentcni, refert Aul;usi . lib. de Mirab. Scriptura; (si ille liber sit 
Augustini.) Scio innumera rel'erri fabulosa, vel a fraude, &c. sed (n) a viris 
tum doctis, turn perspicacibus, turn gravibus et probis, et plurimis retro secu- 
lis allata sunt, et hodie niemorantur innumera, ubi non possit non cum opera 
humana concurrissa ijlusio aut vis diabolica, supplente, viz, spirit u maligno 
• piod hominis supcret jjotestatem. — Vossius Epistol. de Samuele in Bcverovidi 
Epistol. p. 203, Vide Mercur, Viperain de Prodig. lib. viii, Pseilum. 


So Sleidan relates the story of Crescentius, the pope's legate, 
frighted into a deadly sickness by a fearful apparition in his 
chamber. Most credible and godly writers tell us, that on June 
20, 1484, at a town called Hamel, in Germany, the devil took 
away one hundred and thirty children, that were never seen 

But I need to say no more of this ; there is enough written 
already, not only by Cycogna, Delrio, Paracelsus, &c., but also 
by godly and faithful writers, as Lavater, Georg. Agricola, Olaus 
Magnus, Zanchius, Pictorius, and many more.^ 

Object. But you will say, ' Though this prove that there are 
devils, and that they are enemies to our happiness ; yet how 
doth it prove that there is a future happiness or misery for 
man ?' 

Answ. Why, plainly thus.^ What need Satan by these ap- 
paritions to set up superstition to draw men to sin, if there 
were no difference between sinners and others hereafter? surely, 
in this life it would be no great displeasure to them ; for 
usually the wicked have the most prosperous lives ; therefore 
his delusions must needs have respect to another life ; and that 
the end of his apparitions is either to drive men to despair, or 
to superstition, or some sin, is evident to all. Most of the 
papists' idolatry and will-worship, hath either been caused or 
confirmed by such apparitions :^ for in former days of darkness 
they were more common than now. How the order of the 
Carthusian friars was founded by Bruno, upon the terrible 
speeches and cries of a dead man, you may read in the life of 
Bruno, before his 'Exposition on Paul's Epistles.' Such was 
the original of All Souls Day, and other holydays, as Trithe- 
mius, Petrus de Natalibus, (lib. x. cap. 1 ;) Polyd. Virg. de Inv. 
(lib. ix. cap. 9,) do declare. Also, praying for the dead, praying 
to saints, purgatory, merits of good works, sanctification, pil- 
grimages, masses, images, relics, monastical vows, auricular 
confession, and most of the popish ceremonies, have had their 
life and strength from these apparitions and delusions of the 

*» Thyreus de locis infestis. 

•^ Neque Satan heec prsstat ut benefaciat hominibus, quos in summo habet 
odio; sed ut corporal! unius curatione infiuitos alios spiritual! morte trucldet. 
— Zanch. de Potentia Dcemon. Xom.^.Vih.iw. cAQ. Vide etiam Zanch. ibid, 
c. 192. p. 14. 

•^ So his seeniiiig miracles. Lege Job. Bap. Vauhelmout ' Dc Lithiasi,' c. 9, 
8601.27. p. 168. 


324 THE saint's 

devil.^ But especially the cross hath been so magnified thereby/ 
that it is grown the commonest remedy to drive away d^ivils of 
any in the world for many hundred years ; the churchyard must 
have one to keep the devils from the graves of the dead ; and 
the church, and almost every pinnacle, window, and part of it, 
to keep him thence; the highways, also, must have them, that 
he molest not the traveller; yea, when morning and evening, 
and in times of danger, and in the beginning of any work of 
duty, men must sign themselves with the cross, to keep away 
devils : insomuch that the learned doctors do handle it among 
their profound questions, what makes the devil so afraid of the 
cross, that he shuns it above all things else ? So that you may 
easily see what a great advantage the devil hath got over the 
souls of a great part of the world by these apparitions ; and 
consequently, that, this being the very end of his endeavours, 
there is certainly a happiness which he would deprive us of, and 
a misery that he would bring us to, when this life is ended. 

Sect. J II. It is manifest also by the devil's possessing and tor- 
menting the bodies of men ;s for if it were not more for the sake 
of the soul than the body, why should he not as much possess or 
torment a beast ? Certainly, it is not chiefly the outward torment 
of the person that he regardeth, though he desires that too ; for 
then he would not labour to settle his kingdom generally in peace 
and prosperity, and to make men choose iniquity for its worldly 
advantages : yet it may, perhaps, be the souls of others, more 
than the possessed persons themselves, that the devil may hope 
to get advantage on. So among the papists it hath brought their^' 

* Camero shows that miracles are, when thiiitjs are done without second 
causes; and proves that the two bool-;s which Lipsius wrote, (' De Diva Vir- 
g-ine Hallensi,' et ' De Diva Virgine Aspricoli,') filled with pretended mira- 
cles, were not indeed of true miracles, as neither reciting the raising of the 
dead, or the like evident miracle, nor any cure done, but with some sensible 
pain or motion which showed some second cause. See Camer. ' Praelect. de 
Verbo Dei,' p. 438. fol. 

* How the devil doth imitate God, in setting up worship, and deluding men 
with his wonders, especially about the cross, read Calfhill's Preface before his 
Answer to Martial, of the cross. 

s Zanchy thinks it is the very substance of devils that entereth men, and 
that they have bodies more subtle than the air, by which they enter. Tom. 3. 
lib. iv. c. 10. p. 183. So Augustine also thinks, ' De Divinatione Damouum,' 
c. 5. And so TertuUian saith, Dasmones sua haec corpora contrahunt, et dila- 
tant ut volunt ; sicut etiam lumbrici et alia quaedam iufecta, ita dissimile illis 
jion est penetrare in nostra corpora. 

* Si quando non oporteat his opitulari, non loquamur cum spiritu, vel 
adjurando, vel imperando, quasi nos audiat, sed tantum pretibus et jejunis 
jncumbendo perseveremus. — Origtn in Matt, 17. 


exorcisms into singular credit, by the frequent dispossessing 
the devils. I confess there hath been many counterfeits of this 
kind, as the boy at Bilson, by Wolverhampton, hired by some of 
the papists, and discovered by the vigilant care of Bishop Morton 
and divers others ; but, yet, if any doubt whether there is any 
such thing at all, credible history and late experience may suffi- 
ciently satisfy him. The history of the dispossession of the devil 
out of many persons together in a room in Lancashire, at the 
prayer of some godly ministers, is very famous : read the book, 
and judge. Among the papists, possessions are common • 
though very many of them are the priests and Jesuits' delusions. 

What possession is, and how the devils are confined to a body,* 
or whether circumscribed there in whole or in part, are things 
beyond my reach to know; but that the strange effects which 
we have seen on some bodies, have been the products of the 
special power of the devil there, I doubt not. Though, for my 
own part, I believe that God's works in the world are usually by 
instruments, and not immediate ; and as good ^ angels are his 
instruments in conveying his mercies both to soul and body, and 
churches and states ; so evil angels are instruments of inflicting 
his judgments, both corporal and spiritual. Hence God is said 
(Psal. Ixxviii. 49,) to send evil angels among the Israelites. 
Hence Paul's phrase of delivering to Satan ; hence Satan did 
execution on the children, cattle, and body of Job ; and upon 
Jerusalem in that plague, and numbering the people. To satisfy 
you fully in this, and to silence your objections, and to teach you 
the true and spiritual use of this doctrine, I refer you to Mr. 
Lawrence's book, called * Our Communion and War with An- 
gels ; ' and, especially, Zanchius's (tome 3) book ' De Ange- 
lis ; ' and, now newly published, Mr. Ambrose's book, in which, 
in an epistle, I have confirmed and vindicated what I have here 

So then, though 1 judge that Satan is the instrument in our 
ordinary diseases, yet doth he, more undeniably, appear in those 
whom we call the possessed. Luther thought that all phrenetic 
persons and idiots, and all bereaved of their understanding, had 

• The devil had the power of death, saith the Holy Ghost, Heb. ii. 14. 

^ The angels do serve in both these ministries (superior and iufei-ior) in 
the administration and economy (or government) of earthly things, — Clem. 
Alex. Stromat. lib. vii. initio. It is Christ that giveth to the Greeks wisdom 
by inferior angels. For the angels are by an ancient and divine command 
distributed by (or through) nations. — Ibid. 

326 THE saint's 

devils : notwithstanding, physicians might ease them by reme- 
dies. And, indeed, the presence of the devil may consist with 
the presence of a disease and evil humour, with the efficacy of 
means : Saul's melancholy devil would be gone when David 
plaved on the harp. Many divines, as Tertullian, Austin, Zan- 
chius, Lavater, &c.,' think that he can work both upon the 
body and the mind, and that he maketh use to this end of me- 
lancholy humours; and, indeed, such strange things are oft said 
and done by the melancholy and mad, that many learned phy- 
sicians think that the devil is frequently mixed with such dis- 
tempers, and hath a main hand in many other symptoms : so 
Avicen, Rhasis, Arculanus, Aponensis, Jason, Patensis, Hercul. 
Saxon, &c. Who can give any natural cause for men's speaking 
Hebrew or Greek, which they never learned or spake before ; 
of their versifying ; their telling persons that are present their 
secrets ; discovering what is done at a distance, which they 
neither see nor hear ? Fernelius mentioneth two that he saw ; "" 
whereof one was so tormented with convulsive pain, sometime 
in one arm, sometime in the other ; sometime in one finger, &c., 
that four men could scarcely hold him, his head being still quiet 
and well. The physicians judged it a convulsion, from some 
malignant humour in the sjnna dorsi; till, having used all means 
in vain, at last the devil derided them, that they had almost 
destroyed the man with their medicines. The man spoke Greek 
and Latin, which he never learned ; he told the physicians a 
great many of their secrets ; and a great deal of talk with the 
devil, which they had, he there mentions. In conclusion, both 
this and the other were dispossessed by popish prayers, fasting, 
and exorcism. Forestus mentions a countryman that," being 
cast into melancholy, through discontent, at some injuries that 
he had received, the devil appeared to him in the likeness of a 
man, and persuaded him rather to make away himself than to 

1 Vide Pet. Martyr, in loc. ' Commun.' class i. c. 8. sect. 8. pp. 3!), 40. 
DaMDoniaci semper fere sunt melancholici, sed non omnes melaucholici dae- 
niouiaci. Forest. ' Obs.' lib. x. obs. 19. Melch. Adam in Vila Luther. Vide 
Pet. Martyr, loc. ' Commun.' per tot. For speaking strange languages and 
verifying, see Guainerius, tract. 15 ; de Melanc. c. 4 ; et V/ierum ' Ue Prae- 
stigiis,' lib. ii. c. 21 — 23 ; et Forest. *Obs.' lib, x. ohs. 19. in schol. 

"> De ' Abdit. Rer. Causis,' lib. ii. c. 16. Vide Pael. Plateri ' Observ.' p. 28. 
de stupore dsemoniaco ; et de exorcista ipso il demone percusso et laeso. 

" Lib. XXX. de Veveris, obs. 8. in scliol. Cyprian. ' Serm. de Lapsis,' hath 
a history of one possessed, and of her impatience during the time of prayer : 
and in those times when they went to sacrament, they catechised the peni- 
tents, and the possessed wei'e all warned to depart the assembly. 


bear such indignities ; and, to that end, advised him to send for 
arsenic and poison himself. But the apothecary woukl not let 
him have it except he would bring one to promise that he should 
not abuse it, whereupon the devil went v.'itb him, as his voucher, 
and so he took a dram ; but, though it tormented him, yet it did 
not presently kill him; whereupon the devil brought him, after- 
ward, a rope, and after that a knife, to have destroyed himself: 
at which sight, the man, being affrighted, was recovered to his 
right mind again. You may read a multitude of such examples 
in Scribonius, Schenkius, Wierus, Chr. a Vega, Langius, Do- 
natus (lib. ii. c. 1); *De Med. Mir.' Cornel. Gemma, (lib. ii.); 'De 
Natur. Mirac' (c. 4.) See also Valesius (c. 28) ; ' Sacr. Philos.' 
Roderic. k Castro (2) ; ' De Morb. Mul.' (c. 3) ; Scliol. Caelius 
Rhodiginus (lib. i.) ; ' (antiq. lect. c. 34.) Tertullian" chal- 
Icngeth the heathen to bring any one possessed with the devil 
before their judgment-seat, or one that pretended to have the 
spirit of the gods; and if, at the command of a Christian, he do 
not confess himself to be a devil, let them take the Christian to 
be presumptuous, and put him immediately to death. But of 
Jesus, saith he, they say not so_, nor that he was a mere man ; 
but the Power, the Wisdom, and the Word of God ; and that 
they are devils, damned for their wickedness. The like doth 
Cyprian, ad Demetrian. sect. 2. 

So that it seems it was then common for the devil in the 
possessed to confess Christ, or else Tertullian durst not have 
made such a challenge. 

Some wonder that there were so many possessed with devils 
in Christ's time, and so few since : but they understood not that 
it was madmen whom they call possessed : and Christ confirmed 
their judgment; as Mr. Mead, on John x. 20, hath proved out 
of Scripture, and from Plautus, Justin Mart., Timotheus Alex., 
Balzamon, Zonaras, to whom I refer the reader for the fuller 
proof hereof. 

Sect. IV. The fourth and last of these palpable arguments, to 
prove that man hath a future happiness or misery, is drawn from 
the devil's compacts with witches.? It cannot be only his de- 

" Tertul. ' Apol.' c, 23. where he pressed them on to make trial of it. 

p See a notable story of a woman pretending to have the Holy Ghost, but 
proving to be a witch, and what wonders she did ; and had a gift of prayer, 
and did baptise and administer the Lord's supper in the ordinary way, iu 
Firmilianus, * Epist. Cyprian,' 75, p. 238. 

32S THE saint's 

sire of hurting their bodies, that makes him enter into these 
contracts with them ; for that he might procure by other means 
as likely. Besides, it is some kind of prosperity, or fulfilling 
their desires, which he conditioneth to give them. It is a 
childish thing to conceit, that the devil cares so much for a few 
drops of their blood. Is not the blood of a beast or other crea- 
ture as sweet ? Neither can it be only the acknowledgment of 
his power that he aims at, nor a mere desire of being honoured 
or worshipped in the world, as Porphyrins and other pagans 
have thought ; for he is most truly served, where he is least 
discerned; and most abhorred when he most appears. His 
apparitions are so powerful a means to convince the atheist, who 
believes not that there is either God, or devil, or heaven, or 
hell, that I am persuaded he would far rather keep out of sight, 
and that for the most part he is constrained of God to appear 
against his will. Besides, if Satan sought his own honour, he 
would still speak in his own name: but, contrarily, his usual 
appearance is in the shape and name of some deceased person, 
affirming himself to be the soul of such a one ; or else he pre- 
tends to be an angel of light : and when he makes his compacts 
with witches, it is seldom so plainly and directly as that they 
understand it is indeed the devil that they deal with. So that 
it is apparent, Satan seeks something more than the honour of 
domineering, that is, the ruin of the party with whom he deals. 
And that it is not their bodily and temporal ruin only, appears 
further bv this, that he will heal as well as hurt, and give power 
to his confederates to do the like ; and this tends not to the 
ruin of men's bodies. Though there be a great deal of deceit 
among them, yet doubtless many have been cured by popish 
spells, and pilgrimages, and exorcisms.^ Carolus Piso mentions 

1 Bishop Hall saith Satau's prevalency, in this age, is most clear in the 
marvellous number of witches aboundin|f in all parts. Now, hundreds are 
discovered in one shire : and, if fame deceive us not, in a village of fourteen 
houses, in the north, are found so many of this damned breed. Heretofore, 
only barbarous deserts had them ; now the civilest and most religious parts 
are frequently pestered with them. Heretofore, some silly, poor, ignorant, old 
-woman, &c. Now, we have known those of both sexes, who have professed 
much knowledge, holiness, atid devotion, drawn into this damnable practice. 
— Hall's Soliloquy, 15, pp. 53, 54. Car. Piso de niorbis serosis observ. 9. De 
dolore auris cum odontalgia, pp. 45, 46. Even the papists confess that all those 
spells, and scrolls, and actions, wliich must be done at such an hour, or in 
such a form and order, and with such circumstances, as nothing conduce to 
the effect intended : if these do any thing, it is from the devil. Vide Regi- 
naldum. ' Prax. Conscieu. Cas.' part 1, q. 7 ; et ' Prax. for Poeaitential,' lib. 


one of his patients who was incurably deaf a year together, and 
was suddenly cured in the midst of his devotion to the lady of 
Loretto. Fernelius mentions those that could stop any bleeding 
by repeating certain words. He saw an universal jaundice cured 
in one night, by the hanging of a piece of paper about the neck, 
A great deal more to the same purpose he hath, ' De abditis 
rer. causis,' (lib. ii. c. 16.) If any should doubt whether there be 
any such witches, who thus work by the power of the devil, or 
have any compact with him, he hath as good opportunity now 
to be easily resolved, as hath been known in most ages. Let 
him go but into Suffolk, or Essex, or Lancashire, &c., and he 
may quickly be informed. Surely it were strange, if in an age 
of so much knowledge and conscience, there should so many 
scores of poor creatures be put to death as witches, if it were 
not clearly manifest that they were such. We have too many 
examples lately among us, to leave any doubt of the truth of this. 

So that by these attempts of Satan to deceive and destroy 
souls, it is evident, that there is an estate of happiness or misery 
for every man after this life.'' 

All those arguments, which every common-place book and 
philosopher almost can afford you, to prove the immortality of 
the soul, will also serve to prove the point in hand. But many 
can apprehend these arguments from sense, who cannot yet 
reach, and will not be convinced by other demonstrations, as 
temptations, apparitions, possessions, dispossessions, and witches, 
are most excellent means to convince a Sadducee, that there 
are angels and spirits; so, also, by clear consequence, that there 
is a resurrection and eternal life. 

