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Full text of "Reliquiæ Baxterianæ: or, Mr. Richard Baxter's narrative of the most memorable passages of his life and times"

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t O T H E 


§ I 

I Am very fenfible that this Memorial of Mr. Baxter, and his Hiftorical Ac- 
counts of the Times which went over him, have been long expeded and 
mucli defired by the World. And the greater the impatience, the more 
feverely the delay is like to be relented. But he that well confiders, i. How 
confufcdly a great quantity of loofe Papers relating thereunto,came into my 
hands ; all which were to be forted and reduced to their proper places. 2. How 
much other work was then incumbent on me. 3. How little my inJifpofed and 
weak hand can write ; (not an Oftavo page in a competently great charader in an 
hour). 4. How many uncomfortable Providences have fince diverted me j and could 
not but do (b. f.How much time the orderly difpofal of his bequeathed Library to 
young poor Students, according to his Injundions on me, took up. 6. How much 
time my Miniderial Work required ; together with the unavoidable removal of my 
Habitation and Meeting Place, and the Setling of my Congregation thereupon. 
He that (l fay) well confiders thefe things (and more that I could fay , were it expe- 
dient (b long' 10 defain the Reader from the more profitable and delightful Enter- 
tainment of the Book it felf ; will at lead abate his Cenfures, if not quite lay them 
by. However, I muft and fhall fubmit my ftlf unto what Conftruiftions the Rea- 
der fliall think fit to make of my Apology for its delay fo long. 


As to the Authour of the enfuing Treatife, he appears ?ar negotio, as being very 
Sagacious, Obfervant, Impartial, and Faithful. The Things here treated on were 
Things tranfaded in his day, tjuaejue ipfe ■viJtt ; Et t^uorum pars magna fuit. Much 
he knew and felt, and was himfelf adively and paffively concerned in, and the reft 
he was inquifitive after, obfervant of, and acquainted with. And being himfelf an 
hater of falfe Hiftory, he gave the greater heed and diligence to enter into the 
depths and fprings of what was in his day upon the Theatre of Adion. Much he 
muft be inform'd of by others neceffarily: and yet he was gready averfe from the 
reception of things as true, upon too loofe reports. He fanned Intelligence, and 
Was not eafily impoied upon, in things of moment. Credulity, Ralhnefi, Partia- 
lity, and Perfidioufhefs, Ignorance and Injudicioufnefs do ill become Hiftorians. 
Quis nefcit, frimam hif}oria Legem ejje, ne quidfalfi dicere audeat ? deinde ne (jaid vert 
nen audeat ? Nequa ftijpicio gratia fit in fcribeado? netjua fimuhatis ? Cic.de Orac. lib.ir, 
and he had realbrf for this thought in that (as the Lord Bacon well obferves ) the 
Examples of our Anceflurs, the Victjjltudes of Affairs, the Grounds of Civil Prudence, and 
Mens Names and Reputations do depend upon the Knowledge, the Judicioufnefs and 
Faithfulnefi of Hiftorians. Diligent Searches , deep and wife Thoughts, faithful 
Reprefentations and Reports, with honeft Intentions, and generous Deiigns and 
Aims at Publick Good, render Mens Hiftoriesof Things and Perfons ( as influential 
upon others,) pleafant and advantageous. Every one is not fit to tell the World the 
Hiftory of his own Life and Times : Who liv'd therein : what Pod and Station, 
Truft and Bufine(s,was their afligned Province : what Charaders they bore through 
their deportment therein : what were the regent Principles, the genuine Spirit, and 

b main 

The Treface to the Reader. 

main End and Scope, of what they did : what they pretendedly or really defignd : 
what was the Condu(3:,Tenddncy and Refulc of their Confiilts and Adions : where- 
in they truly failed, and how, and why ? Sudi things as thele call for the greatell: 
Clearnefs, Freedom and Sincerity, Pains and Judgment ,• and I may add, a great 
Concern for Tublick Good, which is the loveliefl Property, and clearefi Symptom of a large 
and noble Soul. Hiftory fhould inform, admonifh, inftruifl^ and reclaim, reform, en- 
courage Men that read it. And therefore they that write it fiiould Jiap'iejvlA S^Axdviv, 
i.^.diicern things Excellent , and thofe things in their difference each from othfer^ 
and in their importance to the Reader j and fo take care that nothing doubtful , 
falfe, impertinent, mean, injurious, cloudy, or needlefly provoking or refJeding be 
expofed to Publick View by them ; nor any thing exceffive or defedlive, as rela- 
ting to the juff and worthy Ends of Hiftory. TheAuchorof the fublequent Hilio- 
ry (now with God) had an Eagle's Eye , an honeft Heart, a thoughtful Soul, a 
fearching and confiderate Spirit, and a concerned frame of Mind to let the prelent 
and lucceeding Generations duly know the real and true ftate and iffues of the Oc- 
currences and Tranfacftions of his Age and Day ; and how much Judgment, Trutfi, 
and Candour appear in his following Accounts of Things, the Candid and Impar- 
tial Reader will eafily and quickly be refolved about. Scandals,arifing from Igno- 
rance and mifreports of what related to our Church and State greatly affedted his 
very tender Spirit ; and the removal and prevention of them, and of what Guilt, 
Calamities and Judgments might or did attend thole Scandals, was what induced 
Mr. Baxter to leave Pofterity this Hiftory of his Life and Times. , 

§111. f 

Memorable Perfons, Confultations, Anions, and Events ( with their relpedjve 
Epochs, Succeflions and Periods) are the Subjed Matter of Hiftory : Propriety_, 
clearnefs and vigour of Expreflion is what duly and gratefully reprefents the Matter 
to the Reader. Accurate Method gives advantage to theMehiory, as well as fatisfa- 
d:ion to the Judgment. The faithfulnefs, fulnefs, and freedom of relation conci- 
liates a good Reputation to the Writer by its convincing Influences upon the Rea- 
der's mind j and thus it powerfully claims and extorts his Submiffion to the evident 
credibility of what he pernfes : and the weight and ufefulnefs of the Things rela- 
ted makes the Reader lerious, and concerned to oblervd what he reads : for finding 
the Matter great, the Expreflion proper atid lively, the Current of the Hiftory or- 
derly and exad:, and the Purpofes and Ends various and important which the Hi- 
ifory fubferves, he accordingly values and ufes it as a Treafure. And from thence 
he extrads fiich Maxims and Principles as may greatly beftead him in every Exi- 
gence, and in every Station and Article of Truft and Concern, and Negotiation. 
Hiftory tells us who have been upon the Stage, how they came into Bufinefs and 
Truft, what was the Compafs and Import of their Province, what they themfelves 
therein lignified to others ; and what, others to them ; and what all availed to Po- 
fferity, and how they went off, and lb what Figure they moft deferv'd to make in 
the Records of Time. 

, §IV. 
He that well confiders the Nature of Man, his Relation to God, God s governing 
f)f Man, and the Conduft of Providence purfuant to God's concerns with Men, and 
their concerns with him, as alio the Difcipline and Interefts of the Holy War with 
Sstan, will read Hiftory with a finer Eye and to better purpole than others can. To 
covet, endeavour, and obtain ability and furniture from Hiftory, Philology , Divi- 
t\ny^&c. to minifter to difcurfive Entertainment, or Self conceitednefs. Ambition, 
Preferment, or Reputation with Men, is a defign (when ultimate) lb mean in Gods 
Eye, lb odious and noylom to others, when by them dilcerned, and lb uncomforta- 
ble and fatal to our felves when at laft accounted for, as that no wife Man would 
terminate and center himlelf, or his Studies there. I have feen afl Ibrts of Learning 
differently placed, ufed, and iffued. I can flay paticndy to fee the laft Reliilts of 
all 1 have Icen J-earning excellently implanted in a gracious heart : ( So it was in 
Mr. Baxter, and in feverall^relates, and Conformifts and Non-conformifts, and o- 
thers: it is fo at this day). I have leen it without Grace; or not lb evidently un- 
der the influences and conduct of Grace,as I have greatly defired it might have been : 
and here what Partiality , Malignity, Fac^tion , Domination, Supercilioulriels and 
Invedives hath his Hiftory and other Learning miniffred unto ! Indeed I'anAified 
Learning hath a lovely Ihow : And the Learning of gracelefs Perlbns hath in many 
Inftances and Evid^jnces greatly befriended God's loterelt in the Chriftian World. 


The T^reface to the Reader, 

And the Knowledge which could not keep fbme from doing Miichief in the World, 
and from their being fitted for Heli, and from drawing others after them thither ; 
hath yet helped others to heavenlioels and Heaven. But he that well confiders what 
Man is to God, and God to Man ; what an Enemy degenerate Man is to God and 
himfelf ; what a fl"ate and frame and pofture of War (in hath put Men into, both 
againli^ God, themfelves, And each other ; what an Enemy Satan is to all, and what 
advantages Sin gives him againft usj and how Chrlfi is engaged againft Satan for 
uSj as the Captain of our Salvation j and how he manages this War by his Spirit. 
Oracles, Ordinances, Officers, and under- Agents in Church and State, and by the 
Conduft of Providence over crowned Heads, Thrones, Senates, Armies , Navies, 
greater and lets Communities, and fmgle Perlbns ; in all things dono by them, for 
them, or upon them,or againft them: how he u(es,and influences the FacultieSjAAi- 
ons, Projedls, Confederacies, and Intereih of Men, by poizing them , changing 
them, and turning them to his own purpofes and praile: He, I fay, that well attends 
to thefe things in his Hiftorical Readings and Studies, will (to his profit and delight) 
dilcern God's Providence in and over the Affairs of Men to be expreflive of God's 
Name, miniftring to his avouched purpoies, and a great Teftimony to his Word 
and Son, and to his Covenant and Servants. 

§ V. 
And fuch a Perfbn was the Reverend Author (and in part the Subject Matter^ of 
the fublequent Treatile. He was an early Votary to his God: fo early as that he 
knew not when God engaged him firflunto himielf. And hence he in great mea- 
fures efc^ped thole Evil Habits and Calamities which old Age ordinarily pays lo dear 
for, though he laments the carelefnefs and intemperance of his firfl: childifh and 
youthful days. And if the Reader think it ffrange and mean, that thefe, andlbme 
other pafTages inferiors fttbJiUij fliould be inferted amongfl fo many things far mors 
confiderable, written by bir»felf\ and pubupied hy me, I crave leave to reply, i. That 
Conlcience is a tender thing, and when awaken d, it accounts no fin finall, nor 
any Calamity below moff lerious Thoughts and fenfible and fmart Refentments, that 
evidently iprings from the leaft Mifcarriage, which might fand ought to) have been 
prevented. 2. That the apprehenfion of approaching Death made him feverer 
in his Scrutinies and Refleftions. ;. That he thence thought himielf concerned 
and bound in duty to warn others againft all which he thought or found fo very 
prejudicial to his own Soul and Body. 4. That as mean paiTages as thele are to be 
found in Ancient and Modern Lives and Hilf ories, which pafs not under rigid Cen- 
lures. y. That the Author wrote this his Hiftory, jparfim&raftim, and it was ra- 
ther a Rhapfody than one continued Work. So that I hope that the obvious ine- 
qualities of Style and Matter, (or the Defeds in accuracy of Method (much more 
the Errours of the Pre(s) will be no fcandal to the ingenuous and candid Readers. 
6. And as to my fufFering fuch things to be expofed to publick view ; can any Man 
take it ill, that I give him what Mr. Baxter left with me to this end ? and had I 
thought to havt; expunged fome things, and to have altered others , I could not 
have faid as he himfelf did (in his Preface to the Lord Chief Juftice Hale's Judg- 
ment of the Nature of true Religion ) ' I take it as an intolerable Piaculum to -put 

any altering hand of mine to the Writings of fuch a Man But to pafs by this • 

His ferioulheis in and about the greateft things,and his lolicitous care tofavehis own 
and others Souls, and his great zeal for Holinels,Truth, Concord and Peace amongft 
all Chriftians abroad, and in thefe Kingdoms, made him ( when capable thereof) 
to mind how Matters ftood betwixt God and us; and to enter into the Springs of 
Publick Affairs and Actions in Church and State : and to take notice of the Origi- 
nals, Inftruments, Principles, Progrefs, Trads, Traverles, and Refults of Things. 
How Men were placed, I'pirited, influenced and engaged : and how herein they 
miniftred to the woes or welfare of the Publick, of rhemlelves, and of Pofterity, 
And very loth he was that all rtiould be impofed upon and injured by partial or 
falle Hiffory ; and fb become Deceivers or Deceived, and Scandalizers or Scanda- 
lized. He well confidered what a faithful Hiftory of his Times might import to all. 
And hence, having had fiich perfeA underfhnding of all the Things here treated 
on, from the firff, bethought itnotamifs to write the chiefeft of them in order j 
that others might know the certainty of things, to the better inftitution of after 
Condudt and Deportment : and (if it may yet be) to call the Guilty of all Parties 
yet alive^ to due Repentance, and Returns to God. 

b 2 § VL 

The Treface to the Reader. 

§ VI. 

The following Hiftory takes a confiderable compafs ( from J. D. 1615. to 1684.) 
and it will entertain the Reader with no fmall variety of ufcful and delightful Matter. 
I, You have here the Hiftory of God's early, kind, and powerful Dealings with him- 
felf, fb as to enprinciple and train him up as a Chriftian : and how God touch'd 
and fix'd his Soul for himfelf in ChrifHan Bonds. God caft that Mantle on him 
which made his heart to turn and ftand towards him > and be molt ambitious of, 
and folicitous about his pardon from, fellowlhip with^ devotednefs to, and living 
with God in the heavenly glory. Then God acquainted him with his natural, de- 
generate and loll (elf, till Chrift by Grace befriended and relieved him. When ma- 
king towards, and brought to Chrilt^ he is prefently and fenfibly engaged in fecret 
and open War with Satan and his own felf And here his Conflids and Temptations 
are gradually and wifely ordered him, and let loofeupon him ; but every way fuit- 
ed to his Itrength and benefit. His Exercifes were and mult be fuch asfl>all put hitn 
to deep Thoughts, clofe Studies, ftrift Guards and Watchings, fervent Prayer, and 
a quick fenfe of the Neceffity of daily help from Heaven. And Satan is permitted 
to attack him in all the Articles of his Chriftian Faith, and in the Foundation of 
his Heavenly Hrpes. He was fo fevcrely urged b. Satan to AtheifmjScepticifm, In- 
fidelity, and followed with fuch perplexing Difficulties and amazing Intricacies a- 
bout both Natural and Revealed Religion, as that he had concerned and earned 
breathings after, value of, and refolution for full Satisfaction about both the Foun- 
dations and Superltrudure of Religion. Slight Studies , precarious though confi- 
dent Aflertions, the Publick Vogue and Suffragesof Men, Worldly Interelts, Popu- 
lar Applaules, and Flefhly Eafe, could fet no (tints and limits to his inquifitive Mind 
and painfal Searches. His Sotil ever lay open to Evidence: His Eye was (irft upon 
the Matter to find out that : he then confidered Words as the fit Portraidlures of 
Things, and Reprefentations of Humane Apprehenfions to mutual Information a- 
bout Things and Words, And when he obferved Words to he fo equivocal, and of 
fuch lax, uncertain fence, he was ever careful to give Expreffions their ftrid and ju(t 
Interpretations, and to be clear about the fixed fenfe of doubtful Terms. And from 
the accuracy of his Judgment, and finenefs of his Thought, and from the impetii- 
oufhefs of tiis Defires and endeavours to know Things clearly, orderly and dillinft- 
ly, aroft that multitude and variety of Diftindions, (' many whereof were thought 
unuliial, though I never thought yet any of them ufelefs and impertinent as impro- 
ved by him) which ufually accompanied his Difcourle and Writings. But (to con- 
clude this Head) clear knowledge of the Name and Kingdom of God in Chrift, 
well grounded Faitti, lively Hopes, rational Satisfa«aioo about the Safety of his State 
and Snul, the Soundnefs and due Furniture of his Inner Man in order to his fulfilling 
after God and Chrift, and an Exemplary Holy Life,an happy Death,a joyful Refurre- 
d:ion, thelb were the Pkaliire, Ambition and Employment of his Life ; as alio to be 
found in Chrift,and every way faithful and fruitful to him. And by whatlnftruments. 
Steps and Methods, God brought him hitherto, this following Account of his, frotn 
his own Pen will tell you. As alfo to what he ever had recourfefor bis own Perfon- 
al SatisfadionandRedreis, and how God exercifed and ufed his Parts and Thoughts 

You have here the Hiftory of his Minifterial 5elf God fet upon his Soul, asone 
refolv'd to qualifie and anoint it in no ordinary manner, for that Sacred Funftion, 
whereunto ( after many Temptations and Attempts to fix him in fome other Stati- 
on and Employment, both from others and himfelf ) by the Call and Condud of 
liis heavenly Mafter, he applied and kept himlelf at laft. God throughly made him 
firft to know tlae Soul which he had breathed into him, as to its Faculties, Capaci- 
ties, Worth and Ufefulnefs. God made him feel and mind that Body wherein this 
Soul of his was lodged ; and wherein and how far his better Part might be helped 
or hinder'd thereby : and the two Worlds whereto both Soul and Body were rela- 
ted : and wherewith they were varioufly concerned. And in this World God fix'd 
him in fuch a Profped of another, as made him intimately and fharply feel both 
what, and where, amidll what Circumftances, and to what purpoles he bere abode 
in painful, exerciled and declining Flefh. And all this gave him great Advantages 
and Inducements to deal more c!o((5ly, skilfully, diligently, and conftantly, and im- 
portunately with Souls, about their great Concerns. And what a Tran(cript God 

made him of what the Apollle fpcaks as to himfelf -ind Timothy, in Col. i.zf 29, 

the following Hiftory of his KtiUcrminJter (and other) Labours and Succeffes in the 
Gofpel, will convince you to greit Satisfadion: as alfo of what Opporttions and 
Deliverances and Prefervations he met with there. 


The Treface to the Reader. 

And you have here fome Tafts and Informations of his Thoughts ahd Stlidifis ; 
and of his Books and Letters to divers Perfons, of different Stations and Qiiality, 
and alio of what Pens and Spirits wrote againlt him. He was of fuch Repute and 
Figure in his day^ as that many coveted to fee his Face, to hear his Voice , and to 
receive his Refolucion of weighty Cafes of Confcience propofed to him. And in all 
this you will find that verified of him, which the Lord Bacon hath deliver'd from 
his Pen, "jiz. Much Reading makes Men full : Much Writing makes them judicious and 
acute : and much Converfation makes them ready. 1 have been amazed to fee how ha- 
ftily he turned over Volumes , how intimately he underftood them, how ftrangeiy 
he retained his Reading^and how pertinently he could ule it to every propoled Cafe. 
Men flayed not long for what they wrote to him about : and wh*t he wrote was 
to great fatisfaAion and to the purpofe. He wrote his Books with quick difpatch ; 
and never, but when he thought them needful, and his duty then to write them* 
And when as the Reader well confidershis Apology for his Books hereafter menti- 
oned, let him but ferioufly weigh whar is alledged, and accoidingly form hisCen- 
fures. His mentioned and recited Cafuiftical Letters and Books, favour at leaff of 
Thought and Pains ; and perhaps the Reader's patient and attentive minding of 
both his menrlori'd I3ooks and Letters will not be lofs of time and pains. And 
though through too much haffe and heediefhels, fome few Efcapes (perhaps Inac* 
curacies) in the beginning may di!>afle his curious eye; yet a very few Pages fol- 
lowing will yield him better Entertainment. 

§ VII. 

But the great things which are as the Spirit of this Hiflory, are the Accounts he 
gives of the Original Springs and Sources of all thefe Revolutions, Diftradions and 
Difaflers which happen'd from the Civil Wars betwixt King Charles the Firfl, to the 
Refloration of Charles the Second, and what was Confequent after thereupon to 
Church .-nd State. And here we fhall find various and great Occurrences fpringing 
from difTerenc Principles, Tempers and Interefls ; directed to diffetent Ends, and 
refolved into different Events and IfTues. The Hifforian endeavours to be faithful, 
candid, and fevere. Nothing of real ferviceable Truth would he conceal. Nothing 
but what was influential on, and might, or did affeft thePublick Intereft would he 
expole to Publick View. Nothing that might be capable of candid Interpretation 
or Allay, would he feverely cenfure. Nothing notorioufly criminal, and fatal to 
the Common Good would he pais by without his juff Refentments of it, and fevere 
Reflexions on ir. As to his immediate Perfonal acquaintance with, or knowledge 
of the things reported by him, I know no further of that , than as he himlelf re- 
lates. As to what he received from others by Report, how far his Information was 
true or faUe, 1 know not. indeed I wrote fwith tender and afFedionate refpeft 
and reverence to the Do(5tors N^me and Memory) to Madam Owen to defire her 
to fend me what fhe could, well atteRed, in favour of the Doftor, that I might in- 
lert it in the Margint, where he is mentioned as having an hand in that Affair at 
IValltngford Houfi ; or that I might expunge that pafTage. But this offer being re- 
jefted with more concemptuoulhefs and f inartnefs than my Civility deferved, 1 had 
no more to do than to let that pais upon Record: and to rely upon Mr. Baxter^ re- 
port,and the concu-^rent Teff imonies of fuch as knew the Intreagues of thofe Times. 
Yet that I might deal uprightly and upon the iquare, I have mention'd this ('though 
obiter) to telfiiie my Refpeds to him with whom I never was but once : but I was 
treated by him then with very great Civility indeed. 

\ §VIII. 


I cannot deny but it would have been of great advantage to the acceptablenels 
and ulcfiilnafs of this Book, had it's Reverend Author him^lf reviled, com pleated, 
and corrected it, and publilhed it himlelf. I am fure it had miaiff red more abun- 
dandy to my fari-^faftion : for I neither craved nor expefted luch a Truff and Lega- 
cy as his Manufcriprs. Nor knew I any thing of this his kind purpofe and will, 
till two or three days before he dyed. My Heart akes exceedingly at every remem- 
brance of my incumbent Truff : and at the thoughts of my Account for all at laft . 
I am deeply fenfible of niv' inability for fuch Work ; even to difcouragement, and 
no fmall Confternation of Spirit. I want not apprehenfions of the Pardon which I 
fhall need from God, and Candour from Men, both which I humbly beg for as up- 
on the knee. 1 know the heart and kindnefsand clemency of my God through Je- 
fus Chrift : But I know not yet what Men will think, fpeak, write concerning me. 
God fpeak to Men for me, or give me Grace and Wifdom to bear and to im- 

T^he T^reface to the Reader. 

1 had neither time nor ftrength to attend the Prefs, fo as to infped the Impreffion 
fheet by fteet ; and thereupon I trufted to the promifed Care of the Bookfellers : 
but I found upon review the Errata to be more numerous and grofsby far than ever 
I expeded. But if the Candid Reader will correct the Errata , as they are ren- 
dered corrigible to his view, I ftiali think my felf greatly obliged to him. But if 
the Reader's firft Hiftorical Salute difpleafe him, as being much beneath bis expect- 
ed Entertainment, one hours reading I hope he will find to be the utmoft Exer- 
cife of his Patience, from the meannefs of the Matter at his Entrance into the 

II. As to the Author's ordering and digefting of his own Memoirs, a Rhaplbdy 
it now appears i and as to method and equality of Stile, fomewhat below what 
curious Readers might exped j yea, and from what it had been, had it but palTed 
the Author's ftrider Thoughts and View, Yet we (hall find the Hiftory greatly 
ufeful, though not exadly uniform ; nor is it fb confufed, as to be incapable of ea- 
fie References and Redudtions to fuch proper Order as may beff pleafe the Reader: 
if the Defign be clear and worthy, -viz,, to let in open Light the degenerate Age 
he lived in : the tnagnalta of Grace and ProviJence as to htmfelf : his Seif-cenfurings 
on all occafions : Caution and Conduct unto others : and tracing all Events to 
their genuine Sources and Originals, the judicious Reader will improve fuch things. 
Tiliere were feveral Papers loolely laid, which could not eafily be found , when 
needed. And the defecStivenefs of my very much declining Memory, made me for- 
get ( and the more becaufe of hafte and bufinefs ) where I had laid them after I 
had found them. And fbme few Papers mention'd, and important here , are not 
yet found, though fearch'd after ; which yet hereafter may be brought to light 
amongft Ibme others, intended for the Piblick View, if God permit. The Reve- 
rend Author wrote them at feveral times, as his other Work and Studies, and fre- 
quent Infirmities would admit of. And he was more intent upon the Matter than 
the Method : and finding his Evening Shadows growing long, as the Prefage of his 
own approaching and expected Change, he was willing (through the importunity 
of his Friends) to haften the compleating of his Works before he died. And he 
had rather that the Work was done fomewhat imperfecStly , than not at all. It is 
true indeed, that he hath left us nothing of the la(t Seven years of his Life, fave his 
Apology for his accufed Paraphrafe and Notes on the New Teslament , for which he 
was fo fiercely profecuted , imprifoned, traduced and fined. And though fome 
prefTed me to draw up the Supplemental Hiftory of his Life, yet the wifelt that I 
could confult advifed me to the contrary : and I did take their counfel to be right 
and good J for I well knew my felf very unable to do that uniformly with the reft j 
3nd 1 was not inclined to obtrude upon the World what was not Mr. Baxters. Pre- 
carious Reputation I affed not. That Fame cannot be rightfully my own which 
is not deferved by me. And if this Preface and my fubjoyned Sermon be but can- 
didly received, or moderately cenfured, and any way tributary to the Reader's 
benefit , I ihall rejoyce therein , and not exped his undeferved Commenda- 

III. I am well aware ( and think it worth my while to take notice ) of feveral 
Things which may awaken Prejudice, Cenfure, or Difpleafure , and occafion ( if 
not caufe J Objections and Offence, as to the Treatife and my felf j which I would 
obviate and prevent ( at leaft allay ) if poflible. I neither love to kindle Flames, 
nor to enrage them, nor to contribute the leaft breath of fewel to them. I am for 
Faithfulnefs and Truth in the fofteft ftile and way confiftent with the Ends and 
Intereft thereof. Flattering Titles and needlefs Pungencies I diftaft. What was 
the Author's, is not mine. To publifh is not always to aflent. And if Modefty 
and Self diffidence do make me refrain from Cenlures and Corredions and Expun- 
(Stions, can that be efteemed culpable ? Efpecially when it is -i/e/ jole Mendiano da- 
rim, to both my (elf and every Man, how much my Knowledge, Parts, Judgment, 
Holinefs and Advantages to know what he Reports and Cenfures, come fhort ojf 
what his were. Mol\ of the Perfons ( if not well nigh all ) cenfured by him , 
were altogether unknown to me : Nor do I find them all, or many, mentioned by 
him as utterly ungodly or undone. But as f^ir as Mifcarriages or Negleds upon the 
Publick Stage did minifter to Sufpicion, and ( to the prejudice thereof) affed: the 
Publick Intereft ; fo far they are remarked by him with relentmenu If jufilji, the 
Equity will juftifie the Cenfure; and evidently fhew how much the Intereft of 
Church and State lay nearer to, and raore upon his Heart than private Friend fhip 


The Preface to the Rjeader. 

or Concerns. But if mjuftly, it is the undoubted right and daty of tho/e that can^ 
to clear the Cenfured from all their undue Imputations and Afperfions,' and could 
I do it for them, my Obligations to, and value for this quondam excellent Hif^o- 
rian and Divine, ftiould not prevent my urmoft cordial Engagements in chat matter 
namely, to wipe of all A(perfions from the Innocent, or to abate and lelTen them 
as far as they are capable duly of Allays. But let me meet the Reader with thele 
cautionary ofters. 

I. Perhaps it may be thought unmeet by fome that a Dmine fliould turn Hifio- 
rian. Jn/w. i. Why not as well as Gron«j, DuPleffls, LaJ/ktusy &Cc. yea, and King 
Ja/net the Firft meddle with writing about Sacred Things. ( 2. ) Mr. Baxter was 
neither ignorant of, nor unconcerned in, nor unfit for fiich a Work as this • who 
knew him better than he knew himlelf ? or did more intirely fearch into Affairs ? 
or lay under greatei Advantages for pious and ju(t Informations? ( 3. ) He had 
no Advantages, nor heart for Gain or Honour by this his Undertaking. It is known 
he hath refufcd Preferment, even by King Charles the Second, but Ibught for none. 
( 4. ) Writing of Iliftories rather refer to Abilities than to Office. Men may not 
govern Kingdoms, Cities, nor Societies, till called thereto by fblemn Defignation, 
be they never fb throughly qualified ; nor can they adminifter in Publick VVorlhip 
till called thereto by Solemn Ordination, or as Probationers in order to that Ot- 
fice. But Men may write for God and Common Good if they -be able fo to do. 
For their Abilities, Opportunities, and Capacity for Publick Service, are a Call 
Sufficiently and (afely to be depended on. ( 5.^ The Author's Modefty, Humili- 
ly, and well known Self denial, and evident Remotenels from all Pragmaticalnels 
and Affe&ation, may well prevent Sufpicion of his Exorbitancy in this his Enter- 
prize. And ( 6. ) his great Ability and Concern to ferve the Publick Interelf, 
when as all poffible help was needful, requifice and grateful, may well implead 
liich bold Retorts upon his Undertaking. Who ftays for a particular Commiffion 
to extinguilh Flames, or to give needful Informations of inftant Dangers, or of 
neceffary Condud, when great Calamities or Milcarriages cannot otherwilebe pre- 
vented ? 

2. It is not impoflible that fome will judge him too impudent and unworthy in 
branding Perlofts with iuch ungrateful Charaders, as do lb evidently expofe the 
Memory of the Dead and Living, or their Pofterity, and intimate to difgrace. 
But (i.) Mattersot Fact notorioufly known are IJDeaking things themfelves : 
and their Approbation or Didike from others Ihould be as Publick as the Things 
themlelves. Matters of Publick Evidence and Influence are as the Telt of Publick 
Sentiments, and of the prevailing temper of thofe Communities wherein fuch 
things were done. And can Civilities of Converfation , or Interelt , or Perlbnal 
Refpeds and Tendernefs, be an Equivalent with God, to what is expeded by him 
f(om Bodies Politick, or from his faithful Servants in them. (2.) The Author 
blames himfelf as freely, and as publickly confeffeth, and blames his own Milcar- 
riages, as he doth any other. ( ;. j He fpares no Man nor Party , which he fiw 
culpable, and verily thought reproveable on juff grounds. Nor is he (paring of fit 
Commendations, nor of moderating his Reprehenfions, where he faw the Cafe 
would bear it. (4) He was far from Partiality, and addidednels to any Party. 
Good and Evil, Truth and Fallhood, Faithfulnels and Perfidioufnels, Wifdom and 
Folly, Confide ratenels and Temerity, &c. they were refpedively commended or 
dilpraifed wherever they were found> T f- ) Though Oliver Cromwell , ona Pro- 
tedor, Dr.Owen, and others, feem to he fiarply ceofur'd by him , in the thoughts 
of tbo/e that -valued them j yet let the afligned Realbns be confidered by the Reader, 
and let him fairly try his own ftrength in either Jijpro'vtng the Matters of Fact, and 
fo impeach the Truth of the Hift ory : or in ju/lifytng what was done, and fo implead 
the Cr;»j;7;<»/ Charge j or in allaying the Cenlureby weighing well how much of their 
reported or arraigned Mifcarriages may and ought to be alcribed to meer Infirmity 
or Miftake ; or by preponderating their cenfured Crimes, with other worthy Deeds 
and Charadersjultly challenging Commendations. For as to Oliver Cromwell, whit 
Apprehenfions and Inducements governed him, and what hold they took upon his 
Conlcience, and how far he acted in faithfulnels thereto, as in defigned reference 
to God's Glory, to the Advancement of Religion , to the Reformation of a de- 
bauched Age, and to the Prefervadon of thefe Kingdoms from Popery, Slavery, 
and Arbitrarinefs ( the general Fear and Plea of thefe Kingdoms at that time, ) 
whether without or with good ground, let others judge) is not for me here to de- 
termine. I have heard much of his Perfonal and Family Stridnefi and Devotian: 

c Of 

The Preface to the Reader. 

Of his Appeals to God for the Sincerity of his Defigns and Heart, from fome Who 
have heard him make them as they have credibly told me : Of his Encouragement 
of lerious Godlinefs, and of the great Difcouragement which Irreligion and Pro- 
phanenels and Debauchery ever met with from him. Thefe Things were good and 
great. But from what Principles they came, and by what right from God and 
Man they were his Redtoral Province, and to what ultimate End he really did di- 
reft them ; thefe Things require deeper Thoughts than mine, in order to a fbber 
Judgment on them. . Ic is more than I can do to vindicatij his Right to Govern, 

and to behead our King, and to keep out another -but I am alway glad of 

any thing which may allay the Guilt of Men : though I had rather find no Guile 
(nor any appearance or fufpicion of itj that fhail need Charity or Induftry to ex- 
tenuate or allay it. God grant thefe Kingdoms greater Care and Wifdom for time 
to come ; and caufe us to fit peaceably, orderly, obedicntly/ubmiffively and thank- 
fully under the gracious Government of King William our prelenc rightful and law- 
ful Soveraign, in (o great Mercy to thefe Kingdoms , whom may the moft high 
God long preferve, condud, and greatly prolper. ( 6. ) As to the Relatives and 
under Agents of Oliver Cromwell, 1 offer thefe things: i. The Author would noc 
cbajgethem with what they never did. 2. Their Difodvantages through the Exi- 
gencies, Influences, and Temptations of their Day ought to be well confidered , 
left otherwife Men be intemperate and exceffive in their cenibrious Refieftions or» 
them. Things now appear (perhaps) in a far clearer Light than heretofore. 
;. Inftant Neceffities may admit of greater Pleas : and Men at a greater dift-ance 
may not fo fitly judge of prefent Duty or Expediency. And 4. there is undoubtedly 
fuch a thing as interpretative Faithfulnels and Sincerity, which fb far cheers Mens 
hearts, and (pirits refolution and appeals to God , although the Principles which 
bear Men up herein may be, and frequently are erroneous, and but meer Miftakes. 
5. We know not all that Men can fay, when calmly heard and fairly dealt with, 
for their own cenfured Adions, by way of Apology or Defence. 6. We muflcon- 
fider our own felvesas in this World and Body ; and as liable to equivalent ( if not 
the fame) Dangers and Temptations. The fence and provident reach of that Di- 
vine Advice, Gal. 6. i. is vaflly great, and greatly ufeful , and would prevent rigid 
Conffrudions if well attended to. 7. Oli'ver Cromwell's Piogeny ( thofe that are 
yet alive ) are chargeable no further with his Crimes than they are approved by 
them : and this I never heard them charged with fince 60. I know them not : but 
I have been told that they are ferious , peaceable , uleful , commendable Perfbns, 
and make a lovely Figure in their refpcdive, though more private Stations. 8. As 
to Dr. Owen, i. It is too well known (to need my proof) how great his Worth 
and Learning was. Howfoftand peaceable his Spirit, for many of his laft years, 
if credible Fame bely him not. And perrar'j in melius -,nemlax fatna. He was indeed 
both a burntng and a fining Light. 2. As to the fVallttigforJ-Honk Affair, and the 
Doctor's Hand therein ; our Reverend Author confidered him and others as to 
what he tl.ought cidpable, and of pernicious Confequence and fcandalous Report 
and Influence, as to both the prefent and fucceeding Ages. He had no Perfbnal 
Prejudice againft him or others. But as both Church and State were lb dilbrderly 
endangered and affedted by what was there confulted and done ; lb Mr. Baxter did 
fb much refent the thing, as to think it fit to be recorded , and accented with fie 
aggravations ; as a Remonl^rance to the Crime, and as a Warning to theChriftian 
World. And he is not the only Perfon who hath believed, noticed and blamed 
that Matter. But that the DoBor is in his great Majiers joys , is what our Author 
hath reported, his very firm perl'»vafion of, in print. 9. As to our Brethren the 
Indcfendams, 'tis true that no mean Ferment appears to have been upon the Author's 
Spirit. But (i.) is he fharper upon them , then on the Treshyterians , Anabaptifls, 
Prelates, where he thought or found them culpable ? (2.) What Party did our 
Author wholly fide with? (3) What bofom Friend did he ever fpare wherein he 
found him reprehenfible .'' (4.) He was fo intent upon Orthodox Dodrines, Ca- 
tholick Union, Chrifiian Concord and Behaviour, and Peaceable Ufefulnds and 
Converfation amongff all Proteftants, and upon avoiding Divifions amonglf Chrilt's 
Followers, as that whatever obflruded thefe Concerns , he was impatient of , and 
warm againft. Truth, Peace., and Love, was he » Votary to, and Martyr for : and 
hereunto did he devote moft of his Life and Labours. Dicam quod res est. It is 
fcandalous that there Ihould be Divifions, Dilfances, Animofities and Contentions, 
amongff ChrilHans, Protefhints, DifTenters, againll: each other, and in the Bowels 
of each Party. But much hereof ariles fiom unhappy Tempers, Self-ignorance, 
Confidence and Inobfervance, want of frequent, patient, and calm Conference and 


The Preface to the Reader. 

impartial Debates about things controverted, addiftednels to Self-Intereft and Re- 
putation with our refpedive Parties, impatience of Icvere Thoughts and Studies, 
and of impartial Conlideration before we fix and pals our Judgm&nr, taking thing? 
too much upon Truft, Prejudice againft thofe whole Sentiments are different from 
our own, laying too great a weight upon eccentrical and meaner things, prying too 
boldly into, and talking too confidently about things unrevealed, or but darkly 
hinted to us in the Sacred Text, and reprefenting the DoArine of our Chriftianity 
in our own Artificial Terms and Schemes, and fo confining the Interefl-, Grace, anc! 
Heart of God and Chrift to our refped:ive Parties : as if we had forgot, or had ne- 
ver read RotM. 14, 17 — 19. yiBs 10. 34, 35". Gal. 6. 14 16. and Eph. 4= i — 'f. 

That Perfon whole Thoughts, Heart and Life fhall meet me in the Spirit and Reach 
of 2 Pet. I. 1— — — II. fhall have my hearty Love and Service , although he de- 
termine never to hear me Preach,or to Communicate with me all his days, through 
the Impreflion of his Education or Acquaintance ; though at the fame time I 
fhould be loth that fuch a narrow Thought fhould be the Principle, Poife and Con- 
dud of my Church Fellowfhip, Spirit, or Behaviour. God hath, I doubt not, his 
eminent and valuable Servants in^all Parties and Perfwafions amongfl ChriftianS. 
An heavenly mind and Life is all in all with me. I doubt not but that God hath 
many precious faithful Ones amongff the Men called Independants, Preshjteriam, A- 

nabapttfis, Prelatical And I humbly judge it reafonable that ( i. ) The Mif- 

carriages of former Parties be not imputed to lucceeding Parties who own not, nor 
abet their Principles as produdive of fuch pradical Enormities. ( 2. ) That the 
Mifcarriages of fome particular Perfons be not charged on the reft, until they pro- 
fe(s or manifeft their Approbation of them. (^.) That what is repented of and 
pardonedjbe not fo received as to foment Divifions and Recriminations. (4.J That 
my trud from Mr. Baxter, and faithfulnefs to him, and to Pofterity, be not conftru- 
ed as the Refiilt of any Spleen in me againft any Peribn or Party mentioned in this 
following Hiftory. (''5'.) And that we all value that in one another, which God 
thinks lovely where he forms and finds it. And 6, O Utinam ! that we form no 
other Teft and Canon of Chriftian Orthodoxy and Saving Soundnefs, and Chrifti- 
an Fellowfhip,than what the Sacred Scriptures give us as Explicatory of the Chrifti- 
an Baptifmal Creed and Covenant, as influencing us into an holy Life, and heaven- 
ly Hopes and Joys. I thought once to have given the World a faithful Abftrad of 
Mr. Baxter's Dodrines or Judgment, containing the Sence of what he held about 
Juffification, Faith, Works, ^c. and yet laying afide iiis Terms of Art: that here- 
by the Reader might difcern the Confonancy of it to the Sacred Text , and to the 
Dodrinal Confeffions of the Reformed Churches ; his Confiftence with himfelf,and 
his nearer approach in Judgment to thofe from whom he feems to differ much, than 
the prejudiced Adverfaries are aware of. But this muft be a Work of Time , if 
not an Enterprize too great for me, as I juft ly fear it is. But I will do by him as I 
would do by others, and have them do by me, viz,, give him his owned Explica- 
tion of the Baot fmal Creed and Covenant, as a fit Teft to try his Judgment byj 
and if his Doctrines in his other Trcatifes confift herewith, others perhaps will fee 
more Caufe to think him Orthodox in the moft weighty Articles, and lels to be 
fiifpedred, notwithftanding his difTerent Modes of Speech. 

The Things profejfedly beliei/ed by him ( as may be feeu in hk 

Chriftian Concord } were^ 

THat there is one only God : The Father , Infimte in Being , iVifdom , GoodnejS , and 
Power : the Maker, Preferver , and DiJ}>ofer of all things ^ and the moft juii and 
■merciful Lord ef AH. 

That Mankind being fallen by Sin from God and HappineJ?, under the JVratb of God, the 
Curfe of hit Law, and the Power of the De-vil, God Jo loved the World, that he gave bis 
only Son to be their Redeewer : who, being God, and one with the Father , did take to him 
our Nature, and became Man, being conceived of the Holy Ghojl in the Virgin Mary, and 
born of her, and named JESUS CHRIST: and having Itvd en Earth without 
Sin, and wrought many Miracles, for a witnejl of hit Truth, he gave up btmfelf a Sacri- 
fice for our Sins, and a Ranfom for m, infuff'ering Death on the Crofi: and being buried, he 
IS Lord of all tn Glory with the Father. And having ordained that all that truly repent^ 
and believe tn him^ and love him above hU things, and/inctrely obey htm, and that to the 

c X Deatbf 

The Treface to the Reader. 

Death jhaUhe faved, and they that wiU not jl)aU he damned, and commanded his Mtni- 
Jiers to preach the Gojpel to the World : He will come again and raife the Bodies of all Mem 
jrem Death, and will fet all the IVorld before him to be judged, according to what they 
haiJt done in the Body : and he will adjudge the Righteous to Life Everlafltng, and the njl 
to Everlafiing Pumfliment ^ which jimll be Executed accordingly. 

That God the Holy Gho/l, the Spirit of the Father and the Son, was fnt from the Fa- 
ther by the Son, to ivfpire and guide the Prophets and Apofiles, that they might fully re- 
veal the DoBrine of Chrifi ; j^ndby multitudes of E-vident Miracles, and wonderful Gifts 
to be the great fVitnef of Chri/l and of the Truth of his Holy Word : And alfo to dwell 
and work in all that are drawn to believe, that, being firfi joyned lo Chrifi their Head, 
and into one Church which is his Body, and Jo pardoned and wade the Sons of God , they 
may be a peculiar People janBified to Chrifi j and may mortifie the Fef} , and overcome the 
World and the Devil : and being zealous of good Works, may ferve God tn HolmeJS and 
Righteoufnefi, and may live in thejjiecial Love and Communion of the Saints j and m hope 
of Cbrifi's Coming f and of Everlafiing Life. 

In the belief hereof the Things confented to wereasfolloweth : 

THat he heartily took this one GOD, for his only G G D , and his chief Good : and 
this y ES US C HRIST for his only Lord, Redeemer, and Saviour, and this 
HOLT G HO S T for his Sanilifr : and the DoBrine bj him revealed, and jealed by 
his Miracles, and now contained tn the Holy Scriptures, he took for the Law of God j and 
the Rule of bis Faith and Life : And repenting unfeignedly of his Sins, he did refolve, 
through the Grace of God, fincerely to obey him, both m Holmefi to God , and Righteouj- 
neJS to Men, and in Jpecial Love to the Saints, and tn Communion with them j agmnfi ai 
the Temptations of the Devtl, the World, and his own Fle^) j and this to the Death. 

If therefore thefe things were Believed and Confented to by him ; and if thefe 
things do cfi'entiate our Savifig Chrifiianity, and fo be lufficienc to make us all one in 
Chrift, why fnould lome difFerenc Modes and Forms of Speech, wherewith thefe 
great Subftantials may and do confift , obtain of Men to think him Heterodox, 
becauie he ii(es not their Terms ? And why fhould luch Diltances and Difcords 
be kep: up amongft us, whiUf we all of us own all the foremer.tioned Articles, 
and are always ready f on all (Ides ^ to renounce whatever Opinions fhall appear 
to overthrow or ftiake (Lich Articles of Faith, and Covenanting Terms with God 
and Chrift ? And I cannot but believe that all Chriftians lerioufly bound for Hea- 
ven, and that are fixed upon thefe Truths, are nearer each to other in their Judg- 
ments than different Modes of Speech (eem to reprefent them. Of luch great Con- 
(equence is true Charity and Candour amongft Chriltians. 

3. The Reverend Prelates, and the Miniffers and Members of the Church of 
England, may poilibly diftafte his plainnefs with them, and think him too (evcre 
upon them: But i. they are no Strangers to his profefTed atid exemplified Mode- 
ration. Who valued their Worth and Learning more than he did ? Who more en- 
deavoured to keep up Church Communion with them, by Pen, Difcourfe and 
Pra<5ti(e, though not cxclulively ? Who more Iharply handled, and more throughly 
wrote againft, and reprehended total Separation from them than himfelt'? And 
what DilTenter from them ever made fairer and more noble Overtures , or more ju- 
dicious Propofals for a hT-ge and lafting Comprehenfion with them, than they 
know he did ? And who more fairly warned them of the dilmal Conlequences and 
calamitous Effeibs of Co narrowing the Church of England by the ftri<5l Ads pro- 
cured and executed againit fo many peaceable Minifters, who thereby were lilen- 
ced, imprifor,ed,di(couraged and undone ? And how many Souls and Families were 
ruin'd and fcandaliz'd by their impofcd Terms, another (and that a folemn and 
greatj Day will ihew e're long. 2. Our Author never yet endeavoured to un- 
church tlum , nor to ecliple their Worthies ; nor did he ever charge their great 
Severities on them all. He ever would acknowledge ( .ind he might truly do it ) 
that they had great and excellent Men, and many fuch amongft them, both of 
their Lairy and Clergy. 5 He thought ( what I am fuisfied is true) that many 
of them little knew who and what was behind the Curr.tin, nor what dcfigned nor 
great Services were doing to France and Rome hereby. 4. And his great Sufferings 
from them may well ( even as other things ) abate their Cendiring (if not prevent 


The Preface to the Reader. 

too keen Refentments) of thele Hirtorical Accounts of them. j.And to leave rhefe 
things out was more than Mr. Baxter would allow me, or admit of. Pardon one 
who a<9:s by Order, not of Choice, 

4. That fuch copious and prolix Difcourfes fliould be here inferted about Things 
fitter for oblfvion, than to he rememhred, may feem liable to Exceptions and Dillall 
from (bme ; -vtz,. ftich Difcourfes as refpeft the Solemn League and Covenant, the 
Oxford A<fl, &c. Things now abandon'd and repealed by A^ of Parliament for Li- 
berty of Confcience. But i. thofe preffing Ads are yet upon Record, andfo, ex- 
pofed to the view of Men, from Age to Age. 2. They reprefent Diffenters as an 
intolerable Seed of Men. 3. All Readers will not readily difcern what here is 
[aid by way of Apology for thofe of whom fuch Ads took hold. 4. Hereby DiP 
fsnters will appear to all fucceeding Generations, as a People worthy of nothing 
but National Severities and Reltraints. Whence j. their Enemies will be confirm- 
ed in their groundlefs Thoughts and Cenfures of them. 6. This will not lead 
to that Love and Concord amongft all Proteitants which God's Laws.and the Pub- 
lick Inteiefl and Welfare of Church and State require. 7. Thole things abode (b 
long in force, and to fuch fatal dreadful purpofe, as that the Effeds thereof are 
felt by many Families and Perfbns to this day. 8. And all this was but to dif- 
charge fome, of no fmall Figure in their Day , from all Obligations to perform 
what had been folemnly vowed to God. Surely fiich as never took that Covenant 
could only difclaim all Obligations on themfelvesto keep it, by virtue of any fiich 
Vow upon themfelves : but to difcharge thofe that had taken it, from what therein 
they had vowed to God to do ftill God himfelf difcharge them, or that it be evi- 
dent from the intrinfick unalterable Evil of the Matter vowed, that no fuch Voiv 
Ihall f^and ) is more than I dare undertake to prove at prefent , or to vindicate in 
the great Day. However, a Man's own Latitude of Perfwafion cannot, as fncb, 
abfolve another, nor eo nomine, be another's Rule or Law. But 9. if thefe long 
Difcourfes be needful, pertinent, clear, and ftrong, as to the ftate of that Affair, 
their length may be born with. lo. The Author thought it needful to have this 
let in the clear open Light, to difabufe all that had been impoled on , by falfe, or 
partial and dcfcdive Hiflory in this Matter; and to remove, or prevent, or allay 
Scandal and Cenfure for time to come. 1 1. And if fuch things be alfo p.blifhed to 
make our fclves atid others, ftill more fenfible of what we owe to God, and to our 
moft gr^cif us King ( and his late Soveraign Confort, and our then molt gracious 
Queen Mary, not to be parallel'd in any Hillory that I know of, by any of her 
Sex, for Ail truly Royal Excellencies ) and to his Parliaments, who have fo much 
obliged lis with freeing us from thole (b uncomfortable Bonds \ what Fault can be 
imputed to the Publilher herein ? Shall Gratitude be thought a Crime, though 
more copious in the Materials of it, than may every way confift with the ftrider 
Bounds of Accuracy .'' 12. I am apt to think (and not without cogent ground j 
that very many Readers ( now and hereafter ) would ( with the Author ) have 
thought me unfaithful to themfelves and him, had I not tranfmitted to Pofterity 
what he ktc, and as lie left it for their ufe. And I hope therefore that the Reader 
will not interpret this Publication as the Produd of a Recriminating Spirit. God 
himfclf knows it to be no liich Birth. 

Thirdly, The Tublication. 

I. The Author wrote it for this End. 2. He left it with me to be publilhed af- 
ter his Death. 3. He left it to the Judgment of another and my lelt only, by 3 
Writing ordered to be given me after his Death, as my Diredory about the Publi- 
cation of his other Manufcripts, which are many, and of moment. And if the 
reft entrufled with me about their being printed ( one or two of which he ordered 
me to choofe ad libitum , as fitly fappollng all might not be at leifure ) (hall think 
fit (of whoie confent I nothing doubt ) you may exped a confiderable Volume 
of Letters by way of Epiliolary Intercourfe betwixt him and Mr. Lawfon, Mr. 
Burgefi, Mr. Vmes^ Mr. Gataker , Mr. W. the Lord Chief Juftice Hales, Mr. Sa- 
niuel Jacoitib, Mr. Dodwell, his dear Flock and Friends at Rulderminfler, with feve- 
ral others. Thele Letters are Polemical, Caluiltical, and Pradical. Some are 
Monitory and Reproving : but their Names forbidden to be mentioned. Which 
Order fhall faithfully be by me oblerved ; Non enim me minus obfequij quam ilium 
conjilij fwfiitet. If we may find Encouragement, I doubt not of the Reader's consi- 
derable Sacisf adion and Advantage. But ( to return to where I kfc ) 4w He had 


l^he Preface to the Reader, 

neither Time nor Strength to finifh it ; nor to corred it with his own Hand. 
Such therefore as it is, you have it, y. He brought it down fnot long be- 
fore he died ) to publifti it, but upon fecond Thoughts he changed that purpole, 
as his Bookfeller fince his Death afTured me. 6. I have realon to think that the 
Author had fome thoughts to have made further^ Progrels in this Hiflory , but 
that other Things diverted him therefrom , till his Death at laft made that im- 

Singula quid refer am, nil nm mart ale tenemus^ 
Fe^eris, Exceptis ingeniique, bonis. 

Ovid, de Trift. Eleg vil 

Fourthly, As to my felf. 

When 1 came up to London, Anno Dom. \6'ji. I was brought into Acquaintance' 
with Mr, Baxter, by my dear and intimate Friend Mr, Jofeph Irueman ( o UaKo.- 
el-mt ) who it feems, unknown to me, had lold Mr. Baxter concerning me, more 
than I ever expeded or deferved. And fo great was Mr. Jruemani Reputation 
vi\t\\ Mr. Baxter , as to conciliate that regard to his Character of me, which great- 
ly promoted my Intimacy, and my more free and frequent Converfation with him 
ever after. Hereupon Mr. Baxter wrote to a worthy Perfon to leek me out, and to 
bring me f a perfeft Stranger in the City ) into Acquaintance and Employment : 
which accordingly was done. And fome fhort time after Mr. Baxter and my felf 
met together upon Miniflerial Employment fomewhat frequently , to mutual Sa- 
tisfadion and reciprocal Endearments ; God fpeaking to his Heart for me. The 
Lord impute not to me my fo fmall improvement of that (b great Advantage. I 
never was deny 'd admiflionto him, whendefired by me: And many Secrets he 
committed to me relating to his Soul and Secular Affairs, which have been, are, 
and fhall be fuch God willing, whilft I live : for I take it to be finful to betray 
a Secret, unlefs Concealment be injurious to the Publick , or to another Perfon. 
And in that cafe I will never ( as I think I never have done to the beft of my 
remembrance j promife Secrecy : for I think it bafe, and no way capable of V^in- 
dication, to lerve one Friend fo as unjuAly and unworthily to difTerve anothen 
At laft it plealed God to caft my Lot upon Copartnerfhip with him in Minifterial' 
Work in Cbarttrhoufe-yard, in my own Dwellinghoufe there ; which he the rather 
complyed with becaufc of the vicinity of our Refpedive Habitations. He would 
not meddle with the Paftoral Work ; but would flile himlelf ( when (omewhac 
pleafant ) my Curate ; but he would take no Money of me for his pains : but ofc 
and freely profeft his Satisfadion in his Conjundion with me, and in the lerious 
and moderate temper of my Flock. And 1 know none beyond them for Peace 
and Love and Candour. He was greatly folicitous about my Subfiitence and En- 
couragemement after his Death. And not long before his Exit he drew up a Pa- 
per to have been read to the Congregation , to have procured me fome generous 
Subfcriptions from them for one year, befides what they ufually allowed me An- 
nually ; and to excite others thereunto , he Subfcribed Ten pounds for himfeif. 
Ho defigned it to have been propofed and effeded when I was in the Country ; 
but coming to the knowledge of it, I put it by , which he diftaftcd not a little. 
However, I am for making the Gofpel and my Miniftry as little chargejble as 
1 can : for I (eek not thein , but them : and having Food and Raiment, if Can be 
therewith Content. My Congregation is but fmall : but they are worthy of a 
far better Pallor than my felf. And they are kinde to me , rather beyond, than at 
the rate of their Ability. And I have found God's Bleffing on what they have al- 
low'd me. And I find my Labour not in vain amongll them. 

§ IX. 

No Man can juftly wondor that he efcaped not the Scourges of Tongues and 
pens, and the bold Strokes of Calumny , who well conliders Humane Degene- 
racy, Satan's Malignity , the Dulnefs of fome, the Ralhncls of others, the Cre- 
dulity of others, the Narrownels of others, the Imperfedions of himlclf , and of 
all, the Entertainments of God's choiceft Favourites and Servants upon Record 


The Preface to the Reader. 

from Age to Age ; and the vaft Reaches and Defigns of Providence in al/. 
Could I but pepfwdde the Reader to read and paule upon ibme Inftances Upon 
Record in Sacred Wrir, as being leafl liable to Exception ( though many might be 
produced from Ancient and Modern Hiltories ) he might there by at leafl prevent 
confiderably his being Scandalized by the many Obloquies that come from incon- 
fiderate and milignant Men. What Man of Worth could or did ever yet ablb- 
lutely efcape being traduced by fomeor other? See Jer. 15. 10. and 20. 10, NeL 

2. 19. and 6. 6,'j, Gen. 39. 14. 1 Sam. 22. 9 if. 2 Sam. 16. 5. ^mos 7. lo, 11. 

Matth. 26.61. Ails 24. f — : — 9. and 18. 15. Rom. 5.8. If greater Perlbns (fuch 
as Jofepb, JSlehetniah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Chrift, and his Apoftles, and David him- 
fCif , Chrift's Royal Antitype) were traduced by the Sons of Eelial, as guilty of 
what their Souls abhorr'd fo intimately; what wonder is it to find this Reverend 
Perfbn Mr. Baxter, mifreprefented by the malignity and oSloquy of (ome; and by 
the we3l<nefs, credulityj and miftakesof others; and tliole psrhaps excellent Per- 
fons otherwife, in manifold refpeds ? 

Mr. Baxter is charged by fome as heivg againFl King Charles the Ftrli in the firB 
War, and too much a Fomenter of it. To this you have his Replys in the Hiftory it 
(elf; and thither I refer the Reader. 

He has been alfo traduced by fbnie, as having hWd a Man in cold Blood with his 
o-wn hands. From which Scandalous Report he has alio vindicated himfelf in the 
following Hiftory. But for the Reader's further Satisfadion , I will here fubjoyn a 
Letter from Dr. All(flree, which is not there inferted ( that I remember ). When a 
" credible Perfon ( Mr. J. H. ) told Mr. Baxter that the Dodor had formerly iaid 
the like to him ; faying, That he could not think well of one that had ktll'd a Mjn in 
cold Blood with his own hands \ Mr. Baxter (ufpefting that the Doftor's Chair and 
Reputation might give credit to this flanderous Report, he wrote to the Dcxflor, 
defiring to know of him whether he reported this or no; alTaring him in the fame 
Letter, that he never ffruck any Man in anger, in all his Life, to his remem- 
brance — ■ This Letter to the Doftor was dated London^ DecemkS. 1679. Here- 
upon the Do(ftor returned him the following Anfwer : 


I Muff frofeJS Jtncerely that I cannot recbUeEf that ever 1 [aid fuch words ef you to Mr. H. 
as it jccms he doth affrm I did. But yet 1 cannot but acknowledge it ts very fojjible 
that I related ( and it may he to htm ) that I had heard you kill'd a Man in cold blood l 
(tncc I very well remember that above Thirty years fince, at the end of the H'ar, I heard that 
■publickly Ipoke before Comptny, and with this further Circumftance , that it was a Sol- 
dier who bad been a Frijoner fome hours before. Now this Report relating to the Wars, in 
which I fear (ucb things were no great Rarities^ and f-om my very tender youth, I having 
not had the leafl Concern with you, nor likelyhsod of any for the future, did not therefore 
apprehend at prefent any concern or occajion of enquiring whether it were true; of which, up- 
on that confident Affeveration I did make no doubt. And I took Jo little thought of laying 
up the Relation, that IproteH to you, as in the prejence of Almighty God, it u impcffible for 
me, to recover who made up that Company in which I heard it, or from whom I heard it. 
And I wonder hew it came into my mind to fay that I had heard it fo long after. But how- 
ever, though it be fome eaje to me to believe that the late Difcourfes of it, do not come fr-om 
my relating it fo long fince that I have heard it, neither are likely to receive any confirmation 
from it, unlefi it be made more public k than I have made it ; yet I do profefi tt ts a great 
affjilion to me to havejfoken that, though but as a Report , which it Jeems was a f under 
( fvr fo I believe it upon your Affeveration) and not having endeavoured to know whether 
it were true. And as I have beggd God's forgivenej?, fo I heartily defire you will forgive 
me. And if I could direil my Jelf to any other way of SatisfaBion, I would give it. Thu 
is the whole Account lean give of this Matter ; To which I fhall only add that lam , 

Eaton-CoUedge, SIR, 

Dec.i\. 1679. 

Your very affeAionate Servant, 

Richard Allejirec. 


The l^reface to the Reader. 

Such was the Exemplary Ingenuity and true Equity and Candour of this wor- 
thy Perfon. 

But the bolded Stroke that ever I met with at the Reputation of this worthy 
Perfon Mr. Baxur, occurs in a Letter that I have lately received from a Perfon 
very credible ( put oi If "orcefierjhire. Dated AJarch the Hrll , 169^.) The Sum 
whereof is this; 

HEre is a Report in fame Perfons mouths that Mr, Baxter, before he dyed, and fo 
till his Death, -was in a great doubt and trouble about a Future State. It ts 
fuggeftecl that he continued infuch Doubt, or rather mas inclining to think there -was no 
Future State at all , and that he ended his Dap under Jttcb a Perjwafion j 7i>hich occaji- 
oned no /mall trouble to him, he having written fo many things to ferjwade perfons to be- 
lie-ve there was. • 

This Report is related to me as brought down Irom London by no mean Man ; 
by one of great Repute in his Faculty, and well known through the Nation, 
frequentlv an Hearer ot Mr. Baxter, and an honourable Perfon. And lam further 
informed by the fame Hand, That it is there reported that many of-his FriendSj Per- 
Ibns of Quality about London, know the truth of it. 

1. Audax facinus .' What vvill degenerate Man (lick at I We know nothing here 
that could in the leaf! minilter to iuch a Report as this. I that was with him all 
along _, have ever heard him triumphing in his heavenly Expectation, aud ever 
Ipe.ikng like one that could never have thought it worth a Man's while to be, 
were it not for the great Intereit and Ends of Godlinefs. He told me that he 
doubted not, but that it would be belt for him when he h^d left this LifCj and was 
tranflated to the heavenly Regions. 

2. He own'd what he had written, with reference to the Things of God, to the 
very laft. He adviled thofe that came near him , carefully to mind their Soul 
Conceins. The Ihorcnefsof Time, the inftancy of Eternity, the worth of Souls^, 
the greatnels of God, the riches oi the Grace of Chrift, and the excellency and 
import of an heavenly Mind and Life, and the great ufefulnels of the Word and 
Means of Grace pu.l'uant ro Eternal Purpofes, they ever lay preflingly upon his 
own Heart, and excorred from him very ufeful Direftions and Encouragements to 
all that came near him, even to the laft. Infomuch, a&that it a Polemical o, Ca- 
fuKHcal Point, or any Speculation in Philofophy or Divinity , had been but of- 
fered to hjni for his Refolution, after the clearelt and briefelt Reprefentation of his 
Mind, which the Propofers Satisfaction call'd for , he prelendy and mod de- 
lijjhtfully fell into Converfation about what related to our Chriitian Hope and 
Woik. ' X 

;. Had he thought that there had been no Future State for Man to be Con- 
cern'd about, why was hefo delighted in a hopeful Race of young Minifters and 
Chriltiansr to my knowledge he greatly valued young Divines, and hopeful Can- 
didates for the Aliniltry : He was molt liberal of Counlel and Encour^gemenr to 
{hem, and nioft inquilitive after, and plealed with their growthlul Numbers and 
Improvement : And he told me, and i'pake it in my hearing , That he had the 
greatell Hopes and Expeditions from the fucceeding Generation of them : And 
he pleafed himfelf with the Hopes and Expeftations of this , that they would do 
God's Wpik much better than we had done before , and elcape our Errours and 

4. Any Man that reads his laft Will may eafily fee that his Apprehenfions and 
.Diipofition did not lavour or fiich Scepticilm as the Report inlinuates. That part 
thereof which may Confirm the Reader that Mr. Baxter had no fiich Thoughts 
abiding in him , 1 Ihall here for the Readei's Satisfaftion lay before him ; which is 

I Richard Baxter 0/ London Clerk, unworthy Servant of J ejus Chrii} , drawing to 
the End of this Tranfitory Life, havmg through God's great Mercy the free ufe of my 

Underfiandtng, do make this my laii Will and Tejtament M]i Spirit I commit, With 

Trujt and Hope of the Heavenly Felicity, into the Hands of '^cfus ir.j glorified Redeemer 
and IntcrcejJ'or : and by his Mediation into the hands of God my reconciled Father, the 


The preface to the Reader, 

Infinite, Eternal Spirit, Life, Light and Love, mo(t great and wtfe and good , the God 
of Nature, Grace, and Glory : of ■whom, and through whom, and to whom are all things: 
My abfolute Owner, Ruler, and BenefaBor ; whofe I am, and whom {though imperfeitly^ 

IJerve,feek, and trufi ; to whom be glorj for ever. Amen. To htm I render mofi 

humble thanks that he hath fill' d up my Ltfe with abundance of Mercy, pardoned my Sins by 
the Merits ofChrifi^, and vouchjafed by his Spirit to Renew afidSeal me as his own^ and to 
moderate and blefi to me my long Sufferings tn the Flejii, and at laH to fweeten them by hit 
own Interefi andcomforting Approbation, who taketh the Caufe of Live and Concord as his 


Now let the Reader judge whether any thing in all this can in the leaft infer 
his Doubting or Deni.^! of a Future State ; or any Repentance of the Pains he took 
to eftablifli others in the Belief and Hopes of what the Golpel tells us of as future. 
It is ftrange to fee how Men can triHe in their Soul-affairs , and how eafily they 
can receive whatever may mortifie the Life and Joy of Chriftian Godlinels : But 
we read of fome that have been led Captive by the Devil at his will. But this 
we may believe, and all lliall find that the Hell which they gave no credit to the 
report of, they ihall furely feel , and that they Jhall never reach that Heaven 
which they would never believe Exilient , and worth their ferious looking after. 
Were it but a meer probability , or poffibility, who will have the be'ter of it? 
When we reach Heaven, we (hall be in a Capacity of Inliilting over Infidels : 
But if there be no Future State, they can never live to upbraid us. And it is but 
folly, madnels, and a voluntary cheating of themfelves, for Men to think that 
Honour, Parts, or Learning, or Intereft, or Poffeffions can ever skreen them from 
the Wrath of a negledled and provoked God. And one would think that fuch a 
Spirit that can fo boldly traduce and afperfe Men, is much below what has adied 
a Pagan Roman j for even one of themjCOuld lay, 

Compofitum jus faf^ue animi, San£loj<]ue recefjus 
Mentis^ &" mcoBum genorofo pectus bonefio 

Da, cedo • 


How little of this Spirit was in the Author and Promoter of this Afperfion, I 
leave to his own and others Thoughts to paule on ; who he is I know not: But for 
the fake of his Honour, Soul, and Faculty, I muit and will requelt of God that he 
may have thofe fbfter Remorfes in his own Spirit in due (eafon, which may pre- 
vent a fmarter Cenftre fiom the univerfal, ajvful Judge ; and that he woud loberly 
paule upon what that great Judge has uttered, and left upon record in Matth. 12, 
56, 57. for it is what that Judge will abide and try us by. 

I can eafily forefee that Readers of different forts are likely to receive this Work, 
with different Sentiments. 

1. The Interefted Reader, in things related here, will judge of and relilh what 
he reads as he finds himfelt concerned therein : He may poflibly look upon himlelf 
as either commended or expoled, blamed or jultified ; whether juftly or unjuftly he 
may beft know. But I would hope that his Concernednels for thelntereft of Equi- 
ty and Truth , and for the Publick Good , will rather make him candid than 

2. The Impartial Reader is for knowing Truth in its due and ufeful Evidence, and 
for confidering himlelf as liable to Imperfeftions if engaged in fuch work as this: 
and thus he will allow for others Weakneffes, as he would have his own allowed 

;. Should any Reader be cenlbrious, and ftretch Expreflions and Reports beyond 
their determined Line and Reach, Ibber and clear Conviftion in this Cale may be 
their Cure. 

4. As to the Judicious Reader, he loves, I know, to lee things in their Nature, 
Order, Evidence and Ulefulnefs : and if he find Materials, he can difpofe them ea- 
fily, and phrafe chem to his own Satisfaftion, and at the lame time pity the injudi- 
cioufnelsof a Publiiher, and the imperfections of the Author. 

5. As to the weak Reader ( for judicioufnefs is not every fbber Perlbn's Lot ) it 
will be harder to convince him beyond his ability of decerning things in their di- 
ftin(a:nefs, cruth and llrength. 

6. As to the by affed Reader, it is hoped that his lecond lerious Thoughts may 
cure hira of his Partiality. 

d 7. As 

The Treface to the Reader. 

7. As to the (elfifh Reader, it is bold for any Man to think himfelf Superiour to 
the reft of Men,and that all muft be a Sacrifice to his own Concerns and Humour: 
A narrow Soul is a great Infelicity, both to its felt, toothers, and the Publick In- 

8. The Publick Spirited Reader is more concern'd for Truth than for any Thing 
that Rivals it : his Thoughts and Motto is Magna ei} Veritas & fravakbit ; and he 
will think himlelf moft gratified when Publick Expedations and Concerns are an- 
fwered and fecured belf. 

9. Thofe that are perfedly ignorant of what the Hiftory is moft concerned in 
will be glad of better Informations ; and the Things recorded will be (as being No- 
vel^ molt grateful to him. 

lo.As to thofe that were acquainted moftly with the Things here mentioned,they 
will have their Memories refrellied, and meet with Ibmc Additions to their uieful 

II. And as to my felf, if there be any thing untrue, injurious, or unfit, as to 
either Publick or Perbnal Concerns, thePublilher hopes that the Reader will not 
look upon him as obliged to jultifie orefpoufe whatever the Author may have mil- 
reprelented, through his own Perfonal Infirmities or Millakes; for all Men are im- 
perfeft, and my Work was to publifiithe Author's Sentiments and Reports , rather 
than my own : Nor will I vouch for every Thing in this Hilfory, nor in any meer 
Humane Treatife, beyond its Evidence or Credibility. But let the Reader affure 
himfelf that I am his, in the beftof Bonds and Services, whilft 

London, May 13. 

1696. I am 





O F T H E 


O F T H E 

Enfuing Narrative : 

Which was written by Parts^at diflFerentTimes. 

Part I. 

Written for the moft part in s 66^. 

Fter a brief Narrative of his Birth and Tarentage,and large cnt of his Schsot- 
makers, Mr. Baxter proceeds to an Account of the means of his coming to 
aferioM fenfe of Religion, and of his perplexing Doubts and their Solutions, ta 
page 9. of bts bodilyweaknef and indiJpo(ttioni,to '^.ij. offcveral remark- 
able Deliverances he met with : \\z.from the Temptations of a Court Life} 
fom being run over by a Waggon ^in a fall from a Horfe ; and from Gaming, 
p. 1 1, 12. His appljtng himfelf te the Mtnffiry, Ordination ^7 fi6e B{/Jw/>e/ Worcefter, 
and Settlement in Dudley School as Ma/ler, p.12,1^. His fiudying the Matter of Con- 
formicy, and Judgment about it at that time, p. 1 5, 14. His removal from Dudley to 
Bridgnorth, andjucceji there, p. 14,1 y. of the coming out of the Etcsecera Oath , and 
bis further (ludytng the point o/Epi(copacy upon that occajion, p.iy, 16. Upon occafion of 
this Etcsetera Oath, he pajjesto the Dtjfatisfactioni in Scotland on the account of the impofi- 
tion of the Englip Ceremonies, thence to Ship-money in England, thence to the Scots fr^ 
coming hither, and Jo to the opening of the Long Parliamem,p.l6,i7. After an Account of 
their Proceedings tillfuch time as a Committee ivascbofen to hear Petitions again/l Scandalous 
Mtnijters, hejliewshow by that means he came to be fettled in the Town of Kiddennin- 
fter as Leclurer to a fcandaloas Incumbent, agamfl whom a Petition had been prefented to 
that Committee, had he not confented to his Settlement under him, p. 1 8, Scc. a fort of a 
Trediclion of his in a Funeral Sermon preacht afterwards at Bridgnorth, p. 20. His Temp- 
tations to Infidelity, and to quefion the Truth of the Scriptures, c^c. with the means 
of bis being extricated out of them, p. 2i,8cc. a remarkable [lory of a falfe Accujation of 
one Mr. Crofs a pious MmiHer in the Neighbourhood of Kidderminfter, as if he attempted 
to ravifli a Woman, with its deteSlion.^ p. 24. A return to the Proceedings of the Parliament^ 
and Account of the Jj>rings and rife of the Civil War, to p. 29. The Cafe of the Country 
fiated about the Civil Differences between King and Parliament, and the Ecclefialtical 
Differences between the Prelatical, and the Antiprelatical Party, j?-ow p. ;o. to p. 58. 
His own fenfe of, and judgment about this matter, p. 59. Here he returns to the feries of bis 
own Life, and relates a remarkable ftory of his pre(ervation from the fury of the rabble at 
Kidderminfter, who were enrag'd upon the Churchwardens going to remove a Crucifix 
aeeerding to order of Parliament, ]p.^Q. upon the Peoples tumultuoufnejS he retired to Glou- 

d 2 eefter^ 

The Contents. 

ceiler, where he fir ^ met with fome of the Anabaptifis, p.40^41. then he retiirhs to Kld- 
derminrter, where a little after, fome of Eflexes Army (Quarter d : but the) retiring before 
a fart of the Kings Army, and he finding the Rabble furmts thought not hss (iay jafe, and 
Co -went with the EITexians ro Woicefter, p. 42. Oftober the ajd, 1640. the day of 
' Edge- hill Fight he freacht at Alcefter j and the next day went to fee the pLce of Battel, 
p.4:5. after this he went to Coventry, where he continued a year, freachmg to the Town 
and GarrifoK, p 44. he went with fome Country Gentlemen to Weniiji and other places, de- 
figning to leave Covcatvy ^ but foon return d thither again • and Jhiy'd there another year, 
having much trouble fiom Sepivnt'i^s, Anabaptifts, and AntinomianSj p. 4f . Of the 
laynig the Earl of Ellex afide, and the new modellmg the Army, p. 47. 0/ the Scotch 
Covenant. How far Prelacy was abjur'd in it as it was explain d by the Ajfembly of Di- 
vines, p. 48. of Cromweiri Interefl, in the new modell'd Army , and the chapge of the 
old Citifc,^.^!). the Fight at Nafeby and its Confequences, p. Jo. an Account if hu firft 
coming into the Army prefently after that Fight ; the Principles-and Temper he then found 
prevail amongH them, p. Jo, J i. How he became a Chaplain to Cc/. Whaliey'i Regiment, 
and upon what grounds and confederations, p. 5 2. how firenuoufiy he fet himfelf to oppoje the 
Sectaries in the Army, p. yj. An Account of the feveral Marches and mofi remarkable 
A5lions of the Army, while he continued in it, from p. 5:4. to p. y8. [_ An Account of a 
Dijpute he maintained for an whole day together with fome of the Sectaries of the Army, m 
r/jeCi>«>-c/&<zf Agmondefliam ^» Buckinghamthire, p. 56.] \ His ficknefi furct him to 
withdraw from the Army ^ retiring from which, he after fever d removes, returns to Kid- 
derminiler, p. 58. A further Account of the Proceedings of the Sedaries after he left 
the Army, and of Oliver'/ intreagues, p.yg. An Account of the King' s treatment after his 
delivering himfelf to the Scots, till he was fore t to fly to the Ifle of Wight , p. 60, 61. 
of the Treaty that was on foot with the King while he was confind there ; and the Di- 
J^ute between the Kings and Parliaments Divines concerning the Point of Epifcopacy, and 
hu Judgment about it,p.62. H^at foil ow'd afterwards till the King's Tryal and Execu- 
tion, p. 6 J. Of the Engagement ; his Judgment of it and Preaching again fi it, p.64. 
pyhat hmdred CromweW's advancement after the taking off the King, p. 65". of King 
Charles the Second his being fore' t by the Scots to take the Covenant, before they would 
admit him to the Slice ejfion^ and his Judgment thereupon , p. 66 Of the Order of the 
Rump for all Mtnifiers upon pain of Sequefiration to pray to God for Juccej^ for the Army 
advancing againfi the Scots, and to return Thanks for their Vt£lories ; and his Praflice a- 
bout it, p.66. Of the trouble of the Presbyterian Minifiers in London on account of their 
adherence to the King ; and Mr. Love'i Tryal, p. 67. of Cromwell'j march into Scot- 
land, and his ViHory there ; the King's march into England, and the Fight at Worcefter, 
p. 68, 69. of what follow' d after, till CromweW became Proteff our : and the Judgment of 
the generality of the Minifiers as to the point of Submiffion to him, p. 70,7 r. of the Triers 
of Minifiers chofen by Cromwell, p. 72. of the Affembly at Weftminiler, p, 7^. Of 
thi feveral Setts which f}rang up in theje times. Of the Vanifts. Sir Henry Vane'/ Cha- 
raEler, p.74,7f. Of the Seekers <»W Ranters, p. 76. of the Quakers and BehmeniftSj, 
p. 77. of other Sett-Mailers, as Dr. Cell, Mr. Parker, Dr. Gibbon," c^c. p. 78. 

Irom publick he then paffes to his own perfonal Affairs. And gives a full Account of the 
Se^ueflration of the Living of Kidderminfter, p. 79. An Account of his iUnefi after his 
return t hit her, and of feveral Anfwers of Prayer with reference thereto '^ as alfo with reference 
toothers, p.8o,8r582. A particular account of his laborious work and diligent improve- 
ment of his tune to the bejt advantage in his Mafiers fervice while at Kidderminflerjp.Sg. 
the great fuccefS of his Mmiflerial Labours amongfi that People, p.84j8 j. His great advan- 
tages in order to, and in all this fervice, p.86,87,88,89,90. The Church Difcipline kept 
up there, p <)i,&c. the difference that arofe between him and Mr. Tombs, and their publick 
Dijfute at Bewdley, p. 96. 

CromwellV Death and Charatter, p. 89. Of the fetting up and depofing of Richard 
Croniwell ; with a Cenfure upon it, p.ioo,iOi. en which occafion a general Account is gi- 
ven of the Sectarian Party then grown rampant , p.io2,d''c. 
of Monk'/ coming to reft ore the King, p.ioj,&c. 

A large account of his feveral Books and Writings . The occafions of them, and the oppofiti- 
cn made againft them, from p. 106. to p. 124. 

A general Cenfure of his own Works, p. 124. a Comparifon between his younger and his ri- 
per years ; An account of his Sentiments about Controverfial Writings ; His Temptations 
and Difficulties ; moft confiderable improvements j and remaining defctts , fiom p. 1 24. to 
p. 1 36. a penitent Qonfeffion of his Faults ^ P- ' J7- 


The Contents. 

Part IL 

Wrirten in 16^5. 

HE begins with the Differences and Debates about Church Government in the late times* 
and gives bis Judgment about tbe feveral Principles of the Era(}ians,Pre!atifls, Pref- 
byterians, Indepen^nnts, and Anabaptifh ^Jlioivsifhat he approv'd and dijlik'd in each j 
mentions the many impediments on all bands to charitable conciliatory endeavours j and yet 
gives an Account how he refolvd tofet upon reconciling work, in order whereto the Worce- 
Iter/hire Agreement was formed, which was not altogether without its fuccej^, fiom p.i39- 
to p-l ^<-'. Nineteen Quaries about EccleftajUcal Cafes ^ drawn up by an Epijcopal man in the 
late Times, and convey' d to him by Sir Ralph Clare, luith his Anjwer to them, from p.lji 
fop.iyy. A Letter of bis in anfwerto 5/r Ralph Clare his Parilhioner^who would not Com- 
municate with him, unlefi he might receive kneeling, anion a dtfimSi day, and not with thsfe 
ivbo received fitting, p. 1 5- "jfiic. A Letter from the ajjociated Minivers in Cumberland and 
Weftmoreland/« theafjociated Mmijiers j» WorceiteriJiirejp. i62.^w Anfwerto it,Tp.\6^. 
Many other Counties begin-to ajfociate for Church Vifciplme: the Articles agreed tojby the Mi- 
Titfters iwWiltftiire, p. 167. A Letter f'om the affociated Churches in Ireland, to Mr. Baxter 
and the afjociated Mini-Hers in VVorcefterfhire, ^.i6<). the Anfwcr to it, p-iyo. Afecond 
Letter from the Irifh Mtmfiers, p. 171. A Letter of Mr. Baxter'j to Bifhop Brownrigg, 
about an Agreement between the Presbyterian and Epifcopal Party, p. 172. The Bi^wps Reply 
te It J containing his Judgment about Church Government, p.i74,i7y,SiC.il</r.Baxter'jt 
' Notes on the Bijhop's Anjwer, p. 178. After this, be upon occafwn of the pajfing of Letters be- 
tween him and Mr. Lamb and Air. Allen, two Anabaptifi Preachers, to dijjwade them from 
feparation, propounds and anfwers this Queftion^ Whether it be our duty to feek peace with 
the Anabaptilhr i?Wpro/)o/ei a method of managing a Pacificatory attempt with them, p.iSr. 
&c. A pcrjonalTreaty of his with Mr. Nye about an Agreement with the Independants^ 
and a long Letter to bim about that affair, p i88,&c. Propojals made by him in Crom- 
well'i time, for a general holy Communion, Peace, and Concord, between the Churches in 
thefe Nations, without any wrong to the Confciences or Liberties.ofVi&^hyiCnAns, Congre- 
gational, Epilcopal J or any otherChrifrians, p-igi, d^c. The occafion of choofmg a Com- 
mittee of Divines, tom.tke aColleBionofV\snda.meiT\ta.\i\ of which Mr. Baxter was one^ 
p.197. Hii own Judgment of Fanda.menta.\s,\b.andp.i^S. The proceedings of the Di- 
vines in this matter, p 199, Papers deliver d in by Mr. Baxter to them, on points wherein 
he differ d from them, p.200^&c. 

An Account of his preaching before CromwcW ^ and prfonal Conference with him after- 
wards in private ; and a fecond Conference with him in his Privy Council, p^ 205. of what 
fafi between him and Dr. Nich. Gibbon.ibid. Of his Acquaintance and Converjat ion with 
Archbilhop Uflier, while he continued at my Lord Brogliil'^ : where a particular account 
is given of the Learned Primatis Judgment about Universal Redemption 5 about A/ir,Bax- 
ttfs terms of Concord ; and about the validity 0/ Presbyters Ordination, p. zo6 . Of the 
Carriage of the Anabapti(h«/fer the Death of Cromwell, p.2c6. and the general Confufi- 
on of the Nation, p.207. New Propofals be made to Dr. Hammond about an Agreement 
■with the Epifcopal Party, by Sir Ralph Clare'i means, p.208. Dr.Hamniond'i Anjwer, 
and Mr. Baxter'i Pieply, p. 210. 

Of General Monk'j march to London ; and the common fentiments and expeSlations of 
people at that time, p.2 1 ^. of his preaching before the Parliament the day before they voted 
the King back, p.2 17. of his Conference with Dr. Gauden and Dr. Morley,p.2 1 8. IVbat 
fajl between one William Johnlbn, a Papifi, and Mr. Baxter ; m particular with reference 
to the Lady Anne Lindfey, daughter of the CountejS of Balcarres, whom he had [educed and 
afterwards flolc away and convey d into France, p.2i8,&c. Two Letters of A/r. Baxter 'i 
to this yoitng Lady j one before ^le wot fiole away ^ and the other while flie was in a Nun- 
nery in FtAVtce, p.22i,&c. 

Of peoples various expeHations upon the King's return, p.229. Offome of the Ptesbyteri- 
an Mmiliers being made the King's Chaplains j and Mr. Baxter among the re/?,ibid. feve- 
ralof them together wait on his Majefiy. The [urn of Mr. Baxter's Speech to the Ktng^ 
p. 230. the king receives them gractoufly, and orders them to bring in Propofals in order to 
an Agreement about Church Government, p 251. whereupon they daily met at Sion Col- 
ledge /or Consultation, p. 2 3 2. 

Their firfi Addrefr and Propofals to his Maje(ty about Concord,p.2^2,6cc. the brief fum 
of their judgment and def res about Church Government, p. 257. Bifhop Ulher'x Model 
cf Government to which they all agreed to adhere, p.2 j8. Five Requefis made to the King 

The Contents. 

by word of mouth, [u'tting the Circumjtatices of affairs at that tme, p.24 r . The Anfwer of 
the Bilhops to thefirfi Frofojals of the London Minifters, p.242. the Minifters defence of 
their fore-mention d Propofah, p.248. His Majeffy's Declaration cvficemmg Eechfiaftical 
ylffairs, oi it was firjt drawn up,and Jhown to the MtmfiersJ>y the LordChaficelUur^p.z^^. 
Z6e Minifters Petition to the King, upon their fight ofthefirfi draught of this Declaration, 
p.26f. the Alterations of the Declaration which they offer' d,p.'2';'^. a Conference between je- 
'veral Di'vines of each fide , about the fore-mention d Declaration, before the King at the Lord 
Chancellours, andthe cffeBs of it, p.276. of the coming cut of the Declaration with amend- 
ments, p.zjp.Of MrMaxtQt's preaching before the King,and printing his Sermon,and thefalfe. 
aecujation of him by Dr. Pierce onthatoccafion, p.279. a CharaSler of Dr.VisTCe, and Ac- 
count of hu enmity againfi Mr. Baxter, p.280. of the offer of a Bilhcprick 7nade to Mr. 
Baxter wtthfome others, who joyntly demttrrd about the accept a-rice, p.28 1. Mr. Baxter re- 
fufes to accept the terms propofed m the fore-mentioned Declaration^ and fends a Letter to the 
Lord Char.ccllour containing his Reafons,p.2S2. Dr. Regnolds accepts a Biflioprick : other 
Prefcrmints offer d to other Presbyterians who refused them, p.283. An Addrels of Thanks 
to the King from the London MmiJlers,for his Declaration, p. 284. a Cenfure of thu De- 
claration, p z^6. How well this Declaration was put in Execution, p. 287. Mr. Crofton'i 
ivritingfor the Covenant, and imfrifonment m the lower, p, 288. A falfe report Jf read a- 
botit of Mr. Baxter, by Mr. Horton, Chaplain to the Earl of Mancheller, p. 289. an ac- 
count of Mr. BiXtQt's tranfaSlions with the Lord Chancellour, about the Affairs of New- 
England, p.290. a Letter to Mr. Baxter jf'OWJ the Court and Government of New-Eng- 
land, p.29r. another from Mr. Norton, p.2^2. another from Mr. E\\iot,p 2^^. Mr.Bix- 
tet's anfwer to Mr. Elliot, p 29 y. A/r.Baxter'j endeavours to be re/lord to the PeopleofKid- 
derminfter, from whom he was Jepar ate d upon the returnofthefe^ue^redMinifrersto their 
Livings, p 298. A Letter of my Lord Chancellours to Sir Ralph Clare about A/r. Baxter'/ 
rffHrwfoKidderminfter, p.299. Of the Rifing of the Fifth Monarchy men under Venner, 
about this time, p.^or. of his fublick Minifirytn London, p ;oi. Hts going to the Arch- 
hiil)op to he<r a Licenfe,p.'^o2. His Majefiys Commifion for the Savoy Conference,p. 505. 
an Acccuia of whnt paji at the Conference, p.jof. Exceptions that Mr. Baxter drew up a- 
gainft the Common Prayer at that time,p.'^o^. the Exceptions againfi the Book of Common 
Prayer that were deliver d in to the Commiffioners, p. 316, &c. Of the choice of the Convo- 
cation, and of Mr. Ca.\amy, and Mr. Baxter /or London, p. 33 3. a further account of the 
Conference, p 334,8cc. a Paper then offer d by Dr. Cofins, about a way to terminate the 
differences^ with an Anfwer to it, p.34i,8cc. 

An Account of the Dijfute managed m Writing at that time, between Dr. Pjerfbn, Dr. 
Gunning, Dr. Sparrow, and Dr. Pierce ; and Dr. Bates, Dr. Jacomb, and A/r.Baxter, 
wha were deputed for that purpofe, p,346,&:c. A Reply to the Biflwps Dtffutants which was 
not anfwer d, p. '^^o. a Continuation of the Conference.^p.'^^6. a Copy of the Part of the Bi- 
Jfiops Divines m the D)ffutation,p.'^^8. A Cenfure of this Conference, and Account of the 
Managers of it, p.-^ 6:^.0 f the Minificrs going up to the King afterthe Conference,p.'^6'j.the Pe- 
tition they prefented to his Majefiy on that occafion, p. 7,66. to which (by reafon of their Affi- 
nity) is annexed aCopy of the Co?!ceffions that were made by Bifliop \Jlher,B!pjop Williams,, 
Bijljop Moreton,JSi/?wp H.o\diwonh,and many others in a Committeeat Weltminfter i<54i. 
p. 3 (59. 

Bookswritten againjl Mr.BiKtetby Mr.N!inkn,Dr.Tompk'ms,andothers,p.-^y^.Hegoes 
to Kidderminfter,fo try if he might bepermitted to preach there,p 374. Bifhop ivioi ley and 
hu Dean, endeavour tofet the people there againfthim,p.:^']^,'J,'j6. Bp-'^otXty and Z)r.Bi:re- 
man write againfi him, p.377. Mr.Baglhaw writes againfi- the Bifiiop, p.378. Of the fur- 
reptitiousfublicationofthe Savoy Conference, p. 379. other effaults that Mr. Baxter met 
with, p. 580. a falfe report rau'd of him by Dr. Earls, p. 381. a Letter of Mr. Baxter'^ to 
him on that occafion, With his anfwer to it, p. 382. Divers Minifiers impifofid particularly 
in 'Worcd]QTihhe, on occafion of a pretendedConJf>irac)',p.7,Si. Of T^L^C^ "BSIJ^- 
^DiDLC^CQUi D3^ 1^62. wherein fo many '^iinifiers were fitencd,p.'^SA. of the 
fad confeejuences of that day, p 385. Mr- Calamy'j tmprifonment for preaching occafionally af' 
ter the filencing,p 386. the fiate o/fAe Conform ids <z«^ Nonconfo'milh in England at 
that ttme,p 336. the f urn of their feveral Caufes, and the Reafnt of their fever al ways, p. 

Of the Ki?ig's Declaration, Dec.26.itf<i2.p.43o. Old Mr. Afhes Death andCharaBer, 
ibid. Mr. James Nalton'i Death and Charatter, p. 431. How Mr. Baxcer and Dr. Bates 
had like to have been apprehended for going to pray with afick per [on, p.43 1- of the impri- 
fonmtnt of divert Mini fen about the Country, p.452. Strange Judgments ofGod,about this 
time turn d by the Devil to hts own adva?)tagi, ihid. Much talk about an Indulgence or a 
Comprehenfion in 1663. p.433. An Anfwer (fent in a Letter to an honourable Perfonat 
that time) to thu QutjUon, Whether tbt way of Comprehenfion or Indulgence be nrore de- 


The Contents. 

firable, P-4H* ^"^ ^^^ Parliament thatthenfate, conftderably added to former r/j-ow,p.4} f. 
Mr. Baxter andothengo to the yijjernhhes of the Church c/England, p.4;6. Hu Anfiver to 
the Objections agamft this pra&tce,and Reafens for it, p.458. He retires to Aflon, p. 440. 
A Letter to Mr. Baxter yf'ow Monjieur Amy rant, another fom Monjteur SolUcoffer a Swit- 
z,er, which by rea/on of the Jealoufies he was under, he thought not fit toanfwer, p. 442. He 
debates with fame ejeUed Minifiers, the Cafe about Communicating Jomettmes with the Fa- 
rip Churches, in the Sacraments, p.444. A Letter from my Lord AlWey , with a jpecial 
Cafe, about the lawfulnefof a Protefiant Ladfs marrying a Papifi, in hope of hu Converfi- 
on, with Mr. Baxter',' reply, p. 44 j. 

Part Ilf. 

Written for the moft part in rlic year 1^70. 

OF the Plague in the year 166^, p. i. during the Sickneji fome of the ejeSled Mintfiers 
preach in the City Churches, p.2. at the fame time the Ft-ve-mik Ait was frarrid at 
Oxford,ibi J. a Cenjure of the Att, p. 5. the reafons of mens refufal to talte the Oath impofed 
by that A£t,p.^. Queries upon the Oxiord Oathjp.7. farther RefleBions on it, p.io. Twenty 
Nonconforming Mmifiers take thu Oath.p.x^.a Letter from £>r,Bates to Mr. Baxter about that 
affair, p.j/^. of the Dutch War, p.i6 0/ fie Fire of London, ibid, of the Inftrumtntsof 
the Fire, p. 1 8. The Nonconformift s fet up f per ate publick Meetings, p. 1 9. of the burning of 
our Ships <jr Chatham by the Dutch, p. 20. the difgracc and banijhment of my LordChan- 
ceBour Hide, ibid. 5/r Orlando Briugman made Lord Keeper, p.22. the Nonconformifts 
conniv'd at m their AIeetings,\b. Mr.Bz.'nter fent for to the Lord Keeper about a Toleration 
««^Comprehenfion, p.2 5. Propojah then offer'd by Mr. Baxter and ethers, p. 24. the Lord 
Keeper's PrDpolals,p.z^. Alterations made ^7 /l^r. Baxter and hu Affociates inhts Propofals, 
p.27. Ifaljly pag'd 5 J'.") Reafons of the (e Alterations, p. z%. \_falfljpagd ;6.] Alterations of 
the Liturgy,ik.c. then offer'd, p.5 i. [ fa/Jly pagd 39.] two new Propofals added, and accepted 
ovith alterations, p. 5 4. an AddrefS of jome Presbyterian Mtnijters to the King,with a Letter 
of Dr.Mantonj to yV/r.Baxter about it, p ;6. great talk of Liberty at this time, but none en- 
fued,p.'^Z. Of the Book m/!/'J A Friendly Debate, p.39. o/Parker'j Ecclefiaftical Policy, 
p.41. of Dr. Owens Anfwer, and Parker'j Reply, p.42. An Apologue or two,familiarly re- 
prefentingthe Heatsand Feuds of thofe times,p.j^'^,Scc. Mr.Buxter's further account of bimfelf 
while he remain' d at AAon, p.46. of his acquaintance with worthy Sir Matth.Hale,p 47. of 
the difturbance he receivd at AAon,p48. he is fent to New Prifon,p.4^. a Narrati've of 
hu Cafe at that time, p.<f i. the Errours of his Miuimas, with an Explication of the Oxford 
Aft, py6. Hu Reflexions during hisimprtfonment, p. y8. Hu Releafe and perplexity there- 
upon, p.6o. Hts BenefaSoHrs while in prifon.ihid. Hu bodily weaknef, ibid. An Account of 
his Writings (ince 1665". P^i. an Account of a Treaty between htm and Dr.Owtn,about an 
Agreement between the Presbyterians <j»(i fj&e Independants,p.6i. a Letter of Dr. Owen's 
to Mr. Baxter about that matter, p.6;. yl-ir. Baxtei 's Reply to ;f,p.64. how it was dropp'd, 
p.69. of his Methodus Theotegiae, ibid, and fome other Writings, pqo. the heat of jome 
of hu old people at YJ\6(.\evmm^Q\\p.'] T,.tbe renewal of the Atl agamf Conventicles ,^.']i^. Dr. 
Manton'/ i?nprifonment/\b\d. Great offers made to Mr.Bjxter by the Earl of Lauderdail, if 
he would go with him into Scotland Air.Baxter'i Letter to him upon that occafion p.7f - 
Another Letter of his totbe Eor/ 1/ Lauderdail, P77. \_faJfy pag d ^-^.^ a Letter of htsto 
Sir Robert Murrey, about a Body of Church Difcipline for Scotland, which was fent to him 
for hts Judgment about it, p.78. the Affair of the Manjuis of Antritn, with reference to bis 
Commiffion from X.Charles Lp.Sj.o/Du Moulin'j Jugulum Qanix-yand two Books of Dr. 
Fowler V, p.Sj. of Serjeant Fountaio'j kmdnej^ to him, p. 86. of Major Blood, and his 
ftealmg the Crown, p.H8. of the fhutting up the Exchequer, by which Mr. Baxter /oi? <» 
thoufand pounds, which he had devoted to charitable ufes,p.8^. o/Fowlis'j Hiflory of Romijli 
Treafons,p.^o. Characters of ma7iy of the ftlenrd Mmiflers, of WorcefterlhirC, Warwick- 
(Lire, m and about London e^c. from p.90 to p.98. the jecond Dutch War, and the Declara- 
tion for Liberty of Conjcience thereupon^p.^<^. the different Sentiments of People about the de- 
firabUnefi either of an e/fablip>t To\er!ition, or rtComprehcnrion, p. loo. Mr. Baxter gets 
a Licenfc,p.i02. the Merchants Lecture ft up at Pinners-Hall ; and Mr. Baxter' s Accujatf 
ons for his Sermons there, p. 1 03. Malitiofts Writings and Accujations of Parker and others, 
ibid, a private Conference between Mr. Baxter and Bp. Gunning, p. 104 the Parliament 
jealous of the growth of Popery, p. 106. a private Conference of Mr. BaxterV w'/ri& Edward 
Wriy,EJ(]. about the Popijl Controver(ics,p loj. Mr.¥i\ki:ntr writes for Conformity, p.loS. 
a Letter of Mr. BiXtei's to the Earl of Orery , about a general Union of all Proteftantsagainft 
Popery, with Propofals for that purpofe,p 1 09,&C. the Strictures return'd upon thefe Propofals, 
with the A.ifwers to them, from p. 1 1 3 ,f 140. More bitter and malignant Writings again[t 


The Contents. 

the Nonconformifts,p.i4i. a Paper of Mr.John Humphreys/or ComfveheTjfiomvkh Indul- 
gence, that was difiributed among the Parliament men, p. 1 4 5 , 8c c. a great change of affairs 
m Scotland, p. 147. a Charachr of Mr. Thomas Gouge the/ilenc'd Alinifhr 0/ 5'f. Sepul- 
chres, p.147. a Letter of Mr.Ba.\tCT's to Dr.Good Mailer o/Baliol CoUedge in Oxford a- 
hout fame faJJ'ages in a Book he had lately publijh'd,p. i^.S. frefl) Accufations whereby A/y.Bax- 
ttiwas aJJaulted^Tp.i^ i a Deliverance when he wot preaching over Sf.James'f Markec-houle, 
p. I5'2. hu fuccelS while he freacb't there '^ and his oppofitton, p. 1^5. a Proclamation publiffj'd 
to call in the Licenfes, and require the Execution cf the Laws a^amjl the Nonconform i(ts, ib. 
fal\e Reports about his preaching at Pinners- H;illjp. i f4. Mr. Rn-ater apprehended af a Con- 
'venticler,p.l')^. a difference at Court on occafion of Mr.Baxtei'i Sufferings, \>.i ^6. a private 
Treaty ^efJA^ew Dr.Stillingfleet, Dr.Tillotlbn, Dr. Bates, Dr.Manton, A-lr.haxter, and Mr. 
'Poo\,about an A£t forUnion avd Comprebenfion,^.! ^7. An Actforthe Healing and Concord 
of hu Majefiys Subjeffs in matiers of Religion, then agreed upon among/i them,p.i^S. Petiti- 
ons Mr. Baxter was then put upon drawing up, which were never prejented, i6c. the Cafe of 
the City as to the Profecution of Dijfenters, p.iS'^. [faljly p^g^d ^6^. an account of ha trouble 
with Sir Thomas DaviSjibid. great Debates about the Telt in Parliament, ^.16"]. a Cenfure 
of it, p. 1^8. a penitent Confejfon of one of the Informers who had given Mr. Baxter much 
trouble, P171. further troubles that he met with, and weakned, pi?^- a further Account of 
Sir Matthew Hale, p.i75'' of Mr. Read'j impnfonmetit , p.176. 

Of the Additions of the years i6y'^^\6y6^i6yy^i6y^^0^c, 

OF Monfieur Le Blank'j Thefes, p. 1 77. of Dr.]in€s Sermon before my Lord Mayor, and 
his Charge again^ Mr.BaiHQc,ihid. further troubles he met with, p. 178. a paff age be- 
tween the Bp.ofExster and Mr.S^ng^v, ibid, an horrid Lie reported of Mr. Baxter ;w a 
Coffce-houfe about his killing a Tinker, the Reporter whereof was brought openly to confeS his 
fault, p. 1 79. Mr. Hollingworth'5 Sermon agamjl the Nonconformifls, p. 1 80. a further paf- 
fage o/5/rMatth. Hale,p,i8i. Dr. Manton'i death, p.182. about the Controverfie of Pre- 
determination fiarted amongfi the Nonconformifts,by a Book of Mr. How's, ib. of the Popifh 
Plot and Sir Edmundbury Godfrey 'j murder, &cc. p. 185. of fever al of Mr.Bixter' s fVri- 
tings,p.i8^. of the Writings of Dr. St\]ling{\eet,Mr.Hir\k\ey, Mr.DodweW, and others, a^ 
gainftthe Nonconformifs, p. 187, 1 8 8. of the deaths of many of his dear Friends, p. 189. 
feme further account of Mr. Thomas Gouge, p. 190. of his new apprehenfion andficknefl^ 
p.i9r. an Account of his Cafe at that time,p.i^2. the Judgment 0/" Saunders and Pollixhn 
about it, p.i<)^.offome other of his fVritins^s,p.i96. of a Legacy of 600 1. left by Mr.KobCTC 
Mayot of OKon, to be distributed by Mr. Baxter amsng Si.xty ejecled Minifiers , p. 198. a 
further Account ofhisfufferings and weaknef, ibid. & p. 199. 

The /Appendix contains thefe fevcral Pieces following. 

Numb.I. A Reply to fome Exceptions againf the Worccfterfliire Agreement, ( a largt 
J^, Account whereof is given at the beginning of the fecond Part of this Narra- 
tive) and Mr.BaxKr's ChrilHan Concord, written by a nameleji Author, \_fuppofedto be 
Dr. Gunning] andfcnt by Dr. Warmeftry, p.i. 

Namb.l1 . Several Letters that pafd between A/r.Baxter and M-.MartinJohnfbn,«/'ff«t 
the Point of Ordination ; and particularly the necefjity of a conjiant uninterrupted Succeffion,in 
order to the validity of Minijlerial Fiinilions, p, 18. 

Numb.ni. Several Letters between Mr. Baxter and Mr. Lamb, p.Ji. 

Numb.IV. Letters andPapers between Mr. Baxter and Mr. Allen, p.67. 

Mumb.V. A Letter cf Mr. Baxter'i to Mr. Long o/Exeter, p.io8. 

Numb.VF. A Rcfolutionof this Cafe ; What's to be done when the Law of the Land com- 
mands perfns to go to their PariJJ) Church, and Parents rec^uire to go to private Meetings? p.l i r 

Nunib.VII. A Letter of Mr.Bawets about the Cafe (/"Nevil Symmons Bookfeller, p. iij. 

Numb.VIH. Mr. Baxter'.* general Defence, of his accufed Writings, caU'd Seditious ami 
Schifmatical, p.i 19. 

Nunib.lX./4« AilforConcordyby Reforming Parifli Churchesyond Regulating the Toleration 
ofDiffinters, p. 127. A Letter to the Right Worpipful Sir E. H. about that matter, p. i;o. 

Ee plealed (Candid Reader) tocorreft thelb Errours in the beginning thus: 

PAgc i.linc 2 f.for/i unread f,ne; and after reftr.aiid. p. 2.l.io.aftcr chikj.in the. and l.iy.dcle and. p. 3. 
1.35. tor bemg r. hingingme. p.4.I.28.dclc of. and l.40.arter l^otvledge t.wm. I.42. for noiider t.wondred. 
p.5.l.i7.r.that part c/Pliyikk. p.8.1.29.r.«/«.!//>'. p.i99.1.i4.for he r.it. I.46. for rejciHons r. objeilions. The 
rell ;:s tlicy occur inter legendum ; for 1 could not attend the I'refi and prevent the Errata. 




O F T H E 


Mr. Richard Baxter. 

Lib. L M^ a r, t i. 

Y i^at'lier's NaiyiQ. was Richard ('the Son of Richard} Baxttr-: 
His H.ibitation and Eftate at a Village called Eaton-Confian' 
ttrie, a mile lioni the fFre^;»-Hill, and above half a mile 
from Severn River^and five miles from Shrewsbury in Shrof- 
^lire : A Village mofl: pleafantly and healthfully fituate. 
My Mother's Name was Beatrice the Daughter of Richard 
Adcney of Ro'wto?t,a. Village near Hi^h-^ErcaU.thQ Lord New- 
ports Seat, in the fame County : There I was born J. D. 
i6i^. on the izthoi No-vemher, being the Lord's Day, in the Morning at the time 
of Divine Worjliip ; and Baptized at High- Ercall the 19th day following: And 
there I lived from my Parents with my Grandfather till I was near Ten years of 
Age, and then was taken home. 

My Father had only the Competent Eftate of a Freeholder,free from the Temp- 
tations of Poverty and Riches : But havingbeen addicted to Gaming in his Youth, 
and his Father before him, it was fo entangled by Debts, that it occafioned fome 
excefi of worldly Cares before it was freed. 

We lived in a Country that had but litde Preaching at all : In the Village where 
I was born there was four Readers fucceflively in Six years time, ignorant Men, 
and two of them immoral in their lives j who were all my School-mafters. In the 
Village where my Father lived, there was a Reader of about Eighty years of Age 
that never preached, and had two Churches about Twenty miles diftant : His Eye- 
fight failing him, he faid Common-Prayer without Book ; but for the Reading of 
thePfalms and Chapters,he got a Common Threfher and Day-I.abourer one year, 
and a Taylor another year : ('for the Clerk could not read well ) : And at lalt he 
had a Kinfman of his own, ( the excellentelt Stage-player in all the Country, and 
a good Gamefter and good Fellow ) that got Orders and fupplied one of his Places I 
After him another younger Kinfmanjtiiat couid write and read, got Oidcrs : And 
at the fame time another Neighbour's Son that had been a while at School turn d 
Mihifter, and who would needs go father than the reft, ventur'd to preach (and 
sfter g,ot a Living in St^iffordJJnre,) and when he had been a Preaclier about Twelve 
orSixr^n ye^rs, lie was fain to give over, it being difcovered that his Orders were 
tbrge^^by the' fif/t ingenious Stagj-Player. After him another Neighbour's Son 
took Orders', when he had been a while an Attorney's Clerk,and a common Drun- 
kard, and tipled himfelf into io great Poverty that he liad no other way to live : It 

B was 

The LIFE of the Lib. L 

was feared that he and more of them came by their Orders the fame way with the 
foremeiitioned Perfon : Thefe were the School-maflers of my Youth (except two of 
them :) who read Common Prayer on Sundays and Holy-days, and taught School 
and tipled on the Week-days,and whipt the Boys when they were drunk, fo that we 
changed them very oU. Within a few miles about us,were near a dozen more Mi- 
nifters that were near Eighty years old apiece, and never preached ; poor ignorant 
Readers,and mod of them of Scandalous Lives: only three or four conftant com- 
petent Preachers lived near us, and thole ("though Conformable all fave one ) were 
the common Marks of the People's Obloquy and Reproach, and any that had but 
gone to hear them, when he had no Preaching at home, was made the Derifionof 
the Vulgar Rahble, under the odious Name of a Furitane. 

But though we had no better Teachers , it pleafed God to inflru£t and change 
my Father, by the bare reading of the Scriptures in private,wichout either Preach- 
ing, or Godly Company, or any other Books bur the Bible: And God made him 
the Inltrument of my firff Convi<ftions, and Approbation of a Holy Life, as well 
as of my Reflraint horn the grolTci- fort of Lives. When I was very young, his 
ferious Speeches of God and the Life to come, pofTeffed me with a fear of fin- 
ning I When 1 was but ne.r Ten years of Age, being at School at High- Ere all , we 
had leave to play on the Day of the King s Coronation ; and at Two of the Clock 
afternoon on that Day th:fre happened an Earthquake, which put all the People 
into a fear, and fomewhat poifeiled them with awful thoughts of the Dreadful God. 
CI make no Commentary on the Time j nor do I know certainly whether it were 
in other Countreys.j 

At firft my Father let me to read the Hid orical part of the Scripture, which fuic- 
ing with my Nature greatly delighted me ; and though all that time I neither un- 
dei liood nor relifhed much the Doftrinal Part, and Myllery of Redemption, yet it 
did me good by acquainting me with the Matters of Fad, and drawing me on to 
love the Bible, and to learch by degrees into the reft. 

But though my Confcience would trouble me when I finned, yet divers fins I 
was addided to, and oft committed againft my Confcience 5 which for the warn- 
ing of others I will confefs here to my fhame. 

1. I was much addi(fled when, I feared Corrreflion to lie, that I might fcape. 

2. I was much addided to the excefltve gluttonous eating of Apples and Pears : 
which I think laid the foundation of that ImbectUtty and Flatulency of my Stomach, 
which caufed the Bodily Calamities of my Life. 

3. To this end, and to concur with naughty Boys that gloried in evil, I have oft 
gone into other men's Orchards , and (loin their Fruit, when I had enough at 

4. I was Ibaiewhat exceffively addifted to play, and that with covetoufnels, for 

y. I was extreamly bewitched with a Love of RomanceSj Fables and old Tales, 
which corrupted my Affeftions and loft my Time. 

6. I was guilty of much idle fooliih Chat, and imitation of Boys in fcurrilous 
foolifh Words and Adions (though I durft not fwearj. 

7. I was too prcud of my Mafters Commendations for Learning, who all of them 
fed my pride, making me Seven or Eight years the highelt in the School , and 
boafting of me to others, which though it furthered my Learning, yet helped not 
my Humility. 

8. I was too bold and unreverent towards my Parents. 

Thefe were my Sins which in my Childhood Confcience troubled me for a 
great while before they were overcome. 

In the Village v/here I lived the Reader read the Common-Prayer briefly, and 
the reft of the Day even till da.k Night almolf, except Eating time, was fpent in 
Dancing under a May-Pole and a great Tree,not far from my Father's Door ; where 
all the Town did meet together : And though one of my Father's own Tenants 
was the Piper, he could not reftrain him, nor break the Sport : So that we could 
not read the Scripture in our Family without the great difturbanceof theTaber and 
Pipe and Nolle in the Street I Many times my Mind was inclined to be among 
them, and fnmetimes I broke loole from Conlcience, and joyned with them ; and 
the more [ did it the more I wasenclined to it. But when I heard them cail my 
Father Puritav, it did much to cure me and alienate me from them : for I confi- 
der'd that my Father's Exercife of Reading the Scripture, was better than theirSj 
and would furely hi better thought on by all men at the laft j and I confidered 
what it was for that he and others were thus derided. When I heard them fpeak 


P A a r I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 3 

Icornfully of others as Puritans whom I never knew, I was at firft ape to bcr 
licve all the Lies and Slanders wherewith they loaded them : But when I 
heard my own Father fo reproached, and perceived the Drunkards were the 
forwardelt in the reproach, I perceived that it was mere Malice : For my Fa- 
ther never fcrupied Common-Prayer or Ceremonies, nor fpake againft Biihops, 
nor ever fb much as prayed "but by a Book or Form, being not ever acquainted 
then with any that did otherwife ; But only for reading Scripture when the relL 
were Dancing on the Lord's Day, and for praying ( by a Form out cf the end of 
the Common- Prayer Book) in his Houfe, and for reproving Drunkards and Swear- 
ers, and for talking (oinetimes a few words of Scripture and the Life to come, he 
was reviled commonly by the Name oi Puritan, Precifnm and Hypocrite: and lb w^ra 
the Godly Conformable Miniltersthat lived any where in the Country near us, not 
only by our Neighbours, but by the common talk of the Vulgar Rabble of all a- 
bout us. By this Experience I was fully convinc'd that Godly People were the belt-, 
and thofe that defpiled them and lived in Sin and Pleafure , were a malignant unr 
happy fort of People : and this kept me out of their Company, except now and 
then when the Love of Sports and Play enticed me. 

§ z. The chiefeft help that I had for all my Learning in the Country Schools, 
was with Mr. Jof,n 0-wen School-mafter at the Free-School at Wroxettr, to whom I 
went next, who lived in Sir Richard Newport^ Hoaie (afterward Lord Newport) at 
Eyton, and taught School at that ancient Uncomurn, (where the Ruins and old Coin 
confirm thofe Hiltories, which make it an ancient City in the Romans Timei). 

The prelent Lord Newport and his Brother were then my School-fellows, in a 
lower Form, and Dr. Richar d Meftree now Dr. of the Chair in Oxford, Canon of / ^•^ ^- ^\ 
Chrift's- Churchy and ProVoftof Eaion-CoUedge : of whom I remember that when my 
Malter fet him up into the lower end of the higheft Form, where I had long been 
Chief, I took it fo ill, that 1 talkt of leaving the School : whereupon my Mailer 
gravely, but very tenderly, rebuked my pride, and gave ms for my Theme, Ne 
Jutor ultra crepidam. 

§ ;. About that time it pleafed God of his wonderful Mercy to open my Eyes 
with a clearer infight into the Concerns and Cafe of my own Soul, and to touch 
my heart with a livelier feeling of things Spiritual than ever I had found before : 
And it was by the means and in the order following ; ftirring up my Confoience 
more againlf me, by robbing an Orchard or two with rude Boys, than it was be- 
fore : And being under (bme more Convidtion for my Sin , a poor Day-Labourer 
in the Town (he that I before-mentioned that was wont to read in the Church for 
the old Parfon) had an old torn Book which he lent my Father , which was cal- 
led Bunny's Refolutton, (being written by Parfon s the Jefuir, and correded by Edm. 
Bunny). I had before heard fome Sermons, and read a good Book or two, which 
made me more love and honour Godlineis in the General j but I had never felt a- 
ny other change by them on my heart. Whether it were that till now I came not 
to that maturity oi Nature, which made me capable of difcerning j or whether it 
were that this was God's appointed time, or both together,! had no lively fight and 
(enfe of what I read till now. And in the reading of this Book (when I was about 
Fifteen years of Age) it pleafed God to awaken my Soul, and Ihew me the folly 
of Sinning, and the mifery of the Wicked, and the unexprellible weight of things 
Eternal, and the neceffity of refolving on a Holy Life, more than I was ever ac- 
quainted with before. The fame things which 1 knew before came now in another 
manner, with Light, and Senfs and Serioufnels to my Heart. 

This caft me firft into fears of my Condition ; and thofe drove me to Sorrow 
and Confeffion and Prayer, and fo to fome refolution for another kind of Life ; 
And many a-day I went with a throbbing Conlcience, and faw that I had other 
Matters to mind, and another Work to do in the World, than ever I had minded 
well before. 

Yet whether fincere Convcrfion began mw, or before, or after, I was never able 
to this day to know : for 1 had before had fome Love to the Things and People 
which were good, and a reftraint iiom other Sins except thofe forementioned j 
and fo much from thofe that I feldom committed moft of them, and when I did, 
it was with great reluftancy. And both now and formerly I knew that Chrift was 
the only Mediator by whom we murt have Pardon, Juftification, and Life : But 
even at that time, I had little lively fenfe of the Lo-ve of God in Chrifl to the World or 
me, nor of my fpecial need of him I for farfons and all Papifts almoft are too Ihorc 
upon this Subjed. 

And about that time it plsafed God that a poor Pedlar came to the Door that 

B 2 had 

IheLIfE of the Lib. I, 

had Ballads and Come good Books : And my Father bought of him Dr. SthFs brm- 
fed Reed. This alio I read, and found it fuited to my ftate,and fealbnably fent me ; 
which opened more the Love of God to me, and gave me a livelier apprehenfion of 
the Myltery of Redemption , and how much 1 was beholden to Je!us Chrilt. 

All this while neither my Father nor I had any Acquaintance or Familiarity 
with any that had any Underftanding in Matters of Religion , nor ever heard a- 
ny pray ex tempore : But my Prayers were the Confejfion in the Common-Frayer Book, 
and fometime one of Mr. Bradford's Prayers, (in a Book called his Prayers and Me- 
dttatiom) and fometime a Prayer out of another Prayer- Book which we had. 

After this we had a Servant that had a little Piece of Mr. Perkins's Works (of Re- 
pentance, and the right An of Ltving and Dying ii-eU , and the Government of the 
Tongue) : And the reading of that did further inform me, and confirm me. And 
thus (without any means but Books ) was God pleaied to refolve me for himfeif. 

§ 4. When I was ready for the Univerfity, my Mafter drew me into another 
way which kept me th.ence, where were my vehement defires. He had a Friend 
at Ludlow^ Chapbin to the Council there, called Mr. Richard fVtck/fead ; whole 
Place having allowance from the King (who maintaineth the Houle ) for one to 
attend hinijhe told my Mader that he was purpofed to have a Scholar fit for the U- 
niverlicy ; and having but one. would be better to him than any Tutor in the Uni- 
vcrlity could be : whereupon my Maiter perfwaded me to accept the ofFer,and told 
me it would be better than the Univerfity to me : I believed him as knowing no bet- 
ter my f;lf ; and it luired well with my Parents minds, who were willing to have me 
as near to them as pollible (having noChildrenbut my felf;:And folieft my School- 
mafter for a fip^jofed Tutor : But when I had tried him I found my (elf 
deceived; his bufinels was to plea fe the Great Ones, and leek Preferment in the 
World ; and to that end found it neceffary fometimes to give the Puritans a flirt , 
and call them unlearned, and fpeak mucli for Learning, being but a Superficial 
Scholar of himielf: He never read to me, nor ufed any fivoury Difcourie of God- 
iinefs J only he loved me, and allowed me Books and Tzwe enough : So that as I had 
no confidcrable helps from him in my Studiesjfo had I no confiderable hinderance. 

And though the Houfe vvas great (there being four Jadi^es, the King's Attorney, 
the Secretary, the Clerk of the Fines, with all their Servans, and all the Lord Pre- 
fident"s Servants, and many more) and though the Town vvas full of Temptations, 
through the multitude of Pcrfons, (Counfcllors, Attorneys, Officers, and Clerks) 
and much given to tipling and excels, it p'ealed God not only to keep me from 
them, but alio to give me one intimate Companion, who was the greateli: help to 
my Serioufncls in Religion, that ever I had bsrfore, and was a daily Watchman over 
my Soul ! We walk'd together, we read together, we prayed together, and when 
we could we lay together: And having been brought out of great Diilrels to Pro- 
Iperity, and his AfFeftions being fervent, though his Knowledge not great , he 
would be always (tirring me up to Zeal and Diligence, and even in the Night 
would rile up to Prayer and Thanklgiving to God, and wonder that I could Hcep 
16, that the thoughts of God's Mercy did not make me alfo to do as he did ! He 
was unwearied in reading all ferious Pradical Books of Divinity ; elpecially Per- 
kins, Bolton, Dr. Prefion, Elton, Dr. Taylor, Whately, Harris, 6cc. He was the firft 
that ever I heard pray Ex tempore (out ot the Pulpitj and that taught me foto pray : 
And his Charity and Liberality was equal to his Zeal ; lb that God made him a 
gre.u means of my good, who had more knowledge than he, but a colder heart. 

Yet before we had been Two years acquainted, he fell once and a fecond time 
by tlie power of Temptation into a degree of Drunkennefs, which fo terrified 
him upon the review (elpecially after the lecond time) that he was near to De- 
I'pair; and went to good Minifters with lad Confeffions : And when I had left the 
Houle and his Co;iipany, he fell into it again and again lb ofr,that at lalt his Con- 
Icience could have no Relief or Eale but in changing his Judgment, and dilbvvn- 
ing the Teachers and Doiftrines which had retrained him. And he did it on this 
manner : One of his Superiours, on wliom he had dependance, was a man of 
great Sobriety and Temperance, and of much Devotion in his way ; but very zea- 
lous againll the Nonconforinilh, ordinarily talking moll bitterly againlf them, and 
reading almoll only fuch Books as encouraged him in tiiis way : By converle with 
this Man, my Friend was firft drawn to ab.ite his Charity to Nonconformifts ; 
and then to think and fpeak reproachfully of tiiein ;and next that to dillikeall thole 
that came near them,and to lay that fuch as Bolton were too levere, and enough to 
make men mad : And the lall.l heard of him was, that he was grown a Fudler, 
and Railer at ttridt men. But whether God recovered him, or what became of 
him I cannot tell. § y. From 

P A R. T I. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter 

§ 5-. From Ludlow Caftle, after a year and half,I returned to my Father's Houfe, 
and by that time my old School-mafler, Mr. John Owen, was fick of a Confump- 
tion (which was his Death :) and the Lord Newport defiredme to teach that School 
till he either recovered or died, (relblving to take his Brother after him if he diedj : 
which I did about a quarter of a year, or more. 

After that old Mr. Francts Garbett ( the faithful, learned Mini/ler at TVroxeter) for 
about a Month read Logick to me, and provoked me to a clofer Courfe of Study ; 
which yet was greatly interrupted by my bodily weaknels, and the troubled Con- 
dition of my Soul. For being in expedation of Death, by a violent Cough, with 
Spitting of Blood, &c. of two years continuance, fuppoied to be a deep degree of 
a Conlumption, I was yet more awakened to be feriouSj and (blicitous about my 
Soul's everlalHng State : And I came fo Hiort of that fenle and (erioulhefi, which a 
Matter of fuch inlitiite weight required, th.it I was in many years doubt of my Sin- 
cerity, and thought I had no Spiritual Life at all. I wondred at thelenflefs hard- 
nefi of my heart, that could think and talk of Sin and Hell, and Chrift and Grace, 
of God and Heaven, with no more feeling : I cried out from day to day to God 
for Grace againft this fenflefe Deadnefs : I called my felf the mofi hard hearted 
Sinner, that could /<;«/ nothing of all that I knew and talkcof : I was not then fen- 
fible of the incomparable Excellency of Holy Love, and DcUght in God, nor much 
imployed in Thankfgiving and Praife: But all ray Groans were for mote Contrttion, 
and a broken Heart, and 1 prayed molt for Tears and Tendtrneji. 

And thus I complained for many Years to God and Man , and between the Ex- 
pedationsof Death, and the Doubts of my own Sincerity in Grace, I was kept in 
Ibme more care of my Salvation, than my Nature (too ftupid and too far from Me- 
lancholy) was eafily brought to. 

At this time I remember, the reading of Mr. Ex.ek. Cuherwell's Tratik of Faith 
did me much good, and many other excellent Books, were made my Teachers and 
Comforters : And the ufe that God made of Books, above Minifters, to the benefit 
of my Soul, made me fomewhat exceffively in love with good Books; fo that I 
thought I had never enow, but fcrap'd up as great a Treafure of them as I could. 

Thus was I lojig kept with the Calls of approaching Death at one Ear; and the 
Queftionings of a doubtful Confcience at the other I and fince then I have found 
that this method of God's was very wife, and no other was lb like to have tended 
to my good. Thefe Benefits of it I fenfibly perceived. 

1. Ir made me vile and loathfome to my felf, and made Pride one of the hate- 
fullefr Sins in tlie World to me 1 I thought of my leif as I now think of a detella- 
b!e Sinner, and my Enemy, that is, with a Love of Benevolence, wilhing them well, 
but with little Love of Complacency at all: And the long continuance of it, tend- 
ed the more eifedlually to a habit. 

2. It much relVrained me from that fportful Levity and Vanity which my Na- 
ture and Youchtulnefs did much incline me to, and caufed me to meet Temptations 
to Senliiality with the greateft fear, and made them lefs efFeftual againft me. 

3. It made the Dodrine of Redemption the more favoury to me, and my 
thoughts of Chriit to be more ferious and regardful, than before they were. I re- 
member in the beginning how favoury »o my i^ading wasMr. Perkins's (hon Trea- 
tile of the Right Knowledge of Chrift crucified, and his Expo/itton of the Greedy becaufe 
they taught me how to live by Faith on Chrift. 

4. It made the World leem to me as a Carkafi that had neither Life nor Loveli- 
nefs : And it dedroyed thofe Ambitious defires after Literate Fame, which was the 
Sin of my Childhood 1 I had a defire befdre to have attained the higheff Academi- 
cal Degrees and Reputation of Learning, and to have chofen out my Studies accord- 
ingly ; but 5;c>&Kf/? and So//a>ow/»e/f for my doubting Soul did fhame away all thefe 
Thoughts as Fooleries and Childrens Plays. 

