(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
See other formats

Full text of "Five disputations of church-government, and worship"
















■ jjj r ; 


^ i 1 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Princeton Theological Seminary Library 


FIVE" " 


1^4 ■- OF- 




I. Whether it be Necfjfary or Profitable to the right Order or 
Peace of the- 'Churches y ef England , that we Reftore the extruded 
Epifcopacyl Neg. 

I I. Afierr. Thofe who Native our prefent Miniftry and 
Churches \ which have not the Oretatical Ordination, And teach the 
People to do the Uke^ do incur the guilt of grievous Sin, 

III. An Epifcopacj de fir able for tht Reformation, Prefervation 
andPiAceofthe Churches. • 

f V. Whether a fiinttd Liturgie or Form of Worfiip beadefire- 
able means fer the PeM&of thefe Churches t 

V. WhetTftr Certwsnies be Necejfaryor Profitable to the 

Church ? 

By ^chard ^Baxter. 


Printed by R>W. for Nevil Sim mens, Bookfeller in Kederminfte r, 

and are to be fold by him there, and by Thomas Johnfon at the Golden 
Key in St. YanU Church-yard, i£j$. M 4.S. 6 A, bound. 

, J-** — 

To his Highnefs 


Lord Protestor 


•Common-wealth of England, Scot* 
land and Ireland. 


g^ll^ Hefe Papers are ambitious of accompany- 
ing thofe againft Popery into your High- 
nets prefence, for the tender of their fer- 
vjee , and that upon the fame account. 
5\,W The Controverfies here decided, are thofe 
that have had a hand in moftof the great tranfa&ions 
that of late years have here part 5 and that (till have a 
hand in the differences that hinder our defired peace.. I 
+>f»\ A obfervc 


The Epiftle "Dedicatory. 

obferve that the Nation generally rejoyceth in your 
peaceable entrance upon the Government. And are af- 
fe&ed with indignation, if they hear but any rumors 
that troublefom perfons would difturb their hopes. And 
many are perfwaded that you hare been ftrangely kept, 
from participating in any of our late bloody contenti- 
ons , that God might make you an Healer of our 
breaches, and imploy you in that Temple- work, which 
Davidti\mk\{ might not be honoured with , though it 
was in. bis mind, becaufe he had jhcdbloed abundantly^ and 
made great vo art , i Chron.22. 7,8. I perceive alfo that 
feme [ettltment of Church-affairs will be expe&ed from 
you by themoft. And therefore it concerneth all our 
welfare that you be well acquainted with the ftate of 
thofe differences, about which all will expeft your 
judgement. For my own part I think not that mat- 
ters are half fa far out of order ia the Churches^ as mod 
difcontented men imagine : But yet 1 know there is 
much to be mended, wherein both God and moft good 
men expeft youfhould contribute a confiderable part. 
Some think there is no fettlement in the Church 5 till 
tbtj are in the faddle, and all their Brethren are become 
their fervants, and do them obeyfance. And alas , we 
have thofe that take it for no fettlement , till they have 
ihe fword in their own hands , or have engaged you to 
ufe it at their difcretion,and may again fill the Prifons 
or other Lands, with their Brethren that are far better 
then themfelves : Thofe I mean that in their writings 
fo glory that their predecefifors hang'd the Puritans 5 
and lament that of late they were but filenced^s being a 
lefs effeduall means. Some would have no other fettle- 
ment then we have, or elfe would have Licenti$ufnef$ 
fettled by a Law, and have unlimited Libert j in Religion, 
Doubdefs thefe are confeious what it is that they have 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

need of : If Heathens, Infidels and Papifts be but ex- 
cepted out of the Toleration, it difpleafeth them ; And 
we can eafily conjecture why. If we grant them all the 
Liberty of their confciences ( that is 5 of their mif-belief, 
becaufe,alas,we cannot cure it) itfatisfieth them not, 
unlefs they may have alfo Liberty of tongue and Pra- 
<ftife. When I have heard and read the Reafonings of 
fomeof them againft the Immortality of the foul, and 
the Chriftian Religion it felf, I have wondered why 
they fhould take it for fuch a point of Liberty, to have 
leave to draw others to their opinion , when they feem 
to think that mens Happinefs or Mifery is no more 
concerned in it. Thefe are the men that tell the world 
that Magiftrates have nothing to do with Religion, but 
only with our Peace and Bodily welfare 5 contrary to the 
fulleft Teftimony of the Scriptures : Which is but to 
perfwade men to efteem you as the dirt of the earth, 
and to value the Miniftry above the Magiftracy 5 as much 
as the Soul is better then the Body 3 and as Heaven is 
better then this dunghill- world. And for this odious 
do&rine, they have no ftronger reafon , then becaufe 
that Heathen Princes are uncapable of deciding matters 
about Religion. As if mens wilfull and wicked indif- 
pofition would change the office , and difoblige both 
them and thofe that are guilty of no^fuch unfitnefs , 
from the obligations laid upon them by the Lord .• 
They may as wifely fay that a fober Phyfitian is ob- 
liged to no more then a drunken one can perform ; or 
that a feeing man may do no more then the blind can 
do: Or that a Learned Prince may not meddle with 
Learning, becaufe an unlearned Prince is unfit for ic. 
But any man that hath read BelUrmine^Parfons^ Cretfer^ 
or fuch like Jefuites, may know the Fathers of this do- 
ctrine : Nothing more familiar with them ? then tha£ 

A 2 Princes 

The Epiflle Dedicatory. 

Princes have nothing to do but for our Bodies, and 
the Common Peace .• but forfooth it is the Pope 
that muft Rule all about our Souls. The Libertines 
know whofe caufe they plead. But verily men that re- 
gard the Intereft of Chrift and their falvation-, would 
let light by Princes, if they believed them to be fuch 
terreftriall animals as Papifts and Libcrtims would make 

Some alfo there be, that would have a fettlement up- 
on too rigorous terms 3 though they would not have it 
executed with cruelty. Mod men would fain have 
their own opinions prevail, and too many place too much 
of their Religion in cenfuring as Heterodox all that 
differ from them, and think it an evidence of their God- 
linefs that they are Uncharitable •, and feeing many 
minds and waies, they think that punifhment muft heal 
them all : Not that they would be driven to their 
Brethren , but all their Brethren muft be driven unto 

In the midft of all thefe crofs expeditions , if you 
will confult with, and obey the Lord, I dare boldly tell 
you, it is paft all doubt^ that you muft avoid extreams , 
and keep as tenderly the golden mean , in this point, as 
in any that concerns you. If you give Liberty to. All 
that is called Religion, you will foon be judged of no 
Religion , and loved accordingly. If you fo far clofe 
with any Party of them that walk in the faith of Chrift, 
and the fear of God, as to deal rigoroufly with the reft, 
you will be hated by them as aPerfecutor. And if men ^ 
be opprefted in that which they value above their lives, 
it will tempt them to negleft their lives for their relief. . 
If you joyn with no Church in the Lords Supper ami 
other holy Communion, left you feem to efpoufe the 
party that you -joyn with, you will by raoft be judged to 


T*he Epijl/e Dedicatory. 

be carnally wife , felf-feeking and irreligious, or one 
that is yet tofeek for your Religion. If ycu rep aw V 
all that areagainftthe great undoubted Truths of Chrift, 
from in feeling others^ and own all that hold the NeccfJ'ary 
Truths in Godlinefs and Charity 3 you will pleafe both 
God, and moft good men. And if you hold your per- 
fonall Communion with thofe that are of your own 
judgement in letter differences , this will notlofeyou 
the affedions of the godly (though of a few fa&ious 
perfonsit may ) as long as you are a tender Father to 
them all J though you Communicate but-with fome. \ 
The Godly Emperours that fuppreft the Jrrians and 
many Herefies, maintained the Novatians in the Liber- 
ty of their Churches 3 *nd were beloved both by the 
Rovatfans and the Orohodox. But if you could be the 
happy inftrument of taking away the l>ivifions of th,e 
Godly , that there might be no fuch thing as Fartics or 
Separations known among them (though diverfity of 
opinions there will be ) ( and if you cculh give all the 
Minifters of the Nation a pattern of fuch union of the 
tolerable diffenting parties in your own Pafiors, with 
whom you fhall Communicate ) this would* be the way 
to lift you higheft in the Efteem and Love of all your 
people, and make them fee that you were appointed of 
God to be a Healer and Reftorer •, and to glory in you, 
and blefs God for you as the inftrument of ourclnefeft 
peace. And O what a precedent and preparative it 
would be, for the Healing of all the Proteftant Chur- 
ches through the world / And certainly your \ hghneis 
hath a fair opportunity for this happy work • You enter 
in afeafon when we are tired with contention, and fen* 
fible of our lofs and danger, and tenderer then former- 
ly of one another, and the moft angry parties are much 
affwaged, and there is net fo much ieproach and bitter- • 

A3 nefs 

"The Epiftle Dedicatory, 

nefs among the Godly , as lately there hath been. A 
Spirit of Peace and Healing is lately rifen in the hearts 
of many thoufandsin the Land, and Minifters that dif- 
fered ,do lovingly affbciate, and moft do feel the fmar t 
of our Divisions , and are fo prepared for a perfeder 
clofure, that they wait but for fome Leading hand. I 
am certain that there are Healing Principles before us, 
and a temperament is obvious to judicious charitable 
men, upon which we might accord. And, though fome 
are too rough to lie in any building, yet moderate men 
are to be found of every party, that deferveth your en- 
couragement, whom you may ufe as a precedent to the 
reft, and inftruments to promote this work. It is you 
that have thofe great advantages that can facilitate that 
which to others were impoflible : and from you it is ex- 
pe&ed. In this Book, and one of Confirmation,which 
I lately publi/hed , I confidently affirm , is contained 
much of that Reformings Reconciling Truth which 
muft heal us if ever we be healed. And though the ftu- 
dy of fuch matters require much time, yet feeing God 
commandeth Princes that the Book of his Law depart net 
cut of their mouthes, but that they meditate in it day and 
nighty that they may do according to it^ zpofli. 1 . 8. I may 
fuppofe that they will be willing alfo to meditate on 
fuch Books as help them to understand it. I fliould have 
been as ready as another to cenfure fuch an addrefsas 
this,as guilty of prefumptuous boldnefs 5 but that I con- 
sider what is the work of my Calling, and what it is to 
be faithfull to the Eternall God , and am confcious of 
fidelity to your Highnefs in my boldnefs , and know 
that thefe are neceflary Truths, and that totheCcun- 
fellors of Peace isjey^ Prov. 12. 20. and have no intereft 
in this world that I regard , in comparifon of the 
Churches happinefs. My earned Prayers for your 


The Efiftle Dedicatory, 

Highnefs fhallbe , that your own foul being firft fub- 
je&ed and devoted wholly unto God, you may Rule us 
as one that is Ruled by him, and never know any Inte- 
reft but his, and that which is fubfervient to him , and 
may efcape that ftumbling- ftone, on which the Princes 
of the earth do commonly dafh themfelves in pieces , 
even by efpoufing an Intereft contrary to Chrifts, and 
fo growing jealous of his holy waies, and falling out 
with them : and that God would endue your Highnefs 
with that heavenly Wifdom, that is firft Pure, and then 
Peaceable, Jam. 3. 17. and you may efcape the flatter- 
ing fuggeftions of the Wijdom of the fltft , and ferious 
Piety may be the firft part of your Policy, that fo the 
Eternall God may be engaged in the Prote&ion of your 
Dominions and You : That you may alwaies remem- 
ber, that you are Chrifts and your Peoples , and not 
your Own : and that the diligent promoting of G O D- 
LYNESS and CONCORD may be the ftu- 
dy and refolved work of your Life. This is the way , 
andonlythis, ( let flefh and blood fay what it will) to 
make you truly Great and Happy. God is the Center 
and Common Intereft of all his fervants. Keep clofe 
to him, and they will all keep clofe to you. There is no 
other Common Intereft 5 nor any thing that the Godly 
do fo highly value. If they fee that it is indeed for God, 
they can bear any thing, or do any thing •, for they are 
wholly devoted to him alone. The more of God ap- 
peareth on you, and the more you promote his Intereft 
in the world, the highlyer will you be advanced, and the 
dearer will you be to all that Love him. And even with . 
the ungodly multitude, that Piety is honoured in Prin- 
ces, that is defpifed in their neighbours -, and the hand 
of God is plainly demonftrated in their furviving Ho- 
nour •, the names of Pious Princes being Great , when 


The EftftleDedicatory. 

the Created leave a name that is vile, even in the 
mouthesof common worldly men, who are ready to 
keep a Holy- cay for a Saint when he is dead, though 
they hate or will not imitate the living. Your Zeal tor 
God will kindle in your fubjefts a Zeal for you. The 
more your Life and Government is Divine , the more 
Divine will you appear, and therefore the more Ami- 
able and Honourable to the Good, and Reverend to the 
evil. Parliaments will Love and Honour you, and ab- 
hor the motions that tend toadivifion, or your juftdif- 
pleafure. Minifters will heartily Pray for you , and 
Praife the Lord for his mercies by you, and teach all the 
people to Love, and Honour, and Obey you. The 
people will rejoyce in you 5 and you will be Loved or 
Feared of all : Such happinefs attendeth ferious Piety, 
when impiety 3 fel fi lime fs 3 and negleft of Chrift is the 
fhame and ruine of Prince and People. I crave your 
Highnefs pardon of this boldnefs, and your favourable 
acceptance of the tendered fcrvice of 

A faithfull fubjett to your Highnefs, 
as you are an Officer of the Uni- 

c JRicbard c Baxter. 

A Pref ac e to thofe of 

j the Nobility Gentry, and Com- 
mons of this Land. , chat adhere to 


■ ' ■ . 

Honourable, Worfhipful,and Beloved Country men. 

T being much for your fakes that 1 have 
published the following Difputations , it 
bihoveth me here to addrefs my felf to 
y-ou\in a few preparatory word's. What 
dijlance there hath long heen^and Jlill con- 
tinued between you and your Brethren(for 
fo they are) is too much known to friends and foes , at home 
and abroad^ and too much daily m anif e fled by each fide. 
Shall if (till continue, or would yon have it healed ? if it 
mufl continue fell us how longed 'tell us why? Would yort 
have it go with us to Eternity i and will you not be re con* 
riled) nor dwell with us in Heaven ? It is not in your Pow- 
er to [hut us out ^ And mil jcu not be there, if we be there f 
Or do you think there will be any Bifcord where Love is 
Perfetted^ and we are One in God? If yot^can be content 
to be faved with us 6 andbelieve that alio fboih Opinions \ 
that truly love and fear the Lord, fhall live there in dear e (I 

[a) • Lqvc 

z The Preface. 

Love for ever % bow can you chufe, when you forethink cf 
this, but Love them now , that you muft for ever Love ? 
and long to be reconciled to them , -with whom you mufl 
there foh>:rmcnioufty accord? Ten know that Earth is our 
preparation for Heaven : and fuch as men would be there, 
they mu ft begin to be here : As they muft be Holy here, that 
ever will there Jee the Lord in Holinefs •, fo muft they here 
be Loving and Peaceable, that ever will live in that per- 
fect heavenly Love and Peace. And why is it that the 
diftance muft be fo great ? ^€re we not all the Children of 
one Father ? Have we not all the fume God, the fame Re- 
deemer \ the fame Spirit in us? {if we are Chriflians in- 
deed,. Rom. 8.9.-) Are we not in the [ame Baptifmal Co- 
venant with Ccd ? Have r^e not the fame holy Scripture 
for eur Rule ? and are we not in the j ante univerfal Churchy 
and cf the fame Religion ? fome of you (ay, No- 7 to the 
grief of your friends, and the fiame of your own under- 
ftandipgs, and uncbaritablenefs. I befeechyeu bear it, 
if I touch the fore :For my work U Healing •, and therefore 
though it M^d be touctit, it ft) all be as gently -as the cafe 
wU kear. If I may judge by fuch as I have had any op- 
portunity to know j 1 muft fay, that the di fiance on your 
part is Continued in fome by confufed apprehenfions of the 
cafe, andmt diftinguijhing things that differ • In fome by 
dif contents of mind, and too deep a fen fe of worldly loffes^ 
and. the things that you take as injuries from others : In 
fome by the. advantage of a co-interefl andconfoaation with 
thefe Divines that are of your way, and fo by a Willing- 
n-efs to think them in the right , and thofe in the wrong 
that yon take for adverfaries : In fome by a ftiffnefs and 
flontnefs of difpofition, tbatcals it Conftancj to hold your 
ewn, and Manlwefs not to ftcop to others, and takes it as 
difhohoarableto feekfor Peace, even in Religion with your 
fuppofed adverfaries 3 or to yield to it y at leaft without much 


The Preface. 3 

importunity Whh too many (mife/able fouls I) it is meet 
ungodltnefs^and 'amity to that way of Piety, that in many 
that you differ from , appears : And in the be ft of you it is a 
Remifsnefs of Charity, and want of zeal for the Churches 
Peace y and the Love and 'T 'nity of Brethren, To con- 
futethereafonings of all thefe forts , would draw out this 
Preface to too great a length. The fir fl fort my experience 
hath caufedme to obferve. of t have I fain into company 
with men that pour forth bitter odious words againfl Prei- 
byterie .• and 1 ask them what that Piesbyterie is that 
they fpeakfif with fo much abomination f Is it the Name 
or the Thing , which they fo abhor f if the Name, 
is it not a term of Scripture ufed by the Holy Choft f 
i Tim. 4. 14. Are not the Tabors of the Church mofl fre- 
quently called the Presbyters, or Elders ? Tic. 1.5. A& 
14. 23. & 15. 2,4, 6., 22, 23. 1 Tim. 5. 17. A&.20. 
17. James 5. 14. iPet. 5.i,&c. It muft needs then be 
the Thing, and not the Name which they abominate. And 
what is that Thing i moft of them cannot tell me. Some 
prefently talk of the difnfe of the Common Prayer^ as if 
that were a part of Presbyterie-, And Government, and 
the form of wor[h:p were all one. Some prefently run to 
Scotland 5 4W talk of forcing men to Confefsion of fin, and 
of their, fecular enforcement of their Excommunications. 
But 1. Jf this be odiom, why was it ufed by the Bifoops £ 
Is it good in them, and bad in others ? 2. And why plead 
you for Difcipline, and Againfl Toleration, if you jo loath 
the things you plead for? 3. But will yett not, when as 
known fo openly, difltnguijh the Mtwfleriai Paver from, the 
fecular f Us known by their Laws and conftant Prac7/ce, 
that all the Power that was exercifed by Violence, on Body 
cr.Eflate, by the Ajfemblies , was derived from the Nla- 
giftratc, whofe Commifisontrs alfofate among them. And 
the Bifhops in England were fecoqdd by the Sword, as 

{a 2) much 

4 The Preface. 

much as they. Its known that the Presbyterians common- 
ly maintain in their Writings, that Paflors have no Coer- 
cive or Secular Power 5 hut only the Keys of the Kingdom 
of Heaven^ to exercife on the Confcience } committed to 
them by Chrifl. 4. And the writings and practice of thofe 
7/2 England, openly manifejl it : and its them with whom 
you have mojltodo. Some tell me that Presbyteriek the 
Government of (hie Church without Bijhops : And is it only 
the Negation of your Prelacy that is the odious thing f Is 
there nothing Pofitive odious in Presbyterie ? Thus our Be- 
lief is condemned by the Papifls^even becaufe we Believe 
not fo much as they • when in the Pofitives of 'our Faith 
there is nothing that they can blame \ Some make it the 
odious thing that they have Lay- Elders • But 1. The Pre f 
hyterians account them not Lay , but Ecclefiafticks. 
2. And what is the odious harm that thefe men do 
among them ? They are prefent^ and Confent to the ad- 
monifhing and cenjuring of offenders. K^yind what great 
harm doth that to the Church f Is it becaufe they do not 
Preach i No jure 5 in that your Readers are much like 
them* What work can you Name that thefe Elders are ap' 
-pointed to, that by your Confefsion is not to be done f It is 
not theWovk then, that you blame, but that thefe men do 
it. 3 . But what is this to all that are in this point of your 
mind) and think that unordained Elders wanting Power 
to preachy or adminifler the Sacraments , are not officers 
in the church of Cods appointment? As far as lean un- 
derfland, the greater part, if not three for one of the Eng- 
lifh Mmiflers that you ftand at a diflaricefrom^ are of this 
mind^and fofsr againft Lay -Elders as well as you; of whom 
2 confefs my f elf to be One. {and that M c Vines was One, 
I have fbewed you in the End.) Surely then all we are none of 
the odious Presbyterians in your eyes. Wny then is there 
fuchadiftance f And are Lay-Elders as bad as Lay-chan- 
' idlers ? So 

Tfie Preface. 1 5 

So alfo when fome have been hotly condemning us as be- 
ing againfi Bifhops^ J ask them what a Bifhop is i and 
whatjort of Bifhops it is that they mean? And mo ft of 
them are unable to give me a rational anfwer to either of 
the gueftions f But fome that are wifer, though they kndw 
no more forts of Bifhops but one, yet they can fay, that by a 
Bifhop they mean an Ecclefiajlick Governour of Presbyters 
and the people. And ?f[o s thin why do they vilifie Bijhops 
under the name of Presbjters ? I have here (hew- 
ed yon that ifthisbeall^ then every Parijh hath a Bifhop 
where there is a P aft or that hath Cbappels, and Curates un- ' 
der him : Or any two Mmifters that will (ubjeff them- 
f elves to a third, do make a Bifhop. Tou delude four (elves 
and others , while you plead only in general for Bifhop s : 
We art all for Bifhops as well as yon. All the ^ueflion is, 
What fort of Bifhops they muflbe f Whether only Epifcopi 
gregis, or alfo Epifcopi Epifcoporum gregis < and if 
[o, Whether they muflbe Bifhops of (ingle Churches^ as our 
Varices are , or a multitude of Churches, as Dioceftes are f 
Andifthe lafi were granted, Whether thefe be not pro • 
perly Archbifhops ? In all other parts of the Contr over fie 1 
find, that the followers of each party go much in the dark, 
and take much upon truflfrom the Teachers whom they va- 
lue, and little underflandthe true ft ate of our differences : 
So that it is more by that common providence^ commonly 
called Good luck, that feme of them are Protejlants or 
Chriftians, then from any faving grace within (hem. Had 
Papiflsor ^Mahometans but as much inter eft in them, as 
the Bifhops, it is like they would have been as much for 

As for the fe of you that know your own Opinions ^ and the 
Bea-jons of them, you muft needs knew that the Divines* 
called Epifcopal in England, are of two forts, that very 
much differ from one another : And therefore fuppofng you 

(43) t* 

S The Preface. 

to be the followers ofthefe differing D ,*- 

inglj further [peak to you as you are. 

I. 7 be Bijhops of England, and their followers from 
thcjrft Kefonnaiien, begun by King Edward thefixt, and 
revived by Queen Elizabeth, were found in DocSrine, 
adhering to the Auguftinian Method, exprtffed now m the 
Articles aud Homilies : They differed not tn any confide- 
rable pints from thofe whom they called Puritans : But . 
it xv us m the form of Government, and Liturgy, and Cere- 
?nonies that the difference lay. 

II. But of late years a new (train of Bi [hops were introdu- 
ced, differing much from the $ld^ yet pretending to aahere 
to the Articles and Homilies, and lobe Fathers of the fame 
Church of England as the reft. 1 know of none before 
B? Mcunt3gue of their way. and but few that followed him, 
till many years after. And at the dcmohflnng of the Pre- 
lacy , they were exigent of both forts. Would yen know the 
difference ? if you have read the writings if B? Jewel, 
Pilkington, Alley, Parry, Babbington, Baily , Ab- 
bot, Carlton, Morton, Ufher, Hall , Dayenant, with 
fuch like on one fide ; and the writings tf the Neiv 

ifccpal Divines that are no:v mojl followed^ on the other 
fide, I need not tell you the difference. And if you will not 

: :t the labour to knew it by their writings, its Ike that 

I will not believe it if I tell you. For if you will take 
all on truft, Imujlfufpec? that yon will put your truft//; 
them to whom y oh are addicted. 

The Kew party of Epifccpal Divines are a.fo fnb divi- 
ded : fome if them are (;/ 'their Defence of Gronus 3 and 
Grotius his own Pr of efsion maybe believed) of Grotius 
his Religion, that is, Papifls : Others of them, the: 
drav: as neer /kGrotians as Proteff wts may /wn 

rot Poper^ it t we ha~ . notable parties 

of Fii i. The eld Orthodox 


The Preface. 7 

Troteftant Bifhsps and their followers* 2 . the New Recon- 
ciling Proteflant party. $.Tbh New Reconciling P.ipijls, or 
Grotians. o^ hieftafie of the difference 1 will give you* 
1 . The Old Epifcopal party , as 2 [aid, in Doctrine 
agreed with the Non-conformifl, and held that Doctrine 
that now we find in the Articles, and Homilies, and in the 
Synod of Don, where B? Carlton, £p Hall, 5? Dave- 
x\mt 7 and three more Divines of this Nation were, and had 
a great hand in the framing of thofe Canons, and by con- 
fenting, did as much to make them obligatory tout in Eng- 
land , as commonly is done ir, General Councils by the De- 
legates of mofl Nations. 

But the- New Epifcopal Divines., both Froteflants and 
Papifls, dp renounce the Synod of Don, and the DcBrinc 
ef our Articles and Homilies, fofar as it is conform there- 
to, in the points of Predeflmation , Redemption, Free- 
will, Effectual Grace , Perfcv trance , and Affnrance of 
Salvation : following that Doffrine wtich is commonly 
maintained by the J-efuites and Arminians in thefe 

2. 7 he Old Bpifcopal Divines did renounce the Pope 
as i^intichrifi, and thought it the duty of the Tranfmarwe 
Churches to renounce him, and avoid communion with his 
Church, as leprous and unfit for their communion. Bui 
the Xew Epifcopal Divines do not only hold that the Pope 
is not Lslnticbrifl) but one part of them {the Proteftants) 
hold that he may be obeyed by the Tranfmarine Wefiern 
Churches as the Patriarch cfthe We (I, and be taken by tts 
all to be the Principium uniratis.^ thcCathohck Churchy 
and the Roman Determinations flill may fland, except thofe 
of the laft four hundred years, and thofe, if they obtrude 
them not on others* So B? Bramhall , and many more .• 
And M" Dow, and others tell us that the Canon Law 
isJldlinforcein'Enghnd) except fome Parts of it which 


8 The Preface. 

the Laws of the Land havecaft out. And the Grotians 
teach, that the Church of Rome is the Mi/Iris of other 
Churches, and the Pope to (land as the Bead of the Vnt- 
verfal Church, and to Govern it according to the Canons 
and Decrees of Councils: and they receive the Trent-Creed 
and Council, and all other Councils which the Pope receives, 
excepting only again ft fome School-pints , and abufe of 
mwners among the Papifts, which their Canons and De- 
crees condemn* 

3. The old Epifcopal Divines did take Epifcopacyto 
he better then Presbyterian Equality,, but not nec<(Jary to 
the Being of a Church, but to'the Better being where it may 
be had. But the New Frelatical Divines of both forts, 
unchurch tbo(e Churches that are not PrelaticaL 

4. The Old Eptfccpal Divines thought that Ordination 
by Presbyters without Prelates was valid, and not to be done 
again, though irregular. But the New oves take it to hi 
NoOrdwaticn, n*r thofe (0 ordained to be any Mintfters, 
but Lay-men. 

5. And accordingly the old Epifcopal Divines did hold: 
the ForreinProteftant Churches, ^/France, Savoy, Hol- 
land, Geneva, Helvetia, &c that had no Prelates, as 
true Churches, and their Paftors as true Mi* ifttrs of 
Chrift,and highly valued and honoured them as Brethren. 
ButtheNen ifort do difown ibem all as no true Churches y 
though they acknowledge the Church of Rome to be a true. 
Church, and their Ordination valid. 

. 6. The old Epifcopal Divines thought it lawful to jojn 
in aBual Communion with the Paflors and Churches that 
were not PrelaticaL But the I Jew ones feparate from their 
cemmnni&n^ and teach the people todofo, fnpfoftng Sacra- 
ment al admini fir at ions U be there performed by men that 
aye no Jdwijlers> and. ba&CfH authority. ^^ 
7 6 The Old Epifcr^al Divines thought it meet tofufpendy 

jilence 7 

The Preface. 9 

filencC) imprifon, or undo thofe Godly Divines that did not 
bow towards the Altar, or publifh to their People Decla- 
rations or InftruBions for Dancing on the Lords Day, or 
that did preach twice aday t But many of the New ones 
practically told m y that this was their judgement. 

Of theft differences I have given you fome proof here* 
lifter : and would do here in the exprefs words of the Au- 
thors on both fides, were it not that ijhould be needlejly te- 
dious, and thatlfbould unnecejjarily offend the particular 
Divines of the New part) who are among m, by reciting 
their words* Moreof the differences Ipafsby. 

I . And now I would know ofthofe of you that follow the 
Ancient EpiJ copal Divines, what hindereth you from a cha- 
ritablejeaceable Communion with thofe Orthodox Minifters 
now in England, that fome ofyouflani at a di fiance from ? 
Doffrinal differences (at lea ft , requiring fuch a dtjftance) 
you cannot pretend. B ? Hall tels you in his Peace-maker 
(after cited) that there is none between you and the For- 
rein (Presbyterian) Churches. And a* for the matter of 
Epifcopacy, if you will infift upon the late Englifh Frame 
asneceffary,v\z. [That there be but One Bifhop overman} 
hundred Churches, and that he have the fole power of Ex- 
communication, and that he rule by a Lay -Chancellor* &C. 
and be a Lord, and feconded with a forcing power ', &c. ] 
then you will for fake the judgement of your Leaders-. For 
they will tell you that fome of the fe are but fep arable ap- 
purtenances, fome of them corruptions and blemifhes, and 
fome net Necejfary. What need we any more ado ? Tou fee 
in the publifhed judgements of B* Hall, B? Uftier, D c 
Holdfvvorth , Forbes , and others, (after cited ) that 
they would have all Presbyters to be Governors of the 
Churches, one of them having ajlated Prefidency or Mo- 
deramfbip, and this will content them. And are we not 
then &mt£ i I m confident moft of the Minifters in 
T 4 • - (*) England 

io The Preface. 

England would bt content to field you this : But what if 
there be fome that are not of your mind concerning the flatcd 
Preftdency which you defer e ? will you therefore unchari- 
tably refufe communion with tbtm ? fo would not jour 
Leaden ! In this therefore you will for (ake them, and for* 
fake many holy churches efebrife^ and for fake charity, and 
Ch'riftbimfelf that teacbetb you another hflon. Will it not 
content you t bat ycu have freedom your (elves to do that 
which feemeth be ft in your own eyes, unless all others be of 
pur opinion t 

But perhaps you will 'fay that you baveno! Liberty your 
f elves tepratitfe according to this your]ndgement. To which 
Ianfwer, i. Tour Brethren of the CMiniftery have not the. 
power of the Sword \and therefore do neither deny you Liber- 
ty^or can give.it yew. It is the Magife rates work. And will 
ytu feparate from lis for other mens doings ? For that you. 
have no rational pretence. if you know of any that per/wade 
Magi ({rates to refrain your Liberty , ihats nothing to 
ethers : Cenfure.none but thfe that you know to be guilty* 
i. I never knew that you were deprived of the Liberty 
&f exercifing fuch an Episcopacy as the forementioned 
Bifhops do de fere. I do not believe you could be hindered^ 
and we that are your neighbours never hear of it. I know 
not of either Law or Execution again [I' you If you think, 
that the claufe in the Covenant, or the Ordinance again fe 
Prelacy, or the late Advice that excepts Prelacy from 
Liberty 3 are any refer aint to you> I think you are much 
mijiaken, It is only the late frame of Prelacy as it flood 
by Law 3 exercifedby ArchbijhopS) Bifhops^ Beans , Chan- 
cellory &c. and that by force upon difeenters^ that is taken 
down. You baventrt. Liberty to force any by corporal pu- 
nifhment to your obedience. But you have full Liberty 
{for ought that ever I hea'd) to exercife the meer Epifcofa* 
cydtftredby Hall, Ufher, W fuch like, on all that are 

The Preface. ii 

of your judgement) And will fubmit to it. That we mag 
hold con ft ant Affembltcs ofPaftors we find by experience : 
K^ind in theje Affembltes if you will chooje one for 
your ft sited Prefident, who will hinder you ? No one 1 am 
..confident; Tell us whoever fuffered for fo doing? or was 
prohibited) or any way hindered from it by any force ? 
Nay more y/ "you will give this Preftdent a Negative votejn 
Ordination and furtfdiclion,who will hinder you ? yea who 
can i If twenty Mimflers (hall refolve that they will never 
Ordain, *r Excommunicate any without the confent (yea 
or Command if you mufthave it fo) offuch a man whom 
they take for their Preftdent, who can or will compel I them 
to the contrary ? And all the People that are of your mind^ 
have Liberty to joyn themfelves with fuel Pa/tors on fuch 
terms ^ and fubmit themfelves to yon, if they will* 

Butjw will fay ^ ihat this is nofetting up ofEpifccpacy> 
while every one that is unwilling to obey m y may refufe it* 
I anfwer^This is all that the Nature of Bpifcopacy requi- 
reth : And this is all that the Church faw praififed (even 
Rome // felf) for above three hundred years after Chrift. 
And is not ihat now tolerable for your Communion with us^ 
which fcrved then for the Communion of all the Churches 
on earth ? Is the Primitive pattern of purity and fim- 
plicity become fo vile in your eyes, as to be inconfiftent 
with Chriftian Communion ? Let not fuch principles 
be heard from ycur mouths 5 or feen in your prafiifes. 
Whether the Magiflrate ought to compell us all to be 
of your mind or way , 1 will not now meddle with : but 
if he will not, will you therefore fepar ate from your Bre- 
thren ? Or w 11 you not exercife the Primitive Eptfcoptcy 
on C on f enters, hecauft you have not the fword to force Dif- 
fenters ? And are you denied ycur Liberty, becaufe jon are 
not backed by the Sword ? This c oncer net h other mens Li- 
berties y and not yours. Ton have the Liberty of 

(b 2) Epifci- 

tt The Preface. 

Epifcopal Government , ( though not of [miting other: 
Kith the Magiftrates Sword) and as much Liberty for 
eught 1 know as Presbyterians or Independents have 
{though not [o much countenance) And how comes it topafs 
that the other modes of Government are commody txerciftd 
upon meer Liberty, and yours is net ? Is it becaufe you h*ve 
?iO confidence in any Arm bat fle\h f if your Epifcopa! 
Power be of Divine appointment, why may you not trufl 
to a Divine afsi fiance as well as others, that yon think are 
not of God t J fit can do nothing without the Sword, let 
the Sword do all without it, and retain its proper honour. 
if it can do lefs en voluntary Sub- eels, then other wiysef 
Churcb-gdvernment can do, fay fo, and confefs it mo ft in- 
firm, and give place to them* But if your shave mo ft Au- 
thority from chrift,and f p:r it ual force upon the Confcience, 
txercifeit, and let m fee it by experience-, or elfe expect 
not that any fhould believe you, or take you to berefolute 
fervants ofchrtff and true to your Miniftry. 

But perhapi you will fay, that you cannot have Commu- 
nion with us, becaufe we are fchtfmaticks : For fo much B? 
Uiner himfelf doth feemto charge us with. ] To which 1 
anfwer, i.£? lifter chargcth none with Schijm, but thofe 
thxt caft off Bifhops to whom they had fwom cbtdience. 
3*t if 1 may judge of other Counties by this, there are fo 
few of thofe, that they can afford you no pretence of fcrupU 
again ft the Communion of our ijfffembltes \l know not (tc 
my remembrance) of one CMimfierin this County liable 
to this charge i but moft never fwore to them, and the re ft 
had no hand in their exclufton. i. Whoever among us 
did either fwear to, or difobei fuch Bifhops as Bifhep Ufher 
there affureth us were the Bifhops of the antient Churches t 
If they fet up another ( intolerable ) fort in ftead of tht 
B flops which he himfelf requireth, judge whether it were 
a greater fin to fwear to t he/n, or to difobey them. ^ ^sfn& 


The Preface. 13 

thefchifm which he mentioneth is not fuch in his own judge- 
ment as makes men uncaple of your Communion. This 
pretence therefore is frivolous. 

Especially considering that mofl of us have no Prelates 
that fo much as claim a Government over us. In this 
'County fence £pPrideatix died (who was one of the ancient 
moderate fort) we know of none that ever made a pretence 
to the place. And are we fchifmaticks for not obeying a 
Bifhop when we have none? And furely none can juftly lay 
a claim to fuch a fuperiority, even according to the ancient 
Canons, unlefs he be fir ft chofen by our (elves ,yea and the 
people , as a Reverend Bifhop (I hope yet living) of the 
ancient fort hath told you, Morton Apolog. CathoL/ 
Pare r. cap. 85. p.257. Bellarmine himfelfconfefdng\\ 
that utCIerus & popuks Epifcopumeligeret, hie mo- u 
cftis fuit in ufu tempore Cbryfoflomi^ Ambrofii, Auguftini, W 
Leonis^Gregorii. Bellarm.li. de Clericis cap. 9. And 
other of our Bifhops fay the fame. 

J conclude therefore that we are not only of one faith and 
Church wth you, but differ fo little in our opinions about 
lower things , that you can thence have no pretence for an 
alienation : And therefore with thofe of you that are godly 
and peaceable, 1 take it for granted that we are actually 
agreed. Butif any will facrifce the Churches Peace, their 
Charity, their fouls to their parties, or pafsions and di [con- 
tents, I leave them to God, and to the reading of other kind 
of Books ^ that tend to change an unrenewed mind. 

1 1. And to thofe of you that follow the newer flrainof 
PreUticul Divines, ifhall adventure a few words, how 
fmallfoever the probability is of their fuccefs. And 1. To 
thofe of you that Are not departed from the Communion of 
all Proteftants^ nor gone with Grorius over to the Ro- 
manics. 1 befeetkyou, as before the Lord, proceed not in 
your bitter nefs^unchar it ablenefs , or feparation from your 

(b 3 ) Brethren, 

j^ The Preface. 

Brethren, ncrjour .hcwcrkcf Gedin their mi- 

mflration^ till jeu are able to froducc fuchfslulgreuna: 
what jcu do y as jou dare ft and to at Ufi y before 
tfudgcment-fexiofcbri]}. I. Seme tf jcu charges w'.tb 
no lefs the?. -:.as following Aeriu t rejecting 9 f 

BifbofS) cr equalizing Pre with them : and can j*$ 

bo! j ::rr.mu i ; i Hereticks ? / anfm tr^ i "Tltll is not 

\ bcrefte that ever] angry man hath called [o, no not tf the 
i enerable Anc ■: , Do yen indeed take; zitj And 

frc I hmimu :: to be an Article of cur Faith f Why then was 
Creed t z, UHanj ummog us arc for Ef if- 
, thai are not for j^ur fort of Prelacy U that fpe- 
cies tb st car Contr over fie is about. 3. / fhall arfxtcr yom 
in tbrwords of our Reverend Moctc ' a Prelate^ though 
not of the Xcwftrain) Apo!c£ Cached. Psr. 1. : 

:. ^5.97. who anfwereth the Pdfiflsthxt ufc agatnft 
us the fame obeclion [ N on de differentia omni, led dc 
Settni .-. fed rmefiatt ;-.-, \ nsndi^ NB ) qu#- 

ftio eft inftir;er;. Advert::. : Tiicaso.c 

: r : e: ibai eflejare d .. ii : ■ idem Protefbn- 
:s : Rej>. Qu:>d idem forte Gmfius Hieronymus, nee 
H iliiafTeveraninc.- hoc fchol^e veftra* Do- 
ftorpc r.:::usnonita pridem facile krgiebatar Mi 
Medina, lib. 1 . de fac. erig. affi:m:t 5 non mode S 
njmuv idem in hoc c: Ac mishaerctic 5 fei uTe, ve- 
*ofum,Augufl: iAum, Pr:ma- 

,m, Chrjfofiomum y Tbeodoretum 9 . ^ ' '■:■;; -,. 

Jc Ecdef milit. c. 9. Ita, f ta- 
il "alent. Jefuir. T^w.^ *>^. g.qu. 1 .funcf. 2. ) ifti 

ri alioq- n& orthodoxi Ac ( inqui: 

J.) non eft 1 bonfio. Prob^bo vc 

hoc non moc etiam omnibus;, isit- 

fponfis prxfarn i _ efle. A as. Erafmu. 

in 1 7/w 4. £An :-.:_s inter Prxsbytemm & 1 

The Preface. if 

pum nihil intererat, ut teftatur Hieronjmus : Sedpoft 4 
propter fchifma a multis deleftus eft Epifcopus, & 
quotquot Presbyteri, totidem erant Epifcopi. J Tua, 
Erajme, apud Jefuitas fordet authoiitas {but not with 
you that I write to) — ~ Advocat. K^lphonfus ctCaflro 
adverf. haeref. tit. Epifcop. Q Hieronymus in ea opini- 
one fuit, ut crederet Epifcopum & Presbyterum ejuf- 
dem efle ordinis & authoritatis] Ecce etiam alterum : 
BelUrmAib.iide Rom.Fontif. c.%. [Videtur REVE- 
R A Uieronymm in ea ppinione fuifle. ] An ille folus i 
£ Anfelmus & Sedulius opinionem fu'.im ad Hieronymi 
(ententiamaccommodarunt. ] Quam eandem fenten- 
tiam Medina vefter Patribus pariter omnibus tribuif 
■ — Quid ex his, inquies < oftendam$ fi cognoviffenr 
-Patres hancin Aereo hse.efind'amnatanv e(Te 3 tantum 
abeft ut ei'crrori verbis fuffragari viderentur •, ut potius ' 
in contrarium errorem abriperentur : fi non cognove- 
runthancopinionemin Aereo damnatam, curvos eanr 
hoc nomine in Pioteftantibus damnandam effe con- 
tenditis? Cajjander lib. confult. art. 14. Q An Epifco- 
patus inter Ordines Ecclefiafticos ponendus fit, . inter* 
Theologos & Canoniftasnon convenit i convenitau- 
tem inter OMNES in Apoftolorum a?tate interv 
Epifcopos & Presbyteros NULLUM D I S- 
CRIMEN fuiffe - r fed poftmodum Schi r matis 
evitandi Caufa Epifcopum Presbyteris ful(Tepra?pofi- 
tum, cui Chirotonia, id eft Ofd ! nandi poteftas con- 
cefTaeft ~] If 'you mil not keep company with Reverend / 
Morton^ / pray you go not beyond tbefe Moderate Pa- I 

2.. But you fay, that at. Icafl we are Schijmatich^ and 
you wufl.not bold Communion with fchifm. And how art 
we proved Schifmaticks f Why y [ 1. Becaufe we have 
C4JI off Bifhops. 2. Becaufe we now obey t hew not.'] I 

have •■ 

x 6 lhe Preface. 

have inferred this already 3 to which I add :] 1. Its a fine 
w:rld, when men will feparate themselves from the 
Churches of Chrijl to avoid fchifm , and they that are 
again ft feparation, and offer Communion to the Separa- 
tifts, mufl be taken to he the Schifmaticks them fives. It 
is fchifm that we detefl, and would draw you from, or elfe 
what need we fay fo much for Concord and Communion t 
2. I have told jcu already , that it is not one Miniflcr of 
a Multitude in cur Communion that did c aft off the Pre- 
laies^ half of them did nothing to it , and the ether half 
were Ordained fince. 3. Nor can you truly fay , that now 
they refufe obedience t$ Bifhops, where there are none to 
obey, or none that command them, 4. Again 1 till yen, it 
is ffrfEpifcopacy, but only the fwfttl (pedes of Prelacy, 
wkchthe Parliament, and Affembly, and Covenanters did 
cafi off. And what if you think this (pedes be ft ? muft all 
think fo. or elfe be Schifmaticks f And why not all Scbtf* 
maticks then that are again/} the Papacy, which is thought 
by others the be ft form f I have here given ycu fome Ar» 
guments to prove your Prelacy which was cafi off, t$ be 
againfi the wilhf Chrifl,andthe welfare of the Churches. 
And Ifhall not believe that its fchifm to be againfl fm 
and the Churches rulne. And I cannot but admire to read 
in your writings , that Difcipline and Piety are pretended 
hj y@u, as the things which you promote, and we deflrty, 
whenl am moft certain that the definition of Piety and 
Difcipline are the very things by which you have [9 much 
offended your Brethren', and we would heartily ctme as 
near you as we can, fo that Piety and 'Difcipline may not 
be destroyed. Had we not known that the able faithful 
, Preachers whom you called Puritans ( conformable and 
not conformable ) that laboured in the word and dec7rine y 
. tvere fitter t$ promote piety then the ignorant, drunken, 
worldly Readers , And lazy Preachers, that once a day would 


The Preface. 17 

preach again ft doing too much to be faved t, and had we 
not known, that Piety was better promoted by Learning the 
will of God,and praying, and meditating on the Lords Day, 
then by dancing ; and by cherishing men truly fearing God, 
then by [corning, imprisoning, persecuting and expelling 
them 5 we would never have been fo much again ft your 
duings as we have been. But mens falvation is not fo 
contemptible a thing, as to be given away to humour the 
proud, that cannot live in Conmur.ion with any, unlefs 
they may drive them to deftrutlion. We will not (ell mens 
fouls to yon at fuch rates, nor buy your Communion^ nor flop 
the reproachful mouths of any by fuch horrid cruelties. 
We talk not now to you of matters that are known by hear- 
fay only : we fee which way fromoteth Piety, and which 
deffroyeth it : we fee that mo ft of the ungodly in the land, 
are the forwarde(l for your wayes. Tou may have aim oft 
all the Drunkards, Blafphemers, and Ignorant haters of 
godlinefs in the Country, to vote for you, and if theydurff, 
again to fight for you at any time. I cannot be fo humble f 
as to fay, I am blind, and fee not what indeed I fee, be- 
caufe another tells me, that his eye fight is better then mine, 
and that he feeth things to be other then 1 fee them to be. 
I doubt not but there are fome Pious perfons among you : 1 
cenfure you no further then experience conftraineth me. . 
But I know that the common fenfe of moft that are ferious 
in practical Chriflian.'ty, is again ft your formal wayes of 
worjhip, andagamft the courfcthat you have taken in this * 
land;, and the fpiritof prophanenefs complyeth with you, 
anddoitth on ^ou y in all places that ever I wa$ acquainted ' 
in* Bear with plain. truth : it is in a caufe of evcrlafting\ 
confequence. There is fomtwhat in a gracious foul, like ' 
health in the body, thai difpojeth it to re lift) whole fern food^ 
and [perceive fiwre ^difference between it, andmeer air, or 
toyi[h'kickfhaws > then it can eaftly expre/s. In abundance of 

( c) your 

1 8 The Preface. 

your moft applauded Preachers, the things of God wen 
fpoken with fo little life and ferioufnefs, as if they had 
not been believed by the fpeaker, or came not from the 
hearty yea Godlinefs and Diligence for Heaven \ no as the 
thing that they ordinarily preached again ft under the name 
0/ precifenefs* and being righteous overmuch. And the 
Puritans were the men that Pulpits rendered moft odious to 
the people, and your Preachers exercifed their wit and zeal 
again ft -, while almeft all their hearers through the Land 
did take a Puritan to be one that was [erioufly Religious. 
Man) a place have I lived in, where there was not a man 
that ever [poke a word again ft Bifhops or Ceremonies ; 
but a few there were ( alas, a few ) that would fometime 
read a Chapter in the Bible, and pray with their Families, 
and fpeak of the life to come, and the way to it, and for 
this they were commonly called Puritans. If a man had 
but mildly askt a [wearer why he fwore, or a drunkard 
why he would be drunk y or had once named Scripture, or 
the life to come, unlefsprophanely, the fir ft word he Jhould 
hear, was, [ Oyou are one of the holy Brethren I you would 
not drink or fwear, but you will do worfe in fecret I It 
was ntver a good world fince there was fo much talk of 
Scripture and Religion : but the King and the Bifhops will 
take an order with you, and all the Puritans and Pre ci ft- 
ans in the Land j / profefs upon my common fad experi- 
ence, that this was the common language of the people 
that were ignorant andprophane in all parts 0/ England 
that ever 1 came in ( which were not a few;) and the fe 
were the men that they called Puritans, and on fuch ac- 
counts, i^fnd what could the Prelates and Preachers of 
the Land have done more to mens damnation , then to 
preach them into an hatred of Puritanifm, when it was 
known by all that lived among them, that Piety was £tu*i- 
tanifm in their account, and no man was fo free from it, 


The Preface* 19 

as he that would (corn at the very name of Holinefs, and 
drink and fwear^as if he had defied God. This is true, 
And England knows it : and if you will after this think 
that you have wtfed your mouths clean, by faying as M* 
Piexcejhat by Puritans,^ means none hut \jnen of bloody 
{edition, violence* deffifers of domnion, fainted fepul- 
chres 3 Prote(iants frightened out of their wits, &c. J the 
righteous God that loveth rigbteoufnefs, and hath [aid, Be 
ye holy for I am holy^ will make you know to yeur penitent 
or tormenting forrow, that the thing which commonly was 
refuted Puritanifm in England, was no fuch thing as you 
defcribe : And that its none of your wifdom to kickagainft 
the f ricks, and flay with the apple of Gods eye, and bring men 
to hate the members ofChrifi,and then tell them you me ant 
the members of the Devil , and to thrufl men into Hell in 
je(i : I have heard before the King many a Sermon againft 
Puritans , which 1 judged impious % but yet had this excufe, 
that much of the auditory fartly under flood, that it was 
not Piety as fuch, that was dtrcBly reviled : And fo fer- 
hafs it might be in the Vniverfities^ and fome few intelli- 
gent auditories : but fo it was not among the common peo- 
fie through the Land. A Puritan with them was of the 
fame fignifi cation as a ierious Chriftian is with me. And 
if you bring the Land to an hatred of fuch as are called 
Chriftians, and then fay that by Chriftian s you meant 
none but mad men y feditious, bloody, Sec, you (hall anfwer 
in earneft for ffitting in the face of Chrijl in jefl ; and 
that before him that will not take your j ears or jingles, or 
adding refroach unto ref roach for afufficient excuje. 

I know alfo that the cafting out of the CMiniflers of 
your way, is much that offendeth you : concerning which I 
(ball only jay, that 1 meet with none, or very few that pro- 
fefs not their willingnefs that all men ef your mind that 
truly fear God, and arc able and diligent, fhculd be kept in. 

(*i) And 

zo The preface. 

And if you be angn f:r the cafltng out of the igncrant^ 

\ negligent or (candalous. there's no remedy. 
But bt ailamedto reproach us for cafltng cut f u:h from 
. :-:::of Chrijl^ as JuXnn the A poft Ate would have 
1 cafi cut from the Pnejihood of his Idols : and let us crave 
jour leave to expect as much Devotion in the fervants of 
Gbrifc us he txpecied in his enemies. Vid. J>u<ian. Oper 
pag.549.550, 55 r, <$*■ fragment. [ Faceffant itaque 
procul a nobis illeberales joci\ ac petulans omne col. . - 

quium In hisoccupanda hint ftuc ; a, & cum 

privatim, turn publice Diis fape fupplicandum eft j 
maximequicem tercedie : fin minus, faltcm diluculo 
: .ub velperam. Neque en:m Sacerdotem decet,diem 
ullumac nodtem fine facrificio tranfigere. Eft autem 
ut initium ciei ciiuculum, ita nodtis vefpera. Itaque 
rationiconfentaneum eft, ut amborum intervallorum. 

veluc primitive quaedam Diis confecrentur ► 

Equidem fie ftatuo, facerdotem oportere nodtes atque 
dies puru.ii fe ab omnibus & integrum fervantem 

f-5 5 5. Non enim mediocriter adverfus Deos 

delmquimuscum iacras veftesoftentamus, & omnium 
oculis canquam mirun aiiquid cbjicimus. Ex q;j^ id 
accidie, ut cum multiad nosimpuri homines accedant, 
facra :ila Dec-rum fymbola contaminentu;. At vero 
nosfacerdotaliuti vefte, ntfi ut faCerdotibus dignum 
eft vlcaai inftituamus, id ipfum noxas om-.es crimi- 
num.ac Deorum maxime contemptum in (efe conti- 

net. Adobfca?na ilia theatrorum fpedhcu'a nullus 

omnmofacerdos accedat — neque cum hiftrione ullo 
vel auriga, vel Ultatore. fit amicitia conjunclus, ad 

eorumve roras accedat. Placeateos ex omnibus 

conftitui qui in Civitatibus optimi funt, & imprimis 
quidem Dei; deinde vero hominum amantiflimos quof- 
que,five pauperis fint ; fivedivites. p.5 57. Duo- 

The Preface. 2 1 

bushifcepicTditusfitornamcntiSj Religione erga De- 

um, & in homines benignitate • Ec Epift. 49. 

p 203. [ Sed velim omnes noftrosfacerdotes omnino, 
qui Galatiam incolunt, vel minis impellas, vel ratione 
perfuadeas, utfint honefti-, vel facerdotali minifterio 
abdices, finon una cum uxoribus, liberis, & famulis 
Diis colendis fedulo animos attendant — Deinde fa- 
cerdotem quemque hortare ne accedat ad fpe<5tacula, 
neve in tabernabibat, neu'artem aliquam aut opificium 
turpe infameve exerceat. Etqui tibi in his rebus mo* 
rem gerunt, eis honorem tribuito : qui autem rciiftunt 
expellito. ] Leg. & fragm. Epift. 62. We crave your 
leave to ufe the Presbyters as ftrittlyas Julian did thefe 
Priefls, andtoexpefias much fiety and Jofoiety in them 5 
and that you will not condemn allthofefor Puritamfmjhnt 
will not he worfe thin this Apoflate Pagan. 

And for Difciplme ^ could rve have any from your 
Efifcopacy worth the. naming, we fhould be the more re- 
concilable to it : But it hath not been, nor it cannot be. 
Common drunkards that were for twenty or thirty years 
together drunk ufually once or twice a week, and abundance 
as prophane in other kinds, were the flated members of this 
Partfl) Church where now 1 live, in the Bishops dayes • and 
were fafer from any trouble then the Puritans among them 
that would not imitate them. Let me here mind you of 
two of the following Arguments, which per fwa&e us that 
jour Prelacy is not of God, becaufe it is deftruflive if Dif- 

1. When Efifcopacy was firft known in the Church, 
every Presbyterie , or Confeflus Presbyterorum.iW a 
Bijhop; and every lresbyter had right to be a member of 
fome fuch Presbyterie. And feruuflj would you have ail 
the Presbyters in a Diocefs to be a Trcsbyterie, where your 
Bijhop mnfl prtfide for the ordinary Government of the 

( c 3 ) Diocefs 

%z The Preface. 

Diocefs as one Church ? Are you [Ir angers in England i 
Or do yzu n$t know what abundance we have that in one 
parifb are every week fcandalous } by drunkennefs , curing, 
/wearing, railing, or fuch like ? And can all the Paftors 
travail fo far to the Presbyterie (o frequently without 
ntgletting their Faftoral work f Or can all thefe people be 
perfwaded without the Magiflrates [word to travail fo 
far to an fwer for their impiety? Will they not tell us, we 
have fomewhat elfe to do f Are we not like to make them 
wait feven years and [even, before the mo{l of them can 
have a tolerable try al, when fo many hundred Parifhes, of 
which. fome one may have hundreds of obftinate fcandalous 
perfons, mu(l all go fo far, and have but one judicature ? 
2 . / befeech you give me leave but from Scripture y and 
from Br. Hammonds raraphrafe, to lay before you the 
work of a Bifhop, and then tell me whether one man, or ten, 
or an hundred can do this work for one of our ordinary Di- 
ocefs, any more then one man can build a City f 

i . A Bijhop muft be the public k Teacher of all the flock 
which he is to over fee . Andean one man undertake this 
for many [core or hundred Churches ? 

%. A Bijhop muft perfonally over fee and take care of 
all the flock, as Ignatius [peaks, enquiring of each one 
by Name - 7 andean a Bifhop know and perfonally inftrutf 
fo many hundred Parties * Thefe two parts of his Office I 
prove together : Atl.io. 20. [ I taught you publickly, 
and from houfe to houfe. 28. Take heed therefore to 
your felves and to all the flock, over which the Holy 
Ghoft hath made you Overfeers, to feed the Church 
of God which he hath purchafed with his own blood. 
3 1 . Therefore watch, and remember that by the fpace 
of three years, I ceafed not to warn every one night 
and day with tears. See Dr. Hammond on the Text, 
who tells you that it is [poke to Bifbops. 

1 Pet. 

The Preface; 2,j 

i Ptf.5.1,2,3; The Elders which are among you 

I exhort, whoamalfo an Elder Feed the flock 

of God which is among you , taking the overfight 
thereof, not by conftraim, but willingly, not for filthy 
lucre, but of a ready mind 5 neither as being Lords 
over Gods Heritage, but as enfamples to the flock 3 
See Vr. Hammond expounding it at fpohen to Bifhops, 
q. d. QTheBiihopsof your feveral Churches I ex- 
hort— take care of your feveral Churches, and 

govern them, not as fecular Rulers by force (N B) 
but as Paftors do their fheep, by calling and going be- 
fore them, that fo they may follow of their own ac- 
cord. ] 

Heb. 13.7. Remember them that have the Rule 
over you, who have fpoken unto you the word of 
God] Vr. Hammond Parapbr. QSet before your eyes 
the Bifliops and Governors that have been in your 

Church, and preached the Gofpel to you ] o all 

you Inhabitants of Yorkfhire, J^incolnfhire, Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Effex, Middlefex, Kent, Worcefterfhire, &c. 
how many of your Farijhes did ever hear a Bifbop preach 
the Gofpel to them ? 

ytrf.ij. Obey them that have the Ruleover you, 
and fubmit your felves, for they watch for your fouls 
as they that muft give account J ZX H. £ Obey thofe 
that are fet to Rule you in your feveral Churches, the 
Biihops, whofe whole care is fpent among you, as 
being to give account of your proficiency in the Go- 
fpel. 3 Q dreadful account t for him that mufl give it for 
Jo many thousands whofe faces he never [aw, and whofe 
names he never heard , much lejs did ever [peak a word 
to them I 

1 r/w.5.17. Let the Elders that Rule well be 
counted worthy of double honour , efpecially they 


2^- The Preface. 

who labour in the word and do&rine ] fee Dr. H. 
expounding it of Bijhops. 

iTkef 5.12. And we befeech you Brethren to 
know them which labour among you, and are over 
you in the Lord,and admoniili you,and toefteem them 
very highly inlovc for their works fake] Dr. H. [Pay 
all due refpedte to the Bifliops of your feveral 

Churches ] Tell us ye Parifhes 0/ England, what 

labours have Bijhops be/lowed among you ? or bow many 
of yon have they admonifbed ? and which of them are you 
hence obliged to honour for their works fake ? and is it 
them, or is it the Presbyters f 1 mention none of this as 
bLrning Bifrops for negligence • but as blaming them that 
will plead for, and undertake an impofsible task ; and 
after all with an hardened forehead will defend it with 
'violence and feparation from diffenters , when (0 many 
ages have told the world to their faces , that the under- 
taken task was never done. 

3. It is the work of Bijhops to confirm the Baptized: 
and is now made peculiar to them. D. H. {_onUeb.\i % a. 
To teach, exhort, confirm, and impofe hands, were all 
the Bifbops office in that place ] ^And if fo, then the 
examining all the perfons in a Diocejs, till they have jufl 
fat is faction that they are fit to be confirmed, and the actu- 
al! Confirmation of them aH y will be a con fider able task of 
it f elf. 

4. It is the Bifhops work to exercife Difcipltne in the 
Church, by admonlfhmg the unruly and disorderly , and 
hearing the cafe when the Church is told of thofe that have 
continued impenitent ', and openly to rebuke them, and to 
cafl them out by Excommunication, if they remain im- 
penitent and unreformed. Dr. H. on Tit. 3.10. [It is 
thy office and duty toward fuch an one, firft to admo- 
nifli him once or twice, and if that will not work upon 


The Preface, 2? 

him or reduce him, then to fee a mark upon him, to in- 
fill the cenfures on him, and to appoint all men to 
break off familiar converfe with him. ] And o what 
Abundance of work is this in the fever al parts , even in 
one Parifh, much more in a Viocefs , fee Dr. H. on 
Mat. 18.17,18. 

5. It is the Bifiops work to take the principal care of 
the poor, and their fleck, or the contributions for them, 
which contributions were made at every Ajfembly. See 
Dr. H. on 1 Cor. 12.28. *.•£ The fupream truft and 
charge was referved to the Apoftles and Bifhops of 
theChurch. So in the 41. Canon of the Apoftles: 
A Bifliop mud have the care of the monies, fo that 
.by his Power all be difpenfed to the poor by the Pref- 
by ters and Deacons •, and we command that he have in 
his Power the goods of the Church. So tfuflin Mar- 
tyr Apol. 2. That which is gathered is depofited with 
thePrefe&or Bifliop, and he helps, relieves the Or- 
phans and Widdows, and becomes the Curator or 
Guardian to all abfolutely (N B) that are in want. 
So Ignatius to Peljcarp 5 After the Lord thou fhalt be 
the 'Curator of the Widdows. And Polycarphlmk\£ 
fpeaking of the Elders or Bifhops, They vifit and 
take care of all that arc fick, not negle&ing the Wid- 
dow, the Orphan, or the poor. ] So Dr. H. read him 
further. Remember this, all you that are for our Bnglifh 
Prelacy. See that the Bi/hop be at once in every Panjh in 
hisDiccefsto receive the contributions. Or fee that you 
put aU into his hands and cuflodj : fee that he take care of 
all the poor, and widdows, and orphans, in all your Coun- 
try, and that all their monies be disbur fed by him, or his 
fpecial appointment, and be the common Ovtrfeer of the 
potir for his Diocefs. And when you and he have tryed this 
one feven years ■ come then and tell us, whether he will be 

U) *nj 

16 The Preface. 

any longer a Prelate *, or you will any longer be for Prelacy. 
In the mean timt judge in your Confciences by thefe paf- 
jages of Antiquity cited by />. H. whether the antient 
Bijliofs had one Congregation, or many (core or hundred to 
be their V a ft oral charge f 

6 . Alfo it is a fart of the Bif\)ops work to vifit the fie k, 
and pray with them^and for them, $am^.\\. Is any 
lick among you? lee him call for the Elders of the 
Church, and let them pray over him ] fee Dr. H. that 
by Elders is meant the Bifft^s % e. £ Becaufe there is no 
Evidence whereby thefe ( inferiour Presbyters ) 
may appear to have been brought into the Church fo 
early, and becaufe xi^Cvn^t in the plural, doth* no 
way conclude that there were more of thefe Elders 
then one in each particular Church (any more then 
that the fick man was bound to call for more then one ) 
and becaufe np*Afr*«J Elders of the Church was both 
in the Scripture ftile, and in the firft writers the title 
of Bifhops ; and laftly, becaufe the vifiting of the fick 
is anciently mentioned as one branch of the Office of 
Bifhops 5 therefore it may very reafonably be refolved, 
that the Bifhops of the Church, one in each particular 
Church, but many in the Univerfal, are here meant 3 
fo far Dr.H. Remember all you that are all for Prelacy fo 
fend for the Bifhopwhen you are fick, every perfon in the 
Diocefsy according to this exprefs command: And if be 
would do his work by a Deputy, remember, that in alt that 
Diocefs which was the Bijnops charge in the Scripture* 
times, there wm no Presbyter exifient but himfelf, as is 
here confeffed. So in the following words the fame Learned 
Dr. further preveth from Antiquity , [ that one part of 
the Bifhops office is fee down,that they are t^wfrrif^ni 
ntrmt «ftrr&, thofe that vifit all the fick ] Let us have 
fuch Bifhops as can and will do this, and enr Controverfie 
will fom be at an end about Epifcopacy. Were 

The Preface. 27 

Were it not that 1 have fpoken of tbefe things after- 
wards^ and fear being tedious, I fhould have fhewed, that 
7. Baptizing , 8. Congregating the Affemblies , 9. 
Admwi firing the Lords Suffer ', 10. Guiding the x^Affem- 
hly in the whole publick worfhip , 1 1. Blefiing the people 
at the difmifsion , and 12. Absolving the penitent ; and 
wore then all thefe were the works of the ancient Epifcopal 
function. And now I leave it to the Conscience of any 
man that hath a grain of Confcience left him, whether 
one man be able, were he never fo willing, to do any one 
of all thefe duties, much lefs to do all of them for many 
hundred Parities ? Can a Bifhop teach them all, and Ca- 
techife and confer with all, and counfail, and comfort, and 
admonifh all, and Govern all, and try all cafes of every 
fcandalous impenitent per (on of fo many thoufand , and 
Cenfure, and Abfolve, and Confirm, and Try them for 
Confirmation , and receive all the Churches flock, and be 
tie Overfeer of all the poor, and take care of all the Or- 
phans and Widdows, and vi ft } counfail, and pray with all 
theftck, and guide every Congregation in publick worfhip, 
and give the Sacrament to all, and pronounce the Blejsing 
in every Affembly , &c. and this for a whole County or 
more i wonderful, that ever this fhould become a Con* 
trover fte among men, that vihfe others as unlearned and 
unwife in comparifon of them ? I muft lay by refpeff to 
man fo far, as plainly to profefs 9 that I take thefe for fuch 
errors as muft need proceed from want of Piety and Con- 
fcience, and practice of the duties that are pleaded for. If 
thefe men did not talk of Governing a church, as thofe 
talk of Governing a Navy, an Army, or a Commonwealth^ 
that never fet their hand to the work, it is not pofsiblc fare 
that they fhould thus err. o how many gift hops never tryed 
what it is to Govern the Church, or faitkfullj perform 
any one of all thefe works ! / folemnly profefs^ that with 

(dz) the 

z8\ The Preface. 