Sect. V. The second thing that I am to clear to you, is, that 
it is necessary for man to know this happiness, and the way to 
obtain it ; and to know the misery and the way to escape it. 
This appears thus : 

First : If he must go that way, and use those means, then he 
must needs first know both the end and the wav : but he 
that will obtain the end, must use the means ; therefore, he 

xvii. nu. 157, et seq. Read Bodin, and Permigrius, and Dana^us, of witches, 
and many authors, together in the ' Malleus Maleficarum.' See more in my 
book against infidelity. 

' De Simonis Magi prasstigiis scripsere Abdias Epist. ; Bahil. in Certam ; 
Apost. ; et Egesyp., et Nicephor., et plures. Vide etiam qua; scripsit Olaus 
Magn. * De Gent. Septentrional.' lib. iii. c. 4, de Metothin. Magno. et de aliis, 
lib. iil. c. 18. 

330 THE saint's 

must necessarily know them. All this is so evident, that, I be- 
lieve, few will deny it. That man must use means before he 
attain the end, is evident. 

First : From the nature of the motion of the rational soul, 
which is to seek the attainment of its propounded end, by a 
voluntary use of means conducing thereto : for as it hath not, 
at its first infusion, that height of perfection, whereof it is ca- 
pable, so, neither is it carried thereto by violence, or by blind 
instinct, for then it were not a rational motion. 

Secondly : Yea, the very enjoyment of the end, and the seek- 
ing of it, are actions of the same nature : it is enjoyed by the 
knov/ing, loving, rejoicing, &;c., and these actions are the means 
to attain it. 

Thirdly : And if the means were not necessary to the end, 
the wicked were as capable of it as the godly 5 but that will not 
stand with the justice of God. 

Fourthly : If knowledge of the end, and use of means, were 
not of necessity to the obtaining of that end, then a beast, or 
a block, were as fit a subject for that blessedness, as 'a man: 
but these cannot be. 

And that man cannot seek a happiness, which he never knew; 
and shun a misery, which he was not aware of; nor use means 
thereto, which he never was acquainted with ; I think would be 
lost and needless labour for me to prove. 

Sect. VI. The third thing that I am to prove, is this : That 
mere nature and creatures, contain no sufficient revelation of 
the fore-mentioned end and means.^ This appears thus : First, 
Nature, by the help of creatures, though it tell us that there is 
a God, yet, how he will be worshipped, or how he came to be 
displeased with the world, or how he must be reconciled ; of all 
this it tells us but little. Again, though it may possibly acquaint 
us with the immortal state, yet what the happiness there is, and 
what the misery, or how we are naturally deprived of that hap- 
piness, and how it must be recovered, and who they be that 
shall enjoy it; of all this it tells us little : much less of the re- 
surrection of our bodies from the grave. So, also, though na- 
ture may possibly find itself depraved, yet how it came to be so, 
or how to be healed, or how to be pardoned, it cannot tell. 

^ If it were not God's book, then all God's will should be hidden, and God 
should never jet have revealed his will to man.— Po7a?2i' Cases of Conscience, 
lib. ii. c. 3. 


Secondly : If nature, by the mere book of the creatures, could 
learn all things necessary, yet, First, It would be slow, and by 
so long study. Secondly, And so doubtfully and uncertainly. 
Thirdly, And so rarely, that it appears by this, the means of 
revelation is not sufficient. All this apparent by event and suc- 
cess. For what nature and creatures do sufficiently teach, that 
some of their scholars have certainly learned. 

First, then, observe, how long did the most learned philoso- 
phers study before they could know those few imperfect notions, 
which some of them did attain to, concerning eternity ? They 
were gray with age and study, before they could come to know 
that which a child of seven years old may now know by the be- 
nefit of Scripture. But all men live not to such an age, there- 
fore this is no sufficient means. 

Secondly, observe, also, how uncertain they were, when all 
was done ; what they speak rightly concerning God, or the life 
to come, in one breath, they are ready to unsay it again in 
another, as if their speeches had fallen from them against their 
wills, or as Caiaphas's confession of Christ. They raise their 
conclusions from such uncertain premises, that the conclusions 
also must needs be uncertain. 

Thirdly, observe, also, how rare that knowledge was among 
them. It may be in all the world, there may be a few hundreds 
of learned philosophers, and among those there is one part 
epicures, another peripatetics, &c., that acknowledge not a 
future happiness or misery. And of those few that do acknow- 
ledge it, none knows it truly, nor the way that leads to it. How 
few of them could tell what was man's chief good ! And those 
few, how imperfectly; with what mixtures of falsehood! we 
have no certainty of any of them that did know so much, as 
that there was but one God. For though Socrates died for 
deriding the multitudes of gods, yet there is no certain record 
of his right belief of the unity of the godhead. Besides, what 
Plato and Plotinus' did write of this that was sound, there is 
far greater probability that they had it from Scripture, than 
merely from nature and creatures. For that Plato" had read 

* Sir Walter Raleigh's * History of the World,' showeth that Pythagoras, 
Orpheus, and Plato, had their doctrine of God from Scripture, but durst not 
profess it. Plotinus was Origen's condisciple of Ammonius, therefore no won- 
der if he be liker a divine than the rest. See Peinble * Vind. Grat.' of this, 
pp. 60-^62, &CC. 

" Therefore Numenius, cited by Orig'en against Celsus, doth call him Moses 

332 THE saint's 

the writings of Moses, is proved already by divers authors. The 
like may be said of Seneca/ and many others. So that if this 
means had contained any sufficiency in it for salvation, yet it 
would have extended but to some few of all the learned phi- 
losophers : and what is this to an universal sufficiency to all 
mankind ? nay, there is not one of all their exactest moralists, 
that have not mistaken vice for virtue ; yea, most of them give 
the name of virtue to the foulest villanies, such as self-murder, 
in several cases, revenge, a proud and vain-glorious affectation 
of honour and applause, with other the like j so far have these 
few learned philosophers been from the true knowledge of things 
spiritual and divine, that they could never reach to know the 
principles of common honesty. Varro saith, that there were in his 
days, two hundred and eighty-eight sects or opinions among 
philosophers concerning the chief good : what, then, should the 
multitudes of the vulgar do, who have neither strength of wit 
to know, nor time, and books and means to study, that they 
might attain to the height of these learned men ? so that I 
conclude with Aquinas,^ that if possibly, nature and creatures 
might teach some few enough to salvation, yet were the Scrip- 
tures of flat necessity ; both for the more enlarged : Secondly, 
And the more easy and speedy: Thirdly, And the more certain 
spreading of knowledge and salvation. 

Sect. VII. But here are some objections'' to be answered. First, 
Were not the fathers till Moses, without Scripture ? Answ. First, 
Yet thev had a revelation of God's will, besides what nature or 
creatures taught them. Adam had the doctrine of the tree of 
knowledge, and the tree of life, and the tenor of the covenant 
made with him, by such revelation, and not by nature. So had 
the fathers the doctrine of sacrificing ; for nature could teach 
them nothing of that, therefore, even the heathens had it from 
the church. Secondly, Ail other revelations are now ceased. 

Atticus : and divers of Numenius' books do recite with great reverence many 
texts out of Moses and the prophets. 

^ Though the epistles betwixt Paul and Seneca may be feigned, yet it is 
more than probable that he had heard or read Paul's doctrine. And Clemens 
Alex., citing the same in Numenius, shows also out of Aristobulus, 1. Philo- 
matrem, that Plato was very studious of Moses and the Jews' laws ; and saith 
also that Pythagoras took many things out of the Scriptures. — Stromal, lib. i. 

^ Aquin. Sum. la, Ise. art. 1. q. 1. and 2a, 2ae, q. 1. art. 34. Kut more fully, 
*Cont.Gent.' lib. i. c. 4—6. 

* See Scharpii cursus Theol. de S. Scrip. Contro. 6. de Neces. S. S. ppi 122 
—124, and so almost every common-place book answers this. 


therefore tliis way is more necessary. Thirdly, And there are 
many truths . necessary now to be known, which then were not 
revealed, and so not necessary. 

Object. 2. Doth not the apostle say, that which may be 
known of God, was manifest in them, &c. ? 

Answ. This, with many other objections, are fully scanned 
by many divines, to whom I refer you ; particularly Dr. Willet, 
on Rom. i. 14, 20, &c. Only in general I answer, there is 
much difference between knowing that there is a God of eternal 
power, which may make the sinner inexcusable for his open sin 
against nature, (which the apostle there speaks of,) and know- 
ledge which is sufficient to salvation. How God deals with the 
multitude that have not the Scripture, as to their eternal state, 
I leave as a thing beyond us, and so nothing to us : but if a 
possibility of the salvation of some of them be acknowledged, 
yet in the three respects above mentioned, there remains still 
a necessity of some further revelation than nature or creatures 
do contain. And thus I have manifested a necessity for the 
welfare of man. Now it would follow that I show it necessary 
for the honour of God ; but this follows so evidently as a con- 
sectary of the former, that I think I may spare that labour. 

Object. But what if there be such a necessity, doth it follow 
that God must needs supply it ? Answ. Yes, to some part of 
the world. For, First, It cannot be conceived how it can stand 
with his exceeding goodness, bounty, and mercy, to make a 
world, and not to save some. Secondly, Nor with his wisdom, 
to make so many capable of salvation, and not reveal it to them, 
or bestow it on them. Thirdly, Or to prepare so many other 
helps to man's happiness, and to lose them all for want of such 
a sufficient revelation. Fourthly, Or to be the Governor of the 
world, and yet to give them no perfect law to acquaint men 
with their duty, and the reward of obedience, and penalty of 

Having thus proved that there is certainly some written word 
of God in the world, the last thing that I have to prove is, 
that there is no other writing in the world but this that can be 
it. And, First, There'' is no other book in the world, that 
ever I heard of, that doth so much as claim this prerogative and 

* The apocryphal books are but records more imperfect and uncertain, of 
the same doctrine for the substance with the rest, though mixed with some 
suspected history, and doth confirm, but not contradict the Scriptures j and 
but few of those books do pretend to a diviue authority, as the rest. 

334 THE saint's 

dignity. Mahomet'' calleth himself but a prophet, he acknow- 
ledgeth the truth of most of the Scripture, and his Alcoran "^ 
contradicteth the very light of nature. Aristotle, Plato, and 
other philosophers, acknowledge their writings to be merely of 
their own study and invention. What book saith, ' Thus saith 
the Lord,' and ' This is the word of the Lord,' but this ? So 
that if it hath no competitor, there needs not so much to be said. 

2. What other book doth reveal the mysteries of God, of 
the Trinity, of God and man in one person, of creation, of the 
fall, the covenants, their conditions, heaven, hell, angels, devils, 
temptations, regeneration, worship, &c., besides this one book, 
and those that profess to receive it from this, and profess their 
end to be but the confirming and explaining the doctrine of 
this ? Indeed, upon those subjects which are below the Scrip- 
ture, as logic, arithmetic, &c., other books may be more 
excellent than it; as a tailor may teach you to make a cloak 
better than all the statute books or records of parliament. But 
this is a lower excellency than the Scripture was intended to.'^ 

And thus I have done with this weighty subject, that the 
Scripture, which contains the promises of our rest, is the certain 
infallible word of God. The reason why I have thus di- 
gressed, and said so much of it, is, because I was very appre- 
hensive of the great necessity of it, and the common neglect of 

^ Though Mahomet pretended to speak from God as a prophet, the barba- 
rousness and sottishiiess of his Alcoran, its contradiction of itself, and to the 
Scripture, which he acknowledgeth, may satisfy any man of its forgery, so 
that it is tlie most stupendous judgment of God, that so great a part of the 
world should continue so brutish as to believe and follow him still. Read 
Bradwardine's excellent dispute on this subject, ' De Causa Dei,' lib. i. Co- 
rol. part 32, and Grotius ' Ue Veritate Relig. ChristiaufE.' 

<= Certe in Alcorano nulla, aut infrequens, fit mentio miraculorum ; aut si 
quae fiat, sunt ilia monstrosa, et hac nota inusta, ut non modo pro inge- 
nio conficta, sed baibare quoque excogitata videantur : tum non audet illius 
miraculi testes appellare ; non enim sunt talia, ut author Alcorani palam ausit 
asserere patrata. — Camero de Verba Dei, p. 441. 

•* That the heathen religion is not the true religion, all the old fathers that 
wrote against them, Justin, Arnobius, Lactantius, TertuUian, Athanasius, 
Origen, and the rest before named, have showed at large. Non ideo majo- 
rein fidem adhibemus evangelio Joannis, quara Nicodemi, quod ab ecclesiacon- 
stitutum et decretum fit, &c. NuUibi enim decretum est, necullumde hac re 
concilium unquam vocatum. Sed quod apostoli adhuc in vivis, hujusmodi 
evangelia rejecerunt. His enim credidit ecclesia, et eorum fides posteris 
manii'estavit apostoli etiam et evangelistse evangelia sua conscriptatradiderunt 
ecclesia;, quibus ipsa alia dcinue examinavit; et quouiam illamultum diii'crre 
cognovit ea rejecit ; aliosque de illis piu'inouuit. — JjuUinge); Corp. Doct, 
lib. i. c. 4, 


being grounded in it ; and withal, that this is the very heart 
of my whole discourse ; and that if this be doubted of, all the 
rest that I have said will l)e in vain. If men doubt of the 
truth, they will not regard the goodness. And the reason why 
I have said no more, but passed over the most common argur^ 
ments, is, because they are handled in many books already; 
which I advise Christians to be better versed in. To the mere 
English reader 1 commend especially these : Sir Philip Morney, 
Lord dii Plessis's ' Verity of Christian Religion ;' Grotius ' Of 
the Truth of Christian Religion,' which is lately translated into 
English ; and Mr. Perrin's ' Cases of Conscience,' (lib. ii. c. 3) ; 
Parson's * Book of Resolution,' corrected by Bunny, (the second 
part.) Dr. Jackson on the Creed, and (come forth since I began 
this) Mr. White's, of Dorchester, ' Directions for Reading Scrip- 
ture.' Mr. John Goodwin's ' Divine Authority of Scripture 
Asserted.' Also, read a book called, ' A Body of Divinity,' (first 
part,) written by our honest and faithful countryman. Colonel 
Edward Leigh. Also, Ursinus's Catechism on this question ; 
and Ball's Catechism, with the exposition, which, to those that 
cannot get larger treatises, is very useful.^ 

For the question. How it may be known which books are 
canonical ? I here meddle not with it : I think human testi- 
mony, with the fore-mentioned qualifications, must do most in 
determining that. Yet we must carefully distinguish betv.'een 
those canonical books which have been questioned, and those 
which were unquestioned, but delivered by more infallible tra- 
dition ; and also between those which contain most of the sub' 
stance of our faith, and those which do not. 

Prop. 1. No book in the canon was ever generally doubted 
of; but when one church doubted of it, others received it, from 
whom we have as much reason to receive them, as from the 
Roman church. 

Prop. 2. Those books which have been generally received, 
are known to be canonical, by the same way, and testimony, 

e So Dr. Preston 'On the Attributes,' pp. 40, 41, and forward; and P.y- 
field's 'Principles.' In Latin, the best that I know oMs Grotius * De 
Veritate Relig. ;' and especially Camero's « Prselectiones de Verbo Dei;* 
thouiih every common-place book speaks to this end, and some very well, 
as Lud. Crocius, Polanus, &c., Kimidontius  De Verbo Scripto,' &c. And 
the fathers that write against the pagans, are of great use to students in this 
point, as Justin, Athenagoras, Tatianus, Lactantius, Tertullian, Cyprian, 
Athanasius, Clemens Alexaudiinus, &c, but especially Oiigeu against 

336 THE saint's 

and means, as the Scripture in general is known to be God's 

Prop. 3. It is not a thing which one cannot be saved with- 
out, to beUeve every particular book to be canonical ; if we be- 
lieve all that were generally received, yea, or but one book 
which containeth the substance of christian doctrine, though we 
doubt of those, that some formerly doubted of, it would not ex- 
clude from salvation. The books are received for the doctrine's 
sake. It is vain cavilling, therefore, for the papists, when they 
put us to prove the canon, they stick only on the questioned 
books ; especially when those were but few and short. Matthew, 
and Mark, and Luke, and John, and Paul's writings, which are 
full, and contain the main body of christian doctrine, do, withal, 
contain the characters of their own canonical verity, whicb, 
seconded by the conveyance of universal, rational, infallible tra- 
dition, (not Romish authoritative tradition, or the judgment of 
the pope, or the present church,) may certainly be discerned ; 
even with a saving certainty, by those that are specially illu- 
minated by God's Spirit ; and with an ordinary rational cer- 
tainty, by those that have God's common help. 

I conclude this as I began, with an earnest request to mi- 
nisters that they would preach, and to people that they would 
study this subject more thoroughly; that while they firmly be- 
lieve the truth of that word which promiseth them rest, and 
prescribes them the means thereto, they mav believe, and hope, 
and love, and long, and obey, and labour, with the more serious- 
ness, and liveliness, and patient constancy. 


Rest for none but the People of God, proved. 

