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Full text of "The nonconformists plea for peace: or An account of their judgement. In certain things in which they are misunderstood: written to reconcile and pacifie such as by mistaking them hinder love and concord .."

WnrW'''^^ ' "'^ "^-^ f *^'M 

- ■ J 




An Ac count of their Judgment. 

la certain things m which they are mif- 

underftood: written to rfrowc//^ and 

piicifie fuch as by miftaking them 

hinder Love and Concord. 

Exhort, ill the Liturgy before the Communion. 

If any of you he— an hinderer, orjlanderer of God\ 
Word^ — or be m malice or envy^ — Rtpmt of your 
Jins^ or elfe come not to the holy Tahle^ left after 
the taking of that Sacrament^ the Devil enter 
into you as he did into Judas, and fill you full of 
all iniquities^ and bring you to deftru^iion both of 
body and foul. 



Printed for Benj. Alfop at the Angel and Bible over 
againft the Stocks-Market. 1^79. 


To the Reverend 

Conforming Clergy. 

Re'ver end Fathers and Brethren, 

IT is now feventeen years fince neer t\^^ 
thoufand Minifters of Chrift were by 
Law forbidden the exercife of their Of- 
fice,unlefs they did conform to Subfcrip- 
tions, Covenants, Declarations and Prafl:ices, 
which we durfl not do,becaufe we feared God: 
Forefeeing what this would do to the deflroy- 
ingof Love and Concord, and of mensfou's, 
weakning the Land,encouraging Popery, He- 
refie and Schifm, we did our beft betime by 
Reafon, & fubmifiive petitioning the Bilhops, 
to have prevented it ; but in vain : Wc ne- 
ver made one motion for Presbytery, or 
againfl: Liturgies, nor to abate any of the 
Bifliops Wealth, or Honour, nor any thing 
as to Church- Government, but Arch Biftop 
Vjhers Model ot the Primitive way .• And 
we thankfully accepted of much lefs, eipreft 
in His Majefties Gracious Tjedaration about 

A I Ecch 

The Eplflle. 

Ecciejfaflkal Affairs, which, v/e hoped, would 
have "ended all our difccrds. The Reafons 
of the Great Change^ and New Impojitions^ it 
is God, and not we, that mud hdve an ac- 
count of from theConvocation,^c. and of the 
confequents. Since then, as we forefaw, con- 
trary interefts have increafed contrariety : 
The Laws againft our Prelching to more 
than ft)ur, the Penalties of forty pound a Ser- 
mon, and long imprilonment in common 
Gaols, and driving us five miles from Cor- 
porations, and places wdiere we lately 
preachr, and the reafons given are not un- 
known to you : Many Books are written, and 
Sermbhs preached, earneftly pre/Ting Ma- 
giftraty^" to execute thefe Laws againft us : 
And though, when demanded, we gave in 
a Catalogue of divers things intheold Impo- 
fiti:ohs, which we undertook to prove to be 
gredt" fins; and in our Petition for 'leace^ 
protefted that nothing but avoiding fin fliould 
hinder our Conformity, and we had never 
call or. leave to give our reafons ngainft the 
New Conformity ; I my felf have been re- 
ported to my Superiours, to be one that com 
tefieth the Lawfulnefs of all, fave V e renoun- 
cing of a rebellious Covenant : And while the 
Law and Canons imprifon, and excommuni- 
cate us ipfofa^o^U^we do but give the reafons 
of our Nonconformity ; andLhave offered to 
Reverend Bipops and others, to beg leave to 


The Epiflle. 
do it on my knees, and nothing more grieved 
me, tiian that I might not ib endeavour to 
fave men from the damning fins of rtating, 
falfe accufing,and ruining tneir Brethren, and 
facrilegious iiindenng the Preaching of Gods 
Word ; yet have 1 ueen called on to tell them 
ivhat it IS that we would have^ and told that 
our Super iours judge us not [incere^ but meer 
faftious Schifmatkks^ that will neither Con- 
form^ nor veil them why we do not . Vehement 
Letters of accufation are fent me : Many 
Books charge us with heinous Schifm, even 
as wilfully doneagainfl oiir confciences: Yea 
that Covetoujnefs and Fride^ and not Conjci" 
ence^ caufe our Nonconformity ; that we are 
the worjl men alive ^ and unfit for humane fo- 
ciety^ &c. while we are made their fcorn, 
and many want bread,and many of us preach 
for nothing, fave the fpiritual benefits and 
rewards. And thofeofus that have bread, 
know of fo many that have families, and no- 
thing but alms to maintain them, that we 
are glad to give them all that our nece/Tities 
can fpare : And we fuppofe our accufcrs 
would not think that if they chofe beggery 
and fcorn, or lived only on mens chanty, it 
would prove them to be covetous or proud. 
I have read the Books of Bifliop Morley^ Mr. 
Stihman^ Mr. Fulwood^ Mr. Durel^ Mi", Fow- 
liSy Mr. Falkencr^ Mr. Nanfen^ Dr. Boreman^ 


The Epzjlk: 

Dr. Parker y Dr. Tomkins^ the FrienMy ©c- 
hatCy jDr. Ajhton^ Mr. Hollingwortl\ Dr. Goo</, 
'Mx.Hinkley^th.^ Countermine r^ Mr . Z, 'Eflrange^ 
]N^r X6?;^g, and many more. And as my flelh 
is no more in love with poverty and fcorn 
than yours, nor was I more uncapable of 
fuch a lot as yours ; fo I here teftifie that no 
man IS niore inexcufable than I, that have 
dwelt fo long in pain, fo neer the grave, if 
I have been fo mad^s to filence my felf, and 
chcfeaGaol among malefaftors (where I 
have lain) and bitter accufations and profe- 
cutiom., for any thing of this world that I 
could hope for, or for any thing lefs than my 
falvaiion. And either 1 am an utter ftranger 
to my felf, or elfe I was willing to know^ the 
Truth: and Liberty and Wealth is likertobc 
a byas, than tliat which the Law decreeth 
agamft us. But if I be fo unhappy as to be 
tincapable of underftanding the lawfulnefs of 
all that is madeneceilary to the Miniftry,you 
fliould better think of it before ycu beg the 
ruineof all that are as ignorant as I. Had 
you told us how to come loyour meafure of 
knowledge^ we would thank you : When I 
askt Biftop Morley fuch a queftion, he advi- 
fed me to read B'llfon and Hooker^ where I 
found more than I approved for refilling oi 
reftraining Kings ; and had long before read 
them and Sanwh^ Billiop Doivnam^ Spalaten- 
- ' V ' fis. 

The Epiflle. 
fis^PetaviuSy San£la Clara^ Y>x. Hammond^ and 
abundance more for Prelacy, &c. He is not 
worthy the name of a man that would not 
know that truth, which maketh both for his 
temporal and eternal welfare. 

Under thefe accufations my confciencc 
urged me to acquaint the accufing Clergy 
with our Cafe, believing it be uncharitable to 
impute all their falfe report to Malignity, or 
7)iaholifm,h\xt that it was STRANGENESS 
to our Cafe^ while wrath and crofs intereft 
kept them from hearing us : But my pru- 
dent friends perfwaded me filently to leave 
all to God, aifuring me it would but more 
exafperate, till they called us themfelves to 
fpeaL Twice we were fince invited to a 
Tryal for Concord, and both times came to 
an "Agreement with the moderate and eminent 
Pcrfons that we treated with : But it was 
buried in privacy ; and flill we are called on, 
to give the -reafons of our Diflent. 

Having long forborn for fear of offending 
them that require it, at lafl: I have here ad- 
ventured, not fo far as to urge the Cafe^ but 
only to fiate it, and tell you barely what it 
is that I dare not do : If I find that you can 
bear this, if I have leave from God and man, 
I Ihall venture on more, and give you my 
reafons : This unarmed Account is eafiJy 
trampled on. I doubt not but it will meet 


The 'Epi(lle. 

with fuch ufage as I have had already : But 
1 muft fay, that if fuch as the Countermmer 
will fay that to fear fuch fin as I have here 
named, by one that is not willing to be damn- 
ed, is Treafon^ Rebeilion^Schifm^Fatlion^ridey 
Ohflinacy ; this will not pafs with me for con- 
vincing" Argument, on which I may venture 
my. faivation. Jul. Scaliqxr exercit. tells us, 
that in France our Bicott ^ the Learned 
Schoolman, was envied by another for his 
Auditors in Philofophy, and his crafty adver- 
fary told the King, that B'lcott was a Peripa- 
tetick, and Arijiotle was againft Monarchy: 
There needed no more, and Bkott was caft 
down. " 7*^ 'r'^ 

As for them that think that to name thc^ 
late Wars is a Confutation of Nonconfor- 
mifts, as if they knew not that they were 
raifed on both fides by Conformifts ( Heylin 
in Lauds Life will tell them who.) I now on- 
ly repeat, [_S Hence all that had a hand In thofe 
Wars (except the Conformifts) and no more^ 
and T and thoufands will give you t^'anks: ] I 
plead not for my felf : The years are paft 
in which I might have better ferved the 
Church, had I been thought tolerable. I am 
almoit uncapable now of your kindnefs, or of 
any great hurt thit you can do me. A tor- 
rent of reproaching fcornful words may eafe 
fome mens mindsjand fervefome mens ends, 


but will not fatlsfie my confcience, nor heal 
the Land. I write not this as accufing Con- 
formiiis, or the Law makers, but as < iii'wer- 
ing their loud and long accufations and de- 
mands. If telhng %vhat Ifear^ fecm a telling 
what others are guilty of^ it is a confcqucnt 
which I cannot avoid ; but to avoid it and 
fuch like, have feventeen years been herein 
filent. So far am I from defiring the weak- 
ening of the Church, that I had not written 
this, but to prevent it. Though I with Saint 
Martin renounce communicn with Itbacius 
and Idacius^ I go not fo far as he in fepara- 
ting trom ^ the Synods of Bilhops ; nor wil! 
^feparate.fronl any Chriflians, fartlier than 
they feparate from Chrift, or eypel me .• 
Church-Order I love; Church Tyranny and 
Schifm 1 love not : I am for more Bifijps^znd 
not for fewer.' If Pari/h-Orator/espr Chapels 
ivere made Partjh-Ch arches^ at Ic'fi in each 
Corporation antiently called m^Ai'..t Yea if the 
''larijh-Miniflcrs might be Vaftors^ Fpifcopi 
gf'egfSy and not forced hy (iravgers to excom- 
mimicate^ ahfolve dv.d receive io communion 
agairjfl their knowledge aud conjciences^ 7wr to 
profefSy promife or practice (in agairji God, nor 
omit their known Minifterial duty^ far be it 
from me to be againfl Conformity. I doubt 
not but he that will preferve Bxligion here in 
its due advantages, muft endeavour to pre- 


The Eptflle. 

ferve theSoundnefs, Concord and Honour of 
theParilli-Churches. And as the truly vvifQ 
and honed ^ndge Hale hath faid to me, It 
mufl he a new A^ of TJniformity that mujl 
heal «J, // ever we he healed, I am of the 
mind of old Mr. Dod^ who^ for the peoples 
fake^ thanked God that there werefo many wor- 
thy Conform ifts^ and for Truth and Lonfcience 
fake^ thanked God thai there were fa many 
t^onconformifls. I love and honour xh^ Re- 
verend, folidjworthy Preachers whic/j I hear 
in moft Churches in London^ where I come; 
and I endeavour to have all others honour 
them : And though I am by the Canon tpfo 
fa£to excommunicate, they fhall put me out 
from them before I will depart. But for tJie 
Churchy and Kingdom^ and their Confciences 
fake, I beg of the Clergy , that before they any 
more render odious thofe whom they never 
heard, and urge Rulers to execute the Laws 
againft them, that is, to confine, imprifon, 
excommunicate, filence and undo them, they 
would be fure what manner offpir'tt they are 
ef; and that this is acceptable to God^ and pro- 
fit ahle to the Land^ or to themfelves^ and that 
which the Churches Experience commendeth. 
My honefl: friend, whom I once perfwaded 
from Anabaptifl:ry,writing againfl Separation^ 
iaith, that when he Jaw here a leg^ and there 
an arm in the way ^ it was time for him to (lop. 


The Epifik. 
But In Church-hifiory I have had a fadder fight, 
even the carkafles of thoufands , ftreams 
of blood, and tumults in the chief Cities and 
Churches of the world, the Crowns of Empe- 
rours & Kings,the lofs oftheEaftern Empire,^ 
the generation of the Papacie, the reproach 
of Chriftianity, and that by Clergie-Domina" 
tion^ and Contention^ driving who fliould bt 
Greatefi andjeem wifeff. Some hy.Ifwe take 
in a few moderate men likeymt^ what the better 
arewe> Anf. More than you dream of, are far 
better than I: I hope few areworfe; Bilhop 
Morley bid Ab uno difce omnes : Shall Londom 
have no clocks unlefs they will all ftrike at 
once ? Ihall none be tolerated but the perfe^^ 
Are you fuch your fel ves ? Do you differ in no- 
thing? how then ihall we have Communion 
with you when we differ in all the things here 
defcribed ? Pardon me for faying, I think that 
Mr. Tombs hath faid more like truth for Ana- 
baptiftry, the late Hungarian for Polygamy, 
many for drunkennefs, ftealing and lying, in 
cafes of neceffity,than ever I yet read for the 
lawfulnefs of all that I have here defcribed. 
And what is it that fome men cannot copr 
oufly and confidently talk for? And what 
wretched Reafons be they that have hindred 
Englands unity and peace? And how fully hath 
Rom. 14. and 15. and our Common intereft 
axid notorious experience confuted them ! I 


The Epme, 
have long wondered what powerful caufeit 
is, that With luch men andio many, could fo 
long prevail againft fucli ev idence and light. 
Ifji OH will not hear^thofe will whom God will ufe 
to the healing of his Churches : and hlejfed are 
the Veacemakers tor ( though you call them 
otherv/ile j they jhallhe called the Children of 
God, \ have prefixed the words of lome as 
our admonition ; and I have written with this 
a fu^'er IVeatife of xhQodytrue terms of the 
Con cord of ^//Chriftian Churches, and of the 
falie terms which they never u ill unite in, but 
are the caules of Schifm. I commit all with 
my feif living and dying, to him that is the 
Lord of the dead and living, and will fliortly 
judge us all in righteoufnefs. Come Lord Je- 
fus ; and prepare us for thy Coming. Amen, 




l,<^-p» HE I{eafensof this writing and thefcnfe of the 
y word CHV I{CH. 

2,. The various ofintcns offuch astve have to do with. 

2. What Churches we hold to he wjiituted o/Gcd and tv hat 

not, ' 

4. TVhat Princes and Vapors may do tnfuch matters. 
c, what Jej)aration and what ajjern^iwg or gathering 

Churches is unlawful and what lawful. 

6. Matters of fait to be known preparatory to our cafe. 

7. Matters required of us for Corfrnnty^^fiyft cf Lay-men. 
^. Secondly, Matters impofedon Mwtfiers: Andl. OfAJJent, 

Confentj Approbation, and Cancmcil fubjcription, that^ 
nothing IS contrary to the Word of G^d» 

II. 9. Thefecohd Ptirt^ of the Matter of Conformity ; ^eof 
. dinatton* 

III . 1 0. The third Part of the Matter of Coiiforiyiity ; of 
Jwearing or Covenanting never to endeavour any alteration 

of Church Governmhit, 
VI. 1 1 . The fourth part of the Matter ; to declare that nei^ 
ther i nui any other ferfon is obliged by the vow to endeO' 
vour a?iy fuch atteratinn of Church Government. 

V. II- The fifth Part of the Matter y The Declaratinn /tnd 
Oath { as not undsrjtooci) ofnotrejijimg any ComaJiJfoned. 

VI. ^ 5 . Thefixth Part of the Matter : Toceafe preaching and 
adminiftring Sacranie7:ts till we conjn, rn ( at leafl not to 
preach^to more than cfumily and foinrfer/on:,) 

VII. '4. Thefeventh PartCmi/equentiai^Not to come itithin 
five miles of avy City or Corporation which fendeth Bur" 
gejps to ParHament^or of anyplace where we have preached 
to more than aforej aid fine e the AH of oblivion. 

Ij. The Adj'm8s'y avd the other Matters agreed on tvhitb 

affright the Nonc'opformijis 
16. The cafe and practice of the Minrjiers fince they ttere 

filenced* A4ditions 

Additions occafioned by Mr. L. Frefli Suit^ and 
fomc others^ about National Ghurches^^ 

THE^eftion ftated^ 3, 6^0, Whether we are: 
obliged by or to the fervifh National Polity ? 

§ 5^, &c, or by firipture to a National limitation of 

Whether aNationalChnrch-form be lawful,^ ^o,&c? 
Whether it be a prudential de fir able form §38, C^c ?' 
The refolution of this by a (hort hifiory of Frdacic 

and Councils, § 39, &c'. 

Ob;. From the neceftty ofAfpeals^ § ^o^&c, 
Ob;. Shall all gather Churches, that will, ibj 

Obj. The ^poflles havefucceJfoHrs, ib", 

Q. Whether the King or who is the National 

Church Head § 41. 42, &c .? 

ui Chrifiian Kingdom what § 43 ? 

Q^ Muft real holynefs in the judgment of rational 

Charity be required in all Church members, § 1 ? 
Q^What Covenanting is neceffary to particular 

Church relation^ § 5, ^G. The fpirit mak^th Mini-: 
firs, hov9 f 

IfThsEpifile of an African Council {in Cyi^x'izvi Ej}.6S: 
J>. 200. j to Felix a Presbyter and the Laity at Lcgio and 
Afturica ; and to JLaslius tfje Deacon and the Laity at Eme- 
rit^^ cc ucer7ung their B.fkops Balilides and MzTthl,worthj 
fo be read as ta our prtfsnt controverjies. 

IT. The Letter of R jb. Grofthead, the good Bifiioj> o/Lin- 
coln to Pope iMnoccnt co7UJ,imng the re^on of his Noncon- 
formity, and fh^wmg that hindrmg preaching is the greatefi 
Jin next Dive It (m and Antichriftianifin : Out of Mzz» Pari* 
^«. izy^./j.S/i.S^i . , ., ' , . -« . . 

Hi . /In exnacifrom Bifiop Saunderfon dc jur'atnentOv 


?WN ''»\ 'ftS '^-. -/»>\ /•N '<«>^ '*K\ /*X /«N /•>% /iloN '«rX '•N /*>\ /W^V -«f>x ->J,\ /«.\ ',,,\ 'z,'^ 
«^ «|i» «^ «^ «^Vr «^N> <^ «^ A^^S?' H- ^♦'^ *^ ^7^ 

<S E C T. I. 

T)^^ Keafons of this ifriting , 
«;z// the fenfe of the word 
[Ch ur chJ 

IT was the faying cf acute and holy ^/z- 
gfdftine ( though we call him not with 
FromondtiS Omnifcmry/) [_ that no n^.ii 
ought to he p.itient nnd^r an accy^fation of 
HerefteJ} He meafieth by Patience^ ;k fiUm ntg- 
leU: of his own Juft l^indication : Not that wc mult 
be hke Hcdtoring D/ifZ/tT^, that wotild kill or 
hart others in revenge, or in a finfui way of 
Vindication: But by filencc, thofe that llandef 
men may be encouraged in their tin to their 
own deftrudion, and thofe thar value the flah- 
dered perlbns may be tempted to think too 
well of Herefie for their fakes : And the honour 
of God, and his Truth, and our u\\t\ good 
names, fo far as they are ferviceable, are none 
of them to be difregarded. We have with 
grieved fouls beheld the Land of our Nativity 
• B diiruded 

diftravHied by Divifions ; and much, if not moit 
abct^.t Religion, (we wifh it were not againli 
Rtligion^ by fome that indeed have no true Re- 
ligion :) Teachers againft Teachers, in Difcour- 
its. Sermons, Books, rendring each other defpi- 
cable, and unlovely, and fome calling out aloud 
to Rulers to draw the Sword againil: their Bre- 
thren 5 fo learnedly and induftrioufly pleading 
the Caufe againft each other with the Laity, 
hi^h and low, as if the deftroying of their Love, 
and kindling Wrath and Hatred, were the Evan- 
gelical necellary workj and without this zeal, 
and skill, and diligence hard to be accomplifhed. 
No wonder then if we have people againft 
people, families divided, and all confounded ; 
and this grievous Sch-fn^ carryed on, by crying 
out againft each other as Schifniiticks, and im- 
placably Ciihfing \i while we loudly inveigh a- 
gamft it. The cafe is lamentable, that diftra- 
dion fhould be thus exj)re{rcd and promoted; 
and when God harh warned us by the mifchiefs 
of an odious Civil War, and hath tryed us again 
with peace with all Nations about us, when 
moft ot them arc involved in grievous Wars, 
that vet tve will not give peace to one another, 
but live as if Peace were the Plague which wc 
moft defire to efcape. 

Yet as it is the good providence of God, that 
the Names of Wifdamj Gouhiefs, Truth f fnflicey 
Aicrc.)',Ho}ufi:)'d.r\^l^ertus, are all ftill honour- 
able even among thofe that hate and oppofe 
them ; and tlie n.im':s of Fullj, Vngodiinefs, Ljf- 
jng^ Vnjy'tice, Vmiercifrlricfs, . Djfiomftj md 
Vtcc^ are all difhonourable where the things 
themselves are followed and prevail- j io Love, 


Peace ZTid Concord, arc namfes that are by moft 
commended 5 when if moft were for the t^mgs 
indeed, we were in a hopeful way of recovery : 
Andi Malice jSc hi fm and Difcordy^xt crytd down 
by thofe, whom no intreary will prevail with to 
forbear them^ or to accept any remedy againft 

Yet we are tbus far prepared for peace, that 
if we be not falfe Hypocrite^, if we did hit 
know which is the true way o\ Love^ P. ace and 
Concord we would follow it : And if we ks^ew 
what is Schifm indeed, we would avoid it. And 
its pity that men that think themfelves wife 
(liould yet not k^yjow the way of Love and Peace: 
Efpecially that the Learned Preachers of rbc 
Gofpel of Love and Peace, fhould ftill be the 
incendiaries, and ftir up the Laity that would 
be more peaceable, againlt each other. And 
that after fo many Volumes of Hiftory have 
thefe thirteen hundred years at leaft, afperft 
the Clergy with the reproach of being the 
contentious troublers of the world. And yet 
muft we defpair of a cure of fb odious a difeafe ? 

The thing that Bookjj Sermons, and Difcowjes, 
cry out againft thofe called Non Conformijis for, 
is Humorous, Ohftinate Schifm, and Vifobedience, 
in Preaching, when forbidden^ and k^efing up A[^ 
femhlies not alhxved, and gathering Churches out of 
ChurcheSySc feparating f) om the Parijh- Communi- 
on, and Church of Engl. md. If we can find out the 
Schifmatick, we hope he will be condemned by 
us all. But that the Caufe may be heard, at leaft 
in fome parr, before it is judged, we that pub- 
lifh this, here give an account of our own judg- 
ment^ and thole that we are beft acquainted with, 

B 2 how 


how far we hold it lawful or unlawful to ga- 
jher Churches, or to feparat." from Churches , or 
to dijFer frcm i". hat is eitablifhed by Authority : 
But the Application to our particular Cafe, and 
cur Arguments thereabout, wc muft not here 
prefume to publifh. 

They that accufe others as Schifmatick5, and 
Separarifts, for deferting Churches, or gathering 
Churches out of Churches, and will not teU us 
what they mean by the word Church, nor give 
us leave to tell them what w^e mean, but judge 
in confufion, and defpife explication^ and necef- 
fary diitindion, are men that we can neither be 
edified by, nor edifie, in this way. 


The Various Ofin'ions offuch us we have 
to Jo with, 

Se^, i.X> Ecaufe men will judge of fuch Cau- 
J3 res according to their feveral Prin- 
ciples, and Prefuppofitions, we muft take notice 
of fome of the divers Principles o'thofe whoftr 
cenfure we muft expe(fl : (1 hough not of incon- 
fiderable Sedts.) 

Se^, II. And I. Some fay that no humane 
Form of Church-Government, and of Churches, 
as governed, is o^GotPt Inftttulion (Oi as they 
fay, Jure Dtviyio,) bat that it is left to humane 

Sith, III. 2. Some hold only an Vniverfd 
Qhurch (governed by a Pope, fay fome of them , 



or hy ^General Council while fitting, and a Tcpf 
in the Intervals, fay others, or by a Pope ana 
Cottncil agreeing while it fits, and a Pope in the 
Intervals, (ay others ) to be Jure Divino, and 
all particular Church-Forms as fubordinate, left 
to the prudence of this Univerfal Governour as 
Supreme ; as Inferiour Officers in Kingdoms are 
made by the King. 

SeEl. IV. 3. Some hold that this Vniverfjtl 
Church- Form, and alfb Diocefan, and no other, 
are inftitured of God. 

Sed-. V. • 4. Some hold that the Univerfal, 
Patriarchal. Metropolitical (or Provincial) Dio- 
cefan, and Parochial, are jure divino,or inftituted 
by Chrift and his Apo(]les. 

Ss^, VI. ^. Some hold th^t only Diocefan 
Churches, and Metropolitical or Provincial, are 
jffre divino, and not the univerfal : And of thefe 
fome take Diocefan Churches, for thofe only 
that contain many fixed Ademblits, and fome for 
fuch as have one Bifhop, whether over one 
Congregation, or over nmlritudes. Saith the 
very learned Dr. Hamond, ii i Tim. 3. iT^s 
Church of the livinrr God, w<)fs every fnch regular 
Ajfemhly of Chriflians under a Bijloop (^ fuch as 
Timothy was) an Oeconomus fit over them by 
Chrift : Stich again eve-^y larger circuit undtr the 
Metropolitane, who as Timothy had y^^^efl^'M''' ^ 
m7ivy Ordination and JunfdiBion ovsr the whoh 
Province, ylnd fitch all the particular Churches 
of the whole world, confidered together under the 
Sfipreme Head Chnfl fefus, difpenfin<r^ them all by 
htmfelf, and admim firing them fever ally, not by 
any one Oeconomus, but by the fivzral Eifioops 4S 
inferiour Heads vfVnity to the fever al Bodies, f^ 
B 3 con-. 

" in 

ecfiflltpited by the fever al j4poftUi in their flanta- 

.ti(^>iSj each of them hnviog an AuVoj/ou/ct, a. fsvcrai 

.^tfiifi^l Commiffion from Chrt ft immediately arid 

fhtordinate to aone-yibnt the fupr erne Donor or Fie-- 

wpotentiary. He here fuppofttlx ( as he clfc- 

where fheweth) rhat de jmAq, BpfcopalChtirchcs 

were tn Scr/jiri^ye-t*mes httt f^igkiCongregations'l 

but that afrer it was orherwife^.And whether 

then the New, Fo'/?» of Congregations vine jure 

divinoj when they bcCiimc ht P/irts of a Bifhspi 

Churchy we leave to the Readers QOX\)t^\irt 5 as 

alfo of the New Form of a Dioccfan Church. 

\ Setl, VII. .6. Some hold that National 

Churches^ l\\^X.\s^Qhri,ftiaH K irigd^ms, 2S gov m\- 

ed by the SoveraignySea/lar Power*, are inftitiited 

by God, and thapall Church Forms el(e within 

that Kingdom, are y;;/r^ humano^ diX the pleafore 

of the King, ih bf' it that worihiping-Allemblies, 

be kept up, and Bifhopsand Priefte placed as iti 

fi.aU pleafe the King. vi-fu -. - J^'^'- 

' Sdl. MIL 7. ,Some think -tjiat Diocefansi 

(or Bifhof.s whether over one Congregationr or 

many) are inftitiited by God (and (bme fay -alfiy 

yirchhijhops ',) d>\\^ aXuz thele have power ^/ 

conjent or comraci among tbemfelyes, to make 

Patriarchal and National Churches : And ib than 

thefe National and P^rn^rcW Churches ar© 

jh^e duvmo mediarq^ b\iT jare hhrnano immedtato^ 

and are rather niade by the confent. of Bi/hopj^. 

than by Kings : And ih under Heathen Kings the 

Churches may be National. 

St^l. IX. 8. Some think that Parochial 
C^7/»r(;/7c/(conrifting of Chriftiars diftinguifbed by 
the Circuit of gromd) and combinations of thefe 
ioco Sjnods ]e(s^ and greater, Ciaffcal^ Natio* 


■ L 7 J 
Hal, ^xt jur^i divino, and no other lawful. 

5^t?^X. z-^. Some think that only Parcchial 
Churches ^dtnanlj^zu^ Jingle Congregations of any 
Neighhom Chriftians^ when Panjlj Ox Atx cannot 
be obferved, 2iXt jure divino, 

Se^^XL JO. And fome think that only fuch 
Jtngle Congregations of^ChxiUhns, with their C^o- 
fen Paftors, without any necefiary rcfped to Fa- 
rijlo hounds, are properly called Churches of Di- 
vine inftitution, though thefe Churches may and 
(hduld hold fuchalTociations, as correfpondencc 
and mutual help require. 
, Sect, XII. There being fo many forts of 
Churches in the world, (as Univerfal, National, 
Patriarchal, Provincial, or Metropolitical, Dio- 
crfan, Claffical, Parochial, Congregational) it is 
■Jhard to give a juft declHon of the queftion, 
Trom which ofthcfe^ and when it is a fin tofepa- 
rate j till it be firft known which of thefe is £>/- 
viney and which of Humane Inftitution, and 
which Humane Churches are necejfary^ which lave- 
ful, and which//?////. And it muft be known of 
which the queftion'is. And while there 'is fo fig- 
nal a diverfuy of Jud(;inent, about the feveral 
Forms, the nature of Schifm will be hardlier 


What Churches we hold to he inflttutcd ly 
God^ and what not, 

S<?J?.I./^^UR own Judgment we fhall plainly 

V^ exprefs in this following Order : 

B 4 1. We 


I. We (ball fliew what Church wc judge to be 
of God's Infticution, and what not. 2. What a- 
bouc Churches the Magiltrares or Faftors mav 
jnltirure by God's Authority orallowance: And 
what they may not inftiturc.3Jn what caCes it is 
lawful to gather Churches wiicre Churches are : 
In whit cafes it is lawful to feparate from 
C'lurches ; and in what cafes neither of thefe 
Idft is lawful. 

Setf. II. I. All Chriftians are agreed, that 
Chrift is the Author of the Z)ntve->Jd Church, 
(confidered both as Bapttz.ed, or Externally cff- 
veyuimlni and pyf^U'Jfm^, called. Fifhle, and as 
Regency a e y^n<\ fi::i\rdy C oven ant Ing^czWtd Myfti- 
caC) as it is Headed by Chnfi himle'f, and called 
his Cody, and his fpecial Kingdom. 

Seel, iLf. z. We doubt not but Chrift hath in- 
ftituted *=he O^^ce of the facred Mmijlty^ to be 
under him as [he "tcachtr^ RuUr, and High Priefl 
of l\\Q Church, in Teaching fi nidtngy and Worfh/p- 
ing: And that he harh inititutcd holj yijfemblies 
and Societies for rhefe things to be exerciled in : 
And that' [a S^ietjo'i Neighbom Chriftians affo- 
ciatsd \vi:h juch a P aft or or Paftors, for perfonal 
Corr^munion hsran, even in (ijch DoEiriney Dift;i- 
pitnc and lVorf:tj?2 is a Church -Form of Divine 

S.tJ, IV. if they be not IChriftia^is^ by Bap- 
rifm, or vifibie FrL>ieffi6n, they be not vijihle 
Afaterials for a Ciiurrb. 

if they be not {^Neighbours'] that is, within 
rrach of each orher^ iv) as to be capable of fiich 
v>ommunion, tiiey are not ?natter that hath the 
.^.cceffirv extriniecdi dif[)ofK!on. 

If they be nor {^^/£>6.'^r?i] explicirely or im- 




plicitely, by fome fignification of Co«/2'«f, they 
may be an accidental Affcmbly^^but nor a proper 

Corifaan Church, 

If they be not affociated \_for this holy Com^ 
ntunton] they may be a CivU Society^ buc not a 

If they be not affociated [/or* Terfonal Com- 
mmion'] at fome due feafbns, but only for Com- 
munion at dtjiance by Delegates, Mcjjcv.gers or 
Letter Sy they are not a Particular Church of this 
fpcciesDow defined, though they may be mem- 
bers of larger aflbciacions. National, Diocc- 
fan, Src. 

If they are not affociate with one or more Pa- 
fiors^ they may be a Community of Chriftians, 
but not a Political C^/rc/j,which we now define. 

U they are not joyned with a Paftor that hath 
all the fore/aid Powers, o^Teaching^ Ruling by the 
Word and Kejs^ and ^o/K£ hefore them in IVarJl.ip; 
and if they confcnr not to his rcLuion as fuch, 
they may make a School, or an Oratory, but not 
a proper particular Church fir>^pliciter, \b called 
[but only a Cburcli fccundum quid, or as to fome 
part j] for an EJfenttal part is wanting. But it is 
not the defeat of Exercije that unchurcheth 
them, while there is the Power, and that con- 
fented to (for Men cannot be Pa/tors or Churches 
againfl their wills,) 

SeH-.V, 3, As all Chriftians grant that the 
^polUes had a genera^ CommiflTlon to call Ir.fidels 
to Chrilt, and to plint Churches with their 
particular Pallors as aforefiid, and to take care 
t\\dtx\\^\T Pajlor and they do the duties, ( \\i)Z 
compelling them by their Sword, but by the 
Word,) fo we are far from denying ihat yet 



fame Minifters of Chrift may, and (hould feck 

the converfton of Infidels, and plant Churches of 
the converted, ordaining Paflors over them by 
their confent, and taking due care by their grave 
advife that fuch Churches walk in the obedience 
ofChrift, as far as they can procure it; And 
fuch Seniors which h^vc fo planted the fe Churches 
And Tabors by Gods blelTing on their labours, 
ftould be much reverenced by the Churches 
n\\\z\\\.\\^'^ have planted, 7ix\A their juft advife, 
exhortations and admonitions fhould be beard 
by ihQ People and the Paflors whom they ordained^ 
and all their /uniors : And though the Apoftles 
have no fuccellours in their extraordinaries, yet 
that (bme fhould in this ordinary work^ fucceed 
them, we deny not, becaufe i. We find that it is 
^ work ftill neceflary to be done : 2. And others 
as well as Apoftles did it in thole times ; as Silas, 
Luk^, ylpolloy "fimothy, litus,^c. and fince, all 
fuch as have planted the Gofpel among Infidels. 
i? Becaufe Chrift promifed to be with them that 
did this work to the end of the world, /^/^f. 28. 21. 
But whether fijch men be of a ditferent office or 
order from the JHnior Paftors ; whether any true 
Preshjtcr that hath ability , opportunity and 
invitation, may not do the fame work with 
Infidels ; and by his fuccefs, and feniority may 
not fo ordain Paftors over the Churches which he 
gathered j and have an anfwerable right to 
reverence and regard from thofe that he fo 
planteth, and ordaineth ; are controverfies which 
we prefu me not now to decide. 

And we cannot prove that this maketh a di- 
ftin(!l/c?r/;?ofaChurch, no not in the apoftles 
time and cafe : For we cannot prove that 



^> ] 


they diftribured the Countrys into Provinces 
or Dtocefes peculiar to each z\pofl:le ; and had 
any Churches which they fuppofed to be 
peculiarly under this or that Apoltles Govern- 
itientfbas that any of the reft might not with 
Apoftolical povver have come, refided, preacht 
and governed in the fame : No Scripture tells us 
of fuch limits 3r Pravinces.Nay the Scripture tells 
USj that many of them were as Apoftles at once 
in the fame f)laces : As at feyf^fatem ofr. Paul 2nd 
John had Apoltolica! power at Ephefus : Peter 
^d Pa^'l (as is com'nK)nly held) at Rome : And its 
plX3bable that as Ghrift fent forth his difciples by: 
two and two, fo the Apoftles went in company, 
^ Paul and BarndhasA\d : fo that fuch appropriate 
fettlemem of Prirvincial or Dioccfan Churches^ 
we cannot fee proved; though fuch a Generall 
Miniftry is eafily proved ; and we doubt not but 
by confent they might have diftributed their 
Provinces, had they (een caufe, and that adually 
theydid fo diftribute their labours as their work 
and ends required : But if they had become 
proper Provir>cial Biftiops over feveral Diftricfhs 
or Provinces, it feemeth ftrange to us that no 
hitloify telleth us which w^r^ the twelve ox thirteen 
Provinces y and h6w' limited j and ' that they 
continued not /o^^i?r y and thatlnftead of three 
Patriarchs firft,' and four after, and five next, 
we had not t\\)elve or thirteen u^poftles or 
Patriarchs feated over all the world, with their 
known divifions ; And that men feek not now to 
reduce the Churches to this Primitive State, 
rather than to the faid Imperial Cofiftitmlori', and 
rather to fubjed us all to xht ^pofioiic^A Seats, 
than to five Patriarchs m the dominions of ano- 


ihcr Prlncci and now moftly fub/ed: to an Infidel. 
Yea it is ftrange to us that the firft Seat {Rome) 
fhould derive its pretended power from two 
Apoftles C as if our CUurch might have two 
Bi(hops)and the fecond {Alexandria) from 
Saint A/^^^, who was K* ^^pofile, and the third 
( Antiocfo ) from the [arat Apoftle that Rome 
did, ( as if one Btf>.^p might have two fetch 
Diocfie?, ; 2nd the fourth ( ^erfifiiem ) from 
St, r^mes, commonly fa id to be no j4poflle ; and 
die laft ( which became the fecond or the firft ) 
troi"n }io Apoflh^ nor make any fuch pretence ; if 
thrrten Apoltoiick Provinces were then known. 
Bet we eafilv acknowledge, that as Apoftles 
:iavi'ig planted many Churches ftaid a while 
in each, when vhey had fetled it, and fomc time 
viilted it again J f) they are by ibme hiftorians 
•:jl'edthe firfi ^//^^/?i of thofe Churches, being 
^ndced the trar.ftcnt Governotirs of them : In which' 
*enle cue Church might at once have t\xo or ma.ny 
B'.fi:ops, and one BtflTop many Churches, and he be 
E'fhop of one Church this week, who was Bifhop. 
ofanotber where he came the next. 

S('if. ^ I. Chriftian ComTnunitj^ ( prepared to 
be a Polity) and a Chriltian/^«?;7/, and a Chriftian 
Kingdom, we doubt not may all prove their 
Divine Right ; And if any will call thcih Churches, 
let us agree of the d/fnition, d.T\d we will not 
fir ive ahut th^n^me. 

Sefl.VlL We know not of any proof that ever 
was produced,! liar meiny Churches oi the fir Jf Rank, 
wuji (of duty) make one fixed greater compound : 
C/^^^r^/^byAnbc?ation,whether Clairica1,Diocefan, . 
Provincial, Patriarchal, or National : and that 
Cod hath inftitutcd any fuch Form : And we find; 


the greateft defenders of Prelacy, affirming that 
Clafles, Provincial, Patriarchal, and National 
Churches,are but humane inftitutions; of which 
more anon. 

SeB, VIII. We find no proof that ever God 
determined the Churches (hould neceflarily be 
individuated by Parifh-bounds or limits of 
ground 5 and that men in the fame limits might 
not have divers Bifhops, and be of divers j)ai'- 
ticular Churche?. 

SeU:. IX. We never faw any fatisfadory proof 
that ever Chrift or his Apoftles did inltitute anj 
particular Church (taken in a Political fenfe as 
crgani7Ledy2J\^ not meerly for a Commmit^)yvkh- 
out a Bifhop or Paftor, who had the power of 
Teaching them. Ruling them by the Word and 
Power of the Church- Keys, and leading them in 
publick Worfhip. 

Sen, X. Nor did we ever fee it proved, that 
any one Chnrch of this firfi Rarji(wh\ch was not 
an ^Jfociation ofChurches)con{\iicd in Scripture- 
times of many fmuch iefs many fcore or hun- 
dredjfuch fixed Churches or Congregations: Or 
that anyone Bifhop of the firft Rank (that wjs 
not an Apoftle, or a Bifhop of Bifhops)of whom 
we now fpeak nor, bad more than one of fuch 
fixed Societies or Churches under hirn : Or 
might have more ftated members of hisChurch, 
than were capable of Perfonal Communion^ and 
mutual atfiftance at due feafons, in holy Do- 
lirineyDtjcipltne and IVor/htp : Though we doubt 
not but as now, there are many Chapels in 
fome Panfhes, where the aged, weak, chiWren, 
and all in foul weather^- or by other hinderances 
may hear, and pray, and occafionally commu- 

nicate, whofc proximity and relation to the Pa- 
rifh-Churches do make thein capable of Ferfo- 
nal Communion in due feafons with the whole 
Parifh (at leaft per vices) in thole Churches, and 
in their converfiition : And as a fingle Congre- 
gation, may prudently in perfecution, or fou! 
weather, meet oft-times in feveral houles 5 fa 
the great Church of ferufdem (though it cannot 
be proved a quarter fo big as fome of our Pa- 
rifhes} might in thofe times when they had no 
Temples, hold their publick Meetings oft at the 
fame time in divers houfes ; and yet be capable 
oi Perfonal Commmiiony as it is before defcribed. 
S^^. II. It is not inconfiderable to our 
confirmation, that fo worthy a man as Dr. 
Jlamond doth over and over, in his DtJ/ert at ions 
againft Blondell, and in his Learned Annotations 
on the new Teftamcnt, alfert all the matter of 
fad: which we are pleading for^ v^tl. That the 
word [ Presbyter ] and [ Paftor "] in the New 
Teftament is ever taken for a Bifhop : That it 
belonged to the Bifliops office to be the Preacher 
to his Church, to vifit ali the Sick, to take care 
of all the Poor, and to take Charge of the 
Churches ftock, to adminifter the Sacrament, 
6^c. And (as he faith on ^tls 11. 6. ) 
" That although 'this Title of'Trfia-SurieSh Elders, 
^^ have been alfo extended to aficond order in the 
'" Church, and is now only in u/e for them, under 
'■ the name of Presbyters, yet in the Scripture- 
'^ time tt belonged principally, if not alone, to 
*' BiJ}:ops, there being NO EVIDENCE 
" that any of that fecond Order were th^ti 
'^ infittuted, though foon after before the writing >o{ 
^' Ignatius's Epiitles, there were fuch infiitmed in 
" all Churches, ] Sef^, 


SeB,Xll. By this it followeth, that i. the 
office of a fubjed Presbyter that wa.« no Biihop 
was not in being ( that can be proved ) in 
Scripture-times. 2. Thar nc Biffcop had more 
than one worfhiping aireinbly at once : For 
all Chriftians affembled for worfhip on the 
Lords dayes, and their worfhip ftill included 
fomewhat which none but a Minifter of Ghrift 
might do, and when there was no other Minifter 
in being but Bifhops, and a Bifhop can be but 
in one place at once, a Bifhop coujd have but 
one ailembly. Though for our parts we think 
that we have juft reafbn to believe^ that 
Churches then had more Minifters than oiie^ 
when we read how Paul wss put to reftrain and 
regulate their publick officiating at Conmh^ 
I Cor. 14. 

^etl. XIII. And it further confirmeth us, that 
the faid Do(!^or tells us, that for ought he 
knoweih, the moft of the Church then were of 
his mind : And Francifcta a fantta clara ds Eptf- 
cop, tells us, that this opinion came from Sco- 
t.^.^ : And Vetavim^ that Learned Jefuir, was tiie 
man that brought it in, in our times, viz.. That 
the ^poftles placed only Bifmps with Deacons m 
the Churchesy and that it is only thefs Bifhops that 
are called Fresbjters in Ssnpture, So that the 
Matter of fad, for the whole Scripture-times, 
is granted us by all thefe learned men, 

Se^, XIV. It being the Divine Infii-tiaion of 
the Office of this fccond Order of Presbyters, 
which we are unfatisfied abourj and thefe Pveve- 
rend men confeffing that de fatto ihey were not 
in being (as can be proved by any evidence) in 
Scripturetijves^ Tindi thofe times extending to 



about the hundrcfl'h or ninety ninth year after 
Chrifts Nativity (vvhen St. foha wrote the Re- 
veUtioh ) we mult confefs that we know not 
how that Order or Office can be proved then 
to be of God's inftirution. i. As to the Effi- 
cient J vphojhotild ao'it as rhe certain authorized 
Inftruments of God. 2. Or how it Jhall he cer- 
tainly proved to m to be of God, when Scripture 
t^lleth it not to us ; and what Records of it are 
infallible ; And whether fuch pretended proofs 
of Tradition as a ft^ppLment to Scripture, be not 
that which the Papacv is built on^ and will not 
ferve their turn as well as this. 

Sa?. XV. And whereas it is faid that- the Bi- 
fhops made in Scripture-times had authority 
given them to make afterward that fecond Of- 
fice or Order of Presbyters : I. We cannot but 
marvel then that in fuch great Churches^as that 
at ferufalem, Ephefi^, Ccrmth, &c, they (hould 
never ufe their Power in all the Scripture- 
times. And when they had lb many Elders at 
ferufakmy fo many Prophets and Teachers at 
j4ntioeh and Cortnth, that Paul was fain to re- 
ftrain their exercifes, and bid them prophefie 
but One by One 5 and one faid, I am of Paul ^ 
and another, I am of ^polh^ &C. there fhould 
yet in that age be none found meet for Bifhops 
to ordain to this fecond fort of Preshjters, diS well 
as men to make Deacons of 

2. But we never yet faw the proof produced, 
that indeed rhe Bifhops had power groen theril 
to [.nftitute this other Species of Elders. Sure it 
belonged to the Founders of the Churches 
(ChniX and his Apoltlesj to infritute the Species 
of Ecclefiaftical Officers, though ihc Biffiops 


might make the Individnals afterwards. AniJ 
Vvhere is the proof that the ^poflles did infti- 
tute it ? If Ecclefiaftical generation imitate na- 
tural,the Bifliops would beget but their like i 
men beget men 5 fo Phyficians make Phyficians, 
and fo Bifliops may beget Bifliops : But he that 
faith they could morally firft beget this othet 
Species, muft prove it. 

Se^ XVI. When Treshyters were firft diftincfi 

from Bifliops , we fee no proof that it was 

as a diftind Office or Order in fpecie, and not only 

as a dffttnB degree and priviledge of men in the 

fame Office : Nor hath the Church of Rome it 

felf thought meet to determine this asde fids 

but fuffereth its Dodors to hold the contrary. 

S^^T. XVII. It much confirmeth us in our 

judgment, that no mere Bifliop then had mere 

Chnrches than one (as afore defcribed) when w^ 

find that Ignatiw ( whofe authority Dr Ha" 

mond Dtffert. cont% Blondel:hd\cx\ii6 much of 

the caufe upon , and whom Bifliop Pterfon 

hath lately fo induftrloufly vindicated) doth 

txprefly make ONE ALTAR, and ONE 

BISHOP with the Presbyters and Deacons, to 

be the note of a Church Vnity and Individuation. 

And that by one Altar is meant oneTable of Com- 

munian, or place where that Table flrood, is paft 

doubt with the judicious and impartial.Whence 

learned Mr. fofcph Mede doth argue as certain 

that then a Bifliops Church was no other than 

pich as ufually communicated in one place. Yea, 

im\\ Ignatius, the Bifliop im^ take notice and 

account of each per fan, even Qf Man- ferv ants znd 

Maids (that they come to the Church). And 

this was the Bifliop of a. Seat^' that after was 

6 fatn- 



Patriarchal : Such Bifhops we do not oppolc. 

Sefi. XVIIl. Wc hnd proof thar ordinarily 
Churches were firft planted in C/ties (there be- 
ing not then in the V^ilUges Chriftians enough to 
niike Churches: ) B-it wc find no proof that 
when there are Chriitians enough to conftitute 
Churclie?, they may not be planted in Villages 
alfo : Nor yet that there may not be more 
Churches than one in the fame City .• For fo 
GrotiM fairh, There were even then when Chri- 
ftians were comparatively but few, and that 
thev were as the Jewifh Synagogues in this re- 
lpe(ft. And Dr. Hamond largely aflerteth that 
Teter had a Church of /^'^iv/, and Pa.^l another of 
Gentiles at Rome, and that fo it was in other 

Se8\ XIX. Much lefs is it by Divine Inftiru- 
tion, that Bifhops, and their Churches or Sears, 
be only in fuch as wc now call Cities, which by 
their priviledges are diftind from other great 
Towns and Corporations , whenas the word 
\l':>Kig then fignifted di great Town or Corpcration^ 
fuch as our Market-Towns and Corporations 
now are. 

S^^. XX. But it is the Law of God that all 
things about Churches and Church-affairs which 
be hath left to humane prudence, ifhould be 
done according to fuch general Rules as he 
hath prefcribed for their regulation. 



iV/jat^ Princes and Paflors may\io\ in 
Juch matters. 

I. np'^efc forefard Genera! Laws of Go<l , 

J do boifl ^iv: the KfiU'S their PoiVt;;' 

for deccrininlns; things committed to them, 4ncl 

alio Lmit their power thj^rcin. . i^.^r 

II. Theie General Laws are , that ^11 

things he don:i to Edification (the circuiTlitances 

Acted to the End, the Glory ofCfdidind the ?>/£»- 

licl^Gaodjthc promoting ofTr^t/j andGifdi'ri'fs'j) 

that all be done in L<?z/^, to the promoting of 

Lqv2 andV»ft^L;^S[tidi\\a.tid\ bedonc in Order 

and Decently, artd as may avoid offd/ics or p4«- 

^^/ to all, bothth6ie without, and thofe within. 

Gil. 6. 15,16. PhlLi.i^ 16. I Cor. 14. ;, ^, yz, 

26 17. Rom. i^ 19. &, 15. 2. f ,Ci"^. 10. 23. 

£;?/?^/ 4-. 1 2, 1 6 . 1 9. 2 Cor. i i. 19. & 6; ^ . & 

II. 7. I Or. 8. 15. cWt 3.rir ■ 

IIL Therefore no Rulers', CHrit: of Ecck- 
fiaftical, have their power co (candalize and 
dejiroy, but only to edfis, being, the Ministers of 
God for goody K«?;c«.i;§v $,.4;. f-.-.^^Qof'- lo. 8. .& 
15 10. en -hli50'> 5/f::>nHi,H'^'r!v7 ri-vviJ^. 

;.iV. The great Difoare is (hmdfed excels- 
lently againft thejVap'iIb for Kings by B:fhop 
Bilfon of ChriftUn Ohediencd, B?Jljop Andrew^ 
TortnU Turti, Etjhojx B^cksrid^e, Sp tLiteifis^.md, 
many more ) whether the Kings of Chnfitavi 
Kingdoms hjtve notthe f^tme power about Chwch- 
mutters^ as ths Kings of Iff act and ftidah htd 
G 2 (^David, 


(Davidy Solomon, Htz^ekjah, fojtah, 8cc,) which 
cannot be anfwered by an only Tea or iV^/jWith- 
out a more particular confideration of the com- 
pared Cafes. 

V. We fuppofe it certain that Chriftian 
Kings have no lejfer power than the Kings of If- 
racl, except i. What any fuch King had as a 
Frophet^ or in peculiar 3 by an extraordinary 
grant, 2. And what alteration is made by alte- 
ration of Church-offices, Laws, and WorJhip,\^\i\c\i 
may make a difference 5 of which hereafter. 

VI. And I. It muft be remembred that 
God then referved the Legijlatton to htmfelf, 
which he exercifed by Revelation^ and by fpecial 
Trophets : And fo the prophet Mofes delivered 
them that Law, which no King had power to 
abrogate, fufpend, or alter by adding or dlmi- 
nifhing, Deut. 12. 32. fof i. But they had a 
mandatory power, and of making ^omt /nhordi- 
nate By-laws, as Cities and Corporations have 
from and under the King. 

VII. 2. Y^di great diiidi fpecial Mandates 
were ofc fent from God by Prophets, againft 
which the Kings oTIfiael had no power. 

VIII. 3. The Executive or judicial 
Power was divided : part was in the Kings and 
Magiftrates 5 and part was in the Priefis and 
Levites, which the King could not ufurp him- 
felf (as appeareth in Vz^z^iahs offering Incenfe,) 
nor yet forbid the Priefts to ufe it, according to 
God's Law 5 nor change or abrogate their Of- 
fice. For he and they were fubjedb to God's 

IX, 4. God himfelf fettled the High 
Friefihood on the line of ^ar&n,d^nd; all the Priejt- 


hood on the Tri^e of Levi 5 and it was not in the 
power of the King to alter it. 

X. 5:. God ftated the High Priefthood 
on the Priefts during life^ Nnwh, 3 5. ly , 28. fof, 
zo. 6,8cc. which Law the Kings had no power 
to violate. 

XL 6. There are more particular Laws 
made by God for the duty of the Prielts^ de- 
fcribing their office and work, than for any o- 
ther particular cafe, as many hundred Texts 
will tell us : And noneofthefe Laws might be 
altered, or fufpended by the Kings of //r^/: 
Nor thofe by which God ftated feme of the Ju- 
dicial Power in the Congregation^ Nfim, 35;. 12, 
to 26. 

Xir» 7. Solomons putting out ^biatloar^ and 
putting in "Badoi^, is not contrary to any of 
this : For (fuppofing the words i King.2. sj*. 
to be not only a hlftory of the bare matter of 
Ci(^, but a juftiftcation of it de jure.) 1. It pofeth 
learned men to refblve how ^adok^znd ^hsatbar 
are oft faid to be both High Priefts before^ and 
Zadok. ftin put before Abiathar 2. It is cer- 
tain that Zadoi^hdid the right both of Inherit 
tance and efpecial Pramije^ XQumb, ZS- l^> ^^jlj- 
i Chren^ 6, ^^^,^C, And what Solomon d\A was 
that the word of the L&r4 might be fulfilled. How 
the poffcfllon came into tfc bands of the line 
oflthamar, Expofitors cannot find: It is like it 
was by occafion of the confbfions of their oft 
Captivity and Anarchy in the interfpace of the 
Judges. 5, Even the Priefts were the King's 
fubjeifls^and might be punifhed for their crimes,^ 
ib it were according to God's Laws. And if 
Abiathar forfeited his life, he forfeited his Of- 
fice. Qi XliL. 

Xni. 8. The Prieflliood then depended 
not on the inftitution or will of the Kng or 
Peojvle: He might not put out a lawful Prieft, 
tbit had not forfeited his Life or Office : He 
might not have put any one in his pldce that 
h.d n.ot right from God, or that was unquali- 
fied : He might not h<'ve forbid the Priefts the 
work appointed them by God : But yet if he 
hud injhriop.Jl\ depofed one uibtathar^ and put in 
a ZacLo]^, the lofs had been little to the Church : 
But if he had depofed fo great a number of the 
Prieits and Levires,as that a great part of God's 
commanded work mult needs thereby have 
bc'^'n left undone, and Religion fo far deftroyed, 
or had as "ferobuaTr, put of the bafefl: of the 
pr( pie (or nncapable perfbns ) into the Prieft- 
h^od, the h is had been greater, and the thing 
unwananrable, and fuch as he had not power 
from God to do. 

XLV. And the quality of Mofss Law and 
irs W:rl^s, as ditTercDt from tht Laws of Chriff, 
and the Works thereof, m'jff be confidered, that 
we may difcern the dittcrence of the Cafes. *A 
mm that did attempt to draw the people to 
J.dc>larrv-, was then to be put to death j yea, the 
C'\r\ to be deftroved that concealed him, Dcut, 
ci\ I U) vv ere they that b!afj)hemed, and fuch 
ascoinmirted other heinous crimes againlt Re- 
ligion ^ vea rhofe that would nor enter ^;;fc, or 
renew their Covenant with God, were by ^jJa's 
co.Tmand to be {)ur to death : Bur Chrift- will 
have mens Atheiim, Irreligioulntis, Idolatry and 
Lndeliry, cured by the Preaching of the Truth, 
whjch therefore r'equireih that the Preachers 
for number and qualitication be anfwerable to 

I heir 


their work : efpecially feeing they are things fo 
myfterious and fu} ernaturally revealed, which 
men are to believe: And the works of Mcfes'^s 
Law lay very much in ceremony and outward 
anions, which a man of mean qualifications 
might eafily do : Bnr the great work of the 
Gofpe! is to i^rpjg Life and Immortality to Ught^ 
and to Preach Chrift, by whom came Gtmc and 
Truth ^ and more norablv than the Law of Mops 
did, to call men to Mortification, Self-denial, 
Crofs- bearing, contem[)t of the World, by Faith 
and Hope and Love of a better World, and to 
bring rhem to a heavenly mind and life: And 
mens fajvation is 1 lid on this. If it were but to 
offer Sacrifices, and do over the task of out- 
ward Ceremonies, a Mafs-Priefts qualifications 
might ierve the turn : And if it were but to put 
men to death that will not be fnvs, and take 
their Covenant, and that draw any from their 
•Religion, neither fo ft^a^j nor fo excellent Mini- 
(lers were necclFa! v : But we are under a bet- 
ter Covenant, even a Law of Love which is 
more eminently become the firft and laft, the 
great and new Commandment, and the regent 
Principle in Souls and Churches 5 and the num- 
ber and quality of the Preachers of it muit be 

XV. As Mofes was God's minif^erial Law- 
giver to the Jfraelites ^ and was faithful in 
all his truft 5 fo Chrift is the g'-cat Fropha Lks 
unto him^ as typified by him, whom God hath 
raifed up to his Church, whom they that hear 
not, (hall be cut off by God, and from that 
Church as he hath appointed: The Legislation 
V n tv eyf Mis now ihc work^ of Chrifi by himfclf, 

C 4 and 


and by the Holy Ghoft, which he promifed an4 
gave for that ufe to his Apoftles , that they 
might infallibly underftandhis will, and remem- 
ber what he had commanded them to teach the 

XVI. JC/«^j or PafloYs may not now al- 
ter or fufpend any of thefe Laws of Chrifi, any 
more than the Jewifh Kings or Priefts might al- 
ter or fufpend the l^aws of Mofes, 

XVlI. Chrift hath inftituted 9 Miniftry to 
be for ever ftablifhed in the world, to Preach 
his Gofpel, to convert volunteers unto Faith 
and Holinefs, and to gather by Baptifm all Con- 
fenters into his Covenant and Church, and to 
teach them all that he hath commanded them» 
And this none have power to overthrow. 

XVIIL He hath ftated on the Paftors of 
fuch Churches, the Power afpre defcribed, of 
Teaching Aflemblies and particular pcrfbns, of 
leading them in publick Worftip, and Sacra- 
ments, and of judging by the power of the 
Keys, whom to receive into their communion 
by Baptifm, and profeiTion of Faith, and whom 
to admonifh, and for obftinate impenitence to 
rejed : And this Inftitutionnone may alten 

XIX. He hath inftitured ordinary Aflem- 
blies, and ftared particular Churches, as is 
aforefaid, for thefe holy exercifes, and forbad all 
Chriftians to forfake them j anci he and his A- 
polHes have appointed and feparated the Lord's 
day hereunto. None therefore may abrogate or 
fufi^cnd «^hefe Laws. All this is proved, Matth, 
3t8. 19,20. &- 16.19. ^ ^8. i8,-9. fob. 20. 27,, 
/v//^. 12. 37, i^.Mar,i\,x6. &-22. 4, 5.,&'c. & 
74. 45-46". Hch, 10.25,20, -r^^, IX. 26. iCor,i\, 


Ephef.^.^, to 17. I Thef. y. 12, 13. ^f^. Ill 
17, 24. 77f. 1.5*, 6, Src. I 7/w. 3. ^Et. 14 23. 
Ah. 20, 1 C<?r, 16. I Src. 

XX. Chrifts Laws empower and oblige 
the Bifliops or fenior Paftors to Ordain a- 
thersfor this Miniderial fervice of the Church, 
and fo to propagate their order to the end of 
tbe worlcl: Bv which Ordination, i. They are 
Judges of the perfons qualifications, whether he 
be fuch as Chrifts Laws admit into his Miniftry. 
2. And ihty folemnly invefl him in the office. But 
the Power with which they minifterially inveft 
him (delivering him pofTefTion asChrift appoint- 
ed^ refulteth dtre^ljr from theL^iv or Donation of 
Chrifti As the power of a Mayor from, the 
Charter of the King, and not from the Eleflors 
or Invefiers, None therefore have power given 
them by Chrift, to hinder fuch Ordination and^ 
Propagation of fuch a Miniftry ^ ui^. 14. 23. 

Xtt, 1. 5. 

XXL So exceeding great are the bene- 
fits and priviledges of being mcmhersofCfjrifi, 
and his Church univerfaL and particular, that no 
unwiliingpcrfon is immediately capable of it: 
Nor is it poffible ex natura rei, for any (adult j 
perfon that confenteth not to be a Chriftian, or a 
Member of any particular Church. He cannot 
be ^jufi: Communicant again fl his will ; nor pray 
and praife God with the Church ; nor take a 
man for hts Paftor, or ufe him as a Paftor,^^^/;'/f 
his mil \ And God hath laid mcmfalvatton or 
damnation on the cboice or refufal of their willf. 
Therefore no man can be the Bifiop or Paftor 
of a Church, either cU jure^ or trvily defa^to, a- 
gainft the Church or Peoples will, or wirhuut 

' ^___ .yjheir 


their confent. And as the Nature of the thing 
provetb this, fo dcth the facred Scripture, ^Eh, 
• 14. 25. &• 2. 37 3S. I foh. I. 7. Mat. 28. 19. 
And fo doth the jiids^ment and prad'ce of 
Chrift's Church, for many hundred yearsjwhich 
is fo fully proved by Blondell, d? jure plebis, and 
confelTed by the Papifts themfelves, and fo ex- 
prefs in all antiquity, that we need noc add the 
proof. Therefore no power may chinge this 
Law of Nature J and ofChrifl -, nor can they' by 
any Law, Mandate, Choice, Ordination, Inftitu- 
tion, Impofirion, or other a(fl, make any man a 
real Pajior to that People that co-'ifcnt not to the 
relation. Nor are they any true particuUr 
Churches, where Paflor and People do not con- 
fent. No more than the relation of Hu^har^d 
ardWife, AI after and Srvant, Tutor and Scho- 
lars, can be without coyifent^ 
• XXII. Chrift and his Spirit have com- 
wanded his Minifters to preach the Word, to be. 
in ft ant in feafon and out of fedfon j to reprove, re- 
buke and exhort, 2 Tim. 4. i, 2. And having p;4t 
their hand to Chrift' s Plough, not to look^ bcu\; 
and none hath power to alter thi<; Law ofChrift, 
or to fufpend ir. His Minifters by his Authority 
preached againft the will of Princes for above 
three hundred years 5 and fince then againft the 
Wilis of erroneous Princes who profefTed Chri- 
ft ianir v. 

XXIII. If Church- Hiiiory be not to be * 
believed, the pleas thence ufed for Prelacy muft 
ceafe : If it be to be believe.l,God hath wrought 
r)):raclcs to juftifie rhofe that would not ceafe 
Preaching, when Princes, yea Chriftian- Princes, 
have forbidden them : And the Church hath 


honoured tlieir fidelity herein : The cafe of ^- 

tljui.afi^y Bajil, Afelau- , and abundance more, 
evince the li^rer : And for the fcrmer we will 
now inftance but in the cafe of ^he Bifbofs of 
Africa, wbofe tongues were cut otr by the 
King's command 5 and they f^ake freely by mi- 
racle after they were cut out; as is tc^ified by 
tA:.n(iaf GaTLC" , and by Vtd:or Vticchji^y who 
faw and fpake with, and heard the perfors when 
this miracle was wrought upon them ; and by 

XXIV. It will be objedled that Corfian- 
tifi-.^, f^aicj^, Gei.fericpi^y Hhnneric^s, i!/C were 
Arrijiis, and the later conquering Ufurpers. 

u^njw. I. Even Heathen Emperours and Kings 
2re our Governours, though rhey wd^m due ^p- 
tnude to their duty fas alfo do many wicked 
Chriftiyn Princes :) And we owe them obedi- 
ence when their Laws or Mandi^tes are not a- 
gainft the Laws of God. We mufi: not fay a$- 
BellarminCy that Chrifitansjloofild not 1 derate [t^ch 
jP i^jccf, and that the anciem ChnfUans frffcred 
for want of Towertorcfifl. :. Let the Empe- 
rours called Arrians be made no worfe than they 
were : Some were for Concord and Toleration 
of both Parries, and fb are more fufpecfted than 
proved to be Arrians : And Arrians themfelve?, 
(fhough unexcufdbly erroneous^ were not like 
the Socinians, that utterly deny Chrift's Deity : 
Jhcy fu ff en (nd to all the Nicene Creed flive the 
the word [oy.c^(rioi'] They would lay that Chriit 
was [_Light cf Light ^ very God of very God, l/r(rrt- 
ten not madejCc.fXhty thought that as the bun- 
beams or I^:^-Jt are its immediate e mi-nL'ticn, 
but not its fLbliance('as commonly Philofophers. 



fay they arc nat, how true we fay not) fo Chrift 
was an immediate emanation from the Father, 
before and above Angels, by whom aU th.ing^s 
elfe were made. And how dangerouily ^»^^>;, 
and moft of the ancienteft Dodtors before the 
Nic-ne Council fpeak hereabout, and how cer- 
tainly Eufthim and other great Bjfhops were 
Arrians, and how lamentably the Council at A- 
Yiminum endeavoured an uniting R^econciliatioa, 
by laying by the word [o|i/o«cr/o?] And even old 
Ofius by their cruelty yielded to them ; as Li- 
berim fubfcribed to them, we need not fend any 
men to Fhibflorgitis nor Sandit^ for proof, it 
being fo largel'y proved by D. Petavim 
de Tfimate^^ who fully citeth their dangerous 

And if the heterodoxies of the Prittce fhall 
be made the reafon of the SubjeEls difobeying 
him, in a matter lawful in it felf ('as fbme that 
we (peak to now fuppofe) we fhall hardly know 
where to ftop, nor what bounds to fet the Sub- 
jefts when they are made Judges of the Princes 
Errours 5 and what examination or cogni(ance of 
it, they muft have. 

5;. Conjiantine that banifhed Athanafim (who 
feept in whiTe he could againft the Emperours 
will) is not proved an Arrian : Nor Falentiniatty 
ivho commanded u4mbro[e,(nox to ceafe Preach- 
ing hirafclf,, nor to for^ke his Church, nor to 
ftibfcribe to Arrianirm,but only) to tolerate the 
Arrians to meet in one fpare Church, which was 
m MilUn, as an adl of moderation : But Am- 
hr.ofi! refofurely djfobeyed the Emperour ( we 
jjitific not tiic mdnner) becaufb he thought that 
€j:od's Law made ir his ofBce as Bifliop, fo tQ 
d^. X. And 

■ [^9l 

A. And as to Genfericns atid Hnmier lenses 
Ufurpation, it was then ordinary with rhc Bi- 
fhops even of^Rome, to fubmit to men that had 
no better title j and alas, how few of many of 
the old Roman Emperours had any better (at 
kalV, at firft.) 

XXV. We doubt not at all but that 
Kings are the Governours of Bifliops, and 
Churches, by coercive power, as truly as of 
Phyficians, or other Profeffions : And though 
they have no Authority to abrogate or fufpend 
the Laws of Chrift, yet they have a Power of 
Legrflation, under Chrift, as Corporations for 
By-laws have under them : which power is on- 
ly about thofe things which God hath ]cfi to 
their determination 5 and not either above Chnft^ 
againfi Chrifl^ or in coordination with Chnfl^ but 
only in fuch ftibordination to him, and to his 

XXVL How far Rulers have power ( or 
not) to command things indifferent, and how far 
things (candalous and evil by accident, fomeof 
us have opened already diftindlly, and need not 
here repeat. 

XXVIL And we have there (hewed, that 
as they. may regulate Phyficians by General and 
Cautionary Laws, but not overthrow their CaLl- 
ing on that pretence, by prefcribing to the Phy- 
fician all the Medicines which he (hall ufe, to 
this or that Patient, at this or that time, &c. Co 
they may make fuch General and Cautionary 
Laws, circa facra, i. As (hall drive Bifhops and 
Payors on to do their certain duties : 2. And as 
fhail duely reltrain them from fin and doing 
hurt: 3. And they may puni(h them by the 


rvvord or force, for fiich crimes as dcferve that 

pi:nilhment. And a King of En^Lnd mav de- 
pofr, or jiuc to dcarh a traiterous Bfhop, Prieft 
or Deacon, as lawfully as So/owc/w depolcd Ahi- 

XXVIII. And as we have there faid, w^e 
ru[)pole that there zvq fume circHmftanc .s of the 
Miniftcrs work, which it belongeth to his 
</iv,v (yj^:^ to determine of, and area true pare 
ot his ^^i«///'<:'''/^/w^orks : But there are c'/i^frj, 
which it is meet fbould be miivsrfdiy determi- 
ned of, f >r the Concord of ^// tht Churches rn 4 
Xingdom. Thefe the Paftors and Churches by 
cor/fj;t may agree in without a Law, if Kings* 
leave it to them. And Kings(bv the advife offuch 
as bell underlbnd Church Cdftrs) may well by 
their ow7i Laws make fuch determinations. As 
for inftance in what Scr/p'ure TraKjlarionSj what 
Vcrfions and A^c-res of Pfalms, the Churches 
ihall agree. Much more may they determine 
of the PpthLck Mcuntcfuinze of Minifters, and the 
T'tmpUs and fuch other extrmfick accidents. 

XXIX. Piinces and Rulers may forbid 
Arheifts, Inhdels , Hcreticks and Malignant 
oppofers of necellarv truth and godly nefs, and 
all that preach rcbe'lion and fedition, that pro- 
pagate fuch wicked Dodrine, aud may punifh 
them if I hey do it. And may hinder the incorri- 
gible, and all that provedly or notorioufly arc 
fuch whofe Preaching will do more htnt to men 
than good, from exerciling the Miniftrv or 
Preaching in their jurifdidion or Dominions: 
For liich have not any power from Chrift fo 
to Preach, but ferve the Enemy of Chrilt and 


XXX, Princes and Rulers may for order 
fake diftribure their Chriitian Kingdoms into 
Fanpes, which fhall be the ordinary bounds 
of particular Churches : And fuch diltribution is 
very congri'ous to the Ends of the Miniltry and 
Churches, aud conduceth to orderly fettlemenc 
and peace : And experience hath fhewtd us that 
liich Parifh Churches where the Paftors arc 
faithfull and fit, may live as Chriltians fhonld 
do to their mutuall comfort in Piety, Love 
and Peace : And lurh Pa'njh-ordn we defirc. 

XXXI. But no Rulers may hence conclude, 
I. that 7^^r//?^fjr are dihributed hy Gud imme- 
diately^ or that he hath ccmmanded fuch a 
diltribution as a thing ui' ahjllute jucej/uyto a. 
Church; But the Cererdl KJcs of order, and 
Edification do ordinarily in Chriflian Kingcomes 
require ir. 2 Nor may any make a Fanjh, as 
fuch to be a Church ; and all to be Church 
members that are in the Parifh, as fuch : for 
Atheifts, Infidels,Hereticks,&' Impenitent Rebels 
may live in the Parifh; and many that conjent 
nor to be members of that or any Church: 
And not only in worfe lards but in Ireland d.fA 
in Er:gland^ (as parr of L^^hd-f ;re,^ the far 
greatclt part of the PariflMoreis are Papifts, 
(who renounce the Proteftant Churches j in 
Ibme places. 

XXXll^ Neither dwellir? in the Parifh, 
Eor the Law of the Land, makes any Chriftiana 
member of that Parifh Church, without or be- 
fore his own confent : But p;ro>. mity ij part of 
his extrinfick aptitude ard the law of man or 
command of his Erir.ce may make it his d^tj to 
conjent, ar;d ihcrcby to beccme a member when 


greater Reafons mollify not that obligation. 

XXXni. Parijh Bounds and fuch other hu- 
mane diftributions for conveniency, may be 
altered by men j and they bind not againft any 
of Chrifts own Laws and predeterminations \ 
nor when any changes turn them agamft the 
good ends for which they are made; of which 
more afterward, when we fpeak of fcpara- 

XXXIIII. And about thefe humane Church- 
Laws the general Cafe muft be well confi- 
dered, how far they are obligatory to con- 
fcience, and in what cafes they ceafe to bind. 
SajTHSy Fragofo and other the moft Learned and 
Moderate Cafuifts of the Papifts, ordinarily 
conclude, that Humane Laws bind not, when 
they are not for the Common good. We had 
rather fay, that vohen they are notorioujly againfl 
the Laws of Chrifi, or again f the Common good^or 
are made by uf^rpation vpithom authority thereto, 
they bind not to formal obedience in that particular^ 
(though [ometime other reafons^ ejpecially the ho- 
nour of our Rulers^ may bind us to material obe- \ 
dience^ xx^hen the matter is indifferent 5 and 
though ftill our fubjedion and loyalty muft be 
maintained. But of thisbeforc,and more largely . 
by one pf us, Chnfiian direfhry, Part.^. Chap,^. 
7 it. 3. 5rc. The Council of Toletum, 135 j de- 
creed that their decrees fhall bind nope ad cul^ 
pam but only ad poenam fee Bin.lnoc. 6th. 

Seci. XXXV. Kings and Magiltrates ihould 
fee that their Kingdoms be well provided of 
publick Preachers and Catechifif, to convert In-., 
fidels and Impious men where there are fuch,and 
to prepare fuch for Baptifme, and Church pri- 



vlledges and Communion, as are not yet Eapti- 
?.td, but are Catechumens : And they may by 
due means compel the ignorant to hear and 
learn what Chriftianity is, though not to Z'^^- 
ccme Chrifnans (for that is impoilible) nor to 
frofefs that whicli is not rr/ir^^ nor to t^kc Churck- 
Privilcdgcs^ to which they bi^ve no rights and of 
which at prefent they -.wq unc^jp.ihle. But ihey 
may grant thole rewards and civil Priviiedges 
to Chriltians and Churches for their encourage- 
ment, which they are not bound to give to o- 
thers, and which may make a moving diiference, 
Without unrighteous conftraint. 

XXXVI. Chrift and his i\poRlcs having (as is 
aforefaid) fettled the KxghioiOrdimition on the 
Senior PajTors or Bifliops, and the Right oiCon- 
fenttn^ in the People, (and this continued long 
even under ChrilVian Empcrours) Princes or Pa- 
trons may not deprive either j)£(rty of their 
Right, but preferving fuch Right?, they may 
I. Ojfer meet Pallors to the Ordai?:crs and Con- 

fcnters to be accepted, when th^re is juft caufe 
for their interpofition : 2. They may hinder 
both Ordainers and People from introducing in- 
tollerable men : 3. They may, when a Peoples 
Ignorance, FaHion or Wtlftdhcfs maktth them 
refufe all that arc truly fit lor them, lirge them 
to ace ept the beft 5 and may poifefs fuch of the 
Tcmp'les, and Publick Maintenance, and make 
it confequently to become the Peo[)Ies duty to 
confcnr, as is aJTorefaid 5 fo alfo when they are 

XXXVII. Princes ought to be Prefervets of 
Peace and Charity among the Churches, and to 
hin-dcr Preachers frjm unrighteous and uncha- 

D ritablg 

ritabie reriling each other, and their unpeace- 
able conrroverfics and contentions. 

XXXVI II. Chrift himfclfhaih inftituted the 
B^iptijmaL Ccvenaiit to be the Title of Vifible 
Members of his Churchy and the Symbol by 
\\'hich they fliuli be notified : And he hath com- 
manded all the baptized as Chriftiiins, to Lovs 
each other as thcmfclves 5 and though weal^ in 
the faith, to receive one another^ as Chrift re- 
cei-uet h tiSy but not to doubtful difpmations 5 and 
-fo far as they have obtained to walk^ by the fame 
Ytilcy of Love, and Peace, and not to dcfptfe or 
j::dge each Other for tolerable differences (much 
jefs to hare, revile, or deftroy each other ;) and 
lifccmtd good to the Holy Ghoft, and the u^poflles, 
to lay no greater brrrdcn on the Churches, even of 
the Ceremonies which God had once command- 
ed, but Ncctffary things y JiEl, 15. 28. And thefc 
terms of Church- Union and Concord which 
•Chrift hath made, no mortal man hath power 
to abrogate. All things therefore of inleriour 
nature, though Verities and Good, muft be no 
otherwife impofed by Rulers, than as may 
fiand with thcfe univerfal Laws of Chrift, which 
are the true way to prevent Church- Schifms. 

XXXIX. Princes by their Laws, or Pa- 
yors by confent where Princes leave it to them, 
jTiay (b aftbciate many particular Churches 
for orderly correfpondencie and concord, and 
appoint fuch times and places for Synods, and 
iijch orders in them, as are agreable to Gods 
aforcfaid generall Laws, of doing all in Love, to 
Kfi'^ciition and in order; And how far, if Rulers 
fhobld mifs this generall Rule, they are yet to 
be obeyed, we have opened eirevvhcre. 