<;. It let rne upon that Method of my Studies, which fince then 1 have found 
the benefit of, though at the time I was not latisfied with my lelf. It cauled me 
firft to fck God's Kingdom and his Righteoufnels, andmoft to mind the One thing 
needful ; and to determine firft of my Ultimate End ; by which I was engaged 
to choofe out and prolecute all other Studies, but as meant to that end : There- 
fore Divinity was not only carried on with the reft of my Studies with an equal 
hand J but always had the firft and chiefell place I And it caufed rae to v.^7k^ 
ftudy Praclical Divinity firft , in the moft Practical Books , in a Vra^ical 
Order; doing all purpofely for the informing and reforming of my own Soul. 
So that I had read a multitude of our Englifli Pradical Treatifes, before I had ever 
read any other Bodies of Divinity, than Urfine and Ameftus, or two or three more. 



The LI F E of the L i b. 1'. 


By which means my /ijfeBion was carried on with my Judgment: And by that 
means I prolecuted all my Studies with unweariedne(s and delight : And by thac 
means all that I read did (lick the better in my memory : and alio lels of my time 
was loR by lazy intermiffions : fbut my bodily Infirmities always cauled me to 
lofe ( or I'pend ) much of it in Motion and Corporal Exercifes j which was lome- 
times by Walking, and fometimes at the Plow, andlach Country Labours). 

But one lols 1 had by this Method, which hath proved irreparable j That I mill 
that part of Learning which ftood at the greateft diilance ( in my thoughts) from 
my IJltimate End,('though no doubt but remotely it may be a valuable nieansj, and 
I could never fince find time to get it. Befides the Latin Tongue, and but a me- 
diocrity in Greek ( with an inconfiderable trial at the Hebrew long after j I had 
no great skill in Languages : Though I faw that an accuratenefs and thorow in- 
Jight in the Greek and Hebrew were very defirable ; but I was io eagerly carried 
after the Knowledge of Things^ that I too much neglec^ted the fludy of Words. 
And for the Mathematkks, I was an utter (tranger to them, and never could find in 
my heart to divert any Studies that way. But in order to the Knowledge o^ Divinity 
my inclination was molt to Logtck and Metaphjficks, with that part fhyficks which 
treateth of the Soul, contenting my lelf at hrlt wich a flighter Itudy of the ret : 
And thefe had my Labour and Delight. Which occafioned me ( perhaps toofojn ) 
to plunge my lell very early into the lludy of Contro-verfies ; and to read all the 
School men I could get ; ( for next Praiitcal Divintty, no Books io liiited with my 
Difpofition as Jqumns, Scotus^ Durandus, Ockam, and their Difciples j becaufe f 
thought they narrowly fearched after Truth , and brought Things out of the dark- 
nefs of Confufion : For I could never from my firft Studies enduse Confufion! Till 
Equivocals were explained, and Definition and Difiinilion led the way, I had rather 
hold my Tongue than (peak! and was never more weary of Learned Mens Dif- 
courles, than when I heard them long wrangling about unexpot* idcd Words or 
Things, and eagerly Dilputing before they underltood each others Minds ; and ve- 
hemently aflTerting Modei and Confequeitces and Adjun^s, before they confidered of 
the Quod fit, the Quid fit, or the Quotupkx. I never thought I underftood any 
thing till I could anatomtz.e it, and lee the parts difiinctly, and the Conjunilion of the 
parts as they make up the whole. DifiMton and Method Icemed to me of that ne- 
ceflity, that without them I could not be (aid to know ; and the Diiputes which 
fci,ook them, or abufed them, feem but as incoherent Dreams. 

§ 6. And as for thofe Doubts of my own Salvation , which exercifcd me many 
years , the chiefeff Caules of them were thele : 

I. Becaule I could not diftindtly trace the Workings of the Spirit upon my heart 
in that method which Mr. Bolton, Mr. Hooker, Mr. Rogers, and other Divines de- 
Icribe I nor knew the Time of my Converfion, being wrougiit on by the fore- 
mentioned Degrees. But fince then I underlfood that the Soul is in too dark and 
paffionate a plight at firlf, to be able to keep an exaft account of the order of its 
own Operatiotis ,• and that preparatory Grace being (ometimes longer and (bmetimes 
fhorter, and the firlt degree of Special Grace being ufually very fiiiall, it is not 
poflible that one of very many Ihould be able to give any true account of the juH 
T-.rKc when Special Grace began, and advanced him above the Ifate of Prepara- 

2. My lecond Doubt was as aforefaid, becaufe of the hardnefiofi my heart,or want 
of fuch lively Apprehenfitons of Things Spiritual, which I had about Things Corpo- 
ral. And though I ftill groan under this as my fin and want , yet I now perceive 
that a Soul in Flelh doth work lb much after the manner of the Flelh, that it 
much defireth lenfible Apprehenfions j but Things Spiritual and Diftant are not {o 
apt to work upon them, and to Itir the Paffions, as Things prell*nt and fenfibie 
are ; efpecially being known lb darkly as the Ifate and oper.itions of leparated 
Soulsj are known to us who are in the Body : And that the Rational Operations of 
the higher Faculties ( the Intellect and Will^ may without lo much paifion, fet 
God and Things Spiritual higheft within us, and give them the preheminence, 
and fubjedt all Carnal Interelt to them, and give them the Government of the 
Heart and Life : and that this is the ordinary ftate of a Believer. 

;. My next Doubt was, left Education and Fear had done all that ever was done 
upon n.y Soul, and Kf^fwtT<7r/o» and L.ove were yet to leek ; becaule 1 had found 
Convictions from my Childhood, and found more Fear than Love in all my Duties 
and Refiramts. 


P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 

But I afterward perceived that Education is God's ordinary Vv^ay for the Convey- 
ance of his Grace, and ought no more to be iet in oppofition to the Spirit, than 
the preaching of the Word ; and that it was the great Mercy of God to begin 
with me fo loon, and to prevent fuch fins as elle might have been my fhame and 
Ibrrov/ while I Hved ; ami that Repentance is good,but Prevention and Innocence 
is better j which though we cannot attain in perfe(9:ion, yet the more the better. 
And I underflood, that though Fear without Love be not a ftate of Saving Grace 
zv[.<\ greater Lo'i'e to the World than to GoJ be not confiftent with Sincerity; yet a 
littk predominant Love ( prevailing againft worldly Love ) conjundl with a far 
greater measure oi Fear, may be a Itate of Special Grace I And that Fear being an 
cafier and irreflftible Paffion, doth oft obfcure that meafure of Love which is in- 
deed wit lin us I And that the Soul of a Believer groweth up by degrees, 
from the more troublefome { but fafe ) Operations of Fear , to the more 
high and excellent Operations of Complacential Love; even as it hath more 
of the fenle of the Love of God in Chrift, and belief of the Heavenly Life which 
it approacheth : And that it is long before Love be lenfibly predominant in refped 
of Fear ( that is, of Self-love and Self-prefervation), though at the fir Jt it is predomi- 
nant againft IVorldly Love, And 1 found that my hearty Love of the Word of 
God, and of the Servants of God, and my defires to be more holy, and eipecial- 
ly the hatred of my Heart for loving God no more, and my Love to love him , 
and be pleafmg to him, was not without Ibme Love to himfelf,though it workt 
more lenfibly on his nearer Image. 

4. Another of my Doubts was becaule niyGw/and Humiliation wzs no greater, 
and becaufe 1 could weep no more for this. 

But I underftood at laft that God breaketh not all Mens hearts alike, and that 
the gradual proceedings of his Grace might be one caufe, and my Nature not apt 
to weep for other Things another : And that the Change of our Heart from Sin to 
God, is true Repentance; and a loathing of our (elves is true Humiliation I and 
that he that had rather leave his Sin, than have leave to keep it , and had rather 
be the moll holy, than have leave to be unholy or Icfs holy, is neither without 
true Repentance, nor the Love of God. 

f. Another of my Doubts was, becaufe I had after my Change committed fome 
Sins deliberately and knowingly : And be they never fo fmall.I thought he that could 
fin upon knowledge and deliberation had no true Grace, and that if I had but had as 
Itrong Temptations to Fornication, Drunkennels, Fraud, or other more heinous 
Sins, I might alio have committed them I And if thefe proved that I had then no 
Saving Grace, after all that I had felt, I thought it unlikely that ever 1 Jhould have 

This (luck with me longer than any of the reft j and the more, becaule that e- 
very Sin which I knowingly committed did renew it : And the terms on which 
I receive Confolation againft it are thele : fNot as thofe tliat think every Sin a- 
gainft Knowledgedoth nullifie all our former Grace and Unregenerate us ; and that 
every time we Repent of fuch, we have a new Regeneration : but) 

1. All Saving Grace doth indeed put the Soul into a ftate of Enmity to Sin as 
Sin, and confequently to every known Sin. 

2. This Enmity muft Ihew it lelf in Vi<ftory; for bare ftriving , when we are 
overcome, and yielding to fin when we have a while ftriven againft it,proveth not 
the Soul to be fincere. 

3. Yet do not God's Children always overcome ; for then they Ihould not fin at 
all ! But he that faith he hath no fin deceiveth htm/elf. 

4. God s Children always overcomethofe Temptations which would draw them 
to a wicked unholy fiate of Life, and would unregenerate them and change their 
fi^ate, and turn them back from God to a fleflily worldly Life ; and alfo to any 
particular Sin which proveth fuch a ftate, and fignifieth a Heart which hath more 
habitual Love to the World than unto God ( which may well be called a Mortal 
Sin , as proving the Sinner in a ftate of Death; as others may be called Venial 
Sins, which are confiftent with Spiritual Life and ajuftified State). 

y. Therefore whenever a juftitied Perlbn finneth, the Temptation at that time 
prevaileth againft the Spirir, and the Love of God I not to the ExtinBion of the 
Love of God, nor to the VeftruBion of the Habit, nor the letting up of the contrary 
Habit in predominancy ; as letting up the habitual Love of any Sin above the ha- 
bitual Love of God 1 The inclination of the Soul is ftill molt to God: And he 
efteemeth him moft, and preferrcth him in the adherence of his IVilL in the main 
bent and courfe of Heart and Life; only he is oveicome, and fo far abateth the 


8 The LIFE of the L i b. L 

a<5tual Love and Obedience to Gorf, as to commit this particular A A of Sin^and re- 
mit or omit that Aclof Love. 

6. And this it is poflible for a Juftified Perfon to do upon fome deliberation : 
For as Grace may (trive one inltant only in one Aft, and then be liiddenly over- 
come ; (b it may Ihive longer, and keep the Mind on Gonfiderations of re- 
ilraining Motives, and yet be overcome. 

7. For it is not the meer Length of Confideration which is enough to excite 
the Heart againlt Sin, but there muft be cleameji of Light , and hveUnefi in thofe 
Gonfiderations : And Ibmetimes a fudden Conviction is io clear , and great, and 
lenlible, that in an inliant it ftineth up the Soul to an utter abhorrence of the 
Temptation, when tlic fame Man at another time may have all the lame thoughts, 
in fb flcepy a degree as Jhall not prevail. And fomccimes the weaknefi of Grace as 
j-iiuch appeareth by making no refiftance at all, by caufrng deliberation ( even in 
Sins of Taffionand Surprize) as at other times it doth, by yielding after dull deli- 

8. And though a little Sin muft be hated, and unmerfal Obedience muft prove our 
Sincerity, and no one Sin muft be wilfully continued in ; yet it is certain that 
God's Servants do not ofc commit Sins materially great and heinous (as Fornication, 
Dninkennefi, Perjury, Oppreffion, Deceit, &c.) and yet that they often commit 
iome Icjjir Sins, ( as idle tiioughts, and idle words, and dulnels in holy Duties, de- 
fedivenels in the Love of God, and omiffion of holy Thoughts and Words, &c\ ) 
And that theTcmpter oft getterh advantageeven with them, by tdling them that 
the Sm zs {mall, and iuch as God's Servants ordinarily cominit ; and that naturally 
wc fly with greater fear from a great danger than from a lels ; from a wound at the 
heart than a cut finger ! And therefore one reafon why idle words and/inful thoughts 
are even deliberately oftrier committed than moft heinous Sins, is becaufe the Soul is 
not. avakedib much hy fear and care to make refillance : And Love needcth the 
help of fear in this our weak condition. 

9. And it is certain that ufofaliy the Servants of God. being men of ;»«/? know 
ledge, do thcreforey^; againjr more knoii/ledge tliasi othess do ; for there .ue but few 
Sins, which they know not to be Sins: 1 hey koow that idle Thoughts and Words, 
and the omiffions of thecnnrr.qry. are their lins. 

10. There are fbme Sins of iuch diificuky to avoid, fas thedilbrdsr or omiffion 
ofiioly Tiioughts, and the defeds of Love to God, &c. ) and lume Temptations 
lb ifrong, and the Soul in fo fluggiih a cpA'c to refift, that good Thougljts which are 
in deliberation uled againft them, are borne down at laft , and are lefs efte- 
aual. :: V • 

1 1. And our prefent ftock of Habitual Grace is never fufficient of it fclf with- 
out Co-operating Grace from Chrirt : And therefore, when we provoke him to 
withhold his help, no wonder if we Ihew our weaknels, fo far as to Itumble in the 
way to Heaven, or to ftep out into fome by-path, or break over the hedge, and 
Ibmetimes to look back, and yet never to tiir?i back, and go agiin from God to the 

12. And becaufe no fall of a Saint, which is Few/W, s^n Ufirmity, confident with 
Grace, doth either dsftroy the habit of Love and Grace , or fet up a contrary ha- 
bit above it, nor yet pervert tbofcope and bent of the Converfation, but oniy pie- 
vailcth to a particular AA , it therefore iollovieth, that the Soul riieih up from 
liich a Sin by true Repentance, and that the new Nature or Habit of Love within 
us, will work out the Sin as foon as it hath advantage : As the Needle in the Com- 
paG vvill return to its proper Point, when the foi ce that moved it doth ceafe ; and 
as a running Stream will turn clear again, vvhen the force that muddied it is paft. 
And this Repentance will do much to increafj our hatred of the Sin , and fortifie 
us againft th'i next Temptation: lb that though therebelbincSin5,wliitii through 
our great Infirmity we daily commit, as we daily repent of them ( as dilbrdered 
Thoughts, defeds of Love, negleA of God, d'^c) yet it vvill not be lb with thole 
J^ins which a wtUing, fmcere, habituated Faiitent hath more in iiis power to caif 

. 15. And yet when all is done, Sin will hrce] fears, ( and the more , bv how 
much the more ddtberate and wilful it is :) And tiie bei,!- vya)' to keep under Dcubts 
and Tsrrours, and to keep up Comfort, is to kc^}^ \ii][> Atlual Obedience , and quick- 
ly and penitently return when we have finned. 

This much I thought meet to (ay for the fike of others who may fall into the 
Time Temptations and Perplexities. 

§ 7. The 


P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. ^ 

§ 7. The Means by which God was pleafed to give me feme Peace and Comfort 
were, ' 

1. The Reading of ma;iy Confolatory Books. 

2. The obfervation of other Mens Condition : When 1 heard many makt the 
very fame Complaints that I did, who were People of whom I had the belt 
efteem, for the uprightnefs and holinefs of their Lives, it much abated my fears 
and troubles. And in particular it much comforted me, to read him whom I lo- 
ved as one of the holieft of all the Martyrs, Mr. John Bradford, fubfcribing him- 
felffo often, [;ihe hard-hearted fmner ; and the mifirable hard-hearted (inmr\ even as 
I was uied to do my (elf. 

5. Anditmuchincreafedmy peac3 when God's Providence called me to the 
comtortingof many others that had the fame Complaints : While I anfwered their 
Doubts, I anfwered my own ; and the Charity which I was conftrained to exer- 
cile for them redounded to my felf, and inlenfibly abated my Fears, and procured 
mean increaleofquietnefiof Mind. -jv 

And yet after all, I was glad of TrohahiUties inftead of full undoubted Certawtm • "^.t J-rf 
and to this very day, though I have no liich degree of Doubt fulnefs as is any great An i66a 
trouble to my Soul, or procureth any great difquieting Fears, yet cannot Ifiy that ' 
I have fuch a certainty of my ownfincerity in Grace, as excludeth all Doubts and 
Fear: of the contrary. 

§ 8. At that time al(b God Was pleafed much to comfort and fettle me by the 
acquaintance of feme Reverend peaceable Divines; Mr. Garbet (aforefaid ) and 
Mr. George Baxter of Ltttle IVenlock, (very holy men and peaceable, who laboured 
faithfully with little fuccefs till they were above fourfcore years of Age apiece •) 
efpscially old Mr. SarKitel Smith, fometime of Prittlewell in Effex, but then of Cref 
Jage in Shropjhtre, ( who hath written on the 6th of Hofea, the firft Pfalm , the 2 2d 
PJalm, the jift Ffalm, the 90th Pfalm, the Eunuch's Converfion, Noah'/ Do-ve, the 
Great Jffiz,e,an(i other Books: jThis good Man was one of ray moft familiar Friends, 
in whofe Converfe I took very much delight-who was buried but this Winter 1664. 
at his Native place at DiuHey in IVvrce/^erJIure. 

§ 9. And becaufe the Cafe of my Body had a great Operation upon my Soul 
and the Hiftory of it is fomewha: necelTary to the right underftanding of the reft' 
and yet it is not a Matter worthy to be oft mentioned, I fliall here together give 
you a brief Account of the moft of my AfHidrions of that kind, referving the men- 
tion of fome particular Deliverances to the proper place. 

I was naturally of a found Conftitution, but very thin and lean and weak, 
and efpecially of a great debility of the Nerves. At feven years old I had the' 
Meafils, and at fourteen the Small-pox : I too foon after them went into the cold, 
and after ( in a Loofnefs ) went into a River or Brook to wafh me ; and I eat 
raw Apples and Pears and Plumbs in great quantities for many years : All which 
toge ther brought me into a violent Catarrh and Cough, which would not let me 
fleep quietly in the Night. When this had continued about two years, my Body 
being very thin, and Confumptions then common in the Country, I was much 
afraid of a Confumption : And firft I did eat great ftore of raw Garlick, which 
took off fome part of my Cough, but put an Acrimony into my Blood,which na- 
turally was acrimonious. 

^ After this the Spitting of Blood increaled my fears : After that Sir Henry Herbtrt 
advifed me to take the Flower of Brimftone, which I continned till I had taken 
kven Ounces ; v/hich took off moft of the remainder of my Cough , but increa- 
fed the Acrimony of my Blood. 

Then an unskilful Phyfician perfwaded me that I had a Heftick, and to cure 
that I took much Milk from the Cow , and other pituicous cooling things , and 
conftantly anointed my Stomach and Reins with refrigerating Oils of Violets and 
Rofes ; and was utterly reftrain^ from my ufual Exercife ! By this time I had an 
cxtream chillinefs without, and yet a ftrange fcurf on my Tongue, with a con- 
ftant extream defire of ftretching, that I thought I could almoft have endured a ; 

Rack ; and an incredible flatulency at the Stomach , and a bleeding at the 

The next Phyfician ("an Aged and Experinced DoAor) was confident the 
Scurvy was my cltief Diftemper, and thereupon prefcribcd me more Acrimonious 
Medicaments, Scurvy-grafs, Horfe-radifli, Muftard, Wormwood, &c. which a- 
bundantly incrcaied my bleeding at the Nofe; infomuch as I bled many times half 
a Pint or a Pint .1 day, and it co.ntinuing long, I was much weakned : Yet under 
thislearot the SvUrvy I continued two years taking exceffive quantities of Acri- 

C monious 

lo The LIFE of the L i b. 1- 

monious Things ; eating abundance of Muftard at every Meal, and drinking only 
Wormwood-beer, d^c. and ufing feme Exercife, as much as time would give me 

By this time divers eminent Phyficians agreed that my Difeafe was the Hypo- 
condriack Melancholy, and not the Scurvy. 

To recite a Catalogue of my Symptoms and Pains, from Head to Feet, would 
be a tedious interruption to the Reader : I fliall therefore only fay this , chat the 
Symptoms and EfFeds of my General Indifpofition were very terrible ; fuch .^s a 
flatulent Stomach, that turn'd all things into Wind ; a Rheumatick head to a ve- 
ry great degree; and great fharpneis in my Blood, which occafioned me noiiiiall 
trouble by the excoriation of my Fingers ends,which upon any heat i us'd, or Aro- 
matick thing I took, would be raw and bloody : and every Spring and Fall, or by 
any kind of heating, my Nofeftill fell a bleeding, and that with fuch a great vio. 
lence, and in fuch exceflive quantities, as often threatned my Life : which I then 
afcribed to fuch Caules as I have fince liv'd to fee my lelf miftaken in ; for I am 
now fully fatisfied that all proceeded from Latent Stones in my Reins, occafioned 
by unfuitable Diet in my Youth. 

And yet two wonderful Mercies I had from God : 

3. That I was never overwhelmed with real Melancholy. MyDiflemper never 
went fb far as to pofl'efs me with any inordinate Fancies, or damp me with finking 
Sadnefs, although the Phyficians call'd it the Hyfocondriack Melancholy. I had at 
leveral times the Advice ot no lefs than Six and thirty Phyficians, by whole order 
I us"d Druggs without number almoft, which God thought not fit to make fuc- 
celsful for a Cure : and indeed all Authors that I read , acquainted me that my 
Dileafe was incurable ; whereupon I at laff forfook the Doftors for the molt parr, 
except when the urgency of a Symptom, or Pain , conftrained me to fcek fome 
prelent eale. 

2. The fecond Mercy which I met with, was, that my Pains, though daily and 
almoft continual,did not very niuchdilable me from my Duty; but I couid Study, 
and Preach, and Walk almolt as well if I had been free : (of which more anon). 
At lafi falling into a iudden and great decay and debility, I went to Sir Theodore 
Maycrne. who kept me in a long Courfe of Phyfick, which did me fome good for 
the prefenc ; and after that, riding much in the Army did me more good than a- 
ny thing : But having one Symptom on me (the conftant excoriation of my three 
formoff Fingers ends on both Hands to the raw flefh ) he lent me to TunbriJge- 
Waters, v\here I Ibid three Weeks ; and after that my Defludions and Agitation 
of the Serous Matter, much encreafed, (though the Excoriation cealed at that 
time) and haftned my greater ruine. Elpecially one Errour of his did me hurt : 
He vehemently perflWaded me to the eating of Apples, which of all things in the 
World had ever been my moft deadly Enemies ; fb that when it was too lace , Dr. 
A/^T^fr?!? perceived that though Acrimony difpoled the matter, yet nicer fi<tulency 
pumped up the Blood , and was the moft immediate Caufe of the Hamorrhagte. 
Having taken cold with riding thin clothed in tl-"» Snow, and having but two 
days eaten Apples beloreMeat, as he perfwaded mc, 1 fell into fuch a bleeding as 
continued fix days, with Ibme fits of intermillion ; fb that about a Gallon of Blood 
that we noted was loI>, and what more I know not : Upon this both he and other 
Phyficians gave me up as hof)ekfs, through the weakneis thereby occafioned, and 
concluding that all would end in a Dropfie, ( for my Leggs began to fwells) : By 
a Friend's peiTwaiion I wrote to Dr. George Bates, ( Archiater to King Charla the 
S.'cond, as Sir Theodore Mayerne was to King Charles the Firft ) who concurred lb 
exadly in all points with Dr. Mayerne, as if they had confulted, (the Caieand the 
Medicaments prelcribcd being unufual ) that 1 marvelled at their Concord : and 
by both their Counlels ( though neither of them had any confiderable hope of 
my Life), I was necelTirated , befides other Remedies, tobe ofc in purging, lor all 
my weaknefs, to prevent a Dropfie. Within a quarter of a year I was able weak- 
ly ro Preach again ; but continued divers years in languilhing Pains and Weak- 
ncffes, double or fourfold to what I had before : So that befides all my former In- 
firmities, ever after this Bleeding my chief Difsafe is a Prcon.uw.i 6'fW(f/af, through 
thegreac Diminution of Nature's Stock: And juft the fame Symptoms as moit 
men have about Fourfcoie years of Age, aie added to thofe which I had be- 

In ((Miiefjeming NeceiTuies my latter Phyficians, after all this, did four or five 
times t.^ke fJime Blood from me ; and once a fpoonful in about fevcn Ounces oi Se- 
rtm did coagulate ; but at no oih:r time would one jot of it ever coagulate or co- 

Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 1 

here, but was a meer putrilage fine fibru , like thin Ink or Saw-pit Water. 

To keep this Blood in the relaxed Veflels was now all my Cares, which daily 
jhed abroad upon my Eyes, and Teeth, and Jaws, and joynts, (b that I had fcarce 
reft night or day : ( of Ibme of the EffeftSj and my Remedy which God blefTed 
to my eafc;, I Ihallfpeak more afterward j. With fuch Blood , in a kind of Atro- 
phic, which hath caufed a very troublefome Drowfinefi to feize upon and follow 
me, I have lived now thele many years, and wrote all the Books that ever I wrote 
and done the greatell part of my Service: My chiefeft Remedies are, 

r. Temperance as to quantity and quality of Food: for every bit or fpoonful 
too much, and all that is not exceeding eafie of djgeftion, and all that is flatulent 
do turn all to Wind, and dilbrder my Head. 

2. £xercife till I iweat : For if I walk not hard with almoft all my ftrength, an 
hour before Dinner, and an hour before Supper, till I fweat well, I am not able 
to digeft two Meals j and cannot expeft to live when I am difabled for Exercife, 
being preiently overwhelmed withchillinels, flatulency, andlerofity. 

5. A conftant Extrintick Heat, by a great Fire, which may keep me ftill near 
to a Sweat, if not in it : ( for I am feldom well at ea(e but in a Sweat^. 

4. Beer as hot as my Throat will endure, drunk ail at once, to make me 

Thefe are the Means which God hath ufed to draw out my days , and give me 
eafe ( with one Herb inwardly taken j ; which I write for the fike of any Stu- 
dents that may be near the fame Diftempers ; but almofl all Phyfick did me harm : "~^ 
And no Aromatical Thing now can I tafte, but it fettcth my Nole a bleeding , 
though fince I bled a Gallon I am not lb prone to it as before. 

I havecaft in all this heic together, that the Reader may better underftand other 
things, and may not too oft be troubled wieh fuch Matters, But now at the Age 
of near Seventy years, what Changes and fad Days and Nights I undergo, I after 

§ 10. About the Eighteenth year of my Age Mr. Wickjtead, with whom I had 
lived at LuJloiv, had almoiV perfwaded me to lay by all my Preparations for the 
Miniltry, and to go to Londvn,AnA get acquaintance at Court, andgetfome Office, 
as being the only rifing way. I had no mind of his Counlel who had helped me 
no better before ; yet becaufe that they knew that he loved me, and they had no 
great inclination to my being a Minifter , my Parents accepted of his Motion : 
He told them that if I would go up and live a while with Sir Henry Herbert, then 
Maffer of the Revels,he would quickly let me in a rifing v/ny. 

I would not be difobedienc, but went up, and (iayed at IVbitehall with Sir H. H. 
about a month : But I had quickly enough of the Court ; when I law a Stage- 
Play inliead of a Sermon on the Lord's-days in the Atternoon, and law what 
Courfe was there in falhion, and heard little Preaching,but what was as to one part 
againlt the Puritans, I was glad to be gone : And at the lame time it plealed God 
that my Mother fell Tick, and defired my return ; and lo I revived to bid farewel 
to thofe kind of Employments and Expedations, 

While I was in Lmdon I fell into Acquaintance with a fober, godly, underftand- 
ing Apprentice of Mx.Vhikmon Stephens t\iQ'Sio6\iXQ\\c^ ., whole Name was Hum- 
fhrey Blundtn f who i5 fince turned an extraordinary Chymilf, and got Jacob Behem 
his Books tranflated and printed j, whom I very much loved, and who by his Con- 
folatory Letters and Diredions for Books, did afterwards do me the Offices of an 
uleful Friend. 

§ 1 1. When I was going home again into the Country about Chriftmas-day, the 
greateft Snow began that hath been in this Age, which continued thence till Ea- An.\6i^ 
fier, at which fome places had it many yards deep ; and before it was a very hard 
Froft, which neceffitated me to Froft-nail my Horfe twice or thrice a day. On 
the Road I met a Waggon loaded, where I had no paffage by, but on the fide of 
a bank , which as I palfed over, all my Horles feet flipt from under him, and all 
the Girths brake, and lb I was call juft before the Waggon Wheel , which had gone 
over me, but that it plealed God, that fuddenly the Horfes ftopt, without any dil- 
cernable caufe, till I was recovered : which commanded me to oblerve the Mercy 
of my Proteftor. 

§ 12. This mindeth me of fome other Dangers and Deliverances which I paft 
over. At Seventeen years of Age, as I rode out on a great unruly Horfe for plea- 
fure, which was wont on a fudden to get the Bitt in his Teeth, and let on running ; 
as I was in a Field of high Ground, there being on the other fide a Quick-let Hedge, 
a very deep narrow Lane, about a Stories height below me ; fuddenly the Horle 

C 2 got 


The LIFE of the 

L I B. I. 


oot the Bridle as aforefaid, and let on running ; and in the midft of his running 
unexpeftedly turned afide, and leapt over the top of the Hedge into tbat deep 
Lane : I was fomewhat before him at the Ground, and as the Mire laved me from 
the hurt beneath, fo it plealed God that tlie Horfe never touched me, but he h'ght 
with two feet on one fide of me, and two on the other i though the place made it 
marvellous, how his feet could fall befides me. 

§ 15. While I look back to this, it maketh me remember how God at that time 
did cure my inclination to Gaming : About Seventeen years of Age being at Lud- 
low Caftle, where many idle Gentlemen had little elfe to do, I had a mind to learn 
to play at Tables ; and the bell Gamefter in the Houfe undertook to teach me ! 
As I remember, the firft or fecond Game, when he had fo much the better that 
it was an hundred to one, befides the difference of our skills, the ftanders by laugh'd 
at me, as well as he, for not giving it up, and told me the Game was loft : 1 knew 
no more but that it was not loft till all my Table-men were loft, and would not 
give it over till then. He told me, rhat he would lay me an hundred to one of it, 
and in good earneft laid me down ten Ihillings to my fix pence : As foon as ever 
the Money was down,whereas he told me that there was no poffibilityof my Game, 
but by one Caft often, I had every Caft the fame I wilhed, and he had every one 
accoiding to my defire, fo that by that time one could go four or five times about 
the Room his G.isne was gone, which put him in 16 great an admiration, that I 
took the hint, and believed that the Devil had the ruling of the Dice, and did it 
to entice me on to be a Gamefter. And lb I gave him his Ten [hillings again, and re- 
Iblved I would never more play at Tables whilit I lived. 

§ 14. But to return to the place where I left : When I came home from London, 
I found mv Modier in extremity of l^'ain, and fpcnt tliat Winter in the hearing of 
her Heart-piercing Groans, ( fhut up in the great Snow , which many that went 
abroad did periili iiij till on May the loth (he died. 

At Kiderminfier, the Town being in want of fire, went all to fliovel the way 
over the Heath to Stom-bridge, from whence their Coals come ; and fo great and 
liidden a ftorm of Snow fell, as overwhelmed them ; lb that Ibmo perilhed in ir, 
and others faved their Lives by g'Stting into a little Cote that fiandethonthe Heath, 
and others fcaped home with much ado. 

5 1 5'. Above a year after the Death of my Mother, my Father married a Wo- 
man of gieat Sincerity in the Fear of God, Mary the Daughter of Sir Tho. Hiwkes : 
whole Holineli, Mortilication, Contempt of the World, and fervent Prayer ( in 
which Ihe fpeat a great part of her Life ) have been fo exceeding Exemplary, as 
made her a Special Bleffing to our Family, an Honour to Religion, and an honou- 
rable Pattern to thole that knew her. She lived to be c)6 years old. 

§ 16. Fiom the Age of 21 till near 2 5, my Weaknefs was lo great, that I expe- 
cted not to live above a year ; and my own Soul being under the lerious appre- 
henfion cf the Matters of another World, I was exceeding defirous to Communi- 
cate thofe Apprehenfions to fuch ignorant, prefumptucus, carelels Sinners as the 
V/orld aboundfeth with. But 1 was in a very great perplexity between my En- 
couragements and my Difcouragements: I Vj^as confcious of my perfonal infuffici- 
ency, for want of that mealiire of Learning and Experience, which ia great and 
high a V/ork required. I knew that the want of Academical Honours and De- 
grees was like to make me Contemptible with the moft, and confequently hinder 
the Succels of my Endeavours. But yet expcifting to be fo quickly in another 
World, the great Concernments of miferable Souls, did prevail with me againft 
all theie Impediments • and being confcious of a thirfty defire of Mens Converfi- 
on and Salvation, and of Ibme competent perfwading Faculty of Expreffion.which 
lervent Affections might help to adtuate, I relblved that if one or two Souls only 
might be won to God, it would eafily recompenceall the difconour which for want 
ot Titles I might undergo from Men ! 

Arjd indeed I had fuch clear Convidions my Iclf of the madnefs of fecure pre- 
fiiniptuous Sinners, and the unqueftionable Realons which fliould induce men to a 
holy Life, and of the unfpeakable gieatnels of that Work, which in this hafty 
Inch of Time, we have all to do, that I thought that Man that could be ungod- 
ly, if he did but hear thefe things, was fitter for Bedlam, than for the Reputation 
of a fober rational Man : And I was lb foolifh as to think, that I had lb much to 
lay, and of fuch Convincing Evidence for a Godly Life , that Men were fcarcea- 
ble to withftand it j not conlidering what a blind and lenflels Rock the Heart of an 
obdurate Sinner is j and that old yldam is too ftrong for young Luthtr (as he faid). 
But thele Apprcheniions determined my choice. 

§17. Til) 

P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 3 

§ i7.Till this time I was fatisfied in theMatter of Conformity: Whilft I was young 
I had never been acquainted with any that were againft it^ or that queftioned it. 
I had joyned with theCommon-Prayer with as hearty fervency as afterward I did 
with other Prayers I As long as I had no Prejudice againft it, I had no ftop in my ~f- 
Devotions from any of its Imperfeftions. 

At lad at about 20 years of Age^ I became acquainted with Mr. SimmonJs, Mr. 
Cradock, and other very zealous godly NonconJbrmifts in Sbrewshoy, and the ad- 
joyning parts, whole fervent Prayers and (avoury Conference and holy Lives did 
profit me much. And when I underftood that they were People profecuted by 
the Bilhops, I found much prejudice arileinmy heart againft thofe that peifecuted 
them, and thought thofe thatfilenced and troubled fuch Men could not be the ge- 
nuine Followers of the Lord of l,ove. 

But yet I relblved that I would Itudy the Point, as well as I was able , before J. 
would be confident on either fide : And it prejudiced me againft the Nonconfor- 
mifts, becaule we had but one oF them near us , ( one Mr. Barfiel of Uppngton ) 
who, though he was a very honeft blamelefs Man, yet was reputed to be but a 
mean Scholar j when Mr. Garbet , and ibme other ConformiHs, were more Learn- 
ed Men : And withal, the Books of the Nonconfcrmifts were then fo Icarce, and 
hard to be got ( becaufe of the danger J that I could not corns to know their rea- 
fbns. Whereas on the contrary fide, Mr. Garbet and Mr. Saj^uel Smith, did fend 
mQ Downbam, Sprhjt, Dr. Biirges, and Others of the ftrongeft that had wrote againft 
the Nonconformifts ; upon the reading of which I could not fee but the Caule 
of the Cont'ormifts was very juftifiable, and the realbning of the Nonconformifts 

Hereupon when I thought of Ordination, I had no Scruple at all againft Sub- 
fcription : And yet (b precipitant and ralh was I, that I had never once read over 
the Book of Ordination, which was one to which I was coSubfcribe jnor half read 
over the Book of Homilies, nor exaftly weighed the Book of Common-Prayer,nor 
was I of fuiiident Underftanding to determine confidendy in fome Controverted 
Points in the 59 Articles. But my Teachers and my Books having cjuled me in 
general to think the Con ibrmifts had the better Caufe , I kept oat all particular 
Scruples by that Opinion. 

§ 18. At that time old Mr. Richard Foley oi Stourbridge in IVorceJter^nre, bad re- 
covered (bnie alienated Lands at Dudley, which had been left to Charitable Ufes, 
and added foinethingof his own, and bui't a convenient new School-Houfe, and 
was to choole his firlt School-Mafter and Ulher : By the means oi James Berry 
(who lived in the Houle with me, and had lived with him) he defired me to ac- 
cept it. I thought it not an inconvenient Condition for my Entrance, becaufe I 
might alfo Preach up and down in Places that were mo ft ignorant, before I pre- 
lumed to take a Paftoral Charge (to which 1 had no inclination). So to Dudley 
1 went, and Mr. Foley and James Berry going with me to Worceftcr , at the Time 
of Ordination, I was Ordained by the Billiop, and had a Licence to teach School j 
for which (being Examined) I Subfcribed. 

§ 19. Being fettled (with an Ulher) in the new School at Dudley, and living in 
the Houle of Mr. Richard Foley Junior, 1 there preached my firft Publick Sermon 
in the upper Parifh Church j and afterwards Preached in the Villages about ; and 
there had occafion to fall afreili upon the ftudy of Conformity : For there were 
many private Chriftians thereabouts that were Nonconformifts , and one in the 
Houle with me. And that excellent Man, Mr. William Fennn , had lately lived 
two miles off at Sedgeley, who by defending Conformity, and honouring it by a 
wonderfully powerful and liiccelsful way of Preaching, Conference, and holy Li- 
ving, had ftirred up the Nonconformifts the more to a vehement pleading of their 
Caufe : And though they were there generally godly honeft People, yet fmartly 
cenforious, and made Conformity no fmall fault : And they lent me Manufcripts 
and Books which I never faw before ; whereupon I thought it my Duty to let up- 
on a ferious impartial Trial of the whole Caule. 

The Caufe of Epilcopacy Biftiop Downbam had much fatisfied me in before ; and 
I had not then a fufficient Underftanding of the difference betwixt the Argu- 
ments fur an Epifcopacy in general, and for our Engltjli Diocefans in particular. 
The Caule of Kneeling at the Sacrament I ftudied next : and Mr. Vaybody fully 
fatisfied me for Conformity in that. I turned over Cartwright and Whitgift , and 
others ; but having lately procured Dr. Ames frelh fuit, I thought it my beft way to 
ftudy throughly Dr. Bnrges (his Father-in-law^ and him, as the likelieft means to 
avoid diltradion among a multitude of Writers, and not to lofe the Truth iri 


14 The LI F E of the L l b. I. 

crowds of Words ; feeing thefe two were reputed the ftrongeft on each fide. So I 
borrowed Amefitu his Fn^i Suit, &c. and becaule I could not keep itj I tranfcrihed 
the ftrength of it the broad Margin of Dr. Burges his RejoynJer, over againlt each 
Paragraph which he replied to : And I fpent a confiderable time in the rtrideft 
Examination of both which I could perform. 

And the refult of all my Studies was as followeth : Kneeling I thought lawful, 
and all meer Circumllances determined by the Magiftrate, which God in Nature 
or Scripture hath determined of only in the General.The Surplice I more doubted of; 
but more inclined to think it lawful : And though Ipurpoled, while I doubted, 
- to forbear it till neceflity lay upon me, yet could 1 not have jullified the forfaking 
of my Minilf ry for it ; ( though I never wore it to this day^\ The Ring in Mar- 
riage I made no Scruple about. The Crofs in Baptifml thought Dr. Ames proved 
unlawful J and though I was not without (bme doubting in the Point, yet becaule 
I moff inclined to judge it unlawful^ never once ufed it to this day. A Form of 
Prayer and Liturgy I judged to he lawful, and in fome Gales lawfully impofed : 
Our Liturgy in particular, 1 judged to have much diforJer and defettiTjcneji in it, 
but nothing which Ihould mako the ule of it, in the ordinary Publick Worlhip, to 
be unlawful to them that have not Liberty to do better. Dilcipline I wanted in 
the Church, and faw the lad Effects of its negled : But I did not then underftand 
that the very Frame of Diocelan P/elacy excluded it, but thought it had been on- 
ly the Bifhops peilbnal negleds. Subfcription I began to judge unlawful, and faw 
that I finned by temerity in what I did : For though I could flill ule the Common 
Prayer, and was not yet againft Diocelans , yet to Sublcribe , £.v Animo , That 
there IS nothing tn the three Books contrary to the IVord of God, was that, which if it had 
been to do again, I durft not do. So that Suhfcnption, and the Crofi <» Baptifm, and 
the p-omjjcuous giving of the Lord's Supper to all Vrunknrdsj Swearers, Fornicators, Scot- 
vers at Godlineji, &c. that are not Excommunicate by a Diihop or Chancellor that 
is out of their Acquaintance. Thefe three were all that I now became a Ncmoit- 
forniiH to. 

But molt of this I kept to ray felf. I daily difputed againO: the Noiiconformifts j 
for I found their Cenforioulhefs and Inclinations towards Seperation/in the weak- 
er fort of them j to be a Thrcatning Evil, and concrary to Chriilian Charity on 
one fide, as Perlecution is on the other. Some of them that pretended to much 
I,e3rning, engaged me in Writing to difpute the Cafe of Kneeling at the Sacra- 
ments ; which 1 followed till they gave it over. 1 laboured continually to reprels 
their Cenforinufiiefs, and the boldnels and bitternefs of their Language againit the 
Bilhops, and to reduce them to greater Patience and Charity. But I found that 
their Sulfi;rings from the Bilhops were the great Impediment of my Succels, and 
^ that he that will blow the Coals muft not wonder if fome Sparks do fly 
in his face ; and that to peilccute Men , and then call them to Charity, is like 
-* whipping Childicn to make them give over Crying. The llronger fort of Chri- 
ftians can bear Muldls and Imprifonments and Reproaches for obeying God and 
Conlcience.without abating their Charity or their Weaknels to their Perlecutorsjbut 
to expedl this from all the weak and injudicious, the young and pailtonatejisagainll: 
all Realbn and Experience ; I faw that he that will be loved, nnift love j and he 
that rather chooleth to he more feared th^n loved, mull: exped; to be hated, or lo- 
ved but diminutively : And he that will have Children, muft be a Father: and he 
that will be a Tyrant muft be contented with Slaves. 

§ 20. In this Town of Dudky I lived ( not a Twelve-month ) in much com- 
fort, amongit a poor tracSable People, lately famous for DrunkenneG , but com- 
monly more ready to hear God's Word with lubmiflion and reformation, than moft 
Places where I have come: fb that having fince the Wars (ec up a Monthly Le- 
(fture there, the Church was ufually as much crowded within, and at the Windows, 
as ever I faw any London Congregation? : ( Partly through the great willingnefs of 
the People, and partly by the exceeding popuJoufnels of the Country, where the 
Woods and Commons are planted with I^ailers , Scithe-Smiths ^ and other Iron- 
Labourers, like a continued Village). 

And here in my weaknefs I was obliged to thankfulnels to God, for a conveni- 
ent Habitation, and the tender caie ot Mr. R. Fole/s Wife, a Genie vvoman of 
fuch extraordinary Meeknels and Patience, with fincere Piety , as will not cafily 
be believed by thole that knew her not ! who di'^d about two years after. 

§ 21. When I had been but three quarters of a year at Dudley, I was by God's 
very gracious Providence invited to Br/(/^M<'rr/.i, the lecond Town oi ShropJIiire, to 
preach there as Affiftant to the wortliy Palfor of that place. As foon as I heard 


Part 1. Reverenc/ Mr, Kichatd B^xtti\ . H 

the place delcribed, I perceived it was the fitteft for me ; for there was juft [iich 
Employment as I defired, and could fubmit to, without that which I fcrupled, and 
with fome probability of peace and quietnels. 

The Minifter of the place was Mr. IViUiam Madfiard, a grave and fevere Atici- 
ent Divine, very honeit and confcionable, and an excellent Preacher, but lome- 
whatafflided with want of Maintenance, and much more with a dead-hearted 
unprofitable People. The Town Maintenance being inconfiderable, he took the 
Parfonage of 0W^«>7 near the Town, a Village of fcarce twenty Hoiifcs, and 16 
defired me to be one half day in the Town, and the other at the Village ; but 
my Lot after fell out to be moftly in the Town. The place is priviledged from 
all Epilcopal Jurifdidion, except the Archbithop's Triennial Vifitation. There 
are fix Pari(hes together, two in the Town, and four in the Country, that have all 
this Priviiedge. At Bridgnnrtb they have an Ordinary of their own, who, as an Of- 
ficial, keepeth a confbnt Ecclefialtical Court, having the Jurifdidion of thofe fix 
Parifhes. This reverend and good man, Mr. Madjrard, was both Ta[hr and Offi. 
cial, the Place ufually going along with that of the Preacher of that Town ('though 
Separable ) : By which means I had a very full Congregation to preach to , and a 
freedom from all thole things which I fcrupled or thought unlawful. I often read 
the Common Prayer before 1 preached, both on the Lord's-days and Holy-days ; 
but 1 never adminiltred the Lord's Supper, nor ever Baptized any Child with the 
Sign of the Crols, nor ever wore the burplici, nor was ever put to appear at any 
Bilhop's Court. 

But the People proved a very ignorant, dead-hearted People, ( the Town con- 
fifting too much of Inns and Alehoulcs, and having no general Trade to imploy 
the Inhabitants in, which is the undoing of great Towns) : fo that though through 
the great Mercy of God, my firft Labours were not without Succefs, to the Con- 
verfion of lome ignorant careleli Sinners unto God, and were over-valued by thofe 
that were already regardful of the Concernments of their Souls, yet were they not 
ib fuccefsful as they proved afterwards in other places. Thougli I was in the fer- 
vour of my Aftedions, and never any where preached with more n'^ehement de- 
fires of Mens Converfion ( and I account my I.iberty with that meafiire of Suc- 
cefs which I there had, to be a Mercy which lean never be fufficicntly th.mkful j 
for) yet with the generality an Applaufe of the Preacher was moft of the fuccefs ' 
of the Sermon which I could hear of; and their tipling and ill compa.ny and dead- . 
heartednefs quickly drowned all. 

§22. Whillf I here exercifed the firft Labours of my Miniftry, two feveral Af- 
faults did threaten my Expulfion : The one was a new Oath, which was made by An.i6Ao 
the Convocation, commonly called The Et catcra Oath : For it was to fwear us all, 
That Tve -would vever Con{ent to the Alteration of the prefent Go'vernmetit of the Church ^ 
by JrchbiJJjops, Bijljops, Deans, Arch- deacons-, &c. This caft the Minifters through- 
out England into a Divifion, and new Difputes. Some would take the Oath, and 
Ibme would not. 

Thofe that were for it, fiid, That Epifcopacy was Jure Dtvino , and alfo fettled 
by a Law, and therefore if the Sovereign Power required it, we might well fwear 
that we would never confent to alter it ; and the King's Approbation of thefe Ca- 
nons made them (ufficiently obligatory unto us. 

Thoie that were againfl it, fiid, i . That Epifcopacy was either contra jus Divi- 
wim , or at beft not Jure Divino^ and therefore mutable when the King and Par- 

2. Or at leaft that it was undeniable. That Archbi (hops, and Deans, and Chap- 
ters, and Arch-deacons,c^c, vjtxz noz^W Jure Drjwo: nay, that the £w^///7) frame of 
Diocefans having many hundred Parifh Churches under one Bifhop in fini gradus, 
was not only againft the Word of God, but delfrudtive of ail the Epifcopacy which 
was known in the Church at leaft for 200 years. 

5. They laid that it was intolerable to IWear to a blind Et aetera ; for litterally 
it included all the Officers of the Ecclefiaflical Courts that are now in Exer- ' 
cife of the Government ; Lay-Chancellors ( that ufe the Keys for Excommunica- 
tion and Ablolution ) Surrogates, CommilTaries, Officials, and the rcff. And 
was it ever known that all the Clergy was fworn to luch an Anomalous Rab- 

4. They faid that for ought they knew this Goverment in whole, or in fome 
part, might be altered by the King and Parliament by a Law : And to tie up our 
ielves by anOach that we would never obey fuch a Law, nor confent to that which 
the King might command us, this they thought was a Bond of Dilbbedience, next 
to a Rebellion. 5. They 

i6 The LIFE of the L i b. I. 

5. They faid that it was againft the Subjeds Liberty j which alloweth them fo- 
berly to Petition the King and Parliament for 8 Redrefs of any Grievance. 

And if now a Lay-Chancellor's ule of the Keys, e. g. were no burden to the 
People, we know not how God may make fuch Alterations by his Providence , as 
may make that a Grievance which now is none. 

6. And they faid it was againlf the Priviledges of Parliament, that fuch an Oath 
Ihould be deviled and impoled upon the Subjeds, without a Law, or the Parlia- 
ments confent. 

Thefe and other Realbns were pleaded againft it : ( And afterward when the 
Parliament took it into confideration, it was Condemned on thefe and other Ac- 
cpunts). The Minifters of the Country met together at Bridgnorth to Debate this 
Bufintfs, that they might have no Divifion : and fome few were for the Oath, but 
more againft if. This put me upon deeper Thoughts of the Point of Epifcopacy, 
and of the English frame of Church Government than ever I had before : and now 
I had the opportunity of feeing fome Books, which I never had before. My very 
dear Vl■\&n6^bAl^.WtUiam Rowhy.^n. Gentleman of Shrewsbury) lent me Gerjomus Buct- 
rifs his Dij]erlatin de Giiberrtatmie Ecckftee, and DiJoclaves Altare Damajcenttm ; and 
Ihoftly after I had Parker de Polit. Ecchf. and Bayness Diocejatjes Trial j and I received 
Bifiicp D^jynj&.w/, and compared his Reaibns with Bucers, Didoclaves, &cc. And 
though I found not (ufficient Evidence to prove all kind of Epilcopacy unlawful , 
yet 1 was much latisded that the Engli(l) Dioeefan frame, v/as guilty of the Cor- 
ruption of Churches and Miniftry, and of the ruineof the true Church Dilcipline, 
and lubflituting an heterogeneal thing in its ftead. 

And thus the Et aetera 0.\th, which was impoled on us for the unalterable fub- 
je<ftipg of U5 to Diocefans, was a chief means to alienate me.and many others from 
it. For now our diowfie niindlefncls of that fubjed: was Ihaken off by their vio- 
lence ; and we that thought it beft to follow our bufmefi, and live in quletnels, 
and let the Biliiops alone, were rowzed by the terrours of an O.uh to look about us, 
and undcrftand uhat we did. 

§ 23. This Oath alfo fliired up the differing Parties ( who befoie were all one 
Party, even tjnia Conformijh) to fpeak more bitterly againfl one another than here- 
tofore : And the dilfenting Party began to think better of the Caule ot' Noncon- 
formiiy, and to honour the Nonconformilis more than they had done. And it 
fill out th;it at the lame time when we were thus rowzedup in England, or a little 
belore , the Scots were alfo awakened in Scotland: For when all was quiet there 
under a more moderate Epilcopacy than we had then in England , ( though that 
Nation had been ulcd toPiesbytery ) a new Common-Puyer Book ( that is, the 
jiwff////j one with Ibme lew Alterations) was framed, and impofed on (he People of 
Scotland -^ who h.iving not been uled to that way of Worfiiip, one Woman in E- 
dttibiirgh cried out in the Church, Footry, Popery, and threw her Stool at the Prieft ; 
and others imitated herpreiently, and drove him out of the Church ; and this little 
Spiik let all 5tpf/.i«<7 quickly in a Flame. Infomuch that other Places taking as 
much diflalte at the Common Prayer,and at the Bilhopsallb for its fake.and for fear 
of the Silencing of their Miniders, and Ibme Minillers increaling their diftafte, the 
I,ords prelently were divided alio j inlomuch that the King was fain to inftrut^: 
the Eail of JW^/Mir;, as his Commiflioner, to fuppreQ the Malecontents : But in 
a Ihort time the number of them lo encreafed , that the Kiog's Commiflioners 
CO lid do no good on them, but they got the power of all the Land, becaule the 
far greacel!' part of the Nobility with the Mini [try were conjoyned. Hereupon 
thev all entered into a National Covenant, to the fame purpole as formerly that 
Nation had done, but they did it without the Kings Authority. The Oath or 
Covenant was againft Popery and Prelacy and Superltition, and to uphold tlie 
Gofpel and Reformition. The Aberdeen Dodors dilfented from the Covenant, and 
many Writings paft on both fides between the Covenanters and them, till at lalt 
the enfuingWars did turn the Debates to another ftrain. 

§ 24. It fill out unhappily that at the (ame time while the Scots were thus dif- 
contented, the King had impofed a Tax here, called Ship money, us for the ftrength- 
iiing of the Navy j which being done without Confent of parliament, made a 
wonderful murmuring all over the Land , efpecially among tlie Country No- 
bility and Gentry; for they took it as the overthrow of the Fundamental Lav/s 
urConlfiution of the Kingdom , and of Parliaments, and of all Propriety. 

They fiid that the Subjects Propriety in liisEftate_, and the Being of Parliaments, 
and that no Laws be made, nor Moneys taken iVnm the SubjeA'^, but by the Par- 
liaments Conlent, are part of the Conftitution of the Republick or Government. 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 17 

And they faid that the King having long difuled Parliaments upon Difpleafure A- 
gainft them, becaufe they curbed Monopolies, and correded Abules of OfficerSj &c. 
had no way to lay them by for ever, but to invade the Subjeds Proprietyj, and to 
iaffume the power of laying Taxes and railing Moneys without them ; and that if 
thus Parliaments and Propriety were deftroyed , the Government was diflblved or 
altered, and no Man had any Security of Eftate or Liberty or Life, but the Plea- 
fure of the King, whofe Will would be the only Law. They iaidallb, that thofe 
that counlelled him to this were Enemies to the Commonwealth, and unfitter to 
counlel him than Parliaments, who are his higheft Court and Council. 

The poor Plowmen underftood but little of thefe Matters j but a little would -^ 
ftir up their Difcontent when Money was demanded : But it was the more intelli- 
gent part of the Nation that were the great Complainers. Infomuch that fome of 
them denied to pay the Ship-money, and put the Sheriffs to diftrain ; the Sheriffs, 
though afraid of a future Parliament, yet did it in obedience to the King. Mr. 
Hampden and the Lord Say brought it to a Suit ; where Mr. Olfver St. John and o- 
ther Lawyers boldly pleaded the Peoples Caule. The King had before called all the 
Judges to give their Opinions, Whether in a Cafe of need he might impofe fuch a 
Tax, or nor. And all of them gave their Opinion for the Affirmative, except 
Judge Hatton and Judge Crook. The Judgment pafTed for the King againft Mn 
Hampden : But this made the Matter much more talk of throughout the Land, and 
confidered of by thole that thought not much of the Importance of it be- 

§ 2f. Some fiifpeded that many of the Nobility of 'England did fecretly Confe- 
derate with the bcots, ^o far as to encourage them to come into England^ thinking 
that there V/as no other way to caufe the Calling of a Parliament , which was the 
thing that now they bent their minds to as the Remedy of thele things. The Earl 
of Ejjex, the Earl of IVanvick, the Earl of Bedford, the Earl of Clare , the Earl of 
BuUmgbrooh, the Earl of Ai«/^r<JX'e, t\iQ'Ezv\ oi Holland, the Lord Say, the Lord 
Brook, and I know not how many more, were laid to be of this Confederacy. 
But Hi)hn himlelf hath more truly given you the Hiftory of this. That the Scoti^ 
after they came in, did perfwade thefe Men of their own danger in £wg/<sw</, if Ar- 
bitrary Government went on, and fo they petitioned the King for a Parliament, 
which was all their Confederacy ; and this was after their fecond Coming into 

The Scots came with an Army, and the King's Army met them near Newcafile iAn.i6%i^ 
but the Scots came on till an Agreement was made, and a Parliament called j and 
the Scots went home again. 

Est Ihortly afttr^ this Parliament fo dilpleafed the King that he DilTolved it:, 
and the War agiinll the Scots was again undertaken, (to which, befides others, the 
Papiits by the Qtieen^ means did voluntarily contribute ): whereupon the Scots 
compiain of evil Counlels and Papifis as the caule of their renewed dangers, and 
again raifean Army and come into England. And the Englif) at York petition the^ tAao 
King fiu aP.irliament, and once more it is relblved on, and an Agreement made, ' ^ 
but neither the Scottijh or EngltJIi Army disbanded. And thus began the Long 
Tarliamint as it was after called. 

§ 26.1 he Et ccetera Oath was the firft thing that threatned me at Bridg;enorth\ and 
the fccond was the palTage of the Earl of Bridgwater, Lord Prefident of the Marches 
of ^tf/ti,through the Town in his Journey from Ludloiv to the King in the North : 
For his coming being on Saturday Evening, the moff malicious perfons of the 
Town went to him, and told him that Mr. Made[tard and I did not fign with the 
Crols, nor wear the Surplice, nor pray againfl the Scots ( who were then upon 
their Entrance into Englatid ; and for which we had no Command from the King;, 
but a printed Form of Prayer from the Bifhops.) The Lord Prefident told them. 
That he would himfelf come to Church on the morrow, and lee whether we 
would do thefe things or not. Mr. Madeflard went away, and left Mr. Swain (the 
Reader^ and my [elf in the danger. But after he had fpoken for his Dinner, and 
was ready to go to Church, the Lord Prefident fuddenly changed his purpofe, and 
went away on the Lord's Day as far as Lichfield ; requiring the Acculers and the 
Bailiffs to fend after him to inform him what we did. On the Lord's Day at E- 
vening they fent after him to Lichfield to tell him that we did not conform : but 
though they boafted of no lels than the hanging of us, they received no other An- 
fwer from him, but that he had not the Ecclefiaflical Jurifdidion, and therefore 
could not meddle with us ; but if he had, he Ihould take fuch order in the bufi- 
nels as were lit : And the Bailiffs and Acculers had no more wit than to read his 

D Letter 


i8 The L I F E of the L i b. I. 

Letter to mc, that I might know how they were baffled. Thus I continued in 
my Liberty of preaching the Gofpel at Bridgemrth about a year and three quarters, 
where I took my Liberty (though with very little Maintenance) to be a very great 
mercy to me in thofe troublefome times. 

§ 27. The Parliament being fate, did prefently fall on that which they account- 
ed Reformation of Church and State, and which greatly dilplealed the King as 
well as the Bifhops. They made many long and vehement Speeches againft the 
Ship-money, and againfl; the Judges that gave their Judgment tor it, and againft 
the Et catera Oath, and the Bifhops and Convocation that were the formers of it; 
but efpecially againft the Lord Thomm Wer.tworth Lord Deputy of Ireland., and Dr. 
Laud Archbifhop of Canterbury^ as the evil Counfellers, who were faid to be the 
Caufe of all. Thefe Speeches were many of them printed , and greedily bought 
up throughout the Land, efpecially the Lord Fdklands, the Lord Dighies,Mc. Gnm" 
fiones, Mr. Pirns, Mr. Natk Fiennes, &c. which greatly increafed the Peoples Ap- 
prehenfion of their Danger, and inclined them to think hardly of the King's Pro- 
ceedings, but efpecially of the Bifhops. Particular Articles of Accufation were 
brought in againft the Lord Deputy, the Archbifhop, the Judges, Bifhop Wren , 
Bifhop Pierce, and divers others. 

The Concord of this Parliament confifted not in the Unanimity of the Perfons 
( for they were of leveral Tempers as to Matters of Religion), but in the Compli- 
cation of the Intereft of thofe Caufes which they feverally did moft concern them- 
filves in. For as the King had at ones impofed the Ship-money on the Common- 
wealth, and permitted the Bifhops to impofe upon the Church their difpleafing 
Articles, and bov>7ing towards the Altarj and the Book for Dancing on the Lord's 
Day, and the Liturgy on Scotland, &cc. and to Sufpend or Silence abundance of 
Minifters that were conformable, for want of this Super-canonical Conformity ; 
io accordingly the Parliament confifted of two forts of Men , who by the Con- 
jandlion of thefe Caufes were united in their Votes and Endeavours for a Reforma- 
tion : One Party made no great matter of thefe Alterations in the Churcli ; but 
they faid, Thatif Parli-imsnts were once down, and our Propriety gone, and Ar- 
bitrary Government fet up, and Law fubjecfted to the Prince's Will, we were then 
all Shves, and this they made a thing intolerable j for the remedying of which, 
they fiid, every true E^igliflj Man could think no price to dear : Thefe the People 
called Good Commoniveahb's Men. The other fort were the more Religious Men, 
who were alfo fenfible of all thefe things, but were much more fenfible of the In- 
tereft of Religion; and thefe mctt inveyed againft the Innovations in the Churchi 
the bowing to Altars, the Book for Sports on Sundays , the Cafting out of Mini- 
sters, the troubling of the People by the High-Commiflion Court, the Pilloring 
and Cutting off Mens Ears, fMr. Burtons, Mr. Prins, and Dr. Bajtwicks) for fpeak- 
ing againit the Bifhops, the putting down Leftuies, and Afternoon Sermons and 
"^ Expolitions on the Lord's Days, with inch other things, which they thought of 

greater weight than Ship-money. But bscaule thefe later agreed with the former 
in the Vindication of the Peoples Propriety and Liberties, the former did the eafilier 
concur with them againft the Proceedings of the Bifhops and High CommifHon 

And as foon as their Inclination was known to the People, all Countreys fent 
in their Complaints and Petitions. It was prefently known how many Miniflers 
Bifhop Wren { and others of them ) had fiifpended and filenced j how many thou- 
ftnd Families had been driven to flie into Holland, and how many thoufand into 
Netv-Erigimd : Scarce a Minifter had been Silenced, that w.is alive, but it was put 
into a Petition, hh. Peter Sniart oi DurhaTn, and Dr. Lay ton (a Scotch Phyfician, 
who wro-e a Dook called Stan's Plea againfi the Prelates) were releafed out of their 
long Iniprifonment : M.X. Burton, Mr. Pr in, and Dr. Bajlwick, who (asisfaid) had 
been pillored, and their Ears cut off^ and they lent into a (fuppofed) perpetual Ini- 
prifonment into the diftant Caftles of Gerwj'7, Jerjey, and Carnarvon, were all fee 
free, and Damages voted them for their wrong : And when they came back to 
Lofidon, they were met out of the City by abundance of the Citizens, with fiich 
Accl.iniations as could not but fecm a great Affront to the King, and be much dif- 
pleafing to him. The Lord Keeper Fmch and Secretary Wtndebank fled beyond Sea, 
and fived themfelves : The guilty Judges were deeply accuf:d, and fome of them 
imprifonod for the Caufe of Ship-money. But the great Difpleafure was againft tlie 
Lord Deputy Wentworth, and Archbifhop Laud : Both thefe were lent to the Tower, 
find a Charge drawn up again.ft them, and managed prefently againft the Lord 
Deputy by the ablell Lawyers and Gentlemen of thelloufe. This held them work 

Part I. Reverend Mr. RichsLvd Baxter. 19 

a confiderable time : The King was exceeding unwilling to confent unco his death j 
and therefore ufedail his skill to have drawn offthe Parliament from lb hot a Pro- 
{ecution of him. 

And now began the firfl: Breach among themfelves : For the Lord Falkland, the An.i6^t 
Lord D'lghy, and divers other able Men, were for the fparingof his Life, and grati- 
fying the King.and not putting him on a thing fo much dilpleafing to him.The rell 
laid, If after the Attempt of Subverting the Fundamental Laws and Liberties , no ■^'■ 
one Man lliall fuffer Death, it will encourage others hereafter to the like. The 
Londoners petitioned for Jufiice : And too great numbers of Apprentices and others, 
( being imboldened by the Proceedings of the Parliament , and not fore-knowing 
what a Fire the Sparks of their temerity would kindle) did too triumphingly and 
diforderly urge the Parliament, crying Jufitce, Juftice. And it is not unlikely that 
fome of the Parliament-men did encourage them to this, as thinking that fome 
backward Members would be quickned by Popular Applaufe : And withal, to 
work on the Members alfo by dilgrace, fome infolenc Painter did (ledicioudy) draw 
the Pidures of the chief of them that were for faving the Lord Deputy , and cal- 
led them the Straffordians ( he being Earl of Strafford ) and hang'd them with 
their Heels upward on the Exchange. Though it cannot be expeded that in fo great 
a City there Ihould be no Perfons fo indifcreet as to commit fuch diforderly Adi- 
ons as thefe, yet no fober Men Ihould countenance them, or take part with them, 
whatever ends might be pretended or intended. The King called the(e Tumults : 
the Parliament called them the Cities Petitioning ! Thofe that connived at them 
were glad to fee the People of their mind in the main, and thought it would do 
much to facilitate their Work, and hold the looler Members to their Caufe : For 
though the Houle was unanimous enough in condemning Ship-money , and the 
Et catera Oath, and the Bifliops Innovations, &c. yet it was long doubtful which 
fide would have the major Vote in the matter of the Earl of Strafford's Death, and 
fuch other Ads as were moft highly difpleafing to the King. But diforderly means 
do generally bring forth more Diforders, andfsldom attain any good end for which 
they are ufed. 

§ 28. The Parliament alfo had procured the King to confent to feveral Afts which 
were of great importance, and emboldened the People by confirming their Autho- 
rity : As an A<5t againrt the High Com miffion Court, and Church-mens Secular 
or Civil Power ; and an A&. that this Parliament ihould not be diffolved till its 
own Confent, (alledglng that the dilTolving of Parliaments emboldened Delin- 
quents, and that Debts and Diforders were fo great that they could not be overcome 
by them in a little time ) : Alfo an Ad for Triennial Parliaments. And the Peo- 
ple being confident that all thefe were figned by the King, full fore againft his will, 
and that he abhorred what was done,did think that the Parliament which had con- 
fVrained him to this much, could carry it ftill in what they pleafed, and fo grew 
much more regardful of the Parliament, and fided with them not only for their 
Caufe, and their own In tereff, but alfo as fiippofing them the fironger fide C which 
the Vulgar are ftill apt to follow). 

§ 29. But to return to my own matters : This Parliament, among other parts of 
their Reformation, refblved to reform the corrupted Clergy, and appointed a Com- 
mittee to receive Petitions and Complaints againfl them ; which was no fooner un- 
derffood, but multitudes in all Countreys came up with Petitions againff their Mi- 
nifters. The King and Parliament were not yet divided, but concurred, and fb 
no partaking in their Differences was any part of the Accufation of thefe Mini- 
ftersjtill long after when the Wars had given the occafion ; and then that alfo came 
into their Articles : but before it was only matter of Infuflficiency, falfe Dodrine, 
illegal Innovations, or Scandal, that was brought in againft them. 

Mr. John White being the Chair-man of the Committee for Scandalous Miniflen 
( as it was called ) publilhed in print one Century firft of Scandalous Minifters, 
with their Names, Places, and the Articles proved againft them : where lb much 
ignorance, infufliiciency, drunkennefs, filthinefs, e^c. was charged on them, that ma- 
ny moderate men could have wilhed that their Nakednels had been rather hid , and 
not expofed to the Worlds derifion, and that they had remembred that the Papifts 
did fVand by, and would make Iport of it. Another Century allb was after pub- 

Among all thefe Complainers, the Town of Kgdermin^er in Worcefierjhtrt , drew 
up a Petition againft their Minifters : The Vicar of the place they Articled againft 
as one that was utterly infufficient for the Miniftry , prefented by a Papift , un- 
learned , preached but once a quarter, which was fo weakly, as expofed him to 

D z laughtsfj 


The LIFE of the Lib. I. 

laughter, and perfwaded them that he underftood not the very Subftantial Articles 
of Chriltianity ; that he frequented AJehoufes, and had Ibmetimes been drunk j 
that he turned the Table Alter- wile, &c. with more fuch as this. The Vicar had a 
Curate under him in the Town whom they alfo accufed ; and a Curate at a Chap- 
pel in theParifli, a common Tippler and aDiunkard, a railing Quarreller, an ig- 
norant inlufficient Man, who (as I found by Examining himj underftood not the 
common Points of the Childrens Catechifm, but faid fome good words to them 
Ibmetimes out of Mufculns's Common Places in Englijli , which was almoft the only 
Book he bad ; and his Trade in the Week-days was unlawful Marriages. The Peo- 
ple put their Petition into the Hands of Sir Henrj Herbert Burgefi for Bewdky , a 
Town two miles diftant. The Vicar knowing his infufficiency , and hearing how 
two others in his Cafe had fped, defired to compound the Bufjnefs with them j and 
by the mediation of Sir Henry Htrhert, and otheiSj it was brought to this. That he 
ihould inftdd of his prefent Curate in the Town, allow 60 /. fer Annum Co a Prea- 
cher whom fourteen of them nominated, fiiould choofe j and that he fhould noc 
hinder this Preacher from preaching whenever he plea(ed,and that he himfelf /hould 
read Common Prayer, and do all elfe that was to be done : and fo they preferred 
not their Peciiion againft him, nor againft his Curates, but he kept his Place, which 
was worth to him near 200 /. per Ann. allowing that 60 /. out of ittotheirtefturer. 
To perform this he gave a Bond of fco /. 

Thele things being thus (iniflied, Ibmeof them defired old Mr. Lapthorn (a. fa- 
mous Man, turned from Nonconformity by King James ) to come and preach 
with them on trial to be their Lecturer : Mr. Lapt horns roughnefs and great inime- 
thodicainefs, and digreffions, fo offended the intelligent leading Party, that they 
lejeftcd him fomewhat uncivilly, to his great difplealiire. 

Hereupon they invited me to them fiom Bridgnorth : The Biiliff of the Town, 
and all the Feoffees defired me to preach with them, in order to a full determinati- 
on. My mind was much to the place as {oon as it was delcribed to me j becaufe 
it was a full Congregation, and moft convenient Temple j an ignorant, rude and 
revelling People for the greater part, who had neeJ of preaching 5 and yet had a- 
mong them a fmal! Company of Converts, who were humble, godly, and of good 
Converfkions, and not much hated by the refl , and therefore the ficter to alTifl 
their Teacher ; but above all, becaufe they had hardly ever had any lively, ferious 
preaching among them : For Bridgnorth had made me reiblve that I would never 
more go among a People that had been hardened in unprofitablenefs under an a- 
wakening Miniitry ; but either to fuch as never had any convincing Preacher, or 
to fuch as had profiied by him. As fbon as I came to Kidcrminfier, and had preacli- 
ed there one day, I was chofen Nemine contradicentc, ( for though fourteen only 
had the power of choofing, they defired to pleafe the reflj. And thus I was 
brought by the gracious Providence of God, to that place which had the chiefeft 
of my Labours, and yielded me the greatelf Fruits of Comfort. And I noted the 
mercy of God in this, that I never went to any place in my Life , among all my 
Changes, which I had before delued, defigned or thought of, ( much leis lought j ; 
but only to thole that I never thought of, till the Hidden Invitation did liirprize 

§ 50. When I had been here a while, in the beginning of July, the two Fami- 
lies which I had lalf lived in, at Dudley snd Bridgnorth, were at once vifired with 
Sicknefs, and they both fent for me ( upon a conceit of my skill in Phylick ) , but 
being from home I went to neither of them ; and it proved a molf contagious ma- 
lignant Fever next the Plague ; Mrs. Foley and Ibme of her Family died: and Mr. 
Made(}ard, his Wife, and a Gentlewom-m that lived with them, died within a day 
or two each of other. Being with my old Friend Mr. IVilli'^m Rowley, the lad 
MefTage came to us ( Mr, Madefiard being his Kinfman ) and I went with him to 
the Funeral, and preached his Funeral Sermon in fb deep a lenle of the milery of 
that unprofitable People, and the deep groans which I have heard from their faith- 
ful Pallor, for their obduratenefs, that I could not forbear to tell them my fears 
of fome heavy Judgment to come upon that place, which they were more capa- 
ble of laying to he.irt thin their Paffor's death. I had never before (nor ever did 
1 fincej prelume upon fuch kind of Predictions, (nor did I fpeak that with any 
pretence of Prophefie^ but the cxpreffion of that fear 1 could nor then fuppref : 
My Text was Ez^ek. 5^. 35. And ■when thu comet h to pa^ {loe tt luill come ) then fliall 
they know that a Prophet hath been among therrj. And when the War was begun , the 
Town f being againff the Parliament J was a Garrifon for the King, kept by the 
Neighbour Gentlemen of the Country j who fortified the Calfle, and when the 

'^ Par- 

Part I. Reverenc^ Mr. Richard Baxter. 21 

Parliament's Forces came to take the Town, they caft fuch effedual Fire-worl;s 
from the Caftle as burnt down the Town to the Ground, and burnt alio the great 
Church where I preached that Sermon , and where Mr. MadHard was intei red : 
So that the Inhabitants were undone, and fain to lye under Hedge?, ti!! the Com- 
paffion of others afforded them Entertainment and Habitation. And as for their 
Church, it was a great while before it was rebuilt , and that after two general 
Colleftions for it. The firft time that I came among them when the Wars were 
palt, I chole the fame Text again to preach on, to call their fins againft their faith- 
ful Pallor to remembrance : But they and I were fo much interrupted with Tears^ 
that ( with fome Pawles ) I had much ado to proceed on to the end. 

§ 3 1. Whilft I continued at Kedermwfier, it pleafed God to give me much En- 
couragement by the Succefs of my weak but hearty Labours: As when I was 
young, I uled to keep a daily Catalogue of my daily Mercies and Sins, but when 
1 grew elder I found that Courfe had its Inconveniences, and took up too much 
time, and therefore I only recorded thofe vvhicii were extraordinary j even fo 
when I firft entered upon my Labours in the Miniftry, I took fpecial notice of 
every one that was humbled, reformed or converted ; but when I had laboured 
long, it pleafed God that the Converts were fo many, that I could not afford 
time for fuch particular Oblervations about every one of them, left I Ihould omit 
fome greater Workj but was fain to leave that to their companionate familiar Neigh- 
bours,and take notice my ielf of Families and confiderable Numbers at once, that 
came in and grew up 1 fcarce knew how. 

§ 32. All this forementioned time of my Miniftry was part under my fore- 
delcribed Weakneffes, which were fo great as made me live and preach in fome 
continual expectation of Death, fuppofing ftill that I had not long to live. And 
this I found through all my Life to be an unvaluable mercy to me : For, 

1. It greatly weakned Temptations. 

2. It kept me in a great Contempt of the World. 

3. It taught me higlily to efteem of time : fo that if any of it paft away in idle- 
neis or unprofitablenefi, it was lb long a pain and burden to my mind 1 So that 
1 rauft fay to the Praiie of my mo;t wife Condudor, that time hath ftill feemed to 
me much more precious than Gold or any Earthly Gain, and its Minutes have 
not been defpifed, nor have I been much tempted to any of the Sins, which go 
under the name of Vaflime , fince I underftood my Work. 

4. It made me ftudy and preach things necejjarj, and a little ftirred up my flug- 
gilh heart, to fpeak to Sinners with fome Compaflion, as a dying Man to dying ''" 

Thele, with the reft which I mentioned before when I fpake of my Infirmities^ 
were the Benefits which God afforded me by Afflidion ! I humbly blefi his graci- 
ous Providence, who gave me his Treafure in an Earthen Velfel, and trained me 
up ill the School of Aftlidion, and taught me the Cro(i of Cbrifi Co foon ; that I 
might be rather Theelogtts Cmcis, as Luther fpeaketh, than Theologns Gloria ; and a 
Crop'bearer, than a Croji-maker or Impofer. 

§ 3 5. At one time above all the reft, being under a new and unufual Diftemper, ^ 
which put me upon the prelent ExpeAations of my Change, and going for Com- 
fort to the Promiles as I was uled, the Tempter ftrongly affaulted my Faith, and 
would have drawn me towards Infidelity it Ielf. Till 1 was ready to enter into the 
Miniftry, all my Troubles had been raifed, by the hardnefs of my heart, and the 
doubcings of my own Sincerity ; but now all thefe began to vani/h, and never 
much returned to this day : And inftead of thefe, I was now affaulted with more 
pernicious Temptations ,• efpecialiy to queftion the certain Truth of the Sacred 
Scriptures; and alio the Life to come, and Immortality of the Soul. And thefe 
Temptations affaulted me not as they do the Melancholy, with horrid vexing Im- 
portunity ; but by pretence of fober Reafon, they would have drawn me to a fet- 
ied doubting of Chriftianity. 

And here I found my own Mifcarriage, and the great Mercy of God. My Mif- 
carrtage, in that I h ;d to long negletlred the well iettlmg of my Foundations, while 
1 had beftowed (b much time in the SuperftruAures and the Applicatory part I For 
having taken it for an intolerable Evil, once to queftion the Truth of Scriptures 
ana the Life to coine, I had either taken it for a Certainty upon Truft , or taken 
up vvith Common Reafons of it, which I had never well confidered, digefted, or 
made mine own. Infomuch as when this Temptation came, it feemed at firft to 
anlwer and enervate all the former Reafbns erf" my feeble Faith, ^ which made me 
take the Scriptures for the Word of God ; and it fet before me fuch Mount^iins of 


22 ^^^ LIFE of the L I B. L 

Difficulty in the Incarnatiotij the Perfon of Chrift, his Undertaking and Perform- 
ance with the Scripture Chronology, Hiftories and Stile, &c. which had flailed 
and overwhelmed me, if God had not been my ftrength. And here I faw much 
of the Mercy of God, that he let not out thefc terrible and dangerous Temptations 
upon me, while I was weak and in the infancy of my Faith j for then I had ne- 
ver been able to withftand them. But Faith is like a Tree, whofe Top is fmall 
while the Root is young and ftiallow : and therefore as then it hath but Imall root- 
ing, fo is it notliabletothe fhaking Wintis and Tempefts as the big and high- 
grown Trees are: But as the top groweth higher, fo the root at once grows great- 
er, and deeper fixed, to caufe it to endure its greater Aifaults. 

Though formerly I was wont when any fuch Temptation came, tocafl irafide, 
as fitter to be abhorred than confidered of, yet now this would not give me fati(^ 
fadion ; but I was fain to dig to the very Foundations, and lerioufly to Examine 
the Reafons of Chriftianity, and to give a hearing to all that could be faid againtt 
it, that fo my Faith might be indeed my own. And at lalt I found that iVi/ tam 
certum cjuamquod ex dubio certum j Nothing is fo firmly believed, as that which hath 
been fometime doubted cf. 

§ 54. In the dorm of this Temptation, I queftioned a while whether I were 
indeed a Chriftian or an Infidel, and whether Faith could confift with fuch Doubts 
as I wasconfciousof : For I had read in many Papiftsand Proteffants, that Faith 
had Certainty, and was more than an Opinion ; and that if a Man ftould live a 
godly Lifj, from the bare apprehenfions cf the Probability of the Truth of Scrip- 
ture, and the Life to come, it would not lave him, as being no true Godlinefe or 
Faith. But my Judgment clofed v/ith the Reafon of Dr. Jackfins Determination 
of this Cafe, which liipported me much, that as in the very Alfenting Aftof Fajth 
there may be fuch weaknefs, as may make us cry, Lord mcreafe our Faith : fVebcUe've^ 
Lord help cur belief \ fb when Fc.ith and Unbelief are in their Conflift, it is the Ef- 
feHs which muft (hew us which of them is viAorious. And that he that hath lb 
much Fai'.h as will caufe him to deny himfelf, take up his Crols, and forlake all the 
Profits, Honours, and Pleafures of this World, for the lake of Chrill, the Love of 
God, and the hope of Glory, hath a laving Faitli, how weak Ibever : For God 
cannot condemn the Soul that truly loveth and lieketh him : And thole that ChrUt 
bringeth to perfevere in the Love of God, he bringeth to Salvation. And there 
were divers Things that in tl.ii AlTault proved greac Ailiflances to my Faith. 

1. That the Being and Attributes of God were lo clear to me, that he was to 
my Intelled what the Sun is to my Eye, by which I fee it lelf and all Things : 
And he leemed mad to me that quelHoned whether there were a God : that any 
Man Ihould dream that the World was made by a ConHux of Irrational Atoms, and 
Reafon came from that which had no Reafon, or that Man, or any Inferiour Be- 
ing was independent ; or that all the being, Power, Wifdom, and Goodnels whicb 
we converled with, had not a Caufe which in Being, Power, Wiidom and Good- 
nels, did excel all that which it had caufed in the World, and had not all that for- 
vialiter -vel eminent er in itleU which it communicated to all the Creatures. Thele, 
and all the Suppofitions of the Atheift, have ever fince been lb vifibly foolilh and 
fliameful to my Apprehenfion, that I Icarcefind a Capacity in my felf of doubting 
of them ; and whenever the Tempter hath joyned any thing againft thefe, with 
the red of his Temptations, the reft have been the eafier overcome, becaufe of the 
overwhelming cogent Evidences of a Deity jwhich are always before the Eyes of my 

2. And it helped me much to difcern that this God muft needs be related to us 
as our Owner, our Governour, and our Benefactor, in that he is related to us as our 
Creator ; and that therefore we are related to him as his o-wn, his Subjeils , and liis 
Beneficiaries -^ which as they all proceed by undeniable reliiltancy from our Creation 
and Nature, fo thence do our Duties arile which belong to us in thole Relations, by 
as undeniable rcfultancy ; and that no fhew of Realbn can be brought by any Infi- 
del in the World to excufe the Rational Creature from Loving his Maker, with all 
his heart and foul and might, and devoting himlelf and all his Faculties to him 
from whom he did receive them, and making him his ultimate End who is his 
firft Efficient Caufe. So that GodlineJJ is a Duty fo undeniably required in the Law 
of Nctuie, and lb difcernable by Rejfon it lelf, that nothing but unrealonablenefs 
can contradidt it. 

;. And then it feemed utterly improbable to me that this God Ihould fee us to 
be Lolcis by our Love and Duty to him, and that our Duty fhould be made to be 
our Snare, or make us the mors milerable by how much the more faithfully we 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 23 

perform it ! And I law that the very Poffibility or Probability of a Life to come, 
would make it the Duty of a Reafonable Creature to feek it, though with the lols 
of all below. 

A. And I faw by undeniable Experience, a ftrange Univerfal Enmity between 
the Heavenly and the Earthly Mind, the Godly and the Wicked , as fulfilling the 
Prediiaion Gen. ;, i j. The War between the Woman's and the Serpent's Seed, be- 
ing the daily Bufinefs of all the World. And I (aw that the wicked and haters of 
Godlinefs are fo commonly the greateft and moft powerful and numerous, as well 
as cruel, that ordinarily there is no living according to the Precepts of Nature and 
undeniable Reafon, without being made the Derifion and Contempt of Men (if we 
can Icape fo eafily). 

J. And thei Ifaw that there is no other Religion in the World which can (land 
in competition with Chriltianity : Heathenifm and Mahometanifm are kept up by 
Tyranny , and Beaftly Ignorance, and blufh to ftand at the Bar of Realbn : And 
Judaifm is but Chriftianity in the Egg or Bed. Andweer Detfin, which is the moft 
plaufible Competitor, is fo turned out of almoft all the whole World, as if Na- 
ture made its own Confeffion , that without a Mediator it cannot come to 

6. And I perceived that all other Religions leave the People in their worldly, 
fenfual, and ungodly ftate ; even their Zeal and Devotion in them, being com- 
monly the Servants of their Flefiily Intereft: And the Nations where Chriltianity 
is not, being drowned in Ignorance and Earthly mindednefs, fo as to be thelhame 
of Nature. 

7. And I law that Chrift did bring up all his ferlous and fincere Difciples to real 
Holinefi and to Heavenly mindednefs, and made them new Creatures, and fee 
their Hearts and Defigns and Hopes upon another Life ; and brought their Senle 
into lubjedion to their Reafon, and taught them to refign themfelves to God, and 
to love him above all the World. And it is not like that God will make ufe of a 
Deceiver for this real vifible Recovery and Reformation of the Nature of Man ; or 
that any thing but his own Zsal can imprint his Image. 

8. And here I faw aa admirable fuitiblenefs in the Office and Defign of Chrift, 
to the Ends of God, and the Felicity of Man : and how excellently thefe Super- 
natural Revelations do fall in, and take their place in fubferviency to Natural Ve- 
rities ; and how wonderfully Faith is fitted to bring Men to the Love of God ; 
when ic is nothing elle but the beholding of his amiable attradive Love and Good- 
nels in the Face of Chrift, and the Promifes of Heaven, as in a Glals, till we fee 
his Glory. 

9. And I had felt much of the Power of his Word and Spirit on my felf j do- 
ing that which Reafon now telleth memuft be done : And fhall I queftion my 
Phyfician when he hath done (b much of the Cure , and recovered my depraved 
Soul (o much to God. 

10. And as I (awthefe Afliftances tomyPaith, fo I perceived that whatever 
the Tempter had to fay againft it, was grounded upon the Advantages which he 
took from my Ignorance, and my Diftance from the Times and Places of the Mat- 
ters of the Sacred Hiftory, and fuch like things which every Novice meeteth 
with in almoft all other Sciences at the firft, and which wife well-ftudied Men can 
fee through. 

§3f. All thele Affiftances were at hand before I came to the immediate Evi- 
dences of Credibility in the Sacred Oracles themfelvej. And when I let my lelf 
to fearr^ for thole, I found more in the Doftrine, the PrediAions, the Miracles, 
ar'.?cedent, concomitant, fublequent, than ever I before took notice of : which I 
ihall not here fb far digrefs as to fetdown, having partly done it in ieveral Trea- 
tifes ; as The Saints Refi, Part 2. The Unreafonablenefi of Infidelity ; A Saint or a Bruit, 
in my Chri[iian DireBory ; and fince more fully in a Treacife, called, The Reajons of 
the Cbri/iian Religion ; my Life of Faith, &c. 

§ 36. From this Aflault I was forced to take notice. That it is our Belief of the 
Truth of the Word of God, and the Life to come, which is the Spring that fets all 
Grace on work, and with which it riles or falls, flouriflies or decays, is actuated 
or ftands ftill. And that there is more of this fecrct Unbelief at the Root than 
moft of us are aware of; and that our love of the V/or!d,our boldnefi with Sin,our 
negled: of Duty are caufid henccw 1 obferved eafily in my lelf, that if at any 
time Sacan did more than at other times weaken my Belief of Scripture, and the 
Life to come, my Zeal in every Religious Duty abated with it, and I grew more 
indifferent in Religion tlun befoie :I was more inclined to Conformity in thofe Points 


24 ^^^ LIFE of the L i b. L 

which I had taken to be finful , and was ready to think , why fhould I be lingular 
and offend the Biftops and other Superiours , and make my fclf contemptible in 
the World, and expofe my felf to Cenfures , Scorns , and Sufferings , and all for 
fuch little things as thefe, when the Foundations themfelves have fo great difficulties, 
as I am unable to overcome. But when Faith revived, then none of the Parts or 
Concernments of Religion feemed fmall, and then Man feemed nothing , and the 
World a Jhadow, and God was all. 

In the beginning I doubted not of the truth of the Holy Scriptures, or of tfie Life 
to come, becaufe 1 jaw not the Difficulties which might caufe doubting : After that 
I jaw them and I doubted, becaule I faw not that which fhould fatzsfie the mind 
againfb them : Since that^ having feen both Difficulties and Evidences, though I am 
not fo unraolefted as at the firft, yet is my Faith I hops much Ifronger, and 
far better able to repel the Temptations of Satan, and the Sophifms of Infidels than 
before : But yet it is my daily Prayer, That God would increafe my Faith, and 
give my Snul a clear fight of the Evidences of his Truth, and cf himfelf, and of 
the invifible World. 

§ 57. Whilfl: I was thus employed between outward Labours and inward Trials, 
Saran ifirr'd up a little inconfiderable rage of wicked men againfl me. The Town 
having been formerly eminent for Vanity, had yearly a Shew,\n which they brought 
forth the painted forms of Giants, and luch like foolery, to walk about the Streets 
with ; and though I faid nothing againfl them, as being not fimply evil, yet on 
every one of thols Days of Riot, the Rabble of the moie vicious fort had flill 
fome fpleen to vent againfl me, as one part of their Game. And once all the igno- 
rant Rout were raging mad againft me tor preaching the Doftrine of Original Sin 
to them, and telling them that Infmts before Regeneration, had fb much Guilt and 
Corruprion, as made them loachfbme in the Eyesof God : whereupon they vented 
it abroad in the Country, That I preached that God hated, or loathed Infants; fo 
that they railed at me as I palled through the Streets. The next Lord's Day I clear- 
ed and confirmed it, and ihewcd them that if this were not true, their Infants had 
no need of Chriff, of Baptifii, or of Renewing by the Holy GholK And I askt 
them whether they durft fay that their Children were faved without a Saviour, and 
were no Chriftians, and whythev baptized them, with much more to that pur- 
pofe; and aferward they were afhamed and as mute as fifhef. 

Once one of the drunken Beggersof the Town railed a flander of me. That I 
was under a Tree with a Woman ( an ill-fam'd Beggar of the Town ) : All the 
Drunkards had got it in their mouths, before I could find out the Original. I got 
three or four of them bound to the Good Behaviour, and the Sot himfclf that rai- 
fid the Slander, confeffed before the Court that he faw me in a rainy day on Hort 
back ftand under an Oak which grew in a thick Hedge, and the Woman afore- 
f jid flanding for flielter on the other fide the Hedge under the fame Tree, and that 
he believed that we faw not one another ; but he fpake it as a Jeff, and the Com- 
pany were glad of the occafion to feed their Malice. So they all askt me forgive- 
nels, and I defired the Migiftrate immediately to releafe them all. 

There lived at Kinver an ancient, prudent. Reverend Divine, Mr. Jolm CroJ?, 
( who died fince, Paffor of Matthews Friday-jlreet in London ) : This godly Man 
had heen the chief means of the good which was done in Kiddermivjler before my 
coming thither ; when I came, I got him to take every fecond day in a Weekly 
Lediure. It came to pals once, that a Woman defamed him at Kidderminshr o- 
penly, and told the People that he would have ravifhed her. Mr. CV.y/ being a, 
wife Man, fent one before to defire the Bailiff and Jultice to call her to Examina- 
tion, and he came after and fate in a common dark coloured Coat, among many 
others, in the Bailiff's Parlour, as if he had been one of the Magiffrate?. The 
Bailiff called her in, and flie flood impudently to the Accufation : The Bailiff 
askt her whether fhe knew the Man if Jhe faw him ; which fhe confidently affirm- 
ed. He askt her, Is it this Man , or that Man, or the other Man, or any there? 
And fhe fiid, O no, God forbid that fhe fhould accufe any of them. Mr. CrojS 
laid, Am not I the Man ,• and fhe faid. No, fhe knew tiie Man well enough. And 
when thev iiad told her that this was Mr. CroJJ, fhe fell down on her knees , and 
askt him forgivenefs, and confefl that one of his Neighbours (who was his great 
Accufer at the Eilhops Courts ) had hired her to report it. But the Good Man 
forgave them all. 

§ 3 8. And here I mufl return to the Proceedings of the Parliament, becaufe the 
relf will not be well underflood without connoting the Occafions of them which 
were adminiftred. When the Londoners cried to the Houle for Jujlice,ind honour- 

Part I. R^i;em;^Afr. Richard Baxter. 25 

ed thole Members who were for the puniiliment of Delinquents, and dilTionoured 
thofe that pleafed the King, a Breach began to be made among themlelves : And 
the Lord Digby, the Lord Falkland,and divers others,from that cime forward joyned 
with the King ; being not fo immoveable as many of the reft,whom neither hope 
nor fear nor difcontent would alienate from the Caufe which they thought -veil of. 
Yet others were tried with the ofFir of Preferments : The Lord Say vva= made one 
of the Privy Council ; Mr. OUver St. John was made theKing'srSoUicitor, c'e. Buc 
as this did not alter them, fo others of them would accept of tto Preferment, left 
they fliould be thought to feek themfelves, or fet their Fidelity to Sale. When tini 
Earl of Strafford was Condemned, and the King defired to fign the Bill, many I3i- 
/hops were called to give him their Advice , and it is commonly reported, that 
Archbiihop U(lur and divers others told him, that he might lawfully concur with 
the Judgment of his Parliament proceeding according to Law, though his own 
Judgment were that their Sentence was unjuft : But Dr. Juxon , the Bilhop of Lon- 
don, adviled him to do nothing againft his Confcience : and others would give no 
Advice at all. When the King had Subfcribed, and Strafford was beheaded, he 
much repented it, even to the laft:, as his Speeches at his Death exprefs. And the 
Judgments of the Members of the Parliament were different about thefe Proceed- 

Some thought that the King fhould not at all be difpleafed and provoked, and 
that they were not bound to do any other Juftice, or attempt any other Re- 
formation but what they could procure the King to be willing to. y\nd thefe 
faid. When you have difpleafed and provoked him to the utmoft, he will be your 
King ftill I and when you have late to the longefl, you mufl be dilfolved at laft • 
you have no power over his Perlbn, though you have power over Delinquent 
Subjeds : And if he protect- them by Arms, you muft either be ruined your lilves 
by his difpleafure, or be engaged in a War: Difpleafing him is but exafperating 
him ; and would you be ruled by a King that hateth you ? Princes have great 
Minds, which cannot eafily fuffer Contradiction and Rebukes: The more you 
offend him, the lels you can truft him ; and when mutual Confidence is gone, a 
W^r is beginning : And if it come to a War, either you will conquer or be con- 
quered, or come to Agreement. If you are conquered, you and the Common- 
weal, h are ruined, and he will beabfblute, and fubdue Parliaments, and Govern as 
he pleafeth. If you come to an Agreement, it will be either fuch as yon force 
him to, or as he is wiUtng of : If the latter, it may be eafilier and cheaper done 
before a War than after: \ithQ former, it will much weaken it: And if you Con- 
quer him, what the better are you ? He will ftill be King : You can but force hint 
to an Agreement j and how quickly will he have power and advantage to violate 
that which he is forced to ; and to be avenged on you all for the di^lcafiire you 
have done him: He is ignorant of the Advantages of a King that cannot forefee 
this]. Thefe were the Reafons of many that were for pleafing the King. 

But on the other fide there were Men of divers tempers : Some did not look far 
before them, but did what they thought was beft at prelent : whether any de- 
figned the fubduing of the King, and the change of Government, at that time, I 
cannot tell : For I then heard of no notable Senary in the Houfe but young Sir 
Henry Vane, (whofe Teftimony was the Death of the Earl of Strafford, when other 
Evidence was wanting, and of whom 1 Ihall fiy more anon). But the leading 
and prevailing part of the Houfe were for the Execution of Strafford , and for pu- 
nifiiing fome Delinquents, though it did difpleafe the King : And itheir Pveafons 
( as their Companions tell us ) were fuch as thefe : They faid. If that be your 
Principle that the King is not to be difpleafed, or provoked, then this Parliament 
fhould never have been called, which you know he was forced to againft his Will : 
and then the Ship-money fhould have gone on , and the Subjeds Propriety, and 
Parliaments, have been overthrown : And then the Church Innovations fhould noc 
have been controuled, nor any ftop to the Subverters of our Government and Li- 
berties attempted : then no Members Ihould fpeak freely againff any of thefe in the 
Houfe ; for you know that all thefe are very difjslealing : And then what do we 
here ? Could not the King have pleafed himfelf without us ? Or do we come to 
be his Inftruments, to give away the Peoples Liberties, and fet up that which was 
begun i Either it is our Duty to reform, and to recover our Liberties, and relieve 
our Country, andpunilh Delinquents, or it is not ? If it be not , let us go home 
again : If it be, let us do it and truft God : For if the fears of forefeen Oppofiti- 
oiis (hill make us betray our Country and Pofterity, wc are perfidious to themj, 
aadEnimies toourlelves, and may well be faid to be worfe than Infid;!?, muc!.v 

E rather 

26 The LI F E of the L i B. I- 

rather than they that provide not for their Families; when Infidels have not 
thought their Lives too good to fave the Commonwealth. And as for a War, the 
danger of it may be avoided : It is a thing uncertain, and therefore a prelent 
certain Ruine, and that by our own hand, is not to be cholen to avoid it. The King 
may fee the danger of it as well as we, and avoid it on better Terms : Or if he 
were willing, he may not be able to do any great harm : Do you think that the 
People of Ef}glamL<irQ fo mad, as to fight againft thofe whom they have chofen to 
reprefent them ? to deftroy themlelves, and the hopes of their Pofterity ? Do they 
not know that if Parliaments be deftroyed, their Lives and Eftates are meerly at 
the Will and Mercy of the Conquerour ? And do not you fee that the People are 
every where for the Parliament? And for Rezienge ; what need we fear it whetj 
the Parliament may continue till it confent to its Diffolution ? And lure they will 
not confent till they fee themfelves out of the danger of Revenge]. Such as thefe 
were the Reafonings of that Party which prevailed. 

But others told them. That thofe that adhered to the Bifiiops , and were offend- 
ed at the Parliaments Church Reformations, would be many ; and the King will 
never want Nobility and Gentry to adhere to hira ; and the Common People will 
follow their Landlords, and be on the llronger fide: and the intelligent part, who 
underftand their own Interefts, are but few : And when you begin a War , you 
know not what you do]. Thus were Mens minds then in a Divifion : but fome 
unhappy means fell out to unite them fo as to caufe them to proceed to a 

§ 59. The things that heightned former Difpleafures to a miferable War were 
fuch as follow, on both Parts: On the Parliaments part were principally, i. The 
Peoples indifcretion that adhered to them; 2. The imprudence and violence of 
Ibnie Members of the Houfe, who went too high : ;. The great Diffidence they 
h.?d of the King when they had provoked him. 

On the other fide it was hafiened, i. By the Calling up of the Northern Army, 
2. Ey the Kings impofing a Guard upon the Houfe. 5. By hisentring the Houle 
to accufe fome Members. 4. By the mifcarriage of the Lord D/gbj and other of 
the King's Adherents, y. But above all by the terrible MalTacre in Ireland, and the 
Threatnings of the Rebels to Invade England. A little of every one of thele. 

§ 4o.i.Thofe that defired the PailiamentsProfperity v/ere of divers (orts.Some were 
calm and temperate, and waited for the Fruits of their Endeavours in their iea- 
lon : And fome were lb glad of the hopes of a Reformation, and afraid left their 
Hearts and Hands iliould fall for want of Encouragement, that they too much 
bonded of them, and applauded them: which mull: needs offend the King, to fee 
the People rejoyce in others as their Deliverers, and as (aving them from him ; and 
lo to liethern preferred in Love and Honour before him. But Ibme were yet more 
indifcreet : The remnantof the old Separatifts and Anabaptilts in LcWow was then 
very fniall, and fcarce confiderable ; but they were enough to ftir up the younger 
and unexperienced fort of Religious People, tofpeak too vehemently and intempe- 
rately againft the Bilhops and the Church and Ceremonies, and to jeer and deride 
at the Common Prayer, and all that was againft their minds : ( For the young and 
raw Ibrtof Chriftians are ulually prone to this kind of Sin; to be lelf-conceited , 
petulant, wilful, cenlbrious, and injudicious in all their management of their Dif- 
ferences in Religion, and in all their Attempts of Reformation ) : fcorning and 
clamouring a: that which they think evil, they ufually judge a warrantable Courle: 
And it is hard finding any Ibrtof People in the World, where many of the more 
unexperienced are not indilcreet, and proud and paflionate. 

Tiiefe ftirr'd up the Apprentices to joyn with them in Petitions , and to go in 
great numbers to Wefimtnfter to prefent them : And as they went they met with 
ibme of the Bilhops in their Coaches going to the Houfe ; and (as is ultial with 
ths paflionate and indifcreet when they are in great Companies) they too much 
forgot Civility, and cried out, No BiJ}i»ps ; which either put them really into a 
fear, or at leaft lb difpleafed them, as gave them occafion to meet together, and 
draw up a Proteftation againft any Law which in their Abfence fhould be pafled 
in t!ie Parliament , as having themfelves a place there, and being, as they laid, de- 
terred from coming thither by thofe Clamours and Tumults. 

This Proteftation was lb ill taken by the Parliament, as that the Sublcribers of 
it were voted Delinq|uents, and fent to Prilbn, as going about to deftroy the pow- 
er of Parliaments ; ( and among them even Bifbop HaS himlelf _). 


Part I. R^o^^r^W Afr. Richard Baxter. 27 

Thefc numerous Petitioners alio were very ofFenfiveto the King, infomuch that 
once fome of his Cavaliers came out upon them armed as they palTed by JVbitehall, 
and catchtlbme of them, and cut off their Ears ; and Sir Richard JVijeman leading 
them, there was fome Fray about Weftminjier- Abbey between the Cavaliers and them^ 
and Sir Richard Wtjeman was (lain by a (tone from o^tht Abbey Walls. And when 
at lad the King forfbok the City, thefe Tumults were the principal Caufe aliedged 
by him, as if he himfelf had not been fafe. Thus rafh Attempts of Head-ftrong 
People, do work ag.iinrt the good Ends which they themfelves intend ; .ind the 
Zeal which hath cen(biious Strife and Envy, doth tend to Confufion, and every 
evil Work : And Ovpdoing is the ordinary way oi Undoing. 

§41. 2. And fome Members of the Hou(e did cherilh thele Diforders ; and 
beciufi that the Subjeds have liberty to Petition, therefore they made uie of this 
their Liberty in a dilbrderly way. When they had difgraced Ship-money, and tho 
Et catera Oadi, and Bowing towards Altars, and fuch things as were againit Law, 
they ftopt not there, but let themfelves to caft out the Bi^iop and the Liturgy vj\\\c\-i 
were fettled by Law. And though Parliaments may draw up Bills for repealing 
Laws, yet hath the King his Negative Voice, and without his Conlent they can- 
not do it ; which though they acknowledged, yet did they too eafily admit of Pe- 
titions againll: the Epilcopacy and Liturgy, and connived at all the Clamours and 
Papers which were againit them. 

Had they only endeavouied the Ejeftion of Lay Chancellors, and the reducing 
of the Diticeffes to a narrower Gompals, or the fetting up of a Subordinate Difci- 
pline, and only the Correfting and Reforming of the Liturgy , perhaps it might 
have been borne more pacient.y ; but fome particular Members concurred with the 
Defires of the imprudent Reformers, who were for no lefs than the utter Extirpa- 
tion of Bilhops and Liturgy: To which puipofe the Lord Brook wrote his Book 
again(t Epi(copacy. And in the Houie of Conjmons Sii Henry Vane endeavoured 
to draw all uo to the highcit Refolutions, and by his Parts and Converfe di-ew ma- 
ny ( fo far ) to his mind. And aifo the fenfe of the younger lefs experienced fort 
of the Miniders and private Chriltians in the Country, was muchagainlt amending 
the Bifliops and Liturgy, and thought this was but to guild over our Danger, and 
lo(e our Opportunity ; but they were for an utter Extirpation. Though none of 
all this was the Sen(e of the Parliament, yet thofe Members which were of this 
Opinion did much to encourage ths Petitioners, who in a diforderly manner la- 
boured to effed it. 

The Bifiiopsthemlelves who were accounted moft moderate ( U^«r, TViUiams , 
Morton) and many other Epifcopal Divines with them, had before this in a Com- 
mittee at Wefiminfter, agreed on certain Points of Reformation , which I will give 
you afterward, though cut of the proper place, when we come to our Propofals 
at the King's Return 1660. But when the fame Men (aw that greater Things 
were aimed at, and Epilcopacy it felf in danger, or their Grandeur and Riches at 
the leaif, molt of them turned againit the Parliament, and were almolt as much 
difplea(cd as others. 

§ 42. J. And the great diftruft which the Parliament had of the King, was ano- 
ther thing which haltened the War : For they were confident that he was un- 
moveable as to his Judgment and Affedions, and that whatever he granted them, 
was but in defignto get his advantage utterly todeltroy them j and that he did but 
Watch for fuch an Opportunity : They fuppofed that he utterly abhorred the 
Pai;liament, and their A6tions againit his Ship-money, his Judges, Bifhops, &c. and 
therefore whatever he promifed them, they believed him not, nor durlt take his 
word ; which they were hardened in by thofe former Anions of his, which they 
called. The Breach of his former Vromifes. 

§ 4;. And the Things on the other fide, which occafioned their Diffidence, and 
cauled the War, were thefe following elpecially above all the reft : i. The Ar- 
mies of the Scoti and Engli^ifWA. long continue in the North undisbanded, in their 
Quarters, till the Parliament Ihould provide their Pay. Some fay other Bufinels 
cauled the delay, and fome fay that the Parliament was not willing that they fhould 
be (b foon disbanded ; but the Army of the Englifi^ wanting pay, waseafily dilcon- 
tented: And the Parliament fay that the Court drew them into a Plot againit the 
Iloule, to march iliddenly up towards London, and to Malter the Parliament ; Di- 
vers of the Chief Officers were Examined, (Sir Jacob Afiley, O Neale^ Sir Fulk 
Hunch (my Mother- in- Law's Brother) antl many others ; and they almolt all con- 
felfed (ome fuch thing, that (bme near the King ( but not he himfelf) had treated 
with them about bringing up the Army, but none of them talkt of deltroying or 

E z forcing 

28 Ihe LIFE of the L i b. I. 

forcing the Parliament. Thefe Examinations and Depofitions were publilhed by 
the Parliament, which did very much to perfwade abundance of People that the 
King did but watcii while he quieted them with Promifes/o Mafter them by Force, 
and ulc ch^m at iiis PL-aiiire. And this Aftion was one of the greatelt Caufes of 
the dangerous diffidence of the King. 

§44. 2 Another WAS this : When the Parliament had Ik a Guard upon their 
own Hoal'e, (which thiy took to be their Priviledge) the King difcharged them, 
and (it another Guard upon them of his choofing : which made them leem as much 
afraid, as if he had made them Prifoners, and would at fome time or other com- 
mand that Guard to Execute his Wrath upon them ; whereupon they difmilfed 
theui, and called for a Guard of the City Regiments. This alio did increafe the 

§ 45'. ;. Another great Caufeof the Diffidence and War was this : The King 
was adviljd no longer to (land by , and lee the Parliament affront him , and do 
what they lilled ; but to take a liifficient Company with him, and to go luddenly 
in Perlbn to the Houle, and there to demand fome of the Leading Members to be 
delivered up to Julticc, and tried as Traitors: Whereupon he goeth to the Houfe 
of Commons with a Company of Cavaliers with Swords and Piftols , to have 
charged five of the Members of that Houfe, and one of the Lords Houfe, with 
High Treafon ; 'viz.. Mr. Tuv, Mr. Hampden, Mr. HoUis, Mr. Strowd, and Sir Ar- 
thur Hajelriggc , and the Lord Kimbolton f after Earl of Manchefler and Lord Cham- 
berlain j of the Lords: But the King was not fo f^cret or Ipeedy in this Adion, 
but the Members had notice of it before his coming, and abfented themlelves ('be- 
ing together at an inner Houfe in Red-Lym Court in JVatUngJheet near Breadflreet 
in London): And fo the King and his Company laid hands on none, but went their 
ways. Had the five Members been there, the reft fuppoled they would have taken 
them away by violence. 

When the King was gone, this Allarm did caft the Houfe into fuch Apprehen- 
sions, as if one after another , their Liberties or Lives muft be aflaulted by the 
Sword if they plealed not the Court : So that they prefendy voted it a Breach of 
their Priviledges, and an Elfed of the King's evil Counfellors, and publifiied 
their Votes j to awaken the People to refcue them, as if they were in apparent 

The King being difappointed, publilheth a Paper in which he chargeth the 
Members with Treafon, as ftirring up the Apprentices to tumultuous Petitioning, 
&c. But confeffeth his Error in violating their Priviledges. 

§ 46. 4. And another thing which haftened the War, was, that the Lord Dig- 
by and fome other Cavaliers, attempted at KingHon upon Thames, to have fudden- 
ly got together a Body of Horfe ; which the Parliament took as the beginning of 
a War, or an Inlurreifion and Rebellion .• But the Party was diffipated, before they 
could grow to any great Strength j and the Parliament voted him a Delinquent, 
and fint to apprehend him and bring him to Juftice, with his Partakers : But he 
fled into France ; and when he was there, the Parliament intercepted Ibme of his 
Letters to the King, advifing him to get away from London, to fome place of 
Strength, where his Friends might come to him j which they took as an Advife 
to him to begin a War. Thus one thing after another blew the Coals. 

§ 47. f. But of all the reft, there was nothing that with the People wrought {6 
much, as the lri{h MafTacree and Rebellion ; The Irifli Papifts did by an unexpedl- 
ed Infurredion, rife all over Ireland at once, and (eized upon almoft all the 
Strengths of the whole Land, and Dublin wonderfully eicaped (a Servant of 
S\r John Clot-worthy s difcovering the Plot) which was to have been furprifod with 
the reft, Otlob. 25. 1641. Two hundred thouland Perfons they murdered, (as you 
may fee in the Earl of Orarfs Anfwer to a Petition, and in Dr. Jones's Narrative 
of the Examinations, and Sir John Temple's Iliftory, who was one of the refident 
Juftices :) Men, Women and Children were moft cruelly uled; the Women ripe 
up, and filthily ufcd when they killed them, and the Infants ufed like Toads or 
Vermin : Thoulands of thofe that efeaped, cjme ftript and almoft familhcd to 
Dublin, and afterwards into England to beg their Bread.- Multitudes of thein were 
driven together into Rivers, and caft over Bridges and drowned : Many Witnef 
its {wore before the Lords Juftices, that at Portduvn- bridge a Vifion every Day ap- 
peared to the Paftcngers of naked Perfons ftanding up to the middle in the River, 
and crying our. Revenge, Revenge'. In a word, Larce any Hiftory mcntioneth the 
like barbarous Cruelty as this was : The French MalTacree murdered but Thirty, or 
Forty Thouland J but Two Hundred Thotijand was a Number wliich aftonilhed thofa 
that heard it. This 

P A R. T J. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. ^^ 

This filled all England with a Fear both of the Irijh, and of the Papifts at home ; 
for they fuppoled th<u the Prieih and the Intereft of their Religion were the Caule: 
In lo much, that when the Rumour of a Plot was occafioned at London, the poor 
People, all the Countries over, were ready either to run to Arms, or hide them- 
lelvcs, thinking that the Papilts were ready to rife and cut their Throats .- And 
when they law the Englijli Pjpifts join with the King againft the Parliament^ it 
was the greateft thin^^ that ever alienated them trom the King. 

Hereupon, the Parliament was folicitous to fend help to Dublin, left that alio 
(hould be loft. The King was fo forward to that Service, that he preft the Parlia- 
ment that he might go over himlelf : The Parliament liked that worftof all, as if 
they had been confident that ill Counfellors adviled him to it, that he might get at 
the Head of two Armies, and unite tiiem both againft the Parliament, and by his 
Abfence make a Breach, and hinder the Proceedings of the Houles. 

Tholb that came out of Ireland reprelent the wotul Cafe of it, and the direful 
Ufage of the Proteftants, fo as provoked the People to think that it was impoflible 
that any Danger to them could be greater than their Participation of the like. The 
few that were left at Dublin got into Amies, but complained of their Neceflities, 
and the multitude of their Enemies I So that an Hundred were uled to fight againft 
aThoufind: And to increafe the Flame, fome In]Jj Rebels told them, that they 
had the Ktngs Commiffion for what they did } which though the (bberer part could 
not believe, yet the credulous timerous vulgar were many of them ready to believe 
it : And the Englifl) Souldiers ( under Sir Charles Cootes, the Lord Incheguin, &c. ) 
fend over word that it was the common gaaft of the Irijij, that when they had done 
with the handful that was left in Ireland, they would come over into England^ and 
deal with the Parliament and Proteftants here. Thefe Threatnings with the Name 
of Two hundred thoufand murdered, and the Recital of their monllrous Cruel- 
ties, made many thoulands in Ew^/W think that nothing could be more necelTary 
than for the Parliament to put the Countrey into an armed Pofture for their own 
Detence. And that fide which the Papifts of England took, they could hardly 
think would be their Security. 

§ 48. Things being thus ripened for a War in England, the King forfaketh Lon- 
don, and goeth into the North, in TorkJIiire he caileth the Militia of the Country 
which would join with him, and goeth to Hull, and demandeth entrance j Sir John 
Hot bam is put in truft with it by the Parliament, and denieth him entrance with 
his Forces. 

The Parliament nameth Lord Lieutenants for the Militia of ^-ie feveral Counties, 
and the King nameth other Lord Lieutenants by a Commiffion of Aray, and each 
of them command the laid Lord Lieutenants to fettle the Militia. 

The Parliament publifheth their Votes to the People, That the King, milled by An.i^At 
evil Counfel, was raifing a War againft his Parliament : The Lord IVillouhby of 
Parbar/i in Lincolnjlnre, thQ Lord Brook in Warwickjliire , and others in other Coun- 
ties, call in the Country to appear in Arms for the Parliament : The King's Loi ds 
call them in to appear tor the King : both King and Parliament publifhed their De- 
clarations juftifying their Caufe. 

The Parliament choofeth the Earl of Effex for their General, and telblveth the 
raifing of an Army, as [For the Defence of the King and Parliament, and the Li- 
berties of the Subjeds, againft evil Counfellors and Delinquents ] : They publifh 
a Remonftrance of the State of the Kingdom firft, and a Declaration of the Cau- 
lesof their taking up Arms afterward : which two contain moft of the Reafons 
of their Caufe. 

The King anfwereth them, and goeth to Nottingham, and there fetteth up his 
Standard to Summon his Subjeds to his Aid. 

The Lord Brook and the Earl of Northampton had fbme skufHing in Warwickjhire : 
The Earl of JV. with ibme Forces aflaulted Warwick Ca.?t\Q , kept by Major Joh-,: 
Bridges, and Coventry City, kept by Col. John Barker, and was repulft from both. 
A Party aflaulted Mr. Pitrefoyes Houfe, and burnt the BarnSj where Mr. George Ab- 
bot, with a few of his Servants, repulft them. 

At Nottingham there were but about Two thoufand came in to the King's Stan- 
dard, whereas the Londoners quickly fill'd up a gallant Army for the Earl of EjJ'ex ; 
and the Citizens abundantly brought in their Money and Plate ( yea, the Women 
their Ringsj to GttiW^rt// to pay the Army. 

Hereupon the King fent to the Parliament from Nottingham the Offer of a Trea- 
ty, with fbme General Propolals, which in my Opinion was the likelieft Oppor- 
tunity that ever the Parliament had for a lull and lafd Agreement j and the King 


3d The L IF E of the L i e, L 

leemed very lerious in it , and the lownefs of his Condition upon fb much Trial of 
his People, was very like to have wrought much with him. But the Parliament 
was perfwaded that he did it but to get time to fill up his Army,and to hinder their 
Proceedings, and therefore accepted not of his Offer for a Treaty, but inffead of 
it fent him Nineteen Propofals of their own ; viz,. That if he would Disband his 
Army, come to his Parliament, give up Delinquents to a Legal Courfc" of JulHce, 
&c. he Ihould find them dutiful, &c. And the King publiihed an Anfwer to thefe 
Nineteen Propofitions ; in which he affirmeth the Government to be mixt, having 
in it the beft of Monarchy, Arillocracy and Democracy, and that the Legiflacive 
Power is in the King, Lords and Commons conjund:, and that the Lords are a 
fufficient skreen to hinder the King from wronging the Commons , and to keep off 
Tyranny, &c. And he adhereth only to the Law which givcth him the power of 
the Militia I Out of this Anf.ver of the King's to thefe Nineteen Propolals, Ibme 
one drew up a Poli:ical Catechifm, wherein the Anfwers of every Qusftion were 
'verbatim the words of the King's Declaration, as if therein he had fully juftified the 
Parliaments Caufe. 

The great Controverfie now was the prefent power of the Militia: The King 
faid that the Supreme Executive Power, and particularly the Power of the Mili- 
tia, did belong to him, and not to the Parliament, and appealed to the Law. The 
Parliament pleaded that as the Execution of Julfice againlf Delinquents did belong 
to him J but this he is bound by Law to do by his Courts of Jultice, and their Ex- 
ecutions are to be in his Name ; and by a Stat. Edw. 3. if the King by the Little 
Seal, or the Great Seal, forbid a Judge "in Court to perform his Oiiice, he is ne- 
verthelelsto go on : Alfo that for the Delence of his Kingdoms againlf their Ene- 
mies, the Militia is in his power j but not at all againft his Parliament and Peo- 
ple, whom Nature it felf forbiddeth to ufe their Swords againft themfelves. And 
chey allcdged moft the prefent danger of the Kingdoms, Ireland nXmoi^ \ol\, Scotland 
didurbed, Engia-ad threatned by the ln\l), and theRuineof the Parliament lought 
by Delinquents, whom they (aid the King, through evil Counlel did proted : And 
that they muit either fecure the Militia, or give up the Protcihiiit Religion , the 
Laws and Liberties of the Land, and their own Necks to the Will of i^apilts and 

§ 49. And becaufe it is my piirpofe here, not to write a full Hiftory of the Ca- 
lamities and Wars of thofe Times, but only to remember (iich Generals with the 
Realons and Connexion of Things, as may beft makj the liare of thofe Timjs un- 
derftood b them that knew it not perfonally themfelves, I ihall here annex a brief 
A.ccount of the Country's Cafe about thele Differences : not as a Juitiher or De- 
fender of the Affertions, or Reafons, or Aiflions of either Party which I reheaile ; 
but only in faithfulneis Hiftorically to relate things as indeed they were. 

And r. It is of very great nioment here to underdand the Quality of the Per- 
fons which adhered to the King , and to the Parliament , with their Rea- 

A great part of the Lords forfook the Parliament , and fo did many of the 
Houfe of Commons, and came to the King; but thit was for the nioft of them, 
alter EdghiH Fight,when the King was at Oxford. A very great part of the Knights 
and Gentlemenlof Et7gla?id in the leveral Counties fwho were not Parliament Men^ 
adheredco the King J except in A/;^^/fye-v, EJJex , Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgejhre, 
&c. where the King with his Army never came: And could he have got tooting 
there, it's like that it would have been there as it was in other places : And moll: of 
the Tenants of thele Gentlemen, and alio molt of the pooreft of the People, 
whom the other called the Rabble, did follow the Gentry, and were for the 

On th,e Parliaments fide were ( befides themfelves ) the fmaller part ( as fome 
thought) of the Gentry in moft of the Counties, and the greateft part of the 
Tiadelinen, and Free-holders, and the middle lort of Men ; efpecially in thofe 
Corporations and Countries which depend on Cloathing and fuch Manufadures. 

If you ask the Realons of this Difference, ask alio, why in France it is not com- 
monly the Nobility norths Beggars, but the Merchants and middle fort of Men, 
that were Pioteftants. The Realons which the Party themlelves gave was, Becaufe 
( fay tiiey ) the Tr<idefmen have a Correfpondency with London, and fo are grown 
to be a fa." more Intelligent fort of Men than the ignorant Peafants that are like 
Bruits, who will follow any that they think the flrongefh or look to get by : And 
the Freeholders, fay t'ley, were not enfl.wcd to their Landlords as the Tenants 
are: The Gentry, ({ly they) are wholly by their Eftates and Ambition more 


Part I. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 31 

dependent oft the Kirg, than their Tenants on them ; and many of them envied 
the Honour of the Pariiamentj becaufe they were not chofen Metobers themfelves. 
The other fide faid. That the Reafon was becaule the Gentry ( who commanded 
their Tenants) did better underltand Affairs of State than half-witted Tradefmen 
and Freeholders do. 

But though it mufl be confeffed, That the Publick Safety and Liberty wrought 
very much with moll, efpecially with the Nobility and Gentry, who adhered to 
the Parliament, yet was it principally the differences about Religious Matters that 
filled up the Parliaments Armies, and put the Refolution and Valour into their 
Soldiers, which carried them on in another manner than mercenary Soldiers are 
carried on. Not that the Matter of Bt^iop or no Bijhops was the main thing, ( for 
Thoufands that willied for Good Biftiops were on the Parliaments fide ) though 
many called it Bellum Epijcopale'y (And with the Scots that was a greater part of the 
Controverfie.) But the generality of the People through the Land (I fay not all 
or every one) who were then called Puritans, Vrectfions, Reltgioas Perfons , that u(ed 
to talk of God, and Heaven, and Scripture, and Holinels , and to follow Sermons 
and read Books of Devotion, and pray in their Families, and fpend the Lord's Day 
in Religious Exercifes, and plead for Mortification, and ferious Devotion, and (trid 
Obedience to God, and (peak againfl Swearing, Curling, Drunkennefs, Prophanc- 
neis, &c. I fay, the main Body of this fort of Men, both Preachers and People, 
adhered to the Pailiamenr. And on the other fide, the Gentry that were not fo 
pre^ife and flrid ngainll: an Oath, or Gaming, or Plays , or Drinking, nor trou- 
bled themfelves fo much about the Matters o\ God and the World to come , and 
the Miniffers and People that were lor the King's Book, for Dancing and Recrea- 
tions on the Lord's Days ; and thofe that made not fo great a matter of every Sin , 
but went co Church and heard Common Prayer, and were glad to hear a Sermon 
which lailit the Puritans , aiid which o-dinarily fpoke againft this flri(5tnefs and pre- 
cifenefs in Religion, and this ffriA Obfervstion of the Lord's Day, and following 
Sermons, and piaying Ex tempore, and talking fo much of Scripture and the Mat- 
ters ot Salvation, arid chofe that h.ited and derided them that take thefe Courfes, 
the main Body of thefe were againlf the Parliament. Not but that fome fuch for 
Money, or a Landlord's Plealuie, lerved them j as fbme few of the ffrider fort 
were againft them, or not for them (being Neuters ): but I fpeak of the notable 
Divifion through the Land. 

If you ask how this came to paQ, it requireth a longer Anfwer than I think fit 
hereto give : But briefly, Ai^tions fpring from natural Dijpofitions and Interefi. There 
is fonie^vhac in the Nature of all worldly Men which maketh them earneftly defi- 
rous of Riches and Honours in the World ; and they that value them moff will 
feek them ; and they t\\At jcck them are more like to find them than thofe that defpife 
them ; and he that takcth the World and Preferment for his hterefi will efiimate and 
choofc all means accordingly j and where the World is predominant, Gain goeth 
for Godlinefs, and ferious Religion, which would mortifie their Sin is their greatefl 
Enemy .- Yet Conlcience muit be quieted, and Reputation preferved, which can 
neither of them be done, without fbme Religion .- Therefore fuch a Religion is ne- 
ceifary to fuch as is confifVent with a worldly Mind ; which Outfi de-formality, 
Lip-fervice and Hypocrifie is J hut Serioufoefs, S^wcerify and Spirituality is not. 

On the other fide, there is that in the new Nature of a fpiritual Believer, which 
inclineth him to things above, and caufeth him to look at worldly Grandeur and 
Riches, as things more dangerous than defirable ; and he is dead to the World, and 
the World to him by the Crofs of Chrift ; no wonder therefore if few fuch at- 
tain great Matters in the World, or ever come to Preferment or Greatnefs upon 
Earth : And there is fbmewhat in them which maketh them more fearful of dif- 
pleafing God, than all the World, and will not give them leave to ffretch their 
Confciences, or turn afide when the Intereff, or Will of Man requireth it : And 
the Laws of Chrill, to which they are fo devoted, are of fuch a ftream as cannot 
fuit with carnal Interefh There is an univerfal and radicated Enmity between the 
Carnal and the Spiritual, the Serpent's and the Woman's Seed, the fie^dy Mind, and 
the fpiritual Laiv of God, through all the World, in all Generations, Gen. j. if. 
Rom. 8. 6, 7, 8. Thus Enmity is found in England, as well as in other Countries, 
between the Godly and the Worldly Minds ; as he that was born after the Flefh did 
perfecute him that was born after the Spirit, even fo was it here : The vulgar 
Rabble of the carnal and prophane, the Fornicators, Drunkards, Swearers, &c. 
did every where hate them that reproved their Sin, and condemned them by z 
holy Life. This Difference was univerlal, and their Enmity implacable, farther 


32 '^ihe LIFE of the Lib. L 

than common Grace abated it, or fpecial Grace cured it. So that every where 
feriouSj godly People, that would not run with others to excefs of Ryot, v.-erefpo, 
ken againft and derided by the Names of Precilians, Zealot^ Over-flrid, the holy 
Brethren, and other Terms of Scorn. 