Sect. I. It may here be expected, that as I have proved, that 
this rest remaineth for the people of God ; so I should now prove, 
that it remaineth only for them ; and that the rest of the world 

f When Jerome proveth the ' Epistle to the Hebrews ' to be canonical, he 
showeth how we must judge of tlie canon ; Non per hujus temporis consuetu- 
dinem, sed veterum Scrijitorum authoritatem plerunique utriuscjue abutentium 
teslimoniis ; non ut apocryphis, sed cauonicis et ecclesiasticis. — Hier. ad Dai' 
dan. torn. 4. fol. 29. Where then is the papists' judicial authority of the pre- 
sent pope or church ? 


shall have no part in it. But the Scripture is so full and plain 
in this, that I suppose it needless to those who believe Scrip- 
ture. Christ hath resolved, that those who make light of him, 
and the offers of his grace, shall never taste of his supper : 
" and that without holiness, none shall see God : and that, ex- 
cept a man be regenerate, and born again, he cannot enter into 
the kingdom of God. That he that believes not, shall not see 
life, but the wrath of God abideth on him : that no unclean 
person, nor covetous, nor railer, nor drunkard, &c., shall enter 
into the kingdom of Christ, and of God." (Eph, v. 4, 5.) "That 
the wicked shall be turned into hell, and all they that forget 
God : that all they shall I)e damned that obey not the truth, 
but have pleasure in um-ighteousness." (2 Thess. ii. 12.) "That 
Christ will come in flaming fire, to take vengeance on them that 
know not God, and obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from 
the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power. "'^ 
And Christ himself hath opened the very manner of their pro- 
cess in judgment, and the sentence of their condemnation to 
eternal fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. (Matt, xxv.) 
So that here is no rest for any but the people of God, except 
you will call the intolerable everlasting flames of hell a rest. 

And it were easy to manifest this also by reason. For, First, 
God's justice requires an inequality of men's state hereafter, as 
there was of their lives here. And, Secondly, They that walk 
not in the way of rest, and use not the means, are never likely 
to obtain the end : they would not follow Christ in the regene- 
ration, nor accept of rest upon his conditions ; they thought him 
to be too hard a master, and his way too narrow, and his laws 
too strict : they chose the pleasures of sin for a season, rather 
than to suffer affliction with the jjeople of God : they would 
not suffer with Christ, that so they might reign with him. M'hat 
they made choice of, that they did enjoy ; they had their good 
things in this life ; and what they did refuse, it is but reason 
they should want : how oft would Christ have gathered them 
to him, and they would not ; and he useth to make men willing 
before he saves them, and not to save them against their wills. 

Therefore will the mouth of the wicked be stopped for evei, 
and all the world shall acknowledge the justice of God. Had 
the ungodly but returned before their life was expired, and 

'' Matt, xxii. 5 — 7 ; Luke xiv. 2.5 ; Heb, xii. 14 ; JoIhi i. 33, and iii. 18, 36" j 
1 Cor. vi. 9, 10; Gal. V. 21; Psal. ix, 17; 2 Thess. i, 8-10. 


338 THE saint's 

been heartily willing to accept of Christ for their Saviour and 
their King, and to be saved by him in his way, and upon his most 
reasonable terms, they might have been saved. 

Object. But may not God be better than his word, and save 
those that he doth not promise to save ? 

Answ. But not false of his word, in saving those whom he 
hath said he will not save. Men's souls are in a doleful case 
when they have no hope of happiness, except the word of God 
prove false. To venture a man's eternal salvation, upon hope 
that God will be better than his word, that is, in plain English, 
that the God of truth will prove a liar, is somewhat beyond 
stark madness, whicli hath no name bad enough to express it. 

Yet do I believe, that the description of God's people in Eng- 
land, and in America, must not be the same ; because, as God's 
revelations are not the same, so neither is the actual faith which 
is required in both the same ; and as the written and positive 
laws in the church were never given them, so obedience to those 
mere positives is not required of them. Whether, then, the 
threats against unbelievers be meant of unbelief privative and 
positive only, and not negative (such as is all non-believing 
that which was never revealed) ; or, whether their believing that 
God is, and that he is a rewarder of them that seek him, will 
serve the turn there ; or, whether God hath no people there ? 
I acknowledge again is yet past my understanding. 

So that in what is said, you may discern not only the truth, 
but also the reason and equity, that none but God's people shall 
enter into his rest. Though God's will is the first cause of all 
things, yet all the fault lies in sinners themselves. Their con- 
sciences shall one day tell them that they' might have been 
saved, if they would ; and that it was their own wilful refusal, 
Avhichshutthem out. God freely offered them life, and they would 
not accept it on his own easy and reasonable conditions. They 
perish, because they would not be saved in God's way. The 
pleasures of the flesh seemed more desirable to them than the 
glory of the saints : Satan offered them the one, and God of- 

• The catholic verity neither denieth free-will either to a good life or a bad ; 
nor yet ascribetb so much to it, as if it were able without God's grace, either 
to convert a man from bad to good, or to make him perseveringly proceed in 
good, or attain to that everlasting good where he need not fear falling away. 
— August. Epist. 47.' The precepts of love were in vain given to men that 
have not free-will : but when they are given by the old and new law; and the 
law without grace is a killing letter, but in the grace of the Spirit it is quick- 
ening ; whence, then, have men the love of God, but from God ? — August, lib, 
de Grat. et lib, Arbit, c. 11. 


fered them the other, and they had free liberty to choose which 
they would ; and they chose the pleasures of sin for a season, 
before the everlasting rest with Christ. And is it not a righteous 
thing, that they should be denied that which they denied to 
accept ? Nay, when God pressed them so earnestly, and per- 
suaded them so importunately, and even beseeched them by his 
messengers, and charged us to compel men by importunity, and 
taking no denial, to come in; and, yet^ they would not; where 
should they be, but among the dogs without ? Though man be 
so wicked, that he will not yield, till the mighty power of grace 
do prevail with him, yet, still we may truly say, that he may be 
saved, if he will, on God's terms.'^ And his disability being 
moral, lying in wilful wickedness, is no more excuse to him, 
than it is to a common adulterer, that he cannot love his own 
wife ; or to a malicious person, that he cannot choose but hate 
his brother : is he not so much the worse, and deserveth so 
much the sorer punishment ? As, therefore, I would have all 
sinners believe this, so I would advise all ministers more to preach 
it. Pry not too much into the depths of God's decrees. Alas ! 
how little know we of far lower things ! lay all the blame on 
the wills of sinners; bend your speeches to persuade their wills. 
Is not that the business of our calling ? Let me give you but 
one argument, which deserves to be considered. Sinners shall 
lay all the blame on their own wills in hell for ever. Hell is a 
rational torment by conscience, according to the nature of the 
rational subject. If sinners could but say, then, it was long of 
God, whose will did necessitate me, and not of me, it would 
quiet their consciences, and ease their torment, and make hell 
to be no hell to themselves. But to remember their wilfulness, 
will feed the fire, and cause the worm of conscience never to 


Reasons why this Rest remahiSy and is not here enjoyed. 

Sect. I. The next thing promised in the beginning, in my 
method, which in the first edition I forgot to perform, is to show 

^ I would that excellent treatise of Mr. William Fenner, ' Of Wilful f mpeni- 
tency,' published by Rev. Dr. Hill, were more imitated by some divines in 
their preaching. And that when they have done, they would not quite con- 
tradict their popular doctrine in their polemical. 


340 THE saint's 

you, why this rest must yet remain, and not be enjoyed till we come 
to another world. And I will speak but a little to this, because 
it may be gathered from what is said before ; and because much 
is said to it in the first and second chapters of the fourth part. 
And First, The main reason is the will of God, that it should 
he so. Who should dispose of the creatures, but he that made 
them ; and order the times and changes of them, but their ab- 
solute Lord, who only also hath wisdom to order them for the 
best, and power to see his will accomplished? You may therefore 
as well ask. Why have we not the spring and harvest \\'ithout 
winter ? And why is the earth below, and the heavens above? 
And why is not all the world a sun, that it may be more glo- 
rious ? &c. ; as to ask, why we have not rest on earth ? 

2. Yet may you easily see satisfactory reason in the thing 
itself also. As first, God should subvert the established order 
in nature, if he should give us our rest on earth. All things must 
come to their perfection by degrees : nothing is perfect in its 
beginning, where the fall brought an imperfection. The strong- 
est man must first be a child, and formed in the Vv'omb from 
small obscure principles. The greatest scholar must first be a 
schoolboy, and begin in his alphabet. In the best-ordered 
governments men must come to their dignity and authority by 
degrees, beginning at the lower, and rise as they deserve. The 
skilfullest artificer was first an ignorant learner. The tallest 
oak was once an acorn. This is the constant course of nature 
in the production of sublunary things ; and I know none that 
deny it, but onlv some enthusiasts concerning the production 
of grace, who think they are taught of God fully in an instant; 
and think themselves perfect, as soon as they have learned the 
opinion of the perfectionists; when all knowing men about them 
discern their imperfections; yea, such horrid paganism and 
profaneness in some of them, as if they had almost renounced 
humanity and reason. Now, this life is our infancy; and would 
we be perfect in the womb, or born at full stature; must God 
overturn the course of nature for us ? 

3. And it were an absurdity in morality, as well as a monster 
in nature, if our rest and full content were here. For, First, Jt 
would be injurious both to God and to ourselves. 

First, To God ; and that both in this life, and in the life to 
come. 1. In this life it would be injurious to God, both in 
regard of what he is here to do for us, and in regard of what 
he is to receive, as it were, from us. 1, If our rest were here. 


then ftiost of God's providences must be useless, his great 
designs nuist be frustrated, and his gracious workings and mer- 
cies needless to us. Should God lose the glory of all his 
churches' deliverances, of the fail of his enemies, of his wonders 
and miracles wrought to this end, and that all men may have 
their happiness here ? If the Israelites must have been kept 
from the brick-kilns, and from the danger of the Egyptians' pur- 
suit, and of the Red Sea, then God nmst have lost the exercise 
of his great power, and justice, and mercy, and the mighty 
name that he got upon Pharaoh. If they had not felt their 
wilderness necessities, God should not have exercised his wil- 
derness providences and mercies, if man had kept his first 
rest in paradise, God had not had opportunity to manifest that 
far greater love to the world in the giving of his Son. If man 
had not fallen into the depth of misery, Christ had not come 
down from the height of glory, nor died, nor risen, nor been 
believed on in the world. If we were all well, what need we 
the Physician. And if all were happy, and innocent, and per- 
fect, what use were there for the glorious v/orks of our sanctifi- 
cation, justification, preservation, and glorification : what use 
for his ministers, and word, sacraments, and afflictions, and de- 
liverances ? 

2. And, as God should not have opportunity for the exercise 
of all his grace, but some only 3 so he would not have returns 
from us for all. We should never fear offending him, and depend 
on him so closely, and call upon him so earnestly, if we wanted 
nothing. Do we not now feel how ready our prayers are to 
freeze, and how sleepily we serve him, and how easily we let 
slip, or run over a duty, if we be but in health, and credit, and 
prosperitv, though still we are far from all content and rest? 
How little then should he hear from us, if we had what we 
would have ! God delighteth in the soul that is humble and 
contrite, and trembleth at his word ; but there would be little 
of this in us, if we had here our full desires. What glorious 
songs of praise had God from Moses, at the Red Sea, and in 
the wilderness ; from Deborah, and Hannah, and David, and 
Hezekiah ; from all his churches, and from each particular 
gracious soul in every age ! which he should never have had, if 
they had been the choosers of their own condition, and had 
nothing but rest. Have not thine own highest joys and praises 
to God, reader, been occasioned by thy dangers, or sorrows, or 
miseries ? We think we could praise God best, if we wanted 
nothing; but experience tells us the contrary; we may have a 

342 THE saint's 

carnal joy in congratulating our flesh's felicity, which may 
deceive an hypocrite ; but not so sensible acknowledgments of 
God : indeed, in heaven, when we are fit for suth a state, it will 
be far otherwise. The greatest glory and praise that God hath 
through the world, is for redemption, reconciliation, and salva- 
tion by Christ; and was not man's misery the occasion of that? 
Besides, as variety is part of the beauty of the creation, so it 
is of Providence also. If all the trees, or herbs, or fowls, or 
beasts, or fishes, were of one kind, and all the world were 
but like the sea, all water, or like one plain field, yea, or 
one sun, it were a diminution of its beauty. And, if God 
should exercise here but one kind of providence, and bestow 
but one kind of grace (delight), and receive thanks but for one, 
it would be a diminution of the beauty of Providence. 

2. And it would be no small injury to ourselves, as well as to 
God, if we had our full contents and rest on earth : and that 
both now and for ever. 1. At the present it would be much 
our loss ; where God loseth the opportunity of exercising his 
mercies, man must needs lose the happiness of enjoying them. 
And where God loseth his praises, man doth certainly his com- 
forts. Oh! the sweet comforts that the saints have had in returns 
to their prayers; when they have lain long in sorrow, and impor- 
tunate requests, and God hath lifted them up, and spoken peace 
to their souls, and granted their desires, and said, as Christ, 
"Be of good cheer, son, thy sins are forgiven thee;" arise from 
thy bed of sickness, and walk, and live. How should we know 
what a tender-hearted Father we have, and how gladly he would 
meet us, and take us in his arms, if we had not, as the prodi- 
gal, been denied the husks of earthly pleasure and profit, which 
the worldly swine do feed upon ? We should never have felt 
Christ's tender hand, binding up our wounds, and wiping the 
blood from them, and the tears from our eyes, if we had not 
fallen into the hands of thieves, and if we had not had tears to 
be wiped away. We should never have had those sweetest texts 
in our Bibles, " Come to me, all ye that are weary and heavy 
laden," &c. and "To every one that is athirst, come and buy 
freely," &c. and "Blessed are the poor in spirit;" and "Thus 
saith the High and Lofty One, I dwell with him that is of an 
humble and contrite spirit," &c.; if we had not been weary, and 
heavy laden, and thirsty, and poor, and humble, and contrite. 
In a word, we should all lose our redemption- mercies, our sanc- 
tification, justification, and adoption-mercies ; our sermon, sa- 
crament, and prayer- mercies J our recoveries, deliverances, and 


thanksgiving-merciesj if we had not our miseries and sorrows 
to occasion them, 

3. And it would be our loss for the future, as well as for tlie 
present. It is a delight to a soldier, or a traveller, to look back 
upon his adventures and escapes when they are over; and for a 
saint in heaven, to look back upon the state he was in on earth, 
and remember his sins, his sorrows, his fears, his tears, his ene- 
mies and dangers, his wants and calamities, must needs make 
his joys to be, rationally, more joyful. And, therefore, the blessed 
in their praising of the Lamb, do mention his redeeming them 
out of every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and so out of 
their misery and wants, and sins which redemption doth relate 
to, and making them kings and priests to God. When they 
are at the end, they look back upon the way. When the fight 
is done, and the danger over, and their sorrow gone, yet their 
rejoicing in the remembrance of it, is not done, nor the praises 
of their Redeemer yet over. But if we should have had nothing 
but content, and rest on earth, what room would there have 
been for these rejoicings and praises hereafter ? So that you 
see, 1. It would be our loss. 2. And then our incapacity 
forbids it, as well as our commodity. We are not capable of 
rest on earth ; or we have both a natural incapacity, and a 

1. A natural incapacity, both in regard of the subject and the 
object; that is, both in regard of our personal unfitness, and 
the defect or absence of what might be our happiness. 

1. Ourselves are now incapable subjects of happiness and rest: 
and that both in respect of soul and body. 1. Can a soul that 
is so weak in all grace, so prone to sin, so hampered with con- 
tradicting principles and desires, and so nearly joined to such 
a neighbour as this flesh, have full content and rest in such a 
case ? What is rest, but the perfection of our graces in habit, 
and in act; to love God perfectly, and know him, and rejoice 
in him ? How then can the Spirit be at rest, that finds so little 
of this knowledge, and love, and joy ? What is the rest but 
our freedom from sin, and imperfections, and enemies ? And 
can the soul have rest that is pestered with all these, and that 
continually ? What makes the souls of sensible Christians so 
groan and complain, desiring to be delivered, and to cry out so 
oft in the language of Paul, "O wretched man that I am, who 
shall deliver me ?" If they can be contented, and rest in such 
a state, what makes every Christian to press hard toward the 

344 THE saint's 

mark, and run that they may obtain, and strive to enter in, if 
they are capable of rest in their present condition? Doubtless, 
therefore, doth God perfectly purge every soul at its removal 
from the body, before he receives it to his glory, not only because 
iniquity cannot dwell with him in the most holy, but, also, because 
themselves are incapable of the joy and glory, while they have 
imperfect, sinful souls. The right qualification of our own 
spirits, for reception and action^ is of absolute necessity to our 
happiness and rest. 

2. And our bodies are incapable as well as our souls. They 
are not now those sun-like bodies M'hich they shall be, when 
this corruptible hath put on incorruption, and this mortal im- 
mortality. They are our prisons, and our burdens ; so full of 
infirmities, and defects, that we are fain to spend the most of our 
time in repairing them, and supplying their continual wants, 
and lenifying their grievances. Is it possible that an immortal 
soul should have rest, in such a rotten, dirty, diseased, wayward, 
distempered, noisome habitation ; when it must every day 
expect to be turned out, and leave its beloved companion to the 
worms ? Surely these sickly, weary, loathsome bodies must 
be refined to a perfection suitable thereto, before they can be 
capable of enjoying rest. 

