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Full text of "The English nonconformity, as under King Charles II, and King James II : truly stated and argued"



«■ ■■ \ 




Collection of Puritan Literature. 




111 32, 


Nonconformity , 

As under King Charles II and King James II. 


: : ^ , 

By ^ / C H A ^V © A X T E % 

Who earneftly befeecheth Rulers, and Clergy, not to Divide and 
Deftroy theLand,and caft their own Souls on the dreadful Guilt 
and Punifbment of National PErJvrt, Lying, deliberate G> 
venanting to Sin againfr, God,corrupt his Church and nor amend* 
nor by Laws or blind Malignity, to reproach faithful Minifters 
of Chrift,and Judge them to Scorn and Beggery,and to Lie and 
Die in Jails asRogues,and fo to ftrengthen Profar.eiKfs,Popery 
and Schifm , and all for want of WILLINGNESS and PA- 
TIENCE to READ and Hear their jufr Defence ; while they 
can fpend much more time in Sin and Vanity. The Author 
humbly begs that he and his Books of unconfutable Defence of 
a Miftaken perfecutedCaufe may not be Witneflls againit them 
for fuch great and wilful Sin to their Condemnation. 

Mat. 12. 25. Every Kingdom divided againfi it [elf is brought to 

Luk. 13.3,5. Except ye Repent, ye fall all like wife Ferijl). 

The Second Edition, Corrected and Amended. 

LO N DO N, Printed for Tho. Tarkhurfi at the Bible and / km 
Crowns, at the lower End of Cheap fide, \6go. 

The Preface. 

T is agreed on by all real Chrifiians , that Man being made 
an intelligent Free Agent , not under bruitifh nece/Jitating 
Determination by ObjeVis, is governed by God by the Mo- 
ral way of haw ; that is, by the Signification of his Ruler s 
Willy making his Duty, and not by meer natural or forcible Mo- 
tion : And it is agreed that GOD himfelf is his only abfolute 
Univerfal Ruler, and his Laws given in Nature and by Reve- 
lation are the only Univerfal Laws , which no Humane Power 
can abrogate or difpenfe with : And that Kings and Magi- 
ftrates are his Minifiers for Mens good, and have no Tower 
but from him , and none againft him or his haws - 7 and that it 
is not Man, but God, by whom we muji all be judged to everlajiing 
Reward or "Funijhment : And therefore that all men muft obey 
God before Men, and muft not fear them that can but /{ill the 
Body, but him who is able to cafi both Soul and Body into Hell. 

And it is agreed on by all Sober Chrifiians, that therefore as 
Subjetts mull ufe their own Reafon at difcerning Self-Governours, 
to Judge who is their King, and who is an Ufiurper, and what 
ABions are commanded or forbidden by Mans haws^fo muft they 
fir ft and chiefly ufe their own reafon, to judge difcemingly what 
ABions are commanded or forbidden by God, and muft do accor- 
dingly whoever is againft it. this Judgment is commonly called 
Confcience^ which if it err not muft be followed^ but if it err, it 
muft be rectified : for then it is not God indeed that is obeyed : for 
God's Law changeth not as Confidence doth : yet to go againft 
fiuch a Confidence is Sin, becaufieit is interpretatively to go againft 
God, while the Man thought this had been God's Will 

A 2 On 

The rrerace. 

On Snppbfitwn of this certain truth, all that ever I yet read 
that Condemn the Xonconformfxs , and Preach for their Re- 
proach and Ruine, do confefs, that If any one thing required 
of us as neceiiciry to our Miniftry or Communion be Sin, 
our Nonconformity is but our Duty ; and all the whole 
Miniftry of England, on whom this was impofed by the A& 
of Uniformity on Bartholomew-Day, 1662. w'ere bound in 
Confcience to have been Nonconformifts : (Whether alfo to 
hare all ceafed to Treach the Gofpel, 1 leave to their Confede- 
ration.) This being the ConfeffJon of all that Silence ws , and 
fend us to Gaols, and call out for our utter Extirpation, I 
know no Jhorter or likelier way , to flop all this burning 
Wrath , and end our Mifckievous Dijfentions , than to try 
-whether no one thing required of us he Sin. Forty of the 
things required of Minifters, and Twelve of thofe required of 
the Laity, in all Fifty two, I have propofed to Examination, 
not as accufing the Laws or the Conformifts , whatever I think, 
of them x but only rendering briefly the Reafons of our own refu- 
fals. And Forty three Toints in which many faljly fappofe we 
Conform not (andfome may perhaps be found that do not Con- 
form to them all ) lhavefirft injlanced in, as being fach as we 
eppofe not, nor are any Parts of our Nonconformity. 

If all the Juflices and Minifters of England , who cen- 
flire m , and profecute us as intolerable Sinners, for our fear- 
ing tbefe as Sin, have impartially tryed all thefe Points , and 
Reafons, or yet will do , and can find no Sin in any one of the. 
Fifly two. and it prove fo indeed, lmuft fay that all the Two 
• 2 he uj and Minifters that in 1662. were Silenced* were as un- 
happy md frangely blinded Men, as mo ft in the World that 
lire true Christians -, that after all their Study and Prayers, 
they floould affright themfilves into fo calamitous a State, 
againft all the reaftn of their Worldly Interefts , as well as 
againft the welfare of the Church, and their Duty to God : 
2. But 1 mujl fay, pasl doubt, that the acenfing Clergy are 
deeply guilty of it, who theje Twenty one years haie no better 


The Prefac 

anfwered the Reafons of our fear, nor ufed more Wifdom and 
Charity for our jufl Conviction. For our Confciences are of 
fuch a temper , as will not be convinced with a Scorn or a 
Jail nor take all Writings or Words as fatisfa5lory , that are 
poured out with fupercilious Confidence, and called Satisfadtory 
by the Self efleeming Authors. 

I am told by divers, That I have written enough already 
on thefe Subje5ts , were it only my firft and fecoiid Plea for 
Peace , my Treatife of Epifcopacy , and that of Concord, 
and my Apology for our Preaching. And they fay, You mufi 
expetl to do no good, nor fo much as to be read by Adver- 
faries , much lefs with Diligence and impartial Willingnefs 
to know the Truth-, but contrarily to be hated , and accu- 
sed offome odious Crime , and laid in Jail, among Male- 
factors till you die ; and a Prifon will be more grievous to 
one in your pain and languijhing than to another. On the 
other fide, I have been long importuned to give an account 
of the Reafons of our Nonconformity : I have by Bifbops been 
reproved for not doing it : Lords and Perfons of great Qua- 
lity have been per f waded , that we keep up a dangerous 
Schifm in the hand , to the cherijhing of Difcontents and 
Sedition, only for things which we confefs to be indifferent, 
and no Sin : the Laws accufe tis : The numerous Addreffes of 
Counties, Cities and Corporations , revile us as the Nurfes of 
Rebellion : No fmall number of Treacher s plead for our Rume 
on the fame Suppofition , and tell the People that it is no 
Sin that we flic\ at , hut Humour , Pride and Faction make' 
us difobedient Schifmaticks , without any reafon for what we 
do. The Jails are fill'd with Nonconformifi s : Nine Mini- 
fieri are now in Newgate, and many more in other Places. 
And almofi all of them M.ul£l and Fined in far more than ever 
they were worth. Their Goods and Books t&kjsn by Dijhefs : 
They are fain- to fly or abfcond that are not in Trifon : Their 
Wives and Children in Diftrefs and Want : They are judg- 
ed by the Jufiices unworthy fo much as to be fummoned to 


Ihe rretace. 

Anfwer for themfelves before they are judged , or to be beard 
*Plead their own Caufe , or to k}iow and question their Ac- 
cufers and Witneffes ; But as I my [elf was Diftreined of all 
my Goods and Bookj on five Convictions before ever I heard 
of any Accufation, or faiv a Judge , fo is it with many others^ 
and more. In a word , Lords , Knights and Clergy-men take 
us for unfufferable Ferfons in the hand , unfit for Humane 
Society, Enemies to Monarchy , Obedience and Feace , and 
Corporations prcmife to choofe fuch Parliament Men as are 
for our Extirpation. And all this is for our Nonconformity^ 
rchich they all confefs to be our Duty if it be any Sin that by 
the hnpofitions is required of us. 

And if fo fmall and eafie a tash^ as proving one or many 
fuch Sins required, would recover the Charity and Juftice of all 
thefe Men, and fave themfelves and the Land from the guilt 
cf Profecuting and Opprefling the Innocent , and Condemning 
Men for Obedience to God , and driving confcionable and 
loyal Ferfons out of the Land, or overwhelming them withfalfe 
Accufations, becaufe of other Mens Ireafons or Sedition, is not 
he that will forbear his Part and Duty in fo dreadful a Cafe, 
a greater Sinner than he that when the City is on fire, wiU not 
do his be ft to quench it ; or that will not put out his hand 
to fave a Friend or Child in fire or Water, for fear of feme 
trouble to himfelf? 

I did in my fir ft Plea for Peace , only name the Matters 
which we dare not Conform to, and durft not give the Reafons 
of our Fear and Nonconformity : Whereupon many fmce have 
importuned me for thofe Reafons, as without which 1 could not 
expett that Men fbould underftand our Cafe. Why fbould I 
deny this ? Is it through defpair that Rulers and Clergymen will 
not regard Reafon, or will not bear it , but anfwer it with Con- 
tempt or Prifons ? That is to accufe them of fuch Injuftice, Un- 
charitablenefs, and Inhumanity as I muft not accufe any of that 
do not by open Practice accufe themfelves. 


The Preface 

Is it left I foould fuffor by them ? My Life and Labours have 
been long Vowed to God : He bath preferved* my Life , and 
fucceeded my Labours above forty Years, by a continued cotirfe 
of remarkable ^Providence, beyond my own and other Mens ex- 
pectations. What he hath thus given me, is doubly due to 
bis Service '? tvhich bath been ftillfo good to me, that it hath 
made even a painful life, a continual pleafure. He never failed 
or forfool^me : 1 dare not ask^ any longer life of him, but for 
more and longer Service. And if my Service be at an end, why 
not my Life alfo ? If 1 refufe his Service, 1 invite God to cut off 
my Life : And what Service elfe can I now do? I have neither 
leave nor ftrength to Treach. I have thefe fourteen Months 
been di fabled fo much as to go to any Publick or Private Church, 
or hear a Sermon. My Body with pain and languid feeblenefs 
is a daily heavy load to me. Ifuffer more by it every day, than 
from aU my Enemies in the World. And fball I be guilty of 
the heinous Sin of the OmiJJion of my Duty in a time offuch ur- 
gent and crying Necefjity, tofave fo calamitous a Life, which I 
am ft ill looking when it endeth ? Is not a Prifon as near a Way to 
Heaven as my own Houfe ? 1 will not do as thofe Chriftians that 
Cyprian writes to Comfort, who were greatly troubled at Death, 
hecaufe they died not by Martyrdom. But I take a Death for fo 
publick. and preffing a Caufe of Truth, Love, Innocency and 
Peace, to be a more comfortable fort of Martyrdom, than theirs 
that were Burnt iyi Smithfield for denying the Real Prefence, 
andfuch lik§ h and if God will fo endfuch a painful Life when 
Sicknefs and Natural decay is ready to end it, 1 hope he will 
teach me neither to repine, nor to be utterly unthankful 

And as tcy the uncertainty of fuccefs , He that obfervetlothe 
Wind {ball not fow ; God muft be trufted to blefs our Work. 
while we Plant and Water •, It's my part to do my Duty, 
and God's part to give fuccefs : I commend my felf living 
and dying into the hands of my Creator and Redeemer , and 
end this Preface in the words of St. Paul , A5l. 20. 23, 24. 
Bonds and afflictions abide me : But none of thefe thing? 


The Preface 

move me, neither count I my life dear unto my felf, fo that 
I might finifli ipy courfe with Joy, and the Miniftry which 
I have received of the Lord Jefus, to teftifie the Golpel of the 
Grace of God. 

Richard Baxter. , 

Undon, Sept. 28. 1583. 


An Inftance of the Accusations 

which call for our Defence ; ( befides thofe in 
the A6t for Banijhment from Corporations^ dec.) 

Devon ff. Ad General Quart erial. SeJJion. Tads ^Dom. Regis 
tent, apud Caftr. Exon. in © pro Comitat. prced. 
Secundo die Odtobris, Anno Regni Tom. nojtri 
Caroli Secundi 7Jei gratia Anglia?, Scotia, 
Franciaz, & Hibernia Regis, Fidei 7)efenfor. 
&c. Trkefjlmo quint o, Annoque^Bom. 1683. 

'E have been fo abundantly convinced of the Seditious 
and Rebellious Pra&ices of the Seftaries and Phana- 
ticks, who through the Courfe of above One hun- 
dred years fince we were firft infefted with 'em, 
have fcarce afforded this unhappy Kingdom any interval of reft 
from their horrid Treafons, as that we muft efteem 'em, not 
only the open Enemies of our Eftablifhed Government, but to 
all the common Principles of Society and Humanity it felf. 
Wherefore, that we may prevent their Horrid Confpiracies for 
the time to come, and fecure ( as much as in us lies) our molt 
Gracious KING and the GOVERNMENT from the Fury and 
Malice of 'em, we refolve to put the Severeft of the La\vs(vvhkh 
we find too Eafie and Gentle, unleis enlivened by a vigorous 
Execution ) in force againft 'em. 

1. We Agree and Refolve, in every Divinon of this County, 
to require furficient Sureties for the goodAbearin^ and Peace- 
able behaviour of all fuch as we may juitly fufpect, or that we 
can receive any credible Information againtt, that they have been 
at any Conventicles and Unlawful Meetings, or at any factious 

(a) cr 

or. Seditious Clubs •, or that have by any Difcourfes difcovered 
themfelves to be difaffe&ed to the prefent Eftabliihed Govern- 
ment, either in Church or State; or that have been the Au- 
thors or Publuliers of any Seditious Libels 3 or that (hall not 
in all things duely conform themfelves to the prefent Eftabliihed 

2. Becaufe we have a fort of Falfe Men, and more perfi- 
dious than profeffed Phanatiques, who either wanting Cou- 
rage to appear in their own fliape, or the better to bring about 
their Treafonable Defigns, privately Aflbciate with, and en- 
courage the Seditious Clubs of the Sectaries, and with them 
Plot heartily againft the Government ? and yet, that they may 
pafs unfufpe&ed, fometime appear in the Church with a falfe 
fhew of Conformity, only to fave their Money, and the better 
to ferve their Faftion: that we may ( if poflible ) diftinguifh 
and know all fuch dangerous Enemies, we will ftri&ly re- 
quire all Church-wardens and Conftables. at all our Monthly 
Meetings, to give us a full account of all fuch as do not 
every Sunday refort to their own Parifh-Churches, and are 
not at the beginning of Divine Service, and do not behave 
themfelves Orderly and Soberly there, obferving all fuch de- 
cent Ceremonies as the Laws enjoyn : And that they likewife 
Prefent unto us the Names of all fuch as have not received the 
Holy Sacrament of the Lord^s Supper in their own Parifh- 
Churches Thrice in the Year. 

3. Being fully fatisfied, as well by the clear Evidence of 
the late Horrid P L O T, as by our own long and fad Ex- 
perience, That the Nonconformift Preachers are the Authors 
and Fomenters of this Peftilent Faction, and the implacable 
Enemies of the Eftablifhed Government, and to whom the 
late Execrable Treafons, which have had fuch difmal effedls 
in this Kingdom, are principally to be imputed, and who by 
their prefent obftinate refufing to Take and Subfcribe an Oath 
and Declaration , That they do not hold it Lawful to talzg up 
ARMS againft the K I NG^ and that they mil not endeavour 
any Alteration of Government either in Church or State ; do ne- 
ceffarily enforce us to conclude, that tliey are ftill ready to 
engage themfelves j ( if not a&ually engaged ) in feme Rebel- 
lious Confpiracy againft the KIN G, and to invade and Sub- 

vert his GOVERNMENT: wherefore we refolve in eve- 
ry PaHfli of thia County to leave Ariel Warrants in the hands 
of all Conftables, for the Seizing of iuch Per (ens And as an 
encouragement to all Officers and others, that fhall be infiru- 
mental in the apprehending of any of them, fo as they may 
be brought to Juftice, we will give and allow Forty {hil- 
lings, as a Reward, for every Nonconformist Preacher that 
fliall be fo fecured- And we Refolve to Profecuce them, 
and all other fuch Dangerous Enemies of the Government , 
and common Abfenters from Church , and Frequenters of 
CONVENTICLES, according to the Dire&ions of a Law 
made in the Five and Thirtieth Year of the Reign of Queen 
ELIZABETH, Entituled , An AEb for the keeping Her 
Majefties Snbjecls in due O BEDlENC E. 

L*ftly, That we may never forget the infinite Mercies of 
Almighty God , in the late Wonderful Deliverance of our 
Gracious KING, and his Deareft BROTHER, and all 
His Loyal Subjeds, (who were defigned for a MafTacre) 
from the Horrid Confpiracy of the Phanatiques , and their 
Accomplices -■> and that we may perpetuate as well our own 
Thankfulnefs, as their Infamy, that the Generations to come 
may "know their Treachery, and avoid and. never truft men 
of fuch Principles more * and alfo, that we our felves may 
perform our publick Duty to Almighty God, before we 
enter upon the publick Service of our Countrey : We Or- 
der, Refolve, and Agree, with the Advice and Concur- 
rence of the Right Reverend Father in God, our much Ho- 
noured and Worthy Lord BISHOP, to give and beftow 
for the Beautifying of the Chappel in the Cattle of EXO AT, 
and for the eredting of decent Seats there, Ten Pounds : 
And we will likewife give and continue Six Pounds to be 
paid yearly to any one of the Church of Exon, whom the 
faid Lord BISHOP fhall appoint, to read the DIVINE 
SERVICE, with the Prayers lately appointed for the 
day of Thankfgiving on the Ninth ot September iaft, and to 
Preach a Sermon exhorting to OBEDIENCE, in the faid 
Chappel, on the firft day of every general Quarter-Seffiors 
of the Peace held in the faidCaftle, to begin precifelyat Eight 
of the Clock in the Morning. 

(a 2) And 

And may the Mercies of Heaven ( which are infinite ) al- 
ways prorer> our Religion?; and Gracious KINO, his Deareft 
BROTHER, and every Branch of that ROYAL FAMILY -, 
and may all the Treasonable Confpiracies of thofe Rebellious 
Schifmaticks be always thus happily prevented. 

Hugo Vaughan, C/er. Pads Com. p<zd. 

That the continued Care of His Majefties Juflices of the Peace 
for the County p/DEVON, for the Safety of His Ma- 
jejlies Sacred Per/on, the Prefervation ofthePublic^Peace, 
and advancement of true Religion, may be fuller known, and 
have abetter EffeB, I do hereby Order and Require all the 
CLERGT of my Diocefs within the County of Devon, 
deliberately to publijh this Order, the next Sunday after it 
jhall be tendred to them. 



( Now Archbifliop of Yor\. ) 




CHap. I. The Introductory Conference. 
Ch. 2. The things prefuppofed as agreed on* 
Ch. 2- What our Nonconformity is not, in 50 lnftances. 
Ch. 4. A brief Enumeration of the things impofed on m % which are 

the Matter of our Nonconformity, 
Ch. 5. I. Of Reordination. 
Ch. 6. II. Of the Oath and Covenant of Canonical Obedience to Bi- 

Jhops and Ordinaries, 
Ch. 7 . III. Ordained Minifters forbidden to Preachy or Expound any 

Scripture, or Matter or Dotlrine, Can. 49. 
Ch. 8. IV- and V. Of Subfcribingthat there is nothingin three Booh 

contrary to the Word of God, and Declaring Affent and Confent to 

all in the Liturgy, &C« 
Ch. 9. VI. Of Affenting that itisC ERT A I Nby the Word of God, 

that Infants baptized dying before actual Sin, are undoubtedly faved 

(qua tales) not excepting the feed of Atheifts, Jcws % or any. 
Ch. IO- VII. Of the Englijh fort of Godfathers at Baptifm and their 

Ch. II. VIIL Of refufing to Baptize fuch as have not fuch God- 
Ch. 12 IX. Of the Dedicating fymbol of Cr offing at Baptifm. 
Ch- IJ. X. Of denying Baptifm where Cr offing is refufed. 
Ch. 14. XI. Of Re je cling from Communion all that dare not receive 

CI). 1 5 . XII. Of confenting to the falfe Rule y as true for finding Eafter 

Day always: Whether fmall lyes be Sin ? 
Ch. 16- XIIL Of Pronouncing all Saved that are Buried, except the 

Excommunicate, Vnbaptized, and Self- Murderers. 
Ch. 17. XIV. Of Confenting to read fo witch of the Apocrypha. 

Ch. 18. 

The Contents. 

Ch. 1 8. XV. Of Affent'mg to Mif-tranflations of God's Word, and 
fubfcnbing that they are not contrary to it. 

Ch. 19. XVI. Of Confentingto rejett all fromChriflian Communion , 
who dcfire not the Engliflj manner of Epifcopal Confirmation. 

Ch . 2.0. XV 1 1. Of Confenting to all the Ornaments of Church and Mi- 
nifters which were in ufe in the Second year of King Edw. 6. 

Ch. 21. XVIIL Of giving account to the Ordinary of all that we keep 
from the Sacrament, that he may proceed againfi them according to 
the Canons : which leads us to confider thofe Canons. 

Ch. *2. XIX. Of Publifhing Lay-Chancellors Excommunications and 
Abfolutions, according to the Canons. 

Ch. 23. XX. Of Publifiing Excommunications according to the fourth 

Ch. 24. XXI. Of Publijljing Excommunications according to the fifth 

Ch. 25. XXII. Of Publifhing Excommunications by thefixth Canon. 

Ch 26. XXIII. Of Publijljing Excommunications by the feventh 

Ch. 27. XXIV. Of Publifhing Excommunications bythe eighth Canon. 

Ch. 28. XXV. Of Excommunicating all that call Biffcnters a Church, 
according to the pth, 10th, and 1 1 th Canons. 

Ch. 29. XXVI. Of executing Canon 27, rt jetting JSlonconformifls 
from Communion. 

Ch. 30. XXVIL Of refufwg other Tarifhioners from Communion ac- 
cording to Can. 28. 

Ch. 31. XXVIII. Of Can. 38. Excommunicating Miniflers for Re- 
ptnting of their Subfcribing. 

Ch- 32. XXIX. Of Can. 5 7. Excommunicating Men for going for 
Baptism and Communion from Miniflers that never Preach to thofe 
that do. 

Ch. 33. XXX. Of Can. 58. making the Surplice neceffary to Mini- 

Ch- 34. XXXI. Of forcing Minifters by Can. 68, to Baptize all Chil- 
dren without exception of Atheifts or Infidels. 

Ch. 35. XXXIL Of Can.']!, again ft F aft s and Prayer unlicenfed. 

Ch- 36. XXXIII. Of Excommunication by the three laft Canons. 

Ch. 37. XXXI V. Of renouncing all Obligation by the Covenant, as on 
me or Any Other, to Endeavour any alteration of Church Govern- 

Ch. 38. XXXV. Of the Oxford Oath, never to Endeavour fuch Al- 
teration. Ch. 35?. 

The Contents. 

Ch. 3p. XXXVI- Of Subfcribing and Swearing that the Tofttion it 
Traiterous of taking Arms by the Kings Authority againf} thofe 
Commiffioned by him in Purfuance of fuch Commijfion •, without Ex- 
ception. A Lord Keeper s Seal to a Commijfion to Confpirators to 
fei^e the Kings Forts, Magazine and Guards mayfo depofe him. 

Ch. 40. XXXVII. Of Affenting and Confenting to the damning Clan- 
fes in Athanafius'j Creed. 

Ch.41. XXXVIII. Of faying Common-Prayer twice a day, every 
day in the year ordinarily. 

Ch. 42. XXXIX. Of forcing unwilling Men to the Sacrament and Ac- 
cusing and Excommunicating the refufers. 

Ch. 43 • XL. Of forfaking our Miniftry and ceaflng to "Preach the 
Gofpel i, Whether it be not Sacriledge and Cruelty in us : and of Ba~ 
moment 5 miles from all Corporations, &c. 

Ch. 44 Of Lay-Conformity. I. Whether all men muft truft their 
Souls on the P aft oral Con duel of all fuch, as our Patrons will choofe, 
and the Bijhcps inftitute. 

Ch. 45 . II- Whether Parents have not more right than our Patrons, 
to choofe Paftors and Church-Communion for their Children. 

Ch. 46. III. Of forcing Men to Schifm, by renouncing Communion 
with true Ch riftians and true Churches. 

Ch. 47. IV. Of binding all the Laity to live without any more be- 
nefit of Church-difcipline,than is ufed by the Biflmps and their Courts. 

Ch. 48. V. Of difcountenancing the fear of Sin, and the ferious pra- 
ctice of Godlinefs : divers in (lances. 

Ch. 49- VI. The Laity denied Baptifm, who refufe the for ef aid fort 
of Godfathers, excluding the Parents. 

Ch. 50. VII. Baptifm denied to them that dare notfubmit to the dedU 
eating Symbol of Cr offing. 

Ch. 51. VIII. Of Rtjeclingnot-kneelers from Church Communion. 

Ch. 52. IX. Of denying Lay-men Communion in a Neighbour Parifh- 
Church, *when they dare not Communicate with their own Parifljes : 
For the Reafons aforefaid. 

Ch. 53. X. The Laity muft Swear never to endeavour any Alteration 
of Government in the Church, without Exception. 

Ch. 54. XI. The Laity muft fwear an Abhorrence of taking Arms 
again ft any Commijfioned by the King, 9 without Exception : when they 
under ft and not whether every one be the Kings Commijfion that is 
figned by the Lord Chancellor or Privy Seal, though it be again ft 
Law, and tend to overthrow King and Kingdom. 


The Contents. 

Ch. 55. XII. Whether all trufted in Corporations may declare that 
there is no Obligation on them or any other, from the Oath calCd 
The Solemn League and Covenant, not [0 much as to repent of Sin, 
or oppofe Prcphanenefs, Popery or Schifm, and defend the King : and 
fo that G. Monk'j Army, and all the reft of the Three Nations that 
rcftored the King as obliged to it by that Vow^ were all deceived^ 
and not fo obliged: and whether all the Subjetls ?nuft be fire 
of this ? 

Cll. 56. Of Thirty tremendous Circumftances and Principles which all 
agree in, that affright Men from Conformity . 

Ch. 57. The Re of on s for Conformity confidered. 

Ch. 58. Whether Communion with fo faulty a Church be lawful.. Se- 
paration confuted. 

Ch- 59. ^ Draught (in ten Articles ) of that which the Reconciling 
Nonconformifts de fire for healing our Church Diviftons : In the words 
which they judge meeteft to that ufe. 

Ch- 60. The Reafons of thofe ten Articles diftintlly render d. 

Ch. 6l. Whether the Extirpation of the Nonconformifts be not rather 
to be attempted , than a Vnion with them by thefe means : 
Handled with reference to a late Treafonable Plot againft the 

Ch T 62. Fifty Queftions propofed tounjuft Silencers. 



True CASE 


English Nonconformity, 

In a DIALOGUE between 


A Silenced MINISTER and a LAWTER. 


The Introductory Conference \ 


Lawyer. C^ I &i f ^ e danger of the Kings Dominions by our Irre- 
^^ ligiom Contentions about Religion , poffeffeth the ob- 
\^J fervers with jufi indignation ; but all know not on 
whom to lay the blame 5 fome lay it on the BifJjops, andfome on the Non- 
conformist s, andfome on both: I am unwilling to wrong any 5 but 
when I think^of our danger, and hear that it is but Ceremonies, and 
things indifferent for which you break the Law, and make a Schifni in 
the Church, and weaken us by divijions r J cannot but thinkjou deeply 

Minifier. Bow long have you fo judged? 

L. Thefe twenty years, ever fine e you were put outl 

M. Did you ever by Reading and Conference with thofe that 

B you 

.ycu cenfure, acquaint ycur felf truly with their Cafe. 

L. / have feen fome of your Books, but I have not talkt much ofthefe 
platters with any of yoH t but I read and bear from the Dotlors of the 
Church what you are* and what yon hold. 

M. Will you take us to be the juft reporters what they are and 

L. No, you are Adverfaries and partial. 
M, And are not they as much fo to us ? Is not every man fit- 
ter to profefs his own Faith than his Adverfary is? And have ycu 
done well to judge before you heard and tryed ? Shall Judges do 
fo on the Bench ? Have you not all thefe years, continued guilty 
of falfe judging and uncharitablenefs, and that againft a great num- 
ber of the innocent ? And if you everyday prayed for forgive - 
nefs but as you forgive, even an enemy and real injury, what have 
you done all this while in condemning the guiltlefs ? 

L. Why have y on not in Writing given the World juft fatis faction 
if 'you are guiltlefs ? What (in have you proved to be in the Conformity 
required of j on ? I fee no fuch proof, 

M. You know what penalties the Law layeth on any that de- 
prave the Common- Prayer- Books, and that all are Excommuni- 
cate ipfo facto, that do but affirm any thing to be againft Gods 
Word, in any Office of your Church Government, in any Word 
or Ceremony in your Liturgy, &c. Can. 5. 6,7, 8. And you 
know what follows Excommunication here. And you know that 
till of late years the Prefs was (hut up to us: But have you feri- 
ouflyread and ftudied what is written by us? I my felf have 
told you •, 1. In a Book called A Plea for Peace, what things they 
be which Nonconformifts take to be finful in Conformity, and 
how great and hainous the fin is which they fear, ; and .what fepa- 
ration is unlawful and what is neceftary. 2. In a full Treatife 
ofEpifcopacy I have fhewedwhat Epifcopacy we are for, and 
what we are againft, and why, and what Antiquity held here- 
about, and what we have to fay to moft of the Learned Men 
that have written for that Diocefan form, which we cannot approve. 

3. In an Apology, I have proved it our duty to Preach, though 
forbidden, as far as we are able, and mens neceffities require id 

4. In a fecond Plea for Peace, I have fully given the World an 
account of our Dodrine, of Magiftrates Power and Subjects 
Duties in matters Ciyil and Ecdefaitical, &t- j« In a Treatife 



of Church Concord, I have fully proved chat the Primitive limpli- 
tity in things divine, few, plain and fureic the only paflible mat- 
ter ofllniverfal Chriitian Unity and Concord. I know not of 
anyone of thefe that are Anfvered, or any thing like an Anfwer 
to them written, fave that to fomepart of the frit-, (ome meer im- 
pertinent noife was made by feme one that is confuted. 

L. We that have other Employment have not leifure to readfo 'many 
tedious Writings : Toll m your Cafe in a few words if you would have ns 
under ft and you. 

M. Did you get your skill in Law by fo eade and fo iliort a 
Study? Oris any kind of Knowledge fb eafily got, where Con- 
troverfy hath drowned the matter in contradicting words. You 
know that it is multitudes of Volumes that are written on the 
other fide : And it's impoffible to Anfwer them all in a few words: 
And if they be unanfvvcred, they will fay, we have done nothing. 
But had you as feriouily ftudied but one or two of thefe Books, 
(e.g. my firft Vie* for ?e ace, and Treatife of Epifcopacy ) as you 
do Law Books, I fcarce think you would have been long unfatis- 
fied. But if indeed you have no time to hear, read and ftudy, 
fay alfo you have no time to know or judge : And no more cen- 
fure what you know not. 

L. How comes your Cafe to be fo little under food if you have done 
fo much to open and juflifie it * 

M. You may know by your felf. i. Men ftudy their own 
matters in which they feel themfelves concerned ; and as for ours 
they think they are not much concerned to know them. 2. At 
lead not at the rate of any hard and diligent ftudy, which nei- 
ther love nor neceffity leads them to. 3. Molt are Grangers to 
us, even they that dwell near us, and converfe not with us. 
4. The rather becaufe that as we are out of the riling way, and 
are under publick difcountenance, andbaniihed from Corporati- 
ons, and much from converfe with men ofpublick place and in- 
terest, fo our familiarity is become fearful, left it brings thofe 
that are familiar with us into (ufpicion. 5-. And they converfe 
with thofe that through Ignorance or Malice do defcribe us, and 
our Caufe and Books, as they would have all men think of us * 
and it is not good manners or fafe to contradict them. And to 
the notice of our Mind and Cafe muft be received, not from us, 
but from our accufers. Do you obferve this method in Wt 

B Z minftir 

mw/terHaH. 6. And how much intereft can byafs mens judgments, 
common experience rnn pafily telle uc .- They that arc uppermoft 
feldom want applauders, nor deje&ed men accufers. Every School- 
boy can tell you OUt oiOvid. de Trift. Bum fuerisfalix multos nu- 
merates amicos : Null us ad amiffas ibit amicus opes, ^f pic Is ut veniunt 
ad Candida ted: a Columba : Accipiet null as [or dida turns aves. A few 
ferious Believers that look for a more righteous and important 
judgment after death, do not lofe the treafure of Truth and Inno- 
cency in Shipwrack, it being as near them as themfejves : But r* T 
tera fortune } non me a turbafuit. 

L. But if there be no caufe, how come you to be fo odious to o- 
thers ? 

M. If you that dwell in England cannot anfwer that your fejf, 
when you have taken a furvey of the quality and lives of them that 
hate us, and them that they hate, and of their diftind interefts '" 
and motives, I will not anfwer it to you. 

L. But whence is it that Clergy- men of the fame Profejfionfo much 
dij agree ? 

M. The former anfwer fliall.ferve to this : Whence is it that 
die Clergy by difagreement about Opinions and Superiority have 
broken the whole Chriftian World into that ftate of doleful divir 
fion, in which in Afia, Africa and Europe, it lyeth to this day ? If 
you know not read theHiftory of the Church. 

L. Which part of you foederis guilty, the guilt mufi needs be 'very 
hainous, when the Preachers of the Gofpel of Love and Peace, fo hate 
each other, and perfwade all to do the like, and will not let the World be 

M. No doubt but Love and Concord are fo great Duties and 
Bleffings, and there is fo much of Satan in the contrary, that you 
can hardly aggravate the guilt too much. If it were better for 
that man that offendeth or ftumbleth one of the leaft, that he had 
never been born, or he had been caft with a milftone about his 
neck into the Sea 5 what a cafe are thefe Church Paftors in that 
tear the Church, and Preach down Love, and harden thoufands 
in Ungodlinefs and Cruelty, and endanger the lofs of Religion to. 
the Land. 

L. If I knew which of you had done mofi for Love and Peace y 
and leaft a gain ft them^ Jjhould know to whom to impute our trou- 

M. We. 

M. We juftifie not our felvcs, and we leave others to theii? 
judge : We have deferved worfefrom God, than we have fuf- 
fered. But we mufi fay; i. That we impofe not our words, 
our books, our forms, our different .rites on any, nor would do, 
by violence, had we power : We put no Oaths, Subfcripcions, 
Covenants, Profeffions or Practices doubtful upon any : To them 
that tell us we did fo in former times, we flill fay, let them ufe 
no other fo but thofe that ufed them to, and we are fatisfied : I 
know not fix in England of all theprefent Nonconformifls that 
did fo : We are not for Silencing or lmprifoning them, nor for- 
bidding them to worihip God : In 1660 we motioned no change 
of Church Government, which ihould take down any of their 
Lordfliips Maintenance or Epifcopal Power, but only ArclvBifhoa 
VJJjers Draught of the antient Epifcopacy, and thankfully ac- 
cepted what the King then granted in his Declaration of Eccle- 
fiaftical Affairs. 2. We never craved Preferment of them, but 
leave to ferve Chrift and his Church in the Office which we were 
Vowed to. We certainly knew what impediments hindered the 
defired Unity, and what divifions mufl needs follow were they 
not removed, which by others they might eafily have been, with- 
out coftor danger. We Pleaded, we Wrote, we Petitioned, and 
Beg'd for Peace, even for that which the King had granted : And 
what could we do more? Since then above twenty years we have 
laboured as we could, fbmetime to few, and fometime to more 3 
and have patiently lived upon Charity, and fuffered — I need not 
tell you what. 

L. But why couldnotyoH Conform to the Law as well as they ? 

M.i. Can men believe what others lift becaufe they bid us? h 
there nothing that you or they would refufe if it be but commandr 
ed you ? What ufe have we for a Law of God then ? If we muft 
difobey it as oft as we are bid, that were to renounce God, and all 
Religion and Salvation. And we have not our own underftandings 
at command •, we have offered them our Oaths thefe twenty years, 
that we would obey them in all, except at the rate of (inning and 


2. And if we had done as they did we muft have profeft our 
Affent and Confent to all things contained in and prefcribed by a 
Book which we never faw : For fo did we fuppofe above feven 
thoufand men, the Book not coming, out of the Frefs till about the 


day that they were foto Affent to it, Aug. 24.' fo that no doubt 
they d<d it on an implicite truft in others ; except the few that 
were in or near London \ This fully (hews chat, though jalmoft all 
the nine thoufand or more Minifters that were in pofleffion when 
the King came in, did before conform to the way of the Directo- 
ry, aiu not to the Common-Prayer Book, yet there was a great 
latent difference between the feven thoufand that conformed, and 
the tw thoufand that did not. 

L But feeing til! the ftrefs lyeth upon the queftion, Whether it be on- 
ly things Lawful, indifferent or good, which you rcfufe, or any thing 
which God forbiddeth : I pray tell me plainly, what it is that you take 
to be finful in the Conformity required I And what it is that you would 
have as neceffary in its ft cad. 

M. I will tell you on thefe Conditions ; 1. That you pardon 
me for repeating here what I have already written. 2. Thac you 
bring not your lei fa Confcience fo laxe as w T ill take nothing for 
(in, which men ufe to make light of, though God forbid it, and 
then think that our Conferences fhould be as wide as yours. 
3. That we may premife the things prefuppofed as agreed on. ' 

CHAP. II. The things prejuppq/ed as agreed 01. 

L- \ /"\ 7 Hat are the Agreements which you pre fuppofe ? 
V V M m Thefe following. 
I. That God is the Abfolute Soveraign Ruler, and hath made 
in Nature, and in the Sacred Scripture, _ Univerfal Laws for the 
whole Church and World : And that Kings are His Subjects and 
Officers, 2nd have no Power but what He giveththem directly 
or indiredly, and therefore none againft Him ^ no more than a 
Conftable againft the Sovereign Power j and that he and all men 
are bound to obey Gods Laws, whoever are againft it or forbid 

Lr. 1 cannot deny this, without denying Cod to be God, and the Law 
of Nature and Scripture to be Hts Law and Word. 

M. II. That next to his Government, God in order of Nature 
and Time made Self-Government and Family-Government before 
the Government of Republicks, Kingdoms or Cities : And that 
publick Polity hath no Authority to abrogate Self Government or 
famtly-Government, but only to over rule and ufe them for the com- 
mon good and fafety. L. This 


L. This is mi deniable > if you [late the Governments pre fappofid a- 

M. III. That it belongs to Self -Government to difcernby reafon, 
whether the Commands of Men be againft the Commands of God 
or not, which we call Judimm difcretioms, by which all men mirfl 
guide their actions, 

L. Shall every man be a judge of the Law, whether it be jufb and 
good } How unfit are the vulgar to judge of Laws f 

M. They arenopublick judges to decide the cafe for other 
men, nor doth their judgment reftram or bind the MSgiitrate 5 
nor if they judge amifs will ic juftifie themfelves, or fufpend the 
execution of the Law againft them. But if they muft nor. have 
theforefaid difcerning judgment to guide their actions, it will 
follow; 1. That they are not governed, nor muft obey as Men 
by Reafon and Free-will, but as Brutes. 2. That Kings have 
Abfolute Power againft God, and muft be obeyed in all that they 
command, e . g. if it be to curfe or blafpheme, or renounce God 
or Chrift, to command the Subject to live in Murder, Adultery 
Perjury, &c and fo to abrogate the Law of Nature. 3. Ic fol- 
lowed!, that there is no God ( that is, a Supream Ruler ) but the 

• King. 4. And I pray you tell me what you will have the Sub- 
jects do in cafe of Ufurpation or Competition for the Govern- 
ment, as between the Houfes oflW^and Lane after, Jane and 
Queen Mary, &c. when one faith, fight for me, and the other, fight 

forme. If the Subject have not a judgment of discretion to know 
which is his rightful Sovereign, the King muft be forfaken ? He 
that will ftand to the command of another, muft judge who his 
Commander is. 

L. And will you have Infants and Idiots judge of their Parents com- 
mands 3 Or Children in their minority? 

M. 1. Infants and Idiots have not the ufe of Reafon, and fo 
far are to be ruled by force as Brutes : And Children in that mea- 
fureas they are fhort of reafon. But 2. If they come to reafon, 
and the King command them one thing, ( e- g. what Church to go 
to ) and their Parents the contrary, would you not have them judge 
which they muft obey. 3. Much more if Barents fhould command 
them to fin againft God, to Steal, Lye, Murder, Blafpheme, and 
Curfe the King, &c. furelythey muft judge as far as they are 

L / 


SL I c.wnot deny it, proceed in y 'our. pnfuppofu ions. 

AL IV. That no men have power to command us to damn our 
Souls, or to do, any thing that tendeth to it. 

L. None will deny you that j but perhabs fome things may ceafe to be 
fin, and dangerous if commanded* 

M. None can difpenfe with the laws of God, but we grant 
that fome things that are unlawful by fome accident or circum- 
ftance may become a duty when commanded, when the good of 
Obedience, Order and Concord therein, weighs down againft the 
accident: It may be alin to go on Warfare before one is com- 
manded, and a duty when he is commanded. It is a fault in a Ser- 
vant to go before he is fent, and a duty after. 

V. We prefuppofe that deliberate Lying is a fin.' 
L. Is there anyo??e doubts of that} 

At If they do not, our Cafe will Toon be decided. But indeed 
many deny it. The Janfcnifls name you many Jefuit Cafuifts : And 
Grot ins de Jure Belli, and Biiliop Jer. Taylor, deny that Lying is any 
fin when it is profitable, and wrongeth none ; as in a Phyfician to 
tice down a Medicine. 

L. And what have you to fay to the contrary ? 

M. I muft not ftay to difpute all fuch matters with you : I have 
fully anfwered it in my Catechifm on the Ninth Commandment. 
Briefly this may fatisfie you : No ones private good muft be fought 
by a means that would deftroy all Humane Truft and Converfe : 
SBut if you give men leave to lye when they think it needful 
or harmlefs, it will deftroy all Humane Truft and Converfe : For 
almoft all will think their lyes are profitable. And we have had 
Learned, Moderate Conformifts that have trufted to this Argu- 
ment, and openly defended it : If Knaves would take my Purfe, 
I may defend my felf with my Hands: Ergo, If they would de- 
.prive me of my Maintenance and Miniftry, I may defend my felf 
with my Tongue. 

I . And how do you anfwer them ? 

M. That no man muft defend himfelf by means which will do 
more hurt than his Miniftry or Life is worth : But to let men 
loofefo to lying is fuch •? and more forbidden of God than hand- 
defence : And fin ever doth more hurt than good. 

VI. We may fuppofealfo that Perjury is unlawful, and would 
much more deftroy all Mutual Truft, and confequently Humane 
Converfe. VII And 

VII And we may fuppofe that he that either commandeth or 
perfwadeth others to be perjured, or that openly juftifieth their 
perjury, by telling them that it is no perjury, or no fin 3 is guilty 
of their perjury. 

VIII. And we fuppofe that to draw whole Churches and King- 
doms into perjury, by force, perfwafion, example or juftifica- 
tion of it, and telling them that they need not repent of it, is one 
of theheinoufeil fins that man can commit, except making it the 
very Mark or Stigma, without which nor*e may be Magistrates, 
Minifters or Freemen. 

L. No one I hope will deny any of this. 

M. IX, We prefuppofe that all Vows, Oaths,. Covenants, 
Profeffions, impofed by Superiours, muft be taken in that fenle 
in which they any way expound them, without forcing them ei- 
ther by a laxe or an over-rigid interpretation :' But if they do not 
otherwife expound them, they muft be taken in the fenfe as thofe 
words are commonly ufed and underftood, by fuch as treat of the 
iubje& which they belong to. I 

L. Ton have fb cameloufly exprefi it* that 1 cannot comradiB 

M. I muft not be tedious in writing the fame things oft. If any 
doubt whether our expositions of Oaths and Subfcriptions be not 
over-ftricl or rigid, I pray you read the words of Dr. Sander fori, 
cited by me in the end of my firft Plea for Peace, and know that 
we ftand to his rules of exposition. 

X. We may fuppofe that, feeing repenting and amending is 
the condition offorgivenefs, to make a Covenant in any fin that 
we will never repent and amend, is fo heinous a crime, as is next 
to the renouncing of Pardon and Salvation : And in National guilt 
and danger deliberately to covenant that we will never endeavour 
any amendment of the Nations iin,is next to begging Gods Curfe 
on the Land 5 e. g. If a man were a Fornicator and Perjured, and 
the Land commonly guilty of the fame, he that would make a 
Bargain or Covenant, and that deliberately, that he will never 
amend, nor ever endeavour to amend the "Land or any other — 
What would you think of that mans cafe? 

L. What jliould J think but tloat he is a Monfhr and mferahle 
Wretch? Bm what s that to us? I hole there are none fuch in 

C • England, 

( JO > 

England, that worfe than Witches, would fell themfelves and the 
Nation to the Devil. 

M. I pray over- run me not in the application : I do but tell 
you what I itippofe we are agreed in : I ftall tell you after why 
I fpeak it. 

XI. I alfo fuppofe that bare Pofieffion proveth not a Biihop or 
Paftors right to the place and power which he claimed! : Nor is 
any diflfeized of his right by being difleized of feparable accidents. 

L- That's true : But what nfe you 11 make of it I know not. 

M XII. Laftly, I muft defire you to remember, that as we 
profefs to ftick at nothing but fin againft God (and not things in- 
different, asweareflandered,) Co if but one of all the impofed 
Ads of Conformity be certainly finful, and if but one of all the 
Arguments which I (hall ufe do prove it fo, not only the two 
thoufand that were ejeded, were bound to be Nonconformifts, 
but alfo all the Engliih Miniftry, and the Ad of Uniformity (if 
Conformity be fin) did virtually, though not actually, turn out 
all the Clergy at once, becaufe all were bound rather to refign 
than fin. • 

L. The truer and more dreadful the conference is, the hardlier mil 
I believe the antecedent, till 1 needs muft . 

M. You cannot exped: that we affirm it : For, i. We know 
how cautelous we muft be in meddling with the cafe of other 
men : Let them judge themfelves who are called to it. 2. And 
I told you before what the Law threatens, and the Canons,againft 
them that affirm any of the Impofitions to be fmful 3 much more 
that fliall fo deeply accufe the Laws. 3. But fure no Law or Rea- 
fon forbiddeth men to fear finning againft God themfelves, nor 
to tell the World what it is that they fear, and why they dare not 
do it, without accufmg any other. 

CHAP. II. What our Nonconformity is not I 

M. T>Efore I tell you wherein our Nonconformity doth con- 
13 lift, I muft tell you wherein it doth not confift, to avoid 
the falfe reports that commonly go abroad againft us. 

And therefore I muff premife that I pretend not to tell you the 
opinion of every oddperion that Conformeth not; no more than 
you jullifie- all that Conform in all their opinions. I think few 


C ii ) 

doubt not but that fome Atheifts, Sadduces, Infidels, Hobbifts, 
Socinians, if not Papifts, outwardly Conform : Yet we charge 
not their Errours on the Church ; and fo on rhe other fide. But 
thofe that were called by the King, and one another, i66o } and 
1661, to treat of Concord, and that AfTembled at Sion Colledge, 
and elfewhere about it,did openly make known their minds : And 
I think they meddled not againft^ny of thefe things folio wing,by 
any accufation of them as unful-j M 

I. They never denied the Lawfulness of a Form of Prayer or 
a Liturgy : Though fome falfly fo accufe them. 

II. They denied not the foundnefs of the matter of Prayer, 
contained in the Form of the Englifh Liturgy, in the main f They 
thought it a good Book,and the making of it a great Reformation, 
and honoured the excellent men that made it $ but they thought 
it not fuch as could not, or (hould not in any thing be amended, 
or that all might fay was without fault. 

III. They thought not the Impofajon of it a reafon fufficient 
to prove it unlaw fill for them to ufe it were there no more. 

IV. They offered to ufe it when amended, and if that could 
not be had, they told you in their Reply, their purpofe rather to 
communicate in the ufe of it, than not at all, and to have ufed all 
the lawful part themfelves, if they might be fuffered in their pub- 
lick places and Ministry on fuch terms* 

V. They never accufed the ufe of Holy-days, as days of 
Thankfjiving to God, for giving fuch Holy Apofiies to the 
Church, and whofe memory we honourably commemorate. 

VI. They never accufed our Kneeling at the Lords Sutler as un- 
lawful, but only the cafiing Godly perfons from Communion for 
not ufing it, when they take it to be fin. About the Kneeling the 
old Nonconformifts were not of ope mind; fome thought that 
every objettam motivHm of Adoration was forbidden thac was a 
Creature : But others faid, that every creature in the World may 
be fuch an object: Our meat is objeftam mot warn when we pray 
for a Bleffing on it. If I fee the Relicts or Picture of a Friend 
that I wronged while he was alive, I may -well be moved by it to 
beg pardon of God. All his works muft move me to adore and 
praife him : But we may not make any Image objetlum termtna- 
xivum, or ad quod, to which w ; e direct our Divine Worihip, as 
a Medium of our (ending it to Cod. The only great difficulty 

C 2 about 

( » ) 

about this is from the Argument of fcandalous hardening the Pa- 
-pills that live among us: Though indeed our Dodlrine avoideth 
that fcanda!. 

VII. They never accufed the Ceremony of laying the hand on 
the Book and kifling k in taking an Oath- 

VIII. They never (pake againft the Ring in Marriage. 

IX. They meddled not witftshe Surplice, Tippet, Hood, Ro- 
chet, Cope, but only the casing men out of the Mini/try thai 
dare not ufe them, thinking them unlawful : Though we juftirie 
them net. 

v X. They accufed not all fignificant ufe of the Crofs ? but only 
that in Baptifm it feemedtohave all, ormoft of the nature of a 
-Humane Sacrament of the Covenant of virace, as it is expound- 
ed in the. Liturgy and Canon. 

XI. They fpake^no: againft Epifcopacy, as it is a prefidency 
among and over Presbyters differing in Degree,and not in Office^ 
called ORDER, and that in a Church of the loweft Species. 

XII. They oppofed not Arch-Bifhops as over many fuch 
Churches and Bifhops, nor Diocefans, as Arch-Bifhops ruling but 
by Gods Word. 

XIII. They fa id nothing againft Metropolitans, Patriarchs 1 , 
Lay-Chancellors, Commiffaries, Officials, Surrogates, Arch-Dea- 
cons,^, as Officers of the King, appointed to do nothing (be- 
sides the Sacred Miniftry, if they be Clergy-men) but what be- 
longs to Magiftracy. * 

XIV. They (aid nothing againft any promife of Obedience to 
them only in the capacities, and in the exercife of the power fore- 

XV. Much lefs did they ever oppofe or queftion Swearing to 
the King, according to the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy : 

f, win divers others alfo, being (for forne ends) entered as 
his Chaplains in Ordinary, took alfo that Oath of Fidelity which 
the Kings Houfhold Servants take. 

XVI. We never were for any dishonouring of Kings by pub- 
lick Excommunications, much lefs by Subjects or Foreigners, 
whom Kings never chodfe to be their Paftors •, but only in cafe of 
neceificy, for -iuch a denial of Sacrimental Communion to them, 
as BilllOp Andrews in Tortura Torti, and Bifhop Bilfon plead for; 
which is but to forbear our felves a finful ach 


XVII. We never pleaded for any Elders (or Chancellors) 
power of die Keys, who are bur Lay-men. 

XVKI. We never held thatMagiflrates are bound to add their 
force by the Sword, to the cenfures of the Church as fuch, and 
ro puniih men more becaufe the Church hath by Excommunica- 
tion cad them out, or becaufe they are not reconciled. 

XIX. We never thought that things indifferent do become 
unlawful to us, becaufe the Magiflrate commandeth them. 

XX. We never held that the Scripture is a particular Rule, 
commanding every accident and circumftance about Gods Wor- 
fhip, but only a genera[ Rule (requiring all to be done in Love 
and Peace, and to Edification, and decently, &*'.) in thofe cir- 
cumftances which muft be fome way determined, and God hath, 
left to variable Humane determination : Such as areTime,Place, 
Utenfils, Translations, Sections, Metres, Tunes, Methods and 
Words in Preaching and Prayer, Habit, Gefture, and many 

XXI. We never held it unlawful to do one of thefe actions, 
though it were by mitlake unlawfully commanded ; e. g. If the 
Rulers prefcribe a Time, Place, Metre, Tune,c^c. unfit, if it 
be not fo bad as to overthrow the ends and ufe of the Worihip,- 
the fault of the Commander will not difoblige us from the duty 
of obeying. And whereas fome argue, that no man hath authority 

to fin, ergo, we are not bound to obey that which is no acb of Au- 
thority : I anfwer, Rulers have authority to command chat which 
is good, though not in a faulty manner 3 and when we cannot do 
the eood without the faulty manner, it is their faulted not ours: 
e*g If an inconvenient Time, Place, Text, Tune, &c. be cho- 
fen 3 the.Union and. Concord which is held by agreeing in thofe 
Modes is neceflary : He that will not joyn in them, cannot joyn 
in the Worfhip. So that we obey the Ruler or Guide as a de- 
terminer of the means of Concord, which is neceiTary, and not 
fith- ratione errori-s, as mi faster mining, though in that which is 
rmf deter mined. If a Mafter bid his Servant- go at an unfeafonable 
time about his work, it's his duty to go at chat time/ We never 
pray without fome fault in the manner, and yet muft rather do k 
fo than not at all. The miftaken Ruler bids iu no* fin : Irs his 
fin to choofe a mif-circumitance; and it is not his onw attfan that 
he bids us d-^ but outs : Audit's to as a lawful circumftance, 


K 14 > 

becaufe neceffary to Concord, and commanded though mifta- 

XXIf. We never held it unlawful to ioyn with a Church or 
Minifter that hath fome faults, both Perfonal, and in their acts of 
Word ip ; as if all that joyned were guilty of all the faults there 
committed'- no not though we knew before-hand that fome falfe 
Doctrine would be uttered, or fault committed : Elfe we mult 
feparate from all the world, and all from us. 

XXII (• We never thought it a duty to feparate from every* 
Church, that culpably neglecteth Difcipline,and hath open wicked 
men therein: It we be not guilty of it, and cannot lawfully live 
in the Communion of a more obedient Reformed Church. 

XXIV. We never judged needlefs affected Angularity a duty, 
but judge it beft in lawful things, for concord fake, to Conform 
to the Cuftom of the Churches where we live or come. 

XXV. Though we think not that men may command us to 
deftroy our Neighbours Souls by fcandal, yet when difobedience 
to a Rulers Law is like to do more hurt than the fcandal taken at 
it comes to, we are for avoiding the greater hurt. 

XXVI. We ne^er fcparated from any tolerable Parifh Mini- 
fters or Churches, as if they were no true Minifters or Churches, 
nor per f waded any fo to do, nor to take the Communion of fuch 
Churches for unlawful to us, either occafionally or constantly, 
when we can have no better without more hurt than benefit to . 
our felves and others. 

XXVII. We hold it unlawful to reproach all Churches that we 
fee to be faulty i but it is our duty to keep peace with all. 

XXVIII. We hold mental diftant Communion in Faith and 
Love, with many Churches, that by impoiingfin, do deny us local 

XXIX. Though I here tell you once for all, that I juftifie not 
all that I can thus bear with, yet we can fubmit by peaceable 
iilence to many abufes in a Church, which we dare not fubfcribe 
to and improve, andufe alfo Paifive Obedience where Active is 
unlawful. - 

XXX. We are not againft Cod-Fathers, and Gpd-Mother$, as 
ufed of old i that is, when the Parents are the Covenanters for 
their Child, and their Death or Apcftafie is feared, for others to 
promife if they die or apoftatize, to take care of the Child 5 or 


C 15 ) 

for any Adopters or Owners to do it that take the Child as theirs. 

XXXI. We are To far from being againft true Confirmation, 
as it is the taking ptrfons that own their Baptifmal Covenant, (o- 
lemnly into the number of adult Members and Communicants, 
that we defire it (and have written for it; as a chief means of the 
true Reformation of all our Churches in the Land- 

XXXIL We differ not in Faith or meer Doctrine from the 
Church of England, as it's in the Thirty Nine Articles, but only 
in one new Article, put into the new Liturgy, of the Salvation 
of Baptized Infants, as undoubtedly certain by the Word of God, 
without any exception, if they then die. 

XXXIIL We are not againft reading the profitable part of the 
^Apocrypha, as other Humane Writings may be read, iufficiently 
diftinguifhed from the Word of God. 

XXXIV. We are for Corporal Worfliip, as a due expreflion 
of Spiritual : And vve.are againft all undecent expreflions in Pray- 
ing or Preaching, and all undecent Habits, Geftures or Actions. 

XXXV. We blame not the liturgy for extending the words 
of Charity and Hopeas far as there is any reafonable ground, in 
Sacraments, Abfolution and Burial. 

XXXVI. We are not for mens invading the Miniftry, unor- 
dained, but believe that Senior Paftors or Bifhops are ordinarily 
the regular Judges of the fitnefs of Candidates for the Miniftry. 

XXXVII. We are not for unlimited Toleration : But that the 
Rulers juftly diftinguifb in Law; and Licenfe •, j. The approved, 
whom they muft own and maintain. 2. Tile tolerable, whom 
they muft tolerate. 3- The intolerable, whom they muft re- 
ftrain from doing hurt. 

XXXVIII. We are for making true Religion as National and 
extenfive as may be ; and for a National Church ; 1. Astheaflb- 
ciated Community of Churches in a Nation is fo called. 2. And 
as they are all accidentally united under one Chriftian Sovereign : 
Though we abhor the cafting out all that be not of our opinion 
andmeafire, and that cannot fubmit to all that I here enumerate, 
which I and others of my mind can fubmit to. 

XXXIX. We are fo far from defiring to draw people from the 
Parifh-Churches into Conventicles, that we would keep up the 
honour of them to the utmoft of our power, as knowing how. 
greatly the countenance and maintenance of Rulers conduceth to 


( i6) 

the furtherance of Religion ^ arid that the publick Religion will 
be the common and National Religion 5 and moft will be there; 
And if rheProtefhnt Religion were reduced to Tolerated Con- 
venticles, Popery would poflefs its place, and become National, 
and foon withdraw even private Toleration, as we fee in France. 

XL. We are not for Preaching when we are forbidden, where 
there isnot a real and evident need of cur Labours.. 

XLI. We believe not that the Scots Covenant, or any other 
doth oblige us to Sedition, Rebellion, Schifm, or sny fin ; nor 
doth difoblige us from any Obedience due to any Superior. 

XLII. We refute not the Oxford Oath, or any fuch, becaufe 
it is an obligation to obey our Rulers in Lawful things, nor be- 
caufe it reftraineth us from refitting Authority y for we give as 
much to Humane Soveraignty, and ccnfefs as much obedience 
due to them from Subjects, ■ 1. As any Text of Scripture fpeaks; 
*| Or any General Council, fave what they give to the Pope and 
his Vaflals. 3. Or as any Confeflions that we know of, of any 
Chriftian Churches agree in. 4. Or which Lawyers, Politicians, 
and Hiftorians, Proteftants, Papiils or Heathens agree in, as far 
as we are acquainted. 

XLliJ. We are not againft the'ufe of Synods or Councils, nor 
againft Princes lifing their advice tor fuch Laws circa facta as be- 
long to them to make: We believe Councils mould be ufed as 
far as therommon good and Communion of the Catholick Church 
requireth it -, though no Foreigners have Jurifdidion over us. 
And we hold, that if they agree of any thing concucible to the 
common good, though their agreement be not a Law, but a Con- 
trail, yet the general cocunanq of keeping the Unity of the Spi- 
rit in the bond of peace, obligetb all to hold fach concord for the 
ends fake, that have no fpecial reafon againft it. 

In thefe Forty three things we oppofe not Conformity. 

L- And if yet after all thus slgreemnt, we muftbe deflroyed by Di- 
vi/icns, the heavy Curfe of God is on us, and will fur cly fall on them 
that arc the eaafes of it, who ever they be< 

C H A P. 

( '7 ) 

CHAP. IV. A hrief enumeration of the things impofed 
on us which is the matter of our Nonconformity. 

M. T"\0 you know what it is that we are required to conform to? 
\ J L. 2 know it is to nfe the Liturgies, Ceremonies, and fnbmit 
to the Bijhops, as your Governours : J know no more. 

M. And yet dare you become our Judge ? If you are no more 
exaifc and juft in Matters of Law, your Clients mu(t pay for it. 
Before I come to handle the particulars,! will &t together here the 
things required of us ; and how much of them werefufe, I will 
tell you when I try them, and give you our Reafons againfl: them. 

I. Whereas few of the Nonconforming Minifters were at Age, 
and Ordained till Diocefans were put down in England^ and were 
Ordained by an Aflembly of Senior Paftors, which were then in 
pofleffionof the Power, and had many years the Approbation of 
the whole National Aflembly of Divines at Weftminfier , before 
they were admitted to any Incumbency •, none of thefe may now 
exercife their Miniftry unlds they be Re-ordained by Diocefans. 

II. No man can be Ordained by them, and admitted to any 
Cure, that will not take the Oath of Canonical Obedience (as 

they call it) and in his Ordination Covenant to obey his Ordi- 

Ill No man muft Preach the Gofpel by. the authority of his 
Ordination and Office, till moreover he have got a Licence from 
the Biihop to Preach : and till he have got that Licence to Preach, 
he may not take upon him to Expound in his own Cure, OR 
DOCTRINE, but (hall only ftudy to read plainly and aptly 
without gloffing or adding , the Homilies already fet forth , or 
hereafter to be publiflitd by lawful Authority. Ca*. 49, 

IV. No man may be Ordained, or be a Licenced Preacher, 
or Catechize, who doth not fubfcribe thefe words, Yxanimo, 
*' That the Book, of Common-Prayer, and oi Ordaining of Bi- 
il (hops, Priefts and Deacons , containeca in it nothing contrary 
" to the Word of God, and that it may lawfully be ufed, and 
" that he himfelf will ufe the Form in thefaid Books prefcribed 
c 'in publick Prayer and adminiftration of the Sacr^pents, and 
" no other. 

D V. Nc 

( i8 ) 

V. No man is to be Ordained a Minifter, nor have any place 
or Benefice or Cure, that doth not openly and publickly before 
the Congregation declare his unfeigned A (Tent and Confent to the 
ufe of all things in thefaid Book contained and prefcribed in thefe 
words and no other. " [I A.B.Do here declare my unfeigned Affent 
" and Confent to all and every thing contained and prefcribed 
" in, and by the Book entitled, The Book of Common- Prayer, 
"and Ordaining.] And every Lecturer alfo ; the firft Le&ure 
and --every Month mud publickly and openly declare his Affent 
to, and Approbation of the faid Book, and to the ufe of all the 
Prayers, Rites and Ceremonies, Forms and Orders therein con- 
tained and prefcribed. 

VI. By this all muft Affent and Confent to this Article of Faith 
or Doftrine. [Jt is certain by the Word of God that Children which 
are Baptized, dying before they commit actual Sin, are undoubtedly 
faied!j Not excepting any, though the Children of Atheifts, In- 
fidels or Sadduces. 

VII. We muft Aflent and Confent, that at publick Baptifm, 
perfons called Godfathers and Godmothers, who take not the 
Child for their own, do in the name of the Child Covenant with 
God, without the Parents, who are forbidden to be Godfathers 
or Godmothers, or to fpeak one word, nor muft be urged to be 
prefent, nor may the Godfathers, &c. fpeak one word but .what 
is written in the book. And they are there not only to pro- 
mife for the future, but to profefs in the Name of the Child at 
prefent C I renounce them all ~] (the Devil, World and Flem) 
and [_ All i his I ftedfajlly believe^ and ( to be baptized ) [_ This 
is my dcfire~] and for obedience F /?r/7/.] And thefe Godfathers 
alfo engage as their parts and Duty, to fee- that I this Infant be 

tjiupht fo J con as he JJjall be able to -learn what a folunn /~cm>, Fro- 
mife and I'roftffionhe there made by them : And that they call on 
him to hear Sermons, and chiefly that they provide that he may learn 
the Creed./he' Lord's Prayer , and the Ten Commandments in the vul- 
gar Tcnfne, and all other things that a Cfyrtftjan v.uoht to kfiblf 
and believe to his Soul's health, and that the Child may be vertn- 
Oitflybrour*.! i.-p :o lead a godly, and Chriftian life. ] All this thefe 

three perfons muft promife as before God and the Church, but 
th^ Parent is not only excufed from any fuch promife, but forbid 
ic by i he Canon. 

' VIII. We 

( IP) 

VIII. 'We mud Aflent and Confenc to refufe to baptize the 
Child of any godly Chriftian, who bringeth not his Child to be 
baptized with fuch undertaking Godfathers 5 either becaufe he 
can get none that will ferioully promife him to do what they 
muft Vow to do, .and fo. dare not draw them into iacrilegious 
perfiJioufnefs, or becaufe he thinks it his own part to enter his 
Child into God's Covenant, and thus to promife for its Educa- 

IX. We mufc Aflent and Confent to fign the Infant with the 
transient Image of the Crofs. C In token that hereafter he fhall not 
be ajhamed to confefs the Faith of Chrift crucified, and manfully to 
fight under his Banner , again ft Sin^ the World, the Devil, and to 
continue Chrift s faithful Souldier and Servant to his lives end. J 
Which the Canon farther expounds thus, C To dedicate them by 
that Badge to his Service, whofe benefits beftowed on them in Baptifm 
the name of the Crofs doth reprefent ] [_an honourable Badge whereby 
the Infant is dedicated to the Service of him who died on the Crofs. ] 

X.. We muft Affentand Confent to Baptize none publickly 
without this Sign, but to deny Chrift endom to all that dare not 
receive it, and their Children. 

XL We muft Affentand Confent to rejed all that dare not re- 
ceive it Kneeling from the Sacramental Communion of the 

XII. We muft Aflent and Confent to a falfe Rule to find out 
Eafler-day forever, in thefe words 5 [ Eaft er- day (on which the 
reft depends ) is always the firft Sunday after the fi>ft full Moon y 
which happens next after the one and twentieth day of. March. ] The 
common Almanacks tell you it is often falfe. 

XIII. We muft Affent and Confent to ufe words at the Burial 
of all, except the Vnbapti^ed, Excommunicate and Sdf-murthcrcrs, 
which plainly pronounce them faved, viz., C Forafmnch as it bath 
pleafed Almighty Cod to take to himfelf the Soul of our dear Brother 
here departed. ~] And [_ % give thee thanks, for that it hath pleafed 
thee to deliver this our Brother out of the miferies of this fin ful world"} 
and J C that we may reft %n him, as our hope is this our Brother doth. 3 

XIV. We muft Aflent and Confent to read publick Lefibns our 
of Judith, Bell and the Dragon, Tobit, and other Apocryphal 
books, from Sept. 28. till AW. 24. every day, except fome pro- 
per Ldlons interpofed. 

D 2 XV. We 

C ^o ) 

XV.We muft AfTent and Confent to all the mis-tranflationsof 
the Pfalms, &c. and not only ufe them (which we refufenot) 
but fubfcribe that none of them are contrary to the word of 

XVI. We muft Aflent and Confent to admit none to the holy 

Communion till [_fuch time as he be Confirmed, or be ready and de- 
[irons to be Confirmed'] that is, bv Bifbops in the Englifh method- 
XVII We muft Aflent and Confent that [_f*ch ornaments of 

the Church } and of the Minifiers thereof \ at all times of their mnift ra- 
tion flail be retained in ufic^ at were in this Church of England by that 
authority of Parliament in the Second year 0/ Edward VI- 

XVIII. We muft Aflent and Confent to give an account within 
fourteen days of every one that we keep from the Sacrament, to 
the Ordinary. And that the Ordinary proceed againfi the offend ng 
per f on according to the Canons. 

\ XIX. We muft publifli all fuch Excommunications and Abfblu- 
tions,as are according to the Canons decreed by Lay Chancellors. 

XX.This binds us co confent and publifh the Excommunication 
of all that affix m that the Liturgy containeth any thing in it that is re- 
pugnant to the Scriptures.] And the Oath of canonical Obedience 
binds us to fuch publication, if it be commanded us. 

X XI. And we are both thefe ways bound to publifh all Excom- 
municate, ipfio fiatlo, (if commanded) who affirm any of the Rites 
and Ceremonies fuch as may not be approved and nfied lawfully, 

XXII. And all that fay any of the Thirty Nine Articles in any 
part may not be fubfcribed, though it be but about Traditions or 

XXIIf And we muft, if required, publifli all, ipfofaclo, Ex- 
commynicate who fay rhe Church Government by Arch-Bifhops, 
Bifhops, Deans, Archdeacons, and the reft that bear Office, is 
againft God's Word. 

XXIV. We muft, if commanded, publifli all Excommunicate 

who affirm that the Form and Manner of Makjng and Confiecrating 
JJijhopS) Fricjls or Deacons containeth any thing in it that is repugnant 
to the Word of God. ( Though it affert that the Bifhops and Priefis 
are diftind Orders, which even in K. p&lfricl&day* the Church 
of England denied.) 
XXV. We muft publifli themExcommunicate who affirm that the 
Nonconformiils may truly take the name of another Church, &c. 


(21 ) 

and that any affembliesofSubje&s not allowed by Law, are true 
and Lawful Churches- 

XXVL No Miniiter muft wittingly adminifter the Sacrament 
to any but fuch as Kneel, nor to any of the forefaid depravers of 
the Liturgy, Ceremonies, Orders of the Church, &c. Can. iy. 

XXVII.' None of other Parii'hes are often to be admitted co 

XXVIII. All Minifters that repent of Conforming muft be fuf- 
pended, excommunicate and depofed at laft, Can. 38. 

XXIX. We mult give the Sacrament to none that go for it 
from unpreaching Minifters but muft fend them home, Can. 57. 
Nor muft Baptize their Children. 

XXX. Minifters muft not be fuffered that wear not the Sur: 
plice, Can. 58. 

XXXI. No Minifter muft refufe or delay to Chriftenany Child 
that's brought to the Church to him on Sundays or Holydays to 
be Chriftened, without exception of Atheifts or Infidels Children. 

Can. 68. 

XXXI I. No Minrfter may keep any Faft in publick or at pri- 
vate Hcufes, or be prefent at aayion what necefiky foever) with- 
out the Biftiops Licenfe for it under Hand and Seal, or the Laws 

XXXIII. We muft if commanded publifh all Excommunicate 
that affirm that the Sacred Synod is. not the true Church of Eng- 
land by reprefentation -■> or that deprave it as a faction,, &c : 

XXXIV. No man was to be ordained or fuffered in the Mini: 
ftry for twenty years that did not fabfcribe thus C l do declare that 
I do hold that three lies no obligation on me, or on any other perfon 

from the Oath commonly called the Solemn League and Covenant 
to endeavour any change or alteration of Government in Church or 
State* ~\ 

XXXV. AH Nonconformifts muft fwear that they will never 
endeavour any alteration of the Church Government, or elfe be 
banilhed five miles from Corporations and all places where, ever 
they preached iince the Act of Oblivion. 

XXXVI. All Minifters muft fubkribe and Nonconformifts 
fwear that they abhor the Traiterous pofition of raking Arms by 
the Kings /Authority againft thofe that are Commiilioned by him* 

XXK\ I. We muft aftent and confent to the damnatory fenttnee 
in the Creed called Athanafm/s. XXXVIII. 

I 22 J 

XXXVIII. Every Minuter confenteth to fay the Morning and 
Evening Service everyday in the year, not being lett by ficknefs 
ox other urgent caufe- 

XXXIX. Minifters muft concur to force the unwilling Parifhi- 
oners to the SacramentjOr elie to Excommunicate and mine them. 

XL. If we dare not Conform for fear of fin we muft forfake 
our Miniftry to which we are Ordained and Vowed, and give 
over ^reaching the Gofpel what ever need there be, and muft al- 
io remove our dwelling from all places aforefaid. 
Thefe are the parts of Minifters Conformity. 

Lay- Mens Conformity is as followeth ? 

I. They muft truft their Souls mtl\ the Paftoral overfight of 
'thofe, and only thofe as" their" fixed Paftors, whom Patrons will 
choofe.for them, and Biihops .inftitute : Though the Conformists 
accufe fnany Patrons of fuchhainous fins, as fpeaketh them unfit 
for fo ftrange a truft, befides thcfe that are Papifts, and Bifhops 
fav they have "not power to keep out the unfit. 

IL They, are not only hereby, deprived.of the exercifeof Self- 
Government for the faying of their own Souls, but of due Fami- 
ly-Government '-for the fafety of Wife and Children, and Ser- 
vants, and muft not bid them choofe better Paftors. 

III. They are forced to forbear Communion with all Noncon- 
forming, and to feparate from all others befides Conformifts, 
though they account this Schifmatical feparation. 

IV- When God cornmandeth them, [_If thy Brother trejfafs 
s.y.infi thee tell bun his Jftuit between thee and him\ if he hear not 
tell the Church, &C. And with Drunkards, Railers, Fornicators^ 

&c. not to eat. ~\ They are forced to have Communion with Pa- 
rifhes where no fuch Difcipline is exerciied, nor can they per- 
form anyfuch duty, and to lofeall the benefit of this Chrifiij-n 
Order and Difcipline, none being fo much caft out as Confciona- 
ble DifTenters. * 

V. Confcionable care to obey Gods Law is greatly difcouraged 
and made a dangerous thing, v. hile it muft be mens utter ruine to 
deny Conformity, even in a Ceremony, to men, when it's done 
for fear of finning agalnft God. 

VI. They are to be- deprived of Baptifmarid Chrifhnlom for 
their Children, if they dare not ufe the forefaid way of God-Fa- 
J -s, as defcribed. VII. They 

( *} ) 

VII. They are alfo to be unchri/tened if thinking our Cro' 
isufedas an unlawful Humane Sacrament, they dare not receive 
it as a dedicating Badge of Chriftianity. 

VIII. If they think Kneeling ac receiving the Sacrament an un- 
lawful hardening the Papifts, they are denyed Communion. 

IX. If any diflent but from Confirmation, Organs, Kneeling 
at the Rail?, taking a Reader cr unfit man for their Faflor, they 
muft not be received to Communion by a Conformift in another 


X. All the Land is engaged ( Minifters, Veftries, Corporati- 
ons and Militia ) by Oaths or Covenant never to endeavour any 
alteration of Government in the C hurch. 

XI. They are all engaged to abhor the pofition as trayterous, 
of taking Arms by the Kings Authority againft any Commiifion- 
ed by him in purfuit of fuchCommiflion. 

XII. All Corporation. Government and Truft is confined to 
them that declare that there is no Obligation on them or any other 
from the folemn Covenant or Vow, not excepting fo much as to 
oppofe ScTnfirfej Popery or Proph::nenefs,' to defend the King, 
or repent of fin, though thefe be Vowed. 

I have now told you what Conformity is, in Minifters and 

CHAP. V. 1. Of Re Ordination. 

L. \fO V have named a great number : But I dw&t re i thefe 

\ are impofed, and in many of them I fee no harm, 

M. I told you that i£' any one of. them ( impofed ) be finful 
Nonconformity is a duty, which all the Minifters in £^£W were 
bound to, 

L. What fin canyon find in He-Ordination <" 

M. I mafi firit ftate the Controverfie before I argue it. 

i. The \N o\'d[Ordination]^3.y fk'nifie either the fif ft Dedica- 
tion and Ordination to the Minifrerinl Office as ibch . !:y whi .h '$ 
man is fep.irar-e'd from the Laity to Gods Miniftry ; Or elfe, a 
mffion on fome particular Minifterial work, as 'Paul and Barna- 
bas were fent abroad, AEh u. Or a Minifrer may be fent to 
America,. p-c. Or elfe a fixed appointment to fome one particu- 
lar Church or Flock, which is done here by Prefenraticn, Inititu- 


( M) 
tion and Induflion. It is neither of the two laft that we fpeak 
againft. They may be often done ; But it's only the firfi. 

2. The word [Ordination] may fignifie •, i. That Moral a&ion 
by which a man is made a Minifter of Chrift, which is, his fo- 
lemn Contract with Chrift, expreft by his Confent, and by the 
Ordainers inverting a&ion : This is it which we mean in the Con- 
troverfie, which may not be done twice. 2. Or it may fignifie 
the meer words of the Ordainers and Ordained , which make up 
the faid Moral action. We deny not but the fame words repeat- 
ed may make up one Moral Ordination : If the Bifhop by tauto- 
logy repeat them twice or thrice : Or if they fhould to fatisfie men 
of divers Languages that are prefenr, be firft fpoken in EngHJh,znd 
after in French, or when fome that doubted require it, fhould go 
over them again •, all this is but one Ordination. 

L. How prove yon that our Bijjjops intend any more , when they 
fay , it is only to fatisfie the Law , ' that yon may be capable in 


M. I. That it is not a meer relation to fome particular cure that 
they mean, is undeniable : 1. Becaufe they call that by the name 
of Inftitution and Induction, and not of Ordination. 2. Becaufe 
they never ordain any over and over upon removals. 3. Becaufe 
the words of Ordination in the Book tell it us. 

2. That they do it not as a Repetition o( the fame valid Ordi- 
nation is part doubt. 1. Becaufe the fame repeated by the fame 
men will not ferve- 2. It is to be done, again ten or twenty 
years after the firft. 3 He is to be fined in an hundred pound that 
adminiftreth the Sacrament without it. 4. He is taken for no true 
Minifter without it, which cannot be true of a bare repetition of 
words : No reafonable men would lay fo much on that. 

3. It is undeniable that they take men for unordamed, and no 
Minifters till they ordain them : 1. Becaufe they all difown re- 
ordaining-^ they know that the Canons called theApoftles, and 
the whole antient and later Church condemn it as like Anabap- 
tiftry ; and no one Bifhop in England will not renounce it : There- 
fore it's certain that they take the firft Ordination for null. 2. And 
they have fo declared their judgment in many words and writings, 
and in the A& ofUniformky.it is plainly intimated in the penalty. 

L. j4nd what harm it there in being twice Ordained ? 
M. £. Adhominem I need not difpute it : All the Bifhops dif- 


C »* ) 

claim it as unlawful , (o that we have their confeffion. 

2. It is the fame fault as Anabaptifhy. If they be blame- 
lefs why make you fuch a noife againft the Anabaptifls? To be 
twice made a Ghriftian, and twice made a Minilieris of the like 

3. It is fomething caufelefly tocaft our felves under the Cen- 
fure of all the Church that hath been againft it, and to be con- 
demned by them. 

4. It is a plain prophanation of God's holy name, and of a 
great and holy Ordinance, by Lying and taking God's name in 
vain. For they are faid to be now admitted to the Office, and this 
day to receive it, and God is told- that they^re now called to it. And 
all their Examinations and Anfwers imply that they were no 
Minified before, and the Bifhop faith, [ Receive the Holy Ghoft y 
for the Office and rvork^ofa Prieft now committed to thee by the Impo- 
fnkn of our hands. ] which all imply it not done before. And 
in Co facred a contract with God, to lie to him, and pro- 
phanely abufe his name, and the holy Ghofts, and the Duty of 
Prayer and Praife, is tremendous. Be not deceived, God is not 

5. It is a confederacy with Corrupters and Ufurpers, that ar- 
rogate and appropriate valid Ordination to themfelves, and a 
confirming all their injury to poilerity, that all that (hall hereaf- 
ter imitate them may be encouraged, by alledging our Re-ordwa- 

6. It is a hainous injury to all the other Reformed Churches as 
if we degraded their Miniftersand feparated from them all as no 
Churches. For one part of them have no Diocefans, and the 
reft have Si/hops, that at the Reformation were Ordained by 

7. It is contrary to one of the Articles of our Religion, 23. Theft 

we ought to judge them lawfully called and fent, which be chojen and cal- 
led to this workj by men, who have publickauthonty given to them in the 
Congregation to call andjend Mimfters, &C. But in other Countries, 
Presbyters have publick authority given them. And Art. 36. The 
book^of Confer at ion doth contain all things nece(jary to fuch confecrati- 

on and Ordaining. Bui it hath nothing for Re-ordainwg thofe before 

E 8. ^ 

( 26 j 

8. It is a plain condemnation of the Church of England, which 
bach prcfefied Communion with the Reformed abroad, as with 
true Minifters and Churches ofChrifh And we are now told 
that co communicate with Schifmaticks induceth the guilt of 

9. It introduced! Anabaptifhy, or utrer confufion into the Na- 
tion, leaving men in doubt whether fcr fourteen years the people 
had any true Baptifm ( while it's a controverfie whether Lay- 
mens Baptizing be valid, and Mr. Dodwell makethallmen to be 
out of any Covenant-title to Salvacion that have not the Sacra- 
ments from a Minifier that hath fucceffive Epifcopal Ordination.) 
And all Chriftians muft queition whether they have not folong 
here lived out of the Church of Chrift, without Miniftry and Com- 

Do you think chat none of thefe nine Reafons prove Reordina- 
tion finfui? 

L. But becaufe the Biftjops deny it, let me hear your proof that the 
former Ordination here by Presbyters is not a nullity. 

M. I. Ad hominem, the Church of England hath, as I faid, judg- 
ed the like valid in the Reformed Churches, by holding Com- 
munion with them. I cited a great number of Biihops and Doctors 
in my Chriftian Concord. 

L. But they fay *W neceflity differeth their cafe from ours 
here} jindeven Dotlor Sherlock tells you that if God make necefjity ; 
ncce/fity will makg Minifters : But ours Schifm atic ally pull d dove n the 
Bijhops^ and now difown the very Order. 

M. There isafatisfa&ory concelTionin thefe words, but the ac- 
cusations are made up offalfehood and deceit. 

1. Archbifhop Vfher and others that thought the Eje&ors of 
Epifcopacy were guilty of Schifm, yet maintained that their 
Ordination was valid : He told me how he pleaded it to the 

2. Do they think that Salmafins, Blunc.el and all others that have 
written more againfl our Prelacy than the Englii'h, were deprived 
of it agaiftft their wills by neceffity? 