Thefe things being fuppofed, it unhappily fell out that in the Days of Q_ eeri 
'Mary (that we may fetch the matter a^ or;^j«e J our Reformers, being Fugitives ac 
Frankfort, fell into a Divifion ; One part of them were for Diocdans, and the 
Engltjh Liturgy and Ceremonies, that they might no more than needs depart from 
the Papifts, nor feem unconftant by departing from what King Edward had be- 
gun. The other were for Ctf/ww'sDi(cipline and way of Worlhip ; for the letting 
up of a Parochial Difcipline infteadof a Diocefanj and to have a Government in 
every particular Church, and not only 0»e over a Thoufand ^ or many Hundreci 
Churches : and for a plain and ferious way of Worfhip, luited as near as poffible 
to God's Word. 

When thefe two Parties returned into England, the Diocefan Party got Queen 
Elizabeth's Countenance , and were preferred, and their way fee up. The other 
Party petitioned, and hoped, and waited, but were difcountenanced, rebuiied,and 
by Law (iippreffed. This lamentable Breach was never healed : The dilcounce- 
nanced Party were fervent Preachers, of holy Lives, and fo were many of the 
JJifliops alio in thofe days ! But if thofe that fucceeded them had been as holy and 
as diligent Preachers, they had kept up their Honour and Places without fuch Af- 
faults as they have undergone. But when Je-wel, Pelkmgton , Grindal , and (uch 
like were dead, many fucceeded them whom the People took to be other kind of 
Men. And the filenced Difciplinarians (as then they were called ) did by their 
Writings, their fecret Conference and Preaching, and their Godly Lives, work 
much upon fuch as were religioufly addided. And moreover, hefides what they 
received from fuch Teachers, there is ( 1 know not perfeftly whence j, among the 
molt of the Religious ferious People of thele Countreys, a fufpicion of all that is 
Ceremonious in God's Service, and of all which they find not warrant for in Scrip- 
ture, and a greater inclination to a rational convincing earned way of Preaching 
and Prayers, than to the written Forms of Words which are to be read in Churches. 
And they are gready taken with a Preacher that Ipeaketh to them in a familiar 
natural Language, and exhorteth them as if it were for their Lives; when another 
that readeth or laith a few compofed Words in a reading Tone, they hear almoft 
as a Boy that is faying his LelTon : And they are much perfwaded that a juft Pa- 
rochial Difcipline would greatly reform the Church , and that Diocefans by exclu- 
ding itjcherilh Vice. 

Now upon the Difference between the Diocefans and the Difciplinarians , the 
Diocefans found that their very Places, .ind Power, and Lmds, and Lordlhips were 
affaulted by the contrary Opinion ; and therefore they thought it neceffary to fup- 
prefi the Promoters of it. And fo putting Epiicopacy, Liturgy, Ceremonies, and 
all into the Subfcripdons which they impoLd on all that would be MiniHers or 
Schoolmafters, they kept and cafl out very many worthy Men : For fome that 
were for Liturgy and Ceremonies, were not for Diocefans, but for Parilh Difci- 
pline ; and Ibme that were for Bifhops were not for the Ceremonies-, and fome 
that were for the reft yet fcrupled fome one, and he that could not Subfcribe to all, 
was forbiddten to preach the Gofpel: whereas in the mean time many Bifhops 
preached very fcldom, and abundance of Places had ignorant Readers that could 
nor preach, and filly Preachers, whofe Performances were (o mean, that they had 
bitter kept to the Reading of the Homilies j and many of thcfi were of Scandalous 

Hereupon the Difciplinarians cried out of the ignorant fcandalous Miniflers; 
and almoff all the fcandalous Miniflers (and all that (ludied Preferment) cried out of 
the Nonconformifls: The name P«>-;r<7» was put upon them, and by that they were 
commonly known : when they had been called by that name awhile, the vicious 
Multitude of the Ungodly called all Purttans that were flrift and feiious in a Ho- 
ly Lite, were they ever fo conformable I So that the lame name in a Bilhops mouth 
Signified a Nonconformiff, and in an ignorant Diunkards or Swearers nioL.th, a 
godly obedient Chriftian. Bur the People bemg the greater number, f ecame a- 
ni<ing themfelves the Maflers of the Senfe. And in Spalaren/is's time, wiicn he 
Was decrying Cahinifm, he devifed the name of Doctrinal Puritans, which com- 
prehended all that were againfl y^rw;«w»//>». Now the ignorant Rabble J leuing 
that the Bilhops were againit the Puritans, ( not having wit enough to knowr 
U'hom they meant) were emboldened the more againfiall thofe whom they cal- 

Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 33 

led Puritans themfelves, and their Rage againft the Godly was increafed: and they 
cried up theBilhops, partly becaule they were againft the Puritans, and partly be- 
caufethey were earneft for that way of Worlhip which they found molt confident 
with their Ignorance, Carelefnefs, and Sins. And thus the Intereft of the Dioce- 
fans and of the Prophane and Ignorant fort of People were unhappily twilled to- 
gether in England. 

And then on the other fide, as all the Nonconformifts were againft the Prelates, 
fo other of the moft ferious godly People were alienated from them on all thefe 
forefaid conjund Accounts. 

1. Becaule they were derided and abufed by the Name of P«rif<««/. 

2. Becaufe the Malignant Sort were permitted to make Religious Perfbns their 
common Scorn. 

5. Becaule they faw fo many infufficient and vicious Men among the Confor- 
mable Clergy. 

4. Becaufe they had a high efteem of the Parts and Piety of moft of the Non- 
conformable Mini Iters. 

5. Becaule they grieved to fee fo many Excellent Men filenced , while fo many 
Thoufand were perilhing in Ignorance and Sin. 

6. Becaufe though they took the Liturgy to be lawful, yet a more orderly feri- 
ous Scriptural way of Worfiiip was much more pleafing to them. 

7. Becaufe Falling and Praying, and other Exerciles, which they found much 
benefit by, were fo Itridlly lookt after, that the High Commiffion and the Bilhops 
Courts did make it much more perillous, than common Swearing and Drunken- 
nefs proved to the Ungodly. 

8. Becaufe the Book that was publilhed for Recreations on the Lord's Day made 
them think that the Bilhops concurred with the Prophane. 

9. Becaule Afternoon Sermons and LeAures, thougii by Conformable Men, be- 
gan to be put down in divers Counties. 

10. Becaule fo great a number of Conformable Minifters were fufjjended or pu- 
nifhed for not reading the Book of Sports on Sundays , or about Altars, or liich 
like : and io many Thoufand Families, and many worthy Minifters , driven out 
of the Land. 

11. Becaufe when they faw Bowing towards Altars, and the other Innovations 
added, they feared worle, and knew not where they would end. 

12. And laftly, Becaufe they faw that the Bilhops proceeded lb far as to (wear 
Men to their whole Government by the Et catera Oath, and that they approved of 
Ship-money, and other fuch incroachments on their Civil Interefls. 

All thefe upon my own knowledge were the true Caufcs why fo great a number 
of thole Perlons who were counted moft Religious, fell in with the Parliament in 
England'^ infomuch that the generality of the ftrider diligent fort of Preachers 
joyned with them, though not in medling with Arms, yet in Judgment, and in 
flying to their Garritbns; and almoft all thole afterwards called TresbyterianSy were 
before Conform! fts ; Very few of all that Learned and Pious Synod at Weflminjier 
were Nonconformifts before, and yet were for the Parliament, fuppofing that the 
Intereft of Religion lay on that fide. 

Yet did they ftill keep up an honourable efteem of all that they thought Religious 
on the other fide ; fuch as Bifhop Difuenant, Bifhop Hall, Biiliop Morton, Archbiihop 
l7/?»er,6cc.But as to the generality ,they went lb unanimoufly the other way,thatupon 
my knowledge many that were not v/ife enough to underftand the Truth about 
the Cauleof the King and Parliament, did yet run into the Parliaments Armies,or 
take their part ( as Sheep go together for Company ) moved by this Argument , 
[ Sure God wiU not fufter almolt all his moft Religious Servants to err in lb grea? 
a matter.] And [If all thefe Ihould perilh what will become of Religion.] But 
thefe were irifufficicnt Grounds to go upon. And abundance of the ignorant forC 
of the Country, who were Civil, did flock in to the Parliament, and filled up their 
Armies afterward, meerly becaufe they heard Men (-wear for the Common Prayer 
and Bilhops .and heard ochers ;)r«iy that were againft them ; and becaule they heard 
the King's Soldiers with horrid 0<Jths abufe the name of God, and faw them live 
in Debauchery, and che Parliaments Soldiers flock to Sermons, and talking ofRe- 
lii^,ion, and praying and finging Pfalms together on their Guards. And all the fi- 
ber Men that I was acquainted with, who were againft the Parliament, were wont 
to fay, [The King hith the better Caule, but the Parliament hath the better 

F And 

34. The LIF E of the Lib. I. 

Aud indeed, this unhappy Complication of the Intereft of Prelacie, and Pro- 
phanenefs, and Oppofition of the Intereft of Prelacie to the Temper of the gene- 
rality of the Religious Party, was the vifible Caufe of the overthrow of the King 
in the Eye of all the underftanding World, that ever was capable of obfer- 
ving it. 

§ yo. And whereas the King's Party ufually fay, that it was the feditious Preach- 
ers that ftirred up the People, and were the Caufe of all this, I anfwer, 

1. It is partly true, and pardy not : It is not true that they ftirred them up to 
War (except an inconfiderable Number of them, one perhaps in a County, if fo 
much.) But it is true that they difcovered their diflike of the Book of Spores, and 
bowing to Altars, and diminilhing Preaching, and filencing Minifters, and fuch 
like ; and were glad that the Parliament attempted a Reformation of them. 

2. But then it is as true, that almoft all thefe were conformable Minifters, the 
Laws and Bilhops having caft out the Nonconformifts long enough before ; info- 
much, that I know not ot" two Nonconformifts in a County. But thole that made 
up the AfTembly at Weftminfier, and that through the Land, were the Honour of 
the Parliaments Party, were almoft all fuch as had till then conformed, and took 
thofe things to be lawlul in cafe of neceflicy, but longed to have that neceflity re- 

§ y r. When the War was beginning, the Parties fet Names of Contempt upon 
each other, and alfo took luch Titles to themlelves and their own Caule, as might 
be the fitteft means for that which they defigned : The old Names of Puricans and 
Fvrmahjh were not now broad enough, nor of fufficient force. The King's Party, 
as their fenous IVord, called the Parliaments Party Rebels, and as their common lu- 
dicrous Name, The Round- heads (the original of which is not certainly known : 
Some lay, it was becaule the Puritans then commonly wore Ihort Hair, and the 
King's Party long Hair : Some fiy, ic was becaule the Queen, at Strajford'sTxyiX, 
asked who that i?fl«»<iAerf(/e(/ Man was, meaning yiv.Pym, becaule he (pake fo 

The Parliaments Party called the other fide commonly by the Name of Malig' 
nants, as fiippofing chat the generality of the Enemies of fericus Godlinefi went 
that way, in a delire to deftroy the Religious out of the Land. (And the Parlia- 
ment put that Name into their Mouths) and the Souldiers they called Cu'valkrs, be- 
caufe they took that Name to themfelves ; and afterwards they called them Dam- 
mes [becaufe God Damn me] was become a common Curie, and as a By-word 
among them. 

The King profefled to fight for the Subjeds Liberties, the Laws of theLand, 
and the Proteftant Religion. The Parliament profeft the fame, and all their Com- 
miffions were granted as [for KinganA Parliament'] for the Parliament profsfted, 
that the Separation of the King from the Parliament, could not be without a De- 
llrudion of the Government, and that the Dividers were the Deftroyers and Ene- 
mies to the State, and if the Soldiers askt each other at any Surprize or Meeting 
[ who are you for ? ] thole on the King's fide laid, [for the Kmg'\ and the others faid, 
\_for King and Parliament 1 the King dilbwned their Service, as a Scorn, that they 
Jhould (ay they fought for King and Parliament, when their Armies were ready to 
charge him in the Field. They faid to this, 

1. That they fought to redeem him from them that took him a voluntary Cap- 
tive, and would (eparate him from his Parliament. 

2 . That tliey fought againft his Will only, but not againft his Perfcn, which they 
defired to refcue and prelerve, nor againft his Authority which was for them. 

3. That as all the Courts of Juftice do execute their Sentences in the Kirg^s Name, 
and this by his o-wn Law, and therefore by his Authority, fo much more might his 
Parliament do. 

§ )2. But now we come to the main matter; What latisfied fo many of the in- 
telligent part of the Countrey to fide with the Parliament when the War be- 

What inclined their Affe^ions I have before (hewed ; and it is not to be doubted 
but their Approbation of the Parliament in the caule of Reformation made them 
the eafilier believe the lawfilnefi of their War : But yet there were fome DilTen- 
teis which put the matter to debates among themfelves. In IVarwickjinrc, Sir Fran, 
cis Nctherjole, a religious Knight, was againft the Parliaments War and Covenant, 
(though not for the Juftneis of the War againft them.) Id Glocclhr^nre, Mr, Gcrce, 
an old eminent Nonconformift, and Mr. CapeS, a learned Miniftcr (who put oat 
himfclf to prevent being put out for the Book of Recreations) and fome others with 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 3^ 

them were againft the lawfulnefi of the War ; (6 was Mr. Lyford of Sherborn in 
Dorcetjliire, and Mr. Francis Bampfield, his Succeflbr, and fome other Godly Mini- 
ilcrs in other Countries : And many refolved to meddle on no fide. 

Thole that were againft the Parliaments War were of three Minds or Parties : 
One Part thought that no King might be refifted (but thefe I ihall not take any 
more notice of) The other thought that our King might not be at all relifted ; 
becaule he is our Sovereign, and we have fworn to his Supremacy j and if lie be 
Supreme, he hath neither Superior, nor Equal; And Oaths are to be interpreted 
in the ftrideft Senle. The third lort granted that in Ibme Cales the King might 
be refifted, as Bilj'on, and other Bifliops hold, but not in this Cale. 

1. Becaufj the Law giveth him the Militia, which was contended for j and the 
Law is the mealiire of Power. 

2. Becaule, fay they, the Parliament began the War, by permitting Tumults to 
deprive the Members of their Liberty, and affront and dilhonour the King. 

;. Becau(e the Members themfelves are Subjefts, and took the Oath of Alle- 
giance and Supremacy, and therefore have no Authority to refift. 

4. It is not lawful for Subjeds to defend Reformation or Reh'gion by Force, 
againfl: their Soveraigns ; no fuch good Ends will warrant evil Means. 

<^. It is contrary to the Dodrine of Proteftants, and the ancient ChrilHans, and 
Scripture it felf, which condemneth all that refift the higher Powers ; and as for 
the Primitive Chriftians, it is well known they were acquainted with no other 
lawful Weapons againft them but Prayers and Tears. 

6. It importeth a falfe Accufation of the King, as if he were about todeftroy 
Religion, Liberties, or Parliaments, all which he is relblved to defend, as in ail 
his Declarations d Jth appear. 

7. It juftifieth the Papifts Dodrine and Pradices of Rebellion, and taketh the 
Odium from them unto our felves, and layeth a Reproach upon the Proteftanc 

8. It proceedeth from Impatience and Diftrufb of God, which caufeth Men to 
fly to unlawful means. Religion may be prelerved better by patient Sufferings. 

Thele were their Reafbns who were againft the Parliaments War, which may be 
feen more at large in Mr. Dudly Digs his Book, and Mr. fVeUens, and Mr. Michael 
Hudfons, and Sir Francis Netherfile's. 

§ J 3. As for thole on the Parliaments fide, I will firfttcll you what they faid to 
thefe Eight Reafons ; and next, what Realbns moved them to take the other 

1. To the Firft Realbn, they faid (as before) that for the Law to give the King 
the Militia, fignifiethno more but that the People in Parliament confented to obey 
him in Matter of Wars, and to fight for him, and under his Condud : For the 
Law is nothing but the Confent of King and Parliament ; and the Militia is no- 
thing but the Peoples own Swords and Strength : And that this Conlent of theirs 
ihould be fuppofed to be meant againft themjehes, as if they confented to deftroy 
themfelves whenever he commanded it, is an Expofition againft Nature, Senle, 
and Realbn, and the common Sentiments of Mankind. And they faid that the 
lame Law required Sheriffs to exercife the Militia in Obedience to the Decrees of 
his Courts of Juftice, and this againft the King's Perfonal Commands, and in the 
King's Name. Becaufe King and Parliament have by Law fetled thofc Courts and 
Methods of Execution, a Command of the King alone can no more prevail againft 
them, than it can abrogate a Law. And the Law, faid they, is above the King, 
becaule King and Parliament are more than the King alone. And they pretend 
alio Prefidents for their Refiftance. 

2. To the Second, they laid, that when 2000C0 Proteftants were murdered in 
Ireland, and their Friends fo bold in England, and the Parliaments Deftrudion fo 
induftruoufly endeavoured, it was no time for them to rebuke their Friends upon 
terms of Civility and good Manners, though their Zeal was mixt with Indifjreti- 
on ; and that if the Londoners had not Ihewed that Zeal for them, it might have 
emboldned their Enemies againft them ; and that if the permitting of Petitioners 
to crowd to them too boldly, and fpeak too unmannerly can be called, the railing 
of a War ('when they fought with none, but were alTaulted themfelves) then the 
calling up of the Army from the North, was much more fo, and fo they were not 
the Beginners. Or had they been the Beginners, it had been lawful, being but to 
bring Delinquents to Juftice, as the Sheriff himfelf may in Obedience to a Court 
of Juftice. But the /r//Jj Flames which threatned them were kindled before all 

F 2 3- To 

~^ The LIFE of the L i b. L 

3. To the third they faid, that the Parliament are Subjefts limitedly, and not 
fmfly, as the King is not an ahfolute, but a limited King, 'viz,. limited by the Laws 
and Conilitutions of the Government ; they are Subjefis to him according to Law, 
but not fubjeft to Arbitrary Government againft Law : Their Propriety is excep- 
ted in their Subjedion, and they have certain Liberties which are not fubjedt to 
the Will of the King. And alfo, they faid. That as the Sheriff is a Subjeci^ and 
a Court of Juftice ; S:il>jecis, and yet may refilt the King's Letters, even under the 
Broad-Seal, and his Meffengers or armed Men that ad illegally (becaufe the 
Law, which hath his Authority and the Parliament's, enable them 16 to do) fo 
alfomay the Parliament, which is his higheft Court of JulHce. And they laid, 
that as they have apart in the Legiflative Power, they have part in the SummaPo- 
tefias, and fo far are not Subjeds. And they faid, that the bare Title of Supreme 
is no Argument againlt the Conftitution of a Kingdom, though it be exprelled in 
an O.uh. For the King is IHled, the Supreme Governor of France, and yet the 
Oath of Supremacy doth not bind us to believe, that no French Man may law- 
fully bear Arms againlf him. 

4. They fry to the foarth,That they wholly grant it ; that though Religion may 
be the end of a lawful War, yet not of a Rebellion : nor may any Refo mations 
be performed by any Actions which belong not to the Places and Callings of the 
Performers. But where the means are Lawful, Religion and Reformation are law- 
ful Ends. 

y. To the fifc.'i they fiid. That they agree with all good Chriftians and Prote- 
ftanrs, that true Authority may not be refilted by any Subjeft : But all Proteftants, 
or mofi-, agree with them, that a limited Governor, which hath not Authority to 
do what ho lifts, may perform an Adl of Will, which is no Ad: of Authority j and 
they maintained, that the higheft Power was in the Law-givers and Laws, and 
that the Parliament was the higheft Judicature, and that it was Rebellion in them 
that refilled the Parliament in their legal prolecution of Delinquents, and Defence 
of the Land and thenilelves : and that Paul, Rom. 1 5. determineth not at all, whe- 
ther the Emperors or the Senate was the higher Power j and that the Refifters of 
the Parliament are the condemned Breakers of that Order and Command. 

6. To the iixth they faid, that they Charge nothing on the King, but what 
their Eyes behold, viz. That he hath forlaken his Parliament, and raileth Arms 
againft them, and protefteth Delinquents : And this they mention but as Matter 
of Faci ; for the culpability they charge upon his evil Counlellors, and Inftru- 
ments : For the King being no Subjed, is liable to no Accufations in any of his 
Courts : But it is thslrtjh, the Papift, and thofe guilty Perfons who would ruineall, 
to lavethemlelves from Juftice, whom they accufe, and not the King. And what- 
ever the King's Declarations fiy, Ship-money hath been impofed, the Judges have 
been corrupted, the German Horle were to have been brought in j the Northern Ar- 
my was to have been brought up againft the Parliament ; the Houfe was invaded 
and their Members demanded, a Guard was let upon them, and their Deftrudion 
(by their Enemies^ was powerfully endeavoured. 

7. To the leventh they faid, That for the fupreme legiflative Authority to de- 
fend ic Iclf and the Land, and for the King's Courts of Juftice to profecute De- 
linquents (though againft the Kings Will^ is no diHionourto the Proceftant Religi- 
on, nor any thing like the Papifts Dodrine and Pradices of Rebellion j nor any 
Juftification of them. If ic wei e, then the very Conftitution of cur ancient Go- 
vernment or Kingdom, would it Irlf be a dilhonour to our Religion. 

8. To the lalt they fiy, That Patience is our Duty fo far as we are called to 
SafTerings, and God is to be trufied \n the way which he hath appointed us : But 
if the Jc/JIj Rebels had foretold the Parliament and Juftices of their Infurredion, 
and then exhorted them to Patience and Non-refiftance and truftingGod, or if a 
Thief that wouid rob us to exhort us to be patient and not refift, he doth but exhort 
us to be guilty of his Sin. The Pioteftants Patience was that which pleifed the 
Irifl)'^ or (if a King muft be brought in as a Party) t\\Q French Mens Patience in 
the Parifian Mafl ::cie pleafed Charles IX. and the Executioners : And if in all Coun- 
tries the Proreltants would let the Papifts cut their Throats, and die in the Ho- 
nour of Patience, it would latisrte thole bloody Adverfaries, who had rather we di- 
ed in fuch Honciur, than lived without it: But if fuch Patience would be a poor 
Excule for a Father that fought not to prelerve his Children, much lefs for the 
Paliamcnt that ftand ftill while Papifts and Delintjuents fubvert both Church and 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 37 

Thefe were their Anfwers to their Accufers in thole Points, 
§ ^4. The Sum of thole Realbns which fatisfied many that adhered to the Par- 
liament, were thele, which I will but briefly name. 

1. As to the Danger of the State, the Matters o£ Fail did make it feem undeniable 
to them : Ship-money they judged not of according to the Sum ; but they thought 
Propriety was thereby deltroyed, and Parliaments caft afide and made unneceira- 
ry : And they faw chat this Parliament was called upon the Scots, and then called 
Dijcontented Lords importunity, after many Parliaments had been dilTolved in dif- 
plealure, and after they had been long forborn : And the calling up of the Nor- 
thern Army, and the demanding of the Members, made Multitudes think that 
thfc ruineof the Parliament was the great Dellgn; and their ungrateful beginning 
and proceedings made this liem credible, fo that I met with few of that fort that 
doubtevl of it. But above all, the Two hundred thoufind kill'd in Ireland, afFright- 
ed^the Pi'rliament and all the L,^nd. And whereas it is faid, that the King hated 
that, as well as they : They anfwered, that though he did , his hating it would 
neither make all thofe alive again, nor preferve England from their threatned Af- 
lault, as long as Men of the like malignity were proteded, and could not be kept 
out of Arms, nor brought to Juilice. 

2. The Endoi the War did much prevail with them : For they thought that to 
mafter and deftroy the Parliament, was to leave the People hopelefs, as to any 
Security of their Propriety or Liberties, or any Remedy againft meer M^'ill .' For 
there is no other Powe.r that may relieve them : And if Parliaments were (b uled 
before, what would they be, ( faid they ) if by fuch a War they ihould be con- 
quered. And they thought that the ruine of the State and of Men's Propriety, 
was liich an End as no mea;is could be lawfully uled for; and that the Frefervatwu of 
the Kingdom was fuch an Ef.^d as would make lawful any neceflary means , which 
God himfelf had not forbidden. 

5. And th^n as to Authority , they thought that the Legiflative Power is the 
chiefeft part of Soveraignty ; and that the Parliament having a part in the Le- 
giflative Power, had lb far inherently a Power to defend it, which no Law can 
iuppole them to give away : And as the Peoples Reprefentati'ves, they fiippoled them- 
felves much Intrulted to fecure their referved Liberties, which the Law giveth not 
the King any Authority to take away. 

4. And they fuppoled that Government being that Publick Work which up- 
holdeth the Common Peace, it is to be done by Publick Inftruments and M^ans ; 
and that the Kings Laws are his Inftrurrjents of Government, and alio his Publick 
Courts and Officers : And that the Subjefts cannot know lb well, whether pri- 
vate Commands or Commiflions be real or counterfeit, nor are lb much bound to 
take notice of them. And that the Judgments and Executions of the Courts of 
Jultice, being the EfFe<ft of Laws which King and Parliament have made, are of 
greater Authority than contrary Commiflions or Commands from the King 

5^ It much confirmed them becaufe all confefled. That the Sheriffs of Counties 
mull raife the poj/e Comitatus for the Execution of fome Decrees of Courts of Ju- 
ftice, though the King forbid it, or grant a Commiffion to any to hinder it : And 
that the forefaid Statute oiEdw. ;. maketh even the King's Letters under the Broad 
Seal to be void when they would hinder Juftice. 

6. And they pleaded the Law of Nature, which is greater than Pofitive Laws, 
That no Nation is bound to deltroy it ielf. The Militia being nothing but the 
Peoples own Sword, they fay they are not bound to deftroy themfelves with it j 
nor can any Law be lb interpreted. And whereas it was (aid. That the King 
(ought not to deftroy the Parliament, but to bring fome among them to punilh- 
ment ; they faid, that it belongeth to the Parliament to judge its Members ; and 
that if on pretence of punilhing offending Members, the King may come and 
fetch away, or demand thofe that difpleafe him, Parliaments and Liberties and all 
Security of them is gone. 

7. The King's Anfwer to the Nineteen Propofitions, greatly confirmed many, 
vwhen they law the King himfclf declaring to them. That the Legiflative Power 
was in Kings, Lords, and Commons, and that the Government was mixt, and 
Wiisnot Arbitrary; which they thought it mud needs be, if his Commiflions were 
of greater power than his Laws and Courts, and if no refiltance might be mads 
agav nil any that executed an illegal Commiflion. 

8. Ic 

38 The LIFE of the Lib. I. 

8. It moft prevailed with many, that the Parliament profeffed not to fight a- 
ga!\n^ Qxthzr thzPerfotiOT Authority of the King, though againft bis M'lll; but that 
their War was only againft SubjeBs They faid that feme Subjed:s were Delin- 
quents that fled from Juftice, againft whom they might raile Arms ofFenfively ; 
and other Subjeds took Arms againft the Parliament ; and againft thefe thcv made 
a Defenfive War : But all of them were Suhjeth, and not Kings : And the King's 
?fi//orCommiffion is not enough to lave all Subjects from punilhment, when his 
Law is againft it ; nor to authorize them to deftroy the Parliament and their Coun- 

9. They were much emboldened becaule this Parliament was continued by Law 
tiU it ftiould difTolve it (elf. And therefore fome iaid, the Kings Piclence is vir- 
tually with them, he being a part of the Parliament : and others f<tidjthat no War 
could be lawful which was for their diflblution or ruine, or to deprive them of 
their Liberty 5 and that the defence of them was lawful, whom the Law conti- 

10. They alledged Y^\ng James, who, theyfaid, of any Man did moft endeavour 
to advance his Prerogative,and yec in his printed Treatife ibr Monarchy confeffeth. 
That a King cannot lawfully make a War againft the Body of his Kingdom, but 
only againft an offending Faftion. Therefore, fay they, not againft the Repre- 
fentative Body, till it be proved that by perfidiouiheis they have forfeited the Vir- 
tue and Honour of their Reprefentation. 

IT. They alledged firfrc/a/, Grof;«i, and other Defenders of Monarchy, efpecial- 
ly that palTage of Grotius de Jure Belli, where he faith. That if feveral Perfons have 
a fart m the bumma Poteftas ("of which he maketh LegiOation a chief A^^, each 
fart hath naturally the power of defending its own Interefi in the Sov(raignty againfi the 
other part if they invade it. And addeth over boldly. That if m fuch a War they con- 
t^uer, the conijuered party lofeth to them hu jljare : And faith, That thts is fo true that it 
holdeth, though the Law exprejly fay , that one of the Parties jhall have the power of the 
Mtlitia, it being to be under/hod that he fliali have it againft Forreign Enemies and Delin- 
quents, and not agamjt the other part. 

12. It much confirmed them to find the moft Learned Epifcopal Divines fpeak 
fo high for the Legiflative Power of Parliaments (as Tho. Hooker doth EcclefFol.lib.i. 
for the Eighth Book, which faith more than the Parliament ever faid, was not 
then publiihed). And for refiftance in feveral Cafes, as Bifhop Bilfon doth, even 
in that Treatile wherein he lb ftrongly defendeth Obedience, and which he dedica- 
ted to Queen Elizabeth. And to find how far they defend the French, Dutch, and 
German Proteftants Wars. 

13. They faid that the Carnal refpeft of Men for perlbnal Interefts, hath made 
all the ftream of moft Mens Words and Writings go on the Prince's fide ; but 
Tyanny is a Mifchiefas well as Difobedience, and that which all Ages, and moft 
Nations have grievoufly fmarted by : and they that befriend it, are guilty of the 
Sin, and of the Ruines which it procureth : It keepeth out Chriftianity from five 
parts of the World: It corrupteth it and keepeth out the Proteftant Truth in moft 
of the fixth part: The Eaftern and the Weftern Churches fuffer under it, to the 
perdition of millions of Souls. If Bodily Sufferings were all, the matter were no- 
thing ; but it is Mens Souls, and the Interelt of the Gofpel, which is the Sacri- 
fice to their Wills. 

14. Laftly, This greatly confirmed many, that the Matter being a Controverfie, 
whether the Difobedience and Refiftance of King or Parliament, is now the Re- 
bellion and Sin, the fimple People are not wifer than the States-men that differ a- 
bout it. How then Ihould they better quiet their Judgments, than in the Judg- 
ment of the Parliament, who are the Truftees of the l^eople, and the chief Court 
and Council of the King, and have lb many Lawyers and Wife men among them, 
and are lb greatly interelTed in the common Good themfclves i If it were but the 
Qjeftion, Which is the Kmg^s Governing Will, which the People mufi obey? And a 
Soldier fiith. It is my Commiflton, and the High Court of Parliament laith. It is 
the Law declared in a Court of Juftice, a Parliament leemeth to be the propereft 
Judge : As in Controverfies of Phyfick, who is to be believed before the Coiledge 
of i-'hyficians .'' Or irj Controverfies of Religion, who befoie a General Council? 
If the Houleof Jrir/; and Lanca/ler fight for the Crown, and lx)ch Commaud the 
Subjedis Arms, the poor Pealants are not able to judge of their Titles: And if a 
Parliament (hall not judge for them who thall ? 

Thefe were the Reafons which caufed Men to adhere to the Parliament in this 

5 J For 

P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 351 

§ y 5-, For my own part I freely confefi, that I was not judicious enough in Po- 
liticks and Law to decide this Controverfie which fo many Lawyers and Wile men 
differed in. And I freely confcfs, that being aftoniflied at the Irijl) MafTacre, and 
perfwaded fully both of the Parliaments good endeavours for Reformation, and of 
their reaNanger, my Judgment of the W(?iw C^zrv/e much fwayed myjudgmentin the 
Matter of the Wars : and the Arguments h fine , & a nam'', & necefjaate, which 
common Wits are capable of difcerning, did too far incline my Judgment in the 
Caule of the War, before I well underftood the Arguments from our particular 
Laws ; And the Confideration of the Quality of the Parties that fided for each 
Cau(e, in the Countries, did greatly work with me, and more than itfliould have 
done : And I verily thought, that if that which a Judge in Court faith (entential- 
ly is Law, mult go for Law to the Subjeft, as to the Decifion of that Caufe, though 
the King fend his Broad Seal againft it, then that which the Parliament faith is 
Law, is Law to the Subjects (about the Dangers of the Common-wealth^ what- 
ever ic be in it felf ; and that if the King's Broad Seal cannot prevail againit the 
Judge, much lefs againft /As/r Judgment. 

1 make no doubt but both Parties were to blame (as ic commonly falleth out in 
moft Wars and Contentions) and I will not be he that Ihall Juftifie either of them, 
I doubt not but the Headinefs and Ralhnefs of the younger unexperienced fort of 
religious People, mads many Parliament Men and Minifters pvergo themfelves, 
to keep pace with thofe hot Spurs ; no doubt but much Indifcretion appeared, 
and worfe than Indifcretion in the tumultuous Petitioners, and much Sin was com- 
mitted in the di/honouring of the King, and provocation of him, and in the un- 
civil Language againlt the Bifhops and Liturgie of the Church : But thele things 
came principally from the fSedlariao leparating Spirit, which blew the Coals 
among fooli/h Apprentices : And as the Sedaries increaled fo did this Infolence in- 
creafe. I have my (elf been in London, when they have on the Lord's Days flood 
at the Church Doors while the Common Prayer was reading, faying, We mufi (tay 
till he is out of hts Vottage. And fuch unchrifHan Scorns and Jefts did pleafe young 
inconfiderate Wits, that knew iiot what Spirit they were of, nor whither (uch 
unwarrantate things did tend. Learned Mr. John Ball, though a Nonconformift, 
difcerned the ftirrings of this infolent Sedarian Spirit betimes, and fell a writing 
againlt it j even then when fome were crying out of Perfecucion, and others were 
tender of fuch little Differences : One or two in the Houle, and five or fix Mini- 
fters that came from Holland, and a few that were fcattered in the City, which 
were the JSroif«;i?j Relifts, did drive on others according to their own dividing 
Principles, and fowed the Seeds which afterward (pread over all the Land ; though 
then there were very few of them in the Countreys, even next to none. As Bifhop 
Hall (peaksagainft the juftifyingof theBifiiops, lb do I againfl: juftifying the Par- 
liament, Minifters, or City : I believe many unjuflifiable things were done ; but I 
think that a few Men among them all , were the Doers or Inftigaters of 

But I then thought that wholbever was faulty , the Peoples Liberties and Safety 
could not he forfeited : And I thought that all the Subje<5ts were not guilty of all 
the Faults of King or Parliament when they defended them : Yea , that if both 
their Caufes had been bad as againft each other, yet that the SuhjeBs jhould adhere 
to that Party ivhich niofi fecured the welfare of the Nation, and might defend the Land un- 
der their ConduB, -without owning all their Caufe. And herein I confefs I was then fo 
zealous, that 1 thought it a great Sin for Men that were able to defend their Coun- 
try, to be Neuters: And I have been tempted fince to think that I was a more 
competent Judge upon the Place, when all things were before our eyes, than I 
am in the reviewof thofe Days and Anions lb many Years after, when Diftance 
difadvantageth theApprehenfion. A Writer (againft CromwePs Decimation j re- 
canting his great Adherence to the Parliament in that War, yet fo abhorreth Neu- 
trality, that he likeneth him rather to a Dog than a Man that could ftand by when 
his Country was in fuch a cafe : But I confefs for my part I have not fuch cenfori- 
Gus Thoughts of thofe that then were Neuters as formerly I have had: For he that 
either thinketh both fides railed an unlawful War , or that could not tell which 
( if either ) was in the right, might well be excufed if he defended neither. 

I was always fatisfied, i. That the Dividers of the King and Parliament were 
the Traitors, whoever they were : and that the Divifion tended to the DilTolution 
of the Government. 

3. And 

40 The LIFE of the L i b. L 

2. And that the Authority and Perfonof the King were inviolable, out of the 
reach of juft Accufation Judgment, or Execution by Law j as having no Superiour, 
and (b no Judge. 

3. I favoured the Parliaments Caufe, as they profeffed i. To bring Delinquents 
to a Legal Trial : 

2. And to prefervethePerfonand Government of the King, by a Conjundion 
with his Parliament. 

But Matters that Warrs and Blood are any way concerned in are lb great and ten- 
derly to be handled, that I profefs to the World that I dare nor, I will not juftifie 
any thing that others or I my felf have done of any fuch conlequence. But though 
I never hurt the Perlbn of any Man, yet I relblve ,to pray daily and earneftly co 
God, that he will reveal to me whatever I have done amiis, and not fufFer me 
through Ignorance to be impenitent, and would forgive me both my known and 
unknown Sins, and cleanle this Land from the Guilt of Blood. 

§ j6. Having inferted this much of the Ca(e of Hiftory of thole Times , I 
now proceed to the Relation of the Paffages of my own Life, beginning where I 

When I was at KidJerminJler the Parliament made an Order for all the People to* 
take a Proteftationto defend the King's Perfon, Honour and Authority, the Pow- 
er and Priviledges of Parliaments, the.Liberties of the Subje(ft,and the Protelf ant Reli- 
gion.againfl: the commoti Enemy]meaningthe Papifts j the InJI) MafTacre and Threat- 
nings occafioning this Proteftation. I obeyed them in joyning with the Magiftrate 
in offering the People this Proteftation j which caufed fome to be offended with 

About that time the Parliament fent down an Order, for the demolifhing of all 
Statues and Images of any of the three Perfons in the bleffsd Trinity, or of the 
Virgin Marj, which (hould be found in Churches, or on the CrolTes in Church- 
yards. My Judgment was for the obeying of this Order, thinking it came from 
ja(f Authority; but I meJlednotin it, but left the Churchwarden to do what he 
thought good. The Churchwarden (an honeft^, Ibber, quiet Manj feeing a Cru- 
cifix upon the Crols in the Church-yard, fet up a Ladder to have reacht it, but it 
proved too fiiort : whilft he was gone to leek another, a Crew of the drunken rio- 
tous Party of the Town (poor Journey-men and Servants) took the Allarm , and 
run altogether with Weapons to defend the Crucifix, and the Church Images ( of 
which there were divers left fince the time of Popery ) : The Report was among 
them, that I was the Aftor, and it was me they Ibught ; but I was walking almoft 
a mile out of Town, or elle I fuppole 1 had there ended my days : when they mift 
me and the Churchwarden both, they went raving about the Streets to feek us. 
Two Neighbours that dwelt in other Parifhes, hearing that they Ibught my Life, 
ran in among them to (ee whether 1 were there,and chey knockt them both down 
in the Streets, and both of them are fince dead, and I think never perfectly reco- 
vered that hurt. When they had foamed about half an hour, and met with none 
of us, and were newly houfed, I came in from my walk, and hearing the People 
Curfing at me in their Doors, I wondred what the matter was, but quickly found 
how fairly I had fcaped. The next Lord's Day I dealt plainly with them, and laid 
open to them the quality of that Aftion, and told them. Seeing they fo requited 
me as to feek my Blood, I was willing to leave them, and dve them from that 
Guilt. But the poor Sots were fo amazed and alhamed, that they took on lorrily, 
and were loth to part with me. 

§ 57. About this time the King's Declarations were read in our Market-place, 
and the Reader (a violent Country Gentleman ) feeing me pafs the Streets, ftopt 
and faid, There goeth a Traitor, without ever giving a fyllable of Realbn for 

And the Commiflion of Array was fet afoot ( for the Parliament medlcd not 
with the Militia of that County ,the Lord Howard their Lieutenant not appearing). 
Then the rags of the Rioters grew greater than before 1 And in preparation to the 
War, they had got the word among them [ Down with the Round-heads ;]Inf imuch 
that if a Stranger pad in many places that had fhort Hair and a Civil Habit , the 
Rabble prefently cried, [_Doipn with the Round-heads j ; and fome they knockt down 
in the open Streets. 

In this Fury of the Rabble I was advifcd to withdraw a while from home j where- 
up-.n ! went to Glocefier : As 1 palt but through a corner of the Suburbs of [Vor- 
cejhr, they that knew me not, cried, Down with the Round-beads^ and I was glad 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 

to fpur on and be gone. But when 1 came to GloUcefter, among Strangers alfo that 
had never known me, I found a civil, courteous, and religious People, asdilferent 
from IVorcelhr, as if they had lived under another Government. There I ftay- 
ed a Month, and whilft I was there, many Pamphlets came out on both fides; 
preparing for a War. For the Parliaments Caufe the principal Writing, which ve- 
ry much prevailed, was, Ohjer'vations, written by M.r. Parker a Lawyer: But I 
remember fome Principles which I think he mifapplieth, as alfo doth Mr. Thomas 
Hooker, Ecclif. poht. lib. 8. 'viz,. That the Ktvg is fingults major, but uni'verjis minor ; 
that he receivech his Power from the People, &c. For I doubt not to prove that his 
Power is fo immediately from God, as that there is no Recipient between God and 
him to convey it to him : Only (as the King by his Charter maketh him a Mayor 
or Baliff whom the Corporation chufeth lb; God by his Law, as an Inftrument, 
conveyeth Power to that Perfon or Family whom the People confent to j and 
their Confent is but a Conditio fine qua non ; and not any Proof that they are 
the Fountain of Power, or that ever the governing Power was in them ; and 
therelore for my part I am (atisfied that all Politicks err, which tell us of a Mage- 
ftas Realts in the People, as diftinft from the Majefias Perfoitalts in the Governors. 
And though it ht true that quo ad naturalem bonitatem & tn genere Caufe finalis th? 
King be umver/ts minor, ("and therefore no War or Action is good which is againft 
the common Good, which is the end of all Government ; yet as to governing Pow- 
er (which is the thing in queftion) the King is (as to the People) Unnjerfis Majors 
as well as Singulis : For if the Parliament have any Legiflative Power, it cannot 
be as they are the Body or People, as Mr. Tho. Hooker ill fuppoleth fwho hb. i. 
Polit. Ecclef. maketh him a Tyrant that maketh Laws himfelf without the Body J 
but it is as the Conft itution twifteth them into the Government : For if once Le- 
giflation (the chief K&. of Government) be denied to be any part of Government 
at all, and affirmed to belong to the People as fuch, who are no Governors, all 
Government will hereby be overthrown. Befidcs thele Oblervations, no Books 
more advantaged the Parliament's Caufe, than a Treatife of Monarchy (after- 
wards publilhed,j and Mr. Prin's large Book of the Soveraign Power of Parlia- 
ments, wherein he heapeth up Multitudes of Inftances of Parliaments that exer- 
ciled Soveraign Power. 

At this time alfo they were every where beginning the Contention between the 
Commiffion of Array and the Parliaments Militia : in Gloucefierpire the Country 
came in for the Parliament. : In fVorcefierJIiire, Herefordfhire, and Shropjlnre, they 
were wholly for the King, and none, to any purpole, moved for the Parlia- 

5^8. WhilftI was at Gloucefier I faw the firft Contentions between the Minifters 
and Anabaptifts that ever I was acquainted with : For thele were the firft Anabap- 
tifts that ever I had feen in any Country, and I heard but of few more in thofe 
parts of England. About a dozen young Men, or more, of confiderable Parts, 
had received the Opinion againft Infant Baptifm, and were re-baptized, and la- 
boured to draw others after them, not far from Gloucefier: And the Minifter of the 
Place, Mr. Winnel, being hot and impatient with them, hardened them the more. 
He wrote a confiderable Book againft them at that time: But England having then 
no great Experience of the tendency and conlequent^ of Annabaptiftry, the Peo- 
ple that were not of their Opinion did but pity them, and think it was a Conceit 
that had no great harm in it, and blamed Mr. Winnel for his Violence and Alperi- 
ty towards them. 

But this was the beginning of the Miferies of Gloucefier ; for the Anabaptifts 
(bmewhat increafing on one fide, before I came away, a good Man, called 
Mr. Hart, came out of Herefordjliire with Mr. Vaughan, a Gentleman, and they 
drew m.iny to Separation on another fide : and after them in the Wars came one 
Mr. Bacon, a Preacher of the Army, and drew them to Antinomianifm on ano- 
ther fide, which together lb diftrafted the good People, and eat out the Heart of 
Religion and Charity (the Minifters of the Place being not lb able and quick as 
they fiiould have been in confuting them, and prelerving the People) that the Ci- 
ty which h.id before as great Advantagesfor the profperity of Religion among them, 
as any in the Land, in the Civility, Tradablenels, and Piety of the People, be- 
came as low and Poor as others, and the Pity of more happy Places, while thele 
Tares did dwindle and wither away the Iblid Piety of the Place. 

§ J9. When 1 had been at Gloucefier a Month, my Neighbours of Ktderminfler 
came for me home, and told me, that if I ftayed any longer, the People would 
interpret it, either chat I was afraid upon (bme Guilt, or that 1 was againft the 

G King ; 

42 The LI F E of the L i B. L 

King : So I bid my Hoft (Mr. jyarney the Town Clark) and my Friends farewell, 
and never came to Gloucefier more. 

When I came home I found the beggarly drunken Rowt in a very tumultuaring 
Difpofitionj and the Superiors that were for the King did animate them, and the 
People of the Place who were accounted Religious were called Round- beads, and 
openly reviled, and threatned as the King's Enemies (who had never medled in 
any Caufe againft the King :) Every drunken Sot that met any of them in the 
Streets, would tell them, \_-we fiiall take an order ivith the Vuntans ere long.'] And 
juft as at their Shews, and Wakes , and Stage-flays, when the Drink and the Spirit 
of Ryot did work together in their Heads, and the Crowd encouraged one ano- 
ther, fo was it with them now ; they were like tyed MafiifFs newly loofed, and 
fled in the Face of all that was religious, yea, or Civil, which came in their way. 
It was the undoing of the King and Bifhops that this Party was encouraged by the 
Leaders in the Countrey againft the civil religious Party. Yet, after the Lord's 
Day when they had heard the Sermon they would a while becalmed, till they came 
to the Alehoule again, or heard any of their Leaders hifs them on, or heard a Rab- 
ble cry, [Down -with the Round-heads.'] And when the Wars began, almoft all thele 
Drunkards went into the King's Army, and were quickly killed, fo that fcarce a 
Man of them came home again and furvived the War. 

§ 60. All this time, the King having marched from Nottingham to Shrewsbury.^ 
had there very fuccesfully made up his Army, efpecially out of Shropflnre, fVor- 
cefierjinre, Herefordjlnre and JValei, though many came alfo out of other Parts : 
And the Earl of E/Jhc's Army was filled up, and was marching down towards 

The Fury of the Rabble was lb hot at home, that I was fain to withdraw again, 
and being with one Mr. Hunt near hkborough, there came a Party of the Earl of 
Ejjexi Army before the reft, to block up the Lord Bryon in Worcefier, till the Earl 
of E£'ex came to take him there. This Party lay in a Meadow near Powick, above 
a Mile from (Vorceffer, Mr. Hunt, with other Countreymen bringing them in Pro- 
vifion ; I had a great mind to go lee them, having never ieen any part of an Ar- 
my ; As foon as I came, a MelTenger came out of Worcefter fecretly, to tell them 
that the Lord Bryon was mounted and ready to be gone : Hereupon, the Comman- 
ders (Col. Brown a Scoty Col. Edwin Sans o^Rent, and Col. Nath. Fienes, Capt, 
Joh. Fienes, and Capt. Wtngate ) confulted what was to be done j Brown and Sa7ids 
were hot for the leaving of their Ground (where they were lecure by a River) 
and prelendy to purfue the Enemy : The reft faid. This Meflage may be a Deceit, 
to draw us into a Snare ; let us firft fend 5couts, and fee how it is. But the other 
prevailed, and over the Bridge they went ; (being all horfc and Dragoons) and by 
that time thev had paft a narrow Lane, and half of them cntred a Field beyond 
it, they found the King's Horfe under the Command of Prince Ktipert drawn up 
ready to charge them (when they knew not whom they fought with, nor knew 
that Prince Rupert was within twenty Miles of them) fo he charged them before 
the reft came in, and Col. Sands was wounded and taken Prifbner, and died of 
his Wounds j and Major Douglas flain, and the reft (led j and though the Enemy 
purfucd them no farther than the Bridge, yet fled they in grievous terror to Par- 
there, and the Earl of Ejjex's Life Guard lying there, took the Allann that the Ene- 
my was following them, and away they went. This Sight quickly told me the 
Vanity of Armies, and how little Confidence is to be placed in them, 

§61. Upon this. Prince Rupert fctchtoft'the Lord £;>■()» and marcht away ; and 
the next Day the Earl of Ejfex came to IVorcejtery with many Lords and Knights, 
and a liourifhing Army, gallantly cloathed, but never tried in Fight. 

There were with his Army, as Chaplains to the feveral Regiments, abundance 
of famous, excellent Divines j 'viz-. Mr. Stephen Mard^all and Dr. Burges to the 
Earl of E/f.v's Regiments, M-. Obediah Sedgwtck to Col Hoiks s'R.cgimzm, 'Dr.Ca- 
Itbute Dowhtrg to the Lord Roberts's Regiment, Mr. John Sedgwick to the Earl of 
Stamford's Regiment, Dr. Spurtow, to Mr. Hampdens, Mr. Perkins to Col. Goodwins, 
Mr. Aloor to the Lord Whartons, Mr. Adoniram Bifidd to Sir Henry Cholrrhys, Mr. 
Nalton to Col. Grantham's, Mr. Simeon Ajh to the Lord Brooks or the Earl of Man- 
chefier's, (1 remember not whether) Mr. Morton of Newcafile, with Sir Arthur Ha- 
felriggs Troopj with many more. Mr. BtficldnnA Mr. Moor quartered with us at 
Kiderminfier , where were the Regiments of Col. Ej/ex, the Lord Jiharton, Sir 
Henry Cbnlmeley , and thcLoid Brooks at Bcudeley : while they quartered there, the 
King's Aimy was upon the March from Shrewsbury towards Oxford : Their way 
lying through Wolverhampton, foniQ. of theli" Scouts appeared on th.- Top oi Knivcr 


-* , - - r ■ - ■■■-■■ - , ,, , , 

P A R T I. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 43 

Edge, three miles from Kidderminfier : The Brigades in Kidderminfier not knowing 
but all the King's Army might come that way, marcht off to fVorcefier.and in hafte 
left a Carriage or two with Arms behind : fome of the Inhabitants liafted to the 
King's Soldiers, and told them all, which made them come into the Town and take 
thole Arms. 

The Fury of our own Rabble, and of the King's Soldiers was fuch, that I law- 
no lafety in flaying at home : The Civility of the Earl of Ejjex's Army was fjch, 
chat among them there was no danger ( though none of them knew nie ) : And 
there was liich excellent Preaching among them at Worcefier , that I ftayed tliere 
among them a few days, till the marching of the Kings Army occafioned their re- 

Upon the Lords Day following I preached at AlceHer for my Reverend Friend 
Mr. Samuel Clark : As 1 was preaching the People heard the Cannori play,and per- 
ceived that the Armies were engaged ; when Sermon was done (in the Afternoon^ 
the report was mor» audible, which made us all long to hear of the facceis : About 
Sun-fettingCO^oi'. 2;. 1642.) many Troops fled through the Town, and cold us 
that all was loft on the Parliament fid;;, and the Carriage taken and Waggons plun- 
dered before they came away ; and none that followed brought any other News. 
The Towns-men lent a Meffenger to Stratford upon Avon to know the certain truth. 
About four a clock in the Morning the MclTcnger returned, and told us. That 
Prince Rupert wholly routed the left Wing of the Earl of EjJ'txs Army j but while 
his Men were plundering the Waggons, the main Body and the Right Wing rout- 
ed the reft of the King's Army, took his Standard (but it was loft again ) ; kill'd 
his General the Earl of Lindjey, and his Standard-bearer , took Prilbner the Earl of 
Lindlefi Son the Lord WiHoughby, and others ; and loft few Perlbns of Qaality,and 
no Noblemen but the Lord St. John, eldeft Son to the Earl of Bullinghook : and 
that the lofs of the left Wing was through the Treachery of Sir Faithful Fortefcue^ 
Major to the Lord Fteldmg's Regiment of Horfe, who turned to the King when 
he Ihould have Charged : and that the Vidory wasobtained principally by Colonel 
Holltii Regiment of London Red-Coats, and the Earl of Ejfexs own Regiment, and 
Life-Guard, where Sir Vhilif Stapkton, and Sir Arthur Hafekigge, and CoVUrrey did 

The next Morning being willing to lee the Field where they had fought,! went 
to Edghill, and found the Earl of £/ex with the remaining part of his Army keep- 
ing the Ground , and the King's Army facing them upon the Hill a mile off ; 
andabout aThouiaiid dead Bodies in the Field between them, (and I fiippofemany 
were buried before ): and neither of the Armies moving toward each other. The 
King's Army prelencly drew off towards Banbury, and lb to Oxford. The Earl of 
E/ex's Army went back to provide for the wounded, and refrelh themfelves at ff^ar- 
wich. Cartle, (the Lord Brook's Houie). 

For my felf I knew not what Courfe to take : To live at home I was uneafie; 
but efpecially now, when Soldiers on one fide or other would be frequently among 
us, and we muft be ftill at the Mercy of every furious Beaft that would make a 
prey of us : I had neither Money nor Friends : I knew not who would receive 
me in any place of Safety j nor had I any thing to fatisfie them for my Diet and 
Entertainment. Hereupon I was perfwaded by one that was with me to go to Co- 
vttftry, where one of my old Acquaintance was Minifter, (Mr. Simon King, fome- 
dme School-raafter at Bndgenorth ) : So thither I went with a purpofe to itay there 
till one Gde or other had got the ViAory, and the War was ended, and then to re- 
turn home again ; For fo wife in Matters of War was I, and all the Country be- 
lides, that we commonly (iippoled that a very few days or weeks by one other Bat- 
tel, would end the Wars ; and I believe that no fmall number of the Parliament- 
men, had no more wit than to think fo to. There I ftayed at Mr. King's a month, 
but the War was as far from being like to end as before. 

Whilft I was thinking what Courfe to take in this Neceflity, the Committee and 
Governour of the City defired me that I would ftay with them , and lodge in the 
Governour's Houle, and preach to the Soldiers. The offer fuited well with my 
Neceflities, but I refolved that I would not be Chaplain to the Regiment, nor take 
a Commiffion ; but if the meer preaching of a Sermon once or twice a week to 
the Garrifon would fatisfie them, I would accept of the Offer, till I could go home 
again. (Mr. AfiinalU one of the Minifters of the Town, had a Commiffion from 
the Earl of Ejfex to be Chaplain to the Garrifon Regiment ; but the Governour 
and Committee being difpleafed with him, made no ule of him. And when he 
was difplcaled, as thinking I would take his place, I affured him I had no fuch in- 

G 2 tenc 


The L I F E'of the Lib. L 

tent ; and about a Twelve-month after he died). Here I lived in the Governours 
Houle, and followed my Studies as quiedy as in a timeof Peace, for about a year^ 
only preaching once a week to the Soldiers, and once on the Lords Day to the 
People, not taking of any of them a Penny for either, fave my Diet only. 

Here I had a very Judicious Auditory j among others many very godly and judi- 
cious Gentlemen; as Sir Richard Skeffington ( a moft noblCj holy Man ) Col. Godfrey 
Bofvtle, Mr. Mackworth, with many others; of all which Mr. George Abbot was the 
chief ( known by his Paraphral? on Job, and his Book againft Bread for the Lord's 
Day). And there were about thirty worthy Minlfters in the City, who fled thither 
for Safety from Soldiers and Popular Fury, as I had done, though they never med- 
led in the Wars ; 'viz.. Mr. Richard Vines, Mr. Anthony Barges , Mr. Burdall , Mr. 
Brumskill fwho lived with that Eminent Saint the old Lady Bromley, Widow to 
Judge Bromley, whole only dilcernable fault to mej was too much Humility and 
Low thought of her felf j. Dr. Bryaft, Dr. Grew, Mr. Stefhetis, A^r. Craddock, Mr. 
Morton oi Bewdley, (my Ipecial Friend ) Mr. Diamond, good old Mr. Overton, AnA 
many mo.'-e, whole preience commanded much refped from me. I have caule of 
continual thankfulnels to God for thequietnefs andlafety, and fober, wile,reIigious 
Company, with liberty to preach the Gofpel, which he vouchlafed me in this Ci- 
ty, when other Places were in the Terrours and Flames of War. 

§ 62. When I had been above a year at Coventry, the War was fo far from being 
ended, that it had difperled it (elf into almolt all the Land : only Msddkfex, 
Hitrtfcrdjljtre. moft of Bedford and Northamptofijhire were only for the Parliament, 
and had (bme quietnefs : And Effex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgcflnre, and Huntington- 
fliire with the Ifle of Eli , were called the Adbciated Counties , and lived as in 
Peace, becaufe the King's Armies never came near them : and io for the moft 
part it was with Kafit, Surrey, and Suffex. And on the other fide, HerefordJlnre,lVor- 
ce/hrjliire, and ShropJJnre, ( till this time ) and almofi: all IVales, ( i'ive Tembrokejlnre^ 
which was wholly for the Parliament ) were only poflefied for the King, and law 
not the Forces of tlie Parliament : But almofi all the reft of the Counties had Gar- 
rilbns and Parties in them on both fides, which caufed a War in every County, 
and I think there whore few ParlHies where at one time or other Blood had not 
been ihed. 

§ 65. And here I muft repeat the great Caufe of the Parliaments Ihength and 
the Kings mine; and that was, That the debauched Rabble through ihe Land, 
emboldened by his Gentry, and leconded by the Common Soldiers of his Army, 
took ail that were called Puritans for tlieir Enemies : And thougli/e?/?c of the King's 
Gentry and Superinur Officers were lb Civil that they would do no fuch thing, 
yet that was no Security to tiie Country, while the multitude did what they lilt. 
So that if any one was noted for a ftrii^ and fmious Preacher, or for a Man of a 
precile and pious Life, he w.is cither plundered, or abukd, and in danger of his 
Life : So that if a Man did but pray in his Family^ or were but heard repeat a 
Sermon, or fing a Plalm, they prefently cried out, Rebels, Roundheads, and all their 
Money and Goods that were portable pioved guilty, how innocent Ibever they 
were themfelves. I liippole this was kept from the knowledge of the King, and 
perhaps of many fober Lords of his Council : ( for few could come ■ near thera ; 
and it is the fite of fuch not to believe evil of thofe that they think are for them, 
nor good of thoie that they think are againd them). But upon my certain know- 
ledge this was it that filled the Armies and Garrilbnsof the Parliament withlbber, 
pious Men. Thousands had no mind to meddle with the Wars, but greatly defi- 
iired to live peaceably at home, when the Rage of Soldiers and Drunkards would 
not lufTerthem: Ibme Itayed till they had been impriloned; foms till they had 
been plundered, perhaps twice or thrice over, and nothing left them ; fome were 
quite tired out with the abufe of all Comers that quarteied on them ; and fome 
by the infolency of their Neighbouis; but moft were afraid of their Lives ; and 
ib they Ibught refuge in the Parliaments Garrilbns. Thus when I was at Coventry 
the Religious part of my Neighbours at Kiddermmfler that would fain have lived 
quietly at home, were forced (the chiefeft of them ) to be gone: And to Coven- 
try they came ; and Ibme of them that had any Ellate of their own, lived there on 
their own cliarge ; and the reft were fain to take up Arms, and be Garrilon Soldi- 
ers to get them bread. 

§ 64. Jn Shrcffure, where my Father dwelt, both he and all his Neighbours that 
were noted for praying and hearing Sei nions, were plundered by the King's Sol- 
diers, lb th.u ibme cf them had almoil nothing but Lumber left in their Houles : 
though my Father was lo far from medling on either fide, that he knew not what 


P A Fv T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 45 

they were doing, but followed his own bufinefs j nor had he feen me, or heard of 
me of a long time. 

At this time Col. Mitton, and other Shropshire Gentlemen, refolved to fettle a 
Garrifon at Went, a little Town in their own Country, eight Miles from Sbrewf- 
hiiry, and Mr. Machvortb, Mr. Hunt, &c. were earneit with me to go with them 
becaufe it was my Native Country. I was defirous to be near my Father if I could 
any way relieve him,and to be ablent a while from CcvtvtryXs^tvQ being fome Dif- 
ference betvi'een the Earl of Denbigh and the Committee, which went highj: lb I 
confented to go with them only tor a few weeks, and to return : Their Defign 
was to get I'ome of my Neighbours thither, who they knew would follow me; 
and about thirty or forty of them joyned in Colonel Mackworth's Troop and 

As foon as we came thither, and they began to fortifie Wem, the Lord Cafel 
brought his Army from Sbrni'sburj againft them j where {Sir JVilliamBrereton 
bringing the CbejJjire Trained Bands to affift the lictle handful at IVem ) the two 
Armies lay within a Mile sf each o:her two or three Days, and after Ibme little 
Skirmifhing the Lord Capell drew off, and marcht into Chcjlnre to Nantwich, being 
alfured thereby to draw off the CbeJIiire A4en, and then refolved the fame Night 
to return and Storm the Town ; and his Plot took according to his Contrivance ; 
for that Night he plundered all the Villages about Nantwicb, and at Midnight 
march'd back another way : The Chejhire Men were quickly on their March, when 
they heard that the Enemy was plundring their Countrey : and by that time they 
caaie to Nantwich the Lord Capell was got back again to Wem.TherQ was nothing 
ahoLit the Town but a Ditch little bigger than fuch as Husbandmen inclofe their 
Grounds with, and this not finifhed ; and the Gates, new made, had no Hinges^ 
but were reared up.and there was but very few Men in the Town;e{pecially under 
the Command ofCol.//«wf ("a plain hearted, honeft,godly Man,entirely beloved,and 
trufted by the Soldiers for his Honefty) : I went with the Chefliire Men to Nant- 
wich ; when they came thither , they underftood the Stratagem of the Lord Capell, 
and heard that they were ftorming Wem ; and Sir William Brereton would have hadl 
his Men march after them prelently , to relieve Wem ; but the Soldiers were all 
Commanders, and feeing their own Countrey plundred in their Ablence, and be- 
ing weary, they all relblved that they would not go ; and (b Wem was given up as 
lo'.t j but in the Morning about three or four a Clock, when we thought they had 
been afleep, their Minds all changed, and co Wem they would then go ; but they 
marcht lb flowly, and halted by the way, that the Lord CapcU's Army had twice 
ftormed Wem, and being beaten back, drew oiT juft as the Clefliire Men came upon 
them, and lecured their Retreat by Lee- bridge and the Darknefs of the Night, 
and the Ignorance of their Fears and Diibrders in the Army that purfiied them. 
When we came to Wem, we found that the Lord Capell had been twice repulft with 
much lofs ; Col. fVin flain, and Col. Sir Tho. Scriven mortally wounded, and little 
Hurt done to any in the Town. 

§ 6). When I had flayed here, and at Longford Gmi^on about two Months or 
more, and had redeemed my Father oat of Prifon at Lilljhd, I returned to Covens 
try, and my Neighbours would not flay behind : (the recital of Millitary Paffages 
there and elfewhere, belongeth not to my prefent purpofe, but as it concerneth 
the Hiflory of my own Life, and therefore I leave them to fiich as write the Hi- 
ftory of thofe Wars): When I came to Coventry, I feded in my old Habitation and 
Imployment, and followed my Studies there in quietnefs for another Year. But 
whereas whilft I rode up and down, my Body had more Health than of a long 
time before, when I fetled to my Studies in a Sedentary Life (and grieved for the 
Calamitous Condition of the Land) I fell weaker than ever I was before : And go- 
ing to London was long under the Cure of Sir Tbeodere Mejern^ and foraewhat reco- 
vered, returned again. 

§ 66. The Garrifon of Coventry confifled half of Citizens, and half of Goun- 
try-men : the Country-men were fuch as had been forced from their own Dwel- 
lings, the mofl religious Men of the Parts round about, efpecially from Bremicba?n, 
Sutton-CoUfidd, Tamworth, Nuneaton^ Hmkley, Rugby , &c. Thefc were Men of 
great Sobriety and Soundnefs of Underftanding as any Garrilbn heard of in England: 
But one or two that came among us out of New England ( of Sir Henry Vanes Par- 
ty there) and one Anabaptifl Taylor, had alraoft troubled all the Garrifon, by in- 
feaing the honeft Soldiers with their Opinions : But they found not that Succefi in 
Coventry^ as tiiey had done in CromweW Army. In publick I was fain to preach 
over all the Controverfie* a^iinfl the Anabajjtifts firft, and then againft the Sepa- 


^6 The LIFE of the L i b, L 

ratifts ; and in private, fome of my Worcefierjhire Neighbours, and many of ths 
Foot Soldiers were able to baffle both Separatifts, Anabaptifts, and Antinomians^ 
and fo kept all the Garrifon found : Whereupon, the Anabaptiftsfent to Bedford for 
one Mr. Benjamin Cox, an old Anabaptift Minifter, and no contemptible Schol- 
lar, the Son of a Bifliop ; and he and I bad firft a Difpute by Word of Mouth, 
and after by Writing ; and his Surceafing gave me eafe: In conclulion a few poor 
Townfmen only were carried away, about a Dozen Men and Women ; but the 
Souldiers and the reft of the City kept found from all Infedion of Sedaries and 

§ 67. While I lived here in Peace and Liberty ,as Men in a dry Houfe do hear the 
Storms abroad, fo did we daily hear the News of one Fight or other, or one Garri- 
fon or other won or loft j the two Ne-wbery Fights, Glocejhr Siege, the marvellous 
Sieges of Tlimouth, Lime, and Taunton, Sir Willtam Waller's Succeftes and Lofles j 
the Lofi at Newark, the Slaughter at Bolton, the greateft Fight of all at York, with 
abundance more. So that hearing (iich fad News on one fide or other was our daily 
Work J infomuch that as duly as I awakened in the Morning I expeded to hear one 
come and tell me, fucb a Garrifon is won or lofi, or /uch a Defeat recei-vcd or given : 
And [do you hear the News'] was commonly the (irft Word 1 heard. So miierable 
were thofe bloody Days, in which he was the moft honourable, that could kill 
moft of his Enemies. 

But among allthele I was efpecially plealcd with the Surprize of Shrewsbury^ 
both becaufe it was done without lofs of Blood, and becaule my Father and many 
of my dear Friends were thereby redeemed, for when i returned from Went to Co- 
ventry, it happily feil cut that Sir Fulk Hunkes was made Governor of Shrewsbury 
by the King, and he protefted my Father while he was there ; But at laft the Gen- 
try of the Countrey and he agreed not, he being too much a Soldier, and too 
civil for many of them, and they procured him to be removed, and Sir Rich. Oatlej 
firft,and after Sk Adich.Eamley made Governors.Sir Fulk Hunkes was confident when 
lie went, that their Drunkennefi and Carelefirls would /hortly lole the Town ; 
and (o it did indeed fill out : His old Mother, the Lady Hunkes, he left with my 
Father, where fhe died between 80, and 100 Years old. Buc when he was gone 
my Father was made one of the CoUedors of their Taxes for the King, which he 
juftly performed : Buc he would not forcibly diftrain of tlicm that refufed to pay, 
as not knowing but they might hereafter recover it all of him ; for which he was 
laid in Prifon by them that Iwore he Ihould lie and rot there ; But he had been 
there but a few Weeks, before the Keeper in the night came to him, and beg'd 
his Favour to fave him and his Houfe, for the Parliaments Souldiers had furpriled 
the Town : My Father would not believe it, till he heard and law that which 
conipell'd his Belief ; and with what Joy I need not tell. 

§ 68. There were abundance of ftrange Providences in thele times that fell out 
for fbme particular Perfons : The marvellous Prefervation of Souldiers by Bibles in 
their Pockets which have received the Bullets, and fuch like I will not mention. 
When prince Rupert put the Inhabitants of Bolton in Lancajloire to the Sword, 
(Men, Women, and Children) an Infant efcaped alive, and was found lying by 
her Father and Mother, who were (lain in the Streets; an Old Woman took up 
the Child, and cairied it home, and put it to her Breaft for warmth, (having not 
had a Child her felf of about jo Years) the Child drew Milk, and lo much, that 
the Woman nurled it up with her Breaft Milk a good while : The Commitcee de- 
fired Ibme Women to try her, and they found it true, and that fhehad aconfide- 
rable proportion of Milk for the Child : If any one doubt of this, they may 
yet be relolved by Mrs. Hunt, Wife to Mr. Rowland Hunt of Harrow on the Hilly 
who living then in Manchefter, was one of them that by the Committee was defi- 
red to ti ie the Woman, and who hath oft told it me, and is a credible, godly, 
difcreet Gentlewoman, and Wife to a Man of moft exemplary Holinefs, and of 
the primitive Sincerity without Self feeking, Hypocrifie and Guile. The Maid 
her ielf thus nurfed up, lived afterwards in London. 

This putteth me in mind of that worthy Servant of Chrift, "Dr.Teat, who being 
put to fly fuddenly with his Wife and Children from the Fury of the Irtjl) Rebels, 
in the Night without Provifion; wandred in the Snow out of all ways upon the 
Mountains till Mrs. Teat, having no fuck for the Child in her Arms, and he 
being ready to die with Hunger, rtie went to the Brow of a Rock to lay him down, 
and leave him that ftie might not fee him die, and there in the Snow out of all ways 
where nol'ootfteps appeared, Ihe found a Suck-bottle full of new, fweet Milk, 
which prelerved the Child's Life. 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 47 

In Cornwall, Sir Rich. Green'vik having taken many Souldiers of the Earl oiEJJ'exs 
Army, fentenced about a dozen to be hanged ; when they had hanged two or 
threej the Rope broke which fhould have hanged the next : And they (ent for new 
Ropes fo oft to hang him, and all of thein ftill broke, that they durft go no far- 
ther,butfaved all therell: : Befides univerlal undeniable Report,! had this oft told me 
hy Mr. JVooSoufe, an honeft godly (bber Man, a Silvers Son of Jultice Kettleby of S/jrop- 
jhire, who himfelf flood by expeding Death, and was one of the Number of chem 
whofe Lives were faved by it. 

If I would here give an account of all the Military Anions of thofe times 
which I had the certain knowledge of j the manner of taking and lofing Towns 
and Caftles, the Progrefs of the main Armies and of the Parties in the leveral 
Counties, in CheJIure, Lanca^nre, Torkjliire, Derhyjljtre, StafforJf.iire, Shropjfiire, Ltn- 
colfipire, Gkucefteyfiire, and other Counties wheie particular Wars were carried on^ 
and between Vemb-ioh^me and the reft of Wales, and alfo the manner of the feve- 
ral great Fights, efpecially that at Mar^on-tmor near York, it v/ould fill of it felf a- 
grcater Volume than I intend, and is a matter befides my prefent purpofi , and fit 
to be done in another manner : And therefore I Ihall pals that by, and proceed in 
the Narrative of the palTages of my own Life, interpofing only Generals, and the 
paflages which occafioned them. 

§ 69. When by the great Mercy of God I had lived two years in quictneis at Co- 
ventry, the Earl of E£ex being weakened by a great lofiin Cornwall, fell under the An.t6^d. 
great difpleaiure of fome of the Parliament, not as to his Perfon, but as to the 
Condu<a of Affairs, who prevailed to have , him laid by. The Caufes were all 
thele in Conjundion ; 

1. Though none could deny but the Earl was a Perfbn of great Honour,VaIour, 
and Sincerity J yet did fome Accufe the Soldiers under him of being too like the 
King's Soldiers in Profanenels, lewd and vitious Pradlices, and nidenels in their 
Carriage towards the Country ; and it was withal urg'd, that the Revolt of Sir 
Faithful Fdrtefcae, Sir Richard Greenvile, Col. Urrey, and (bme others, was a fatisfy- 
ing Evidence, that the irreligious fort of Men were not to be much trufted , but 
might eafily by Money be hired to bStray them. 

2. And it was difcovered chat the Earl of EjJ'exs Judgment (and the wifeft Mens 
about himj was never for the ending the Wars by the Sword, but only to force a 
Pacificatory Treaty : He thought that if the King fhould Conquer, the Govern- 
ment of the Kingdom would be changed into Arbitrary, and the Subjeds Proprie- 
ty and Liberty loft : And he thought that if he himlelf fhould utterly conquer the 
King, the Parliament would be tempted to encroach upon the King's Prerogative, 
and the Priviledges of the Lords, and put too much Power in the Gentries and 
the Peoples hands, and that they would not know how to fettle the State of the 
Kingdom, or the Church, without injuring others, and running into Extreams, 
and falling intoDivifions among themlelves. Therefore he was not for a Conqueft 
of the King. But they faw the Delay gave the King advantage, and wearied out 
and ruined the Country, and therefore they now began to fay, that at Edghill, at 
Newbury, and at other times, he had never prolecuted any Vidory, but ftood ftill 
and feen the King's Army retreat, and never purliied them when it had been eafie 
to have ended all the Wars. 

3.But the chief Caufe was,that Sir H. Vane by this time had increafed Sedaries in 
the Houfe,having drawn fome Members to his Opinion ; and Cronrwell, who was 
the Earl of A/(8W(;/6e/?fr*s Lieutenant General, had gathered to him as many of the 
Religious Party, efpecially of the Sedaries as he could get ; and kept a Correfpon- 
dency with Vanes Party in the Houfe, as if it were only to flrengthen the Religi- 
ous Party : And Manchefiers Army, efpecially CromweWi Party, had won a Vido- 
ry near Herncafile in Lincolti^nre, and had done the main Service of the day at the 
great fight at Tork ; and every where the Religious Party that were deeplieft ap- 
prehenfiveofthe Conc^irnment ofthe War, had far better Succefs than the other 
ibrt of Common Soldiers. 

Thele things fet together, caufed almoft all the Religious fort of Men in Parlia- 
ment, Armies, Garrilbns and Country, tobefor the new modelling of the Army, 
and putting out the loofer fort of Men (efpecially Officers) and putting Religious 
Men in their fteadf. But in all this Work, the Vanijls in the Houfs, and Cromwell 
in the Army, joined together, out-witted and over-reacht the reft-, and carried on 
the Intereft of the Sedaries in fpscial, while they drew the Religious Party along 
as for the Intereft of Godltnefi in the general. 


^8 I he L I F E of the L i b. I. 

The two Defigns oi Cromwell to makehimfelfgrcat, were, 

1. To Cry up Liberty of Confcience, and be very tender of Men differing in 
Judgment, by which he drew all the Separacifts and Anabaptiftsto him,with ma- 
ny Ibberer Men. 

2. To fet thele felf-efteeming Men on work to arrogafe the Glory of all Suc- 
cefles to themfelves, and cry up their own Adions, and depr^fs the Honour of the 
Earl of Mar.cbefier, and all others ; though Men of as much Godlinels at lead as 
they : fo that they did proclaim the Glory of their own Exploits, till they had got ' 
the fame of being the moft valiant and ViAorious Party. The truth iSj they did 
much, and thty boafted of more than they did. 

And theie things made the new modelling of the Army to be refolved on. But 
all th.; Queltion was how to efFed it, without ftirring up the Forces againff them 
which they intended to disband : And ail this was notably difpatcht at once,by On6 
Vote, which was called the Self-denying Vote, viz. That becaufe Commands in the 
Army had much pay, and Parliament Men jhould keep to the Service of the 
Houle , theiefoie no Parliament Men ftould be Members of the Army. 
This plealed the Soldiers, who looked to have the more pay to themfelves ; and at 
once it put out the two Generals, the Earl of Ejfcx and the Earl of Manchefier , 
and alfo Sir William Waller a godly valiant Major General of another Army ; and 
alio many Colonels in the Army, and in other parts of the Land, and the Gover- 
nour oS.Co'vmtry, and of many other Garrifons : and to avoid all Sufpicion Crom- 
well was pat out himfelf. 

When this was done, the next QuefHon was. Who Ihould be Lord General, and 
what new Officers ihould be put in, or old ones continued.'' And here the Policy 
of Vane and Cromwell did its beft : For General they chofe Sir Thomas Fairfax^ Son 
to the Lord Ferdmanclo Fairfax, who had been in the Wars beyond Sea, and had 
fought valiantly in T^rkjhire for the Parliament, though he was over. powered by the 
Earl of Newcafile's Numbers. This Man was cholen becaufe they (uppofed to find 
him a Man of no quicknefs of Parts, of no Elocution , of no fuipicious plotting 
Wit, and therefore One that Crowwf// could make ufe of at his pleafare. And he 
was acceptable to Ibber Men, becaufe he was Religious, Faithful, Valiant, and of a 
grave, fober, refolved Difpofition ,• very fit for Execution, and neither too Great 
nor too Cunning to be Commanded by the Parliament. 

And when he was chofen for General, Cromwell's men muff not be without him : 
fo valiant a Man muft not be laid by : The Self-denying Vote muff be thus far 
only difpenfed with : Cromwell only, and no other Member of either Houfe, muft 
be excepted, and (a he is made Lieutenant General of the Army: and as many 
as they could get of their Mind and Party, are put into Inferiour Places, and the 
beft of the old Officers put into the reff. But all the Scotch-men (except only Ad- 
jutant G-^) are put out of the whole Army, or deferred it. 

§ 70. And here I muft digrefsto look back to what I had forgotten, of the Scots 
Army and the Covenant : When the Earl of Newcaftle had over-powred the Lord 
Fairfax in the North, .•>nd the Queen had brought over many Papifts Soldiers from 
beyond Sea, and formed an Army under General King a Scot, and the King had 
another great Army with himfelf under the Command of the Earl of Forth,a.nothzt 
old Scottish General ; To that they had three great Field Armies , befides the Lord 
Goring's in the Weff, and all the County Parties, the Parliament were glad to defirs 
Afliftance from the Scots ; (whofe Army was paid off and disbanded before the Eng- 
lifij Wars). The Scots confented ; but they offered a Covenant to be taken by both 
Nations, for a refolved Reformation, againft Popery, Prelacy , Schifn, and Pro- 
phanenefs, (the Papifts, the Prelatifts, the SeAaries, and the Prophane, being the 
four Parties which they were againft.) 

This Covenant was propofed by the Parliament to the Confideration of the Sy- 
nod at Weflminfier : The Synod ftumbled at fome things in it , and efpecially 
at the word [Prf/dfc/.] Dr. JB«r^ej the Prolocutor , Mr. Gataker, and abundance 
more declared their Judgments to be for Epifcopacy, even f jr the ancient mode- 
rate Epifcopacy, in which one ftated Prefident with his Presbytery, governed eve- 
ry Church J though not forthe £w^/;j7j Diocefan frame, in which one Bilhop, with- 
out his Presbytery, did by a Lay-Chancellour's Court, govern all thi Presb> ters and 
Churches of a Diocefs, being many hundieds ; and that in a Secular manner by 
abundance of updart Secular Officers, unknown to the Primitive Church. Here- 
upon grew fome Debate in the Affembly j fbme being againft every Degree of Bi- 
fhops, ('e(p)ecially the Scottijh Divines,) and others being for a moderate Epifcopa- 
cy. Bur thefe Etigli(l) Divines would not Subfcribe the Covenant , till there were 


Part I. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. ^^ 

an alteration (uited to their Judgments: and fo aParenchefis was yielded to, asde- 
fcribing that ibrt of Prelacy which they oppo(ed, -viz,. [That is, Ch'trch Govermi:ent 
hy Archbiilvfs, Bipops, Deans and Chapters, Arch-deacons , and all other Ecckftasiical 
Officers defending on that Hierarchy'] All which conjoyned are mentioned as the De- 
Icription of that Form of Church Government which they meant by Prelacy, ^ls not 
extending to the ancient Epifcopacy. , 

When the Covenant was agreed on, the Lords and Commons firft took it them- 
felves, and Mr, Thom,is Coleman preached to the Houfe of Lords, and gave it theni 
with this publick Explication, That by Prelacy ■we mean not all Epijcopacy^ kit only the 
form ■which is here dejcribed. 

When the Parliament had taken it they fent it to all tlie Garrjfons, and Armies 
to be taken : and commended it to all the People of the Laiid. And when the 
War was ended, they caufed all the Noblemen, Knights, Gentlemen, and Officers 
which had been againft them in the Wars, to take it before they would admit them 
to Compofition j and take it they did : And they required that all young Mini- 
fters fhould take it at their Ordination. 

The Covenant being taken, the Scots raifed an Army to help the Parliainentj 
which came on and began to clear the North, till at 7'ork fight, the Scots Army , 
the Earl of A/j«ck/«r's Army, and the Lord Fairfax i Imall Army, joyned Battel 
againft Prince Rupert's Army, and General King's Army, and the Earl of News- 
file's Army, where they routed them, and it was thought about yooo were flain 
upon the place, befides all that died after of their wounds. 

After this the Scots Army lay ftill in the North a long time, and did nothing, 
till thereby they became odious as a burden to the Land ; The Scots £!iid, that it was 
caufed by the Policy of the Sedaries, that kept them without pay, and without 
orders to March. Their Adverfaries ('the l^ant^s and the Cromwelltavs) (aid it was 
their own fault, who would not March. At laft they were Commanded to be- 
fiege Hereford City, where they lay a long time, till the Earl of Montrof, ha- 
ving railed an Army in Scotland againft them for the King, had made it necefTary 
for them to return into their own Country, and leave Hereford untaken, and the 
People clamouring againft them, as having come for nothing into the Coun- 

Some Months after they were gone, Col. John Birch and Col. Morganrtook Here- 
ford in an hour, without any confiderable bloodihed. The Waters about the Walls 
being hard frozen, the Governour lent Warrants to the Conftables of the Country 
neer adjoyning to bring in Labourers to break the Ice j Col. Btrch got thele War- 
rants, and cauleth one of his Officers in the Habit of a Conftable, and many Sol- 
diers with Mattocks, in the habit of Labourers, to come the next morning early to 
the Gates and being let in, they let in more, and liirprized the Town. 

This much I thought good tofpeak altogether here for brevity of the Scots Ar- 
my and Covenant, and now return to the new modell'd Army. 

§ 71. The Englijl] Army being thus new modell'd, was really in the hand of 
Oliver Cromtvell, though leemingly under the Command of Sir Thomas Fairfax 
( who was Ihortly after Lord Fairfax, his Father dying.^ Cromwell's old Regiment 
which had made it lelf famous for Religion and Valour , being fourteen Troops 
was divided ; fix Troops were made the Lord Fairfax's Regiment ; and fix Troops 
WQTS Col. IFhalley's Regiment; and the other two were in Col. Rich's and Sir Ko- 
^£rfPye's Regiments. The Confidents of Cro»«M/e/^ were elpecially Col. Ireton, and 
Major D«/Wo/<gA (his Brother-in law) and Mi'pr James Berry , and Major //am- 
fon, and Col. Fleetwood, and (as his Kinlinan) Col. IVhalley, and divers others. 

But now begins the Change of the old Caufe. A Ihrewd Book came out not 
long before, called Plain EngltfJ), pieparatory hereto: And when the Lord Fairfax 
Ihould have marched with his Army, he would not (as common Fame laith) take 
his Com mi (Hon, becaufe it ran as all others before, \_for Defence of the King's Per- 
fon~\ : for it was intimated that this was but Hypocrifie , to profefs to defend the 
King when they marchtto fight againft him ; and that .Bullets could not diftingui/h 
between his Perfonand another Mans; and therefore this Claufe mult be left out, 
that they might be no Hypocrites. And fo had aCommiffion without that Claufe 
\_for the King ]. And this was the day that changed the Caufe. 

§72. The Army being ready to march, was partly the Envy and partly the^^.i^^y 
Scorn of the Nobility, and the Lord Lieutenants and the Officers which had been 
put out, by the Sdf denying Vote: But their Adions quickly vindicated them 
from Contempt. They firft attempted no lefs than the Siege of Oxford : but in the 
ntean time the King takes the field with a very numerous well-recruited Army, 

H and 

^o The LIF E of the L i B. I. 

and marcheth into Northampton^ure into the Parliaments Quarters, and thence 
ftrait to Leicefter, a Town poorly fortified, but lb advantagioudy fituated for his 
ule, as would have been an exceeding Lofs to the Parliament,if he could have kept 
it. It was taken by Storm, and many flain in it. 

General Fairfax leaveth Oxford, and marcheth through NorthamptonPnre towards 
the King. The King having the greater number, and the Parliaments Army be- 
ing of a new contemned Model, he marcheth back to meet them, and in a Field 
near Najeby, a Village in Northamptonpire, they met. Cromwell had hafled a few 
days before into the aflbciated Counties (which were their Treafury tor Men and 
Money^ and brought with him about po or 600 Men, and came in to the Army 
juft as they were drawn up, and going on to give Battel. His fudden and leafona- 
ble coming, with the great Name he had got by the Applaufes of his own Soldiers, 
made a fudden Joy in the Army, ("thinking he had brought them more help than 
he did ) fo that all cried, A Cromwell, A Cromwell, and fo went on ; and after a 
ihort hot Fight, the King's Army was totally routed and put to flight, and about 
foco Prifoners taken, with all his Ordinance and Carriage, and abundance of his 
own Letters to the Queen and others in his Cabinet : ( which the Parliament print- 
ed, as thinking fuch things were there contained as greatly difadvantaged the Re- 
putation of his Word and Caufe). Major General Sktppon fighting valiantly was 
here dangeroully wounded, but afterwards recovered. The King's Army was ut- 
terly loit by the taking of Leicefier : for by this means it was gone fo far from his 
own Gjniibns, that his Flying Hor(e could have no place of Retreat, but were 
utterly fcatcered and brought to nothing. The King himfelf fled to Ltcbfield, Cand 
it is reported that he would have gone to Shrewsbury , his Council having never 
liiffered him to know that it was taken till now ) ; and fo he went to Rayland Ca- 
iWe, in Monmouthjhtre, which was a (hong Hold, and the Houle of the Marquels of 
Worceficr a Papilt : ( where his Di/pute with the Marquefs was faid to be; which 
Dr. Bailj publifhed, and then turned Papid ; and which Mr. Chri(lopher Cartright 
continued, defending the King). Fairfax's Army put (iied to Leicefier , where the 
wounded Men, and Ibme others, flayed with the Garrifon : in a day or two's time 
the Town was re-taken. 

And now I am come up to the PaflTage which I intended of my own going into 
the Army. 

§ 7;. Nafeby being not far from Coventry where I was, and the noile of the Vi- 
ctory being loud in our Ears, and I having two or three that of old had been my 
intimate Friends in Cromwell's Army, whom I had not ieenof above two Years, I 
was defirous to go fee whether they were dead or alive; and lb to Nafeby Field 
I went two days after the fight, and thence by the Armies Quarters before Lei- 
ceftcr to feek my Acquaintance. When I found them, 1 ftayed with them a Night, 
and I nndci ftood the ftate of the Army much better than ever I had done before. 
We that lived quietly in CcwBfr^ did keep to our old Principles, and thought all 
others had donefo too," except a very few inconfiderable Perlbns : We were un- 
feignedly for King and Parliament : We believed that the War was only to 
five the Parliament and Kingdom from Papifts and Delinquents, and to remove 
the Dividers, that the King might again return to his Parliament ; and that no 
Changes might be made in Religion, but by the Laws which had his free conlent : 
We took the true happinefs of King and People, Church and State, to be our end, 
and fo we underftood the Covenant, engaging both againft Papilts and Schifma- 
ticks: And when the Court News- book told the World of the Swarms of Ana- 
baptids in our Armies, we thought it had been a meer lye , becaufe it was not lb 
widi us, nor in any of the Garrifon or County-Forces about us. But when I came 
to the Army among Cromwell's Soldiers, I found a new face of things which I ne- 
ver dreamt of: 1 heard the plotting Heads very hot upon that which intimated 
their Intention to lubvert both Church and State. Independency and Anabap- 
tiflry were moft prevalent : Antinomianifm and Arminianifm were equally diftri- 
butcd ; an6 Thomas fl</oors Followers fa Weaver of ^«/';fc;& and Lyn, of excellent 
Parts) had made fome fliifts to joyn thele two Excreams together. 

Abundance of the common Troopers, and many of the Officers, I found to be 
honeft, fober, Orthodox Men, and others tradable ready to hear the Truth, and 
of upright Intentions : But a few proud, felf-conceited , hot-headed Seftaries had 
got into the highelt places, and were Cromwell's chief Favourites, and by their 
very heat and aftivity bore down the reft, or carried them along with them , and 
were the Soul of the Army, though much fewer in number than the reft ( being 
indeed not one to twenty throughout the Army j their ftrength being in the Ge- 

P A R. T L Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. $i 

nerals and Whalkys and Rich's Regiments of Horfe, and in the new placed Officers 
in many of the reft). 

I perceived that they took the King for a Tyrant and an Enemy , and really 
intended abfolutely to mafter him, or to ruine him ; and that they thought if they 
might fight againft him, they might kill or conquer him ; and if they might con- 
quer^ they were never more totruft him further than he was in their power j and 
that they thought it folly to irritate him either by Wars or ContradiAions in Par- 
liament, if fo be they muft needs take him for their King, and truft him with their 
Lives when they had thusdifpleafed him. They faid, What were the Lords of £«?. 
landhnt William the Conqueroufs Colonels? or theI3arons but his Majors ? or the 
Knights but his Captains? They plainly /hewed me, that they thought God's 
Providence would cait the Truft of Religion and the Kingdom upon them as Con- 
querours ; They ni.ide nothing of all the moft wife and godly in the Armies and 
Gariifons, that were not of their way. Terfasauttiefas, by Law or without it 
they were refolved to take down, not only Bifliops, and Liturgy, and Ceremonies' 
but all that did withftand their way. They were far from thinking of a moderate 
Epifcopacy, or of any healing way between the Epifcopal and the Presbyterians i 
They moft honou:ed the Separatifts, Anabaptifts, and Antinomiansi but Cromwell 
and his Council cook nn them to joyn themfelves to no Party, but to be for the 
Liberty of all. Two forts I perceived they did (b commonly and bitterly fpeak a- 
gainft, that it was done in meer defign to make them odious to the Soldiers, and to 
all the Land ; and that was 

1. The 5o:/, and with them all Presbyterians but efpecially the Minifters; whom 
they call Prt./s and Frieftbytersy and Drivines, and the Diffemby-men, and fuch 

2. The Committees of theleveral Counties, and all the Soldiers that were un- 
der them that were not of their Mind and Way. 

Some orthodox Captains of the Army did partly acquaint me with all this, and 
I heard much of it from the Mouths of the leading Sedaries themfelves. This 
(truck me to the very Heart , and made me Fear that England was loft by thofe that 
it had taken for its Chiefelt Friends. 

§ 74. Upon this I began to blame both other Minifters and my felf. I (aw 
that it was the Minifters that had loft all, by forfaking the Army, and betaking 
themfelves to an eafier and quieter way of Life. When the Earl of Effex went out 
firft, each Regiment had an able Preacher, but at Edg-bill Fight almoft all of them 
went home, and as the Sedaries increafed, they were the more averfe to go into 
the Army : Its true, that I believe now they had little Invitation, and its true that 
they mult look for little Welcome and great Contempt and Oppofitition, befides 
all other Difficulties and Dangers: But it is as true,that their Worth and Labour in 
a patient felf-denying way, had been like to have preferved moft of the Army, 
and to have defeated the Contrivances of the Sedaries, and to havefaved the King, 
the Parliament and the Land. And if it had brought Reproach upon them from 
the Malicious, ('who called them Military Levites) the Good which they had done 
would have wiped off that blot, much better than the contrary courfe would 

And I reprehended my felf alfb, who had before rejeded an Invitation from 
Cromwell : When he lay at Cambridge long before with that famous Troop which 
he began his Army with, his Officers purpoled to make their Troop a gathered 
Church, and they all fubfcribed an Invitation to me to be their Paftor, and fent it 
me to Co-ventry: I fent them a Denial, reproving their Attempt, and told them 
wherein my Judgment was againft the Lawfulnefs and Convenience of their way, 
and fb I heard no more from them : And afterward meeting Cromwell at Leicefier he 
expoftulated with me for denying them. Thele very men that then invited me to 
be their Paftor, were the Men that afterwards headed much of the Army, and 
fbme of them were the tbrwardeft in all our Changes ; which made me wilh that 
I had gone among them, however it had been interpreted j for then all the Fire 
was in one Spark. 

§ 7j. When I had informed my felf to my forrow of the ftate of the Army, 
Capt Evanfon (one of my Orthodox Informers^ defired me yet to come to their 
Regiment, telling me that it was the moif religious, moft valiant, moft fuccesful 
of all the Army, but in as much danger as any one whatlbever. I was loth to leave 
my Studies, and Friends, and Quietnefs at Coventry, to go into an Army (o contra- 
ry to my Judgment : but I thoi.ght the Publick Good commanded me, and fo I 
gave him Ibme Encouragement : whereupon he told his Colonel (JVhalky) who 

H 2 alfo 

52 The LIF E of the L i b. J. 

alfo was Orthodox in Religion, but engaged by Kindred and Intereft to Cromwell : 
He invited me to be Chaplain to his Regiment ; and I told him, I would take but 
a days time to deliberate , and would fend him an Anfwer, or elie come to 

As (bon as I came home to Coventry, I call'd together an AiTembly of Minifters, 
Dr. Bryan, Dr. Grevp, and many others, ( there being many, as I before noted, fled 
thither from the Parts thereabouts). I told them the fad News of the Cor- 
ruption of the Army, and that I thought all we had valued was like to be endan- 
gered by them ; feeing this Army having firfl: conquered at York, (where Cromwell 
was under Manchefier) and now at Nafchy, and having left the King no vidble Ar- 
my but Gorings, the Fate of the whole Kingdom was like to follow die Difpofition 
and Intereft of the Conquerours. We have fworn to be true to the King and his 
Heirs in the Oath of Allegiance. All our Soldiers here do think that the Parlia- 
ment is faithful to the King, and have no other purpofes themfelves. If King and 
Parliament, Church and State be ruined by thofe Men, and we look on and do 
nothing to hinder it, how are we true to our Allegiance and to the Covenant, 
which bindeth us to defend the King, and to be againft Schifm, as well as againft 
Popery and ProphaneneC ? For my part ( laid I ) I know that my Body is fo 
weak, that it is like to hazard my Life to be among them, and I expe(a their Fu- 
ry ftould do little lefs than rid me out of the way ; and I know one Man cannot 
do much upon them : But yet if your Judgment take it to be my Duty, I will ven- 
ture my Life among them, and perhaps fome other Minifters may be drawn inland 
thenfome more of the Evil may be prevented. 

The Minifters finding my own Judgment for it, and being moved with theCaufe^ 
did unanimoufly give their Judgment for my going. Hereupon I went (trait to the 
Committee, and told them that I had an Invitation to the Army, and defired their 
Confent to go. They confulted a while, and then left it wholly to the Governour, 
faying, That if he confented they Ihould not hinder me. It fell out that Col. Bar- 
ker the Governour was juft then to beturnedout, as a Member of Parliament, by 
the Self-denying Vote. And one of his Captains was to be Colonel and Gover- 
nour in his place, (Col. Wtlloughby). Hereupon Col. Barker was content in his dif- 
content that I Ihould go out with him, that he might be mift the more j and h 
gave me his confent. 

Hereupon I fent word to Col. Whalleythax. to morrow God willing I would come 
to him. As foon as this was done the elefted Governour was much difplealed, an4 
the Soldiers were fo much offended with the Committee for confenting to my go- 
ing, that the Committee all met again in the Night, and fent for me, and told mc 
1 muft not go. I told them that by their Confent I had promifed, and therefore 
muft go. They told me that the Soldiers were ready to mutiny againft them, and 
they could not fatisfiethem, and therefore I muft ftay : I told them that I had 
not proniiled if they had not confented, though being no Soldier or Chaplain to 
the Garrifon, but only preaching to them, I took my felf to be a Free-man ; and 
I could not break my word when I had promifed by their Confent. They feemed 
to deny their Confent, and faid they did but refer me to the Governour. In a 
word, they were fo angry with me, that I was fain to tell them all the truth of 
my Motives and Defign, what a cafe I perceived the Army to be in, and tliat I 
was refolved to do my beft againft it. I knew not, till afterward , that Col. Wil- 
liam Pitrefoy a Parliament Man, one of the chief of them , was a Confident of 
Cromivells : and as loon as I had fpoken what I did of the Army, Magilterially he 
anltverethme, [Let me hear no more of that: If No/. Crowji-f// fhould hear any 
Soldiers fpeak but fuch a word, he would cleave his crown: You do them wrong; 
it is not fo.] I told him, what he would not hear, he fhould not hear from me; 
but I would perform my word though he feemed to deny his : And fo I parted 
with thofe that had been my very great Friends, in fomsdifpleafure. But the Sol- 
diers threatned to ftopthe Gates and keep me in ; but being honeft underftanding 
Men, I quickly fatisfied the Leaders of them by a private intimation of my Rea- 
fons and Refblutions, and fbme of them accompanied me on my way. 

§ 76. As foon as I came to the Army, Oliver Cromwell coldly bid me welcome, 
and never fpake one word to me more while I was there ; nor once all that time 
vouchfafed me an Opportunity to come to the Head Quarters where the Councils 
and Meetings of the Officers were, fb that moft of my defign was thereby fruftra- 
ted. And liis Secretary gave out that there was a Reformer come to the Army to 
undeceive them, and to lave Church and State, with fome fuch other Jeers ; by 
which I perceived that all that I had faid but the Night before to the Committee, 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. $3 

was come to Cromwell before me, ( I believe by Col. Purefyi means ) : But Col. 
Wballey welcomed me, and was the worfe thought on for it by the reft of the Ca- 

$ 77. Here I fet my felf from day to day to find out the Corruptions of the 
Soldiers; and to difcourle anddifpute them out of their miflakes, both Religious 
and Political : My Life among them was a daily contending againft Seducers, and 
gently arguing with the more Tradable, and another kind of Militia i had than 

I found that many honefl: Men of weak judgments and little acquaintance with 
fuch Matters, had been feduced into a difputing vein,and made it too much of tlieir 
Religion to talk for this Opinion and for that ; foraetimes for State Democracy , 
and Ibmetime for Church Democracy ; Ibmetimes againft Forms cf Prayer, and 
fcmetimes againft Infant Baptifm , ('which yet Ibme of them did maintain); Ibme- 
times againft Set-times of Prayer, and againil the tying of our felves to any Duty 
before the Spirit move us ; and lometimes about Free-grace and Free-will, and all 
the Points of Antinomianifm and Arrainianifm. So that I was almoft always, 
when I had opportunity, dilputing with one or other of them; fometimes for 
our Civil Government, and fometimes for Church Order and Governmenc ; fome- 
times for Infant Baptifm,and oft againft Antinomianilm and the contrary Extream. 
But their moft frequent and vehement Di(putes were for jLiberty of ConfJence, as 
they called it ; that is, that the Civil Magiftrate had nothing to do to determine of 
any thing in Matters of Religion, by conftraint or reftraint, but every Man might 
not only hold, but fnacb and do in Matters of Pwcligion what he pleafed : That the 
Civil Magiltrate hath nothing to do but with Civil Things, to keep the Peace, and 
protea the Churches Liberties, &c. 

I found that one half almoft of the Religious Party among them were fuch as 
were either Orthodox, or but very lightly touched with their miftakes; and al- 
moft another half were honeft men, that ftept further into the contending way^ than 
they could well get out of again, but with competent help might be recovered; 
But a few fiery, (elf conceited men among them kindled the reft, and made all the 
noife and buftle, and carried about the Army as they pleafed. For the greatett 
part of the common Soldiers, efpecially of the Foot, were ignorant men, of little 
Religion, abundance of them fuch as had been taken Prifbners, or turned out of 
Garrifbns under the King, and had been Soldiers in his Army : And thele would 
do any thing to pleafe their Officers, and were ready Inftruments for the Seducers, 
efpecially in their great Work, which was to cry down the Covenant , to vilifie all 
Parilh Minifters, but efpecially the Scots and Presbyterians : For the moft of the 
Soldiers that I Ijjoke with never took the Covenant, becaufe it tied them to defend 
the King s Perfon, and to extirpate Herefie and Schifm, 

Becaufe I perceived that it was a few Men that bore the Bell, that did all the 
hurt among them, I acquainted my (elf with thofe Men, and would be oft dilpu- 
ting with them in the hearing of the reft ; and I found that they were men that 
had been in London, hatcht up among the old Separatifts, and had made it all the 
matter of their Study and Religion to rail againft Minifters, and Parifh Churches, 
and Presbyterians, and had little other knowledge, nor little diicourfe of any thing 
about the Heart or Heaven: but were fierce with Pride and Self-conceitednels, and 
had gotten a very great conqueft over their Charity, both to the Epi(copal and 
Presbyterians. ( Whereas many of thofe honeft Soldiers which were tainted but 
with (bme doubts about Liberty of Confcience or Independency, were men that: 
would Difcourfe of the Points of Sandification and Chriftian Experience very fa- 

But we fo far prevailed in opening the folly of thefe Revilers and Self-conceited 
men, as that fome of them bscame the laughing-ftock of the Soldiers before I left 
them ; and when they preached (for great Preachers they were) their weaknefs ex- 
poled them to contempt. A great part of the mifchief they did among the Soldi- 
ers was by Pamphlets, which tliey abundandy di(per(ed ; fuch as R.Overtons, Mar- 
tin Aiar-Pneft, and more of his ; and fome of J. Lilhrn's, who was one of them ; 
and divers againft the King, and againft the Miniftry , and for Liberty of Con- 
fcience, &c. And Soldiers being ulually difperft in their Quarters , they had fuch 
Books to read wiien they had none to contradict them. 

But there was yet a more dangerous Party than all thefe among them, (only in 
Major Bethel's T wop of our Regiment) who took the dire<ftjefuitical way : They 
firlt moft vehemently declaimed againft thcDodrineof EleAion, and for the pow- 
er of Fres-vvill, and all other Points which ars controverted between the Jefuits and 


54- The LIFE of the L i b. L 

Dominicans, the Arminians and Calvinifls. Then they as fiercely cried down our 
crelent Tranflation of the Scriptures, and debated their Authority , though they 
did not deny thtni to be Divine : And they cried down all our Minillry, Epifco- 
pal, Prcsbyteiian and Independent ; and all our Churches : And they vilified al- 
moft all our ordinary Worlhip; efpecially finging of Pfalms, and conitant Family 
Worlhip : They allowed of no Argument from Scripture but what wjs brought in 
its exprefs words : I hey were vehement againft both the King, and all Govern- 
ment but Popular ; and againft Magiilrates medling in Matters of Religion : 
And all their difpuring was with as much fiercenefi, as if they had been ready to 
draw their Swords upon thole againft whom they difputed. They trulledmore to 
Policy, Scorn and Power, than to Argument: They would bitterly fcorn me a- 
mong their Hearers, to prejudice them before they entred into diipuce. They a- 
voidcd me as much as poffible ; but when we did come to it , they drowned all 
Realon in fiercenefs, and vehemency, and multitude of words. They greatly firove 
for Places of Command, and when any Place was due by order to another that 
was not of their mind, they would be fure to work him out; and be ready to 
mutiny if they had not their will. I thought they were principled by the Jefuits, 
and acied all for their Incereft, and in their way; but the (ccret Spring was out of 
fight. Thefe were the fame Men that afterward were called Levellers, and rofe up 
againft Crormvell, and were furprized at Burford ( having deceived and drawn to 
them many more) : And Thomp/on the General of the Levellers that was (lain then, 
was no greater a Man than one of the Corporals of this Troop ; the Cornet and 
others being much worfe than he. 

And thus I have given you a tafte of my Imployment in the Army. 
§ 78. As loon as I came to the Army they marched fpeedily down into the Weft, 
becauie the King had no Army left but the Lord Goring's there,and they would not 
fiiffer the Fugitives of Nafeby-fight to come thither to Itrengthen them : They came 
quickly down to Somerton when Goring was at Latjgport; which lying upon the Ri- 
ver, MaJJey was fent to keep him in on the farther fide, while Fairfax attended him 
on this fide, with his Army. One day they faced each orher^ and did nothing : 
The next day they came to their Ground again. Betwixt the two Armies was a 
narrow Lane which went between fome Meadows in a bottom, and a fmall Brook 
crofling the Lane with a narrow Bridge. Goring planted two or three fmall Pieces 
at the Head of the Lane to keep the Paffage, and there placed his beft Horfe ; ib 
that none could come to them, but over that narrow Bridge, and up that fteep 
Lane upon the mouth of thofe Pieces. After many hours facing each other , Fair- 
fax's greater Ordinance affrighting ( more than hurting ) Goring's men, and (bme 
Mufquetiers being lent to drive theirs from under the Hedges, at laft Cromwell bid 
Whallcj fend thvee oi his Troops to Charge the Enemy, and he lent three of the 
General's Regiment to fecond them, fall being of Cromwell's old Regiment j. Whal- 
ley lent Major Bethel, Capt. E-vanfon, and Capt. Groi/e to Charge ; Major Desborougb 
with another Troop or two came after ; they could go but one or two abreaft o- 
ver the Bridge. By that time Bethel and Evanfm v/ith their Troops were got up 
to the top of the Lane, they met with a feled Party of Goring's beft Horle, and 
charged them at Sword's point whilft you would count three or four hundred, and 
then put them to Retreat. In theflight they purlued them too far to the main Bo- 
dy ; for the Dull was lb extream great ( being in the very hottefl: time of Sum- 
mer) that they that were in it could fcarce fee each other, but I that ilood over 
them upon the brow of the Hill faw all : when they faw themfelves upon the face 
of Goring's Army, they fled back in hafte,and by that time they came to the Lane 
again, Capt. Grove's Troop was ready to ftop them, and relieve them, and Deibo- 
rough behind him : whereupon they rallied again,and the five or fix Troops together 
niarcht towards allGoriwg's Arm :But before they came to the Front,I could difcern 
theRere begin to run.and fo beginning in the Rere they all fled before they endured 
any Charge.nor was there a blow fi:ruck that day, but by Bethels and E-vanJonsTroop 
(on that fide), and a fevv Mulquetiers in the Hedges. Goring's Army fled to RrUg- 
watcr ; and very few of them were either kill'd or taken in the fight or the purliiir. 
1 happened to be next to Major Harrtfon as loon as the flight began, and heard him 
with a loud Voice break fortn into the Prailes of God with fluent Expreffions, as 
if he had been in a Rapture. 

Upon this Gormg fled fjrthcr Weftward ( to Exeter ) with his Army : But Fair- 
fax (byed to befiege Bridgwater : and after two days it was taken by llorm , in 
which Col. Hammond's Service was much magnified. Mr. Peters being come to 
the Aimy from London but a day before, went prefcntly back with the Mews of 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 55 

Gortng's Rout : and an Hundred pounds Reward was voted to himfelf for bringing 
the News, and to Major Bethel for his Service, but none to Capt. Evanfon, becaula 
he was noSeiftary ; and Bethel only had all the Glory and Applaufe by Cromu^ell znd 
that Party. 

From Bridgwater they went back towards Brifiol, where Prince Rupert was,taking 
Nunny Cattle and Bath in the way : At Brifiol they continued the Siege about a 
iTionth. After the firft three days 1 fell fick of a Fever ( the Plague being round 
about my Qiiarters) : As loon as I felt my Difeale, I rode fix or leven miles back 
into the Country, and the next morning C with much ado j to Bath: where Dr,^ 
Venver was my careful Phyficianj and when I was near to death (far from all my 
*Ac(|ifaTntance) it plcafedGod to reftore me, and on the fourteenth day , tiie Fe- 
ver ended in a Crifis of Sweat and Urine : But it left me fb macerated and weak, 
that it was long eVe I recovered that litde ftrength I had before. I came back to 
Brifiol Siege three or four days before the City was taken : The Foot which was 
to iflorm the Works, would not go on unlefs the Horfe went with them, fwbo had 
no Service to do ) : So Whallefs Regiment was fain to go on to encourage the Foot, 
and to ftand to be (hot at before the Ordinance (but in the Night^ while the Foot 
did ftorm the Forts : where Major BetbelQuho in the lalt Fight had but his Thumb 
fhot) had a ihot in his Thigh of which he died, and was much lamented. The 
Outworks being taken. Prince Rufert yielded up the City, upon Terms that he 
might march away with his Soldiers, leaving their Ordnance and Arms. 

Upon this the Army marcht to Sherborn Cattle fthe Earl of Brifiol's Houle ) ; 
which after a Fortnights Siege, they took by ftorm, and that on a Tide which one 
would think could never have been that way taken. While they were there , the 
Country-men, called Clubmen^ role near Shaft sbury, and got upon the top of a Hill: 
A Party was fent out againft them , who marcht up the Hill upon them , and 
routed them, though fome of the valientett Men were fl^in in the Front. 

When Sherborn Cattle was taken, part of the Army went back and took in a 
fmall Garrilbn by Salubury, called Langford-Houfe, and lb marcht to WincheHer Ca- 
ftle, and took that by Compofition alter a Weeks fiege, or little more.From thence 
Cromwell went with a good Party to Befiege Bafing-Houfe (the Marquels of Wtn- 
chefiers ) which had fruftrated great Sieges heretofore : Here Col. Hammond was 
taken Prilbner into the Houle, and afterward the Houle was taken by ftorm, and 
he faved the Marquefs and others ; and much Riches were taken by the Sol- 

In the mean time the reft of the Army marched down again towards the Lord 
Gorivg, and Crom-well came after them. 

§ 79. When we followed the Lord Goring weftward, we found that above all 
other Armies of the King, his Soldiers were mott hated by the People, for their 
incredible Prophanenels and their unmerciful Plundering ( many of them being 
Forreigners). A fober Gentleman that I quarter d with at South-Pederton in Somer- 
fetjJnre averred to me. That with him a Company of them prickt their Fingers,and 
let the Blood run into the Cup, and drank a Health to the Devil in it : And no 
place could I come into but their horrid Impiety and Outrages made them odi- 

The Army marched down by Hunnington to Exeter ; where I continued near 
three Weeks among them at the Siege, and then IVhalle/s Regiment with the Ge- 
aeral's, Fleetwood's and others being fent back, I returned with them and left the 
Siege ; which continued till the City was taken : And then the Army following Ga- 
ring into Cor«if<j//,there forced him to yield to lay down Arms,his Men going away 
beyond Sea or ellewhere without their Arms : And at laft Fendennis Caftle, and all 
the Garrifons there were taken. 

In the mean time Whalley was to Command the Party of Horfe back, to keep in 
the Garrilbn of Oxford till the Army could come to befiege it : And fo in the ex- 
tream Winter he quartered about fix Weeks in Buckitighamjljtre : and then was lent 
to lay fiege to Banbury Caftle, where Sir Willtam Compton was Governour, who had 
wearied out one long fiege before : There I was with them above two Months till 
the Cattle was taken ; and then he was fent to lay fiege to Worcefier, with the help 
of the Northampton, and Warwick, and Newport-? anml Soldiers, who had affifted 
him at Banbury. At Worcefier he lay in fiege eleven Weeks : and at the fame time 
the Army being come up from the Weft, lay in fiege at Oxford. 

By this time Col. Whalley, though Cronwell's Kinfman and Commander of the 
Trufied Kegimeot, grew odious among the Sectarian Commanders at the Head- 
quarters for my lake ; and he was called a Fresbjurian , though neither he nor I 


5^ The LIFE of the L i b. 1. 

were of that Judgment in leveral Points. And Major Sallovjey not omitting to u (c 
his induihy in the matter to that end) when he had brought the City to a necel- 
fity of prefent yielding, two days or three before it yielded. Col. Ramsboruug was 
fent from O.r/i; <^ ( which was yielded ) with lome Regiments of Foot, to Com- 
mand in Chief J partly that he might have the lionour of taking the City , and 
partly that he might be Governour there ( and not J4'halley ) when the City was 
Surrendred : And lb when it was yielded, Rainsborough was Governour to head 
and gratifie the Sectaries, and fettle the City and Country in their way : But the 
Committee of the County were lor Whdky, and lived in didafte with Rainsborough, 
and the Sedlaries profpered there no further than Worcefier City it lelf, ( a Place 
which delerved fuch a Judgment ) j but all the Country was free from their In- 

§ 80. All this while, as I had friendly Converle with the Ibber part , fb I was 
ftill employed with the reft as before, in Preaching, Conference, and Dilputing 
againlt their Confounding Errours : And in all Places where we went, the Seda- 
rian Soldiers much infeded the Countreys, by their Pamphlets and Converfe, and 
the People admiring the conquering Army, were ready to receive vvhatfoever they 
commended to them : And it was the way of the Fadion to fpeak what they fpake 
as the Senfe of the Army, and to make the People believe that whatever Opinion 
they vented,(which one of forty in the Army owned not)it was the Army's Opinion. 
Wlien we quarter'd at Agmonde^)am inBuckinghamJl]ire,ibmQ StAaries oichijliam had 
let up a Publick Meeting as for Conference, to propagate their Opinions through 
all the Country ; and this in the Church, by the encouragement of an ignorant 
Sedarian Ledurcr, one Bramble, whom they had got in ( while Dr. Crook the 
Paftor, and Mr. Rtchardfon his Curate , durft not contradid them). When this 
publick Talking day came. Bethel's Troopers ( then Capt. Fitchford's ) with other 
Sedarian Soldiers muft be there, to confirm the C/;^_//ww Men, and make Men be- 
lieve that the Army was for them : And I thought it my Duty to be there alfb, and 
took divers fober Officers with me, to let them lee that more of the Army were 
againft them than for them. I took the Reading Pew, and Pttchfords Cornet and 
Troopers took the Gallery. And there I found a crowded Congregation of poor 
well-meaning People, that came in the Simplicity of their Hearts to be deceived. 
There did the Leader of the Chejliam Men begin, and afterward Fitchford's Soldi- 
ers fet in, and I alone difputed againft them from Morning until almoft Night; 
for I knew their trick, that if I had but gone out firft, they would have prated 
whit boafting words they lifted when I was gone, and made the People believe 
that they had baffled me, or got the beft j therefore I ftayed it out till they firft 
role and went away : The abundance of Nonlenle which they uttered that day , 
may partly be leen in Mr. Edward's Gangrana : for when I had wrote a Letter of 
it to a Friend in London, that and another were put into Mr. Edwards's Book,with- 
out my Name.But fome of the Ibber People of Agmondejliam gave me abundance of 
thanks for that Days work, which they laid would never be there forgotten: And 
I heard that the Sedarics were fo difcouraged that they never met there any more. 
I am lure I had much thanks from Dr. Crook and Mr. Richardjun, who being ob- 
noxious to their dilpleafure, for being for the King, durft not open their mouths 
themfelvci. And after the Conference I talkt with the Ledurer Mr. Bratvble ( or 
BrcmUy) and found him little wifer than the reft. 

§81. The great Impediments of the Succels of my Endeavours I found were 
only two : i. The dilcountenance of Cromwell, and the chief Officers of his Mind, 
which kept me a ftranger from their Meetings and Councils. 2. My incapacity of 
Speaking to many, bccaufe Soldiers Qiiarters are Icattered far irom one another, 
and I could be but in one Place at once. So that one Troop at a time ordinarily, 
and fome few more extraordinarily was all that I could fpeak too : The moft of 
the Service 1 did beyond IVhallefi Regiment, was ( by the help of Capt. Lawrence) 
with fome of the General's Regiment, and Ibmetimes 1 had Converle with Major 
Harrifon and fome others : But I found that if the Army had but had Minilters 
enough, that would have done but lach a little as I did, all their Pint might have 
been broken, and King, Parliament, and Religion might have been prelerved : 
Therefore I lent abroad to getlbme more Minifters among them, but 1 could get 
none. Saltmar^y and Dell were the two great Preachers at the I lead Quarters ; on- 
ly honeft and jadicious Mr. E^i'ji'W/JuWo kept ftill with the General. At laft I 
{7ot Mr. Cook of Ro^ball to come to aftill^ me j and the Ibberer part of the Oflicers 
and Soldiers of /^r(&i?//f7's Regiment were willing to pay him out of their ov/n pay: 
And 2 Month gr two he ftaycvl and affiftej me i but was quickly weary, and left 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 57 

them again : He was a very worthy, humble, laborious Man, unwearid in preach- 
ing, but weary when he had not opportunity to preach, and weary of the Spirits 
he had to deal with. 

§ 82. All this while, though I ca.v.e not neur Cromwell, his Defigns were vifible 
and I law him continually ading liis part. The Lord General fuftered )iim to go- 
vern and do all, and to choolealmoit all the Officers of the Army. He firft made 
/rerow CommilTary General ; ai.d when any Troop or Company was to be diljjofed 
of, or any conlij^rable Officei's place was void, he w^isfure to put a Sedary in the 
place ; and when the brunt ot the War was over, he lookt not lb much at their 
Valour as their Opinions : So that by degrees he had headed the greateft part of the 
Army with Anahaptifs, yintinomians, Seekers, or Separatij'rs at bed : and all thels 
he tied together by the point of Liberty of Confcience, which was the Common 
Inter eft in which they did unite. Yet all the fober Party were carried on by his 
Profedion that he only promoted the Univerfal Intereft of the Godly, without a- 
ny dilHndtion or partiality at all : But IHU when a place fell void, it was Twenty 
to one a Sedary had it, and if a Godly Man of any other Mind or temper had a 
mind to leave the Army, he would fecredy or openly further it. Yet did he not 
openly profels what Opinion he was of himlelf : But the moft that he laid for any 
vfasiov Jnabaptijm and AntinoTnianifm, which he ufually feemed to own. And 
Harrifon ( who was then great with him ) was for the lame Opinions. He would 
not Difpute ( with me ) at all, but he would in good Difcourle very fluently pour 
out himlelf, in the Extolling of Freegrace, which was lavoury to thofe that had 
right Principles, though he had f.ime mifunderftandings of Freegrace himlelf. He 
was a Man of excellent Natural Parts for AfTedion and Oratory ; but not well 
(een in the Principles of his Religion : Of a Sanguine Complexion, naturally of 
fuch a vivacity, hilarity and alacrity as another Man hath when he hath drunken 
a Cup too much ; but naturally alio fo far from humble Thoughts of himfelf, that 
it was his ruine. 

§ 8;. All thefe two Years that I was in the Army, even my old bolbm Friend, 
that had lived in my Houfe, and been deareft to me, James Berry, (then Captain, 
and after Colonel and Major General, and Lord of the Upper Houle ) who had 
formerly invited me to CromwelTs old Troop, did never once invite me to the Ar- 
my at firft, nor invite me to his Quarters after, nor never once came to vifit me, 
nor law me lave twice or thrice that we met accidently : lb potent is the Intereft 
of our felves and our Opinions with us, againft all other Bonds whatever: He that 
forfaketh himlelf in forfaking his own Opinions, may well beexpeded to forlake 
his Friend, who adhereth to the way which he forfaketh: and that Change which 
maketh him think he was himfelf an ignorant, niifguided Man before, muft needs 
make him think his Friend to be ftill ignorant and mifguided, and value him ac- 
cordingly. He was a Man, I verily think, of great Sincerity before the Wars, and 
of very good Natural Parts, efpecially Mathematical and Mechanical ; and affedi- 
onate in Religion, and while converfant with humbling Providences, Dodrines and 
Company, he carried himfelf as a very great Enemy to Pride : But when Crom- 
well m^i^Q him his ^ixonute, and his extraordinary Valour was crowned with ex- 
traordinary Succefs, and when he had been a while moft converfant with thofe that 
in Religion thought the old Puritan Minilfers were dull, lelf-conceited. Men of a 
lower form, and that new Light had declared I know not what to be a higher at- 
tainment, his Mind, his Aim, his Talk and all was altered accordingly. And as 
Minilters of the old way were lower, and Sedariesmuch higher in his efteem than 
formerly, fo he was much higher in his own Efteem when he thought he had at- 
tained much higher, than he was before when he late with his Fellows in the 
Common Form. Being never well ftudied in the Body of Divinity or Contro- 
verfie, but taking his Light among the Sedaries , before the Light which longer 
and patient Studies of Divinity Ihould have prepolTeft himv^ith, he lived after as 
honelHy as could be expeded in one that taketh Errour for Truth, and Evil to be 

After this he was Prefident of the Agitators, and after that Major General and 
Lord as aforefaid : And after that a principal Perfon in the Changes, and the prin- 
cipal Executioner in pulling down Rtchard Cromwell ; and then was one of the 
Governing Council of State. And all diis was promoted by the niifunderftanding of 
Providence,while he verily thought that God, by their Vidories,had fo called them 
to look after the Government of the Land , and fo entrufted them with the welfare 
of all his People here, that they were refponfible for it , and might not in Con- 

I fcience 

$8 The LIFE of the Lib. I, 

fcience ftand ftill while any thing was done which they thought was againft that 
Intereft which they judged to be the Intereft of the People of God. 

And as he was the Chief in pulling down, he was one of the firft that fsU : For 
Sir Arthur Hafelrigg taking Fort/mouth ( of which more hereafter) his Regiment of 
Horfe fent to block it up, went moil of them into Sir Arthur Hafelrigg. And when 
the Army was melted to nothing, and the King ready to come in, the Council 
of State imprifbned him, becaufe he would not promife to live peaceably j and af- 
terwards he (being one of the four whom General Monk had the worit thoughts of) 
was clolely confm'd in Scarborough Cajtle : bat being relealed he became a Gardiner, 
and lived in a fafer (late than in all his Greatnefs. 

§84. When /^"brcf/fr Siege was over, ( having with Joy (een Kiddermtn^er and 
my Friends there once again^, the Country being now cheared, my old Flock ex- 
peded that I fiiould return to them, and fettle in Peace among them. 

1 went to Coventry, and called the Minifters again together who had voted me 
into the Army : I told them [' That the forfaking of the Army by the old Mini- 
' fters, and the negledl of Supplying their Places by others, had undone us : that 
' I had laboured among them with as much Succefs as could be expeded in the 
' narrow Iphereof my Capacity: but thatfignified little to all the Army I That the 
' Adive Sectaries were the fmalleft part of the Army among the Common Soldi- 
' ers, but Cromwell had lately put fo many of them into Superiour Command, and 
' their Induflry was fo much greater than others, that they were like to have their 
* Will ; That whatever obedience they pretended, I doubted not but they would 
' pull down all that itood in their way, in State and Church, both King, Parlia- 
' ment and Minifters, and fet up themlelves. I told them that for this little that I 
, ' have done I have ventured my Life, and weakened my Body ( weak before) : 
' but the Day which I expeded is yet to come, and the greatejt Service wich the 
^ greatefi Hazard is yet before. The Wars being now ended, I was confident they 
' vvuuld fhortly Ihew their purpnles, and fet up for themlelves : And when that 
' day came, for all that are true to Kwg, Varliai)7€nt, and Religion then to appear, 
' if there beany hope,by contradiding them or drawing off the Soldiers from them, 
' was all the Service that Vv'as yet pofltble to be done: That I was like to do no 
' great matter in (uch an Attempt ; but there being (b many in the Army of my 
' mind, I knew not what might be till the Day lliould dif-over it : Though I knew 
' it was the greareft hazard of my Life, my Judgment was for ftaying among them 
' till theCrilis, if their Judgment did concur]. Whereupon they all voted me to 
go, and leave Kiddermivfter yet longer, which accordingly I did. 

§ 85-. From JVorcefier 1 went to London to Sir Theodore Mayern about my health : 
He lent me to Tunbridge Wells, and after Ibme flay there to my benefit, I went 
back to London, and io to my Quarters in fVorceficrflme where the Regiment 

My Quarters fell out to be at Sir Tho. Roms at Rous Le?ich , where I had never 
been befbie : The Lady Rom was a godly, grave, underftanding Woman, and en- 
tertained me not as a Soldier but a Friend. From thence I went into Leke/l-erptre, 
StaffordjJnre, and at laft into Derbyjhire. One advantage by this moving Life 1 had, 
that I liad opportunity to preach in many Countreys and Parilhes ; and whatever 
came of it afterward, I know not ; but at the prelent they commonly leemed to 
be much affeded. 