Answ. 2. As we are unfit for rest on earth ourselves, so we 
want those objects that might afford us content and rest. For, 
First, Those we do enjoy are insufficient; and. Secondly, That 
which is sufficient is absent from us. i. We enjoy the world 
and its labours, and what fruit they can afford ; and, alas ! 
what is in all this to give us rest ? They that have the most of 
it, have the greatest burden, and the least rest of any others. 
They that set most by it, and rejoice most in it, do all cry out 
at last of its vanity and vexation. A contentation with our 
present estate, indeed, we must have; that is, a competent pro- 
vision in our journey ; but not as our portion, happiness, or rest. 
Men cry out upon one another in these times, for not under- 
standing providences, which are but conmientaries on Scripture, 
and not the text. But if men were not blind, they might easily 
see that the first lecture that God readeth to us in all our 
late changes, and which providence doth still most inculcate 
and insist on, is the very same that is the first and greatest lesson 
in the Scripture ; that is, that * There is no rest nor happiness 
for the soul, but in God.' Men's expectations are high raised 
upon every change, and inexperienced fools do promise them- 


selves presently a heaven upon earth ; but when they come to 
enjoy it, it flieth from them, and when they have run themselves 
out of breath in following this shadow, it is no nearer them 
than at the first setting out, and would have been as near them 
if they had sat still : as Solomon's dreamer, they feast in their 
sleep, but awake hungry. He that hath any regard to the works 
of the Lord, may easily see that the very end of them is to take 
down our idols, to weary us in the world, and force us to seek 
our rest in him. ^Vliere doth he cross us most, but where we 
promise ourselves most content? If you have one child that 
you dote upon, it becomes your sorrow. If you have one friend 
that you trust in, and judge liim unchangeable, and think yourself 
happy in, he is estranged from you, or becomes your scourge. 
Oh, what a number of these experiences have 1 had ! Oh, 
what sweet idolising thoughts of our future estate had we in 
the time of wars ! And even now where is the rest that I pro- 
mised my soul ? Even that is my greatest grief, from which I 
expected most content. 

And for this, the greatest shame that ever befell our religion, 
and the greatest sorrow to every understanding Christian, God 
hath the solemn thanks of men, as if they begged that he would 
do so still ; and they rejoice in it, and are heinously offended 
with those that dare not do so too, and run to Cod on all their 
errands. Instead of pure ordinances, we have a puddle of 
errors, and the ordinances themselves cried down and derided. 
Instead of the power and plenty of the Gospel, we have every- 
where plenty of violent gainsayers and seducers. We have 
pulpits and pamphlets filled with the most hellish reproachings 
of the servants' and messengers of the most high God j pro- 
voking the people to hate their teachers, slandering them with 
that venom and impudent falsehood, as if the devil in them 
were bidding defiance to Christ, and were now entered upon his 
last and greatest battle with the Lamb ; as if they would justly 
Rabshakeh, and have Lucian and Julian sainted for the modesty 
of their reproaches. If a conscionable minister be but in doubt 
(as knowing himself incapable of understanding state mysteries, 
and not called to judge of them), and so dare notgo whine before 
God hypocritically in pretended humiliation, nor rejoice and 
give thanks when men command him, and read their scriptures ; 
that is, their orders, which ministers were to read on pain of 
deposition or ejection, as knowing that men are fallible; and if 
a man should upon mistake incur the guilt of so heinous inex- 

34Q THE saint's 

pressible sin, it were a fearful thing :' and, therefore, that to go 
to God doubtingly, or ignorantly, in an extraordinary duty, in 
a cause of such weight, is a desperate venture, far beyond ven- 
turing upon ceremonies, or popish transubstantiation, to say 
Christ is really present in the bread, for refusing of which the 
martyrs suffered in the flames ; I say, if he dare not do these, 
he must part from his dear people, whose souls are more precious 
to him than his life. Oh ! how many congregations in England 
have been again forced to part with their teachers in sorrow, 
not to speak of the ejection of such numbers in our universities! 
And for our so-much-desired discipline and holy order, was 
there ever a people under heaven, who called themselves refor- 
mers, that opposed it more desperately, and that vilified it, and 
railed against it more scurrilously, as if it were but the device 
of ambitious presbyters, that traitorously sought domination 
over their superiors, and not the law and order established by 
Christ ? as if these men had never read the Scriptures, (Heb. 
xiii. 7, 17; 1 Thess. v. 10—12; Acts xx. 28; 1 Cor. iv. 1 ; 
Matt. xxiv. 25—27; Tit. i. 7; 1 T;m. iii. 1, 4—6, iv. 11, 
V. 17 — 20,) or will tread in the dirt the laws of Christ, which 
must judge them. And for railing at the ministers of the 
Gospel, the pretenders of religion have so far outstripped the 
former profane ones, that it even woundeth my soul to think 
of their condition. Oh, where are the tender-hearted mourners 
that shall weep over England's sins and reproaches ! Is this a 
place or state of rest ? Hath not God met with our idolatrous 
setting up of creatures, and taught us that all are not saints that 
can talk of religion ? much less are these pillars of our confi- 
dence, or the instruments to prepare us a rest upon earth. O 
that all this could warn us to set less by creatures, and at last to 
fetch our comforts and contentments from our God ! 

2. And as what we enjoy here is insufficient to be our rest, 
so God, who is sufficient, is little here enjoyed. It is not here 
that he hath prepared the presence-chamber of his glory ; he 
hath drawn the curtain between us and him ; we are far from 
him as creatures, and farther as frail mortals, and farthest as 
sinners. We hear now and then a word of comfort from him, 
and receive his love-tokens, to keep up our hearts and hopes; 
but, alas I this is not our full enjoyment. While we are present 

' This was written when the usurpers made a war on Scotland, and made 
orders to sequester all ministers that would not keep days of humiliation and 
thanksgiving for those wars. 


in the body, we are absent from the Lord : even absent while he 
is present. For though he be not far from us, seeing we live, 
and move, and have our being in him, who is all in all, (not in 
all places, but all places in him,) yet have we not eyes now ca- 
pable of seeing him, for mortals cannot see God and live : even 
as we are present with stones and trees, but they neither see nor 
know us. And can any soul that hath made God his portion, 
and chosen him for his only happpiness and rest, (as every one 
doth that shall be saved by him,) find rest in so vast a distance 
from him ; and so seldom and so small enjoyment of him ? 

3. And lastly, as we are thus naturally incapable, so are we 
also morally. (Gen. xxxii. 10.) There is a worthiness must 
go before our rest. It hath the nature of a reward; not a 
reward of debt, but a reward of grace. (Rom. iv. 3, 4.) And 
so we have not a worthiness of debt, or proper merit ; but a 
worthiness of grace and preparation.'" If the apostles must 
give their peace and Gospel to the worthy, (Matt. x. 10 — 13, 
87, 38; Eph. iv. 1 ; Col. i. 10; 1 Thess. ii. 12; 2 Thess. 
i. 11,) Christ will give the crown to none but the worthy ; and 
those which, by preferring the world before him, do show 
themselves unworthy, shall not taste of his supper. (Matt. xxii. 
8; Luke xiv. 24, xx. 35, and xxii. 36; 2 Thess. i. 5; Acts 
v. 41.) Yea, it is a work of God's justice, to give the crown to 
those that overcome : not of his legal, but his evangelical justice, 
for Christ hath bought us to it, and God hath promised it, and, 
therefore, in his judiciary process, he will adjudge it them as 
their due. To those that have fought the good fight, and 
finished their course, and kept the faith, a crown of righteousness 
is laid up for them, which the Lord, as a righteous Judge, will 
give them at that day. (2 Tim. iv. 7, 8.) And are we fit for the 
crown before we have overcome ; or the prize, before we have 
run the race ; or to receive our penny, before we have worked 
in the vineyard ; or to be ruler of ten cities, before we have 
improved our ten talents ; or to enter into the joy of our Lord, 
before we have well done as good and faithful servants ; or to 
inherit the kingdom before we have testified our love to Christ 

" Oportet enim te quidem primo ordinem hominis custodire; tunc deinde 
participare gloriae Dei : uon eiiim tu Deum facis, sed te Deus facit. Si ergo 
opera Dei es, manuni artiiicis tui exi)ecta, opportune omnia f'acientem, oppor- 
tune autem quantum ad te atlinet qui efficeris; prsesta ei cor tuum moUe et 
tractabile, et custodi figuram qua te figuravit artifex, habeiis in temetipso hu- 
morem, ne iuduratus amittas vestigia digitorum ejus. Custodiens compagina- 
tionem, ascend eus ad perfectura, — Irenaus advers. Hares, lib. iv, c. T6. 

348 THE saint's 

above the world, if we have opportunity ? Let men cry down 
works while they please, you shall find that these are the con- 
ditions of the crown ; so that God will not alter the course of 
justice to give you rest, before you have laboured ] nor the crown 
of glory, till you have overcome. 

You see, then, reason enough why our rest should remain 
till the life to come. O take heed, then, christian reader, how 
thou darest to contrive and care for a rest on earth ; or to 
murmur at God for thy trouble and toil, and wants in the flesh. 
Doth thy poverty weary thee ? thy sickness Aveary thee ? thy 
bitter enemies and unkind friends weary thee ? why, it should 
be so here. Do thy seeing and hearing the abominations of the 
times, the ruins of the church, the sins of professors, the 
reproach of religion, the hardening of the wicked, all weary 
thee ? why, it must be so while thou art absent from thy rest. 
Do thy sins, and thy naughty distempered heart weary thee ? 
I vvould thou wast wearied with it more. But, under all this 
weariness, art thou willing to go to God, thy rest; and to have 
thy warfare accomplished ; and thy race and labour ended ? If 
not, O complain more of thy own heart, and get it more weary, 
till rest seem more desirable. 


Whether the Souls departed enjoy this Rest before 
the Resun^ection. 

Sect. ]. I have but one thing more to clear, before I come to 
the use of this doctrine ; and that is, whether this rest remains 
till the resurrection, before we shall enjoy itj or whether we 
shall have any possession of it before ? The Socinians, and 
many others of late among us, think the soul separated from 
the body, is either nothing, or at least not capable of happiness 
or misery. Truly, if it should be so, it would be somewhat a 
sad uncomfortable doctrine to the godly at their death, to think 
of being deprived of their glory till the resurrection ; and some- 
what comfortable to the wicked to think of tarrying out of hell 
so long. But I am in strong hopes that this doctrine is false; 
yea, very confident that it is so. I do believe, that as the soul 
separated from the body, is not a perfect man, so it doth not 
enjov the glory and happiness so fully and so perfectly, as it 


shall do after the resurrection, when they are again conjoined. 
What the difference is, and what degree of glory souls in the 
mean time enjoy, are too high things for mortals particularly to 
discern. For the great question, what j)lace the souls of those 
before Christ, of infants, and all others since Christ, do remain 
in, till the resurrection ? I think it is a vain inquiry of what is 
yet beyond our reach." It is a great question what place is j 
but if it be only a circumstant body, and if to be in a place, 
be only to be in a circumstant body, or in the superficies of an 
ambient body, or in the concavity of that superficies, then it is 
doubtful whether spirits can be properly said to be in a place. 
We can have yet no clear conceivings of these things." But 
that separated souls of believers do enjoy inconceivable bless- 
edness and glory, even while they remain thus separated from 
the body, 1 prove, as foiloweth. (Besides all those arguments, 
for the soul's immortality, which you may read in Alexander 
Ross's 'Philosophical Touchstone,' part last; and in abun- 
dance of writers, metaphysical and theological.) 

1. Those words of Paul, (2 Cor. v. 8,) are so exceedingly 
plain, that I yet understand not what tolerable exception can be 
made against them. " Therefore, we are always confident, 
knowing that while we are at home in the body, we are absent 
from the Lord: for we walk by faith, not by sight. We are 
confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, 
and present with the Lord." (Ver. 6—8.) What can be spoken 
more plainly. So also verses 1 — 4 of the same chapter. 

2. As plain is that in Phil. i. 23. " For? I am in a strait 

" It is a doubt, whether to be in place only definitive, and not circumscrip- 
tive, do not contradict the defuiilion of place. Aninia diciiur esse in cor- 
pore ut suo doniiciUo. Sed non proprie continetur in corpore, sed potius cBn- 
tinet corpus. Et Deus dicitur e«se in omnil)us h)ci3 ; sed impropriissime. — 
Zunch. lie Jngvlis, c. 11. p. (niihi) 87. Vide Twiss against Dr. Jackson, p. 
230, and Zand), torn. 3. c. 11. pp. 8(i, 87, de Angelis. 

" Except we return to the opinion ofTertul., and the rest of the ancientest 
of the fathers, who say that angels and other spirits are but bodies more rare 
anil pure; of which, see learned Zanchius, vol. 1. torn. 8. de Aug. c.3. q. fi(J. &c., 
-who determines it as the fathers, that angels are corporeal, in his judgment. 

P Grotius' fancy, that to be with Christ is no more than to be Chriiti depo- 
situm, is evidently vain : for so to be with Christ, would not be best of all, 
seeing that our mere deliverance from present sufferings is not so great a 
good as our present life in the service and enjoyment of God in his ordi- 
nances and mercies, though accompanied with imperfection and afflictions, 
except he take a stone or a carcass to be happier than a man. Non ignoro 
quidmultie patribiis de hac re judicarunt, ut nominatim Irenaeus advers. 
Uteres, lib. v. p. ult. Cum enim Doiuinus in medio umbra; mortis abierit, ubi 
auimie mortuorura eraatj bine ita discipulorum ejus propter quos et haec 

350 THE saint's 

betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ, 
which is far better." What sense were in these words, if Paul 
had not expected to enjoy Christ till the resurrection ? Why 
shoukl he be in a strait, or desire to depart ? Should he be 
with Christ ever the sooner for that ? Nay, should he not have 
been loath to depart upon the very same grounds ? For while he 
was in the flesh, he enjoyed something of Christ j but being 
departed, (according to the Socinians' doctrine,) he should enjoy 
nothing of Christ till the day of resurrection. 

3. And plain enough is that of Christ to the thief, " This 
day shalt thou be with me in paradise." The dislocation of 
the words "This day" is but a gross evasion. 

4. And surely if it be but a parable of the rich man in hell, 
and Lazarus ; yet it seems unlikely to me, that Christ would 
teach them by such a parable, what seemed evidently to inti- 
mate and suppose the soul's happiness or misery presently after 
death, if there were no such thing. 

5. Dothnothis argument against the Sadducees, for the re- 
surrection run upon this supposition, that (God being not the 
God of the dead, but of the living, therefore) Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob, were then living, i. e., in soul, and, consequently, 
should have their bodies raised at the resurrection ? 

6. Plain also is that in Rev. xiv. 13, "Blessed are the dead 
that die in the Lord, from henceforth ; vea, saith the Spirit, 
that they may rest from their labours, and their works do follow 
them ;" i. e., close as the garments on a man's back follow him, 
and not at such a distance as the resurrection; for if the 

operatus est Dominus, animas abibunt in invisibilem locum definitum eis aDeo; 
et ibi usque ad resurrectionem, commorabuntur, sustiuentes resurrectionem, 
post recipientes corpora et perfecte re.surgentes,boc est, corporaliter,quemad- 
modum Dominus resurrexit ; sic venient ad conspectura Dei sicut magister 
Doster non statim evolans abiit ; sed sustiuet definitum tempus, &c. sic et nos 
sustinere debemus definitum h. Deo resurrectionis nostras tempus, &c. Haec 
recito et errores etpatris bujus pro culdubio njevos. E contrario audi Tertul- 
lian. Nos autem animani corporalem et hie profitemur, (tbat was a common 
error tben,) et in suo volumine probamus ; babentem proprium g^enus substan- 
tia, soliditatis, per quam quid et sentire et pati possit. Nam et nunc animaa 
torqueri, foverique penes inferos, licet nudas, licet adhuc exules carnis, pro- 
bavit Lazari exemplum. — Tertullian de Resurrect. Carnis, c. 17. And Ire- 
niEus's own words do confirm the immortality of the soul, and deny not all joy 
to it before the resurrection, but full joy. And so Origen saith, Ubi e vita 
Christus excessit, deposito corpore in animam nudam reductus, cum animis 
etiam corpore vacuis, nudatisque versabatur ; ex his ad se revocans quos vel 
sequi se vellet, vel pro cognitis sibi rationibus aptiores videret ut ad seipsum 
concitet. — Origen, cont.Celsum, lib. ii. fol. (mihi) 22. 


blessedness were only in resting in the grave, then a beast or a 
stone were as blessed ; nay, it were evidently a curse, and not a 
blessing. For was not life a great mercy ; was it not a greater 
mercy to enjoy all the comforts of life ; to enjoy the fellowship 
of the saints, the comfort of the ordinances, and much of Christ 
in all ; to be employed in the delightful work of God, and to 
edify his church ? &c. Is it not a curse to be so deprived of all 
these ; do not these yield a great deal more sweetness, than all 
the troubles of this life can yield us bitterness ? Though I think 
not, as some,^ that it is better to be most miserable, even in 
hell, than not to be at all ; yet it is undeniable, that it is better 
to enjoy life, and so much of the comforts of life, and so much 
of God in comforts and affliction as the saints do, though we 
have all this with persecution ; than to lie rotting in the grave, 
if that were all we could expect. Therefore it is some further 
blessedness that is there promised. 

7. How else is it said, "that we are come to Mount Zion, 
the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innu- 
merable company of angels, to the general assembly and church 
of the first-born, which are written in heaven, and to God, the 
Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect?" (Heb. 
xii. 22, 23.) Surely, at the resurrection the body will be made 
perfect, as well as well as the spirit. To say (as Lushington 
doth) that they are said to be made perfect, because they are 
sure of it as if they had it, is an evasion so grossly contradicting 
the text, that by such commentaries he may as well deny any 
truth in Scripture ; to make good which, he as much abuseth 
that of Phil. iii. 12. 

8. Doth not the Scripture tell us, that Enoch and Elias are 
taken up already : and shall we think that they possess that 
glory alone ? 

1 Dr. Twiss. See Barlow's 'Exercitat.' post Metaph. Scheib. Jo. Franciscus. 
Picus Mirand., saith be, heard of a pope that in his life-time told a familiar 
friend of his, that he believed not the immortality of souls : his friend being 
dead, appeared to him as he watched, and told him, that his soul which he 
believed to be mortal, he should, by the just judgment of God, find to be im- 
mortal, to his exceeding torment in eternal fire. This pope seemeth to be Leo 
the Tenth. Vid. Du Plessis' ' Mystery of Iniquity,' p. 641. Polycarpus inter 
multas praselaras voces quas fiammEe admotus edidit, eo die representandum 
se dixit coram Deo in spiritu. Quod eodem tempore Melito episcopus Sar- 
densis vir paris sinceritatis librum scripsit de corpore et anima, &c. Adeo 
autem haec sententia meliore illo seculo valuit, ut Tertullianus reponat earn 
inter communes et primas animi conceptiones quae natura communiter appre- 
henduntur. — Calv, in Psychopann^ Vide Euseb. Hist. lib. i. c. 15. lit. c. 