XL. As 


XL. As we have there alfo (aid that Prin- 
ces may make their own Officers to execute 
their Magilrratical Power circa facra ( which 
we acknowledge in our King in our Oath of 
Supremacy ; ) and if fuch be called, Ecle/i- 
afttcal, and their Courts and Laws fo called 
alfo, that ambiguous name doth not intimate 
them to be of the fame [pedes as Chrifts 
ordained Eccledaftical Miniiters , or as his 
Churches and Laws are ; fo now we add that if 
Princes (hall authorize any particular Bifhops or 
Paftors to excercife any I'uch vifiting, conventing, 
ordering, moderatinjj, admonifhing, or governing 
power as it bclongeth to the Prince to give, not 
contrary to Chrifts Law^«;, or the duties by him 
commanded, and priviledges by him granted to 
particular Churches, we judge that Subjeds 
ftiould obey all fuch, even for confcience fake : 
However, our confideration of Chrifts decifion 
of his difciples controverfie, who fljould he ths 
greateft- and our certain knowledge how nc- 
ceffary. Love, and Lowlmefs^ and how pernicious, 
vcr at h 2iT\d Lordly- Pride are in thofe that muft 
win fouls to Chrift, and imitate him in bearing 
( not making ) the crofs, together with the fad 
hiftory of the Churches diftradions and corrup- 
tion by Chrgj' Pride and Worldlinefs ( lam- 
ented by Naz.ianz.eney Baft I, Hilary Piclav^is^ 
Socrates, Soz,omen, IJidore Pelnfiot, Bernard, and 
multitudes more, yea by fome Popes them- 
felvesj thefe and other reafons we fay doe 
make us wifh , that ♦the Clergy had never 
been trufted with the Hvord, or any degree of 
forcing power, or fccular pomp 5 yet if Princes 
judge otherwife^ we muft obediently fubmic 
to all their Officers.- D z XLL It 


XLI. It frcmeih by ilie phrafe of His 
Makr^ies Declaration about EccleHaftical affairs 
1660, in n! icli ( afrcr conlul cation with his 
KevciTr.d Eilhops J thcPaJloral way of J'crjwa' 
J?o:, rep:'cofs and i^Ldmo'^itions arc granted to tlx 
Presbyt^is iliat a dirtin(ftion is intended becwtcn 
this JKi}(.-t.il and tlie FrcLitical Government, 
And ne muft, with very great concern, proftfs 
that if the Chrrcbcs cfthe ioivcft fin (^Parcchial) 
he but ind:tA rrudt fine Churches^ fu ch as Chrijt 
by his- y'pofilcs ihfiitrncdy and not only Parts of 
a Dicc:juii Church as if that were the low eft 
ra}.'^', ylnd iftheje part ic alar Churches have hut 
Pajiors that have ihe power cf the Keys in thcje 
Chnrchcs, a::d all that the fcriptkre maksth 
epnt'uil to iis Ofic.r which was then fet over 
evoy fich particular Church 5 u^fui if the D'fcif 
pi me tn'Jit'Hed by Chrijt himfclfj he hut tnade 
pofjlhle and feafhle in j'ich Payee hi all Churches^ 
yea if^'e that were tv::Jled hy car c ailing with 
th'J Tf^yffcries cj Gf^d. maj not he forced, our J elves, 
to, admin/fler the Sacraments againfl otif own 
linowlcdoe & c or f: ii-'nce s j<znd aa aiiift our confcienccs 
^'ind hnoa-ledg^ cf nuis c ifcs to pronotince men 
fhfolvcd^or excoK^mHiiicate upon other mens decree s^ 
or TO pYGVctrtiCe the Kotoriohflj wicl^idto he Javed, 
^.ivd to der.) worthy Chr:fiians ths feal cf Chrijls 
Covenant y nor their infants their v'lfible Chri- 
Jyi^:nity hy hap'ifm ) we Jaj, mig'}t we hut have this 
iKi-ich.^ wefiooi^ild he f I far from pfyig the Contr over fie 
aho}>it the Divine Right of E'^ijccpacy as a dijUnll: 
Ordjrfrom Pnshyiers^to'cny fchifm, or injury t» 
theChnrch, that we f'O tld thanl^fAlly contr ihme 
OK"" hefi endeavours to the concord^ jafety^pe ace and 
vrufperity thereof And fpi-ght we htit alfo he freed 



from Swearing, Stibfcribiy,g, Declaring^ and Cove^ 
naming mnecejfary things (\vhkh wc talie mt to he 
tnic ) againfi ou-^ conjciences^ and frcm [vme \c\v 
unnccejfarj PraLtices which we cannot j^Jl'ifi^^ W2 
fmyAd jojjyJly ferve the Church in our publicly 
Minifiry^thongh it were tn poverty ar.drr'g;. But of 
fo great a m^xQ"^ experience hath made our hopes 
from men to be very fmall: And the reafon 
of the thing maketh our hopes as fmall of the 
hippinefs of the Church of England, till God 
(liall unite us on thelc ncceflary terms. 


^. What Separation^ and rchat Gathering of 
Ajjemhlies ir Churches is unlaw juj^ 
aud what lawful. 

I.>T^Houg,h fome mens ebufe of th^ word 
J [Schifm ] and calling mens duty to God 
by that name, hath proved a great temr.tation 
to many^ to take it but for a word of pjfPion, 
or of n@ certain or odious fignificacion ( even 
as thePapifts abufe of the word \„^~^^'''-fi-')i ^f'd 
[ HeretickS\ hath been to others ) yet the evill 
of true Shijm and the odium that God layer h on 
it in the Scripture, fhould move all ChriUians, 
to fear the thing and ufe the name with the 
difgrace that it truely importeth ( witliouE 
miiiipplication,) and to avoid all guilt of fo great 
a (in. 

II. There are feveral forts and decrees of 
Sdiifm^ which greatly diiler A'ora each other 



ns one thing to divide from a Chnrch, and ano- 
ther to c^tufe divijions or fiEtiorJs in it. Its one 
^hing to divide onr /I7z/^j from it, and another 
^0 caujc others to divide. Irs one thing to draw 
men away hy words, and another to drive them 
away by Lnvs or execution^ by unjuft excorKmnni- 
cation or by violent perfccHtion. Its one thing to 
temptaway or drive away zfitigle perfon^ox a fewj 
and another thing to draw or drive away multi- 
tudes. Its one thing to rcj-arate from the Vmvcr- 
[nL-Chtirch, and another from ^p.-irttcidar Churchy 
or a few only. Its one thing to (tparate from the 
fpecies of particular Churches, and another from 
ibmt individuals only. Its one thing to feparate 
from the Churches of Chrifis infiitiaion, and 
another to feparate only from thofe of 9?tens 
inftitiition. Its one thing to feparate from fuch 
as men mak^ Livcfrllj, and another from fuch 
only as they make without at^.thoritjj and finfuHv. 
And here fcparating from one whofc finful confti- 
tution is iraiteroPis againftChrifts prerogative (as 
the Papal Univerfal UfurpationJ much diifereth 
from feparating from one whofe conltitution 
though finful, is of no fuch pernicioufiiefs. 

It is one thing to deny total Commmiiony and 
another to feparate hwt [ccundnmcuid^OT^omc 
aB or part 5 And that is either a great and 
Kecejfary \yj.xz cv fomc fmall or iyidifrrent ihhg 
or cercrriony. It is one thing to (eparate Locally by 
hodilj abfeiice , and another mentally by Schif- 
maticail princi[.!es. It is one thing to feparate 
from a Church as accufmg it to be no Church of 
iphrifi, ard another to feparate from it only as a 
true Church but fo Corr;>:pted as not to be 
gemmmcated with, ^cs onp thing to judge its 



Communion ahfolutdy unlawfnl^ and another only 
to forfakc it/or a better which is preferred : Its 
one thing to depart willfully, and another to be 
unmllingly cafl out. Its one thing to depart raJJ^ly 
and in hafi, and another to depart after due 
-patience, vv^hen reformation appeareth hopelejs. 
It is one thing to remove upon religious reafons^ 
and another upon CivU or Bomejticd^ or Cor^ 

It is eafy for a confounded head to pafs over 
all fuch diftindions, and with unjaft and con- 
founding cenfures to reproach others as Schif- 
maticks in the dark, before he knoweth whac 
fchifin is, being guilty of Schifin in his very 
accufations. But fober Chriftians mu^ihcdif- 
cerners, and know that confufion is an Enemy to 
truth and love 2iT\(i juft ice. 

III. I The Union of the Church Vniverfal is in the 
(even things mentioned by Paul Eph. 4. 3. 4, 5-. 6. 
viz.. One Body, One 5pirit ( of faith and Love ) 
One Hope(^ot Glory) One Lord, One faith ( O'C 
Creed,) One Baptifmal Covenant, One (J(7^ and 
Father of all. He that feparateth from this 
Church diredly, is an u^pofiate;ViJi(ply,\ffrom its 
Effential profeffion, and invifMj if only from the 
inward fine erity of faith, confent and Love. This 
is damning reparation, And if he feparate buc 
from fome one EfTentiall article of faith or duty, 
it is that which is molt ufually and fi:ri(ftly called 
Herefie -, of which we are now to fpeak no fur- 

IV. 2. To make FadtionSjParties, Contentions, 

and Mutinies in a true Church of Chrift, or in 

any Commmlty of Ghriltians, yea or but hfami- 

D 4 Ite-s^ 


tins, la the llniverfal Church is a great fin, in all 
that are the true culj)ableCaurcs of ir, and are 
Rot only the involLinrary occufions by unavoid- 
able accidents. 

V. 3. To feparare from .-ill the particular 
Churches in the world, as if they were tio true 
political Chtnches of Chrilt ( us thofe called 
Seekers do, who fay that the Alin<ftrj^ Scripture 
and Churchesy are loft in the wlderncfSj) is a ve- 
ry heinpus fin, thougii fuch as do fo, renounce 
not their ^V/'/' ///??, or ihe Church "Univcrjal. 

V[. 4. To feparare i7om mofl , or many 
C\\\^xc\^Qs hy ^o un<jjurchi}:gth.m^ is far vvorfe 
than tQ feparare from few or one ; it being a 
greater wrong to Chrift and men. 

VII. j.To feparare from one upon a rcafon that 
i,s- known to be common to all, or mofi ^or manjf\% 
virtually to (eparate from all, or mo\^ ^ or many, 

VI[I. 6.T0 (eparate from a true Church, accu- 
ilng it to te no true Cl-.-wch, is a greater injury 
and fin (ceteris parih^j) than to feparare from it 
only on an unjuft accufatior- or culpability confi- 
Itent with a true Church : Bccaufe the charge 
is more odioqs and injuiiou5^ and tendeth more 
to defiroy Love. 

IX. 7, To accufe a Church (its Doctrine^ Mi- 
nf[hy^]Forp.v.p or D-'f-! pa ne) fa.'flj, as guilty of 
fiich corruption which inj-kcth it unlawfiil for 
any Chriffiar,} to have CQmrr.tmpn with ir,(/r fulfly 
to pretend fuch/.«/>//i for his own vnd ( ijiers fe- 
paration from if, is a great fin, though not Iq 

great as to uKCK-urchit, 

X» 8. To hold that every Error in the Do- 
drir.f, WprHfip, Difcipfine, Paftors or People of 
f))a; Church, yea though ietiled and contirued. 

[41 ] 

and rorcknown,not forced on us to confcnt to or 
praclice, is fufficient caufe to make Communion 
with theCliurch unlawful, is to hold a principle 
which would infer reparation from all the known 
Churches in this world. 

XL 9, To draw others to fuch feparation by 
foch falfeaccufitions or opinions, is worfe than 
to do it filcntly ones felf5 and the j?!orc the 

XU. 10. The more fuch accufations flrikeat 
the heart o^Chrifiian Love, which is iht life of 
boly Societies, and of //i/A/;^/} it ftif; and the 
more ihey draw men from Pietj, and ro hatc,^ 
and abtife, and mong each other, the greater is 
the fm. 

XIII. 1 1. When m.en erroncouily and cauflefly 
gather feparatcd Airr/ihcrs from true Churches 
where they p:otild contir.ue^ into AntichurcheF ^ or 
Societies, where their hufwcfs is to make ethers 
uhji^jtly odiot^s that differ (rem them 5 this is to 
gather Schifmatical Societies : And if rhcy pre- 
tend themfelves ^vifer than the Generality cfthe 
true Orthodox Churches in the world, and ^o fe- 
parate from them, they were for this called 
Hereticks at firir : 3ut if it be but upon a quar- 
rel with/cwf particular neighbour Church or Pa- 
(tor ir was called a Schifr/:, 

XI V^ 12. If any pyc::dj or p^fflonate^ov errone- 
ous perfon do,as Dictrephes,cdii\ out the brethren 
undefervedly, by tinjMJr {t!fpe::f>ns,ftlc-cmgs, or 
excommHKiC at tons , it is tyrannical Schiim, what 
better name foever cloak if., 

XV* 13. Ifanyfliould make [Uful terms of 
Qommtinii)}iy by Lav;s, or Mandates, impofing 
things fgr bidden by G.d^ cn thofe that will have 



Communion with them, and expelling thofe that 
will nor fo iln, this were heinous Schifm : And 
the further thofe Laws extend, and the more 
Minifters or People are caft out by them, the | 
greater is the Schifm. 

XVI. 14. If any fhould not only excommuni- 
cate fuch perfons for not complying with them 
in fin, but alfo profecuts them \Yirh mulBs^ im- 
-prifonr}7cms^ banifcmcntSy or other frojccntion^ ro' 
force them to tranfgref% this were yet more 
heinouily aggravated Schifm. 

XVII. 15. All thofe would be deeply guilty 
of fuch Schifm who by talh^, vcritir,g^ ox freach^ 
iyigij^ft'fi'2 ir,and cry it up,and draw others into 
the guilt, and reproach the Innocent as Schifma- 
ticks, for not offending God. 

XVIII. 16. If any fhould corrui)t fuch a 
Church, or its DoElrinej IVorJhip, or Difciplme in' 
the very £/7"^/?t/^/i by letting u^i for bi dels n Offi^ 
ccrs, and Worfilp, or cafting out the Ojjicsrs^ 
X^orfoip or Dijcipline infiituted by Chriit, and 
th6n profccute others for not communicating 
with them, this would be yet the more heinous 

XIX. 17. If either of the lafr named forts, 
would not be content with mens Ccm?7rxnion 
with them, but would alfo //i-^ce and projccute 
fuch as will not owti^ j^fi'fi", snd coufcr.t to all 
that they do^ by fiffcript ions, declarations, cove-^ 
Hants, pror,7ifi:s, or oaths 5 this would yet be a 
more aggravated Schifm. 

XX. "18. If the men that do this fhould be 
mtxt obtr Aiders c:nd t^fy.rp^rs, that have no true 
Paftoral power over thofe whom they perfecute 
(as the Pooe over other Kingdoms and Chur- 


ches } this were yet more aggrravated fchifme. 

XXI. 19. If fuch llfurpcrs will claim a dominion 

or Monarchy over all the world, and unchurch, 

dei^rade and unchriltcn all that will not be their 

Subje(fi:s, or will impofe finful termes of Vnion 

upon all the Chriftian World, and declare all 

Hereticks or Schifmaticks, that receive them 

not, and To caft out moft of the Chriftians on 

Earth, and all the founder Churches, this is one 

of the raoft hcynous forts of Schifm, that the 

nVindofman can think of. Which is the grand 

Schifm of the Reman Papacy, wcrfe than all 

their interior Schifms when they had many 

Popes at once. 

XXII. 20. If fuch fhall fend agents and emif- 
faries into the Dominions nf Chriftians Princes 
or States, to draw the Subjedls to that Schifme, 
and make them believe that Princes are by right 
the Subjects of the Pope, and that men fhall be 
damned if they will not take him for theBifhop 
orVice-chrift of all the World and keep up a rich 
and numerous Clergie in Chriftian Kingdomes 
for this ufe, and make Decrees to exterminare 
or burn Chriftians, and to depofe temporal 
Lords that will not obey them and execute 
their lawes,This is to maintain and profecute a 
Schifme againft Religious and Civill peace, by 
open hoftility to Princes and People^ and to 

• XXIII. 21. If, becaufe the i?o;;j!^^; Emperours 
and Clergie fetled five Patriarchs in the Roman 
Empire, of which the Roman Bifhop was the 
firft, and by Councils called General of that 
Empire^ did make Church Laws to bind the 



Subjec^.S any therefore will teach that thefc 
Patriarchs, (and the Pope as rriKCipinm 
unitatis ) niiilt be Rulers in the dominions of 
other Prince?, and that fuch Councils muft 
govern them by tl^.eir Decrees and that the 
UnlTerfal Church muft be united in any one 
mortal head, whether Ferfunal or Colledive 
( fuch as General Councils,) and fo would bring 
Chriftian Princes and people under the Laws 
and Government of forreigners, and brand thofei 
as Schifmaticks that will not fall inwithfuchi 
an Univerfal Church Policie, This were alfo a 
very heinous Ibrr of Schifm. For the Univerfal 
Church never did, nor will be united on fuch 
termes 5 And therefore to make fuch terms of 
its unity, is to make an Engine to divide it, and 
tear it all into pieces. 

XXIV. 22. If any will confine the Tower or 
Exercife of the Church Keyes into fo few hands 
as (liall make the Excrcife of Chrifts Difcipline 
intfoffihU ( as by laying that work on cne^ which 
wttltitudes are too 'i^\'^ to do j J or fhall make 
Chkrcljcs ^o great ^ and P.iftors Co ftw, as that 
the mcfi of the people muft reeds be withettt 
true Pajioral overpghty teaching and puhlick^ 
vpoyjloip, and then vvill forbid thofc people to 
Commit the C5ire of their fouls to ^nj others 
iJjat will be Pafiors indeed, and fo would compel 
them to be without Chrifts ordinance s, truc 
Church Communion and Paftoral help, l^h'is would 
bcSchifmatical, and much worfe. | 

XXV. 23. If any Paftors VsWl deny B apt ifm^'\ 
which is their inveftiture in the Chrijtian \ 
ChhTch^ to the Adfilt that refufe to receive the 



tranfient Image of the Crucifix ( or any thing 
equal to it) as a Dedicating means to confc- 
crate them to God,ancl to fignifie their Covenant 
Engagement to Chri(t, and as a badge and fym- 
bol oVthe Chriftian l\e!igion, it feemeth to us 
to be Schifmaticall, when Chrift himlelf infti- 
tuted Baptilm ^^'ithout fuch a Covenanting 
Image, to be thetcft and bond of his Churches 
unity : But if thofe Pallors hold Baptifm necejfary 
alfo to (dvation, and jei will fo deny it to fuch, 
this feemeth a great aggravation. The fame wc 
fay of fuch Paftors as rejed from Baptifm ard 
the Church, the Infants of true Chriftians on the 
aforefaid account ; As alfo of thofe that reject 
them from Baptifm, becaufe the Parents will not 
olfcr them to it,unlefs they way thcmf elves he ths 
Covenanter i in their own Childrens names, and the 
Exprefs dedicHters of thetn to God, and becaufe 
they either cannot get credible Godfathers^ orniil 
»'jr put others to prcmi/e ilie Chriftian Ed'<cation 
of their children, who they have no reafbn to 
believe do at all intend it, or will ever do it, we 
cjn excufe no fuch rejedion of Chriftian Infants 
irom Chrifts Church, from Schifm. 

.^'XVI. 24. If fbtne Chrirtians be of opinion that 
Chrifts example bindeth them to receive the 
Lords Supper in a Table- p^eflure, or that the 
tradition of the Univerfal Church and the Canon 
20th of the Nicene Councill is obligatory to 
them, which forbad men to adore Kneeling on 
any Lcrds day in the year, or on any week day 
between Eafttr and WhttJHmide ( which no other 
General Council revoked , but continued till 
meer ufage by degrees wore it out, faith Dr. 


Heylhi of the Sabbath, above looo years after 
Chrift. ) Or if the faid perfons Ihould think that 
TO receive Kneeling were fuch a fcandalous 
appearance of the Pjpifts Bread-worfbip, as the 
bowing before an Image forbidden by tlie 2d. 
Commandemenc was a fcandalous appearance 
.0! Id jl-worfliip, though thefe perfons did m this 
miiiuke, we could not excufe our felves from 
Schifm, if we fhould therefore refufe them Sa- 
cramental-Comniunion ; Nor if we fhould A^- 
Jem und Conf.yn to the rejedion of men for fa 
fmuli' an errour, feeing Chrifts Spirit, Rc?77. 14. 
I, Szc. commanded both Paftors and People to 
receive him that ts weal^ in the faith ^ but not to 
doubtful clifpiitations ; and to live in Love and 
Union with thofe that have greater weaknefles 
'than this. 

XXVII. 29. It may be Schifmatical to caft 
men out of the Church for that which yet may 
be Schifma-tical in the perfon (o ejedcd : If he 
depart from the Church though Schifmatically 
only in feme accident, circumftance, or fome 
one ad or thing of no neccflity to communion 
or falvation3 we think he m.ay not be excom- 
municated, e,g, for not paying Fees at theChan- 
ceilours Court, or fuch like. For as God de- 
parteth not from finners firfr, or further than 
they depart from him 5 i'o we humbly conceive 
the Church Ihould imitate him 5 remcmbring 
how Chrift that came not to deftroy mens 
lives, but to fave them, rebuked the Sons of 
Thunder that would have had him deftroy thofe 
that refufed to receive him, telling them. That 
they knew not \yhat jndniicr of fp.rit they wer^ 
of. - ■ 



On the other fide, it may be Schifm to fepa- 
ratc from a Church that hath fome Schifmatical 
Principles, Pra(ftices^ and Perfons, if ihofe be 
not fuch or fo great as to necefTitate our depar- 
ture from ihem : For alas , it is too fevr 
Churches that are fo happy as to have nothing|, 
and do nothing which is Schifmatical 

XXVIII. 26. Gathering New Chnrches by wa y 
o{ SepaYittion ^vom others, or gathering ^jj/^^.i- 
blies without the confent of the lawful Pajforr, 
who had the charge of the People of thofe Ai- 
fembljes, is a fin and Schifm in all thcfe Cafes 

1. In general, when the Laws, Praflices^ or 
Perfons of the Church which they fcpararje 
from, give them nofrfficiem caufe of a departure. 

2. in general , w^hen in the judgment -kj^ 
true reafon, according to the notable evidence 
of the cafe, the faid Affemblies are like to do 
more hurt than oood. 

- 3. When fuch Affemblies are gathered \\i cp- 
poJitio7i 10 fome Truth which theSeparaters would 
thereby difown (f. ^. Infant-Baptifm, the law^- 
fulnefs of Set-forms of Praife or Prayer, or any 
found Doclrinej) or for the prcfeliion and pro- 
pagation of fome Hcrejls or Error ( as Antino- 
mianifm, Popery, d'c.) 

4. When fuch Churches are gathered by men 
that have no true Fttnefs and CalUr.g for the Sa- 
cred Miniftry, or the work which they under- 

5". When they are gathered by the pride of 

the Miaifters, that would thereby unduly fet up 

rhemftlves, and draw away Difciples after them? 

lOr by their covctodhefs/eekingnot the good of 



the Flock, but the Ffcece 5 not thsm^hnt theirs 5 
not ferving t'le Lord Jefus, but their own Bel- 
lies : Or \''heri 'T^arhered, by the Prids o{ the 
FeopL^^ that unjuitly think thofe that they fepa- 
rate from, men unworthy of their Communion, 
and fay to them. Come not mar fons^ vpe are hch- 
licY than jom, Ifa. 65". 5*. 

6. When they are gathered by a quarrelfom 
IPaiTion, falling out with the Paftors and People 
AA'hom they feparate from. The parting oi Pad 
and Barnabas had fome evi! in ir. 

7. When they are gathered to encourage and 
iirengchen a fmful Fatlion or Party, or when 
men feparate from others for fear of being 
e^nfured by fuch a part^^, as Peter did withdra\Y 
from the Gentile Chriftians^ left he fliould- 
di.^)leafe the erroneous lewes Gal. 2, 

8. When it \s> done out of a proud overvaluing 
of mens own opinions, or fome odd fingularity, 
whi^reby men cannot bear thole that are noc 
of their mind, or whereby they would fain be, 
be more confpicuous as more Orthodox and 
tvife than others. 

9. When it is done miftakingly to fet up fome 
wrong courfe of Church Government or worfliip 
( As that the People m,ay have ihe Power of ths 
KejeSy or of examining and judging all admitted 
m^mbcrSy or that ^ap.il Government or the mafs- 
may be introduced enthf^/i.rftical diforderly 
talking by pretended infpiration, by ignorant 
uncalled men, or to introduce fuch traditions iind 
fiiperflitlons^ as the Papifts u(e, S-rcJ 

10. When it is done upon a falfe conceit 
that a mans prelcnce with any Church that hath 
known crrour or fauhs in doctrines or worfhip^ 



is a guilty approving of them,and therefore that 
they muftfcparate from all futh. 

11. When they feparate out of an HnruUnefs 
of fpirir, becaufe they will not be governed by 
their lawful Paftors in lawful things, as time, 
place, order. &c. or becaufe a Minor part in 

. eledions is overvoted by the major part^ and 
cannot have their wills. 

12. When they feparate out of a prophanenefs 
of mind,not enduring the power of rhe Preachers 
do(ftrine, or the holinefs and difcipline of the 
Church, but would be licentious, while they 
would be called Religious. All thefeare unlawful 
Reparations, and aflemblings. 

I Yet that which is unlawful as to the Principle^ 
Bnd and M^nmr^ [ecnndum qnid^ is not ahvaies 
unlawful fijnplj, and in the thing it felf^ for a 
proud,covetous turbulent perfon may finfully do 
a Lawful thing. 

XXIX. 27. When Pallors by concord, or 
Magiftrates by Laws have fetled Lawful C/r- 
cumfiances or Accidents of Church Order or V/qy- 

Jhipy QX Disciplines though they be in pctrticMar 
but humane Inftitutions, it is Sinful difbbedicnce 
to violate them without necelfary reafon.c.^. 
Parochial Order, AITociations, Times, Places^ 
Minifters, Maintenance , Scripture-Tranflati- 
ons, 5rc. 

XXX. 28. When able faithful Paflors are 
lawfully fetover the Affemblies^by/V//? Ele^Hom 
^nd Ordination,\{^ any will caufelefly, and without 
right filence them, and command the people to 
defert them, and to take others for their Pafiprs 
in their ftead, of whom they have no fucli 
knowledge as may encourage them to fuch a 

E change^' 


change, we cannot defend this from the charge 
of SchifmjWhich puts a Congregation on fohard 
a means of Concord^ as to judge whether they 
are bound to that Paftor that was fet over them 
as Chrift appointed, or muft renounce him and 
take the other when they arc Commanded. So 
Cjprian in the cafe of Novatian fayes that he 
could be no Bifhop becaufe another was right- 
full Bifliop before. 

XXXL 29. In Englar.d it belongeth i. to the 
Tatron loprefcnt, 2. to the Bifliop to ordain and 
jnfitffftciiud ihcrtfove to approve and invcfi 5.to 
the people ju-^e divino to be free Confenters^ 4. 
and ro the Afa^ifirate to pr ote ft ^nd to judge 
who (hall be prorecled or tolerated under him : 
If now thefe four parries be for four Minifters 
or for three, or two feveral men, and cannot 
agree in one, the culpable diflcnters will be the 
taufes of the Srhifm. 

XXXII. 3o.Ifa Church have more Presbyters 
than one, and will be for one way of worfhip, 
difcipline or dodrine and another for another, 
( as at Frankfordj Dr. Cox. Mr. Horn and others 
were for the Liturgie, and others againft it ) 
io that the people cannot poflibly accord, it is 
the culpable party, which ever it be, that muO: 
anfwer for the Schifm. So much of enumerated 

XXXIII. On the Negative, we fuppofe that 
none of thefe following are Schifms in a culpable 

I. All are agreed that it is no Schifm for the 
Ghriltian Gliurch to feparatc from the ancient 



Jewifh, or from the. Infidel Heathen World. 
L XXXiV. 2. All Proteftants are agreed that iris 
no Schifm to deny obedience to the Rcw^i/i 
Pope 5 nor to deny that eommunion with them, 
which they will not have without obedience : 
To feparate from other Churches^ is to deny 
them meer Commmion', But to fepari^rc from the 
Roma7i as Tapaly is but to deny tiitm frbjetiioKi 
To deny any other Chrinian Church to be a 
tnte Chirc/j is Schifmaiical, if they have the 
EflTentials of a Church : But to deny the F^paL 
Church or Monarchy to be a trtte Church of 
Chrilt's inftitution, is true, juft and necefiary, 
though they be Chrl/riaKs-, becaufe we mean on- 
ly tht Papal Ci'uych form, as it is an Vntveyfd 
Ecclefiaftical Monarchy of the whole Chriftiaa 
world, which no other Church but that doth 

XXXV. 3. It is no Schifm to deny ^uhj^^ioyi to 
Pope^Councils or Patriarchs,of other Kingdomn^ 
or to any forein Power by what names or titles 
foever called. 

XXXVI. 4. It is no Schifm to denv that 
Chrilt hath any fuch Vifible Church on Earth as 
is one by Union with any Univerfal Head, Per- 
fonal orColleftive, befides himfelf. 

XXXVII. 5. It is no Schifm to Preach, and 
gather Churches, and eledt and ordain Paftors 
and Afiemble for God's Worfhip, againft the 
Laws and will of Heathen , Nnhometun, or 
Infidel Princes that forbid it. For thus did the 
Chriftians for 300 years. And if there be the 
l^mt canfe and nc^d, it is no more Schifm to do 
it againft the Laws and will of a Chrifiim Prince. 
Because, i. Chrift*« Laws are equally obligatoryj 


2. Souls equally precious. 3. Thie Go (pel and 
Gods worOiip equally neceflaty, '4. And his 
Chriftianity enableth him not to do »^ar^ hurt 
than a Pagan may do, hut more good. If there- 
fore either out of Ungodly enmity to his own 
prcfeffion, or for fear of difpleafing his wicked 
or Infidel Subjc^fls, he fliould forbid Chriftian 
Churches, he is not to be therein obeyed. 

XXXVIII. 6. If a Prince,; Heathen, Infidel or 
Chnltian, forbid Go^s Commanded worfhip,and 
any.. Commanded ^ part of nhe'-PafVors office, 
(;isin Papiits Kingdoms Prayer in a known 
tongue,- and the Cup in the Lords Supper is 
forbidden, and as they fay i all pSreaching iave 
the reading of Liturgies and Homilies is forbid- 
den in A^ofcovtc, and'as the ufe of the Keyes is 
elfe where fbrbiddenj) It is ho Soh-fn* to'dilbbey 
fuch La^vs, ( what Prudence may pro hie. & 
;;^w require of any fingle- perfon wcnofv deter- 
mine nor. ) v;,<rlor. 

. XXXIX. 7. If any 'Prince would turn his 
JCiyigdom , or a whole Frovmce ^ ' Dtocefs ov 
Comuy into One only "CfjUrch and thereby over- 
throw all the fir fi order of Churches of Chrijh 
inftituttony which, are ajfoa^ted ^for Perfonal 
prefer.t Communion, allowing them i no Paftors 
that have the power of the Keyes„ hnd all ef- 
fential to their office^though he (hculd allow Pa- 
rochial Oratories or C/^/j/?p^iV,which {bodd-be no 
true Churches,but Parts of a Church, It were no 
Schifm to'gather Churches within fuch aChurch 
againil the Lans of fuch a Prince. Many write 
that there is but One Bifhop in Ahajlia ( though 
fome'ifay. that ethers have Epifcopal power 
^ ' ■ - under 

' ... f^^n 

tinder him: J fome that read rhe old Canons, 
which confine Bifhops to Cities^and take not the 
word as then it was takeiii for any great Town 
or Corporation, but for fuch priviledged Towns 
only as are called Cities in England, hence gather 
that as the King may disfranchife Cities and 
reduce them to ten, two or one in a Kingdom, 
he may by confequencedo fo by Churches that 
have Bifhops; which if it be fpoken but of £^.^- 
copi EpifcoporHm we refift not ; Bnt if of -£"/?//"- 
copi Gregis of the firft O'der of Churches called 
[^Particular] we fupnofe that out of fuch a 
Kingdom-Church Provincial or Diocefm- Churchy 
it is no Schifm to gather particular Parochial 
Churches though forbidden. h^A the fame rea- 
fon will prove that if in a lelfer circuit, the 
fame things be done though in a lower degree, 
viz^, were it but three , four or ten particu- 
lar Churches of the largeft fize capable of 
Perfonal Comnmnions turned into one which is 
capable only of diftant Communion per alios 
it is lawful to gather particular Churches out 
of that larger fort of Church. If the Bimop 
of Rome^ Akxancirtay Antioch, Cefarea^Hcraclea^ 
Carthage, d^c. fhould have put down the Bidiops 
of ten, twenty, an hundred or many hundred 
Churches about them, and fet up only Oratories 
and Catechifts in their ftead making them all 
but part of their own Churches, it would have 
been lawful to have gathered Churches in their 
Churches : For God never made them proper 
p4dges whether Chrift fhould have Churches 
according to his laws, nor whether God Ihould 
be worfhipped, and fouls be faved, or his own 
nftitutions of Churches beobferved. 

E 3 XL. 8. If 


XL 8. If Bifhops would ordain Presbyters by 

li?mting words, reftraining them from any ^Jfen- 
tial or Integral Part of the Office or Power as in- 
fti cured by Ghrift, and yet profefs that they or-r 
dain them :o the Office which Chrift hath infti^ 
tuted/it is no Schifm for thofe Presbyters after- 
waid to claim ("and execute in feafon) all the 
power which by Chrift's inftitution belongeth 
to their Office,though againft the Bifhops Wills. 
Bccaufc the Bifliops are not the Authors or 
Donors of the Office Povcer, but only the 
Miniderial Deliverers and Invefters 5 And there- 
fore it is Chrift and not they, that muft defcribe 

XLI. 9 No Prince or Prelate hath power 
From Chrift to fet.over, or impcfe upon any 
Chnrch or Cbriftian people, any perfon as a 
Paftor who through Ignorance, Herefie, Malig- 
nant oppofition to piety, or utter dcfecft of 
IVlin'fterial abiiit]', is uncapablc of the Office or 
unfit to be trufted by the people with the 
Pafto'\^l care and condud of their foules. Nor 
is it Schifm in them to refufe to commie their 
foules to (Lich, nor to chui'e and ufe better j 
when tliey may do it, without greater hurt to 
others than their gain will compenfate. 

XLIL 10. Princes or other Magiftrates are 
not appointed by God to be the ordinary Elefl- 
tcrs and Impofers of Paftors on all the Churches 5 
and the p-^-opIc bound to conient to whomfoever 
-they tied. But Chrift hath given the Btjhcps 
the power of free ordaining^ and the people the 
power ot free cor,fcntt:';g, and made Magiftrates 
the Cover ncurs of them that have this power. 
Even as he hath not given power to Princes 



to chufe Wives or Husbands , Servants or 
MafterSjTutors or Pupils, Phyficians or Patient?, 
for all Their Stibjecfts, but hatli iintecedently 
given fuch Subieds power to chufc fur them- 
felves, and to Princes to be civil Rulers cffucli 
as have this Choice, by which Governing Power 
they may regulate their Choice in fubordination 
to Chrifts Univerfal Laws, and may punifh them 
for grofs mifdoing : Therefore it is no Schifm for 
Paftors to ordain, or People to chufe rhe Over- 
feers of their fouls, without or againft a Magi- 
ftrates will or command as (uch('fubmitting to his 

XLIII. 1 1. When faithful Paftors truly ordain- 
ed and eleded, or confented to, are in poifeiJion, 
if a lawful Magiftrate caft them our (not only of 
the Temples and Tithes,bur alfo of their Paflo^ 
rd Relation and OverJ^ht, and put others In their 
places of untried and fufpedted parts and fidelity^ 
1. The Princes impofition maketh not fuch the 
true Pasters o^thiZ Ch fire h k- fore and without the 
Peopbs confem : z. Nor will it al wales bind the 
People to confent, and to forfake their former 
Paftors, nor prove them Schifmaticks becaufe 
they do it not. 

For I, God in Nature and Scripture hath gi- 
ven them that confenting power antecedent to 
the Princes determination, which none fcan take 
from them. As he hath in nature given men the 
Choice ('or Confent atleaftjwith what Phyfician 
they will truft their lives ; God hath not put all 
fjck mens lives fo far in the Princes f)ower as to 
bind them to truft and ufe whomfoever he fhall 
chufe : For men are neareft to themfelves, and 
their Jives are at their own wills in the firft in- 

E 4 fiance^ 


ftance, before they are at anoth^rs : And mens 
fouls and everlafting happinefs are precioufer to 
them than their live?, and it is ftrft under God 
their own wills by which they fhall live or die ; 
though all their friends fhould do their beft to 
make them willing of what is beft. 

2. They are fuppofed related duely to their 
tryed Paftors,in the bond of fidelity, which they 
may not unnecefTarily violate. 

3 . Otherwife one Roman Emperor might have 
undone all the Churches and Souls in the Em- 
pire in a great degree? by impofmg on theni 
infufiicienr,heretical,or malignant Paftors:Wherc 
it mil ft be noted, i. That God doth ordinarily 
v^ork on fouls according to the quaHty of the 
means : To fay that He can do otherxvife, is im- 
pertinent,while we fee that he doth not, nor hath 
p! am} fed it. We fee that Heathens and Infidels 
ijre not converted without Preachers : We fee 
that Heretical Preachers make Hereticks, and 
Schifmatical ones make Schifmaticks, and igno- 
rant ones leave the people ignorant : In feveral 
Countries the people are Greeks, Papifts,Luthe- 
rans, &c. as they are taught. We fee that one 
clear, convincing, experienced, ferious Preacher, 
turneth more fouls among us from ignorance ,er- 
rour, ficfiily luft, and worldly wicked hearts and 
lives, than abundance of raw young Readers or 
Preachers, that ignorantly fay over a drv pre- 
j)ared fpeech in a School- boys mode and tone. 
It is not every Preacher of whom it can be faid 
as Dr, ^mss dofh of old Mr. Midjley, a Non- 
conformiil: of Lancafbirey That he was the means 
bf converting many thohfand fotils^ (from Fopery^ 
i^KoraiKe^znd a vpicked life : Nor whofc labours 
'■ '-' "' ' are 

arebleft, asMr. Dods, M.r.'fofjn Roger t^ Mr. Tho- 
mas Hookers (Nonconformifls^ ov Mv.WUUam 
tenners (a Conformiftj and fu ch other? were. 
Even as wc fee by experience that a few skilfcl^ 
prudent, experienced Fhyficianj cure more than 
abundance of young beginners. Who too ofc kill 
more than they cure. We fee that the Abaffian^ 
Armjn'ian^ Greek^ , and mofi: Popifh Countries, 
are lamentably ignorant ( and ufualiy propcr- 
tionably vicious) for want of a learned, pious, 
skilful, and laborious Miniftery. Hiftory tells u,^, 
that the Kingdom of Nubia forfook Chriftiani- 
ty for want of competent Teachers : The ind.u- 
ftry of the Jefuits and Friars in China^ Japar:, 
Congo, and other Countries.telleth us how much 
they laid on the diligent ufe of means. J^o/v^a/^ 
tells us how much the Wcft'IrJ;es futfer in Reli- 
gion by the ignorance and wickednefs of the 
PrieH:?. How barbarotis and fad a fiate the Em- 
pire o^ Aiofcovy is in, for want of able, fiithfu! 
Paftors, while the Emperours put down Preach- 
ing,and confine them to Liturgies and Homilies, 
as is affirmed commonly wirhout contradidtion. 
How miferable a ftate the Roman Churchj yea, 
the Papacy was in, in the ninth and tenth Ages, 
even Barcnr^s, Gcnehrard, and the greateft flat- 
rerers of the Pope lament; and this for wrrr of 
able, faithful PafTors and Teachers among th .n. 

2. No man hath iiis power to deftrudion bi c 
to ediiication. The bcntim TubUcum is the end 
of Government : Therefore it is rot Schifm in 
SLibjeds,not to ca(t their fouls on notorious pe- 
ril of damnation, in obedience to any mortal 

3. Every man, Cefpecially experienced dri- 

ft ians) 


ftians) have more fenfe and knowledge of what' 
is protitable and congruous to them^ than ftan- 
ders by have, how learned foever : As ignorance i 
Jiukcth^ few, jK)orr J pUi-n, oft repeated words, in 
^ fantiliar Hyk, more profitable to low-bred 
perfons, than ^n accurate learned pilcuurfe 
would be J fo mens feveral tempers and vices 
inaketh that matter and manner of Preaching 
profitable to them, which to others feemeth 
other wife : And as a nice Lady muft not tie her 
family of labouring perfons, to the matter and 
meafure of her diet, nor revile them as gluttons 
or fools if they like it not; no more muft learn- 
ed men confine plain people to wordy Orations, 
(whether Learned or Pedantick)and fay. This is 
beft for them : Much lefs muft they filence 
cauflefly fuch Teachers as truly profit them, or 
lie them to Homilies or Liturgies only, and fa)'. 
Here ts as much as is mcejfary tofalvation : Nor 
is it any Schifm in the people, if they refufe to 
be fo confined by them, and denied fuch helps to ; 
their falvation as God hath fent them, and made 
their (}iW^. 

4. Order \s an excellent means of edification^, 
tnd ofpreferving Truth^Charitji and Peace : But 
it is but a Means to the Ends of the things Or- 
dcred^zw<\ the publick good : Therefore iWrder 
fhould be made the advantage of Herefle^ 
Church -Tyranny or Iniquitj^ and be turned a- 
gainft the good of Church and Souls, (as it is io 
the Policy of the Roman Gharch,and in well or- 
dered Armies of Rebels,or fuch as have unlaw- 
ful war?) this would make it no Schifm or fin to 
break fuch order. Thefe notices interpored,we 
iidil^ 4, That it hath been tjie Judgement of the 



moft honoured Ages of the Church, that it is no 
Schifm in the forementioBed Cafes^ to cleave to 
the faithful Pa ftors that were duly ordained and 
confented to, and to relfufe fubjedion to fuch as 
lawful Princes have impofed in their (leads. 

1. That even in the Jewifb Stare the Kings 
had not the Eledion of all the Priefts and Le- 
vites (much lefs the Prophets)is before proved 5 
though they had the Government of them ac- 
cording to God's Laws. 

2. That the Apoftles fent by Chrift performed 
their Office againft the will of the Roman and 
fevpijh Rulers, is not denied. 

3. And becaufcfome think that this was pro- 
per only to Aportle? or men fent immediately 
by Chrifl:, we add, that it is not denied thsrt this 
was the cafe of others in that Age : As Timothy, 
(who is charged before God and Angels to 
Preach in feafbn and out of feafon, 2 Tim, 4. 
J, 2.) Titus, u^pollo, Silas, and fuch others? and 
of all the fetlcd Elders of the Churches, y-lcl.ij^, 
v.ls^Tit, I. 5". 2 Thef, 5. 12. 1 3. Hei?. i^.l^^Cc. 

4. And it is not denied that this was the cafe 
of all the ordinary Paftors for the firft three 
hundred years, under the unbelieving Emperors. 
And as is aforefaid, even thefe were Governours 
of theChriftian Paliors and Churches ('who are 
commanded Rom. 13. to obey them J and they 
wanted not Governing power, ihoiigh in part 
they wanted aptitude to :-fe it well-, fo that Chri- 
llians were to obey even Heathen Governours 
In lawful things. 

5. And it is undeniable that this was the jndg- 
inent and cafe of the Fathers and People of the 
fihurch under the Chriftian Emperours that 



were ^rriansj or favoured the Arrlam ) And a9 
is aforefaid, the Arrlans would have fubfcribed 
to all the A^/Vc«c Creed, (that Chrift is Light o] 
Light y God of God, very God of very God, begot- 
ten, not mkde, till they came to that one word, 
oij,ok7io?. Yea, Eufebius fubfcribed to that alfb, and 
to the whofe,who yet(notwithftanding Socratejs 
charitable excufe) is by his own Epiftle from 
that Council to his People, plainly proved to bei 
an Arrian, as Petav^m hath fully manifefi:ed:And 
yet how the Churches of the Eaft did common- 
ly cleave to their Paftors when Confianttus and 
F'alcKs eje(fltd them 5 and how they refolutely 
refufed the impofed Bifhops, fome as Arrians, 
and fome but as fufpe(fted, faying, We have law^ 
ful Biffoops already, and how ftifly they refufed 
to forbear their forbidden Meetings, and Pub- 
lick Worfhip with their former Paftors,Church- 
hiftory puts us out of doubt. 

ylihanafius ^oft ftaved with his flock till ba- 
rifhed by violence by Conft amine, Conftamins 
and Yahns : 

Ek'flathius Bifliop of u^ntiochdid the like yea 
came to the Imperial City Confianti.wp/c^ and 
there lived in fecret to confirm the People and 
prefumcd to ordain a Patr-arch of that City cho- 
len againft the' Emperours will : For wh*. n Eu- 
doxif-is was 'dead, the orthodox people chofe 
Evjigritis,.^ man of their own judgement, and 
refuitd Di:mophilus, Socr. /. 4. r. 13. Both the 
confecrator and the cor.fecrared Bifbop ftayed 
with them till the Emperour fenf fouldiers from 
JVic0?97€dia to mafter the people, and banifhed 
them both into feveral Countries, and at once 
put fourfcore Prielts to death(burning them in a 



fliip at Sea,) to whom the people adhered, who 
came to petition him for juftice and forbear- 
ance. Saith Socr. cap. 14. When the Empe- 
" rour at Ede/fa gave the Lietnerjant a blow with 
^' hisfifi hecaufe he had not Scattered the Conven- 
**t-icieSy as he had chArged him^ the Lieaterjafity 
*'for all this great dijgrace^ fet himfelf, though 
" knwilliyiglj to ohey the Ewperours wrath and 
*^ difpleafnre ; but gave notice fecretlj of it to the 
•' people (for it was- far from his mitid to jail a 
** murthering fo many godly Cttizens^ ) that none 
**Jhould focw his face tn the ^ciriple^ that none 
*^ Jl^ould be found raifng of any Convent iclcBm not 
** one made account of his advice., ner regarded his 
" threats, for the day following all flocked in g,'eat 
*^ companies to the Temple. Then foIlov\eth the 
mention of a woman that with her little Ch'ld 
haftned through the crowd to th^ meeting hop- 
ing to die with the reft. The citizens ofCyz^icum 
bani(hed Eunomipts from their City, whom Eh^ 
doxifis had preferred to that Biflioprick, not fo 
much for h\sErrofirs3s for his arrogant and mfo- 
lent manner of Preaching, with Logical tricks and 
fophifms which they could net bear, and fo 
they drove him to Conjtantinople where he layd 
by his Bifhops Office Id, c. 7. 

And when Elet<ftt4s repenting of his fin in a 
forced fubfcribing to the Arimmt^m faith would 
have had them have chofen another Bifhop,they 
w^ould have or acknowledg no other but him 5 
being the undoubted Chuiers of their own 
Bifhop lb. c, 7. 

The City of Anticch fell into two parties of 
the Orthodox ^t{\At% the Arnans, and chofe two 
Bifhops P^^/Zw; and Melevius\ Though it was 


then contrary to the Canons that oneCity fhould 
have two Bifhops, none queftioned the peoples 
right to chure,nor denied either of them to be 
trne BiJIoops : And though the Emperour forbore 
FAfiUnas for his rare parts and virtues,and banifti- 
ed only Meletius;i\\t people would not obey his 
Orders, but ftill aflTembled as before. 

We are not ignorant what tumults popular 
Eledions of Bifhops have oft caufed : But two 
things a|l acquainted with antiquity know which 
much fejrve to counterballance this objcdion : 
I. That where Emperours and Synods of Bifhops 
have made themfelves the,Ele(fl;ors,the tumults 
or confufions, or at leaft the confequent evills 
were not lefs but greater : 2. And when they 
did thus affume the Election ( which was for 
the moft pare but in a few great feats and not 
of ordinary Bifhops ) dill they fuppofe a 
neceffity of the peoples confent. When the 
Emperour chofe the Patriarchs,what one Empe- 
rour did another undid : And the peoples diffent 
undid it fooner : and the Ruling Bifhops fo oft 
difagreed, that their fynods and Churches were 
lamentably militant. By the favour of the Empe- 
rour, Dlofcorns was the ftrongeft at Ephe[us 
having the Souldiers and Rulers on his fide, and 
by them the Major Vote of the Bifhops : But 
it was more TheodoftMs and his Officers that 
carryed i: than equity ; even to the condemning 
o{ E^fehius and fuch others, and the beating of 
Fiwi^anus the Patriarch of Confi. unto death : 
And when by the Emperour and prevailing 
Bifhops VAMlI,new Bifhops were placed (^Anatct m 
at Confl, M^ximns at u4ntloch, Nontis at Edeffa^ 
u^thAnafiHs for SAvlnUn dcc, ) faith Liberate ia 


Breviaro cap, 12 [chtfmafa^Um rfi inter evs 
quale antea nanc^Ham contjgerat. tydlgyfti^ Thraccs 
V . Falefiini JEpifcopi Dicfcorum jequehantur^ 
OrientalcSy Font ids & u^fiuni Santta Mimoritr, 
FUviantim'. J§ucd Schijn^a Fomarsjit tffcjue ad 
cbitum Tbeodafii Frincipis, But when Martian 
was made Emperour, all was undon again :that 
went for Herefie, which before went for the 
right belief, Diojcorns was banilhed, Froteripts 
was chofenj and how chofen : izwh Lthcr^tus 
r. 14, ut cum omnium civium voluntate digerint 
ordinandum Epifcopum, facris oh hoc littns pXA- 
cedent thus y ad The odor um tunc ^uguft^lem collect i 
funt ergo NobiUs Civitatis, ut eum qui ejfet vita. 
& fermone Fomificatu dignus, elig^nnt : Ilocenim 
& Jmperialihus janEiionibtis jubehatur^N, B. Yet 
all this quieted not the people becaufe Diofcc- 
rus was liill by the moft taken for their true 
Blfhop ; fo that Froterius was fain to live under 
the guard of 5ouldJers among them : Timothy 
%y£lurus, and Feter Alcgghs keeping feparate 
Congregations, would not coinmunicare i^ith 
FroteriHs 5 and no (ooner did they hear of Mar- 
tians death, but the people in tumult murdered 
Froterius in the Church, mangled him, caft our^ 
and burnt his carcafs^ and fcattered his afhes in 
the wind, and made Timothy ^yElurus their Bi- 
Oiop : And thenceforward Alexandria had two 
Bifhops : And both fides petitioning the new 
Emperour Lto to be for them, he command- 
ed ( upon examination ) his General to caft out 
Timothy^ & alium dccreto populi qui Synodum 
Calc€d. vindicarety inthronizare, This Sttl^f the 
Captain performeth, and another Timothy Sato- 
phficidus is cholen : But when after heos death 


BaftlifcHs ufurped the Empire againft Zet$o^ this 
Timothy is Ccilt oiit again, and the other re^ftoredj 
and other Bifhops chanj^ed accordingly in oppo- 
sition to the Council oi Calccdon, And no fooner 
was Zeno reftored, but all was returned back 
again, and ^IIhyw poifbned himfelf to efcape 
worfe : Yet did his Party make Peter Moggus 
their Bifhop j and the Emperour commanded 
^nthimiHs to caft him out, and (et up Timothy 
Saloph, again : But while the Emperours chole 
who fhould have the Publick Authority and 
Temples, they Ick the people to ;oyn in the 
choice, and the Dilientcrs kept up their own 
Bifhops and Schrfhi. And thus the matter went 
on uncured : And very ordinarily it was the 
Ttilcheria's^ Theodora's, EiidoXiaS, and fuch other 
women, the EmprefTes, that by Hiftorians are 
faid to difpofe of thefe matters, and make fuch 
Patriarchs and Bifhops : And thefe courfes ftil} 
increafed Schifms : Of the foannites at Confian^ 
tinople we rpake before. What a calamitous 
Schifin was that ac ^^Uxandria between the Par- 
ty that held Ghrift's body incorruptible, called 
by the other the Phantafiafia , and thofe that 
held it corruptible called the corr^ipticoU, one 
part taking GaiAnns for the Bifliop,and the other 
TioeodofHsi and tiie fecular power, fetting up 
one, the Soldiers and the city fought it out. 
abundance on both fides being ilain, and yet 
rhe Soldiers had the worlt, and Thcophiks was 
forced away. 

In fufiifua'fjs time when Paulas an Orthodox 
mia was made Patriarch, he could not hold 
his fear without fuch plots, as occafioned Rhoda 
the AugiifiaUs to mtirder Pfoi^as the Deacon, 


[^5 ] 

which coft Rhodo and ylrfenifis their lives, and 
. TaiiUi his conrcmpcuous dcpofirion, by the 
Emperours juftice. Should we but run over 
the hiftory of other great Churches, cr})ecially 
Rome, Conftantifioplc, u^-.^itioch, Ep.jefus^ Cefi- ea^ 
alas how fadly would it (hew rhat neither 
Emperours nor fynods afluming the power did 
end fuch Schifmes, but increafe them, where 
theBidiopricks were (b great as to feem a very 
dellrable prey : Bat where they were fmill and 
poon, there was far greater peace and quiet- 
nefs, though the people commonly had their 
choice, and every where their confenr was 
judged neceilary ; tht proofs of which might 
fill d Volume. See in Synodo Romano cjHirto fn^ 
Symm^cho ( in Btnnio P^ol. 2. p. 288) CTc. the 
claim of Odoacer that no BifTiop of Ro-^g 
fhould be made without the conlent of the Kinj 
o{ ItAly ; And the Bifhops fpceches aG!;ainn: it. 
Even in the daies of Gregor. x. Rom. Yon may 
fee how things went, by che conftant tradition 
of the Church 5 Epift, 22. ( //; Bin. VoL z,po 
75" 9. ^scitat ) \_ natal.m S.ihnitanjs. Ecclefici fr.t- 
trem & coepifcopum KofirHm obi'jfi dtfcnrrens in 
■partihfti iflis fam.i vfilgavlt : ^tod fi vcrum efi 
experientia rtta omnl injiantiji omaicja^ folicittidi" 
»/CLERUM & POPllLUM ej^fd^mCivitatis 
admonerefeFlinet^ quntenns itno confenfii ad ordl^ 
tiandum fthi deheant eligf^rs SACsrdotcm ; f:i^ocjr4s 
in pcrjon.<im (ju^ffsjrit ehEta deer e to, adnos tranj' 
mittere ftadsbis, ut cum noftro co?ifenf4 JIjhi p'^if" 
cis ffiit temporibm ord^netm'. Hind pra cmnibits 
tibi CHr<z (it m in hac eleciione ncc datio quibuf-jus 
modis interveniat pr^miortim, nee qHarumlibet 
peyfonarnm pdtroCiHha convalefcam i nam fi ^ho- 
f runddrh 


rirnddm patrocinio fasrit (juif^uam Elcclusj l^o-- 
lfintatih::s eornm c:;m f Her it ordinal us ohedire, re^ 
V sr entt a exigent e coKpclUtur — Taiem ergo te ad^ 
monemt pc^rfonam dabent eligere^ quA npiUius in- 
congTHSL voliihtati d'farviat^ fed. vita O" moribus 
decor at a, tanto or dine digna vaicat inveniri. And 
at the Council Par^f. ^. in the daies of Pope 
fohn 3 and K. Childeberr, when Kings were for- 
bidden to make Bifhops, it was ordained Can. 8. 
that \_NuIIhs civib^is invitis ordinct'jr Epifcopi4^ $ 
'ijlji cjnem Popuh & Clencoriim eleclio plenijfima 
cjH.fierit vo Inmate, non pnncipis imperio. And 
the Bifliops are forbidden to receive him into 
their number who is made by Kings. 

At the Council of Cala^don, yliL 12. it was 
determined, that neirher of the two Bifhops of 
£phelm^BajftamiSjOV St ephar^i/s. could be Bifhops, 
becdufe not duly eleded, but a third to be cho- 
fl^n. -See al(b for the peoples unanimous E!e- 
<ffeion of their BiLhv;p Orcg, 1. Epijt. 65. m Bin, 

Vol, 2, p. 8 yO. 

We need not' bid the Learned enquire whe* 
ther Gregory Ndiocef. B fi/y ylmbrojj^ Martin^ 
VdfKafis, (and fo of the reil) ordinarily were 
Biihops without the confcnt of the people over 
v; hum they were placed : And though fome- 
times the ['tof-les choice have (iviany hundred 
years on'*- af^er Chrilrs timtj,but not in the Pri* 
mitivt G .jfch) been reftrainedj fo \vas not their 
confcnring voice denied. 

I have rranHared and adjo^'fied the Epiftfe of 
Cyt:-ian and an ^{ncane C-^uncil wiih him 
(where were. then the belt ordeied Churches in 
t^c W:jr]d, a? fiiT as I can learn ^ in winch they 
CQLinitl the Churches of B^tfihuts din^ Martial] 



to forfake them becaufe they were Libeliatiks 
in perfecution, proving from Scripture that 
ancdpaiL' py/jons ca>uiot be Paftors, and tli.u fiich 
fcanclalous finners and bad men were uncjpabfe 
perfons ( jormA non recipltttr in niatcriam 
indifpofit/im'^ ) charging it upon their confciences 
as from Gods word; flievvin^T them that els they 
Wi'Ibe Guilty of their fins becaufe the chief 
power is in the people both of chnf.ng the 
v/orthy, and forfaking the unworthy. And yec 
thefe two Bifhops lived beyond the Seas in 
another CoLinr^y, and the Bifhops of their own 
Country and the Bifliop of Romz had d^alc 
more gently with them, and adjudged Commu- 
nion to them. And the ^4fricrLns pretended to 
no authority over them, but by Counfell told 
them of Gods own Law, which no man had 
power to invalidate. They charge the people 
as heinous fmners if they forfake not a wicked 
nnmeetBifhop or Paftor.what Libellaticks were I 
ifiippofed the reader to know(i;/;L,fi]c!i as to fave 
their lives in perfecution, had permitted another 
to put their names by fubfcription to a falfe pro- 
feftion that favoured idolatry or infidelity. ) 

Obj. I, Biit Cypricin and the ^dfnc an Council; 
were mi ft alien in ths point of Rshaptiz^ing thofi 
haptized by Herctichj-, andfo they might be here, ) 
^nf. I. The Council of JNice decreed the 
rebaprizing of thofe that were baptized by 
fome Hereticks, though not by all : And if the 
Africans did not confine the word to fuch, they 
erred only in not fufficiently diftirrguifhing of 
Hereticks. 2. If vve arc excufcd from receiving 
the teftimony of fuch Fathers and Councils as 
had any Errour, or as great an Errour as that, 
F 2 ycu 


you may fee what will follow. 3 . We do nos 
cire Cyprian and the u^'frican Council as infallih.'e, 
nor as having more Governing power over us 
than tlie prelcnt RuIlTS, but as beinp, to t:z (I 
lay to rts ) of more credit and authority in telling 
lis what is jpire divlno than thofe Bifhops or 
others that now condemn us as Schifmaticks. 

4. C)pyian and the .African Gouncill were not 
forbidden for this judgment of theirs to Preach 
ChriftsGofpel, nor call out of the Churches, 
nor fent to Goals, nor called and ufcd as Rogues 
and Schifmaticks^and farr worfe then drunkard?, 
adulterers, vea or the atheifts and infidels 
among us. (Nor were the people that obeyed 
their Couucill fo ufed. ) But the name^ of thefe 
holy men are venerable to this day. 

Obj. 2. There were then no Chriftian Maglft- 
r.ztes, and therefore the peoples power muft be ufed 
in their fie ad. 

^nf. Church power was the fame before and 
sfccr.The Lawes of Chrift concerning it altered 
not. The Paftors were then the Guides of the 
people by divine right : And the power of the 
Keyes was no lefs forcible or effeiftual as ufed 
by the Bifhops and Presbyters, than when the 
power of the fword was added to them ( if 
not much more. ^ And the peoples power of 
choodng and refufing Bifhops continued many 
h indred years after Mjgiltrates wereChrillians, 
confinritd even by Popes and Councills. 

Obj. 3. This would cafi all into confufwn^ and 
there v:odd he vo Church Government^ if the 
Y'etlt be 'fudge i when a Aimifier is bad, and then 
Tijaj I fill him down or for fake him^ and c hoofs ano^. 



'^nfw\ This is after further anfwerd. I now 
only fay i. The people may not touch his 
Perfon, by violence, nor deprive him of his 
benefice or temple, nor yet degrade him : As 
they thar change their Phyfician or Lawyer 
^o no fuch thing, but fimply chaofe one that 
they can truft. No man will win more by my 
falvation than [ (hall, nor would futler more than 
I by it if I were damned : Who is more than I 
concerned what becometh of my foul ? Am I not 
to have more care of it than of my citare or 
health of body? Who can eafily believe thofc 
men that fend us to goaJes and ruin us for 
trufting our foules with fuch Guides as to the 
beft of our underftandings we think meeteil", 
or at lead for avoiding fuch as we cannot To farr 
truft, and then tell us that they do it becaufe 
they love our fouls better than we love our 
felves^ and therefore wiil not rruft them to our 
choice. 2. what confufion doth it caufe that 
C\rery man now choofcth his owne Tutor in 
philofophy, his own mafter, his own Lawyer 
and phyfician, and every woman at age her own 

3. Doth not the Church of EngUndC as is 
faid ) allow every man his choice, vvhen no man 
is forbidden to forfake any Bifhop or Pallor and 
choofe another by removing his habitation 
when he pleafes ? So that all this is but about 
Parifh bounds, which is confcfled to be of hu- 
mane alterable conftitution. And how ordinarily 
do many Gentlemen of the Church of £->^/v«« 
go from their own Parifibes in London'^ 4. You 
may fee by Philip Njcs printed papers, and Mr. 
Ti/^/;^ hiSj that even thofe called Independents 
F 3 and 

end feme Arabnptifls are for Iiearirg fucli parlfli- 
Teaclicrs as their Rulers fhal! aj poinr^ (o they 
inay but commit the Paftoral care of their fouls 
to luch a? they can better truft, and have Sacra- 
jnents ancirpecial Church Communion free. 

5. what great confufion doth it breed in 
Lcndcn that the French and Dutch Churches 
thus differ from the rell, and have their proper 
modes and Government ? Yea or that the 
Nonconformifts by the favour of his MajeflicS 
Licenfes had their choice and feveral meetings. 
Let nor envy and animofity feign greater con- 
fuHon than there is^ and the matter Wjl) aj-.pear 
much otherwife than it is rcprefented,evcn that 
the difccrds and confufions were incomparably 
lefsfon that occafion ) than thpy were under 
the Biibo[)S in the better timeS of the Chnrches, 
erven from u^n. 400 to 6co, of which more in 
due place. 

6. They that v^'ill condemn all that hath in> 
conveniences, fhall condemn all things in this 
wxi'd: But the Grcarelt iiiuit be noted anct 
avoided hrft. Shall the peo|'le have auv judg- 
mcnt of diicernirig or not? If ye;=_, the bounds 
cf it ninft be ibewedj and not the ihin^denyeJ 
as if it muft bring in all confunon. If Uiurpcrs 
cb"m the Crov.'n, the Siibjefts nuift '}i\'^g('^ Vv'liich 
is ilicir rrueKing,i:nd muO defend his right. V/ill 
you fiv. If the people be Judges, they may fet 
up IKijrpcrs, and put down tiie King ? They arc 
but difcerners of that which is before ihcir du- 
ty. They have no right to erre, nor to alier the 
Law or right : Bur if it be othcrwi/e, they are 
to be ruled as brurcs : And fo mult not judge 

10m iLey muit obey. Is there any 
. Chrirtian 

Chriftian that dare fay, that B'fhops or Princes 
are in all things to be obeyed , lelt the prople 
be made Judges ? And fo that under Heathen, 
Mahometan Papift, Heretical Rulers, t^bcy muit 
be all of their Religion, as to ihe external pro- 
felTing and praiftiring part? None dare for (hame 
fay fo, lave an Infidel. Is not this a greater con- 
fufion or michiefthan that which is now difpu- 
tedagainft: Therefore the bounds niuft be fee 
on borh fides, which arc not diflicult to difcern : 
As the people have propertv in tlieit Iimbs,chil- 
dren and liberties, a^id acquifirions antecedently 
to humane G-'vernment,which is to order thefe, 
and not to deitroy them ; (b have all men grea- 
ter intereit in the fatctv of their own fouls, 
which no man can take from them 5 no nor is ic 
in their juft power tu put it into the hands of 
others from themOlves. If Hereticks, blind 
guides, or fairhlefs men, or infufficient, be made 
Paftors of the Flocks, and all men commanded 
to hear no better, nor truft the Palioral Con- 
dufl of their fouls into anv wifer or (afer hands, 
Satan will be more gratified by it, than by the 
diforder of the peoples chufing their own fpiri- 
tual Councillors, Tutors and Phyficians, And 
when Church-communion is due to none but 
voluntary accepters, men fbould not be u(ed fo 
as to take it (till againft their wills, and to be as 
it were crammed and drencht with facred My- 
fteries, Sc driven to take them againft their con- 
fciences and wills from fuch as they think they 
cannot communicate with, without being guilty 
of their fin : When fome Councils h ivc owned 
Pope Nicholas's decree, that no man ought to 
hear theMafsfroma fornicating PricU 5 much 
F 4 lt(3 


IcCs from men that arc far more liable to excep-^ 


To this I may add, that as in divers cafes the 
Canons and Decrees forbad hearing fome Priefts," 
and allowed fevera! Churches in the fame 
ground, fo they feem to give that Paftor a right 
iro the CondiKft of the People,wlio was the chief 
Converter of them from Infidelity or Herefie : 
And hence was the Popes Conrroverfie with the 
Creek^s about the Bulo^ariar.s^ and his claim to 
the Church o^ EngLj}id, and many others,becaufe 
he fa id his Miffionaries converted rhem. I (hall 
fpecially note here, that the old Canons ftnt by 
\AdYui,n to Cdrclv.s A4,i^. recited by Camfius and 
Binii^-fj fay, [*' That i o or.c ?-:^:ift fraj with Here- 
"Ukkj or Schifmatickj ] and fo not with Papifl- 
^* B'fhops that are the greareft Schifmaricks by 
"dividing Impofitions [ '7'^.if ?/* a Bsfhcp fix 
^' morahs after adjnonit ion vf other Bificpr r.egleB 
'* to w..hc Catkolickj of the pecple ( multitudes 
*' then being Heathens and Hereticks) bclougin^^ 
** to his feat i an J ether f:all obtain them rh.tfi^all 
*' deliver ihcm from their Here ft:. yici the Bifhop 
is notdepofed, but anorher Biiliop and Church 
of the new Converts fet up in his Precin(fl:s, and 
fo a Church garhered in the Precinds of ano- 
ther Church and B fhop. And fo Gregory Nk" 
z,fanz^en did long preach as their Palior in a 
fmail Cliurch in Conflantincple^ before he had 
polTrffion of the Cathedral j ihe peo| ¥ claiming 
him for their profiting by his reaching ; and 
Thcodofn'^ gave him the Cathedral cis merited by 
hi^.fuccefs. And in the laid old Canon<;, c. 19. 
it«i-iaid, that Dinecfcs (which then v/cre every 
Corporation and the Suburbs or Wlhg^^sJ^' which 

*' Vfani 


« 1V''«^ Bijhops receive none without the confent ef 
^^ the B'/hop who hitherto held them (fo -be \i)not 
*^ proudly'. For if he over- hold them^ affeciing ta 
*f fit over the people, and defpifng his fellow- 
*< BiJhops, he IS not only to be driven from the re- 
*' tamed DioC"fe, but alfo from his own Church, 
And ex Con. Sard. 2. ^' [ v^ Bijhop that by ambi- 
^^ ttoi changeth hts feat fwhicb was then for- 
* bidden by theCanons)/^.';/ not have(fo much as^ 
** Laj-communionj (no notjat the erjd(h\s death.) 

Even old Clemens Romanus, 4d Connth. tells 
tliem that they ought nor to caft out thefe Mi- 
niHers that live unblameably, having been 
Conftituted by the Apoftles or deincepf ab aiiis 
viris cclcbribuSy Cum Conferju VniverfdC Ecclefx. 

But I find the Roman and Tyrannical fpiric 
mi'ch infifting uppon this, that the Chriftian 
Religion was but in the fhell or Embryo in the 
Apoftles dayes; and under Chriftian Emperours 
is grown up to the maturity of Papacie, riches, 
pomp, and grandeur, and that great power 
which the Chriftian Emperours gave the Patri- 
archs and prelates of their times. But this Hy- 
pothefis muft be better proved before we can re- 
ceive it : We confefs that for extent and number 
the Church was there in its minority : But if it 
was fo as to infallibility ofdodrine Sr perfedion 
of Laws, and exemplary lives, then the Pope is 
better than Chrift and his Apoftles and their 
contemptible Decretals and firebrand Conncills 
are better than the facred fcriptures, and their 
degenerate Clcrgie and people better than the 
ancient holy peaceable Chriftians,&: their blood- 
ihedders better than the Martyrs,and theCrofs- 
makers better than the Crofii-bearers 5 which 



are thingrfi that thei worldly fort may believe more 
caniy than morrificd and heavenly Chriftians. 

One teftimuny more we will add for the 

antiquity, jnd the cftimation of many that are- 

^g'inlt us. \nd that is the Apoftolica]) confti- 

tutions, L'b^ 8. c^tp. 4 de oYdinatiombus, (having 

faid before r^r/? 2. that Epifcopus ig'iorMtia atit 

malo ammo cppldus, Epfcpax hoh tfl, fedftlfnf 

Ep'fGp!4s, non /I D f d «? bomnibm promotes, ) 

they hrre fay that a B;t7iop mud: be one that 

f a LUnclo p^pulo ex optimis cjulhufijMc eleSlus 'ft: 

,^^0 nominaro Sc pUs-'ntc'^ pjpid is in unnm Con- 

g^'cga'us (not a thoufand Churches but onej un^t 

cum Presbyteris, atqnz Epijcopls pr&fentibus Die 

DDminico conprniat, ,Qjt v:ro inter rcliqms 

p---incLfs Eptfcopids eft, percoutetur Fresbyteros 

& p jpiiUm ua ipp (It cjHcn/ pfizcjfe pet ant f & lU'^s 

anriuemibus YurJ-4s pe'C/ntaar an tnbt^unt ei om- 

n:s ttfiimoni^^m cjuod digii^.s fit hoc magna & 

illtdfiri mtimrc pTcrjider.d f An qiiA ad pictatcm 

erga Dcum pertinent reBe peregerit f jin jhyh 

advcrftis homines favArit / An domtim [nam rej- 

que dumeftiCi^s rede adminifl raver it, & an vita 

ei per omnia honefis & laud.it e a'dafucrit f cum 

veifo Omnes limul, non fecmidwn opinioncm pr£- 

judicata}?2j . fed fecy^ndnm verit'atom teftficrai 

fitennt, talem effs eum^ tan<ittam In confpdin 

j'tdicis Dei & Chrifti^ pr.cfentc etiam Spirits 

Santlo, Mcjae omnibus fmdis 6^ admrntftr atoms 

fpintibus/nrffis tcrtio inter rcgenr^mr^im fit dignus 

^WnifieriOy ut in ore duo/fmi vcltriumjht >mns 

Terbum : Et cum tertib annaennt, ct dignum ejfe 

fijfenfi fiiennt, petatur ab ommb;ts ut prxbcant 

Jignum ajfcnjiis : Et Lbemer pr^bentes audiantur^ 

We urge not this as of Apoilolicall author itv, 



^' feut as of great antiquity, and agreeing with 
the primitive pradtife. This courfe much difFe- 
reth from the ordaining of a Biihop at an hun- 
dred miles diftance from his Church ; Yea 
ordaining him, not in or to a particular Church, 
but to many hundred Churches when the peo- 
ple neither know him nor are prefcnt, and yet 
the qiieftion's askt as if they were. And as the 
people had ever a chufing or a free confenting 
Voice, ib they oft received Bifhops and Presby- 
ters who were ordained by fuch as were out- 
cafts, Nonconformifts, and baniftied both by 
Empcrours and Synods ; as in many more inftan- 
ces might be proved : Asalfo that they adhered 
to die Paftors fo chofen, notwithftanding their 
ejedionsby the Imperial Power; yea and by 
fuch Councils as they thought to be unjuft ; as 
the fcid divifions by the difplacings, reftorings, 
and changes of Bifhops by the Councils of Ow- 
fia-.tir:ople, X. Ephc[i4^^ 2. <S: Calcedon, and by the 
Emperours in thofe times, do fully prove, the 
people following fome one^ and fome another ; 
though fear oft prevailed for conformity w'th 
the greater part. (And no w^onder when ib ma- 
ny Bidiops at the Council of Calcedon profeffcd 
that/er fear they had judged againft FUvianus 
for E/itichus againft their confciences, and even 
old O^fis^ and many more at ^rtminf/m d\d the 
like 5 and when the powers changed,cryed,Ow- 
nes pcccdvimfis 5 and when under Theodofit^ id^ 
fo many went one wa^^, who under jkartian 
went another way, even in point of Here fie. 

When A'lavia the Saracen Queen chofe Afo- 
fcs a Monk to be her Bifnop, as the condition of 
her peace with the Rowm Empire, Mofes\vou\d 


not be ordained hyLmnui not becaufe he was 
an Arrtan^ but becaufe be was a perfecutor, andt 
hurtful to other men for Relif^ion, and fo he 
would be ordained Prieft by lome that were 
banifhed to a certain Mountain, %ocr. Z.^. c. 29* 
When the Emperour was gone from Antioch 
(where in perfon he went to difperfe their 
Meetings, and yet they held onj the peo[)le 
thruft out Lucitu whom he had {ti up, and fet 
up Veter again whom the Emperour had banifh- 
ed. But fuch inftances are too many to be re- 
cited. Yea under Orthodox Princes, the people 
would cleave to their injured Paftors, though 
againft the Emperours will, as they of MllUne 
did to Ambrofe j and the foannites to Chrjfofiom, 
who even long after his death feparated from 
the Bifhop, and kept up their feparate Meeting's 
againft the will of Prince and Prelates, till mij- 
der Bifhops inftead of perfecuting them, reftored 
Chrjfoftom's hones Sind name to honour, and re- 
conciled them. It will ftill be objeded, as be- 
fore^ that molt of thefe inftances were but the 
peoples re iedion of Arrians : But again, we an- 
fwer 1. In other inftances, they ufually chofc 
their Paftors, and cleaved to them, though 
prohibited. 2. Thefe Arrians were fuch as fub- 
icribed the Arhninum Creed, which was fo am- 
biguoufly compiled, that abundance that re- 
nounced ^r/>^, did think that {ox obedience and 
feace they might put a fair (cnfc on the words, 
and fo fubfcribe them : And we meet with per- 
fons in our times, that think words impofed on 
them by Superiours, may and muft endure 
firetching to a fenfe as far from their ufual accep- 
tation, as the forefaid words were ftretched by 



s he Arlminum Subfcribers. 3. They that never 
liccufed and convidcd the refufed Bidiops 
' )f Arrianifm, yet adhered to their former 
iiihops. 4. It feemeth then that the people 
ire left Judges (as to the guiding of their own 
ipradice) what Bifhops to refafe as heterodox, 
and whom to own as Orthodox. 

And indeed the faying of Cjprian is well 
known, that \The people have the greatefl power 
hoth to chufe a voorthy Friefl^ and to r<:fi4[e or for^ 
fake the unrvorthj.'] 

6. All Protertants believe that it is no Schifin 
in France^ or other Papift Countries, to chufe 
Faftors.and meet for the Worfliipof God.thougb 
forbidden by the Civil and Ecclefiaftick Go- 
vernors of the place. 
Obj. That IS becanfe that the Princes are Fapijfs^ 
An[. A Papift King is to be obeyed in law-^ 
ful things : what Proteftant denieth that? 

Ob;. But it is beca^fe that the Churches and 
Worjh'ip in thofe Countries is fuch as it is not lavf- 
Jul to he prefent at, 

Anl, 1. This Objedlion granteth, that when 
the commanded Aifemblies or Worfhip are fucli 
as it is not lawful to be prefent atj i. The people 
are difcerning Judges; 2. And may lawfully meet 
clfewhere under Paftors of their own choice. 
2. But let ihcQneftion bej(not whether we may 
be prefent in their Chwiches^ but) whether we 
may fet up other Churches^ when we areneceffa- 
rily kept from thofc eftablifbed by Publick 
Power ? and it will go far. 