3. Whjt neceffity can they pretend to the Hollanders, Hel- 
vetians, Geneva, Embdcn, Bremen, the Palatinate, and Scotland 

heretofore ? might they not have had Prelates when they 

4- Was 

C *7) 

4. Was not the neceffity far more notorious to thofe that I 
now plead for. The/ lived in a Land where Epifcopacy was caft 
out, and kept out by a potent Army. I think there were but four 
or five Bifhops alive when it was reftored. 

5. It is falfe that they caft out the Bifhops. Thofe Minifters 
that joyned with the Parliament to call: them out, were Ordained 
by Bifhops, and therefore are none of the men that we are fpeak- 
ing of : Thefe that were Ordained L>y Presbyters were then young 
men at School, or in the Univerfities. And what are other mens 
anions to them ? 

L. But they are of the fame mind and party. 

M. Are you a Lawyer , and do you accufe men in the 
Temple without naming them , and bringing proof of their 
guilt? Noxa caput feqiiitur , fhould all the Clergy be called 
guilty if Sibthorp, or Manwaring, or Heylin were proved fo ? 
what error you accufe them of, prove, and punifh them for noo- 

6. But I prove that the Bilhops themfelves made other Ordi- 
nation neceflary. Becaufe they would Ordain none without (infill 
fubfcriptions and conditions, which muft not be yielded to : If you 
can prove the terms lawful on which they Ordain, I fhall try your 
skill anon. 

II. I farther prove the Ordination in queftion valid , thus ; 
Where there is a true notification of Godts will that this per fon fhall be 
a Minifler of the Gofpel, there is no want of validity in his Ordinati- 
on 5 But thofe here ordained by Presbyters might have fuch a true 
notification of God's will — Ergo, The Major is plains Becaufe 
God's will and Mans confent are the fundament am of the Rela- 
tion ; therefore nothing can be wanting to it's being and vali- 

The Minor is proved : Thofe men that have laudable abi- 
lity, and willingnefs, and the confent of a people in true ne- 
ceffity, and the approbation of a National AflemSly of Learned 
Divines (of which many Bifhops were called to be members) 
and the inverting Ordination of the graveft Senior Paftors, that 
were then to be had , had a true notification of God's will 
that they lhould be his Minifters. But fuch were thefe in quefti- 
on. Ergo* 

E 2 . III. Thr 

( 28 5 

III. The way of ordination^which.was valid in the Primitive Church 
is now v\ lid — But Juchis that in question. Ergo. 

to die Minor •, The Ordination of fuch Paftorsas were but 
the rs of fingh: Congregations, was it that was valid in thePri- 

mitive Church, i'ut fuch is that in queition 

DoCcOr Hammond hbours to prove that in Scripture time 
there were no other Bifbops or Presbyters but the fingle Pa;- 
ftorsoffingk AhVmblies: Mr. Clerkfon hath fully proved, and 
I mere fully in my Treat ife of Epifcopacy , that for a hun- 
dred and firry years, if not much more, there were no parti- 
cular Churches biggerthan our Pariihes. A Bifhop then was 
but the chief Pariifh, or Congregational Paftor, who guided 
it with his Affiftance. Ar.d fuch are all our Incumbents (efpe- 
cially in great Towns) who have Chapels and Curates and 
Lecturers to affifi them. And Grotius de Imper.fum. Pot. fhew- 
eth that really the chief Paftor of a Church is a Bilhop, whatever 
they call him. But I have fo largely proved in my Treatife cf E- 
pifcopacy, pag. 23 1, 2 3 2, Sec. tliat our queitianed Ordainers were 
icripture Bi/hops , and that thofe now called Presbyters Or- 
dained long after, that I muft not repeat the fame things here a- 

IV. Thofe that are in Orders may confer Orders : Or- 

dinis eft Ordinarc, as Vfrer was wont to fay j As Phyficians 
make Phyficians, and Philofophers make Philofophers , and 
Generation propagated} the Species : And our church con- 
fcnteth to 3his. 1. In that Presbyters mull concur in Ordi- 
nation by Impofition of hands, which is an ad of" authority 
and collation. 2. In that the Convocation hath a greater 
powr, even Canon making 5 and that Convocation confifteth 
half and more of Presbyters, and the Canons Excommunicateth 
all that deny it to be the reprefentative Church of Eng- 

But Presbyters have the ponerof Order ( as Bifhop Carlton de Jh- 
rifdift. proveth it commonly acknowledged ) equal with Bifiops. 
pag. 7. And the Church of En gland in King u£lfricl& time (ad Wolf. 

pelman,\&g. 576. 1. 17 J Affrm that Biihops and Presbyters are 
but one Order. 

V. Thofe may ordain validly rvhofe Ordination is more voarran r 

le th-.n that (,j Roman Eijljcps (for our Bifliops own theirs 


( *9 ) 
as valid and ordain them not again when they turn Proteflants : ) 
But the Prcshyterl that Ordained here fourteen years y did it more war- 
rant ably than the Roman Eifliopt. ErgO. 

i. The Papifts Ordain men to zfalfe Office-, to be Mafs-Priefts : 
But the faid Paftors ordained none but to the iame office thac 
Chrifl inftituted. 

2. The Papilis- have their power of Ordination from the Pope, 
whofe own power and office in Specie is a falfe Ufurpation : But 
it is nocfo here, where the" ordaining Paftors were lawfully cal- 

3. Papifts Ordination enters them into a falfe Church in Specie ' a 
pretended catholick Church headed by die Pope 5 ) but our Paftors 
entered them into no Church but Chrifts; 

4. Papifts make them takefinfuj Oaths and. Qohjitions before 
they Ordain them. But thefe Paftors (at leaft that impofed n: t 
the Covenant ) did not. 

If yet any will nuliifie the Reformed Churches and Miniftry, 
and their Ordination, and not the Papifts, we may under ftand 
what their Mind and Communion is 

VI. That Ordination is valid which islcfs culpable, than many Dio- 
cefans : But fuch is that in qucfiicn. Ergo, 

To the proof of the Minor ( which only needs proofs here ) 

1. Some Diocefans here have been Papifts fas Godfrey Good- 
man of Gloucefter ) and divers have pleaded for and owned a 
Forreign jurifdifthn , which the Oath of Supremacy abju- 
reth. " : . 

2. I have fully proved in the fai'd Treatife ofEpifcopacy thac 
the Office of Paftors of (ingle Churches is more warrantable than 
our Diocefans who are the fole Biihops of many fcore. or hundred 
Biftops Churches. 

3. The faid Presbyters ( at leaft w ho medled not with the Cove- 
nant) impofed no unlawful condition en the Ordained, as too m my 
have done. 

4. Many Bifhops plead" the derivation of their power from 
Rome : And what theirs is I (hewed before. 

But becaufe I muft not write a Treatife on this one queftior,. 
you rmyread it done copioufly and unanfwerably by Voetim a- 
gainft Cornel. Janfeniits de defperata Caufa Papatns. 

Yet I add one difference more. The Ordainers and Ordained 

C jo ) 

in queftion/nacl the confent of the Flocks and neighbour Mini- 
fies •, b'jtthefaid Bifhops come in by the Magistrate without 
the content or knowledge of the Flocks, and fo do the Minifters 
ufually whom they Ordain. And \x\nz the ancient Church 
thought of this, abundance of Canons (hew. Tie now cite but 
one, Condi. Nic.Z.Can. 3. Omnem Ele&ionem qu<& ft a Magiftrati- 
bns, Epifccpi, Presbyteri vet Diaconi irritam manere ex canone dicente y 
fiquis Epifcopus fecularibus Magiftratibus ufus, per eos Ecclefiam ohti- 
nuerit, deponatur & fegregetur, & omnesqui cum eo Communicant, O- 
portet enim cum qui eft promovendus ad Epifcopatum ab Epifcopis eligi, 
quemadmodum afantlis patribus Nic&nis decretum eft in Can. qui di~ 
cit £ Epifcopnm oportet maxime quidem ab omnibus qui funt in pro- 
vincia confiitui. And many Councils nullifie their Epifcopacy that 
come not in by the ele&ionor confent of Clergy and People, which 
ad hominem is fomewhat to them that urge fuch Councils againft 

L. I confefs your reafqns feem unanfwerable, at leaft as to the 
cafe of neceffity, which I am convinced was the cafe of thofe that 
were ordained when there were no BiJJjops to whom they could have 
accefs, or no place in the Miniftry without Presbyters Ordination^ 
and who then durft not be twice Ordained ■ ^nd for Churchmen 
that muft be ftntbly Religious tofufferon fuch terms 1 cannot fpeak. 
againft. But we fecular men thinks thefe too little things to fuffer 

M. If your confciences can call fuch prophanation of Gods 
Name , fuch condemnation of Proteftant Churches , fuch 

ftrengthening the hands of a little thing, they fball 

be no meafure for our confciences: For we believe that we 
muft die, and that there is a God and a righteous final Judg- 

CHAP. VI. II Of the Covenant and Oath of Canonical 
Obedience to our Ordinary or Bijiop. 

L. \ 7 X 7 Hat harm is there in your yromifmg or fwearing obedience 
V V to your Ordinary, in things Lawful and Honeft ? What 
a man jliould do, he Jliould not rcfufe to fwear or promife. 

M. I will firft tell you the words impofed, and then I will ftate 
the Controverfie, and then I will tell you our Reafons. 


I 3 1 ) 
The Words at Ordination arethefe. i. On Deacons and Priefls- 

[Will you reverently obey your Ordinary and other chief Mimfters to 
whom is committed the Charge and Government over you } jollovrine 
with a glad Mind and W 'ill their godly Admonitions, avd fub mitt wg your 
j elves to their godly judgments ? Anfw. J will fo do, the Lord being m\> 

The form of the Oath which they ufe to impofe is this. 

Ego A. B- Juro quod prtftabo Veram & Canonic am Obedientiam 
Epifcopo Londtnenfi ejufq^fuccefforibns in omnibus licit is & honeftis. (And 
little know we of what Religion their SuccefTbrs will be, or who 
will luve the choofing of them.- Tie not fwear to 1 know not 
who- ) 

The Bifhops themfelves alfo mud take this Oath of due Obe- 
dience to the Arch-Bifliop. In the Na?ne of God Amen : / N. chc- 
fen Bifliop of the Church and See of 'N. do profefs and promife all due 
reverence and obedience to the Arch-Bifaop and to the Metropolitan 
Church of W. and to their Sue c effort. So help me God through Jefus 

L. What is your Contr over fie again ft any of this i 

M. i. We do not queftion the duty of obeying the King 
and all his Officers , governing as Magiftrates by the power 
of the Swords which the King may commit to them. If 
Bifhops or Lay Chancellors be made Magiftrates, we will o- 
bey them as fuch : And therefore when they fummon us, we 
appear and anfwer, becaufe the King authorizeth them. And 
many Nonconforming have defended the taking the Promife, 
as fuppofing that the Word [ Ordinary "] fignifieth only the 
Judge of a Court fet up by the King as Supream Governor 
by the Sword in matters and over perlbns Ecclefiaflical as well 
as Civil, according to the true fence of the Oath of Suprema- 

2. We do not refufe to promife and fwear due Obedience to 
fuch as are our Lawful Pa (tors, ruling the Church by the power of 
the Keys according to the Word of God : Though we think, that 
requiring fuch Oaths is an irregularity in them, againft the ancient 
Canons, and a far higher preemption than the Independents Co- 

3, We do not deny a patient and quiet fubmiffion to- un- 


lawful perfons and ads of Government, not owning their fin our 
felves, and doing no evil at their command. 

But thefeare the things which we are not fatisfiedin. 

I. Obedience hath eflential Relation to the Lam and Man- 
dates of thofe that we obey : And the Cmimi of England are 
the Laws by which they openly profefs to Rule the Church* 
And therefore they call it the Oath of Canonical Obedience , 
that is , of obeying the Church Government according to 
the Canons -j And when we know the Canons before- hard, we 
know what Government and Obedience is meant- And we 
fwear fraudulently if we take not the Oath in the fence of the 
hhpofcrs : And they commonly Veil us, that this is the mean- 
ing of C Dw Obedience, ] and if Godly Admonitions, or [ in Ilei- 
tis & honeftis'] be put in, that doth but fuppofe that Obedi- 
ence according to the Canons is Godly and licit urn & hone ft urn, 
and not that we are left to choofe which Canons we will obey. 
All Bifhops I doubt not will (land to this Expofition of the 

Now there are abundance of things in the Canons which 
we think to be greater fins than we think meet to call 

II. We know that the Rule of the Bifliops is by Chancel- 
lors Conns and other fuch, where Lay-men exerciie the Church 
Keys, by -Decretive Excommunications and Abfolutions : 
which wife men think to be facrilegious Usurpation, and a Pro- 
phanation of a dreadful part of Chrifts Government : And 
Law yers and Civilians tell us, that the word [ Ordinary ~] fignifi- 
ech the appointed Ordinary Judge of the Court, and fo that we 
f^ear or Covenant to obey Lay- Civilians ufing the Keys. And 
C other chief Mini Iters'] can mean no lefs than all the Archdeacons, 
Officials, Commiflaries, Surrogates, &c . whom we covenant to 
obey j not in civil things or the circa Sacra belonging to Ma- 
giitrates, which we refufe not, but in the exercife of the Church 

III. They that think they have fully proved that Diocefans 
Ruling many hundred Churches without any Bilhops under 
them, are an Office in Specie contrary to Gods Word ^ and 
the pra^ice cf the. Primitive Church, and that it corrupteth 
iethtrue Church Difcipline, do think it a fin to con- 

( 13 ) 
form by an Oath of Allegiance or Obedience to them, though 
they live peaceably under them. 

IV. They that think that by Scripture, and Reafon, and 
Univerfal Church Cufioms and Canons, they are no Bifhops 
or Paftors that come in by Magiftrates without the Election 
or confent of the Flocks and Clergy, think that to fwear Obe- 
dience to them is to be guilty of their Ufurpation. 

Thefe four be the things refufed in this Oath and Covenant 
of Obedience. 

L. And what have yon again ft obeying according to the Canon . ? 

M. I. You may gather it from the foregoing enumeration 
of the Canonical Impofitions : Many-things of a heinoufer 
nature than Liturgies, Ceremonies or things Indifferent. 

i. We dare not obey an Order for Excommunication ac- 
cording to the 4th Canon, againft any man that affirmeth 
that the Eook of Common- Prayer containeth anything in 'it 
that is repugnant to the Scriptures. Judge that by the proof 
that I (hall anon give. 

2. The fame I fay of the Excommunication in Can. 5, 6, 
7, 8. and many others, which are. after to be particularly 

3. And there are many things in the 'Canons which we 
dare not prattife, and therefore dare not fwear Canonical 

L. That Oath doth hot oblige yon to approve of all that is in the 
Canons^ no more than a Juftices Oath to execute the Laws doth bind 
him to approve of\ or execute every Law. 

M. We would not be guilty of an over rigorous Expofi- 
tion : But had it been in the days of Queen Mary^ when the 
Six Articles, and other Laws for Murdering Innocents were 
on foot, and were a&ually expounded by Execution, I would 
not have been one of the Juftices that fhould have fvvorn to 
execute them. Though a Juftice be not bound to approve 
every Law, he is bound in the main to execute them in his 
place ; And if "he know that the Impofers of his Oath did 
mean, that he fhould in a fpecial manner execute e. g. the 
Laws againft Proteflants, he (hould not take that Oath con- 
trary to their fence. Our Canons make thefe things fore- 
mentioned their principal part, as you may fee by putting 

F them 

them firfl with that ftrange penalty of Excommunication 
ipfo fafto. And indeed it is no fmall part of the whole Book 
that we d'iflent from- 

II. But moreover we dare not promife or fwear Obedience to 
our Ordinaries, till we know that Lay-men governing by the 
Keys are not thofe Ordinaries. I have confulted Lawyers, and 
fome fay that oply the Biihop is meant by om[prdinary, ]But I 
think they are but few that fay fo. And indeed we are bound to 
believe the contrary, becaufe terms of Art or Science are 
to be underftood according to the ufe of the men of that Art 
or Science. But men of that profeflion commonly call other 
Judges of their Courts pur Ordinaries, beildes the Bifhops : So 
doth R. Coufins in his Tables, and others. 

2. A*nd other Governing Minifters whom we muft obey, are 
rnentioned in the Ordination Covenant alfo befides our Or- 

Our Reafons againft this are thefe. 

i. It is unlawful to confederate with Sacrilegious Propha- 
ners of a great Ordinance of God, in ftablhhing and pra&i- 
fing that Sacrilegious Prophanaticn. 

Bur to Covenant or Swear Obedience to Lay-men in ufurp- 
ing the power of the Keys of Decretive Excommunication 
and Abfolution, we fear is fuch ; and as to the Minor the 
reafon of our fear is, if it be Sacrilegious prophanation for 
a Lay-man to ufurp the other parts of the Paftoral Office, 
then it is fo for him to ufurp the power of the Keys. But 
the Antecedent is confeft, as to the Sacraments and the charge 
of ordinary Teaching and Guidance of the Flocks, &c* 

2. 4i homincm. If the Bifhops take it for Uiurpation in 
Presbyters to exercife this power, fuppofing it proper to 
themieives, they mufl judge it much more (o in Lay-men. 

L. 2 he Lay-men do it by the Bijhops Authority anti in his Name '> 
and fo he dot hit by them : His Name is to the Excomtr.unicati ns. 

M. i. The Chancellors have their Commiflions from the 
King, which the Bifhops cannot alter. 

2-. If ic be Co it is the worfe. 

i. That the Biihops name ihould be abufed to a Sentence, 
when he never heard or tryed the Caufe. If this be againft 
the Bifhops Will, it is a forgery ; if he confim^ it feems he 


. ( 3S ) 
trufteth his Confclence in the Chancellors hands, andExcorrj- 
inunicateth all at a venture that the < hancellor Excommuni- 
cateth, though he know not whom nor why, which is «gaintt 
the Light of Nature, and the common Juftice of the World. 

2. And it is contrary to the nature of the Pai'ioral Office 
to execute it by men of another Calling : Either it is proper 
to Biuhops or not •> if not, Presbyters or Lay-men may ufe 
it ; if yea, then none may be deputed to ufe it, that are not 
Bifliops. If the Keys and not the Sacraments may be ufed by 
Lay-men, then the ufe of the Keys is not proper to Paftors, 
but only Sacraments. But no man can give a juft reafon why 
Lay-men may not give the Sacraments as well as ufe the 

Yea indeed the Sacramental adminiftration cannot be pro- 
per to the Paftoral Office if the Keys be not : For the ufe of 
the Keys is to Judge who fhall be admitted to Sacramental 
communion : and if only Delivering and not Judging to whom, 
be proper to the Paftor, then he is but a carrier or cryer and 
Executioner of Lay-mens Judgment, perhaps lower than the 
Deacon. Barely to fay over the words and do the a&ion, 
is but an outward Miniftration, and no ad of Power at all. 

L. But it is not the Chancellor but the Surrogate that Excom- 

M. i. Ask thofe that have been much among them, how oft 
they have heard a Lay-Civilian fay at once, [ / admomfy you, I 
admonifh you, I admonijh you^ I excommunicate you. ^ 

2. Hypocfifie is but an aggravation of Sin: The Lay-man 
decreeth the Excommunication, which is the judicial a<fto 
when they ufe a Surrogate Prieft, it is but as a hireling Ser- 
vant to pronounce the Decree, to mock the Church with a 

3. If indeed it be the Prieft that Excorrmunicateth and Ab- 
folveth, when qo Bifhop is there, then they confefs that the 
power of the Keys is not proper to a Biihop, but may be va- 
lidly ufed by a Prieft. 

L. But what have you againft fir earing Obedience to the Bijliops 
t hemfdves , fuppofing the Canons were materially Law fit!. 

M. IIL We have nothing againft a peaceable (ubiniiTion to 
them, if they were proved all Ufurpers. For my part, when I 

F 2 think 

C 36 ) . 

think how the high Priefts were made (out of a wrong line, 
by Roman power and parch afe, &c) in thrifts time, and how 
mucluhe was for fubmiilion to them, and a ufe of all that 
was good and lawful, done by thofe bad unlawful intruders, 
it refolvethme to regard ba v e Pofefwn, fo far as our own edi- 
fication and the common peace requireth But as Chrift was 
a Nonconformift to the Pharifees vain Traditions, fo he was 
fo far from /wearing Obedience to thefe Ufurpers, that he oft 
plainly and vehemently reproveth them. Many, for the bo- 
tmm publicum, which is Suyrema Lex and finis regiminisj did 
live in quiet fubmiffion to the Ufurpers oicivd power here, who 
yet would never have [worn obedience to them or juftified 
their Ufurpation. 

That the frame of Diocefans as the only Biiliops is unlawful 
tot a fpecie, I have fo largely proved in my Treatife of Epifcopacy , 
that I muft not here repeat it, as long as the Diocefan party 
by not anfwering it feem to grant it. I have proved, 

1. That this Diocefan Species deftroyeth the old Species of 
particular Churches, turning the Pariihes into no Churches, but 
parts of a Diocefan Church while they make a Biiliop edential 
ro a Church. 

2. That they fet up a falfe Species inftead of it, viz.' A 
Church infimn fpeciei, which hath many fcore Pariihes, if not 
many hundred in it, without any under Bifhop to them. 

3. That itdepofeth the old [pedes of Bifapt and Presbyters y 
both, vShich were [ to every Church of the loweft fpecies ] a 
Biiliop with his Presbyters ejufdem ordinis\ if they could be 
had ) fo that many fcore or hundred Bithops are put down, on 
pretence of fetting up Epifcopacy. 

4. And they fet up both Bifhop and Presbyters of a humane 
unlawful fort inftead of thofe d^po&dy viz.. Arch -bilhop in- 
fimi ordinis, over a thoufandor hundred CarcafTes of Churches: 
and half Presbyters that have not the power of the Keys, nor 
are of the fame Order with the Biihops. 

5. That they depofed Chrifts true Church Difcipl'me, and made 
it as irrjpoffwle as for one -School-mafter alone to govern all the 
Schools in a Diocefs, or one Phyfician many hundred Hofpitals, 
or one Mayor many Hundred Corporations without any School- 
rnafter(but an Uilier or Monitor)or any Pljyiician/.ri* any Mayor 
or Juftice under him- 6, That 

6. That they have fet up a falfe humane Difcipline ( be- 
fore defcribed ) inftead of Chrift's, which they have taken 
down. And all this we dare not juftifie by a confederacy 
by Oath. 

IV. And we think that the fourth thing which we flick at 
needs no other reafon 3 fuppofe the fpecies of Diocefans were 
of Gods appointment, and only the numerical Biihops Ufur- 
pers, we can fubmit and live peaceably, but we cannot fvvear 
obedience to them. They plead more than we for the power 
of ancient Councils, and Canons. I have elfewhere fully 
proved ( as Paul of Fwce hath done, and Mr. Clarkfon, and 
Dr. Burnet, and many others ) that many great Councils 
nullified the Epifcopacy of all that came in without the electi- 
on, or confent of the Clergy and Flocks : And we our felves 
cannot conceive how any man can be the Paftor of thofe that 
confent not; though we can eafily conceive that Diffenters 
may oft be obliged to confent when they do not 3 fo may a Son 
or Daughter be obliged to obey their Parents in confenting 
to Marry, fuch zs Parents chcofe for them, when yet it is 
no marriage till that confent. How few in a Diocefs ever 
know of the Biihops Ele&ion till it's pail, and how few con-, 
fent, I need not tell. We can fubmit to thefe, but not [wear 
Allegiance X.0 them. 
V. And in all the forefaid cafes, we have another diffwafive. 
1. It is fo much of the King's Prerogative that all Subje&s 
mud fwear Allegiance and Fidelity to him, that in almoft 
all Nations it hath been thought dangerous, to make the Sub- 
lefts alfo f^ear obedience to every Juftice or inferior Officer, 
left it fhould make them too like Kings. . 2. Left the Subjefls 
fhould be entangled between their Oath to the King, and their 
Oaths to all thefe Officers, in cafe of the Officers contradicti- 
on to the King's. % Left fo many Oaths fhould make that 
Government a fnare to the confcientious, which ihould.be 
for their eafe and fafety. 4 Left fo much fwearing make 
Oaths contemptible, and bring in perjury, and endanger the 
King, who fhould by our Oaths be fecured. 

2. And I have elfewhere named many Councils, and Canors, 
which prohibite Biihops this .pra&ice of making the C.ergy 
fwear fidelity to them, and have condemne j it, as of dange- 

( j8) 

rous confequence. And they that are for Councils fhould not 
engage us cautelefly againfi them. 

3. The prefenc Impofitions greatly, ftop us, till we better 
know what it is that we muft do- We have caufe to make 

a ftand, when we are all (worn [ never to endeavour any altera- 
tion of the Government of the State J which we readily obey, 
and yet feem to be called to do that which we are told by fbme 
is an alteration of it : That is, the making of our prefenr 
fpecies of Archbiiliops, Biihops, Deans, Archdeacons, yea 
Chancellors, Officials, Commiflaries, &c as unchangeable a 
part of the Government as Monarchy it felf is ; and fo difabling 
the King to make any alteration in them. 

For fet all this together and conlider, r. All the Clergy 
is bound or fwdrn to obey both Biihops and every Ordinary. 
2. ' The Canon, ipfofatlo, Excommunicates every man that af- 
firmed! that the Church Government under his Majefty by 
Archbiiliops, Biftops, Deans, Archdeacons and THE REST 
THAT BEAR OFFICE in the fame, is repugnant to the word 
of God ; fo that all the Lords and Gentlemen in England 
that have affirmed that the Government by the Keys as ufed 
by Diocefans over hundreds of Churches, or by Archdeacons, 
Lay-Chancellors, &r. is repugnant to God's word, being al- 
ready ipfo fatlo Excommunicate, hew far they are capable of 
being Parliament-men I know not : but I fuppofe if in Par- 
liament they (hall affirm any fuch repugnancy they are Excom- 
municate ; and without the Aft of King and Parliament no 
alteration can be made. 3. And now to fix them all, the 
Kingdom is fworn never to endeavour any alteration in the 
Church Government : viz In the Corporation ^#,the Militia Aft, 
the Veftry Act the Oxford [wearing Aft, after the AH of Uni- 
formity. And is not every Chancellor, or Archdeacon, or 
Bifliop now made as immutable neceflarya part of the King- 
dom as the King. 

L. You fpeakjnnorantly for want of acquaintance with the Law : 
Do you thinh^King and Parliament oblige t he mfe Ives £ It is only par- 
ticular fubjetls out of Parliament that they oblige. 

M. I. But when the Parliament is didolved, are they not all 
particular fubje&s fave the King ? And are they not ali then 
hereby bound ? And do you think that it was the meaning of the 


( J9). 

A& that they who fwear never to endeavour alteration, may 
yet endeavour it, if they be cbofen Parliament men? I will 
snanifeftly difprove it. All thefe Oaths do joyn the Govern- 
ment of Church and State together : Yea, and put the Church- 
Government firfi, as if it had the Pre-eminence. But it was ne- 
ver the meaning- of the Oath, that the Parliament may en- 
deavour to alter Monarchy, which is the State-Government: 
Ergo, it meant not chat they may endeavour to alter Prelacy 

Or Church-Government. 

II. But fuppofe it be as you fay, They that know theprefent 
thing called the Church of England know that their Writers 
openly maintain that the Obligation of thfe Canons depends not 
on the Parliament, fave only, as to the force able execution of 
them, but on the authority of the Church as a Society em- 
powered by Chrift : And therefore that King or Parliaments 
at leaft may be Excommunicated by them as well as others. 
All are Excommunicate men that do but call their Govern- 
ment finful. 

C H A R VII. II. Of the rej?; aivt of Ordained Mini fl en 
from *B reaching, and expounding any Scripture, or M.it- 
ter or 'Doctrine, Can 49. 

L. \ 7 \ T Hat is it that you have againfi Conformity in this $ 

V V M. I. That men are at once madeChrift's Mini- 
fies, and forbid to exercife that which they are Ordained 

II. That we are laid under the hainous guilt of breaking 
our Vow, when they have engaged us to make it 5 and of 
betraying mens Souls, by omitting a vowed duty. 

III. That we are forbidden that which is the duty of every 
Lay-Chriftian that is able, as if they would fupprefs Religi- 
on and Charity it felf 

L. But you do not fwear or fubferibe to this Canon.- 

M. 1. But we are bound by them to obey this Canon 5 for 

k is the Law of the whole Church of England. 

2. I have (lie wed you that fwearing obedience to them muft 

mean, obeying their Laws which are far more of weight than 

particular mandates. 

* L, But 


L- But as lo:ig as yon may have Licenfes, how doth this put you 
on any fin of omiffion or commi(Jion ? 

M Both their words and their deeds tell us that they Or- 
dain more than -they Licence to Preach or Expound any Do- 
ctrine. And is it no finful omiffion think you for all the rell 
to forbear all this? 

2. And many were Ordained heretofore, who by the new A<5t 
of Uniformity, are denied Licenfes without new ProfeiTions and 
Covenants, and terms which they undertake to prove finful. 

3. And our Miniftry is by this made arbitrary to the Bi- 
fliops will. He may bind us to the Office, and when he hath 
done keep us from it. 

L. If they deny yon Licenfes they bind you not to preach, 
M. Ordination is a Vow and Dedication to the facred Office 5 
Mark the Covenant which they impofe on us C Q Are yon deter- 
?nined out of the Scriptures to infirutl the people committed to yom 
Charge? &C Anfvv. 1 have fo determined 'by Goods Grace. Q.WM 
yon give yonr faithful diligence always fo to minifler the Dotlrine 
and Sacraments, and the Difcipline ofChrift as the Lord hath com- 
manded, &CC that yon may teach the people committed to yonr Care 
and Charge, with all diligence to keep and obferve the fame f Anfw. 
I willfo do by the help of the Lord. Q. Will yon be ready with all 
faithfnl diligence to baniflj and drive away all erroneous and ftrange 
dotlrines contrary to God's word, and to ufe both pub lick^and private 
monitions and exhortations, as well to the fick^as to the whole within 
your Cure, as need fhall require, and occafionjhall be given ? Anftv. / 
will, the Lord being my helper. ] 
Is it not treachery to draw men into all thefe Vows, and 

then to command them never to Preach nor Expound any Do- 
ctrine or matter anywhere} Doth it not come near to an Athe- 
iftical prohibition of Religion? may they not tell their people 
the meaning of Baptifm, or the Creed, or Lord's- Prayer, or 
Commandments ? May they not teach their own Children and 
Servants thefe ? If a Prieft may not do it, much lefs the Laity 
and Vulgar. 

L. The meaning is not, againft expounding to their children or 
Wives at home, but in the Church ? 

M. Can the Church of England tell fuch a meaning no 
plainer than by faying [ either in his own Cure or elfewhere ? J Is 


( 4< ) 
not his Houfe, or his Neighbours Houfe elfewhere ; If they can. 
fpeak no plainer, 1 would they would make us no Laws till 
God Licence them. 

2. But fuppofe that [_dftwhere~] fpeak only of Churches, 
you know that other Canons forbid them Preaching in private 
houfes. ^^ \ 

3. And what aPVieft: is that who muft: be forbidden to 
teach the People in the Church ; or there to tell Children the 
meaning of the Catechifm ? How like is this to the Mofcovj 
State ? 

L. Tou know that many men are unable to Preach, Expound or 
fpeak fenfe about Divinity, if they fhould attempt it, 

M.. And are fuch fit to be made the/Teachers and Guides of 
the Flock ? Shall the fame men make the man Phyftcian to an 
Hofpital, and when they have done, forbid him to do any 
more than read to them a Phyfick book of their making ? Is 
not an ability to teach men, at lead the Effemials of Chriftia- 
nity, Eflential to a Minifter ? Do they not then make No- 
Ministers, and call them Priefis, if they ordain men that cannot 
Teach the Eflentials. 

L. Reading the Scripture and Homilies is Teaching. 

M. It is fo : but if that only will qualifie one for the Prieft- 
hood, one may be a Prieft that knows no more than an Infidel 
or Atheift : and if Reading will qualifie men for a Benefice, ma- 
ny will fludy for no more : and the People will value them 

L. But you know that when the Land came out of Popery, we mult 
have meer Readers in mo ft places, or worfe. 

M. And you know that thefe Canons were made in King 
James s days long after that, and that they arje now continued as 
the Church Laws: Did our laft Convocation alter them ? It is 
fuch excellent men as the world is not worthy of {Ames, 
Bayn } Parker, Hilderfham, Dad, Sec) that have been forbid- 
den to Preach, whilft thofe that could not Preach were Or- 
dained and Induded. It is only the prefent things that lam 
fpeaking of 

2. And though men of mean abilities, if tolerable, may 
be tolerated, yet men that want Ejfential qualifications fhould 

G not 

(4* ) 
not be made Minifters ; but if bare Reading be neceflary, 
they may Read as Lay- men. 

I conclude therefore, that as making fuch Priefls and Ca- 
nons is a (in in them, fo to obey them by omiflion of Mini- 
flerial Teaching, for want of a Licence from the Bi/hops, 
would be finful Conformity in any true^inifter of Chrift, 
if he live where his Minifterial work is mfeeflary. And to 
forbear all Expounding any matter, or Do&rine, fave by Read- 
ing our Homilies, is (acriledge and perfidioufheft, and unchari- 
table inhumanity. 

CHAP. Vllf. IV, and V. Of fubfir thing and declaring 
AJJevt and Confent. „ 

L. \ J\ 7 Hat is your next Exception to Conformity ? 

V V M. Subfcribing according to the Canon, that 
there is nothing in the Book of Common-Prayer contrary to the 
Word of God) and that we will ufe no other Form. 2. And pub- 
licity declaring our Ajfent and Confent to all things contained and 
prefcribed in and by it, and our approbation of all the Forms, Or- 
ders, &C. as aforefaid. 

L- What have y oh againfi this Approbation of the Liturgy? 

M. Negatively, 1. We blame nothing in it that is good: 
And I take it for a good Book, in the main, but not faultlefs. 
As you faid of the Canon of allowing Readers, fo fay I of the 
Liturgy ; it was better immediately after Poperyi than it is 
now s that is, it was more congruous, and was a great 'Re- 
formation, and we honour the Book and their Memory that 
made it. 

2. We do not think that there is any fuA faultinefs in it, as 
naaketh it unlawful to joyn in the publick Worfhip, and ordi- 
nary Communion, with theChurch where it is ufed : We hor 
nour them as true Churches of Chrifc 

3. IdOs not think it unlawful to read the ordinary Lords 
day Service, when the publick good requireth. it* and we can 
have no better without greater hurt than benefit : Our Ob- 
jections being moft againft the By-offices, efpecially of Bap- 
tizing and Burial. 


(4? ) 
But, r. We think it unlawful to Covenant to ufe no other 
Forms in publick Prayer. It And unlawful to fubfcribe and 

declare that it i* fault lefs. 

1. For the firft we have thefe Reafons, i. The Bifhops 
themfelves, by the Kings Order, do upon fpecial occafions of 
•Fads and Thankfgivings,prefcribe,impofe and ufe other Forms ; 
and we muft not covenant todifobey them. 2. The pub- 
lick Minifters have, and do in the Pulpits before Sermon, ufe 
other Forms; And fo break this Covenant themfelves* 

3. It belongs to the Office of a Paftor, as well to word his 
own Prayers, as his own Sermons : And it is finful to renounce 
fomuch of the work of the Office which we are vowed and 
ordained to. 

L. Thefe Jnftances are a clear Expofition of the Canon, andfhew 
that by [no Other Form] they intended not to exclude other Pulpit- 
prayers, or other Forms, prefcribedby the Bifiops. 

M. 1. If the whole Church of England here alfo can fpeak 
no more intelligibly, than by [no other Forms'] to mean 
only [t ill the Bijhop prefcribe it, and except your own daily Form 
in the Pulpit] I would they would leave us to Gods own Laws, 
and not take on' them to be neceflary interpreters of its great 
difficulties. If fuch men forbear that expounding, which they 
forbid others till they win do it better, the iofswill bethelefs; 
Scripture fpeakerii plainlier than this. 

2. But who giveth this Expofition ? To expound the Law 
by- a common obligatory Expofition, is proper to the Law- 
makers : He that maketh the words^ maketh not a Law, if he 
make not the fenfe. Judges make notthefenfe, but decide 
particular Cafes by it as they understand it. The Canons 
are made by the Convocation, which he that denieth to be 
the Reprefentative Church of England, is Excommunicate. 
The Pulpit-Preachers, nor the particular Biihops are not the 
Convocation, and therefore have not power to expound their 
Canons, by any common obligatory Expofition 5 much lefs con- 
trary to the exprefs words. Which way mod of the Clergy went 
under Biflhop Parker, Grindal, and Abbot, is well knowrrr-And 
yet now rhey are fo far from being taken for the Expofitors 
of the Churches fenfe, that they are openly fcorned, as popular 
fautorers of Puritans,and thofe of their mind called Grivdaliners, 

G 2 II. But 

( 44 ) . 

II. But it is theiecond, that is the Trojan horfe vvhofe name 
is Legion, I mean, that hath many more evils in the belly of it, 
vix~ that we mult profefs that the three Books, Articles, Li- 
turgy and Ordination are fo utterly faultlefs, that there is^o- 
thing in them contrary to the Word of God, and that we Affent and 
Confent to all contained and prefer the d in and by them. 

L. What have yon againft this ? wh.it is the?c in it that is con- 
trary to Go£s V/ord ? 

M. God's Word is perfe&.and forbids the lead faulty errour 
or defeat. If we had never feen the Book, we know that men 
made it, and that every one that made it had ignorance, errour 
and fin, and can a perfect faultlefs Volume be made by fuch 
faulty men ■? Operari fequitur ejje> They renounce all pretenfions 
to Infallibility in the Articles of Religion. 

L. Ton interpret the words rigoroufly : By [ nothing contrary ] 

they mean j nothing fo contrary, as that one may not ufe the 

M. If by [nothing] they mean not [nothing] and if by 
[contrary] they mean not [contrary] we will better know what 
they mean before we fubferibe, elfe you may make it lawful to 
fubferibe to any thing in the world, and fay that the Impoiers 

n.ean better than they fpeak. 

L. And Affent and Confent is exprefy confined to the ufe. 

M. r. I fhall prove that that is not true. 2. That if it were 
true, it no whit amends the matter, nor iraketh it lawful to 


I. It is not true .* For, 1 . The words of the Declaration are as 
exprefly miverfai as man can fpeak : And the forego- ng words 
[to the ufe] do fpeak but de fixe, and the words of the Decla- 
ration ^wf*fl/j : And all Lawyers agree, that when the title 
of-d Law exprefleth the End, that limiteth not the fenfe of 
the words of the Law, becaufe the Means may be larger than 
the End As the Oxford A<5t of Confinement is in the title to 
kgep Noncorjformifls from Corporations; And yet Lawyers re- 
iblve that it extended] alfo to Conformists, if one of them ihould 
but ence preach in a Conventicle. The Parliament and Prelates 
thought that the- way to fecure the Vfe, was to oblige them to 

Affent and Confent to all in the Bool^ contained and prefcribed : 

i. Therefore they tie all to declare in that fame form 'of words,, 


( 4) ) 
and to add no other, left they fhould make any expofition that. 
limits them. 2. And the word Afjent fignifieth an 'act of the 
under/landing, which muft have Truth for its objed. 3. And 
it is after expreft by the word £ approbation ] whereas a man 
may ufe that which he doth not approve of. 

2. Oaths, Covenants and Profejlions muft be taken in the 
moflufual proper fenfe, unlefs another be 'expreft to be the 
Impofers meaning -/which is not here done, and the words are 
moft univerfai atid without exception. 
. 3. And to put all out of doubt, the Parliament expounded 
themfelves. 1. At the making or the Act, this was debated, 
and reafons given againft the limited expreftions, which pre- 
vailed. 2. Since then a new A£t againft Conventicles being 
made, it was moved-ift die Lords Houfe, that feeing Non- 
conformists were thus far forbidden private Worlhip, they 
iboul'd be fo fir invited to Conformity, as that a ProvHo 
might be added to this Aft, that the Declaration in the Ad 
of Uniformity (houJd be underftood to oblige men but to the 
Vfeofthe things required: and the Commons rejecting that 
Trovifo, it came to a debate or conference between the two 
Houfes, where the Commons gave their Reafons againft that 
Senfe and Provifo : In which the Lords acquiefc't. Tnough 
.1 was not prefent, the Parliament-men that were, reported this, 
and I never met with irian that contradicted it, or queftioned 
the truth of it. 

II. But if it were otherwife, it were to us never the better. 
For, 1. It were an ignorant reproach-of the Church of Eng- 
land, to fay that they have put any thing in their Liturgy which 
is o[ no ufe. This will include every fyUable. They themfelves 
tell you in their Prefaces, what ufe the very Calendar, and 
every other part are of. The ufe of the Articles of Faith and 
Doctrines is our under ft andinv aiTent and belief of them in or-' 
qer to Love an : J Practice. The ufe of the Orders. in the Ru- 
brick is to oblige us to obedient pra&ice, and fo of all the reft. 
And to djfeht, Approve and Confent to every thirty com lined and 

prefcribcd practically, u even to the. ufe of them, is more than a^ 
bare fpeculative Aflent. 

L Wherein iieth the fin of fach a Declaration t 

At 1. In general it is incredible, as I laid before, in con- 


federation of the matter, and the Authors together: TheEook 
of Articles, Liturgy and Ordination, are a big Volume, and 
contain great variety of matter, and that high and myfterious ; 
The Authors were every one of them men of imperfeftion, 
that had ignorance, errour and fin : And operatioh exceedeth* 
not power. Who dare (ay that any Sermon, or Prayer, that ever 
he maketh, hath nothing in it but what he may aflent and con- 
fent to ? Much lefs fo great a Book. h 

2. The Articles which muft be fubfcribed as faultlefs, fay 
u4rt. 15. [Chrift alone is without fin — But all we the reft (though 
baptized, and born again in ChriftJ yet offend in many things, and 
if we fay that we have no fin } we deceive our /elves, and the truth 
ts not in us J And -Art. 2 i . [General Councils, For as much as they 
be an Affembly of men, whereof all be not governed with the Spirit and 
Ward of God, they may err, and fometimes have erred, even in 
thi*gspertainingtoGodf\ And are our Convocation more in- 
fallible than General Councils ? The Church muft be exem- 
plary in humility, and is it humility to fay, We Biftiops and 
Priefts, having written three Books ^ he (hall not preach ChriftJ 
Gofpel, that will not declare that there is not a word in them 
that is faulty, or repugnant to God's Word, and will not silent 
and confent to all therein. 

3. The Papifts hereby fcandalized, do fcorn us, and fay, The 
queftion is- not now of an Infallibility, or a Judge that all muft 
aflent to. It is but who this Infallible Judge is f whether it be 
the Pope and a General Council, or the Englifh Convocation, 
which is liker to be of greater Authority and Infallibility ; we 
require no greater aflent and confent of you to the Canons of 
the Universal Church, than the State and Church of England 
require to their Books. 

♦ 4. This feemeth to us to fet the Articles, Liturgy and 
Ordination-book above the Bible. 1. God himfelf hath not 
made the aflent and confent to every thing contained and pre- 
ferred in the Bible neceflary to Solvation, or to the Miniftry. 
1. There are divers Books in our bibles, whofe Divine Autho- 
rity ma^y have queftioned, who yet were not for that de- 
grided. The Apocryphal books are yet controverted by men 
tolerated on both iides. There are hundreds of various Read- 
; '- s, where no one is neceflitatedto determine for this or that. 


Tranflations are all faulty, being the work of faulty men :• 
And no wife men will declare that this, or thar,or any Tranfla- 
tion hath nothing in it contrary to the Original Word of God. 
And are our Bifliops Books more fauklefs ? 

f. It is * fin to Confederate with, and Encourage fuch auda- 
cious Lording it over the Faith and Souls of men, and fuch ill 

L. Tour Inflames jberv that you expound them too fir icily : Can you 
imagine themfo infolent and impious as to impofe their oven Booki more 
Jtritlly than the Bible, and require more Affent and Confent t 

M. Call it what you will ? I muft fuppofe that matter of 
Fad vvhich is undeniably evident to our fenfes : It's an ill ar- 
gument (.This is unreafonable, and ungodly,or inhumane. Ergo, 
It was not done] What isfo falfe, ablurd or impious, that man 
may not do? 

L. Some fay. They are Articles of Peace only, and not of Faith. 

M. Some Brains wiM be cheated with a meernoife of words,, 
a$ Birds with a whittle : We deny not but Peace is one of the 
ends of the Impofitions : But the queftion is, What are the 
Means .* Or whether they will take it for Conformity to pro- 
mife .Q will live peaceably] or C I Affent that 1 Jhould live in 
Peace. J Are you not bound in order to peace, to Affent and 

Confent to all things in the Books f Say, [/ Afjent that fomefhings 
are true and good, and fome things falfe and hadfvhich yet for Peace 
I will ufe~] and try how it will be taken ? 

L. Well : What is there in thefe Books contrary to Cods Word t or 
which you may not Affent and Confent to? 

M. The number is gteater than we would have them. I will 
comedo the chief of them, which I before named to you. 

L. Jforgat to tell yen, that it is not all contained, that is AJfcxt- 

ed to, hut all that is both contained and prefcribed. 

M. i. A meer quibble to cheat Conference: AsktheBifiiop 
Morley, and BHhop G Hnning yet living, whether this was the 
fenfe, and I will take their anfwer. 

2. Then {_ Affent and Contained] had been put in in vain,and 
to deceive, [if Confent and Prefcribed] fignifie as much without' 

3. The Word [Approbation^ in this A£t, and [nothing contra- 
ry to Gods #W]in the Canon, confute this quibble. 


( 4» ) 

4. I told you, were it fo, it's never the better. All in rlie 
Book is prefcribed to fome ufe. They are out-fide men that 
think Ufe reacheth but the body : Are Articles of Faith 
Afiertions of no ufe? 

CHAP. IX. Point VI. Of the Article of 

S.i^t/zeJ Infants SalvatLn. 

M. HpHE fixth Point of our Nonconformity is a new .Ar- 
1 tide of Faith in thefe words, in a Rubrick which we- 
muft Profefs Aflent and Confenf to \Jt is certain by the Word 
of God, that Children which are baptized, and dying before they 
commit aclual fin, are undoubtedly favcd. ~] 

L. -And what have yon against Affentingto this f 
M. 1. That it is a New Ankle of Faith. 2. That it is ar- 
rogant and divifive 3> making a grand Controverfie one Ar- 
ticle of Faith. 3. It is certainly falfe in molt, if not every one 
that declareth fuch aflent. 4. It is a dangerous adding to the 
Word cf God. 

L- Why call you a Rubrick an Article of Faith ? 

M. It is mod exprefly made fuch : What is an Article of 
Faith, but that which muft be Affented to as certain by the Word 
of God?- Will you deny the Name, where there is this Defi- 
nition ? • 

L. But how do you prove it to-be new ? 

M. Becaufe it was never made for us before •, you have the 
affirmative : If you fay it was ever before, prove it. It's not 
in the Bible, if s not in our 39 Articles, nor Creed. 

L. Are not the old words of the former Boo^to the fame fenfe f 

M. Not at all : If they were, why did the New Convoca- 
tion alter them ? The old words plainly fignifie no more than 
.this, that Infants baptized have all ex parte miniftri, and may be 
faved without Confirmation, Exorcifm, Chryfm, Spittle, 
Salt, Milk and Honey, and fuch other additions, fuppofing 
him ex pane fui, under the promife of Salvation, that is, to be 
the feed of the Faithful: Though I verily believe that -after 
the making of the Common-Prayer-book, or Canon-Makers 
in Bancrofts days began to warp towards a wprfer fenfe. 
But our Defenders of the Liturgy expound it, as I fay ; and 

• the 

( 49 ) 
the tenor of the words may tell the Reader that they meant no . 

L. Tell mefirfi where it is that your Contr over fie lyeth. 

M. I. Negatively, i. It is not whether the Infant Seed of 
one believing Parent fhould be Baptized-* This is agreed on. 

2. It is not whether thofe may be dedicated to God as our 
Children and baptized, who are Adopted, or any way mzAzour 
own Children, as Abrahams bought and born to hinrin his houie 
as his propriety were. Though we cannot fay we are certain of 
this, yet we will not contradict them that fay they are. 

3. It is not whether Hypocrites Children have not fo far a 
right to Baptifm Coram Ecclefia as that the Miniiter ought to 
baptize them if it be juftly demanded. 

4. It is not whether there be a certainty of the Salvation of all 
the baptized Infants of true faithful Christians, that die before 
afrual fin: Though all good Chriftians are not certain of this: 
yet with the Synod of Don we hold that Chriftians havenojuft 
caufe to doubt of it. • 

5. It is not whether they may not be good men that think 
all baptized ones abfolutely in aftate of Salvation. None of 
thefe are the Controveriie. 

II. But' it is, 1. Whether all Infants without exception that 
be baptized, are faved if they then die. 

2. Whether this be certain by the Word of God. 

3. Whether all that be not undoubtedly certain of it, fhould 
be no Minifters ? 

L. But it is not faid[_ All Infants, ] but £ Infants 1 indefinite- 
M* 1. There is no place of doubting of their univerfal 

fence. For an Indefinite term in re neajfaria is equal to an V- 

niverfial. And they except the unbaptized fromChriftianBu-! 

2. It is Baptized Infants as fuch that they fpeak of, and that 
under no other Chara&er, nor with the leaft exception. And * 

quatenui ad omnes valet argumentum. 

3. The Canon commanded! Minifters to baptize alt Infants 
without exception that are brought to them on any Sundays or Holy- 
days to be baptized after the Manner of the Church of Eng- 

H " 4. I 

r jo ; 

i 4. I have fpoken with the Bifhops that brought in and pro- 
moted this Article, and they own the univerfal fence, fuppofing 
the true form of Baptifm ; and fay, that as any man hath right 
to take up anexpofed Infant in the (Ireets and take it in, fo hath any 
one to bring the Child of a Heathen, Infidel, Atheift or Saddncee to 

5 If they had meant it only of fome baptized Infants and 
not all, they knew the Non conformifts were of the fame 
mind; and then they would have told us, what fort they 

L. I. And why may not an Article of Faith be newly declared > 
we have not read the Fathers ? It may not be unknown to them : And 
I have heard that they are for it. 

M. The moll ancient Churches were fo much employed in 
baptizing the adult Converted from Infidelity, that we read 
little or nothing exprefly and particularly what they did about 
Infants in Baptifm: They baptized none at age without 
a ferious Profeflion of true faith and Repentance, and 
holy Dedication to Chrift .* They ufed to keep thefe as Learn- 
ing Catechumens long before they baptized them, fave in cafe 
of neceffity near death. Therefore they had their fet-times 
of the year for baptizing ( two or three times ) as our Bifoops 
have now for ordaining. And after all this ftri& preparation, 
they pronounced the baptized in a fiate of Salvation, but it 
was only on fuppofition that he was a fincere, penitent, cove- 
nanting Believer. Even Hildebrand ( Pope Greg. 7. ) in his 
time concludeth that baptifm faveth none that diflemble or 
have not the Faith and Repentance w r bich they profefs : which 
the Papifts do ordinarily confefs , and Proteftants much 

And as for Infants, theAntients compelled not Chriftians 
themfeives to baptize them , but left them to their own 
choice. 1 ertullian is for long delay till they underfland, fay- 
ing, Cnrfeftinat. innocens. atas? Greg. Naz.ianz.ene would have 
them ftay at leaft three years: In danger of Death they alway 
haftened : AugHJiine and many others that had Chriftian Pa- 
rents were not baptized till at Age. And they took Chrifti- 
ans Infants, as Paul did, to be not unclean, but [holy, and would 
receive others brought by fuch as adopted or owned them as 


( 5* ) 

Pro-parents. But it was never the judgment of the ancient 
Churches that all Heathens or Infidels Children have right to 
Baptifm and Salvation if any will but offer tftem to Baptifm. 
Much lefs that it is certain by Gods Word that all fuch are 

2. Articles of Faith are all contained in the Scripture, and 
that is not new 3 therefore nothing that is new can be an Arti- 
cle of Faith 5 nor can it be faid to be newly declared which was 
there from its beginning. 

L. II. And why call you it arrogant and dividing f 

M. Becaufe it prefumptuouuy condemneth the Reformed 
Churches and the Chriftian World, determining that to be fo 
certain by Gods Word, that none fhould doubt of it that will 
be a Minifter^when the Chriftian World is of many feveral 0- 
pinions about it. 

L. What be thofe Opinons abont it > 

M. 1. Some hold that the Covenant being the fame pardon- 
ing,faving Covenant that is made to the faithful and their Seed, 
and their Children exprefly called Holy, they are all in a ftate of 
pardon and falvation before baptifm, and baptifm doth but ce- 
lebrate and inveft them in it before the Church 5 and folemnly 
feal their Covenant right. And that this faving right is given on- 
ly to the feed of the fincerely faithful, or at mod to thofe that 
have fuch Pro-parents, though the Seed of Hypocrites muft be 
received by the Church, that know not mens hearts. And this I 
take to be the Truth. 

2. Some others hold that this right to Salvation belongeth to 
them that have Grandfathers and Grand- mothers or remote An- 
ceftors that were truly Godly Chriftians. 

3. Some hold that it belongeth to all the Seed ofprofefled 
Chriftians how bad foever the Parents be. 

4. Some hold that it belongeth only to the Children of true 
Believers that are baptized, but not to the unbaptized. 

5. Some hold that it belongeth to Hypocrites Children that 
are baptized, but not to the unbaptized. 

6. Some hold that it belongeth to all baptized ones if they 
have God-fathers that profefs Chriftianity. 

7. Some hold that it belongeth to all baptized by a true be- 
lieving Minifter, for the Faith of the Church. 

H 2 8. Some 

c 5* ) 

8. Some hold that it belongeth to none that by Baptifrn 
are taken into any Congregation guilty of Herefie or 
Schifm. ■ '• 

p. Some hold that it belongeth to all that are baptized by a 
Minifter who is ordained by Eiftiopsthat have uninterrupted 
Canonical Succeflion, and noc to others. 

10. Some hold that the Baptifm of a Lay- man or a Woman 
may be effectual to the Salvation of fuch. 

1 1 . Some Conformists hold that all Infants in the World are 
favedj baptized and unbaptized- 

1 2. The moft of the Papifts hold that the baptized are faved, 
both from the pain of Senfe and ofLofs, but the unbaptized are 
laved from the pain of fenfe only, but not of lofs; and fo have 
neither Joy nor Sorrow. 

13. Many wife Men hold that Salvation is certain 
according to die firft Opinion to the Seed of Sincere 
Believers , but that we have no certain notice at all , 
what God will do with all the reft ( baptized or unbap- 
tized. ) 

14. Many think that God hath a certain number of Jnfants E- 
lecft whom he will fave, and will caft away the reft, but that no 
man can know who they be 3 though the Faithful may have 
fome uncertain hopes for their Children more than others, but 
no Promife. 

15.' Some think that the Common ftate of Infants in 
the Life to come is utterly unrevealed and unknown to 

I do not fay that none of thele opinions fliould be difclaimed : 
Bur among all which Learned, godly men of all Countries hold, 
to fay he that is not certain of fome one of them as God's word is 
unmeet to be a Minifter, is dividing arrogance,of men that over- 
value diemfelves. 

L. Ill- How then can you make good your charge of falfehood} 
May it not be true among many falfe ones f 

M. I make it good two ways j men muft fay they are cer- 
tain that are not certain. 1. No man can be certain that God's 
word faith that which it doth not fay; But God's word 
doth not fay directly , or. by confequence that all baptized 


( V ) 

dying Infants are undoubtedly faved. He tli^t faith there is fuch 
a word, let him produce it. , 

It is (ufpicious that thefe fame men that fubfcribe, that no- 
thing isneceflfary to Salvation, but what is contained in the 
Scripture, or may be proved by it, would impole this belief 
onus, and never tell us fo much as by a Marginal citation 
of anyone text of Scripture where it may be found. All that 
ever by ralk I could hear of them is,. Gal. 3. 26, 27. Ye are 
all the chddren of God by faith in Chrift Jefu^ for as many of you 
as have been baptised into Chrifl y have put on Chrift. As if they 
would have us believe, f. That all Athelfts and Infidels chil- 
dren have faith w Chrift Jefus if they be but baptized. 
2. Or that all the Galatians that Paul vyote to were in a ftate 
of certain Salvation, when it is apparent that he fpake to the 
adult, whom elfewhere he faith he feareth left he have beftow- 
ed on them labour in vain, and as bewitched men, they had 
difobeyed the truth, &c 3. Or that all that put on Chrift Sa- 
cramentally by Profeffion and Baptifm were in a ftate of 
certain falvation, even Simon Magus How commonly when 
they confute the Separatifts, that alledge the titles of Saints, 
holy children of God, &c. given'to all the Churches by rhe.Apo- 
files, do -they themfelves expound it of a fandity of Profef- 
fion and Relation as diftindl from a faving ftate of Grace, as- 
to many of the vifible members of the Church. And muft we 
now r believe that the vifible and the invifible membership are. 
of equal extent. If this prove that all the baptized adult have 
put on Chrift favingly,and have right to Heaven, it will con- 
fute the univerfal Church that hath ever believed the contrary,, 
and it will be good news to all worldly hypocrites .• But St. Pe- 
ter faith, It is not the putting away the filth of the flefl), bat the 
anfwer of a good Confcience to God. And he told Simon Magus that 
he had no part in tharmatter, not forapoftacy, but becaufe 
his heart was not right in the fight of God. And fure it is no 
ftreight gate by which men enter into a.flate of Salvation, if all 
the hypocrite flagitious fihners are in it, that will but be baptiz- 

But if this Text fay not that all adult hypocrites bapti- 
zed, fo dying are faved, much lefs doth it lay I it of all die 


children of them, and of all Infidels that are baptized. Is this to 

give US proof of undoubted certainty ? 

They alledgealfo,^r^i<5. 16. He that believnh and is baptized 
JhaUbefavedy what then? Ergo, all Infants that are baptized, 
that neither believe, nor are the feed of believers (hall be faved. 
This is a new Gofpel, and no proof that the authors of it fay 

Another is, J oh. 3.3, ?. Except a man be bom again of water and 
of the fpirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. Doth this 
prove that all are born again of the Spirit that are baptized ? Is 
this proving by God's word. 

L. What is your other proofs that its a falfe profeffion of them that 
declare dffent to this Doftrine. 

M. 2. It is this: Hfethat faith a thing is undoubtedly cer- 
tain by God's word which God's word contraditteth, doth Cer- 
tainly fpeak falfely. But fo^ doth he that maketh this profef- 

That God's word contraditleth it, I have proved fo fully in 
my two Difputations of original fin, and my Treatife of In- 
fant Baptifm, and Methodus Theologi*, that I muft not here re- 
peat it, viz. by abundance of plain Texts that appropriate the 
Covenant-bleflings to the Faithful and their Seed, and exclude 
or curfe the feed of the wicked, at leaft as out of the Covenant 
of God: I will now repeat but one. 1 Cor. 7. 14. Elfe were 
your children uncle an , but now are they holy. If the children of In- 
fidels are not holy, but unclean, they have no right to the pro- 
mife of Life, or to the Seal and Inveftiture by Baptifm. But, &c 

I know Dr. Hammond will have Holinefs here to be nothing 
but C the Church ufeth to baptize fuch on preemption that they will be 
educated to Chriftianity : ] and uncle annefs to be but C the Churches 
ufe to refufefuchy fuppofing they will not be fo educated. ~] And fo 
that the Seed of the Faithful have no fpecial promife of pardon 
and life. But, 1. 1 have as aforecited and to Mr. Tombs proved 
many fuch promifes to the Seed of the Faithful, which Divines 
fhould not unthankfully like Anabaptifts deny. 

2. And I ask fuch Do&ors what baptifm doth for the In- 
fants at prefent and on what account ? Doth it put them 


in a prefent right to Salvation? If not, why are they at pre- 
fent baptized, when God inftituted no baptifm but one, which 
is for (ignification and inveftiture in the prefent remffwn of {Ins .• 
And fo faith the Liturgy : And if fo then on what account 
is an Infant faved ? Is it meerly becaufe another undertaketh 
to teach him hereafter ? No man can undertake that he (hall 
believe or live- If he could, that would but prove that he 
fliall be pardoned when he believeth and not before. And 
if all Infants, whom any Chriftian will undertake hereafter 
to teach, though they never live to be taught, or will never 
believe, be by this put into a prefent right to Salvation, a 
Granger's undertaking of meer teaching upon utter uncertain- 
ty of life and fuccefs, is fuppofed to have inch a promife 
which yet thefeDoftors deny to be made on the accounts of 
their own parents intereft in Chrift and them 5 and his dedi- 
cating them to Chri fK Andifthefe promifing God-fathers be 
meer Lyers, the Child is fuppofed to bebaptizableand faveable 
by it. 

But if they fay that the right to Salvation comes, ex opere ope- 
rato, by meer baptizing, whether the Child have undertakers 
or not, I anfwer, that a prophanation of God's ordinance is not a 
faving aft : God hath faid no fuch thing, but that the Children 
of Infidels are unclean and unholy, and doth not fay, except fome 
body will baptize them. And why (hould not the Church bap- 
tize as many Infidels Children as they can catch up, though none 
undertake for them, if baptizing them do certainly fave them if 
they fodie? 

1 conclude therefore that feeing no man can be certain that all 
the baptized Children of Heathens, Infidels, Jews, Atheifts or 
Diabolifts are in a ftate of Salvation, God never promifing it, 
but faying the contrary, whoever profefleth this undoubted cer- 
f*fwO/>fpeakethfalfely, that which he hath not- 

L. But they fay not [_ I am undoubtedly certain of it 3 bnt onty 
that it is undoubtedly certain in it felf. 

M. This is to jeft With holy things ? To be certain is to 
be a Truth that hath afcen awing evidence, if you mean objeftive 
certainty: and how can any man profefs or affirm that who 
knoweth it not ? He that affirmeth that it is objectively certaw, 
doth therefore affirm that he knoweth it to be fo, and is 


( y6) 

fiibjcttively certain, if he mean tharit is evident and certain too- 
thtrs and not to him,irs a contradi&ion : for if he know it not 
to be certain he cannot tell that another doth. 

L. But though you be not certain of it^the fubfcribers may. 

M i. I Live proved that no man is certain of it, 2. Judge 
by all the reft or their wifdom , whether every Youth that 
comes for Ordination from the Universities, be fo much wifer 
than we, that they are certain of this which we think uncer- 
tain or falfe. Judge by their other qualifications, whether the 
feven thoufand Mini Tiers that declared their aflent to the Book 
before they ever faw it, are like to be'certainer than the two 
thoufand that were caft out 5 And are they certain of this 
that are uncertain of many great and weighty truths through ig- 

3. Yea many Conformifts and Papifts, fay that Infant Bap- 
tifm cannot be proved by Scripture, but by Tradition. And 
can Ten thoufand Minilters then be certain by Scripture that 
baptized Infants are faved ? How grofs a contradi&ion is 
this ? 

4. And judge farther of the credit and modefty of fuch 
men : fome Divines fay that Faith it felf hath not evidence, 
and that he that doubteth of Chriftianity and the Life to 
come may be faved, if his belief of it be but ftrong enough 
to make him truft and prefer it before all this- world. And I 
hear their greateft Divines fay that few would be faved if 
none but they that are undoubtedly certain of the Life to come, 
and of the truth of the Gofpel (hould be faved. And yet all 
muft be caft or kept out of theMiniftry that will not affirm 
that they are more certain of a hard Contr over fie if not of an 
«#m//^thanChrift requireth us to be of our very Chriftiani- 

L. IV. What is the fourth part of your reafon againfi this 
point t 

M. 1. We dare not father that on God which he never 
fpake. 2. And we dread the curfe, Rev. 22. againft them 
that fhall add to his word, viz.. that he will add his curfes 
upon them. How terribly are falfe Prophets threatned that 
(zyjThus faith the Lord, when the Lord never faid it : This 
is to belie God and to take his name in vain. And for Nine 


r 57) 

thoufand or Ten thoufand Minifters to affirm that this is cer- 
tain by God's word that they are undoubtedly faved, and when they 
have done cannot to this day, (hew us one word of God that 
faith it, is fuch an adding to his word as we had rather (till be 
called all that's naught, and imprifoned than be guilty 


We take it for a Fanatick preemption in Papifts to pre- 
tend to be infallible in Councils, in determining thofe things 
which out of the Council through ignorance they underftood 
not : and how it lhouldbe but by Enthufiafm, or fanatick pre- 
tence of Infpiration, that a multitude of raw ignorant fellows, 
or lads ihouidoome to find that in God's word as undoubtedly 
certain, which none of us in forty or fifty years fearch could 
ever find there, I cannot tell. 

L. / know not what to fay to this : I would they had left it to 
wens free thoughts. 

M. And do you think now that it's lawful for us deliberate- 
ly to Aflentand Confentthat this is an undoubted certainty when 
we are not certain, nor believe it to be true ? Should we lie to 
be conformable, were there but this one thing it obligeth us to 
Nonconformity whatever we fuffer for it. 

CHAP. X. Point VII. Of the Englifh fort 
of Godfathers at Baptifm* 

L. \ J\ y Hat have you againfl our ufe of Godfathers in Baptifm ? 
V V M. I. Negatively, we are not at all againft the 
old (onofPatrmiy Sufceptors, or Sponfors that w r ere ufed at 
Baptifm in the ancient Churches ; though we think it but a 
prudential thing, and not of neceflity to Baptifm. 

L. What mean you by the ancient fort .? what' did they ? 

M. At firft, the adult were themfelves Baptized : for their 
Children had no right till the Parent was a Chriftian. And 
for three hundred years Chriftians were under Heathen perfe- 
fecution^ in which fome forfookChrift for fear by apoftafie, 
and others died while their Children were in Infancy, who 
were thereby expofed to defertion, or to Infidel Education. 
Wherefore to fecure the Education of thefe Infants, the Suf- 
ceptors that joyned with the Parents as their Seconds, i. Did 

I teftifie 

ceftifie their opinions of the Parents, as ferious Chriftians, 
net like to apoftatize. 2. And did promife that if the Pa- 
rents either died orapoftatized,they fhould undertake theChil- 
drens Education. But if the Parents were dead already, they 
undertook to Educate the Child themfelves as their own. But 
they were Sponfors for no Infidel's Child, unlefs they firft 
adopted him, or took him for their own. 

L. And what doth our God-fathers differ from this, for which 
you take them to be finful, or not approvable ? 

M. The difference is fo great, and maketh fo great a change 
in our Chriftening, as I am loth to name to you. 1. With 
us godly Chriftian Parents themfelves, are forbidden to be 
God-fathers with the reft, and tofpeak one word, much more 
to profefs that they dedicate them in Covenant to Chrift : 
Nor muft the Minifter urge the Parent to be prefent -, left his 
confent feem neceftary. 

2. The God-fathers and God-mothers are neither tied to 
bring the Children of Chriftians only, nor only fuch as they 
take for their own 5 but without difference may bring the In- 
fants of any Atheifts, Sadduces, Jews, Infidels, or open ene- 
mies of Chrift and godlinefs, without taking them for their 

3. They perfonate the Child in promifing and profefling in 
his name, without authority fo to do. 

4 ? They do not only promife what the Child fhall do here- 
after, but they at prefent profefs that the Child by them, or they 
perfonating it, do Believe, renounce fin, and defire Baptifm : 
As if the Child were bound to do this by himfelf or by ano- 

5. God-fathers too commonly covenant for the future Edu- 
cation of the Child, themfelves to do it, or caufe it to be done, 
which they neither ever purpofed to perform, or ever made 
the Parents believe that they intended ; and fo make Chriften- 
ing a perfidious vowing, or covenanting with God: Thefe are 
not things indifferent, I think. 

L. 1. How prove yon that the Varents may not be prime Cove- 
nanters, or Sponfors for their own Children t Are not they obliged to 
get God-fathers and God- mothers for them? who are fuppofed to come 
by their procurement f And doth not that fignife their own confent ■, 
to what thefe are to undertake ? M* 

( 59 ) 
. M. It fignifieth only that the Law conftraineth them to 
let their Children be baptized, to avoid their ownpuniihment, 
and to get others to enter them into the Chriftian Covenant. 
But not that they either are Chriftians,or confent to that Cove- 
nant themfelves, either for themfelves, or Children. For, 

i. Known Atheifts, Infidels, and Sadduces, that deny Chri- 
ftianity, are bound by the Law to get God-fathers for their 
Childrens Baptifm, as well as Chriftians; and fuch cannot be 
fuppofed to covenant for them with Chrift themfelves. The 
Sixty eight and Sixty nine Canons command Minifters to re- 
fufe no Child that is brought, nor to refufe or delay to bap- 
tize in private in cafe of danger, who ever defireth him to 
do it. 

2. The Twenty ninnth Canon faith [iVo Parent fall be urged 
to bt prefent, nor be admitted to anfwer as God-father for h ft own 
Child : Nor any God-father or God- mother fall be fuffered to make 
any other anfwer or fpeech than by the Book^ of Common-Vrayer u 

prefcribed in that behalf * J The Parent may fay what he will to 
God in fecret. But at the Chriftening of his Child, if he 
fhould but fay, U believe God's promife to the faithful and their 
feed : I do devote my Child to Chrifl, and engage him in his Cove- 
nant : or I promife to educate him to Chriflianity] he breaketh the 
Canon, and goeth againft the Churches Law. I did before 
the Bifhopsat the Savoy, 1661. put the cafe to them, thus 
without fiftion : An Infidel of my Parifh that ufeth openly 
to talk againft the Scripture and Life to come, to avoid 
inconveniencies, refolveth to fend his Child to-be baptized 5 
and I muft not refufe; it by the Law : Hath the Child 
right to Baptifm, and is it undoubtedly faved ? Dr. San- 
derfon in the Chair anfwered, nemine contradicente, that if he 
brought him with God-fathers according to the Church of 
England, I need not doubt it. But there were but two in 
the Parifh that openly declared themfelves to be of bis opi- 
nion, and thofe two being his familiars, are likeft to be the 
God- fathers. If the Child have not righr for Infidel Pa- 
rents fake, how can Infidel Neighbours, called Sod-fathers, give 
him right ? 

L. But the Canon faith, that the Godfathers fall be only fuch 
as have received the Sacrament. 

I 2 M 


M. AJas none are forwarder than thefe to receive the Sacra* 
ment, and laugh at it, and fay they will obey the Church. Yet 
1 doubt not but a faithful Parent may be prefent if he will, and 
may tell the Godfathers in private, that his prefence (hall figni- 
fie his devoting ad ; and when the Prieft fpeaketh to the God- 
fathers, he may bow his head whether the Prieft will or not, to 
fignifie that act of his. But this is nothing to the fenfe of the 
Church, nor to our Atfent and Confent to their exclufion of 
the Parent. 

L. I con fefs it founds tome as unnatural. But what is your other 
reafon again fi our fort of Godfathers , ? 

M. II. My fecond Reafon is, that it is a prophanation of 
this great and facred Ordinance, to invert thofe in the vifi- 
ble itate Chriftianity^ (and Salvation pretendedly ) that have 
no right to fuch inveftiture, fo they have but Godfathers they 
are to baptize the children of any Jews, or Heathens, or open 
enemies toChrift, as wellasofChriftians j which is a mani- 
feft prophanation. 

L. What is the fault of it ? 

M. i. It fuppofetha/^ Dottrfae, that Infidel Children are 
within the Covenant, and may be baptized as well asChriftians 
which in the Books aforecited, I have fully difproved. 

2. It is a dangerous adding to God's word and worfhip. 

3. It is a deceiving of mens Souls as to childrens ftate, to 
make them believe that their children dying when baptized 
are all faved, how bad foever the Parents be. 

4- It is a dreadful belying of God, and prophanation of his 
name, if men fhallin the name of God pronounce pardon and 
falvation to thofe whom he never gave them to. 

L. But God wiH not punifh the Children for their Parents fin. 

M. Not thofe that fee their fathers fins, and forfake them, 
and live not as their Parents did : and that's all that the' Scrip- 
ture faith for fuch. But if you will read my two forefaid Dis- 
putations for Original fin you will fee it fully proved that God 
punifheth Infants, becaufe they are the guilty, and corrupt 
feed of guilty and corrupt Parents. Do you believe out- 
Church Articles, and yet deny original fin? If Infants have no 
guilt and fin, what need have they of Baptifm, or of a Saviour ? 
If they have need of both, fure it is for np a&ual fin done by 

them ; 

( 61 ) 

them 5 was not the World loft for Adam's fin ? Was not Cains 
poiterity curfed for his fake ? Were not all the Infants of 
the old World, and all the Infants of the Sodomites burnt 
with fire from Heaven, and the Infants of the Canaanws 
and Am-alekites,8cc. killed for their Parents fin. Did not 
Chrift tells the Jews, Mat- 23. that all their Forefathers per- 
fecutions fhould be punifhed on that Generation ? The Jews 
knew this that laid, His blood be on vis and on our Children, Our 
Liturgy faith, Remember not Lord our offences^ nor the offences of 
our Forefathers •, &C. 

2. And yet I tell you, that it is for their own fm that the 
feed of the wicked peri(h,fin is made their own, when foul and 
body were for guilty corrupt Parents, madefuchby themfelves. 
I do not fay that God imputeth their Parents infidelity to 
them. But this infidelity is the reafon of their not being 
delivered from their own original guilt. If Rebels forfeit 
Life and Eftate, and fo their Children live in beggery, and 
the King offer to reftore Father and Children, if the Father 
will thankfully accept his grace: If the Parent refufe this, 
his Children will be beggars. Not becaufe the King punilh- 
eth them for their Fathers fault, but becaufe he firft deprived 
himfelf of the Eftate which he fhould have left them, and 
next becaufe he refufedto deliver them. If a Father will 
fet the Pox on his children, and after refufe a Phyfician that 
would cure him and them, the Phyfician doth not puniih the 

All Scripture and Nature tell the world that it is fo deep 
an intereft that Parents have in children, as being caufes of 
their very eflence by Communication from their ovv^n eflence, 
and it is to natural a power that Parents have over their chil- 
dren, that it fhould feem no ftrange thing to 'Christians, or 
Infidels, that Go J maketh a very great difference between the 
feed of the faithful, and of the Infidels and wicked : And it's 
ftrange that any men fhould rather lay their title to pardon 
and falvatioa upon ameer neighbour or ftranger that per- 
haps is a wicked wretch]himfelf, than on the Parents of the 

L. But rvi/1 God fave children for jbeir Parents Faith t 

M. If 

( 6z ) 

M. If he deflroy Infants for Adam\ fin, do you think that 
Juftice is fo much more extenfive than Mercy, that he will 
lhew no mercy for Parents fake ? But the cafeis this, Chrjft 
the Second Adam hath merited pardon and falvation to be given 
conditionally to all : Not abfohitely, for then all would be 
faved : What the condition is to the adult, we are agreed, 
v/t. Faith and Repentance, and Dedication to Chrift by co- 
venant confent : And do you think that Infants pardon and 
falvation hath no condition ? If none, then all Infants are 
faved 3 if any condition, what is it ? i. Is it barely that they be 
baptized without any right but what all have ? This is an in- 
jurious fiction ; God never faid it : And it's an unreafonable 
imputation on God, as if he would fave thoufands meerly for 
water and words, and condemn thoufands that had not the 
opportunity of thefe. And it is certain that Chriftians never 
drearti'd of this abfurd Opinion, or elfe godly Emperours 
would have forced Baptifm on the children of all their Hea- 
then Subje&s, and would,where their conquering Armies came, 
in charity, have catcht up their children, and baptized them. 
And Bifhops and Doctors would have taught and intreated them 
fo to do. To make meer baptizing alone the condition of In- 
fant falvation, is to lay Heaven on fuch a ceremony quite out 
of the Infants power, as would but tempt the rational Infidels 
to deride Chriftianity. No fober men lay a childs Eft ate or 
Life on fuch a thing. 

2. If there muft be fome condition of Right to Baptifm an- 
tecedent to it, what is it ? i. It is not a&ual Faith in that In- 
fant, that underftands not. 2. It muft then be fome others aft 
or nothing. If anothers, whofe fhould it be fo likely as the Pa- 
rents from whom the children have their efience ? Whom 
Nature hath taught to take them as almoft. parts of themfelves* 
and fo hath the cuftom of all Nations •■> and who are obliged 
above all other to provide for them, and whofe will in their 
Infancy difpofeth of them till they come to have a rational 
will of their own ( in a& : ) And Scripture from end to end 
confirmeth this. 

But befides this, you know not whither to look for a title- 
condition, unlefs to fome Pro-parent, whofe the child is, 


( 6] ) 
upon the Parents Death or Refignation. For, i. If you fay it 
is the Faith of the Church (as fome) that giveth the child title, 
what Church mean you ? The Univerfal, or National, or Dio- 
cefan, or Parochial? And how doth the Church give right to 
Pardon and Life to Infidels children ? If it be meerly volendo, 
as if Heaven were at their will, why do they not fit at home, 
and make a Deed of Gift of Heaven to the Infants at the 
Antipodes, and of all the World ? If it be by baptizing them, 
I (hewed before that Baptifm, meerly as fuch, doth it not. 
.And if it be the will of the Baptizer they muft mean the 
Prieft, Deacon, or another: And to fay that thefe are the 
Terms of Infant Title to Baptifm and Salvation 3 that if the 
Priefts will they (hall be baptized and faved j or elfe not, 
feemeth a New Gofpel. 

2. But it feems with us it is the God-fathers that give them 
Title, elfe the Church could fave them when they will with- 
out God- fathers •* And if fo, where is.the proof of it, in Scrip- 
ture or Reafon, that God will accept and fave Infants becaufe 
a meer Neighbour will bring them to be baptized, and pro- 
mifeth to bring them up well if they live. It is fuppofed than 
thefe Sponfors own not the children, and how come they then 
to have the power to be their Reprefentatives, and to difpofe 
of their Souls? 

L. But any Beggars Child hath right to be taken into your houfe , 
if yon are fo charitable as to do it : And fo much right to Baptifm 
and Salvation by it y Chrift hath given to all. 

M. Where is that Deed of Gift to be found ? Is it not a 
Forgery ? He hath made a Covenant to the Faithful and their 
Seed. But where hath he faid, I will fave all Infidels children, 
if any Prieft or Chriftian will but baptize them ? He that faid, 
Go to the high-ways and hedges, and compel them to come in, ex- 
cepted the Refufers, and required none but perftvading com- 
pulfion: And it's Parents that have power of their children, 
He' that can believe to day that God hath made a Gift of Sal- 
vation to all Infants that any body will baptize, may ea(ily 
believe to morrow that he wiQ not caft away the reft meerly 
becaufe no Carrier will bring them in, or becaufe no body will 
wafh them, and fay over them the words of Baptifm. God 
hath made even in the Second Commandment, and in Exo- 

( 6 4 ) 
dm 34. when he proclaimed his name and nature, fo great 
a difference between the Seed of the Godly and the Wicked, 
that we dare not confent to the confounding of them, nor 
with the .Anabaptifts unthankfullyto deny this Mercy, nor 
to deny er corrupt Pauls plain affertion, Elfe were your Children 
unclean, but now are they holy, 

L. Ill- What mean you by your third Exception f 

M. I have told you while I opened the former. They per- 
fonate the Child without Authority : And it is a great doubt 
whether the Covenant and Baptifm were not a meer Nullity, 
did not Parents befides the Laws of Conformity fome way 
fignifie their own Agency therein. If any Neighbour fhould 
make a Covenant in the name of your Child, binding him at 
Age to Marry an Heirefs, who hath aLordfhip to her Portion, 
would this either oblige your Son, or give him any prefent 
right to her or her Eftate ? 

L. If the Donor or perfon empowered Confent, it giveth a condi- 
tional right, which becometh AViual when he marrieth her ; and fo 
here if C od confent u s fo far valid* 

M. God hath given Chrift. and Life conditionally to all 
before they believe or are baptized : But all muft not there* 
fore be baptized: This is not Atlual Right, and fo fuch In- 
fants have no right by this Rule, till they believe in Chrift. 
But Baptifm is an a&uall Marriage with Chrift, and it's a 
Mockery where neither Party doth confent. Chrift doth not 
confent : for he hath made no Promife but to the faithful and 
their Seed. Let them that affirm more, (hew it. The Infant 
doth not confent, having no Will of his own in Ad, and the 
thing being done by one that had no power to perfonate or 
oblige him. And he may fay, It was no a& of mine, perfo- 
nally or Legally. 

L. Any one may accent a gift for another , and bind him to grati- 
tude, which if he refufe he forfeit 5 it. 

M. If the Donor give it on thofe Terms, it's true. And if 
you can prove that God hath made his Covenant Gift of Par- 
don and Salvation to all the Seed of Infidels, Atheifts and 
Wicked Men, on Condition that any body will but Accept it 
in their names at prefent, and bind them to accept it at Age, 
it will then I confefs prove a valid a<5t of Charity ; And I fee 


( 65 ) 

not but why fome good man ftiould fay [ Lord, I accept ofchrifi 

and Salvation for all the Infants on Earth, and I bind them to ac~ 
cept it when they come to Age \ and I hope the meer want of wafting 
flail not deprive them of that which I have power to accept for them f] 

I never heard of valid contracts made for Infants by any one 
that will but pretend to perfonate them. 

L. Thus you would make rebaptizjng neceffary, if fuch Baptifm 
be a nullity. 

M. i. Not to any whofe Parents, though befides the Laws 
of Conformity own their agency, and dedicating their own 
child to Chrift, which I hope is the cafe of moft, cuftom 
rhrough God's mercy teacheth them better than the Canons 
and Common-Prayer- Book. 

z. And I think not to any other, whofe Parents in Infan- 
cy, and themfelves at Age do own the Covenant, and think 
that it was valid Baptifm. For to fuch the end of Baptifm 
is attained. If it were no Minifter, or were one unautho- 
rized that baptized him, it w T ould not be a meer nullity as 
to the ends, ifbymiftake it were fuppofed well done. Fatlum 
valet, was judged by fome, when Athanafius by a Boy was bap- 
tized in fport. 