352 THE saint's 

9. Did not Peter, and James, and John, see Moses also with 
Christ on the mount ? yet the Scripture saith Moses died. And 
is it Hkely that Christ did dehide their senses, in showing them 
Moses, if he should not partake of that glory till the resurrec- 
tion ? 

10. And is not that of Stephen as plain as we can desire? 
"Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." Surely, if the Lord receive it, 
it is neither asleep, nor dead, nor annihilated ; but it is where 
he is, and beholds his glory. 

1 1 . The like may be said of that, " The spirit shall return to 
God who gave it." (Eccles. xii. 7.) 

12. How else is it said, " that we have eternal life already?" 
(John vi. 54.) And that "the knowledge of God (which is 
begun here) is eternal life ?" (John xvii. 3.) So 1 John v. 13, 
" And he that believeth on Christ, hath everlasting life. He 
that eateth this bread shall not die. For he dwelleth in Christ, 
and Christ in him. And as the Son liveth bv the Father, so he 
that eateth him, shall live by him." (John iii.36; John vi. 47, 50, 
56, 57.) How is " the kingdom of God and of heaven (which 
is eternal) said to be in us?" (Luke xvii. 21 ; Rom. xiv. 17: 
Matt, xiii.) 

Surely, if there be so great an interruption of our life as till 
the resurrection, which with some will be many thousand years, 
this is no eternal life, nor everlasting kingdom. Lushington's 
evasion is, " that because there is no time with dead men, but 
they so sleep that vvhen they awake, it is all one to them as if 
it had been at first ; therefore the Scripture speaks of them as 
if they were there already." It is true, indeed, if tliere were no 
joy till the resurrection, tlien that consideration would be com- 
fortable ; but when God hath thus plainly told us of it before, 
then this evasion contradicteth the text. Doubtless there is 
time also to the dead, though, in respect of their bodies, they 
perceive it not. He will not surely think it a happiness to be 
putrified or stupified, whilst others are enjoying the comforts of 
life : if he do, it were the best course to sleep out our lives. 

13. In Jude 7, the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are 
spoken of, as "suffering the vengeance of eternal fire:" and if 
the wicked do already suffer eternal fire, then no doubt but the 
godly do enjoy eternal blessedness. I know some understand 
the place, of that fire which consumed their bodies, as being a 
type of the fire of hell : I will not be very confident against this 
exposition, but the text seemeth plainly to speak more. 


14. It is also observable, that when John saw his glorious re- 
velations, he is said to be " in the Spirit," (Rev. i. 10, and xxi. 
10,) and to be "carried away in the Spirit." (Rev. xvii. 3, 
and xxi. 10.) And when Paul had his revelations, and saw 
things unutterable, he knew not whether it were in the body, 
or out of the body. All implying that spirits are capable of 
these glorious things, without the help of their bodies. 

15. And though it be a prophetical, obscure book, yet it seems 
to me, that those words in the Revelation do imply this, where 
John saw tiie souls under the altar. (Rev. vi. 9, Sec.) 

16. We are commanded by Christ, "not to fear them that 
can kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul." (Luke xii. 
4.) Doth not this plainly imply, that when wicked men have 
killed our bodies, that is, separated the souls from them, yet 
the souls are still alive ?"■ 

1 7. The soul of Christ was alive when his body was dead, 
and therefore so shall ours too; for his created nature was like 
ours, except in sin. That Christ's human soul was alive, is a 
necessary consequent of its hvpostatical union with the divine 
nature, as 1 judge. And by his words to the thief, "This day 
shalt thou be with me in paradise:" so also by his voice on 
the cross, " Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit." (Luke 
xxiii. 46.) And whether that in 1 Pet. iii. 18, 19, that he 
went and preached to the spirits in prison, &c., will prove it, I 
leave to others to judge. Read lllyricus's arguments in his 
' Clavis Scripturae' on this text. Many think that the opposi- 
tion is not so irregular, as to put the dative a-apy.) for «V o-«pv», as 
the subject recipient, and the dative mevf/.aTi for Sta Tryeil/xaro^-, as 
the efficient cause ; but that it is plainly to be understood as a 
regular opposition, that Christ was mortified in the flesh, but 
vivified in the spirit, that is, in the spirit which is usually put in 
opposition to this flesh, which is the soul, by which spirit, &ic. 
But I leave this as doubtful ; there is enough besides, 

IS. Why is there niention of God's breathing into man the 
breath of life, and calling his soul a living soul ? There is no 
mention of any such thing in the creating of other creatures, 

"^ If you would see this subject handled more fully, and all the arguments 
answered, which are brought to prove that souls have neither joy nor pain till 
the resurrection, see Calvin's treatise hereof, called ' Psychopaunychia,' and 
JJeckmanni ' Exercit.' xxiv. D. Jo. Reignoldum ' De Lib. Apocryph. Praelect.' 
79 and SO, and 'Prrplect.' 3, pp. (mihi) 23, 34, &c. 

354 THE saint's 

surely, therefore, this makes some diiference between the life of 
our souls and theirs. 

19. It appears in Saul's calling for Samuel to the witch, and 
in the Jews' expectation of the coming of Elias, that they took 
it for current, then, that Elias and Samuel's souls were living. 

20. Lastly : If the spirits of those that were disobedient in 
the days of Noah, were in prison, (1 Pet. iii. 19,) then certainly 
the separated spirits in the just, are in an opposite condition of 
happiness. If any say that the word "prison" signifieth not 
their full misery, but a reservation thereto, I grant it, yet it im- 
porteth a reservation in a living and suffering state^ for were 
they nothing, they could not be in prison. 

Though I have but briefly named these twenty arguments,^ 
and put them together in a narrow room, when some men can- 
not see the truth without a multitude of words ; yet 1 doubt 
not but, if you will well consider them, you will discern the 
clear evidence of scripture verity. It is a lamentable case that 
the brutish opinion of the soul's mortality, should find so many 
patrons professing godliness, when there is so clear light of Scrip- 
ture against them, and when the opinion tends to no other end 
than the emboldening of sin, the cherishing of security, and the 
great discomfort and discouragementof the saints, and when many 
pagans were wiser in this without the help of Scripture : surely, 
this error is an introduction to paganism itself. Yea more, the 
most of the nations in the vvorld, even the barbarous Indians 
do, by the light of nature, acknowledge that, which these men 
deny, even that there is a happiness and misery which the souls 
go presently to, which are separated from their bodies. I know 
the silly, evading answers that are usually given to the foremen- 
tioned scriptures, which being carried with confidence and sub- 
tle words, may soon shake the ordinary sort of Christians that 
are not able to deal with a sophister. And if they be thoroughly 
dealt with, they presently appear to be mere vanity or contra- 
diction. Were there but that one text, 2 Cor. v. 8 j or that, 

« Dr. J. Reignolds, ' De lib, Apoc. Praelect.' 70, p. (mihi) 946, hath another 
argument from Col. i. 20. God reconciled by Christ all things to himself, 
both things in heaven and in earth : nothing in heaven was capable of recon- 
ciliation but the souls of the godly, who were then there, but reconciled be- 
fore, by virtue of Christ's blood afterwards to be shed. Angels were not ene- 
mies, devils were hopeless, therefore it must needs be the souls departed which 
are called " things in heaven reconciled." But of the validity of this argument 
I have nothing to say, but that 1 incline to another exposition. 


1 Pet. iii. 19; or that, Phil. i. 23j all the seducers in the world 
could not answer them. 

Believe, therefore, steadfastly, O faithful souls, that whatever 
all the deceivers in the world shall say to the contrary, your 
souls shall no sooner leave their prisons of flesh, hut angels will 
be their convoy, Christ will be their company, with all the per- 
fected spirits of the just : heaven will be their residence, and 
God will be their happiness. And you may boldly and believ- 
ingly, when you die, say, as Stephen, " Lord Jesus, receive my 
spirit," and commend it, as Christ did, into a Father's hands. 

A A 2 












Richard Baxter devoteth this part of this Treatise, in thankful acknow- 
ledgment of tlieir great affection toward him, and ready acceptance of his 
labours among them, which is the highest recompense, if joined with obedi- 
ence, that a faithful minister can expect ; 

Humbly beseeching the Lord on their behalf, that he will 
save them from that spirit of pride, hypocrisy, dissension, and 
giddiness, which is of late years gone forth, and is now destroy- 
ing and making havoc of the churches of Christ ; and that 
he will teach them highly to esteem those faithful teachers 
whom the Lord hath made rulers over them, (1 Thes. v. 12, 
13 ; Heb. xiii. 7? 17,) and to know them so to be, and to obey 
them : and that he will keep them unspotted of the guilt of 
those sins, which in these days have been the shame of our 
religion, and have made us a scandal or scorn to the world. 





Sect. I. Whatsoever the soul of matt doth entertain, must make 
its first entrance at the understanding ; which must be satisfied, 
first of its truth, and, secondly, of its goodness, before it find 
any further admittance j if this porter be negligent, it will admit 
of any thing that bears but the face or name of truth and good- 
ness ; but if it be faithful, able, and diligent in its office, it will 
examine strictlv, and search to the quick ; what is found deceit- 
ful, it casteth out, that it go no further ; but what is found to 
be sincere and current, it letteth in to the very heart, where the 
will and affections do with welcome entertain it, and by con- 
coction, as it were, incorporate it into their own substance. 
Accordingly, I have been hitherto presenting to your understand- 
ings, first, the excellency of the rest of saints, in the first part of 
this book ; and then the verity in the second part. I hope your 
understandings have now tasted this food, and tried what hath 
been expressed. Truth fears not the light. This perfect beauty 
abhorreth darkness ; nothing but ignorance of its worth can dis- 
parage it. Therefore search, and spare not; read, and read 
again, and then judge. What think you ; is it good, or is it 
not ? nay, is it not the chiefest good ? And is there any thing 
in goodness to be compared with it ? And is it true, or is 
it not ? " Nay, is there any thing in the world more certain, 
than that there remaineth a rest to the people of God ? Why, 

» Caveat quivis Christd fidelis sibi ab impiissimis sermonibus, quibus despi- 
cati et profligatissimi quidaiii homines utaiitur, dicentes, morte omnia deleri, 
niillam esse fiituram vitam, in alio mundo ; et homines ut pecora morte con- 
sumi; ideoque .'i corpori belle prospiciatur, aniniee abunde prospectun» esse, 
&c. Gravissimis pocuis hujusmodi sermjiies a Christiano magistratu punien- 
dos esse arbitramur. Etenim si nulla est vita post banc preesentem, cur, &c. 
Vide ultra, Bullinger. Corp. Doct. Christian, lib. x. c. 1, p. (niihi) 141. 


if your understandings are convinced of both these, I do here, in 
the behalf of God and his truth, and in the behalf of your own 
souls, and their life, require the further entertainment hereof; and 
that you take this blessed subject of rest, and commend it as 
you have found it to your wills and affections ; let your hearts 
now cheerfully embrace it, and improve it, and I shall present it 
to you, in its respective uses. 

And though the laws of method do otherwise direct me, yet 
because I conceive it most profitable, I will lay close together 
in the first place, all those uses that most concern the ungodly, 
that they may know where to find their lesson, and not to pick 
it up and down intermixed with uses of another strain. And 
then I shall lay down those uses that are "more proper to the 
godly by themselves in the end. 

Use I. — ShovAng the unconceivable misei'y of tlie ungodly in 
their loss of this Rest. 

Sect. II. And first, If this rest be for none but for the people of 
God, what doleful tidings is this to the ungodly world! That there 
is so much glory, but none for them; so great joys for the saints 
of God, while they must consume in perpetual sorrows ! Such 
rest for them that have obeyed the Gospel ; while they must be 
restless in the flames of hell ! If thou who readest these words, 
art in thy soul a stranger to Christ, and to the holy nature and 
life of his people, and art not of them who are before described, 
and shalt live and die in the same condition that thou art now 
in ; let me tell thee, I am a messenger of the saddest tidings to 
thee, that ever yet thy ears did hear : that thou shalt never par- 
take of the joys of heaven, nor have the least taste of the saints' 
everlasting rest.*^ I may say to thee, as Ehud to Eglon, ' I have 

•• Consuevimus nos homines, praesertim qui crassiore meiite praediti sumus, 
metu potius quam beneficiis quod oportet addiscere. — Theophylact, in Joan. 
c. 5, V. 22 ; Judg. ii. 20, 21. Non improbissimi (juiqiie tam Jacile Christianae 
doctrinse subduntur, quam simpliclores et recti, graves alioquiii et moilesti. Hi 
namque suppliciorum denunciata formidine, (]u;e et maxinie movet, et ab bis, 
ut caveant admodum exhortautur quorum gratia inseruiitur torrneuta, eiiixe 
adeo dedere se totos Christianae discipliua; uituntur ; tantopere nostra hac ipsa 
detinentur doctrina, aeternas veriti poenas, &c. — Origen- cont.Celsiim, circa fin. 
I add these for them that think we should win men to Christ, onh' by arjiu- 
ments from liis love, and not by any mention of hell, which 1 confess must 
not be the chief; for terror will not win to love. But yet, 1. Fear, and care, 
and obedience, are necessary as well as love. 2. God would not havi.- given us 
mixed affections, if he would not have had us to use them. 3. The doctrine 
and example of Christ require us to stir up in men I)oth_ love and fear. 

362 THE saint's 

a message to tliee from God; but it is a mortal message, against 
the very life and hopes of thy soul, that, as true as the word of 
God is true, thou shalt never see the face of God with comfort.' 
This sentence I am commanded to pass upon thee, from the 
word : take it as thou wilt, and escape it if thou canst. I know 
thy humble and hearty subjection to Christ would procure thy 
escape ; and if thy heart and life were thoroughly changed, thy 
relation to Christ and eternity, would be changed also; he 
would then acknowledge thee for one of his people, and justify 
thee from all things that could be charged upon thee, and give 
thee a portion in the inheritance of his chosen ; and if this 
might be the happy success of my message, 1 should be so far 
from repining like Jonas, that the threatenings of God are not 
executed upon thee, that, on the contrary, I should bless the day 
that ever God made me so happy a messenger, and return him 
hearty thanks upon my knees, that ever he blessed his word in 
mv mouth with such desired success. But if thou end thy days 
in thy present condition, whether thou be fully resolved never 
to change, or whether thou spend thy days in fruitless propos- 
ing to be better hereafter, all is one for that ; I say, if thou live 
and die in thy unregenerate estate, as sure as the heavens are 
over thy head, and the earth under thy feet ; as sure as thou 
livest, and breathest in this air, so sure shalt thou be shut out 
of this rest of the saints, and receive thy portion in everlasting 
fire. I do here expect that thou shouldst, in the pride and 
scorn of thy heart, turn back upon me, and show thy teeth, 
and say, ' \^'ho made you the doorkeeper 'of heaven ? When 
were you there ? and, when did God sliow you the book of 
life, or tell you who they are that shall be saved, and who 
shut out ?' 

I will not answer thee according to thy folly, but truly and 
plainly as I can discover this thy folly to thyself, that if there 
be yet any hope, thou mayest recover thy understanding, and 
yet return to God and live. First, I do not name thee, nor any 

(Matt, xxiii., xxv., &c.) Even Dr. Sibhs could say, " Fear is the awe-band of 
the soul." And Clemens Alexaiid. Stromat. lib. ii., saith, " Fear and sufferance 
are the helpers of faith ;" they that accuse fear, do reproach the law : and 
if the law, then it is plain, him also that made the law. And he answers them 
that say, " Fear is a perturbation, and a declining from reason." And the same 
Clemens Pa?dagog. lib. i. c. y, saith, "As we have all need of a Saviour, so he 
useih not only gentle and mild remedies, but also sharp doubts; fear doth 
stop the eating corrosions of the roots of sin." Fear, therefore, is wholesome, 
though it be bitter. 