*be help of three more fellow Presbyters y and three or 
four Deacons fe fides the greater help of abundance of Godly 
people here in their places, 1 am not able to do all this as tt 
fbould be done, for this one Panjl). And yet thegreatefi 
part of our trouble is taken off, by therefujalof the mul- 
titude of the ungodly to come under ' Dtfcipltne , or bz 
members of our Pafl oral charge, Sirs, thefe are not fcho- 
la flick (peculations ! J he everlafting foj or Torment of 
our people lyeth upon the fuccefful performance of thefe 
works {as we that are Chnftians verily believe ) K^ind 
therefore to Difpute, whether One man fhould do all this 
for a Diocefs y is all one as to Difpute, whether zt [ball all 
be undone or no? and that is, whether we (hall give up 
our Countries to the Devi or no ? And flail the Prela- 
tical Cont rover fe come to this ? Tou have no way to avoid 
it i but by Delegating your power to otlurs, and cafling 
your work upon them. But you confefs that this was 
never done in Scripture-times, there being then no Subject 
Pesbyters to whom it might be committed. And by what 
author ity then cm you do it? Can Epifcopacy be transferred 
by Deputation to another? This is long ago confuted by 
many writers, Popifl and Proteftant* Do the work by am* 
ther^ and you (ball have your wages by another. And 
what is your Office, but your Authority and obligation 1 9 
do your work ? He therefore that you commit this to is a 
Bifhop. So that this is but to make us Deputy B i flops : 
And if fo, let us call them Bi flops. 

1 have read many of your writers of late^ that fay we 
have no Government , and faith one of them, the Yresby* 
terian Government was never yet fet up in any one Parifh 
in England] Thefe are Jlrange things to be reported t0 
Englifl men. P erf wade the world next that no man in 
England hath anofe on his face. Is it not known that 
the Presbyterian Government hath been exercifed in Lon* 


The Preface* 29 

don, in Lancafhire, and in many Counties, thefe many 
years f And what Government is it that you think we 
want t 7 he people are gujded in the matters of God by 
their fever al Paflors* The Payors live in Concord by Af- 
fociatims in many Countries. Both rafiors and People 
are Governed by the CM agi (Irate : And what need we 
more ? Look into this County where I live, and you (J) all 
find a faithful, humble, laborious CM in t fir y, Affociated 
and walking in as great unity as ever I read of fince the 
K^poflles dales* No difference, no quarrels, but fweet 
and amicable Correfpondency,and Communion, that I can 
hear of Was there fuch a Miniflry , or fuch love and 
concord \ or fuch a godly people under them in the Prelates 
reign ? There was not : I lived where 1 do : and there- 
fore I am able to (ay, there was not. Through the great 
mercy of God, where we had ten drunken Readers then, we 
have net one now : and where we had one able godly 
Treacher then, we have many now : and in my own charge^ 
where thtre was one that then made any (hew of the fear 
of God, I hope there is twenty now : And the Families 
that were wont to fcorn at holinefs, and live in open tm* 
piety i are now devoted to the worfhip and obedience of the 
Lord, This is our lofs and mifery in thefe times which you 
fo lament. 

3 . But perhaps you willrefufe Communion with us, be* 
canfe of our differences from you in doBrine about the 
Controverts called Armurian. But the fiercenefs of ma- 
ny of you hereabouts doth ferve but to dif cover your igno- 
rance anduncharitablenefs . The Papifls that differ among 
themfelves about thefe points, can yet hold Commtmion in> 
one Church', and cannot you with us f Will you be fiercer 
againfl us then the fefuites again (I' the Dominicans ? 
Nay wegp not neer jo far a* they. We cleave to Aiiguftine, 
and the Synod of Dort^ who own not Phyfical Predetermi- 
ned $) nation, 


30 The Preface. 

nation, and meddle not with Reprobation antecedent to 
fore fight of fin, and who confefs a. fufficiency in Chrifis 
fatisfaction for all. \^4nd jet mufl we have t ho fe impo- 
tent clamors, with which the writings of Mr. Pierce and 
other fuch abound f Why then do you pretend to follow 
the Church of England, which Mr. Hickman hath 
fl)ewed you plainly that you defer t f Many of the highefl 
meer Armtnians are charitable peaceable men, that hate 
Reparation from their Dijjenting Brethren. Curcelkus 
is one of the moft eminent men living of that way. And 
how charitable and peaceable an Epifile bath ht writ before 
D. Blondels book de Papifla Joanna ? And 1 hear that 
Mr. Hoavdythe Author of the Book called Gods Love to 
mankind, lives in peaceable Communion with the Neigh* 
hour Minifters in Effex. And 1 havt had Letters from 
many of that way with whom I Correfpond, full of Chri- 
flian Love and Piety, and hatred of calumny and feparati- 
ons. But verily 1 mufl tell you, that when we find an) of 
you in your writings and Sermons making it your work to 
vilifie the LMiniflry, and with the Quakers to make them 
odious to the people, and making your jeers, and railings 
and uncharitablenefs the life of your Sermons , we cannot 
but fufpett that you are Popifh Emiffaries, while we find 
you in their work, or elfe that you are Malignant Enemies , 
and of the ferpentine brood , whofe heads fl)all (hortly be 
hruijed by the Lord. 

4. And if it be the difufe of your Common Prayer that 
you feparate from us for, I would know of you, whether 
you would have denyed Communion with all that lived be- 
fore tt had a being, if this be your Religion, 1 may ask 
you, where was your Religion before Luther ? before King 
Edwards dates ? If you fay in the Mafs book {and what 
elfe can you fay ? ) I ask you then, where was it before the 
Mafs book had a being ? Would you have denyed Commu- 

The Preface. 3 j- 

nion to the Apo files and all the Primitive Church for Jome 
hundreds of years, that never ufed yeur Book of Common 
Prayer ? will you flillmake things indtfferent, necejjary t 
2. One word to thofe of you that follow Grotius • / 
have /hewed that he profefjeth himfelf aPaptft, even in 
that VifcufAon which CM r Pierce fo magmfieth as excel- 
lent. 1 hear Mr. Thorn dike and others defend him : and 
feme think 1 injure him by calling him a Papift. Wonder- } 
ful ! what will not he a Contr over fie among learned men ? 
%^ire we fain among fuch that deny him to be a Papift^ i 
that profeffeth exprejly to be fatisfied, if evil manners be 
but corrected, (and fchool- opinions not impofed) which , 
are contrary to Tradition and all Councils? and that pro- 
feffeth to own the Creed and Council of Trent, and all the" 1 
Poptfh Councils whatfeever, and the Miftrifhip of Rome, 
and the Catholick Mafier(hip of the Pope governing the^ 
Catholick Church according to theft Councils t What is 
s Papift if this be none ? 1 refer you to my Evidence in 
the Difcovery of the Grotian Religion, and the firji Chap. } 
gf the fecond Part of my Catholick Key, replying to Mr. 
Pierce. Confute it rattonally if you can. 1 jha/J now only 
defire you when you have read Rivet, to read a Book 
called Grotius Papizans, and to hearken to the teftimonj 
of an honcft^ learned Senator of Paris, that admired Gro- 
tius, and tells you what he is from his own month : and ^ 
that is, Claud. Sarravius, who faith in his Epiftol.pag. 
52,53. adGronov. [ De ejus libro & libdlo poftremis 
interrogatus,refpondit plane Milleterio Confona, Ro- ] 
manam fidem effe veram & finceram, folofque Cleri- 
corum mores degeneres fchifmati tiedifle locum •, adfe- - 
rebatque plura in hanc fententiam. Quid dicam * 
Merito quod falfo olim Paulo Agrippa -^ *to*& <n ylvv*'** 

«< vavida 7n?;T9i™'. Deploro veris lachrymis tantam ' 

ja&uram ]" Here you have a credible witnefs^that from 


3 2, The Preface. 

his own mouth reporteth it, that our Reformation was to 
Grotius a fcbi(m>and nothing but the ill manners of the 
J Clergy gave us the opportunity. Andpag. 190. Epifl. ad 
Salmaf. Q Vis ergo me exerte dicere quid ientiam 
de poftremo Grotii libro i & an omnia mihi in eo pro- 
bentur < Rem rogas non magnam,nec adeo difficilem, 
quemque expedire promptum eft. Tantum abeft ut 
omnia probem, ut vixaliquid in eo reperiam, cui fine 
conditione calculum apponam meum. Veriflime dixit 
ille qui primus dixit, Cr<tf/«wPapizare. Vix tamen in 
ifto icriptoaliquidlegiquodmirarer, quodve «t>s^x». 
4»i occurreret. Nunquidenim omnes iftiufmodi ejuf- 
dem authoris lucubrationes erga Papiftarum errores 
perpetuam 7vy&T*c*.ar & pu'4^ erga Jefuitasamorem, 
erga nos plus quam Vatinianum odium produnt & cla- 
mant: In Voto quod ejus nomenpr^ferebat, an veri* 
tus eft ha?C7r*?*^i;^ profited? 3 

Had none ofjou owned Grotius his Popery,! would never 
have charged it on you. But when Grotius himfelf glorU 
eth of his adherents in England, and fo many of you 
plainly defend him, and profefs four owning of thofe hooks, 
and thofe deftrines in which his Popery is contained, ( if 
ever Popery were known in the world ) / muft then crave 
your pardon, if I think [omewb&ttbeworfe of Popery, be- 
came thcj that hold it are ajhamedofit. For 1 abhor that 
Religion which a man hath cauje t6 be afhamed of, and will 
not Jave him from being a lofer by it, that owneth it, and 
(landeth to it to the lafi. And I think that man hath no 
Religion, who hath none which he wtll openly profefs and 
flana to. 

1 have at this time but the fe few requefls to make to 
you, which 1 befeech you to anfwer without partiality. 
1. That you will jerioufly confider 9 whether it be truly 
Catholick) to-mchurcb us^and fo many Churches of Chrijl 


The Preface. 1} 

as art of ourmind^as jour partakers do? Becaufe Ca- 
tholicifm is jour pretenfe^ ccnfider whether jou he not 
further from it then mo ft pfple in the world f 

2. Becaufe I conceive this Bcok is not fuitedto jcur 
great objections, I defire ycur perufalof another that comes 
out with ity called A Key forCatholicks 3 efteciallytbe 
fecond Part^ and if jou cannot anjwerthem^ take heed 
how you continue Papifts* 

3. While you hold us for no Minijlers or Churches, or 
Capable cf jour Communion, it is in vain for us to hope 
for Communion with you : but we de fire that jou will eon- 
fider of thofe terms of a more dijtant fort of Communion, 
which there I have propounded in the End of the fir ft and 
fecond Part : and denj us not that much, 

4. At leaft we befeecbyou, that while you are Papifts^ 
jou will deal openly^ and no worfe with us then fober Papifts 
that fpeak according to their Conferences ufe to do. Do not 
let it {as the Lord Falkland (peaks ) be in the Power of 
fomuch per annum (nor of your faclious interefl) to 
keep jou from prof ef sing your fe Ives to be what you are$ 
and do not make the Prottftantname a mter cloak tofecure 
jou in the oppofxng of the Proteftant Canfe^ and follow not 
the example 0/Spalatenfis, and the Counfelof Campian 
and Par tons , in feigning a fort of Doctrinal Puritans^ and 
railing at Protectants under that name. Deal wii h us but 
as fober Papifts do^ and we fhall take it thankfully. How 
highlj doth Bodin a Learned Papift extol the Presbyterian 
Difcrpline at Gen^vah from its effects, rvhen among ma- 
nj of jou it hath as odious titles as if it wtte jeme blafpbc- 
-meus damning thing. What fober Ptpift would talk as 

Mr. Pierce doth p. 30. of the great abomination of 

the Presbyterian Directory,] and net be able to name 

■ one thinz in it that is abominable. Is it a treat abomina- 

tion to exhort And direcJ mm to preach, andirtj, ana 

34. The Preface. 

praife God) &C t If it be the Omifsion of his forms and 
Ceremonies , that is no Part of the hock ; and if it be fome 
Directions that are againft them, they that revile the 
Common Prayer beok y as mo ft Papifts have done^ cr they 
that count fuch Ceremenies and Forms indifferent things 3 
as others have done, have little reafon to account that [o 
great an abomination that direcieth men to omit them^ 
What abominable thing is imp fed by the Directory? TeS 
us if you can. What excellent things doth Thuanus [peak 
of the Presbyterians or Calvinifts ? and how highly doth 
he extol the mtjl of their Leaders or Teachers whom he 
mentioneth ? But to Mr, Fierce 5 what a bloody perfidious 
fort of men are they, unfit to live in a Commonwealth ? 
And to Grotius 5 the P rote f ants are not only of bad lives y 
but by the Power of their Doctrine they are fucb. 1 have 
(hewed you in my Key for Catholicks hew great the 
praifes of Calvin are in the mouth of Papir. MafToniu% 
and other fober Papi/ls : and the fame may be faid of 
ethers of our Divines, who are mentioned by yen witfa 
moft calumniating odious words. Even Maldonate the 
Jefuite, when he is rail ng at the Calvinifts, cGnfcffetb of 
them y ( in Matth.7. 15, ) that [_ Nothing was in their 
mouths but, the Lord, and cur heavenly Father, and 
Chrift, and Faith 5 an Oath was not heard : nothing 
appeared in their deeds, but Almf-deed^and Tempe- 
rance, and Modefty] Is this like y^ur language of them f 
Nay, if Satan had dictated to him , 'how could he have 
uttered m^re faljhood and dete fable calumniation then 
Mr. Pierce hath done, p.75. when he faith [_ were Hac- 
ket, Lancajler^ Arthington and others hanged for Non- 
conformity i or was it nothing but Ceremonial which 
Coppinger^&c. defigned againft the lives of the whoh 
privy Council, and againft the perfon of the Queen i 
were not Cartwright y and Travers> and IVentworth, and 


The Preface. 3 ^ 

J-gertMtZnd other Presbyterian Minifters privy to the 
plot? ] The Lord will rebuke this fl an derous tongue. Did 
ever Cochl#us, cr Bolfeck go beyond this man? Hew 
fu-ly is it known that Hacket and his Companions were 
Grundletonians or Familifts, jujl fuch as James Nailor, 
and the Quakers ', ( who are far nearer the Papifls then the 
Puritans or Presbyterians ) and that they madly came 
into London, Coppinger and Arthington, as his two 
Prophets, proclaiming Hacket to be $efus Chrifi •, and 
that for objlinate infixing en this Bla/pbemy, Hacket 
was hanged, and dyed blaffheming, and Arthington up- 
on his Repentance publifiedthe whole Story ef the begin- 
ing and progrefs of the bufinefs, as you may fee it in the 
Book called Arthingtons Sedu&ion. In which their 
madnejsy bla/pbemy, cr any Treafon of theirs or others, 
this man might as hone ft ly have faid, that Auguftine, 
cr Luther, or Cranmer had an hand, or were privy to the 
plot, as Cartwright, Travers, and fuch Presbyterian 
M'wtfters. What be bath read in Bancroft, / know not, 
nor much regard, till Bancroft himfelf be better cleared 
ef what he u by writers charged with, concerning Ficlerus, 
"DQ\mzn,(^c,4ndwhilehewas known to be the mo ft vio- 
lent persecutor of the Puritans. But I fee as the Papifts 
will take it for a currant truth, that Luther was fetcht 
away by the Devil, and that Calvin was ftigmatized for 
Sodomy, and dyed blafpheming, &c. // they can but (ay, 
that one Cochlceus or Bolfeck of their own hath ffoke it 5 
fo fuch men among us dare tell the world the mc ft odious 
falfhoods of Cartwright^ Travers, and the Presbyterian 
Minifters, if they can but fay, that Bancroft fed it before 
them. And now the reft may take it as unqueflionable, 
when Mr. Yxticthath faidiu Dothefe men believe that 
there is a day of Judgement ? if they do, they make but 
lamentable preparation for it. ^yindhis affertim pag-77* 

( e 2 ^ that 

^6 Ihe Preface. 

that [Excommunicating Kings and killing them is 
the doftrine of the Presbyterians] and much mere of 
his mixing is of the fame kind. To this I h Ave given him 
an Anfmr in my Key for Catholicks, where he Jhall 
fee whether Papijts or Proteftants are for King-killm? I 
Badyeu not gone fo far beyond fuch moderate Papifls 
as Caffandcr, Hofpitalius, Maffonius, Bodin, Thua- 
\\\\%,&e> in your enmity and bitternefs again (I the Prote- 
cts, as clearly to contradicJ them, and to fpeak blond. 
and venom, when they fpeak charitably, and honourably 
we might have had more peaceable neighbours of you,t hough 
none of your Communion. 

And J fuppofe that thofe who fep.tr ate from us, as 
having no true CMiniftry or Churches, would have all 
theft Mmiflers that thty take for none, tobe file need and 
ca ft out. 1 do not think you will deny this tobe your dt~ 
fire, and your purpofe, if ever you fhould have power ? 
And if fo, what men are you f and what a cafe would 
you bring this Nation in & To your objections I have 
anfwercd in this book, and jaid fomewhat more to you in 
another Preface. And upon the whole matter am forced 
now to conclude, that it is an Enmity to holinefs in nn- 
fantf/fied hearts that u the principal caufe of ourdiftame 
and divifions * and that the way to convince fuch men> 
as too many are that we deal with, is not Difputing, but 
fraying to the Lord to change their hearts : And that if 
■we could once ferfwade them but to the Love of Cod and 
Holinefs, and to aferious fraeliceofChrijlian Religion,and 
{if thy be Bifhops) to a faithful practice of thofe works of a 
Bishop which they confefs are his duty, and to tryChurcb-Go- 
vernment before they plead for what was never tryedby 
them.ourControverfies would then be ended: they would ne- 
ver more plead for fuch a Prelacy that deftroyeth Piety, and 
I^fcipline, nor never revile the Servants of the lordi 


The Preface. 37 

nor never defire [o much to promote the work of Hell, as 
thecafling out all that they account no Minlfters^ and the 
c a fling off of all that they account no Ordinances or valid 
jdmini/lrat/ons, would be. Farewel Difputing with fuch 
men, in order to their Conviction, and an healing peace. 

Hocnon eft artis, fed piecatis opus. 


WHat the Publisher of Dr. Stewards 
Sermon doth mean by his Commmend- 
ing it to my Confederation } when there is 
not a word in it that I am concerned in more 
then he, I underftand not. If he thereby in- 
timate, that I charged Dr. Steward to be of 
Grotiut'S Religion ,or any other that difowneth 
it, he egregioufly abufeth his Reader and 
himfelf. If he intend to argue that none of 
the Prelatical Party were Grotians y becaufe Dr. 
Steward was not : Let him prove his Confe- 
rence • Idifproveit, 1. From the teftimony 
of Grotius himfelf. 2. From the mouths and 
books of thofe that have owned Grotius 
among us, even fi nee they were acquainted 
with his judgement, and have owned his Vq* 
turn <s^ Vifcujsio in particular. If his meaning 

1*3.) be 


be that QDr. Steward was a Grotian, and yet 
no Papift : therefore Grotians are no Papifts 3 
one branch of his antecedent is falfe : Either 
he was no Grotian, or he was a Papift. Again 
I profefs, that it is far from the defire of my 
foul, to raife fo much as the leaft fufpicion 
on any that own not the Doftrine and De* 
fign of Grotius. Difclaim it 7 and we are fatif- 
fied. Dr. Heylin was taken for as hot an 
antipuritan as mod in England • and yet C in a 
moderate Letter to me ) he difclaimeth Groti- 
nnifm' which I mention, partly left any , by 
my naming him on another occafion in that 
Book, mifconceive me to have accufed him 
of this, and principally to difcourage the de- 
fenders of Grotius, when fuch men as Dr. 
Heylin and Dx . Steward are againft them. 


The Contents, 

Dispuation i. 

H ether it be Neceffarj or Profitable to the right 
Order or the Peace of the churches of Eng- 
land, that we reflore the extruded Epifco- 
pacyf Neg. 

Peace with Epifcopal Divines to be fought, 

The Nature of Church-Governmem opened, pag, 5. to 14. 
Twelve forts of Bi[hops to be diflingnifred, pag. -14, 1 y. 
Which of theje way be admitted for Peace, pag. 1 6. 

Unfixed General Miniflen to do the Ordinary part of the 

Apo files work, are to be continued : proved, pag.21 ,2 2. 
What Power Ape files had over other CMinifters, p. 23, 

to 30. 
The Authors Concefsions for Epifcopacy, pag. 30, 3 1 . 
Arguments againft the EngUJh Prelacy* T. It deftroyeth 

Govtmment and its end, pag. 3 2. 

2. It gratifieth Satan and wicked wen, pag.36. 

3 . It unavoidably caufeth divifiens, pag. 3 7. 

4. It fufpendeth or degradeth all the Presbyters, pag. 38. 

5 . It maketh Lay- men church-gevemors. 

6. Andepprcfjeth the Btfiops with guilt, pag-44- 

7. It 

The Contents. 

7. It is the product of pride, P a g*4T - 

8. It gratifieth lazy Miniflers, pag.4^. 

9. It is net of Gods Inftitution, pag.48. 

10. It is contrary to Gods word, pag 51. 

11. It is unfafe, as never ufcdin Scripture times. 

How fully the fuppofition is granted us, pag. 5 8, 5 9. 

Many Reafons proving that the Apo files ( who de fa&o 
are confefjed by Br. H. to have fetledno fubjecJ Pref- 
bytersin Scripture times, but one Bifhop over one ftated 
Congregation) intended not the changing of this Order 
afterwards, pag 63. to 74,&c. 

More Arguments that Diocefan Bifbops are no Scripture- 
Bifhops, pag 75. 

They are contrary to the $ewifh and Apoflolical Govern- 
ment, pag-7^77- 

Proved by two Arguments more 9 pag.83,84, 

J he Confession of Epifcopal writers, pag.8 5 , 86. 

Again ft Diocefan Bi(hops ( of many Churches) the Tefti- 
monyof Clemens Romanus^.87. (with GrotiusV ex- 
po fit ion, pag 88. 

Of Polycarps and Ignatius (whe is full againfl them) 


of Iuftin Martyr, and Gregory Ncoc^farienfis , 

Tertullian, pag.93,94. 

of Clemens Alexandr. and from the late divifion of 

ParifheSy pag. 96. 

Ninius tefiimony cited by Mr. Thorndike of 365. Bi- 

jhopricks planted by Patrick /# Ireland , pag. 96, 97. 

More cited by Ufher, pag.97. 

The Teflimonies of Councils, pag.98, to 103. 

Many weighty Confequents of the proved pint, pag. 103. 


"I he Contents. 


TFiofe who Nullifie our prefent Miniflry and Churches 
which have not the Prelatical Ordination, and teach 
the people to do the Itke, do incur the guilt of grievous 
A Preface to the Dijfenters, pag. i op. 

One Letter of a Minijler of another County that openeth 
the Necefsity of this Difputation^ pag. 127. 

Chap, 1 . A Minijler of Chrifi defined, pag. 130, 

Whether [pedal Grace he NeceJJary to the being of a Mi- 
nifies pag.130^3 1 - 
What Qualifications are Neceffary, pag . 1 '3 2 , 
Minijler s chrifts officers, pag .133. 
lMuJI be feparated to the work, P a g I 34* 
Who are the true objeils of the Miniftry, pag. l^^&c. 
Whether the Paftors or Church be fir ft, p. 1 3 6. 
Whether a particular Church or the Vniverfal be firft, 

7 he Paftors work in a particular Church, p. 1 3 7. 

Bow far Intention is Neceffary to the Validity of an admi- 
niftration, p. 13 8. 

A Call to exercife after a Call to office, p. 1 39. 

Chap. 2. of the Nature and Ends of Ordination, (hew- 
ing what it is that is the Ordainers work, and what not b 

Chap. 3. Humane Ordination not of Con fi ant Necefsitj 
to the Being of the Miniftry, fMy proved, p. 1 5 o. 

Chap.4. An uninterrupted Succession of Regular Ordi- 
nation is not of Necefsitj, p. 1 68. proved. 
Chap. 5. Ordination by fuchas the Englifh Tr elates, not 
Necefsary to the Being of the Minijlry, proved, p.i 78. 

(/) objections 

The Contents. 

Objections Anfwered. 

Chap 6. Ordination efpecially at this time by Engltfh 
Prelates is unnecessary, p. 1 90. 

Chap. 7. The Ordination ufed now /# England, and in 
etlnr $ rote ft ant Churches is valid and agreeable to Scri- 
pture, and the practice of the anient Church, p. 19&. 
full j proved : and fo our Mini fry vindicated, by twenty 

Chap. 8. Thegreatnefs of their fin that are now labouring 
to per (wade the people of the NuUity of our CMiniftry, 
Churches and Adrniniftraticns : Manifefted in forty 
aggravations , p. 2 40 . 

Chap. p. ihe ftnfnhefsof defpiftng or neglecting Ordina- 
tion, P-25** 

7 he difiintf power of Paftors, People and Magiftrates to 
cur Call, P*2 53» 

Approbation of Paftors muft be [ought, p. 2 5 8. 

WhatPaftors fh$uld be fought to for Ordination, p. % 66. 


Disputation 3. 

AH Epifcopacy defirable for the Reformation, Prefer- 
vat ion, and Peace of the Churches, p. 2 74« 

Chap. 1. pf General unfixed Bijhops or CMinifters , 


Chap. 2. of fixed Paftors, that alfo participate in the 

work of the unfixed, p. 286. 

Chap. 3. It b lawful for the fever al Affociations of 

Paftors, to choofe one man to be their Preftdent durante 

vita, // he continue fit, p.2^7. 

What power fhall fuch have ? p»30i. 

Chap. 4.^ It is lawful for the Presbyters of a particular 

Church to have a fixed Preftdent for life, p. 3 07. 

Chap. 5. 

The Contents. 

Chap. 5 . Objections again [I the forementioned Prefidency 
an [were d, p. 31 6. 

Gup. 6. The fumm of the foregoing Proportions > and the 
Conft/lency of them, with the principles of each party, 
and fo their aptitude to reconcile, p.335. 

Chap 7. Some Inftances proving that moderate men will 
agree upon the forementioned terms, p. 3 39. 

Btfhop Halls full Confent, p. 340,341. 

Dr. Hide ( of the new party ) ftigmatizethhis hook with 
the brand of irrational Separatifm and Recufancy , 


Bijhop Ufliers full Confent to us, p. 344. with Dr. Hold!- 
worth.*, and Dr. Forbs. 

The Presbyterians Confent to the fame terms. Mr. Gata- 

kers, Mr. Gerees, /fo London P™ww,BezaV,Cal- 

vins, Mr. Rich. Vines in two Letters : Bijhops can 

\have mother power over Paftors of other Churches, then 

the Synods have \ P'347>348- 

Presbyterians for a church of one Congregation, p. 348. 

The Polonian Prot eft ants Government, p. 3 5 3 . 

; — 

Disputation 4. 

Whether a ftinted Liturgy or Form of worfhip be 
a deftrable means for the peace of thefe churches ? 
Propofition. 1. A ftinted Liturgy is in it felf lawful, 


Prop. 2. A ftinted Liturgy in fome parts xf pnblick holy 

fervice is ordinarily neceffary, p. 3 6 J . 

Prop. 3. In thofe parts of publick worship where a form 

is not cf ordinary necessity, but only Lawful, yet may ?t 

not only be Jubmittedto, butdefred, when the peace of 

tht Church doth accidentally require it, p . 3 6 7. 

(/a)- Prop.4, 

The Contents. 

Prop 4, So great is the difference between men and men, 
times and timts, that forms may be a duty to fome men, 
and at fome times, and a fin to other men, and at other 
times, , P«368. 

Prop. 5. The Minifters and Churches that earnefily deftre 
itflould not by the Magi fir ate be absolutely and generally 
prohibited the ufe of a convenient flint ed Liturgy, p. 3 72. 

Prop. 6. To prescribe a form of prayer, preaching ( or 
other fervice where is no necessity of it ) and to lay a 
JVecefsity on it , as to the thing it [elf, or the Churches 
peace, &c. and to punifh, filence, fufpend, excommuni- 
cate, or reproach as Schtfmaticks the able , godly, peacea- 
ble Minifters or People that (juftly or unjuflly) dare not 
ufe it, is fo great a fin, that no godly Minifters fheuld 
deftre or attempt it, nor any godly Magi firati fuffer it, 

Prop. 7. The fafeftway of compofmg a ftinted Liturgy^ 
is to take it all, or as much as may be 9 for words as well 
as matter, out of the holy Scripture, P'37^. 

Prop. 8. Tet is it lawful to ufe a Liturgy that is not fo 
taken out of Scripture as to words, p. 3 80. 

Prop. p. The matter of a Liturgy in which the Concord 
of many is expetied, mufl not be doubtful or unneceffary 
things, ibid. 

Prop. 10. Humane forms of publick prayer or other wot- 
fhip {excepting thefore-excepted neceffary cafes , as 
PfalmSjC^v. ) fhouldnot beconftantlyufedby Minifters 
that have liberty, and are able to pray without them : 
Nor [houldany ( ordinarily) be admitted into the Mi* 
niftry ( except in great Necessities of the Church ) 
that are not able to pray without fuch forms, p.381. 

Objections on both fides, p. 3 8£. 

The fumm of this Difpute, P-3P3. 

Di s p. 

The Contents. 

Disputation. 5. 

Qu. \7\7^ €t ^ €r humane Ceremonies be Neceffary or 
▼ V Profitable to the Church ? p.39 5 • 

Chap. ! . VifiinBions and Propofttions in order to the deci- 
fion, ibid. 

Chap. 2, Ceremonies forbidden, or which man bath not 
power to infiitute, are not to be impofed as profitable er 
lawfully. 399. which thofe be. 

Jnftances of all our commonly controverted Ceremonies 
confidered, P.40P. 

Chap. 3. In fuch unlawful imp options it is an aggrava- 
tion of the fin, if Ceremonies are pretended to be Di- 
vine, P'4*5» 

Chap.4. If* things unlawful are commanded as indiffe- 
rent, or things indifferent as neceffary, they are fin fully 
impofediand the more, becaufe offuchpretenfes^.qiy. 

Chap. 5. A lawful and convenient thwgis fmfully im- 
pofed, when it is impofed on a greater penalty then the 
nature and ufe of it doth require, or then the common 
goodwill bear, p«4*P. 

Chap. 6- It is not lawful to make any thing the fubjeBs 
duty by a Command, that is meerly indifferent antece- 
dently, both in it felf and as cloathed with its accidents , 


Chap. 7. Some things may be lawfully and profitably 

commanded at one Time and Place , and to one fort of 

People, that may not at, or to another, no nor be obeyed 

if commanded, P43P. 

Chap. 8. Thofe orders may be profitable for the peace of 

the Churches in one Nation, that are not necefjary to the 

peace of the Churches of manj Nations, P«44J« 

Chap. 9 . There is no meer Humane Vniverfal Soveraign y 

(/3 ) Civil 

The Contents, 

Civil er Ecclefiaftical over the whole Church, And there- 
fore none to make Laws obligatory to the whole, p.44.8 . 

Chap, io, If it be not our Lawful Governors that com- 
mand us, but ufurperSy we are not formally bound to 
cbej them, though the things be lawful which they com- 
mand, - P'4^2- 

Chap. 11. The Commands of lawful Governors about 
lawful Ceremonies, mufl be under flooA and obeyed with 
fuch exceptions as do fecure the End: and not to the fub- 
vertingof it, p-45^. 

Ch*p.i2. It may be very fmful to command fome Cere- 
monies, when yet it may be the fubjeffs duty to ufe them 
when they are commanded, p. 460. 

Chap. 1 3. 7 he Conftant ufe of thinp indifferent [hould 
not be commanded ordinarily ( fee the exceptions ) 
but they fhouti be (emttimes ufedfomeiimes not y £,464. 

Chap.14. Thirty Reafons agatnjl the impofing of our late 
Controverted Mjftical Ceremonies , as Crofsing, Sur- 
plice, &c. P4<*7. 

Chap. 1 5. Reafons perfwading to Obedience in Lawful 
things, V4%3* 




pAgc io. I.4. r. had not been by tbemfelves. p.24.1.23. for Philetas, r. Alexander 
p. 30. 1. penult, for Perfett, r. President. p.3 3 .I.34,:} <;.v.the loooth. ©/3000th.' 
perfon. p.3 7 .1.34. for It, r. #. p.41.1.9. r. Presbytcric. p.72. 1. »/ r . f or that, r. ffef. 
p.77.1.24. r. occafoning. \>.j%.\.i6.x. had in.it. p.Si.Li. blot out any. LzS.for 
at all, r. all. 1. 2 9. blot out the. p.87»l-i7- for had r. have. Marg. Ly.r. ^£f~ 
tttwy. p.88.1.17. for Prelacy, r. Policarpe. I.37. for there that, r. thatthere. p.89. 
1.2. r. c^t/StV. p 93.I.3. r. k w.^,and I.34. for ^, r. ^. p.94.1.29. r. we well. 
p.95. Marg.1.3 1 . r Blondel, and 1. 33. forji«,r. <w</. p.96.f. 9 , r . Churches. p. 97 . 
I.5. for Scholar urn, r. S color um- p.ioo. Marg.l.13. forw, r. o^w p 104.I.8. for 
I mean, 1. I wave, p.106.1.4. fov that, x. the. Difp.2. Pref. p.i 17A.16.for pafs,r. 
pafe. p.118. 1.30. blot out and. p.121.1.14. r. Bijhop. p.124. l.i 7 .r. Janfeniw. 
P.T37.I.5. r. Members, p.139.1. ?• for men, r. run. p.i j 7 . 1.3.& 4 . r.pleafure & 
Vaflors,U 1.34.r. W. p.i^o.l.2. r.w#. p.163.1.1 1. for Proctors, r.Dottors.p 166. 
I.14 r.jfo itfffo. p. 1 £9.1.6. blot out «/?0#. p. 181.1. 16. r. 0W>ft/.p.i82.1.n.r./W 
yet. D.iSulult. for ^ 5 r, at. p.184. 1.3. for Ami, r. Acl.11. p.i9i.l.2 9 . forfo, 
r. the, & 1.37- for ata/e, r. depofe. p.194.1.29. for and, r. &c. p. 199.I.13. for 
^tt.ii. r. Ac~i.11. p.2i9.1.i.r. Armnm. p.229. 1.32. for three and four ^ r. ifciri 
& /bmfc. }\i4i •'!•**• for nme > r - w ^- P-*4*- 1«H- for Davenant, r. Davenport. 
P.2J3.I.18. blot out do. p.265.1.12. blot out to. p.277. l z . r. one 8c the. & 
l.ii.r.wor^. p.291. I.18. for the, r. r/wf. p. 316.1.x*. r. as their, P.317.LW. 
for Overfeers, r. 0*fcw. p-328.1.2i.r. Behmenffls. p.339. Lxtf, r, W no 'o/W. 
p.340.1.9. r.theleafl. p.3^7.1.9. r. ^fo. p.372.1.21. for he, r. the. p.409.1.34.' 
r. but what was. p.420. I.16. r. 0///;* tf *//. p.421. I16, for /to, r. rte. p ±10 

L28. r. L.tw. 



An Advertifement to prevent mif- 

j jjggg T exceeding fear city of time, con (training me 
to write t he fe Papers in much hafle^ and al- 
lowing me hut a curfory perufal of them 
when written, and the like after the printing, 
for the colleiting the Errata of the Prefs, 1 
find hy this hafly review, and by feme observation of mens 
readiness to mijunderftand?ne, that it is neceftarytofpeak 
a little more about the following particulars 5 that 1 may 
be under flood by fuch as are willing to under fl and me : and 
the miftakes of others I fhall eafily bear, 

Sed. t. Pag. 8p. There is fomewhat that requireth 
correction of the pen y and fomewhat that requireth expli- 
cation. In Iran fating that parage of Ignatius, QUnus 
panis qui pro omnibus fra&us eft] muft he written next 
[effufus eft] before [& unus Calix.] And for the fol- 
lowing ob\etHon^ though it was made by a difcreet fer- 
fon, yet I know no ground for it : nnlefs If. Voffius his 
Edition leave out i m™ ™ hx>.y,<n^'] {which I have not 
now at hand, but is likeiyefi) 1 know not >f any Greek 
copy that leaves it out. Indeed Bifiop Uihers L atine doth y 
and the Vulgar Latine leaves out the iranflatien of the 
next words before it Lto7* a*o/« c^ W^? fa ^ff&* e< ] ef which 
faith Bifay Ufher [Ex interpretation hac excidifTe vi- 
deantur.] And noUng the corruption of the Vulgar Jran- 
[lation in this very, place / there premifedtomy Anfwcr, 

( g ) thai 

itmigtat ::;.:: :. change in the Te::: 
done [o in many places, / think is eafie to f rove \ but 

>o probability (jf any 
G:tta Copy be <& is objefied : ) and the Reafons of my con- 

r or a probability j 
fu 1 think them not worth the 
txprcfsingj imt 

Though of the general I Bi : Uftiei cimfelf faying^ 

both of his La:;:.r ; '■ rju ; [Es ea ntegricati 

reft 3k Ignatkim n aufinn,3 and of 

the firjl Giztr liithn [Hanc re 
tores^ ncnex Gracoaliquo cocice a! :. fedparumeX 
ingenio, p k vctere Valgato Latinc 1 

:.-.:es~ Bpift*ad Lsc'c. 
:r.:e Ann::. &p:g.2<5 D:iftr:. 

Si:":. 2, I mmjUmtoei leufcrts . . \: that my 

drift in this writing :. -nuch to iff 4 

Government meerh as contrary t: the InJ};: or Jpc- 

.& to plead igAin% i I take- to be 

■ to the Ends of Government : Not xbat 1 ii 
not a csWifld adhering to the JAcrcd Rule^ but i . 
1 fuppcfe that many c tf D;': mat* 

mined in the Word are feigned by feme to be (mp/U**> 
: : and i ha: many matters are indtf- 
mi '~i the Peart if g if the Church 

upon. 2. I'.'— i **Ji f** haft e*9tCMtisn } that if any 
C:-. ynment contrary te m-, judgement were fet up , that 

tntly in the nature of it wrong ; 

I would Mentlylrjc under it in ua:e and quietnefs : and 

ac ) wznidbe now loth to enter a qu aw el with amy 

nm us in xolatoik m 

;w that their judgement ; to 

b< the undoing Wf 3 and to cajt Difcipline almofi 

cut of the Church, I think tt better 'to difpleafe 



them, then let them undo the Church without contra- 
diction. The be ft is, thefenous Chrtftians of this age have 
experience to help them to under ft and -the cafe 3 and I fup~ 
poft my Difputation to be unto them as if I Diluted before 
a man that is refloredfrom want, or bamfhment orficknefs, 
whether he (hould be reduced to the Condition from which he 
is re fared i 

Se<5t. 3. Some parages here will occafion the gueflion 
(as p. 5.) Whether and how far Church Government 
is jure Divino i ~\ But of this, in the main I am agreed 
with them that I difpute. Tofpeak further , my own judge- 
ment is, 1 . That the Spirit of God hath efablt/hed alhhe 
Officers and worfhip -Ordinances of his Churchy and that no 
new Church-office or Ordinance of worfhip {as to the fub- 
fiance) may be inflituted by man 5 2. But that there are 
man) Circumftantlals about the Exercife of thofe offices 
and Ordinances , that are not determined particularly 
by a Law> but are left to humane prudence to determine of, 
by /^General dire&ions of the Law. And fo I fuppofe 
that Bifhops and Presbyters are but one Office , of Gtds 
inflitution 5 but in the exercife of this Office if one for 
erder be made a Moderator or Prefident of the reft , or by 
agreement (upon a dif parity of parts or interefi) do une- 
qually divide their w ork between them y in the exercife^ it 
is a thing that may be done, and is fit where the Edifjca* 
tion of the Church requireth it, but not a thing that al- 
ways muft be done, nor is of it felf a Duty, but a thing 
indifferent. The following Cafe therefore 1 hence re- 

Se&.4. j&ejl. [Whether the Order of fubje<ft Pres- 
byters might lawfully be created by Bifhops or any hu- 
man e Power < and whether the Order of Bifhops mighc 
lawfully be created for the avoiding of Schifmby the 
content of Presbyters '. or Metropolitans by Bifhops c] 

(£2) An[»« 


Anfw. If you under ft and by the «W[Order] a di* 
ftintf Office, none may create any of thefe but God, But 
if by [Subjeft Presbyters] be meant only men of the 
fame Office with Bifhops, that do for the Churches benefit 
{abject themfelves to the diretlion or Prefidency of another, 
(upon feme dif parity in their gifts or the like ) in the 
exercife of tbit Offic^ I fuppofc that this is a thing that 
by Con fen t may be lawfully done. And fo I verily be- 
lieve that betimes in the Church it was done, ( of which 
anon.) So if by [Bifhops] be meant no diftinfl Office, 
but one of the Presbyters chofen from among the reft, to 
exercife his Mtniflery infome eminency above the re ft, by 
reafon of his greater Gifts, or for Peace and Order, I doubt 
not but it is a thing that confent may do: {^nd accor- 
dingly the Canon Law defines a Bifrop that he is [Unus 
e Presbyteris, &o] So if by [a Metropolitan] be not 
meant another Office, but one in the fame Office, by 
reafon of the advantage of his Seat, chofen to [ome acts 
of Order for the common benefit , / doubt not but it may 
be done : but every //^Indifferent things is not to be 
made Neceffary, flatedly and univerfally to the Church. 

Seft. 5. When I do in thefe Papers plead that the 
Order of Subjefi Presbyters was not inftituted in Scri- 
pture times, and confequently that it is not of Divine 
Inftitution 7 I mean as aforefaid, that as a dtftinQ Office, 
or Species of Church mini ft ers, as to the Power from 
God, it is not of Divine Infiitution, nor a lawful lnfti- 
tution of man 5 but that among men^ in the fame Office, 
fomemght Prude 'nti ally be chofen to an eminenci of de- 
gree as to the exercife ^ and that according to the difference 
of their advantages there might be a difparity in the ufe, 
of their authority and gifts, 1 thtnk was done in Scripture 
times, and might have been after, /fit had not then. And 
my judgement is^ that ordinarily every particular Church 



(fuch as our Parijh Churches arefhadmore Elders then One 
but notfuchftore of men 0/ eminent gifts as that all thefc 
Elders could be fuch . But as if half a dozen of the mvfl ju- 
dicious perfgns of this Par if]) were Ordained to be Elders, of 
the fame Office with my f elf, but becaufe they are not equally 
fit for publick preaching, [hould moft imploy tbemfclves 
in the refi of the Over fight , consenting that the publick 
preaching lie mofi upon me, and that I be the Moderator of 
them for Order in tircuwflantials : This 1 think was the 
true Epifcopacy ard Presbyter) of the fir (I times. Frem the 
mi flake of which, two contrary Errors have an fen : The one 
of thofe that think this Moderator was 0/ another Office 
in fpecie, having certain work af signed him by Cod, which 
is above the reach of the Offce of Presbyters to perform ; 
and that he had many fixed Churches for his charge. The 
ether of them that th:nk thefe Elders were fuch as are cal- 
led now Lay-elders, that is, Vnor darned men, authorized 
■ to Govern , without Authority to Preach, Baptize , or 
Adminifierthe Lords Supper. ^And fo hfhthe Prelati- 
cal on one fide, and the Presbyterians and Independents on 
the other fide, run out, and mi flake the ancient form, and 
then contend again fl each ether. {This was the fnbflance ' 
of what 1 wrote toMt. Vines, which his fubjeyned Letter 
refers to, where he fignifieth that his judgement was the 
fame.) When PaulW Barnabas were together, Paul was 
the chief fpeaker, and yet Barnabas by the Idolaters cal- 
led Jupiter. Nature teachetb us that men in the fame of 
fice fhculd yet have theprehemmence that's due to them by 
their Age, and Parts, and lnterefls , &c. and that Order 
fhculd he kept among them, as in Co/ledges and all Societies 
is ufual. The mcfl excellent part of our work is publick 
preaching, but theinolk of it for quantity is the reft of the 
Over fight of the C birch {in lnftrucl'mg per fondly, ad~ 
mom[htngj reproving, enquiring into the irntkof.accu^a- 

(2 3) H'*M 

tions, comforting, vif ting the ftck, ft abl filing the weah^ 
looking to the poor, absolving , &nfwering doubts , ex- 
communicating, and much mere,) And therefore as there 
is a necessity (as the experienced know) of many Elders in 
a particular Church of any great number, fo it u ft that 
moft hwdsfhould be mojl implojed about the (aid works 
of Over fight j yet fo as that they may preach as need and 
occafiQn requtretb {and admintfler Sacraments) and that 
the eminent Speakers be moft employed m publick pre ach- 
ing jet (e as to do their part of the reft as occafion requireth: 
And fo the former Elders that Rule well jh all be worthy 
of double honour , but efpecia/ly thefe that labour in the 
Word and Doctrine, by more ordinary publick preaching: 
And fuch kind of feldom-pr caching CMiniftcrs as the for- 
mer > were in the fir ft times, and (honhthe in moft Churches 
yet that are numerous* 

Se&. 6. When 1 fpeak in thefe Papers therefore of other 
mens Concefsions that there were de fa&o in Scripture 
times, but One Biftop without any fubjeel Presbyters to a 
particular Churchy remember that I fpeak not my own 
judgement, but urge again ft them their own Concefsions : 
i^fndwhen I profefs my Agreement with t hem , it is not 
in this 3 much lefs in all things, {for then I needed not dif- 
fpute againft them,)but it is in this much, that in Scripture 
times there was de fafto, i,No mecr Bifbop of many parti- 
cular Churches ( or ftated worshipping Congregations \) 
2. Nor any diftincl office or Order of Presbyters^ that ra- 
dically had no Power to Ordain ^or Govern, or Confirm, &C 
{which are thejubjeci Presbyters I mean.) 

Se&. 7. Specially remember that by [Y>\ft\oips~] in that 
difpute, 1 mean, according to the Modern ufe, one ihat is 
m^Archbiflwp, and yet no meer Presbyter y but one fup- 
pofed to be between both, that is, a Superior to meer Pres- 
byters in Order or office, and not only in degree or modifi- 

C 7 ~) 

cation of the exercife • but below Archbifhops {whether in 
Order or Degree : ) The[e Are they that I difpute dgainfi 5 
excluding Metropolitans , or Archbifhops from the quefiion 3 
and that for many Reafons. 

Sedi. 8. If it were prov:d or granted that there were 
Archbifyops in thofe times, of Divine Inflitution^ it would 
no whit weaken my Arguments •, For it is only the lowejl 
fort of Biflwps that I difpute about : yea it confrmeth them. 
For if every combination of many particular churches had 
an Archbifhop, then the Governors of fuch Combinations 
wete not meer Bi[hops y and then the metr Bijhops were Pa- 
nfh Bifhops, or Bi (hops of fmgle churches only : and that 
is it that I plead for, againft Diocefan Bijhops, that have 
many of thefe Churches (perhaps fome hundreds) under one 
Bifhop of the lowefl rank , having only Presbyters under 
him of another Order. 

Se&. p. If any think that 1 fhould have anfwered all 
that is written for an Apojlolical In/iitution of Metropoli- 
tans^ or of Archbifhop /> or of the fubj eft fort of Presby- 
ters^ or other points heretoucht, I anfwerthem^ 1. In the 
former my work was not much concerned * nor can any 
man prove me engaged to do all that he fancieth me con- 
cerned to do. 2. Few men love to be contradiEled and 
confuted, and I have no reafon to provoke them further then 
necefsity requireth it. 3 ./ take not all that I re ad for an ar- 
gument [0 confiderable,as to needReplyes. If any value the 
Arguments that I took not to need an Anfwer , let them 
make their befl of them : I have taken none of them out 
of their hands by robbing them of their Books $ // they 
think them valid^ let them be (0 to them. Every Book that 
we write mu(l not be in folio * and if it were , we fhould 
leave fome body un anfwered fit 11 I have not been a. con* 
temner or ncgleffer of the writings of the contrary- 
minded. But volumino'ifly to tell the world of that I 



think they abufe er are abufed in , is unpleafing and tin* 

Seft. 10. And 44 to the Jus Divinum cf limited Die- 
ceffes to the Apoftles as Bijhops , and of \-s4rchbifhops, 
Metropolitans, &c. I fh all fay but this : I. 7 hat I take 
not all for currant in matter of fact, that two, or three, or 
twice (o many fay was done, when 1 have either crofs te- 
fiimony, or valid Reafons of the improbability : 1 believe 
fuch Hiflorians but with a humane faith, and allow them 
fuch a degree of that, as the probability of their report, 
and credibility of the perfons doth require. 2. / take it 
for no proof that all that was done in all the Churches^ 
that 1 am told was done in [owe. 3. / take the Law $f 
Nature and Scripture to be the entire Divine Law^ for the 
Government of the Church and World. 4. And therefore 
if any Father or Hiftoriantell me, that this was delivered 
by the Apoftles as a Law to the Vniverfal Church, which 
is not contained in Scriptures, nor to be proved by them, 1 
will not believe them ;no more then I would have believed 
Papius and all his Millenary follower s y that pretended 
Tradition from Saint John •, nor any more then 1 would 
have believed the Afians or Romans that pretended dif- 
ferent times for Eafter^ as a Tradition ^Apoftolical bind- 
ing the whole church. 5. if it were proved that de fadto 
the Apoftles did thus or thus difpofeof a circumftance of 
Government or Worship , which yet is undetermined in 
Scripture, 1 take it not for a fufficient proof, that they 
intended that Fatl for anllniverfal Law , or that they 
meant to bind all the churches in all ages to do the like : 
no more then Chrifl intended at the Institution of his 
Supper to tie all ages to do it after Supper, in an upper 
room, but with twelve, and fitting, &c. 6. Tea if I had 
found a Direction or Command from the Apoftles , as 
Frudcntiai determiners of a Circumftance pro tempore & 



loco only (as of the kifs oflovejoatr^ov^ring^eating things 
fir angled >and blood&c.)Itake it not for a proof that this is 
an univerfal (landing Law. One or two ofthefe exceptions 
wilfhake off the proofs that (ome count flrong.forthe univer- 
fal obligation of the church to Diocefans or Metropolitans, 

Se&. ii. That the Apoftles had Epifcopal Power 
( / meanfuch in each Church where they came^ as the fixed 
Bjfiops had) 1 doubt not. Andbecaufe they founded Chur- 
ches according to the fuccefs of their labors 3 and fetkd 
them^andif they could y again vifitedtkemjherefore 1 blame 
not the Ancients for calling them the Bijhsps ofthofe Chur- 
ches. But that each man of them was really a fixed Me- 
tropolitan > or Patriarch, or had his proper Diocefs , in 
which he was Governor in chief \ and into which no other 
ApofiU might come as an equal Governor without his leave^ 
this and fuch like is as well proved by filence as by all that 
I have read for it of Re af on, or Hiflory, that is > the 7 e fit- 
monies of the dncients. I find them fometime claiming 
afpecial inter eft in the Children that they have begotten by 
their Minifiry.But doubt lefs when Paul & Barnabas or Si- 
las went together ^fome might be converted by one, and (ome 
by another within the fame Diocefs or City. if any man (hall 
convince me, that any great ftrefs doth He upon this quefiioj 
fbal be williug to give him more of my reafons for what I fay. 
Se<5k. 1 2. And as to them that confidently teach 
that the Apoftles fuited the Ecclefiaftical Government 
to the Politick, and that as b) a Law, for the [ church 
univerfally to obey: All the confutation at prefent that I will 
trouble them with^ fhallbe totelltuem, that I never (aw 
any thinglike a proof of it, to my under (landing, among 
' all the words that are brought to that purpofe : and to till 
them, i. That //Paul chofe Ephefus, Corinth, and 
other the mofi populous places to preach in, it was but a 
prudential circum/Jantiating of his work, according to that 
General Law of doing all to Edificatiun : and not an oblu 


gation on all tht Pafttrs or Freshers of the Gofpel to do the 
f ami where the Cfft U net the fame. %.Andif]?$u\ having 
converted many in thefe Cities do there plant Churches 
( and no other can be proved tn Scripture times ) tt fol- 

s not that we may plant no Chhtches but in Cities. 
$. And :f the great eft Cuies had then the mofl numerous 
C hutches and the mdfl eminent Paflots fitted to them, and 
therefore are named with feme note of excellency abc 
the rijU tt foUtwetb not that the reft about them were under 
them h fuh : ecticn. 4. Teatf the P>tfl>9ps of the chief Ci* 
ties for order fake were to call Prov.-nra! A'fembi.cs^and 
themutingsto be in their Cities, and they were te be the 
pre f dents of the refl in Synods .with fitch like wcnmfltn- 
tial difference, :t foiloweth not that they were proper Co* 
vernonrs of the re(l y and the refi to ebey them in the Go- 
vernment ifthiir proper charges. Nor that t^ey had pow- 
er to place snd difplace them. ^.XUtchlefs wi I it prove 
that thefe LMetroiolitans.tak/ng the name ofDiocefans, 
might p**t down all the B jhovs of two hundred Churches 
urfder them , and fettp none but Presbyters (in order di- 
flintl from B:(hofs ) ever the flecks, be fides them f elves », 
tndfo the Archbtjbops having extir.guifhed all the fir ft Or- 
der cf Bifhops offtngle churches, to take the fole Govern- 
ment of fomany Churches, even people as well as Pres* 
biters irio their own hands. 6. And I do not think that 
the) can prove that the K^fpoflles did inflitttte as many 

us of church -Government then, as there were of civil 
i clicy in the world. All the world had not the Roman 
form of Government ; Nor had leffer Cities the fame 
dependenceupen gres.tr, in all ether Countryes, 7. Was 
H in one degree of fubordwation sf Officers only, or in all, 
that the Afofl/es fuued the Eccleftafticall Government to 
the Civil ? If in O r e,htnv is it proved that they intended 
tt in that cr.e, ai d not in the refi'. //inal! 3 then we mufl 

have many degrees of officers , more then yet we have : 
Inferiors very many, and Superiors fome of all confidence 
too high: thenwemuft havefome to anfwerthe Correctors , 
the Confular Prefidents,andthe Vicars, and Lieutenants , 
the Pro-confuls and Prefetfs, and the Emperor himfelf : 
Even one to be Vniverfal in the Empire ( thats jet 
fome limit to the Pope, and will ha&zard the removing of 
the Supremacy to Conftantinople, by the Rule that the 
Apoflles are fuppofed to go by,) And great variety mujl 
there be in the fever a I Diocefjes of the Empire ( which 
Blondcll hath pun flu ally defer t bed dc primacu inEcclef. 
pag. 5 1 x. to 5 19. fhewing the caufes of the inequality 
of Bifhopricks and Churches. ) 8, According to this Opinion 
the form of Church mufi alter as of t as Emperours will 
change their Policy, or Warsfhxll change them I \_And up- 
on every change of the Privi ledges of a City, the Churches 
Prehminenec mttft change, and fo wejhall be in a mutable 
frame: Which if Bafil and Anthymius had under flood, 
might have quicklier decided their contr over fie. Tea ac- 
cording to this opinion, Princes may quite take down CMc- 
tropolitans at pleafure , by equalling the priviledges of 
their Cities. The befl is then, that it is in the power of our 
Civil Govermurs to diffolve our obligation to tJMetropoli- 
tans, yea and to all Btfhops too,if Cities muft be their only re- 
fidence , as Ihavefhewed. 

Se<ft. 13. As for them that pretend humane Laws for 
their form of Government, that is, the decrees of General 
Councils-, I anfwer 9 1 . Idifewn and deny all humane Laws 
as obligatory to the Church Vniverfal: It is the preroga- 
tive of God, yea thegreatefl point of the extra fe of his $0- 
raignty to be the Law -giver to his vniverfal church. 
There can be no Vniverfal Laws without an vniverfal 
Law *giver: and there is no Vniverfal Law -giver under 
Chrifl in the world, t , And for General Councils ( fince 

{hi) Scrip- 


Scripture times at leafl) there have keen nofuch things 
mr any thing like them , unlcfs the Roman Empire, yea a 
piece of it, be the whole world. 1 know t her fore no humane 
Vniverfal Laws, whether it be for forms of Government, 
Liturgies, Holydayes, or Any thing elfe. 

Se&. 14. But the principal matter that tends to end our 
d fftrence, is, the right underftanding of the Nature of that 
Government that is properly Ecclefiaflical : What is it that 
we mujl have Diocefans and Metropolitans to do f ( he fides 
what 1 have granted to Apofiolical Bifhops in the third Di- 
fpute I ) Is it to Teach or Rule the people of the particular 
Churches { J hey cannot do it at fo great di fiance, not know- 
ing them nor converfing with them ; at leafl fo well as they 
that are on the place, as the ancient Bifhops were. Is it to 
Rule the Presbyters only ? Why then hath not every Church 
a Bijhop to Rule the flock, hut a Presbyter that is forbidden to 
Rule them ( in all that which they call tfunfdiffion them* 
felvcs ) ? And how is it that Presbyters (hall be Ruled by 
Diocefans , and the Diocefans by Provincials { not by 
force : For the Pajfors have no coercive power by violence i 
or touching mens bodies oreflates. Is it by bare command- 
ing * Why what will that do on diff enters that difobey'.fhall 
they depofe the Bifhops or Presbyters that difobey 
them i But how C Not by any force, but command , or 
exhortation, or Excommunication. They can do no more 
that I know of. And what if they excommunicate a Pa- 
flor ! Let the cafe be fuppofed as now it is among us : What ■ 
if a Bijhop with the few that adhere to him, excommuni- 
cated all the Paflor sin the County that are not fatisfedof> 
the Divine Right of Diocefans, or of the Uwfulnefs of all 
his impojed Ceremonies and Forms < The people will take ■ 
it to be their duty ( mofl generally where the Miniflry hath 
been favingly effectual ) to own their rafters notwithfland- 
ingfuch an Fix communication, and the Paflor s will take it to- 

be their duty to go on with their work : audthe excommuni- 
cation will do no good(unlefs perhaps to make fome Divifion, 
and/toake both parties the [corn of the ungodly or procure 
the rabble torailmore bitterly at their P afters, arid hate 
all their advice, be a defireable good,) And as when the Pope 
excommunicated them,fomeBi\hops again excommunicated 
the rope-Jo feme of tbefe Paflors its like would txcommuni* 
cat e their Metropolitans: And why a Bifhop^orat Icafl a Sy- 
nod of BijJwps may not caft a wicked Metropolitan out of 
their communion ,is pafl my under ft anding to conceive, 

Synods are for Communion of Churches % and if we had a 
Monarchical, National church in conformity to the Com- 
mon- wraith, I know not how it would ftand with the Law 
of God) for the whole Nation to hold Communion with an 
Heretical Primate. A Roman Synod depofed John the 
thirteenth 7 and other Popes have been depofed by Councils. 
1 conclude therefore y that what ever power men claim , // 
the Magi/late interpofe not ( which is extrinfick to the 
Church -Government in que (lion ) it will work but on mens 
Judgements, call it Depofing, Excommunicating, or 
what you pleafe: and this power no man can take from you 
but by hindring you to [peak. You may now depofe thus 
and excommunicate whom you pleaje,and when they have 
(leightedit, or excommunicated you again, you will have 
done. Nay 1 think you do excommunicate us already : 
For you withdraw from our Communion, and draw many 
with you 3 and fo you exeicife your power ( / mean it of 
thai party that in thefecond Deputation I have to do with, ) 
Se<5t 1 5 . Much of my Oppofuion to the Engl fl) Prelacy 
lependethonthefuppofition, that they took all the peo- 
ple, and not only the Presbyters for the obje^ls 
)f their Government, or for their chat ge : ^Jnd I find 
'ome of the younger fort that are fpruhg up fince their fall, 
kdiubt of this. But i.all men in England that knew 

(hs) b#t 


but twenty year ago what belonged to thefe matters, arepaft 
doubt of it* And I have no mind to dilute again ft them 
that contradict the common knowledge of the Nation^as if 
theyftwuld doubt whether we had ever a King in England. 
2, Rtad over the Canons , and the yearly Viftation Articles 
(which the Church-wardens ordinarily fware to prefent by y 
before they had ever read the Booker heard what was in it) 
and then judge. 3 . Their arguing for the fole $urijdic~}ton 
of Ei/hops, and that they only were properly V aft or s, and that 
Presbyters had not the Key 0/Difcipline 5 £/tf of Doctrine^ 
fome evidence. 4. It is known to the Nation , that the Pa- 
fiors of the Parijh Churches had no power by their Laws, (or 
fufferance) to cafl out any the mofl enormous ftnner or He- 
re tick from the Churchy nor to bring them to open confefion 
of their fin , nor to Abfolve the penitent \>but by Reading of 
their Sentence % and publiflung what they fent from their 
Courts 5 and confequentlj could do nothing of all the means 
in order hereto ; (For the means cannot be ufed where the 
end is known to beimpofsible.) All the obflinate fcavdalous 
perfons, and [corners at a holy life, wemuft take as mem- 
hers of our Churches ^ having no power to caft them out. In- 
deed we had the fame power as the Church-wardens j to put 
cur names to their presentments. But a power of accufing 
to a Chancellors Court is not a Power of Governing \ efpeci- 
ally when Piety under the name of Precifenefs and Purita- 
nijm 9 was fo hated and perfecuted^ that to have accujed a 
man for meer prophanefs would have been fo far from ob- 
taining the end^as that it was like to have been the undoing 
of the accufer^ except he had been out of the fufpicion of 
Precifenefs (as they called it) himfelf But I need not dif- 
pute thu with any but thofe that being bred in better times 
{though far from what we defire) are unacquainted with the 
caft of their PredecejJ r. 

Se&. 16. objeff. But do you not contradict your 



[elf, in faying the Pallors were degraded or fufpended, 
is to the exercife of fo great a part of their work 3 and 
yet (ay here,^ Pref to the Reformed Paftor, that the 
Power of Difcipline was given them? ] Anfw t i # In 
their Ordination the Bifteps [aid to them [Receive the 
Holy Ghoft : whofe fins thou doft remit they are re- 
mitted \ whofe fins thou doft retain they are detained.] 
And in the Book of ordination it was asked ef them [Whe- 
ther they would give their faithful diligence always to 
adminifter the Do&rine #id Sacraments, and the Dif- 
cipline of Chrift as the Lord hath commanded, and as 
this Realm hath received the fame according to the 
Commandements of God?] And the Kubrick of the 
Common Prayer Book enableth the Curate to admonifh open 
and notmotu evil livers by whom the Congregation is 
offended , and thofe that have wronged their neighbors, 
that they come not till they have openly declared that they 
have repented and amended, ] But i . This doth but ferve 
to leave them une xcuf able ^ that acknowledged Difcipline to 
belong to the Office of a Presbyter \when yet he might not ex- 
ercife it. The B flops in the Ordination of Presbjters enabled 
them to preach the Gofpel : And 'jet thiy were after that 
forbidden to preach till they had a Licenfe ; and it was 
put into the V i fit ation Articles, toprefent thofe Miniflers 
that preached without Vcenfe* If the) w 11 deny us the 
exercife of the Power that tire) fir (I confefs belongeth to our 
Office, we arc not an fiver able for their felf contradictions. 
2. By Difcipline 1 fuppcfe they mean but our Inftru- 
5i.on,and our pubhfhing their Orders for Penance, Excom~ 
mun cation, or Abfolution. 3. Ihty were the Judges tf/" 
the fenfe of the Lapses far as the ex cent en required : And 
the Vnivcrjul fraaice of England, with their writings, 
(hewed us, to our coft, th:ir judgement* What good would it 
do, us. if the Law had been on our fide, while the Concur- 



rent Judgement and Practice of the Governors denied it, 
and went again flit, 4. He that had kept a man from the 
Sacrament, according to the flain words of the Kubrick , 
was to have been accountable for it at their C&urts^ and fo 
likely (if he had been a man of ferUus pet), and not a per- 
ficutor of Puritans) to have been undone by it, and was like 
to make fo little of it, as to the Ends of Discipline (all men 
being compelled by the Preferments to receive the Sacra- 
mem) that I never knew one (to my be ft remembrance) in 
25 years time that I lived under the Bifbops, that was ke pt 
from the Sacrament , except a Puritan that fcrupled to 
take it kneeling. And what was this to true Church Co* 
vernment ? 