1 cams to our Major Swallow's Quarters at Sir John Cook's Houle at Melboum in 
the edge of D^r^///;/re, beyond ^//j^^ de la Zouchfxa a cold and fnowy Seafon; and the 
cold, together with other things coincident, let my Nole on bleeding. When I 
had bled about a quart or two, I opened four Veins, but it did no good, I uled 
divers other Remedies for lever al days to little purpofe ; at laft I gave my lelf a 
Purge, which (lopt it. This io much weakened me and altered my Complexion, 
that my Acquaintance who came to vifit me Icarce knew me. Coming after lb 
long weaknefs, and frequent lols of Blood before, it made the Phyficians conclude 
mc deplorate after it was flopped j fuppofing I would never elcape a 

And thus God unavoidably prevented all the EfFe<5t of my purpoles in my laft 
and chiefeft Oppoficionof the Army j and took me off the very time when my 
Attempt fhould have begun : My purpole was to have done my bed firft to take off 
that Regiment which I was with, and then with Capt. Lawrence to have tried up- 
on the Generals ( in which two was Cromwell's chief Confidents) and then have 
jo)'ned with others of the lame, mind ( for the other Regiments were much lels 


P A El T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 5^ 

Corrupted). But the Determination of God againft it was molt oblervable : For 
the very time that I was bleeding the Council of War (ate at Nottingham, where (as 
I iuve credibly heard ^ they firlt began to open their Purpoles and ad their Part : 
and prefently after they entered into their Engagement at 7'riploe-Heat/j. And ss 
I perceived it was the Will of God to permit them to go on , lb I afterward found 
that this great Affliftion was a Mercy to my felf ; for they were lb Itrong and a- 
clive, that I had been likely to have had fmall Succels in the Attempt, but rohave 
loft my Life among them in their Fury. And thus I was finally lepsrated fiom 
the Army. 

§ 8(5. When I had flayed at Melbourn in my Chamber three Weeks ( being a- 
mong Strangers, and not knowing how to get home) 1 went to iMr. Nowell's houle 
at Kirby-Mallory in Leicefierjlure, where with great Kindnefs I was entertained three 
Weeks : By that time the Tidings of my Weaknels came to the Lady Rous in IVor- 
cefierpire, who lent her Servant to leek me out; and when he leturned , and told 
her 1 was far ofr,and he could not find me,flie lent him again to find me,and bring 
me thither if I were able to travel : And in great weaknefs, thither I made Ihift 
to get, where I was entertained with the greateft Care and Tendernels, while I 
continued the ufeof means for my Recovery : and when I had been there a quar- 
ter of a. Year, I returned to Ktdderminfier. 

§ 87. When I was gone from the Army, the Parliament was nioft Iblicitoushow 
to keep them from Tumults and Dilbbedience : But Sir Henry Vane with his Party 
lecretly confiderated with them, to weaken all others, and to ftrengthen the Seda- 
ries : Whereupon they procured the Houfe to Disband both Major General Maj- 
fey's Brigade, and all other Field Soldiers, and the honeft County Forces and Gar- 
rifons of mofl Places, which among them had Ibber Men enow to have refift-ed 
them. This was the fuccefsfulleft A<51 that was done for their Defigns ; for now 
they had little fear of Oppofition. 

The Defign of Vane and Cromwell now was not only to keep up an Army of 
Seftaries, when the Sober Party were Disbanded, but alfo to force the Parliament 
to their mind, and moddel it fo as that they fhould do their work : ( which I had 
foretold Ibme Parliament Men of long before ) : One of the Principal Engines in 
this Contrivance was, to provoke the Parliament to pals (iich Votes as the Army 
would be moil difplealed with, and then to ftir up the Army to the deepeft Re- 
lentment of it. Accordingly the Parliament voted that part of the Army Ihould 
go to Ireland, and part be disbanded, and part continued. The Leaders in the Ar- 
my incenled the Soldiers, by perfwading them that this was to deprive them of 
their Pay, and to divide them, and when they had them at home again to ruine 
them as Seftaries, and this was the Reward of all their Services. Whereupon at 
Triploe-Heath they entered into an Engagemejit to ftick together, e^c. and were 
drawing up a Declaration of their Grievances; ( the aggravating of fuppofed In- 
juries being the way to raife Mutinies,and make ufe of Fadionsfor Seditious Ends) 
Quarter-Mafter General F/«<:/&£racquainteth Sir W^///^w PValler with their Defign, 
( who with others was fent to the Army ) and Col. Edward Harley (a Member of 
the Parliament and of the Army) acquainteth the Houle with it. Cromwell being 
in the Houle doth with vehemency deny ic ; and faid it was a Slander, railed to 
difcompofe the Army by difcontcnting them, and undertook that they Ihouid all 
la / down their Arms at the Parliaments Feet, and for his own part, protefting his 
Submiflion and Obedience to them. And this he did when he was Confederate 
with them, and knew of the Paper which they were drawing pp , and confeft it 
after when the Copy of it was produced, and prelently went among them , and 
headed them in their Rebellion. In Ihort, he and his Cabal fo heightn«d the Dil^ 
contents, and carried on the New Confederate Army, that the Parliament was fain 
to Command all that were faithful to forfake them, and offer them their Pay to 
encourage them thereto : Commiffary General Fmcher, and Major Alfop, and Ma- 
jor Huntington, and many more with a confiderable number of Soldiers came off; 
But being not enow to make a Body to refill them, it proved a great Addition to 
their ftrejjgth : For now all that were againft them being gone, they lilled up their 
Places with Men of their own Mind , and lo were ever after the more unani- 

§ 88. Upon this Cromwell and his Obedient Lambs fas he called them) advanced 
in the Profecution of their Defign, and drew nearer London, and drew up an Im- 
peachment againft Eleven Members of the Parliament, fojfooth accufing them of 
Treafon j wz,. Sir P/{i;7<p Stapleton, Sir William Lewu , Col. Hollis , Sir John May- 
nard^ Mr. Glyn, Sic. and among' the reft Col Edward Harley (afober and truly 

I z religious 

— »_- . — : — ^ '-^ — » 

60 The L I F E of the L i B. 1. 

religious Man, the worthy Son of a moft pious Father, Sir Raben Hurley'). And 
when thereby they had forced the Houfe to feclude them as under Acculation,they 
let fall their Suit, and never proiecuted them, nor proved them Guilty. 

Thus begun that Pride to break forth into Rebellion, which grew up from Suc- 
ceffes in impotent Minds, net able to conquer fo great a Teaiptation as their Con- 
quefts. When they had call out thele Members , they thought that the Houfe 
would have done as they would have had them, and been awed into Obedience, 
but flill they continued to crols them, and came not up to the Conformity expe- 
A-d. A while after the City (eemedto take Courage, and would defend the Par- 
liament againft the Army, and under Major General MaJJeji and Major General 
Pomtz. they would put themfeves into a Military pofture : But the Army 
made hafte, and were upon them before they were well refolved what to do, and 
the hearts of the Citizens failed them, and were divided , and they fubmitted to 
the Army, and let them enter the City in triumph. Whereupon Majjey and Holla^ 
and others of the acculed Members fled into Fm«cc, of whom Sir Thiltp StapUton 
died of the Plague near Cahce ; and now the Army promiled themlelves an oba- 
dient Parliament ; but yet they were not to their mind. 

§ 89. Here I muft look back to the Courfe and Affairs of the King ; who at the 
Siege of Oxford, having no Army left, and knowing that the Scots had more Loy- 
alty and Stability in their Principles than the Seftaries, refolved to caft himfelf 
upon them, and fo efcaped to their Army in the North. The Scots were very 
much troubled at this Honour that was caft upon them : for they knew not whac 
to do with the King. To fend him back to the Etiglijh Parliament feemed unfaith- 
fulnefs, when he had caft himfelf upon them: To keep him they knew would di- 
vide the Kingdoms, and draw a War upon themfelves from England \ whom now 
they knew themlelves unable to refnf . They kept him awhile among them with 
honourable Entertainment, till the Parliament fen t for him ; and they (aw that 
the Sedaries and the Army were glad of it, as an occafion to make them odious, 
and to invade their Land. And io the terrour of the Conquering Army made 
them deliver him to the Parliaments Cominiffionersupon two Conditions : i.That 
they fhould promife to preferve his Perfon in Safety and Honour , according to 
the Duty which they owed him by their Allegiance. 2. That they ihould pre- 
fently pay the Scots Army one half the Pay which was due to them for their Ser- 
vice, ( which had been long unpaid to make them odious to the Country where 
they quartered j. 

Hereupon the King being delivered to the Parliament, they appointed Colonel 
, Packard Greaves, Major General Richard Bro-wn, with others to be his Attendants, 
and defired him to abide awhile at Homeby-Houfc in Northamptofifiiire. While he was 
here the Army was hatching their Confpiracy : And on the fudden one Cornet 
Joyce, with a party of Soldiers, fetcht away the King, notwichffanding the Par- 
liaments Order for his Security : And this was done as if it had been againft Crom- 
ve//'s Will, and without any Order or Confent of theirs : But fo far was he from 
lofing his Head for fuch a Treafon, that it proved the means cf his Preferment. 
And 16 far was Cromwell and his Soldiers from returning the King in Safety , that 
they detained him among them, and kept him with them, till they came to Hamf- 
ton Court, and there they lodged him under the Guard of Col M halley, the Army 
quarterring all about him. While he was here the mutable Hypocrites firfl; pre- 
tended .m extraordinary Care of the King's Honour, Liberty, Safety and Con- 
Icience. They blamed the Auiferity of the Parliament, who had denied him the 
Attendance of his own Chaplains ; and of his Friends in whom he took moll 
plealiire : They give Liberty for his Friends and Chaplains to come to him : They 
pretended that they would fave him from the Incivilities of the Parliament and 
Presbyierianf. Whether thiswere while they tried what Terms they could make 
with him for themlelves, or while they aded any other part v it is ceitain that 
the King's old Adherents began to extol the Army, and to (peak .igainlt the Pref- 
byterians more dilUitfully than before. When the Parliament olfercd the King 
Propoficions for Concord, (which Fane's Faaion made as high and unre.ifonable 
as they could, that they might come to nothing) the Army toilboth offer him 
Propofals of their own, which the King liked better : But which of them to treat 
with he did not know. At la!f on the ludden the Judgment of the Army chang- 
ed, and they began to cry for 7«/'« againO the King, and with vi!e HypocriHe, 
to publifii their Kcpcntance,and cry God Mercy for their Kindnefs to theKing,and 
confeL that they were under a Temptation: But in all this Cromv/ell and Iretcn, and 
the rcit of the Council of War appeared not : The LnUrumcnts of all this Work muff 


Part I. Re^'^m/^ Afr. Richard Baxter. 61 

be the Common Soldiers. Two of the mofl: violent Setaaries in each Regimenc 
arechofen by the Common Soldiers, by the Name cf Agitators, to reprele.-it the 
red in thele great Affairs. All thefe together made a Council, ot" which Col. James 
Berry Was the Prefident^ that they might be uled, ruled and dilfolved at plealure. 
No man that knew them will doubt whether this was done by Crcwu'c// s and keton's 
Dired:ion. This Council of Agitators take not only the Parliaments Work upon 
themlelves, but much more : They draw up a Paper called Tha Jgreement of the 
People, as the Model or Form of a New Commonwealth. They have their own 
Printer, and pablifli abundance of wild Pamphlets, as changeable as the Moon: 
the thing contrived was an Heretical Dcmocrac)'. When Cromwell had awhile 
permitted them thus to play themfelves, partly to pleafe them, and confirm them 
to him, and chiefly to ufe them in his demolidiing Work, at laft he leenieth to be 
lb much for Order and Government , as to bianie them for their Dilordcr, Pre- 
fumption and Headinefs, as if they had done it without his Confent. This em- 
boldeneth the Parliament fnot to Cenfure them as Rebels, butj torcbuki them and 
prohibit them, and claim their own Superiority : And while the Parliament and 
the Agitators are contending, a Letter is fecretly fent to Col. Whalky, to intimate 
that the Agitators had a defign fuddenly to liirpiize and murder the King. Some 
think that this was fent from a real Friend ; but moft think it was contrived by 
Cromwell to affright the King out of the Land, or into fome defperate Courle 
which might give them Advantage againft him. CoUonel ll'halky iheweth the 
Letter to the King, which put him into much fear of fach ill governed Hands : 
fo that he lecretiy got Horfesand flipt away towards the Sea with two of his Con- 
fidents only ; who coming to the Sea near Southampton, found that they were dlf- 
appointed of the Veflal expefted to traniport them ; and fo were f lin to pafs ever 
into the Ifle of Ji'ight, and there to commit his MajeRy to the Tmit of CoUonel 
Robert Hammond vvho was Governor of a Caltle there : A Day or two all were 
amazed ro think what was become of the King ; and then a Letter from the King 
to the Houfe acquainted them that he was fain to ily thither from the Cruelty of 
the Agitators, who, as he was informed thought to murder him ; and luging them 
to treat about the ending all thele Troubles. But here Cromwell had the King in 
a Pinfold, and was more (ecure of him than before, 

§ 90. The Parliament and the Scots, and all that were loyill and fobcrmirided 
abhorred thefe traiterous Proceedings of Cromwell and the leftarian Army ; but 
(aw \z a Matter of great difficulty to refift them : but the Confcience of their Oath 
of Allegiance and Covenant, told them that they were bound to ha;;^ard tlieir 
Lives in the attempt. 

The three Commanders forthe Parliament inPfwiYao;^/?;;Vc;raifed an Army againfl: 
them, '•jsz: Major General Langborn, CoUonel Fovel, and CoUonel Foyer : The 
Scots railed a great Army under the Command of the Duke of Hamilton ; Th.e 
Kentijlj Men rofe under the Command of the Lord Goring and others : and the EJ- 
fex Men under Sir Charles Lucas : But God's time was not come, and the Spirit of 
pride and Schilm mult be known to the World by its EfTedf. Duke Humihon's 
Army was eafily routed in Lanca^nre, and he taken, and the fcattered Parts pur- 
fued till they came to nothing .- Langhorn wit'a the Pew/Zroo^jJ^Ve Men was totally 
routed by CoUonel Horton, and all the chief Commanders being taken Prilnners, it 
fell to CoUonel Vcyers Lot to be lliot to Death : Tlie Kentijh Men were driven out 
of Kent into Fjex, being foiled at Alaidflone : And in Colchejhr they endured ,i 
long and grievous Siege, and yielding at la(V, "^ir Charles Lucas, and another or tv;o 
weie Jhot to Death, and thus all the Succors of the King were defeated, 

§ 9r. Never to this time, when Cromwell had taught his Aj^itators to govern, 
and could not eafily unteach it them again, there aroie a ?any who adhered to the 
Principles of their [eigretfnmt of the People'] which fuitcd not with his De/igns : 
And to make them odious he denominated them Levellers^ as if they intended to 
level Men of all Oitalmes and Ejfates ; while lie difcounten.inced them, he dilcon- 
tented tiiem ; and being difcontentcd, tliey endeavoured to dilcontent the Army j 
and at lad appointed a Randezvouz at Burford to make Head againft him. But 
Cromwell ( whole Diligence and Dilpatch was a great Caule of his Succefies) had 
preiently his Brother Dtshcrough, and fome other Regiments ready to furprile 
tliem there in their Quarters, before they could get t'leir Numbers together : So 
that about i joo being fcattered and taken, and lome flain, the Levellers War was 
crulht in the Egg, and Thompjon ( one of Captain Pitcbford'i Corporals aforemen- 
tioned) who became their chief Leader, was purliied near H^kUvgborough m 
Northamptcnjliire, and there flain while he defended himfelf, 

P'92. A< 

^2 The LIFE of the Lib. 1. 

§ 92. As I have paft over many Battles, Sieges, and great Adions of the Wars^ 
as not belonging to my purpofe ; lb I liave paffed over Cromwell's March into Scot- 
land to help the Covenanters when Montrojs was too (Irong for them, and I Ihall pals 
over his Tranfportation into Ireland, and his fpeedy Conquefl- of the remaining For- 
ces and Fortreffes of that Kingdom, his taking die Illes cAAdm, cfjerfcy, Gamfcy, and 
Scilly, and fuch other of his SuccelTes, and Ipeak only in brief of what he did to the 
change of the Government, and to the exalting oi himfeli and of his Confidents. 
And I will pais over the Londoners Petitions for the King, and their Carriage to« 
wards the Moufe, which looked like a force, and exafj^^rated them io, that the 
Speakers of both Iloufes, the Earl of Munchefier and Mr. Lcntball, did with the 
greater part of the prelent Members, go forth to Cromvell, and make fome kind 
of Confvdorjcy with the Army, and took them for their Proteftors pgainft the 
Citizens. Alio their votings and unvoting in thefe Calis, &c. 

§ 95. The King being at the IQeof IVtgbt, the Parliament fent him Ibnie Pro- 
podtions to b;: conlented to in order to his Rcftor^tion : The King granted many 
<jf them, and lome he granted not : T\\q Scott i^h Commiflioners thought the Con- 
ditions more diflionourabletothe King,than was confiliant with their (x)venantand 
Duty, and protelfed againft them ; for which the Parliament blamed them as 
hinderers of the defired Peace. The chiefelf thing which the King ftuck at, 
was, the utter abolifhing of Epifcopacy, and alienating theirs and the Dean and 
Chapters Lands. Hereupon, with the Commiflioners certain Divines were fent 
down to fatisfis the King, I'tz,. Mr. Ste^h. Marfl>all, Mr. Rich. Vims, Dr. Lazarut 
Seaman, &c. who were met by many of the King's Divines, Archbifliop t7/fc«r. 
Dr. Hamrnnnd, Dr. Sheldon, &c. The Debates here being in Writing were publi/hed, 
and each Party thought they had the better, and the Parliaments Divines came off 
with great Honour : But for my part, I confefs thefe tvv/o things againfl thenij 
though Perfons whom I highly honoured : 

1. That they (eem not to me to have anfwered fatisfaftorily to the main Ar- 
gument fetcht from the Apoftles own Govcrnnient, with which Saravia had incli* 
ned me to fome Epifcopacy before ; though Miracles and Infallibility were Apo- 
flolical temporary Priviledgesj yet Church Goveinmcnt is an ordinary thing to 
be continued : And therefore as the Apoftles had SuccefTors as they were Preach- 
ers, I Ice not but that they muft have SuccefTors as Church Governors : And it 
feenieth unlikely to me, that Chrift fhould fettle a Form of Government in his 
Church, which was to continue but for one Age, and then to be transformed into 
another Species. Could I be fure what was the Government in the Days of the 
Apoftles themfelves, I fhould be fatisfied what fhould be the Government now. 

2. They feem not to me to have taken the Courfe which fhould have fetled thefe 
diftraded Churches : Inflead of difjjuting againft all Epifcopacy, they fhould 
have changed Diocefan Prelacy into fiich an Epifcopacy as the Confcience of the 
King might have admitted, and as was agreeable to that which the Church had in 
the two or thiee firft Ages. I confefs, Mr. Vmts wrote to nie as their excufe in this 
and other Matters of the Aftembly, that the Parliament tied them up from treat- 
ing or difputing of any thing at all, but what they appointed or propofedto them : 
But I think plain dealing with fiich Leaders had baen beft, and to have told them 
thu u our Judgmtnt, and in the matters of God and his Church we will ferve you 
according to our Judgment, or not at all. ( But indeed if they were not of one 
Mind among themfelves, this could not beexpeded.) 

Archbifhop Ujiier there took the righteft courfe,\vho offered the King his Reduction 
of Epifcopacy to the form of Presbytery : And he told me hixnlelf, that before the 
King had refafed it, but at the Jfle of Wight he accepted it, and as he would not 
when others would, fo others would not when he would : And when our prefenc 
King Charles 11. came in, we tendered it for Union to him, and then he would 
not : And thus the true moderate healing terms are always reje(9^ed by them that 
fland on the higher Ground, though accepted by them that are lower and cannot 
have what they will: From whence it is eafy to perceive, whether Prolperity or 
Adverfity, the Higheft, or the Loweft, be ordinarily the greater Hinderer of the 
Churches Unity and Peace. I know that if the Divines and l^arliament had 
agreed for a moderate Epifcopacy with the King, fome Presbyterians of Scotland 
would have been againft it, and many Independants of England, and the Army 
would have made it the matter of odious Accufations and Clamouis : But all this 
had been of no great regard to remove forefeeing judicious Men from thofe heal- 
ing Counfels which mult clofe our Wounds whenever they are clofed. 

Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 6^ 

§ 94. The King fending his final Anfwefs to the Parliament, tlie P.^rliiment 
hada long Debate upon them, whether to acquiefce in them as a fufficient Ground 
for Peace j and many Members fpake for relHng in them, and among others 
Mr. Frin went over all the Kings Confoeffions in a Speech of divers Hours long, 
with marvellous Memory, and ilicwed the Satisfadorinels of them all, ( and after 
printed it : ^ ^o ^h^' theHoufi voted that the Kings Conceffions were a fufficienc 
Ground for a Perfbnal Treaty with him ; and had (uddenly fent a concluding An- 
fwer, and fent for him up, but at fuch a Cri/is it was time for the Army to belHr 
them : Without any more ado Crom-well and his Confidents lend CoUonol Vride 
with a Party of Souldiers to the Houfe, and let a Guard upon the Door; one Part 
of the Houle (who were for them ) they let in ; another part they turned away, 
and told them that they muft not come there ; and the third part they impriloned 
(the Ibbereft worthy Members of the Houfe) j and all to prevent them from be- 
ing true to their Oaths and Covenants, and loyal to their King : Tofo much Re- 
bellion, Perfideoul'nefi, Perjury and Impudence, can Errer, 5f //jJjwf/ and Pr de of 
great SucqelTes, tranfport Men of the highefk Pretences to 'Religion. 

§ 9j. For the true underifanding of all this, it mult be remembred, that though 
in the beginning of the Parliament there was (carce a noted grofs Seftary known, 
but the Lord Brook in the Houle of Peers, and young Sir Henry Vam in the Houla 
of Commons ; yet by Degrees the Number of them increafed in the Lower Houfe; 
Major Sallowey and fome few more S\r Henry Vane had made his own Adherents: 
Many more were carried part of the way, to Independency, and Liberty of Reli- 
gions ; and many that minded not any fide in Religion, did think that it was no Po- 
licie ever to trult a conquered King, and therefore were wholly for a Parliamentary 
Government : Of thefe fome would have Lords and Commons as a mixture of 
Ariltocracie and Democracie, and others would have Commons and Democracie 
alone ; and lome thought that they ought to judge the King for all the Blood that 
had been ihed. And thus when the two Parts of the Houle were ejected andi m- 
prifoned, this third part compoled of the Vanifis, the Independents, and other 
Sects, with the Democratical Party, was left by Crom-well to do his Bufinefs under 
the Name of the Parliament of England j but by the People in Scorn commonly 
called. The Rump of the Parliament. The lecluded and imprifoned Members 
publilhed a Writing called, their Vindication ; and fome of them would afterwards 
have thruif into the Houle, but the Guard of Soldiers kept them out, and the 
Rump were called the Honejt Men. And thefe are the Men that henceforward we 
have to do within theProgrefs of our Hiftory, as called. The Parliament. 

§ 96. As the Lords were dilaffedled to thele Proceeedings, lb were the Rump 
and Soldiers to the Lords: So that they pafled a Vote (fuppofing that the Army 
would Itand by them ) to eflablifh the Government without a King and Houfe of 
Lords ; and fo the Lords dillolved, and thele Commons fat and did all alone. And 
being deluded by Cromwell, and verily thinking that he would be for Democracie, 
which they called a Commonwealth, they gratified him in his Defigns, and them- 
felves in their difloyal Diftrufts and Fears ; and they caufed a High Court of Ju- 
ftice to be ereded, and fent for the King from the Ifle of Wight : Collonel Haw- 
w;ow</ delivered him, and to lVejtmin(ter-Hall he came, and refufing to own the 
Court and their Power to try him. Cook as Attorney having pleaded againft him, 
Bradjhaw as Prefident and Judge recited the Charge and condemned him : And be- Afi.i6^8 
fore his own Gate at Whitehall they erected a Scaffold, and before a full AlTembly 
of People beheaded him : Wherein appeared the bev^r'ity ot God', the Mutability fi ■''- 
and Uncertainty of Worldly Things, and the Fruits of a finful Nation's Provoca- 
tions, and the infamous Effeds of Error, Pride and Selfifhneis, prepared by Sa- 
tan to be charged hereafter upon Reformation and Godlinels, to the unfpeakable 
Injury of the Chriftian Name and Proteftant Caufe, the Rejoicing and Advantage 
of the Papiih, the Hardning of Thoufands againft the Means of their own Sal- 
vation, and the Confufion of the Adors when their Day is come. 

§ 97. The Lord General Fairfax all this while flood by, and, with high Relent- 
ment, faw his Lieutenant do all this by tumultuous Souldiers, tricked and over- 
powered by him ; neither being fufficiently upon his Guard to defeat the Intreagues 
of fuch an Ador ; nor having Relblution enough (as yet) to lay down the Glo- 
ry of all his Conquelh and forfake him : But at the King's Death he was in won- 
derful Perplexities, and when Mr. Calamy rnd (bme Minifters were lent for to re- 
Iblve him_, and would have farther perluaded him to relcue the King, his Trouble* 
lb confounded him, that they duift let no Man fpeak to him: And Cro»vjeIl 
kept him ( as it was faid ) in praying and confulting till the Stroke was given, 


6 4- 7i^ L I F E of the Lib. 1. 

and it was too late to make Refinance. But not long after, when War was deter- 
mined againll Scotland, he laid down his Commitlton, and never had to do with 
the Army more, and Crew-well was General in his ftead. 

§98. If you ask what did the Minilier^ all this while; I anf^er, they Preach'd 
and Pray d againlt Difloyalty : Thtiy drew up a Writing to the Lord General, de- 
claring cheir Abhorrence of all Violence againil: the Perfon of the King, and urg- 
ing him and his Army to take heed of liich an unlawful Ad: : They prefenc ic to 
the General when they law the King in Danger : But Pride prevailed againft 
their Coun(cls. 
An.i6ACf § 99- The King being thus taken out of the way, Cromwell takes on him to be 
for a Conmionwealch (but all in order to the Security of the good People) till 
he had removed the other Impediments which were yet to be removed : So that 
the Rump prelently drew up a Form of Engagement, to be put upon all Men, viz,. 
\_I do fromije to be True and Faithful to the Commonwealth as tt is now efiablifiied -with- 
out a King or Hvtife of Lords. ] So we mull take the Rump for an ejhhlijhed Com- 
mohVJiahb, and promile Fidelity to them. This the Sectarian Party Iwallowed 
eafily, and lb did the King's old Cavaliers, fo far as I was acquainted with them, 
or could hear of them ( not heartily, no doubt, but they were very few of them 
fick of the Dileafe called tendernefb of Conlcience, or Scrupulofity ; But the Pres- 
byterians, and the moderate Epilcopal Men refuled it, ( and I believe io did the 
Trelatical Dmwts of the King's Party for the moft part ; though the Gentlemen had 
greater Necelficies. ) Without this Engagement no Man mult have the Benefit of 
Itiing another at Law (which kept Men a littlefrom Contention, and would have 
njarr'd the Lawyers trade ) ; nor muft they have any Mafteriliips in the Univer- 
fitie5, nor travel above fo many Miles from their Houfes, and morcfuch Penalties, 
which I remember not ( io fliort Lived a Commonwealth delerved no long Re- 
membrance ) : Mr. Vines and Dr. Rainbow, and many more were hereupon put 
out of their Headftiips in the Univerfities, and Mr. Sidrach Sjmpfon, and Mr. Jo. 
Sadler, and fuch others put in ; yea, fuch a Man as Mr. Dell, the Chaplain of the 
Army, who, I think, neither underftood himlelf, nor was underftood b)' others 
any farther than to be one. who took Rea/on, Sound Doihine, Order and Concord 
to be tire intollerable Maladies of Church and State, becaufe they were the great- 
elt Strangers to his Mind, hvx poor 'Dr:. Edward Reignolds had the hardefl: Meafure j 
for when he refuled to take the Engagement, his Place was forfeited ; and after- 
wards they drev\^ him to take it, in hopes to keep his Place, fwhich was no left than 
the Deanarie of Chrifi's-Church ) and then turned him out of all, and offered his 
Place to Mr. Jof. Caryll ; but he refufing it, it was conferred on Dr. Owen, to 
whom it was continued from year to year. 
Mr. Eaton And bicaule the Presbyterians ftill urged the Covenant againft killing the King, 
tDYote a. and pulling down the Parliament, and letting up a Commonwealth, and taking 
^""^ 1" the Engagement, (bme of the Independent Brethren maintained, that its Obli- 
//j?OdA/j 0/ P"on cealed, beciule it was 3. League, and the Occafion of it cealed : And Ibme 
Allegiance of the Rump laid it was like an Almanack out of date ; and fome of the Souldiers 
nor the Cn- faid they never took it ; and others of them railed at it as a Scotttfli Snare : So that 
"venantbind yj,[jej^ [[^gi,. ipterefi wotiid not fuffer them to kee'p i^o folemn a Vow, their Wills 
would not fuffer their Judgments to ccnfels it to be Obligatory, at leaft, as to 
the part which they muft violate. 

§ ioo. For my own part, though I kept the Town and Pariili of Kiderminjter 
from taking the CB7eiTalirX3rftl Iteing how it might become a Snare to their Con- 
fciences ) 3 ea, and moll of M-'orcefierjliire befides, by keeping the Miniftcrs 
from offering ic in any of the Congregations to the People (except in Worcefter 
City, where I had no great Interelf, and know not what they did); yet I couid 
not judge it It-enily for him that believed there is a God, to play fajt and looje 
v/ich a dreadful Oath, as if the Bonds of National and Perlbnal Vows were as 
eafily Ihak'd off as Samfjons Cords. 

Therefore \ fpake and preach'd againft the Engagement, and diffuadcd Men 
from taking it : The iirft hour chat I heard of it, being in Company with fome 
Gentlemen of iVorcefler-jhire, I prcfently v/rote down above twenty Queries 
againft it, intending as r^any more almoit againlt the Obligation, as thofe were 
about the Senfe and Circumllances : And one that was prefent got the Copy of 
t' ' afte^j i met with them "jerbatim in a Book of Mr. Henrjr HaS's 

c. . . J that vtasiong imprifoned for writing againft Cromwell. ) 



Part J. /<^T;<?r^Wi^r. Richard Baxter, 6^ 

Some Epilcopal Divines that were not (o Icrupulous i: leems as we , did write' 
for it ( private Manufcripts which 1 haveleen^ and plead the irrefiftability of the 
Impolers, and they found Itarting holes in the Terms, 'viz,. That by the Common- 
weahh they will mean the prefent Commonwealth in genere, and by [ E(^al>lijhi-tl2 
they will mean only Je faiio, and not Je fure, and by [ withcut a King, Sic] they 
mean not cjuatenAs but Etfi ; and that only de faito p>-o tempore ; ^. d. L will be true 
to the Government of England, though at the prefsnt the King and Houfe ol" 
Lords are put out of the Exercife of their power]. Thcfe were the Expofuions 
cf many Epiicopal Men, and others that took it : But 1 endeavoured to evince, 
that this is meer jugling and jefting with Matters too great to be jelled with : And 
that as they might eafily know that the Impolers had another ienle, lo as eafily 
might they know that the words in their own obvious uliial (enfe among men, mult 
be taken as the Promifeor Engagement of a Subject as fuch to a Form of Govein- 
ment now pretended to be eftabliilied : And that the Subjeds Allegiance or Fideli- 
ty to his Rulers can b- acknowledged and given in no plainer words : And that by 
luch Interpretations and Stretchings of Confcience, any Treafonable Oath or Pro- 
mile may be taken, and no Bonds of Society can fignitie much with fuch Inter- 

§ loi. England and Ireland being thus Conquered by Cromwell, (by deluding vvell- 
meaning Men into his Service, and covering his Ambition with the Lord Fairfax's 
Generallhip); the Parliament being imprilbned and caftout, the King cut off, 
and the Rump eftablifhed as a new Commonwealth , ( thole great and Iblid A4en, 
P/7/;, Hampden, &ic. being long before dead and rid out of his way, vjho elle had 
been like to have pi evailed again It the Plots of FdBe in the Parliamen;) you \^'ould 
think there were nothing now ftanding in his way, to hinder him from laying 
hands upon the Crown. But four Impediments yet ftood before him: i. The nu- 
merous Cavaliers ( or Royalifts ) ready for new Enterprizss againft him. 2. The 
Scots, who refolvcd to (lick to the Covenant and the King. ;. The Armj, which 
niuft be untaught all the Principles which he is now permitting them to learn : 
( For thofe Principles which muft bring him to the Crown, are the worlt in the 
World for him when once he is there). 4. The Minifters of England and Scotland, 
and all the lober People who regarded them. 

The firft of thefe he molt eafily (though not without ftruglingj overcame, ma- 
king his advantage by all their Enterprizes. The fecond put him harder to it, but 
he overcame them at latt. The third proved yet a greater difficulty, but he feem- 
ed ablblutely to overcome it, yet leaving ftill (bme Life in the root. The fourth 
ftrove againft him more calmly and prudently, with invincible Weapons, ancl 
though tl'.ey were quiet, were never overcome ; but at laft revived the fpark of 
Life which was left in the third, and thereby gave a Refurre<aion to the firlt and 
fscond, and fo recovered all at laft ; not to the ftate of their own Intereft, or to 
that Condition of Church Affairs which they defired , but to that Civil State of 
Royal Government to which they were engaged, and from which the Nation teem- 
ed to have fallen. 

Thefe are the true Contents of the following parts that were aded in thefi Land?; 
The Rump I might mention as another of his Impediments, but as they now were . 
doing his work, fo I conjoynthe Relids of them which then difturbed him, with 
the Army who were the ftrength by which they did it. 

§ 102. The King being deadj\is Son was by right immediately King, ('and from, 
that time he dateth his Reign.) The Scots lend Meffengers to him to come over to 
them and take the Crown : But they treat with him Hrit for his taking of the Co- 
venant ; and renouncing the Wars, and the Blood that was fhed in thern by his Fa- 
thers Party. By which I perceive that the Scots nndaiXood the Claufe in tlie Co- 
venant of I Defending the King's Perfon and Authority tn the Defence of the true Religion 
and the Liberties of the Kivgdtm ] otherwife than we did : For as tliey extended the 
word r true Religion ] further than we did ( including the Form of Church Go- 
vernment in Scotland ) lb they feem to undsrftand it Conjunfiione infeparabtlt ; and 
to prefer thi Defence of Religion before the Defence of the King: whereas we 
underitood it Conjmclione feperabili^^nd though in meer ellimation we preferred Re- 
ligion before King or Kingdom,yet in regard of the Dutyof Defence, we thought 
the King muft be reftored and defended, though ( legally ) he would have brought 
in woife than Prebcy : Though we did not think that he might do it illegally ; 
and therefore that he could not govern Arbitrarily , nor take away the Peoples 
fore-prized Propriety or Liberty, nor change the Form of the Goverment of tha 

K Bus 

^^ The LI F E of the L i B. I, 

But thofe that thought otherwife, faid. That there is no power but from God, j 
and therefore none againft him or above him ; and therefore none againit or V 
above his Laws J : which how true foever, feemeth not at all to decide our Cafe : ■ 
For though it follow never fo much that fuch Ads againft God are not A«^s of Au- " 
thority, yet the fame Perfon that hath not Authority to do this, may have Autho- 
rity in other matters, and may be our rightful Governour, and therefore muft be 
obeyed in all things lawful, ('though not in this;) and his Perlbn defended. And 
therefore how they could refufe to receive the King, till he conlented to take the 
Covenant, I know not : unlefs the taking of the Covenant had bseii a Condition 
on which he was to rece-ve his Crown by the Laws or Fundamencal Conftitution 
of the Kingdom ( which none pretendech ). Nor know I by whjt power they can 
add any thing to the Coronation Oath or Covenant, which by his Anceftors was 
to be taken,without his own Confent.But in their Zeal for the Church,the Scots did 
caufe the King, when he was come over to them, not only ( mutatis mutandis ) to 
take the Covenant, but alfo to publifh a Declaration to the World, that he did ic 
voluntarily and heartily, and that he lamented the Sins of his Father's Houfe, ac- 
knowledging the Guilt of the Blood of the late Wars, &c.'] In all which it (eem- 
ed to me and many o:hers that they milcarried divers ways : i. In impofing Laws 
upon their King, for v^hich they had no Authority. 2. In forcing him to dilho- 
nour tb.e Memory of his Father , by iiich Confeffions. 5. In tempting him to 
fpcak and publilh that which they might eafily know was contrary to his heart,and 
fo to take God s Name in vain. 4. And in giving Cromwell occafion to charge 
them' all with didimulation. 

§ 1 03. What Tranfadlions there were between the King and the Scots for the Ex- 
pediting of his Coronation, and what Preparations were made for an Army to de- 
fend him, and what Differences among the Parties hereabouts, I fliali not deicribe, 
there being enow of chem that were upon the place who can do it better : But to 
return to England, as ibon as they underftood what the Scots had done, the Seda- 
ries in England reproached theiii as Fools and Hypocrites, tliat by fuch a Pageantry 
mockt tiiemfclves, and would make the People believe that tlie King was turned 
Presbyterian, and was a Cordial Covenanter, when they bad forced him to fay 
and do ihac which they might well know he did abhor. And they prefcndy re- 
folve to invade the Scots, to keep them from invading England, and not to ftay till 
they came in upon this Land, as heretofore. So that Cromwell is in Scotland with 
his Army bef)re they were well letled in their Affiirs. This much increalied the 
alienation of the Peoples hearts from t!ieCro/«j//e//Mwi .• for though they might fup- 
pofe th-it the Scots intended to bring the King into England, yet few believed that 
he tnig'.K begin with them by an Invalion, it being too much to have rcfifted them 
at home. 

§ 1 04. Whin the Soldiers were going againft the King and Scots, I wrote Letters to 
Ibme of them to tell them of their Sin , and defired them at hft to begin to know 
themfclves : ic being thofe fame men that have Co mach boafted of Love to all the 
Godly, and pleaded for tender dealing with them, and condemned thofe that per- 
lecuted them or reftrained their Liberty, who are now ready to imbrue their 
Swords in the Blood of fuch as they acknowledge to be Godly, and all becaule they 
darenot be;'t->7«rf/^ or ^///Ai/fl/as they are. Some of them were ftartled at thefe 
Letters, and (O blindnelj l) thought me an uncharitable Cenfjrer that would fay 
that they could kill the Godly, even when they were on their march to do it: For 
how bad Ibever they (pake of the Cavaliers, ( and not without coo much delert as 
to theii- Moralsj they confeiTed that abundance of the Scots were godly Men. And 
afterward thofe that I wrote to better underftood me. 

$ lOf At the fmie tinre the Rump for Commonwealth ) who fo much abhor- 
red Perfccutinn , and were for Liberty of Conlcience, made an Order that all Mi- 
niftoxs (Irould keep r/W days of Humiliation, tofiftandpray for their Succels in 
Sco'Lnid: and that we Ihouid keep their Days of Thankfgiving for their ViAories ; 
.Tiid thi>upon pjin of Sequeftration : fo that we all expefted to bs^urned out : bat 
tlicy did not execute it upon any lave one in our parts. 

For my part, inflead of praying and preaching for them, whenany of the Com- 
mittee or Soldiers were my hearers, 1 laboured to help them to underftand, what 
a Crime it was to force men to pray lor the Succels of thole that were violating 
their Covenant and Loyalty, and going in fuch a Caufeto Kill their Brethren : And 
what it was to force Men to give God thanks for all their Bloodlhed, and to make 
God's Minifters and Ordinances vile, and lerviceable to fuch Crimes, by forcing 
Men to run to God on fuch Errands of Blood and Ruine : And what it is fo be 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 67 

fuch Hypocrites as to perfecute and caft out thofe that preach the Gofpel, while 
they pretend the advancement of the Gofpel, and the liberty of tender Confci- 
ences : And what a means it was to debauch all Confciences , and leave neithei* 
tendernefi nor honefty in the World, when the Guides of the Flocks, and Preach- 
ers of the Gofpel fhall be noted to fwallow down fuch heinous Sins. 

My own Hearers were all fatisfied with my Doftrine ^ but the Committee Meri 
look fowre, but let me alone. And the Soldiers laid I was fo like to Love, that I 
would not be right till I was Ihorter by the Head. Yet none of them ever med- 
led with me farther than by the Tongue, nor was I ever by any of them in thofe 
times, forbidden or hindered to preach one Sermon, except only one Affize-Ser- 
mon which the High Sheriff had delred me to preach, and afterward fent me 
word to forbear, as from the Committee, faying. That by Mr. Adoofs means (the 
Independent Preacher at the CoUedge) the Comrnittee told him that they defired 
me to forbear, and not to preach before the Judges, becaufe I preached againft the 
State : But afterward they excufed it, as done meerly in kindnels to me, to keep 
me from running my felf into danger and trouble. 

§ 106. Not far from this time the LojoJon Miniders were called Traitors by the A».i6^l 
Rump and Soldiers for plotting for the King ( a ftrange kind of Treafbn) , be- 
caufe they had lome Meetings to contrive bow to raife Ibme linall Sum of Money 
for Majjeyh relief, who was then in Scotland : And Ibme falfe* Brother difcovered * Capt.i4- 
them, and eight of thera were fent to the Tower , Mr. Arthur Jackfon, Dr. Drake^ '^'""^' 
Mr. Watfon, Mr. Lcve, Mr. Jenkins, 6cc. and Mr. 'Nalton and Mr, Caughton fled into 
Holland, where one died, but the other returned and lived to fuffer more by them 
he fuffered for. 

Mr. Love was tried at a Court of Juftice, where Edm. Trideaux a Member and 
Sollicitor for the Commonwealth, did think his Place allowed him to plead againft 
the Life and Blood of the Innocent. Mr. Love was condemned and beheaded, 
dying neither timeroufly nor proudly in any defperate Bravado, but with as greac 
alacrity and fearlels quietnefs and freedom of Speech, as if he had but gone to Bed, 
and had been as little concerned as the ffanders by. An t honeft Gentleman was f Mr.ci3- 
beheaded with him for the fame Caule. And at the time of their Execution, or ^°"^' 
very near it on that day, there was the dreadfulleft Thunder and Lightning and 
Tempeft, that was heard or leen of a long time before. 

This Blow funk deeper towards the Root of the New Commonwealth, than will 
eafily be believedjand made them grow odious to almoft the Religious Party in the 
Land, except the Seftaries: (Though Ibme malicious Cavaliers laid it v/as good 
enough for him, and laught at it as good News ) : for now the People would not 
believe that they fought the promoting of the Gofpel , who killed the Minifters 
for the Intereft of their Faction. And there is, as Sir Walter Raivleigb nottth. of 
Learned Men, liich as Vemoftbenes, Cicero, &c. fo much more in Divines of famous 
Learning and Piety , enough to put an everlafting odium upon thofe whom they 
fuffer by, though the Caule of the Sufferers were not juftifiable. Men count him 
a vile and detelf able Creature, who in his paffion, or for his interelt, or any luch 
low account, fhall deprive the World of fuch Lights and Ornaments , and cut 
off k much excellency at a blow, and be the Perfecutors of fuch worthy and re- 
nowned Men. Though the refl of the Minifters were releafed, upon Mr. Jen- 
kins s Recantation, and Confeffion that God had now convinced him, that he 
ought to fubmit to the prelent Government. Yet after this, the moft of the Mi- 
nifters and good People of the Land, did look upon the New Commonwealth as 
Tyranny, and were more alienated from them than before. 

§ 107. The Lord Fairfax now laid down his Commiflion , and would have no 
more of the Honour of being Cromwell's Inftrument or Mask, when he faw that . 
he muft buy it at fo dear a rate. And io Cromwell with applaufe received a Com- 
mifCon, and entered upon his place. 

And into Scotland he hafteneth, and there he maketh his way near Edinburgh j 
where the Scots Army lay : But after long skirmifhing and expedations, when he ^ 

could neither draw the Scots out of their Trenches to a fight, nor yet pals forward, 
his Soldiers contracted SicknelTes, and were impatient of the Poverty of the Coun- 
try,and fo with a weakned ragged Army he drew off to return to England, and had 
the 5cofi but let him go, or cauteloufly followed him, they had kepc their Peace 
and broken his Honour : But they drew out and followed him, and overtaking 
him near Dunbarr, did force him to a Fight, by engaging his Rere j in which Fight 
beingnotof fa«a/Forf;VWe they were totally rowted, their Foot taken, and their 
Horle purfued to Edinburgh. 

Kz §io8. 

~6i '^ The LIFE of the "~" Lib. L 

$ 1 08. Tenthoufand Prifoners of the Foot were brought to Nevjcaftle, where the 
greatnels of the Number, and the bafenefs of the Country (with their Poverty) 
and the cruel Negligence of the Army, cau(ed them to be almoft all famillicd : 
For being {hut up in a Cabbage-Garden, and having no Food, they caft them- 
felves into a Flux and other Difeales with eating the raw Cabbages ; io that kwa of 
them furvived, and thofe few were little better ufed. The Colours that were ta- 
ken were hanged up as Trophies in Wefiminfier-HaU^ and never taken down till 
the King's Reiteration. 

§ 109. Cromwell being thus called back to Edinburgh, driveth the Scots to Ster- 
litig beyond the River, where they fortifie themfelves : He befiegeth the impreg- 
nable Caftle of Edinburgh and winneth itj the Governor, Coll. Willia7n Dunglajjcy 
laying the blame on his Souldiers that elfe would have delivered It and him j but 
his Superiors condemned him for the Cowardly Surrender. 

After this, Cromwell pafleth fome of his Men over the River, and after them moft 
of the reft: The King with the Scots Army being unable to give him Battle after 
luch Dilcouragements, takes the Opportunity to hafte away with what Force they 
had towards England, thinking that Cromwell being caft now fome Days March 
behind them, by Realbn ot his paffing the River, they might be before him in 
England, and there be abundantly increased, by the coming in both of the Cava- 
liers and the reft of the People to him. And doubtlefs all the Land would fud- 
denly have flockt in to him but for thefe two Caufes : 

1. The Succefs of Cromv^ellat Dumbarre and afterwards, had put a Fear upon al! 
Men, and the manner of the Scots coming away, perfuaded all Men that NeceC- 
fity forced them, and they were look'd upon rather as flying than as marching in- 
to England j and few Men will put themielves into a flying Army which is purfued 
by the conquering Enemy. 

2 . The implacable Cavaliers had made no Preparation of the Peoples Mind, 
by any Significations of Reconciliation, or of probable future Peace : And the 
Prelatical Divines, inftead of drawing nearer thole they differed from for Peace, 
had gone farther from them by Dr. Hammond's new way, than their Predeceflbrs 
were before them ; and the very Caufe which they contended for, being not Co»- 
cord and Neighbourhood, but Domination, they had given the difl[enting Clergy and 
People no hopes of finding favourable Lords, or any Abatement of their former 
Burdens, (b little did their Task-Mafters relent : But contrariwife, they law Rea- 
Ibn enough to expeft that their little Fingers would be heavier than their Predecef- 
lbrs Loyns. And it is hard to bring Men readily to venture their Lives to bring 
themfelves into a Prilbn, or Beggary, or Banilhment. 

Tliefe were the true Caufes that no more came in to the King : The firft kept 
off" the Royaliftsand the refi, thefecond kept ofi'the r^/? alone. Yet the Earl of 
Darby, the Lord Talbott and many Gentlemen did come in to him ; and fome that 
had been Souldiers for the Parliament, (as Capt. Benbow from Shrewsbury, with 
Cornet Kinnerjly and a Party of Horfe, and Ibme few more. ) 

The King's Army of Scots was excellendy well governed ( in comparilbn of 
what his Father's was wont to be): Not a Souldier durft wrong any Man of 
the worth of a Penny j which much drew the Aifedions of the People towards 

The Prefence of CoUonel Rich. Graves, and Collonel MaJ]} with them, was the 
great Inducement to the Parliamentaaans to come in : But another great Impedi- 
ment kept them off, which was, Cromwell's exceeding fpeedy Purfuit of them j 
io that People had not time to refolve themfelves confiderately ; and moft were 
willing to lee what CrowW/'s AiTauIt would do, before they caft themfelves into 
the Danger j Soldiers may moft eafily be had when there is leaft need of 
them. I 

The King came by the way of Lancajhire, and funimoned Shrewsbury in vain 
ds he pafted by through Shrop^nrc : And when all the Country thought that he 
was h.iftening to London ( where all Men fuppoled he would have attained his 
Ends, increafcd his Strength, and had no Refiftance, ) he turned to TVorcefttr, and 
there ftayedto refreih his Army, CroK^welTs Forces being within a few days March 
of him. 

§110. The Army paffed moft by KuLrmifi^er (a Fields Breadth off) and the 
relt through it : Collo.nel Graves f";nt two or three Melliges to me, as from the 
King, to come to him ; and afccr, when he wis at l-Vorcefler, fbme others were 
lent : But I was at that time under lb great an AfHidiion of fore Eyes, that I was 
not Icarce able to lee th? Light, nor tit to ftir out of Doors : And being not 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 6^ 

much doubtful of the Iffue which followed, I thought if I had been able, it 
would have been no Service at all to the King ; it being fo little on fuch a fudden, 
that I could add to his Affilhnce. 

When the King had (tayed a fiw Days at Worcefier, Croimvell came with his Ar- 
my to the Eaft fide of the City, and after that, maJe a Bridge of Boats over Se- 
vern, to hinder them from Forage on the other fide ; but becauie (o great an Army 
could not long endure to be pent up, the King relblved to charge Cromwells Men ; 
and a while the Scots Foot did charge very gallantly, and fome chiet Pcrfons among 
the Horfe, The Marquis Hamilton (late Earl of Lanerkhj D,iiig flain : But at lalt 
the hope of Security lb near their Backs, encouraged the Ki igs Army to retreat 
into the City, and Cromwelh Souldiers followed them io clofc at the Heels, that 
Major Swallow of Whalley'?, Regiment firft, and others after him entered Stdbury- 
Gate with them ; and fo the whole Army fled through the City quite away, ma- 
ny being trodden down and flain in the Streets ; lb that the King was faign to fly 
with them Northward, the Lord Willmot, the Earl of Lauderdaik, and many 
others of his Lords and Commanders with him : Kiderminfier being but eleven Miles 
from IVorcefier, the flying Armv paft fome of them through the Town, and fome 
by it : I was newly gone to Bed when the Noile ot the flying Horfe acquainted us 
of the Overthrow : and a piece of one of Cromwell's Troops that Guarded Bewdley- 
Bridge having tidings of it, came into our Streets, and ftood in the open Market- 
place before my Door, to furprife thofe that paft by : Andfo when many hundreds 
of the flying Army came together, when the 30 Troopers cryed fiand, and fired 
at them, they either hafted away, or cryed Quarter, not knowing in the Dark 
what Number it was that charged them : And fo as many were taken there, as fo 
few Men could lay hold on: And till Midnight the Bullets flying towards my Door 
and Windows, and the Ibrrowful Fugitives hafting by for their Lives, did tell me 
the Calamitoufnefs of War. 

The King parted at laft from moft of his Lords, and went to Bofcobell by the 
white Ladies, where he was hid in an Oak, in manner fufficiently declared to the 
World ; and thence to Mofdy, and fo with Mr'. Lane away as a Traveller, and 
efcaped all the Searchers Hands, till he came fafe beyond Sea, as is publilhed at 
large by divers. 

The City o{ Worcefier was much plundered by Cronftvell's Souldiers, and a Party- 
only lent out afcer the King's Fugitives (for an Army I will call them no more) : 
the Earl of Derby was taken, and Capt. Benbow of Shrewsbury, and were both put 
to Death ; the Sentence of Coll. Mackworth difpatched Benbow, becaufe he had 
been a Souldier under him. The Earl of Lauderdaik, and the Earl oiCraford were 
fent Prilbners to tVmdfir-Caftle, where they were detained till the Reftoration of 
the King : Coll. Graves at lalt being releafed by Cromwell, lived quietly at his Houfe, 
which made him ill thought of, and kept from Preferment afterwards when the 
King came in. 

And thus Cromwell's next Impediment was over. 

§ 1 1 1. The Scots Army being utterly difpatched in England (and many oF the 
Prifoners of Foot fent to the Barbado's, &c. ) part of Cromwell's Army was lent to 
profecute the Viftory in Scotland, where (briefly ) all their Garrifons at laft were 
taken, and the Earl of Glencarne, and that learned, religious, excellent Perfon, 
the Earl o^Balcarres, who kept up the laft Forces there for the King, were fain to 
fly to the King beyond Sea : And Major General Monk was there left with fome 
Forces to keep the Country in Subjeftion. 

§ 1 1 2. Cromwell having thus far feemed to be a Servant to the Parliament, and 
work for his Mafters the Rump or Commonwealth, doth next begin to Ihew whom 
he leived, and take that Impediment allb out of the way : To which End he firft 
doth by them as he did by the Presbyterians, make them odious by hard Speeches 
of them throughout his Army ; as if they intended to perpetuate themfelves, and 
would not be accountable for the Money of the Commonwealth, &c. and he 
treateth privately with many of them, to appoint a time when they would dif- 
folve themlelves, that another free Parliament might be chofen : But they per- 
ceived the Danger, and were rather for the filling up of their Number by New 
Eledions, which he was utterly apainft. 

His greateft Advantage to ftren[:;^hen himfelf againft them by the SeAaries, was 
their owning the publick Miniftry and their Maintenance ; for though Vane and 
his party let themfelves to make the Minifters odious by reproachful Titles, and to 
take them down, yet ftill the greater pan of the Houfe did carry it for a [ober 
Mmtfiry, and competent Mamtcriance. And when the Quakers and others did openly 


70 The LIFE of the L i b. L 

reproach the Miniftry, and the Souldiers favour them, I drew up a Petition for 
the Miniftry, and got many thoufand Hands to it in IForcefierJlure, and Mr. The. Fo- 
ley, and Coll. Jobti Bridgii prefented it ; and the Houi'e gave a kind and piomi- 
fing Anfwer to it, which increafed the Sedaries Dipleafure againft them : And 
when a certain Quaker wrote a reviling Cenfure of this Petition, I wrote a De- 
fence of it, and caufed one of them to be given each Parliament Mao at the Door ; 
and within one day after they werediffolved : For OowW/ impatient of anymore 
delay, fuddenly took Harrijvn and fome Souldiers with him (as if God had im- 
pelled him) and as in a Rapture went into the Houfe, and reprovech the Members 
for their Faults, and pointing to Vam, calls him a Juglar, and to Henry Martin, and 
calls him Whoremafter, and having two fuch to inltance in, taketh it for granted 
that they were all unfit to continue in the Government of the Commonwealth j 
and out he turneth them : And fo ended the Government of the Rump, and no fore 
of People exprefTed any great Offence that they were caft out, though all, lave 
the Sediaries and the Army almoft, did take him to be a Traitor that did it. 

§ 1 1 ;. The young Commonwealth being already Headlefs, you might think that 
nothing was left to Itand between Cromwell and the Crown : For a Governor there 
mull be, and who fhould be thought fitter ? But yet there was another Pageant 
to be played, which had a double end: i. To make the Neceffity of his Govern- 
ing undeniable. And 2. To make his own Souldiers at laft out of love with 
Democracie ; or at lealt to make them hateful that adhered to it. A Parliament 
muft be called, but the ungodly People are not to be trufted with the choice j 
therefore the Souldiers, as more religious, muft be the Qhoofers: And two out of a 
County are chofcn by the Officers upon the Advice of their Se<5taTian Friends in 
the Country. This was called in Contempt, Tbe Little Parliament. 

This Conventicle made an Adt ( as I remember) that Magiftrates fliould marry 
People inftead of Minifters, (yet not prohibiting theMiniftersto do their part ) : 
And then they came to the Bufmefs of Tyches and Minifters; and before this, Har- 
rifon, being autliorized thereto, had at once put down all the Parifh-Minifters of 
fVales, becaule tiiat mod of them were ignorant and fcandalous, and had let up a 
few itinerant Preachers in their ftead, who weie for Number incompefent for fo 
great a Charge, there being but one to many of thofe wide Parifhesj fo that the 
People having but a Sermon once in many Weeks, and nothing elfe in the mean 
time, were ready to turn Papifts or any thing : iVnd this Plight would the Anabap- 
tifts, and other Sectaries have brought England to ; And all was, i. That the Peo- 
ple might not be tempted to think the Parilh- Churches to be true Churches : 2. Nor 
Infant Baptifmto be trueBaptifiii, and fo themfelves to be true Chriftians ; but muft 
bemadeChriftians and Churches in the Anabaptifts and Separatifts way. Hereupon 
Harrifon became the Head of the Sedaries, and Cromwell now began to defign the 
heading of a foberer Party, that were for Learning and Miniftry ; but yet to be 
the equal Protefior of all : Hereupon in the Little Sedarian Parliament, it was put 
to the Vote, whether all the Parilh Minifters of England /hould at once be put down 
or no ? And it was but accidentally carried in the negative by two Voices ; And it 
was taken for granted, that the Tythes and Univerfities would at the next Oppor- 
tunity be voted down; and now Crom-wcll muft be their Saviour, or they muft: pe- 
rilh ; when he had purpofely caft them into the Pit, that they might be beholden 
to him to pull them out. (But his Game was fo grofty play'd, as made him the more 
loathd by Men of Underftanding and Sincerity) So Sir CJF.and fome others of them 
take their time, and put it to the Vote whether the Houle as uncapable of (erving 
the Commonwealth, (hould go and deliver up their Power to Cromwell irom whom 
they had received it ; and they carried it in the Afiirmative, and away they go, and 
(blemnly rclign their Power to him ; and now who but Cromwell and his 

§ 1 14. The intelligent Sort by this time did fully fee that Cromwell's defign was, 
by ciufing and permitting deftruAion to hang over us, to neceffitate the Nation 
whether they would or not, to take him for their Governour , that he might be 
their Protedor : Being refolved that we fhould be faved by him, or perifli : He 
made more ule of the wild headed Seftaries than barely to fgbt for him : They 
now Icrve him as much by their Herefies, their Enmity to Learning and Miniftry, 
their pernicious Demands which tended to Confufion, as they had done before by 
their Valour in the Field. He can now conjure up at pleafure fome teriible appa- 
rition, of Agitators, Levellers, or fuch like, who as they affrighted the King from 
Hampton-Court, ihall affright the People to fiy to him for refuge ; that the hand that 
wounded them may heal tham. For now he exclaimeth againft the giddinefs of 


P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 71 

thefe unruly Men, and earnedly pleadech for Order and Gcvernment , and will 
needs become the Patron of the Miniftry, yet fo as to iecure all others of their Li- 

Some that faw his Defign, faid. We will rather all perifh, and fee both Tythes 
and Univerfities overthrown, than we will any way fubmit to fuch deceitful Ufiu- 

Others faid, It is the Providence of God, whoever be the InftrumentS;, which 
hath brought us into this Necefficy, which we were unable to prevent ; and being 
in it, we are not bound to choofe our own deftrudion : Therefore Neceffity rc- 
quireth us to accept of any One to rule us that is like to deliver us. 

But the generality of the Minifters went the middle way ; and our Confciences 
thus apprehended the ftate of our prefent Duty : [ We acknowledge that God Al- 
mighty hath over-ruled in all thefe great Mutations, and hath permitted the perfi- 
diouliieGof MeOj and their Succefs. And the Common Good being the end of all 
jult Government, we may not do any thing againft the Common Good, much lels 
to the Deftrtitttonoi if, under pretence of refifbing an Ufurper, or of Reftoring 
him who is our rightful Governour. If the Univerfities be overthrown, the Fa- 
bricks demolilhed, the Lands alienated, the Miniftry put down, the Tithes fold, 
or given to the People, to engage then all to be againft any means which tend to 
a Recovery, whatever we contribute to this, we do againft the King and King- 
dom, and do but cut his Throat in kindnefb : Fbr we pull down the Houle that he 
may be Mailer of ic, and deftroy the Commonwealth that he may be the Head of 
it : We ftrengthen his Enemies by our imprudent Paflions : But yet we muff nei- 
ther Ju nor approve of Evil, for any Good End, nor forbear in our Places feaibn- 
ably to reprehend it : Therefore it is unlawful for us to Confent to any Governour 
but the King j or take any Engagement or Oath of Allegiance to any : But it is not 
unlawful for us tofubfntt to them, by living quietly in our Places, and to make ule 
of the Courts of Jufticeeftablifhed by Law, yea, and to demand protedion from 
the Ufurper. For his ftepping into the Ruler's place, and Ufurping the Govern- 
ment, obligeth him to do all the parts of a Governour s Office, while he is there; 
and warranteth us to demand it, and accept icof him ; but it doth not at all ob- 
lige us to obey him or confent to his Ufurpation : Even as we may demand Juftice 
of a General of Rebels, or a Captain of Thieves; or of Py rates that fhall fiirprize 
the Ship which we are in : but we are not bound to covfent to his Government, or 
formally obey him 5 but contrarily todifown his Villany, and to do all that we 
can againft his Tyranny, which tendeth not to the hurt of the Society : So here, it 
is our Duty to keep the ftate of things as entire as we can , till God be plealed to 
reftore the King, that he may find it a whok and not a rumd irrepairable 


And thus for my part was my Pradice : I did feafonably and moderately by 
Preaching and Printing condemn the Ufurpation, and the Deceit which was the Veryliketa 
means to bring it to pals. I did in open Conference declare Cromwell and his Ad- Maximus 
herents to be Guilty of Treafon and Rebellion, aggravated with Perfidioufnels and'"'*^ '{"y^ 
Hypocrifie ; to be abhorred of all good andfober Men : But yet I did not think it^^^'lV^ 
my Duty to rave againft him in the Pulpit, nor to do thisfo unleafbnably and im- ^^n,f^^ 
prudently as might irritate him to milchief. And the rather becaufe, as he kept up 
his approbation of a godly Life in the general, and of all that was good, except 
that which the Intereft of his Sinful Caule engaged him to be againft j fo 
I perceived that it was his defign to do good in the main, and to pro- 
mote the Gofpel and the Intereft of Godlinefs, more than any had done before 
him ; except in thole particulars which his own Intereft was againft : And it was 
the principal means that hence-forward he trufted to for his own Eftablilhment, 
even by doing good : That the People might love him, or at leaft be willing to have 
his Government for that Good, who were againft it, as it was Ufurpation. And I 
made no queftion at all, but that when the Rightful Governour was reftored, the 
People that had adhered to him ( being fo extreamly irritated ) would caft out 
multitudes of the Minifters, and undo the Good which the Ufurper had done, be- 
caufe he did it ; and would bring abundance of Calamity upon the Land. And 
Ibme Men thought it a very hard Queftion, Whether they fhould rather wi/h the 
continuance of an Ufurper that will do good, or the reftitution of a Rightful Go- 
vernour whole Followers will do hurt. But for my part I thought my Duty was 
clear, to difown theUfurper'sSin, what Good foever he would do ; and to per- 
form all my Engagements to a Rightful Governour.Ieaving the IiTue of all to God : 
but yet to commend the Good which a Ufurper doth, and to do any lawful thing 


72 ■ The L I F E of the L i b. 1. 

which may provoke him to do more; and to approve of «o Evil which is done by 
?.ny, either Ufurper or a lawful Governour. 

And thus Jtooa the AfTeftions of the Intelligent fort to Crom-ivell: but the Sim- 
pler Ibrt believed that he defigned nothing of all that came to pals ; hut that 
God's Providence brought about all , without his Contrivance or Expei5la- 
An.i6<% § II f- The little Parliament having refigned their Commiffion to Cromvjell, that 
we might not be ungoverncd, a JtinHo of Officers, and I know not who ('nor ever 
could learn, but that Lambert and Berry were two Chief Men in itj did draw up a 
Writing, called, The Infinonent of the Government of the Commonwealth of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland]. This Inflrument made OUver Cromwell Lord Protedlor of 
the Commonwealth : The Lord Mayor and Aldermen, the Judges, and the Offi- 
cers of the Army, w-ere fuddenly drawn together to Weftmtnfier-Hall, and upon 
the reading of this Inftrument, inftalled Crom-well in the Office of Protcdor, and 
fwore him accordingly ; and thus the Commonwealth feemed orice more to have a 

§ 1 16. I fliall for brevity over pals the particular mention of the Parliaments fum- 
nioned by Crowu/f//; of their difpleafing him by ravelling his Inftrument, and o- 
ther means, and of his rough and refolute dilTolving them. 

One of the chief Works which he did was the purging of the Miniffry j of 
which I fliall fay fbmewhat more. And here I fuppole the Reader to underltand 
that the Synod of /^rty?w»/»/?er was difTolved with the Parliament; and therefore 
a Society of Miniflers with (bme others, were chofen by Cromwell to fit at White- 
hall, under the Name otTj-icrj , who were moftly Independants , but lome (bber 
Presbyterians with them, and had power to try all that came for Inftitution or In- 
du(5lion, and without their Approbation none were admitted: This AlTembly of 
Triers examined themfelves all that were able to come up to London : but if any 
were unable, or were of doubtful Qualifications between Worthy and Unworthy, 
they ufed to refer them to fome Minifters in the County where they lived, and to 
approve them if thej approved them. 

And becaufe this Aflembly of Triers is molf heavily accufed and reproached by 
fome Men, I fliall fpeak the truth of them, and fuppofe my word will be the ra- 
. ther taken, becaufe moft of them took me for one of their boldelt Adverfaries, as 
to their Opinions, and becaufe I was known to difown their Power, infomuch 
that 1 refu(ed to try any under them upon their reference, except a very few,who(e 
Importunity and neceffity moved we (they being fuch as for their Epilcopal Judg- 
ment, orfomeluch Caule, theTriers were like to have reje<f>ed) The truth is^ 
that though their Authority was null, and though fome few over-bufie and 
over-rigid Independants among them, v/ere toolevere againlt all that were Armi- 
nians, and too particular in enquiring after Evidences of Sandlification in thole 
whom they Examined, and (bmewhat too lax in their Admiflion of Unlearned 
and Erroneous Men, rhat favoured Antinomianifm or Anabaptifm ; yet to give 
them their due, they did abundance of good to the Church : They faved many a 
Congregation from ignorant, ungodly, drunken Teachers : that fort of Men that 
intended no more in the Miniflry, than to fiy a Sermon, as Readers fay their 
Common Prayers, and fo patch up a few good words together to talk the People 
alleep with on Sunday ; and all the reft of the Week go with them to the Ale- 
houfe,and harden thsm in their Sin : And that fort of Minifters that either preacht 
againft a holy Life, or preacht as Men that never were acquimed with it ; ail thole 
that ufed the Miniftry but as a Common Trade to live by , and were never likely 
to convert a Soul ; all thefe they ufually rejeded ; and in their ftead admitted of 
;uiy that were able ferious Preachers, and lived a godly Life , of what toIIerableO- 
pinion foever tiiey were. So that thougii they were many of them fcmewhat par- 
tial for the Independents, Sep.iratifts, Fitth-Monarchy-men and Anabaptifts, and 
againft the PrelatiRs and Arminians, yet lb great was the benefit above the hurt, 
which they brought to the Church, that many thoufands of Souls bleft God for 
the faithful Minifters whom they let in, and grieved when the Prelatifts afterward 
caft them out again. 

§ 117. And becaufe 1 am faU'n upon this Subjeft, I will look back to the Alte- 
rations that were m.ule upon the Miniftry by the Long Parliament before, both 
by the Country Committees and the Synod at TVefimwJler : I know th-it tiiere are 
Men in the World that defame both the Afters and the Work, and would make 
the World believe that almoft none but worthy Learned Men were turned out, and 
that for thsir Fidelity to the King and I3ilhops,and that almoft none but Unlearned 


Part J. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. ^ 75 

and Faiftious Fellows were introduced. But this Age hath taught the World how 
little the Report of luch Men is to be believed of any others, who fpeak what their 
Intereft and Malice do command them ; and by thefe are made ftrangers to the. 
Men they fpeak of, though they dwell among them : For they Converle not with 
them at all, unlefs in fome wrangling Difpute, when Malice and Paffion feek a 
Whctftone ; but they talk only with thofe that talk againft them , and eafily be- 
lieve any fdfe Reports, when once they are lb like the Common Enemy that they 
defire them to be true. But 1 fhall in this Cafe alfo (peak impartially, neither ju- 
ilifying what they did^amifi, nor condemning them without caufe. 

And becauie 1 have paft it by before, I fhall fay fomething of the Wejitmnfier Af- 
fembly here. This Synod was not a Convocation according to the Diocefan way 
of Government, nor was it called by the Votes of the Minifters according to the 
Presbyterian way : But the Parliament not intending to call an Affembly which 
Ihould pretend a Divine Right to make obliging Laws or Canons to bind their 
Brethren, but an Ecclefiaftical Council to be Adviferstothemlelves, did think that 
they belt knew who were the fittefl: to give them Advice, and therefore chofe them 
all themfelves. Two were to be chofen out of each County ; but fome few Coun- 
ties ( I know not upon what reafon ) had but one : I fuppofe it was long of the 
Parliament Men of thofe Counties. And becaufe they would feem Impartial, and 
have each Party to have liberty to I'peak, they over and above the number chole 
many Epiicopal Divines, even the Learnedeft of them in the Land, as Archbiffiop 
l//?;er Primate of Ireland, Dr. Holdjworth, Dr. Hammond, Dr. fFwcop, Bifhop JVefi- 
ford, Bilhop Prideaux, and many more. But they would not come, becaufi it was 
not a Legal Convocation, and becauie the King declared himfelf againft it : Dr. 
Dan. Featley and very few more of that Party came : ( But at laft he was charged 
with (ending Intelligence to the King's Quarters at Oxford, of what was done in the 
Synod and Parliament, andwas imprifoned ; which much refleded on the Parlia- 
ment, becauie whatever his Fad were, he was fo Learned a Man, as was (iifficient 
to dilhonour tho(e hefuffered by). The Prolocutor or Moderator was Dr. William 
Twijfe ( a Man very famous for his Scholaftical Wit and Writings in a very fmoorh 
triumphant Stile) :'The Divines there Congregate were Men of Eminent Learn- 
ing and Godlinefs, and Minilterial Abilities and Fidelity : And being not worthy 
to be one of them my felf, I may the more freely fpeak that Truth which I know 
even in the Face of Malice and Envy, that, as far as I am able to judge by the In- 
formation of all Hiftory of that kind, and by any other Evidences left us, the Chri- 
ftian World, fince the days of the Apofllss, had never a Synod of more Excellent 
Divines (taking one thing with another ) than this Synod and the Synod oi Dort 

This AlTembly was confined by the Parliament to debate only fuch things as 
they propofed to them : And many Lords and Commons were joyned in Commi(^ 
fion with them, to ihe that they did not go beyond their Commiffion : Six or (e- 
ven Independants were joyned with them, tliat all fides may be heard; of whom 
five were called the Diffentirg Brethren, ( Philip Nye, Thomas Cood-wyn, Jeremiah Bur- 
roughs, Sydrach Symffon, and Wtlliam Bridge ) who joyned with the reft till they 
had drawn up a Confeffion of Faith, a larger and a ihorter Catechifm. But when 
they came to Church Government, they engaged them in many long Debates, and 
kept that Bufinefs as long as poftibly they could undetermined ; and after that 
kept it (b long unexecuted in almoft all parts of the Land, faving London and Lan- 
caflme, that their Party had time to ftrengthen themfelves in the Army and the 
Parliament, and hinder the Execution after all, and keep the Government deter- 
mined of, a Stranger to moft of the People of this Land , who knew it but by 
hearlay, as it was rcprefented by Reporters. For my own part, as highly as I ho- 
nour the Men, I am not of their Mind, in every Point of the Government which 
they would have fet up ; and fome words in their Catechifm I could wifh had been 
more clear j and above all, I could wifh that the Parliament and their more skil- 
ful Hand, had done more than was done to heal our Breaches, and had hit upon 
the right way either to unite with the Epifcopal and Independants (which was pof- 
lible, as diftant as they are) or at leaft had pitched on the Terms that are fit for 
Univerfal Concord, and left all to come in upon thole Terms that would. But for 
all this diflent I muft teftifiemy Love and Honour to the Perlons of fu»;h great Sin- 
cerity, and Eminent Minifterial Sufficiency, as were Gataker, Vines, BurgejS, Wbite^ 
and the greater part of that AlTembly, 

L Among 

74 The LI F E of the L i fe. 1. 

^ ^ J 

Among other parts of their Truft^ one was to approve of all thst fnould be ad- 
mitted into any Church Livings. They had no Power to put out any, but only 
to judge of the fitnefi of fuch as were taken in. The Power of Calling out un- 
worthy Men, was partly in a Committee of Parliament Men at London, and part- 
ly in the Committees of each (everal County, according to an Ordinance of Parlia- 
ment expreffing the Crimes : Herein it was laudable that Drunkards, Swearers, 
Curfers, Blafpheniers, Hereticks, Fornicators, and fuch fcandalous Perfons were 
to be cjefted : but it was not well done to put in thole among them that had been 
againft the Parliament in the War : For the Work of God ftould not give place 
to the Matters of their Secular Intereft and Policy, as long as the Being of the 
Commonwealth is fecured : And all the Learned Miniiters in the Land,on one fide 
and the other, are few enow to do the Work of Chrift: And I believe that thole 
that were againft them, would have done them leis hurt in the Pulpits where 
there were lb many Witneffes, than they did in private. But yet I mult needs lay, 
that in all the Countreys where I was acquainted, fix to one at leaft ( if not ma- 
ny more ) that were Sequeftred by the Committee , were by the Oaths of Wit- 
neffes proved infufficent, or fcandalous, or both ; efpecially guilty of Drunkennels 
or Swearing : and thofe that being able, godly Preachers, were caft out for the 
War alone, as for their Opinions fake , were comparatively very few. This I 
know will dilpleafe that Party ; but this is true. And though now and then an 
unworthy Perfon by finifter means crept into their Places , yet commonly thofe 
whom they put in, were fuch as fet themfelves laborioufly to feek the Saving of 
Souls : Indeed the one half of them were very young ; but that could not be helpt , 
becaufe there were no other to be had. The Parliament could not make Men 
J^earned nor Godly, but only put in the learnedeft and ableft that they could have. 
And though it had been to be wilhtthat they might have had leifure to ripen in 
the Univerfities, yet many of them did as Ambrofe, teach and learn at once fo 
liiccefsflilly, as that they much increafed in Learning themfelves, whilft they pro- 
fited others,- and proportionably more than many in the Univerfities do. 

§ ri8. To return from this Digreffion to the Proceedings of Crom-weily when he 
was made Lord Protector, he had the Policy not to deted: and exafperate the Mini- 
iters and others that conlented not to his Government, ( having feen what a ftir 
the Engagement had before made ) : but he let Men live quiedy, without putting 
any Oaths of Fidelity upon them ; except his Parliaments; for thofe muft not en- 
ter the Houfe till they had fworn Fidelity to him. The Sectarian Party in his Ar- 
my and ellewhere,he chiefly trufted to and pleafed, till by the Peoples liibmiflion and 
quietnefshe thought himfelf well lettled : And then he began to undermine them, 
and by degrees to work them out : And though he had fo often fpoken for the A- 
nabaptifts, now he findeth them fo heady, and fo much againft any fettled Go- 
vernment, and (o let upon the promoting of their Way and Party, that he doth 
not only begin to blame their unrulinefs, but alfo defigneth to lettle himfelf in the 
Peoples Favour by fupprefling them. In Ireland they were grown lb high, that the 
Soldiers were many of them re-baptized as the way to Preferment: and thole that 
oppofed them they crulht with much uncharitable Fiercenels. To fupprels thele, 
he lent thither his Son Henry Cromwell^ who (b difcountenanced the Anabaptifts, 
as yet to deal civilly by them, reprefling their Inlblencies, but not abufing them, or 
dealing hardly with them ; promoting the Work of the Gofpel , and letting up 
good and fober Miniftcrs ; and dealing civilly with the Royallifts, and obliging 
all ,• ib that he was generally beloved, and well fpoken of And Major Ge- 
neral Ludlow , who headed the Anabaptifts in Ireland, was fain to draw in his 

In England Cromwell connived at his old Friend Harrifon, while he made himfelf 
the Head of tlie Anab,ipti(ls .-ind Fanaticks here, till he faw it would be an ap- 
plauded acceptable thing to the Nation to lupprcls him, and then he doth it eafily 
in a trice, and niaketh him contemptible who but yelierday thought himlelf not 
much below him : The lame he doth alfo as eafily by Lambert and laycth him by. 

§ 1 19. In thefe times ( elpecially iince the Rump reigned ) lf)rang up (ive Seds 
at leaft, whole Dodrines were almoft thefime, but they fell into leveral Shapes and 
Names : l. Tlie Vamfis: 2. The Seekers : 3. The Ranters: 4. The Quakers : j. The 

I. The Vanifls, ( for I know not by what other Name to make them known ) 
who were Sir Henry Fane's Dilciples, hrft fprang up under him in new England 
wlien he was Governor there : But their Notions were then raw and undigelled, 
and their Party quickly confounded by Gods Providence; as you may lee in a 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 75 

little Book oiMT.Tho.WeUs of the Rife and Fall of Antinomianifnijand Familifm \n^ 
New-England; where their Opinions and thefe Providences are recorded by him A / i^'i*/ 
that was a reverend Minilter there : One Mrs. Dyer, a chief Perfon of the Sed: A'*^ 
did firil bring forth a Monfter, which had the Parts of almoft all forts of living •/•/ 
Creatures, iome Parts like Man, but moft ugly and mifplaced, and feme like 
Beafh, Birds and Fifhes, having Horns, Fins and Claws ; and at the Birth of it 
the Bed fl)ook, and the Women prefent fell a Vomiting and were fain to go forth 
of the Room : Mr. Cotton was too favourable to them, till thb helpt to recover 
him : Mrs, Hutchmjon, the chief Woman among them and their Teacher, ( to 
whole Exerciles a Congregation of them uled toaflemble) brought forth about 
50 mifhapen Births or Lumps at once ; and being banillied into another Plantati- 
on was killed there by the Indians. Sir Henry Vane being Governor, and found to 
be the fecret Faiitor and Life of their Caufe, was fain to fteal away by Niglit, and 
take Shipping for England, before his Year of Government was at an end. 

But when he came over into England he proved an Indrument of greater Cala- 
mity to a People more finful and more prepared for God's Judgments: Being 
chofcn a Parliament Tvlan, he was very active at firft for the bringing of Delin- 
quents to Punifhment : He was the Principal Man that drove on the Parliament 
ro go too high, and aA too vehemently again!!: the King: Being of very ready 
Parts, and very great Subtilty, and unwearied Induftry, he laboured, and not 
without Succefs, to win others in Parliament, City and Country to his Way. 
When the Earl of Strafford was accufed, he got a Paper out of his Father's Cabi- 
net (who was Secretary of State) which was the chief Means of his Condem- 
nation : To moft of our Changes he was that within the Houfe, which Cromwell 
was without. His great Zeal to drive all into War, and to the higheft, and to 
cherilh the SeAaries, and efpecially in the Army, made him above all Men to be 
valued by that Party. 

His Unhappinels lay in this, that his Do(5liines were lb clowdily formed and ex- 
pTelfed, that few could underlland them, and therefore he had but few true Difci- 
ples : The Lord Brook was flain before he had brought him to Maturity : Mr. Ster- 
ry is thought to be of his Mind, as he was his Intimate ; but he hath not opened 
himfelf in writing *, and was lo famous for Obl'curity in Preaching ( being, laid ^ fofi^^- 
Sir Benj. Rudtard, too high for this World, and too low for the other ) that he '^l^fy j't^, 
thereby proved almoft Barren alio, and Va7uty and Sterility were never more hap- rfsi'sfma: 
pily conjoined : Mr. S^rig is the chief of his mere open Difciples (too well know a t^lflied. 
by a Book of his Sermons.) 

This Oblcurity by fome was imputed to his not underftanding himlelf ; but by 
others to difign, becaule he could fpeak plainly when he lifted : the two Courles, in 
which he had moft Succefs, andfpake moft plainly werej His earneft Plea for uni- 
verlal Liberty of Conlcience, and againft the Magiftrates intermedling with Reli- 
gion, and his teaching his Followers to revile the Miniftry, calling them ordinari- 
ly Blackcoats, Priefts, and other Names which then favoured of Reproach ; and 
thofe Gentlemen that adhered to the Miniftry, they laid, were Friefi-ridden. 

When Cromwell had lerved himlelf by him as his (ureft Friend, as long as he 
could ; and gone as far with him as their way lay together, ( Vane being for a 
Fanatii.k Democracie, and Cromwell ^or Monarchy ) atlaft there was no Remedy 
but they muft part ; and when Cromwell caft out the Rump (as difdainfully as 
Men do Excrements^ he called Vane ajugler, and iV/<»rf;« a Whoremonger, to excule 
his ulage of the reft as is aforelaid. 

When Vane was thus laid by, he wrote his Book called Tie retired Maris Medita- 
tions, wherein the beft part of his Opinions are fo exprelTed, as will make but few 
Men his Difciples: His Healing Queftion is more plainly written. 

When Cromwell was dead, he got Sir Arthur Hafelrigge to be his clofe Adherent 
on Civil Accounts, and got the Rump fet up again, and a Council of State, 
and got the Power nmch into his own Hands. When he was in the height of his 
Power he iht upon the forming of a new Commonwealth, and with Ibme of his 
Adherents drew up the Model, which was for popular Government j but lb that 
Men of his Confidencemuft be the People. 

Of my own difpleafing him this is the true Account : It grieved me to lee a poor 
Kingdom thus toft up and down in Unquietnefi, and the Minifters made odious 
and ready to be caft out, and a Reformation trodden under Foot, and Parliaments 
and Piety made a Scorn, and Icaice any doubted but he was the principal Spring 
of all: Therefore, being writing againft the Papifts, coming to vindicate our Re- 
ligion againft them, when they impute to us the Blood of the King, I fully pro- 

L z 7ed 

q6 The LIFE of the Lib. I, 

ved that the Proteftants, and particularly the Presbyterians abhorred it, and fuf- 
fered greatly for oppofmg itj and that it was the AA of Cromwell's Army and 
the Sedaries, among which I named the Fam/has one Sort, and I fhewed that the 
Fryers and Jefuits were their Deceivers, and under leveral Vizors were difperfi: 
' among them ; and Mr. Nje having told me that he was long in Italy, I faid, it was 
confiderable how? much of his Dodrine their Leader brought from Italy' whereas 
it proved that he was only in Frame and Hehetta upon the Borders of Italy, and 
whereas it was printed from Italy, I had ordered the Printer to corred it \' fi-om- 
wardi Italy ] but though the Coppy was corre6Ved, thelmpreffion wasnot : Here- 
upon Sir Henry Vane being exceedingly provoked, threatned me to many, and 
fpake againit me in the Houfe, and one Stuhhi ('that had been whipt in the Convo- 
cation Houfe at Oxford) wrote for him a bitter Book againft me, who from a 
Vanili afterwards turned a Conformilf, fince that he turned Phyfician, and was 
drowned in afmall Puddle or Brook as he was riding near the Bath. 

I confefi my Writing was a means to leflen his Reputation, and make men take 
him for what Cromwell fthat better knew him) called him a Jugler : and I wifh 
I had done fb much in time : But the whole Land rang of his Anger and my 
Danger j and all expelled my prefent Ruine by him. But to ftew him that I 
was not about Recanting (as his Agents would have perfwaded me) 1 wrote alfb 
againft his Healing Queftton, in a Preface before my Holy Commonwealth. And the 
(peedy turn of Affairs did tye his Hands from Executing his Wrath upon me. 

Upon the Kings Coming in, he was queftioned, with others, by the Parliament, 
but (eemed to have his Life (ecured : But being brought to the Barr, he fpake fo 
boldly in juftifying the Parliaments Caufe, and what he had done , that it exalpe- 
rated the King, and made him refolve upon his Death. When he came to Tower- 
hiU to die, and would have fpoken to the People, he began fo refolutely as caufed 
the Officers to (bund the Trumpets and beat the Drums , and hinder him from 
fpeaking. No Man could die with greater appearance of gallant Refolution, and 
Fearlefnefs than he did, though before fuppofed a timorous Man : Infomuch that 
the manner of his Death procured him more Applaule than all the Actions of his 
Life. And when he was dead his intended Speech was printed, and afterwards his 
Opinions, more plainly expreffed by his Friend than by himfelf 

When he was Condemned fome of his Friends defired me to come to him, that 
I might fee how far he was from Popery, and in how excellent a Temper, (think- 
ing I would have askt him Forgivenefi for doing him wrong ) : I told them, that if 
he had defired it, I would have gone to him : but feeing he did not, I (iippofed 
he would take it for an injury; for my Conference was not like to be fuch as 
would not be pleafing to a dying man : For though I never called him a Papifl,yet I 
ftill fuppole he hath done the Papifts (b much Service, and this poor ISlation and Re- 
ligion fo much wrong, that we and our Pofterity are like to have caule and time 
enough to Lament it. And fo much of Sir Henry Vane and his Adherents. 

§ 121. The fecond Sed which then rofe up was that called Seekers: Thefe taught 
that our Scripture was uncertain ; that prelent Miracles are neceflary to Faith j 
that our Miniftry is null and without authority, and our Worfhip and Ordinances 
unneceflary or vain j the true Church, Miniftry, Scripture, and Ordinances being 
loft ; for which they are now Seeking. 

I quickly found, that the Papifts principally hatcht and aftuated this SecS:, and 
that a confiderable Number that were of this Profeffion were fbme Papifts , and 
ibme Infidels: However they doled with the Vanifii,AnA ftieltered themlelves under 
them, as if they had been the very Cxme. 

§ 122. The third Seft were the Ranters : Thefe alfb made it their Bufinefs as the 
former, to let up the Light of Nature, under the Name of Chrifl- tn Men, and to 
difhonour and cry down the Church, the Scripture, the prelent Miniftry, and our 
Worlhip and Ordinances ; and call'd men to hearken to Chrift within them : But 
withal, they conjoyned a Curled DoGtr'niz oi Libertinifm , which brought them to 
all abominable filthinefs of Life: They taught as the Famtltfis, that God regardeth 
not the Anions of the Outward Man, but of the Heart ; and that to the Pure all 
things are Pure, (even things forbidden ) : And fo as allowed by God, they (pake 
moft hideous Words of Blafphemy, and many of them committed Whoredoms 
commonly : Inlbmuch that a Matron of great Note for GodlineQ and Sobriery, 
being perverted by them, turned fo Ihamelefs a Whore, that fhe was Carted in the 
Streets of iWfl». 


Part 1. R^^r^??^ Mr. Richard Baxter. 77 


There could never SeA ari(e in the World, that was a lowder Warning to Pro- 
feffors of Religion to be humble, fearful, cautelous, and Tvatchful : Never could the 
World be told more lewdly, whither the Spiritual Pride of ungrounded Novices 
in Religion tendeth ; and whither Profeffors of Striftnefsin Religion may be car- 
ried in the Stream of Se<fts and Faftions. I have feen my felf Letters written from xhey ^.,. 
AbbingtoK, where among both Soldiers and People, this Contagion did then pre- fo reijyiw 
vail, tuU of horrid Oaths and Curfes and Blafphemy, not fit to be repeated by the indofflm-t 
Tongue or Pen of Man ; and this all uttered as the EfFed of Knowledge, and a ""^''"""^^ 
part of their Religion, in a Fanaticic Strain, and fathered on the Spirit oi[!^'/lwone 

God. _ of them. 

But the horrid Villanies of this Sed did not only (peedily Extinguifh it , but al- 
io did as much as ever any thing dJ, to dilgrace all SeBaries , and to reftore the 
Credit of theiVliniftry and the lober unanimous Chriftians : So that the Devil 
and the Jefuiti quickly found that this way ferved not their turn,and therefore they 
fuddenly took another. 

§ 125. And that was the fourth Sed, the Quakers ; who were but the Ranters 
turned fiom horrid Prophanenefs and Blafphemy, to a Life of extream Aufterity on 
the other fide. Their Dodrines were moftly the lame with the Ranters : They 
make the Light which every Man hath within him to be his fufficient Rule, 
and confequently the Scripture and Miniftry are (et light by: They fpeak much 
for the dwelling and working of the Spirit in us; but little of Jullification, and 
the Pardon of Sin, and our Reconciliation with God through Jeiiis Chrilf : They 
pretend their dependance on the Spirit's Condud,againft Set-times of Prayer, and 
againit Sacraments, and againft their due efteem of Scripture and Mini dry. They 
will not have the Scripture called the Word of God : Their principal Zeal lyeth 
in railing at the Minifters as Hirelings, Deceivers, Falfe Prophets, &c. and in re- 
fufing to Swear before a Magiftrate, or to put off their Hat to any, or to lay [2o«] 
inllead of \_Tl)oi4] or [Thee'] which are their words to all. At firfl they did ufe to 
fall into Tremblings and Ibmetime Vomitings in their Meetings, and pretended to 
be violently aded by the Spirit ; but now that is ceafed, they only meet , and he 
that pretendeth to be moved by the Spirit Ipeaketh ; and fometime they lay no- 
thing, but fit an hour or more in filcnce, and then depart. One while divers of 
them went Naked through divers chief Towns and Cities of the Land , as a Pro- 
phetical ad: Some of them have familhed and drowned themlelves in Melancholy ; 
and others undertaken by the Power of the Spirit to raife them ( as Sufan PierfoH 
did at dames near fVorcefier, where they took a Man out of his Grave that had lb 
made away himfelf, and commanded him to arife and live ; but to their fhame). 
Their chief Leader James Nayler aded the part of Chrift at Brifiol, according to 
much of the Hiftory of the Gofpel, ( and was long laid in Bridewell ifor it, and his 
Tongue bored ai a Blalphemer by the Parliament). Many Franctfcan Fryers and o- 
ther Papifts, have been proved to be dilguiled Speakers in their Allemblies, and to 
be among them j and it's like are the very Soul of all thefe horrible Delufions. But 
of late one IVilliam Penn is become their Leader, and would reform the Sed, and 
let up a kind of Miniftry among them. 

§ 124. The fifth Sed are the Bethmenifis, whole Opinions go much toward the 
way of the former, for the Sufficiency of the Light of Nature, the Salvation of 
Heathens as well as Chriftians, and a dependence on Revelations, &c. But they 
are fewer in Number, and leem to have attained to greater Meeknefs and conquelf 
of Paflions than any of the reft : Their Dodrine is to be leen in Jacob Behnen^ 
Books, by him that hath nothing elle to do, than to beftow a great deal of time to 
underrtand him that was not willing to be eafily underftood , and to know that 
his bombafted words do fignifie nothing more than before was eafily known by 
common familiar terms. 

The chiefeft of thefe in England are Dr. Pordageznd his Family, who live toge- 
ther in Community, and pretend to ho'd vifible and lenfible Communion with 
Angels, whom they fometime fee, and Ibmetime fmell, &c. Mr. Fowler of Red- 
Jtvg accufed him before the Committee for divers things, ( as for preaching againft 
Imputed Righteoulhels, and perfwading married Perlbns from the Carnal Know- 
ledge of each other, &c.) but efpecially for Familiarity with Devils or Conjuration. 
The Dodor wrore a Book to vindicate himielf, in which he profelTeth to have fen- 
fible Communion with Angels, and to know by fights and fmells , &c. good Spirits 
from bad : But he faith, that indeed one Month his Houfe was molefted with E- 
vil Spirits, which was occafioned by one Everard whom he taketh to be a Conjurer, 
who flayed fo long with him, as defiring to be of their Communion. In this time 


7'8 ^he LIFE of the L i e. L 

he Ikith, that a fiery Dragon, fo big as to fill a very great Room, conflided vifibly 
with him many hours ; that one appeared to him in his Chamber in the likenels of 
EverarJ, with Boots, Spurs, &c. that an impreflion was made on the Brick-wall of 
his Chimney ,of a Coach drawn with Tygers and Lions,which could not be got out 
till it was hewed out with Pick- Axes : and another on his Glafi-window which 
yet remaineth, &c. Whether thcle things be true or falfe I know not j but the 
chief Perlon of the Do6lor's Family-Communion (being a Gendeman and Stu- 
dent of All-Souls in Oxford ) was thus made known to me. His Mother being a 
(bb2r, pious Woman, being diflatisfied with his way, could prevail with him to 
fufTer her to open it to none but me ; ( of whole Converfion to them their Cha- 
rity was much defirous ) : Upon dilcourfe with the young man, I found a very 
good Difpofition, aipiring after the higheft Spiritual State, and thinking that vifi- 
ble Communion with Angels was it, he much expefted it, and proielt in feme 
mcafiue to have attained it ; for fome lights and odd fights he had ken ; but upon 
ftri<5l Examination, he knew not whether it were with the Eye of the Body or 
of the Mmd : nor I knew not whether it were any thing real or but fantajlical. 
Ha would not difpute, becaufe he thought he knew things by a higher light than 
Realbn, even by Intuition, by the extraordinary Irradiation of the Mind. He was 
much againfl: Propriety, and againfl: Relationsof Magirtrates, Subjeds, Husbands, 
Wives, Makers, Servants, c>~c. But I perceived he was a young, raw Scholar of fome 
Fryar whom he underltood not, and when he fiiould but have commended the 
Terfeclicn of a Ahnafiical Life ( which is the thing that they (o highly magnifie ) 
he carried it too far, and made it Teem more neceflary than he ihoukl. 

They then profefiedto wait for fuch a Coming down of the holy Ghofl: uporj 
them, as ihould fend them out as his Miffionaries to unite, and reconcile, and heal 
the Churches, and do wonders in the World ; But its fifteen years ago, and yet 
they are latent and their work undone. 

§ 125-. Among thefe fall in many other Se<ft-makers ; asDr.Gs//of London (known 
partly by a piinted Volume in Folio ) and one Mr. Farker, who got in to the Earl 
oi Pembroke j and was one that v/rote a Book againft the AfTemblies Confeffion : la 
which ( as the reft ) he takcth up moft of the Popifh Doftrines , and rifcth up 
againft them with Papal Pride and Contempt, but owncth not the Pope himfelf , 
buc headeth his Body of Dodrine with th2 5/)/>;f, as the Papifts do with the Pope : 
(And if they could bring men to receive the reft, it will be eafie to fpurn down 
tiie Idol of their Fantafie or pretended Spirit,and to iet on the proper Head again^. 
To thele alfo muft be added Dr. Gibbon, who goeth about with his Scheme to Pro- 
lelyte men, whom I have more caule to know than Ibmeof the reft. 

All thefc with iubtile Diligence promote moft of the Papal Caufe, and get in 
with the Religious Ibrt, either upon pretence of Aufieritjn MorttficAtion, Angelical 
Commumc7i, or Clearer Light ; but none of them yet owneth the Name of a Papifi, 
but what they are indeed, and who fendeth them, and what is their Work, though 
I ftrongly conjedure, I will not aflert, becaufe I am not fully certain : Let time 
dilcover them. 

§ 126. The moft among Cromwell's Soldiers that ever I could fiifped for Papifts, 
v/ere but a few that began as Strangers among the Common Soldiers, and by de- 
grees role up to Ibmelnferiour Offices, and were moft converfant with the Com- 
mon Soldiers ; but none of the Superiour Officers feemed fuch, though feduced by 
them. There is one of them ( Capt. Ezierard ) that was a bufie preaching Sedary 
( in appearance ) and difputed for Anabaptiftry , and againft Original Sin (whom 
Mr. Stephens hath wrote againft, who took him then to be a Papilt; and who hath 
lately publifhed a Book for the Popilli Religion, as giving the Realbnsof his Con- 
verlion to them, as if it were a thing that had been lately done : But they permit 
but nov/ and then one thus to dcted themfelves, to win others by the fame of their 
Converfion : But the reft muft ftill ply their work, as masked : for fecret Inftru- 
nients have much advatitages above publick ones. Capt. Everard fince the burning 
of London, and fince many new Fires have been attempted to confume the reft, 
was Accufed to Sir Richard Brown, as one that intended to burn the reft of the Ci- 
ty J and upon learch there was a dangerous Letter found with him, and four hun- 
dred Hand-Granado's with Earthen Shells, and fill'd up ready with Powder, were 
found covered under his Billets. There being two of that Name that were 
Sedaries in Cromwell's Army, I have not yet learned which of them this 

5 127- 

Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 75? 

§ 127. Alio the Sociniam made fome increafe by the Miniftry of one Mr. Rt^A le 9. /ID' ^f 
ibmetimes School-mafter in Gloce^er ; who wrote againft the Godhead oft he lioly 
Ghoft, and afterwards of Chrift ; whofe Followers inclined much to meer Deifm 
and Infidelity. 

§ 128. Having gone on thus far with the general Hints of the Hiftory of thofe 
times, becaule I would not obfcure them by the Interpofitions of my own Affiirs, 
I now return to thefe, and fhall fet them alio together, that they may be the better 

I have related how after my bleeding of a Gallon of Blood by the Nole, I was 
left weak at Sir Thomas Rous's Houfe at Roui-Lench , where I was taken up with 
daily Medicines to prevent a Dropfie : And being confcious that my time had not 
been improved to the Service of God as I defired it had been, I put up many an 
earneft Prayer to God, that he would reftorc me, and ufe me more fuccefsfully in 
his Work. And blefled be that Mercy which heard my Groans in the Day of my 
Diftrels, and granted my Defires, and wrought my Deliverance, when Men and 
Means failed, and gave me Opportunity to Celebrate his Praife. 

Whilft I there continued weak and unable to Preach, the People at Kiddermin-' 
fier had again renewed their Articles againft their old Vicar and his Curate j and 
upon Trial of the Caufe the Committee lequeftred the Place, but put no one in- 
to it, but put the Profits into the Hands of divers of the Inhabitants to pay a 
Preacher till it were difpoled of They fent to me, and defired me to take it, in 
cafe I were again enabled to Preach : which I flatly refufed ; and told them , I 
would take only the Leisure , which by his own Confent and Bond I held be- 

Hereupon they fought to Mr. BrumskiU, and others, to accept the Place , but 
could not meet with any one to their minds : Therefore they chofe one Mr. Rich- 
ard Serjeant to Officiate, referving the Vicaridge for fome one that were 

When I was able ( after about five Months ) to go abroad, I went to Kidder- 
mtn/^er, where I found only Mr. Sergeant in Pofleflion ; and the People again ve- 
hemently urged me to take the Vicaridge : which I denied ; and got the Magi- 
ftrates and Burgefies together into tlie Town-hall, and told them. That ( though I 
was offered many Hundred pounds per Annum ellewhere) I was willing to continue 
with them in my old Ledurers place which I had before the Wars, cxpeAing they 
fhould make the Maintenance an Hundred pounds a year, and a Houfe; and if 
they would promile to fubmic to that Doctrine of Chrift, which as his Minifter I 
fhould deliver to them, proved by the Holy Scriptures, I would not leave them. 
And that this Maintenance fhould neither come out of their own Purles, nor any 
more of it out of theTythes fave the 60 /. which the Vicar had before bound him- 
felf to pay me, I undertook to procure an Augmentation for Mitton ( a Chappel in 
the Parilh ) of 40 /. fer Annum, which I did j and fo the 60 /. and that 40 /. was to 
be part, and the reft I was to have nothing to do with. This Covenant was drawn 
up between us in Articles, and Subfcribed, in which I dilclaimed the Vicaridge 
and Paftoral Charge of the Parilh, and only undertook theLedure. 

And thus the Sequeftration con'tinued in the hands of the Towns men, as afore- 
faid, who gathered the Tythes, and paid me (not an Hundred as they promifed ) 
but Eighty pound fer Annum, or Ninety at moft, and Houfe-rent for a few Rooms 
in the top of another man's houfe, which is all I had at Kiddsrmin/ler. The reft: 
they gave to Mr, Sergeant, and about 40 /. per Annum to the old Vicar, and 6 /, per 
Annum to the King and Lord for Rents, belides other Charges. 

But when they had long continued in this way, they feared left fome one elfe 
againft their wills would get a grant of the Sequeftration from the Committee, and 
therefore they went privately and got an Order from them to fettle me in the 
Title, and never fhewed it me, but kept it by them fecredy, only to fecure the 
Place from a Surprize, and themfelves from repaying what they disburfed. 

And thus it lay till the King's Coming out of Scotland with his Army to Wor- 
cefier : and then, their Houfes being full of Soldiers, they brought me the Order, 
and intreated me, if not to own it, yet to keep itfafe, and to fave them harmlefs 
by it, if they were called to account. 

I recite this, becaufe Mr. Thomas Tierce, while he was rageingly fierce to provs 
me a Thief, and I know not what elfe, doth charge me with taking this Se- 
j queftration, and fo with taking another man's Bread out of his mouth, and rob- 
bing the Innocent ; and fb doth Biihop Morley after him ; and Durel, Dr. Boneman^ 
and many others, from him ; whereas the Place was fequeftred while I was far 


8o ^he LIFE of the L i b. 1, 

■"-■ . Senoiigh off, and I difbwned it, and made a contrary Covenant with the People: 
But I durft nor till this for my own vindication, left the Towns-men ftould be cal- 
led to an account for the Sequellration to their undoing; though I knew them to 
be honeft and juft in the Diftribution of it. And indeed though ( which they 
knew not ) the Matter of Fad was falls, by which they proved me lb vile a Per- 
fon, yet I was the lefs careful lb to clear my felf as I might, becaufe I take it to be 
a thing as juftifiable as to eat Bread, if I had taken the Sequeftracion ; becaufe the 
man's own Fundamental Right (as it was a thing Confecrated to God/ was null, 
he being fo infuflicient as not to be owned for a Minifter : As I have great realbn, 
by all the trial I made of him, to think that he underftood not the Subltance of Re- 
ligion, the common Catechifm or Creed, lb he was unable to teach the People 
the very Subftantials of Chriftianity. Once a quarter he Icrapt a few words toge- 
ther, which he lb l^iid over as to move pity in his Auditors; but woe to the Peo- 
ple that have no other Paftor then fuch as he: And God's Right being the firftin 
Dedicated Things, and the Law alfo annexing them to the Office for the Work's 
fake, and for die lake of the Peoples Souls, he that cannot at all do the Work, 
and fo is uncapable of the Office, can have no Title to the Place and Mainte- 
nance. And I cannot believe that the Peoples Souls muft be all untaught and la- 
crificed to his pretended Legal Right. And another Paftor they were not like to 
have without the Maintenance, unlels they could have got one that had an Eftate 
of his own, .nnd would go on warfare at his own Charges, or could live without 
Food and Raiment: for the Peoples Poverty difabled them from maintaining him : 
If it had been but a PhyHcians or Surgeon's Place in an Hofpital, which a meet 
Ignoramus had got for his life , I think to let the People periHi , tor fear of dilpof 
leffing him of his Place and Pay, had been to be righteous over much, and chari- 
table over little : And the fifth part was allowed them for their Wives, though they 
did nothing for ir. And yet this ignorant man was not dilpofleil by force, but by 
the Power then in poffeffion ; even by Parliamentary Power , when the Lords 
( who are the higheft Judicature) fate as well as the Commons, by the King's 
Law. And he was cait out on Articles fworn for Infufficiency and Scandal. And 
yet this was done by others, before I came near them : And muft the place be 
void of a Teacher, becaufe the Parliament would not give the Maintenance to a 
man that knew not what the Work of a Paftor was. 

§ 129. Befides this ignorant Vicar, there was a Chappcl in the Parilh, where 
was an old Curate as ignorant as he, that had long lived upon Ten pound a year 
and unlawful Marriages, and was a Drunkard, and a Railer, and the Scorn of the 
Country : I know not how to keep him fiom reading , ( for I judged it a Sin to 
tolerate him in any Sacred Office/ I got an Augmentation for the Place, and got 
an honell Pieacher to inftrudt them, and let this Icandalous Fellow keep his for- 
mer Stipjnd of Ten pound, for nothing, and yet could never keep him from for- 
cing himfelf upon the People to read, nor from unlawful Marriages, till a little 
before Death did call him to his account. I have Examined him about the familiar 
Points of Religion, and he could not fay half fo much to me as I have heard a 
child lay. 

And thefe two in this Parifh were not all : In one of the next Parilhes, called 
Jhe Rock, there were two Chappels, where the poor ignorant Curate of one got 
his living with cutting Faggots, and the other with making Ropes : Their Abili- 
ties baing anfwerable to their Studies and Employments. 

§130. In my Labours at Kiddermirsfier after my return, I did all under lan- 
guilhijig Weaknels, being le'.dom an hour free from pain. Of which I Ihall give 
a brief Account together, as an addition to the general one foregoing , that I may 
not bvi oft upon it ; mentioning only foms of thole paflages in which Gods M.rcy 
inoft afTedied me. 

Many a time have I been brought very low, and received the Stentence of 
Death in my lelf, when my poor, hondl, praying Neighbours have met, and up- 
on chcir Failing and tfarneft Prayers I have been recovered. Once when I had 
continued w/eak three Weeks, and was unable to go abroad , the very day that 
they prayed for me, being Good-Friday, I recovered, and was able to Preach and 
Adminilter the Sacrament the next Lord's Day ; and was better after it: fit being 
the firft time that ever ladminiftred it): And ever after that whatever Weaknels was 
upon me, when I had (after Preaching j adminiftred that Sacrament to many hun- 
dred People, I was much revived and ealcd of my Infirmities. 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Kichavd Baxter. Si 

Another time I had a Tumour role on one of the Tonfills in my Throat, white 
and hard like a Bone; above the hardnefi of any Schyrrhous Tumour : I feared a 
Cancer J being it was round and like aPeafe, as it beginneth : And when I had by 
the Phyfician'si^-dvile applied fuch Remedies as he thought fitteft, and it no whic 
altered, but remained as hard as at the firft ; at the end of about a quarter of a 
Year, I was chek'd in Gonfcience that I had never publickly praifed God par- 
ticularly for any of the DeHverances which he had vouchfafed me : And being 
ipeaking of God's Confirming our Belief of his Word by his fulfilling of Promifes, 
and hearing Prayers, ( as it i5 publillied in the fecond part of my Saints Reft ) I 
annexed feme thankful mention of my own Experiences ; and liiddenly the Tu- 
mour vanilhed, and no fign wherever it had been remained : Nor did I either (wal- 
low it down or fpit it out, nor knew what went with it to this Day. 

Another time, having read in Dr. Gerhard the admirable EfFetfts of the fwallow- 
ing of a Gold l?ullet upon his own Father in a Gale like mine, I got a Gold BuU 
let and fwallowed it ( between 20 j. and 30/. weight) ; and having taken if, I 
knew not how to be delivered of it again : I took Clyfters and Purges for about 
three Weeks, but nothing ftirred it ; and a Gentleman having done the like> the 
Bullet never came from it till he died, and it was cut out : But at lafl: my Neigh- 
bours let a Day apart to faft and pray for me, and I was freed from my Danger in 
the beginning of that day. 

Another time being in Danger of an ^gilops, and ( to be brief) at divers times 
in divers Weakneffes, Pains and Dangers, 1 have been delivered upon earneft 
Prayers j fuch as have affured me that God heareth fuch extemporate Prayers as 
many now deride. And becaufe I am fpeaking of Prayer, I will add one Inftance 
more or two of the Succefi of it for my Neighbours, as well as for my leif. 

§731. There liveth yet in Kiddtrminfter a grave and honefi Widow, Mrs. Giles, 
Widow to Mr. Gtles of Aftley, one of the Committee of that County j Ihe had a 
Son of about 14 or 15^ Years of Age, Apprentice in Worcefier to a Mercer j he fell 
into a Feaver, which being removed, ended in a moft violent Epilepfie : The 
Phyficians ufed all ordinary means for a long time in vain ; fo that Ihe was fain to 
take him home to her to Kuldertninfler, where the Phylician of the Place and my 
felf did what wc could for him, in vain, he had 4 or f violent fits in a Day j they 
were fain to hold a Key between his Teeth to lave his Tongue : At laft the Peo- 
ple of the Town, at her Requeft, kept a Day of Fafting and Prayer atherlloufe; 
and the fecond day ( as I remember ) he was fuddenly cured, and never had a Fit 
iince to this Day ( but fome Tutle Weaknels of his Head fometimes ) : He is now 
an Apothecary in Wolverhampton. 

§ 132. Another Inftance j Rich- Cook oi Kinver a Mercer, an ancient Ibber God- 
ly Man, being defirous to live at Kidderrninfter,took the next Houle to mine : The 
Houfe proved fo fscretly crackt and Ruinous, that he was afraid it would undo him 
to repair it : This feized him with a Trouble on his Confcience whether he had 
dons well to remove from Kinver f where he had been long a comfortable Neigh- 
bour to old Mr. Crofje ) : To revive his Spirits he drank much hot Waters, which 
inflamed his Blood ; and fo from Melancholy he fell quite Mad. We were forced 
by the Wars to leave him ; but his Wife procured what means /he could, but all 
in vain : When he had continued thus four Years, the excellenteft, skilful Men at 
that Dileafe undertook him, and did what they could, but all in vain. He had ex- 
ceeding Quantities of Blood taken from him : Some that had feen the Succei^ 
would have fet upon Fafting and Praying for him in his Prelence : But I difcou- 
raged them, as thinking it a tempting carnal Men to contemn Prayer, when they 
faw it unfuccefsful, and I thought they had nocaufe to expeda Miracle : I had no 
hope of his Cure becaule it was natural or heridatory to him, his Father having 
much about his Age fallen Mad before him and never recovered. When he had 
continued in this fad Cale about ten or twelve Years, fome of thele Men would not 
be dilTuaded, but would Faft and Pray at his Houfe with great importunity ; and 
many Months they continued it ( once a Fortnight, or thereabouts ) and he was 
never the better : But at laft he fenfibly began to amend, and is nov^ as well almoft 
as ever he was before, and fo hath continued for a confiderabletime. 

§ 133. I the rather mentioned thefe Paffages of the Force of Prayer, becaufe 
being not one in any of them my (elf, nor being prelent with them, there is no 
matter of appiaring Oftentation, they being a few poor humble Weavers and 
other Tradelincn only, and no Minifter with them, whole Prayers God hath thus 
frequently heard for others, and for me ( though at this prelent fome of the Chief 
of them lye in Prifon, only for praying, and finging Pfalms, and repeating Ser- 

M mona 

82 The LIFE of the Lib. L 

mons together when they come from the Publick Congregation ). And now I re- 
turn to the Recital of my own Infirmities. 

After abundance of Diftempers and Languifliings, I fell at laft into a Flux Hepa- 
ticm, and after that into manifold other Dangers liicceflively ( too long to be re- 
cited ) from all which upon earned prayer I was delivered. 

Once riding upon a great hot-metled Horfe, as I f^ood on a fidelong Pavement 
in fVorcefier, the Horle reared up, and both his hinder Feet flipt from under him j to 
that the full Weight of the Body of the Horfe fell upon my Leg ; which ye: was 
not broken, but only bn4i{ed ; when confidering the Place, the Stones, the Man- 
ner of the Fall, it was a Wonder that my Leg was not broken all to Pieces. 

Another time, as I fat in my Study, the Weight of my greatell Folio Books 
brake down three or four of the higheft Shelves, when I fat clofe under them, and 
they fell down on every fide me, and not one of them hit me, fave one upon the 
Arm • whereas the Phce, the Weight, and greatnefs of the Books was fuch, and 
my Bead juft under them, that it was a Wonder they had not beaten out my 
Brains, one of the Shelves right over my Head having the fix Volumes o/ Dr. IVahon's 
Oriental Bible, and all Aujlm's Works, and the Bibliotheca Fatrum, and Mario- 
rate, Cfc. 

An other time, I had fuch a Fall from an high Place without much hurt, which 
flioujd I defcribe it, ic would leem a Wonder that my Brains were whole. All 
thele I mention as obliged to record the Mercies of my great Preferver to his Praiie 
and Gloiy. 

§ i;4. At laft my Weaknefs was grown {q great that I was neceflitated to ule 
Bread Milk four Months together ; and as much longer, or more, I remained 
fomewhic repaired : But then I fell into a Difcale in my Eyes almolf incredible j 
I had near every Day for one Year, and every fecond Day for another Year, a 
fief}) Macula, con)monly called a Tearl, in one Eye, balicles very many in the other j 
the firft that I had continued divers Weeks, till by the ordinary Method of Cure 
I had almoft loit my Eye. At lalt I found that Honey alone, or with other things, 
fix or Icven times a Day applied conflantly diftufled andcuied it in one Day ; 
and the next Night in my Sleep another Hill came, a fpurions Opthalmy going be- 
fore, and leaving the Macula bd\xnA if . And 1 found ir came from the extreme 
thinners of the blood, with the extreme Laxity of the deljilitated Veflels, and the 
Fatulency pumping up the Matter. 

Thus 1 continued two Years, curing the Spot one Day, and finding it ftill re- 
tinned the next Morning ; lo that I had about three hundi ed Pearls in thofe two 
Years J and though for the tirfl Month I could neither read nor endure the Light, 
yet the reft of the time I went on with my Studies, though not without Pain and 
much Dilluib'.nce. No Purging nor outward Applications, nor otlier Medi- 
cines would Prevent the Return of it ; till at two Years end I wrote toDr.G. Bates 
for his Advice. The Humidities of my Stomach at the fame time tafting like boiled 
Vinegar, or Vitrial, he prelcribed me the ufe of Chalk in Subftance (a fpoonful 
Ihaved in a convenient Liquor) which poweifully precipitateth and dulcitieth acid 
Humours, and alfo bath a harmlefs corroborating Aftridion f like Magifterial of 
Corall or Crabs Eyes : ) theuie of this gave a check to my Diflemper, lb that my 
Spots came leldomer than before : At lalt I had a Conceit of my own that two 
Plants which 1 had never made trial of, would prove accomodate to my Infirmity, 
Heatb and Sage, as being very drying and aftringent without any Acrimony : 1 
boiled much of them in my Beer initead of Hops, and drank no ether : When I 
had uftd it a Month my Eyes were cured, and all my tormenting Tooth-aches, 
and luch other Maladies. Being delirous to know which of the two Hcarbs it was 
which I was molt beholden to, I tryed the Heath alone one time, and the Sage 
a!(Hie anotherwhile ; and 1 found it was the Sage much more than the Heath which 
did the Cure : whereupon I have uled it now this ten Years, and through God's 
great Mercy, 1 never had a Spot more for many Years ; nor many fince at all : 
Alfo thele other Effeds have followed ic ; i. It ealeth my Headach. z. I have no 
other Remedy for my terrible Toothach, inward or outward that will ferve ; nor 
did this ever fail me, if it hath had but twelve or twenty hours to work. 3. Where- 
as before I could endure no llrong Drink, but was fain to drink very im&W Beer, 
oi- Julef Alexantle, and a Spoonful of Wine would have dillurbcd me a Fortnight, 
C with Ophthalmics, Toothaches, &c.) fince I ufcdSage I can bear the Itrongeft 
Beer, (lo I difuli: not my Medicine the while. ) 4. The vitiiolate cutting Acidity 
of my Stomach is more dulcified than I could polfibly have believed it would be. 
Ill a Word, God hath made this Herb do more for me ( not for Curt but for Eafe ) 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 83 

than all the Medicines that ever 1 ufed from all Phyfitians in my Life: So-that 
though ftill I am very leldoni without pain, vet my Languilliings snd Pains have 
been much lefs thele lart ten Years than long before. How it doth all this I am not 
certain ; but I fuppofe principally(by its great Aftridion, mightily corroborating 
the relaxed Stomach and VelVels, and Brain, and bv AdriAion of the relaxed 
Vein, doth hinder the Motion and Shedding abroad of the corrupted Blood tl.ey 
contain : And alio I am fure it mightily precipitateth and takech off Acidicisr. 
The way I ule it is, i. Well boiled in the Wort in all my Beer : 2. Well boiled 
in my Gruel for every Mornings Breakfaii : ;. Upon any Ipecial Necefiity I rakiJ 
a Spoonful of the Powder ( of the Leaves dryed and mixed with two or three Parts 
of Sugar) which is the Strongeft Vv-ay of all : So that 1 find the Vertue is moft in 
the terrene and falivc Parts, and not in any thing liipeificial and volatile. For 
the Infufion, and Ale made by Int'ufion doth me little Good, nor the Conlerve of 
the Flowers. I have tried it on others, and find no liich marvelous Effefts as on my 
(elf ; but leaft on the fat and Itrong, and molt on the lean, old and weak, and that 
have thin fluid Humours, and laxity of Veflel% and fome inordinate Acrimony. 
This I thought my lelf obliged to mention to the Praile of my heavenly Phyfician, 
in Thankfulnefs lor thefe ten Years Eafe ; and to give Ibme hint to others in my 
Cafe : Though now, through Age and conflant Ufe, this Herb doth leis with me 
than at the firll ; yet am I neceffitated Itill to u(e it, andquickly to return to it when 
I have omitted it. After fixteen or feventeen Years benefit it now faileth me, 
and I forlake it. 

§ 135. 1 lliall next record, to the Praile of my Redeemer, the comfortable Em- 
ployment and SuccefTes which he vouchlafed me during my abode at Kidcrminfitr, 
under all thefe WeaknefTes. And i. I will mention my Employmenr. 2. My 
Succefles. And ;. Thole Advantages by which under God it was procured j in 

I. I preached before the Wars twice each Lord's Day j but after the War but 
once, and once every Jburfday, befides occafional Sermons. Every Thwfilay Even- 
ing my Neighbours that wete mofl: defirous and had Opportunity, met nt my 
Houfe, and there one of them repeated the Sermon, and afterwards they propofed 
what Doubts any of them had about the Sermon, or any other Cafe of Confci- 
ence, and I refolved their Doubts : And laft of all I caufed fometimes one, and 
fometimes another of them to Pray (to exercile them) ; and fometimes I prayed 
with them my felf : which ( befide finging a Pfalm ) was all they did. And once 
a Week alfo fome of the younger fort who were not fit to pray in fo great an Af- 
fembly, met among a few more privately, where they ipent three Hours in Pray- 
er together, every Saturday Night tlicy met at fome of their Houfes to repeat the 
Sermon of the lali: Lord's Day, and to pray and prepare themfelves for the follow- 
ing Day. Once in a few Weeks we had a Day of Humiliation on one Occafion 
or other; Every Religious Woman that was lately Delivered, inllead of the old 
Feaftings and Goflipings, if they were able, did keep a Day of Thanklgiving with 
Ibme of their Neighbours with them, praifing God, and finging Pfalms, and fober- 
ly Feafting together. Two Days every Week my Alliltant and I my lelf, took 
14 Families between us for private Catechifing and Conference (he going through 
the Parilli, and the Town coming to me ) : I firft heard them recite the Words 
of the Catechilm, and then examined them about the Senfc, and laftly urged them 
with all poffible engaging Realon and Vehemency, to anlwerable Affedtion and 
Pradice. If any of them were ftalled through Ignorance or Balhfulnels, I forbore 
to prefs them any farther to Anfwers, but made them Hearers, and either examin- 
ed others, or turned all into Inftrudion and Exhortation. But this 1 have opened 
more fully in my Reformed Vafior. I fpent about an Hour with a Family, and ad - 
mittedno others to be prefcnr, left Balhfulnels ihould mike it burthenlbm, or any 
Hiould talk of the Weakneffes of others : So that all the Afternoons on Mcndaji 
and Tuefdays I Ipent in this ( after I had begun it ; for it was many Years before I 
did attetnpt ic J : And my Affiftant Ipent the Morning of the fame Days in the 
lameFlmployment. Before that, I only catechiled them in the Church; and con- 
ferred with, now and then, one occafionally. 

Befides all this, I was forced five or fix years by tlie Peoples Necefiity to pra- 
clif: Phylick : A common Pleurifie happening one year, and no Phyfician being 
near, I was forced to advilo them, to lave their Lives ; and I could not afterwards 
avoid the Importunity of thej Town and Country round about : And bscaule I 
never once took a Penny of any one, I was crowded with Patients, lb that almolt 
Twenty would be at my Door at once ; and though God by fnors Sugcefs than I 

M z expsdsd. 

8^ The LIFE of the L i b. I. 

expefted, fo long encouraged me, yet at laft I could endure it no longer ; partly 
becaufe it hindred my other Studies, and partly becaule the very fear ot mifcarrying 
and doing any one harm, did make it an intoUerable burden to me : So that after 
fbme Years Practice, I procured a godly, diligent Phyfician to come and live in 
the Town, and bound my felf by Promile to pradife no more ( unlefs in Con- 
fultation with him in cafe of any (eeming neceffity ) ; And lb with that Anfwer I 
turned them all off, and never medledwith it more. 

But all theie my Labours ( except my private Conferences with the Families ) 
even preaching and preparing for it, were but my Recreations, and as it were the 
work of my fpare hours : For my Writings were my chiefeft daily Labour ; which 
yet went the more flowly on, that 1 never one hour had an Amamunfu to didate 
to, and fpecially becaufe my Weaknefs took up fo much of my time. For all the 
Pains that my Infirmities ever brought upon me, were never half fo grievous an 
Afflidion to me, as the unavoidable lofs of my time, which they occafioned. I 
could not bear (through the weaknels of my Stomach) to riie before Seven a 
Clock in the Morning, and afterwards not till much later j and fbme Infirmities 
I laboured under, made it above an hour before I could be dreU. An hour I muft 
of neceffity have to walk before Dinner, and another before Supper j and after Sup- 
per I can leldom Study : All which, bcfides times of Family Duties, and Prayer, 
and Eating, &c. leaveth me but little time toltudy j which hath been the greatelt 
external Perfonal Afflidion of all my Life. 

Befides all thefe, every firft Wedne[clay of the Month was our monthly Meeting 
for Parilh Difcipline ; and every firft Thurfday of the month was the Minifters meet- 
ing for Difcipline and Difputation : And in thofe Difputations it fell to.my lot to be 
almoft conllant Moderator ; and for every liich day (uliially j I prepared a written De- 
termination. All which 1 mention as my Mercies and Delights, and not as my Bur- 
dens. And every Thurfday befides, I had the Company of divers godly Minifters at 
my Houfe after the Lecfture, with whom I fpent that Afternoon in the trueft Re- 
creation, till my Neighbours came to meet for their Exercile of Repetition and 

For ever bleffed be the God of Mercies, that brought me from the Grave, and 
gave me after Wars and Sicknels,fourteen years Liberty in fuch fweet Imployment ! 
And that in times of Ufurpation I had all this Mercy and happy Freedom, when 
under our rightful King and Governour, I and many himdreds more are filenced, 
and laid by, as broken VelTels, and lufpeAed and vilified as fcarce to be tollerated 
to live privately and quietly in tiieLandl That God Ihould make days of Licenti- 
oufnefs and Diforder under an Ufurper fo great a Mercy to me, and many a thou- 
fand more, who under the lawful Governours which theydefired, and in the days 
when Order is laid to be reftored, do Ibme of us fit in obfcurity and unprofitable fi- 
lence, and fome lie in Piifons, and all of us are accounted as the Scum and Swcp- 
ings or Off Icourings of the Earth. 

§ i;6. I have mentioned my fweet and acceptable Employment j Let me to 
the praife of my gracious Lord, acquaint you with fome of my Succels : And I 
will not fupprefsit, though I fore-know that the Malignant will impute the men- 
tion of it to Pride and Oltentation. For it is the Sacrifice of Thankfgiving which 
I owe to my moft gracious God, which I will not deny him for fear of being cen- 
fured as proud , left I prove my lelf proud indeed , while I cannot undergo the 
Imputation of Pride in the performance of my Thanks for fuch undeferved Mer- 

My publick Preaching met with an attentive diligent Auditory ! Having broke 
over the brunt of theOppofition of the Rabble before the Wars, I found them after- 
wards tradable and unprejudiced. 

Before 1 ever entred into the Miniftry, God blelTed my private Conference to 
the Converfionof fome, who remain firm and eminent in holincls to this day : But 
then, and in the beginning of my Miniftry I was wont to number them as Jewels j 
but fince then I could not keep any number of them. 