L. What is your fourth ObjetHon againfi our way of Baptifm ? 

M. That in perforating the Child they fay that they ( and 
fo he by them ) doth at prefent Believe, renounce, defire, &c. 
falfely intimating that Infants are bound at prefent to do this 

by another: And yet the fame men plead that God doth 
not accept him for the Faith of his Parents $ As if his God- 
fathers Faith were his, and not his Parents : when as God 
requireth no Faith, or Repentance of Infants, but only that 
£ They be the Seed of penitent Believers, devoted to Chrift '\ ] 

And in the Catechifm it is (aid that [Repentance and Faith art 
required of per fons to be Baptised. 1 ( And Repentance and Faith 
have a promife of Life ) and that Infants who cannot perform the/} 
are Baptised becaufe they promife them by their Sureties, which pre- 
mife when they come to Age themfelves are bound to perform. 

Where note that the former Book had [ They perform them 
by their Sureties. ] They perceived that having laid Faith and 
Repentance are requifite : Infants they faw muft have at prefent 

what is requifte at prefcm ; And they knew that they had 

K them 

(66 ) 

them not themfelves* and fo were fain to hold that the Sure- 
ties Faith and Repentance was theirs, and a performance of that 
required condition. But our new Bookmakers few that this 

would not hold, and fo they fay, Though Faith and Repentance 
be required of per [on s to be baptized, yet Infants are baptized becaufe 
they promife them by their Sureties to be hereafter performed 3 a- 
mending the former errour by a greater, or a double one. 
1. Granting that Faith and Repentance are pre-requifite, and yet 
confefling that Infants have neither, of their own or Sureties 
imputed to them * and yet are to be baptized. 2. Or making 

a fromife of future Faith and Repentance to be prefent Faith and 
Repentance. 3. Or like the Antinomians that fay, all that are 
Ele&ed to believe hereafter are juftified before they believe, 
fo they imitate that ; though Faith and Repentance be requi- 
fite in baptizandis, yet God at prefent will juftifie and lave all 
that have it not in infancy, becaufe they promife it hereafter. 
Ail plain contradictions : as if they faid, it is requifite in per- 
(ons to be baptized, and it is not requifite. 

L. How would you have them have anfwered thefe ? 
J M. Profefled Faith and Repentance are requifite in adult 
perfons to be baptized .• And in Infants, that they be the Seed 
of the Faithful, devoted by them to God in Chrift, according 
to his offered Covenant of Grace. 

L. V. What mean you by your fifth Objection f 

M. Alas, the worft is yet behind. The common Perfidi- 
oufnefs that is committed under the name of Godfathers Bap- 
tifmal Vows and Covenants: Baptifm is one of the greatefl 
adtions of all our Religion and Lives. Our rifing from Death 
to Life; our vifible new Birth, our folemn Covenanting 
with God the Father, Son and Holy Ghoft : Our folemn 
Tranflation from darknefs to light, and from the power of 
Satan unto God, that we may receive remiffion of Sin, and 
inheritance among the San&ified : What more holy, great and 
venerable aftion can be done by mortal man, than to enter a 
folemn Covenant with God and our Redeemer, in which we 
wholly give up our felves to him, and Covenant for a holy 
Life, and are to receive the pardon of all fin, and the 
gift of Grace, and right to Everlafting Glory : And if men 
rum this great Ordinance which is the Sum of all our Re- 


(6 7 ) 
ligion into perfidioufnefs and mockery, how hainous'hn muft 
this needs be ? 

And here let us confider, I. Who thefe Godfathers in Eng- 
land ufually be. II. What they do, III How they perform 
what they Vow and undertake. 

L. I. They are ufually fame of the Parents Frknds. 

M. They are ufually fuch as thefe : i. The poor that have 
no rich Friends do fometimes intreat a poor neighbour to do 
the Office, and fometimes hire any man that will do it ; Which I 
never knew till in London, by begging they made me underftand 
that men do it as Labourer's work for their wages : About half a 
Crown is the ordinary pay of Beggars, or very poor Folks 
Godfathers. But the poor and Middling fort do uie to try fome 
rich Friend or Neighbour, if they have any fuch, in hopes of 
fome fmall gift ? fome give us for the Child a Shilling, fome 
half a Crown, fome a {ilver Spoon. The Richer fort feek to 
perfons rather above than below their Rank, in expe&ation of 
a piece of Plate, or fome fuch bigger gift. And in other Na- 
tions Princes are Godfathers to Children whom they never 
fee, nor perhaps the Land of their Nativity : And with us it is 
very often fome that dwell not very near, who oft ferve as Pro- 
xy to ftand in their place, and they only give the expe&ed gift 
and bear the name. 

II. What they are to do, Itold you before: i. Toperfonate 
the Child, and take on them to fay as in his name [ / believe, 
I renounce, I defire ] when they are three and the Child but one, 
and fo three perfons by fi&ion reprefent one, and fay that He 
doth that w r hich he doth not, either, perfe vel per alios. 

2. They Vow or promife folemnly to do all the things be- 
fore namod. Ch. 4. lJumb.j. viz. To fee that the Child be taught 
asfoon as he foall be able to learn what a folemn Vow, Promife 
and Profejfion he made by them ; and that they call on him to hear 
Sermons, and chiefly that they provide that he may learn the Creed, 
the Lord s Prayer, and the Ten Commandments in the Vulgar Tongue, 
and All Other things that a Chrifiian ought to know and believe to his 
Souls health, and that he be virtuously brought up to lead a Chrifiian 

and Godly life. All this they folemnly undertake to God and 
the Church. 

K 2 III. And 

(68 ) 

III And fo far are they ufually from performing it. That 1. 1 
never yet knew one Parent that txpe&ed any fuch thing from 
them, or that ever ferioufly asked them, Do you underftand 
what you are to promife ? and do you refolve to do it ? 

2. I never in all my life knew one Godfather that made the 
Parent before hand believe that he intended any fuch thing. 

3. If he had, it's not credible that three perfons ihould all in- 
tend to educate one child of another man s, and perform it. 

. 4. Nor did I yet ever know to this 68th. year of my age, 
one Godfather that before adopted the child, or took him for 
his own, and took him home with him, unlefs he was a Grand- 
father, and did it as fitch, and not as Godfather 5 much lefs could 
all three do it- 

5. Nor did I ever to this day know one man or woman 
that performed this which all three undertake. A very few r I 
have known that will ask, How doth my Godfon ? and fay. Ton 

muft be a good Boy and learn yonr Bookj, and perhaps give him a 
piece of Silver : But ufually they never look after them. 

I confefs with fhame that I have been Godfather to four •, 
to one when I was a Child and knew not what I did, but 
thought, it was only to be a Witnefs of Baptifm. And to 
three more when I was twenty three years of age ; of all 
which I agreed beforehand with the Parents to be but a Wit- 
nefs, and that they fhould ftand there themfelves as the un- 
dertakers and fignifie it. Two of thele I never faw fince ; a 
third now dead, I never faw fince .his Infancy till a little be- 
fore he died, and the fourth never fince till that lately he 
came a begging to me. 

I confefs one Biftiop told me once that he knew one or more 
that had performed this Vow, fo did never I, who have li- 
ved in many parts of the Land. Thofe that perform it not, 
fure are guilty of heinous perfidioufnefs 5 as breaking fo fo- 
lemn a Vow to God. And if this be fo common in England 
that to this Age I could never know of one performer, is not 
the cafe doleful and dreadful : that the Nation fhould by fuch 
perhdioufnefs be made Chriltians ? 

L. Eat this is the Parents or Godfathers faith , what's this to 
Minjjlcr, or to your Affent and Confent ? 

M. If 

( 6 9 ) 

M. If it be not nothing to the Canons and to the Liturgy, 

■ it is not nothing to him that muft Ajfem and Omfent to all 

things in that Liturgy, and muft fw ear Canonical Obedience* And 

i. Do you think that the Nation can fo commonly live id 
this fin, and the Church Governours and Orders be innocent 
in it. Can thofe Canons and Orders be blamelefs that with- 
out any more oppofition, let ftich perfidioufnefs go to our 
Chriftening ? Can the medicine be laudable that fo many mif- 
carry in the ufeofit? 

2. By the Canon all men are conftrained to get fome God- 
fathers, and they can force none that is unwilling. 

3. No Confcionable perfons will Promife and undertake that which 

they never purpofe to perform. I never in all my life met 
with one godly man, that if you opened all the undertaking 

Elainly to him, would fay ferioufly, lam refolved to do all this 5 
ut would refufe the office when he knows it is expected. 

4. If there be hundreds or thoufands in a Parifh that are 
grofly ignorant of the nature of Baptifm, and what they do, 
or that are Atheifts, Infidels, wicked men not Excommunicate, 
the Minifter cannot deny to take them for Godfathers, if 
they did but ever once receive the Sacrament. And to this 
68th year of my age, I never knew one Godfather, or God- 
mother queftioned or refufed by any Minifter. 

5. If the Parent can get nomantoftand, he (hall be ruined 
for it, as not bringing his Child to be Baptized according to 
the order of the Church. 

6. Rich men will not give up their Children to the God- 
father's propriety or education. Poor mens Children none 
will take. And is it lawful to Affent and Confent to.fuch 
orders of Baptifm as cheri(h this ? . 

If Parents were the undertakers we might urge them to per- 
formance. But from fitch others who can expect it I 

CHAP. XI. Point VIII Of refufing to Riptlz: 
without fuch Godfathers, 

L. \TOV have been long on this Pointy I pray yon- be flwter on 
1 the next, 

M. It needs not many words it is fo gro(s. We dare not 



sltfcHt and Confent to deny Baptifm to all Children of godly Parents 
that have not fnch Godfathers and Godmothers, while the Parent . 

offereth to do his own part, profefling his faith, and dedicating 
his Child to God, and promifing a faithful education. 

L. How prove you that yon muft pnt away all fitch ? 

M. 8 Did you ever know any baptized otherwife in the 
Church ? 2. The words of the Rubrickare [There jhall be for 
every Male Child to be baptised, two Godfathers, and one Godmo- 
ther; and for every Female one Godfather and two Godmothers.'] 

3. The Godfathers and Godmothers only^ are to fpeak and 
covenants without which it is no Baptifm: Meer wafliing 
without Covenanting is no Chriftian Baptifm, fo that the 
Church of England doth make Godfathers ejfential to it. And 
what it is to add to the Ejfentials of fo great an Ordinance of 
God as was inftituted by Chrift's own Mouth, for fo high an 
ufe as our Efpoufal to himfelf j judge you. 4. The Canon to 
which all muft fubfcribe, faith [That he himfelf will ufe the form 
in the faid Book^ prefer ibed in publicly prayer and adminifirdtion of 
the Sacrament , and no other, 5 . The hGt of Conventicles maketh 

itr 20 /. the firft time and, 40 /. every time after for above 
four to meet to worlhip God otherwife than according to 
the Liturgy, and practice of the Church of England. And 
to baptise without Godfathers is otherwife. 6. And then the Ox* 
ford A& banifheth them five miles from Corporations. Is not 
here fufficient proof? 

L. And why JJjould any fcruple fo fmall a matter $ 
M. 1. Did I not before tell you why ? 2. Suppofe they 
fcrupled it through miftake, .(hall every miftake or errour of 
Parents deprive the child of Baptifm ? I'll tell you why I 
dare no more Affent and Confent to this, than I dare confenc 
to cut off a hand or foot of every fuch child. 

1. Baptizing is Chriftening, and dare I caufelefly deprive 
a Soul of vifible Chriftianity ? 

2. They themfelves make it an Afcertaining means of Salva- 
tion, as the forementioned Rubrick fheweth. And would 
they have us (hut Infants from Salvation for nothing ? yea 
they feem to confine Salvation only to the baptized, w T hile 
they conclude that they are faved as baptised ones, and except 
the unbaptized from Chriftian Burial : The beftcan be but 


( V ) 
to leave them as without any promife of Life from Chrift : 
And how can we believe that God will give them that which 
he never promifed them. And fhall I damn fouls for want of 
a humane unneceflary, if not corrupt invention ? 

3. It is againft the intereft of Chrift and the Church 5 fhall 
I make a Covenant to rob Chrift and the Church of vifible 
Members for nothing ? Murthering Infants is death by God's 
Laws and mans? And Innocents day is one of the Chriftmas 
Holy days. And is it a thing indifferent for me and all the 
Minifters of the National Church, to make a folemn bargain 
that we Aflent and Confent to keep out all from the Church 
and from the Covenant ( and in their fenfe the hope ) of Sal- 
vation on fuch an account as this. 

L. The thing were difmal and unexcufable if it were as you mal^e 
it : But how can you jay that they Jhttt them out when they force 
all Parents to bring them in, and to fttbmit to their way ? when 
did you ever know any child refufedon this account. 

M. Many a hundred in my time. The Lawrefufeth them, 
and it is in vain for the Parents to fend them to a Minifte!* 
who they know hath folemnly covenanted to reje<5i them. 
Hundreds have been baptized by Nonconformifts, becaufe 
the Church refufeth them. 

2. And as to their compelling men to get Godfathers I an- 
fwer, 1. Thofethat think it a fin will not obey that com- 
pulfion, but rather fuffer. *. If any yield againft confcience 
to efcape fuffering, fuch compulfion doth but drive them to- 
wards damnation. 3. But thofe that yield to it by compul- 
fion, do but feem to do it, and do it not : For they agree 
before hand with the Godfathers, to reprefent them, and 
fpeak in their names, and to be themfelves no undertakers. 
Though all this is very hard Shifting. 

L. I confefs this is a cafe fo difi ant from things indifferent, that 
were there but this one reafon, J will no more perfwade any to Af- 
fent and Confent to all things contained and prefcribed, even to 
the ufe* 

M. And what think you if the fame men that made thefe 
Canons and fubfcribe to all this, are the (harp condemners 
of Schifmand Anabaptiftry. 1. What is Schifm, if this be not, 
caufelefly to keep but fo many from the Church ? And have 


( 7> ) 
not the Anabaptifts a far more excufable pretence to deny 
the baptizing of Infants, than this in queftion is : The cafe 
is of great difficulty to them, and it is Chrift's will that they 
doubt of. But here is no difficulty. And thefe men fet the 
will and device of man againft Chrift, who faid, Forbid them 
not, and was Angry with thofe that forbad them to come to him. 

CHAP. XII. Point IX. OftheCrofsinBaptifm. 

L- T Have oft wondred what any man can fay againft the ufe of the 
X Crofs in Baptifm, which fignipeth our refolution to be true to a 
crucified Chrift. 

M. I have oft thought many things abfurd in you Law- 
yers, to which I have been reconciled when I was well inform- 
ed of the reafon of them. I ask you, 

i. Do you believe that Jefus Chrift is the King and only uni- 
Verfal Lawgiver to his Church ? 

L. Tes, but men under him may make local Laws'. 

M. 2. Do you believe that he is the Author of the Chriftian 
Eaptifm ? 

L. Tes, no doubt , I find it, Mat. 2C 1 9. 

M. 3. Dp you believe that he did it fo defe&ively that 
men may amend it ? 

L. No doubt but he did his own work^perfectly. 

M. 4. Do you not believe that it is his Prerogative to in- 
ftitute Sacraments of the covenant of Grace? 

L. Tes, no doubt \ for our Church holdeth that there are but two, 
and difowneth the five Roman Sacraments. And yet I think mo ft of 
them may be called Sacraments, efpecially Ordination, and Matri- 
mony ( and fo may the Kings Coronation ) but not Sacraments of the 
Covenant of Grace. 

. M. Let us now enquire, x- What a Sacrament of the Co- 
venant of Grace is. 2. Whether our eroding be not fuch; 

I. The Romans ufed the word C Sacraments ] for an exter- 
nal obliging covenanting ceremony : efpecially for the h£t of 
foldiers ceremony by binding themfelves to military relation 
and fidelity to their captains- A Sacrament of the covenant of 
grace is an outward vifible A6t or ceremony ,by which we oblige 
4>ur felves in covenant to Chrift as our Saviour, promifing fidelity 


( ?; ) 

and by which we are told by Chrift minifters, that his Grace 
is fignified which is given by his Covenant. 

The Catechiirn indeed faith [_ It is an outward and vifible fign 
of an inward and fpiritual grace, given to us, ordained by Chrift him- 
(elf, as a means whereby we receive the fame, and a pledge toaffure H6 
thereof. ] 

But it's obvious to any man ofreafon, that the words, [ Or- 
dained by chrift himfelf] fignifie not a Sacrament as liich, but 
[ o4 Divine ~] diftinct from humane. Elfe it were impoffible for 
man to be guilty of making falfe humane Sacraments.. If they 
fhould make more, juft fuch as Baptifm and the Lords Supper, 
they would be no finful Sacraments, if none be Sacraments but 

If there be all thefe things, there is a Sacrament of the Cove- 
nant of Grace falfely inftituted by man. i. If there be an 
outward vifiblefign. 2. If both thepurchafed and conveyed 
Grace of the Covenant of Chrift be fignified by it. 3. And 
fo fignified as to be an inftituted means of conveying it. 4. If 
it be a fign obliging the covenanting perfon to his Covenant 
duty. 5. And if thus it be a fymbol, or badge of the Order 

I. The outward vifiblefign is crofling, or the tranfient Image 
of a Crofs, made by one that acteth as a Minifter of Chrift by 
his pretended Commiffion, and received in his forehead by the 

II. The thing fignified is both the work of Redemption 
purchafing grace, and grace given by that purchafe : Both 
thefe are fully exprefled, Can. 30. C The holyGhoft by the mouths 
of the Apoftle did honour the name of the Crofs, fofar that under it 
he comprehended not only Chrift crucified, but the force, ejfetl and 
merits of his death andpajfion, with all the comforts, fruits and 
promifes which we receive or expect thereby : The Church 0/ England 
hath retained (I ill the fign of it in Baptifm, following! her em ib c Pri- 
mitive and ApoftoUcal Churches, and accounting it a Lauful outward 
ceremony and honourable badge, whereby the Infant is dedicated to 
the Service of him that died on the Crofs, as by the words of the Com- 
mon-Prayer book, may appear J which words are \_we receive this 
Child into the Congregation of Chrift *s Flockj, and do fign him with 
the Sign of the Crofs, in token that he flail not be aflame d to cox* 

L 'ft ft 


ftfs the faith of Chrift crucified, and manfully to fight under his ban- 
ner a gain ft fin, the world and the devil, and to. continue Chriffs faith- 
ful Souldier and Servant to hislifes end. Amen. 3 And in the Pre- 
face of Ceremonies Q They fcrve to a decent order* and godly dis- 
cipline, and fuch as be apt to ftir up the dull mind of man to the remem- 
brance of his duty to Godbyfome notable and fpiritiial Signification * 
whereby he may be edified. -H| 

So that the thing fignified is Chrift crucified with the benefits 
of his Crofs, and the Grace of edification by ftirring up our dull 
minds by the moral caufality of the caufe, and binding us to con- 
stancy to Chrift. 

L. But moral cauflng byobjeShs works not on Infants, 
M. True, no more doth w^fhing in water, and yet this is 
ufed for the benefit of the Parents at prefent, and of infants when 
they are at the ufe of reafcn Indeed Chrift by bis own Sacra- 
ment giveth Right and Relative Grace, which he will not do by 
mens inventions. 

III. But man plainly appointeth the Crofs to work this grace 
by way of exciting fignification. 

IV. And it is exprefiy made man's covenanting fign , by 
which he bindeth himfelf to covenant fidelity 5 that he will not 
be albamed to confefs the Faith of Chrift crucified, and man- 
fully to fight, &c The whole duty of the covenant on man's 
part is promifed hereby. 

V. And the Canon tells you it is a dedicating Sign and Badge 
of our profeffion. 

So that I fee not what is wanting to a Sacramenc,.as far as man 
can make one, by prefumption, which we cannot confent to. 

L. But it's [aid that Baptifm isperfetl without it. 

M. So it is without the Lord's Supper i and yet that is jufcly 
added : It faith not that mans covenanting with God is perfedl 
without it .-For it feemeth a Sacrament of man's added to that of 
Chrift, to tie men fafter to him. 

L. Ancient Chrifiians did ufe the Crofs without fcruple, 

M. i. It is not all ufe of the Crofs that we lpeak againft: 
but ufing it as a Sacrament of the Covenant, and badge of 
Chriftianity : The King would not take it well if Subjefts 
prefume to make a new Badge of the Order of Knights of the 
Garter, and add it to the Garter and the Star. To fhew by an 


It J 

a&ion as well as by a word ro fconriag Heathens that tl*ey were 
not afhamed of a crucified Saviour, nright be more excufe. 
than this. And they forefaw not to what abufe it would beak 
ter turned. 

2. But fuppofe we miftook in thefe our fears of finn>ng*,:Do 
you think that the cafe hath not difficulty enough to excufe a 
man for fear of finning ? 

2. And do you think that for fuch fear, and nor afting a- 
gainft them we deferve to be caft out as heinous uncapable de- 
linquents ? 

CHAT. XI M. Point X. Of drying Baptifm to 
them that refrje theirejs. 

M.TyUiT the practice of Crcffing is difputable, and Hay 

JD not fo fharp a cenfure on them that differ from us 
in it: But what excufe can be made by a man of Chriftian 
charity, and conhderation for denying Baptifm to all that re- 
fufe this croffing, I confefs I cannot imagine, nor could ever 

L. Their excufe is y that Crofting being lawful, the Refufers are dif- 
orderly Schifmaticks, and they and their Children ( as theirs ) unea- 
table of Baptifm. They fay it is not they, but yon that are the Refufers, 
They offer to- baptize you or your Child, and you refufe it, 

M. i. They know that it is not Baptifm, but Croffing that is 
refufed: And if they will not adminifter one without the other, 
they are the refufers. If one refufe the Papifts Exorcifm, Salt, 
Spittle, &c. and they will not baptize without ic, do they not 
deny to Baptize, vuilefscne will receive all thefe ? If God will 
ju(t:fie them for rejecting all that think it a fin to receive their 
Crpffingi then it is not them to whom it is to be imputed. But 
can t\ tt >e true ? 

i. Ctv it that inftitfcted Baptifm, ordained the conditions 
of ic, and the qualifications of fach as (hall be baptized, Mat. 28, 
and i/*rfci£. ; f6. riJthat believed was to be Baptized;, Act. 
28. It thou Lei- h all thy hearc thou mayeft : No, faith 

the Canon you fhali not, though you repent and believe, un- 
lets alio you will take the covenanting Badge of theCrofs. Is 
not this to alter the terms of Chriit's Covenant and Sacrament, 

L 2 and 


and dire&ly to contradict his very fundamental Law of Chri fti f 

anity ? Baptize all that are made dijciples, faith Chrift, and allt la 
repent and • Ikve : No faith our Convocation, baptize noveofthem 
that will not mk£ the travfent Image of a Crof,for their fart her ob- 

2. Do you that think it is neceflary to Chriftianity and Sal- 
vation how that this Fedtral Cr offing is lav. ful ? if you affirm it, 
you muft fay the fame of all ceremonies of the fame importance, 
and fo muft make a hundred new Articles of Faith, even of Ce- 
remonies and fuch little things, and make them all neceflary to 
Chriftianity and Salvation ? And is not this to make a new 
Gofpel, Chriftianity, and Church, and to # turn Chrift 's eafie 
Yoke into a worfe than the fla very of Pharifaical Traditions ? 
Ai d is not this to fliut all, or almoft all men out of Heaven ? 
No c le in earth doth know that this, and all fuch ceremonies, 
and in /entions of men are lawful : And muft every one know 
it that will be a Chriftian, or have his child made one ? Or muft 
we all ( as neceffary to Chriftianity ) believe all fuch things 
lawful if the Clergy do but fay they are ? And what if the 
Clergy in one Land fay it is, and in another, fay it is not : 
Muil both be believed ? Have wife Bifhopsno fitter penalty to 
enforce their ufurping Canons by, than denying Chriftendom 
and Salvation ? One would think it fhould be enough for the 
Preachers of humility to fay, [_Wearefowife that he that differ- 
ethpr attic ally from us in that which we call an indifferent ceremony, 
mi he calls a finful corruption of B apt if m, frail be punifljed as much as 
Swearers, Drunkards and Fornicators be, or frail be made a jlavewith 
his Children'} without denying them Chriftianity and Salvation. 

But the beft is,all cannot keep men out of Heaven that boaft of 
the power of the Keys ; and there is one Lawgiver v> ho is able 
to five and to deftroy. 

L. Ton m*k* a heinom cruelty of it, as if it were oppreffon and ty- 
ranny to fouls, and they fay that they tmpo'e nothing on you but things 

M. Muft their indifferent things be enforced with fo great 
penalty as damnation? If every one cannot love every Difli 
that they love, or get down every Pill that they give him, 
but he be fimilh'd therefore , or have his throat cut wi- 
der ? 1 had racher live and die a Chimney-fweeper, or a Chan- 

( 77 ) 

nel-cleanfer, or a Keeper of Swine, than a Bifhop that fiioulJ [ut 
Chrift'sDifciplesand their feed, whomhecommandeth them 
to baptize, Mat. 28. 19. from his Covenant and Church, and 
fpecially when themfelves makeBaptifm more neceflary and 
certainly faving, than it is* 

L. But you may venture to baptize fitch if you will. 

M. What, when I have covenanted Affent andQonfem to all 
things in their Book^ and fubfcribed to ttfe no other form in bap- 
tizing $ andalfomuft bccaft out for it? 

CHAP. XIV. Point XI. Of rcjeclingfrcm Communion all 
thai dare not kneel in the aft of Receiving, 

L- T Hear that you receive the Eucharift Kneeling your felf and 
A take it for lawful : what then have you again ft the Canon or 
Liturgy for this ? 

M. lam my felffor the lawfulnefs of Organs, Rails, and 
Cominguptothem, and for the lawfulnefs of Kneeling when 
we fing Pfalms, or read the Scripture, or hear the Preacher. 
But lam not for the lawfulnefs of hanging or damning men 
that herein are not of my mind : Nor for turning unneceflary 
things, becaufe they are lawful, into conditions, fmequibus non, 
of Church Communion, and Engines for Satan to divide Chrift's 
Flock by, and perfecute men for fearing fin. Paul was for the 
lawfulnefs of uhng,or notufing, the meats and days mentioned, 
Rom. 14. 1, 2. But he was not for either judging or defpiiing one 
another about them, much lefs for calling men from the C hurch 
and Heaven for them s nor for faying, except ye be Cjrcumcifed 
ye cannot be faved. 

L. Nor doth the Church make Kneeling in Receiving necejfary to 
Salvation, but enjoyn it as a decent Ceremony. 

M. They that make this Kneeling neceflary to Church Com- 
munion, and avoiding Schifm, and make Church- communion 
and avoiding Schifm neceflary to Salvation, do make the faid 
Kneeling neceflary to Salvation. But fo do the Canonifls here : 


How ufually do they apply Chrift's words to the Sacrament 

C Except ye eat theflefh of the Son of Man and drinl^his blood, ye 

have no lift in you? J If Communion herein be not neceflary, how 


( ?s ) 

corneal! the dreadful Sermons, and Volumes to thunder dam- 
ration againft thole that do but ftay away through fear ofun- 
yreparedneis, and they mutt be Excommunicated that Gommu-* 
totcate not tw ice a year with them \ yea though they commu- 
nitrate eliewhere with Nonconformifts. 

L. Wherein lyeth the fmfulntfs of Conformity here i 

M. I. In fubfcribing, Afienting and Contenting to this. II In 
praciifing it againft Goaly Believers. 

L. I have heard that 166 I' at the Savoy they maim awed that 
the Liturgy did not bind yon to put away them that do not Kneel ', and 
foyou might fubfcrihe to it, 

M This quibble ferved mens turn that were refoived it 
ihould be ferved. The cafe was this: They required us to lay by 
inconveniencies, and name only flat fins which the Liturgy re- 
quired; we gave them in a Catalogue of eight. This was the 
tirft, Denying the Lord's Supper to all that durft not receive it 
Kneeling. They were hereupon divided among themfelves : 
Dr. fierfon, and Dr. Gunning and Sparrow who were the Difpu- 
nnts,in policy finding that they lhouldbe hard put to it to jufti- 
tie fuch rcje&ions devifed this evafion, that the Liturgy did only 
bid them give it Kneeling^ but did not forbid them giving it toothers, 
Dr. M-orlcy and others were againft their opinion, and fo they 
were divided : But they permitted the Dilpaters to go on ( it 
being the laft day ) in. the way that ferved their prefent turn. 
But the cafe is clear. 

i. The Canon forbids them on pain of Sufpenfion to give the 
Sacrament to any that Kneel not. And they all take the Oath of 
Canonical Obedience : And though in Licitis & honefiis be 
added, the terms iignifie that they are to take the Canons as 
Licit a &honefta: And thefe Canons, ipjofallo, Excommuni- 
cate all profdfedNonconformif s. 

2. They all fubfcribe toufe the form of adminiftrating Sacra- 
ments in the Common- Prayer book, and no other. 

3. The Church therefore expounds its own meaning in the 
Liturgy by the Canon, that [ five it to\them Kneeling 3 lignifies 

tjvc it onlytofuch. 

4. If any doubt of it let them try, and their Sufpenfion accord- 
ing to the Canon will expound it to them. 

L. // 

( 79) 

L. Jfthepratticebefinfttlinrcjeftwgfucb, A/Tenting and Corv* 
fencing *WSubfcribing to do it mnft befinful. 

AJ. The (in lyech in what I before faid about refuting Bap- 
tifm- i. It maketh new terms of Church Communion. 

2. It contradidethChrift's appointed terms,which requireall 
Chriftians to receive each other in Love and Concord : And 
iWexprefly decideth fuel) cafes, Rom. 14, and 15. Xiceiw one 
another as Chrift: received us to the Glory of God. Will C hrjft that 
received] them to pardon, grace andendlefs Glory, own thefe 
Rejecters and Condemnors? Or w ill he not fay, In as much 
as ye did it to one the leaft of thefe my brethren, ye did it to 
me ? And who is he that condemned!, when it is Chrift that 

3. They (hall anfwer for depriving ChriiTs Members of their 
right, as truly as if they oppreited Widows, ar.d Orphans, and 
turned them out of their houfes^and inheritance. 

4 They (hall anfwer for Schifmatical rearing the Church 
by their Engines 

5. And iorufurping a needlefsand hurtful dominion over 
mens faitli, arid coniciences by their Church Legiflarion. 

6. And for ufing that office which is made for the edifying 
and comfort of the Faithful, to drive confidence and obedience 
to God out of the world, by making doubtful, enfiiaring Impo- 
sitions,' and then perfecuting and rendring odious all that dare 
not obey them for fear of fin, while they bear with the Rabble 
that hate ferious godlinefs, and encourage them by preferring 
them in their communion. 

L- But what pretence have any againft Knedmg ? 

M. 1. It is not a neceffary poinejof Salvation orCommunion, 
and therefore if they err they are not therefore to be Excom- 
municate, unlefs you will Excommunicate all that have errour 
and fin, that is, your felves, and every living man. 

2. They have the pretence of real fer.ring that it is a fin 
to differ in the Gefture from Ghrifts adm^iftration, thinking 
that a Table gefture was intended by him to fignifie his facri* 

3. They fear breaking the Second Commandment, which 
is againft corporal feemingto worihip s Idolaters do, though 
theneafc mean better , and fo againft fymbolfeing with Ido- 

( So } 

laters and againft fcandalous hardening them in their fin: Be- 
cause Papifts are knovvn to kneel to the Bread as unto God and 
worthipit. Andthefe Papifts live among us, and are now hop- 
ing to fee up their Idolatry. Though for my .part I think that 
the publick Dodrine of the Church, takes oft this argument of 
Scandal, yet it is luch as very Learned and holy men think 
va;id : as you may fee in Mr. Rut her fords Letters, and many o- 

4. And adhomintmA fee not what the Excommunicatorscan 
fay for themfelves, while they condemn all of Schifm that obey 
not General Councils, efpecially the four firft, and that differ 
from the Univerfal Churches culfotiis: And yet the very firft 
Nicene Council, and divers after forbid all Kneeling in adorati- 
on on any Lord's day in the year, and on any weeks day between 
Eafter and Whitfunday. And all the Ancients allure us that 
this was one of the chief ceremonies that the Church then 
called Univerfal agreed in. And it was never put down by any 
other General Council, but at Rome grew out of cuftom by de- 
grees, and that not till a thoufand years after Chrift as Dr. Hcy- 
l'm confefleth. And fhall thefe fame men that cry up the Church 
and the Laws of Councils Excommunicate thofe that obey them 
as Schifmaticks, and pafs for the followers of the Church them- 
felves ? 

In a word, I dare no more caft godly Chriftians from Chrifts 
Sacrament, for fearing left Kneeling in Receiving be a fymbo- 
lizing with Idolaters contrary to the Second CommuVidment, 
than I durft turn Widows and Orphans out of their inheritance 
for notfpeaking the fame language, or wearing the fame fafhions 
as I do. 


(8i ) 

CHAR XV. Point XII. Of Counting to the falfe 
Rule to find out Eafler-day in the Liturgy. 

M. *TpHE next Point is materially a trifle , but formally fo 
A palpable an untruth , that we cannot deliberately de- 
clare that we Aflent to it, viz.. They tell us in their Ca- 
lendar truly how to find Eafter-day, and they add another 
Rule to find it always which is frequently falfe, as every 
Almanack will tell you : viz,, that [it is always the fir ft Sunday 
after the firs? full Moon, which happens mxt after the one and 
twentieth day of March 

L. It is true for the mo ft part , though not always* 

M. And we will AfTent that it is true for the moll part, 

but not always- 

L. This is but a mere mis7ake y andean you fcruple Conformity for 
fuch a trifle ? 

M. Is it lawful deliberately to lie in a trifle ? In them 
it was but an untrath , for they wrote what they thought 
had been true. But it would be a wilful lying in me who 
know it to be falfe. 

L. But you may in your Subfcribing,or Declaring except that 
which you know the Authors would have excepted, had they known 
them to be fal'e. 

M. Say you fo ? Then I may except all the reft which I 
here except againft ; For Truth is fo naturally the objeft of 
the Intel led: , that I may fuppoie that the Convocation 
would have put none of them on us, had they known them 
to be falfe 

Do you mean that I may except them in words or writing, 
or only mentally? If the firft, I have offered them to de- 
clare my AfTent and Confent to allthlngs in the Book in 
•which the Authors were notmiflaken: But that isrefufed with 
derilion, and is contrary to the Ac* of Uniformity^ which feitbj 
[They jh all declare in thefe words and no other.] If ycu mean men* 

tally than a man may Covenant, o^ fwear any falfehood with a 
mental exception ; and fo any Diffenter may fubferibe, or co- 
venant what you will. 

. M L. But 


L. But you know thefe two moft knowing men, Grotius (de Jure 
Belli) and Bijhop Jer. Taylor ( Dull. Dubit. ) maintain that 
ufeful Lying which hurls no one, is no fin : A maris Life may be 
faved by a lie. 

M. And in my Houfiolders Catechifm on the ninth Com- 
mandment I have fully confuted it, to which I refer you : No 
man's private commodity or life muft be preferred before the 
common welfare of Mankind : Why do Souldiers hazard their 
lives, and Malefa&ors lofe them, but for the common good 
and fafety ? But if men had leave to lie when it is for their 
fafety, or Commodity, it would utterly overthrow all humane 
Converfe and Societies, by overthrowing all Truft and Juftice : 
Rulers and Subje&s, Preachers and Hearers , Judges, Jurors, 
Witnefles, Traders, Contra&ors, would ail find feme reafon 
from their commodity to Lie. Laws are made chiefly for the 
common fafety and profit , and muft not allow a fingle perfons to 
the common hurt. 

L- / confefs the reafon is weighty : But moft men will but laugh at 
youjofuffer ruine rather than to AJfent tofo harmkfs a Lie as that is, 

M. It is to God's Judgment that we (tend or fall, who 
hath decreed tocaftout of his Kingdom all Lyars, Rev.ii> 
and 22. 

L. It's a wonder to me that all the Bifijops, Doctors, and Church 
of England jhould publijh and impofe fuch a, miftake , and never a 
man of them examine it , anddetetl it : And yet a greater wonder 
that the Lords and Bijhops and Commons in Parliament foould pafis 
and impofe it without examination I 

M. Neither of them is any wonder to me, confidering who 
the men were , and in what circumftances , and what moved 
them : No more than that they would rather England were in 
the cafe it is in, than to have forborn any of their impofitions, 
called Things indifferent , or than the King's Declaration of Ec~ 
ckfiaftical Affair -j, (hould have healed us. 

But do you think that fuch mens Volumes are like to be 
fo infallible in matters of Faith , DoUrine and Right , who no 
more examine plain Matters of Fad , as that all the Clergy 
may boldly declare Aflent and Content to all contained in, 
and prefcribed by their Book ? And that before they ever 
fee it : And did not Convocation, Parliament, and the whole 


( «j ) 

Declaring Clergy go one way , and notably Truft feme body ? 
And are we noc excufable for trying further ? Doth this com- 
mon belief deferve honour and preferment, and our unbelief of 
fuch things deferve filencing and ruine ? 

L. / marveil what they fay to this, who expound their Ajfent and 
Confent as to the life : If they life this Rule we muft keep two Ea- 
fiers oft, one at a right time, and another at a wrong. 

M. It's enough to juftifie themfelves, to call Refufers Schif- 
maticks, Rogues, and difobedient to Government, as the poor 
Proteftants are called in Frame. 

CHAP. XVJ. Point XIII. Of "Pronouncing all fayed 
that are Burled, except the Vnbaptized, Excommunicate 
and Self-murtherers. 

L. \ J\ THat are the words hear that you diflike f 

V V M. \ told you before, [For as much as it hath 
pleafed Almighty God to take to himfelf the Soul of our dear Brother, 
here deceafed ] and [We give thee thanks for that it hath pleafed 
thee~ to deliver this our Brother out of the miferies of this finful 
world~\ and C That we may reft in him as our hope as this our Bro- 
ther dotF\ 

L. What harm is in thefe' words ? muft not charity be ufed in 
our judging of all mens final ft ate. 

M. We like all the Office, and thefe words very well, if 
ufed over the Corps of capable perfons ; and if true Difcipline 
in the Church did make a juft Separation of the capable and 
uncapable. • 

L« The n the fault is not In the Liturgy, but the Government. 

M. It only follows that the fault is Primarily in the Gover- 
nors corruption , and negleft of Difcipline ; but it's next alfo 
in the Liturgy ? For the matter of fatl and right is pre- 
fuppofed to the Declaration of it : And it followeth not 
that becaufe I may fpeak well of good men, I may do fo of 
bad. Chrift will condemn thofe that feed not , vifit not, har- 
bour not his Servants , Mat. 25. AH men ought to be his 
Servants and deferve this. Yet multitudes in Scotland fuffer 
now, for feeding and harbouring rebellious fiibjflSts : Suppoie 

M 2 they 

(84) • 

they^ &y now that the fault was not in us that fed them, 
but in them that were Rebels; we were bound to feed ho- 
neft men, and they were bound to be honeft, and charity 
judgeth the beft. I think this will not fave fome from the 

I think if the BiGiops were but to bury Souldiers killed in 
fighting againft the King, and at the Grave fhould pronounce 
them all good Subjects, it would be ill taken ; much more is it 
to pronounce them faved. 

Charity is no excute for dangerous errour and falfhood. It 
muft not follow a blind rncerftanding. I am (lire that the Cler- 
gy in their Sermons and Writings, condemn abundance whom 
at the Grave they pronounce fived- 

L. But what danger is it vo judge too charitably f 

M. It hath all thefe Dangers, i. The guilt of fpeaking falfe- 
ly to God. 

2. The contradiding of God's Word, which faith , that no 
Whoremonger , Drunkard , Railer , Murtherer , (hall enter 
into the Kingdom of God , and that the impenitent fliall 

3. The hardening of ungodly men againft all fear of God, 
when they hear that the fame men, that in the Pulpit threaten 
damnation to them, recant it all in their Application at the 
Grave, and pronounce them faved. How could they more 
dangeroufly deceive men, who take that in deeper ufually that 
is faid at the Grave, than in the Pulpit ? 

L- $ut fome fay none ofthofe words fignife the perfons Salvation, 
but his removal hence. 
M. Read them-, If thofe do not, none do. 

L. But fome fay , that by Q Excommunicate ] is meant [Ex- 
COmmunicable] orfuch as ought to be Excommunicate , and then 
what more can you defire f 

M. Their faying is a prefumptuous contradiction to that 
which they confent ta; what reafon have they for it ? Is 
Excommunicate , and Excommunic able all one ? Or may they 
put what fenfe they lift on Laws ? If they do but tell the 
Bifliops this much , they will make them know that they 
are not made Judges of who is Excommunicable : When I 
have craved but the alteration of that word , they anfwe- 


( 8? ) 

red me with contempt, that fo every Prieft or Curate fhould 
have the power of damning whom hepleafe. Eut fure Silencing 
our judgment of a man, is not damning him. 

But what place is there for any doubt , when the Book 
nameth the three forts excepted , & exceptio frmat regulam 
in non exceptis. Yea the exprefs expofition in the Canon 
68. is Q If he Jhall refufc to Christen the one, or bury the other 
(that is 9 Any brought) except the party deceafed were Denounced 
Excommunicate y Majori Excommunicatione , for fome grievous 
and notorious Crime , and no man able to teBife of his repen- 
tance , he jhall' be Sufpended by the Bijhjp of the Diocefe from 
his miniftry by the (pace of three months. ~] And- alas how 
many thoufand Infidels, Hobbifts, Sadduces, Hereticks, A- 
dukerers, Thieves, Perjured, Scorners at Godlinefs, &c. are 
among us unexcommunicated. If all in England be faved, 
except ' the Unbaptized , Excommunicate , and Self-mur- 
therers (which, de fmgulis , one by one mud be faidof all 
the reft; either Scripture and Pulpits are much miftaken, or 
elfe we that live among men are in a dream , and our fenfes. 
are all deceived. 

C H A P. 

( 8& ) 

CHAP. XVII. Point XIV. Of Consenting to 
Read the Apocrypha. 

L.T7T 7 Hat harm is there in reading the Apocrypha ? 

V V M. I told you tliat we fcruple not reading mod 
of it in the place of Homilies or other Books 5 efpecially the 

Books called Wifdom and Ecclefiafticns. 

But, 1. Many Bifhops and Do6tors of the Church of Eng- 
land have accufed the Books of Tobit of down right Lies, and 
the Books of Judith, Bell, and the Dragon, &c. as beiig meer 
fi&ions. 2. And when we read thefe, it is to be done in 
the fame order as we read the Scripture, by the name of 
Leflbns, which is • the Title given to the Chapters read out 
of the Old and New Teftament. 3. And, if we could yet 
read all thefe, that will not ferve unlefs we declare our Ajfent, 
Confent, and Approbation of the Appointment of them in the Booky 
which we cannot do. 

JL. But they are for the mo ft part to be read but on wcek^ dayS) or 
holy days. 

M. The Conforming Clergy Confent and Covenant to the 
Impofition that requireth them to read the Common-Prayer 
every day in the Week, unlefs they be hindred by ficknefs or 
fome urgent caufe. And fo it is ftill the Publick Service. 

God's Service is all to be done with holy Reverence , and 
if the Book of Tobit and fome others be guilty of fo many 
grofs falsehoods, as Proteflants have and do ftill accufe them 
of, I fear both to ufe them as Leflbns in the place of God's 
Word, left it be prophanation , and alfo to fubfcribe, or de- 
clare my Approbation of the Calendar, and that ufe , left I 
be guilty of the fin of all the Minifters in England that fo 
ufe it. And it's dangerous to feem to tell the people that 
fo many Books are God's Word that are not fuch : For they 
underftand not the Greek word Apocrypha , and every Reader 
at leaft that is not Licenfed to Preach , is forbidden by the 
Canon to expound even that one word to them. 


(8 7 ) 

CHAP. XVIII. Point XV. Of Averting to mf-trtofia* 
tionS) and Suhfc tiling that they are not contrary to the 
Word of Gcd. 

L A RE not the Epiftles and Gofpels ufed according to the lafi 
jLlL Tranflation? 

M. Yes , in the new Books they are , but the Pfalms are 

L. What great mif-tranflations are then > 

M. Sometimes a whole Verfe or more is left out , and 
fometimes the Tranflation is quite contrary to the Text. 
As ffal. 105. 28. [_They rebelled again ft his word] inftead of 
IThey rebelled not againft his word] And in the Book (which 
this juftifieth) are many in the Epiftles and Gofpels 5 I have 
cited them at large elfewhere. 

L. How comet h there to be fo many faults in the old Tranflation J 

M. The work was an excellent good work : But the Au- 
thors (it feems for want of skill in the Hebrew J followed 
the Septuagint Greek tranflation, which hath thefe and many 
fuch defers. 

L. Sure it is lawful to ufe and follow the Septuagint, for the Apo- 
files didfo in the New Teftament. 

M. 1. The Apoftles fometimes ufe it, and fometimes fol- 
low the Hebrew againft it , and fometimes neither. 2. But 
to Ufe it is one thing, and to Juftifie it is another thing. 
It was in common ufe in the time of Chrift and his 
Apoftles , and they ufed that in fpeaking to the People, 
which ufe made intelligible and acceptable. And we fcruple 
not ufing it : But all the works of Man are imperfett , as 
Man is : And why muft we fubfcribe that there is nothing in 
it contrary to theWord of God* When as every miftake in it is 
contrary to it. 

L. It feems then you would not fubfcribe to the Bible ', that there 
is nothing in it contrary to the Word of God ? 

M. I will fubfcribe to the truth of all that is in the true 
Copies of the Original , if there be any fuch : And I will 


C 88 ; 

fubfcribe that the various Le&ions in thofe Copies that 
we have , are not the failing of the Holy Ghoft, or Apo- 
ftles, nor are fuch as leave us in juft doubt of any neceflary 
Truth ? And I will fubfcribe to the Tranflation fo far as 
it agreeth with the Original. But I- will not fubfcribe 
that any Tranflation is perfect or faultlefs , or to this or 
that Hebrew or Greek Copy , as if in every word or Le- 
ctiort it certainly agreed with the Autographs. And why 
ihouid men make fnares for the Church, by impcfing Pro- 
feffions, that any mere man's works are perfect , when all 
mortal men are confefledly imperfect ? Is it not enough peace- 
ably toufe them , and to profefs that all the Word of God 
is infallible Trurh ? 

L. But J cannot thinkjhat an approbation of all the Tranflations 
is intended in your Affent and Confent. 

M. Are they no part of that which is contained in* the 
Book , and prefcribed by it ? Or could not the Parliament 
fpeak fenfe? 



Chap. XIX. Point XVI. Of Confenting to reject a!! from Com- 
munion ^ who defire not our Epi [copal Confirmation. 

L. \ /T Ethinksyou that have written a BooJ^ for Confirmation jlwald 
jLVx not fcruple confenting to this f 

M. I told you that I am fo far from fcrupling the true ufe of 
Confirmation, that I think it is the want of it that is the greateft 
corruption of the Church of any outward thing that I remember. 
But you muft note, i. That it is the Englifh way of Confirma- 
tion that we fpeak of 2. And that it is not the thing it felf, 
but the denying mea Church communion that neither have it, 
nor defire it, which we here diflent from. 

L. What mijlike yon in the Englijh way of Confirmation ? 

M. I muft firft tell you how the cafe ftands in matter of fa<ft : 
1 1 When Chrift fent forth Preachers, he endued them, not all, 
with equal Gifts and Power : Tho' moft had fome extraordinary 
Gifts and Infpiration,irwas made, tho' not proper to the Apoftles, 
yet for the moft part their priviledge above all others, that 
the Holy Ghoft was given to thofe on whom they laid hands, for 
miraculous a<5ts ; efpecially fuddenfpeaking of Tongues not learnt, 
and Prophefying \ tho 3 the gift of San&ification neceflary to 
Salvation was given to all true Believers, by whomfoever con- 

-l. When the Apoftles were dead, and thefe miraculous Infpi- 
rations grew rare firft, and thenceafed (unlefs in fome very rare 
inftance) yet the ordinary Paftors continued the-Cuitom after 
Bapcifm, to lay on their hands as for the giving of the Holy Ghoft. 
As they did alfo the Ceremony of Anointing the Sick, which had 
been ufed for miraculous Cures. 

3. The dead Ceremonies of laying on of hands for the Holy 
Ghoft, and of Anointing^b€m^\\kc\ without the Power and former 
Effects, fome what elfe muft be rhought on to keep up their repu- 
tation. And as to that now in queftion, firft they added more 
to the Ceremony of it, and Anointed the Perfon with Oil", and 
made the fignoftheCrofs on him, thereby to fignifie his being 
Anointed with the Holy Ghoft, and fortified thereby to follow 
a Crucified Chrift thro' Sufferings- And when it was ken that 
the Holy Ghoft was not thereby given for Miracles, they though 

O that 

that he was given in a double degree for Corroboration : And 
fome thought that he was not given at all in Baptifm, ( that did 
but vvaili away guilt ) but by Confirmation after. 

4. Hereby Confirmation got the name of a Sacrament (as 
Anointing the Sick alfodid ) and wasufed prefently after Bap- 
tifm for the mod part ; and the Ceremonies of it were mace 
more pompous, and it was appropriated to the Bifliop, for the 
moft part $ or if Presbyters did it, they mud ufe no Ointment to 
Anoint and Crofs them with, but what the Biihop made by mix- 
ture, and bleft, to make it holy : And becaufe he could not go 
himfelf to the fick, the Presbyters mufl: fetch all their Ointment 
for this alfo, ready made and hallowed from the Bifhop. 

5. When Infants were baptized, they thus prefently Anoint- 
ed them alfo, and called it their Chryfm and Confirmation, till 
then he was taken but for a half or imperfeft Chriftian, that was 
only baptized, and not confirmed. 

6. Popery having turned moftof Chrifts Ordinances into a dead 
Image, ufed thefe called Sacraments, to keep up a Ceremonious 
fhew of Religion, and to keep up the pow r er of Bifhops in that for- 
mal way. 

7. VVhen Reformation prevailed, the Papifts feven Sacraments 
were examined 5 and only Baptifm and the Lords Supper found 
to be Chrifts Sacraments of the Covenant of Grace : Ordination 
to be the Minifterial Sacrament of Orders, or Confecration to 
that Office. Matrimony to be a common Domeftick Sacrament of 
Marriage : Confirmation and Extream Vnclion, to be abufive imi- 
tations of A ntient Miraculous A<5fcs : And Pennance to be fome 
expreffions of Repentance made more neceflary than indeed they 
were, and Arbitrarily impofed by mans invention to keep up the 
Dominion of Ambitious Priefts over the Souls of deluded men : 
Tho' at firft only introduced by meer Direction of Minifters to 
men of troubled Confcience, (hewing what reftitution and repa- 
rations of the hurt they had done by fin were necefTary, and what 
expreiTion of their Repentance was mod fit, 

8. Hereupon the Reformers caft away the Sacraments of Pen- 
zance and Extream Vnttion, and reduced the four firft to their Pri- 
mitive State and Ufe: and the abufed way of Confirmation they 
caftoff, but fome defired to make an advantage of the name, for 
another end and duty of great moment, which had been negled- 
ed to the great corruption of the Church. And the Church of 


(99 ) 

England attempted to do tins, referving as much of the Antien r 
Form as poftibly they could. 

The Adult were of old Baptized before Infants, and never with- 
out a moft folemn perfonal Profeflion of Faith and Repentance, 
and abfolute dedication to Chrift. And that this might be done 
with thegreateft weight and refolution, they were ulually taught 
as Catechumens till they came to underftanding and refolution, 
before they were admitted to Baptifm. Their Infants fome 
brought to Baptifm, and fome delayed till they came to Age, all 
being left at liberty, and neither Adult nor Infant driven to Bap- 
tifm, nor accepted till it was defired. But as Prelacy grew up to 
Dominion, all were forced to be Baptized in Infancy ; and at lafl 
fuch growing up in ignorance, were all taken for Chriftians, while 
few knew what Chriftianity was, or what it was to be Baptized, 
or what was there promifed on their part, or on Chrifts. And 
when thefe came to have children, they were baptized and bred 
up as their Parents were, and Chriftianity for the moft part turn- 
ed into meer Name and Ceremony, the Perfons being moftly ig- 
norant of its Eflentials. 

This corruption of the Church feemed to many to come only 
from Infant Baptifm ; whereupon they turned Anabaptifts, and 
taught that men fhould not be baptized till they ferioufly and fo- 
lemnly profefled their own Faith and Repentance. 

But wiier menfaw that we mull not deny Infants their Church 
ftate and right becaufe of mens abufe, and their negleft of other 
Duties : Baptifm is one thing, and Perfonal confeflion and cove- 
nanting is another. It is the Omiffion of thefe at Age, that hath 
corrupted the Church, and not Infant Baptifm, which entreth 
them but into a Church ftate fuitable to their Infancy. They need 
not repeat Baptifm which they had ; but to manifeft a&ual Faith 
and Repentance which in Infancy they had not. That which 
fhould be done, is to make their Tranfition into the Communion 
of Adult Chriftians to be zfeHous,fokmnwor^ and not a delufory 
Ceremony. That thofe baptized in Infancy may learn what they 
did,andwhatChriftianityis,astoour Faith,Duty and Hopes : And 
when they come to true refolution, to own the Baptifmal Vow, 
and as folemnly renew it themfelves, as others made it for them. 

The Englifh Reformers therefore did retain the Ceremony of 
Impofition of Hands, and the appropriation of it to the Bifhop, 
and the name of Confirmation, and ftretcht the ufe of the Sign 

Oz (Im- 

( ioo) 

Impofition of Hands) to the utmoft that they durft, but inftead 
of applying it to Infants, they made it the owning of the Bap- 
tifmal Covenant, and appointed Catechizing to go before it, and 
call for a folemn performance of it. And were it ufed as a ratio- 
nal fober owning of the Baptifmal Covenant indeed in an under- 
ftanding, ferious manner, for tranfition into the State of Adult 
Communicants, it would be the greateft means of a true Refor- 
mation, and of Union with the parties that now differ about 
Church Order, that can be ufed. 

Divers of the higheft Epifcopal Divines write as earneftly for 
this as any of us : Efpecially Mr. Elderfield and Dr. Hammond,znd 
yet were it to prevent our continued division, and our ruine, there 
is no hope of 'obtaining it. 

JL Why, what hinders if all (ides defire it f 

M. It is defired as Holinefs is defired 5 feriofifly by the ferious \ 
refervedly, and by halves by the half Chriftian \ and only the. 
Name, Image and Ceremony by the grofs Hypocrite, who hateth it 
at the heart, becaufe it is above him, and againft his carnal mind 
and intereft. 

And indeed it is here made impoflible to be done any other- 
wife ordinarily than as a Ceremony. For, 1. TheDiocefles are fo 
vaft, that the Bifl:op cannot do this and other his Offices for the 
hundredth part of his undertaken Flock. Suppofe this Diocefs 
have but five or fix hundred thoufand Souls ( for when an hun- 
dred thoufand died the laft Plague, I hope it was not above the 
fixth part :) Do you think that the Bifhop is able ( did he work 
as hard as any Nonconformift ) to confirm fix hundred thoufand 
Perfons, or the twentieth part of them, or the hundredth, in that 
ferious manner as belongs to the binding of a Soul to Chrift in fo 
folemn a Covenant? 

It becometh me not to enquire whether Biftops be men that 
are for fo much ferioufnefs in Chriftianity themfelves, and fo much 
labour to attain it : Some are far better than others : You know 
them as well as I. But I muft fay, 1. That as far as I can learn, 
there is not one of a hundred confirmed at all. 

2. All the thousands that are unconfirmed live in the Pariflies 
as reputed Christians, and may come to the Sacrament when they 

3. I never knew one Minifter of all that covenanted it, to 
keep one man from die Sacrament for not being Confirmed, or 



not beingdefirousof it* nor one Neighbour that ever was exa- 
mined on this Point, whether he were confirmed,- or were ready 
and defired it. 

4. Some few elder Votaries to the Biftops perhaps may be fe- 
rious in it 3 but what a meer running Ceremony it is ufually made, 
I need not tell you. I have formerly faid, that I was at 15 years 
of Age confirmed my felf, by Bifhop Morton (one of the Lear- 
ned' ft and beft Birhops that ever I knew) and we ran thither 
from School, without the Minifters knowledge, or one word 
from our Matter, to tell us what Confirmation is ; and in a 
Church-yard in the Path- way, as the Bifhop part by, we kneeled 
down, and laying bis Hands on every Boys Head, he faid a few 
words, I knew not what ; nor did'any one of my School-fellows, 
as far as I could perceive, know what he faid 5 nor know what 
Confirmation is, any more than to have the Bifhop's Bleffing : 
nor were we ask'd by him, or any, whether we flood to our 
Baptifmal Covenant, fave only by faying by rote the Cacechifai 
to our Mafter : nor did I fee any one make any more than a Cere- 
mony of it. 

When the Bifhops were down, I faw it made a ferious Work 
by divers Minifters, who inftruded Young Men till they found 
them ferioufly refolved for Chrift, and then taking the beft of 
Confirmation and Penitence, caufed them publickly before the 
Congregation to profefs their Faith and Repentance, and to re- 
new the Covenant they madein Baptifm to Chrift. And were 
it made the work of godly Minifters to do it, or to prepare Men 
perfonally for it, and not make it a Game for Boys, much good 
might be done by it* 

L. Well j What have yon again ft it be fides Abufe^ which no body 
defrtth you to fubferibe to f 

M. Were I a publick Minifter, I fhould be glad of that Ku- 
brick to enable me to keep away the grofly Ignorant, which I 
know no other claufe that enableth me to do : But I durft not 
ufe it, to turn from Communion all godly Perfons whom it ex- 
cludeth y nor can I confent fo to do. 

L. What can make godly perfons fcruple it as finful j? 

M. Many things : 1. The words make it feem to fame to be, 
yet made a Sacrament, which are [_"Vpon whom after the ex- 

ample 'of thy Holy Apoftles, we have now laid our hands to certifk 
? them by (his fign of thy favour and gracious goodnefs toward ifje-mj} 



• Here is an OUtvvard vifible fign of an inward and fpiritual Grace 
given to them, faid to be done in imitation of Chrift's Apoftles, 
as a means whereby they receive the fame , and a Pledge to ajfnre them 

thereof-, (as the Colle&s with it (hew) which is the Catechifms 
definition of a Sacrament. 

2. They that areagainft our Diocefan fort of Prelacy, dare not 
feern to own it, by coming to them for Confirmation, appropria- 
ted to them. 

2. Thofe that think that a great and holy Duty is made a meer 
mockery to delude Souls, and corrupt the Church (while every 
one in England that will but take this Ceremony, is pronounced 

to God in Prayer to be [Regenerate by the Holy Ghofl, and all their 

fins for given them -f\ thefe dare not joyn themfelves with the Pro- 
phaners in their delufory way. 

Be thefe fcruples juft or unjuft, while the fame perfons arc 
willing to own their own Baptifmal Covenant, underftandingly 
and ferioufly before the Church and their own Paftors, and to 
know thofe that labour among them, and are over them in the 
Lord, and efteem them in love for their Works fake, and to be 
at peace among themfelves, I dare not for fcrupling this Dioce- 
fan Ceremony, caft them from the Communion of the Church of 
Chrift. And therefore I dare not approve of the Order that re- 
quireth it, nor aflent and confent to it, nor fubfcribe that it is 
not contrary to the Word of God. 

Chap. XX, Point XVII. Of Confuting to all the Orna- 
ments of Church and Miniflers that were in ufe in the Se- 
cond j ear of King Edw. "6. 

L. \ ]\ 7 Hat have you again fl this f 

V V M. The words are, C That fuch Ornaments of the 
Church, and of the Miniflers thereof \ at all times of their Miniflra- 
tion, Jhall be retained in ufe as were in this Church of England by 
the Authority of Parliament in the Second year of King Edw. 6. ] 

Againft this we have thefe Exceptions. 

i. We know not what was then in ufe, and therefore cannot 
confent to we know not what. . 

2. We are told that the Albe, and many other Ornaments 
were then in ufe that are fince put down, and we muft riot con- 

fent to reftore them, without more reafbn than we hear. And 
the Canon enumerating the Ornaments now, we fuppofe the ad- 
dition of all thofe will contradid it. 

3. We meet with few Conformifts that know what was then 
in ufe. And we fee that all thofe that fubfcribe or confent to this, 
yet ufe them not. And we will not run for company into a folemn 
Covenant confent, to the ufe of thofe things that we fee no body 
ufe. The fecond year of King Edw. 6. was the minority of the 
Reformation, and before we confent to make it our pattern, we 
muft know what it was, and whether no A<ft of Parliament have 
fince reverfed that which then was ufed ? 

Chap. XXI, Point XVIII. Of ghingan Account to the Ordi- 
nary of all that we keep from the Sacrament, that he may 
proceed againji them according to the Canons. 

L, \7\ T HY cannot you Approve of, and Confent to this f 

V V M. For many and great Reafonss. 1. From the 
Ordinary. 2. From our Selves and our Miniftry. 3. From the 
People. 4. From the Church. 5. From the Nature of the 

L. I. What have you againft it from the Ordinary f 

M I told you before that, 1. Some of the Ordinaries are Lay- 
men, fitting in Courts to Decree Excommunications and Abfo- 
lutions, proper to the Clergy. And we ought not to confent to 
the guilt of this. 

2. Other Ordinaries are fingle Presbyters, that have no power 
of the Keys fromChrift over their Brethren, and over a multitude 
of Churches. 

3. Other of the Ordinaries are Diocefans over Hundreds of 
Churches that have no Biihopsof their own under thefe. And 
we ought not to own any of all thefe. 

L. II. What Reafons have you from your felves J 

M. If we (hould accufe to the Ordinaries all that we ought to 
keep away, it will utterly deftroy our Miniftry. 1. We are 
bound to keep away all! that defire not Epifcopal Confirmation. 
2. All Ignorant Perfons that are unready to be Confirmed. 3. All 
Atheifts, Infidels, Hereticks, fcandalous Sinners, and that live 
in malice to others, much more to the generality of godly men. 

4. All 

(o 4 ) 

4. All the Nonconforming whom they call Schifmaticks, that 
kneel not, &c. And in a Parifli of 30000 or 40000 in London, 
it's well if of all rhefe forts there be not many thoufands. And 
2. 1 he Ordinaries Courts are full of other work : And in the 
Countrey they are oft far from moft Minifters- 3. Minifters 
have ufually much more work than they can do at home, and 
leis money than they need : And the Profecution of all thefe, 
and bringing up Witneffes, will take up all their time, and leave 
them none for their Studies, or many other Offices at home: 
And inwll undo them in their Eftates. 4. It will make the 
People fo much to hate them, that their Preaching will do little 
good. j. ; And when they know all this, none of the Minifters 
will praciifeit as Experience tells us; and fo they will all live 
in the breach of the Covenant which they made: and when to 
get a living they have falfly profeffed Confent to all this Accu- 
iation and Profecution, Self-love will not fuffer them to do what 
they confented to. 

L. III. What are your Reafons again ft it from the People ? 

My 1. The Multitude that makes it unpra&icable. 2. The 
greatnefs of fome of them that will ruine the Minifters. 3. But 
efpecially becaufe it will crofs the juft end of our Miniftry, and 
make them uncapable of receiving any Profit by us : And our 
Power is given us for their Edification, and not for their De- 
ilrudtion : This will but harden them againft our Do&rine. 

L. Do not you by this condemn your [elves that defire a, JlriEler 
Eifcipline, wHch would offend them more ? 

M. No-, For, r. We would not turn our Churches intoPri- 
fons^ nor bring in any under our Difcipline, but confenting Vo- 

2. We would have no Lay-men, or forced Ordinaries to do this, 
but Paftors of their own choice, whom they well know. 

3. We would have nothing done againft any finner Magifteri- 
ally and forcibly by rheabufeof the Keys --, but only humble Mi- 
nifterial convincing them by God's Word of fin, and of God's 
wrath, and praying for their repentance, and meek and patient 
warning them, and waiting till they prove obftinately impenitent: 
And then only an Exclufion of them declaratively from that Com- 
munion from which they exclude themfelves, without any force 
on their Goods or Perfons. 

L. IV. What are your Reafons from the Church ? 

M. I. 


M. i. We ought not to confent to fo great a corruption of its 
Discipline. 2. Nor to a courfe that will render it odious to men. 
3. And deprive it fo much of the true work of a faithful Mini- 


L. 5. What mean you by your reafons from the Matter l 
M. The ordinary proceeding according to the Canons muft caft 
out a multitude of truly godly Chriftians ; and then they muft be 
further profecuted and ruined ^ as we Ihall fee anon under the par- 
ticulars. And we cannot Covenant and Confent to be profecu- 
tors of fuch men, before fuch Judges, for fuch an end, and to 
fuch direful Effects. 

CHAP. XXII. Point XIX. OfTuhlijhhg the Lay-Chan-' 
cellors Excommunications and Abfolutions according to the 

L. T YOrv are you 'bound topublifo their Excommunications ?. 

jTX. M. 1. By our Ordination- Covenant to obey the Or- 
dinary. 2. By the Oath of Canonical Obedience. 3. By this 
aflent and confent to the words laft mentioned, to accufe them, 
that the Ordinary may proceed againfl: them according to the 
Canon. 4. By conftant cuftom : If we do it not, we ihall be . 
fufpended or caft out. . 

L. But the Oath of Canonical Obedience is but in licitis & ho- 

M. I told you before, it implyeth that all that is Canonical is 
licitum & honelium. And they will not allow us to be Judges, 
but.will fufpend us if we refufe their commands as unlawful and 
dilhoneft. And the Canon it felf ipfofatlo Excommunicateth all 
that fay any of their Governing Offices are contrary to the Word 
of God, or that the Canons bind not Diflenters. And fo far is 
the Church from taking this for unlawful otdifionefi, as that it 
exprefly commandeth it in thefe words, Can, 65. 

[ ' w All Ordinaries (hall in their fe veral Jurifdicxions carefully fee 
" and give order, that as well thofe who for obftinate refufitig 
" to frequent Divine Service Eftablilhed by publick Authority^ 
"within this Realm of England, as thofe alfo (ESPECIALLY 
* c OF THE BETTER SORT and Condition) who for noto- 

P " rious 

C 106 D 

" rious contumacy, or other notable crimes ftand lawfully Ex- 

" communicated be every fix Months enfuing, as well in 

" the Parifli Church as in the Cathedral, by the Minifter openly 
" in rime of Divine Service, upon fome Sunday denounced and 
cc declared Excommunicate, that others may thereby be admo- 
' nithed to refrain their Company,— and 'excited the rather to 
c: procure out a Writ de Excommunicato capiendo 3] fo that no man 
can be a Minifter that will not pradtife it. 

L. And "what have yon again ft the practice of it ? 

M, 1. To be the Agent of Lay-mens Excommunicating 
2. And the Inftruments of godly mens Excommunications and 
Ruins You may as well ask us why we dare not opprefs and ce- 
ftroy men without caufe 5 the Publifhers cannot be Innocent. 

CHAP. XXIIL Point XX. Of Vulltjbing Exccmmuni- 

cations according to the ^th Canon, 

M. *TpHE Fourth Canon faith, [ " Whofoeverfloall hereafter af- 
1 " firm that the Form of Gods Worfhip in the Church of 
'"England Eftablifhed by Law, and contained in the Book of 

u Common Prayer and Adminiftration of Sacraments, con- 

u taineth ANY THING in it that is repugnant to the Scrip- 
" tures, let him be Excommunicated ipfo facto, and not reftored 
" but by the Bifbop of the place, or Arch-bifhop, after his Re- 
'" pentance, and publick Revocation of fuch his wicked Error. ] 
And when this Excommunication is fent from the Ordinary to 
the Minifter, you heard he muft publiih it twice a year. 

L, And what have you again ft this ? 

M. Do I need to-tellyou?" 1. Judge by this with what Face 
the Prelates call us Turitanes or Catharifts, as if we pretended to 
perfection, and to be without fin. And whether it be not they 
that are far liker to the Catharifts. We confefs that the belt of 
our Prayers, Preaching or Works hath fomewhat in them re- 
pugnant to the Word of God : For Gods Law is perfect, and e- 
very fin in matter, or manner, or end, or degree, is repugnant to it. 
Far it be from us Pharifaically to juftifie any Book that ever we 
write as if we had no fin in it. Butthefemen that call them 
felves the Church of England, do not only juftifie a large Volume 
rf Forjns, Orders, Rubricks and Kalenders 3 &c but alfo force 


( *°7 > 
all other men to juftifie it all as finlefs ; and he fhall be no Mini- 
fter that will not do it, nor a Chriftian Member of the Church 
that denieth it: As if the perfection of their works were an Ar- 
ticle of the Creed, and neceflary to Salvation to be believed. Is 
not this Puritanifm, Pharifaical, and Juftification of Works. 

2. Judge by all that I have nvthis Book cited, whether there 
be nothing at all in their Books that is repugnant to the Word of 
God. If I have- made it paft' all modeft denial, then what a- 
dreadful thing is this Renunciation of Repentance ? when Repen- 
tance is the condition of the pardon of all our fin, even that 
which cleaveth to our Worfliip of God. But they that tell the 
World that their Works have no fin, yea and force all the King* 
dom to ftand to that juftification, do in a very high degfee re- 
nounce Repentance : Yea they not only forbid all men to call 
them to repent, or to amend any fin that is in their Book, but 
Excommunicate them as wicked that do it. 

3. I told you before,that this Excommunicating ipfofatto, is in 
it felf, a prcphane fubverfion of the very nature of true Excom- 
munication, which fuppofeth due means to convince the Perfon 
that his words or deeds are fin, and that of an intolerable degree, 
and that he be heard fpeak for-himfelf, and be admonifhed and 
earneftly perfwaded to repent ; and not Excommunicated till af- 
ter all this he continue impenitent. But here men are Excom- 
municated for faying that there is fome what faulty in mens works, 
and that before ever they are heard fpeak for themfelves, or ever 
told of their fin, or called to repent : I before referred you to 
what Spalatenfis de Rep. Ecclef. hath written to prove the great 
finfulnefs of fuch Excommunicating. Bifhop Jer. Taylor writing 
againft it, yet feigneth this excufe, that it muft be underftood 
but of the Minor Excommunication. But Excommunication it is 5 
and I do not think that they can make any good fenfe of their 
diftindion of Major & Minor Excommunication \ unlets it be that 
the Major declareth men to be no Chriftians, and the Minor on- 
ly to be fcandahus. chriftians •, not cut off from the Catholick 
Church, but only for the prefent fufpended from being owned, 
while they are under patient tryal whether they will prove impe* 
nitent or not, that fhame may drive them to Repentance. But 
this Sufpenlion is not properly called Excommunication. But 
both of them require ajuft tryal. 

4. ft is a heinous injury and injufticeto Excommunicate and 

P 2 Ruine 


Raine men for Trufch and Duty. He that robbeth them by the 
High-way, doth but take their Money, and doth not alfo accufe 
them falfly, and make thqjr duty to be their fin. Doubtlefs he 
that will take all that I have becaufe I do my duty to God in 
Praying or Preaching, doth me more wrong than he that will 
take all without accuiing me. 

5. It is a pubiick turning Chrifts Ordinance againft himfelf 
and ferving Satan by it, to make faithful Chriftians odious in the 
World, as unworthy to live in humane Society, out of Jay Is, if 
they do but exhort others to repent. If a man but know and de- 
tect the leaft fin in their Books of Service, he muft be condemned 
of wicked Error, and Drunkards, and Whore-mongers, and . 
Perjured Rogues, do feem to be no .worfe than he. 

6. If it were an Error to fay that their Book is no. faultlefs, 
yet it can never be proved an -Error of that magnitude and wick- 
ednefsas to deferve Excommunication ipfofallo: For all men on 
Earth have Errors worfe than that 5 and fo by proportion they 
virtually or confequentially Excommunicate all men. 

L- But all this is their fault , and not yours. 

M. It's mine if I publiih their Excommunication. 

L. If an \nnoctnt Man be hangd, the Hang-man is Innocent : He 
doth' but his Office. 

M. Whatever he rgay be in Cafes unknown to him, and which 
he was not bound to know, I will not believe you in a known 
or knowable Cafe. If I had been commanded to Crucifie Chrift, 
to Stone Stephen, to-burn the Martyrs, I do not believe that I 
could have done it without the guilt of Murder. • Elfe you may 
make a Man's command to Juftifie the Executionbf any Murder 
or Injuftice in the World. 

L' But you may Jljift off fuch wicked Excommunications, and 
leave the PubliJJjing them to your Curate. 

M. 1. 1 may not draw another into fuch heinous Guilt, nor 
connive at his doing it in my Charge. 

2. There are but few Country Minifters that have Curates. 

3< If I do it not, I am guilty of it if I declare my Confim to 
Accufe all fuch within fourteen day /, that the Ordinary may doit ; 
and to Covenant and Swear Canonical Obedience to him. 

4. What can be more pernicious to the Church of God, than 
tocaft good Men out of it, and difmemBer. Chrifl's Body, and 
ky s thofe in Jay Is as unfufferable wicked men, whom Chrift 



takes for his Members whom he will fave } and all this for tel- 
ling Prelates that their Book is faulty, and defiring any amend- 
ment of their work: while Swarms of flagitious Men are en- 
dured, and by this encouraged to fcorn at Confcience and fear 
of Sinning, and to take their wicked lives to be better than the 
Godly Converfation of thofe that are ufed far worfe than they ? 
Thus Chrift foretold his Apoftles, that they fliould be caft out. 
of the Synagogues. But as he found and faved the healed Man, 
Joh. 9. whom the Pharifees had caft out 5 fo he will own and ga- 
ther his Flock, and rake their wrong as done to him. 

CHAR XXI V\ Point XXI. Of*Publitl)ing Excommuni- 
cations accordivgto the Fifth Canon y about the Articles*. 

L. \T\JfJnt is the Fifth Canon ^ and its Excommunication ? 

V V M [ Whofoever (hall affirm that Any of the 39- 

Articles agreed on 1562. are in any pan Super ft it ions or Erro- 
neous^ or ftch as he way not with a good Confcience fubfcribe unto, 
let him be Excommunicated ipfb fadio, and not reftored but only byjhe 
Arch Biftop after his Repentance and publick Revocation of fuch his 
wicked Errors. 

L. / hope you that agree with the Church in Dgclrine, have nothing 
againft PhbHfhingfuch an Excommunication* 

M. I Silbfcribe to the Do&rinal Articles as true, becaufe I 
judge of them by what I take to be the Authors meaning : But 
1. The words in the obvious fence, are divers of them liable to 
Exceptions. 2. And fome of them about Traditions, Ceremo- 
nies, &c. are of fmall moment and dubious. 3. And every 
word that is true, is not an Article of the Creed, nor neceflary 
to Church Communion ; fo that all Men mud be caft out of the. 
Church that diflent from it. And. this Excommunication ex- 
tends to Lay-Men (who are not bound to know as much as ML- 
nifters. ) 

L. What is there in the Articles that any good Man can fcruple f 

M. Article 1. Learned Men doubt of Chrift's going down in- 
to Hell. 

Art. 4.-ThatChriLf$ Body in Heaven hath Fleft and Bones,is. 
contrary to two General Councils, that of Nice 2. and that be- 
fore it at Conft. which it confuted] ; And in this they agree. 

1 An.. 2,. 

( no ) 

Art. 8. TlM dthanafiwsCreed ought tobe ownino recipiendum 
& credendiim, wholly received and believed: when the Damning 
part is fcrupled by many Conformifts. 

An. 9. Bifhopjowy Taylor was againft that of Original Sin. 

Art. 10. Many,' called Arminians, are againft that [No Power 

to do good Works. J 

Art. 11. Many Conformifts are againft the word > [ We are ac- 
counted Righteous before God only for the merit of Chri/f] becaufe a . 
fubordinate Righteoufnefs is mentioned many Score or Hundred 
times in Scripture. 

Art. 12. Many think that good Works fpring not neceffarily 
from Faith, but freely. 

Art. 13. Many think that merit ofCongruity maybe held, 
and that Men by natural or antecedent Works, may be made 
meet to receive Grace; which Dr. Hammond 'in his Annotations 
feemeth much to infift on, under the Name of Probity. 

Art. 14- The faid Dr. Hammond^ and many other, write for 
good Works over and above God's Commandments, as only 
counfelled by God, and voluntarily done, which this Article 
calleth Arrogancy and Impiety •, And many follow' Dr. Hammond^ 
and yet fubfcribe this. 

An. 1 j. Is denied by them, that think Infants finlefs when 
Art, 16. Many deny falling from Grace given. 
Art. 17. Dr. Hammond, and his Followers, feem to deny the 
abfolute Ele&ion here defcribed. 

An. 18. Many good Men think fome arefaved that live up 
to the Light of Nature y and yet this Article curfeth them that 
fay fo. " 

Art. 19 The Defcription of the Vifible Church greatly dif- 
agreeth from that now given by many great Church-men, not at 
all mentioning the Biiliops or their vjovernment in it. And 
fome deny that the Church of Rome hath Erred De fide. 

Art. 20. The Churches Power to decree Ceremonies, as not 
limited here, is doubted of by good Chriftians. And they fee 
not how that is not made neceuary to Salvation (contrary to this 
Article) which is made neceflary to avoid Excommunication as for 
wicked Errour. 

Art. 21. Too many deny what is faid here againft gathering 
Councils without the Will of Princes, and that Councils may 
err in things pertaining to God, &c. An. 23. 

C Til ) 

Art. 23, Seems defe&ive about calling Minifters to them that 
are for uninterrupted Canonical Succeifion, &c. 

Art. 25;. Contrary to this Article, fome great Church-men 
think that Confirmation, at lead, is a Gofpel-Sacrament, and 
that it hath a vifible fign ordained by God. 

I will proceed no further herein. By this it is evident, that 
many Subfcribers are great Nonconformifts, and if they fpeak 
their Minds, are Excommunicated ipfofaclo. 

L. Jou make our Articles of Religion a doubtful thing ; what cer- 
tainty then is there of the Protefiant Religion f 

M. The Protefiant Religion is the Holy Scriptures, older 
than our Form, called the 39 Articles; which are a laudable 
found account how we underfland the Scriptures, but not of 
fuch perfe&ion, that all Men muft be Excommunicate that fay 
any word in them is faulty. 

CHAP. XXV. Point XXII. Of Tuhlifljing the Sixth 
Canons Excommunications. 

L. \ >T T Hat is the Sixth Canons Excommunication ? 

V V M. " Whofoever (hall affirm, that the Rites and 
" Ceremonies of the Church of England by Law Eftablilhed, are 
"wicked, Antichriftian, or Superftitious, or fuch as being com-- 
" manded by lawful Authority, Men who areZealoufly and God- 
tc ly affected, may not with any good Confcience approve them, 
<c ufe them, or, as occafion requireth, fubfcribe unto them ; Let 
" him be Excommunicate ipfofaclo, and not reftored till he re- 
" pent, and publickly revoke fuch his wicked Errors- 

L. / confefs it founds harjhly to lay fo great fir efs on every Ce- 
remony of the Church, as to Excommunicate every one that Calleth 
any one of them unlawful. What could be faid more of the Ten 
Commandment \s, or the Creed? If it be a wicked ElTOUr to mijiake 
about a Ceremony, or to account a Cope or a Pair of Organs un- 
lawful, the Lord have Mercy on us, what a Cafe are we all in by 
wicked Err ours ! . What fo all my poor Country Neighbours and Tenants 
do that few of them under ff and one half the Creed * 

M % Yet i. The Articles and our Ordination- Vow oblige us to 
believe and teach that nothing is neceflary to Solvation, but 
what is contained in the Scripture, or ceminly proved by it. 

( II*) 

And chat General Councils, and all Men are fallible : And fure 
they are very near to Infallibility, who are fo Infallible about 
every Rite and Ceremony, that they dare bind all the Land to ju- 
ftifie, or not blame them, on pain of ipfo fatto Excommuni- 

2. Yet Grotius, and Bilhop Taylor, that juftifie fome Lying, 
are Men that deferve Praife, with them (and in truth:) And 
Oh ! how many Thoufands live quietly in their Communion, 
who err in greater Matters than a Ceremony ? 

3. And judge by what I have faid of the Symbolical Crofling 
in Baptiim, Godfathers, &c whether it be-a wicked Errour de- 
ferving Excommunication and Ruine, to charge any one of their 
Rites with Sin. 

4. Was it not enough to caft us out of Miniftry and Mainte- 
nance for. blaming a Ceremony, but they muft caft us out of the* 
Church ? what is Pharifaical if this be not ? 

CHAP. XXVI. Point XXIII. Of Tublijhingtbe Seventh 
Canons Excommunications . 

M. "TpHe Seventh Canon is [ ;c Whofoever (hall hereafter af- 

1 " firm that the Government of the Church of EngUnd 

" under His Majefty, by Arch-bifhops, Biftiops, Deans, Arch- 

" deacons, and THE REST THAT BEAR OFFICE in the 

"fame, is Antichriftian, or repugnant to the Word of Gods Let 
cl him be Excommunicate ipfo facto, and fo continue till he repent 
" and publickly revoke fuch his wicked Errors. 

L. Mark here that [ And ] connexeth all thsfe Offices, it is not 
\_ OR ~\ disjanctively : So that yon fall not under this Canon if yon con- 
demn every Church Office fave one, if you condemn not all. 

M. That's a meer violent unjuft expofition. The Government 
is the thing named as confiding of many Offices, as a Body of ma- 
ny Members, or a Chain of many Lunff* as we fay, Bomm eft . 
ex Caufsintegris. And he that wounds any one Member, wounds 
the Man -, and he that breaketh one Link, breaketh the Chain : 
And he that accufeth any one part of the Government, accufetn 
the Government thereby : And there is no doubt in the World 
but they fo intended that made this Canon. 

L- And what have yon againft your Obedience 10 this. 

M. You 

M. You may eafily know what , by what is already faid s 
I. I have fully proved as aforefaid in my Treatife of Epifcopacy, 
that if Epifcopacy were never fo certainly of Divine Inftitucion, 
this Form of Diocefan Prelacy depofeth quantum w fe, the old 
Church Form, the old Epifcopacy, the old Presbytery, and almoft 
all true Difcipline, and in (lead of each, fees up that which is re- 
pugnant to the Word of God. And muft we all confederate to 
maintain this Church Corruption •, and all agree to renounce Re- 
formation, or any Convi&ion tending to Repentance ? 

2. I have told you what it is for Lay-men and Courts to arro- 
gate the Decretive Power of the Church Keys , and for (ingle 
Priefts and Officials to rule all the Clergy and People as under 
them ; And for one Prelate to undertake to be the fole Bifhop 
over many Hundred Churches * And then to Govern per alios, 
in a fecular manner, even by Lay-men, that do that in his Name 
which he knows not of, and this in order to Gaols and Ruine, 
If all this be agreeable to God's Word , what is coatrary 
to it ? 