Se<5t. 17. object. But either they did it accor- 
ding to the eftablifhed Law, ornot: If they did, the 
fault was in the Law, and not in them : If they did 
tranfgrefs the Law, then the fault was in mens abufe, 
and the Law and Order cannot be blamed. Anfw. A 
fad cafe to poor ignorant mi fir able fouls , that they mufl be 
left inobftinacy, and deprived of Cods means of Refor- 
mation without Remedy, becaufe either the Law or fudges 
mufl be excufed. The fudges are the mouth of the Law to 
us : that is Law in the iffue to us which they unanimoufly call 
Law. If the fault w ire in the Law 3 it was time it fhould be 
altered: if it was in the Bijhops univerfally, it was time 
:hey fhould be altered. Let us but have a Remedy, and en- 
joy Gods Ordinances, which he that is the Churches Head 
and King hath appointed for our benefit 7 and we 'have 

Se&. 18. object. But may not Bifhops when they 
Ordain, Delegate what meafure of Minifterial Power 
theypleafe* and if you never received more, why 
fhould you ufeit i ] Anfw. A poor relief te the forfaken 
Church : Deprive her of Government 3 and then tell us that 



we had no power I Is the Power deferable to us, // the Or- 
dinance were net de fir able to the Church f 2 . What Power 
have Bifhopt, and whence did they receive it 3 to change the 
Office of Chrifls inflitutien, or Ins /,po files i If jo , they 
may turn the three Orders ( which the P^pifls them] r elves 
fay the Pope cannot alter) into as many more. Then they may 
create an Office for Baptizing only , and another for the 
Lords Supper only, and another for praying only \ and Jo cf 
the refl 5 which is worfe then making Lay- elders, or then 
taking away the Cup in the Sacrament. Hath thrift by his 
Spirit tn (lit uted Cburch-cffices, and are they new at the Bi" 
{hops power to transform them ? 3. if the) had powtr to 
diflribute the work in theexercife, part to one, and part to 
another, jet they have no power toaeprive the particular 
Churches 0/ the whole or any part 3 but one or more mufl 
do it 3 and the Office mufl be the fame, and the power e xer- 
cifed to the edification, and not the confufion and corruption 
of the Church. 

SedK ip« objecl. But the Keys were given only to 
the Apoftles , and not to the feventy Difciples nor 
to Presbyters.] Anhv. 1. If the feventy were only Vifci- 
pies, and not church- officers, the Ancients and the Englilb 
Bifhops have been much mijlaken, that have fo much urged 
tt) that Presbyters fucceedthem as Bifhops do the Apoflles : 
But if they be Officers, then they have the Keys. 2. The 
Epifcopal Divines, even the Papifts, commonly confefs that 
part of the Keys are given to the Presbyters: and Chrijl 
gave them together. '^Were they given only to Apcflles for 
iheaifelves 5 or to convey to others < If to themfelves 
only, then no one hath them now. if to convey to other s,thi n 
either to apoflles only- as their Succtfjors {but there's none 
fuch) or to Patriarchs or Primates , or ^Metropolitans, 
or Archbifhops only: {but none of this will pleafe the Bi- 
fhops) cr ta Bifhops only ^ which I grant , taking Bigots 

O 8) 

in the Scripture fenfe. And I de fire to fee it proved, that it 
was not a prefurnptusus Innovation in them whosoever 
they were, that after the dijs of the Aperies Ordained a new 
fort of Presbyters in the Church that fhould have no power of 
the Keys. 4. They that mufi ufe the Keys, mufi have 
Power to ufe them. But Parifh Bifhops mufi ufe them {as the 
nature andnecefsity of the work doth prove:) Therefore Pa- 
rifh Bifhops mufi have the Power. If only one man in a Diocefs 
of an hundred or two hundred churches (hall have the 
power ef the Keys, w-e may know after all the talk of Difci- 
pline, what Difcipline to expeff. 

Sedt 20. object. Why blame you Lay-chancellors, 
Regifters,Pro6tor$se$v. when you fet up Lay-elders > 
we are* as well able to call Chancellors Ecclefiaftical, 
as you can call Lay- elders fo. ~] Anfw. / never pleaded 
for Lay- elders : if other men errc,will it juftife your error ? 
But 1 mufi tell you^an unordained man in a fwgle Parifh 2 ha- 
ving power only to afsifi the Paflor in Government >is far un- 
like a Lay-Court to Govern all the churches #fa Diocefs. 

Se<3. 21. objecJ. Do not your Arguments againft 
Bifhops for excluding Difcipline, make as much for the 
carting out of Minifters,of whom you complain in your 
Reformed Paftor for negledt of Difcipline i ] Anf. 1 .The 
Nature cf Prelacy as fet up in England 5 n^r* only one man 
had t he Government offo many Churches, unavoidably ex- 
dudtth it, if the be jl men were Bifhops {till it be otherwife 
formed:) But the nature of a Parochial Epifcopacy is fitted 
to promote it. 2. Thofe Presbyters that I blamed for neg- 
lecting the higher acls of Difcipline, do jet keep away more 
prophane per fons from the Lords Supper in fome one Churchy 
then ever I knew kept away in all places under the Prelates. 
3. If Minifies ftnfully negleil Difcipline, yet as Preachers 
and Guides An publick worjl)ip,8cc. they are of tmfpeakable 
need and value to the Church: But few Bifhops of England 


preached ordinarily : And 4. We art defirom that Btfnofs 
(hall continue 2^ Preachers, but not as Diocefan excluders 
0/ Parochial Church- Difcipline. 

Se&. 22. objecl. By pretending to agree with them 
that fay there were no Presbyters in Scripture times, 
you would put down Presbyters,jmd then the Govern- 
ment of the Church will be (uch as you blame. Anf. It 
is the thing 1 plead for, that every Church may have fuch 
Bifhops as the) had in the Apcflles days^ and not meer {new 
devijed Presbyters) that are of another office and Order. 

Sedt.23. Objecl. Bifhops had Deacons to attend them 
in the Scripture times, though not Presbyters 5 there- 
fore it follows not that Bilhopshad then but One Con- 
gregation. Anfw. Yes beyond doubt : For Deacons aula 
not, and did not perform the Pafloral part in the whole pub- 
lick worfhip of any flated Churches. They did not preach {as 
Deacons ) and pray andpraife God in the public k Ajjembltcs % 
and adminifler the Sacraments : It's not affirmed by them 
that are againfl m : therefore there were no more Churches 
then Bfiops. 

Sedt. 24. Ob] eft* But what doth your Arguing make 
againfl: the other Epifcopjl Divines that are not of the 
opinion that there were no meer Presbyters in Scri- 
pture times i Anfw.i. Other Arguments here are as 
much againfl them, though this be not {if they maintain 
that fort of Epifcopacy which I eppofe.) 2 . They alfo confefs 
the fmalnefstf churches in Scripture times : (as 1 have 
(hewed out ofBifhip Downam 5 ) and that is it that I plead 

Se<5t.2 5,0%#.Butifyoa would have all reduced to 
the ftate that defaclo the Church Government was in 
in Scripture times,you would have (as but one Church 
to a Biiliop, fo)but One Bifhop to a Church •, as D r ./7. 
Differt4.c.i9)io>2i>%2. hath proved copioufly, that is, 

( i 2 ) that 


thatStripturementionethnoafTiftant Presbyters with 
the Bilhop : and would that pleafe you, that think a fin- 
gle Cosgregation (hould have a Presbyteries You 
ihould rather as he tcacheth you/. 2 1.^.237. be thank- 
ful to Ignatius , and acknowledge the dignity of your 
Office, ah co primarto defenfore aftrui & propugnari.*] 
Anfw. As we make no doubt from plain Scripture to prove, 
(and have proved it) that ftngle churches had then many 
Presbyters (fomeofthem at leafl : ) So having the great eft 
part of Fathers and Epifcopal Divines of our mind herein, 
{even Epiphanius himfelf) we need not be very folicitotu 
Aleut the point of Teft.mony or Authority. 2 . We had rather 
of the two have but one P aftor to a Congregation, then one 
to a hundred or two hundred Congregations, having a Pres- 
byter under him in each , authorized only to a part of the 
work. 3. Either thediftintt office of the Presbyters is of 
Divine Inftitution, to be continuedin the church, or not. If 
not, Btflwps or feme body itfeems may put down the office. 
If it be , then it feems all Gods Zniverfai (landing Laws 
(even for the fpecies of church officers) are not contained 
in Scripture. And if not in Scripture, where then f If in the 
Fathers^ 1 . How [hall we know which are they, and worthy of 
that name and honor f 2. And what ft) ill we do to reconcile 
their contradictions t 3 Ani what number of them mufigo 
to be the true witneffes of a Divine Law f 4. And by what 
note may we know what points fo to receive from them^ and 
what not ? 

But if tt be from Councils that we mufl have the reft of 
the Laws of God (not contained in the Scripture.) 1 . Is it 
from all orfome only ? If from all, what a cafe are we in, 
as obliged to reeeive Contradictions and Hereftes ? if from 
feme only, which are they , and how known^and why they ra- 
ther then the reft ? Why not the fecond of Ephefus as well as 
the fir ft at Conftantinople. But this I fhallmt vow further 

frofccute y 


profecute^ unlefs I were deahng with the Papifls (to whom 
have fat d more ofit, in another writing.) 

4. Ignatius his Presbyters were not men of another of- 
fice, nor yet fet over many Churches that had all but one Bi- 
fl)op : But they were all in the fame Churches with the Bi- 
fhop % and of the fame office ,only fubjeel to his moderation or 
presidency for vnity and Order fake : and this we flrive not 
againfl/f limited by thegeneral Rules of Scripture. 

Sed. 26. objeft. Thofe that you have to deal with 
fay not 5 that [There were no Presbyters in the A poftles 
days, but only that in the Apoftles writings, the word 
£Bi(hops] always fignifies Bilhops,and the word Elders 
either never or but rarely Presbyters. But it is poflible 
for them to be in the time of thofe writings that are not 
mentioned in thofe writings •, and the Apoftles times 
were larger then their writings, as you are told Find, 
againfl the Lond % Minifl.p. 1 06.] Anf. 1. The words 1 ci- 
ted (from Annot.in A<fLi 1.) faithfully^ which you may 
perufe: which fay that there is no evidence that in Scri- 
pture times any of thefecond Order were inftituted.] 
So that it is not Scripture writings only^ but Scripture 
times that's (foken of. And 2 , if there be no evidence of /> 5 
the Church cannot believe it cr affirm it •, for it judgeth not 
of unr eve ale d things • and therefore to us it is no Inflitution 
that hath no evidence. 3. The Apoftles were all dead fave 
John before the end of Scripture times :So that they mufl 
be inftituted by John only: And John dyed the next year- 
after Scripture times^ us the chief Chronologtrs judge : For 
4$ he wrote his x^dpocalypfe about the 1 4 th year of Domi- 
'hn^fo his Gofpel the year before Trajan, and dyed the next 
ytafy being after the commoner reckoning 3 An.D. 98. and 
'ome think more. And what likelihood^ or proof at leaft^ 
hat John didinfiitute themtheyear that he djed ? when 
be fame men tell us of his excurfion into Afia to plant' 

(*3) Elders 


Elders (before that year>its like ,)q. And if the) mere mt in- 
(Hinted in Serif ture timejhen no teflimonyfrom Antiquity 
can prove them then inflituted* But indeed if we had fuch 
tejlimony and nothing cf it in the Scripture it felf,we (houU 
take it as little to curpurpo[e.Tor 5 doth Ant quity fay. that 
the Inflitutionwas Divine* of Umv erf al obligation to the 
Church, or only that it was but a prudential limitation of 
the extra fe of the fame office (the like I demand of other 
like Teflimonies in cafe of Dioa^es, Metropolitans, &c.) If 
only tin later.*7 birds us not, but proveth only the licet, and 
net the oportet at lea (I, as to all the Church. And then every 
Countrcy that finds caufe,mayfet up another kind of govern- 
ment : t ut if it be the former that is affertedas from anti- 
quity, then the Scripture containeth not all Gods Vniverfal 
Laws 5 Which who ever affrmeth y mujl go to Fathers or 
Councils inftead of Scripture to day ,and to the infallibility 
of the Pope, or a Prophetical lnjptratien to morrow, and 


Seft. 27. Once more to them that yet will maintain that 
the Apo files modelled the Ecclefiaftical form to the Civil y 
and that as a Law to the whdc Church, we take it as their 
Concefiton,tbat then we ow no more obedience to the Archbi- 
Jh&p 0/ Canterbury, then to the Civil Mdgiflrate 0/ Can- 
terbury, {and efpecially London (ure is exempted from his 
Juperiority.) And / yet know not that any Civil Magiftrate 
of Canterbury, cr York, or London, or Worcefter, hath 
any government in this Countrie , except the Soveraign 
Rulers at Weftminfter be meant. And I hope our Itine- 
rant ceurfe of fudges, will prove the right(to the ObjecJors) 
of Itinerant ^Avoflolical Overfecrs of the churches^ for 
fettlement at leaft. 

Se£. 28.objec7. But Parifhes being not divided till 
long after the Apoftles days, there might be then no 
ordinary AiTemblies but in the City 5 and yet the whole 


Territory adjacent be the Diocefs.]Anfw^rf t y re } n 
the Territories perfons enough to make many Affemblies^ or 
only fofetv as might travel io y and 'joy n with the City Affem- 
bly I if the latter^ it s it that I a(fert y as ufual in the fir ft age 
at leaft 5 If the former, then either all thofe in the Territo- 
ries met for pub lick Worfhip and Communion jr not: //not 5 
they finned again ft the Law of God that obliged them there- 
to as well as Citizens : //they did 3 f hen they mufl have ei* 
thtr Bifiop or Presbyter withthem^ for the due performance 
of that worfhip. 

Se«5h 29. if any think all thefe ftr agling objections 
And advertifements here unfeafonable , / render him this 
true account of tbem: This fir ft Bifputation was prepared 
only for our ordinarily Monthly Exercifes here, and fo writ- 
ten long ago, before the London Minifters Booker the An- 
fwertoit, and the reft that have followed, and therefore 
could not take notice of much that hath fines paffed^ and 
withal was not intended for publick view : But when I jaw 
f) many of the Gentry and Commonalty withdraw from the 
publick worfhip^ and the ignorant and prophage had learnt 
to refel their Paftors Inftrnclions , by calling him a Lay- 
man^ and f aw how the new feparation threalned the perditi- 
on of multitudes of the people^ efpecially was awakened by 
the Calls of Minifters in other Countries that were far more 
troubled with them then we^ I thought meet to prefix this to 
the Second Bifputation, which was it that was de fired of 
me : and therefore to take notice ofthafe things fo late. 

Sedi. 30. And the common experience tells you that it 
is not a few that go the way that lately was ftngular even 
among the Epifcopalt, to which I may add the Teftimony in 
Vindic. againfl the London Atiniflers, p. 104. £And 
though I might truly fay that for thofe more minute 
eonfiderations or conjectures, wherein this Do&or dif- 
fers from fome others — — - he hath the fuff rages of 

- 04> 

'manyoftbeLearnedft men of this Church . at this day 
(and as far as he knoivs, of all that embrace the fame 
caufevvith him)efc\ — ] 

Se<5t. yi. And this at leaft 1 may expeff from the 
Reader , that if he think we argue weakly y he will, confefs 
that we argue not for worldly great nefs, butgp again ft our 
carnal inter eft. We contend againfl ' Bijhopricks of the 
En-g\\(h mode y as depringno (neb Wealth or Honour. Some 
of us have as good opportunities to have d part in that 
kind of Greatnefs if it were again introduced, as they : 
But I am not able alone for a Far ijh charge , .and am loth 
to have more on 'my hands, and, my accounts ; which is I 
fuppofe the mind of my Brethren aljo, y ■ 

Se<5t. 32. Qne more Advertisement I owe the Reader, 
that this hemg written [0 long, fines I was made confident 
by Bi[hop Ufher, de Primordfis Eccl. Brit, thar Ireland 
was the Ancient Scotia where Palladius , &c. planted 
the Gofpel, which pag. 97. 1 havefignified. But I fhould 
wrong Scotland, // I fhould not tell thet, that I have re- 
ceived fuch Arguments to the contrary ftnee then, from 
the Right .Honourable, and my highly valued friend \ the 
. Jiarlof Lawderdailj that I am forced to fufpend my judge- 
ment in that poptt, till I have leifure better to ftudy the 
fointj .being yet unable toanfwer the [aid arguments. 


Whether it be Neceflary or 

Profitable to the right order or the 
Peace of the Churches o£ Eng- 
land that we reftore the extruded 
Epifcopacy ? 

< N this Qucflion here are thefe three things 
fuppofed. i . That there are yet particu- 
lar Churches of Chrift in England : and 
therefore thofe that conclude that there 
hath been no Church among us ilnce the 
Diocefan Bifliops were laid by, are none 
of them that we are now difputing with ; 
and indeed we think fo grofs a conceit un- 
worthy of a Confutation. 

2. It is fuppofed that both the right Order and the Peace of 
thefe Churches are matters highly to be valued. 3. And alfo 
that its our duty for the obtaining of it,to do that which is necef- 
fary or profitable thereto. But the doubt is, Whether the Epif- 
copacy in queftion be neceflary or profitable thereto ? 

For the decifion whereof I (hall briefly tell you my Judge- 
ment, in thefe propofitions, whereof the two firft are but prepa- 
Propofition 1. A Peace with tht Divi&s *ftheJEpifcopal}tsdg£ 

B lMHt 9 

ment , is much to be deftred and ear?ieflly to bs endeavoured. 

Prop. 2. A certain Efifcopacy ma] be yielded to , for the Peace 
( if not for the right order) of the Church. 

Prop. 3. The Dicccfan Epifcepacy which was lately in Eng* 
fon& 3 andij mow laid by , may not lawfully be re-affumedor re ad* 
mitted^ as a means far the right Order or Teace of the Church. 

i.Torthefirftof thefe,! chink iteifie ro prove that we ought 
to feek an Agreement in the Epifcopalconttoverfie, with thofe 
that differ from us in that point. 

Tor, 1. They are brethren, of the fame faith with us, whom 
we are bound to love and honour, and therefore to ufe.all juft 
means for peace with them. If we muft as much as in us lyeth, if 
ftcjftblty live peaceably with all men t Rom. 12. 18. much more 
with Brethren of the fame family and profeffion. 

2. They are very many - and the far greatePi- (though not the 
pureft^) part of the 'Church is of their mind ;- All the Greek 
Church, and the Ethiopian Church, and the Jacobites, Armeni- 
ans, and ail o:her parties without the verge of the Reformation 
from Popery here in the Weft, that ever I read or heard of, are 
ali of that way , befides all theRomane Church: And, though 
I know that much ignorance, and imperfection, if not fuperfti- 
tion and fouler errors may be juftly charged on the Greek, Ethi- 
opian, e2v. Churches, as well as on Rome (though not Popery 
it fclf ) yet I think there is fcarce a good Chriftian that is noc 
unwilling toeaftoff fo great a part of the Church of Chrift, as 
thefe are. Indeed, he that dares fo far defpife all the Churches of 
Chrift on earth except thefe few that are happily reformed , as 
to.thinkthatitiinodutyofours, to feek unity and peace with 
them,by ali juft means, I think is no meet perfon for us to difpute 
with. It is the hainous fin of Rome, to defpife and unchurch 
Greeks, Ethiopians, and all favc themfelves, which Ihope Pro- 
tectants will never imitate, who have juftly condemned them fo 
deeply for it. Let the Donatifts (hut up the Church of Chrift 
in Africa,, and call the reft ficiluns ; and let the Papifts reduce 
it- to the fubferibers to their Trent confeftion, or to them on- 
ly, that believe in the Popes univerfal Headfhip and Government, 
and call all others Hereticks : yet will ail true Catholicks imitate 
Angttftine and the Councils that were called againftthe Dona- 
tift'Sj. who ftilj defcribed the Cathplike Church to be. that which 



wki difperfed over the world, having begun at ferufalem i and 
though co Gods praifc we dare rcjoycingly affirm, that the mod 
illqftrious and the foundeil pare of ic is in Europe, among the 
Reformed, yet dare we not fay that ic is all or the grcatcft pare 
here- Nay we confefs that we are hat a fmall parcof Chrifts 
Church. And therefore common fobriety may tell us, that the 
Peace of to great a part of Chriils Church as is in all the reft of 
the world, is highly to be valued, and fought with all our might, 
in righceoufnefs. 

Moreover, even among the reformed Churches there are ma- 
ny for fome Epifcopacy or Superintendency : As the Church 
of England and Ireland was lately for Diocefan Epifcopacy : 
fo the Churches in Denmark^, Sweden, fjixhnie, and other 
parts of Germany Tranfilvania, &c. are .for a lower fort of 
Epifcopacy, called Superintendency among them. 

3 . And the quality of many of the Divines of that way, is 
fuch as befpeaks our greateft reverence to them,and fhould move 
us to thirlt after Unity and Reconciliation with them. Many 
of them are men of eminent Learning and Godlinefs,and found 
in the faith. 

I know that it is commonly objefted, that they are general- 
ly ungodly men that are that way; and though fome of them 
are Learned men, yet they are all, or almoft all, of carelefs and 
carnal lives, or meerly formal and fuperftitious , and therefore 
their Communion is not much to be cleared. 

To which lanfwer. i. The plain undenyable truth is chat 
it was fo here with the mod of them in the Bifhops dayes, where 
ever I was acquainred-.There were more Miniflers in many places 
that would have fcorned, threatned or troubled a man for a 
godly diligent life, then that would lead him that way by a good 
example. We muft fpeak that truth that cannot be hid, who- 
ever bed ifpleafed. Tothisday,too many of that way are care- 
lefs and fcandalous. But then Confider withall, 2. That it is but 
too common for the common fort even of Minifters as well as 
people, to be carelefs and bad, what ever opinions they are of.* 
Efpecially if the times do difcountenance practical Religioufnefs, 
the greater part are likely to follow the times, being that way 
atfo fo'ftronglyenclined by nature. 3. Confider alio chat we 
have had, and have men of that Judgement that have been ex- 

B 2 cellent 


ccllent Inltruments of the Churches good, and (o eminent for 
Gods graces and gifts, that their names will be precious whileft 
Chrift hath in England a Reformed Church : were there in all 
England but one fuch man diffenting from us, as Hooper, Far- 
rar, Latimer ,Cranmtr , Ridlej , Jewel^ Abbst y Davenant 9 V/her 9 
Hall, &c. what fober Godly man would not be exceeding fe- 
licitous for a reconciliation? I am furc ( befides the godlinefs 
of their lives , and painful preaching ) One fewcl, One VJher % 
One Davenant, hath done fo mucbagainft the Roman Ufurpcrs, 
as they will never well claw it off themtothelaft. 

Moreover whoknowethnot that rooft of the Godly able Mi- 

nifters of England fince the Reformation , did judge Epifcopacy 

fome of them Lawful, and fome of them mod fit ( for the Non- 

conforroifts were but few : ) and that even before this late 

i trouble and war, theraoft, even almoft all, of tbofe that were 

of the late Affembly at Weftminfter, and moft through the land, 

y did fubferibe and conform to Epifcopal Government, as a thing 

I not contrary to the word of God : fo thac it is evident that it is 

/ very confident with a Godly life to judge Epifcopacy lawful 

and dt^ or elfe we fhould not have had fo many hundred learned 

and godly men of that mind. 

And I am not altogether unapt to believe, that many of 
them yet are fofar reconcileable to it ("moderated J that if it 
were again e(tablifhed,they would fubmit to it as they did; For 
] hear but of few that have made any recantation of their former 
conformity : but contrarily have known divers of them profefs 
a reconcilablenefs as aforefatd, as Mr. Qataker doth in one of 
his books exprefs his own Judgement. 

If I have proved this preparatory propofition (which I think 
needeth but litle proof, ) then have I alfo proved i . That they 
have finned much who have hitherto forborn the ufeof any 
means for Peace , which was in their power. 2. And that we 
are bound our felves to defire and feek after a peace with fuch 
men : and that we cannot difchargc a good confciencc while 
we negleS fuch means as is within our reach , and fit for us to 

The fecond Propofition is, that £ A Certain Epifcopacy 
nay be fielded to , for the peace , if not alfo for the right order rf 
ihz Church] In the declaration of my judgement concerning 


this, I make no doubt but I fhall difpleafe both fides • the one 
for yielding fo much •, the other for yielding no more. But 
jatla'eftalea'. * live noc upon mens favour, northcair of their 
applaufe : That truth which difpleafeth at prefent, may tend to 
peace, and produce it at the laft, when the angry humour is 
allayed, or at leaft, when the angry age is gone. 

For the clearer determination of this and the main Queftion 
following, it is neceffary that I here flay i . To open the nacure 
of Church-Government in general : 2. To open the fence of the 
word £ Epifcopacy ] and the feveral forts of Bifhops. And then 
3 . 1 (hall tell you what fort of Epifcopacy it is that I could yield 
to for the Churches peace. 

1. Imuftconfefs I think that the greatcft part of the con- 
troverfie by far,is in this firft queftion,of the nature of Ecclefiafti- 
cal Government, ftri&ly fo called, which is only in the hands of 
Chrifts Minifters, Bilhops or whomfoever, commonly called, 
Clergy men. And concerning this ( having written my thoughts 
more largely eifewherc ) I (hall now lay down thefe few Pro- 

Prop. 1. tsfllthis power Ecclefttfiical is Jure divino, given 
from God himfelf-, and that either immediately, or by the mediati- 
on only of the Apeftles. I mean as to the determination in fpecie, 
what it (hall be, and the conftitution of that order and power in 
the Church, though perhaps fome other caufes,at lead * fine qui- , 0f . ,. f . 
bus non may intervene for the reception of this power by an in- ference be- " J 
dividual perfon.Thefc therefore that plead only the Laws of the tween Eledi- 
Land, or only Canons of former Biftiops for their (landing or /)n ? nd Ordi- 
authority, do fay nothing that as to our controverfie is regarda- " h acion \ * n & 
ble. What men do,they may undo,if there be reafon for it, and if givesThe rL 
it depend on their authority , we multfubmit to their reafon. or Power, but 

Prop. 2. This *Divine Conftitution of the Species of (^hurch- Chriftonly. 
Powe r and Government, is to be found wholly in the written word of ^ ee Grot ^ s de 
God, called the holy Scriptures. This we are agreed on againft ^ t \T c S ^ m ' 1 
the Papilts, who would fupply the fuppofed defe&s of Scripture z 6 9i 270. 
by their unwritten Traditions, which they call the other pare of 
Gods word . Church Canons and Laws of men may determine 
of fome modes and circumftances for the better execution of the 
Laws of God, by the People whom they are over: but they 
cannot make new Church Ordinances or Governments, nor 

$ 3 convey 


convey a Power which God die fountain of Power did net 
ordain and convey : nor can they give what they themfeives had 
not. The Church-office and Authority therefore that is not 
proved from the Holy Scripture, is to be taken as the fruit of 
humane arrcgancy and prefump ion. Yet I deny not but that we 
may find much in Antiquity, in Fathers and Councils about mat- 
ters of fad to help us to underfhnd forae Scr-ipcures ; and fo to dif- 
cern the matter of right. 

Prop. 3. The Scripture d?ih not Contradict, but faff ofe and 
confirm the light ef T^ature ; nor doth it impofe pip many man Na- 
tural impoffib lities, nor c onfl it ute offices which cannot be executed, 
or which woji'd deftroy that end to which they are ff^fpofed to be 

Prop. 4. Ecclejiaflical Authority comp y ehendeth not the power 
of the fword, nor any popper of ufiAg violence to mens bodies ^or 
Uymg mulfls or confifcat ons on their eftttes. The Eccleiiaftical 
Power which Chrifl ordained, was cxercifed for the rlrft three 
hundred years without any touching of mens bodies or purfes, 
before there were any Chnftian P;ince?. 

Prop. 5 . MAgiftrates are not eo nomine obliged to punlfb men 
becaufe thej are Excommunicated ( whether upon every ] u(l Ex- 
communication they (h 7uld pumfhj I will not now difpute ) but 
they are bound to know that their penalties be deferved, before 
they inflid them ; asd therefore mull themfeives take Cogni- 
fance of the Caufe, and as rational agents, underftand before 
they ad; and not blindly follow the Judgements of the Bi(hop.%as 
if they were but as Executioners where the Bifhops are Judges. 
Prop. 6. * The Power of the highefi Church-governours is but 
an Authority of THrefting in the way to falvation : It is but Di- 
rective : but then -there is no room for the common Objection, 
it all that that £ then it is no greater then any other man may perform •, ] for 
f-erexpref- jt j s one thing to Direct Occasionally from Charity, and another 
"nap / 01 " thing to Direct by Authority in a (landing office, as purpofely 
ilion*. ° appointed hereunto, f The Power of Church Governors is but 

9va ante 

teratores chriftia/ios in Synodis confmpta Cunt ad ord'r/icm an: wnatiim facjentia, 
[cs noTi I'ocantur fed Canoncs, babvtttfi ant folm Concilii vim , ut inhis qua fingulo* 
rjs fpe giant quam univerfos y ant obligant per modum pafti volentcs & notentes etiam pan- 
es ex neceffitate determination ' h M promde ex lege natural^ nan ex humayio aliqw Imp.r.o. 
ctiusde lmperio.pag. zo^ 210. iege & cap. 9. per totum. 



of the fame nature as Is the Power of a Phyfi ianover his Pa- 
tients, or of a School- mailer over his Scholars, fuppofinghe had 
not the power ofthe rod or actual force, but fuch a power as 
the Profcilbrs of Philofophy or other fciehces had in their feve- 
ral Schools upon the aduic ( nor all fo great neither ; becaufe 
the Laws by which we muft rule , sre made to our hands , as to 
the fubftantials.J Hence therefore it is plain, that as we can bind 
or force no man to believe us, or to undcrflarid the truth, and 
to be Chriitians, but by the power of demenftrated Evidence, 
and by the light which we let in ( through Gods grace ) into 
their Confcienccs ; fo neither can we caufe any to execute our 
fentences againil offenders further then by light we convince 
them that it is their duty: fo that if all the Bifhops or Presby- 
teries in the land (hould judge fuch or fuch an opinion to be here- 
fie, and fhould Excornmuniaate thofe that own it as hereticks- 
in this cafe if the Church do believe as the Paftors believe,rhey 
will confeat and avoid the Excommunicate perfon ; but if they 
take it to be Gods truth which the Paftors call herefie, they will 
not takethemfelves bound by that, fentenceto avoid him: nor 
will the Offender himfelf any further be fenfible of a penalty in 
the fentence then he fhall be convinced that he hath erred; and U 
the Church avoid him, he will juftifie himfelf, and judge thac 
they do it wrongfully , and will glory in his fuffering : fo that 
it is on the Confcience that Church -Governours can work • and 
no otherwife on the outward man, but medUnte Confcientia* 

Prop. 7. The ground of this is partly becaufe no (fhurch-Go- 
verners can bind any man contrary to Gods word : Clave errante 8c 
ita apparente, if the people know-that he erreth, they are not to obey 
him agai»fi God. Yet in the bare inconvenient determination of 
fome Circumftantials , by which the duty is not deftroyed,buc 
lefs conveniently performed, the people are bound to obey their 
Governors, becaufe it is notagainft Gods determination, and 
becaufe he erreth but in an undetermined poinr,of which God ap^ 
pointed him to be the orderly determiner. But if God have once 
determined, no mans contrary determination can oblige ^ nor 
yet if they go beyond the fphere of their own work, and deter- 
mine ofanalienefubjeft, which God did never commit to their 
determination : t\k a Minifter, or Bifhop, might oblige every 
Taylor how to cut his garment, and every shoo -maker how to 



cut his (hoc, fo that they (hould fin if they did difobey, which 
is ridiculous to imagine : and if they go about to introduce new 
ftated Ordinances or Symbols in the Church which they have 
nothing to do with, or in any other work (hall afTume to them- 
felves a power which God never gave them, it doth no more ob- 
lige then in the former cafe. 

Prop. 8. Another reafon of thefixthPropofition,is, becaufe 
The People have a judgement tf difcernUg, -whether the Gover- 
nors do go according to Gods reorder not : eifethey (hould be led 
blindfold, and be obliged by God to go againft Gods word, 
whenfoever their Governors (hall go againft k. It is not bruits 
or Infants, • but rational men chat we muft rule. 

Prop. 9. The three things which Church- power doth conftfi in % 
are ( in conformity to the three parts of Chriits own office ) 
1. About matter of F 'aith, 2. About matter of Worjhip, 3. About 
matter of Pratlke in other cafes. 

1. Church Governors about Doftrine or. Matters of Faith, 
are the Peoples Teachers, but cannot 0^/;^ them to Err, or to 
believe any thing againft God, nor make that to be truth or error 
that is cot fo before. 

2. In matter of Worfhip, Church-guides are as GodsPriefts, 
and are to go before the people, and ftand between God and 
them, and prefent their prayers and prayfes to God, and admi- 
nifter his holy myfteries, and blefs them in his name. 

3 . The Commanding Power of Paftors is in two things : 1 . In 
Commanding them in the name of Cbrift to obey the Laws which 
ta hath made them already. And this is the principal. 2. To give 
themnew Directions of our own, whichas is faid, 1. Muft not 
be againft Gods Directions. 2. Nor about any matter which is 
tiot the ob jed of our own office, but is without the verge of it, 
3 . But it is only in the making of under laws* for the better ex- 
ecution of the laws of Chrift ; and thofe under. lottos muft be on- 
ly the Determinate* $f Circum/iances about Gods fervice which 
Scripture hath made nectffarj ingenere, but left to the Governors 
determination in fpecte • and they are fuch as are alterable in fe- 
veral ages, countries, &c. fo that it had been unfit for Chrift to 
have determined them in his word , becaufe his word is an uni- 
verfalLvN for all ages and countries ; and thefe Circumftances 
will not bear an univerfal determination : clfc why could not 



Chrift have done ic ? nay how is his Law perfect elfc that doth 
omit it ? For cxample,God hath commanded us to read the word, 
preach, hear, fing, which mull: neceffirily be done in fome time, 
place, gefture,number of words, &c. Bur he hath not command- 
ed us on what day of the week our Lecture (hall be, or at what 
hour of the day, nor what Chapter I (hall read, nor how many 
at once, nor what Text I (hall preach on, nor what Pfclrn I 
(hall fing, nor in what words I fhall pray, whether irnpofed by 
others, or not, whether with a book, or foreconceived form, 
or not ; nor whether I (hall read with fpeftacles or without, or 
whether I (hall difcern how the time paffeth by an hour-glafs t 
or by the clock, or by conje^iire without them. Thefe there- 
fore and other fuch like, mult humane Prudence determine of. 
But with thefe Cautions. 

i . Thefe are rnoftly matters that require a various determina- 
tion in feveral places according to the great variety of Circum- 
ftances ; and therefore it is for the moft part fitter for the parti- 
cular Pallor of that Church, who is upon the place, and feeth 
the cafe, to determine them pro re nata, * then for Synods, or *ThatSy- 
diftant Prelates, to do it by general Laws or Canons binding all. nods are nor 
2. Though upon a fmall mifdetermination of fuch a Circum. abfolutely ne- 
flance, the people muft obey, yet if it be fo grofly mifdeterml hfthLlwnot 
ned as to deftroy the duty it felf Circumftantiated, or to be no- G f Scripture 
torioufly againfttheend which ic is pretended for, then they are Institution 
not to obey ic. As if a Paftor would appoint the People to hear b ™ Natural 

in the night only, or at fuch unfeafonable times that they cannot ^ ireftlon ) f ec 

b . u it r Grft.de Im- 

come, or in many the like cafes. p ert0 CM p 7> ■* 

Note alfo that it is one thing to prefcribe thefe matters in & per mum. 
direct Regimental Refpecl, and that belongeth to him upon the 
Place ; and its another thing to prefcribe them for common Vnion 
or Con:ord among many Churches, and that belongs to a Synod; 
( of which anon. ) 

And it is mod certain by fad experience, that fcarce any thing 
hath broken the unity and peace of the Church more, then un- 
necefTary determinations pretended to be for its unity and peace. 
Could men have been content to have made Gods Laws the cen- 
ter and couchftone of the Churches Unity, all had been well: 
but when they muft make Canons for this Vefture, and that Ge- 
ilure, and the other Ceremony, and determine in what words 

C all 


(, 10) 

all men (hall pray,and how many words he (hall fay,or how long 
he fh 11 be, and To make (landing Laws upon mutable circum- 
flances,and chis without any necefiity at all,but meerly to domi- 
neer , as if they had been themfelves ordained and entrufted with 
Gods worfhip and mens fouls ; fuch fottifh Presbyters,that know 
not how to fpeakor do any thing but as it is prefcribed them, 
nor how to carry themfelves foberly or reverendly without be- 
ing obliged which way to bow, and when and how oft, with 
/>che like. yUnnecefTary things made NcceiTary have deitroyed 
I the Churches Peace •, and fo blind are the Authors of it, that 
yet thev will not fee their errour, though the cries, and groans, 
and blood of the Churches have proclaimed it fo long. Tbe 
/ Church Hiftorie of thefe one thoufand and three hundred 
years at leaft doth tell us that it is the Church Governours 
by their too much bufinefs and overdoing in fuchwayes, even 
by too bold and bufie determinations about doctrines or Cere- 
monies , that have broken all in peices and caufed that con- 
dition , diflfention and feemingly remedilefs divifions in tbe 

Prop. I O. In cafes which are beyond the prefent unde> fl [ andi»g 
of the people ,thcy are bound as Learners Jo fubmit to the judgement 
of their Guides : If they fee no fufficient caufe, either in the mat- 
ter to caufe them to fufpeft that their Teachers are miftaken, 
or in their Teachers to caufe them to fufped them to be feducers, 
they owe them fo much credit and refped as their Guides, as to 
believe them fide humana, or to fuppofe that they are likelier 
to be in the right then themfelves ; and therefore in matters of 
Doctrine not to contradict them, but to fubmit to learn of 
them, till by learning they come to that ripenefs of underftaRd- 
ing , as to be capable of decerning the errors of their Guides^ 
and fo to contradict them groundedly, if indeed they err: fo 
alfo in the order of variable Cireumttantials about the fervice of 
God, though the people ought not to obey their Governours, 
if under that pretence they fhould command them things finful ; 
yet when they are not able to fee any certain evil in the thing 
commanded , nor fo ftrong a probability of evil as fhouid 
caufe them to fufpend obedience while they take better advice , 
in fuch a cafe it is their Duty to obey theguides of the Church. 
For they are certain that they are commanded ta obej them that 



rule over them* and watch for their fouls, Ueb. 13* 17. but they 
are not certain that in fuch a cafe it is an evil that is prefcribed 
by them, nor is it fuppofed to be much probable • therefore a 
certain evil of difobedience mufl be avoided before an un- 
certain and improbable evil. This the very office of Church Go- 
vernours doth plainly import. 

Object. Then if the Miniftermiftake, all the people that un- 
der/land not the grounds of the matter, muft err for company. 
Anfw. If by Mufl, you fpeak of their Duty, I deny the con- 
fequence: For their Duty is to be men ofunderftanding, and 
to fee the truth in its own evidence,and fo not to err ; But if by 
Muft ,you only exprefs a Necefllty of Infirmity which they have 
finfully contracted themfelvesjthen I yield all: but I fay, that 
it is a greater fin to difobey their guides, without known reafon, 
and confequently never to obey them in any cafe beyond the pre- 
fent knowledge of the people, then it is to follow them fide ku- 
mam in fuch miftakesas we have no fufficient means at prefent 
todifcover. For the former will overthrow almoft all Miniftra- 
tionand Church-government. 

Ob j. Then it is no fin for an Ignorant man to Err wish his 
Teacher for company. Anfw. I deny that Confequence : for it 
is his fin to be an Ignorant man : and confequently to have any 
Error. But fuppofing him already [gnorant by bis own finful- 
nefs, and that the Minifiers of the Gofpel come to heal it, we 
may well fay that it is his greater fin to disbelieve and difobey 
them without apparent caufe, then to millake with them where 
he is not able to difcern the miftake. 

Prop. 11. He that difobejeth the Word of God in the mouth of 
a Mini ft er or Church- governor, commit teth a double fin, in com- 
parifin of him that difobejeth the fame word in the mouth of a pri- 
vate man : for bftde s the Jin which he fir ft committeth, he breaketh 
alfo the fifth Commandment, and defpifeth Chrift in his Mejfenger : 
As a man that (hall refufe to worfhip God, to ufe his name reve- 
rendy,&c. when a private man telleth him that it is his duty, 
doth (in by that refufal : but if he refufe it when his own Father 
or Mother, or Mini ft er command him, he alfo breaks the fifth 
Commandment befides the reft. Minifterial Authority therefore 
doth aggravate the (ins of pcrfons that are difobedient. 

Prop. 12. Tet for all this , one private man that evinceth out 

C2 of 


»/ Scripture a fin or a duty contrary to the doclrine or commands of 

our G 'uides , muft be regarded in that before them ; and the evidence 

and divine verity which he bringeth mufl not be refufed, because 

Church -Governors are againfl if* Other wife we fhould make 

Gods Officers to be greater ihen himfelf ^ and the Promulgators 

and Preachers of his Law, to have power to null or frultrate the 

known Law which they (hould proclaimed that the means is to 

be preferred before the end, and when it deftroyes the end, and fo 

ccafeth it felf to be a means,which arc things not to be imagined. 

Prop. I 3 . Tet is it a great fin for any men lightly and rajhly to 

fufpeel their Teachers and Rulers, and much more Councils or the 

whole Church ; and too eafily to credit the fingular opinions of any 

private man or diffenting Pafior. But we fhould be very fufpici- 

ousof the private man rather, and of the lingular man ; and 

therefore fhould fearch well, and fee good reafon for it before 

we credit thera, though we may not refufe any truth which they 

(hall bring. 

Prop. 14. The ufes of Synods or Ceuncils, is not direclly to be 
fuperiour Cover nours of particular Pafior s and Churches; but 
it is Direclly I. For the Information and Edification of the Pa" 
flors themfelves by the collation of their reafons and mutual advice • 
2 . For the Vniou and Communion of the fa>d Tafiors, and of the 
particular Churches by th?m : that they may agree in one, and 
go hand in hand to do Gods work % and fo may avoid the 
croffing and hindering of each other, and one may not receive 
thofe to co?nmunion without fatisfadion, who are excommuni- 
cated by other^and fo that by this concord of Paftors they may 
be ftrcngthened to a more iuccefsfull performance of their duties. 
But thcn,thefe Direcl ends of Synods being prefuppofed, Indi- 
direclly they may truly befaid :o be for Government • B:caufe 
God in general having commanded us to carry on his work as 
much as we can in Unity and Peace, and it being tie proper 
work of Councils to agree upon waves of Unity, it followeth 
that for Unity fake it becomes our duty to fubmit to their juft 
Agreements • and fo chat the forming of fuch Agreements or Ca- 
nons,isconfequentlyor Indiredly a part of Govcrnmcnc,though 
Diredly it is but for Unity and Concord. P titers in Synods have 
the fame power over their people as they I ave out: and therefore 
what Canons they make juftly for theGovernment of 'the people, 



as PaftorspreDireclly a&s of Government: but as ty^femi/ed 
Paflorjy&nd alfo as co the Canons by which they bind each other, 
they ad but by confent or contract in order to concord and 
communion, and not by a fuperiour Ruling power. So that Sy- 
nods as Synods are Dirediy only Gratia Vnitatis & Communio- 
*is t and not Gratia Regiminis •, but Indirett Ij and by conference 
from thefirft ufe, they arc after a fort Regimental. 

To conclude this about the Nature of Church- Government,in 
the two former fimilitudes it is fomewhat apparent ; For Chrift 
calls himfelf the Phyfitian that comes to heal difeafed fouls : 
and his Church is alfo a School, and his people are all Schollars 
or Difciples, and Minifters his Ufhersor under-Schoolmafters. 
Now the Phylitianmay prefcribc to his Patient the tiroes, the 
quantities of caking Medicine*, and what diet to ufe, and what 
exercife in order to his health •, and alfo Phyikians may make 
a Colledge, and frequently meet for mutual Edification, and 
Agree what Patients to meddle with,and what not , and thac 
they will not receive thofe Patients that run from one to another 
to their own hurt, and that they will ufe none but fuch and fuch 
apprQvedMedicamems,wirb divers the like circumilances. But 
yet no Phyfitian can either compell men to be their Patients ; 
nor com pell them (any otherwise then by perfwafion ) to take 
their Medicines , when they are their Patients ^ nor can they 
corporally punifh them for any difobedience to their directi- 
ons : But this they may do : they may tell them firit thac 
if they will not be ruled, they (hall be without the Phjfitians 
help, and then their defeafe will certainly kill them, or endanger 
them ; and if the Pacient continue fo difobedient as to fruflrate 
the means of cure, the Pfyiitian may give him over, and be his 
Phyfitian no more; and this is the Power of a Church Guide, 
and this is hh way of punifhing : Only he may further acquaint 
them with a Divine Commiilion, then a Phyfician can do to his 
Patient, (&t leaft gradually) and fo prefs obedience more effectu- 
ally on cbeir consciences. 

So a Schoolmaiter may make orders for the right cireumftan- 
tiating of matters in his School ( fuppofing one Grammer en- 
joyneJ by fuperiour Authority, ) and he may order what Au- 
thors (hall be read, and at what hour*, and how much at a time, 
anddifpofc of the feats and orders of his Schollars : But yet if 

Ca he 


he be a Teacher of the Adult, according to our cafe, he cannot 
corporally punifh thofe that either refufe to be his Schollars, or 
to learn of him or obey him ; but the utmoft that he can do is to 
put fome difgrace upon them while they abide in his School,and 
at lalt to (hut them out. And then all the School matters in 
the Countrey may well agree upon one Method of Teaching, 
and that they will not receive thofe without fatisfa&ion into one 
School, who are for obftinacy andabufe caft out of another. 
But fuch Agreements or Meetings to that end do not make ei- 
ther one Phyfitian or Schoolmafter to be the Governour of the 
reft, or above another , nor yet to have the charge of all the 
Schollars or Patients of all the reft j fo is it in the cafe of Ec- 
clefiaftical Affemblies. 

HAving faid this much concerning the Nature of Church- 
Power and Government, I come to the fecohd thing pro- 
mifed, which is to enumerate the feveral forts of Bifhops that are 
to fall under our confideration, that fo we may next confider, 
which of them are to be allowed of. 

And here I fuppofe none will expect that I (hew them all tfiefe 
forts diftindly exiftenr ; itisenoughthatlmanifeft them to be 
in thcmfelves truly different. 

i. And firft the name [ Bifhop ] may be given to one, that is 
only the Overfeer or Ruler of the People of one particular Church, 
and not of any Church rulers themfelves : That ruleth the flock, 
but not any Shepherds. 

2. Thofe alfo may be called Bifhops ,who only are Joint- Rulers 
with others of a particular Church , and Prefidents among the El- 
ders of that one Church for Vnity and order fake , without ajf ti- 
ming any Government over thofe Elders. 

3. A third fort there are that are Prefidents in fuch an Elder- 
fhip , and withal do take a Negative voice in the Government , fo 
that nothing fhallbe done without them in fuch affairs. 

4 A fourth fort are the file Paftors of fuch a particular Church 
that have many Minifiers under them as their Curates^ who are 
properly to be Ruled by them alone-, fo that thePaftor is the 
fole Ruler of that Church, and the Curares do onJy teach and 
otherwifc officiate in obedience to him : Which is the cafe of 



divers Mi nifters of great Parifhes, that keep one Curate at their 
ParifliChurch, and others at their Chappels. Yet its one thing 
to be the fole Ruler of the Parifh, and another to Rule the reft of 
the Elders. 

5. A fifth fort of Bifhopsare thofe that are the fixed Prefi- 
dents ef a Clajfis of the Pafto r s of many particular Churches ^ 
who hold the title durante vita, or cfudm din bene fe gefferint, 
though they are in ufe only while the Claflis fitteth, and have 
only a power of Moderating and ordering things, as the fore- 
man of a Jury, or a double or cafting voice, as the BaylirT in 
Elections in molt Corporations, or as the Preftdent in fome Col- 
lcdges ; but no Negative voice, which maketh a Power equal 
with all the reft. 

6. A fixth fort are the heads of fuch C lapses, having a Nega- 
tive voice , po that the reft can do nothing without them. 

7. A feventh fort arc the Prefidents ef Provinces or DigcifftJ 
containing many CUffcs^ which have only a Moderating P^wer^but 
no Negative voice. 

8 An eighth fort arc the Bifbops of particular Cities with all the 
Rural parts th At are near it, containing many Churches • who af- 
fume the Power of Governing that Diocepf to themfclves along with- 
out the Presbjters of the particular Churches, eicher not ufing 
them at al in matter of Government, or only confuking with 
them in Ajflfemb!ies, burgJvingthemnodecerrniningvor.es. 

9. A ninth fort is a Diocefan Bifhop of fuch a City, who doth 
mt take upm him the RhU of the people of the Diocefs ( beyond 
his own Congregation J but on f j of the Paftors ^ fu p poll ng, that 
the feverai Paftors or Presbyters have power to Rule the feveral 
Congregations, but withali that they thcmfelves are to bs ruled 
by him. 

1 o. A tench fort are fuch Bifeeps as ajfume the Government of 
thefe Diccefan Bifbops, which are commonly called t^rchbi/beps : 
to which alfo we adjoyn Metropolitans, Primates, and Patri- 
archs, whoaffume the Power of Governing all below them : as 
under the feventh rank I do alfo for brevity comprehend Metro- 
politans, Primates, and Patriarchs, who aflume no Governing 
Power over other Bifhops, but only the prtmamfedem, and the 
moderating Power in Councils. 

1 1; The eleventh fort are unfixed general Paftors y called Am- 


bulatory, or Itinerant, that have a care of all the Churches, and 
are no further tyed to any particulars, then as the neceffary defecl of 
their natural capacity (feeing they cannot be in all places at 
once, ) or elfe the difpatch of that work which they there meet 
with, before they go further, andfome fuch occafion dnh re- 
qure \ and being excluded outof no part of the Church, further 
then by confent for the common good, they (hall exclude them- 
felves ; fuch, I mean, as the Apoftles were. 

12. The twelfth and laft fort is the Judas that goes u^der tie 
name of St. Peters Succeffor y and Chrifls Vicar General, or the 
Vice-Chrift, who claimeth a power $f Governing the whole uvivtrfal 
Church as its Head, having Infallible power of determining Con- 
troverfies, and matters of Faith, and whofe Office muft enter ths 
definition of the Catholtck Church, and thofe that feparate from 
him are no Catholikes, or true ChriOians. This is he that bearcth 
the bag, and makech the twelfth fort. 

3. T Come now in the third place to tell you, how many and 
X which of thefe forts of Epifcopacy I think may be admit- 
ted for the Peace of the Church : And, 

1. Of the firft fort there is no Controverfie among us : few 
will deny the Jus Divinum of Presbyters, as having the Rule of 
the people of a particular Church, and the fole Rule , fup- 
pofing that there is no other Paftor over that Church but 

2. Of the fecond fort of Parifti Bifhops ( who are meer Pre- 
ft dents over the whole Elderfhif of that particular Church, and 
that continually, or fixedly.) I think there is little queftion will 
be made by any, but they alfo will eafily be admitted. 

3. The third fort ( A Parochial 'Bi/hop, having a Negative 
voiceina Tarifh Elherjhip) I fhould be content to admic for 
the Peace of the Church : but whether of it felf it be defirabie, I 
do not difpute : for if one Paftor even in a Parifh may have a Ne- 
gative voice among two or three Curates, it will follow that the 
thing it felf is not unlawful, vik>* for one Minifter to have a Ne* 
gative vote among many, and fo among an hundred, if there be 
nothing elfe to forbid. 

4. The fourth fort { for brevity) Comprehcndetb two forts. 

1. Such 


I. Such Paftors of a Jingle Congregation, which having diver fe 
Car at is under them who are Presbyters ,do yet themfelves take upim 
them the fole Government of the people and of their Curatis. I 
think this is intolerable, and indeed a Concradi&ion,or a Nulling 
of the Presbyters office : for it is cffential to the Presbyter of any 
Church to be a Guile or Ruler of chac Church : to put them 
out of all Rule therefore is to Null, or fufpend the exercife of 
their office • which cannot ftatedly be done without deftroying 
it. But then 2. if we fpeakof the fecond fort,that is, fuch Paftors 
of particular C hurches, as have jurats who are Presbyters, and 
they govern their Curates, but take the Curates as true Governors 
ofthepcky thefe as I dare not (imply defend, (for if it be law- 
ful for one Paftor to Rule two or three in a Parilh, then why not 
twenty or an hundred, if nothing elfe forbid ? ) fo I confefs I 
ihould be ready to admit of them,if it might attain the Churches 
peace : for I fee many godly Divines that are againft Epifcopacy, 
yet praSice this ; and will have no Curates in their Parifh, that 
will not be Ruled by them. And there is a certain Obedience 
which Juniors and men of weaker parts, do owe to their Seniors 
and men of far greater knowledge, though the Office be the 
fame. And the Nature of the Government being not Compul- 
five and Coercive, but only upon the voluntary, whofe judge- 
ments approve and their wills confent, its confiderablc how far 
even a Ruler of others may voluntarily confent and fo oblige 
himfelf to be Ruled by another, that could not have any power 
to Rule him, without that confent of his own, and voluntary 

5. As for the fifth fort, that is, [The (landing Prefident of 
a Clajfis, having no Negative voice ] I (hould eafily confent to 
them for order and Peace : for they are no diftind Office, nor 
affurae any Government over the Presbyters. And the Presby- 
terian Churches do commonly ufe a Prefident or Moderator p r$ 
tempore. And doubtlefs if it be lawful for a Month, it may be 
lawful for a year, or twenty years, or quam diu fe benegejferit : 
and how many years had we one Moderator of our Aflemblies 
of Divines at Weftminfter ? and might have had him fo many 
years more if death had not cut him off? And ufually God doth 
not fo change his gifts, but that the fame man who is the fitteft 
this month or year, is moft likely alfo to be the fitteft the next. 

D 6. And 

6. And for the fixth fore, viz,. [ A Prefident of a CUfses ha- 
ving a, NegAtivt vo : ee, ] I confefs I had rather be without him, 
and his power is not agreeable to my Judgement, as a thing in- 
fticuted by God, or fitteft in it felf. But yet I (hould give way to 
it for the Peace of the Church, and if it might heai that great 
breach that is between us, and the Ep.fcopal Brethren, and the 
many Churches that hold of that way • but with thefe Cautions -> 
and Limitations, i. That they (hall have no Negative in any 
thing that is already a duty or a fin : for an Angel from heaven 
cannot difpenfe with Gods Law. This I doubt not will be yield- 
ed. 2. That none be forced to acknowledge this Negative vote 
in them, but that they take it from thofe of the Presbyters that 
will freely give or acknowledge it. For its a known thing that 
all Church-power doth work only on the Confcience, and there- 
fore only prevail by procuring Confent, and cannot compel!. 

3. Nor would I ever yield that any pars of the Presbyters dif- 
fering (hould be taken as Schifmaticks, and caft out of Commu- 
nion ,or that it (hould be made the matter of fuch a breach. This 
is it that hath broken the Church, that Bifhops have thruft their 
Rule on men whether they would or noc, and have taken their 
Negative voice at leaft, if not their fole Jurisdiction, to be fo 
neceftary,asif there could be no Church without it, or no man 
were to be endured that did not acknowledge it ^ but he that de- 
nyeth their difputable Power muft be excommunicated with 
them that blafpheme God himfclf. And as the Pope will have 
ihe acknowledgement of his Power to be infcparablc from a 
member of the Catholike Church, and caft out all that deny it, 
fo fuch Bifhops take the acknowledgement of their Jurisdi&ion 
10 be as infcparable from a member of a particular Church, and 
confequently ( as they fuppofe ) of the univerfal : and fo to 
deny them (hall cut men off, as if they denyed Chrift. This fa- 
voureth not of the humility that Chrift taught his followers, 

4. Nor would 1 have any forced to declare whether they only 
fubmit for Peace, or confent in approbation ; nor whether they 
lake the Bifhops Negative vote to be by Divine I nftitution, and 
fo Neccffary,or by the Presbyters voluntary confent & contract, 
as having power inleveral cafes to fufpend the exertife of their 
own juft authority, when the fufpenfion of it tendeth to a pub- 
lite Good, No duty is at all times a du:y, If a man be to be or- 


dained by a Presbytery, it is not a flat duty to do it at that time 
when the Prefident is abfent, except in cafe of flatneceilky ; 
why may hot the reft of the Presbyters then, if they fee it con- 
ducive to the good of the Church £refolve never o ordain 
( except in cafe of fuchNecefiky, ; but when the Prefident is 
there, and is one therein • ] which is indeed to permit his exer- 
rife of a Negative voce, without profefling it to be his right by 
tny Infticution? Jt is lawful to ordain, when the Prefident is 
prefent; it is lawful (out of cafes of Nccefsity) to forbear 
when he is abfent : according therefore to the Presbyterian prin- 
ciples, we may refolve to give him defatlo a Negative voice, that 
is, not to ordain without him, but in Necefsity : and according 
to the Epifcopal principles, we mufi thus do : for this point of 
Ordination is the chief thing they ftand on. Now if this be all 
the difference, why fhould not our May be, yield to their, Mnft 
£*,ifthe Peace of the Church be found to lye upon it. But 5. I 
would have this Caution too, that the Magiftrate fhould not 
annex his fword to theB fh pscenfure, without very clear rea- 
fon : but let him make the belt of his pure fpiritual Authority 
that lie can : we fhould have kept peace with Bifhops better, if 
they had not come armed, and if the Magiftrates had not become 
their Executioners. 

7. As to the feventh fort, viz. f A Prefident of a Province 
fixed, without any Negative voice'] I fhould eafily admit of him, 
not only for Peace, but as orderly and convenient, that there 
might be fome one to give notice of all AlTemblies, and the De- 
crees to each member, and for many other mattters of order: 
this is pradifed in 'the Province of London pro tempore, and in the 
other Presbyterian Churches. And as I faid before in the like 
cafe, I fee not why it may not be lawful to have a Prefident 
qu*m diufe bene gejferh , as well for a moneth,or a year,or feven 
years, as in our late AfTembly two fuccefsively were more, ( as 
I remember ) fo that this kind of Diocefan or Provincial Bi- 
fhop, I think may well be yielded to for the Churches Order 
and Peace. 

8 . As to the eighth fort of Bifhops, viz. [ The Diocefan wh& 
affnmethfhe fole Government of many Parijh £hurches both Pref- 
byters and People ] as ten, or twelve, or twenty or more, as they 
ufed to do, even a whole Diocefs, I take them to be intolerable, 

D 2 and 

and dcftruc'tive to the Peace and happincfsof the Church, and 
therefore not to be admitted under pretence of Order or Peace 
if we can hinder them. But of thefc werauftfpeak more when 
we come to the main Queftion. 

9. As for the ninth fore of Bifhops, viz. [ A Dioafan Ruling 
all the Presby ers r hut leaving the Presbyters to Rule the People 1 
and confequently taking to himfelf the fole or chief Power of Or- 
dination, but leaving Cenfures and Abfolution to them, except 
in cafe of Appeal to himfelf; I muft needs fay that this fort of 
Epifcopacy is very ancient, and hath been for many ages of ve- 
ry common reception , through a great part of thethurch • 
but I muft alfo fay that I can fee as yet no Divine inftitution of 
fucb a Biihop taken for a fixed limited officer, and not the fame 
that we fhall mention in the eleventh place.But how far mens vo- 
luntary fubmiflion to fuch, and confent to be ruled by them, 
may authorize thern, I have no mind to difpute. Only this I 
will fay , that though I allow not in my judgement this fort of 
Epifcopacy ,yet I think it incomparably more tolereablethan tic 
eighth fort,which takcth the whole Government of the people 
from the Presbyters to themfelvcs; And if I lived in a place where 
this Government were eftablifhed, and managed for God, I 
would fubmit thereto,and live peaceably under ic anddo nothing 
to the disturbance, difgrace or difcouragement of it. My reafons 
He not ftay to produce. 

10. As for the tenth fort of Bifhops, viz. ArM/bops, Me- 
tropolitans, Primates and Patriarchs, having not only the modera- 
tion of Synods, bat alfo either the fole Government of all the Cler- 
gy % and cheif Government of all the people t or a Negative voice 
in all, I am much more in judgement againft them,then the for- 
mer,and fo much the more againft thcm,by how much the larger 
their Jurifdidjon is, for reafons which I (hall anon have occafion 
to produce* 

1 1. As far the eleventh fort of Bi(liops,that is \ fnch asfttcceed 
the Apoftles in the office of Preaching and Governing , to wit as ##- 
limited univerfal Officers'] it is a great doubt among many whe- 
ther any fuch fhould be?For though it becertain that fuch were, 
yet we arc in doubt whether they have any fucceffors. For my 
own part,[ confefs my felf fatisfiedin this, that the Apoftles have 
Sacceffors, though not in .their; extraordinary Immediate raan- 



ncr of Miffion, nor in their extraordinary Gifts of the Spirit, yet 
in all that part of their office which is of ftanding Ncccflity to 
theChureh: And I am fatisficd that their general Miniftry,or 
ambulatory preaching as unrixed officers, and their Govern- 
ment oftbe Church by Office (fuchas they did then ufe) are. 
of ftanding Neceffity to the Church : And therefore that as fuch Apoftolivre 
unfixed general Officers,the A pottles dejure have Succcffors. And «** Tmbyte- 
this I have formerly proved to you in my Thefts dt Polit. Eccle- ** 5 ?% Ua 
fiafl. briefly thus. . _ J j\ vm 

Argument i . Chrift promifed when he inftituted this General temen loco 
Office to be with them to the end of the world : therefore it was afaipta arum 
his will that it fhould continue to the end of the world, {Mat, f ur ^o.Eza?i- 
28 20,21. J It was to a Mmiftry that werefent to f reach the % re Zu.^ h 
Gvfpel to ever j Creature, or to all the n»orld,and to Difciple Nations, t t mi, fed nuUi 
that this promife was exprefly made ; therefore fuch a Miniftry loco alligati. 
is to be continued. sic & muli0 

Argum.z. Tliefame work and Necefficy Hill continued: %aSS3T 
Fot, 1. There are ftill moft of the Nations on earth unconverted, epift opo Tax- - 
2. The Con verted and Congregated to be Confirmed and Go- t*mu 9 gb 
verned, therefore the Office continueth. ManafaFru. 

Argum. 3 . We can fetch no Argument from the Apoftles Ex- ™T" y %^ , 
ample or from any Precept or Promifcto them, to prove the Evmetium 
fueceffion of fixed PJfftors, which is ftronger then this by which per indtam 
we prove the fucceffion of General unfixed Officers : there- prjgScareat 9 
fore cither we muft yield to this, or by the fame reafons as we &***%?* . 
deny itj we mud deny the Miniftry too : Which is not to be XSk!^aS^ 
done. mbum dill- 

Argum. 4. The Apoftles had many AfTociates in this Genera! gntixsfureti 
Office in their own times : Therefore it was not proper to them, fl^Crodu* 
nor to ceafe with them. Barnabas, Sjlas, 7 imothj, Titus y Apollo, rio p ^ , "£f 
with multitudes more in tbofe times, were unfixed General Of- And of the 
ficers, that went upand down to convert the world, and flaid Can. Condi, 
only to order and confirm the new gathered Churches > and then Caked. 6. 
went further; fometiroes returning to review, preferve, and dfh^n/pr^ 
ftrengthen their converts. byters jfc* £, 

Argum. 5. If we can prove that fuch unfixed General officers titiofc faith 

[ Quiim ut ri- 
fle not xc Balfamon, Ipfe Cano?i indick eft aliter fieri foliUm : Etiampofi Cilad. Synod* Jufti* 
niaws Femdent&rum. mrmwt quorum & in Laodtcend aliife veterikus Synodis eft menu':. 