The Congregation was ulliaily full, lb that we were fain to build five Galleries 
after my coming thither (" the Church it felf being very capacious, and the moft 
commodious and Convenient, that ever I was in). Our private Meetings alio were 
full. On the Lords Days there was no dilbrder to be feen in the Streets, but you 
might hear an hundred Families finging Pfalms and repeating Sermons, as you pal- 
fid through the Streets. In a word, when I came thither firft, there was about 
one Family in a Street that worlhipped God and called on his Name, and when I 
came away there were fome Streets where there was not part one Family in the 


P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter, 8^ 

fide of a Street that did not fo; and that did not by profeffing ferious Godlinels, 
give us hopes of their (incerity : And thole Families which were the worft , being 
Inns and Alehoules, dually fome ferfovs in each Houfe did feem to be Religious, 
Though our Adminiftration of the Lords Supper was fo ordered as difpleafed ma- 
ny, and the far greater part kept away themlelves, yet we had 600 that were Com- 
municants, ot" whom there was not twelve that I had not good hopes of, as to their 
lincerity: and thole few that did confent to our Communion, and yet lived Ican- 
daloufly were Excommunicated afterward : And I hope there were many that had 
the Fear of God that came not to our Communion in the Sacrament, fome of them 
being kept off by Husbands, by Parents, by Matters, and fome diffwaded by Men 
that differed from us : Thole many that kept away, yet took it patiently , and did 
not revile us, as doing them wrong : And thole unruly young men that were Ex- 
communicated, bore it patiently as to their outward behaviour, though their hearts 
were full of bitternels: ( except one, of whom I Ihall fpeak anon;. When I let 
upon Perlbnal Conference with each Family, and Catechizing them, there were 
very few Families in all the Town that refuled to come ; and thole lew were Beg- 
gers at the Towns-ends, who were fb ignorant that they were alhamed it (hould be 
nianifeft. And few Families went from me without lome tears, or leemingly leri- 
ous promifes for a Godly Life, Yet many ignorant and ungodly Perlbns there 
were ftill among us : but molt of them were in theParifn, and not in the Town j 
and in thole parts of the Parilh which were furtheft from the Town. And whereas 
one part of the Parilh was impropriate, and payed Tythes to Lay men, and the 
other part maintained the Church, ( a Brook dividing them ) it fell out that al- 
molt all that fide of the Paiilh which paid Tythes to the Church, were godly, ho- 
neft People, and did it willingly without Contention j and mofl: of the bad People 
of the Parilh lived on the other fide. Some of the Poor men did competently un- 
derftand the Body of Divinity, and were able to judge in difficult Controverfies: 
Some of them were fo able in Prayer, that very few Minifters did match them, in 
order and fulnefs, and apt Expreilions, and holy Oratory, with fervency : Abun- 
dance of them were able to pray very laudably with their Families, or with others. 
The temper of their Minds, and the innocency of their Lives was much more 
laudable than their Parts. The ProfelTors of ferious Godlinels, were generally of 
very humble Minds and Carriage j of meek and quiet behaviour unto others ; and 
of blamelefnefs and innocency in their Converfations. 

And God was plealed alfo to give me abundant Encouragement in the Leftures 
which I preached abroad in other places ; as at JVorceHer, Chohury, 6cc. but eljaeci- 
ally at Dudley and Sbeffual ; at the former of which (being the firft place that ever 
I preached in) the poor Nailers and other Labourers would not only crowd the 
Church as full as ever I law any in London, but alio hang upon the Windows, and 
the Leads without. 

And in my poor Endeavours with my Brethren in the Miniliry , my Labours 
were not loft ; Our Difputations proved not unprofitable j Our Meetings were ne- 
ver contentious, but always comfortable ; We took great delight in the Company 
of each other; fo that I knew that the remembrance of thole days is plealant both 
to them and me :whenDifcouragements had long kept me from motioning a way 
of Church-order and Dilcipline, which ail might agree in, that we might neither 
have Churches ungoverned, nor fall into Divifions among our (elves, at the firft 
motioning of it, I found a readier Conlent than I could exped:, and all went on 
■ without any great obftrufting difficulties : And when I attempted to bring them 
all conjunftly to the work of Catechizing and Inftruding every Family by it felf, 
I found a ready confent in moll, and performance in many. So that I muff here 
to the praife of my dear Redeemer, fet up this Pillar of Remembrance , even to 
his Praile who hath employed me lb many years in fo comfortable a Work , with 
fuch encouraging Succels ! O what am I, a worthlefs Worm, not only want- 
ing Academical Honours, but much of that Furniture which is needful to fo high 
a Work, that God fliould thus abundantly encourage me, when the Reverend In- 
ftruftors of my Youth, did labour Fifty years together in one place, and could 
fcarcely lay they had Converted one or two of their Parilhes I And the greater 
was this Mercy, becaule I was naturally of adifcouraged Spirit ; lb that if f had 
preached one Year, andleen no Fruits of it, I Ihould hardly have forborn running 
away like Jonah, but ftiould have thought that God called me not to that Place. 
Yea, the Mercy was yet greater in that it was of farther publick Benefit : For 
fome Independents and Anabaptills that had before conceited, that Parilh Churches 
were the great Obftruftion of all true Church Order and Difcipline, and that it 


8^ the LIFE of the Lib. I, 

was impoffible to bring them to any good Confiftency, did quite change their 
Minds when they fa w what was done at XiJerw;»/?er, and began to think now, 
that it was much through the faultinefs of the Parilh Minifters, that Parirties ard 
not in a better Cafe ; and that it is a better Work thus to reform tl:ie Parilhes, than 
to gather Churches out of them, without great Neceffity. 

And the Zeal and Knowledge of this poor People provoked rnany in other parts 
of the Land. And though I have been now abfent from them about (Jx Years, 
and they have been aflaulted with Pulpit-Calumnies, and Slanders, with Tiireat- 
nings ?ind Imprifonmencs, with enticing Words, and leducing Reafonings, they yet 
Hand fafl and keep their Integrity j many of them are gone to God, and (bme are 
removed , and Ibme now in Prilon, and moft ftill at home ; but not one, that 
I hear of, that are fallen off, or forfake their Uprightnefs. 

§ 137. Having related ray comfortable Succefles in this Place, I fhall next 
tell you by what, and how many Advantages this much was eftefted ( under 
that Grace which worketh by means, though with a free diverfity ) ; which I do 
for their fakes that would have the means of other Mens Experiments, in mana- 
ging ignorant and fmful Parifhes. 

1. One Advantage was, that I came to a People that never had any awakening 
Minifl:ry before ( but a few formal cold Sermons of the Curate ) : For if they 
had been hardened under a powerful Miniftry, and been Sermon Proof, I Jhould 
have expefted leis. 

2. Another Advantage was, that at firft I was in the Vigour of my Spirits, and 
had naturally a familiar moving Voice ( which is a great matter with the common 
Hearers) ; and doing all in bodily Weaknefs, as a dying Man, my Soul was the 
more eafily brought to Serioufnds, and to preach as a dying Man to dying Men ; 
for drowfy Formality and Cuffomarinefs doth but ftupiiy the Hearers, and rock 
them afleep : It muft be lerious Preaching, which muft make Men Isrious in hear- 
ing and obeying it. 

3. Another Advantage was, that moft of the bitter Enemies of Godiinsfs in 
the Town, that rofe in Tumults againft me before, in their very Hatred of Puri- 
tans, had gone out into the Wars, into the King's Armies, and were quickly kill'd, 
and few of them ever returned again j and (o there were few to make any great Op- 
pofition to Godlinels. 

4. Another, and the greateft Advantage was, the Change that was made in the 
Publick Affairs by the Succeis of the Wars ; which, however it was done, and 
though much corrupted by the Ufurpers, yet it was fuch as removed many and 

, great Impediments to Mens Salvation : For before, the riotous Rabble had Bold- 
nefs enough to make (erious Godlinels a common Scorn, and call them all Puri- 
tans and Precifians that did not care as little for God and Heaven and their Souls 
as they did ; efpscialiy if a Man were not fully fitisfied with their undilciplined, 
difbrdered Churches, or Lay Chancellors Excommunications, &c. then no Name 
was bad enough for him: And theBifnops Articles enquiring after fuch, and their 
Courts and the High Commiffion grievoully affliciing thofe that did but Faft and 
Pray together, or go from an ignorant drunken Reader, to hear a. godly able 
Preacher at the next Parifli, &c. this kept Religion among the Vulgar under ei- 
ther continual Reproach or Terror, encourageing the Rabble to delpife it 
and revile it, and difcouraging thofs that eUb would own it. And Experience tell- 
eth us, that it is a lamentable Impediment to Mens Converfion, when it is a way 
every where fpoken agalnff, and prolecuted by Superiors, which they muft em- 
brace ; and when at their firft Approaches they muft go through futh Dangers 
and Obloquy as is htter for confirmed Chriftians to be exerciled with, than un- 
converted Sinners or young Beginners: Therefore, though Cromwell give Liberty 
to all Sefts among us, and did not fet up any Party alone by Force, yet this much 
gave abundant Advantage to the Gofpel, removing the Prejudices and the Ter- 
rours which hindered it ; efpecially conlidering that Godlinels had Countenance and 
Reputation alfo, as well as Ltkrty ; whereas before, if it did not appear in all the 
Fetters and Formalities of the Times, it was the way to common Shame and Ru- 
inc : Hearing Sermons abroad when there were none, or worfe at home ; i-'afting 
and Praying together ; the (Irict Obfervation of the Lord's Day, and (iich like, 
went under the dangerous Name of Puritanilin, as well as oppollng Bilhops and 

I know in thefc Times you may meet with Men that confidently affirm, that 
all Religion was then trodden dovk-n, and Herely and Schifni weretheonly Piety; 
biit I give Warning to all Ages by the Experience of this incredible Age, that 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 87 

they take heed how they believe any, whoever they be, while they are fpeaking 
for the Intereft of their FaAions and Opinions, againft thofe that were their real 
or fuppofed Adverfaries. 

For my part, I blefs God who gave me even under an Ufurper whom I oppo- 
fed, fuch Liberty and Advantage to preach his Go(pel with Succeft^ which I can- 
not have under a King to whom I have fworn and performed true Subjedion and 
Obedience ; yea, which no Age fince the Goipel came into this Land, did before 
poffefs, as far as I can learn from Hiftory. Sure I am, that when it became a 
matter of Reputation and Honour to be Godly, it abundantly furthered the Succef- 
les of the Miniftry. Yea, and I (hall add this much more for the lake of Pofkrityj 
that as much as I have faid and written againit Licentioufnefs in Religion, and 
for the Magifkates Power in it, and though I think that Land mod happy, whole 
Rulers ufs their Authority for ChrilV, as weli as for the Civil Peace ; >et in Com- 
parilbn of the reft ol the World, I ihail think that Land happy that hath but bare 
Liberty to be as good as they are willing to be ; aad if Countenance and Mainte- 
nance be but added to Ltbertj, and tollerated Errors and Seds be but forced to keef 
the Peace, and not to oppofe the Siibftantials of Chriftianity, I Ihall not hereafter 
much fear llich Toleration , nor dilpair that Truth will bear down Adver- 

f . Another Advantage which I found was, that Acceptation of my Perlbn, 
which Biihop Mjr/e/ and Dean W^rtrw/r/ lo vehemently diffuaded them from (in 
vain ) : Though to win Eftimation and Love to our lelves only, be an end that 
none but proud Men and Hypocrites intend, yet it is moft certain that the Grate- 
fulncfs of the Perfon doth ingratiate the MeiTage, and greatly prepareth the Peo- 
ple to receive the Truth ; Had they taken me to be Ignorant, Erroneous, Scanda- 
lous, Worldly, Self feeking, or fuch like, 1 could have expeded fmall Succcls 
among them. 

6. Another Advantage which I had was, by the Zealand. Diligence of the Godly 
People of the Place ; who thirfted after the Salvation of their Neighbours, and 
were in private my Affiftants, and being difperfed through the Town, were rea- 
dy in almofl: all Companies to reprefs feducing Words, and to juftify Godlinels, 
and convince, reprove, exhort Men according to their needs ; as alio to teach 
them how to pray ; and to help them tolandifie the Lord's Day : For thofe Peo- 
ple that had none in their Families who could pray, or repeat the Sermons, went 
to their next Neighbour's Houfe who could do it, and joined with them j k that 
fame Houfes ( of the r.blelt Men ) in each Street were filled with them that could 
do nothing, or little in their own. 

7. And the holy, humble, blamelels Lives of the Religious fort was a great 
Advantage to me : The malicious People could not fay, your ProfefTors here 
are as proud and covetous as any : But the blamelels Lives of godly People did 
fhame Oppofers, and put to Silence the Ignorance of foolifh Men, and many 
were won by their good Conveifation. 

8. And our Unity and Concord was a great Advantage to us, and our freedom 
from thole Seds and Hercfies which many other Places were infeded with. We 
had no private Church, though we had private Meetings j we had not Paftor 
againft Paftor, nor Church againft Church, nor Sed againft Sed, nor Chriftian 
againft Chriftian. There was none that had any odd Opinions of his own, or 
cenfured his Teacher as erronious, nor queftioned his Call : At Bewdley there was 
a Church of Anabaptifts ; at IVorcefier the Independents gathered theirs : But we 
were all of one Mind, and Mouth, and Way : Not a Separatift, Anabaptift, An- 
tinomian, &c. in the Town ! One Journeyman Shoemaker turned Anabaptift, 
but he left the Town upon it, and went among them. When People law diver- 
fity of Seds and Churches in any Place, it greatly hindred their Converfion ; and 
they were at a lofi, and knew not what Party to be of, or what Way to go j and 
therefore would be of no Religion at all ; and perhaps derided them all whom 
they faw thus difagreed : But they had no fuch Offence or Objedion there- they 
could not ask, which Church or Party fhall I be of j for we were all but as one : 
Nay, fo Modeft were the ableft of the People, that they never were inclined to 3 
preaching way, nor to make Offentation of their Parts ; but took warning by the 
Pride of others, and thought they had teaching enough by their Paftors, and that 
it was better for them to beftow their Labour in digefting that, than in Preaching 

9, Acd 

88 The LIF E of the L i b. I. 

9. And our private Meetings were a marvellous help to the propagating of God- 
linefs among them : for thereby Truths that flipt away were recalled, and the fe- 
rioulhefs of the Peoples minds renewed j and good defires cherilhed ; and hereby 
their knowledge was much increafed ; and here the younger fort learned to pray, 
by frequent hearing others : And here I had opportunity to know their Cafe : for 
if any were touched and awakened in publick, I Ihould prefently f^:e him drop in 
to our private Meetings : Hereby alio idle meetings and lofs of time was prevent- 
ed. And Co far were we from being by this in danger of Schifm or Divi/ions, thac 
it was the principal means to prevent them : For here I was ufually prelent with 
themj anfwering their Doubts, and filencing Objections, and moderating them in 
all. And fame Trivate Adeetifigi 1 iound thzy were exceeding much inclined to: 
and if I had not allowed them fuch as were lawful and profitable, they Would have 
been ready to run to fuch as were unlawful and hurtful : And by encouraging them 
here in the fit exercile of their parts, in Repetition, Prayer, and asking Quefli- 
ons, I kept them from inclining to the diforderly exercife of them, as the Seftaries 
do. We had no Meetings in oppofition to the Publick Meetings ; but all in fub- 
ordination to them ; and under my over-fight and guidance ; which proved a way 
profitable to all. 

10. Another thing which advantaged us was fome publick Difputations which 
we had with Gainfayers, which very much confirmed the People: The Quakers 
would fain have got entertainment and let up a Meeting in the Town ( and fre- 
quently railed at me in the Congregation ) : But when I had once given them 
leave to meet in the Church, for a Dilpute, and before the i'eople, had opened 
their deceits and liiame, none would entertain them more, nor did they get one 
Profclyte among us. Before that, Mr. Juhn Totnbes being Ledurer of Bewdlejr.two 
miles off us, ( who was repured the moil Learned and able Anabaptift in England) 
we kept fair Correfpondence tor a longtime, and I lludioufly avoided all Debates 
with him about Infant Baptilm j till at lafV he forced me to it as I (hall fhcw fur- 
ther anon , And after one days Difpiite with him of Bewdky, my Hearers were 
more fetled, and the courle of his Infeflion ftopr. How mean fbcver my own 
Abilities were, yet I had (Hll the advantage of a good Caufe, and thereby eafily o- 
pened the vanity of all Pretenders, Deceivers and Dividers that came among 

11. Another advantage was the great honefly and diligence of my Afliftants : 
When 1 cami firft to Kiddermtnfter after the Wars, I found Mr. Richard Sergeant 
there received as their Preacher ; whom they took in a Cafe of Neceffity when 
they could gat no other : I found him very hone{t,but of no extraordinary Learn- 
ing, and of no taking utterance, lb that Ibme that were more for Learning than 
for furious Piety, would have had me taken in his Ifead a very grave , ancient Do- 
dor of Divinity, who had a mofl promifing Prefence, and tolerable Delivery, and 
reverend Name, and withal was my Kinfman : But I found at lafl: that he had no 
relKh of (erious Godlinefi, nor folid Learning or Knowledge in Divinity, but Ifole 
Sermons out of printed Books, and fet them ofFwith a grave Delivery. But Mr. 
Sergeant fo increafed in Ability, that he became a Iblid Preacher, and of fo great 
Prudence in Pradical Cafes, that 1 know few therein go beyond liim ; but none 
at all do I know that excelleth him in Meeknels,HumilityjSelf-denial and Diligence. 
No Child ever feemed more humble: No Interett of his own, either ofEftateor 
Reputation, did everleem to (top him in his Duty : No Labour did he ever refufe 
which I could put him to : When I put him to travel over the Parifli ( which is 
near 20 miles about j from Houle to Houfe to Catechize and Inffruft each Family, 
he never grudged or feemed once unwilling. He preached at a Chappel above 
two miles off one half the day, and in the Town the other, and never murmured. 
I nsver heard of the Man or Woman in all that Town and Parifh , that ever faid. 
This Fault he did ; This Word he fj^ake amifs againft me ; This Wrong he did me ; 
nor ever one that once found fault with him (lave once one man upon a fhort 
miflake, for being out of the w.ay when he ihould have baptized a Child): This 
admirable blamelefnels of Life much furthered our work : And when he was remo- 
ved two miles from us, I got Mr. Humphrey Waldern to fucceed him, who was very 
much like him, and carried on his work. 

12. Anotiier Advantage was the Prefence and Countenance of honeft Juflices of 
Peace: Co\on&\ John Bridges, a prudent, pious Gentleman, was i^atron of the 
Church, and lived in the Parifh, and was a Juflice of Peace : And a Bailiff and 
Jufiice were Annually chofenin the Corporation, who ordinarily were godly men, 
and always liich as would be thought [o, and v/erc ready to ule their Authority to 


■ ■■.■ — , ■! ■ W — — -■ - ■ — ■ — - .■■■>■■ — ,.. - ■■■■■ ■!■ 

P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. ^^ 

fupprels Sin, and promote Goodnefi. And when once a Sabbath-breaker thought 
to have overthrown the Officers at Law, Serjeant Fountain being then Judge of 
Aflize, did fb reprefs his Malice, as difcouraged all others from any more (uch 
attempts. But now the World is changed ■. 

15. Another help to my Succefii was that fmall relief which my low Eftate 
enabled me to afford the Poor : though the Place was reckoned at near 
200 /. per Annum, there came but 90 /. and fometimes 80 /. fer Annum to me : 
Befidas which , (bme years I had 60 /. or 80 /. a year of the Booklellers for 
my Books: which litde difpcrled among them, much reconciled them to the Do- 
jftrine which I taught : I took the apteft of their Children from the School, and 
fct divers of them to th3 Univerfities; where for 8 /. a year, or 10 /. at mofl, by 
the help of my Friends there I maintained them. Mr. Vines and Dr. Hill did help 
me to Sizers places for them at Cambridge : And the Lady Rous allowed me 8 /. a 
year awhile towards their Maintenance, and Mr. Tho. Fowhy and Col. Bridges alfo 
aflifted me. Some of them are honeft able Minifters, now caft out with their Bre- 
thren : But two or three, having no other way to live, turned great Conformifls, 
and are Preachers now. And in giving that little I had, I did not enquire whe- 
thsr they were good or bad, if they asked Relief: For the bad had Souls and Bo- 
dies that needed Charity moft. And I found that Three pence or a Groat to eve- 
ry poor Body that askt me, was no great matter in a year, but a few pounds in that 
way of giving would go far. And this Truth I will fpeak to the encouragement 
of the Charitable, that what little Money 1 have now by me, I got it almofl: all 
( I Icarce know how ) in that time when I gave moft : And fince I have had lefs 
opportunity of giving, I have had left increale. 

14. Another furtherance of my work was the Writings which I wrote, and gave 
among them. Some linall Books I gave each Family one of, (which came to about 
800) • and of the bigger I gave fewer: And every Family that was poor, and had 
not a Bible, I gave a Bible to. And I had found my (elf the benefit of reading 
to be (b great, that I could not but think it would be profitable to others. 

ly. And it was a great Advantage to me, that my Neighbours were of fuch a 
Trade as allowed them time enough to read or talk of holy Things . For the 
Town liveth upon the Weaving of Rtddermir.fler Stuffs ; and as they ftand in their 
Loom they can fet a Book before them, or edilie one another ; whereas Plowmen, 
and many others, arefb wearied or continually employed, either in the Labours 
or the Cares of their Callings, that it is a great Impediment to their Salvation ; 
Freeholders and Trades-men are the Strength of Religion and Civility in the Land : 
and Gentlemen and Beggers, and Servile Tenants, are the Strength of Iniquity; 
( Though among thefe forts there are lome alio that are good and juft, as among 
the other there are many bad.^ And their conftant Converfe and Traffick with 
London doth much promote Civility and Piety among Trades-men. 

16. And I found that my (ingle Life afforded me much advantage : For I could the 
eafilier take my People for my Children, and think all that I had too little for them^ 
in that I had no Children of my own to tempt me to another way of ufing it. 
And being difcharged from the moft of Family Cares ( keeping but one Servant ) 
I had the greater vacancy and liberty for the Labours of my Calling. 

17. And God made ufe of my Pradlice of Phyfick among them, as a very great 
advantage to my Miniftry ; for they that cared not for their Souls did love their 
Lives, and care for their Bodies : And by this they were made almoft as obfervanr, 
as a Tenant is of his Landlord : Sometimes I could fee before me in the Church a 
very confiderable part of the Congregation, whofe Lives God had made mea means 
to fave, or to recover their health : And doing it for nothing fo obliged them,that 
they would readily hear me. 

18. And it was a great advantage to me, that there were at laft few that were 
bad, but fbme of their own Relations were Converted : Many Children did God 
work upon at 14, or ly, or 16 years of Age : And this did marvelloufly reconcile 
the Minds of the Parents and Elder fort to Godlinefs: They that would not hear 
me, wouldhear their own Children: They that before could have talkt againft 
Godlinefs, would not hear it fpoken againft when it was their Childrens Cafe ; 
Many that would not be brought to it themfelves, were proud that they had un- 
derftanding Religious Children : And we had forae old Perfons of near Eighty 
years of Age, who are, I hope , in Heaven, and the Converfion of their own 
Children was the chief means to overcome their Prejudice and old Cuftoms and 

N i9- And 

^o The LIFE of the L i b. 1. 

19. And God made great ufeof StcknejSto do good to many. For though Sick- 
bed Promiles are ufually foon forgotten ; yet was it otherwife with many among 
us : And as foon as they were recovered, they firft came to our private Meetings, 
and fo kept in a learning (tate, till furthe-- Fruits of Piety appeared. 

20. And I found that our difowning of the Iniijuity of the Times y did tend to the 
good of many : For they defpifsd thofe that always followed the ftronger fide, 
and juitified every wickedneis that was done by the ftronger Party : Though we 
had judged the Parliaments War to be lawful and neceffary , to lave themfelves and 
us from the 7ri//j and their Adherents, and to punifh Delinquents in a Courle of 
Law, while we believed that nothing was intended againft the King or Laws j yec 
as foon as ever we faw the Cale changed, and CromwelTi Army enter into a Rebel- 
lion againft King and Parliament, and kill the King, and invade the Scots, and 
fight againft the King that Should have fucceeded, &c. we openly dilbwned them, 
and on all juft occafions expreft our abhorrence of their Hypocrifie, Perjury , and 
Rebellion; (^ except two or three idle drunken Fellows that thought to live by 
flattering the Times, this was the Senfe of all the Town ). And had I owned 
the Guilt of others, it would have been my lhame,and the hinderance of my work^ 
and provoked God to have dilbwned me. 

21. Another of my great Advantages was, the true Worth and Unanimity of 
the honeft Minifters of the Country round about us, who aftbciated in a way of 
Concord with us : Their Preaching was powerful and Ibber ; their Spirits peace- 
able and meek, difbwning the Trealons and Iniquities of the times as well as we ; 
they were wholly addided to the winning of Souls; felf denying, and of moit 
blamelefs Lives; Evil lf)oken of by no Sober Men ; but greatly beloved by their 
own P;opIe,and all that knew them ; adhering to no Fadion; neither Epilcopal, 
Piesbyterian nor Independent, as to Parties j but defiring Union, and loving thac 
which is good in all. 

Thele meeting weekly at our Lecture, and monthly at our Difputation, con- 
ftrained a Reverence in the People to their Worth and Unity, and conlequently 
furthered my Work, fucii were Mr. Andrctv Tri\]ia.m Miniiter of Bridgnorth, Mr. 
Tbo. Baldwin Minifter at Cbadjjey, Mv. Jho. Baldwin Miniller of C/e»r,'Mr. Jo[efh 
Baker \\\vi\^Zx\nWorcefle.r, IsAx. Hinry Oaflmd Mini If er. of Bewdley , Mr. William 
Spicer Miniller of Stone fan old man lince dead), Me. Richard Sergeant laft Minifter 
of Stone, }\,\r.Wilsby oiWomborne^yi-T. John Reigaolds ol fVoherhampton, Mr. Jofeph 
Rocke o\' Rowley, Mv. KichardJVolley oi Sallivarf, Mr. Giles iVolley , Mr. Humphrey 
JValdernoi Broome, Mr. Edw. Bowcbier o^ Church-hill, Mr. Ambroje Sparry oi Martley, 
Mr. IVilltaw Kimberley of Ruhnarley, Mr. Ber,j. Baxter of Upton upon Scvern^Mv. Dow- 
ley of Stoke, Mr. Stephen Baxter, Mr. Tho. Bromivtck oi' Kem/ey, Mv.J. Nott of Shc- 
nff-hales, withmany Others ; to whom I may adjoyn Mr. John Spilsbury, and Mr. 
7«ice one oi Bromjgrcvs., and the other oiWurcefier, Independants, and very honeft, 
ibber,and moderate men; (who were all nf them now filenced and caft out,though 
not one of them all had any hand in the Wars for the Parliament, or any yWilitary 
Employment; only Mr. George Hopkins o( E'vejloam was in the Army, ( a worthy 
faithful /Winillerallb) and no other of cur Aflbciation that I know of befides my 
(elf in all the County. 

22. Another Advantage to me was the quality of the Sinners of the place. There 
were two Drunkards almoft at the next Doors to me, who ( one by night, and the 
other by day) did confrantly every Week, if not twice or thrice a Weak, roar and 
rave in the Streets like ftark-madmen ; and when they have been laid in the Stocks 
or Gwl, they have been as bad as (bon as ever they came out : And thcfe werefb 
beaftly and ridiculous, that, they made that Sin (ot which we were in moft danger^ 
the more abhorred. 

23. Another Advantage to me was thequalityof the Afofiates of the place. If 
we had been troubled with meer Separatills, Anabaptiits, or others that erred 
plaufibly and tollerably, they might perhaps have divided us, and drawn away 
Dilciplcs after them : But we had only two ProfefTors that fell off in the Wars,and 
( one or two at moft j that made no Profeffion of Godlinefi were drawn in to 

ithem. They that fell off were fuch as before, by their want of grounded Undcr- 
'ftanJing, Humility and Mortification, gave us the greateft fufpicion of their Sta- 
bility : And they fell to no lefsthan Familifm and Infidelity, making ajeft of the 
Scripture, and the ElVentials of Chriftianicy : f Though they fb crefully hid ir, 
that we could never pofl!;bly have known their Minds, but from the Alehoufe, and 
Companions with whom they were more free). And as they fei! fiom the Faith, 
ib they fell to Drinking, Gaming, furious Paftions, horribly abufing their Wives 


MM — — r ■ IB M ! I II 

Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. ^ i 

( and thereby faving them from their Errours ) and to a vicious Life. So that they 
ilcod up as Pillars and Monuments of God's Juftice, to warn all others, to take 
heed of Self-conceitednefs and HereHes, and ot departing from Truth and Chri- 
ftian Unity : And fb they were a principal means to keep out all Sedts and Errours 
from the Town. 

24. Another great help to my Succels at laft, was the fore-defcribed Work of 
Perlbnal Conference with every Family apart , and Catechifing and Intruding 
them. That which was fpoken to them perfbnally , and put them ibmetime upon 
Anfwers, awakened their Attention, and was eafilier applyed than publick Preach- 
ing, and feemed to do much more upon them. 

25'.And the Exercife of Church-Difcipline was no (mall furtherance of the Peoples 
Good : For I found plainly that without it I could not have kepc the Religious Ibrt 
from Separations and Divifions. There is fomeching generally in their Difpofitions, 
which inclineih them to diflbciate from open ungodly Sinners, as Men ot another 
Nature and Society ; and if they had not feen me do Ibmething reafonable for a 
Regular Separation of the notorious obltinate Sinners from the reft, they would 
irregularly have withdrawn themielves ; and it had not been in my power , with 
bare words, to fatisfie them, when they faw we had liberty to do what we 

It was my greateft Care and Contrivance (b to order this Work, that we might 
neither make a meet Mock-lhew of DKcipline, nor with Independants, un-church 
the Parifii-Church,and gather a Church out of them anew. Therefore all the Mini- 
fters Affociate agreed together, to pra(ftii.;e fo much Difcipline, as the Epilcopal, 
Presbyterians and Independants were agreed on, that Presbyters might and muft do. 
And we told the People that we went not about to gather a new Church,but taking 
the Parifh for the Church, unlefs they wereimwilling to owntheirown Mcmberlhip, 
we refolved to exercife that Difcipline with all : Only becaufe there aie fbme Pa- 
pifts andFamilifts or Infidels among us, and becaufe in thefe times of Liberty we 
cannot ( nor defire to ) compel any againft their Wills, wedefired all that didown 
their Memberlhip in this Parilli Church, and take us for their Paftors, to give in 
their Names, or any other way fignifie that they do fo : and thole that are not 
willing to be Members, and rather choole to withdraw themfelves than live under 
Difcipline , to be filent : And i'o, for very fear of Difcipline, all the Pariih 
kept off except about Six hundred, when there were in all above Sixteen hundred 
at Age to be Communicants. Yet becaufe it was their own doing, and they knew 
they might come in when they would, they were quiet in their Separation; for 
we took them for the Separatifts : Porthole that fcrupled our Gefture at the Sa- 
crament, I openly told them that they fhould have it in their own. Yet did I Bap- 
tize all their Children ; but made them firtt ( as I would have done by Strangers) 
give me privately, (or publickly if they had rather ) an account of their Faith ; 
and if any Father were a fcandalous Sinner, I made him confefs his Sin openly with 
leeming Penitence , before I would Baptize his Child : If he refuied it, I forbore 
till the Mother came to prefent it, ( for I rarely, if ever, found both Father and 
Mother lb deftitute of Knowledge and Faith, as in a Church Senfe to be uncapa-_ 
ble hereof.) 

Of thofe that refufed to come under Difcipline, Ibme were honefl Perlbns,who 
by their Husbands, Parents orMafters, were forbidden : Many were grolly igno- 
rant ; many were prophane and fcandalous j and many were kept off by the Ex- 
ample and Perlwafions of fome leading Perlons, who were guided by the higher 
fort of the Prelatical Divines ; who though they could fay little or nothing againft 
what we did, yet their Religion being too much made up of FatStion and Feilbnal 
Intereft, they difowned our Courfe as unfuitable to the Intereft of their Civil and 
Ecclefiaftical Sidings and Defigns. 

About fix or (even young Men did joyn with us who were addided to Tipling, 
and one of them was a weak-headed Fellow, who was a common notorious Drun- 
kard. We could not refule them, becaufe our bufinels was not to gather a New 
Church, but only to know who owned their own Memberfhip, and who would 
dilbwn it and withdraw themfelve?. But we told him that he was a notorious 
Drunkard, that we niuft prefently admonilh him, andejtpeA his humble, penitent 
Confeffion, and promife of Amendment, or elle we mult declare him unfit for 
Church-Communion. He lamented his Sin with great aggravation , and promi- 
fed Amendment j but quickly returned to it again : We admonilhed him ag:iin 
and again, and laboured to bring him to Contrition and Relblution; and he would 
fiill confefs it, and ftill go on : I warned him publickly, and prajedforhim feveral 

N 2 days 

^2 The LIFE of the L i b. L 

days in the Church ; but he went on in his Drunkennefs ftill : At laft i declared 
him unfit for the Churches Communion, and required them to avoid him accord- 
ingly C for this was all we did, whether you will call it Excommunication or not ) 
endeavouring to convince him of his Mifery, and of the neceffity of true Repen- 
tance and Reformation. 

If any fhall here ask me, Why w? took this Courle, and did not take all the 
Parifh for Members without putting the Qucftion to them ; and what Benefits we 
found by fuch a Courfe of Difcipline ? 1 anfwer firft to the lali Queftion : 

r. We performed a plain Command of Chrift: and we took Obedience to ba 
bettter than Sacrifice, and be our belt kind of Wor/hip, and the plealing of God to 
be the greateft benefit. 

2. As is faid before, we kept the Chrrch from irregular Separations, which elfe 
could never have been done. 

J. We helpt to Cure that dangerous Difeale among the People, of imagining 
that Chriftianity is but a matter of Opinion and dead Belief, and to convince them 
how much of it confifteth in Holineis, and how far it is inconfiftent with reigning 
Sin ; and fb did vindicate the Honour of Chrift and the Chridian Faith. 

4. We greatly (upprefled the pracftice of Sin, and caufed People to walk more 
watchfully than eife they would have done. Thefe and many other great Benefits 
accrewed by it to the Church. 

But if you ask what good the Offenders themfelves received by it, I fliall tell 
you the truth according to my Experince. All Ibber, godly, well-minded Per- 
Ibns, if they once fell into any fcandalous Adion fas fcarce two of them ever did) 
yea the very Civil and Younger fort that were tradable, did humbly confels their 
Sin, and walk more watchfully. But thole that were cafl out of our Communion 
were enraged, and made much more Enemies to Godlinefs than before, though we 
exerciled as much Patience and TenderneG towards them, as Realbn could defire. 
The Drunkard before-mentioned, after his EjeAion, when he was dru-nk would 
Hand at the Market-place, and like a Quaker, Cry out againft the Town, and take 
onhimtoprophefie God'sjudgments agalnft them, and would rage at my Door, 
and rail and curfe. And once he followed me as I went to Church, and laid hands 
on me in the Church-yard, with a purpofe to have killed me ; but it fell out that 
he had hold only of my Cloak, which I unbottoned and left with him ; and before 
his Fury could do anymore, (it being the Fair-dayJ there were fome Strangers by 
iu the Church-yard, who drag'd him to the Magift rate and the Stocks. And thus 
he continued raging againft me about a year, and then died of a Ferer in horrour 
of Conlcience. Three or four more we were forced to caft out, one for flandering, 
and all the reft for drunkennels ; and though their wit , and the honefty of their 
Neighbours and Relations made them live quietly, yet their Enmity was much en- 
creaTed, and they themfelves fo much the worle, as convinced the ftrid^eft Religi- 
ous (brt, that Excommunication is not to be ufed but upon great Neceflity. And 
indeed, how can you expert that he who will ftand it out to an Excommunication, 
/hould be bettered bvany ordinary means? When private Intreaties and vehement 
Bkhortations, and Warnings before others, and at laft before the Church, and ear- 
neft Prayers for them, and all that we could lay or do for many Weeks or Months 
together, would not makemoft of them lb much as lay. We are forry for our (in ; 
nor any of them leave their common Drunkennefs j how fhould Excommunication 
do them good ? 

If you fay. Why then did you ule it ? I anfwer, For the fake of the reft mor6 
than for them : for all the Reafons before-mentioned , and many more which I 
have laid down in the Preface to my Umverfd Concord. We knew it to bean Or- 
dinance of Chrift, and greatly conducing to the Honour of the Church; which 
is not a common prophane Society, nor a Sty of Swine, but muft be cleaner than 
the Societies of Infidels and Heathens: And I blefs God that ever I made trial of 
Discipline; for my Expectations were not fruftrate though the ejected Sinners 
were hardened : The Churches Good muft be firft regarded. 

As to the other Queftion,Why we dealt not thus by all the Parifh, and took them 
not all for Members without queftion ? We knew (bme P.ipifts and Infidels that 
were no Members : We knew that the People would have tliought themfelves 
wronged more to be thus brought under Dilcipline without and againft their own 
Confent, than to fuffer them to withdraw. And we thought it not a B'.finefs fit 
for the unwilling, elpecially at fuch a time as that : But efpecially, I knew that ic 
was like to be their utter undoing, by hardening them into utter Enmity againft 
the means that Ihould recover them : And 1 never yet faw any figns of hope in 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. ^3 

any Excommunicate Perfon ; ( unlets as they are yet men , and capable of what 
God will do upon them) except one that humbled himfclf, and begged Abfoluti- 
on. Now either Difcipline is to be exerciied according to Chrifl's Rule, or not. 
If nor, then the Church is no purer a Society , as to its Orders, than thofe of In- 
fidelsand Pagans, but Chrift muft be difobeyed, and his Houfe of Prayer made a 
Den of Thieves : If yea, then either impartially upon all obftinate impenitent 
Sinners according to Chrifts Rule, or but onfome: If but on fome only, it will 
be a Judgment of Partiality and Unrighteoufhefs ; whereas, where there is the 
fame Caule, there mud ( ufually ) be the (ame Penalty. If on all , then the mul- 
titude of the Scandalous in almoft all places is Co great, and the EfFefts ot Excom- 
munication fo dreadful, that it would tend to damning of multitudes of Souls j 
which being contrary to the defign of the Golpel, is not to be taken for the Will 
of Chrift : we have our Power to Edification, and not to Deftrudion. A few in 
cafe of neceffity may be punifhed, though to their hurt , for the good of all j but 
multitudes muft not be fo ufed. Indeed, a Popilh Interdift, or mock Excommuni- 
cation, by the Sentence of a Prelate or Lay-Chancellour, may pafs againfl multi- 
tudes, and have no confiderable Effeft, ( but as it is enforced by the Sword ) : But 
the Word of God is quick and powerful, and when it is thus perfonally applycd in 
the Sentencing of a guilty obftinate Sinner, doth one way or other work more ef- 
fe dually. Therefore in this difficulty there can be but two Remedies devlfed : One 
is with the Anabaptifts to leave Infants unbaptized, that lb they may not be taken 
into the Church, till they are fit for the Orders of the Church : But this is injuri- 
ous to Infants, and againft the will of God, and hath more inconveniences than 
benefits. (Though for my part, as much as I have wrote againft them, I wi(h 
that it were in the Church now, as it was in the days oi Tertullian, Nazianz.en, 
and Aufrin, where no man was compelled to bring his Infants to Baptifm, but all 
left to their own time: For then Ibme (as Augu^ine, &cc.) were baptized at full 
Age, and fome in Infancy.) The fecond therefore is the only juft and fafe Reme- 
dy ; whichis. That by the due performance of Confirmation, there may be a 
S'ijemn Tranfttim out of the ilate of Infant Church-Memberlhip, into the Ibte of 
Adult Church- Member^nf^ and due qualifications therein required : and that the un- 
fit may, till then, be left inter Audttores, without the Priviledges proper to Adult 
Members ; of which I have fully written in my Book of Confirmation. 

26. Another Advantage which I found to my Succelswas, by ordering my Do- 
drine to them in a fuitablenefs to the main end, and yet fo as might fuit their Dil^ 
pofitions and Dileafes. The thing which I daily opened to them, and with great- 
eft importunity laboured to imprint upon their minds, was the great Fundamental 
Principles of Chriftianity contained in their Baptifmal Covenant, even a right 
knowledge, and belief of, and fubjedion and love to, God the Father , the Son , 
and the Holy Ghoft ; and Love to all Men, and Concord with the Church and 
one another : I did (b daily inculcate the Knowledge of God our Creator, 
Redeemer, and Sandifier, and Love and Obedience to God, and Unity with the 
Church Catholick, and Love to Men, and Hope of Life Eternal, that thefe were 
the matter of their daily Cogitations and Difcourfes, and indeed their Religion. 
And yet I did ufually put in fomething in my Sermon which was above their own 
difcovery, and which they h.id not known before ; and this I did, that they might 
be kept humble, and ftill perceive their ignorance, and be willing to keep in a 
learning ftate. ( For when Preachers tell their People of no more than they 
know, and do not fhew that they excel them in Knowledge, andeafily over- top 
them in Abilities^ the People will be tempted to turn Preachers themfelves, and 
think that they have learnt all that the Minifters can teach them, and are as wife 
as they ; and 'hey will be apt to contemn their Teachers, and wrangle with all 
their Dodrines, and let their Wits againft them, and hear them as Cenfureis, and 
not as Dilciples, to their own undoing, and to the difturbance of the Church j 
and they will eafily draw Dilciples after them : The bare Authority of the Cler- 
gy will not ferve the turn , without over-topping Minifterial Abilities). And I 
did this alio to increafe their Knowledge ; and alio to make Religion plealant to 
them, by a daily addition to their former Light, and to draw them on with defire 
and Delight. But thele things which they did not know before, were not unprofita- 
ble Controverfies which tended not to Edification, nor Novelties in DoArine con- 
trary to the Univerlal Church ; but either fiich Points as tended to illuftrate the 
great DoArines before-mentioned, or dually, about the right methodizing of them. 
The opening of the true and profitable method of the Creed , ( or Dodrine of 
Faith ) the Lords Prayer, ( or Matter of our Defires ) and the Ten Command- 

■La^^^ti ■■^- 


The LIFE of the 1, i b. I, 

merits, ( or Law of Praftice ) which afford matter to add to the knowledge of 
mofl: ProfefTors of Religion, a long time : And when that is done, they muft be 
led on Itill further by degrees, as they are capable ; but fo as not to leave the weak 
behind : and fo as fliall {till be truly fubfervient to the great Points of Faith, Hope, 
and Love, Holinefs and Unity, which muft be ftill inculcated , as the beginning 
and the end of all. 

27. Another help to my Succefs was, that my People were not Rich : There 
were among them very few Beggers ,hcc!Luie their common Trade of Stuff weaving 
would find work for all. Men, Women and Children, that were able : And there 
were none of the Trades-men very rich, feeing their Trade was poor, that would 
but find them Food and Raiment. The Magiltrates of the Town were few of 
them worth 40 /. per An. and nioft not half fo much. Three or four of the Richefi 
thriving Mailers of the Trade, got but about joo or 600 /. in twenty years, and 
it may be lofe 100 /.of it at once by an ill Debtor. The generality of the Ma- 
iter Workmen , lived but a little better than their Journeymen, (from hand to 
moath^ but only that they laboured not altogether fo hard. 

And it is the Poor that receive the glad Tidings of the Gofpel, and that are 
ufually rich in faith, and heirt of the heavenly riches which God hath prcmifed to 
them that love him ; James 2. y. Do not rich men opprefjou, and draw you bcfere the 
"Judgmmt Seati ? As Mr. George Herbert faith in his Church Militant : 

Gold and the Gojpel never did agree : 
Religion alwajs (ides with V overt j. 

Ufually the Rich are Proud and Obftinate, and will not endure the due Con- 
duct of theMiniff'ry : Let them be never fo ignorant, they mulf not be croft in 
their Conceits and Way j and if they be, they ftorm, and raife Perfecution upon 
it ; or at leaft draw away a Faction after them. Let them be never fo Guilty (un- 
lefs it be fbme fwiniih inexcufable Sin) they will not endure to be told of it. Their 
Gentility feemeth to allow tliem, in the three or four Sins of Sodom, ?ride, Fulnefi 
of Bread, and Abundance of IdleneJ^,and not co7ifideri7ig the Poor and Needy. And their 
/«/Mf/? and /^/raf/i" tempt them to further Vcluptuouliiels and Senfuality, to Filthi- 
nef>, or to Time-w^a/Ziw^ needlefs kinds of Sports: And they muft not be croff in 
any of this. Do but ofter to LxercileChrift's Difcipline upon anyofthefe, and 
tell them of their Faults alone, and then before two or three, and when they hear 
not, tell the Church ; and you will make them hate both you and Difcipline, and 
lay >ou affeft a Domination, and to trample upon your Superiours, and areas 
proud as Popes. Chrift knew what he faid , when he faid , How hardly fliall a 
Rich Man enter into the King^dom of Heaven ! Even as a Camel through the Eye 
of a Needle. But if a poor man be bad, and hate both Piety and Reproof, yet his 
oppofition is not (o fierce or fo fignilicant ; he maketh not fo much ado, nor en- 
gageth lb many with him, nor is fb much regarded by the relt. One Knight 
( Sir R. C. ) which lived among us, did more to hinder my greater SuccefTes, than 
a multitude of others could have done : Though he was an old Man, of greac 
Courtlhip and Civility, and very temperate as to Dyet, Apparel and Spot rs, and 
ieldom would Swear any lowder than [ By hu Troth, See] and fhewed me much 
Perlcnal Reverence and Refpe6t fbeyond my defert), and we converlcd together 
with Love and Familiarity ; yet ^having no rclifliof this Precilenefs and Extem- 
porary Praying, and making lb much ado for Heaven; nor liking that which 
went beyond the pace of Saying the Common frayer, and alfb the Interefl of himfelf 
and lii5 Civil and Ecclcfiaftical Parties, leading him to be ruled by Dv. Hammond) 
his coming but once a day to Church on the Lord'sdays, and his Abftaining from 
the Sicrament, &c. as if we kept not fufficiently to the old way , and becaufe we 
ufed not the Common frayer Book, when it would have caufed us to be Sequeftred ) 
did cuife a great part of the Parilli to follow him, and do as he did j when elfe our 
Succels and Concord would have been much more happy than it was. And yet Ci- 
vility and yielding much beyond others of his Party, (lending his Family to be Ca- 
techized and perfonally Inftrudted) did Iway with the worft almoft among us to do 
the like. Indeed wc had two other Pcrfbns of Quality, that came from other places 
to live there, and were truly and judicioufly Religious, who did much good, (Col. 
John Bridges, and at lall Mrs. Hanmer) : For when the Rich are indeed Religions, 
and overcome their Temptations, as they may be fuppoled better than others , be- 
caufe their Conqueft is greater, fo they may do more good than others, becaufe 
their Talents are more. But fuch (comparatively j are always few. 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Kichavd Baxter, 95 

a8. Another thing that helped me was, my not medling with Tythes or Worldly 
Bufinefs J whereby I had my whole time ( except what Sicknefs deprived me of ) 
for my Duty, and my Mind more free from Entanglements than elfe it woald 
have been ; and alfo I efcaped the offending of the PeoplCj and contending by 
any Law Suits with them. And I found alfo that Nature it felf being Confcioiis 
of the Bafeneft of its Earthly Difpofitionjdoth think ba(ely of thole whom it difcern- 
eth to be Earthly ; and is forced to Reverence thofe whofe Converfe is fuppofed 
to be moff with God and Heaven. Three or Four of my Neighbours managed 
all thofe kind of Bufineffes, of whom I never took Account j and if any one deni- 
ed to pay their Tythes, if they were poor I ordered them to forgive it them 5 
After that I was conftrained to let the Tythes be gathered, as by my Title, to fave 
the Gatherers from Law-Suits. But if they were able, I ordered them tofeek it 
by the Magiftrare, with the Damage, and give both my Part and the Damages to 
the Poor ( for 1 refblveil to have none of it my (elf that was recovered by Law, 
and yet I could not toUeratc the Sacriledge and Fraud of covetous Men ). But 
when they knew that this was the Rule I went by, none of them would do the 
Poor (o great a Kindnefs as to deny the Payment of their Tythes, that were able. 
And in my Family I had the Help of my Father and Mother in Law, and the Be- 
nefit of a godly, underftanding, faithful "Servant (an ancient Woman near Sixty 
Years old ) who eafed me of all Care, and laid out all my Money for Houfe- 
keeping, lo that I never had one Hour's trouble about it, nor ever took one Day's 
Account of her for Fourteen Years together, as being certain of her Fidelity, Pro- 
vidence and Skill. 

2y. And it much furthered my Succefs, that I ftayed Ifill in this one Place, (near 
Two Years before the Wars, and above Fourteen Years after ) j for he that re- 
moveth oft from Place to Place, may fbw good Seed in many Places ; but is not 
like to fee much Fruit in any, unlefs fbnie other skilful Hand fliall follow him to 
water ic : It was a great Advantage to me, to have almofl; all the Religious Peo- 
ple of the Place, of my own Inftrudting and Informing j and that they were not 
formed into erroneous and fadious Principles before; and that I ftayed to (ee them 
grown up to fome Confirmednefs and Maturity. 

30. Laitly, Our Succefles were enlarged beyond our own Congregations, by the 
Ledui es kept up round about : To divers of them I went as oft as I was able j and 
the Neighbour Minifters ofter than I ; efpecially Mr. Oajland of Be-wdley, who ha- 
ving a ftrongBody, a zealous Spirit, and an earneft Utterance, went up and down 
Preaching from Place to Place, with great Acceptance and Succefs. But this Bufi- 
nefs alfo we contrived to be univerfally and orderly managed : For befides the 
Ledures let up on Week-days fixedly in feveral Places, we ftudied how to have it 
extend to every Place in the County that had need. For you muft underltand that 
when the Parliament purged the MiniUry, they caft out the grolfer fort of infuffi- 
cient and fcandalous ones, as grofs Drunkards, and fuch like ; and alfo fome few 
Civil Men that had allifted in the Wars againif the Parliament, or fet up bowing 
to Altars, and fuch Innovations : But they had left in near one half the Mini- 
fters, that were not good enough to do much Service, nor bad enough to be caft 
out as utterly intollerable : Thele were a company of Poor weak Preachers, that 
had no great Skill in Divinity, nor Zeal for Godlinefs j butpreached weaklythat 
which is True, and lived in no grofs notorious Sin : Thele Men were not caff outj 
but yet their People gready needed help j for their dark fleepy Preaching did but 
little Good : Therefore we refblvedthat fome of the abler Minifters Ihould often vo- 
luntarily help them ; but all the Care was how to do it without offending them ; 
And it fell out leafonably, that the Londoners of that County at their yearly Feaft, 
did colled about 50 /. and fend it me (by that worthy Man, Mr. Thomas Stanley 
of Bread-fireet ) to fet up a Lefture for that Year : Whereupon, we covered all our 
D-figns under the Name of ths Londoners Lcfture, which took off the Offence : 
And we chofe four worthy Men, Mr. And. Trifiram, Mr. Hen. OaJIand, Mr. Tbo. 
Baldtvin, and Mr. Jof. Treble ( who only now conforraeth ) who undertook to go 
each Man his Day, once a Month, which was every Lord's Day between thefour^ 
and to preach at thofe Places which had moft need, twice on a Lord's Day ; 
but to avoid all ill Conlequents and Offence, they were fometim.es to go to ablec 
Mens Congregations, and wherever they came to lay fomewhat always to draw 
the People to the Honour and fpccial Regard of their own Paftors ; that how weak 
loever they were, they might fee that we came not to draw away the Peoples 
Hearts from them, but to itrengthen their Hands, and help them in their Work. 
This Lefture did a great deal of Good ; and though the Londontrs g3.WQ their Mo» 


^G The LI F E of the L i b. I. 

ney but that one Year, yet, when it was once let on foot, we continued it volun- 
tarily (till the Minifters were turned out, and all thefe Works went down toge- 
ther ). 

So much of the Way and Helps of thole SuccefTcs, which I mention becaufe ma- 
ny have enquired after them, as willing v.'ith their own Flocks to take that Courft, 
which other Men have by Experience found to be effedual. 

§ 138. Having before faid fomewhat of my Troubles with Mr. Tombes, I jlial! 
here more fully tell the Reader how it was. 

Mr. Tombs being my Neighbour within two Miles, and denying Infint Baptifnf, 
and having written a Book or twoagainit ir, he was not a little defiious of the 
Propagation of his Opinion, and the Succefs of his Writings; and he thought 
that I was his chiefeft Hinderer, though I never medled with the point: Where- 
upon, he came conftantly to my Weekly Ledure, waiting for an Opportunity to 
fall upon that Controveify in his Conference with me: But I lludioufly avoided 
it ; (b that he knew not how to begin : And he had fo high a Conceit of his 
Writings that he thought them unanfwcrable, and that none could deal with them 
in that way. 

At laft, (bme how, he urged me to give my Judgment of his Writings j and I 
let him know that they did not fatisfie me to be of his Mind, but went no farther 
with him : Upon this, he forbore coming any more to our Lefture ; and he un- 
avoidably contrived me into the Controverly, which I iliun'd j for there came 
unto me five or fix of his chief Profelites, as if they were yet unrelolved, and defired 
me to give them in Writing the Arguments which fatisfied me tor Infant Baptifm. 
I asked them whether they came not by Mr. Jombesi Direcftion : And they confef- 
(ed that they did. I asked them whether they had read the Books of Mr.Cobbet, Mr. 
Marpiall, Mr. Lburch, Mr. Blake for Infant Baptifm: And they told me. No, I 
defired them to read that which is written already, before they call'd for more; 
and then come to me, and tell me what they had to fay againft them. But this they 
would by no means do ; but mult have my Writings. I told them, that now they 
plainly conieffed that they came upon a Defign to promote their Party by conten- 
tious Writings, and not in fincere Defire to be informed, as they pretended : But 
to be fliorr, they had no moreModefly than to infiif on their Demands, and to tell 
me that if they turned againft Infant Baptjim, and I denied to give them my Ar- 
guments in Writing, they mult lay it upon me. I asked them whether they 
Would conunue unie(olved till Mr. Tombes and i had done our Writings; feeing ic 
was (bme Years fince Mr. Blake and he began, and have not ended yet. But no 
Reafoning (oived the turn with them, but ihey ftill call for my written Arguments: 
When I law their fa6tious Defign andlmmodefty, I bid them tell Mr. Tombes, that 
he Ihoiild neither thus command me to lolea Years time in my Weaknels, in quar- 
relling Vv-ith him, nor yet Ihould have his End in infulting over me, as if 1 fled 
from the Light of Truth : Therefore I offered him, if we muft needs contend, 
that we might do it the fhortell: and moll fatisfadory way, and fpend one Day in 
a Dilpute at his own Church, where I would attend him, ( that his People might 
not remain unlatisfied, till they law which of us would have the laft Word ) ; and 
after that we would confider of Writing. 

So Mr. Tombes and I agreed to meet at his Church on Jan. i. And in great 
Weaknels thither I came, and from Nine of the Clock in the Morning till Five at 
Night, in a crowded Congregation, we continued our Difpute ; which was ail 
fjient in manageing one Argument, from Infants right to Church-Membcrfhip to 
their Right to Baptiiin: of which he after complained, as if I affaulted him in a 
new way, which he had notconfidered of ixfore ; But this was not the firft time 
that I had dealt with Anabaptifts, who had fb much to do with them in the Army 
as I liad : In a Word, this Difpute f^uisfied all my own People and the Country 
that came in, and Mr. Tow/'f/sown Townirnen, except about Twenty whom he 
fiad perverted, who gathered into his Chuich, which never increaled to above 
Twenty two, that I could learn. So much of that Difpute, of the Writing more 

§ 139. If any fiiall demand whether the increafe of Godlinefs was anfwcrabic in 
all places to what 1 have mentioned (and none deny that it was with us) 1 anlwer, 
that however Men that meafiire Godlinefs by their Gain and Intereft and Domina- 
tion, do go about to perfuade the World that Godlinefs then went down, and 
was almoft extinguilhed, I muft bear this faithful Witnefs to thofe times, that a^ far 
as I was acquainted, where before there was one godly profitable Preacher, there 
was then fix or ten j and taking one Place with another, I conjedure there is a 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. $i 

proportionable increafe of truly godly People, not counting Hereticksor perfidious 
Rebels or Church-difturbers as iuch : But this increafe of Godlinefs was not in all 
places alike : For in Ibme places where the Minifters were formalj or ignorant, or 
weak and imprudent, contentious or negligent, the Parifhes were as bad as here- 
tofore. And in fome places, where the Minifters had excellent parts, and holy 
lives, and thirfted afcer the good of Souls, and wholly devoted themfelves , their 
time and ftrength and eftates thereunto, and thought no pains or coft too much, 
there abundance were converted to (erious Godlinefi. And with thoie of a mid- 
die itate, ufually they had a middle meafare of Succefs. And I mult add this to 
the true Information of Pofterity, That God did fo wonderfully blcls the Labours 
of his unanimous faithful Mim(ters, that had it not been for the FaAion of the Pre- 
latifh on one (ide that drew men off, and the Faftions of the giddy and turbulent 
Seftaries on the other fide, ( who puU'd down all Government, cried down the 
Minifters, and broke all into Confufion, and made the People at their wits end, 
not knowing what Religion to be of); together with (bme lazmefi and fi Ifjlmef iii 
many of the Miniftry, I fay, had it not been for thefe Impediments, England had 
been like in a quarter of an Age to have become a Land of Saints, and a Patfern 
of Holinels to all the World, and the unmatchable Paradife of the Earth. Never 
were fuch fair opportunities to fandifie a Nation, loft and trodden under foot, 
as have been in this Land of late 1 Woe be to them that were the C.ufes 
of it. 

§ 140. In our Aflbciation in this County , though we made our Terms large 
enough for all, Epifcopal , Presbyterians and Independants, there was not one 
Presbyterian joyned with us that I know of, ( for 1 knew but of one in all the 
County, Mr. T/?o. Hall) nor one Independant, (though two or three honeft ones 
faid nothing againit us) nor one of the New Prelatical way fDr. Hammond's ) but 
three or four moderate Conformifts that, were for the old Epilcopacy ; and all the 
reft were meer Catholicks ; Men of no Fadion, nor fiding with any Party, but 
owning that which was good in all, as far as they could difcern it ; and upon a 
Concord in fo much, laying out themfelves for the great Ends of their Miniftry, 
the Peoples Edification. 

§ 141. And the increafe of Seftaries among us was much through the weaknels 
or the fauitinels of Minifters : And it made me remember that Sefts have 
moft abounded when the Gofpel hath moft profpered, and God hath been doing 
the greateft works in the World : As firft in the Apoftles and the Primitive Times, 
and then when Chriftian Emperours were affifting the Church ; and then when 
Reformation prolpered in Germany ; and lately in New-England where Godlinels 
moft flourilhed ; and laft of all here,when (b pleaiant a Spring had raifed all our 
hopes ; And our Impatience of weak Peoples Errours and Dtjfent, did make the Bufi- 
nefs worle j whillt every weak Minifter that could not or would not do that for 
his People which belonged to his place, was prefently crying out againft the Ma- 
giftrates for fuffenng thele Errours ; and thinking the Sword muft do that which 
the Word fliould do : And it is a wicked thing in Men , to defire with the Papifts, 
that the People were rather /(/zW than ;)«rWzw^, and that they might rather know 
nothing, than miftake in fome few Points ; and to be more troubled that a man 
contradi^eth us in the Point of Infant Baptifm or Church Government, than that many 
of the People are fottiflily carelefi of their own Salvation. He that never regard' 
eth the Word of God, is not like to Err much about it ; Men will fooner fall out 
about Gold or Pearls, than Swtne or JJfes will. 

§ 142. Ail this Vi^hile that I abode at Kidderminfier , ( though the Rulers that 
then were made an Order that no Sequeftred Minifter fhould have his fifth part , 
unlefs he removed out of the Parilh where he had been Minifter, yet) did I never 
remove the old Sequeftred Vicar fo much as out of his Vicaridge Houfe, no nor 
once came within the Doors of it ; fo far was 1 from Seizing on it as my own, or 
removing him out of the Town : But he lived in peace and quietnefs with us, and 
reformed his Life, and lived without any Scandal or Offenfivenefs, and I never 
heard that he fpake an ill word of me. And yet as loon as the times were chang- 
ed, the inftigation of others made him as malapart again, as if he had been awa- 
kened out ot a fleepy Innocence. 

§ r43. About this time Cromwell fet up his Major Generals , and the Decimation 
of the Eftates of the Royalifts, called Velmt^uents, to maintain them : And Jamet 
Berry was made Major General of Worcejlerfhire, Shropjlnre, Herefordfliire, and North- 
Walet ; the Countreys in which he had formerly lived as a Servant ( a Clark of 
Iron-works). His reign was modcft and fhort ; but hated and (corned by the Gen- 

O Jry 

^8 ^J^he LI F E of the L i b. I, 

*"* try chat had known his Inferiority : Cfo that it had been better for him to have 
chofen a ftrangerpL.ce) : And yet many of them attended him as fubmiffively as 
if they had honoured him ; fo figniticanj a thing is power and profperity witli 
worldly minds. 

§ 144. I come now to the End of Cromwell's Reign, who died ( of a Fever ) be- 
fore he was aware. Fie efcaped the Attempts of many that fought to have di- 
ipatched him Iboner j but could not efcape the Itroke of God, when his appoint- 
=<-Ashis ed Time was come, (Though * an Independent, praying for him, laid , [Lord, 
cunenti) y^^ ask not for hit Life, for that we are Jure of i but that he 7nay ferve thee better than ever 
reported ^^ ^^^ j^^^ | . ^^ ^^^ diiiionour of that Prefumption which fome men call a farii- 
^litrl^Jiy cular Faith {thit is, A believing that they fliall receive v,/hatcver they ask, if they 
mon that can but ftsdfidly believe that they Ihall receive it, though it be fuch as tiiey have no 
ever I other promife for, btit that pf Hearing [ believing Erasers ] which they mifunder- 
heardof. ^^„j ,_ 

Never man was highlier extolled, and never man was bafelier reported of, and 
vilified than this man. No ( meer ) man was better and worfe fpoken of than he ; 
according as mens Intererts led their judgments. The Soldiers and Sectaries mo(t 
highly magnified him, till he began to ieek the Crown and the EltabliHiment of his 
Family : And then there were fo many that would be Half-Kings them(elve;s, that 
a King did (eem intollerable to thern. The Royalifts abhorred him as a moft perfi - 
dious Hypocrite ; and the Presbyterians thought him little better ,in his management 
of publick matters. 

If after io many others I may fpeak my Opinion of him, I think, that , having 
been a Prodigal in his Youth, and afteryvard changed to a zealous Religiouihels, 
he meant honelily in the main, and was pious and confcionable in the main courle 
of his Life, till Profperity and Succefs corrupted him : that , at his firft entrance 
into the Wars, being but a Captain of Horfe, he had a fpecial care to get religious 
men into his Troop : Thefe men were of greater underftanding than common Sol- 
diers, and therefore were more apprehenfive of the Importance and Conlequencs 
of the War ; ai]d making not Money, but that which they took for the Publick 
Felicity, to be their End, they were the more engaged to be valiant j for he that 
maketh Money his End, doth efteem his Life above his Pay, and therefore is like 
enough to five it by flight when danger comes, if poffibly he can: But he that ma- 
keth the Felicity of Church and State his End, efteemeth it above his Life , and 
therefore will the Iboner lay down his Life for it. And men of Parts and Under- 
ftanding know how to manage their bufinefs, and know that flying is the fureft 
way to d'iath, and that ftandingtoit is the likeliell way to efcapej there being 
many uilially that fall in flight, for one that falls in vdiant fight. Thefe things 
it's probable Cromwell underftood j and that none would be fuch engaged valiant 
men as the Religious : But yet I conjefture, that at his firft choofing fuch men in- 
to his Troop, it was the very Efteem and Love of Religious men that principally 
moved him j and the avoiding of thole Dilbrders , Mutinies , Plunderings , and 
Grievances of the Country , which deboiff men in Armies are commonly 
guilty of : By this means he indeed Iped better than he expected. Aires , Desbo- 
rough, Berry, E-vanfon, and the reft of that Troop, did prove fo valiant, that as far 
as I could learn, they never once ran away before an Enemy. Hereupon he got 
a Commiilion to take (ome careof the AflTociated Counties, where he brought 
this Troop into a doable Regiment, of fourteen full Troops j and all thefe as full 
of religious men as he could get : Thefe having more then ordinary Wit and Re- 
(blution, had more than ordinary Succeis ; firlt in Lincohflnre , and afterward in 
the Earl o( Manchefiers Army at TurkF'ight : With their Succeffesthe Hearts both of 
Captain and Soldiers fecretly rile both in Pride and Expedation : And the fami- 
liarity of msny honeft erroneous Men ( Anabaptifts, Antinomians , &c. ) withal 
began quickly to corrupt their Judgments. Hereupon Crewweil/'s general Religious 
Zeal, giveth way to the power of that Ambition , which ftill increafeth as his 
Succeftes do increafe : Both Piety and Ambition concurred in his countenancing 
of all that he thought Godly of what Sed: foever : Piety pleadeth for them as 
GoJlj ; and Chanty as Men ; and Ambition fecredy telleth him what ule he might 
make of them. He meaneth well in all this at the beginning, and thinketh he 
doth all for the Safety of the Godly, and the Publick Good , but not without an 
Eye to himfelf. 


Part 1. i<^'^r^«^/kfr. Richard Baxter. ^^ 

When SucceiTes h,id broken tlovvri aii conliderableOppofuion, he was then in 
the fa^e of his ftrongeft Tempcacions, which conquered him when he had con- 
quered orhers: He chought that he had hitherto done well, both as to the End And 
Means, and God by the wonderful Blef ling of his Pi evidence had owned hisendea- 
vours, and it was none but God that had made him great : He thought that if 
the War was lawful, the Vidlory was lawful ; and if it were lawful to tight againlt 
the King and conquer him, it was lawful to ufe him as a conquered Enemy, and a 
foplilh thing to truft him when they had fo provoked him, (whereas indeed the: 
Parliament profefTed neither to fight againfi: him, nor to conquer him).He thought 
that the Heart of the King was deep, and that he lefblved upon Revenge, and 
that if he were King, he would eafiiy at one time or odier accomplilli it ; and 
that it wgs a difhoneit thing of the Parliament to (et men to fight for them againfi 
the King, and then to lay their Necks upon the block , and be at his Mercy j and 
that if that mult be their Cale, it was better to flatter or pleafe him, than to fight 
againft him. He faw that the Scots and the Presbyterians in the Parliament, did by 
the Covenant and the Oath of Allegiance, find themfilves bound to the Peribn 
and Family of the King, and that there was no hope of changing their minJs in 
this: Hereupon he joyned with that Party in the Parliament who were for the. 
Cutting off the King, and trufting him no more. And confequently he joyned 
with them in raifing the Independants to make a Fradlion in the SyncS at JVeft- 
mtnHer and in the City j and in Itrengthening the Scdlaries in Army, City 
and Country, and in rendering the Scots and Minifters as odious as he could, to 
djiable them from hindering the Change of Government. In the doing of all 
this, ( which Diftrufi and Ambition had perlwaded him was well donej he tliought 
it lawful to ufe his Wits, to chooie each Inftrument, and iuit each means, unto 
its end J and accordingly he daily imployed himfelf, and modelled the Army, and 
disbanded all other Garrifbns and Forces and Committees, 

which were like to have hindered his defign. And as he went M^an men in their rifing muft 

on, thoLiah he yet refolved not what form the New Common- adhcM-e(toaFaaion)butgreatMen 

iL/iiji-^ 111- I 1 1 -I r that liave ftrength in themfelves, 

wealth Ihould be molded mto, yet he thought it but realona- ^v^re better to maintain them- 

ble, that he ihould be the Chief Peribn who had been chief in felves indifFcrcnt and neutral :yet 

their Deliverance s ( For the Lord Fairfax he knew had but even in beginners to adhere fo 

the Name). At lalf, as he thought it lawful to cut off the moderately, asthat he be a Man 

X, ■^ r I 111 1 r I, y r , ot that ouc Faftion which is mote 
ing, becaule he thought he was lawlully conquered, lo he pjjTable with the other, corn- 
thought it lawful to fight againft the Scots that would fet him monly giveth beft way. The 
up, and to pull down the Presbyterian Majority in the Parlia- lower and weaker Faftion is the 

ment, which would eUe by relforing him undo all which had ^[f ",'" i°"''""/^'°"J ^^""^'t'^ 

a, r IC111T-? /(J j-11- often leen that a few that are ftiff, 

colt tnem lo much blood and Trealure. And accordingly he ^p (;,.£. ^^^ ^ g^eat number that 

conquererh Scotland, and pulleth down the Parliament : being are more moderate : when one of 

the eafiliir perfwaded that all this was lawful, becaule he had a ^ic Faftions is extinguifhed, the 

fecret Byas and Eye towards his own Exaltation : For he (and f}'^' "-e^ming fubdivideth 

u- /-^r^ \ L I 1 I IT-- /■-. It IS commonly feen that Men once 

his Orficers) thought, that wnen the King was gone a Govern- p^ccd take in with the contrary 

ment there niuft be ; and that no Man was ib fit for it as he Faftion to tiiat by which they en- 

himlelf; isbtH dcjervingk, and as having by his /"f/r and great *'^'' L'>rd\cm\imFpy ii, 

ijffrf/ in the Army, the beft fufficiency to manage it: Yea, ^•^^7' 

they thought that God had called tliem by SucccJJ'cs to Govern and 

r.«^2 CVff of the Commonwealth , and of the Intereft of all his People in the 

Land ; and that if they ftood by and (iiffercd the Parliament to do that which they 

thought was dangerous, it would be required a^ their hands, whom they thought 

God had made the Guirdians of the Land. 

Having thus forced his Confcience to juftifie all his Caufe , ( the Cutting off the 
the King, the letting up himfelf and his Adherents, tlie pulling down the Parlia- 
ment and thQ Scots,) he thinketh that the End being good and necefTary, the necef 
lary means cannot be bad: And accordingly he giveth his Intereft and Caufe leave 
to tell him, how far Seds fhall be tollerated and commendtd, and how far not j 
and how far tb.e MiniHry ihall be owned and fiipported, and how far not j yea, 
and how far Profeflions, Promifes, and Vows Ihall be kept, or broken ; and there- 
fore the Covenant he could not away with ; nor tiie Minilrers, further than they 
yielded to his Ends, or uid not openly refift^ them. He feemed exceeding open 
hearted, by a familiar Ruftick aifefted Carriage, fefpecially to his Soldiers in /port- 
ing with them ) : but he thought Secrecy a Vertue, and Diiflimulation no Vice, 
and Simulation, that is, in plain Englilh a Lie, or Perfidioufnefs to be a tolleiable 
Fault ill a Ca(e of Neceflity : being of the iame Opinion with the Lord Baco?;, 
("who was not lb Precife as Leainedj That [ the be[i Co/uf'ojition and Temperature u, 

O 2 rt 

loo The LIFE of the L i b. I. 

to have openne(? in Fame and Opinion, Secrecy in habit , Dijjimulation in feafonabk ufe j 
and a power to feign if there be no remedy ,] EfSay 6. pag. 3 1 . Therefore he kept fair 
with all , faving his open or unreconcileable Enemies. He carried it with fuch 
Diffimulation, that Anabapcifts, Independants , and Antinomians did all think 
that he was one of them : But he never endeavoured to perfwade the 'Presbyteri- 
ans that he was one of them j but only that he would do them Jultice, and Pre- 
ferve them, and that he honoured their Worth and Piety ; for he knew that they 
were not lb eafily deceived. In a word? he did as our Prelates have done, begin 
low and rile higher in his Refolutions as his Condition role , and the Promiles 
which he made in his lower Condition, he ufed as the interefl: of his higher fol- 
lowing Condition did require, and kept up as much Honeity and Godiinels in the 
main, as his Caufe and Interell would allow, ( but there they left him ) : And his 
Name llandeth as a monitory Monument or Pillar to PoOerity to tell them, [The 
infiabihty of Mzn in firong "Temptations, if God leave him to himlelf: what great 
SucceS and Ficlories can do to lift up a Mind that once feemed humble : what fride 
can do to make M^nfelfjJ), and corrupt the Heart with tU defigns : what Jelfijlmefi 
and ill defigns can do, to bribe the Confcisnce, and corrupt the Judgment, and make 
imnjufitfie the greateft Erroars and Sins, and fetagainft the clearelt Truth and Du- 
ty : what Bloodjhed and great Enormities of Life, an Erring deluded Judgment may 
draw Men to, and patronize; and That when God hath dreadful Judgments to 
execute, an Erroneous SeiSary, or a proud Self-leeker, is oftner his Inltrument , 
than an humble. Lamb-like, innocent Saint]. 

§ 14 J. Cromwell being dead, his Son Richard by h/s Will And Teftament, and the 
jirmy was quietly letled in his place ; while all Men look'd that they Ihould pre- 
fently have fallen into Confufion and Difcord among themlelves ; the Counties, 
Cities, and Corporations of England lend up their Congratulations, to own him 
as Protedor : (But none of us in Worcejierfhire, fave the Independants, medied 
in it.) 

He interred his Father with great Pomp and Solemnity : He called a Parlia- 
ment, and that without any luch Reftraints as his Father had ufed : The Members 
took the Oath of Fidelity or Allegiance to him ac the Door of the Houfe before 
they entred. And all Men wondred to lee all fo quiet, in fo dangerous a Time. 
Many Ibber Men that called his Father no better than a Trayterous Hypocrite,did 
begin to think that they owed him SubjeHson. They knew that the King 
was by Birth their Rightful Sovereign j and relblved to do their beft while 
there was hopes to introduce him, and defend him : But they were afloni/hed 
at the marvellous Providences of God , which had been agalnft that Family all 
along , and they thought that there was no rational probability of his Re- 
fioration, having feen lb many Armies and Rifings and Defigns overthrown , 
which were railed or undertaken for it : They thought that it is not left 
to our liberty , whether we will have a Government , or not; but that Govern- 
ment is of Divine Appointment ; and the Family, Pcrfon or Species is but of a 
fublervient, lels neceilary determination : And that if we cannot have him that 
we would have, it followeth not that we may be without : That twelve years 
time ( from the Death of the lafl: King ) was longer than the Land could be 
without a Governour, without the Deftruftion of the Common Good, which is 
the End of Government 1 Therefore that the Subjeds, feeing they are unable to re- 
fiore the King, mult confent to another : That the Houfe of Commons, having 
fworn Allegiance to him, have aduaUy fubjefted the Nation to him : And though 
his Father Trayteroully made the Change, yet the Succeflbr of a Traytor may 
by the Peoples conlent, become a Governour , whom each Individual muft ac- 
knowledge by SubjeAion : That the Bilhops and Churches both of Eafi and Wefi, 
as all Hiliory Iheweth, have profefled their Subjetftion to Uliirpers, in a far Ihort- 
er time, and upon lighter Reafons : That this Man having never had any hand in 
the War, (but liippofed to be for the King) nor ever feeking for the Government, 
and now leeming to own the Sober Party, was like to be ufed in the healing of the 
Land, &c.] Such Realbnings as thefe began to take with the minds of many, to 
fubjeft themlelves quietly to this Man (though they never did it to his Father) as 
^^''"'^'f now delpairingofche Reflitution of the King : * And I confefs fiich Thoughts 
Mcns^prc- ^^''^ ^°'"^^'*'hat prevalent with my lelf: But God quickly Ihewed us the root of 
fent cruel our Errour, which was our limiting the Almighty ; as if that were hard to him 
Malice, was that was impoffible to us : So that the Reftoration of the King, which we thought 
tl"' F^'fl? ^^^^ impoflible, was accomplilhed in a trice: And we faw that twelve or eighteen 
0^2 Books y^^rs is not long enough to waiton God. 
wherein l never juftificd his Ul'urpation : BvX Jiidicis "ffic'wm eji ; ut res itn tempora rerum,Sic. The 

P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. loi 

The Army fet up Richard Cromwell, it feemeth upon Tryal ; relolving to ule 
him as he behaved himfelf : And though they fwore Fidelity to him, they meant 
to keep it no longer than he pleafed them ; And when they law that he be^an to 
favour the fober People of the Land, to honour Parliaments, and to refpeA the 
Minifters, whom they called Presbyterians, they prelencly lefolved to make him 
know his Mafters, and that it was they and nnt he, that were called by God to be 
the chief Prote(aors of the Intereft of the Nation. He was not fo formidable to 
them as his Father was, and therefore every one boldly fpurned at him. The Fifth 
Monarchy Men followed Sir Henry Vane, and railed a great and violent clamorous 
Party againft him, among the Seftaries in the City : Rogers and Feake, and fuch 
like Firebrands preach them into Fury, and blow the Coales j But Dr. Owen and 
his Afllflants did the main Work : He gathereth a Church at ( at Lieutenanr Ge- 
neral Fleetwood's Qiiarters, at Wallingford Houle, confiding of the adlive Olficers 
of the Army ( this Church-gathering hath been the Church fcattering Projed ) : 
In this AlTembly ic was determined that Richard's Parliament niuft be diflblved, 
and then he quickly fell himfelf : ( Though he never abated their Liberties or their 
Greatnels j yet did he not fufficiently befriend them) ; DiSium faElum ; almolf as 
quickly done as determined : Though Col. Richard Ingohhy and fome others, would 
have (luck to the Proteftor, and have ventured to furprile the Leaders oftheFadi- 
on, and the Parliament would have been true to him ; yet Berrfs Regiment of 
Horfe, and fome others, were prefently ready to have begun the Fray againdhim; 
and as he fought not the Government, he was refolved it fhould coft no Blood to 
keep him in it : But if they would venture for their Parts on new Confufions, he 
would venture his Part by retiring to his Privacy : And fo he did ( to latisfiethele 
pioud diOraded Tyrants, who thought they did but pull down Tyranny ) re- 
sign the Government by a Writing under his Hand, and retired himfalf, and left 
them to govern as they pleafed. 

His Good Brother in Law , Fleetwood, and his Uncle Besborough were lb intoxi- 
cated as to be the Leaders of the Confpiracy : And when they had puH'd him 
down, they fet up a few of themlelves under the Name of a Council of State j and 
fb mad were they with Pride, as to think the Nation would fland by and reve- 
rence them, and obediently wait upon them in their drunken Giddinefs ; and that 
their Fadion in the Army was made by God an invincible Terror to all that did 
but hear their Names. The Care of the Bufinels alfo was, that Oli'ver had once 
made Fleetwood believe that he fliould be his Succeflbrj and drawn an Inftrument 
to that purpofe ; but his laft Will difippointed him. And then the Sedaries flat- 
tered him, faying, that a truly Godly Man that had commanded them in the 
Wars was to be preferred before fuch an one as they cenfured to have no true 

§ 14'^. I make no doubt but God permitted all this for Goodj and that as it was 
their Treafon to fet up Oliver and deftroy the King, fo it was their Duty to have 
fet up the prelent King inftead of Kichard : And God made them the means, to 
their own De(f ruftion, contrary to their Intentions, to reftore the Monarchy and 
Family which they had ruined. But all this is no Thanks to them j but that which 
with a good Intention had been a Duty ( to take down or not fet up Richard Crom- 
well ) yet as done by them was as barbarous Perfideoulhefs as moft ever Hillory 
did declare : That they fliould fo fuddenly, fo fcornfully and proudly pull down 
him whom they had fo lately let up themlelves and fworn to : And that for no- 
thing ; they could fcarce tell why themlelves ; nor ever were able to give the 
World a fairer Reafon for their Villany ( by any Fault they could charge upon 
him ) than the Munf-er Fanaticks had to give for their Bethlehem Outrages and 
Rebellion : That they fhould do this while a Parliament was fitting whicli had fo 
many wife, religious Members ; not only without the Parliaments Advice, but 
in dcfpight of them, and force him to dilfolve them firft ; as if Perjury and Re- 
bellion were newly put into the Commandments ; or God had made thefe proud 
Ufurpers to be the Governors of Protedlor and of Parliaments, and exempted 
them wholly from the Precept [^ Honour thy Father^ [Let every Sotsl he fid'jeil to the 
higher Fowers^.Thit they fhould fo proudly defpife not only the Parliament,butall 
theMiniffers of London and ofrheLand,as to do this,not only without advifing with, 
and againft their Judgments ; but in a faftiousEnvy againff them,!eft they fhould be 
too much countenanced :Yea,they did it againft the Judgments of moft of their own 
Party ( the Independants ), as they now profels themfelves : Yea, Mr. Nye, that 
was then thought to be engaged in the fame Defign, doth utterly difclaim it, and 


I02 il^f^ L I F E of the Li b. I. 

^.- _^, __— — — -- — ■ 

profels that his Content or Hand was never to it : But Fride njualfy goeth before 

§ 147. And having (aid this of the Crimes of the(e Firebrands of the Army,I mufl: 
fay fomewhat of the Ssttarian Party in General ; I mean, thole who have been moft 
addided to Chuxh-DivilionSj and Separations, and Sidings, and Farties,and havere- 
fufed all terms of Concord and Unity : I doubt not but many of them we'C 
People that feared God^ who in their Ignorance of the Dodrrine of Church Unity 
and Communion, have been drawn by Pretences of Purity to follow their Leaders 
in ways which they underftood not : And I doubt not but the Presbyterians have 
had their Faults in their Treaties with them j and that politick Statefmen kept open 
the Divifions for their own Defigns, ( that they might have a Party to weaken the 
Scots and Presbyterians that would have reftored the King ). But yet I mull: record 
it to the Shame of their Mifcarriages, that the weaker ar.d younger fort cf Profejjors, 
have been prone to be paft up with high Thoughts of themlelves, and to over-value 
their little Degrees of Knowledge and Parts, which fct them not above the Pity 
of underftanding Men : That they have been fet upon thofe Courfcs which tend to 
advance them above the Common People in the Oblcrvation of the World, and 
to fet them at a farther Diliance from others than God alloweth, snd all this un- 
der the Pretence of the Purity of the Church. That in Pro- 
The Lord Bacon nameth Four fecution of their Ends, there are few of the AnabiptiRs that 
Caufcs of Atheifin, 1. ManyDi- have not been the Oppofers and Troublers of the faithful Mi- 
vifions in Religion. 2. The Scan- jj^ ^ ^^^^^ L^^j ^^j ^^^^ ^-^e Trcublers of their People, 
daJ of Prieus. 3. A Cuuom of .ltt-j tl-c r 1 n. uji 

Prophane Scoffing about Holy and the Hmderers of their Succels ; they ftrengthned the 

Matters. 4. Corrupting profperi- Hands of the Prophane : The Sediaries ( efpeciaily the Ana- 
ty. Effay id. ^ 5.1. baptifts, the Seekers, and the Quakers) cho(c out the moU 

able, zealous Miniiters, to make the Marks of their Reproach 
and Obliquy, and all becaufe they Itood in the Way of their Defigns, and hin- 
dered them in the propagating of their Opinions : They fet again!} the fame Men 
that the Drunkards and Swearers fit againft, and much after the lame manner j re- 
viling them, and railing up falfe Reports of them, and doing nli that the/ could 
to make them odious, and at laft attempting to pull th:m all down j only they 
did it more prophanely than the Prophane ; in that they (aid, [Lef the Lord he glo- 
rified'^ Let the Gofpel he propagated '\ and abufed and prophaned Scriptutig and the 
Name of God by entituling him to their Fadlion and Mifcarriage?. Yea, though 
they thought themielves the moft underftanding and confciencious People of the 
Land, yet did the Gang of them (eldom ftick at any thing which feemed to pro- 
more their Caufe ; but whatever their Fadion in the Army did, they pleaded for 
it and approved it : If they puU'd down the Parlianient, impiifon'd the godly 
faithful Members, killed the King, if they caft out the Rump, if they chofe a Little 
Parliament of their own, if they letup CromweU, if they let up his Son and pulfd 
him down again, it' they Ibught to obtrude Agreements on the People, if they 
one Week ict up a Council of State, and if another Week the Rump were refto- 
red, if they fought to take down Tythes and Pariili-Minifters, to the utter Confu- 
lion of the State of Religion in the Land j in all thelb the Anabaptifts, and many 
of the Independants in the Three Kingdoms followed them ; and even their Pa- 
llors were ready to lead them to conlenr. 

And all this began but in unwarrantable Separations, and too much nggravatitig the 
Faults of the Churches C7id Common People, and Comrron Frayer Book and Miniftry ; 
which indeed were none of them without Faults to be lamented and reformed : 
But they thought that becaufe it needed Amendment, it required their obftinate 5c- 
paration, and that they were allowed to make odious any tiling that was amils; 
and bccaule it was faulty, if any Man had rebuked them for belying it, and 
making it far more faulty than it was, inftead of confeding their Sin, they called 
their Reprover a Pleader for Antichiift or Baal ^ every Error in the Mode of the 
Common Worfiiipthey had no fitter Name lor, than Idolatry, Popery, Antichri- 
flianifm, Superfticif)n, Will-worfhip, &c. when in the mean time, many of their 
own Prayers were ft;ll of Carnil Paflion, Selfifhnels, Faction, Dilbrder, vain Re- 
pitions, unibund and loathlbm Expreffions, and their DocSrine full of Errors and 
Confuilion ; andtheie Beams in tlieir own Eyes were matter of no Offence to 
them : They would not communicate with that Church where ignorant Perlbns 
or Swearers were tollcraied ( though they themlelves never did their Pait to have 
theni call out, but look'd the Miniftcrs rtiould do all without them ) j but without 
any Icruple they would communicate with them that had broke their Vow and 
Covenant with God anci MaPj and rebslkd againftboth Kipg, Parliamcn"-, and 


P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 103 

all kind of Government that was fet up ( even by themfelves ) and did all the 
fore-recited Evils. 

I know thefe fame Accufations are laid by fomein Ignorance or Malice, againft 
many that arc guilty of no fuch things, and therefore Ibme will be offended ac 
me, and fay, I imitate fuch Reproachers : But ihall none be reproved becaufe feme 
are flandered ? Shall Rebells be juftified, becaufe; fonie innocent Men aie called 
Rebels ? Shall Hypocrites be free from Conviction and Condemnation, becaule 
wicked Men call the Godly Hypocrites ? Woe to the Man that luch not a faithful 
Rtprover ; but a Thoufand Woes will be to him that hatetb nfroof: And woe to 
them that had rather Sin were credited and kept in Honour, than their Party dit- 
honoured : and Woe to the Land where the Reputation of Men doth keep Sin 
in Reputation. Scripture it [i]{ will not fpare a Noah, a Lot, a David, a Hizekt 
ab, a Jofiah, a Ttttr ,• but will open and fliame their Sin to all Generations : And 
yet, alas 1 the Hearts of many, who I hope are truly Religious in other Points, 
will rife againft him that Ihall yet tell them of the Mildoings of thofe of their 
Opinion, and call them to Repentance. The poor Church of Chrift, thefober, 
Ibimd religious Part, are like Chrilt that was crucified between two Malefactors ; 
the prophane and formal Perlecutors on one hand, and the Tanatick dividing 
Sectary on the other hand, have in all Ages been grinding the (piritual Seed, as 
the Corn is ground between the Milftones: And though their Sins have luined 
themfelves and us, and filenced lb many hundred Minilters, and fcattered the Flocks 
and made us the Hatred and the Scorn of the ungodly World, and a by Word and 
Delblation in the Earth; yet there are few of them that lament their Sin, but ju- 
ftify tliemfclves and their iMifdoings, and the penitent MakfaBor is yet unknown to 
us. And feeing Pofterity muft know what they have done, to the Shame of our 
Land,and of our (acred Profeffion,let them know this much more alio to their own 
Shame, that all the Calamities which have befallen us by our Divifions were long 
forefeen by feeing Men, and they were told and warned of it, year after year : 
They were told that a Houfe divided againft it felf could not ftand, and told 
that it would bring them to the Halter and to Shame, and turn a hopeful Reforma- 
tion into a Scorn, and make the Land of their Nativity a Place of Calamity and 
Woe ; and all this Warning fignified nothing to them ; but thefe Dudile Profef 
ibrs bWinly followed a few feltconceited Teachers to this Milery j and no warning 
or means could ever Itop them. 

Five dilTenung Minifters in the Synod begun all this, and carried it far on : Mr. 
Vhtltf Nye, Mr. Iho. Goodwin, Mr. Sydracb Symffon^ and Mr. William Bridge, to 
whom that good Man ivlr. Jeremiah Burroughs joined himlelf in Name ; but as he 
never pradifed their Church-gathering way, fb at laft he was contented to have 
united on the Terms which were offered them, and wrote his excellent Book of 
Heart Divifions. After this they encreafed, and Mr. Burroughs being dead. Dr. John 
Owen arole, not of the fame Spirit, to fill up his place; by whom and Mr. Phillip 
Njfe's Policie the Flames were encreafed, our Wounds kept open, and carried on 
all, as if there had been none but they confiderable in the World; and having an 
Army and City Agents fit to fecond them, effedually hindred all remedy till they 
had dafh'd all into pieces as a broken Glals. O I what may not Prtde do ? 
and what Mifcaniages will not falfe Principles and Fadion hide ? One would 
think that if their Opinions had been certainly true, and their Church-Oiders^oo^, 
yet thelnterefl of Chrift, and the Souls of Men, and of greater Truths, ihould 
have been fo regarded by the Dividers in England, as that the Safety of all thefe 
ihould have been preferred, and not all ruined rather than their way fhould want 
its carnal Arm and Liberty ; and that they fhould not tear the Garment of Chrift 
all to pieces, rather than it Ihould want their Lace. 

§ 148. And it muft be acknowledged alio impartially, that Ibme of the Presby- 
terian Minifters frightned the Sedaries into this Fury by the unpeaceableneG and 
impatiency of their Minds : They ran from Libertinifm into the other Extream, 
and were fo litde fenfible of their own Infirmity, that they would not have thofe 
tollerated who were not only toUerable, but worthy Inftruments and Members in 
the Churches : The Reconcilers that were ruled by prudent Charity always called 
out to both the Parties, that the Churches muft be united upon the Terms of 
primitive Simplicity, and that we muft have Unity in things necejfary, and Liberty m 
things unnccejjary, and Chanty tn all : But they could never be heard, but were taken 
• for Advcrfaries to the Government of the Church, as they are by the Prelates at 
this Day : Nay, when in fVorceJlerjIiirc we did but agree to pradice (6 much as all 
Parties were agreed in, they faid, we did but thereby fee up another Party. We 


104 The LI F E of the L i b. I. 

told them of Archbifhop U^nt's Terms in his Sermon before the King on Efb./^.i. 
but they would not hear. The Lord Bacon in his Third Ejjay , and his Confideratwns, 
Mr. Hales in his treattfe of Schifm, and all men of found Experience and Wifdom, 
have long told the World, that we muft be united in things NeceJJ'ary, which all 
Chriftians agree in, or which the Primitive Churches did unite in, or not at all : 
But nothing lliorter than the Affemblies Confeffion of Faith and Catechifms, and 
and Presbytery,would fcrve turn with fome. Their Principles were that no others 
fhould be toleratedj which fet the Independants on contriving how to grafp the SwordI 
They were (till crying out on the Magiftrate, that he was irreligious, for fufFering 
Sefts, and becaule he did not bring Men to Conformity : And now they cannot 
be tollerated therafelves, to preach, nor fcarce to dwell in the Land. The Uni- 
ting of the Churches upon the Primitive Terms, and the toUerating (not of all, 
but) of tollerable Differences, is the way to Peace, which almoft all Men approvb 
of, except thofe who are uppermoft, and think they have the Reins in their own 
hands. And becaule the fide which is uppermoft are they that have their Wills, 
therefore the Churches had never a fettled Peace this Thoufand years at leaft j the 
true way of Settlement and Peace, being ufually difpleafing to them that muft 
give Peace to others : But thu way hath the mark of being the hefi] in that it is 
the only way, which every Sed acknowledge for the fecond,and next the beft ; and 
is it -ii-hich all, except thz predominant Party, liketh. But Wildom is juftitied of her 

§ 149. To confummate the Confufion, by confirming and increafing the Di- 
vifion, the Independants at laft, when they had refufed with fufficient pervicacy 
to aflbciate with the Presbyterians ( and the Reconcilers too ) did refolve to fhew 
their proper ftrength, and to call a General Affcmbly of alLtheir Churches. The 
Savoy was their Meeting-place. There they drew up a Confeffion of their Faith, 
and the Orders of their Church Government. In the former, they thought it not 
enough exprefly to contradift Sr. James, and to fay (unlimitedly ) That tve are 
juftifiedby the RighteoufneJ^ of Chrijt only, and not by any IVorks ; but they contradidt- 
ed St. Vaul alfb, who laith, That Faith is imputed for Rightevujnejl. And not only io^ 
but they e.sprefly aflerted, that [ -we have no other r/ghteoujfiej^ ] but that of Chrift. 
A Dodtrine abhorred by all the Reformed and Chrillian Churches ; and which 
would be an utter fhameto die Proteftant Name, if what fuch Men held and did 
were indeed imputable to the i"bsr Proreliants. I asked fome honeft Men that 
joyned with them. Whether they fubfjribed this Confeffion ; and they faidiVb. I 
asked chem why they did not contradiA it ; and they laid that the meaning of it 
was no more than that we have no other Righteoufhels but Chrift's to be jufttfied 
by : So that the Indepsndant's Confeffions are like fuch Oaths and Declarations , as 
fpeak one thing and mean another. Alfo in their Propofitions of Church Order , 
they widened the breach, and made things much worle , and more unreconcile- 
abie than ever they were before. So much could two Men do with many honeft 
tradable young Men, and had more Zeal ior fe^arating StriBnefi , than Judgment to 
underftand the Word of God, or the htereft of the Churches of the Land , and of 

§ i5'o. But it hath p'eafed God by others that were fbmetime of their way, to do 

more to heal this Breach, than they did to make it wider. I mean the Synod of 

Neif-England ; who have publilhed fuch healing Propofitions about fiated Synods, 

and Infatits Church Memberjl)ip, as hath much prepared for a Union between them , 

1- Mr. and all other moderate Men : ( And fome * One hath ftrenuoudy defended thole 

^^'j.*''^^ Propofitions againft the oppofition of Mr. Davenport, a diffenting Brother). I 

take this to be more for healing than the Savoy Propofitions can be effeftual to di- 

T'^M^'r/^'^^' becaufe the New-England men have not blemifhed their Reputation, nor loft 

]ht of "^^^ Auchority and Honour of their Judgments, by any liich Adions as the leading 

Kcw-En)\- Savoyers have done. 

land hath feiit me a printed Paper of his own, contriving a Healing Form of Synods for conftant Communion of 
particular Churciies. 

§ rp. When the Army had brought themfelves and the Nation into utter Con- 
fufion, and h.id let up andpull'd down Richard Cromwell , and then had fet up the 
/?.'/;/>/) again, and pull d them down again, and fet up a Council of State of them- 
felves and their Fadion, and made Lambert their Head, next under Fleetwood, 
( whom they could u(e almoft as they would ; at laft the Nation would endure 
them no longer, nor fit (till while the world (tood laughing them to (corn, as 
aaing over the Munlter Tragedy : Sir George Booth and Sir Thomas Middleton raifed 
Forces in Ch^iin and North-Wales : (but the Cavaliers that Ihould have joyned with 


P A El T I. Reverend Mr. Richatd Baxter. 105 

themfailed them almoft all over the Landj a few rofe in fome places,but were quick- 
ly ruined and came to nothing! Lambert quickly routed tho(e in Cketlnre : Sir 
Arthur Hafelrigge with Col. Morley get into Pcrtfrnoutb, which is pofTeired as for the 
Rump. Monk declareth againft them in Scotland, purgeth his Army of the Ana- 
baptifts, and marcheth into England. ThsRump Party with Ha/drigge divided the 
Army at home, and fo difabled them to oppoli Monk ; who marcheth on, and all 
are afraid of him ; and while he declareth himfelf againft Monarchy for a Com- 
monwealth, he tieth the hands of his Enemies by a lie, and uniteth with the City 
of London, and bringeth on again the old ejefted Members of the Parliament, and 
fo bringeth in the King. Sir WtUtam Morrice (his Kinfman) and Mr. Clarges were 
his great Advifirs : The Earl of M««c/>e/?er, Mv.Calamy, and other Presbyterians, 
encouraged and perfwaded him to bring in the King. At firit he Joyned with the 
Rump againft the Citizens, and puU'd down th-j City Gates to mailer them j but 
at lalt Sir Thomas Allen then Lord Mayor (by the perfwafion of Dr. Jaccmb, and 
fbme other Presbyterian Minifters and Citizens, as he hath oft told me himfelf ) 
invited A/o«/^ into the City, and drew him to agree and joyn with them againit 
the Rump fas they then called the Relids of the Parliament). And this in truth 
was the k& that turned the Scales and brought in the King : whether the lame 
men expected to be uled as they have iince bean themfelves, I know not : If they 
did, their Self denial was very great, who were content to be (ilenced and laid in 
Gaols, lb they might but bring in the King. After this the old Excluded Members 
of the Parliament meet with Monk ; He calleth them to lit, and that the King 
might come in both by him and by them. He agreeth with them to fit but a 
few days, and then diffolve themfelves and call another Parliament. They conlent- 
ed, and prepared for the King's Reftoration, and appointed a Council of State, and 
Diflblved themlelves. Another Parliament is chofen, which calleth in the King , 
the Council of Sr.ite having made further preparations for it. (For when the Que- 
fti.^n was. Whether they Ihould call in the King upon Treaty and Covenantj) 
( wl.ich fome thought beft for him and the Nation) the Council refolved abfolute- 
iy to fruil him,Mr. A. cfpecially perfwading them lb to do). And when the King 
catne in, Col. Birch and Mr. Trin were appointed to Disband the Army, the feveral 
Regiments receiving their Pay in feveral places,and none of them daring to dilbbey : 
No not Monk\ own Regiments who brought in the King. 

Thus did God do a more wonderful Work in the Dilfolving of this Army, than 
any of their greateft Vidories was, which fet them up. That an Army that had 
conquered three llich Kingdoms, and brought fo many Armies to deftrudion, cut 
off the King , puU'd down the Parliament, and fet up and puUd down others at 
their pleafure, that had conquered fo many Cities and Caftles ; that were lb united 
by Principles and Intereft and Guilt, and lb deeply engaged, as much as their E- 
ftates, and Honour, and Lives came to, to have If ood it out to the very utmoft ; 
that had profeffed {q much of their Wifdom and Religioufnefs ; and had declared 
fuch high Refolutions againft Monarchy : I fay, thatfuch an Army Ihould have ons 
Commander among themfelves, whom they accounted not Religious, chat fhould 
march againft them without Refiftance, and that they Ihould all Hand ftill, and 
let him come on, and reflore the Parliament, and bring in the King, and disband 
themfelves, and all this without one bloody Nofe 1 Let any Man that hath the ule 
of his Underftanding, judge whether this were net enough to prove that there is 
a God that governeth the World, and difpofeth of the Powers of the World ac- 
cording to his Will ! And let all Men behold this Pillar of Salt, and Handing Mo- 
nument of Divine Revenge, and take heed of over-valuing Human Strength, and 
of ever being puffed up by Vidlories and Succefs, or of being infatuated by Spiri- 
tual Pdde and Fadion I And let all Men take warning how they, trample upon 
Government, rebel againft it, or vilifie the Minifters and Ordinances of Chrift , 
and proudly defpife the Warnings of their Brethren. 

§ 152. And at the fame time while Mofik was marching againft them into Eng- 
land, the Ibber godly Officers oi Ireland were impatient of the Anabaptifts Tyran- 
ny : So that Col. John Bridges (the Patron of Kidderm'm(ter) with his Lieutenant 
Thomffon, and Ibme few more Officers, relblved upon a defperate furprizal of Dub- 
lin Caftle, (which the Anabaptifts poffeft, with moft of the ftrong Holds ) ; and 
lo happily Succeeded, that without any blood Ihed they got the Caftle: And that 
being won, the reft of the Garrifons of all the whole Kingdom yielded without 
any lofi of Blood; and unlefs one or two, without fo much as any appearance of a 
Siege. Thus did God make his wonders to concur in time and manner ;andlhew- 
ed the World the inftability of thole States which are built upon an Army. He 

P that 

io6 The LI F E of the L i b. I. 

that will fee more of this Surprize of £»«W;« Caftle, may read it as printed by 
Golonel Bridges in a fliort Narrative. Had it not been for that Adion^ it is pro- 
bable that Ireland would have been the Refuge and Randezvouz for the disbanded 
or fugitive Army, and that there they would not only have maintained the War, 
but have irabodied againft England, and come over .ngain, with Relolutions height- 
ned by their Warnings. The Reward that Col, Bridges had for this Service was 
the peaceful Teftimony of his Confcienee, and a narrow efcape from being utterly 
ruined ; being fued as one that after EdgbtU Fight had taken the King's Goods, in 
an Aftion of Fouricore Thoufand pound : But all was proved falfe, and he being 
cleared by the Court, did quickly after die of a Fever at Chrfier, and go to a more 
peaceable and defirable World. 

§if3. For my own Adions and Condition all this time, I have partly fhewed 
them in the Second Part : How I was called up to London, and what 1 did there, 
and with how little Succefs 1 there continued my Pacificatory Endeavours. When 
I had lived there a few Weeks, I fell into another fit of Bleeding, which though 
it was nothing Co great as formerly, yet after my former depauperation by that 
means and great debility, did weaken me much. Being reftored by the mercy of 
God, and the help of Dr. Bates, ( ^"d the mofs of a dead man's skull which 1 had 
from Di-, Michhthwair) I went to Mv.Thomas Foley s Houfe, where I lived (in An- 
Jlin-Fryars) about a year; and thence to T)r.Michletb-ivait's Houfe in Little Brtttatn^ 
where I tabled about another year : and thence to Moorfidds, and thenceto.^^?ew; 
from which being at the prefent driven by the Plague, I wait for the further dilpofal 
of my Almighty and mofl: Gracious Lord. 

§ 1^4. And now I fliall annex for the Reader's fatisfacflion, an Account of my 
Books and Writings, on what occafion they were written, and what I now judge of 
them on a review, and after (o much foppofition. 

§ If J. The Books which I have written (andthofe that are written againft me) 
are io numerous, that 1 confels if they plead not to the Reader for themlelves, I 
cannot eafily excule my putting the World to lb much trouble. And I was once 
almoll fain out with my feif, when I faw (uch abundance of Sermon Bocks print- 
ed in Olivers days, becaufe I concurred witii them in over-loading the World. But 
God was plcaled to keep tne from Repentance by their Succefs ; and fince then I 
am more Impenitent herein than ever, as feeing more of the realbn of God's difpo- 
lal than I faw before. For fince fo many hundred Minifters are filenced, and an 
AA is now paft in the Parliament to forbid us coming within five miles of any Ci- 
ty, Corporation, or Burgefs Town ; atrd a former Ad: forbiddeth us fpeaking to 
above four that are not of a Family ; and knowing what Perlbns are Minifters 
in many of our places, I now blefs God that his poor Servants have the private 
help of Books, which are the beft Teachers, under God, that many thoufand Per. 
fons have. 

And whereas there are about Fifty Books (' as I remember ) that in whole or in 
part are written againft me, or fome PafTages in mine ; I blefs the Lord that they 
have not difturbed or difcompofcd my mind, nor any more hindered me from my 
greater duty, by Replies ; nor been altogether unprofitable to me : And that none 
of them, nor all of them, any whit dilabled me from the Service of God by di- 
minilhing my Eftimation with thole that I have opportunity to lerve, or with the 
common Readers that may profit by my Labours, but only with the Members of 
the leveral Faftions. 

Some are written againft me by Quakers, parries Nayler, and many others : Some 
by Cletmnt Writer, and other Seekers and Infidels : Some by Vapfts ; fome by Ana- 
baptifis (Mr. Tonibes, Fijher, and many others ) : Ibme by Reverend Brethren that 
underftoodnotall Pointsof Dodrine as I did ( which-ever of us was in the right ) 
(as Mr, Rutherford, Mr. Blake, Mr. Burgef, Dr. Kendall,&CC. ) fome by Antinomam, 
and fome by Separatifis ; and fome by good Men that were but half poffeft with 
their Opinions, (as Mr. Eires, Mr. Crandon, Mr. learner, &cc.) : Ibme by proud im- 
patient Men ; and fome by the Prelatical Party : Ibme by young Men that wanted 
Preferment, and thought that this was the way to get it ; and Ibme by obfcure 
Men thatdafired to be taken notice of; and Ibme by Flatterers, that defired to 
pleale others on whom they did depend ; and Ibme by malicious blood-thirfty Ca- 
lumniators I Ibme by fadiious Temporizers, (as Stubhs, Rogers, Needham, &c.) ; and 
abundance by erroneous impatient Men, that could not endure to be contradiiftedin 
their Miftake?,To many of thele I have returned Anfwers j and that fome others re- 
main unanlwered, is through the reftraint of the Preft. 

§ 1^6. 

Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 107 

§ 1^6. The firrt Book thit ever I publiihed is a fmall one, called, Afhorifms of 
JujHfication and the Coiienants, Sec. I had tirft begun my Book, called The Saint's 
Rpft ,• and coming in it toanfwer the Quettion , How in Matth. 25-. the reward is 
adjudged to men on the account of their good works ? The chief Propofitions of 
that Book did (iiddenly offer themfglves to me, in order to that Refolution : But I 
was prepared with much difputing againll Antinomianifm in the Army. At Sir 
Thom.is Roas's Houfe, in my weaknels, I wrote moft of that Book, and finifhed it 
wlien I came to Kidckrminfter. I diretfted it to Mr. Vines and Mr. Burgef, out of 
my highefteem of them,though my perfonal acquaintance with them was butfmall. 
Mr. F/w« wrote to me applaudingly of ir. Mr. iirtr^g-e/s" thought his Name engaged 
him to write againd it. 

Two Faults I now find in the Book: i. It is defeftive, and hath fome Propofi- 
tions that need Correction, being not cauteloudy enough expreffed. 2. I medled 
too forwardly with Dr. Otven, and one or two more that had written fome Pafla- 
ges too near to AntinomianKfn. For I was young,and a ftranger to mens tempers, 
and thought others could have born a Confutation as eafily as I could do my lelf ? 
and I thought that I was bound to do my beft publickly, to fave the World from 
the hurt of publifhed Errours ; not underftanding how it would provoke men more 
paffionately to infifl on what they once have faid. But I have now learned to con- 
tradid Errours, and not to meddle with the Perfons that maintain them. But in- 
deed I was then too raw to be a Writer. 

This Book was over-much valued by fome, and over-much blamed by others, 
both contrary to my own efteem of it : It colt me more than any other that I have 
written ; not only by mens offence, but efpecially by putting me upon long and 
tedious Writings. Some that publickly wrote againll it, I publickly anfwered.^ 
And becaufeof the general noife about it, I defiredthofe that would have me of 
their mind, ro lend me their Jnimadverjions • which proved fo many, that took me 
up too much of my time to anfwer them. But it was a great help to my Undcr- 
ftanding : For the Animadverters were of feveral minds; and what one approved 
another confuted , being further from each other than any of them from 

The fir ft that I craved Animadverfionsfrom was Mr. Burgef, and with much ado 
extorted only two or three Letters againft Juftification by Works (as he called it ) : 
which with my Anfwers were afterward publilhed; when he had proceeded to print 
againft me what he would not give me in writing. 

The next (and full) Animadverfions which I received, were from Mr. John 
Warren, an honeft, acute, ingenious man j to whom I anfwered in freer Expreffi- 
ons than to others, becaule he was my Junior and familiar Friend ; (being a School- 
Boy at Brtdgenortb when I was Preacher there, and his Father being my Neigh- 

Next his I had Animadverfions from Dr. John Walla , very judicious and mode- 
rate, to which I began to write a Reply, but broke it off in the middle becaufe he 
little differed from me. 

The next I had was from Mr. Chriflopher Cartwright of York, (who defended the 
King againft the Mir([\xt\koi Worcefler ) : he was a man of good reading as to our 
later Divines, and was very well verft in the Common Road, ( very like Mv. Bur- 
gefi) ; a very good Hebrician, and a very honeft worthy Perfon. His Animadver- 
fions were molt againft my diftindlion of Righteouihefi into Legal and Evangeli- 
cal, according to the two Covenants. His Anfwer was full of Citations out of 
Amefias, Whittakcr, Davenant, &c. I wrote him a full Reply ; and he wrote me a 
Rejoynder j to which my time not allowing me to write a full Confutation, I took 
up all the Points of Difference between him and me, and handled them briefly, 
confirming my Reafons, for the eafe of the Reader and my felf *. '^This is 

The next Animadverter was Mv. George Lawfon, the ableft Man of them all, ]|j]^^^^_P"°" 
orofalmoif any I know in England; efpecially by the Advantage of his Age 
and very hard Studies, and methodical Head, but above all, by his great skill in 
Politicks, wherein he is moft exadr, and which contributeth not a little to the 
underffanding of Divinity.Though he was himfelf near the.^rmw;<afwi(differing from 
them in the Point of Perfe'verance as to the Confirmed^ and fome little matters more) 
and fo went farther than I did from the Anttnomians, yet being converfant with 
Men of another Mind, to rcideem himfelf from their Offence, he fet himfelf 
.ngainft fome Paflages of mine, which others marvelled that he of all Men ftiould 
oppofe ; efpecially about the Objc^ of Faith, and Juflification. And afterwards he 
publilhcd in excellent Summ of Divinity, called, Tbeopoluica j in which he infift- 

P 2 eth 

io8 "The LIFE of the L i b. L 

eth on thole two Points, to make good what he had faid in his M. S. againft me: 
( though the Reader that knoweth not what paft between him and me, will not 
underltand how thefe Paffages there fell in, and (brae Divines have told me how 
excellent a Book it had been, if he had not bean led afide in thofe Particulars ; 
not knowing how it came to pafs, the ableft Men being Ibmetimes moft hard- 
ly drawn to defert any thing which they have once affirmed ). He bath writ- 
ten alfo Animadversions on Hobhes; and a piece of Ecclefiaftical and Civil Policy, 
according to the Method of Politicks ; an excellent Bnok, were it not that he 
feemeth to juftify the Kings Death, and meddle too boldly with the Political 
Controverfies of the times ( though he be a Conformirt ) : Alio I have fecn iome 
ingenuous Manufcripts of his for the taking of the Engagenient ( to be true to 
the Commonwealth as eftablilhed without a King and Houle of Lords) his Opi- 
nion being much for fubmitting to the prefent Poffeffor, though a Ufurper ) : But 
I thought thole Papers eafily anfwerable. His Animadverfions on my Papers were 
large, in which he frequently took occafion to be copious and difUnd in laying 
down his own Judgment, which plealcd me very well : 1 returned him a full 
Anfwer, and received from him a large Reply ; infteadof a Rejoinder to which, I 
fumm'd up our Differences, and fpoke to them briefly and diftin(ft!y, and notwr- 
barim to the Words of his Book. I mult thankfully acknowledge that I learnc 
more from Mr. Lavfln than from any Divine that gave me Animadverfions, or that 
ever I converled with : For two or three Paflages in my hrft Reply to him he con- 
vinced me were Millakes, and I found up and down in iiim thole hints of Truths 
which had a great deal of Light in them, and were very apt ibr good Improve- 
nient : Efpecially his inlligating me to the Study of Pe////c^i, (in which he much 
lamented the Ignorance of Divines) did prove a lingular Benefit to me. I 
confefs it is long of my own Uncapablenels that I have received no more good 
from others : But >et I mufl be lb grateful as to confels that my Undcrftanding 
hath made a better Improvement ( for the fudden llnfible increale of my Know- 
ledge ) of Grotiui ik '^atisfacttme Chrifti, and of Mr. Lawfons Manufcripts, than 
of any thing elle that ever I read ; and they convinced me how unfit we are to write 
about Chriii's Gc'uej-wwewf, duA Laws, a.nA Judgment, &-c. while we underftand nor 
the true Nature of Govirnmmt, Laws and Judgment in the general ; and that he 
that is ignorant of Tolttkks and of the Law of Nature, will be ignorant and er- 
roneous in Divinity and the facred Scriptures. 

§ If 7. 2. The Second Book which I wrote ( and the firft which I began ) was 
that called. The Sams fvtrlaftivg R(fi : VVhilfl 1 was in Health I had not theleaft 
thought of writing Books j or of ferving God in any more publick way than 
Preaching : But when I was weakened with p.reat bleeding, and Iclt lulitaryin my 
Chamber at Sir John Cook's in Derhyfljire, without any Acquaintance, but my Ser- 
vant, about me, and was lentenced to Death by thePhyficians, I began to contem- 
plate more lerioufly on the Evcrlafting Reft which I apprehended my lelf to be 
jult on the Borders of. And that my Thoughts might not too much Icatterin my 
Meditation, I began to write Ibmethingon that Subjeft, intending but the Quan- 
tity of a Sermon or two ( which is the caufe that the Beginning is in brevity and 
Style difpioportionable to the reft ) ; but being continued long in Weaknels, 
where I had no Books nor no better Employment, I followed it on till it was en- 
larged to the bulk in which it is publilhed : The firft Three Weeks I fpent in it 
was at Mr. No-wel's Houle at Ktrkby-MaHory in Leiccfierpire ; a quarter of a Year 
more, at the Sealbns which fo great Weaknefs would allow, I bellowed on it at Sir 
Tho Reus's Houfe at Rous-LenchmWorcefierplre ; and I finilhed it Ihortly after at Kid- 
thrminfier : The firfi andlafi Parts were firft done, being all that I intended for my 
own life 5 and the /fc Wand ?/>//■«/ Parts came afterwards in befides my firft In- 

This Book it pleafed God fo far to blefs to the Profit of many, that it encou- 
raged mc to be guilty of all thole Scripts which after followed. The Marginal Ci- 
tations I put in after I came home to my Books j but almoft all the Book it lelf 
was written when I had no Book but a Bible and a Concordance : And I found that 
the Tranlcript cf the Heart hath the greateft force on the Hearts of others : For 
the Good that I have heard that Multitudes have received by thatWriting,and the Be- 
nefit which 1 h.ive again received by their Prayers, I here humbly return my Thanks 
to him that compelled me to write it, 

§ T5'9. 5. The Third Book which I publilhed was that which is entituled. Plain 
Scripture Proof for Infants Church- Memkrjhip ami Baftifm: being the Arguments ufed 


P A R. T I. Reverend Afr. Richard Baxter. lo^ 

in the Difpute with Mr. Tomhes, and an Anfwer to a Sermon of his aiterward 
preached, O'c. 

This Book God bleffed with unexpefted Succefs to flop abundance from turning 
Anabaptifts, and reclaming many both in City and Country, ( and fome of the 
Officers of the lrt(h and EngUjh Forces ) and it gave a confiderable Check to their 

Concerning it I fliall only tell the Reader, i. That there are towards the latter 
part of it, many enigmatical Reflexions upon the Anabaptifts for their horrid Scan- 
dals, which the Reader that lived not in thofe times will hardly iinderf}and : But 
the cutting off the King, and rebelling againft him and the Parliament, and the 
Invading Scotland, and the approving of thefe, C with the Ranters and other 
Seds that (prang out of them ) were the Crimes there intended j which were 
not then to be more plainly fpoken of, when their Strength and Fury was fo 

2. Note, that after the writing of that Book, I wrote a Poftfcript againft that 
Doftrine of Dr. Burges and Mr. Tbo. Bedford, which I fuppofed to go on the other 
Extrcam ; and therein I anfwered part of a Treatife of Dr. Sam. Ward's which Mr. 
Bedford pubiilhed ; and it proved to be Mr. Thomas Gataker whom I defended 
who is Dr. IVard'i Cenfor ; But I knew it not till Mr. Gataker after told me. 

But after thefe Writings 1 was greatly in c'oubt [ whether it be not certain that 
allthe Infants of true Believers are juftified and faved if they dye before a<3ual Sin! 
My Reafon was, becaufe, it is the lame juftifying laving Covenant of Grace 
which their Parents and they are in : And as real Faith and Refmtance is that Con- 
dition on the Parents part which giveth them their right to adual Remiflion 
and Adoption : So to be the Children ofjuch, is all the Condition which is required 
in Infants in order to the fame Benefits: And without aflerting this the Advantage 
of the Anabaptifts is greater than every one doth imagine. But I never thought / 
with Dr. fVard that all Bap t fed Children had this Benefit, and Qualitati've Sandrifica- 
tion alio ; nor with Dr. Burgef and Mr. Bedford, that all converted it Age, had 
inherent Icminal Grace in Baptifm certainly given them ; nor with Bifhop Dave- 
nant that all juftly baptiled had relative Grace of Juftification and Adoption : But 
only that all the Infants of true Belifvcrs who have right to the Covenant and Bap- 
tifm in foro Cteh as well as in foro Ecclefia, have alfo thereby Right to the Pardon of 
Original Sin, and to Adoption, and to Heiven ; which Right is by Baptilm to be 
fealed and delivered to them. This I wrote of to Mr. Gataker who returned me 
a kind and candid Anfwer, but fuch as did not remove my Scruple j and this oc- 
calioned him to print Bifhop Davenants Difputations with his Anlwer. My Opi- 
nion ( which I moft incline to ) is the fame which the Synod of Dort exprefleth 
and that which I conjeAure Dr. Davenant meant, or I am fure came next to. 

Here note alio, that Mr. Tombes follicited me yet after all this, to write hini 
down my Proofs of Infants Church- memberlhip out of the circumcifed Church 
which I did at large, as from the Creation downward, as far as Proof could be 
expeded in Proportion to the other Hiftories of thole Times. Inftead of lending 
me an Anlwer to my Papers, he printed lome of them with aninliifficient Anfwer 
in his laft Book : Thele Papers with a Reply to him I have fince Printed. 

§ 15:9. 4. The Fourth Book which I publiftied is a fmall one, called, 7he right 
Method for Peace of Confcience and fpiritual Comfort, in thirty two DireBions. The Oc- 
cafion of it was this : Mrs. Bridgis, the Wife of Col. John Bndgis, being one of my 
Flock, was often weeping out her Doubts to me, about her long and great Uncer- 
tainty of her true Sandification and Salvation. I told her that a few hafty Words 
were not D;re^»o» enough for the fatisfadory refolving of fo great a Cale; and 
therefore I would write her down a few of thole necelTary Diredions which ihe 
Ihould read and ftudy, and get well imprinted on her Mind. As loon as I had 
begun I found i. that it would not be well done in the Brevity which I expeded, 
2. And that when it was done it would be as uleful to many others of my Flock as 
to her ; and therefore I beftowed more time on it, and made it larger and fit for 
common ule. 

This Book pleafed Dr. Hammond much, and many Rational Perlbns, and fome 
of thofe for whom it was written : But the Women and weaker fort I found could 
not fo well improve clear Reaibn, as they can a few comfortable, warm and pret- 
ty Sentences j it is Style and not Reafon which doth moft with them : And iome 
of the Divines were angry with it, for a PalTage or two about Perlcverance ; be- 
caule I had laid that many Men are certain of their prelent Sandification, which 
are not certain of their Perfeverance and Salvation j meaning all the Godly that 


1 10 The LI F E of the L i b. L 

are affured of their Sanaification, and yet do not hold the certainty of Perleve- 
rance. But a great Storm of Jealoufie and Cenfure was by this and Ibme (uch 
Words raifed againft me, by many good Men, who lay more on their Opinions 
and Party than they ought.Therefore^whereas feme would have had me to retract it, 
and others to leave it out of the next Impreffion, I did the latter, but inftead ot it 
I publifhed not long after 

§ 1 60. y. My Book called [ R. B's. Judgment ahcut the Verfcverance of Believers ] 
In which I iliewed them the Variety of Opinions about Perfeverance, and thac 
Juguftme and Frojpr themfelves did not hold the certain Perfeverance of all that 
are truly fandified, though they held the Perfeverance of all the Elceft j but held 
that there are more SantftHied than arc Eled, and that Perfeverance is affixed to 
the Eled as fuch, and not to the Sandifted as luch. ( which Bilhop Ujher averred to 
Dr- Kendal h&ioxQ my Face to be moft certainly Jufim's Judgment, though both 
he and I did incline to another ). From hence, and many other Arguments I 
inferred, that the Iharp Genfures of Men againft their Brethren, for not holding a 
Point which Aufiin himfelf was againft, and no one Author can be proved to hold 
from the Apoftles Days till long after Aufiin, doth argue lefs Judgment and Cha- 
rity than many of the Cenfurers feem to have. I never heard ot any Cenfure againft 
thefe PaperS;, though the few Lines which occafioned them had fo much. 

S 161. 6. Before this I had publifhed two Aflize Sermons, entiruled, TrmChri- 
ftiantty, one of Chrift's Dominion, and the other of his Sovereignty over all Men 
as Redeemer : The firft was preached before Judge Atkins, Sir Tho. Rous being high 
Sheriff : The fecond before Serjeant Glyn, who defiring me to print it, I thought 
meet to print the former with it. 

§ 162. 7. Alfo I publifhed my Apology againft divers that had printed Books 
againft many things which I had written. It confifteth of five parts: i. An An- 
fwerto Mr. Blake. 2. An Anfwer to Dr. XeWa//. 5. A Confutation of Ltuliomi- 
us Colvinus. 4. An Anfwer to Mr. Crandon. y. An Anfwer to Mr. Epes. 

The firft, Mr. Blake, a reverend worthy Man of my acquaintance, in a Trea- 
tife of the Covenants had written much, I thought miftakingly againft me ; and 
though I replyed without any fharpnefs, it was very difpleafing to 1 lim. 

Dr. iCeWrf/i was a little quickSpirited Man, of great Olfentation and a Confide- 
rable Orator and Scholar : He was driven on farther by others than his own Incli- 
nation would have led him : He thought to get an Advantage lor his Reputation, 
by a Triumph over John Goodwin and me j for thofe that let him on work woulci 
needs have him conjoin as both together, to intimate that I was an Arminian ; 
while I was replying to his firft AfTault, he wrote a fecond ; and when 1 had be- 
gun a Reply to that, meeting me at London, he w.as fb earneft to take up the Con* 
troverly, engaging Mr. Vines to perfuade me that Bifhop Ujher might determine 
it, and I was lb willing to be eafed of luch work, and to end any thing which 
might be made a Temptation againft Charity, that I quickly yielded to Bifhop 
l^Jjfn Aibitriment, who owned my Judgment about Univerfal Redemption, Per- 
feverance, 6^c. but defircd us to write againft each other no more ,- and lb my Se- 
cond Reply was fuppreft. 

As for Ltidiot/iicus Cohinm, it is Ludovicus Molmaus a Dodor of Phyfick, and 
Son to ?et. Moltnaus, and publick ProfelTor of Hiftory in Oxford: He wrote a 
fmall Latin Tradate againft his own Brother Cyrus Molinaus, to prove that Jufti- 
fication is before Faith : I thought I might be bold to confute him who chofe the 
Truth and his own Brother to oppofe. Another fmall Aftault the liime Author 
made againft me (inftead of a Reply ) for approving o\' Camera and Amtraldus's 
way about univerfal Redemption and Grace :To which I anlwcred in the Preface to 
therEook ; But thefe things were (o fir from alienating die Efteem and Affedinn 
of the Dodor, that he is now at this Day one of thole Friends who are injurious 
to the Honour of their own Underftandings by overvaluing me, and would tain 
havcfpent his time in tranllacing fome of my Books into the trench Ton^wQ. 

Mr. Crandon was a Man that had run from Ariiiinianifin into the Excream of 
half Antinomianifm, ar.d having an e.Hceliive Ze.il for his Opinions (which leem 
to be honoured by the extolling of Free-grace ) and withal being an utter ftran- 
ger to me, he got a deep conceit that 1 was a P.ipift , and in that peifnafion 
wrote a large Book againft my Aphonfris , which moved laughter in many, and 
pity in others, and troubled his Friends, as having difaclvantaged their Caul's. 
Asfbonasthe Book came abroad, tl-,e news of the Author's death came with it, 
V'ho died a t'ortniglu afccr its birth, i had beforehand got all lave the beginning 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxtere in 

and end, out of the Prefs, and wrote fo much of an Anfwer as I thought it wor- 
thy, before the publication of it. 