Other : I do not conclude of the persons individually, and say, 
*This man shall he shut out of heaven, and that man shall be 
taken in.' I only conclude it of the unregenerate in general, and 
of thee conditionally, if thou be such a one. Secondly, I do 
not go about to determine who shall repent, and who shall not; 
much less that thou shalt never repent, and come in to Christ, 
These things are unknown to me ; I had far rather show thee 
what hopes thou hast before thee, if thou wilt not sit still and 
lose them, and by thy wilful carelessness cast away thy hopes ; 
and I would far rather persuade thee to hearken in time, while 
there is hope and opportunity and offers of grace, and before 
the door is shut against thee, that so thy soul may return and 
live, than to tell thee that there is no hope of thy repenting 
and returning. But if thou lie, hojjing that thou shalt return, 
and never do it ; if thou talk of repenting and believing, but 
still art the same ; if thou live and die with the world, and thy 
credit or pleasure nearer thy heart than Jesus Christ; in a 
word, if the foregoing description of the people of God do not 
agree with the state of thy soul, it is then a hard question, 
whether thou shalt ever be saved. Even as hard a question as, 
whether God be true, or the Scripture be his word. Cannot I 
certainly tell, that thou shalt perish for ever, except f had seen 
the book of life ? Why, the Bible is also the book of life, and 
it describeth plainly those that shall be saved, and those that 
shall be condemned. Though it do not name them, yet it tells 
you all those signs and conditions by which they may be known. 
Do I need to ascend up into heaven, to know, " that without 
holiness none shall see God;" (Heb. xii. 14 ;) or, "that it is the 
pure in heart who shall see God;" (Matt. v. 8 :) or, "that ex- 
cept a man be born again, he cannot enter into the kingdom of 
God;" (John iii. 3:) or, "that he that believeth not (that is, 
stoops not to Christ as his King and Saviour) is condemned already, 
and that he shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on 
him ;" (John iii. 18, 36 ;) " and that except you repent, (which 
includes reformation,) you shall all perish :" (Luke xiii. 3, 5 :) 
with an hundred more such plain scripture expressions. Can- 
not these be known without searching into God's counsels ? 
Whv, thou ignorant, or wilful self-deluding sot ! Hath thy 
Bible lain by thee in thy house so long, and didst thou never 
read such words as these ; or hast thou read it, or heard it 
read so often, and yet dost thou not remember such passages 
as these ? Nay, didst thou not find that the great drift of the 

364 THE saint's 

Scripture is, to show men who they are that shall be saved, and 
who not ; and let them see the condition of both estates ? And 
yet dost thou ask me, 'How I know who shall be saved ?' What 
need I go up. to heaven to inquire that of Christ, which he came 
down to earth to tell us ; and sent his Spirit in his prophets 
and apostles to tell us ; and hath left upon record to all the 
world ? And though I do not know the secrets of thy heart, and 
therefore cannot tell thee by name whether it be thy state, or 
no ; yet, if thou art but willing or diligent, thou mayest know 
thyself, whether thou art an heir of heaven, or not. And that 
is the main thing that I desire, that if thou be yet miserable, 
thou mavest discern it, and escape it. But canst thou possibly 
escape, if thou neglect Christ and salvation ? (Heb. ii. 3.) Is 
it not resolved on, " that if thou love father, mother, wife, 
children, house, lands, or thine own life, better than Christ, thou 
canst not be his disciple?" (Matt. x. 31 ; Luke xiv. 20;) and 
consequently can never be saved by him. Is this the word of 
man, or of God ? Is it not then an undoubted concluded case, 
that in the case thou art now in, thou hast not the least title to 
heaven ? Shall I lell thee from the word of God, it is as impos- 
sible for thee to be saved, except thou be born again, and be 
made a new creature, as it is for the devils themselves to be 
saved ? Nay, God hath more plainly and frequently spoken it in 
the Scripture, that such sinners as thou shall never be saved, 
than he hath done, that the devils shall never be saved. And 
doth not this tidings go cold to thy heart ? Methinks, but that 
there is yet life and hope before thecj and thou hast yet time and 
means to have thy soul recovered, else it should kill thy heart 
with terror; and the sight of thy doleful, discovered case, should 
even strike thee dead with amazement and horror. If old Eli 
fell from his seat and died, to hear that the ark of God was 
gone, which was but an outward sign of his presence ; how 
then should thy heart be astonished with this tidings, that thou 
hast lost the Lord God himself, and all thy title to his eternal 
presence and delight! If Rachel wept for children, and would 
not be comforted, because they were not ; how then shouldst 
thou now sit down, and weep for the happiness, and future life 
of the soul, because to thee it is not ! When king Belshazzar saw 
but a piece of a hand sent from God, writing over against him 
on the wall, it made his countenance change, his thoughts trou- 
ble him, his loins loosen in the joints, and knees smite one 
against another. (Dan. v. 6.) ^'^l)y, what trembling then should 


seize on thee, wlio hast the hand of God himself aj^ainst tliee; 
not in a sentence or two only, but i n the very tenor and scope of the 
Scriptures ; not threatening thee with the loss of a kingdom 
only, as he did Belshazzar, but with the loss of thy part in the 
everlasting kingdom ! But because I would fain have thee, if 
it be possible, to lay it close to thy heart, I will here stay a 
little longer, and show thee. First, The greatness of thy loss; 
and. Secondly, The aggravations of thy unhappiness in this 
loss ; Thirdly, And the positive miseries that thou mayest also 
endure, with their aggravations. 

Sect. III. First : The ungodly, in their loss of heaven, do lose 
all that glorious, personal perfection which the people of God 
do there enjoy. They lose that shining lustre of the body, sur- 
passing the brightness of the sun at noon-day; though perhaps 
even the bodies of the wicked will be raised more spiritual, in- 
corruptible bodies, than they were on earth : yet that will be so 
far from being a happiness to them, that it only makes them 
capable of the more exquisite torments ; their understandings 
being now more capable of apprehending the greatness of their 
loss, and their senses more capable of feeling their sufferings. 
They vvould be glad, then, if every member were a dead member, 
that it might not feel the punishment inflicted on it ; and if the 
whole body w-ere a rotten carcass, or might again lie down in the 
dust and darkness. The devil himself hath an angelical and 
excellent nature,'^ but that only honoureth his skilful Creator, 
but is no honour or comfort at all to himself; the glory, the 
beauty, the comfortable perfections, they are deprived of; much 

<^ Sicut melior est natura sentiens et cum (lolet, qnam lapis, qui dolere iiullo 
modo potest; ita ratioualis tiatura praestantior est, etiam miseria, quam ilia 
quae rationis et sensus est expers, et ideo in earn uon cadit miseria. CJ"^'^ 
cum ita sit, huic uatura;, qus in tania excellentia creata est, ut licet ipsa sit 
mutabilis, iuhaerendo tanieii iucommutabili bono, i. e. summo Deo, beatitudi- 
nem consequatur, iiec expleat indigentiam suain nisi utique beata sit, eique 
explenda! non sufRciatni&i Deus ; profecto non ilii adhaerere vitiura est. — .^itg 
deCivit. lib. xii. c. 1. Anima illic posita bene esse perdidit, at esse non perdidit. 
Ex qua re semper cogitui', ut et mortem sine morte, et defectum sine defectu, 
et finem sine tine patiatur; quatenus ei et mors immortalis sit, et defectus in- 
deficiens, et finis infinitus. — Gregor, Dial. lib. iv. In inferno etsi erit stimu- 
lus sanitudinis, nulla ibi erit correctio voluntatis; acjuibus ita culpabitur 
iniquitas, ut nullatenus ab eis possit diligi vel desiderari justitia. — August, de 
Fide ad Pet. Ilia est peccati poena justissima, ut amittat quique quo bene uti 
Doluit, cum sine tilla possit difFicultate uti si veliet. Id est autem, ut qui 
sciens recte non fecit, amittat scire quod rectum sit; et qui rectum facere 
cum posset uoluit, amittat posse cuiu velit. — Aug. lib. iii. ; de Liber. Ar- 
hitr. V. 18, 

366 THE saint's 

more do they want that moral perfection which the blessed do 
partake of: those holy dispositions and qualifications of mind; 
that blessed conformity to the holiness of God ; that cheerful 
readiness to his will ; that perfect rectitude of all their actions : 
instead of these, they have their old, ulcerous, deformed souls, 
that perverseness of will, that disorder in their faculties, that 
loathing of good, that love to evil, that violence of passion, which 
they had on earth. It is true, their understandings will be much 
cleared, both by the ceasing of their temptation and deluding 
objects which they had on earth, as also by the sad experience 
which they will have in hell, of the falsehood of their former 
conceits and delusions ; but this proceeds not from the sancti- 
fying of their natures ; and perhaps their experience and too-late 
understandings may restrain much of the evil motions of their 
wills, which they had formerly here on earth ; but the evil dis- 
position is never the more changed ; so also will the conversa- 
tion of the damned in hell be void of many of those sins which 
they commit here on earth. They will be drunk no more, and 
whore no more, and be gluttonous no more, nor oppress the in- 
nocent, nor grind the poor, nor devour the houses and estates of 
their brethren, nor be revenged on their enemies, nor persecute 
and destroy the members of Christ : all these, and many more 
actual sins, will then be laid aside. But this is not from any 
renewing of their natures; they have the same dispositions still, 
and fain they would commit the same sins, if they could : they 
want but opportunity ; they are now tied up. It is part of their 
torment to be denied these their pleasures : no thanks to them, 
that they sin not as much as ever ; their hearts are as bad, 
though their actions are restrained ; nay, it is a great question 
whether those remainders of good which were left in their na- 
tures on earth, as their common honesty and moral virtues, be 
not all taken from them in hell, according to that, " From him 
that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath." 
(Matt. iii. 12 ; Luke viii. IS.) This is the judgment of divines 
generally ; but because it is questionable, and much may be said 
against it, I will let that pass. But certainly they shall have 
none of the glorious perfections of the saints, either in soul or 
body : there will be a greater difference between these wretches 
and the glorified Christian, than there is betwixt a toad under a 
sill and the sun in the firmament. The rich man's purple robes 
and delicious fare did not so exalt him above Lazarus at his door 


in scabs, nor make the difference between them so wide, as it 
is now made on the contrary in their vast separation. 

Sect. IV. Secondly : But the great loss of the damned, will 
be their loss of God ; they shall have no comfortable relation 
to him, nor any of the saints' communion with him. As they 
did not like to retain God in their mind, but said to him, 
'' Depart from us, we desire not the knowledge of thy ways," 
so God will abhor to retain them in his household, or to give 
them entertainment in his fellowship and glory. '^ He will never 
admit them to the inheritance of his saints, nor endure them to 
stand amongst them in his presence ; but bid them, " Depart 
from me, ye workers of iniquity, I know you not." Now, these 
men dare belie the Lord, if not blaspheme, in calling him by 
the title of their father. How boldly and confidently do they 
daily approach him with their lips, and indeed reproach him 
in their formal prayers, with that appellation, " Our Father !" 
As if God would father the devil's children ; or as if the 
slighters of Christ, the pleasefs of the flesh, the friends of the 
world, the haters of godliness, or any that trade in sin, and 
delight in iniquity, were the offspring of heaven ! They are 
ready now, in the height of their presumption, to lay as con- 
fident claims to Christ and heaven, as if they were sincere 
believing saints. The swearer, the drunkard, the whoremaster, 
the worldling, can scornfully say to the people of God, * What ! 
is not God our father, as well as yours ? Doth he not love us 
as well as you ? Will he save none but a few holy precisians ?' 
Oh ! but when that time is come, when the case must be de- 
cided, and Christ will separate his followers from his foes, and 
his faithful friends from his deceived flatterers, where then will 
be their presumptuous claim to Christ ? Then they shall find 
that God is not their father, but their resolved foe, because 
they would not be his people, but were resolved in their neg- 
ligence and wickedness. Then, though they had preached, or 
wrought miracles in his name, he will not know them : and 
though they were his brethren or sisters after the flesh, yet he 

■J Decern mille qui ponat gehennas, nihil tale dicit quale est k beata gloria 
excidere, ^ Christo audire, non novi vos. — Chrysost. in Mat. Horn. 33. Multi 
gehennani abhorrent: ego autem casum illius gloriae multo amariorem 
gehennse par aio. — Greg. Nulla major et pejor est mors, quam ubi non mori- 
tur mors. Sed quod animae natura per id quod immortalis creata est, sine 
qualicunque vita esse non potest; summa mors ejus est alienatio k vita Dei in 
aeternitate supplicii.— -r^wg-. de Civil, lib. vi. c. 12. Matt. vii. 22, and xxv. 41 ; 
Psal. i. 6, 7 ; xciv. 10, and cxxxii, 3 ; Rev. xxii, 25. 

S6S THE saint's 

will not own them, but reject them as his enemies. And even 
those that did eat and drink in his presence on earth, shall be 
cast out of his heavenly presence for ever ; and those that in 
his name did cast out devils, shall yet at his command be cast 
out to those devils, and endure the torments prepared for them. 
And, as they would not consent that God should by liis Spirit 
dwell in them, so shall not these evil doers dwell with him. 
The tabernacles of wickedness shall have no fellowship with 
him ; nor the wicked inhabit the city of God : for without are 
the dogs, the sorcerers, whoremongers, murderers, idolaters, 
and whatsoever loveth and maketh a lie. For God knoweth the 
way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked leads to perish- 
ing. God is first enjoyed iu part on eartli, before he be fully 
enjoyed in heaven. It is only they that walked with him here, 
who shall live and be happy with him there. Oh, little doth 
the world now know what a loss that soul hath, who loseth God ! 
What were the world but a dungeon, if it had lost the sun ? 
What were the body but a loathsome carrion, if it had lost the 
soul ? Yet all these are nothing to the loss of God ; even the 
little taste of the fruition of God, which the saints enjoy in this 
life, is dearer to them than all the world. As the world, when 
they feed upon their forbidden pleasures, may cry out with the 
sons of the prophet, "There's death in the pot \" (2 Kings iv.40;) 
so when the saints do but taste of the favour of God, they cry 
out with David, " In his favour is life !" (Psal. xxx. 5.) Nay, 
though life be naturally most dear to all men, yet they that have 
tasted and tried, do say with David, " His loving-kindness is 
better than life !" (Psalm Ixiii. 3.) So that, as the enjoyment 
of God is the heaven of the saints, so the loss of God is the 
hell of the ungodly. And, as the enjoying of God is the en- 
joying of all, so the loss of God is the loss of all. 

Sect. V. Thirdly : Moreover, as they lose God, so they lose 
all those spiritual, delightful affections and actions, by which the 
blessed do feed on God : that transporting knowledge ; those 
ravishing views of his glorious face;^ the inconceivable pleasure 
of loving God ; the apprehensions of his infinite love to us ; 
the constant joys which his saints are taken up with, and the 

•■ Quicunque erga eutn custodiuut dilectionera, solum his praestat commu- 
Tiionem. yuicimque autem absistunt secundum seiitentiani suam ab eo, his 
earn qujE electa est ab ij)sis separationem inducit. Separatio autem a Deo 
mors, et separatio hicis tenelira; ; et separatio a Deo auiissio omnium quae 
sunt npwd Deum boiiorum. — Jremens «dr. Hares, lib, v. c. 27. 


rivers of consolation wherewith he doth satisfy them. Is it 
notliing to lose all this ? The employment of a king in ruling 
a kingdom doth not so far exceed the employment of the vilest 
scullion or slave, as this heavenly employment exceedeth his. 

These wretches had no delight in praising God on earth, 
their recreations and pleasures were of another nature ; and 
now, when the saints are singing his praises, and employed in 
magnifying the Lord of saints, then shall the ungodly be denied 
this happiness, and have an employment suitable to their 
natures and deserts. Their hearts were full of hell upon earth, 
instead of God, and his love, and fear, and graces ; there was 
pride, and self-love, and lust, and unbelief: and, therefore, 
hell must now entertain those hearts which formerly entertained 
so much of it. Their houses on earth were the resemblance of 
hell ; instead of worshipping God, and calling upon his name, 
there was scorning at his worship, and swearing by his name : 
and now hell must therefore be their habitation for ever, where 
they shall never be troubled with that worship and duty which 
they abhorred, but join with the rest of the damned in blas- 
pheming that God who is avenging their former impieties and 
blasphemies. Can it probably be expected, that they who made 
themselves merry, while they lived on earth, in deriding the 
persons and families of the godly, for their frequent worshipping 
and praising God, should at last be admitted into the family of 
heaven, and join with those saints in those most perfect praises ? 
Surely, without a sound change upon their hearts before they 
go hence, it is utterly impossible. It is too late then to say, 
" Give us of your oil, for our lamps are out ; let us now enter 
with you to the marriage feast ; let us now join with you in the 
joyful heavenly melody." You should have joined in it on earth, 
if you would have joined in heaven. As your eyes must be 
taken up with other kind of sights, so must your hearts be taken 
up with other kind of thoughts, and your voices turned to 
another tune. As the doors of heaven will be shut against you, 
so will that joyous employment be denied to you. There is no 
singing the songs of Sion in the land of your thraldom. Those 
that go down to the pit do not praise him. Who can rejoice in 
the place of sorrows ; and who can be glad in the land of 
confusion ? God suits men's employments to their natures. 
The bent of your spirits was another way ; your hearts were 
never set upon God in your lives 5 you were never admirers of 
his attributes and works, nor ever thoroughly warmed with his 


3/0 The saint's 

love. You never longed after the enjoyment of him ; you had 
no delight to speak or to hear of him ; you were weary of a 
sermon or prayer an hour long ; you had rather have continued 
on earth, if you had known how ; you had rather yet have a 
place of earthly preferment, or lands and lordships, or a feast, 
or sports, or your cups, or whores, than to be interested in the 
glorious praises of God : and is it meet, then, that you should 
be members of the celestial quire ? A swine is fitter for a 
lecture of philosophy, or an ass to build a city or govern a 
kingdom, or a dead corpse to feast at thy table, than thou art 
for this work of heavenly praise. 