D I were c 


were by Chrift fettled in his Church, and that by fuch the 
Chu- ches were in any fort then to be governed, then our ciufe is 
good, till the repeal or revocation of this office and order be 
proved. Let them therefore that affirm fuch a revocation prove 
it •' for till then, we have proved enough, in proving that once 
it was inftituted. But they cannoc prove that revocation, I 
think, nor yetany Ceffation, or that the inftitution was but 
pro tempore. 

A r gum. 6. It is not a tolerable thing to charge God with fuch 
a fudden Mutation of his Law or Order of Church Government 
without very certain proof. If we find Cbnft fetling one way of 
Church Government, in his own time, and prefently after, for 
the firft age, itisamoft improbable thing that he fhould take 
that down again, and fet up anoiher kind of Government to con- 
tinue ever af:er. This feems to charge Chrift with fo great muta- 
bility, that it is not to be done without very clear proof. But 
fuch proof is not produced. 

I know it is eafily proved that the immediate Million , 
and extraordinary meafure of the Spirit , for Miracles, 
tnogues , Infallible delivery of the do&rine of Chrift are 
ceafed : But this is nothing to the general office of Preach- 
ing or Governing the Church, which is of ftanding ufe. 

So that I amfatisfied of this , that ttfl> Apoftles as General 
Preachers and Governours have fuccefTors. But then I mtft 
confefs my felf not fully fatisfled, what Governing Power it 
was that the Apoftles had over the Paftors of the Church. I 
find that when SaravU, and after him, the Difpucants in the Ifle 
of wight, do infift on this Argument from the way of Church 
Government by the Apoftles,that their Antagoniftsdo prefently 
grant the Minor £ that The Government of the Church at firfi 
was by men authorized to Rule the Presbyters and their Chwches.~] 
but thev deny the Major, that [ the government tthich yeas then 
in the Church fiould continue till now, ] becaufe it was by Apo- 
ftles, whofe Office they think ceafeth. Whereas I muft confefs 
I am unavoidably forced to yield the Major, that we muft have 
the fame kind of Government that was at firft inftituted ,unlefs 
we had better proof of a change: For the ftabliihmcnt of parti- 
cular Churches and Presbyters was no change oftheApof 'es 
power, feeing they gave not away their power to the Presbyters 


nor ceafed to have the fame Apoftolical power which they had 
before. Only the Apoftles extraordinary Mifsion, Gifts and Pri- 
viledges, Iconfefs are ceafed. But then I conceive that the 
Minor which is fo eafily granted, viz. [ that the Apoftles had the 
Government of the particular Presbyters] will hold more difpute, 
at leaft as to the nature and degree of their power ; and were I 
as fully fatisfied about the Minor as I am of the Major, I muft 
fey this one Argument be forced to be for the Jus Divinum of 
Epifcopacy. What at prefent fcems truth to me, I fliali lay down 
in thefe Proportions. 

Prep, i . It is certain that the Apoftles were general unfixed 
Officers of Chrift, having the care of the whole world com- 
mitted to them within the reach of their natural Capacity : and 
that their bufinefs was to take that courfe in the particular ma- 
nagement of their work, as is moft conducible to the propaga- 
tion of the faith through the whole world : and that in all places 
where they came, they had the fame power over the Churches 
gathered, as the fixed Paftorsof thofe Churches have. This much 
is paft doubr. 

Prop. 2.' It is as certain that common prudence required them 
to make a convenient diftribution of the work, and not go all 
oneway, and leave other places that while without the Gofpeh . 
But fome to go one way, and fome another, as moft conduced to 
the converfion of all the world. 

Prop. 3. It is certain that the Apoftles were not armed with 
the fword,nor had a compulfive coercive power by fecular force- 
but that their Government was only forcible on the Confcience, 
and therefore only on the Confcientious, fo far as they were 
fuch ^ unlefs as we may call mens a&ual exclufion by the Church 
and their defertion and mifery the effed of Government. 

Prop, 4. It is moft certain that they who had the extraordi- 
nary priviledge of being eye-witneffes of Chrifts Miracles and 
Life, and ear-witneffes of his Doctrine, and had the extraordi- 
nary power of working Miracles for a Confirmation of their * Aut kority 
Dodrine, muft needs have greater * Authority in mens Confci- *^d of meTr 
tness then other men, upon that very account, if there were no intereft upon 
other. So that even their Gifts and Priviledges may be ( and Confemcrs. 
doubtlefswere) one ground at leaft of that higher degree of 2 h Wi a ^) 
Authority, which they had above others. For in fuch a Ratio- ^Jj- 


ha! perfwafive* Authority which worketh only on the Confcience, 
the cafe is much different from the fccular power of Magiftrates. 
For in the former, even Gifts may be a ground of a greater mca- 
fure of Power, in bindirg mens minds. And here is the grcateft 
part of the difficulty that nfeth in our way, to hinder us from 
improving the example of the Apoftles, in that it is fo hard to 
difcem how much of their power over other Presbyters or Bi- 
fhops was from their fupereminency of Office and I mperial Au- 
thority, and how much was mecrly from the excellency of their 
Gifts and Priviledges. 

Prep. 5. Its certain that the Magistrates did not then fecond 
the Apoftles in the Government of the Church, but rather hin- 
der them by perfecution. The excommunicate were not punifhed 
therefore by the fecular power, but rather men were enticed to 
forfake the Church for the faving of their lives : fo that worldly 
profperity attended thofe without, andadverfity thofc within: 
which further fhewes that the forceof Apoftolical Government 
was on the Conference, and it was not corrupted by an aliene 
kind of force. 

Prop. 6. Yet had the Apoftles a power of Miraculous Cafti- 
gation of the very bodies of the Offenders, at leaft foraetimes : 
which Peter exercifed upon Ananias and Sapphjrt^nd Pahlup- 
on Eljmas, and fome think upon Hymenals and 'Thiletas, and 
thofe other that were faid to be delivered up to Satan : certainly 
Pdfil [ had '» readinefs to revenge all difobedietce ] 2 Cor. 10.6. 
which its like ex:endech fomewhat farther than to meer cenfurcs. 
But its molt certain thit the Apoftleufedno: this power of hurt- 
ing mens bodies ordinarily , but fparingly as they did other 
Miracles ; perhaps not according to their own wills, but the Ho- 
ly Ghofts. So that this did not corrupt their Government nei- 
ther, and deftroy the Spirituality of it. Yet this makes it fome- 
what more difficult to us to improve the Apoftles example, be- 
caufe we know not how much of their power upon mens Confid- 
ences might be from fuch penal Miracles. 

Prop. 7. The Apoftles had power to Ordain and fend others 
to the work of the Miniftry. But this only by the confent of 
the ordained, and of the people ( before they could be compleat 
fixed Paltors) for they forced not any to go, or any people to 
entertain them. And it feemcth they did not Ordain fingly, but 

* many 


many together, ABs 14.23 . * Timothy had his Gift by the lay * If one were 

in? ca 0/ Pauls hands and 0/ * Jfc hands of the Presbyterie, 1 Tim. ^ otI ? eant . of 

^ j -r- ^ jr .; Confirmation 

4. 14. and 2 Tim. 1.6. 0[ . giv]ngthe 

Pr<?/>. 8. It Teems that each Apoftle did exercife a Govern- HolyGhoft, 
ment over the Churches which were once planted : but this was and the other 
principally in order to well fetling and confirming then). of Ordinati- 

Prop. 9 No one Apoftle did appropriate a Diocefs to himfdf, ^'^^^ 
and fay, Here I am fole Govermr^ cr am chief Governor ; nor to think. 
did they or could they forbid any others to Govern in their 
Diocefs ; though, as is faid, they did agree to diftribute their 
work to the pub!ike advantage, and not to be all in one place ac 
once : but yet fuccefiively they^night. 

Pr >p. 10. Nay it? certain that they were fo far from being 
the fole B'.fhops of filch or fuch a Diocefs, that they had ufually 
fome more unfixed general Officers with them. Paul and 'Bar- 
nabas went together at firft : and after the Divifion, Barnabas 
and Mark, Paul and Silas, and foraetimes Timothy, and fome- 
cime EpaphroJitus, and lometime others went together after- 
ward. And others as well as fames were ufually at fernfalem : 
and art thefc had a general power where they came. Andic 
cannot be proved that fames was Ruler of Peter, Panl and the 
reft when they were at ferufalem, nor that he had any higher 
power then they. 

Trop. 1 1 . Yet it feems that the feveral Apoftles did mod look 
after thofe fame Churches which themfelves had been the inftru- 
ments of gathering, and that fome addition of refped was due 
to thofe that had been fpiritual Fathers to them, above the reft, 
1 0.4. 1 5. 

Prop. 12. It was therefore by the General Commiffion of 
Apoftlefhip that they Governed particular Churches pro tempore 
while chey were among or neer them, and not by any fpecial 
Commifsion or Office of being the Diocefan or Metropolitans 
of this or that place. 1. It was below them, and a diminution 
of their honor to befo affixed, and take the charge of any par- 
ticular Churches. 2. We find not that ever they did it. 3 If 
they had, then all the diforders and ungovcrnednefs of thofe 
Churebes would be imputable to tbem, and therefore they rouft 
be ftill with them as fixed Bifhops are, feeing they cannot go- 
vern them at fuch a diftance as makes them uncapable. 4. When 

E Pet#\ 


Patr drew B^rnaias and many more to dissimulation, and al- 
moit to betray the liberties of the Gentiles, Paul doth not fay, 
This is my Biocefs y and I muft be the Ruler here: nor doth Peter 
piead this againft him, when /Wand Barnabas fell out,wbether 
MarkQiould be taken with them or not j neither of them did 
plead a Ruling Authority, nor fay, This is mj Duct ft % e>r I 
am the fuperUr Ruler, but they produced their reafons , and 
when they could not agree concerning the validity of each others 
reafons, they feparated and took their fcveral companions and 

Prop 1 3 . It was not only the Apoftle?, but multitudes more 
that were fuch general unfixed Minifters:as the feventy 3 Bar- 
nabas, Silas, Epaphrohtus. Timothy and many others. And 
all thefe alio had a Power of Preaching and Ruling where they 

Prep. 14. None of thefe General Officers did take away 
the Government from the fixed Presbyters of particular 
Churches ; nor kept a Negative vote in their iwn hands, in ma:- 
ters of Government : for if no fixed Bifhop (or Presbyter) 
could excommunicate any member of his Church without an 
Apoftle, then almoft all Churches muft remain polluted and un- 
governed, through the unavoidable abfence of thofe twelve or 
thirteen men. 

The Apoliles therefore did admonifh Patters to do their du- 
ties, and when themfelves were prefenc had power to do the 
like, and to cenfurePaftors or people that offended i buc they 
did not take on them the full Government of any Church, nor 
Keep a Negative vote in the Government. 

Prop. 15, It feems utterly untrue that Chr-Tr dii deliver ct:e 
Keyes only to the twelve Apoftles as fueh, and fo only to their 
buccefTors, and not the feventy Difciplesor anv Presbyter* Tor 
1. The feventv alfo were General unfixed Officers, and not 
likefxed Presbyters or Bifhops: and therefore having a larger 
Gommiflion muft have equal power.- 2. The Ap-ollles were: 
r.otfingle Bifhops as now they are differenced :': ers : buc 

they were fuch as had more extenfive Comrr.ikions, then thofe 
now called Arch Bifhops or Patriarchs, if therefore the Keyes 
were- given rh.-.m as Apoftie*, or General Officers, then they 
W€F€u*.Yer given to Bdbop*- For Bifhops as h*xed B-iftops of 



this or that Diocefs are not Succeffors of the Apofties, who 
were General unfixed Officers. 3. It is granted commonly by 
Papifts and Pnreftants, that Presbyters have the power of the 
Keyes, though many of them think that they are limited to ex- 
ercife them under the Bifhops, and by their Direction and Con- 
fent, ("of which many School- men have wrote at large) 4. The 
Key of Excommunication is but a Miniftcrial Authoritative 
Declaration, that fuch or fuch a known OrTendor is to be avoid- 
ed, and to charge the Church to avoid Communion with him, 
and him to avo'd or keep away from the Priviledges of the 
Church ; and this a meer Presbyter may do ; he may authorita- 
tively Declare fuch a man to be one that is to be avoided , and 
charge the Church and him to do accordingly. The like I may 
fayof Abfolution : if they belong co every authorized Paftor, 
Preacher and Church guide, asfucb, thennottoaBifhop only, 
bat to a Presbyter alfo. And that thefe Keyes belong to more 
then the Apofties and their Succeffors, is plain, in that thefe are 
infufficient Naturally toufe them to their Ends. An Apoftlc 
in tAritloch cannot look ro the cenfuring of all perfons that are 
to be Cenfured at Athens^ Paris, London,&cc. fo that the mort 
of the work would be totally neglecled, if only they and their 
fuppo fed Succeffors had the doing of ir. I conclude therefore 
that the Keyes belong not only to Apofties and their Succeffors 
in that General Office, no nor only to Diocefan Bifhops ; for 
then Presbyters could not fo much as exercife them with the Bi- 
fhops in Confiftory, which themfelvcs of late allow. 

Prop. 1 6. The Apofties were fallible in many matters of fad, 
and confequendy in the Dccifions that depended thereupon ^ as 
alfo in the Prudential determination of the time and feafon and 
other Grumftances of known duties. And thence it was that 
PatiUnd Baruabat fo difagreed even to a parting, where one of 
them was certainly in the wrong. And hence Peter withdrew 
from the uncircumcifion, and milled Barnabas and others into 
the fame di fiirauhtion fo far that he was to be blamed and with- 
ftood, Gal. 2. 

Prof. 17. In fuch Cafes of mifleading, an Apoftlc was not 
to be follownd : no more is any Church- Governor now : but it 
islawful and needful to diffent and withftand them to the face, 
and to blame them when they are to be blamed, for the Churches 

E 2 fafety, 


fafety, as P anl did by Peter, GalatUnsl K i. 

Prof. 1 8. In this Cafe the Apoftlcs that by Office were of 
equal Authority, yet were unequal when the Reafons and Evi- 
dence of Gods mind which they produced was unequal : (b that 
a Presbyter or Bilhop that produceth better Reafons, is to be 
obeyed before another that produceth lefs Pveafon, or that Er- 
rech. And the Difhop of another Church that produceth bet- 
ter Evidence of Gods mind, is to be obeyed before the. proper 
Bilhop of that fame Church that produceth weaker and worfe 
Evidence. Yea a private man that produceth Gods Word is. 
to be obeyed be r ore Bifliops and Councils that go againft it, or 
without it ( in that cafe, where the word bindeth us : ) fo that, 
in all cafes where Scripture is to determine, he that bringeth the 
bed Scripture proof, is the chief Ruler, that is, ought chiefly 
to. prevail. T hough in the determination of meer Circumftan- 
cesof duty, wfrch Scripture determineth not, but hath left to 
Church.Guidcs to determine pro re* at* % it may beotherwifc, fo 
that the Apofties power in determining matters of faith, was nol 
as Church Governors, but as men that could produce the furcft 

Prop. 19. Itisnoreafieto manifeft, whether every Presby- 
ter in prima inftantiabt not an Officer to.thc Church Univerfal, 
before he be affixed to a particular C hurch • and whether he may 
not go up and down over the world to exercifc that office, 
where ever he hath admittance. And if fo , what then could 
an* Apoftle have done by vertue of his meer office, without 
the advantage of his extraordinary abilities, and priviledges^ 
which the Presbyter may not do? Mayan Apoftle charge $e 
people where he comes-to avoid this or that feducer or heretick h 
fo may any Preacher that (hall come among them, and that by 
authority. May an Apoftle Excommunicate the very Paftor of 
the place, and deprive him } why what is that but to perfwade. 
she people , and Authoritatively require them, to avoid and 
withdraw from fuch a Paftor, if the Caufe be manifeft ? A nd fa 
may any Paftor or Preacher that comes among them, For i£ 
( as C)P ri * n tetth) it chiefly belong to the people even of themr 
fel ves to re je& aad withdraw from fuch a PaQor, then a Preach^ 
tt may by Authority perfwade and require them to do their, 
awn duty > Yet I (hall acknowledge, that thoogh both may do* 


the fame duty, and both by Authority, yet poffibly not both 
by equal Authority, but an Apoftle Majore a/4thoritate 9 and fo 
may lay a ftronger obligation on men to the fame duty • but the 
reft I determine not, but leave to enquiry. 

Prop. 20. In making Laws or Canons to bind the Church 
wh-'ch are now .laid down in Scripcure, the Apoftles acted as 
Apoftle*, that is, as men extraordinarily Commiffioned, illu- 
minated and enabled infallibly to deliver Gods mii to the world. 
And therefore herein they have no SuccefTors. 

In Conclufion therefore feeing that matters of meer Order and 
Decency depending on Circumftances fometime rationally muta- 
ble, fometime yearly, daily, hourly mutable, arc not to be deter- 
mined Vnivtr fatly alike to all the Church, nor to all a Nation, nor 
by thofe that are at too great a diftance,but by the preient Paftor,. 
who is to manage the work, and being intruded therewith, is 
the fitteft Judge of fuch variable Circumftances : and feeing for 
ftanding Ordinances that equally belong to all ages and places, 
Gods word is perfect and fufficient without the Bifhops Ca- 
nons i and feeing that Scripture is a perfed Law of God, and 
Rule of Chriftian faith ^ and feeing that in the expounding of 
the Scripture,, they that bring the beft Evidence will beget the 
moft Knowledge, and they that produce the cleareft Divine 
Teftimony , will beget moll effectually a Divine belief, and 
thofe that arc known to be of far greateft abilities in learning, 
experience and grace, and confent with the molt of the Church, 
will procure more effe&ualiy an humane belief, then a weak un- 
learned unexperienced Paftor of our own; therefore the Jurifc 
di&ion of fupererainent Bifhops, Metropolitans, Primates and 
Patriarchs, will appear to be reduced into fo narrow a room^ancf 
written in fo fmall a character, that he hath need of very 
quick fight that can read it , and humble men may be eafijy 
drawn to think, that the Unity, Happinefs, and Safety of the 
Church lycth not init, and that if it had been only for Cbrift 
and not their own Grcatnefs, there had not been fuch Con- 
tention and Divifion made about it in the Church, as there 
hath been, 

E 3 To > 


TO draw fotnc of this which I have faid into a narrower 
room , I fhall briefly tell you what I could heartily wi(h 
bothlfagiftraces and Minilters would fpcedtly accomplifh for the 
order and Peace of the Church in thefe matters. 

i. Icould with that they would choofc out the ableft Godly 

men, and let them be appointed General Teachers, and Guides , 

to call the uncalled, and to order, confirm, and fo take care of 

the Churches that are gathered: Andifby the Magiftrates con- 

fent and their own, they divide their Provinces, it will be but 

meet. Thefe I would have to go up and down to the feveral 

Pariihes in their Provinces, and to have no particular Pariflies of' 

their own , nor to take the fixed Paftors power from them,but 

to take care that it be by themfelves well exercifed : And I 

would have the Mag (trace keep his fword in his own hand, and 

let thefe prevail with mens confeiences as far as they can •, and in 

that way, if they would exceed their bounds, and arrogate any 

unjuft power to themfelves, we (hall difTent and deny it them , 

and ftand upon our ground, and deal with them upon equal 

terms, and fo need not to fear them. Andlhavecaufe to think 

that neither Presbyterians nor all the Independents will be 

againft fuch General Officers ( Succeflbrs of the old ones ) as 

I here defcribe : Nor the Presbyterians: for in Scot Und they 

appointed and ufed fuch in the beginning, of their Reformation 

when they made Viitors of the particular Churches, and afiign- 

^d to each their limited Provinces, and fo they were Commiifio- 

ncrs, tocaftoutMinifters, put in others and plant Kirks, and 

they had feveral Superintendents, all which is to be fecn in the 

Dodrine and Difcipline of the Kirk of Scotland ( printed not 

long agoe again. ) And the Itineranr Comm ilioners in 

W*ks that were fet there to go about preaching and Re- 

formingjdothfhew that their Judgements were not againft the 


2. Icould wifh that every Parifh Church may have one El- 
dership ( where they may be had^ or fomc Elders and 
Deacons , with one Conftam Fixed , Perfed for Order and 


3. 1 could wfhthat Ordination and Conftitutions M^JISSffl 
and Communion may be done only in Synods, lefs or greater : dinatlone per- 
and that of many Presbyteries there may confift a Cla/ps, & petua; rtecejj'e 
commonly called, and of many of thofe a Province: And ih^t f^hcjl & erit 
theClafiical meeting may be frequent, and that fome one,thfe^ if'^™ 
fitted man, maybe Handing Prelident of that CUffis during ioco&dig»* 
life, except be defer ve removal. tate prims 

4. 1 could wifh alfo that the Provincial Affembiy ( to be held «#•»»***■ 
once a quarter or half year in each County ) may have the mod J£j££ P™^ 
able, difcreec, godly Mtnifkr chofen to be the (landing Pieudent ^5 divmut* 
alio during life,unlefs he defervc removal. mribiawn efi 

So that here arc four feveral forts of Bifhops that for Peace /*;■<?. Bcza 
and Order I could confent to: to wit, 1. A General unfixed ^Mimft. 
Superintendent. 2. A fixed Parochial Bifhop Prefident of that ^^ 
particular Presbytery. 3. A Claflicai B (hop, Prefident of that 
Claflis. 4. A Provincial Bifhop,Prefident of the Provincial Af- 
fembly. Bk there is no neceilky of tbefc. 

5. O ? 1 he degree of their Power I fa ; d enough before. Iris 
intolerable they fhould havea Negative voteinExcommunkati- 
ons and Abfolutions and fuch Government of the people ( ex- 
cept the Parochial Bifhop ) fave only in cafe of app e*ils y and there 
I leave ic to each nuns confederation, though I had rather they 
had none: But whether they {hould be admitted a Negative in 
Ruling the Paftors, I determine not. Only in cafe of Ordinati- 
on, 1 would have all refolve to do nothing ( except in a cafe of 
NeceflkyJ buc when the Prcft Jent is One: and ftop there; which 
will permit him defacJo theufe of his Ntgative^ and : yet trouble 
no nuns confeienceto acknowledged jure that it Mufifo be; 
for to that none fhould be -forced. 

This much I could willingly yield to for reconciliation ami~ 
unity ; And 1 doubt not but I fhallbe furncuntly reproached 
by fome for yielding fo far, and by others for yielding rio 

AN D now at tail after thefe ( not needlefs ) preparation^ 
1 I co me t o t h e m at n tfjbeftft) n i r ft 1 f, whethc r it be Necef- 
fdrj or Profitable for- the right Order or Teaee-of'tke Churches, to 
reftjre the extruded EyifcopACj? Andchis I «ktty,afld having (a id 

fo much already for explication, (hail prefently give you the Rea- 

fons of my denyal •, tn which the reft of the neceffary explication 
will be contained. 

Argument i. That fort of Prelacy or other Government -which 
deflroyeth the End of Government, and it certainly inconfftent with 
the Neceffary Government and difcipline to be exercved in the 
Churches* is not tobereftored, under pretence of the Churches 
Order or Peace ( nor can be confiftent with its right Order and 
Peace. ) Butfttch is the Epifcopacy which was of late exercifed in 
England, and is now laid by. Therefore, &c. 

The Major needs no proof; for few Cbriftians I think, will 
deny it. I f Epifcopacy as lately here exercifed, be the certain ex- 
cluder of Government it felf and C hrifts difcipline, while it only 
retains the empty name, then doubtlefs it is not to bereftored. 

The Minor I prove thus. If there be a very Natural Impofli- 
bility that the lateEngliih Epifcopacy though in the hands of 
the beft men in the world , (hould Govern the Churches 
as Chrift hath appointed , and as they {hould and may othcrwife 
be Governed ^ then the forefaid inconfiftency and deftru&ive- 
nefs is apparent. But that there is fuch a Natural Impoffibility 
for the late Englifli Epifcopacy to Govern the Church , thus I 
{hall prove, i. By (hewing you what is undoubtedly neceffa- 
ry in Chrifts Government ; 2. And then what was the late Eng- 
lifli Epifcopacy ^ and then 3 . The Impoffibility will appear of it 
felf when both thefe are opened and compared together without 
any more ado, 

1. And 1 . Ic is paft controverfie among us, that Church Go- 
vernors (hould watch over each particular foul in their flock, 
and inftrud the ignorant, admonifh the fain, convince gainfay- 
ers,counterwoi k feducers among thcm,feek to reclaim the wan- 
dring,ftrengthen the weak, ccm fort t he diftreffed, openly rebuke 
the open obftinate offendors,and if they repent not, to require 
the Church to avoid their Communion, and to take cognifcancc 
of their caufe before they arc cut off; asalfoto A bfolvc the pe- 
nitent, yea to vifit the fickfwho are to fend for the Elders of the 
Church : ) and to pray with and for them, &c. yea and to go 
before them in the wor(hip of God. Thefe are the ads of 
Church Government that Chrift hath appointed , and which 
each faithful Shepherd mud ufe, and not Excommunication, and 



other Cenfures and Abfolution alone. 

2.Butifthey could prove that Church Government contain- 
ed* only Cenfures and Abfolution, yet we (hall eafily pr^ve it 
Impoffible for the late EnglifhEpifcopacy todothar. For, 3. It 
is known to our forrow that in moll Parifhes there are many 
pcrfons , and in fome greater Parifhes very many , that have li- 
ved,coramon open fwearers, or drunkards,and fome whoreraon- 
gers,common fcornersof a godly li:c,and in many more of thofe 
offences , for which Scripture and the ancient Canons of the 
Church do excommunicate men, and we are commanded with 
fuch no not to eat. And its too well Joiown what numbers of 
Hereticks and Seducers there are, that would draw men from 
the faith, whom the Church-Governours muft after the firft and 
fecond admonition reject. 4. And then its known what a deal 
of work is Neceffary with any one of thefe, inhearingaccufati- 
ons, examining WitnefTes, hearing the defendants , fearching 
into the whole caufe, adraonifliing, waiting, re-admonifhing, 
&c. 5 . And then its known of* how great Nccefiity, and mo- 
ment ailthefc aretothe honour of the Gofpel, the fouls of the 
ofFendors. to the Church,to the weak, to them without, &c. So 
thatifitbenegleded, or unfaithfully mannaged, much mifchid? 
will enfue. Thus in part we fee what the Government is. 

Next let us fee what the Englifh Epifcopacy is. And i.For the 
extent of it,a Diocefs contained many fcore or hundred Pariflies^ 
and fo many thoufands of fuch fouls to be thus Governed. Per- 
haps fome Dioccffes may have five hundred thoufand fouls,and it 
may be London Diocefs nearer a million. And how many thou- 
fand of thefe may fall under fome of the foreraentioned ads of 
Government", by our fad experience we may conjecture. 

2. Moreover the Bifhop refideth, if not at London ( as ma- 
ny of them did ) yet in his own dwelling, many miles, perhaps 
twenty or thirty from a great part of his Diocefs, fo that moft 
certainly he doth not fo much as know by face, name, or report 
the hundreth, perhaps the thoufandth,or perhaps the fecond or 
third thoufandth perfon in his Diocefs. Is it Poffible then for 
him to watch over them, or to underftand the quality of the per- 
fon and fad ? In Church Cafes the quality of the perfon is of fo 
much moment, that without fome knowledge of it, the bare 
knowledge of the fad fomerimes will not ferve* 

F 3- And 


* I knov * 3 . And then it is known that the Englifh Epifcopacy dcny- 

Bithop ufint etn t0 t he Presbyters all power of Excommunication and A bfo- 
to the Kmz? ^ ution » U1 ' e *" s t0 prononnce it as from the Bifhop when he hath- 
tok fay that P a ^ {t : Anc * they deny him alfo all power fo much as ofcal- 
by the Order ling a finner to open Repentance, which they called Impofing 
©f the Church penance : and alfo they denied all power of denying the Lords 
tfErigla?ki,a& Supper to any without the- Bifhopscenfure, except in a fuddert 
c'iaraed ( S to? ca ^ e > an( * c ^ en cne Y mu ^ P r <>fecute it after at the Bifhops Court; 
the form 06 and there render rhe Reafon of that fufpenfiofl : So that the 
Ordering of trouble, dinger, labour, time would be fo great that would be 

Priefts) to fpentinit,thatfcarceoneMinifter of a hundred did venture on 
adminuter ttie . r \ r , . . 

•Difcipline of lC oncc m * even ancl * even y ears » exce P c onl y K> deny the Sacra- 
Chrift : Bur ment to a man that would not kneel , and that they might do 
the Bifhops eafily and fafely. 

undcrftooi 4< An( j t h en Confidcr further , that if the Minifter fhould be 

their°pubU{b- one of an hundred, and fo diligent as to accufe and profecute 
incr their all the open fcandalous offendors of his Parifti, before the Bi- 
€enfures.For (hops Court, that fo he might procure that ad of Government 
ao fuck Ad- from them, which he may not perform himfelf, it would take 
^ kr^T W aH his time > and perhaps all would not ferve for half ihe work, 
amoncr Us , or confidering how far he muft ridejhow frequently he muft attend, 
allowed: Nor &c. And then all the reft, or moft of the Paftoral work muft be 
would they negleded, to the danger of the whole Congregation. 
fnf Cr T e,n t0 5* Ic ls a 8 rcac P ena ^y t0 an mr) ocent man to travail fo far 
fromAeSa^ to the trial ofhisCaufe. But the fpecial thing that I note is this, 
a amentias the thatit is Naturally Impoffible, for the Biftiopto hear,, try and 
Rubrkk in judge all thefecaufes, yea or the fifth or hundredth of them, or 
r* Z ^ or R m T * n *° mc P^ aces one °f ^ ve hundred. Can one man hear fo many 
wSiirerh. hundred as in a day muft be before him,if this difcipline be faith- 
fully executed ? By that time that he hath heard two or three 
Caufes, and examined Witneffes , and fully debated all, the reft 
can have no hearing •, and thus unavoidably the work muft be 
undone. It is as if you fet a Schoolmafter to teach ten or 
twenty thoufand Schollars ? Muft they not be needs unraupht ? 
Or as if you fet one Shepherd to look to two or three hundred 
feveral flocks- of Sheep, that are every one of them three 
or four miles afundcr, and fome of them fourty miles from 
fome of the reft. Is ic any wonder then if many of them be 
• . feft& 


6. But what need we further witnefs then the fad experience 
of the Church of late ? Are we not fure that difcipiine lay un- 
Txercifcd, and our Congregations defiled, and Gods Laws and 
the old Canons were dead letters, while the Bifhops keep up the 
lame and empty name of Governours f How many drunkards, 
fwearers, whoremongers, raylers , Extortioners, fcornersat a 
godly life did fwarm in almoft every Town and Parifh ? and they 
never heard of difcipiine , except it were one Adulterer or for- 
nicator once in feven years within twenty miles compafs (where 
I was acquainted) that flood in a white fheet in the Chuch:We 
know that there was no fuch Matter as Church Government ex- 
ercifed to any purpofe , but all left undone , unlefs it were to 
undoe a poor Difciplinarian ( as they therefore fcornfully called 
them ) that blamed them for ncgleft of Difcipiine. For my 
part, the Lord my Judge knows, that I defire to make the mat- 
ter rather better then it was, then worfe then it was ^ and I fo- 
lemnly profefs that for the Peace of the Church , I (hould fub- 
mitto almoft any body that would but do the work that is to 
bedone. Here is driving between the Epifcopal, Presbyterian 
and Independent, who it is that fhall Govern. I would make 
no great ftirragainft any of them all that would but doit effe- 
ctually. Let it be done , and its not fo much matter by whom 
it is done , as it is to have it lie undone. But I can never be for * Its an eafic 
that party that neither did the work, when they might, nor pof- matter to 
fibly can do it. To be for them, is to confent that all (hould be P r "^ J! r . . 
undone- and that Drunkards and Railers and all wicked perfons Leflon- buc 
flu II continue fo dill , or continue members of our Churches in they that 
all their obfunacy : and that there (hall be nothing but the name would prafti- 
of Government and Cenfurc without the thing. Its hard making "% when 
men of Conference believe the contrary that have had the triall done open 
that we have had: If where good men were Bifhors thus it gap tolicen- 
was, what hope of better by that way ? We cannot fhut our tioufnefs, and 
eyes againft fo great experience. And certainly thofe Learned °7^ r ^ owa11 
men among us that think fo much Difcipiine may ferve turn to^^ ?j. 
all the Congregations in the whole Diocefs,as the Bifhopcan hardly per- 
perform or have a Negative Vote in,do too manifeftiy fhew that fwade mm 

they * are lefs friends to real godlinefs, and greater friends to fin, thac the y 

mean as they 
teach, or are themfelvesfuch -as they defcribe, or really Would promote a holy life j elpe- 
<rially when Scorners zt a godly life were favoured more then the practifersof it. 

F 2 and 


and care too little for the matter it felf while they contend about 
the manner or agent,then ferious Chriftians (hould do. If men 
once plainly (hew themfeives mecr formalifts , and would fet up 
a fcarccrow, and pull down all true Difcipline r by fetting up 
one man to do the work of five hundred , and making the exer- 
cife of it impoflible , what ferious Chriftian will ever take their 
part ? Not I while I breath : Who canchoofe but fee that fuch 
do feek their dignity, and Lordfhips, and worldly Mammon 
more then the Kingdom of Chrift. I know they will be angry 
with me for this language-, butfo are mod impenitent perfons 
with reproofs. I would advife all of them that* furvivcto lay 
to heart before the Lord , what they did. in undertaking fuch 
an impoflible task , and leaving fomany fouls and Congre- 
gations without Chrifts remedy, and fufferingthe Churches to 
b.efo foul, while they had the Beefom in their hands. 

This being fo raanifeft that it is impoflible for an Englifli Bi- 
fliop to Govern as they undertook fomany Congegations,l may 
well next argue from the mifchiefs that follow. 

Argum. 2. np Hat Government -which gratifieth the Devil 
JL and wicked men, is not to be reftored under any 
pretence of the Order or Peace of the Church i But fuch was the 
Englifb Epifcopacyt therefore, &c; 

The Major is unienyable, .fuppofiEg that it do not this by an 
avoidable accident, but by natural Neceility , as I have proved, 
I confefs fomcof the Men were fo Learned and Good men,that 
I think few mea honour their names more then my felf. But it 
is the way of Government that I have fpoke of 

And Br the Minor, it is as plain from experience, and the argu- 
ment before ufed. If it neceffarily exclude theexercife of ChrinY 
difciplinefrom moft Congregations^then doth it gratiHe Satan: 
But, &c. 

And if it keep wicked obftinate finners from the power of 
difcipline, then doth it gratifie linners in their Sins, and confe- 
qaently pleafe Satan. But this it doth : therefor e,(£rr 

Who knows not ( for it cannot be denied ) that the generality. 
<ofthe rabble of ignorant perfons, worldlings, drunkards,haters 
<fifGodline-ft 3 .^.sre-v«y aealous for Epifco^cy whifeft craki- 

tudes of truly confcientious people have been againftit? And 
who knows not that they both fetcht their chief Motives from 
experience ? The ungodly found that Bifliops let them keep their 
fins, and troubled them not with this precifenefs, but rather 
drove away the precife preachers and peop'e whom they ab- 
horred. And the godly people that diflikcd Ep fcopacy, 
did it principally on the fame experience ., obferving that 
they befriended the wicked, at leaft by preferving them from the 
due rod of difcipline ; but exercifed their zeal againll them that 
fcrupled or queflioned at leaft their own (landing or a (Turned 
power, or theabufe of it, And then further, 

Argum. J. T^ Hat Government which unavoidably caufethfe* 

JL parations and divifions in the Church, %s notts ' 

he reftored under any pretence of its Order and Peace f But jack is 

the Englijh Epifcopacy f therefore ; &c. 

I know theclean contrary is ftrongly pretended, andr.hey SeemyPre- 

tell us that, we may fee how Epifcopacy kept men in Unity , face to Mr. 

by the many Se&s that fince are rifen. &ut let ic be obferved> Pleyc ^. °}. G . ro f 

in That thefe Sects were hatchtj£ in the reparation which was- ^ 5 ^^y- 

caufed by themfelve*. 2. That thelncreafe hath been iince there now ro iemed 

was no Government at all. 3. It was not Epifcopacy, but theonlyasPres- 

Magiftratcs Sword whofe terror did attend ir, that kept under bytcrie and 

herelies in that meafure that they were r Had Epifcopacy flood - trie . Co ?? re "\ 

i 1 j pit'onai wav 

on its own legs, without the fuppott of fecular force, fo that it ^doth any 

might haveworkt only on the conference, then you fhouldhavc manthinkir: 

fecn more Se&s then now, Do you think that if Epifcopacy were would -caft>#* 

in Scotland in the Cafe as Presbytery is now, without the Sword uffT' 1 ". 

to enforce it , that it would keep fo much Unity in -Religion as is 

there? Its known in France and other places that Presbytery 

bath kapc more Unity, and more kept out Herefiesand Sehifms, 

even without theSword, then Epifcopacy hath done- with it, 

4. But the thing that I fpeak of it undcnyable^ that it vm& 

the pollution of our Churches that caufed the Separatism the: 

Bifliops dayes to withdraw. Thi^wastheir common cry a gai oft 

us, Your Churches bear with Drunkard s 3 Whoremongers, Rail- 

crs*- open Scorners at Godlinefs 3 witkwhom the Scripture bids • 

osnotsa^ And.weceukUotdsny i&^ -for t&N&ft&jW didker. 



itfo, by keeping out a<i efte&ual Diicipline. Only we told 
them, thatit was the Prelates fin, and not theirs that could no: 
help it, and that a polluted Church might be a true Church. And 
fo the Disciplinarian Non-Conformifh were fain by many pain- 
ful writings to fupprefs the fpiric of reparation, or elfe it had 
been Like to have overwhelmed all s Mr. fobn Paget, Mr. "Brad. 
(hAw, Mr. Arthur Hi'-derfham, Mr. f*tm Ball, Mr. Brigbtman, 
Mr. Paul Bains, Mr.^ZW, Mr. Farmer, Dr. Ames , and many 
oiherfuch, were fain to make it a great part of their buhnsfs, 
to quench the hre of reparation, which even their perfecutors 
kindled by the exdufion of Diicipline. And yet the fenfe of ' 
the Churches uncleannefs was fo deep in mens minds, that it had 
bred fuch abundance of difcontended humors, that they eafily 
broke out, and turned into this diforderly fwarm which we have 
feen, as foon as the wars had but given them liberty. 

And even to this day it is the uncleannefs of our Churches, 
( wherein I would the Pallors were wholly innocent ) which 
maintainahmuchof thefeparation, among many fober godiy 
men. For the Churches were left fo polluted by the Bilhops, 
that in moft places the Presbyters dare fcarce go roundly about 
the cure, unlefs they had the* help of the fword, wherein yet 
for my part I think them deeply finful. 

Argum. 4. ~T* Hat Epifcopacy which degradeth aII the Pres- 
X tyii rs in the Diccefs, or caufeth them to fn r pend 
the exercife §f an Effentialpart of their Offi:e, is net to be reftered 
unAtr anj pretence of right order, or ptAce. But fitch was the late 
Engl' fit EfifrofdCJ : therefore. 

1 confeis this is the fecond inconvenience which followed) it, 
which I chink utterly intolerable, where there is any pofsibility 
of a remedy. The Major I fuppofe w.ll be granted. For though 
an Office may be unexercifed for a time on ibme fpecial reafon, 
yet if it be ftatedly fufpended, and that fufpcnfion eftab!;fhed 
by Law cr Cuftom, during the life of the Minuter , this is 
plainly a deftroying or nulling of the Office it felf, and not to be 

And that it is not to be endured appeareth thus- 1. Beciufe 
the Office of :heP.esbyter is of Divine Inftiturion, and there- 


fore not to be nulled by man. I never yet read or heard oi any 

i rx- • \* • i_ J J *U-.. r> C VlinlllOWS 

more but one Divine of any reputation who denyed that Prei- mea i e ^p t ^. 
byters as now called are appointed in the Scriptures, and I thirik, petuafunt 
that one hath deftroyed his caufe by it, of which more anon. &u*\ Ymby 
2. Becaufe the Church cannot with any fafety fpare the Office x ™°™™j£ 
of the Presbyters, becaufe they are many, perhaps many hun- p^JL'..^ " 
dred to one Prelate : and if fo many of Chrifts Officers be laid by, voco cum om7 £ 
it is eafie to fee what lofs the vineyard and harvelt may fuftain. gcelefia vetorip 

The Minor I prove thus. That Epifcopacy which taketh from €0S yi*. Lc " 
the Presbyters the power of Church- Government, and alioweth ^JJ^i 
them only the power of preaching and adminiftring Sacraments, p r(€C ikatio»e r 
and thofc other parts of the work which thevdiftinguifti from Sacramcnth 
Government, do thereby deftroy the very Office of the Pres- & clavibun 
byters ( and fo degrade or fufpend them ) But the late Engiifh ^/fj^ 
Epifcopacy taketh from the Presbyters the power of . hurch- -JdivUua. r 
Governing ; &c. therefore- (hemeanetFr 

The Antecedent is well known by thofe that know their Canons, jnfeparablc ) 
claim and confiant practice in England, till the time of their ex- fl^^gjjjj 
clufion. That the Confcquence is currant appeareth thus. a p res byter to - 
Church Government is as real and as elTential a part of the P r ef- have theP^A- 
byters work and office as any other whatfoever. Therefore they erof the 
that take this from him, do deftroy his Office. £S^ 

The Antecedent is proved thus : if thofe Texts of Scripture p a J^*%^ 
which mention the Office of Presbyters, ARs 20. and 14. 23. 
and many other places do fpeak of Presbyters as now underftood,. 
and not of Prelates, then Ruling is as much <fFenti?I to their 
office as Preaching. This is proved, 1. From the exprefs words 
of the feveral Texts, which make them Overfeers of the flock, 
Aftszo. 28. and to be over the people in the Lord, to whom 
they are tofubmit, 1 Tbef.$. 12,1 3. and Rulers of them, whom 
they muft obey, as well as Preachers to them, H^ 13.7,17.24. 
1 Tim.y^ t % 2. Its proved from common Confcnc. For, 
1. Thofe that think thefc Texts fpeak of Presbyters as now un- 
derftood, do moft commonly confefs this fenfe of the Texr, v ?'*. 
that it makes them Rulers 5 only fome of them add , that 
themfelves muft be Ruled by the BiiTiops. 2.. He that denyetfo 
thefe Texts to fpeak of luch Presbyters, doth confefs that thofe- 
of whom it doth fpeak, are certainly Rulers of the Church. 

And then I affume v But the general voteof almoft all Expo*- 

Paflo,im fitors old and new, Epifcopal and others from the Apoftles daies 
ergo eft o,d\- Z[ \\ noW) as far as we can know by their writings, did take thefe 

T el !f% es: Tes:", at leaft many of them , to fpeak of fuch Presbyters; 
necfe id offici- . _ »,. , , r • c • l t 

um cis competit * n< H trunk the new expohtion or one man, is not to be taken 
gxabmjusaut againft the Expohtion of the whole ftream of Expofitors in ail 
}&us Eeclefi* a ge$, without better reafon to evince them to have erred, then 
V fed°7tm^] an y Inavc y ecfecn produced. At leaft, all the Epifcopal Du 
&riVuut*~ v ^ nC5exce P ctnatoneman » an d thofe that now follow his new 
.cnholica. Expofition, muft yield to what I fay, upon the authority of thefe 

Grocius ibid. Texts. 

p 7 /fc ^ ut l ^ l ^ is ^ v ' ne werc m ^ e r 'S nt > an d non c of thefe Texts 

lubimllifvnt ^ c ^P oiccno ^ Presbyters, yet I make good my Antecedent thus. 
Zpfcopi) etfi for i. If Presbyters be of humane Inftitution, then neither 
cum msris Preaching or Ruling is any Effencial part of their Office by Di- 
Presbytcns id v i ne Inftitution • becaufe they have none fuch : and therefore I 
^Inumdal' rna Y ^ a Y one is as effencial as the other : that is, neither is fo. 
nonprtpmt" 5 But yet of their humanly inftituted Office, it is as efTential a 
bxbent tamn part ftill rfor if it be true, that there were no Presbyters in the 
Mud Epifcopa- Church till about Ignatius his daies, yet its certain that when 
l yV°*rT im tnc Y vvcr c inftituted ( whether by God or man) they were as 
* unt ; JtL tru b T mt de Rulers as Preachers. And therefore we find their 
ad:o diibium Ignatius ftill calling on the people to obey the Presbyters as well 
eft, Epifcopif- as the Biihops. And Hierom tells us, ( Epifi. ad Evagr. ) how 
p' f? mm long the Presbyters governed the Churches Communi Confilio, 
Za-yf^Lu by Common Counfel or Confent, and how therafelvcs at Alex- 
mcrentur.idem /*w*<* chofe out oneand made him their Bilnop.-and Cyprian 
pag.3 io. tells us enough of the Presbyters ruling in Council or Conliftory 

with the Bifhop in his time : fo that rte would do nothing with- 
out the Presbyters. Much more proof may eafily be brought of 
this, but that! find it now acknowledged, and fo it is needtefs. 
I will not go far, but only note a few Canons, e. Specially of the 
• fourth Council of Carthage. Can.23»is, Vt Epifcepus nullius 
C aufam auditt abfque pra/gntia ^/ericcrum fmrum ^ aliocjuin if* 
rita erit fen'entia Epifcopi, nift Clericcrum prafentia confirmetur. 
Cjx.IZ. Epifcopus fine Cenftlio Clericorum fmrum Chricos 
*w o*dinet • ita utCiviumajfenfum 3 & conmventiam, & tefti- 
monium qudtrat. 

Can. 2Q.« Epifcopfts ft Clerico vel laico crimen impofaerit , dt- 
jdttc/itur ad prohtionem in Sjnodum* 


(4i ) 

Can. 32. Irritaerit donatio Epifcoporttm, vel t vcnditio i <velcm- 
natatio rei Ecclejiaftict, abfq; cotsnivirtia & fubfcriftiwe chri- 

Can.34. Vt Epifccpus in qudibet lecofedens flare Prcsbjterum 
non patiatur. 

Can. 35. Vt Epifcopusin Ecclefta in confefu Prsebyterorum 
fublimior fe-deat : Intra domum vero colleger* fe Presbjterorum 
ejfe cognofcat. 

Can. 36. Presbyter, qui per dioecefes Ecclefias regunt } non a qui* 

Can. 37. Diaca.'Hsita fe Presbjteri at Epifcopi Mini fir um 
ejfe cognofcat. 

Here you fee that Bifhops may not Ordain, hear any caufe, 
accufe a Clergy man or Lay-man, not give, fell, or Change any 
Church goods, without the Presbyters : and that he is their Col- 
legue , and muft not let them ftand if he fit, and that they Rule 
the Churches through the Dioceffes, and that the Deacons are 
Servants as well co them as to the Bifhop. Aunlius and Angufiine 
were in this Council. 

If they that think it uncertain whether Presbyters be raenti- commmPref- 
oned in the New Teftaraent,and that think they began about JV- h ter ?]'. um 
natvus his time, do mean that yet they were of Divine Apoftoh-^^^ffaitk 
cal Inftitution, then they ftrike in with the Papifts in making the Hkr. 
Scriptures to be but part of Gods word,and inefficient to reveal See Grotlus 
all Divine inftitutions about his Church-Government,and Wor- uhl f u P-P'l$<h 
fnip,andfo we mud look for the reft in uncertain Tradition.Nay proringtnat* 
I know not of any Papift to my beft remembrance that ever Prelacy is noc 
reckoned up the Office of Presbyters under their meer unwrit- °f Divine 
ten Traditions. ? u Ce ^f 

. If rhey fay that they are of Ecclefiaftica! Epifcopal Tnftituti- „£ y c £* 
on, not by infpired Apoftlcs, but by Ordinary Bifhops, then had many 
1. They make all Presbyters to be jure Epifcepali, and Bifhops Churches and 
only and their Superiours to be jure Divino^s the Italians in the Bl{ W s * n 
Council of Trent would have had all Bifhops to depend upon p^Wrs, 
the Pope : But in this they go far beyond them ^ for the Italian except ordina- 

. tion ( as Hier. 
and Chryfojl. ) may do all that a Bifhop; and headdeth, Quid obflat quo miws id it a 
merpretemUf ut Fresbyteri ncminem potuermt ordimre contempt Epifcopo ? 

Andpag. 359. He fhews that where Bi (hops are not, Presbyters" 
See the beginning of Bifhop ufhers Redu&iou of Epifcopal Governn 

do rightly ordaiflg 


Papifts therafel ves thought Presbyterie jure Divino. 2 . Either 
they may be changed by Bifhops who fet them up, or not : if 
they may be taken down again by man, then the Church may 
be ruined by man; and Co the Bifhops will imitate the Pope j 
Either they will Reign,or Chrift (hall not Reign,if they can hin- 
der it : Either they will lead the Church in their way , or Chrift 
(hall have no Church : If man cannot take thera down, tben 
i . It feenas man did not Inftkute them ^ for why may they not 
alter their own inftitutions ? 2. And then it feemsthe Church 
hath univerfal (landing , unchangeable Inftitutions, Offices and 
binding Laws of the Bifhops making ; A*id if fo, are not the 
Bifhops equal to the Apoillcs in Law making, and Church Or- 
dering? and are not their Laws to us as the word of God , and 
that word inefficient ? and every Bifhop would be to his Dio- 
cefs, and all to the whole Church , what the Pope would be to 
the whole. 

3. Moreover , how do they prove that ever the Apoftles 
g ve power to the Bifhops to inflicute the order of Presbyterie? 
I know of no text of Scripture by which they can prove it -And 
for Tradition, we will not take every mans word that faith he 
hath tradition for his conceits, but we require the proof. The 
Papifts that are the pretended keepers of Tradition, do bring 
forth none as meerly unwritten, bur for their or dines inferiores^ 
and many of them, for Bifhops as diftinA from the Presbyters; 
but not for Presbyters themfelves. And Scripture they can plead 
none •, For if they mention fuch texts where Paul bids Titus 
ordain Elders in every City, &c they deny this to be meant of 
Elders as now ,but of Prelates whom Titus as the Primate or Me- 
tropolitan? was to ordain : And if it be meant of Elders, then 
they are found in Scripture, and of Divine Apoftolicallnftitu- 

4. If they were Instituted by Bifliops after the Scripture was 
written , was it by one Biftiop, or by^ many? If by one, then 
how came that one to have Authority to impofe a new Inftitutu 
on on the univerfal Church ? If by many, either out of Coun- 
cilor in ; if out of Council, it was by an accidental falling into 
one mind and way, and then they are but as finglemen to the 
Church: and therefore (till we ask,how do they bind us? If by 
many in Council, 1 . Thea let them tell at what Council it was 



that Inftituted Presbyterie, when and where gathered, and where 
we may find their Canons,that we may know our order ,and what 
Authors mention that Council. 2. And what authority had that 
Council to bind all the Chriftian world, to all ages? If they fay 
it bound but their own Churches , and that age ; then it feems 
the Bifhops of England might for all that have nulled 4 the Order 
of Presbyters there. ButO miferable£*£/Wandraiferable 
world, if Presbyters had done no more for ir, then Prelates 
have done ! 

I conclude therefore that the Englifh Prelacy either degraded 
the Presbyters, or clfc fufpended totally an effential part of their 
office : for themfelves called them Rectors, and in ordaining 
them faid, £ Receive the Holy Ghofi : jvhofe fins thou dofi remit 
they are remitted, tohofe fins thou dofi retain they are retained ~} 
And therefore they delivered to them the Power oftheKcycs 
of opening and (hutting the Kingdom of Heaven ^ which them- 
felves make to be the opening and (hutting of the Church,and the 
Governing of the Church by Excommunication and Abfolution: 
And therefore they are not fit men to ask the Presbyters ; By 
what authority they Rule the Church , by binding and loofing, 
when themfelves did exprefly as much as in them lay, confer the 
Power on them : And we do no more then what they bid us do 
in our Ordination ; Yea they thereby make it the very work of 
our office : For the fame mouth, at the fame time that bid us 
C take authority to f reach the word of God"] did alfo tell us that 
whofie fins we remit or retain they are remitted or retained: and 
therefore if one bean EfTential, or true integral part at leaftof 
our office, the other is fo too. From all which it isevident, that 
if there were nothing againft the Englift* Prelacy , but only this 
that they thus fufpend or degrade all the Presbyters in Eng- 
land, as to one half of their office, it is enough to prove that 
they fhould not be rcftored under any pretence whatfoeverof 
Order or Unity. 

G 2 Argum. 


Argum. 5 . pm T > H*t Epl fyfacj which gfacth the Government of 
A \ch\ and mamg mem of the Keys of Ex- 

communication and Abfotution into the hands of a few Lay men ^ 
I hive, ; .t and while the) take them from the Presbyters^ is n:t tabereftoredunder. 
can produce any pretence of Vni:j or Peace : Bjttfufh was the Englijh PrtU\ 
it under the C j : therefore y &c 

Kin© own j^ e j^ijtft ; s p| a [ n : becaufe it is not Lay- men that are to be. 

wherein he Church Governours, as to Ecdefiaftical Government: This is 
forbids that beyond Queflion with all.fave the Congregational, and they, 
any Church would noc have two or three Lay men chofen, but the whole 
pian or Prieft Congregation to manage this bufinefs, 

Sere (houUl be The M" n P. r ^ s known by. common experience, that it was tee 
^Chancellor: Char.ce.> r in h > curt, with his affiftants and the Regifier f 
And thiswas and fuch o:her meer Lay- men, that managed this work. If it be 
the occafioi f a id, that they did it as the Bifhops Agents and Subftirar.es, and 
*. c 1C c ?~~ therefore it was he that did it by thera - I anfwer, 1. The Law 
they muft for put it in the Chancellors, and the Bifhops could not hinder 
riuir own ad- ir. 2 , If the Bifhops may delegare others to do their work, then 
vantage and j t feems Preaching andRnling,Excommunica:rng and Absolving 
proht have mavaswelibe done by Lay-men as Clergy men : Then they 
accordingly : ma V commiition them alio to admimlter the Sacraments: And fo 
SotheRegi- theMiniftry is not necefTiry for any of thefe worsv but only a Bi- 
tes, Pio- fhop to depute Lay-men to do them; which is falfeandconfufive. 
ftors, Apyara- 

to s, were pcffimnm ■ ™ m '• G&eodmzriy Bifhop of G'.o:, in the Preface to his Two 

Myftenes, &c, 

Argum. 6. r I i Hat Epifcopacj wh chveceffari/y ovrwhelmeth 
-** the fouls of the B<Jh>ps with the m.f hainous 
guilt ', of negeQing the many thoufand fouls who e charge tkey 
nndertakfyis not to be reforedfor Order or Peace (For m n are not 
to be ove whelmed with fuch hainous fin on fuch pretences) But 
fuch is the Engl: ft Pnlacy : and that not accidentally, through 
the badnefe of the menonlv , but unavoidably through the 
greatnefs of their charge, and the Natural Impofiibility of their 
undertaken work. H< >w grievous a thing it is to have the blood 
of fo many thoufands charged on hem, may foon appear. And 
that man that, undertakes himfelf the Government of two or 



three, or five hundred thoufand fouls that he never feeth or 

knoweth,norcan pofiibly fo Govern, but mud needs leave it 
undoae ( except the (hadowofa Government which is com- 
mitted to a Lay Chancellor, ) doih willfully draw this fearful 
Guilt upon himfelf. 

Argum. 7. HP Hat Epifcopacy which is the prodn-Sl of Trend 
"*- Ambition and Arrogancy ^contrary to the exprefs 
command of C hrifl ., is rot to be reftored for Order or Peace. But 
fuch ii the late Engtifh Prelacy uheref ore, &c. 

The Major is undoubted. The Minor is proved thus. Were 
it not for p oud Ambition men would not ftnve to have the do- 
ing of more work then an hundred times as many are able to 
do,, and thcanfwering before Gr>d for as many fouls : but the 
Eng i(h Prelates did ftrive to have the work and account of ma- 
ny hundreds; therefore, &c. 

The Minor is proved and known by experience. And the Ma- 
jor is proved thus. 1. From the common a verfnefs that all men 
have to labour, excefiiveoppreiTmg labour, and that fpiritual 
toOi 2. From the felf-love that is naturally in all .* Nomancan 
naturally and rationally dedre that which would tire him, op- 
prefs him, and finally damn him, ' without g-eat repen- 
tance, and the fpeciall mercy ofGod, unlefsby the power o£ 
fomeluftthatdraweth him to it. 3. And common prudence will 
teach men not to thruft themfelves into impoflible undertakings. 
Ifwefeea mandefirous to have the Rule of a whole County 
under the Prince, and that there < fho-uld be no juftice of- 
Peace, or other Magiftrate to Rule there but he , though he 
know that he muft anfwer it upon bis life, if the County be not 
well Ruled,astothepunifhingofalltheknowndrunkards,(wear- 
crs, adulterers, &c. in the County ;. may not any man fee that 
Ambition makes this man in a manner betides himfelf, or e fe he 
would never fet folightby his own life,as certainly and willfully 
tocalVit awayjby undertak nga work whichhe knoweth many 
men are unable to perform : And Ambition it muft needs be, be- 
caufe Honour and Preheminency is the bait and thing contended 
for, andthereisno-hingelfetodoic. And how cxprefiydoch 
Gbrifl forbid this to hts Apoftles, telling them, £ mthyouit [hdl, 

G3 not 


r.-t be ': '• hut he tbtt vrill betbt gnrntfl x fhall hthe fervsnt of all*] 
Luke 22 26. As dk : \ otazam 

/;-: ; ','::r.:nfk % WtcMxUpco cux.t 'u: :-": >,':■> Cmjmg fiml 

-. ~_ Speaxing of the Prelates. 1 own not 
Cenfure, but own Chrifts prohibition. Certainly the Honour 
is bu: the appendix for the worx fake, ar.d the work is the firft 
thing and the mam 0; the crrcr Ar.d I wou'd .-.:.•: w uhethtt 
they would f'.rive thus for the work tod the terr.ble accou 
without the honour ar.d world// gain. Na\ c : trey r.ot ceftroy 
the work, v. hie they quarrel for the doing of it, for the honor 
faxe r If it were the Churches good and the worx that they fo 
. r..z:td, they would contend that fo many fhouid have 
the doing of it as are neceflary thereto, and no: that none fhouid 
c. t but they. He that would turn all the labourers out of the 
Harvelt laving himfelf, in aii this County, that he may maintain 
fan own privi. edge. I fhouid thinx dorh no: much mind the good 
of the owner, or the we.l doing of the worx, or his own fafecy, 
if he were to aafwer for all upon his life. 

Argum. S . ""T"" Hat epifesfacj which fo far gratifrth Uz.j Mmi? 
JL fierj as to eafe them of the mofi painful, tr:nhli ":m 
and hazAracns tart of their wcri^ ijnettebe referred fsr order ok 
*ni:j : cut Cuch ~a: the late Entli/i Prelacy : therefcre $ &c. 

The Major is undoubted. The Minor is before proved as :o 
the worx 1: felf. And as to the quality and consequents, experi- 
enccputteth i: pa ft ail doubt, that the worx 0: Government 
and O verfight.is incomparably csore troublefom then the preach- 
ing of a bermon, Baptizing, adminiftring the Lords Supper, 
and praying with them. When we come to touch men by perfonal 
reproof, and make that pub.;xe, and that for difgracefol fuw, 
and fufpend or excommunicate them if they be obiunatc, ofu- 
ally we do not only turn their hearts againft us^ but they rage 
againft us, and could even be revenged en us with the cruel. e~f* 
revenge. We find that all the Preaching in the world doth not 
fo much exafperate and enrage men, as this Difcipline. I can 
Preach the moft cutting and convincing truths, in as ciofe a man- 
ner as I am able, to notorious wicked livers, and they will bear it 
patiently, and fay it was a good Sermon, and fome of them fay 



that they care not for hearing a man that will not tell them of 
their fins. And yet call them to an open confeffion of thefe 
fins in the Congregation, or proceed to cenfurc them, and they 
will rage againft us as if we were their mortal enemies. The 
Bifhops let all thefe men ( alrnoft ) alone -, and therefore never 
exafperated them .-and fo now they rage the more againft us, 
and love the Bifhops the better, becaufe they were never ^fo 
troubled by them. 

And here I cannot but note, how grouridlefs that accufation 
is of fome Prclatical men againft the Confcionable adverfaries of 
their way, when they fay, the Presbyters would fain have the 
Reins of -Government in their own hand : which may be true of 
the unconfcionab!e,that know not what it is that they undertake: 
but for others, it is all one as to fay, They would fain have all 
the trouble, hatred and danger to themfelvcs. Thefe Ob je&ers 
(hew their own minds, and what it is that they look at mod 
themfelves . and therefore think others do fo : its dear bought 
honour that is purchafed at fuch rates of labour and danger. I 
here folcmnly profefsfor my own part, that if I know my heart, 
I am fo far from thinking it a defirable thing to Rule, much lefs 
to Rule a Dioccfs, that if I might fo far gratifie my carnal de- 
fircs, and were not under the bond of Gods Commands, and 
fo were it not for fear of finning and wronging mens fouls that 
are committed to my charge, I would give, if I had it, many 
thoufand pounds, that I might but Preach, Pray, Read, Baptize, 
adminifter the Lords Supper,though I did more then I do in them, 
and be wholly freed from the care and trouble of overfight and 
government of this one Congregation,which is further required. 
O how quiet would my mind be, were I but fure that God requi- 
red none of this at my bands, nor would call me to any. account 
forthenegleft of it / And that this is not my cafe only, but 
the common cafe to find Difcipline (o troublefom, is apparent 
in this; that the whole body of the Nation ( for the generality) 
have contended againft it thefe many years, and in alrnoft every 
Congregation in England, the greater part do either fcparate 
from the Mmifters, and forbear the Lords Supper, or fome way 
oppofe it and withdraw, that they may avoid it. And moft of 
the Mtnifters in England even godly men, do much, if not alto- 
gether negleft it, So that fome through a Carnal indulging of 


their own cafe and quiet, and to avoid mens ill will •, and fome 
through the, great oppofittons of the people, or for one fuch 
caufeur other, do lee all alone. In fo much, as even here in this 
County where we have aflbciated and engaged our felves to fome, 
execution of Difcipline, this work goes en fo heavily as we fee, 
and need not mention further : when yet there is not a dales 
omifsion of Sermons and other Ordinances : fothat its apparent 
that its it which all lazie, carnal, man-pleafing Minifters may well 
comply with, as that which fuites their Carnal Interefts, jto be 
free from the toil and care of Difcipline. 

If you fay, why then do the Bifhops defire it, if flefh and 
blood be againft it ? I anfwer -Experience and the irapofsibility 
of performance tells us, that it is not the work, but the empty 
name and honour that they took up .-and that indeed the flefh 
. doth much more defire. Had they defircd or been willing of 
the work, as they were of Lordfhips and Riches, they would 
have done it. 

Argum. 9. ^1 Epifcopacy y {atleafi which hath fo many 
..LN evils as afore faid attending it ) which is not of 
Gods Inftitution, fhonld be admitted into the Church* The late 
Englijh Prelacy , as to the dif approved properties before mentioned ^ 
is not of Cods Inftittition : therefore it is not to be admitted into, the 

The Major is confeffed by all that plead for the fus Divimm 
of Epifcopacy y or moft : and with the qualification, from the ill 
confequcnts, will be yielded by all. 

The Minor I prove by parts ; 1. That the exclufion of Pref- 
byters from Rule, and the putting the Government from them 
into a Lay- mans hand, with the reft before mentioned, are not 
of Divine Inftitution, is proved already, as much as needs. 
2 . If at the prefent we yield a fuperintendency or preheminence 
of one Paftor before others, yet the Controverfie remaineth, 
whether a Prelate fhould be only Parochial, that is, only the 
Prefident of the Elders of one particular Church, or at the ut- 
moft of that with two or three, or a few neighbour fmall Parifh. 
cs which he may well overfee, without the negled of the Difci- 
pline. Now I know not how any man of that way can prove 



out of Scripture, that a Bifhop mud have more then one Parifh, 
much leis more then three or four, or a few. For it is confeft 
by uiem,foroughcI know, that Scripture doth not determine 
how many Presbyters, or Churches a Bifhop muft have under 
him, ( only we fay he muft have but one : ) for the main thing 
that they labour to prove is, that a Bifhop is above Presby- 
ters as to Ordination and Jurisdiction : and fo he may be if he 
be a Parifh-Bifhop : for a Parifh-Church may have a Curate, 
and 2 or 3 Chappels with Curates at them, befides Deacons 5 
and according to the old courfe, perhaps many Presbyters more 
that did not publikely preach ( though they wanted not autho- 
rity ) but overfce the flock. Now one man may have all that 
moft of their Arguments rcquirc,if he be but the chief over this 
Parifh Presbytery. 