7. When the Form of WorJJoip and Concord 
called the Interim^ w^as by Charles the jtb. im- 
pofed on the German Proteftants, (being drawn 



tip by "JhUhs ^fl^^i Sidonhif^ and Iflcbiju u^nri^ 
coUy men pretending to moderation, as not im- 
pofing the Ma(s, 6v'c. the Proteftants judged it 
lawful to gather Alfemblies , and keep up 
Churches contrary to fuch an Edidl of the Em- 
perour : One half of them held on their former 
way, till banilhment or other violence liindred 
them. Melanclhon and the others that thought 
the things commanded not utterly unlawful, con- 
formed only to prevent the utter defolation of 
the Churches j but not in confcionable obedi- 
ence to the Emperours Ediu:, as if it had been 
any Schifm to do othcrwife if they could have 
been endured : As may be fcen in MeUn^ihon's 
own words in his Epiflles, and elfewhere. 

8. The mcft of Froteftants at this day hold^ 
that it is no Schifm to keep up Churches of their 
/evcral Parties^ againft their Princes will and 
prohibition. Thofe called Arminians in BcJgia \ 
To think. Epifcopius wrireth at large, that if 
Minifters be forbid to Preach, and People to 
Ailemble fin their cafe) they muft go on,though 
they fuffer death for it (faving that prudence < 
inaydired them fometime to avoid a prefent ' 
ftorm. ) The Churches under the Duke ofBran- 
dcnburgh are gener^illy contrary to his judgment 
in Religion: And fhould the Princes ofS^.v^^;*, 
BrmfwiJ^y HaJfi.i^&G, or the Kings of SivWe«, or 
Denmarl^tuvn Caiz)inijh, their Clergy would bc 
far from thinking it their duty to ceafe their AC- ' 
femblies of the Luthsran ProfcfTion and Worfhip„ 

Bifhop Andreivs is fo far from tying all 
Minilters to the Kings will, that he faith [ co- 
hSbeat Kegem T>iaconus^ [i cum indignus ft idque 
fdam confier, accedai; tamcn ad Sacram^inHm, ] 

j. e* 


I e. Let ( even ) a Deacon reflrain the King, if 
hs come to the Sacrament being nnxvorthj^and that, 
be openlj manifift, ] 

" Bifhop Btljon of fubjcdion p. 399 faith, 
" [ The Ekdi'ion of Bfjhcps inthop dates belonged 
" to the people and not to the Prince '.and though 
" VaLens by plain jorce placed Lticius there ^ yet 
*' 'tnight the people Lawfully rejeB: him as no Bi- 
*'fiO(-p and cleave to Ptter their right Faftor. 3 
*^ Ma.rk that he laveth it not on his Error ^hut on 
his efitrar.ce without tht peoples Eisclion and that 
they mi^bt rejcd him as ,0 Bif.np, We fee 
here the fiill concurrence of fuch Englifh Eifhops 
as were the molt Learned and zealous defenders 
of Epijc pacj and loyalty. 
The fame Bifhop ibid.p.y 36. Saith more plain- 
ly, " [ Princes have no right tq call or confirm 
'* Preacf^ers^ hut to receive JHch as be fent of God 
^* and give them Liberty for their Preaching and 
" fecurity for their per fons : and if Princes refrife fa 
*' to doy Gods laipom^rs mhfl gc fon^ard with that 
*' Vffhich is commanded tfoem from Htaven 5 Not- 
** by di^urbing Princes frem their ThrcneSy nor 
^'invading their Realms as your father doth^ 
." and defe;idetK> he m.y do 5 but by mildly fuhmit- 
** ting themjcives to t^e powers on Earth and 
*' meeliiy jiiff'cring\for the defence of the trmh, what 
•* tioey jhall inflict. ] This is the fumm of all thac 
*^ we here intend, ^opag. 313, he(aith[we 
*' grant that they mu^ rather uaz^ard their lives 
*' than baptiz.c Princes which beieive not, or 
*' diftrtbftte the Lords myfteries to them that 
*' repent net, but give willftd and open figmfic ation 
^^ o{ impiety ^&c.~\ So Beda Hifl. Eccl, i. 2. c, 5. 
*' Tells us that AUlitHs Bilhop of London ( wirb 


^^^uflus^ was banifhed by i lie heirs ofKing 
** SMareth, becaufe he would not give them 
^' the Sacrament of the LordfSiipper,which they 
" would have had before thev were baptized. 

Yet all this is no juftification of caufelefs dif- 
obedience to Magiirrates that circumltanriatc 
f^cred things according to their Office 5 nor will 
it juftifie any Schifmatical focicties:^<?//?<e habent 
favos, & MarciomtcZ Ecclefi.^is faith Tertullian, 

XLIV. 12. If any perfons fball pretend to" 
have the power of Governing^ the Churches and 
Inferior Paftors as their Bifhops, who are 
obtruded on thofe Churches without the 
Ble^hon or confcnt of the people or Inferior Paft- 
crs, and thefe Bifbops fhall bv Lawes or man- 
dates forbid fuch Afrembling, Preaching or 
Worfbip as otherwife would be Lawful and a 
duty. It is no Schifm todifubey fuch Laws or 
mandates as fuch ; Nor do fuch difobey their 
Paftors, they being truly no Bifhops of theirs 
till they do confent ( however in fome cafes 
the advantages of fome impofed perfons may 
make it an ad of Prfidencc^ and fo a duty to 
confent, as is afore faid, ) It was no Schifm for 
the people of Antiochy Alexandria^ Cefarea^ 
Confianttnople &c, to refufe Ecclefiaftical obed- 
ience to the ill Bifhcps fet over them by the 
Erhperour to whom thty did not confentjBut the 
Schifm was theirs who complied with the impo- 
fed Ufurpers. Here it muft be noted,that Church 
hiftorv hath corftrained all that underftand it to 
confefs ( both Papifts, Greeks, and Proteftants, 
that the ordination of Bilhops and Presbyters 
was in the power of the Bifhops and the 
Ele^ion in the power of the people, not only 



the firft 300 years under heatlicn Emperours; 
but for many hundred years afrer under 
Chrlftidn Emperours and Princes. 2. ThuC this 
was taken for their right given them bv God. 
To cite more proofs, for this would expofe us to 
the readers cenfure, as unnecelfary tedioufne fs : 
Many Papifts largely prove it j As doth David 
Blondei bevond exception, ^j jure pleli^ /« 
regimin'c Ecclefafttce^ with more. 3. That vet we 
here plead not for the necelFity of fb much as the 
peoples elcdion as it Hgnihcth the firft nomina- 
tion of the perfon, but only for the necefTuv of 
confent^ either explicitly or implicitly expreft. If 
the fenior Paftors have the firit nomination^ or if 
it be the Magiftrate, or Patrons, as with us, we 
quarrel not againft it, if the flock do but confent. 

Parents may Chufe Husbands and Wives for 
their Children j but they are nozfich at all till 
mMtual coyfent, 

XLV. 13. The conferit of a/(fvv of the Church, 
isn')t the confent of the Cht-jch -, Nor is it 
Schiim for the Major part to differ from their 
choice or determinations ( as fuch. ) In 
Government , t^e will of the Sovereign is the 
fublick^ ]iil-. But in contra^ s, and confent of a 
Community, where Vmty is the thing intended, 
and voting the me:.ins , the Major part is 
denominatively the fbciety, ( unlefs they have 
made others their truftees or delegates' in 
Elevfling, Confenting themfelves to what they 
do, )fuch focietie* are not denominated from 
the Minor, or a fipall part, as contradiltindt from 
the reft. If a Diocefs have a thoufandjOr 6oo,or 
300 Parifh Paftors, and a hundred thoufand or a 
n^illion of people ( or ^0000 or 20000 as you 
G will 

will fuppofe ) and if only a dozen or twenty 
Presbyters, and a thoufand people ( or none ) 
chufe the Bifhop, this is not the Elecftion or con- 
fent of the Diocefan Church; Nor is it Schlfm 
for 20000 to go agairift the votes of26oo. 

XLVl. 4. IfBifhops that have no better 
a foundatii.n of their relative power over that 
particular flock^ fhall impofe inferior Paltors or 
presbyters on the Parifh'Churches;&- command 
the peoples acceptance & obedience, the people 
are not bound to accept and obey them by any 
authority that is in that command as fuch :Nor 
js 1; Schifm to difobey it, no more than it is 
treaft^n to reject the Ufurper of a Kingdom. 

XLVII. 1^. whileft fuch obtruded Parifli 
Faftors have no confent of the flock ( explicite 
or implicite ^rto Panjh ts no Parijh Chnrch^ 
in the proper Political Organized fenfe, as we 
now (peak of a Church, as conftituted by the 
Governing and Governed parts. For that which 
wanrerh an effential part, wanteth the Effence, 
And therefore it: is no Schifm to pronounce it 
m fuch Ckmch^ and to deny it the Communion 
proper to fuch a Church. Though yet as the 
word {Chii'Ch'} doth fignific an ungovcrned So- 
ciety in pot em I a proxima to receive Govern- 
mtnt, they may be improperly called a Chtrrch 
as thev are in a vacancy. 

XL VIII. 16. If they that make a Diocefs the 
loweft y;roper Churchfvv hich hath a Bi(hop,and 
none under him) and a Parifh to be but a part of 
the Diocefan Church, and no proper Church 
of it felf, as having no Epifc<fHs Gregis^ (hall 
accufe thole as feparating from the Church,who 
feparate not from the BifhOp, and keep to any 


tarifli in the Diocefs, they contradid them--^ 
felvcs : Though fuch forfake many.Presbytcrs 
and Pariflies. 

XLIX. 17. If Princes or Prelates (hall unjuft- 
ly filence or depofe io great a number of faiih-- 
ful Paftors or Preachers, as fball leave peojilc 
(deftitute of a neceflary Preaching and Palloral 
lie!}), it is no Schifm, but a grear duty, for fuch 
Minifters to preach, and paftorally guide fuch 
people 5 othern^ifr bv the fmie rea(()n, one man 
might put do'vn CUiriftianiry in an Empire at his 
pleafiire; ordiff Ive rhe Churches. 
^L. Ifitbefaid, that z^'j tfffe if he put down 
ally but not if he flcnce but a minor part. We an- 
fwer^ that the reafon is the fame to thofe to 
whom the .^ir? fi-ry i< ncccffzry^ if he put down 
Minilters to them. The fupply of tbe Churches, 
e.gi in one City of a Kingdom, is no fupplv to 
the other Cities: And if a Parifh have loooo, or 
30Q00, or 50000, or 60000 f vuls, its no fupply 
to all the reit if 3000 of thefe have the benefit 
of a Preacher and Paftor. The fame power 
which may deny a Paftor to ten parrs of a Pa- 
rifh, may deny him ro the eleventh part, that 
]s, to all. So if competent Paftors be fet over 
half the Parljhes in a Kingdom^ and the other half 
harh incompetent men ; or if nine parts of a 
Kingdom were competently fup[)]ied, and but 
the tenth part had not fuch ^o whom the people 
may lawfully commit the Paftoral Care of their 
(buls, it is no Schifm, but a duty for thofe that 
are dcftkute, to get the beft fupply they can j 
and it is no Schifm, but a dutv, for faithful Mi- 
nifters, though forb'dden by fuperiours, to per- 
form their Office to fuch people that defire ir, 

G 2 TheiF 


Their General Ordination^ with the peoples Ne^ 
cejfity and Conjcnt added to Go£s General Com- 
mands to all bis Alimfiers to be faithful and dili- 
gent^ are a fiifficient obltging Call to fuch Miniftra- 
tion, without the will of (prohibiting) Supc- 
riours 5 yea againft it. 

For I. Elfe it were at the will of a man whe- 
ther ibuls fhall be faved or damned^ ffor how 
(hall they believe unlcls they hear? and how 
fhall they hear without a Preacher ?) and whe- 
ther Chriil: fliall have a Church 5 and God be 
publickly worfhiped, or not. 

2. Our Ordination confecrateth us to our 
Office, during life : And it is 5acriledge and Cq- 
verlant-breaking with God to caft it off andali- 
c/iate our'felves. 

3* God hath defcribed the Office and the 
Work in his Word, and charged his fervants tp | 
give the children their bread in due feafon, and 
adjLured them before God and the Lord Jefus 
Chrift-, who (hall judge the quick ai;id the dead 
at his appearing, and his Kingdom^to preach the. 
Word,<3C be inftant/in feafon, & out of feafonj^r, 

4. The indifpenfiblc Law of Nature obligeth 
every man according to his Place and Calling, 
liis Ability, and his Opportunities^ to do hisbcft 
to propogate Chrift's Gofpel, and to favc mens 
fouls, as much and more than to feed mens bo-, 
dies, and fave their lives : But our Galling is to 
do it as Minifters of Chrift, thereto devoted. 
And we did not receive this Calling to be alter- 
ed, or forborn at the will of man, but to be per- : 
formed according to the Word of God : Men 
being not the M^ik^rs of the Offce, nor of God's 
Law under which we execute it 3 nor the Do- 


^Irs or Limiters of the Power, but only i. The 
" Electors of the Perfons that fhall receive ir ; 
2. And the Invcfters of them in it by Minifterial 
delivery, 3. AndtheGovernours of us in the ex- 
ercife of it, according to God's Laws, by which 
they may punilh us for maleadminiftration^ but 
cannot dilTolve the Laws obligation to thofe 
that are indeed commanded by it. 

LI. Ob;. 2. J f there U able Preachers tn one 
•part oj the Fari/heSy and the other part h.ive 
fnch as deliver all that is necejfary to falv.it inn 
intelligibly^ it is unlawful to Pre itch againfi the 
will of the Prince ov Prelates in fuch a Country. 
Anf We deny this unproved alfertion. 1. 
Indeed it will follow that fuch perfons are jull-ly 
condemned by God, if they repent not though 
they had but a Reader. 2. And that they flioiiid 
be thankful forfo much, and gladly accept it in 
fuch Churches when they can have no better. 
But not I. that it is in the power of any man 
juftly to forbid them better, when God pro- 
videth ir, 2. Nor that they mull: obey fuch a 
prohibition, as fuch. ( Though pruds-rxe mv^j 
difcern forbearance to be a duty by acci- 
dent, when the hurt would be greater than the 
good. ) There is no docinne objeUivel;' of ahfohue 
neceffny to falvation, but the dodrine of the 
Baptifmal Covenant which is expounded in the 
Creed^ Lords prayer and Dccalogae, Bat there is 
much Doctrinal and aFtive Means necelTary to 
make men Vnderfiand^BsUeve, Lovc^ and Pr.z- 
Bife^ this neceOary Covenant doifhrine. And 
.the dodlrine or articles of faith, will fave none 
that do not ZJnderflandjBelieve^Love^a:id Pratiifj 
\i^ and that fincerely preferring the things 
G :; reveal- 


revealed before all the pleafures, riches and 
honours of this World. A Parrot fhaU not be 
a Saint for faving the Creed. 

LU. Thefe following matters of fafl are 
prctlippodd ro the anfn'er of this obje(!l'ion, and 
in them all ibber Proteitants are ( as we fup- 
pofe j ag;rccd. 

I. That this aforefjid fmcerity of Faith, Re- 
p.ntnnce^ HcpCy Love, zr\<i Obedience, is made by 
God of neCcJfity to falvation, 
' 2. That as it will not profit a man to win all 
the World and lofc his foul, fo neither will 
dncirinal foi mdlitj,ox' obedience to foperiours that 
hinder found Preachcrs,recompence him for the 
Jofs of his foul ; And that God would not have 
mens Government maintained by mens dam- 
nation, nor will the ungrodly be the beft mem- 
bers of Church or Kingdoms ; Order is a 
rrjeans to fav^e men, and not damn, them, fome 
ft\w Heathens offer to Devils a facrifice of mans 
fefh, and blood : But if a man fhould offer to 
God (the L )ver. Saviour, and Sanc1:ifyer of 
fouls ) a Sacrifice of the (buls of thoufands, 
and (ay, ^11 thcje are to be k^pt m Ignvrance 
and U';godlyni.fi and [o to be damned, to flenfe God 
who wil have them obey their fupenours, at that; 
rate ; this were a diihonour to God of unex- 
preiTible iniquity and errour. Chrilt that hath 
taught men ro feek firlt his Kingdom, and to. 
rake up the Crofs, and to forfake Father and 
Mother and Lte and all to ferve hmi in the 
fuving of their louls, and had jlanred infeparably 
f-'/f lo'vehio our natures, furely did not mranfo. 
C(^nrrc!rily a*; that wc mult forfake Chrift, 
Heaven^ aiid Salvation, to obey men. 

3. That 


3. That certain experience puttetb us paft 
doubt, that ignorance, fenfLality, vNorldllnefsr, 
profanenefs are far more common, and a holy 
heavenly mind and life, and all fr rioi s Chriftiunity 
and obedience, far, very far more rare, in rhofc 
Kingdoms and Parifhes which have no plcim, 
convincing, ferious, lively and exemplciry 
Preacher?, than in thofe that have,ahh(ugh ihey 
be baptized, and have the Creed, Lord.^ prayer 
and Decalogue in their Littirgie. And yet here 
are all things of abfolute objedive neceflity to 
falvation. What a cafe the Mofcovites are in, 
that have only Liturgies and Homilies read, we 
mentioned before:And how fad the cale is amorg 
the Greeks, Armenians, Abaflins, and moit 
Papifts, for want of better Preachers . Ei(?iop 
Vfher could fay of the Irifh, that more perifned 
by not knowing what we are on both fides 
agreed in, than by their Popi h Errours; Ar.d 
what a cafe the Scottifli Highlanders^ too many 
of the Welfh, and moft Parifhes in EyjgLmd 
were in, as to ferious piety, which had hereto- 
fore but Readers, or Preachers that did kfs 
than read a Hjmilie, experience conllraineth us 
to know: as alfo'what ditference there is yec 
to be feen as to ferious faith and godlinefs, 
between the fruits of a clear, ferioup, h^ ly, 
diligent Preacher, and of rave youths that fay 
over a pedanrik lifelefs fpeech, and out of the 
pulpit little ditfer in f[)eech or life, from Carnal 
Worldlings or forrral Hypocrites. Thougji we 
know that all that protefs to be ferioufly 
Religious, are not fb, yet none are fo that do 
not profefs it as they have opportunity^ 
As we are not able to deny this experience 
G4 of 


of the different fruits of different Teaching 
( when all have the Creed ; ) Nor dare deny 
the neceirity of ferious faith, repentance and 
holinefs to falvation ( leit we renounce the 
Gofpel, ) nor yer that no men ( much kfs moft 
men or manv thoufands) may as an adt of 
obedience to man, refule thofe helps which God 
provideih rhem, and without which few 
Comparatively are truely converted from a 
Carnal life and faved 5 fo therefore we dare not 
think or fay, that humane Lawes or orders are 
arguments of fufficient weight to move them 

LIII. Obj. 3. ButthehurtofthepeofleschH^tng 
T'eachtYs and ^jjemblits without or againjt the 
Rnlers vpill, IS greater thiin the hurt that Cometh by 
the want of better Teachers, 

■ ^r.j. I. The peo[)les choice doth hurt by 
accident , in thofe Countries , w^here the 
Rulers put down necelfary helps, and where 
the people are Erroneous, Heretical, and 
Unruly, and fo where tlie people would choofc 
unfutferabJe men. fuppofing ftill that no Church 
is conftitured without mutual confent of the 
Paftor and the flock and that the Rulers alter 
not or violate not Chrihs Laws by which he 
hath appointed the ordering of AliemblieSo 
Therefore it is the Rulers Office to hinder the 
people frum doing mifcliief, without hindering 
thtm from their dutv and fi'om doing welliTo 
Govern them in their w^ork,and not to forbid it. 

2., If the Goljcl be hid (from the mind 
though not from the Ear ) it is hid to theni 
that are lolt z.Co , ^. 3. And without holinefs 
none fliiill lee God li^ch, 12, 14. Ghrift^ill 



come in flaming Fire to render vengeance to 
them that know not God and obey not the 
Grf{)el,2. Tj/. I. la II. All they (hall bei 
dumnf^d that obcv not the truth but have 
pleafure in unrii^hteoufrefs i. Trjef, 2. 11. 12. 
They th it li^-e atrer the flefh (hall die, and they 
thL:t have p )r thetpirit of Chriftare none of his, 
Mom, 8. 9. 13. It is not then eafieto think of a 
greatrt hurt, than to forbid men fuch means, 
Without v\'hich experience aiTuretb us that few 
comparatively are thus inlightened and 
rntwtd to God, and with which more 
Cumparatively are renewed. To HiV that God 
can blefs to us an ignorant heartlefs , Gjrnal 
Teacher, is no anfwer, while experience cer- 
tifieth us that Comparatively he doth not do it, 
Jf the people would chufe fuch Paftors, Rulers 
muft do their beft to change their minds, and 
to provide i^ctter for them. But thats not the 
cafe that we are now fpeaking to. If people 
would run into Seds and Herefies, Rukrs may 
p fi rnJI:? znd reftrainfalfeTaichers thatdangeroufly 
corrupt the Chriftian dodrine and feduce the 
peoples fouls j But they may not therefore 
iilence the faithful Minifters of ChrilV, And 
adhereing to fuch Minifters, doth not any hurt 
pf it felf : Nor any way tend to the furthering 
of fo much hurt, as the contrary would do. 

3. For who knoweth where to bound his 
obedience to fuch filencers as aforefaid, If a 
thoufand or two thoufand faithful Minifters, 
muft ceafe Preaching when fo forbidden, why 
not 3000, why not 4000? If half aKingdomjcan 
you (aticHe the confciences of the other half 
that they muft not do fo too, and fo all Chriftiaa 



Kingdoms conform to Mofcovic when the 
Prince commandeth it. And it ioooor2ooo or 
3000 Pirifhes muft choofe the apparent hazard 
o' their fouls and refufe fuch helps as experience 
certiiieth us thev greatly need, in obedience to 
man, why muft not the reft of the Parifhes do 
fo alfo ? Miy 1 2;ive away the needfulJ helps to 
my falvation, becaufc others have them, as if 
their falvation might fatisfie me infteadofmy 
own ? 

4 We acknowledge it a very great Mercy of 
God, to have a Ghriftian Prince, and thdt every 
Kingdom fhouJd be Ghriftian, and thjt Princes 
mult do what thev can to accomplifhit 5 And 
that thev are the Governours ofPaftors as well 
as of Phyficians, ( as is aforrfiid ) and thit it 
is moft defireable that the Ghurch and Kingdom 
fhould be coninenfurate, and none in their 
Kingdoms re^jed the Gof{:)el. and that Paftor 
or people who will do any thing contrary to 
this, or will not further it with all their power 
are great tranrgrefr:)urs. But yet the old faying 
is true Cowned even by the Papifts, vi^l Pa. Ds 
JUarca, De EccLCo.jK ) that Ecclcflmji in impe 
rio: And none but profc-ffej confenters are Ghri- 
ftians : And the Temple is a prifon and not a 
Church as men are there forcibly driven a- 
gainft their wilL^, fo far is it from faving the 
fotils of any. 

YfC conftraining the ignorant ^tnd Hereti:al to 
k'ar fofijd Tach^rsy we are far from oppofing. 
BiT n'hcn Paul hath faid \_Not a Novice, 21^ 
Rulers will filence br tcer Teachers, and (et up 
Novices, that are unskilful in that great and 
dcFcd work, and never felt that work of faith^ 


Uve^andheavenlpefsy on their own fouls which 
they muft Preach to others, this will do more 
hurt, than the peoples choice of better men. 
5. Yea if men of fuch dodrine could once make 
Princes and people believe,that the people oui^hc 
to receive only fuch Paftors as Princes choofe 
for them, it may do more harm than all our 
feds do: For fed:s cannot caft out religion at 
once 5 Nay ufually they perifh themfelves by 
their own divifions and (hame before they can 
rurne the Church. But Princes might change 
Religion as oft as the Moon changeth. And 
if good Princes were but the tenth part as rare, 
as they thought thar fa id [ In mo amnio ] 5re. 
what then would become of Religion in the 
World ? 

LIV. And though we profefs our great 
deteftation of Church-Schifms, and our lamen- 
tation for the fad cafe of thefe Nations, and 
the Chrifti'an world, by reafon of them, believe- 
ing that Schifm ihould be odious to al] Chrifti- 
ansj yet we are paft doubt that aggravating 
(bme differences and breaches pafTionately by 
odious names, hath been Schifmatical, by make- 
ing the diftancefeem much greater than it was, 
and rendering Diflenters odious to others, and 
teaching Adverfaries and ignorant perfons, to 
reproach men as guilty of more Schifm than 
thev are guilty of indeed. Among the Papifts, 
if they unite in the Pope, they pafs not for 
Schifmaricks or Kereticks, who differ in all 
thofe many and great points, v/hich H, Fowlis, 
MontAltHs. the Jefiiits Morals, Mr. Ciar^fon,&:c. 
recite, 2/ /z,. about Murder, Adultery, Fornica- 
tion, King killing, feldom Loving God, <Scc. And 



among us, a man that doth but fcrnple certain 
Oaths, Subfcriptions, Covenants,DccIarations,or 
a Ceremony, is charged by fome with Schifm. 

LV. The Diflance of Do^rines or ObjeEiive Re^ 
ligion muft be diftinguifhed from the pafTion and 
peevifhnefs, oi^fuhje^live diftance of mens mlnds^ 
e,g. Sup\io(b Gram;narlans differ about a Griti- 
cKm (whether FcrgHius or Virgiims) be the 
truer fpelling ; and Philofophers differ de vncno^ 
de definitione fpatii, temporis^ &c. ds catift motus 
projeBorum^&c. and Divines differ of the tranf- 
JationofaText, of the antiquity of the Hebrew- 
points, of the time o{ E after day^ of a Ceremo- 
ny, or Form of Prayer, of the lawfalnefs of a 
Lay-Chancellors ufe of the Church-Keys^Would 
not an impartial ftranger fay. How concordant 
and happy are thefe men, that differ in no grea- 
ter matters ? And if they all fall together by 
the ears about fucb things as thefe, it is an ag- 
gravated Spihje^ive Schifm, and a fliame to fuch 
VNTanglers, who deferve the remedy of fcolds : 
But fure they that peaceably and calmly differ 
about the aforefaid things, viz.. whether we are 
bound to Love God once a year ? whether the 
Pope may excommunicate and depofe Kings, 
that will not extirpate all Proteftants. Whether 
an excommunicate King may be murdered as 
no King, &c ? thefe are far more diftant really 
in point of Religion, than the other. 

LVl. And we muff: lament that we find in 
Church-Hiftory, and by too much' experience, 
that there hath been, and is in too many Paftors, 
fucha felftilinefs and high efteem of their own 
judgments, and fo little fenfe of the common 
weaknefs of mankind, and the lownefs of our 


. [93] 
higbeft degrees of knowledge, and fo little Love 
to others as to themfelves, that by envy and im- 
patience, they raife or increafe Schifms in the 
Church, by making a cauflefs outcry againft 
Schifm, or making little ditFcrences feem great : 
They that cannot bear with Perfons and Con- 
gregations, who in little matters differ from 
them, becaufe they prefer fome other Teacher 
before them, and fay fomewhat againft their 
opinions or ways, do condemn themfelves while 
they cry down Schifmaticks, and feem not to 
know what manner of fpirit they are of : The 
Wijdom from above is firji pHYCyand thenpeaceable^ 
and gent le^ and eafie to be entreated, full of mercy 
and good fruit Sy without partiality and hypocrife ; 
and the fruit of righteoufnefs is fowen in peace 
by peace- makers: But if there be envying and 
ftrife, it is infernal wifdom, earthly, (enfual and 
devilifh^ introducing confufion, and every evil. 
work, whether it be found in Fadions, Conten- 
tions, Antichurches and Hereticks, or in thofc 
that can bear with no Dilfenters, nor receive 
them that are weak in the faith, but make things 
unneceflary, and their own conceits and wills 
the meafui^ -of -mens liberties and (fheir cen- 
fures. He that wouM purfue all as Rebels in a 
Kingdom, who interpret not every Law alike, 
would more divide the Kingdom, than all mens 
different expofitions now do. , r 

LVIL We do with forrow confefs that the 
difcords of the people about chufing their Bi- 
Ihops, hath been a great fcandal to Infidels, and 
a great difhonour to the Church, and hath can- 
fed many ^lamentable Schifms, not only under 
Chriftian Emperours, but Heathen, But it hath 



been greateft about the greateft Prelates, efpe- 
Cially the Billiops of Rome, ^lexandrta^ConjUn- 
ttropl^i ^ntwch^^icc, fince D^mifiif got that feat 
bv Conqueft in the Church , a muhitude of 
Schifms have fdllen our even when Princes chal- 
lenged the choice. A long time two at once, 
fometimes three, and once five or fix Popes li- 
ving that were and had been Popes. The Schifm 
'of the Donarirts was fo caufed by Bifhop fetup 
^gainft Bifhop j fo was that of the fjamtes at 
ConflantinofUy and of Diofcorm at Alexandria^ 
and many more. But it mult be noted, i. That 
the £le(51:ing Bfbops-Priefts and Magiltrates , 
have occafioned rhefe Schifms as much, if not 
fur more than the EleEhi ig people have done 
2. Th it yet Princes for many hundred years af- 
ter C^nftantmes time, did not think it meet to 
prevent fuch Schifms by depriving the People 
or Presbyters of their Eleding-power ( much 
left ofC/mfeat.) 3. That the Cure muft not be 
by altering Ghrift's inftitution, and the Churches 
pra(fVice continued 600, if not SooyearSj and 
with moft or many to this day ; nor by over- 
throwing the very Conftitution of Churches,and 
the La w'of Nature it felf 5 nor by introducing a 
greater evil ; as it would be to teach all people 
to receive all and only fuch Paftors as Princes 
cverv where (ball (et over them, and all Mini- 
Iters of Chrift to ceafe their Office when men 
forbid ir I hem. 

LVIIL Obj. 4. But if Minifierstbemfelvei 
■mfift be judgifs, whether a Magiftrate do juftly 
filence them, then none will take thcmfelves to be 
'ftle^ncedJHftly 5 andfo all Hereticks will Preach ort'^ 
It is the Rnlers that mafl jadge^ 

^ [95] 

'j>inf. 1. when we hear, and read, how the 
Papifts deceive the ignorant, by repeating the 
queltion, votoo mpfft be the jndge^ it grieveth us to 
find fomc Proteftants fo unskilful^ inanfwering 
it. when the anfwer is fo eafv,that when opened 
we hope few Ibber Proteftants ditfer in it. 
Judgement is PuhUk^ox Private : Pubhk Judge- 
ment is either Antecedent by a Lmgiver 
judging what (hall be commanded and made 
the JuOjecfs afy, or cor^jecjuent hr a ft^dge fo 
jirit'ti) called, Jnc'ping o\ Titles, and Crimes ( in 
order to i>urii(limept ) according to law; Pr/'^^r^ 
^i-.dgLmam \?, tv^h^X hy uirbttr at or s^ (jT pnvatt 
Cenfpiters^ or by every mans C< rfcience dijccrmng 
^lid jtdgitig what is his duty, and 'what is fin* 
I. The Scv:reign of the World, is the only 
Judge, by Lcgijlauon what ihall be the duty 
cf all mankina, bv the Law which he maketh 
to bind high and low, which none may alter or 
fufpend. 2 hx\d\\G \s ^htovXy fountain o^ Power 
to his Creatures. 3. And he is the only final^ 
abfoltifey ihjallthle jtrage, 

; 2. The Sovereigns of Kingdoms and Common 
tvealths, and mafters in their families, 2iVt judges 
antecedently what fhall be their Subjeifts duty, 
by their Laws fub(crvient to Gods : And they 
and their Officers receiving power from them 
,are the Judgeb Cuyjecjue-ntly, by Deajion, who 
{hallbe puniOied as Criminal and who not, and 
who fhall be proceded in his propriety or 
eftatCj by the (word of luftice. 

3. The true Bifhops or Paftors of the Church, 
are Guides to the people according to C^^rijls 
Laws, in the matters of their Office, and dcctjtve 
ffidges^ who Jhall tfc tytken in, or put out of Com^ 



fnmion y in the refpeEitve ChtiYche^ .^^^ 

4. Every mans Confcience is that Private 
difcermng fudge of his own Duty and fin,( Qi 
Arbitrators or Cenfnrers we need not fpeak. ) . • 
This all ot us are agreed in : And the queftion 
£ \K ho Jhall fudge ] is ftill urged by fome, as if 
they thought that Tome man or men muft needs 
in all cafes ( of Religion ) be taken for fuch 
uib folate fudges that what ever they Judge, all 
fubjeds muft obey it. And on this pernicious 
fuppofition is built the Popes pretended Infal- 
libility, becaufe they think that religion is fal- 
lible ( that is, Gods Law ) if the judge ( that is 
an ignorant man^ or men ) be fallible. 
' But all Proteftants ( at leaft ) are agreed,that 
all men are Gods fubjeRs ; and that all humane 
Power of Legillation, Judgement and execution 
is limited 5 and that no man may judge againft 
God or his Laws: And that men fhonld kporv 
Gods Laws,and juftifie them and judge by them, 
and condemn all that is againft them 5 But no 
man hath power to condemn or contradict Gods 
Law it felf. No man haih power to judge that 
there is no God, no Life to come, no Chrift, or 
that one word of God is falfe, or to forbid one 
thing which God commandeth,or command one 
thing which God forbiddeth,no man hath power 
to judge that fouls (hall be deprived of fuch 
needful Teaching and Sacraments, and publick 
worfiiipingofGod, a<^ God hath provided, and 
commanded them to uie ; Nor to forbid Chrifts 
faithful Minifters cauielefly to Preach his word, 
and worfhip him in the Churches, and adminifter 
liis Sacraments 5 Nor caufelefly to filence, or 
puni/h theni for fo doing : Therefore in this cafe 



our confcienccs would not be bound though 
ftill we profcfs that Gods Law bmdcth us nor to 
rebel, or take up arms againft their injuries, but 
patiently to bear them, and pray for our 

LIX. Ob ; . ToH fay that Rulers may not caufeUJly 
Jihnce or pHnifo fuch '. Bm fiillthef are jndgss 
Vphet her there he caufi, 

uinf They are fo : For it is about their 
proper work. But they are Judges fubje(fl: to 
God, to whom they (hall anfwer it if they 
difobey him. And the fubjeds are private 
difcermn^ fudges, whether the Laws of men 
Gonrradi(ft Gods Laws fo far as concerneth their 
obeying or not obeying rhem. 

We muft ftill repeat, that the ejf- is before the 
fcire i and the ^^/«^ of the cafe and 7^«f^,before 
the judging of it : either the Preacher deferve^h 
Silencing or not, before you come to judge the 
cafe : If he ought to be filent the Rulers ought 
to jvdge fo,and do well: If«^r,but he be innocent, 
or one that ought not to be forbidden his Office, 
no man hith po'ver from God to judge contrary 
and caufelefly to forbid hiinj And his confcience 
is not formerly bound by that prohibition ; 
Thou8;h he muft ftill keep his Loyalty and 
fubjedion, and his care of the publick peace and 

LX. We conclude again, that feeing we meet 
with none that will fay that Rulers may f^ig^ 
that wejhall not ivorJJoip God, or that the Gofpel 
Jhallnot be preached^ ot t\\dit msnm'il} obediently 
forfake Chrtfl, or go to Hell j Nor with anjf 
Chriftian that will fay that without faith and 
holtnefs we may be fivsi, we dread the coBfe- 

H qitence 

quence of fuch arguing, as taketh this up as the 
laft defence, that [ thofe people that vifibly live 
in Senfuality, Drunkennefs, Fornication, Cove- 
teoufnefs, Pride, Vngodlfnefs ox Grcfs Ignorance^ 
are indeed in a fdfe condition for falvation, and 
therefore that Preaching which fhould bring 
them to repentance ij* not neceffary 5 But that 
its fafer to continue Ignorant and ungodly, than 
to joyn with the Religious for fear of Schifm : 
For we cannot deny that they that have no 0- 
ther Medium to defend their Aflertion, that 
\jhe lifelefs unskjlfol Miniflry of Novices y which 
mallet h very few ferioi^fly Religions ^ doth more good 
than the contrary^ which hath contrary fuccefsy if it 
be by men foYhidden~\ do too plainly perfwade us 
fromour ChriiVianity itfclf, that is^ from the 
chiefeftevidenceof its truth and glory : For if 
there were no better Chriilians in the world, 
than fuch unholy perfons before defcribed 5 and 
if Chrift had not a holy peculiar people, of hea- 
venly minds and lives, and zealous of good , 
work?, we could never prove for believe) him 
to be the Chrift that came to fave his people 
fi'om their fins. He is not the Phyfician whom 
we can truft, that doth not cure men. And if 
they will refolve the cafe into the queftion of 
fa[lj whether J^/ch dijferem A-Ainifters have ufnally 
dtffcrent (jtcccfs f and ferioid^ Chrifiianity be not 
much more rare under Reading Novices, and 
tine X per lenced If clefs men, than under skilful fe- 
rieiis godly Pajlors, we are unable to doubt ofit^' 
againit all e>:[)cricnce. 

LXI. Ob;. 5. But tf every man that is proud 
and heretical m.^iy ft Pip as a Treacher when hs 
Willi and when any people wHl chafe him, Reli- 



gion will ye corrufted, ar,dthe Chptrch confd.tn>dcd, 
yinfwf. True 5 therefore that inuft not be : 
1. There are fome previous qualifications fa ef- 
feniially neceflary to the Miniltrv^ that without 
them no mm is owned as his Miniltcr by Ghrilt, 
nor (hould be bv men. 2> The Ord^mcrs are 
to be Judi^es whe'her men have thefe qualifi- 
cations. 3. The I eop^e are difcerning Jud2;es 
which (^Habfisd or darned man ^^or to be ord/in- 
cdj h meet for them 5 fo far as it is nectlTarv to 
their mm'4al Confenr. 4. If a Heretick c^i other 
intol'erable j>erfon muft fct up a Preacher ; or if 
anv turn Heretick, the Ortli -dox Churches are 
('after due admonition) to renounce him as un- 
acceptable of their c<^mmunion; that he may 
be fhamed and avoided.. 5. If yet he continue 
ob!tinate, and do more harm than ^ood,the Ma- 
giftrate is Riiier, and muft reftrain him.anddeny 
him leave io to Preach in his Dominions ; fo he 
do it not by penalties unfuirable to the offence: 
(Dif franchifmg, difcountenancing and fliame, do 
ufually more againft Herefies than cruelties.) 
But Necejfary Faithful Teachers may not on thefe 
pretences be caft out. 

LXII. 18 If the People confcious of their 
great NeceflTity of Paftoral over- fight and help, 
and of Chrift's command to ufe it, do live in a 
Parifh or Countrey where they cannot have It 
from thofe that the Migiitrate allowcth, either 
becaufe they cannot perform it for them, or be- 
caufe thev wdl not ; it is no Schifm for fiich to 
feek and ulc it, from worthy though prohibited 

We before fpake of the Schifms of Tachers^ 

and now oiH^arrrs, In this cafe men may juft- 

H 2 ly 


ly thus argue : [0//r Necejfuy requireth Paftoral 
ovcrjtghty and Chri(i commandeth us to u[e ityVehen 
Vpe may have it : Bnt from this pul?licl^ Minifter 
VPS cannot have it : Therefore we mufi fee\ it where 
wc can. That moft men have need of Paftoral 
overfight, is certain ; elfe Chrift would not have 
inftitutcd it for them: And every man fhould 
be confcious of his own need. 

That Chrift hath commanded us the ufe of it 
is certain j i. In all thofe Texts which com- 
mand the Paftors their general and particular 
duties to the People, to Preach and be inftant> in 
feafon and out, to reprove, rebuke, exhort, to 
comfort the feeble minded, to vifit the fick, to 
convince the erroneous, to adminifter the Sacra- 
ments, to pray and worfhip God publickly with 
them, Src. 2. In all thofe Texts that command 
the People to hear, fubmit to, obey,and imitate 
fuch Guides, and u(e (uch Ordinances. In feve- 
ral cafes the People may poffibly be deprived of 
this at home, as from the allowed Minifter : 
I. When publick Paftors are at fo great a di- 
ftance from them, as that fuch Paftors cannot 
come to them, nor they and their families go fo 
far, without fuch inconvenience and trouble, as 
win fruftrate the end of their endeavours : As 
in France where the Proteftants muft go twenty 
miles, or ten, to a Church ; which the weak, 
children and aged cannot do, nor the reft of the 
family without fuch coft and pains, and lofs of 
time as will deprive them of the benefit. 

Ob;. But yet the PVotefi ants there do not fet up 
unlicenfed Churches, 

^Inf That is not as an ^d of formal obedience^ 
as if they took it to be unlawful becaufe prohi- 
bited 5 


blted ; but in prudence, becaufc the perfccution, 
fhoiild they do it, would fruftrate their attempt: 
In fuch cafes the old Chriftians met in fecret. 

2. Where Parifhes are fo great that the 
allowed Paftors camot Preach to half or a fourth 
or tenth part of the people 5 and cannot vifit 
half the fick, and Baptize, and adminifter the 
Lords Supper as is necelTary ; And have no t 
time, if the ignorant, and doubting, and troubled 
perfons fhould come to them for Counfel, 
refolution or comfort, to f[)eakduely to one 
of twenty of them. In a Parifh of 50000 or 
30000, or 20000 or 15C00 or loooc foule.s 
how few is it that one or two Minifters can 
perform all the Offices to, publick and private 
which the Gofpcl requireth Paftors to perform. 

3. Where the allowed Paftors are fo flothful 
or proud that they will not condefcend to thcfe 
Offices, of Perfonal help to many thoufands. 
efpecially of the poor. ' 

4. Where they are young raw men, or 

ignorant of fuch matters, unable to counfel 

people as their neceffiries reqnire,in order ro 

their falvation 5 and perhaps to do it tolerably 

in a publick Sermon. 

5. Where they are fo prophane and malignant, 
that if poor people come to them with cafes of 
confcience, or for counfel what they muft do to 
be faved, they will but deride them as fcrupulous 
and precife, and make them believe that to be 
felicitous about falvation, and afraid of Hnning, 
and ferioudy godly, is but to be Hypocrites, 
melancholy or mad 5 And perhaps bend their 
Preaching the fame way. 

6. When they are Heretical and not to be 
trufted in point of faith. H 3 7. And 


7. And when they are Co Facfllbu? anci Schif- 
inatical, as that their Preaching and Conference 
tendethto render oiher good ChriOians odiousy. 
and ilir up men to hate, perfecure, or fepatiite 
from thein, and Co to deftroy true Love and 
Concord. - • 

In any of thefe cales when the p^8plc or part 
of r hem are deprived of that Paftoral helps 
which their neceffiry requireth, andGod comm- 
andethj rhey may feek it where they can beft 
have u, ' ■ .' < . 

L5CiH. In all the^fe cafes it is an unfati^facftory 
Anlwer to tell theiYi that Religion is k^pt t^p in 
the Lindj and that other pe funs or Panjhes have 
irhat they want, or that Order and Obedience 
iTiu ft be preferred to their lupply, or that God 
can fave them without a Paftor, <^'c. Forfo 
God em fave the Heathen vtorld without the 
Gofpel Preached it he pleafe : And fo you might 
perfwadc the Poor to famifh, rather than againft 
Lawto beg ; becajLife if thoufands of them dye 
cf Famine, yctother people are fupplied^and have 
})lenty: Oryou miahc tell men that they muft 
life no Phyfician, though thejr dye for it, if they 
Iiave no tolerable one allowed them by the 
Magiftrate , becaufe others have Phyficians 
though th^y dye for Want of them. 

Vv^hat if the Parifn Prieft could Baptize but 
one of many f or not all : J Muft the reft be 
content to be unbaprized ? Ifnot,whymuft they 
be content without all publick Preaching and 
Worfhipping of God, and the Lords Supper, and 
perfonal h<H[)s of Pallors which they need ? Paul 
thanketh God that he Baptized none of the 
Connthians fiive fome few, and faith, that God 


fent him not t9 Baptize, bm to Preach the Gjfpel, 
And can any man prove then. That if the Parifli 
Minifter cannot or will not Baptize his Children 
he muft get another to do it,yea a prohibircdMi- 
nilkr rather then rheyfhould be unbaptized;and 
yet thdt if the ParifhChurch cannot receive him, 
or the Pallor cannot or will not do the Office of 
a Paftor for him, he muft be without Preaching, 
Worfhipping God, and Paftoral overfighc" 

L X I V. Yet here we muft declare i. That 
in fuch neceffity people muft dtterls farwus, 
Erft feek their fupply in that vvay that is moft 
for peace, and moft for publick good, and leaft 
fcandalousor dividing, and that is moftagreable 
to the Rulers will and honour. 

2. That for fome fhort feafon in which his 
foul is not apparently hazardedj as My in the 
tolerable lofs, of fome meafures of Paftoral help, 
a man muft fubmit his own pcrfonal advantage 
to publick intereft, and may hope that God will 
make it up. As alio when it tendeth to his pro- 
bable greater advantage afterward, by putting 
by fome prefent ftorm : But not ftarcdly, to be 
without Ghrifts inftituted ordinances and help.?; 
e. g. Parifii Order is deilreable and is the 
Rulers will: If therefore fupply can be had in 
a neighbour Parifh for them that want it in 
their own, and by an allowed Minifter rather 
than a difallowed, it fhould be chofen, unlefs 
the dlfparity be fo great as to weigh down the 
contrary inconveniences. And if for a time any 
bcconftrained to another way, they (hould do ic 
but as an extroardinary neceiricy for the orefenc 
time, till they can be fupplied in the allowed 
Parochial way^ and avoid as much as pofTibly 

H 4 they 


^hev can all waies, though Iawful,that encourage 
true Schifms. 

3. And we muft profefs, that if any Preachers 
or people, (hall out offclfconceiiednefs, pretend 
necjjfity when there is none, their prerence is no 
juitification of their diforder or dilbbedience. 
Miginrares miy res^ulatc us in the Cirjumfia^ices 
of rhofe durjes, which rhe Law of Nature or 
the Gospel do Comniand:But if on fuch pretence 
of reguljcing, Circ^m fiance s^ they will violate or 
conrradi(!> elrher the Law of Nature^ or the 
Gorpel_, and d ftroy the duty it felf, ox its end, we 
are nor b.;und 'n fuch cates to obey them, but 
muft !;atienily fuffer. 

LX^^^ 19. If ihe Church Laws do exclude 
thofe Cfrnjtiam that have right, from the Com- 
munion of the Church, and their Children from 
£api fm, and do decr'^^e that they fhall be 
excomm^mcat-:, and then laid in Ga&ls, it feemeth 
to »js no Schifrn in thofe perfons, to have no 
fuch Communion with that Church which 
is denvr-d rhem bv the Laws oftheChurch^ 
Nor yer to join rh^-mfelvrs with another Church: 
that will receive them. And as we fay of the 
Papifis, that they unjuftly call thofe men Schif- 
mat.ckj, whom thev firft caft out themfelves by 
unjuit excommunication/o may we of any othersj 
Elpecialiv when either for that which is a duty, 
or for fume fmall miftake which it is not in the 
perfons po«verto redifie, no greater than moft 
good Chriltian^ are guilty of, the Church Law 
faith thjthe fhall be cxcomm^^mcate ipfofaflo, by 
which he is caft out antecedently to any fentence, 
or no place left fjr his pardon or forbearance by 
the favour of the Ordinary. He that is fo caft 



Out,is not the wilful Separatift : Nor is he bound 
to continue without Church Communion, and 
Paftoral overfight. 

LXVI. 20. If thofe that live in a Parifli 
where the Incumbent by utter Infufficiency, 
Herefie, llfurpation, Malignity or Wickednefs, 
is fuch as men may not lawfully own, or commit 
the Paftoral Condufl and care of their fouls to, 
fhall defire the Paftoral care of the next Parifh- 
Minifter, and communion in that Parifti-Church, 
and may not be admitted, but all other Parifh- 
Minifters are by Canon commandsdto refufe them^ 
and to turn them home to their ovan Farijh-Friefts 
and Churches y fo that they muft either commit 
their fouls to fuch uncapable perfons, and own 
them as Chrift's Minifters, or have none at all, 
we dare not charge thofe perfons with Schifm, if 
they commit the care of their fouls to worthy 
ordained men, though not allowed but prohibit- 
ed by the Magiftrate : For the reafons before 
given.Yea if they know that Church- Laws forbid 
all other Panjk-Priefis to receive them, we fee 
not that they are firft bound to offer thcmjelves 
to fuch as profefs obedience to thofe Laws. 
■ Obj. I. Bfit fome take a meer Reader for un- 
capable that cannot preach, or one that cannot pray 
%vtt jout Book^, or a young man that is not able to 
refolve doubts, or cafes of confcience : but our Ca- 
non 5*7. faith, that the Sacraments are equally ef- 
feEiual, whether they be adminisired by a Treacher 
or no Treacher. 

^nf I. By an uncapable perfon we mean fuch 
as is utterly unable to peform the Pafloral du- 
ties which Chrift hath commanded, and mens 
fouls greatly need (which among others Dr. 



Hammond in his Annotat. hath well defcribcd.), 
If bare Reading were fufficient Ability, every 
Boy or Artificer were fufficient that can read. 
Bare Reading will encourage no man to take 
any one for his Phjjtaan, or Lawyer 5 and foul- 
conduct is a matter of greater importance, and 
ncederh as much skill and honefty. 

2. It is not the validity of the Sacrament that 
is all that is to be looked at : ^od fa^um va- 
let f£pe fieri non dshtiit^ Men mult avoid y?« as 
well as NnlUties in Sacraments : We take it to 
be a fin to own a man as Gliriit's Miiiler who 
is none, through utter incapacity : Yet we know 
that Reading is a fort of Preaching, and that all 
Presbyters, where one Church had many, did 
not publickly and conftantly Preach in the antienc 
Churches : But thev were godly men capable o^ 
other Minifterial Offices to the People, to pray^ 
counfel and direcl: them, which muft be regard- 
ed as well as Sacraments. He that can admir 
nifter a Sacrament that's valid, may be unfit for 
men to take for their Paftorsor Guides. 

3. There is a double work of Sacraments to 
which they may be called Ejfcfti^al : one is 
God'^s own collation of onr Covenant-right to ths 
promif^d Benefits^ viz.. Pardon and Salvation : To 
this we believe that the Sacrament is effed:fialxo 
meet receivers, when it is (^0 delivered as to be 
no Nullity ; and fo many heretofore thought 
that Baptifm delivered by a Lay -man is effedlual, 
that is, not Nail, but invelteth the perfon in his 
Covenant Relation; and yet that it is unlawful 
for a L IV -man to adminifter it, or others to de- 
fire it of him : The other work of the Sacra- 
ment is on th2 Peoples hearts, to which the man- 

ncr ofndminiftring much contributeth, as expe- 

rjciice provcth. 

Obj. Bnt Sacfaments operate not as Lawyers 
and Prjyjicians do bytje skj^Ll of the Aiimjter^ but 
by God's grac^ and i^l'Jftng, 
■ ^nf, t. But God <? 8;racc uferh to work ac- 
cording to rhe aptitude of means morally, as 
conitant experience proverb : And the word 
whi^h is ufed in the Sacramental adminiftration, 
mnft be regarded, and fo muft other waies of 
teach iog as well as by Sacraments, 2. And we 
cannot expecft God's bJelTing in a way of fin, 
when we own one for our Paftor whom we 
ought not. 

Ob;« Bf^t fome take a man to he uncapable if he 
be but a fmncr worfa than ordinary^ as a drtink^rd^ 
fhrmcatoY^fwearer^ perjured^ afcorner at ditigencs 
in Religion^ &c, whereas the Mmifiers fn depri- 
vet h not the people of the benefit of God^s Ordi- 

^nf, I. He that not knowing the Minifter to 
be f(jch a one, or by true neceffity ufeth fuch a 
one, yea or by ignorance thinketh that he fhould 
not avoid him, ifhe be himfelf a true Believer, 
may have God's Covenant fealed to him by the 
Sacrament, which fuch a one delivereth : Yea, 
by an Ulurper or meer Lay man thar is in pof- 
feffion, and miftaken for a Minifter : If a man 
forge his Orders, or intrude uncalled, or bean 
obtruded ufurping Bifhop, the people cannot al' 
waies deted it : Nor do they lofe their right 
to God's Sacraments, becaufe the man hath (un- 
known to them) no right to adminifter them : 
But if they know fuch an one, they fhould not 
own him as a Minifter of Chrift, fo far as to truft 



their fouls with him as their Paftor, r'at leafti 
when they may have a better.) And he that fo 
withdraweth himfclffrom the communion of 
notorious wicked Paftors whom he hath no> 
power to caft out, not feparating cauflefly from 
others or the Ghurch-ftate, feemeth to us to 
have all the following reafons to excufe him 
from the guilt of Schifm, 

I God hath commanded his fervants to be- 
ware of falfe or pretended Prophets, and told 
us how to know them, by the hurtful fruits of 
thorns and thirties : And PWadvifcth the GaU- 
tians.^Coloffi^r,s^C^c. earneftly to beware ofun- 
found Teachers; and the Churches that had 
thofe that taught people to eat things offered 
to Idols, &c. are threatned : And God com- 
mendeth thofe that tryed falfe Apoftles, and 
found them Lyars : Therefore the people in 
fuch cafes as thofe have a trying judgment, in 
order to their pradl'ce. And Paul warneth the 
Romans to mark thofe that caufe divifions and 
offences (or fcandals) and avo'd them as not fer- 
ving JcHjs Chrift but their belliesj and the fore- 
named crimes are fcmd^ls. 

2. God hath commanded men to know, love, 
and im'tate godly Paftors, H^h, 13.7, 17. 24. 
iTjlC, 5 12 13. I Tim 5;. 17, <Src. And he 
hath given no min power to fet fuch criminals 
over them as their Paftors, and i^o far to de- 
prive ihem of the means of falvation as to con- 
fine them to them, 

3. Though the Apoftles charge [ with fuch no 
not tj eat ]] enihle not privire men to exercife 
Governing difcipline on bud Paftors, it feemeth 
to us to bin 1 rhemj when the cafe is notorious, 
to difowa them. 4. Cjprians 


4. Cypri4f}s concltfion before mentioned is 
known,inviting the peoj^le to fbrfuke a bad Paftor, 
J*Uhs maximam habet pc.tftattm Sec. And he 
convinceth the people thai if they forfake not 
fuch rhev are ?^uilty. 

5. The Chriftian Churches ^have formerly 
fT^^ifcd it. 

6. The Law or Canon forbiddeth it to no man 
in Erjglandj to defert men, Icbeit they will but 
remove their dwelling into another Parifh. 
Which is an extrinf.ck Circumftance of humane 

7. Even Pope Nicolas in his Decretals, faith, 
that [ Prtefis that con^mit jcrnication^ cannot 
have the honoptr of Friefthood, Yea [ Let no man 
hear Mafs of a Frteft whom he certalnlj l^noweth 
to have a Concnbine or woman introduced ] and we 
hope we may be herein as clean as Faftfis. Yea 
of Popes he faiih [^He that by money ^ or the 
favour of men^ or Fipular, or Military tumult s^ is 
intruded into the ^poJJoltcal feat^ Without the 
Concordant and Canonical EleHien cfthe.Cardinals^ 
and the following religious Clergie, let him not he 
taken for a Pope or u^pcjlolical, but ^fofiatical ] 
Caran, 2. p, 293. 395-. 

8. Gildas faith of the Eritidi wicked Priefts, 
that they were Traytors and not Mimjlcrs of 
Chrifl^ and that he was not Eximius Chnfiianf^Si 
that would call them Miniflers, 

9. Iftdore Felufiota in many Epiftles to Zcfimus, 
and other wicked Priclts , hath much to the 
like purpofe. 

10. St. A/artin, Would not ccme to the fyrcds 
of the Bifhops about him, nor Ccmmunicate 
with them at all, becaufe they were feme cf 



them, rafh, bad men, and had inftigated 
Maximus to fubduc the Prifc'tlltan Gnofttckj by 
the Sword, and thereby brought Religious 
people that were ftrid, into fufpicion of 
Prifcillianifm 5 but efpecially he holding that 
Herefie was not to be fo punifhed : And when 
tofave fome mens Iives,he yielded ro AfAximm 
once to Communicate with the Bfhops, an 
Angel in his way corre(fl:edhim,and his working 
of Miracles was diminifhed by it, and he forbore 
their Communion after to the death. Either 
this hiltory is true or not: If nor, when it is 
written by his own Difci[ile and acquaintance, 
Sulpitms Severus and one of the moft Godly 
and Learned of all the ancient Hiftorians^ and 
by others ; and when Ma>un is Canonized 
for one of the greateft Suints r|or fi[po- 
ficion that the Hiftorvof his L'fe ana Miracles 
is true , what Church hiOor'^ ; even that for 
Bifhopsj can we then believe ? But if it be true^ 
then one of the holieft wC'^ers of Miracles 
fincethe Apoftles, hath aflured us, that his fc- 
paration from communion with thtfe Bifhops 
(though cruel to Hereticks, fo grofs) was con- 
iirmed by vifion, and by an Angel from Hea- 
ven, and he forbidden their communion for the 
time to come. We again mention this, as not 
yet having heard any anfwer to ir. 

11. Our own Canons forbid the people to 
communicate with Minifters for lefler faults ('as 
private Preaching, Sacraments, Fafts, Conven* 
tides, or out of their own Parifhes, &c. 

12. Mo[ci the Monk aforementioned, is com- 
mended by Hiftorians, becaufe he would not be 
ordained by Lmiusi not becaufe erroneous, but 


[l 1 1] 

becaufe he had perfecured others by the coun- 
tenance of Falens the Emperour : Though his 
perlecution extended not to the filcncing of 
thoulands, or hundreds, or very many that we 
read of: And as is aforefaid, he chofe to be or- 
dained by banithed men. 

13. Efpecially if men have no obligation to 
that infuflficient, heretical, or ungodly Prieft,buc 
humane^ becaufe a P^rr<?« prefented him , or a 
Alagiflrate impojed him, or becaufe FarJjJo- order 
('which is a humane thing of meer convenience) 
will elfe feem violated : When as the avoiding 
of the danger of a falfe Pafior, and the guilt of 
his fin, wji.ch by owning him may be incurred, 
and efcaping the great lofs of a faithful Pafior^s 
guidance, when we are confcious that we great- 
ly need it, are things of greater importance, and 
of Moral and Evangelical Divine obligation : In 
this cafe we cannot prove it Scliifm to avoid a 
wicked Prieft : The B'fhops hold it a duty to 
avoid a Nonconformift that hath not their Li- 
cenfe : But fuch a one as is foredefcribed, hath 
not Chrift's Licef^fe ^^x\d is a Nonconformift to his 

Again, let it be noted i. That even under the 
Jcwifh Law, Magiftrates were not the chufers 
of the PrieftSjbut God chofe them by fetling the 
Priefthood on one line. 2. That Chrift hath by 
his Spirit in the Apoftles altered the Priefthood, 
and the way of their calling and entrance under 
the Gofpel. 3. That the Church ncer a thou- 
fand years was in poftcfTion of that way, and 
many hundred of thofe years the pofi'eflion was 
univerfal in all the Churches. 4. That the chu- 
- fmg of Bifhops or Priefts by Magiftrates or Lay- 

Patrons was none of that way which Chrift afr 
pointed. Therefore leein^ it is not the chufing 
or making, but the Govennrig of Bifhops or 
Priefts that is committed to Princes, and ChrtjFs 
Law is the firft by which thej mu^ govern, it 
feemeth to us that thty cannot oblige the Sub- 
jecfts to take up w-th wicked Paftors, when bet- 
ter are prohibited, and are to be had. 

LXVII. 2i.ln thofe times and Countries where 
the allowed Bifhops are corrupted by ignorance, 
herefie, ungudlinefs or faction, and fee them- 
lelves to bring in an unconlcionable corrupt fort 
of Minifters into the Churches, and will not 
ordain fit and confcionable men, or by fhares 
divide the Churches, and caft out the moft 
worthy; and impofefinful conditions on all whom 
they will ordain, it feemeth to us to be no 
Schifm to feek ordination from orher Bifhops^ 
and in cafe of neceiTity at leaft, to be ordained 
by fuch Presbyters as are either the fole, or 
chief, or equal Paftors in Parochial Churches, 
(efpecially in Cities ) and to perform the Of- 
fice of Presbyters without fuch Bifhops confent. 
We here fuppofe fuch Bifhops had themfelves 
been duely elcded and ordained, yet i. They 
have their power to edification, and not to de- 
ftrudion. 2. We are more obliged to Chrift's 
intereft, and the Churches fafety, than to them* 
God will have mercy, rather than Sacrifice, and 
preferreth mens falvation to ceremony orChurch ■ 
Laws. 3. So the Orthodox forfook the Arrian' 
and other wicked Bifhops: Malignity and wicked-^ 
nefs is poifon in the Clergy as well as Herefie 
and Schifm : So as is aforefaid,yl/£>/'a and Martin 
difowned the bad Bifhops that were neer them $> 

the Nonconformifts are confidcring to help o- 
thers to apply it without miftake, as they fhall 
fee caufe. 

We intend not, in this, the determination of 
the points in matter of right; ncr do we here 
tell men (unlefs on the by in the ftating of fome 
few queftions, f what it is that we account good 
or evil, much lefs do we here give the proofs or 
reafons of our Caufe : That is the thing for 
which we greatly defire the allowance of our 
Superiours j But mult not unneceflarily prefume 
to do if, left we difpleafe them 5 though we 
hear that fbme of them take us as not fincere, 
for keeping up a difference, and giving no more 
reafons of it : The thing which we fo greatly 
defire leave to do, but dare not be fo bold yet 
as to venture by it to difj)leafe them, who con- 
demn us for not doing it, left their anger would 
Jye (harper to us if we do it : fo great is our 
difficulty between this Sc^lla and ChuYjhdis. 

But we hope we may adventure to open 
fome part of the Matter of Fa^I-, which Con- 
formity and Nonconformity are concerned in, 
that fo men may conjeEinre at the Cafe them- 
felves ; which will be no reflexion on the 
Government ( barely to tell what they com- 
mand,) nor a challengirvgany of our Superiours 
to a difputation^ nor a charging them as faulty 
that cannot bear it. 

1. Matters 


I. Matters of Faff to be forehwivn^ to the 
true under jiandivg of the Cauje, 

I. fT^H E root of the difference between the 
1 Old Nonconformif^s and the Conjormifts^ 
was that one fort thought they fhould (tick to 
the metr Scripture Rule and fimplicity, and go 
far from AX additions which were found invent- 
ed or abufed bv the Papifts, in Do(n:rine, Wor- 
fhip and Government; and the other fide 
thought that thev (hould (hew more reverence 
to the cultoms of the ancient Church, and re- 
tain that which was not forbidden in the Scrip- 
ture, which was introduced before the ripeneft 
of the Paf)acy, or before the year 600 at leafr, 
and which was found lawful in the Roman 
Church, and common to them with the GreeJ^^ 
that we might not feem fingular, odd and hu- 
morous, or to go further from the Papifts than 
reafon and neceflity drave us. And the Laity 
(eemed no where fofenfibleof the difference, as 
between the way 0^ Ceremony, ^r\6, unceremonious 
Jimpicttjy and the way of our many (hort Li- 
turgick Prayers and Offices, and the way of 
free-prujing from the prcfent fenfe and habits 
bfthefpeaker; while pacificators thought both 
fcafonably good. 

2. The fad eruption of this difference among 
the Exile* at Frankford while Dr. Cox and Mr. 
Horn and their parry, ftrove for the Englifh 
Litureie, and the other party ftrove againft it 
for'the firmer way, is at l«irge reported in a book 
called ths trohhks at Frank^ford. 

ftill thus confound the fcire and the ejfe, or put 
the fcire before the ejje, they may go on in 
crrour, and no reafon can filence them. The 
thing is realy firft true or fal/e, before it is k!Jown 
or thought fo to bcj If it be true^ then he that 
thinketh it falfe is the delinquent. If it ^.- ^ fin, 
it is not mens taking it for no (In, that will make 
it fo, nor difoblige the orthodox from their 
Miniftry. But if it ^^ r,o finxh^i is Commanded 
the Nonconjenters are in the fault. And if it be a 
Herefie which they fi; and for ^ may be fienced. 

And yet we will not deny,but if the generality 
of theMiniftry obtain their liberty by feme fmall 
tollerable fin orerrour^ and the (bunder p:rt be 
ftxc and unnecejfary in that CoiWxUyy 1 rud^nce 
obligeth them to go to fbme other place that 
needeth them, and never to excercifc their 
Miniftry where in true reafon it is like to do 
more hurt than good. 

L X 1 X. 2 J. Where under any of the forefaid 
unjuft prohibitions the (llenced Minifters and 
people, fhall gather no diftind Churches, but 
only Auditories or Chappcls as parts of the 
Parijh Churches^ and that only where there is 
( through the bignefs of the Parifh, or dillance 
fromthePari(hChurch,or paucity,or infufficicncy, 
or unfaithfuin efs ofParifli ?nt{\s^true mcejjity, 
not unchurching or feparating from the Parifh 
Church, but owning it, and holding Communion 
with it, and promoting the reputation of the 
true Parifh Minifter and Communion, and 
perfwading others to the like, we cannot fee 
that this is any Schifmj but rather their pradlife 
who fire and divide mens minds by envious 
clamours againft the innocent, and proudly 
calling others Schifmaticks. I 3 LXX. 


L X X. 16. Wc have greatly lamented the 
true SchifmaticaJ difpofition offomereligioufly 
affecfted perfons^ who make their fingularities or 
little differences, the occafionsof unchriftening, 
tsnchHrching or dtgrading thofe that are wifer 
than themfelves, and running away from one 
another on pretence of difcipline, and avoiding 
fin. But yet we hold that gentle forbearing 
tolerable differences, even in diftinft Churches, 
guilty of Schirm,fo they be kept from unpeace- 
able reviling of others, is a meeter way to avoid 
the mifchiefs, than with prifon, fword or fire to 
exafperate them. It is noted that Neftorim the 
Heretick was the firft fharp perfecutor of the 
JSIovatians : But moft of the better Bilhops to- 
lerated them, as did theEmperours : And two 
prudent gentle Bifhops of Conflantinople, yitticus 
and Proclus^ reduced the foannitesj and lenified 
other divided Parties, which the fiercer men 
had made and kept up by their violence. 


Some Matters of FaB preparatory to th$ . 
true Application of what is 
before laid down. 

WE muft crave that juftice of the Reader 
as to note, that hitlierto we have fpo- 
ken but of the DoEirinal part about Schifm, not 
applying it to EngU::d or any others : Nor (hall 
we now any otherwife apply it,tban to lay down 
fome little part of the Matters of FaH:^ which 


pleafeth, and to deny God all Publick Werfhip; 
and we muft ask leave of Rulers that Chrift 
may be Chrift, and fouls may be faved 5 as if 
the Keys of Heaven and Hell were theirs. None 
that we write for, Proteftants or Papifts, will 
affert this. 

But if ^// muft not lay down their Miniftry, 
why muft a thoufand or two thonfand do it rather 
than all the reft ? We fuppofe it will be faid, 
that // a thoufand Jhould reftifo Conformity^ all 
might continue their forbidden Jl^inifiry ; hut if 
two thoufand only of ten thoufand Jhould deny Con- 
formity ^ thefe txvo thoufand mufi lay down, becaufe 
the reft are a competent fupply to thd Churches^ 

u4nfw. But thefe be but unproved words. 

I. Howfhall we be fure that other mens finning 

will abfolve the two thoufand innoeent from 

their duty ? If in the firfi Inflant it be confeflTed- 

ly the equal duty of all, how will the weaknefs 

and fm of one part change the obligation of all 

the reft ? 2. If the Churches be fomchow fup- 

pliedby mens fin, will it follow that truth and 

righteoufnefs in founder blamelefs men will not 

mend their fupply ? but muft be caft out by 

Others fin ? 3. And where can the wit of man 

ever fet bounds to fuch power of finners ^ It 

, will here be granted us, that if the moit in France 

conform to Popery, it will not difoblige all o- 

thers from the exercife of their Miniftry : And 

who then can fay, what thofe untruths and fins 

are which a weak and erring Miniftry may be 

guilty ofj which fhall ferve to difoblige the reft ? 

rJo man here can fee us any certain meafure. 

4. Would it have an honeft found if it fhould 

befaid to the people, The greatfr part- of^ the 

I 2 Mini-- 


Minifters by fin fyea grofs deliberate fin unre- 
pented of) have procured the liberty of their 
Miniftry j and they are emrvfor you , and there-r 
fore you muft hear none of thole that refufed fo 
to fin, and are caft out, e, g, fuppofe it were the 
fubfcribing of the Covenant againfl Prelacy that 
were made the Condition of our Preaching here 
by Law : Or fubfcribing to the Divine Right of 
unordained Elders and their power in Presbyte- 
rian Clalles : Ifmoftof the Minifters take that 
Covenant, doth that prove that all the reft if 
forbidden to Preach muftbe fiient f This were 
an eafie way to introduce any Errour, by for- 
bidding any but the defenders of it to Preach ? 
UffilUn might not thus have put down the 
Gofpel, nor f^alens have put down the Homo^ 
otiftans (as they called the Orthodox,) nor the 
Papifts fo put down the Proteftants^ why may 
Calvinifis or Lutherans fo put down one ano- 
ther f As if I were bound to be a Minifter only 
till other men will Tin ! 

Obj. Bfttjuppoje that the fin be on the jilenced 
A^inifiers party and the other be in the trmk^ 

u^rif I. Then the filenced Minifters are not 
guiltlefs of the Schifm. 2. But if it befo^ if their 
errour be in a fmall and diffcult matter, not 
deferving filencing (as theirs Rom, 15'. about 
meats and daies &c ) it may be i^v greater Schifm 
in the filencers, then in them. 

Obj. But fuppofe it a doubtful cafe, and one 
party take confenting to be a fin, and the other part 
and the greater take it to be none. If you may preach 
on becaufe you thinkjhat you are in the right, then 
no Heretick^(hould be filenced. 

^nf This was ani'wered before i, If men will 

. ftill 


fo the Proteftants difowned the Papift Bifhops 5 
And Bugcnhagius Pomerafjfts a Presbyter re- 
formed and oidained Bifhops in Denmark^ Bifhop 
Vflier himftif told one of us, that being asked 
by his Sovereign whether he found that ever 
Presbyters ordained Presbyters ? he anfwered, 
/ canjhew jour 'Mujejty more^ even w'jei e Presby- 
ters made Bi/hops, citing the u4Uxandrian cuftom 
out of 7erom to Evagrtus. The Judgment of 
JE«g/{/^ Biftiops and Divines for the validity of 
fuch Ordination bv Presbyters, and of the Ordi- 
nation in the Reformed Churches abroad, fomc 
of us have proved heretofore at large. 4. Clirilt 
having made a Law which conferreth the Pafto- 
ral Power on him that is made a du: Receiver 
(as the King's Charter doth the Power of the 
Lord Mayor on him that is duly chofen to \z) 
it followeth that no more is abfolurelv neceifa- 
ry to fuch rece[)tion of that Power,buc that the 
perfon be duly qualified,and have confent and cp- 
fortunity^ and the beft inveftiture which the 
time and place will afford: Of which Voetipu de 
dffperata cut-ifa Paparm, and one of us in a Dlf- 
pute of Ordination y have long ago fa id that vvhich 
we fuppofe will never be well anfwered. 5". And 
Grotim de Imperio famm. Pcteft. circa Sacra (an 
excellent Bookj hath (hewed, that he that is the 
fole P aft or of a Church, is in effed a Bifhpp. x\nd 
indeed Dr. tiammond (as is faid) in his Differ, 
and ^nnotattens alTerteth de faftj, that in Scri- 
ptures one Bifhop without any Presbvtef under 
him was fetled in each Church ; fo that every 
Paftor of a particular Church then was a Bifhop 
(as far as can be proved :) And if that was the 
Apoftolical inftirution that every Church have a 
I Bifhop^ 

Cm 4] 

Bifhop, and that there vvas no fole Paper ( at 
leaft) but Biftiops, then he that is ordained the 
Paftor, ('at lealt fole or chief; of a particular 
Church is ordained a Bilhop : The reafon is, be- 
caufe his Office and Power followeth the Law 
and Charter of Chrtft that made it, and not of 
the invefling Mirdfierial Ordainer if he Would al*. 
ter it, or pronounce it otherwife. 

LXVI. 22. Not to obey Lay- Chancellours 
where they govern the Church by the power of 
the Keys, decreeing Excommunications and Ab- 
fblutions, and performing the work of Explora- 
tion and Admonition belonging to Bifhops in 
order thereto, we take to be no Schifm ; nor to 
refufe fubfcribing or fwearing to fiich a Govern- 

LXVII. 23. Not facriiegioufly to defert the 
lacred Minillry when vowed and confecratcd 
thereto, is no Schifm. 

LXVIII. 24. Where fuch fins are made the 
Condition of Minift ration by men in power, as 
that all the whole Mimftyy of a Kingdom are 
bound in confcience to deny confent and confor- 
mity thereto, it is the duty of ^// the Mrmfl:ry 
inprimoinfiante^ to forbear their Minilterial Of- 
fice or none 5 for the reafon is the fame to all : 
For example; If ten or twenty untrue or un- 
righteous forbidden things, muft be fubfcribed, 
declared, covenanted, or fworn, or as many fins 
pradifedj yea were it but one, no doubt but the 
whole Minillry is bound to deny Conformity to 
anyone fuch thing. Now if ail thefe muU for- 
bear or lay down their Office, becaufc forbid- 
den by men to exercife it then it is in the power 
ofa Prince to caft out Ghriftianity when he 


15-. When the Parliament's Armies were 
wbrltcd and weakened by the King, and they 
found themfelves in danger of being overcome, 
they intreared help from the Scots, who taking 
the advantage of their ftraits, brought in the 
Covenant as the Condition of their help; which 
the Parliament rather accepted than they would 
lofe them, which at firft was impofcd on none 
by force : But Cto pafs by all other Confidera- 
tionsj was judged by many wife men, to be an 
occafion of divifion, as making the oppofltion to 
FreUcy, to be the terms of the Kingdoms Unity 
and Concord, when they might know that the 
King and a great, if not the greateft part of the 
Kingdom, were of the contrary mind, and fo ic 
was thought to be (as the Papal terms of Unity^ 
a means of unavoidable divifion : But others 
thought that becaufe it tied them to no endea- 
vours, but in their Places and Callings, they 
might take it. 

16. The AlTembly of Divines at V/cftminfter 
were men that had lived in Conformity, except 
about eight or nine of them and the Scots : But 
being fuch as thought Conformity lawful in ca(e 
of deprivation but the things impofedtobea 
(hare, which fhould be removed if it could be 
lawfully done, theyalfo received theCovenant, 
but were divided .bout the fenfe of the word 
[^Prelacy,'] many proTeiling their Judgment to be 
for Moderate Epifcopacy j whereupon the de- 
fcribing addition? [^^rckbiJlTops, BiJbcpSj Dearjs, 
^rchdeacom'] were added . And upon (uch a Pro- 
feflion that it difclaimcd not all Epifcopacy-, 
Mr. Coleman is fa id to have given the Covenant 
to the Houfe of Lords. And they complained of 



Parliament which tied them to meddle with no-» 
thing but what they offered to them. 

17. This Covenant and Vow was taken by the 
Tarliament, and by their Garrifons diud Souldurs 
that would volunrarily take it, as a teft whom 
they would truftjthe reft being had in fufpenfion; 
And after the wars; by fuch as were ordained 
Minifters,and by the Kings adherents when they 
made their compofuions 5 fo far was it afrer-^ 
ward impofed. But many Minifters and Gentle- 
men refufed it, and fo did Cromwei*s Souldiers, 
and in many Counties few did take it. 

18. How far the Parliament was from being 
Presbyterians, may partly befeen in thePropo* 
fitions fent from them by the Earl oT EJfex to 
the King at Nottingham^ and partly by their 
defeating all the defires and endeavours of thofe 
that would have Presbytery fetlcd through the 
Land : We know of no places but London and 
Lancafhire where it was commonly taken up, 
and fome little of it at Coventry, and fome few 
fuch places. And that was only as a tolerated 
or commended thing, without any impofition 
that ever we knew of: And accordingly it came 
to nothing in a fhort time. 

17. Till their ne AT modelling their Army, the 
Parliament had given out all Commiffions to 
their Souldiers to fight for {_Ktng and Parlia- 
Tnent,'] But then the King's name was left out 5 
which feeming to many thoufands an utter 
change of the Caufe, from that time many did 
defert them : And thereupon the Party called 
Sedaries flowing in to Cromml, and his Army 
conquering, the power fell into their hands,whQ 
imprifoned the King, accufed and drove away 


I Scots, with the other changes there attempted, 
die defignes charged on the Marq. o{ Hamilton ^ 
the fear of the Lords lofing the Tyths, fire, 
which. Dr. Heylin mentioneth as the caufesor 
occafions of their arming there, with the pro- 
gress thereof, and their entring into England^ 
and the advantage thence taken by fbme Englifh 
Lords, to advife the Kingto call a ParJiament 
once and again, and thedifcontents and proceed- 
ings of that Parliament againft the twoMinifters 
of the King} for former things withfuch other 
matters we had rather the reader took from 
others,than from us. We are unwilling to be the 
mentioners of any more than concerneth our 
prefent caufe, and the things are Jvery com- 
monly known. 