Sect. VI. Fourthly : They shall also be deprived of the blessed 
society of angels and glorified saints. Instead of being companions 
of those happy spirits, and numbered with those joyful and tri- 
umphing kings, they must now be members of the corporation of 
hell, where they shall have companions of a far different nature 
and quality. While they lived on earth, they loathed the 
saints ; they imprisoned, banished them, and cast them out of 
their societies, or at least they would not be their companions 
in labour, and in sufferings ; and, therefore, they shall not now 
be their companions in their glory ; scorning them and abusing 
them, hating them, and rejoicing in their calamities, was not the 
way to obtain their blessedness. If you would have shined with 
them as stars in the firmament of their Father, you should have 
joined with them in their holiness, and faith, and painfulness, 
and patience. You should have first been ingrafted with them 
into Christ, the common stock, and then incorporated into the 
fraternity of the members, and walked with them in singleness 
of heart, and watched with them with oil in your lamps, and 
joined with them in mutual exhortation, in faithful admonitions, 
in conscionable reformation, in prayer, and in praise. You 
should have travelled with them out of the Egypt of your na- 
tural estate, through the red sea and wilderness of humiliation 
and affliction,* and have cheerfully taken up the cross of Christ, 
as well as the name and profession of Christians, and rejoiced 
with them in suffering persecution and tribulation. All this, 
if you had faithfully done, you might now have been triumphing 
with them in glory, and have possessed with them their Master's 
joy. But this you could not, you would not endure ; your souls 
loathed it, your flesh was against it, and that flesh must be 
pleased, though you were told plainly and frequently what would 
come of it: and now you partake of the fruit of your follvj and 


endure but what you were foretold you must endure ; and are 
shut out of that company, from which you first shut out your- 
selves ; and are separated but from them whom you would not 
be joined with. You could not endure them in your houses, nor 
in your town, nor scarcely in the kingdom. You took them as 
Ahab did Elias, for the troublers of the land; (1 Kings xviii. 
17 ;) and as the apostles were taken for men that turned the 
world upside down ; (Acts xvii. 6 ;) if any thing fell out amiss, you 
thought all was long of them. When they were dead or ba- 
nished, you were glad they were gone, and thought the country 
was well rid of them. They molested you with their faithful 
reproving your sin. Their holy conversation did trouble your 
consciences, to see them so far excel yourselves, and to condemn 
your looseness by their strictness, and your profaneness by their 
conscionable lives, and your negligence by their unwearied 
diligence. You scarcely ever heard them pray or sing praises in 
their families, but it was a vexation to you ; and you envied 
their liberty in the worshipping of God. And is it, then, any 
wonder if you be separated from them hereafter ? The day is 
near when they will trouble you no more : betwixt them and 
you will be a great gulf set, that those that would pass from 
thence to you (if any had a desire to ease you with a drop of 
water) cannot ; neither can they pass to them who would go 
from you, for if they could, there would none be left behind. 
(Luke xvi. 26.) Even in this life, while the saints were imper- 
fect in their passions and infirmities, clothed with the same frail 
flesh as other men, and were mocked, destitute, aflBicted, and 
tormented, yet, in the judgment of the Holy Ghost, they were 
such, of whom the world was not worthy. (Heb. xi. 36 — 38.) 
Much more unworthy are they of their fellowship in their glory. 


Tlte Aggravation of the Loss of Heaven to the Ungodly, 

Sect. I. I know many of the wicked will be ready to think, 
if this be all, they do not much care, they can bear it well 
enough : what care they for losing the perfections above ? 
What care they for losing God, his favour, or his presence ? 
They lived merrily without him on earth, and why should it be 
so grievous to be without him hereafter? And what care they 
for being deprived of that love, and joy, and praising of God ? 

BB 2 

3/2 THE saint's 

They never tasted sweetness in the things of that nature. Or 
what care they for being deprived of the fellowship of angels 
and saints ? They could spare their company in this world 
well enough, and why may they not be without it in the world 
to come ? To make these men, therefore, to understand the 
truth of their future condition, I will here annex these two 
things : 

1. I will show you why this fore-mentioned loss will be into- 
lerable, and will be most tormenting then, though it seem as 
nothing now. 

2. 1 will show you what other losses will accompany these ; 
which, though they are less in themselves, yet will now be more 
sensibly apprehended by these sensual men : and all this from 
reason, and the truth of Scripture : 

l.Then, That this loss of Heaven will be then most torment- 
ing, may appear by these considerations following: 

First: The understandings of the ungodly will be then cleared, 
to know the worth of that which they have lost. Now, they 
lament not their loss of God, because they never knew his excel- 
lency, nor the loss of that holy employment and society, for 
they were never sensible what they were worth. * A man that 
hath lost a jewel, and took it but for a common stone, is never 
troubled at his loss ; but when he comes to know what he lost, 
then he lamenteth it. Though the understandings of the 
damned will not then be sanctified (as I said before), yet will 
they be cleared from a multitude of errors which now possess 
them, and mislead them to their ruin. They think now that 
their honour with men, their estates, their pleasures, their health 
and life, are better worth their studies and labour than the 
things of another world which they never saw; but when these 
things, which had their hearts, have left them in misery, and 
given them the slip in their greatest need ; when they come to 
know by experience the things which before they did but read 
and hear of, they will then be quite in another mind. They 
would not believe that water would drown, till they were in the 
sea ; nor that the fire would burn, till they were cast into it ; 
but when they feel it, they will easily believe. All that error of 
their mind, which made them set light by God, and abhor his 
worship, and vilify his people, will then be confuted and remov- 
ed by experience J (Eccles. i. IS;) their knowledge shall be 

^ Ignis gehennae lucebit miseris ut videant unde doleant, ad tormentum, et 
non ad consolationeni, ue videant unde gaudeaot. — Isidor, de Sum, Bon. lib. i. 


increased, that their sorrows may be increased ; as Adam by 
his fall did come to the knowledge of good and evil, so shall all 
the damned have this increase of knowledge. As the know- 
ledge of the excellency of that good which they do enjoy, and 
of that evil which they have escaped, is necessary to the glori- 
fied saints, that they may rationally and trulv enjoy their glory ; 
so the knowledge of the greatness of that good which they have 
lost, and of that evil which they have procured to themselves, 
is necessary to the tormenting of these wretched sinners : for 
as the joys of heaven are not so much enjoyed by the bodily 
senses, as by the intellect and affections ; so it is by under- 
standing their misery, and by affections answerable, that the 
wicked shall endure the most of their torments : for as it was 
the soul that was the chiefest in the guilt (whether it be posi- 
tively, by leading to sin, or only privatively, in not keeping the 
authority of reason over sense, that the understanding is most 
usually guilty, I will not now dispute), so shall the soul be chief- 
est in the punishment ; doubtless, those poor souls would be 
^comparatively happy, if their imderstandings were wholly 
taken from them, if they had no more knowledge than idiots 
or brute beasts ; or if they knew no more in hell than they did 
upon earth, their loss and misery would then less trouble them. 
Though all knowledge be physically good, yet some may be 
neither morally good, nor good to the owner. Therefore, when 
the Scripture saith of the wicked, " that they shall not see life," 
(John iii. 36,) nor "see God," (Heb. xii. 14,) the meaning is, 
they shall not possess life, or see God, as the saints do, to enjoy 
him by that sight ; they shall not see him with any comfort, nor 
as their own ; but yet they shall see him, to their terror, as 
their enemy; and, 1 think, they shall have some kind of eternal 
knowledge or beholding of God and heaven, and the saints that 
are there happy, as a necessary ingredient to their unutterable 
calamity. The rich man shall see Abraham and Lazarus, but 
afar off: (Lukexvi. 23 :) as God beholdeth them afar off, (Psal. 
cxxxviii. 6,) so shall they behold God afar off. O, how happy 
men would they think themselves, if they did not know that 
there is such a place as heaven; s or if they could but shut their 
eyes, and cease to behold it ! Now, when their knowledge 

g Charron 'of VVisdom/lib.i. c. 16. p.69, tellsof aman who, having his eyes 
covered to receive death, and uncovered again to receive his pardon, was found 
dead on the scaffold. If the iniagiuatiou can kill, how will the apprehension 
of real helpless misery torment ! 

374 THE saint's 

would help to prevent their misery, they will not know, or will 
not read and study that they may know ; therefore, then when 
their knowledge will but feed their consuming fire, they shall 
know whether they will or not. As toads and serpents know 
not their own vile and venomous nature, nor the excellent nature 
of man, or other creatures, and therefore are neither troubled 
at their own, nor desirous of ours, so is it with the wicked here; 
but when their eyes at death shall be suddenly opened, then the 
case will be suddenly altered. They are now in a dead sleep, 
and they dream they are the happiest men in the world, and 
that the godly are but a company of precise fools, and that 
either heaven will be theirs, as sure as another's, or else they 
may make a shift without it as they have done liere ; but when 
death smites these men, and bids them awake, and arouses 
them out of their pleasant dreams, how will they stand up 
amazed and confounded; how will their judgments be changed 
in a moment ; and they that would not see, shall then see, and 
be ashamed ! 

Sect. II. Another reason to prove that the loss of heaven 
will more torment them then, is this ; because as the under- 
standing will be cleared, so it will be more enlarged, and made 
more capacious to conceive of the worth of that glory which 
they have lost. The strength of their apprehensions, as well as 
the truth of them, will then be increased. What deep appre- 
hensions of the wrath of God, or the madness of sinning, of 
the misery of sinners, have those souls that now endure this 
misery, in comparison of those on earth that do but hear of it! 
What sensible apprehensions of the worth of life hath the con- 
demned man that is going to be executed, in comparison of 
what he was wont to have in the time of his prosperity ; much 
more will the actual deprivation of eternal blessedness make 
the damned exceedingly apprehensive of the greatness of their 
loss ; and as a large vessel will hold more water than a shell, 
so will their more enlarged understandings contain more matter 
to feed their torment, than now their shallow capacity can do. 

Sect. III. And as the damned will have clearer and deeper 
apprehensions of the happiness which they have lost, so will 
they have a truer and closer application of this doctrine to 
themselves, which will exceedingly tend to increase their 
torment. It will then be no hard matter to them to say, 'This 
is my loss, and this is my everlasting remediless misery.' The 
want of this is the main cause why they are now so little trou- 


bled at their condition ; they are hardly brought to believe that 
there is such a state of misery, but more hardly to believe that 
it is likely to be their own. This makes so many sermons to 
them to be lost and all threatenings and warnings to prove in 
vain.** Let a minister of Christ show them their misery ever 
so plainly and faithfully, and they will not be persuaded that 
they are so miserable : let him tell them of the glory they must 
lose, and the sufferings they must feel, and they think it is not 
they whom he means ; such a drunkard, or such a notorious 
sinner, thev think may possibly come to such a doleful end, but 
they little think that they are so near it themselves. We find 
in all our preaching, by sad experience, that it is one of the 
hardest things in the world to bring a wicked man to know that 
he is wicked ; and a man who is posting in the way to hell, to 
know that he is in that way indeed ; or to make a man see 
himself in a state of wrath and condemnation : yea, though the 
preacher do mark him out by such undoubted signs, which he 
cannot deny, yet he will not apply them, nor be brought to say, 
*It is my case;' though we show them the chapter and verse 
where it is written, " that without regeneration and holiness, 
none shall see God;" and though they know no such work that 
was ever wrought upon themselves ; nay, though they might 
easily find by their strangeness to the new birth, and by their 
very enmity to holiness, that they were never partakers of them, 
yet do they as verilv expect to see God, and to be saved, as if 
they were the most sanctified persons in the world. 'It is a 
most difficult work to make a proud person know that he is 

^ Usitatum generis huraanivitium estlibendopeccatura committere,commis- 
sum negando abscondere, et couvictusn defendendo excusare. — Greg: Moral, 
lib. xxii. Superbus vult se credi constatitem, prodigus liberalem, avarus 
diligentem, temerarius fortem, inhumanus parcum, iguavus quietum, timidus 
cautum. — Prosp. Hoc enim maximum est vitium, quo laborat humanitas, 
ut post peccatum suum, maxima ad excusationis refugium, quasi poeiiitudinis 
se confessione prosteriiat; quod facinus inter summa peccata constat numera- 
tum esse, quia inde nascitur, ut ad pceniteutiam reus tardius venire videatur. 
— Greg. Moral. John iii. 3 ; Heb. xii. 14. Coepisti non defendere peccatum 
tuum .' jam inchoasti justitiam. — Aug. de Came Serm. 4. 

' Fevers and gouts are felt and known when they are strong, though we 
doubt of them before ; but in the diseases which hurt men's souls, it is con- 
trary. The worse a man is, the less he feels it, and no wonder. For he that 
doth but slumber and dream, doth sometime think in his sleepthat he is asleep; 
but a deep sleep expelleth dreams, and drowns the mind so deeply that it 
leaves no use of the understanding. Why doth no man confess his faults ? Be- 
cause he is yet in them. To rehearse a dream, is the work only of a man that 
is waking; and to confess one's faults, is a sign of reco\ery. —£pist. 54. ad 
Lucil, p. 616. 


proud, or a covetous man to know that he is covetous ; or an 

io-noraut, or erroneous heretical man to know himself to be such 

an one indeed; but to make any of these to confess the sin, 

and to apply the threatening, and to believe themselves the 

children of wrath, this is to human strength an impossibility. 

How seldom do you hear men, after the plainest discovery of 

their condemned estate, to cry out and say, 'I am the man;' or to 

acknowledge, that if they die in their present condition, they 

are undone for ever ! and yet Christ hath told us in his word, 

that the most of the world are in that estate ; yea, and the most 

of those that have the preaching of the Gospel; "for many are 

called, but few are chosen." So that it is no wonder that the 

worst of men are not now troubled at their loss of heaven, and 

at their eternal misery; because, if we should convince them by 

the most undeniable arguments, yet we cannot bring them to 

acknowledge it : if we should preach to them as long as we live, 

we cannot make them believe that their danger is so great; except 

a man rise from the dead, and tell them of that place of torments, 

and tell them that their merry, jovial friends, who did as verily 

think to be saved as they, are now in hell in those flames, they 

will not believe. Nay, more, though such a messenger from the 

dead should appear, and speak to them, and warn them that 

they come not to that place of torments, and tell them, that 

such and such of their dear, beloved, worshipful, or honourable 

friends are now there destitute of a drop of water, yet would 

they not be persuaded by all this; for Christ hath said so, 

" that if they will not hear IMoses and the prophets, neither 

will they be persuaded though one should rise from the dead." 

(Luke xvi. 31.) 

There is no persuading them of their misery till they feel it, 
except the Spirit of the Almighty persuade them. 

Oh ! but when they find themselves suddenly in the land of 
darkness, perceive, by the execution of the sentence, that 
they were indeed condemned, and feel themselves in the 
scorching flames, and see that they are shut out of the 
presence of God for ever, it will then be no such diflicult 
matter to convince them of their misery : this particular appli- 
cation of God's anger to themselves, will then be the easiest 
matter in the world ; then they cannot choose, but know and 
apply it, whether they will or not. If you come to a man that 
hath lost a leg, or an arm, or a child, or goods, or house, or his 
health, is it a hard matter to bring this man to apply, and to 


acknowledge that the loss is his own ? I think not. Why, it 
will be far more easy for the wicked in hell to apply their misery 
in the loss of heaven, because their loss is incomparably greater. 
Oh ! this application, which now, if we should die, we cannot 
get them to, for prevention of their loss will then be part of 
their torment itself; O that they then could say, ' It is not my 
case !' but their dolorous voices will then roar out these forced 
confessions, ' Oh, my misery ! oh, my folly ! oh, my incon- 
ceivable, irrecoverable loss.' 

Sect. IV. Again, as the understandings and consciences of 
sinners will be strengtliened against them, so also will their affec- 
tions be then more lively and enlarged than now they are ; as judg- 
ment will be no longer blinded, nor conscience stifled and bribed 
as now it is, so the affections will be no longer so stupified and 
dead. A hard heart now makes heaven and hell to seem but 
trifles : and when we have showed them everlasting glory and 
misery, they are as men half asleep, they scarcely take notice 
what we say ; our words are cast as stones agaiiist a hard wall, 
which fly back in the face of him that casteth them, but make no 
impression at all where they fall. We talk of terrible, asto- 
nishing things, but it is to dead men that cannot apprehend it. 
We may rip up their wounds, and they never feel us; we speak 
to rocks, rather than to men ; the earth will as soon tremble as 
they.'' Oh, but when these dead wretches are revived, what 
passionate sensibility ; what working affections ; what pangs of 
horror ; what depth of sorrow will there then be ! How violently 
will they fly in their own faces ; how will they rage against 
their former madness ! The lamentations of the most pas- 
sionate wife for the loss of her husband, or of the tenderest 
mother for the loss of her children, will be nothing to theirs for 
the loss of heaven. Oh, the self- accusing and self-tormenting 
fury of those forlorn wretches ! How they will even tear their 
own hearts, and be God's executioner upon themselves ! I am 
persuaded, as it was none but themselves that committed the 
sin, and themselves that were the only meritorious cause of 
their sufferings, so themselves will be the chiefest executioners 
of those sufferings. God will have it for the clearing of his 
justice, and the aggravating of their distress ; even Satan 
himself, as he was not so great a cause of their sinning as 

'' Maxima est factae injurise poena, fecisse ; nee quis quam ^ravius afficitur, 
quam qui ad supplicjum poeniteiitiae trahitur.— /S'enec. de Ira, lib, iii. c. 36, 

378 THE saint's 

themselves, so will he not be so great an instrument as them- 
selves of their torment. And let them not think here, that if 
they must torment themselves, they will do well enough, they 
shall have wit enough to ease and favour themselves, and reso- 
lution enough to command down this violence of their passions. 
Alas ! poor souls, they little know what passions those will be, 
and how much beyond the power of their resolutions to suppress ! 
Why have not lamenting, pining, self-consuming persons on 
earth, so much wit or power as this? Why do you not thus 
persuade despairing souls, who lie, as Spira, in a kind of hell 
upon earth, and dare not eat, nor drink, nor be merry, but 
torment themselves with continual terrors ? Why do you not 
say to them, ' Sir, why will you be so mad as to be vour own 
executioner ? And to make your own life a continual misery, 
which otherwise might be as joyful as other men's ? Cannot 
you turn your thoughts to other matters, and never think of 
heaven or hell ?' Alas ! how vain are all these persuasions to 
him; how little do they ease him ! You may as well persuade 
him to remove a mountain, as to remove these hellish thoughts 
that feed upon his spirit; it is as easy to him to stop the stream 
of the rivers, or to ^ound the overflowing waves of the ocean, as 
to stop the stream of his violent passions, or to restrain those 
sorrows that feed upon his soul. Oh, how much less, then, can 
those condemned souls, who see the glory before them which 
they have lost, restrain their heart-rending, self-tormenting 
passions ! So some direct to cure the tooth-ache, ' Do not think 
of it, and it will not grieve you ;' and so these men think to ease 
their pains in hell. Oh, but the loss and pain will make you 
think of it, whether you will or not. You were as stocks or 
stones under the threatenings, but you shall be most tenderly 
sensible under the execution. Oh, how happy would you think 
yourselves then, if you were turned into rocks, or any thing that 
had neither passion nor sense ! Oh, now, how happy were you, if 
vou could feel as lightly as you were wont to hear I And if you 
could sleep out the time of execution, as you did the time of the 
sermons that warned you of it 1 But your stupidity is gone, it 
will not be. 