But perhaps they will fay, that according to Scripture, every 
City only muft have a Bifhop, and therefore all the Country 
about muft be his D;ocefs, though the number of Churches and 
Presbyters under him be not determined. To which I anfwer, 
that the word Only, is not in Scripture : no Text faith that it was 
Only in Cities that Churches or Bifhops wcreco be feated.There 
is no prohibition of fctling them in Villages. 

It will be faid, that There is m example of any Bijb&f but in a 
City. To which I anfwer. i. Themfelves ordinarily tell us in 
cafe of Sacrament gefture, and many other things, that examples 
do not alway bind affirmatively ; much lefs can they prove that 
they bind negatively ; I mean, not to do that which was not 
done. Can you prove in Scripture that there were any particular 
Churches or AfTemblics for Sacraments and other worfhip in 
Villages? If not, then is it lawful now to have any ? If not, then 
all our Parifh Churches in the Country are unlawful. If yea, 
then why may we not have Bifhops in the Countreys without 
Scripture example, as well as Churches ? for we ftiall prove that 
thereafons why there were none or few Bifhops in the Country, 
was for want of Churches for them to overfec. The Gofpel 
was not then preached, nor any Bifhops placed in many Nations 
of the world: it doth not follow therefore that there muft be 
nonefince. ,2. The rcafon is evident why Churches and Bifhops 
were firft planted in Cities ; becaufe there was the grcatcft 
Concourfe of people 1 not that God loves a Citizen better then a 

H Countrey-, 

Countrey-man, or that he will hare his Churches fo limited to 
foil, or place, or fcituation : it is the number of perfons where- 
ever they live, that muft be regarded, that the Church be not 

too great nor too fmall i but if there be the fame number of 
people Cohabiting in the Countrey, as one of the Apoftolical 
Churches did coniift of, then there is the fame reafon to have a. 
Church and Bifliop in that Country Village, as was then for. 
having one in a City. 3. E 1 dcrs (hould be ordained in every, 
Church, and therefore Bifhops ( for fome of them fay that 
thefe were Biftiops ) But C hurches may be in Country Villages -. 
therefore Elders and Bifhops may be in Country- Villages. 4. L 
prove from Scripture that there were Bifhops in Villages, or out. 
of Cicies,thus. Where there was a Church,there was a Bifhop.But 
in a Village there was a Church •, therefore. The Major I prove, 
from y4#. 14.23. compared with .1 Tirn.^. They ordained them 
Elders in every Church;or Church by Church :but thefe Eders are 
called Bifhops in 1 T>m. 3 • (and by foracsf that way maintained. 

For the Minor I prove it from Rem.16.1. where there is men-, 
tion of the Church at Qenchrea : but Cenchrea was no City, but, 
as Gr otitis fpea^s, Partus Corinthiorum, ut "Piraus Athenie»ftum 9> 
vlz.adfinum Saronicum: apfaret ibi Ec defiant fuijfe Cbrifiiano- 
rum. Grot, in Ad. 18.18. & in Rom. 1 6.1. vide et Downam , v 
Defenf. pag. .1,05.- who out of Strabo faith , it was the Port. 
that ferved moil properly , for Afia. But Bifhop Downam faith 
f ibid. ) that Cenchrea was a Parifh fubordinate to the Church of. 
Corinth, having not a Bifhop er Presbytery, but a Presbyter af- 
fifnedto it \ fo before he faith, by a Church, he means a Compa-. 
n) of -Chr'; films having a Bifhop and Presbytery, ] But if he wilt 
fo define a Church as that the Prelate (hali enter the Definition^ 
then he may well prove that every Church had a Prelate. And. 
fo a Patriarch may be proved to be NecefTary to every, 
Church, if you will fay, you mean- only facb congrega-. 
tions as have a Patriarch. But it was denominated a Churchy 
j4&. r i-4..2$\ beforethey had Presbyters ordained to them, and. 
fa before fixed Biftiops: when the Apoftles had converted and 
congregated them, they were Churches. And the Text faith 
chat they ordained them Elders in every C hurchjor Church by 
Ctachj; and therefore Ctnchrea being a Chrutcb, muft have fuck, 



Eiders ordained to it, according to the Apoftles Rule. And 
that it was a Parilh with one Presbyter Tub jed to Corinth, is all 
unproved, and therefore to no purpofe. 

5 . Yet 1 prove that the Enghfh Prelacy on their own grounds, 
iinot^r/D^'^inthatitisagainfttheword of God, accord- 
ing to their own interpretation • of which next. 

Argum. 10. ~T" Hat Epifcopacy which is contrary to the word 
X of Gody or Apofiolical Inftitution, according to 
their own interpretation , is not to be reftored. But fuch is the late 
Mnglijb Epifcopacy : therefore, dec. 

1 prove the Minor (for the Major needeth none : ) according 
to their own interpretation otTit.1.5. and other Texts ; Every 
City ftiould have a Biftiop, (and if it may be, a Presbytery ) 
( And fo many Councils have determined, only when they grew 
greater, they except Cities that were too fmall : but fo did not 
PjhI ) But the late Epifcopacy of England is contrary to this i for ■ 
one Bilhop only is over many Cities. if therefore they will needs 
have Epiicopacy, they ftiould at leaft have had a Biftiop in every 
City .-and though we do not approve of confining them to Cities, 
yet this would be much better then as they were : for then 

1 . They would be nearer their charges,and within reach of them. 

2. And they would have fmaller charges, which they might be 
more capable of overfeeing * for there would be ten or twenty 
B (hops for one tharbenow. If they fay that except Bathand 
Wtlls Coventry and Lici.fi Id^ov fome kw t they have but one Ci- 
ty. Ianfwer, its not io. For every Corporation or Bunough- 
Town is truly ^i^j . and therefore (hould have a Bilhop Letthem 
therefore either prove that a Market Town, a Burrough, a Cor- 
poration, is not ™a/< 5 or elfe let every one of thefc Towns and • , 
Burroughs have a Biftiop, to govern that Town with the Neigh- 
bouring Villages by the confenc and help of the Presbyters of 
thefe Vil ages, (according to their own grounds. J And if it were 

fo, they would be no more then Claflical biftiops at moft. 

Pe haps they'le fay that, while we pretend to take down Bi- . 
(hops, we do but fet up more, and would have many for one, j 
while we would have every Corporation or Parifh to have a Bi- 
ftiop. To which I anfwer, its true : but then it is not the fame Anfw* 
fort of Bifhops which we would exclude and which we would 

H 2 multiply. 


multiply : we would cxcladc thofe Bifliopt that would undertake 
two or three hundred mens work themfelves, and will rule a 
whole Diocefs alone ("or by a Lay Chancellor) when every 
confcionable man that hath faithfully tryed it, doth feel rhe 
overflghtof one Congregation to be fo great a burden, thac 
it makes him groan and groan again. We would exclude thofe 
Bifhops that would exclude all others in a whole Diocefs, that 
they may do the work alone, and fo leave it undone, while they 
plead that it belongs to them to do it. If they will come into the 
Lords Harveft , and exclude from the work of Government, 
the Labourers of a whole County or two, we have reafon to 
contradict them. But this is not to bring in more fuch Bifhops 
asthcy that will (hut out others, but to keep in the neceffary la- 
bouring Bifhops whom they would fhut out. Nor do we (hut 
out them themfelves as Labourers or Rulers, but as the excluders 
of the Labourers or Rulers. If we have a Church to build that 
requireth necefUril.y two hundred workmen, and fomc Pillars 
in i: t > Ered, of many hundred tun weigh:,if one of the work- 
men would fay, that it belongs to him to do it all himfelf, or at 
leaft when the materials are brought to the place prepared, to 
rear and order and place every ftone and pillar in the building, I 
would no orherwife exclude the vain pretender then by intro- 
ducing necefTiry help that the work may be done ^ and I ihould 
think htm a (illy Caviller that would tell me, thatwhilel exclude 
him, I do but multiply fuch as he ; when his very fault confided 
in an hinderance of that neceffary multiplication. 
®bjeti. i. I know that fome will fay, that we feign more work ihen is to 

be done ^ and we would have the fentence of Excommunica- 
to tion pafs upon every light offence. I anfwer ; that it* a thing 
that we abhor : we would have none Excommunicated but for 
obfiinacy in hainous fin ; when they will not hear the Church 
after more private admonition. But there*s much more of the 
work of Government to be done on men that are not Excom- 
municable, to bring them to Repentance, and open confeflion, 
for roanifefiation of that Repentance to the fatisfa&ion of the 
Church : but what need we plead how great the work is which 
every man may fee before his eyes, and experience piutetb be* 
yond difpute ^ 
Furthermore that the Eoglifh Epifcopacy is diflbnant frontall 



Scripture Epifcopacy, I prove thus. The Scripture knoweth bur 
two forts of Epifcopacy : the one General, unfixed as to any 
Church or Country or Nation ; which was not called Epifcopa- 
cy in thefirft times : the other fixed Overfeers of determinate 
Churches appropriated to their fpecial charge : thefe were called 
Bifhopsin thofe times ; whereas the former were, fome called 
Apoftles, from their immediatamiflion and extraordinary Pri- 
viledges; or Evangelifts, or Fellow- labourers and helpers of 
the Apoftles, or by the like titles fignifying their unlimited in- 
determinate charge.But our EnglifhBifhops are neither of thefe; 
therefore not any of Scripture appointment but different from 
them. i. They are not of the Apoftolical Order of General 
Mmifters .- for i. Their principal work was Preaching to con- 
vert, and congregate, and then order Churches; but our Bi- 
fhops fcldom preached, for the moft part. 2. They were not 
tyed to any particular Church more then other, fave only as 
prudence direded them p o tempore & re vati, for the fuccefs of 
their work for the Church Univetfal • nor were they excluded or 
retrained from any part of the world as being another mans 
Diocef* ^ fave only as prudence might direct them for the com- 
mon good, to diftribute chemfelves pro tempore. This is apparent 
i . by Chrifts Commiilion,who fendeth them into all the world, 
only by certain advantages and particular calls, fitting Peter 
more for the Circumcifion, and Pant for the Uncircumcihon, 
when yet boih JW.rand Paul and all the reft, did preach and 
look to both Circumcifion and Uncircumcifton. 2. By rhe Hi- 
flory of th a ir peregrinations and labours, which {hew that they 
were not fo hxed^ whatever fome writers may ungroundeJly 
affirm.. EufbiHs ( difcrediring by fabulous mixtures rhe light- 
er iort of his TeJiimonies, and cenfured by fome rejrcVion by 
Gelafiusand others ) ard fome with h ; m, do cell us or fome fuch ; 
things, ai fome Apoftles being fixed Bi ("hops, but with no fuch 
proofs as (hould lausfie a man that weighs the contrary intima- 
tions of scripture, and the difcord of thefe reporters among- 
themfelves. Only itiscertain, thacnatureit felr" wou;d (ore- 
drain them that as they could be but in one place at once, fo 
they could not be in perpetual motion : and prudence * ou'd keep 
fchemlongeftih thofe places where moft work was to be done. 
Mud therefore PshJs three years abode at Efhefm and the r ei ch- 

H S bouring^ 


bouriog parts of esffia, did not raafce him the fixed Diccefan Bi- 
(hop oi Ephefus. 

And what 1 fay of the Apoftles, I fay alfoof many fuch Itine- 
rant unfixed M nifters which were their helpers, as Silas, Apollo^ 
BamAbts, Titus, Timothy, StcYov though Timothy be ea led 
by iomc Aniens the rirtt Bifhop of Ephefus, and T'\tut of 
Crete ; yet it is apparent they were no fuch fixed Minifters, that 
undertook a Dice's durante vita as their proper charge which 
were then csl.ed Bifhops-, but they were Itinerant helpers of the 
Apoftles in ga:hering, planting and firft ordering of Churches. 
And therefore Titus was left in a whole Nation or large Ifland, 
to place hfhops or Elders in each City, andfet things in order, 
and this but till Paul come, and not to be himfelf their fixed Bi- 
fhop : and Timothy is proved by Scripture to have been unfetled 
and itinerant as a helper of Paul, after that he is by fome fup- 
pofed to be fixed at Ephefus. I will not neeclefly aft urn agerc : 
let any man that is unfatisfied of this, read impartially Mr. Print 
unbifhoping of Timothy and Titus, and note there the Itinerary 
of Timothy from Scripture Texts. If therefore our Bifhops 
would have been of the Apoftles and their General helpers race, 
they fhould have gone up and down to gather and plant Church- 
es, and then go up and down to vifit thofe which they have 
planted j or if they live where all are Enchurched already, they 
fhould go up and down to preach to the ruder fort of them, and 
by the power of the word to fubduc men further to Chrift, and 
to fee that all Minifters where they come do their duty/eproving 
and admonifhing thofe that negleft it, but not forbidding them 
to do it, as a things belonging only to them. And by Spiritual 
weapons and authority fhould they have driven Minifters to this 
duty, and not by meer lecular force ( of which more anon. ) 

2. And as for the fixed Bifhops of Apoftolical Fnftitution,our 
Englifh Prelacy are not like them. For the fixed Bifhops efta- 
blfhedbythe Apoftles were only Overfeers of one particular 
Church : But the Englifh Prelates were the Overfeers of many 
particular Churches. Therefore the Englifh Prelates were not 
the fame with the old Bifhops of the Apoftles inftitution. 

The courfe that the Prelates take to elude this argument is 
by giving us a falfe definition of a particular Church. That 
wc may noi therefore have any unprofitable ftrifc abonc words, 


I ft.ll fignifie my own meaning. By a Particular Chnrd . I 
mean an Affociated or combined company of Chnft.ans i for 

in the way toheaven.under the Guidance of«» L r h f u J 
Beers rone Elder or more;) fuch as are undmded.or Churches 
ofthefirft order commonly called Ecclefu Prim* as tocx.- 
ft nee and which comainnot divers Policial Churches m them. 
AftmiW I mean not : forthats not a Political Church.havmf ; no 
Pator An accidental company of ChnftiansI mean not Forthofc 
a no Affociafon, and fo no Polkical Church: Nor do I mean 
aNational,or D.ocefane or Claffical Church, or any the , Ug, 
which are compofed of many partxular Churches of the firft 
order, conjunct. It is not of Neceffity that they alway or moft 
ufually meet in one Congregation i becaufe its poffib e the y m y 
want a capacious convenient room, audits poffible they may- 
be under perfection, fo that they may be forced ro meet fecre - 
ly in fmall companies, or there may be fome aged weak peopc 
or children that cannot travail to the chief place of Meet- 
ing, and fo may have fome Chappels of eafe, or (mall er meenng 
Bu ftillitmuft be a number neither fo b,g norfo (mall as to 
beuncrpable of the ends of Affociat.on, which enter the defim- 
tion • however weaknefs, age or other accidents may hinder 
fome'members from that full ufefullnefs as to the «"«" end wh,:h 
o-her members have. So that they which are fo many or 
live at fuch a d.ftance as to be uncapable of the ends are not fuch 
a Church,nor are capable of fo being « Vor the number will alter 
the fpecies.ln a word.it cannot.I think.be proved that .n the Pri- 
mitive times, there was any one fixed B.lhop that Governed and 
Overfaw any more then one fuch particular pohueal Church, 
as was not compofed of divers leffer pol.tical Churches : nor than 
their Churches- which any fixed Biihop overfaw were more then 
could hold Communion in Wornnip in one publick place, forio 
many of them as could ordinarily bear at once ( tor all the fa- 
milJs cannot ufually comeatonce i ) they were not greater 
then fome of our Englfti Parifhes are, nor ufually the tenth par 
foereat I have been informed by the jud.c.ou. inhabitants, that 
there are fourfcorethoufandinGi/wCnpp/e^rPariilun Lou- 
it»: and about fifty thoufand m^p^.and fourty thouland 
m SefHlchnu There cannot any Church in Scripture be found 


that was greater, nor neer fo great as one of thefe Parifhes. No 
not the C hurch at Jerufalem it felf of which fo much is faid : No 
not if you admit ail the number of moveable Converts and So- 
journours to have been of that particular Church,which yet can- 
not be proved to have been fo.l know Bifhop Dorvnam doth with 
great indignation Difpute that Dioceffes were before Parifhes, 
and that it was more then one Congregation that was con- 
tained in thofe Dioceffes ; We will not contend about the name 
Diocefs and Parifh , which by the Ancients were fometime 
ufed promifcuoufly for the fame thing ; But as to the 
thing fignified by them, I fay that what ever you call it, a Dio- 
cefs, or a Parifh, there were not near fo many fouls asinfome 
Englifh Parifhes •, nor take one with another , their Churches 
commonly were no more Numerous then our Parifhes, norfo 
numerous. A Diocefs then and a Parifh were the fame thing, 
and bo:h the fame as our particular Churches now are £ that is, 
the Ecclefdt prima, or Soceities of Chriftians combined under 
Church-Rulers,for holy Communion in Worfhip and Difcipline. 
And there were no otherwife many Congregations in one 
Church, then as our Chappies of eafe , or a few meeting in a 
private houfe becaufe of rainy weather ,are many Congregations 
in one Parifh. The forefaid Learned and Godly, ( though 
angry ) Bifhop Downame, faith Defli.z.cap.i. page 6. that [ In- 
deed at the very firfl Qonverfion of Cities > the white Number of the 
people converted , being fome not much greater then the Num- 
ber of the Presbyters placed among them y r»ere able to make but A 
fmallCongregatien.~]Ca\\ that Church then a Diocefs or a Parifh, 
I care not, fo we come near an agreement, about the proporti- 
on of Members that the definition be not overthrown, and the 
ends of it made impoffible by thediftance,number, andunac- 
quaintednefs of the members that cannot have any Church com- 
munion immediately one with another. I f there be no commu- 
nion, how is it a Church ? Nayorif there be no fuch commu- 
nion as confifts in mutual afliftance and conjunction in Wor- 
fhip, and holding familiarity alfoin our converfation (which 
the excommunicated are excluded from ) And if a communi- 
on there be, it is either Immediately the members themfelves 
Affembled,or elfc but Mediately by their Officers or Delegates. 
If it be only by the latter Mediately , then it is not the £c- 



cleftaprima 9 but orta: It is an ajfociation of fever at Political 
Churches : For that is the difference between the communion of 
a (ingle particular Church , and many combined Churches,thac 
as the firft is a combination of perfons and not of Churches, fo 
the communion is held among the Members in common , 
whereas the other being a combination of Churches, the com- 
munion is maintained orderly by Officers and Delegates, joyning 
in Syneds,and fent from the Congregations. If therefore it be an 
Immediate ordinary .communion of members in Eccleiiaftical af- 
fairs,^. Worfhip and Difcipline, that is the Particular Church 
that I intend, call it what you willelfe,and whether there may be 
any private meetings in it befides the main body , or not,as poffi- 
bly through fomc accidents there may be ; and yet at Sacrament 
and onthemoftfolemncoccafions, the fameperfons that were 
at Chappels orlefs meetings,rEay be with the chief Aflembly. 

But I fhall proceed in the proot of this by the next Argument, 
which will ferve for this and the main together. 

Argum. 1 1 . *Tp Hat fort of Church Government may moftfafc 
X ly be now pratlifed which was ufed in the 
Scripture times , and thats lefs fafe which was not then ufed. But 
the Government of many Elders and particular Churches by 
one Bifhop ( fixed, and taking that as his proper Diocefs, fuch as 
the Englijh Bifhops were ) was net ufed in Scripture times. There* 
fore it is not fo fafe to ufe it or reftore it now. 

The Ma jor is proved hence : i . In that the Primitive Church 
which was in Scripture times,was of unquestionable Divine In- 
ftitution , and fo moft pure. And it is certainly lawful to 
practice that Church-Government which alone was pra&ifcd 
by all the Church in the Scripture times of the New Teftament. 
2.Becaufewe have no certain Law or Direction but Scripture 
for the frame of Government as jure Divino. Scripture is Gods 
fufficient and perfect Law. If therefore there be no mention of the 
Practice of any fuch Epifcopacy in Scripture,no nor any precept 
for the practice of it afterwards, then cannot we receive it as of 
Divine Inftitution. The Objections fhaJl be anfwered when we 
have proved the Minor. 

And for the Minor I (hall at this time argue from the Concef- 

I (ions 

iidnsofthemoft Learned and Reverend rr an ihac at this time 
hath deeply engaged himfelfin defence of Epifcopacy, who doth 
grant us all thefe things following, i .That in Scripture times they 
were the fame perfons,and of the fame office that were called Bi- 
fhops and Presbyters. 2. That all the Presbyters mentioned in 
Scripture times, or then inftiturcdCas far as we can know had a 
Power of Ordination. 3. And alfo a Power of Ruling theChurcb, 
Excommunicating and Abfol vine. 4. That there was not then 
in being any Presbyter ( fuch as the Bifhops would have in 
thefe rimes ) who was under the Bifhop of a particular Church 
or Diocefs. His words are thefe £ And Although this title of 
X\?i7 frjicci, Elders^ have been alfo extended to a fecond Order in 
the Church, andis now only in fife for them , under the Name of 
Presbyters , yet in the Scripture times it belonged principally , if 
not alone to Bifhops ; there being no Evidence, that any of th*t fe- 
cond order were then inftituted, though foon after , before 1 he wri- 
ting ^/Ignatius Spiftles there were fuch inflituted in all Churches.] 
5. it is yielded alio by him that it is the office of thefe Presby- 
ters or Bifhops to Teach frequently and diligently 5 to reduce He- 
reticle, to reprove, rebuke, Cenfuie and abfol ve, to vific all the 
fick and pray with them, &c. And therefore it muft needs follow 
that their Diocefs mufrbeno larger then that they may faithfully 
perform all ihis to rhe Members of it: And if there be but one B.- 
fhop to do it, lam men certain then by experience that hisDiocefs 
mult be no bigger then this Parifn^nor perhaps half fo big.tf. And 
D .^ . it mu r . nccviV fc>l!ow,tbac in Scripture times a Panicuiar Church 
p^oS, " confifted.no: oHeve al Churches aflbcated,nor of feveralCon- 
[ §.9. Prlus grcgations ordinarily meeting in feveral places forChriftian cora- 
mn njqucciuzfc munion 

verum efje 

quod pro concejfg frmiiur (in unit civil. ne ?iim fuifj'e pluris Sp'fcopos ) Quanrjn enim in 
una Scclefa ant Ccetupluves frnul Zpifcopi nunquam fmrm^mhil tamex obflarc q iin in eadem 
sivitate duoaDquando diflermnai. CxiiLifucrmt^duvlHis Apoflolis ad fidm adducii, diver jis for- 
fan dialcttis & ahquando ritibm disjuutth quibus duo itidem Epifcopi fcorfw, & divifis 

Et P« # XI1 ; §• **• [ E.this ratio conjlat, qn are fine Trcsbytcronm mentio-ie intervemevte, 
Epifcopis Viaconi immediate. adjiciamur- quia fciiicet in fingulis Macedonia civitatibm-, quam- 
tris Epifcopus tjjch m»dum V&sbylm conptuti fun>, Djacon'u tantum -nfU pvfffifio* ubiy 
Epifcopis ad\untiis. 

Mark well the flaring of the queftion by Dr. H. DlfTert. Epift.§. 30*3 1 *The controver- 
ik is not QHibus.dmurn nmimbus cogiiti fuerint ecdefmum Rottores , ' fed r an ad Mum in 



fi-igiilari EccieJU, madplurcs,potcftas iftj. dcvenerit. Nos adumm fingularem Prtfecim 
quem exprnofiore Ecclefia ufn Spifcopum vulgo dicim'is, poteftatem ifiam in fmgulan c<ztit ex 
rCbrifli & Apoftolorum injlitutiode nanquam non pertimijj'e ajfimmtes. ] You fee here that it 
is but [ vn-finffuUfi Scclcji.i ] & [ in fcgUari Costa ] that he aflfrrmeth an Epifcopacy of 
ChrifH and trie Apoftlcs inftitution. And fueh Bifhops moil- Churches in Sngland have 

reunion in the folemnWorftiip ofGod,but only of the Chriftians 
of one fuch Congregation with a (ingle Paftor ( chough in that 
we d»ffent,ar.d fuppofe there we- c more Paftors then one ufually, 
or often J That this muft be granted with the reft is apparent. 

1. The Reverend Author faith as Bifhop Dewnam before cited 
\That when the Go/pel was fir ft preached by the Apoft'es and but 
few Converted, they ordained in every City and region, no more but 
a Bi[h p and ene or more Deacons to attend him , there being at the 
prefent fofmal ftorc cut if which to take more , andfofmall need 
of ordaining more, thai tki t Bifhop is conftitutedmore for the fake 
of thofe<whichJhiuld after believe ,t hen ofthefe which did already.] 

2. And its proved thus : If there were ir> Scripture times any 
moreordir-ary Worfhiping A fl*mblif son the Lords dayes then 
one under one Bifhop , then either they did Preach, Pray^ 
Praife God, and adminiiter the Lords Supper in thofe AfTem- 
blies, or they did not : If not, then i . They were no fuch Wor- 
shipping AfTemblies as we fpeak of. 2. And they fhouldfia 
again (t Chrift who required it. 3 . And differ from his Churches 
which ordinarily ufcfi it. But if they did thus, then eitherthey 
had fome Paitor ( Presbyter or Bifhop J to perform thefe holy 
ad ions ber w<en God and the people, or not : If nor, then they 
fuppofe thatLay-raen might do all this Minifteriai work,in\Vord, 
Sacraments, Prayer, and Praife in the name of the A(Tembly,e^c. 
And iffo, what then is proper to the Miniftry? then farewell Bi- 
ihops and Presbyters too. If not, then either the Bifhop muft be 
in two AfTemblies at once performing the Holy Worlhip of God 
intheir communion ( but thats impoflible :) or clfc he muft have 
fome affifting Presbyters to do it; But thats denyed: There- 
fore it muft needs follow that the Church order, constitution and 
p-adifed Government which was in Scripture times, was this; 
that a (ingle Worshipping Congregation was that particular 
Church which had a Presbyter or Bifhop ( one or more ) which 
watched over and ruled that only Congregation as his Diocefs or 

1 2 proper 


proper charge, having no Government of any other Church 
( Congregation ) or Elders. Defatto this is plainly yielded. 

Well: this much being yiclded,and we having come fo far to 
an agreement, about the a&ual Church Conftitution and Go- 
vernment of the Scripture times, we defire to know fome fuffici- 
ent reafon,why we in thefe times may not take up with tha Go- 
vernment and Church order which waspra&tfed in the Scripture 
times ? And the Reafon that is brought againft it is this » Becaufe 
it was the Apoftles intention that this (ingle Bifhop who in Scri- 
pture times had but one Congregation, and Governed no Pret- 
byters, (hould after Scripture times , have many fettled Con- 
gregations, and their Presbyters under them, and (hould have 
the power of ordaining them, &c. To this I anfwer, i. The In- 
tentions of mens hearts are fecret till they are fome way reveal- 
ed. No man of this age doth know the Apoftles hearts but by 
fome (ign : what then is the revelation that Proveth this Inten- 
tion ? Either it muft be fome Word or Deed. For the firft I can- 
not yet rind any colour of proof which they bring from any 
word of the Apoftles, where either they give power to this Prcf- 
byter or Bifhop to Rule over many Presbyters and Congregati- 
ons for the fucure : Ner yet where they do fo much as foretell 
that fo it (hall be. As for thofeof Paul to Timothy and Titus, 
that the/ rebuke not an Elder , And receive not accufation againft 
them but under tno or three Witnejfes > the Reverend Auchor af- 
firmeth that thofe Eiders were not Presbyters under fuch Bi- 
fhops as we now fpeak of, but thofe B;(h^ps themfelves, whom 
Timothy and Tans might rebuke. And for meerfafts without 
Scripture words, there i^none that can prove this pretended In- 
tention of the Apoftles. Firft, there s no fad of the Apoftles 
themfelves or the Churches or Paftors in Scripture time 
to prove it. For Subordinate Presbyters are confeffed nor to be 
then fnftituted y and (o not exiftent : and other fad of theirs there 
can be none. And no fad lifter them can prove it. Yet this is 
the great Argument that moil infift on , that the pra&ice of the 
Church after Scripture times, doth prove that Intention ofthe 
Apoftles which Scripture doth not ( for ought is yet proved by 
them that I can find ) ai all exprefs. But we deny that, and re- 
quire p r oof of it. It is not bare faying fo that will ferve. Is it 
notpoffiblefor the fuccceding Bifhops to err and miftakethe 



Apoftles Intentions ? If not, then are they Infallible as well as trie 
Apoftles, which is not true. They might fin in going from the 
Inftitution : And their fin will not prove that the Apoftles in- 
tended it fhould be fo dejure, beeaufe their followers did fo de 

If they fay that it is not likely that all the Churches fhould fo 
fuddenly be ignorant of the Apoftles Intention, I anfwcr, i.Wc 
•muft not build our faith and practice on Conjectures. Such a 
faying as this is no proof of ^ poftolical intentions, to warrant us 
to fwerve from the fole pradifed Government in Scripture times. 
2. There is no great likelihood that I can difcern that this flrft 
pradifed Government was altered by thofe that knew the Apo« 
itles, and upon fuppofition that thefe which are pretended were 
their intents. 3 . If ic were fo,yet is it not impoffible, nor very 
improbable , that through humane frailty they might be drawn 
toconjedure that that was the Apoftles intents which feemed 
right in thier eyes, and fuited their prefent judgements and mte- 
refts. 4. Sure we are that the Scripture is the perfed Law and 
Rule to the Church for the Eftabl idling of all neceffiry Cfficcs 
and Ordinances : and therefore if there be no fuch intentions or 
Institutions of the Apoftles mentioned in the Scripture , we may 
not fet up univerfally fuch Offices and Ordinances, on any fuch 
fuppofed intents. 

Defatlo we feem agreed, that the Apoftles fettled One Paftor 
over one Congreg ition having no Prethjters under his Rule\ and 
that there were no other m Scripture time : but ihortly after when 
Chriftians were multiplied, and the moft of the Cities where the 
Churches were planted, were converted to the faith, together 
with the Country round about , then there were many Congre- 
gations, and many Paftors , and the Piftor of the ftrft Church in- 
the City did take all the other Churches and Payors to be un- 
der his Government , calling ".hem Presbyters only, and himfelf 
eminently or only the Rifhop.Now theOucftion between us is, 
Whether this was well done or not ? & Whether thefe Paftorsfhwld 
not rather have gathered Churches as free as their own? & whether 
the Chriftians thjit were afterward converted fhould not have com* 
binedfor holy Communion themf elves in particular difinQ (. hur- 
€hts , andhave had their own P aft or s fet ever them y as the fir/} 
^hurches By the Jpjiles had ? T hey that deny it, and JuftihY 

I 3 their 


their fad, have nothing that we can fee for it, but an unground- 
ed furmife,that it was the Apoftles meaning that the flrft Bifhops 
fhould fo do : But we have the Apoftles exprefs In{litution,and 
the Churches, praAife during Scripture times, for the other way. 
We doubt not but Chriftians in the beginning were thin, and 
that the Apoftles therefore preached moft,and planted Churches 
in Cities becaufe they were the moft populous places, where was 
moft matter to work upon , and moft di r ciples were there ; and 
that the Country round about did afford them here and there a 
family which joyned to the City Church .' Much like as it is 
now among us with the Anabaptifts and Separatifts , who are 
famed to be To Numerous and potent through the Land , and yet 
I do not think that in all this County, there is fo many in Num- 
ber of either of thefe fe&s as the tenth part of the people of this 
one Parifh •, nor perhaps as the twentieth part. Now if all the 
Anabaptifts in Worcefterjhire , or at lead that lived fo ncer 
as to be capable of Church communion , fhould be of Mr. T's. 
Congregation at -Benvdley , or of a Church that met in the 
chief City Worcejt&tf&l doth not this intimatethat all the fpace 
of ground in this County is appointed or intended for the future 
as Mr. T's. Dioceis ; but if the fucceffive Paftor fhould claim 
the whole County as his charge, if the whole were turned to that 
opinion, no doubt but they would much crofs their founders 
mind. And ( if the companion may be tolerated ) we fee great 
reafonto conceive that the Ancient Bifhops did thus crofs the 
Apoftles minds. When there were no more Chriftians in a City 
and the ad Joy ning parts, then half fome of our Parifhes, the 
Apoftles planted fixedGovernours called Bifhops or Elders over 
r riiefe particlar Churches, which hadconftant communion in the 
worfhipof God : And when theCiciesand Countreyes were con- 
certed to the faith, the frailty of ambition co- working thereto, 
thefe Bjfhops didclaira all that fpace of ground for their Diocefs 
jwberc the members of their Churchhad lived before ; as if Chur- 
ches were to be meafusred by the acres of Land, and not by the 
.number of fouls^ whereas they fhould have done as the Bee-hives 
$Q 9 .when t&ey are ready to fwarm,fo that the old bive cannot 
v contain them all,the fwarm removes and feeks them another habi- 
tation, and makes them a New hive of their own. So when a 
^Church grows big enough for two Churches, one part fhould 



remove to another meeting place, and they fhould become two 
Churches, and the later be of the fame fort as the former, and 
as free, and not become fubjeft to the former, as if men had 
right to be Rulers of others, becaufe they were Converted be- 
fore them, or becaufe they dwell in a walled City, and others 
in the Villages. This Error therefore was no contrived or fud- 
dain thing, but crept on by degrees, as Countries were Con- 
verted and Churches enlarged ; we are agreed therefore de fatlo y 
that it was otherwife in the Apoftles daies, and chat foon after, 
in fome places, it came to that pafsas the Prelates would have 
it ( in fome degree ) But whether the Apoftles were willing 
of the change, is the Queftion between us j we deny it, and ex- 
pect their better proof. And till they prove it, we muft needs take 
it for our duty to imitate that Government which themfelves 
confefs was only practifedin Scripture times ^ fuppofing this the 

BUt yer, though the proof lye on their part, who affirm 
the Apoftles to have had fuch Inrcntions,thaf Paftors of (in- 
gle Congregations fhould afterward become the Paftors of ma- 
ny , I frnll ex fuperabundAHti give them fome Reafons for the 

1 . And firft we are molt certain that the holjeft Paftors of the fcfifin 7. * 
Church, had fo much Pride and Ambition, that might pcjfib'j conqi^ntur 
make them guilty of fuch a miftake as tenied to the 'ncreafe of their jam olim So- 
o^>n power and rule. We find even the twelve Apofiles contend crates? EpiJco~' 
ing in Chrifts own prefence for the Primacy, till he is put (harp $jf' is <ftofdm 
Jy to rebuke them, and tell them the Neccility of humility, ^^{Z^^'r. 
teach them better the ftate of his Kingdom. Paul met with ma- cerdotii fi/tei 
ny that contended againlt him for a preheminence, and put h\tn cgrejjb; & 
Dp >n all thofe defence? of the dgnity of his Apofllefhip which -^ f'yt*r<Up 
we find him ufinc. Peter found it necefTary to warn the' Paftorst'.' dd ^f oi : 

<J->.7d PiluflO- 

tamHierax lemtntis & m-mf net ad; nisdigtit.it em in Tyrannidem irMJiiffe : cajqueritm de 
Eplfcoporum ambitione Nazianzenus ; & pr opt ere a fi nun Epifcopat/m-, certe clvHatum 
jus pcrpetmm in retintnda EpipopaU digmtate mirtdtum veller, He'addeth ye: more 
fitch, and concludeth, that Ictlciiaifticai Ambition ncvermadc 'fuch prog re fs. fi cm the 
■Apolles discs. tothofe 3 tis ic tathctoHe fince to. ours, alnaoft incurably, iQroiiiis de m- 

that i 


that they fhould not Lord it over Gods Heritage. And John 
d id meet with a Lording Diotrephes, that loved to have the pre- 
heminence.. While they lay under the Crofs, the Bifhops were 
afpiring, and ufurping authority over one another ; or elfe Vitlor 
of Rome had not prefumed to Excommunicate the Afian Bi- 
fhops for not conforming to his opinion : What abundance of un- 
worthy contentions did the Bifhops of the firft ages fill the 
Churches with } and much about fuperiority , who fhould be 
greatcft ; what fhould be the priviledges of their feveral 
Seas ; &c. Their pride no doubt was a great caufe of their 
contention •, and thofe contentions necefsicated the interpofition 
of Emperors to reconcile them that could not agree of thera- 
felves. If the Emperors called a Council to that end, even the 
Council it felf would fall to pieces , and make all worfe, if 
the Magiftrate did not moderate them. Had not Con ft amine 
burnt the 2{icene Schedules, and done much to maintain an Uni- 
on among them, the fuccefs of that Council might have been fuch 
as would have been no great encouragement to fucceeding ages 
to feek for more. What bitter quarrels are tbere between the 
mod eminent of all the Fathers and Bifheps of the Church ? 
between Chryfoftom and Epiphanius •, Chryfoftom and Theophilus 
Alexandrinm ; Hierom and John of Jerufdlem ; Jerome and 
Rnffinus ; befides his quarrels with Chrjfeftom and Auguftine. 
I open not the concealed nakednefs of the Saints; but mention 
thofe publike doleful tragedies which made the Church aa 
amazement to it felf, and a fcorn to the Heathens that lived 
about them • witnefs the well known cenfure of Ammianut 
Marcellinus : when fo many people (hall be murdered at once in 
contention for a Bifhoprickas were at the choice of Damafus ^ 
ambition was too predominant . T he mentioning of the conten- 
tions of thofe moft excellent Bifhops, and the firft four general 
Councils, makes Luther break out into fo many admiring excla- 
mations, in his Treatife de Cottciliij y that ever fuch men fhould 
fo ambitioufly quarrel about toyes and trifles , and childifh 
things, and that even to the difturbingof all the Churches, and 
fetting the Chriftian world on a flame. Of the two Churches of 
Rome and Conftantinople he faith, It a h<e hut, Ecclefidt ambitiofe 
rixAtA font, de re mhili y vanifflmis & nugacijfimis nttnlis, donee 
tsndem mraque horribillter v aft at a & deletaeft. pag. 1 75. This 



caufcd Nazianzen ( whocomplainerh fo much himfelf of the 
edit*** or dtiplcafure of his fellow Bifhops ) to profefs himfelf 
to be fo affeded, that he would avoid all Affemblies of Bifhops, 
becaule he had never feenagood end of any Synod, and which 
did not rather increafe the evils than remove them ; and hisrea- 
ibn is not as Bllarmine feigneth, only becaufe they were all 
Arrians^ but becaufe, The defire of contending, and of pre- 
heminency or principality, and their emulation, did overcome 
reafon, ( which Luther mentioning ib. pag. 225. wondereth 
that for thefe words he was not excommunicated as an arrant 
hcretick ) Who knoweth not, that knoweth any thing of 
Church hiftory, how the Church hath been torn in pieces in all 
ages except the tit it, by the diffention of the Bifhops, till the 
Pope drew part of thenf to unite in him ? And who knoweth 
not, that knoweth any thing of the present ftate of the Chriftian 
world, into how many fradions it is broken at this day, and al- 
raoft all through the Divifion of thefe Guides ? If therefore wc 
(hall imagine that the Paftors of the Church could not be tainted 
with fo much ambition as to inlarge their own Dioceffes, and 
gather the new Chuches under themfelves, when they fhould 
have formed them into the fame order and freedom as were the 
firft, wc fhall fhut our eyes againft the mod full experience of 
the Chriftian world : efpecially when the change was made by 

2. The fecond Reafon that perfwadeth me to flick to the fole %eafon 1. 
pradifed Government in Scripture times, and not to alter it up- 
on pretended Intentions of the Apoftles, is this : Nothing that 
intimateth temerity , or mutability, is to be charged upon the Holy 
Ghofi . butt to inftitute one frame or fpecies of Church -government 
for Scripture times, and to change h prefently into another fpecies 
to all fhecee ding ages , doth intimate temerity or mutability \ or 
at lcait, is fo like it, that therefore without good proof it is not 
to be charged on the Holy GhoPt. That they are two diftind 
fpecies of Government is plain ; one is the Government of a 
Particular Congregation, without any other Congregations or 
Elders under thac Government : the other is the Governing of 
many Elders and Churches by one fupereminent Prelate : and if 
thefe be not two differing forts of Government, then let the 
Prelates confefs thac the Government which wc would continue 

K is 



\s of the fame fort with theirs : for ours is of the firft fort j and 
if theirs be of the fame, we are both agreed. 

And that the Lord JefusChrift (hould fettle one kind of Go- 
vernment de fatto during Scripture time, and change it for ever 
after, is rnoit improbable ; i. Becaufeit intimateth levity, or # 
mutability in a Law.giver, fofuddenlyto change his Laws and 
form of Government ^ either foroething that he is fuppofed not 
to have forefeen, or fome imperfection is intimated as the caufe. 
Or if they fay, that it was the chinge of the ftate of the body 
Governed, vii- the Church .- 1 anfwer, 2. There was no change 
of the ftateof the Church to neceffitate a change of the kird 
of Officers and Government .* for fas I (ball (hew anon) there 
was need of more Elders then one in Scripture times ; and the 
increafeof the Church might require an ihcreafe of Officers for 
Number, but not for Kind. There was as much need of afiift- 
ing Presbyters, as of Deacons. I may well conclude therefore, 
that he that will affirm a Change of the Government fo fudden- 
ly, muft be fure to prove it ; and the rather, becaufe this is the 
Bifhops own great and moft confiderable Argument on the 
other fide, when they plead that the ApoQles themfelves were 
Rulers of Presbyters, therefore Rulers over Presbyters ( and 
many Churches ) fhould continue as Gods Ordinance : many 
on the other fide anfwer them, ( though fo do not I) that this 
Ordinance was temporary, during the Apoftles times, who fad- 
no Suceeflors in Government s to which the Prelates reply,- that 
its not imaginable that Chnft fhould fettle one fort of Ghurch- 
Government for the firft age, and another ever after, abolifhing 
that firft fo loon : and rhat they who affirm this, moft prove it. 
For my part, I am overcome by this Argument , to allow all 
that the Apoftolical pattern can prove, laying aflde that whick 
depended on their extraordinary gifts and privi'edges ; but 
then I fee no reafon but they (hould acknowledge the force of 
their own Meairnn ; and conclude its not imaginable that, if 
God fettled fixed Bi(hops only over particular Congregations,, 
without any fuch order as fubjeA Presbyter?, in the firft age, 
he (hould change this, andfetup fubjed Presbyters and many 
Churches under one man for ever after. 

If they fay, that this is not a change of thtfpecies, but a 
growingup of the Church from Infancy to Maturity : I anfwer, 



It is a plain change of the Species of Government, when one 
Congregation is turned into Many, and when a new order of 
Officers, viz. fubjeel: Presbyters without power of Ordination 
or Jurifdidion,is introduced, and the Bifhops made Governours 
ofPaftors, that before were but Governours of the People , 
this is plainly a new Species. Elfe I fay again , let them not blame 
us for being againft the right Species. 

3 . The third Reafon is this : They that affirm a change ( not Reafix 3. 
of the Governours, but alfo ) of the very nature or kind of a par' 
ticnlar Governed or Political Church, from what it was in Scri- 
pture times \ do affirm a thing fo improbable, as is mt without very 
dear proof to be credited. But fuch are they that affirm that Con- 
gregational Bifiops were turned to Diocefan : therefore, &c. 
' The Church that was the ob ject of the Government of a fixed 
Biftiop in Scripture times , was, Q A competent Number of per- A icular 
fins in (fovenant with Chrifi ( or of Chriftians) co-habiting, by Churchy 
the appointment of thrift and their mutual expreffed confent , united what. 
( or affociated ) under Chrifts Minifterlaf Teachers and Guides for 
the right worfhippingof Gsdin publicly and the Edification of the 
Body in Knowledge and Holinefs, and the maintaining of obedience 
toChrift among them, for the fir ength, beauty andfafety of the whsle 
and each part, and thereby the P leafing and Glorifying God the Re- 
deemer, and Creator,'] It would be too long , rather then diffi- 
cult to ftand to prove all the parts of this Definition, of the firft 
particular Political Church. That part which moft concerncth 
our prefent purpofe , is the Ends, which in Relations muft enter 
the Definition : which in one word is, The Communion of Saints 
perfonally , as AfTociated Churches confiding of many particular 
Churches , are for the Communion of Saints by officers and De- 
legates. And therefore this communion of Saints is put in our 
Creed, next to the Catholick Church , as the end of the combi- 
nation. I (hall have occafion to prove this by particular Texts 
of Scripture anon. A Diocefan Church is not capable of thefe 
Ends. What perfona! communion can they have that know not 
nor fee not one aonther ? that live not together, nor worfhip 
God together f There is no more perfonal communion of Saints 
among moft of the peopl^)fthis Diocef$,thenis between us and 
the inhabitans of France or Germany: For we know not fo much 
as the names or faces of each other, nor ever come together to 

K2 any 


any holv ufei . So that to turn a Congregation into a Diocefan 
Church,is to change the very fubjed of Government. 

Ob j. This is mecr independency, to make a jingle Congregati- 
on, the fubjeft of 'the Government. Anfw. i. I am not deterred 
from any truth by Name? . I have formerly faid, that its my opi- 
nion that the truth about Church- Government^ parcelled out 
into the hands of each party, Epifcopal, Presbyterian, Indepen- 
dents, and Eraftian • And in this point in Qneftion the Indepen- 
dents are mod right. Yet I do dot affirm ( nor I think they J 
that this one Congregation may notaccicjfnta'ly be necefiuated 
to meet infeverai places at once, either m cafe of perfection , 
or the age and weaknefs of fome members, or the fmalnefs of 
the room : But I fay only that the Church fhould contain no 
more then can hold communion when they have opportunity of 
place and liberty- and fhould not have either feveral fettled So- 
cieties or Congregations,nor more in one fuch Society then may 
confifi with the Ends. And that thefe AfTerr.blies are bound to 
Affbciate with other AfTemblies,and holdcommunionw'ith them 
by the mediation of their Officers j this, as I make no doubt of, 
fo I think the Congregational will confefs. And whereas the 
common evafion is by diftinguifhing between a Worfhipping 
Church snd a Governed Chuch , 1 defire them to. give us any 
Scripture proof that a Worfhipping Church and a Governed 
Church were not a 1 o<ne , fuppoung that we fpeak of a fett'.ed 
(bciety or combination, I find no fuch diftinclion of Churches 
in Scripture. A family I know may perform fome wor(hip,and 
accordingly have fome Government : And an occafional meet- 
ing of* Chriftians without any Minifter,may perform fome Wor- 
fiiip without Government among them. But where was there 
ever a Society that ordinarily allembled for publick worihip, 
fuch as was performed by the Churches on the Lords dayes, and 
held communion ordinarily in worfhip, and yet had not a Go- 
verning Paftor of their own? Without a Presbyter they could 
have no Sacraments and other publike Wor(hip : And where was 
there ever a Presbyter that was not a Church Governour ? 
Certainly if fubjed Presbyters were not till after Scripture times., 
nor any fettled Worfhipping Church without a Presbyter (un- 
1'efs the people preached and adrainillrW the Sacraments, ) then 
rficre could be no Worfhipping Church that bad nek their own 



p-oper Governour , nor any fuch Governour (fixed) that had 
more Churches then one. 

Reafon4. The contrary opinion feigneth the Apofles to have al- R r 
lotted to each Bifljop a fpace of ground for his Discefs^ and to have 
weafured Churches by fuch fpace J, and not by the number of fouls: 
But this is unproved, & abfurd. i.Unproved,For there is no place 
in Scripture that giveth the Bifhop charge of all that fpace of 
ground, or of all the Chriftians that (hali be in that fpace during 
his time. Indeed they placed a Bifhop in each City, when there 
was but a Church in each City ; But they never faid, there (hall 
be but one Church in a City,or but one Bifhop in a Gity ; much 
lefs in all the Country region. 2. And its abfurd: For its the num- 
ber of fouls that a Church mult be meafured by , znd not a fpace 
of ground, ( fo they do butco-habire : j For if in the fame 
fpice of Ground,there (hould be twenty o:* an hunJrcd times 
as many Christians, it would make the number fo gftags ^.wou^d 
be uncapable of perfonal communion , and ofobcaining Church 
Ends. If a Schoolmalter have a School in the chief City or Town 
of this County , and there come as many from many miles com- 
pafsas one School can hold, and there be no more there: fo 
long all that fpace may belong to his School, not for the fpace 
fake, but the number of Schollars : For if there be afterward an 
hnndred times as many in that fpace to be taugbc, they muft fet 
up more Schools, and it were no wi(e pan in the old School- 
mafter to maintain that all thatCountry pertaine h coins School, 
becaufe that it was fo when there were fewer. So char to mea- 
fure our the. matter of Churches by fpace of ground , and 
not by number of fouls, is plainly againft the Reafon -of the 

Reafon 5. Theoppofed opinion dith imply that God more re- &eaffa$$. 
gardeth Cities then Country Villages , or that Churches are to be 
meafured according to the number and great nefs of Cities rather 
then according to the number of fouls. For they fuppofe that 
every City fhould have a Bi(hop if there be but twenty ,or four- 
ty,or an-hundredChriftiansinic : but if there be five hundred 
Country Parifhe?, that have foroe of them many thoufand fouis 
in them , thefefnall have no Bifhopsof their own, but be ail 
ruled by the Bifhop of the City. Now how unreafomble this 
is, meth inks (hould not be hard tod ifcern. For, 1. What is a* 

K.3 City 


City to God any more then a Village,that for it he fhould make 
fo partial an institution ? Doth he regard Rome any more then 
Engnbinm , or Alexandria more then Tanis y for their worldly 
fplendor or priviledges ? No doubdefs it is for the multitude of 
inhabitants. And if fo,itsmanifeft that an equal number of in- 
habitants clfewhere , (hould have the fame kind of Government. 
2. Is it probable that God would have twenty thoufand or art 
hundred thoufand people in a Diocefs ( and in fome a Million ) 
to have but one Church -Ruler , and yet would have every fmall 
congregation in a City to have one,though there be none clfe un- 
der him ? What proportion is there in this way of Government, 
that an hundred or fifcy men (hall have as many Governors as 
a Million ? as if ten thoufand or an hundred thoufand Schollars 
out of a City (hall have no more Rulers , then an hundred in 
a City ; and all becaufe one part are in a Cicy,and the other not ? 
Or a Phyfitian fliall have but an hundred Patients to look to in 
a pity, and ifthercbea Million in that City and Country, he 
(hall alfo upon pain of Gods everlafting wrath undertake the 
care of them all?Let them that ftrive for fuch a charge look to it; 
I profefs I admire at them, what they think i. Of the needs of 
men fouls : 2. Of theterrours of Gods wrath. 3. And of their 
own fufficiency for fuch a work ? Were it my cafe, if I know my 
own heart at all, I (hould fear thar this were but to ftrive to 
damn thou fands, and to be damned with them, by undertaking 
on that penalty to be their Phyfitian ( under Chriftj when I 
am fure I cannot look to the hundreth man of them , and I had 
rather ftrive to be a galiy-flave to the Turks, or to be preferred 
to rid Chanels, or the bafeft office all my dayes. 

Reafon 6. According to the oppofed opinion , it is in the 
Keajofi 4> power of a King to make Bijhopj to be either Congregational or Di- 
occfan , to make a Bi/b.p to have a Million of fouls or a whole Na- 
tion in charge , or to have but a*fetv. For if a King will but difTolvc 
the Priviledge and title, and make that no City which was a Ci- 
ty, though he diminifh not the number of fouls ; and if he will 
do thus by all the Cities , faveone in his dominion, then null: 
there be but one Biihop in his dominion. And if he will but make 
every countrey Town, that hath four or five hundred or a thou- 
fand inhabitants to be incorporate, and honour it with the title 
and priviledges of a City, then (hall they have a Bifhop. More- 
over, thus every Prince may de jure banilh Epifcopacy out of 



his Dominions , without dirainifhing the number of Chrifti- 
ans , if he do but defranchife the Cities, and be of the mind 
as I have heard fome men have been, that Cities are againft 
the Princes intereft , by (lengthening the people , and 
advantaging them to rebellions. Alfo if there be any In- 
dian Nations fo barbarous as to have no Cities , though they 
were convertcd,yet mult they have no bifhops : Alfo it would 
be in the Princes power de \ttre to depofe any of thofe Bifhops 
that the Apoftles or their SuccefTors arc fuppofed to fee up : 
For the Roman Emperour might have proclaimed Antiocb, Ale- 
xandria, or any or the reft to be no Cities, and then they mult 
have no longer have had any Bifhops. And what Bifhops frull 
Antioch have at this day ? 

Now how abfurd all this is , I need not maniftft : that whole 
Contreyes (hill have no Government for want of Cities, that 
Kings fhall foaher Church Officers at their pleafure when they 
intend it not, meerly by altering the Civil Privilcdges of their 
people- that a King may make one Diocefs to become an hun- 
dred,and an hundred become one,by fuch means. And yet all this 
doth undenyably follow , if the Law be that every City and only 
every City (hail be a Bifhops Sea where there are Chriftians to be 

Reafon 7. There is no fufficient Reafon given jtvhy fubjetl Prep Reafon. 7, 
byters pjould not have been jet up in the Scripture times, as well as 
after , if it had been the Apoftles intent that fuchjhould be inftitu* 
ted. The Neceffity pretended, was no necefiity, and the Non- 
necessity is but pretended. Firft it is pretended that there were 
fo few fit men that there was a Neeeffity of forbearance. 
But this is not fo : For, 1. The Church had larger gifts of the 
Spirit then, then now,and therefore proportionable to the flocks 
they might have had competent men,then as well as now. 2.They 
had men enough to make Deacons of, even feven in a Church : 
And who will believe then that they could find none to make 
fuch Elders of? Was not Stephen or Philip fufficiently qualified 
to have been a fubjed Elder ? 3 . They had many that prophe* 
fied , and interpreted , and fpake with tongues in one Af- 
fembly, as appears, 1 Cor. 14. And therefore itsmanifeft 
that there were enough to have made Ruled Elders : At leaft 
Aire the Church at ferufalem, where there were fo many thou- 



-finds, would have afforded them one fuch, if it had been rc- 

Butfecondly,its pretended not to have been Neceffary, be- 
caufeof the fewnefs of the people. But I anfwer, r . The fame 
perfons fay that in Ignatius his time all Churches had fuch Pref- 
byters : And its manifelt that many Churches in the Scripture 
times were more populous or large, then many or mod bcfide 
them were in Ignatius time. 2. Did the numerous Church at fe- 
rufalem ordinarily meet on the Lords dayes for holy communion, 
or not? If they did, then ic was but a Church of one Congre- 
gation ( which is by mod denyed ) If not, then the fevcral Af- 
iemblies muft have feveral Presbyters ( for feveral Bifhops they 
will not hear of,) Doubtlefs they did not celebrate the holy com- 
munion of the Church and Ordinances of God, by meer Lay- 
men alone. 3. What man rhat kno^vs the burden of Paftoral 
Overfighc,can fay that fuch Churches ofthoufandsjas/*™/*/^, 
Rome, Alexandria, &c. had need of no more than one man, to 
Teach them, and do all the Paftoral work t and fo that a/lifting 
Ruled Presbyters were then needlefs ? If they were needlefs to 
fuch numerous Churches then ^ let us even rake them for need- 
lefs ft ill , and fet up no new orders which were not feen in Scri- 
pture times. 

Reaf. 8. The A fifties left it not to the Be/hops whom they 
Reafon 3- e jt d ynfi e A t0 make new Church-offices and orders quoad fpeciem, 
but only to ordain men to fucceed others in the offices and orders 
that tbemfelves had (by the infpiration of the Holy Ghoft J appointed, 
or tlfefhrift before them. A Bifhop might make a Bilhop or aDea- 
con perhaps, becaufe tbefe were quoad fpeciem made before, and 
they were but to put others into the. places before appointed. 
But if there were no fuch creature in Scripture times as a (ub- 
jetl Presbyter, that had no power or Ordination and Junfdi&jon, 
then if the B.fhops afterward (hould make fucb , they muft 
make a new office, as well as a new officer. So that either this 
new presbyter is of the inftitution of Chrift by his Apofties^or of 
Epifcopal humane inftitution. If the former, and yet not initial- 
tuted in Scripture times, then Scripture is not the fufficient rule 
and difcoverer of Divine Inftitutions and Church Ordinances: 
and if we once forfakc that Rule, we know not where to fix,but 
muft wander in that Romane uncertainty. If the !atter,then we 


C 73 ) 

maftexpeft fome better proof then hitherto we have fecn, of 
the Epifcopall (or any humane) power to make new Offices 
in the Church of ChrilL, and thatofuniverfaland ftandingne- 
ccflky. Till then we (hall think they ought to have made buc 
fuch Presbyters as rhemfelvcs. 

Reafon 9. If there be not fo ranch as the name of a Ruled Pre/- Reafon 9. 
byter without power of Ordination , or Jurifditlion , in all the 
Scripture^ much lefs then is there any defcription of his Office , or 
any Diretlions for his ordination , or the qualifications prercqui- 
fit in kim > and the performance of Iris office when he is in it : 
And iftherebenofuchDiretlory concerning Presbyters , then was 
it not the Jpoftles intent that ever any fuch Should be ordained. 
The reafon of the confequence is, 1. Became the Scripture 
was written not only for that age then in being, but /or the 
Church of all ages to the end o f the world: And therefore 
it mud be a fufficient dire&ory for all. The iecond Epiftle 
to Timothy was written buc a little before Pauls death. Surely 
if the Churches in Ignatius daies were all in need of Presbyters 
under Bi(hops , Paul might well have feen fome need in 
his time , or have forcfecn the need that was fo neer, and fo 
have given directions for that office. 2. And the rather is 
this confequence firm, becaufe Paul in his Epijlles to Timothy 
and Titus doth give fuch full and punctual Directions concern- 
ing the other Church officers , not only theBifhops, butalfo 
the Deacons, delcribing their prerequisite qualifications, their 
office , and directing for their Ordination , and converfa- 
tion : Yea hecondefcendech togivefuch large Directions con- 
cerning Widows themfelves,that were ferviceable to the Church. 
Now is it probable that a perfect Directory written for the 
Churchto the worlds End,& largely defcribing the qualifications 
and office of Deacons,which is the inferiour,would not give one 
word of direction concerning fubjeft Presbyters without powee 
of Ordination or Rule , if any fuch had been then intended for 
the Church ? No nor once fo much as name them ? I dare not 
accufe Pauh Epiftles written to that very purpofe,and the whole 
Scripture, fo much of inefficiency , as to think they wholly omit 
a neceffary office, and fo exadly mention the inferiour and com- 
monly lefs neceffary, as they do. 

Reafon 1 o. The new Epifcopal Divines do yield that all the ^esfon, Ie ; 

L texts 


texts in Timothy, Titus, and the reft oftheNewTeftamentjhat 
mentitn Qofpel Bijhops or Presbyters, do mean only fuch as have 
power of Ordination and J urifditlion, without the concurrence of any 
fuperiour Bijbap.. The common Inerpretation of the Fathers, and 
the old Epifcopal Divines of all ages, of mo ft or many of thofe 
texts, is, that they fpeak^of the office of fuch as now are called . 
Presbyters. Lay both together , and if one of them be not mi- 
ftaken , they afford us this conclufion, that the Presbyters that 
new arejjave by tbefe texts of Scripture , the power of Ordination 
and furifdiclion without the concurrence of others. And if fo,then 
was it never the A poftles intent, to leave it to theBifhops to or- 
dain a fore of Presbyters of another order, that fhould have no 
fuch power of Ordination or Jurifdidion, without the Bifhops 
Tteafo* ii. Reafon i r . We find in Church Htftory that it -was fir ft in feme 
few great Cities (efpecially Re me and Alexandria} that a Bi~ 
fbop ruled many fettled worfhipping Congregations with their Pref- 
byters ; when no fuch thing at that time can be proved by other 
Churches : therefore we may well conceive that it was no Ordi- 
nance of the Apoftles , but was occafioned afterward?, by the 
multiplying of Chriftiansin the fame compafsof ground where 
the old Church did inhabite; and the adjacent parts ± together 
with the humane frailty of the Bifhops, who gathered as many as 
they could under their own Government when they fhould have 
erected new Churches as free as their own. 
j %£ Reafon I z . If the Dcfcription of the Bijhops fettled in the New 

Teftament, ana the worked ffxed to them % be fuch as cannot agree to 
our Diocefan Bijhops but to the Paftorjof afingle Church, then 
•wash never the mind of the Holy Ghoft that thofe Bifhops fhould 
degenerate afterwards into Diocefan Bijhops : But the Amecehem 
is certain ? therefore fo is the Cenfequent. 

I here ftill fuppofe with Learned Dr. B Annot-in AB. n. 
&pajpm,<hzi the name Presbyter in Scripture ilgniriech a Bi- 
flibp, there being no Evidence that in Scripture time any of that 
Second Order, ( wi.fubjec% Presbyters ) were then ioftituted. 
Though I am far from thinking that there was bat one of thefe 
Bifhops in a Church at lead as to many Churches, - Now as vft 
are agreed defaclo'ihn it was but afingle Church that then was 
coders Bifliop &od not many fuch Churches ( for that follows 


ondenyably upon the denying of the exiftence of fubjeft Pref- 
by ten ^ feeing no fuch Churches can be , nor the worfhipping 
AfTernblies held without a Bifhop or Presbyter; ) fo that it 
was the mind of the A pottles that it fhould fo continue, is prove- 
ed by the Defciption and work of thofe Scripture Bifhops. 

Argument i. \twai AEhsZO* 28, 29, 31. The Bifhops initi- 
ated and fixed by the Holy Ghoft were and are to take heed to 
all the Flocks over which the Holy Ghoft hath made them over fee- 
trs, to feed the Church of God , and to watch againft Wolves, and 
to warn every one night and day J But this cannot be done by Di- 
ocefan Bifhops , nor any that have more then one Church : 
Therefore Diocefan Bifhops are not the Bifliops that the Holy 
Ghoft hath fo fixed and inftituted, fuch as Paul defcribeth were 
to continue • and thats fuch as can do that work. 

Argument 2. The Bifhops that the Holy-Gboft fettled and 
would have continue, ( and had the Power of Ordination given 
them, ) were fuch as were to be Ordained in every City and eve- 
ry Church, Acts 14. 23 . Tic. 1 . 3 , 4, 5. See Dr. Hammonds 
Annotate But it is not Diocefan Bifhops that are fuch ( for 
they are over many Churches and Cities ) therefore it is noc 
Diocefan Bifhops that were fettled by the Holy Ghoft, nor 
meant in thofe texts. 

Ar.$. The Bifhops which were inftituted by the Holy Ghoft, 
and are meant in Scripture, were to watch for their peoples fouls 
as thofe that mu ft give account. Ruling over them , and to be obey* 
ed by all^and /peaking to them the word 0] Cjod> Heb. 13.7,1 7,24. 
But this cannot be done by a Bifhop to a whole Diocefs, ( nor 
will they be willing of fuch an account if they be wife.-) therefore 
it is not Diocefan Bifhops that are meant in Scripture. 

Argument 4. The Bifhops fettled for continuance in Scripture 
were luch as all rhe people were to know as labouring among them % 
and over them in the Lord, and admonifbing them, andto efteem 
them very highly in love, for their werk^fake, 1 Thef 5 . 12, 13. 
Bhc this cannot be meant of our Diocefan Bifhop , ( whom 
the hundreth part of the flock (hall never fee, hear, nor be admo- 
nifhed by : ) therefoi e it is not fuch that were fettled for conti- 
nuance in the Church. 

Argument 5 . The Bifhops fettled by the Holy Ghoft,muft by 
any that are (ick^ be fentfor t to pray over them. But this a Dio- 

L z cefan 


cefonBiftiop cannot do, tothehundrethorthoufandth perfon 
in fome places > therefore it is not Diocefan Bifhops (but the 
Bifhopsof a fingle Church that are capable of thefe workv that 
are meant by the Holy Ghoft, to continue in the Church, and 
confequently to whom the power of Ordaining was committed. 
If any queftion whether the Texts alleadged do fpeak of fubjed- 
Presbyters, or Bifhops, 1 refer them to the forefaid Reverend 
Doctor,with whom I am agreed, that there were no fubjed-Pref- 
bytersinftituted in Scripture times. 