3. I have told you what it is to make every Church Officer fo 
neceflary, as that it fliould be Excommunication to fay Any one 
of them is finful , when as Learned good Men as moft the 
World hath, have written to prove almoft all of them finful cor- 
rupt Inventions of Arrogance 5 and that it's far worfe for Men 
to prefume to make new Forms and Offices of Church Govern- 
ment, than new Ceremonies. 

4. The Parliament of England condemned the Oath called the 
& cateraOnh in the Canon of 1640. And the late long Parlia- 
ment of 1662. never reftored it, nor any fince. And was it not 
formed according to this Canon? What's [&c.3 but [_Andthe 
reft that bear Office therein] (reliquos ad ejufdem grioernachlmn con- 
ftitutos) For my part, tho' I have oft read over Coufms Tables, 
and the Canons, I do not yet know and remember all the Church 
Governing Ccurts and Offices? How many there be befides the 
Biihop, the Chancellors Court, the Arches , the Prerogative 
Court , the Arch-deacons, Commiflfaries, Officials, Surrogates, 
I know not. And are every one of thefe become as neceflary to 
be taken for lawful as the twelve Apoftles, or the Articles of our 
Creed ? For my part 1 am far from thinking that thofe Bilhops 
and Doctors fhould be Excommunicated or Damned , who by 
Fa&ion are drawn to deny the Miniftry and Churches that have 

Q net 

not Prelatical Ordination and Government 5 and {ball all be con- 
demned that think as ill of Civilians Excommunicatings ? 

5. I have told you what it is for every Lord, Knight and Gen- 
leman that doth but fay, that any of thefe Church Governing Of- 
fices are againft the Word of God, to be ipfo facto an Excommu- 
nicate man. And for the people to be put to queftion whether 
they may chute them for Parliament men ? and whether they may 
fit in Parliament while Excommunicate. 

L. This Canon with the three or four adjoining make me begin to 
thinks hardlier of the Canoneers than I thought I fhould ever have done, 
as to their honefiy. 

M. I would not have you think too hardly of them j but only 
to think truly of Nonconformity. 

Chap. XXVII. Point XXIV. OfVublijhing the %th Canons. 


L \7\ THat is the Eighth Canon and its Excommunication ? 

V V M. " Whoever (hall hereafter affirm or teach that 
" the Form and Manner of making and confecra.tingBirtiops,Priefts 
" or Deacons containeth ANY THING in it that is repugnant to 

" the Word of God,- Let them be Excommunicated ipfofaclo, 

u and not to be reftored until he repent , and publickly revoke 
" fuch his wicked Errors. 

L. What have you againft the Execution of this f[ 

M. A great deal. In fum, it is unrighteous, oppreffing and divi- 
ding, to caft out all Perfons from the Church of Chrift,who think 
that nothing is faulty in the Book of Ordination, or in their Prin- 
ciples or Practice there exprefled : And we dare not curfe thofe 
that Chrift doth blefs ; fliould we do this for a Benefice, in what 
ihould we differ from the fin of Balaam, who loved the wages of 
unrighteoufnefs ? whofe iniquity and madnefs his Afs rebuked, 
iaith St. Peter, 2 Pet. 2. i $. Yea, (hall we not be far worfe than 
he, that for an Houfe full of Silver and Gold could not go be- 
yond the Word of the Lord, and did not curfe but blefs God's 
people? And it is not proud malignant Tongues reviling God's 
Servants , and calling their Opinions wicked Errors that will 
make Chrift difown his Members, or will warrant Balaam or us 
to curfe them. O how unlike is this to the Spirit and Miniftry 


of Chrift ! for Prelates and Priefls to curfe , and caft out the 
Children of God, for faying that they go againft his Law ? 

L. But what is amifs in the Book of Ordination t 

M. I am anon to tell you that. But if there were nothing 
amifi in it , yet the belief of its innocency is not neceflary to 

L. But if every man have leave to accufe the Orders of the Church », 
what Order can be maintained '? 

M. i. Leave modeftly to exprefs diflent in a doubtful cafe 
may ftand with Order. 2. If men do it diforderly,there be other 
Penalties befides ipfo fatlo Excommunication : Every breach of 
the Peace is not Rebellion, nor puniiht with Death. 

But I'll tell you briefly what may occafion good men to fay that 
their Ordinations are finful. 

1. In that they thereby obtrude Paffors on the Churches upon 
the bare choice of a Patron , without or againft the peoples 

2. In that they profefledly ordain fuch as their Canon forbids 
to Preach or Expound any Doftrine. 

3. In that they determine that Bifhops, Priefts and Deacons 
are three diftinft Orders , which yet is an undetermined Con- 
troverfie among even the Learnedft Papifts. And muft we'damn, 
and cut off men for that which the very Papifts leave at li- 
berty ? 

4. In that they ordain men to an Office which Scripture maketh 
no mention of. Dr. Hammond faith , that it cannot be proved 
that there were any Presbyters fubjeft to Bifhops in Scripture 
times, nor any but Bifhops: None that had not power of Ordi- 
nation and the Keys 3 nor any Bifhops of a multitude of Churches 
and Presbyters, both which are here ordained. 

5-. In that they Swear Obedience to Arch-bifhops and their 
Sees h and make Priefls Covenant Obedience to th^ir Ordinaries, 
as aforefaid. 

If a godly man do as Bucerdid to King Edward the Sixth, as 
you rryy fee in his Script a Anglic, and defire fome of thefe faults 
to be amended, dothhedefervetobe caft out as an in penitent 
wicked man for this? when they that will fay, all's well that 
the Billjops do, may live quietly in open vice or ungodliuy.':? As 

Dr. Stoughton faith , // you fir ike a Schifmatic^ and Chrift- find 
a Saint lye bleeding, and you be to anfwer for it, J would not be in your 

Q^ ' cafe 


cafe for all your wealth* If you muft kill a Fly on the Forehead of 
a Child of God with a Beetle, or a Butcher's Axe, you (hall not 
ufe my hand to give the blow. If Chrjfoftom would rather have 
his hand cut cff than give the Sacrament to a wicked man, tho' a 
Prince ; I will rather have mine cut off than rejed; a Saint, or my 
Tongue cut out than curfe Chrift's Members , left he lay, I cur- 
fed him in them. 

Chap. XXVIII. Point XXV. Of Tuhlifhbig the 'Excom- 
munications of Canon $th, ioth, ntf.\ Of fuch as call 
IliJJenters a Church. 

M. 'HpHefe Canons made againft Schifmaticks and Conventicles 
1 do Excommunicate all that fay fuch are true Churches 
that have groaned under the burden of grievances,^. And is 
this a juft ^caufe of Excommunication ? 

I vvilh they had no fuch burden laid on them to make them 
groan. But fuppofe them quite miftaken •, if a weak miftaken 
Chriftian may be a true Chriftian, tho' faulty, why may not a 
miftaken Congregation be a true Church tho' faulty ? I hope no 
man of Proteftant Faith and Charity will take the Errors of fuch 
as they defcribe for worfe than the Papifts-, and yet how many 
have written ( tho' confufedly) to prove the very Church of* 
Rome a true Church, tho' finful. Yea, I hope few Proteftants will 
fay that jour Separatists have half fo great Ignorance , Error and 
Corruption, as the Mofcovites, Greeks-, jib affixes, Coptics, Jacobites, 
NeHorians, Armenians, who yet are commonlyby us confefled to 
be true Churches. 

If they be no true Churches, it is either becaufe of the greatnefs 
of their Errors, or becaufe they go againft the Law or Will of 
Governors-, not the firft,<as the forefaid inffances (hew not the 
latter $ for no man ever yet owned that Principle, that it can be 
no true (tho' faulty) Church, that is gathered againft the Rulers 
wills. For many hundred years the Orthodox did it juflly^ and 
afterward when ibrne did it unjuftly , the culpability made it not 
a nullity. Elfe what a cafe was the Roman Church in, that for ma- 
ny hundred years was kept up by Rebellion againft their Lawful 
Emperors and Princes ? And how oft have a great part of the Greeks 
Churches been guilty of it ? 


I "7 J 
And do not the Condemners hereby imit2te the Separatifrs in 
the fin, and reviling as they are reviled. The Separatifrs fallly 
fay that you are no true Churches, and you requite them with 
faying falfly the fame by them. 

Chpp. XXIX. Point XXV. Of Executing Canon 27. reje- 
iiing None onformijls from Communion. 

L. *T*His is but the fame that we heard before. 

1 M. Before I fpeak againft publifliing Excommunica- 
tions : This Canon commandeth the Minifter executively before 
they are Excommunicated to give the Sacrament to no one that 
receiveth it not kneeling, or that is guilty of any of the forefaid 
Points of Diflent, unlefs he confefs his fault, and promife to do 
fo no more. So that here the Minifter is to be himfelf the prime 
Executioner againft fu. .' Diflenters, before the Courts or Ordi- 
naries Excommunicate pi neddle with them. 

L. But none fubferibe to this Canon. 

M. I told you they Swear Canonical Obedience 5 and the Ca- 
non fufpendeth them if they do not do it : Therefore it is a necef- 
fary part of ppfownity. 

But of this 1 ipake before about Aflent and Confent. 

Chap. XXX. Point XXVII. Of refufng Communicants fnm 
other Pari/hes, Canon 28. 

L. X 7T T HT may not this be obeyed? 

V V M. In fome cafes it may, when Perfbns ftraggle 
without caufe : But there is frequent need that will juftifie it as 
a Duty : Parilli Bounds are a humane Order for conveniency 3 
but the benefit of an able faithful Minifter, and the choice and 
ufeof fuch where they may be had, is of Divine Appointment, 
and a matter of far greater weight. The Canon fuppoferh Mini- 
fters that neither can nor may be fuffered , to Preach or Ex- 
pound any Do&rine ; If a Neighbour Parilh have an able Teacher, 
ir^(ft he drive away poor hungry. Souls that- feek hisConfofatory 
Communion and Help? If Pariihes that are bound to maintain 
their ov, n Poor , fuffer any of them to be in danger of perilling 


by cold or hunger, a Neighbour Pariili tho' forbidden by men, is 
bound by God to relieve them in diftrefs: Every Chriftian is rela- 
ted to all the Catholick Church, and as he hath need 3 hath right 
to the Communion of Saints,^ out of his Pari/h. 

In London , where fome Churches have excellent men , if a 
Lord or Gentleman live in a PanGi where a Patron hath fee over 
them , one that Preacheth not fincerely but railingly in ftrife, 
contention, or grofs Error, why may not fuch a man go to a 
'Neighbour Church? And why muft that Neighbour Miniiter re- 
pel him ? When yet our Antagonifts in this cafe , maintain that 
the Catholick Church, being but one, every Chriftian muft Com^ 
municate in every place where he hath occafion : And that a 
Diocefs is the loweft fort of Church, of which Parifhesare but 
parcels : And confequently a man never feparateth from his 
Church, that feparateth not from the Diocefan. 

Chap. XXXI. Point XXVIII. Of Canon 58. Excowmum- 
eating Minijlers that repent of Subfcribing. 

M. TF Subfcribing grove a Sin, (of wliich I am paft doubt) 
X this Canon commandeth the Excommunicating Men for 
repenting of Sin. Whereas Chrift's Law of Excommunication 
is to Excommunicate none but for not repenting of Sin. Are 
not thefe two very contrary ? And do you think that Chrift will 
ftand to fuch an Excommunication j> or difown them that are 
thus caftout ? Some Mensabufe of Excommunication is fuch, as 
if at laft, if all their Canons be executed , they would tempt 
Men to doubt whether they live like Chriftians * becaufe they 
are not Excommunicate ; and would make it a good argument, 

[_Ht is cafl out of the Church for Confcience fake : ergo, it u a good 
fign that he is a, Man of Confcience. Or as if the v were but fulfilling 
[They fhall cafl out your names as Evil doers, &C .] 

L. Why flwuld you put Cafes that may never come to pafs ? I do 
not thinks you were ever commanded to Publifl) an Excommunication 
against any fuch. 

M. But toPromifeand Swear* Canonical Obedience, b a tbiifg 
that is required of us all : And promifing to Sin, is Sin, and oft 
worfe than a fudden ad. Yea, if a Minifter do but omit fome 



Forms or Ceremony by this Canon , he muft he fir ft Sufpen- 
ded , and then Excommunicate 3 and I mufc publiih it if re- 

Chap. XXXII. Point XXIX. Of the Execution of the 
$jtb Canon, 

♦L.T 7T 7 Hat is the tfth Canon, and its Execution ? 

V V M. It Sufpendeth, and after a Month Excommu- 
nicatech all that go for Baptifm for their Children , or Commu- 
nion themfelves from their own Parifh , becaufe the Minifter is 
no Preacher, to another Parifh that hath a preaching Minifter. 
w When if thefe bePaftors, and feed the Flock, they had more 
need to drive fuch Men to Preaching Minifters , than from 

L. But the Validity of the Sacrament dependeth not on the worthinefs 
or ability of the Mini ft cr. 

^M.i. But the Edification, and confequently the Salvation of 
Souls, hath no fmall dependance on the Ability and Miniftra- 
tion of skilful faithful Paftors •-, as Mens Health and Lives do on 
skilful Phyficians. And no man fhould deny himfelf the benefit 
of fuch that can lawfully have it , nor fhould ftarve his Soul in - 
Obedience to Canons. If Preaching , and that foundly and 
skilfully, be asneedlefs as fuch men pretend, why did Chrift 
Preach, and fend out Preachers ? and why did Paul fo dreadfully 
charge Timothy , 2 Tim. 4. I. 2. to Preach the Word, and be inftant 
in feafon and out offeafon, &c. And why doth he fo urge the Ephe- - 
' flan Elders, Mt. 20. to imitate him that taught thempublickly. 
and from houfe to houfe, day and night with tears. And why 
do the Prelates make every Prieft Covenant in their Ordination 
to inftruft the People out of the Scripture, and with all faithful 
diligence to Minifter Do&rine , and teach the People with all. 
diligence to obierve God's Commandments, and to ufe both 
publick and private Monitions and Exhortations, as well to the 
fick as the whole, within their Cures, as need fhall require , and 
occafion fhall be given. Why do they Ordain them all to be 
faithful Difpenfcrs of the Word of God /*] Is all this done by mere 
Reading that which a Woman or a Boy of 1 2 years old can read 
as. well as they? Do thefe Men know what Souls are worth? 



how the Reafon and Will of Man are moved ? How ftrong Sin 
is, and how blind and bad the Heart of Man ? 

L. But it is the Sacraments that they are forbidden to go far from 
*n HMpre aching Minifter % 

M. i . Other Canons alfo forbid them oft to Hear in other 
Pari(hes- 2 If my Need and God's Law oblige me to choefe a 
better Paftor than that ignorant Reader, tho J in another Parifh 5 
is it not fit, and my Duty to Communicate with him that I jullly 
take for my Paftor ? 

Moreover, I muft tell you, that- when an ignorant Fellow ta- 
keth on him the Sacred Office which he is unfit for, and fo liveth 
in the conftant Sin of omiffion , and of Prophanation of Holy 
TIrngs , and of betraying Souls , I take it to be a Sin to harden 
and encourage fuch a bold Prefumer in fo great Evil , and to en- 
courage People that need better to be content with fuch a Paftor ; 
Tho' I determine not whether he have the Eflentials of the Mini- 
ftry, and tho' I doubt not but the Sacraments are no nullities to 
them that take Ijira for a true Minifter. 

And yet I muft add, that there are fome Abilities Eflential, 
without which no Man is truly a Minifter of Chrift : And this 
Eflential Ability, as certainly reacheth to the work of Teaching, 
as to Adminiftring Sacraments •, He is not worthy the Name 
of a Minkter that denies this . I would not ftrain this Necetfity 
over high : But I fay, that he is no Minifler that wants Eflential 
Ability : And if the Papifts and their Emiflaries would make the 
People believe that all not ordained by Prelates are no Minifters, 
and that fuch excellent Men as Blondel, Chamier, Sadecl, Dalle, 

and all fuch abroad are none, I think them more excufable 
who take him for none that cannot Preach, and muft be for- 
bidden to Expound any Do&rine- If it were for want of Tongue 
and Voice he could not read ; If it be for want of Knowledge, 
can that Man be by Office a Teacher of Cforiftian Dodtrine that 
knoweth it not- and cannot teach it ? and cannot do that for his 
Flock that every Parent and Husband fliould do, whom the Chil- 
dren and Wives are commanded to learn of. 

L. A man may read found Doctrine that nnderflands it not , and 
by reading may teach others, 

M. But he is not capable of the Office of a Teacher of C'hri- 
ftianity, that underftands it not : no, nor fo much us o r < hriftia- 
nity it fetf, or adult Baptifm. A Turk that bdieveth not the 


Gofpel may read it : And you may write it on a Pillar, and that 
may teach Men, and yet Pillars and Books are not Paftors. 

L- But vohafs all this to your Conformity ? 

M. i. It's unlawful for me to Swear Obedience to this. 2.. Or 
to publifh an Excommunication againft good Chriftians, for not 
defpifing their Souls, and the Preaching of the Gofpel. 3. Or to re- 
pel fuch Perfons if they feek to me for any Paftoral Helps, and Sa- 
cramental Communion. 

Chap. XXXIII. Point XXX. Of 'Canon j8 that maketh th e 
Surplice neceffary to Miniflration. 

M.x Am not determining whether it be any Sin to wear a Sur- 
1 plice, nor cenfuring any man for it : But when lit is known 
how many learned and excellent Minifters have been againft it, I 
take it for a greater Sin than I will name, to eje<51 them from the 
Miniftry for it \ and I cannot approve of fuch a Canon. But enough 
of this before. 

Chap. XXXIV. Point XXXI. Of Chriflening all Children 
without Exception, according to Canon 68. 

M.^T^He words are C " No Minifter (hall refufe or delay to 

A " Chrifcen any Childfaccording to the Form of the Book 

" of Common- Prayer, that is brought to the Church to him upon 

" any Sunday or Holy-Day to be Chriftened. 

I have faid fo rnucn of this before, that I here only fay briefly, 

1. This fuppofeth a falfe or unproved Do&rine, that the In- 
fants of all Atheifts, Infidels, Jews, Hereticks, Blafphemers, &c. 
are in the Covenant of Grace, fofar as to have right to be put by 
Baptifm into prefent Pofleffion of Pardon, and of right to Salvati- 

2. When none muft be delayed that are brought to Church, 
the Minifter cannot fo much as enquire wherher the God-fathers 
,knovv what Chriftianky is, or are Chriftians, or Jews, or Infidels. 
Or whether ever they received the Lord's Supper f which the 
Canon makes neceflary. 

R sf. Till 

( I« ) 

j. Till they have given the Church proof frorfi God's Word, 
that all Infants in the World have right to Baptifm, it is too great 
Domination over mens Faith to command Obedience on pain of 
Sufpenfion. Had we given no better proof for theHolinefs and 
Baptifm of the Seed of the Faithful, than thefe men bring for the 
Seed of Infidels, moft good Chriftians had turned Anabaptifts long 

Chap. XXXV. Point XXXII. Of Can, 27. Agahft Fafls 
and 'Prayer. 

L, \7T THat are the words of that Canon f 

V V At C " No Minifter or Minifters (hall without 
" Licenfe and Direction of the Bifhop of the Diocefsfirft obtain- 
" ed and had under his Hand and Seal, appoint or keep any Solemn 
*'' Fafts, either publickly or in private Houfes, other than fuch as 
"by Law are, or by Publick Authority (hall be appointed ; Nor 
" (hall be wittingly prefent at any of them, under pain of Sufpenfi- 
Ci on for the firft Fault, of Excommunication for thefecond, and 
" of Depofition from the Miniflry for the. third. Neither (hall any 
• c Minifter (not Licenfed as is aforefaid )prefnme to appoint or hold 
" any Meetings for Sermons, &c. — nor attempt by Farting and 
" Prayer tocaftout any Devil, &c 

L. M this was done to prevent Abufes. 

M. It fell out well that they did not forbid Chriftianity or read- 
ing Scripture in a known Tongue, to prevent abufing it ? And next, 
that they forbad not Law and theufe of Reafon, which is moft of 
all abufed. 

Bix do not you think that they make very unworthy Men 
Minifters, or that they change or maim the Paftoral Office , when 
no Minifter, no not the wifeft maybe trufted to faft and pray 
with his Neighbours ? Should a Mafterofa Family be forbidden 
this in his Houfe ? the Jews forbad it not to Cornelius. What jea- 
loufies have fuch a Clergy of one another? And of Preaching, 
Fafting and Praying ? What if fome Neighbours have fome great 
Temptations, fome great Guilt, fome great Danger, by a Plague, 
or the like, or fome great Affli&ion ( lome Friends near Death ) 
or tome important Bufinefs of great moment, ( as Marriage, Tra- 
vel, Navigation, eh:.) Muft the Biihop know all their fecrets 


( I*? ) 

that their Paftorflt home muft know ? Or is he a capable Judge 
for many Hundred PariiliesAvhen they muft Faft or Pray f Oc 
did you ever know any go to him for fuch a Licenfe ? Are not 
thole unworthy Minifters that be not fit to be trufted to Fail and 
Pray with their People, while the Law is open to puni(h all abu- 
fes of i' ? And are not thofe over-fubjeft to Prelacy that will Swear 
Obedience in this, any more than againft Preaching theGofpel? 
Ban. 6.5. We [hall not find any occafion again ft this Daniel, except we 
find it concerning the Law of his God. 

Chap. XXXVI. Point XXX Iff. Of the Excommunication 
of the three la(t Canons. 

^.*~pHe quality of the reft of the Canons refolve me, that it is 
A unlawful for me, if commanded, to publiih an Excommu- 
nication againft any upon the three laft. 

L. What be the three laft ? 

M. The 1 39th is C " Whofoever (hall hereafter affirm, that the 
" Sacred Synod of this Nation in the Name of Chrift, and by the 
" King's Authority aflembled, is not the true Church of England 
" by Reprefentation, let him be Excommunicate, and not re- 
"ftored till he repent and publickly revoke this his wicked Er* 

L. What fault can you find with this ? 

M. 1. No man can tell what is the Church reprefentative, till 
they know which is the Church real. And this they tell us not, 
either as to Matter or Form. 1. Whether the Church real be 
only the Clergy, oralfo the Laity ? Whether the King and Par- 
liament, Nobles, Gentry and Commons, be all Reprefented in 
the Convocation ? If yea, by what Law or Power ? And may we 
fay that King and Parliament do what thefe do ? What need they 
then after to confirm their Canons ? And they that hold the Church 
Laws bind in Confcience as fuch before King and Parliament con* 
firm them, will bring King and Parliament under their Obedi- 
ence, if not Excommunication. But if they pretend not to repre- 
fent the King and Laity, they falfly exclude them from being part 
of the Church. 

2. They are utterly difagreed de Forma what the Church of 
Englandis : either it hath an Ecclefiaftical conftitutive Soveraiga 

R 2 Power, 

( J24 ) 

Power, or not. If not, it is not an Ecclefiaftick Body Politick. 
And of late their difputing Doctors,^j)lainly.confefs that it hath 
nofuch fpecifying Summa Potcftas y and fo is formally no Political 
governed Church. The King's Government of it by the Sword, 
which none deny, they lay, is but an Accident of it, and not EjP 
fential to the Church. And fo in fum, it is but a meer Com- 
munity, or a voluntary Confederacy of many Churches, that 
make no unifying Politie. And that is, to be a Church only in a 
loofe and not proper fence, as the Aflembly at Nimegen was a King- 

3. I doubt notbutThoufandsofLay Men, and many Differ- 
ing Minifters, are true Parts of the Church of England 5 And 
therefore that the Convocation reprefented one part, only of that 

4. If they be but a Community, they can make no Laws 5 but 
only Contra&s: Laws are only the Ads and Inftruments of 
Rulers. Therefore we owe no Obedience to them, as being no 
Commands of Rulers, till the Civil Power make them Laws : 
fave as particular Paftors may make them Laws to their feveral 

5. If they make them obligatory Church-Laws as the Ads of 
the Con vocation, then it feems the Reprefentative Church go- 
verneth the Real 5 and the Presbyters in Convocation exercife a 
Legiflative Power, which is the higheft that Bifhops can pretend 

6. Thefe being left thus in uncertainty in the dark, how comes 
than Man to deferve Excommunication, or be wickedly erroneous, 
that herein declareth his diflent. I dare not publiih fuch an Ex- 
communication if commanded. 

L. What is the 140th Canon. 

M. " Whofoever (hall affirm, that no manner of Perfon, either 
" of the Clergy or Laity, not being then particularly affembled 
" in the faid facred Synod, are to be fubjeft to the Decrees 
■' thereof in Caufes Ecclefiaftical (made and ratifyed by the 
" King's Majeftie's Supream Authority ) as not having given 
" their Voice to them. Let him be Excommunicated, and not re- 
" ftored,c£r.. ' 

, Here craftily in a Parenthefis, they put in the King's Autho- 
rity, and if they mean only his Obligation onus, no one of us 
deriiechit; But becaufe their difputing Doctors take that but as 


( M* ) 

an Accident, we may fay, that the Papifts themfelves are oft put 
to fay, that General Councils bind not the abfent, till they receive 
them 3 And the French long received not the Council of Trent, nor 
many Churches other Councils. 

L. What is the lafl Canon. 

M. The 141ft ( for fo many Church-Commandments we 
have, Cod's Ten being but a little part of our Religion ) is, 
" Whoever fhall affirm that the Sacred Synod aflembled as 
" aforefaid , was a Company of fuch Perfons as did confpire 
" together againft Godly and Religious Profeffors of the Gofpel, 
"and that therefore both they and their Proceedings in ma- 
rking Canons and Conftitutions. in Caufes Ecclefiaftical by the 
" Kind's Authority— —Let them be Excommunicated and not re- 
" ftcfred, &c. 

Here again we doubt not of the King's obligatory Power: 
But what the Perfons and their Works were, I think a Point 
that Christians may differ about, and not deferve Excommuni- 
cation. It feems they could forefee what Men would judge 
of them: and no wonder, tho' they had not the Gift of Pro- 
phecy. I am none of their Judge, but leave God's Work to 
himfelf : But I muft fay, that this Book of Canons doth no 
whit increafe my efteem of Council, of Prelacy, of Humane 
Canons or Clergies Laws, nor of the particular Bifhops and 
Clergy that made them. And that I will neither publilh fuch Ex- 
communications, nor promife tofwear to do it: Tho' I know 
that ftretching pretences fatisfie fome Men 5 like theirs that own 

the name of Sacred to that Synod, becZUie Sacrum quod fantt urn, fi* 

nml execrabilc fignat, A profefled and relative Sanctity may be 
granted them. 

Chap. XXXVIf. Point XXXIV. Of renouncing all Olll- 
Rations from the Covenant, as on me or any other , to endea- 
vour any alteration of Church Government. 

L- r ~Y*His is now ceafed'at the end of twenty years 5 what need you 

JL 77iention this ? 

M. 1. 1 thought you had defired to know why we conformed 

not for the twenty years paft. 2. I fuppofe -that the like is ftiU 

impofed on others, u\ the' Corporation A&, the Veftry Aft, the 


C n6 ) 

Militia A&, and the Marrow of it (till impofed on us in the Ox- 
ford Oath, 

L. >4# d! tpW yon have again fi it > 

M. Firfl Til tell you what we have not againft it, bceaufe we 
are commonly here falfly accufed. 

1. It is none of our Controverfy whether this Oath or Cove- 
nant was unlawfully made and impofed both on the people and the 
King ; we deny none of this. 

2. It is none of our Controverfy, whether there be not fome part 
of the Matter of it that is unlawful : We deny not that. 

3. It is none of our Controverfy, whether it was not unlawful- 
ly taken : Wejuftifie not that as to our felves, tho'wearenot 
judges of the fin of King and Lords, and others whom we have no 
Calling to condemn. 

4. It is none of our Controverfy, whether this, or any # other Co- 
venant or Vow do bind us to Rebellion, Sedition, or any unlawful 
Adt ; we renounce all fuch Obligation. 

5. Yea, we hold that neither this, nor any other Vows of our 
own, can prevent any Obligation that the King hath Authority 
to impofe upon us, in things great or fmall ; elfe men might dii : 
able Magiftrates to rule them, and exempt themfelves from Obe- 
dience by Vowing before hand not to obey. 

6. I add for my felf, that I hold my felf bound by this Covenant 
to nothing, which I had not been bound to if I had never taken 
it. For I never thought that by Vows we may make new Religi- 
ons or Laws to our felves, but only bind our felves to that which 
God doth make our Duty. 

L. Where then is the danger or fin that you fear ? 

M % I. As to the Obligation of the Vow on my felf. 

II. As to the Obligation of it on all others. 

III. As to the matter of altering Church Government. 

1. I am neither fo blind, wicked or fingular, as to deny the 
common Dodrineof Cafuifts, Proteftants and Papifts s that tho' a 
Vow be both -finfully impofed, and (infully taken, yet it bindeth 
in materia neceffaria& Licit a : Yea, that if part of the matter be un- 
lawful, yet it bindeth to that part which is lawful- Elfe a Knave 
might exempt himfelf from the performance of all his Vows, by 
foilting in fome unlawful matter, or by making them in an unlaw- 
ful manner. 


("7 ) 

Therefore if there beany thing that isneceflary or lawful in 
that Vow, I believe that lam thereto bound. 

L. So Rebels that thinkjt lawful to rebel \will [ay ihdhhe Covenant 
binds them to it. 

M. So he that thinks Gods Law doth bind him to Murder or 
Rebellion, wi 11 plead Gods Law for it : But doth it follow that 
Gods Law bindeth him to that or to nothing ? 

It is not mens falfe fayings that make or prove fuch Obligation? 
He that will fay that Gods Laws, or the Kings, or the Covenant, 
binds him to fin, muft be punifhed for his Sin and Lie, and yet all 
juft Obligations (tend. 

L. But yon are bound before by other Obligations to all that is good in 
it y and not by the Covenant t 

M. That's an inference contrary to Reafon and Chriftianity 5 
Can a Man of any Reafon once dream that a Man may not have 
many Obligations to one and the fame Duty ? or that the fecond 
Oath binds not to it becaufe the firft did ? you vowed your felf to 
Chrift in Baptifm, and you renew the fame in the Lords Supper : 
Are all the latter null, becaufe the firft is valid ? What if you ma- 
ny times Swear Allegiance to the King? Do none of thefebind 
you but the firft? 

L. II. But do you think that endeavours to alter Church Government 
is any of your lawful or neceffary Matter f 

M. You know that there is a Law thatmaketh itePramumr* 
penalty to fay that theCovenant bindeth one to endeavour any alte- 
ration of Church Government : And why then will you put fuch a 
queftion to me? All that I will fay is this, that as I fay not that any 
. one is bound to it by this Covenant , fo I am not (o good a Cafuifc 
as to be able to juftifie and acquit all other men from all fuch Ob- 
ligations. Let them look to themfelves, for my part I will be no 
voucher or furety for their indemnity, 

L. Ill- This brings up to the other part of) our Reafon s : aid why 
may you not fay that none is fo bound ? 

M. 1. Becaufe God never made me a Cafuift to determineths 
cafe for all men in three Kingdoms. 

2. Becaufe it is a new and monftrous thing for one private man 
( yea many thoufand private men ) to be forced to fuch an Office 
and Undertaking : Every man mufc anfwer for himlelf before 
God and Man: Noxa caput feqmtur. If[ were commanded to 
be furety for every man in England^ Scotland^ and Ireland, but for 

( n6 ) 

the Peace or good Behaviour, I (hould think it a piece of as palpa- 
ble injuftice as moft ever the World knew. But if I muft under- 
take to anftyqy^or all their Soiils, in a cafe where thoufands of 
Learned men have been of the contrary mind, I'll firft think how 
to anfwer for my own. 

Yet as to that part which I am certain of my felf, I do not fcru- 
p!e it- I dare fubicribe that the Covenant bindeth no man to be - 
Falfe or Rebellious againft the King, or to endeavour to alter our 
Monarchy, or to deprive the King of any of his Rights ; nor to 
endeavour to change any part of Church Government which Chrift 
hath infeituted for continuance in his Church. And is not this e- 
nough ? 

But whether our Diocefan frame, as diftintt from that which 
Arch-bifhop V\ler called the Primitive Government, ' be change- 
able-, or whether none of their Courts, and Lay-men's power of 
the Keys be changeable, or ought to be changed ? And whether no 
man may endeavour it in his place and calling ? I think a man may 
be faved without knowing. And I think, if you ask a man, if King 
and Parliament ihould change the Office of an Official, a Commit 
fary, a Chancellor, &c. or ihould fet up a Bi-fhop in every Market 
Town, is it a fin againft God ? or is it unlawful to obey them ?or 
if it be lawful to do it, and any of them Swear to endeavour it in 
his place, is he bound to perform that Oath ? If to all this -\ man fay, 
J cannot tell, J am not Learned enough in Law and Divinity to refolve 
fuch cafes j but I am refolve d my felf to live in Loyalty and Peace, I 
would ask any man.that hath not put off humanity, whether that 
man be fit to determine the cafe for all other men in three King- 
doms, and to be a voucher for all their Souls in a cafe that he un- 
derftandethnot himfelf 

L. How doth this make yon a Voucher for their Souls ? 

M. i. The cafe is of exceeding weight : If I (hould publickly 
declare that no man is thus bound by a Vow, and I ihould prove 
miftaken. i. Then I become guilty of all thefe mens fin by jufti- 
fying it as no. fin. 2. And lam guilty of cruelty to their Souls in 
open telling them that they need not perform their Vows, nor 
repent of non-performance. 3. And Perjury is one of the hei- 
noufcftfinsonEafth. 4. And the Perjury of Millions or Nati- 
ons is yet one of the grievoulefr degrees of guilt 3 5. And I do 
my wo;;ft to make God deftroy or forfake fuch a Land. And 
what yet can I do worfe? I fay, if in juftifying them I fliould be 


miftaken, what a guile fliould I incur ? And doth Nature or Scrip : 
ture bind me to run fo great a hazard for fo many thoufand 

Befides , he that will be a Cafuifl: mud know all the cafe : 
there are hundreds and thoufands put upon thefe decifions , that 
being then Children, knew not w r ho made the Covenant 5 nor 
how it was impofed or taken, and many that know not what it is, 
and never faw it. 

And there are thoufands, if not millions, that took it,whofe Fa- 
ces I never faw , and know not what moved them, nor in what 
fence they took it 5 andCafuifts fay, that if a man miftake thelm- 
pofers fence, he is bound to keep it in the fence that he underftood 
it when he took it, if a lawful one ; efpecially if the Impofers had 
no Authority, or their fence was doubtful. 

And is it not uncharitable for me to think that none of the 
Kipg's Compounding Lords or Clergy that after took it , did take 
it in a fence which they thought found > And muft I tell them all 
that none of them is bound to keep it in that found fence? 

I will not run the danger of having thoufands in judgment to 
fuffer for Perjury, and fayipg, This man declared that it was no 
fin. If they are all Innocent , what need they my juftification, 
when they ftand of fall by the judgment of God. If they prove 
guilty, my declaring it no fin, will not acquit them, but condemn 
my own Soul by tempting them to impenitence. I do not fay that 
they are obliged by this Vow herein, nor I will not fay they are 
not. There are many matters firft to be known, if we agree in 
point of Do&rine ; and I know that it's an eafie thing for confi- 
dent men to multiply words to prove all lawful in this Oath , and 
to Swear that it is rebellious Hearts that caufe our doubtings : 
(andfo fay thePapiftsoftheProteftants) But whatever they fay 
or threat, I will not by their confidence and talk be drawn to 
caft my Soul into fo great a hazard. All men are not fo bold in 
fuch things as fome. 



Chap. XXXVIII. Point XXXV. Of the Oxford Oath \ 
that ive will never endeavour any alteration oj Church Go- 

M. *TpH E Oxford Atft is not content that we fay that we are 
A not bound by the Covenant to endeavour any alteration 
of Church Government, but we muft fay and Swear that we never 
will endeavour it, as any other way obliged to it. 

L The meaning is a that you will never endeavour it by Rebellion^ 
Sedition j or unlawful means. 

M. The Parliament knew how to fpeak their minds. By fuch 
Expofitions you may Swear almoft any thing in the World, and 
no Government (hall have any fecurity by your Oaths : The 
words are contrivedly as univerfal againfi: all endeavour as can 
be fpoken. 

2. But Fll prefently confute you undeniably. 

You know Church and State Government are conjoined in the 
Oath, and the Church put firft. Will you fay as to State Govern- 
ment , that the meaning only is , That / will not endeavour to 
depofe the King, or alter Monarchy by Rebellion , or any unlawful 
mean?, but only by lawful mears •? if you do, you'l foon be told 
home, that the Oath doth mean, That no means \$ lawful to fuch 
an end, but the work^ it felf as well as the means is for- 

L. But the meaning is only , that you will not endeavour to alter 
Epifcopacy, and not all other Offices and Courts. 

M- This is as palpable a falfification as the former : For 
i. The w ords are a moft exprefs abjuration of endeavouring any 

alteration of Government at all. And if you take the Word [Alte- 
ration} ftridly, it more commonly fignifieth a change of Quality 
or Manner, than of Effence. But if you take it largely, it com- 
prehended both. 

2. And I appeal to any mans Confcience whether that was,or is 
the Bifhops fence : Go ask them, My Lords, " If I endeavour but 
u to reduce Diccefans to every Corporation,and to take down your 
* c Lordfhips, and great Revenues , and your Chancellors Courts, 
"and all the reft of your Humane Officers, will you take it for 
" no breach of my Oath ? and I warrant you they will foon re- 
u folve you. 3. Yet 

3. Yet I (hall fullier convince you : The Billiops and Parlia- 
ment are of the mind of the Church of England : And the Canons 
do moft fully fpeak the Churches mind- And the Seventh Canon 
before cited, when it makes it ipfofaclo Excommunication to call 
the Church Government finful, tells you , that they extend this 
to [Arch-bifiops, Bijhops, Deans, Arch- deacon 5 , and the reft that 
bear Office therein. 

4. And I believe if you (hould fay that I take my Oath to bind 
me from endeavouring no change of the Government of the 
State , but only of the Ejfence of Monarchy , you would quickly 
feel the Error of your Exposition. 

L- But I can affure yon , that many able Conforming Minifters take 
the Declaration in the del of Vniformity, in fuch fences as afore- 

M. Our King is King of Scotland as well as of England, and he 
hath thus declared his fence in the cafe of the Earl of Argyll and 
the Reafons of it are confiderable. And do you think that it can 
be the true fence in England, and deferve preferment as to Loyal 
and Obedient Minifters, which deferveth Death it felf in Scot- 
land f can you wilh for a clearer Expofition ? 

L. And why will you not Swear never to endeavour any alteration ' f 
if you be required fo to do . ? 

M. I have read Dr. Stillingfleet\ henicon, and many fuch Books, 
in which I fee how great a number of our greateft Divines, as well 
as Arch-bifhop Cranmer, took the Form of Church Government 
to be alterable, and not fixed by Chrift r And if the Do&or have 
changed his judgment, that changeth not the Authority of thofe 

2. I have in my fullTreatifeof Epifcopacy told you why I 
cannot but wifli more than one thing in our Ecclefiaftical Courts 
and Government changed. 

3. I take it for a matter that deferveth confederation , whether 
it be no change of the State Government , to make all the 
Church Government unchangeable, and fo to difable the King 
to change it : And how to reconcile the two parts of the Oath: 
And whether if the whole Church Government as fixed , muft 
thus be Sworn to as Monarchy is, it alter not our ConfUtution : 
Or at leaft be not a perillous Innovation. 

S 2 If 

4. If the King and Parliament fhould command Men to en- 
deavour an Alteration, e. g. of Lay-Mens Power of the Keys , or 
the greatnefs of Diocefes, lam afraid of being fworn beforehand 
to difobey them- 

L. But the Parliament meant not to bind them/elves herein. 

M. I grant it. (Tho' being Church of England men, the 7th 
Canon aforefaid maketh it doubtful ) But when theyjiave bound 
all the Subje&s in the Land , and themfelves among others, 
when out of Parliament, and when it's Excommunication to charge 
any of the Church-Offices with Sin* I think the Church Govern- 
ment is fixed as unalterable. I ask you , Did the Parliament 
bind themfelves againft altering Monarchy, or the Succeffion ? If 
they did , then it feems they did fo by Church-Government , 
when they put it in many Oaths before that of the State. If 
they did not , then they have fixed Monarchy no more than 
Church-Government by this Oath. Therefore when they bind 
all in the fame Oath from endeavouring any Alteration of 
Church-Government, they (hew that they intend the fixing of 
it. And tho' fome think it leaveth room for Petitioning, 
I do not believe that the Law or Oath leave any Men at 
Liberty to Petition againft Monarchy; which is here con- 

Eut my great reafon of Non-Conformity herein yet re- 
maineth. It the faults of Church-Government fliould prove 
but the tenth part as great as is feared by many , and faid by 
thofe that write about it, what a tremendous thing is it to make 
a deliberate Solemn Covenant and Oath , never to endeavour 
any amendment of it , nor toperfwade any man to repent or 

If the Germans , who are reported to be addi&ed to Drunken- 
nefs, or other* Nations to Whoredom or Thievery , fliould take 
an Oath that they will never repent or amend, nor perfwade any 
other to it, what a cafe were this ? 

L. I confefs if the Corruptions of Church-Government fljould prove 
as great Evils , as fome conceive, it would be a heinous Sin indeed to 
Swear never to repent, or to endeavour to amend it% 



The old Nonconformifts thought that the frame of * ExgUjh 
Prelatical Government was far worfe than all 
their Ceremonies and other Corruptions fet * And &uccr thought 
together^ They thought it a Platform fitted t^ {X 
to exalt Pride and Covetoufneis, and to propa- firt oj Difdpiim to King 
gate all ungodlinefs, and to drive ferious Piety Edw. 6. 
and Confcience out of the Land, upon the ac- 
counts before-mentioned, i. By the largenefs of Diocefts mar- 
king Difciplineimpoffible, and fo keeping almoft all the wicked 
in the bofom of the Church, fecure from the Power of the 
Keys. 2. By putting down all Bifhops that fhould be in all the- 
large Diocefes , fave that one , and reftraining all the Pari/h- 
Minifters from the true ufe of the Keys, unlefs they will be ruin a 
by it. 3. By fetting up Secular Courts under the name of Ec- 
clefiaftick, and making it their Employment by 141 Canons, 
which are their felf-made Contrivances , to hinder and ruine la-, 
borious Preachers, and Men of tender Confciences , and to che- 
ri(h the contrary fort. 4- By putting the decretive Power, of 
the Keys into the Power of thefe Lay-men. 5. By fetting up 
Pa dors over all the Land without the confent of the Flock,, by 
the meer Will and Ele&ion of Great Men and Patrons. 6. By 
driving unfit and unwilling perfons to eat and drink Damnation 
in the Sacrament. 7. By driving multitudes of good People 
from the needful means of their Salvation. 8. By bringing 
good Men that grieve for all this, into Odium , for being a- 
gainft it. 

And if this prove the cafe, I had rather lie in Gaol till Dead}, 
than Swear or Promife never to endeavour that I or any fhoulcL 
repent and amend it. Do you think it not contrary to our 
Baptifmal Vow , in which we promife Obedience to Chrift to 
our lives end ? 

I read that the Ifraelites were greatly reproved for Worftip 
in the High Places, and that they feldom repented : But I read 
not that ever they took an Oath or Covenant never to endea- 
vour to amend : I find that when Ifrael was made to Sin. by. the 
Calves of Ban and Bethel, that they went on and amended noc.: 
But I read not that they Covenanted or Sware never to amend. 
I find that the Pharifees were heinous Sinners, that by their 
Traditions made void the Law of God : But many of them, 
came to Johns Baptifrp , and profeffed fome Repentance ; and. 

' tho' . 


thd 9 obftinacy cut off the Nation of the Jem, I read, not that 
they drew the Nation into an Oath or Covenant never to 
an end. When Chrift came to fave the World, it was by a 
Covenant of Faith and Repentance. And if I fhould fee the 
World once confederate in a Covenant never to believe , re- 
pent and amend, I fhould call it the Kingdom of Satan, and thence 
date our Accounts Chronological, with a Regnante Diabolo, as in 
France they did a while, with a Regnante Chrifto. ( Of which Fide 

I do not fay that thefe old Nonconformifts were in the 
right , nor that Bncer did no whit over-value the Difcipline 
which he propofed to King Edward the Sixth ; nor that this 
Oath containeth all the forefaid guilt. But I fay, If it fhould 
prove £o , and venture on it in uncertainty , when the Judg- 
ment of fo many Parliaments, Lawyers, Divines abroad and at 
home are againft fuch kind of Swearing : what a cafe fhould I 
bring my Soul into ? National Oaths , efpecially fuch as feem 
to me to fix every Church-Office, from the Arch-Bifhop to 
the Official , if not the Apparitor 3 as unalterable in the very 
Conftitution of the Kingdom , even putting them before the 
State , are Matters of greater Confequence than to be rafhly 
ventured on by me : Even the Long Parliament that made the 
filencing Ads, reftored not the Canon and Et c&tera Oath of 
1640. which bound Men never to confent to fuch Alteration of 
Church-Government, by Arch-Biihops,Bifhops, Deans and Chap- 
ters, Arch-deacons 3 &c. 

Chap. XXXIX, Point XXXVI. Of Subfcribing and Swear- 
ing againfi the Toftion as Traiterous , of taking Arms 
by the K^ngs Authority againft thofe that areCommifficned 
by him in Purfuance ofjuch Comrr/jfon. 

L- T Am fure you can have nothing agairft this , unlefs by forced 
JL Expofition of the words, 

M. I am fure that I abhor ki\ forced Expositions, and all 
Treafon, Rebellion and Sedition. Bur here, becau(e you area 
Lawyer, I will come to you only as a lient or Learner, intreac- 
ing you to refolve all the common Objections, that I may do what 
I do in Truth, Judgment and Righteoufnefs. 

L. I 

L. I doubt not but I Jha/l eafily refolve them all. 

M. i. Do you not believe that the flrft Claufe, that it is unlaw- 
ful to take Arms againft the King upon any pretence whatfoev&j&oth. 
extend alfo to this taking Arms againft any Commiflion d by him 
on any pretence whatfoever ? 

L. No doubt of it : For this of not taking Arms againft thofe 
Commiffion d by him , is but Expofitory of the former , not taking 
Arms against the King. Elfe Men that fight againft his Army 
may fay, they fight not againft the King. And can the King make 
War without an Army I 

M. I believe you are in the right, i. I ask you, what is meant 
by the King's Authority ? Is it not by his Laws that are the higheft 
Ads of his Authority ? 

L. There is no doubt 5 but what's done by Law, is done by the Kings 

M. 3. How are we to know the King s Commiflion? 

L. By his Seal. 
' M. I never heard of many of the Parliaments Army that ever 
faw any fealed Commiflion of thofe they fought againft \ and 
would that excufe them ? 

L. No, becaufe it was notorious that the Kin gowned the War. 

M. But fuppofe that any of his Souldiers came to take free 
Quarter , or Horfes , or Plunder , or to poflefs any Man's 
Houfe or Lands, how (hall we know that they had Commiflion 
for thefe ? And may they be reiifted till they fhew their Com- 

L. No % becaufe it will hinder the Kings Service. 

M. 4. What Seal muft it be that muft make a Commiflion ? 

L. Either the Great or Little Seal. 

M.5. Is it poflible for the Law and a Commiflion to be con- 
trary ? 

L. Some fay No, becaufe it is no Commiffion, if it be contrary to 
the Law. And fome fay No, becaufe it muft be fuppofe d that the 
King will grarn no Commiffion contrary to Law, And fome fay Yea 5 
But when they aye contrary, the Commiffion is to be obeyed again fv the 
Law, And fome fay Tea $ And that the Law is to be obeyed againft 
the Commiffion. 

M. But if you are of fo many Minds, how are Doubters refol- 
ved, what to Swear and what to do ? 

1. If 

I. If you fay, It's no Commiflion that is contrary to Law, 
who (hall be Judge when it is contrary to Law ? If every 
Subjedt be Judge , it is as eafie to Rebel , and fay the King's 
Commiflion is' illegal, as it is to deny all the Authority of his 
Commiflions ? 

L. The Judges and Courts muft judge what is Legal. 

M. If the Judges, yea, or the Parliament (hall judge the King's 
Commiflions illegal, will that make it lawful for the Subjefts to 

L. I dare not fay fo. Therefore we muft come to the later Opinion , 
that the King h'mfelf is Judge, and that it is Legal eo nomine , be- 
caufe it is his Commiflion , and that Commijfions fufpend all contrary 
Laws. Tho I k??ow many abhor this, that would not have the Kings 
Will to be above all Laws, and Rule to be Arbitrary. 

M. But fuppofe it be fo, the Subje&s know the Laws to be 
the King s by Promulgation : How ihall they be fure that Com- 
miflions are not counterfeit if they be contrary to. them ? -Mud 
svery Fellow be believed that produceth a Commiflion ? may it 
not be counterfeited ? 

L. The Kings Officers that keep his Seals muft be trufted by hs, 
feeing the King truftcth them. 

M. i. Then the King's Officers are fet above all Laws and Ju- 
dicatures, as well as the King. 2. And why then are Judges 
Sworn not to be moved from Juftice by the Great or Little Seal ? 
3. But muft we truft every Man that fhews a Seal , that he did 
not counterfeit it? 

L. Iconfefsthat the Laws are mofi Publick^and certain Notifica- 
tions of the Kings Will. But ifs eafie to raife more Doubts than the 
wifefi mancananfwer. 

M. Is it not poflible for two Commiflions to be contrary ? what 
if one Man have a Patent for Life to be Lord Admiral, or Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower, or the like, and another come with a Com- 
miflion to put him out and take Pofleflion ; which muft be o- 
beyed ? 

L He that hath the laft Commiflion. The former may not refift 
him : For the later nullifieth the former. 

M. Is it not then in the Power of the Keeper of the Seals to 
depofe the King at his pleafure , by fealing new Commiflions to 
Confpirators to feize on his Garifons, Guards, Treafure, Maga- 
zines, Forts and Navy ? 

L. / 


L. It nrnfi be taken for granted that the King will give no Commiffion 
againfi himfelf, 

M. But his former Officers are not himfelf, and if they muft 
refign to new Commiffioners , how know they but it is the 
King's Will ? 

L. / telly oh we muft trufi thofe that the King trufleth. 
' M. Then the queftion is, whether it fhall be in the Power of 
a Lord Keeper to depofe the King, or betray the Kingdom to 
whom he will, becauie the King trufteth him with theSeaH Or 
in the Power of a Parliament to judge whether a Commiffion be 
Legal, or whether Laws or Commiffions be of greater Au- 

L. There is no end of anfwering abfnrd Sttppofitions : It is not to 
befteppofedthat the King will do wrongs orfofar trufi untmfiy Men. 

M. i. We muft fuppofe that a Parliament may do wrong. 
2. faaakson and other Hiftorians fay, That King J ohn made over 
his Kingdom to the Pope, and offered it to the Mahometan King 
of Morocco, to help him againft his Lords. 3. Is it not poffible 
that a Queen Mary, or a Charles the Ninth of France anight do 
what they did ? 4. Have not many Kings been ruined by trufting 
Traitors ? Did the King of />* Ws Bro- Tk StQry of thg Ki 
ther and Lords anfwer the truit repo- c ppa docia and his Brother, 
fed in them , when they Depofed and that conft'md with fomNobits 
imprifoned him ? Is not Hiftory full of to dt^i him and take his 
fuch Examples? Whodepofed the Fmpe- JfiS^ 

ror Ludovtcus Vim, but his truited Clergy and defeated it by the help of 

and Servants ? Who depofed the Empe- Cicero, then Promfui there, 

ror Henry 4. but his own Son? and his is *>oytb the reading in Cicc- 

Clergy and Lords? Abundance of the J****' 

Greek. Emperors were fo ufed , and fome EngHjh and Scottijk 


L. Some body ninft be trufi ed 5 and if they be Traitors , who can 
help it? 

M. But fhall all entrufted Lord-Keepers or Lord. Privy-Seafe 
be fofar encouraged to Treafon, as to tell them, If you will 
depofe the King, who can help it ? We are all Sworn noi to refift 
you?] How ftands this with our Oath of Allegiance to the 
King ? 

And is not the King's life and welfare the intereft of the King- 
dom ? and is he not an Enemy to the Kingdom who deftroyeth 

T the 

C »38) 

the King ? And do you think that one Lord-keepet* is fitter to 
be trufted with the Safety of the Kingdom, than a Parliament 
and all the Courts of Juftice ? When was there a Lord- Chancel- 
lor more Trufted and Honoured than Sir Edward Hyde Earl of 
Clarendon, who had long been faithful to the King? And yet nei- 
ther King nor Parliament thought that he was more to be trufted 
with the Safety of the King and Kingdom, than the Parliament 
was : Elfe they had not Bani(hed him. 

L. A Fool way askjnore Queflions, than a Wife man can anfwer ' 7 
and find Knots that no one can untye. 

M. And are all we Fools that never fludied the Law, fit to 
Anfwer all thofe Queftions by an Oath, which you that are a 
Lawyer cannot Anfwer by Difcourfe? will you become abler 
to Anfwer them, when we have Sw r orn them ? If you were at a 
lofsabouta Law Cafe mWefiminfter-Hall, would you fet all the 
Country and City Houftiolders that are Ignorant, to decide it by 
Swearing which fide is right ? were it not wifer to caft lots to 
determine it ? And have thofe Men Humanity and Confcience, 
and do they believe there is a God, that will fwear that of fuch 
Law Cafes, which Lawyers profefs to be too hard for them, and 
which they are difagreed in as a common Controvcrfie in all 

And I pray you, why are Nations Co follicitous to have Laws 
for their Security, if a Chancellor be above them all, and by a 
Commiffion may caft them off at his pleafure ? 

L. We do not fay the Chancellor may do it, but the King. 
M. Doth not the Chancellor keep the Seal ? and muft we not 
take them for the Kings Commiffions which he fealeth ? 

L. If you know that the Commiffion be notorioufy againft Law, you 
may fufpect that the King confenteth not, and may ft ay till you enquire 
of him whether it be his Act and Will. 

M. But i. If one come with a Commiffion to take poffeffion of 
the King's Treafure, Magazines, Garifons, Navy, &c. and attempt 
it by force, may he be refifted by force till the King's Mind be 
enquired of? If not, he may depofe the King and feize his Strengths 
before we can come to enquire of the King. All have not accefs 
to the King. If it were theGarifonof New-Caft!c 7 Berwick* Car- 
///?*>, &c it will be too late to fend to the King. But if fuch Com- 
ivuffioners may fo long be refifted, then how can we Swear that 
upon no pretence whatfoever his Commiffioners may be refifted by his 
own Authority ? N 2. And 

( 119 ) 

2. And if a Highway-man fliew a Commiffion to take my 
Purfe, he will not flay till I know whether the King confent to 
his Commiffion. 

L. You ftretch the fence of the Subfcription and Oath further thaw, 
the Parliament intended it. Do you thinks that if half a Doz^en or more 
Irifhmen had come into the Parliament Houfe y and (hewed a Commif- 
fion Real or Counterfeit to kill them ally Lords and Commons, that they 
would not have defended their Lives with their Sword t f And do you 
thinks then that ever they meant to bind all the Subjects againft that 
which they would do themfelves. 

M. And do you think that weftiouldall Swear to that which 
they never meant to bind us to > Is there any limitation in the 
words ? Or can any words be devifed more to exclude excep- 
tions than [_ not on any pretence whatfoever.2 Biat/e/f is near men, 
and is not fo concerned in other mens cafes as their own. For 
my part, I believe that they meant plainly and univerfally as they 
{beak* tho' they might forget their own cafe : My proof is from 
tne exprefs words of the Militia Aft, where they determine thac 
neither the whole Parliament or part, hath any Power of ofenfive 
or defenpve Arms againft the King's Commiffioners : Much left 
have any fingle Perfons. 

L. Do you thinks that ever they intended to deftroy all mens Pro- 
perty , and defence of Life or Goods, and to repeal all the Laws that 
bind Sheriffs by the Pofle ComitatUS to fup\>refs Riots, and to execute 
the decrees of the Courts of Jufticefor Pojfejfions or Dif-pojfejfions, tho 
any fhonldfiew Commiffions to the contrary y and to overthrow the Judges 
Oaths ? 

M. I can no way judge what they meant , but by what they 
did. I find they have abfolutely denied all right of defenfwe Arms 
in the Subjeft or Parliament, and that's all that Ifpeakof: From 
whence I muft needs fuppofe, that their fence was, that all men 
have Propriety in Eftates, Wives, Children and Lives, and thac 
the King ought to Govern them by Law, and wrong no Man, 
and that Judges ought to do right by Sentence j tho' the King 
forbid them. And that Sheriffs and Juftices muft ordinarily execute 
the Law : But if the King by force reftrain them, or give Com- 
million to any Subject by force to violate any Law or Sentence, or 
to take away any Mens Lives or Eftates, it is not lawful by defen- 
live Arms, for any Sheriff, Juftices, or any others to refift. This 
is plainly the fence of the Militia Aft, and of our Oaths. 

T x L. / 

(i 4 o) 

L. / pray yon let us end this tender Controverfy. 

M. I have yet a few mere doubts to be refolved. 

Politicks bein£ the Foundation of 'J arts prudently I doubt not 
but you have ftudied Politicks : I pray you tell me why all Poli- 
ticks placing a Republick in the predicament of Relation , do 
make the b^nuu, publicum to be its eflential terminus in the de- 

L. Because it is fo indeed-, it being no OXviiaS or Refpublica that 
is not for the Common good ; and therefore they make it the difference 
between a King and a Tyrant, that a King ruleth for the Common 
good, and a Tyrant for his private Ends and Interejts. 

M. But by your leave I think that diftin&ion ill and dange- 
roufly uttered : For every man hath fome culpable felfiiLnefs * 
andalfo the Kings Self- intereft is Lawfully intended : ForCom- 
monwealths called Kingdoms being at firft conftituted by Con- 
trad:, no doubt there was necefTary the Confent of both the con* 
tracing Parties: None can be King againft his Will. And do 
you think any Man would take a Crown only for the good of o, 
thers, without fecurity for his own juft Intereft , Honour and 
Prerogative, without which he cannot well Govern? Therefore 
I think that thofe Politicks too loofly defcribe Tyranny, by felf- 
intereft, and can prove no man a proper Tyrant in Exercitio ( dfi- 
ftin&from anUfurper) but him that feeks the deftruclion of the 
Commonwealth, whofe good he is bound to preferve. 

But I farther ask you, 

Do you think the Law of Man , or a Commiffion can abrogate 
the Law of Nature ? 

L. No Man ever affirmed it : For the Law of Nature is Gods 
Law •■, yea his firft and moft Fundamental Law. 

AL I will not deny it as to the (table Laws of Nature , 
tho' I think that Nature it fe]f hath fome mutable Laws, 
where the Nature of the matter is mutable. But then I would fur- 
ther know,w!iether to defend the Life of your felf, Wife or Chil- 
dren again ft injurious Aflaults be any part of the Law of Na* 

L. Experience refolveth that-, what Man will not defend* 'his 
Life that can I yea what Bea/t, or Bird, even the moft harmlefs will 
not ufe fuch weapons as Nature hath given them , Horns, Feet, 
Teeth, &C. 

. M. But 


M. But Man hath Reafon to rule natural inclinations: Ard 
fure a Malefa&or if he could, (houldnot defend his Life againft 
Juftice, I think not (6 much as by running away : Nor many fii> 
gle innocent Perions defend their Lives by a Publick War, be- 
cause a War is more hurtful to the Commonwealth than his death 
is: And the Common good is better than a fingle Perfons, or a 
fews, and to bepreitr'd. 

But I next ask, whether the Body of a Kingdom have by Gods 
Law of Nature a fe If defending power againft its notorious affaulting 
Foes \ 

L. Do you think^any man doubts of that ? May not the King and 
Kingdom defend themfelves againft Invaders ? If one man may de- 
fend-his Purfe or Life againft another , a King and Kingdom is more 
worth than one man : Tou can hardly name one principle in the Law of 
Nature more undoubted, than that Kingdoms have a right to defend 
themfelves if they can. 

M. And may they not defend themfelves , againft Ufurpers 
and Rebels , and Traytors at home , as well as againft Foreign 

L. TodenythatisTreafon : How elfe Jhould we defend the King? 
Was not Jack Straw, and many a Rebellion lawfully repfted ? and did 
not the Lord Mayor of London Lawfully kill Wat. Tyler ? and fo 
of any other in his cafe $ 

M. But what if the Irijh took on them to rife by the Kings 
Commiflion , and fhew'd a Counterfeit of it , was it lawful for 
the Proteftants to have redded them to fave their Lives and 


L. They ftiould have fent to the King to know whether that Com- 
miffion was Counterfeit or not. 

M. But before they could do that, Dublin had been loft, and 
all their Lives and Eftates : And the two hundred thoufand that 
were Murdered were not reftored to Life again , when it was 
notified that they belied the King, and that they had not his Com- 

L. It was notorious by the nature of the cafe that they belied the 
King, and had none of his Commiffion , becaufe it was fo greatly 
againft- his own Intereft, 

M. Will you allow any Countrey to refift an Army that fhew 
the Kings Commiflion, if they are confident, or can prove that 
it is a (tain ft his Intereft ? 

% L. He 


L, He is the Judge of his own Intereft, when the Cafe cometh be- 
fore him : Till then a doubtful, or at leaft a certain Commiffion may 
not be refifted : Ton would entangle the Cafe with difficulties that 
feldom fall out 5 but are you againft refifting all known Coni- 
lniilions ? 

M. Yon know that the Oaths and Subfcriptions extend to 
" all cafes, and again ft any pretence whatfoever , not excepting rare 
Cafes : What I am for or againft I'll tell you more anon. But I 
ask further, tho' I am bound by the Fifth Commandment to be- 
lieve that the Irijh belied the King, and that the Scots belied him, 
w ho in their Book called Truths Manifeft, affirm, that He Com- 
mtffwned the Irifh by theScotS broad Seal, which was then in his 
pcjfeffion in Scotland ; do you think if the Scots could have proved 
what they affirm , that it had been lawful to have refifted the 
Irijh , and defended the Proteftant Lives and Cities in Ire- 
land f 

L. I will not anfwer fuch danger opts queftions, 

M. But muft all ignorant men then Subfcribe and Swear to 
what you cannot, or dare not anfwer. 

But I further ask you , about not refifting Commiflions on any 
pretence whatfoever ; what was the fence of the old Greek Phi- 
lofophers and Orators in that cafe ? 

L. Ton know they were almoft all bred up in Ariftocratical or Demo- 
cratical RepMicks ; and therefore no wonder if they are againft us in 
this and more. 

M. What was the fence of the old Roman Orators, Philofophers 
and Hiftorians as to this point ? 

L. They alfo were hatcht under Popular Government , and tho the 
later fort magnifie fuch excellent Monarch s as Auguftus, Vefpafian, 

Titus , Adrian , Antoninus Pius and Anton. PhiloC and Alex- 
ander Severus, yet it is no wonder that they were too much for refifting 
and depojing fuch as oppreft the Commonwealth. 

M. What was the fence of the Ancient Bifhops and Clergy 
herein ? 

L. They were long for patient fuffcring : But it is no wonder that 
when they grew worldly and ftrong, they not only refifted 5 but deposed 
Emperors and Princes. 

M. I pray which way go the Papift Cafuiftsin this cafe of re- 
fiftance ? 

L. Ton cannot doubt of that when yon know their Counccls Laws 


( I4J ) 

for depoftng Kings on Excommunication. And what wonder when they 
go on that falfe Suppojition, that the People give the Prince his Tower 
for their own good, and may take it from him if he turn it againft them 
to the hurt of the Common-wealth ? 

M. I pray what fay Politick Writers, Papifts and Proteftants iq 
this cafe; I mean the Eminent ones, fachzsBodin, Althufius, Ar* 
nifaus, Tholofanus, Befoldus, Choquierius, Menochius^ Liebentha- 
lius, Contzen, Koningh, Timplerus, Willius, Berekringer, and fuch 

L. They commonly run one way, founding Power in the People, as 
being the Majeftas Reali$, and giving the Kings and States a derived 
Majeftatem Perfonalem, which being for the Common good, they 
may refift when it would deftroy it , They tookjheir Politicks by Learn- 
ing from Ariftotle, Plato, Cicero 3 and fuch Ancients, and no won- 
der if they follow them. 

M. And I pray you which way go our famous Hiftorians in this 
Point, fuch as Commines, Jovius, Guicciardine, Pontanus, Slei- 
dan, Thuanus, Befoldus , Johnfton, Fregius, and OUr Englifh 
Matth. Paris, Henry Huntington, Mat. Weftminfter, Malmsbury, 
Hoveden, &c. 

L. Tou know they livd in times when Civil Wars were fo frequent, 
and Princes fo bad, and one pulling down another, that it*s no wonder if 
they praife fome refifters. But if yon read thofe of our Age 
that lived in quiet Times and under good Princes, fuch as Camb- 
den, Speed and Baker, you will find no fuch thing. 

M. I pray which way go the famousr civilians herein, fuch 
as Gothofred, Hottoman, Cujacim, Wefenbechius, Pacim, Duarenns, 
and fuch others ? 

L. Tou know that the Civil Law is fetcht from the Romans, and 
its no wonder if it run in their f rein. 

M. I pray which way go the Canonifts r 

L. Tou know they are Papifts, and fet up the Popes Laws above the 
Kings: But oar Englifh Canons do not fo. 

M. I pray which way go our late Proteftant Lawyers, fuch as 
Coo^ and Littleton, and the like ? 

L. They are all for Loyalty, and for the Preeminence of the Law; 
and yet for the Kings Prerogative. 

M. I find* fome of the greateft Lawyers, that have defended 
Monarchy, fuch as William Barclay and Grothis, do mme ma- 
ny Cafes, in which it is lawful to refift : What think you of 
their Writings? L. I 


L. / will be no judge of them. 

M. I pray what think you of thofe great Prelatifes that 
write, asBiihop Bi'fon, and Ru Hooker, and Jer. Taylor do, and 
that joined with Abbot and the Parliament againft Dr. Land, 
Sibthorpe and Mainwaring) Which of them think you was in 
the right ? * 

L. Ton put too many Qucftions. I will anfvoer no more. 

M. And muft we Ignorant Men fwear that all thefe aforefaid 
were deceived, and knew lefs than we ? 

Verily Sir, It feems a bold Oath for fo great a Number of un- 
learned Men as are put upon it, and for us that are unlearned in 
the Englifh Laws. 

L. But I doubt all thefe hard QueUions are but raifed as duft to 
hide f on; e Principles of Rebellion } 14- hat is your own judgment, and 
how will you give Security for your Loyalty ? 

M. They that think my Oath Security, take me for fo honeft, 
as that I will not be Perjured. And if fo, I have already taken 
the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, and an Oath of Fidelity, 
as the King's Chaplain in Ordinary ( tho* never called to exer- 
cife it.) And I have fully in a large Volume, called, A fee on d 
Plea for Peace, declared my Political Principles, which after all 
thoughts I fland to ; And no one hath given me a word of Ex- 
ceptions againft them to this day, after fo many years, but fome 
in meer Malice tell me of my Aphcrifms, without taking notice 
of this- 

I here repeat that I am ready to engage to the utmoft, that I 
renounce all Rebellion, Treafon and Sedition, and all Princi- 
ples tending thereto -, that I am for as much Power of Princes 
and Obedience of Subjefts, as any Text of Scripture fpeaks for, 
or as is given or afferted by any General Council, or the Confe(- 
fion of any Chriftian Church that I have feen , except what is afcri- 
bed to. the Pope and his Subftitutes; And I hold it unlawful to 
take Arms at all againft the King ; that is, againft either his Au- 
thority, Perfon, Rights or Prerogative $ or againft any lawfully 
Commiffioned by him, yea, or unlawfully, except in fuch Cafes 
as God's Law of Nature, or the King himielf by Law or contrary 
Command (hall bind Men to refift. 

L. And fo you will fuppofe that God*s Law of Nature bindeth 
you in fome Cafes to refift : And will not alf Rebels plead that 
Law ? 

M, Dare 

M. Dare you fay that there is no fuch Cafe? King James wri- 
tech that a King may not make War againft his whole Kingdom ? 
If Ten hijhrmn pretend a Commiffion to Kill all the Parliament 
and Proteftants m the Land, or to feize on the King's Garifons, 
or if King John give his Kingdom to the Pope, ask Hooker, 
Bilfon or ' Parliaments , what the Law of Nature faith to thefe 

Chap. XL. Point XXXVII. Of Affecting and Confenting to 
the Damnatory Clattfes of Athanafms' s Creed, 

L. T Mope you will not quarrel with the Creed. 

X M 9 I take the Creed called Athanafiuss (tho* the Au- 
thor is unknown ) to bean excellent Explication of theDo&rine 
of the Trinity : And could wifh that it were moreufed and learnt 
of all. But I am not fo far to judge other Men, as to conclude all 
Men certainly damned for ever that are not fo well skilled in that 
Myftery > as to believe every word there written. 

L. ' / have heard Learned Men fay, That the Affent and Content 
is not to be extended to the Damnatory Claufes, but only the Dottrinal 

M. They that can make Laws and Oaths fpeak or meaa what 
they lift, need not ftick at any thing. Is not the Damnatory part a 
part of the Book of Common-Prayer, and contained in it ? 

L. But they prove thus, that it metneth nofuch Confent or Approba* 
tion. The Liturgy requireth you to read the Apocrypha, and yet not 
to believe all things in it to be true ; For, fay they, divers things in To- 
bit are evidently falfe : And foM it bind you to ufe and read Atha- 
nafius'i Creed, it binds you not to believe all in it to be true. 

M. This Cheat is too grofs to deceive a School- Boy with. Is 
Athanafms\ Creed a real part of the Common-Prayer Book, con- 
tain d in it, or not ? 

L. Tes, no doubt ; we there find it both contained and prefer ibed 

M. Is the Apocrypha any part of the Common- Prayer Book, 
and contained in it, or not ? 

L. If there beany Sentences out of it there inferted, thofe are part ; 
elfe the Apocrypha is no part of the Book^ ; It is only the Order to read 
it that is a part. 

U M, Is 

M. Is not this a palpable Deceit, to argue that we are not bound 
to Aflent and Con fen t to that which is contained in the Book, 
becaufe we are not fo bound to that which is not contained in it? 

Chap. XLI. Pjint XXXVIII. Of Saying Common-Trayer 
twice a day every day in the Tear ordinarily. . 

L. TTis but that youjhall every day fay the Morning and Evening 
JL Service, not being let by Sicknefs, or otk&r urgent Caufe."] And 
what have you againft this ? 

M. I think when the Book was made, to help the ignorant Vul- 
gar out of Popery, every day to ufe the Common-Prayer was a very 
good help to them. But the Cafe is much altered, and People now 
nave more fuitable Helps •, and Minifters have fo much other 
Work to do in their Studies, and with their Neighbours every 
day, and fome Prayers to ufe more fuitable to their Families and 
Clofets, that it muft needs be a finful Impediment againft other 
Duties, to fay Common-Prayer twice a day. If they were com- 
manded to Preach twice a day, every day in the year, it would 
caufe a finful Omiflion of other Duties, how good foeverPfeach- 
ing be in it felf. 

L. Put then you have urgent Caufe of forbearance. 

M. We"are not for abufive dallying with Covenants about Sa- 
cred things : It is evident by the inftance oVSicknefs, that the Au- 
thors of the Impofition, meant only extraordinary Caufes as urgent, 
and not that we fhould take our ordinary Work for fuch an ur- 
gent Caufe. As if a Man that is bound to fpend mofl of the day m 
his Shop (hall Covenant to go Thirty Miles every day, if he be not 
let by urgent Caufe. 

L- But you fee that almoft no Conformifts do thus : therefore if s cer* 
tain that they do notfo under ft andit. 

M. That's a warning to take heed of promifing that which we 
fee fo many that promifed it not perform 3 They are our Monitors 
to take heed of fuch a playing with Sacred Covenants, and de- 
ceiving the Lawjinftead of obeying it. 



Chap. XL1I. Point XXXIX. Of forcing the unwilling Pa 
rifhtoners to the Sacrament, and Accufmg and Excommuni- 
cating the refufers. 

L TTQip are you bound to this by Conformity I 

JHL M* i- We muft affent and confent to the Rubrick, 

which COmmandeth [_That every Parishioner Jhall Communicate three 
times a, year at leaft. 2. The Oath of Canonical Obedience binds 
us to obey the in Canon, as well as the reft 5 which faith [ The 
Minifter, Churchwardens, Que fi men and Affiftants of every Parijh- 
Church and Chappel, jhall yearly within 40 days after Eafter ex- 
hibit to the Bijhop or his Chancellor, the flames, and Surnames of 
All the Parijhioners as well Men as Women , which being at the 
Age of 16 years, received not the Communion at Eafter before. ] And 
then they are to be Excommunicated iftheyrejiife, and to lie in 
Jail till they die, when taken by the Writ Be Excommunicato Capi- 

L. And why jhould not men be forced to their Duty, and to their 
own good, if they are backward to it } 

M. The internal part is the firfi and chief part of their Duty, 
without which the external is not their Duty, but their great Sin. 
It is the Duty of Heathens to Believe and be baptized, but not 
to be baptized till they believe. It is the Duty of Candidates 
for the Miniftry, to get Ability dead Ordination and to officiate. 
But not to officiate before they get Ability and Ordination. 
It. is the Duty of every Man to believe the Truth of the Go- 
fpel, and to profefs that belief : But to fay hebelieveth, when 
he doth not, is Hypocrifie and Lying. It is a (loathful Man s 
Duty to rife and drefs him, and go to his Work ; but not 
to work in Bed, or go abroad Naked. Men that need Mar- 
riage muft Marry, and then liberis operant dare, but not to do 
this before they Marry. SoPerfons that are unfit for the Sa- 
crament muft be fit, and then receive it, but not before they 
are fit. Now if you can force them by a Gaol out of Igno- 
rance, unbelief and ungodlinefs, it will be a very charitable 
work : Otherwife you force them upon Sacriledge and Pro- 
fanation to their Damnation. Why elfe doth the Common- 
Prayer Book perfwade the Blafptemers and hindmrs of God's 

U 2 Wo>d 

(i 4 S) 

Word, a?? J the uncharitable not to come to that Holy Table , left the 
Devil enter into them as he did into] udzSy and fill them with all nrtr 
right ecufnefs to the deftratlion of Body and Soul. 

L. But they that are forced to come, will be liker to take preparing 
Care> than if they be let alone. 

M Look over the foregoing inftances: Will you make a Law 
among Heathens that all (hall be baptized, that this may draw 
them to believe ? Or will you Command all Students to Admi- 
Rifier the Sacraments, that this may draw them to Study and be 
Ordained, &c. We diffwade you not from forcing all to Hear 
and Learn : But do you think that it is fo eafie and fmall a Matter 
to bring a Man to Repent and Believe, and give up his Heart and 
Life to Chrift, and prefer Heaven before Earth, and a holy 
Life before a flefhly^and worldly Life, as that it is but fay, Do 
it^ or thou jhalt go to Jail? What need a Saviour, a fanftifying 
Spirit, a teaching Miniftry, &c. if it be foeafily done at a Com- 
mand ? Will the fear of a Jail make Men believe the Got 
pel, or Lore God? Oh how little doth this way favour of any 
true Knowledge of the State of Man, or what Faith or San&ificati- 
on is ? 

L. Wherein lyeththe Sinfulnefs of fnch force ? 

M. i. It feemeth to make a New Gofpel-Condition, or con- 
tradict Chrift's. Chrift faith, That none can be his Difciple, 
except heforfakeall, and follow him : This Courfe faith, Thou 
(halt be faved by Chrift, if thou hadft rather Communicate 
than lofe all and lie in Jail The Sacrament is an Invefting de- 
livering of Pardon and right to Chrift and Salvation ; And none 
but thofethat defire them above all the World are capable of 
thefe. And to give them to the forced and unwilling is contrary to 
the Gofpel. 

2. It feems to put a Lie on Chrift, as if he had ever made any 
fuch gift. 

3. It tendeth to deceive poor Souls. 

4. It forceth them on Sacriledge, Hypocrifie, Prophanationand 

5. It may diftradt thofe Perfons with terror who are confeious 
of their unfitnefs, cr thofe Melancholy Chrif Hans that under Temp- 
tation rremble for fear of taking their own damnation. 

<5. It polluteth the Church; and confoundeth the Infidels, Cate- 
chumens and Fidcl.es. 

- 7. It. 

C '49) 

7. It thereby filleth the Church with fuch nicked men as 
prove worfe Enemies to the godly than thofe without. 

8. In all Elections the major part of wicked forced Commu- 
nicants will carry it, to chufe Minifters like themfelves; and car- 
ry Church Matters according to their wicked minds. 

9. Good men feeing this, are ready to be frightned out of the 
Church to Separation, as men run out of a ruinous Houfe, left it 
fall on their Heads, or flie from a- noifom place with loath- 

10. And then the Crpud that thus get Church-pofTeflion, will, 
revile them as Schifmaticks, and Seftaries, and Hypocrites, and 
persecute and deftroy them if they can. 

Are not all thefe fad effects of turning a Church into a Prifon,. 
and forcing men to feem to take that which Chrift profefleth hs 
doth not give them ? And of cafting holy t things to Dogs, and 
Pearls before Swine; and cramming and drenching thofe with 
the Body and Blood of Chrift, who have no right till they de- 
fire and beg it, and can (ell all to buy this precious Pearl ? We 
dare not Aflent, Confent or Swear to fuch a Courfe as this, nor 
publiili an Excommunication againft fuch men on this account. 
It's an odd thing to caft men out becaufe they will not come 

And I pray you how can Minifters in great Cities and Parities 
perform this Canonical Obedience, to give in to the Bijhopsor Chan- 

cellor the names of all that Communicated not at Eaffer, when they 

know not the hundredth part of the Parishioners in fome places ? 
I do believe that in the two Parifhes that I laft lived in, there are 
above fourfcbre thoufand Souls : . .And is it like that the Mini- 
fters know twenty thoufand of thefe ? I have been at their Com- 
munion, even at Eafter and Whit [untitle, and I -never faw five hun- 
dred there. And if they gave in the names of but twenty or 
forty thoufand Non-communicants (tho' it's like there are nearer 
two hundred thoufand) in this Diocefs, what work would the 
Billiopand Chancellor, have? Cannot you eafily imagine wha; 
their Discipline would be, and how they wguld exhort each 
Perfon one by one to Repentance, and plead with them for con- 
viction, and refolve their doubts ? Doth not this one thing tell 
you what the Englifo Diocefan Epifcopacy is, that giveth one man 
the Disciplining of many hundred Pariihes ? 

£», Ton 


' L Ton t -alkju if yon vpohLI have a Church of Saints, and feem t& 
make Religion tooferious a bu nefi : It is well if we could have a Church 
of Civil Aden and Peweable Objects, that will ufe Religion for the Ci- 
vil Intereft\ as far as will ferve the will of Governors > and the Common 

M. I am fure St. Paul wrote to no Church but {uch as he called 
Saints j and I am fure Chrift will fave none but Saints: Anun- 
fan&ified Chriftian, and a Church not holy, are contradictions in 
adjetlo. Chrift came not to fet up a meer worldly Kingdom, and to 
devife a Religion to ferve the Will, Ambition or Intereft of 
worldly men, nor meerly to promote Civility, Wealth^nd Peace. 
If this be all that you would have, go to Ariftotle, Plato, Seneca, Plu- 
tarch, Cicero, &c. You need not be Chriftians for this* But yet we 
pretend not to know mens Hearts : It is vifible Saints that the vi- 
fible Church confifteth of 5 and with whom we muft have vifible 
Communion. And it is not left to the will of every Paftor whom 
he will take for a Saint •, for then Ch irches would be of as many 
forts or degrees, as Minifters ftrict or loofe Opinions are- But Chriic 
hath himfelf made the Articles Eflential to Chriftian Faith. and 
Practice, and the Baptifmal Covenant, and required us to take 
thofe into the Church who ferioufly profefs Belief, and Confent, 
till they null that Profeffion by a contrary Profeffion or Conven- 
tion •, which muft be proved againft any man before he is reje&ed : 
For the Church is not a Society to be arbitrarily made or unmade, 
at every Minifters or Bifhops will, but hath from Chrift the fixed 
Laws of its Conftitution and neceflary Adminiftration ( better than 
our 141 Canons.) 

But indeed you have toucht our fore : For my part I am paft 
doubt that we fhould all live in Peace, and Chriftian Piety, if all 
( yea all Bifhops and Priefts) were but agreed at the Heart what 
it is to be a Chriftian, and whether the Gofpel be certainly true, 
aid whether Chrift Be the Son of God, or a deceiver, and whe- 
ther there be a Life after this, and a Judgment of all according 
t3 their works : Yea, were they but heartily agreed that there 
is a God, who is the Rewarder of them that diligently feek him, 
and a punilher of the wicked. The difpute feems to me to be, 
whether we^'fliall be Chriftians indeed, or worldly Hypocrites 
called Chriftians ^ and whether wefhall ufe the Name of God, 
Chri ft and Religion fbrChrift and Holinefs, cr for the Flefli againft 

L Tom 

L. Ton are vcryfevere inyour Cenfure. 

M. I doubt fome will find Chnft more fevere, and be lefs able 
to endure his Cenfure than mine, when he fhall call fome men to 
account for turning facred Names, and Offices, and Ordinances a- 
gainft him, to b#iiih Confcience andferiousGodlinefs ( to fay no- 
thing of Veracity, common Honeftyand Humanity) out or the 
Church, and turn his Houfeof Prayer into a place of Merchandife, 
and a Den of Thieves ; and tempt Turks and Heathens to hate 
Chriftians for their wickednefs, and to fly from the Chriftian 
Church, left they fliould lofe all Religion, Truftinefsand Honefty, 
or the Reputation of them : But I fpeaknot now of our Gover- 
nours, whom I leave to God. 

Chap. XLIII. Point XL. Offorfaking our Miniflry, and* 
ceafing to T reach the Gofpei y and Banifhment Fsie Miles 
from Corporations. 