Mr. Ejres was a Preacher in Salisbury of Mr. Crandon's Opinion ; who having 
preached there for Juftification before Faith , Cthat is, the Jufiification of Eleft 
Infidels ) was publickly confuted by Mr. Warren, and Mr. IVoodhridge ( a very ju- 
dicious Miniller of Newbury J who had lived in Neiv England ) : Mr. Woodbridge 
printed his Sermon, which very perfpicuoufly opened the Doftrine of Juftification 
after the method that I had done. Mv. Eyres being offended with me as a Partner, 
gave me Ibme part of his oppofition, to whom I returned an Anfwer in the end : 
And a few words to Mr. Caryl who licenfed and approved Mr. Crandon's Book, (for 
the Antinomians were commonly Independants). No one of all the Parties re- 
plied to this Book, fave only Mr. Blake to feme part of that which touched 

§ i6;. 8. Becaufe my Afhorifms had fb provok'd fo many, and the noi(e was ve- 
ry loud againft them, to make the PalTages plainer which offended them ( about 
Juftification, Sanftification, Merit, Punilhment, &c.) I wrote a Book , called The 
Confeffion of my Faith about thole matters : which I gave the World to lave any 
more of them from mifunderftanding my Afhortfms, and declared my Sufpenfion 
of my AfhorijmsuW I Ihould reprint them, intending only to correct two or three 
Paflages, and elucidate the reft : But afterward I greatly affeifted to bring them 
into a fmall Syftem of Divinity, which having never yet had time to write, I have 
omitted the reprinting of them to this day j (But fome have liirreptkioufly printed 
them againft my will). 

In my Coxifefflon I opened the whole Doftrine of Antinomianifin which I oppo- 
led,and I brought the Teftinionies of abundance of our Divines, who give as much 
to other Ads befides Faith, in Juftification as I. And I opened the weaknefs of 
Dr. Owen's Reafonings for Juftification before Faith, in his former Anfwer to me. 
To which he wrote an Anfwer, annexing it to his Confutation of Biddle and the 
Cracovian Catechijm ( to intimate that I belonged to that Party ) that I thought it 
unfit to make any Reply to it, not only becaufe I had no vacancy from better 
work, but becaufe the quality of it wasfuch as would unavoidably draw me, if I 
confuted it, to Ipeak lb much and fo offenfively to the Perfon , as well as the Do- 
ftrine, that it would have been a Temptation to the further weakening of his Cha- 
rity, and increafing his defire of Revenge : And I thought it my duty ( when the 
Readers good required me not to write ) to forbear replying, and to Ist him have 
the laft word, becaufe I had begun with him. And I perceived that the com- 
mon diftaft of Men againft him and his Book made my Reply the more unnecef 

But for all the Writings and Wrath of Men which were provoked againft me, 
I muft here record my Thanks to God for the Succels of my Controverlal Wri- 
tings againft the Antinomians : when I was in the Army it was the predominant 
Infection : The Books of Dr. Criff), Paul Hobjon, Saltmarflj, Cradock, and abundance 
fuch like were the Writings molt applauded; and he was thought no Spiritual 
Chriftiao, but a Legalift that favoured not of Antinomianifm, which was lugared 
with the Title of Free-grace ; and others were thought to preach the Law , and not 
to preach Chrift. And I confefs, the darknels of many Preachers in the Myfteries 
of the Goljjel, and our common negleft of ftudying and preaching Grace, and 
Gratitude, and Love, did give occafion to the prevalency of this Seft, which God 
no doubt permitted for our good, to review our apprehenfion of thofe Evangeli- 
cal Graces and Duties which we barely acknowledged, but in our praftics almoft 
over-lookt. But this Seft that then lb much prevailed, was fo fuddenly almoft ex- 
tind, that now they little appear, and make no noife among us at all, nor have 
done thele many years ! In which effeft thofe ungrateful Controverfal Writings of 
tny own have had (6 much hand, as obligeth me to very much Thankfiilnefs to 

§ 164. About that time having been at London, and preached fome Sermons 
there, one fcrap of a Sermon preached in Wejiminfier-Abbey to many Members of 
Parliament, was taken by fome one and printed; which is nothing but the naming 
of a few Diredions whicli I then gave the Parliament Men for Church Reforma- 
tion and Peace, according to the ftate of thofe Times which it was preached in. 
(In Oliver Cromwell's time.) 

§ 16'). 10. And when I was returned home I was foUicited by Letters to print 
many of the Sermons which I had preached in London ; and in fome of them I 
gratified their defires : One Sermon which I publilhed was againft Mem making 


112 TheLlFEofthe Lib. I, 

l(g;bt cfChhfii upon Matth. 22. J. This Sermon was preached at Lawrence Jury , 
v/here Mr. Vines wssPailor : where though I fent the day before to fecure room 
for the Lord Broghdl, sno che Earl of Si'jf'olk, with whom I was to go in the Coschj 
vet when I came, the. Crowd hadfo little refpeft of Perfons, that they were fain 
to go home again., becaufe they could not come within hearing, and the old Earl 
oifVarwick f who flood in the Abbey j brought me home again: And Mr.F;wej 
himfelf was fain to get up into the Pulpit, and fit behind me, and I to ftand be- 
tween his Legs : which I mention that the Reader may underftand that Verfe in 
my Poem concerning him which is printed, where I fay, That 

At once one Pulpit held us hath. 

§ i66. II. Another of thofe Sermons which I publilhed was, A Sermonof Judg- 
ment., Vv^hich I enlarged into a fmall Treatife. This was preached at ?auh at the 
defire of Sir Cbrtfiopher Pack, then Lord Mayor, to the greateft Auditory that I ever 

§167. 12. Another Sermon which I preached at Martin's Church, I printed 
with enlargement, called, Catholtck Unity ; Ihewing the great neceffity of Unity in 
real Holinels : It is fitted to the prophane and ignorant People, who are ftill cry- 
ing out againft Errours and Divifions about leffer matters, while they themfelves 
do pradically and damnably err in the Foundation , and divide themfelves from 
God, from Chrill:, from the Spirit, and from all the living Members of Chrift : 
And it Iheweth how gready Ungodlinels tendeth to Divifions, and Godlineft to the 
truelt Unity and Peace. 

§ 168. 13. About that time I had preached a Sermon at Worce(ler, which ( though 
rude and not poliihed j I thought meet to print, under the Title of The true Catbo- 
lickj and The Catholtck Church defiribed : It is for Catholicifm againit all SeBs i to 
Ihevi' the Sin and Folly and Mifchief of all Se(fts that would appropriate the Church 
to themfelves, and trouble the World with the Qaeftion, Which of all thefe Par- 
ties is the Church .-^ as if they knew not that the Catholick Church is that whole 
which containeth all the Parts, though fome more pure, and fbme lefs : efpedally 
it is fuitedagainil theRomifhCIaim, which damneth all Chriftians bcfides them- 
felves; and itdete<5teth and confuteth dividing Principles: For I apprehended it a 
Matter of great Neceffity to imprint true Catholicilin on the Minds of Chriitians; 
it being a moft lamentable thing to obferve how few Chriftians in the World there 
be, that fall not into one Sed or other, and wrong not the common Intereft of 
Chriftianity, for the promoting of the Intereft of their Sed : And how lamenta- 
bly Love is thereby deftroyed, fb that moft men think not that they are bound to 
love thole, as the Members of Chrift, which are againft their Party, and the Lea- 
ders of moft Seds do not ftick to perfecute thofe that differ from them, and think 
the Blood Tof thofe who hinder their Opinions, and Parties, to be an acceptable Sa- 
crifice to God. And if they can but get to be of a Sed which they think the ho- 
liefi (as the Anabaptifts and Separatills), or which is the largefi, ( as the Greeks and 
Papifts) they think then that they are fixfficiently warranted, to deny others to be 
God's Church, or at leaft to deny them Chriftian Love and Communion. 

To this fmall Book I annexed a Pofcript againft a ridiculous Pamphlet of one 
Malpas, an old fcandalous neighbour Minifter, who was permitted to ftay in by 
the Parliament, ( fo far were they from being over-ftrid in their Reformation of 
the Clergy) and now is a confiderable Man among them. 

§ 169. 14. When we fet on foot our Affociation in Worcefierjlnre, I was defired 
to print our Agreement , with an Explication of the feveral Articles : which I 
did in a fmall Book, called , ChrtHian Concord : In which I gave the reafons 
why the Epifcopal , Presbyterians , and Indspendants might and fhould unite 
on fuch Terms, without any change of any of their Principles: But I confefs that 
the new Epifcopal Party, that follow Grotms too far, and deny the very being of 
all the Minilkrs and Churches that have not Diocefan Bilhops, arc not capable of 
Union with the reft upon fuch Terms : And hereby I gave notice to the Gentry 
and others of the Royalids in England, of the great danger they were in of chang. 
ing their Eccleficiflical Caufe, by following new Leaders that were lor Grot:anifm. 
But this Admonition did greatl.y offend the Guilty, who now began to get the 
Reins ; though the old Epiicnpal Proteftants confeiled it to be all true. There is 
nothing bringerh greater hatred and fufferings on a Man , than to foreknow the 
mifchief tbdt Men in power are doing, and intend , and to warn the World of it : 
For while they are refolutely going on Vi/ith it, they will proclain him a Slanderer 


P A R. T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 1^ 

that rcvealeth it, and ufe him accordingly, and never be ailiamed when they have 
done it, and thereby declared all which he foretold to be true. 

§170. if.Having in the Po/;f/cn/>f of my 7r«eC^*^9/;ci:, given a fliort touch a- 
gainft a bitter Book of Mr. Thomas Pierce's, againft the Puritans and me, it plealcd 
him to write another Volume againft Mr. Hickman and me, juft like the Man • full 
of malignant bitternels againl^ Godly men that were not of his Opinion / and 
breathing out blood-thirity malice, in a very Rhetorical fluent ftyle. Abundance 
of Lies alfo are in it againik the old Puritans, as well as againll me; and in particu- 
lar in charging Racket's Villany upon Cartwnght as a Confederate : which I inftance 
in, becaufe I have (out of old Mr. JjJ)S Library j a Manufcript o^ Mr. Carfwright'i J 
containing his full Vindication againlt that Calumny, which fome would fain have 
fattened on him in his time. 

But Mr. Tterces principal bufinefs was to defend Grotiits : In anfwer to which I 
wrote a little Treatife, called. The Grotian Religion M/covered , at the Invitation of 
A^r. Thomas Pierce: In which I cited his own words, efpecially out of his Dif 
cuffio Apologetici Riwtiani, wherein he openeth his Terms of Reconciliation with 
Kowe, -VIZ.. That it be acknowledged the Millrefs Church, and the Pope have his 
Supream Government, but not Arbitrary, but only according to the Canons ; To 
which end he defendeth the Council of 7re«r it (elt, PopeP?»f's Oath, and all the 
Councils, which is no other than the French Ibrt of Popery : I had not then heard 
of the Book written in France, called Grotim Papizans, nor di Sarravins'sEplHes, hi 
which he witnefleth it from his own mouth. But the very words which I cited con- 
tain an open Profeffion of Popery. This Book the Printer abuled, printing every 
Sedion fo diftant, to fill up Paper, as if they had been feveral Chapters. 

And in a Preface before it, I vindicated the Synod oi Dort (where the Divines 
of England were chief Members ) from the abufive virulent Accufations of one 
that called himlelf Tilenm junior. Hereupon Tterce wrote a much more railing ma- 
licious Volume than the former, ( theliVelieft Exprels of Satan's Image, malignity, 
bloody malice, and falihood, covered in handfome railing Rhetorick, ( that ever I 
have feen from any that called himfelf a Proteftant). And the Preface was anfwer- 
ed juft in the fame manner by one that ftiled himfelf Fbilo-Tiknus. Three fuch 
Men as this Tilenus junior, Pierce and Gunning, I have not heard of befides in Eng- 
land 1 Of the Jefuites Opinion in Dodrinals, and of the old Dominican Complexi- 
on ; the ableft Men that their Party hath in all the Land ; of great diligence in ftu- 
dy and reading ; of excellent Oratory ( efpecially Tilentts junior and Fierce ) ; of 
temperate Lives ; but all their Parts lb (harpened with a furious perlecuting Zeal, 
againft thofe that diflike Arminianifm, high Prelacy, or full Conformity, that they 
are like the Briars and Thorns which are not to be handled, but by a fenced hand, 
and breathe out Tercatnings againft God's Servants better than themfelves ; and 
leem unfatisfied with blood and ruines, and ftill cry, Give, Give ; bidding as lowd 
defiance to Chri(iian Charity, as ever Arrim or any Heretick did to Faith. 

This Book of mine of the Grotian Religion greatly offended many others : but 
none of them could fpeak any Sence againft it, the Citations for Matter of Fa6t 
being unanfwerable. And it was only the Matter of Fad which I undertook, vizt 
To prove that Grotias profeft himfelf a moderate Papift : But for his fault in fo do- 
ing, I litde medled with it. 

§ 171. 16. Mr. Blake having replyed to Ibme things in my Apology, efpecially 
about Right to Sacraments, or the juft Subjed of Baptifm and the Lord's Supper, 
I wrote rive Difputations on thoie Points, proving that it is not the reality of a 
Dogmatical ( or Juftifying J Faith, nor yet the Profeffion of bare Afjent ( called i 
Dogmatical Faith by many ) ; but only the Profeffion of a Saving Faith, which is 
the Condition of Mens title to Church-Communion Coram Ecclefia : and that Hy- 
pocrites are but Analogically or Equivocally called Chrijlians, and Believers , and 
Saints, 5cc. with much more to decide the moft troublefome Controverfie of that 
Time, which was about the Neceffary Qualification and Title of Church-Mem- 
bers and Communicants: Many men have been perplexed about that Point, and 
that Book. Some think it comcth too near the Independants, and fome that it is 
too far from them ; and many think it very hard, that \_A Credible Profeffien'j of 
True Faith and Repentance, fhould be made the ftated Qualification ; becaule they 
think it incredible that all the Jewiih Members were fuch : But I have fifted this 
Point moreexadly and diligendy in my thoughts, than almoft any Controverfie 
whatfiiever: And fain I would have found fome other Qualification to take up with^ 
( I. Either the Profeffion of Ibme lower Faith than that which hath the Promife 
of Salvation ; 2. Or at leaft fuch a Profeffion of Saving Faith, as needeth not to 

CL be 

114. The LIFE of the Lib. I. 

beTredible at all, &c.) But the Evidence of Truth hath forced me from all other 
ways, and fufFcrcd me to reft no where but here. That Profejfion fiiould be made 
neceflary without any refped at all to Credtbiltty, and confequently to the vertty of 
the Fattb profeJJeJ, is tncredtble, and a Contradidion , and the very word Vrofejfwn 
fignifieth more. And I was forced to obferve, that thofe that in Charity would 
belive another Vroftjfion to be the title to Church-Communion, do gready crols 
their own defign of Charity : And while they would not be bound to beliew men 
to be what they frofefi, for fear of excluding many whom they cannot belie've , 
they do leave themfelves and all others as not obliged to love any Church-Member 
asfuch, with the love which is due to a True Chriftian , but only with fuch a 
Love as they owe to the Members of the Devil ; and fo deny them the Kernel of 
Charity, by giving the Shell to a few more than elfi they would do. Whereas 
upon my deepeft Isarch, I am fatisfted that a Credible Profeffion of true Cbrtfiiantty, 
is it that denominateth ( the Adult ) vi/ible Chnjttam : And that this muft con- 
tain AlTent and Confent, even all that is in the Baptifmal Covenant, and no more j 
and therefore Baptilin is called our Chriftning : But withal, that the Indepen- 
dants bring in Tyranny and Confufion, whilft they will take no Vrofejfion as Cre- 
dible , which hath not more to make it credible than God and Charity require : 
And that indeed every man's word is to be taken as the Credible Vrofefwn of his 
own mind, unlefi he forfeit the Credit of his word, by grofi ignorance of the Matter 
profefed, or by a Contrary Profeffion, or by an inconfiftent Life : And therefore a Pro- 
leflton is credible as fuch, of it (elf, till he that queftioneth it doth diiprove it. 
Elfe the Rules of Humane Converle will be overthrown : for who knoweth 
the Heart of another lo well as he himfelf : And God who vj'iWfa-vs or da}nn 
men, not for other mens Anions but their own, will have mens own choafing or 
refufing to be their inlet or exclufiott, both as to Saving Mercy, and to a Church 
ftate : And if they be Hypocrites in a falfe Profeffion, the fin and loli Vvill be their 
own. But I confefi mens Credibility herein hath very various degrees : But though 
my fears are never fo great , that a man dilTembleth and is not fincere, yet if I be 
not able to bring in that Evidence to invalidate his Profeffion, which in foro EccU- 
fits fhall prove it to be incredible, I ought to receive him as a credible Profeflor , 
though but by a Humane, and perhaps moft dehtle Belief 

§ 172. i7.After that I publilhed four Difputations of Juftification . clearing up 
further thoic Points in which fome Reverend Brethren blamed my Judgment ; and 
anfwering Reverend Mi. BurgeJ^ ('who would needs write ibmev\hac againft me 
in hisTreatile of Imputed Rtghteoufnef ) ; and alfo anfwering a Treatife of Mr. 
Warner's of the Office and ObjeB of Jufttfying Faith : The Fallacies that abule ma- 
ny about thoie Points are there fully opened. 

If the Reader would have the Sum of my Judgment about Juftification , in 
brief, he may find it very plainly in a Sermon on that Subjed:, among the 
Morning Exercifes at St. Giles's in the Fields, preached by my worthy Friend Mr. 
Gibbons oi Black-Fryars, (in whofe Church I ended my Publick Miniftryj; a 
Learned Judicious Man, now with God. And it is as fully opened in a Latin 
Difputation of Monfieur le Blanc s of Sedan ; and Placain in Thef. Salmur. Vol. i. de 
Juliif. haih much to the fame purpofe. 

§ 17;. 18. Near the lame time I publiflied a Treatife of Converfion, being 
fome plam Sermons on that Subjeft, which Mr. Baldwin ( an honeft young Mini- 
fter that .had lived in my Houfe, and learnt my proper Charaders, or Short-hand^ 
in which I wrote my Sermon Notes J had tranlcribed out of my Notes. And 
thougti I had no leifure , for this or other Writings, to take much care of the 
ftile, nor to add any Ornaments, or Citations of Authors, I thought it might bet- 
ter pafs .ns ir was, than not at all; and that if the Author mift of the Applaufe of 
the Learned, yet the Book might be profitable to the Ignorant, as it proved through 
the great Mercy of God. 

§174. 19. Alfbl publifhed a fhorter Treatife on the fame Subfed, entitulcd, 
A Call to the Unconverted, 8cc. The Occafion of this wa? my Converfe with Bi- 
Iliop Uper while I was at London, who much appoving my Method or DircSiotis for 
?eace of Confctence, was importunate with me to write DireBions fuited to the vari- 
ous State; of Chriflians, and alio againft particular Sins ; I reverenced the Man, 
but dilregarded thefe Perfuafion^, fuppofingi could do nothing but what is done as 
well or better already : But when he was dead his Words went deeper to my Mind, 
and I purpofed to obey his; Counfel ; yet fo as that to the firfl jort of Men ( the 
Ungodly ) I thought vehement Perliiafions nieeter than Diredions only : And (b 
for lu h I publilhedc his little Book ; which God hath blefled with unexpedcd Suc- 


— ■ ■ ^— ^^i— ^— — I ■ ■! I ■■■■ ■■■ ■ - - . ^ . . I I II I , 

P A R T I. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 115 

cefs beyond all the reft that I have written ( except The Saints Reft ) : In a litrle 
more than a Year there were about twenty thouland of them printed by my own 
Confent, and about ten thoufand fince, befides many thoulands by Itollen ImpreC- 
fionSjWhich poorjMen'ftole for Lucre fake : Through God's Mercy 1 have had Infor- 
mation of almoft whole Houfholds converted by this (mall Book, which I let ia 
light by : And as if all this in England, Scotland and Ireland were not Mercy enough 
to me, God ( fince I was filenced ) hath lent it over on his Meflage to many 
beyond the Seas ; for when Mr. Elliot had printed all the Bible in the Indians 
Language, he next tranflated this my Call to the Unconverted, as he wrote to us 
here : And though it was here thought prudent to begin with the Pradicc of Pie- 
ty, becaufe of the envy and diftalte of the times againft me, he had finifhed it 
before that Advice came to him. And yet God would make fome farther ule of 
it J for Mr. Stoop the Paftor of the French Church in London, being driven hence 
by the dilpleafure of Superiors, was pleafed to tranflate it into elegant trench, and 
print it in a very curious Letter, and I hopfe'it will not be unprofitable theie ; nor 
in Germany, where it is printed in Dutch. 

§ i7y. 20. After this I thought, according to Bilhop Ufiier\ Method, the 
next fort that I Ihouid write for, is thole that are under the -work of Conwrfiony 
becaufe by Half-Converfwns Multitudes prove deceived Hypocrites : Therefore I 
publifhed a fmall Book enticuled, DireSltons and Perfua/ions to a found Converfionz 
which though I thought more ape to move than the former, yet through the Fault 
of the covetous Bookfellers, and becaufe it was held at too high a Price ( which 
hindred many other of my Writings), there were not paft two or three ImpreP 
fionsof them fold. 

$ 176. 2 1. About that time being apprehenfive how great a part of our Work 
lay in catechifing the A^ed who were Ignorant, as well as Children, and efpeci- 
ally in ferious Conference with them about the Matters of their Salvation, I 
thought it belt to draw in all the Minifters of the Country with me, that the 
Benefit might extend the farther, and that each one might have the lefs Oppofition. 
Which having procured, at their defire I wrote a Catechifm, and the Articles of 
our Agreement, and before them an earneft Exhortation to our Ignorant Peopleto 
fubmit to this way ( for we were afraid left they would not have fubmitted to it) : 
And this was then publifhed. The Catechifm was alfo a brief ConfefTion of Faith, 
being the Enlargement of a Confellion which I had before printed in an open 
Sheet, when we fet up Church Difcipline. 

§ 177. -22, When we fet upon this great Work, it was thought beft to begin 
with a Day of Falling and Prayer by all the Miniiiers at Worcefter, where they 
defired me to preach : But Weaknefs and other things hindred me from that Day j 
but to compenfate that, I enlarged and publifhed the Sermon which I had prepared 
for them, and entitled the Treatife, Gildas Salvtanus ( becaufe I imitated Gtldas 
and Salvianus in my Liberty of Speech to the Paftors of the Churches ) or The 
reformed Pa/i or : 1 have very great Caufe to be thankful to God for the Succeis 
of that Book, as hoping many thoufand Souls are the better for it, in that it pre- 
vailed with many Minifters to fet upon that Work which I there exhort them to : 
Even from beyond the Seas, I have had Letters of Requeft, to dired them how 
they might bring on that Work according as that Book had convinced them that 
it was their Duty. If God would but reform the Miniftry, and fet them on their 
Duties zealoufly and faithfully, the People would certainly be reformed : AH 
Churches either rife or fall as the Miniftry doth rife or fall,(not in Riches and world- 
ly Grandure ) but in Knowledge, Zeal and Ability for their Work. But fince Bi- 
fhops were rcftored this Book is ulelefs, and that Work not medled with. 

§ 178. 23. When the part of the Parliament called the Rump or Common- 
wealth was fitting, the Anabaptifts, Seekers &c. flew fo high againft Tythes and 
Miniftry, that it was much feared left they would have prevailed at laft : Where- 
fore I drew up a Petition for the Miniftry, which is printed under the Name of 
the fforcefierjhire Petition, which being prefented by Coll. John Bridges and Mr. 
Thomas Foley, was accepted with Thanks ; and feemed to have a confiderable ten- 
dency to Ibme good Refblutions. 

§ 179. But the Sedaries greatly raged againft that Petition, and one wrote a 
vehement Inveftive againft it ; which I anlwered in a Paper called. The Defence 
of the Worcefter\hre Petition ( which by an Over-fight is maimed by the want of the 
Anfwer to one of the Accufers Queries ). 1 knew not what kind of Perlon he was 
that I wrote againft, but it proved to be a Quaker, they being juft now rifing, and 

Q^ z this 

H^ The LI f E of the L i b. I. 

this being the firft of their Books, ( as far as I can remember ) that I had ever 

§ 1 80. 24. Prefently upon this the Quakers beg^n to make a great Stirr among 
us, and aded the Pares of Men in Raptures, and fpake in the manner of Men in» 
fpired, and every where railed againft Tythes and Minifters. They lent many 
Papers at Queries to divers Minifters about us : And to one of the chief of them 
I wrote an An(wer, and gave them as many more Queftions to anlwer, entituling 
it, Ibe Quakers Catecbijm : Thefe Pamphlets being but one or two Days Wo. k^ 
were no great Interruption to my better Labours, and as they were of fniali 
Worth, (o alfo of fmall Coft. The fame Minifters of our Country that are now 
filenced, are they that the Quakers moft vehemently oppofed, medling little 
with the reft. The marvellous concurrence of Inftruments telleth us, that one 
principal Agent doth aft them all. I have oft asked the Quakers lately, why they 
chofe the fame Miniiters to revile, whom all the Drunkards and Swearers rail 
againft ? And why they cryed out in our Affemblies, Come do'wn thou Decetver, 
thou Hireling, thou Dog ; and now never meddle with the Paitors or Congregati- 
ons ? And they anfwer, i. That thefe Men fin in the open Light, and need none 
to difcover them. 2. That the Spirit hath his times both of Severity, and of Lenity. 
But the Truth is, they knew then they might be bold without any Fear of Suf- 
fering by it : And now it is time for them to fave their Skins ; they fufTer enough 
for their own Affemblies. 

181 . 25-. The great Advancement of the Popifli Intereft by their fecret agen- 
cy among the Sectaries, Seekers, Quakers, Behmenifts, &c. did make me thiuk it 
necelTary to do (bmething diredly againft Popery ; and fo I publi/hed three Difpu- 
tations againft them, one to prove our Religion fafe, and another to prove their 
Religion unfafe ; and a third to ftiew that they overthrew the Faith by the ill Reso- 
lution of their Faith. This Book I entituled. The fafe Religion. 

§ 182. 26. About the fame time I fell into troublefom Acquaintance with one 
Clement Writer of Wbrcefier, an ancient Man that ( had long feemed a forward Pro- 
feffor of Religiou&eG, and of a good Converfation, but was now perverted to I 
know not what : A Seeker he profeft to be, but I eafily perceived that he was cif 
ther A jugling Papift or an Infidel j but I more fulpefted the latter : He had writ- 
ten a fcornful Book againft the Miniftry, called Jus Di'vinum Presbyterii, and after 
two more againft the Scripture and againft me, one called Fides Divina, the other's 
Title I remember not : HisAffertion tome was, that no Man is bound to believe 
in Chrift that doth not fee confirming Miracles himfelf with his own Eyes; 

By the Provocations of this Apoftate, I wrote a Book, called. The unreafanablemji 
of Infidelity y confifting of four Parts : The firft, of the extrinfick Witnefs of the 
Spirit by Miracles, &c. to which I annexed a Deputation againft Clement Writer, to 
prove that the Miracles wrought by Chrift and his Apoftles, oblige us to believe 
that did not fee them. The Second part was of the intrinfick WitneOof the Spi- 
rit, to Chrift and Scripture. The Third was of the Sin or Blafphemy againft the 
Holy Ghoft. And the Fourth was .to reprefs the Arrogancy of realbning againft 
Divine Revelations, All this was intended but as a Supplement to the Second Part 
of The Samts Refi, where I had pleaded for the Truth of Scripture: But thisSub- 
jed I have fmce more fully handled in my Reafons of the Chrifitaa Religion. 

At that time Mr. Gilbert, a learned Minifter in Shropjliire wrote a fmall concife 
Tradate in Latin ( as againft a Book of Dr. Owen% though his intimate Friend ) 
to prove that Chrift's Death was not neceffary abfolutely, but of Divine Free 
Choice ; and in anfwer to that Book, I wrote a brief Premonition to my Treatile 
againft Infidelity to decide that Controverfy. 

^ 18}. 27. Mr. 7ho. Foley being High Sheriff, defired me to preach before the 
Judges ; which 1 did on Gal.6. 16. and enlarged k to a Treatife, entituled, The Cru- 
cifying of the World by the Crofs ofCbrifi ; for Mortification j and put an Epiftle fome- 
what large before it to provoke rich Men to good Works. 

§ 1S4. 28. Some Men about this time perfuaded me, that if I would write a 
few fingle Sheets on feveral SubjeAs, though the Style were not very moving, yet 
it would do more good than larger Volumes, becaufe moft People will buy and 
read them, who will neither buy nor read the larger. Whereupon I wrote firft. 
One Sheet againfi the Quakers, containing thole Realons which fhould fatisfia all So- 
ber Men againft their way. 

§ 18 J. 29.The fecond Sheet I called A Winding Sheet for Pe;iey7,containing a Sum- 
mary of Moderate and Effe<5tual Reafons againft Popery : ( which fingle fheet no 
Papift hitherto hath anfwered.) 


Part I. Reverenc^ Mr. Richard Baxter. 117 

§ i86. 10. The third Sheet was called [ One Sheet for the Mim(try, again/} the Ma- ' 
Ugnants of all forts ] j containing thofe Reafons for the prelent Miniftry which fhew 
the greatnefs of the Sin of thofe that fee againft them. It was intended then a- 
gainll the Quakers and other Seftarian Enemies to the Miniftry : but is as ufeful 
for thefe Times, and againft tho(ethat on other pretences hate, and fiience, and 
fupprefs them; and might tell their Confciences what they do. 

$ 1 87. jr. The fourth Sheet I called [ A Second Sheet for the Mmifiry ] j being 
a Defence of their Office as continued, againft the Seekers, who pretend that the 
Miniftry is ceafed and loft : And it may lerve againft the Papifts that queftion our 
Call for want of a Succeflioh ; and all their Spawn of Sedaries that are ftill fet- 
tjng themfelves againft the Miniftry, fand againft the Sacred Scriptures). 

§ 188. g2. Mr. William Montford being chofcn BaylifF of Ktdermtnfier, defired 
Bie to write him down a few brief Inftrudions for the due Execution of his Office 
of Magiftracy, that he might fo pafs it as to have Comfort and not Trouble in the 
Review ; which having done, confidering how many Mayors, and BaylifFs, and 
Countrey Juftices needed it as well as he^ I printed it in an open Sheet to ftick 
upon a Wall, Entituled, Direilions for Jvfiices of Peace, efpeciaUy in Corporations j 
for the Difcharge of their Duties to God ; (luited to thole Times.) 

§ 189. 35. Mr. John Dury having fpent thirty Years in Endeavours to recon- 
cile the Lutherans and Calvanifts, wa.«. now going over Sea again upon that Work, 
and defired the Judgment of our Aflc-ciation how ic Ihould be (iiccesfully expedited; 
which at their defire I drew up more largely in Latin, and more briefly in Englifh: 
The Englilh Letter he printed, a-i my Letter to Mr. Dury for Pacification. 

§ 190. 34. About that time Mr. Jonathan Hanmer of Devenjhire wrote a Trea- 
tife for Confirmation, as the mo^t expedient means to reform our Churches, and re- 
concile all that difagree about the Qualification of Church Members ; I. liked the 
Defign fo well ( having before written for it in my Treatife of Baptifm ) that be- 
ing requefted, I put a larp^e Epiftle before it • and after that, when fome Brethren 
defired me to produce more Scripture Proof for it than he had done, I wrote a 
(mall Treatife called, [ Confirmation and Refiauration the necejfary means to Reformation 
and Reconciliation.^ But the times changed before it could be much pradifed. 

§ 191. 3 J. Sergea!,it Shephard, an honeft Lawyer, wrotea litde Book of Sincerity 
and Hypcrtfy ; and. in the end oi it Mr. Tho. Barlow ( afterward Bifhop of Lincoln) 
wrote (without h'is Name) an Appendix in Confutation of a fuppofed Opinion of 
mine, that Saving Grace difFereth not Sfecte but Gr<5«/»from Common Grace : To 
which I replied in a ftiort Difcourfe called [ Of Saving Faith, &c. ] I had moft 
highly value-i the Author whom I wrote againft, long before, for his Six Exerci- 
tations in the end of Schibler's Metafhyficks : But in his Attempt againft me, he 
came qui^tC below himfelf, as I made maiifeft j and he refolved to make no Anfwer 
to it. In , this Tradate the Printer plaid his part fo ihamefuUj, that the Book is 
fcarcejiy to be underftood. 

§ 192. %6. Being greatly apprehenfive of the Commonnels and Danger of the 
Sin of Selfijhmfs, as the Summ and Root of all pofitive Evil, I preached many Ser- 
mons againft: it ; and at the Requeft of fome Friends Ipublilhed them, entituled.4 
Trtatffe of Self-dental ; which found better acceptance than moft of my other, but 
yet prevented not the ruine of Church and State, and Millions of Souls by that 

§ 195. 57. After that I publiftietJ, Five Diffutations ahoutChttrch-Gcvernment, in 
order to the Reconciliation of the differing Parties : In the firft I proved that the 
Englifu Diocefane Prelacy is intollerable ( which none hath anfwered ) : In the fe- 
cond I have proved the Validity of the Ordination then exerciled without Dioce- 
lanes in England ( which no Man hath anfwered, though many have urged Men to 
be re-ordained ). In the third I proved that there are divers forts of Epifco- 
pacy lawful and defirable. In the fourth and fifth I fliew the lawfulnefs of fbma 
Ceremonies and of a Liturgy, and what is unlawful here. 

This Book being publifhed when Bifhops, Liturgy and Ceremonies were moft de- 
cryed and oppofed, was of good ufe to declare my Judgment when the King 
came in ; for if I had faid as much then, I had been judged but a Temporizer : 
But as it was efFeftual to fettle many in a Moderation, lo it made abundance of 
Conformifts afterwards ( or was pretended at leaft to give them Satisfaction ) : 
Though it never medled with the greateft Parts of Conformity ( Renouncing 
Vows, AfTent and Content to all things in three Books, &c. ) j and though it un- 
anfwerably confuted our Prelacy and Re-ordination, and confequently the Renun- 
ciation of the Vow againft Prelacy ; and oppofed the Crofs in Baptifm. But Sic 


itg The LIFE of the L i b. I 

vitant Stulti Vitia ( as my AphoriCms made fome Arminians ). If you difcover aa 
Error to an injudicious Man, he reeleth into the contrary Error, and it is hard 
to flop him in the middle Verity. 

§ 194. ;8- At the fame timel publiflied another Bookagainft Popery, fit for the 
defenfive Part, and intruding Proteftants how to anfwer any Papift. It is entitu- 
led, ^ Key for Catholkh, to of en the juglivg of the Jefutts, and fatisfie all that art 
hut truly willing to underftand whether the Caufe of the Roman or Reformed Churches he 
of God. 

In this Treatife, proving that the Blood of the King is not by Papifts to be 
charged upon Proteftants, I plainly hazarded my Life againft the Powers that 
then were ; and grievoufly incenfed Sir H. Vane ( as is before declared ) : And yet 
Mr. J. N. was fo tender of the Papifts Intereft, that having before been offended 
with me for a Petition againft Popery, and ( a Jultice of all times ) fpake againft 
it on the Bench, and his Difpleafure encreafed by this Bookj he took occafion fince 
the King came in, to write againft me for thole very Paftages which condemned 
the King- killers : Becaule comparing the Cafe with theDodrine and Pradice of the 
Papifts,! Ihewed that theSedarians and Cromwelianshadof the two a more plaufi- 
ble Pretence, ( which I there recited ) he confuteth thofe Pretences of theirs as if 
they had been my own ; thereby to make the World believe that I wrote for the 
King's Death, in the very Pages where to the h.)zard of my Life I wrote againft 
it ; when he himfelf took the Engagement againft the King and the Houle of 
Lords, and was a Juftice under Oliver, and more than fo, figned Orders for thcle- 
queftring of others of the King's Party. But the great Indignation againft this 
Book and the former, is, that they were by Epiftles direded to Ri. Cromwell as 
Lord Protedor, which I did only to provoke him that had Power, to ufe it well, 
when the Parliament had fworn Fidelity to him j and that without any Word of 
Appiobation to his Title. 

Yet thoie that were not prejudiced by partiality againft this Book ( my Key for Ca- 
tholkh ) have let me know that it bath not been without Succefs : It being indeed 
a fafficient Armory, for to furniih a Proteftant to defend his Religion againft all 
the Affaults of the Papifts whatfoever, and teacheth him how to anfwer all their 
Books. The lecond part doth briefly deal with the French and Grotian Party, 
that are for the Supremacy of a Council, at leaft as to the Leg?ftative Power, 
and (heweth that we never had a general Council, nor can it be at all expeded. 

§ 19)-. 59. But the Book which hath furnilhecl my Enemies with matter of Re- 
viling C wliich none muft dare to anfwer ) is my Holy Commonwealth : The Occa- 
fion of it was this ; when our Pretorian Sedarian Bands had cut all Bonds and pull'd 
down all Government, and after the Death of the King had twelve Years kept out 
his Son, few Men fawnny probability of his Reftitution; and every felf conceited 
Fellow W.1S ready to offer his Model for a new Form of Government : Mr. Hobbs 
his Leviathan had plealed many : Mr. Tho. White the great Papilf, had written his 
Politicks in Eiiglilh for the Intereft of the Protedor, to prove that Subjeds ought 
to lubmit and fubjed thcmfelves to fuch a Change: And now Mr. James Harring- 
ton ( they (ay by the help of Mr. H. Neziill ) had written a Book in Folio for a 
Democracy, called Oceana, ferioudy defcribing a Form near to the Fer:etian, and 
letting the People upon the Defiies of a Change : And after this Sir H. Vane and 
his Party were about their Sedarian Democratical Model, which Stubbs defended ; 
and Rogers and Needham ( and Mr. Bag(})aw had written againft Monarchy be- 
fore ,\ In the end of an Epiftle before my Book of {^Crucifying the World'] I had 
fpoken 3 few Words againft this Innovation and Opposition to Monarchy ; and ha- 
ving e(J3Ccially touched upon Oceana and Leviathan, Mr. Harrington lecmed in a 
Bethlehem Rage ; for by way of Scorn he printed half a Sheet of foolilli Jeers, in 
fuch Woids as Ideotsor Drunkards ule, railing at Miniftersas a Pack of Fools and 
Knaves, and by his gibbcriih Derifion perfuading Men that we deferved no other 
Aniwer than fuch Scorn and Nonlenle as befeemeth Fools : And with moft info- 
lent Pride he carried it, as if neither I nor any Minifters underftood at all what 
Policy was ; but prated againft we knew not what, and had prefumed to fjjeak 
againft other Mens Art, which ^e was Mafterof, and his Knowledge to fuch Ide- 
otsas vireinconiprehenfible. This made me think it fit, having given that Gene- 
ral hint againft his Oceana, to give a more particuar Charge, and withal to give 
'the World and him an Account of my Political Principles, and to fhew what I 
held as well as what I denyed ; which I did in that Book called. Political j^phonfms, 
or /i Holy Commonwealth, as contrary fo his HeatbeniJIi Commonwealth : In which I 
plead the Caule of Monarchy as better than Democracy and Ariftocracy ; but as 


Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. ii^ 

under God the Univerfal Monarch. Here Bifliop Morky hath his Matter of 
Charge againfl: me ; of which one part is that I fpake againft Unlimited Monarchy, 
becauje God himfelf hath limited all Monarchs. If I had laid that Laws limit Monarchs, 
I might among iome men be thought a Traytor, and unexculable : but to fay that 
God Itmitetb Monarchs, I thought had never before been chargeable with Treafon, 
or oppofed by any that believed that there is a God. If they are indeed unlimited in 
refped of God; we have many Gods or no God. But now it is dangerous to med- 
dle with thele matters: Moft men lay now. Let God defend himfelf. 

In the end of this Book is an Appendix concerning the Caufe of the Parlia- 
ments firft War , which was thus occafioned : Sir Francu Nether(ole a Religious 
Knight, who was againft the lawfulneG of the War on both fides, fent his man to 
me, with Letters to advife me to tell Cromwell of his Ufurpation , and to coun- 
lel him to cal! in the King j of which when I had given him fatisfaftion, he fent 
him again with more Letters and Books, to convince me of the unlawfulnels of 
the Parliament's War : And others attempting the fame at the fame time ; and the 
Confufions which the Army had brought upon us, being fuch as made me very 
much difpofed to think ill of thofe beginnings which had no better an end , I 
thought it beft to publifh my Detellation and Lamentation for thole Rebellious 
Proceedings of the Army, ( which 1 did as plainly as could be born , both in an 
Epiftle to them, and in a Meditation in the end), and withal to declare the very 
Truth, that hereby I was made fufpicious and doubtful of the beginnings or firft 
Caufe, but yet was not able to anfwer the Arguments which the Lawyers of the 
Parliament then gave, and which had formerly inclined me to that fide. I con- 
confeffed, that if mens Miicarriages and ill Accidents would warrant me to Con- 
demn the beginnings which were for another Caufe, then I fhould have condemned 
them : But that being not the'way, I found my felf yet unable to anfwer the firft 
Realbns ; and therefore laid them down together , defiring the help of others to 
anfwer them , profeffing my own fufpicion , and my daily Prayers to God 
for juft fatisfaftion. And this Paper is it that containeth all my Crimes. Againft 
this, one Tomkms wrote a Book, called, The Rebels Plea. But I wait in filence till 
God enlighten us. 

In the beginning of this Book having reprehended the Army, I anlwer a Book 
of Sir Henry Vane's, called. The Healing Quefiion. It was publilhed when Richard 
Cromwell was pull'd down, and Sir H. Fane's New Commonwealth was form- 

§ 196. 40. About the fame time, one that called himlelf ^. Johnfin, (but I hear 
his Name is Mr. Terret ) a Papift, engaged me in a Controverfie, about the per- 
petual vifibility of the Church ; which afterwards I publilhed j the ftory of which 
you have more at large in the following part of this Book. In the latter I inferted 
a Letter of one Thomas Smyth a Papift, with my Anfwer to it, which it (eemath 
occafioned his recovery from them, as is manifeft in a Letter of Mr. Thomas Stanley 
his Kinfman ( a fober godly man in Breadfireet ) which I by his own confent fub- 
joyned. To this Book Mr. Johnfin hath at laft replyed j and I have fince return'd 
an Anfwer to him. 

§ 197. 41. Having been defired in the time of our Affociations, to draw up thofe 
Terms which all Chriltian Churches may hold Communion upon ; I publiOied 
them, though too late for any fuch ufe ( till God give men better minds) that the 
World might fee what our Religion and our Terms of Communion were ; and that 
if afcer Ages prove more peaceable, they may have fome light from thole that 
went before them. Ic coniifteih of three parts : 

The firft containeth theChriftian Religion, which all are pofitively to profefs , 
that is, Either to fubfcribe the Scriptures in general, and the ancient Creeds in 
particular; or at moft, The Confeffion ( or Articles j annexed: e.g. \_ I do be- 
lieve all the Sacred Canonical Scripture, which all Chrijlian Churches do receive'^ and far' 
ticularly I believe in God the Either Almighty, Scc.j 

The fecond Part (^ inftead of Books of unneceffary Canons) containeth levcn 
or eight Points of Pradice for Church Order, which , fo it be pradtiied, it is no 
great matter whether it be fubfcribed or nor. And here it muft be underftood that 
thefe are written for Times of Liberty, in which Agreement rather than Force doth 
procure Unity and Communion. 

The third Part containeth the larger Defcription of the Office of theMiniftry, 
and confequently of all the Ordinances of Worfhip ; which need not be fiibfcri- 
bed, but none li-.ould preach againft it, nor omit the practice; except Peace re- 
quire that the Point of Infant Baptifn be left free. 


I20 The LIFE of the Lib. I, 

This fmall Book is called by the Name oi Umverfal Concord ; which when I wrote, 
i thought to have publifiied a Second Part , -viz,, a large Volume containing the 
particular Terms of Concord, between all Parties capable of Concord. But the 
Change of the Times hath neceflarily changed that purpofe. 

§ 198. 42. The next publifhed was a Sermon before the Parliament, the day 
before they voted in the King, being a Day of Humiliation appointed to that end. 
It is called A Sermon of Repentance, of which more afterward. 

§199. 45. The next publilhed was a Sermon preached before the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen at Vauh, being on their Day of Rejoycing for General MonK% Suc- 
cels to bring in the King : It is called A Sermon of Right Rejoyctng. 

§ 200. 44 The next was a Sermon of the Life of Faith, preached before the 
King, being all that ever I was called to preach before him,when I had been fworn 
his Chaplain in Ordinary : of which more afterward. 

§2ox. 4^. The next was called A Believer's lafi Work , being prepared for the 
Funeral of Mrs. Mary Hammr, Mother to my Wife (then intended, but after mar- 
ried ) : Its ule is to prepare for a Comfortable Death. 

§ 202. 4<^. Before this ( which I forgot in its proper place ) I publiflied a Trea- 
tife of Death, called, The lafi Enemy to be overcome , (hewing the true Nature of 
the Enmity of Death, anditsufes: Being a Funeral Sermon for Mrs. Elizabeth 
Baker , Wife to Mr. Jofeph Baker Minifter at Worcefter j with fome Notes of her 

§ 205. 47. Another was called. The vain Religion of the Formal Hypocrite: A Dif 
covery of the Nature and Mifchief of a Formal vain Religion, preached at Welt- 
minfter-Abby : with a Sermon annexed of the Projperity of Fools. This being preach- 
ed at Covent-Gorden was unjuftly accufed, and publiJhed by way of Vindication, 
with the former. 

§ 204. 48. The next was a Treatise on Luke 10. 42. One thing » needful j called, 
[ A Saint or a Bruit ] fliewing the Neceffity, Utility, Safety , Honour and Plea- 
fure of a Holy Life, and evincing the Truth of our Religon againft Atheifts and 
Infidels and Prophane ones. 

§ 20 J. 49. The next was a Treatifc of Selfkno-wledge, preached at Ttunflan's 
Weft, called. The Mtfchtefs of Self -ignorance, and Benefits of Self-acquaintance ; which 
was publiflied partly to vindicate it from many falfe Accufations, and partly at the 
defire of the Countefs of Bakarres to whom it was direded. It was fitted to the 
Difeafe of this furious Age, in which each man is ready to devour others, becaufe 
they do not know themlelves. 

§ 206. fo. The next was aTreatife called The Divine Life -. which containeth 
three Parts ; The firft is of the Right Knowledge of God, for the imprinting of 
his Image on the Soul, by the knowledge of his Attributes , &c. The lecond is. 
Of walking with God. The third is. Of improving Solitude to converfe with 
God, when ue are forfaken by all Friends, or leparated from them. 

The Occafion of the publilhing of this Treatile was this j The Countefs of BaU 
Carres being going into Scotland, after her abode in England, being deeply ienfible 
of the lofs of the Company of thofe Friends which fhe left behind her, defired me 
to preach the laft Sermon which ihe was to hear from me on thofe words of Chrift, 
John 16. 52. Behold the hour cometh,yea is now come, thatyejball be fcattered every man 
to his own, and jliaU leave me alone ; »nd yet I am not alone , becaufe the Father is with 
me. ] At her requefl I preached on this Text ; and being afterward defired by 
her to give it her in Writing, and the Publication being her defign, I prefixed the 
two other Treatifes to make it more confiderable , and publiflied them together. 
The Treatife is upon the mofl: Excellent Subject, but not elaborate at all ; being 
but Popular Sermons preached in the midll of diverting Bufineffes, Accufations, 
and malicious Clamours 

When I offered it to the Prefi, I was fain to leave out the quantity of one Ser- 
mon in the end of the fecond Treatife [ That God took Henoch]: wherein I (hew- 
ed what a mercy it is to one that hath walked with God, to be taken to him from 
this World ; becaule it is a dark, a wicked, a malicious, and implacable, a trea- 
cherous deceitful World, c^-c. AH which the Bifliop's Chaplain mult have ex- 
punged, becaule men would think it was all fpoken of them ! And io the World 
hath got a Protection againflthe force of ourBaptifmal Vow. 

§207. Becaufe I have laid fo much in the Epifiles of thefe two Eooks of the 
Countefs of Bakarres, the Reader may expeftfome further latiafaftionoi her Quali- 
ty, and the Caufe. 


P A El T 1. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 121 

She is Daughter to the late £arl of Seafmb in Scotland, towards the High-lands^ 
and was married to the Earl of Balcarres, a Covenanter, but an Enemy to Crom- 
Ti/eU's perfidioufnels, and true to the Perfon and Authority of the King : with the 
Earl of Gkncarne he kept up the laft War for the King againft Cromwell, and his La- 
dy, through dsarnefi of Alfecflion, marched with him, and lay out of doors with 
him on the Mountains. At iaft Cromwell drove them out of Scotland, and they 
went together bsyond Sea to the King j where they long followed the Court, and 
he was tjken for the Head of the Presbyterians wich the King, and by evil In- 
ftruments fell out with the Lord Chancellor, who prevailing againft him,upon Ibme 
advantage he was for a time forbidden the Court ; the Grief whereof added to 
the Di'+empers he had contracted by his Warfare on the cold and hungry Moun- 
tains, calt him into a Confurnption, of which he died. He was a Lord of excel- 
lent Learning, Judgment and Honefty ; none being praifed equally with him for 
Learning and Underftanding in all Scotland. 

Wiien the Ea.v\ oi Lauderdaile (his near Kinfman and great Friend) was Pri- 
foner in Purtfmouth ahd Windjor-Cafile, he fell into acquaintance with my Books, 
and fo valued them that he read them all, and took Notes of them, and earneftly 
commended them to the Earl of Balcarres ( with the King ). The Earl of Bal- 
carres met at the firll fight with Ibme PafTages where he thought I (pake too favou- 
rably of the Papifts, and differed from many other Proteftants , and io caft them 
by, and lent the realbn of his diltalte to the Earl of Lauderdaile : who preft him 
but to read one of the Books over ; which he did j and fo read them all (as I have 
leen many of them marked with his hand jj and was drawn to over-value them 
more than the Earl oi Lauderdaile. 

Hcr'-upnn his Lady reading, them alio, and being a Woman of very ftrong Love 
and Friendlhip, with extraordinary Entirenefs fwallowed up in her Husband's 
Love, for the Books fake and her Husband's fake, Ihe became a moft affedionate 
Friend to me, before flie ever law me. While fhe was in France, being zealous 
for the King's Refforation (forwhofe Caufeher Husband had pawned and ruined 
his Ellate ', , by the Earl of Lauderdaile s dircAion , fhe with Sir Robert Murray ^ 
get divers Letters from the Paffors and others there, to bear witnefs of the King's 
fincericy iii the Proteftant Religion ( among which there is one to me from Mr. 
Caches). Her great Wifdom, Modefty, Piety and Sincerity, made her accounted 
the Saint at the Court. When Ihe came over with the King, her extraordinary 
Refpeft? obliged me to be fo often with her, as gave me Acquaintance with her 
Eminenoy in all the forefaid Vertues: She is of folid Underitanding in Religionj 
for her Sex ; and of Prudence much more than ordinary j and of great Integrity 
andConflancy in her Religion,and a great Hater of Hypocrifie,and faithful to Chrid 
in an unfaithful World ; and fhe is fbmewhat over-much affectionate to her Friend; 
which hath colt her a great deal of Sorrow, in the lols of her Husband, and fince Sheisfmce 
of other fpecial Friends, and may coft her more when the reft forfake her , as [jl^'^^rj of 
many in Profperity ufeto dothofe that will not forfake their Fidelity to Chrift. Ar^la, 
Her eldcft Son, the young Earl of Balcarres, a very hopeful Youth, died of a 
ifr.inge Difsale, two Stones being found in his Heart, of which one was very great. 
Being my conftant Auditor and over refpedful Friend, I had occafion forthe juft 
Prailes and Acknowledgments which I have given her; which the occafioning of 
thefe Books hath caufed me to mention. 

§ 208. f r. After our Difpute at the Savoy, fomebody printed our Papers (mofl 
of them ) given in to them in that Treaty j of which the Petition for Peace, the 
Reformed Liturgy ( except the Prayer for the King which Dr. IV. wrote ), the 
large Reply to their Anfwer of our Exceptions, and the two Iaft AddreiTes were 
my Writing : But in the firft Propofals, and the Exceptions againft the Liturgy, I 
had lefs to do than fome others. 

§ 209. J 2. When the grievous Plague began at London, I printed a half-lheet (to 
ftick on a Wall ) for the ule of the Ignorant and Ungodly who were fick, or in 
danger of the Sicknefs : ( for the Godly I thought had leG need , and would read 
thole larger Books, which are plentifully among us ). And I the rather did it, 
becaufe many well-winded People that are about the Sick, that are ignorant and 
unprepared , and know not what to fay to them , may not only read fo fliort a 
Paper to them, but fee there in what method fuch Perfbns are to be dealt with 
in fuch a Cafe of Extremity , that they may themfelves enlarge as they fee 

R $110. 

122 The LI F E of the L i b. I. 

§ 2IO. J 3. At that time one Mr. Nathaniel Lane wrote to me to intreat me to 
wrice one iheet or two for the ule of poor Families , who will not buy or read 
any bigger Books. Though I knew that brevity would unavoidably caufe me to 
leave out much neceffary matter, or elfe to write in a Stile lb concife and clofe as 
will be little moving to any but dole judicious Readers, yet I yielded to his per- 
(wafions, and thought it might be better than nothing, and might be read by many 
that would read no larger ; and (b I wrote two Sheets for foor Families : The firlt 
containing the method and motives for the Converfion of the Ungodly. The fe- 
cond containing the Defcription or Charaftcr of a true Chriftian, or the neceffa- 
ry Parts of Chrirtian Duty, for the direftion of Beginners in a Godly Life. Thele 
three laft Sheets were printed by the favour of the Archbiihop's Chaplain, when 
the Bilhop of London's Chaplain had put me out of hope of printing any 
!^ Of what With all thefe Writings I have troubled the World already*: and thele are all 
publifcd except Epiftles to other mens Works ; C as one before Mr. Swinnock's Book of Re- 
ice after-' generation j one before Mr. Hopkins Book ; one before Mr. EeJes-y one before Mr. 
ward. Adatthew Pool's Model for Advancing Learning ; one before Mr. Benjamin Baxter's 
Book J one before Mv.Jonathan Hanmer's Exercitation of Confirmation ; one before 
Mr, Lawrence of Sicknefi; two before two of Mr. Tombe's Books ; and lome others j 
( of which there are two that I niufl: give Ibme account of) 

The Bookleller being to print the Affembly's Works, with the Texts cited at 
length, defired me by an EpilUe to recommend it to Families : I thought it a 
thing arrogant and unfit for a fingle Perfon, who was none of the Synod , to put 
an Epiftle before their Works- But when he made me know that it was the defire 
of fome Reverend Minifters, I wrote an Epiftle, but required him to put it into 
other mens hands, to publifh or fupprefs, according to their Judgment : but to be 
fure that they printed all or none. The Bookfeller gets Dr. AUnton to put an E- 
piftla before the Book, who inlertedminein a differing Charadcr in his own, (as 
mine, but not naming me): But he leaveth out a part, which it feems, was not 
pleafing to a!!. When I had commended the Catechifms for the ufe of Families, I 
added. That [_I hoped the JjJ'embly intended not all tn that long Confejfion and thofe Ca- 
techifms, to be impojed as a Te^t of Chrifiian Communion j wor to difown all that fcrupled 
any -word m it j if they had I could not have commended it for any Jtich ufe, phough it he 
ufifulfor the infiruBion of Families, &c.] All this is left out, which 1 thought meet 
to open, leli I be there mifunderftood. 

Alfo tnke notice that the Poem prefixed to Mr. Vines's Book of the Sacrament, 
was not piinted bv any order of mine. Having received the printed Book from 
the Stationer as a Gift, it renewed my Sorrow for the Author's Death ; which pro- 
voked me to wrice that Poem the fame Night, in the Exercileof my Sorrow, and 
gave it the Donor for his Book ; and he printed it without my knowledge. 

§211. Manufcripts that are yet unprinted , which lye by me, are thefe fol- 
"■ Since !• * A Treatife in Folio, called, A Chrifiian DireBory , or Sam of PraBical Divi- 

printcd «/(/, in four Tomes : The firft called C;6r;j?wn£f^;c;6j; The kcond Chrifiian Eccle- 
tvvicc. fiafiicks'y lihQ thii:d,Chrifiian Oeconomicks; Thz founh,ChrifiianPoliticks. Itcontain- 
eth bare Direciions for the praftice of our Duties in all thele refpedls ; as Chriflians, 
as Church- Members, as Members of the Family, and as Members of the Com- 
monwealth : But there is a fufficient Explication of the Subjeft ufually premifed, 
and the Diredions themfelves are the Anfwers of moft uleful Cafes of Confcienc« 
thereabouts, though the Cafes bs not named by way of Queftion: But where it was 
neceffary the Cafes are diftindly named and handled. 

My intent in writing this, was at once to fatisfie that motion fb earneflly made 
by Bi/hop U^ier, mentioned in the Preface to my Call to the Unconverted , which I 
had been hindrcd from doing by parts before : And I had lome little refpetft to the 
requeft which was long ago font to him from fbme Tranfmarine Di^'ines, to help 
them to a Sum of Practical Divinity in the EngU^i method : But though neceffary 
brevity hath deprived it of all life and luftre ot Stile, it being but a Skeleton of 
Practical Heads ; yet is it fo large by realbn of the multitude of things to be hand- 
led, that I fee it will not be of fo common a ufe as I firll intended it. To young 
A/inifters, and to the more intelligent and diligent fort of A/aftcrs of Families, (who 
would have a Pradical Directory at hand to teach them every Chrifiian Duty, ajid 
how to help others in the practice) it may be not unferviceable . 


P A R T 1. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 123 

2. Another Manufcript is called {_* A Chriltian indeed ].- It confifteth of two "^ Since 
Parts ; The firfl is a Dilcovery of the Calamities which follow the iveakneji and P""^'^^- 
fatilt't-neil of many true Chri(lians,and Diredions for their ffrengthening and growth 
in Grace: which was intended as the third particular Tradate in fulfilling theSinceprin- 
forelaid requeft of Bilhop U^ier j The Call to the Unconverted being for that Ibrt 5 ^^l-"^ ^'" 
and the Dneiiionsfor a found Converjion, being for the fecond lort, who are yet as for weak 
it were in the birth : And this being for the weaker and faultier ibrt of Chrilh'ans, chrirtians. 
which are the third Ibrt. To which is added a fecond Part, containing the juft 
Defcription of a (bund confirmed Chriftian ( whom I call a Chriftian indeed ) 
in fixty Charafters or Marks j and with each of them is adjoyned the Charadter 
of the -weak Chrtfiian, and of the Hjpocrite about the fame part of Duty. But all 
is but briefly done ( the Heads being many ) without any life or ornament of 

Tliis iliort Treatife I offered to Mr. ThowM Grigg , 'the Bifliop of Z,ow Job's* Now 
Chaplain, to be licenfed for the Pre/s, ( a man that but lately Conformed, and ^^^''' 
profefTed fpecial refped to me ) j but he utterly refufed it ; pretending that it fa- 
voured of Difcontent, and would be interpreted as againll the Bifliops and the 
Times. And the matter was, that in feveral Paifages 1 fpake of the Profperity of 
the Wicked, and the Adverfity of the Godly, and defcribed Hypocrites by their 
Enmity to the Godly, and their forlaking the Truth for fear of Suffering, and dc- 
Icribed the Godly by their undergoing the Enmity of the wicked World, and be- 
ing ftedfaft whatever it (hall coft them, &c. And all this was interpreted as a- 
gainft the Church or Vrelatifls. I asked him whether they would licenfe that of 
mine which they would do of another man's againfl: whom they had no difpieafure 
( in the fame words ) : And he told me No : becaufe the words would receive 
their interpretatiou with the Readers from the mind of the Author. And he askc 
me, whether I did not think my felf that Nonconformilfs would interpret it as 
againff the Times. I anfwered him. Yes, 1 thought they would ; and fo they do 
all thofe PafTages of Scripture which fpeak of Perfecution and the Suffering of the 
Godly J but I hoped Bibles fhould be licenled for all that. I asked him whether 
that was the Rule which they went by, that they would licenfq nothing of mine 
which they thought any Readers would interpret as againff the Bifhops or their 
Party. And when he told me plainly, that it was their Rule or Refolution, I 
took it for my final Anfwer, and purpofed never to offer him more : For I defpair 
of writing that which men will not interpret according to their own Condition 
and Opinion ; efpecially againft thole whofe Crimes are notorious before the 
World. This made me think what a troublefome thing is Guile, which, as Se- 
neca faith, is like a Sore, which is pained not only with a little touch, but fome-* 
time upon a conceit that it is touched ; and maketh a man think that every Bryar 
is a Sergeant to Arreft him ; or with Cain, that every one that ieeth him would 
kill him 1 A Cainites heart and life hath ufually the attendance of a Cainites Confcience. 
I did but try the Licenler with this fmall inconfiderable Script, that I might 
know what to expedl for my more valued Writings! And I told him that I had trou- 
bled the World with fo much already, and (aid enough for one man's part, that I 
could not think it very necefTary to fay any more to them ; and therefore I fhould 
accept of his difcharge. But fain they would have had my Controverfal Writings, 
C about Univerfal Redemption, Predetermination, &c. in which my Judgment is 
more pleiilng to them ) ; but I was unwilling to publifh them alone, while the 
Praftical Writings are refufed. And I give God thanks that I once faw Times of 
greater Liberty ( though under an Ufurper ) j or elfe as far as I can difcern, fcarce 
any of my Books had ever feen the Light. 

;. Another Manufcript that lyeth by me, is a Difputation for fome tJniver- 
fality of Redemption *, which hath lain by me near Twenty years unfinifhed, part- >fpubliflit 
ly becauie many narrow minded Brethren would have been offended with it, and fince the 
and partly becaufe at laft came out after Amyraldus., and Davenant's DiJ/ertations , a Autlior's 
Treatife of DaU^tis, which contained the fame things, but efpecially the lame j^.^^yV''' 
Teflimonies of concordant Writers which I had prepared to produce. Read. 

4. There is alio by me an imperfed Manufcript of Predetermination, 
y. And divers Dilputations of fufficient Grace. 

6. And divers mifcellaneous Difputations on Icveral Queflions in Divinity, cur- 
forily managed at»our Monthly Meetings. 

7. And my two Replies to Mr. Cartwright\ Exceptions againff my Aphorilms. * ^"'^^ 

8. And my two Replies to Mr. Lavjon's Animadverfions on the fame Book. Pfif* • 

R i 9- And 

124 I he L I F E of the L i b. 

9. And my Reply to Mr. John ;r<jrre»'s Animadverfions ( which being firft done 
is leafl; digefted ). 

10. And the beginning of a Reply to Dr. Walliis Aniinadverfions. 

ir. And a Difcourfeof the Power of Magillrates in Religion, againfl thofe that 
would not have them to meddle in fuch Matters, being an Affize Sermon preach- 
ed at Shrtwibfiry when Coll. Thomas Hunt was Sheriff. 
* Since 12. And (bme Fragments of Poetry. 

Printed. j^^ And a Multitude of Theological Letters. 

14. And an imperfect Treatifc ot Chrift's Dominion, being many popular Ser- 
mons preached twenty Years ago J and very rude and undigefted ; with divers 

§212. And concerning almoft all my Writings I nmft confefi, that my own 
Judgment is, that fewer well ftudied and polilhed had been better : but the Read- 
er who can lafely cenfure the Books is not fit to cenfure the Author, unlefs he had 
been upon the Pl.ice, and acquainted with all the Occafions and Circumftances : 
Indeed for the Saints Refi 1 had Four Months Vacancy to write it ( but in the 
mid.^ of continual Languilhing and Medicine ): But for the reft I wrote them in 
the Crowd of all my other Imploy ments,which would allow me no great Leifure for 
Policing and Exadnefs, or any Ornament ; fo that I (carce ever wrote one Sheet 
twice over, nor flayed to make any Blots or Interlinings, but was fain to let it go 
as it was firft conceived : And when my own Defire was rather to flay upon one 
thing long, than run over many, ibme ludden Occafions or other extorted almoft 
all my Writings from me : and the Apprehenfions of Prefent Ufefulnefs or Necejfity 
prevailed againft all other Motives. So that the Divines which were at hand with 
me ftill put me on and approved of what I did, becaule they were moved by pre- 
fent Necejfities as well as I : But thofe that were far off, and felt not thole nearer 
Motives, did rather wifh that I had taken the other way, and publiflied a few ela- 
borate Writings j and I am ready my lelf to be of their Mind, when I forgot the 
Cafe that then 1 Ifood in, and have loft the Senfe of former Motives. The oppo- 
fing of the Anahaptifts, Separatifts, Quakers, Antinomians, Seekers, &c. were 
Works which then feemed neceffary ; and (o did the Debates about Church Go* 
vernment and Communion which touched our prefent Pradice ; but now all thofe 
Rcafons are paft and gone,I could wifh I had rather been doing (ome work ofmore 
durable Ufefulnefs. But e\?en to a forefeeing Man, who knoweth what will be of long- 
eft ufe, it is hard to difcern how far that which is prefently needful may be omitted, 
for the fake of a greater future Good. There are Ibme other works, wherein my 
Heart hath more been fet than any of thofe forementioned j in which I have met 
with great Obftruftions, For I muft declare that in this as in many other Mat- 
ters I have found that we are not the Choofers of our own Imployments, no more 
than of cur own Succeffes. 

§ 213. Becaule it is Soul-Experiments which thofe that urge me to this kind of 
Writing, do expecft chat I fhould efpecially communicate to others, and I have faid 
little of God's dealing with my Soul fince the time of my younger Years, I fiiall 
only give the Reader fo much Satisfaftion, as to acquaint him truly what Change 
God hath made upon my Mind and Heart fince thole unriper times, and where- 
in I now differ in Judgment and Dilpofition from my lelf : And for any more par- 
ticular Account of Heart-Occurrences, and God'5 Operations on me, I think it 
fomewhat unfivory to recite them j feeing God's Dealings are much what the 
fame with all his Servants in the main, and the Points wherein he varieth are ufu- 
ally Iblmall, that I think not fuch fit to be repeated : Nor have I any thing extra- 
ordinary to glory in, which is not common to the reft of my Brethren, who have 
the fimc Spirit, and are Servants of the lame Lord. And the true Reafon why I 
do adventure io far upon the Cenlure of the World, as to tell them wherein the 
Cale is altered with me, is that I may take off young unexperienced Chriftians 
from being over confident in their firff Apprehenfions, or overvaluing their firft 
degrees of Grace, or too much applauding and following iinfurnifhed unexperi- 
enced Men J hut may Ibmewhat be diretfted what Mind and Courfe of Life to pre- 
fer, by the Judgment of one that hath tryed both before them. 

i.The Temper of my Mind hath fomewhat altered with the Temper of my Body. 
When I was young, I was more 'vigorous, offccliovate^ and fervent in Preaching, Con- 
ference and Prayer, th.in (ordinarily ) 1 can be now ; my Stile was more cxrem- 
porate and laxe, but by the Advantage of Affeciion, and a very familiar moving 
Voice and Utterance, my preaching then did more affeft the Auditory, tjian 
many of thclaft Years before I gave over Preaching j but yet what 1 delivered was 


Part I. Reverenc^ Mr. Kichard Baxter. 12 


much more raw, and had more PalTages that would not bear the Tryal of accurate 
Judgments j and my Diicourles had both lefs Subjlance and left Judgment than of 

2. My under/landing was then quicker, and could eafilyer manage any thing that 
was newly prelcnted to it upon a ludden ; but it is fince better furmjhed, and 
acquainted with the ways of Truth and Error, and with a Multitude of particular 
Miftakes of the World, which then I was the more in Danger of, becaufe I had 
only the F.iaihy of Knowing them, but did not ^Eiually know them. I was then 
like a Man of a quick UnderRanding that was to travail a way which he never 
went before, or to caft up an Account which he never laboured in before, or to 
play on an Inftrument of Mufick which he never faw before : And I am now like 
one of fomewhat a flower Underftanding (by that prematura feneilus which weak- 
nels and exceflive bleedings brought me to) who is travelling a Way which he 
hath often gone, and is cafHng up an Account which he hath often caft up, and 
hath ready at hand, and that is playing on an Inftrument which he hath often 
playd on : So that I can very confidently (ay, that my Judgment is much founder 
and firmer now than it was then j for though I am now as competent Judge of the 
Acimgi of my own Underftanding then, yet I can judge of the Effects : And when 
I perufe the Writings which I wrote in my younger Years, I can find the Footfteps 
of my unfurnilhed Mind, and of my Eraptyneis and Infufficiency : So that the 
Man that followed my Judgment then, was liker to have been milled by me, 
than he that fhould follow it now. 

And yet, that I miy not fay worfe than it deferveth of my former meafureof 
Underftanding, I fhall truly tell you what change I find now, in the perufal of 
my own Wridngs, Thoie Points which then I throughly fittdted, my Judgment is 
the fame of now, as it was then ; and therefore in the Subfiance of my P.eligion, and 
in thofe Controverfies which I then fearcht into, with iome etxraordinary Dili- 
gence, I find not rriy mind difpofed to a Change : But in divers Points that 1 ftudi- 
ed nightly and by the halves, and in many things which I took upon truft from 
others, I have found fince that my Apprehenfions were either erroneous, or very 
lame. And thofe things which I was Orthodox in, I had either infufficient Reafons 
for, or a mixture of fo me found and fome infufficient ones, or elfean infufficient 
Apprehenfion of thole Reafons ; fo that Ifcarcely knew what I (eemed to know t 
And though in m.y Writings I found little in fubftance which my prefent Judgment 
differeth from , yet in my Afherifms and Saints Refi ( which were my firfl 
Writings) I find fome raw unmeet Expreffions ; and one common Infirmity I 
perceive, that I pu' off Matters with fome kind of Confidence, as if I had done 
fomething new oi more than ordinary in them, when upon my more mature Re- 
views, I find that I faid not half that which the Subjed did require : As E. g. ia 
the Dodrine of the Covenants, and of Juftification, but efpecially about the Di- 
vine Authority of the Scripture in the iecond part of the Samts Refi j where I 
have not faid half that fhould have been faid j and the Reafon was, becaufe that 
I had not read any of the fuller fort of Books that are written on thofe Subjects, 
nor converfed with thofe that knew more than my felf, and fo all thofe things 
were either new or great to me, which were common and fmail perhaps to others; 
and becaufe they all came in by the way of my own Study of the naked matter, 
and not from Books, they were apt to affeft my mind the more, and to feem 
greater than they were. And tiiis Token of my Wcaknefs accompanied thofe mv 
younger Studies, that I was very apt to ftart up Controverfies in the way of my 
Praftical Writings, and alfo more defirous to acquaint the World with all that I 
took to be the Truth, and to affault thofe Books by Name which I thought did 
tend to deceive them, and did contain unfound and dangerous Doiflrine : And the 
Reafon of all this was, that I was then in the vigour of my youthful Apprehenfi- 
ons, and the new Appearance of any lacred Truth, it was more apt to afFecl me, 
and be highlyer valued, than afterward, when commonnefs had dulled my De- 
light ; and 1 did not fafficiently difcern then how much in moff of our Controver- 
fies is verbal, and upon mutual Miftakes. And withal I know not how impatient 
Divines were of being contradided, nor how it would ftir up all their Powers to 
defend what they have once laid, and to rife up againft the Truth which is thus 
thruftupon them, as the mortal Enemy of their Honour : And I knew not how 
hardly Mens Minds are charged from their former Apprehenfions be the Evidence 
never fo plain. And I have perceived, that nothing fo much hindreth the Recep- 
tion of the Truth, as urging it on Men with too harfh Importunity, and falling 
too heavily on their Errors : For hereby you engage their Honour in the bufinefs, 


126 The LIFE of the L i b. I. 

and they defend their Errors as themfelves, and ftir up all their Wit and Ability 
to oppofi you : In controverfies it is fierce Oppofition which is the Bellows to 
kindle arefiflingZeal j when if they be neglefted, and their Opinions lie a while 
de(JDifed, they ulually cool and come again to themfelves ( though I know that this 
holdech not when the Greedinefs and Increafe of his Followers, doth animate a 
Sedary, even though behave no Oppofition). Men arefb loth to be drenched with 
the Tiuth, that I am no more for going that way to work ; and to confels the 
Truth, I am lately much prone to the contrary Extream, to be too indifferent what 
Men hold, and to keep my Judgment to my felf, and never to mention any thing 
wherein I differ from another, or any thing which I think I know more than he j 
or at leaft, if he receive it not prefently to filence it, and leave him to his own 
Opinion : And I find thisEffeft is mixed according to its Caules, which are fbme 
good, Sind. iomz had : The bad Caufes ars i. An Impatience of Mens weaknels and 
miftaking frowardneis and Self-conceitednefs. 2. An Abatement of my fen/ibk 
Efteem of Truth, through the long abode of them on my Mind : Though my 
Judgment value them, yet it is hard to be equally ojfeQed with old and common 
things, as with 7iew and rare ones. The better Caufes are i. That I am much more 
lenfible than ever of the necefTity of living upon the Principles of Religion, which 
we are all agreed in, and uniting thefe j and how much Mifchief Men that over- 
value their own Opinions have dene by their Controverfies in the Church j how 
Ibme have deftroyed Charity, and fome caufed Schifms by them, and mofl have 
hindered Godlynefs in themfelves and others, and ufed them to divert Men from 
the lerious profecuting of a holy Life j and as Sir Francis Bacon faith, ( in his EJ]aj 
of Peace ) that it's one great Benefit of Church-Peace and Concord, that writing 
Controverfies is turned into Books of praAical Devotion for increafe of Piety and 
Virtue. 2. And I find that it's much more for moft Mens Good and Edification, to 
converfe with them only in that way of Godiinefs which all are agreed in, and not 
by touching upon Differences to ftir up their Corruptions j and to tell them of lit- 
tle more of your Knowledge, than what you find them willing to receive from 
you as meer Learners ; and therefore to Itay till they crave Information of you ( as 
Mtifculus did with the Anabaptifts ; when he vifited them in Prifbn, and converfed 
kindly and lovingly with them, and fhewed them all the Love he could, and ne- 
ver talkt to them of their Opinions, til! at laff they who were wont to call him a 
Deceiver and falfe Prophet, did intreat him to inffrud them, and received his 
Inffrudions ). We miftake Mens'.Dileafes when we think there needeth nothing to 
cure their Errors ; but only to bring them the Evidence of Truth : Alas ! there are 
many Diff empers of Mind to be removed,before Men are apt to receive that Evidence. 
And therefore that Church is happy where Order is kept up, and tfie Abilities of 
the Miniffeis command a reverend Submiflion from the Hearers ; and where all 
are in Chrift's School in the diffind Ranks of Teachers and Learners : For in a 
learning way Men are ready to receive the Truth, but in a Difputing way they 
come armed againlf it with Prejudice and Animofity. 

5. And I muff fay farther, that what I laft mentioned on the by, is one of the 
notablefl Changes of my Mind : In my youth I was quickly paff my Fundamen- 
tals, and was running up into a multitude of Controverfies, and greatly delighted 
with metnphifical and fcholaftick Writings ( though I mufl needs fay, my Preach- 
ing vvas ffill on the neceffary Points ): But the elder I grew the fmaller ftrels I 
layd upon thefe Controverfies and Curiofities (though ffill my intelled abhorreth 
Confulion ), as finding far greater Uncertainties in them, than I at firft difcerned, 
and finding lefs Vfefuhufs comparatively, even where there is the gieateff Certainty. 
And now ic is the fundamental Dodrines of the Catechifm, which I highlieff value, 
."jid daily think cf, and find moft ufeful to my ftlf and others : The Creed, the 
Lord s Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, do find me now the moff acceptable 
and plentiful matter, for all my Meditations : They are to me as my daily Bread 
and Dritik : And as I can fpeak and write of them over and over again ; fo I had 
rather read or hear of tliem, than of any of the School Niceties, which once fo 
much pleafedme. And thus I obferved it was with old Bifhop Ujlicr, and with ma- 
ny other Men : And I conjeduro that this Lffed alio is mixt of good and bad, 
♦ according to its Caufes. 

The bad Caufe may perh.ips be (bme natural Infirmity and Decay : And as Trees 
in the Spring Ihoot up into i'.ranches. Leaves and Bloilbms ; but in t\\s Autumn tlic 
Life driws down into the Root ; fo pofIib!y, my Nature confcious of its Infirmi- 
ty and Decay, may find it folf infufficient for numerous l^articles, and Affurgenty 
to the attempting of difficult things ; and fb my Mind may retire to the Root of 


P A R T I. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 127 

Ghriftian Principles ; and alfo I have often been afraid, left ill rooting at firft, and 
many Temptations afterwarJi, have made it more neceflary for tne than many others 
to retire to the Root, and fecure my Fundamentals. Bur upon much Oblervation 
I am afraid left moft others are in no better a Cafe ; and that at the firft they take 
it for a granted thing, that Chrift is the Saviour of the World, and that the Soul is 
Immortal, and that there is a Heaven and a Hell, &c. while they are ftudying 
abundance of Scholaftick Superftruftures, and at laft vi^ill find caufc to ft|idy more 
Ibundly their Religion it felf, as well as I have done. 

The ktter Caules are thefe : i. I value all things according to their Ufe and 
End) ; and I find in the daily Practice and Experience of my Soul, that the Know- 
ledge of God and Chrift, and the Holy Spirit, and the Truth of Scripture, and the 
Life to come,and of a Holy Life, is of wore ufe to me,than all the moft curious Specu- 
lations. 2. I know that every Man muft grow ( as Trees do ) downwards and 
upwards both at once ; and that the Roots increale as the Bulk and Branches do. 
3. Being nearer Death and another World, I am the more regardful of thole 
things which my Everlafting Life or Death depend on. 4. Having moft to do 
with ignorant milerable People, I am commanded by my Charity and Realbn, to 
treat with them of that which their Salvation lyeth on j and not to difpute with 
them of Formalities and Nicerties, when the Queftion is preleritly to be deter- 
mined whether they (hall dwell for ever in Heaven or in Hell. In a Word, my 
Meditations mult be moft upon the matters of my Practice and my Intereft : And 
as the Love of God, and the leeking of Everlafting Life is the Matter of my 
Tra£lice and my Intereft, io muft it be of my Meditation. That is the heft Do- 
<flrine and Study which maketh Men better^ and tendeth to make them bafj>y. I 
abhor the Folly of thofe unlearned Perfons, who revile or defpife Learning be- 
cauf(B they know not what it is: And I take not any piece of true Learning to be 
ufelefs : And yet my Soul approveth of the Refolution of Holy Paul, who de- 
termined to know nothing among his Hearers, ( that is, comparatively to value 
and make Oftentation of no other Wifdom ) but ( the Knowledge of ) a Cruci- 
fied Chrift ; to know God in Chrift is Life Etern-al. As the Stock of the Tree 
affbrdeth Timber to build Houfes and Cities, when the fmall though higher multi- 
farious Branches are but to make a Crows Nelt, or a Blaze : So the Knowledge 
of God and of Jefus Chrift, of Heaven and Holynefs, doth build up the Soul to 
endlefs Bleflednefs, and affordeth it lolid Peace and Comfort; when a multitude of 
School Niceties ferve but for vain Janglings and hurtful Diverfions and Contenti- 
ons : And yet I would not difl^uade my Reader from the perufal of Aquinas, Scotus, 
Ockam, Arminienjts, Durandm, or any fuch Writer ; for much Good may be gotten 
from them : But I would perfiiade him to ftudy and live upon the effential Do- 
drines of Chriftianity and Godlinefs, incomparably above them all. And that he 
may know that my Teftimony is Ibmewhat regardable, I prefume to lay, that in 
this I as much gainfay my natural Inclination to Subtilty and Accuratenefs in 
Knowing, as he is like to do by his, if he obey my Counfel. And I think if he 
lived among Infidels and Enemies of Chrift, he would find that to make good the 
DoUrine of Faitl) and of Ufe Eternal, were not only his nobleft and moft ufeful 
Study ; but alfo that which would require the height of all his Parts, and the ut- 
moft of his Diligence, to manage it skilfully to the Satisfadion of himlelf and 

4. I add therefore that this is Another thing which I am changed in ; that where- 
as in my younger Days I never was tempted to doubt of the Truth of Scripture 
or Chriftianity, but all my Doubts and Fears were exercifed at home, about my 
own Sincerity and Intereft in Chrift, and this was it which I called Unbelief -^ fince 
then my foreft Aflfaults have been on the other fide, and liich they were, thac 
had I been void of internal Experience, and the Adhefion of Love, and the fpeci- 
al help of God, and had not difcerned more Reafon for my Religion than I did 
when I was younger, I had certainly Apoftatizedto Infidelity {thow^ iot Atheifm 
or Ungodlmejs, my Reafon feeth noftronger Arguments,than may be brought to prove 
that there is no Earth or Air,or Sun). I am now therefore much more Apprehenfivc 
than heretofore, of the Neceffity of well grounding Men in their Religion, andefpe- 
ciallyofthe Witnefi of the indwelling Spirit : For I more fenfibly perceive that the 
Spirit is the great Witnefs of Chrift and Chriftianity to the World : And though 
the Folly of Fanaticks tempted me long to over-look the Strength of this Tefti- 
mony of the Spirit, while they placed it in a certain internal Afjertion, or enthufi' 
aftick Infpiration ; yet now I fee that the Holy Ghoft in another manner is the 
Witnefs of Chrift and his Agent in the World : The Spirit in the Prophets was 


128 ihe LIFE of the Lib. I, 

j his firft Witnefi ; and the Spirit by Miracles was the lecond ; and the Spirit by 
; Renovation, Sanditicdtion, Illumination and Confolation, aflimilating the Soul to 
' Chriit and Htaven is the continued Witnefs to all true Believers : And if any Man 
I have not the Spirit of Clirift, the fame is none of his, Rom. 8. 9. Even as the Ra- 
tional Soul in the Child is the inherent Witnefs or EvidencCj that he is the Child 
cf Rational Parents. And therefore ungodly Perfons have a great difadvantjge in 
their refilling Temptations to unbelief, and it is no wonder it' Chrift be a Hmnblitig 
block to the ]ews,and to the Gentiles foblifhnefs.There is many a one that hideth his 
Temptations to InhJelityjbecaufe he thinketh it a ihame toopenthem,and becaule 
it may generate doubts in others: but I doubt the imperfedion of molt mens care of 
their Salvation, and of their diligence and refolution in a holy Life, doth come from 
the imperfedlion of their belief of Chriflianicy and the Life to come. For my part I 
muft profels, that when my belief of things Eternal and of the Scripture is moft 
clear and firm, all goeth accordingly in my Soul,and all Temptations tofinful Com- 
pliances, Worldlinefb or Flefn-pleafing, do fignifie worfeto me, than an invitation to 
the Stocks or BcdlamAnA no Petition feemeth more neceffary to me than [Lord in- 
creafe our Faith : I Believe, help thou my unbelief. \ 

y. Among Truths certain in themfelves, all are not equally certain unto me j 
and even of the Myileries of the Golpel, I muft needs fay with Mr. Richard Hook- 
er Eccl. Polit. tiiat whatever men may pretend, the lubjeiftive Certainty cannot go 
beyond the nbjedive Evidence : for it is caufed thereby as the print on the .Wax is 
cauled by that on the Seal : Therefore I do more of late than ever difcern a necef- 
fity of a methodical procedure in maintaining the Doftrine of Chiiftianity , and 
of beginning at Natural Verities , as prefuppofed fundamentally to fupernatural 
( though God may when he pleafe reveal all at once, and even Natural Truths by 
Supernatural Revelation ) : And it is a marvellous great help to my Faith, to find 
it built on fo fure Foundations, and fo confonant to the Law of Nature. I am not 
fb foo'ilh as to pretend my certainty to be greater than it is, meerly becaule it 
is a dilTionour to be lefs certain ; nor will I by Ihame be kept from confefling thofe 
Infirmitie?, which thofe have as much as I, who hypocritically reproach me with 
them. My certainty that I am a Man, is before my certainty that there is a God j 
for Quodfacit notum ejt magtsnotum: My certainty that there is a God, is greater 
than my certainty that he requireth love and holinefi of his Creature : My certain- 
ty of thu is greater than my certainty of the Life of Reward and Punilhment 
hereafter : My certainty of that, is greater than my certainty of the endlels dura- 
tion of it, and of the immortality of individuate Souls: My certainty of the Dei- 
ty is greater than my certainty of the Chrillian Faith : My certainty of thelChri- 
ftian Faith in its Eftentials, is greater than my certainty of the Perfedion and In- 
fallibility of all the Holy Scriptures : My certainty of that is greater than my cer- 
tainty or" the meaning of many particular Texts, and fo of the truth of many par- 
ticular Doiftrines, or of the Canonicalnels of fome certain Books. So that as you 
lee by what Gadations my Underrtanding doth proceed, fo alfo that my Certain- 
ty difFircth as the Evidences differ. And they that have attained to greater Perfe- 
(ftion, and a higher degree of Certainty than I, fhould pity me and produce their 
Evidence to help me. And they that will begin all their Certainty with that of 
the Truth of the Scripture, as the Prtncipium Cogtiofcendt, may meet me at the lame 
end ; but they muft give me leave to undertake to prove to a Heathen or Infidel, 
the I3eing of a God; and the neceflity of Holinels, and the certainty of a Reward 
or Punilhment, even while he yet denieth theTruth of Scripture, and in order to 
his believing it to be true. 

6. In my younger years my trouble for Sin, was moft about my ABud failings 
in Thought, Word, or ASiion, ( except Hardnep of Heart, of which more anon). But 
now I am much more troubled for Imvard DefeBs, and omiflion or want of the 
Vital Duties or Graces in the Soul. My daily trouble is fo much for my Ignorance 
of God, and weaknefs of Relief, and want of greater loxie to God, and /Irangenef to 
him, and to the I ife to come, and for want of a greater willingnefs to die, and 
longing to be with God in Heaven, as that I take not Ibme Immoralities, though 
very great, to be in themlelves lb great and odious Sins, if they could be found 
as leparate trom thefc. Had I all the Riches of the World , how gladly fhould I 
give them, for a fuller Knowledge, Belief, aVid Love of God and Everlafting Glo- 
ry I Thele wants are the greateft burden of my Life, which oft maketh my Life 
it lelf a burden. And I cmnot fino any hope of reaching lb high in thele, while 
I am in the Flefh, as 1 once hoped before this time to have attained : which maketh 
me the we?.rier of this finful World, which is honoured vvith lb little of the Know- 
ledge of God. 7. Here. 

Part i. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. i 2^ 

7. Heretofore I placed much of my Religion in tendernefs of heart, and grie- 
ving for fin, and penitential tears j and lefi of it, in" the love of God, and Ibdying 
his love and goodnefs, and in his joyful praifes, than now I do. Then I was little 
lenfible of the greatnels and excellency of Love and Praife ; thotlgh I coldly fpake 
the fame words in its commendations, as now I do : And now 1 am lels troubled 
for want o'i grief and tears (though I more value humility, and refufe not needlul 
Humiliation): But my Conlcience now iooketh at Love and Dehght: in God and 
praifing him, as the top of all my Religious Duties, for which it is that I Value 
and u(e the reft. 

8. My Judgment is much more for frequent and ferious Meditation on the hea- 
venly Bleffednefs, than it was heretofore in my younger days. I then thought 
that a Sermon of the Attributes of God, and the Joys of Heaven were not the 
moft excellent ; and was wont to fay, Every body kmiveth ti>a, that God is great and 
good, and that Heaven is a blejj'ed -place j / had rather hear how 1 may attain it. And no- 
thing pleafed me fo well as the Doftrine of Regeneration, and the Marks of Since- 
rity ; which was becaule it was fultable to me in that Ibte : but now I had rather 
read, hear or meditate, on God and Heaven, than on any other Subjed : for I 
perceive that it is the Objed that altereth and elevateth the Mindj which will he 
luch as that is, which it moft frequently feedeth on : And that it is not only u(e- 
ful to our cewfort, to be much in Heaven in our believing thoughts j but that it 
muft animate all our other Duties, and fortifie us againft every 7emptatton and Sin • 
and that the Love of the end is it that is the foije or ipring , which fetteth every 
Wheel a going, and muft put us on to all the means : And that a Man is no more 
a Chriftian indeed than he is Heavenly. 

9. I was once wont to meditate moft on my own heart, and to dwell all at 
home, and look little higher : I was ftill poring either on my Sins or Wants or 
examining my Sincerity j but now, though I am greatly convinced of the need 
of Heart-acquaintance and imployment, yet I fee more need of a higher work • and 
that 1 (hould look often upon Chrift, and God, and Heaven, than upon my own 
Heart. At home I can find Diftempersto trouble me, and fome Evidences of my 
Peace : but it is above that I muft find matter of Delight and Joy , and Love and 
Teace it felf. Therefore I would have one thought at home upon my felf and fins, and 
many thoughts above upon the high and amiable and beatifying Objeds. 

10. Heretofore I knew much lefs than now ; and yet was not half lb much ac- 
quainted with my Ignorance: I had a great delight in the daily new Diicoveries 
which I made, and of the Light which Jhined in upon me ( like a Man that 
cometh into a Country where he never was before ): But I little knew either how 
imperfeclly I underftood thofe very Points, whole difcovery fo much delighted me, 
nor how much might be faid againft them ,• nor how many things F was yet a 
ftranger to : But now I find far greater Darknefs upon all things, and perceive how 
very little it is that we know in compariibn of that which we are ignorant of and 
and have far meaner thoughts of my own Underftanding, though 1 muft needs 
know that it is better furniihed than it was then. 

ir. Accordingly I had then afar higher opinion of Learned Perfbns and Books, 
than I have now ; for what I wanted my felf, I thought every Reverend Divine 
had attained, and was familiarly acquainted with : And v/hat Books 1 underftood 
not byreafonof the ftrangenefsof theTerms or Matter, I the more admired and 
thought that others underftood their worth. But now Experience hath con- 
ftrained me againft my will to know, that Reverend Learned Men are imperfed , 
and know but little as well as I ; efpecially thole that think themfelves the wileit : 
And the better I am acquainted with them, the more I perceive that we are all 
yet in the dark: And the more I am acquainted with holy Men, that are all for 
Heaven, and pretend not much to Subtilties, the more I value and honour them. 
And when I have ftudied hard to underftand fome abftrufe admired Book , ( as De 
Scientta Dei, De Provident ia circa ?nalum, de Deer et is, de Fradetcrminatione, de Libert a- 
te Creattira, &cc.) I bave but attained the Knowledge of Humane Imperfedion , 
and to lee that the Author is but a Man as well as L 

12. And at firft I took more upon my Author's Credit, than now I can do : 
And when an Author was highly commended to me by others, or pleafed me in 
fome part, 1 was ready to entertain the whole; whereas now I rakeund leave in the 
(ame Author, and dilTent inlbme things from him that IJike beft, as well as from 

S ij.At 

130 The LIFE of the Lib. I. 

13. At firft I was greatly inclined to go with the highefi in Controverfies, oti 
one fide or other ; as with Dr. Twifje, and Mr. Kutherford, and Spanhemim de Vrovi- 
dentia, & gratia, &c. But now lean foeafily (ee what to fay againft both extreams 
that I am much more inclinable to reconciling Principles. And whereas then I 
thought that Conciliators were but ignorant men, that were willing to pleafe all, 
and would pretend to reconcile the World by Principles which they did not under- 
ftand theml'elves ; I have fince perceived that if the amiablenefs bf Peace and Con- 
cord had no hand in the bufinels, yet greater Light and ftronger Judgment ufually 
is with the Reconcilers, than with either of the contending Parties ( as with Dave- 
nant, Hall, UJlnr, Lud. Crocius, Bergim, Strangim, Camera, 8cc. ) But on both ac- 
counts their Writings are raoft acceptable, ( though I know that Moderation may 
be a pretext of Errors). 

14. At firft the Stile oi Authors took as much with me as the Argument, and 
made the Arguments feem more forcible : But now I judge not of Truth at all 
by any fuch Ornaments or Accidents, but by its naked Evidence. 

1 5". I now fee more Good and more Evil in all Men than heretofore I did : I 
fee that Gooi men are not fo^W, as I once thought they were, but have more 
Imperfections : And that nearer approach and fuller trial, doth make the beft ap- 
pear more weak and faulty, than their Admirers at a diftance think. And I find 
that few are fo bad, as ckhsr then malicious Enemies, or cenforious fefarating Profef- 
fors do imagine. In fome indeed I find that Humane Nature is corrupted into 
a greater likenefs to Devils, than I once thought any on Earth had been. But 
even in the wicked ufually there is more for grace to make advantage of, and 
more to teftifie for God and Holinefs, than I once believed there had been. 

16. I lefs admire Gifts oi Utterance and bare 'ProfeJJlon of Religion than I once 
did ; and have much more Charity for many, who by the want of Gifts, do make 
an obfcurer Profeflion than they. I once thought that almoft all that could pray 
movingly and fluently, and talk well of Religion, had been Saints. But Experi- 
ence hath opened to me, what odious Crimes may confift with high Profeflion ; 
and I have met with divers obfcure Perfons, not noted for any extraordinary Pro- 
feflion, or forwardnels in Religion, but only to live a quiet blamelefs Life, whom 
I have after found to have long lived, as far as I could difcern , a truly godly end 
fandified Life ; only their Prayers and Duties were by accident kept fecret from o- 
ther mens oblervation. Yet he that upon this pretence would confound the 
Godly and the Ungodly , may as well go about to lay Heaven and Hell toge- 

17. I am not fo narrow in my Jpecial Love as heretofore : Being lefs cenforiouSj 
and talking more than I did for Saints, it muft needs follow that I love more as 
Saints than I did before. I think it not lawful . to put that Man off with bare 

■ Church Communion, snd fuch common Love which I muft allow the Wicked, 
who profelfeth himlelf a true Chriflian, by fuch a Profeflion as I cannot dif- 

18. I am not too narrow in my Principles of Church Communion as once I was : 
I more plainly perceive the difference between the Church as Congregate or vifible, 
and as Regenerate or Myftical : and between Sincerity and Frofeffton; and that a Cre- 
dible Proffffioa is proof fufffcient of a Man's Title to Church Admiflion: and that 
the ProfeTlion is Credible in foro Ecclejia, whichis not dilproved. I am not for nar- 
rowing the Church more than Chrift himfelfalloweth us; nor for robbing him 
of any of his flock. I am more f-nfible how much it is the Will of Chrift that 
every Man be the cboofir or refitfer of his own felicity, and that it lieth moft on his 
own hands, whether he will have Communion with the Church or not ; and that 
if he be an Hypocrite it is himfelf that will bear the lofs. 

19. Yet am I more apprehenfive th.an ever of the great ufe and need of Ecclefi- 
aftical DifjipIinCj and what a fin it is in the Paftors of the Church, to make no 
diftinftion, but by bare Names and Sacraments, and to force all the unmeet againfl 
their own wills, to Church Communion and Sacraments ( though the ignorant 
and erroneous may fbmetime be forced to hear inftrudion ): And what a great 
dilhonour to Chrift it is, when the Church Ihall be as vicious as Pagan and Ma- 
hometan AlTemblies , and fhall differ from them only in Ceremony and 

20. I am much more fenfible of the Evil of Schifm, and of the Separating Hu- 
mour, and of gathering Parties, and making feveral Sefts in the Church than I 
uas heretofore. For the Effedts have fhewed us more of the raifchiefs. 


Part L Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 131 

,21. I am much more (enfible how prone many young Profeifers are to Spiritual 
Pride and Self-conceitednefs, and Unrulinefs and Divifionj and io to prove the 
Grief of their Teachers, and Firebrands in the Church ; and how much of a Mi- 
nifler's work lieth in preventing this, and humbling and confirming fuch young 
unexperienced ProfelTors, and keeping them in order in" their progrefs in Reli- 

22. Yet am I more (enfible of the Sin and Mifchief of ufing Men cruelly in 
Matters of Religion, and of pretending Mens good, and the Order of the Church 
for Adis of Inhumanity or Uncharitablenefs : Such know not their own Infir- 
mity, nor yet the nature of Paftoral Government, which ought to be Paternal 
and by Love j nor do they know the way to win a Soul , nor to maintain the 
Churches Peace. 

2;. My Soul is much more affliAed with the thoughts of the milerable World 
and more drawn out indefire of their Converfion than heretofore: I was wont to 
look but little further than England in my Prayers, as not confidering the ftate of 
the reft of the World : Or if I prayed for the Converfion of the Jews, that was al- 
nioft all. But now as I better underftand the Cafe of the World, and the method 
of the Lord's Prayer, fo there is nothing in the World that lyeth fo heavy upon my 
heart, as the thought of the miferable Nations of the Earth : It is the moft afto- 
nifhing part of all God's Providence to me, that he lb far forfaketh almoft all the 
World, and confineth his fpecial Favour to lb few : That fo fmall a part of the 
World hath the Profeflton of Chrifiianity, in comparifon of Heathens, Mahome- 
tans and other Infidels I And that among profeffed Chriftians there arefo few that 
are faved from grols Delufions, and have but any competent Knowledge : and that 
among thofe there are fo few that arc ferioufly Religious, and truly fet their hearts 
on Heaven. I cannot be affeded fo much with the Calamities of my own Relati- 
ons, or the Land of my Nativity, as with the Caie of the Heathen, Mahometan, 
and ignorant Nations of the Earth. No part of my Prayers are fo deeply ferious, 
as that for the Converfion of the Infidel and Ungodly World, that God's Name may 
be fanftified, and his Kingdom come, and his Will be done on Earth as it is in Hea- 
ven : Nor was I ever before (b fenfible what a Plague the Divifion of Languages 
was which hindereth our fpeaking to them for their Converfion ; nor what a great 
Sm tyranny is, which keepeth out theGofpel from moft of the Nations of the World. 
Could we but go among Tartarians, Turks, and Heathens, rfnd ipeak their Lan- 
guage, 1 ftiould be but little troubled for the filencing of Eighteen hundred Mini- 
fters at once in England, nor for all the reft that were caft out here, and in Scotland 
ind Ireland : There being no Employment in the World lb defirable in my Eyes, as 
to labour for the winning of fuch miferable Souls : which maketh me greatly honour 
Mr. John Eltot, the Apolfle of the Indians in New-England^und whoever elfe have la- 
boured in fuch work. 

24, Yet am I not fo much inclined to pals a peremptory Sentence of Damnation 
upon all that never heard of Chrift ; having Ibme more realbn than I knew of be- 
fore, to think that God's dealing with fuch is much unknown to us .' And that the 
Ungodly here among us Chriftians are in a far worle Cafe than they. 

zy. My Cenfures of the Papifts do much differ from what they were at firft : 
I then thought that their Errours in the DoBrines of Faith were their moft danger- 
ous Miftakes, as in the Points of Merit, Juifification by Works, AfTurance of Sal- 
vation, the Nature of Faith, c^c. But now I am allured that their niif-expreflions, 
and mif underftanding us, with our miftakingsof them, and inconvenient expref- 
ting our own Opinions, hath made the difference in thele Points to appear much 
greater than they arej and that in fonie of them it is next to none at all. But the 
great and unreconciliable Differences lye, in their Church Tyranny and Ufur- 
pations, andin their great Corruptions and Abafement of God's Worrfiip, together 
with their befriending of Ignorance and Vice. At firft I thought that Mr. Verktm 
well proved that a Papift cannot go beyond a Reprobate : but now I doubt not but 
tliAt God hath many fanftified Ones among them, who have received the true 
Dodirine of Chriftianity fo pradically , that their contradiAory Errours prevait 
not againft them, to hinder their Love of God, and their Salvation : but that their 
Errours are like a conquerable Dole of Poylbn which Nature doth overcome. And 
1 can never believe that a Man may not be faved by that Religion, which doth 
but bring him to the true Love of God, and to a heavenly Mind and Life : nor 
that God will ever caft a Soul into Hell that truly lovcth him. ,Allb at firft it 
would difgrace any DoArine with me, if I did but hear it called Popery and Arl- 
tkhrillian: but I have lone learned to be more impartial, and Jo diflih?; M?nfor 


132 T^f^^ LIFE of the L i b. 1. 

bad Doftrine, rather than the Doarines for the Men ; and to know that Satan 
can ule even the Names of Popery and Antichrift, againft a Truth. 

26. I am deeplieraffli^^ed for the difagreements of Chriftians than I was when 
I was a younger Chriftian. Except the Cafe of the Infidel World, nothing is fo 
fad and grievous to my thoughts, as the Cafe of the divided Churches. And there- 
fore I am more deeply fenfible of the fmfulnefs of thofe Prelates and Paftors of the 
Churches, who are the principal Caufe of thefe Divifions. O how many millions 
of Souls are kept by them in ignorance, and ungodlinefs, and deluded by FaBion 
as if it were true Religion. How is cheConverfion of Infidels hindeied by them ! 
qnd Chrift and Religion heinoufly diflionoured ! The Contentions between the 
Greek Church and the Roman, the Papilts and the Proteftants, the Lutherans and 
the Calvintfii, have wofully hindered the Kingdom of Chrift. 

27. I have fpent much of my Studies about the Terms of Chrijiian Concord, and 
have over and over confidered of the feveral ways, which feveral forts of Reconci- 
lers have deviled : I have thought of the Papifts way, who think there will be no 
Union, but by coming over wholly to their Church : and I have found that it is 
neither poffible nor defirabk. I have thought and thought again of the way of the 
moderating Papifis, CaJJaiider, Grotit/s, lialwin, &c. and of thofe that would have all 
reduced to the Hate of the Times of Gregory the Firft, before the Divifion of the 
Greek and Latin Churches, that the Pope might have his Primacy, and govern all 
the Church by the Canons of the Councils, with a Saho to the Rights of Kings 
and Patriarchs and Prelates ; and that the Doftrines and Wordiip which then were 
received might prevail. And for my own part, if 1 lived in fuch a Ifate of the 
Church, I would live peaceably, as glad of Unity, though lamenting the Corrup- 
tion and Tyranny : But I am fully alfured that none of thele are the true defirable 
Terms of Unity, nor iiich as are ever like to procure an Univerial Concord : And 
I am as fure that the true Means and Terms of Concord are obvious and eafie to 
an impircial willing mind. And that thele three Things alone would eafily heal 
and unite all the Churches. 

1. That all Chriftian Princes and Governours take all the Coercive Power about 
Religion into their own Hands, (though if Prelates and their Courts mult be u- 
led as their Officers in exercifing that Coerci've Power, fo be \t): And that they make 
a difference between the approved and the rokrated Churches ; and that they keep 
the Peace between thefe Churches, and fettle their feveral Piiviledges by a 

2. That the Churches be accounted Tolerable, who profels all that is in the 
Creed, Lord's Prayer and Decalogue in particular, and generally all that they Ihal! 
find to be revealed in the Word of God, and hold Communion in Teaching, Pray- 
er, Praifes, and the two Sacraments, not obflinately preaching any Herefie contra- 
ry to the particular Articles which they profefs, nor feditioufly difturbing the Pub- 
lick Peace: And that (uch Heretical Preaching, and fuch Seditiom unpeaceablenefi, or 
notorioHS Wtckednef of Life, do forfeit their Toleration. 

;. And that thole that are further Orthodox in thole Particulars, which Rulers 
think fit to impofe upon their Subjedts, have their puhltck Aiajnt£nance and greater 
Encouragement. Yea, and this much is become necelTary, but upon fiippofition that 
Men will ftill be fb (elf-conceited and uncharitable, as not to forbear their unne- 
cefTary Impofitions. Other wife there would be found but very isw who are Tole- 
rable, that are not alfo in their meafure to be approvej , maintained and encoura- 
ged. And if the Primitive Simplicity in Dodrine , Government and Worfhip, 
might ferve turn, for the Terms of the Churches Union and Communion, all 
would be well without any more adoj fiippofing that where ChrilHan Magiftrates 
are, they keep the Peace, and reprefs the Offenders, and exercifeall the Coercive 
Government: And Hereticks, who will fubfcribe to the C/6r//?;<j» F<?/f/6, muft not 
be puniflied Ibecaufe ihey will [uhfcribe to no more, but becaufe they are proved to 
preach or promote Herefie, contrary to the Faith which they profefs. 

28. I am farther than ever I was from expcding great matters of Unity, Splen- 
dor or Profperity to the Church on Earth, or that Saints fhould dream of a King- 
dom of this World, or flatter themlelves with the Hopes of a Golden Age, or 
reigning over the Ungodly, ( till there be a new Heaven and a nev Earth ivberein 
dwelleth Righteoufne^ ). And on the contrary lam more apprehenfive that Suffer- 
ings muft be the Churches moft ordinary Lot, 'and Chriftians indeed muft be felf- 
denying Crofs bearers, even where there are none but formal nominal Chriftians to be 
the Crofs-makers : And though ordnarily God would have Viciffitudes of Summer and 
Winter,Day and Nightjthat th« Church may grow extenfively in the Summer of Pro- 

Part I. R^^rWAfr. Richard Baxter. 133 

Iperity, and intenfively and radicatedly in the Winter of Adverficy ^ yet ufually 
their Ntght is longer than their Day, and that Daf its felf hath its Storms and Tem- 
pefts. For the Prognofticlts are evident in their Caufes : x. The Church will be ftill 
ImperfeB and Sinful, and will have thofe Difeafes which need this bitter Remedy. 
2. Rich Men will be the Rulers of the World ; and Rich Men will be generally (d 
far from true Godlinefi, that they muft come to Heaven as by Human ImpojJibiUttes, 
as a Camel through a Needles Eye. ;.The Ungodly will ever have an Enmity again(t 
the Image of God, and ^e that is born of the Flefli will perl'esute him that Was 
born after the Spirit, and Brotherhood will not keep a Cain from killing an Abd, 
whooifereth a more acceptable Sacrifice than himfelf : And the Guilty will fiill 
hate the Light, and make a Prey to their Pride and Malice of a confcionable Re- 
prover. 4. The Paflors will be ftill troubling the Church with their Piide and 
Avarice and Contentions; and the worft will be feeking to be the greateft, and 
they that leek it are likeft to attain it. y. He that ishigheft will be ftill imponiig 
his Conceits upon thofe under him, and Lording it over God's Heriiagc, and v^ith 
Diotrefhes cafting out the Brethren, and ruling them by corfftraint, and not as Vo- 
lunteers. 6. Thole that are truly judicious will ftill comparatively be iaw ; .md 
confequently the Troublers and Dividers will be the Multitude ; and a judicious 
Peace-maker and Reconciler will be negleded, flighted, or hated by both Extreams. 
7. The Tenour of the Gofpel PrediAions, Precepts, Promifes and Threatnings, 
are fitted to a People in a fuffering State. 8. And the Graces of God in a Believer 
are moftly lliied to a State of Suffering. , 9. Chriftians muft imitate Chaift, and 
fuffer with him before they reign with him j and his Kingdom was not of this 
World. 10. The Obfervation of God's dealing hitherto with the Church in every 
Ageconfirmeth me : and his befooling them that have dreamed of glorious Times, 
It was liich Dreams that tranfported the Munfier Anabaptifts, and the Followers of 
Da'vid George in the Low Countries, and Car»faneUa, and the lUttminati among the 
Papifts, and our Englilh Anabaptifts and other Fanaticks here, both in the Army 
and the City and Country. When they think the Golden Age is come, they 
fhew their Dreams in their extravagant Adions : And as our Fifth Monarchy Men, 
they arc*prefently upon fome unquiet rebellious Attempt, to fet up (ihrift in his 
Kingdom whether he will or not. I remember how Abraham Scuhetus in Curricu- 
la Vtt£ fua confefleth the common Vanity of himfelf and other Proteftants in 
Germanjfj who feeing the Princes in England, France, Bohemia, and many other 
Countrys, to be all at once both Great and Wife, and Friends to Reformation, did 
prefently expeft the Golden Age : But within one year either Death, or Ruines 
of War or Back-flidings, had expoled all their ExpeAations to Scorn, and laid 
them lower than before. 

29, Ido not lay fo great a Streft upon the external Modes and Formes of Wor- 
ship, as many young Profeflbrs do. 1 have fufpefted my felf, as perhaps the Reader 
may do, that this is from a cooling and declining from my former Zeal ( though 
the truth is, I never much c-omplyed with Men of that Mind ) : But I find that 
Judgment and Charity are the Caules of it, as far as I am able to difcover. I can- 
not be ib narrow in my Principles of Chnrch-Communion as many are j that are 
fo much for a Liturgy, or 16 much aj^inft it, fo much for Ceremonies or fo 
much againft them, that they can hold Communion with no Church that is not of 
their Mind and Way. If I were among the Greeks, the Lutherans, the Indepen- 
dants ; yea, the Anabaptifts ( that own no Herily, nor let themlelves againft 
Charity and Peace ) I would hold Ibmetimes occafional Communion with 
them as Chriftians ( if they will give me leave, without forcing me to any finful 
Subfcription or AAion ) ; Though my moft ujual Communion ftiould be with 
that Society, which I thought moft agreeable to the Word of God, if I were free 
to chufe. I cannot be of their Opinion that think God will not accept him that 
prayeth by the Common-Prayer-Book, and that fuch Forms are a lelf invented 
Worlhip which God rejetSeth : Nor yet can I be of their Mind that lay the like 
of extemporary Prayers. 

30. I am muchlels regardful of the Approbation of Man, and let much light- 
er by Centempt or Applaufe, than I did long ago. lam oft fufpicious that this 
is not only from the increafe of Self denial and Humility; but partly from my be- 
ing glutted and forfeited with human. Applaufe : And all worldly things appear 
moft vain and unlatisfacftory vfhen we have tryed them moft. But though I feel 
that this hath fome hand in the Effeft, yet as far as I can perceive, the Knowledge 
of Man's Nothingnels, and God's tranlcendent Greatnefs, with whom it is that I 
have moft to do, and the fenfe of the brevity of humane things, and the nearnefs 


134. ^^^ LIFE of the L i b. I^ 

of Eternity are the principal Caufes of this EfTed j which Ibme have imputed to 
Self' conceitednefs and Morofity. 

31. I am more and more pleafed with a Iblitary Life ; and though in a way of 
S^t-denial I could fubmit to the moft publick Life, for the fervice of God, when 
he requireth it, and would not be unprofitable that I might be private j yet I mult 
confefs, it is much more pleafing to my felf, to be retired from the World, and to 
have very little to do with Men, and to converfe with God and Confciencc and 
good Books ; of which I have fpoken my Heart in my Divine Life, Part IIL 

32. Though I was never much tempted to the Sin of Covetoufnels, yet my fear 
of dying was wont to tell me, that I was not liifficiencly loofened from this 
World. But I find that it is comparatively very eafy to me to be loofe from this 
World, but hard to live by Faith above. To defpife Earth is ealy to me j bat not 
fo eafy to be acquainted and converfant in Heaven. I have nothing in this World 
which I could not eafily let go ; but to get (atisfying Apprehenfions of the other 
World is the great and grievous Difficulty. 

33. lam much more apprehenfive than long ago, of the Odioufneji ApA Danger oi 
the Sin of Pride ; fcarce any Sin appeareth more odious to me : Having daily more 
Acquaintance vrith the lamentable Naughtinefs and Frailty of Man, and of the 
•Milchiefs of that Sin j and elpecially in Matters Spiritual and Ecclefiafiical : \ 
think fo far as any Man is proud he is kin to the Devil, and utterly a Stranger to 
God and to himlelf : It's a Wonder that it Ihould bsapoJfibU Sin, to Men thatfiill 
carry about with them, in Soul and Body, fuch humbling matter of Remedy as 
we all do, 

34. I more than ever lament the Unhappinefs of the Nobility, Gentry,, and 
great ones of the World, who live in fuch Temptation to Senfuality, Curiofity 
and wafting of their time about a multitude of little things ; and whole Lives are 
too often the Tranfcript of the Sins of Sodom ; Pride, fulnels of Bread, and abun- 
daiKC of Idlenefj, and want of Compaflion to the Poor. And I more value the 
Life of the poor Labouring Man j but efpecially of him that hath neither Pover- 
ty nor Riches. 

3 J. I am much more fenfible than heretofore, of the Breadth, and Length, and 
Depth of the radical, univerfal, odious Sin of Selfifi»ejs, and therefore have writ- 
ten fo much againft it : And of the Excellency and Neceffity of Self-denial^ and 
of a publick Mind, and of loving our Neighbour as our lelves. 

36. I am more and more fenfible that moft Controverfies have more need of 
right Stating than of Debating ; and if my Skill be increafed in any thing it is in 
that, in narroiving Controverfies by Explication, and feparating the real nom the 
'uerbal, and proving to many Contenders, that they differ lels than they think 
they do. 

37. lam more Iblicitous than I have been about my Duty to God, and left 
folicitous about his Dealings with rae ; as being aftlired that he will do all things 
well J and as acknowledging the Goodnefs of all the Declarations of his Holynels, 
even in the Punifhment of Man ; and as knowing that there is no Reft but in the 
Will and Goodnefs of God. 

38. Though my Works were never fuch as could be any Temptation to me to 
dream of obliging God by proper Merit,, in commutative Juftice j yet one of the 
molt ready, conftant, undoubted Evidences of my Uprightnels and Intereft in 
his Covenant, is the Confcioulhels of my living as devoted to him : And I the eafi- 
lier believe the Pardon of my Failings through my Redeemer, while I know that 
I ferve no other Mafter, and that I know no other End, or Trade, or Bufinels ; 
but that I am imployed in his Work, and make it the Bufinels of my Life, and live 
to him in the World, notwithftanding my Infirmities : And this Bent and Bufineft 
of my Life, with my longing Defires after Perfedion, in the Knowledge and Be- 
lief and Love of God, and in a Holy and Heavenly Mind and Life, are the two 
Handing, conftant, difcernable Evidences, which moft put me out of doubt of 
my Sincerity : And I find that co^fiant Action and Duty is it that keepeth the firft 
always in Sight j and confiant Wants and Weaknefes, and coming Ihort of my De- 
fres, do make thofe Dejires ftill the more troubkjom, and lb the more eafily ftill per- 

39. Though my habitual Judgment and Relblution and Scope of Life be ftiU 
the fame, yet 1 find a great Mutability as to acSlual Apjn-ebenjions, and Degrees 
of Grace; and confequently find that io mutable 3 thing as the Mind of M^n, 
would never keep its lelf if God were not its Keeper. When I have been (erioufly 
niufiog upon the H^^lons of Chiiftianity, with the cpncurreat Evidences metho- 

Part I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 13^ 

dically placed in their juft Advantages before my Eyes, I am fo clear in my Be- 
lief of the Chriftian Verities, that Satan hath little room for a Temptation. But 
Ibmetimes when he hath on a fudden let fome Temptation before me, when the 
forefaid Evidences have been out of the Way, or lets upon my Thoughts, he hath 
by fuch Surprizes amazed me, and weakened my Faith in the prefent A£i: So 
alfo as to the Love ofGod,and trufling inhim,fometimes when the Motives arc clear- 
ly apprehended, the Duty is more ealy and delightful : And at other times, I am 
meerly paffive and dull, if not guilty of aftual Defpondency and Diftruft. 

40. tarn much more cautelous in my Belief of Hiftory than heretofore : Not 
that I run into their Extream that will believe nothing becaufe they cannot 
believe all things. But I am abundantly fatisfyed by the Experience of this Age, 
that there is no believing two forts of Men, Ungodly Men and Partial Men ( though 
an honeft Heathen of no Religion may be believed, where Enmity againft Religi- 
on byafTech him not ; yet a debauched Chrijlian, befides his Enmity to the Power 
and Pradlice of his own Religion, is feldom without fome farther Byafi of Inter- 
eft or Faction ; efpecially when thefe concurr, and a Man is both ungodly and am- 
hitious, efpoufing an Intcrerefi contrary to a holy heavenly Life, and alfo FaBioiis, 
embodying himlelf with a Se£t or Party fuited to his Spirit and Dejigns, there is no 
believing his Word or Oath. If you read any Man partially bitter againft others 
as differing from him in Opinion, or as crofi to his Greatnefs, htcrefi or 'DeJigns, take 
heed how you believe any more, than the Hiftorical Evidence diftind from his 
Word compelleth you to believe. The prodigious Lies which have been publiflied 
in this Age in matters of Faft, with unblufhing Confidence, even where thou- 
ftnds or Multitudes of Eye and Ear-Witnefles knew all to be falfe, doth call Men 
to take heed what Hiftory they believe, efpecially where Power and Violence af- 
fordeth that Priviledge to the Reporter, that no Man dare anfwer him or deted 
his Fraud, or if they do their Writings are all fuppreft. As long as Men have 
Liberty to examine and contradift one another, one may partly conjeAure by 
comparing their Words, on which fide the Truth is like to lie. But when great 
Men write Hiftory, or Flatteries by their Appointment, which no Man dare con- 
tradid, believe it but as you arc cnnftrained. Yet in thefe Cafes I can freely be- 
lieve Hiftory : i. If the Perfon fhew that he is acquainted with what he faith. 
2. And if he (hew you the Evidences of Honefty and Confcience, and the Fear 
of God ( which may be much perceived in the Spirit of a Writing ). 5. And 
if he appear to be Impartial and Charitable, and a Lover of Goodnefs and of 
Mankind ; and not pofteft with Malignity, or perfonal ill Will and Malice, nor 
carried away by Faftion or perfonal Intereft : Confcionable Men dare not lye ; 
bat Faction and Intereft abate Mens Tendernefs of Confcience. And a charita- 
ble impartial Heathen may fpeak Truth in a love to Truth, and hatred of a Lye ; 
But ambiiious Malice and falfe Religion, will not ftick to ferve thcmfelves on any 
thing. Its eafy to trace the Footfteps of Veracity in the Intelligence, Impartiality, 
and Ingenuity of a Thuanus^ a Guicciardine, a Faulus Venet. though Papifts, and of 
Socrates and Sozomen, though acculed by the Fadious of favouring the Novations; 
and many Proteftants in a Melan£lhon, a Buchohzcr, and many more j and among 
Phyficiansin fuch as Crato, Tlaterus, &c. But it's as eafy to lee the Footfteepsof 
Partiality and Fadion and Defign, in a Genehrard, a Baronita, and a Multitude of 
their Companions ; and to fee reafon of Sufpicion in many more. Therefore I 
confels I give but halting Credit to moft Hiftories that are written, not only againft 
the Albtgenfa and JValdenfes, but againft moft of the Ancient Hereticks, who have 
left us none of their own Writings, in which they fpeak for thcmfelves, and I har- 
tily lament that the Hiftorical Writings of the Ancient Schifmaticks and Heriticks 
(as they were called ) periflied, and that partiality fuffered them not to furvive, 
that we might have had more Light in the Church- Affairs of thofe times, and been 
better able to judge between the Fathers and them. And as I am prone to think 
that few of them were fo bad as their Adverfaries made them ; fo I am apt to think 
that fuch as the Novations, and Luciferians, and Indians, &c. whom their Adverfa- 
ries commend, were very good Men, and more Godly than moft Catholicks, 
however miftaken in fome one Point. Sure I am, that as the Lies of the Papifts, 
of Luther, Zwinglius, Cahin, and Beza, are vifibly malicious and impudent, by 
the common plenary contradiding Evidence ; and yet the Multitude of their Se- 
duced ones believe them all in defpight of Truth and Charity • fo in this Age 
there have been fuch things written againft Parties and Perfons whom the Writers de- 
fign to make odious ; fo notorioufly falfe as you would think that the Senfe of their 
Honour at leaft, fliould have made it impofftble for luch Men to write : My own 


1^6 ^he LIFE of the Lib. L 

Eyes have reaS fuch Words and Attions afferted with mod vehement iterated unbluft- 
ing Confidence, which abundance ot Ear-Witneffes, even of their own Pai ties 
nuilt needs know to have been altogether falfe : and therefore having my felf now 
written this Hiftory of my lelf, notwithft^nding my Proteftarion that I have not . 
in any thing wilfully gone againft the Truth, I cxped no more Credit from the 
Reader, than the felf-evidencing Lighc of the matter, with concurrent rational Ad- 
vantages, from Perfbns, and Things, and other WitnelTes, fhall conftrain him to; 
if he be a Per(bn that is unacquainted with the Author himfelf, and the other Evi- 
dences of his Veracity and Credibility. And, I have purpofely omitted almoft all 
the Delcriptions of any Perfons that ever oppofed me, or that ever I or my Brethren ■ 
luffeied by, becaufe 1 know that tl-.e appearance of 7«f£>-fy? and partiality might give 
a fair excufe to the Readers incredulity : (Although indeed the true Defcription of 
Perlons is much of the very Life of Hiftory, and efpecially of the Hiftory of the 
Age which I have lived in ; yet to avoid the fufpicion of Partiality I have left it 
out). Except only w lien 1 Ijaeak of the Crom-welliam and Sediaries , where I ara the 
more free, becaufe none fufpefteth my Intereft to have engaged me againft them ; 
but ( with the reft of my Brethren) I have oppofed them in the obedience of my 
Conicience, when by pleafing them I could have had alniod any thing that they 
could have given me, and when before-hand I expected that the prefent Governours 
fhould filenceme, and deprive me of Maintenance, Houfe and Home, as they have 
done by me and many hundreds more. Therefore I fuppofed that my Delcripti- 
ons and Cenfures of thofe Perfons which would have enriched and honoured me, 
and of their Adions againft thjt Party which hath filenced, impoveriihed and ac- 
cufed me, and which before- hand I expefted fliould do fo, are beyond the Sufpi- 
cion of Envy, Self-intereft or Partiality: Knot, I there alfo am content that the 
Reader exercife his Liberty, and believe no worfe even of thefe Menj than the E- 
vidence of Fad: conftraineth him. 

Thus much of the Alterations of my Soul, fince my younger years, I thought 
beff to give the Reader, inftead of all thofe Experiences and Adual Motions and 
AfFedions, which I fuppofe him rather to have expeded an account of. And ha- 
ving tranfcribed thus much of a Life which God hath read, and Confcience hath 
read, and muft further read, I humbly lament it, and beg pardon of it, as finful 
and too unequal and unprofitable ; And I warn the Reader to amend that in his 
own, whicn he findeth to have been amifs in mine ; confeffing alfo that much hath 
been amifb which I have not here particularly mentioned, and that I have not lived 
according to the abundant Mercies of the Lord. But what I have recorded, hath 
been efpecially to perform my Vows, and declare his Praife to all Generations, who 
hath filled up my days with his unvaluable Favours, and bound me to blefi his 
Name for ever : And alfo to prevent the defedive performance of this Task , by 
fome overvaluing Brethren, who I know intended it, and were unfitter to do it 
than my felf. And for fuch Reafons as Junius, Scab et us, Thuanus , and many o- 
thers have done the like before me. The principal of which are thefe three : r.As 
Travellers and Seamen ufe to do after great Adventures and Deliverances, I here- 
by fatisfie my Confcience, in praifing the Bleffed Author of all thofe undeferved 
Mercies which have filled up my Life. 2. Forefeeing by the Attempts of Bi- 
fhop Murky, what Prelatifis and PapiOs are like to fay of me, when they have 
none to contradid them, and how poffible it is that thofe that never knew me 
may believe them, though they have loft their hopes with all fhe reft, I take it 
to be my Duty to be fo faithful to that ftock of Reputation vshich God hath in- 
trufted me with, a« to defend it at the rate of opening the Truth. Such as have 
made the World believe that Luther confulted with the Devil, K\\zx.Cal'vm was a ftig. 
matized Sodomite, that Bex.a turned P^pift, &c. to blaft their Labours, I know 
are very like to fjv any thing by me, which their Intereft or Malice tell them will 
any way advantage their Caule, to make my Writings unprofitable when I am 
dead-. 3. That young Chriftians may be warned by the Miftakes and Failings of 
my unriper Times, to iearn in patience, and live in watchfulnefs . and not be 
fierce and proudly confident in their firft Conceptions j And to reverence ripe ex- 
perienced Age, and to take heed of taking fuch for their Chief Guides as have 
nothing but immature and unexperienced Judp;ments, with fervent Affedions, and 
free and confident Expreffions ; but to learn of them that have (with holinefs) ftu- 
dy, time and trial, looked about them as well on one fide as the other, and attain- 
ed to clearnefs and impartiality in their Judgments. 