Reafon. 1 3 . ^ ea *° n * 3 • ^ was not one or two or a ^ Churches for ajear or two 
or more in their meer fieri or infancy before thej were well formed, 
Sec Grotms de t ^ M confiftedonly of one fettled wor flipping Affembly and its gardes -, 
Proving that, but it was the formed And fiabli fled fiat e of the particular Churches. 
the Cnriftian To prove this I (hall briefly do thefc three chings. I. I fhaH 
Church- (hew it in refped to the Jewifti Synagogues. 2. As to the 
Government churches in the Apoftlesdayes after many years growth j even 
t^that of the °^ every Chu r ch thats mentioned in the New Teftament, as a 
Temple, but particular Political Church. 3. As to fome of the Churches 
that .of the a fter the A pottles dayes, mentioned by the ancients. 
Synagogues, x | c j s a pp arent t hat the Jews Synagogues were particular 
taurine "o Congregational Cliurches,having each one their fever&I Rulers, 
proveBifhops, and as many Learned men fuppofe, they had an Ecclefiattical Ju- 
ne doth it dicature of Elders , belongingto each of thenr, where fit men 
*hence 5 jhat cou | ( j be found , and this dtttind from the Civil Judicature : Or 
they^arc luc as oc hers think , they had a Sanhedrim which had power to 
%iv&y»yon judge in.b'othXaufes,.. and one of thefe was in every City, that 
letthcmthen is ? in Places of Cohabitation. For in every City of Ifrael which 
holdtofucha nac [ one hundred and twenty- families- ( or free perfons fay 
CC { n l-f aU °l others ) they placed the Sanhedrim of twenty three. And in 
* ? l °r^ cvcr yCity which had not one hundred and twenty men in it,they 
fet the fmallett Judicature of three Judges , fo be; it there were 
but.two wifemen among them, fir to teach the Law and refolve 
doubts. See AhfwortkonNumb. 11. 16. citing Talmud. Sab: 
& Maimonides^ more at hrge* And douklefsmany of our 
Country Villages, andalmoft all out Pari fhes have more then 
120.. and. every Country Village may come in -, in the --leffcr 
number below 120* which are to have three Elders : and 
that, fay fome, was every place a here were ten men. And that 
cSfcfewere under the great Sanhedsim at fer0fhltm^i\Qihirfg.ta 



the matter^For fo we confefs that fucb particuIarChurches as we 
mention, have fome fuchGeneral officers over them de)ure^% the 
Apoftolieal men were in the Primitive Church ; bat not that any 
of thete Synagogues were under other Synagogues- though one 
were in a great City, and the other but in a fmall Town. And 
that thefe Synagogues were of Divine inftitutton, is plain in 
divers texts, particularly in Lev. 23.1,2, 3. where a con- 
vocation of belimfsyOr aholy Convocation is commanded to be on 
every Sabboth in all their dwellings, which moft plainly could be 
neither the meeting at ferufalem at the Temple, noryet in fin* 
gle families: and- therefore it is not tomivch purpofe that many 
trouble themfelves to conje&ure when' Synagogues began, and 
fome imagine it was about the Captivity: For as their controver- 
fie can be but about the form of the meeting place, or the name, 
fo its certain that fome place there muft be for fuch meetings- 
and that the meetings themfelves were in the Law commanded 
by God : and that not to be tumultuary confuted ung >verned 
Affemblles. If the fcourgingin the Synagogues prove not this 
power ( which is much difputed, ) Mat. 1 0. 17. an A- 23. 34. 
Luke- 6^ 22. and 12. 11. and 11. 12. Atts 11. 19. and 26 11. 
Yet at lead, excluding imen their Synagogue Communion, may 
John 9.22,34. and 1 2, 42. andiO. 2, But becaufethis argu- 
ment leads us into many Controverfies about the Jewifh cu- 
ftomes, left it obfeure the truth byoccafionin quarreis, 1 fhall 

2. 1 find no particular Political Church in the New Teftament, 
confuting of fever al Congregations,ordiciarily meeting for com- 
munion in Gods Worfli p ; ( unlefs asthe for ementioned ac- 
cidents might hinder the meeting of one Congregation in one 
place, ) nor having ha If fo many members as lome of our Pa- 

When there is mention made of a Country, as ludea, Gali/e y 
Samaria , Ga'atia, the word ^Churches ] in the p! ural number 
is ufed, Gal. 1.2. Atls 15.4*. and$.$u iCor.S. 1. But 
they *1 fay, Thefe w€re only in pities'. But further coniider, there 
is cxprefs mention of the Church at Cench'rea, which was no 
City ■ and they that fay that this was a Panih fubjed to Co- 
rinth give us but their words for-it , without any proof that 
£V*r I could fee : and fo they may as well determine th§ wlwlc 

L 3 caufc 


caufe by bare affirmation, and prevent difputes. The Apoftle in • 
timateth no fuch diftin&ion, Rom. 16. i. i Cor. u. 18,20, 
22. 1 6. Q When ye come together in the Church , 1 hear that 
there be diviftons among you. - when ye come together 

therefore into one place , this is not to eat the Lords S upper f} 

1-6. I fVe have no fuch Cufiome i nor the Churches of 'God J 

Here the Church of Corinth- is faid to come together into one place: 
And for them that fay , Th'isis per partes , and fochat one place 
is many to the whole ^ I anfwer, the Apoftle faith not to a part, 
but to the whole Church ,that they come together in one place, and 
therefore the plain obvious fence rauft (land, till it be difproved. 
And withall he calls the ChrifiianJffemblies in the plural num- 
ber [Churches: 2 for its plain that it is of Affembly Cufiomes 
that he there fpeaks. Soi Cor. 1 4.there is plainly expreffed that it 
was a particular Affembly that was called the Church, and that 
this Affembly had it in many Prophets, Interpreters^ others that 
might fpeak. Verfe 4. [He that Trophefieth 9 Edifieth the (fhurch~\ 
that is, Only that Congregation that Joeard. And Verfe 5. I Ex- 
sept he interpret that the Church may receive Edifying ] And 
Verfe 1 2. [Seck^ that ye may txcell to the Edifying of the Church.} 
Verfe 1 9 [ In the Church I had rather fpeak. five words with my 

under ft anding , that I may teach others alfo. ] And Verfe 2 3 . 

[ If therefore the whole Church be come together into one place , and 

all fpea^, with tongues ]] One would think this is as plain 

as can be fpoken, to afTure us that the whole Churches then were 
fuch as might, and ufually did come together for holy communi- 
on into one place. So Verfe 28. [If there be no Interpreter, let 
him k$ep fxlence inthe Church: ~\ And which is more, left you 
think that this was fome one (mail Church that Paul fpeaks of, 
hexienominaterh all other particular Congregations, even Ordered 
Governed Congregations, [Churches'} too. Verfe 3 3 . F@r God 
, is net the author of confufion but of peace, as in all the Churches $f 
the Saint s.~]So that all the Congregations for ChriftianWorfhip, 
are called, All the Churches of the Saints. And it feems ail as well 
as this, foftored with Prophets and gifted men that they need 
not take up with one Biftiop only for want of matter to have 
made fubjed Elders of: And Verfe 34. £ Let your women keep 
filence in the Church ] for it is a Jhame for a woman to fpeak^ 
in the Church. ] So that fo many Affemblies/o many Churches. 



Ob]. Bat it feems there were among the Corinthiaps more then 
one Congregation by the plural [Churches. ] Anfw.i M&ny parti- 
cular feafons of AiTcmbling , may be called many Affembliesor 
Churches, though the peoole be the fame. 2. The Epiftie was 
a Directory to other Churches, though flrft written to the Co* 
rinthians. 3 . Thofe that fay, it was to Corinth , and other Ci- 
ty-Churches that Paul wrote, need no further anfwer ; It Teems 
then each City had but a Congregation, if that were fo. 4 Cen- 
chrea was a Church neer to Corinth, to whom Paul might well 
know his Epiftie would be communicated : and more fuch there 
might be as well as that, and yet all be entire free Churches. 

So in Col. 4. 16. [ And when this Epiftie it read, among you, 
caufc that it be read alfo in the Church of the Laodiceans, and that 
ye Uke&ife read the Epiftie from Laodicea ]This Church was fuch 
as an Epiftie might be read in.which doubtlefs was an AflVmbl'y . 
The whore matter feems plain in the cafe of the- famous Church 
at Antioch, ABs 1 1. 26. *A whole year they affem bled t hem/elves 
with the Church, and. taught much people ] Here is mention but 
of One AJfemb'y, which is called the Churchy where the peo- 
ple, it fcems, were taught. And its plain that there were ma* 
ny Elders in this one Church; for Aflsil* 1. it faid [There 
were in the Church that was at Antioch certain Prophets and 
Teachers ] And fit c of them are named, who are faid to Minifter 
there to the Lord | And though I do not conclude that they were 
all the fixed Elders of that particular Church , yet while they 
were there they had no lefs power then if they had been fuch. In 
the third Epiftie of John, where there is oft mention of that parti- 
cu-ar Church, it appeareth Verfe 6. that it was fuch a Church as 
before which the brethren and ftrangers cou d bear wirnefs of 
Gaius Charity: And its mod probable 'hat was ,one AffemBly ^ 
but utterly improbable chat they travailed from Congregation to 
Congregation to bear this witnefs. And Vcrf. 9, 1 o. it was 
fuch a Church as fchn wrote an Epiftie to, and which Diotre- 
phes caft men cue of : which is mod likely to be a Congre- 
gation , which might at once hear that Epiftie, and out of 
which Diotrephes might eafilier reject Grangers, and rejed the 
Apoftles letters , then out of many fuch Congregations, GW. 
1. 22. When Paui faith, he was Vnknown by face te the Churches 
effuiea^ it is moft likely that they were Churches which were 



capable offeeingand knowing his fare not only by parts, but as 
Churches. And its likely thofe Churches that praifed Luke and 
fent him with Paul as their chofen mejfenger, were fuih as could 
meet f choofe him, and not fuch as our Dioceffes are, i Cor. i 6. 
1,2. Paul gives order both co the Church of Corinth, and the 
Churches of Galatia , that upon the Lords day at the Affembly 
fas it is ordinarily expounded)they (hould give in their part for 
the relief of the Churches of fudea. So that it feems moft like- 
ly thathemakes [£hurchts] and fuch Affembliestobeallone, 
Acts 14. -23., They ordained them Elders, Church by Church fr 
In every Church. Here it is confeffed by thofe we plead againit, 
that Elders fignifie not any fubjed Elders having no power of 
Ordination or Government ; And to fay that by Elders in each 
Church is meant only one Elder in each Church, is to for- 
fake the letter of the test without any proved Necefiny : We 
fuppofe it therefore fafer to believe according to the firit fence 
of the words, that it was Elders in every Church, that is, more 
then one in every Church that were ordained. And what fort 
, of Churches thefe were, appears in the following vcrfes, where 
even of the famous Church of Antioch ics faid, Verfe 27. when they 
1 ypere come , and had gathered the Church together t t hey rehear fed all 

thai Gad had done. by them So that . its plain that this Church 

was a Congregation to whom they might make fuch rehearfal. 
AndChap. 15. 3. Itsfaid that they were brought on their way by 
theChurchi And if it be not meant of all,buta part of the Church, 
yet it intimateth what is aforckid. 

Toconclude, though many of thefe texts may be thought to 
ipeak doubtfully, yetconfider i.That fome do moft certainly 
declare that it was particular flared Affemblies that were then 
called Churches, even Governed Churches, having their Offi- 
cers prefent. 2. That there is no certain proof of any one par- 
ticular Political Church that confided of many fuch fated Af- 
fewbrics. ,3. That therefore the Texts that will bear an expo- 
fition either way , moft be expounded by thecertain,and not by 
the uncertain texts- fo that I may argue thus. 

If in all the New Teftament , the word [fihurch ] do often 

fignifie ftated worshipping fugle Ajfemblief , and often is ufed fo 

as may admit that interpretation ; and is never ence ufed certainly 

& fil**fie many particular ftated worfhipping Affemblies ruled by 


<we fixed Bifhop, then we have any juft caufe to fappofe that the pat*' 
ticular Political Churches in Scripture times con ft ft ed but of cm 
fuchftated Congregation. But the Antecedent is true ^therefore fo is 

the Consequent. 

As for theNew Epifcopal Divines tint fay There were nofub* 
jett Presbyers in Scripture times*' I fuppofe according to their 
principles, they will grant me all this, as isaforcfaid. And for 
others, the Inftances that they bring co the contrary (hould be 
briefly con(id ered. The great fwaying Inltance ofall (which 
did fomecime prevail withmeto be my felf of another mind ) 
is the Numerous Church at ferufalem : Of which its faid that 
three thoufand were converted at once,and five thoufand at ano- 
ther time, and the word mightily grew and prevailed, and dai- 
ly fuch were added to the Church as fhould be faved : to wh ch 
fome add the mention of the Miriades of believing Jews yet zeal- 
ous of the Law , which the brethren mentioned to Paul, A&s 
21.20. And theinflance o c Ephefusand Rome come next. But 
I remember how largely this bufjnefs is debated between the late 
Affcmbly at iveftminfter and theDiffenting Brethren, that I 
think it unmeet to imerpofe in it any further then to annex thefe 
few confiderations following. 

i. That all thac is faid on that fide, do:h not prove certainly 
that that one Church ztjerufalem was the eighth partfo big as 
Giles Cripple-gate Pari[h y or the fifth part fo big as Stepney or Se* 
pulchres^nomcerto big as Plimoth or fome other Country Pa- 
rities. 2. That it is paft doubt that the magnitude of that Body of 
Believers then a: ferufa/em^was partly acccidental,and the mem- 
bers cannot at all be proved fettled cohabitanti.,nor that Church 
as in its firfi unordered Mafs be the proved to be the fitteft * Vk 7 ' 
pattern for imitation. 3 .ThatChrift h uh not punctually determin- churches 
ed how many members fhall be in a particular Church, 4. But the (hould be no 
ends ( being perfonal holy communion J are the Rule by which bigger then 

humane prudence muft determine it. s -That its fitter one Church , ^ u " 

. n * . J . , - ler may 

in dance give way to many in point or our imitation, then of ma- ^^tch. for all' 

ny to that one, ceteris paribus. <5. That its known among us that their fouls as J 

one that mull: 
£ive account of all. On which text D \ fey. Taylor in his late p ook of Repentancc 3 Pref. 
r.iith [ I am fare we cannot give account of fouls of whic'i we hive no Notice ] And fo 
pSreflech to perfonal conduct. Let them then be Bimops of no bigger a Diocefs then they 
caiitakcii'^h peifonU norice and conduct of, left they judge themfelves. 

M more 


aaore then are proved to have been members of that Church, 
may hear one man preach at the fame time. I have none of the 
ioodeft voices, and yet when I have preached to a Congregation 
judged by judicious men to be at leaft ten thoufand,thofc fartheft 
off faid they could well hear f as I was certainly informed. ) 
7. That its certa nby maay pafTageshiftoricall in cripturethat 
men did then fpeak to greater multitudes, and were heard at far 
greater diftance then now they can orderly be : which I con- 
jecture was becaufe their voices were louder, as in mod dryer 
bodies ( which dryer Countrey shave ) is commonly feen,when 
moifter bodies have ofcer hoarfer voices,and other reafons might 
concur, 8 . That it is confeffed or yielded that the C hurch at Je- 
rufalem might all hear at once, though not all receive the Lo^ds 
Supper together. And if fo, then they were no more then 
might at once have perfonal communion in fome holy Ordinan- 
ces , and :hat the Teachers might at once make known their 
minds ro. 9. And then rhereafon of receiving the Supper in fe- 
veral places feems to be but becaufe they had not a room fo fit to 
receive all in , as to hear in. And fo we have now in many Pa- 
rilhes AfTcmblies fubordinate to the cbkf Affembly : For divers 
families at once may meet at one houfe,and d»vers at ano:her,for 
repetition, p-ayer or other duties: and fome ma\ be at Chap- 
pels of eafc that cannot come to the ru 1 affembly. 10 They 
thnarefo^ Prcsby eriaiChurchesof many Co g'esjarion?,do not 
fay, tfcat T- eremuf} ke mar.y, to make the firft political hurch, 
but only tha", Thcr may be many ? If then there be no Necef- 
fit r>f it, 1 . Should t rot be fa b rn when it appea-e:h to pru- 
de ce rnoft 1 convenient ( as frequently it wiii no doubr. ) 
2r. tad when it is Neceflary for a peaceable Accommodation, 
be aufe other* rhinkit a fin , (houldnota Afaj be give place to 
a M-fimt be % in pacificatory con { ul:atiom, csterii paribus f 
11. It is granted alfo by them, that the Paftors of one Congrc^ 
gation have notacha-gf of Governing other neighbour con- 
gregation in Con Ttory, (one rather then another, which they 
goverr.n >t, though perhaps as neer them ) bu: by con ent. And 
therefore asthere is but a licet ,not an opcrtet , of fuch /*»/!?»/ 
pleaded for : fo while no fuch confeta is given, we have no fach 
ch *ge of Governing neighbour Congregations ; ard none may 
£orceus tofuch confers. i2.AndLaft!y, that if a Cv gle Cor- 



gregation with it own Officer, or Officers, be not a true parti- 
cular Political Church ^ then onr ordinary Parilh affemblies 
arc none^and where the Presbyterian Government is not fet up 
( which is up but in few places of England) it would then follow 
that we have no true Political Churches left among us(&perhaps 
never had : ) which I meet yet with few fo uncharitable as to af- 
firm, except the Papifts and theSepiratiftsand a few of the new 
fort of Epifcopal Divines, who think we have no Churches for 
want of ^ifhops, ( except where Bilhops yet are retained and 

For my part I would not lay too great a ftrefs upon any forms 
or modes which may be altered or diverfiSed . Let the Church 
have but fuch a T^umber of fouls as maj be conftfttnt with the ends 
and fa theejfenceef a particular Church, that they may held per* 
fonal holy communion , and then I will not quarrel about the nam 
of one or two Congregations, nor whether they mufi needs all meet to- 
gether for all ordinances , nor the like. Yea 1 think a full number 
( fothey be notfofuilordiftant, as to be uncapablc of that com- 
munion ) are defireable , for the ftrength and beauty of the 
Church •, and too fmal Churches, if it may be, to be avoided. 
So that ail the premises being confidered , out difference ap- 
pears to be but fmall in the fe matters between the Congregatio- 
nal and Presbyterian way, among them that are moderate. 

I (hall not prefume more particularly to enter into that de- 
bate, which hath been fo far proceeded in already by fuch Reve- 
rend mcn,but (hall return to the reft of the task before promifed 
againft the Diocefan Churches as the fuppofed fubje&ofthe 
Bilhops Government. 

As. for Scripture times and the next fucceeding together, I 
(hall before I look into other teftimonies , propound thefc 
two Arguments, i . From the Bifhops office , which was be- 
fore mentioned. Uthc office of a Bifhop in thofe times, was 
to do fo much work as could not be done by him for a Church 
any greater than our Parifher, then were the Churches of thofe 
times no greater then our Parifties .* But the Antecedent is 
true; therefore fo is the confequent. The works arc before 
mentioned, Preaching, Praying, adminiftring the Lords Sup- 
per, vifmngthefick, reducing hereticks, reproving, centering, 
abfolving : to which they quickly added too much more of their 

Mi own 

own. The im portability of a faithful performance of th s to more 
is fo undenyable.that I cannot fuppofe any other anfwer but this 
that they might ordain Presbyters to affift them in the work, 
and fo do mrch of it by others. But i . I before defired to fee it 
proved by what authority they might do this. 2. Their office 
and work are fo infeparable that they cannot depute others to do 
their work (their proper work) without depucing themalfoto 
their office. For what is an office but the (lace of one Ob- 
liged and Authorized to do fuch or fuch a work' A Presbyter may 
not authorize another to preach as the Teacher of a Congregati- 
on, and to adminifter the Sacraments , without making him a 
Presbyter alfo : Nor can a Bifhop authorize any to do the work 
of a Bifhop in whole or by halves without making him a Presby- 
ter or half a Bifhop. And he is not authorized either to make new 
officers in the Church, or to do his work by deputies or fubfti- 

z. I argue alfo from the Identity of that Church to wh'chthe 
BifhopsandDe?cons were appointed for miniftration. It was 
not a Church of many ftated Congregations, or any larger 
than our Parifhes for number of fouls that the Deacons were 
madeMinifters to : therefore it was no other or bigger which 
the Bifhops were fetove\ Theconfeqnenceis good : becaufe 
where ever Deacons are mentioned in Scripture or any Writer 
that I remember neer co Scripture timcs,they are (till mentioned 
with the Bifhops or Presbyters as Minitters to the fame Church 
with them,as is apparent b th in the feven cho&n for the Church 
at ferti/Utem. and in Phil, I. 1,2. and in the Direction of Paul' 
co Timothy for ordaining :hem. And the Antecedent is proved 
from the nature of their work : For they being to attend on the - 
tables attheLovefeaftsand the Lords Supper, and to look to 
the poor, they could not do this for any greater number of peo- 
ple then we mention ^ Whether they had thofe feafls in one houfe 
or many at oncej derermine not ; out for the number of people, . 
ft was as much as a Deacon could do at the. utraoft to attend a 
thoufand people. 

I {hall proceed a little further towards the times nest follow- 
iag ; and fir ft I (hall take in my way the confeflion of one. 
*>r two learned men that arc for Prelacy. 

&otws in his Anmat«on i Tim. 5, 17. faith Q Sed notandun** 



tfl in una Vrbe magna ficut f lures Synagogas, ita & p/uresfuijfe See the fame 
Ecclefias , id eft,c$nventus Chriftianorum* Et cuicj-^ Ecclefa thing proved 
fuijfefuum pnfidem, qui populum alloqueretnr, & Presbyteros ^Jj-g^Jj 
'or dinar et. Alexandria tantum ettm fuijfe ntorem , ut unus ejfet p ^ io "' m 
in tota urbeprafes qui ad decendum Presbyteros per urbem difiri- 355,35^^ 
bneret y docet nos Sozomenus r. 14. & Epipbanius , ubi de Yet I think as 
Arioagit i dicitq; Alexandria nunquam ems fuijfe i™*>™< V o- ^oudeU that 
ce ea fumpta wt Mfofr, itaut ftgnifuat jus Mud quod habebat E ^J^ de 
a^/ft 7?? away ay n<- ] So that Grotius afTirmeth that &\- Alex. SccL 
(hops had not then fo much as all the converted perfonsof a great 
City under their care, but the Churches a ad AfTemblies were 
the fame,and each Affembly had a Prelate, and in the great Ci- 
ties there were many of thefe Churches and Prelates, and thac 
only the City, of Alexandria had the cuftom of having.bucone 
fuch Bifhop in the whole City. 

2. Thofe learned men alfo muft grant this caufe who mabrain 
that Peter aud Paul were both of them Bilbo ps of Rome at once; 
there%eing twoChurches^oneoftheCircumcifion under Peter ^ 
the other of the uncircumcifion under Paul: and that one of 
them had Linus , and the other Cletus forhis Succeflbr, and thac 
this Chu ch was fir ft- united under Clemensiznd (he like they fay 
oftwoChurches aifoat ^^^.andelfwhere.If this be fo,thea 
there is no Liw of God thac Bifhops fhould be numbrcd by Ci- 
ties, but more Bifhops then one may be in one City, and were, 
even when Chrifti^ns comparatively werea fmal! part of them* 

3 . Alfo Mr. Thorndike and others affirm that it was then the 
cuftome for the Bifhops and Presbyters to Ch in a femicircle, 
and the Biihop higheft in a Chair, and the Deacons to ftand be- 
hind them: Thishegathereth from the Apoft. Conftitut. Igna- 
tius, Dionyfius Areop* and die Jews Conftitution$,( in his Apoft. 
form page 71. and Right of the Church, ^r. /?93-94>9SO 
And if this wercfo, it feems that Bifhops, Presbyters and Dea- 
cons weteall tlie Officers of one fuchftated Congregation, and 
had not many fuch Congregations under them: For theBfhop 
could be but in one place at once, and therefore this could be 
the cuftome but of cr*c Chur ch in his Diocefs , if he had many, 
whereas it ismade the form of the ordinary Chriftian Aflem- . 

The fame learned ma*( Right of Church p-. 65. ) faith that 

[ ^Aboat 

[ About Saint Cyprian; time, and not aftre, he finds mention offet- 
led Congregations in the Country ] By which it may be well con * 
je&ured what a fmall addition the Bilhops had out of the Coun- 
trcys to their City Churches,and how many Congregations they 
Governed in the Apoftle dayes and after. 

Heaffirmeth al/othat [ the power of the Keyes belongeth u 
the Presbyters , and that its convertible with the power of cele- 
brating the Eucharift, and thats the Reafon Why it belongs to them 9 
page 98- ibid, and that [ the Power of the Keys, that is, the whole 
power of the Church whereof that power is the root and fourfe , is 
common to B.fhops and Presbyters ] page 1 28 and that to this all 
fides &grce t page 106. and that by their Grant Deacons and others 
may preach \but not Rule or adminifter the Lords Supper ; fee page 
1 18. 123. And he is far from being of their mind that think in 
Scripture times there was but one (ingle BiQiop without other 
Presbyters in a Diocefan Church : For he fuppofed many in a 
Congregation./*^ 126 hefakh [ You fee by St. Paul, 1 Cor. 14. 
that one Affembly whereof he fpeakj there , furnifhed with a 
great number of Prophets , whether Presbyters , or over and 
.above them. In the Records of the Church, we find divers times 
a whole Bench of Presbyters prefiding at one Affembly. ~\ And 
before he had (hewed how they fate about the Bifhop, and the 
congregation flood before them. Andpage 127. he faith that 
[ Clemens the Difciple of the Apoftlesjn his Epifile to the Corinthi- 
ant to compofea difference among the Presbyters of that Church 
partly about the celebration of the Eucharifi ,advifeth them to agree 
and take their turns in it. ] I confefs Iknnw not whence he bath 
tfeis ( doubtlefs not in the true approved Epiftle ofClement-J but 
it (hews in his judgement, 1 . That there were then many Pres- 
byters in the Church 01 Corinth. 2. And that that Church was but 
one Congregation, or not very many : Elfe what need the Prcs- 
byrers take their turns, when they might have done it at once ? 
■3 . That the word Presbyter ih Siemens fignificth not a Prelate. 
4. And it feems this mtimateth there was then no Bifhop in Co- 
rinth : t\fe no queftion but Clement would have charged thtfe 
difagreeing Presbyters to obey their bifliop, and ufed forae of 
Ignatius language.^. Nay if Bifhops had been then known in the 
world , is it not likely that he would have charged them to get a 
Biihopif they had not^toGovcro iuch a difagreeing Presbytery? 



And page 129, 130, 131. he (hews that [the condemning of 
Marcion at Rome y andof Nodus at Ephefus , are exprefty faidby 
Epiphanius,H*?Y/! 42. num.!. & 2. Haref. 57 num. i.to have 
been done and faffed by the Atl of the Presbyters ef thofe Churches 

And -which is of later date y the Excommunication of Andro- 

rrcus in Synefius $7.£pift- I find reported to have pajfed in the fame 
fort^and all this agreeable to the praclice recorded in Scripture ] 
ailedgmg, i.Tim. 5.19. Atls 21. 18. citing Cyprian Ep. 46 and 
thtApofl. finjtit. and faith Blonde 1 1 in this might have fpared his 
exa& diligence, it being granted, &c. Mr. Thomdik* alio tells 
us pag. 6i* of the words of Ninius , that |_ in InUnd alone, 
Saint "atrick^ at the firft plantation of Chnftianity founded three 
hundred and chreefcoreand five Bifhopricks] Andean any man 
believe chat all thefe had Cities or more then one of our Parifh 
Churches , when [all Ireland to this day hath not feven Hce \ 
and when all this was done at the firft plantation of the G Mpel ? 
I think we had this fort of Epi r copacy. Even fincc the Refor- 
mation there is reckoned in lre!andb\xt four Arch-b:fhop5,nine- 
teen Bifhops.What think you then were 3 65. Bifhops at che (Irft ' 
plantation of the Gofpel ? 

To proceed to fome further Evidence. 1 . Its manifeft in (fie- 
mens Rom. Epift. to the Corinthians there is n?ention of no more 
but two Orders v the one called fomctime Bifhops/ometirne Pias- 
ters, theother Deacons, page $4.* 55, 57. *andtbishe fakh the r . P f^;* 4 ']\ c 
Apo'f le* did as knowing that contention would arife about the ;jf * ' S-* x 
name 0: Epi r copacy^m\ that thev fo fetlefohc Mimfrerial Offices sw%j »fi/* 
that others fbouid fucceed in xhemwhra ferns 'were deceafe-i.Yor cov-nt, j^gi. 
my part I cannot fee the leaft reafon to be of their mind that ***** ™< *- 
thirik Clemens here doth fpeak only ofPreiaresor fuperemment ^l^Vj^f; 1 
Biftops, ( of which I refer the Reader to Mr. Burtons nores in gi&esigituf* 
liisEriglilh Tranflttionof Clemen} But fuppofe it were fo : & Urbespra- 
If at that timethe Churches had none but (ingle Bifhop.', it is #*<«*«<»«»- 

plain then that thev were but fing'e Congregations ; For no ' :; ■•[ VYUnt P n * 
r . ~ - ' t • • ■ l l j- initios mam y 

other Congregations having communion in the-r-tnen -ordinary, apprebihtesm 

publike worfhip, cou'd be managed without a Bifhop or Presby- Sp?riia,Epip* 

copos & Diet- 
f*W? crrum qui Creditor} erMt.~]l know that W&5 ><»'?*< is fuppofed by foine to refpecl only 
the pi ice of their preaching , and not of their fettling Biihops : But the words ac- 
cord ng to the more obvious plain fence do feem to extend it to both, and make no fuch 
difference at alL 



let to do the work.But for them that Height Mr. Bartons & other 
mens plain Reafons concerning the judgement of Clem. Roman*;, 
and force his words to fpeak what they mean not , I defire them 
to obferve the judgement ofGmius whom they profefs fo much 
to value: who in his Epiflol. i6z ad Bignon. gives this as 
one Reafon to prove this Epiftle- of Clemens genuine [j®uod 
nufquam meminit, exfortis illius Spifcoporum autoritatis y qua Sc- 
cleftaconfuetudine pofi Marci mortem ^lex^ndria, atq; eo exem- 
■flo alibi, introduce cepit , fed plane ut Paul us ^poftolus oftendit 
Ecclefias communi Presbyterorum qui iidem omnes & Epifcopi ip- 
f Pauloq; dicuntur , confilio fuiffe gubernatas. Nam quod 
rirXMtyh *#vfr«j & *****? nominate omnia ifta nomma non ad 
Ecclefiamfed adTemplum Hierof pertinent: unde infer t omnia 
retlo ordine agenda, fi fuda'u, tantomagis Ckriftianis'] You 
fee that Grotiui ( then, ) and Clemens , in his judgement, were 
againft Prelacy. 

2. The very fame I fay of Prelacie, Epift.ad Philip.vrhkh men- 
tioneth only two forts, Presbyters and Dracon*. 

3 . And though Ignatius oft mention three,it feems to me that 
they were all but the Governours or Minifters of one Congrega- 
tion, or of no more people then oneof our Parifhes. In the 
Epift.adSmyrn.he faith [ o^o/ av own o J***«;*@vij£fJ to <ta§- 

i. e. Vbi Epifcopus prtfens fuerit, illuc & pUbs Congregetur, 
ficuti &ubi Chriftus eft omnis militia ceeleftis atcft ] as che com- 
mon interpreter tranflateth it, \utvid.eft in Edit. Peri$nii& 
V fieri*,] &4. [ Vbi comparuerit Epifcopus jbi & MultituAo fit; 
qnemadmodum ubi Chriftttf, ibi omnis aft at exercitus ceeleftis J 
as Hier. Vairlenius & Videlius tranflateit: Or, [_ Vbiutiq-, 
apparet Epifcopus, illic multitudo fit; quemadmodum uticj, nbi 
/ft Chriftus fefus^Uic Cathclica Ecclefta~] as V piers old Tran- 
lacion. And by the Context it appeareth that this pUbs y or mul • 
titudo is the Church which he ruleth,and not only one Congre- 
gation among many that are under him : For this doth with- 
out diltindion bind all the people one as well as another, to 
be where the B.ihop is or appeareth, viz, in the publick AiTem- 
bly for Communion in Worfnip, It is plain therefore there that 
were not then many fuch AfTembiies under him : otherwife all 
ftveone- mud have ncceffarily difobeyed this command. 


And in the Epittle tothc Phtiadelpkianshc hath £ UU y£ f 

*u?«r. ^ Eft Kj afire- rok afar t^'pftf , £ fr mftff/ar sift foarf 

tL'^a ra Tp'tfZvlts'ia , $ 7*7* f taw yen 7t7* ffvvfihttc fxv. 1 

i.e. C ^»4 enimefi caro Domini m fir i JefuChrifti, &unusil~ 

tins fanguis qui pro nobis efftiftts eft? & unus calix qui pro omnibus- ^<utj V^M 4«m 

nobis diftnbutus efi t unus pants qui omnibus fraclut eft, unum aU V^' ^^^ 

tare omniEcclt fi<t , & uhu* Epifcopus cum presbjterorum Colic- r^^^ V^~ 

gio &Diaconis confer vis meis. ] 

Here it is manifeft that the particular Church wh/ch in thofe 
daye3 was governed by a Bilhop, Presbyrery and Deacons, was 
but one Congregation • for every fuch Church- had buc'one 

Objed. Butfome Greeks C°f tes ^ eave 0Ht **** ™ tiwwfcr, 
Anfw. 1. The corrupt vulgar tranflation might occafion the 
change ofthe texr,faith Biftiop Vfher ( Annot. in loc.page 40. ) 
£ intermedia ilia, ex inter pretAtknc hac excidiffe videantur. 3 
2. The old translation of Biftiop Vfher which leaves it out,yec 
hath Vnum Altare & unus Epifcopus, &c. and the fence is the 
fame if the other words were out. 3. Ignatiushath the like in 
other places ,as we (hall fee anon; which forbiddcth fuch quarrels 
Object. But faith the Learned and Godly Blttiop Donname^ 
. ( Def. li. 2. cap, 6. pare 1 09. ) the word Altar being expounded 
for the Communion table, is not likely, aid too much favour eth* 
*f Popery: but by one Altar is meant Chriftjwho fantlifieth all our 
Sacrifices and Oblations and maketh them acceptable to God j as 
Ignatius expoundeth himfelfin his Epiftle to the MagnefiAns : All 
as one run together into the Temple ofGod.mt* one fefus Chrifi a* it* * 
were unto one Altar, ] 

To this! anfwer > that it is forae confirmation to- mx, that 
the words are foexprefs, that fo learned a man haih no more 
t<Hayby wayofevafion. Fordoubtlefs this is too grofs and 
palpable to fatisfie the judicious impartial reader. 1 . That the 
very text which he citeth ofthe Epiftle to the Magnefpans- 
doth make fully againft him, I (hall (hew anon. 2. That it is nor 
Chrift that is meant here by the «* Bu^*^^, j $ evident', 1 . In 
that Chrift his fle&rarid blood are before diftindly mentioned : 

N 2. In 1 


2. In that the word is put in order among the external Ordinan- 
ces.* 3 . In that it is fo ufual with other ancient writers and Igna- 
r^himfelftoufethe word 9«j/*rw?w in the fence as we now 
take it, that it will be plain violence to imagine that it is Chrift 
that was meant by it. And for Popery, there is no fuch matter 
of danger , in ufing a word Metaphorically : Otherwife we 
we muft make the Ancients commonly to be friends to Popery •, 
for they ordinarily call the Lords Table and the place where it 
ftood 8u<rictr,jp-or : I fay TheT able and the Sacrarium er place 
oj its (landing : for this feems plainly the meaning of Ignatius : 
fo faith h\(hopVJherAnnot. inloc. ubi fit p. £ Alt are apud Pa- 
tres menfam Dominican* paffim denotat apud Ignatium & Poly- 
carpum y Sacrarium quoq v \ So JR. Stephens Altarium Sacrarium. 
See what LcarnedMr.T/wW*^ himlelf in hisRight of the Church, 
&c r page 1 1 6. faith to this purpofe more largely ; where con- 
cerning Ignatius hisufe of the fame word to the Ephefians he 
faith [ Where it is manifefi that the Church is called a Sanftua* 
ry or place effacrificing : Mr. Mead in his Difcourfe of the name 
Altar page 1 4. (heweth that Ignatius by bv<n*™?M means the 
Lords Table, and takes Videlius his conceffion,as of a thing that 
could not be denyed. In the Epiftle of Ignatius ( or whoever 
elfc) to Polycarp Biihop of Smyrna hc(mh t Crebriuscelebran- 
tur convent us Synodiq^ Nominatim omnes inquire. Servos & 
ancillas ne faftidias ( as Vairlenius tranflateth ) or ( as Sifhop 
VJhers old Tranflation ) Sape Congregations fiant. Ex nomine 
emnes quare : Servos & ancillas ne defpicias. -] Whe- 

ther this were Ignatius or not, alls one to me, as long as Iufe 
ic but hiftorically to prove the matter of fad in thofe times. Buc 
furely no man (hould raarvail if I hence gather that great Poly- 
carp was Rifhop but of on*Congregation, when he muft enquire 
or take notice of every one of his Congregation by name, even 
as much as fervants and maids. ! would every Parilh Miniiter 
were foexadly acquainted with his flock 1 

Another pafTage there is in Ignatius to the fame purpofe,2:/>i/r\ 
ad Magnefi ^IIavtH eonh y ln t*v vedv 8s* cvv7^X iVi > <»< *™ 
iv Vvjtas-YipiQV , i-m Im Ivnvv yjirov, ] i. c. Omnes adunati ad 
Ttmplum Dei concurrite , ficut *A mum Altare ; ftctit ad mum 
fefum Chriftum , as the vulgar tranflation. Or as Vairlenius , 
X^Omnes vdut unus quiff nam in templumDei concurrite , velut 



ad unum A lure 5 ad unum fefum Chriftum] So the old Latine in 
Vfier to the fame purpofe. And in the words beforcgoing he 
bids them [Corneal! to one place for prayer] Here is no room 
for Bilhop Downams coiceit , that its Chrift thats meant by 
Qvjiawpio? ; For they are plainly put as diftind things : as if 
he fhouldfay, come all to one Altar, as to one Chrift . 1. e be- 
caufc it is but one Cbrift that is there to be partaked of. All this 
doth (o evidently prove that in thofe dayes a B lfhop with bis Pref- 
bytery an<fDeacons, had but one Congregation meeting at one 
Altar for Church Communion in the Eucharift, that it caufed 
Mr. Mead ( in his Difcourfe of Churches fag. 48, 49, 50. 
Cent. 2. ) to fay as followeth, having cited tbeie words of Ig- 
natius I Loe here a Temple with an Altar in it, whether the Mig- 
nefians are exhorted to gather themfelves together to pray: To come 
together in one place , &c. For it is to be obferved that in thefe Pri- 
mitive times they had bat one Altar in a Churchy as a Syn.bde, 
htih that they worfhipped bat one Goh through one Mediator Jefns 
Chrift, andalfo of the Vnity the Church ought to have in it felf. 
Whence Ignatius nit only here, but alfo in his Epiftletothe Phila- 
delfhians urge th the unity of the Altar for a motive to the Con 9 
gregation to agree together in one : For unum P^i&xz ( fai h he ) 
omni Ecclefiae, & unus Epifcopus cumPresbyterio^ Diaconis 
confer vis meis. This cuftome of one Altar is ft ill retained by the 
Greek. Church : The contrary ufe is a tranfgrejften of the Lathes, 
nrt only Symbolically implying, but really introducing a m^ti*., 

• &c. Nay more . then this it Jhouid feem that in thofe firfi 

times, before Dioceffes were divided intethofelefferandfubdrdi* 
nate Churches, we ca 7 now Parifhes, and Presbyters 'afftgned wr 
them, they had not only one Altar in one Church orDomin!Cum 2 
but one Altar to a Church, taking Church for the company or 
Corporation of the faithfully united under one Bvfhsp or Paftor , 
and that was in the City or place where the Bifbop had his 
See and Refdence , like as the fews had but one Altar and Temp's 
for the whole Nation-united under one high Prieft. And yet as the 
Jews hadthiir Synagogues, fo perhaps might they have more Or a* 
t writs' then one 9 though their Altar were but one-, there namely when 
the Bifhop was. Die (o\\s faith Juftin'Martyr, omnium qui vel 
in oppidis vel ruri degunt, in eundem locum conventus fit: 
Namely as he there tells us^ to celebrate, and participate the holy 

N 2 Euchariji. 


£ucharift. Why was this , but becaufe they had not man) places 
to celebratein ? and unlefs this rvere fo y whence came it elfe t 
that aSchifmatical Bi/bop was /^conftituere or collocare ali- 
ud Altare ? and that a Bijbof and an Altar are made correlatives? 
See S. Cyprian Epift.40, 72, 7?. demit. Ecclef And thus 
perhaps is Ignatius to be underfioodin that fore quoted parage of 
hx *E? Bu#i*aprop Unum Akare omniEcdcfias,& unus Epifco- 
pus cum Presbyterio.& Diaconis ] So far Mr. Mead. 

I hope upon the confent of fo admirable b Critick and learned 
man, it will not be fo much blame-worthy in me,if I fpeak forac- 
what the more confidently this way ^ and fay, that 1 think that 
the main confufion and Tyranny that hath overfpread the Chur- 
ches,hath been very much from the changing the Apoftolical 
frame of Churches, and fetting up many Altars and Congre- 
gations under one Bifhop in one ( pretended particular ) 

I had three or four paffages readp to cite out of Ignatius , but 
thefe are fo exprefs , that I apprehend the reft the leis necefftry 
to be mentioned. 

The next therefore that I (hall mention ftiall be the forementi- 
oncd words of fuflin Martyr Apol. 2, cited by Mr. Mead % 
and by others frequently to this purpofc : In which I obferve all 
thefe particulars full to the purpofc. 1 . That they bad but one 
Affembly each Lords day for Church communion for one 
Church. 2 That this was for reading and prayer and the Eucha- 
rift. 3 .That the Pre(ident(who is commonly bv rhofe of the Epif- 
copal judgement faid co be here meant the BilhopJ did preach 
and give thanks and adminifter the fuppcr*. fo that it was ad- 
miniftrcd but to one Congregation as under that Bifhop of that 
Church, for he could not be in two places at once. 4. That to 
the Abfent the Deacons carried their portion after the confe- 
cration : fo that they had not another Meeting and Congregati- 
on by themfelves for that end. Thisisall fo plain that I (hall 
think it needcth no Vindication. So that were there but thefe 
two Tcftimonies, I fhould not marvail if Biftiop Downam had 
extended his confeffion a little further , when he acknowledged 
( Defli. 2, cap. 6. page 104. . that £ At the firfl and namely 
in the time of the Apoftle Paul,*£* meft of the Churches fefoon after 
their Ccnverfon, did Kit tAch of thtm ex eed the proportion of a 



"populous Congregation , 3 ( And then we are not out info inter- 
preting ttie words ofTaul and other writersofche holy Scri- 
pture. ) The next that I ihall mention ( whoever was or when 
ever he lived J is Dionyf. de S'cclef. Hierarchy cap. 4. where he 
tells us that thePraefed ( who was the Bifhop,tf there wereany^ 
did Bapiizcthofe that were converted, and the Presbyters and 
Deacons did but afiift him : And abundance of work hementi- 
oneth which they had with all that they Baptized, and they cal- 
led all the Congregation together who joyned in Prayers with 
the Bifhop at theBaptifm. A'l which (hews that he was then 
the Bifhop but of one particular Church, which ordinarily Af- 
femble-i together for publick worship. For, 1. If he had many 
fuch Churches or Congregations under him, hecould not be thus 
prefent to celebrate B.ipLifm in them all. Nor would one only be 
mentioned as his charge. 2. Nt r is it pofiible :hat one Bifhop 
ftiould with fo long a way of Baptifmeas is there defcribed, be 
able to Baprize all the perfons in a Diocefs fuch as ours, or the 
twentieth part of tbem,much lefs in thofe tiroes , when befides 
the Infants of Believers, the moft eminent fort of Baptifm, and 
greateft labour, was about the multitudes of Adult Converts, 
that by the Gofpel were daily added to the Church. 

Gregory Tbattmaturgtts was as by force made Bifhop of 
:NcoctJarea : and yet his whole Diocefs or City had but feven- 
teen hriftians in it at his entrance,though when he died he found 
upon enquiry but feventeen Pagans, fo great a change was made 
by the Gofpel and by Miracles : But by this Diocefs of feventeen 
fouls we may conjedure what the Churches wereintfeofc times 
(though we fhould allow others to be an hundred times as great, 
they would not be fo great as the tenth part of many Parifhes in 
£nglavd)Scc the truth of this pafTage in Greg. Nijfen Orath in 
Qreg. Tbaumattir. twice over he recites it. And BaftLM*g /. 
deSpir Sane. c. 19. And Reman. Breviar. Die 15 Novemk 
And the Menolog. Grac. mentioned before Greg, Neccefar. 
works Printed ad Paris 1622. But I (hall return to fome before 

The next that I fhali cite is Terthllian, that well known place 
in his Ayoiog.c. 3 9. [ Corpus fnmus de confeicntia Reiigionis & 
rDifciplin* unit axe ejr [pel federe. Coimunn coetum & Congregate 
'.mem nt ad Denm quaji mann fatta precationibus ambiamtts 

N 3 uranteu 


or antes. Cegimur ad divinarttm liter arum Commemorationem 

-Qerte fidemfanciis vocibus pafcimnsjpem erigtmus^duci' 

am figimus, dijciplinam prdtcepterttm nihiUminus inculcationi* 
bus denfamus • ibidem etiam exhort at tones , C aft igatione s t ejr e'en* 
fur a Divina : nam & ]udicatnr magno cum ponder e tit apud cer* 
tosde Dei eonfpeclu >, [ammum^^ juturi judieii pra\® dictum eft 
fiqui* it a deliquerit jit a communication Oratiems^& conventtts, 
& omnisfantli commercii r ek get ur.Pr&fi dent probati quiq, j 'ent- 
er es, &c ] If I be able to underftand Tertnllian , it is here plain 
that cach-hurch confuted ofone Congregation, whxhaffem bled 
for Worfhip , and Difciplincatonceorinone place, and this 
Church was it that had Prefidents or Seniors to guidethemboth 
in Worfhip and by Difcipline. So that if there were any more 
of chefe AlTembhesin one particular Political Church, then there 
were more Bifhops then one,or elfe others befides Bifhops exer- 
cifed this Discipline •* But indeed its here plainly intimated that 
Bifhops were then the Guides of Congregations ( fingle,) and 
not of Dioceffcs confilHngof many fuch. 

I (hall put Tertfi'lians meaning out of doubt bv another place, 
and that is, de Corona Militis cap.%. \ EnchariftU Sacramem* 
turn & in tempore vitltss, & omnibm mandatum a^Domino^eti- 
am axtelficaws ritibus , nee de aliorum manti ]Himprdftdentium 
fumimHs.] And ifthey received this Sacrament of none but the 
prefidents, ( and that every Lords day at !ea{i:,as no doubt they 
did) then they could have no more Congregations in a Church 
then they had Prefidents. And ( though PameUns fay that by 
Prefidents here ; s meant aifo Presbyters, yet J thofe chat we now 
drfputcagain(t,underftand it of the Prelates. And if they will not 
fo do, then may we will interpret the forefaid paiTage Apol.to be 
meant of the fame fort of Prefidents; and then you may loon fee 
what Bifhops were in Tertnllians dayes. For we have no reafon 
to think that they are not the fame fort ofOfTkers which he calieth 
Prcfidents,and of whom he there ti\th,?r<tfidtnt probati Senior es. 
So in the foregoing words in Tertullianjbid.ns (aid [ Aqaam 
adituri ibidem, fed & aliquando prius in Eccle(ia fub -^ntifiitk 
marM conteftamumos rennnciare Diabolo,& Pomp<t& angel s ejw] 
Where it feems that there were no more thus initmed then the 
Antiftes himftlf did firft thus engage in the Congregation - 3 And I 
believe they take this Antiftts for a Bifhep. 



A nd here by the way let this argument be noted. Seeing its 
paft doubt that the firft fence of the word e**wftfw is the Catus 
or holy Affembly it felf, why fhould the Mating place be fo of- 
ten called aifo Eccle/ta in thofe times, in the bornwed fence, but 
only in Relation to the People there affembled? and ics plain 
that it was but one Congregation, and not many that affembled 
in thar place: and therefore it was from that one that the Place 
is called EccWia. That it is oft fo called, befides this place of 
TertulUan ( which feems fo toufe the word ) I refer you to 
Mr. yl/tWj exercitation of Temples, who proves ic dii'ir.&Iy in * Very many 
the feveral Centuries. That faying cyiTheopbilus Antiockenus ad j?**?"/ 1 - . 
Antoljchvtm feems to intimate the whole that I intend [ficDe- cimate that 
us dedit munds quipeccatorum ttmp n fiatibus & Naufragtis jatla- then the Dio- 
tur, Synagogas, quas Ecclefia r Santlas Nt minumtis in qmbtis ve cefTes were 
ritatis dotlrinafervet, ad quas confxginni veritatisftudiofi ejttot- ,. ' P^"*!* 
qnot f.lvari, Deiq-, judicium & ir am evit are volant.} So that ^ uc :r £ m A ^ 
the Churches ofthofe times which were as Noahs Ark,and where tare : As when 
fafety was to be found for the foul, were S\ r.agogues or A (Tern- he f aic h thac 
bites. So TertuL de Jdololatr c. 7. pag.(mihi) 171 . Totadiead ^f^rtus* 
hanc partem zelus fidei ptroravit, ingenuU Chriftianum ab Idolii in fJcifSuerim 
Ecclcfiam venire^ de adversaria officina in domum Dei venire. — J nihil fine con* 
See more places of Tertullian cited by Pame/ius on this p'ace cilio vefto & 
num. 29. page 177. fpectaily fee that de virg. Ve land- cap. 1 3. fi*c**ft*tk 

H[* * prizata fe'd" 

* Clemens Alex andrinus hath divers psfTages to the purpofe tema gercre, 

&c. And 
[ Vrohibejnrur offtrre, acturi apud nos^ & apud co/ife r 'ores ipfos, & apud plebcm .mye; -J am 
eaufamfitsmJ] And [ H<ec fingtilorum trattakda ft & hmanda plemit\ ratio/nit tanWm cum 
co'fcgh me:Sj fed & cum plebe ipfi tmvcrfa ] And [VixplebijxrJHadepjptmdextorquee, lit 
talei patiantur admitth& i*ftior f 'actus rftfirat&mtatis dolor^ex co quod amis aiq\ alius obnitcn'e 
plthc& c»vradicente^nea tamen fac'ilita: e fvfeeptiypejom extiterunt — ]How the univcrfa plebs 
of many Congregations or a Diocefs like ours, fhould be con'ulted and hear and do 
any thing; to admhTion or exclufio.i from Communion, and be advifed < ith by Cy- 
.prian inailfuch affairs, isnot eafie to conceive. See his Epifl. 3. 6- lo- i;> 14? i-6>l*i 

Peru fe all the citations of Bio'-: dwell de jure Vlebis in Keglm. Ecclcf. and fee whether 
they intimate not the fmalnefs of their Diocefl.es. ( Though I believe they prove no fucfi 
thing as proper Government in the peopTe. ) Yet perufe all the Authors cited by him 
there to prove that dc Ecde'itc Math. iS. refers to the Cong;egationof Paftorsand peo- 
rie together : and it will much confirm the point in hand/ I {hall not recite any of 
them, became you may there find them in tire end of Groti'us tU Imperio Swn. Votefi% 



now in hand. Stromat. U.j. in the beginning, hcmentionccb 
theChurch and its officers, which he divideth only into two fort?, 
Prefbjters and Deacens. But I will name no more particular per- 
form, but come to fomc intimations of the point before us from 
cuflomesor Practices of the Church and the Canons of Coun- 

And it feerns to me that the dividing of Parities fo long after 
(or of Titles a? they are called) doth plainly tell us that about 
thofe times it was that particular Pol cical Church did rirfl con- 
tain many ftated Congregation?. And though it be uncertain 
when this begin ( Mr. Thsmdikezs we heard before,conje&ur- 
eth , about Cyprians dayes yet we know that it was long after 
the Apofties, and that it was ftrange tolefs populous places long 
after it was introduced at Rome and Alexandria, where i he num- 
ber of ChriiUans,& too much ambition of the Bi(hop,cccafioned 
the multiplication of Congregations under him,and fo he became 
a Bifhopof many Churches (named as one) wboformely was 
Bifhopbut of a fingle Church. "For if there had been enough, 
one hundred or fifty or twenty or ten years before, to have made 
many Pariftiesor dated Affemblies for communion in worfh p. 
then no doubt but the light o: Nature would have directed them 
to have made fome flared divifions before ^ For they mud needs 
know that God was not the God of Confufion but of order in 
ill the Churches : And they had the fame reafons before as af- 
ter : And perfection could no: be the hindrance any more at 
firft then at lafl: For it was under perfecting E^perours when 
Parifhesor Tfottes wered: :eJ, ar.d fo it might, notwLh- 

landing perfections have been done as well at frrfl as at laft, if 
there had been the fame reafon. ft feerns therefore very plain 
to me that it was the increafe of Converts that canfed this divifl- 
on of Titles, and that in planting of Chu"chesby the Apofties, 
and during their time, and much after, the Churches confiflcd 
of no more then our Parifhes, w:o king noft inhabitants of the 
Gties had their meetings there for full commnnion , though 
they might have other fubordinate met tings as we have now in 
caens houfes for Repeating Sermons and Prayer. 

And as Mr. Thcrnd-ke out of N nius tells us of 365. 
Sifrio pricks in Jrcl.wd planted by Patrl.k^ fo other Authors 'ell 



us that PrfmV^wastbe firftBiftioptherc; or as others and more 
credible, Palladius the fir(t,and Patricks next ! and yet the Scots 
in JrWWhad Churches before Palladius his dayes, /as Bifhop 
£^r fheweth afe Primordiis EcclefBritan.ygS, 799,800, &c.) 
Johannes Major de geflis fcholarum li. Z.cap.2. prior ibus ii/istem- 
poribusper S acer dotes & Monachos ^ fine Epifcopis Scotos in fide 
eruditos fuiffeaffirmat* Et ita fane ante Majorem fcripfit Jo- 
hannes Fordonus Scotichron. li. 3 . cap. 8. [ Ante PzWadiiadven- 
tumhabebant Scotifidei De-Bores ac Sacramentorum Miniftratores 
Presbjteros folummodo vel Monacbos i ritum fequentes Ecclefia 
Primitive ( N. B. ) Of which faith Ufher [ Quod poftremum 
abiisaccepiffevidetur qui dixerunt ( ut Johan. Semecai« Gfajfa 
Decretidifi. 93. ca. Lcgimus ) [ quod in Prima Primitiva Ec- 
clefia commune erat efficium Epifcopornm & Sacerdotum : & 
Nomina erant communia , & officium commune ; fed in fecunda 
primitiva caperunt dinfiigui &nomina & ojficia^So that it Teems 
that fomerChurches they had before -, but Palladius and Patrick^ 
came into Ireland^ Augufiine into England^ and abundantly 
incct&fed them, and fettled withall the Roman Mode ; So that 
ikfeemedjike a new Plantation of Religion and Churches there. 
Yet it-feerns that the Biihops fetled by Patrick^ &ve that bimfelf 
an Archbifhop was like our Biihops,) were but fuch as were there 
before-under the name of Presbyters, faith Fordontftzi the rite or 
fafhion "of the Primitive Church. 

And faiph Vfier ibid. p. 800. [ He&or Boethius fuife dich 
Palladium primum omnium qui Sacrum inter Scotos egere Magi- 
firatum a fummo Pontifice Epifcopum creatum : quum ante* 
Populifujfragiis ex Monachis & Caldeis pontifices affumercntur. 
Boeth- Scot or urn Hiftor. lib. 7. foL 128. b. 

And he adds the faying of BaUus , {Scriptor. Brit ante. cent ur. 
1 Ap.jcap. 6. ) [es4 C&Uftir.o ilium mijfum ah Johannes Bataeus, 
ut Sacerdotalem or dincm y inter Scotos Romano ritu inftitueret.Ha* 
bebant (inquit) antea Scoti fuss Epifcopos ac Miniftros , ex 
verbi Divini Aiinifterio plebiumfuffragiis eletlss, prom Afiano* 
rum more fieri apud Britannos videhant : Sed bite Romants, ut 
magis teremoniofis atque Afiamrum oforibus^mnplacebant~) By 
theie paflfages it is eafic to con je&ure whether they were Bifhops 
of a County ,orBi(hops of a Parifh that were there in thofe daie*. 
For my part I heartily wifh that Ireland had three hundred fixty 

O five 


five good Bifhops and Churches at this day, even when the 
whole Nation profefs themfelvcs to be Chriftians , ( which then 
they did not. J 

To this purpofe runs the 14. Canon Concilii Agath. ( and if it 
were fo then, much more long before ) [ Siquis etiam extra Ta- 
rochias inqmbns legitimes eft or dinar itifcj; convent us oratorium 
habere voluerit rehquisfeftivitatibus^ ut ibi Aliftam audin, prop' 
ter fatigationem famili* y jftfta $rdinatione per mittimus. Pafcha 
vero,Natali Domini, Epiphania^ Afcenftvne domini 9 ^entecofte, 
& Nat ali Santli Johannis Baptiftae, & //? m maxime dies in fe* 
ftivitatibus habentur, non nip, in Civitatibm t am Parochiis an* 
diant] Here it appeareth that there was but one legitimus ordi- 
narittfy, conventns in a Parifh ^ though they tolerated an Orato* 
ry or Chappell of eafe. And that a Parifh here is taken for a Di- 
ocefs, or fuch a Church as had proper to it felf a Bifhop and Pref*. 
byteric,as it is probable from the ordinary ufeof the word by 
JEttfebius and other antientsin that fence, fo alfo front what is 
further faid in the following Canons of this Council : And fo the> 
word Parifh here may be cxpofitory of the word City] or eifr de- 
note a Rural Bifhoprick. For Can. 30. faith [ Beneditlionem 
fitper plebem in E cc left a f under e aut panitentem in Ecclefia benedi- 
cere presbytero penitus non Habit ■.] And if a Presbyter may not 
blefs the people or the penitent , ( when the bleffing of she peo- 
ple was part of the work in every Solemn Affembly for Church 
communion ) then it is raanifeft that a Bifnop rauft be prefent in 
every fuch Affembly to do that part which the Presbyter might 
not do : and confequently there were no more fuch Affembiies 
then there were Bifhops. And to prove this more fully mark 
die very next Canon of that Council, viz. the 31. £ Mijfasdie 
dominie fecnlaribns tot as audire fpecialiordine pracipimus^ it a 
fit ante beneditlionem Sacerdotis egredi populus non prafuntat. 
Quod ft fecerint y ab Epifcopo public e confundatur] So that its 
plain that on every Lords day all the people (for here is no dift'in* 
dionor limitation ) were to be prefent in the publick worfhip 
to the end , and the Bifhop to pronounce the bleffing ( whoever 
preached) and openly to rebuke any that fhouid go out before 
it. From whence it isevident that all fuch Church Affembiies 
for communion every Lords day were to have a Bifhop pre- 
fent with them to do part of the work: and therefore there, 



were no more fuch Affcmblies then there were Bifhops. 

In the 38. Canon of the fame Council we find this written 
[ Cives qui fuperiorum felennitatum y id eft, Pafch* & NatalU 
Domini % vel Pentecofies fejfivatibus cum Epifiopts interejfe neg- 
lexerint ,qnum in Qivitatibus commnionis vel beneditlionis accifi" 
endt caufa pofttes fe ncfe deb e ant y triennio communione priventur 
Eccleji*.] So that it Teems there were no more Church- members 
ina City then could congregate on the feftival daies for Com- 
munion and the Bifhops B letting 1 therefore there were not ma- 
ny fuch Congregations : when every one was to be three years 
excommunicate chat did not Aflemble where the Bifhop was. 

Moreover all thole Canons of feveral Councils that forbid the 
Presbyters to confirm by Chryfm,and make it the Bifhops work, 
do (hew that theDiocefs were but fmail when the Bifliop himfelf 
could do that befides all his other work. 

In the Canons called the Apoftles , cap. 5. it is ordained thus 
[ Omnium alicrum primitU Epifcopo & PresbjterU domum 
mittuntur^non [uper Altare.Mamfejlum eft autem quod Epifcopus 
& Presbjteri inter Diacenos & rcliqms clericos eas dividunt. ] 
By which it appeare:h that there was but one Altar in a Church 
to which belonged the Bifhop, Presbyterie, and Deacons, who 
lived all as it were on that Altar. 

And Can. 32. runs thus [_ Si quis Presbyter cmemnens Epifct- 
pum fuum,feorfim collegerit \& Altare aliuderexerit % nihil habent 
quo rebrebendat Spifcopum in caufa pietatis & jujiitiajeponatur 

quafi pri'dcipattts amator exiftens Hac autem poft unam &fe* 

cundam & tertiam Spifcopi obfecrationem fieri conveniat. ] Which 
fhews that there was then but one Convention and one Altar to 
which one Bifhop and Presbyters did belong : So that no other 
Aflembly or Altar was to be fet up apart from the Bifhopby any 
Presbyter that had nothing againft the Bifhop in point of Godli- 

And I believe if Bifhops had a whole Dioccffe of two hundred 
or three hundred or a thoufand Presbyters to maintain, they 
would be loth to ftand to the fifty eighth Canon which makes 
them Murderers if they fupply not their Clergies wants :But let 
that Canon pafs as fpurious. 

And long after when fincilium Vafenfe doth grant leave to the 
Presbyters to preach 4 and Deacons to read Homilies in Country 

O 2 Parifhes 


parifhes as well a$Cities,it {hews that fuch Pariflies were but new 
and imperfect Affemblies. 

In the Council of Laodicea the 56. Canon is [ Kon oportet 
Presbjteros ante ingrejffim Epifcopi ingredi Eccleftam, c$ federe 
in tribunalibus, fed cum Epifcopo ingredi • nifi forte ant tgrote't 
JEpifcoptts ^aut in peregrinations commodo turn f.btjfe confiiterit. ~ 
By which it feems that there was but one AfTemby in which the 
Bifhop and Presbyters fate together : Otberwife the Presbyters 
might have gone into all the reft of the Churches without the 
Bifhop at any time, and not only in cafe of his ficknefs or pere- 

The fifth Canon of the Council 0$ Antioch is the fame with 
that of fan. Apoft. before cited,that no Presbyter or Deacon con- 
temning his own Bifbop,Jhxll withdraw from the (fhurch and ga- 
ther an Affemblj apart ^ and fet Hp an Altar. By which ftillit 
appears that to withdraw from that estjfembljjv&s to withdraw 
from the Church,and that one Biftep had but we Altar andAffem- 

^ChJrch^s hl J for Church Communion. 

were noTfo" So CenciLCarthag. 4. Can 1 5. which order the fitting of the 
large asfome Presbyters and Bifhop together in the Church : And many de- 
imagine, even crees that lay it on the Bifhop to look to the Church lands and 
atthefixth goods, and diftribure to the poor the Churches Alms, do (hew 
Council at ttiat their Diocc ^« were but fmall,or elfe they had not been (of- 
Trul. in con- ficient for this. 

flantinop. All the premifes laid together me thinks afford me this conclu- 

when Canon fi ^ t h at t h e Apoftolical particular Political Churches were fuch 
deiedth^tTo as confifted of one only Worfhipping Congregation ( aCon- 
the fifth gregation capable of perfonal communion in publick worihip) 
day of the and their Overfeers ; and that by little they departed from this 
week the form 3 each Bifhop enlarging his Diocefs, till he that was made at 

Fo fa 1Z over erC firft the Bifll6 P buC ° f 0nC Church > fcecame thc Bi{ll0 P of many, 
their Belief anc ^ ^° ^ et U P a new frame of Government, by fetting up a new 
to the BHhop kind of particular Churches. And thus was the primitive Go- 
er the Presby- vernment corrupted, while men meafured their charge by the 
terS n ffuch CiTCUlt °^ Ground, thinking they might retain the old compafs 
D!ocefles U as when they had multiplied converts, and therefore (bould have 
ours that this mulciplyed Churches and Bifhops. *■ 

work could; jo all this I add thefe obfervations, 1 . That the very Nature. 
Wthos done: ^. church government tds as that a Cover nour muft be preftnr 



upan the place, and fes to the execution:. Fo^ C^d hath made 
m the Laws already, and Synods rouft in way oF Vtiion determine 
of the moll advamagious cirenmftances for the performing of the 
duties which God impofeth : And particular Bifhops are to 
guide their particular Congregations in Gods Worftvip, and in 
order thereto ; Their guidance is but a fubfervient means to that 
worfhip : And therefore they muft Rule the Church as a Cap- 
tain doth.his Company in fight, oraPhyfitianhisPatient, ora 
Schoolmafter his School, by his own prefence,and not at many 
miles diftance by a Surrogate. 