^/.npHE laft part of Miniflerial Conformity which I named to> 
X you, is, that if we cannot conform to all aforefaid, for 
fear of Damnation, we muft ceafe our Miniftry, and mull not 
Preach Chrifts GofpeJ^to any more than fourbefides our Family, 
nor perform any Worfhip of God with more, ( but in their way ) 
and we muft neither dwell nor come within Five Miles of any 
( Burgefs ) Corporation, or any place where- ever we lived or tra- 
velled, and preached fincethe Aft of Oblivion .• O.herwifewe- 
muft lye in the common Goal. 

L. Doubtlefs they that made this Law aga'tnft you, thought you- 
very wicked Intolerable men, and thought your Preaching very dange- 
rous : Andindeed fo they fay of yok in the Preface of the Oxford 

M. They do fo •, and lam glad to find that fallenefs, and wick- 
ednefs as fuch is yet difowned in the World, and that men do 
not glory in the very names of them. It is a notable evidence- 
that there is a Life of retribution, that naughtinefs is difowned 
by all Mankind, and the worft would be thought and called ho- 
neft, and true, and goods and that the World would not Cru- 
cifieChrift, norPerfecute and Murder his Apoftles under the 
name of righteous holy men, but under the name of Malefactors, 
Enemies to Cdfar, Breakers of the Law, and Peftilenc Fellows 



that troubled the Peace, and turned the World upfide down. The 
Devil himfclf dare not own the name of Lying, Malignity and 
Murder, nor of Perfecting Men for Truth and Goodnefs, and 
Cods Caufe. 

And verily it feemech the Controverfie of many in this Age, 
whether they that fcarce fpeak of God but in Swearing and Cur- 
ling, nor of Religion, but in fcorningor threatning the ferious 
praCtifers of it, and that favour little but Eating and Drinking to 
the full, and Playing, and getting Riches, and hating all that 
are ftri&er than they, or thofe that make Gods Law their rule, 
and Obedience to him the work of their Lives, and his ferious 
Worfliip their delight, and Heaven their hope, and dare not wil- 
fully (in againft God, nor be Perjured or Lie ; I fay, which of thefe 
be the honefter Men ? 

L. But you cannot deny that your party hath preached the Naiim in- 
to Rebellion (for the Parliament againft the- King ) and therefore are 
j lift ly fit fpetted till they repent, 

M. i. What mean you by [ our party ?] If you mean Noncon- 
formiits to the prefent Laws of Conformity, you are eafily con- 
futed : For the Rebellion was over, and the King reftored before 
the prefent Conformity wasEnadted: And when there was no 
fuch Law, there were no Nonconformifts to it, nor any fuch Party 
in being. 

If you mean the old Nonconformifts, I anfwer you, 

i. They were part for the Parliament, part againft their War, 
and part Neuters- 

2. There was a multitude of Conformift Minifters for the Par- 
liament for one Nonconformift : I have oft proved, that there 
was at the beginning of that Parliament, net many more Non- 
conformift Minifters left in England, than were Counties, if fo 
many. In the Weftminfter Aflembly there were but (even or eight 
Engliihmen : Moft of the Sermons before the Parliament, 
which are now moft blamed , were Preached by Confor- 

3. Such as kept in, and obeyed the Parliament and Ufurpers, 
did moft of them Conform of 9000 or 1 0000 Minifters, there 
were but two thoufand that Conformed not : And did meer turn- 
ing to Conformity manifeft Repentance ? 

4. But I have oft, andoftfaid, if they will filence all that had 
any hand in Wars, ( except the Conformifts ) and no more, we 


t iVn 

will thank them with great joy : For I do not think there are for 
that I lay not twenty, filenced Minifters alive in all England^ that 
had any hand in the War againft the King. And it's an odd kind of 
Juftice that fhould eject and accuie lb great a number for other 

5. But if our Doctrine be Seditious, why fhould not we be al- 
lowed rather to Preach openly where WitnefTes may convict us, 
and the Law take hold on us, than in fecret to four, where none 
can convict us ? 

6. And how comes it to pafs, that whilft lb many hundred Mi- 
nifters are hunted and ruined for Preaching, we hear of none at 
all punifhed for any Falfe or Seditious Doctrine ? Do thole that 
watch, accufe and ruin us, w<ant Will to find out our falie or ill 
Doctrine ? While I am writing this, the common Talk is, two 
poor Fellows acculed fuch a one, and two Beggars, or poor Wo- 
men that flood at the doors, took their Oaths againft fuch, and 
fuch, and fuch, many Warrants granted to diftrain for Forty 
Pound or Sixty Pound a Sermon, on Minifters and People; the 
Citizens Goods leized, and carryed away, their Shops made bare, 
many laid in Jayls, and thoufands waiting for utter ruin of all they 
have ; and all this on the account of their Preaching and Hearing as 
without the Common- Prayer j and not a word among all thele of any 
Falfe Doctrine fpoken, 

7. And Gods great mercy having of late years opened the Preis, 
the Non-conformifts have Printed abundance of their Sermons, 
that the World may lee what Doctrine they Preached : There 
are two Volumes of Morning Lectures at one place, and two at 
another, and one Volume of Lectures againft Popery. There is 
a great Volume of Mr. Chamoc\(s Sermons, and a great one, and 
many leffer of Dr. Cantons ; many Folio's of Mr. Anth. Burgeffes, 
divers of Dr. Bates ^ divers of Mr Richard Alleines, Dr. Gtlftn of 
Temptations, and abundance more. You have an account of my 
own Doctrine in above an hundred Books, of which I leave Pofte- 
rity to judge. 

L. Yes, we hear what is f aid againft: you for your Rebellious Doctrine 
in former times. 

M- I then gave the World an account in my Book called Poli- 
tical Aphorifms, or a Holy Common-wealth written for Monar- 
chy by Mr. Harringtons Provocation, what moved me to be on 
the Parliaments fide 3 and I know nothing that they have charged 

X on 

C M4 J 

on my Doctrine, but the words of that Book which I revoked long 
ago, and lbme Claufes in my Saints Reft, which I expunged before 
the King came in : And if my latter writings (as my Second f lea 
for Peace) written purpoiely to fatisfie them of my preient judgment, 
be not regardable, why do they call me to retractations ? And if the 
Act of Indempnity have done nothing againft our former Actions, all 
General AlonKs Army, and the reft, i'uch that reftored the King, 
muft expect the like reward, if death deliver them not from mens 

L. But why flnmld you not give over Preaching when you are ftlenced? 
Have not the Btjhops power to Jilence and degrade^ as well at to ordain j 
cr the Parliament at lea ft ? 

M. We doubt not but the Magiftrate hath power to hinder 
Preachers from doing miichief, and to reftrain thole that Preach 
Rebellion, Sedition or Herefie, or that do more hurt than good : 
But not on that pretence, 'to hinder good, and to forbid Chrift's 
Minifters to Preach his Gol'pel : Bifhops and Senior Pallors are 
Inverting Minifters of Chrift, ro ordain fit Men to the Miniftry, 
and judge of their fitnefs to that end : And if men prove uncapa- 
ble, by Apoftacy or Herefie, or perfidioufhefs, they ought to do 
as Cyprian did about Martial and Bafilides, require the Congrega- 
tion in the name of Chrift to forfake them. But they have no 
power to forbid any faithful Minifter to do the Office to which 
he is ordained, nor to forbid the people to hear them : And if 
they do, their Commands are Nullities as to any Obligation to Obe- 

L. But they that give you the Office may tal^e it away. 

M. He that giveth it as a Donor may, which is Chrift, but not 
he that only as a Servant delivereth that which his Mafter gives. 
If you lend a Servant to deliver a Man PofTefTion of Houfe, Land, 
Horle, Money, &c. That Servant cannot take it from him at his 
pleaiure. I do not think that the Prieft that marryeth Men, can 
unmarry them when he will : If he could, I think he would have 
more work. I fcarce think the Patron that giveth one a Benefice 
can take it away when he will - 7 which is more alienable than the 

A man cannot renounce it himfelfwhen he will, who hath fome 
more power of himfelf than the Bifhop hath. 

Do you not know that all are agreed that the Office of the 
Miniftry is as Marriage, during Life, and not for Tryal or at Plea- 


[ iS5 ] 
fure, except in cafe of Adultery ? Therefore the Papifts lay, 
Ordination maketh an Indelible Character : Of this all Parties are 

L. But why fay you the Ordainers do not give yon the Power ', 
but as Inveftmg Minifters ? Ton are not called immediately by Chrijt 
as the Ayoftles were ; who then doth give it yon, if not the Or- 
dainers ? 

M. i. The Office lyeth in an Obligation to great labour and 
great patience as well as in a gift of power. It is a power to work 
in a fuffering ftate. And as the Bi(hop can oblige no man to this 
againft his will, lb neither can he oblige any man farther than Chrift 
and his own confent oblige him. Therefore it fohoweth that nei- 
ther can he give the power farther than Chrift giveth it j and the 
Ordainers and People, and Magiftrates have each their part under 
Chrift, in the conveyance. 

L. How doth Chrift give Minifters their Office ? 

M. i. He maketh a Law that there mall be a Miniftry, and 
fpecifieth the Office by defcribing their work, and the necelTary, 
qualification of the Perlbns. So that it is not left to Bifhops nor 
any to alter the Office, nor to admit any uncapable Perfons in- 
to it. 

2. Next Chrift blefTeth Mens preparatory Studies and Endea- 
vours, and by his gifts and graces cloth give them all Minifterial 

3. He maketh them defirous and willing of the Office and 
Work in Love to the blefTed Effects, and 16 maketh them Con- 
fen ters. 

4. His Providence bringeth them where their Labours are really 

5 . He moveth the minds of the Flock or Electors to defire, chufe 
or accept them. 

6. He commandeth the Ordainers to Approve and Ordain thofe 
that are thus qualified as aforefaid. 

7. He commandeth Magiftrates to protect and encourage 

8. He commandeth the Neighbour Church-Paftors* to own 
them in their Neighbourly Communion. Thus you may fee 
how Minifters are made by Chrift, though not without Mans 

X 2 Dq 

Do you know how God maketh Marriages ? i . He inftituteth 
the State, and by his Law maketh the Husband the Ruler of the 
Wife. 2. He cauleth their natural Capacity and Inclination. 

3. His Providence acquainteth them with each o:her. And 

4. He moveth them to Confent. And 5. He maketh it the 
Minifters Duty to do his part j lb that the Husbands power is of 

Do you know who giveth the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs of Lon- 
don their power ? 1 . The King by Charter determineth what power, 
they mall have, and how they lhall be qualified, and how chofen, 
and how fworn and in veiled . 2. The Citizens accordingly choofe 
them. 3. And the Recorder Sweareth them. Who is it now that 
giveth them the power ? The King s Charter, though not till they 
be duly qualified and chofen. The Recorder cannot depoie them 
again ; No, nor the Citizens (who may do more ) unlefs it be in the 

L. But what Sin fear yon by ceafmg your minifrry ? 

M. 1 . We fear the guilt of perfidious breaking of our Ordina- 
tion Vow, by which we folemnly obliged our ielves to diligent 
performing of our Miniftry. The Bifhops put thofe of us on 
this whom they ordained, who now would force us to violate 

2. Therein we fear the guilt of Sacriledge, as alienating perfons 
confecrated to God. And we can judge it to be no better than 
Pharifaical Hypocrifie, in them that aggravate the Sacriledge of alie- 
nating confecrated Utenfils and Lands, and yet will alienate confe- 
crated Perfons, and take it to be well done : whereas the Lands and 
Goods are but to ferve the perfons who are nearer to God, while 
they f rve him. 

3. We fear the Sin of Cruelty, Unmercifulnefs, and the guilt 
of Damning ^ouls. As if we were commanded to forbear 
feeding our Children, or the Poor, we fhould expect to be 
charg'd with Murdering them, if they died of Famine, by our 
Negleft. ' 

4. We fear being charged with fighting againft Chrift, or 
as Enemies to his Kingdom, and to his Saving Work; Hewasfo 
great an Efteemer of Souis and Holinefs, that by the greater!: of 
Miracles, he came in Flefh to redeem, and fanclifie, and lave Men : 
And if we ftarve and betray them to Satan by our negleft, we are 
Enemies to his faving Work and Office. And he that condemneth 


C M7] 

them that do not feed, and clothe, and vifit them, may condemn us 
more, if we betray their Souls. 

5. We fear being guilty of ferving the Devil, in deferting and be- 
traying Souls that are our truft : As a Captain that fhould defert his 
Station and fly, or fhould defert his Garriibn and Trufr, doth let m 
the Enemy : Or, as Chrift faith, The hireling fleet h and leaver h rhe 
flocks, to Wolves : God faith to. the Negligent watchman, Ez.(kz 33. 
Their blood will I require ar rhy hands. 

6. We (hall be a Temptation to the people to imitate us, and 
forfake the truth, and turn from Chrift : For if the Captains fly, the 
Soldiers are like to follow. And if we may ceaie Minifterial 
piety, they may think they may as well ceafe Family and private 

7. We may look for the doom of the (loathful Servant that hid 
his Matter's Talent, and was fentenced to be caft for it into outer 

8. We caft away our hopes of Salvation by Chrift, if we caft a- 
way our Evidence of our Title to his Love : As he charged Peter, 
three times, If he loved him to feed his Sheep and Lambs 5 fo the 
fame extends to us : We tell him that we love him not, when we 
wilfully deny to feed his Flock. 

9. The charge is dreadful rhat Paul lays on Timothy, and con- 
fequently on us, 2 Tim. 4. 1 . / charge thee therefore before God and 
rhe Lord Jefa Chrift, who ft all judge rhe quick, and the dead at his 
appearing, and his Kingdom ', that thou Preach the Word, te rrUant, 
in feafon, cut of feafon, reprove, rebnke, exhort with all long-fufferirg 
and doBrine. VY hen we recite Paul's words, Necejfity is laid upon 
me, and wo unto me if I preach not the C off el ; 3 Some are fo 
vain as to fay , that this woe belongs to none but thofe that 
Chrift called immediately , as if Men ordinarily called had no 
fuch Neceflity. But Timothy was not called immediately by 

10. Chrift himfelf hath told us, that he that puts his hand 
to the /-low , and looks back , is not fit for the Kingdom 
of God : And that the Servant that will be blefled , muft 
give the Children their Meat in Seafon , and be found fo do- 
ing. For theie Reafons we dare not forfake our Office and 

L. . 

L. Br -Knot doit, you are blame left. 

S.f. 1 hat's true : But we muft do what we can : Chrift fore- 
told his Minifters how they fhould be ufed, Hated, Scourged, 
Killed, and yet will have them go on to the Death. When they 
perfecnte yon in one City, flee to another, was his charge -, what we 
cannot do in one place we may do in another ; and if we cannot 
Preach to more , we muft do it to fewer. No Suffering will 
excufe us, ( much lefs bare Prohibitions ) which do not dis- 
able us. 

L. But by this Rule, every filenced Heretich^ may go on, and wake 
himfclfthe Judge, that he is unjufily file need. 

M. And by your Rule of holding nothing which Men may a- 
buie, all good may be put down. Ufurpers may pretend that 
it's them that we muft obey : Muft not we therefore obey the King ? 
Lyers will claim belief : Muft we therefore believe no body ? 
Realbn is pretended for every Errour and Wickednefs : Muft we 
therefore renounce Reafon ? So falle Teachers may Preach when 
they are forbidden : Muft therefore Chrift's Minifters give over, 
becaufe Men forbid them ? Did the Church do fo for three hun- 
dred years ? 

L. Then it had no Chriflian Magiftrates ? 

M. Have Chriftian Magiftrates more right to filence the Preach- 
ing of the Gofpel, deftroy Souls, and oppofe Chrift's Work, than 
Heathens have ? 

2. Were not Conflantipu, Valens, Theodofim 2d. Anaflafiw, Zeno, 
&c. Chriftian Emperors, and yet the Bifhops went on when they 
forbad them : Read Bifhop Bilfon of Chriflian Subjection, and he 
will tell you that Chriftian Princes are to Protect Chrift's Minifters in 
their Work : but if they forbid it them, they muft go on, and fufTer 
patiently what (hall be done againft them for it. 

L. but what -need is there oj your Preaching ? Have we not Miniflers 
enough without you ? Hath not every Parifli one ? And fome fay many 
Thoufands are Ordained of late that want Benefices, 

M. Whether our Miniftry be needful is matter of Facl fo eafily 
difcernable to Englijhmen, that I think him fcarce meet for thefe de- 
bates that doubteth of it, if he know the Land. 

1 . The Supernumeraries that want Benefices, do not help the needy 
Parifhes, but dwell in the Univerfiries, or as Chaplains in Great 
is Houles, to read the Common-Prayer and fay Grace at Meat, 
till a Benefice fail. 

2. The 

C ml 

2. The greater fort of Parifhes have more Work than many 
Ministers can do: They have befides Study and Preaching, Children 
to Baptize, Godfathers to Examine whether ever they Communicated, 
Communicants muft beforehand give them notice, the Scandalous and 
Contentious muft be admonifhed, all the Communicants examined, 
whether they are Confirmed, or ready and defirous to be Confirmed, 
all that Communicate not, to have their Names taken and lent in to 
the Eifhop ; all than are refilled the Sacrament to be notified to the 
Court, and profecuted, the Sick to be vifited, the Ignorant and Im- 
penitent to be taught and exhorted -, Marrying, Burying, the Poor to 
be taken care of, and much more. And about London it is credibly 
laid, that there can be no lels in the great Parifhes than Two Hundred 
Thoufand Perfons more than the Parifh-Churches will hold : It's 
thought that Martin^ and Giles's in the Fields, and Giles's Cfifipk 
and Stepney alone, have near an Hundred and Fourfcore, if not Two 
Hundred Thoufand Perfons in them : A tender-hearted Man would 
be loth to Famifh, or otherwife Kill Two Hundred Thoufand Dogs : 
It was the greateft MafiTacre that hath been heard of in any credible 
Hiftory of late (if not at amy time) when the Irijh in fo fmall a com- 
pais murdered two Hundred Thoufand Proteftants : But to ftarve 
Souls, or by omifiion of our Duty to betray them to that Ignorance 
and Ungodlinels which is the Caufe of Damnation, is worfe than to 
Kill the Body. There cannot pair Four, Thoufand hear in thele 
Churches : Yea, ufually, not paft Two Thoufand can hear the Prea* 
cher's Voice, intelligently 5 though Five Thoufand or Six Thoufand 
may come within the Doors. 

And if you fuppofe that in thefe Four Parifhes, Sixteen Thoufand 
may hear one Day, and thofe flay at home, and Sixteen Thouiand 
more hear the next Day (or time J, Thirty Two Thoufand is but a 
fmall part of Eightfcore Thoufand : And if fb far the greateft number 
muft turn practical Atheifts, and not pubiickly Worfhip God at all 7 
why mould not fuch places be denominated Pagan or Atheifts from 
fo much the greater part ? 

L. But xchat is four Parifics to Ml the resl -,ar,d the Common Cafe ? 

M. I pray you enquire in Clement Dazes, \\'c>i>mnfter, Andrews 
Holborn, Sepulchres, Chrift-Ch/tKcb, Aid* ate, Shored itch, V) 
Chappel, Olives and Magdalene s gonrhwark, &e. and you may hear 
how many others come near to the lame Caie : And mull fo famous a 
City as London be Paganized or made fo Atheiftical ? 

L. To* 

[ 1*0 ] 

L. You lay heavy Charges on the Parliament and Biftjops that have 
filencedyou : you are befi take heed what you fay, 

M. No honeft heed will iecure a man in this Age of malignity and 
perjury. Biit you miftake me : I meddle not with the Parliament, 
Laws, or Bifhops, much lefs with the King : I leave all men to their 
righteous Judge, who is at the door : To his Judgment they ftand 
or'fall : I only tell you what I think it would be in us that are Vowed 
to the latred Miniftry, if we defert our Office and Work for Man's 

L. But all thefe People that you talkof, may find room 'mother Parijh 
Churches : Many Churches in London are half empty , or have room 

M. Do you not know that the London Churches wefe burnt 
down 1 6(56, and to this day it's but few of them that are built a- 
gain } but Minifters preach in iinall inconvenient Tabernacles : And 
thole that are built, the Seats are commonly all taken up long ago, 
and lock'd up : I heard the Iaft Week an Eminent Efquire fay, that 
he offer 'd Five Pound for a Seat, and could have none, and he was 
not able to ftand ib long with the Lads in the Alley. People will not 
let Strangers into their Seats, when they are Crowded with the 
Owners : 1 come into no Church that hath a competent fober Prea- 
cher, that is not full - 7 Alleys and Seats. And I pray you if Ten 
Thoufand out of Stepney, or Martins, or Giles would go about the 
City to leek for Churcn-room : i . How fhall they know before- 
hand in what Churches to find it ? 2, When they mils it in three or 
four, the time will be over before they find it in a fifth, 3. Few but 
ftrong men are able to ftand ib long in the Alleys without Seats. 
4. And this fuppoleth them to be honeft thirfty Souls that have leaft 
need ; whereas the worfer fort that have no fuch appetite are the 
Multitude, who will ftay at home if they have not convenience near 
them. 5. And the moft willing People will hardly travel far to hear 
a man rail at them and flander them, as fome do. 

L. But what great f apply of this dcfeB do your Meetings make ? Are 
not n. oft of them in the Parities where there is room ? And are not moft 
of your Hearers fuch as you thinkhavc leaft need \ 

M. 1 • As many Meetings are held in the Greater Parifhesas will 
be endured, and more would be, could they be fuifered at any pof- 
flble rate. 

2. Thofe 

C #i ] 

2. Thofe that dwell in the greater PariPnes, can go further into 
the lefs, when they know before-hand that they have there room and 
hired Seats. The Meetings that have been kept up in the City Pa- 
rimes, were as much for others, as for the Parifhioners, and were 
there continued, becaufe there was till of late the leaft difturbance, 
and gentleft profecution. 

3. Thofe that have leaft need, yet have ib great need, as is 
more regardable than any bodily want : Souls and Heaven are 
precious, and all Men have Sins and WeaknefTes and Tempta- 
tions, and all helps poffible are little enough to fecure our Sal- 

4. When godly Perfons are at our Aflemblies, they take not up 
that room in the ParifliChurches which others would have, and 16 
exclude not others. 

L. But after all your meetings, there are [till as many thoufands as 
you talk^of that go to no Church. 

M. We are unwilling to be found any Caufeofthat. The more 
need there is, the greater is our guilt, if we negleft what we can do 
for the fupply. 

L. But what's this to. the common Cafe of Count", y Parifies ? 

M. For my part I would have no filenced Minifter preach 
where there is not evident need. But the Country alas is not 
without need. 1. Some Parifhes are fo great, that part of the 
Inhabitants have more miles to come to Church, than the Aged, 
Women, Weak and Children can Travel. 2 Too many have 
fuch Teachers as the people dare not take for their Paftors, 
any more than an Ignorant Quack for their Phyfician, or one 
for their School-mafter that cannot read. 3. Some had able 
Learned Paftors turned out , and they cannot prove that their 
relation to them as fuch is diflblved. 4. Some by the ruining 
Profecutions of the Clergy and Bifhops Counfels are cad into 
an over-great averfnefs to them, and will not take fuch for their 
Paftors, as they think have the Teeth and Claws of Wolves. 
And will not travel far to feek Figs and Grapes on Thorns 
and Thiftles. And if thefe Erre and be to be blamed, they- 
are not therefore to be forfaken, any more than our Children, if 
they cannot eat Cheefe, are to be familhed and denied all other 

Y But 


[ 1«2 J 

But I mull refer you to a full Treatife which I have written to 
juftifie our preaching, called, An Apology for it : At leaft, I pray 
you Study thefe Texts of Scripture, Mat. 5. 13, 14, 15, io\ and 
28. 19, 20. JEph. 4. to, to 17. 1 jfia*. 4. 15, 16. 1 Cor. 4. 1, 2. 
Mafc 24. 45, 46, 47, 48. Jflfifc 4. 19. and 5. 28. 1 Cor. 9. 14, 16. 
ASl. 4. 29, 2 7w. 4, 1, 2, 3. 1 il;/7. 6. 1 3, 14. 2 77/77. 1 . 8, 1 1, 
'■12/13.' 77*. 2. 15. 1 Ect. 5 1, 2, 3- 2 7*7/2. 2. 2, 24, 25. Eph. 6. 
19, 20. M^. .10. 7: &, itf, 17, fflbo. and 9. 38. &U£ 9, 62. and 
10. 2. 

L. But why may you not keep away five miles from Corporations and 
places where yon have Preached . ? 

M. Did you not fay even now, That fmall Countrey Parifhes 
fiave no need of us ? One Man may ferve for Two Hundred or a 
Thoufand, better than for many Thoufands. 

2. The Reafons of our Preaching is Men's real need, and the 
Churches good : Therefore we are moil: obliged, cateris paribus, 
where there is moil: need, and moll: probability of doing good, 

3. Chriftbids us, When they perfecute yon in one City, fry to ano- 
ther : And the Apoftles firft planted their Churches in Cities. If you 
know the Reafons of thefe, you know our Reafons. 

To conclude, whole Service is it, think you, to perfwade Two 
Thoufand fuch Minifters to give over their Preaching and Miniftry ? 
whole Intereft requireth it ? Did Chrift or his Apoftles ever do or 
perfwade fuch a thing ? But the way to bring us all to Popery is to 
difable its chief Adtferfaries, and to obliterate all Religion firft, that 
Ignorance and UnConfcionablenefs may be receptive of a new Form. 
You muft take your Church-Bells, and break and melt them, if you 
will caft them anew to bring them to a new found and ufe. 


G H A P. 

[ i<5? 1 

CHAR XLSV. OfL.iy Conformity: Point t Whaler all 
£Mcn nntji tntji their Sjals only on the Paji nr.il Care of 
fttch U4 our Patrons c loafed and BifrMps in ft it trie. 

L. TT Thought you would have objecled only again ft Forms andGepures, 

J^ and you talk^of matters. that affright one at the very fating oj the 
Cafe : But how are all Lay-men thm obliged ? 

M. I have before cited the exprefs words of the Canon : They 
muft be prefented and profecuted if they come not to their Parifh 
Churches : They muft be driven home from all Neighbour-Chur- 
ches, if it be one that never preacheth that they go from, and muft 
be Excommunicate at laft ; the Minifter muft be fuipended that ad- 
mits them. 

L. But Bftop Gunning 1 j Chaplain faith welly that you may yet pri- 
vately advife vnth other Minifter s. 

M. I take that from them for a great favour, that they drive us 
not from all Chriftian converfe, but give us leave to lpeak privately 
with more than the Parifi-Priefi : But even privately it muft 
be no Non- conforming for they cannot be heard at five Miles 

But will you ierioufly tell me, i. Whether mod parifh Mini- 
fters have not ib much Work at home, that they have little time to 
lpare for. Strangers ? 

2. Whether as Meir provide firft for their own Families before 
they relieve Neighbours and the poor - fo Minifters will not think 
themfelves bound to do by their own Parifhes ? and fcarce afford the 
fcraps to others ? 

3. Do you. think in Confcierice that alt Souls, and fpecially the 
moil Ignorant have not need of a conftanf- Paftory and the help of 
his Office, as well as of an occafional Difcourie with a Stranger ? 
If not, what have we ParinVpriefts for, and why pay we Tythes to 
them ? 

L. But all Places cannot have profound Caf ni ft s, and extraordinary 
Learned holy men : Few Churches had an AHguftine, a- Chryfoftom^ 
a Bafel, or NazAanzj,: 

M. All Men cannot have excellent Phyficians, nor rich Trades, 
nor pleafant Dwellings, nor excellent Wives or Servants/ cf?r. 

Y 2 But 

C 164 ] 

But I think'it's lawful to have the beft they can get : Or at Ieaft to 
refufe the intolerable. I had rather truft Nature for my Phyfitian, 
than an ignorant Quack or a Knave. 

L. But we have many found and worthy minifters. 

M. And I perfwade none to go from fuch, if their faithful dili o ence 
fhew their worth. It is not thefe that we are fpeaking of. ° Are 
there no other ? 

L. The me arte ft of 'them (peah^ found Doctrine : Even thofe that the 
Canon forbids to Preach or Expound, do read the Scriptures and found 
Homilies , 

M. So can a good Woman or a Child : And an ignorant Man or 
Woman can read a good phyfick or Law-Book. Will you there- 
fore take them for your Phyficians or Lawyers ? Do you know the 
cafe of our Parifhes or not ? Tell me what you would do your felf in 
this cafe. 

Suppofe a poor Sinner is convinced of his great Ignorance 
and dulnefs, and finful inclinations, and ftrong Temptations, and 
finds great difference between a clear Judicious, "Skilful, ferious 
Minifter and others, and yet that the beft doth prove too little 
for his help : This Man dwells m a Panfh wherein the Pulpit 
he heareth a young Fellow fometime read a Cento of imperti- 
nent fhreds, as School-boys make an ignorant Declamation : And 
fometimes he heareth him tell them what damnable Hypocrites 
they are, and Schifmaticks, that fcruple any thing commanded 
by the Church, and then make long Prayers, and talk religi- 
ouily to hide it : And in Company he hath not a ferious word 
for a Holy Life, and to prepare Men for another World, but 
ibmetimes reviles Puritans, and at beft talks of worldly things, 
or Opinions or Faclions in Religion -, and perhaps will be Drunk 
and Rant it with the moft prophane His Parifliioner in Doubts 
and Trouble of Con&ience comes to him for Satisfaction; And 
the beft Anfwer he can get is, [What Puritan put thefe Fears or 
Scruples in your head} If you trouble your mind about fuch matters 
you will Jhortly turn Schifmaticks or go mad : Truft God, and follow 
pur Bufineft, and be merry. The Scripture is for Divines, and not 
fox fuch as you; It is above- your Capacity f\ The Parifhiorier having 
no better Anfwer , goeth no more : And perhaps an hundred 
or a thoufand in the Parifh have more need of Paftoral help, 
than this Man : And in the Pulpit he Preachetfr them afleep, 


[ l^l 

or into Laughter, or into hatred of Puritans ; and out of the Pulpit 
doth drink, and talk, and live as they. 

2. Suppofe thefe Men hear the Clergy tell why they Silence 
and Banifh, and render odious fuch Men as we are : And they 
think with thenafelves, we perceive by this that it is not indiffe- 
rent what Paftors we have : And if thefe reviled Men be fo bad, 
is our Priefl any better, or wifer or honefter, or more to be 
trufted ? 

3. Suppofe thefe poor people had a Teacher twenty or ten years 
that is now caft out, whofe preaching they found to be clear and 
edifying, and quickening ^ that preacht all for Faith, and Hope, and 
Love, and Holinels, and Peace, and Heaven } and lived in exem- 
plary Charity, Piety, and Righteoufly and Soberly, and unwearied- 
ly taught them with tendernefs publickly and from Houfe to Houfe. 
And the fenfe and experience of their Souls tells them how great the 
change of their condition is ? 

4. Suppofe thefe Men hear the Teacher called Ar mint an, derid- 
ing Infufions of ihe Spirit and Grace, and proving that God work- 
eth on Souls morally by the aptitude of means, and teacheth and 
changeth Men as rational Creatures ? 

Can you blame this Man if he conclude [My Soul is more to me 
than my Life : my Neceflity is unqueftionable : my Experience 
what edifieth me is not to be born down by the fcorn of a derider, 
I am dark and dull, and too bad under the beft helps, but alas 
profit little by an infipid, fleepy or deriding Speech. As no man 
hath power to tie me to marry an ugly Scold, or to truft a Fool, 
or Knave, or Enemy for my Phyfician ; fo no man hath power to 
deprive me of the needful helps to my Salvation, when I can have 

L. But they all Breach the fame Word of God, 

M. Do you think the myfterious Invifible things of Faith, and 
the multitude of hard Cafes in Obedience, and the many dange- 
rous Diftempers of a carnal, worldly, dead Heart, have not need 
of as skilful a Helper, as the profeffion of Lav/ and Phyfick 
hath ? How vaft a difference is there between an ignorant Prater, 
and a skilful Lawyer or Phyfician ? And as I have more care of my 
Soul than of my Body, fo mens Laws have lefs power over It. 

L, / 

C 16C] 

L / do not think the World hath a better Clergy than the Church of 

M. 1 do challenge of: any to name that Nation under Heaven out 
of the Kings Dominions that hath Two Thoufand worthier Minifters 
than thofe that were here filenced, and reviled, and hunted like 
Rogues. But I pray you tell me, 

i . Do you know how many, and what fort of men the pa- 
trons in England are that chufe. them ? The Conformifts oft lay 
that many of them are Simonifts i It's well known that many of 
them are taken for the Famoufeft Papifts in the Countrey. Though 
they have the Wit and Faculty to keep off Legal Conviction, or 
elfe to manage their Advowfons by Truftees. And O how well 
were it with England if none or few of them Were Worldlings, 
Gluttons, Drunkards, Whoremongers, or Haters, Or profecu- 
tors of ferious godly men ? Is there any Body doubts whether 
there be luch ? And though good and fober Lords and Gentlemen 
will promote good and fober men, the propagation of the f pedes 
is the moil natural Appetite ; and an evil Tree?* will bring forth 
evil Fruit, and a Hater of Godlinefs is unlike to chufe a godly 
Pallor. And any man that hath Money, be he never ib bad or 
erroneous may buy an Advowfon or Prefentation. And muft 
all poor Souls have no other Pallors than thefe men will 
chufe ? 

And \m jure ? how came they by a right to chufe Paflors for all 
the Lanci ? Did God ever give it them ? 

The people at firtt finrully gave it them, in blind gratitude, for 
Building and Endowing Temples. But Mens Grant many Hundred 
years ago, being finful, hath no power to bind our Coniciences : 
Our Fore-fathers might give their Lands from their poflerity, but 
they could not give away Gods Ordinances, nor the means of our 
Salvation. If Matrons might ill difpofe of Temples and Tythes,that's 
nothing to prove that they may chufe Pallors for all men againil their 

L. But the Bijhops have the power of In ft it ution , and they will keep 
eat unworthy men. 

M. i. Do they defatto keep them out? I told you truly what 
a company of ignorant drunken Readers I was bred up underfill I 
was thirteen- years of Age, or fourteen, and what a fort were 
round about us : And yet the Bilhops were as good men as any I 


know now. Bifhop Morton was our Bifhop. If we are fo hard- 
ly agreed in a notorious matter of Fad, ^. what Paitors multi- 
tudes of Parifhes now have, it's in vain to difpute of any thing 

2. When we have told the Conformifts what men are Infti- 
tuted, their common aniwer is, that it's long of the Patrons, and 
the Law, that enablerh not the Bifhop to keep them out : And 
that if the Bifliop deny Inflitution to any one that can but fay ibme 
account of his Faith in Latin, a qiiare impedit will force him to 
Inftitute him. But whether you will lay it on the Bifnops want 
of Power, or their Will, it's no relief to the miferable Peo- 

And that which the Bifhop requireth more to Ordination, is but 
a Certificate of a good Converfation which I never knew man fo 
Heretical or wicked in all my Life, that could not get from three 

L. Would you have Patrons turned out of their right ? 

M. No, it is no right of Gods giving to be the fole Choofers of 
Paftors for mens Souls. There is a threefold part in Minifters ad- 
mittance, i. To judge who is fit to be by them Ordained : And 
this is the Ordainers part. 

2. To Chufe or Confent who fhall be the Paftor of Mens Souls : 
And this is the Peoples part. 

3 To judge and chufe who fhall have the publick Places, Main- 
tenance, Countenance and Toleration i And this is the Magiftrates 
and Patrons part. 

L. But thefe three may differ, and its like will do fo j how then flail 
ever the Churches be provided ? 

M. There is nothing in this World without difficulties and in- 
conveniences : But on fo great a Treafure a threefold Lock is 
good fecurity ; and hath lets inconvenience than the way that we 
are againft. It's like neceflity will at laft make all content, (as 
the Cities in Belgium do in their Government.) But if they mould 
not ; i ♦ None can chule who fhall be the paftor of this or that 
Church, till the Ordainers confent that he be in general a Mini- 
fter in the Church Univerfal : So that their Confent lb far is pre- 

2. If the patron offer an unfit Man, and the people refufe 
him, he may offer others : If they continue to difagree, it is but 


let the Patron cbufe who fhall have the Place and Tythes, and the 
people chufe who fhall be their Paftor. 

L. What confufion will this bring in t Shall one that is no Paftor 
have the Benefice f And whom flail the People chttfe^ and where flail 
they Ajfemble ? 

M. If great Men that fhould keep Gods Order, will obftinately 
break it, its they that caule the confufion, and inferiors cannot re- 
medy it. But if you will lay by prejudice and have patience I fhall 
open the cafe to you. 

I. The Magiftrate as the Patron of the Church, muft fee that 
every place have competent Teaching : And over the meer Ca- 
techumens or Auditors, he may appoint who fhall chufe thefe 
Parifh Teachers, and to them as fuch he may give the publick place 
and Maintenance (if Original Dedication to Paftors as fuch make it 
not Sacriledge to alienate it.) And thefe Teachers are bound to 
Preach, Catechife, and do all that's due to Catechumens. 

II. If thefe men be tolerable, no doubt the generality of the peo- 
ple will chufe them for their Paftors, prudence requiring it ; rather 
than lofe the advantage of the place, and of a countenanced main- 
tained Miniftry. 

III. If intolerable Men get in, or fuch as the Flock of Communi- 
cants cannot fubmit to, it's moft like that the people will for the ad- 
vantage of the publick place and countenance, take fome Neighbour 
Paftor for theirs, and there Communicate, paying their Ty thes at 

IV. If moft chufe the Parifh Teacher for their Paftor, and a few 
Diftenters go to the next Parifh Church, the inconvenience will be 
comparatively fmall. 

V. If any number can confent to no Parifh Minifter near them, 
it is but to tolerate their Communion in a place of their own prepa- 
ring, if the Magiftrate find their Principles and Converfation tolerable, 
and this under Laws of Peace and good Behaviour } and what 
harm is in all this ? 

L. It 

• C i*9 1 

L. It feems then you take it for unlawful Conformity, to takg the 
Parijh Minifters for our P after s. 

M. No Sir j though any Patron chufe them, and obtrude them, 
to whom God hath given no fuch right, yet if they be fit or tole- 
rable Men, the convenience of Place, Countenance, Maintenance, 
and Parifli Order, will teach Men, as 1 laid, finis gratia, in pru- 
dence to confent to them. But if fuch be unfit and intolerable, I 
will have better, if I can. And I take it for unlaw fjl Conformity 
to take all, or any that are intolerable, for our Paftors, becaule 
fuch Patrons chufe them ; who, I mould be loth, fhould chufe my 
Servants, my Cook, or my Phyfician. And it's unlawful to give 
away to a Patron, the Churches Right of Election or Conient, if we 
can keep it. 

Chap. XLV. Point II. Whether Parents haze not mere right 
than our * Patrons to chufe 'Pajlors and Church Communion 
for their Children. 

M. II. "tt-HE next Fault of Lay-Conformity is, That they are 
1 deprived of due Family-Government, while a Stran- 
ger called Patron, and not the Parents, mufl chufe who fhall be 
Paftor to their Children when they are at Age \ and to what Church 
their Family (hall go. 

L. Did not you [ay before, that the King may fettle Teachers in all 
the Pariftjesy and force men to hear them ? Why then may he not force 
you and your Children, and Servants to hear them, as Catechumens f 

M. I told you that he ought to take care that no Parifh want a 
fit Teacher, whom the unwilling may hear. 2. And that the negli- 
gent and unwilling be forced to hear either them or fome other al- 
lowed, or jungly tolerated Teacher. But I never faid that i. Be- 
caufe the Catechumens may be forced to hear their Parifh Teacher, 
who are Free-men, therefore thole that are Wives, Children, and 
Servants, may be forced to go to one Church, when the Husband, 
Parent or Mailer commands them to go with him to another. 2. Nor 
yet that thofe Matters that are Communicants, and not Catechumens, 
ma^ be forced from hearing their own Paftors, approved or tole- 
rated. It's enough that they be forced to hear either. And Men 
ought not to be deprived of the due Government of their Families. 

Z L. Is 

C 170 j 

L. Is vo? the Patron as ft to chafe a Teacher or Paftor for your 
Wivcs^ Children and Servants as you are ? 

M. No; 1. A M&8 Intereil in, and power over his Wife and 
Children is earlier and greater than a Patrons is It is natural, and 
by a Law, which no Men have power to abrogate : Self-govern- 
ment and Family- government are antecedent to Princes or States 
Government, and they have no right to diffolve it. 

2. I Stall gain or lofemore by the welfare or milery of my Family 
than the Patron will 

3. Nature huh given ma a greater Love to Wife and Children, 
and bound me to a greater care for them, than it hath done a 

4. I know them better, and therefore know what they need, and 
what Teacher and Communion is fit for them, better than a Patron 
that never law them or me. 

5. Suppofing that I am allowed to chufe my own Paftor and Com- 
munion, it will be inconfiftent with Family-government, that my 
Wife, Children and Servants be forced to go to another place, 
where I can have no account of them what they do, and how they 
behave themfelves. 

6. If no Man may juftiy chufe for my Children a Tutor, a Trade, 
a Phyfician, or Diet, or Cloathing, rather than my felf, f much lefs 
a worfe when I chufe a better ; ) nor may impofe Husbands or 
Wives on them, much lefs may any chufe for them againit my 
will and choice, an Office on which their Salvation is fo fpectally 

L Bat if you may force your Wife and Children to what Paftor you 
chufe for them> it feems then #> Man may be forced to one Paftor , rather 
than another : And then why may not the Magiftr 'ate force you , as well 
as you may force your Family ? 

~M. You miftake Hie \ I do not fay I may force my Family to any 
Pailor: Hay, if they that are not Communicants but Catechumens, 
may be forced to one Teacher, it's meeter for me to force them, than 
for a Patron or any other. 

2. But as to Communion I will not force them to it at all } nor 
to this or that Paftor : But becaufe different Places and Paftors for 
Communion, fignifieth different minds, and will be a great di- 
ftra&ing inconvenience to a Family, I will ufe all my Reafon and 
Loving Intereft in them to bring them all to one place for Com- 
munion : And its very ftrange if I prevail not j having better ad- 

[ 171 ] 

vantage to farisfie their reafon, and to perfwade them, than a Gran- 
ger hath } io that iuch Breaches will be very rare. 

But if I be as injurious to them as fome patrons are, and would 
draw them to chufe an intolerable Pailor, or fa lie Teacher, it is 
their Intereft and Duty not to be periwaded by me to their hurt. 

L. What confufion will this make in the World, when all people, even 
Wives and Servants may chufe on what P aft or they will depend, and 
where they will Communicate. 

M. It were a happy World if you, or any did deliver it from 
differences, yea, or confufion. But perfect concord is no where 
but where is perfect knowledge , holinefs , righteouiheis and 
love. If it breed confufions in the World that every Man chufe 
his own Dwelling, Trade, Diet, Cloathing, Wife, Servants, 
Travels , Company , Phyfician , Counfellor , Tutor , Matter , 
Books, &c. And ib that their Life, Death and Souls be more 
in their own power than anothers, there is no remedy : If you 
would devife any other Chafer for them of all theie, you would 
cure that diforder with madnefs and deftruction ; who is it that 
fhould chufe all thefe for all other Men ? He that chuieth for them 
muft anfwer for them, and mull be accordingly faved or damned 
for them. If God had appointed fome Pope that he would always 
make wife and good, to chufe for the Kingdoms of China, Pegn, 
Tart/iry, Japan, Sumatra, and aU the reft of the World, what 
Religion they fhould be of, and what they mould love and hate, 
Ipeak and do, it would have brought the World to a happy ftate, 
if all would ftand to that Mans choice i But who can teach God 
how to Rule the World, and lay, Thou fhouldft have made Man 
other wife. 

Will you mark this : Either it is only to command Men what to 
chufe, or elfe to make them chufe by efficient determination of their 
Wills, or elfe to move them by force without or againft their Wills ; 
that you would have the World laved from fin and confufion. There 
is but thele three ways. 

And I. To move them againft or without their With, h natural 
motion or violent, and will make none of their actions good or bad 
in a Moral lence : Nil m ft voUwtarium eft morale : Thus a Horfe, a 
Watch, a Ship is governed : And you may lay them in what order 
you will, when they are dead; 

Z 2 II. To 

[ i7 2 1 

II. To make them good by Phyfical efficient determination of 
Mens wills, Goa can do it and doth not, at leaf!:, with moft. Man 
cannot do it : It's madnefs to pretend to it. And I hope you will not 
accufeGod, who only can doit, for not curing the fin and confufions 
of the World this way. 

III. It is therefore only the Moral way of curevthatremaineth, 
by Laws, Rewards and Punifhments: And hath not God made 
better Laws for Religion than Man can make ? More infallible and 
perfect , with more awful power , and with ten thoufand fold 
greater Rewards and Punifhments? And now what mean you by 
laying that every Man mttft not be left to c]mfe what Religion he lift ? 
i. Every Man is a rational voluntary Agent, and not a Stone or 
Brute. 2. Every bad Man is left undetermined by efficiency of 
God or Man in all the evil that he doth. 3. Every one in the 
World is left by God and Man to chufe Salvation or Damnation in 
the means, and to fpeed as he chuieth. 4. No Man is left Law- 
lefs to chufe what he will without the obligation of a perfeel Divine 

L. But men that believe not a God, and a Life to come, muftbe 
moved by temporal pumjhment which they can feel. Let them ft ay till 
death, and they will deride Religion, and live in wickednefs. 

M. You are too confufed while you talk againft confufion. 

1 . Do you think men that believe not a God and a Life to come 
are fit for Church Communion, and may be forced to it ? No nor 
any that do not defire Chrift, Grace and Glory before all the Baits 
of fin. 

2. Did you think I had pleaded that men may without punifh- 
ment do what they lift, and live in wickednels ? It's one thing to 
> eftrain them from fin, and another to conftrain them to fin under the 
name of Religion. 

3. Nor did I fpeak againft conftraining Atheifts and Infidels and 
malignant Enemies to hear the Gofpel. 

4. But your force cannot conftrain them to believe. And 

5. You ought not to conftrain them to lie and fay they believe. 

6. And you ought not prophanely to lie in Chrift's Name, by telling 
an unwilling Communicant, That all his fins are pardoned, and that 
you Seal it to him. 

Do as much good by force as you can, but do no mifchief. 

L. But 

C 17? D 

L. But hath not the King more power over your Family than yon 
have? Sure the highefl power is the great eft ^ and containeth all the 
lower in it. 

The laft words are a great miftake .■ Political power doth not con- 
tain Natural, Perfonal and Oeconomical, and Ecclefiaftical in it} but 
fuppofeth them all unalterable and pre-exiftent, and only uieth them 
to Political ends, that is^ the fafety and good of the Commonwealth: 
And as far as this end requireth, the King hath more power of my 
Wife, Children, Eftate, Life, than I have : That is, he may iee 
that I ufe my Perfonal and Family Government fo, as may not hurt 
the Commonwealth, and do more harm than good. 

But that Politick power doth neither eonfdn nor abrogate the other- 
is evident, i. The King doth not eat and drink for me, nor digeffc 
my meat, nor rejoyce or grieve for me. 2. The King doth not fin 
by my finning, nor fhall be judged, faved or damned for me. 
3. The King may not chufe my Wife, Diet, &c. As aforelaid : Nof- 
hath he right to lye with your Wife as you have, nor to difpofe of 
your Children or Propriety. 4. The King that ruleth Priefts, may 
not do what the Prieft doth. Adminifter Sacraments, ufe the Church 
Keys, &c. So that all that he can do, is to over-rule perfonal, Fa- 
mily and Church Governours, to the common good, without de- 
ftroying them. 

L. It is for the Common good that all be forced to Communion. 
M. Yes, if you can firft force them to Faith and Holinefs, elie it 
is for the common Church -confufion, Corruption, and mens deceit 
and damnation, and not the common good. 

Chip XL VI. Point IN. Of forcing Men to Schijm^ by 
T^r/ountivg Communion with iru: Churches at: a Mem- 
be s of Chrifu 

M. III. ~np HE Third unlawful part of Lay-Conformity is, that they 
J muft be forced from Local Communion with all the Non- 
conformifls that AfTemble any where, lave in the Parifh-C hurches or 
Chappels, andfo under pretence of driving them from Schilm, they 
are driven into notorious Schifm. 

L. How prove you that its their Duty to have any fuch Communion 
with Non-con for mi ft s Conventicles ? If you are Schifmaticks, it's a fin 
'to Communicate with you. 


M. i. I prove Communion with us a Duty } (Though it be not 
every Mans Duty to be Locally preient with us, it is every Mans 
Duty not to avoid it as an unlawful thing, but to be willing of it as 
he hath occafionj. 

2. It is a Duty for all Chriftians to own Communion with all 
true Members of the Body of Chrift. But Nonconforming and 
their AfTemblies for Worfhip, are true Members of the tody of 
Chrift. Ergo 

The major is mod fully proved by Chrift, Job. 17. 24. and Paul 
1 Cor. 12. throughout, and Eph. 4. 1, 2, 3, to the 17. and Rom. 
14 and 15. and many other Scriptures. 

The minor I prove. All thofe are true Members of the Body of 
Chrift, who have all the EfTentials necefTary to the Conftitution of 
fuch Members. But fo have the Non-conformifts and their Church 
AfTemblies (as afore defcribed :) Ergo. 

The major none but the ignorant of Logick will deny. 

As to the minor^ They that have true Chriftian Faith, Hope, 
and Love, have all that is Effential to perfonal Members : And 
the Churches that have Paftors and People communicating in that 
Faith, Hope and Love, in Doctrine, Worfhip, Sacraments and 
tolerable Diicipline, are true Churches, parts of the Univerfal 
Church. But luch are many Perfons and Churches of Non-confor- 
mifts. Ergo. 

The major all found and knowing Chriftians grant. 

For 1 he minor no proof is necefTary but our Profeffion, till it be 
difproved. And let the Accufersof the Brethren, as they love them- 
felves, take this warning before they undertake to diiprove it : Do 
it by no Argument that will ten times more condemn your ielves and 
your Church, than fuch Non-conformifts. 

2. The fecond Argument is this : It is a Sin of Schifm to refufe 
Communion with thofe that Chrift receiveth, fo we own not any of 
their fin : Rom. 15. 6. &c. But Chrift receiveth (into his Commu- 
nion) the foreiaid Non-conformifts and their Worfhiping AfTemblies. 
Proved as before. 

3. It is a Sin to deny the la wfulnefs of Communion with Chriftians 
and their AfTemblies, for lefTer faults than thofe Perfons and AiTem- 
blies had, whofe Communion Chrift and his Apoftles were for : Buc 
fb muft they that will deny the lawfulneis of Communion with the 

iaid Non confor i mift'? and their AfTemblies — 


[ 175 ] 

The major none will deny that take Chrift and his Apoftles for 
their Teachers. 

1 he minor is eafily proved : The Church of the Jews had Pr lefts 
unlawfully introduced, and corrupt Teachers, and Worfhip, and 
yet Chrift difowned not Communion with them in Synagogues, and 
Temples, and Houies, fave only that he conformed not to their fin- 
ful Traditions and Corruptions. The Church of the Corinthians had 
Men guilty of Schii'm, and Faction, and quarrelling with the Apo- 
flle, wronging each other, finful Law Suits, Scandalous Peribns, 
denying the Refuneclion, groily abufing the Sacrament and Com- 
munion, &c. The Churches of G aLma, Efhefus, Smyrna, Thya- 
tvra, Sardis, &c. had luch faults as I need not tell you of. Yet no 
Man is bid or allowed to diibwn Communion with them. You can 
truly prove no luch by thole in queftion. 

Arg. 3. ad hominem : It is Lawful to Communicate with the 
Churches of England, that have more Faults than the Non-con- 
formifts : Ergo, It is Lawful to Communicate with them that have- 

- We challenge any to prove fo many and fuch Faults by us as I 
have here before proved by your Church. And if for ours, Se- 
paration from us be a Duty from yours, it proves a Duty much 

Arg. 4. It is Shifmatical Dodrine which would teach Men by 
parity of Reaibn to Renounce Communion with all Churches and 
Chriftians on Earth, or near all. 

But luch is that which would teach Men to Renounce Com- 
munion with all the Non-conformifts and their Worfhipping Aflem- 

The major \s unqueftionable. 

The minor is proved. In that all or near all the Chriftians on 
Earth have as great Faults as the Non-conformifts and their Aflem- 
blies. O that God would fb blefs the World, as to make all the 
Churches of the Armenians^ Abajfians, Syrians, Georgians, Circa- 
fsians, Greek*, Mofcovites, Papfts, Lml.erans, and all other Pro- 
teftants, &c. but v <as knowing, fincere. faithful, obedient, &e. as 
thole in England that you revile, caft out and profecute. 

L But Communion in Scbifm is unlaw fid : But you are agcufed of 
Schifm, and fo are your Ajfemblies. 

M. And 

L i7«3 
M. And the Church of England is a loudly accufed of Schifm 
and Herefie by the Papifts : and too much by the Greeks, if the 
Patriarch Jeremy fpake their fence Are they therefore Schiiinaticks 
indeed? None forwarder to accufe, than the Ignorant or Guilty! 
Judge by what I have laid of our Judgment in my Search for the Schif 
mottcks. We abhor Schifm, and have laboured to have healed the 
wounds of the Church with all our power thefe twenty two years 
and more -, And who be they that have refifted it, and hate the only 
healing Balfam. 

2. It is not true that we muft have Communion with no Church 
that is guilty of Schifm, though we muft not be guilty of Schifm it 
felf. If the Schifm be Apoftafy that cuts them off from Chrift and 
the Church Univerfal, we muft not have Chriftian Communion 
with fuch, that are no Chriftians. But if they are only guilty of 
Schifm from fome particular Church, and of Schifm in the Univer- 
fal Church, and not from it, wounding and not difmembring, we 
muft not Renounce Communion with fuch, fave only as with any 
other fcandalous fins, fo far as impenitence proveth ungodlinefs. 
The Church of Corinth was much guilty of Schifm, and fo was that 
of Calatia -, and yet none were therefore to Renounce their Com- 
munion. Was not Peter guilty of fome Schifm ? Gal. 2. I doubt 
there are few Churches on Earth that are not herein guilty, either in 
Eaft, South, Weft, or North. And muft we Renounce Communion 
with them all? That is^ to commit ten-fold greater Schifm for fear 
of Schifm. 

3. Read impartially my Search for the Schifmatich^, and if the Pre- 
lates thus mentioned be not far more guilty of Schifm, than we are, I 
defpair of ever underftanding what Schifm is. This would be the 
ftrongeft Argument for Separation from them: and isfo ufed by ma- 
ny Separatists. 

Chap. XLVIT. Point IV. Of obliging the Laity to livewith- 
out any more benefit of Dijcipli>;e than is in the fnblic\ 

M. IV.^-pHE next part of Lay-Conformity is this: Chrift, who 

1 inftituted Miniftry, Word and Sacraments, hath alfo 

inftituted a certain determinate Difcipline in his Church, of 

great life to the Church, and to particular Souls : And this is con- 


C 177] 

liderable, 1. As a Duty. 2. Asa Benefit. And no Man hath au- 
thority, i. To dilobiige as from a Duty of Chiiil'sivpo 
2. Or to deprive us of a Benefit of Chrift's giving. But Confor- 
mity doth both ti-iefe to the Laity in a great degree. 

L. What mean you by that Dtjcip'ine ? / thought our Church had 
rather too jharp Difcipline ? 1 hope y-)U mean not the Geneva Difcipline^ 
or the Scots Presbyteries and Stool of Repentance. 

M. I mean nothing but what was to the Matter, the Epifcopa! 
party write for as the Ordinance of Chrift : The true exerufe 
of the Keys, and the previous Acts. That is, That God hath 
made the Church to be as it were the porch of Heaven, a So- 
ciety gathered out of the Infidle World, fandtified to God, and 
prepared for Glory jand therefore he would have none in his 
Church, but fuch as profefs Faith, Love and Holinefs, and re- 
nounce a flefhly, fenlual, worldly and profane Life : And the 
Payors bear the Keys of Trail and Government to judge of fuch j 
that is* whoare to be taken in, and who to be call out, and who 
to be admonifhed and cared of fcandaious Sins : And all the 
Members are bound to preferve the purity of themfelves, and 
the Society in their places \ And therefore if a Brother livefcan- 
daloufly, contrary to his profeffion, his Neighbour that hath no- 
tice of it, is to tell him of his fault, and if he hear not, and re- 
pent not, to warn and admonifh him before witnefTes : and if yet 
he repent not, to tell the Church \ and if yet he repent not, and 
hear not the Church, he is to be avoided^ as one that is not of 
their Communion, But if warning, Perfwafion, Prayers and pa- 
tience, bring him to Repentance, the Church is gladfy to pro- 
nounce his forgivenefs by God, and to receive him. This is the 
Difcipline. which Chrift hath inftituted, and the Chriftiaa Chur- 
ches have profeiTed. 

L. This calling Men to Repentance perfonally will but difturb and 
diftratl the Parifoes : Men wi'l never endure it : And thats no duty 
that will do harm, 

M. They are not fit uot to be Communicants or Members of a 
Chriftian Church that will not endure it. It is the Crime of the 
Church-Governours that they receive, yea, drive fuch into the 
Church,as will not endure the Laws of Chrift, and Church-Dnties, 
and then caft by fuch Duties, becaufe Men will not endure them. 

As if you took Scholars into a School that will not endure Go- 
vernment and Correction) or Soldiers into an Army that will not 

A a endure 

C h8 ] 

endure Command and Difcipline ; and then omit it, and leave 
them to their wills, becaufe they will not endure it. Or, as if 
you wo Id take Servants that will not be Commanded, nor endure 
Labour, and then let them be mafterlefs and idle, becaufethey 
will not endure fervice. VVho alJowM you to take and keep 
fuch in Chrift's Church, that will not endure either to live obe* 
diently, or be called to Repentance f 

I confefs that to let all Men alone in their fin, is the way to 
fome kind of Peace in the Parifh : But it is not Chrift's Peace, 
but the Devils, by which he keeps poileffion of Souls and Coun- 
tries, till Chrift brake his peace, and caft him out ; fuch peace will 
end in endlefs forrow. 

L. What Reafons canyon give for the necejfuy of fuch a fort of Dif 
cipline, and why it may not be forborn ? 

M. 1. It is Chrift's Law and Inftitution, and that is the fame 
reafon that we give for our Chriftianity it lelf. 

L. But 1 have read in Eraftus, Selden, Ludov. Moulin and Prin, 
that Chrift did but tell his Difciples how they jhould carry themfelves 
under the Jewifh Government, and ufe their Sanedrims or Judicatures, 
and did not inflitute any new fort of Church' Difcipline. 

M. Chrift's taking occafion from the femjh Judicatures to in- 
flitute his Difcipline, doth no more prove that he did not obliga- 
torily inftitute it, than his calling twelve Apoftles according to 
the number of the Tribes, and his taking occafion from former 
practice, for Baptifm, Miniftry, Elders, &c. doth prove that he 
ordained no fuch things. 

2. What need Chrift command his Difciples to ufe that Jewifh 
Government which was in ufe before, and they could not avoid ? 

3 Chrift knew that the Jewifh Government was prefently go- 
ing down, and tells his Difciples that they mould be juiged and 
fcourged as Malefactors in thofe Synagogues. And is it like then 
that he is calling them to exercife their difcipline in thofe Syna- 

4. If it were fo, it will hold a fortiore, that if Chrift during 
the Jewift Policy command them to ufe fuch a Difcipline, much 
more in his own Churches. 

L. What are your other Reafons for it ? 

M. 2. The very Nature of Chrift's Church required it, which 
is a Society feparated from the World under fpecial Laws of Ho- 
imefs and love, and for fpecial heavenly Ends: If therefore it 


C 179 ] 
fliall be confounded with the World, and not feparated to Chrift 
it is no Church. 

3. Chrift diditforthe Honour of himfelf, and his Kingdom : 
If he be no more for Holinefs than the Infidel and Heathen 
World is, what is he better than they, or how is he a Saviour, or 
what is the Church better than Infidels ? 

4. It is needful to fave Heathens from deceit that would come 
into the Church, and to convince them that their impure Com- 
munion is infufficient. 

5. It is needful to fave Chriftians from damning deceit,that they 
may not think that a dead, barren, unholy Faith and Name of 
Chriftianity will fave them, without a holy, obedient Heart and 

6. It is needful to keep Chrift's Ordinances from falfifying pro- 
fanation : Ifafealed Pardon and Gift of Life fliall in the Sacra- 
ments be given, as commonly to Dogs as Children, it is a taking 
God's Name in vain, and profane belying Jefus Chrifl:. 

7 . It is needful to bring Sinners to Repentance, that they may 
be Pardoned and Saved. 

8. And it is needful to the comforting abfolution of Penitents. 

9. Accordingly God's Church in all Ages hath owned it as their 
Law of Chrift's inftitution, to this day. 

L. But fome learned Men fay. This was but becaufe there was at fir ft 
m Chriftian Magiftrate : But when there was fuch the Difcipline fell 
into their hands. 

M; The firft Chriftian Magiftrates finding the Church in PoP 
feflion of it, confirmed it, and too much accumulated and added 
to it *, but took it not away. 

Of this fee a fmall Book which I wrote of the Magiftrates 
Power in Religion, to Dr. Lud. Moulin^ which may end all this 
difpute. Briefly, I ask you. 

Qh. t. Would you have all Infidels and Pagans baptized, and 
Communicate without any Profefllon of the Chriftian Reli- 
gion firft ? 

L. God forbid : That* s a Contradiction. 

M. Shall any words go for a Profefllon, or what muft that Pro- 
fefllon be ? 

L. It mnft be a Profeffwn of Chriftian Faith and Obedience. 

M. Who muft try and judge of that Profefllon, whether it be 
Chriftianity or not .• Is it Magiftrates or Paftors ? 

A a 2 L. Ma- 

I 'So 3 

L. Jlfagiftraecs have fomewbat elfeto do : Elje they mufl ftudy and 
exercifctb.it \xo)\ alone j for tbey will have no time for Civtl Govern- 
ment ^ if 1 bey undertake this. 

M. Did not Chrift inftitutean Office for it, and give them this 
Power of the Keyes ? And if one half that Office ceafe as foon as 
Magiftrates were Chriftians, why not the other half, and fo Ma- 
giftrates muft Preach, Baptize, and celebrate the Sacrament. 

L. It mufl be no doubt the Mmiflerial Office to judge who is fit 
to be in Church Communion : Elfe they were Slaves, if they mufl 
be forced to take all uneatable Men to their Charge and Commu- 
nion Agimfk their Confciences and Will : No Phyfician, Tutor or 
Stbool-Mafter, will be forced to take fuch Patients, Pupils or Scho» 
lars, as will not loe ruled by him, and will maf^e him do what they lift, 
againft his Will, 

M. You mufl confefs the ufe of difcipline, or elfe openly dif- 
own the Word of God, the very Being of the Church, and the 
Judgement of the univerfal Church to this day. Aid do you 
think then that to deprive the Church of this is a lawful part of 
Conformity ? 

L. How prove you that the Laity is deprived of it ? 

M. 1. In our Great Parifhes, the People are few of them 
know to the Prieft or to one another* Of the two Parifhes 
of my Iaft abode, I do not think but there are Fifty thonfand 
unknown to the Minifter and to each other. And how can thefe 
admonifh the Offenders, or the Minifter exercife this difcipline 
upon unknown perfons ? 

2. The people know that is in vain to begin where there can 
be no progrefs. To what purpofeisit to tell the Church, when 
it's lure to do more harm then good. 1. The fwarm of the Vi- 
cious is fo great, that they cannot be profecuted. 2. The Mini- 
fter himfclf forbeareth it as impracticable. 3. The accufed muft 
be Profecuted at rates which Men cannot bear. 4- And before 
Bifhops, that cannot poffible do this work to one of a Thoufand, 
any more than one School-mafter can Try and coredt all the fault- 
ty Scholars in a Diocefs 5. And Men muft be judges that will 
Love, and Patience, but like Secular Courts, bid them Recant 
or be Excommunicate. 6*. And the Caufe muft be decided by 
Lay-mcp that profanely ufurp the power of the Keys. And how 
is Chrift' s difcipline here poffible - ? Polluted, common Churches 
frighten a way the Religious confcionable People. L. Do 

[ i8i] 

L. Do you not before complain of too much exercife of Dicipline by 
Excommunications ? 

M. Yes, of Difcipline againil Chrifb : It is not enough for 
your Churches to be common aud unclean without true Difci- 
pline, but when you mould drive out the Dogs and Swine, you 
turne out the Children : Witnefs all the fore-mentioned Canons. 
Aslfaid, you firft fore in all the ignorant ungodly multitude 
that are unfit ', then thefe are the ftrength and major part : Then 
they cannot come under due Difcipline } then this grieveth Re- 
ligious People, and they find fault with it* And then they muft be 
taken for Schif'naticks, and condemn' d and ruia'd for finding fault. 

Infhort, what need there difputing: Is it not notorious mat- 
ter of fac~t that this Difcipline is not exercifed againftone Drun- 
kard, Swearer, Fornicator, &c. of a multitude . ? and are not 
Men then deprived of the nfe of it? And when it's known that 
they cannot have it in mod or many Parifhes, how are they 
bound to live and die without the benefit of it ? 

L. Do you think^ Mtn are bound to feparate from all Churches that 
have not this Difcipline ? Sure it is not Effentialtothe Church. 

M. I do not think that Preaching, as diitinct from reading, is 
eflentiai to a Church ; but that it may beat leaft for a time a 
forry Church \ without it, as thofe in Mofcovy are. But 1 would 
not continue in fuch a Church that is without it, if I can have a 
better. It's one thing what a Man mould endure that can have 
no better without more hurt than good ^ and another thing what 
Men mould chufe in obedience to Chrift, and for their own and 
the Churches good that can attain it. Do you think it is lawful 
to omit all Duty that is not eflentiai to the Church ? furely your 
many humane Offices, your Formes and Ceremonies, your Decla- 
rations and Subfcriptionsto them, are further from being eflen- 
tiai than true Difcipline is, and yet you think that the omiflion of 
thefe is unfufferable : is mans- accidental inventions more necefla- 
ry than Chrifts Ordinance and Church Government ? 

L. The Presbyterians call their Difcipline the Kingdom of Chrift r 
and feign their Government to be Chrifts. 

M. I fpeak for nothing proper to Presbyterians : For no Lay 
Elders, nor Synods that by Vote govern all the Churches of the 
Land, but only for that fubflanceof Parifh Difcipline which all 
acknowledge, not refitting Appeals from abufive Minifters toBi- 
{hops or Magiftrates. Bucer was no Adverfary to moderate Epif- 


C 1S2 1 

copacy or Liturgies : Yet if you will read him de Regno Dei^ de 
Condrmat. &c. to King Edward 6. for Parifh Difcipline, I fhall 
need to fay no more to you on this fubject. 

Chap. XLVIII. Point V. The difcountenancing the fear of 
fu^ and the praSice ofjerious godlwejs. 

M. V. T will add next this aggravation which comprehendeth 
X many parts of Conformity. 

No true Chriftian doubteth, but ferioufnefsand diligence in 
ferving God, and making our calling and Election fure, and O- 
bedience to Gods Law, and fear of finning, are of abfolute ne- 
ceflity to Salvation. And how greatly the Laity is difcouraged 
and frightned from ail this by the courfeof Conformity is noto- 

L. Who doth discourage them ? Do not all our Minifters Preach for 
Obedience and Godlinefs ? Doth not our Liturgy pray that the reft of 
our Uves hereafter may be pure and holy, that we may attain Eternal 
Life ? 

M. Yes, and more than fo, you read the Scripture which is all 
for holinefs : The deeper is the guilt of Hypocrifie and Malignity 
in them that feek to root it out: Out of their own mouths will 
they be judged, and beaten with many ftripes. Judge by thefe 

1 • How Children are Baptized with God-fathers, and how Con- 
firmed after, and Admitted to Communion, and forced to it, I 
ihewed before. 

2. So many humane Inftitutionsare impofed on Men as necefla- 
ry to Communion, that he muft be a Man of more Learning and 
llnderftanding that I have, or with all the ftudy of my Life could 
obtain, who can difcern them all to be Lawful : And he that 
calls any of them finful is Excommunicate ipfo jure. 

3. It is certain that a great part of the Laity underftand not 
the Creed, and thofe few that fet themfelves to feek for faving 
knowledge, attain fo little in their fecular courfe of Life,as that 
we muft be glad it they underftand all the Catechifm, the Creed 
Lords prayer and Ten Commandments, and take fuch for extra- 
ordinarily wife: And yetif oneof thefe think aForm, aCere- 
niony, a Lay Chancellors Discipline, &c. to be repugnant to the 
Word of God, and fay it, he is Excommunicate. 4. By 

L i»? J 

4. By this it isabfblutely neceflary that the generality of men, 
even all England that know not more than I do, mult blindly be* 
lieve as the Canon and Prieft bids them, barely on their Word, 
or elfe they muft falfly pretend to believe them, or be all liable 
to Excommunication. And fo an implicite Faith in the Canon- 
Makers andBifhopsis become the neceflary Religion of the Land. 
And then if the Bifhops turn we muft all turn with them. 

5. By this means wilful ignorance is made neceflary. For it is a 
dangerous thing ( as I have found it) toftudy for knowledge in 
Gods Word, left it ihould lead us to differ from fomething in the 
Canons, Liturgy or Bilhops, and then we are liable to ruin. And 
fo they that will be Church Members muft take heed of ftudying 
Gods Word, or fearching after Truth. 

5. If for thinking and laying any of the Impofitions are amifs, 
they be once Excommunicated, or but noted as Difienters, they 
are rendered odious to the Church-Courts and Prieft, and by 
them to the credulous Obfequious Herd ; and it's likely that in 
the Pulpit they will be proclaimed Hypocrites, Schifmaticks, un- 
quiet Spirits, Phanaticks, and in as much danger of Damnation's 
Murderers or Adulterers who are as fafe as they. 

6. By this means fear of finning, and the danger of diflenting 
being fo ufually conjunct, the avoiding of fin is made Puritanifm, 
and a fufpicious fign, if not a common fcorn. 

7. By this means ignorant Youth is quite difco'uraged from feri- 
ous piety and fear of fin, left they fall under common fcorn } and 
it's well if they follow not the multitude and be fcorners of Obe- 
dience to God themielves. And the very plea of Confcience 
( which is but obeying God ) is made adifgraceor mockery, and a 
tender Conference, made equivalent with a feif-conceited Schif- 

8. It is no danger to meet by hundreds at a Play-houfe } or by 
great numbers at Taverns, Ale-houfes, CofFee-houfes, Horfe- 
races, &c. But if few Nighbours meet to Pray or Excite each 
other in the Love of God and Heaven, you know what the dan* 
ger is. 

* 9. If any Minifter will but leave Preaching the Gofpel of 
Chrift, and turn Phyfician, he may be quiet \ tho 7 he be of the 
fame judgement that he was before ^ the forbearing of his Mini- 
ftry may Preferve his peace. There are now in this City ejected 
Minifters who have forfaken their Function, and are Doctors of 


L 184 J 

Phyfick,and they live in great Wealth and acceptance .• There are 
phyficians and Minifters of the fame judgement, and perhaps dwell 
together in the fame Houfe (it was the cafe of Dr. Mtcklethwait 
and me.) The phyfician is honoured, and the Minifler call'd and 
ufed as a Rogue, though they were of the fame mind. There are 
fome Nonconforming Ministers, that tho' they are Doctors of 
phyfick, yet dare not ceafe their Miniftry, but practice both : 
Thefe are welcomed to the Sick, but the Healthful banifh them 
or, hunt them away, not withftanding their acceptance as phyfici- 
ans, the hatred of their preaching being more prevalent. 

L. Sure they Preach fome dangerous Dottrine. 

JM; Not a word of fuch is charged on them, tho, malicious 
perfonscome to hear them, and inform againft them. Their wri- 
tings tell the World their Doctrine. Dr. Clifford was one of them 
who hath written of the Covenants: Dr. Gilpin hone of them 
who hath written of Temtations, driven from Newcajlle. 

Some ejected Minifters Educate their Sons to phyfick, and 
tho' they be of their Fathers mind, the Sons are highly efteemed 
and honoured, and the Aged Fathers laid in Jayl : This laft Week 
old Dr. Grew that is about 80 or 79 years of Age, and almofl 
Blind, and hath lived there 36 years and more, ( known by fome 
writings) a Man of a calm, quiet, fober peaceable Temper, 
was fent to the common Jayl at Convemry for dwelling there, and 
fome time exhorting his old Hearers to fear God \ and he hath 
here a Son, and a Son in-Law, Doctors of phyfick, defervedly 
honored, who if they did but Preach the Gofpel might fjveed as 
ill as he. 

10. If an ejected Minifler would but teach the Children of the 
Laity, tho' it were but to read, and tho' there be no other 
School-mjfterncar, the People mult rather have their Children 
untaught, and mult not be fuffered to have fo needful a 

11. Ifa Minifler would give over preaching, yet if his old 
Hearer* defire his Neighbour-hood, that they may have the bene- 
fit of his Conference, they mufl not enjoy it, left he whifper 
Nonconformity to them, but he muft be banifhed five Miles 
not only from Corporations, but from every place where-ever he 
preached thefe twenty years. I know fome fuch who have tra- 
velled much abroad, who can hardly find a place in that part of 
Enoland that is not within five Miles of a Corporation or fome 


[ i»5 1 

place where they have Preached : And thofe few places have 
feldom any untenanted Houfes : And if rarely fuch a Houfe 
be found, it's like enough that the Landlord will have no fucli 
Tenant : Or if he would, it's ten to one theMinitter is not able 
to take it and pay his Rent •, befides his undoing in removal, and 
putting off his former Houfe and goods- 

ii. If any one that feareth finning by Conformity, be never 
fo falfly accufed, he ufually accounteth it his Wifdom to fuffer 
patiently whatever Men will fay or do, without Self-defence : 
I faw two Warrants againfl a Lay-man this Week, which ex- 
prefs'd his Hearing two Minitters as Sworn by two poor Beg- 
garly Women j when I can witnefs that both their Oaths were 
falfe, and that neither of thofe Minitters Preach't at the time 
and place that they Swore they Preached : For my Houfe 
being at the next Door, I heard that it was not they that then 
Preached. But I fuppofe it's all one : They dare not que- 
ftion it. 

I heard of one that faid he would Swear Treafon againft 
a Nonconformift : and being ask'd, What he faid, and whe- 
ther ever he heard him fpeak ? He faid> No ; but he heard 
him whittle Treafon : And being ask'd, How whittling could 
be Treafon ? He faid, That h£ whittled the fame Tune that a 
Ballad was Sung in, that they faid had Treafonable words 
in it. 

13. In the mean time, let but Men be utterly void of 
Confcience and Fear of Sinning, and what can hinder them" 
from Saying, Covenanting, Swearing, Doing, any think that 
is required of them in order to a Benefice, or to the Efti- 
mation of an obedient fon of the Church. And then he can 
Preach down Nonconforming as intolerable Rogues. 

And thus the Laity that will fear Sin, and fearch the Scri- 
ptures, and have aFaith of their own, mutt go through all thele 
Difcouragements, if they be not fo unhappily happy, as to attain 
to affurance or belief that all the lmpofitions in Conformity 
are lawful. 

B b Chap. 

C 186] 

Chap. XI IX. Point VI. The Lit) da.hd BapHfw, who 
rcfxje the for ej Aid way of Gocij '-.tiers , at it cxcUtdclh tic 

M. VI Y Hope you will not fay it is lawful to be nnchriftened, 
1 or to have their Children unbaptized ? And you cannot 
fay it is lawful to obey the Canon and Rubrick about Godfathers, 
again ft one* Conlcience. 

L. An erroneGm Conscience muft be retlified. 

M, Is it meerly at Command ? can you do it i Or can any do 
it when they will ? Their is no Man without Error: why do not 
all the Clergy rettifie their own judgment,and prefently free them- 
felvesfrom Error? If you can teach them this Art of rectifying con- 
ference, it's beft do it before they go to the Univerfity, or before 
they fpend much time and labour in ftudy. How many years ftudy, 
and reading might this Art fave them f Prefently re&ifie all your 
erroneens opinions, and fave the labour. 

L. But when men have Efficient help, they are nnexcttf able if they 
go on in Error \ 

M. Then either no Man living hath fufficient help, or elfe all 
Men are unexcufable : For it's molt certain that all Men go on in 
a multitude of Errors. 

L. But every Error hinder eth not Mens right to Baptifm. 

M 4 And do you think this doth? will you "try now and prove 
tome that I may be unexcufable. 1. That Children have right 
to Baptifm meerly upon the prefentation ofa Neighbour or Stran- 
ger that never owned them. 

2. That it is not the parents Duty to dedicate them folemnly 
toChrift, and to be the Perfon( as having power of them) that 
muft Covenant for them. 

3. That it is lawful for Neighbours or Strangers,to undertake 
a id Vow that for the Child's Education, which they are neither 
able to perform, nor ever intended it? 

4. That it is lawful for parents either to give up their Children 
to fuch Sponforsfor to Educate them, or to leek or accept fuch to 
Vow and Covenant, that which the parents know they never 
meant to do, and which if asked, [ Do you ferioufly intend 
to do all this for my Child t ] they will fay, No : Is is lawful thus 


C 1873 

to Suborn Men, and put them on fo great a Sin ? cure thcfe Errors 
in me if you can. 

L. J told you before that they may agree to fpeakas in your Name. 
M. And I told you, fo many do : but that's nothing, to Confor- 
mity, it being none of the fence of the Church, as I proved. 

Was this any of the conditions of Baptifm of Clir ill's making? 
was this necefiary when Philip faid to the Eunuch, If thou believe 
with all thy hearty thou maift be baptised} Or when Paul laid, Eifc 
were your Children unclean, but now are they holy ? 1 Cor- 7. 14. 

L. But your Child Jhall not be unbaptiz^ed for this : The Church 
will conflrain the Baptising of it. 

M. Whom will they conftrain ? 1. Not the Minifter : He 
is not to Baptize it, unlefs it be brought and defired. 2. Not 
the Godfathers : For none can compel any to be a Godfather, 
nor ever do. ?. But it is the Parent that is compelled ? How f 
Thole that hold it lawful will doit without Compulfion, the 
Baptizing of their Child being defirable to them. But thole 
tnat think it a Sin, will rather be Excommunicate and lie in 
Jail ; and fo they cannot compel them. And the Anabaptifis 
Children are moftly unbaptized for all their Compulfion. But 
the ufual way of Nonconform ills is to elude the Canon, and to 
agree privately with the Godfathers to be but Witnelles or Se- 
conds, and that the Parent himlelf will be there prefent, and 
when theQueilions are put to the Godfathers,, will mew his con- 
lent by bowing, tho' he may not fpeak. 

But fuch fhifts to avoid the Evil of Conformity, is no Jufti- 
fication of Conformity or the Canon, nor of any that will 
deny Baptifm for an unnecefiary if not an ungodly device of Man ^ 
and that when themlelves feem to make Baptifm necelTary to 
Salvation; anddockarly make it a means that afcertaineth Sal- 
vation to Infants. 

Chap. L. Point VIL Of Denying baptifm to them that 
dare not fubmit to the ufe of the EnglifJ) Cr offing. 

M. VII. WT^^t is faid againft our way of Crofling, as s 

W dedicating Sign, and Badge of Chriftianity, 

if not a Humane Sacrament of the Covenant of Grace, I have 

laid before, and muft not repeat : And alfo what it is for Mi- 

B b 2 nifters 

[ i88] 
niflers to Afient and Confent to reject all from Baptifm that are 
rot fubmitted to it. 

I zm now only to tell you that this Submiffior. is a part of the 
Lay-conformity, for want of which they are punifhed with the 
denial of Baptifm. 

L. Bnt they that are again ft it may yet let the Minifter nfe it 
en their Children : That*s his aft-, and not theirs : and they cannot 
hinder him : They fend their Children to be Baptized, and not to 
be Crofs^d. 

M. But we have many Antip&d^baptifts, and converted Jews to 
be Baptized at Age. 

2. And tho' I am much of your mind in this, yet all wifer Men 
are not •, and the cafe is very difficult as to Infants: If one kr.ew 
beforehand that the Pried would ufe Oil, and Spittle, and Ex- 
orcifm, and invocate Saints and Angels over the baptized Child, 
it were hard to fay, I fend him only to be Baptized ] when he 
knew how finfully it will be done. The truth is, I can jultifie 
no Man that will fubmit his Child to fuch a croffin gat Baptifm, 
that can ceteris paribus have it by another better done, tho' Pro- 
hibited by Man : We muft not be guilty of other Mens Sins, nor 
of Church Corruptions* 

L. Chrid that mil have mercy and not facrifice, mnld not have 
men refufe Chriftendom for fear of a Crofs. 

M. Chrift who would have Teachers learn that Leflbn, / mil 
have mercy and not facrifice, would have no Minifter deny Chri- 
ftendom to fuch as think their eroding finful : And yet he would 
have no Man commit any Sin, to gain Baptifm : but will fave 
the unbaptized that defired it, fo they might have had it with- 
out *, and will himfelf fhew Mercy to fuch as confent not 
to a polluted Sacrifice. And would have us prefer a lawful 
way when we can have it. Baptifm is out Renunciation of 


[ i9?] 

Of Rejetling not-kneeiers from Communion. 

L. A N D well they deferveit that will not reverently receive fo 
j£jl great a Gift upon their knees from God, 

M. Do you think it is for want of humble Reverence . ? Do 
they not kneel after and longer to God in Prayers publickly, and 
in their Families and Chambers, than molt that blame them ? 
Were Chrift's Apoftles unreverent that did not kneel at recei- 
ving it in his own vifible prefence ? Was all the univerfal 
Church unreverent, that for 600 Yeares, if not 1000 after ChriH 
forbad ftridtly all Adoration by kneeling every Lords Day, be- 
caufe they would ufe a Laudatory Gefture denoting their belief 
of Chriits Refurrection ? Do thofe men fhew more Reverence 
to God and Religion, that will kneel at the Altar, and fcarce 
ever kneel to God at home, and feldom ufe his Name bit with 
prophanation ? It is not unrevereence that caufes their diflent. 