I. But 

P A R T I. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. i^Tt 

I. But having mentioned the Changes which I think were for the better^ 1 mulb 
add, that as I confeffed many of my Sins before, fo fince I have been guilty of 
many, which becaufe materially they leemed I'mall , have had the lefs reliftence, 
and yet on the review to trouble more than it" they had been greater done in isno- 
rance: It can be no fmall (In formally which is committed againli^ Knowledge and 
Confcience and Deliberation, whatever excufe it have. To have finned while 1 
preacht and wrote againft Sin, and had luch abundant and great obligations from 
God, and made io many promilesagainlt it, doth lay me very low : not lo much 
in fear of Hell, as in great dilpleafure againli my lelf, and fuch lelf abhorrence as 
would cauTe revenge upon my lelf, wereic not foi bidden. Wiien God forgiveth 
me I cannot forgive my lelf; elpecially for any ralh words or deeds , by which I 
have ieemed injurious, and Ids tendei and kind than I ihould h.tve been to my 
near and dear Relations , whole Love abundantly obliged me 5 when luch are 
dead, though we never differed in point of Interelt or any great Matter, every 
fbwrorcrols provoking word which I gave them, maketh me almoff unreconcile- 
•able to my lelf: and tells me how Repentarice brought fome of old to pray to the 
Dead whom they had wronged , to forgive them, in the hurry of their Paf- 

2. And though I before told the Change of my Judgment againfl: provoking 
Writings, I have had more will th.in skill fince to avoid fuch. i mad mention ic 
by way of penitent Confellion, that lam too much inclined to fuch Ti^onls in Con- 
troverlal Writings which are tuo keen, and apt to provoke the Perlbn whom I 
write againlh Sometimes I liilpecS that Age fowreth my Spirits , and lometimes I 
am apt to think that it is long thinking and fpeaking of liich things that maketh me 
weary, and lels patient with others that undcrftand them not: And lometimes I 
am ready to think that it is out of a hatred of the flattering humour which now 
prevaileth lb in the World, that few Perfons are able to bear the Truth : And I am 
iiire that I cannot only bear my lelf fuch Language as I ufe to others, but that I 
exped it. I think all thele are partly Caules ; but 1 am furethe principal Caule is 
a long Cuffom of lludying how to fpeak and write in the keeneff manner to 
the common, ignorant, and ungodly People (without which kecnels to them, no 
Sermon nor Book docs much good ) ; which hath lb habituated me to it, that I 
am ftill falling into the lame with others •, forgetting that many Miniffers and Pro- 
fellbrsof Stridtnelsdodelire the greateft iharpnefs to the Vulgar, and to their Ad- 
verlaries, and the greatell lenity and linoothnefs and comfort , if not honour to 
themfelves. And I have a llrong natural inclination to Ipeak of every Sul^jeft juft 
as n IS, and to call a Spade a Spade, d^ "jtrba rebus aptare j fo as that the thing 
I'poken of may be fuUieff known by the words ; which methinks is part of our 
Jpeaking truly. But I unfeignedly confefs that it is faulty, becaufe imprudent j (for 
that is not a good means which doth harm, becaufe it is not fitted to the end ) ; 
and becaufe whilft the Readers think me angry, ( though I feel no Paflion at fuch 
times in my (elf j it is fcandalous and a hinderance to the ufefulnels of what I 
write : And efpecially becaule ( though I feel no Anger , yet which is worle ) I 
know that there is fome want of Honour and Lovi or TenJerneJI to others j or elle I 
fhould not be apt to ule luch words as open their weaknels and offend them : And 
therefore I repent of it^and v.?ifh all over-fharp palliiges were expunged from my Wri- 
tings, and defire forgivenefs of God and Man. And yet I mull: fay that I am ofc 
afraid of the contrary Extream, left when I fpeak againfl great and dangerous Er- 
rours and Sins, ( though of Perlbns otherwiie honeft ) I Ihould encourage men to 
them, by fpeaking too eafily of them ( as Elt did to his Sons ) , and lelf I fhould 
(b favour the Perlbn as may befriend the Sin, and wrong the Church. And I muft 
lay as the New-England Synodifls in their Delence againft Mr. Davenport, pag. 2. 
Pref. [ We heart iljf defire that as much as may be, all Exprefjlons and Reflexions may he for- 
horn that tend to break the Bond of Lozie. Indeed fuch ts our Infirmity, that the naked dif- 
eovery of the fallacy or invalidity of anothers Allegations or A^gutngs u apt tu provoke. 
Tbu in Vijiutes is unavoidable^^ 

And therefore I am lels for a difputing way than ever ; believing that it tempt- 
eth Men to bend their Wits, to defend their Errours and oppofe the Truth , and 
hindereth ufually their information : And the Servant of the Lord mult not lirive, 
but be gentk to all Men, &c. Therefore I am moft in Judgment for a Learmngor 
a Tuaching Way of Converle : In all Companies, I will be glad either to hear rholi 
fpeak that can teach me, or to be heard of thofe that have need to learn. 

T hn^ 

138 The LIFE of the, Sac, Lib. I, 

And that which I named before on the by, is grown one of my great Difeafes : 
I have loft much of that Zeal which I had, to propagate any Truths to others, 
lave the meer Fundamentals. When I perceive People or Minifters ( which is too 
common ) to think they know what indeed they do not, and to difpute thole 
things which they never throughly ftudied, or expeA I Ihould debate the Cafe 
with them, as if an hours talk would lerve inflead of ?.n acute underftanding and 
feven years lludy, I have no Zeal to make them of my Opinion, but an impati- 
ence of continuing Difcourfe with them on fuch Subjeds, and am apt to be lilenc 
or to turn to fomething elfe : which ( though there be fome reafon for it ) I feel 
cometh from a want of Zeal for the Truth, and from an impatient Temper of 
Mind. I am ready to think that People Ihould quickly underftand all in a few 
words; and if they cannot, lazily todelpair of them, and leave them to them- 
felves : And I the more know that it is finful in me, becaufe it is partly fo in o- 
ther things j even about the Faults of my Servants or other Inferiours, if three or 
four times warning do no good on them, I am much tempted to defpair of them, 
and turn them away and leave them to themlelves. 

I mention all thefe Diftempcrs,that my Faults may be a warning to others to take 
heed, as they call on my (elf for Repentance and Watchfulnefs. O Lord, for the 
Merits and Sacrifice and Interceflion of Chrift, be merciful to me a Sinner, and 
forgive my known and unknown Sins, 







Mr. Richard Baxter. 

L 1 B. I. P A R T II. 

gitatedby States-men and Divines, by Words and Writings: 
which made it necefTary to me, to (et my felf to the molt 
ferious ftudy of thole Points : The refulc of which was, this 
confident and fetled Judgment, that of the four contending 
Patties, f the Eraftian, Epifcopal, Presbyterian ^nd Inde- 
pendant j each one had fome Truths in peculiar, which the other overlookt^or took 
little notice of, and each one had their proper Miftakes which gave advantage to 
their Adverfaries ; though all of them had fo much truth in common among them, 
as would have made theie Kingdoms happy,if it had been unanimoufly and foberly 
reduced to practice, by prudent and charitable Men. 

§2. I. The Erafiians, I tlu)Ught, were thus far in tlie right, in alTerting more 
fully than others the Magiftrates Power in Matters of Religion j that all Coercive 
Power ( by Mulds or Force ) is only in their hands ( which is the full fence of 
oar Oath of Supremacy); and that no fuch Power belongeth tothePaftors or Peo- 
ple of the Church ; and that thus ( as Dr. LtiJov. Molinam pleadeth ) there fhould 
not be any Imperium in Imperio , or any Coercive Power challenged by Pope, Pre- 
late, Presbytery, or any, but by the Magiftrate alone; that the Paftoral Power is 
only Verfwajivt., or exerciled on Volunteers; ytt not private, fuch as belongeth to 
every Man (to ferfwade) that hath a perfwading Faculty, but Publick and Autho- 
ritative by Divine appointment : And not only to ferfwade by Sermont or general 
Speeches, but by particular overfight of their particular Flocks I much like the Au- 
thority of Plato or Zem in his School, or a Mafter in any Academy of Volunteers, 
or of a Phyfician in his Hofpital, fuppofingthefewere Officers of God's Inftitution, 
who could as tht ground of their ptr[ivaftons, produce his Commiffion or CommaoiJ 
for what they faid and did. 

But though the Diocclans, and the Presbyterians of Scotland ( who had Laws to 
enabletheiti ) oppoled thisDoftrinc or the Party at leall, yec I perceived that in- 
deed, it was but on the ground of their Civil Advantages, as the Magiftrate had 
impovv'ercd by them by his Lawsj ( which the Erajfians did not contradift ) j ejf- 

cept Ibme few oi' thi 

h':g!i!?r Ihflef Ibitj who pleaded as the PapiHs 

T * 

for I'wewlidt 



The LI f E of the L i b. I. 

more, which yet they could not themfelves tell what to make of : But the genf - 

rality of each Party indeed owned this DoArine ; and I could fpeak with no fober 

Judicious Prelatift, Presbyterian, or Independant, but confefled that no Secular, 

or Forcing Power, belonged to any Paftors of the Church as fuch ; and unlefs the 

Magiftrates authorized them as his Officers, they could not touch mens Bodies or 

* Archbi- Eftates, but the Conlcience alone * (which can be of none but of AlTenters). 

fiiopB(//w g J 2.The Epifcopal Party feemed to have realbn on their fide in this,that in the 

an^ My Primitive Church there were fome Apoftles, Evangelifts, and others , who were 

profcffeth. general unfixed Officers of the Church, not tyed to any particular Charge ; and had 

iome Superiority ( fonie of them ) over-fixed Bilhops or Paftors ! And though 

the extraordinary Parts of the Apoftles Office cealed, with them^ I faw no proof 

of the Ceflation of any ordinary part of their Office, fuch as Church Government 

is confefled to be. All the doubt that I faw in this was, Whether the Apoftles 

thcmielves were conftituted Govemours of other Paftors, or only over-ruled them 

by the Eminency of their Gifts and Priviledgeof Infallibility. For it feemed to 

me unmeet to affirm without proof, that Chrift fetled a Form of Government in 

his Church, to endure only for one Age, and changed it for a New one when that 

Age was ended. 

And as to fixed Btfljopj of particular Churches that were Superiours in degree to 
Presbyters, though 1 faw nothing at all in Scripture for them , which was any 
whit cogent, yet I law that the Reception of them in all the Churches was (o 
timely ( even in the days of one of the Apoftles in fome Churches j, and fo general, 
that I thought it a moft improbable thing, that if it had been contrary to the A- 
poftles mind, we fliould never read that they themfelves, or any one of their Dif- 
dples that converted with them, no nor any Chriftian ©r Heretick in the World, 
ftiould once (peak or write a word againft it, till long after it was generally fedcd in 
the Curches. This therefore I refolved never to oppofe. 

§ 4. 3. And as for the Presbyterians, I found that the Office of Preaching Presbyters 
was allowed by all that deferve the Name of Chriftians; and that this Office did 
participate ( fubferviently to Chrift ) of the Prophetical (or Teaching) the Priefily 
( or worfhipping ) and the Governing Power ; and that both Scripture, Antiquity, 
and the perfivafive Nature of Church Gcvernment, clearly ftiew that all Presbyters were 
Church Governours, as well as Church Teachers ! and that to, deny this was to 
deftroy the Office, and to endeavour to deftroy the Churches. And I faw in Scrip- 
ture, Antiquity and Realbn, that the Aflbciation of Paftors and Churches for A- 
greement, and their Synods in Cafes of Neceflity, are a plain duty : and that their 
ordinary ftated Synods are ufually very convenient. 

And I faw that in England the Perlbns which were called Presbyterians were emi- 
ment for Learning, Sobriety and Piety : and the Pafiors fo called were they that 
went through the Work of the Miniftry, in diligent ferious preaching to the Peo- 
ple, and edifying Mens Souls, and keeping up Religion in the Land. 

§ f. 4. And {01 thi Independant s, I faw that moft of them were Zealous, and 
very many Learned , difcreet and godly Men ; and fit to be very ierviceable in 
the Church. And I found in the fearch of Scripture and Antiquity, that in the 
beginning a Governed Church, and ifiated a/orjliipping Church, were all one 3 and not 
two leveral things : And that though there might be other by-Meetings in plagss 
like our Chappels or private Houles, for fuch as Age or Perfecution hindered to 
come to the mote folemn Meetings, yet Churches then were no bigger ( in num- 
ber of Perlbns ) than our Parilhes now ( to grant the moft ) : And that they were 
Societies of Chriftians united for Verfonal Communion ; and not only for Communi- 
on by Meetings of Officers and Delegates in Synods, as many Churches in Aflbcia- 
tion be. And I faw if once we go beyond the bounds of [ Perfonal Communion ] as 
the end of particular Churches, in the Definition, we may make a Church of a 
Nation, or of ten Nations, or what we pleafe, which fliall have none of the Nature 
and Ends of the Primitive particular Churches. Alfo I faw a commendable care 
ciferioris Holmeli and Difcipline in moft of the Independant Churches : And I found 
that fome Epifcopal Men ( as Bifhop U(Iier himlelf did voluntarily profefs his Judg- 
ment tome ; did hold that every Bilhop was independant, as to Synods, and that 
Synods were not proper Governours of the particular Bi/hops, but only for their 

§ 6. J. And for the Anab.iptifts themfelves (though I have written and faid lb 
nuich againft them,; as I found that moft of them were Perlbns of Zeal in Reli- 
giiji), fo many of them were fober godly People, and differed from others but in 
the Point of Infant Baptilm; orat moll w tlisPoi|its of Prsd$ftination and frce- 


Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 141 

will and Perfeverance, ( as the Jfjutts differ from the Dowinicam , the Lutherans 
ifrom the Calvmjis, and the Armtnians from the Centra- Remon/ir*nts ) : And I found 
in all Antiquity, that though Infant Bapcifm was held lawful by the Church, yet 
Ibme with TertuUian and Naz,ienz,en, thought it mod coovenient to make no hade, 
and the reft left the time of Baptifm to every ones liberty , and forced none to be 
baptized : Infomuch as not only Con/iantme , TbeodcJi»s, and iiach others as were 
converted at Years of Difcretion, but Augufiihe and many fuch as were the Chil- 
dren of Chriilian Parents (one or both; did defer their Baptifm much longer 
than I think they fliould have done. So that in the Primitive Church fome were 
Baptized in Infancy, and fome at ripe Age, and fome a little before their Death j 
and none were forced, but all left free ; and the only Penalty ( among men ) of 
their delay was, that fo long they were without the Priviledges of the Church, and 
were numbred but with the C<j/eci6«w7ewi, or E.\-pe^«wr/. 

§ 7. 6. As to bo£lriml Differences alio ( between Arminians and Anti-Arminians) 
I (bon perceived that it was hard to find a Man that difcerned the true State of 
the leveral Controverfies ; and that when tmreveakd pints ( uncertain to all ) were 
laid afide, and the Controverfies about Words were juftly (eparated from the Con- 
troverfies about things; the Differences about things which remained were few«r 
and (mailer than moft of the Contenders perceived or would believe. 

5 8. 7. Yea, I found that our DoArinal Controverfies with the Papifts them- 
felves , were very much darkned, and feldom well ilated ; and that in the Points j^^ ^j,j' 
of Merit , Juftification , Affurance of Salvation, Perleverance, Grace, Free- matterful- 
will, and fuch others, it was common to mifunderftand one another, and rare ly cleared 
to meet with any that by juft Diltinftion and Explication, did well ftate the Con- \^f-^^lr^- 
trovcrfics, and bring them out of the Dark. 

§ 9. What I begin to write about any of thele DoArinal Differences, in my 
Aphorifms, Confeffion, Apologie, &c. I will now pafs by, and the manifold 
Cenfures and Encounters which I had thereupon, and the many Manufcripts of 
worthy Brethren animadverting upon my Aphorifms, which I was ( privately ) 
put to anfwer : Becaufe it is not luch Differences that now I am to fpeak of. 

$ lo. I perceived then that every Party beforementioned, having fome Truth or 
Good, in which it was more eminent than the reft, it was no impoffible thing to 
Separate all that from the Error and the Evil, and that among all the Truths which 
they held either in Common or in Controverfy, there was no Contradiftion : And 
therefore, that he that would procure the Welfare of the Church muff do his befl 
to promote all the Truth and Good which was held by every part, and to leave 
out all their Errors and their Evil ; and not take up all that any Party had 
efpouled as their own. 

§ 1 1. The things which I difliked as erroneous or evil in each Party were 

I. In the Erafiians I difliked, i. That they made too light of the Power of 
theMiniftry and Church, and of Excommunication » and did notdiftinguilh fiif- 
ficiently of a perfuajive Power which is but jtri'vate, and is founded only in the 
Reafon of the Speaker, and a ferfuafive Tower which is fublick in an Officer of Chrip 
( which Camera well calleth DoiJoral), and is founded conjunctly in his Authority ( by 
God's Comrrtfm ) and his Arguments. 2. That they made the Articles of [ the Ho- 
ly Catholick Church , and the Communion of Saints ] too infignificant, by making 
Church Communion more common to the impenitent than Chrift would have it; 
and fo difhonoured Chrift by di (honouring his Church, and making it too like to 
the Heathen World, and breaking down the Hedge of Spiritual Difcipline, and 
laying it almoft in common with the Wildernefs. ;. That they mifunderftood 
and injured their Brethren, fupppofing and affirming them to claim as from God 
a coercive Power over the Bodies or Purfes of Men , and fo letting up Impertum 
ta Imperio ; whereas all temperate Chriftians ( at leaft except Papifts ) confels that 
the Church hath no Power of Force, but only to manage God's Word unto Mens 
S 12. In the Diocelane Party 1 utterly difliked 

I. Their Extirpation of the true Difcipline of Chrift, as we conceive, by con- 
fequence, though not intentionally } not only as they omitted it, and corrupted k^ but 
as their Principles and Church State had made it unpradicable and impoffible, 
while one Bilhop with his Confitory, had the fole Government of a thoufandor 
many hundred Churche«, even over many thoufands whofe Faces they were ne- 
ver like to feej not letting up any Paiochia Government under them: But juft as 
if the Archbithops ( or rather the Patriarchs ) in Conjlantmii days, fhould have 


1^2 ^hs LIFE of the L I B, L 

depofed all the Bifhops in the Empire , and have taken all their Charges upon 
them (elves. 

2. That hereby they altered the Species of Chnrches, and either would deface 
all particular Churches, and have none but aflbciated Diocefane Churches, (who 
hold the Communion by Delegates and not ferfonally ) ; or elfe they would turn 
all the particular Parochial Churches into Chriftian Oratories and Schools, while 
they gave their Paftors but a Teaching and JVorjhiping Power ; but not a Go^ 

3. That hereby they altered the ancient Species of Presbyters, to whofe Office 
the Spiritual Government of their proper Folks as truly belonged, as the Power of 
preaching and worfhippingGod did. 

4. That they extinguilhed the ancient Species of Bifliops, which was in the 
times of Ignatius, when every Church had one Altar and one Bipop ; and there were 
none but Itinerants or Arcbbijhops that had many Churches. 

f. That they fet up Courts that were more Secular than Spiritual, in the manner 
of other Secular Courts ; and that the Government of the Church by Excommu- 
nication ^ Sufpenfions, Ablblutions, &c. was exercifed by a Chancellor , who was 
a civil Lawyer and aLayraanevenagainft Minifters themfelves^ unlels for a blind, 
fome Prieft did formally pronounce the Sentence. 

6. That the great Church Bufinefs of thefe Bifliops and Courts, was to vex ho- 
neft Chriftians that durft not worfhip God by fuch Ceremonies as their Confcien- 
xes thought unlawful, and to filence able godly Preachers that durft not fubfcribs 
and fwear Obedience to them, and ufe every one of their Formes and Ceremo- 
nies, and profefi the Lawfulnels of all this ; and that by gratifying the multitude 
of the ungodly, and efpoufing a Caufe fo perniceous to the Church, which 
multitudes of fober Chriftians would diflike, they had engaged themlelves into a 
way of Enmity and Violence againft a very confiderable Number of as able Mini- 
fters, and holy Chriftians as any were in the Land or in the known World. 

7. And hereby it came to pafs that the Multitude of the Ignorant and ungodly 
People were become the zealous Pleaders for the Prelacie, and made it the Breft- 
work to exercife their Enmity againft the (erious Practice of Religion. 

8. And that ignorant drunken Readers ( unfit to live in Chriftian Communion) 
were the only Paftors ( under the Prelates ) of abundance of the Churches in the 

9. And that their zeal for Formality and Ceremonies, and their Enmity to the 
moft (erious way of Preaching, Praying, yea, and Living, did greatly tend to 
the fuppreffing of GoJIinefi, and the increafe of Ignorance and Prophanenefs in 
the People. 

10. And laftly, That they were fet upon away of uncharitable Cenluring, Re- 
proaching, Cruelty and Force, for the carrying on of lb ill a Caufe ; wherein 
their carnal Intereft did evidently manage a War againft the Intereft of Chrift 
and Godlinefs and the Souls of Men. 

§ I J. ;. In the Presbyterian way I difliked 

r. Their Order of Lay-Elders who had no Ordination, nor Totver to Preach, nor to 
adminifter Sacraments: For though I grant that Lay-Eldcrs, or the Chief of the Peo- 
ple, were oft imployed to exprefs the Peoples Confent, and preferve their Liber- 
ties, yet thefe were no Church-Officers at all, nor had any Charge of private Over- 
fight of the Flocks : And though I grant that one Church had oft more Elders, 
than did ufe to preach, and that many were moft employed io private Overfight, 
yet that was but a prudent dividing of their Work, according to the Gifts and parts 
of each, and not that any Elders wanted Power of Office to preach or Adminifter 
Sacraments when there was Caufe. 

z. And I difliked the Courfe of fome of the more rigid of them, that drew 
too near the way of Prelacie, by grafping at a kind of fecular Power ; not ufing it 
themlelves, but binding the Magiftrates to confifcate or imprifon Men, meeriy be- 
caufe they were excommunicate ; and lb corrupting the true Difcipline of the 
Church, and turning the Communion of Saints, into the Communion of the 
Multitude that muft keep in the Church againft their Wills, for fear of being un- 
done in the World. When as a Man -whole Conjcience cannot feci a ju/l Excommuni- 
ca'tiM; ttnhfs it he hack'd with Conffcation or Imprijonment, is no •fitter to be a Mitnher of 
a Chriftian Church in the Communion of Saints, than a Corps is to he a Member of a 
CdrpvriHion. It's true they claim not this Power as Jure Diz>ino ( though iomsfny 
thSt'Hic Magittrate is bound to execute thefe Penalties on Men meeriy as excom- 
nMi^icate j ) nor no more do the Prelates, when yet the Writ de Excommunicato 
^--■'"1 '•• Capiendo, 

P A R. T li. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 14.3 

Capiendo, is the Liia of all their Cenlures ) : But both Parties too much Jebafe 
the Aiagifrrate. by making him their meet Executioner-^ when as he is the yWjrg where- 
ever he is the Executioner , and is to try each Cau(e at his own Barr before lie be 
obliged to punilh any ; and they corrupt the Difcipline of Chrift by mixing ic 
with lecular Force j and they reproach the Keys or Minifterial Power, as if ic '^"ere 
a Leaden Sword, and not worth a Straw unleis the Magiftrates Sword entorce it. 
(And what then did the Primitive Church for Three hundred Years?) And^ worlt 
of all, they corrupt the Church by forcing in the Rabble of the unfit and un wil- 
ing ; and thereby tempt many Godly ChrilHafis to Schifms and dangerous Separati- 
ons. In all this I deny nor^ but that the Magiltrate muft reftrain all forts ot Vice : 
But not as a Hangman only, that executeth the Judgment of another; nor eo No- 
mine to punifh a Man becaule he is Excommunicate ( that is moft heavily puniilied 
already by others ) : Till Magiltrates keep the Sword themfelves, and learn to de- 
ny it to every angry Clergyman that would do his own Work by it, and leave 
them to their own Weapons, the Word and Spiritual Keys j & ■valeant quantum 
valere pojj'unt, the Church fhall never have Unity and Peace ; hucupjue frobatum 

3. And I diflikedyewe of the Presbyterians, that they were not tender enough 
to diffinting Brethren j but too much againft Liberty as others were too much for 
it J and thought by Votes and Number to do that which Love and ReafoA ihould 
have done. , fs-., 

4. And when the Independents (aid [ A Worjhiping Church unA a Governed Church 
is and mufi be all one : ] And the Presbyterians faid [ Thej may be aU one though it be 
not necejjary'] ; yet in their PraAice they would have 16 fetled it, that they fhould 
no where ^be all one, but ten or twelve worlhipping Churches Ihould have made one 
Governed Church ; which prepared the way to the Dioeelane Frame j though I 
confeC it is incomparably better ( becaufe ten or Twelve Churches is not fo ma* 
ny as a thoufand or many hundred ; and becaule the Paftor of every Church had 
the Government of his own Flock, in Conjundion with the Presbytery or Synod, 
though not alone ). 

§ 14. 4. And in the Independent way I difliked many things : As 

1. That they made too light of Ordination. 

2. That they alfo had their Office of Lay-Elderfliip. 

3. That they were commonly Striker about the Qualification of Church Mem- 
bers, than Scripture, Reafon, or the Practice of the Univerfal Church would al- 
low J not taking a Man's bare Profejfwn as Credible, as a fufficient Evidence of his Ti- 
tle to Church Communion, unleis either by a holy Life, or the Particular Narrati- 
on of the Paflages of the Work of Grace, he fatisfied the Paftors ( yea, and al! 
the Church ) that he was truly Holy ; whereas every Man's Profeflion is the valid 
Evidence of the thing profefTed in his Heart, unlefs it be difpoved by him that 
queftioneth it, by proving him guilty of Herefies or Impiety, or Sins inconfiftent 
with it. And if once you go beyond the Evidence of [ a fenous fiber Confe/fum 1 
as a credible and fufficient fign of Title, you will neveF know where to relt j but 
the Churches Opinion will be both Rule and Judge, and Men will be let in or 
kept out, accortiing to the various Latitude of Opinions or Charity in tlie feveral 
Officers or Churches ; and he will be paflable in one Church who in another is in- 
tollerable j and fo the Churches will be heterogeneous and confuled. And there is 
in all this a little ( if not more than a little ) Ipiritual Pride of the Weaker fort of 
ProfefTors, affediing to be vifibly fet at a greater Diftance from the colder Profer 
Ibrs of Chiftianity, than God would have them, that Co they may be more obler- 
vable, and confpicuous for their Holynefs in the World : And there is too much 
uncharitablenefs in it, when God hath given fincere ProfelTors the Kernel of his 
Mercies, even Grace and Glory, and yet they will grudge to cold Hypocritical 
ProlefTors, fo fmall a thing as the outward Shell, and vifible Communion and ex- 
ternal Ordinances; Yea, though fuch are kept in the Church for the Sakes and 
Service of the Sincere. 

4 And I difliked alio the lamentable tendency of this their way to Diviiions 
and Sub-divifions, and the nourifhing of Herefies and Sefts. 

f. But above all I difliked, that moft of them made the People by majority ol 
Votes to be Church Governors, in Excommunications, Ablblutions, &c. which 
Chrift hath made an Ad of Office, and fo they governed their Governors and 

6. Mtl 

144 ^^^ LIFE of the L I B. L 

6. Alfo that they too much exploded Synods^ refufing them as ftated, and ad- 
mitting them but upon fome extraordinary Occafions. 

7. Alio their over rigidnefs againft the Admiflton of ChriftiahS of other Church- 
es to their Communion. 

8. And their making a Miniftfir to be as no Minifter to any but his own Flock, 
and to a<ft toothers but as a private Man; with divers others fuch Irregularities^ 
and dividing Opinions : Many of which the moderation of the New England Synod 
hath of late correfted anddifbwned ; and {6 done very much to heal thefe Breaches. 

§ I J. f. And for the Anabaptifts I knew that they injurioufly excluded the In- 
fants of the Faithful from folemn entrance into the Covenant and Church of God, 
and as finfully made their Opinion a Ground of their Separations from the 
Churches and Communion of their Brethren j and that among them grew up the 
Weeds of many Errors and Divifions, Sub-divifionSj Reproach of Minifters, Fa- 
ftion and Pride, and fcandalous Pradices were fomented in their way. 

§ 16. The cale Handing thus with all thele Parties, I thought it my Duty, i. 
To labour to bring them all to a concordant Pradice of fo much as they all agreed 
in. 2. To let all that together which was True and Good among them all, and to 
promote that lb far as I was able, and to rejed: the reft. 3. And efpecially in or- 
der to thele, to labour the reviving of Chriftian Charity, which Fadion and DiP 
putes had lamentably extinguilh'd. But how to accomplilh this, was beyond the 
Prolpe<ft of my Hope. 

§ 17. Befides the Hinderances which are contained in Mens Principles, I found 
three others which were exceeding Powerful : One is in Mens Company and ano- 
ther in their feeniing Interefis, and the chiefeft of all in the Difpofition and Qua- 
lity of their Minds. 

§ i8. I. Some that were moft converfant with fober, peaceable, experienced 
Men, and were under the Care of peaceable Minifters, I found very much inclined 
to Charity and Peace. But multitudes of them converfed mofl: with ignorant,proud, 
unexperienced, Paflionate, Uncharitable Perlbns ; who made it a part of their 
Zeal and Ingenuity to break a Jeft in Reproach and Scorn of them that differed 
from them ; and who were ordinarily Backbiters, and bold unrighteous Cenfiirers 
of others, before they well underftood them, or ever heard them give a Realbn 
of their Judgments or Praftices, or Ijaeak for themfelves. And the hearing and 
converfing with fuch Perlbns as thefe doth powerfully difpofe Men to the fame 
Dileafe, and to fin impenitently after their Example. Efpecially when Men are 
incorporated into a Se^ or uncharitable Party, and have captivated themlelves to a 
human Servitude in Religion, and given up themfelves to the Will of Men, the 
Stream will bear down the plaineft Evidence, and carry them to the fouleft 

§ 19. 2, And as it is carnal hterefi that ruleth the carnal World, .fo I found that 
I. Among Selfipi Men, there were as many Interefis and Ends, as Perfons ; and eve- 
ry one had an Intereft of his own which governed him, and fet him at a very great 
Enmity to the moft necefTa^ry means of Peace. 2. And that ever Man that had 
once given up himfelf to a Party, and drowned himfelf in a Fa<5tion, did make 
the Intereft of that Fadion or Party to be his own : And the Intereft of Chrtftia- 
nity, Catholicifm and Charity, is contrary to the Intereft of Se£ls, as fuch. And it 
is the Nature of a Sectary, that he preferreth the Intereft of his Opinion, Bed or 
Party, before the Intereft of Chriftianity, Catholicifm and Charity, and will la- 
crifice the latter to the Service of the former. 

§ 20. 3. But the Grand Impediment I found in the temper of Mens Minds ; and 
there I perceived a manifold difference. Among all thefe Parties I found that Ibme 
were naturally of mild and calm and gentle Dilpofitions, and (bme of (bwer, frow- 
ard, paflionate, peevifh, or furious Natures : Some were young and raw and un- 
experienced, and thole were like a young Fruit, lour and harlh ; addi<;ted to pride 
of their own Opinions, to Self-conceitednels, Turbulenty, Cenlbrioufnefs and Te- 
merity, and to engage themfelves for a Caufe and Party before they underftood 
the matter : and were led about by thole Teachers and Books that had once won 
their higheft Efteem ; judging of Sermons and Perlbns by their Fervency, more 
than by the fiundncfs of the Matter and the Caule. And Ibme I found on the other 
fide, to be ancient and experienced Chriftians that had tried the Spirits, ;ind leen 
what was of God, and what of Man, and noted the Events of both in the World ; 
and thele were like ripe Fruit, Mellow and fweet, (irft pure, then peaceable, gen- 
tlq, ejfy to be intrtated, full of Mercy and good Fruits, without Partiality, with- 
out Hypocrify, who being Makers of Peace, did low the Fruits of Righteoufiicfs 


— ■ ' : ■■- ' ■--———- -- -■...■■ - .-. — ■■.■ I - . I ■ — ■ - 

Pa r r 11. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 145 

in pace, James 5. 17,18. I began by experience to underftand the meaning of 
thofe words of St. Paul, i Tim. 3. 6. [ Not a No-vice, lejt being lifted up with pride, 
he fall into the condemnation of the Devtl.'] Novices, that is, young, raw^ unexperien- 
ced Chriftians, are much apter to be proudj and cenforious, and fadioasj than old 
experienced, judicious Chriftians. 

§ 21. But the Difference between the Godly and the Ungodly, the Spiritual auA the 
Carnal worfhippers of God^ was here the moft confiderablc of all. hn humble, 
holy, upright Soul is (enfible of the intereft of Chrift and Souls j and a gracious 
Perlbn is ever a charitable Perfon, and loveth liis Neighbour as himfelf j and there- 
fore judg..'th of him, as he would be judged of himfelf, and fp»eaketh of liim as he 
would be fpoken of himielf, and u(eth him as he would be uied himfelf : And ic is 
as much againft his charitable inclination to difagree or (eparate from his Brethren, 
much more to profecute them or caft them out, as it is againll the nature of the 
body to difmember it felf, by cutting oft" any of the parts. And it is eafie to bring 
iuch Perfons to Agreement, at leaft to live in Charitable Communion. But on the 
other fide the Carnal, Selfilh and UnfanAined, ( of what Party or Opinion foever) 
have a Nature that is quite againft holy Concord and Peace. They want that Icve 
which is the natural Ballbm for the Churches wounds : They are every one Selfjh, 
and ruled by Selfhterefi, and have as many Ends and Centres of their Defires and 
Anions, as they are individual Men. They are eafily deceived and led info Er- 
rour, elpecially in Pradicals, and againft Spiritual Truths, for want of Divine Il- 
lumination, and Experience of the Things of God, and a Nature fuirable there- 
to. Their Defigns are C.irnal, Ambitious, Covetous,as Worldly Felicity is their I- 
dol and their End : God is not taken for their highelt Governour, his Laws muft 
give place to the Defires of their Flefli : Their very Religion is but Pride and 
Worldlinefs, or fubjecft to it. They have a fecret Enmity againft a holy, Ipiritual 
Life, and therefore againft the People that are holy : They love not them that are 
(crious in their own Religion, and that go beyond their dead Formality: ThisEn- 
mity, provoked by Selfintereft or Reproof, doth eafily make them Perfecutors of 
the Godly, if they have but power. And their carnal worldly hearts incline them 
to the carnal worldly fide in any Controverfies about Religion, and to corrupt it, 
and make it a carnal thing. Thsfe Hypocrites in the Church do betray its Purity 
and Peace, and fell Chrid's Intereft and the Gofpel for as frnall a price as Judas 
fold his Lord for. And though in a time, wlien God's Providence fetteth his own 
Caufe on the higher ground, and giveth it the advantage of holy Governours, thefe 
Men may poffibly be ferviceable to its welfare, as finding it to ferve their carnal 
Ends J yet ordinarily they will fell the Peace of the Church for Preferment • and 
are either impofing perfecuting Di'uiders, or difco7itef!ted humorous Dividers^ and hardly 
brought to the neceffary terms of a juft and holy and durable Peace, ( of whom 
I have more largely written in my Book called Catholick Unity). Thefb , and ma- 
ny more Impediments do rife up againft all conciliatory endeavours. 

§ 22. But I found not all thefe alike in all the difagreeing Parties, though fbme 
of both Sorts in every Party. The Erafiian Party is moit compofed of Lawyers 
and other Secular Perfons, who better underftancl the Nature of Civil Covern- 
ment, than the Nature, Form and Ends of the Church, and of thofe Offices ap- 
pointed by Chrift for Men's Spiritual Edification and Salvation. The Diocefan Party 
C with us ) confifted of fome grave, learned, godly Bifhops , and fome fober godly 
People of then- mind; and withal of almoft all the carnal Politicians, Temporizers, 
Prophane, and Haters of Godlinefs in the Land ; and all the Rabble of the igno- 
rant, ungodly Vulgar: Whether this came to pafs from any thing in the Nature of 
their Diocelan Government, or from their accommodating the ungodly Sort by 
the formal way of their Publick Worfhip ; or from their heading and pleafing 
them by running down the ffrifter fort of People whom they hated ; or all thefe 
together ; and alfo becaufe the worft and mofi do always fall in with the Party that 
is upperraoft, I leave to the Judgment of the confiderate Reader. The Presbyte- 
rian Party confifted of grave, orthodox, godly Minifters, together with the hope- 
fulleft of the Students and young Minifters, and the fbbereft, godly, ancient Chri- 
ftians, who were equally averfe to Verfecution and to Schifm • and of thofe young 
ones who were educated and ruled by thefe : As alfb in thofe places where they 
moft prevailed, of the fobereft fort of the well-meaning Vulgar, who liked a god- 
ly Life, though they had no great knowledge of it : And this Party was moftdefi- 
rous of Peace. The Independant Party had many very godly Minifters and People, 
but with them many young injudicious Perfons , inclined much to Noveliiesand 
Separations_, and abounding more in Zeal than Knowledge ; ufually doing more 

V fof 

1^6 The LI F E of the Lib. 1 

for Subdivifions, than the few fober Perfbns among them could do for unity and 
Peace ; too much miftaking the Terms of Church Communion, and the difference 
between the Regenerate ( invifible ) and the Congregate ( or vifible) Church. 
The Anabapcilh Party confifted of iome ( but fewer j fober, peaceable Perfons, 
and orthodox in othePo'.Dts; but withal, of abundance of young tranfported 
Zealots, anda medley of Opinionifls, vvho all haded direftly to Enthufiafm and 
Siihihvtjiifis, and by the Temptation of Profperity and Succefs in Arms^ and the 
Poiicy of fome Commanders, wqvq led into Rebellions_, and hot Endeavours againft 
the Miniltry, and other fcandalous Crimes ;and brought forth the horrid Sefe of 
Ranters, Seekers^ and Quakers in the Land. 

§ 23. But the greatelf Advantage which I found for Concord and Pacification, 
was among a great number of Minifters and People who had add!«5lsd themfelves 
to no Seft or Party at all ; though the Vulgar called them by the Name of Presby- 
terians : And the truth is, as far as I could difcover, this was the Cafe of the great- 
ell number of the godly Minifters and People throughout Englattd. For though 
Presbytery generally took m Scotland, yet it was but a ftranger here : And it found 
fome Miniilers that lived in conformity to the Bilhops . Liturgies and Ceremonies 
(however they wilht for Reformation); and the molt (that quickly after were 
ordained ) were but young Students in the Univerfities, at the time of the change 
of Church Government, and had never well ftudied the Point on either fide: And 
though molt of the Minifters ( then ) in England hw nothing in the Presbyterian 
way of praBice, which they could not cheerfully concur in, yet it was but~Tew 
that had refoived on their Prmciples : And when I came to try it, I found that moli 
(that ever I could meet with J were againft the Jm Divmum of Lay Elders, and 
for the moderate Primitive Epifcopacy, and for a narrow Cor:gregational or Pa- 
rochial Extent of ordinary Churches, and for an accommodation of all Parties, 
in order to Concord, as well as my lelf. I am fure as foon as I propofed it to them, 
I found moft inclined to this way, and therefore I fuppofe it was their Judgment 
before: Yea, multitudes whom I had no converfe with, I undcrdood to be of this 
mind ; fb that this moderate Number, ( I am loth to call them a Fartj , becaule 
they were for Catholicifm againft Parties), being no way pre-engaged , made the 
Work of Concord much more hopeful than elfe it would have been , or than I 
thought it to be when I firft attempted if. 

§ 24. Things being in this Cafe, I ffood flill Ibme years, as a looker on, and 
contented my lelf to wijh and prayior Peace, and only drop now and then a word 
for it in my praAical Writings ; which hath fince been none of my fmalleft 
troubles. The Reafons were, i. Becaule I was taken up in Pradicals , and in 
fach Controverfics as tended to Dodrinal Agreement. 2. Becaule I looked when 
fome abler and more eminent Divines attempted it. 3. But the chief Reafon was, 
Defpair : I was i'o confclous of my meannefs and in confiderablenefi in the Church, 
that I verily thought, but very few will regard what I (aid. But when I once at- 
tempted it, God convinced me of this Errour, and (hewed me how little Inftru- 
ments fignifie, when he will work : and that his Minifters and People were more 
humble to hear the meane(t of their Brethren, than I before believed. Atlaftthe 
workings of my earneft Defire, and the apprehenfron of my Duty, to do my beif, 
and leave the Succefs to God, engaged me as followeth. 

§ 25-, I firft began in Conference and Writing to Reverend Mr. Anthony Bargrfi, 
and fome others, to put the main Queftion, Whether all Church Government be 
not, as Camera holdeth, only Perfwafive, not by private, buc publick or authorized 
Doftoi-al Perfwafion, and lb can vi/ork on none but theConfcientious or AlTenters ? 
And whether the ufurpation of a ftridly Legiflative and Judicial Power ((ave only 
to judge what we are to execute), or a power of binding DilTenters , even Cla've 
errante , efpecially binding Magiftrates to execute by Corporal Penalties and 
Mul(5ts, and other Punilhments , Eo nomine, becauie by Excommunication the 
Church hati punKhed them, I fay, whether this be not a robbing the Magiftrate 
of his Power, and making the Exercile of the Keys, to be too like a Coercive 
Secular Judgment, and lb the Ground of all the Quarrels in the Church ? For I 
faw plainly that the Papifts, and thole Prelates and Presbyterians vvho are for fuch 
an unexamined Judicial Power, do but ftrive for that which belongeth to none of 
them all. Upon the raifing of thele doubts I was lialpeded to be an Eraftian, and 
had no other Anfwer, or Satisfa(5tion : But the (ludy of the Point Ibmewhat cleared 
' my own Judgment. 


Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. I4.7 

§ 26. Next this I wrote to Reverend and Judicious Mr. Richard Vines, about an 
attempt for Concord with all, but efpecially the Epifcopal Party : And alfo about 
Lay-Elders; and his Judgment fully concurred with me, and ( befides others ) he 
wrote to me the following Letter, 


T Hough 1 ^wuld have defired to have underfiood your thought i about the Point of Stf 
cnledge, that fo I might have formed up my thoughts into fame better order and clear- 
er ijjue than I did in my lafi : yet tojhew unto you how jnuch I value this Correfpondence 
with you, lam -wtUing to make [ome return to your felf. And firfi touching the School- 

ffjafi^er intended, &CC. The Accommodation you ^eak of u a great and a good work 

for the gaining into the Workjucb ufeful parts and interefts as might very much heal the 
Difcord, and unite theftrength of Men to oppofe de(iruUtve ways, and in rrty opinion more 
feafible with thoje men than any other, if they be moderate and godly •" for we differ with 
them rather about [ome Ptnacles of the Temple, than the Foundation or AhbuttreJJ'es thereof. 
J would not have much timejpent in a formula of DoBrine or Worflnp : for we are not 
much difiant in them,and happily no more than with one another. But 1 would have the Agree- 
ment attempted in that very thing which chiefly made the Divifien, and that ts Government y 
heal that breach and heal all j there begin,and therein labour all you can. What influence this 
may have upon others, I know not, in this exulceration of mens minds : but the Workjfeaks 
it Jelf good, and your Reafons for the attempting of it are very confiderable. For the Ajjem- 
hly, you know, they can meddle with jufi nothing but what is fent unto them by Parlia- 
ment, or one Houfe thereof ( as the Order faith ) and for that rea/on never took upon them 
to intermeddle therein. What they do infuch a thing, muji be done as private perjfdns, and 
not as m the capacity of Ajfembly-men, except it come to them recommended by the Parlia- 
ment, 'the great hufinefi is to find a temperament in Ordination and Government , in both 
Vjhich the Exclufion or Admittance of Presbyters ( dicis Caula ) for a fliadow , was not 
regular ; and no doubt the Presbyters ought and may bath teach and govern, as men that 
muft give account of Souls. For that you fay of every particular Church having many 
Presbyter s,it hath been confidered in our Ajfen^bly ,and the Scripture Jfeaks fair for it, but then 
the Church and City was of one Extent : No? arises or Bounds ajjigned out to particular 
men ( as now ) but the Minijler preached in circuita, or in common, and flood in relation 
to the Churches as to one Church, though meeting haply in divers houfes or places ( as is 
fiiB the manner of fame Cities in the Low Countries.^ If you will follow this mvdel, you 
mufi lay the City all into one Church particular, and the Villages half a dozen of them into a 
Church: which is a bufinefl here in England of vafi defign and confe(juence. An das for 
that you fay of a Bifiiop over many Presbyters, not over many Churches j 1 believe 
no (uch Bijhops wtU pleafe our men : but the Nation, as you conceive it, hath been, and is 
the Opinion of learned Men. Grotius in hisComwentary on the Adls, in divers places,and 
particularly cap. 17. faith, That as in every particular Synagogue (many of which was in 
fame one City) there was d^^nvdyayO-, fuch was the Primitive Btjliop : and doubtlef the 
frft Bijiwps were over the Community of Presbyters, as Presbyters in joint relation to one 
Church or Region ; which Region being upon the increafe of Believers, divided into more 
Churches, and in after times thofe Churches ajfigned to particular men : yet he, the Bifiiop,con- 
tinued BifliQpover themflitl. For that you jay, be had a negative voice, that's more than 
ever I (aw proved, or ever fliall, 1 believe for the firfi two hundred years ; and yet I have 
laboured to enquire into'it. That makes htm Angelus princeps , not Angelus prxfes, as 
Dr. Reignolds faith ; Calvin denies that, and makes him Conful in Senatu. Or as the 
Speaker in the Houfe of Parliament, which as I have heard that D. B. did fay, was but to 
make him Foreman of the Jury. Take heed of yielding a Negative Voice. As touching the 
introduclion of KnlinglLXdevi, fuch as are modelled out by Parliament , my judgment is 
fufficiently known : I am of your judgment in the Point. There Ihouid be fuch El- 
ders as have power to preach as well as rule : I fay power ; but how that will be affe- 
£led here I know not, except we could or would return to the priinttive nature and confittu- 
tion of particular Churches : and therefore it mufi be helped by the combination of more 
Churches together into one as to the flatter of Government, and let them befitU dtftmB: as to 
Word and Sacraments. That ts the eafiefl way of Accommodation that yet occurs to my 
thoughts. Sir, I fear I trouble you too long, but it is to Jliew how much I value you and your 
Letters to me j for which I thank you, and nil 

Yours in ;he beft Bond?, 

R, Vines, 

148 The LIFE of the L ^B. J. 

§ 27. Something alfo I wrote to Reverend and Learned Mr. Tk Gataker, whole 
Judgment I had feen before in his own Writings : And having the encouragement 
of fuch Confent, I motioned the Bufinefs to feme London Miniftersto have it iet on 
foot among themfelves, becaufe if it came from them, it would be much more ta- 
king than from us : But they thought it unfit to be managed there, for fevsral Rea- 
fons, andfo we muft try it, or only fit flill and willi well as we had done, 

§ 28. Next this, the ftate of my own Congregation, and the neceflity of my 
Duty, conftrained me to make Tome Attempt. For 1 murt adminifter the Sacra- 
ments to the Church, and the ordinary way of Examining every Man before they 
come, I was not able to prove neceffary, and the People were averle to it : So 
that I was forced to think of the matter more ferioufly ; and having determined of 
that way which was J I thought, moft agreeable to the Word of God, I thought, if 
all the Minifters did accord together in one way, the People would much raore ea- 
fily fubmit, than to the way of any Minirter that was fingular. To attempt their 
Conlent I had two very great Encouragements : The one was an honeft , humble, 
tradable People at home, engaged in no Party, Prelatleal, Presbyterian, or Inde- 
pendant ; but loving Godlinefs and Peace, and hating Schifm as that which they 
perceived to tend to the ruine of Religion. The other was a Company of honelV, 
godly, ferious, humble MinilteVs in the Country where 1 lived, who were not one 
of them ( that Aflbciated ) Presbyterian or Independant, and not part four or five 
of them Epifcopal ; but dif-engaged faithful Men. At a Lecture at IVoncfier I firft 
procured a Meeting, and told them of theDefign, which they all approved : They 
"impofed it upon me, to draw up a Form of Agreement. The Matter of it was 
to con fi ft [So much of the Church Order and Difcipline , as the Epifcopal, Tresbyterian , 
and Independant are agreed tn, as belonging to the Fafiors of each particular Church]. The 
Realbns of this were, i. Becaufe we all believed that the practice of lb much as al! 
are agreed in, would do very much to the Order and RefoiTnation of the Chur- 
ches ; and that the controverted Parts are thofe of lealt neceffity or weight. 2.Be- 
caufe we would not neceffitate any Party to refufe our Affociation , by putting in a 
word which he difowneth : for we intended not todilpute one another into near- 
er Agreement in Opinions, but firft to agree in the pradice of all that which was 
owned by us all. " 

According to their defire I drew up fome Articles for our Conlent which might 
engage us to the moft effedual praftice of fo much Difcipline as might reduce the 
Churches to order, and fatisfie Minifters in adminiftring the Sacraments, and ftop 
the more religious People from Separation, to which the unrelbrmedneft of the 
Churches through want of Difcipline inclined them, and yet might not at allcon- 
tradid the Judgments of any of the three Parties : And I brought in the Reafons 
of the feveral Points : which after liifficient Deliberation and Examination (with 
the alteration of fome few words ) were confented to by all the Minifters that 
were prelent ; and after feveral Meetings we iubfcribed them, and fo aflbciated for 
our mutual help and concord in our Work. The Minifters that thus aflbciated 
were for Number, Parts and Piety, the moft confiderable part of all that County, 
and fome out of ibme neighbouring Counties that were near us. There was not, 
that 1 know of, one through Presbyterian among them, becaufe there was but one 
iuch that I knew of in all the County, and he lived lomewhat remote: Nor dicf 
any Independant fubfcribe, faveonej for there were, ('that I knew of J but five 
or fix in the County, and two of the weightieft of them approved it in words, and 
the reft withdrew from our Debates, and gave us no reafon againft any thing'pro- 
pofed. Thofe that did not come near us, nor concur with us, were all the weaker 
Ibrt of Minifters, whofe Sufficiency or Converlation was queftioned by othersy 
and knew they were of little efteem among them, and were neither able or willing 
to exercile any Difcipline on their Flocks : As alfo fome few of better parts of the 
Ep«lcopal way, who never came near us, and knew not of our Propofals, or refol- 
▼ed to do nothing, till they had Epifcopacy reftored ; or fuch whofe Judgments 
efteemed fuch Difcipline of no great neceffity : And one or two very worthy Mi- 
nifters, who approved of our Agreement, fubfcribed it not, becaufe they had a. 
People fo very RefrataxDry, that they knew they were not able to bring them to fub- 
mit to if. 

Having all agreed in this Aflbciation, we propofed publickly to our People fo 
much as required their Conlent and Pradtice, and gave every Family a Copy in 
Print, and a fufficient timetoconfider and underftand it, and then put it in Execu- 
tion ; and I publilhed it with the Reafons of it, and an Explication of what feem- 
ed doubttul in it, in a Book which I called \_Cbriftian Concord ^ which pleafed me, 
and difplealed others. § 29- 


Part II. Reverenc^Mr.Kich2iTa Baxter. 141 

§ 29. There were at that time, two forts of Epifcopal Meft, who differed from 
each other, more than the more moderate fort differed from the Presbyterians. 
The one was the old common moderate fort, who were commonly in Dodtrine 
Cahimfis, and took Epifcopacy to be necelTary adbeneejje Minifterii &EcchfiiX^ but 
not ad efji\ and took all thofeofthe Reformed that had not BilKops, for true Churches 
andMInilters, wanting only that which they thought would make them more com- 
pleat. The other fort followed Dr. H. Hammond, and ( for ought we knew) were 
very new, and very few : Their Judgment was ( as he afferteth in Anmt-m AEi. 
II. & in Defertat. ) that all the Texts of Scripture which fpeak of Presbyters, do 
mean Bifliops, and that the Office of Subjed- Presbyters was not in the Church irj 
Scripture Tmies, ( but before Igmtirts wrote it was ) but that the Apoftles planted 
in every Church only a Biihop with Deacons, but with this intent ( afTerted but 
hevar proved ) thatintime^ when the Chriftians multiplied^ thefe BifhopS (that 
had then but one Church a piece) fliould ordain Subjeft-Presbyters under themj 
and be the Paftors of many Churches : And they held that Ordination without 
Bifliops was invalid, and a Miniftry foordained was null, and the Reformed Church- 
es that had no Bilhops, nor Presbyters ordained by Bilhops, were no true Church- 
es, though the Church of Rome be a true Church, as having Bifliops : Thele Men 
in Doctrine were iiich as are called Arminians : And though the other Ibrt were 
more numerous and elder, and ibme of them laid that Dr. H. Hammond had giveii 
away their Caufe ( becauie hereby he confeffeth that de faBo, the Churches were 
but Congn^ational or Parochial, and that Every Church had a Bifiiop, and no 
Subjed Presbyters were ordained by the Apoitles, or in Scripture time, whicli is 
almoft all that the Presbyterians dcfne ) yet Dr. H. Hammond and the few that ac 
rirft followed him, by their Parts and Intered in the Nobility and Gentry, did car- 
ry it at Uft againft the other Party. Now in my Chriftian Concord, I had confef- 
fed that it was only the moderate ancient Epifcopal Party which I hoped for 
Agreement with ; it being impoflible for the Presbyterian and Independant Party 
to alfociate with them that take them and their Churches, and all the reformetJ 
Minifters and Churches that have not Epifcopal Ordination, for null : And know- 
ing that this Opinion greatly tended to the Divifion of the Chriftian Churches, 
and gratifying the Papifis, and offending the Troteftants, I fpake freely againft it, 
which alienated that party from me. 

Having /"etled our Aflbciations Dr. Warmerfiry ( after Dean of TVorcefier) and 
Dr. Thomas Good ( after Prebend of Hereford ) were willing to have a Conference 
with us, in order to bring in the Epifcopal Party in Shrtpjhire ( where they then 
lived ) to our Aflociation : Accordingly we met with them at Ckolfury in Shrop' 
Jhtre ; and our Articles were read over by Dr. Warmerfiry, and examined one/'by 
one, and in the conclufion they profefTed their very good likeing of our Defign, 
and that they purpofed to join with us, but they thought it not meet at that pre- 
fcnt, being but two, to (ubfcribe their full Affent left it fhould feem over hafty to 
their Brethren, and fhould hinder the AfTociation, which they Defired to promote: 
But yet at prefent they fubfcribed as followeth : 

Sept.' 20. 16^^. 

§ jo.T'TTE whofi Names are under "written, having had Conference with divers of our 
' VV Brethren of the Aiinifiry of WoTcd\eT{hhs, concerning their Agreement and 
Ajjociation, for the promoting of Peace and Unity, and Reformation of their rcfpeilive 
Congregations; according to the Word of God, do by thefe Vrefents approve of their Chri- 
fiian Intendments m the general, as being fuch that in Reference to the prefent Condition of 
the Churchy we conceive to conduce very much to the Glory of God, the Promotion of 
Holynejs, the reflraint of Sin, the removing of Scandal^ and the fetling of God's People 
in Chriftian Unity and Concord, Witnefs our Hands, the Day and Year above written, 


( This is that Dr. Warmeflry, who, when I was filenced by Bifliop Morhy, and he" 
made Dean of IVorcefier, came purpofely to my Flock, to preach thofe vehement 
tedious Inveftives of which more hereafter. ) 

31. In our AfTociation we agreed upon a Monthly Meeting at certain Market- 
Towns for Conference about fuch Cafes of Difcipline as required Confultation 


150 The LIFE of the Lib. I, 

— — — _ — - — ^ ■ — * 

and Confent : Accordingly at EiteJIjam and Kiderminfier they were conftantly kept 
up ; In the Town where 1 lived we had once a Month a Meeting of Three Ju- 
Itices ol" the Peace ( who lived with us) and three or four Minifters (forfo ma- 
ny we were in the Parifh, my (elf and Affiftants ) and thred or four Deacons, 
and twenty of the ancient and godly Men of the Congregation, who pretended 
to no Office, as Lay-Elders, but only met as the Truftees of the whole Church, 
to be prefent and fecure their Liberties j and do that which any of the Church 
p T'^*: might do ; and they were chofen once a year hereunto (as * Grotius de Imperio jum 
of ' wlm" ?""#• advifeth ) ; becaufe all the People could not have leifure to meet fb oit, to 
Book I debate things which required their Confent : At this meeting we admoniihed thofe 
mod liked that remained impenitent in any fcandalous Sin, after more private Admonition be- 
and fol- fQj.g ^^Q Qj. jj^^gg . gjjj ^g (jjj ^j[h all poffible tendernefs perfuade them to repen- 

"^^"^ ■ tance,and labour to convince them of their Sin and danger; and pray with them 
if they confented : And if they could not be prevailed with to repent, we required 
them to meet before all the Minifters at the other monthly Meeting, which was 
always the next Day after this parochial Meeting. There we renewed our Admo- 
nitions and Exhortations, and fome Minifters of other Parillies laboured to fet it 
home, that the Offender might not think it was only the Opinion of the Paftor of 
the Place, and that he did it out of ill Will or Partiality. If he yielded penitent- 
ly to confefs his Sin and promife Amendment ( more or left publickly according to 
the Nature of the Scandal) we then' joined in Prayer for his true Repentance and 
Forgivenels, and exhorted him farther to his Duty for the future : But if he ftill 
continued obftinately impenitent, by the Confent of all, he was by the Paftor of 
the Place to be publickly admonifhedand prayed for by that Church, ufually three 
feveral days together ; and if ftill he remained Impenitent, the Church was re- 
quired to avoid him, as a Perfon unfit for their Communion j as is more fully 
opened in the Articles of our Agreement. 

§ 52. This monthly Meeting of the Minifters proved of exceeding great Benefit 
and comfort to us ; where when we had dined together, we fpent an Hour or 
two in Dilputation on fome Queftlon which was cholen the Week before ; and 
when the Refpondent and Opponent had done their Part, they were pleafed to 
make it my Work to determine : And after that, if we had any Church-bufmefs 
( as aforefaid ) we confulted of it. And many Minifters met with us, that were 
not of our Alfociation, for the Benefit of thefe Difputations. I muft confefi this 
was the comfortableft time of all my Life, through the great delight I had in 
the Company of that Society of honeft, fincere, laborious, humble Minifters of 
Chrift : Every Week on the LeAureDay I had thepleafrint Company of many of 
them at my Houle, and every Month at our appointed Meeing I had the Compa- 
ny of more ; I fo well knew their Self-denial, Impaitiality, Peaceablenefi, and 
exemplary Lives, together with their Skill and^faithlul Diligence for the Good of 
Souls ( however almoft all of them ha>ve been fince filenced and caft out ) that 
its plealant to me to remember the Converle I had with them ; io aimable are 
fmccre and upright Men> whofe finglenefs of Heart doth imitate the State of the 
primitive Believers, when proud, lelf-feeking referved Hypocrites, do turn their 
beft Endowments into a Reproach. 

§ ; J. When Dr. Wartriefiry and Dr. Good had fubfcribed as above, a while after 
Dr. IVarmeJiry confulted with his London Brethren : and he received a Paper of Ani- 
madverfions (not againft the Articles of our Agreement, but ) againft my Ex{)li- 
cation of them, and my Paftages which oppofe tholi Epifcopal Divines who deny 
the Miniftry and Churches which have not Prelatical Ordination : Thefe Animarf- 
verfions he lent to me with a Letter, which fignified his defire of Peace in general, 
but that he muft not ftrike a League with Faftion, &c. There was no JMame to 
this Paper, but long time after I learnt that it was Mr. Teter Gunning's, afterwards 
Bifhop of Ely. I prelently wrote an Anfwer to it, and offered the Dodor to fend 
In the Ap- it him, if he would tell me the Author. Becaule it is too long to be inlerted here, 
litndix. I have pat the Paper and Anlwer together in the End, where you may read 

After this I received from Sir Ralph Clare thefe enfuing Papers, as from fome 
Courtiers (which are of the fame Strain with Dr. Gtmnm£-i) j wliich with my 
brief Anfwer I adjoin. 

S I R, 

Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 151 

SI R, 

TH E Influence and Tower you have in the preftnt Vajlor of your Church ( ivho is 
r»uch famed abroad, and had in a reverend Efieem as -well for Piety of Life, as 
for bis Learning, Moderation, and defiring the Peace of the Church ) gives Encourage- 
ment to your old Acquaintance, and Ajjociate in that One-glorious Court of England to 
defire the Favour that this inclofed Paper may he presented to hu Chrijhan Vtetv and Con- 
fuleration j prefuming jo great is his Charity, that he will not leave any ■wounded Soul 
unhealed, wherein he ts able to befiow h^ Balm. In this he extends not his Chanty alone 
as to a fingle Perfn, hut ( in me ) there are many more of your Friends included j who 
would have appeared in Verfon, or met in Conference, were it not our Man/ions are at too 
great a difiance, and the Malignity and Jealoufy of Times challenges Retirements, rather 
than Ajjemhlies. 

It is not civil in us to chalk the Method of Anfwering the Queries ; yet for Eafement Sake 
and Brevity, it will be jatisfaBory his free Conceffion of any Proposals in the Affirmative 
to be true without any Enlargement of Reafons j and for thofe Queries which may andmuH 
admit Dtvifions, Dtfiinciions , and Difcourfe on the Cafe , let the reverend Gentleman ufe 
his own Form, Judgment and Dtjcretion ; as believing he will proceed with juch Candor 
and Impartiality , as becometh a Man of his Calling and Eminency ; waving all By-Inter- 
efis and Relations to any Party or FaElion, either regnant or ecltpH ; which A£i will de- 
fervedly heighHn the high Efieem he is valued at, and your felf by this Honour done, en- 
gage me and many more of your old Friends ( in me ) to fubfcribe our felves 

Your Servants, 
April 20. i^ff. 

Theophilus Church, 

(A feigned Name) 

Certain Qmries and Scruples of Confcience offered to fome 
Learned Divines for Rcfolution and Satisfaftion. 

I,T"V7H ETHER may a Cbriftian Magifirate tolerate Liberty of Confcience in Re- 

V V ligion and Church Difcipltne without Scandal? 

1. Whether may and ought a tender Confcience exercife and ttfe his Liberty and Freedom 
without Violence inforced by Superiors ? 

5. Whether in Matters of Government Ecclefiaftical depending only of FaB, tie gene- 
ral and perpetual PraBice of the Church from Age to Age, be not a fufficient Evidence and 
Warrant of the Right, Truth, a?id certainty of the thing ? 

4. Whether the Vocation of Bijhops be an Order Lawful tn it felf ? 

f. Whether the Regiment Ecclejiafiical by Btfhops hath not continued throughout the Chri- 
jlian Church ever fince the Apofiles , untiU Calvin'j days ? No Church Orthodox dtf- 

6. Whether was there ever fince the Apofile's days fo much as one national Church go- 
verned by a Presbytery without a Bi{hop untill Calvin'; Days ? If fo, where was the Ori' 
gtnal ? in what Place? by what Per [ons? of what continuance ? and how was it loH, or 
changed into Epifcopacy, and upon what Grounds or Motives ? 

7. Whether the prejent Mimfiry in the Church of England ( as tt now feparated fi^om 
their lawful Superiors or Bifliops ) be not Schifmatical ? 

8. Whether all thefe Mmificrs that have taken the Oath of Canonical Obedience to their 
Bijhops, and have backfitden and fubmitted to thoje Powers that violently deprived the /aid 
Btjhops of their legal Powers and JitrifdiBions, by yielding a voluntary Obedience to their 
Ordinances, are not under a high Cenfure of Perjury and Schifm ? 

9. Whether tho'e Minifiers now pretended to be made and ordained in the Church of 
England only by their Fellow Mintfiers without a Bifliop., be true Mintfiers or no ; or elje 
meer Lay Perjons, and bold Ufurpers of the Sacred FunB ion and Order, like Corah and hu 
Complices ? 

10. Whether all thofe Minifiers which are now in aBual poffefilon of the late Incum- 
bents Parjonages ^nd Cures of Souls ( and deprived for their only adhering and ajfiiling 
their late lawful Prince and their Govermur, and alfo their Bijhops ) to whom tbey owed 


1^2. The LIFE of the ' L i b. 1, 

aU Canonical Obedience) without and bejide any Legal hduBion or Admiff.on, may not he re- 
futed as Intruders and falfe Shepherds ? 

1 1. Whether it had not been an excellent part of Chriftian PerfeBion, rather to endure 
fajjl'vely lof of Liberty, Efiate, and ez/en of Life it felffor the maintenance and defence of 
the yujt and Legal Rights imjefied in the Church, and the Bifliops it's Superintendent Fa- 
ff ors, and the Liturgy and Service of the Church, than carnally for Self-intcreJ} and Ends, 
to comply and fubmit even againfi their knowing Confciences, to a 'violent and meer prevail- 
ing power and force in the abolifliing of Epifcopal Power, and the daily Prayers and Service 
ujed in the Church ? 

12. Whether allfuch Perfons be not guilty of Schifm and of Scandal given, which Com- 
wunicate and he prefent in jucb Alimfiers Congregations and JJfemblies, whether in Church 
or in private Meetings, to bear their Prayers or Sermons, or receive their Sacraments accord- 
ing to the now prejent mode and form, more ef^^ecially in the participation with them in the Sa- 
crament of the Eucharifi? Or how far may agoodChriJlian Communicate with jucb with- 
out jufi Scandal given or taken ? 

J 3. Whether it be lawful andjufi for any Orthodox Mini/fer or Epifcopanan to accept of 
any Benefice with Cure of Souls, as the ft ate of the Englifh Church new (fandeth vtfible 
and ruling, without guilt of Schijm hy compliance to their Form ? 

14. Whether as the Condition of the prefent Church of England is. The Mtniflers there- 
of may not legally, andfo juftifiably, exercife and ufe againfi the late Liturgy of the Church, 
there being no Statute Law prohibiting the jame ? And whether thofe that continue the Ob- 
fervtttion of the late DireHory be not perturbers of the Peace of the Church , ejfecially fnce 
the limitation of trial by a pretended Legality and Command for its obfervance , « expired 
and not reconfirmed. 

I f . Whether the old Jewifii Church bad not fet Forms of Prayer ? whither St. John the 
Baptifl our Saviour's Pracurfor, and our blejfed Saviour bimfelf, taught not their Difciples 
jet Forms of Prayers, and whether the Chrijlian Church ( ejpecially fince the time of Peace 
fi-om the violence of Heathenifl) Perfecution) had not, nor generally ufid fet Forms of Pray- 
er ? And whether the Mimfters now ex tempore Prayers in the Church, be not as well a 
jet Form of Prayers to the Auditors', whofe Spirits are therein bounded, as any fet Form o£ 
Prayer ufed in the Church ? 

16. Whether may a Chrifiian, without Scandal given, appear to be a Godfather or God- 
mother to a Child tn theje New /IJjemblies, where the Mimjttr ufeth his own Diilates and 
Prayers, and not of the ancient Liturgy^ except the Words of Baptifm, I Baptize thee 
( A. B. ) in the Name of the Father, &c. 

17. Whether any Supream Earthly Pooler or Powers Spiritual or Temporal, joint or fe- 
farate, can alienate and convert to jecular ufes or imployments any\Hou(es, Lands, Goods, or 
Things once devoted, offered and dedicated to God and his Church, without grand Sacri- 
ledge and Prophane^jefi ^ although by Corruption of Perfons and Times they have been either 
fuferftitioufiy abujed, or too prophanely employed, hut rather to reduce them to their primitive 
Ufe and Donation ? 

18. Whether the ancient Fa/ling Days of the Week and Feftivals of the Church, fetled 
both by Provincial Synods in the Tear i^Gz. and 1640. and confirmed by the then Regal 
Power, and aljo hy feveral Statutes and Laws, ought not by aU perfons in Confidence to he 
fitll obferved, until they be abrogated by the like Powers again ? or how far the Liberty of 
Confidence therein may be ufed in obfervtng or not obfierving them? the like fior the ufage of 
the Crofiin Baptifm, and the bumble poHure of Kneeling at the receiving ofithe blefjed Sa- 
crament of the Lord's Supper ? 

19. Which way of fecurity and peace of Confidence may a quiet Chriftian order and 
dtjpoje bimfelf, his Wife, Children and Family m ha Duty and Service towards God, and 
enjoy the right ufie and benefit of the Sacraments and other holy Duties, as long as that part 
of the Catholtck Church wherein he lives , m under perfecution, and the vifiible Rulin£ 
Church therein IS fain Schijmatical, if not m many par titulars Heretical ? 

April 20th, 1 6y J. 


Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 153 

May i4th, i^5$- ^n Anfveer to the foregoing Qnefttons^ fent to 

Sir R. Clare. 

AdQuefi. I", rrlther that Confcience owneth the right Reh'gion aud Difcipline 
\2j only, or the right with Ibme tolerable accidental Errours, or a 
wrong Religion and Difcipline in the Subftance. The firft the Magiftrate muft not 
only tolerate, but promote. The lecond he mufi: tolerate rather than do worfe by 
fuppreffing it. The third he muft fiipprers by all lawful means, and tolerate when 
he cannot help it, without a greater Evil. I fuppole no Judicious Man will expecfl 
an exad Solution of lb Comprehenfive a Queftion in few words : And I find not 
that a large Difcuflion is now expected from me : There are four or five Sheets 
of my Manufcripts in fome hands abroad on this Point, which may do more to- 
wards a latisfadory Solution, than thela few words. 

Ad 2". Either the tender Confcience is in the right, or in the wrong : If in the 
wrong, the Magiftrates Liberty will not make a Sin to be no Sin ; but the Party is 
bound by God to reftifie his Judgment, and thereby his Praftice. If in the right, 
it is a ftrange Qyeftion, Whether a Man may obey God, that hath the Magiftrates 
leave, till he be enforced by Mens violence ? Doch any doubt of it ? 

Ad ;". Matter of Gcvemment depending enly on Faii, is a Contradiction : Seeing 
Government confifteth in a Right, and the Exercife of it. I am not able therefore 
to underftand this Queftion. Yet, if this may afford any help toward the Soluti- 
on,! affirm,That the general and perpetual practice of the Church from Age to Age, 
of a thing not forbidden by the Word of God,will warrant our imitation.I fay [of a 
thing not forbidden] becaufe it hath been the general and perpetual practice ot the 
Church, to Sin, by vain Thoughts, Words, imperfed Duties, d^-c. wherein our 
imitation is not warrantable. . The general and perpetual praHice includeth the Apo- 
ftles and that Age. But what is meant by [Evidencing the Right oi a thing that de- 
pendeth only of Faft] or by [Evidencing the Truth and Certainty of a Faift by 
general and perpetual pradice] ( which is to prove idem per idem), I will not pre- 
uime that I underffand. 

Ad 4"". I know not what Bifhops you mean. A Congregational Bifnop overlee- 
ing the People is undoubtedly lawful : fb is a Congregational BiHiop, being Prefi- 
dent of a Presbytery which is over that Congregation. Where many Congregati- 
onal Officers are aliociated, I do not think that a Prefident for a time, or during his 
fitnefi, ffanding and fixed, is unlawful. The like I may fay of a Prefident of ma- 
ny of thofe Aifociations again affociated, as in a Province or Diocels : And I be- 
lieve it w«re a very eafie work for wife, godly, moderate men to agree about his 
Power : And I would not ieem (b cenlbrious as to proclaim that England wanteth 
fuch, further than the adual want of fuch Agreement, or juft endeavours there- 
to, doth proclaim it. I am fatisfied alfo, that the Apoftles themfelves have de jure 
Succeffbrs in all that part of their work which is to be perpetuated, or continued 
till now ; though not in their extraordinary Endowments and Priviledges. But 
if the fence of your Queftion be. Whether one Man may be the (fanding chief 
Governour of many particular Churches with their Officers , having either fble 
power of Ordination and JurildiAion (as fome would have) or a Negative Voice 
in both ( as others ) it would feem great arrogancy in me to be the confident 
Determiner of fuch a Queftion, which lb wile, learned, godly fober Men,have (aid 
fo much of on both fides already. 

/fc/j". I. He that knows how /hort Church Hiftory is in thefe Matters for the 
firit Age after the Apoftles, at leaft, and hath read impartially what Gerfom, Rticerus, 
Parker, Blondellus, Salwafius, Altare Damafcen, have laid on one fide ; and Saravia^ 
Dewnham, Dr. Hammond^ 6cc. on the other ; would fure never exped that I ftiould 
prefume to pals any confident Sentence in the Point : And it's like he would be 
Ibmewhat moderate himlelf. 

2. 1 lay as before, I know not what you mean by Biftiops : I am confident that 
the Church was not of many Hundred years after Chrift governed as ours was late- 
ly in England^ by a Diocefan Bilhop and a Chancellor jCxcluding almoft all the Pret 

3. Why do you fay [Since the Apoftles days,] when you before fpoke of the 
[General and perpetual pradice of the Church } ? 

X Ad 

i^^ The LIFE of the Lib. I, 

Ad 6'°. The word [National Church] admits of divers fences. As it was ufu- 
ally underftood in England, I think there was none for divers hundred years after 
Chrift, either governed by Bifhops or without them. They that will lock after 
the moft encouraging Preftdems, rauft look higher than National Churches. 

Ad-]"". The Queltion feemsnottomeanany particular truly-fchilrnatical Party 
of Minifters, but the generality, that live not under the Bifhops : and fo I anfwerwe- 
gatively, v/iiimg for the Accufers proof. 

Ads'". 1. 1 know not what the Oath of Canonical Obedience is: therefore 
cannot give a full Aufwer. I know multitudes of Minifters ordained by Biihops, 
that never took any fuch Oath. 

2. The Powers that violently took down the Bifliops, were the Secular Powers : 
None elfe could ufe violence. And it were a ftrange Oath for a Man to fwear that 
he would never obey the Secular Powers if they took down the Bifliops, when' the 
Holy Ghoft would have us obey Heathen Perfecutors. 

3. If it were fo great a Sin to obey thofe Powers, I conceive it muft be fo to 
the Laity as well as the Miniftry : And I knew but few of the Epifcopal Gentry or 
others called to it, that did refufe to take the Engagement to be true and faithful to 
that Power, when the Presbyters here accufed durft not take it. 

4. Moft Presbyters that I know do perform all Ecclefiaftical Matters upon fup- 
pofition of a Divine Diredion, anS not upon the Command of Humane Pow- 

Ad 9"". The Ordination of nicer Presbyters is not null , and the Presbyters Co or- 
dained now in England are true Presbyters, as I am ready to maintain. But wait 
for the Accufer's proof of the nullity. 

Ad 10". I. This calls me to decide the Controverfie about the late Wars, which 
I find not either neceflary or convenient forme to undertake. 

2. The like I muft fay of deciding the Legality of Induftions and Admit 

3. If a worthy Man be caft out, had you rather that God's Worfliip were neg- 
lefted, and the People perifhed for lack of Teaching, then any other Man fhould 
be iet over them, though one that had no hand in cafting him out ? Muft the 
People needs have him or none as long as he lives ? Was it fo when Bifliops were 
caft out heretofore by Emperours or Councils? I think I may take the Guidance 
of a deftitute People, fo I hinder not a worthy Man from recovering his 

4. I never defired that any fliould be Excluded but the Unworthy, (the Infuffici- 
ent, or Scandalous, or grofly Negligent ) : And I know but too few of the Ejeded 
that are notliich : And this Queftion doth modeftly pafs over their Cafe j or elfe I 
ftiould have laid fomewhat more to the Matter. , 

Ad 1 1". I. It is a neceffary Chriftian Duty to fee that we do not the leaft Evil 
for our own fafety : And all God's Ordinances muft be maintained as' far as we 
can : But as I before difclaimed the Arrogance of determining the Controverfie a- 
bout our Diocefan Epifcopacy, fo I think not every Legal Right of the Church 
( which it hath by Man's Law ), nor every thing in our Liturgy, to be worthy lb 
(lifFa maintenance, as to the lols ot Life ; nor the loft of Peace : Nor did the late 
King think fo, who would have let go fo much. But I think that they that did this 
[carnally for Self-intereft and Ends] -lid grievoufly fin, whether the thing it felf 
were good or bad : efpecially if they went againft their Confciences. 

a. I think there is no unlawful Prayers or Service now offered to God in the 
Church ordinarily, where I have had opportunity to know it. And I think we 
pray for the fame things, in the main, as we were wont to do; and offer God the 
fame Service : And that Mr. Ball and others againft the Separatifts^have fufficiently 
proved, that it is no part of the Worfliip, but an Accident of it felf indifferent, 
that I uieJiefe Words, or Thole, a Book or no Book, a Form premeditated, or not. 
And no Separatift hath yet well anlwered them. 

^d it\ Such as you defcribed you can hardly know, and therefore not know- 
ingly Icruple their Communion ; for a Man's ends and knowledge are out of your 
fij;ht: You can hardly tell who did this (^againft Knowledge and Confcience, car- 
nally, for Self intereft I But if you mean it of your ordinary Minifters and Con- 
gregations, I am paft doubt that you are Scliifmatical, ifnotworfe, if you avoid 
the Aflembiies, and Ordinances mentioned, upon liich Accufations and Suppofiti- 
ons : And I fliall much eafier prove this, than you will make good your Separa- 



Part IL Kev^endMr, Richard Baxter. ig§ 

^d 1 3"". Permitting, you to fuppofe [Orthodox] and [Epifcoparikn] to be the 
fame, at prefent ; you may eafily know that the Epifcopal are not all ct a Mind 
but differ, Ithinkj much more among themfelves, than the moderate Epil'copal 
and Presbyterians differ : feme maintaining that the Ordination of meer Presby- 
ters is not null, w ith divers the like things ; which the novel fort doth difclaim. 
The old Epifcopal Proteftant may not only take a Cure of Souls now, without any 
Contradiction to his Principles, but may comfortably Affociate with the peaceable 
Miniftry of the Land, and may not confcionably avoid it. The Novel fort be- 
fore mentioned, ought to reftifie their miftakes, and lb to take up their duty ; but 
as they are, I lee not how they can doit in confiitency with their Principles^unlefe 
under the Jurildiftion of a Bilhop. ,o. 

Ad 14°". For the Point of the legality of the Liturgy, you call me to determine 
Cafes in Law, which 1 find my (elf unlit for. And tor the Directory, its Nature 
is ( according to its Name ) not to impofe Words or Matter, nor bind by human 
Authority, but to dired: Men how to underftand God's Word concerning the Or- 
dering of his Worfliip. Now either it direfteth us right or wrong : If wrong, we 
muft not follow fuch Dire<ftions : If right, it's no unlawfiil difturbance of the 
Churches Peace to obey God's Word upon their Dire<51:ion : Circumftances, where- 
in fome place mofi: of their Government, they very little meddle with. And in- 
deed I know but few that do much in the order of Worfliip eo Nomwe becaufe it is 
lb in the Diteftory ; but becaule they think it moft agreeable to God's Word ; or 
mod tending to Concord, as things now ftand. Would you have us avoid any 
Scripture or orderly Courfe, meerly becaule it is exprelfed in the Diredtory ? And 
think you thofe are Ways of Peace ? 

Ad j^". I think ( on the Credit of others ) that the Jewifti Church had a Litli^ 
gy ; I am lure they had Forms of Praifes and Prayer in Ibme Cafes, 1 know 
Chrift taught his Difciples the Lord's Prayer, I will not determine whether as a 
Direftory for Matter and Order, or whether as a Form of Words to be uf^d, br 
when, or how oft ufed : I conjedure you regard the Judgment of Grotiui^ who 
laith in Matt, 6. 9. [^ m-mi : In htmc Senfum : Non enim practfit Cbnftus verba rec'ttari, 
^uodfiec legimus Afoftolos fecijje, quanquam id quoque fieri cumjfru^lu foteli fed materiatH 
frecum hmc fromere. '] i. e. Pray thus ; that is, to this Senfe : For Chrift doth not 
command the faying of the Words, nor do we read that the Apoftles did it, though 
that alio may profitably be done ; but hence to fetch the Matter of Prayer. -1 
You know the Directory advifeth the ule of the Words : And how it was that 
John taught his Difciples to pray, I cannot tell ; nor Will herein pretiend my letf 
wifer than I am . The Example of the Primitive Church is never the more imita- 
ble for the Ceflaiion of Perfecution ; and its Example before is moft to be regard- 
ed, that being pureft that is next the Fountain. We are fure that the Church 
long ufcd extemporate Prayers, and its probable betimes, Ibme Forms withal, I 
think they are ftrangely Dark and addicted to Extreams, that think either that no 
Forms are lawful, or that only prelcribed or premiditated Forms are lawful. And 
if you will condemn all publick extemporate Prayers, you will err as grofly as they 
that will have no other. 

Ad 16'^. I know no neceflity of any Godfather or Godmother, befide the Pa- 
rents, unlefs you will call thole fo, that in cafe of their neceffary Abfence are their 
Delegates. Nor do I know that ordinarily among us any Didates or Prayers are 
ufed that a Ibber Chriftian hath the leaft reafbn to fcruple Communion in. Will 
you have a Paftor that ftiall not fpeak in the Name of the People to God ? or will 
you call his Prayers [ his own 3 which he puts up by Virtue of his Office, accord- 
ing to God's Word? 

Ad I J'". I think they cannot without Sacriledge make fuch Alienation ,' except 
where God's Confent can be proved. For Example ; if the Minifters of the Churefj 
have full as much means given, as is tit for the Ends to which it is given, and yet 
the People will give more and more, to the Burden and enfnaring of the Churchy 
and the impoverilhing or ruin of the Commonwealth, here I think God contents 
not to accept that Gift, and therefore it was but an Offer, and not plenarily a GifCj 
for want of Acceptance ; for he accepts noc that which he prohibits. Here there- 
fore the Magiflrate may reftore this to its proper ufe. But whether this were any of 
the Cafe of thefe ( Sacrilegious) Alienations too lately made in this Land, is a far- 
Cher Queftion : I apprehend a deep Guilt of Sacriledge upon Ibme. 

Ad 18"". The Particulars here mentioned muft be diftindly cbnfidered: 

X z 1. AboiJt 

1^6 '^y-y The ~L I F E of the Lib. I. 

1. About Fafts and Feafts, the Queftion as referring to the Obligation of the 
Laws of the Land, is of thefame Relolucion as all other Queftionsrelpe^ling thofe 
Laws ; which being a Caie more out of my way, I fhall not prefume to deter- 
mine without a clearer Call. Only I muft (ay that I fee little Reafon why thole 
Men fhould think themfelves bound in this, who yet fuppo(ethem(elvesloole from 
many other Law?, and who obey many of the Laws or Ordinances of the preferit 

2. I much fear that not only the Querift, but many more are much enfnared 
in their Confcienees, by mifunderftanding the Nature and ufe of Synods. It's one 
thing for an AlTembly of Bifhops to have a fuperior Governing Power direftly 
over all particular Churches and Bifhops j and another thing for fuch an Affembly 
to have a Power of determining of things neceffary for the Concord of the feve- 
ral Churches. I never yet faw it proved that Synods are over Bilhops in a di- 
redt Governing Order, nor are called for fuch Ends ; but properly in ordine ad Vni- 
tatem, and to oblige only ( more than fingle Billiops ) by Virtue of the General 
Precept, of maintaining Unity and Concord. This is the Opinion of the moft 
learned Billiop and famous antiquary that I am acquainted with. 

3. And then when the end ceafes, the Obligation is at an End. So that this 
can now be no Law of Unity with us. 

4. All human Laws die with the Legiflator, farther than the furviving Rulers 
ihall continue them. The Reafon is drawn from the Nature of a Law, which is 
to be jujjttm Maje^atis, in the Commonwealth, and every where to be a fign of 
the Re<Sors Will Je debito, 'vcl conftituendo, i/el confirmando : Or his Authoritative 
Determination of what fliall be due fiom us and to us. Therefore no Re(5lor, no 
Law : and the Law that is, though made by the deceafed ReAor, is not his Law, 
but the prefent Re<5tor's Law, formally ; it being the fignifier of his Will : And it 
is his Will for the continuance of it, that gives it a new Life. In all this I fpeak 
of the whole Summa poteftas that hath the abfolute Legiflative Power. If therefore 
the Church Governors be dead that made thefe Laws, and no lufficient Power fuc- 
ceeds them to continue thele Laws and make them theirs, then they are dead with 
their Authors. 

f. The prefent Paftors of the Church (though but Preshyters) are the true 
Guides of it, while Bifhops are abfent ( and the true Guides conjun«^ly with the 
Bifhops, if they were prefent, according to the Judgment of your own fide }. 
Whoever is the fble exiftent governing Power, may govern, and muft be obeyed 
in things Lawful Therefore you muft ( for all your unproved Accufation of 
Schifm ) obey them. The Death or Depofition of the Bifhops depriveth not the 
Presbyters of that Power which they had before, 

r 6. Former Church Governors have not Power to bind all that fhall come after 
them, where they were before free : But their Followers are as free as they 

7. The Nature of Church Canons is to determine of Circumftances only for a 
prefent time, place or occafion, and not to be univerfal ffanding Laws, to all Ages 
of the Church : For if fuch Determinations had been fit, God would have made 
thetp himfeif, and they would have been contained in his perfect Word. He gives 
not his Legiflative Power to Synods or Bifhops. 

r 8. Yet if your Confcience will needs p3rruade you to ufe thole Ceremonies, 
you have no ground to feparate from all that will not be of your Opinion. 

9. For the Ciofs, the Canons require only the Miniller to ufe it, and not you : 
and if he do not, that's nothing to you. 

10. Have you impartially read what is written againft the Lawfulnefs of it, by 
./*wf/;»/s frefh Suit, Bradjhaw, Parker, and others: IfyOuhave : you may at lealt 
lee this, that it's no fit matter to place the Churches Unity or Uniformity in : 
and they that will make fuch Laws for Unity go beyond their Commiflion. 
Church Governors are to determine the Circuniflances fro loco& tempore in parti- 
cular, which God hath in Word or Nature made neceflary in genere, and left to 
their Determination. But when Men will prefume beyond this, to determine 
of things not indeed circumffantial, or no way neceffary m genere nor left to their 
Determination (as to inflitute new flanding Symbols in and with God's Symbols 
or Sacraments, to be engaging Signs to engage us to Chrilf, and to Work Grace 
on the Soul as the Word and Sacraments do, that is by a moral Operation ) and 
then will needs make thefe the Cement of Unity j this is it that hath been the 
Bane of Unity, and Caufe of Divifions. 

II. Kneeling 

Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 157 

ii.Kneeling at the Sacrament is a Novelty introduced many hundred years after 
ChriJtj and contrary to fuch Canons and Cultoms of the Church, to which for 
Antiquity and Univerfality, you owe much more relpeft, than to the Canons of 
the late Bi/hopsin England. 

12. If your General Rule hold that you ftand bound by all Canons, not repeal- 
ed by equal Power, you have a greater burden on your back than you are aware 
of, which if you bore indeed, you would know how little this ufurped Legif- 
lative Power befriends the Church : And among others,you are bound not to kneel 
in the Church on any Lord's Day, in Sacrament or Prayer. Grotius de ImperioSum. 
fotest. would teach much more Moderation in thele Matters than I here per- 

AdQ^J9'". I. It's too much Self-conceitednefs and Uncharitablenefs to pafs fo 
bold a Cenfure as your Suppofition doth contain, of the vifible ruling Church be- 
ing Schifmatical, and fo Heretical. Which is the ruling Church ? I know none 
in England befides Bifhops that pretend to rule any but their own Provinces ; and 
but few that pretend Order to Regiment. Perhaps when the Schifm and Herefie 
come to be opened, it will not be found to lye where you imagin, nor fo eafily pro- 
ved as rallily affirmed, or intimated. 

2. Do not be too fenfibleof Perfecution, when Liberty of Confcience is lb pro- 
claimed, though the Reftridion be fomewhat on your fide. O the difference of 
your Perfecution, and theirs that fuffered by you I 

5. The only confcionable andfafe way for the Church and your own Souls, is 
to love, long for, pray, and confult for Peace. Clofe in the unanimous praftice of 
(b much as all are agreed in : In amicable Meetings endeavour the healing of all 
breaches : Difown the ungodly of all Parties : Lay by the new violent Opinions 
inconfiftant with Unity. I expeft not that this advice fliould pleafe the preju- 
diced : But that it's the only (afe and comfortable way , is the Confident Opi- 
nion of 

"Xour Brother., 

Richard Baxter. 

All the Diflurbance I had in my ownParifh was by Sir Ralfb Clares reflifing to 
Communicate with us, unlels 1 would give it him kneeling on a diftinft Day, and 
not with thofe that received it fitting. To which Demand I gave him this follow- 
ing Anlwer. 


UPon Confultation with others and my own Confcience, I return this Anfwer 
to your lafl: motion j beleeching you to believe that it had been more plea- 
ling, if it would have ftood with the pleafing of God and my own Confci- 

1. In general it is my reiblution to be lb far from being the Author of any Di- 
vifions in any part of the Church of Chrift, as that I Ihall do all that lawfully I can 
to avoid them. 

2. I am fo far from the Judgment and Praftices of the late Prelates of England^ 
in point of compelling all to obey or imitate them in geftures and other indifferent 
things, on pain of being deprived of God's greateft Ordinances ( which are not in- 
differents), befide the ruine of their Eftates,c^<r. that 1 would become all things 
( lawful ) to all Men for their good, and as I know that the Kingdom of God 
ftandeth not in fuch things, lb neither would I Ihut any out of his vifible King- 
dom for fuch things ; as judging that our Office is to fee God's Law obeyed as far 
as we can procure it, and not to be Law -givers to the Church our felves, and in 
Circumftantials to make no more Determinations [than are neceflary ; left they 
prove but Engines to enfnare Mens Conlciences, and to divide the Church. And 
as I wouW impole no (iich things on other Churches if I had power, fo neither 
will I do it on this Church of which I have (bme overfight. 

g.More particularly ,1 am certain that fitting in the receiving of the Lord's Supper 
is lawful : or elfe Chrift and his Apoftles, and all his Churches for many hundred 
years after him did fin, which cannot be. And I take it to be intolerable arrogao- 


158 * ^ The LIFE of the L i b. I. 

cy and untnannerlinefi ( to fpeak eafily ) to call that uftrevefence and feTveineff, 
( as many do ) which Chriit and the ApolHes and all the Church fo long ufed 
with one confent. He better knew what pleafeth himfelf than we do : The vain 
pretended difference between the Apoftles Gelture and ours , is nothing to the 
matter : He that fitteth on the Ground, fitteth as well as he that fitteth on a Stool : 
And if any difference were, it was their Gefture that leems the more homely : and 
no fuch difference can be pretended in the Chriftian Churches many hundred 
years after. And I think ic is a naked pretence ( having no ftew of reafon to co- 
ver it) of them that againfl: all this will plead a neceffity of kneeling , becaufe of 
our unworthinefs : For, i. The Churches of fo long time were unworthy as well 
as we. 2. We may kneel as low as the Duft ( and on our bare knees, if we pleafe^ 
immediately before in praying for a bleffing and for the pirdon of our fins^and as 
loon as wehavedone. 3. Man muftnot by his own Conceits make thofe things 
neceffiiry to the Church, which Chrift and his Church for (b long thought unne- 
ceflfary. 4. On this pretence we might refiile the Sacrament it felf: for they are 
more unworthy to eattheFlefhof Chrift, and to drink his blood, than to fit at his 
Table. 5-. TheGofpelis Glad Tidings ; the Effeftsof it are Faith and Peace and 
Joy : the Benefits are to make us one with Chrift, and to be his Spoufe and Mem- 
bers : the work of it is the joyful Commemoration of thefe Benefits , and living in 
Righteoufnels, Peace and Joy in the Holy Ghoft: And the Sacramental Sigfts are 
fuch as fuit the Benefits and Duties. If therefore Chrift have called us by his Ex- 
ample, and the Example of all his Church, to fit with him at his Table to repre- 
fent our Union, Communfon, and joyful redeemed State, and cur evcrlafting fit- 
ting with him at his Table in his Kingdom, it as little befeems us to reject this 
Mercy and Duty, becaule of our Unworthinefs, as to be our own Lawgivers. 
And on the Irka Reafons men might fay, [ I will not be united to thee, nor be a 
Member of thy Body, or tftarried to thee, nor fit with thee on th-/ Throfie ( Re'O. 
;. 2 r. ) according to thy Promife, becaufe it would be too great fiwcinefs in me]. 
Gofjiel Mercies, and Gofpel Duties, and Signs, muft be all fliited, and fo Chiiift 
hath done them, and we may not undo them. 

4. I muft profefs that upon fuch Confiderations , lam not certain that fitting 
is not of commanded Neceflity ( as I am (lire it is lawful ) ; nor am I certain that 
kneeling in the A6t of Receiving, when done of choice, is not a flat fin. For I 
know it is not only againft Scripture Example ( where though Circumftances ap- 
parently occafiorial bind not, as an upper Room , &c. yet that's nothing to others) 
but alfo ic is ^gaihft the Canotts of Councils, yea a General Council ( at TthH. in 
Corijfantiiwflc) .-ittd againft fo Concurrent a Judgment and Practice of the Church 
f(>r many hondred years, that it (eems to fight with Vtfxxntws La-imnf. Catholick 
iiule, f>uod fcmfcr, ubtque c^ ab omnibus rece ft urn , &C. Let them therefore juftifie 
kneeling as lawful that can, fori cannot; and therefore dare not do that which 
Ihall be an owning of it, when we may freely do otherwile. 

J. Yet for all this, I fo much incline to Thoughts of Peace, and Clofure with 
others, that I will not fiy that fitting is of neceffity, nor that kneeling is unlaw- 
ful (unlefi where other Circumftances make it fb) nor condemn any that differ 
from me herein : Yea, if Lcould nototherwKe Communicate with the Church in 
the Sacrament,.! would take it kneeling myfelf, as being certain that the Sacra-- 
ment is a Duty^and riot c^ttaih that knefeling is a fin : ahfd ih that Cale I believe it 

6. As for them that think kneeling a Duty, becaule of the Canons of the late 
Bifhops enjbynrngif, I hhve more to fay againft their Judgment than this Paper 
will contain. Only in a word, 1. If it he the Secular Powers eftablilhing , thofe 
Canons that binds their Coftfctences, Why do they not obey the preient Secular 
Powers f n all other things ? Ic is known the King coniented to relax this : And how- 
ever , this is little to them dist go on the Ground of Divine or Ecclefiaftical Right. 
And if we muftfo plunge cur felvesinto Enquiries after the Rights cf Secular Go- 
vernours, before we can know whether to ftand or let at the Sacrament , we are all 
uncertain what to do in greater Matters : for there are as apparent grounds for 
our' uncertainty of five hiindrtd years old and more , which this is no place to 
dive into. And it wouW be as unlawful on this ground to read any other Pfalm or 
Chapter, but what was of old appointed hv the Day, as to forbear knefclingafthc 
Sacrament. And perhips on the OopOlients grounds, it would be ftil! asfinful to 
feftrain a Child or Servant from Dancinj* on the Lord's Day. And if ic be Ec- 
clefiaftical Authority ih'it they ftick sx, that muft be derived from Chrift, and fo 
Originally Divine, or itisiicCe. And thi^h fpot to wade fo unl^afonably into 


P A R. T II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 5^ 

the main Controverfiej, i. Before they have prov€d their Legiflative Authority • 
2. And that this Congregation is Jure Divtno part of their Charge, and under their 
Jurifdi<aion ; ;. And that they had power to contraditft the Examples of Chrift 
and his ApofHes herein, and the conlbnt praftice of the Primitive Church, and the 
Canons of Councils, even General Councils j 4. And that their Canons are yet in 
force againft all thefe^ I fay before all this be well done, we Hiall find that there 
muft go more than a flight Suppofition to the making good of their Caufe. Ac- 
cording to their own Principles, a lower Power cannot reverfe the Ads of a high- 
er. But the General Councils at N/ce and Con(iantinoplc that forbad Kneeling on 
any Lord's Day, was a higher Power than the Engltji) Convocation : Ergo, The 
Ewg/zjlj Convocation cannot Repealits Ads. (Though for my own part I think 
that neither of their Ads do need any Repeal to Null them to us, in fuch Cafes }, 
y. Befides this ; If thafe Canon* bin! Conlcience ; yet, it is either by the Autho- 
rity that Enadcd them, or by the Authority of the prefent Church-Governours 
that impofe them. If old Canons bind, without or againft the prefent Power,then 
the fame Canon that forbiddeth Kneeling bindeth, and many an hundred more, 
a great part of which are now made no Conlcience of: If it be the prefent Autho- 
rity that is above the Ancient, then i- They that pretend to fuch Authority over 
this Congregation ftiould procJuce and exercife it : For if we know them not, nor 
receive any Commands from them, we are capable of no Difobedience to them. 
2. And in the mean time, We that are in the place muft take it as our Charge ; 
or do the Work, or for ought I know, it will in moft Places be undone: For the 
Authority is for the Work. 5. We ufe to take it for the great partiality (at leaft ) 
of the Church of Rome, that will be judged by none but the prefent Church, that 
is, themfelves, when we would be tried by the Scripture or the Ancient Church. - 
In a word, I do not think that when Circumftances tending to Order and Decen- 
cy are fb mutable, that God ever gave power to any Bifhops to tie all Congrega- 
tions and Ages to this or that Sacrament Gefture ; nor at all to make them lb necef- 
lary, as that Bodily Punifliment or Excommunications fhould be inflided on the 
Negledersof them. And I think that Calling which hath no better Work than 
this to do, is not woith the regarding. 

And here I ftould propound to the contrary-minded one C^ueftion , Whether if 
a Bifliop fhould command them to ffand or fit, they would do it.' Yea j or if a 
Convocation commanded it? If they fay Yea ; then mufl they lay by all their 
Arguments from pretended irreverence to prove Sitting evil : for I hope they 
would not be irreverent, nor do evil at the command of a Bifiiop or Convocation : 
And then let our Authority ( from Scripture Example and the Univerfal Church 
and a General Council, and the prefent Secular Power, and the late Aflembly and 
Parliaments, and the prefent Paflors or Presbyters of ^the Congregations) I fay, let 
all this be fet againft the prefent Countermand of I know not who, nor for what 
Reafon, as being not vifible. But if they fay. They would not obey the Bifhops 
if they forbad them Kneeling, then let them juftifie us that obey them not when 
they command us to Kneel, having fb much as is exprelTed to the contr.7ry. 

Thus Sir, I have firft given you my Realbns about the Gefture it felf. And of 
putting it into each Perfbns hands, I have thus much more to fay, ; 1. 1 know no- 
thing to oblige me to it. 2. Chrift himlelf did otherwile, as appeareth in Mattb. 
z6, 26, 27. [For K<iCi]i, (fAyiJi, ■mili 'J^ mjtS mvju J take ye, eat ye, drink ye all of ;f J 
doth Ihew that it was given to them all in general, and not to each man fingly. 
;. And in this alfb Antiquity is on my fide, the contrary being much later. More 
Realbns I have that I fhall not now trouble you with. 

To this I may well add. That no Man can have any Rational pretence ( that I 
know of ) againft the Receiving of the Sacrament upon liich a General Delivery. 

1. Becaule the contrary was never yet pleaded ncceffary jf«re Divino that I know of 

2. And if it were a Sin, it would be the Minifters Sin fo to deliver it,and not theirs, 
who as they have not the Rule of his Adions, fo they fhall not Anfwer for them. 
Having thus told you my thoughts of the Matters in doubt, I fhall next tell you my 
purpole as to your Motion. 

I. I did never hitherto, tomy remembrance, refufe to give the Sacrament to 
any one, meerly becaule they would not take it Sitting or Standing ; nor did 
ever forbid or repel any on that account ^ nor ever mean to do. If any of my 
Charge fhall take it Standing or Kneeling, I fhall not forbid them on any fuch 

a. If 

i^o ^/^^ LI F E of the L I B. I. 

2. If they further expeft that I fhould put it into each Man's hands individual- 
ly, I may well exped the liberty of guiding my own Adionsj according to my 
own Confcience, if I may not guide theirs: It is enough that in (iich Cafes they 
will refufe to be Ruled by me ; they fhould not alio ufurp the ruling of me : but 
let us be equal, and let me have my liberty, as I am willing to let them have 
theirs ; and if I (in they are not guilty of it; Nor have thejPany ground to refufe 
the Sacrament rather than fo take it. 

3. Yet if any of my Pafloral Charge fhall be unfatisfied, if they will but hear 
my Reafons firil, and if thofe Reafons convince them not, if they will profefs^that 
they think it a Sin againft God for them to Receive the Sacrament unlefs it be 
put into their hands Kneeling, and Ergo that they dare not in Confcience take it 
otherwile, I do purpofe to condefcend to their Weaknefs, and fo to give it them. 
So that no one of them fliall be ever able to fay, that I wronged a truly tender Con- 
fcience, or deprived them of that holy Ordinance. My Reafons are, becaufe I 
take not their Errours to be fo heinous a thing, as to deferve their total Exclufion 
from the Sacrament. Nor do I fuppofe it a Sin in me lb far to yield to them in 
cafe of fuch Weaknefs. Though I know Inconveniencies will follow , which 
they, and not I, are guilty of. And thus much, as far as is necelTary, I fliould 
make known. 

4. But then thele Perlbns !muft not expeft that I fhould never give them my 
Judgment and Reafons againfl their Opinion: for that were to ceafe teaching them 
the Truth, as .well as to yield to their Errours. 

y. And I fhall expe6b that at the firft Receiving they will openly profels that 
they take not the Bread for the Subftantial Body of Chrift , nor Worfhip the 

6. But as for thole that are not of my Paftoral Charge, I muft lay more, whe- 
ther they live in this Parilh or another ; Either they are fuch as are Members of 
Ibme other particular Church, or of none. For the former (brt , 1. Ordinarily it 
is fit and necelTary that they Receive the Sacrament of their own Paftor, and in 
that particular Church of which they are Members ; or elfe how are they Mem- 
bers of it ? 2. And in Extraordinary Cafes, I fhall not deny any of them the Sa- 
crament on thefe Conditions ; i. If they bring Certificates from the Paftor under 
whofe Guidance they are, that they are of his Flock, and walk as Chriftians, fup- 
pofing the Pallor faithful that certifieth it. 2.0r if they do not this,yet if they will 
come to me, and acquaint me who is their Paftor,and what Church they are Mem- 
bers of, and what fleafons they had to withdraw from this Church,! fhall not refufe 
them, if their account be fuch as may juftly latisfie. 

But as for thofe of this Parilh that have ( after this two years Invitation and 
Expedlation ) refufed to profels themfelves to be Members of this particular 
Church, and to take me for their Teacher or Paftor, and yet are not Members 
of any other Church, nor under any particular Paftor and Dilcipline , I fhall de- 
lire to fpcak wich them before I give them the Sacrament. And if they can give 
me any tolerable Reafonofit , I fhall willingly receive it, and if they prove the 
blame to be in me, I fhall endeavour to reform it. But if they give me no fuffi- 
cient reafbn, I cannot admit fuch to the Lord's Supper ( fpecially ordinarily and 
the multitude of them) for thefe Reafons following : r. Becaufe I take it to be a 
heinous, fcandalous liii, to live from under Difcipline, as a Stragler and in Difbr- 
der, having no Paftor, nor being a Member of any particular Church.; And 
therefore I dare not admit fuch till they repent, no more than I would do a Drun- 
kard or Adulterer. 2. I dare not be an Inftrument of hindering Reformation, 
and the Execution of juft Difcipline, by gratifying the Unruly that fiy from it, 
and let themfelves again it. And as ibr all thole that either will not give me An 
account, why they live from under Difcipline, or can give no juft account, yea, and 
thofe that think their own Reafons for it good, when I do not, or on any ground 
are from under my Paftoral Charge, without my Fault, I lay, for all thefe, 1 dare 
not admit them ordinarily to the Sacrament, becaufe I dare not fpend (b much 
time on them- as is neceffary for Preparation. I may not do it without fome pre- 
vious Inftrudion ; and I havefb much more work already than I con well do, 
that I have not a minute of time to fpare. And ('except in publick or extraordinary 
Cafes) I take my felf to be more ftridly tied to thofe of my Charge, than to any 
others J and having made my leif theirs, I dare not rob them of my Labours, nor 
negkift them to attend on others that are no part of my Clurge , nor will be, {f 
you fiy, that if they did become Members of my Charge , 1 mull then as much 
ne3!<;<fl; others for them ; I anfwer, but then I could do it innocently, when 1 have 



P A R T 11. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. \^\ 

the fame Relation to them, and Obligation to help them, as otkers. If 1 were 
your Steward, and you truft me to diftribute Money or Bread to all that are un- 
der my Stewardfhip, if there were but few I muft give it them all ; and if many 
they can have but all. If I had ten Children, and had but ten Pounds to give them, 
I might juftly give them but each one a Pound % But if I had but two, I fhould 
think the whole little enough for them two. I am firft bound to watch over my 
Flock, and if they be never fo many they can have no more of me than I have : 
But if they were fewer, each one might have more of my help, and might chal. 
lenge it as their due before another that is not of my Charge. 

The (umm of all then in two Words is this; i, I dare condefcend to give the 
Sacrament kneeling, and into the hands of thofe that live orderly under Chriftian 
Dilcipline ; that is ordinarily to thofe of my own Charge ; and occafionally to 
thole of another Mans. 2. But I dare not ( I profels ferioufly I dare not ) ordina- 
rily at leaft ) give the Sacrament to thofe unruly fcandalous Perfons, that will live 
under no jull Difcipline, and I dare not defraud my Charge of my Labours, while 
I attend ordinarily upon thole that are not of my Charge. 

If any fliould fay that their coming to Church and receiving the Sacrament is a 
fufficient Signification that they take us for their Pallors, and therefore they will 
do no more: I anfwcr, i.Many Strangers receive the Sacrament that are not of my 
Charge, and many that are Members of another Church, or no particular Church, 
do ordinarily come to our Aflcmblies. This therefore is no certain Sign. 2. And 
though it were a probable Sign heretofore, yet when we have called our Parilhes 
to a plain difcovery of their Minds, and they refufe to fignify their Confcnt, {o 
much as by a Word of their Mouths in Publick, then the former ceafeth to be any 
probable Sign of Content. We had juft Reafon to call our People to exprefi their 
Confent ( which Reafons we printed in our Agreement to which I refer you ) and 
we explained all to them, and told them over and over, that we muft take thofs 
only for our fpecial Charge that would exprefs their Confent, and we waited now 
two Years to lee whether they would do it : And if after all this they forbear or 
refiile, let the World judge whether this be not an open, plain difclaiming of our 
Overfight and their Membcrfhip. What would you have us do ! can we know 
Mens Hearts that will not open them to us ? Nay, fliall the fame Man {0 long 
reftile to tell us his Mind, and when he hath done, blame us becaufe we under- 
ftand it not ? If indeed they confented, a Word fpeaking, or the writing of their 
Names is no great Colt or Labour to dilcover it. If they think it too much, we 
might better think our yearly Labour too much for them, Relation is the ground 
of the Duties which they bind to. I cannot enter thele Relations but by con- 
fent; nor know them without the Expreffion of that Confent. No Man can be a 
Member of my Charge in defpight of me i nor can I make any Man fuch againft 
his Will. I can never marry a Woman that will fay, you Ihall do the Office of a 
Husband to me, but I will not tell you whether I take you for my Husband, nor 
promileto be your Wife, &c, I will not have a Scholar in my School, or a Pu- 
pil that will fay. Hither will I come, and you Ihall teach me, but I will not tell 
you whether I will be your Scholar, or take you for my Teacher: Nor will I 
have a Patient that will make me give him what Phyfick he defires, and will not 
fay he will take me for his Phyfician. 5. Befides, the Office of a Paftor is not 
only to preach and adminifter the Sacrament, but alfq to admonilh, rebuke, and 
exercile Ibme Difcipline for the Good of the Church : And he that will not pro- 
fefs his confent to chefs, doth not by his partial fubmitting to the reft fliew his 
confent that 1 be his Paftor. I will be a Paftor to none that will not be under 
Difcipline : That were to be a half Paftor, and indulge Men in an unrulinefs and 
contempt of the Ordinance of Chrift : If 1 take more on me than is juft or ne- 
ceftary, I will gladly hear of it, and recant. 4. Either they do indeed take us for 
their Paftors or not: If not, we do them no Wrong to take them for none of our 
Charge : And then why do they fay that their coming to Church proveth it ? 
But if they do take us for their Paftors, then they owe us more Obedience than 
the fpeaking of a Word comes to, and when we require them to profefs themlelves 
Members of the Church and of our Charge, they are bound to obey us unlefs they 
'can prove it a Sin. But if they (iy we will not obey them in the fpeaking of fiich 
. a Word, though indeed they did call us their Paftors, this were but to contradict 
themlelves, and to deny the thing when they give us the Name. I defire no fuch 
Charge j much lefs fuch as will give us neither Name nor Thing and yet sxpeft 

Y i(h?lt 

t62 'The LI FE of the Lib. I. 

their Wills of us. Sir, Pardon the Plainnefs, and accept the true Account of ray 
Thoughts, from 

Tour Servant^ 
Ffb. 1. i6yy. 

Richard Baxter. 

§ 14. About the fame time that we were thus aflbciating in WorcefierjlnTe, it 
pleaied God to ftir up the Minifters of Cumherhnd, and Wejtmorland to the fame 
Courle ; who though they knew not what we had done, yet fell upon the fame 
way, and agreed on Articles to the fame purpole and of the fame Senle and Impor- 
tance as ours were ; of which Mr. Richard Gilpin ( one of them, a worthy faith- 
ful Minifter ) fent me word, when he (aw our Articles in Print j and they alio 
printed theirs ( to fave the writing of many Copies, and to excite others to the 
fame way ) and they found the lame readinefs to Union among the Brethren as 
we had done. 

Their Agreement you may find printed j our Letters were as followeth : 

Dear Brethren, 

WE falute you in the Lord: It 'Was no fmaU reviving to tti to heboid pur Order 
and mutual Condefcentiom ( exprejjed hi your Bock of Concord ) to promote the 
Rtformation of your People in ways of Veace. We unfcigncdlj rejoice on your behalf i 
and thought our felves bound to Jignifie bow grateful and helpful your Endeavours are to us. 
The Scormrs of this Age have a long time bent their Tongue as a Bow^ and dipt their Ar- 
ro-ws in Gall, and fent forth bitter Accufations and Slanders againfi all the Minifiers of 
the Gojpel, catling them Dijiurbirs, implacable, Scc. as if the very Efle of a Minijler 
■were to contradicl, and to be averfe from Peace: Surely your eameB profecution of Con- 
cord -will be a (landing Ccnfutp.tion of that Charge, at leaii fo far as to cut off the Note 
of Univerfdity from it : But that which moft affe^s us is, that you are not -iviUing to 
look upon the gajping Condition of tha Church here, as idle Speelators, or as meer Witnejfes 
of her Funeral without trying any Remedy at all, and that you do not apprehend your felves 
to have done all your Duty, when you have bewailed her Trouble, and complained of ber 
Advcrjaries Cruelty. Sion indeed hath been thrown down to the Ground, and bath been 
covered with a Cloud in the Day of the Lord's Anger, and her Adverfaries are round 
about: In this Diflrefi flie hath fpread forth her Hands, and hath looked upon her Lovers 
for Help, and that jo long, that fie is ready to fay, that her Strength and her Hope is 
perilled from the Lord. Now her Sons while they have been cofjfultmg how to relieve 
her have fallin out about the Cure, and becaufi they have not been admitted to adminijier 
the Phyfick according to their Alinds, have negleiled to adminijier any at ali^ becauje they 
could not be fujfered to do what they would, they have forgotten that it was their Duty to da 
what they might. Some have thrown all afide but preaching, as it were in a pettijii Dif- 
content ; fome have fatisfed themfelves with adminijlring Cordials, without purging the 
noxious Humours, becauje they thought this necejfary andjafe though in an unpresbperated 
Church. Others it may be have fecn a tiecejfty of making farther Progrejs, and have been 
groaping after it, but have been difccuragcd at the fight of the thwarting and inconfjient 
Principles J the Animofities and want of Condefcention of different Parties. Others it may 
he have in their Thoughts overcome this Difficulty, and yet have fuck at one that is lejsf 
they have been afraid to be the firft Propounders of their conceived Remedy, fearing the 
Entertainment and Succefs that their charitable Endeavours might find, being more willing 
to follow than to lead in fuch a doubtful and unbeaten Path. This Defign which you have 
refolved on will ( we hope ) convince Men that though we cannot as yet expeSl that the 
Lord's Houfe (hould be jo fniflied that all fiiall cry, Grace, Grace unto it : Tet that the 
Building need not wholly to ciafe, yon are the jkfi that have in this publick way broken the 
Ice, and who knows how powerful your Example may be to call AJcn off' from their Con' 
tent ions and Strivings one against another, by a brotherly Combination to carry on the work 
of Chriil at far as they can with one Shoulder. 

Whatfoevcr Advantage others may reap by your Endeavours, we are fure the Ad- 
vantage that we have by them is double, i . fVe, before we had heard of your Book, bad 
undertaken a IVork of the like nature : Several of us meeting together to confiilt about ma- 
naging the Lord's Work in our Ha?tds, were convinced that jor Reformation of our People, 
more ought to be done by us thnn bare Preaching, a brotherly Affoctation of Mtnijlers ap- 

Part II. Reverend Mr, Kichatd Baxter. 1^3 

feared to he the Itkeliefi courje for the attainment of our Defires, and accordingly vfos re- 
/ohed on : And becaufe -we knew that 'many of our Brethren in the Mimjiry differed from 
us, we refolved to draw up fever al^ Vropofals wherein we and they by a mutual Condefctn- 
tlon might agree as Brethren in Love and Peace to carry on the fame Work, and therefore 
required nothing of them hut what jve f roved by the Confeffions of the Congregational Bre- 
thren ( their own Party ) to be of lejs Moment, and not of abfolute Necefity. Wherein 
( we urged ) they rnight and ought to yield for the Churches Peace : But our Pgideavours 
to gain them were fujlrated, thry were Jo refched that they would not fo much as read 
our Propofals and Reajons. We therefore jet about the Work our felz/es, and made fome 
Progrcjs in it j by this time we began to feel what we exposed -at the first Jetting out, 
viz. the Rage and Malice of wicked Men^vented m Railings and Slanders on the one hand^ 
and bitter Cenfures and Sufptcions of the Brethren on the other. In the midjt of all this we 
received your Book as a Jeajonabie Refreshment : Our Hands were much ftrengthned by it ; 
it' was a great Encouragement to tts, to jef that other godly and learAed Men had walked 
much what m the fame Steps, andjjad pleaded 'our Caufe almofl by the fame Arguments 
wherewith we,endeavcured to flfengthenit. But 2. ive are hereby quicknedup to carry our 
Dejign higher. Our Pr'op'ftions fur the Siih fiance of them are near the fame with yours j 
we agree tn a great fart of your Dtfcipline, our Rules of Admiffton are competent Know- 
ledge, UnblameableneJI of Convcrfation, and affcnt to the Covenant of Grace, the means to 
carry it on are, the Peoples Confent and ' Ajjociation of Minifters ; and where we differ 
from you, 'tis not becaufe we differ in Opinion, but becaufe our People ( who/e Condition and 
Temper we were forced to jet before us in framing our Agreement ) differ fi-om yours. 
Hence our Examination of the Peoples Knowledge is more general than yours, if we un- 
der f and you right in Prop. 19. Reg.9. hence infieadr of yourParijh Affifianls we are forced 
to make ufe of .one another s help in private Examinations, and Determination of FitnejS, as 
well as in more pubUck Debates and Confultations : Yet in two things welcome JJwft of your 
Agreement ; i. In that we have not as yet propounded to our People your height of Difci- 
pltne J though we never thought fecret and private Admonitions and Sufpetifion jfrom the 
Sacrament Jiich a Meafure of Dijcipline wherein we might comfortably Jatisfie our. jelves 
without farther Progre/s ; yet ( our Hands being much weakened by our Brethrens refufal to 
join with us, our People fiubhorn, and Sujpenfion from the Supper being apiece of Dijcipline 
that hath not been here praclifed till of late, and therefore a matter of greater tShame tii 
Cujtom (JiaU make it more common ") we refolved to propound and Praclife this first as an 
Effay to try what SucceS and Entertainment a farther Difciplme might find. For though 
the Fear of Peoples fij/m^ off and feparating if not by us looked upon as a fufficient Dtf- 
charge for the negla^ apd laying afide all endeavours to reform : Yet we look upon it as a 
fufficient Ground of proceeding warily. 2. Though we always required Peoples Confent to 
the Terms of the Covenant of Grace and Difcipline, yet have we not been fo full in this as 
you. That which kept us 'off was afeaj^ of offending fome of our Brethren, who being more 
likely to hear of our Pratlice than of the Grounds and Reafons of it, might eafily miftake 
our meaning. But now the way of Difcipline hting made more fmooth both by what, we 
have put m Prailice already and by what you have declared, we are encouraged in both thefe 
RefpeBs to make a farther Addition 'to our former Propofals. 

SoT^e things there are wherein a farther Explication of your meaning woufd have been ve- 
rygrateful to us. 

1. Whether the Infants of fuch as are fujpended fiom the Lord's Supper and of (uch as de- 
lay or refufe Covftnt to your Dijcipline only fiom D'ljjatisfaiiion about the matter of it4 
Management, are to be excluded fiom Bapttjm ? 

2. Why you rejolve to exercijc your Dijcipline upon thofe only which teflifie their Con- 
fent, feeing you acknowledge your prefent Pari(hes ( before t'he exercije of this Dijcipline ) 
true particular Organ^ed Churches of ChriB j if fome of thofe whom you accounted Mem- 
bers jhould fly off, why may they not be Sharers in your Dijcipline, and upon their Kefujal * 
cjfi eut^ rather than filently left out? . 

5. Why { if you limit your publick Cenfures and Admonition to thofe only that give ex- 
prejs Confent Prop, j 8.) fou rejolve to cenjurc the fcandalous Sinner upon fuch an Offer of 
Conjent as carrieth in the Front of it a plain Refufal of your Difcipline ? Prop. 19. Reg, 
ic. and how this will ft and with the fourth and fifth Reajons of that Propefitton in pag, 
}i- of the Explanation ? 

• We know that you have of purpofe left many things undetermined, and that which you 
have propounded is fitted to He Temper of Pariflies in general, rather than to fome of purs 
in particulary and therefore we do not mention thefe as an Accufation againft pur Propo- 
fals J but for our own Advantage and Satisfailion in cafe' we jhould receive any Letters 
from you. . ' . 

Y 2 Brethren, 

1^4- The LI F E of the L i b. 1. 

Brethren f pray for tu : we dweU in the mid/t of Oppo/ition, and as it will k ottr j>reat 
Joy to hear that the Work doth prober in your hands : fojhallwe be earneft with t!x Lard 
for a Blejfing upon your Endeavours. Thus refi 

Fenrith, Cumberland, Your, unworthy Fellow Labourers 

Sept. I. i6y3. 

a in the Work of the Gofpel, 

Ri. Gilpin Pd/or tft Gray ftock. 
John Makmillane Pajlor at Odenhall. 
Roger Baldwin A/»»//?er«>/^PenritK 
John Billingfley Minilhr of Addinghani. 
Elifha Bourne Mimfier at Skelron. 
' ^ John Jackfon P<>/or 0/ Button. 

Thomas Turner Treacher of the GoJf^eL 


For the Reverend our much efteemed Brother Mr. Richard Baxter, 
and the reft of the Aflbciated Minifters in the County of Worce- 
fier, Thefe. 