2. The doctrine which makes the firft particular Political 
Church to confift of many ftated Worfhipping Churches like our 
Paridies doth fet on the faddle, if notalfo hold the ftirrup for 
a Dioceian Biftiop to get up, to head thofe prepared bodies. 

3 . Seeing the Presbyterians do confefs that it is not Necejfary 
(but lawful ) for a particular Political Church to confift of 
many Worfhipping Churches, and fay, It may confift only of one: 
Common Reafon and experience will then direct us to conclude 

that its belt ordinarily take Hp with that one : feeing people that * As ™ ai y of 
know one another, and live within the reach of each other for E hem J^ cn 
common converfe ; and ordinarily meet and join in the fame pub- t h ey {^ \ z 
lick Worfhip , are mod capable of the ends of Church Policy- in terms , of 
and a Paftor capable of guiding fucb.better then other Parifhes which fee 
that he knows not. J*^ 1 ^ c 

4.He that makes the Paftor of one Parifli the Ruler of the reft ^Itfae to the 
adjoining, doth lay upon him much more duty then fitting in a Reformed Pa- 
Presbytcric to vote in cenfures. For thofe cenfures are a fmall ftor,hn& even 
part of Church Government, comparatively (elfe moft Con- ^ thisW fcf C 
gregationsin England have little or no Government ^ for they [{j^Paftors 5 
have little or none of thefe Cenfures. ) Yea indeed true Church are Rulers 
Guidance or Government contains a great part, if not moft of and the Peo- 
the Paftoral work, which a man would be loch to undertake pie muft obey*- 
over too many diftant unknown Congregations: Though he roav i ccc J^° 
well undertake in Synods to promote Unity, and to do the * ordTof the 
beft he can for the whole Church of Chrift. If therefore thofe of text,H^. 13. 
the Congregational way.were as neer us in other things,as in this 17- * Tm - P 
Before inlifted on/efpecially if they would renounce* that great I7 ' * |£*I 
miftake of the Peoples having the Power of the Keys or Go- gram us what 
vernment 3: andtakc up for them with a fudicittrnDifcretioms, we plead &iv 

O 5 and 


and juft liberty ) we need noc (land at fo great a diflance. 

And laftly, If Minifters of the Gofpel would tenderly weigh 
the greatnefs of their work and charge,and the dreadfulncfs of 
their account, the worth of fouIs,the power and prcvalencyof 
fin, the rage of ail the Churches enemies, and the multitudes of 
them, they would fooner tremble to think of the difficulties in 
Governing or guiding one Congregation in the way to heaven, 
than grafp at more, and think thcmfelves able to be the guides 
of many, and draw fuch a heavy burden on themfclves, and pre- 
pare for fuch a reckoning. Left they be offended with my words, 
I will fay the like in the words of Cbryfoftom ( or whoever clfc 
was the Author of the Ireperfeft work ) on Mattb 20. Horn. 
3$*p*g' ( mihi ) 901. [_Sihac ergo it a fe habent , fecularem 
quidem primatum deader are, etfi ratio non eft y vel caufa eft : qui* 
ttft juftum non eft , vel mile eft* ^Primatum autem Seder 
ftdfticum cone u fife ere , neq\ ratio eft , neq\ caufa : quia 
neq; juftum eft , ne q ; utile, Quis enim f after: s ultro fe fubjieere 
feflinat [ervituti, labori, dolori y & quod majus eft, periculo tali 
ut detrationem proomniEcckfta, apud juftum judieem f ni/ifor* 
te qui non credit judicium Dei, nee timet, uti abutens primatu fuo 
Sccleftaftico feculariter 9 convert at eum in Secnlarem. Sed ne forte 
qui talis eft in appetendo primatum, profetlum pietatis pie praten- 
dat,dico i Nunquidqui in or dine prior eft, jam &meritis eft metier?] 
And of the Minifterial honours he faith ( ibid.) Deniq, ipftbono* 
res inChrlfteinprima quidem facie videntur honores^ revera au- 
tem nonfunt henores diverfi, fedfnnt diver fa Msnifleria ' ut puta 
honor oculi videtur, quia illuminat Corpus : Sed ipfe honor illumi* 
jsandi non eft ei honor fed 'JMinifterium ejus. ]] 

So much to prove the Proportion, that the late Englifti Epif- 
copacy is not to bercBored, under any pretence of Order or 

Wherein I have purpofery forborn the mention of its Abufes, 
and doleful confequents, becaufe they may fuppofc that Abufc to 
befeparabk from the thing. 


Confequentsoftbat which is already Trowed. 

TO fave the debating of many great Cohtroverfies that break 
the peace and deftroy or diminifh the Charity of many, I 
may abbreviate the work,by giving you fome of the true fcqqels 
of what hath been fufficicntly proved. 

ConfA. The taking down of the Englidi Epifcopacy was Conf. i 
( as to the thing) fo far from being evil, and deferving the Accu- 
fations that fome lay upon it , that it was amatter of Necef- 
fity to theReforraation and well being of the Churches of Chrift 
in thcfeNations.lt was no worfe a work in it felf considered, then 
the curing of a grievous difeafe is to the fick, and the fupply of 
the neceffities of the poor in their indigence. What guilt lieth up- 
on that man, that would have all the fick to perifti, for fear of 
injuring one Phyfitian, that had undertaken the fole care of all 
the County ? or that would have all the County to have but 
one Schoolmafter : Or an hundred Ships to have but one Pilot, 
and confequently to perifh: How much greater is their guilt, 
that would have had the forementioned Epifcopacy continued,to 
the hazzard of many thoufand fouls, and the abafement and 
ejection of holy Difcipline , the pollution of the Churches, and 
the hardening of the wicked, and the difhonour of God? Imen~ 
tion not this to provoke any to difhonour them, but to provoke 
the perfons tbemfelves to Repentance. And I intreatthem to con- 
fider , how fad a thing it is, that without any great inducement, 
they (hould draw fuch a mountain of guilt upon their fouls. The 
Biihops had the temptation of Honour and Riches : but what 
honour or gain have you to feduceyou, tochoofeafharewith 
other men in their fin and punifhment ? 

I meddle not herewith the Manner of demolifliing Epifco*- 
pacy, but with the Matter: becaufel would not mix other Con- 
troversies wich this. But I am confident thofe men that ufually 
own the late Epifcopacy, and revile them that dcmoliflit it.fhall 
one way or other feel ere long, that they have owned a very 
unprofitable caufe,and fuch as they fhall wifli,they had let alone, 
and thatic made not for their honour to be fo much enemies 


(io 4 ) 

to the welfare of the Churches the enemies of the abolition of 
that Prelacy will appear to be. 

Conf. 2. Co*f. 1 1. The matter of that claufe in the National 
Covenant,which coneerneth the abolition of this Prelacy before 
mentioned, was fo far from deferving the Reproaches and Ac- 
cufations that arebeltowed on it by fome, that it was juft arid 
neceffary to the well being of the Church. 

Inthisaifolpurpofely mean the Civil controverfie about the 
authority of irapofing, taking, or profecuting the Covenanted 
fpeak only of the Matter of it : (to avoid jhclofing of the 
r uth by digreflions, and new controverfies ) They chat by re- 
proaching this claufe in the Covenant,do own the Prelacy which 
the Covenant difowneth, might fhew more love to the Church 
and their own fouls, by pleading for (icknefs, and nakednefs, 
andfamine, and by paffionate reproaches of all that are againil 
thefe , then by fuch owning and pleading for a far greater 

Coxf. 3. Conf. HI. Thofe of the Englifh Miniftry , that are 
againft the old Epifcopacy, and arie glad tharthe Church is rid 
ofir,are not therefore guilty of Schifm,nor of finfuil difobcdience 
to their fpiritual fuperiour^ 

If any of them did/wear ebtdience to the Prelates ( a tyranni- 
call impofition that God never required > nor tha Primitive 
Church never ufed ) thats nothing to ourprefent cafe, which 
is not about the keeping of oaths, but the obeying or re jeding 
the Prelacy in it felf coniidered. It is not fchifmatical to deparc 
from an ufurpation that God difowneth, and the Church is en- 
dangered and fo much wronged by, and to feek to pull up the 
Roots of Schifra, which have bred and fed it in the Churches 

Cm r Conf. I V. Thofe that (till juftifie the ejefted Prcla- 

J ° cy, and defire the reftauration of it,as they needlefly choofe the 
guilt of the Churches deflations, fo are they not to be taken for 
men that go about to heal our breaches, but rather for fuch. 
as' would widen and continue them, by reftoring the main 
caufe. 3 

Conf. 5. Conf.V. If we had had fuch an Epifcopacy as Bifhop 
H*U and Bifhop Vfler did propound as fatisfa&ory, ( and fuch 
mea to cranage it, ) Epifcopacy and Peace might have dwelt 


together in England to this day : It is not the the Name of a Bt- 
ihop that hath been the matter of our troub!e,but the exorbitant 
Species introducing unavoidably the many mifchiefs which wc 
havefeen and felt. 

Conf. V I. Ordination by the e ]t&t& Prelacy Jn (fecit , is not ^ 
of necefiky to the being or well-being of a Presbyter or Dea- ' on *' ' 
con. If the Species of Prelacy it feif be proved contrary to the 
word of God, and the welfare of the Church, then the Ordina- 
tion that is by this Species of Prelacy, cannot be neceffary or as 

Conf. V II. A Parochial or Congregational Paftor, having Conf 7. 
aftiftant Presbyters and Deacons, either extftent or in exped- 
ance,was theBifhop that was in the dayesof IgnanmfiuftinfTer- 
tullian y and that Dr. Hammond defcribeth as meant in many 
Scriptures, and exillent in thofe dayes. I fpeak not how to the 
queftion about Archbifhops. 

Conf VIII. The Ordination that is now performed by thefc r> r% 
Parochial Bifriops (efpecially in anaflembly, guided by their ** on ' % 
Moderator ) is, beyond all juft exception, Valid, as being by 
fuch Bifhops as the Apoftles planted in the Churches, andneer> 
cr the way of the Primitive Church, then the Ordination by the 
ejected Species of Prelates is. 

Conf I X. As the Presbyters of the Church of Alexandria c on r^ 
did themfdves make one their Bifhop, whom they chofe from ^ 

among themfelves,and fct him in a higher degree ( as if Deacons 
make an Archdeacon, or Souldiers choofe one and make him 
their Commander, faith Hierom ad Evagr. ) fo may the Pres- 
byters of a Parochial Church now. And as the later Canons re* 
quire that a Bifhop be ordained or confecrated by three Bifhops, 
fo may three of thefe ( Primitive J Parochial Bifhops, ordain 
or confecrate now another of their degree. And according to 
the Canons themfelves,no man can jultly fay that this is invalid, 
forwantoftheConfecrationby Archbifhops, or of fuch as wc 

Conf X. Thofe that perfwade the People that the Ordina- ^ 0H r Ic 
nation of thofe in England and other Churches is null that is 
not by fuch as the Englifh Prelates were, and that perfwade the 
people to take thera for no Presbyters or Paftors,thac arc not or- 

P dained 


dained by fuch Prelates, and do mike an aftaai reparation from 
our Churches and Minifters, and perfaade others to the like, up- 
on this ground, and becaufe the Ministers have difowned the 
EngUfti Prelacy, and withil confefs that Church of Remeto be 
a true Church , and their ordination and Priefthood to be juft or 
true, are uncharitable, and dangsroufly Schifmatical (though 
under pretence of decrying Schifm, ) and many wayes in ju- 
rious to the Church and to the fouls of men and to themfelves. 
This will notpleafe; but that. I not only fpiak it but further ma- 
ni'feft it,is become Neceffory to the right Information of o;hers» 


The Second 



The Proteftant Churches 

and Ministers that have not/ 
Prclatical Ordination , from the 
Reproaches of thofe Dividers that 
would nullifie them. 


Upon the fad complaints of many 

Godly Minifters in feveral parts of the 
Nation, whole Hearers are turning Sepa- 

By Rich. Baxter* 


Printed by Robert White, for Nevil Simmcm Book- 
feller in KeJermitifler. 1658. 


The Preface. 

Ghriftian Reader, 

Wfo zwmm r thou fob ut f or & inter eft of Chrifli- 
dnity, more than of a party , and a Cordi- 
al friend to the Churches Peace, though 
thou be never fo much revived for Ep/fco* 
pacy\l doubt not hut thou and I fhallbe one, 
if not in each Opinin, yet in our Rcligi- 
en, and in Brotherly affetf ion, and in the very bent of our 
labours and our lives : Kyind I doubt not but thou wilt ap - 
prove of the fcope and fub fiance of this following Difputa- 
tion, what imperfections foever mat appear in the Manner 
tf it. Forfurely there is that of God within thet, that 
mil hardly fuffer thee to believe, that while Rome is taken 
for a true Church, the Reformed that hdve no Prelates mu(t 
be none : that their Paflors are meer Lay -men, their Ordi- 
nation being Null: and corfequently their aJwiniflrati* 
ens in Sacraments,Scc» Null an do f no Validity. The Love 
that is in thee to all believers , and efpeci ally to the Soci- 
eties of the Saints, and the honour and inter t ft of Chrift 9 
-mil keep thee from tbis,orftrive againft it, as nature doth 
dgainft poyjon or deftrufiive difeajes. If thou art not a 
meer Opimomft in Religion , but one that baft been illumi- 
nated by the fpiritofChrift, and felt his hit fhed abroad 
in thy heart, and haft ever had txptrence of fpiritnal com- 
munion with Chrift and his Church, in his holy Ordinal 
CCS) 1 dare then venture my caufe upon thy judgement.: Go 

P J among 

The Preface. 

Amcr^ihctntlwt vnchurch our churches, and degrade our 
<jUinift?rs, and per [wade all peopU t& fly from them as * 
plague 5 andtiy their doctrine , their lpirits,iheirpublick 
worfiip, their private devotion , and their whole converfa- 
tion •, and when thou haft done,ccme into our Aftembliet^ind 
fpare not, ifthou be impartial, to objerve our imperfecli- 
ens: judge of our Order and 3i\cipline and W or ft)ip, together 
xvtth cm DocJrine and our lives : and when thou haft done 
un- church us ifthou darejl , and tf thoucanft. Wtjuftifie 
not our f elves or our wayesfrom hlemifhes : but if thou be 
but heartily a friend to the Bridegroom, offer us then if thou 
dare (I a bill cf divorce, or rob him if thou dare ft of fo con- 
figurable a portion of his inheritance* Surely if thou be his 
friend, thoucanft hardly find in thy heart to deliver up fo 
much of his Kingdom to his Enemy, and to fet the name of 
the Devil on his doors, and fay, This is the houfe of Sa- 
tan and not of Chrift. if thou have received but what I 
have done ( though, alas too little ) in thofe Societies, and 
tdfttd in thofe Ordinances but that which I have tafted, 
thou would ft abhor to reproach them >and cut them oft from 
the portion of the Lord* 

Ktmember it is not Epifcopacj nor the old conformity that 
1 am here eppoftng. ( My judgement of thofe Caufes I have 
given in the foregoing andfotlowing deputation : ) But it 
is only the New Prelatical Recafants or Separatifts, that 
draw their followers from our ( hurches as no Churches and 
our Ordinances efWorfhipas mne> or worfe then none^ and 
call them into private houfes, as the meet eft places for their 
acceptable worjhip. Who would have thought that ever that 
generation fhould have come to this, that fo lately hatedthe 
name of feparatipn. and called thofe private meetings ^Con- 
venticles , which wtre held hut in due fubordmation t* 
Church meetings, and not in oppofithn to them, as theirs are! 
Who would have thought that thofe that feemed to difown 


The Preface. 

Recu fancy* and perfecuted Separatiflsjhouldhave come tg 
this f Tea that thofe that under CathoUck pretences can fo 
far extend their charity to the Papifls^ have yet fo little for 
none of the meanefl of their Brethren^ and for fo many Re- 
formed Proteflant Churches ? Tea that they (hould pre fume 
even tocenfure ut out of the Cath.olick Church and con- 
sequently out of he a ven it (elf. I ha vc aft cr here given t hoc 
an inflame in one, Dr.Hide, who brandeth the very front of 
his Book with thefe Schtfmatical uncharitable ft gmaca. 
The fenflefs gueres of one Dr. Swzdling, an dot hers run in 
the fame channel \or fmk K if thefe men be Chriflians indeed^ 
me thinks they fhould under (land, that as great ( that I fay 
Wit greater } blemijhes, may be found on all the refl of the 
Churches, as thofe for which the Reformed are by them un- 
churched: and confequently they will deliver up All to Sa- 
tan 5 andChrifl mujl be depofed : And how much doth this 
come fhert of Infidelity ? At leajl me thinks their hearts 
fhould tremble leafl they hear at la/l, Q In not loving the r e 
you loved not me : in defpifing and reproaching thefe, 
you defpifed and reproached me* 3 , 

And yet thefe men are the greatefi pretenders next the 
Romanifls^ to Catbolicifme^Z'wty, and Pcacl Strange C a* 
tholicks that cut off fo great and excellent a part tf the Ca- 
tholick Church ! And a fad kind of Unity and Peace which 
allmufv be banijhed from, that cannot unite in their Pre- 
lacy* though theEpifcopuy which I plead for in the next 
Difputation they can own, Thefumm of their offer , is that 
if all the UWiniflers not Ordained by Prelates > will confefs 
themf elves to be meer Lay-men. and no Mwtjiers of( hnfl^ 
and will be Or da ntd again by them^ wd if the Churches will 
confefs themf elves No Churches. > and receive the ((fence of 
churches from them ,and [the Sacrament and Qhurh A\fem- 
blies to be Null y invalid^ or unhwfull till managed only by 
Prelatical Mini /lengthen they will have Peace and Commu- 

The Preface. 

nion with us, and not till then* And indeed mufl we luyycur 
Communion fo deer? As the Azabip tfts do by us in the pint 
of Baptifmffo do t he fe Recusants tn the point cf Ordination] 
Jon muft be Baptized faith on- party, for jour Infant Bap- 
tijm wat none. Tsu mufl be Ordained faith the other fort^ 
for your Ordination by Presbyters was none. The up/hot is y 
We mufl be all of their Opinions andparties, beforervecan 
have their Communion, or to be reputed by them the Mini- 
flcrs and Churches of Chn ft. And on fuch kind of terms 
as theft, we may have Vnitj with any Sect. 

Jfreallj we be not as hearty friends to Order and Difci* 
fhne in the Church as they. we [hall give them leave to take 
it for eur ftame, and glory in it as their honour. But the que- 
ftion is not whether we muft haze Church-Order t but whe- 
ther it muft be theirs, and none but theirs t Nor whether we 
muft hive Difcipline, but whether it muft be only theirs t 
Nay, with me, I muft prof efs, the que ftion is, on the other fide 
whether we muft needs have a Name andfhew of Difcipline 
thats next to none, or elfe be no Churches or no Minifies of 
Chnft ? 7 he main reafon that turneth my heart again ft the 
Znglijh Prelacy is becaufe it did dejlroy Church Difcipline, 
and almoft deftroy the Church for want of it, or by the abafe 
of it, and becaufe it is { as then excrcifed ) inconfiftent 
with true Difcipline. The que ftion is not, whether we muft 
have Bifhops and Epif copal Or d. nation. We all yield 
to that without contradiction . But the doubt is about their 
Species of Epifcopacy, Whether we muft needs have Ordi- 
nation bjaBiftop that is the file Cover mur over an hun- 
dred, or two hundred^r very many particular Churches', or 
whether the Bifhops of fingle Churches may not fuffce, at 
leaft as to the Being of our office I J plead not my cwncaufe, 
but the Churches , Tor I was ordained long ago b) a B jlop 
pf their own with Presbyters. But I do not therefore take 
my felf to be difengaged from Chriftianity or Cathol cifm, 


"The Preface. 

and bound to lay by the Love which 1 owe to all Chrijls mem- 
bers^ or tbdny the Communion of the Churches, which is 
both my Duty* and / am [ure an unvaluable Mercy . And I 
mufl fay, that I have (een more of the Ancient Difcifltne ex- 
ercifed of late , without a Prelate, in f owe Parijh Church 
in England, than ever I [aw or heard of exercifed by the 
Bijlops in athoufandfuch Churches ad my day es. And it 
is net N-imcs that are Efjential to the Churchy nor that will 
fatisfe our expectations. 

Wc are for Bifhops in every churchy And for Order fake , 
we would have one to be the chief. We d.fltke thofe that dif- 
obey them in lawful things, as well as you. But let them 
have a flock that is capable of their perfonal Government , 
andthenwejhall be ready to rebuke all thofe that feparatc 
fromtbem, when we can fay as Cyprian ( Epift. 69. ad 
Pupian.) £ Oiiuils Ecclelia? populus colle&us eft, & 
adunatus, in individua concordia fibi juntas. Soli ili 
foris remanferinc,quietfiintuseffent,ejiciendi fuerarit 
— Qai cum Epifcopo non eft, in Eccletia non eft ( that 
is, in that particular church.) Cyprian bad a people that 
could all meet together to confult or confent at leafl about the 
Communion or Excommunication of th: members . Epift. 
5 5 , Cornel* he tells Cornelius how hard the people were to 
admit the lap fed or [candalous upon their return if the mani- 
feflation of repentance were not full. The Church with 
whom the per (on had Communion ^was then it that h*d a Bi- 
flop, and was no greater then to be capable of the Cogni* 
zmce of his caufe, and of receiving fatis faction by his per- 
fonal penitence. 

Brethren I {for fo 1 will pre fume to call you ^whether you 
will or not) Some experience hath p erf waded me^ that if 
we had hone/lly and faithfully joyned in the practice of fo 
much of Difciplwe, as all our principtes require, it would 
have helped us to that experimental knowledge ( by the blef 

Q fmg 

The Preface. 

ting of God) which would have hr ought us nearer even in 
our Principles i then cur idle D if put at ions, 'feparatcd from 
practice will ever do. As PiUguftme faith of the dtfputes 
cle caufa mali v^Lib. de utilitat. Credendi, cap. 18.) 
Dam nimis qiurunt unde fit malum, nihil leperiunc 
nil malum] fo I miy fay of thefe difputes, while we 
thus difpute about the caujes of dif order and divifon , we 
find nothing hut dtforder and divtfion. 

It ts eafie to conjecture of the ends and hearts of tho[e 
that cry down Piety asprecifenefs, while they cry up their 
feveral wa<es of order : it fetms they would have ordered 
impiety : and their order mufl be a means to keep down holi- 
ne\$\ which all jujl order fhould promote. Thofe men that 
can fall in with the mojl notoiicufly ungodly, and favour 
and flatter them for the ftrengthening of their inter eft, do 
tell us what Difapltne we may expect from them. If they 
tell us that cur Churches alfo are corrupted, and all are not 
truly or eminently godly , we can jay to them as Auguftine 
Oib.de utilitat. Credend. cap. 17. ) [ Pauci hoc faci- 
unt, pauciores bene prudenterq-, faciunt : fed ropuli 
probant, populiaudiunt 3 populi favent "] yeawe can lay 
much more. 

But for thofe that go further, and clap the prophanefl 
railersonthe back) and hifs them on to b/fs at thofe that 
differ from them, and are glad to hear the rabble revile 
our Minify and our Churches , in taking part with 
their Prelacy and Liturgy, they tell us lowder what unity 
and.ordcr they de fire, and what a mercy of God it is, thai 
fuch as they have not their will : and though among them- 
fehes the flanders and reproaches of fuch men may go for 
credible or be accepted as conducing to their ends ^ yet in 
the conclufion fuch witnefjes will bring no credit to their 
caujC) nor with jujl men much dif credit ours • at leaf it 
will not diminijh our refutation with God, nor Abate his 


The Preface. 

love, nor hinder his acceptance, and then we have enough. 
Saith (Cyprian Epift.69. ad Pupian) Quafi apud lapfos 
&prophanos, & extra Ecclefiam poiicos, de quorum 
peCtoribus excellent Spiritus San&us, efTealiq M pof- 
iit nifi mens prava, & tallax lingua, & odia venenata, 
& facrilega mendacia, quibus qui credit, cum illisne- 
cede eft inveniatiir, cum judtcii dies venerit..] That is 
£ As if with the \candalons ani prophane, and thofe that 
are without the Church, from whofebrefls the holy Spirit is 
departed, there could be any thing but a naughty mind, and 
a deceitful tongue, andvenemous hatred, and facrdegious 
lies \ and thofe that believe them mujl needs be found with 
them when the day of judgement comes. ] 

CMC thinks rather the hatred, and railing of the nn» 
g$dly jhould intimate to you that our tj'^iniflry is of God I 
why elfe do alt the mojf objlinately wicked maligne us as 
their enemies, though we never did them wrong I why feek 
they our dejiruclion, and are glad of any Learned men that 
will encourage them in their malignity, ana to fir ike in with 
any party that are again ft us ; when all the harm we wijb 
or do them, is to pray for them, andperfwade them, and do 
our heft to fave them from damnation \ As Cyprian ( ubi 
fup. ) f aid to Pupian Q utetiacn qui non credebant Deo 
Epifcopum conftituenti, vel Diabolo crederenc Epifco- 
pumprofcribenti ] f$ fay I £ 7 hey that wtlinot believe 
Cods teflimony of our Minijlry, let them believe the De- 
vils teflimom, as the confefsion of an enemy, th>it by the 
mouths of the wicked revtleth us as Minifters, and perfecu- 
tti us for doing fur Maflers work. 

Another reproach is commonly hid upon our Miniftry 
by thofe that vilifie them in order to their ends, viz thafa 
they are boyes, and raw and unlearned and manage the work 
of God fo courfely as tends to bring it into contempt. I 
would Mrt were no ground for this accufation at all : but 

0,2 I 

The Preface. 

1 mufl needs fay , i. That no men are more unmeet then you 
to be the accufers. Have you fo corrupted the Miniflrj with 
the insufficient and ungodly, that we are necefsitated to 
jui fly their places with men that are tooy ung •, and nsw do 
jou reproach us, becaufe we imper felly mend your crimes f 
yea becauje we work not in/pofsibdities f It is the dcfire of 
our fouls , that no able ufeful man m*y be laid by, however 
differing tn f mailer matters > or controverts of policy ? 
But we cannot create men, nor infufe learning into them ^ 
but when God hath qualified them, we gladly ufe them *, the 
befl that can be had are chofen % and what can be done more< 
\Jdnd I hope yn will acknowledge^ that godly and tolerably 
able yeung men are fitter then impious , ignorant Readers, 

We excufe no mans weaknefs : hut to /peak out the truth, 
too many of the adverfaries of our Mimflry accufe our 
weaknefs with greater weaknefs $ when they are unable or 
undifpofed themfelves to manage the work of God with any 
of that gravity^ and ferioufnefs as the unfpeakable weight 
of the bufinefs doth require } the) think to get the refutation 
of learned able men, bj an empty . cbildifh, trifling kind of 
preaching ^ patching together fome fhreds of fentences y 
and offering us their Centons with as much oflentation, as 
if it were an uniform^ judicious work. ^4nd then they 
fall a yering at plain and ferious Preachers, as if they were 
fome ignorant bawling fellows, that were nothing but a 
voice, and had nothing to preducehut fervent nonfence. 
Brethren^ will you bear with us a little , while we modefily 
txcufe our fimplicity which you contemn* fVewi/l not fay, 
that we fan [peak wifedom to the wife, nor make oftentati- 
on of our Oratory : but we mufl tell you that we Believe what 
we fpeak, and fomewhat feel it-, and therefore we endea- 
vour fo to fpeak wkit we believe and feel, that others alfo 
may beh eve and feel us. if a man fpeak jmUingly, or not 
affectionately of very great affecTtng things, the hearers 


The Preface. 

ufeto fay, You are but in jeafl: • and they believe him 
not, becauff he (peaks as one that doth not believe himfelf. 
It is not nit but Levity and ftupidity that wc renounce. 
As Seneca faith, werefufenot an elcquent P yfitian: but 
it is not eloquence, but Healing that we need : the eafing of 
our pains \ and faving of our lives, and not the clawing of 
cur ears. We dare not f peak lightly or trifling of Hea- 
ven or Hell. We more condemn our [elves when we find 
within us but a dull apprehenfton of th:fe exceeding gre.J 
eternal things , then we do for wa>t of neat exprejs ens. 
A vain curiofity in attire, doth [hew that fubft ant ial word) 
is wanting. We mo ft abhor the preaching of faife defrine : 
And next, that manner of pn aching Truth that canfeh 
an airy levity in the hearers •, and when the manner feem- 
eth to contradict the matter. One tafle or fig-n if '.eaven 
or Hell would put you into another pafs your ft Ives. Truly 
Brethren ( though I am one my felf, that have the leaf! ad- 
vantages to vie with you in that wherein you glory, yet ) 
there are many among them whom you thus dtfpife, that 
have wits inclined to as much unrultnefs and luxuriancy as 
yours : but being ba/lanced with the fenfe ef ever la fling 
things, and feajoned with the Light and Life of Chrifl, 
they are as careful to keep under and rule their w t,as o'hers 
are diligent to feed its wantoynefs, and make iftentation of 
it to the world. It will fiortly appear but ingenious folly 
which was not animated and regulated by Chn\L 7 he wife- 
dom of the world is foslifhnefs wi.h God : and the foolt/hnef 
of God is wifcrthen men, i Cor.i .25. &c. We find the 
mofl experienced Learned Divines betake themfelves to 
theplaineft flile • and much more nhdicled to the anci.nt 
fimplicity, then green, inflated, empty brains. When we 
difpleafe both our [elves, and our que a fie, coye and aery au- 
ditors by the homtlynefs of our ftyle, we ufually hear more of 
the fttccefs of thofe fcrmons, then of thofe wherein by a 

Q 3 wordy 

The Preface. 

wordy Curio fit j^rve procure from the aery mere appiaufe. 
Sdith Auguftine (de Catechiz. iud:b cap.' 2.) ["Nam 
& mihi femper prope fermo cne-..s difplicec — fie & 
tu eo ipfo quod ad ce tiepius adducu ,tur baptizandi 

. debes inrelligere n ^n ita difplicerc aliis fermonem 

tuum ut dilplicet cibi ; nee infruduofum te debes putate^ 
quod ea quae cernis non explicasita uc cupis • quando 
foils uc cupis nee cernere valeas ] our bufwefsis to 
teach the ignorant , te convert the impen tent , and te 
edifie and confirm the weak $ and therefore if repe- 
titions , and homely expressions , with all the feriouf- 
nefs we can uje, be found the fitteft means to attain theft 
ends m [hall ftttdy them and not decline them , though 
fome difliktthm. Auguftine dedo&rin. Chrift. lib. 4. 
cap. 12. Qui ergo dicit cum doc-:revult 5 quamdiu 
non intelligitur, nondum feexiftimet dixiflequod vulc 
ei quern vult docere:quiaetfi dixit quod ipfe intellidt, 
nondum ilk ( illi y dixiffe putandus eft, a quo inttl- 
ledus non eft : fi vero intelle&us eft, quocunque modo 
dixerit, dixit. ] 

1 confefs when! heard a through pa fed preacher in the 
Prelate* re/gn, experience taught me prefently to ex peel 
three great infirmities in him, viz. /tumbling, fpot ling, 
and tiring : (tumbling either in doctrine, conversion, or 
both j efpccially in a (tony way : fpotling even the cleareft 
of his Brethren, and that both in the Pulpit, and behind 
their backs* For moft of the wounds we have from ft ch 
art tn our back parts, though we never fled. They can moft 
effectually confute us when ire do not hear them. 1^4$ one 
of them that 1 knew, divided his Text into one part,W 
Jo do many of them their Deputations : they are be [I at 
Difputing alone, when there is none to contradict them. 
They arc better gun-men then fword-me 1 . Eminus for- 
tifsimi s cominus— more valiant a far off than n e at 

hand : 

^W : ^^/ making more ufe of powder then of bullet » /fo 
noi\e exceeding the execution : and being nearefl them- 
felves^it is a wonder that their Confciences (fart not at the 
report. It is the reward of thefe pugnacious fou's , to 
becryedupas victorious , <*W fo ^4i/£ their triumph at- 
tended by their like : and it. is enough to prove them victors 
that thy can but crow and erect the crifl. And if they 
are foon thtd we mufl not wonder \ for they preach at too 
high rates to hold out long, junkets are not for full meals • 
andfeaflwgmufl n$t be all the year. When they pre acht 
but feldom, they jufli ft edit by telling us, that one of their 
fermons was worth ten of theirs that preach d fo often : and 
half a crown was as good asfiv: fix pences. 

For my part y 1 do not undi rvalue their w.t, nor envy 
them the honour of it : but I would fain have things Divine 
to be Divinely handled - and tbewcightiejl.matters to be 
fpokeneff in the mo(l (erious weighty manner. \_Andl 
■would not have a (chool boy when he hath fau\ a Dec I am a- 
tion^ to think ih.it he is more learned then Scoi us or Oc- 
kam, becaufe he hath ajmoother flyle ; nor to think that 
he hath done a gall ant er fie ce of work , then he that hath 
read a Lecfure in ^Alctapbyficks. I am much inc'ined t§ 
honour their parts •, / value the wit of a Comedian, when 
J value not the employment of it. 1 have often heard a 
Rufticaltfuftice call a fidler & Rogue, that cal'ed him(elf 
rfMufician •, and perhaps he puts him in the flocks, that 
thinks he defer ves a Princes ear : when 1 havt thought ef 
their Jrt 3 a >d forgotten the abufe, J have been apt to pitty 
their cafe. J could be well content that fo g cat an /raft 
as Nero/>£n//j not : lei him live as an Artijl, but not as an 
Emperour. 1 -honour and love the kerning and induflry of 
the J-efuits : let i hem be encouraged as Learned, but not 
as JefuitS. Let them all be ufedin that which they are goed 
for. But aComcalwit isnotenjugbto make a M/ffifter (f 


The preface. 

the Gofpel of Jalvaticn. Counters can jingle as well as 
gold. if juch mujl be Bifhofs , let them bt D'toce- 
jMHSi ( Jo the j be kept without a fwo.rd ) for when they 
have an hundred chufcfrcs, ibty will trouble th:m but fei- 
dom^ with their preachug : and \h at maybe endurc&fjr a 
day that cannot for a year. 

if you think J have turned my excufe of a plain and feri- 
cus Mini fry into a recrimination, or feemed guilty of what 
I blame , confider of what and to whom I freak . 

/ am far from a contempt of learning, or encourage- 
ing ignorant in fufficient mentor jujlifying any ridiculous 
unfetmly deportment, or any rajh, irrational cxprefsions^ in 
the work of God. And 1 earneflly intreat the fervants of 
the Lord to take heed of fucb temerity and mi [cam ages, and 
remember what a work they have in hand and how much de- 
pendeth on the fuccefs, and that the eyes of God and men an 
en them, and that it is no light matter to an honeft heart , 
that Chrifl and his caufe fhould be difhonoured by our weak- 
neffes, and our labours fhould hereby be fru/lrated, and (in* 
ntrs hardned iu their impiety. But yet I mufi fay, that ma- 
ny that are but low in Learnings have greater abilities ( by 
grace andufe ) to manage the great cfjentials of Cbrijliani- 
ly , andfet home a neccfjary truth upon the heart, and deal 
with ignorant dead-hearted fnners , then many very Learn* 
ed men did ever attain to, And I confefs 1 could wi/h for 
the ferv.ee of the Church, that fome fuch ( now private ) 
lefs learned men^ in great Congregations were yoiked with 
fome Learned men ihat are lefs fit for lively rouzing appli- 
cation -, that they might Lovingly go together \the one confef- 
fing his drfecl in Learning and the other his defccJin appli- 
cation^ and the unlearned depending for guidance from the 
more Learned^ in cafes of difficulty , where his abilities fall 
fhort \ th.it fo thjy might be both as one able Mimfler^ com- 
municating the honour of their fever al abilities to each 


The Preface. 

other tofupply and cover each others- defefts* But if fuch a 
thing f1)ould he attempted ( though agreeably to the churches 
prafltce for many hundred yean after Chrifl) what an out- 
cry fhould we have from the men now in hand y againfl Me- 
chanicks and unlearned men\ wd how many would reproach 
their, work that cannot mend it ! 1 have been long, on this 
fubj eel : 1 will end it with this flory, 

Gregory Nyferwr/A m in his relation of the Life of 
Gregory Tb.immatmgwjbat this holy man then Btfhop of 
N.eoCxfarea, was fo famous by his miracles and fuccefjes 
that the Neighbour Count rcys fent to h m, to preach and 
plant Churches among them* Among others Comana a. 
neighbour City fent to him , to come and plant a church and 
Bifhops amongthem.Whcn he had flayed a while ^and preach* 
ed and prepared them y and the time was ceme that he was to 
defign them a chief Paflor ( or Bifhop ) the CMagiftrates 
and principal men of the City were very bufie in enquiring 
anxioufty and curioufly , who was of mo ft eminent rank 
and fplendour^ excelliug the reft, that he might be chofen H 
the office and dignity of being their Biftiop. For Gregory 
himself hah all thefe Ornaments, and therefore they thought 
their P aft or mufl have them too. But whsn it came to choice 
they were all to pieces -> fome for one andfome fcr another : 
fo that Gregory looked to he oven for Directions, what to 
do* When the) were thus .taken up with propofing men of ', 
fplendor and eminency, Gregory Xmnewhrtng Samuels 
anointing David, ) exhorted them to look alfo among the 
meaneflifor pofsiblytbere might be found amon% them fome 
of better qualifications, of mind : Whereupon fome of therif 
fignifiedythat they took it as a contumelie andforn^ that off 
the chief men for eloquence, dignity and fp lender, fhould be 
refufed, and that Mechanicks and trade fmen that labour 
for tehir living fhould be thought fitter for fo great an office. 
And faith one of them to him in derifio^ if, you will pafs 

The Preface. 

hi all the fe that arc chofen out of the be ft of the Citizens, 
and go to the (cum and bafeft oj the people for a Pafiorfor 
us : its beft for you even to make Alexander the Collier a 
Priejl and lets all agree to choofe him. 7 he good man hear- 
ing thefe Jcornful words, it flruck into his mind to know who 
that Alexander the Collier was ? Whereupon thej brought 
him prefently with laughter, and fet him in the midft of them 
collowed and ha If "-naked \ and ragged and fordid^ and thus 
jfow/Alexander among them. But Gregory fufpecledfome - 
what bet ttr by him, then they that I aught at him; and there- 
upon taking him out of the company, and exam ning his life, 
he found that he was aPhilofopbick manjhat being of a very 
comely per fon, and loth it fhould be any occafion of tnconii- 
nency,and4fo renouncing the vanities of the worlds had ad- 
dicled himfelf to the life of a Collier > that his perfon 
and worth might be hid from men , and his mind be 
kept in an humble frame. Whereupon Gregory appointeth 
fome to take away Alexander ^nd wafh him and death him 
with his Pa floral attire , and bring him into the Afjembly as 
foon as they had done. In the mean time Gregory goes to 
the Afjembly^ andfals a preaching to them of the nature of 
the Paftoral office, and the holinefs of life required thereto, 
entertaining them with fuch fpeecbes, till Alexander was 
brought ^and comely adornedin Gxzzpxlzs garments was fet 
before them. Whereupon they all fell a ga^ng and wonde- 
ring at Alexander.* and Gregory falls a preaching to them 
again of the deceit fulnefs of judging by outward appear- 
ances, about the inward worth of the foul, and that Satan 
had obfeured Alexander, left he fbtuld (ubvert his kingdom. 
To be fbort, he ordaineth Alexander their Bifiep (a Paftor 
of a fingle Church.) And when they dtfired to hear him 
preachy he (hewed that Gregory was not deceived in him: 
His fermon was fententious and full of under (landing : but 
becaufe he had no flowers of Or at cry ^ or exacJnefs and cu- 


The Preface. 

roftty of words, one that was a curious hearer £c;i£ed hlm> 
who it is [aid was byavifton brought to re -pent of it. And 
thus defpifed Alexander the Collier was made Btfiep 
( or Paftor ) of Commijvhen the great ones were rejected: 
and afterward Proved achampionfor cbriftjo whom hepaf* 
fed in Mart jrdome through the flames, I have recited this 
for their fakes th.it deride the gifts of God in men whom thy 
account unlearned : hut not to encourage any tothrufl them- 
(elves on fo great a work without Ordinate and due quail* 

1 object. But it : s Ordination it /elf that is wanting to 
the Sartors of the 'Reformed Churches/ -and therefore 
they are no Paftors, cjre. Anfvv. The contrary is mam- 
fefied in this enfuing h ifputation. This feparaung Princi- 
ple is it that I here purpofely contend again ft. For \it is caflin 
1q divide and to deflroj : And to quench fuch graiudo'j and 
fire-works of the Deiil^ls anceffarj work for them that will 
preferve a < hurches Peace. I read in Thuanus of a Bifiop 
in France that turning Prote/hxt^ook his Popi/hcon/ecrati* 
on for inefficient , and was again elect and or da tnea by the 
Froteftant Minflcrs^ without a Prelate i to be a Prelate .But 
that Presbyters Ord lined by a Presbytery of Proteflants 
(liould be reordained by a PreUte y and that as nece(]aryto 
the being of their office^ is flrangedeclrine to all the Pro- 
t eft ant churches. It was n]e Bed commonly hy the Englifl) 
Bifhups^ even by A. B. Bancro r t h mftlf. Saith Firmili- 
an ( inter Epift. Cvpriani) £ Oranis poteftas & gratia 
in Ecclefia conftitttca eft, ubi pr#(ident Majo es natu, 
qui & baptirandi v & Manus imponendi & ordinandi 
poffident poteftatem 3 /. e. All Power wind Grace is 
placed in the Church where Elders do prefide^who pof- 
fefs the power of Baptizing, lmpofing hanus, and Or- 
daining. ]j 

/ know it will be {aid that ^xmilmfpeak of Bifhopsm- 

Ra ly, 

The Preface. 

i). But 1 believe not that he fpekt §ffuch Bifiops only as tee 
haveinqueftton^ or that he did not plainly [peak of Presby- 
ten as juch. For he [peaks of the plenitude of Tower and 
Grace in the C hurch: and therefore intended more then what 
-was proper to a Prelate. 2 . He mtntioneth Elder ^Majores 
nauv'fl general without diftinftion.And 3. His praefident 
is plainly related to theChurch{as the \ibijhews:)it being the 
Feople and not the Elders over whom the fe Elders are [aid 
to pre fide. And 4. Baptizing is firfl hftanced \which was 
known to be commonly the work of Presbyters ,and never ap - 
propriatedto the Prelate. So that the fame per f on s that did 
Baptizc^even the Elders of the Church .according toYixmi- 
lian, did then peffefs the power of laying on hands and of or- 
daining* But theft things art more fully dij 'cuffed in what fol- 
lowed. And if anyeithtradverfary or friend would fte tht 
Reformed Churches Miniflrjand Ordination mote fully vin- 
dicated, irefer them to Voetius againfl Jafenius Defpe- 
rata caufa Papatus: which if I had read before I had writ - 
ten this Difputation,I think I fheuldbavefpired my labour. 
Reader >if ethers art toe bufit to mi [ltd thet 3 / may fnp- 
pofe thee unwilling to be mifled, efpecially in a matter of [0 
great concernment: For faith Ble(Jed Aguftine,Multos in- 
venimus qui mentiri velint, qui autcm falli i:eminem.de 
Doftrin.Chrift.l.i.cap.36.) And therefore as thon loveft 
Chrifl .bis Churchy and Go [pel, and tht [ouU of others and 
thine own, takt heed how thou venturejl in following a 
Jt& of angry men^ to unchurch f ogre at and excellent apart 
of the Catholich Churchy and to vilifit and dep of e fo great a 
number of able faithfull Minifters of c brift, as thoft that 
had not Prelatical Ordination, 

And if you are Gentlemen, or unlearned men, that for 
want of long and diligent fludying of the fe matters 5 art un- 
capable of judging of thtm^andthirtfort takt all on tht Ah- 
thority of thoft whoft Ltarning and parts you moft tftttm, I 


T he Preface. 

befeecbyon before you venture jour fonts on it any further ', 
procure a Jatis factory anfwer totbefe Que ft ions. 

l .Whether the Reformed Churches that haveno Prelates, 
have not abounded with as learned men at any one ef thofe 
thaty on admire of a contrary judgement ? 

2. Jf you are tempted to fufpeff men of 'partiality, whether 
they that pie ad for Lor [hip, honour and preferment , or they 
that plead again ft it, and put it f rein thtm,are trior e to be 
fufpefied, ceteris paribus ' *r .. • 

3. If you mil needs fufpeft the ProtcftahtWim&ets of 
partiality: what ground of fufpicion haveyouofthtm that 
were no Miniftcrs «f fuch astheHwo Scaligstsfwbofe lear- 
ning made thyn the adMiratiWcfihcVhrifti^^^ 
to Fapifls as well as Pro) eft ants : ' afta ! yet were cordial 
friends to thofe Reformed thurches which thefe men deny 
and draw men to di[own :; [ SUch alfoas Salmafius, that hath 
purpofely wrote about thcjubjttt : with abundance more. 

4 lfthefe are not to be iru fled, why fhould notBifhops 
themf elves be trufted ? were not Bijhop Ufher, Andrews, 
Davenant, Hall, and others of their mind >as learned pious 
men as any whofe Authority you can urge again ft them f 

5.7/ all I this benothingyl befeech you get a modeft refoluti- 
cn of this doubt at leaftiwbetbtr the concurrent judgement of 
all the Prote ftant Churches in Cbriftendom.even of the En- 
gtifhBifhops with the reft \fhould not be of more authority with 
any fober Prote ftant, then the Contrary judgement of thofe 
few that are of late rifen up for the caufe that pu are by them 
folicitedtoown.lt is a known Truth that the generality of 
the Bifhops themfelves and all the Prote ftant Churches in the 
world, have owned them as true Minifters that were ordain* 
edby Presbyteries, without Prelatesiand have owned them as 
true Churches that were guided bj thefe Minifters, and have 
taken them for valid adminiftrations that were performed 
by them. And arc your few Recufants thai would draw you 


The Preface. 

tofepdration of greater Learnings authorty and regardjhen 
all the Froteftants inthe world befides f I befeecbyoujfyeu 
mil needs take things upon truft, conftder thi , andtmft ac> 
eordingly .Thoughl mu-fl fay it ispitty that any truely Caibo- 
Uck Chrifhan flwuld act hj-ve better grounds than tbc(e y < 
•U himfdf info palpable a cafe to perceive his duty. 
For my own p:<~rtjny conjeience witnefjetb that I have not 
written the following Deputation out of a defire to quarrel 
with an] man y hut am drawn to if$ to my great difpltafure, 
by the prefnt dinger and nzeefsiiy of the l hurches, and by 
Wfapajihfrto thtfouisthat art turned from the publick Or- 
dittancis^and engaged in the feparation, and tljo of the , 
€fmrcbe< thai aud vtded and 'troubled by. theft means. The 
fad com, laints of many of my Brethren from fever alp arts 
h*ve moved riy heart to- this undertaking. Through Gods 
<jvtercj r 1 have psaceat home : but lmay not therefore be in- 
fenfibU of tht divifions and calamities abroad.. I flail adjoin 
hen one of the Letters that invited me^ and no more .-, be- 
caufe in that one you ma) fee tbefcope andtenourof thtrefi^ 
mdtbat btufk not on this dii pie aft ng work, -withent a Call, 
norltfote.fhereu acaufe. ,, 1 he \f ujjages that intimate an 
tv'it '-valuing of my (elf \ yew may charitably impute to the 
Authors juniority and humility^ withfome mi flake through 
dt fiance and dtfacquaintance* 

One of the Letters that invited me to this task. 


Reverend Sir, 

^kij^M^ Nder (landing by the Preface to the Reader before your Gildas 
Salvianus, that y ox intend a fecond part ,wherein you promt fe 
to J pcal^ of the way how to difcern the true Church and Mini- 
flry, I ma{e bold toprefent you with the defire offome Godly 
Mi /lifters: viz. that if you fee it convenient, you would do 
QfSSS^iS^ f omt ^ iil l towards the vindication of the trefent Churches 
and Mimjtcrs from the afperfionsoftbe new Pyelatical party m 
England. It is d: principle much made of by many of the Gentry and others, that 
we are but Schifmati col branches broken off from the true body i and this by faith- 
full-tradition is jfread amongjt them: the learning offome rigid Prelatical Schol* 
Lvrs U very prevalent with them to ma\e them thus account of us. With thefe 
men we muji be all unchurched for cafling off DiocefanEpifcopacy : though we 
be found in the faith, and would fpend our feives to fave fouls, and tlte main, 
fubjtance cf our Ordination ( at leajt ) cannot he found fault with ; yet becaufe 
we had not a Bifhop to lay his hands on us, we are not feni from God. Of what 
confequence this opinion may pro ve, if it fpread without being chec{ed 9 an ordi- 
nary apprehcnfion may perceive. 1 can guefs fom. thing from what 1 obferve from 
thofe of this leaven already, that our mofiferious pains will be little regarded, if 
our people tal>e this infection ', when we would awal>enthem, we cannot, becaufe, 
they ta\e it that we have no power to teach them. It muji not be men of mean 
parts that muji undertake more fully to wipe off this reproach :for the learned ad- 
verfaries are tall Cedars in knowledge in comparison of many of us : and if men 
of parts do not grapple with them herevn, they will cafily carry the vote in many 
mens judgements ; for they judge that the greater Schollarsbyfar certainly have 
the better in the conteft. Sir,WeSefeech you^that you would improve your acquain- 
tance in Antiquity for our help in this cafe. Not that we would engage you in 
wrangling with particular men by name, who will not want words : but how- 
ever )o:i would evidence it that our Ordination by Presbyters is not void, and of 
no effect I have this reafon ready to givefoi' this requeff.for (befides what I had 
fo) merly heard) I was lately with fome of thofe not of the me am (I influence, who 
w/gid Ep'ijcopacy as of abfolute neceflity,? (firming that thk order the Church of 
God ever ohjerved : and that it was doubtlcfs of Apoftolical infutmion, being a 
thing of Catbolick tradition, and that's the beft (tandardtolntepret Scripture by. 
What then arc we arrived at, that have forfafyen the whole Church herein? Though 
1 am ii tie verfed in the Ancients, yet 1 tell them we acknowledge that foon after 
the Apojiles times the name Bifhop came up as diflinlt from the Presbyters ', but 
then I call for their proof that the Primitive Bijhops had the power of 'jurisdiction 
over Presbyters, or that to him only ordination was appropriated. I tell them alfa 
that we have certain evidence that in fome Churches thefe Bijhops were made by 


tisiftcrs? And alfoof Tertullians Pra bi-. 

tiqu i.x 

n s wis much m jj ),-a not 

:*1 'am a : 

-udg: of its weight. Form) :. . ,n moft ft. 
wbm Dr.H. ft fire* 

indeed the t eft':- 

■: tTMilpm trlbit of 

Gkmais; l - C%: 3:. l;;oaitl 7?,utf* 

I btniitd% . » ; i* gftrs poiaf. 

H.i :'. • - yefjfftitjjB fi*% 

d after in. bis Yref&ce^ 
i M • *** p owe igle Potior "mere fully imprc i 

itiM :ari*£ of theft cc tJ4 metb'i,i\s be 

.ofalswbr her hub made in - 

Lit the ft a i-iwhonp.x 

Bk4 J a i Ntf :•::;" .:. Rg ::. 

/>*•; :\tf loofe i may 

wuty grow up t: . I w not hew . : \ f e jr 

; y dijwn : jftbe temptati- 

on were b-tt fgmrmbt have 

run id afmnoU be:. nbweik-. - toms 

agjtin: nowtftbefe 

all tbm wbUe?agd ft ini: not regard ■ boofld 

:handpra, ::dno 

en:-. - d on mfn G*d \ Wi ■ ■ wot yon 

inCcnccrd : I ■ .-: tbu 

Sac w fet cowvtmeM : Tbattbe uybefur- 

nifbed with arpmats mo id as yours are. 

IJMtvtdo i - m iatamtptiagj&M in you* 

r.ctr Imfmefsi ~ id :f IfbtU fat I %** j t fome 

ufes* IprdjjtBext it me bear from jo* : 

for I Am ;.::s. to fettle where the charge is mot. Toe Lord anc'inueyo* amojtgfi 

*<> thai yon m~:y is ;■ ■ tflkm* of god I 

fan. 8. Your Affectionate friend and weak - 

Itfj7. Brother M.E. 



AiTert. Thofe who nullifie our 

prefent Minijlry and Qmrches^hich 
baye not the Trelatical Ordination , 
and teach the people to do the lif^e, do 
incur the guilt of grievous fin. 


Seft. i , f ftB^gflg^ftg O R the making good this Affcrtion, 

1. 1 (hall prove that they groundlcfly 
deny our Miniftry and Churches ; 
and 2.1 (hail (hew the greatnefs of 
their fin. 

In preparation to the firft I muft 
i. Take fome notice of the true Na- 
ture of the Mtnifterial funftion: and 2 . Of the Nature and Rea- 
fons of Ordination. 

Sed. 2. We are agreed ( ore tenus at leaft) that the Tower 
and Honour of the Miniftry is for the Wrk*> and the^r^for 

S the 

the Enls, wbicb arc the revelation of the Gofpel , the appli- 
cation or conveyance of the benefits to men, the right worship- 
ing of God, and right Governing of hisChurch,to the faving 
of our feivesandourprople, and the Glorifyirg and Pleafing 

Seel 3 • So that [ A Minifter of the Gofpel is anOff.cerofJefus 
Cbrifii ft apart ( or feparated ) to preach the Gofpel and there- 
by to convert memo £hrift'uixity,ar.d by Baptifm to receive Difi' 
pies into his Church .to congregate Dif ip les , and to be the Teach' 
ers } Overfeerij anaGovcwours of the particular Chwches, and 
to go before them in publicly nerfiip aniadminifter to them thefpc 
cial Ordinances of Chrift } accordingto the word of God j that in 
the Communion of Saints, the members may be edified , preferved y 
Andbe fruitful and obedient to Chrift ;*a*J the Societitj well orde- 
red, beautified and ftrengthened^ and both '^Unifiers and Peop'e 
faved; and the Santlifier, Redeemer and the Father Glorified and 
Pleafedin his People no* and for ever ] 

Sec%. 4. In this Definition of a Minifter, 1. It is fuppofed 
that he be compete it 1? qualified forthefe works: For if the 
Matter be not fo far Difpofed as to be capable of the Form, ic 
will not be informed thereby. There are fone Qualincations 
neceffary to the being of the Miniftry^ome but to the well being. 
Its the firft that I now fpeak of. 

Sed.5. Before I name them, left you mifapply whatisfaid, 
[ (hall firft defire you to obferve this very neceflary diftin&ion : 
Its one thing to ask, v/ho is to take him felf for a called and true 
Alinifter j and to do the rvorl^, as expecling Acceptance and Re- 
ward from God 1 and its another thing to ask, jrhom are the peo- 
ple ( or Churches ) to t ah for a true 'JMimfter, andtofubm'u to 
as expecling the Acceptance and hUffing of God in that fubmiffion 
from bit admin ftratiws. Or its one thing to have a Call which 
will before Gsdjuftifie his M'.niftration aad another thing to have 
a Call which will before Goijiftifa the Peoples fubmijfon , and 
will juftifie infi^o Eccleftx , both him and them. And fo its one 
thing to be a Minifter whom God and Confcience will juftifie 
and own, as to Hlmfelf: and another thing to be a Mtnifter to the 
£hurch 9 whom :hey rnuft own, and God will own and bk.s only 
as to their good. 

In the firft fence, none bu: true] y finftified men can be Mi- 
ni iters 


nifters ; but in the latter an unfan&irled man r may be a Mini- 

Oer. As there is a dtfference among Members between the Vifi- 

ble and Mjftical^ ( of which I have fpoken elfewhere. * ) So is * Depute of 

there between Paftors. Some have a Title that in foro Ecclejt* Right to 

or Ecctcjiajttdice will hold good , that have none that is gcod Sfl cr*nitntfc 

in foro Dei : In one word . the Church is bound to take many a 

man as 4 trpte Minifler to them> and receive the Ordinances from 

him in faith, and expectation of a Blefling upon promife; who 

yet before God is a finful invader,an ufurper of the Mimftry,and 

(hall be condemned for ic. 

As in worldly Poffeflions, many a man hath a good Title be- 
fore men, and at the bar of man, fo that no man may difturb his 
Poffeflion, nor take ic from him, without the guilt oftbefc, 
when yet he may have no good Right at the bar of God to jufti- 
fie him in his retention.Soit is here. 

Sc&. 6. It is too common a cafe in Civil Governments ( the 
ignorance of which occafioncth many to bedifobedient.J A man 
that invadeth the Soveraignty without a Title, may be no King 
as to himfelf, before God, aod yet may be truly a Xing as to the 
People. That is, He Rands guilty before God of Usurpation, 
and ( till he Repent, and get a better Title ) (hall be anfwerable 
for all his adminiftrations as unwarrantable : And yet, when he 
hath fettled himfelf in PoffelTionof the Place, andexercifeofthe 
Soveraignty, he may be under an obligation to do jufticeto the 
people,and defend them,and the people may be under an obligati- 
on to obey him and honour hiraand to receive the fruits of his 
Government as a blefling. Mens Title in Confcience and before 
God (for Magiftracy andMiniftryJ themfelves are moft to look . 
after,and to juftifle-and itsofrencrakt and naught,when their Ti- 
tle in foro humano may be good^or when the people are bound to 
obey them. And thofe mifcarriages or ufurpations of Magiftrates 
or Mtnifters which forfeit Gods Acceptance andBlefling to them- 
felves, do not forfeit the blefling of Chrifts Ordinances and 
their adminiftrations to the Church : For it is the guilty and not 
the Innocent that muft bear the lofs. A Sacrament may be as 
effectual , and owned by God , for my benefit, when it is from 
the hand of a man that (hall be condemned for adminiftring it, 
as when it is from the hand of a Saint that hath a better 
call -, fuppofing ftill that I be innocent of his ufurpation or error, 

S-2 This 


gj* This neceffary diftinction premifed, I fay, tint facial Grace 
isncceffiry to that Call of a Minifter that mu.fl be warrantable 
and juftifyable to htmfelf before God; but it ii not neceffary to 
that call that's juftifyable before theChurch>and is neceffary to 
our fubmiftion and to the Welling of the Ordinances and their 
Validity to our good. 

Scft. 7. But yet here are fome Qualifications ejfentiallj necef- 
fary, to Difpofc the man to be Receptive of the Miniftry , coram 
Ecclefta ( though fiving grace be not. ) As 1. ItisofNecefli- 
ty that he be a Chriftian by ProfejftBn 5 and fo that he Profefs that 
faith, repentance, love, obedience, which is faving. For the 
Minifter in qucftion is only A ChriftianLMmftcr: and therefore 
he mud be a Chriftian, & aliauid amplias by profeftion. 

2.1tis therefore Neceffary that he Profefs and feemto Under- 
ftand and Believe all the Articles of the faith, that are effential to 
Chriftianity, and do not herctically deny any one of chefc (what 
ever he do by inferiour Articles. ) 

3 . He rauft be one that is able to preach the Gofpel : that Is, 
in fome competent manner, to make known the Effentials of 
Chriftianity : or elfe he cannot be a Minifter at all. 

4.Hc muft be one that underftandeth the Effentials of Baptifm, 
and isabletoadminifterit ( Though thca&ual adminiftration 
be not alway neceffary. ) 

5. He muft understand the Effentials of a particular Church , 
and profefs to allow of fuch Churches as Gods Ordinance, or 
elfe he cannot be the Paftor of them. 

6. He muft Profefs to Value and Love the Saints, and their 
communion ; Or elfe he cannot be a Minifter for the communion 
of Saints. 

7. He muft Profefs and feem to underftand, believe, and ap- 
prove of all the Ordinancesof Chrift which are of Necefilty to 
Church- communion. 

8. And he muft be tolerably able to difpenfe and admini- 
fter thofe Ordinances : Or elfe be is not capable of the office. 

9. He muft Profefs and feem to make the Law of God his Rule 
in thefe administration?. 

1 o. And alfo to defire the faving of mens fouls, and the well- 
fare of the Church, and Glory and Pleafing of God. If he have 
sot. beforehand all thefe Qualifications, he if not capable of the 

Miniftry f% 


Miniftry , nor can any Ordination make him a true Mini- 

Se&.8. If you demand my proof, it is from the common prin- 
ciples that I .The form cannot be received but into adifpofed capable 
matter : but fuch are no difpofed capable matter ' therefore , 
ejrc. — - 2. The office is for the work^ „ and therefore 

prefuppofetha Capacity and ability for the work. The office 
containech i. An Obligation tot he^Vuty. But no man can be 
obliged to do that which is Naturally Irapoflibie to hirafthough 
a Moral Impoflibility may (land with an obligation to duty,and 
a Natural only as founded in the Moral) 2. It containeth an 
Authority or Power to do the work^ : Bur fuch Power ( which is 
but a Right of 'excercifing Nat urall Abilities) doth prefuppofe 
the Abilities to be exercifed : Natural Power, is prefuppofed to 
Civil Authority. 3. It is EJfentialto fuch Relations that they 
be for their Ends : And therefore where there is an apparent in- 
capacity for the e»^,thcre is as apparent an incapacicy of the Re- 
lation. But enough ef this. 

Seft. 9. 2. A Miniftcris [an officer of Chrift,] and there- 
fore receiveth his Authority from him, and can have none but 
what he thus recieves. And therefore 1 . He hath no Soveraignry 
or Lordfhip over thcChurch,for that is the perogative of Chrift. 
2. He hath no degree of underived Power, and therefore muft 
prove his Power, and produce his Commiffion before he can ex- 
pcd the Church to acknowledge it. 3. He hath no Power to 
work againft Chrift, or to deftroy the fouls of men, or to do 
evil: ( Though he hath a Power by which occafionally be may 
be advantaged to evil, yet hath he no Authority to do it : ) For 
Chrift givcth no man power to fin , nor to do any thing againft 
himfclf. 4. He deriveth not his authority from man (though 
by man , as an inftrument, or occafion, he may ) The People 
give him not his Power : The Magiftratc gives it not : The Or- 
dainers (Biihopsor Preshyters ) give it nor, any further then 
( as I (hall (hew anon ) by fignifying the will of Chrift that in- 
deed givethit, and by inverting men in it by folemn delivery. 
The Choofers may nominate the perfon that (hall receive it ; and 
the Magiftrate may encourage him to accept it; and the Or- 
dainers may Approve him and Inveft him in it: but it is Chrift 
only that gives the Power as from himfelf. As in Marriage^hc 

S $ perfona 


pcrfons confent, and the MagiQrate allowethlt as Valid at mv 
bar j and the Minifter bleffeth them and declareth Gods con- 
fent: But yet the Power that the Husband hath over the wife is 
only from God as the conferring caufe; and all that the reft do is 
but to prepare and difpofe the perfon to Receive it •, fave' only 
that confequently ,thc confent of God is declared by the Minifter. 
Of which more anon,^hen we fpeak of Ordination. 

Sed. 10. 3. A Minifter is a roan Q /if zrated,or fet apart " 
to the work of the Gofpel. For he is to make a calling of it, 
and not to do it on the by. Common men may do fomewhac 
that Minifters do, even in preaching the Gofpel : but they are 
Kom.i.iji. not [feparated or fet apart to it , and fo entrufted with it> nor 
make a Calling or Courfe ef employment of it. ] Minifters there- 
fore are Holy perfins in an eminent fort, becaufe they have a two- 
fold SandiHcation. 1. They are as all other Christians fandi- 
fiedto God by Chrift through the fpirit , which fo devoteth 
them to him,and brings them foneer him, and calls them ro fuch 
holy honourable fervice, that the whole Church is called a Roy- 
iPct.z.?.?. allPriefthood, a Holy Nation, &c. toorTerfpiritualfacriflceto 
Rom. 1. tf. God. And Chrift hath made them Kings and Prieftsto God. 
But 2. They arc moreover devoted and fandifled to God, (not 
only by this feparation from the world, but) by a feparation 
from the reft of the Church to ftand neerer to God, and be 
employed in his moft eminent fervice! I mention not mans Or- 
dination in the Definition, becaufe it is notefTential to the Mi- 
niftry, nor of Abfolute Necefiny to its being ( of which anon. ) 
But that they be fet apart by the will of Chrift and fandified to 
him, is of Neceflity. 