9. On the 23. of 0(^c/'fr, 1641. The Irifh 
fuddenly rofe , and murdered no lef*? than 
two hundred thoufand perfons, and Dublin nar- 
rowly efcaped them , of which we refer the 
Reader to the examinations publifhed by Dr. 
Henry fones^ fince a Bifhop in IrelaM, and to the 
hiftory of Sir fohn Temple^ and to the Earl of 
Orerfs Anfwer to Mr. Weljh, 

10. The dreadfulnefs of this Maflacre ( fo far 
exceeding the French j& the news fent over that 
the Irijlo [aid that they had the Kings CemmiJJlon 
znd the foregoing jealofifies oi the people and the 
Parliaments Declarations^ raifed in multitudes of 
the people a fear that the Irifh when they had 
ended their work there would come over hither 
and do the like ; and that they had partakers in 
England oivihom we were in danger, and that 
there was no way of fafety but to adhere to the 
Parliament for their own defence, or elfe it 


[12 6] 

Would quickly be too late to complain.' 

11. In 1642. the lamentable Civil Warr 
brake out ; At which time as far as ever wc 
could learn by acquaintance with fome of them 
and report of others, excepting an inconfiderable 
number, the Houfes of Lords and Commons 
confifted of thofe that had ftill lived in confor- 
mity to the Church of England and the Epifcopal 
Government and were fuch Conformifts as Dr. 
Hejiin defcribeth Archbifhop Abbot and the 
Clergy andParliaments of his times to have been. 
Crying out of the danger of a new partie, that 
faid they would fhake out ReligionyLiberties and 
Fropertj, And fuch were they when the War 
began. Presbytery being then little known 
among them. 

12. Their fear of being overpowred by the 
party of whom they feemed to think them- 
lelves in fudden danger, caufcd feme of them to 
countenance fuch Petirionings and clamours of 
t\\t Londoners, Apprentices, and others, as we 
think diforders and provocarion of the King. 

13. The ftrft open beginning was about the 
Militia: And whether the Lord Lieutenants 
whom the Parliament cho(e, were not almofl 
all Epifcopal Conform ft Sy we intreat the Reader 
but to perufe the Catalogue in the ordinance for 
that Militia, and to ask any that well knew themi 
(cis fome of us did many of them) and he may 
certainly be iatisfied. 

14. The fame we fay i.Or the far great efi part 
of the General Otficers, ColLonels, Lieutenant- 
Collone]3,and Majors of the Earl of Epx^s Ar- 
my. 2, And of the Sea-Captains. 3. And of the 
Major Generals of Brigades, and Counties 
through the Land, iy. When 

Divines to the Synod of Dor/*, who owned and 
[helpt to form thofe Articles : And he tells us 
fthat Bifhop Laud had no Bifhops on his fide but 
iBifhop Neale, Bifhop Buckeridge^ Bifhop Corbet^ 
!and Bifhop Hovpfon^ and after Bifhop Momtague^ 
land thought it not fafe to trull his Caufe to a 
Convocation 5 the major part called then Ths 
Church of England^ i.Cryed down Arminianifm 
as dangerous Docflrine; 2. Cryed down any 
neerer aff roach to tin Pafiflsy and the Tolera^ 
tion of them 5 3- And were much for the Law 
againfl ahfolhtenefs in the King ; and Dr. Heyltns 
and Rufhmrth's Colled, will tell you the full 
ftory oi Manw^aring & Sihhorp,2Lr\d Archbifhop 
Abbots refufing to licenfe Sibthorp's Book, and 
theConfequentsofall. Thus thefe two Parties 
grew into jealoufies, the Old Church-men accu- 
fmg the New on thefe three accounts, and the 
New ones ftriving,as Dr.He^lm defcribeth them, 
to get into power and overturn the Old. 

5. In this contention the Parliaments alfo in- 
volved themfelves and the Majority ftill clave 
to the Majority of the Bijloops and Clergy (then 
called the Church of England :) And in all or mofl 
Parliaments cried up Religion^ Law and Propri - 
^r;' and the Liberty o{^ SubjeBs^ and cried down 
Arminianifmy MonspoUesfionnivence and Eavon- 
ring of Papijisy and their increafe thereby j ex- 
prefTing by Speeches, and Remonfiranccs, their 
jealoufies in all thefe points, till they weredif^ 
folved . 

6. The writings of Bijhop Jewel, and much 
more Bijhop Bilfon, and moft of all Mr. Richard 
Hooker, and fuch as were of their mind, fhew 
us what Principles there, and then were by the 


I them, received. WewiP 

Laiety that followed them, 
not recite their words, left our intent be mifun- 
derftood; neither Bijhop Bilfons inftances in 
what cafes Kings may be refifted by armes 
Nor Mr. Hoekers that maketh Legiflation the 
natural right of the Body politick, and govern- 
ing power to be ihence derived, to depend upon 
the Body, and to returne to it by efcheats,when« 
heirs fail, and that the King is flnguUs Major 
and Hniverfis Minor ^ 5rc. (His eighth Book was 
in print long before Bifhop Gauden publifhed 
it, who yet vindicateth it to be Hookers own.) 

7. In 1637, 1638, i<^39. A. Bifhop Landuib' 
ing more fevericy againft diflenters than had 
been ufed of late before, and the vifitations 
more enquiring after private fafts and meetings 
and going out of wens own Varljhes to hear, and 
fuch like, and alfo the Book for fports on the 
Lords dates being necelTarily to be read by all 
the Conformable Mmifters in the Churches, and 
Altarsy Rail es and Bowing towards them being 
brought in, and in many places afternoon Ser- 
mons and iL^^/^r^j put down^ the minds of men 
before filled with the aforementioned jealoufies, 
were made much more jealous than before. 
And after the imprifonment of feme, the ftig- 
matizing of fome, and the remorall of many 
beyond the Seas, and the death of more, the 
Nonconformable Minifters were reduced to the 
paucity before mentioned ; but the minds of 
many people were more alienated from ihe la- 
ter fet of Bifhops, and the old fort ofConfor- 
mifts more jealous of them, and more afraid of 
Popery, &c. than before. 

5. The new Liturgy then impofcd on the 

5. Queen EUz^abeth and King fames difcoun- 
tenancing and fuppreflTing the Nonconformifts, 
they attempted in Northamtonjhire and WarwicJ^- 
jhirc a little while to have fet and kept up 
private Churches and governed them in the 
Presbyterian way ; But that attempt was foon 
broken and fruftrate by the induftry ofBiOop 
WhitgHift and Bancroft : And the Nonconformifts 
lived according to their various opportunities ; 
fbme of them conformed: fome were by conni- 
vence permitted in peculiars and fmall impro- 
priate places , or Chappels that had little 
maintenance, in the publick Miniftry, which 
kept them from gathering fecret Churches : 
fome of them had this liberty a great part of 
their lives, as Mr. HUderJham^Mv, DodyMx, Her- 
/>7g, Mr. Paget, Mr. Midfley fenior and junicr^ 
Mr. LangUy^Mv, S/4rfr,and Mr. y^at Bremieham 
Mr. Tailor J Mr. PatewAft, Mr. Paul Bayne, Mr. 
Fox of Tevckshuryy John Fox, and many more. 
Some had this liberty all their live?, as Mr. 
Knewfiidbs, Dr. ChAcidencn, Dr. ReignoUs Dr, 
Humphrey, Mr. Perkins, Mr. fohn Ball, Mr. 
Barnet, Mr. Ceeree, Mr. Root, Mf. Atkins Mr. 
Gtlpin, John Rogers and many others : feme 
were faintodiifr up and down by hiding them- 
felves, and by flight and thefe preached fome- 
timesfecretly in the houfes where they were, 
and fometime publickly for a day and awny, 
"Where they could be admitted: fo did Mr. 
Parker, Mr. Br aafhaw, Mr. Ntco Is, Mr, Bright man, 
Mr. Bramsk^l, Mr. Hurrjfhrey Fen, Mr. Sutcijf, 
Mr. Thomas, and many more ; and after their 
filencing Mr Cotton, Mr. Hooker, and many more 
that went to America , Mr. Cartm>ght was 



permitted in theHofpital at IVarwic^, Mr. //^ 
z;<rj, and Mr. Hind at Bunbery in ChsJhtr^^dLr\<i ma- 
ny more kept in ("having fmall maintenance) be- 
ing in peculiar or [jriviledged places : Mr. R^th^ 
hand, Mr. Angler, Mr. Johnfon, Mx. Gee, lAv. Han- 
cock^, and many others oft filenced, had after li- 
berty by fits. Mr. Eowme of Manchester, Mr. 
Broxholm in DArbj/Jhtre Mv.Jooper of HuHt tn^ton- 
floire (at Blton') and many others futfered more, 
and laboured more privately. Dr. ^mes was 
invited to Franekera , fome were further 
alienated from the £»^///^Prelacie,andreparated 
from their Churches, and fome of them called 
£romufis, were fo hot at home, that they were 
put to death ; Mr. Ainfworth, fohnfon, Rohinfon 
and others fled beyond Teas, and there gathered 
Churches of thofe that followed them j and 
broke bv divifions among themfelves. The old 
Nonconformifts being moft dead, and the later 
gone moft to America, we cannot learn that in 
1640 there were many more Nonconformifi 
Minifters in England, than there be Counties, if 
fo many. 

4.TheGonformifts fliortly fell into diflenfion 
among themfelves, efpecially about three 
things, ylrmmiamfm (^ as it was called ) and 
Conciliation vpith the Church of Rome^ and Prero" 
gativc'. Dr. Hejltn in the Life Of ArchBifhopLaud 
doth fully open all thtfe ditferences, and tells us 
that Archbifhop Ahi?ot was the Head of one 
party, and in point of Antiaitmtntarnfm even 
Archbijhop Whit gift before him, with Whitaker 
and others had made the Lambeth ArticleSjdriveR 
the Arminians from Cambridge : King^^w^i had. 
difcountenanced them in UolUnd^ and fent fix . 


eleven Members of the Parliament, and after- 
ward imprifonedand excluded the major part of 
the remaining Houfc, and with the reft cut off 
the King, caft down the Houfe of Lords, pre- 
tended a while to kx up a Commonwealth (as 
they called itj impofed an Engagement to that 
Commonwealth as eflablijhed without Kihg and 
'Hofife of Lords 3 ordered the fequeftration of 
the Minifters that refufed it, and of thofc that 
kept not their daies of fafting and thankfgiving, 
for the Scotifh wars which then they made. 
After which they calt out with fcorn that rem- 
nant of the Commons that had jovned with 
them ; and chofe themfelves fome men called a 
Parliament, who attempting to put down all 
Paridi-Minifters, Tythes and Univerfities Ahe 
firft put to the Vote, and carried but by a fe\V 
againft them) they were broke up by delivering 
up their Commiflion to OUver^ who was made 
Protedtor,and had the honour defigned of faving 
the Miniitry, Tythes and Univerfities from the 
Sedaries ; even from that danger into which he 
had brought them. 

20. From the time of thefe Nov Caufcs and 
Changes^ efpecially the deftroying the King, 
violating and cafting out the Parliam.ent men, 
impofing the engagement ^rc. the Minifters 
called Presbyterian in England^ fome few com- 
pliers excepted ( many of whom fince Conform ) 
declared themfelves againft all this^ and were 
lookt upon as enemies ; though kindnefs was 
offered to reconcile them. Some were imprifoned, 
many caft out of their places in the Univerfities^ 
fome fequeftredj and Mr. Love and Mr. Gibbons 
( a Gentleman ) beheaded, Mr. Ges with the 

K Lm- 

Lanca/hire Minifters, with fome of us, wrote 
againft thefc proceedings of the then Power* 
Many Preachc againft them, fo that the fober 
Religious people of the land grew commonlv 
difaffeded to them : And what the Scots did and 
how they were conquered, we need not here 

21. The Minifters who were then in poflfeftion 
of the Parifh Churches were of many minds 
about Church Government, i. Many were for 
the old Epifcopacy and Liturgie 2. Many were 
for a reformed Epifcopacy: 3. Many were for 
Presbytery ( that is. Church- Government by 
Presbyteries, Glaffes and National aftemblies, of 
Teaching^ and of Governing unordained Elders 
Gonjunift, as jfire dlvino ) 4. Some were for 
that which is called Independency. <^. Some 
thought that no form of Church Government 
was jure divino, 6 But the moft of our 
acquaintance were peaceable, moderate men that 
thought feveral parties had fomewhat of the 
right, and that the points of difference were fo 
fevv and fmall, that they might well live in peace 
and love, and that none of the parties was fo 
right as that in all things they fhould be followed, 
and others trod down to (et them up : And 
many of thefe were young men that, being at 
the Schools, had not been engaged in thefirft 
quarrels, and dcHred not to fide with any 
dividing parries, and modeftly profeffed that 
they had not maturity enough to ftudy them- 
felves to any great confidence in the Contro- 

22. This lafl: fort of men beginning in 
IVorcefijrjhsre fee on foot a work of reconciling 



AiTociation, in which the Epifcopa],Presbyterians 

and Independanrs, agreed to pradife fo much 

of Church Government and Min;ftration as they 

were alJ agreed in, with mutual Love and 

afTifting concord, and to forbear one another in 

the reft, till God fhould brin^ usneerer. ( And 

after they added another Agreement, to Cate- 

chife every perfbn in their Parllhes old and 

young, that would come to them, or receive 

them thereto j and perfonally to infirud and 

exhort them about the pradicals of Religion, 

and preparation for death and the life to come) 

This example was prefenrly followed by the 

Minifters in Cumberland and WeftmorUnd^ Wilt- 

Jhire^ Dorferjhire^ EJfex^ and going on in other 

Counties, till the confufions 1659 interrupted it, 

and the return of the Prclacic ended it and 

many fuch endeavours. 

23. When Oliver was dead, many forts of 
Government were let up in one year : Firft his 
Ton Richard ( who having never been in Arms, 
and being faisicd to be for the Kincr, many 
thought he would have been re dy when he 
could, to relign the Kins^dom to him , and 
fpoke him fi^ir on that account, and others 
becaufe they thousi^ht he would quiet the violent, 
and keep out utter confufion : ) After his 
ejedion the Remnant of the Commons called 
the Commonwealth was reftored. After this 
they were caft out again, and a Council of State 
Chofen by the Army ; till the Kingdom grew 
to fcorn them all, and was weary and afhamed of 
the confufions, and revived their defigns to 
reftore the King. 
24. The firft open attempt otvniiedendeavdHri 
K i againil 

againft the Army, to rcftore the King, was by 
the Chcjlnre^ Lancajloire^ and Northxvales men, 
under Sr^G^&r^ Booth (now hovA De lamere ) 
and Sir Tho. MidaUton, who had been comman- 
ders for the Parliament J and was broken by the 
Armies Conquering them. Mr. CooI^,Mt Mar rifon, 
Mr. Kiri^y, Mr. Scddan, fent i]pPrironers,and in 
danger of death, and other Minifters, whofmce 
are filenced and ruined by thofe they 'hel[)r. 

25. Bctihe attempts being renewed, at the 
fame time, the divifion of the Oppofcrs fthe 
^rmy ^nd the Commonx^ealtb Members^ fhook 
them all to pieces^ and ruined them,and the new 
clofure of the Old Parliamentarians, and the 
Royalifts, and the Presbyterians, and other Mi- 
nifters with the Epifcopal, ftrengthened them, 
and reftored the King: The Presbyterian Ofli- 
cers and Souldiers of General Monl(^s Army con- 
curring with the reft, and Sir Thomas AlUn then 
Lord Mayor {'many London Minifters on their 
part counfelling him thereto^ v/ith the Alder- 
men and others, inviting General Mor^io joyn 
with the City herein againft the Oppofersj from 
which very day, the fcalcs were turned, and all 
went on without any confiderable ftop, and the 
old ejected Members of Parliament firft, and the 
Council iti\tA fro tempore after, prepared for His 
Majefties return ; and Dr. Gauden^ Mr. Caiamyy 
and Mr. Baxter Preaching at the Faftof the next 
Parlirmcnr, (as their Printed Sermons (hew) the 
Kino the not morning was voted to return, and 
to be 'invited 10 his Fathers Throne. 

26. In preparation for this, fome Minifters 
noiv filenced, had treated with, fome Gentlemen 
firm to the King, and with Bifnop VJhh^, Biftop 

Lm3] ' 

^Bro\»ri^, Dr. Hammond , and others, who all 
encouraged them ( though fome much more 
than others ) by pro/ciring moderate, healing 
principles and intentions : And in Lomuw, and 
feveral Counties, tlie Noblemen, Knights, and 
Gentlemen that had ftill adhered to the King, 
profeft and pullidied their peaceable dcfires of 
Concord, and refolution againft revenge; And 
Letters were written from Franco to divers here, 
to takeoff all the unjnftfufpicions thatfome had 
raifed about the Kings Religion 5 all which 
promoted the Concord that accomplifhed the 

27. Thofe that faw the marvelous fnccefsof 
this reconciliation and concord^ and knew that 
the Clergies difiar.ce was moft likely, if any 
thing, to hinder the happy perfcdion and fettle- 
ment of a full defircd peace, did prefently 
attempt an agreement among them: And upon 
the motion of fome of the fince filcnccd Minifters, 
the Earl of A^ianchefter^ and the Ear! of Orery 
mentioning it to the King, they told us, that ic 
was well pleafing to His Majefty : Whereupon 
His Majefty vouchfafing them airdience,and great 
encouragement, feveral perfons on each fjde 
were appointed to treat of the ncccfiary terms 
of fetled Concord and to yield to each other as 
far as they could, and offer their mutual 
conceffions : What was done in this is not now ' 
to be mentioned, fkve that part of it was 
publifhed by fome body, which declareth it, and 
the firft part being about Church Government 
and worfhip, iifucd in the publication of His 
Majefties Graciopis Declaration about Ecclsfiaflial 
Affairs, by which all our breaches feemed at 
K 3 the 



the prefent to be almoft healed, and the Houfe 
of Commons gave His MAJESTY Publick 

28 At this time the LordChancellor as a token 
of H's Majefties Gracious favour and acceptance, 
offered Bif-opnck^ to three that then treated for 
Peconciliation, and D^anncs to nvo or three of 
them. Of the three firrt, one did the next day 
fave one re fufe it, but in a letter to him proftf- 
fing^ his gratitude, and tha»- he was fo rejoiced in 
His Majefties Gracious Declaration, that if it 
mis^ht bur be fetled by Law, he refolved to ufe his 
utmolt endeavour*; to pcrfwade all men to con- 
formity on thofe terms, and therefore would not 
difable himfcif thereto by taking a Bifhoprick, 
and making men think that it was not for juft 
concord, but his own intereft that he wrote or 
pleaded : Another of them foon accepted : The 
th'rd and the two or three that had Deanries 
offered them, only fufpcnded till thev faw whe- 
ther His. Majefties Declaration would live or dye. 

29. what was done in rhe next attempt upon 
His Majefties CommilTion to agree on fuch 
alterations of the Liturgie as were ncceffary to 
tender Confciences,&c. we are to make no further 
mention of, then is made bv the writings given, 
in which fome body ftiorrly afrer ( in ^^rr and 
with many falfe. -printings) publifl^ed ; ^n 
addition to th^ Liturgi:, h Re fly to fome former 
Papers of the BifJpops, and an Ecv,-r,(fi Petition to 
them for the Churches Peace, wh'ch were given 
in and never anf^vered by them ( that we know 
of j -fome one printed. And being in writing 
reqaireJ by a Right reverend Bifhop then in the 
Chair, as from fL'periours to Jay by meer 


InconvenUnces, and to give In thofe points which 
we took to be pit fin;^t^^^^ in eight part icnUrs 
the next day as part 5 and by that time but one 
of ourarguments about one of them was half 
handlcd,andthe reft of the arguments untouched, 
and the reft of the Controverted inftances not 
medled with, our Commiilion was expired: 
And the Bilhops argumentation as Opponents, 
afterward, on another occafion printed. 

30. Shortly after the convocation of the 
Clcr^ie fetled the Liturgie as now it is fetled : 
The 'Kings Declaration dyed : The Parliament 
made the AB of rmforwity, by which many 
Minifters for not conforming to that Law were 
on Augt4(L 24. 1662 ejedcd and filenced, on 
fevere penalties. About Eiglneen hundred of 
their names from (everal Counties were fl-,ewed 
Mr. Cd^my and others 5 and feme fay about 
203 were omitted, and that they were in all 
above 2000. 

31. They that had treated for Reconciliation 
forefaw what fad divifions were like to follow, 
if we were not healed and unitedj and therefore 
in their Petition made a folemn Proteftation 
that nothing hut the fear of fm and Gods difflcafare 
fhould hinder them from Conformity, deprecating 
the woful effects of the divifion, which could 
not pofTibly be otherwife avoided, than by Tome 
necelTary abatements of the Impofitions: and 
foretelling much that hath fince come to pais, 
which common underftanding might eafily fee in 
the Caufes. 

32. The perfons that were filenced were not 
of one mind and meafure about all the things 
impofed on them, i- Some of them were 

K 4 Epif. 

Epifcopal, and for as much as Richard Hookep 
writeth for, and were againft the Covenant ("and 
never took it) and the Parliaments War, and 
were for the Liturgie and Ceremonies, and had 
Conformed had th^fe been all that had been 
impofed, who yet were caft our of Fellowfhips 
andMlniftry : Yea fome had fuffered for the 
King, and been ruined in their patrimony, fomc 
imprifoned for him, and fome had been inarms 
for him. 2. Bcfides thefe, and other Epiicop.al 
Nonconformifts, fome and very many, and we 
think the greateft part of any one, were fuch 
difengaged pacificators as we before mentioned 
about affociations : 3. Some were for the 
Presbyterian Government , and 4. Some for 
that called Independent, which were compara- 
tively but few. 

Alio fome wTre ( as heretofore Dr. lohn 
Reynolds^ Dr. Humphrey^ ) Mr. PerkinSy Mr. Taul 
Bajn.Scc. for fome part of Conformity {Kneeling 
and Liturgie j'diT\di fome for the Surplice) & againft 
other parts : Many would have come in to all 
the old Conformity, had it not been for that one 
fentencc in the Canon-fubfcription [^Nothing 
Ccntrarj to the word o/G^«'/5^ ] f which kept out 
Mr. Ch-Jlingivorth himfelf, as is reported, till 
fome difpenfation let him in. ) But the New 
Conformity was fuch as fatisfied them all againft 
it. Manypurpofcd to have yielded to Prelacy, 
Liturg/e and Ccremon*ies,and gone to the utmoft 
that Confciencc would tolerate, rather than lay 
by their Miniltry. But vyhen they faw the new 
Ad for Vnifcrmity^iht'w deliberations were at an 

33. Their intereft, honour or fomewhat tKe 


led many perfons of thofe times, v\' hen they had 
m:idc the n^mt oC Presi^^terians odious, to call 
all the Nonconformifts that were Epifcop.tl or 
neutral,by ihename o{ Treshyteriansytwt:^ thofe 
that had declared themfelvesagainft the Presby- 
terian frame, fb they were not Independents, 
And they continue that practice to ferve their 
ends to this day. 

34. The elder fort of the Nonconformifts 
were ordained by Diocefan B:(hops : The 
younger fort were ordained by Alfemblies of the 
Parifh Paftors of Cities and Countries, no other 
ordination being then allowed by thofe in 

3 J. As to the late Civil Wars which feme 
moft lowdly charge on the Nonconformifts, this 
is the truth, that thefeveral parties charge the 
beginning of that war on one another:One party 
I faith that the Fresbyterians begun it in England: 
Another party lay it on the old Church of 
England men that followed Archbifiiop Abhot^ 
and fuch like : Both thefe accufed Parties laid 
the beginning on Archbifhcp Laidd as an Inno- 
vator, and tbofe that followed him: And fome 
think that every fide had too much hand in it, 
and were to be blamed. The truth is, 1. That 
more by far of the Nonconformifts than of the 
Ute [on q{ the Prelatifts were for the Parlia- 
ment in thofe times : 2. That fome that were 
Sedaries, and fome that were hot for the Par- 
li.iment did conform : 3. That fome few that had 

en in the King's Army or Caule,and that were 
. -lerers for him, and v ere againft the Covenant 
and the Parliaments War, were Nonconformifts: 
4. That many more of the old Epifcopal CorKfor- 


tnifts^ than of the later fort of them were f^o^ 
the Parliament : 5. That the Archbifliop of 
Tork^QVuli4ms) who had fome time been Lor(} 
Keeper, was one oftheParliamenrs Commanders 
in North-WAies (as it is reported without de- 
nial.) 6. That moft Miniflers are dead t'lat were 
in that War. 7. That the W^'I'^f^rrtfier Aflembly, 
as is (aid, came thither almoftall Conformifts.. 
8. That fo fmall is the number of the prcfenc 
filenced Minifters who had any hand in thofe 
Wars, that if no other were ejed:ed and filenr 
ced but they, the cafe would be judged compar 
ratively very eafie, and it would be thankfully 
accepted, as hath oft been told. For moft were 
then youths at School, and in the Univerfities, 
and many lived in the King's quarters and gar- 
rirons,and many other never medled with Wars 
at all 5 it being now about thirty four, or five 
years fmce the War began. 9. That all the Wars 
that have been fince their oppofition to the 
Parliament and violence done to the perfon of 
the King, were far from being owned by the 
common fort of the now Nonconformin:s,as was 
faid. 10. The Dodrine of T?;//^*^, Hooker^ and 
fuch like, containing fuch Principles as Parlia- 
ment men then ufually profeiTed is before men- 
tioned, though not fully rccircd,and is common- 
Jy known -, and that the main body of the Par- 
liament, Affembly, Aruiy, Comnunders, Lord • 
L!eutenants,Mijor Generals of Bragade?,andSea- 
Captains, were profeffed Conformifts of the 
Caiwch o^ E^glmd, II. Laltly, We h^d hoped 
th.u Hs Mijefties pruder.x had by the kOi of 
Oblivion long fiace ended this part of the Con- 
tention ; but we fiad ftill fom; conformable Mi- 


niftf rs whom in other rerpc(n:s we much efteem 
and love, who (as if Truth, Charity, Juftice and 
Humanity had been forgotten by them) affirm 
in print that ^U the Nonconformij^s were guilty of 
the Kings Deaths paiTing over what is aTbrefaid 
of the Conformilts j and others of them crying 
out to Miigiftrates to execute the Laws on us, 
by the urged Motive of their late fequeftrations 
and fiitferings : as if they knew not, or w uld 
not have others to know, how tew Nonconfor- 
mifts in Parliament or Militia there were at the 
beginning of the War in comparifon oftheCon- 
formifts 3 and how much the fecond, third and 
following Caujes, Parties, and Trag dies in that 
War, were difliked by the now Epifcopal and 
Presbyterian Nonconformifts. 

36. The people who now adhere to the Non- 
conformifts, who were at age before the Wars 
f whom we that write this were acquainted 
with) had very hard thoughts of the Bifhops 
perfons, and feme of Epifcopacy it felf, becaufe 
of the forefaid filencing of Minifters, and ruining 
of honcft men, about Smday-C^oxts, Reading that 
Book, and other fuch things, befides Noncon- 
formity : But when the Minifters that guided 
them, began to feem more reconciled to the 
Epifcopal Party, and upon the reports and pro- 
mifes which they had heard, had put them in 
hope that the next Bifliops would prove more 
moderate, peaceable and pious, than the former, 
and would by experience avoid divifions and 
perfecution, the fa id people began to be enclined 
to more reverent and favourable thoughts of 
Epifcopary and the Bifhops 5 and were, upon ex- 
perience of the late confufions, in a far fairer 



way to union &: fubmifTion to them than before.' 
But when ihey faw their Teachers taken from 
them, and fome fuch fet over them againft their 
-wills, who were better known to them than to 
the obrruders ; and when they heard of about^ 
2000 filenced at once, this fo much alienated 
them from the Biflmps, that it was never fmce 
in our power to bring them to fo much efteem 
of them, and reverence to them, as might have 
beenj but multitudes by this were driven further 
from Conformity than the filenced Minifters* 
37- The 2000 filenced were not a quarter of 
the Minifters oi Efigland, vvho were in poffeirion 
before the return of the Bifhops : fo that it is 
evident, that above three fourth parts of the 
Miniflers that kept in under the Parliament and 
Prote(n:or(notwithiianding Covenant, Diredory 
and all J did prove Gonformilts." 

38. The Nevs}- altered Liturgy was not printed 
and nubliuied till Auguft 2.^. or near it, when 
the Minifters v/cre to be filenced that fubfcrib- 
ed nor, and confented not : fo that we muft 
needs fuppofe that thcv were but ^c"^ Minifters 
v^ EngUnd\x\ companfon of the reft, who ^t^^r 
{aw and read (much lefs long confdered) that Book^ 
hfore they declared their yljfent and Confent to all 
things in it. Sure we are, that we that lived in 
London^ who h:d it at the firft publifhing, found 
the time paft, or fo (liort to examine all things 
in it with due deliberation^ that had it been 
blamelcfs, we muft have been filenced, unlefswe 
had confented upon an implicit faith. 

39. Since we were filenced,His Majefties De- 
claration for more Liberty in Religion came 
put 1673* but fo>jn died: And fmce then we have 


been called to many attempts for Unity,in which 
we have twice come to an -agreement with 
thofe honeft, peaceable, pious and learned Di- 
vines of the Church of EngU^^id^ who were ap- 
pointed to treat of ic with us. But that figni- 
fied nothing as to our healing, while Reafons 
unknown to us, or ineitabfe prevailed. 

40. Yet ftill we have been called on to Tell 
what we ^hck^ at, and wh^t ;v^ dcfired, and what 
would [at nfie ///, ( who defire nothing but leave 
to excercile the Miniftry to which we were 
ordained) and the Cant l\ill goeth on among 
the ignorant at leaii, as if we had never told 
them to this day 5 or as i f fince the new confor- 
mity we had ever been called or had leave to 
tell them, or as if the fame men would endure 
us to tell them our cafe of. diffent ard the rea- 
fons of ic to this day. But the Judg is at the door. 


The Mcittersof Fauf, as to zz^jjI is rcqvr. 
redoj fis, by Laws and Canon, to ijjhicb 
*we miifl conform ; And fir fi of Lay-men, 

I. /^AF Laymen that will have any Govern- 
\J ment or Truft in any City or Corpora- 
tion,is necelTarily required the taking of the fol- 
lowing Oath and Declaration by a Law. 

*' / Swear that it is not Lawful upon any 
^' pretence whatfoever to take Arms agalrifl 
" the King : And that 1 Abhor that Irajterous 
" pofition that Arms may he taken iy His Authg- 
" rtty againji his Perfon, ir ag^injt thofe that are 



*• Cofnmijftoned by him^ And the Declaration is 
« [ rL\t there is NO O B L JG^TION 
'^ fipojj me or ^ N T OTH E R perfon, from 
" the Oat '? Commonlj called thefolemn League and 
" Covenant. 

1. By this Oath and this Declararion the 
Government and Trufi of all the Ciries and 
Corporations of England are conftituted or | 

2. Part of this Vow and Covenant is [ againft 
Poperjjft/perftition^ ^nd prof ine fiefs ^ind all that ts 
aguinjh jound doctrine and Goaljnefs : that we 
Will Ki pent of our fins, unfeignedly, and amend 
our lives, &-c, ] which the Noncontormifts take 
to be Laveftu and Neceffarj\\\\\i'^<^, 

3. Thoufands of people lived in the Kings 
Garrifuhs, or Qu;^rters, and thoufands were then 
unborn or Children, who never took this Vow 
or Coveiianr, nor ever heard or read ir, or know 
what, is in ir. 

A. The Parliament that impofcd it on others 
torik ir voluntarily rhtmfclves, as did many ' 
thpufand more. 

'5. Manv thoufands took ir that never faw 
the facts of each other, nor know m what fenfe^ 
er With xvh.it mind all others took it : The 
fe) ft' being, doubtful, all took it not rn on 
fenle : ^ud many thought themfelves nor boun 
to t-^ke it in the impofers fence, where th^ 
words m ght bear another 5 And fo, its like, 
th .ught the Royal party of the Nobility and 
Gentry, who took it at their compofjtion. 

6. It was a Vow to God, as well as a Cove- 
nant with men (as the words fhew.) 

7. The Controverfie is not, i. Whether it 



was Lawfully Impofcd, 2. Or whether it was 
Lawfully T^k^n, 3. Or whether it bind as a 
League, 4. Nor whether it bind to any unlawful 
thing ("which all renounce) But, 5. \Vhetheras 
a F^ow mad. to God, it bind to things necejfary 
( as againft Sch\(m,Profanenefs,Poperj: to R.pent^ 
5rc.) to wh ch men were before bound by other 
obligations. Nor whether they that took it not 
be bound bv it to repent,8rc.but whether no one 
perfon in the three Kingdoms t\ ho took it, be (b 
bound : And that fince the Scots drevv his Ma- 
jelly to fecm to own it ( which we judge they 
did unlawfully. j 

II. All Parents who "^ill have their Children 
baptized, mal^ fubmit them to thefignofthe 
CrcXc.js it is after defcribed. ,^'W/; mnfi all that 
a'^e to he baptiz^ed at age [nhnjit themfdves to it, 

l\l. All perfons that have Ch (dren to be 
baptized muft conform as followeth i. They 
muft procure three perfons to be Godfathers 
and Godmother, who muft perfonally prefent the 
Child to be baptized, and muft promife aud 
Vow to God in the Childs name the duties of 
the Covenant, and muft in the name of the Child 
fay [ that be renouncsth the Devil and all his 
xvorksy the vain pomp and glory of th^ world &c^ 
and that he fiedfafily believeth all the articles of 
faith , that he xvill he baptiz^cd and that he 
"will obediently kjep Gods holy vptH and Command- 
ments^&c. ] Not that they believe^ confsnt &c^ 
but that he ( the Child ) doth belv-ve^ defire^ &c. 
And it is not a meer promife for the future [ I 
•rr/7/ believe and renuimce^ &c, ] but a prefeffion 
for the prefent tim : \_I do believe fiedfajp/y and I 
do unomce ] And in the Catechifm it is faid that 



J[RepeHtance vphereby they forfaks fin^ and faith 
vpherehj they fiedfa^/y believe &c, are reqnired of 
perfons to be baptiz^ed ( and not only that have 
been baftiz^ed ) And yet that Infants that cannot 
do thisiare to be baptlTiedy becahfe\^they prom^fe 
them by their fureties, ] and it is not faid becaufe 
they profefi to do them at prefent by their 

2. The Child is baptized upon the under-, 
taking of thefe perfons as fponfors or Cove- 
nanters, yvhofe parts and duties are thus exprefied, 
[ To fee that this Infant be tanghtjo feon as he 
Jhall be able to learn, what a folemn P^oxv, promife 
and profe/Jion he hath here m>%de by yoti-, and that 
hsmayi^now thefe things the better^ ye fhall call 
upon him to hear fermons, and chief y ye fhall 
provide that he may Learn the Creed, the Lords ^ 
prayer, and the ten Commandements, in the vulgar 
tongue^ and all other things which a Chriftuan 
ought to kjiow and believe to his fouls health 5 and 
that this Child may be brought up to lead a Godly , 
and a Chnfiijin life. ] ^ 

3. The Conformifts here are not agreed them-^ 
fclves, what that fubjedive individual Faiths 
Yenwici.itiGn and dafire are which the Infant at pre- 
fent PROFESSETH by his fureties : It is not 
that the Infant doth aBually believe hirnfelf for 
the Catechifm confcQech that he doth not. Nor is 
there any probability that he doth, unle(s hy^ 
miracle unknown. And if it be any ones faith el(e 
that the Infant then Profepth which is Imputa- 
tive ly his civn, it is not agreed whofi faith that is 
or muft be 5 whether the Godfathers , or the 
Churches, ^^^ what Churches, whether that Con- 
gregations, or the Diocefan Churches, ot the iV^- 



iional Churches^ or the Vmverfal Church^ or 
whether ic muft be the Parents^ Adopters or 
On7«^rj of the Child. 

4. Though the Godfathers be not by words to 
promife their P^rf J, yet ftanding purpo(eIy there 
as undertakers of it, and hearing the Minilter 
exprefly tell them what their PART and 
DV TT \s, their coming and (landing in that 
relation, is a plain fignification of confenr, and 
rendereth them obligedCovenanters or Sponfors. 
5.Thefe fponfors are not obliged to profefs that 
the Child is theirs by Adaption or any propriety. 
And fo far is any fuch adopting or omnng from 
their purpofes, that we never in all our lives 
knew any Godfather or Godmother as fuch, 
( not having before taken the Child as theirs on 
other reafons ) that ever became a fponfor 
with fuch a fignified intent. 

6. In moft Country Parifhes that we have 
known, a great part of the Communicants, 
feem Ignorant themfelves of what is to be 
undertaken for the baptized, ( as we judge b;>' 
our tryal where wc have lived, and the credible 
report of other Paftors : ) And too many 
tiotorioufly live themfelves in a courfe of life con- 
trary to what is to be undertaken for theChild. 

7. In all our lives we never knew oneperfbn 
that undertook this Office of Godfather or 
Godmother who beforehand gave the Parents 
any credible promife or fignification, that they 
had any purpofe at all to perform, what the 
Church Chargech on them, and they there 
undertake as their parts and duties, 

8. Nor did we ever know one in all our lives 
that as a Godfather or Godmother did perform itj 

viz. .{To fee themfetvesthat the Child be tunght his 
Covenant as focn as he is able to learn, and to 
provide that he be taught all before recited, his 
Crced,&'c. and ail uhthgs which a Chrtftian ought 
to k^ovf and bdieve to hts fouls he alt hi and that he 
he virtHoufljf brought up to Uada godly and a Chri* 
fitan life : But they leave ihcmto the Parents, 

9. No man can compel another to be Godfa- 
ther or Godnnother. 

10. All fach undertakers that we have known 
have been of (bme of thefe following forts ; 
I . Either ignorant perfons that knew not,or care^ 
Ufs that confidercd not what they did : 2. Or 
perfons that mi^ool^ the (enfc of the Church, and 
thought that they were but the reprefenters of 
the Parents^ and that what they promifed/it wat 
not they, but the Parents that were bound to 
perform : 3. Or Nonconformifis ( in this point } 
who purpofed beforehand to be but the Parent^ 
Reprefentatives, and that the promifr and obli- 
gation (hould all be devolved from them on the 
Parents, though they knew the Church meant 
othervvife j and that they were not bound to the 
Churches fcnfej and therefore their ftanding to 
hear {j his is your par t'^ was no confent to take it 
for tbeir parr. And none of all thefc do anfwer the 
Churches fenfe in their undertaking : And if wc 
are commonly baptized and made Chriltians in 
a way of falfe flowing or Covenanting of fuch 
perfons, or of delufory Equivocation, it is not well. 

11. We know not where Parents can procure 
any to undertake this Office as the Church ini- 
pofeth it, that credibly fignifie themfelves able 
and willing to perform it : wc could not do it 
our felves were we never fo defirgus ; Perhaps 


fome Rich men might hire others td take thcit 
Children into their Care and Edticatmn, as muft 
be promifed ; but who would do fo for the poor? 
yea for all the poor o^ England f And the Non- 
conformifts are not (atisned that it is lawful to 
engage any in a perfidious covenanting before 
God, when before-hand they have no credible? 
fignification of any purpofe to perform it. Nay^ 
when the Parent refcilveth to educate his owrt 
Child, and not to truft him to the Provifion or 
care of others. 

12. The Minifter Covenanting \jo ufe the form 
in the 3ook^cfCo9rmon Prayer prifniped in admi- 
hifrrationof the SuCraments^and Ho dthef'^ Can, 36. 
Ho Parent maj/ fpcak^a vpurd tn the n^me of iois 
own Child, r\o^XO enter htm there into the Cove- 
nant of God, nor profefs that he otfereth him to 
Baptifm by virtue of, and in confidence in the 
promife [/ will hs thy God, and the Gjd of thy 
fcedin their Generations-^ Nor to promife him- 
felf what the Godfathers arc to promife : The 
words alfo of the Can. 29. are tbefe 5 '' [_iSfo Pa^ 
' rent Jt?aU be urg^d to be PHESENT -^ nor be 
** admitted to any^er as Godfather for his own 
^' Child : jN^or any Godfather or Godmother Jkall 
** be fpiffered to mak£ aay other anf^fer or fpeech 
''than hj the Book^of CotPtmon Prayer is prefer ibed 
'* in that behalf. 

13. It is the Godfathers work alfo (by the Li- 
turgy) to take care that the Child he brought tif 
the Bijhop to be confri^^^d by him ( in the 
manner of the Church oi' England) as foon as he 
can fay the Greed, Lords Prayer, and ten Com- 
mandments , and be further iufiruBed in the 
Qhwah Gattchlfm -, which God fa then tjfe not 

L 2 at 


at all to perform ; nor do the Parents ufc to ex- 
ped it : Nor doth one Child of a multitude on- 
derftand what the Byptifmal Covenant is^ of ma- 
ny a year after they have learned to fay the 
faid Gatechifm. 

14 That the Godfathers ftand not there as 
the Reprefenters of the Parents is evident (ac- 
cording t© the (enfe of the Church) becaufe the 
Parenthimfelf is not fufFered to do it, or (peak 
one covenanting word 5 nor muft be urged to be 
prelent 5 nor are they to fpeak in the Parents 
name in any of their undertakings^ Nor is there 
the leait intimation that the Church taketh the 
Sponfor for the Parents Reprefentative. 

ly. The Parents are to be admonifhednot to 
defer the Baptifm of their Children longer than 
the firft or fecond Sunday, unlefs upon a great 
and reafonable caufe to be approved by the 
Curate ( whether they can get underftanding, 
credible Godfathers or not rjThefe are the Mat- 
ters ofFadl. 

Here note i. That there is no Controverfie 
between the Conformifts and Nonconformiits, 
whether Christians Infants fhould be baptized: 
l.Nor whether aConformifts baptizing be valid: 
3. Nor whether the Parents prefence be abfo- 
lutely neceflary, and another may not fpeak in 
his name: 4. Nor v/hcthcr Adopters, or any 
Froprieters may not covenant for the Child : 
y. Nor whether the old Sponfors be lawf{]l,who 
r. Witnelfed the credibility of the Parentj 2. And 
undertook the Chriftian Education of the Child, 
ifrheParenrs fhould either die or apoftarize : 
The Nonconformifts are againft no fiich Spon- 
fors, though they think that their Children have 



right toBaptifm without iucb. 6. Nor.do they 
deny that Baptifm in the Parifh-Churches is va^ 
//Wand UvpffilsLS to the Parents and Godfathers, 
if they do but agree on the ISIonconformifts way, 
that the ^ponfors (hall hut reprefent the Pa- 
rents, and that they be not bound by the con- 
trary judgment of the Authors of th^Lirurgy 
to the contrary. But the qiieft ions are i^ Whe- 
ther a Cbriftians Child,- whole Parents h4v.e.-no 
way forfeited their credit, have not, tight to 
Baptifm, without other Godfathefs.. z. Whether 
the Parent fhould not foUmnly enter ^i$ -mtk 
Child intp the Covenant cf GodQiS well asin.tiipes 
of Circumcifion. ) And whether any Parent 
fhould be/(?r^;^^^« it, viz.. to appear iind fpcak 
as the Reprefenter of the Child , or Undertaker 
for him, and Promifcr of his Education. 3; Whe^ 
ther that ChrU mu^ prjofifs by another. ili^t.He 
Himfelf BelievethyRenofcnceth, Repenteth ^nd.De^. 
fireth Baptifm : And it be not rather to, be prc- 
fejfed that he is the feed of a Believing, feuitcht 
Parent^ whofe WUl \%zs his. Will, and is under 
God's Promise [/ vpill he thy God, and the C(>d of 
thyjeed,'} 4. Whether a ChriUian Parent may 
confent to the perfidiotu undertaking of, apy God- 
fathers, who give him not the Icall reaton to be* 
lieve that they intend that prpvirion for the 
Children which they undertake: Grelfe-may 
let his Child be unbaptized till he can get fucfi 
a credible Undertaker j which is never like iq 
be with molt, or many. ^. Whether the. Chil- 
dren of Heathens, or Infidels, or Atheifts, have 
right to Baptifm upon the prefentation of any 
Godfather,, who never ado.pfeth them, or taketh 
them for his own, nor giveth any credible notice 
L i " that 


chat he really intendcth to educate thofeChtf- 
dren as pro forma he feemerh to undertake: Or 
whether fuch Children are truly faid to believe, 
becaufe the Godfather, or Minifter, or Congre- 
gation, or Diocefs, or Nation, or Catholick 
Church believe. 

HI, The Nonconformifts are not of one mind 
about receiving the Lords Supper Kneeling i 
Many judge it Lavpfnl, though neither neceffary 
nor molt eligible were they free 5 fome judge it 
alfbVnojt eHgiMe : And fome judge it,as things 
ftdnd/unlawfu! : Their reafbrs are. 

1. In doubtful cafes duty lieth on the fureft 
fide : But this to them is a doubtful ^aleon one 
fide, and to imitate Chrifts inftitution by foch 
furincrasmen ufe to do at meat, is certainly 

2. Becaufe they think this Kneeling violateth 
the reafons of the fecond Commandment, being 
ufed where,by whole Countries of Papifts round 
about us, and many among us it fignifieth 
Bread-Worjhip or Idolarry by the fame A(ftion 
at the fame (eafon iifcd. For rhey Tuppofe that 
thelccdnd Commandment forbiddeth Images^ as 
being ExternaljCorporaljfdoUtry, and SymhoiiTLing 
fcandaloully with Idolaiors, though the mind 
intend the vvtjrfr.iping of the true God alohe. 
And fuch they think this kneeling is, and that 
it encouragerh the Papilts (as is inftanced in a 
ftory in the Life of Bifhop Hall. ) 

3 Becaufe they think that the Tradition and 
Cuftom of the Catholick Church and the 
Canons of the greareft General Councils not 
repealed by any othVr ( as Ntc, i. Can. ro, & 
Can, TrulL&c,) are of ftronger obligation than 



the Canons of oar Convocation. AfKi thoft 
Canons, Cultoms and tradition prohibite all 
Adoration by Genuflexion on any Lords day in 
the year, and on any week day els between 
Eafie^ and whit font ide 5 And this cuftom continued 
1000 years as the Tradition of the Univerfa! 
Church 5 and was never repealed but changed 
by degrees by contrary pradice : They that 
think not that they are bound by thefe Canons 
or Cuftoms at all, yet think that they arc 
enough to nullifie a contrary Canon of a lower 
power J or ad hominem may excuic them. Yea 
the Conftitutions called the Apoftles, feem to 
Command all the people to receive the Sacra- 
ment itanding and to go for it Lib. 2. Cap, 57. 
Having prefcribed the order of worfhip ( that 
after the old Scriptures read^they fmg a Pfalm 
and then read the Ads and Epiitles and the 
Gofpels, and then that the Presbyters one by one 
exhort the people firft and the Bifhop laft ( for 
in thofe time every Church that had an Altar 
had a Bifhop) he concludeth IPoftea vero fiat 
facrificium, cun^opopulo Stante & plentio pre cant e^ 
& oblations fa^a, ] ijHtfque ordo feorfim corpHs 
Domini & precicfum fanguiuem fnmat ^ accede nt^s 
^rdine cum pndore & reverent ia ut ad corpus 
Regis JtemmHlieres openo capite,ut ordinemeantm 
deeet, accedant that is [ After let the facrifice be 
made, all the people ftanding and praying in 
pl$nc€ : j4nd the oblation being made let every 
^der apart take the body of Chrift and hit 
precious blood : Coming to it in order with mode ft y 
and reverence as to the body of the King, .^nd let 
the women approach with covered heads asbecometh 
their ard*r, j 

L 4 For 



For fuch reafons as thefe fet together, fome 
Nonconfbrmifts, {Lzy and Clergy j take this 
■ Kfiecling (while Papifts about us by the fame 
gefture adore the Bread ) to be unlawful, who 
yet profefs as great Reverence to Chrift and the 
Eicbarrft as any others. * 

But other Noncontbrmifts fay that they can 

'anfwerall thefe arguments. But that they truly 

render the fcruple? of the diflenters f^//^r^^/f, 

and the perfons unmeet to he therefore eMof»mft^ 

fjicate, : •• : : 

2. By the Canon and Rubrick, no one of theft 
diflentersmufi- beadmitred to the holy Commu- 
nion, Can. 27. Saith \_No Minifter when he cele- 
" brateththe Communion fh all wittingly adminiftet 
*' the fame to any^h^t tlofuch as kneel^ftnder fain of 
^' fnfpenfton.'] ' And the Minifters Covenant to ufe 
*^ no form of admlniftringtheSa^rameht^'but accoV'* 
" ding to the I iturgie. 

V.The Rubrick afrerConfirmation faith [ There 
fball none be admitted to the holy Communion^ till 
fvch tim^ as he be confirmed^ or he Readj and 
' l)cjirott5 to be confirmed. So that defire of Con- 
firm.irion in the Englijh way, is made aneceflfary 
Condition of Communion. • -A "^ -'*" 

2. The puhlick owning of the Baptifinal 
Covemmr, is that which the NoncoTifbrmiftlafe 
fo far' ffem Being againlt, that they take it with 
a ferious Confirmation thereupon • to be the 
iTa^er w;,y of tranfirion from the Infant ftate of 
Church- mf mberfhip, into that of the A*dult : antl 
the moft Congruous means of uniting diffenrers ' 
abonfChurch difcipfine, and of preventing. 
Anabaptiflrv that can be found out. But many 
/oi>er Chrift ians arc unfatisfied with the Englifo 
'-''*' Avay 


way of Confirmation^ i. Becaufc they find it fo 
iike to that Confirmation which the Papifts 
have made a Sacrament, and which very many 
beyond-Sea Proteftants have written againft : 
vide DalUum de confirmat, 2. Becaufe it is made 
the proper work of a Diocefan, and wholly 
denyed to the Parochial Paftors; And becaufe 
thofe Diocefans know not ordinarily T\heiher 
the perfons be meet or unmeet to be confirmed, 
being ftrangcrs to themjfor how can they know 
all the perfons, men, women and fuch Chil- 
dren of fo many Parifhes as a Diocefs doth 
contain : ( fome Diocefies having above a 
thoufand Parifhes others many hundred : One 
above 100 miles in Length, and others, very 
great) ? Its true, that the Minifter of the Parifh 
is bid to Catechil^ them, and to bring or fend in 
writing the names of fuch as he thinks fit for 
Confirmation. But i. This is not ordinarily done: 
but Children incur time have ufed.to run toge- 
ther to a bifhop when he came into the Country 
on that work, without the Minifters Certificate 
or Godfathersj and none, that ever we knew of, 
that came for Confirmation in this manner, was 
refufed : And as the Bifhop never faw or knew 
one of the multitude whom he Confirmeth, fb 
he taketh not time ^o far to examine them as to 
give him rational fatisfaftion of their fitnefs : 
Nor indeed can he poffibly do itforcneofa 
multitude of fo large Dioceiles, when molt ^r^^f 
Parijhes 1VC too big for a prelcnt Minifter who 
is acquainted with them better than a fbrange 
Diocefan can be : How can a man that hath fo 
many other employments as Diocefans have 
find Jcifure^ were he never fo wiirmg,to examine 


fo TQany hundred thoulands as are in this Dio-^ 
cefs ? or fo many (core thoufands as are in many 
others ? }. And as the Minifters rarely certiftc 
according to the Canon, fo the Bilhop is not 
tyed to taice his conlent, but may thus impofc 
confirmed perfbns on his Communion, though 
he know them to be never Co ignorant or un*- 
meet. 4. And it is Children that are thus to be 
confirmed, v/ho rarely ever come fo young to 
own with any tolerable underftanding and (eri- 
oufneft, their Baptifmal Covenant. Few ofua 
by experience can fay, that we did it of many 
years after that wc had learned the Lords 
Frayer.&c. y. And no other qualification is nc- 
ceffary, but that he learn the Creed, Lords* 
Prayer, Decalogue, and Church-Catechifm, the 
bare words of which are learnt by rote by 
multitudes of Children, who underftand little or 
nothing of what they fiiy : We do not find, that 
if perfonsitay, unconfirmed till they are adult, 
that any Herefie or wickednefs of life, is a bar 
to their confirmation ; much left are they re- 
quired to bring any teftimony, that they live 
according to their Baptifmal Covenant. 6. And 
as faras we can learn, it is but a very fmall part 
of this Kingdom in comparifbn of the reft, that 
ever were confirmed. 7. Nor know we many 
Minifters that ever examined their people gene- 
rally, whether they were ready and willing. to 
be confirmed. 

VL The Nonconformable Laity are ejc&cd 
from the Communion of the Church, and 
their Children ('that are difpoied of by them^ 
from Baptifm, Ghriftendom and Chriftian burial, 
if not from falvarion^ ai far at <ki the Church 



lyclh 5 and thofe that affirm themfslves to he Nofh^ 
tmformtfls are by the Church Laws excommuni" 
cated ipfo fatlo^ though they (hould defirc Com- 

2. That no Minifter is to admit them to the 
Sacramental Communion is before (hewed from 
Can, 27. And alfo that their Children are not to 
be baptized, unlefs they will fubmit them to the 
dedicating fign of the Grofs; no nor to be buried 
with ChriiUan Burial (of which more after- 

3. If they have a Miniftcrin their own Pa- 
ri(h that never preacheth, or fo bad as that they 
dare not commit the Paftoral care of their foult 
to him, they muft not be admitted to Com- 
munion , in any other neighbour Pariflies, 
Can. 28. 

That they are iffo (4^9 txccrnmnnicatcd^ 
fhall be anon (hewed. 


Tlje Matters ofFa5l that concern the Cpfh 
formtty and Nonconformity of the Mmi- 
Jlers : And i. of jljfent^ Conjent and 
Sub{criftton that nothing is contrary to 
God^s Word, 

i.'T^HE Canon to be fubfcribed (36th.) iri/- 
X Ungly and ex animo is | That the Book^ of 
CommQK'Prayer , and of ordaining of Bi(hops, 
Priefts and Deacons, containeth in it NOTHING 



and that he himfelf mil ufe the f^rm in the /aid 
Bool^ prefer ibed in pMick^ Prayers and Adminp^ 
ftrationof the Sacrament Sy and none other. • •> 

?.The meaning of this fubfcription i$ not agreed 
of t)y the Conformifts that take it: As to. the 
firft claule, fume fay that by [_ Nothing Contrar/ 
to the word"] is meant as it is rpoken,[ Nothing'} 
indeed. Others fay by [ Nothing ] is meani: 
f Nothing which I have difcernedfo to be : Ot 
^.Nothing, exc.'pt fuch failings as all humane 
writings ate lyable to. ] And by [ Contrary'^ 
Some fay [ ddntrary in the Comn/on fenfe of t he 
'word~\ is meant: 'But others fay thatby[Ct7«T 
trary ] is meant [/<? far Contrary as Jhould drive 
fis from Communion with the Church J or[€<?»^ 
(vary to any great doHnne or precept of the Word 
of God. And the Nonconformifts inrerpretit gl 
^he firft fort do^ according to the u(ual and 
proper meaning of the words. r : '^;r[> 

5 . So the later claufe, [ that he himfelf will 
ufe thdit form inpublick^ prayer and adminifiration 
Q\ the Sacraments and none othen^ ] Dr. Heylin 
and very many others fuppofe is meant properly 
as is fpoken vizj. That by the form is meant ajl 
the words and orders^ and that by pHblicI^ prayer 
is. meant as is fpoken, uill public k^ prayer nfed by 
a Aimifter in the ppiblick^ affemblies ] And that 
by [ None other ] is meant [ neither wholly nor 
tn pdTt. ] But others think that by [ Form ] is 
meant only £ the form of words^ and not the 
orders ] And that by f none other ] is mtdXitiovAy 
X; No other Bool^ of Common- Prayer or fet Litur- 
gie, ]' Or [ A^^ other entire form and order exciuy 
ding this {] And that it doth not mean [ No other 
form before or after Sermon in the Pulpit, Or in 


fime parts of Worfhip^ fo it he of optr t>wn Cowps^ 
fare : ] Nor yet that we may not ufl- fometime 
fome other order than is prefcribed in the Ku- 
hx\Qk$,vi7i, I. Sometime read other Chapters 
than the Calender prefcnbeth, becaufe that Li- 
berty is exprefl'ed in the Preface to the fecond 
Book of Homilies : 2. Sometimes to give the 
Sacrament to fome that kneel not : 3. To baptize 
fome without the Crofs, 6rc. ( of which more 
hereafter) Becaufe the Rubrick faith only [_you 
JhalL do thus'] but laith not [^youfhall do no other- 
xvife. ] But to this the former fort anfvver i.That 
if any univerfal Negative (^none other) may be 
particularly or limitedly interpreted upon our 
own furmile?:, no Laws, Covenants or Promifes 
fignifie any thing, and no words are intelligible : 
2. That we fubfcribe ftridly to this Article (io 
u(e no other form,) But not fo to the Book of 
Homilies, but only that wc take it for wholfoni 
Dod:rine : 3. That if the Rubrick for CrofTmg, 
Kneeling, Src. exclude not all other inconfifTcnt 
forms of adminiftration, it fignifieth nothing,biit 
leaveth every man to his own will. 

4. It is yet a greater doubt with the Con- 
formifts themfelves, whether thefe words be 
nor at leaft a Covenant that They will ufs no ether 
printed prefcribed Liturgy, And fo fome think 
that it plainly obligtth them not to ufe thofe 
printed Forms which the Archbifhops and Bi- 
(hops have ufed to draw up and impole, for (e- 
veral Publick Fafts, Thankfgivings, and particu- 
lar occafions. But others think that it doth not 
bind them todifobey the Bifhops therein: but 
that fuch exceptions were intended though not 
expreft, or at Icaft had been infertcd if not tor- 
gotccn. IL The 


11. The Ad of Uniformity requircth that e\*^-* 
ty Miniftcr that officiates " IDo openly andpu^ 
•' Ifckjj before the Congregation thi:re ajf^mbled^ 
*' declare his unfeigned ^ffent and Consent to the 
•* Vfe of all things in the Book^ contained and pre-* 
^fcnbed^ in thefe words and no oth< r {^I A. B, da 
" here declare my unfeigned Affcnt and Confent 
*' to all and every thing contained and prefer ibcd, 
** in and by the Bool^ entituled. The Booi^of Com- 
•' mon-Frayer,& Admmifiratiun oftheSacrammts 
•* and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Churchy 
^ according to the nfe of the Church of England j 
*• together with the PjMter or Pfalms of Davld 
** pointed as they are to he fang orfaid in Churches, 
•' and the form or m^.tner of makjng , ordaining 
** andconfecrating of Bifhops,Priefl-s and Deacons,"} 
" And page lo. \_HeJhaU declare his unfeigned Af- 
•' fent and Confent unto, and Approbation of the 
*^faid Bool^, and to the ufe of all the Prayers, 
'* Rites and Ceremonies^ Forms and Orders there- 
•^ in contained and prefcriited according to the 
*^ form aforefaid,] 

2. The Gonformifts themfelves are not agreed 
of the meaning of thefe plain words. One party 
expounding them as the Nonconformirts do, ac- 
cording to the propereft and ordinary ufe of the 
words, and the other party otherwife. The for- 
mer hold that as many Ads of Parliament Gon^ 
tein more in the body of the Adt than in the 
Title, and make the means more extenfive than 
the end, fo here the A S S E N T and G O N 
:>ENT tothe US E of the Book is tlieEHD 
in the firft claufe, and APPROBATION 
alfo in the fecond : And that the Declaring that 
form of wordiis x\\q Mians to that end: That 



Afifent fignificth jijfent to the Truth ] and [ Con* 
fenr and approbation ] relate to the Goodnefs^ 
re^itnde and ufe^ ] And that this is not only of 
the'Trayersand other parts which the fubfcriber 
is to Read to the people, but as is exprcft [ of all 
things ( without exception ] Conteined m and 
frejcribed by it j particularly [ to all the Prayers, 
Rites, Ceremonies, Forms and Orders % ] withoMt 
collufion or equivocation. 

The other part hold, that all this fignifieth 
no more, but that [ / Ajfent that I may lawfully 
ufe, and I Confent to ufe,fo much as belongeth to my 
place, and that / mil not unpe ace ably oppofe it, J 
Thf ir argument is, Becanfe [ to the Ufe, ] it 
mentioned before the Form of words. To 
which the other anfwer as before, that i. Thar 
ylppYobation is mentioned after as well as V\e, 
a, That x}m^ Means are larger than the end : At 
in the Corporation ACt, the end is the preventing 
of Rebellion j but the Means is Declaring that 
t There is no obligation oh me or any other from 
that Oath, j 3. That without groft violence Af- 
fent can be judged to mean no lefs than {^ A ff en- 
ting that it is fyue, ] 4. That there is not a word 
in the Book which was not intended for fome 
Vfe: And therefore, to Affent, Approve and Con- 
fent :o the Vfe, is more than metrly to Affent to 
the Truth : The Preface hath its U(e j and the 
Calendar its Ufe, and the Rubrick its ufes, and 
the reft of the parts their feveral Ufes 5 But did 
We believe it ro he falfe, how could we Approv§ 
ir,or of what Vfe would it be? 5. To put all out 
of doubt the Parliament-men long ago told us 
(noneContradidlingit to us) that into another 
Bill, thf houlc of Lordi added a Frovtfo that the 


Declaration in the A<fl: of P^niformity fhould bd 
undcrftood but as obliging men to the Vfe of iti 
and that the Houfe of Commons refufing, at a 
Conference about it, they gave in fuch Reafo'hs 
againft that fenfe and provifb to the Lords,' 
upon which they did acquiefce, and caft it out? 

III. By this General Declaration we are ob- 
liged to -^fd-w^ to fas truej to approve and to 
Vfe thefe words after the Calender, " IRules td 
** kjiorv when the Moveable Feafis and Holydaies 
" begin, Eafter-day {on vphich the refi depend^ is, 
*' ahvaies the firfir Sfinday after the firji full Moon, 
*^ vphich happens next after the one andtnemieth 
" day o/March.] 

2. This Rule is falfe: As t. Every Almanack 
will fhew : 2. The Table following to find out 
Eafi^er-day for ever : 3. And the pradice of our 
Churchj that keepeth Eafter on another day. ! 

3. To confent to VfethtSyk to confent to keep 
Eafter-dajy contrary to all Chriftian Churches^ 
and contrary to another Rule in the fame Book 5 
and to confent to tife both Rules, is to confent ta 
keep two Eafler-days in one yearj and fo ofEafier^ 

4. Hereupon fome Conformifts fay, that [^p 
[enting to^ S^pproving of, and Confcnttng to ^It 
things contained arid prefer ibed ^2 fignificth but [^as 
to h/imafie, fallible writings^ f> far ds there is no 
miflake'] or [ ylfjcnttng and Confentlng tO-bd 
peaceable'.'} But Others fay that it is bur [to ^f- 
fent that It is true rvhcre it is not falfe, and u^ppr ve 
it as oood where it is not bad; and to Confent to 
tife it where I \have no cattfe to the contrary^ And 
they ask, i. Whether this be the ufual or pro- 
per (ignilicarioji of fuch words? 2, Whether any 



Nonconformlfts would rcfufe it in that fenfe. 3. 
Whether they will give leave to (he Papiits 
and all other fubjeds to take the Oathof Alle^ 
-giance in fuch a kind of fenfe and expofition. 

But there is one that hath defended this as 
true, and tells us that by the [/W/ moon ] is not 
meant that which we call xh^ juU moon, or the 
fame that's meant in the other parts of ihe 
Book, but by the f ft II moon is meant [ the mean 
ConjunEiion ] and [ the fourth oi'u^pnl that year 
1664 Or tl4 dates after the ancteht new moon 
fo^nd by the Go/den mrxther the l/^th dnj of the 
£cclefiafiical Cjlclic ?wo«f^]Foran uld Mafs Book 
faith [ Pofi vtns diqmnoHium Qftare pleniltsnium 
& Dominica proxima factum celehra Fafchm 
Non V'jrifis invenens ft mtlle legas Codices. ] 

^efi, I. Are we fure this Mais Book meant 
not pUndhniam as we do properly ? 

.^tfefi. 2. And are we lure they erred not thac 
wrote this? 

^efK 3. And yet are you fure what they 

^eft:, ^. Would ycu perfwade us that our 
Convocation now borrowed their Direcflion from; 
this Mafs Book f 

«^<?y?. 5*. Are you fure that this Mafs Book 
fhould be our rule hereia of fpeaking or inter- 

^tsefi, 6. And yet not in the Gale ndar and 
other paflages in our Liturgy ? 

J^«<?/?. 7. Did the the Convocation intend that 
we (hould not here underibnd [ The f^ II moo-a } 
properly, nor as in all the re(t of the Book? 

^^f/?. 8. If this defender be in the righr^ was 
there ever a plainer way made to bring all men 

M to 

^0 an Implicit Faith, to believe as the Convoca- 
tion belicveth^even in Calendars, when we know 
not what they believe themfelves. For my part 
Imuft confefs that after all this Dr. (^Pell they 
fay) hath faid of another fenfe of the word [/«// 
Moun] I know not yet what he meaneth, 
^/. Whether the Convocation meant that none 
fhould Preach Chrifts Gofj^el that underltood 
not this itrange fenfe of the [^fftll Moon^ that 
is [^Ko full Moen] and yet would not by one line 
ex found it to us, to keep us from being caft OHt 
and ruined ? Or whether they meant that all 
men fhould be forced and taught to fubfcribe or 
declare alTcnt to that which they never under- 
fiood? when I had never yet the advantage of 
fpeaking with one Bifhop^ or conformable Dr. 
that underrtood the worxl [_fiill Moon ] as this 
DocTtor taught them (whether in good earnelt I 
know not.) And if our Conformity mu(l be thus 
performed, by equivocation implicitly, contrary 
to the common fenfe of mankind, we fhall yet 
fufpend it, till wc know how much further wc ' 
have to go, if it be blindfold that we mult be 
led 5 and refer all to God our final Judge, whofc 
judgn^enr we are near, ' 

" 4. We Ajjent to, u4f prove of and Confent ' 
*' to, thefe words in tlie Preface \^we are fully 
*' perfv{;aded in onrjudg. ments ( and we here p'fofefs 
^' it to the world ^ ihat the Book^as it flood 
" before e ft at ijloed by Law ; doth not contein in it 
•* an) thing contrary to the Word ofGod^or to found 
*' Docirine^ or which a Godly man may fjot with 
^^ a gocdCo>ifctence ZJfe and fubmit unto, or which 
" IS net f^.irly defenfivlc aifatnft any that f ball op pofe 
thejame, &c. ] 2. Ffal, 105. z8. The words in 


the Liturgy and old TraFiflation are [; Theyvpere 
not obedient to his word ] And the new Tranflation 
according to the H€hf€vp\s[^Thcy rehdlednot 
againji his word ] Clear contrary .Therefore the 
Nonconformifts think that one of them is Con- 
trary to the word of God ( and this old Tranfla- 
tion is Continued ftill in the Church. ) ^. In the 
old Book in theGofpels thcfc texts are thus 
tranflated ^<?i^. 12. 2. £/?//?. to i. funday after 
Epiph, [_Be ye chuHged in yottrfoapc '.l^ The new 
Tranflation is [ Be transformed lythe rcnewingof 
yoHrmmd'] Phil. 2, 7. £/?//. for funday next be- 
fore Ealter [ fmnd in his apparel as a man : ] In 
the new Tranflation it is (Was made in the 
Jikenefs of men. ] Gd,^, Ep. to 4th funday in 
Lent, It is \_Moum Sinkris ^gar in Ar^ibid'and 
horderethen the City which is now called ferfifa- 
lem, ] In the new Tranflation it is [ For this 
jigar was mount Sinai in Arabta^and anfwereth to 
ferfifaiem which now 'i^. ] Mathews day Ep, 
2 Cor. 4. The old Book has it [iVe go not or.t of 
kjndT] T fie new is [We faint not,~\ fohn, 2. for 
third Sunday in Lent [When men be druhkj\ is the 
old Books Tranflation : But the new is [When. 
men have well drunl^ J Lfiks 1 1, for third Sun- 
day inLent^ the old Book hath [ When oue houfe 
doth fall upon another'^ the new hath [A houfe di- 
vided again fi an houje fallethr\ Li-iks i. for the 
Annunciation j the old Book fayeth[ this is the 
fixth month which was called barren^ in the new 
Tranflation it is [T/jts is thejixth month with hir 
vpho was called barren. If one of thefe be Cjo^'/ 
Word, the Nonconformifts think that the other 
is contrary to it. 4. In the old Book in the 
Pfalms there are whole verfes left our, which 

M 1^ are 

are in the Hebrew Text, and our new Tranflatioii; 
and divers tranflated in a quite different fenfe 
the former following the Septuagint. y. The 
Kubrick for Chnfimas day is [ ThenJhaU follow 
the ColleB of the Nativity^ which Jhall be f^id con- 
tinually unto Nevp-years day,2 And the Colledt 
for all thefe feveral daies is [^Almighty God, 
which hafi given us thine only begotten Son to take 
oHY Nature upon him^ and THIS DAY to be 
born of a pure Virgin. So the Col!e(^ on Whit-^ 
fmiday is \Jjodwhich upon this day^ d^c] The Ku- 
brick is, [The fame Collet: to be read Munday and 
Teefday ] So on Chriftmas day^ and feven daies 
2ifiCT [Becaufe thou hali giv^n Jefm ChriK' thine 
only Son to he born as on this day for us^ &c,'\ And 
onWhirfunday^zud fix daies iifxcT J^^ccordirg to 
whofe mofi true promife the Holy GhoB came down 
this day from. Heaven.^ Thefe thing.% and fuch 
other we muft approve in the forefaid appro- 
bation of all things in the old Common^^rajer^ 

V. We muft AfTent, Approve^ and Confcnt to 
all the miftranflutions tn the prefent Liturgy^ as 
well as to juftifie the old Edition : That before- 
cited Vfal, 105.28. is in the prefent Bool^, and 
fo are the reft of the omiiTions and differences 
in the Ffalm?^ before mentioned, which are ma^ 
ny. DitTcrent Tranflations which have all the 
fame fehfe, may be all called Gou's ^or^, becaufe 
their y^///?. Is fo : But where they have different 
fenfes, ib far one of them is contrary to God's 
Word : For God's Word is one and true, znd not 
contrary to it fdf The queftion is not whether 
thefe faulty Tranflations vkctc not ^ good wor^, 
and a great mercy to the Churchy till we. bad a 

better ? 

Wtter ? Nor whether they may not be lawful- 
ly ufed where there is no better i Yea or where 
there is a becter,if the Command of Governours, 
or Concord, make it beft for that time and place. 
But it is,Whecher all the faults of the Trauflation 
may be JlJJented, A f proved and Confented toi We 
commit fome failings and fins every ddy,bHt we 
may not approve of them, and profefs that we 
Confent fo to do. 

2. Some Conformifts here think that the De- 
claration is to be tdktn properly, without any 
force or diftof ting, and they fay that both Tranf^ 
/^f/i;»/ arc juftifiable, becaufeone followeth the 
Hebrew, and thr other the Septuagint,and Chrift 
and his Apoftles have juitifted both by ufing 
them. But others of them hold that this inftance 
proveth that by [ ^11 things '] Aflen^edand con- 
fented to, muft be meant only [ ^11 things that 
are not by humane frailtf mifta\e}7, or erroneous J 
or els, that by uipntlng and approving muft be 
meant no more than ^Jfanting that they may be 
Vfed : And fo they confent with the Nonconform 
mifts in the matter, but not in the expolirion of 
the words. And to the former they (a^^ i. 
That there are other miftranflations, bendes 
thofe that follow the feptuagint. 2. That Chrift 
and the Apoftles by citing fome Texts according 
to the feptuagint, do not thereby approve of all 
the reft 5 for they cite others otherwife. 3. 
That by citing them^ they juftifie not alwaies 
the tranflation, but only the fenfe fo far as it \a$ 
cited for, it being that fcripture which the peo- 
ple then commonly ufed. 

3. And they fay that if this obje(ftion fhould 
binder mens Affenting to the Liturgy, it might 

M 3 as 


as wellWnder their Ailenting to the Bible in duif 
tranflaiion'?. And indeed wc know nri Nbricoii-ii 
formiit who would declare or fubfcribe that lie 
doth '^fftnt t9, j^fpr-ove- and Co>jJent Jo aU thtri^ 
Contained in the hMe accorAin^ to ttn^l^ran/lation^ 
but only ail things Contairf^d m the BihU as it \^ai 
ddiusrid' by^ thd fac^eld waiters 5 '"' • ahd in alt 
TranjlatiGns f^ fAii-"a&itliey ■x.m]y\ftgnifi€'&k^ 
exprtfs that to vs. But if they miijiit^but fay^^ad 
onejTaf'c e??} ounds rhe DecIararic/VpV)^ i^y/^«f^ 
&c. Tddli'thihgf Coni-di(icdy 6 r. Thar^^r^ Tior (fy 
humaJiefraiity Ji^iJ;J^»'2 ^h^X would C6oh Gon- 
fbrtn1itreir>. ■' ''■■' '■' ■-'^'- ''''''•■ - ' ^''■'' ••• •' 

6. the Calen()^f It the- Cdtfitebn- Prayer 
appbinti^fh the pubjick' reading of' the Books 
C^WtdLu^pocrypha^ begir.iifji^ SV^frw^^ 28.' And fo 
Continuing to I^ovcmker 2^. Every day of the 
week, except the proper Leilbns'irtterpofed. 
Part of the Apocrypha to be read are the Book 
of Tobtt^ Judith, Beilj and the Dragon &cV 

2. Learned Bifhops and Divines of the Church 
of England have written to prove that the(e 
Books are not only Aprocryphal but fabulous, 
and^ave manifeft untruths 5 As that the intralls 
of afifh will drive away all Devils and keep 
them from returning : When Chrift faith [ T^his 
kj.nd -n^octh not out hur- bj FaftiKg and Prayer ] 
And when the Angel faith that He was^the fonoi 
Ananias '>f the tribe of Napthati, ] (3rc[ - '^■^; ^' 

3. Thefe Books are to be read ju ft in the place 
%nd order as the Sacred Scriptures are;and under 
the fam^ title of ihe J F/>/r Lpn ] Only called 
Apocry[,ha in the Bibles. Biit i. It is not appoin- 
ted that thePrieft tell the people fu : 2. If 
it were, they underftand" not CoiRimonly what 

£ Afocryfha\ 

f Apocrypha ] fig^nifieth : 3. If they were fome- 
time told it, they forget it 5 and apply not thac 
name to every Leffon that they thence hear. 4. 
It is not denyed that the founder Books thac are 
Apocrypha may be read in the Church as a Homily 
may be with due notice of their difference from 
the Canonical Books : But the queition is 
whether not only they^ bur the Books proved 
fabulous by many Proteftants, may be there 
read^ and that inftead of fa rnuch of the holy 
Scripture then omitted, and that without any 
better notice given to the Common people of 
the difference. 5. And the chief doubt is, 
whether this may not only be done, but alfo 
the Calendar as fo appointing it, may be Appro- 
ved of and Confented to by us all. 

7. It hath been before opened, that no Parent 
is permitted to be Godfather to his own Child 5 
or to (peak one word at his baptizing, to enter 
him into the Covenant of God, or dedicate him 
to him, nor to promife in his name, nor to 
undertake any part of his Chriftian education, 
nor fo much as to be urged to be prefenr. Nor 
is there a word to intimate that the Godfathers 
reprefcnt the Parent, or fpeak in his name or 
ftead, but the contrary is implyed. [Though 
the Fai-ents are to procure thefe God fathers. 
2. It hath alfo been before fhewed how great 
a Controverfie it is, whether Infants Right to 
Gods promifes and Church ftate, be not by that 
Covenant [ / Will be thy God and the God of thy 
feed J ~] implyed in i. Cor, 7. i_j.. ^ els were yorrr 
Children unclean but novo are they holy, J And fo 
whether Infants have any right upon a God- 
fathers words there, who never took them for, 
M 4 his 

his own 5 if on the Parents account they have 
no right. And whether fuch Godfathers ad be 
truly the Childs in Gods account 5 3. And it was 
beTore enquired, la what fenfe this Godfather 
doch (^notp'omfe only thdit the ChWdJhall behave 
£tagre, but) in the Childs name profefs that he 
doih At pre fent believe : And wherher it be not 
enough [ and much more necelFary then the 
Godfathers faith) that he be the Child of 
a b Levpng Parent ^ dedicating him to God, 
4 And it hath been fhewed that Godfathers. 
promife themfelves paitlv to teach the Child, 
ijnd partiv to provide thdt he be taught all that 
a Chrillian fhould learn as neceflary to his fouls 
health. 5. And that thefe Godfathers never 
ordinarily, give the Parents the leaftreafonto 
believe that they have any purpofc to do any 
fuch thirg as they undertake : Which is perfidi- 
oufhefs in the weightier bufinefs : And 6. alfa 
that ( as fuch ) they arc no adopters or owners 
of the Child. 7. And alfo how hard it is for any 
Parents ever to get better, feeing \K>i[er and 
better will not undertake it in the forefaid 
conformable fence. 8. The fence and ufe of 
Godfathers is partly known by thePradtile of 
Princes and great men, (who muft be fup- 
pofed to know beft^ and be moft righteous 
and exemplary ) who ufually by a Troxle are 
Godfathers to the Children of Foreign Prin- 
ces, or Great men, ( perhaps Papifts ) whom 
they never faw, nor ever are like to fee their 
Children. 9. Minifters muft Aflent, Approve of 
and Confent to, all this exclufion of the Parents, 
and prefentation, profeffion.undertaking and pro- 
mife of the Godfathers, which the Liturgy men- 


tioncth 9 10. Conformifts arc not agreed them- 
Iclves, of the true Office and undertaking of 
thefe Godfathers, nor of the Parents part, nor 
by whofe right it is that one Child rather than 
others is to be baptized, and whether any at all 
(hould be refufed, by whomfoever ( that is a 
Chriftian ) offered thereunto. 