To this Letter we return'd the following Anfwer, 

ReTcrend and Beloved Brethren j 

WE received your Letters, with love and gladtiefi, ^ for their favour of Viety in 
general, fo of VeaceahkneJS and Zeal for Unity in Ifecial, which we have now 
learned to take, not as afeparahle Accident of true Religion, but as an Ejfential part. Wt 
have reverent Thoughts of many Brethren for their [tngular worth and work , who yet for 
their ABivity in dividing ways , are the grief of our Souls .• We further honour many as 
abhorring fuch ways, and being no Friends to any Dividing Principles, nor affive either 
as Leaders or Followers in the promoting them, who yet are fo paffively and pajjionately un- 
peaceable, in an impatient Entertainment of every DiJJenter , and making the lejjer Errours 
of their Brethren to jeem Herefles, if not Truths to Jeem Errours, qf^d putting fuch odious 
Confiruclions on their Opinions and PraBices, that they do thereby'^iake their godly -and 
peaceable Brethren feem Firebrands or Monfters to be avoided or contemned ; and fo affright 
Men intoidtfunion and di faff eBion. We yet more honour many who are more free bith from 
a&ive and pajjive uripeaeeablenefi, who yet do fat is fie their Confcieitces with this much, but 
while they exclaim againft Divifons, do little for the healing them. But too fmall is the 
number of fuch as you, who are up and doing in this healing work. Your Names, dear 
Brethren, arc doubly precious to us, as are your Lives. We have many helpers, in other 
Works of Piety ; but too few in this. Indeed, we are following on the Work as being con- 
fcious of our duty, but concerning the SuccejSwe are between hope and fear. Among our 
felves in thuCtunty, God hath (irangely facilitated all, and fatisfied mo(t of thoft that 
feem faithful in hts Work , on the Terms -which we have publtjhed : We hearalfo that in ma- 
ny other Countjes they are fiirred up to Confultatiens for thefe Ends ; and we perceive that 
the Excellency and Necejftty ^ Unity, Peace, and (ome RefoYmation, is a little more obfer- 
ved than it hath been heretofore : and that God begins to dtfgrace Divificns, and to put a 
zeal for Reconciliation into many of his Miniflirs. Alfa we have made fome Attempts with 
fame Brethren of another County, where are fome Men of great Learning and Piety, that 
are of the Epifcopalway ; and we found them not only much approving the Work, but for- 
ward to promote it with the re/l of their Neighbour Mimflers. Our godly people alfo through 
God's great mercy, are almofl all very tratlablt to, yea and rejoice in the Work.' Theje 
things give tts hope, that God is about the Reftoringof his People, and that he is kindling 
that Zeal for Unity and Reformation jvhich fiiall overcome the Fire of Contention that hath 
been wafimg ns Jo long. And O that we were as fur e that this Workfiiould proffer, as we 
are that it is precept ively of God '. For oHr parts, we cannot think that God is ouilding hts 
Church, tiU we Jee him bring the Materials nearer together, and providing Cement for, a 
fetled Combination. Of which as we have thefe grounds of hope, fo have we much caufe 
of trouble and fear, both fom the backivardnefi of Paflors and People to the Work. For 
we imderjlandp-om other parts how heart lefijome are to fuch a Work j and how averfe 
tboje are that are deeply engaged already in Parties ! We hear not of thoje hearty inclinati- 
ons to Peace, in the party wbofe averjnef jfou mention , as we hoped to have done, Ivhen we 
camefo near them as we do j 7iot croffing, that we know of, any of their Principles, (though 


Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. i6^ 

fikncivg fome). They do in feme neighbour Counties z.ealo^y f reach againft' us, and cry 
Aown our way as formal and delusory ; waking the People mte-ve that -we make a Partjh 
and a Church all one, and that to cafi them out of the Church is to cU^ them out of the 
Parip'y and that we take in aU that wtBcome, be they ne'ver fo had : Though we have 
fully told them that we are taking in none, but difcermng who are in ; and lliall cajt out 
all whom they can fro'vefit to be cafi out. Some Brethren alfo of founder Judgments, do 
fiand at a difiance^ and wiH not come amongfi us, to tell us the Reafons of it. Some in other 
Counties, that are zJealous to promote the IVork, do meet with fo much oppo/ition, tergiver- 
fation, and difcouragerxent , that we hear it is like to hinder it with them. Alfo we find 
no't that love and peaceable inclination m the exafper&ted ^art of the Epifcopal Brethren, as 
might be expelled from the Sons of Peace. But the greatest dtfcouragement with tu is from 
our People : for though through the mercy of God diiers of us have encouragement , yet in mofi 
places the Alultitude hold off , and will not own as- And though Ged fo orders it, that 
the worf} do generally keep off tbemfelves, and few but Men feeming to fear God do joyn 
with MS, yet fome few of the moil z.ealous of our People, m fome places , do hold off, as 
dtjliking the broadntfi of our way. IVefind it » not only in Doilrinals, but Pratlicals, 
that mofi are for the Extreams, and the mean pleafetb few, but u cenfured of both. No 
Party will come to m, unlefwe will rejeS all ol her Parties, but them. It is itr thofe dif- 
engaged Chriflians, that are truly Catholick, and are the Servants of Chrift and not of Men, 
and that love their Brethren as Chriflians, and not chiefly as of their Party, that the great 
hope of our Succtfi doth confill : Though fmart Experience may pofjlbly recover fome of the 
reft. Our hopes depending in this doubtful fiate, we give thanks to God, that he addeth 
fomewhat to our encouragement by you. We adventured not raflily on what we have done.' 
It is near a year and half (incewe begun our Confultations. Oitr Profeffion was perufed by 
BiJJjop Ufher and others : Our Propofitions fcand by many far and near : and all was altered 
in them that any of them were trended at. Yet it ts far from our ExpeEiations that all 
fiiouldjoyn only on our Terms : Could we get them to Confultations for Unity and Reforma- 
tion, and to hold on till they did Jucceed, we had our defire. But indeed wefeefuch exceed- 
ing di^ercnce in Men f Apprehenfions, and fuch addiBedne^ to their Party in too many, and 
fucb » loathne^in others to dilfleafe the People, or weaken their own Intereft in them , and 
haz^ard part of their maintenance that comes fi-om them ; that we do expeB this Work (Ijould 
go heavily on j and if it pnve otherwtfe, we ihall afcrihc it to the meer good pleafttre of God, 
and his extraordinary hleffing : for no diiiibt but all the force will be raifed agamjt it, that 
the intereft of Satan in the ungodly, the heretical Dividers, the dark imperfeil Saints, can 
procure. But though our greateft Comforts would lye in- the Succefi ( becaufe we work not 
for our [elves, but for God and hts Church ) yet we find vtry much ix our upright Endea- 
vours. Indeed we have Experience of much fweetnef^ m the Work : Our very Thoughts and 
Speeches and Confultations of Peace are fweet. That our Mmds fhould be hereby occafioned 
to dwell Jo much cnfuch a bleffed Subjed, we find a great advantage to our own Souls j it 
much compnfeth and calmeth our Minds, and killeth the contrary Corruptions, and difpofetb 
us to love and tendernefi to our Brethren : So that were we fure to have no other Succefi, 
we have a plentiful Reward. As our ftudies of Heaven, and preaching of it to our Peo-^ 
pie, occafionetb juch foretafis that are worth our labour a tboufand fold , fo do the fiudies 
and attempts for Peace. Brethren, our hearts defire is, that as the Lord hath let fall on 
you , fome of the fame Spirit of Peace , as on tls his unworthy Servants, that you would 
joyn with us at the Throne of Grace m profecutionofthis Defign, and follow it bard with 
Qod and Men, and let us be minded of you tn thofe your Addreffes to God , not only as 
Chriflians, as you do others, but in ffecial as Peace-makers , that we may proffer in this 
Work, and the Lord would caU in the Spirit ofDivifton, and command down thofe Winds 
and Waves that have threatned therumeof his diflreffed Church ; and we hope the Lord 
will help us to be mindful alfo of you. Truly, it is fweeter treating with God tbim with 
Men. Tct both mufi be done. And as we defire to refifl all Temptations to Deffondency , 
jo we hope that the Lord will enable you to break over difcouraging Oppofitions, with fucb 
fixed victorious Refolution at becomes Men that are engaged in fo fweet a Work, and honou- 
red to be Leaders under fo faithful, omnipotent, and viilorious a General. Tou love not tl^ 
Work of Piety in general ever the worfe for oppofition j nor would you fjfrceafe as difcou- 
raged though you had met with more. Let it befo alfo in particular far Unity ami Refor- 

We fliall next give you our Anfwer to your three Queflions. I . As we did purpjfelj leave 
thefiirft Queflion unrefolved, fo we are loth to put the Queflion to any one Ajfociation, much 
Ufi to all J left lie either agree not, or agree in Toints that may hinder the IVork, when ws 
forejee the certain difagreement of others. 

7.. T* 

l66 IheLlfEofthe^ L i b. 1. 

2. To yturfecond we fay, hi true that we take our Parijhes for true Political Chw-ches, 
and we take it as probahle ( m4 fa to be judged by m and others') that all thcfe that con- 
jlantly fubmif to the Ordinances and Mintfitrtal Offices, are true vifible Mtrnbers^and take 
themfelves for fitch ; exceft they do otherwije dtfcover their diffent. But bccatife whtrePro- 
fejjions are but implicit, or Uf expref, we have but a probability, and not a full certainty , 
that aUfuch Perfons do take thcw/elves indeed for Members , and becaufe whtn we call them 
to ac(juaint us exprejly, whether they take themjelves for Members, or not, they deny it, or 
refufe to prafejl it, and fo difclaim it, we now firft dijcern that they are no Members ; either 
not intending to be Juch all t ha while, or 'voluntarily departing now.fre ha've r^ore ajj'urance. 
of the Truth of our particular vifible Churches, than we have of each Alan's mcm'berpup par- 
ticularly. For fame do plainly profefthevjfelves Members^ and mofi others da that which 
amounts to a more ebjcure Profeffion, and which makes them guilty of Hypocrifie, if they tn- 
tend-nat what they feem to profef : But yet when they contradiS the jeemtng darker Pro- 
feffion by an open difclairmng tt, then they undeceive us, and ceafe that dijjembling : And 
Multitudes do openly prcfeji in many places, long ago, that it is their liberty to hear all Men, 
but they take tis for no Churches, or at leafi they take not themjelves as Members. Befides, 
when they difclaim our Power over them, they will not come near us to be ijuefiioned,or give 
any account of their ways, but teUus, We have no more to do with them, than others have 
wbofe Charge they are not under. Moreover, when they have cafi out themjelves, they are 
not capable of the fame Cafttng out by as, as thofe that are in \ for it cannot be wholly ab 
eodein termino. Tetwedonot, asyoufay^refolvetoexercife our Difcipline on thofe only 
that teflifie Confent j but only agree on no more, leaving the reft to be done as above, and be- 
yond thu Agreement. ' 

But that's your third Queflion, to which we fay. That we do not Prop. 1 8. limit our 
Publick Cenjures to thofe only that expreJJ Confent, as excluding all others, or refolving not 
to do it on any others : but only refolving here to 'do it. Indeed our Judgment ts, that Jo 
far as a fcandalotts Chrifiian bath Communion with t*s, fo far he may be caft cut ( not 
breaking Natural and Civil Bonds). If fame have the Communion of p.irticular Chnrch- 
Members with us, and others h»ve but the Communion of Chrifiians in Neighbourhood, and 
ordinary Converfe wherein we have occafiorl to manifeB familiarity, we may And ought to 
Cafi the former ( on jufi caufe ) out of Church-Communion, and the later, out of familiar 
Society, or Communion in any Ordinance that intimates Familiarity ; but out of that 
Church we cannot caft him, when he is not in it. Yet for many Reafons we judged it un- 
meet to put this lafi into our Agreement. 2. You do miflake otir Reg. lo. 0/ Prop. 19. ;» 
fuppofing that the Profeffim of Confent there mentioned, doth carry in the front of it, a flam 
refufal of our Difcipline. For if he profefS Confent , we mu(l take htm as a Member, and 
ufe him accordingly ; and by that Profeffion, he manifefietb Confent to our Guidance arid 
Difcipline in general j and the thing that he refufeth is only Actual Obedience to a particu- 
lar Ail of Difcipline, and that after the difcovery of Confent j which any corrupt Member 
may do. 

As for the two Points before mentioned by you, wherein you went not fo far as we, this 
much we briefly fay, i. Our 19th Prop. Reg. 9. Jfeaks of no Ignorance but what was before 
exprejfed, viz. of Fundamentals, and that only where we have juft ground of Sujficion of 
it. 2. We dare not dtjjwade your mutual Affiftance in Pafioral Offices to particular Con- 
gregations, where there is no offence taken at it. But if the Congregational Brethren pould 
take it as a making your many Churches to be but one particular Church, or a giving the 
Pafier of one Church a true Pafioral Power, and confe^uently Charge and Duty over othyr 
Churches, ( which you know Mr. Burroughs in his Irxnic. makes their great Offence) , 
then for Unity and Peace fake, we could wi(Ij you did forbear it. 

Brethren, Our hearty prayer is that the Lord would guide , quicken,- encourage, and fuc- 
, ceedyoW, in this bleffed Work. But the more excellent it ts, the more Oppefition expeB from 
Men and Devils, and your own Corruption : But the dearer it cofteth you , and the more 
unrefervedly J ou devote your felves and rejign all you have to God, for the faithful perform- 
ance of it, the more Comf^r: may you expect from God, and thefweeter will be your revitws 
J^ it at a dying hour. Brethren, imitate your Lord: Do the Work of him that fent you 
while it is day ; for the night cometb when none dtn work. Parewel : \ 


Kiderminfter, OtUb. Your Brethren 

and fellow Servants, 

I'iich. Baxter, 

farvis Bryan, in the Name 
and at the Appointment of the I eft. 


P A R T IL Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 1^7 


* r> Ecaufe you Dire<fted your Letter to me by Name, I am hold to tell you my 

* Jo private Relblution of your firft Queftion. I will do by the Children of Re- 

* fufersj as by Strangers ( except I know that they refufe through raeer licentiouf- 

* nefe ), I dare not refufe to Baptize the Child of a Stranger, as fuch: but I will 

* firft (peak with one of the Parents, and be more fully fatisfied of their Know- 
*ledgej and Reafons of DilTent, and enquire of their Lives: and on the lame 

* Terms I admit Diflenters alfo to the Lord's Supper, 'viz. if there be no Charge 
' againft their Lives, and they come to me before hand , and fatisfie me of their 

* fitnels. Still letting them know it is a dangerous cafe to live from under Order 
. * and Difcipline, and that I do this to them but for a time till theyc* be fatisfied, 

* as I would do for a Stranger. 

Tour Brother, 

Ri. Baxter. 

To our Revertnd and Beloved Brethren the ^JJociated Minifiers in the 
County of Cumberland. 

§jy.Upon the Publication of our Agreement,the Minifters in moft Counties be- 
gan to take the Bufinefs into confideration ; and though feme few of the ancient 
Presbyterians were againft it, and thought it would bring the Presbyterian Govern- 
ment into Contempt, or hinder the Ejtecuiion of it, when it had been agreed on 
by fo grave a Synod at IVefiminfter, and eftablilhed by the '■ Parliament, and there- 
fore they rather defired a ftrift Execution of the Ordinance of Parliament, and 
an Agreement on thofe Terms ) yet the moft of the godly, faithful Minifters, as 
far as I could learn, were for it ; For as we hindered no Man from following his 
own Judgment in his own Congregation, fo we Evinced beyond denial that it 
would be but a partial dividing Agreement, to agree on the Terms of Presbyte- 
rians, Epifcopal, or any one Party, becaufe it would unavoidably fhut out the 
other Parties ; which was the principal thing wiiich we endeavoured to avoid : 
it being not with Presbyterians only, but with all Orthodox, faithful Paftors and 
People, that we are bound to hold Communion, and to live in Chriftian Concord, 
ib far as we have attained, Tbil. g. if, 16. 

§56. Hereupon many Counties began to Aflbciate, as Wiltjinre, Dorfet[fjire, So- 
merfeijhire, Hampjliire, Ejfex, atid others: And fome of them printed the Articles of 
their Agreement. In a word, a great defire of Concord began to poflcls all good 
People in the Land, and our Breaches feem'd ready to heal. And though iome 
thought that fo many AfTociations, and Forms of Agreement, did but tend to more 
Divilion, by fliewing our diverfity of Apprehenfions, the contrary proved true by 
Experience : For we all agreed on the lame Courfe, even to unite in the pra- 
dice of lo much of Difcipline as the Epifcopal, Presbyterians, and Independants 
are agreed in, and as crolTeth none of their Principles : And they that thought 
the Exprellton of the Churches defires in various words of Prayer in Publick was 
better than a ftinted Form for all Churches neceffarily to ufe, Ihould not think that 
the Expreflion of ourConfent to the fame things, is a dividing way, becaufeit is 
done in various Exprellions : for this Liberty greatly helped Unity : for many a one 
would have Icrupled Ibme particular words in I'uch an impoled Form of Concord, 
who yet would accord in the Subftance of the Work. 

The Effix Agreement was printed ; ( to the fame purpole with ours). The 
lVtlt[})ire Minifters were io ftriftly held to it by the Independant Party, that they 
could get thera but to thefe following preparatory Articles : 

* \"T 7" E whole Names are Subfcribed, Minifters of the Gofpel in the County of 

* y V ff^tks, being humbly fenfible of our many Failings in the Work of the Mi- 
' niftry by the Lord Chrift committed to us, and of the great need wherein we 

* ftand of the mutual help of our Brethren for Advice, Encouragement and Strength- 
' ning herein : And fadly bawailing the Corruptions of the People in our feveral 


1^8 1'^^^ LIFE of the L i b. f. 

* Congregations, the want of Chriftian Reformation , Love and Unity, and the 

* Power of Godlinefs, the breaking in of deftroying Errours, and the prevailing 
' of Ignorance and Profanenefi among them, have conlented and refolved through 

* God's Grace, aild in Expedation of his Bleffing on our weak Endeavours, as fel- 

* low Servants to the fame Lord Jefus Chrift the Great. Shepherd of Souls, toac- 

* quaint our felves one with another, and to j'oyn together and affift each other to 

* the uttermoft in the promoting of Gofpel Truth, Peace, Love , and the Power 

* of Godlinefs, in our felves and all thofe that have the Name of Chrift upon them, 

* in the places wherein we live. 

* For the Effefting whereof we defire and purpofe, if God permit, to meet to- 

* gether at Sarum on the 26th of OSlob. i6y3. for the end hereafter fpecified. 

* Firft, In fome publick Place on the fame day, where any others, whofe hearts 

* are inclined thereunto,may joyn with us by Falling and Prayer to fjek unto God 

* for pardon of our former Failings, and for Direction and Strength of his Spirit 

* for the future Work of the Miniltry which lyeth upon us , in the inftruding and 

* ordering of our feveral Congregations according to the Word of God. 

' Secondly, After the faid Publick Duty dilcharged, to come together more pri- 

* vately in (bmc convenient place : And there 

'Firft,Jointly and Solemnly, as in the prefence of God, to teftifie our fincere 

* purpofe of heart, for the time to come (in dependence upon the Lord's Strength ) 

* to take heed unto our felves, and to our Doftrine, and to continue therein, that in 
f doing this we may both fave our felves and them that hear us. 

* Secondly, To teftific to each other our Confcionable readinefs (as Servants and 
" fellow Labourers) to afford and receive Affiftance to and from each other in the 

* Work of the Lord committed to us, as any occafion Ihall be offered to us in this 

* kind ; and accordingly to advife together thereupon. 

'Thirdly, To Promife and Engage to one another, according to our Duty, in 

* all Humility, Tendernefi and Brotherly Love. Yet faithfully to admonilh one 

* another of any Mifcarriage or Negleft which we Ihall know or be daily inform- 

* ed of, which in any of us bringeth Reproach upon the Name of God, and his 

* Ways, upon the Gofpel and the Adminiftration of the fame. And we ihall all 

* of us likewife ferioufly promife, humbly and thankfully to accept of (iich Admo- 

* nition from any Brother, as a Fruit of Chriftian Love and Fidelity, and without 

* Anger, Clamour or Recrimination, either to clear our felves to the Brother which 
' Admonilheth us, being free from the Crime objefted, or elfe endeavour Reforma- 

* tion in what we have offended. 

' Fourthly, At the lame Publick Meeting to appoint fome other fit time to meet 

* together in the fame manner, further to carry on the Work of mutual Brotherly 
' Advice concerning liich Courfes as conduce to God's Glory, the Good of the 

* People.and the Difcharge of our Duty in the place wherein God hath fet us: And 

* in this our Meeting we fully relblve through the help of our God. 

' Firft, Not to meddle in word or deed with any Matter of Civil Government 
' further than to ftir up one another ( if any juft occafion be offered ) confcionably 

* to maintain and exeicife all Chriftian Obedience to Magiftrates, as an Ordinance 
'of God. 

' Secondly, Not to foment any Breaches amongft Brethren, but to ftudy to the 
' uttermoft of our power that all, who accord in the Fundamentals of Gofpel 
' Truth and Holinels, may be brought to keep the Unity of the Spirit in the Bond 

* of Peace. 

' And for the more Chriftian and Orderly managing of this our Brotherly Agree- 

* ment and Affociation, we do agree 

* Firft, That every Man at his entering into this Society, tender us a Certificate 
*of hisPainfuInefs in the Miniftry, and of his Godlinefs in Converfacion under the 
' Hands of two godly Minifters at leaft, not of the Society j and of two or three 
' godly Chriftians known to fome of the Society: And that all the Certificates be 

* brought into,and kept in the Handsof one of the Brethren that by common Con- 
' lent Ihall be appointed thereunto. 

' Secondly, That every Man that cometh into this Society and Agreement be 
' defined to exprefs his willingnefs, in cale of any Mifcarriage, whereby he Ihall 
' give juft occafion of Offence unto the Society, to fubmit unto the Reproof and 

* Determination of the whole, or the major part of the Society ; Ibfarforth as their 
' Reproof and Determination Ihall b; warranted by the Scripture. 

f Thirdly, 

P A a T IL Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. \6^ 

' Thirdly, That our Meetings be conftantly began and ended with Prayer to 
« be made by the Mode.-ator fro tempore, who at the firft Meeting is to be chofen for 
the Meeting next following, and lo continually for the better ordering of our 
^ Meetings and Debates. 

* Fourthly, That no private Matters be propounded in our General Meetings 
' but by the Moderator, and that not while any Publick Bu/lnefs is in debate witli- 
'out the ISave and conlent of the whole Society, or the major parr. 

'Fifthly, That any Brother that fhall be willing to joyn hereafter into this So- 
* ciety, may upon ths fame Terms be freely accepted into this Brotherly Agree- 
' nienr. 

The Independant Churches alio in Ireland, led by Dr. ?F?'wrc>- Paflorbftheir 
Church in Vublm, aflbciated with the moderate Piesbyterians there, upon thefe Pro- 
vocations, and the Perfwafions of Col. John Bridges ( my Neighbour ) : And thsy 
lent us together their Defiresof Correipondency, with which our Anfwer is here 

Honoured and Beloved Brethren in the Lord, 

IT bath f leafed the good hand of Heaven to bring into our Tarts our much efl-eemed FrienJ 
Coll. Bridges, in mmh Mercy to us ally and by bim^ as alfo by fever al ether hands to 
^ve us fome acquaintance -with the State of Chriffs Affairs among you : tnhich very 
much obliges us to Sympathife with you according to the jeveral Adminiftrations of Provi- 
dence, as becomes the Relation of Fellow-members and SubjeSls in ChrilFs ^^m'gdom. Hit 
Return into your Farts affords us an Opportunity to fgnify the fame, and how much we de- 
fire to matifcft it by real Dsmonfrattons ; through the good Will of him that dwelt in the 
Bujl}. In order thereunto, we thought fit to tefitfj our Willingnejs to contribute our utmcjt 
thrciigh his Affijiance, to the maintaining of a Chrifiian Correfpundency between us, that 
we may mutually receive and give the Right Hand of Feliowflnp, in a Seafvn of Jo much 
need. Whiljt the common Enemy is ft ill labouring to divide and dejlroy the Friends ofChrift 
in aU p.irts, it concerns us nearly to be jo much the more indufttious and aSlive in the promo- 
ting cfChrift's Intereft againfi his Power and Policy, the bitter Fruits of uncbrifttan Divi- 
Jtons we have too much tafted of, and through the Lord's Goodnefs have reaped already Jomc 
Benefit, from our brotherly Afjociation, whereinto we entered not long ago. The prefint Con- 
dition cf God's People ih Foreign Paris, as among us, calls a loud for a more cordial Uniofi 
and Communion among all Jtich who dcfire to fear his Name. It's therefore our Hearts De- 
fire, not to be wanting in our Faith and Prayers, Refolves and Endeavours to the fiilfiUins; 
of thofe exceeding great and precious Truths do eminently centre in thefe latter Days, that 
Chrift's Friends may receive one Mind and Heart, to (erve him with one Lip and 
Shoulder. TVe are thereby much encouraged to requeft your Chrifttah Affiftance, and Bro^ 
therly Correfpondency, that we may all be the better able in our fever al Stations and Relati- 
ons to promote more vigorouf.y the Intereft of Chrifi and of his People. After the fad pakings 
of this Land, and his many turnings of things upfide down, the Lord ispleafcdto promije us 
a little Reviving, and to open a Door of Hope, even in the Valley of Achor : Your favou- 
rable help is therefore earnejlly craved, that Ireland ?nay once more partake of the glad Ti-. 
dings cj Heaven, and the wa?its of fftany Tljoufnid fiarving Souls may be fafonably fupply'd 
with the Bread of Life. The particular of our Affairs Coll. Bridges will give you a 
more exacl Account of, and will be ready to convey to as the Signification of your Chrifii- 
an Compliance with our longing Defire. To the Bkfilng of the moft High we humbly re- 
commend the care uftbe fever al Nurjeries of Chrisl among you, that the Plants of his Houfe 
may fiourifij in his Courts, through the Supplies of Chrifi s Spirit, in whom we cordially de- 
fire to be and appear 

Your afFeiflionate Brethren 
Dublin '^.M. 8. D. i6j5-. ifl the Bonds of the Gofpel, 

July j". to ierve you through Grace^ 

Sam. Winter Paftor of the Church in Dublin. 
Claudius Gilbert Paftor of the Church at lAmZnck, 
Ed. Reynolds M. 
J. Warren M. 
Will, Markham. 
The. Osmonton M. 
In the Name of the ajjociated Churches of Chrifi in Ireland, 
Thefe for the Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter, Paftor of the Church of 
Chrilt in Kidermiitftcr, to be by hiiTi communicated to the (everd 
Churches of that AlTociation. 

Z Our 

I -JO 7 he LIFE of the .Lib. I, 

Our Aniwer whereto was as follows : 

Much honoured and beloved Brethren in the Lord, 

WE received your welcome Lines from the Hand of our faithful and much irnoured 
Friend Coll. John Bridges. It 7mch rejotceth us to hear of your brotherly /•fjocia- 
tion, and the Succefs, and more, that jottr Hearts are enlarged 7i>ith fuch De fires for the 
farther promoting of this healing Work ; and that you thus breath after the Vmon of the 
Saints. It doth not only rejoice us on your own behalf, and on the behalf of that defolate 
Land where you abide, but alfo on the behalf of the Cliurches in general-^ becaufe we fern 
to difcern the gracious Thoughts of God unto hts People, in founding a R<?treat to their 
unbrotherly Contentions, by fending forth that Sprit of Love and Peace, which we know 
muft build us up if iver we are built : When God was pulling down and laying Wajie, he 
witheld this Mercy, and let out upon h^ Churches a Spirit of Contention, Bitterne/ and 
Divifton, which hath gone on to demolifli and break in pieces, and made our own Hands the 
Executioners of thofe heavy Judgments, which have laid usfe long in Shame and Sorrow, 
and filled our Enemies Mouths with Scorn. While this evil Spirit that made dejolate did 
prevail, Divifion jeemed aimable, and dividing Principles feemed glorious Truths ; and all 
Motions to Reconciliations were tmfavory things, and rejeBed as a Defeclion from Truth 
or Zeal, and as a carnal Compliance with the ways of Darknejs j and even thofe that were 
z^ealouifor Truth and Holmefs were too many of them cold for Peace and Unity, ^ reading 
thofe Scriptures which fo earneftly prefs them, as if they read them r.ot ; never obferving 
or laying to Heart the ftridl Commands of the Lord herein, as if there had been no fuch 
TaJJao-es in cur Bibles. But, blejjed be the Lord that begmneth mightily to awaken the 
Hearts of his Servants, and caufe them to obferve the Truths which they overlooked, and at 
lafi to lay to heart the Duty fo much neglected. We now hear from many Countries of 
this Nation, the Voice of the Spirit of Peace ; our Brethren begin to get together and confute 
of the means of reparing our Breaches, and in many Places are aj/ociated ; and though the 
Work be but beginning, and mightily refr/ted by the Enemies of Holynefs and Peace, yet are 
we in great Hopes that thefe Beginnings do promife more, and that God hath not awakened 
IIS to this Work in vain. And ?ion> by the Tidni^s of your Concord, we have received a?} 
increafe of thefe our Hopes and Conjolattons. Go on dear Brethren as One in the Centre of 
TJnity j and prevail in the Strength of the great Reconciler : This is the way that will 
prevail at laft j and however it be thought of by others will certainly be comfortable to our 
felves in the review ; when dividing ways will be all difgraced, and look with another 
Face than now they do : He that is for Vanity and Love is likeH to have his Approbation 
ovho'is one, and who is Love. Our Hearts are ovith you and our Prayers [hall be for you, 
4hat you may abundantly reap the Fruits of Concord, in the ConviBion of Gain-jayers, and 
the farther Confirmation and Edification of your own. Tour Motion for a Correfpondency 
we gladly entertain, and jliall rejoice in the AJfiftance of your Advice and Prayers, and 
willingly to that end communicate our Affairs. We are now upon a joint Agreement to 
bring all the ancient Perfons in our ParijJies ( who will not do it in the Congregation ) to our 
Houfes on certain Days every Week, by turns, to be catechifed or infiruBed as ^lall be 7nofi 
to their Edification : A Work that requircth fo much unwearied Diligejice, Self-dtnial, and 
holy Skill, and tt^herein we are like to meet with fo much Refrfrance, and yet doth appear to 
tis of great neceffttyand ufe, that we earneflly crave your Prayers for fuch Qualifications and 
Succefies. The State of your Affairs we partly underfiand by the Information of Coll. Brid- 
ges ; We heartily pray the Lord of the flarvefl to find forth more Labourers among you^ 
and could we contribute any thi?>g to Jo good a Work, we fhould willingly do it : But able 
Minifters fit for the Work with you, are too few, and many of them fo weak of Body, 
that they are unfit for Travel, andmoH of them fo engaged to their Godly People, and the 
People fo impatient of a Motion for their remove, that the Work will be very hard j but 
Tife hope to be faithful in our Endeavours whatever be the Succcfr. Brethren we crave your 
Prayers to God that we may be faithful and Succefsful in his Work j as alfo that Brotherly 
Correfpondency which yott motion might abide ; and we remain 

Your Brethren 

in tlie Fdith of Chrift, 

Rich. Baxter, Teacher of the Church at Kiderniinfter. 
Jaivis Bryan> Teacher of the Church at Old Swinford. 



Part II. Re'VerendMr. Richard Baxter. i 

Henry Oafland, Teacher of the Church at Bewdeley. 
Andr. Triftram, Teacher of the Church at Clent. 
Tho. Baldwin, Minifier ^f Wolverly. 

In the Name of thi ajjociated Minifiers meeting at Kidcrminflero 
Aiiguft 12. i6j5. 

To the Reverend our much honoured Brother Dr. Winter, Paftor of the 
Church at Dublin, to be communicated by him to the alTociated 
Churches in Ireland j Thefe. 

They wrote us alfo a Second Letter, which I here fubjoin ; 
Reverend and much valued Brethren, 

YOUR jiffeHionate Letter in Anfwer to ours, hy that Honourable Perfon, we have 
received, and do dejire that thefe Lines may tefitfy our 7hankfulneJS to you for your 
loving and free Acceptation cf our Di fires of a Brotherly Correfpondencjf. Tho/s Vantings 
of yours for the Feace and Union of the Saints, we doubt not ■will be to your Comfort at the 
great Day of your Account : Cod u not ttnjuft to forget your Work and Labour of Lovet 
Gij on therefore, dear Brethren, in his Strength whoje work it is, and of ivhofe Power and 
Prefence you have had fo great Experience : We trufi as our Hearts are with you, fo our 
Prayers jhall not be wanting for you at the Throne of Grace. 

We thank you for your Joy at our Afjociationand Succefs, and that we flill breath after 
that happy JFork. Surely if after our long Experiences of thofe woful Defolations that Di- 
vifions and Difjentions have involved the Sair.ts in, cur Hearts jlwuld not be enlarged after 
Union and Peace that mujt repair our Breaches, we fljould have Cauje to fujpecl cur Union 
with, and Love to our Head. We are not ignorant how much the Self-love and Pride of 
/owe, and the mifguided Zeal cf others cf approved Sincerity, have advanced the Defign 
of the grand Enemy by over eager and tmbrotherly Bitternef j even in matters circum- 
fiantial: Neither are we altogether ignorant how fubttlly that old Serpent and Deceiver 
hath laboured by a pretext of Love, to fwallow up Truth ; it being for a while the only 
Cry, Love, Love, yet not the lea'sl hint of Truth, which had moFt need of their Charity : 
being miferably tern and mangled. To which our Charity leads us to fft-tribute the Praije 
of many of our Brethren, as being unwilling to buy Love with the Lojs of Truth: It is 
the Apofles Advice that the Truth jlwuld be fpoken in Love, and that we [liould contend 
earnejily for the Faith once delivered to the Saints. 

But 2 hanks be to the Lord God of Truth that hath preferved his Darling from the De- 
vourer, making the way of Love exceeding aimable bccauje of Truth ; Jo that we trufl it 
will net lie untrodden by the Lord's People, through circmnfiantial Differences, whilB all 
hold the Form of wbolefom Words, con/idering one another, and walking together in what 
they are agreed, and waiting upon the Lord for the revealing of that, wherein they differ i 
ferfeition being referved for another World. 

That there are any Beginnings, and that by yon we hear of more, we earnefily deflre our 
Hearts may be duly and thankfully affected therewith ; praying the God of truth and Peace 
to uphold his Truth, and to flwwer down plentifully the Spirit cf Love and Peace, that as 
the Lord is One, fo his People may be One. i 

Tour prefent Work, we are in fame meajure fenfible of its Necejjlty and Weightinefs : 
Wherefore our Prayers fiiall be for you, that the Lord wbofe Servants ye are, and whofe 
work It IS would be with you to counfel, encourage, firengthen and proffer you in it, as we 
crave your daily Prayers for theje Infant Churches, that our God may vouchfafe his Spirit 
and Prefence to us whofe lot is caft in this WilderneJ^,having many Enemies to conflil} withal 
from within as well as without ; your Advice and brotherly y^ffi^ance we requeil, as we 
jhall have Occafwn and Opportunity to communicate our Affairs to you. 

Laflly, the deep Senfe we have of the extraordinary want of faithful and able Minijiers 
to carry on the Lord's Work in this dark Land, together with the daily Lryes from many 
Places of People that are periflnng for want of Bread, prefjeth us to reneov our former Re^^ueft 
to you for Help m this Day of our Necfffity ; and we are fomcwhat the more emboldned 
thereto, by the Appehenfton we find you to have of our Condition, however for the prejent 
you find not how to help us, 

Z s Tottt 

172 The LI F E of the Lj b. I. 

Jour great Vlenty together with your Ajfociation , and nearveji of Habitat ions makirg 
your Vaftors attd People as one, befides the Univerjities are with you, ■which ( bleJJ'ed be 
God) are iveH replenijloed yt/ith many gracious Tlants , to whom your Unamity will doubt- 
leji be a very great Encouragement to fettle amongfi you ; -whereas our dijtance from them, 
together with thofe fad Reports which are caB upon this Land, render tts hopehj^ of any 
confiderable Supply that way. Thefe things we humbly offer as Motives to you for Jfaring 
fame that may be helpful to m in this Day of our Extream Neceffsty. And now, dear Brg' 
thren, moH thankfully accepting your Love, we recommend your Perfons, Labours and Flocks 
to the Care and Overflght of our Lord Jefus Chrift, who u the Chief Shepherd Mid Bijtwp 
of our Souls, whofe Grace be withyeu. Amen, 

Your Brethen, unfeignedly 
Dublin, Jan, i6th. 

i6y J. loving you in the Lord, 

Sam. Winter. 

The. Hook, '\ r Elders of the Church 

Ol. Huchinfon, C / ^^ Chrift in Dublin, 

William Markham, r f whereof Dr. Samuel 
John Price, j C Winter is Pallor. 

In tjhe Name and by the Appointment of the reft of the Affociated 
Churches in Ireland. 

§ 37. About this time, Mr. T/ww extolling the Judgment and Learning of Dr. 
Ralph Brownrigg, Bifliop of Exeter, and advifing me to chuie him as the ficteft Man 
to treat with for Concord with the Diocefane Party, I wrote to him to that End, 
and feat with all fome Terms of Concord. He returned me a very kind Letter, 
profeffing his Willingnefi to prolecute that Work, and withal an anl'wer to'my Pro- 
polals ; which granted the main Matters which I defired, and w ould have united 
us all, if fuch terms had been granted when the King came in, and fetled the 
Church Government ; for he granted with Bi(hop V^her, that every Presbyter is, 
and muft be a Governor as well as a Teacher of his own Flock; and that fubordi- 
nate AlTemblies like Rural Denaries might be fet up in every Market Town, 
or in certain Divifions for the Performance hereof. But becaufe I found him too te- 
nacious ot the titular Honours of the Bifhops ( which tiiough I could have confented 
to my felf, yet thofe times would not permit ) I wrote to him no more, and feeing 
we were not like that way to attain our Ends, which was a prefent Union with that 
Party : But had I forefesn what fince is come to pafs, I would hare profecuted 
it farther, that I might have had more of his Confeffions to teftify againft un- 
peaceable Men. 

The Letter I wrote to him was as follows : 

MoH Reverend and much Honoured Sir ! 

'"T^Hat I an utter Stranger to you fhould make this Addrefi, I fuppofe will be no 
' JL ftranger matter to you, than that the Weak fhould feek for help unto the 

* Strong, and that the Laws of Nature and of Grace fhould tye us to a mutual 
' Communication according to our powers. So much of my own time being 

* fpent in fuch Paper Converle with Men whole Faces I never fiw, hath fomewhac 

* hardened me to this Attempt : And 1 know, that as far as you excel me in true 

* Wifdom and Humility, lo far will you excel in Condelcenfion to Inferiours, 

* and in Readinefs to do good : and therefore I have no doubt of your favourable 

* Acceptance of this Addrefi, if there be nothing in the Matter or Manner to hin- 

* der. 

' I fhall take leave firlt to tell you my General Errand, with the Ground of it, 

* and then my Particular one. Nature inclineth ustodefire to know : and Grace 
' to delire the right Knowl^d^e of God and of iiis Will ; from himfelf only, who 

* is the Father of lights, muff we have this Light, and from him by his appointed 

* M'jans and RevelatioQS. If I learn not of thofe that God hath taught , but ex- 

Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 173 

' petl: all immediately from himl'elf, I may live in Darknels. Where I hear of 

* the greateft Revelation from Heaven, thither do I cake it for my Duty to Addrels 
' my (elf: and if there were infpired Prophets now as heretofore, I would go to 

* them : But feeing God now taketh another way, I think I ought to follow him, 

* and to be a Learner ( if poffible ) of thofe whom he hath any way moli emi- 

* nately illuminated. And though my Actions may be more ruled by many than 

* by one, where they have more Authority, yet my Judgment may be better in- 

* formed by one that excelleth in Light, than by many others. While I have 
' made enquiry after theie Divine Communications, the concurrent Vote of my 

* moft learned, Ibber, judicious Friends hath direded me firft to you, as the Man 

* who for clearnels and foundnefs of Judgment, is the Oracle of this our Theologi- 
' cal World. Though I may Learn of many hundreds, yet did I know where lb 
' well to profit, and were ibfirong a Judgment as common as many och^r excellent 

* Qualifications, in learned Men, I Ihould have taken up nearer home, and not 

* prefumed to have invited you to any trouble. My firft Qiieftion therefore is in 

* general, Whether your Mind and Leifure will vouchfafe me the Liberty now and 

* then to intrude for the Refolution of Ibme Difficulties; not frequently nor con- 

* tentioufly, butfeldomand as a meer Learner. If you are unwilling, or not va- 

* cant, fay lb, and rid your felf of this Trouble in a word. 

* And though the greateft Matters that I would enquire about are Points of Faith 

* ( wherein if you have taken notice that I have wronged the Church by any of my 

* crude and hafty Writings, your Check would tend to a Reformation and be wel- 

* come),yet the particular that at prelent I (hall try your willingnels in, is in Point 
' of Difcipline. I have long been very fenfible of the fad Divifions of the Refor- 

* med Churches hereabouts, and efpecially in England ; and longed to fee the day 
' that Ibme wife compaffionate Hand would rightly attempt the Cure. As igno- 
' rent Men know not lb much as the Difficulty of things, io I have thought that if 
' there were no greater Hinderance in Mens AfFedlions, than in their Principles, it 

* would be an eafie matter fpeedily to Reconcile the moderate Epifcopal and Prel- 
' byterian Divines. My earneft Requeft to you is, that you will be plealed free- 
' ly to tell me your Thoughts, how fer this Accommodation following may tend to 

' a clofure. m 

' I. In every Parilh, where there are more Presbyters than one, let one be the 

* Chief, and his Conlent chiefly taken in the Guidance of the Church. 

* 2. Let many fuch Churches be aiTociated ( call it a Clajjis or what you will ) : 

* and let the fitted ManbeyourPrefident as long as he is fit,that is, during Life,un- 
' lefs he deferve a Removal. 

' 3. Let divers of thefe Claffes meet once or twice a year in a Provincial Aflem- 

* bly, and let the fitteft Man in the Province be their ftanding Prefident : Hither- 
' to there is no Conceffion on the Presbyterian fide, but that the Prefident jiro tem- 
' pre, be turned to a ftanding Prefident ; nor any on the Epifcopal fide, but that 
' ( moft neceifary one ) that every Presbyter be acknowledged a Church Guide, 

* and not a tneer Preacher. 

' 4. Let it be left to each Man's Confcience , whether the Prefident be called by 
' theName of Billiop, Prefident, Superintendent, Moderator ,c^c. feeing a Name is 

* no meet Realbn of a Breach. 

' y. Let no Man be forced to exprefs his Judgment de Jure , whether the Prefi- 
' dent have a Negative Voice in Ordination or Excommunication, nor whether he 

* be diftinft in order, or only in degree, feeing it is not the ummmotts and right belief 

* concerning thele things that is of Neceffity ( for then they rnuft have been in our 
•Creed) but the unanimous and right pra8ice: But let all agree that they will 

* joyn in thele Claflicaland Provincial Afiemblies, and then only Ordain, and that 
' they will not Ordain but when the Prelident is one, unlets in cafe of flat neceffi- 
' ty, which is never like to befal us if this way be taken. 

' My Queftion now is, Whether the godly, moderate Epifcopal and Presbyteri- 
' an Divines, on fuppofition that .tl;ey can at prefent come no nearer to each other, 
' may not and ought not thus far to clofe j and thus live in Chriftian Love and U- 
' nity J feeing that we are bound to Concord in Praftice fo far as we agree in 
' Judgment : and leeing that if any nearer Cloliire be yet neceftiiry, in fuch Uniced 
' Bodies, and Amicable" Alfociations, Affemblies, and Correlpondencies, its moft 
'likely to be attained this -way ^ and indeed no other chat I can as yet dif- 
' eern. 

' Thof«- 

174 ^^^ LIFE of the L i b. I 

* Thefe Terms I once propounded to one moft Reverend Prelate now near you, 

* who told me, That with moderate Men they might fuffice for an Union, If 

* you are of the fame Judgment I fhould have the ftronger hopes j and if you are 

* not, I fhall the fooner let them fall. 

* Were your leifure fuch as to admit of further trouble, I would crave a word 

* for the Refolution of my own Judgment in thefe Points : 

* I. I am fatisfied that the Apoftles have Succelfors in all thofe Works that are of 
' {landing Neceflity, and that Church Government is one of thofe Works, and that 

* its improbable that Chrift ftiould fettle one Species of Church-Government in the 

* Apoftles Hands for an Age, and then change it for ever after, and that they that 
' affirm fach a Change muft prove it ; and this Argument flicks clofe. But then 
' I would crave one of your ftrongeft Arguments to prove ( though I know that 
' the Presbyterians grant it ) that indeed the Apoftles had a power by Office to 
' Govern the Seventy, or the Presbyters as inferiour Officers, befides the power- 

* that they had by the meet intereft of their Gifts, and priviledge of being Eye- 
' witnefles of the Works of Chrift, and Ear-witnefTes of his Word. 

' 2. If the Apoftles Examples will prove the Right of an unfixed Ambulatory 

* Epifcopacyjec I would fee how it appears that ever they were fixed to particular 
'Churches, or ever any of them had a diftindt and limited Diocefs, where the reft 
' had not Charge as well as they. 

'3. I am fatisfied that very early after the Apoftles the common Government of 
' each Church was by a Bilhop and Presbytery : but I can yet fae no Evidence that 
' this Church for rjo or 200 Years was any more than one Congregation ; like one 

* of our Parifhes for number of People : which was Congregate in a City, and 

' from the Circumjacent Villages, (as our Independant, or Anabaptift Churches - 
' now are) ; while the Multitude were Infidels. I would therefore crave one clear 

* Proof that the firft fixed Biftiops ruled any more ftanding Congregations ( having 

* ordinary Afferablies and Communion in the Lord'sSupper ) than ,one only. And ' 
' whether the multiplying of Believers did not make a real Change of the former 

' Species of Government, while the Bilhop of the City took on him the Govern- 
' mentof many Particular Churches, who had but onebeforej and when Bifhops 
' fhould have been multiplied as faft as Cliurches were, and as Presbyters were : 
' Some Paflages in theeldeft Writers incline me to thefe Thoughts, ofvvhich if they 
' be wrong, your Correftion will be moft acceptable. May I crave, if not your 
' Solution of all thefe Doubts, yet at leaft your Advice in the firft Cale of Praftice, 
' and your Pardon of my Boldnefs, I Oiall undergreat Obligations remain 

Kiderminfter in Worcefterlhire A humble Reverincer 

June 8. 16) y. 

of your great Abilities 

and Dignity, 

Rich. Baxter. 

■ If you return any thing, Mr. Underbill at the Anchor and Bible in TauVs 
Church-yard will convey it me. 

To the very Reverend, and much Honoured, Dr. Brownrigg Bi^op of 
Exeter, Thefe. 

Whereto the Bifliop made this fhort Reply : 
Worthy Sir, 

I Have received your kind and courteous Letter, the Evidence of your very fioas and 
peaceable Spirit, which I heartily defire may be a Provocation to others to lead them in- 
to the ways of Peace. 

Sir, Your Efieem of me and of my Abilities is the Errour of your Love, and of thofe that 
have reprejcnted me to you in too great a Character, (quod non humiliter tanfum fed Sc 
veraciter dico) only I fhall defire to beferviceable to God and brs Church in what I am 



Part II. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 175 

Tour Letter came to my hands at the time of my remo'val from Highgate into the Coun- 
try, here I ba've continued many Monthi fuffering the trouble and pain of the Stone, ■whtch 
which hath put me into a long and tedious Courfi of FhyfcL Nov/ I am upon my Jour- 
ney home-war ds^ from whence, God VJiBrng, I will write to you j being truly fenfible of your 
Religious Endeavours for fo good a Work as the Compofing of thofe woful Rents made in this 

The God of Truth and Te ace guide m into the Ways of Truth and Peace, to whofe Grace 
and Bkjfng I do heartily recommend you, reding, 


Highgate July 3. 

i6yy. Your very refpedtful Friend fwho 

embraceth your Love, and returns 

his to you very heartily, 

Ra. Exon. 

And not long after I received this Anfwer: 

Worthy Sir I 

fAm indebted to you for an Anfwer to your In<juiries which I received fi-om you. Jt 
jhould have been morejfcedy, Imt in truth, I brought from London my crafie and ill- 
eiffeiied Body, which fince my coming home hath bred me much pain of the Stone, and ta- 
ken up my time in fujfering thofe Difiempers, and ufing the Remedies prefcribed to me. I 
have now fent you my Thoughts, which I doubt not but you will receive as candidly as I 
impart them to you. The Age is quarrclfome, but 1 apprehend you as one of a peaceable Spi- 
rit, aiming only at the Settlement of our unhappy DiftraBtons. The God of Peace compofe 
all our hearts to Peace, and make the Rents of our Church to he the Matter of our chief 
Cornpajjkn. Charitas Ecciefia? omnes omnium Charitates infe compleAitur. Sir, 1 
have Jenr you my Anfwer VJrttten with a more legible hand, and with fome regard of eafi 
to my jelf m tranfcribing ; with my very hearty love recommended and ajjured to you J com- 
mend you to the Grace and Blejfing of Almighty God, refiing, 

Auftie in Hartfordjhire, Your very refpeftful Friend, 

July 21. j6ss- 

Ra. Exon. 

Bifhop Brovpnriggs Anfwer about Government. 

Prop. I. "SJ Our fir ft Propojal is. In every PariJJj where there are more Presbyters than one, 
-^ ht one be the Chief, and his Confent chiefly taken in the guidance of the 

Anfw. r. This Cafe is rarely to be found in the Parifhes oi England, nor c^n there 
.,j a iufficienc Maintenance for a Plurality of Presbyters in our Parochial Congre- 
gations,yet if fuch be found, it may be a good means to preferve Order and Peace ; 
that the ordering of Aifairs, which (hall be referred to them^ be managed by him 
that hatii the Pr^fefture of that Parifh , I wifii that in thofe Churches which befide 
the Incumbent have had Lefturers, this Rule had been obferved. 

Prop. 2, Let many (uch Churches be ajjociated (call it a Claflis or what you will) and let 
the fittefi Man be their Preftdent, as long as he is fit , that ts, during life, unkfS he dejerve tt 
removal. ' 

Anjw. 2. This Propolal looks like our Rural Deaneries , or Choriepilcopal Or- 
der, wliich hath been laid muchafide, but for the reducing of it, and to make it 
p ofitable, I wifh that it maybe bounded with fit Canons , preforibing what they 
may dOj and with intimation from the Bifhop and hislnfpedlion, and that fuch a 
Dean or Prefident may be continued for Life, that being a means to breed Expert- 
enc9j if he do not deierve a removal. 

Prop, 5, 

i'j6 The LIF E of the L i b. I. 

Prop. 3. Let di'vers oftheje Clajjes meet once or twice a Tiar in a Trovincial Ajjembhf 
and let thefatefi Man in the Province he thetr fiandivg Prefident. 

Anjw. ;.Tliis Couife hath been by Law and Piaftice already ufedin our Church 
in the Archidiaconal Vifitacions and Synods, which may be more quickened and 
actuated by fit Canons for their Diretlion ; what and who the Prefident muft be, 
may be provided for by Canons, and his Station continued ; and that Presbyters 
having Cure of Souls fhould not be accounted meer Preachers but Church-Guides, 
and as they are already acknowledged Redors of Churches. 

Prop. 4. Let it be left to every Man's Confcience, V/hsther the Tre/ider.t be called b) the 
Name of Bijliop, Trefident, Sttpcrtntendent, Moderator ^^c. feeing that a NaKH. « no meet 
Reafon of a Breach, 8cc. 

AnfTiJ. 4. If by Prefident you underftand him that muft mode -.ice the Half-year 
or yearly Synods under the Inlped:ion of the Diocefan, as his Order may be new- 
ly framed, ib his Name may be newly impofed ; but that the Piimitive Name of 
Bifliop fhould be turned into a new Name, is, as you fay, no meet Realbn for a 
Breach 5 and we lee Piesbyters afTume that Name to themlelveSj and to put anew 
Name upon an old Inftitution is^ as AugKfiine ipeaks in the like Cafe j IndoHis (trture 
faUaciam doSiis facere injuriam. 

Prop. y. Let no Man be forced to ExprefS hit Judgment de Jure, Whether the Trepdent 
have a Negative Voice in Ordination or Excommunication ; or whctber he be diftin£i in 
Order or Degree, feeing it is net the unanimous and right Bdtef of thefe things that is of 
Neceffity {for then they mufl have been in our Creed) but the unanimous and right Praclice ; 
l>ut let them all agree that they iviU confiantly joyn in thefe CI affical and Provincial Affem- 
hlies, and then only Ordain ; and that they will not Ordain but when the Frejident 
is one j unkfi m Cafe of flat Neceffity, which is never like to befall us if this may be 

Anfw. y. If by Prefident you underftand the Diocefan , then that the Billiop 
fliould be deprived of his Negative Voice in Ordination or Excommunication, and 
io I conceive in other Cenfures and A6tsof Government, is, to make him a meer 
Shadow without any Authority, like our Scrutators in our Univerfity, to propounc? 
Graces, and colled Suffrages, and pronounce Sentence : Surely St. Taul inverted 
Timothy and Tttits with more Power and Authority, both for Ordination and Cen- 
fures; but then to remedy the Inconveniencies of a wilful Negative, it's fit that an 
Appeal may be made to a Provincial Synod, that may examine, and if need be, 
reftine what was amifs in the Negative. 

That Church BufinefTes were Orcier?;d by the Concurrence of more Presbyters 
befides the Bifiiop in Cyprian's timCj was fit at that time ; when the Government of 
Church Affairs was Arbitrary, and not Regulated by Law; in which Cafe it was 
fafeft for the Bifhop to have the Conlent of others with him : This is not ourCale^ 
vfc have exprels Canons and Laws laid upon Biiliops, beyond which they cannot go, 
and fo may well be intiufted with the Execution of the Sentence of the Law, the 
Sentence of the Judge being only Dedarativa & Executiva, and if hetranfgrefstbofe 
Rules prefixed, he is liable to Cenfiirc. In our Church plurimum legi, minimum E- 
fijcopo reltntjuttur, as we fee in Civil Matters, one Juftice of Peace hath the Pow- 
er of Executing the Sentence of a Law or Statute, but no Arbitrary Power grant- 
ed tohim. 

That the BiHiop be diftinft from the Presbyter, whether ordine or gradu , is the 
Schoolmens Debate, and I conceive may hav^e fuch accord as may not ingender 

That Ordination be by the Affiftance of Presbyters is already required in our 
Form of Ordination, and if it be fixed to the Times of Synods it may be eafily 
granted, and fure that Blame that hath been laid upon our liifhops for Ordaining of 
infufficient Men is moft what an undue Charge : the Law of the Land hath fee 
that lownefs of fufficiency in Men to be ordained and inftituted, that if a Bi/hop 
refufeth to give Orders or Inftitution to a Min prefented by the Patron, he is pu- 
niftiabieby the Judges: As I have heard , Archbifhop Abbot was fined an Hun- 
dred pounds in c^le, he did noli adinic a CUrk (b meanly qualified as the Law re- 


Part II. Reverend Mr, Richard Baxter. 177 

Some other Propofals are added in the End of your Letter. 

Prop. r. T Arn fatisfied that the ApojlUs have Succejfor'i in aU tbofe Works that are of 
X fianding ISlecefity, and that Church Government u one of thofe Works, and 
that it is tTKfrobable, thatChrtfi (liould fettle one Species of Church Government in the Afo- 
files Hands for an Age, and then change it for ever after, and they that a§,rm fucb a 
Change mttjt frove it. 

Anfiv. 6. Suppofing what the Apoftles did in ordering of Church Goverhment 
to be in the Name and by the Authority of Chrift, this AfTertioh I conceive to be 
very true, and it doth infer a Subordination of all Officers and Members of the 
Church to the Apoftles, and thole that were their Succeffors. . 

Prop.2. Whether the Apafiies had a Power by Office to govern the LXX. and the Tresbf' 
ters as inferior Officers, befides the Tower that they bad by the meer Inter eB of their Gifts ^ 
and Privtledge of being Eye Wttnejfes of the Works of ChriBy and Ear WttneJJes ef hte 

Anfw. 7. The extraordinary Gifts of the Apoftles, and the PriviSedge of being 
Eye and Ear Witnefles to Chrift, were Abilities which they had for the infallible 
Difcharge oJF their Fundion, but they were not the Ground of their Power and 
A.uthority to govern the Church. 

That the Seventy, and fo other Presbyters were inferior to the Apoftles, and un- 
der their Government, doth appear to me, though at their firft fending by Chrift, 
they were immediately fubjeft to Chrift, the Apoftles riot being then eftablifhed 
in the Government of the Church, but when Chrift authoriled his Apoftles with 
the Power of Government, Veteftas Clavium was committed to them only, not to 
the Seventy ; and fo we muft conceive that the Colkdge of Apoftles were inverted 
with the Government of the Church, and the Seventy not having the Keys com- 
mitted to them were under the Authority of the Apoftles, and (b were Presbyters 
to the Apoftles Succeflbrs. 

Prop. 5. If the Afoftks Example witt prove the right of ah ttnfixed, ambalatory Epifco- 
facy^ yet I would fee how it appears that ever they were fixed to particular Charges, or ever 
any of them had a dtfiini} and limited DioceJI, where the refi had not Charge as well as 

Anfw. 8. I conceive the Apoftles as Apoftles had an unlimited, and, as you call 
it, an unfixed, ambulatory Epilcopacy, being lent into the whole World, and noC 
by Chrift's Inftitution confined to any one fixed Seat ; but yet that hinders not, 
but that by Confent and Agreement among tbemfelves, they might have a Diftri- 
bution of their (everal Circuits, as it is feen in the Agreement between St. Peter and 
St. Paul, which as it did not exclude their original Power over all Churches, lb 
it did accommodate them to a more opportune Difcharge of their FunAion, and 
accordingly they fetled their SucceftTors in thole Places, not committing to them 
an univerfal Jurildidion which was a Perfonal Priviledge of their Apoftlelliip. 

Prop. 4. 1 am fatisfied that very early after the Apo^les, the common Government cf 
each Church was by a Btfliop and Presbytery ; but yet I can fee no Evidence that this 
Church for i jo or 200 Tears was any more than one Congregation, like one of our Parties 
for Number of People, which was congregated in a City, and fiom the circumjacent Villa- 
ges ; as our Independant or AnabaptiH Churches now are, while the Multitude were Infi- 
dels ; I would therefore crave any clear Proof, that the first fixed Bijlwps ruled any more 
fianding Congregations, having ordinarily Ajjemblies and Communion in the Lord's Supper^ 
than one only, and whether the multiplying of Believers did not make <i real Change of the 
former Species of Government, while the Btjlwp of the City took on htm the Government of 
many particular Churches, who had but one before, and whether Bi[liops fiwuld not have 
been multiplied as fafi as Churches were, and Presbyters were. 

Anfw. 9. That the Government of the Churches was not only Vicatim, but Re- 
gionatim, appears by thofe Deputies and Succeffors which the Apoftles conftitu- 
ced ; in particular, 7itus is authoriled to ordain and govern not one Parilh, but 
the many Churches in Crete. That thofe primitive Bilhops did employ their ordi- 
nary Funftion of Preaching and adminftring the Sacrament in their City of Re, 
fidence, may well be granted, which hinders nor, but that they might have In- 
fpedion into the circumjacent Villages for ordaining of Presbyters, and other Ad~ 
miniftrations of Government, and what needed a CoUedge of Presbyters rCfiding 
in the City with the Bifhop, if they were not lent out by him to officiate in 
thofe Villages adjacentj as ths Number of Believers required, nor did the multi- 

A 5» plying 

TtS T)^^ life of the L i b. L 

plying of Believers in the adjacent places require feveral Bifhops in feveral Congre- 
gations, independent on the City Bifiiop, but the ordinary Difcharge of thofe Pla- 
ces was committed to them in Subordination to the City-Bilhop, and Presbyters 
there aflembled as occafion required : In this Cafe it fared with the Church as in 
Philofophy they fay, it is in the matter of Nutrition and Augmentation, where 
the form is not multiplied, but only extended adno'vammateriam. 

Thefe Anfwers not changing my Judgment, I made the following Notes upon 

Ad I. Every Church Trima magnitudinu & fpeciei fliould be as great and no 
greater, than is capable of PERSONAL Communion, as our greater Pa- 
rifhes J and every fuch Church had of old a Bifiiop. 0»e Altar and eve BiJIwp was 
Ignatius' s Note of one Church ; and fuch a one may maintain divers Minilters ; 
and the Rich fhould not burden the Church for maintenance, but help freely. 

Ad 2. This is a Prefident of a Synod of Bifhops. 

Ad 5. I thank you for granting Presbyters to be Church-Re<aors, 

Ad 4. If he be bu: a Prefident he is but a Bifhop Vrimi Ordinis(o{ one Churdi^ 
as the reft : But if he be the ftated Reftor of many Churches, he is really an Arch- 

Ad y. This was written when our Diocefane Frame was taken down, to recon- 
cile them that were for, and chem that were againft fuch Bilhops, pro tempore. 

If you take liberty to caft off the Example of Cjprww's times, on pretence that 
the Cafe is altered by the Kings Laws, then you will never know where to reft 
while Laws are alterable. Qu. Whether the Pracftice of the Church till Cyprian^ 
time be not a probable Notice to us what was the Apoftolical inftituted Govern- 
ment .^ If not, why ufe you the Argument of Antiquity for Epifcopacy ? If 
yea, Qu. Whether Rulers may alter the Apoftolick Inftitution ? and the Office 
and work of Presbyters may be changed on pretence that now Bilhops can do 
it without them ? He that ever tryed true Difcipline will find one Parilh big 
enough for one Man's or divers Mens right Performance of it, and Six hundred or 
a Thoufand Parifhes too many. 

Alas ! do you think it Lawful to ordain infufficient unmeet Men, if the Law of 
the Land fo command you ; what then are Chrift's Laws for ? 

Ad. 6. Here I granted you the major of your grand Argument for Epifco- 

Ad 7. The Apoftles Superiority of Power I deny not j but that the Power of 
the Keys was given to the Apoftles only, I deny. If Chrift immediately gave it 
to no other, yet by his Spirit he did, and by the Church-Law, which he left to 
be the Inftrument of continued conveyance and Title, by which the Apoftles were 
to inveft others with that Power ; which the Schoolmen ordinarily acknowledge 
to belong to Presbyters as fuch, who may ufe them to the People. 

Ad 8. I. DefaBo it is no where proved truly that the Twelve or Thirteen Apo- 
ftles did by confent limit their Provinces ; But contrarily, that they Officiated to- 
gether at JerMfakf/i] and Teter (if at Rome, as fome think he was) and Fatd in 
the fame Diocefs at ilowe, &c. and Paul and John atEphefus, and Timothy aKo (as 
is (aid ). 

2. If they had, this had been no fixing any more DiocelTes in the World than 
Twelve or Thirteen ; and whoever fince pretended to fiicceed them in thole 
Twelve or Thirteen Diocelfes ? 

3. And if following Bilhops or Princes fixt Dioceffes, that is no divine nor ua- 
alterabie Law. 

4. We never read that an Apoftle claimed any Diocefs as proper to him, or for- 
bad any other to officiate in it, or blamed them for fo doing. 

y. It is certain that while they went themfelves from Country to Country, they 
fixed Bilhops to every Church or Ciry, AB. 14.2?. Tit. i. y, 6. 

Ad 9. I. The Apoftles fixetl not Bifhops of the loweft Rank, Vicatim nor Re- 
gionattm, but in ewrji Church, which was then in every City where were Chriftians J 
even the fime Church that had Deacons and Presbyters fixed. 

2. Bifhops preached to Infidels to whom they were not Bifhops, but Preach- 

5. The Chriftians of neighbour Villages came to the City-Church ; and when 
thev had Oratories or Chappels there, it made them not another Parifh ; and ex- 
cluded not fuch from perfonal Communion with the Bifhops Church, nor extend- 

Part II. Reverend Mr. Kichard Baxter. 17^ 

ed to fuch as by Diftance or Numbers were uncapable ot luch perfonal Com- 

4. Titos was either an ambulatory Evangelift, to go about as the Apoftles, gai- 
thering and Setling Churches (as I think); or if fixed, he was an Archhifhop, 
who was to fettle Bifliops under him in every City ( as Dr. Hammond judged ). it 
foUoweth not that a meer Bifhop may have a Multitude of Churches, becauiean 
Archbifhop may, who hath many Bifliops under him. 

5-. As the Magnitude of human Body, fo alfo of a particular Church, hath its 
Limitation luited to its Ends: Communion by Delegates or Officers only, is the 
Cafe of many Churches alTociated : But Perfiml Communion in Dodlrine, Wor- 
Ihip, Conversion and Dilcipline is the End of each particular Church, and it you 
extend the Form to more than are capable of that End, even to many fuch Soci- 
eties, by fo doing the Species is changed. 

§ ;8. About this time a reverend learned Brother, Mr. Martin J obnfon, being of 
the Judgment of Dr. Hammond and Dr. Gunning, and yet a Lover of all hone(l-, 
jieaceable Men, and conftant at our Meetings, Ledures, and Difputations, was 
pleafcd to write to me about the Neceffity of Epifcopal Ordination : 1 maintain- 
ed that it was not neceffary ad ejje Eccle/ia, and that he might be a true Minifter 
who was ordained by Presbyters, and that in Cafes of NeaJJity it was a Duty to 
take Ordination from them : He oppofedthis ( with Modeily and Judgment, be- 
ing a very good Logician^ till at lalt he yielded to the Truth. Thele Letters with 
their Anfwersare added in the Appendix. ^ 

<5 39. A little after this an Accident fell out that hindered our Concord with the 
Epifcopal Party, and is pretended at this Day by many to juftihe the Silencing of 
ail the Minifters that were afterward put out. Oliver Cromwell, who then ufurped 
the Government, being defired by fome to forbid all Minifters of all Parties what- 
Ibever to officiate , who were notorioufly infiifficient or fcandalous , taketh 
hence Occafion to put in with the reft all thole that took part with the King 
againft the Parliament, and io by offending them, hindred our Agreement with 
them ; which provoked me then to proteft againft ir, and publifti my Judgment 
againft the hindering of any Man to preach theGo'pel upon the Ground of fuch 
Civil Controvcr/ies as thole. 

§ 40. And about the lame time, Experience in my Paftoral Charge convinced 
me th.it publick Preaclring is not all the ordinary Work of a faithful 
Minifter, and that perfonal Conference with every one about the Pardon rhe tediouf- 
State of their own Souls, together with Catechifing, is a Work of nsfs of three or four 
very great Neceffity : For the Cuftom in England is only to catechile Seffions, which repeat 
the younger fort, and that but by teaching them the Words of the m^d?ne?before'- te' 
Catechilm in the Liturgy, which we thought ( befides the Dod:rine caufe it is here pu^t in as 
of the Sacrament) had little more explicatory than the Words them- part of my Pacificatory 
felves of the Creed, Lords Prayer, and Decalogue : Therefore I pro- Endeavours only. 
pounded the Bufinefs to the Minifters, and they all ( upon Debate ) 
conlented that I fliould turn our brief Conl'effion into a Catechifm, and draw up 
a Form of Agreement for the Pradifing of that Duty :I drew up the Catechifm in 
Two leaves in 8w. comprehending as much as \s neceffary to be belte'ued, confentedto 
and praBifedj in as narrow a room, and juft a Method as I thought agreeable to 
the Peoples Underftandings : And I propoled a Form of Agreement for the Pra- 
ftice, which might engage the more remifs to go through with the Work : And 
when I brought it in, it was conlented to and fubfcribed; and many neighbour- 
ing Minifters of other Countries delired to join with us ; and we printed the Ca- 
techifm and Agreement together, 

§ 41. Of all the Works that ever I attempted, this yielded me moft Comfort in 
the practice of it. All Men thought that the People efpecially the ancienter fort, 
would never have fubmitted to this Courle, and (b that it would have come to no- 
thing : But God gave me a tradable willing People, and gave me alfo interefi in 
them ,• and when I had begun, and my People had given a good Example toother 
Parifties and efpecially the Minifters lb unanimoufly concurring, that none gain- 
fayed us, it prevailed much with the Parifhes about : I fet two Days a Week 
apart for this Employment ; my (faithful unwearied ) Affiftant and my (elf, took 
fourteen Families every Week ; thofe in the Town came to us to our lioules ; 
thofe in the Parifh my Affiftant went to, to their Houles ( befides what a Curate 
did at a Chappelry ) : Frft they recited the Catechifm to us (a Family only be- 
ing prefent at a time, and no Stranger admitted ) j after that I firft helpt them 

A a z to 

i8d The LIFE of the Lib. I. 

to underftand it, and next enquired modeftly into the State of their Souls, and 
laftly, endeavoured to let all home to the convincing, awakening, and refolving of 
their Hearts according to their feveral Conditions j bettowing about an Hour (and 
the Labour of a Sermon ) with every Family ; and I found -it foefFedual through 
the Bleding of God, that few went away without Ibme leeming Humiliatioo, 
Convidion, and Purpofe and Promife for a holy Life, and except Jialf a dozen 
or thereabouts of the mofl: ignorant and (cnfelels, all the Families in the Town 
came to me ; and though the firlt time they came with Fear and Backwai dneG, 
alter that they longed for their turn to come again : So that I hope God did good 
to many by it : And yet this was not all the Comfort I had in it. 

§ 42. For my Brethren appointing me to preach to them about it, on a Day 
of Humiliation at Worcefter when we iet upon it, I printed the Sermon prepared 
for that ule, with necelTary Additions, containing Reafons and Directions for this 
Work, C in a Book called The Refortmd Pajlor ) which excited fo many others to 
take the Courfe that wc had taken, that it was a far greater Addition to my 
Comfort, than the profiting of the Parifli or County where we lived : Yea, a Re- 
verend Paftor from Sivitztrlajid wrote me word, that it excited them to Thoughts 
of pradifing it there, though the dulnefs of fome Palters and the backwardnefs 
of the People were their great Difcouragements. 

§4 J. But all thele Beginnings which fo comfortably fmil'd upon us from all 
parts of the land, were clowded and obftrudied by the proud Corn- 
Though the Con junai- motions, and rebellious unquiet Humour of the Fanaticks ; efpecial- 
meTo fpeak togethe" of ^Y '^^ MiUwry Anabaptids ; who thinking it lawful, becaule it feem'd 
tliefe things, yet the to let up their Se<5l, did oppofe the Miniftry and trouble the Peace of 
matter of this Seftion the Nation, and raife Stirs againfi: all fetled Government, even againft 
T^ ime about "tfvo^or ^^^ Ufurper whom they had themfelves fet up. And when Cromwell 
three Tcars^ after" "that "'^s '^^^d they fet up his Son, and pulfd him down again, and fet up 
wliidi foUoweth. Others, and pulfd down them, and never cealed rebelling and over- 

turning all before them, till they had not left theiulelvesa Bow to 
{land upon. And Harrijons Party in the Conventicle called, The Little Parlia- 
ment, as they caft out all the Miniflers in Wales at once (who though very 
weak and bad enough for the moft part, were better than none, or lb few Itine- 
rants which they fet up ) fo they attempted and had almoft accomplifh'd the lame 
in E7:gland: The Independents thought that the Parifhes were no true Qhurches, 
and the Anabapcifls thought that thole baptiled only in their Infancy, were no 
Chriftians ; and lb that they might have true Churches and Chriftians, many In- 
dependants lecretly, and the Anabaptifts openly promoted the Ejedion of all the 
In Jan. parirti miniiters in Englajid at one Vote, that lb they might (et up the bed of them 
1559. the agajj^ in an other way, to make Men Chriftians, and gather New Churches, 
fce'of I'ar- "'hich they thought was better than to reform the old. 


(the Rump as they were called ) Voted Liberty of Religion for all, not excepting Papifts. 

§ 44. Thefe Endeavours having been on foot all the time of Olivers Ufurpation 
and before, promoted the Generation of Seekers, Ranters, Quakers, and liich 
\ others, who lent forth many railing Words and Pamptilets, and the Scope of all was 

againit the Miniftry (which yet got ground even in thele licentious times, and 
prevailed againit them, and carried on their Work ) : This was Ibme Diverfion to 
us, while 1 and others were fain to difpute againit Anabaptilts, and Quakers, and 
Seekers , and to anfwer their railing Invedives, and to build with our Weapons 
in our Hands : So that ( befides my Writings againft them ) I feldonv preach- 
ed a Lerture but going and coming I was railed at by a Qaaker in th'e Market- 
place in the way, and frequently in the Congregation bawled at by the Names of 
[" Hireling, Deceiver, falfe Prophet, Dog,] »nd fuch likeLanguge : But allthis in 
the IlTue furthered our Work. 

§4j. Before this there were two very fober Men in Londo7> (Mr. Lamb and 
Mr. Alh'M ) who were Paltors of an Anabaptilt leparated Church ; The Wife of 
one of them ( an extraordinary intelligent Woman ) wrote me a Letter that her 
Husband was in troubled Thoughts ( not about Anabaptiltry, but ) about Separa- 
tion upon that account, and that if 1 would writeto him now, it might do him 
good ; which 1 did, and gave him many Arguments to prove that though he 
Ihould contimre in his Opinion againft Infint-B3ptilrn,yet he ought not to make it 
a Reafon of denying Communion with his Brethren of another Mind. Thele Ar- 
guments met with Thoughts of his own that tended the fame way, and in concUi- 


Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 1 8 1 

— ■ ■■ .1— — .^ 1^. .. — ^■— ■■ ^ ' ~" — ^ " — -— - 

fjon he was iatisfied : Afterwards the fame Woman perfwaded me to try with 
Mr. Allen alfo ; who in conclufion was fatisfied : And they diffolved theJr Church. 
When this was done, the Men being of extraordinary Sincerity and Undcrftand- 
ing, were V€ry zealous for the redu(5lionof their Brethren of the Anab.iptilts way t 
And to that end they had a Meeting with divers of the mod moderate Paftors of 
the Rebaptized Churches : And they defired my Propofals or Terms on which we 
might hold Peace and Communion with them. I ient them thefe Terms^and they 
entered into ConfuUation of them, and were in a very hopeful way of Agreement 
C 1 faw no likelyhood of the contrary ) : And fuddenly the Broils of tlie Army , 
pulling down Richard Cromwell, and Jetting up I know not what, and keeping all 
in Confufion, broke off all our ConfultationSj till the King came in : And fince 
then Men dare not profecute the Agreement, left they be taken as Confjsirators, 
that do it in preparation to a Plot ; lb unhappily are the Affairs of the Church oft 
croffed, by Secular Interefts and Divifions in the World. But thefe two Brethren 
at laft calt off their Anabaptiftry alfo, and are now more zealous than other Men 
againfl Independency and Separation, by how much the more they fmarced by it. 
The Terms of Agreement here enfue, with a lliort Difputation preparatory there- 
to. The Letters that pafs't on this Occafion betwixt Mr. Baxter, and Mr. Lam^ 
and Mr. Allen, are inferted in the Appendix. 

Whether it he our Duty to feek Peace with the Anabaptifts ? Feb. 2?, 

Becaufs I conceive it no very difficult matter to refblve this Qiieftion, I fnail 
the more briefly difpatch it. Only two Terms do need fome Explication : 

1. What we mean by Anabaptijh ? We do not here ule the word with an inten- 
tion of Reproach ; for that doth lefs befee n a Difputation of Peace ; but we are 
fain to make ufe of it, as that Name by which that fort of Men are already com- 
monly known, and diftinguifhed from all others ; as not knowing otherwife how 
to fpeak intelligibly of them, without ufing Defcriptions and Circumlocutions in- 
Jtead of well-known Names or Titles , which would be contrary to the Common 
Rules of Dilcourfe. 

The Perfbns called by that Name in General, are all that are for the Baptizing 
of thofe who were baptized in Infancy, as fuppofing it null or unlawful. Of thefe 
there are more Subdivifions than I will undertake to enumerate : As to our prelent 
purpofe it may fuffice us to take diftifid notice of thefe four forts of them; i. Thofe 
that only deny Infant Baptifm, and are for the Neceffity of Re-baptizing. z.Thofe 
that upon this account do alfo gather Separated Churches, withdrawing from the 
Churches whereof they were Members, and receiving none into Communion but 
the Re baptized. 3. Thofe that with the two former do hold many dangerous Er- 
lours, either Telagim or Antinomian, or any other, which yet do not fb overthrow 
the Foundation, but that thePerfons holding them may be faved. 4. Thofe that 
had fuch Errours as are inconfillent with a true Belief of the Fundamentals, and 
confequently with Salvation. And among the three former forts,we muft diftinguifh 
between thofe that are peaceable, temperate, and willing of Communion with us, 
and that endeavour not the ruine of the Church in their praAice : and thofe that 
are unpeaceablCj and refufe our Communion, and let themfelves to root out the 
Miniftry, or to deflroy the Faith or Church of Chrift. 

2. The word Veace fignifieth feveral things , according to the leveral forts of Men 
that we are related to, with whom wemuft feek it ; i. There is a Peace of bofbm 
Friendfhip; and this we owe not to many of the Saints themfelves : For of bofbm 
Friends we muft have but few. 2. There is a Peace of Adtual Communion in the 
WorJhipof God, as Members of the fame particular Church: Thus we owe not 
to every Chriflian ; though fincere in the main.. 5. There is a Peace which is a- 
mong the Members of all particular Political Churches in the World, as related to 
each other, and obliged to hold Communion as far as is neceffary for the Conmion 
Good. 4. There is a Peace which is common to aJl profeffed Chriftians, Mem- 
bers of the Univerfal Church, though perhaps of no particular Political Church. 
5. There is a Peace to be kept with fbber Heathens or Infidels. 6. And there is 
a Peace to be kept with Enemies, both of us and the Gofpel, as far as we can. 

I fhall give you my Thoughts about the prefent Queftion, in thefe following 
Propolitions : Premifing that i. It is not the Peace of bofom Friendlhip that the 
Queftion intendeth ; and Ergo, we need not ffand on that. 2. Nor is it the Peace 
that is due to Enemies, or that is due to Infidels and thofe without ; but it is the 
other forts due to the feveral forts of Chriftians. 

Prep. J, 

i82 The LI F E of the L i b. I. 

Prop. I. We may not have that Peace which u proper to Chri[Hami much hS that 
tvhich js f roper to Chrifiians in Church-Order, with any that deny the Ejjentiah ofChrifit- 
anity. , 

Prop, 2. As for thofe Anabaptifts that in zeal for their Opinion do endeavour the Ex- 
tirpation of the Mmifiry, or of thofe of thefn that are aguinii thar Opinions, or any otbtr 
TV ay do attempt that -which ■would tend to the ruine or great damage of the Church, ivemay 
not have that Peace and Communion with them m with inoffenfive Rrcthrent hut mujf ad- 
monijh them as fcandalom and grop Sinners, and avoid them , tf after due admonition the^ 
deftjl not^ and repent not. 

Prop. 3 . Thofe that deny the Divine Infiitution , or prefent ExiHence of Minifiry, er 
TVor(hip and Ordinances, or governed Churches, are uncapable of being Members of any true 
Political Church, and Ergo, we cannot have Juch Church-Communion with them ; and he- 
caufe their Doilrine is of heinom Con/e^aence, as tending to the defiruQion of all Church- 
Order, Worflnp and Commttmon, we mu(l rejecl them, tf they Jliall teach it after due Admo- 

Prop. 4. As for them that think it unlaivful to have Communion with us , unle^ we 
will renounce our Infant Baptijm, and he rcbaptized, vie cannot have Communion wtth them, 
in that Cafe, though we would ; hecaufe they rcfufeit with its. 

Prop. y. We cannot lawfully difown the Truth of God, nor own their Errours for 
Communion with them ; nor may we yield for any fetch Ends to be rebaptizcd. 

Prop. 6. We may not lawfully be Members of a Church of Anabaptifts , feparated on 
that Account from others, (^nor of a7iy other unlawfully feparated Church,') nor ordinarily 
Communicate with them in their way of Separation, though we might be admitted to it 
without any other difowning the Truth or owning their Mifiakes. Except it were in a cafe 
of Necejfety, ( as if fucb a Church were removed among Infidels or grefe Htreticks ) where 
"ive could have no better Communion in worfeiippmg God, 

Prop. 7. If any one that Erreth but in the bare Point of Infant JBaptifm, or other Er- 
rours that feibvert not the Chrifiian Faith, (t)all yet take it to be his duty to propagate thofe 
Errours, it will be the duty of every Orthodox Minijier, when he hath a Call and findtth 
it NeceJJary, to defend the Truth of fuch Errours, and to endeavour the efeabliptng of the 
Minds of the People, and not to let them go on without Controll or ContradtlHon, lejt he 
be guilty of betraying the Truth and Peace of the Church, and the Souls of the People who 
are ufetally forelj endangered hereby : The like mufi be done by Private Chrifiians private!/, 
or according to their Places and Capacities. 

So much for the Negative ; The Affirmatives follow. 

Prop. I. The Common Love which is due to all Men, and the Common Peace which 
mufi be endeavoured with all, must be held or endeavoured as to them that deriy the Efjen- 
tials of Chrifiianity. But, as is before faid, this is not it that the Quefiion doth in- 

Prop. 2. It is our Duty to do the befi we can to reclaim any Erroneous or Ungodly Ter- 
fon from his Errour or Iwpiety, that fo they may he capable of that further Love and Peace 
a7id Communion with vs, which in their prefent fiatt they are uncapable of. 

Prop. 3. Thofe that believe not feme Points that are ncceffary to the Confiitution or 
Communion of Political Churches, if yet they believe in Chrifi j and worflnp God fo far at 
they know his Will, and live uprightly, may he true Chrifiians , and fo to be efieemed, 
even when they make themfelves uncapable of being Members of any Political 

Prop. 4. Some Anabaptifis and others that make themfelves uncapable of being Members 
of the fame particular Churches with us, or of local Communion in God's WorJJjip, mayydt 
be acknowledged to be Chrifiian Societies, or truly particular Political Churches , though in 
■ tantum corrupt, and fenfuUy feparated. I mean this of all thofe that differ not from tss tn 
any Article of our Creed or Fundamental of Chrifiian Religion, nor yet in any Fundamen- 
tal of Church Policy: As e. g. thofe that only re- baptize and deny Infant Baptifm, or 
alfe held fomc of the le(S dangerous Points of Antinsmianifm or^elagtanijmh but withal 
hold all the I'lmdamentals neccjjary to Salvation, and Church PoRcy or Communion. 

Prop. <) . If any Perfon difelaim his Infant Baptifm, and be Re-baptized, and then having • 
fo fatisfied his Con(cicnce, Jliall continue his Communion yiith the Church where he was a 
Member, and not feparate from them, and Jliall profef his rpillingnefe to embrace the Truth -J 
as Joon as he can difeern the Evidence of it, and Jhall live piaceably and inoffenfively under 
the Over fight of the Church-Guides, we may not Exclude fuch a one from our Communion, 
but mull continue him a Member of that particular Churchy and live with him in that love 
0nd peace as is due to fuch. < -. 

Prop. 6, 

P A R T II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 183 

Prop. 6. Iffttch an ene fltould aljo mi(iakt it to be bis Duty, fubUcklyto enter his DiJJent 
to the DoBrine of Infant Baftifm, and fo to aojuiefce, and live quietly under the cver/ight 
of the Miniftry , and in the Communion of that Church, be ought not to he re- 

Prop. 7. It is our Duty to invite thofe called Anahaptifis now among us, to loving 
familiar Conferences ; of furfofe i. To narrow our Vtjfercnces as far as is ffjfble, by a true 
fiating of them, that they feem not greater than they are : 2. And to endeavour, if toffibk 
yet to come nearer, by reSlifysng ofMifiakes : 3. And to confult how to improz'e the Prin- 
ciples that we are aU agreed in, to the Common Good, and to manage our remaining Diffe- 
rences in the mofi peaceable manner, and to the leafi dtflurhance or hurt of tht 

Here come in two more Queftions to be refolved : i.How Jhouldfucb an Attempt be 
managed? 2. What hope is there of SucceJ!? 

For the firft, I ftall briefly give in my Thoughts in fome Direftions. 

DireB. I. Let the Attempt be made with none that deny the Principles of Chri- 
ilianity or Ghurch-Communion ; but with thofe only that Err j and have fiich 
Errours as are tolerable. 

2. Let only the moft Sober and Judicious be the Agents in this Attempt, who 
do manifeft fome efteem for the Honour of God and the Common Good, and a 
willingnels to prefer thefe before any private Interefts of their own or any o- 

5. Let prudent hands draw up all thole Points wherein we are agreed ( leaving 
the Difference no wider than it is ), and let thefe be all fubfcribed to by each 

4. Let all thefe Points wherein we are agreed be publifhed in our feveral Con- 
gregations, that the People may not, by our difagreement in other things, be dag- 
gered in thefe, nor make that their pretence for any ungodly Principles or Prafti- 
ces ; but may be the more alhamed of them, when they fee they are condemned 
by us all. 

f. Let us next agree to make thefe Common Truths the common and ordinary 
Matter of our Preaching, and endeavour with our firft andgreateft diligence to pro- 
mote them, and to perfwade all our hearers to do the like. 

6. Let each Party openly dilbwnall thofe that rejed the great and commonTruths, 
though they may agree with us in thofe Particulars wherein we oppofe each other. 
And if they be intolerable Errours which they Err in, let us renounce their Com- 

7. Lee us next draw up the State of our Difference as clearly , and in as narroW 
room as is poflible. 

8. Let us agree upon fome neceffary Rules for the moft harmlefs managing of 
thefe Differences ; that the Common Truths and the Souls of Men may be as little 
hazarded by them as may be, and the known and neceffary Duties of Chriftian 
Love and Communion, as little hindered. 

E. g. The moderate Anabaptifts that take not their Opinions to be a fufficient 
ground for Separation from our Churches, may agree on fuch Terms as thefe fol- 

1. Let there be no withdrawing from the Miniftry and Church of that Place up- 
on the meer ground of Baptifm. If the Minifter be an Anabaptift,let not us with° 
draw from him on that ground, and if he be a Px'dobaptift, let not them withdraw 
from us. 

2. If the Paftor be for or againft Infant Baptifm, and think he have a Call to 
deliver his Judgment, let not the private Member think he is ftiil bound to con- 
tradiA him, or withdraw ; but having once publickly entered his diffent to that 
Dodrine, and protefted that his Prefence and Patience doth not fignifie an Own- 
ing of it ( if his Confcience urge him to go (o far), let him afterward acquiefce 
and walk refpedfully, lovingly and obediently to the Faftors in all lawful 

;. Thofe that are fo moderate as to take Infants for Church Members, though 
not to be Baptized, let them openly make profeffion of it. 

4. Thofe that do not take them for Members, if yet they have any more hope: 
of them than of Heathen Children, or think it a Duty in any fort to dedicate them 
to God, let them bring them to the Congregation, and there in general profefs 
their hopes and the grounds of them, and either dedicate them to God, or pro- 
fefs their willingnels to do it to the utmoft of their Intereft and Capacity, and de- 
fire God to accept them and blefs them. 

i. Lee 

184. T^he LIFE of the Lib. I, 

r. Let thole that are for Infant Baptifm profefs that a Perfonal Faith and Re- 
pent.ince is of Necefltty to the Salvation of all that live to years of Difcretion, and 
Baptifm without it will not ferve the turn. 

6, Let all that are Baptized in Infancy, publickly own and renew that Covenant 
when they come to years of Difcretion, before they are admitted to the Lord's 

Thus far in Confiftency with the Principles of the Moderate, we may yield to 
each other,and fo hold Communion in the fame Congregations : and the pradice 
of this doth belong moft to the People. 

But for thofe that joyn Separation to Anabaptifm, yet if they be any thing mo- 
derate ( though they go much further from us than the reft ) we may agree on 
thefe following Terms with them, to manage our Differences to the leaft wrong to 
the Church and Common Truths. 

R. I . Let us promiie to go no further from each others Communion, than after 
ferious Confideration, our Confciences fhall tell us it is our Duty to do. 

2. Let us declare that though one part be confident that Infant Baptifm is a Duty, 
and the other that it is a Sin, yet we judge that they that Err here, while they fin- 
cerely defire to know the Truth, may be (aved, notwithftanding that Errour, 
( What it will prove to the Children, if the Parent accept nor the Covenant for 
them, and devote them not to God, will be a hard difpute) which I Ihall not now 
prefume to meddle in). 

3. Let it be declared that we take each other for Chriftians, and Churches of 

4. Let it be declared that we take the rightly called Miniftry of each Church for 
true Minifters. 

5", If any of each others Flock fhall reproach or difown their Minifters and the 
Churches they are of,meerly becaufe of their Judgment about Infont Baptifm,letthe 
contrary part, having opportunity, reprove them ftarply,and help to humble them, 
and bring them to the Confeflion of their Sin, and to Reformation; thatfo proud, 
unruly, ungodly People may not take ftelter under either Party by the means of any 
fa(5J:ioufnefs or partiality of ours. 

6. Let us never intrude into each others Charge without the Paftors Con- 

7. Let us agree that we will not preach for or againft Infant Baptifm, when our 
Confciences tell us that the Peoples ignorance of greater Truths, or their Ungod- 
linefs doth require us to deal with them on more weighty Points. 

8. Let us preach as feldom for or againft Infant Baptifm, as Confcience will per- 
mit J and particularly let that which herein wc account the Truth, have but its due 
proportion of Our Time, compared with the multitude and gieatnels of other 

9. Let thefe Points alio have but an anfwerable proportion of our Zeal, that we 
make not People believe that they are greater Matters than they are. 

10. Let us not endeavour to reproach one another when we think we are 
bound to fpeak for our Opinions ; that we make not each other uncapable of do- 
ing the People good. 

2. As to the fecond Queftion, What hope of SucceJS ? I Ihall not prefume to de- 
termine it : Let every Man conjefture as he feethCaufe ; for my own part , I am 
not quite out of hope,offome mealureof Succelswithfbme few particular Perlbnsj 
but my hopes are very low as to the generality. 

ObjeA. I. It ti not our Duty to attempt a Work where there is no hope ofSuccef. 

Anjw. The Cafe is not (b defperate as to SKCuIe us from the Duty : A poflibility 
with the leaft probability may ferve to oblige us. 

Objed. 2. What .' Jhall we cotifint to the Exclufion of Infants fiom their Churches ? 

Afij'v. No J but confent to improve the common Truths, and perform our Du- 
ties even to (uch as differ from us in this. 

Objed:. ^. There it not one of an hundred of them that will confent to thefe Terms. 

Anjiv. If they will not, who can help it ? when we have tried them,we have done 
Our Duty, and left them without Excufe. 

Objeft. 4. Shall wc confefi a Schifmatical Church for a true Church ? 

AnJw. Every Schifm nuUeth not the Church or Miniftry that is guilty of it : ells 
moft ot the Churches in the World were nulled : If they rejeft the Eflentials of a 
Church they are none. 

- ' ' Obie<a. s. 

P A K T II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 185 

Obje<ft. y. Baptifm u EjJ'ential to a Church : The Jfofile, Heb. 6. i. futteih it amovg 
the Principles. 

Av[w. I. It is only the thing fignified by Baptifm that is Eflentia!. 2. The A- 
poftle c.ills it a Vrinctpk, becaufe it is one of the firft things taught j but not becaufe 
it is Effential to a Church. 3. The Anabaptifts have Baptifm in theif Churches, 
though not of Infants. 

Objed. 6. Tu make a League with Schfmatich, is to he guiUy of their Schifm. 
Anpv. True, If by that League you own, approve, or confent to their Schifm ; 
But not by agreeing with them to perform Common Duties. 

Objeft. 7. J bey are undermining the Church and Minijiry, and Jliall we feek fence with 

Anfw. I- Thofe that we fpeak of are not fuch. 2. If they were, yet it is our 
Duty to hinder them, by agreeing to moderate Ways, and Common Duties. 

ObjecS. 8. They are guilty of their Infants Damnation , as much as in them lyetb , by 
vot believing their part m the Covenant, nor dedicating them to God. 

Anfw. They virtually confent for their InfantSj in that they would adually do it, 
if they knew the Promife. 

Objeft. 9. They are under God's vifible DiJ^leafure. Ergo, e^c, 
Anfw. So far as God difowneth them, wemuft do fo, but no further. 
Obje(S. 10. IVe'JhaU be reproached as complying 7vith them. 
Anjw. Slanderous Tongues cannot excufe us from plain Duties. 
Object- 1 1. Thofe whom we pwuld Excommunicate we may not have Communion with : 
But the Anabaptffis Jliould be Excommunicated j Ergo, &c. 

Anfw. I deny the Minor taken of fuch Anabaptiftsas we have now in queftion. 
ObjeA. 12. It a a fcandalous Sin tmrepented of 

Anjw. I. So is many a greater Errour, which Men muft not be Excommunica- 
ted for. 2. It is virtually repented of j (eeing if they knew the Evil of it, they 
would repent. 

Objed. I J. 2o« would have a loofer Difcipline than the Prelates or Fapifis : for they 
woulUnut Communicate with Anahaptifis. 

Anjw. I. I only avoid dividing rigour and cruelty. 2. They have Multitudes in 
their Communion that know not what Baptifm is, nor to what ufe, nor wlioChrift 
is, whether God or Man ? nor many other Fundamentals. 'Ergo, Their Difcipline 
is far looler than I defire ; but too partial alfo. 

The Anabaptifts objeft j We are bound to propagate the Truth, and if yeti will have 
Communion with tfs, you mujl he baptized. 

Anfw. I, You are bound to propagate firft the greateft Truths, that Salvation Iy» 
eth on," and to do nothing that may hinder this , by promoting your own Opini- 

2. If you rejed Communion with all but Anabaptins,you rejed all the Church 
through moft Ages of the World. And no Church no Chrift : and no Chrift no 
Chriltians, nor any Salvation. 

5. Blame us not, if we be not eafily brought to your Opinion , if we had but 
thefe Reafons. 

1. You confefs ( no thanks to you ) that Infants were once Church- Members 
by God's appointment : and have never yet proved that he caft them out again. 
And we muft have good proof of that before we can be latisfied with your 

2. We cannot be hafty to believe an Evil; and we know that it is a fad Penal E- 
vii for Infants to be put out of the Church : And Ergo we will have proof of it, be- 
fore we believe it. 

5. It muft be no eafie matter with us to believe, that the Head and Shepherd 
of the Church hath defailohad a Church of a falfe Conftitution, as to the very 
Materials, and Enterance, from the beginning to this day, except a few within this 
twenty years that troubled it in a Corner of the World ; and that now in the end ^ 
of the World, we muft exped a right Conftitution , as if Chrift had flept, or re- * 
garded not his Church, or been the Head of a Body which he difowned : We can- 
not haftily believe liich thing?. I fay again. No Church, no Chrift j for No Body, 
no Head : And if no Chrift then, there is no. Chrift now. Take heed therefore 
how you un-Church, or dilbwn the whole Church of Chrift in the very frame, for 
fo many Ages. 

Bb 'A» 

lS6 '^he L I F E of the L i b. J. 

An Offer of Chrifiian fraternal Commumon to the Brethren that, 
are againji , or doubtful about , Baptix.ing Infants of ;Be= 

IT is our exceeding joy that we have all one God, one Saviour, one Spirit, ohe 
Faith, and one Baptilinal Covenant, one Rule of Faith and Life, ons End and 
flope, and are Members of one Catholick Church, and agree about God's Wor- 
fhip in the nioft and greateft parts: And it is our Grief, and the Matter of our 
great Humiliation, that we can come no nearer, and that by the Remnants of our 
Differences, the Wicked are fo hardened, the Weak offended, our Charity hin- 
dered, our holy Communion and mutual Edification difturbed, cUr Minds difcom- 
pofed, and the Gofpel, the Catholick Church, and our Saviour dilhonoured. La- 
menting this with the reft of our Unhappineis while we are in the Flefti, and ab- 
fent from the Lord the Centre of Perfed Unity and Concord, and knowing it to 
be our Duty to walk by the fame Rule,and mind the fame things ib far as we have 
attained, and being taught of God to love' one another, and obferving hoyi' fre- 
quently and urgently Brotherly Love, and Forbearance, and the Unity and Con- 
cord of Chriftians, is preft in the holy Scriptures, and Uncharitablenefs and Di- 
vifions condemned, that as far as may be, we may promote our Common Ends 
of Chrillianity, and with one Mind and Mouth may glorifie God, We whole 
Names are under- written do make this ibllowing Offer of Communion. 

1. To all thofe that joyn with us in the foregoing Profedion of the Chrifiian 
Faith, and have been Baptized fince their Infant-Baptifm, as thinking it unlawful 
or inlufficient, we offer free Communion in our particular Churches, with leave 
to Enter your diffent fiom our hifdnt-Baptifin into the Church Regiller or Re- 
cords, fo be it you will thence-forth walk in that Love and Holinefs, and that O- 
bedience to the faithful Overfeers of the Flock, and that Concord 'and Brotherly 
Communion with the Church , as is required in the holy Scriptures ( according 
to your power j, and will refill Uncharitablenefs, Difcord and Divifions, and joyn 
with us in our Common Woi k for the Common Ends. 

2. To all thofe that joyn with us in the foregoing Profeflion of Faith , though 
they have been baptized lince their Infant-Baptifii , or think that Baptiliu unlaw- 
ful, and dare not hold Local Communion with us in our particular Churches, we 
yet offer, that we may at that diftance ^hat our Infirmities have let us, maintain 
unfeigned Brotherly Love, and acknowledge our (everal Churches for Chriftian 
Congregations, and hold a Correfpondcncy by Delegates or other convenient 
Means, for the ftrengthening of each other 5 and obferve the Rules expreft in the 
folbwing Offer. 

2. To all thofe that joyn with us in the foregoing Profeffion of Chrillianity , 
and yet, through their diffent from our Baptizing the Infants of Believers, dare 
not hold Local Communion with us, nor yet acknowledge our Churches to be 
true Inftituted Particular Churches, we yet offer , i. That we may acknowledge 
each other for Members of Chrift , ( fuppofing the forefiid Profeffion of Chri- 
ftianity to be Iblemnly and credibly made ) and Members of the Church Univer- 
lal. 2. And that we may converle in the World together in a faithful Oblervaoce 
of thefe following Rules. 

1. That yve addiA our felves heartily to the promoting and exercifing of Bro- 
therly Love towards one another, and take heed of all things contrary thereto in 
Word and Deed. 

2. That we nddift oui (elves to preferve the Unity of the Church Catholick, 
. and Concord of true Chriftians, and the Common Intereft of the Godly, and to 

farther the Caufe of Chrift in the World, and take heed of (6 managing our dif 
fcrent Opinions as may be a hinderance to thele. 

3. That wc ftudy and addid our felves to promote the CDnverfion of ignorant 
ungodly People, and the building up of the Weak, and that we take great heed, 
left in the managing of our different Opinions, or oppofingone another,wefliould 
hinder theio Works, hardening the Wicked, and offending the Weak. 


Part II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. 187 

4. That we always in our elkem and indultry prefer the greater common 
Truths that we arc all agreed in, before the lelTer Points that we differ in : And 
that we take heed of ib managing our Differences, publickly or privately, as may 
tend to hinder the Reception or Succefs of thofe greater common Truths in which 
we are agreed. 

J. That we publiHi our Agreements, and profefs our Chriftian Love, and Re- 
fblutions for l^eace in our (everal Congregations, and profels thsre our joync dif-. 
owning and detefVation of all Errours, Herefies, and Ungodlinefs, contrary to the 
Profeflion wherein we are agreed. 

6. That we will not preach publickly for our differing Opinions in each, others 
Congregations without the Pallor's conlenr, nor privately to (peak for them , as is 
like to tend to the hinderance of God's greater Work in that Place , nor hold any 
private Affemblies in one anothers Parishes, which fiiall be more to the diftracSing 
of each others Societies, than for common Chriftian Edification. 

7. That in our Preaching and Conference, we will allow the greater and com- 
mon Truths fuch a proportion of our Time and Zeal and Speech, as the Nature, 
Neceflity, and Number doth require, and not lay out inordinately fuch an undue 
proportion of Zeal and Time and Speech for our different Opinions, as fhall be in- 
jurious to thofe Truths. . • 

8. That we will avoid in Publick and Private aJl unbrotherly, fcornful , re- 
proachful Speeches of each other j efpecially before ungodly People : And that we 
will not to them diflionour one anothers Miniftry, foas may hinder their profiting 
by it, but will rebuke all fiich ungodly Perfonsthat we hear reproaching the Mini- 
Ifers or Brethren of either part. 

9. That we will not receive into any of our Churches, any Scandalous Perfbna 
that fly from the Difcipline of other Churches , arid pretend a Change of Opinion 
to cloak their Scandals, but will impartially hear what Accufations fliall be lent in 
againft them, and proceed accordingly. 

10. That we will upon any Defamations, or Accufations, or Rumours of Inju- 
ry againft one another, or of violating our Profeflion by contrary Dodrine, or 
breaking this Agreement, be refponfible to each other as Brethren , and will for- 
bear divulging private or uncertain Faults, or cenfuring or reproaching one another, 
till we have either conferred together to give and receive Satisfadlion, and duly ad- 
monifhed each other, or tendered fiich Conferences and Admonitions fcafonably, 
till we fee they are wilfully rejeded^ 


Richard Baxter Paftor of theCIiurCh at KiJer' 


&c. Sec. &c. 

WE whofe Names are Suhfcribed, differiting from Infant- Baptifm, heartily ac' 
cept this Offered Agreement, as followeth : 

In the firft Rank. 

In the fecond Rank. 

In the third Rank. 

Optatus Adv. Farm. I. 3. p. yj. 

EU M <jui ad Deum fe converfum ejfe frofejjtis est, Vagavum 'vocas ? Vaganum 
'vacas cum ^ui Deum Tatrem fer [ilium ejtis ante eram rogavei-it ? Quicunque entm 
irediderit, in nomine Vatris, Filii & Spiritia San£li, credidit : Et tu eum Paganum 1/0- 
cos peji confejfionem Fidei. Si aliejuid Chrifiianut ( <juod abfit ) unufqutfujue delm^uerit^ 
peccater dici poteii : Tagantis iterum ejjc non potejt. Sed ha:c omnia vultu nuUius ejje mo- 
rnenti. At fi tibi ipfi confenferit <juem feducts j unus confenfm, & manui tux porreBio 
& pauca Verba, jam tibi Chrijtianum faciunt de Chrtfiiano : Et tile vobit vtdebitur Chr'h 
ftmnas, qui quod vultis feccrit, non quern pdes adduxent. 

B b 2 Lib. 

i88 ^^^ LIFE of the L i b. I. 

Lib. C. p. 86. Dinique -vos cjuibaftifma t^uafi Itbtnter duplicare contenditis, fi datis al- 

teruTK bapt'ifma, date alteram fidem ; Jt datis alttram Fidem, d^ alterum Chrifium : $i 

datis altcrhiim Chrifium date alterum Deum. Dius Vnus eB : De Um Deo Unas efi 

Ckrifttts : Qai rchaptiz,atur jam Chriji'ranus fuerat : Quomodo did ptest tterum Chri- 

fi iamu ? . 

Lib. 4. p. 76. Si tu non vis ejje Frater, ego effe incipio Impins, ft de vomiw ifio 
. Vid. Lib. r. Fol. i. . . 

§ 46. Bsfoffc this I hadoccafion to make a more particular tryalfor Union with 
the Independent Brethren. 1 knew Mr. Vhd. J^ehad very great power with them, 
and he being in the Country, I dafired him to give me in Writing all thofe things 
whith of njceflity mart b;; granted them by the Presbyterians, in order to Concord 
and Conjunftion in the fame Affociations and Communion : He referred me to 
the Debates in the* AlTenibly at IVeJlminfier which are in print : I urged him to 
give them me under his Hand, which at that time he did not, but the next Yefr 
1 prevailed with him, and be wrote down the(e two as fufficient Conceflions to 
our defired End: (^The hrfi: was, that they might have Liberty to take Church- 
Members out of other Parilhes. And the lecond, that they might have all Church 
Power within themlelves, in their fcveral Congregations.] I asked him, if I ac- 
commodated thenrj in boththsfe, whether really they would unite with us as afore- 
faid. And he told me that they would : Whereupon I drew up this Form of 
Agreement following^ vAVvzh I thought granted them both thele : But fd as that 
they fhoiild be Members of conftant AlVociations, and meet with us in our Sy- 
nods J and that they Ihould do this not as fubjeft to the Government of thofe Sy- 
nods, but as ufing them for Concord between the Churches, and fo take their Re- 
Iblutions not as Laws, but as Agreements : And that before they took any ^em- 
ber out of any other Parilh, it fhould be debated in fuch Aflemblies or Synods, 
and there it fiiould be tryed whether the Perlbn had fufficient Caufe to withdraw 
his Communion from the Parilh of which he was a Member: And if the Caufe 
were jiift he might be allowed ; but if the Caufe were heretical or truly_ Schifma- 
tical they Ihould hear what the Synod could fay againft it : and if they judg'd the 
Error tolierahle they would tollerate it, if their Realbns could not fatisfie; if they 
judged it intolkrable, the worfe could be but our difowning the Faft, and again re- 
ceding from their Communion. He told me that it would caft a Slurr on them to 
ba as it were excommunicated by us, that were the greater Number. I told him, 
I.' That it was not likely that Men who fo muchdefired their Communion, would 
excommunicrate theih for the very fame things, which we knew they held before 
we defired it. 2. That whether they affociated with us or not, we could publifii 
and praccice Non-communion with them on the fame Caufes : And it was likelier 
to be avoided if they would be prefent with us, and plead their own Caufe. 
3. That a Hated Alienation or Divifion fhould not be kept up, for fear of a pofE- 
ble removal again of fbme one Perfon^ 

• Next he told me that the Point of Ordination was not yet acconmiodated, which . 
he comprifed under [ Church-Power ]. 1 offered him that if any of their Pa- 
llors died or removed, if the fucceeding Paftor were ordained either by any re- 
maining Pafc^r cf that Church, or by any PaRors of other Churches, of tiieir 
own Party or the other, we wouldJiold Communion with them as Pallors. He 
denied to yield to this, and required, that if neither any Paflor of their own 
Church, or any other ordained them they might be held as Paflors. I told him, 
I. He knew that was againlt the Judgment of thole that they were to agree with. 
1. That Mr. 'Norton jmd others of their own way^onfeli, that it is lawful for Pa- 
ifors of another Church toliy on Hands in their Ordination; and why fliould he 
not yield for Peace in a Point, which they confefTed lawful ; as long as- they are 
not obliged rhei eby to acknowledge any SithjeFricn to any other Church, but might 
receive it on tJiar own Grounds. 3. Or if they would not yield to this at all, we 
r \-e V.nmmnn]on with them as ChrijHans, without acknowledging them 

.^. 1....:.!'. Bi^c p; nn this he receded., and came no nearer to any Agreement 

with H9. 

In this Internal I wrote to him the following Letter. 

P A R T II. Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter. i8^ 

Reverend Sir, 

I Have adventured, according to my Promifd, to fend youmy Thoughts of the 
ready way of Agreement, between the Honeit and Moderate of the Presby- 
terian, Congregational, yea, and Epifcopal way. I purpolely avoid the wording 
of a Form of Agreement, it being none of my Task, and fuch an Anticipation 
may do hurt j and therefore I /hall give you only the Materials unpolilJied. 

' Prop, I. About the Matter oi particular. Churches, as you exprels no Dilagree- 
ment, (b i find none in the printed Debates j and th^efore take it for«granced 
that we are at one : That cohahitivg Chri/ians are the fit matter of fuch Churches • 
or vijible Belie'vers, "vifihle Saints, froftjfmg Believers and Saints, ^c. which come all 
to one. As to the Execution there will be a Difference even among Congregati- 
onal Men, or Presbyterians themfelves; according to their feveral Tempers, 
fbme more Charitable, Ibme more Cenfbrious, Ibme more Stridt, ancj (bme more 

' With' the Anabaptifls we are agreed of the Matter as to the Membra ptrfeBa^ 
( except with them that make re-baptifing effential ) but not as to Infants, who 
are Membra imperjeBa. 

' 2. We are agreed that every Chriftian (where fuch a Benefit may be had) 
fliould be or leek to be a Member of fbme particular Church, and know his own 
Overfeers, and every overleer fhould endeavour to know all his Flock. 

' 3. We are. agreed that as feme Difcovery ofConfent on both Parts ( thzTafiors 
and Feeple ) is neceffary to the being of the Members of a political particular 
Church : So that the moB exprejS Declaration of that Conient, is the moft plain 
and fatisfadory Dealing, ^nd mod: obliging, and likeft to attain the Ends j and 
therefore cateris paribus, where it may be had, is the beft. 

'4. We are agreed that "all fit means (hould be ufed, even in the Determination 
of Circumftances, to preferve the Union and Peace of Chriflians and Churches, 
and that ordinarily the bounding of Churches as to Habitation, is a meet' means 
to thefe End?, and that ordinarily Parilhes are fit Bounds : Or at leaft we are 
agreed that thefe fhai'i be ordinarily taken for the Bounds to avoid Inconvenient 
cies J not including all in the Parifhes, but confineing Churches to thole Circu- 
its ordinarily. Yet we agree that this ordinary Rule harh its Exceptions ; as for 
Example, r. If ParilhtsbefQ fpacious that all the People are not Co-habitants 
capable of the Ends cf Communion. 2. If the Parifh be fb populous (of fit 
Perfons; as that there are more than are fit for a Particular Church. 3. If the 
Parilh be lb fmall or bad, that there are not enough to be Materials of a Church, 
it may be joined by conient to the next. 4. If t;here be no Pallor, or none fit 
to be owfted. y. If any Ordinance be ftatedly wanting which may be had elle- 
where, and is needful to the Perlon's Edification, and if he cannot procure it in 
the Church where he is, and yet cannot remm'e his Habitation to another, with- 
out more lols to himlelf and to the Chriftian Interefl,then it is like to receive by his 
joining to another without Removal. 6. If he cannot have perlbnal Communi- 
on with them without his own adual Sin, and yet cannot remove his Dwelling 
but 4is aforefaid. 7. If Difference in Ibme fmall Opinion ill managed Ihall make 
him burdenfom to the Church where he is, who ■ yet may live peaceably with a 
Neighbour-Church of his Opinion and cannot remove out as aforelaid. 8. To 
comprehend all in this General, we are agreed that no Man that is a Member of 
another Parilh, fhould be received into our Churches, where it can be proved that 
it is to the Wrong of the common Good or Chriftian Intereft, efpecially wheii he is a 
Member of another Church as well as another Vartjl]. The Sum is, Farijlies fhall be 
the ordinary bounds, but in vecejj'ary Cajes and no other, you ihall except and be 
free from them. • 

' 5-. Whereas the Presbyterians fay, that the Ecdefia prima payticularitpoliticaj may 
confift of one only Congregation; and the Congregational lay, \tmtift confiif of 
one only Congregation : The licet fliall yield to the opportat, and it will be agreed 
that de faiio, our particular political Churches ihall confilt but of one Congrega- 
tion ordinarily ; allowing the Liberty either of Chappels or private Meetings for 
thofe of the Church, that by reafon of Age, Weaknels, or other Impediments 
cannot alway come lb far asthe common Meeting of the Church.Ancfconlequently 
we fhall agiee that the Number of a particular Church cKceed not fo many as are 


I5)0 The LIFE of the Lib.!. 

* ordinarily capable of perfonal local Communion in God's Worfhip, which is a 

* chief end of their Ccnjunclion. 

* 6. We are agreed thatthele particular political Churches fhould confifl: of two 
' parts, Officers and their Flock, the ruling part and the ruled part j and all the 
' great Controverfies that have troubled us about the Peoples Power of Govern- 
' ment, ftiall be thus agreed j confefs but this [that Paftors are the Overfcers, Teach- 
' ers. Guides, or Rulers of their Flocks, and are over the People in the Lord, and 
' that the People ard bound to obey thole that rule over them, that watch for their 
' Souls 3 and let all the red be filenced. 

*7. We are agreed that it is meet that in every particular Church there be ufual 

* Meetings of the Officers and Delegates (if the Church fee caa(e) or other perloris 
' that fiiall defire to be prfllent for the hearing and trying caufes, before they are 
' brought to the open Aflembly. And therefore where they can be had, there (hould 
' be many Officers in a Church. 

' 8 Whereas there be three Opinions about affifting Elders : j. That they 
' fhould be Men of the /awe Office w'xth the Paitors, Ordained and Authorized to 

* Admimjler Sacraments, and Freach when it is neceffary, though they may divide 

* their Work in the Execution. i. That they fhould be a dtftmB Office itnordained, 
*and not authorized to Preach or Adminifter Sacraments. 3. That they fiiould be 
' unordained and noOfficers, but the meer Trufiees oi the People, deputed by them to 
' do that only which private Members may do, let this Controverfie be wholly laid 

* afide , and all left to their liberty in this matter. 

' p. Thefe particular Churches Ihall have power to govern within themfelves 
' ( being once ConlUtuted ) Excommunication it felf not excepted. Only their 

* Conftitution and Ordination of their TaHors muft be agreed oft zs follow- 

' 10. It is the Judgment of the Treshyterians that Ordination by Overfeers or Ta- 

* ftors is of Neceflity to the Being of an Over[e€r or Paftor, where it may be had ; 

* and that /owe Ruling Officer is an EJJential part of a Political Church ( though not 
' of a. meer Community ) ; and that Impvjition of Hands is a fit Ceremony, and to 
' be uled as of Divine Appointment, though not EJJential to Ordination. It is the 

* Judgment of the Congregatiofial th^t Ordination by fuch Teaching Elders is lawful, if 
' not of necefKry ; and that Impofition of Hands is lawful .- In all this therefore let 
' the licet ffoop to the oportet. Agree that you will not de faclo effablilh any Pa- 

* ftor or Teacher over a particular Church "without Ordination by teaching Elders^ 
' leaving the point of neceffity undetermined, ( except in cafe of necelffiy when fuch 

* Ordination cannot be had ). And alfo that you will fubmit to Impofition of 

* Hands, as a thing lawful : Only for thole that think Impofition to be unlawful, 

* agreeing in other things, an Ordination without Impofition ( as an extraordinary 

* Indulgence to a tender Connlcience ) may be tollerated. 

'11. As a local perfonal Communion of individual Chriftians is neceflary in particu- 

* lar Churches to a Concatination, or Union and Communion of thefe Churchs, by 
' Officers, Delegates, as the Joints and Ligaments, is a great Duty and defirable 
' Mercy, which I hope we are all agreed to value, leek and maintain. 

'^ 12. For this end it is agreed by us, that there Ihall be known times and places 
' of meeting agreed on, which all the Paftors fliall frequent as oft as they well can, 
' not forbiddijjg any of our People that are defirous to be with us. ^ 

' 15. None ihall be takao into thefe Aflbciations, but approved Men for Godli- 

* nefs and Ability, and that by confent of the alTociated Minifters, and none refu- 
*fed that are fit for our Communion. 

* * 14. The Works of thefe AlTemblies Ihall not be to make Laws, to theChurch- 

* es or any of their Brethren, to bind them ex authoritate Imperantts, as if they were 
' to excrcife a proper Legiflative Power : Nor yet by Agreement to determine of any 
' unnecefjary things, and make thole to be Duties which are not lo in them- 

* (elves; much lels to lay the Union of the Churches on fu^h unneceffary* 
' determinations; nor yet to exercifc any coercive Power by bodily Penalties or 

' Mulds, and leaft of all to bind Men to fin againft God :. But it (hail be to agree 

* upon the unanimous Dilcharge of our Duties which God hath inipoled to main- 

* tain Love and Concord, and remove all Offences and Strangenels and other Oc- 
' cafionsof Divifion ; to encourage and Ihengthen one another by Exhortation 
' and Prayer, to know who are caft out of the leveral Churches, that we may 
' concur in avoiding thole that are to be avoided ; to difcern to whom our Com- 
' munion fliould extend; to incrcafe the Reputation of God's Work in our Hands, 

* both to thofc within our Communion and thofc without it, by our Concord and 

* Unani- 

Fart IJ. Reverent/ Mr, Richard Bixxtcr. 191 

' Unanimity ; and fo to further the Succels of our Labours ; to help the younger 
' Miniltersby Ibme profitable Exercifes, and to help one another by cofninon A(!. 
' vice, efpecially in calcs of great difficulty. In general it fliall lie forUmonavA 
' Communion of Churches and Vafiors, and for the Benefits that cor.ie by both. 

* Being all agreed on this much, if any think that fuch Synods aie .nlfo for r.- 
' reel Government of particular ?ajtors and Churches, as a higher governing OrJcr or 
' Power, fuch fhall keep that Opinion to themlelves, and not impa(e it on other. 
' as ncccffary to our Agreement or Communion. Or if thole that hold Synods to 

* have a dired ruling Power over particular Palfors and Chuiches, and thole that 
' hold them to have only an agreeing Power in order tp Communion : Or any 
' of thefe Ihall think that they are bound in Confcience to declare their Piinciples 
' in af[ociating and artembling,they Jhall all have Liberty to declare and regilkr ir, 
' fo they will after go peaceably on in their AfTociadon; though wedjiiioraihcr 
' that the Principles were filenced. 

' I y. But as we are agreed that it bclongeth to thefe Conventions to difcern and 

* judge what particular Churches, Minijfers, or other Perfons are fit or unfit for 
' their common Communion when the Cognizance of it is hecefnuy, ;ind this ex- 

* tended Communion is a thing to he valued antl fought, (6 conlequently in order 
' toliich Ends, it is the Duty of particular Churches, Paftors, or other Perlbns to 
' render an account of their Dodrines and Praftices to thele Aflemblies, when up- 
' on confiderable Accufations, or- other jufl Caufe it is defired. 

' i6. If thele Ailemblies in order to Unity or the Progrels of Religion, Diall 

* agree in the Determination of fome Circumftance, not exprefly determined in 
' Scripture, fuppofing that the Determination is needful and agreeable to the gene- 
' ral Rules of Scripture, every Church and Partor ought to ftand to this Agree- 
' menc, for the fake of Concord, if they do not judge it to be a Sin that is agreed 

* to, though they fee not the neceffity. E. g. The Time and Place of their Con- 

* vention mult be agreed on by them, and the leffer part muff yield to the greater j 
' or elfe by dilTent, no time or place may ever be agreed on : So that if the greater 

* part agree on one Tranflation of the Bible", to be nled in all the alTociated Church- 

* es or on one Verfionof the Singing Pfalms, it will tend much to Edification^ and 
'agrees with the Scripture Commands of Unity. If therefofe that which they 
' agree on feem to a particular Church or Pali or no better than another Verfion, or 
' fcarcefo good j yet for Unity ( it it be not unlawful, or like to be more hurt- 

* fal than theDiverfity will be ) they ought to concifr. But ftill be it rcmembred 
' that the Churches Peace or Unity fhouid be laid by Agreements on nothing un- 
'necelfary. And therefore all agreements mayjiotbe leconded with an avoiding 
' all Diflenters. 

'17. Becaufe in the great Cafe [of taking Members from other Churches or 
' Parilhes ] the Exception from the general Rule (of Parifli Limits) cannot be 
' fo enumerated as pundually to refolve each Doubt that may occur, let us firft lay 

* down vvhat Rules or Exceptions we can agree on ; at leaft this general, that ws 

* will talje^no fuch Perlbn into our Churches,when it tendeth more to the hurt than 
' the furtherance of the common Good and ChriftianCaule : And therefore that we 
' will firft bring the particular cafe to the Affociation, or at leaft be there relpon- 

* fible concerning ir, as we are about other Church Affliirs. Accordingly when any 

* is adually offended, that another hath taken a Member out of his or another's 

* Church or Parifh,' let the Affociation hear the cale on both fides ; and if they ju- 
' Itifie the accufed there is an End ; if not, they are to convince him or them that 
' they go againft fome Rule of Scripture or Nature, e. g. againft the Honoarof 

* Chrilt, and good of the Churches or chriftian Caufe. Andif neither he nor 

* they cm be convinced nor brought to reform after fufficient Admonition," it mud 
' be confidsred whether the cale befmall and toUerable, or great and intollerable ; 
' If the former, we mu ft bear with it, yet profefling our Judgment againft it ; ifTti- 

* follerable, we muft proceed to diiclaim Communion with the guilty, and fo to 
' exclude them from the Affociation and common Communion, which yet muft not 
' be done but in heinous cales. And thus the particular cafes muft be tryed and con- 
' ckided as they fall out, for there is no laying down any Rule beforehand that will 
' iic all cales particularly. 

' 18. Thofe/r/? AjJ'octationsham^ compoled of fuch Paftors and Churches as arc 
' near and within a capacity of iuch Communion ( as aforefaid ) voluntarily 

* combined, (hould alio hold correfpondence with Neighbour Ajjociations, either by 

* Delegates in Ibme more general Meetings ( as in each County one ) j or at leaft, , 


1^2 ^hc LIFE of the Lib. I. 

' by Letters and MelTengers; which Communion is to be extended , even as f^r as 
' our Natural Capacity extendeth, and the Edification or Preiervation of the 
' Churches fhall require it. 

' And thus the Presbyteiians and Congregational Men are agreed, if they are 
' willing. If all will not, let thofe agree that have hearts , and not Itay for the 
' reft. 

' And here you fee a Satisfadion to your two Demands. My Queftion was, 
' What are the things that the Congregational mufi have, and ■will infiit on , the denial 

* whereof doth hinder our Unity and Agreement. Your Anlwer was in thefe words, 

* [ To manage all Church Affairs by the Elders and Brethren within ihemjck-es , and with- 

* out dependance, mleii for Advice, on any other Ecclefialtical Power. 2. To take in juch 

* at are qualified and freely offer themfelves to joyn, though of other Parijhes. Tetfo, as if 
' a particular Church m th^t Parijl}, which for the Subftance is gathered, according to the 

* Order ef the Gojfel, and the Party a Member thereof, an account is to be given to the 
' Church or the Elders of it, of the Caufe of his removal, that it may be, if poffible, with 
' confent.^ And this is all that hinders our Agreement it feems. Alas, i. For thg 
' firlt, it is granted you in termmts, only in point of Ordination : yield but to be 
' Ordained by Teaching Elders, which you confef lawful, and others think necef- 
*^ fary. And remember, i. That to depend on other Ecclefiaftical Power, even for 

* Advice, is a great dependance. 2. That to depend on them, not as a Superiour 
' Power, but as a Link upon the Chain, for Union and Communion , we can ne- 

* ver exempt you from, nor will you fure defire it. There is a fourfold Advice; 
' I. An Authoratative Advice of Governours ( as Parents, Schoolmafters, Paflors,) 
' to their Inferiours, who are bound to obey them, on a double account, ratione 

' materia & authoritatis. Thus the Paftors in a Synod advife their Flocks conjunftly. 
' 2. The Authoratative Advice of one Officer to another. And lo,as we preach to one 
'another, I think asChrift's Minifters, we tnufi advi[e one another. 5. An Ad- 
' vice of a Adajor part among Ei^uals in Order to Union and Concord, and this is 
' the Principal to be refpedted in thefe Conventions; 4. An Advice of a pri-vate 
' Perfon, not authorized by Office, and this binds but ratione materia, &c. 2. To 

* your lecond, you will grant ( as I hope by the printed Debates ) that ordinarily 

* Parifti- bounds, fhall be the Rule for Limitation (alter Pariflies if they be araifs ) : 
' and that you'l not fwerve from this Rule, but upon necelfary Caule, and not when 

* it is to the apparent wrong of the Caule and Intereft of Chrift, and you will 
' yield to be refponfible to the Affociation which you are a Member of, concerning 
' the Cafe, when you are queftioned. And this Ihall agree us. 

* And why fliould I not add two Propofitions for Peace with the Epilcopal .' That 
'way, or the Perlbns are not fo contemptible ('if you confider the Antiquity, the 
' great Difficulty, their Number and Extent, and the Works of many of them) as 
' to berefuledourCommunjon, though on fome Abatements to them. 

' Prop. 1 9. Let therefore thele Presbyteries of particular Churches have one to be 

* the ftated Prefident, as long as he is found fittelf, and let all the AfTociations (at 
' leaft wliere Epifcopal worthy Men require ic ) have fuch fixed Prefidents, e^uam 

* dtu betiefe gefftrmt ( as your AlTembly at Weftmmfier had ) by common Confenr. 
' Bilhop Hall and Ufher lay, this will fatisfie, but it will not without the next. 

'Prop. 20. Seeing the Presbyterians -and Congregational fay. That (except in 
' cafe of neceflity ) it's lawful to forbear Ordination till the Prefident be there, and 
' One, and to take him with you ; and the Epifcopal fayjThat it's of neceffity • there- 
' fore let the Cafe of Neceffity and the Title be purpolely filenced, and left to each 
' Man's Judgment ; but defa^o, let your Licet yield tor Peace to their Oportet, ac 
' leaft for Ibme years trial. And agree to Ordain none (but in neceffity) with- 
' out the Prefident, as he fiiall Ordain none without the Conlent of the Affociation, 
' or at leaft the Elders of the Church where he is Prefident , and v;here he Or- 
'daineth ( if there beany left). I fuppofe, as to a Parochial or Congregational 
' Prefident, in one Elderfhip, you will grant this I and why not to the Prefident of 
' the Affociation, for Peace i' when he that is Ord,yncd a Paftor of your particu- 
< lar Church, is thereupon made an Officer in the Univerfal.therefore others fhould 

' have fome care of it, orelle ~ — Tie let Objertions pafs in filence, only 

' defire you, if thds two laft diflike you, not therefore prelently to rejcft the reft, 
' but lay theftf by. 



«!■ 1^ -i^ ■ - . ■ I, - - — II- - • 

Part If. Kg^gm/ ^\A£jjchg^ j^ 

, "^ On thefe Terms, in the two laft ProDof^cion': Klhr^r^ rm TT t i 

•• ed chem to him. told me, That the EpTopaSty 3k tll^^'" ^ '^'"uP"'"'^- 
the moderate would, but the reft would notf ^ ^ "^'" '^''^ '^"^ m.and 

To tnj Reverend Brother Mr. Phih'p Nye, 

Jri\r'''. '^'' r"^"'/'^ ^'^'T' '° "'"''" ^ f""^'" ^"^'^Pt for the reconciling^ 
of thofe Controverfies, o far as that we might hold Communion together And 
I drew up a larger Wru.ng^mlhncing in about Ten Points of Difference bnween 

IsfhS-S'T "'^'".^'P!fr""' P^^^i^g^hat the Differences were noS 

as Ihould hinder Concord and Communion: The Writin<- faein? tnn ilr^L V i 

here inferted, you ftall have with the reft at the end of theSorl * IK P ^" .ru- w 

key was reftored there hath been no Opportunity to Debate the' Ltcers^fofth; SS 

Reafons aforefaid, and many odiers : Only I put thefe Papers into M g gS^ f°-^ ^ow^ 

pight tend to thedefired Concord, and fJ I took thta7ayt^^^^^^^ 

§ 48. About the fame time, the great Controverfie that troubled all the Church 
being about the Qualification of Church-Members I annreh^nH^^ i u 
of a due and folemn manner of Tranfition from the' NuKr of jnf- M.' T"' 
anto the Number of the Adult, was the caufe both of AnabaptiLv ^S'^^^^ 
dency, and that the right performance of this (ascJ^„f':^fojRa^^^^^^^^ 
Common Prayer would have Confirmation performed ) would be the moil excel 
i?n/''P'^"V^°''' for Reformation and Reconciliatioi (finding that the Indt 
pendants themlelves approved of it). I meditated how to get thi way S Jli 
Co.fir»^at^on reftored and introduced : when in the mean time cameSh a fff 
tife for th.s way of Confirmation by Mr. Jonathan Hanmer , SrTS