X. / know no juft caufe they have of this dijfent. 

M, I ccnfefs, nor I, while the open Doctrine of the 
Church renounceth all Bread-worfhip and Idolatry .* But were 
it among Papifts, where the Doctrine expounds the action, I 
durlt not doit. 

But I told you before what moveth them, which I mult not a- 
gain repeat. But I will repeat it, that it is a heinous injury to 
the Church, and the particular Perfons, that on the account of 
fo finall and doubtful a circumftance, wherein all antiquity is a- 
gainlt the impofers- they Ihou Id deny Communion with Chrift 
and his Church as much as in them lieth to faithful Chriftians % 
and (hoi Id turn the Sacrament of Love for no juft caufe, into 
and occafion of hatred and perlecution } and the Sacrament of 
Unity, into an Engine of divifion, by their own needlefs impofi- 
tions to perplex mens Confciences, and fet people oneagainit a- 
nother : O whatafnare and inftrument of wrath and difcord, 
and in humane ufage of other men, do many turn that blefTed 
Sacrament into, which is instituted for the Communion of Saints 
in unfeigned Love. The more fuch magnify the Sacrament as 
the very Flefh and Blood of Chrilt, the more do they condemn 
themfeives. , 


L 194 1 

C H A P. L 1 1. P O I N T IX. 

Of denying Lay- men Communion in a Neighbour Parish Church, 
when they dare not Communicate in their own Parif\ for the Rea- 
fons aforefaid. 

M. T~"\ O you think it is a (in deferving exclufron from Chrifti- 
IX. JL/ an Comimnion, for a man to think it unlawful for him 
to own and encourage the Miniftry of an ignorant, infufficient,or 
grofly fcandalous, or hurtful Teacher. A poor Chriftian that is 
unwilling to be damned, and readeth that he fhould love his 
Neighbour as himfelf ; perhaps, heareth the Prieft tell the 
Peple what hypocrites and odious perfons Non-conformifts are, 
and exhorts them to avoid fuch, and to profecute them,and root 
them out as the intolerable enemies of Church and State, and as 
unfit to be Members of any Society ; He is acquainted with di- 
vers Non-conformifls, their Lives and their Books and Doctrines, 
and finds the clean contrary. He reads in Scripture, [ See that 
ye love one another with a pure heart fervently, ] He heareth from 
the Pulpit, T See that ye hate one another, and feehjhe deftruclion of 
one another, ~] Chrifl: faith? C Love your enemies ] the Prieft ex- 
horts them [_ to root out their friends'} Chrifl: faith [He that 
receiveth you, receiveth me : and ftakf off the dujt of your Feet againfi, 
them that receive you not : Jtfhall be eafier for Sodom and Gomorrah 
than for fuch ] the Priefl faith C He that receiveth fuch Miniflers, 
fin?: eth again ft Chrifl, and he that hath any Communion with the?n is a 
Schifmatickjl The man readeth, C Beware of falfe Prophets -,and 
thinks it a fin to encourage the teachers of lies and wickednefs ] and he 
readeth [_ He that hateth his Brother is a Murderer, and hath not 
ttcrnal Life : and if 1 have not charity, I am but as founding Brafs, 
sire. ] He thinks him a falfe teacher, that con tradifteth Chrifl:, 
and that feeks to damn the hearers. And he thinks that no 
tongue can more contradict Chrifl than that which Preacheth 
down Love, and Preacheth for hating godly Men, tho % on flan- 
dcrous pretences, and that no man can do more to damn the 
People, than he that draweth them from love, to fuch hatred. 
Another livethina parifh where a dry ignorant fellow affords 
him no fuch help as he is confeious his foul needeth, and where 
the Common-Prayer isfo much better, than the Sermon, that 

L i95 J 

were it not for that, he might better flay at home. And where 
the Priefts Converfation encourageth the Drunkards and pro- 
phane, and vilifieth godly Men. 

This man is for the Ch rch-way, but for a better Minifter : 
The queftion is, whether for this he be fo greataiinner that all 
neighbouring Miniiters mult drive him away, and deny him 

Another honeft Chriftian taketh it for a fin to kneel at the 
Railes, or to join with the Organs, or to receive or deiire the 
Diocefan manner of Confirmation, or to forbear Communion 
with all Chriftians whom the Church men here condemn or caft 
out. The queftion is, whether it be no wrong to any of theie 
to be denied Communion ai a neighbour Parifh, where his 
doubts are removed ? 

I prove that he hath right to fuch neighbour Communion. 

1. Becaufe he is a Member of Chrifts Body, the Catholick 
Church, and therefore hath right to the Communion of Saints. 
And to believe that in the Creed, and condemn it in practice, 
is to believe to condemnation. 

2. They themfelves teach that a true Chriftian hath right 
to Communion with all Churches, where he hath juft occafion 
to feek it. 

3. They fay that there is no Church without a Bilhop, and 
that the Diocefan-Church is the leaft true political Church : 
And if fo, he feparateth not from any Church that feparateth 
not from the Diocefan. 

4. Thefe forefaid perfons do nothing to forfeit the Commu- 
nion of neighbour Churches^ therefore it is a fin and wrong to 
deny it them. If it were proved an errour to avoid that as a 
fin w 7 hich they avoid, all mankind hath errours •, and to be over- 
fearful of Fire, or Water, or plague, orpoyion, is a tolerable 
fafe weaknefs, and not like the fins that fwarm in multitudes of 
tolerated Parifhioners. 

L. That which is not fo immoral, as Fornkatiom, Drnnkennefs r 
Curfing and Swearing,- may be more hurtful to the Churchy and fo de- 
ferve greater fever ity from Governors. 

M. The Church Keys are to be ufed with due relation to 
Heaven, and thofe are to be taken in, or caft out, that Chrift will 
take in, or caft out from Heaven : And if you think he will 
damn an obedient godly Chriftian for fearing to partake of the 


L 196 ] 

fin of wicked Priefts, or for fearing to be poyfoned wich love- 
killing Doctrine, or for fearing the vain Worfhip of mens tradi- 
tions, rather than a prophane derider of Confcience, and a filthy 
Fornicator, Drunkard or Blafphemer •, I fhall not think it worth 
my labour todifpute with you. 

But men that take the Churches welfare to lie in the wealth 
and domination of fuchas they, more than in the Holy Obedi- 
ence, Confcience, and Piety of the People, will object the fame 
that you now do. 


Of Swearing never to endeavour any alteration of Govern- 
ment in the Church. 

M. TT O W far this extendeth objectively I before proved 
X. XJL by. 1. The words of the Oaths. 2. Theconfent of the 
Bifhops. 3. And the words of the feven Canons j and the£*Ge- 
tera Canon in 1640. fo that there is no doubt of it. 

2. How far it extendeth as to the perfons obliged, I before 
told you, and you may read \ 1. In the Corf oration Acl, which 
impofeth it on all Corporations. 2. In the Peftry Acl 7 which 
impofeth itonall Church-Veftries. 3. In the All of Vniformity, 
which impofeth the fubfcription on all the Clergy. 4. In the Ox- 
ford Att of Banifliment^ which impofeth the Oath on Non-confor- 
mifts, and more. 5. In the Militia Att 7 which impofeth it on all 
the Military Commanders, and Souldiers in the Land ; fo that 
you may well fay, that it is a National Covenant or Oath. 

3. What is amifs in the Church-Government that needeth 
an amending alteration, I have fo often told you, that I will not 
repeat it. Judge then what this Oath importeth. 

L. It could never be the meaning of the Parliament, that no man 
fhall endeavour to amend the faults of any Officer s 7 Courts or AElions 7 
for they often amend their own Ails of Parliament ; and they referve 
a Power in King and Parliament, to make alterations even in Church 
Governments : But that belongs not to the J } eofle 7 nor fliould they en- 
deavour it. 

M. 1. 1 hope you will not confound Stated Offices, and Mens 
Exercife of them in Prattice. \ grant that they do not bind ns 
by Oath never to endeavour that Bifhops, and all the Officers of 


C *97 3 
their Courts may be honeft men, and flander, and injure no 
man againft Law, &c. But ic is the Offices, as here #a ted, that 
are made thus far unalterable, named in the- Canon f Arch-Si- 
ftopSj Biftjops, Deans, Arch- Deacons, and the reft thai bear 
therein. ] 

2. I grant that the Law is made to bind none but Subjects : 
and that an altering power is referved to King and Parity; 
But it doth not follow, that all the Subjects be not bound by it \ 
Though They may Change Laws, yet We may not : And as you 
fay, They fuppofe that it belongeth not to the People to en- 
deavour it : Which We grant, as to any Rebellious, Sediti- 
ous, or otherwife unlawful Endeavour : But whether God 
bind not all men in their own place and Calling, by Prayer, 
Conference Elections of Officers, Petition, &c. to endeavour 
to a mend all Crying, Dangerous, Common Sins, is a farther 

L. They cannot mean to exclude Petitioning, for that is the Sub- 
jects Right j and ts by them allowed with Reftraint.s. 

M. i. It is meant in oppofition to the Scots Covenant, which 
tyed men to oppofe Popery Prelacy, and Schifm, only in 
their feveral Places and Callings. 

2. It is expres'd in the moil univerfal terras, without the leall 
Exception, by men that knew how to fpeak. 

3 Reafons were given in Parliament againft any Limitation, 
and thofe Reafons carryed it- 

4. They were Men that were wholly for the Church of En- 
gland, whofe Canon had before Excommunicated themfelves, 
and all men, that accuied any Office in the Church Government 
as finful. And they knew, that fhould any of them, when the 
Parliament is rifen ( yea, or there ) fo fay, he is an Excom- 
municate Man. 

6 It is moll certain that they intended to bind all Subjects on 
whom thefe Oaths are impofed, even from petitioning, or any 
other Endeavour of Alteration *, though they allow petitioning 
in other Cafes -, r ~r they intended to fix and fecure the Church- 
Government againft all Alterations. 

6. Therefore ( as I faid before ) they joined it with, yea, 
and let it before State-Government in all their Oaths and Cove- 
nants; And do yon think in Confcience, they left men at liber- 
ty to petition againft Monarchy, or againft the Life, or power, 

C c or 

[ ivS 1 

or Honour of the King : Far be it from us to think fo il] of 

i muft profefs to you that I do not think half fo ill of well-or- 
der'd Monafteries of Men or Worries as 1 do of our large Di- 
ocefles, or our Lay Excommunicators according to the Canons. 
And yet even in the Times of Poy ery, the Nation was not 
Sworn never to endeavour any alteration of Monafteries. 

If you would have all Corporations, Souldiers, Veftries, Mini- 
ftersfworn never to endeavour to cure the Sick, to relieve the 
Poor, to feek more wealth, to reform all Play*houfes, Ale- 
houfes and Taverns, to Catechize their Families, &c. I would 
not join with you, 

National Oathsand Covenants-are Matters of great moment : 
We have deeply fuffered by rafhnefs in fuch already : And 
jfhould any of them prove falfe and wicked, and the Nation be 
ftigmatized with Perjury, you might more fadly write, Lord 
have Mercy on m, on the Land, than on the Doors where the 
moft dreadful Plague prevaileth. 


Of Swearing an Abhorrence of taking Arms againfi any Commif- 
fonated by the KING. 

M. rri His alfo I have faid enough of in the Cafe of the 
XI. JL Minifters, and told you that we are far from fcru* 
pling it in Difloyalty } but in Loyalty, only, i. Left the Keepers 
of the Seals may by CommifTions depofe the King, or deliver up 
the Kingdom to whom they pleafe. 2. Becaufe the Authority 
of a Commidion, as above, and againft the King's own Law, is 
not a matter that Lawyers and Judges themfelves are agreed of, 
and therefore unfit for the unskilful Vulgar to determine by 
their Oath. 

L. The end is but to feenre your Loyalty. 

M. The End is one thing, and the Mea>; another : Wc 
are ready to give better fecurity of our Loyalty than this 
which I before intimated to you. 

Do you think in your Confcience that all the Souldiers in En- 
gland, and all the Corporation-Officers, and entrufled Perions, 
and all the Veftry-men, and all the Minifters arefo well skil'd 


[ 199 ] 
in Politicks and Law, above Bifhop Bilfon, Gyouhs, Barclay, g 
all the Tribes of Learned Lawyers, Caiuifts, Ganonifts, Plu- 
lofophersi &c. before named, as that they can take fich an 
Oath in Truth? Judgement, and Rtghteoufote fs ? Swearing Alle- 
giance, and renouncing Rebelion, is eafily known to be every 
, Subjects Duty. But to untye knotty Controverfies in Law, is 
fure above every vulgar Brain* 

Why was not this way found out prevent all the Civil 
Wars in the days of the two Williaris? of Stephen, of Henry 
the ift* and $d. of K. John, of Edward 2d, of Richard id. of 
Henry 4th. and Edward 4th. and Henry 6th. and Richard %d. 
and to prevent the Infurreftions in the days of ^ Mary, and{?. 
Elizabeth? Why do they not this way decide all the Contro- 
verfies at Liege? Colen, &c. to make the People determine thein 
by Oath ? 

All Politicks agree that the Difference between near Subjects 
and Slaves, is, that the former have propriety which none can 
take from them, but by their Confent, at leaft in thir Wives, 
Children, and Lives ? and that Slaves have none fuch, nor may* 
refill a Commifiion to take them away, though caufiefly, and 
Laws are there but the Win of the Lord, who may crofs them 
at his pleafure : and that a Ruler of Subjects* and an Owner of 
Slaves thus differ. Now if it be a Controverfy, Whether the 
Englifi be meer Subjects or Slaves, the ignorant Vulgar are no 
fit Judges to decide it, and that by Oath ? 


Whether all Trufted in Corporations may declare, That there is N O 
O B L I G AT I O N on them or any other Perfons from the Oath 
called, The League and Covenant. 

M. T Spake to this before but a little on the by ? it being no 
XII. X. P ar * of the Minifterial Conformity. Minifters are on- 
ly to fubftribe, or fwear, that thefaid Oath bindeth no man to 
endeavour any Alteration of Government ; but the Corporati- 
ons are to declare, That there is no Obligation at all, from that 
Oath on them, or any other. I have read much of the Hiftory of 
Heathens? Mahometans, and Chriftians ; and I confefs, I remem- 
ber not that ever I read the like to this. The likeft to it that I 

C c 2 remember, 

[ '2CO "] 

remember, was in the long Wars and Contentions between the 
Pope and the German Empcrour, when they fvvare and un- 
fware, and (Ware again, as either Party got advantage .- And 
that Popes and Councils have Decreed the diflblving of Qpths 
of Fidelity to thole Kings whom the Pope Excommunicates* 
is Commonly known ^ but Proteftants know no fucli power. 

L. This Declaration is to be expounded by the many following 
Alls which ck!\ /!-;v, there is no ob igation to Charge the (Jivcrti- 

M. That's gratis ditlum without proof; that feveral A&s 
have the lame meaning when the words fo much differ, is not 
to be prefamed. One of them is an Univerfal Negative with- 
out the lead exception, and the other a particular Negative on- 
ly. 2. And the Acts were made at feveral times, to feveral 
men, and the Parliament in the latter, never pretended to li- 
mit or explain the former, which fare they would have done 
if they repented of the Terms. 3. And Parliament Men tell us, 
That it was mentioned that the Non-Obligation of the Cove- 
nant ihould be limited, and it was pleaded againit it, That if 
men believe that they are bound by it to any thing, fomewill 
think that they are bound to all that is lawful, and that it's law- 
ful to take Arms againft the King, and fo there is nofecuring 
them from Rebellion, as by that Covenant, but by renouncing 
all its Obligation : And this carried the Caufe. 4. It is not 
lawful for Subjects to put a particular Sence on Univerfal 
Words impofed, unlefs the impofers firfl fo expound the Terms; 
which they have refufed to do after twenty years complaint of 
the Dillenters, and do juftifie the univerfal fence to this day. 
Therefore fuch forced Expolitions of our Rulers words in 
fo tremendous a matter, are not to be feigned without good 

L. rrv f.iy Bonum eft ex Caufis integris : There is Evil in that 
Covenant, therefore it is an Evil Covenant. 

Mi That's none of the Q_ eftion *, it may be Evil in that 
part that is Evil, and the thing it feif may thence be denomi- 
nated Faulty or Evil, and yet not all that is in it be Evil, nor it 
Evil pmp'iciter but fecundum quid. Do yon think all is Evil 
that is there Vowed ? 

L, If it Evilj r.o one is bound to ks e P if* 

M. No 

[ 201 j 

M. No* not in the Evil part .* But do you think that the con- 
junction of fome 111 things in a Vow or Covenant, doth difob- 
lige a man from all that's good in it? If fo, mark what will 

i, Man is fo ignorant, and imperfect, and faulty, that he 
doth nothing that's good without a mixture of fome evil, how 
can finlefs perfection come from finful Imperfection ? And 
fo we fliould be bound by no Vow, or Oath, or Contract at 

2. If Knaves once learn thisLeflbn, they will be fure to foift 
in fome ill claufe into their Vows to GOD, and their Cove- 
nants with Man 5 that fo they may be bound by rone. 

3. The Oath of Allegiance or Fedelity to the King, and the 
Kings own Oath at his Coronation, in the time of Popery, had 
ill claufes in it for the Papal interefl , doth it follow that neither 
ofthem did bind ? 

4. If an Irijl) Tory mould, on the high-way, meet an Engltjh 
Lord, and take his Purfe, pretend that he is again.t the King, 
and mould force him at once to take an Oath to be true to the 
King, and to gi\e him his Eftate, and conceal his theft : The 
latter is evil, and yet even that Oath bindeth to be true to 
the King. 

5. If the Clergy in their Ordinatior, in time of Popery, had 
divers finfal claufes and promifes, doth it follow that their 
Ordination was null, and obliged them to no Minifterial 
Duty f 

6. If the Clergy in former ages, or in France or Spain, be 
fworn to the King and the Pope, doth it follow that this binds 
them r not to the King, becaufe it binds them not to t^ie 

7. If men were Married in time of Popery, with unlawful 
Words and Clauies, or lately in England by Juftices in new 
terms, was ftch marriage null ? 

8. If a Papift make to you a Teftament, or Deed of Sale of his 
Eftate, and put in fome unlawful claufes appealing to Angels, 
or wifhingyoj to pray for the Souls in Purgatory ; I do not think 
you would take that Will or T>ttdiox2i nullity. 

9. If in Popery or here, fome Claufes at Baptifm prove bad* 
it doth not nulliSetheBaptifmal Vow. 

10. If 

[ 202 ] 

to. If the King's Sonldiers at once fwear to fight for the King, 
and to deftroy or plunder fome innocent men 7 or the Papift 
Souldier mould fwear to be true to the King, and to pull down 
the Proteftant Miniftry and Bifhops ^ the former Part binds 
them, though the latter doth not. 

L. And Oath unlawfully impofed binds no man. 

M. That's only the Doctrine of perjury, contrary, to all fo- 
ber Chriftians Cafuifb. An unlawful impofition that is made by 
an Uf irper without true power, binds no man to take the Oath 
impofed j but if he take it without being bound to take it, the 
Oath binds him to the lawful part of the matter* 

i. If a High way Robber make me fwear to be true to the 
King, that Oath binds, though he had no Authority to irapofe 
it on me. 

2. If an Ufurping Minifter Baptize a man, and make him 
vow himfelf to Chrift, his Vow binds him, though thellfurper 
had no authority. 

3. If a man make many voluntary Vows, which no man 
bound him to make, he is bound to keep them if the matter be 
lawful. And the want of authority in the impofer doth but 
leave you as a volunteer unobliged to take it. 

4. And I would not have a Popifh Clergy tempted to fay, The 
King and Parliament had no authority to impofe the Oaths of 
Allegiance and Supremacy on us without the Pope \ therefore 
we be bound to keep them. 

L. But the Covenant was forced? And no man is bound by a Pro- 
mife or Oath which he was forced to make* 

M. That's a Doctrine of grofs perjury : It's true that no 
man that without authority forceth another to promife any thing 
to him, can lay any juft claim to that which he forced a man 
to promife : For no mans own Crime can give him right to a 
Commodity j Nemini debetur Commodum ex propria culpa? and 
the promifer is not bound to give it him, becaufe he hath no 
right to receive it ? but if you be injurioufly forced to promife 
or vow your Duty to GOD, or the King, or your Neighbour, 
that vow and promife doth bind you to perform it. 

1. If it be done without right by Prince or prelats that force 
men to be Baptized,yet that forced Vow doth bind them. 

2. If Bifhops unjuftly force unfit men to the L O R D's Sup- 
per, their Vow there made obligeth them. 

3- As 

L 20? j 

3. As I faid> if a High-way Robber force you tofwear to be 
true to the King, or to reft ore ill gotten goods, or to recant a 
flander, that Oath doth bind you. 

4. If the King fhould juftly force you to Marry a Woman, 
the Covenant binds you. 

The Reafon is, becaufe man hath free will, and doth all 
that he doth by that choice, which is true freedom. It's no pro; 
per force of his will that moveth him, though we call it force 
from anothers Aft, who doth his beft to force him ; a man naay 
refufe though he die for it. He that caftcth his goods into 
the Sea to fave the Ship, is urged to it, but may choofe. He 
that givethaTheif his purfe to fave his life, might Iiavecho- 
ien. Do not the Martyrs freely lay down their lives ? and If 
any deny Chrift or his caufe to fave his life, and fay I was for- 
ced, that will not fave his Soul. 

5. And your Do&rine will fet up all unfaithfulnefs and re- 
bellion. All men that under Penalties are commanded to fwear- 
Allegiance, or to take this Corporation- Oath, or the Militia- 
Oath, or the Oath to the Bilhops, are hereby taught to fay, We were 
forced to it by the King and Prelates, and did it all againft cur wills y 
and therefore are not bound by it. Such principles Ioofe the bonds 
of all Societies, Loyalty and humane Converfe \ and married 
men will put away their Wives when they are weary of them, 
and fay, 1 was forced againft my will by my Parents, or by 
Poverty, &c. 

L. But this Covenant was unlawfully taken? as well as unlawful- 
ly impofed, and therefore bindeth not. 

M. This aifo is pernkious Do&rine againft all fober Ca- 
fuifts. If the matter be good, the caufelefs and unlawful ad 
of taking it, doth not nullifie the obligation to perform it. He 
that voweth an indifferent aft, fhould not have done it } for 
a vow mult not be caufelefs -, but he muft keep it when it is 

He that finned in marriage when he ought not, yet muft per- 
form his marriage Covenant. 

He that in meer hypocrifie maketh the Baptifmal vow, did 
fin and yet is bound to keep it* 

The truth is, wicked men have fo much of ill principles and 
ill ends, that they do all finfully that they do oft as to the fub- 
ftance, and ever as to the manner : But they are not difobliged 


L 204 ] 

from all their Contracts and Vows,becaufe they finfully made 
them. Elfe they will purpofely do all finfully, that they may 
not be obliged. 

So that, 1. If the Act of impofition. 2. The Act of 5wear- 
ing. 3- And jart of the matter Sworn, be all unlawful ; yet a 
man is obliged to that part of the matter that is lawful. But 
part of the Vow in queftion was good. 

L. What part of it was good as to the matter ? 

M. 1. The renouncing of popery. 2 And of Schifm. 3 And 
ofprophanenefs 4. The Obligation to defend the King. 5. The 
profeflionto Rerentof fin, &c. 

L. But all this we are bound to otherwife before. 

M. Then you confefs that it is good ; and then the Vow in que- 
ftion binds us to it. I hope you are not fo ignorant as to think that 
a Vow binds not a man to do that which he is bound to before, 
I told you before, tho' a man be bound by his Vow in Baptifm to 
Chrift, his renewing it at every Sacrament layeth more and 
more Obligation on him. If a man have taken the Oath of Alle- 
giance, every time he taketh it, he is again bound to the fame 
thing. One may have a thoufand Obligations to one and the 
fame Duty. 

L. But one thing is unanswerable : No, man is bound by a l r ow 
that had net a f elf-obliging power :■ But the Sttbjetls of England and 
Scotland, had no fe If -obliging power to take that Covenant ', becaufe 
the King was againfl it. The 30. of Levit. proveth this at large. 

M. Indeed if the Act of Vowing were not only finful 
but ameer nullity, that Vow being no Vow, could not bind: 
But that Levit. 30. doth no whit prove this, I have fully mani- 
fefted in my Chnflian Directory in the chap, of Vows, to which 
I referr you, part. 3. cap. 5. Where the whole cafe of Vows is fo 
largly opened, that I will here only fay this little. 

The text of Levit. 30. doth exprefly fpeak only of Women, 
thatare in a parents or Husbands houfe, and only of Vows made 
freely to God ^ of doicg or offering fomethingto him: Yea it 
ieemeth limitted to them, of which many reafons may be given* 
And many reafons I have their mentioned, pag. 33. why it doth 
not extend to Princes and Magiftrates for releafing their Sub- 
jects from their Vows, tho' fome pretend a parity of reafon. 
But thefc things are certain. 

1. That 

[ £ e 5 ] 

That even the Parents make not the vow null at its firft making* 
b ;Iy relax it after, and flop the confirmation of it, verf. 4, 51 
7, , 9^11, 12. 

2. That this Power is about vows to God, as good or hurtful 
to the inferiours; and that fome Vows are lb certainly neceflary 
to the inferiours good, that the Father or Husband (whole Tower 
is only for their good, and not their hurt J cannot di pence with 
it. As Dodlor Sander fon, faith Prdecb 4. Seclion 5 Page ice, 
105. it belonging only to that matter in which one is under another 
Government, which hath Seclion 6. a double limitation, One in the 
Verfon of the Swearer, viz. There is fear ce any one that hath the 
ufe of Reafon, that is fo fully under another s Power , but that in fome 
things he is fui Juris. And there every man may do as pleafes 
himfelf ^ without confuting his Superiour, fo as that by his oxen Ati^ 
Without his Superiour s Licence, he may bind himfelf. 2. As to the 

confent of a Superiour a tacit confent antecedent or confequent 

fuffices Quafi dicer et, ft dtffenfum futtm vel uno die difs'w fi- 
let votum in perpetuum ftal. livit. 

And it is certain that to oppofe Prophancnefs, Schifm, and Popery, 
and to Repent of fin, are things fo necefTary, and fo much for every 
Perfons good, that no Parent or Husband can either forbid or nullify 
fuch a vow: No Man can hinder any from vowing in Baptifm to 
be a Chriftian, and to forbear Murder, Adultery, Theft, Idola- 
try, &c. nor candifoblige them after. 

It is certain, that if a Superiour dilTent, and after confent, or 
he die, and the next Superiour (e. g. a Husband) to confent 
when a Woman makes the fame vow, it remaineth Obliga- 

And it is certain that if a Parent or Husband make the fame vow 
himfelf, he cannot dilbblige himfelf. And if once he confent, he can 
never after nullifie it. 

And as to our cafe de Facio it is agreed, 1 . That Parliament- 
Men took and impofed this Oath, when they were neither conftrai- 
ned, nor acknowledged the Kings Power to diilblve it. 

2. That thoufands in the Nation knew not of the Kings publifhed 
Profeflion againft it. 

3. That thoufands, yea the far greater!: uumber in England, took 
it after the Death of the King. 

4. That they thought the prefent King took it himfelf, and 
owned it by a Declaration ; in which, though for my part I doubt 

D d not 

C 206 j 

not but the Scots finfully abufed him and the Kingdom : yet that a. ers 
not the cafe of the Subjects obligation by that Vow. 

5. That multitudes of Lords, Knights, and others cook it that 
had adhered to the King in his Wars: All which undoubtedly puts it 
out of the cafe of diflolution in Levit. 30. 

Befides, the common Proteftant Doclrine is, that neither Popes, 
Princes or Prelates, can diipence with vows made in re necejfaria. 
Could Kings diibblige all their Subjects from their Oaths and Vows, it 
would make a great change in the Religion, Morality, and Com- 
merce of the World : So that hitherto we have ne iatisfaction. 

L. But this was a League and Covenant between man and man ', who 
are dead or changed, and not a Vow to God, as yon pretend', on which 
yon lay the ftrefs of the Obligation. 

M. I have nothing to do with it as a League of men, to do any 
action towards each other -, but only as a Vow to God, and Cove- 
nant of Duty to God : And though the name of a Vow be not in it, 
I think him not worth the difputfng with, that on deliberation denieth 
it to be a Vow to God, Whom think you elfe, do men make theie 
promifes to, of Repentance and Reformation, and oppofing Pro- 
phanenefs, &c. The words fignifie as folemna Vowing, as can well 
be made by words. 

L. Ton would make all the Corporations of England confitv.tedby 
the grojfefl Perjury that men can be guilty of even by difobliging or 
jnftifying themfelves, and all others in Three Kingdoms whom they never 
faw, in the violating of a Vow againfi Hercfy, Schifm, Popery, and 
Prcphanentfs, and Impenitence : When as yon know that our Clergy 
cry down Schifm every day. 

M. I leave all men to anfwer for their own actions : I only tell 
you why the Diffenters dare not take thefe Oaths : I meddle not 
with other men. And you know a man that faith, This Vow binds 
not, may yet hold that fomething elie binds us againft the fame thing. 
But if I were for Schifm, and fhould argue from this Topickof the 
non-obligation of the Vow, I know not how you could anfwer me. 

L. Let us try, What is your Argument ? 

M. That which is no fin, is not to be avoided as fin. 

Schifm is no fin. 

Ergo, Schifm is not to be avoided as fin. 

Remember that 1 do but plead their principles. 

L. / deny the minor. 

M. That 

C 207 ] 

it which a man vowing to avoid it, is k not by that vow 
bound 1 avoid, is no fin. 

But : chiim (and lb Prophanenefs, and popery J is that which a 
man vowing to avoid it, is not bound by that vow to avoid. 

Ergo, Schifin is no fin. 

L. I deny both ?najor and m'mor, and fir ft the major. 

M. A vow to avoid fin always bindeth. 

Ergo, That is no fin which a man vowing to avoid, is not thereby 
bound to avoid : eft & non eft are contradictory Terms. 

L. J deny the major , and diftinguijh, a Lawful Vow to avoid fin 
ever bindeth, an unlawful one doth not. 

M. Vnlawfulnefs is, 1. In the Act of Swearing. 2. In the Act 
of Impofing. 3. In the Matter Sworn. An Oath unlawfully Impo- 
fed and Taken, bindeth to a Lawful matter. But for an Oath againft 
fin to be materially unlawful, is a contradiction : For to be fn, and 
to be unlawful, is all one. 

L. / deny that a Vow againft Schifm binds not. 

M. The vow called the Covenant, bindeth no man. 

The vow called the Covenant, is a vow againft Schiiin ( Prophane- 
nefs, and Popery.) 

Ergo, A vow againft Schifm, ( Prophanenefs and Popery) binds 
not. ' 

L, Tou argue, a particulari: Though this Vow do not, another 

M. I argued ejfentia particulars adcommunem cjfentiam. If this 
vow have all that is efTential to a vow, and yet binds not, then no 
vow as fuch eflentially doth bind. If the anima hujus bovis vel 
ovis, be not anima rationalis, and yet have all that is efTential to 
the anima brutorum, then it is not efTential to any anima bruti to be 
rational : And it cannor be accidentally fo here. If the vow againft 
Schifm and Prophanenefs have all efTential to a vow, and yet bind 
not, then no vow bindeth qua talis as a vow. And if vows bind 
only by accident, or by fomething elfe that's an adjunct, that's no- 
thing for their own efTential obligation. 

And fo much of the Corporation- Declaration. 

D d 2 

C 208 ] 

CHAP. LVl. Of many agreed Tremendous Circumfiances and Prin- 
ciples which ajj right ma?iy from Conformity. 

M.fnpHere are alfo many general and collateral and circumftan- 
X ti&! ccnfideratious that make Men fear the guilt of Con- 
formity the more. 

L. What are thofe t I believe yon will find as many of that fort 
of Reafons on the other fide to move you to Conform , tf you confider 

M f I will tell you what I mean, and then I will hear all that you 
have to fay for it. 

I. We are all agreed that no fin muft be done for any commodity, 
or on any pretence of good. 

II. We are agreed that to pretend Gods Service, or Name for 
our fin is a heinous aggravation : To fay, I muft do evil to pleale 
God, to Preach and to w.n Souls, is I'rophanenefs and Hypo- 

III. We are agreed that it is worfe in a Minifter of Chriftthanin 
others } becaufe he is bound to be an example to the Flock, who 
are apt to imitate him. 

IV. It is granted that God is jealous about his Worfhip, and that 
the prophaning of Holy things, and finning openly in the Sacred 
AfTemblies is, ceteris yaribm? worfe than meer mifcarriages in our 

V. Lying is by moft acknowledged a great fin, as overthrowing 
Humane credit and converie : But efpecially in a Preacher, becaule 
it will tempt Men never to believe him: And to fay that we al- 
ien t and confent, and that ex animo when we do not, is heinous 

VI It is granted that Man hath not a defpotical power of his 
own understanding, to believe what he will : And that if any of his 
Errors be vicious, Vice and Error muft have better cure than meer 
commands : And if Men could know and believe what they will, 
they fhould will to believe nothing but what hath credible evidence, 
without a carnal bials. • 

VII. It is agreed that all Men have Error, and therefore that Er- 
ring Men or no Men muft be tolerated in our Communion \ and he 
that thinks otherw rfe, condemneth himielf, and teacheth all Men to 
condemn him. 

.VIII, It 

[ 2o 9 ] 

VIII. It is granted that ft is a very low degree of Knowledge 
that the Univerfality of vulgar Chriftians do attain, who hardly 
learn the common Catechifin, much lefscan it be expected that they 
fhould all be able to underftand all indifferent things to be indifferent, 
and to be Judges of the mtnutifsma. 

IX. If any errors be tolerable, its like to be the errors about 
things indifferent and final] . 

X. St. Paul hath exprefly determined the Controverfy about lov- 
ing and receiving fuch, Rom. 14. & 15. 

XL To encourage by compliance a generation and defign of 
Men that overthrow Chrift's and his Apoftles Rule of Communion, 
and by invented Impofitions of their own, would make Church - 
Concord impoflible, and would propagate this way of certain 
Schifm, and ftablifh it in the World, is to confederate for 
tearing the Church of Chrift, and making Schiim common and un- 

XII. It is granted, that he that after his greater!: Study is per- 
fwaded that unneceffary Oaths, Subfcriptions, Covenants, Ceremo- 
nies are finful ; is condemned if he go againft his Conlcience, though 
he fhould miftake. 

XIII. Thole therefore that make fuch fnares for Souls, and then 
tell us, \Jf you go againft your Confciences yon are Damned for 
that , and if yon do not, you are Damned a* Schifnaticks y for difo- 
beying ui] are far unlike the Minifters of Chrift, or Men that help 
tofave our Souls. 

XI V. We Non-conformifts, offer our folemn Oaths that we 
have by Prayer and earneft fearch and ftudy, laboured to know 
the truth herein : And as our Worldly Intereft w 7 ou!d perfwade 
us to conform, fo we would readily do it, did we not believe 
that it is fin againft God : Yea, we take it (as to us) to be no 
fmall but heinous fin, by the aggravations which 1 am mention- 

XV. Seeing then the way of our Condemners is either tocaft all 
Chriftians out of the Church, that have not a grearer degree of 
Knowledge herein, than I have, and all Men of my Rank, or elfe to 
bring all Men implicitly to believe all to be lawful that is commanded 
them, we cannot confent to either of theie two Meafures for the 

XVI. It is agreed, That Ferjurv is fo heinous a fin, as that 
few are greater : It fo taketh God's Name in vain, as to en- 

C 2IO 3 

gage his Juftice in a fpecial Revenge. It depriveth Kings of due 
iecurity For their Lives and Crowns, by the Oath of Fidelity. 
It deftroyeth all Truft, and confequetjply all Commerce among 
men ; as well as all Hope of publick juftice : It expofeth the 
Eftates and Lives of all men to the will of perjurd men • ib that 
he that dare be perjurd, may be fuppofed liable to any other 
Wickedneis how great foever. Therefore if we Minifters fhouid 
be perjured ; we Ihould make our lelves utterly unmeet for our 

XVII. It is agreed that to fin deliberately by a Covenant under 
our Hands, is one of the moil heinous forts of finning ; and if it be 
done knowingly, fheweth the peribntobe a willful Servant of fin. 
To fin by the fudden furprize of a Pafsion is to bad ; but to ftudy 
it, refolve it, and covenant it, is moft dangerous: To engage a 
mans felf by Covenant to be once a Month drunk, or ileal, or com- 
mit Fornication, is far worfe than the bare ad:. 

XVIII. It is granted that Repentance is the condition of For- 
givenefs, and for man to Swear or Covenaut that he will never Re- 
pent , or endeavour to amend, or alter any thing that is amifs, is to 
renounce Forgivenefs. 

XIX. It is granted that publicity common, national fins, are far 
worfe than private and perfonal, in few ; and if heinous, they are 
prognofticks of the foreft Judgments ; and to promote them, is 
to be the Enemy of the Land. 

XX. It is granted that if that prove Perjury, which fome 
DifTenters fear is fuch, and the Kingdom ihould be ftigmatized 
by it, there could icarce be any greater Shame and Danger be- 
fall the Land, to make it odious to GOD and Men, and Recor- 
ded as fuch to all Generations. As I laid, The Oaths and Cove- 
nants to endeavour no Alteration in Church Government, is impo- 
fed on all Corporations, all Souldiers in the Militia, all Vefteries, 
all Non-conformift Minifters that will take it, and all Minifters 
as to Covenant in the Act of Uniformity : And he that (with- 
out accufing others) only ftudieth to be innocent of fo Mortal 
a (feared) Guilt, fure is therein excufable, if the fear of God, 
and the love of our Souls, and of the Church and State, be 
not an unexcuiable Crime. Apply this no farther than I ap- 
ply it. 

XXI. There 

[ 211 ] 

XXI. There is fo much written for a Foreign Jmfili&ion 
over England^ in Church Affairs, by Arch-Bifhop LaiU, Arch- 
Bifhop Bromhdl, Dr. Heylin, Mr. Thorndike^ Dr. Saywell, Bifhop 
Cunnings Chaplain (and many others) whole words I am rea- 
dy to produce) as may aflure us that it is in the fame mens 
thoughts to introduce it as the only way to Concord, and that 
they therefore defire the Ejection and Ruine of fuch as we, be- 
caule we are againfl: it. And how far, and how ibon God will 
let thele men prevail, we know not : But we are paft doubt, 
that to fubjecl a Nation to a Foreign Jarifdittionj is to ftigmati^e 
it with the moil odious Perjury : Seeing as the OATH of Supre- 
macy Sweareth all exprefly againfl it, lb the aforefaid Corporation 
Oath, Veftry-Oath^ Miktia-Oath, Oxford-Oath^ and Uniformi- 
ty S ah f caption , have Sworn or Engaged the Nation never to en- 
deavour any Alteration of Government^ in Church or State : And 
if a Foreign Jurifditlion be no Alteration^ we know nothing capa- 
ble of that Name. And when we lee fome of the lame men at 
once endeavour to make us Tdkg Juch OATHS on pain of Ruine, 
and to defign to bring all under the Gnilt of breaking them 
when we have done, men think it befl to take no more of them 
than is neceflary, till they fee whether they mull: be kept or 

XXII. -Plagues, Flames, Poverty, Convulfions that have be- 
fain Corporations of late years, makes us the more afraid of the 
fins which are like to be the Caufe : And the Earl of Argyl's Cafe 
makes us afraid of ftretching Expofitions of Oaths: And the Lon- 
doners have fyed foill by fuch ftretching Expofitions, as confirmeth 
us in our purpole to avoid them. 

XXIII. If we wilfully fin on- pretence of Liberty tx> preach the 
Gofpel, we cannot expect God's BlefTmg on our Labours : And 
then what is our preaching worth ? 

XXIV. We read how joyfully many Martyrs in Queen Mary's 
days endured the Flames, rather than grant the Real Prefence w 
'the Mafs: and we that fear far greater fin, muft rather luffer than 
commit them. 

XX V. As we dare not Conform againfl Co -faeries^ fo to lay by 
our Miniftry while we can Exercife it^ we take to be Sacrikdge^ Co- 
venant-breaking with God, and Treachery and Cruelty to the Souls 
of Men. 


[ 212 ] 

XXVI. We are fure if all the Minifters fhould Conform, it 
would be fo far from healing the Church, that it would widen the 
Breach : For the DifTenting peoj le would be tempted to go the fur- 
ther from us all, and think that none of us were to be trufted ; as 
many have turn'd further already on fome fuch Accounts. 

XXVII. We are commonly agreed, That no man have right from 
Cod to Silence all the Minifters in the Land: And we are fully fatif- 
fied, that Conformity to the things aforefaid being a fin, all the Mi- 
nifters in England ought to have been Non-conformifts, and then the 
Act of Uniformity had filenced them all. 

XXVIII. Laftly, The dreadful eflfefts of Canonical, and the like 
Impofitions, the iufferings of Godly Minifters, Congregations, Ci- 
ties, Countries, and Perfons thereupon; our doleful Divifions, 
efpcialiy among Minifters, the evil Spirit that pofTefleth multitudes to 
cry down Love, and call for Vengeance, and the prolpecl of what 
is going on, do affright us from approving, conlenting to, or ufing 
the Engines that thus divide us, and the Canons that are battering 
down our Peace, and confequently of all the Atheilm, Prophaneneis, 
Malignity, Popery, Perlecution and Calamity to this Land, which 
are like to come in at the Breach of our Walls, which the Battery of 
thole Cannons and Engines make. A Goal, and a Fire, or a Gallows 
is an eafier place, than a Bed, where Confcience mail charge fuch 
Evils home upon us ; much more than the Judgments which the True 
and Righteous Judge of the World will fhortly execute on Lyers, 
Malignants, or Perfecutors of his Flock; \ea, of theleaftof thofe 
that Chrift will call Brethren at that day. 

I have oft laid, if any Church-Hiftory of one Man be credible, 
St. Martin wrought many Miracles; and when the Bifhops about 
him being bad Men, to get down the Prifcillian Gnofticks (worfe 
than our Quakers} did, i. Seek help of the Magiftrate's Sword; 
2. And bring ftricl Godly perfons under fufpicion of being Prifcil- 
liamfts ) Martvn renounced their Communion by relblved feparation 
to his death ; lave that once at the Emperour's defire, he Communi- 
cated with them on condition the Emperour would fpare the lives of 
fome condemned as Prifciliianifts ; and even for this was rebuked and 
chaftiied by an Angel, if his Scholar and Companion Sulfuim Scvcrus, 
a Learned Godly Man, be to be believed. 



CHAP. LVII. Of the Reafon for Conformity. 

L. '^TCW / will tell you what I here faid again ft your Nori con- 
L^ formity, and I will give you leave to a?/ fiver the Objections 
as we go on. 

L. Obj I. lis commonly faid, that you are Fanatick Perfons that 
build all your diffent on your private Spirits^ and pretended Impulfes 
and Tnfpirations. 

M. Have I pleaded with you any fuch Imfulfts or Tnfpirations y 
as the Reafons of our Diffent ? Is there any fuch thing in above 
ioo Books that I have Written ? Did we ufeany fuch Argument 
in our Difpute with the Bifhops? But the Papifts call every Mans 
Faith that is his Own, and not taken meerly on truft as the Churches 
Faith, by the name of a Private Spirit. 

L. Obj II. They fay you make a Schifm and Stir for meer trifles 
and things indifferent, viz. Ceremonies and Liturgy ; con f effing that 
they are not unlawful. 

M.'i. And what if they fay that we are Turks or Heathens 
or have Horns and are Brutes, what Remedy have we ? To 
their Honour be it fpoken, we would not hope to Confute 

2. Do you not know that fo far are we from this, that even 
under the old eafter Impofitions, we proteftea to the Bifhops in 
our Petitions of Peace, That we would yield to any thing but fin 
againft God, and we endeavoured to prove Conformity ftnfttl ? And 
do they well agree with themielves, when Doclor Snllingfeet faith, 
that I would reprefent Conformity fuch as mould make them feem a 
company of Perjurd Villains ? 

3. I pray you tell me, whether the 52 Points now opened by 
me, be nothing but Liturgy and Ceremonies, and whether you take 
them all to be things indifferent. Is it not an odd fort of Accufers 
that we have, that fbmetimes fay we fufpeel: the Nation of common 
Perjury, and the Church of Subverting, Corruption, and overthrow 
of Difcipline, and Excommunicating ChrifVs Faithful Servants ; and 
fhortly after lay, we Diffent only about things indifferent? God 
have mercy on thofe milerable Souls that take fuch things for in- 

4. Who is it troubles the Land v/ith their things Indifferent? 
Is it we ? Did we devife them ? Do we impoie them on any, 

E e and 

L 214 J 

and fay, Vfe our things in different, or we will fdence you, or Ex- 
rnmcate you, and lay yon in Gaol with Rogues ? Be fuch things 
impofed as Indifferent ? 

L. III. They fay. yon hold your Opinions in obfiinate wilfulnefs, 
and have no reafon to give for them, and therefore are not to be born 
with as weak. Brethren. 

M. So laid the Avians of the Orthodox, and the Heathens of 
the Chriflians. It's a fine World when ignorant ungodly Lads are 
heard tell fuch Men as were Do&or Reignolds, John Fox^ Amefim, 
Blondel, Bailee, Chamier, &c. We can't allow you lb much as 
the Efteem of tyeak, Brethren: I do not think but fome of their 
School-boys might foon be taught by a Bifhop to fay thus to their 
Matters. , 

2. But do all the young Clergy that can talk thus, (hew us by 
any good Evidence, that in other things they are fo much wifer and 
Learneder than the Diffenters ? Are they all of greater Learning 
than John Reignolds, or better Hebricians than Hugh Broughton, 
or better Logicians than Sadeel, or Ramus, or Sohnius, or of grea- 
ter Reading than Blondel, &c. 

3. Do they know us better than we our felves? W T e offer our 
Oaths, that we hold what we do by the Cogency of appearing Evi- 
dence, and are willing to know the truth. 

4. Have I here and eifewhere given no Reafons for our Dlf 
fent ? Have they anfwered my Treatife of Epifcopacy, my Firft and 
Second Flea for Peace, my Apology, my Treatife of the Terms of 
Church-Concord, or any one thing that I have Written for our 
Caufe, lave two or three by difputes, which when I have vindi- 
cated, they have let fall the Defceptation ? What Front have thefe 
Men then, that fay we Diffent without giving Reafon for it ? But 
you know how long the Prefs was fhut againft our Writings; and 
yet then they that would not endure us to fpeak , accuied us for be- 
ing filent. 

L. Obj. IV. They fay you are Non-conformifts mecrly to makegood 
your former Errors, becAufe you will not confefs that you did ami fs^ 
but will make the People jufiifie you. 

M. 1. What are thofe Errors? If it be our diflikeof any of the 
things before deicribed, I confefs it is becaufe we will not re- 
nounce them: If it bean Error to be againft their Church- 
Gorruptions, and cruel Excommunications, and denying Chri- 
stendom to the Seed of the Faithful, and Communion to Faithful 


Chriftians, I confefs we will not recant thefe Errors, till they have 
better proved them iuch. The Papifts that lwarm with Errors, 
as a Beggar doth with Lice, yet Burn the Proteftants as for 


2. I pray you wifli thofe Infallible Men, that in the Ditch of Dirt 
are delivered from all the uncleannefs of Error, to fend only thofe 
that are without Error, to caft the firft Stone at us, or thole that 
have no worfe Error than ours to filence, Excommunicate and de- 

ftroy us. 

3. Have we given them no reafons of our DifTent ? 

4. Do they not know that the Argument that hath brought us 

all into the cafe that we are in, was thus given us 1664. and ofc Rea( i c heL 
fince in Print? "[Y/ we abate them any things they will fay that g^ A ^ 
oar Church was faulty, and needed that Reformation^ who then Confiderari^ 
is it that hath divided us to avoid confeffion of any former faultinefs ? ons ot Recc 
Though good Bifhop Hall pronounceth a heavy Sentence ^f^f^ 
on them that will juftifie the Mifcarriages of the Prelates. church of £ 

land, and hi 
Advercifemenr on the prefent Church-Controverfies, and fee whether he thought there was 
need of Reformation : And Judge Halts Papers of Religion. 

L. Obj. V. They fay that yon took, fart with the Parliament a- 
gain ft the King, and involved the Land in Blood, and have ftill the 
fame Rebellious Principles. 

M. 1. I confefs there were fome among us that were of the 
mind of Hooker, Bilfon, Grotius, Barclay, and the common fort 
of Cafuifls, Politicks, &c. and that thought that as in a doubt a- 
bout Phyfick, the Colledge of Phyficians were moil: to be trufted, 
fo in a doubt about Law, the Parliament had been moft credi- 
ble : And when the Irijh had Murdered Two Hundred Thou- 
fand Proteftants, falfly pretending that they had the Kings Commif- 
fion, and threatning to fmifh their works in England, there were 
many formerly tempted to fly in fear to the Parliament for fafe- 
ty \ being ignorant that the Kings bare word, notwithstanding 
the Prists Strength and Intereft, was more to be traded with 
our Laws, Lives and Religion, than all "the Lawyers, Courts and 
Parliament} and that if all the Proteftants in England had been 
uied as thofe in Irelavd, they ought to have died patiently, un- 
lefs the killers would have given them time to fend to the King 

E e 2 to 

0*6 ] 

to knew wheiher he would have them live or die: They were ig- 
norant that a Lord Proprietor may do with his own as he lift. Who 
acculeth the Owner for killing hisown Sheep? But the time^of this 
ignorance are paft : The Long Parliament that made the Act of Vm- 
formity, cured it: And mail not the Acl of Oblivion be permitted to* 
reconcile us, and continue our peace ? 

2. But, Sir, Who be they that were thus deceived ? I told 
you, t. That of near ten thoaiand that had Churches under the 
Parliament and Cromwcl there was but two thoufand that refil- 
led to Conform : And is not i'even thouland Conformifts more 
than two thoufand DilTenters ? 2. Maiw that were in the Parlia- 
ment's Army Conformed :, and ibme that were for the King's Death - 7 
when the generality of thofe called Presbyterians abhorred it, and 
the Engagement } and brought in the King' on reafons of meer Con- 

3. I have told you that we will take it thankfully, if only 
thofe were filenced that had any hand in that War, believing that 
it will not now be twenty Minifters in England. And why are 
the reft that were Boys at School, accufed for other Mens Opini- 
ons or Actions ? For the time to come, you need not fear them. 
I heard Ibme tell the Members of the Long Parliament that cal- 
led them Rebels for laying, That a Parliament may ufe Defenfive 
Anns againft the Kings Commijfioned Soiddiers \ that if that would 
ferve, they would promiie, that if the King would but fend a 
dozen Injh-men to kill them all in the houfe, they would never be 
guilty of taking Arms to defend them, nor perlwading any elfe to 
co it. 

L. Obj. VI. Bin they fay that thefe Non-conformifts, though they 
bain ha d vuhc Lire Vl'ar, yet have the fame Principles that caufed 
it j and that is, No^-c.mfurmny. 

M. This is an Argument a bacalo ad angidum : A Man is a- 
gainft the Crofs in Baptilm, or a Lay -Chancellor's Excommunica- 
to Men for Ceremony, &c. Ergo , he is agaiuft the King, and 
fbr^Rebeliion. The other fide lay, That the Irijh Principles and 
the Pofifij were the cauie ; and muff, we therefore conclude all 
Jrtfh or Papfts to be againft the King? They were Papifis that 
railed the Wars on both fides, in the aforelaid days of King Wil- 
liam, K. Stephen, Hen. the ift. and Hen. the sd. and Edw. the id, 
and Rich, the 2d. and Hen. the 6th. and Rich, the $d. zn&Edw. 
the Ath. &c. Doih it follow that all Papfts are Rebels. 

2. But 

[ 21? ] 

2. But I have elie where fully proved thar the Parliament 
when that War began, were of the Church of England, and Con- 
formists ; and it's ftrange that any fhould have the face to deny it, 
while lb many are yet living that know them : \, re'is us 

in his Memorials, that they Voted, that every Count; fhould have 
a Biftop and his Presbyter) : and were thole then againft Epifcopa- 
cy ? One would think that a County fhould be big enough to keep 
Epifcopacy from dwindling to nothing-, every hifhop of old had but 
one City : Many Counties have ten } or near twenty Towns that 
were then called Cities. But w 7 hen Papifis dare fay, that all 
againft Kings, that are againft the Pope, who is the Ruler and Ce- 
poferof Kings ; it's no wonder if every EiLhop, or chance ^or, or 
Official, &c. will fay, if you be nor for us, you are againft. the 
King; fince all are lworn againft altering the Church-Government 
before that of the State. 

Mr. Martin that loft an Arm in the Kings Service jn the War, 
lay in Goal at Warwick^ for Preaching when Siiencsd; and Mr. 
Francis Brampfeld, that was againft the Parliaments War, lav ieven 
years in Goal for Preaching as a Non-conformifr, and died in iVerp- 
Gate. Non-conformifts that have been, and are moft for the King, 
do fuffer as much as others. 

3. Read myfecond Plea for Peace, in which I declare our Politi- 
cal Principles; and tell us what you there dillike. 

L. Obj. VII. But why do your ef ufe to renounce ak Ugation of 

the Covenant, if you are not Di (loyal. # 

M. If you reduce your Objecf ion to an Argument, it muft run 
thus; (M\ thofe are Difloyal to the King, who think that this Vow 
binds them to be againft Prophanenels, Popery or Schifm, or to en- 
deavour any amending or alteration of the Prelaticai way of Church- 
Government: But, &c. I deny the Major. Is he an Honourer of 
the King, that dare affirm this ? ) 

We are ready to renounce all Obligation from that or any other 
Covenant, to any Dilloyalry whatever. 

L. Obj. VIII. They fay, that your Preaching is unnectjf< 
there being Minifies s enough without you, and re that . 

Preach but to keep up a Party^ and your own Kep&ati / terefi 

in them. 

M. And I think that Prieft filter for Tears than for Diiputes, 
chat fo little knowing England, or the work of the Office thev 
undertake/ If I know the Church that hath lV.ch a Faftor, I ° 

C 218 •] 

be paft doubt that they have need of help. I would as foon believe 
bim if he undertook to build a Cattle alone, and laid he had no need 
of help } or that forty thoufand of the Poor of London have no need 
of Relief, and that it is Rebellion to Relieve them ; as that the 
forementioned two hundred thoufand have no need of teaching or 
Miniiterial help for their Souls. 

L. Obj. IX. There are fomc that have written that it is Pride and 
Covet oufntfs that ?nakes yon Non-conformifls to fiem Godly , and to get 
Livings for your Sons. 

M. Satan is ib impudent a Dilputant, that I am weary of an- 
fweringhim, though in felf-defence : If it be Pride to be lcorn'dand 
tois'd about as Rogues, why will thefe humble Lord Bifhops and 
Matters ib be-rogue us to make us proud ? Men ufe to take down 
that which feeds their Enemies pride : I pray get them to reftore us 
from poverty, and Priibns, and Scorns, and Slanders, to take 
down our pride. 

And for Covetoufnels, get them one year to take our turns, to 
have all their Goods and Books taken away, on the Penalty of 40 /. 
for every Sermon, and that to be levied on their Hearers, which 
they cannot pay, and in this cafe to lie in Goal, and tell us when 
they have tried it, whether it gratified their Covetoufnels. 

As to Mens Charity to our felves or Sons } 1 . I have faid here- 
tofore, that the two thoufand that were ejected, were fit for Bedlam^ 
if they would go out and fuffer, that fo forty Mens Sons that con- 
form againft their Fathers wills, might get Benefices. 2. They 
will take it for a dilgrace to their Church, if we mould not grant 
that the Lords, Knights, Rich Men and Patrons, are far more of 
their Church, than of Diffenters; and therefore liker to prefer 
Conformitts Sons, than others : And a Living for the Father , ano- 
ther/or the Son, is more than a foffibility for one. But braien-faced 
impudence cannot be confuted. 

L. Obj. X. They fay yon are meer Hypocrites, that have learnt a 
fhew of Holintfs and Juftice, but have falfe, prottd fe If -conceited , 
rebellious hearts. 

M. And truly we cannot confute them any otherwife than by an 
Appeal to the Judge of Hearts : We cannot fhew them our Hearts : 
And if they lay that they fee and know them, let Men believe them 
as they feecaufe They did not craftily ib much to praiie our out- 
fide; for thofe that take them not for Gods, will hardly believe that 
thy fee any deeper. 

L ^ 4 7 J 

But as far as I underftand, their meaning is. That no Man on 
Earth, is truly Honeft aiad Godly ; and therefore all are Hypo- 
crites that profefs it. And fo they confeis themielves Hypo- 
crites in profeffing Chriftianity, if Profefsing be the mark of Hypo- 

L. Obj. XL They fay that yon are Rebels and Schifmaticks againft 
the Church i and that's as bad as Murder, or Adultery ; and fo you 
are more vicious than they. 

M. It's well they made their Chancellors, Officials, CommifTa- 
ries, &c. the Church firft .* 1 confeis I am not unapt to believe that 
they take it for worfe than Adultery, Murder, Perfecution, or Per- 
jury, to crofs their wills and Worldly Intereft. And if calling 
themfelves (the Church) would make any needy or ambitious pack of 
Men, the M afters of all Mens Confciences, and Perfons, andEftates, 
I mould not wonder if more than Papifts and Prelatifts ftrove to be 
called, The Church. 

L. Obj. XII. But they fay all Antiquity condemneth Schifm, and 
you are they that will not fujfer the Church to have Vnity and Peace, 
in difobeying the Bifrops ; and Rebellion is as the fin of Witchcraft , and 
Difobedience as Idolatry. 

M. The fence of this laft Claufe is \J3od calls it like Witchcraft 
and Idolatry to. Obey Him, and Rebel againft His Laws : Ergo, it is 
like Witchcraft and Idolatry not to Rebel and Difobey Him if Bifiops 
command us ] Prove the confequence. 

2. Do not Papifts call them Schifmaticks and Hereticks too, as 
long and as loud as they call us fo ? And will this prove them iuch 
indeed ? We Appeal to the common Reafbn of Mankind, whether 
they that make a multitude of finful Canons, to perfecute Chrift's 
Church and Servants, and add to his Laws an hundred forty one of 
their own, with inhumane Penalties, cafting out thofe that obey them 
not, be not rather Schifmaticks than they that fay, We will hold 
Concord in all that Chrift commandeth, or his Apoftles pra&'ied, 
but we dare not obey you againft God. Read my Search for the' 
Schifmaticks, and The Englijh Schifmaticks Detected and Confuted, 
and then blame the Schifmatick and fpare not. 

L. Obj. XIII. But they fay that it is but a company of fclf -concei- 
ted, bad, Rebellious People that befriend or follow you, and t he fiber 
People are for them. . 

M. TTiefei 

L *^ J 

M. Thefe things are unfit matter for a Controverfy with any 
£ngttJh r Men of this Age, but only with Forreigners and Stran- 
gers. I thought once it would never have been ib hard to know 
good Men from bad, as thefe would make it. But I remember 
how badchrift and his Apoftles were thought by their Perfecutors, 
Wherein doth fuch Mens badneis lie? In . not coming to 
their ( hurches? Thouiands do, and the reft go to other 
Churches : But thouiands of our Adverfaries go to none, but ve- 
ry rarely. 

Is it in any other Fice : Why do they then charge therfl with 
avoiding Vice in Hypocrifle? And what is that Vice? Here are, 
ibme fay, many hundreds that praclife Phyfick in London'. The 
Ports, Walls, and Gates are ftickt with Phyficians offers to cure 
the Lecherous Pox : To day I read Kir lens Bill, that faith he 
harh cureth eight hundred of that Difeafe. I dare Bet with you 
all the Money I have, that if you enquire, not eight, or perhaps 
two of that eight hundred were Puritans, or fuch as you now can: 
out for Non-confcrmifts^ (unlefs you call Papifts or fuch other, 
Non-conformfts) except any of them were Wives that catcht it of 
Husbands that are of your Church or Parifhes, and not of us, or 
Husbands that catcht it of fuch Conformable, (or Papifts) Wives. 
But of thefe things we need no defence. 

3. But if our Hearers be bad, they have the more need of teach- 
ing } and whether more are converted from ignorance, ienfuality, 
worldlinefs and prophanenefs, by their teaching or ours, ask others 
and not us. 

L. Obj. XIV. But they fay that it's by yon that we are in danger 
of Popery, becaufe you keep up their hopes of a Toleration by your divi- 
fionsvoeahning m. 

M. They may of the two, fay more probably it is we that 
bring in Prelacy, Lay-Excommunicators, Ceremonies, Lyturgies : 
For of the two, we have done lefs againft thefe, than againft Po- 
pery, and ftand not at fo gieat a diftance from them: The im- 
pudency of ibme Men is the fhame of depraved Humane Nature. 
They know that it is for being more againft Poperv than they 
are, that our Ruine is fo implacably endeavoured. They know 
that the Papifts are our chiefeft Profecutors, thinking that if 
they could deftroy us as their greateft Adverfaries, they mould 
bring the Church of England to their will, and that it is but ap- 
propriating the Nan:e of Popery to the Italian Faction that let the 


[ 221 ] 

Pope above Councils , and calling the reft by a better Name, and cut- 
ting off a few fhreds named 'by Heylin in the Life of Archbifhop 
Laud, and it's done. They know- that it is for drawing lb near 
to Popery that the Non-Conformifts dififent from them} and 
take it for granted that thole men that are labouring to bring in 
Popery, are the forwarder! to make this putid accuiation of us ; 
and that it hath been their labour thefe two and twenty years to 
have fore'd us to yield to an univerfal toleration, and to petition for 
it, that they might bring in Popery, and then fay it is we that did 
it, and that for denying this and being unreconcileable to Popery, 
the Papifts are fo unreconcileable to us, as that nothing will fatisfie 
them but our utter extirpation, of which they would make blind, 
fenfual, debauched, malignant men that call themf elves Froteftants 
the inftruments. And how many of their pillars have written for 
a foreign Jurifdidion and defend Grotim, I have told you before. 
And to this day that Prieft that is neareft to Popery, is trie bitterefl 
enemy to the Non-Conformifts, and moft preacheth for their deftru- 
clion : And thefe brazen faced men cannot endure an honcft Confor- 
mift that doth but prefer Protcftants that difTent from their fetters 
before the Papifts : And thofe Bifhops and Arch-biftiops and the 
very Church of England in their times, that were moft againft Po- 
pery, are their fcorn and hatred, as you may fee in Heylin s reproach 
of Arch-bifhop Abbot, and the Bifhops and Convocation, except 
fix Bifhops in his days : And by the bafe fcorns that they now 
pour out againft good Arch-bifhop Grindal, calling fuch men as 
would ftrengthen us againft Popery by reconciliation , by the 
names of Grindalizers and Trimmers, and fuch as would betray 
the Church : And how they reproach and ufe Dr. Whitby for his 
Proteflant Reconciler, and Mr. Bold for his Sermon, and the Au- 
thor of the four Pleas of the Conformifts for the Non-Conformifts, 
and fuch others, you know : The Author of the Reflections, and 
the Samaritan they have not yet found out. Mr. Thomas Beverley 
feareth them not : The Bifhop of Hereford, Dr. Crofts, (the firft 
man that ever I faw go forth with a Troop raifed by his Bro- 
ther for the King , and his Sermon in my Pulpit the firft that 
ever I heard againft the Parliament, when the King was in Tork? 
jhire, and he himfelf had been a Papist, and is ftill zealous for 
their Church caufe J becaufe he wrote the Book called Naked 
Truth y to heal us and ftrengthen us againft Popery, they gnafh 

F f the 

C 222 J 

the Teeth at him ; and fo they do at Dr. Barlow Eifhop of Lincoln, 
that wrote of the treaibnable principles of Papifts, though thele 
Bifhops are too big for them yet to villifie, and openly oppoie. 

L. Ton may be more again jt Poetry than they, and yet bring it in im- 
prudently by dividing w. 

M. Who do you think in your Confcience is liker to bring it 
in, we or they ? Who hath done and iuffer'd more to keep it out ? 
We lay down all that we have to that end : They will not part 
with a Ceremony, or one Oath, or a Re ordination, or an Excom- 
munication of Chrifts Members to keep it out ; but plainly tell us, 
that they had rather Popery came in than abate a jott of their 
Self-made Religion or Impofitions, or than iuch as I mould Preach 
the Gofpei. 

But I confefs I am not able to deny it, that the Non-Confor- 
mifts may be the occafion of bringing in popery, by way of An- 
tiperiftafis ; fome men hate us and all ferious Godlinels fo much, 
that they are like enough to be for Popery, becaufe godly men are 
againft it : And I fear left they that fee the Non- Con form ifts would 
reform their Prelacy and Church-Courts, and reduce them to the 
Primitive Epifcopacy, defcribed by Bifriop Vjher, will be fo much 
afraid, left they lole fome of their Wealth and Domination by it, 
that ibme of them will hearken to the Papifts, that will promife 
them an Encreafe of that which theyfoefteem. And indeed k is 
already no ftrange thing to hear them fay, They had rather the 
Papifts came in with Popery, than the Diffenters with their Refor- 

I think ere long you are like to be convinced more effectually 
than by Writing, which Party is liker to bring in Popery, and 
to turn Papifts. In the mean time I begin to praife Stephen Gar- 
diner, and iuch others, for their Modefty, that when they burnt 
Cranmer, Ridley, Hooper, Philpot, Rogers, and the reft, that they 
did not charge them with bringing in Popery, and fay, we burn you 
for that. 

L. XV. They fiy that you ftretch the Words of the Oaths, Decla* 
rations, Subfcriptions, Liturgy and Ca?ions, to an ill fence, by a rigo- 
rous Interpretation, which was never the Meaning of the Authors ; and 
on that you ground your Diffent. 

AL i.I hope you will grant, that when the things that men 
fear ( whether juftly or miftakingly ) no !els than deliberate 
Lying, Perjury, and Contracting by Juftification the Guilt of 


C 22} ] 

many hundred thoufand Perjuries, and Swearing or Covenanting 
never to repent or endeavour that the Nation mould repent of hei- 
nous Church-Corruptions, or amend them, and the nullifying of che 
Ordination and Miniftry of Thouiands, and Unchurching almoft ail 
the protectant Churches, and more inch like, a man mould not play 
with Matters of this moment, nor take God's dreadful Name in 
vain, nor fport with the Consuming Fire. And I hope you grant, 
that Words in Oaths and Impofitions, are to be taken in the pro- 
pereft ufual fence, unlefs the Authors otherwiie expound thenx 
And you know that they have been fo far from expounding them 
otherwife, as that thefe twenty years they have refufed it, and in 
Scotland fentenc'd the Earl of A gyle to die for expounding them as 
fome would have us do. And whac do Oaths or Covenants figni tie, if 
the Takers may put what fence they will on them, and if the moft 
exprefs Univerfals, yea, the exprefs Exclufions of all Exceptions, 
may be taken in a particular fence with Exceptions, fuch Swearers 
and Subfcribers give their Rules no fecurity. Is k not enough to 
tell you we will willingly ftand to Bifhop Sanderfon's own Rules in 
his Excellent Prelections de Juramento, for expounding Oaths and 
Promifes ? 

Such as thefe Expofitions of ftretchers, make Oaths to be none, 
viz.. [_It's unlawful} that is, againft the Kings Law but not again ft 
Gods [to take Arms agawft the King} viz. As King, but fay the 
Papifts, when the Pope excommunicates and depofeth him, he is no 
King [on any pretence whatfoeverf} that is, any unjuft pretence, [by 
his Authority again ft his Perfra] viz It is to be done by Gods Autho- 
rity and not by hit, [or agai/n ft any Commiftioned by himf\ viz. Law- 
fully Commift toned, of which we are difcerning Judges. The fame I 
may fay of all the reft : As Affenting and Consenting to all things, ex- 
cept many thirgs : Swearing Canonical Obedience in Licitis & Honeftis y 
when we judge ten or twenty Canons, if not the very frame to be 
Illicit a & Inhonefta, &c. 

L, But as you have faid that thofe Great Men, Grotius, and Biftop 
Jeremy Taylor were for profitable Lying, fo you know that Worthy La- 
titudinarian Dr. who was wont to fay, That if falfe Knaves would turn 
him out of his Miniftry and Living, by enfnaring impofitions, he 
would take the Words in the beft fence he could fubdue them to, 
whatever the Authors meant ; and it was as Lawful for him to de- 
fend himfelf again ft Knaves with his Tongue, as with his Hands and 

F f 2 M> He 

[ 22 4 ] 

M. He is newly gone to his Judge : Nobis non licet \ told 

you that in my Catechifm on the Ninth Commandment I have 
given unaniwerable Reaibns againft Lying, for any Benefit what- 


Teace , 

Some fay that all our Articles of Religion, are but Articles of 
* *ace , and we fubferibe not to believe them true , but not to 
■preach againft them. At this rate men need not flick at any Oath 
and may (hake off the Oath of Allegiance, or any other when 
they have taken it. And if we are thought worthy to be hated 
and ruined as Rogues, for refufing felf-iaving, prudential, deli- 
berate Lying, and Perjury, when Oaths and Veracity are fo much 
of the fecurity of the Eftates, Names, and Lives, of Kings and 
Subjects, and fo neceffary to all humane Converfe, we patiently 
commit our Caufe to Him that fhortly and righteouily will determine 

CHAP. LVIII. Whether Communion with fo Faulty a Church ■ 

be Lawful. 

Z.TT Shewed what you faid again ft Conformity to a Friend, and when 
\^ he had read it, he faid, What a vSelf-contradidW is this 
Man, to lay all this Charge on the Church of England, and yet himfelf 
to hold Communion with it, and perfwade others fo to do? Can we touch 
Pitch and not be defiled? And indeed if all this be as bad as you fear I 
cannot fee how any Separatifts are to be blamed, or how any may Com- 
municate withfo bad a Church. 

M. Sic ftulti vitia vitant, drunken men reel from fide to fide- 
to keep one right tracfr, or to cut by a thred, feemeth impoflible to 

I. You muft diftinguifh between the Diocefan Churches as con- 
flicted by their Courts of Government and Canons, and the Parifh 

II. Between thofe Parifh -Churches which have godly or tolerable 
Paftors, and thofe that have not. 

III. Between Miniftry and Lay-Communion. 

IV. Between fated and occafwnal Communion. 

V. Between preferring their Churches before better, and not a- 
voiding them as null, or as unlawful to be Communicated with. 

Underftand thefe five diftin&ions well, and I fhall iatisfie 

L. Jp- 

[ ftfrj 1 

L. ^jPp/y the m, and let m hear your Judgment. 

M. 1. The Diocefan Churches, as they Depofe all inferiour Bifiops 
and Churches, and Rule by their Lay-Chilians, Church-Cenfitres, I 
difownand hold no Communion with in \tho[e Errors, but only in their 
Chrijiiamty . But I peaceably fubmit to them, and would live quiet- 
ly under them, if I might. 

II. Thole Faroes that have notoriously uncapable Priefts, ei- 
ther through utter Infufficiency, Herefy, or Hurtfulnefs, doing more 
harm than good, I own not to be Organized Churches, nor have 
Communion with their Minifters as Minifters, not owning them 
for luch. 

III. I hold it utterly unlawful to be Minifters with them, on the 
terms now required of us ; and therefore I have no luch Minifterial 
Communion with them. 

IV. I preferr them not before better. 

• V. I hold not fixed Communion as a fixed Member of their Chur- 
ches, with all that I hold occafional Communion with. 

L. What Communion is it then than you hold with them ? 

M. I. With the Diocefans and their Officers, I hold mental Com- 
munion as a Chriftian and a Proteftant in all the EfTentials of Chrt- 
ftianity, and that Reformation which they own. 

II. With the Parijh-Cburches that have true Minifters, I hold men- 
tal Communion, as true particular Churches of Chrift, (though faul- 
ty) and local Communion on juft occafions. 

III. With the Parifh-AiTembl ies that have intolerable Minifters, 
I hold mental Communion with the People as Chriftians, and will 
notrefufeon'uft occafionto joyn with them in any good Excercile 
as Lay-men. 

IV. With thofe Churches that have Minifters and Liturgy as 
ours that need Reformation, I profefs to joyn with them as i hri- 
flians and Protectants that own all the Scriptures, and that promife 
to Preach nothing as necefTary to Salvation, but what is contained 
in it, or may be proved by it : And when I Communicate with that 
Church, it is as a Society fo profefling: But if their Sermons, Li- 
turgy, or lives have any faults, being not Idolatry, Herefy, BUf- 
phemy, or fuch as rendreth their whole Worlhip, and ArTernbling un- 
acceptable to God, I dilbwn Communion in any of thole faults, tho' 
I be prefent. 

V. When I can have better c&tcris paribus, without 
greater hurt than good : I prefer it ', and only ule occafio- 

L 22b J 

r.al local Communion, with the Liturgy-Churches, as I would do with 
ftrangers were I in Foreign Lands. 

VI. Where I can have no better, without more hurt than good, I 
Communicate conftantly and only with the Parifh-Church where I 
live, as to Local-Communion. 

L. But how can you do either of thefe without guilt, when they are as 
bad as you have defcribed ? 

M. \\ I have not charged the Parifh-Churches with that which I 
have charged the Diocefans and their Courts with ; many honeft 
Minifters, never troubled nor Excommunicated a true Servant of 
Chrift, nor ever owned intentially the doing it by others. They la- 
ment the Impofitions, and would be glad we were united by their re- 
moval : They would fain have good Men reftored -, and they do their 
beft to promote Godlinefs. And the Ordinary Lords-Day pan of 
the Liturgy though not faultlefs, containeth things true and good, 
and it was a very great and excellent degree of Reformation, to 
make that Book: And the moft of all its faults are in the By-Offices, 
Baptiim, Confirmation, and Burial, and the Rubricks, which the 
Lords-Day common Worfhip is not concerned in, nor do the Congre- 
gation approve. 

2. Sin hath brought woful faultinefs into all the Churches on: 
Earth : And there are very few on Earth that have not worfe Do- 
ctrine, and a worfe Liturgy than ours : What then ? Muft we either 
own or hide all their faults, or elfe dilbwn and renounce them all ? 
No neither, but dilbwn what is evil, and own what is good; and 
ieparate from none of them further than they feparatg from Chrift. 

3. But 1 pray you aniwer me a few queftions: 

1 . Do you think any Church on Earth to be faultlefs. 

L. No : For all Men are faulty, but the difference is great. 

M. No doubt it is great : But, 2. Do you think that you are 
guilty of all the faults of the Church that you joyn with ? 

L. They jay\ ho, not of the lecret faults : But of the open they fay 
we are partakers by our prefence. 

M. Do you think there is any Church on Earth that hath no ppen 
Faults ? And will you joyn with none? 

L. Bin they fay, it is not Faults of Converfation that they mean, 
but in Miniftry, Doctrine, and Worfhip. 

M. I am lure Converfation Faults are oft alledged for Separation : 
But is there any Minifler or Church that hath no open Faults in Mi- 
nijiry and Worfrip. 

L. They 

[ 22 7 ] 

L. They mean not fmall Infirmities, fitch as wea^ faulty txprcfwns, 
methods, diforders, dullnefs, &c. but grofs, Intolerable Faults. 

M. bo then you are come to what 1 hold, I profefsthat if I fee or 
hear any luch Blafphemy, Idolatry, Herefy, or Malignity, as renders 
the Worjhip abhorred of God, I will abhor it and avoid it. 

L. Is none of all that fuch which yon have defcribed ? 

M. Nothing in the ordinary Lords-day Worfhip, which the 
Congregation muff joyn in : Yea, I dare not lay that their By-Offi- 
ces, viz.. Baptifm it felf, notwithstanding their kind of God Fa- 
thers and Crofling, doth fruftrate the Sacrament to the Capable. 
And the Sacrament of the Lords Supper, is very pioufly Admini- 
ftred in the words of the Liturgy : And if they force Men thither 
or admit them that are unfit, that maketh not the words of theLi^ 
turgy unfit for the Faithful, and their Faults in Difap'tne are none 
of mine. 

L. But Fault j known before hand become mine if I joyn with fitch 
a faulty Worflrip. 

M. Then you muff joyn with none on Earth , You know before 
hand your own Faults, that you will be guilty of in Prayer ; Muff 
you therefore forbear to pray ? Suppoie I have a Teacher that is an 
Anabaptif, an Antinomian, or hath fome known Tolerable Error, 
which I know before hand he holds, and ufeth to vend in his praying 
and preaching. Is it unlawful to joyn with luch? Then Presbyte- 
rians, Independents, and all that differ in judgment, muff fti.il run 
away from one another. 

L. But to commit a Fault themfelves makes it but their own, but if 
they impofe it on me, its mine if I be prefent. 

M. You fhould have laid only, Its mine if I commit it. If you 
were commanded to burn a Martyr, your prefence maketh you not 
guilty if you do it not, nor content to the doing of it. 

2. It's one thing to impofe on you the committing of a Fault, 
and another thing to impofe on you to hear another Man commit 

3. And it's one thing to impofe that which you can refufe, and ano- 
ther to force , ou 1 do it. 

When an An ah 'apt if, or an Antif*o*n>an, or a Preacher of uude- 
cent ex : n-Tions or diforder, teacheih in the AfTembly, he impoieth. 
on them all to hear his Faults, but not approve them, or do the like : Or 
if he command them to believe his Errors, it is refufable impoftion, 
and they may choofe. 

L. But: 

L 228 3 

L. But in the Congregation I muft do as they do. 

M. What muft you do that is fin ? Muft you fay all that the 
Prieft will fay ? Muft you believe all his miftakes ? Muft you put up 
any unlawful requeft to God ? 

L. Yes, fay they • -we muft fray for Bijhops. 
. M. I think verily they have need of Prayer : But they feem to be 
very humble Petitioners themfelves, when they bid you pray for 
them, but as to a God that xvorketh great Marvels. But muft you 
needs own every Petition in the Affembly ? By what Obligation ? 
Do you undertake to own every Petition that your own Preacher 
will put up, before you know what he will fay ? Yea, or if you 
knew he would fpeak amifs ? I have ellewhere told you that one of 
the Zealoufeft Non-conformifts againft Prelacy, was old Mr. Hum- 
phery Fen of Coventry, and he was wont after every Collect in the 
Common-Prayer to fay Amen aloud, except the prayer for the Bifhops : 
And he thought his filence was fufficient notice of his Dilfent.' 

L. But the broken Refponfes are ludicrous and intolerable. 

M. Prejudice may make any thing feem fo. But, i. The Jews 
Church ufed fuch as the Scriptures tell us. They are the oldeft 
part of all the Liturgy, ufed by the Church, when Holy fervency 
would not^endure to be filenced or reftrained to a bare Amen. 
3. And if it were not that prophane men ufe them unreverently, 
and fo bring them into difgrace, but they were again ufed fervently 
by Zealous Chriftians, they would feem quite another thing. 4. And 
we do the fame thing in efftcl:, when all the people fing the Pfalm^ 
fave that the Tune keepeth them better in time and order, and avoid- 
eth the confufion. 

L. But my Friend faith that the Aposlle faith, with fuch no not to 
Eat, and from fuch turn away : And you feem to fufpeSt them (thd 
you only fay what you avoid your felf} of Lyings Perjury, Per fee u~ 
tion, &C. And is it not a fin to Communicate with fuch ? 

M. 1. I never told you that I took all the Parifh-Miniftersor 
people for Perfecutors. No, nor for Lyers: For when they 
fay that ex animo they hold that nothing in the Liturgy or Cere- 
monies, &c. is contrary to the Word of God, they fpeak as they 
think. But it would be a Lye in me who am otherwife per- 


C 229 ] 

And for Perjury - 7 It's one thing grofly to be Perjured '3 I char- 
ged them not with that : And it's another thing to fay or do iome- 
what that may make a man fome way guilty of other mens Perjury : 
This is it which Affrights me from Conformity ; but as to them, they 
underftand the words of Oaths, and Promifes, and Impofitions, 
otherwise than I do (as I told you the Earl of Argyle did) and I 
doubt not but many Worthy men, luch as Mr. Gurnal^ and others 
known to us, were drawn in, by having leave to declare that they 
took the Impofitions in fuch a Senfe as they thought Lawful 
(as the Arians at the Council of Seleucia, and the Acdcians drew 
many in to them by giving them all leave to iubfcribe in their own 
Senfe : ) And though lean juftifie none of this; \et whatever their 
words were, and though they were not faultlefs, their hearts ab- 
horred Perjury. 

But I pray you ask your Friend thefe Queftions, 1. Did none 
that are for Separation from the Church of England take the 
Corporation-Oath and Declaration ? You know that many of them 

2. Do they ever fince avoid Communion w : ith all thofe men ? 
You know they do not. And yet none of the Minifters Sub- 
icriptionstome feem half fo frightful as the Corporation Declaration. 
Do they not then here (hew Partiality, and themielves juftifie our 
Communion with the Conformifts ? 

Yea, when Mr. Eat on ^ and ibme other Independants wrote againfr. 
the Obligation of the Covenant^ and of the Oath of Allegiance, and 
many called the Covenant an Almanack^ out of Date ; did the reft 
avoid Communion with thefe ? 

L. But briefly tell me why yon Communicate in the Parifh-Chur- 

M. Briefly, 1 . Becaufe Chrift hath commanded us to Kve in the 
utmoftLove, Union and Concord with all his Church on Earth, thar 
we poffibly can. 

2. Becaufe they hold all the EfTentials of Chriftianity, which* 
conftituteth them Members of Chrift s Church, and no Error that 
nullifieth their Chriftianity, or maketh their Communion unlawful 
to me. 

3. Becaufe ra$ own Edification hath required it: I have I 
lived, where I could have no better Communion • and after I 
found Communion with both forts moft profitable to me j I found 
the Liturgy in the main, fit for my ierious defies and praties to 

Gg God, 

God, and tl.e Preachers that / heard were profitable Preachers, 
aad if tome words were amii's, I part them by • and the very Con- 
cord and Preience of Cbriftians (though faulty) is pleaiant to 

4. 1 lived where and when thefe rarifh Churches were flandered 
b; rnift.ikt?, to befuch whole ( ommunion was unlawful j and my 
conftant avoiding them, would have made me leem a conienter to the 
(landers, and io to be guilty of icandal. 

5. Hived In a time and place, where the Rulers and Laws com- 
manded parifh Communion } and to forbear it againlt luch commands 
and penalties, feemeth ; lainly to tell the World that I hold it unlaw- 
ful^ which is an untruth. 