8. The Kubrick to which we muft declare our 
Aflfent, Approbation and Confenr, hath this Ar- 
" tide of faith. [ It ts certain by Gods Word, that 
*^ Children which are baptiz^ed, dying before they 
^' commit aEinalftn are undoubtedly faved. ] -^nd 
the Kubrick at Buryal, cxcepteth all the i^w/'^/?- 
tiz,ed from Chriftian Burial, according to the 

2. The Canon 68 and 69, fufpendetb any 
Minifter who fhall refuje or delay to Chriften any 
Child without exception which is brought to the 
Church on Sundays or Holydays to be Chrift- 
ned, according to the Form in the Common- 
Prayer; or if in cafe of danger he be defired 
to do it privately. Neither Kubrick nor Canon 
here except from Baptifm and certainty of 
falvation, any Children of Turkj, Infidels, Hea- 
thens , and u^theifts, or thofe whofe Parents re- 
nounce Chriftianity, and confent not to their 
Childrens Baptifm j fo be it any Godfathers as 
aforefaid bring them. 

3. The Conformifts agree not of the fence of 
this Article of Faith : Some hold that the word 
n Children here meaneth not [ ^H Children that 
are Baptiz^ed^ but fime fuch only : But others 
affirm that this expofition is falfe, and contrary 
to the plain importance of the words^ for it is 
an Indefinite, fay they, in re necejfaria , in the 



^enfe of the Book. And if the meaning be not 
\JZhiUren that arc Baptiz^^d, qua tales'} it hatb 
no intelligible fenfe, the certainty of their SalU 
vation being Aflcrted as from Scripture, and not 
any other reafin of it given. But if this be the 
meaning ( as it.is^ then a quatems ad omnes va-* 
let confecjttentia^, unlefs any exception had beei> 
added, which is not. 

4. Some fay that it is implied that Children 
thdiZ had no right to Baptifm are excepted. JBuf 
others fay i . • That ubi lex non diftingmt non efi 
dijlingu&ndttm. The Church could have excepted' 
if they would. 2 And th^t qmd fieri non deliet> 
ptitum valet, y Yea that all Children have righG 
to Baptifm, if any Chrirtians offer them to it. .> 
V. Some con fottnd the Mtniftejps right to 
Baptize rhem, and the Infants right to be Bap-. 
tjzed J And this right as only in foro Ecclcp£, and 
as in foro Codi j As /f aU Baptized upon any of 
thele rights yy;ere undoubt-Mlyvftved. But others 
diftinguiOiithcffe^ and fa r.^ 1, That the Minifter 
may haverigh.t to Baptjjje oneif offered, that 
yet ought not. to. h^ve t)e^ji offered 5 which will 
rot fave an. uncapable rifub#d: 2. That the 
Children of Hvpocrite^i have fight Coram Ec- 
clfi^^md that their Baptrfm afcertaineth to them 
no more, than external orjcommon priviledges ; 
3. And that only the Children of true ^^//Vz/^ri 
h^ve fuch a right coram Deo u certainly faveth 
them. But others fay that both the laft fort are 

■ 6, Some tof them hold that ^H Infants in 
the world Baptiz^ed or not, are fave d hy univerfal 
redetuption^ij they dye before attual fm : And that 
the Article therefore affirmcth it of the Baptized. 


But others fay, this cannot be the fence: For i.' 
To fcty [ JtU baptiz^ed ] and mean [ All mbap- 
tiz,^ ] or any [ mr as Baptized ] were not in- 
teHigifc!e nor' candid, 2. And the Burial Ru- 
bricl^ -excepting the unbaptized from that 
Chriftian burial, (hewcth the meaning of the 
Church in this Article. 

7. Alfa about the [ undoubted certainty ] they 
differ ;fome think that the fubfcriber or Declarer 
doth not by thefe words, profefs that he himfelf 
is [^undoubtedly certain'^ of the falvation of all 
dymg Baptized Infants 5 but only that the thing 
is certainly revealed to be fo in Gods Word * But 
others fay, that both objediive and fubjedlive (or 
perfoi^al^ certainty muft needs be meant: And that 
it were too hard an imputation to fay that the 
Chutch commandeth uncertain^ doubting men to 
profefs that the thing is certain and undoubted of j 
for how can they tieU that it is fo ? And if they 
know it not to be fo,why fhould they declare it 
to be fo? The meaning is not [7 declare that the 
Convocation faith it is certain 5] for that were but 
the part of a cryerpr reader : Nor is it I declare 
thatit^ is certntin to others, though not to me, [] For 
no tnah kfioweth anothers certainty 5 Therefore 
it Trtnft mean x\i^t^ I am certaimv^A pafl doubt 
by fhe Word 'of' God ] ox [ I fee afcertaining 
evidence in Cods V^*ord putting it paft doubt.'] So 
that no uncertain or doubting perfbn can truly ' 
thus declare or fubfcribe. 

8. Divers of thofe Divines who are furtheft, 
frohi" the Nonconformifts, hold that by the 
Scripture alone we cannot prove that Infants are 
at all to be Baptized 5 and the jus Baptifmi muft 


be proved before the falv.ttlon of the Baptized 
as fuch : Others think it hard for that man to 
be certain by the Word of God that all Baptized 
dying Infants ^rc faved, who is not certfain by 
that word that anjr Infants fhould h^ Bap-^ 

9. Many of the moft rafli or felf- conceited, 
* Ignorant men are readier to profefs [ undo^bt^d 
certainty ] rhan they that are more humble, and 
know mjch vnorethan they. And it is not he that 
H. it h mo A certainty ^k\\o is now capable of the 
M;niftry, but he that dare profefs mofi^ whether 
he hive it or not. 

.10. They that fhew ?e^ Learning, efpecially 
lefs knowledge in the Scripture, far than many 
th^t dare not profefs this Hndoubted certainty^ arc 
not like to be more certain thtn they in thj^. 
particular Article of faith. :^rr:f:o 

II. We taKC k for >^rrogancc and Fanaticifm 
ID the Pope and his Council to pretend Infallible, 
certainty by a pecdiar pnviledge, in thofe points 
m which they are unftudyed and unlearned, as if 
they knew them by prophetical infpiration. And 
when young unftuJye4 men have in this point 
attained to an [^ undoubted certainty ] which their 
wifer feniors cannot attain, it behoveth them to 
convince us of the truth of their Infpiration or 
fpecial endowments, either by a proportionable 
excellency above us in other things, or by fomc 
Miracles or Teftimonies from Heaven. 

li. There is no one Word of G^?^ cited in the 
Rubrick which tells us that It is certain by the 

I^ Among Chriftian Divines there are all 
thefe various opinions about the falvation of 
Infants. i.- Some 

1. Some hold that the Covenant being to the 
faithful and their feed, and their children being 
holy^ all the children of fincere Chriftians are cer- 
tainly in aftate of (alvation,being by the parents 
intentionaHy dedicated to God before or with- 
out Baptifm : And that Baptifm is but their (o 
lemn inveftiture in that itate which was theirs by 
right before. 

2. Orhcrs think that this right to falvation 
belongeth to the Children of all profeffed 
Chriltiansgodiv and ungodly, 

3 Others think that it belongeth to all Infants 
in the world, 

4. Others think that it belongeth only to fin- 
cere believers Children that are Baptized. 

5. Others, that it belongeth to found and un- 
fbund ChrJllians baptized Infants. 

6 Others that it belongeth to all Baptized 
Infants whoff- foever. 

7. Others hold that it belongeth alfo to the 
Children of fincere Adopters or Proprieters. 

8. Others that it belongeth to fuch as even 
bad Chri{ii;ins adoj.t or own. 

9. Others that they that have fincere Godfa- 
thers ^ though not troprieters^ are faved. 

10. Others that even Hhfottnd or hypocritical 
Chriftian Godfathers, may fuffice to their falva- 

11. Others that the Minifters or the Churches 
fincere (or profefltd) Fairh is hereto rufficienr. 

12. And others think that only the EU^ are 
faved, of whom fome are baptized, and fome 
unbaprized, but no man knowxih who they are. 
Out of all thefe Opinions the Convocation hath 
chofen one, as an Article ot Faith oUmdml^tcd 
Cmatmj by the Word of Gcd. 13. The 

13. The Nonconformifts know of no' Word 
of God which afcertaineth Salvation to any 
known determinate Infants, but the great Co- 
venant of Grace, [/ wi/Ue thy God, and the God 
of thy feed {] which feed God ufcth as if they 
were parts of the Parents, Exod. 34. 6, 7. and 
fecond Gommandment : And faith to Believers 
[£//(? vcere your children unclean ; but now, Src. 

14. Many Divines fay, that Faith it felf hath 
not evidence 5 (though we think that it hath evi^ 
dence of the Truth of the Revelation, though the 
thing revealed be not vifibie or evident in it felf :) 
And more confeis that [nndoubted certainty'] is 
not Eflential to the faving belief of Chrilt, and of 
a life to come : And that true Faith may be fa- 
ving, though weak : And that Chrift filenced not 
his Difciples when he reproved the weaknefs of 
their Faith : And that to doubt of this Article 
about Infants is not fo dangerous as to doubt 
of Chrift or Heaven. 

IX. All Mlnifters muft ^^«7 Baptifm to thofe 
Infants that have no fuch Godfathers and God- 
mothers as aforefaid, though their Parents be 
trueChriftians, and offer them to Baptifm. For 
this is the only order or form of Baptizing there 
defcribed, all other is forbidden, andwefub- 
fcribe to ufe no other form in adminifiration of the 
Sacraments, 2. Yet fbme Conformifts fay, that 
the Book bindeth them to do thus, but not to 
omit it, and baptize no otherwife. But others of 
them fay, i . That the Kubrick determineth that 
]^for every child to be baptiz^ed, there/halt be three 
as Godfathers and Godrmthers^^nd that the whole 
Office refpedeth them as Parties, and fpeaketh 
to them, and admitteth no Parent to (peak 5 and 


that if j4ffenting to, ^pf roving and Cmfeming to 
this ferm and Rubrick^y and fubfcribing a Cove- 
lianttOft[/<? no other form, Agniiie not that vpewill 
jftfe HO other^no words can bind fuch equivocators. 
3. In the fenfc of the Liturgy^to piit Infants from 
Baptifmj is to deny them Cbr^fiindem^'memberjh>ip 
ofChrifiy to be children of God ^ and to be heirs of 
Heaven: For the CatechiLn faith, that we are 
made fuch in f^aftt/m, which with the Kubrick 
which denyeth them Ghriltian burial, and that 
-!aft' mentioned which sffirmeth the Hndojtbted 
fdvatton of the baftiz^vd, import a denying ialva- 
tion to all that hJve not fuch Godfathers, with- 
out Parents fponfion : or at leaft a denying them 
\^certainty of undonhted falvatiori} when it was in 
the power of the Convocation or Prieft to have 
given them fuch certainty. 4. The Conformifts 
do not affiim (that we know ofj that any word 
of God doth inftitute or command the ufe of 
fuch Godfathers, or the foredefcribed exclufion 
of the Parents, much lefs both: And leaft of all 
that it maketh thefe neceflary to Chriftcndom 
and Salvation, yea or Church-reception : But ic 
is ufed as a Tradition or Law of men. ^. The 
Nonconformifts therefore dare neither Aflent 
to. Approve, Confent to. Covenant, or Pradice 
the refufal of the Children of true Chriftians 
from Baptifrn^ the Church and Salvation, on fuch 
a caufeas this. 6. The Anabaptilts hence are 
hardened, and fay, that if Infants may be denied 
Baptifm, till they have fuch Godfathers as God 
never inftituted they have no right to it at ail^ 
and they may deny it them till we prove 
God's inftitution of Godfathers 5 elpecially 
where their title is laid upon liich Godfa- 

[1 1 6] 

thers. 7. Some fay that It is not the Afinijier 
that refu/fth them, Ifptt the Church which maketh 
the Law: But others fay, that iris both the 
Lawmakers, and the Mtnifter, unlefs we could 
prove that. Baptiz^mg and judging whom to Bap- 
tize is none of the Minifters office, no nor the 
Bifhops J but that the Prieft is to baptize all, and 
only fuch as the Law or Convocation bids him 
baptize, as a meer executioner, and the BiQiop 
alfo fuch as he is appointed by the fame Law. 
That elfe the fame Rule would hold for hi$ 
Preach ing. Pray ing, &c. 

X. The like proofs f which we need not re-^ 
peat^ will fhew, that no Minifter muft baptize 
any perfon. Infant or Adult,without the tranfient 
Image of a Crofs, and that to this we muft an- 
ient and confent^ and fubfcribe to baptize in no 
other form. 

2. And the fame reafons aforegiven (hew how 
^reat a penalty this is, as excluding them from 
Chriftendom and Salvation in the Churches 
judgment, or from certainty at leaft. 

3. Some Gonformifts fay here alfo, that they 
alTenr only to baptize with the Crofs, but not to 
baptize no otherwifc : But others of them re- 
prove this expofition from the Rubrick, and the 
aforec'ted Canonical Subfcription, as that which 
wculd leave the Prieft at liberty to do almoft 
what he lift, when the Church thinks that they 
have obliged him, and his Subfcription hath fc- 
cured his Obedience. 

4. ^nd fome of them fay, that it is not the 
Prieft that refufeth them, for he would Baptize 
them ( with the Crofs ) if the parent fent the 
Child or the Adult psrfon c.ims. But we need not 



^77 J 

Itrlve about the word : The f ^/;;j; we are agreed 
of^viz^.Thdz thePrieft confenteth not to Bap- 
tize them, who dare not receive it with the ufe 
of the Crofs: Whether this be to be called a 
rejeBingthem, ov denying them Baptifm, unle(s 
they will be ^o eroded, we need not call for 
extraordinaty accuratenefs to judge. 

5:. No Conformifts do pretend that this ufe of 
this Image of the Crofs, is of divine infticution: 
But all confels that Baptifm is of divine inftitutionj 
and that Chrift hath Commanded Aiath. 28. 19. 
20.. That they that are difcipkd JlooptUhe Bap- 
tiz.ed; and that one may be didifctplsofC\ix\it, 
without the Image of the Crofs : 

6. Some of the Nonconformilts hold their ufe 
of the Crofs it felf here unlawful : But others 
that would venture to ufe it rather than be 
filenced, yet fear the guilt of denying Baptif???, 
Chrijlendom and certain jalv at ion (^ as the Church 
jndgeth ) to all that dare not receive it, 
or prefent their Children to receive it 5 believing; 
that murdering natural life is a lefs hurt than 
undoing fouls. 

7. But Covenant ing by deliberate [nhfcription 
and declaration to do it, how oft Ibever, they" 
fear more than the adual doing of it rarely j nor 
daring to do their part to damn the Children of 
all that are againfr Baptizing with the Crofs, nor 
all the unbaptized adult that are of that opinion. 

XI. And as they fear reje(fling fuch as wil( 
not be fo Croll,from Baptifm: Co they much fear 
the Englijh lip cfthe Crofs themfc^lves j and thac 
much more than Croffing our felves on ordinary 
occafions, or letting up Croifes on our doors or 
Churches or by the high waics 5 and ycc much 
N more 


more than they fear fuch ufing of the Crofsas 
^Hguf^.ine de Civ. Dci^ and other ancients men- 
tion, as an open Indication to Heathens that we 
are not afhamed of a Crucified Chrift : Much 
Jefs are they againft civil ufes of a Crols. 

.2.. The name [ Sacramcm ] fignifying primarily 
any jolemmz^atio^i cf a Covenant by O^th and 
Ceremony ( as the j acr ament am iniiiiare among 
the Romans ) efpccially a Covenant which 
engageth one in a new rclatiort^d more largely 
nny /acred mjftical Ceremony, theqneliion here is 
w/jetfji-r the CyoJ.> be not 7Kade ( not only Tifacrar 
ment in a larger fenfi, as ordination HivA Afatrif 
mony maybe called [acra-mentsyant. cvcmfacra- 
?tientojthe Covenant of grace ^ or fo very neer />as 
to have the greateft part of that facramental 

3. The Church Catechifm dcfineth a Divine 
" facrament thus, ( ^n omward and vifibLe 
"As'*^ <?/^« iwxard and fpiritual g^racc given to us^ 
" ordained by Chrifi himfelf as a means whereby we 
'^ receive the fame ^ and a pledge, to affnre us there- 


4. That ;t be ordained by 'Chrifi himfelf \s not 
eficnrial to a facrament in generc, but to a facra- 
ment of Gods making in jpecie as diiliriH: from 
one thats made by man j as is evident in the 
reafon of the name. 

5*. The true nature of this Croffing is known 
by the Liturgy ■^. And the Canon, i. The 
Liturgy appointeth it to be ufed at Bapt/fm, not 
2lS^ part of our Buptilm, but as a thing added, 
immediately afier rhe woxds [_l Eaptiz.e thee 
&c. ] even in our Covenanting with God : 2. 
It thus dcfcribeth and appointeth it, [ we receive 

'' this 

^' this Cf^itd into l\it Congregation of Chrifis flocl^^ 
^^ ( here the Priefl /hall make a Crofs upon the 
'^ forehead ) and do pgn him with the fign of the 
*^ Crofs, in token that hereafter he jhall not bs 
'^ ajhamed to conjefs the faith of Chnfl Crixified, 
*' and manfully to fight under his banner^ againft 
'^ fin, the world and tlj£ devil: and to continue 
** Chnjis faithful fervant and fouldier unto his lives 
*^ end. Amen. 

2. The Kubrick to which we AlTent and Con- 
feiu, referrcth us to the 30th Canon, as giving 
us the true explication thereof , and the JHjt 
»• reafons, &c. The Canon faith [Chrijhans figi^ed 
*' thei-r Children therewith whenthej rvereChrtjined^ 
'^ to dedicate them by that badge to his fcrvicc^ 
** whofe benefits tpe flowed on them in B apt if ^3 the 
«• name of the Crofs did reprefent. ~] Ttje Caurch 
*' of England accounteth it a lawful outward 
*' Ctremonj, and honour ah fc badge, wh^ercby the In- 
'^ fant is dedicated to the fervice of him that djed 
" on the Crofs, as bj the words t^jed in the Common 
" Prayer it may appear, 

3 . The Liturgfs Preface of Ceremonies faith 
*'\^that they ferve to a godly difcipline, and are 
'^ J^ch as be apt to fiir ^p the dull mind of man, to 
" the remembrance of his duty to God by [o}n:i 
" notable and fpecial flgmficationy whereby he might 
'* be edify ed. ^ 

4. We fuppofe that here i. Thefignisthe 
tranfient Image of the Crofs ufcd in Gods Jcrvice, 
It' The particular fervice in which it is ufed^ 
is our Baptifmal Covenanting with Gcd : z. The 
thing fignified by the lign it fclf is the' Crofs ^ 
and paflign of Chriih 4. The thing fignitied by 
the Rfceiving of it^ i?, that we do as Covenanters 

N z profefs 


frofefs and oblige our [elves not to he ajhamedto 
Conjejs the faith of Chrifi Crucifed^ and manjulh to 
fight under his banner againfi ftn^ the world and 
th'j Dfvil^and to contir.ue Chrifi s faithful ferv ants 
andfiouldiers to our lives fw^.And that by this we 
are dedicated to God $ And that we take it as 
aij honourable badge hereof. 5. Note that the 
Jiltmfi-er fpeaketh as Gods Offcer from him^ and 
doth not reprclent the Child, nor fpeak as in his 
name 5 that being the part afTigncd to the God- 
fathers 5 And the thing figniiied by him in his 
ufmg this fign is, that he doth as Chrifts Minifter 
dedicate him by this fgn^ to the fervice of him that 
dyed on the Crcfs, the name whereof represents the 
benefits bcflowed on him in Baptifm^ ( which are 
all the benefits of that Covenant ) and to oblige 
him to this end, not to be afhamed to confefs the 
faith ot Chrifi Crucified, and manfully to fight 
under his (fanner ('as aforefaid^J And that this 
be a badge or fymbol of his Chriftian profcfTion. 
5/1 he great fear of the Nonconformiftsis, left 
this be a fecond facrament of the Covenant of 
graee made by man added to Baptifm, or at 
lealt have molt of the nature and ufcs of it 5 And 
left Chrift will take it as an invafion of his 
prerogative fb to ufe it , and to make a new 
badge or f^mbiA of our Chrift ianity 5 As the King 
would take it ill of one that would without him, 
make a badge or (ymbol for his fubjedsas fub- 
jet^s^ or of the order of the Knights of the 
•arter as fuch. And the rather, bccaufe it is 
the ufe of a:.7 Image, ('though tranficnt ) in Gods 
IVorJhip, and to iijch high ends. 

Xll, The Ilubrick which we, muft Affenr, 
A]H:rove and conicnt 10^ fait h^iXizi [ There /hail 

n r,e 


rione be admitted to the holy Communion^ tillfftch 
time as he be confirmed, or be ready and defiroHs 
to be confirmedy ] that is. In the manner prelcribed 
by the Liturgy. This, as it concerneth the Con- 
formity of the Lay-receiver, is fpoken of before. 
Eut now as it concerneth the Minifters AfTent and 
Confenr. 2. Some that take this for a very ufe- 
ful paflage, as it enableth them to hold back 
fome uncapable pcrfons, dare not approve ir, and 
confent to ir, as it denieth the Church Commu- 
nion which Chn'^ giveth & commandeth^ to per- 
fons ofunblemifhed uprightnefs and piety,if they 
will not profefs themfclves )vilUng to be confirmed 
by oHY Bijhops in the manner before defcribed ; 
though they are willing to onn their Baptifmal 
Covcnantjand few in moft places are confirmed. 

XIII. The Liturgy faith, that \_No manjhould 
come to the holy Communion but with a f^ll trujh in 
God^s mercy, and a c^uiet Conj:ience.'\ To which 
we muft declare ^ffenty Aff probation and Con^ 

2. The fenfe of thefe words remaineth dubi- 
ous, whether it f()cak de nec.ffu.itc prdncepriy vcl 
medii'. Some think that the meaning is, that it 
is the Duty oj all that come to the Communion, 
to have a full truit, and a quiet Confcience : O- 
thers think that the meaning is onlv, that all 
{}cia\}\'\ feehjhcfie \ Others think thaf tht meaning 
is, that they Jhould not come without them. Their 
reafons are, i. From the plain fignification of the 
words : l^A^^ man f'.oould come bnt vr/V'^,0'c.] which 
muft differ from[7^^9 that come ought to be fiich'] 
2. Becaufc the mceifitAs proicepti may be affirm- 
ed o{ perfeB: obedience fince our ufe of reafon : It 
is every mans duty not to fm at all : And it is 
N 3 ever^ 


every mans duty tobeIieve,and IoveGod,not on- 
ly fincerely.but withaftronger Faith and Love 5 
and its every mans duty to feek after perfedion: 
And yet no man will fay that we fhould not 
come to the Communion, but vvithhi-gh degrees 
of grace, or with perfedion. 3. And the words 
are not that they f :ou Id feel^ it ^ but that they 
fhould not come without it. 

3. The Nonconformiftsconfefs that all men 
ought to have afrll Trfifi^znd a cjuiet Cohfciencei 
But ihey think that many 1000 good Chriftians 
have but ^ weak^ Faith ct Trnfl^ and an ui:(]uiet 
Ccnfcience : And that the Eucharift is a Confirm- 
ing and Ccmfcrttrg Sacrament^ and that thofe that 
have a weaJ^Trujt, and unqaiet Cotifcicnce, (hould 
come for ftrengthening and comfort, and be en- 
couraged to come. 

4. Therefore feeing no entreaty will prevail 
vs^iththe Impofers after fo many years time to 
explain thefe, and many other fuch words, they 
think that the ufual fenfe of fuch words muft be 
the meafure of their expofition 5 and therefore 
they dare not profefs Affent, and Approbation, 
and Confent, till they are better explained to 

XIV. The Liturgy requireth that the Prieft 
deliver the Communion to the people into their 
handsy ^4li meekly kneeling, 

2. The 27th. Canon faith, \^No Minifter foall 
witttngl)' admmifier the fame to any^ but to fuch as 
kr,€iii:nder pain off:fpehfwn, 

3. The Conformiits differ among themfelves 
about [he fenfeofthe Liturgy herein, viz.. whe- 
tl^er \_All kjieeling'] include a prohibition to de- 
li\er it to any that kneel not ifome fay iV'o: that 


it only bids themgiVe it to fuchasknecl,but not 
to d^ny it others, though the Canon do. Others 
fay, yea that it requireth us to give it to no 
others. Their reafbns are i. Bccaufe elfe the 
precept figiilied nothing, if men were afrer it 
lefc ac liberty. 2. Becaufe [-^//] plainly exclud- 
eth others. 5. Becaufe the Canon being the de- 
crees of the fame Church, cxpoundeth the Li- 
turgy ; and it is abfurd to fay that their Rubrick 
leaveth the Minifter at Liberty to do that fime 
thing for which the Canon fjfpendeth hiin.^Be- 
caule we maft alfo fubfcribe that.wc vqUI t^.fi no 
oth:r form of ad'nini[iration^ but that of th: Li- 
turgy ; which Reafons wc jud^^e to be cogent. 

4. The Nonconformifts dilfer among thtm- 
felves about kneeling ; fome taking it to be fin- 
fully fcandalous on the reafons before given ; and 
fome taking it for lawful. But they commonly 
hold that it is finful], cruelty and Schifai for 
them as Minifters to caft any true Chriftians out 
of Chrift's Church and Communion of Saints, 
and to deny them the body and blood of Chrift-, 
which he hath commanded his Church to deli- 
ver and receive, on {o fmail a reafbn as this not 
kneeling : i. Confidering the three reafons which 
are before mentioned as the caufe of their 
doubt. 2. And that the Holy Gholt Rom. 14. 
commandcth both Paftors and People to bear 
with, and receive each other, notwithfianding 
fuch kind of ditferences : 3. And that good mens 
judgments in fuch cafes are not in their own 
power : 4. And that to tie Communion to fuch 
doubtful Circumftances wmU certainly ca'ife 
Schifm ; and fuch doings have long diftrafted 
Chrift's Churches through the world, j. And 

N 4 Ghrift 

[1 84] 

Chrift hath commanded all his true Difciples to 
live in loving concord and communion: But 
kfiCelers and not kneelers are his true Difciples : 
6. And men muft not be caft cut of the Churches 
Communion even for grofs and heinous fms, 
unlefs they add obftinate impenitency. There- 
fore they dare not AlTent, Approve, Confent to, 
or Pradice, this rejedtng of godly Chriitians for 
not kneeling in the ad of receiving, from thofe 
priviledges which Chrift by his teltament hath 
given them. 

XV. By the Liturgy every Tarijhion'Y is to 
communicate twice a year, and by the Canon and 
llatute to be compelled fo to do: and the 
Church:A'arden to prefent them that do not.And 
thole that do not in a certain time, are to be 
EXCOMMVNICATED , and after Jaid in 
Gaol during life, unlefs they conform. To the 
Liturgies Impofition we muft profefs Aljcnt, &:c. 

2. Not every Parifhioner (yea in our expe- 
rience not one of many) hath a full truftin God's 
Mercy J and a quiet Confcieme ^ vyithout both 
which they are not to come. 

3 . Many ^00^ Chrjftians have fo great a fenfe 
of their fins and unworthinefs,that they dare not 
communicate till they are fitter : And fome are 
jb timerous and melancholy, that hearing the 
Liturgy threaten men to be given up to the De- 
vil, and eat and drink their own damnation, if 
they eat and drink unworthily, it vi/ould drive 
them by fear intodiftradion fhould they take it, 
till they have better thoughts of their title and' 
preparations; fo that their di!emma is fad,whcii 
they are cither to go to, Bedlam, or to the com- 
xnon Gael. 

4. To 


4- To fay that all thefe doubting and timcrous 
peopley^o«/^ be otherwife minded, and that this 
js their errour, is true, but as impertinent, as it is 
to tell all men that they . (hoiild ;?^i/fj' y?/? or all 
ignorant carnall ungodly men that x\\tyJl:Giild be 
wife andgodlj : But to conclude that men fhould 
receive the facrament, becaufe ih^y ought tobe 
■prepared^ though they are not prepared^ is fbme- 
what like telling the fick that they fliould work 
and eat,as they ought to have done if by intem- 
perance they had not difabled themfelves. 

5'. There are many among us who are con- 
fcious of Infidelity, Atheifm, Sadduceifm and 
Herefic, and fome of many fecret heinous fins: 
fbme of thefe in their hearts deride Chrillianity 
and the facrament ; And the other are afraid of 
increafing their damnation : But yet do not make 
known their fin : But it is notorious that abun- 
dance of fuch there be : And the doubt is whe- 
ther thefe fhould be compelled to the facrament 
thrice a year. 

6. The Nonconformifts hold, that to deliver a 
man, that facrament, is to deliver him the body 
and blood of Chrift, and therewith a fealed par- 
don of fin, and guift of life eternal $ And they 
think that the terms on which thefe are to be 
received, are [ivhcllj devoting cur fclvcs to Chrip-^ 
denying all, and takmg up our Cyojs and following 
him. And therefore that to fay [_ Receive the 
facrament ^or he in a GaoQ fecmeth much to alter 
the terms of theGofpel, which faith £ If thou 
canft notfuffe' aGaol for Chriflythou art unworthy 
of him. It is he that can forfake all for Chrin-, 
that is fit for the facrament, aud not he that 
would not Communicate without the fear of a 



prifon or other punidiineni:, To give the facra- 
menr, is to give more than all the riches of the 
world, which none bat volunteers and defirers 
are fit for. 

7. The ancient Churches made delinquents 
long beg for fuch great priviledges and gifts, 
knowing that to give them to thofe that are 
unwilling, is to fubvert the Gofpel. But they 
never faid \^Recelv: them or go to Gaol.'] 

8. Were it but granted in EngUnd that the 
great gift of Chrijls body and bloody and holj Com- 
mnmon jhould bi adminiftred and received freelj^ 
that is, only given by and to voluntary agents and 
receivers, it would heal almoft all the Englifh 
differences, between Epifcopal^Presbyterians and 

9. Yet the Nonconformifts are not againH: 
the encouraging of Communicants by f[)ecial 
favours, nor the prudent compelling of Ignorant 
men to hear the truth, nor the hindering of 
pernicious herefies moderately. Bat the forefaid 
compulfion of all Parifhioners they dare not 

XVI. The Minifter according to the Liturgy is 
himfelf to give the Eucharift to many , to whom 
the Nonconformifts dare not give it : For they 
muft give it thrice a year to all the Pari(hioners, 
except fach as are proved ( to him that hath 
no power to examine them or witnelTes ) to be 
in malice towards others, or to be in any fcan- 
dalous fin, and that but for that time, till they 
are accufed and acquit, or ftill permitted, viz., 
I. They muft give it to many ihditconfent not to 
he any p^rt of their charge, nor take them for 
their Pafiors^hut bid them deny them the Sacra- 

mcnt if tliey dare, thouph tfiey ccnfent rot to 
the rtlaticn. 2. Ihcy iriDft give it to rr.uItitLdes 
cfihe gujij f ghor a Kt,\^' ho know not the ellcntials 
of Chriliianity or the Sacrament, nor will ccme 
to them tc be till ght : When by feme, yea or 
perioral krov. lec!ge,tl cy know them to befuch, 
yet without jrcof(rcr v\e think with proof) 
they carrot rcfLfe them. 3. It is known that 
Infidels and deriders of Scripture ard mans 
Immcrtalltate, do fvTarm morecmcrg us. And 
yet they muft all Communicate till w e can bring 
proof of itagainft [articular perfcrs: When few 
men that report it will accule their neighbours 
and prove the accufaticn for fear of their 
difpleafure : 4. We muft giveit toall the ungodly 
that are difmift by a Lay-Chanccllcur after 
accufation, 5. We muft give it to all that are 
i4nwillirsg to receive it, fbbeit they hi^d rather 
take it than lie in a Gaol and be undone. 3 On 
thefe terms the Nonconformifts dare not Aiient, 
Confent to and Approve the giving of it as is 
prefcribed. 4. It is confefled that compelled 
Receiving is not commanded by Chrift, nor was 
ufed by the Church, for many hundred years, 
even after Empercurs v/ere Chrifiians. 

XVn. The Liturgy requireth Minifters at Bu- 
rial, to ufc thefe words, importing the falvation 
of the perfon : {^For^jfriuch as it hath pleafcd Al- 
mighty God cj his great mercy ^to tah^ 10 hin.felf the 
foul of our dear Brother ^htre depauca'} Ard [ We 
give thee hearty thar\s for that it hath pieafed thee 
to deliver this our Brother cut oj tki nijtnes of 
this frftd xvcrld"] And [Ihat vcc n:ay rcfi m h.m as 
€Hr hf^pc IS this our Brother doth,"] 

2. Ihe CcnformiUs are not agreed cf ihefenfe 



oftlicfe words : One fort of them fdy, that all 
thefe words import not the falvation of the per- 
fon: But the reft have more ingenuity, and con- 
fefs that elfe the words are nor intelligible, and 
that fuch equivocation is not tolerable. 

3. Some of them fay that thefe paflages are 
good,fuppofmg Difcipline wdl exercifed j which 
if it be not, it is not the fault of the Liturgy. But 
others confider that i. We know that Difcipline 
is not fo exercifed as they fuppofc : 2. And that 
thefe paflages are not to be approved and ufed 
Vvhether Difcipline be fo exercifed or not: The 
meaning is not [^l approve of this where Difcipline 
is vocllextrcifd~\ 3. It is known that the Bilhops 
will not have every Prieft to be Judge. 

4. The Canon ( which is the work of the 
fame Church) thus expoundeth the Churches 
meaning 5 Can. 14. \_All Mimfiers Jloall obferve 
the Orders^ Rites and Ceremonies prefcrthed in the 
BooJ^of Common-Frajer^ as well in reading the ho^ 
ly Scriptures^ and facing of Prajers^ as in admini- 
^ration of the Sacraments, without either dimi^ 
tjifJoing in regard of Treachtngy or in any other re- 
fpsH: i or adding any thing in the matter or form 
thereof] (This alfo concerneth moft of the cafes 
before inftanced in, as Expofitions of the 
Churches meaning.) 

5:. And Can. 6S, its (aid [ No Minifier /hall 
refufe or delay to bkry any Corps that is brought — 
in fuch manner and form as is prefer ibed in the 
Booh^of Common- Tray er\ And if he ihall refufe 
— -to buryy//c4 excpt the party deceafed were 
denounced excommunicated Ma'jor't Excommuni- 
cationCy for fome grievous and notorious crime ^and 
HO man a lie to tcfiifie of his repentance^ hejhail be 
J'^fp ended by the Bijhop, 6. The 

6. The new Edition of the Liturgy increafcth 
the exceptions thus[77?^ ^ffi<^^ er.fi-iijig is not to be 
ufedfor any that die finhaptiz^ed, er excommmji- 
catCyor that have laid violent hands on themfelves.~\ 

7. Note I. That nnany children of good Ghri- 
Itians by furprizedie unbaptized : 2. Many god* 
ly fober perlbns are excommunicated for fbme 
point of Nonconformity : 3. Some uprighc 
Chriftians inphrenfics, melancholies and diftra- 
dtions make away themfelves. 

8. Note, That Atheiiis , Infidels, Sadduces, 
Blafphemers, Whoremongers, &c. fwarm now 
among us^ and we rarely hear of any one of 
thefe multitudes that are excommunicated 5 fo 
that they are not excepted, 

9. It cannot be denyed, that exccptio firmnt 
regtilam m non excepts : fo that no other muft 
be excepted. 

10. It is known that all England confifts of all 
thelndividual?,and all the people are all E?i^Lvjd. 

11. We commonly Preach that without Faith 
and Holinefs none fhall ice God j and that 
Whoremongers, Drunkards, &c, cannot enter 
into the Kingdom of Heaven. 

12. Therefore either we confent to pronounce 
almoft all fuch to be faved (at a time when our 
words take thedeepeft imprefriGn,)oreire more 
exceptions muft be made. 

13. Some fay that the Excommur.icablc are 
included in the Excommunicated; But the Canon 
and the exprefs words of the Liturgy, and tfce 
Churches abhorrence that the Frielt. fhall be 
Judge, do fo notorioufly confute this bold af- 
fertion, that by fuch Itrerches almolt any thing 
may be (aid or fworn, and it fhall not be known 
by authority,when,or how far any Subjed is ob- 
liged by Covenants or Oaths. XVIII.The 

XVIII. The Liturgy rcqiiireth [ th^t fnch 
ernamertts of the Church and of the Aft fitters there- 
vfat all t imcs of their Mmifiration^ jhall be re- 
tained and in ufe^as were in this Church of England 
by the author itj of ParUam:nt in the id. Tear of 
Ed. 6. 

2. The Canon of the fame Church cxpoundeth 
their meaning cap, 58. Thus [^ every Mimfier 
faying the publicly prayers or Mifiift'^ing the Sacra- 
ments or other rites of the Chut chy Jhallvpear d 
decent and comely Surplice &c, 

3. We fuppofe in the 2d. of King Ed. 6. 
The Cope, Alb and other veftments were in ufe^ 
which (eem forbidden by the Common-Prayer 
Book in the 5th. and 6th. of Ed, 6. 

4. The Conformifls agree not of the fenfe of 
this Kubrick, i. Whether all thcfe are hereby 
reduced or nor. 2. Whether it forbid all Mini- 
fters to officiate without a Surplice,or onlyCom- 
mand theufe of it, without an implyed penalty:* 
But the words, and the forecited Canons (hew- 
that the Church intended an exclufion of all that 
will notufeit: And we mult fubfcribe to admi- 
nifier in no other form. 

5". The Nonconformifts differ about the Sur- 
plice ; fome taking it to be Lawful, and others 
to be unlawful : But they Commonly hold that 
Preaching Chrifts Go/pel is commanded by God, 
and that Miniilers by their ordination are obliged 
to do the w^ork of that Office, and that Surplices 
are not commanded by God : and therefore, if a 
man midakingly fhouM take the ufe of the 
Surplice to be finfcl, he fhould not therefore be 
ejsH-ed andfilenced : And therefore they dare not 
declare Approbation and Gonfent to the Ru.brick 



or rubfcribjed form in the Canon which implycth 
this reftraint. 

XIX. The Damnatory fenterces in the Creed 
called ylth4.jriafms's^-3.xt to be Allented, Approved 
and Confented to. 

2. If they referred but to the Dcdrine of the 
Trinity^and not to the particulars of that explica- 
tion/it would not be excepted againft : But fome 
R. Reverend Conformifts do profefs that thofe 
fentences are untrue, and not to be approved. 

3. Put fuch think that the Churches mean^ 
ing is not to require us to u^fftnt oru^pprevethcm 
as true^hm only to Cor.fer.t to p:je them: And they 
prove itjbecaufe the fame Church requireth us to 
Read the Eccks of Tchit.&^c. which have palpa- 
ble untruths,and net to believe them to be true. 

4. But that reafcn feemeth null and vain 5 
1. Becatfe the u^fccr)pha is no part of the Book 
tov^hichwe muft Prcfefs Afient, Approbation 
ai^id Ccnfenr^nor to which by the Canon we muft 
cx ar>imo fubfcribej that there is r.cthi7;g in it 
contrary to tkeVtcrd ej Ctd. But ^t hah ajius's 
Creed, with thofe dcmratory R nterces are part 
of that Book. Indeed the Litr.rgy requireth us 
to read thofe Apocryphal untruths, but they are 
r.o part of the Beck : 2. Ard it being not the 
fenle of the Liturgy, but of a Statute of Parlia- 
m.enr, which we here dcubt of, it feemeth in- 
fLfficienr, if rot iir<{ ertire rr, to tell us ^>hat is 
taken for the fenfe cft/^t Chhich 5 for the dcubt 
is What if the Jcrfe if ikt Taylu.mer.ty which we 
can no 01 her wife krcw bi;t by the flain vrords, 
till they will otberwife declare theii neanirg. 

5*. And indeed if the piffcgcs in Tcl-it, which 
feme Reverend Bi(hr[s cair Lies (about the 


Angel's faying that he was the Son of AnanU.^ 
of the Tribe of Napthali^ and the fifhes driving 
away all Devils, that rhey (hall never return) 
were but to be read, we know not how to apF- 
prove of that Law, Calendar or Kubrick, that 
commandeth fuchread-ne^ of them. Butyetthat 
is much lefs than the AfTent required to Athor 
fiafnti's Creed J which yet we take {{^dvt thofe 
damnatorv fenrencesj to be the beft explication 
of the Myftcry of the facred Trinity, which in 
lb fhorr a fumme is extant in the Church. 

XX. The Liturgy faith lAll Priefts and Dea- 
cons are to fay daily the Morning and Evening 
Frajer y either frivt^tely or ofenly^ not being let by 
fick^'Cfsy orfome other mgent caufe. And the Cu- 
rate that mmiftreth in every Parijh- Church or 
Chapel J being at homey and not being otherwife rea- 
fonably hindred^ Jhall fay the fame m the FariJJo- 
Church or Chapel where he mini(lreth, &c. 

2. The Conformifts agree not of the fenfe of 
this j fome think that the ordinary incommodi- 
ties of fuch a commanded ufe, may pafs as thofe 
hi>iderances or nrgent caujes mentioned in the ex- 
ceptions : But the more plain and ingenuous 
dealers hold, that the mger.t canfes and hmde- 
ranees here mentioned, mult be I'omewhat ex- 
traordmary^ and not any thing which is the ufual 
cafe of moit Minifters. 

3. Cathedrals and fome other Churches have 
many Priefts and Deacons of whom one only 
can daily oflRciare in pr.blick. And many are 
Chaplains in fuch mens houies as will have other 
free prayers ufed. And molt Minifters have 
great and necefTary work to do, which muftall 
belefi: tmdone, ^yhilc the Common-Prayer is 




raid over by them twice a day. They have Ser- 
mons to ftudv, many Books to read, that they 
may be furninied with neceflary knowledge for 
. their work : They have abundance of ignorant 
' parifhioners to inftrud, exhort or comforrsThey 
> have the fick to vifit , the dead to bury, the 
Sacraments to adminifter, families to govern, 
inltrucTt and provide for. And many find free 
prayer from the immediate fenfe of their cafe 
and wants, to be fo profitable to them that they 
cannot rpare it : All which and more require the 
the ftriAeft improvement of rvery minute of 
their time : And if the Liturgy be read over by 
every Prieft and Deacon twice a day^ it is cer- 
tain that much of thefe aforefaid muft be omitted. 
And it is a great part of our Ghriftian duty, 
when two good things come together, to choofe 
that which hie et nwK is the greater j to choofe 
the lelTer then being a fin. 

4. Therefore the Nonconformifis dare not 
AfTent, Approve and Confent to the tying of 
every Prielt and Deacon ordinarily to read over 

. the Liturgv twice every day. And they are the 
more avcrfe to fuch Approbation by feeing fo 
very ftw Gonformifts, Comparatively, to pradice 
this themfelves ; which fheweth that they take 
it to be unlawful ; feeing it is their judgement 
that our Rulers muft be obeyed in all things 
which are lawful to be fo done. And if they that 
make fuch declarations of Approbation think it 
unlawful ordinarily to keep them , we may 
doubt whether it be lawful fo to m:^.!^- them, as 
is required of us. 

5. If God ask us why we did not teach our 
families, vifit the fick, infirutl Ignorant neigh- 

O hours 


boufF, iiudy better for to difcharge our Mini- 
It erial u'orkjthar we mis^ht be men of knowledge, 
and fuch like, the doubt is whether it will pafs 
for a good anfwer to fay, we had not time, 
becaufe we mult twice a day read the Common- , 

XXT. AfYenting, Approving and Confenting to 
aU things, even to all forms, orders, 8rc. inclu- 
deth the order of the Liturgy, Two Rules of-the 
order of Pr.i^er are commonly acknowledged 
I. The nature and order of the matter to be ex-. 
preficd. 2 The Lord$ Prayer as a directory de- 
livered by drift. 

2. The Nonconformifts that think that for the 
main there is nothing but good contained in moft 
of the Prayers of the Liturgy; yet think that 

. they are greatly difirdereddhd defective j neither 
formed according to the order o( matter^ nor of 
the Lords Prayer , bur like an immerhodical Ser- 
mon , which is unluitable to thehtgh fubjeds 
and honourable work of huly worfhip. 

3. They have oft offered, whenever it will be 
well taken, to give in aC^tralogue of the diforders 
and dtfetis of the Liturgy : Which yet they 
think it lawful to ufe, in cbtdiencc^ or for mnty, 
or when no better may be ufed : But nor to 
approve of fuch difirde''", as we do not approve 
of the failings of any of our own duties, though 
we are daily guiltvof them unwillingly. 

XXH. The Preface to tht Book of Ordination 
faith, that ['* It is evUeya to all men diltff^efftly 
" reading holj Scriptures and ancient Authors^ that 
* from the Apoftles time there have been thefe 
" ORDERS in Chrifs Church, Ihfbops^ Priefls 
" ^nd Deaconsy as jeveral OFFICES ♦ which 



are repeated oft in the CoIIeds at Ordination : 
To this all muft Aflent andConfent. 

2. Some of us are confcious that we have di^ 
Ihehtl^ retzd the holj Script fires and ancient Au^ 
tbors, and yet three ORDERS and OFFICES 
are not evident to u$. 

3. Wc have great reafon to believe that Cal- 
vin, Bez.a, and manv more Reformers, Blonde 11^ 
Salmatit^*, Robert Fa^^r^ Gerfom, Bucer^ Caider- 
wood, Cartxrrtghty fohn Rcyr;oldi, j<^m^s, Atnf^ 
vpor h, and multitudes of fuch Proitftai^ts, did di- 
ligently read both Scriptures and '.ncients : As 
alio Dr. Stillingflset, BiOjop Edw. Reynolds^ and 
many fuch, who thought that Scripture inftitu- 
ted no particular forms of Government : As alfo 
uirjnacha-rU^y and many other Papiits, who think 
that Bifhops and Priefts do not differ urdive, but 
graduj which the R. Reverend Archbifhoi) Vfier 
ordinarily proteffed : We cannut alfert that none 
of thefe diligently read Scripture or ancient 

4 But efpecially when we find that even the 
ancient Church o^ England was of another mind, 
as is legible in the Canons of <L^Jfrick^ to Wul* 
fine \n Spelman, pag. ^73. 576. which conclude 
that (in the old large fenfe) there were^/^f /even 
Ecclefiaflicd Orders or Degrees^ and that the Bi- 
Jhops and Preshpers are not tvpo^ but one : Hand 
plH' is intercft inter Miffakm Vreshytemm & E-^- 
pi[copum, quam qnod Epifcoppu conftitHtHS fit ad 
ordmationes confer endaSy & ad VifitandtimfeH in- 
fpiciendum curandtunque ea quA ad Dcum perti- 
nent, qkod nimi<z crederetur mnititudini fi omnis 
Fresbytev hoc idem faceret, Ambo fiiqmdem 

O a NEM 


NEAfj 'queimvis dignior fit tHa pars Epifcopi.'] 
\^. Non eft alim ORDO cojftitMttis in EccLe- 
Jitifitcis MiniftcriiSj &c. Et Leg. Canfiti,p. $^l, 
Fajtoves ^ocdWHs Epifcopos & Sacerdotes, cjhorum 
j^artcs fi(nt en/ditione i-itq^e doSlrin^i gre^em Do" 
?nini fpiC/^'iari ^c dtfthdere^ d^C. 

5. And Dr. StiiUngfteet hath proved by fuffi- 
citnt evidence, that the fame was the judgment 
of Archbifhop Cranmer^ and other Reformers of 
the Church o( England. And it is the judgment 
of fome of our Bilhops and Confermifts now. All 
which v.e freak not to fhcw which fide w^e 
think to be in the right ; but that the (tare of 
the queltion is. Whether -we Gm.aff^m to this as 
trta^ ar.d approve and confent that it he ufed^ as is 
2ppoiated^ [ That it'*s evident to all men diligently 
reading, &x. that di' facto there were three OR- 
DERS and Offices from the ^pojllcs times. 

XXIIL Th ordering of Priefts requireth the 
Bifhop to fpC'uk to the people at the Ordination, 
of Priells, calling them [to come forth in the name 
of God, and Jhew whjit crime or imp:d,iment they 
know in the pcrfoas to be ordained, Circ.J In imita^ 
tion of the ancient Churches, when the Congre- 
gation over which they were fer,had their voice 
in his elfdion or reception. 

2. The doubt is. whether fuch a folemn invi- 
tation, ys in God's name, be not too vam to be 
^Ifentcdy and approved, ^nd Confent ed W, in a 
Church, where the people over whom he is fer, 
never ufe to be prelent, nor invited to it, nor 
have any notice of it, or any call to meddlq 
therein 5 being ufually many miles^ and often 
many fcore miles diftant j nor any other people 
called to that work j and rarely any people 


there that have any knowledge of the man and 
hi? converfation. 

XXIV. The Ordaining of Prielis, and the Con- 
fecration of Biihopsboth ufc thefe words as con- 
cerning the Office [Receive the Ilolj Ghcfiforthe 
Office and woyl^ 'of a Pncfij cf a B:Jhop^ &cr\ 

2. It is not doubted but that the Holy Ghoft 
Hiult fet Paftors over the Flocks j i. By quali- 
fying men for the Office^ and making them de- 
firous of it : Both Grace, ability and Willingnefs 
are of him: 2. By giving the Ordainers a dif- 
cerning skill to know whom to ordain : 3. By 
giving the flock a di(cerningand a willing mind. 
We yet know not of an v other Collation of the 
Holy Gholt, which Ordination can make. Nor 
know we that in any of thefe fenfcs thefe words 
can be well underftood : For i. Grace ^Gifts and 
Willingnefs, are the dfpojitio recipient is prefup- 
pofed : we fee not how it can be lawful to or- 
dain him that (eemeth not before to have them: 
what elfe are they examined about ? Nor know 
we that God hath given any power to the Or- 
dainers now, by the laying on of hands,to make 
an ungodly man godly, or an unlearned or ig- 
norant man to be learned or wife, or a man of 
ill utterance to have a better tongue, or an un- 
willing man to be willing. The Aporties had a 
miraculous power of giving the Holy Ghoft 
for extraordinary works , and for abilities 
fuddenly infufed j and they did it : we never 
knew of any in our age that did it ; and there- 
fore fuppofe that they have no promife or power 
fo to do. 2. And to give a difcerning skill to the 
Ordainers 5 3. Or to give a difcerning or willing 
mind to the people, are neither of them a giving 
O 5 the 


the Holy Ghoft to the Prieft. The doubt is, 
whether this be not an abufe of the words 
which Chrift himfclf or his Apoftles ufed, and 
fo not to be afTcnted to/ approved and confent- 
cd to. 

3. Yet is it not denyed, but 'that Minifterial 
'Jiuthority is given by theordamers as Minifters, 
Deliverers or Invefters :But Authority is not the 
Holy r.hofl- fo CL^lled. 

4. Nor is it denyed but that as Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghofl do enter into Covenant with us 
as Chrtftians in our baptifm, fo do they with 
Minifters, as fuch,in their ordination-covenant: 
But fuch a»Relarionto the Holy Ghoft as the 
Minifters future helper in bis work, cannot wclj 
be fuppofcd to be all tluit is meant by the words 
£ Receive thd Holy Ghofl^ ] both Scripture and 
corumon ufe -taking them in another fenfe. 

XXV. This Oath in the Confecration of Bi- 
fhops is to be taken by every Biftiop [ In the 
fiame of God Amen. I. N. Chofen BiJJjop of the 
Church and See of N, do profefs and p"omife all due 
reverer,ce and ohi dunce to the AvtihBiJhop^ and to 
the Mc'tr apolitical Church of N, and to their fucce f- 
fou^'Sj fo hc/p me God through Jeftis Chrif » 

2 It is not pretended that any fuch Oaths of 
obedience were inftirutcd by Chrift or his 
Apoftles 5 or were ufed in the Churches for ma- 
ny hundred years, nor till the Papacy was rifing, 
which was furthered by (]jch Oaths. 

3. They that (i^ppofe Bifhops to be fucceflburs 
of the A!>oft)es, cannot mnke them fubjeLlsto 
any other Ecclffiaftical Rulers, without alierting 
that the Apoitles were Governours ovei" one 
another j which we find not that they do. 


4- It was many hundred years before Arch- 
Bi't'C)^:s had any Goveining; [^owerover Bifhops, 
or exad:ed any obfdience from them ; being not 
Ep'fcopi Epi/coporu., (as the Carthage Fdtliers in 
Cyprian prof lied.; But wei'e cxilv fuch as had the 
fint fedt« and voices in the Svnods. 

5'. The queiVion therefore is, whether fuch 
Oaths, asneceflary to a Bifhops conlecration, be 
to be Approved and con ented to? 

XXVI. An Oith of Canonical obedience alfo is 
put upon all that are made Prieits and Deacons : 
And Priefts at their ordination mult make this 
Covenant, that they {^iviii rtverently obey their 
Ordinary^ ana other chief Alin fiersy unto whom is 
committed the charge and G(jV'r.?neht over thcm,'\ 

2. The ordinary is not only the Bifhop, but 
alfo the Chanceliour, Officials, ^wrrogates^ Comip 
faries, yirch^Deacom, and all that are Judges in 
the Ecclefiaftical Courts* 

3. to obey them that are thus de facfo fet over 
us, is no lefs than to obey them in the excercife 
of that power which is given them as fo fee 
over us. 

4. The doubt is, whether they that take any 
of them to be Ufurpers of an Ecclefiaftical 
power, which indeed they have not ( and can 
prove it to be fo ) (hould fvvearor Covenant 
obedience to them as fuch. e, g. It is commonly 
confeffc-d by the Conformilts that the true power 
of the Keys, o{ cxcommH/.ication and Abfuiution 
is appropriated by Ghrilt to the Clergy : And yet 
our Chancclfviurs being lav men, do decretively 
excercife that povver. Theqaeltion is, may we 
fwear or Covenant to obey thein? 

5. And feeing Chriit never gave one Presbyter 

O 4 the 


the Government of others, as Archdeacon?, 
Surrogates, Official?, &'c. whether all the reft 
may Iwear obedience to them, orAj>proveof 
and confent to the ufe of fiich Oaths ? And 
divers Coi^ncils have condemned it as a dangerous 
practice for Biihoj^s to tie fubjed: Presbyters 
to them by Oaths. 

XXMl. Minifters that live among the people 
have greareft advantage to know the penitent 
from the impenitent. 

2. But it is the forefaid lay Chancellour?,who 
ufually know nothing of them bur by reports, 
that excommunicate and abfolve them. And the 
Parifh-M'nider mud: fas a cryer readeth a 
proclamation or fentence of a Judge ) openly 
read thefe excommunications and abfblutions. 

3. Thefe excommunications muft pafs accor- 
ding to the Canons, againf^ all that ihall affirm 
thiV [[t/jer^ is anythir:g in the bool^of Common- 
Trajer repugn^^t to the Scripture or any of the 39 
ui/ticles erroneoHSy or any of the Rites and Cere- 
monies [i-ich as he 7nay not with a good confcience 
fuhfcribe to, or that the Governjyicht by yirch- 
£iJhops,B!f,.wps,DeanSj ^^rch-Deaccns and tie re fi 
that bear Office tn the Church of Ezgland^is Yepug- 
n^nt to the word ofGod^or that any thrug inthsform 
aiid manner of making & confecrativgBiJhopSjPriejfs 
or Deacons is reppign.xnt to the word of God, &or\ 

4. The prelcnt doubt is whether a Minilter 
who knoweth fuchofhis Parilh to be godl}', 
peaceable men,n'hom the Chancellour decretive- 
ly excommunicateth, may both openly read and 
declare fqch excommunications and alfo fwear or 
Covenant fo todo,in obedience to the Ordinary. 
And whether when he knoweth that a wicked 



Impenitent man is abfolvcd, he may pronounce 
fuch abfcliitions. 

XXVIII. The Oath of Canonical obedisnce 
feemeth to mean obedience according to the 
Canons : And he that Covenanteth to obey hts 
ordinary, muft be fuppofed to mean no lefs than 
r yic cor ding to the Canon Laws by which he is 
known to govern^ ] and as Government thereby is 
excercifcd : 

2. And if fojthen there are more things in the 
Canons and prefent Government, which the Non- 
confurmifts dare not fwear or Covenant to 
obey ( befides thofe already named, ) than we 
will now ftand to enumerate. 

XXIX. The Kubrick faith xh^x[_the Mmifier 
who repelleth any from tht,' Sacrament, fiail he 
obliged to give an accotmt of the fame to thtOrdmary 
Within ij^daies after, at the furtheji-. 

2. If all that by grofs ignorance, Athclfm, 
Infidelity, Sadducifm, Herefie, Schifm, Drun- 
kennefs, Whoredom,SteaIing,Malice,&c are un- 
capable of the Communion be prefented to 
the Ordinary within 14 daies, no charity that 
is guided by knowledge of the common (late of 
the people, can think, that in London Diocefs 
there would be fewer than many fcore thocfands 
prefenred at once. And in other DiocelTes many 
fcore hundreds at lealt, 

3. Some Minifters dwell a hundred Miles or 
neer from the Bifhops. And the Bifhops are divers 
of them fo much at London or abroad, as that ic 
cannot be expecfhed that all thefe muft be prefen- 
ted to the Bifhop himfclf, but to the Chan- 
cell ours court, as is ufual. 

4. The ChancelloursCourt is fo far from moft 



Minifters in the Land, and the profecuting fa 
many when proof is demanded, will be fo 
chargeable and take up ib much vime, as that 
it will undo many poor Minilters, that have 
fcarce enough to maintain their families 5 and it 
will take up the time which they fhould ufe in 
the neceffiry labours for their flocks. 

5. The Chancellour is a lay man to whom 
they muTr be prefented: And the ^(TLie will be but 
a lav mans excommunicating them, if obftinate; 
or abfolving them : Which is not juftificd by the 
Bifhops themfelves. 

6 At the faid Gdancellours court things are 
managed as at a civil judicature: There is not 
that endeavour to convince finners by Scripture, 
and to draw them to true Repentance, by hum- 
bling evidence, inrreaties and prayers for them, 
as fhould be for the faving of a (oul from liu'; 
But the cluirges of the court fees, and the fears 
of a prifon afcer excommunication, maketh it an 
unacceptable and as unlikely means to convert 
men asthei^ocks. 

7. Th(trrefore for a minifter to prefcnt all his 
Parifhioners to fiich courts, whom he is bound 
to deny the Sacrament to, were but to make 
him f-tm their greareftand cruellcft enemy, and 
to render him uncapable of ever (probably J 
prjfiring rh'^m by his Miniftry any more 5 and 
confcquentiy, greatly to promote their damna- 
tion and make them almolt hopelefs as to reco- 
very. And if by this terrour they tell the 
Chancellour that they Repsnt, how little fatif- 
fa(ftion is that to the Minifter, that never faw, 
himfelf, any figns of tneir repentance, 

8. The doubt is then, whether the ufe of this 



Rubrick may be Approved and Confent^d to. 

9 £n>eciallv confide* ing that all die Parlfh 
who recf ive not thrice a year, for which Eafler 
muft be one for their/ a'l) muft be prefented to 
the faid ordin^'V, and alio all that come not to 
Church 5 By which means divers Parishes about 
London muft have fome loooo, fome 20000, 
fome 30000, fome 40000, or 50000, that have 
no room In the Church, all prefented if this Law 
were executed. 

XXX We have reafon to doubt whether the 
KOi of Uniformity it felf be not part of the 
Books which we muft fuufcribe Alfent and Con- 
fent to J becaufe it is fo faid in the Book it felf : 
The Contents of the Book are firft named in 
general, and then this Ad named among the 
Contents. Either it is part of the Conrcnts, or 
it is not J if it be not, we muft not alTenr and 
confent to that fal(hood (that it is;) If it be, O 
far be it from us that believe a God, a J^^^S" 
ment, and a life to come, and the facred Scrip- 
tures, to Aftent and Confent to that A:1: with all 
its penalties, filencing and ruining fuch as con- 
form not. One of us that was oft with the great, 
wife, ;uft Lord Chief Juftice Hales^ hath heard 
him lamenting the Schifms and difcords of 
the Clergy,^ ferioufly fa}^ that [ There nas no 
right way to heal ///, hm by a, New Aci of Vni- 
formity,'] (And hath his ?ate Writings againft 
Jaying Concord or Religion upon mens unnecef- 
fary additions.) And the Reporter taketh not 
himfelfto be wifer than him, nor meet to Af- 
fent and Confent to fuch a Law, conHdeiing the 
experience of thefe feventeen years, ard the con- 
fcquents on mens divided and cxafperated minds, 



Upon the Congregations, upon Minifters and 
FamilleSj and upon the ftare and fecuritv of the 
Chriftian Religion, ar\d the Proteftant Caure,^^c. 
As to them that fay thjt the ^cl namtth the 
Eovk^as dift;nitfrcm it fcif-, we anfwer, i. So do 
the Titles of Ads of Parliament name the Aft 
it fcK as diftind from the Title, and yet we llip- 
pofe that Title part of the Ad:, 2. The Book 
nameth the Ad as pare of its Contents, a^ is 

If we fhould by miftake think fome of thefc 
pafTages to be unlawful that are not, or to have 
a worfc fenfe than indeed they have, let thefe 
things be confidered. 

1 , We judge as well as we are able; and what- 
ever fenfe another takes them in, we that fo un- 
derftand them cannot take them. • 

2. We judge of the fenfe by the plain words; 
the force and Rretch is not by us, but by thofc 
that conform and contradid our fenfe. 

3, The Law-givers will not orherwife expound 
their own words, afrer 17 years waiting for 
it under Compulfive Executions: Certainly if 
they would have us underiland their words con- 
trary to common ufe, they would rather tell us 
fo after feventeen years time, than ruine us, and 
forbear fo eafie a means to heal the Churches. 

4. Some of us fo highly value the excellent 
Pr^eledions of Bifhop S.tnderfon de JHramento, 
and his judgment, againft taking and expounding 
Oaths(and confequently profclTions and promifes) 
in a ftretched or a doubtful fenfe, and his Coun- 
fel to refufe them, when the fenfe is doubtful, 
if the Rulers or Impofers Virill not expound them 


f though they fbould bid us take them in onr 
own fcnfe 5) with much more which he hath ex- 
cellently iiiid to fuch purpofes, that we thank- 
fully acknowledge that he hath much helpt for 
to fortifie us againft the guilt of perjury, and 
fal(hood,and prophaning the holy name of God, 
and deceiving our Governours by equivocations 
and falfeexpofitions, and fcandaloully tempting 
others to perjury, lying, or fuch other fins. 

Wctake an underftanding,ferious('and if it may 
be pfihliclO owning of the Baptifmal Covenant 
in age to beof fo gr-eat moment to the reviting 
of true Chriftianiry and the honour of Baptifm 
and cureof Anabaptifm, that it greatly grieveth 
us that we muft defpair of itseffe^flual pradtife , 
when we meet with few that feem not to app- 
rove it. The vvords of a very Learned and Great 
Conformift Mr Elder fiddof Baptilm pag, 48* 
marg. We think worthy our recital. 

'^ Upon fcore of like reafon (faith he) whereto, 

"and tor fiich after tryal, may have been taken 

" up in the Chriitian Churchy that examination 

"which did fiftrheconftancy or rather confiftency 

" of thofe that had been taken in young, to 

" their prefumed grounds, that if they wavered 

^' they might be known and difcharged, or if 

they remained conftanr, they might by im- 

" pofition of hands receive what the Commoner 

"name of that Ceremony did import, of their 

^' faith ( at leaft a fign of ) Confirmation, 

" Vafijuez. hath from Erajmm(m the Preface to 

'^ his Paraphrafe on the Gofpels ) a w^ord of moft 

" wholfom grave and prudent advife, that thofe 

*^ who were Baptized young, when they begin 

*[ to write man, (hould be examined, an ratum 

" habcant 


" habeant id quod inCatechifmo ipfornm nomine pro^ 
*' tnijf^m : ^odfi ratum nan habeant^ ab EccIsIia 
'^ jtinjdt^ione liberos manere-^xn ^ .p.T>:)om»difp.i c a» 
*' To. 2, c, I /-<^. 2. If they did then ftand 
" to whatiheirfureties promifed for them. If 
"not they fhould be difcarded. Moft necelTary i 
"and of unimaginable benefit! Such a fcrutiny 
"' would (bake off thoufands of rotren hypocrites^ 
*' and purge the Church of many fuch Infidel 
" believers or profelTours, upon whofc dirty 
'* faces a little holv water was tprinkled when 
*' they knew not what it wa« ; but they no more 
'• mind the true fandification appertaining than 
" the T/^r^/ or Saracens ( who (hall rife up in 
" judgement againlt their wa(hed filthinefs, ) or 
*^ than thofe of whom St. Fetcr [ It is hapned 
" to them according to the true proverb : The 
"dog to his vomit, and the wadied fwine to 
" walloxv in the mire,J Such diiicipline of awake- 
" ned Reafon is that the world groans for ; 
"that men would become Chriilians. O that 
" the truth of faith, and power of true Chriftian 
"belief might be (een in thofe that knowingly 
'• put the neck in Chrilts yoak ] So far he. See 
al(b Dr. ?^m(7;^ofBaptirm. And of our felves 
Mr. Hanmer ^nd Baxter have written Trearifes 
only on this fubje(fl, to (hew that fuch true 
Confirmation would be the moH excellent means 
to heal moft of our enormities and divifions. 

And (hall fuch Jefuits as i^afcjfsez., fuch mode- 
rators as Erafmus, and Proteftant ConformiD'siji 
and Nonconformirts, all thusfpeak for it,andyet 
no hope f No wonder if a word or ceremony 
that we difugree in, can make o'>r wound fo fad 
as we have lelr, when that which we in wordg 


agree for, and tbat not as a thing indifferent, but 
fo neccflifv, cannot yet be obtained though we 
perifh. Dead Images of all good things, is but 
the laft and moft efffc^ual means of deftroying 
the life and real good : Dead (hews and Images 
of good, are H^'pocrifie j fmceritv is rt-ality, ic- 
rioufnels and lire. We take our Bapt>im to be 
our Chriltening, or the fumme of the Chriftian 
Ref'gion : And it is but for men to do that fe^ 
riopjly at ^ge^ which they did in Infancy by 
others authorized (or others for themj which is 
the Converfion whrch we dailv preach : And it 
grieveth us to fee what mulritudes, when aged, 
never ferioufly think either what they did or re- 
ceived in I heir Infancy ; and huw many hate fuch 
a life as they have vowed, and yet think that 
they ftand to their Baptifrnal Covenant. And 
till the Paftors of the Church make a ferious 
work of it, to bring all their Parifhes to a ferious 
underftanding and confideration of their Baptifm, 
and a ferious owning it, and renewing of that 
Covenant, we cannot hope that the people w^ill 
be ferious Ghriftians ; or that men will not think 
that ferious Anabaptifts are better than Hypo-; 
crites that contemn their Baptifm, 


The Second Tart of the Matter 

of Conformity. 

THE Firft Part ^^p^^, being contained in 
the Canonical Subfcription, and the Decla- 
ratign, hath been opened : The Second Part is 



the cafe of Recrdinatton. Either tliey that re- 
quire £/7//r(j/7rf/Or^/«4f;(7» for all that were o- 
therwifc ordained when B'fhops were put our^ 
do intend it a fecond Ordination or not. If yea^ 
then it is a thing condemned by the ancient. 
Churches, by the Canons called the A po ft! es,(S^c. 
and by Gregory At, and others likened to Ana- 
baptiftry. If not, then they take fuch mens for- 
mer Ordination to be null, and confequently no 
Minifters to be true Minilters that arelb ordain- 
ed, and not byDiocefansj and confequently all 
fuch Churches to be no true Churches (^while 
they take the Roman Ordination to be valid. )To 
fpeak of the confequences of this as to the nul- 
lity of Baptizings and Confecration of the Lords 
Supper, &:c. and of the taking of God's name in 
vain in the Office if it prove evil,wouId be to go 
further than the Matter of FadV. 


TheThirdTart ofCofiformitj, 

THE Third Part of Conformity is the Sub- 
fcribing againft the obligation from the 
Vow \To endeavour anj change or alter at ion ofGc-^ 
vernment in the Church^ with the 0.v/<3ri^ Oath 
[^ That we rvill never endeavour any alteration j ]] 
and the Articles for our Prelacy j and the Ordi- 
nation- promife, and Oath of Canonical Obedi- 
ence before- mentioned^ as to this point toge- 

2. Even thofe Nonconformifts that are for the 
Idwfulucfs, yea the need and dcfirablenefs of Bi- 



fhops, and Arcbbilhops, have fo much againft 
this Subfcription, as rhac to avoid prolixity, wc 
will forbear reciting the particulars, any further 
than to tell you, that while a thuufand or many 
hundred Parifh Churches are all wiihoct any 
particular aporoprioie BjJ^vps Cgre<ir Towi,s and 
Village^) vvhen in y[g';^fi«/s di«ies the Unity of 
each Church was known by having One yllta-^^ 
and One BiJk'Opy vpith the Presbyters atid Dc^icons, 
And ferom dehr.eth a Church to be Plciys umta 
Bpfcopo; and confeq'iently they are without the 
b fcipline and Paftora! overfightof (uch Bifhopsj 
and while all thefe Parifl-.es are in the old {eife 
become No Churches (for uhi Ep fccppfs, ibi Ec^ 
icle/ia) but only Parts of a Diocefan Church: And 
while the old />r;» of Churches, Presbyters and 
Bifliops is thus changed : And while one Eifhop 
hath now more work of Difci^Tine ( U fides 
Conrtrming and all his other workj than an hun- 
dred of the ablc'it and belt men can do 5 and (or 
fuch Difcipline is necelTirily undone: And while 
the C^ife is as if the B'Thiop of Carthage had put 
down fix hundred neighbour- Bifhops, and be- 
come the fole Billiop of all their Churches ; or 
as ifall the Schools in a Diocefs have but one 
Governing School- maOer, who had power to 
judge what Scholar to receive or to refufe : Aad 
while the Keys are to be exerciled by Lay- men, 
thefe will beunfatisfying things. 

3. The Conformilis are not agreed of the 
ineaning of thefe Subfcriptions and Oaths; fomc 
think that they covenant only to frbmU to them 
(^though they diflike them :) But others think 
that it is alfo to approve the Government. Some 
think that it is only Bijhops that they are baund 

P in 

to : But others fay, that the word Ordlnarft^r^ 
tainlv fi^niheth more than Bifhops, even Lay- 
Chancellours. And that the /t/rcar^^ Canon ex- 
prefly nameth many others, even wirh an & ca- 
tera, {jhe reft that hear Office ] And \_i^.ny altera^ 
tiori] mult needs mean more : as [_uny alteration in 
Srate^ (urc extendeth to more than not endea- 
vouring xo[change Moyjarchj/ or the King himfdj."} 
Some fay that by \jiut endeavour tng'] is m^ anc 
only [_not tinLaveft^ll) endavodrmg'] but not that 
all eKdeavours are. forbid.!tn,'2^/2-. not petitioning, 
fJDeaking when called, Src. Others lay that if ex- 
ceptions held been allowed, the Law makers 
would have made us know it^ and not have fpo- 
ken univerfdlly : And that if you expound it of 
[tinlawfulendtavours'l you leave all men at liber- 
ty to judge what is unlawful, and all Schilma- 
ticks will rake the Oarh or Subfcription^becaufe 
they hold their endeavours to extirpate Prelacy 
to be lawful. Some fay that one may endeavour 
in his plact and calling, to take the Church-Keys 
out of the hands of Lay-Chancellours. notwith- 
Ifanding this Subfcription and Oath. But oihers 
more ingenuotfly fay, that the very aliual Go- 
verhmem or Key« being in the bands of Lay- 
Chuncellours, if it bind us not againft endeavour- 
ing to change thele, it binds us to nothing that 
can be underliocd : And that if Subjedts thus 
take liberty alter Vniverfal Oaths and Trcmifes 
to inake fuch cxceptionsythey reproach the Law- 
makers, as if in fuch tremendous things asthefe 
thev knew not how to put their Laws in words 
intelligible, and of common fenfe : And they rc- 
Jax aH Inch facred bonds. Some fay that in {not 
enaeaVifiriTQgl is excepted {/irdtfs the King com-- 


m)ffion Of command us'J] BtJt others fay, that ifrhe 
La vv givers would have had fuch exccptions,they 
had wit enough to hive put them in : And that if 
you leave it to men to except from univerfals, 
you cannot tell them where to ftop: A..d that 
the ufe of the Oath and Subfcription iSj rhdt the 
Church-Government be taken for unalterable. 


The Fourth Tart ofConJormiy. 

IV.'T^H E Fourth Part of Conformity is the 
J[ Subfcription againlV the obligation of the 
Oach called the Solemn Vow and Covenant.Cor- 
porations are conftiruted by Declaring, that 
there is no obligation from it to any one without 
exception : But Minifters muft only fubfcribe 
that there ts no obligation on ms, or on any othet 
f^rfon, from the Oath^ -—to endeavour any change 
or alteration of Government in the ChnrchT^ 

2. It is none of the Controverfie here, i- 
Whether that vow was lawfully impofed or 
contrived, 2. Nor whether it were lavvfuly taken, 
3. Nor whether part of the matter was unlaw- 
ful. But fuppofing all thefe unlawful, i. Whe- 
ther all alteration of Church Government be 
unlawful? whether it be not in the power of the 
King and Parliament, to fee a Bifhop in every 
Market Town: or to take the ufe of the Keys 
from Laymen : or to take down Archdeacons, 
Officials, ComrriilTaries. Surrogates, fire ? Whe- 
ther all Reformation be out of the power of the 
King , or not to be defired by the people ? 

? z z. Whc^ 

Wherlier that wbich is Laxrfidl may not be done 
bv the Latv rricikfrs, and be ef.deavoured by 
fj.'rech in P.irlKinient, or by |)Ctirion by the 
yto\\t ; Efjecidllv if rhc King Command itf 
3 Whether men be nor bound by a f^aw to that 
vvhicb i.c Liivvtul : much more to that Which is 
antecedenily a duty? 