Sect. V. Moreover, it will much increase the torment of 
the damned, in that their memories will be as large and strong 
as their understandings and affections, which will cause those 
violent passions to be still working. Were their loss ever so 
great, and their sense of it ever so passionate, yet if they could 


but lose the use of their memory, those passions would die, and 
that loss being forgotten, would little trouble tbem. But as 
they cannot lay by their life and being, though then they would 
account annihilation a singular mercy ; so neither can they lay 
aside any part of that being. Understanding, conscience, af- 
fections, memory, must all live to torment them, which should 
have helped to their happiness. And as by these they should 
have fed upon the love of God, and drawn forth perpetually the 
joys of his presence ; so by these must they now feed upon the 
wrath of God, and draw forth continually the dolours of his ab- 
sence : therefore never think, that when I say the hardness of 
their hearts, and their blindness, dulness, and forgetfulness, 
shall be removed, that, therefore, they are more holy or more 
happy than before : no, but morally more vile, and hereby far 
more miserable. Oh, how many hundred times did God by his 
messengers here call upon them, 'Sinners, consider whither you 
are a going !' Do but make a stand a while, and think where 
your way will end, what is the offered glory that you so care- 
lessly reject : will not this be bitterness in the end ? 

And yet these men would never be brought to consider ; but 
in the latter days, (saith the Lord, Jer. xxiii. 20,) they shall 
perfectly consider it ; when they are ensnared in the work of 
their own hands, (Psal. ix. 16,) when God hath arrested them, 
and judgment is passed upon them, and vengeance is poured 
out upon them to the full, then they cannot choose but consider 
it, whether they will or not. Now, they have no leisure to con- 
sider, nor any room in their memories for the things of ano- 
ther Ufe. Ah ! but then they shall have leisure enough, they 
shall be where they have nothing else to do but consider it; 
their memories shall have no other employment to hinder them 
it shall even be engraven upon the tables of their hearts. 
(Deut. vi. 9.) God would have had the doctrine of their eter- 
nal state to have been written on the posts of their doors, on 
their houses, on their hands, and on their hearts : he would 
have had them mind it, and mention it, as they rise and lie 
down, as they sit at home, and as they walk abroad, that so it 
might have gone well with them at their latter end. And see- 
ing they rejected this counsel of the Lord, therefore shall it be 
written always before them in the place of their thraldom, that 
which way soever they look, they may still behold it. 

Among others, I will briefly lay down here some of th ose 

380 THE saint's 

considerations which will thus feed the anguish of these damn- 
ed wretches. 

Sect. VI. First : It will torment them to think of the great- 
ness of the glory which they have lost. Oh, if it had been that 
which they could have spared, it had been a small matter ; or 
if it had been a loss repairable with any thing else ; if it had 
been health, or wealth, or friends, or life, it had been nothing ', 
but to lose that exceeding, eternal weight of glory ! 

Sect. VII. Secondly : It will torment them also, to think of 
the possibility that once they were in of obtaining it. Though 
all things considered, there was an impossibility of any other 
event than what did befall, yet the thing in itself was possible, 
and their will was left to act without constraint.' Then they 
will remember, the time was, when I was in as fair a possibility 
of the kingdom as others 3 I was set upon the stage of the 
world, if 1 had played my part wisely and faithfully, now I 
might have had possession of the inheritance : I might have 
been amongst yonder blessed saints, who am now tormented 
with these damned fiends !™ The Lord did set before me life 
and death, and having chosen death, I deserve to suffer it : the 
prize was once held out before me ; if I had run well, I might 
have obtained it ; if I had striven, I might have had the mas- 
tery; if I had fought valiantly, I had been crov/ned. 

Sect. VIII. Thirdly: It will yet more torment them to re- 
member, not only the possibility, but the great probability that 
once thev were in, to obtain the crown, and prevent the misery." 
It will then wound them to think. Why, I had once the gales 
of the Spirit ready to have assisted me. I was fully purposed 
to have been another man, to have cleaved to Christ, and to 
have forsaken the world ; I was almost resolved to have been 
wholly for God ; I was once even turning from my base, sedu- 
cing lusts; I was purposed never to take them up again, I had 

1 Non satis acute igitur Hieronymus ad Ctesiph.advers. Pelagian, fol. (mihi) 
117. Ro^o qua; est ista ars^umentatio, posse esse quod luuiquam fuerit? 

™ Actus eveuiens est evitabilis secundum se, iuevitabilis vero secundum quod 
est praevisus ; at licet hoc sit verum, tamen non solvit nodum, quia actus 
eveuiens est jam de facto p^a^visus ab lEterno ; nee quictat intellectuni, qui hie 
in isjnoraiitia sola quietem inveuit, inquit Cajetanus super Tho.i. p. q. 20. art. 4. 

" O vere reconciliatio facilis sed perutilis ! quam facilis modo, tarn difficilis 
erit postea : et sicut niodo nemo est qui reconciliari non possit : ita post pau- 
lulum nemo qui possit; quoniam sic'ut benignitas apparuit ultra omnem spem, 
ultra omnem sestimationem ; siuiilera expectarepossumus judiciidistrictioneni. 
— Bern. Serm. 1. in Ppiphan, 



even cast off my old companions, and was resolved to have as- 
sociated myself with the godly; and yet T turned back, and lost 
my hold, and broke my promises, and slacked my purposes ; 
almost God had persuaded me to be a real Christian, and yet 
I conquered those persuasions. What workings were in my 
heart, when a faithful minister pressed home the truth ! O, 
how fair was I once for heaven 1 I had almost had it, and yet 
I have lost it; if I had but followed on to seek the Lord, and 
brought those beginnings to maturity, and blown up the spark 
of desires and purposes which were kindled in me, I had now 
been blessed among the saints. 

Thus will it wound them, to remember what hopes they once 
had, and how a little more would have brought them over to 
Christ, and have set their feet in the way of peace. 

Sect. IX. Fourthly : Furthermore, it will exceedingly torment 
them, to remember the fair opportunity that once they had, but 
now have lost ; ° to look back upon an age spent in vanity, 
when his salvation lay at the stake ; to think how many weeks, 
and months, and years, did I lose, which, if 1 had improved, I 
might now have been happy I Wretch that I was ! Could I find 
no time to study the work, for which I had all my time ? Had 
I no time among all my labours to labour for eternity ? Had I 
time to eat, and drink, and sleep, and work, and none to seek 
the saving of my soul ? Had I time for sports, and mirth, and 
vain discourse, and none for prayer, or meditation on the life 
to come ? Could I take time to look to my estate in the world, 
and none to try my title to heaven, and to make sure of my 
spiritual and everlasting state ? Oh, pernicious time, whither 
art thou fled ? 1 had once time enough, and now I must have 
no more ! I had so much, that I knew not what to do with it; 
I was fain to devise pastimes ; and to talk it away, and trifle it 
away, and now it is gone, and cannot be recalled ! ^ Oh, the 

" Stultae valetudinis fructus est peccatum. — JVazianzen. 

P yEternum Dei qui fiigiunt lumen, quod continetin se omnia bona, ipsi sibi 
causa sunt, ut aeteruas inhabitent tenebras ; destitmi omnibus bonis, sibimet- 
ipsis causa hujusmodi habitationis facti. — Irenaus adv. Hares, lib. iv. c. 76. 
Here no man is hindered by sins repented of, or by age, from obtaining; salva- 
tion. While a man is in this world, no true repentance is too late. The pas- 
sage to God's mercy is still open ; and to them that seek and understand the 
truth, the access is easy. If thou ask pardon of thy sins at the very time of thy 
death, and in the passage of thy temporal life, and implore the true and only 
God in confession and believing acknowledgment of him ; pardon shall be 
given thee by the goodness of God on thy confessing, and saving indulgence, 
and thou shalt pass immediately from death to immortality. This grace doth 
Christ bestow i this gift of his mercy he giveth, by subduinj;- death in the 

382 THE saint's 

golden hours that I did enjoy ! Had I spent but one year of all 
those years, or but one month of all those months, in thorough 
examination, and unfeigned conversion, and earnest seeking 
God with my whole heart, it had been happy for me that ever 
I was born ; but now it is past, my days are cut off, my glass is 
run, my sun is set, and will rise no more. God himself did 
hold me the candle, that 1 might do his work, and 1 loitered 
till it was burnt out ; and now fain would I have more, but can- 
not : oh, that I had but one of these years to live over again ! 
Oh, that it were possible to recall one day, one hour, of that 
time 1 Oh, that God would turn me into the world, and try me 
once again, with another lifetime ! how speedily would 1 re- 
pent : how earnestly would I pray : and lie on my knees day 
and night : how diligently would I hear : how cheerfully 
would I examine my spiritual estate : how watchfully would 1 
walk : how strictly would I live 1 but, it is now too late ; alas ! 
too late ; I abused my time to vanity whilst I had it, and now 
must I suffer justly for that abuse. 

Thus will the remembrance of the time which they lost on 
earth, be a continual torment to these condemned souls. 

Sect. X. Fifthly : And yet more will it add to their calamity, 
to remember how often ihey were persuaded to return, both by 
the ministry in public, and in private, by all their godly, faithful 
friends ; every request and exhortation of the minister, will now 
be as a fiery dart in his spirit ; how fresh will every sermon 
come now into his mind ! even those that he had forgotten, as 
soon as he heard them. He even seems to hear still the voice 
of the minister, and to see his tears ; oh, how fain would he 
have had me to have escaped these torments ! How earnestly 
did he entreat me ! With what love and tender compassion did 
he beseech me ! How did his bowels yearn after me ! And yet 
1 did but make a jest of it, and hardened my heart against all 
this. How oft did he convince me that all was not well with 
me 1 And yet I stifled all these convictions. How plainly did 
he rip up my sores, and open to me my very heart, and show 
me the unsoundness and deceitfulness of it ! and yet I was loth 
to know the worst of myself, and therefore shut mine eyes, and 

trophy of his cross, by redeeming the believer by the price of his blood, by re- 
conciling man to God the Father, and by quickening the mortal by heavenly 
Tegeuer&tioii.— Cyprian, ad Demetrian. p. 331. Can there be a fuller testi- 
mony against purgatory, or necessity of meritorious works, with many the like 
popish doctrines, when this was written by Cyprian to a bloody, persecuting 
pagan ? 


would not see. Oh, how glad would he have been, after all his 
study, and prayers, and pains, if he could but have seen me cor- 
dially entertain the truth, aud turn to Christ ! He would have 
thought himself well recompensed for all his labours and suf- 
ferings in his work, to have seen me converted and made happy 
by 1 it. And, did I withstand and make light of all this ? 
Should any have been more willing of my happiness than my- 
self ? Had not I more cause to desire it than he ? Did it not 
more nearly concern me ? It was not he, but I, that was to 
suffer for my obstinacy. He would have laid his hands under 
my feet, to have done me good ; he would have fallen down to 
me upon his knees to have begged my obedience to his mes- 
sage, if that would have prevailed with my hardened heart. O, 
how deservedly do 1 now suffer these flames, who was so fore- 
warned of them, and so entreated to escape them : nay, my 
friends, my parents, my godly neighbours, did admonish and ex- 
hort me ; they told me what would come of my wilfulness and 
negligence at last, but I did never believe them, nor regard 
them. Magistrates were fain to restrain me from sinning, by 
law and punishment. Was not the foresight of this misery 
sufficient to restrain me ? 

Thus will the remembrance of all the means that ever they 
enjoyed, be fuel to feed the flames in their consciences. Oh, 
that sinners would but think of this, when they sit under the 
plain instruction and pressing exhortations of a faithful ministry! 
How dear must they pay for all this, if it do not prevail with 
them ! And how they will wish a thousand times, in the 
anguish of their souls, that they had either obeyed his doctrine, 
or had never heard him ! The melting words of exhortation 
which they were wont to hear, will be hot burning words to 
their hearts upon this sad review. It cost the minister dear, 
even .his daily study, his earnest prayers, his compassionate 

1 Make your life doleful, and Christ will make your death doleful, be as 
great as you will : stay long in the l)irth, and kill the midwife, and you will 
be delivered in hell. Ease us, and ease Christ, for Christ striveth in us, — 
jLockier in Col. i. 29, p. a30. When I hear men under all the means that 
we enjoy, yet think that their ignorance should excuse them, it niaketh me 
think of the answer of the agent of Charles V., emperor, to the ambassador 
of Siena. The Sienois having rebelled against the emperor, sent their am- 
bassador to excuse it ; who, when he could find no other excuse, tliought in a 
jest to put it off thus : " What," saith he, " shall not we of Siena be excused, 
seeing we are known to be all fools ?" The agent replied, " Even that shall 
excuse you but upon the condition which is fit for fools, which is, to be kept 
bound and enchained.— ZfO'rf Remy's Civil Considerations, c. 76. p. 200 

384 THE saint's 

sorrows for their misery, his care, his sufferings, his spendings, 
weakening, killing pains ; but, oh ! how much dearer will it cost 
these rebellious sinners ! His lost tears will cost them blood, 
his lost sighs will cost them eternal groans, and his lost exhor- 
tations will cause their eternal lamentations. For Christ hath 
said it, " that if any city or people receive not, or welcome not 
the Gospel,'' the very dust of the messenger's feet who lost his 
travel to bring them that glad tidings, shall witness against 
them ; much more, his greater pains. And it shall be easier 
for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that 
city." (Matt. xix. 14 — 16.) That Sodom which was the 
shame of the world for unnatural wickedness, the disgrace of 
mankind, that would have committed wickedness with the 
angels from heaven, that were not ashamed to prosecute their 
villany in the open street; that proceeded in their rage against 
Lot's admonitions; yea, under the very miraculous judgment 
of God, and groped for the door, when they were stricken 
blind. That Sodom which was consumed with fire from 
heaven, and turned to that deadly sea of waters, and suffers the 
vengeance of eternal fire; (Jude v. 7;) even that Sodom shall 
escape better in the day of judgment, than the neglecters of 
this so great salvation. (Heb. ii. 3.) It will somewhat abate 
the heat of their torment, that they had not those full and 
plain offers of grace, nor those constant sermons, nor pressing 
persuasions, nor clear convictions, as those under the sound of 
the Gospel have had. I beseech thee who readest these words, 
stay here awhile, and sadly think of what I say ; I profess to 
thee from the Lord, it is easier thinking of it now than it will 
be then. What a doleful aggravation of thy misery would this 
be, that the food of thy soul should prove thy bane. Aiid that 
that should feed thy everlasting torment, which is sent to save 
thee, and prevent thy torments. 

Sect. XI. Sixthly: Yet further," it will much add to the 
torment of the wretches, to remember that God himself did 

^ Mundus eum non cognovit; ut ptossit secundum hoc dici,redemptor mundi 
dedit pro niundo sanguint-m suum, et mundus redimi iioluit; quia lucem 
teuebrae non receperunt. — Prosper. Respons. ad c. 9. Gallor. 

* Subjectio autem Dei requies est a^terna ; ut hi qui fugiunt lumen, dig- 
num fugse suae habeant locum, et qui fugiunt aeteriiam requiem, coiigruentem 
f ugae su£E habeant habitationem. Cum autem apud Deum omnia sint bona, qui 
ex sua s.ententia fugiunt Deum, semetipsos ab omnibus fraudaut bonis. Frau- 
dati autem omnibus erga Deum bonis, cousequenter in justum Dei judicium 
incident. Qui enim fugiunt Requiem, juste in poena conservabuntur ; et qui 
fujerunt lumen, juste inhabitabunt tenebras.— /?«;, adv. Hffres. lib, iv. c 76'. 


condescend to entreat them, that all the entreatings of the mi- 
nister were the entreatings of God. How long he did wait, how 
freely he did offer, how lovingly he did invite, and how impor- 
tunately he did solicit tliem ! How the Spirit did continue 
striving with their hearts, as if he were loth to take a denial! 
How Christ stood knocking at the door of their hearts, sermon 
after sermon, and one Sabbath after another, crying out, " Open, 
sinner, open thy heart to the Saviour, and 1 will come in, and 
sup with thee, and thou with me." (Rev. iii. 20.) Why, 
sinner,'' are thy lusts and carnal pleasures better than I ? 
Are thy worldly commodities better than my everlasting king- 
dom ? Why, then, dost thou resist me ? Why dost thou thus 
delay ? What dost thou mean, that thou dost not open to me ? 
How long shall it be till thou attain to innocency ? How long 
shall thy vain thoughts lodge within thee ? Wo to thee, O 
unworthy sinner ! Wilt thou not be made clean ? Wilt thou 
not be pardoned and sanctified, and made happy ? When shall 
it once be ? Oh ! that thou wouldst hearken to mv word, and 
obey my Gospel ! " Then should thy peace be as the river, and 
thy righteousness as the waves of the sea 5 though thy sins 
were as red as the crimson or scarlet, I would make them as 
white as the snow or wool. O that thou wert but wise to 
consider this; and that thou wouldst in time remember thy 
latter end, before the evil days come upon thee, and the years 
draw nigh, when thou shalt say of all thy vain delights, ' I have 
no pleasure in them !' Why, sinner, shall thy Maker thus 
bespeak thee in vain ? Shall the God of all the world beseech 
thee to be happy, and beseech thee to have pity upon thine own 
soul, and wilt thou not regard him ? Why did he make thy 
ears, but to hear his voice ? Why did he make thv under- 
standing, but to consider i Or thy heart, but to entertain the 
Son in obedie