6. I had feen whether this extream of Separation had brought 
this Nation, formerly, and of late ; and what a hopeful Refor- 
mation it (harried and deftroyed, and that by luch Rebellious and 
mad aclions, as made them, and accidentally others, the fcorn 
and hatred of the World, and have occafioned all our Suffer- 


7. I lived where Men that I thought guilty of our finful persecu- 
tion and the daager of the Land, did difcern the miftake of them 
that overcharged the Liturgy and Pariah-Communion, and there- 
upon took them for a proud Fanatick fort of people, worthy of all 
that doth befal them, and think they do God fervice in ruining us all, 
as if we were fuch : And I -durft not thus Icandalize and harden Men 
in grievous perfections. 

8. I was loth to mifguide others by my example ; and I doubted 
not but when neceflity drove them to it, many would fee caufeto 
Communicate with the Parifh-Churches. And I was willing that 
they fhould lboner fee thefe Reaibns, and not leem to do it only to 
fave themfelves. 

9. I had read the Writings of thofe excellent Men of God a- 
gainft Brownifts, or Separation heretofore ^ who then were the 
Non-conformifts that did fuffer lb much for Reformation : 
He that will read what is Written by Mr John Paget, Mr. Wil- 
liam Br.idjhaw, Mr. Giffbrd, Mr. Hddcrfram, Mr. Brightman, 
Mr. John Ball, Mr. Rathband, Doclor Ames Fir ft and Second Ma- 
nuduclion, &c. and lately Mr. John Tombcs, t$ye Pillar of the 
Anabaptifts; and for hearing by Mr. Philip Nye, may fee e- 
nough for juft fatis faction ; efpecially in Mr. Ball's Tryal of 
Separation* And though the cafe of Conformity be fince made 


much harder to the Minifters, to the I airy the change is not [o great 
ash. rein alters the cafe of Lawful nefs or Duty. 

10. I found that Saint P*ul charged the Church of Corinth^ 
as having among them men Carnal, guilty of Schifm, Slande- 
ring the Apoflles ; guilty of finful Law-Stits, and defrauding 
each other, bearing with inceft, dilbrdered, prophane and drunk 
at Sacramental Communions ; lbme decryed the Relurrecti- 
on, &c. The G daturas feem more to be acculed than they, as 
depraving the Chriilian Doctrine. The Colofsiavs faulty; al- 
moft all the Seven Churches of Afia, charged with grievous Cor- 
ruption. And yet in all thefe. no man is commanded to fepa- 
rate from any one of thefe Churches, nor blamed for not doing 

ii. And, which is moil of all, I find that Chrift hmfelf, who 
was certainly {\v\efe, held open Communion with the Jewijh Church 
in Synagogues and Temples, and commanded the people their duly 
even to the fallly obtruded Priefts, and to hear the Pharifas while 
they delivered Mofes's Law ; though he condemned and ieparated 
from their falfe Doctrine, Superftitious Traditions and Corrup- 

Thefe are my Reafons for Lay-Parifli Communion. 
L. But yon did not anfwer £from fuch turn away, and with fuch 
not to Eat, &c.~] 

M. The anfwer is obvious; i. It is the duty of the Church to 
caft out wicked impenitent men \ and this Chrift command eth them ; 
but he never bids particular Chriftians to ieparate from the Church 
where fome fuch are, becauie the Church omits its duty : For then 
you mould ieparate from dutv, from Gods Worfhip and Holy Com- 
munion, on pretence of feparating from fmners. 

2. Bjtfor Family and Private Converle, every Chriftian is Judge 
himfelf, and muft. refufe all familiarity with icandalous Chriflians 
which encouraged them in fin, or feemeth to own it. 

God commandeth no man to do that which is not in his power ; to 
put a fcandaious impenitent man from the Church, is in the Churches 
power, and fo that command belongs to them •, it is not in your 
power, and therefore belongs not to you, lave to admonifh men, 
and tell the Church ; but to put men from your Table and familiarity, 
is in vour power and belongs to you. 

Suppole the King Write to the City of London to put all Re- 
bels out of their Company and Converle; it's eafy to under- 

G g 2 ftand 

[ 2?2 ] 

ftand> that if every one muft do it only in his own place. Every 
Tingle man cannot turn iuch out of the Communion-Council : The 
City Rulers mi.it do that, and till it be done, fingle men may not deny 
Obedience to the Governours : but all may turn them out of their 
Houfes, Shops and Familiarity. 

L. But they fay it is a receding from our former Reformation^ and 
pulling down what we built, 

M. The Separators pulld it down with a witnefs^ but it is no 
Iuch thing : Did the Covenant or our ProfefTion ever bind us to 
take the Liturgy, to be worfe than it is, or the Parifh-Churches ■ to 
be no Churches, or their Communion to be utterly unlawful? Or 
did it bind us to preferr a deiertion of all publick Communion be- 
fore it ? No, it did not ; but if it had, it had been finful, and to be 
repented of. But, i. We were bound by God's word (and no 
Covenant or Practices bind us to any more than Scripture binds us 
to) to avoid all that is fin. 2. And when we have our choice to 
prefer the beft - 7 he that doth either turn to fin, or preferr a leis good, 
when it is fo, before a greater, goeth back ; but he that preferreth 
no Publick. Worfhip, before the Parifh Worfhip, goeth back indeed, 
and breaketh the Covenant , by Prophanenefs and Schifm. God's 
word is a clearer and fuer Tejt of our Duty and Controverjies, than 
any humane Covenants. 

When Minifters were changed, 1647. many places got out fome 
tolerable weak Minifters, to get in abler men in great Towns. 
When the Bilhops returned, their abler Minifters being dead or 
ejected, they took the old ones again. Did thefe go back from 
Covenant- Reformation or Duty, when they would have no better ? 
Had not thofe been the Revolters that would rather have had 
none ? 

L. But why go you to the Parifi-Churches, when you might have 

M. 1 . All Non-conformifts Preach not better than many of them - y 
yea, the Liturgy is better words of Prayer, than fome weak or faul- 
ty Non-conformifts oft ufe. 

2. A brown Loaf and a white one both, may be better than a 
white one alone \ I found both beft ; and I knew it fin to Renounce 
Communion with any Church for weaknefs, becaule they are not as 
good as others. 

3. That is beft at one time and place, that is not fo at ano- 
ther 5 Praying in it lelf, is better than working, and Eating, and 



fleeping. And yet in their proper time, your fervants working, and 
your eating and ileeping is better than praying at that time. One 
that is a Son, a Servant, a Wife, who is commanded by the Mafter 
of the Family to hear a tolerable Parifh-Minifter, may then find it 
better than diforderly and dilbbediently to hear an abler Man } that 
may by variety of conditions be one mans Duty, which is anothers 

But alas ! I fear that Communion with a Non-Conformift-Church 
will quickly in England be fo rare, as will end the controverfie which 
you mould prefer, and you muft have Parifh- Church Communion or 
none : As it was before 1638. when there was fcarce more than one 
Non-Conformift that held any Church- Communion but Parochial, 
in each County. I think, Gods Judgments will foon filence this 
dilpute with all that will not renounce all Local Church Com- 

I will conclude with another reafon of my practice. Almoft 
every Church on Earth hath a worfe Liturgy (as I faid) and People 
than ours : But I dare not feparate from almofl: every Church on 
Earth : And therefore not from one for a reafon that is common to 
almofl all. 

CHAP. LIX. A Draught of ten Articles containing that which 
the Non-Conforming Reconcilers defire, to unite us, and heal the 
Church 7 when GOD feeth this Land meet for fo great a 

L. "T Have one thing more to defire of you. That you will fo far an~ 
> L fvoer the common queftion, What would you have ? As to tell 
it us punctually, as to thofe things which you take to be necejfary to our 
agreement : It may be hereafter they may be regarded and ufed, though 
not in our days. 

M. Do you mean as to the ends and things defired of us or a 
form of Words to be the containing means ? As to the for- 
mer ; 1 . We defire nothing but the promoting God's Glory , 
Kingdom and Will, according to the three firft Petitions in the 
Lord's Prayer, for the Information, Sandrification, and Salvation 
of the People ; by the Pure, Plentiful, and Powerful preaching 
of the Gofpel, the True and Spiritual Worshipping of G O D , 
and the due Exercife of Church-Difcipline according to Chrifts 
Laws. And that herein all Chriftians may live in Love, and 


L 2J4 J 

Peace, and as much Concord as they can i And to that end that they 
may take God's Word which they are all agreed in as the Teft of 
their Concord, and as fufficient for all things necelTary to Salvation, 
and the only univerfal Law : And that the Churches may not be torn 
by the impofition of Mens Canonical Engines as necefTary to Liberty 
or Communion, in which all never did nor can unite. And that fuch 
courfe may be taken for the Choice of Church- Paftors, that the Flocks 
may be guided and fed by Truth and Love, and not famiflied nor 
oppreft by Malignants that hate the ferious pradice of what they 

It is not Wealth nor Honour, nor any thing but this, that we de- 
fire j but fee fmall hopes of attaining by Men. 

L. The de fires are honeft, but you all profefi jufi de fires in general, 
and define : But I defire you to leave to the World in writing the ip- 
fiflima Verba, which you would wijh in a healing Law, with as little 
change as may be, 

M. I mall do it, premifing, i . That fuch a yielding form muft 
contain but what's of neceflity to our Concord, and not all that our 
well-being requireth. 2. That the words muft not be too many, left 
they feem too tedious, nor too few, left they be not intelligible. 
3. That they that will defeat them will pretend but to change the 
words, and thereby croft our fence and neceflities ; but take them, 
though men give us no prefent hopes. 

A Breviate of the Ten Articles defired 

by fuel) Non'ConformiJls as treated for Concord, 
1660. and 1661. for (uch a Reformation of 
the Parifh*Churches as is needful to our Union, 

L *~V~*Hattbe Trofeffton of the Chrifiian Faith y and 
conjent to the fiaptifmal Covenant, by Ba- 
rents, or Tro -parents or Adopters for Infants^ 

and by the Adult for themfefoes, be the terms of Church* 

Entrance by ftaptifm. 

II. That 

II. Tioat the Terms of the Communion and Trivdedges 
of the Adult, be, lhat they have per finally oMpned and re* 
newed jolemnly the J aid Chrijlian Covenant, and are not 
proved to have nulled that Trofeffion by Apoflafie, He* 
re fie, or an inconfijlent ivicked Life -, And that they un* 
derftandingly defire the [aid Communion. ^ 

HI. For the neceffary notification of juch under flan- 
ding,confent and defire, the Taftors that know them } after 
due Catechizing fball try them ; and upon Approbation ad* 
mit them to the Communion of the Adult, or upon a jufi 
Certificate that they have been fo approved and received 
by any other Orthodox Taftor. 

IV. Such as are proved to violate the (Baptifmal 
Covenant, by Apoftafie, Herefie, or a wicked Life, the Ta* 
ftor rnuft (rifely and compaftionately) admonijh to re* 
pent and amend. And if after private aud open Admoniti* 
on fuch remain obftinately impenitent, the Taftor ftallpub* 
lickly declare them Terjons unfit for Communion ipith the 
Church ; or ivherefo much is not permitted, fhall at lea ft 
forbear to give them the Sacrament ; but fhall receive 
them when they credibly profefi %epentance. 

V. No unnecejftry Oath, Covenant, Subfcription, 
Trofefiion or Tromife, fhall be made neceffary to Comma* 
nion or Miniftry ; fuch being Engines of ViVifion and 
Terfecution ; (Ivhat promifes are neceffary, is further to 
be opened) nor is ^-ordination or ^c-baptizing to be 
forced on the truh Ordained and Baptized. 

VI. The- 


VI. The jufl ' Ordainers mufl needs be the difceming 
Judges lehom they fhall Ordain to the Mmiflry as/uch : 
And the Magiflrate is 'judge lehom he fhall approve and 
maintain as publick Teachers ; and whom to tolerate, as 
tolerable : And every man is a difceming Judge to whom 
hejhall truft the Taftoral care of his own Soul, as he doth 
what fhyfician he fhall ufe for his Life ; to which Self- 
love and Self-government, do Authorize and Ob- 
lige him } and no erring Judgment of Superiors can dif- 
oblige him ; much left every Patrons Choice. 

VII. Truly Ordained and Called Mmiflers y mufl 
breach to their Flocks, though they have no other Licence ; 
and are by Office Authorised to choofe their SubjeSl, due 
Method and Words : And if a Form of Liturgy in Pray- 
ers, (Praife, Pfalms, be impofed by Agreement or Au* 
thority, {that all the Church be not left at utter uncertainty 
what worfliip they meet to offer to God, till it be paftd out 
of the Minijler's mouth) let it be agreeahle to Scripture- 
direction in Matter, Method, and Words ; blameleft, or- 
derly, and without jufi caufe of Suspicion or Offence -, and 
let it not be made a Snare for Contention and Qivifion, by 
the rigorous urging of needle fs things ; nor worthy men be 
fdenced and cafl out, that cannot Declare, Affent and Con- 
fent to all things contained in it, and prescribed by it,byfal* 
lible men ; nor for every omifiion or abbreviation, through 
fcruple or necefitated haft ; or for not officiating in a Sur- 
plice : And let the Canons 6, 7, 8, 9. and others that 


C 237 3 

unjufily fetter the Mimflers and Flock, be Altered or 

VIII. L# wo Minifter be Silenced^ Sufpended, or 
EjeBed for not publiftnng Excommunications paft'd by 
IBifhops or Lay -Men, againft any of his Flock (beft 
knoTbn to the prefent Paftor) whom he judgeth not guil- 
ty 1 or for fcrupling a Ceremony, efpecially upon fuch Ca- 
nons 06 the 6, 7, 8. &c. that Excommunicate, ipfo 
fa&o, every man (not excepting Parliament-men, Lords, 
Judges or Juflices y Parents, or Wives, or Children,) 
that do but affirm,, " That any thing is unlawful or re* 
" pugnant to the word of God, in the Liturgy, or Ce* 
" remonies, or Ordination, or in the Government of the 
" Church, by Arch-fiifhops, Bijbops, Arch -Deacons j and 
" the JRctt that bear Office therein ; "| feeing Wife 
and Godly Minifter s judge fuch things too light to deferVe 
an Excommunication, and dare not fo diftionour thofe Su* 
periors^whom God hath commanded us to honour ; yea,and 
think all Excommunicating, ipfo fa&o, fine lententia 
Judicis, to be ftnful, and contrary to the ufe of Excom- 
munication, which , fuppofdh Impenitence : And let no 
Minifter or People be forced to publifh or execute any Ex* 
communication Arbitrarily Decreed, or againft their Con- 
fciences : And let none be forbidden to Preach the Gospel, 
who do not more hurt than good, ivhilc Juftice may be 
done by other Penalties. 

IX. As Cbriftianity, fiaptifm, and Sacramental Com- 
munion are gifts from God, of unfyeakable Value ; fonone 

H h at 


at age but billing Con/enters to the Covenant of God, can 
have any right to them : therefore no unwilling per/on 
fhould be forced to <Baptifm or the Lord's Supper, and fo 
to profane Gods holy Ordinance, and corrupt the Church : 
(But in each Tarifb the meer Auditors or Catechised ^muft 
be diftinguifted from the Communicants ; a* meer Cate* 
cbifing and Teaching is from *P aft oral Overjight, and 

X. The Kingdom confijleth of Minrfters and People 
Approvable/Tolerable and Intolerable > though the 
publick Temples and Maintenance be at the Viftofe 
of the Sovereign Power and Magiftrates, yet are not 
all Laymen that can but Buy or Inherit a Patronage, 
Advowfon, or Prefentation, either Authorised by 
God, or Qualifyed with jufficient Wijdom and Ttety, to 
choofe fucb as Paftors/o Tbbom {though Ordained by a 
Bijhop) all men are bound to commit the T aft oral cure 
and condutt of their Souls (as is afore) aid). Therefore 
to this Relation, the Peoples Choice or Content 
is ncceffary : And becaufe (parift? Churches are by fixed 
Neighbourhood, the mo ft convenient Order, the %ulers 
fhould either make thofe the Publick Teachers, ivhom 
the People can take for their Paftors, or the People after 
take thofe for their Paftors *&>ho are truly Capable, whom 
the Rulers firft chooje for the Publick Teachers : 
!But in cafe they cannot fo agree, each man muft be To- 
lerated to choofe and join Tbitb fome other (Parochial or 
more private) Minifterfor his Paftor ; fo be it, i .They 


C 2 ?9 ] 
fef? the ejjentials of Cbrijiianity, and Church Communion. 
2. And h^e peaceably and loyally, in their (preaching and 
(PraElke. 3 • And pay the publick Teachers and Magi- 
flrates their dues ; renouncing Here fie and Popery } and all 
Foreign JuriJdiBion and Treafon. 

The TEST, or Profeffion of the Main- 
cain'd Minifters (fuppofing the amendments of 

ttt ©ou'ncerety, agbefojteCtoo^ofefMfyxtlbe* 
« liebe tue Canonical fbcriptnregs of ttje €>10 ano 
-•^ ®etD CeHaroent, to be tije %xut i©o?0 of d&oO, 
anOCfuppofiug tl»c )Ugbt ano Xato cf Mature) ttie 
Citrine fuf Sclent jaule cf f aitn ano f oil? Kltbtngjac* 
coding to tobicb toe ©all tie Suogeo, tDtjtclj no ftu* 
mane jtatojS o? #o\»et can a&ogate o? ^ufpenD, be* 
f rt| all but fubojotnate tbereto. ano IS totll #jteac& 
nothing ajs ncceOat? to Saltation, to^ici) cannot be 
pjobeo 0? toarranteo thereby. 
• ano noge particularly, % beliebe all t$e articles of 
tbecreeo, calleot^e apples, assaftwmtarp of our 
tfatt& ano Confent to ttje }Lo?o'0 f&jta^er agt^efum* 
mat? of our ^eftress, ano to tlje decalogue, s» tp 
pounoeo by Cbjtff, as tlje ftimmarv of our obeofent 
lattice; ano % reMoeolf Confent to t$c 0»3fpel= 
Cobenant;toftb dBftbtljef at&er,^ou,ano $ol? dSftott, 
ttbieb tbefefumnutteg erpIain,ano ttf&icijtg ceieb?a* 
teo fn ^apttftn, amt^j 2Lo#'$s Supper* 

ano 1 sooton, ano honour tiie €i)im\) of England, 
tfoat <js, Cijt'S Cifcf ftiatt JEefojmeo ftftigtiora, cotftaitr? 

ing t^e Approved Paftors anO their Flocks 5 botft tl?e 

H h 2 Publickly 

[ 240 ] 
Publi.ckly Maintained , anD ttje Daly Licenfed a\Xb li- 
nked UVMt one Chriftian Reformed Sovereign, anD Re- 
nouncing all Foreign Jurifdidion. &nD % SO fyOiTOUr, 

tofti) ttjmMulnefs to dSoD, tiie fttfo?matton anD Con' 
co?D of tlifs Ctjurc^ in doctrine, «B0?anpanD©tfct* 
plwe, anD totli iatowr to pjeftrtoe its ointtp anD 
t&estt, renouncing ail ^Cteafong, ^eDittons, i&opet^, 
foreign ^unsanction, ^txt% ^ci?ifm anD ^jofane* 
mi$ x aita 3! Bo pjwmtfe to Gmctfe m^ Spmftrp 
tDitb tnlisence fo; ttje cDiftcation of tfye Cijurc^ anD 
tfye fatting of mens &ml&. 

The Minifters being of three forts, i . The Maintained or Pro- 
moted. 2. The Licenfed to Preach as Candidates^ or Letturers with- 
out the publick maintenance, or Helpers to Incumbents who defire 
them, or occafionally ( fuch as found Proteftants continuing Non- 
conformifts mould be). 3 . The Tolerated that have only a Grant of 
Protection and Peace^ without either Maintenance or Approving Li- 
cence. I leave it to Superiours how much of the aforefaid Profeflion 
(hall be required of the two latter. 

This would much reduce the Kingdom to a Holy, and Happy 
Unity and Peace, which yet containeth nothing that Proteftants have 
any juft caufe to rejeft : And we are not forward to meddle with more 
publick Church-matters without our Superiors invitation or confent ; 
but we may lay that it is our judgment that thefe additions following 
would greatly ftrengthen the lntereft of Religion, Church and 

I. That the Parifh Churches be acknowledged 
True Churches* and their Minifters/wc/? Overfeers 
as- are necejjary to Eflemiate True Churches ; that is. 
That all ^Presbyters be Epifcopi Gregis, Overfeers of 
the Flock, the Incumbent the President among 

his Curate Presbyters, where there be fuch : And 
that the Diocefan is not the fole EiTentiating 


C 241 ] 

Church Paftors ; and the Diocefan Church , the 
lowefl particular Church , and the 'Parifh A(Temblies> 
hut his Chappels or ^arts of the lol&ejl Church ; and the 
Parifh }Aimflers, his Curates ,and no true Taftors. 

II. That no Lay Elder , Chancellor or Civilian, have 
or uje the Decretive To^er of Excommunication, or Jb* 
folution, called the %eys. 

III. That New, and more ^Peaceable Canons be made 
(inflead of that Book, which noVo obtaineth) according 
to the Scripture Canons : Or that there be no Canons but 
Scripture, be fides Statute Lalos. 

IV. That Bifhops have no Forcing ToTber, nor the 
Writ de Excommunicato Capiendo, or any Force 
by the Sword, be Annexed to Excommunication as 
Juch j but that the Magiflrates hear and judge before 
they punijh 5 and Obedience to Bifhops be unc on ft rained 
and voluntary. 

V. That Bijhops judge Church Caufes in Seffion with 
their presbyters, and not alone, nor with Jome felo of their 
own Choice, or with Lay -men, but in regular Synods -, and 
Ordain thereby their confent, and after Jufficient trial of 
them that feek Ordination ; (And Jo of lnflitution.) 

VI. That Dioceffes be not greater than the Diocefan 
is able to Over fee ; and that he forbid not the <Parifh Pa- 
ftors their particular works, but only ufe his general oVcr- 
ftght and poller on Jppeals. 

VII. That <Bifiops oft Vifit the inferior Pajtors 
and Churches, and inflruB the Juniors, by direction and 

[ 242 ] 

Example how to Treach, and guide the Flock, and re- 
buke the Erroneous, Scandalous y Unpeaceable, and Neg- 

VIII. That the Bijhops be Chofen by the Dioce- 
fan Synod* and Conferred to freely without force, 
by their City Flocks, "Where they rejide, and InVefied 
by the Kjng, who hath the po"Wer of Temporal Tri- 

IX. That the City, and neighbour Tajlors be the Ca- 
thedral Dean and Prebends ; at leaji where City Churches 
"Want maintenance ; or that they ambulatorily Preach a- 
broad "Where there is mojl need. 

X. If ArcbSifhop Uflier'i Form or ^eduBion of 
Government to the Primitive Jiate, or elfe IQng Charles 
the Second his Declaration about Ecclejiajlical Affairs 
be but fetled by halo, it will be a Healing and Great 
Reformation ; inferiour Synods not hurt fully fettered be- 
ing allowed under the Diocefan Synods : And "Whether 
the Diocefans be Called BiJJiops or ArchSijbops as 
Succejfors to the Apo files and Evangelifls, in the or- 
dinary parts of their Office (a general care of many 
Churches ) the name is to be left to each mans free judg* 

As to the ignorant clamors for a real or feeming Re-ordination ; 
i . I have faid fo much againfl it in my Treatife of Efifcopacy, and my 
DiffHtation of Ordination , in my Difpute of Church -Government, 
and my Cbrifiian Concord^ that while the Objectors by Contempt re- 
fufe to read and anfwer them, it will be no cure of their pride and 
partiality to repeat the fame again. 


C 24? ] 

But I fay, that I have fully proved (unanfwered) that they that 
were Ordained by Synods of Incumbent Pallors, and fpeciaiiy thofe 
alfo then approved by the Weftminfier AfTembly, had a better Ordi- 
nation, and that by true Bifhops, than either Papifis or meer Englijh 
Diocefans that are not Arch-bifhops can give : And yet they Re- 
Ordain not Papifis. 

1. Either they take the Parifh-Churches (that is, the Paftor and 
Communicants diftincl from the meer Auditors and Catechumens, 
and from the Aliens) to be true proper Churches in political Senfe or 
not : If yea, Then thofe Churches have Fifhops ; For Ecckfia efi 
plebs Epifcopo adunata^ & ubi Epifcopm ibi Ecclefia : Their own prin- 
ciple is, That it is no proper political Church without a Bifhop. 
Their are three degrees of Bifhops. 1 .All Presbyters are Epifcopi Grcgis 
(by the confent of Papifis and Proteftants). 2. The chief Incum- 
bents that have Curates or may have, are Epifcopi Pr&fides : Th& 
Ordination without Diocefans was by thefe two forts of Bifhops. 
3 . True Diocefans are Arch-bifhops, Epifcopi genti ales phrhim Ec- 
ckfiarum ; We refufe not their Ordination 3 but Men have true 
Epifcopal Ordination without it. 

But if they fay that the Diocefan is the loweft Bifhop of a particu- 
lar Church, and that the Parifh-Incumbent Reftors are no true 
Bifhops, and their AfTemblies no true political Churches formed of 
Bifhops, but only parts of one Diocefan Church infimi Ordinis^ we 
abhor fuch Tyrannical, Schifmatical Diocefans, and their pretence 
of proper power to Ordain ; and the Primitive Church had never 
any fuch Ordainers or Bifhops : And I advife all Minifters neither to 
be Re-Ordained by fuch, nor to yield to the appearance of fuch an 
evil, by coming under their equivocating impofition of hands ; left 
they take God's Name in vain, and harden Papifis and Church-Ty- 
rants in their falfe condemnation of the Reformed Churches. If it 
be want of a Legal Right in England that they pretend, let the Ma- 
giftrate give you a Licence or Legal Right. I write not this for my 
own Intereft, for I was Ordained by a Diocefan, and am pall all 
hopes or fears of Man. 


L 244 J 

CHAP. LX. The Reafons of thefe Ten Articles. 

L. "\TOV muft give me leave to tell yon what Objections are like te 
jL he raifed againft your propofed Articles of Reconciliation. 
And fir ft your own party will be unfatisfied in them, and fo they will* do 
no good, becaufe here is not a word again ft Arch-biftwps, Bijlwps, Deans • 
Arch -deacons, and the reft that bear office in their Courts, which yet is 
the thing that you your felf fee m moft to dijfent from, and which the Co- 
venant did renounce. 

M. 1. We have fo much fwearing and unfwearing and for- 
fwearing, that I will meddle as little as I can in things that look like 
Perjury. You know that as the laft Generation was fworn againft 
Prelacy, this new Generation is fworn to it : Yea in a manner the 
whole Land is fworn or covenanted never to endeavor any alteration 
of it : And how much lbever I am againft that Oath, yet I will med- 
dle as little as I can in urging men to that which they take for Per- 

And I have elfewhere told you that the Covenant renounced not 
all Epiicopacy -, many of the AiTembly of Divines declared their 
diflent from any fuch renunciation, and had entred their proteftation 
againft it fas Dr. Cornelius B urges told me J had not the Explication 
been added, which conflneth the Renunciation to the Englift frame. 
And that the prefent Non-Conformifts would have thankfully- 
received the primitive Epiicopacy, they fhewed by their motion, 

2. We offer this form on.fuppoiition that we may not have what 
we think belt, but what we can joyfully fubmit to, for our Concord 
and the Churches fafety. 

3 . I have infer ted thofe reftraints of the hurt and abufe of the Dio- 
cefan form and their Courts, as may do much to fecure Religion: 
And if they be kept from doing harm, we have moft of our end. 
Their faults are not ours who cannot remedy them. , 

4. And you are miftaken in thinking that this form of Reconciliation 
will caufe no Concord : Lefs was accepted with publifhed Thanks to 
the King for his Declaration, 1 660. And I believe that the Diffen- 
ters would be fo few, as that the Concord of Conftnters would 
render them inconfiderable, or uncapable of being dangerous to our 

L. But, 

C 24s 3 

- L. But, i . What makes you put in fo much, that no body denieth ? 
Do you not feem hereby to intimate unjufty, that all this is denied 
you ? 

M. i. I have no hope of Concord, but by difputing ex concefifis, 
and improving mens own principles : Do you think I am fo foolifh 
as to expect that Adverfaries fo tierce, fhould chauge their Judgments 
by any thing that I can lay, if their own Intereft, or their own 
Principles by inference change them not ? 

2. We want nothing more in reality and practice, than that 
which is moft granted us in (hadow and general w.rds ; who 
grants not that we muft obey God before Man ? And muft love 
God above all, our Neighbours as our lelves, and muft do as we 
would be done by ? And muft bear with and receive the weak, 
and perfecute none, &c. And if this were done, we were all a- 
greed. O happy England, if ail were granted practically and in- 
deed, which men in general words approve! But if they grar.t 
this, and yet will not grant it, but leek to ruine them that leek it^ 
are they not unexcufeable ? 

L. Why begin you with the qualifications requifit to Baptifm, as if 
you [pake to Infidels?' 

M. Eecaufe I cannot build without a foundation : This is the 
chief thing necelTary to our Reformation, that the Church may con- 
fift of capable perfons. 

L. Why name you Parents end, Pi o -parents infiead of Godfathers 
and God-mothers ? 

M. Becaufe it belongs to him to covenant in the Childs'name 
or behalf, whole will may juftly go as for the Childs will; and 
that is they whefe he is, and who have the power of him, and 
whom God hath commanded and authorized to this Office, and 
who are obliged to educate him and leek his well- fare : By Pro- 
parent j, I mean fuch as by Adoption or other wife juftly take the 
Child for theirs ; which when Parents leave them Orphans is 
ufual. I fay nothing againft God-fathers as feconds, prefuppofing 
this much. 

L. But 1 pray you who frail be "fudge whether the profejfion be lln- 
-derftanding which mufl be made by the Adult, or by the Parent ? By 
this trick^you will make the Priefi the chief Governour of the Church; 
and he fiiall keep out whom he pleafes, as for want of Underftanding 
the words of the Covenant. 

Ii M. i. 

L 2 46 J 

M. t.I confefs that this is the firft and mod momentous part of 
the power of the Keys. But it tells us that it is not only Bifhops that 
have that power : But either fome body or no body muft have this 
power or truft. 

1. If Nobody ; Turks, Heathens, Saducees, any may be Bap- 
tized though in fcorn ; and may be Members of the Church at plea- 
iure, and the Church fhali indeed be no Church, being con- 
founded with "the World. A Purroi may be taught to fay thole 
words. A man of a about Eighty years of age in the Farifh where 
I taught, being asked who Jefa Chrifi was, pointed to the Sun and 
faid, That was he j and ask'd, Who was the Holy Ghoft ? Said, he 
thought the Moon. What Wife Man will be the Paftor of fuch a 
Church ? 

2. Thrift hath inftituted an Office for this Judgment, and given 
them the Keys : Therefore there muft be fome fuch Judge. 

2. If Some body who muft it be? r. If it be every Expect- 
ant for himfelf, it will be as before ; and there will be no 
Church. Any Heathen may come in. 2. If it muft be the Ma- 
gifirate, you call him to attend this Service, and to teach and try 
all that are Baptized at age, and all Parents for their Children : 
And if you lay on him the Paftors Office, you make him 
Pafior. 3. If it muft be the Bijhopj it is impoflib.'e, and no i?i- 
flwp will do it, when he doth not lb much as know or fee one of an 
hundred in his Diocefs: It muft then be the Parijh-Minifier^ or 
no body. 

3. Thofe muft be trufted with it whom Chrift hath appointed for 
fuch truft : But that is the Minifters : To them he hath committed 
the Keys of his Church or Kingdom. 

4. Thofe muft be trufted with it, that muft Execute it : It is the 
Mimfier that muft Baptize: And therefore he muft Judge whom 
to Baptize^ orelfe he is but an Executioner, like one that wafheth 
any one that is foul ; and not a Judge of what he doth, nor muft 
anfwer for it. 

5. The Univerfal Church ever fince Chrift's days hath agreed in 
this : And fliall we now overthrow it ? 

And as to the exception againft the Power of the Pafior. 

1 . All power may be abufed ; mail we have no King, no Judge,or 
Juftice, or Bifhops, becaufe they may abufe their power ? 

2. It is fo natural to men to confult their own carnal Intereft, 
which will here moft lie in pleafing the People, and floathfully to 


[ 247 3 
omit (o coftly and troublefome a duty, that it's enough to foretel, 
that a hundred will fin in making the door too wide, for one that ma- 
keth it too narrow -, and doleful experience tells us this : We are con- 
founded by the contrary extream. 

2. He that is refufed wrongfully by one Miniftet, may find enough 
that will receive him. 
* 3. We grant Appeals to Rulers, in cafe of Male-adminiftration, 

4. The letting open the Church- doors without an examiner, wiil 
be an hundred fold worfe : And you muft be like the Woman that 
would never have her Houfe fwept, left her Servant fhould chance 
to iweep out a Fin. 

What think you of all the antient Churches that taught the Adult 
long, as Catechumens before they would Baptize even them that 
begg'd it ? 

L. 2. In your fecond Article again, you give f&eMinifter a power 
to Judge of mens Underftanding : But I need no farther anfwer to 

But do you not thus make Examination by Minifters necejfary to 
the Sacrament ? 

M. I make it needful to Confirmation or Adult -Communion , but 
that is but once in a man's life. 

L. But is it not enough that Children own their Baptifmal Covenant 
by coming to Church, and not denying it, without any confirmation 
or other Profefiion . ? 

M. Many come to hear that are no Chriftians ; children are born in 
Nefcience, and when they come to Age, muft be made knowing Chri- 
ftians, and believe and obey for themfelves, if they will be laved ; 
and they cannot confent to their Baptifmal Covenant, if they under- 
ftand it not : This is the thing that hath corrupted the Church : 
Thofe that were Infant -Chriftians, and at Age, were no Chriftians^ 
have filled many Congregations. Yet I confels that were Confirma- 
tion and Perlbnal Tryal is by the fin of Paftors omitted, the peo- 
ples ordinary attendance at Church and defiring the Sacrament, is 
an oblcure profefilon, and may ferve to the being of a Church, tho 
not to the well- being, 

L. But fome of your Non-conformifts will as much blame you for 
requiring too little to Communion, in that you demand not an account of 
mens Converfation. 

M. 1 . He that truly confemeth to the Covenant of Baptifm,- is 
uted or Sanbhfied*, and he oweth the Church no account 

I i 2 of 

L *& j 

of that confent but bis own profeflion, not nulled by Word ov Deed. 
And if you foriake this Rule, you will never know what terms to 
take up with. 

2. And as to the time or circumftances, whether God Sancftified 
him in Infancy and he grew up in Grace, or when, or how God 
wrought upon him, he oweth no account to others. 

L. In your third Article again , the chief exception will be apainfi 
this trying rrs.n by the Mini ft er for Commpir.'ion. 

M I have proved to you the neceflity of h, ad bene ejfe. And 
may I not hope that the Bifhops will be for it I When, 1 . They or- 
der that the Biihop Catechize and lend to the Eifhop iuch as are to be 
Confirmed. 2. That he give the Sacrament to none but thofe that are 
Confirmed^ or are ready and willing to be Co?? firmed: And how can 
they know this without Tryal ? 3. When they know that the Br- 
fhops are not able to do it for all, or the hundredth pari themielves. 
Why then mould they be againftit ? 

L. If all the Bifiops in England be for it^ the PariJhPrkfts will 
fome be unfit for it^ and few will be at fo much labour and fclf-denial as 
it mil cofl them. 

M. If the Bifhops put or take in bad untrufty men, I cannot help 
that : Let them be encouraged to do well that will 

L. But why mull they make their Profeffion before others ? 

M. Not but that the Paftors word may latisfie the Church, 
but it is much fitter, that he that is to have Communion with all, 
fhould be known to fome befides the Minifter, to be a profefted 
Chriftian. I fhould have defired that it might be done asBaptifmin 
the Congregation, as beft, but that of theie men we muft ask as 
little as may be, 

L. But many ignorant people have not words to exprefs their own 
belief or thoughts. 

M. It is not Ornamental unneceffary knowledge that muft be de- 
manded of them: They that want. other words, may by Tea^ and 
Nay make known their mind, when the Minifter exprefTeth the mat- 
ter in his queftion. And the Church requireth that they can anfwer 
as Catechifed 

L. Some other will fay that you are too lax in admitting all Con- 
firmed formerly by Bifhops^ or by other Paftors. 

M. If we crave that each Minifter may try his Flocks, we 
cannot in modefty refule thofe tried and received by the Bifhop 
or other Paftors. All Churches fhould live in fuch Communion 


L 2 49 ] 

with each other, as to receive each others Members on juft occafron, 
without trying them all again. And if Bifhops or any do it iuper- 
ficially, that's their own fault. 

L. Why do you impofe the Reg] ft ring of Communicants ? 

M. I impofe it not, but only commend it as a help to memory. 
He that hath no more Communicants than he can remember, needs 
it not. But Bifhop Jer. Taylor in his Pref to Treatife of Rtfen- 
tance, faith, That a man cannot tal^ a P aft oral charge , or give an ac- 
count of them that he hnoweth not. 

L. 4. Tour fourth Article fets Minifters on fuch work^ as few can 
well do , and few will ever faithfully do. And yet for every young, 
raw Prieft to have fuch power, will never be granted by the Bijaofs or 
the Laity. 

M. You may as well fpeak out and lay, that Chrift hath appoin- 
ted fuch a Minifterial Office as the World will never endure. Why 
then do they call themfelves Chriftians ? This is the proper work of a 
Pallor, as it is of a phyfician, to look particularly to the Sick, and 
not only to read a Phyfick Leclure to them. If Bifhops will put in 
ignorant lads or unfit men, I fay again, we cannot help it -, nor muft 
we for that, deny the Minifterial Office, any more than we muft put 
down Preaching and Praying becaufe fome are unfit. The weight 
of this work fhouid rather make ail careful to get only fit men into 
the Miniftry. 

L. But jhall every Prieft have power to put men from the Sacra?nent ? 

M. if every Prieft muft Adminifter it, he muft Judge to whom.: 
It is not a common Food for all, but the Childrens Bread. If every 
Prieft muft Judge whom tg Baptize, fo he muft whom to give this 
Sacrament to. 2. The Cannons allow this to the fcandalous, fo 
we do but prefent them to the Bifhop or Chancellor -, and it's lef3 
offenfive to fufpend them without fuch profecution. If he wrong any, 
they have their remedy. 

L. Bui why do you mention no more folemn Excommunication, but 
this Declarative one, and Sufpenfion ? 

M. Becaufe I would ask no more than needs, of men that will 
not grant fomuch. And i know no juft Excommunication but a Mi- 
nifterial declaring according to God's Word, that a man hath made 
himfelf uncapable of Church-Communion, and of the benefits of God's 
Covenant, and binding him over to anfwer his Impenitence at the Bar 
of God, and requiring the Church accordingly to avoid him. 

L. 5, 

[ 2$C ] 

L. 5. The main charge will be againft your fifth Article, that cuts 
off fo many Oaths, Subfcriptions and Profejjlons. 

M. It's pity that thefe will not ferve the turn, when as they 
are more than Chrift, or his Apoftles, or the Church for 300 years 
impoied. And yet mull we have more,even 
Seethe Lord .3^ about as necefTary to Miniftry ? Will not the Expe- 
Subfcnption in his a.ore- r i ence f I3C0 years vet teach us to forbear 
laid Connrteraucns Deal- . i_ /^i_ "l i_ m r ■* 

catedtoKing j amis. tearing the Church by unneceffary inares? 
Yet I deny not but the Ordainers may try the 
ability of Minifters, in more than the words that they muft Sub- 
fcribe to : And if any will draw up fuch Articles as none fiall 
Preach againft, I oppofe them not : The greater Concord the better: 
But we muft not caufe perpetual difcord, by unskilful, and impof- 
fible terms of Concord. 

L. But for ought I fee, you will let in Papifis if they will but take 
the Oaths y of Supremacy, and renounce all in general that is contrary to 
the Scripture and their Profefsion. 

M. And all Churches will let in Heart -Papifis that renounce 
Popery: Who knows the Heart? But, 1. The Oath of Supremacy 
is a mod exprefs abjuring of the EfTence of Popery ; especially as 
extended againft the Ecclefiaftical as well as Civil Power of the 
Pope. 2. And is not God's Word afufficient Rule of Religion ? 
Deny this, and you will turn Papifis to keep out Papifts. 3. If it 
be, if Popery be againft Scripture, it's here renounced : If not, why 
mould we be againft it ? 

L. But flwuld they not difiintlly renounce Trarfubfi antiation, Pur~ 
gatory, Image-lVorfhip, Merit, and the reft of their Errors ? 

M. There is no end of enumerating Errors: They are numerous 
like Maggots in a Carcafs. A thoufand will be unnamed when you 
have done your beft at it. But the Rule muft not name every Error 
againft it : The contrariety will be dilcernable. It is enough that 
men profefs a perfetl Pule, and renounce all contrary, and be refponfi- 
ble to the Church and their Rulers when they corrupt Religion contrary 
to the Rule and their own Profeffion. An Error manifested hurts not 
others, and none is punifhable till proved. If Herefy be kept fecret, 
the Church muft not make new Laws andTeftsto make men confefs 
it -, but punifh it when it is vented. 

L. But Jhall Minifiers make no Profefsion but what a Paplfi or a 
•Herctick^ will make f 

M. No 

[ 25i 3 

M. No, if a Papift or Hererick will profefs all that is necef- 
fary, elfe we muft make more. Muft we make new Creeds or 
new Scriptures as oft as Diflemblers will falfely profefs that al- 
ready made ? This was the Temptation to thole multitudes of 
Creeds, by which Councils diffracted the Churches, which Hilary 

L. But the Bljliops will never take down the Oath of Canonical 
Obedience, and all the other Oaths and Suhfcriptions that are formed 
to their Interefi. 

M I cannot help that: Over-doing is un-doing : If everEpifco- 
pacy be can: out, it will be by fuch over-doing, which will not lee 
men live in peace that would not moleft them. 

L. Why do yon feem to grant the Bijhops and Patrons Votes in 
the Choice of Paftors, when before you feem to have much againft 
them ? 

M. I have nothing againft th§ Ordainers Judging of the fitne/s of 
the Or darned, nor of Magiftrate or Patrons difpofal of Temples and 
Tithes : And becaufe nothing but neceflity will weigh down the great: 
inconvenience of maintaining diftinft Parlors, while a fettled Lectu- 
rer hath the Temple and Tithes, therefore I fuppofe that the Bifhop 
and Patron will have their Votes : And I fuppofe you know that it 
is vain to motion to Patrons to reflgn this power, were it worfe than 
k is, elfe Advowlbns would not be fold at fuch rates as they are by- 
many Patrons : And my filence where fpeaking will do no good, is 
no fign of my approbation. 

L. But do you thinks that the Communicants fiall have a negative 
Vote in choofing Paftors. 

M- I think they will not, till God raife up better men, than ma- 
ny Patrons are. But I am pail: doubt that God's Law of Nature and 
Scripture, and the whole confent of antient Churches, Fathers and 
Councils, are for it : And methinks, were not carnal Interefi ilronger 
with them than Religion, men that are profefTedly for God's> 
Law, and Church-Canons and Cuftoms, mould not obllinately op- 
pofe them all: Yea, the higheft Epifcopal men are in this againft 
them. Mr. Thorndik$ faith, that till the Clergy and People again 
choofe their own Bifhops, there needs no other reafon to be given of 
the contempt of Epifcopacy. Yea, I have proved pail denial oft, 
that no Non-confenter can be a Member of any Paftoral Church, nor 
any man be a mans Paftorthat doth not confent. It's reafon them 
to fpeak for the Flocks Confenting Vote. 

L. Bm 

L 252 J 

L. But they may be forced to confent. 

M. I fhall give you a reafon againft that anon. 

L. Do you think* the ignorant vulgar Are fit to choofe themfelves a 
Pajtor ? The moft are ufually the worft. 

M If the Church-men will make the uncapable Rabble Cnm- 
munieants^ and then deny them Church -Priviledges, becaiife 1 : i^y 
are uncapable, they condemn themfelves for taking (yea forcing) 
in f uch uneatable men : Even as the Bifhops that Ordain Mini- 
fters that cannot Preachy and then by their Canon forbid them to 

2. And yet I will fay, That I never knew any places, in City 
or Countrey, that have oft had better Paftors, for Learning and all 
Worth, than where the Communicants were the choofers : Yea, 
even the ignorant ufually have a guft, that difcerneth and valueth good 
and able men. 

3. And yet, I fpeak not fo high as for their power of firfi Choice^ 
but only of Confent - 7 nor yet to choofe who fhall be a Minifte r, but 
who fhall be their Pajlor. The Eifhop asketh not their confent or 

L. But you know that if there mufl three confent s go to it : The Or- 
dainers, the Patrons, and the Communicants, they may never agree , 

M. Humane faultinefs puts inconveniences into all actions : But 
we mufl: not cure it with a worfe : If you would take no Phyficktill 
three" Phyficians agree, it's alefs mifchief than to give any man that 
can buy that Power, a right to impofe what ignorant fellow or enemy 
he will, to be your fole Phyfician. Three Locks and Keys in three 
hands, to fo great a Truft, may be better than one in an untrufty 
hand. Shall every Papift or Atheift choofe me a Phyfician as fitter 
than U 

2. But if they mould never agree, it is but every one (lop- 
ping at his own part. The Ordainers have done their part j 
and the Patron hath chofen a Teacher for Auditors, and a Pa- 
ftor for fuch as will accept him} and the People that truft him 
not, may go to one that they can truft • and this is better than 

L. But the Patron will prevail againfi them^ at long as he mufl 
Nominate^ though the Bijhof and People had a Negative Vote : 
for if they refufe one, he will fiill name another of his own Com- 

M. Un- 

1 25? J 

M. Uncurable evils I cannot help. I can but wifli that no Patron 
had ever built Churches, or given Glebes at lb dear a rate, as thereby 
to buy from the Church its Priviledges. 

L- But can you think^that the Bijhops will ever abate Re-Ordination 
ofthofe ordained by Presbyters ? 

M. I think not ; and therefore I have no hope of concord by 
their Conceflion : But I know that former Bilhops would have 
done it , and the Church of England ftill owned fuch fince 
the Reformation -, and God may fend England inch again * 
and for fuch an Age I write, and not for this with any great 

And if you would not have the Land confounded with 
doubts , whether they be Baptized, or whether they had any 
valid Sacraments, and whether the Papists or Proteftants be the Tll j s wa 
True Church, &c. it concerns you all to regard the decifion r Cn {&% 
of this Cafe. 

L. But you /peak only againfl Re-Ordaining thofe that are already 
Ordained, and nothing for the time to come. 

M. 1. You know it is hopelefs to move for that. 2. And it's 
meet that Ordination fhould be well regulated. 3. And when all the 
unjuft impofitions are removed, as is here defired, few moderate 
men will fcruple Ordination. 

L. VII. Tour 7th. hath fo much reafon that J can fay nothing a~ 
gainft it, but that I doubt the Biflmps will never abate their Ceremonies, 
or any parts of their Liturgy, fofar, to endure any to difufe it, though 
they tneddle not againfl it. 

M. I know what's necefTary and juft, but J know not what men 
will grant ; I am of your mind of thofe in pofTeflion, except iome 
few : But if any man will make and keep up any inftruments of di- 
vifion and hurt, on pretence of concord or decency in God's Service, 
we can but wifh and fpeak for better. 

L. But they fay if nothing unlawful be impofed, it is difobedience 
to refufe it : And if difobedience be endured no Government can 

M. 1 . Judge by what is (aid whether no Sin be impofed. 
, 2. Obedience to God being more necefTary than to man, all juft 
Rulers mould encourage a due fear of fin, and do nothing that tempts 
men from obeying God. 

K k • 3. God 

L 254 J 

3. God himfelf doth not filence, eject, or condemn men for all 
diibbedience, elie none could be Saved : All fin is diibbed-ience to 
God. There is difobedience in imall things as well as in great j and 
of ignorance and inifirmity, as well as of malicious wilfulnefs : 
And what imaller matter can there be, than Humane Forms and Ce- 
remonies? And where is ignorance more excuieable than in things 
lb minute, and lb uncertain and hard, that they muft all be wiler 
than you and I that know them to be Lawful : And what Unity 
will be in that Church and Kingdom, that will endure none butfuch 
as are wifer than you and I ? 

L. 8. Tour 8th- Article preventeth all the Objections againsl Mi- 
nifters Power and Liberty, while all are under Law refponfible ; But 
what if the Rulers be Bijhops or men that difiafte your de fired Difci- 
pline ? 

M. We are not choofing Rulers (by the Sword J but only 
Paftors to guide us by Gods Word ; and if we fhall have bad 
ones, we muft patiently fuffer; we cannot remedy fuch infeli- 

L. But both Papifts and many others fay, That the Judgment of 
Minifters Doctrine and Miniftry, belongeth not to the Magiftrate, 
but to the Church. 

M. Judgment is as various as Execution, e. g t If one be a 
Heretick or turbulent in Schifm ^ 1. The Magiftrate is Judge 
whether and how he mail be Corporally P unified. 2. The 
Neighbour Churches are Judges whether they will own his Com- 
munion as approved. 3. His own Flock are difcerning Judges, 
whether he be fit to be trufted and owned as their Paftor, or to be 
forfaken by them. 

We muft not imitate Papifts in exempting Minifters from the 
Magiftrates Government. 

L. 9. / confefs your Reafons againft Conftraining Infidels to Pro- 
fefs Chriftianity, are undeniable, and agree with the fence of the 
Antient Church and Fathers ; But the Papifts, and many Proteftants 
hold, that when once men are Baptised, they may be forced to Com-' 
munion and all other Chriftian Duty. 

M, What if they openly Apoftatize and turn Infidels, Jews, or 
Mahometans-, will they yet force them to Communicate in the Lord's- 
Supper ? 

L. No, but they will put them to Death as they burn Hereticks. 

M. That's 

M. That's their way, but not ChrinYs way. Why mould they 
put Apoftates or Hereticks to death, any more than Infidels that ne- 
ver believed ? 

L. Becaufe they breaks their Covenant ; and becaufe they fin againft 
the Laws which they confented to. 

M. And doth not finning againft God's Law, in neither Con- 
fmting to, nor Obeying it, deferve as- bad ? If God, by many years 
Preaching, call one man to Chriftianiry, and he derides it to 
the laft; and another took it up but by Education and the 
Law of the Land, and never heard and underftood the Rea- 
ibns of it, and turneth from it, being taken Prifoner by the 
Turks, which of thefe is the greater finner ? God binds them 
to Believe and Confent that do not ; and they fin againft God's 
Law, which is more than to break their own C OVEN ANT as 
luch : But both thefe deferve Death and worfe from God.- 
But if it were Chrift's way, to have men put one of them to 
Death, I lee not but why they fhould do fo by the other. Tor- 
ment or Death, is no fitter way to make an Apoftate believe, than 
other Infidels. 

It's known that all the Antient Churches abhorred this for- 
cing and punifhing ways. I have wondered at the Impudence 
of Baronim, Binnim, and other Papifts that juftifie Martin for 
leparating from the Commmunion of the BISHOPS that 
were for punifhing the Pnfcillianifts by the Sword, and Cano- 
nize him as a Saint, .and condemn thefe BISHOPS for it, and 
yet are for far more Cruelties themfelves, to far better men 
than the Prifcilltanifts. But where Flefhly Intereft is a mans 
Religion, no wonder if it have neither confiftency with Reafon nor 

L. But if none but Volunteers be Chriftians or Communicant s, 
mofi will defpife the Church, and it will be empty. 

M. All that are fit to be there, will come in : Arid thofe few 
will give the Paftors more comfort and lelTer trouble than the multi- • 
tude of the uncapable. If your purfe be not quite full of Gold, 
will you filli it up with dung or ftones . ? The uncapable will do 
better for themfelves, and the Church among the Audientes or Cate- 
chumens. It is their forcing in the uncapable, that hath corrupted 
the Church, and deprived the Flock of their due Priviledges 
(choofmg their Paftors, &c. ) becaufe it's made up of men un- 
worthy of them. And doubtlefs if you but countenance and 

K k 2 preferr 

prefer the Communicants before the reft, it will draw in more than 
are capable, without force. 

L. If the Excommunicate be no further punifjed, nor forced to r event , 
the Church c expires will he defpife d: How little will men care for an 

A/. This is commonly faid, and much of it is true : But i. Can 
you force men to Repent, or rather Lye ? You make him Repent 
that he brought hiinlelf into your hands and into fuffering : But that 
is not to Repent of Sin. Will you tell a ma% before hand, If thou 
wilt but fay thou Repent eft rather than lye in Gaol till death , we will pro- 
nounce thee abfolved and forgiven in Chrifts Name ? Who can think ill 
enough of luch an Abfolution ? 

2. Do not they icorn Chrift that fay he hath advanced his Church 
to the Dignity of Government, by putting into their hands a Reed 
for a Scepter, and a Leaden Sword that will do nothing without the 
Magiftrate's Sword of Steel ? Hath he fet up an uleleis mock- power 
in the Church ? 

3. Did the primitive-Churches for 300 years ufe any Sword but 
Spiritual ? Or did they find it fo uneffedtual and vain ? 

4. Yea for fome hundred years after there were Chriftian Magi- 
ftrates, did not the Church abhor fuch a thing as forcing the Excom- 
municate to repent by imprifonment or the Sword ? 

5. No man is meet to be a juft Member thatcareth not for a juft 
Excommunication? And ftill this ftieweth what a wickednels it is to 
force in the unmeet, that defpife God's Ordinance and the Church 
that they are in : And then God's Ordinance muft be debauched for 
their unfitnels. 

6. The Sword doth the Keys much more hinderance than help, 
when it is thus annexed to them } for then it cannot bedifcerned whe- 
ther Excommunication do any Good or none ; or whether it be 
only the Sword that doth the cure : And do not they that pro- 
fels Excommunication to be vain without the Sword, teach men 
to call them as Church Governours Fain, and to defpife them ? 
And is it not all one, as to lay, if any good be done by Church Go- 
vernment, it is by the Magiftrate's Sword, and not by ours by the 
Keys ? 

7. And is it not then ridiculous contradiction to difpute fo 
hard about Church-power , and againft the Presbyters claim , 
when you confefs that it is an ufelefs fhadow that you difpute 
for, and it's not k % but the Sword that doth the deed. 

8. Is 

[ 257 1 

8. Is it not an odious defacing of Princt s and M agiftrates, to fay, 
That they are bound to Imprifon and Ruine a Man as a meer LicTor 
or Executioner of the Judgment of the Clergy, or of a Chancel- 
lor, without ever hearing or trying his Caule ; and to punifh him 
again, becaufe they punilht him before, or becaufe he hath not got 
their Pardon. 

9. If Excommunication be grofly unjuft fas againft Charts 
Members, for doing their Duty, or for common humane infirmity) 
they do well that let ^ it no more than it deferveth, and pre- 
tend not to repent when they do not, nor cannot, nor ought 
to repent. 

L. Though you call it. no Punifhment, to keep all the Non- commu- 
nicants from public)^ Power and Truft, I thinly it will pafs for a nota- 
ble Penalty. 

M. I grand them as much as I can, as knowing how little 
they will yield to; and indeed its my Opinion, That to deny 
all Non-Communicants Magiftracy and publick Truft, would 
be to Reform the Commonwealth in the Foundation, if the Keys 
were but juftly Exerciled : But then by this I exclude, none but 
the Intolerable, that neither Communicate with the approved or the 
Tolerated Churches. 

L. But Rulers will turn this against you and fljut out the Tolera- 
ted with the Intolerable. 

M. I cannot help that : Mufl I not tell Men what is Right, be- 
caufe they will do Wrong ? 

L. But you are for having all the Subjects forced to be Catechifedy 
and to be Auditors : And do you thinks that this will not force Non- 
conformifts to hear again fi their Conferences f 

M, I fay, not that they mould be forced to hear in the Parijli - 
Churchy but either in a ParijJ) Approved or a Tolerated-Church : 
How have they a Toleration, that may not Hear their Tolerated Pa- 
ftors ? And he that is not for Hearing at all, is not to be Tolerated : 
And indeed, it thofe that are no Members in Communion of any 
Church, but meer Catechumens or Auditors, fhuuld be forced to 
Hear in ther own Parifhes ordinarily, if there be meet Teaching -, 
I oppofe it not. 

L. But is it not as injurious, to force men agdinf their Conferences 
to Hear as to Communicate. 

M. No 

M. No, the Cafe is greatly different. Nature bindeth all 
men to learn, that they may know what is good or evil to 
themlelves. Learning and Knowledge is the common Duty and 
Intereft of mankind} and though no man can be forced to Be- 
Iteve and Repent -, he that is forced to hear, may hear that 
which may make him Voluntarily Believe and Repent: You 
muft force your Children to Learn, but not to Communicate. 
I told you, That to give a man the Sacrament, is to give him 
a Seal'd Pardon and Gift of Chrift and Life, which no unwil- 
ling man is capable of, but he may be capable to. hear and 

And this being only to thofethat are refufers of all Church-Com- 
munion, or are uncapable, and are in none, either approved or Tole- 
rated, what Confcience can luch pretend againft hearing, or againft 
being reft rained from Crimes and Prophaning Holy things, or re- 
proaching Religion, though they be not conftrained to what they are 
uncapable of ? 

h. I am fully fat is f yd, that your way of dividing all the Sub jells 

into the $pp?otieD, the sColerateo and the Jntolerable, is of ab~ 

folute necejfify. And to conclude, I am fatisfied, that you Non-con- 
formifts have a Caufe fo good, that you do well to fuffer for it ; but 
were I in your cafe, I kriow not what 1 flwuld do my felf The Flefi 
and World are ftrong • and it's eafier to be convinced that one jlwuld be 
a Martyr , than to fubmit to Martyrdom: God be merciful to our 

M. He trufteth not Chrift, that thinks he mail be a lofer by him ; 
and he that will lave his life from him by fin, (hall lole it ; and he that 
loieth it for him, fhall fave it. 

L. X. Tour ioth. for fome Toleration, will never be endured, 
though the Truth is, your Reafons for it are unanfwerable, and your 
Limitations fo ftrici, as prevent moft. of the Objections that might be 
made againft it. 

M. God's Law requireth, Forbearing and Forgiving one another, 
and Receiving the Weak^ in Faith. And they that cannot Tolerate the 
Tolerable, methinks mould fear the thoughts of Death, left then God 
will not Tolerate them, but caft them out, as they caft out his Chil- 

L I confefs you convince me, that know what moft Patrons in 
England are, that it is unfit that all the Peoples Souls jlwuld be fo 
far as the mercy of thofe Patrons, that fcem to care but little for 


L 2 59 J 
their own, as that no man mult have any other or better P aft or than they 
willchoofe for him -, and that all maris Duty, to care for his Salvation, 
and all the Judgment of the Church of Chrift, from the Apoftles days, 
till a few hundred years ago, jhould wholly give place to the bretendcd 
right of any Fellow that buy an Advowfon or Freientation : And it were 
to be wijht, that it were wholly taken from them, and left to the Clergy 
and People alone -, the Magiftrate being Judge whom he will Approve 
or Tolerate. But there is no hope that Patrons will let go thier fuppo- 
fed Right, if an Angel from Heaven Jlwuld fpeak again ft it ;• but m 
all reafon they ftould grant the Communicants that fmall confequent 
Vote of Confent or Dijfent, that you pleaded for • but if they will not 
do that, they jhould give them leave to go to another Parijh, or to choofe 
a Tolerated Pallor whom they will maintain. But men are fo fet on 
their own ways, that they Banijh all fence of others Cafe, and of what 
conduceth to the common good, 

M. We can but bring the Truth to light, and (hew a felf-woun - 
ding people, the Balfom that muft heal them, and flay till God will 
give them a heart' to ufe it. 

L. But you are fo careful, not to offend them by motioning too wide 
a Toleration, That I doubt it will do little good. For, i . Some willfcru- 
ple fome of the Subfcriptions, or Oaths, which, you grant, jh all be im- 
pofedonthem. 2. If all the Tolerated muft be rtfponfible for their 
Dottrine andMwiftration, us wo to one, but the Rulers to whom they 
muft give account, will be fo contrary to them, that they will have no 
Peace or Safety. 

M. How would you have thefe Dangers and Inconveniences be 
avoided ? An unlimited Toleration of the Intolerable, is it lelf Intole- 
rable -, and you can deviie no fafer limitation. The Engagements 
which they are to take, tell you the Terms of Toleration -, and if men 
will Preach againft thofe Terms, that is, againft : the Chriftian Faith, or 
the Holy Scripture., or their Allegiance to the King ; or if they ufe 
their Meetings, to deftroy Love and Peace, they ought to be retrai- 
ned *, and there are lower punifhments, than depriving them of their 
Toleration, which are for lower Faults. 2.. But if Rulers will opprefs., 
we cannot help that, and muft not therefore be ungoverned, 


CHAP. L X I. Whether the Extirpation of the Non-Confor- 
wifts, be not rather to be attempted, than an Vnion with them by 
thefe means, 

L. T7'j long fmce our former Conference ; and 
This was written when J^ novo there is difcovered a Treafonabk Plot 

the Duke of Momutlh wji the Kwg . md hps Bmhtr d { _ 

Treafon wasmofhioiftd, ^ , r ajj <& n / • / ~i 

and die- Diffenters cryed tltlide °J ^ddrifles tell us, that it was the Plot 
down. of the Diflenters, and the Product of Conven- 

ticles, and therefore crave the Extirpation ' of 
them all ; and that they may no more be trufted, as having Principles 
were concileable to Monarchy and Subjection : and the loudefl cry now 
runs that way. 

Ad. What is the Treafonable Plot ? 

L. To k^ll the King and Duke, and raije an Army, and to change 
the Government, or Governours at leaft. 

M. Who do they mean by Difftnters or Conventicles ? 

L. All that Conform not to the Church of England as it is now Settled 
by the Law. 

M. The Law fettleth the Eflentials, Integrals, and Accidents of 
the Church : Do you mean every one that difliketh any one Office, 
(as Lay-Chancellors ule of the Keys) or any Ceremony or Form ? 
If fo, I do doubt moil; that come to Church and Communicate with it, 
DifTent from fome iuch Circumftances. 

L. Well, fuppofe it be thofe that feparate from it. 

M. There are now thefe following ibrts of known Diflenters, 
called by many, Conventiclers. 

I. Thofe that like the way of Epifcopacy and Liturgy beft, as here 
fettled-, but yet will alio, occafionally joyn with other Churches, as 
the French, Butch, Lutheran, or fome Non- conforming. 

II. The Pacifick^,Non-conformifts, who at the King's Return, Pe- 
titioned for Arch-Bifhop Vjher's Model of the Primitive Epifcopal Go- 
vernment, and thankfully accepted the Ki-ngs Declaration. 

III. The Presbyterians, who are for Government only by Synods 
of equal Presbyters Teaching joyned with meer Ruling ones. 

IV. The Independents andSeparatifts. 

V* The Anabaptifis? (who are half Arm'viians, and half not.) 

VI. The 

[ 261 ] 

VI. The Fifth- Monarchy Party (moft of which are Anabaptifis 

VII. The Quakers. 

VIII. The Papifis. 

IX. The Infidels, Jews, Hobbifts, and A-theifis. 

Is the meaning, that all thefe are the guilty Rebels to be deftroyed, 
or which of them is it . ? 

L. // all, I doubt the King would lofe no fmall fart of his Subjects : 
But you know the Papifis are not numbered with the Diffenters or Con- 

M. Say you fo? Do thofe that differ but about a Ceremony, 
or Lay-mans ufe of the Keys, or the largenefs and paucity of Bi- 
fhops Churches, diffent more from you than the papiifcs, that 
would bring King and Kingdom under a Foreign Jurifdicffcion, 
and introduce all the Mais and Docftrinal Corruption of their 
Church. Read Bifhop Downhams Catalogue of Popijh Errors de 
Anti-Chrifio, or Doctor Wilkts, Chamber's, Jewell's, or any fuch, 
and Judge. 

And do you think that the Mafs is no Conventicle, or more Lawful 
than the forbidden AfTemblies of Proteitants ? 

L. Well, but its Proteftant-DifTenters that I mean. 
M. So then, you would have Protefl ant- Diffenters rooted out, and 
not Papifis or Infidels ? 

L. We would have thofe rooted out which were in the Plot, which the 
Papifts were not. 

M. No doubt but fuch a Plot as you defcribe, deferveth the 
Extirpation of thofe that were guilty of it : But I pray you 
compare not the Innocency of Papifis in their Principles, with the 
Protefiants : Or read Bifliop Barlow's and Henry Fowliss Books, 
and Prins Hiftory of Bifhops Treafons, and Judge as you fee 
caufe. But it's none of my bufinefs now to accuie the Papifi. Do 
but grant that the Innocent mould not fuffer for the crimes of the guil- 
ty, and we are agreed. 

L. But is tt not jufily fuppofed, that the whole Party is guilty of 
thofe Principles whveh have caufed particular mens Rebellions', and A 
it is their Preachers and Convent iciers that have cau/edall? 

M. You that are a Lawyer fhould know ibmewhat of the Rules of 
Jufiice, or Humanity at lean: . Come on, and letycuandl consi- 
der foberly of the cafe. . 

And firft, to your face I challenge you to nam* and prove any 

L I the 

C 262 3 

the leaft difference between the Non-con for miffs who fought for Con- 
cord at the King's Reftauration, or the Party of meer Non confor- 
ming, and the Proteftants of the Church of England, in their Princi- 
ples about the Power of Princes, and the Subjection and Patience of 
the Peopie. Name any difference if you can . ? 

L. You would make one believe that great Numbers are inhumanely 
impudent , that charge them with fuch heinous difference, if there be none. 

M. Why do you not name the difference if there be any ? 
Contrarily, 1 . We all take the lame Oaths of Allegiance and Supre- 

2. We Subfcribe all the fame Articles of Religion about the Power 
of Magiftrates. 

3. We have of ten profeffed our confent to all that is written for 
Magiftracy and Subjection in all the Scripture, in any General Coun- 
cil (fave what is for the Papal Tiranny over Princes and People^ or in 
any Confeffion of any Chriftian Churchy Greeks Papifl, or Proteftant, 
that ever we faw ; and for all that ( for the power of King's, but not 
all agalnff it) which the generality of Fathers, Hiftorians, Philoio- 
phers, Politick-writers, Lawyers, Canonifts, or Divines are for. 
And is not all this yet enough ? 

4.I have oft told you where ; e.^.Rifhop Andrews in Tortura Torti, 
Sir Francis Bacon, Lord St. Albans, and many others, have vindi- 
cated the principles of the Englijlo Non-Con for miffs, as the fame 
with the Church's in point of Loyalty againft the Papiffs Accufa- 

L. But do not you know who Wrote the Political Aphorifm, or 
Holy Commonwealth, Condemned lately by the Oxford Convoca- 
tion ? 

M. And do not you know, 1. That the Author had never leave 
to confute his Accuiers about it ? 

2. Do you not know that he hath divers years ago, Written a 
large Book called his Second Plea for Peace, fully opening the 
principles which he and his Confenters hold -, and no Man hath 
Written one word againft any of them, that I hear of, to this day ? 
Is this fair dealing then, to filence what at large he owneth, and 
name only a Writing Twenty Nine years ago, which he never was 
heard about ? 

3. Do you not know that the Famoufly Learned Tho. White, a 
Papift, wrote at the fame time the like Doctrine, and will you 
charge that on t.he Party of Papiffs ? 

4. The 

C ^ 3 

4. The Hiftorians Rule is Diftinguc de temporibus, do yoi] know 
in what times that was Written ? And know you not that few Men 
then living, Wrote and Spake more plainly againft the Ufurpation 
than he did ? 

5. And you fee that the Oxford Convocation condemn the Wri- 
tings and Principles of the Doctors of the Church of England as 
well as others ? And as for Knox and Buchanan we are no more 
guilty of their words than of Jewel's, Bilfons, Hookers, Laud's, or 
any luch. 

L. But if you differ not from the Church of England in principles of 
Loyalty, why do you not take the Oxford-Oath in the Att of Confine- 
ment, audthe Subfcription in the Aflof Vniformity? 

M. I have told you fully before : Not becaufe we differ in Doctrine, 
but in Expounding the words of that Oath and Subfcription. 

2. Were neither Arch-Bifhop Abbot, nor his Clergy, nor the 
Parliaments of thofe times of the Church of England, as well as 
Sibthorp and Mainwaring ? Were not the Laws made by thofe Par- 
liaments, made by the Members, if not Reprefentatives of the 
Church of England ? You know that our late great Defenders of 
the Church, defcribe the Church of England to be Thofe that Wor- 
Jhip God according to the Law : And were the Parliaments that made 
thofe Laws, none of the Church themf elves ? 

Chillingwonh would not Subfcribe without a limitting profeflion : 
Was he therefore none of the Church ? 

Was Bifhop Bilfon none of the Church ? Was R. Hooker none of 
the Church ? The firft Dedicated his Book to Queen Elizabeth, and 
the latter is Dedicated to our King Charles the Second, and praifed by 
his Father. And yet the Author of the Holy Commonwealth hath 
larglier than any Man confuted Hook§r's Popular Principles. 

When Wtiliam Barclay, a Lawyer defended the King of France 
his Temporal Power, againft the Popes Ufurpation of a Power 
to Depofe and Reftrain him, he is fain to profefs that the contrary 
Opinion was fo common, that he was taken to fpeak fome ftrange 
and fingular thing. And yet none doubts but he was of the fame 
Church of Rome. 

I again challenge you to name that point in which we differ in 
this Doctrine from the true Church of England. 

L, Tou hold that Kings may be re fifed by Arms. 

L 2. M. Not 


M. Not fo much as the aforefaid Bifhop and Doclors of the Church 
of England~dld, or the Parliaments that made Church Laws. Again, 
See our Second Plea for. Peace \ how far we difclaim it. I profeis 
that I am acquainted with no meer Non -con form ifl Minifters, that 
hold it at all lawful for Subjecls to refift the King, or any Supream 
power by a War ; except \n cafe that he notorioufly declareth that he 
will if he can, deftroy the Commonwealth, or deliver it up to. a 
Foreigner or deftroyer that hath no Right. 

L. Sure the cry would never be jor Extirpating the Dijfenters^ for 
this Plot and their ' difloyalty, if they were not guilty. 

M. Nay, if that be your Argument [Strangers to them fay they 
are dijloyal and guilty ; Ergo they are fo~] I leave you to Gods anfwer, 
for I will not undertake to anfwer you. 
But will you ufe Sobriety a little further ? 

2. It is now Twenty Seven Years fince they were ejecled and caft 
out of Maintenance and Countenance, and left: to beg or crave their 
Bread : long have they been laid in Goals, and Fined deeply, the Law 
laying on them Twenty and Forty pound a Sermon : Their Goods, 
Beds, Eooks, taken from them, and they left deftitute : How many 
in all thefe years, have ever been accufed and proved guilty of 
one difloyai or feditious Sermon or Word ? I know of none : cer- 
tainly it was not for want of will in the Aceufers. Thofe that by 
Oaths have brought them under Convidions and Warrants for diftreis 
five, ten, and much more Forfeitures, even divers hundred pounds at 
once, before they were ever fu mmoned to fpeak for themfelves^ 
would fure have Swore fbme difloyai words againft them, had they 
been able. And can many hundred Minifters have a fuller proof of 
their Innocency, than that they had no fuch profecution twenty feven 
years from fuch a fort of Adverfaries, in fo great Sufferings ? 

2. And now this Plot is detected, it is divers months fince, and 
many Countries and Corporations have accufed the Diffenters of it, 
and cry them down to Extirpation : And to this day I cannot hear of 
any one Englijh Minifter (or at moftnot of two J that is either an 
Epifcopal or Presbyterian Non-conformift, fo much as accufed, or 
made as guilty. 

The French and Dutch Churches in London are diflenting Pres- 
byteriaus. Yet no Man accufeth any of them for being in Plots ; 
and yet muftthey alfo be deftroy ed ? 


But, Sir, if any one or more of the Epifcopal or Presbyterian 
Non-conformifts, Mwiftcrs or People, had been found guilty, would 
you condemn thoufands (or any) of the guiltleis for their fakes ? 
On what account : Is it for their Relation to them ? They are moftly 
ftrangers to one another. Come, and let us try your Rule of 

I. Is there any Relation nearer than that of Father and San ? And 
can any Minifter be fuppofed to have more intereft in, or influence 
on his Hearers, than a Father hath on his Son ? And you know 
that the chief man accufed is the Kings eldeft Son : 1 hope you will 
not for this, charge the King, as if he principled him for Trea- 
fon againft himfelf : Nor as if he were to iuffer for his Sons 

II. The Judges have oft declared that many Jefmts and Papifts 
were Plotters and Traitors, and they died for it. I hope you will 
not make all Papifts guilty of their crime, nor extirpate them for it. 
And yet the Papifts are Conventicling Dtjfenters too. 

III. The Lords and great Men accufed of this Plot and Treafon 
(how juftly God knoweth) were of the Church of England • and 
(hall all the Church of England be deftroyed for their fakes ? 

Doctor Whitby, and others now blamed by the Oxford- Convo- 
cation ; and Bifhop Bilfon, Mr. Hooker, &c. were of the Church of 
England - 7 and (hall all the Englijh Clergy be accufed of their 
words ? 

IV. Many of the accufed were Hobbifts and Infidels, and 
fome common ill-living Proteftants : Shall all the Hobbifts, 
and Infidels, and ill-living Proteftants be Extirpated for their 
faults ? 

V. Many Gentlemen of fome late Parliaments are accufed (not 
yet tried, and proved guilty) .* Shall all the Parliament- men there- 
fore be Extirpated as guilty ? 

VI. Some Lawyers and Students at Law are accufed : Shall all 
Lawyers and Students therefore be Extirpated ? 

VI f. Divers of the Nobility are accufed : Muft all Noblemen be 
therefore reproached ? 

VIII. Some that have been of the Kings Privy Council 
were accufed ; Is his Council therefore to be difgraced or de- 
ftroyed ? 

IX, For- 

£ *66 3 

IX. Formerly many Judges have been guilty : Are Judges there- 
fore to be difhonoured ? 

X. By this juftice you may next conclude, They were Englifimtn - 
that were accuied, therefore let all Englishmen be rooted out : Or 
they were Proteftants and Chriftians ; therefore away with all Pro- 
tenants and Christians : Whereas 1 think it an unjuft conclufion, that 
becaufe they were /rift-men and Papifts that murdered two hun- 
dred thoufand in Ireland, therefore root out all Irift-men and Papifts \ 
unlefs you will infer, They are men that commit all fin ; therefore 
root out mankind. 

If it had been men that We feriom Godlinef, and are the feed of 
the Serpent and of Caw, that are at deadly enmity to the true fear of 
God, and thirft for the blood of the innocent, that are accufed of this 
Plot ; and if people had petitioned to have all this fort of men rooted 
out for it, it would have fallen on more than you and I are willing to 
name, or to have deftroyed 

But can you bear with me if I tell you truly and plainly what this 
Extirpating motion of all called Difftnters and Cbnventklers fignifieth, 
and what it tendeth to ? 

L. / have had fo much reafonfrom yon, as obligeth me to hear what 
yon can further fay. 

M. I. The Motion is fo apparently from Satan, that it will tempt 
thole that are Chriftians indeed,and know the devil's Will and Works, 
to take you for no other than his lifted Souldiers againft Chrift, if you 
fet your lelves to do this work. Truth, Love, and doing Good, are 
the Chrifiian State and Life. Eying, Hatred and Hurtfulneft are 
Diabolifm, or Satans work and image. AH the Art of prating and 
deceit of Clergy or Laity in the World, will never fo far blind true 
Chriftians, but that by your Emits they mil know you. The pricks 
of Thorns and Thistles will be known from Grapes and Figs, in de- 
fpight of all the craft of Diabolifts. And if Children know not a 
Wolf in Sheep s-cloathing, they will know him that fee him tear the 
Flocks', yea, or that fee his bloody jaws 

And are you willing to renounce Juftice, Humanity and Chriftia- 
nity, and openly to profefs Diabolifm ? 

Men will lee how malignity greedily picks quarrels with honeft 
innocent men, while it beareth or cherifheth the debauched, un- 
godly, unconicionable rabble, whofe God is their Belly, or the 


[>6 7 ] 

And methinks men, fo proud that they cannot bear with any that 
differ from their ignorant dictates, fhould fcarce be willing that Hi- 
ftory fhould lift them among the Cainites or Diaboiifts, any more than 
among man-eating Canibals. 

II. You cannot extirpate or deftroy all Dif enters, if you do 
your worft. i. So great, a number will be true to their Con- 
fciences, and fuffer what ever you inflict on them, as will take 
you up much time and trouble, and render you more odious to the 

2. The common people that were indifferent, will enquire what 
thefe men have done, and will be turned from thole that afflict fo 
many of the innocent j efpecially their neighbours, who know them 
better by Experience, than by your Reports. 

3. Thole that fill not Prifbns, or die not as Martyrs, will but 
Conceal their Minds, and not change them. And they will then be 
out of the reach of your hurting power : When they communicate 
with you, and give you no outward matter of accufation, what can 
you do to them ? Or what pretence can you find to extirpate them ? 
The heart you know not : Their actions they will keep out of the 
reach of the Law : If you try them by Oaths or unjuft Profeflions, 
by increafing the number of Sufferers, you will increale your infamy 
and odium : And they that for fear do fwear againft their Judg- 
ments, will hate you the more when they feel their wounded Confci- 
ence iinart. 

4. And if you force them into fecrecy, they will there fpeak more 
freely, and will Educate their Children into a hatred of your ways. 
And if you could deftroy them, two for one will fpring up as their 

Who would have thought that the great French Maffacre fhould 
have rather increaled than diminifhed the Proteftants ? Or that Queen 
Marys Bone-fire fhould have extinguished Popery ? Or that the two 
Hundred Thoufand Murdered by the Irifi fhould but have haftned 
the overthrow and ruine of the Murderers ? In fhort, you cannot 
Extirpate them. 

III. The more you attempt it, and the more you fucceed, the 
more you will do againft your [elves* 

1. Is not the King more iafe, and ftrong, and honourable, and 
eafie when he hath the Hearts of all his Subjects, than if he rule 
a. People by divifions and perfections fhattered like a broken 
Glafs, or living in proiecution or fear, and hatred of one another, 


C 268 -} 

as if they were ftill in a ftate of Hoftility, and lived among their dan- 
gerous Enemies ? If eirher Chrift or Satan be ro be believed, a di- 
vided Kingdom- in Enmity cannot ftand. 

L. Mcthwk* you argue againft your fclf : For therefore it is that we 
would have all Dijfenters rooted out, becaufe of the danger of divifion 
by tolerated Dijfenters. 

M. Had you read a Book called, The Samaritan, and another 
called, The True and only Terms of Church-Concord, you would need 
no further anfvver to that Objection. If you would have all of one 
mind and way, it muft be in that which it is neceffary and poffibk for 
all men to agree in, and to make things unneceffary or impofjible your 
terms, is the certain way of pernicious divifion. Will you extirpate 
all that difTent in Controverfies of Law, of Philofophy, Afirononry^ 
Phyfick, Grammar-, or that differ in Reafon, Constitution, Statute ? 
&c. Do you think that all\vill confent in all the Myfteries of Divi- 
nity, while knowledge is fo low and rare ? Yea, do you think that 
even in Circumftances and things doubtful, all good Chriftians will 
ever be fo much of one meafure of Knowledge as to agree ? How 
happy are we if we all agree in great, plain, necefTary things? But 
to underftand alio all little Circumftances, and humane Orders and 
Phrafes ; which be lawful, and which not, fuppofeth all Plow-men, 
Tradef-men and Work-men, to be far more perfect in the know- 
ledge of Divinity, than the moft learned Philofophers are in Phy- 
ficks, who agree in little but a few principles, and things within the 
reach of fenfe : When yet alas, we can fcarce teach half the vulgar, 
the meaning of the Creed, or Baptifmal Covenant. 

If the King would extirpate all Lawyers, Phyficians, or Philo- 
fophers , who in a multitude of little and controverted Points , 
cannot tell which fide is in the right ; he may ■ have fo much the 
more fuccefs in it, by how much the more men will be bold to 
diffemble their opinions in matters of' fuch a nature. But about 
the matters of God and Salvation, Confciences will be more a- 
fraid to ftretch and difTemble. It's far lefs Wife to take this 
way, than for School-mafters and Tutors to deftroy or caft out 
ail Scholars and Pupils, that have not juft the fame degree of know- 

And at what Age muft this perfect knowledge begin, which 
muft extend to the moft minute things that men will command ? 
At Sixteen years of Age you compel them, volentes, nokntes, to re- 

C ^9 J 
ceive the Lords Supper ; and do you think then that all at Six. 
teen years old, in England, fhould be prefumed to know more 
of the Lawfulnefs of all your Impofitions on them, than I can 
reach to know at Sixty Eight (now near Seventy FourJ after 
the long and hard Study of mv Life ? If you compel no more 
Men, Lads or Women to Communicate, but luch as really un- 
derhand the Lawfulnefs of all luch Impofitions, which I judge 
unlawful, lure it will make a great change in your Communion 
and Courts. 

L. By this talk^you feem to intimate, that the people muft not 
be confirained to obey in Circumfiantials or Little things, becaufe 
they may to them be doubtful ; and what worfinp of God can you 
perform without fuch little Cir cum fiances ? 

M. Little or Great, God in Mercy hath made all NecefJ'ary 
things intelligible and plain : It is the Vnnecefjary things that 
are moft controvertible and doubtful. There are many Circum- 
fiances that are lb Neceffary to actions, that they cannot with- 
out them be performed -, e. g. He that will Preach, mud: open 
his mouth ; he muft fpeak audibly, he muft uie a Language 
underftood, he muft have fome capable Place, and convenient 
Time ; Pfalms muft be fung in fome Tune, &c . fome Cloth- 
ing, ibme pofture of Body muft be ufed -, and all men know 
that to choofe thefe according to the general Rules of Cha- 
rity, Edification, Order, and Decency, belongs to the Guides 
of the AfTemblies. And where do you fee any great dwi- 
fion about any fuch things as thefe -, except in cafes of acciden- 
tal fcandal ? 