3. T be Conformifts arc here difagreed among 
tbemfelvesj feme fay that the Vow hindeth not 
btcjufe it was mUwfull^ impojed :But others 
berrer fay, that this [)roverh no more, bur that 
the Impojcrs could not bind me to takj it hy any 
ar.tmruy of theirs-^ And thjriflhdd taken it /« 
fcrt vpithout imp^'ft/on I had been bound by ir: 
Els no [ rivate Vov\ {hou!d bind .Some f y that it 
binds not becaufe it was/ / lij' taksn : But others 
truly fay that if Oaths bind not wherever men 
take thtm fi>,jnily^ no wicked man fhould ever be 
bound by Ojths or Vows, becaufe they ufualiy 
make them finri.lly by an ill end and intention, 
wron^. motives, or ill princi[(»les or manner: Or 
at leutl a bad man miv^ht chooie whether ever 
he will he obliged : But ail gocd cafuilts agree, 
that it the matter hf lawfuJ the uhUwfhl tal^tng 
binders norihe obliparion. A man that is Bap 
tized with ill motive? or intent i(;ns, is yet obli- 
ged by bis BaptifiiitJ Vow. Some (ay that ir birds 
not bfCdLfe the mat'.er it /.If is unlawful. But 
itvS granted thot it lindeth to no urilawful mat- 
ter : Oiheis therefore truly fay that he that- 
Voweih fix th>nes whereof rhree are finful, is 
noidifobliged by the conjur(fl:i(.n of thefe from 
the orher three that are La^^fbl : Els a Knave 
ma^ Keep him-elf d fobli^ed as to all Vows, by 
puttu>g in fv;mc tnlawful thing. Some fay that 



it binds hotbecaufcwe were antPCfHenMv bound 
to all thar is s^ood by other bond>, and therefore 
not by this. But others truly Cdx, that this is a 
moft inroHeidbfe reafon and would nuUihe our 
Baptifmal Vow, and all our facrainentdl Vows 
rencwedj and all Covenants that ever man can 
make to God of any dutv, For Godi own Laws 
firji^ hind Hs Xo every duty : But for all that our 
own I'^ows, Covenants and promifes fcondanlf 
bind us alio : And a man may have many ohliga- 
ti'uns to one dary^ Yea indeed the Covenanters 
ordinirilv profcfs that rlicy rhink not that a man 
fhould Vow any thin^ to God but wh^t God 
firrt hath made his duty. And ihcvare againft 
the Pjpifls for making Religions and duties to 
themfelves which God never mi<de: And there- 
fore they profefs that if f()me things in the 
Covenant were not their duty before, thty 
would not think that they are bound to it now : 
And tiiey profef's that if they had never x^\'Qn 
thdt Vow they had been bound to all rhat by it 
they are bound to : And therefore condemning 
that Vow doth no whir (ecure rhe Govrmmenc 
of the Church ( ^. ^. Lay ChayicjUours ^fe of the 
Keys, or the d firtittion of dijc.pl- ne ) from their 
Lavvful endeavours to alter it. And they profefs 
that feeing the King hath power to command 
them Lawful things if they had Vowed any 
thing meerly Indirferent it would not have bound 
them againit the Kings Commands 5 Becaufc it 
is nor in fubjeds power, by Vows to withdraw 
themfelves from their obedience to authority. 
Some fay that the Proclamation of King Charles 
the firftagainft the Covenant nulTd the obligation. 
But others truly lay^ i. That it could null no 
P s more 

more than the Jmpofition to take it, and Dot the 
obligation when it's taken, \xs necefjary things: 
2. That this is nothing to all them that took 
it ^^frer-a^^ard, and that when Cfjarles IL had 
('though injuriui.fly) been drawn to declare 
for it. Some fay that it binds not becaufe men 
took it ifyiw.llingly- But others truly fay, i. that 
this would leave it in the power of a bad man 
tonullirie all Vows and contracts, by faying that 
he didt'.tm unwillingly : 2. That man hath/^c 
vpill and cannot be compelled : And a Vow of a 
thing Lawful to fave ones life binderh : Men 
mult rather die than lie. 3. This would teach 
Subjecfts to fay that they take all Oaths of Alle- 
giance to the King unwillingly^ and therefore 
arc not bound. 4. Irs true that no man that for- 
ceth another ii jarioufly to a promife can cUtm 
to himjdf ahj right from that which was not 
free but procured by his own injurious violence 
or fraud j But God wrongeth none, and a Fow to 
Cod bindeth though procured by finful force by 
men. Some fay that Ic was only a League and 
Cuvenant with men, and not a Vow, and there- 
fore ceafeuh cejf.inte occafone, and by the confent 
of Parliament.^Src. u^nj. There is no place for 
thebelief of thi-^ objedion to any that knowerh 
a Vow otherwife than by the name : Indeed 
an Oarh that is but an aj)peal to God, that I will 
fairhfully perform my Covenant with a man, 
obligah me not when that man hathdif(:harged 
me from any obligation to him. Rut this in 
queftion vv?s primarily a promile or Covenant 
mcide to God ( which is a Vow, ) and a League 
and Covenant of men with one another that they 
will perform it 5 as is notorious to any man that 


reaietb it with common underOandingJ 

U. The fecond thino; qnelVioned about that 
Vow ( and the main ) is, whcrhf r every Mini- 
fter mult or may become the judge of all other 
mens Corjfciences And obligations in three King- 
doms, even of many thoulands whom rhey never 
faw nor heard of, and that fo far as to abfulve 
or ;u<tihe them from all obligations by that 
Vow ro endeavour anv Church reformation. 

2. It is here fuppofcd i. That though men 
ought to take an Oath in the ftrnce of a LavpfaL 
GovernoHY fo far as they know it, yet that 
they are not bound bevond the plain meaning of 
the words to the fenfe of Ufurpers : There- 
fore rhey know not but the King and Lords, 5rc. 
might take the fame words in another meaning 
than the obtruders did intend $ e. g, to reform 
according to Gods Word and the ex am pi? of the 
befi reformed C marches might fignifie to them an 
oppoficion to Presbytery. 

2 That if men miftake the fence of the Im- 
pofers, they are bound to ks^p '^^^ Oath in the 
Lawful fence in which they rock^ it. And rh^n 
how knoweth every Minifter in what fenfe 
every man in the three Kingdoms took it ? And 
how is he able to fay that no one man of them 
all is obliged by it to endeavour a lawful and 
neceflary reformation f 

3. And as to the former Argument that men 
were forced to it, many of the Old Parliament are 
yet living, and many others, thut then forced 
others to it, and were nor forced to it themfelves. 

4. And if the prefent Parliament-men could 
(upon what compulfion foever) Vow to reform, 
e.g. fcandalous Minifters, Swearing^Drunkennefs, 

P 4 Popery, 

Poperv,^c. and then would command all Mi -^ 
nifterson pain of fikncing to fubfcribe thajr no 
nan is bound to perform that Vow, this would 
not do them any fervice, but involve each Subr 
fcriber in the guilt of a multitudes perfidiouf- 


V. Tbe Fifth Tart of Confer wity. 

i.'TpHE The Fifth Part of Conformity is the 
J Subfcribing of the faid Declaration, and 
taking the Oxford 0«thj as it concernerh Civd 
Government,z'/z.. [_It is not lavcftil on anj pretence 
Vffhatjosver to take Arms agaii.ft the King 5 gind 
that I do abhor that traiierotis poftion of taking 
Arms by his authority againfi his perjon^or againfb 
thofe that are commiffioned by him.~\ in purluance 
of that Commiffion. 

2. Here the C^ieftion is not of the firft Claufe, 
of taking Arms againft the Khg 5 but OvAy of 
the laft {^i^gainfi thife that are comm'fponed by 
him} the Minifters being moftly ignorant of 
Law, and not knowing what is called a Commf- 
fwfjy and what feal maketh ir fuch : For as they 
are farisfied that no true Legal CommiiTun of 
the King may be refilled^ fo while the unex- 
pounded words have no limitation or exception, 
they dare not think that a Lord Chancellour or 
Keeper harh power at his pleafure to depofe the 
Kin2^, by (ealing Commiffions to any to feize on 
his Forts, Garritons, Magazines, Trealure, Na- 
vies or Guards 5 nor yet to deftroy the King- 

[2 I rl 

doms, Cities, Laws and Judgments, and feize 
at pleafureon all mens elhies or liv^^s. And rhcy 
dare not fwear or fubfcribe rhat which ihe ge- 
nerality of Learned men Heathens, Pd[>i(ts and 
ProteOanrs, Poliricians, La^vyers, and Divines 
are conimonly ag^init. it being too g'*eat prc- 
funiingon their own wits to Qv or fwear, that 
almoft all the vvorld are in the wrong feven men 
in fheirown profefTionJ and ihat vet ihey are 
wi(er than all thefr. An 0*ch therefore being 
to be taken mderpandi?igly^ iheir not under fland-^ 
ing thip, caulerh their refufil ; and it [^leafcthnot 
the Lawgivers to explain it to them. 

3. But though this be a verv imporranr bi^fi- 
nefs, wfijreiv.) tinvviiiing to meddle vvith marters 
of our Rulers P<)wer, as being lels pertinent to 
our funiftion, and the late debate.^ in ihe Houfe 
of Lords fas lome body hath publifhed tiu m) 
have (aid fo much in this cafe, that we think it 
belt to fay no more of it. 


VI. The SixthTayt of Conformify crObe- 
ditnce confequently required oj Ahfiifiers, 

i.'T^H E Sixth part of Obedience required of 
JL us confequently is, that till we can do ail 
afotefiid. We ran^ d jcrt om foimer flockjy though 
they dejtre us to continue our care of them ^ and that 
'We give over ohy preaching the Gcjpel of [a hat ion 
to any bnt our jamilieSy or four more 5 and that no 
man not or darned by Diocefans Adminifter the 
Lords Sffper^ (^c] 

:?. The 


2."" Th" qiief\ion is not whether we fhouM 
give uo the remj)'es and Tyches, and all pub- 
lick M inrenance w!i«n ever it is required of u<; : 
Thou8!;h Sr. A nhro[: would not obrv the Emf)e- 
roiir f^uhntinian, in giving up oneTemj)Ie which 
lie could fJDare, to the An-i^-tsy yet the Noncon- 
forni'ih areofanother judgment.and think them 
all in rheMagirtrates power : Bat ir is the O^ce, 
RdatiQn2i\\d\Norl^^ that thfv dire n>r renounce 
or ceafe froiiij without a betrer diTchiry;e. 

3. Yet thev judge, that where rru'v there is 
no neceffiry ofthriT labours^ or rhey iTiould do 
more hurt than good by Preaching, ir is their 
dutVjWhen forbiddenjto forbear: Butnot becaufe 
any will {'di\\ we are Judges, and it is i^o^ when 
notoriouflv it is rot fo. 

4. But this requireth a larger difquifition than 
F*'e may here ftay to make. 


YU. 7he Seventh Tart of required 

i.nPH E Seventh Part of the Obedience re- 
•i- quired of u'J, is that voe come not within 
jive milts of any City or Corporation which fendeth 
Bu^gfffes to P.i Lumen t, or to any other place what- 
ever ^ where we have ever preached finC'? the AB: of 
Ohlivton-^ except on the Rode or (ijmmoned. 

2. Many MinifVers have their friends, houfes, 
and ail that they have, in thofe forbidden pla- 

3> The greateft places being moft popnlous 


have moft need of Preachers, many fouls being 
more precious than ftw^ and the publick Tea- 
chers rhar have many thoufands, needing more 
help rhan they ^^'^^^ have but little charges. 

4. Few Minirters are rich enough to be able 
to Icl! their houfes and goods at lofsf whrn per- 
haps none will take them,) and to take houfes in 
other Countries. 

5-. A great part of the Land is feared fo neer 
Corporjtion^rhat it is hard to find a place that is 
above five miles off them 5 And fome Minifters 
have Preached about in fo many places, that it is 
hard to find a place within their reach, above 
five miles firom the peaces which they have 
preached in: And in fuch places, it is rare ro 
find empty houfes, and Landlords that will let 
them on terms which they are capable of: (b 
hard to them is this confinement. 

6. They think that men can no more dif;blige 
them from preaching to many in Ciiies and Cor- 
porations, than to four or five in Villcgesi feeing 
the Churches of old were planted molt inCitie?^ 
and Chrift faith not, [forfake all the fouls in Ci- 
ties if they bid you,] but [When/ou are per ft; cu-- 
cured in one City fly to another^] 

7. Though we live not to eat, we muft eat to 
Jive 5 and when Minifters that have nothing, are 
like to beg or famifh among Grangers in poor 
Villages, and bigger places do more call for help, 
and will allow them bread, they think it no fin 
to eat bread any more than to give bread to o- 
thers that are in want, 

8. The former Laws fend them when they are 
in beggery,to be kept by the Parifhes where they 
laft lived 5 and this Lavy forbids them to come 
within five miles of them. SECT 



Tlje A^jun&'s :trid other Matters agreed on 
ijukich alright the Nonconjormijis, 

I. A S there are fome fins far grearevnd more 
_±\, terrible to confcience rhnn othtrrsjfo ag- 
gravating Adjuncts oft make them fuch: And 
thefe here ft em very fr^hrful. We are nornovv 
charging any others with fin, nor proving the 
unlavvfulners of what we fear, bur exiKeifi.^g the 
Matter of Facft agreed oTi,which doth atfrighc us. 

I. Both fides agree, that ic is a great agg^rava- 
tion of fm to be done by a Minifrer of CJ^rifi, a 
perfon confecrart-d to holy work , to preach 
truth and holincfs, and ferve at the Altar : For 
our Docftrine will be the lefs regarded, and men 
will be tempted to follow our bad example, who 
are bound to be to them patterns of purity and 
obedience to God : And Chriftian and Proteftanc 
Rcfgion is moft injured by Min/fl-ersfms. 

II. It is agreed that our M m'fi^r la I fins .. which 
Tve do as if thev were part of our Office in the 
publick Aflemblies, have a f[)eciul aggravation 
differing from mens fecret p^rfjnd crimes. 

in. It is agreed that Lying and Perjury are 
Hn? of fo heinous a nature, as that they tend to 
overthrow humane truft and converfe, and all 
Societies, and deprive Princes of parr of the (e- 
curitv due to them for their lives and Crowns ; 
And that in a Preacher of the Gofpel they are 
intoilerable, rending to tempt the hearers to be- 
lieve nothing that we fay, 

IV. It 


IV. It is agreed that by aflertion to abfolve 
thoulands of per Ions known or unknown, and ju- 
liiHethcm, if thty fhould prove guilty of fuch 
a crime, and io to draw on our felvcs dic^guilr of 
many tbouland perjuries, would be a fin of as 
heinous a nature as molt we can imagine. 

V. It is agreed by Proreftants, that dll Oaths, 
Covenants and Laws,mul^ be undeiHood accord- 
ing to the plain ard ufiial fcr.fe of the wcrds,un- 
Jefs our Rulers oiherwife expound thenh, and tell 
us that they mean fbmewhatelle. 

VI. It is agreed that though Judges miift 
determine of the fence of Laws, fo far as to de- 
cide the cafes that are brought to them 5 ^et 
none can make an univerfal obligatory expofition 
of a Lavv, to bind the fubjtds confcience in un- 
derftanding it but the Sovereign snd Lawgivers 
themlelves: Elfe a Judge might become a Le- 
gifljtor and frultrate the Kings Laws by his 
cxpofitions. If Judgements be theexpofitorsand 
prefervers o{ Ccmmcn uhvrntten Laws which are 
CufiomSy it is becaufe it is the LaYV-m^k^Ys or 
Sovereigns will that it fball be fo. 

VII. It is agreed by all ProteOants that 
ftretchirg the words of Laws^Ociths and Promifes 
to meanings quite differing Irom the Common 
ufe of the words, without the direiHiicu cf the 
Law-makers 10 to do, and taking (ucb O^r/jf or 
Covenants with cqravocMioyis znidweKtai refer- 
vaticns on prcttT\i:c oi Chant aUe interpretation^ 
for our own ends and interefts, is more fuitablc 
to Atheifts tlian fjncere Chnftians, and would 
overthrow humane truli, and the end of Laws 
and Princes fafety, as well as other forts of 
pcrjtry. For inltance, if one take thefubfcribed 



Declarations that [ Its unlawful on any pretefjcd 
whAtfoevsr to taks Arms agaltfi the King and fo 
on] and will thus equivocate, as they fay fome 
do5Z//2:.pf It is mLi^fnl'] that is, againlt the Law 
of the Land t^m not ag^mfi Gods Lav, [^To take: 
uirms agatnl^ the King ] that Is, as King 5 but 
faith Suarez,, and fuch others, whrn he hcxcom- 
mmicate by the Pcpe he is no King-, ^On any 
pretence ] that is, fay they, [ // ;W/ pretence ] {^hy 
his authority agamj} his perfon, and Souldiers ] 
that is, fay the equivocaters, [ Its well [aid that 
we may not do it by his Am horny, but we may do it, 
by the Law of nature and fo by Gods Authority 
Vphofe Law that is-, [_againfl any d^mntifftoned by 
him'^ that is, fay they, la -j^ fully commiffiomd, and 
we ur(f judges when his Comm.ffions are uniaw^ful.i 
So[jVe will not endeav-ur any alteration of Govern- 
ment in Ch^trch or Statc~\ that is fay they, i. Not 
0^ Ajonarchy^ or the King, but we may yet di- 
fturb any of his Officers : 2. Not of the EiTen- 
tials of Eptfcopacy ; but we may feek to take 
down their wealth and Lordfliips, and reduce 
them from Dioccfans to Parochial or Corpora- 
tion Bifhops : 3. Not by unlawful means 5 but we 
take not that to be unlawful which they do; 
What good will Oaths or Covenants takep with 
fuch Latitude or Equivocation do f Do they 
(ecure any of the ends of Governments ? Rulers 
fhould abhor fuch Equivocations and ftretching. 
Latitudes as thefe. 

Vllf. It is agreed on both fides,that if we might 
go on this fuppofition, that our Rulers can re- 
quire nothing that is unju§: or tmpiom, or againfi 
the Law or Common good^ or their own mtereft, and 
therefore that no expojition is to be put on their 


'Laws or Impoftions which is ofanjfMch import a !:ce'^ 
by this ru^c a fi J oath or Covenant or proj^/ije in the 
World which Governours fhall impofe upon us, 
may be taken : For wc mull put digoodjcijs upon 
them all : And xht fchfc is iht Otrh cr Covenants 

IX. It is commonly agreed that a man may 
not deliberatelv te!l one lie to fave his life, or 
his Miniilerial liberty : And that ifany one only 
of all the things imfyofed on us be a fin, it is the 
dutv of a'l the Miniiters of EhnUnd rather 
to futfer any rhirg, or to dye than to Commit it. 
Ard that if it be ore mans duty to be filent iti 
fuch a cafr, it would be the duty cfall the Mini- 
fters in the Land, if the things be fin, 

X. And all are ag'eed that to filence all the 
Miniiters of the Nation, is a thing that Godharll 
not given any man authority to do,becaufe of the 
necrffiry of rheir Miniftry ; and confequently noc 
to filence any necelldry Miniftry at all. 

XI. It is agreed that Satan would fain corrupr 
States and Churches wirh the moit heinous fins, 
to expofe them to Gods judgements and the 
enemies fcorn : And that common Perjury or 
Perfidioufnefs is one of thoR greateft fins : And 
that as theBelief of the Truth is the beginning of 
Chriftianity, fo Satan is a Lyer and the father of 
Lies: And he that thinketh that Sat.n is endea-' 
vouring to fligmatize Perfonf^Churches or King- 
domes with his brand of PER (l^ould the more 
carefully avoid the receiving of that mark. 

XII. It is agreed that God hath within thefe 
fourteen years excercifed very grievous Chail-ite- 
ments on Cities and Corporations, by Inch a 
Plague ( on London and many Corporations ) and 
luch fires on London^ Sonthwark^ and many Cor- 

[2 241 

poration?) and fuch increafe of Poverty, (though 
Tve have more liberty at Sea and Land for trade, 
than almoft any Nation neer u.<i)as that the like 
hath not been knov\^n in our torrfachers dales: 
And that if this fhould be the Voice of Ghrirt, as 
a reproof of our perlidioufhefs, and j)erjuries, 
fAy\ug(exc?pt ye repent^ yejhdll alilikewif p^>''ft>y) 
it would leave the impenitent without all jalt 

XIll. It is agreed by us all, that God will not 
hold him guihlefs who takerh his ndme in v^ain 5 
efpecialiy by perjury or falfe Vows or Covenantsj 
And that for Oaths ( broken ) the Land may 
mourn : And that he is the grand enemv of 
Church or Kingdomes, who would by fuch fm 
bring them under the jadgmenrs of God : And, 
as ^c^a'ijhTing in an accurfed thing, 

XIV.None can deny that it is better to cherifh 
honeft^y and confcience, efpecialiy about Oaths and 
Covenants which fecure Convene and the lives 
of Princes, than to teach men to flretchConfcience 
in fuch matters ; and to make every featd Cf/«- 
feiencs capable of the holy A-Iimflrj, prelcrmenn, 
andhonpi'-, and dfear of fuch fin^ to be the way 
tofilence and ruine. 

XV. we agree rhir vv^hen Jefuites and othe? 
Papifts have contradtd the (hame of equivocation 
and perfidioufnefs, Proteltants fhould not partako 
with them, and take th" (hame on their religion^ 

XVI. It is agreed that when the S<;tf^j Cove^ 
nant is fo greatly decryed, and the violation 
of the Oaths of Allegiance and other Oaths and 

Covenants was found necelTiry to the killing 
of the King, and other late confufions and 
iniquities, we (hould not afcer fuch warning 


titlier infnaremen in iinneccirary Oaths & Cove- 
nants, nor harden fuch men againft Repentance, 
by doing any fuch thing our felves, much lefs by 
commanding it. 

XVII We are agreed that to commit a fin 
by paflTion or fudden furprizc, is not fo wicked 
as to do it on deliberation: Nor is the doing 
it only fo bad , as undertaking to juftifie it, 
and encourage others to do the like. 

XVIII. We are agreed that God is jealous 
about holv things, and that wilful corrupting his 
Church, worfliip ordifcipline, to the dilgrace of 
religion and encouragement of wickednefs is a 
heinous fin : Efpecially to Approve fuch things. 

XIX. We are agreed that to make a deliberate 
Covenant that I will fm againft God, and to 
fubfcribe and declare this, is a heinous aggrava- 
tion of the fin : e. r When the high places 
were kept up in 'judea if any had Covenanted to 
keep them up, and purpofed to tranfgrefs, the 
vvilfulnefs had been thegreatnefs and dangerous 
fignitication of fuch finning, 

XX. We are agreed that Repentance is Gods 
condition of forgivenefs ; and that for a man to 
refolve and Covenant to fm and to pyofejs it openly 
to all the Church, and that oft times, and fb to 
renounce Repentance^ is — alas — 

XXI. Moft fober Chriftians are agreed that 
Chriftians (hould be united upon the terms 
which Ghrift himfelf hath made in the bijptifmal 
Covenant, and in their obedience to his Laws ;' 
and that Papall Ufurpations and impofing of 
things unneceffary as neceflary to Union, Com-- 
munion or Miniftration, hath been the great 
caufb of Schifms through the Gbriftian worlds 

ct fat 

for about looo years at leaft: And that they 

\ ' . '' (tillcbcy lucU di\:drj^ lm{>ofrr5, do 
«. Si.hi(ir»s in ilic wuild by cncouruging 

ihf a uff? oftlum. 

XXlt.We-are on bjth lidt* a^rrrd, that it 
Wtre Ucinuus hypocrifie, and pn \ luncnds, if wc 
dhiiild nuke our facrcd Minilicrial work the 
iH'tfcwJed reafon for our fmr/ing, and fhciild 
nvt;.r, df dare or fubfcriVe tliar wh.th wc tAc 
fobc tllif, and do that wh.icli vse tjke to be lin, 
tliJi vvem.y have leave to preach uj^ainlt fm in 
oiIk r$ J aid (i) otTtrGud a Sacriticeof iniquitv, 
?ndpMt a beam inio our own eye tbar wc may 
bi:vc leave to Pr{.'a(,h agjinft the niurc th.«i is m 

XKlll- ^^£* are afraid of making 'epjratifts 
anM AraSa; lids snti tcmj^ting nun tu ^vuid us, 
as icanddlous ni( • . 

XXIV. We arc afraid left by hich ^Ailfiii fin, 
we riMjjLild by a carnal inrerelt, tc^ defend nhat 
>ve have oace done, be tempted to iniptnitcnce, 
and to pcrfecuT' ihc jiift. 

; XXV We are agreed that tlicy rl^ar nil! run 
into wilhul heinous fin, as ihey dder\etobe 
forlaken of Ccd, fo rliey cannot c.vpcd fiich a 
bkllin^ on chcir Miniltry,ufConfcionab!e upright 
men may do. 

XXVI. It is agreed that the ancient Chriftinn 
Paitors Preached np^'ir.ft the will of Princes for 
3oovears; and aUn- that againlt the ^'^ ill of 
Cbi iltron Princes {Cof.fi a fjt:i^<, y^^Ufis, Ihi'oaofi'.s 
Juriior^f^alcntimariy^C. ) Ahd not only Apollles 
fdid, t!'dt God was to be obeyed* rather than 
men, but (iich as Tirr.cthj who was ordained 
by man, were charged before God and the Lord 


Jefiis Chrlft Who will fudge the living and dead 
at his appearing and Kingdom, to preach the 
Gofpcl and be inftant, in fealbnj ^:c. 

XXVII. We a-e .agreed that the Children of 
Chriltians,^Yhen they p/ow up^ know no more of 
God, of Heaven, of Chrift, without tcac^jing^ 
than the Children of Heathens do : And there- 
fore that the opening and applying the Goljel is 
needful in EnzUnd as wel 1 as in Americn, 

XXVIII. k IS fo far from faving unbelievers or 
iingorlly perfons, thit they are the Children of 
Chrilii.in.c^ and in the vilible Church, that it ma- 
keth their cafe more miferahlej if not worfe 
than that of Sodom and Gcmorruh, 

XX[X. As of old every fingle Church had 
ufually many Presbyters and Deacons v^ i h the Bi- 
Aop,ro_it is undeniable that many of our Pariflies 
have vyork enough for many Mi-iillers, and only 
want of maintenance is pretended for our prc- 
fent paiicity (with the want of worthy men.) 

XXX. It is granted us, that to alienate conie- 
Crated perfons from the holy Miniftry cauflefly, 
is greater Sacriledge than to alienate confccrared 
Lands, Goods or TenipV5^,which are but means to 
the ufe of the faid Miniftry. We are not here 
accufing our filencers of this heinous S.icriledge : 
Their Righteoi:s Jud'je and ours, will quickly 
pafs the final ftrntence : But we dare notjwe will 
not iacrilegioufly filence and alienate our felvei«, 
left we foriake our Lord, and betray mens foLil<^, 
and be doom.ed as the (lothful (ervant that hid 
his talent, /^/.zf.2 5. and bring down more plagues 
upon the Land : We fear When we read i Thcfz, 
T)-,i6. t!ie fi;^ns that wrath was comero the ut- 
v^oW on the Jews ; even their forbidding men to 

Q^z preach' 


preach rheGofpel or(alvation,lef> we fhouM con- 
tribute to fuch a dreadful dcltrtion of this Land, 


The Cafe of the Almiflers [tnce they were fdenced^ 
and their Practice {with the People*.^ 

WE humbly crave of thofe narrow Seers, 
who venture to cenfiire the generality, 
for (omewhat which rhey diflike in fume perfons 
that arc neereft to tbemlelves, thtU they would 
truly iinderftand the cjfe and pracfl ce of theip 
BreihrtT, before they any further in Sermons 
and Writings provoke the Mj^;iltrate to execute 
the Laws ujon them, as Schi.maticks^Seditious, , 
or what accufation is readied at h.^nd. 

L That rh.e elder fort of the Nonconformifts 
are ordained by Bifliops, and molt of the rett by 
fuch Paftorsol Churches, of CirieSjCorporations 
and other Parifhes aflociare, as the times then 
allowed 3 and that in this Ordination Cbe the Ce- 
remonious part right or wron^i) they are all by 
Ct-nfent or Covenant devoted to the (acred Mi- 
niiirv, and that nor for a time, as hiielings, but 
for life: this is denied by none that we know of. 

IF. Ic is known to all Faithful Minifters 
and others, who converfe with the common 
fort of men, that a great part cf the people of 
E -glund are ignorant of the very EfTentiuls of 
Chrillianity, and a great parr dull and worldly. 
neglecTtersoiall feriousreligioui?ieQ5 ard a great 
part lcn:'r)al, drowned in filthy fleflily fins : Be- 
sides tLe ignorancCj, weakncfs,and unwarranti<ble 



opinions and pafTions of many that are more fe- 
rioufly religious ihan the relt. And that it is a 
hard vvork to cure one ignorant, erroneous, vi- 
tious foul : And each one is precious, and not to 
to be left in fin as deiperat^ i conlidering the 
everlai^ino; confequents. 

in. It is certain that moft great Pari fhes,erpe- 
cially in Cities and great Towns,have more fuuls 
which call for Mmijhr.tal hrlp^ than Conformilts 
and Nonconformifts, if they lovingly joyned, are 
able well to afford necefiary help to. 

IV. The Minifters that dwell in Cities or Cor- 
porations, when they were caft out, did quietly 
furrender Temj'les andTythes: But many of 
their people claimed the continuance of their 
Relation afid Miniftry ; and many profefled that 
they could not truft their fouls to the Paftoral 
guidance and care of many of thole who were 
placed in the Temples in their ftead ; and charg- 
ed the negle^"!: of their fouls on fuch as refufed. 

V The Bills of Mortality (hew us that the^y 
pjrifhes within the walls of London are not the 
feventh part of the wholf,including all the outer 
Parifhes : A^ of the 97 there were very few 
Churches left unburncd 5 and there are but few 
that are vet built up j and infteadof manv, there 
are fmall Tabernacles, and inltead of ortiers no- 
thing : And the outer Parifhes are moftly fb 
great, as that the Temples will hold but a fmall 
part of the peo[)le : Iris conjeifturtd by the In- 
habitants, that in Mjt''riris?dr\\h are about three- 
fcore thoufand fouls, and in Stepney and Gileses 
Cripplegate, each about fifty thoufand, and in 
Gileses in the Fields between 2000 o and 30000, 
$LQd in Clemints Dunss^ Margarets Wejtmtnfter^ 

0^3 jindrc\v^ 


'u^ndrevcs HolbcYn,Sif:dcljrcsy and the Churches 
\x\ SoM:h\v^irk^, diX. Auij^atc,WhitL-Chuppel^ Sjore- 
dixch, and clivers orhcrs, there are in fome fix 
times the number tl^nr can hear in the Temples, 
in foiue mare, 7ix\\ in otherp not muchlcls. And 
in molt Churches rhe Preachers voice v\ ill not 
exurnd to abowrtwo thoiifand, if more can come 
in. Sa.that rake one with another, and it is con- 
jectured that it is nor above the fcventh or 
eight part of the Inhabitants that can come to 
hear in the outer Pa i-ifhCvS : And if the other fix 
or feven parts (lioLiki feek for room -n the emp- 
tier Churches of other Parishes within the walls, 
it cinnot be fuppofed that above one part of 
thefe fi:{ or feven would find room : So that all 
fet together, there is fiippolcd to be place but 
for about the iifth,or fourth part at moft, of all 
the |.eo[)le within and without the ^Y.Uls : And 
London is to be denominated rather from three, 
fjLir or five parrs, than from Owe ofthele: And 
we all a?jee, that the famoufert and happiefi Ci- 
ty for Pvclic^f'On in the world flioiild not be left 
to turn Infidels, Pagans, Arheiirs, or to be kept 
from j|l pubilck Worfhip of Gi)d. And it mufl: 
be forifidtred thatthe great Pariihes where one 
of twenty cannot hear, are far off from the 
Churches that have room ; ^'ni that fuch perfons 
cannot eafily know before-hand what Churches 
have room, and where to feek it : And that 
thofe that have moft need, have leaft de- 
lire, and when they cannot be taught near home, 
w'li rather liay at home, or in the ftreets, or 
Ale hoiifes, than go far to feek room in the Al- 
leys of other Churches.- And it's known that by 
this means Papi Its {la VegQt opportunity of fedu- 
c '.) .cine- 


cing multitudes, and manv get them to b^pffze 
their children. And whereas it is u\d that'H'me 
mav go one day, and fome annrher ; it i« anfiver- 
ed, I. Jhat if rhey did go half the families by 
turns, ftill rhe greater parr vYoiiId be (hut out. 
2. It is all, that are bv)und by God conil.m^ly to 
hear and worfhiphim. 3. And rho(e that moll: 
value it will ltd! croud in, and keep out the reft, 
and will not bargain away their own duties and 
benefits for other men? (akes: Nor can ParflTjes 
come to agree upon fucb a bargjin. 

VI. E.vperience alfureth us that men are not 
ufuallv brou<j^hr to knowledge, repentance, fjith 
and h 'Hnefs, by theGofpel ex opcre cpc'rato,or as 
by a ch^rmj but as an apt morall caufe ; And thac 
the Preaching of judicious, convincinff,, feriou?, 
atFe(5lionare Ministers hath incomparably more 
fuccefs, than rhe atfe(fl:ed Ianguage,ordull reading 
^-•eeches of injudicious novices or wcrdlv f-r- 
malifts or hypocrires : God ufuaHy workerli 
according to the morall aptitude of the means 
(^ though not alwaies.y 

VII. It cannot be denyed but that the number 
of raw LoM, dry, yea and fcandalous Minifters, 
in many Counties of this Kingdom is too great : 
And rhe more ignorant and bad the people are, 
the abler Minilter?^ and more diligen»- do they 
need : And thofe people who feel what profirrtii 
their Souls, will not take upwithcold,uncffe(fl:uaI 
teaching, if they can have better. 

Vlil. He that hath no Pre^icher but a Reader 
in his parifh, is by the Church Laws .forbidden 
to refufe his Miniitrv, and all foch are forbidden 
frequent goino: toother pariflics, communicatfng 
in them : what want foevcr they have at home. 

0^4 IX. The 

IX. The Nonconformiftp that do but affirm any 
thing in thcLiturgv, Ceremonies, Articles, Go- 
vernment, 8zc, to be unlawful, and fuchas they 
may n^t fubfcribero, are by the Church Laws 
excommunicate ipjo faclo : And all that dare 
nor take the Sacrament kneeling, are to be 
denved the Communion of the Church ; And all 
that dare not fubmit their Children to be bap- 
tized by the foredefcribed undertaking of God- 
fathers, and to receive the Crofsas a dedicating 
badg of Chriltianity,muftnot have their Children 
Chriftened 5 And all that dare not commit their 
fculs to the Pajinral Guidance of .ignorant readers^ 
or other men whom they think by their 
unsk^lfulnefs , ur.fotindnefs . averfnefs to a holy Lfe, 
jlrahgen to intimate Qafrs ofconjcience^ox notorious 
negligence and jlothy or non-refidenccj to be unmeet 
for them to truft themfelves to,in fo great a 
matter, in which their fatVation is fo much con-, 
cerned, and fo dare not take the Sacrament from 
fuch as their Paftors, all thefe are forbidden 
C< mmunion with any other Parifh Churches by 
the Canon, and all Miniiters forbidden to receive 
them. And if they dare not 'fay that they are 
willing to be coj.firmcd ( in the Engl Jh mode ) they 
muftno where be admitted to communion : And 
being excommunicate, muft not be buryed 
according to the Church-Office when thry are 
dtad; fo that rhey are caft out of the Church, 
before thtv Congregate in other Aflembiies. 

X. In this cafe the Ncnconformilts are not 
agreed what to do : One part and the far greareft 
fay, I We will forbear affirming the unldwfulnefs 
of any of the forefaid impofitions, till we are 
called to fpeak out : And becaufe the cafe of 
■ thefe 

thefe times calls us often to ir, we will do it as 
privately andmodeftly as wccan: 2. And though 
we are excmmumcated !pfo fa^o, yet we are not 
hound OUT felves to execute* their fentencejbut m .y 
ftay in Communion till thcv prove the fad and 
do the execution on us thenifelves by refutinig 
us : And this we take to be the molt peaceable 
way: But others fay, That though in ibme Cafes 
for peace this way may be taken, yet ordinarily 
we are not bound to feek and exped Communion 
with that Church which hath alrcc'dy thus 
excommunicated us 5 efpeciuliy when all the 
Minirtry lubfcribe and declare their Conformity 
to the Church orders, and fwear Canonical 
obedience to the Ordinaries, and are themfelves 
to be fufpended if they give us the Communion: 
Wc muitnot, fay tbev,ftrive againft their Laws, 
nor leek that Minifters (houM be pet jured, faife 
to their promifesand profeffions to admit us to 
Communion againft their Laws: Nor can any 
Church that firft excommunicaterh us, call us 
Schifmaticks for not communicating with them, 
unltfs they prove that we give them juft caufe to 
excommunicate us. Here it is fuppofcd that the 
Reader underftandeth that [ to be exiGminHmcatcd 
ipfo fa^to^'] is ftne {intcntia^ without any need of a 
Judges fentence, to be ad;tdallj excommunicate 
upofi our fa ft donefii that the bare proof and 
notice of the f^tt is enough to warrant the 
execution ( Though a Judge may alfo pafa a 
fintence if he fee caufe, ) vid. Calv.. Lexic. 'furid. 
And others commonly. There are fome others 
that go further, and think it unlawful to have 
Communion with the Parifh Churches, becaufc 
they thus excommi^nicate us firft, without more 


Cm 4] 

caufe-, and becaiife rhey take the Pallors to be' 
IcanJjIous by the fvj.'cfaid Ouhs, Declarations 
and fubfcriptions, and thofe that have not the 
peoples confentjco be no true Paltors. 3ac thefe- 
are herein difo'vned by the mDil: ; ana very few^ 
Miniilers are of their mind that we know of,- 
though many ofthe people m ich incline to it 5- 
eipeciallythev that live where the Priefts arc ig- 
norant, fcandalou-, fl )rhru!, or milignarit 5 be- 
caufe Pd-^l faichj \jVith f'<cby no mt to eat. '2 But 
others tell thecn thit i. It is nor the Pirifh -Mi- 
nivers that mide the excommanicating Laws : 

2. And if they fin themfclves, it is ignorantly : 

3. And we have not a call and opportunity to 
hear and jadge them. 

XL Even thofe called Independents hold f if 
M\ P^'j. Nyes Minufcript to that end may tell us 
their mind-) that it is lavvfal to hear the publ'ck 
Parifh M^nilters, becaufe the Magiftrate mjy fee 
Teachers over the People, and require them to 
hear them: Though they hold rhac the People 
fnonld choofe their Paftors, and that the Sacra- 
iTienrs fhould be admin'.'tred and received freely, 
and n:)t by force. Yea fuch Anabaptilts as Mr. 
Tonib:^ f'as is vifible in his Book)hold thatCom- 
mnnion with the Parifh- Church is lawful, in the 
Word Prayer, and L.)rds Supper. 

X[I. vVe commjnly hjld that men unjuftiv ex- 
commmicated, are not thereby difobliged from 
publick worfiiipinjT of Gv)d, and living under Pa- 
ftoral overnghc and Charch- difcipline, nor are 
bound to endanger their own filvation by neg- 
IeCl:ii>gfuch duties, a-nd lofing fuch helps and pri- 
vilcdges; und therefore m'-ift be of fuch Churches 
as they can, if they cannot be of fuch as they 



vvoi]]d, or as are allowed by the >ylc»?jn'rate. 

XJIf. Ii is nor in the. power of our felves to 
cfc pe (iich excommunicdtion5 : For n^e are not 
able to change our o'.vn underlbndings, io fdv as 
tol^ild every thing before named, to be lawfoj : 
Some ^f us are abl-e to fay thl^t w^- have with a 
willinghefs to fee tl^ trnch, ftLi(i,yd the cafe of 
the old Conformity above forty y'^r?^ and the 
cafe ol the New -conformity no'v above feven- 
teen years, and read almoft all that hath been 
wri-ten for them, which '^^e thought might add 
to our iniormation^and prayed earne(tly that God 
would nrt futfer us to errc , and the longrer we 
ftudy it the more vve are confirmed : In this cafe 
we fuifer publick and private obloquy and re- 
proach, and not only thele fevrnreen years the 
lofs of all Minilterial Maintenance, but the dan- 
ger of 40 /. a Sermon, and irhrr'.fonment in com- 
mon G..ols, and the ruine of our eftates and 
healih : And in reafon its as eafie to think that 
they that hold their opinion on fuch terms, are 
Jike to be as imfartial in rheir ftudies as they 
wbofe wav leadeth to preferment, wealth apd 
honour J of which we were ca[)aole of a part: \Ve 
fay therefore again, that to Conforr?^^ or prevent 
the C^mons Excummtinic ition ipfo faclv^ is not in 
ofir power. And fhey thdt (av, God will not con- 
demn men for that whch thev were not able to 
avoid or help, fhould not do otberwifc them- 

XIV. When the ? 800 or 2000 Minifters were 
filcnced, the far greateft part of them forbore all 
publick Preaching, and ohiy taught fomc few in 
private at fuch hours as hindered not the pub- 
lick AlTemblies, and many of them lived as pri- 
vate iViCn,. XV To 

XV. To this day ir is fo with many of the 
Noncoaformifts : Thofc that live where they 
find fiiall need of their Preaching, or elfe have 
no call or opportunity, and cannot remove their 
dwellings, do hold no AflTcrmblies, but as other 
men content tiiemftJves to be Auditors. Tbofe 
that live where are godly and peaceable Mi'ii- 
fters in Publick, who yet ne^d help, do lead the 
people conftantiy to the Parifh-Ghurches, and 
teach them themfelve? at other hours, and help 
them from houfe to houfc : This is ordinary in 
the Counrries and even in London, with many 
Minilters that hold no AlTemhlies} yea many chat 
were ejeded out of City PariCh- Churches. 

XVI. Thole called Independents do keep up 
fiichCburches as they had gathered before; ^ hen 
none of our prefent oaths, declarations, fubfcrip- 
tbns or practices were impoled on themj which 
is not therefore to be taken as new, 

XVIf. As to the reft, it was the great and ter- 
rible Plag^ue in ,16^5. which made this change in 
their Affcmbling and M'niftration.When the pub» 
l^ck Mmifterstorfook the City, and the rich lefc 
the poor to mifery and death, and people lookt 
every day for their laft; when ihey that heard a 
Sermon one day, were buried the next j when 
death had awakened the people to Repentance, 
and a regard of their everlafting ftate, divers 
Nonconformable Minifters refolved to ftay with 
them ; Theybegg'd money out of theCountrie$ 
for the poor, and relieved them : They got into 
t^he empty Pulpits, and preached to them : And 
v/hen preachers and Hearers lookt every day for 
their laft, it is eafi;^ to conceive that there was 
ferloQs Preaching^ and Terious Hearing : By this 


many that died were helpt in their preparations 5 
and through God's great mercies, multitudes 
thar furvivcd, re|entedard became the feriuus 
feekers ofa berrer woild.lhemen thjt did this 
were moftly unmarried, and could eafiher ven- 
ture their own lives, than fuch as had families 5 
and Tome ofthemihat had families, ytrt irulted 
God, and molt did fcape. We know bur of one 
(pious Germane Minilter that died of the Hague 
in tie City (and one of another Difeafe, if noc 
through want) and tno tbat fled from it in the 
Countrv.) And when God had bleft thcfe mens 
faithful labours with the converf.on of many 
fouls I'erpecially A[;prentices andyourg peoj le,) 
the experienee fo engaged their mutual afied;i- 
ons, that theMinifters refolved that they would 
live and die in fuch lervice as God had fo blefled 
and preferved them in; and their hearers refol- 
ved thit they wou'd not forfake their Teachers : 
And thus the dreadful Plague began that which 
fo much now otfendetb men, as a dar.gerous 

XVIII.And when fome men cut of excefllve 
caution, were ready to thirk that when that 
Plague was ceafed ( having killed about an hun- 
dred thoufand ) the Minifters fl.ould lay by that 
publick work, and retire again into ftcret cor- 
ners, God confuted them. by his next drejdfu! 
judgement,burning down the City the next year, 
1666: So that there were neither Churches to* 
go to, nor Minifters m the PariOes to Pi each, 
nor rich men to maintain them : And could any 
foul that hated not Chrilf and mens falvation,. 
have wjfhed the Nonconformifts then to deferc 
the mife;able people, When they newly came 


from under the terrour of uicha dreadful Plague^ 
and when fuccefs and Gcds [jroredion had Co 
greatly encouraged rhem, and when preOncFy 
rhey were deprived of their worldly treafure, 
and had not hou(es,or goods, or mony,but thou- 
fands utterly ruined in the world, and crept into 
holes and lived in poverty, nhtn it was awcr.der 
that they dyed not by hundreds of famine^ ynd 
when fuch a fight as London in its ruines was 
before mens eyes, ( which he that faw fure c^n 
never forget,) If then men, becaufe that the 
Bifhops or Parliament forbad them, fnuuld have 
refufed to Preach the Gorf>e] of Chrii>, ard to 
teach men to Ly [iv^ a treafure in Heaven, and to 
comfort fuch a ruined City;, what excufe wtuM 
fuch unfaithful] (ervants-have had at the bar of 
their great Judge/ yy. '..':.. ■ •. • ; 

XIX. Thefe two grea^ as^d no-torloiis necefliries 
fucceeding in thofe tw<) .dreadful years 166 j 
1666. calling the Nonc'cmfbrmable Minifters out 
of their retirements, and latitantand f.lenr fiate, 
refol/ed them to ftrve God more diligently ar-d 
openly than ihty had done, Vvlintevrr it coft 
them: And many Country Minifters were awake- 
ned to the like by the examples of thofe in Lon- 
don : Thoug,h yet a great numbf^r who are in 
places of Ic'fs needier not 'called out as aforefaid, 
ftililie muchfilent. ■ 

CITIES ^nd CORIO RATIONS that fend Btir^ 


gefTes to Pdrliamehr, and a)l other places where 
ever thfv had Preached fince the ad of oblivion. 
So that^had they (.bfvrd che Lawc^ Lndon had 
been deferred in ihe Plague and in the ruinr?, 
and few people fuiiercd piibl'cklv to worfiiip 
God : Ac the mennon of which the heart uf the 
wrirer of this trembleihj efpecially to think 
how iniKh further the Billiops went in 'his then 
the Svnod of Ithacms and Idacuis went, from 
which Aiartm ferarared to the death by Gods 
niir. culous inftriidion. 

XXI. The Plague, Fire, Poverty, which have 
feized not oniy on London, hue on niany other 
Corporations of Ei gUn:d^m(.)Xt tha-n other places, 
and more than hath been knonn in our forefathers 
daies, make inany wilVi ih.it the Corporation- 
Oath and Declaration might be reviewed and 
that Gods Judgh;cnts as a TrLmpet founding 
REPEM O LNCLAND were heard by all the 
Corporations of the Land, before we hear that 
time is paft : And that it might be confclered 
whether either an Zrj/aufri /ff.'ftJtKg, or an 
ZJnlawfpil tiikjyjgy or the heigkhomhccd of an}'' 
Vtduvcftil partictdars, can warrant any man to 
declare that neither he hcr aiy othtr fe'fon, is 
ohliged by that f^ow, to Rej^em of his Jin ^ or to 
jopp'p frofhancneJsjPopery or Schifw^ OX zny thing 
contrary to fatind Dctl* ine ar.d Gidlir-efs. And to 
enquire in what Countrey or age of the world, 
Chriftian, Mahometan, or Heathen, there was 
ever fuch a I,aw before. It was that age of the 
Church inv-hich Htll luled moft on earth, even 
in the War.^ between Po[ e Gregory 7th. and 
the Emperour, when the Pope Iwore tliem on 
one fide, and the Emperoir on the other 5 and 



men fwore, and unfwore, and forfvrore, as the 
powers that thev were under bid them ; which 
made Abbas Vrjpsrginfi^fihron p. 3 \.idiy[Vt om- 
ni$ bomu jjim (it f:rJMrHS & p ddidis facmoribas 
i-mpiCttus^ ut vix exctijiri p'Jfit ejHin p: in his, 
fctipop hs ftc ^ Sacerd.s And that [)learant man 
(who knowc-th his own name) who merrily de- 
■rideth hisadverlaries, for ga'b<*ring a donht of 
our fundamentals from our differences, may more 
feelingly know one day that God ivill not hold him 
gHilthfs that tak^th his nams invain : And may 
confider that it was no more precife a man than 
Cotta in Cicero (d^ Nat, Deor, I. i.) that would 
prove men did not believe that there was a God^ 
becaufe they durit be per;ured -, inftancing in 
perjared and ungodly Carbo : It was not a fign 
of Schifmaricks^ but of very charitable mode- 
rate men, that coulj hear and re^/jrd fucha per- 
jured Miuiftry, -d^iVrfperger^Ji^ faith was then iri 
the Ro?j^un Church ^ efpecially in Gjrmanj, where 
the temptation lay. 

XXIL A little after the Plague and Fire, fome 
Nonconform jble Minifters about Lovdon^ met, 
to confider whether our a^ftu^ll forbearance to 
jovn n'irh the Parifh Churches in the Sacrament^ 
mig'u not tend to deceive men and make thetn 
believe that we were fur feparaifon from the:Ti^' 
and took their Communion to be unlawful : And 
upon the Reafons given in,they .je.reed that furli 
Communion was lawful and mee^-^when it would 
not do more harm than g lod : But bfcaufe at 
that time a llorm was coming on men, fom the 
A(ft againlt Conventicles, and rhei'" j .dginent was 
Si^ainlt ruining thofe that in this ivere not of 
their minds (oa the reafons aforefaid^ and being 


credibly informed that their communicating at 
fuch an unfeafonable time would not only per- 
fvvade men that force compelled them, butalfo 
draw rhem to ruine others that durft not imitate 
them, they refolvcd to delay for a fitter oppor- 
tunity, becauft God will have mercy and not fa- 
crificej and oiir Liberty is not alvvaies our Duty^ 
nor muft be ufed toother men- deltrudion.Thus 
violence crolTeth the Authors ends. 

XXIU. Shortly after^ when fuch thoui^hts re- 
turned, and many thought it meet to joyn in the 
publick AfTemblies, the Oxford Odiih. and kd of 
Confinement was put in execution, and drove 
them all away : For the reafbnsaforefaid had fa- 
tisfied them not todcferr the fouls in all Cities^ 
Corporations and places where they had 
Preached 5 and fo they were fain to hide them- 
felves to avoid fix months imirifonment in the 
common Gaols ( whither fome of us were 
fentj) fo that if they had come to the Parifh- 
Churches, to Common- prayer or Sacrament?, 
they had expofed themfelvcs to multitudes of 
witnefTes, and fo to certain imprifonment: Ex- 
cept in fome odd corners of the Country where 
they were ftrani^ers (about five miles from Cor- 
porations or acqudinrance) where their example 
would have wrought little on any in the Cities, 
or that had known them : So that the Oxford 
Aft moll: etfcdiually forbad them coming to 
Church, or holding Communion with any Parifh- 
Churches within five miles of any ^uch City, 
Corporation or Village where they had Preach- 
ed fince the Ad of Oblivion : This they could 
not avoid. 

XXIV, Yet many Minifters were afraid of in- 
R troda^ 


troducing unwarrantable reparations, by avoiding 
the It verities of the Law and Bifhopsjand many 
that did retire to Country-Villages five miles 
diitanr, as confined, did there conftantly ;oyn 
with the Paiilli Churches in Liturgy and Sacra- 
ment : Eur this being far from Cities^ and not in 
the fis^ht of the people that were moft difafFedl:- 
ed to the Prelates and Liturgy, did little with 
tbem ; and fo they were difabled by the Biihops 
or Rulers to do what they defired againft other 
mens extreams. 

XXV. Before this, manv Minifters had offered 
thankfully to accept the Liberty of Preaching in 
the Parifh- Churches where the Liturgy is u(ed, 
and being prelent at it : And fome to this day 
that live in the Country , where they can get 16 
much favour, preach in the Parifh-Churches, and 
;oyn in the Liturgy, and draw others to it, and 
go from place to place thus to avoid being taken. 

XX\ L Many,reeing how we were thus driven 
nor only from Preachings but fuch Parjjh-Com- 
wHnionj were tempted to hard thoughts of fuch 
ajairs^ as if it came from thePapiits^ who would 
have equalled, and mafs'd us up with thcmfelves, 

XXVII. Shortly after this, the Kings Clemen- 
cy favv caufe to make an alteration and to give 
us his gracious indulgence by his Licenfes for 
places and perfons : Upon this, Miniiters boldly 
fer up Chappels under the Parifh Churches ; and 
in all the time of this their Liberty, when there 
were wirnefles enough, if they had offended, we 
remember not that any were everconvid of any 
word of feditious or unfound doctrine, or any un- 
peaceable atremprs. But while they had this 
Feave to Preach themfclves^they thought be(^ to 


take i'rar?h&'^ fame c^iiVeSent'i{6i]ri'%Lt' th^ 
Par ifh 'Churches meet'^tr'Ot'her'tirae^ being fo 
inconvenient, as that'fimities canncft ofiferve 
them without hurt. Ap'd t'H'ey could not Preach, 
and hear in the PariJlo-ChuVc'hcs d^t Otxq^, 

XXVIII. All this while, though they had the 
Kings authority for their AfTembjies, ' feme 
Clergy menceafed not to accufe thcmorSchifii-j; 
fhewing that it is the' want of fumething clfe 
rather than the Kings authority'on which they 
ground their accufation. ,'_'';/t' 

XXrX. Some Nonconformifls" hive thefe 17 
years forborn to baptize or adminifter the Lords 
Supper, or to be Paftors of any Churches, but 
only Preached occafionaliy where the Parifhes 
were fo great, that one of ten or twenty had no 
Iroom in the Church 5 and where fome of many 
years had heard no publick worfhip of God : 
And they have publifhed to the people that they 
^flembled them not to feparate from the Parifii 
Churches or their worfhip, but for their mcer 
neceltity, perfwading none to come ro hear them, 
but fuch as cannot come into the Parifh Chu-rchcs 
to hear : Yet are they accufed for drawing men 
from the Church. 

XXX. Thefe Minifters in thefe pfaces have 
been profecuted more feverely than therePr, by 
imprifonments, fines and guards againfi: their 
Kieetings 5 which induced others to Preach in 
the City w^here there feemed lefs need, bccaufc 
they found quierneisno where elfe, and becaufe 
fome out of the remoter needy Parifiies might 
come thither to them. 

XXXI. Though they^have loft a!l Miniflerial 
maintenance, and are lyable to pay 20/. the firft 
Serm.on/and 40 /.the reit,and 20 /. for the ground 

R 2 fo 


for all that they Preach, bcfdes (ix nionths 
imprifonment in the corpmon g()als,and, {poverty 
difablcth Cir^ and Counrrey to maintain themj 
and (oinc with Wives and Children have long 
lived on little befides brown Rye Bread and 
Water; and others, that car. live of their own, 
expend all in the charges of the places and 
adjunds where they Preach for nothing; and 
Tonne never took any pay, from the firft thefe 17 
years, but patiently ferve God and waft their 
ftren^rh under mens obloquy and reproach ; yet 
are there not wanting pcrfons of the Clergy, 
who reprefent their greateft and deareft fervices 
^s their g^reateft fins, andaccufe them as enemies 
of theC'iurches peace,and the leaders of Schifm, 
and in pulpit arid print provoke aiithoriry to 
execute the Laws more feverely on themj 
Though the execution hath coft fome excellent 
men their lives already, and they may know 
that no execution (hort of de.uh or utter difable- 
ment will make the moft confcionable forfake 
their duty^ and facrilegioufly defert the Office 
to which rhey were dedicated and ordained: 
('Asthel.ite cafe of the H-mgarian M^niders 
dc-cKircth \) And fuch courfes never ended in 
the honour of thofe of the Clergy that procured 
them : Yea fome as going to the bar of Cody have 
undertaken to prove, that it is thro/^gh pride and 
covet o'yijntfs that we c nform not. And becaufe 
f()me Churches called Independent withdraw not 
their maintenance from their. Paftors, and fome 
few others have maintenance of their own, or 
friends that will not fee them want, they would 
makeftrangers believe that the common fort of 
Nonconformifts, whofe families live in fuffe rings 


ani wmts, are s^ainers'' by' their Njnconfornvty • 
Tttough ebb m Selves th.U have the mo»t and 
richelf on their fide, woald be loth to take up 
with fach miintenance,and often Preach, ho\v fad 
a cafe the Church would be in, if Minilters were 
lefc to the peoples charity : While they live in 
fulnefs thus thev envy their poor brethren, who 
thiC they miv ftnifli their courfe, would be ^Ld 
of leave to labour for nothing, and live on alms, 
taking^ Gods favour for their reward. 

XKXll. And to compleat all, fome blufh not to 
accufe them, as the bringers in ofPoperv,by de- 
firing Liberty ; as if Preaching the Gof^el did 
not do more to keep out Po[>ery, than the igno- 
rance of untaught people*: As ifourearneft re- 
quests eighteen years ago, that we might nor be 
mafs'd up with the Papiits, nor a door opened to 
them b'y our divifions and fafferings, were all 
forgotten : As if the Nonconformivts were neerer 
Popery than th^^y that tvould have the Pope to 
be Vrlncipmm Vnitans to the' Univerfal Church: 
As if their Printed Morning Lectures againft Po- 
perv, and many orher Writings, did not fuffici- 
ently fhew their diliance from it : As if the Pa- 
p (l^- defired the Liberty^ rather than xhc fiteKcnig 
of the N jnconformifts j or defired any thing 
more than tiiat io many hiindred adverfaries to 
Popery, and all the Proteftants of England who 
adhere to »-hem, might be caft our^ and brought 
as lo^vv as themfrlves, and pu^ into the fame con-- 
d'tion, that they might ftand or fall together. 
NiV, what ifi on fuch neceffuy they fhould ac- 
cept of favour from any Papifts that would 
favethem? If one Party would bring mrn to 
fuch a pafs that they mult be hanged, imprifbned, 

R 3 ruined, 

ruined,- ' or werfp, -n^rvlcf&.-the ftvour of the P^-i^^, 
pifts deliver fhfin ; and tl\c. other Party had ra- ' 
ther be T^;ved by P^pilb^th^n be hanged or ruin- 
ed by gr-ot^rtajits, which of thefe were more to 
be ihf\)cdiGd,0f Popery, ? efpecially if the fame 
men thu>t gjve.Us the:Algrm th^t Popery is com- 
ing in, uridertook th^ ftl^ teaching of thofe by 
whom ihely rur[)e(S: iC5jenti;anc&, and yet would 
not ^batc a rieedlpf^ Q4th^ or, covenant or cere- 
mony to kcep-itoufj.or ftrengthen the'Prote- 
ftants by the Union;, for which we have. ,^: JQ(ig 
patiently. beg^'d and -waitect: t h. jt;-jH7 -iir . 
XXXill: Ihc moll of our acquaintance take ic 
for their duty to do.theirbcft to keep up the re- 
putation of the public^. Conformable -Mifliftrya. 
that it- may further Love and Concord, and the 
fuccefs of their labours with the p)eopk j and 
they profefs to take their owfi Al&n^Wies.butas 
Chiipels,.and not as difttnti, much Icl^ a§;_fepara* 
ted Churches : And thofe of them who dp.^d- 
minifter the Sacraments, and do that which ^s; 
jike the Separatifts way, yet do it not on their 
principles, hut fro tcmpm^s, till God fhall give 
them opportunity to ferve him in theeftabliflled- 
way f if ever it may be hoped for :) it being re- 
formed or well ordered Parifh-Churcb^s undex^ 
the Government and countenance of theChiiftian 
Magiftrates, which are molt agreeabl.e-.to their 
defires. - ■-i^^ (- 

XXXIV- When v/e go into the Parifh-C-tiurches, 
we find thofe that have able godly Minifters- ufu- 
ally to. be as full as will confilt witi the peoples^ 
hearing the voice ("which in many places will not 
reach to a great part of the Congregation:^ we 
find fuch Preachers, whether Conformable, or 


Nonconformable, every where almoft crouded 
after, which fhews that it is not meer fadtion 
that moveth the hearers ; and that worthy men 
have no caufe of a if courage ment : And if none of 
either fide be valued much above their worth 
(for the bare Office fake) we cannot help it; nur 
would it be helped if there were no Nonconfor- 
mifts : Some of us well remembring the tmie 
(i6si. till 1640.) when we were troubled or 
threacned alfo for going out of our own Parifhes 
to hear worthy, able men that were very con- 

XXXV. It is very ordinary with Gentlemen 
and others that are zeaMus for the prefenc 
Church- State in London, to go from their own 
Parifhes, though the Canon be a^ainft it -.fo that 
it is not, fure, the breach of the Canon that they 
ftick at. 

XXXVI. We (ball never dififwade men from 
making the ftridteft Laws to punifh any Non- 
conformift that fhall be proved guilty ot Sedi- 
tion^ Diiloyal ty^Drunkennef^jFornication^S wear- 
ing, and any other immorality } but we know of 
none of them that was filenced, ejecflf^d, or pu- 
rifhed on any fuch account : Nay, if thev Preach 
againft their Church Government, Liturgv, or 
Ceremonies, we muft rxpedt that they fhould be 
reftrained. Our earnelt defire is, that the Ma- 
giftrate would keep up Peace and Order in tlie 
Church, that Popifh Clergy men may not think 
that it belongethto them alone to do it. 

XXXVII. Whereas there is a fort of ignorant 
or ill meaning men, that ft ill fay [_vve kjiow not 
what the Nonconformifis would have, and why mil 
they not tell hs what would fatisfie them, '} While 

R 4 wc 


we offer to beg on our knees for leave to do it ; 
I we humbly intreatthemto weary mfn awake no 
more with that canting, i. As long as the Kings 
Declaration about Ecclefiaftical affairs is vifible. 
2. And as long as our Reply and our Reformed 
additions to the Litt^rgy, and ouv Petition for Peace 
which refpeded the'old Conformity remain un- 
anfvvercd by thofe to whom in 1660 we did 
prefent them : 3. And till we are once called or 
allowed tofpeal^ for qhy felves againft the nevQ 
conform':iy\ a favour which the juftice of old 
Romane Pleathens, yea and fplenetick Jews did 
grant to all that were accufed before they puni- 
(hed them, bur fince Popery prevailed in the 
world, is become a thing among them not to be 
rxpedled. 4. And as long as men know that 
Bilbop F* ///^'^;j and Dr. Burton appointed by the 
Lord Keeper Bridgman to treat with fome of 
us of the terms of Vnion, (laying it was His 
Majcdies Pleafure^j did come to a full agreement 
wMth us in t er minis ^ which was drawn up* 
into the form of an Ad bv no worfe a man 
than that PILLAR OF JUSTICE the excellent 
Judge Hde^ and the Parliament prefently Voted, 
that no fuch Adt fliouM be brought in and offered. 
Dear Brerhren, God is the father of Lights and 
wirh him is nodarknefs: Men may be mocked, 
but God is not mocked: If the day that will 
bring works of darknefs to light, and finally clear 
iViC Innocent^ be not the objed of certain faith 
iind hope, ler our caufe be bad, and let us~as fools 
be judged fuch as have forfaken our beft hopes : 
But thatitisotherwife we believe, and therefore 
ap[)ed] to a righteous God from an unrighteous 


XXXVni. What harm our Preaching the dofl--^ 
rine of falvation can do to the Bifhops or [^eopie 
of I he Land ( while they may punifh us for any 
wrrd that we r[>eak amifs :) And whv we fhould 
not rather fpeak operji}(wheTt men mav bear wit- 
nefs of our errours, ) than in fecret ( where men 
are tempted to too much boldnefs:) And wmc 
but a rpirit of envy, or a carnal intereft crofs to 
the inrereft of Chrlft and mens falvation, fhould 
grudge at fuch Preaching, while we are refponfi- 
ble for all that we fay or do ami(s,we cannot tell. 

XXXIX. Nor can we tell, \f our not /wear ir.g, 
or not entering mo the Bijhops National Covenant^ . 
be as great a crime as our penalties import,why 
no other muld or penalty will ferve turn to ex- 
phte ffich crimes^ but our ceafing to preach the 
Gofpel of Salvation, while we are willing to do 
it under the ftrideft Laws of Peace and Order. 

XL. It is vlfible that the Parifh-Churches of 
thofc M'nifters (ceteris paribus) are fulleft of Au- 
ditors, who are moft willing that the Noncon- 
formifts help them in due time and place, and 
defire to live with them in Love and Concord : 
For all that have the fpirit of holy love and peace, 
do love thofe that have the fame fpirit : And fuch 
ferious^holy Gonformifts as Bolton, Whatelj, Fen- 
»er^ Frefton, Sthh, Stoughtonj GoHge, and (uch o- 
ther, were formerly as much crouded after as 
Nonconformifts : But it is thofe that Preacli a- 
gainft holy Love and Concord^ and wrangle with 
the moft Religious fort whom they fhould encou- 
rage, whofe Congregations are thineft ( ufually ) 
through the tepidity of their followers, and the 
^iitafte of others. 

XLI. When we read in the Council of Caked, 
. < ' the 

the Egjpt'un Bifliops crying fo long mlferemjui'^ 
mifcrminiy lying proftrace on the earth, .^ven 
when they couM fay, Non difftniimHs\ and begj-- 
ing of their ftllovv; Bifh>ps for their lives and?: 
confciences, twid their Brethren crying^ againto 
all [^^ivay wrth them, T.jey are Hcretick^;~\ while'" 
they profefTed the fame Faith j while the nnen:; 
that with fuch out-crys were eondeqining rhofc, 
of their own cgnfcfll jn, had newly cryed, O'^ncs 
-peccavimus, for-: condemning FUyia/mSy and the 
Truth, and faying, t\\d^i they did it for fear ^ and 
owned that Eutychianifm, which yet thefe- £- 
gjptian Bifhops now difowned, it mindeth us. 
tnat even Bifhops had nej^rd to be remembred,:* 
that while the wheel is turning the upper fde 
fhould not tempt, me^i to forget what fide will 
be uppermoft (hortly and for ^ver. 

'^.r. - r; •■;;.. n i!-:-:-/' !.■■■' trrji ^.:]'\\\ -■ "if .>;/; 
' -Additions', tftore particularly, of , .i 

•>dq ^hn^ "^iiili '^uh ' siiifliT- 

§ 1 .^T^Here are fome^ worthy perfons who 
J plead more fpecidlly for NMiondi 
Churches as ofDivine Inftitution, whofe Dodrineij 
calls us to a- fpecial conhderation of it. B«^; '• 
though fome of us have oft defired it, we have- 
not hitherto obtained any fatisfadion what they 
mean by A National Churchy or any true defini- 
tion which they agree in : Some of them deride ^ 
' us for doubting and asking thequeftion,and fome 
anfwer it to theincreafe of our doubt. 

§ 2. It muit be prefuppofed that we fpeak not 
ofa meer Gommuaity that hath no Paftors, but 
ftridly ofa Society called by fome Political, by 


Others Orga)0lz.ed, conftituted of P^ftors and- 
Pec^le. muruaUv related 5 vvhich is the ordinary 
fenfe of the word iC6;/rc^.j And we muft prc- 
mife what being commonly agreed on, is none 
of our doubt or queftion. 

§3. The queftion is not whether any, or all 
Naciojis and Kingdoms fhould be Ch'riftians, and 
fo be the, Kingdoms of Chrift : That's paft doubt. 
2. Nor is it w;hether in fuch Kingdoms the King 
be theftead, as to the power of thefwordj that 
is, a Ch^-iftiari Civil Governour of a Chriftiao 
P.eopJe tbat are his Subjeds. We daily pray 
that the Kingdoms of the world may all be Chri- 
ftian ; and we believe that their Kings are the 
Governours by the fword^ofall th^ Clergy, as 
vve[l,as others. 3. Nor is the queftion whether 
Kings may call all their Kingdoms into a holy 
Covenant with God (by lawful , means^) giving 
them an example firft themfelves. 4. Nor do 
we. contend about an Equivocal Name, whether 
^pinfiiari Kingdom^ as fuch, may be called a 
NatiGnnl Chnrch^ ^, No nor whether d^Chri- 
flUn Nation^ governed by a Heathen or Maho- 
metan King, may be called a Chriftian Church or 
Kingdom, or a Proteftant Nation ruled by a 
PapiftKiftg, is to-be called a Proteftant Kingdom 
or Ghurch:for thisis but about bare names, 6.Nor 
do we queftion whether a Chriftian King may 
make fuch accidental difparity between the Pa- 
ftors, as we have before defcribed. 7. Nor yet 
whether the Paftors of one Kingdom may aflb- 
ciace and hold Synods for Unity and Counfel,and 
be named a Nationd Church, as they are fuch 
AflTociations, obliged to Concord. 

§4. But our doubts are thefe 5 i. Whether 




be in it f^'rfpecially inllituted by God,thit every - . 
K'ngijn ofNition of Ghriftian^ QiiH hivclOnc^ 
fuTim^im Vot:ft^tem ejfjntialiter Ecclzl^it c.i^^ or ^ 
one Priefl'Haai, (Arlierher di fingh pi^f>-i^ or an' 
uirifioc-'A:y, ov d. C > '^ny^ Syndi) as a en Vicutive ' 
part of the Nitiona! G4 irch. z. vViech^r this.. 
Irlc,^-H:ad ('^vhcthQTH'.^h Pricil, or Council,; 
Itand in fubordination to rh'- King, as part of the ' 
fame formil Church, as a General, or a Viceroy, ; 
th t maketh not a dliVmft Kingdom, (thoa^^h he. 
m^y mikfr a diilinT; fu'^ordaite Society as an' 
Army, City. 5c: ) or is he Hlrad of a ciirdinKe 
difv^rent fp^-cies, fo as that the fame K'n^ Jam ^ 
/hill he e'vvo Policies fomulv, z//^ a GhrKtian: 
Kingdom or Rival Church, and a Prieftly' 
Church 5 each being fapream in their proper' 
fpecies, an I b )rh inide coordinate bv G'lrift ; 
and fo they are fjrmillv two Ch'irchesNirionil. 
ASoat the Jews the CDitroverfie is mtie by 
DifTenrers (^\ i^. G tUfji?, Cdem^jy Seld^n, 3c: ) 
exceedingp difli.'ult. ^, 'vy.h?ther the vt^ry p^wifh 
Charch-Pjlicy be eftablifhed by Chriit for the 
Chriltian .hurch,or be repealed' 4 Whether the 
laid Ecclefiaftical Head milt be 0;.'as the H^h 
Prien:,or an Afiftocracy of miny, or a Synol of 
the whi^^Gle^^gy? or whether it be left iniife- 
rent wh'^ch ? $. O^ whether God hath oHained 
fuch a National Church-form, only bv the ge- 
nerarGo.?tiiiind ofdoin^ all th'n^s in O-derand 
llnityand to Edification? 6 Wiich'is rhe Prieftly- 
Head, or Irgh-ft Govern inr of the Church of 
£/;^/i/;^,- which is a conltitative pirr, as a King 
in a Kingdom ? 7. Wio 's it that choofeth or 
authorizeth theNitioul Prieltly H^id, thit we 
may know when we have a lawful Chief Pador, 
' - ■ and 

and when an Ufuroer ? 8. Whether the King or 
he, is ro be obeyed in Circuitiftances, or matters 
Ecclefialtical, if they ditFer, and make contrary 
Laws ? Without the ^jfution of thefc qucltions, 
the riHwe of a N.itionJ Chwch will not be under- 
iVood, nor ofany pradical import^^nce. Our own 
thoughts ofrhem are as fjllowctli. 

§ "^. It u certain, that the Mo{aicd Law 
made* for the Jews j.eculiar rej)ubl;c|-, as fuch^is 
abrogate ; not onlv the Ceremonial purr, but all : 
All that w^c roc then ma-le for all the world, is 
ceafed 5 1. Bcc^u^e the Common-wealth is ceafed 
for which it was maje: 2. The Holy Ghoftex- 
preflv and frequently determineth it fo 5 tven of 
tj?acLjw ti'at was v. r:rten in ftone, as fuch, 
! 2 0^.3.7,8,9, II. i/ff^.7.12.19. GJ, ^ai,&c. 
3. 24. The natutal part, add that which was in- 
I Itituted poHtively long before for perpetuiiy, 
I were both of them God's Laws before /J/./^j's 
' time, and as fuch, obliged other Nation?, and fj 
do ftill : The matter written in fto^:e (^except 
fome few mutable particulars, as the feventh 
ddv Sabbath, ^-c.) is fuch as we are ftill obrged 
to, I. By Nature, 2.CyChrift : B -^ not ds ic 
was p'-irt of the fcivi p culLtr M'Juat Law, 
Much lels doch it. bind all the world to its Po- 

§ 6 If the Je-vifh Law, either as fuc'i, or as 
ftabhfhed by Chriit fjr his K ngdom, did bind 
all the world to thi«; day, then ic would bind 
them to their Civil Policy, as much at leaft as 
to their Ecclefialtical. But few Chriltians think 
that it binds them to their Civil Policy. For if 
it did, then, i. All Nations that bave varied from 
it to this day, have finned : 2, No diverfity of 



Governments could be lawful : 3. Then it Would 
perplex men, to be fure, whether it be the old 
Mofaical form by Judges, or the hter Regat . 
form that bindeth ; 4. Then fuch a Civil Council 
or Sanhedrim as was appointed the Jews, would 
be a Divine Eftablifhment and not variable ar the 
will of Kings or People. Many other things would 
follow, which Kings would not Cdfily believe. 

§ 7. There may be miich more faid for the con- 
tinuance of the Jews civil Policy than for their 
Ecclefiaftical : For there is much more forbidden 
of the latter, than of the former 5 Though all 
nations be not bound to their civil policie, they 
may fet it up if they pleafe 5 They are not pro-^ 
hibited : For Chrift hath not made new Laws 
for civil Itates as fiich 5 But he hath made new 
Church Laws,2ind thereby altered, yea prohibited 
much of the old. 

§ 8. We know no more reafon why the Jeveidi, 
form (fiould bind us, than that which was before 
the Jews : and particularily Mclchez.ed,kjy who^ 
was a King andPricft: God owned both and 
commandeth us neither, atleaft as in conformity^ 
to them. 

§9. The Holy Ghoft faith exprefly Hehl 
7. ir. 12. Jhat perfedion was not by the Leviti-. 
cal Priefthood,and that the Priefihood being chan- 
ged, there is made of nccejfitj a change of the Law ^ 
which is called ^ the Law of a carnal Camm and- 
mem, verfe 16. and that there is a difanulling of the 
Commandement going before for the weaknefs and 
finprofit ablet efs oj it-^for the Law made nothing-per- 
/>/?,'3/.i8,i9.theGovenant or Law being notfaulr- 
lefs a new one doth fucceed it v^ 7.8.9, 16. The 
firft Tabernacle is not ftanding. which had their 


ordinances of divineTervice and a worldly fan- 
duary \Heb,^ 1.8. 11. He takethawav thefirft 
Law and Prielthood, that he may eltablifh the 
fecond, heh. 10.8,9 11. r6. 1% 8fc. 

§ 10. Whilelt it IS agretdor.,thjt theeflenrials 
of the work or office of the Jew ifh Priefts is 
ceafed, (as //c^^. 7.and 8, 9, and 10 (l^ew,)and 
thnr 1 111? by b!rrh_,and the apj-roj^r'ation to one 
Tribf^A^- '^ fulloweth that the Jemfr. Friefthood 
is cealed .But ^et we confrf^ rhar Chriltjifhehad 
pleaiVdjW.'^^r have [tt ltd a High Piieil-and Coun- 
cil like theirs in every nation for his own work. 
But if the old form bind us not, we are left only 
to enquire what new one is (etled by Chrift^and 
whether he have done fo or not. 

§ If .We juftly maintain againft the Anabaptifts, 
that Infants relation to the Covenant, and the 
univerfal Church ( as members ) was nor repea- 
led bv Chfift, becaufe it was not founded only 
on the Law of Mujes : which if it had, it were 
as flit h repealed 

§ 12. The Holv Gholl: bythe Apofties ^cis 
15. hath declared to all the Churches of the 
Gentiles that they are not bound to keep the 
Law of Alofes^ and hath abfolved us from all, 
faving things antecedently, and on other reafons 
necefl'ary. verje, 28. 

§13 If the Jews form of Government be 
ours, then the HIgh-Prieft muft have the power 
of the Sword, or fit in judgment for life or deaths 
2s Defit. ij. 12, 13. and other places fhew : But 
many Papilis and Proteftants are agreed fhat the 
clergy have no power of the Sword, or force, 
unlefs the King make them alfb Magiltrates. 
§ 14. It Is a matter of fo great im] oitance to 



the Church to know whom we muft obey, that 
it is not to be thoughc tbar any way is made 
nfceflary by Chrift, which he hath not made in- 
tclligfble and certain to be indeed his will : 
Efpecially v\hen the Apoftles ftrove who fhould 
be the chief, and two of them made it their re- 
queft 5 and when the Corinthians and others were 
ready to fet up one before another, and fay I am 
o(C pha^,d<Q, 

§ 15. Yea Chrift en this occafion exprefly 
fcrb.d them xu feek to be one above another, 
and told them that though Kings exercife autho- 
rity, and have magnifying Titles, with them it 
ibould notbefo, but their preeminence fhould 
confift.as that of a fervantjn humility and fervice 
unto other's Lhk: 22. \'\hich will not ftand ('as 
we fuppofe ) with eftablifl*ing the Jewifh order, 
§ 16. And Tauls reproof of their making a 
Church head of Cephas^ J'afil, or ^ polio, or taking 
them to be other than helps of thtir faith, { and 
not Lords of it ) and Minifters by wh(»m ihey 
believed, even then when Schifms made it 
necefTary to have known to whom they muft 
appeal and adhere if that had been the way,doth 
furrher confirm what w^e fay. 

§ 17. The argument that fome worthy perfons 
brin^, from the Prophefies that Nations (hould 
be converted unto Chriftj and that the Kingdom 
fliould be taken from the Jews, and given to a 
Nation that would bring forth the fruits of it 
Matth. 21. 43. and that the Kingdomes of the 
world are made the Kingdoms of Chrift, and 
that-£^- .pt and AJfyria fhould be converted and 
equalled with the Jews, &c. do ineeed fliew that 
there fhould be Chriftian Kings and Kingdoms; 



which the Apoftles were fcnt ro endeavour, ILit* 
28.19. ^0 convert Nations : But here is nothing* 
that we can perceive, to prove that thefc Chri- 
ftian Nations muft have the Jewifh Church Po- 

§ 18. Nay contrary, the Church is faid to be 
built on the foundation of the Prophets and A- 
poftles,£/?^.2.2o. and not of the Mofutc^l Policy 
of Priefthood, ^<?x/.2i.i4. It hath twelve founda- 

§ 19. Ic is faid, Zech, 2. ir. Many Nations 
fhall be joyned to the Lord, and fhall be my 
people. So Zech, 8. 22. /fa,6)» i. Kom. 10. 20. 
/y^. 2.2. &-55'. 5. Hofi.xi. /p.60,3. &49. 22. 
But not a word in all thi5,of the old form of Po- 
Jicy or Priefthood , but Contranly , that the 
Law Jloonld come out of ZioUj and a new Covsnant 
JJootdd be made : And it is certain that fo large 
a hiftory as we have of Chrift's performances, is 
a far clearer light than obfcurc Prophecies 5 and 
darker texts molt be explained by the plainer^ 
and not contrarily. 

§20. We fee not how the Synod y^cl-. 15. 
maketh any thiflg^or a National High Prieit or 
Sanedrim, or any like Policy : For 1. It appear- 
Cth to be no ad of proper National Government^ 
but did bind other Churches as well as thofe 
within the Empire. 2. It was an arbitration at 
the requcft of doubting perfons ; and it was not 
the Relation of the Arbitrators to one feat of 
National Power ('as the Metropolis) that was 
refpedted , but the quality of the perjons fent to^ 
who would have been equally obeyed had they 
dvvelc in the leaft Village of another Land. 
J. There were the Apoftles that had the promife 
S of 


of the Holy- G holt: 2, There were many whom 
the people muft needs more confide in than in 
one } efpecially whofe power was queftioned by 
gainfayers. 3. Both Apoftles,Elders and Brethren 
there were (bch as had feen, or were neer to 
Chnliand his works, and therefore likelieft to 
l<no V his mind. 4. They were Jews themfelves, 
and therefore moft impartial Judges in-the point 
that Jewifh Teachers troubled them about, fo far 
as that they might well acquiefce when Jews 
themfelves refolved them. And when the Ap^ftles 
wtre difperfed , we find not any more f^. rufaUm" 
Councils Governing the Imperial Churches. 

§ 21. If that Councils Authority were proper- 
ly Narioyial, and aroie from the prerogative of 
^ertifalem, then i. All the Apofties, when fcatter- 
ed, would have been fubjed: to fames, the firft 
Bifnop of lernfalem^ (thought to be no Apoftle :) 
2. Then ^erufalcm might have after claimed the 
Supremacy as of Divine right, before ^-ilexan" 
dria^^nttcch or Rome, But it is certain by ex- 
perience that the whole Church was of another 
mind, when jer-^^falem had not fo much as the 
iifth orlowelt Patriarchate, till long after by a- 
nother grant. But if the Power was not fixed to 
the place, but the Itinerant Apofties, then it is 
nothing to prove any Governing Church over 
others, as being affixed to fuch a place : Nor 
fhall we eafily find the Apofties Itinerant Suc- 
celiours in that power. 

§ 22. IL It is certain that Chrift chofe twelve 
Apofties f'befides Paul) who had a preeminence 
before other Minifters 5 and that he joyned with 
them fome Prophets and Evangelifts, appointing 
them all to gather Churches through the world, 
J difcipling 

difcipling and baptizing Nations, 2nd teaching 
them all things that he commanded (a v\^ork to 
be fiill done, and to which he protnlfcd his pre- 
fence to the end of the world : J And that the(e 
having gathered Converts, fet over them fixed 
Biiliops for Paftors or EldersJ to be their con- 
ft ant G Hides y in T. aching^ l-t4blick^lVorft:ip, and 
Difiipline, under Chrift the great Prophet, Prielt- 
and King of the Church. And that to the Apodles 
firft, and by them to others, he gave them the 
Keys (that is, the Judging Power of reception, 
andrejcdion, and the Official Power of j ro- 
nouncing Gou's reception or rejedion of them 
according to his Word.) 

§ 23. There i? not the leaft evidence that thefe 
Apoitles did affix a Superiour Power over the 
other Churches to any particular (eats. Patriar- 
chal or Metropolitan, much lefs National 5 or 
that any of them exercifed Government over 
the relt ; or that they themfelves did rix them- 
felves asBifhops to any twelve or thirteen Ci- 
ties in the world 5 much lefs to twelve King- 

§ 24. There is no notice in Church- hiftory of 
anyone National Church-power (Prieft or Sy- 
nod) fetled^ afferted or exercifed under Heaven, 
of above three hundred years. £gypi^ and ^Jfji- 
rla that were prophefied to be Chriitian Nations, 
never were diitind: Chriftian Kingdoms, bur parts 
of the Empire j nor had a National Church or 
Head (being but parts of fuch a Church :) Nay, 
when Rome got the National Primacy, it had not 
fuch a Prieftly Governing Soveraignty as the 
Jews High-Prieft had. 

§ 25. Though there was no Chrifiian King for 
S 2 three 

three hundred years (iinlefs he oTEdeJfa, or Z^- 
ci^s of EKgland, of whom we have little certain- 
ty J but it's like that both were rubje(n:s to o- 
ther?) vet if a Supream Church- Power had been 
neceliary, the Apoftles woiild have before erecfb- 
ed it ; v/hich they never did : For even Rome 
prctendeth to be by them made the Ruler of 
*the whole world, and not a meet National Head 
f which Conjfantinople claimed, but not as of A- 
poftolicaJ inltiturion.j 

§ 27. Thequeltion whether the Jews,had they 
bflieved, fhould have continued their High- 
Prieft and Church Policy, is vain as to our pur- 
pofe; r. It being certain to Chrift that they 
would hp diifolved by unbelief: And 2. lie ba- 
vins; fetled another way, and changed theirs : 
3. And if their Priefthood ar.d Law fexceptas it 
typified Tniritual things) had ftood , yet it would 
not have bound the Gentile Chriftians in other 

§ 28. When Emperours became Chriftians, 
they did not fet up the Jewifh Policy, nor 
thought themfelves bound to it ; no nor any 
fetled Priehly Supremacy for National Govern- 
ment : For Councils were called but on rare 
accidents by the Emperours themfelvcs, and to 
decide particular cafes about Herefies : And the 
Pope had but the firft voice in fuch Councils. 

§ ? 9. But if every Nation mult have the Jew- 
jfh Policy, then the whole Empire muft then 
have one High Prielt, and then the Pope hath a 
fair pretence ro his claim of a Divine Inftitution, 
as the Church Soveraign of the whole Empire, 
which, it's like, was then feven parts in eight of 
ihe whole Chriliian world at leaft, funlefs ylbaf- 

fa were then generally Chriftians, as now.) But 
then his power would change with the Empire^ 
and fall when it falleth. 

§ 30. III. But if the queftion be only whether ti 
National Prieftly Soveraignty be lawful? or 
whether God's general Rules (for Concora.Order, 
Edification) do bind the Churches prudentially to 
ere<ft (uch a form ? To this they fayas followeth. 
I. We will firft lay hold on certaintief?, and not 
prefer uncertainfies before them. We are fure 
that fuch a power of Apoftles and Pafkors as is 
before mentioned^ was eftablifhed ; and that the 
jtinior Paftors were as Sons to the fenisrs, or- 
dained by them : Whether the power of Ordain- 
ing and Governing Minifters was by Apoftolical 
Eftablifhmenr appropriated to men ofafuperiour 
degree in the facred Miniftry, feemeth to us ve- 
ry dark. 2. We are paft doubt that all particular 
Churches, by Apoftolical order, had Bifnopsi and 
that a Church was, as Nierom i^\th, TlcLs EpiJ- 
copo adnnata, and as Ignatim^ the Unity of every 
Church was notified by ih\s,\.h^i 10 every Church 
there was one Altar and one Bijhop (at that time^ 
and as Cyprian, Vhi Epifcop^is^ thi Ecclefia, 3 .And 
we are fatisfied, that every Presbyter is Epifjo- 
pus Cregisy whoever claim to be Epijccpi Epifco- 
forum f which the Canhage Council mCjpnari 
renounced. •) 4. And we are fatisfied that no 
Church-fuperiours have authority to deftroy the 
particular Church -form, Mmiilry, Doctrine, 
Worfhip or Difcipline, which were ferled by the 
Holy Ghoft in the Apoftles; And that the privi- 
ledges and duties of thefe fing!e particular 
liChurches, being plaineft and fure ft in Scripture, 
they mult be continued whatever Canons or 
S 3 Com- 

Commands of any fuperiour Priefts fhould be 
againft them. 5. Nor can they force any man to 
fin : 6. Nor have any Priefts a forcing power, by 
the fn'ord or violence, but only the power of the 
Word and Keys, that i<^,or taking in, or putting 
cur qf the Church, where they have power, and 
binding men over, on juft caufe, to the judgment 
of God. The power that they have is from 
Chrift, and for him, and not againfl: himj and for 
the Churches edihcat'ion, and not deftrudtion j 
and what is pretended contrary to this, is none. 
They cannot difpenfe ^vith the Laws of God, but 
preach and execute them. 7. And thefe things 
being :iui? ftcured, though in our doubts we 
dare not Avear or fubfcribe that National, Pa- 
triarchal^ProvinciaKor Merropolitical Powers are 
of God's inftiration 5 yet we rcfblve to live in all 
Chrifiian reaceablenefs and fubmifTion^when fuch 
are over us. 

§ 31. And we muft profcfs that when we 
find how anciently and commonly one Presbyter 
in each Church was peculiarly called the Bifhop, 
without whom there was no f ordinary ) ordi- 
nations, and againft whom in matters of his 
power none was to refill, and alfo how generally 
the Churches in the Roman Empire conformed 
themfelves to an imitation of the civil power 
( as to their limits ) in all the official part ( being 
all fub/ect to the Emperour, who fet up no 
EccIeHaltical Peer^ ) we are not fo fingular or 
void of reverence to thofc Churches, as not by 
fuch notices to be much the more inclined to the 
aforefaid fubmlinon and peaceablenefs under 
fuch a power 5 nor are we 10 bold or rafh as* 
Ko reproach it or condemn the Churches and 


excellent perfons that have pradifed ir. 

§ 32. Nay we have already fdidjthat fccuring 
the ftate, wor{hip,dodrine and true difcipline of 
the inferiour particular ( Parifh ) Churches, 
there are fome of us that much incline to think 
that ArchbiOiops, that is, Bifhops that have fome 
overfight of many Churches with their Paftors, 
are Lawful fucceffours of the Apoftles in the 
ordinary parr of their work . And fuch of us 
have long ago faid, that the Epifcopal Govern- 
ment of the Bohemian Waldenfes defcribed by 
Commenim and LafcitiHs^xs moft agreable to our 
judgment of any that we know excercifed : 
Therefore that which we humbly otfered for our 
concord in EnaUnd at His Majefties Reftauration, 
was Archbi(hop VJhers form of the Primitive 
Church Government, not attempting any dimi- 
nution of the Power, wealth or honour of the 
Diocefanes or Archbifhops, but only a reftaura- 
tion of the Presbyters to their proper Office- 
work, and fome tolerable difcipline to the par- 
ticular Parifh Churches. 

§ 35. But we muft ever much difference, Co 
much of Church order and Government as God 
himfelf hath inlVituted, and is purely divine and 
unchangeable, from thofe accidentals which men 
ordain though according to Gods general Rules : 
For thefe are often various and mutable, and 
are means to the former, and never to be ufcd 
againft them. And of thefe accidentals of Govern- 
ment we fay as they that fay no fuch form is fixed 
by God. Goncord,order5r decency and edification 
are alwaies nerellary , But oft times it inay be 
ilidifferent whether concord^ order and decencv 
bccxpreflfed by this accidental way or that. And 

S 4 thac 

that which is moft congruous for order, decency; 
edification and concord in oneCountrey, Church 
or time*, may be incongruous in another. There- 
fore it the queftion be but how far the giving 
one Bifhop or Paftor power over others, or ma- 
king difparity of Cities in conformity to the ftate, 
be prudently to be chofenj we only fay, fo that 
Gods eltablifhment be not violated, whatever we 
might thinly befi-, we prefume not herein to give 
La^vs to the Lawgivers, nor to obtrude our 
Gounfel uncalled, on our fuperiours, much lefs 
fediriouflyto oppofe their Lawful inftitutions, 

§ 34. But to thofe that think that Gods fore- 
faia General Laws ( of order,concord,edificatioD ) 
do m^ke fuch a policy ordinarily necejfary in the 
Churches, as imicateth the Jews, or the civil 
form of Government, we humbly offer to their 
confideration ; i. If to, then it would have been 
the matter of an Vniverfal Law, ( with its due 
exceptions ;) And then Chrift the only Vniverfal 
Lawgiver would have made it : For if he have 
not made al! necejfarj Vnivtr[-d Lavcs^ his Laws 
are imperfedt ; And then there fhould be fome 
other Vniverfal Lawgiver to fupply thatdefedt: 
But there is no other upon earth ( whether 
Pope or Council. ) 2. It is contrary to the nature 
of undetermined circumstances to be alwaies the 
fame, and fo to be fit matter of fuch Vniverfal or 
fiyea Lavvs : The caics will vary, and then fo 
Wi:l the duty; 3. There will be great diverfny 
of the inrereft, and ingcny of the Judges of the 
p.'fe in (cveral Countries and ages : And therefore 
though forne think the faid imitation of the civil 
lla.rc alwaies beft, vet others will not. 

§ 35. But if fuch a fettlement were certainly 


beft, let it be remembred, i. That the Jews had 
not under the chief High-Prieft, one in every 
City or Tribe like Diocefane Bifhops. 2. That 
theirSynagogues had difcipline within themfelvesj 
ever where there was but a Village of ten per- 
fon.c^ there vvas a Presbyter that had the power 
of judging offenders. 

§ 36. What man doth prudently fet up, man 
inay prudently alter as there is caufe. Greg, 
Nax.ianz.en earneftly wifheth that there were 
no difference of Place or feats among the Paftors 
of the Church-And therefore he neither thought 
their Government of each other to be of Divine 
right, nor of prudential neceffity or ufe : Elfe he 
wcu'd huve been againft it. And the whole Greek 
Church did, and ftill cioth take the feats of pre- 
eminence to be but of mans appointment, or t\^^ 
they would never have changed them, and fee 
Conftarjtinople ^o high as they did: And the 
Council of Cnlcedon exprefly determineth, that 
Rome was by the fathers made the chief feat be- 
caufe it was the ieat of the Emperour 5 which 
was mutable. 

§ 37. The Councils in thofe daies were about 
Popes or Patriarchs, and could depofe them : 
And yet it is moft evident to any man confide- 
rately reading fuch hiftory, that all the Councils, 
called before Chriliian Emperours gave them 
more power and conjoyned their authority, did 
meet only for ads of ^greewer.t and not of 
Regiment over each other : Many fuch fvnodsare 
mentioned by Eiifehim \ And the Right Reverend 
Arch-bifhop Urtier declared his judgment fo in 
general i\\^t Co urxih had but an agreeing -pov^cr, 
and not ^Regent power over the particr.lar Bifliops, 


Yet thcfe two things muft befuppofed, r.That 
thcPaftors in a fy nod are (till Redlorsof their 
flocks, and their Canons to them may be more 
authoritative than a fingle Paftors words: 2. That 
Gods Law bindeth us to keep love and concord, 
and the Agreements of Councils may determine 
of the matter in alterable points 5 and fo even 
abfent and prefent Biihops may, concordi a gratia^ 
be obliged by Gods Law to keep fuch canons as 
are made for concord, and fo they may be the 
matter of our duty. B.it feeing the Church for 
300 years, judged Councils to have no proper 
Governing pawer over particular Paftorsj and 
Bifhops, or Patriarchs fingly had ever left power 
than Councils, it followerh that then a Churches* 
Government ofdiiprity and fupraordinate Biih- 
ops like the civil, or like the fews, was not then 
taken ro be of divine right,aor then of any right 
at all. 

§ 38. And as to the doubt [ whether it began 
after 300 years to be a prudential dnty or at ieafi 
mofl df fir able ] when we hear what is fa id on 
both fides v/c think it not eafie to judge, either 
bow much in fuch a cafe Ghrift hath left to 
humane prudence, nor which way the fcales of 
prudence herein will ordinarily turn. On one 
fide it is (aid i. That it is abfurd that there 
fliould be no appeals for injured perfons to a 
fuperiour power 5 2. And that the diflenfions of 
the Church elfc will be remedilefs, and all will 
be broken into herefies and (e efts 5 3. And that 
Apoftolical men of a higher rank than meer Pres- 
byters will t](b have no convenient opportunity 
to excercife their Governing power^ if it be not 
tyed to fixed fcatSo 

§ 39. 

§ 39- On the other fide they plead} i. That 
it isfafer for the Church to have Religion in the 
power of many Bipofs or Paftors , than that 
one High Pri eft or Patriarch fhould h^ve power 
to corrupt it, or filence the faithful preachers, or 
perfecute the people when ever he proveth a 
bad nian : Yea they fay it muft be rare if he be 
not badj feeing it is certain that the moft proud 
and worldly men ( which are the worft )will be 
the moft earneft feekers of rich and honourable 
places 5 and he that feeketh will ufually find. 
2. They fay Chrift diredly forbad this to his 
Apoftles L?/;^.22.That which they ftrove for was 
it that he forbad them : But that which they 
ftrove for was who ftiould be the chief or grea- 
tcft ( and not who fhould tyrannize ) 3. They fay 
that all Church hiftory affureth us that there 
have been more Schifms and fcandalous con- 
tentions about the great fuperiour Bifhopricks 
far, than any of the reft : It is a doleful thing to 
read the hiftory of the Churches of ^lexandria^ 
u^miochy Ccnftamirwple^ and Rome : Gregory 
Naz.ian^€n g«veth it as the reafon,why the con- 
tention at Cefarea was fo lamentable, becaufe it 
was fo high an Archbifhoprick. The whole 
Chriftian world hath been fcandalized, torn and 
diftraded by the ftrife of Bifbops of and for 
the higheft feats. Their famous General Councils 
which wc juftly honour for their fun(n:ion and 
that which they did well, were (hamefully mili- 
tant; even the firft and moft honoured Council 
at Nice^ was with great difficulty kept in Peace 
by the perfonal prefence, wifdom and authority 
of Confi'antine, preaching peace to the preachers 
of peace, burning their libels gf mutual accufa- 



tion, Scfilcncing their contentious wranglings, and 
conftreining them to accord. Naz.ianz.ens defcri- 
ptions of the ignorance and infolence, and naughti- 
nefsof theClerp^y, O/.t^i.and of the (hameful 
ftate of the Bi/hops, Or^f. 32. mun: make the 
readers heart to grieve. The people he defcri- 
berh as contentious at Conliantinopie yet as endued 
with the L'^vs of God^ though their z^eal Wtinted 
knowledge J p. ag, 528. Bat ( the Couxtiers^d^s whe- 
ther true to the Emperottrs he J^exv not , bmfor 
the greatej!^ part perfidh^to God : ^4ndthe Bijhops 
as futi7g on adveyfi; throms^ and feeding adverfe 
oppcfite flocks, dr.iwn hy them into factions, like the 
clefts that Eanhqy.ak^s mak^y and the pefiilent dif- 
eafes that infe_ct all <iboHt^ and difi^raHing and di- 
"vidir'g all the v'^orldyfeparating the Eafi from the 
IVe'ityhythenoif.^ of mem et tmHyctntiqHHs etnovpu^ 
nobilior aut igmhUijy j mnltitud'im opulentior aut 
tenmor-y raging lik^ furious horfes in battel j and like 
7nadmen cajij-ng dUji into the air^ and under their 
heads fulfilling their own contentions and becoming 
the determiners of ''vicked ambition and magnificence^ 
and unrighteoufmfis and abfiird fudges of mat- 
tcrs: The fame men (faith he )^r^ to day of the 
fiime throne { or fide ) and judgement ^ as we are, 
if fo our leaders and chief men carry them : To mor- 
row if the vpind do but turn, they are for the con- 
trarj feat, aud judgement. Names ( or votes ) follow 
hatred or fncndjbip : And which is mofl gfievom, 
we blufionotto fay contrary things to the very fame 
hearers 5 nor are we conflant to our felves, being 
changed up and down by contention , you would fay 
wc- are toffed like the waving Euripm : Therefore 
he proTcflcth it unfeemly for him to joyn with 
thcm/s he would not leave his ftudies and peace, 

to • 

* to go play with the Lads in the ftreets//'^^.524,' 
The I'kc he hath in his Poems ds vitufua^ pag, 

24, 25-, 26, 27. Oi r-^ 'TTc'i^ejly &c. 

*' Etenim M.igiftiri flehis atque amiftites^ 

'' Sanfti dato.es fpirittfSy& cjui throns 

*^ Fptrdunt ab altts vtrha que is patitwr faifis^ 

" Cnn^tifqx facem jptgitn qui pradicmt^ 

*^ In ifde media vocibpis clur'jjiwis, 

" Tanto fu.nre fe pttmit fihi mviccm 

*' TkmHitPUindoyCOhxrtihcndo copias^ 

" Carpendofcfe mm no iingnk ^ff^^-^j 

*^ Saliendo . Tncmps ht folent Jrthd impotes 

" Fradarido qaos qi:is ante praidari c.ueat 

*' Rabida ir/perandi dp.m tcmt mente jltis 5 

*^ (^^ninam tfta verbis, & quibm digne eloqmr f ) 

^' Orocm umverjkmpYorjm m divuijennt, 

'^ Ortt:mq', JAtn & Iitfperum fcindit magis 

'^ ^rdens fimiiltaSj qti^tm Uci vel climata 5 

*' Namcji ilia ft non jmi^s , & media mnunt 5 

*' ^t hos ligare viKL^J^m nuliftm poreJTi 

" X^on capija, Pietas. (bilis hoc excogitat 

'' ^d memiendum frcf:a, fed Lis oh Thronos : 

*' ^idnam hoc zccanm i PrsfhUs f A en Fr^fa/es. 

[* Soinc fay that Gregcry himfclf forfock the place ; 
but it was when he law that they would put him out : 
Scire lay that it was not the lame Council thnt put hirti 
ipj but it is an errcur. When hleicnm was dead, more 
Bifhops came from I-'gyp and turned the ftream. And 
they named many to iuceed him, to the Emf erourj out 
of whom he chole rn unbaptized L.^ym. n J<ehartus 
'Nicefh. /. 1 2. c. J 5. lb that the Emf erour then chofe the 
Bilhop in that manner. J 

Are rot thefe doleful Narratives and Chara- 
<flers of thofe Frimiiive Biflicjs (even in thole 


happy dales of good Theodofius ? But all this W 
yet little to what the fame man faith of Bifhops 
in his laft Oration de Epijcopis^ FoL 2. too (harp 
and large to recite. Perhaps it will be faid, that 
it was the Macedonian or Arrta.n Bifhops that 
he meant : So one Papift was not afhamed to an- 
fwer me, when the whole fcope of his writing 
fpeaketh the contrary, that he fpake of the 
Council at Confiantinople^ and other fuch, and 
exprefly faith in his Epip:, ^9. to Sophroniu^^fag^ 
Si6, f eos inveneritis non oh fidei dottrinam^ fedo^ 
privatas fimultates inter fe difiraEios & divulfos, 
quod qtiidem ipfe ohfervavi. But fome will fay that 
he was wrongfully caft out by that Council of 
Conftantinople^dJ\d he fpeaketh but of that,or that 
injury made him [atjncal by exafperattoij. But 
.1. The places cited fhew that he fpeaketh not of 
that Council only : And Epift, 55". Procopto pag, 
814. he faith ( refufing to come to a Council ) 
ego ft verafcrihere oportet hoc aniwofum^ ut Omnem 
Epijcoporum Convent urn fugiam : qnoniam nullius 
concilii finemUtum &ja'd[tum vidi^nec quod depnl" 
jionem malorumpotins qttam acccjfionem & increment 
turn h'^bmrit :pertinaces enim content iones & domi^ 
nandi CHpiditates ( ne me qusjo ^cavern & mole^um 
exiftimcs hdc fcribentem ) ne nllis qtiidem Vsrbis 
explicari que ant ^ citihfque aliquis im^robitatem 
arcejfetury dum alii s ju die em fepr^bet, quam Ht 
aliornm improbitatem ccmprimat, ^A.nd that injury 
made Gregory injurious is an injurious conje(fture, 
feeing all his endeavours in thefe bufmefTes were 
for piety and peace : And it was partly for his 
(peaking for the Peace ot the Church ofAntioch, 
fivhichhad long had two Bifhops, PapiUnus and 
Meletii^y^m FUvianus, who had taken an oath 


not to be their Bifhop while either orchem lived, 
intruded by Perjuries and the BiQiops wills^thac 
this Council turned againft Gregory -, (and becaufc 
they chofe him nor.) And for peace he quk his 
place 5 and many and earneft Epiltles he wrote 
after to the Civ il Magiftrates, to keep the Bi- 
fhops in peace at the next Councils, lelt Religion 
fhould be quite (liamed and weakened by them. 
And was not the contention at the two Councils 
o{ Ephejm more ftigmatized by Hiftorians than 
this that Gregory fo lamenteth f when they Teem- 
ed rather to fight, than peaceably to feek for 
Truth 5 in the latter of which Flavianns received 
his deaths hurt, and the hiftory of the better of 
them between Cpil^ and JV^floriw, and fohan, 
uintiochetiHs^ is fad to read. 

The very controverfie with its conlequence 
was lamentable when one Council of Bifliops at 
Cenftanttnople had caft out excellent Gregory^ 
another neer caft out excellent Chrjfcjtom^ 
his free fpeech and ftrid life being not endured, 
and chofe an eld ufelefs man Arfacipu ; Atticus^ 
and SifmiHS that fucceedcd him being dead, the 
people did fo diflike all the clergy o{ Conflan^ 
tinople, that they would have one like Chrjfoftom 
of a Monaftery by Antioch 5 Nefiorim a man of 
ftudy, retirement, a poor garb, a ft ri(ft life, ab- 
horring publick contentions, and loving quietnefs, 
but of a pievifti zeal againft diffenters called 
hereticks, as enemies to the Churches unity and 
peace 5 fo that he prefently perfecuted many of 
them even the Novatians themfelves,and ftirred 
up the Emperour to root them all out, and by 
Gods juft judgement received fuch meafure as 
he had meafured. A quarrel arofe whether Saint 


Mary fhould be called T'he Mother or Parent 
of MAN, or that Tar em of GOD : Neftorim^ td 
the end the controverfie, was againftbotb, and 
would have her called. The Parent of Chrift who 
was God and man ( bm not of God : ) Some Start- 
Jed at this 5 And Cyril of Alex andria fa men of 
great parts, (pirit and power, the head ofr.. tur- 
bulent people, the firft B'fhop, faith Socratcs^xh^z 
nffumcd the Sword) wrote Letters of reprooi to 
him 5 and dlefj-lne, Bifb.op of Ro??7e feconded 
him : yea Cjril followerh it with writing upon 
writing, to prove that S. Afavy muft be called 
the Parent of God -, with fo great a number of 
words, and fo many Anathtmatifms, as made 
the noife and flame great, but ambiguity made 
it feem dangerous to many , fo that it grew to a 
great and open controverfie, whether Nefiorim 
or Cyril was a damnable Heretick j fome fo call- 
ing one, and fome the other 5 fo that the Empe- 
rour Theod. 2. was fain to call a General Coun- 
cil at Ephefm^ to prevent the utter coufufjon of 
the Churches : There JNefionm came firft, and 
once only appeared 5 and being charged with the 
Herefie of denying Mary to be the Parent cf 
Cod, he told them, that he would not fay that 
God was tW(j or three months old, and fo departed. 
To Cyrils large writings,he returned a fhorr Let- 
ter, profefTing, that he was for the dijiinclion of 
Natures only in the Unity of Perfon ; but at large 
proveth that Chrifts Godhead had no beginning, 
that it could notfiffer, or die, nor nfe again 5 and 
therefore that thofe things which were faid of 
the Manhood, mu(t not be faid of the Godhead^ 
that it was begotten, died, &c. unlefs they would 
be Hereticks or Pagans. Read their confcflion 


brought into the Council againft them by Chary- 
Jim and their Anarhemata's afrerjand 1 think yoil 
will fee, that the errour of Neflonm lay in his 
want of skill in r|>eciking, and that one fide fpoke 
Of a phrafe de abftraB-o^^ and the other of the 
Concrete 5 and if fo^ both me.jnt the fame things 
though C/r;7 was judged to ufe the moll: skilful 
words: Qr/Zdenyed not but thjt the Deny was 
not begotten or Crucifiedy but faid that Gud \Vii% 
begotten ahd Crua^edy and was p^-jjibh j IVeftorm^s 
denyed not that he who was God in one perfon 
with the manhood, was begotten, Crucified and 
pafTible, but not the Dcitj. But Cjrtl faid that 
the phrafe \^God ivas born, Cr-icijied^ Src.] was 
goods yea necefTary^ and not (without anathe- 
matized herefiej to be denyed, becaufe in one 
perfon the titles and anions are communicable : 
Niftoriiu faid, that it was wicked to com'muni- 
cate the infirmities of humanity to the Deity, 
as to fay^ Cod did grow bigger, and was afraid^ and 
TV as hptngry^and needed help fi'cm Angels, and died,^ 
For he thought this phrafe applied it to the 
Deity r fLet any man that's impartial^ judge 
whether -this Controvetfie were nor about nords 
rather than r^atter. ) Th.odoret was a greater 
Scholar than Nefiorti^,2^i\A he became the Cham- 
pion of his Caufe, fuppofing that Locfit 10 for malts 
eft max ime propria-, and therefore that he that 
faith . God had a beginning, increafe, death, paffions, 
muft be fuppofed to mean it^ cj-^a Depts, as he is 
God : And fotwo Saints , Sr. C;r/7and St. Thco- 
doret, fell at large to prove each other damnable 
Hereticks. ■ ^oA,';, Patriarch of ^;zf/oc/:», being far 
Qtf, was long in coming to the Synod. Af.mnon, 
Bjihop of Epheftis, /oyning with Cyril, before he 
iBifhops came, bcg.n and condemned, and 
T depofed 



depofed Ntftari^s as a Heretick, Neflajrius let 
them all alone^and mcdlcd little himfelf, uhedg- 
ing that Candidiahus Comes forbad him to appear. 
But when ]oh:i o{ yint, came,he took Neftorius^s 
part, and gathered a Council with himfelf, and 
CandidianKs the Emperours Officer rook hi.- parr. 
johii's Go'incii" condemned and depofed C;r// and 
Adtmnon, as they had done Neiior^pts : And thus 
two Councils at .£/7^!;r//i (are damning one ano- 
ther. The Emperour knew not what to do with 
iheni» hucTsrquirerh each party to fend feme of 
their Bifliops to him : when they came, he per^ 
mitted them not long to come neerer than C^/* 
csdon; for fear of tumults : while they, "were 
there, the peopit of Conji^ammople flocked to 
them, and moft of the people being for.A/efio-i 
yius, and moif of the Courtiers , Cleirgy and 
Monks againft him, they fell into diif^ntion to 
the Itoning of fome abcut their Meetings, for 
Preaching to the People. Theodoret and his Af- 
fociates profecuted it againfr C;n7, as thofe that 
declared tli^ir refblution to die rather t'han yield 
to his Herefies (ds rhty called them) and accufed 
him as if he had been the moft proud, unquiet 
troubler ofthe world. The other fide anfwerably 
accufed rhem of dangerous blafphemy and herefie. 
At laft the Emperour thought it the beft way for 
peace, to (end Johan, Comes Laraitionnm with 
power and commiffion to depofe the Leaders that 
each Party had depofed, viz.. Nefioriui, and Cyril 
and AUmnon : But fohn wrote an Epihlc to the 
Emperour, how furious they were again(t each 
other, and how Corn's Parry would not hear the 
Emperour's Letters,becaufe A/<?/?6>'''/^j was. there,. 
and how they raged and lell to fighting ("a dole- 

fut ftdrv.J 'Bat at lafr the Empero'u? fe'eirtg tihaf 
C/r/V had the itrongcr (an'd the orthodox) fide, 
arid the Court and Clergy bejrtg againlt iV^/<7- 
ripis^ and yet b^erne; loth to divide ^oh. A,tioc% 
and the Orienra! Bifhops from the reft-, thought 
it the molt htaTmg way to'depofe A>y?(yr/;/jaIone^ 
and reftore 'QV^y/ and 'Ki<h'non^ and to charge 
( magna. dtijH fiverit^j't pii^ct^ faith -5/w, Noces) 
Joh, yintjtoh^ reconciled with C/nV, and to 
unite ; fo that J^o^. and Theodoret^ ^nd the Ori- 
ental'Bifhops tnoved with fear^anddefirihgpeace^ 
fcnt their ConfelTion to C^n/, and C;'// faid, ic 
was the fame that he rrici?;fit j and fo they were 
•fuddenly made all Orthodox, that had not under- 
ftood it bat by the Rod \ But iV^y?(?r;//j returned 
to his Monaftery by Antibch(Chrffofloms place jf 
and there liv'd four years in great peace and re- 
putation 5 but then he was no longer to be there 
endured, butbanifhed into forein Countries^ dri- 
ven about in futferings, in which he died. And 
Theodorety it feems,was not well reconciled^when, 
hearing of the death of C;r/7, he vvrote .to foh,' 
^ntioch, that now there was hope the Churches 
might have peace, the great enemy of all peace 
being gont to the place where fuch men ceafe 
to trouble Z&'ci But fo great was the rupture 
thus made, that to this day it is not healed, greac 
part of the Eaft adhering then to NefloriiiS:, and 
thofe Couatry-Chriftians being called Nefloriatt 
Hrreticks and out of the Church by the Papilt^ 
to difgrace them,becaure they will not own their 
f ope N^ftorins being thus condemned, Entyches 
thought he would be far enough from hisHe- 
refie, and faid, that the Vmon ofChri.B'^s two Na-r^ 
tfiires mudifihem tQ be bm c.e: This Herefie one 

T 2 Council 

Council zxConftant, under F/^zz/^w, - condemned.' 
Another afrer by the counienance of the Empe-j 
ro'ur acquit him : The Emj^erour Theod. 2. com-^ 
mandeih a General Council again at Ephtfus, an4 
inaketh i)/^yc-or//j Prefidenr J who being CyriPs 
SuccefTor, though he had held to bis Docjrine 
againft Nefloritis^ for the V^ittve Pr.edicat,:o^ 5 
and though he profefTed that the Synod med'ed 
not defide, but about matter of Juftice between 
Flavian 'dr\d Entyches^ yet countenanced by the 
Emperour, he domineered, and by threatning 
got all the General Council fave the Popes Le^ 
gates to fubfcribe againft Flavian^ and he was 
beaten, and died of the hurt, faith Bin, Notes-, 
In hoc tarn horrendo Ep.JGoporum (nffitngio JoU 
Navicula Petri incoUimis emergens^ jdv at ur. The 
wh' le Council went againft the Pope, and the 
right : Bur fure Chrift's United Natures art in 
feveral fenfts both txigo and om 5 but two in the 
primary and moft proper fenfe. 

,Thus you fee what unhappinefs even this 

National Government of Bifhops in thofe good 

times was iyable to. It was by Bifhopsftriving 

who (hould be ch^ef that the Donatijh let up 

againft^ the Carholicks, and the very Novattans 

were not tree ? much lefs the ^ppoUnartatis, and 

mjft ovhers that caufcd the Schifms of thofe 

limes, in wnich the B-O'iops were almoft ever 

the chief caufe. Fven fuch worthy men a$ 

'Tr9eophilm,Alex.2T\d Epiphanins could not endure 

C^r//'/^^ ; ^uch men eje(n:ed him once and 

apain, as Theodoret faith he purpofely forbeareth 

t:^ name for reverence of their virtue?. And if 

you come to the fourth Great General Council 

ac Lalccdon you will find the fame caufe of lamen- 


[2 771 
ration, and that even worthy men in fuch temp- 
rations are frail, when a nevv Emperour Martian 
was on the other fide, C the rightj ^ when Diof- 
coYPu had profelled that he was neither for 
tranfmutation , divijtpn^ nor confyfton of Chrifis 
namres ( and therefore was for dtfitn^iidn 3 ) 
when the Egjptian Bifhops prbfefled their confLnc 
with the Synod, only craving that they rnighc 
nor be put tp Anathematize Diofcorm till they 
had another Patriarch, but fo long to delay 5 
when they profelTed that if they did, they were 
fure to be killed when they came home, and 
falling on the Earth cryed to their brethren 
miferemini mlftrcmiti (pare us or kill us here 5 
yet they cry out herericks hereticks, away 
with them, till the civil Judges refcued them: 
and how many of thefe had but lately fubfcribed 
againft Flavianm at Ephefm^ (8r here were in one 
point for Leo, and in another againit him?) Leo's 
Epiftle which was fur their caufe againit Diof- 
cor^ they cryedupj and condemned Diofcorns 
for excommunicating thp Pope 5 but the Ganoa 
for exalting Conjtantimple , they maintained 
againft L^^o's will, and contemptuoufly cryed out 
^Hi aliter fentiunt Romam ambnknt ; he that 
readeth the cUmoun at this Council^and how the 
fame Bifhops that had lately fubfcribed the con- 
demnation of FUvianm with Diofcoru^ were 
zealous here on the other fide, and cryed out 
vmnes peccaviwii^^ excufing it by their fear of 
threatnings and Souldiers, when a poor Chriftian 
woman could have fuffered Martyrdom rather 
than fin ; And he that readeth how after all this 
they were fo ready to Anathematize others^ and 
to contemn the proftrate Egjptian Bifhops^ will 
T 3 thinj; 

tffiat be feeth the firft Council of Conflantinople 
as defer ibcd' by ISJ a^ianT^cn here excniplitied, 
notwirhftanding the honour chat is due to them 
for t^ieir crthbdoxnefs.You fee in this much hovy 
the great Bifhops at the (irlt five Genera) Councils 
t^NiC,i.CufiftA,Eph., i.^ 2. And Cdtced,)^\6. carry 
ir.But when they wer^afunder were they fetled, 
&did they keep the Churches in concord by thele 
Councils ? Let us but, for one inftance, conlider 
what followed this excellent Council of Calcedor,^ 
I. Leo the B'\(hop of Rome approved it againft 
DiofcGTuf^hm at)horred the iSrh Canon,which fee 
vpCohlfantintpce with equal priviledges,and that 
above ^Uxahdria ^r\d ^^nuoch : So that the Pope 
refted not in this Couneif. 2. What fedition there 
was at ylhxandria upon the change made by 
this Council all the dales of ^4r/ />/•;, and of the 
inurder of fr^r^rz/^iprefenily after, Liheratm in 
hrevianoy and many other tell at larce. 3. In 
P^/i^^/Kf the Monks that had bf-cn at the Council, 
returned lamenting that the faith was there bc- 
traved, and ftird up their fraternity to refcind 
the zd s: They ex};elled Juvenal Bifliop of fe- ufa- 
iem : The Emptels Et-idocia took their part: They 
killed S';verianp!^'^\f^o\> of Scjthopolis: They 
com{)ellcd men to communicate A^ith them i 
They niurdered ■Athma[im a Deacon at Jeruja^ 
Iem for contradidlin* them, and gave his fl( (h to 
dogj> J Thi^y compelled Dorotheii^ theEmperours 
Lieutenant to joyn with them, till after 
20 months, ]iivenai\v:n^x^f[0XQdi Niceph.L jj.r, 
9. And iri many Countries this contention fol- 
lowed 5 and the women Epidocia aud Tulcheria 
had no fpiaP hand in all, till Pptlcheria procured 
Zptdjcias; (Jonverfion to approve ;he Council. 
' - — . i — 3. Where 

3- When Leo came to reign, the (edition revived 
at Alexandria between the murderers of Prc- 
teriu^i Timothy ELurus nude Biliop by the 
Councils enemies, depofcd by i.eoy and Timothy, 
SalophaciolH4 put in his place and all was in con- 
fufion. The Egjpnan Bilhops write to the Empe- 
rour againft the Emychian^ jThe Em[;eroiir (ends 
forth his circular letters for theCouncilj Niceph. 
I. I J*, c, I'J. 1 8. 19. 4. At Ahtioch, Petrns, 
C apheus ambitious of the Bifhoprick, got into 
Aiartyrifii place by Z>foV help,and anathematized 
all that would not fay that God )vas Crucified and 
Suffered, and tore that Church in piece.« : A-Iar- 
tirius, when he could do no good, forfook them, 
with ihefe words [ CLro rthelh et po^ulo inohe- 
dienti & ecckji<& comaminata, mincli^m rcmitto :^ 
Cnapheus reviled the Council : Lc<? for this bani- 
fhed him : Sttfhanus^^ friend of the Cocncil,fijc- 
ceeded him; him boyes killed with fharpquils 
and caft him into the river for favouring; tlie 
Council : And CaUndion fucceeding hirr-, made 
them Anathematize the aforefaid Cn-ph.us, Leo 
being dead, diflolute Zeno reigned BajiUfqus 
taking advantage of his lewd liie, ufurped the 
Empire, and made ufe of the Schifms to promote 
his ends : And firft publifheth his circular againft 
the Council of Cdcedon 5 to this faith Niccph. L 
16. ^.4. befides the three Patriarchs no lefs than 
five hundred Bifliops fubfcribed, and renounced 
the Council. But Acacius oi Conflamin. and Dav, 
ColftmelU perfwaded Bajtlifcus quickly to write 
clean contrary Letters for the Council, feeing 
that this was like to prove the ftronger fide. 
And when Zeno was reftored, who was for the 
Council^ the u^fian Bifhops turned again, and' 
T 4 wrote 


wrote to ^cafus to be pardoned, faying that 
Tthey (ubfcribed to BafiUfci^.s tirrt Letters, not 
voluntarily, but through ft^x NccphJ, i6. c. 9. 
Then things were turned back again j rill Zfw<i 
thought it the beft way to write WisHenoucon or 
a Conciliatory cdift, that none (hould be forced 
to profefs themfelves either for or agaiMt the 
Council, perceiving that the Bifliops would never 
c-jnie toagreemenr^cither as for it or againft it : 
But this ended not the divifions : But ^t AntiG&h 
Calendton was call out. And Pet, Cnapheus got in 
again : And at ylUxandria hti\N ttx\ Peter Mog- 
gHszv\A lohn ftriving who fliould hold the place, 
all was in conftihon. Yea the Schifm reached to 
Rome alfo; for Moggus at .AUxandria Anathe- 
matizing the Council, and perfccuting diflen- 
ters. The Emperour feeks to reconcile them; 
Felix at Rome con6cvi\x\tx.\\y^cafiHs at Conft amino- 
pie , for con municating wirh Moggus : Acafms 
condemneth Pelix^ blotting his name out of the 
Sacred Albc. Ac^fius dyetb, and the Emperour 
found it fo hard to "choofe a Patriarchy that 
fhould caufe no (edition, that he will have God 
choofe one 5 and to that end puts a blanck paper 
on the Altar*,and another requefting God that an 
Angel might write there the name of the 
Patriarch ihatflionld j^oflels the place: The doors 
are lock*r,and forty (iaies falling and prayer com- 
inandcd to prevail with God : One F lav it as 
bribeth the Key- Keeper, who was the Empe- 
rours Lord Chamberlain, and lie vvritetb, 
fUvius name in the Paper and fealeth up the- 
^oor again, and fo there was a Patriarch chofen 
by an Angel ; but dyed fuddenly within four 
months: Bat before hedyed, hejoyned with 



Teter ofu4lexandria by fynodal Letters toAnathe- 
matize the Council of CalccdGn and yet wrote 
to the Bifhop of Ruma that he renounced Com- 
munion with Feter^ and he wrote to Ptrer that 
he renounced Communion n-ich the Bilhop of 
Rome. Etiphcmii.s fijccecded him, and he rafed 
Peters name out of the Book, and ;oyned with 
the Eloman Bifhop. P<ftcr and Euvhemita as" 
Generals were gathering fvnodical Armies againft 
each other, and Peter dverh. ^thanafms that 
fucceeded him, would fain have reconciled his 
Church but could not: PalLidius fucceeded Pcr^r 
Cn.rphei^ at Antioch : Both thefe Patriarchs 
joyn together to curfe the Council of C^iceuoh 5 
They die: 7'^/c7« fucceeded at yile^.and/io. and 
FUvtanfisdit Antioch : Thefe alfo joyn to cur(e 
the Council, while the Patriarchs of /?ow^ and 
Conftantimple are for if, and curfe rhem. Zcrio 
diethjSnd Anaftafnts Dwon^s is chofen Emperour. 
He (faith Niceph. L 16, vl >5 ) being 4 man of 
Peace, and defiring the ceafing of ail contention, 
Jeft all to their liberty to th nk of the Council of 
Cdcedon as they pleafed : Hereupon the Bifhcps 
fell into three Parties, fome fervent for every 
word of the Council $ forne curfed irj and fome 
were for Zeno*s fenoticorf, or filence, or fulpen- 
fion : Thefe renounced communion accordingly 
A»ith one another 5 the Eaft was one wav 5 the 
Weft another 5 and Libya another: Nav, the 
Eaftcrn Bifhops among themfclves ; the Wcftern 
among themfelves, and the Lybian among them^ 
felves, renounced cummunion with each other 
(Niceph. f. 25.) Tanta confufio mentiumqtde Caligo 
(^faith theHiltoriai ) orhem univerf'/.m mc-^jfir. The 
Emperour having refulved eg keep peace, and 



make no chanj^e, was forced to fall upon thofe 
of borh fides that were moft turbulent. At Con^ 
fiantmopU he put out Btiphemius (qt for d ill ike 
of him.) This Emperour, before his inthroning, 
had ^iven under his hand to EnphemthSy a pro- 
m''fe to rtand for the Council : He demanded his 
writing again 3 Euphtmius denied him, and was 
calt our : Ad:icedoniHs fucceeded him : He had the 
fame writing : The Emperour demanded k of 
him : He alfo denied him : The Emperour would 
have put him out ; The people rife up in fedi- 
tion,and eyed. It is a time of Martyr d.m : Let 
fis ati jtick^tothf! Btfijjp : And they reviled the 
Emperour, calling him a Manichee, unworthy 
the Empire. The Emperour was fain to fubmic 
to Alacedoniiis^ who (harply rebuked him as the 
Churches enemy ; but in time he remembred 
this, and calt out Alacedotjius, and burnt the 
Coun(^ils Adls, and put Titnotijy in his place, who 
prefently puHM down the Image of Macedonia : 
The Patriarchs aJfo o{ ^lex.u4ntioch, &-Bi(]iopof 
J r/./^^£';;?,wereailcaft out, even thofe that were 
againft the Council. Pet, Cnapheus had made one 
XenA^asdi Perfian fervant & unbaptized, Bifhop of 
Hierap'jlis : He was againft Images, and brought 
a troop of Monks to \Anttoch, to force FUvianus 
the Bifhop to curfe the Council : FUvianus de- 
nied it : The people (tuck to the Bifhop, and (6 
unanfwerablv difputed down the Monks, that fo 
great a multitude of them were flain,as that they 
threw their bodies into the KiwtxOrontes^xo favc 
them labour of burying of them. (^Nicep, c.ij.) 
But this was not all ; another troop of Monks 
of Cdih'f.ria, that were of FUvianus fide, hear* 
ingof the tumult, flockt 10 Antkochj, and made 


another flau2,hter as great as the former (Td'rh 
tl e HiftorianJ For this the Emperonr baniflud 
Fia^^ianfts, whofe followers rhoui>hr his puniik-i 
ment too great after aJl thelc murders. Pttc^r 
be'n.ij dead, the Bifliops of yilexaudria, ^gJP.^ 
and L)bia ft 11 in pieces among thcm(rl vcs 5 each 
having their feparate Conventions : The leit of 
theEaltalfo feparated from the Weft, bcciule 
the Weft would not communicate with them^ 
unlefs they would curfe Nc(torifis, Entichi's^ 
DioJcoYHs, MoggHs, and yicacius. And yet (.jirb 
Niceph, I. i<^'. c. 8.) J^/ Gefmani Diofcon (3^. 
Epitjchetis fectatores frere, ad maximam pwcita- 
tcm redacli funt, Xenaias bringeth to Flavian 
the names of Theodore^ Theodurttey Ibas, and 
oxhcxSyixs Neftorians, and tells him, if he ao^the- 
matize not all thefe, he is a Neftonar^ r h. iever 
he lay to the contrary : VUvian wa? unwilling, 
but his timerous fellow-B fhops perfwading him, 
he wrote his curfe ago irft them,, nd fent it to il;e 
Emj ere ur. Xenaias then went further, ard re- 
quired him to curfe the C(juncil : Thev prevail- 
ed wiih the IJaHYian Biftiops to confent and all 
renounct d the refufers a? hJejionans : And thus 
the Council having (in name)condemned theAV- 
fionans and Entychtans^ the EHtychims Qd\\<:d all 
J>Jcflorians that curfcd not the Council, and got 
many caft out. After FUvian^Scver^s got in at 
uamioch : The firft dav he curfed the Council 
('though it's (aid that hefwore to the Em[)erour 
before that he would nor) Ntccp, c. 29. In I a- 
lefiine there were renewed the like co->fufiors a- 
bout the condemnation of Flavian and Mjcedo- 
nifis : About Antioch Sevtrns Letters frightened 
many Bilhops to curfe the Council, and thofe 
i . « that 


that held two Natures : Some Bifliops revoked 
their (cntence,and faid they did it for fear: Some 
ftood out: And the If^uri an B^i(hops, when they 
repented, condemned S^t/cr/zj himfelf, that drove 
them to fublcribe ; And fome Bifhops fled from 
their Churches for fear. C^fmas and Severianns 
fent a condemnation to Sevems : The Emperour 
hearing of it, fent his Procurator to cait them 
out of their Bifho[)ricks for prefuming to con- 
demn their Patriarchs. The Procurator found 
the people fo refolute, that he fenr word to the 
Emperour, that thefe two Bifhoj)s could not be 
cait out without b!ood-fhed : The Emperouran- 
fwered; thathe would not have a drop of blood 
fhed for the bufinefs. He has Bifhop of ferufa- 
km, found all the other Churches in fuch confu- 
lion, condemning one another, that he would 
communicate with none of them but Euphemms 
^r C'.yij}. Nice p. c. 32. And that you may fee how 
people then were moved,a Monk or Abbot Theo^ 
aofitis g;athering an Afiembly,. loudly cryed out in 
the Pulpir, [_If any man equal not the four Councils 
"W^ihthd fo^r EvangeLjisy let him be Anathema,'^ 
This voice of their Captain refolved them all, 
and they took it as a Law, that the four Councils 
iliould be [^facns libris accenjenda ] and wrote to 
iheEmperour cenamenfe de eis adfangtunem «/^j 
fithituros^ (^This was then the fubmiffun to Prin- 
ces by the adherents to the Councils of the Bi- 
fhops. And they went about to the Cities to 
bring them to joyn with them. The Emperour 
wrote to EJelias to reform this : He rejeding his 
Letters, SouUiers were fent to compel them.^ 
The Orthodox Monks gathered by the Bifhops, 
ttimfdttioujl) caj} the Emperours SQHl4iers oat ^f 


the Church \ Q:,i^) After another conflux they 
anachematized thofe that adhered to Severtis, 
The Emperour provoked, fent Olympim with a 
band of SQuldiers to conquer them. He came 
and call: out HeiUs, and put in John : The Monks 
gather aga;in,and the Souldiers being gone, they 
caule J(7''/^ LO enq^dge hiinfelf to be againlt S^z;^^ 
r//j,and Itand for ihe Council, though unto blood; 
which, contrary to his word to Ohmpwsy he did. 
The Emperour deppled Oljmptftj, and fent ano* 
ther Captain Andfi..p!'ii^ who put the B fhop m 
prifon, and commanded hitr^ to defprfe the Coun- 
cil j confuking with another B'fhop, he promifed 
to obey him, if he wouM but let him out of pri- 
ibntwo d*ies before, that it mf^ht not feem if 
farced a(^:This being done,th€ Bi(hop contrarily 
to the Coiggregation in. the pul[>ir, before the 
Captain cryeth ouf ^'H 'tny affent to Euryches and 
Nefiorms ■(Gontrarks)^ and Seve rtis and Soterichns 
Cdifar^ Let him be' Anathema : If any follow not the 
Opinions of the four untvcfiii Synods, let him be 
^nathem^i.'} The Captain fhys deluded, fled from 
the niultirude,and was glad to fave himfelf: The 
Emperour being offended at this, the B;fhops 
write to him chat at jjrufale?^^ the fountain of 
Dodrine, they were not now to learn the Truth, 
and they would defeKd the T^adUions^ if need be^ 
evento blood'] Niccp.c. 34. 

Timothy 2>](hop ot Conjt ant inoplezook the man- 
pleafing Way, and one while was for the Calcedon 
Council, another while he curfed it. Being to 
choofe an Abbat, the Abbatrefufed his ele(ftion, 
unl.-t's he confcnted to the Council of Calcedon. 
Ti>>'othy curfed thofe prefentiy that received 
not the Council i His Archdeacon hearing hinfi, 



teproacbed -him that like Eni^iptis^ roled every 
.WcVT-The Emperour hearing it, rebuked hirn,' 
and Irimothj wafhr awav the charge and prefenily 
i:uded evei^^ one that received the Codnci?; 
'JS/icep^. ^-35. \Yet Rome though now uh<Jera^ 
^Of'ber King i'J'hiodinck^ an ^rfU Gcth ) had d 
-pari in the Schifm : FeflHS a Roman Senitdi^ 
"'"y^aa Ifenr from Thecdortck^xo theEmp(?rour onari 
EnftbjfTic: Whkli when he had done^ he defifeH 
that C oiiji antirwfie wou^d keep holy da'es for 
J[ fr/-- and Paul as Rome d\dj and he prevailed: i 
And h)e lecretlv allured the Emfierour that ^trafi ^ 
t^fi^s Bilhop of Rome would receive the Henoti^ 
con ( ro fufpend the confent to the Calceddn 
eounc'I ) and would fubfcrib'e it;' But when the 
EmbalTadour catiie home, the'Pope wasS'^ad : 
To make good his word, he got a partj^ to 
ehoofe Laurent ins Pope, that would do it* The 
people ( that then had the chief choice ) chofe 
Srrf'ma--oHs fo there were two Popes: And the 
fedirion continued three years mt ivithoHt ^'m^^ 
ters, raf ines and other calamities ( Ntceph, c, 
5^. )' till Theodortck^^n A nan more righreoti$ 
than the Popes ^ called a fynod and confirmed 
SfrnmucljHi : But L^turentiHs ftirred up the peopfe 
to (edicion and was quite degr.'ded. The Empe- 
rour favouring the addit'on [ ^t Otdcifixus efi 
pro nobis ] rh' pe(^ple fcditiouflv cur otf a Monks ' I 
head and lee it up on a pole infcibing it aft 
enemy to the Trinity : The Emperpur overcome 
v\^irh their confljnon and ortiiodox rebellions, 
called an aliemb'y and offered to refign his 
Crovvn, deiiring them to choofe another; which 
f.nore them 'viih (ijch remorfe^that they dcTired 
hun to reaflume hi-: Grown and promifed to fj^r- 


bear fedition : But he dved fhortly after. But I 
muft not tranfcribe hiitorical Volumes, ^nftin 
fucceedcd Anajhfius in the Empire,and ^/i/hw/^;; 
him : Thefe were for the Synod : But Ttjcodorx 
fftjiimans Wife was againit it : Some thought 
by compadt, that each part might have a head, 
which was indeed but one ( Ntcepk /; 17. c. 7. } 
Should 1 tell you in their reigns how the Eccle- 
fialtical war continued, how Pope yigathon 
tnunui imfo^nit MenA Confiant, quod antea nun" 
€jti.%mfatt-.m efi, Niceph. c, 9; How Me nas and 
the Pope excommunicated one another, and how 
^ftftinian ufed Ftgilius the Pope, &"c. it would be 
over tedious to cell. I have wrote this much to 
fhew you how far the Pacriarchal fears conduced 
to the Churches peace, and how far the four firft 
Councils of Bifliops caufed Chriftian Love and 
Concord : No fuch things can be faid of the 
^/rf^/^«5, and Novatian PhrygiAns zv[A others 
that had Bifhops in the villages : Should I but 
now turn to Rome and tell you what was done 
there, all thisGonfufionjblood and mifery is but 
a jt ait to it : But I have faid enough of that in 
many trea riles againft Popery 5 and particularly 
of the above 40 years Schifm w^hen they had 2 
cr 3 Popes at once- and of the above 50 Popes 
that Baronihs and Genebrard themfelves call 
Apoftatical, put in by whores and poyfon, men 
not to be named, fave to keep a reckoning of 
the timesj many damned by Councils as horrid 
Adulterers, Murderers, Simonifts, Hereticks, or 
Infidels : Nor will I recite how in the many 
wars between the Popes and Emperours, the Bi- 
fhops fwore, and unlwore, and forfvvore as the 
upper fide compelled them , as Vrfpergenfis 

tomplainetb. Nor will I ftand to tell y oil, ho vJ* 
the ir'ope and Patriarch of CotjftaMinopU {td 
\vhom adhere thofe 6f ^ntioch , yHtxandna 
and prtifulcm ) have thefe rhoufand years almolt-, 
divided and diftradted the Chriftian world, by 
Itrivmg which fh.ciild be the greareft, wheri 
ChriUhad lo fully decided the cafe; Bat what 
row if after fo jnany huncred years cor.fufion it 
f]-ciiid prove, that all this ftir was in the dark^ 
and thdtJMeftorws Eityches, and Diojc or us were 
of the fame mind except in words : Can the 
tongue of man then fifficiently exprefs the Bi- 
jfhbps guilt? A rare French Divine and Philofopher 
David Derodon hath written aTreatife de [uppvfito^ 
CQ-pioufly proving that Neftonus was orthodox^ 
and Qril an hcretick, and all the firft Ephtjin 
C^iincil that adhered to him j ihat Eutjc^jcs 2Li\d 
D'fvfcoru^ taught but the fame herefie that 
Cyril didjiha-t the Council of Cdccdon ignorantly 
eondemned Ncfionus : diiA truly ftablifhed hi^ 
opinion ? /and cryed up Qt// and damned his 
dod:rinc : And he citeth abundant pafTages oot 
o^ Cyril ^ where be ex^ rtflv denyeth two nature j- 
in Cbrilt, ( as Ep. 2. adjcci/s. In Chnfto dnag 
naturasjtriit.'is afferimt^s: pojt unicncm vero adewpta. 
jum m dnas diVijione, unam ejfc credtmirts natutam 
filii mcarnati: ) And that NcfioriHs exprefly 
alTureth that there are two natures and but one. 
per Ton : Ihe citations are numerous and unde- 
niable. But I think that Cjnl^ Emyches and 
Diofcori:s f who were all of one mind J did 
mean that the natures WTre but one: in op- 
poiltion to divijioKy but not rn oppofiriun to 
dift motion. And that Ne^'tnus fa id they were 
two as ciifttngmjh^d but not as divided^ and all 


this blood, reparation and confufion was between 
men of one mind , for want of skill in the 
explication of words,and through worldly dellgns. 
I know fome will fay, were allthefe Comcils of 
Bijhops fnch fools in companfon of joh ? But can a 
man deny notorious truth in reverence to Bi- 
(hops ? If To, which part of iheBifhops muft I be- 
lieve if they fay the ihow is black : The ArrianSy 
and Efitychians were far the greater number. 

And now as the beft Phiiofophcrs think that expe- 
riments de faBo muft be premifedto the Theory, 
fo we think this touch of hiftory muft be confide- 
red by them that think Jewish High Priefthood,or 
National, Patriarchal or Mcrropolitical fuperiori- 
ty is the nccellary means' of the Churches Con- 
cord : Let them compare the diflentions caufed 
by little village Bifhop? and fynods for mee r Con- 
cord, yea or by feparating heady people, with thcfe 
which Patriarchall and Metropolitical feats have 
caufed, and they will appear to be to them but as 
a fcuffle at Billinfgate to the French Wars : And 
yet we have inftanced but in the beft times of 
dominion, in comparifon of which Councils, Pre- 
lates and later times have been a mccv hnYncane, 
In a word, they that think that the mffchiefs of 
fffper tour feats are greater than the benefits^ do ap- 
peal to all Church hijiory^ whether they have not 
been the true and principal caufes of the diftradi- 
onsof the Chriftian world, and cf the long divifion 
of the Eaftand Weft , and of many civil and grie- 
vous wars. 

§ 40. And to the objedions they fay, I. As to 
Appeals and Government of Inferiors, i. That the 
]aft appeals have ever been made to General 
Councils : And how they went when ever the 

V Prince 

Prince did but countenance errour, ( as in the dales 

of Confiantiiis and Faiens, many great Councils 

that were for the yirrtans ^ and in Theodofms 

fmiors time, for the Eutychians Sec.) is too fad 

to think on. And is it not far more dangerous for 

many hundred in a Council to bear down a whole 

Empire or Kingdom, and raife perfecution, and 

there be no appeal from them, than for a poor 

Frieft to put a man from the Sacrament in his ow^n 

Parifh Church ? How' many Councils have been 

againft Images in Churches, and how many for 

them, condemning one anothers arts ? What good 

will appeals do to fuch, 2. In dodrinal cafes the 

confcnr of many tends to concord : But in cafes 

of perfonal pr2<^ice, are they fit judges to appeal 

to, that dwell many hundred miles off, and know 

none of the perfons ; fuppofe a poor man in Er.g* 

land is put from theComm.union by a Parifh- Pried 

( yea, perhaps an hundred or many hundred in 

ibme parifhes ) becaufe he findeth fome to be 

utterly ignorant fome to be drunkards,fornicators, 

heretic 1, 6:c. If thefe appeal but to aDiocefan 

which dwelleth 20, miles from fome, 40, or 60, or 

100 miles from others, the remedy is worfethan 

the difeafe : For if the Prieft muft travel fo far^ 

and bring his witnefles and plead the caufe with 

men that never faw the party before, f where 

neighbourhood giveth a furer knowledge than any 

fuch examination of ftrangerscan do, and alfrange 

Chancelor orDiocefan knoweth not which witnefles 

are moft credible ) and all this while his Paltoral 

Charge ( perhaps many thoufand fouls) muft be 

negled:ed, while the Minifter is profecuting thefe 

appealing finners ; will not the evil of this be 

greater than the benefit ? But how much more if 



every finner muft appeal to a Patriarch many 
hundred miles off? A fober mind will be afhamed 
to think of the procefs of fuch a fair. If you fay 
that it is not in the cafe of fuch finners as thefe 
whereof every Parifh abound"?, that you would have 
appeals^ at leaftnot to Patriarchs, fo far off ; I 
anfwer, i. Then anlwer your own objection : What 
remedy (hall they have if the Bifhop wrong them ? 
2. What is the cafe than that you fuppofe fuch 
fupraordinations of power necelTary forf If you 
fay. If Minifters themfilves [hoM be excommunicate. 
It is anfwered. That none but Bifhops or other 
fuperior powers pretend authoritatively asRectors 
to excommunicate Paftors 5 Therefore this is no- 
thing to them that are againft all fuch fuperiority 
of Paftors : Where none fuch are, none liich can 
excommunicate, or be injurious. And if there muft 
be a higher Bifhop to deliver men from the injuries 
of a lower, who fhould deliver us from him, who 
may injure Kingdoms ? 

Obj. But it is ftippofcd that Patriarchs are wifer 
and better men than Metropolitans y and thoje than 
Bijhops, and thofe thanFrieJh : And that ameer 
Friejt is not to be trtifted with the power of ths Keys. 

Anf I. The power of the Keys of his particular 
Church is eftential to his Office; 2. They that 
will make Priefts of raw lads and naughty fellows, 
and then plead that fuch muft not be trufted with 
theOffice which they thcnafelves ordained them to, 
do condemn themfelves by fuch allegations, 3. The 
old Church Government was, for every particular 
Church, no more numerous than our Parifhe?, to 
have a Bifhop and Presbyters : And" thefe v/ere 
thought fufficient to judge who was fit for their 
pWH Cpmrnunion, 4. Hierom was but a Prieft, &^^ 
And Macsdonifis^ NelJ^orius^ Diofcorns, Timot^^y 


JEIurus^ Peter Moggus^ Gregory Alex\ Lucius \At' 
%h, aL Theodofms yiL Euialius Antioch^. 
Eup'-ronius u4nt. PUcitus Ant, Stephanns Ant, 
L sent ins Ant Eudox'ws Ant, Euz^cius Ant, aU 
Heretirks x-vere all Patriarchs; and to reckon the 
enormities of the P,oman High Priefrs, is a need- 
le's vvork. Is it to be fuppofed then, that thefe were 
better than Friefts ? Doth Chrift fay that it is as 
hLrd for a i ich man to enter into Heaven as for a 
Camel to p,o through a needles eye, and ft^all we 
that are Chriftians liiy, that it is to be fuppofed 
that the rich clergie are better men than the poor? 
When Greg, NaT^ia:-,^. Saith that ftich great places 
ufe 10 make Bifhops worfethan they were before. 
All hiltory tells us what ftriving there was for fuch 
places? When Ei-ifebius refufed Antkch^^wo Friefts 
weie prefencly at Conflantines elbow to beg that 
place, and he was fain to mention them ( though 
they were not chofen.} What a ftir did Maximus 
make at Cor^flamincple, ^g^pi 2nd with the Empe- 
rour to have got Gregorys place at Conflantlnople ? 
And fo with others. And is it not a flefhly, proud 
and wordly mind ( which is the work of the De- 
vil ) which is the importunate feeker ? And muft 
we needs appeal to fuch f 3. But to comeneerer, 
what need is there of any fuch appeal or fuch a 
Government, if^ i. A Bifhop with his Presbyters 
be over every particular Church ( aflbciated for 
perfonal Communion in holy dodrine, worfhip 
and Corvcrfation ? ) 2. And if thefe Churches 
aflbciare tor mcer concord and mutual help ( and 
nor for Governing Bifliops ?) 3. And if the Ma- 
jiiftraie govern them all as "he doth Philofophers, 
i'hvficians. cVc- For i. If a Bifhop of a particular 
Church deny one the Svicrameat or excommunicate 

hirn ' 

him, he doth it juftly or unjuftly : If juftly, the 
perfon muftfubmit : If unjuftly, he may be recei- 
ved by a neighbour Bifhop who is not bound to 
rejed: thofe whom upon trial he findeth to have 
been wrongfully excommunicated : All neighbour 
Churches muft refufe thofe that are by anyone 
excommunicated juftlys but not all that are wrong- 
fully caft out. Some fay that he that doth excom- 
municate doth caft a man out of the whoIeChurch, 
and therefore no one elfe may receive him : Buc 
unexplained words muft not ferve to confobnd 
truth. Souls and Congregations. Every Minifter is 
a Minifter in the Univerfal Church (as every 
Fhyfician and Schoolmafter is in and to the King- 
dom ( indefinitely not univerfally j but his vpor^ 
^nd power arc commenfurate; his power being only 
to and for his wor^ Therefore rhe Bifhop or Paftor 
of one particular Church or Parifh, is bound to 
coafine his ordinary labour to them, though 
/)Ccafionally he may help others. And accordingly 
his power is to ufe the Keys ordlndrily for his 
own Chnrch onlj^ as to the direll cffeEl : though 
extraordinarily he may ufe it in other Churches 
when called thereto ; and by eonjequence it may 
reach further : For few Bifhops will think if ano- 
ther Bifhop come into their DiocelTes or Parifhes 
and excommunicate divers of rheir flocks, that 
thef and all others are bound to ftand to fuch mens 
fentence, and to hold fuch excommunicate. That 
which a Paftor doth in ofdinaryExcommunicaring^ 
is to declare ( after-proof ) that This perfon is by 
his fin and impenitency made uncap able of Commu^ 
nion with the Churchy and therefore to require him to 
forbear it^ and the people to avoid Communion with 
him\ and to pronoHnce him unpardoned before God, 

V 3 till 

^ill he repent . Now if this be done by one known 
to be heretical with whom the other Churches 
have no Commnnion, thofe other Churches arc 
not bound lo deny that man Communion. Nor 
5^er if he offer himfelf to their Communion, and 
they examine the matter, and find him wronged* 
It is concord in good, and not in evil, that we are 
bound to by the command of God : Therefore if 
any man be wrongfully put out of this Church, the 
next may and fliould receive him: And what ne- 
criTiry is there then, of going a thoufand or an hun* 
dred miles to a Pope, or Patriarch, or Diocefan,to 
right him? And whoever thought that there was 
need of an Univerfal Phyfician, or Schoolmafter,or 
a General Council of fuch to receive appeals from 
Patients and Scholars that are wrongfully turned 
out of the Hofpital or School? 

The Caviller will here tell you of difpariries in 
the cafes j but the queftion is, whether the dif-? 
rities be fuch as alter the reafon of the Conclufion. 
What man of confcience will be a Phyfician,School- 
inafter or Paftor, that hath not power to judge 
whom to receive for his Patient, Scholar, or part 
of his flock, but muft take all that fome other 
man (hail fend to him, or command him to re- 
ceive, and give them what others command him 
to give r An Apothecary may do fp, but not a 
Phyfician. What if a man had no other fcanda!, 
but to fay, / vciil not taks J^^ for my FafioYy nor take 
my jelf obliged to iinfwar yoUy ffeal^ with you^ give 
jcu any Mcnum of my [elf nor be quefiioned by you 
on any ncc^fation^ muft 1 be conftraincd to fuppofe 
this man to be one of my flock in defpite of his 
own dcnyal ? If the freedom of confent be not 
mutual, but I muft be conftrained to take thofe 
" for 


for my charge as Chriftians, that renounce fuch a 
relation, or will not own it ; a Paftor is not 6. free 
man, nor hath any power of the Church Keys,but 
is as an irrational Slave^ a Grver, or Executioner, 
that muft but execute another mans commands. 

2. But if there be need of appeals^ and our own 
adlions muft not be free, why will not the Synods 
of Neighbour- Paftors met only for CounjH and 
Concord (and not to command the Paftorsj fuffice 
for (uch perfons to appeal to ? And what if I turn 
a fervant out of my houfe, or from his meat, and 
he may take another Mafter when he will, muft 
there be an univerfal Judge of all family cafes^ 
that (hall force me to keep my fervant a^ainft my 
will ? Is it not enough that I know why I am un- 
willing to keep him, who am no way more bound 
to him than to others, but by my own confenc f 
What if (as Naz.ianz.en left Sajimls, Conftantinople^ 
and Naz.ianz.um at laftj I fhould give up my whole 
Charge and Bifhoprick, and fay, I will be a Paftor 
to none of them any more, (upon fufticient rea- 
fons, as Latimer did :) I? it not better for the 
people to take another,than to accufe me at Rome, 
ov Canterbury, as wronging them ? 

3-.Eut if all thisferve nor (neither the fufficien- 
cy of Paftors for one fingle Parifh, nor yet the 
Counfel of all the Neighbour-Paftors or Bifhops,) 
what is th^re more to be done, which the autho- 
rity of Princes and Ma^ifirares may not do f All 
Chriftians confefs ('almoft) that no Bifhops or Pa- 
ftors, as fuch, have from Chrift any forcing power 
over the flocks; that belongeih to the Magiftrates 
only; And they are to keep peace, and force us to 
our certain duty. And I would ask the contrary- 
minded, whether if Biftiops, Patriarchs and Coun- 
V 4 cils 

[2 9^1 

cils had no forcing power, but only to excommu- 
nicate by the application ofGods word,and leaving 
all men to their confciences, would this fort of 
Government fcrve their turn, and keep out Here- 
fies, or maintain order and unity? They fay no, 
thcmfdves: And next, whether it be not certain, 
and confefTed , that the Paftors have no other 
power, but the Magiftrates only ? 

Obj. But fiall all men gather Churches , and teach 
Hcrefic^ and do what they will ? 

-r^;;/ii\ I. The p.ower of Popes, Patriarchs or 
Councils, did not prevent it, when there were a)} 
the Heredes that fill £^/y?/:?^i//j Volumns: And 
when the far greateft part of the Clergy was long 
Arnan : And when the Neftortans and Emychians 
fc) greatly mulriplied £fter the condemnation of 
the Councils : And when the Novatians lived fo 
many years in reputation : and when the Donatifts 
nor they. were not diminifhed by Prelates or 
Councils Ccrnfu res, till the fword difperfed them. 
And cannot the Sword be drawn without fuch as 
have no power of it ? 

3. And as to thelaft (and greateft) reafon, that 
the Apoftles have fucctlTors who muftv order- 
ly exercile their Government 5 it is anfwered 

1. The common dodrine of the Church was, that 
all Eidibps are their Succefibrs fo far as they have 
fuccv fTions I and eyery Church of one Altar had a 
BifiH)p in, the daies 0^ Jgnatifis, and long after. 

2. The Council of Carthage (aid. None of us call- 
eth hlmfelf Bifhop of Bifhops. 3. But if any be fet 
as the B'fhop of many Bifhops and Churches, fo 
be it they, ufe no violence, butgovern volunteers 
as a I! the old Bifhops did, and forbid them nothing 
commanded of God , nor command them any 


thing which Cod forbidderh, and deftroy not the 
order, dodtrine, worfliip or difcipline of the lefler 
particular Churches, we have before faid, that we 
fhall fubmit to fuch. 

§ 41. IV. As to the queftion, whether the Go- 
vernment fetled by Chrift in National Churches be 
(as to the Clergy from all parts, Monarchical)Ari-. 
ftocratical or DemocraticaI,and who muft have the 
fummam potefiatem^he difagreement of the perfons 
that we have herein to do with, puts us into utter 
defpair of any folution. And what good will it do 
us to believe that fome muft be obcyed,if we can- 
not be certain who it is. 

§ 42. V. And to the queftion, Whether the King 
he the formal^ or only the accidental Church-head ^ 
We find no more agreement. 1. Some think that 
the King, ^s Melchtz^ede^, is a mixt perfon, fecular 
and Clergy, and hath both Offices to ufeand com- 
municate, as they fay, the Princes before ^aron 
had. 2. Others fay, that this is not ro,but that the 
Clergy- jarifdidion,diftin6t from the Prieftly com- 
mon power,is a branch of theChriftian Magiftrates 
power, and fo derived from the King. 3. Others 
fay that the Churchy formally, is diltind: from the 
Civil State, though not alwaies materially. And 
that the King as King, is but an Accidental Civil 
Head, as he is over Phyficians and Schoolmafters, 
being neither himfelfj and that the National 
Chiirch muft have z formal Clergy- he ad, (^Perfonal 
or Colleclive ) which (hall in fuo genere, be the 
higheft, though under the Magifttates Civil Go- 
vernment, as Phyficians are/4. The Papifts fay,that 
all National Churches are under the Pope as Uni- 
verfal Paftor, who may alter them as he feeth 
caufe. 5'. Some moderate men fay, that only Diq- 
?efan ("and Mccropolitical) Churches are jure Di- 



vino, and that they are called National, only im- 
properly from one King, or concording aflfociation 
z^ab accideme^ and not properly from ^ny formal 

§ 45. VI. Laftly, which is the formal Head of 
the Church o^ Enghnd^zn^ fo what that Church is, 
we are left as much uncertain, i. If it be only a 
Civil Head that denominateth it 0/;^,then it is but 
a Chriftian Kingdom, which we never qaeftioned. 
And Dr. Rich, Cofins, in his Tables of the Englifh 
Church'Policy, faith {that the King hath Admini-- 
ftrationem pApremam mstglfque abfolatam, qu£ dici^ 
tar Prim^tus Regius, And Tho. Crom^ton in his de- 
dication of it to K. ^4 w^j, faith [ Ecclejiaflrica ]fi- 
rifdittio plane R^gia efl, Coronte & dignitatis veflra 
RegiA primxy praciptiajndivifibilis pars : Ecclefafti^ 
C£ leges R^giafanty neque alibi orifintur, ant aliuade 
[nftentantur, ant ftilciuntur '. penes Ecclefiafitcos ju- 
dices per Archi^pifcopos & Epifcopos,derivata a Re-- 
ge patejfate, jnrifdi^io Ecclejiaflica conpliit : And 
yet our Kings and Church explaining the Oath of 
Allegiance, declare that the King pretendeth not 
to the Pricfthood, or power to' adminifter the 
Word and Sacraments j but, as Crompton adds from 
Cunfiamine, is extra Ecclefiam conflitutus a Deo E- 
pifcopm J aiii intra Ecclefiam Epifcopi, This is plain: 
If they hold to this, and claim no power in the 
Engl ifh-Policy, but as the Kings Officers, in that 
part which belongeth to Chriftian M.igiftrates,who 
will oppole them ? But this reacheth not to the 
Keys, Preaching or Sacraments. 2. Some fay that 
the King is partly a Clergy- mm, as Mdchiz^ede^, 
and fo that he is the formal Head, and might per- 
form the Prieftly Office if he would : But this our 
Kings have therafelves renounced. 3. Some fay 

' that 

that the Archbifliop of Canterhary is the formal 
Head 5 but that cannot be, because he is no Go- 
vernour over the ArchBifhop of Tork^^ or his 
Province. 4. Moft (ay thai the Convccarwn is the 
formal Church- Head, which makes it One Politi- 
cal Church. But i. If fo, then why faith the Canon 
that the Convocation [w the true Church of EngLmd 
hy Reprcfentation] and thofe excommunicate that 
deny it ? We enquire atter the Church-Head or 
Governour : And that which is but the Church it 
felf by reprcfentation, is not its H:ad^ unlefs the 
Head and Body be the fame, and the Church go- 
vern it felf, and fo it be Democratical : The go- 
verned and Governours, fure, are not the fam.e. 
2. And the Supream Power is fuppofed, by thofe 
that take Epifcopacy for a diftincH: Order, to be in 
the Supream Order only : Bur the far greater part 
of the Convocation are not oi the Supream Order : 
Nay, thus the Presbyters (hould be partly the 
chief Governours of the Bifhops while they make 
Canons for them. 3, When we did but motion 
that according to Arch-Bi(hop V/kers form of the 
Primitive Epifcopacy, Presbyters might joyn with 
the Bifhops in proper executive Church-govern- 
ment inltead of Lay-Chancellors, and fuch like, 
they decryed it as Presbytery, and call us Presby- 
terians ever fince : And if they fay that the Pref^ 
byters have fo great a part in the Supream Go- 
vernment it felf, which obligeth all the Nation, 
how much more would they be themfelves Pref 
byterians, which they fo abhor ? 