And if any fhould be fo childifh or ignorant, as to think it 
unlawful ; e, g. to be "Uncovered, or to Kneel at Prayer ; due 
Inftruclion, and gentle Rebuke may eafiiy cure fuch weaknefs, 
and is meeter than an Extirpation. If any were fo fiily that 
they Icrupled *, e. g. finging our Metre or Tunes of David's 
Plalms, but are only for the Cathedral finging of the profe ; it's 
fitter to let thembefilent, or let them go only to Cathedrals, 
than to Excommunicate or Deftroy them -, and if any be fo weak, 
that they think a Lawful Form or Gefiure unlawful, it's fitter, 
if they cannot be convinced, to let them be filent, or Worfhip 
God among themfelves in another Form or Gefture, than to 
Excommunicate or Extirpate them. 

M m Eut 



But what are theie eafie intelligible Circumftances to all the 
Ceremonies unneceifary even in genere ? What are they to the 
Vows of God-fathers without the Parents, or to the dedicat- 
ing Symbol of the Crofs, or to adhering to a bare Reader , 
when the next Parifh hath an able Teacher whom the ignorant 
have great need to be inftrucled by ; to jay no more now 
of all the Oaths, Declarations, Subicriptions, Covenants, and 
Profeflions required of Minifters ? I again lay therefore, if 
you Extirpate all Subjects that cannot unite with you in all 
things required by the R ubncks and Canons, you will wrong 
the King 'by weakning his Kingdom, and robbing him of 
more of his Subjects, than He or the Welfare of the Land 
can fpare. 

And you will keep the Kingdom in a ftate of Divifion (and 
like Antioch, that was fo of: and terribly fhaken by Earthquakes, 
that it was in continual danger of ruine) and even honeft Trajan 
lodging there, did hardly icape through a window, while the 
falling houfes kill'd his Souldiers. 

And the DilTenters are not all of one mind and temper. All 
that are wife and good, willfutTer patiently and peaceably ; for 
1 incline to think, that the Expofitors miftake, who apply 
Solomons Words to Sufferers [Opprcfiion maketh Wife men mad~\ $> 
and that as fome Criticks tell us, it rather meaneth Rulers \jhat 
an affectation of an opprefing poxver, and the exercife of it, makgth 
wife Rulers forget the very obvious Rtafons of Morality and In- 
tareff, and to all as men dislyaEiedf\ But there be DiiTenters 
of dangeroiu Principles, which are fitter to be restrained, than 
by defparation to be enraged ; as hap is, the Behmenifts and 
Quakers are againft War, and the old Anabaptists were fo re- 
ported ; but Tome of them have fhewed a contrary judgment -, 
but its known paft doubt, that the Papists are a fort of DifTent- 
ing Conventiclers, who have fo ftrong a back beyond Sea to- 
encourage them, and are fo inftrucled by multitudes of learn- 
ed Clergy- men and Friars, and fo taught by General Councils, 
which are their very Religion, that many of them will think 
it Merits Heaven to kill fuch Kings as would Extirpate 

• King James is deeply cenfured by fome, for doing fo 
much as he did towards a Toleration, and for what the 
French Bifhop of Ambrun writes of him. But for my part I 


C 271 'J 

verily believe that he did it in fear to fecure his life ; when 
Queen Elizabeth's death had been fo oft attempted , and 
when two great Papift Kings of France, had been murdered, 
becaufe they were not zealous enough for the Pope, and that 
fo delperately by fingle men, that did it to merit Heaven ; a*nd 
when he had fo narrowly efcaped the horid Gun-powder Plot, 
and when they flill told him that he mould not eicape ;. what 
wonder if he were afraid ? 

And fo great confidence have the Papal Clergy, in this terri- 
fying of Kings as in conftant danger of death, if they be againft 
their Church, that ihe Pope and his clofe Adherents could never 
to this day be procured to difown the Decree of Lateran, and 
other Councils for Depofing Excommunicate Heretick Princes; 
no, nor to deny the lawfulnefs of killing fuch -, yea, even in 
France , Perron himfelf, their Learned Cardinal, fo defends the . 
Pope's power of Cepofing Kings that deferve it, that (in his 
Oration to the States ) he profefTeth, That, if it be not true, 
the Pope is Anti Chrift, and the Church Anti-Chriftian that hath 
fo long owned and praclifed it. 

L. You feem to intimate in all this that you would have the 
Papift s Tolerated , for fear leaft they jhould kill the King \ and fo 
the vporfe that Men and. their Principles are, the more they muft 
be Tolerated for fear of them : But who live din greater fafety than 
Queen Elizabeth who fuppreft them, even when the Pope had Ex- 
communicated her , ? 

M. I would have the King and Kingdom (Church and State) 
fecured from a Foreign JunfUttion* of Pope or Prelates ; and to 
that end, I would have Papift s kept out of Government, Civil, 
Military or Ecdefiaftickj, and I would wiuh that the King, 1 . By 
the Unity of his Subjects; 2. By Navies and Military provi/i- 
on-, 3. And by juit Confederacies abroad, be flill lb ftrong as 
not to fear the force of Foreigners -, and thefe things being fe- 
cured, without fear of any mens cenu.re, 1 fay, 

1 . That I would have all Men ufed as Men, and ail peaceable- 
men as peaceable, be they what they will. 

2. I would have no hurt done to any Papift for his Religion, but 
])e fen five ; that is,fuch as is uecefTary to the forefaid Ends,r;^ to 

M m 2 fave 

C 272 ] 

lave King and Kingdom from a foreign Jurifdiclion, and from 
lnvalion, and to lave the Souls of the people, from Subverfion 
by unreaibnable liberty of Seducers. 

3. I would not have punifhments exceffive, that fhall drive 
multitudes into Defperation : Left undone deiperate men be 
carried to Revenge, or to think Trealbn lawful, when they can 
no otherwife befaved from Death and Ruine. 

Man hath not a defpotical power over all pafTion : And fome 
paffions do almoft neceffitate Error of Judgment, or elfe fud- 
den AcTion againft Judgment. Take the moft meek Conlcien- 
tious man, that knoweth the evil of Revenge,' and try his 
patience by buffetting him, and it's two to one, but pafTion will 
make him ftrike you again. Much more if you buffet him 
twenty year every day, patience may be overcome at laft: 
There is fcarce any Creature, Beaft, Pird, or Vermin, but 
will u(e all the refiftance it can in cafe of hurt and fear of death. 
The Devil could fay, Skin for shin, and all that a man hath will 
he give for his Life, And can you think that Prince or Kingdom 
is in lafety, that fhall deftinate to deftrucTion fo great a number 
and of 1'uch quality, as are all the Papifis. Infidels, Jews, A- 
nabaptifts, IndependantSj Presbyterians, and Epifcopal Non-con- 
formifis, as are in England ? Though I think the latter ibrt 
would fuffer death rather than be difloyal ; I am fure Rulers 
and Adverlaries think not lb, who accule them of intolerable 
difloyaky. And they that think lb ill of them willexpecl ill at 
their hands. 

It's true, that the worle men are and their principles, the 
more need there is of fupprefling them. But deftroying them 
is the chief means that 1 know to increafe their principles 
of refiftance. It's ordinary with men that never fuftered, to 
deteft refifting Governours ; and to change their Opinions 
when they think they are implacably hunted to deftrucTion 
without defert or any remedy. Draw your Sword upon them, 
even on a Quaker^ and it's two to one you will change his 
judgment, and make him think that felf-defence is lawful. 
Yea, if you could kill all that think refiftance lawful, (if it be 
half the Kingdom) it's the likelieft way to make all the reft 
that furvive of the fame mind, becaufe of the inhumanity of 
the Execution. I have met with few that thought that re- 

[ 27? 1 
fiftance at the French MafTacre on Bartholomew-day, or at the 
greater in Ireland, had been unlawful, whoever commanded 

Yea, the Lord Bacon, Chancellour of England, in his Dif- 
courfes of a Holy War againft the Turks, and of a War with 
Spatn ; thought that their barbarous Cruelties ( though the 
Turks give Liberty of Confcience ) allow other Princes to War 
upon them to vincicate mankind , the World being one 
Kingdom of God in which every man oweth Charity and due 
help to others } which is honoured in Tamerlane , when he 
relieved the Greeks Emperour of another Religion againft Baja- 
z.et that was of his own , and this in meer Humanity and 

I meddle not with the cafe of the lawfulnefs of fuch a&ions. 
But I fay, All the World cannot devife a more efFeclual way, 
to make all men think that Self-defence is Lawful, than by great 
cruelty againft multitudes to make it feem neceffary. 

And if you will cure it by forced Oaths, I heartily wifh the 
King better fecurity for his Life, and the Kingdom for its Peace, 
than mens Confcientious keeping of thofe Oaths will be, unlels 
Confcience and Patience were more univerfal and powerful than 
they are, and would make all forts of Diffenters choofe Martyr- 
dom, rather than defenfive refiftance. 

And as for Queen Elizabeth's Cafe, her Dangers were many, 
her Advantages were great, her Executions for Religion were 
fo few, that the Lord Bacon and many others fay, none lufFer- 
ed for any thing but Treafons or fuch crimes .- And God did 
wonderfully preierve her. 

But to fay no more of the Papifts whofe cafe quite differs 
from all the reft, if you will make many Laws about doubtful 
Words, and Forms and Ceremonies, and then extirpate all 
fober, godly, peaceable Sub je els, that for fear of finning againft 
God dare not obey them, what do you but mince and pulverize 
the Nation, and diflblve its confifting and ftrengrh. and make it 
a Cock-pit, or a prey to the cloven-footed deceiver and 

The Non-conformifts in England lived quietly till the 
Canons were made for their profecution. The great Coun- 
fellours of State, (Sir Nic. Bacon, Throgmorton, Sir Ami as 
Tmdet) the Earl of Leicefter 7 Sir Francis Knowles, Sir Fraxcis 

Waljinghajn s 

C 274 j 

Waifiwham, Secretary Beat, &c. except Han on an6nf¥hkpfr r 
were for lenity ^ yea for fuch abatements as might have caused 
Unity: And Sir William Cecil, Lord Bitrktgh ( though for 
EpifcopacyJ almoft fell out with Arch-Bifhop Whttgi ft for his 
hard ulage of the Non-conformifts. And were ail thefe Fools, 
and you only the Wife Men? But when Bancroft, left they 
fhould increafe, would Ruine them, and the Canons were 
made, which ipfo fa&o Excommunicated all people in the Land, 
High or Low, that did but affirm, That any thing in their 
Liturgy, Articles, Ceremonies, Ordination, or Church Offices 
(from the^ Arch-Bijhop to the Apfaretor) was repugnant to the 
Word of God, the Church and Kingdom prefemly felt that 
folutionem contimii which thefe tearing Racks had made : And 
when all muft be ejected and filenced, that durft not Subfcribe 
that Q There is nothing in the Liturgy contrary to the Word of 
God 3 (which I would not fay of the Bible it lelf as in any one 
Tranflation) then our over-zealous linkers tore all to pieces, 
and the fhreds could never to this day be well fet together to 
make one piece. 

Yea, all the Parliaments of England have ftill been driving 
to Reftore the Concord of Protejtants by laying by fome of 
thefe Dividing, Tearing Engines : But Whitgift f though too 
Great and Anti-Armiman) and Hatton, &c. prevailed ftill with 
the Queen to prohibit them 5 and they were loth to difpleafe 
her, having had lb great a Deliverance from Popery and Perfec- 
tion by her Reign. The Lord Verulam (Bacon) tells us of a 
Reforming Adl, in which himfelf had a hand, prepared in the 
Parliament, but prohibited by the Queen. 

And if any Kings (who fhould no more divide from their 
Kingdom Real or Reprefentative, than the Husband from the 
Wife, that I fay not, Than the Head from the Body) 
fhould fo far mil underftand their own, and peoples Intereft, as 
to be jealous of Parliaments as their Enemies } and if Wile- 
Kings defire to keep the Nobility from being ( as Henry the 
Fourth, Richard IS! evil, and others have been) too ftrong for 
their Sovereigns, they cannot more crofs their own ends, and 
ierve the Ambitious Defigns of thefe Men, than by afflicting 
a Great, a Sober, and a Religious part of the Kingdom, whom 
thefe Seditious Men will be ftill ferving themfelves upon, by 
pretending to Head them for their Deliverance ; as many Fa- 

[ 275 1 
jclious Nobles did in France. Its a great Encouragement to 
Rebellious Great Ones, when they have always hope, that a 
great Body of dift relied Men, will be ready, as necefiitated for 
ielf defence, to accept of their offers for iniurredion, or at leaft 
to ftrengthen Faction. 

L. It is for all theft very Reafons that we would Defray or 
Extirpate all Diffenters, that they may net be the Sa viceable In- 
frame nt s in fiich Defgns. 

. AL For all thele Reafons, you fhould Unite on the Terms 
that Chrift and his Apoflles Inftituted as fufficient for Chri-v 
ftian Love, Communion and Concord, that there may be no di- 
flreiled, exafperated Differ) tets among us ; or only ib few and 
culpable by the groffnefs of their Errors, as that their ihame 
and paucity may render them no way dangerous. You 
fhould not take fuch Men of extraordinary Wiidom, as Queen 
Elizabeths Councilors and Parliaments, the Lord Bacon, 
Judge Hales , and fuch Pacificators as Bavenant r Hall, Chil- 
lingworth, Abbot, Grindal, Amycald, and molt of the French,. 
Dutch, German Proteftantts, to be all Fools, and you to be 
Wife Men. A Council in Bedlam could fcarce adviie a mad- 
der way to root out Faction, than to make Canons or Laws, 
that all the Kings Subjects mail be Extirpated, that will not 
Subfcribe. There is not one word in all the Statute Book* or 
the molt learned Law-Bocks contrary to the Word of God; 
and that the- London Difpenfatory hath ho Error in Medi- 
cine-, and that no Z-icenfed Book hath any Error in Divi- 
nity : Verily, if the Bifhops and Clergy of England cannot 
give us better proofs of their Infallibility, or that their publick 
impofed Books are as free from Errors as Adam was before his 
Fall, that by making all Subfcribe, 01 Swear, or declare in the 
Church that it is jo, Cowards may fay, your Lordfnps and Re- 
verences have never an Erroneow word, but few Men will be- 
lieve it ever the more; yea, it will be the Itfs believed, that nee- 
deth fuch a proof as this : Even as men would take him to be 
never the more an unerring Phylofopher, Lawyer or Phyfi- 
cian, who could force all the Apprentice Boys and Women in the 
Town, to Swear that he is fuch. 

Try fir ft to make all the Kings Subjects of one Opinion in 
all points of Learning, Law, or Trading, and of one degree 


[ 2 7 6] 
of wit, and of ftature and complexion, and then hope to make 
them ail of one meafure of understanding, not only in the fub- 
fhnce of Religion, but in all the little things that Bifhops call 
indifferent, and do or may impofe. 

L- But you run upon the Err our that all mufl have fo great 
knowledge according to our rules, at to know the Lawfulnefs of all 
Lawful things: We know no Church -men reach fo high : But the 
way to Concord must be by obeying the Church in all cafes that are 
doubtful to the Subjects. 

M. t. It's well that you limit it to doubtful CrScs : But 
what if I am paft all doubt (e. g.) that it is a fin to make our 
fort of God-fathers the vowing Covenanters in Baptilm, ex- 
cluding the Parents, to caft out all from Chriftian Communion 
that fcruple kneeling in the reception, to deny Chriftendom to all 
that refufe our God-fathers and Croflings, to pronounce all in 
EngUndit Burial laved, except the unbaptized, excommunicate 
and lelf-murderers, to profefs that \Jt is certain by the word of 
God that Infants ( excepting none ) baptised and dying before 
actual fih 3 are undoubtedly faved j To affent to a falfe rule to 
know Eafter~day~] with many fuch : What muft I do in luch 
undoubted Cafes ? 

2. Tell us plainly, Is it all doubted cafes or fome only, in 
which you fay we muft obey ? If not all, till you tell us which, 
and how to know them, you talk in vain. If all, what if 
men doubt whether Polygamy, Lying, Fornication, &c. be 
lawful ? Or what if a Papift doubt whether King-killing be 
lawful, and the Clergy command it, muft it therefore needs 
be done ? 

3. And I pray you tell us where and when it is that men muft 
obey this rule ? Was it a duty in England in the days of Thomas 
Becket, Anftirh, Dunftan, &c. or in the Reign of all the Kings 
that were Papifts ? Is it a duty now in France, Spain, Italy, Ba- 
-aria, Auftr'ia, &c. or in the Dominion of the Turks, Perfi- 
ms, Tartarians, China, &c. ? Muft all Subjects every where 
do all commanded them ? If they have but ignorance enough 
re be in doubt themfelves , lure they are bound to receive 
Gods Light to overcome thofe doubts, and in Errour it is not 
roedience in Evil, but leeking truth till they find it, that is 
rbrirdu* y. 


[ 277 ] 

But if you limit this Rule to (Thrift ians, is it to all Chrijlians ? 
If to Orthodox Rulers, are the Subjects any fitter to judge whe- 
ther their Kings and Bifhops are Orthodox or not, than whe- 
ther the things impoied be good or bad ? If you dare fay, 1 hat all 
Subjects are bound to be of the Religion which their Kings or 
Bifhops fay is right, fpeak out and you will need no confu- 

It's granted by all fober men, that as Rulers have the judg- 
ment of publick decifion, lb every realbnable man muft judge 
by private dtfcerning whether his Actions be agreeable to God's 
Commands or not. It is not Brutes and Infants, but Men that 
have the ufe of reafon, that Kings and Bifhops rule. 

4. But if you are ftifF in the contrary Opinion, that all men 
muft implicitely believe the King and Prelates, in all that igno- 
rance can but make them doubtful' of, I hope you have more 
Brains than once to dream, that ever you fhali bring all the 
Kingdom to unite in this opinion, and to lay by their reafon,. 
and confefs themfelves Ideots or Brutes, that muft not labour to 
know whether they keep or break God's Supream Law ; or if 
you muft rule men on thefe terms, you muft keep them in fet- 
ters, and not at Liberty. 

And I pray you difhonour not the King fo much, as to 
make him a King of Beafts and Ideots, and not of Men or Chri- 
ftians ; or at leaft expofe him not fo much to the power of llfur- 
pers , as to fay that his Subjects are not the Difcerning Judges r 
who is their True and Lawful Soveraign, and who not -, and if 
they muft judge whether all their actions be agreeable to the 
Kings Laws or not, left they be hang'd or punifhed; allow 
them alfo to judge whether or no they be agreeable to God's, 
Law, left they be damned. 

If men once believe that God is not their Supream Gover- 
nour, no wonder if they beliere that Kings have no Gover- 
ning right, nor any are abound in Confcience to obey them - r 
for who can give Governing Authority, or who can bind Con- 
fcience to obey it, but the abfolute Soveraign, the Almighty 

L. Experience confuteth all that you have [aid ; what Coun- 
tries live in greater Vnity, than thofe that have procured and. 
kept it by violence,, and do endure no Diffenters ; as Spain, and< 
Italy ? 

N n M. ft; 

( -8) 

M. It feems you know not whar you fay. i. The Pope 
and Spaniards, and Italians allow greater differences, by ma- 
ny degrees than thole that you condemn DifTenters fo.r j their 
lefmts, and Dominicans y Tho?niji,s, Scotifts, Nominal*^ Dh- 
randifts, &c. differ i*o much from each others in Do Urinals, 
about God, and Grace, and Free-will, and Providence, and 
the Caufe of Sin, and many other points, that the Volumes 
they have written for their feveral Opinions, make up huge 
Libraries, which employ the hard ftudies of the moil: Lear- 
ned men in the World, and are as far as ever from being 

2. The Janfenifis and Jtjmts differ, not only in fuch Do- 
ctrines, about Predeftination, Redemption, Grace, Free-will, 
Perfeverance, &c. but alio about abundance of Doctrines, 
commonly called Moral \ as* about Murder, Perjury, Fornica- 
tion, Stealing, &c. as you may fee in the Books lately publifhed 
by the Janfenijh againft the Jefmts. 

And though approved general Councils , have made the 
dodfrine of Depofing Excommunicated Princes, and Abfolving 
their Subjects from their Allegiance, and giving their Domini- 
ons to others, to be a very part of their Religion, yet are not 
the Papifts agreed in it j but the Germans in the days of the Em- 
perours, Frederick-, Otho, Henry qth. and $th. &c. and the 
French to this day much againft it. And what Learned men 
wrote againft it, read but Mich. Goldaftm his many Volumes 
of Collections, and you may fee. 

Yea, the Papifts are not agreed of the very effential Form 
and Constitution of their Church, and therefore are indeed of 
feveral Churches : One Party thinks that the Supremacy is in 
the Pope, another that it is in a General -Council, and a third 
that it is in the Pope and General-Council agreeing -, and yet all 
thefe ib far bear with one another, as to cover over the difference 
with the Name of one Church, and to repute each other as 
True Roman Catholicks. 

Yea more, it is, by an Allowance of Diffenters, or diffe- 
rent ways of Worfhip, that the Pope doth chiefly keep up 
his Kingdom. When any Religious people have fallen into a 
diffatisfaclion with the loofe Difcipline and Converfation of the 
Bifhops and their Churches, the Pope alloweth them to fet 
up by themfelves, and exercife a ftricter Difcipline, Wor- 

C 279 ) 

fhip, and Converfation of their own devifing, which he ai- 
loweth, and no Bifhop (hall have power to impeach. And 
thus he keepeth them in dependance on himfelf, as the only- 
Defender of their Humours, inventions and liberties of different: 

On fuch accounts, there are multitudes of Seits among them 
under the name of Friars, and Fathers, and Sifters, &c. The 
Benedictines, Au<ruftinians, Dominicans, Francifcans, Jefnits, 
Cartbafians, &cT And all have their feveral ways of Difcipiine^ 
but it iufficeth, that all depend upon one Pope. 

In Rome it ielf, Phitip Nerim being a Serious Religious man, 
was unfatisfied with the dead formal way of the Bifhops and 
Mais-priefts ; and to bring men to knowledge and ierioufneis 
in Religion he borrowed a Church, and let up a Lecture or 
Coyrfe of Serious Extemporate Worfhip, almoft like the exer- 
ciie called Prophecying, that A rch -Bifhop Grindal was for, and 
the Lord St. Albans (Bacon) writes for. Four Zealous men 
fpent the whole day ; one in Extemporate praying, and one in 
Preaching and Expounding Scripture, and one in telling the 
people the Hiftory of the church, and the Lives and Miracles 
of Saints, and one in praying again, juft like thofe here hated 
as Extemporate Puritans, The Bifhops laid they were proud 
Hypocrites that drew crowds of people after them for re- 
putation of Sanctity ; and they perfecuted Nerius, and ac- 
cufed them to the Pope , and filenced him : The filencing 
Bifhop was preiently {truck with death , and Nerim went 
on, Baronim being his iecond. The crafty Pope, inftead of 
calling them Fanatick Rogues and Rebels, thinks it policy 
to turn this ftream of pious Zeal into his own channel, to 
drive his own Mill ; and he reicueth them from the Pre- 
lates, and alloweth their Exercifes, and calleth them by the 
name of the Or at mans, and honoureth the leaders, fb that 
he drew them to depend on him, and Baronii* to write 
thofe many great Volumes of Ecclefiaftical Hiftory , which 
have done Rome greater fervice than any one Writer that I 
know of in the world , and to this day the Oratorians are the 
mod lober Puritan Papifts. 

Thus did he make \ile of the Sectarian Angularity of lg~ 
naxim Loyola, a Souldier turned to Superftition, allowing them 
fas others) to let up by themf elves from under the power of 

N n 2 the 


the Bifhops, in dependance on the Pope alone, whereby he hath 
mattered Emperours, and Kings, and Kingdoms, and made great 
attempts on Abbajjines, Greeks, yea on Congo, Japan, China, 
and the Heathen World. 

And I have credibly heard that Dr. Tho. Gcodmr, Philip Nye, 
and Dr. Owen the Leaders of our Independents^ did tell the 
King, that as the Pope allowed thefe orders of Religious parties 
in meer dependance on himfelf,without fubjedlion to the Bifhops, 
all that they defired was (not to be the matters of others,) but 
to hold their own Liberty of Worfhip and Discipline, in ible 
dependance on the King, as the Dutch and ive/?c//Churches do, 
io they may be laved from the Bifhops and Ecclefiaftical 

2. But further, Do you forget that the Spaniards by their Sa- 
cred Cruelty and Jnquifition have loft the Low-Countries, and 
had almoft loft the feventeen Provinces ? 

3. And do you not know that ever fince the days that the Ar- 
rlan Gothes pofTerTed Spain, they have been like Ireland, a blind 
fuperftitious People, whofe Ignorance moft fitteth them for fuch 
a kind of Concord ? And is there not a Concord in their way 
among the enflaved ignorant Mufcovites, and among the Turks, 
and many Heathens} Satan himfelf is againft the dividing of 
his Kingdom. 

4. And do you think that the effecft ofSpanifi and ItalianTy- 
ranny and Concord,doth anfwer the coft ? The Cruelty of their 
Inquifition hath made their names as odious as of Cannibals or 
Wolves, infomuch that the Lord Bacon thought that an Invafive 
War againft them as the Enemies of mankind, that violate the 
Laws of Nature and Nations, was jjft. 

And the many Millions that they moft cruelly murdered, and 
tormented in Mexico, Peru, Htfpaniola, &c. ( among whom 
were divers Kings) do tell the World what are the fruits of 
their Catholick Fury, and Arbitrary Government : The Arch- 
bifhop iJnrth. de Cafa and their Jeiuit Jofeph Acofta, Eye-wit- 
neffes of undoubted Credit, report that which renders them 
Jiker Devils than Men. And Gage that lived there among them, 
feco;ids it. 

And it was no fmall infamy to their King Philip that he put to 
death his Son and Heir Charles. v Are thefe tho patterns that you 
would have us imitate ? 


[ 8 8i ■} 

And as for Italy, i . Read of all their Hiftories, and then 
name that Countrey on Earth, if you can, that for many Gene- 
rations, hath been invefted with fo much Civil War and Blood, 
as Italy hath been, yea Rome it felf. 2. And fince Policy hath 
fettled it of late in peace, what a peace is k, and of what effect ? 
It is faid by Travellers, that no Countrey more aboundeth with 
uitheifts and Infidels, that are indeed of no Religion. And 
truly, if it be God and Conlcience that you would have banifhed 
out of England, and Infidelity, Saduceifm, Hobbifts, Maligni- 
ty, Drunkennels, Whoredom, Perjury, that you would have 
take the place, I dare fay that the Devil will not fight againft 
fuch Concord, but will promote it with all his policy and power, 
by himfelf and all his Agents Ecclefiaftical, Civil, and Mili- 

4. Yet further, Why look you not on all the reft of the 
World, as well as Spain and Italy ? Indeed Japan reftored Con- 
cord, but k was by fodevilifli and cruel Torments of Chriftians, 
and thofe that would not accufe them, as rendreth their names 
odious to Man-kind (of which Farenius will fatisfie you.) 

But what France, what Ireland and others have got by cruel- 
ty, I have told you before. 

And though I am far from juftifying the Hungarians (men 
that I know not, or their cafe) for flying to the Turks for help, 
do you think that the Countries now ruined by War, and the 
many thoufands in Anftria, Silefia, Moravia, and Hungary, 
killed and taken Captives, and the thoufands killed in Fight, and 
the Famine that the next year is like to come on the ruined Coun- 
tries, where Corn and Hay are all deftroyed, and the Bloody 
War that is yet like to follow before the end; I fay, do you think 
that all thele are not a dear price to be paid, for hindering men to 
Worship God only according to the Scripture ? Would leave to 
ferve God only as Chrift and his Apoftles appointed and did 
themfelves, have coft the Emperour and People, dearer than all 
this amountethto? 

5. And the World knoweth that (as Cromvrd got his ftrength 
and ufurpation in England by his Liberty of Conlcience, lb) the 
Tnrl^s won Conftamnople ancfcthe Eafiern Empire, much by this. 
For when their Emperours were become diffolute or cruel, kill- 
ing and depofing one another, puttiag out their eyes, and thr lift- 
ing them into Monafteries (forced Saints ; and when Ambi- 

C ?8 2 ) 

tious ungodly Eifhops were ftill ftriving for Superiority, and 
perfecuting DifTenters as not Orthodox, and Mutinous t'oul- 
diers pulling down Emperours, and letting up others, the poor 
Chriftians thought that to defend fiich a Government againft 
the Tirriis that gave all Men the Liberty of their own Religion, 
would coil them dearer than it was worth ; and lb were the more 
remits in their refinance, and the eafilier yielded to the Conque- 
rours : Whereas had the Tin ks done as the Papifis, who make 
our extermination by our own Rulers, a very part of their Re- 
ligion, the Gxnkt would have more refolutely refilled them, in 
necefTary felf- defence. 

And did not the Turks ftill give Liberty to Chriftians (only 
retraining them from fpeaking againft m 'ahommfni) do you 
think that the Greeks in all their Dominions would no. more 
drive for their deliverance? And that Tranfilvania, Hungary, 
Walachia, Maldavia, Creates, and Coffacks, Armenians, Geor- 
gians, Cercajfians^ Mtngrelians, Neftorians, and Jacobites, in fo 
vaft numbers, would live fo long quietly and patiently under them 
as they do ?" 

All the great Conquerors of the World that are Famous in 
Hiftory, ever obferved that fober policy, to let Conquered Pro- 
vinces enjoy their own Religion, and moftly their own antietit Lawt 
and inferiour Magiftrates : And then the people find the change lb 
tolerable in the Supremacy, as they the more eafiiy yield, with 
leis refiftance, and continue their fubjeclion with the greater 
quietnefs and peace. 

The Jews in Chrift's time, (and till they Rebelled afterwards 
under Vefpatian, Titus and Adrian) had lb much of their own 
Religion and Law allowed them, as was no lmall caufe of their 
Crucifying Chrift, left the name of a King lent from God (iuch 
as they expected the Meftiah to be) mould draw the people to 
inch Infurrecftions, as fhould provoke the Romans to deprive them 
of their Temples, Religion and Laws, and to deftroy their place 
and Nation. 

And I hear by Travellers, that where the Turks yet allow their 
provinces (as in Tranfilvania) their own Magiftrates and Laws, 
Religion profpereth almoft as weil as under Chriftian Sovereigns, 
and far better than under the extirpating zeal, or rather fury of 
perfecuting Papift Princes. I defire you therefore before you 
plead experience for your defolating way of Concord, orftudy 


( *%l ) 

Hiftory better, and be better informed of the Cafe of the 

When I think but what men Bifhop Wilkin* and Judge Hales 
were, that on my knowledge, drew up an Act for the total cure 
of our Englifi Church differences, (to which thofe called to it 
by the Lord Keeper Bridgman, did on both fides confent) I 
have thought it ibme defect of Humility in ibme Clergy-Men, 
that took themlelves to be Co much wifer than thefe rare and ex- 
cellent Men, as to Judge that our diffractions, fufferings, and 
dangers by divifions, are not lb bad as the effect of theie Mens 
Council would have been. 

But I do with greater confidence ask you, whether thofe men 
feem to be ferious and underftanding Chriftians, who- think all 
the Bloody Wars, and tormenting Inquifition, and the deducti- 
on of Love and Juftice, and good Works, which are caufed by 
Church- divifions in the World, to be a lels mifchief than it would 
DAIN AND PRACTICE? Shall we tell Turks and 
Heathens that it is no wifer a Saviour that we truft in, and no 
wifer a Heavenly King that we obey ? And no wifer Law and 
Oofpel that He hath left us? And is it any wonder than if 
they fcorn both Him and us ? 

L. You are too hard for me, I will talJ^ with yon no more. 

M. It is Truth and Light that is too hard for you -, and woe to 
the Foolifh Enemies that are too hard for it, and overcome 
themfelves, and their own happinefs and hopes in overcoming 
it. And woe to the World, to Churches and Nations where 
fuch prevail. 

L. But I advife you, that you never think, that all your Truth 
and Reafon will do any great good on thofe that are again ft you : 
For you cannot have while to fay all this to many that you have faid 
to me j and if you Jl?ould Print all this, the contrary will fear cely 
read the Title page or Contents, but fcorn it before they know what you 
have faid-, and if they read it, it will be all the way, with a 
Militant Spirit of prejudice and hatred, and only ftudy what to fay 
againft it ; and Ignorance, , Pajfion, hi! erf I and Prejudice, will 


[ 28 4 J 

anfwer all with Rage and Confidence, and only conclude that the 
Author is a Fool, or Rogue, or Rebel -, and, its like enough, an- 
freer you with an Exoommunication, or Goal, where among Afa- 
It factors you ft) all live and die. If you fpeal^for, and not again ft 
their pre-conceived Opinion and Inter eft, they will hear you \ but if 
you fpeah^ againft any of their Worldly Wealth, or Honour, or 
Grandeur, you may almoft as hopejully difpute an hungry Dog 
from his Carrion -, and you muft not wonder if they fnarl, or fly 
upan you and tear you. And though I confefs, that all your Pro- 
pofals feem very confiftent with your Antagonists Wealth and 
Greatnefs, yet rememmber the truth ef Seneca'.* - words, That Men 
that have a fore, do not only ftart and complain when they are 
toucht, but even when they- think that they are toucht, though it 
be not lb. There is no expectation of Juftice from fufpicious 
Jealoufie ; much lefs if it be animated by Intereft and Ma- 

M. My expectations are not much higher than your de- 
fcription. But when my own life is fo conftantly a painful 
burden, and I am fo near the Grave, I am utterly unexcu- 
fable, if I think fo fhort and painful a life too good to Sa- 
crifice by way of Obedience to the Will of God, who hath 
long and wonderfully prefervedit ; and if I do not live and die 
with St. Paul's Refolution, Acts 20, 23, 24. Bonds and Affli- 
ctions abide me, but none of thefe things move me, neither count I 
my life dear unto " my felf, fo that I might finijh my Courfe with 
Joy, an d the Miniftry which I have received of the Lord Jefus,to 
teftifie the Gofpel of the Grace of God. 

And indeed, if all our bad Laws and Ceremonies w r ere re^ 
formed, and all granted therein which I have propofed, alas 
there is fo much to be done for the Reformation of the Ter- 
fons that muft Execute good Laws, ( Lords, Bifhops, Patrons, 
Priefts, &c.} without whom Laws are but a dead letter, and 
againft whole enmity and oppofitions, they are unlikely to 
prevail, that I die the more willingly, becaufe 1 fee no appea- 
rance of any fuch Golden Age, or amiable Reformation, and 
general Concord, as might tempt me to defire to live much 
longer on Earth. The Reformation of our Univerfities, 
Clergy, Nobility, Gentry, and licentious Youth, and Maligr 
nant Haters of ferious Godlinefs: is a work for Omnipotent 
cy> and would afford rne matter for a Volumn, were I to write 



on fuch a Text as Ex^ek* 37. 3. Son of man ! can thefe bones live ? 
-/4w/ 1 anfxvered, O Lord God, thou knoxveft. In the mean time 
itgiveth me matter for Groans, Tears and Prayer, but no 
belief of that goods man's Prophecy, who confidently foretelleth 
us of that BlefTed Age, about eight years hence. If the Second 
Part of my Moral Prognofticatlon ( written with more doubt 
than hope ) mould prove as true as the Firft part did (of this 
Progrefs of Malice and DivilionsJ I doubt it is but fome fmall 
Rudiments or Preparations for fuch a Blefied Change, that the 
men of the prefent times muft fee. I fhould rejoice if They 
(1 mean God by them J confute my fears. 

CHAP. L XI I, Fifty Qneftions to Hnjit/i Silencers. 

John 4. 16. The mod fundamental and Comprehenfive Article 
of Natural and Evangelical Religion. 

How Angels fell from Love and became Divels, malignant 
Spirits, is not revealed fully to us ; but that fuch there are, 
both Scripture and too great Experience certify us. But how 
Man fel[, is told us in the Scripture. It pleafed God to make 
a rank of intellectual Animals left to their underftanding , 
felf-determining free-will, between the Brutes which are deter- 
mined to things Senfible, and the confirmed Angels who are 
determined to things Spiritual. v It pleafed him to oblige and 
allure Man by his Bleflings, to live ftill in the love of God ; but 
withal to permit the malignant Temper, to try whether by 
his allurement and deceit, he could win* him from this Holy 
Love : As if a man fhould leave his Daughter to be his wife, 
who could win her own confent. The malignant Spirit pre- 
vailed and turned man from the Reigning Love of God, to the 
Love of SELF, Self-pleafing, Self ruling, and Self trulting ; 
and having won-man's Will he is by juft permiflion become 
his prince, as long as he can keep the Will which he hath won. 
But Infinite LO V E> firft promifed, and then gave his SON 
to be the PRINCE OF LOPE, and fo the Captain of our 
Salvation ', His Incarnation, Doftrine, Life, and Suffering 
his Refurre&ion, Afcenfion, interceffion and Government, are 
but the works of LOFEfov Man's Salvation, which is, to re- 

O o cover 

[ 286 ] 

cover the Witt of Man to the Reigning Love of God, from the Car- 
r.al 'knfual fdf-love. A war is thus commenced between Chrift 
and S*t*n\ Chrift' s warfare is to Conquer malignant Enmity, 
and fet up a Kingdom of Love. The Devils work is to "afli- 
rnilate man to himfclf, and to make him a Lyer, /Malicious, and 
a Dcjhoye-r. Thus two Kingdoms are fet up in this World, 
which are in continual war againft each other. The Subjects of 
each are difcernable by their works: TRVTH^ LOVE, and DO- 
H\G GOOD are the works and marks of the one ; and LYING \ 
HATRED and HVRTFVLNESS, are the works and marks 
of the other ; and HOLINESS and DEVILISM conftrtntc 
this world. Cain and Abel were the leading inftances : Heb. 
II. 4. By faith Abel offered a more excellent Sacrifice unto God 
than Cain, by which he obtained witnefs that he was Righteous, 
God teftifying of his gifts \ and by it, he being dead, yetfpeaketh. He 
conquered, but died,as did our Saviour, 1 John. 3. 12, 14. Cain 
was of that wicked one, and flew his Brother', And why flew he himl 
Becaufe his Own works were Evil, and his brothers Righteous : In 
this warfare we mult live and die, Marvel not my Brctherenif 
the world hate you; though we die as Abel-, we how that we have 
faffed from Death to Life, becaufe we hove the Br ether en : He that 
loveth not his brother, abideth in death, though as Cain, he kill 
and feem to conquer. All that believe not abetter life, which 
will abundantly make up the lofs of this, are his Objects who is 
called the GOD OF THIS WORLD, who blindeth the minds 
of unbelievers 2 Cor. 4. 4. Devils are called, The Ru'ers cf 
the Darknefs of this world, Eph. 6. 12. The Princes who fet up 
a Worldly intereft, againlt or above the Heavenly interelt, are 
called, The Princes of this world) that come to nought, 1 Cor. 2. 6. 
And to be Wife only for an intereft, is, The Wifdom of the 
[, which is Eoohflmefs with God, 3. 18, 19. Thus Chrift 
fighter h by Love, to win Souls to love for the Glorious World 
of Love -, and the Devil by Malice to dellroy Love and fepa- 
ratc thern from the God and World of Love, by fighting as 
Dogs' about their Carrion, for their flelhly intereft in this de- 
ceitful world j but the timeisfhort, and the War will be fhort, 
but the Victory fvveet, and the Crown everlafting. 

And it is greatly to be confidered, that as Chrift' s Caufe & Sub- 
jells aye contrary to the Divels y fo alio is his manner of Fight and 
Conquefl. Chrift and Christians fight not by Wrath and Hatred 


[ 2 8 7 ] 

againft their Haters, but by loving them as Men (and praying 
for them, even when they fuffer by them :( And in this courfe it 
is, that they are more than Conquerours, Rom 8. 37- -And heap 
Coals of Fire on their Heads, which will burn them for ever that would 
not on Earth be melted by them. 

It feemeth a flrange thing to us to fee the pool French -men 
come hither from their own pleafant Land, in Raggs and Bodily 
Diftrefs : And who expelleth them ? And for what ? Who cau- 
fed all the blood and banifhments that have been cxercifed on 
Chriftians, fince the Heathen Perfections? And for what ? Who 
deftroyed thofe many thoufands of Chriftians called Albigen- 
fes, and Waldenfes, and Bohemians, in Hiftory mentioned ? And 
for what? Who fet up the Inquiiltion as againft Froteftams, 
and Tormented and Burnt fo many ? And for what ? Who 
caufed the French and Irijh, and other Maflacres and Murders f 
And for what ? Who keep out Truth and Reformation from all 
Kingdoms fubjec"t to the Pope . ? It is men in the Sacred Offices* 
Ecclefiaftical and Civil, we all own Reverence to Magiftrates 
and Pallors. Satan is not fofoolifh as to do his work in his own 
name, nor to put its proper name upon his work. Did you ever 
hear or read of Perfecutors, who openly faid, f We are the Ser~ 
vants of the Devils and come againft you for his Inter eft and in his 
JSfame*" to perfwade or perfecute you from Chrift and your obedience to 
God, and your Salvation I ~\ No, It, is as for wickednefi, that 
wicked men deftroy the juft ; and as for finning that they 
perfecute them that will not fin :. It is for Religion that Reli- 
gion is impugned ', and for the Church that the true Children 
of the Church are Perfecuted : And is it for the Gofpel that the 
Preachers of it are filenced and deftroyed ? Without the Church 
a falfe Religion is fet up againft Chriftianity. But within it 
an Image of Chrift, and of the Church, and of Concord,and Re- 
ligion, is fet up againft Chrift, Church, Concord, and Religion ; 
and men in the Garb of Magiftrates and Paftors, do profecute 
the War as by Chrift's Commiflion, and in his Name: And fin 
is defended and propagated, by falfe, pretended oppofition. 
If the Jews had known him, they would not have Crucified the 
. Lord of Glory. Heathens would not for Idols fight againft God, 
nor Mahometans for a deceiver againft Chrift, if they knew what 
it is that they are doing. Chrift who was Crucified as a Blafphe- 
mer and Rebel, foretold his Difciples, that they fliould be kill'd 

O o 2 as 

[ 288 ] 

as an aft of fervice to God. Where theGofpel is beleived, it 
is a crime fo horrid to filence and deftroy Chrift faithful Mi- 
nifters, and forbid his pubiick Worfhip, and render his moll 
confcionable Servants odious, and plot their extirpation and 
mine, that none dare do it but thofe that know not what they 
do. When Chriftians as a Se& were every where fpoken a- 
gain ft, Paul was exceeding mad againft them-, and perfechtedthemto 
ftrange Cities, and verily thought that he ought to do many things a- 
gainft the Name of Jefus, Att. 26. But when he heard from 
Heaven, Why perfecntefi thou me? it ftopt his rage, and changed 
his judgement. 

But alas ! How flender a means will ferve to deceive the 
wicked? A meer nick-name, or malicious (lander •, yea the avoi- 
ding of a fin which they think to be no fin, is enough with them 
to make the belt men feem the worft *, while Perjuries, Adulteries, 
Blafphemies , Prophanefs , Crulety and Perfecution are tolera- 
ble motes in the eyes of their Companions. All the Holinefs, 
Wifdom and Mirales of Chrift and his Apoftles, would not 
ferve to make them pafs for good, yea or tolerable men 5 while 
Saddnces who denied Spirits & the Refurre&ion , & Ceremoni- 
ous, hypocritical, blood -t hi rfty Pharifees, went for meet Rulers 
of the Flock. And how can it be expected that he who thinks 
not Holinefs defireable to himfelf, mould think it any excellency 
in others ? Or that he that thinks his own lin but a tolerable 
frailty, mould much abhor it in theWorJd? 

Satan then hath his Army not only among Infidels, but nomi- 
nal Chriflians : And it is commanded by Honourable and Ve- 
nerable Names, and he pretends a good and righteous Caufe, 
wherever he fightcth againft Chrift, and Holinefs. But by the 
fruits he may be known in the greatefb pretenders, whatever 
names he call them by. It is the mofl profitable Preaching which 
he labonreth to fupprefs, and the molt faithful Pallors that he 
would filence ; the mofl confcionable Chriflians whom he ftriv- 
eth to make hateful, and the more Spiritual Worfhip of God 
which he would hinder. And therefore even among Chriflians 
we have great caufe to warn men to fear leafl they be enticed 
into Satan's fervice, againft Chrift and their own Profeflion and 
Salvation. And efpecially in an age} u Where worldly and 
crofs Intereftsare fet up againft the Intereft of Chrift and Con- 
fcience. a . Where thefe worldly and crofs interefts have al- 

[ 2 8 9 ] 
ready walled Chriftian Love, and Contentions have begun a 
Mental War. 3. When thefe have prevailed by fcorns and 
flanders to make Confcionable Chriflians pafs for fome con- 
temptible, criminal, or erroneous Seel; } and this Reproach is 
fortified by Honourable and Reverend Names. Left there- 
fore fuch Caufes, too vifible in the World, fhoulddraw the ig- 
norant and rafh into the dreadful Sin of fighting againft the In- 
tereft of Chrift, and Souls, by hindering Chrift's Minifters 
from their neceffary Work, and faithful Chriftians from wor- 
fhipping God, 1 will humbly beleech all that are in danger of 
fuch Temptations, but ferioufly to exercife their own Reafons 
in the prefent Confideration of thefe following Queftions and 
to take up with no other Anfwer to them, which will not bear 
weight at Death and Judgment, when worldly Pomp and Plea- 
fures leave them j and not worldly Intereft, Wit, or Grandeur, 
but the Righteous Lord, the Lover of Holinefs, and Holy Souls, 
will be the dreadful and final Judge. 

The Queftions to be well Conjidered. 

Queft. u A Re we not on all fides agreed that we are Mor- 
/\. tals polling to the Grave ? Doth any Man 
think he (hall not die f And is ftriving or mutual Love and Qui- 
etnefs, a fitter Paflage to the duft ? Do not all Men, conftrai- 
ned by natural Confcience, at a dying Hour, repent of hurting 
others, and ask Forgivenefs of all the World ? Yea, if you 
are not worfe than molt Heathens, Are we not agreed, That 
Man's Soul is immortal, and that we (hall all be fliortly in another 
World y and that it (hall be with us there, as we live on Earth i 
If any doubt of this, fliould not the leaft probability of fuch 
aneverlafting Life, of Joy or Mifery, prevail againft the cer- 
tain Vanity of fiich a fhadow as this World ? Or if yet they 
believe not another Life, Why fhould they not let thofe live in 
quietnefs that do believe it, and dare not hazard their everlaft- 
ing Hopes for nothing, as long as they do no hurt to others ? 

Qj 2 Do not all Chriflians beleive, That the Knowledge, of 
God, our Creator and Redeemer, and a holy Heart, and Life 
are of neceffity to our Salvation ? Do we not fee, That Chil- 
dren are not born with Knowledge, nor free from rlefhly and 
worldy Inclinations? Doth not the World's Experience tell 


L 290 j 

us, how hard, and how long a Work it is, to make the Ignorant 
underftand the very Articles of Faith, and necefTary Duty to 
God and man - 7 and as hard to perfwade their Carnal Minds to 
the hearty Love and Practice of them, and to fave them from 
the damning Love of iinful £uft, and worldly Vanities 3 and 
how wofully the belt Teaching is fruftrate with the moll? 

jQ. 3. Are we not all Vowed to God in our Baptifm, renoun- 
cing the Seduction of the World, theFlefhand the Devil? And 
do all underftand and keep this Vow ? And is not the perfidi- 
ous Violation of it, a mod damning Sin i And when Thoufands 
of full Age are yet to learn what Baptifm is, and what they 
Vowed, Have they not great need to be plainly taught it ? 

^4. Is a Baptized infidel, or ungodly Perfon, any better or 
fafer than the Turks or the Salvages in America? Will the 
Name of Christians fave perfidious Hypocrites ? Or, will it 
not be eafier for Sodom than for fuch ? 

Q^j 5. If Chriftian Knowledge and Practice be not necefTary, 
why pray we for Converfion of Heathens and Infidels? And, 
why doth the Article of the Church of England condemn thofe 
that hold, That all may be faved in their feveral Religions t 
And what are we better than Turks and Heathens? 

£>^6- Are not all Men on Earth bound folemnly to worfhip 
the God that made them? And do not all the Idolatrous Hea- 
thens, and the Mahometans, offer their God fome publick wor- 
fhip? And mud not Chriftians publickly worfhip Chrift ? Are 
not holy AfTemblies for Doclrine, Prayer, praife and Commu- 
nion, Commanded to that end } and the Lord's day feparated 
thereto, and all forbid to forfake fuch AfTembling? 

J2^7. Let the Bill* of Mortality, and the knowing Inhabi- 
tants tell you, whether there be not fome Hundred Thoufands 
in the great Parifhes, in and near this City, more than can come 
into their Parifh-Churches, and hear. If they would all but 
fhew their willingnefs to come in, if they could, and Twenty 
Thoufand ftood at St. Martins in the Church-Yard, and Streets, 
and as many at Stepney, and at St. Giles Crippiegate, and Ten 
Thoufand at Giles in the Fields, and lb of the reft, and fhould 
fay, we are here dclirous to come in, and cannot, what would 
you fay to them? Are they not more miferable that are con- 
tent to flay at home/' 

O^ 8. What would you have all thefe Thoufands do ? Mul- 

[ 291 1 

titudes of them are hardened already by this Teeming neceffity 
into felf-excufing, and a cuftom of neglecYmg all pullick Wor- 
fhip : And how think you do they fpend their time at home ? 
Is it not the time for finful Practices, or Idlenefs at the beft? 
And would you have all thefe Thoufands turn Atheifts, or live 
more impioufly then Mahometans? And are not thefe to pay 
to the Church, that cannot come in it ; and the Weak that can- 
not fraud andean get no Seats ? And are not the Church- war- 
dens bound to prefect all thefe Thoufands, that have no Room ? 
And (hall all thefe fufferas Recuiants, while the Rich that can 
pay for Seats, eftape ? If you fay they mould feek room in other 
Parifh Churches, do yo know what it is for a man to wander 
into the City, with his Family, to feek room he knoweth not 
where ? The Tabernacles where Churches flood are fmall ; and 
we fee the Church full already, where is profitable preaching, 
and the Seats at leaft poiTefl ; and the worfe men are, the more 
need they have, but the lefs they feel it, and are unlikely to 
feek help at fuch a rate, who would come in, if it were near them. 

^ 9. Are all thefe many Thoufands that flay at home ( or 
worfe ) hunted and profecuted, fined, and imprifoned for it, 
as feditious, and Enemies to the King, or to the pea;e, as fome 
are that worfhip God as wifely as they can ? And do you be- 
lieve that fuch a worfhip of God, as hath nothing in it con- 
trary to the Holy Scriptures, or contrary to the Practice of the 
Apoflles of Chrifl, is worfe than none at all, or than meeting 
at Plays and Taverns, and deferveth fcorn, imprifonment, and 

^. 10. Suppofe it be Ignorance and Errour in fuch Mini- 
fters , as take it to be a fin again ft God (yea a heinous fin ) 
to take all the Oaths, Declarations, Subfcrptions, and Cove- 
nants impofed for Conformity (while they willingly fake the 
Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy ) ', and fuppofe it be an 
Errour in thofe People, who think their Soils need better paflo- 
rai Helps than they can have in many Parifhes*, fhall this Errour 
be punifhed with keeping them from all God's publick Wor- 
fhip, *unlefs they will fin againfl their Confciences, or change 
their Judgments which they cannot change? Yea, fuppofe fome 
Communion or Ceremony be indifferent, which they miflake 
for fin, will you forbid all men to worfhip God, till they have 
no Sin or Errour ? Is there any one fuch a man one earth ? Are 


L 292 j 

you fuch your felve?? And fhall all the World be driven 
therefore from worfhipping God ? Little do men know how 
great a part of the daily Thoughts, even of Orthodox Learn- 
ed men, are Errours. 

Q: 11. Can there beamore horrid thing in the world, than 
either to condemn or excommunicate all men who dare not do 
that which after their beft fearch, they think to be more hei- 
nous Sin than they dare name, left the very naming of it offend, 
and are defirous to have their Reafons heard '-, and to make it 
neceflary to Communion, or to their Liberty to worfhip God, 
that all Men and Women mull know even all indifferent things, 
to be indifferent or lawful in God's Worfhip which men may 
impofe on them ? Have not all fober peaceable Divines agreed, 
that things necfffary for all to know are few *, and that Chriftian 
Concord can never be expe&ed on any other terms, than by 
agreeing in thofe few, plain, neceflary things ? And who 
knoweth not that not indifferent things are mtmberlefs^ as well as 
fmall •, no mortal man knoweth them all? And if a poor Chri- 
ftian that feareth the Juftice of God, do take that Oath, that 
Covenant, that Declaration or Subicription , yea, or that hu- 
mane Symbolical Badge of Chriftianity, or other Ceremony to 
be a heinous Sin, which others fay is a thing indifferent. Muft 
all as Atheifts be kept from worfhipping God, till they know 
all thefe things to be indifferent ? 

Q 12. Did not the Lord jefus himfelf make it his prime Go- 
fpel Law, That all that profefs Repentance and Faith in God 
the Father, Son and Holy Ghoft, (hould by Baptifm be made vi- 
fible Chriftians } and all Chriftians live in Love to one another, 
and Holy Communion, and jointly worfhip God ? 

^13. W T as it not the Nature of all the Old Herefies to de- 
part from this Univerfal Chriftian Love and Unity, and that 
on pretence of fome Angular Opinion of their own, in which 
they thought they were wifer than others, and would have had 
all to be of their mind *, and fhould thofe that cry downHere- 
jle, go the way of Hereticks, if they can but get Number and 
Power to pretend Catholic if m ? 

O^ 14. Did not the Holy Ghoft by St. PW, as plain as the 
Pen of Man can write, determine, Rom. 14. and 15. and Eph. 
4- 6 - 7? <frc. and 1 Cor. 1 2. that Chriftians fhould receive, each o- 
ther into Communion, and live in Love and Peace, notwith- 

L 293 3 

Handing differences about Meats, Days, and fuch indifferent 
things ; yea, or WeaknefTes in Faith and Holinefs ? And did 
not Chrift mind the Ceremonious Ph^rifees^ That God mil have 
Mercy rather than Sacrifice *, and that they worfhipped God in 
vain, while they preferred their Ceremonies and Traditions to 
his Word ? 

Q. iS- Had it been Reafon, or Impudency rather, in the 
Pharifees, if they had cry ed out againlt Chrift and his Apoftles, 
for not Conforming to their Traditions, C ^ ou are Schifmaticks, 
and difturb the Churches and the Nations Peace-, and cafl all into 
Conftifion ] ? And was it not Turbulent Arrogancy that made 
the femfj Chrift ians fo urgent with all the Gentiles, to be Cir- 
cumcifed, when they were left to their own Ceremonies, and no 
body medled with them, or hindred them? If men love that 
Diet, let them ufe it. But rauft none live that cannot love the 
fame ? 

Q, 16, Will you give men leave to open all the real Faults 
they can find in the Diocefan or Par i(h- Churches? And if they 
prove far more than they can prove in theirs, Will you there- 
fore fllence all your Teachers, and fhut up all your Church- 
doors, and give over worshipping God ? Do you think that 
your Priefts and your Worihipping are without Fault} yea, or the 
Conflitution of your Churches? We are not able well to know 
what a Parifh- Church is by its Materials \ that is who are of 
the Churches, and who not. j. If it be all the Baptized Pari- 
fhioners, the papifts and Separates are your Members. If it 
be all fuch as are of no other Church, then the Atheifts, Infidels, 
Seducers, and others that are of no Church indeed are of it. 3. 
If it be only thofe that dwell and communicate there, how fmali 
apart of your great parifhes are of the Church ? Yet are not 
thefe many Thoufands declared to be out, but are permitted 
without Cenfure, and may come if they will: Not only the 
Members, but the Minifter himfelf knoweth. not who are of his 
Church, for the far greater part, till he fee them come to the 
Altar, and then molt, if they come mult be utter it rangers to 
him whom he never faw before. How great a Number of 
Hobbifi^ Infidels, papifts, and wicked Livers are amongft us, 
your own Pens proclaim. And may not thefe come to the Al- 
tar when they pleafe? This is fpoken only to convince you, 
that if all this may be born, the fuppofed fin of fearing fin in a 

P p thing 

L 294 3 

thing eall'ti indifferent,. deferveth not Excommunication or De- 
ft rndi on. 

*?. 18. Is not the fear of God the beginning of Wijdom? And 
doth not this contain a Fear of finning? And is not this com- 
mendable, and to be cherifhed? Is not God above man, and 
firft. to be obeyed, and molt feared ? Hath man any Power but 
what God hath given him, and hath God given any againft him- 
felf, or his own Laws, or for deftruction of his Fear ? If Conference 
towards God be once driven away, is any man to be trilled ? 
Will not the unconfcionable do any thing for worldly Intereft ? 

Q. 18. Is it not an unmanly fort of impudence in them, that 
many years perfwade the world, that thofe fame men make 
Schifms , by forbearing only fuch things as they confefs to be. no 
fin, who have twenty years ago Protected, that nothing but fin- 
ning is refufed by them, and did then give in a Catalogue of fe- 
veral fins which they undertook to prove fuch ? Andfhould 
thofe fame men that have read, or may do The King's Gracious 
Declaration about Ecclefiaftical Affair /, \66o. and the London 
Minifters printed Thankf-giving for it, and the many late 
Books, in which we have told men what it is which we dare 
not conform to *, I fay, fhould thefe ftill take on them, that they 
cannot know it, and call out ftill, C What is it that you ftick^ at ? 
Jind What is it that would fat is fy you? ] Yea, thofe that cannot 
bear that we fhould tell them. 

Q> 19. Do you think that the King who then paft that Declara- 
tion ( in which the Non-Conformifts who fought it with thank- 
falnefs acquiefe't, as in terms of happy concord) and the Houfe 
of Commons who gave him thanks, or the Bifhops and Clergy 
who after rejected it, and procured the new Act of Uniformity 
and inch other, did take the way to have United Pfoteftants, and 
to have prevented our prefent fad divifions ? 

#• 20. Hath not Dr Burnet in his Hiftory of the Regale fully 
proved that the choice of Bifhops and Paftors for many hundred 
years was in the People and the Clergy : And do you think in 
your Confciences, that if a good Gentleman build and endow a 
Church, all men mu ft ever after truft the Paftoral conduct of 
t-hdir Souls with fuch Priefts only as his Pofterity, or any man 
that will buy the Advowfon Ihall prefent ? Will not Drunkards, 
Fornicators, malignant haters of Holy Life choofe men as fit for 
their turn as will be admitted ? And do you think in your Con- 


[ *9$ ] 
fciences that all the Patrons now in England, are either fit, or by 
Chriit allowed, to be choofers of all thofe Pallors that all men 
in England muft take up with : Do you not know that Preach- 
ing converteth not like a Charm, nor is the Divel call: out of 
Souls as by the words of an Exorcifl? It requireth great skill 
and care to convince finners, and inftrucl:, refolve, confirm and 
comfort Souls : There is a great difference of Teachers as of 
Phyficians. And Souls are unfpeakably more precious than Bo- 
dies. And it's faid of ( too many ) rafh and unskillful phy- 
ficians, that the difference between them and Souldiers is that 
they kill their Friends who pay them for it, when Souldiers kill but 
their enemies. What Power Princes and Patrons have of things 
Dedicated to God, as Temples and Tithes, Lands •, we prefj me not 
to difpute* But thefe are not to infeparable from the Paftorai- 
office that the People muft trull their Souls only on their pafto- 
ral care, to whom the patron will give the Tithes and Temples 
Had men fo fettled maintenance on Phyficians for every Parifh, 
we would not therefore truft our lives on the unskillful or neg- 
ligent , becaufe either Prince or Patron choofe him. And if 
you would not fay to fuch, Ton Jhall have the P hy fie ian which the 
Patron ehoofeth or none. Why mould you fay fo of the Pallor? 

Q_ 2 1 . Are we not of the fame Religion with the Magiilrates 
and Bifhops? In what one Article of Faith do we differ ( except 
the new one of the undoubted Salvation of ail dying Baptised In- 
fants, not excepting thofe of Atheift or Infidels, and this 21s cer- 
tain by God's Word, ) almoft all parts of the Chrillian World* 
Greeks, Papifts, P rot eft ants, Neftorians, Jacobites, Arminians, &c. 
dp charge one another with Herefy or falfe Do&rine, while 
Conformiits charge no fuch thing on the Non-confomifts, but 
only diflen ting, from the modes of worfhip and Difcipline which 
they impofe; And would you have all the Chrillian World, for- 
bid one another to Worfhip God, till they all agree ? If not, 
where yet their differences are fo Great, why muft they be for- 
bidden it, who differ not in points of Faith from the Churches 
Articles at all ? 

O.. 11. It is forbidden that more than four meet to Worfhip 
God C f* ot ker manner than according to the Liturgy and preface of 
the Church of England. 3 If by [ other manner J be meant f with 
any other pofitive manner ofWorflrip~] I lee none that do it other- 
wife. For Reading of Scriptures, Prayings Preaching, Singing 

P p 2 Pfalrn% 

L 296 ] 

Tfahns, arc all done in the Parim-Churches. But if [ other man- 
ner extend 10 every omiljion of any appointed part of the Liturgy* 
al] Parijh-Churches where I come do it in other manner. ] And 
fhail all the Lords, Gentlemen and People be therefore pnnifhed 
as Conventiclers? The iVon-cop,formifrs where I come, ufe 
mod of the Liturgy, ( that is ) The l'falms, two Chapters, the 
Lords Prayer , the Creed, the Commandments, the Singing Pfalms, 
2nd fome of them more. Mufl all go out of the Chinch, if the Cu- 
rate emit part ? If by [_otherwiJe ] be meant [_xvith any other 
accidents or circumftances~} the Church of England agreeth not 
in all fuch, and can be no rule therein to the Non-conformifl : 
Cathedral and Parifh-Churches differ: Some Paiifhes have Or- 
gans, Altars, Rails, &c- and fome none: Some Worfhip in 
Tabernacles, and fome in unconfecrated places, (as fome Chap- 
pels, the Spittle, the Prifon, Sturbridge-Fair-, &c. ) And almoft 
all the Chriftian Seels on Earth ( before- named ) differ in far 
greater matters than our difference from the Liturgy is: And 
even in the time when the Chriftian Emperours and Prelates 
were of greateft power and Zeal for Concord, they never ap- 
pointed one Liturgy for all the Churches in the Empire. Nor did 
any Bifhops in Council or out, fo magnify themfebes, as to write 
down for all other Bifhops and Priefts the words which they mufl 
fpeak to God in all their prayers, as if none that are fit for the 
Sacred Office, knew what to fay to God but they, or they only 
had the Spirit of prayer ? 

JQj^ 23 .Are there not fome forts of Government antecedent in or- 
der of nature to publick Government, and fuch as no Prince or 
Prelate can abrogate, viz.* 1. Self Government. 2. The Husbands- 
Government of the Wife. 3. And the Parents-Government of 
his Children, in order to perfonal and family welfare ? If prin- 
ces or patrons on what pretence foever, would take on them to 
choofefor all men, what Food theyfhall eat, what philick they 
jfhall take and when, what Trade theyfhall choofe, what Wives 
or Husbands they fhall have, as to individuals, and what Food, 
Raiment, phyfick or Calling, they fhall give their Children, &c. 
No prince can deprive men of Self-governing, maternal or pa- 
ternal power. And is this power more concerned in any thing 
thaii in the faving of our Souls? Hath God laid our Salvation 
on princes, and patrons choice, or on our own ? If we mif- 
£arry by their choke will they be damned for us, and not we? 


[ 297 1 
Isit notour own Salvation that lieth on our actions? And if a 
another fay, yon an unfit to judge , what Food to eat, what Phyfick 
to take, what Wife to Choofe and fo what Pafior to choofe for the 
conduit of your Souls -, will any man, not diftracted, therefore 
make a Prince or Patron the abfolute choofer, and trufteefor his 
Soul? Or doth it follow that / need not or may not choofe a 
skillfuller Paftor than many thoufand Parifhes in England have, 
becaufe the Patron is by Law enable to choofe the Parifh Prieft? 
Let him choofe who (hall have his Tithes and Temple, but he 
fhall not make me trull; an unfit man with the paftoral care of my 

Q 24. If Wife or Son fay, My Husband, or my. Father com* 
mandeth me to take this man and not that for my Paftor. And you, 
fay ( Fhe Prince or Patron choofeth you another, and vtill imprifon 
you if you fitbmit not to his choice,} which do you think the Law, 
of Nature, and the fifth Commandment will juftit'y ? Hath 
God made the King of France, Spain, Protugal, &c. the choofer 
of a Paftor for all their Subjects? Andconfequently the ehooier 
whether they fhall be faved or damned, according to God's ordi- 
nary courfe of Working by the aptitude of means. If this power 
extend not to Infidels, Heathens^ Papifts, Heretic^? &c. how fhall 
the Subjects know to whom itextendeth ? Muft all Subjects be 
made Judges whether Princes and Patrons are Orthodox and fit 
to choofe ? Is not this more arrogancy, than to judge who is fit 
to be my paftor or Phyfician? Isit not fufficient that the Prince 
and patrons fo provide for Teachers ( and Phyficians ) that 
none may want, nor neglect inftruction in the effentials of Reli- 
gion ', but as many as need and are able may ufe better than the 
unskilful at their own charges ? 

Q. 25. Whereas fome pretend that we ought to be filenced 
for preaching without the Bifhops Licence , is that the true 
caufe, . when fuch are filenced and excommunicated that have 
Licences? Mr. Tho. Gouge was excommunicated for preaching 
even in Wales, where he laboured in fiich eminent works ofchari- 
ty, notwithftanding his Univerfity Licence not-forfeited : For 
though he conformed not, he never refufed Conformity, and fo fell 
not under the Canon which mateth void Licences of Refufers. 
And I that have the Bifiiop of London s( Sheldon s ) Licence, am 
hindered with the firft. The fame I fay of Epifcopal Ordinati- 
on, which was no protection to him or me, or many others. 

C 298 ] 

Q_ 26. As to the common cry that we are juftly filenced for 
oar being for the Parliament in the late Wars, 1. Is that the 
meaning of the Acl: of Oblivion? Are they friends to King or 
Kingdom that will not fuffer our fores to heal *, but when, all 
are returned to the Love of peace, ftill fill mens ears with the 
noife and fears of War. ? 2. Did the King fo judge of General 
yWiw^andliis Army who reftored him, who yet were hotly fight- 
ing in Scotland againft the King, while we were preaching againft 
the Ufurpers? 3. Do not our long requefts yet filence thele 
incendiaries, while we offer and crave but that thofe may have 
leave to Preach Chrift's Gofpel and Worfhip God, who never 
had to do with any War againft the King, and that they filence 
only all the reft, ( which we fuppofe are a number not very con- 

Q^ 27. As to any other charge, is it not that which we crave 
our felves, that if any Non-conformift be proved guilty of 
drunkennefs, fornication, lying, perjury, opprefiion, or other 
immorality or Rebellion or Sedition, they may be punifhed as 
the crime deferveth ? 

Q. 27. Do you believe that the great Parifli Minifters need 
no help? Can any Man think fo, who believeth the worth off* 
Soul, and underftandeth but one half a Pallors work, and why it 
was that the Primitve Church had fo many Presbyters and Dea- 
cons withaBifhop, to Churches of fmaller number by far than our 
great Parifhes ? And do not all Minifters of fenfe and fobriety, 
confefs their need of many to help them, and fay that it is the 
want of Maintenance that hindereth it ? and if that be it, why 
may not we be endured to help them for nothing, while we 
Preach the fame Gofpel, and fubmit to beg our Bread ? Doth 
helping them freely deferve our deftruclion ? 

i^ 28. Whom did Chrift or any of his Apoftles ever Silence, 
who Preached only found Dodrine, for any difference about 
Circumstantials of mans invention? Or where did they ever 
Command or authorize any others fo to do? Whom fome would 
have Chrift retrain fome from ufeing his name who followed 
him not, he rebuked the motion, faying, he that is not againfl us, 
is for us. When fome preached not fincerely, but envioufly, and 
contentioufly, to add affliction to his bonds, St. Paul was glad 
yet that Chrift was Preached, and ptofefTed that he did and 
would rejoice therein, Phil. 1. 18. ^ 

^ 29. Do m 

C 299 1 

Q 29» Do you think that any would Silence , Imprifonor 
Profecute Religious Chriftians, for things which they them- 
felvcs call Indifferent, and others think to be great fin, if they 
loved their neighbours as t he mf elves , and did by others as they wonld 
have others do by them ? 

Q. 30. Is not the Office of the Miniftery to be Stewards of the 
houfe, and miseries of God, and to give the Children their meat in 
feafon, Lu\^ 12. 42. and to teach men publickjy from houfe to houfe ^ 
Aft. 20. And is it not a calling fixed during life and ability, 
not to be calt off at pleafurei* And this in thofe that are called 
by men ? As a Prieft that hath marryed Perfons cannot unmarry 
them, and the Arch-Bifhop who may Anoint or Crown a King, 
may not Depofe him, becaufe he was not the Donor or Lord, 
but a Minifteral Invert *, fo he that Ordaineth a Minifter may 
not depofe him, till he become uncapable of the Office, and if 
he do, it doth not difoblige the Minifter. 

j£^3i. Did not the Church for 300 years, worfhip God a- 
gainit the will of Princes, and afterward, when Arian, or 0- 
ther erroneous Princes, forbid them? And hath a Chriftian 
Prince any more power to hinder the Gofpel and Worfhip of 
thrift, and the faving of Souls, than Heathens had? or rather 
far greater obligations, as nurfing Father to promote them, 
which I ask only in anfwer to fuch as pretend Law and human- 
Authority, to forbid what God Coinmandeth ; in which cafe 
iaith Bifhop Bilfon, rve muft go on with our worl^ and patiently 

Q^ 32. Is it not a dreadful charge that is laid on Timothy 
(one called by men) 2 Tim. 4. 1, 2. / charge thee before Go'd 
and the Lord Jefus Chrift, who flail judge the quick and the dead at 
his appearing and his Kingdom, that thou V reach the word', be in- 
flant in feafon and out offcafon; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long 
Suffering and Dottrine. Have you lb little mercy on our fouls, 
as to drive us on fuch a Flaming Sword, and wifli us to be con- 
demned by Chrift, for difobeying fuch a charger and to bid us 
obey any contrary charge of mortal worms/ 5 

Q: 3 3- Is the C on for mi (i Miniftery neceffary or not ? If not, 
why is all this ftir made about it, and all the Church Lands.and 
Tythes to maintain it? If yea, why then is not our Labour in 
Preaching the fame Gofpel as neceflary as theirs, to fuch peribns 
as cannot hear them for want of room, and to fuch who fay that 


their true neceflity commandeth them to ufe better pallors than 
many parifhes have ? And if any of them have a fcrupu- 
lous errour about a pallor, mull they therefore be Ruined, Ex- 
communicated orForfaken? 

^ 34. Is not the filencing of faithful Minifters a far greater 
lofs and hurt to the people that need their Miniftry than to them? 
What if it prove my fault, that all my molt impartial 
Studies and prayers did not ferve to make me know , that all 
the iirpofed Subcriptions, Declarations, Covenants, Oaths 
and practices are lawful? Shall hundreds or Thoufandsof Inno- 
cent people fufFerfor my fault, and that in their Souls ? Should 
you for this have deprived all perfons of any help, which they 
have had by all my preaching and Writings this twenty or 
Fourty years ? And is it juft to wifh it had been all undone," and 
the like of many hundred others I If we preach falie Doctrine, 
accufe and punifli us j If the phyficians were drunkards or for- 
nicators you would not for that forbid them to help to fave the 
fick. If the Country Farmers fcrupled Conformity, you would 
not therefore forbid the Market to them, and let the poor 

O^ 35. If our not Swearing, not Subfcribing, &c. be our 
fault, as long as we preach Neceflary Truth, could not Lovers of 
the Gofpel find fome penalty for us, that did not hinder it? Is it 
worfe than Drunkennefs or Fornication ? Twelve pence an 
Oath, is thought enough for prophane Swearers, and is there 
one in many hundreds pay it? We had far rather be any o- 
therwife punifhed, fo we be not hindred from ferving Chrift in 
the work to which we are devoted. 

Q. 36. Do you think there is any fueh fin as Sacriledge in 
the world ? If there be, is it not greater Sacrilege for me, 
that am Ordained and Devoted totheMiniftery, to alienate my 
felf, than to alienate Church Untenfils, Goods or Lands ? Thefe 
are devoted but for the Pallor, who is Confecrated to nearer 
and more holy fervice. What think you of them that cry out 
againfl the alienation of large Church Revenues as Sacrilege, 
and ufe them for worldy pomp, and flefhly fulnefs t© their own 
pleafure, which are devoted to God's fervice; but with a few 
confident words will prove it no facrilege, for many thoufand 
faithful Minifters, to forfake their Calling, if Bifhops forbid it 
them ? ( For what it is in the forbidders, we leave to God and 
them. ^37- Dare 

C ?°* 'J 

Q. 37- Dareycu undertake to juftify at the Bar of God, 
many hundred Minifters frobidden to Preach, if they obey yoi: 
and ceafe their Miniftery? Or will you anfwer for all the People 
whom fome drive a way from their worfhip ,of God, if 
they thereupon give over worfhipping him, and as thoufandso- 
thers idle it at home, when all thefe fay [ We Preach no Dotlrine^ 
nor offer God any WorjJjip, contrary to any Word of God-, or in or 
ny other manner than Chiift and his Apoffles did or allowed 3? Dare 
you give it under your hands that you will bear the punifhment 
if we be condemned for obeying you and ceafing our work ?If 
you would, were that man well in his Wits, who fhould trufl 
his Soul on your undertaking, who are fo unable to fave your 

Q; 38- Should things Indifferent exclude things ncceffary, 
when Chrift; faith, I will have mercy, and not facnficel And is 
neither our Preaching, nor the concord of the Churches here 
Neceflary ? 

Qi 39. Have you thought what Chrift. meant, when after his 
Refurrection he thrice faith to Peter ( and to others in him ) Lo- 
ve ft thou me , feed my Lambs and Flock?. As if he had faid, As ever 
yon loved me feed thofe whom 1 loved to the Death : Would you un- 
mercifully wifh us to renounce Ouf love to Chrift? and Paul 
faith, Neceffity is laid upon me , and woe mto me if I Preach not the 
Gofpel : Would you wifh us to run upon fuch a Woc^ upon the 
meer chat of fuch as do but tell us, that we are not called as the 
Apoftles ; and that we are under Bifhops ? As if none but men 
called the Apoftles-, were liable to that Neceflity or wo ; or God 
had allowed us to forfake His Work when Bifhops pleafe, and 
will forbid us. 

Q: 40. God hath encouraged us in our work by his undenia- 
ble blefTing on many Souls. If you take it for nothing, for men 
to be turned from ignorance, worldlinefs, deceiving, lying, 
fenfuality and flethly lufts, to the ferious belief of a life to come, 
and to the Love of God and Man, and to the joyful hopes of Glo- 
ry, and the obedience of Chrift, and confidence in his falvation*, 
we take this to be worth our labour and our lives. And would 
you have us fo unthankful to God, who hath blefl us, as to 
caft away our Callings ? Can you expecl that all the threatnings 
of Men, or the weekly reproach of Pamphlet-writers, fhould 
make us wifh all the Sermons unpreach'd which we hn r e 

Q. p preach'd, 

[ 3°2 1 

j reach 'd, and all the Books unwritten which we have written, 
and a)] the Souls unconverted who have repented ? 

_g. 42. When Jonas over-ran an unpleafing Miniftery, did 
not God overtake him with his Judgement? And if we prove Jo- 
najfes, may we not expert to meet with Storms more terrible 
than Jails ? 

Qj 53. Can all this faid and done againft fuch in the world, 
ever make the fober that knew them, believe, that fucn a man as 
Anthony Badges-, Mr. Porter, Mr. Hilderjham ( the Son ) Mr. 
Hughes, Mr. Richard Allen, and hundreds much like them, were 
worthy Silencing, Imprifonment and Shame, while fuch as fill 
fome thoufand Churches are worthy of maintenance and ho- 
nour? Or will fober Pofterity who read the Lives and Wri- 
tings of fuch men as John Corbet, Jofeph Allen, James and John 
Janeway, and abundance fuch others, believe that they were as 
bad as their accufers make them ? There is but one way to bring 
them under the Infamy and Odium of pofterity ; and that is 
the Papifts way to kill all that are of another mind, and to drive 
Truth and Conlcience ont of the world, and then who would 
flay behind? 

-^44* Who did Chrift mean by the Hypocrite that feeth 
a mote in his brothers eye, and could not fee the beam in his 
own? Was it not the pharifee that blamed Ch rift's Difci pies 
for crofling their Ceremonies and Traditions, and faw not all the 
crimes in themfelves recited Mat. 23. And is not the fcru- 
pling of a thing called by others Indifferent, a more in the eye of 
many truly godly perfons ? I will not offend you by defcribing 
the beams. 

0^4. 5. Have we not often offered, that as foon as any true 
reafon can tell us, that our Labours are here reedlefs, by thefuf 
ficient number, and quality, and labour, of others, we will joyful- 
ly be filent, and feek for work where there is need • Till then, 
to ftarve fouls is be guilty of their damnation. And If 
Meeting- Chapels be wanting, why do not the great and rich 
Conformifts build them ? 

jQ^4<5. Is it not a pleafing advantage to papifts, if they can 
fee two thoufand of thefe Minifters, who are moft againft them, 
filenced and driven from Cities and Corporations, and made a 
hunting game and fcorn, and the Kingdom crackt by general di- 
vifions, as turned into Ouelphs and Gibelines, weekly reviling 


and deriding each other as Whiggs and Tories? Is it not their 
defign to banifh Conscience and abfolute Obedience to God ? And 
you know who ruleth were God and Confcience doth not rule. 
And what isitthat the unconfcionable will not do, forworldy 
intereft? And did not the papifb always know that our Love 
and concord would be our ftrenght, and their terrour ? 

-0^47- Who isitthatwas, orisable to cure all thefe our di- 
vifionsr It never was in power, nor yet yet is, unlefs damning 
our fouls by willful fin muft be the cure , For we have oft offered 
our Oaths that nothing but fear of fin fhall hinder us from con- 
forming. If our fear come from ignorance, do the Churches fuf- 
fer none more ignorant than we ? But how eafy werejt with 
others without fin, or coll to cure ? 

^48. Is it not God's great Mercy to our Land, that we 
have had twenty years peace, while other Lands have been mi- 
ferable by wars? And if it be the preachers oftheGofpel that 
yet will give the Land no peace, but cry out, excute-, profecute^ 
faff ernot i ftr ike home, and their judgment be the executioners en- 
couragement^ who fay, The Clergy tells us it is our Duty 3 I had ra- 
ther anfwer them with tears than words. 

^49. Should not the long and univerfal experience of the 
Chriftian world be fome warning to us which thefe thoufand 
years hath been broken into fhreds, by the contentions of the 
Clergy, and their Magifterial needlefs irnpofitions, and by for- 
faking the primitive purity and fimplicity i 

-£^50. Are not thefe words in the Liturgy before the Sacra- 
ment very terrible: M If any of yon be a hinderer or (lander er of 

u God's Word or be in malice or envy Repent of your fin, 

" and come not to this Holy Table-, left after the taking of the Sa- 
u crament, the Devil enter into yon as he did into Judas y and fill yon 
u full of iniquities^ and bring you to deftruttion of Body and Soup. 

Are not the Words of our Judge more terrible : 
u Mat. 25. depart from me ye cur fed into everlafting fire prepared for 
u the divel and his Angels : For I was hungry, — thirfty, — dftran* 
cc geY^-^nakedr-in prifon, &C. In as much as ye did it not to one of the 
" leaft of thefe, ye did it not to me : And thefe fijall go away into 
u everlafting punifliment \ but the Righteous into Life eternal ? 
O let me never be one of thofe, who for nothing fhall run 
on fuch a doom ! 


L ?° 4 ] 

Q 50. If yet objefjons or the mif-underftanding of cur 
caufe do fruftrate all thefe reafons I have anfwered fo mar.y 
objeclions, a.nd; fo far opened the caufe already, as here is 
not to be repeated, viz.. In xhtFirft and Second feas for peace, 
In the apology for our Preachings and in the Treatife of tp.-fcopacy 

And againfl the judgement of thofe Reverend Fathers who 
ftill cry t -Abate nothing? andfuffer them not ? do Execution ] I let 
the judgement. 

I. Of the King, 1. In his Declaration from Breda? 2. His 
healing Gracious declaration about Ecclefiaflical Affairs, 1660/ 
3. And that of 1662. 

II. The Judgment of the late Houfe of Commons. Jan. 10 
1680. tc Refolved that it is the Opinion of this Houfe? that the 
iC profecution of P r ct e ft ant- D iff enters upon the Penal- Laws? is at 
<c this time grievous to the Subjetls, a weakning the P rot eft ant 
41 Inter eft? and dangerous to the Peace of the Kingdom. 

III. Chrift's Canon-Law, 1 John 4. 8, 16 He that Loveth 
not hnotveth not Cod, for God is Love : Cod is love? and he that 
dwelleth in Love, dwelleth in God? and Gcd in him. 

Joh. 13. 3$« By this Jhall all men how that ye are my Difci- 
ples? if ye have Love one to another. 

Rom. 14. 171 18. The Kingdom of Cod is not Meat and Brink^ 
hut Right eoufnefs? and Peace? and Joy in the Holy Ghoft : For he 
that in thefe ferveth Chrift is acceptable to God and approved of men. 
verf. 1 . Him that is veeak^ in the Faith? Receive we? but not to 
doubtful dictations, &c. 

1 Thef. 5. 12, 13. We befeech you Brethern to know them which 
L ABOV R AMONG yon and are over you in the Lord, 
and to eft eem them very highly in Love for their WORK fake^ 
and be at Peace among your f elves. 

1 Sam. 2. 30. Them that honour me 1 will honour? and they that 
defpife me fliall be lightly efteemed, 


£. 1. T Snot Silenceing caking all iwe have, and lying in J,3i!e among Rogues 
1 from fix Months co fix Months nil we die, grearer -Livery than the 
Turks inriift on Chriflians ? 

C^. 2. What is this for ? And on what fort of Men ? 

Q. 3. Who be they that have caufed and continued it after 27 Years 
Experience of the efte&s ? 

Q, 4. What is Diabolifm if this be not ? 

(£ 5. Why is not publick Repentance of it proclaimed ?