§ J 4. Having oft faid that we defire Chriftian 
Kingdoms as the great blefTing of the world, we 
mean not either that i. All in a Kingdom (hould 
be forced to be baptized, or profefs themfelves 


Gliriftians, whether they are fj or not : For lying 
will not five men, nor pleafe God ; and even the 
Papiftsare ag^ainft this: 2. Nor that all fhould be 
fuppofed to be Chriftian? that are in thr Kingdom. 
But that the K'n^^<? be GhrJftians, and ih'^ Laws 
countenance Chriftianityj and the m it or ruling 
part of the Kingdom be Chriftians, and all ;un: en- 
deavours nfed to make all the reit fo. The An- 
cient Churches continued them Catechumens till 
they were fit for Baptifm 5 and though they were 
for Infant Baptifm^ they compelled none to be bap- 
tized in Infancy, or at Age, but left it to free 
choice. They baptized but twice a year ordinari- 
ly''. They kept m my offenders many years from 
communion. And if Crahs Roman Council fpth fit- 
V2fi,h^ true, they at Rom'^ admitted, not penitents, 
till fonrty yea^s funderftand it as you fee caufe :) 
The true Eiibertine Canons kept many out fo ma- 
ny years, and many till death, and many abfolute- 
ly, as (hewed that they were far from taking all 
che Nation into the Church* And the Chriftian 
Emperours compelled none. It was long before 
the greateft part of the Empire were Chriftian?. 
In the daies of /^^/^«r, the Biihops were fome of 
rhem banifhed into places that had few Chriftians, 
if any. In France it fclf, even in Sr. Martins daies, 
the Chriftians of his flock were nor the moft, but 
he wrought miracles to convince the Heathens 
that raged againft Chriftianity,where he dweltj&c, 

§ I. There are two appendent Controverfies 
handled by Qrca^ that write for National Churches;- 
which need but a brief folution : The firft is,whe- 
ther it be not an Independent Errour to expe(ft red 

hlinefs in Chfircb-memhers^as necejfarj in the jadg-' 


fnem of charity ? The fccond. Whether it he not 
fuc'h an Errour to rec^ftrre the bond of n Covenant he- 
ftdt the Baptfmal Covenant t 

§ 2. To the firft we fay^ that fo much is written 
on this point by one of us in a Treatife called D//- 
fw at ions vj Right to SacrawcKts, &:c. that we think 
meet to lay no more: The Opj onentsnow ccnfefs 
that it mult be f'iving Faith and Confent to the 
B apt I fmal Covenant that muft be proftfred : And 
Papilts and Protcftants agree with all the Ancicnc 
Church, that Baptifm putreth the true Ccnfenter 
into a ftate of certain pardon and title to life : And 
God maketh not known lying, a condition 
of Church-communion : He that helieveth, and a 
hapttz,ed,/}:alUefavcd. It is true, that God hath 
not made Minifters Arbitrary Judges of mens 
fecret thoughts, but hath limited them in judging 
to take their tongues that profejs Faith and Confent 
to be the Indices Af their minds : But fure the 
power of the Keys containeth a power of judging 
according to Chrift's Law, who is to be taken into 
the Church by Baptifm, and who not: If only the 
feeker be made Judge, it will be a new way of 
Church-Government, and a bad. And then the 
queftion is, i. Whether he that accepts ones prc-^ ' 
feilion feemingly ferious, o^ Faith and Confent ^zvA 
that de prafeutCj is not bound to ho}>e in charity 
that fuch a one doth not lie or diffemble ? 2. Whe- 
ther a baptized perfon, as fuch, have no right to 
our fpecial love which we owe to ihofe that we 
hope are true Believers, and fandtified ; but only 
to our common love and kindnefs,which belongeth 
to tho(e alfo that arc the heirs of Hell .^ Some 
friends that are gone from extream to extreani, 
and in remembrance of their ancient Schifm.s can 


look but one way with impartial fenfe, and that 
have made their repentance the palTage to a grea- 
ter errour and fin, (hould better bethink them 
them what they do. They did well to ftand ftill 
in the way of Schifm, when they faw here a leg, 
and there a hand, and there an arm in their way 5 
and who but a mad-man indeed would not : But 
if they have impartially read Ghurch-hiftory, and 
the works of fuch Fathers as give us hiftorical no- 
ticeSj and ever fince Con^antine made a Bifhoprick 
a bait to a proud and worldly mind 5 even fuch as 
Naz.ianz^en^ Bafil, Chryfoftom, Ifidore Pelufiotay Hi- 
Ury PiHav, ahd the over-orthodox difputations of 
Cjnly and the Epiftles of Theodoret rejoycing at his 
death, and abundance of fuch like 5 had they (een 
in the way of Church-pride and tyranny, not here 
a leg, and there an arm, but here a hundred car- 
kaifes, and there a thoufandj here two thoufand 
godly faithful Preachers filenced, and many thou- 
fand dry Vines planted in their rooms, and there 
whole Kingdoms interdicted, and their Churches 
fhut up; here Churches and Kingdoms turned in- 
to confufions about a W(?r^, or about th^ imere^ 
of Prelates^ (triving which (hould be the Chief, and 
have their wiT and rule the reft; and there hundred 
thoufands murdered in the name of Chrift, for 
obeying him, and bloody wars managed by the 
Clergy againft Chriftian Emperours, and Kings 
ftabbed one after another; and moft of the Chri- 
ftian world, Romanfireek^, Ji^ofcov it esy Armenians^ 
Abajfines, degenerated into doleful ignorance and 
dead formality under the Government of great 
High-Priefts_, and millions of the vulgar bred up 
in ignorance and fenflefnefs of (pirirual and eternal " 
things 5 this fhould ftop them, (at Icaft from fer-^ 

virg the mafter of fuch defigns) as much as a leg, 
or an arm in the way. 

3. At leaft we would intreat them to hate 
that miftake, which will pretend to do all this for 
charity,unity and the Churches good 5 and to be- 
lieve that itisnofign of charity, i. To believe 
that charity {Ixuld not be exercifed in judging 
that men profefling faving faith do fpeak the 
truth , and have the f^tith that they profefs : 

2. Nor to teach all Chriil.s Church^that a baptized 
Church member as [fich is to be lockt on but as a 
man in a ftate of dsmnation; and no man is bound 
to love him as a true Chriftian v ith a fpecial love: 

3. And that to prove that a man is not to be taken 
for a true Chriltian,but to be admitted into Church 
Communion as one that fhall have a greater dam- 
nation than heathens,without a further renovation, 
is a great a<fl of Charity, Contrary to the unchari- 
table narrownefs of others.Thefe are too great re- 
celTes from Anabaptiftry,but not from real Schifm. 

§ 3. As for thofe that will not take the intelli- 
gent fe nous projfjficn of true Faith, and Covenant' 
Conjent for a credible lign of the fincerity of the 
ProfelTor, till they can fufficiently difprove it, but 
will be the arbitrary Judges of mens hearts, either 
as pretended heart-fearchers, or by felf-devifed, 
or uncertain figns, not taking up with this Pro- 
feflion, we are no Patrons of (uch mensprcfump- 
tion and uncharitablenefs. 

§ 4. There are various degrees of Credibility 
in mens profelTions ; (cme give us To much as is 
next to certainty 5 feme but fmall hopes: But yet 
till we can difprove them, we are to take their 
profcffions as credible in fome degree. And if they 
prove falfe, it is they that will have thelofs. 

§ 5. II. The fecond cafe about Church Cove- 
nants deferveth no longer a difcufTion. He that 
Will put any article unnecefTary into any fuchCove- 
nant, finfully corrupteth the order of the Church: 
As if he would bind the people to be Church 
Governours, or never to depart fronti that par- 
ticular Church but by the confent of the Paftor, 
or the flock, or any fuch like : And he miftaketh 
that will make a more expUcite contrad to be 
more neceffary than it is. But it feemeth ftrange to 
us that any underftanding Chriftian fhould deny/ 
that confent is abfolutely nec^flary to the being of 
an adult member both of the univerfal, and each 
particular Church refpeftively. What bindeth a 
man to confent is another queftion^ but if he be 
any member of the Church till he profefs confent, 
we know not what a Chriftiah or Church member 
is. An explicit e covenant is necelTary to our relation 
to the Vniverfal Church for it muft be [otemniz^ed 
facramentallj : That we exprefs it by writings or 
words is not of neceffity to our memberfhipof a 
particular Church : But confent is neceffary ; And 
mmual confent espreffed fatisfacftorily, is a contra(ft 
or Covenant: If the Paftorfay all that confent^ 
hold up your hand, or ftand up, or ftay here while 
the reft depart, &c. thefeare fignifications of con- 
fent : And if it be notified that all that appear at 
the folemn Affemblies, and attend the Paftors Mi- 
riftry, (hall be taken for Confenters, their prefence 
and attendance is a profcffion of Confent indeed, 
and fo a covenanting. But though the moft expli- 
cit be not neceffary ad effe^ no man can give a rea- 
fon why it (hould not be beft ad bene efje, feeing 
the moft intelligent and plain dealing in the great 
thii;gs of God, are moft fuitable to the work, and 



fittcft to attain the end : why fliould we tiotdeal 
openly and above board? 

§ 6. It is certain that to be a Chriftian maketh 
no man a member of any mans particular flock or 
charge. And it is certain that none can be (uch 
without confent. And it is certain that the Paftor 
is not to take every Atheift, Jew, Infidel, Papii% 
Heretick, &"c. in his Parifh for a member of the 
Univerfal, or of that particular Church. Therefore 
be muft know whom to take for fuch. And ic is 
certain that the conlent muft be mutual, Co far is 
the Paftor from being a Have and bound to every 
mans defires, that he is entrufted with ihe Church 
Keys himfelf. 

§ 7. A worthy perfon on this fuh)c6t maketh 
thefe fix things fufficienr to fuch Church relation : 
I. That they be baptized Chriftiansj 2. ^ eighhours 
bound to mutual love 5 3. And apt to Neighbourly 
duty 5 4. That providence make us fuch Neigh- 
bours 5 5. Scripture Churches took their name 
from cohabitation: 6. The command of authority^ 
that fo it (hall be. Frefh/mt, pag, 260. 

^nf By making thefe fix the fufficient proof 
of Parifh Churches, our friend unhappily -would 
confequenrly unchurch them all : For if this were 
all, certainly they were none at all. For all thefe 
Cwhich he maketh more than they are)arebut th^' 
difpofltio materi&y antecedent to any reception of 
the form, i* For all that he infcrreth or can infer 
from thein SiW is oh ligation to confe^t and to other 
dmies after confem. But ctligation maketh not the 
relation of a member : All that are obliged to be 
Chriftians are not Chrifiians : All that are obliged 
to be Paftors are not paftors : Nor all that are ob- 
i ged to confent firft and to do the duty of Paftors 

X after 

after : Even as all that are oblip:ed to cdnfent to 
be fubjed:*. Husbands, Wives, Mahers, Servants^ 
Tutors, Sch6brs, ^^c, fire not fich : If mecr oh^ 
Itgatfon (erve to one relation, \ahy notto others? 
2. Elfe a man might be a true Faftor unchofen, 
unordained and againtt his will F.vrhe muy by Ins 
qL rficationj^ Vf^ obliged to be ordairtd aud to 
become a Paltor. 3. And fo the peoj^^e may be the 
flock of one- that was obliged *o be their Pallor, 
when anovhcr is fet over them and in poficiTion^ 
becaiile it was the firft thjt was obliged, and they 
to choofe him : And fo ttrer Ccnfufion will come 
in : And it a man can prove that another mans 
wife c'kd fervant was ob^ged to be his, he may 
take thtm as his indeed. 3. By this rule all the 
Papilts, Seekers, Qiiakers Sec. that renounce cur 
Churches, ihould yet be members of them, be- 
caute they 'live in the Partfli, and are commanded 
to be members: Which who believe th ? 4. A mem- 
ber of a Church hath right to Communion and 
Minilterial vigilancie and help: But fo hath not 
every ba^^tized perfun that is commanded to be a 
iriembei-, and obeyeth not that command. If a 
inan fay to a Pallor, I will be none of your flock, 
or Church, but yet I require you to do the ofl^ce 
of a Paftor to me,though I renounce your relation 
to me, and the people to ufe me as a member 
of the flock, becaufe I am commanded to be a 
member, thi« v\erea flrange claim. 5. If this did' 
hold, then no man that liveth in the PariCh could 
bf a proper feparatiit, fo as to break off himlelf 
from That Church, nor become a member of ano- 
ther, unlels he apoflstized from Chrift : For he 
would be ftin trader the Magiftrates Command and 
obligation : Bui the conlequent is abfud : Wh} do 


the fame men fpeak fo much againft fchirmatica! 
rtnd'ng mens felves from the true Churches, and 
g'lrhering other Churches,if there be no fuch thing? 
The Laws change nor,which oblige them. 6. They 
that are againft fchifm and fingularity, (hould be 
againft thisopinionjbecaufe (as it is utterly abfurd, 
fo) if i? notoriouflv contrarv to the Judgment of 
all th^ Chrillian world in all ages to this day^as ac- 
quaintance with Church hiftory may tully inform 
them. They have ever taken mutual confent be- 
tween the PaiYors and the flock ro be necelTary to 
the being of a particular Clv-jrch 5 and thar what- 
ever they were oblie^ed to, they were not atfbu rlly 
related to each other as PrKor and f • ck till they 
confented : And therefore have noted fchifmatical 
Churches m tlie fame Cities that have been no 
part« of theChurch which rbevdifowiied. 

§8. Bur ir is objected, that this unchurchcth 
our Pari{l>Churches, and all the Churches m the 

^r,f. Not one : But theconrrary would. Our 
Parifh Churches are affociated b^^^iiutual confent : 
The Paftor expreffeth hh confent oj>enly at his 
inilitution^ indudlion and officiating : The Flocks 
(hew their confent by adual fjbmitting to his Mi- 
nifterial Office: They hearhim, and communicate 
ordinarily with him, and leek Miniftcrial helj) from 
him; though all that are in the Pariih do ijot 
fo, thofe do ir that are indeed his fiock,orChurch. 
Thev do not perhaps by ivordov wntivg covenant 
to fubmit to him as their Paftor, but they do 
it by adual lignification of confent to the re- 
lation. And the Bifhops in Confecration enter into 
a Covenant to watch over the flock ( as do the 
Friefts)aT]d the Priefts promife (^ifnot fwear, in 
X 2 EngLr/i'^ 


Efj^Ufjd) to obev them : This is a Covenant.' 

§9. It i* obje(n:ed that this is a difparagement 
to Baptifm, which is the only Church-making Go- 

^nj, Baptifm only, as ruch,maketh us members 
of the univerfal Church; but is not enough to 
make us of any Miniilers fpecial flock : lam not a 
member of the Church of Tor^, Norwich, Brifiol, 
Sec. becaufe I am baptized : Nor am I a member 
of t\ie Parifb- Church now where I was baptized^ 
Conicnt to be a Chriftian is one thing, and con- 
lentto be a member of this particular Ghurch,and 
to take this man more than all the reft about us, 
for the Guide of my foul, is another. 

§ I o. And if a man would fay, I will be a mem- 
ber of this Pariih Churchy and you (hall perform 
Co much of your Office as I defire, and no more 5 1 
will hear and receive the Sacrament but when I 
pleafe, and I will not admit you to catechize or 
inftrudany of my family, nor vifit the fick, nor 
will I be refponfible to you for any thing that I 
hold, or fay, or do ; nor have any thing to do with 
you3 but in the Clmrch ; is a Miniltcr bound to 
do his office to men, or take them for -his fpecial 
flock on thefe terms ? The ancient Churches had 
abundance of ftrid Canons ; if the people /hould 
have chofen a Biffiop, and faid^ We will obey none 
of thefe Canons, nor you, but you fhall be our Bi- 
fliop on our terms, w^ashe bound to have confent- 
ed, and to have been fuch a Bifliop? This is really 
the cafe of no fmall part o^ England, though they 
fuy it not openly by words. 

^ ii. It is objcdedj^to as ^poftles^ fo ordain- 
edAUmfters have their authority before the confent 
cfthe people and receive it net from then?^ 


'^jinf. I. Who ever queftioneth it, that is con- 
fiderate, as to an indefinite charge in the Church 
univerfal? But what's that to the queltion ? Are 
all the Minifters in the world bound to be the 
Paftors orthis-Paridi orDiocefsf Our queltion is 
what conftitureth the relations between a Partor 
and his Particular flock? Doth not ih.e ordainer 
here fay ^ Juke than Authority to Preach the 
Word of God, &c, when thoH art thereto Uwftd^ 
ly called ">. Becaufe a man is a Liccnfed Phyfician 
without me, doth it follow that he is my Phy- 
fician without my confent f 2. Are all thofc 
Church-members that Minifters are authorized 
to preach to f Then all the Heathen- world are 
Church-members. 3. They receive not authority 
from the people 5 but their confent is nccelTary 
to make themfelves capable receivers of the re- 
lation and right of Church- members. God, and 
not the Wife, gWeth the Husband the fuperiority; 
but he is no fuch Husband to any that confenteth 

§ 12. God hath laid mens rights and benefits 
on their wills, {o that no man can have them 
againft his will. It is a great priviledg'C to have 
right to communion with a particular Church, and 
to this or that faithful Paftors overfighr : And its 
new Dodrine to (ay, that unwilling perfons have 
this right^ becaufe they are willing of (bmething 
elfe, V17.. to be members of the Church uni- 

§ 13. We conclude therefore that both ex- 
treams here are falfe 5 i. That men can be adult 
members of a particular Church ♦ihar confent not, 
or taken for fuch that. no way fignifie their con- 
fent, and that it is not ufeful ad bene cJfc^ that this 

X 3 confent 


confcnc be intelligent and exprefs, and that the 
Offices confented to be truly underftood. 2. That 
a written^ or verbal covenant is of abfol.ite necef- 
luy 5 or thar men fhould tie rhemfelves tv) any 
thing doubt 'ul, or unneceflary, but only to the 
reiatio:i and duties of membeys (as of the univerfal 
fo) of that particular Church, Both thele ex- 
treams we do renourice. Mr. Zachary Caw dry a 
Conformift, hath fhewed in a particular Treatife 
for Cliurch-ccvenantir.g, how far he is from the 
mind of thote Objedoff J for he wonld have the 
people engaged by covenant to their Bifliops and 

§ 14. To conclude, thou?;h we renounce fana- 
tic k Enrhufiatts, yet (erious confideration maketh 
fome of us think, that too little notice is taken of 
the HOLY GHOST fetting Paitors over the 
flocks, which the Scripture mentioneth: And 
though none on pretence of the Spirit muft rejed: 
order or ordination^ nor make themfelves thefole 
Judges of their own fufficiency 5 yet i. The due 
qualification of men with wifdom, faith, love, and 
heavenly zt-al, and ability, is the moft excellent 
part of our Calling to the Miniftry. 2. Ex c^mvis 
liono riori fit Mcrcmms'^ without neceifary fitnefs 
no man is a true Paitor having not dijpofitionem re- 
captivam : And without eminent fitneis, few are 
eminently ferviceable. 5. Experience alFureth us, 
that though the Office hath ftvpernumtraries, yet 
of worthy men God never yet railed up fupernu- 
mera-.ies, but the fcarcity is lamentably great. 
4. All therefore thar are duly qualified, and have 
cpportuniry, fhould be chofen, cidained, accepted, 
and acctpc the Gall, if not offer thcmlelves, iu 


cafe they cannot otherwife enter. 5. TlieOr- 
dainer doth but minifterially invert him with the 
power, whom the Spirit of God hath qualified 
for it, by the inward Gall. 6. In cafe the Ordainers 
by envy, or malignity, or faftion, retufe fuch, 
where there is true Ncceffitj^ and Opportunity^ we 
conceive that mutual content of the people and 
themfelves, may (uffice to the orderly admittance 
into the Office, much more if the Magiftrate alfo 
confent : Of which fee l^oetim de dc/par^taCanfa 
Fapatus,anda Dtfpute ofOrdtnatton^ by R. B, 


Three Venerable Monitors 



I. ^ft Fpifile ofityj African Coffncil,(in Cyprian 68. 
p. 200.) to¥3c]\x tt rrcsOjtcr, and the Laity at 
Legio and Alturica • u4nd to LcT'jus the Deacon^ 
and the Laitj At \\\ntx\\.^^conccrntngthe ir BtJ}:ops 
Bafilidcs and Martial who vrcrc LwillMtckj'^, 

' When pcrfccution was hot, fomc that would not of- 
fer Inccnlc at Idols Altars, nor renounce Chnf^, yet to 
I'dve their lives diJ, !liri>iiph fe.ir, in Iccret, hire another 
to luhlcTibe their names to a finf'ni | -ntelhon ; nnd ihcfc 
were called f.t'rU.tncH -, and it marbled the Churclics 
whcti.er, aiui when tl.cy fhould be received to commu- 
ni-n upon their repentance. 

WHc n we wcrr met ropcthrr,moft beloved 
B^'Cthrcn, we read voi:r Letters, wliich 
for ("or //.) the integrity of your faith, and the fear 
of God you wrote to us bvour Bifhops i-*rf//.vand 
5.^^; ;;///, nj^nifving that iiu^Uides and Martial being 
blorted {or defi/ej) with Lilch ()f Ic'olatrv, and 
guilfv of heinous ciime?/)iighr not to exercifc the 
Office ofBifhcpc, and adminifterthe Prielthf»od of 
G<k\ : And yon defirtd iif to write back to you 
hereof, and that vuur ncccllarv (ullicitude iniglic 



be eafcd either by the comfort or the help of our 
judgment or fentence. But to this your defire,noc 
fo much of^r Connfels as Gods Precepts give an an- 
fwcr, in for ^;) which ir is long ago for already) 
by the i^envenly voice commanded, and By the 
Law of Cod prefcribed, who, and what fort of men 
mui^ferve at the Altar, and celebrate the Divine 
Sacrifices. For in Exodtf- God fpeaketh to Mofes, 
and warneth him, faying, Let thePriefts who draw 
neer to the Lord God be fandlified, left God for- 
fake them 5 and when thcv come neer to minifter 
at the Altar of the Holy, let them not bring them- 
felves into fin, left they die. And in Leviticns God 
commanderh and faith. Let not the man that hath 
a blemilh or vice draw neer to otFer gifts to God, 
2. Which things being already fpoken and manifeft 
to us, it is neceilary that our obedience attend to 
God's commands : Neither may mans indulgence 
accept the perfon, or grant any thing to any one 
in fuch things where God's prefcription, interced- 
eth and givpth a Law. For we muft not forget 
what God by the Propet Efalas faith to the Jews, 
reproving them, and angry with them, that con- 
temning the commands of God, they followed the 
docflrines of men. This people, faith he, honoarcth 
me with their lips, but their heart is jar feparated 
from me ; and m vain do they worfloip me, teaching 
the commands and doSirine: of men: which the 
Lord alfo in the Gofpel repeateth and faith, Te 
reje^ the command of God, that jmi nmy efabliflo 
jour own tradition. Having thefe things before our 
eyes, and cafefully and religioufly confiderirg 
them, in the Ordinations of Priefts, we ought to 
chufe no BiftK ps bat men unfporred and entire, 
Tvho holily and worthily otfering the S^cri^ 


fices to God, msvbe heard in the prayers which 
they make for the fafetv of the people of Godjfee- 
ing it is written, rhat(7'y^heareth not a Tinner, but 
ifaoy man wo'-djip God, and do hi^ wi'l, him he 
hearethc 3 For wuich redfbn wirh fall diligence, 
and fincert fryil thofe men m.ilt be cbufen to the 
Prierthood, \vh *.n it is mj.ntelt God doth hear. 
And let not the Liy people fla«-te' t hemfelvcs, as 
if they could be free from the Contagion of the 
c»me, when rhey comnanicate with a fmful 
Prieft, and give their convene to the unjult and un- 
lawful Epifcopjcy.of th^ir Governour, feeing by 
the Prophet Hofa God's cenfure threatneth, and 
faith, T/yeir Sacrifices are as the bread of forrow ; all 
that eat of itjhali be dyfiled : Teaching and (hew- 
ing that all they do fin who are defiled by the fa- 
criiice of a prophane and unjuft Prieltj which we 
find alfo manifefted in N umber s,ssr\\^rt Cor^th^ Da- 
than and AbUam challenged to themfelves againft 
^.z/^o;3 the licenle of facrificing. The Lord there 
by Aiofes commandeth that the people be fepa- 
rated from them, left being ioyning to the offen- 
ders,! hty be guilty of their crimes. Befeparated, 
fairh he, from rhe Tents of thofe obdurate men,an<l 
touch nothing which is theirs, left ye perifh with 
them ia their fns. 4. Wherefore the Lay- people, 
obeying the Lords commands, and fearing God, 
muft fcpjrare themf(?Ive.s (^ apeccatorc prdpofno) 
from -i fmful Prelate (or Paftor) and muft not mix 
thimfclvesat rhefacrilicesof afacrilegious Prieft; 
becaufe thcj chmfiy have the power either to chufe 
Trie(}s that are WDrthy, or to rejufe thofe that are 
umvorrhf : Which very thing, we fee, defcendeth 
from Divine Authority, that the Prieft, the Lay- 
people bLing prefent, be chofen under the Eyes of 


[3 Ml 

All, and by the publick judgment and teftimony be 
approved worthy and meet : As in Nmnbers the 
Lord commanded Mo[es laying. Take Aaron thy 
Jbrother, and Euaz^cr his Son^ and fet them before 
all the Contrrcgitton on the Mount y and take off 
uiarons (lolc, and pat ir on Eleazer his Son, and let 
Aaron dit thtre. Gnd commandeth that thePrieft 
be made before all the Congregation 5 that is, he - 
in{trt(^b^' h us, and iheweth that the Prieftly Ordi- 
Dfi lOiis fhould nor be done, but under the con- 
(cience of the affiiting people, that the Lay-people 
being prefenr, either the ciimes of bad men may 
be detf^ (^f ci, or the drferts of good men predica- 
ted ; ihat (o that Ordination m.^y be iuft and le- 
gitimate, which hath been examined by the judg- 
ment and fuffrage of AIL 5 Which thing is after 
oblerved according to the Divine Magifter'es in 
the Ad:sof the Apoftles, ^'':hen Titer fp^ke to the 
Lay- people about Ordaining a Bifhof) in the place 
of fudas, Pttevj (aiib the Text, ftood up in the 
midft of the Difciples, for the multitude was to- 
gether in one. And it was not only in the Ordina- 
tions of Bifhops and Prielts, but of Deacons alio, 
that we note the ApoUles to have obfeived this. 
Of which alfo in their Ads it is written, and the 
twelve, faith the Text, called together the whole 
Laity of the Difciples, and faid to them. And the 
whole bufinefs is managed thus diligently and cau- 
telouily, the whole Laity being conv(^cate, left any 
unworthy perfon fhould creep into thcMniltry of 
the Altar, or the place of Prielthood. For God 
himfelf maniiefteth by the Prophet O/^^, laying, 
T/be^ have made thi mfelves a A^;>^, i/ftt hot tj vk j 
that unworthy men are fometimes ordained by 
mans prefumption, and that thefe things are dif- 


pleafing to God, which come no^ of a Jegitimate 
and iuft Ordination. 6, For which caufe it is di- 
ligently to be obferved and held as of Divine 
Tradition, and Apoftalical Obfervation, which 
is held alfo with us, and in a manner (ov almoft^ 
through all the Provinces, that to the right cele- 
brating of Ordinations, all the next Bifhops of the 
Province come tofethsr to the Laj-peopls to whom 
the Btfhop (p-'^pofitus) IS or dalned,aind that a Bifhop. 
be made, the Lay-people being prefcnt, who moft 
fully know every mans Iife,and difcern every mani 
acfling by his converfation j which we fee done al- 
fo with your fdvcs in the Ordination of our Col- 
league Sabmfis, that by xh^ pijf'age of the whole 
fraternity, and by the judgment of the Bifhops, 
who at the prefent met, and who wrote Letters of 
\z to you, the Epifcopacy (hould be delivered to 
him, and hands fhould be laid on him inftead of 
Baftlidts, Nor can it refcind the Ordination which 
was rightly perfected, that BafvUdss, after his 
crimo^s detected, and his confcience laid bare by 
hisown confeffrjn, going to Rom^, deceived our 
Colleague Stephen^ who lived far off, and was 
ignorant of rhe matter of fa(ft, and of the filenced 
truth, that he might compafs to be unjuftly re- 
pldced in his Bifhoprick, from which he had been 
juftly depofed. 7. The etfed of this is, that the 
offences o^ Bajilides are not fo much abolifhcd, as 
cumulate, that to his former fins, the crime of de- 
ceit and circumvention is added. For he is not fo 
mach to be blamed, that was negligently decei- 
ved, as he to be execrated that fraudulently de- 
ceived him. Bar if BafiUd.^s can deceive men, he 
cannot deceive God. For it is written, God is not 
mo:^?d. Njr will fallacy profit H^rtid to keep 



him who is involved in great offences/rom a right- 
ful lofing of bis Bifhoprick. Steirg the Apoftle 
warneth iis, and (aith, A Bifhop muft be without 
crime as the Steward of God : Wherefore, fee- 
ing (as you wrote, beloved brethren, and as Fa- 
lix and Sabmus our Colleagues affe^'ere, and as 
another Fdix of Cdfar Augu^a^ iin honourer of 
tlie Faith, and a defender of the Truth, fignifieth 
by his Letters ) BafiiUles and Mama/ are conta- 
minated by a wicked Libel uf Idolatry. And Ba- 
filiaesy befides the blot of this Libel, when he lay 
ilck blafphemed God, and confefled that \\t blaf- 
phemed, and becaufe of the wound of his con- 
fcience voluntarily depcfirg his Epifcopacy^turned 
himfelf to a rcpentence, begging pardon of God, 
and being fatisfied, if he might but communicate 
as a Lay-man, And AUrtial^ befides the filthy 
and dirty feafts of the Gentiles, and the oft fre- 
quenting of their Colledges, and the depofing his 
Sons in the fame Colledge after the manner of the 
exterior Nations, inprophane Sepulchres, and bu- 
rying them with aliens, did alfo by publick ad:s 
with the Ducenary Procurator, teliifie that he 
obeyed Idolatry : And feeing there are many 
other and great offences in which Bafilides and 
Martial Q^x^ held guiltyj in vain do fuch men en- 
deavour to ufurp to themfelves the Office ofBi- 
fliops, when it is manifeft that fuch kind of men 
may neither be Guides of the Church of ChriO, 
nor ought to offer Sacrifices to God: Efpecially 
when Corneitm alfo our Colleague, a pacifick and 
;uft Prieff, and honoured by God's vouchfafement 
with Martyrdom, did with us, and all the Bifliops 
fettled in the whole world,decrce,that fuch men be 
not admitted to Repentance, but that they be pro- 
hibit ed 


hibited from Clergy Ordination, and Prief>N5 ho- 
nour. 8. And let not this move V" <). n-ioO bdo- 
ved Brethren, ifwi^h fome in the lau tia^e?, rhrir 
lllppcry Faiih do nod, and their irrclif'iouf fe-irof 
God do (hake, or pacifick Concord peii( vere nor : 
It was foret*-!d rhjr thefe thing? wou'd be to- 
wards the end of the world ; und b\ the ;• ynt- 
witnefs of the Apostles it was forei:o!d, rhat the 
world derlining, jnd Antichrift dn^'^'ing near, all 
good -hings would fiil (or decr.y ^ ard evil 
and adverfe things increafe ( or f)ro<j)^r. ) And 
yet, though it be in the laft times, nrirher is Rvan- 
gelrcal vjgor fo fallen in the Church of God, or 
doth the ftrength of ChriH-ian Virtue or Faith fo 
languifh, but rhat ther-^ remainerh a /7(»r/^/V'^ of 
Frteftsj which yields not to thefe ruines of things, 
and fliipwrack of Faith, but as ftrong and ftable do 
with obfervation of fear maintain the honour of 
the Divine MajeOy, and the Prieftly dignity. We 
remember and hold, that when the reltdid yield 
and hW^Mathattas did valiantly defend ttie Law of 
God : And that when the Jews failed and depart- 
ed from Divine Religion, EUas ftood and ftrove 
fuolimely : That Daniel^ neither deterred by the 
folitude of a ftrange Country, nor by the infefta- 
tion of daily perfecution, did frequently and va- 
liantly give glorious teftimonies (or Martyrdoms) 
and that the three young men, neither broken 
with years, nor threats, did faithfully ftand out a- 
gainft the Bahjloman fires, and even fn their cap- 
tivity conquered the conquering King. 9. The 
number ( or party ) of prevaricators or trayors 
that now nfe up in the Church againfi the Church, 
and have begun to fpoil both Faith and Verity, 
fhall fee it 5 that yet with the moft there remain- 


cth a fincere mind, and entire Religion, a foul de- 
voieci to iione but rlieir Lord and God ; and that 
other mens perftdioufnefs doth not deprels rhe 
Chriftian Faith to ruine, but doth more excite it, 
and exalt it unto gbry. Even as the bleffed A- 
poftle P.;^/ exhorterh and faith. What tf f,me of 
thtm have fallen from Faith? Jhall their tinbelief 
ifiake t/uid the faith of God ? G'jU is true, and every 
man a lyar : And if every man be a lyar, and God 
ohlf i)e trnt, ^hat el(e fhould we, Gods fevants,do, 
and fpeciallv his Prielts, but refinquifh the errours 
and lies of men, and keeping the Lords command?, 
remain in the truth ot God ? lo. Therefore, moft 
beloved brethren though there have been fome 
of our Colleagues, who think that the Divine 
Difcipl.ne fhould be neglecfted, and ciorafhly com- 
municate with Bafiltd^'s and Martial, that ought 
not to trouble our Faith, feeing the Holy Ghoft 
in the Pfalms doth ihrcaten fuch, faying, T^jot^ 
hatedfi Difcivline, and h ifi- cafi: my words behind 
thee : If thoo faweft a Thief thou Cv ncurredft with 
him, and didit place thy portion with Adulterers, 
It (heweth that, they are made Copforrs and par- 
takers of other mens fins, who have been ccujlcd 
with the finners. Ai'd i'aui the Apoille writeth 
the fame thing, and faith pViijpirers, daratlors, 
haters of God, tnpir.ot^-, proud,Lyoctjters oft^t,?nJcivcs, 
inventers of evil things-, who p. hen they knav the 
judgment of God, they tinder jluvd not that they that 
do jfich things arc worthy of death 5 not only they 
that do them^ but they that confent to them 
that do them. He faith, thst Jhcy that do J^ich 
things are worthy of death,. He manifeiteth and 
averreth that not only they are worthy of death, 
and come to punrfhment who do the evils, but 


they alfo who confent to them that do fuch things, 
who while by unlawful communication they are 
mingled with bad men, and finners, and impeni- 
tent perfons, they are p(.Ikired by the conrad; of 
the guilty j and wh^le rh^v ar jovned in the fault 
they are nor leparated in the punifhjjient. Where- 
fore, moll beloved brethren, we both praife and 
approve the rr]ij_;ous care of our integrity and 
fairh J and as fat us we are able by our Letters 
exhort you, that you do not bv facrilegious com- 
munion mingle your felves with prophane and 
blotted Pfiefts (or Bifhop?,) but in religious fear 
do keep entire and fincere the firmnels of your 
Faith. I wifh, moft dear Brethren, your con- 
tinual welfare. ' 

11.^ JLetter of the famot^Jlj Learned and Holy Robert 
Groithead, Bijhop of Lincoln, to Popelnnoctnt 
the foHrth^and his Cardinals ^containing the reafons 
of his Nonconformity to their Commands j l^ranf- 
UtedoHt of Matth. Paris, An. 12^3. fag, 871, 
872. . 

SAith M, Parley In thefe dales when the Lord 
Pope Innocent the ^^th.hdiA fignified by his Apo- 
Itolick Writings, commanding the Bifhop of Lm^ 
coin that he fhould do fomewhat which he took to 
be unjuil", and difTonant to reafon, as he frequently 
did to him and other Engllfh Prelates 5 he wrote 
back to him in thefe words {_Be it k^nown to your dif- 
cretion, that J d^^vontly and reverently^ with filial 
affeU^ion^obey the Apoftolical Precepts : Ayd being 
%.ealom of the pat em al honour ^I am againfi and refiji 
ths things \yhich are againfi the Apoliolical mandates 

For I am hound to both by Gods Commands : For the 
^'poftol:cl( mandates, neither are^ nor can be anj 
ciHer^ than coh^cnant and eonform to the y^pofiles 
Vothine, and to the DoBnne of oar Lord fcfrs 
Chrifi htmfclf, the Mafier and Lord of the A- 
p.Jtks, wfwfe type and perfon the Lord Pope chiefly 
beareth in the Hierarchy of the * j^ ^^,^f^ ^^ known 
Church"^, For our Lord Jefus that this Bifhop h- 
Chrip: himfclf faitb. He that is v^din the depth of 
HOC With me, is againft me ^«. \^^^X :he 
the mojt Divme Santttty of tne Yo^c< Power , as 
ApojhUcaL Se.^tyis mr^norcan- men do now the 
notpoffwly heagamfv him (Jefus Biihops. 
Chriit) Therefore the tefior of thf forefaid Letter 
is not confonant to the Apojtolic^SanBtry ; but suery 
tnt'tch ahjoaunt and difcordant : ftrfi, becaafe of 
the fupcir accumulated Non obiiante of that Letter, 
and fuch fike, that are dif per fed far i^nd wide, not 
brought in by any necejfiry o] objcrvi.ig the Law of 
ISFatHre^y whence a deluge of inconjhmcy, audacio^tf- 
nefs, and p^ocacity^ tmmodefly ^ h^^'^> d£ceivrng^ 
hardly believing or trufiing any doih anje : .And from 
thefe a deluge ef innumerable vices, movir.g and . 
troubling the purity of the Chri[tum Religion, and 
the tranquility of facial hnm^m'; conVyirjation. 

Moreover, next after the fin ofhuc'xi'cT, which in 
the later times will be alio the fm of Aniichrift 
the Son of perdicion, which the Lordr^nll defiroy 
VPtth the fpirit of his mouthy there neither -is, nor 
can be any other kind of fin Jo adverfe and cont ary 
to the Apofllcs and the Evangelical Dotlrine, and 
fa hateful, deteftable and abo7ninaUle to otiv Lord je^ 
fm Chrifi himfelf, as to i^ll and defiroy Jouls by 
defrauding them of the care of the Paftoral Office 
and Aiiniftrj : Which fin they are by >mofi eviaent 

Y ' ' tefti'^ 

teftimon'ics of Sacred Scripture knf>-wn to commit ^ 
who beir.o^ flacd in the power of tu'^oynl C^ive^ do 
get the j^iiarj of the Taflor.d Office and Aiimfrj^ 
from the milk^ and fleece of the Jheep of Chrijfy 
who are to be made alive ' and f^vd, k^t admini- 
jfer not th:ir du.'s. Fur th.- very not adthi/ iflr'ng 
of the J'ajror^il A'liniflsries^ is, by the Scripture Te- 
fiimony, the k^Ilim^ and. dtflrojing of the Sheep, 
And that thefc two fens rf fins (tho. gh with dif- 
parity^ are the worfi^ a.id tnejiimably f^^ptrexceed^ 
tr^g every other fort of pn^ is manifefv by this, in 
that they are {thot4gh with dif parity and diffimili- 
tude) ciireEllj contrary ' to the two faid ex^jter.t 
things that are be ft : For that is the worft thing 
that is contrary to the hi ft'. And as much as 
lieth in the find finncrs One of thefe fins is the 
deft ruB ion of the very Deity, which is fnpereffen- 
tially, and Jtipernatm' ally Bejt j the other is the de- 
firoying of the Deiformity and I).'ification, which is 
JBeft FJfenti^ily ahd Naturally by the gractotu par^ 
tici pat ions of the beams of the Deity, And b.canfe, 
as in good things, the Cai:fe of good is better than 
its FflcB y fio alfo in evils, the Caife of evil is 
Worfe than its FffcFti And it is man^feft that 
the IntrodMCcYs cf (tch mo ft evil Murderers of 
this Deifo'77^ity ay>d Defication in the Sheep of 
Chrift, in the Church cfGod, are worfe than the je 
nioft evil yVIurdcrers themfclves, and neereft ff? Lu- 
cifer and y^ntichri^ 5 and in this pejority they are 
flvaduaily the worft, by how much they fuperexcel^ 
/vr/:o were more obliged to exchide and' extirpate 
uch dcpyoyers from the Church of God, hy the grea- 
er and diviner power, given them by God for Edi» 
fcation, a?d not for De{truHion, It cannot be 
therefore that a mo ft holy Apoftoluk^Seat Qo which 


b) our moji My Lord fefus Chrijl, nil powsr is 

given, as the yipoflle wnnejfeth, for Edification, and 

not for DeftraElion) Jhould ever command j t>id, or 

any way endeavour anyfich thing, cr any thivgvsrg" 

ing towards fuch a fin, fo odious, detefiable and abo^ 

mmablc to our Lord'jefmChrift, and fo utterly per* 

nieious to mayik^nd. For this were either a de-^ 

f'flion, or a c..rruption, or ojt abufc of his evidently 

TTjofi holy and full power, or an utter elongation from 

the Thrnyie of the (jJory cf our Lord fefus Chrift, and 

the nearefi coa^sffion in the Chair of PeftUence^ 

to the t^vo forcfaid Princes of d^ri^jrfs, and of ths 

pains of Hell, No \.ne' that in immaculate and 

fine ere obedience ts fftbjcft and faithful to the fame 

Seat^ and not by Schifm cut cff from the Body of 

Chrifi, and the fame hoiy Sea*;, can obcj {^fuch^ Man-^ 

dates or Precepts , or any endeavours whatever^ 

whencefoever they flow, thoscgh it were from the Su- 

pream Order of uitgels *, but mufi 

neccffarily with his whole power \ P*-' ^^gl^'''l'-^h 
;-o / J / / r/-' tor irs a various 

contradict them and rebel : Woere- ]^q_^\q^ 

fore J Reverend Lords, from the duty 
of ohed-ence and fidelity, which I owe to the parent 
of the holy ^pofi.lical Seat, and out of the Love of 
Z^nion in the Body of Chrifi with it, I do alone 
('unice) filially and obediently difobej, contradicl and 
rebil agahjft the things contained in the fore find 
Letter, and cfipecially as is before touched, they moflr 
evidently verge towards the fin which is mofi abomi" 
nable to our Lord fefhs Clrrifl, and moi} pernicious 
to mankind, and are altrgether adverfc to the fian^ 
n^tty of the uiipofiolical Seat, and are contrary to 
the Catholick^ Faith, Nor may your d^ficretion there- 
fore determine any thing hard againjt me, becaufie all 
my contradiction and atiion in this Cauje is not in* 

Y 2 deed 


deed contradi^iien or r e belli on ^ bat a filial honowing 
cf Gods command dne to a Fat her ^ and of juh, Btitf^ 
Ijf rtcollt^hr.g .illj I fay, that the holme fs of the A- 
foftolic!^ ScAt can do (or hath paner to do) nothing 
hi4t that which tendeth to eaificattun^ and n-yt to 
d^ftrhilion *: For tiois is the pieni- 
Bur aPap-ft ^^,^^ ^. power to hat^e pdWer to do 
will lav, who ,. / . r • li ' >. r / 

lhallbc]Luii;c? '^^ ^^ La:pc^tion. But thvje that 
As if ^A\ men they call [ Provifions] are not for 
were not to be Edification^ vat fur mofi manifefi 
dilcerning Deftru^ion, Therefore the j^poftoiick 

truth 5c duty. ^'^' cannot ace. ft them ^ t^ecaufe 
fifih ar^d bloody vptoich fioall not pojjcfi 
the Kzr^gdom of Gocjy hath revualtd them^ and not 
the Fattier of our L<trd fefii6 Crorislr ^ who is in 

III. Bijhop Sanderfon in his Oxford PrdeElions dc 
^ntiXmtniOjfaith^ as Jolloweih, (The Reader is 
deftredto fee his whole words that he fay not they 
aremangiedy or any thing omitted which he would 
h.ive had put in j and to corfider how far the cafe 
cj Oaths, and Covenants, Prvm fes or Profefiions 
is the jame.) 

PAge 30, 51. 1. Simpliciry above all things 
bciccmeth an Oach : 'ihat is. The nature 
and obliganun of an Oath is fuch, that whucver 
iluii binci a mfelf by lo facred a bond to do any 
thing, he may bcajtogeihei held by the Religion 
cf ax Oath, and lerici-flv from his heart jntetid, 
and as mMch as in him h eth, di'igeritly endeavour 
fauhfully to da aii that which he hath piomifed 


to do, without all crafr, fraud,or ill deceit or difli- 
mulation. (^Seethe relt there.) 

Page 32 3^,34 Contrary to this fimplicity of 
an Oath, are two (brts offimulation ; one as to the 
fcregoing part, which is either antecedent or con- 
comitant with the ^^: of fwearing : of which, 
though the f jrmer be the worfer, yet neither of 
them is free from pe'iury, i)4'z//^ feemeth to 
comprehend both in PfM. 15. and 24. [ H<^ that 
fweareth not decenfrllj, that 1$, with a miud to <^f- 
ceive-'—kx\6. He that fweareth to his awn hun^ and 
chaigeth ;;or] that is, who when he hath bound 
himlelf by an Oi^h, wi'l rather, even to his own 
great lo(s,perfoim that wliich he incoRimodioully 
fwore, than for any temporal commodity violate 
his faith. — Th(r(e rhine^s the greater part of men 
now in being, feem to me not to thmk of or not 
ferioufl'' J who for not to fwear wirhouc any 
amba.o^c prolixly, and in the very words, whatfo- 
cver is propofed to rhrm, by fuch as ha\ l* power 
to do them hurt : Yea and think themfelves the 
only ivjfc mrn, and difdainfully deride rhcir limp'i- 
city and vain fear, who, leil: they hurt tlieir con- 
fciences, forlooth, do feek a knot in a rufh, and 
vex ('or follicit) the for-ns prejcrUed by fich 
as can profcribe ihem : Aid they fecurely free 
tljemfelves from all crime and fear of Perjury, 
and think 'hey have well cared for che'nfelvesi'nd 
their confri^nces, if when rhey fwear, like the Je- 
fuits, thev can but any how defrnd themielvcx^by 
tacite equivocarionsyor mental rc(ervations,or luh- 
tle forced inrerprerations, and quite alien from rhe 
words : Or elle afcer they have fworn,can Hnd out 
fome artiiicia! evafion, as a hole to get our by,as 
the onf-^y a.'i?y.:'.;i?y, bj which fo to defraud the Oach, 
Y 3 that 

1^1 61 

that taking the words, yet the fenfe may be elud*-' 
ed by fome Sophifm, and all the force of it whol- 
ly be enervated. The old Chriftians received not 
this Theology: The founder Heathens received 
not this M ,>ral Philofophy : Much otherwife out 
of them,iaith Atfgufline [ " They are perjured ivho 
*^ keeping the Words ^ deceive the (Xp£8;aticn of them 
*^ th<it they five art o~\ And otherwife, faith C/c^>-^j 
'* ^T:at IS to be k^cpt which is fo fivorn as th: mind 
'*■ of the Impo[er conceived it (hould be done"] Read 
the proofs, p. ^^,&cc. i. From many Texts of 
Scripture: 2. From God's own exam[)le : 3. From 
the nature of Truth : 4. From the end of an Oath, 
p. 58. which is the confirmation of a doubtful 
matter; that is, that of things otherwife uncer- 
tain and depending on humane credit, there fhould 
be h.ui fuch certainty as humane aflBnrs require. 
For an Oath was inftiruted by God, by force of 
the L\i^\n of Nature, for a remedv of humane 
defcds about Truth; that among mortals it (hould 
bcTfLiths lalt p^arrifon, as ofc as all other kinds 
of pro jf do fail. But this end would be wholly 
overthrown, and there could be no certain credit 
among^ men, if it were free for the fwearer, at his 
o^^.n arbiierment, what he fpeaketh in words to 
cjufc belief, bv fome ta cite ambi^^,uitv in fwear- 
ine 5 or afcer he hdth fworn, by finding out fome 
new, and as it were, polthumous comment fo to 
difuble i^, as th.ir it fhal! lofe aM its force, and 
be^utrerlv ineffrd: lal. If either of thefe were law- 
ftil, an Oath (hould not be the end of firife, but 
the beginnin;;^, and fhould rather give occafion for 
new contradictions and frrifes, than end the old 
ones. Oi)en but this window once, and then 
what can be thought of fo falfe, for the defence 



whereof fome effuge or lurking hole may not be 
deviled, whereby it may be freed from being a 
lie. In the mean time, what perver(enels is it 
that Thac fhc^uld bv difhoneft men be turned into 
an inftrumenrof deceivinc;, which was inftirured 
by the moft wife God to be a help to credit (or 
mens belief of one another? j Vcrilv, unlefs one 
will rather u(e God's (acred. inftitution to another 
purpofe, than that to which it vvas inrtitured('wh!ch 
a godly man will not eafily do) that which is the 
end of an Oai.h, the fame ought to be the end of 
the fwearer: And that is, fo to make the hearer 
TO believe, that he may become more certain 
and fecure of the Tfurh of thjt which before was 
doubtful. , Bat he that dilfcmbleth, ftudieth t(^ 
breed a fa he belief in the hearers, and lb doth 
not only fuifer another to be deceived (^vhich yet 
is contrary tp Charley when he may and ougl^t ro 
hinder it ;) but alfl) intendeth to deceive j, vvliicU 
is not only againft all Jaftice and Hvinefty.v h-vti ic 
is alfo conjoyned with the grearei't wroRg to 
God, and contempt of his name. And verily to 
me fcarce any other fort of Pjrjtpy dorh m.ore 
diametrically feem to be againit cither the fcope 
of the third Gommandmenr, or the very words 
(of not taking the name of God in vain) than that 
which arifeth from this dilTrnularion. For as the 
word Vanity doth properly and adequately com- 
prehend all that which is any way falle 5 To in a 
certain peculiar fort, and moil: properly, that 
which is fo falfe^s yet to bear a (hew of Truth. 
('See the reft) 

The fccond which pertainerh to the interpreta- 
tion of an Oath^ is this, Tba Obligation of aa Oxth 
is ofjlriUright'-'Thu is of (bjult an interpreta- 

Y 4 tion 

tion of rights that the words of the Law may not 
be drawn further than is meet for the fake or fa- 
vour of any party 5 nor conftrained to ferve any 
mans faiftor commodity. In a word, ftri[l Rights 
is not here taken fo as to exclude an interpretation 
tempered «^/ith tquicv, but to exclude an interpre- 
tation of Law (or righr)corrupred by favour(or for 
any ones fake>— The extreams-are .A Rigid inter- 
pretation, and A Favour able-- '^ fufi interpreta- 
tion is the mean between both, which fearcheth 
after the true and genuine fenfe of the Law, with- 
out refped at all to perfons, out of natural equity 
and jufrice, and from the words themfelves, as 
they agree with equity and juftice. And if this 
may be plainly made out in the words themfelves, 
that it is in every cafe fimply to be retained.-— 
See the ref>. 

P. 45. When I fay that an Oath is o^ftriB rights 
it is fo to be lindcriTood, that the meaning of the 
Oath, which is plain enough in the words is al- 
waies to be held. But where the fenfe is doubt- 
ful, every one muii take great heed, left we too 
much indulge our felves, and our own atfedions 3 
and left we grant our Iclves too liberal and lax a 
licerfe of interprering, that we mav the eafilier 
get cur felvts out of the bond of the Oath which 
we are tyed by j and left we faften (or feign) any 
fenfe on the Oaih raken, or on any part of it, for 
car own comiiiodity or profits fake, which any o- 
ther pious and prudent man^ of ^ freer judgment 
as not intercfted in the caufe, would not eafily 
draw from the very words themfelves. 

The Reafon is twofold 5 one in refped to others^ 
for fear cf fcandal, left any that is weak, drawn by 
pur example, think he may do. that which he feeth 



US do, though unacquainted with thofe fubtilties,' 
by vvhich only vvc ufe to defend our felves from 
the crirfle of Perjury. The other in refpecft of our 
fel\res, for fear of perjury j which moft grie- 
vous crime undoubtedly we commit, if that 
more benis^n interpretation chance to deceive us, 
which made us bold to take the Oath. This rea- 
fon refteth on that general, and molt profitable 
rule, which bids ds[/« doubt ft^ I cafes take the fafer 
fide : 3 But it is the fafer not to fvcar^ wheyi the 
words of the propofed Oath, according to the common 
and obvious fenfe of the rvordsj feem to contain fome^ 
xohat unla^vful in them 5 rather than by a Lax In- 
terpretatioi (b to foften them for our own ufe, 
that we may the more fecurely fwear them : See- 
ing we know that uich an Oaihmay be refufed 
without danger of perjufy, but we know not that 
it can be taken without danger or fear of it. 

P. 46, 47, 197. Yet we mult take heed that 
this friEi interpretation turn not into a Rigid 
one- --of common right thefe exceptions and con- 
ditions (of promilfory Oaths lare ever underftood: 
l^r. If God permit : 2. Saving the R^oj^t of other Sk 
And, as jar as is lawfrl -, faving the Right of S^pe- 
riours : 3. Thingsjianding as they dj^ or in t to e fame 
fiate : yls far as I am ahle^ ^C.*] 

P. 49. But if any admit more dubious excep- 
tions-he boldly and rafhiy »emoveth God's boun- 
daries of an Oatlij and openeth a wide door to all 
kind of Perjury. 

P. 193. The third Cafe is, when one impofeth 
an Oath of an ambiguous (enfe. only requiring that 
thoie words be fworn, permitti'^g the IWcarer ro 
underftand the words in what fenfe he wilj : I f y, 
it muft defervedly be fufptcfctd that an Oath 


QiTcred on fuch a coodirion hath fbme latent ill 
deceir, and therefore is to be refdfed by a pious 
and ()rudcnr minj'^c to me feemeth to bedifallow- 
cd for three cjufes : i. In refpe't to the Oath it 
Iclt/n which Truth is hrft required : But a fpeech 
of inderinicean-i atnbigaous fenfe before diftincftion 
mide, is no true propofition ; yea, no propoficion 
at all; when a propodcion, as Boys know, fhould 
fignitie trurh or fallhood without ambiguity, 
a. In refpedb of him to whom we fwear : For the 
prope? end of an Oath is, that he to whom it is 
mide hive fV^? cercainty of a thing before un- 
certain. 3. In refpe'^t to the fwearer himfelf, 
who if he take an O^rh in ruchcondicion,prepareth 
either a r(;andal fo" his neighboiK, or a fnare for 
b^Klirelf For feh collufion cannot be imagined to 
look aay other way, than either to draw others 
by oarexapfjle to take the fame Oath (though 
with a re!u(5tinc confcicnce) which is to fcandalize 
our i>eig>:>our : or that fomewhat e)fe be after re- 
quired of us to be done bv virtue of chat Oath, 
which is eitheruiilavvful, orincommodioasj which 
is to lay a fn ire for our felves. Let a wife man 
therefore take heed that he iulfer noc himfelf to 
be im^))red.on by thefe Arcs 5 or !ei> he fo much 
value the favour or feir of any other man, as tQ 
fvallow the bnic when he knovV:=ch that the hook 
is under ic. Verily, that all may be rightly done 
when voLi f^vear, it is expedient that all parties be 
clearlv agreed '->f the feme of the words that arc 
interelTed in the matter; which by the Antients 
was called [^Li^'jUo jiirare'\ 

Scls t:imen^ & Ucjuid-t )HYAtus dic^re foffes. 
And in the old form, he that impofed the Oath was 
wont to fay to the fwearer [ ^^z ds re pet? 



Mquido jutes] (that is, [Of Vfhich I require thee t9 
fwfar plainly J] 

P. ^j, 5-6. The qucftion. Whether this cr that 
Oath be la ivfrd ? much dilfercih from zhis,[ivhaher 
this or that O.ith bind?'] For though it be ccrtaia 
that we ought not to take the Oath, which we 
J^now that we ought not to keep j yet it may 
come to pafy, and often doth, that we ought to 
perform that which we ought not to have taken. 
Jojhttas Covenant with the Gibeomtes, is a moft 
clear example of this. -■ An Oath may be (aid to 
be unlawful two waics ; either as to the matter 
fvorn, or as to the Adt of /wearing. An Oath un- 
lawful as to the matter fworn, bindeth not at all. 
An Oath unlawful in refped to ihe Ad: i>f /wear- 
ing, bindeth, unlefs otherwaies hindered. 

P. 74, 7j. A thing lawful in it felf may be un- 
lawful by accident:-- as by the errour of the 
fwearer, or the ill etfect of the thing fworn. The 
third Cafe is, IVhe^i one promi/eth by an Oath to do 
/omewhat perhaps lawful in. it [elf, which yet he 
thtnketh unlawful , or at kajjr fareth left it be nop 
lawful : As if any one before rhcfe times, admitted 
to an Ecclefialtical Bt-ntfice, had promi/ed to ob- 
f^rve in Publick Worfhip all the Rites commanded 
by the Ecclefiaftical Laws, as the Surplice, tlie (Ign 
of the Crofs at the facred Font, kneeling ;n recei- 
ving the Sacrament, and luch I ke, which yet by 
fome light prejudice he thought were fuperftitious 
and Popi(h. The queftion is, Wtjat obligation thrr^ 
IS in this ca/e f I (^y, i. Such an Oath car.noi be 
taken during fuch errour, without pjievous fin* 
For he finneth grievoufly that finneth againll: his 
confcience, though erroneor.s. For v>hen the 
Judgment of the" Intellc<!i is every ones neareft 



Rule of a(flion, the will, if it follow not^tbat judg- 
ment failing fr-^.iii irs Rule, mult needs be carried 
into fin. It's a comrrvon faying, [//- that doth a- 
gatnjl his Confcience^ bHildeth to H-li ] Verily he 
that fweareth what he thinketh unlawful, would 
fwear if it were indeed nnl^wfulj 6r that becometh 
unlawful to him thar is liwfuj to another 5 as the 
Apoftle judgeth, Rom. 14. 14. — 2. J/ay^ ffich an 
Oath doth not bind— Becaule an Oath cannot take 
away a former obligation, nor induce another ob- 
ligation conrrary to it. Bnt that Oath which is 
taken againft the didate of confcience, had a for- 
mer obligation arifing from that didate. For the 
didate of confcience, whether right or erroneous, 
alwaies ebligeth, at leaft nor to ad againft it. But 
a following Oath cannot remove that obligation, 
but is it felf invalid, and lofeth its obliging force% 
3. But if the fwearer after better taught, do fee 
and correct his errour, the Oath which bound 
him not before, beginneth then to bind him. 

P. 77. Other Cafes there are of things by Ac- 
cident unlawful, by reafjn of ill eifeds of the 
thing itfcif 5 as it mav be a hinderer of a greater 
£!;ood, or a caufe, at leaft an occafion of evil.— - 
The fourth Cafe is, when the thing fworn feemeth 
unlawful, as hindering r he eiFed of f3me antece- 
dent good, as of a Vow or Promife made before : 
As if one that had before-hand bound hirafelf to 
feme work of Piety or Charity, after take an 
Oath that hindereth the fulfilling of the former 
Vow. As if one that vowed to give half his gain 
weekly to the poor, fhall after fwear to give it all 
to the war:—' This cafe:hathno difficulty; I 
phinly anfwer, — fuch m Oath is neither lawful 
nor obligatorvjbecaufe that the former obligation, 


V^hencefoever contra^ed, whether by Covenant^ 
or by Vow, or by barePromife, or by mcer Of- 
fice (or Duty) remaineih valid, atid puts a bar to 
every following contrary adt. — 

(Redd Fral, 4. § 11,12,13,14.15-. what he faith 
for ihc obligation, i Of l[^ontaneous Oaths5 2. Of 
Oarhs cauftd by fraud ; 3. Or by fear extorted 5 
4. Even of Oaths to Robbers.) 

P. no. 3. He that ruktth an Oath impofedby, 
one that had no juft authority, but not otherwife 
vicious, is bound to perform what he (wore. 

(Read ['. i75,&'c. what he faith at large againft 
equivocation, Itre tchin^ refervations, as o[)ening 
the door to all lying and perjury, and fruftrating 
the end of Oaths) 

P. 19J. Of the latitude and extent of an Oath, 
How jar the juje is to be meafured 
by ihifcope * : As wtien the C^ufe * ^s of Affent 
of the Oath was particular, but ^j^e ui^. ^f the 
the words are general, e.g. The Liturgy, &c. 
Popes Uiurpation was the Caufe 
of the Oath of the Kings Suprc macy : — But the 
words of the Oath ib afierr the Kings Supremacy, 
as exclude all oibeis as well af the Pope firom ex- 
crcifing fupreme Power in this Kingdom : ^rijiv. 
Such an Oath cbligeth as to the words ihemfelves 
in their utmoft latnude : The Pveafon is, becaufe 
the intention of the Law, though made on a par- 
ticular occafion, is general, to hinder all incom- 
modities of the fame kind for the 'future.— -As 
Lawyers fetch not the fenfe of Laws from the 
Proem_, but from the body of the Statute, fb we 
muft judge of the juft interpretation of an Oath, 
not by the promiftd recognition, or other pre- 
face, but by the body of the Oath it felf. 

P. 2C8, 


P 2o8/Hc is^alwaies perjured that intencf- 
erb not what he promilcd : but he is not alwaies 
pLTJured that performeth not what he proniired# 
(The bond being diflolved.) 

P. 227. Vows made to God, as a party, cannot 
be related by man (though men may give away 
their own.) 

If you iwenr for the fake of another, as to his 
•honour, obedience, profit, or other good, the Oath 
bindeth not^ unlefs he for whom you fwear, take 
it as acceptable and firm. 

P. 242. Cond. 4. It is a grievous fin to impofe 
on Oarh unduly, on another. As i. An Oath not 
ftablifhed by Law or Cufi:om, 6.'c. 2. An Oath 
that is repugnant, or in the fenfe that the words 
hold forth in the common ufe of fptA'm^, f emeth 
repugnant to any Oath by him formerly lawfully 
taken. 3. They that conftrain men ro fwear to a 
thing unlawful, as againft out duty to God, or our 
Superiours, or the Laws of the Kingdom, or a- 
gainft good manners, or that which is otherwife 
difhoneft. and may not be kept. 4. He who impo- 
feth an Oath of ambiguous fenfe, or any way 
captious 5 to enfnare the confcience, -life, liberty 
or fortune of his neighbour. 5-. He that without 
necefl]rv, by fear compelleth, or by Authority 
impelleth, or by counfel, example, fraud, or other 
artifice or reafbn induceth another to fwear, who 
he knowech virill fwear againft the judgment of 
his confcience. I would all men in great power 
would remember how filthy a charad:er feroham 
branded his own confcience, fame and name Vvith, 
that made Ifrael to fm : and how greatly they . 
provoke God's pjeat wrath .againft rhemfelves,that 
abufe their power to other mens ruine, which 


God gave them for edification, and not for de- 

P. 243. Concl. 5. An offered Oath is not to be 
taken with a reluctant or doubting confcience : 
I. Becaufe what is not of faith is fin. 2. B'-Cjufe 
we muft fwear in )udgmenr, which he dorh ^ot 
that fweareth againft his conlciences judgment. 
3. Becaufe this is done for fome temporal com- 
modity, or to avoid Tome Io(.^, or obtain fome 
gain, or to get fjme mans favour, or fuch like : 
But how unworthy of a Chriftian is it, to fet God 
behind the World, Heaven behind Earth, tlu Soul 
behind the £odv, eternal joy behind rernjioral 
gain, the hope of the life to come behind prefenc 
cafe, inward peace behind outward I 4. Becaufe he 
that fo fweareth evidently expofeth himlelf to the 
danger of Perjury ( a moi't heinous fin . ) For he 
that for hope or fear of any temporal ccmmcdity 
or difcommodity can be induced to (Vear that 
which he ought nor, it is fcarce credible hut he 
may by the like hope or fear be drawn from doing 
what he fwore. And PERJURY w^as by the 
very heathens accounted one of thofe moft heinous 
fins, which they believed would bring the wrath 
of the Gods not only on the guilty, but on their 
pofterity, yea on whole nations, much more is in 
to be feared of us, w':o worfhip that one true 
God, who hath folemnly profdfed that he will not 
hold iiim guiltlefs that raketh his rane in vain. 
Left, while which way ever we look we lee fiich a 
great arid luxuriant crop ofObthsand Feriur}', 
even already white to the Harvelt, God the molt 
righteous judge fhould quickly put in the fickle, 
utterly to cut down fo perfidious and profane a 
nation. We have long felt that ci.r moft merciful 


Father is angry, and that the infinite patience of 
God is turned into fury, being infinitely wronged, 
and ( if I may Co fav ) overcome. It is not eafy 
to fay, for which fins this chiefly is, when all fins 
are very great. But verily he that will ferioufly 
think, fince God hath begun to fcourge us by a 
neerer rod, how we have not grieved for thefe 
grievous fins of fwearing and perjury, yea how 
greatly on one fide is increafed, the unbridled and 
tinpunifhed licence of fwearing and blafpheming, 
and on the other fide the fuul hypocrifie of for- 
fwearing on pretence of religion -, it can fcurce be, 
but that of fcremy will come into his mind , 
Becaufe of Oaths the land wournsth. Thefe things 
being fo neer, Fathers and Brethren, we that are 
here and all others that wifh well to the nub^ick 
peace of the Kingdom and Church. and the private 
peace of their own hearts and confciences, mult 
be intreat?d that they firft carefully beware of the 
name of God, and the crime of violated fidelity, 
and wholly avoid^unnecefiary Oaths,and conliantly 
refufe thofe that are unduely imp ^fed i^'or offered ) 
by others ; and fulfill thofe faithfully that are duly 
and rightly taken by our felves -, and then that as 
much as we are able, we ftrenuoufiy reftrain the 
liberty of finning in others 5 and that we pray to 
our moft Good and Great God continually that,be- 
ing taught by his fcourge, and admoniflied, and 
humbled under his mighty hand, we fly to his 
mercy, acknowledge hi-: jultice, implore his grace, 
for the pardon of our fins^ the amendment of our 
lives, and the fafety of ourlouls, by and for the 
merits of our Lord JcfusChrilt; To whom wirh 
the Father, and the Sj irit, the Three one-Omni- 
potent God be Kingdom, Power^ and Glory for 
ever. ^fffstJi Its 

[3 37] 

It's like Dr. S.mderfan had fome fpccial eye to 
the Scots Covcnanr 5 but doubtlcfs he made not 
any new orfingular Dodrine for that end, which 
will not hold true in all cafes by h'.mdefcribed. 

Mr. Rich. HoUlngx^forth in a bte Plea for the 
Church of E-^latjd^ vehemently urging the execu- 
tion of the Laws agaihtl Nonconformilts, faith 
Page 71. [i. Thereby (by Per jury j the copfcienceof 
the Mihijter is dehdkched, and he r hereby made ve^ 
ry unfit to give thofe tnflrullions^ andivholfom comifel 
to the people that otherwip he might do : For all 
wilffdfins, efpecially fuch a Notorio^^s one as Per jury y 
hardens a mans mir^d, and divefis htm, till repented 
of J of all the necefjary and ufful infnences and affi^ 
fiances of Gods good fpirtty and ma^th him carelcf^ 
as of his own^jo of the fouls of others : ^nd a man 
fo eafily enfnared by fpich a fin, is eafly tndMC^d by 
any ttmptation to a ne^^leVv of thofe duties which his 
Office calls for , and a remifs performance of thofe Or- 
dinances which were defigned and commanded onpur- 
pnfe to reform and infitutJ the people. 

And page 73 . \fJ'hey mufl be accountable at the 
lafi dajy not only jor their own fin, but for that very ■ 
fin of Per jury y which the vicious Frnfi is gkilty of: 
For he that inviteth a man to a (in, is reckoned as if 
he had committed the fin himflf] 

What then would become of me, if I undertook 
to jultifie the Perjury of multitudes ?— 3 ea, if al- 
fo I did by Prefs and Preaching, earneitly prels 
Magiftrares to execute the Laws upon many hun- 
dreds of Chrifts Minifters, becaufc they dare not 
venture on that which they fear (on fuch reafons 
as are here rendred) to be a participation of many 

Z thou- 

C3 381 

thoufard Perjuries, nor on the heinous facriledge 
of deierting their facred fnndion, and encouraging 
neer two choufand filenced Minilters to do the 
likebv my example, befides many other feared 
fins: It 1 vvere the man that for this did plead and 
beg thu th ?y might be laid in Gaols with rogues, 
and pay fourty pound a fermon and be baniihed 
five miles from all C^-rporations &:c. and all this as 
nectflary to the Church and as for God, fathering 
it all on him who is the God of Truth and Love 5 
and pretftnding that there is no need of their 
Miniltry, bccaufe that I and fuchasl^do better 
perform all that office againft ignorance, ungod- 
linefsand poperv without them, Sec. How could 
I expect re'^ard when 1 preached againft the fms 
of others? Or with what face could I do it ? When 
my fin ft all be opened to me, muft I not with 
Orrgen after • his fall, inftead of preaching, (hut 
the book, and vreep, remembring Pfai 50. 16,17. 
and the dreadful third Commandment ; and 
tremble when I thought of death and judgment ? 
For a ^fudas in Chrifts fjixiilv fmneth at a dearer 
rare than ftrangers, and will quickly find his gain 
too hot to hold, and thofe that hired him to be 
woful Comforters, who will turn him off with a 
[_fie thopi to that, ] 

Ohj. Fewer words might ferve. 

Arjf Nondum fatu dtcitu^^ dum non fat is difcitur, 

Ncc pMicis dicendiim eft, qmd paucis non difcen^ 

dam efi. 


f While I long wondered that I could not fee 
wh«nr«<tisfied both zU rh.> Learned Convc;c?tfon, 
and th. ParJijinent, for ^hr trttth cftt.e RhU m the 
Liturgy to find out Eajier day for evtr^ v^hirh is 
contrary to our Almanack?, and we mull all be 
filtnced (and ruinfd for Pvcach n^) unlcfs wr pro- 
fefs that we Ajfent to it. 1 met wirh no Confor- 
ni'ft rhat gave me any orher rarisf3<n:i()n, than to 
re^er me to Dr. VelU Bock : And meeting Mm 
happiN-, I craved his information; and chr grave, 
leariH 0, honert DocHior was fo flir from making me 
a Conformi(t, that he profc (led the paflage now is 

I was lately a(Taulted with this, as the ftrongeft 
Argument fjr Conformity \JDslibcrate iymgisno 
fin^ but a dyjy when it doth yhj harm but a neceffary 
good', As by a Phyficlan to jave his patient jor to fave 
a mans life much more to fave forth by preaching. 

Anf, This cafe reqnirerh a longer anfw'er than I 
have here room for: Briefly. i.God beft knowcth : 
who is wifefi: and meeteft to Govern the world, 
for the good of all 5 and he forbids it. 2. This 
principle believed would make all men untrufiy 
to each orher, while every man would -hink he 
bad reafon to lie, when his 'nrfreit required it; 
and untruftinefs overthroweih all humane polities, 
focietiesand converfe. and fo would do a thoufan^ 
fold more harm to Kings, Subj.ds and all, than 
the faving ot a mans life '-vould compenfare. 
3. Its hypocrifie to fin mv ftlf that I may preach 
againft fm in others, 4. The Church of Gcd is 
againft this dodrine,^- HithersiAnd (he beft cafuifts 
have copioufly cdrfuted it, rhor^h fome Jefuirts 
are more lax, and ufe to ferve their intereft by it. 

5. At' 

5'. Ar If aft,methihks that where Jifnites ijing is cry- 
ed do'vr, men (l^ould not judv^e tny fearing a lie, a 
crime char rendrcrh me intolerable in the Miniftrv, 
and my preaching with ^ut it to deierve a Gaol and 
utter ruine ; and the fc^me to reer 2000 othersjthe 
fllencing of whom wj|| one day \)roxt no indifferent 
thing: AnA they that think it harmlefs j)ublick!y, 
Miriifterially upon deliberation to profefs a falf- 
hood, may Oio'-tly think it a duty to fWear it : 
B't Ibelieverh.n God will not hold that perfon. 
Church or Kingdom gniltlefs, which taketh his 
name in vain :f^e Dr. Hammonds Catechifm on the 
3. Commandment, 



TH E fmaller literary miftakes arc left to thy oWn in- 
genuity, the grofler errours of the Prefs, thou arc 
delired thus tocorred:. 

Epift. p. y. I. 24- for urge.T. argue, p. lo. for Prefixed^ r. 
affixed,!^. 11, 1.4. tor our, r. one, li^. r. j^ Chrijttai/, p. 32. 
].i. for molUfie, r. TJullifie^^.^o.L 21. r,07ietPill, p. 55.1.20. 
r. communion, p.63.1.4. r. Ponttct, p. 64.1.51.^ TheodoJjuSg 
p. 75.I.26.for ^/j^ri-j r.f/^^w,p.88.1.2o.r.///? wo/, p. 97. 1. 25-. 
r.formaiiy,lp.^ 9'l-^5'- foj^ **" accej)iabie,T. uncaj)ab.c,^. i®2.- 
1. 8.r./;e//,p.l I9.l-I.f0r ccnfidering^ r. concerned m,^, 126. 
1 . 1 ^.r.Jaid tJoey,^. i io.\.6.for fu/pe?fJion, r.fnfpicior, p. i j^.- 
1. 5-. for his,x.theiry^. I j/. 1. 1 3. for <j?2jy .r./7w,p. 1 5-9. 1. 1 6. ^e/e 
Wjrf?,p. i6o.l.9o.r. thacTHIS js, p. 1 62. 1. 26. r.uefnuil^i^, 
1 87.1. 1- Y.jame, 1 iq. ^c/<7 wtr^^ p. 203.1.25". r.HaL?, p.205. 
from «'e M/^e, and 2o6,and 2071 are all mifplaccd,p.224, 
1, laft, for fip arming, r.jwenring, p. 229. 1.2l.r. 97. n. 238. 
for FIRE, r. PLAGUE.p. 265. 1 i ^ r. nwuld not,] 24. for 
ahoiit, r.^?^"z;6,p.269.1.2 3.for/:7'?rjr.^oj,p.272. 1.2.for fLit, 
r. the,l'^.de/e the, p. 286. 1. y. {ovyet,v.y''a, p. 288. 1.28.for 
/iffureth,r.ajerteth, p. 1 6 1. 1 ' 8 r. flcnilumum, p. 248. \.%. 
for 1660, r. 1661.P.289. 1.23.r. ^ct;:/;?^/' ow, p. 298.1.2.r. 
J{egi^^ p, 3 3 3.1 penult, x.prcmifed. Many more a re left to 
the Readers ingenuity. 

A Ciitahgue oflBooh Trinted for, 

or fol^ iy Ben], A!fop, at the 

Ang'l and Bible over agamjl 

the Stocks-Market. 

l,Mp/fJE: Compleat Engl fh Scholar \ in 
f 1 Spelling, Reading and WritingjBy 
JE. Toung^ School mafter of London* 

2. Jacohs "Ladder : Or The Devout Souls 
"lAfcenfionto Heaven^ By fo-. Hall^ late 
Bijhop of Norwich, 

3 . Divine Confolations againft the Fear 
of Death', Ev fohn Gerrard , Author of 
the Meditations. 

4. Divine Love : Or The willingnefs of 
^efm Chnfl tofave fnners j By F, I\ 

5. Tfje JSfonconformifls Flea for Feace : 
Or ^n Account of their judgment 5 By 
R, Baxter, 

6. Mellm Inquirendum : Or an Anfwer 
to the Sober Enquiry. 

7. The Ladies Delight^