Sed 11.4. Thefe Minifters have a double fubjed to work up- 
on,or ob jed about which their Miniftry is Employed. The ftrft 
is £ The world, as thxt matter out of which a Church is to be raif- 
ed2 The fecond is, Believers called out of the world ] Thefe Be- 
lievers are, £ Either Only Converted, and not inveftedin a Church 
fate • or fuch as are both Converudand hvefted : ] Thefe later 
are^ither [ fuch as are not yet gathered into a particular Church, 
or fuch as are. ] For all thefe are the objeds of our office. 

Sed. 12. 5. Accordingly the firft part of the Minifterial 
office is to Preach the Qofpel to unbelievers and ungodly ones for 
then Conver/ion. This therefore is not, as fome have imagi- 

( J 3T) 

ned, a common work, any more then preaching to the Church .- 
Occasionally ex Chmritute, only another man may do if. But 
ex Officio, as a work that we are feparated and fee a pare to and 
entruftcd with, foonly Miniflers may do it-No man hath the 
Power of Office • but he that hath the Duty or Obligation, to 
make it the trade or bufinefs of his life , to preach the Gofpel 
( though bodily matters may come in on the by. ) 

Scd. 1 3 . 6. Hence it appears that a man is in order of Nature 
a Preacher of the Gofpdin General^ before he be the Paftor of 
4 f articular fiockj- though in time they often go together : that 
is, when a man is ordained to fuch a particular flock. 

Sed. 14. 7. And hence it follows that a man may be ordain- 
ed jineTitulo or without a particular charge, where the Con- 
verting preparatory work is firft to be done. 

Sed. 15. 8. And hence it appeareth that a Minifter is firft in 
order relaredtothe unbelieving world, as the objed of his firft 
work, before he be related to the Church exiftent: either Ca- 
tholick or particular : And that he is under Chrift firft a Spiri- 
tual Father, to beget children unto God, from the unbelieving 
world, and then a oovernourof them. If others have already 
converted them to our hands, and faved us that part of our 
work, yet that overthrowcth not the order of the parts and 
works of our office, though it hinder the execution of the firft 
part ( it being done to our hands by others in that office.,) 

Sed. 16. 9. The fecond part of the Minifters work is about 
Believers meerly converted,together with their Children, whom 
they yet have power to Dedicate to God : And that is to Inveft 
them in the Rights ofaChriftian, byBaptifmin folemn Cove- 
nanting with God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. And thefc 
are the next Material objeds of our Office. 

Many of the Ancients (Tertnllian by name, and the Coun- 
cil of Eliberis ) thought that in C3fe of Neceffity, a Lay-man 
("though not a Woman ) may Baptize: If that be gran ted, yet 
muft not men therefore pretend a Neceffity where there is none. 
But I am fatisfled i.That Baptifm by a a private man*' is not 
ep nomine a Nullity, nor to be done again : 2. And yet that it is 
not only a part of the Minifters work to Baptize and approve 
them that a e to be Bantized, ex officio, but that it is one of the 
greatcft and higheft a&ons of his office ; Even an eminent ex- 



ercife of the Keyes of the Kingdom , letting men into tnt 
Church of Chnft: it being a principal part of their Truft and 
power to Judge who is meet to be admitted to the Priviledges 
and fcllowftiip of the Saints. 

Seft. 17. 10. The third part of the Minifters work is about the 
Baptjzed, that are only entred into the univerfal Church ( for 
many fuch there arc J or elfe the unbaptized that arc Difcipled, 
where the former work and this are done at once : And that is , 
to congregate the Difciples into particular Churches for Holy Com* 
munionin GodsTVsrJhip, &c. They muft do part of this thcra- 
felves in Execution. But he leads them the way, by Teaching 
them their duty, and provoking them to it,and directing them in 
the execution , and oft-times offering himfelf or another to be 
their Teacher ,and Leading them in the Execution. So that ic 
belongcth to his office to gather a Church, or a member to a 

Se&. 18. 1 1. Hence is the doubt refolved, Whether the Pa* 
ftor, or Church be firfl in erder of time or Nature f I anfwer : 
The Minifter as a Minifter to Convert and Baptize and gather 
Churches, is before a Church gathered in order of Nature and 
of time. But the Paftor of that particalar Church as fuch, and 
the Church it felf whofe Paftor he is, are as other Relations,to- 
gether and at once • as Father and Son,Husband and Wife, &c. 
As nature firft makes the Nobler parts, as the Heart and Brain 
and Liver ; and then by them as inftruments formeth the reft ; 
And as the Philofopher or Schoolmafter openeth his School, and 
takes in Schollars • and as the Captain hath firft his Commiffion 
to gather Soldiers : But when the Bodies are formed,thcn when 
the Captain or Schoolmate dieth,anothcr is chofen in his ftead^ 
So is it in this cafe of Paftors. 

Sec%. 19. 12. Hence a4fo is the great controvcrfie eafily de- 
termined, Whether a particular Church or the univerfal be firfl 
in erder^andbt the Ecclefia Prima : To which I anfwer i.Thc 
Queftion is not de ermine dignitatis, nor which is finally the Mini- 
fters chief Br d : Tor fo it is paft controverfie that the Univerfal 
Church is firft. 2. As to order of exigence \ the univerfal Church 
is confidered either as confiding of Chriftians as Chrtftians, con- 
verted and Baptized ; or further as confifting of Regular Or- 
dered Afferablies, or particular Churches. ( Tor all Chriftians 



are not members of particular Churches : and they that are,arc 
yetconfiderablediftin&ly, as raeer Chriftians and as Church- 
members C of particular Churches J And fo its clear, that 
men are Chriftians in order of Nature, and frequently of time, 
before they are member of particular Churches: and therefore 
inthisrelpecttbe univerfal Church ( that is, in its eflencc ) is 
before a particular Church. But yet there rauft be One particu- 
lar Church,before there can be many. And the Individual Chur- 
ches are before the Affectation or Connexion of thtfe individu- 
als- And therefore though in its etfence and the exigence of 
that eflence the univerfal Church be before a particular Church 
( that is, men are Chriftians before they are particular Church- 
members • ) yet in its Order , and the extftenceofthat Order, it 
cannot be faid fo : nor yet can it fitly be faid that thus the Par* 
ticuUr is before the univerfall. For the firft particular Church 
and the univerfal Church were all one ( when the Gofpel ex- 
tended as yec ho further ) And it was fimttl &femelm ordered 
univerfal and particular Church- ( but yet not qfik univerfal ) 
But now , all the Univerfal Church is not Ordered at all into 
particular Churches: and therefore all the Church univerfal 
cannot be brought thus into the Queftion. But for all- thofe 
parts of the univerfal Church that are thus Congregate ("which 
fkouldbt all that have opportunity ) they are confiderable, 
either as diftintl Congregations independent - y and fo they are all 
in order of nature together (fuppofing them exiftent: ) Orelfeas 
Connexed and Affociatedjor Communion of 'Churches ,or otherwife 
related to each other: And thus manj Churches are after the Indi- 
viduals, &the fingle Church is the Ecclefa prima as to all Church 
forms of Order ; and Affociations are but Ecclefa, ort* y arifing 
from a combination or relation or Communion of manyof thefe. 

Sed. 20. The fourth part of the Minifterial work is abouc 
particular Churches Congregate ,as we arc Paftors of them. And 
in this they fubferve Chnlt in all the parts of his office. 

i . Under his Prophetical office,they are to Teach the Churches Mat - * 3 - 20 * 
to obferve all things whatfoever he hath commanded them: & deli- , 1 ' 2 '^ 4 * 
ver& open to them that Holy dodrine which they have reeei- " ° 19,10. 
ved from the Apoftles that fealed it byMiracles,and delivered it to 
the Church. And as in Chrifts name to perfwade and exhort men 
toduty, opening to them the benefited the danger of neglect. 

T 2. Under 


jam 5.14- 2. Under Chrifts Prieftly office they arc to fxand between . 

Ads 1.41? 4*- Go J and the People, and to enquire of God for them, and fpeak 
r 4 ', 3 , 5 ' to God on their behalf and in their name, and to receive their 
Afts»o.7. Publick Oblations to God, and to offer np theiacrificeofPraifc 
1 Cor.xo.i*. and Thanksgiving on their behalf, and to celebrate the Comme- 
Aftszo.2.8. fnoration of the facrifiee ofChrift upon the Crofs j and in his 
a cor. $.11. nam e to deliever his Body and BloocLand Sealed Covenanc,and 

*>,i>,M< benefics t0 thc Church. 

2C0U.10. 3. Under his Kingly office ( a Paternal Kingdom ) they are 

Mat.iS.i8. to Proclaim his Laws, and Command obedience inhis Name, 
and to Rule or Govern all the flock, as Overfeersof it, and to 
reprove, admonifh, cen fare and caft out the obftinately impeni- 
tent,and confirm the weak, and approve of Profeffions and Con- 
fefiions of Penitent?, and toAbfolve them, by delivering them 
pardon of their fin, in the name of Chrift. 

Sed .if. 14. This work muft be done for the ends mentio- 
ned in the Definition. To his own Safety, Comfort, and Reward, 
it is neceffary that tbofe Ends befincerely intended' For the com- 
fort and Satisfaction of the Church and the validity of the Or- 
dinances ( Sacraments efpeciallyj to their fpiritual benefit, it 
is neceffary that thefe ends be profrffed to be mended by him, and 
that they be really intended by them f elves. 

Seft. 22. 1 5 . By this the Popifti cafe may be refolved, whe- 
ther the Intention of the Prkft be neceffary to the Validity 
and fuccefs of Sacraments? The reality of the Priefts Intention 
is not neceffary to the Validity of them to the people.* For then 
no ordinance performed by an hypocrite were Valid ; nor could 
any man know when they are Valid and when not. But that 
they may be fuch adminiftrations, as he may comfortably anfwer 
for to God, his fincere Intention is Neceffary. And that they be 
fuch as the People are bound to fubmit to, it is neceffary that he 
frofefs a ftneere Intention : For if he purpofely Baptize a man 
ludicroufly in profeffed jeftor fcorn, or not with a feeming in- 
tent of true Baptizing,it is to be taken as aNullity and the thing 
So be done again. And that the ordinances may be bleffed ana 
effectual to the Receiver upon Promife from God, it is neceffary 
that the Receiver have a true intent of receiving them to the ends 
that Godhath appointed them. Thus and no furtheris Inten- 
tion neceffary to the validity of the Ordinance and to the fuc- 
cefs. Tiie 


The particular ends I (hall not further fpeak of,as having been 
longer already then I intended on the Definition. 

Sed. 23 . But the principal thing that I would defire you to 
obfcrve,inordcrtothe decifion of our controveriie, hence, is 
thattheMiniftryisfirftconfiderableasa mrkjxA Service % and 
that the Power is but a Tower to be a fervant to all, and to do the 
work: And therefore that the firft Queftion is, Whether the great 
burden and labour of CM inifterial fervice may be laid on any man 
wit hut Ordination by fuch as our Englijh Prelates / Or whether 
all menaredifcharged from this labour and fervice on whom 
fuch Prelates do not Impofe it ? If Magiftrates , Presby- 
ters and People confpire to call an able man to the work and 
fervice of the Lord,whether he be juftified for refilling it, what 
ever the Church fuffer by it, meerly becaufe the Prelates called 
him not ? 

Sed. 24". Though the forcmentioned works do all belong to 
the Office of theMiniftry, yet there muft be Opportunity and a 
particular Call to the exercife of them, before a man is actually 
obliged to perform the fever ai ads. And therefore it was not 
without fence and reafon that in Ordination the Bifhop faid to 
the Ordained [Take thou authority to Read or to preach the word 
of(jod, when thou {halt be threunto lawfully called] Not that ano- 
ther callof Authority is neccflary to fiate themin the office, or 
to oblige them to the Duty in General : But we muft in the in- 
vitation of people, or their confent to hear us, or other fuch 
advantagious accidents, prudently difcern when and where we 
have a Call to fpeak and exercife any aft of our Mini ftry. Even 
as a Licenfed Phyfitian muft have a particular Call by his Patients 
before he exercife his skill. This call to a particular ad ,is nothing 
elfebut an intimation or fignification of the will of God, that 
hie & nunc we fhould perform fuch a work : which is done 
by Providence caufing a concurrence of fuch inviting Cir- 
cumftances that mayperfwade a prudent man that it is feafo- 

Sed.25. A man that is in general thus obliged by his office 
to do all the formentioned works of the Minidry, ( that is,when 
he hath a particular call to each ) may yet in particular never 
be obliged to fome of thefe works, but may be called to fpend bis 

T2 life 


Fife in forae other part of the Miniftry , and yet be a compleat 
Minified and have the ( bligation and Power to ail, upon fop-, 
portion of a particular Call ; and not be guilty of negligence in 
omitting thofe other parts. One man man may live only among 
I&Sdcts, and uncalled ones, andfobc obliged only to Preach 
the Gofpell to them in order co Converfion, and may die before 
he fees any ready to be baptized : Ano.her may be taken up in 
Preaching and Bap izing, and Congregating the Converccd,and 
never be called to Paftoral Rulcof a particular Church. Ano- 
ther may live in a Congregated Church where there is no ufe 
for the Difoplmg-Converting- Preaching ofihe Gofpel, and fo 
may hare nothing to do but to Overfee that particular Church 
and Guide them in holy Worfhip. And in the fame Church if one 
Minifters parts are more for Pubiick preaching, and anothers 
more for Private inftrudion, and ads of Guidance and Wor- 
fhip : ifonebebeft in expounding, and another in lively appli- 
cation; trey may lawfully and fitly divide the work between 
them: and it (hall not be imputed to them for unfaithfulnfs and 
negligence that one forbeareih uha: the other doth. For we 
have our guifts to the Churches edification : Thus Paul faith he 
was not fent to Baptise, but to Preach the Go pel i Not that it was 
not in hssCommiliion,anda work of his office i but quoad exer- 
citium he had feldome a fecond particular C all 10 txeictfe it, be- 
ing taken up with that Preaching of the Gpfpel, and fettling and 
confirming Churches which to him was a greater work. 

Sed. 26. This Miniftry beforedefcribed (whether you call 
it Epifcopatum , Sacerdotium, Vrfsbjtf rat urn, or what elfe is fit) 
is but one and the fame Order ( for Deacorrs are not the Mini- 
fters defined by us : ) It is notdiftinguifhed into various Speci- 
es: Even the Patrons of Prelacy, yea the Schoolmen and other 
Papifts themfeives, do ordinarily confefs, that a Prelate and 
Presbyter differ not Or dine, but only Gradu, So that it is not 
another office that they •■* fcribe to Prelates, but only a more 
eminent Degree in the fame Office. And therefore they them* 
felves affirm, that in Officio the Power of Ordination is in both 
alike ( the office being the fame ) But that for the honour 
of the Degree of Prelacy, for the unitv of the Church, Presby- 
ters are hindered from theExercifecf that Ordination, which 
yet is in their Power and Office 



Sect 27. As far as Ordination is a part of the Minifteriai 
Work itiscomprifedin the forementioned ads, [_9fCongreg*- 
tin g> Teaching, Ruling, &c. ] and therefore is not left out of 
the Definition, as it is a duty of the office : though it be not ex- 
Preffrd among the Efficient caufe?, for the reafon above menti* 
oned: and becaufel am now morediitin&ly to treat of it by it 
felf, and to give you further rcafons hereof in the explication of 
the Nature and Ends of this Ordination. 

rox<r, a&? (&T6j &i 

yf.6 «W - H-y. 6 tijm 


chap, n, 

Of the Mature and Ends of Ordination. 

Sed. 1 

&&&<'& ~x . 

Hat we may know how far the 

Ordination in queftion is ne- 

ceflkry to the Miniftry , and 

whether the want of it pro ye a 

Nullity 9 we muft fir ft enquire 

3B what goes to the laying of the 

Foundation of this Relation % 

and how many things concur 

in the efficiency, and among the reft, what it is that the Ordain- 

ers have to do as their proper part y and what are the rcafons of 

their Power and Work, 

Sed. 2. As ail that deferve the name of menj are agreed thas 
there is no Power in the world but from God the Absolute So- 
vcraign, and firft Caufe of Power : fo all that deferve the name 
of Christians are agreed that there is no Church Power but 
what is from Chrift the. head and SoYeraign King of the 

Sed, 3 . "As the will of God is the Caufe of all things ; And 
nothing buttheS gnification . of it is necc&iry to the conveying 
of raeer Rights » So in the making a man a Minifter of the Go- 

T 3 <pd 

pel» there needeth no other principal efficient caufe then the 
Willof Jefus Chrift • nor any other Inftrumental Efficient , but 
what is of ufc to the fignifjing of his will : So that it is but in 
the nature of figns that they areNeceffary. No more there- 
fore is of Abfolute Necejfttj, but what is fo ncceffary to fig mfie 
his will, if Chrifts will may be fignified without Ordination, 
a man may be a Miniftcr without it : ( Though in other refpeds 
he may be culpable in his entrance, by croffing the will of Chrift 
concerning his duty in the manner of his proceedings.) 

Sed. 4. Thcreisconfidcrablein theMiniftry, i.Beneficium. 
2. Ojficium. 1. The Gofpel,. pardon, falvation-Ordinances are 
thofe great Benefits to the fonsof men, which the Mtniftery is to 
be a means of conveying to them : And is it felf a Benefit as it 
is the means of thefe Benefits. In this refped the Miniftrj is 
a gift of Chrift to the Church,and his Donation is the neceflary 
ad for their Miniftration. But of this gift the Church is the 
fubjed. Hegiveth Paftors to his Church. 2. But in conjun- 
ction with the Churches Mercies, theMinifter himfelfalfo par- 
takes of mercy : It is a double Benefit to him to be both recep- 
tive with them of the blcffing of the GofpeUnd to be inftrumen- 
tall for them in the conveyance , and to be fo much exercifed in 
fo fweet and honourable,tbough flefh-difpleafing and endanger- 
ing work. As in giving Alms, the giver is the double receiver ^ 
*ndin all works for God , the greateft Duties are the greateft 
Benefits^ is it here. And thus the making of a Minifter is a Do- 
nation or ad of bounty to himfelf. Chrift giveth to us the Office 
of the Miniftry, as he giveth us in that office to the Church. As 
a Commanders place in an Army is a place of Truft and Honour 
and Re ward, and fo the matter of a gift , though the work be to 
fight and venture life. 

Sed. 5 . The Duty of the Miniftcr is caufed by an Obligation - 9 
and that is the part 6f a Precept of Chrift : And thusChrifts 
command to us to do bis work doth make Minifters. 

Sed. 6. From the work which the Minifters are to perform, 
and the command of Obedience laid upon the people^arifeth their 
duty, in fubrniffioh to him, and Reception of his Minifterial 
work; And in Relation to them that are to obey him, his office 
is a fuperiour Teaching Ruling Power, and fo is to be caufed by 
Commiffion from Chrift,as the fountain of Power that is to com- 
mand both Paftor and People. Sed 

C M-3 ) 

Seft. 7. So that the Miniftry confifting of Z)**;, Benefit , and 
Power, for Authority Jit is caufed by Preceptive Obligation, by 
Liberal Donation, and by Commiflion. But the lait is but com- 
pounded of the two firft,or a rcfult from them. The Command 
of God to Paul, e. g. to Preach and do the other works of the 
Miniftry, doth of it felf give him Authority to do them And 
Gods command to the People to hear and fubmit, doth concur to 
make it a Power as to them. And the Nacure and ends of the 
work commanded are fuch as prove it a Benefit to the Church; 
and confcquentialiy to the Minifter himfclf.So that all is compre- 
hended in the very impofition of the Duty : By commanding 
m to preach the word , we are Authorized to do it, and by Do- 
ing it we are a Benefit to the Church, by bringing chem the Go- 
fpel and its Benefits, 

Sed. 8. Our Principal work therefore is to find out,on whom 
Chrift impofith the Duties of Church Miniftration .-And by what 
fignsofhis will v theperfonhimfelf and the Church may beaf- 
fured that it is the Will of Chrift, that.this man (hall undertake 
the doing of thefc works, 

Sect 9. And therefore let us more diftinctly enquire, 1. What Is 
to befignificdinordertoaMiniftersCall; and 2. How Chrift 
doth (ignifie his will about the feveral parts . and fo we (hall fee 
what is left for Ordination to do, when we fee what is already 
done, or undone. 

Sect. 10. i.ftmuft be determined or fignificd that A Mi- 
niftry there muft be. 2. And what their Work and Power (hall 
be. 3. And what the Peoples Relation and duty toward them 
(hall be. 4. What men (hall be Minifters, and how qualified. 
5., And how it (hall be d.fcerned by themfeives and othecs which 
are the men that Chrift intends. 

•Sect. 11. Now let us confider 1 What Chrift hath done afc 
ready in Scripture, 2. And what he doth by Providence,towards 
thedcterminationofthefethings. And 1. In the Scripture he 
hath already determined of thefc things, or fignihYi that it is his 
Will, 1 . That there be a (landing Miniftry in the Church to che 
end of the world : 2.Tbat their work (hall be to preach the Go- 
fpel, Baptize, Congregate Churches, Govern them, ad Mini tec 
the Euchanft, &e v as afore mentioned, .3 . He .hath left theon 
Rules or Canons for the 4ircO$g them, ( in all things of conftant 



univerfal ncccffity) in the performance of thefe works. 4. He 
hath defcribed the perfons whom he will have thus employed, 
both by the Qualifications neceflaryto their Being, and to the 
Well- being of their Miniftration. 5. He hath made it the Duty 
of fuch qualified perfons to defire the work ' and to feek it in cafe 
of need to the Church. 6. He hath made it the Duty of the people 
to defire fuch Pallors, and to feek for fuch and choofe them or 
confentto the choice. 7. He hath made it the Duty of the pre- 
fent Overfeersof the Church to Call fuch to the work,and ap- 
prove them, and Inveftihem in the office (which three acts are 
are called Ordination, but fpecially the laft. ) 8. He hath made 
it the Duty of Magiftratesto encourage and protect them, and 
in fome cafes to command them to the work, and fet them in the 
office by their Authority. All thefe particulars are determined 
of already in the Laws of Chrift, and none of them lefc to the 
power of men. 

Sect. 12. The ordainers therefore have nothing to do to judge 
1. Whether the Gofpel fhall be preached or no,whetherChurches 
(hall be Congregate or no, whether they (hall be taught or go- 
verned or no ? and Sacraments adminiftred or no f 2. Nor whe- 
ther there fhall be a Miniftry or no Miniflry ? 3 . Nor how far 
( as to the Matter of their workand power) their office fhall 
extend , and of what Species it fhall be ? 4. Nor whether the 
Scripture (hall be their conftant univerfal Canon? 5. Nor whe- 
ther fuch qualified perfons as God hath defcribed , are only to be 
admitted, or not. 6 Nor whether it (hall be the duty of fuch 
qualified perfons to feek the office ? or the Duty of the People 
to feek and choofe fuch , or of Pallors to ordain fuch ? or 
of Magiftrates to promote fuch and put them on ? None of this 
is the Ordainers work. 

Seer. 13. If therefore any man on what pretence foevcr,(hall 
either determine that the Gofpel fha'll not be preached, nor the 
Difciples Baptized, the Baptized Congregated, the Congrega- 
tions governed, the Sacraments adminiftred, &c. or that there 
(hall be no Minifters to do thofe works-, or if any man Deter- 
mine that which will infer any of thefe; or if he pretend to a 
Power offufpending or excluding them, by his Non-approba- 
tion, or not- authorizing them ; he is no more to be obeyed and 
regarded in any of this Ufurpation,then I were if I fhould make a 


La w,that no King (hall reign but by my nomination,approbarion 
or Coronation. And if any roan under pretence of Ordaining, 
do fee up a man that v. ants the Qualifications which Chrift hath 
madenecciTary to the Being of the Mmiftry, his Ordination is 
Null, as being without Power, sndagainft that Will of Chrift 
that only can give Power. And fo of the reft of the particulars 
forementioned ; Where the Law hath already determined, they 
have nothing to do but obey it. And though the mifcarria- 
ges of a man in his own calling do not al waies nullifie his ads, ycc 
all that he doth quite out of the line of his Office are Nullities. 
Sed. 14- We lee then that all that the Law hath left to the 
Ordainer is but this : In General, toDifcern and judge of the 
perfon that isQualified according to the Defcription of the Law* 
and particularly to call him out to the work, if he need excite- 
ment, and to Try and Approve him, before he be admitted,and to 
Invefi him y or folemnize his admittance, at his entry. So that 
the iura of all is, but to find out the qualified perfon, becaufe 
he is not named by the Law. 

Sed. 15. And even in this the Ordainers arc not the only 
Difcerners ; or Judges^ but the perfon himfelf,the People and the 
Magiftrates, have all the forementioned parts in the work. And 
God himfelf goes before them all, and by providence frequently 
points them out the man whom they are bound to choofe, Or- 
dain, accept and fubroit unto : and that by thefe particular ads. 
Sed. 16. 1. As God doth plainly defcribe the perfonsinthe 
word, fo he doth Qualifle them accordingly by his Guifts : and 
that of three forts: Evcn,1iis fpecial Graces ( neceffary fo far 
as was before mentioned ) Minifterial Abilities of Knowledge 
and utterance, and a dellrc after the work, for its ends. 2.God 
ufeth to qualific fo froall a number thus, compared with his 
Churches Meceffities, that whether they fhould be Minifters ( in 
general ) or not, is feldom matter of controverfie to prudent 
men, or at leaft a doubt that's more eafie to decide. 3 . God ufeth 
by Providence to give forre one n an, by advantage of parts, ac- 
quaintance, opportunity, intereft, &c. a fpecial fitnefs for one 
place and people above other men, and fo to facilitate the deci- 
fion. 4.L- od ufeth to ftir up the hearts of the Church to choofe 
orconfentto the perfon thus qualified. 5. And he ufeth to ftir 
updefiresorconfentintheheart of the perfon to be the Paftor 

U of 

C H 6 ) 

of thai particular frock. 6. Andheufetli oft times to procure 

liim Liberty , if not feme call from the Magiflrate. 7. And 
alfo to remove impediments in his way. 8. And to afiift or- 
dainers in difcerntng the qualifications of the perfon , when the. 
work comes to their hancs. All this God doth providentially. 

SeCt. 17. By this much it appeareth, that the Ordainersdo 
not give the power as from themfelvcsto other? ; nor doth it 
pafs through their har.cs. They are but the occ&fions, and the 
Instruments of Inauguration or foleran pofTefuon,when their in- 
terpolation is due- I: is the ftanding Ad of Chnft in his Law that 
gifcth the Power immediately^ i fay immediately, as with- 
out any mediate receiving and conveying caufc , that is 
dire&ly efficient of the Power it felf, though not fo Immediately 
a? to exclude all Preparation?,and perfecting inftruments, acci- 
dental! caufes & other means. As m cafe of Marriage,it is the wo- 
man* confent that is ofNeccimy to the deHgnation of the Perfon 
that Hull be her husband. But i: is not her Confent that properly 
givethhim the power of an husband over her. Lor that is done by 
God h;mfelf,in that Law by which he conftitutcth the husband to 
be head of the wife , and determineth in fprcie of his power, 
which oc.e determination immediately cenferreth the power en 
all individual perfons, when once they are chofen and named : lo. 
rhat^theEledtor of the perfon doth but prepare and d:fpofe hina to 
receive :hepower,and not give it.Hedorh but open the door and 
let men in to the Mioiftry, & not give it. Its one thing to bring the 
perfon to the Pool that healeth,thit he may be the man that firft 
ihall enter; snd its another thing to heal him : Its one thing to 
judge of the perfon that (hail receive the Power immediately 
from God, and another thing to give it him ourfeives. 

Sed. 18, Its thus in the cafe of MagiRrates Power, in which 
mens intercfl hath ever been moredifeernable to the world and 
beyond controverfie then in the power of Minifters. Though 
here there be a certain Specification that dependeth on the will of 
man, yet the Power it lc\f is immediately from God, and men 
do but choofe the perfon that fhail receive it, and prefent him to ■ 
God, and folemniy inaugurate him. Aud for my part, I think L 
fhall never content to any fide that will needs give more to 
men ( whether Presby ters,Prelates 5 or peoplej in making a Mini- . 
fter.then in making a KingAU power is of God, the^powers that j 
be are ordained of God, Se&. 


ScA. 19. If any doubt of this ( as I perceive by mauy" wn„ 
tings, chey do ) I (hall, tofpare tjie labour of a Digre/Ti on, re- 
fer chem to the copious unanfwerable labours of abundance of 
Proteftants that have written in .Eag/W for the Royal Power: 
But inftead of more, let them but read SpaUtenfis, and Sayavia 
and 2?,//o/*,and refHatisficd, or confute them before they exped 
any more from me. 

Sed. 20. As in the making of BaylifFs for our Corporations, 
either the people,ortheBurgefres,havethe power of choofing, 
and the Steward or Recorder hath the power of fwearinghim 5 
and performing the Ceremonies: and yet none of thefe confer 
the power, but only defign the perfon, who receives the power 
from the Prince alone, by the Charter of the Cities or Towns,as 
his Inftruraenr.fo is it in the ordaining of Minifters. The People 
may^hoofe, and the Paftors may inveft,but its God only by the 
Gofpel Charter that confers the power from himfclf. 

Sed. 21. Hence it is plain that the Argument is Vain thats 
commonly ufedby the Prelates, from Ntmd'dat quod north abet. 
For it falfly fuppofeth that the Ordainers v are the givers of 
Power ( the matter -error in their frame. ) Ghrift hath ic, 
and Chrift giveth it. Men give it not, though fomeof then* 
have it : For they have it only to nfe and not to give. Wbcn 
the People choofca King, they give hira not the Power, buc 
God giverh it to the man whom the people choofe. When oun 
Corporations choofe their Bayliff, the choofers give him not 
the Power; fortheyhaditnotthemfelves* but they determine 
of the man that immediately from the Princes Charter (hall re- 
ceive it : Nor doth the Recorder or Steward give it Primarily, 
but only Inftrume»taliter& perfetiive by aCeremonial inaugura- 
tion. So the People give not Pafiors the Power : Nor the Ordain- 
crs, but only complementally. 

Sed. 22. From what is aforefaid alfo it appearcth, that the 
work of the Miniftry is founded firft in the Law of nature it feif 4 
which upon fuppofition of mans mifery and his recovery by 
Chritt, and the Promife and means appointed for application, 
requireth every man that hath Ability and Opportunity , to 
do his beft in the Order appointed him by God , to fave 
mens fouls by proclaiming the Gofpel, and ufing Gods appoint- 
ed means , for the great andblefled Ends thai are before us. 

U2 S€ft. 


Scft.23.Hcncc it alfo appearcth thatGods firftcommand(partf 
ly in Nature and partly in the Gofpel ) is that [ The wor^ [hall 
be done,the Go/pel /ball be preached, Churches gathered and go- 
njerned,Sacramtnts adminiftred\~\ and chat the Precept de or dine is 
but fecundary and fubfemenc to this. And if at any time, alterati- 
ons fhould make Ordination impoffible, it will not follow that 
the duty Ordered ceafeth to be duty, or the precept to oblige. 
Sed. 24. The Scriptures name not the man that (hall be a Pa - 
flor, yet when it hath defcribedMm it commandeth the Defcri- 
bed perfon duely to feek admittance, and commandeth the Peo- 
ple, ordainers and Magiftrates to Q Choofe and Appoint thefe men 
to the Minifterial work. ] Now thefe Precepts contain in each of 
them two diftinft determinations of Chrift. The firft is [ fta* 
fuch men be Ministers. ] The fecond is \_ that they cffer them* 
felves to the office, and that they be Accented and Ordained. ^ For 
the firft is implyed in the latter. If the Soveraign 'Power 
make a Law,that there (hall be Phyficians licenfed by a Coiledge 
of Phyficians to Practice in this Common -wealth] and defcribe 
the perfons that (hall be licenfed • This plainly firft concludeth 
that fuch perfons {hall be Phyfitians, and but fecondanly deer- 
fane that thus they (hall be licenfed ; fo that if the Coiledge 
fhbuld Licenfe a company of utterly infufricient men,and murde- 
rers than feek mens death,or fhould refufe to Licenfe the perfons 
qualified according toLaw,they may themfelves be puni(hed,and 
the qualified perfons may a& as Authorized by that Law,whicfc 
bindeth qtioad materiam , and is by the Coiledge ( and not 
not by them) fruftrate qmad trdinem. So is it in this cafe in 

Sed. 25-.. Hence it appeareth that [_ Ordination is one 
means conjunct with divers others, for the Defignarion of right 
Qualified pcrfons,defcribed in the Law of Chrift ) for the re- 
ception and exercife of the Minifterial office. And that the ends 
ofitare 1. To take care that the office fail not : and therefore 
to call out fit men to accept ir, ifmodefty or impediments hin- 
der them from offering them felves, or the people from nomina- 
ting them. 2. To Judge in all ordinary cafes of the fitnefs 
of perfons to the office, and whether they are fuch as Scrip- 
ture defer ibet hand calls out. 3. And to folemnize their Ad- 
mittance, by fuchaninveftkure, as wlien PoiTeffion of a Houfc 



is givers by a Mnifterial tradition of a Key; or Poffcffion of 
Land by Minifies il delivery of a twig and a turf, or as a 
Soaidier is lifted, a King Crowned, Marriage Solemnized, after 
confene nnd Title, in order to a more folemn obligation, and ple- 
nary poffcilionjfuch is our Ordination. 

Se&. 26. Hence it appeareth thacas the Ordainersarenot ap- 
pointed co Judge whether the Church fhill have Ordinances 
and Mmifters , or not ( no more then to judge whether we 
Hull have aChrift and heaven,or not:)buc who (hail be the man; 
fo it is not to the Being of the Miniftry fimply,and in all Cafes 
that Ordination is neceffiry, but to the fate being and order of 
admittance, that the Church be not damnified by intruders. 
, Seft. 27. Ordination therefore is Gods orderly and ordinary 
means of a Regular admittance ^ and to be fought and ufed 
where it may be had ( as the folemnizing of Marriage. ) And 
it is a fin to negled it wilfully, and fo it is ufually neceffiry ne- 
cejfit-atc Pracepti, & T^eceJJitate medii ad ordinem & bene ejfe. 
But it is not of abfolute Necefficy NeceJJitate medii ad ejfe Mini- 
fterii,or to the Validity or Succefs of our office and Miniitracions 
to the Church ♦, nor in cafes of necefiky,when it cannot be had, 
is it neceffiry necefsitate prtcepti neither. This is the plain truth, 
Sed. 28. There are great and weighty Reafons of Chrifts 
committing Ordination to Paftors. i„Becaufe they are moil 
Able to judge of mens fitnefs, when the People may be igno- 
rant of it. 2. Becaufe they are men doubly Devoted to the 
Church and work of God themfeives, and therefore may be fup- 
pofed (regularly) to have the greateft care and moft impartial 
refped to the Church and caufe of God, 3 .And they muft (regu- 
laryj 6e fuppofed to be men of grcateft piety and and holinefsf or 
elfe they are not wellchofen. ) 4. And they being fewer , are fit- 
ter to keep Unity, when the people are ufually divided in their 
choice. 5 . And if every man (hould enter the Minillryofhirn* 
felf that will judge him f elf fit, and can but get a people to 
accept him/noft certainly the word would be oft forwardeft to 
men, ( before they are Tent, ) and for want of humility would 
think themfeives fitteft ( the common cafe of the Proud and Ig- 
norant ) and the .People would be too commonly poifoned by 
heretical fmooth: tongueM men 5 or more commonly tv.mid 
plcafcand undoe themfeives, by choofing them that hav 

U 3 

intereft in them, by friends or acquaintance, and themtbs: 
will moft pleafeand humour tbero, and inftead of being their 
Teachers and Rulers, would be taught and ruled by them , 
and do as they would have them. Order is of gr<at mo- 
ment to preierve the very being of the Societies ordered , 
and to attain their well-being, God is not the God of Confu- 
fionbut of Order, which in all the Churches muft be maincain- 
ed: No man therefore (houldnegle& Ordination without ne- 
ceflicy : And thefe that fo negled it, fliould be difo wned by the 
Churches, unlefs they (hew fufficient caufe. 


Ordination is not of J\(ecefsity to the be- 
ing of the Miniftry. 

$ e $ c fi &gg£to^B£_ Aving (hewed what the Miniftry is, 

and whatOrdination is,and how the 
work is impofed on us , and the 
Power conferred , I may now 
come up to the point undertaken , 
to (hew the fin of them that 
Nullifie all our Minifters calling 
and adminiftrations , except of fuch as are ordained by the 
English Prelates. And for the fuller performance of this task,I 
fhall do it in thefe parts. iJ (hall (hew that Ordination it felfby 
man is not of Ncccffity to the being of a Miniftcr. 2 . 1 (hall (hew 
that much lefs is an uninterrupted fuccefiion of Regular Ordi- 
nation ( fuch as either Scripture or Church Canons count valid/ 
of Neceflky to the being of Church or Miniftry. 3 .1 dial! (hew, 
that much left is an Ordination by fuch as our Exglijh Biftiops 


neceiTary to the Being of the Miniftry. 4. I {hall (hew that 
yet much^fs is an Ordination by fuch Bifhops rebus fie ftanti- 
i*4, as now things go, of neceffity to the being of the Miniftry 
5.I (hall (hew that without all thefe pretences of neceffity for a 
Presbyterian Ordination, theprefent way of Ordination by this 
& other Reformed.Churches is agreeable to the Holy Scripture, 
and the cuftome of the Ancien^Church, and the foftuUta of our 
chief oppofers. 6. I {hall then (hew the greatnefs of their fin 
that would Nuiiific our Miniftry and admidftrations. 7. And 
yet I (hall (hew the greatnefs of their fin that oppofe or wil- 
fully negleft Ordination. 8. And laftly I (hill return to my 
former fubjed , and (hew yet how far I could wi(h the Epif- 
copal Brethren accommodated, and propound fomewhat for a 

Sed:.2. I (hail be much briefer on all thefe, then evidence 
would invite me to be, becaufe \ apprehend the moll of them to 
be of no great neceffity to our caufe, we having enough with- 
out them, and left men fhould think that we need fuch Me- 
diums more then we do ; and be caufe of my exceeding fcarcity of 
time which forccth me to do-all haftily. 

And for the fir ft that [ Humane Ordination is net of A b ft lute 
Necefsity to the Being of the LMiniftrj] I argue as followeth. °[*™n?u- 

* J J rC 1 vt tr c r\ A' ■ r s r /# hath writ - 

tsfrg. 1. IftneNeceflity of Ordination may ceafe (as tonn- r en at large 
gleperfonsj and the Neceffity of Miniftration continue ( or de defpewa 
if the obligations to each are thus feparablc ) then is not Ordi- cau f a Papatut, 
nationof Neceffity to the Bemg of the Miniftry, ButtheAnte^ e ° r ^ ic ^ Ire " 
dent is truc^which I fha41 prove by parts ( for theconfequencca^* 
is paft all doubt, nor will any I fuppofe deny it J 

Se&. 3. That the obligation to be ordained may ceafe tofome 
perfons, I prove by inftances in certain cafes. And 1 . 1 n cafe oP 
a mansdiftance from any that (hould Ordain him » As if oae or 
many Chriftians were caft upon the Coafts of any Indian Hea° 
then or Mahometan Nation, as many have been. There is no 
ordination Poffible: and therefore not neceflary or due. And 
to return for it to the Chriftian part of the world, may be as im- 
poffible : and if not, yet unlawfull by rcafon of delay. 

Seft-4.And 2.1n cafe of the great Neceffity of the People that 
cannot bear the abfence of fuch as are able to teach them fo long 
iswhitebstrsyailetb magy hundred or thoufand miiei for Or-' 

dination y. 

dtnaticn; As Bafil in another cafe writes to the Bifhops oftlic 
Weft, that if one of them ( theEaftern BifhopsJ fhoul^ but leave 
their Churches for a very fmall time, much more for a journey 
into the Weft, they mult give up their Churches to the Wolves 
to be undone before they return ^ And this cafe is ordinary, 

Se#.$. And 3.Thatincafe£y Civil wars or enmity among 
Princes, men be unable to travail from one of their Countries 
into the other for an Ordination (which elfe ofttimes cannot 
be had ) fo the Turks and Perfians, and the Indian Megol, and 
the Tartarians and many other Princes, by fuchwars may make 
fuch paffage an impoffible thing : Nor is it like they would fuffer 
their fubje&s to go into the enemies country. 

Sed.6.And4. in cafe that Princes ( Infidels or others^ 
fhould perfecute Ordination to the Death: I do not find that ic 
were a Duty to be ordained, if it would coft all men that feek 
it their lives , and fo made them uncapable of the Ends of Ordi- 
nation *. ( For the dead preach not ) If we were all forbid to 
preach on pain of death, 1 know we (bould not forbear, unlefs 
our places were fo fupplied, that mens fouls were not apparent- 
ly endangered by our omiflion. But he that may preach with- 
out Ordination, can fcarce prove ir a duty to feek Ordination 
when it would coft him his life. Or if he will plead it in Paper,he 
would foon be fatisfied in tryal. 

Se&. 7. And 5. In cafe that the Generality of Bifhops with- 
in our reach turn Hercticks , fas in many parts of the Eaft 
in the Arrian revolt, when fcarce feven Bifhops remained Or- 
thodox ) Or in cafe of a National Apoftacie, as in the King- 
domes of NkhU^T endue y and many more that by the conqueft 
of Infidels have revolted. 

Se&. 8. And 6 Ordination is no duty in cafe that Bifhops 
confederate to impofe any unlaw full oaths or other Conditions 
on all that they will ordain. As the Oath of rhc Roman Prelates 
containing divers falfloods and unlawful pgff&gcs doth make 
all Reman Ordiration utterly impious and unlawfull to be re- 
ceived ^ and therefore not necefTary. 

Sect. 9. And 7. In cafe that B fheps themfclves f whom thofe 
that we now fpeak todofuppofe to have the whole Power of 
Ordination) fhould either have a def gn to corrupt the Church, 


and ordain only the unworthy , and keep out fuch a$ the Ne- 
ceflkies of the Church requireth,or fct up a deftru&ivc fa&ion, 
or by negligence or any other caufe fhould refufe to ordain fuch 
as fhould be ordained} In all thefe cafes Ordination is impo/fib.'c 
to them. 

Se&. 10. And 8. In cafe that death cut off all the Bifhops 
Wfchin our reach, or that the remnant be by (icknefs, or banifh* 
ment or imprifonment hindered, or by danger affrighted Co de- 
ny Ordinacion.or by any fuch means become in acceffiWe, Or- 
dination mull here fail. 

Sect ii. And 9 In cafe that Bifhops through contention are 

unknown,as BelUrmine confeffeth it hath been at Romejhat the 

wife(t could not tell which was Pope : Efpeciaiiy ifwithall both 

parcies feem to be fuch as are not to be fubmitted to,Ordination 


SccY 12. And 1 a In cafe ofProphetxal immediate calls from 
God, which many had of old, and God hath not bound himfelf 
from the like agi in, though none have reafontoexped it, and 
none fhould raflily prefumeofit : In all chefe ten cafes Ordina- 
tion failetb. 

Sed 13. And that it doth fo, needs no proof: the Inftances 
prove it themfelves. Briefly 1. Nemo tencturad impojfibile: 
But in many of thefe cafes Ordination is Impoflible : there- 
fore, c^r. 

Seel. 14. And 2. Nemo tenetur ad inhoneflumx No man is 
bound to (in : For Ttsrpe eft impofsibile in Law. But in many of 
thefe cafes or all, is plainly (in : therefore &c. 

Se&. 2Q. And 3 C eff ante fine cejfatobligatio. The means arc 
for the end : But in many ,tf not ail thefe cafes, Cejfat finis, & 
ratio medii : therefore ceffat obligatio, 

Sc&. 21. And 4. Ceffante materia ceffat obligatio. But here 
alicjnando ceff at materia* As in cafe of the ApolUc^death,ba- 

nifhment, concealment of Bifhops, therefore, &c. ■ 

Sed. 22. And now I am next to prove that when the Obliga- 
tion to Ordination ceafeth, yet the Obligation to OWinifterial Of- 
fices ceafeth not, but fuch muft be done. 

And i.I prove it hence, becaufethe obligations of the com- 
mon Law of Nature ceafe not upon the ceffation of a point ef 
Order : But if the MinifteriaJ works fliould ccafctbe Obligtti- 

X ent 


ons of the Law of Nature muft ceafc. Herelhavetwo 

points to prove, i . That the Law of Nature ( fuppofing the 
work of Redemption already wrought- and the Gofpel and Or- 
dinances eltablifhcd ) obligeth men that are able and have Op- 
portunity to do the work of Minifters. 2. And that this Law Is 
aotceafed whzn Ordination ceafeth. 

Seft 23. The Law of Nature prohibits cruelty, and requireth 
Charity,and to (hew rrercy to mci in greateft NeceflT ies accor- 
ding to our ability .* Eut to fufpend the cxercife c f ihe M>ni(teri- 
al office, were the greateft cruelty , where there is Ability and 
opportunity to exercife ir: and to exercife it is the greateft work 
of Mercy in all the World. Nature teachech us to do good to all 
mtn wh le we hxve time, and to five them with fear , fulling them 
out -of the fire, and to love ow neighbour 1 as our [elves • and there- 
fore to fee a man, yea a town and Country and many Countries, 
lie in (in and in a ftateofmifery, under the Wmh andCurfeof 
God, fo that they will certainly be damned if they cie in that 
condition, and yet tobefilent, and not Preach the Gofpel to 
tbem, nor call them home to the itate of life, this is the greateft 
c-uelcy in the world, excep: the tempting and driving them to 
hell. To le: the precious things of the Gofpel lie by unrcveaicd, 
even C hrift and pardon and ho!incfs,and eternal life and the com- 
munion of Sainrs,and all the Church Ordinances, and wirhal to 
fuffcr theD^viltogo away with all thefe fouls, and Chriftto 
lofe the honour that his grace might have by their converfion, 
certainly this in it fdftonfidcred is incomparably more cruelty . 
to men, then to cut their throats v or knock them on the head^a-s 
fuch and as- great an injury to God as by omiflion can be done. 
I need not plead this argument -with a man that hath not- much 
unm'and himfeif,much lefs withaChriftian.Tor the one is taught 
of God by nature, to fave ffien out of a leffer fire then Hell, and 
a leffer piin then evcrlafting torment , to the utmoft of h;s 
power : And the other is taught of God to love, his bro- 
ther and his neighbour as himfeif. If the Love of G#d dwell 
not in him that feeth his brother in corporal need, and fhmterh 
npthe Bowels of his companion* from him \ how then doth 
"the lovf of God dwell in him, that fee:h his brother in a flateof 
V- C--'\d h\ rbf'L-i « r ; anei e nv to God.arVd wirl 

afford him the help that he hath at hand, and all becau/e he is noe 
ordained ? 

Sect. 24. Let this be confidered of,as in any lower cafe.If a man 
fee another fall down in the itreets, fha I he reiufe to rake him Titnutem 
up, b:caufe heisnoPhyncian ? If the Country be infeded with **'$<> **tpet 
the Plague,and you have a Soveraign medicine t! at will certain- kM»aK4:**;« 
!y cure it with all that will be ruled, will you let them all periiTi, j^eimiLSJmH 
rather then apply ic to them, becaufe you are not a Phyfi:ian,and fuper'mkm ou- 
that when the Phyiithnsare not to be had ? If \ ou fee the poor tboritote, &c. 
haked,may no one make them cloaths but aTaylorrlf you fee the Fl [ ^fanon- 
enemy at the Wall?, will you not give the City warning,becaufe tpuTe^ejlitatis 
you a^e not a Watch-man, or on the Guard ? If a Commander lege; quando 
dieinfigh:, any man that is next may take his place in cafe of non alitcrpof- 
Nw-ccfficy. Will you fee the field 16ft for a point of Order, be- f et $**&? 
caufeyou will not do the work of a Commander ? A hundred ^violata'f^ 
fuch cafes may be put, in which its plain, that the fubftanceof the var 'r y ubt vet- 
work in which men can do a great and necetTary good, is ofthe wmeftillud. 
Law o-'Na:ure, though the regulating of them in point of order is v« fa fame 
oft from PofuiveLaws.-butthe Ccffati.on ofthe obligation ofthe ^mTnlm/ 
Pofitives about Order, doth not difoblige us from the common occidifii! 
Law of Nature: For then it fhould allow us to lay by humanity. Voetius. 

Sed. 25. To this fome may fay, that £ Its true we may preach 
in fuch cafes, but nat at A4inifters,but as private men : and me may 
baptize as private men in Necefsity : but we may de nothing that 
is proper to the Mini ftrj ] To this I anfwer. God hath not made 
the Confecration of the Bread and Wine in the Eucharift, nor 
yet the Governing ofthe Church, the only proper a&s ofthe 
Miniftry. To preach the word as a conflant fervice, to which 
we are Separated, or wholly give up ourfelves, and to baptize 
ordinarily, and do' congregate the Difciples, and to Teach and 
Lead them in Gods worfhip, are all as proper to the Mmiftry as 
the other. And thefe are works that mens eternal happinefs lieth 
on. If you would have an able gifted Chrifrian iri X hina,Tar~ 
tary % Indofian y ov fuch places, ( fuppofing he' have opportunity ) 
tofpeak bijtoccafionally as private men, and not tofpeak to 
Aflemblies, and wholly give up hirafelf to the work, and gather 
Churches, and fet afoot all Church Ordinances among them, 
you would have him unnaturally cruell to mens fouls. And if you 
would have him give up himfelf to thefe works, and yet not 

X 2 be 

beaMinifter, you fpcak contradiction*. For whats the office 
of a Minifter, but Q a ft ate of Obligation aod ftwer t$ exercife the 
Minifterialatts}} As its nothing elfe to be a Phyfitian,fup- 
pofingabilires, but to be obliged and impowred to do the work 
of a Phyfiuan ] The works of the Miniftry are of Neceflity to 
the falvationof mens fouls • Though here and there one may 
be faved withoui them by privater mcans,yct thats nothing to all 
the red : It is the falvation of Towns and Contreyes that we 
/peak of. I count him notaman,that had rather they were all 
damned, then faved by an unordained man. 

Scd. 26. The End of Ordination ceafeth not, when Ordi- 
nation faileth ;the Mmifterial works and the benefits to be there- 
by conveyed, are the Ends of Ordination : therefore they 
ceafe not. This-is fo plain that I perceive not that it needs ex~ 
p'kation or proof. 

Sed. 27. Nature and Scripture teach us, that Ceremonies 
give place to the fubftance,and matters of meer Order give place 
to the Duty ordered ; and that Moral Natural duties ceafe not 
when meer Pofitives ceafe : But fuch is the cafe before us. Or- 
dination is the ordering of the work : If that fail, andthe work, 
cannot be rightly Ordered , it follows not that it mod be caft 
off, or forborn. On this account Chrift juftified his Difciples 
for plucking ears of Corn on the Sabbath day. Neceflity put 
an end to the Duty of Sabhnh keeping; but the duty of pre- 
serving their lives continued. On this account he juftiftcth bis 
^7 own healing on the Sabbath day ; fending them to ftudy the 

A'jjdU great ruie ! Go learn what this meaneth, Iwilihjtve Mercy t and- 
J^ net. Sacrifi. el ] So here, he will have Mercy to fouls and Coun- 
v Qj*s> ,rLtA/ l £ r *y €S > rather then Ordination : On this accoant he faith, 
^jJ(/U that {The T>riefts in the Temflc break the Sabbath and are blame- 
>f jilt* 4 f e fj^ and he tells them [ 'what David did when- he was hftngrj^ 

and the j that were Vrith him> hew he eat the fhtwbread^ which ( out 
of Necefsity)TP4.f not Uwjullfor him to eat ,bHt. only for the Priejfj] 
and yet be finned not therein. 

Sec%. 28. Moreover, the Church it fclf is not to ceafe upon 
the ceafing ofOrdination,nor to hang upon the will of Prelates. 
Chrift hath rot put is in the power of Prelates, to deny him a 
Church in any countries of the world.. For he hath firft de- 
termined that particular Churches (hall be. (.and that dcterrm? 



C IT?) 

nation ceafeth not, ) and but fecondly that they fhallhaMe 
Pallors thus ordained : He is not to lofc his Churches at the 
plcafui e* of an envious oc negligent man: But (bit would be 
■f Paftor muft ceafe when Ordination ceafeth : For though 
without Paftors there may be communities of Chriftians, wtych 
art parts of the univcrfal Church, yet there can be no Organized 
Political Churches. For i. Such Churches confift eflentially of 
the Diretting or Ruling Part , and the Ruled Part ) ( as a Re- 
publick doth. ) 2. Such Churches are Chnitian Affociations for 
Communion in fuch Church Ordinances which without a Paftor 
cannot ( ordinarily at leaft ) be adminiftred : And therefore 
without a Paftor the Society is not capable of che£^,and there** 
fore not ofthe form or name; ("though it be a Church in the: 
fore.granted fence. ) Nay indeed, if any fhonld upon neceflicy 
do the Minifterial work to the Church, andfav he did it as a Pri~ 
vateman, it were indeed but to become a Minifter pro tempore^ 
under the name of a private man. If Pa#/had not his Power to 
deftru&ion but to Edification $ neither have Prelates : And there- 
fore the A&s arc null by which they would deft roy the Church. 
Their Power of Orderingjt (fuch as they havejoccafionalty en- 
ableth them to diforder it ( that is, If they mifsin their cwn= 
work, wemay fubmit i ) butthey have no authority to deftroy 
it, or do any thing that plainly conduceth thereunto.. 

Se&. 29* The ceafing of Ordination in any place,will not ei- 
ther difoblige the people from Gods publick Worflitp, Word 3 , 
Prayer, Praifc, Sacraments •, Neither will it deftroy their Right 
to the Ordinances of God in Church communion. But this "it 
fhoulddo,ifitfhould exclude a Mtniftry; therefore,^. — The 
Major is proved, 1. In that the Precept for fuch Publick wo ffitpj 
is before the precept for the right ordering of ir. He that com- 
mandeth the Order,fuppofeth the thing ordered. 2.The precept 
for publick worfhLp,is much in the Law of Nature, and therefore 
indifpcnfable : audit is about the great and Neceffiry duties that 
the honour of; Gods add faving of men, and .prefer vation of the 
Church lieth on; It is a (landing Law to be observed till the 
coming of Chrift, And the Rights ofthe Church in the cxetU 
lent Benefit* of Publick Ordinances and Church order, is bet-er 
founded then to depend on the Will of ungodly Prelaw, If 
Prioceand Parliament fail, and all the Govornoursturn enemies ^ 

X'3 l ° : 

Common wealth, k-hach the means if pixfervation of it fci* 
from ruineieft in its own I ands ,« or if the Common- wealth be 
oyed,the Ccmmun;:\ hach the Power of feif prefervation, 
and, of forming A Common- wealth again to that end. Thehfe 
?.ndbeirgof Stats, fpecially or mens eternal h2ppinefs,isnctto 
h.irguponfo flerd-r a pe-g as the corrupt wdl of a few Supe- 
riors, and the mu:ab e modes ar.d cinrumftances ofGovern- 
ment; nor a Nefeflary End to be wholly hid upon an uncertain 
and oft unneceiTiry mcar.s. The children lofe not their Right to 
Food and Raymenr, be Suffered to farmfh ; when 

ever the Steward falls out with ihcm, or falls afleep, or iofe.h 
ihcKeycs. Another ferea it fhouid rather break open the doors, 
and more thank? he fhall have ofthe Father of the family, then 
if he had let them penfh, for fear of trsnfgrc fling the bounds of 
h's calling. if iiiccft [that capital diforcer in procreation) 
were noinccib, no cr-Te, but a duty, to the Sons and daugh- 
ters ofAtLm in cafe of Neceflky ( becaule Order is for the End 
ar.d thing ordered ) then much more is a difordered preferva- 
tion oftbc Church and laving of fouls and fervingof God, a du- 
v; , and indeed at that time, no diforder at all. 

Seft. 30. 7. Moreover , if the failing of Ordination, (hould 
deprive the world of the preaching of the word, or tbeCbur- 
c'res of the great and neceffiry benefits of Church Ordinances 
and Communion, then one man ( yea thoufands ) fhould fuf- 
kr ( ancl that in the greateft matters for the fin and wilfolnefs 
of others ,and muft he down under fuch buffering, left be fhould 
(Jiforderjy red:esit. But the confequent isagainft alljufticc 
and Reafon •* Therefore the Antecedent is fo to. 

Seer. 3 1. En a word, it is fo horrid a conclusion, againft Na- 
ture , a d the Gofpel , and Chnftian fence, that the honour of 
God, thefui:s of Redemption, the being of the Church, the 
falvarionor comfort of mens fouls , muft all be at the Prelates 
mercy , that a confiderateChriftian cannot ( when he. is him- 
felf) behfveit: that it (hould be in the power of heretical,ma- 
licious, or idle Prelates to deny God his honour, and Chrift the 
fruit of all his fuffering?, ar.d Saints their Comforts, and finners 
their falvation,sn.! this when the rerredie is before us,and that it 
is -thewiliofGod that all thefe evils (hould be chofen before the 
evil of an unordained Miniftry^ this is an utterly incredible thing. 



Seft.32. Argument 2. Another Argument may be this: ]f 
there may be all things effemiai to the Miriiftry without humane 
Ordination,then this Ordination is not of Nece/fity toitsEf* 
fence-, But the Antecedent is true ; therefore fo is the confe- 
quent. That there be a people qualified to receive a Paftor, and 
perfons qualified to be made Paftors> and that God hath already 
determined in his Law that Pallors chere fha!l be, and how they 
(hail be qualified is paft all difpuce ; So that nothing remains to 
be done by man ( Ordainers, Magiftrates or People ) but to de- 
termine who is the man that Chnfi deicribcth in his L^w, and 
wouldhaveto.be the Pallors of fuch a flock, or a Minifterof 
the Gofpel, and then to foleainize his entrance by an Invefli- 
ture. And now I fhall prove that a man may be a Mmiller 
without the Ordainers part in thefe. 

Seri.33." Ifthe will of Chrift may be known without Oid nati- 
on,that r/7^man{hould be the Pallor of fuch a People, or a Mini- 
fter ofth;G)fpel , then mar a mm be 1 Mnifler with out Or- 
dination. But the will of Chrift may be known, &b. ergo, 

SeA:34. Nothing needs proof but the Antecedent (For it is 
but the fignification of the will of Chrift that cor ferret h the 
Power, and irepofeth the Duty ; ) And that his will is fomerime 
fignified concerning the individual perion without Ordination , 
is apparent hence : 1 . The Defcription of fuch as Chrift would 
have to preach the Gofpel, is very plain in his holy Canons ( in 
the Scripture. ) 2. His Gifts are frequently fo eminent in fe- 
veral perfons,as may remove al! jufloccafion of doubting, both 
from the perfons therofelve? and others. 3. Their fuitablenefi'to a 
People by intereft, acquaintance, &c. maybe as notable. 4. The 
Peoples common and ftrong afT&ion to them, and theirs to the 
People, may be added to all thefe. 5 .There may be no Compe- 
titor at all ; or noneregardable or comparable and fo noeon- 
troverfi'e. 6 The Neceflitiesof the People may be fo g'eat 
and vifible , that he and they may fee that they are in danger of 
being undone, and the Church in danger of a very gfe'a^t mis or 
hnrt, if he deny to be their Paftor.y.The M'agiftratc itfS \m\ cili 
and command him to the wo k. 8. The People and he may con- 
fent and they may un-inimouQy ch >o'e him, and he Accept their 
choice. And in all thele the w)1l of Chrift iseafiiy decerned, that 
■>>r: pc<fo& wh'Srr W to iin'dertske the Mirror// 

■ r- 

Sed. 35. For i .Where tbere are fo many evident figns of his 
Wills ajidCbaraders agreeing to the defcription in the Law, 
there the will of Chr.ift ma\ be decerned, and it may be known 
that this is the described perfon. But thefe are here fuppofed 
for enough of thefe: ) And indeed it is no very ftrangc thing 
for all or almoft all thele to concur, where there are perfons of 
excellent qualifications. 

Scd. 36. And 2. Where there is no Controverfie, or room 
for a ControYCrfic , the determination may be made without a 

intrufion of the unworthy : ) But here is no Concroverfie , or 

place forControverfie : therefore, &c. 

Sed. 37. But I fuppofc fome will fay that [ Though the Ap- 
probation of the Or&aiers be not alwaies of Neceffnj : becaufe 
the perfon may be eafily kjtvwn without them; jet their Inveftin* the 
perfon with the Power is of Necefsitj , becaufe without that he it 
but a perfon fit for the Office , but cannot receive it till feme autho- 
rized perfons (hall deliver it ] Becaufe the great mdtake is in- 
volved in rhisobjcdion,I (hall anfwer it fully. 

Scd. 38. The Law it felfis it that diredly gives the Power, 
and Impofeth the Duty, "when the perfon is once determined of 
that falls under it : There needs no more but the flgnification 
of the W-ilof Chrift, to confer the Power or Benefit, or ira- 
pofe the Duty. As an ad of Oblivion pardoneth all thedefcri- 
bed perfons ; and an Ad that impofeth any burden or office up- 
on every manoffuch or fuchan eftate or parts, doth immedi- 
ately by it felf oWige (he perfons- though fome Judges or others 
maybe appointed to call out the perfons, and fee to the execu- 
tion ( who do not thereby impofe the duty ) fo is it in this 
cafe. Gods Law can Authorize and oblige without an Ordainer 

Sed. 3 9. The Inveftiture performed in Ordination by man, is 
not the firft Obligation or Collation of the Power , bat only 
the folcmnization of what was done before. And therefore 
though it be necefsitAte pracefti a duty,and ordinarily neceffary 
to Church Order and prefer vation, yet is it not neeeffary to the 
B cing of the Miniftcrial Office or Power. 



Scd.40 And this will be made apparent, i.From the com- 
mon nacureofall fuch fubfequentia! Inveftituresand inaugurati- 
ons , which are neceflary to full pofleffion and exercife of 
Power fometiraes , but not to the firft being of it , nor to the 
exercife neither in cafes of Necefiity, when the Inveftiture can- 
no: conveniently be had. 

Sed. 41. Ordination fas to the Inverting ad ) is no other- 
wife necefTary to the Miniftry , then Coronation to a King, or 
lilting to a Souldiour, or folemn inveftiture and taking his Oath 
to a Judge, or other Magiftrate, &e. But thefe are only the 
folemn entrance upon Pofleffion and exercife of Power, fuppo- 
ilngafufflcient Title antecedent ^ and in cafes of Necefiity, 
may be unneccfTiry thcmfelves •, and therefore fo is it here as a 
like cafe. 

Sed. 42. 2. If want of Inveftiture in cafes of Necefiity, 
will not excufe the determinate perfon from the burden of the 
Minifterial work , then will it not prove him deftitute of the Mi- 
nifterial Authority : ( For every man hath Authority to do his 
Duty, in that he is obliged to it •, ) But the Antecedent is plain; 
If once I know by certain figns , that I am a man that Chriftre- 
quirethto beimployedinhis work, I durft not totally forbear 
it, in a cafe of fuch exceeding moment, for want of the regular 
admittance, when it cannot be had ^ while I know that the work 
is the End,and the Ordination is but the means; and the means 
may promote the end, but muft not be pleaded againft the End, 
nor to deftroy it ^ it being indeed no Means, when it is againft 
the end. Ordination is for the Miniftry , and the Minifterial 
Office for the Work, and the Work for Gods honour and mens 
falvation: And therefore God muft be ferved, and men muft be 
faved , and the Miniftry to thofe ends muft be ufed, whether 
there be Ordination to be had or not. Necefiity may be laid 
upon us , without Ordination , and then woe to us if we 
preach not the Gofpel. The Law can make Duty without an 

Sed. 43. If this were not fo, a lazy perfon that is Able for 
the Miniftry, might by pleafingor bribing the Ordainers, be 
exempted from abundance of duty , and efcape the danger of 
Guilt and Judgement upon his Omiflion. And truly the bur- 
den is fo great to flefti and blood, if men be faithful in their Of- 

Y flee, 

£co,the labour founcefTantjthe people fo unconftant, ungrate- 
ful and difcouraging-,the worldly honours and liches fo tempting 
which may b.. had in a fecular life, wich the ftudy and coft that 
fits men for cheMiniftry , and the enemies of our work and us 
are fo many and malicious, and times of perfecutionfo frequent 
and unwelcome , that if it were but in the Prelates power to 
exempt ail men at their pleafure, from all the trouble and 
care and danger and fufferings of the Miniftery, they would 
have abundance of Solicitors and Suitors for a difpenfation ? 
efpecially where the Love of God and his Church were not 
very ftrong to prevail againft temptations ( for this would free 
them from ail fear.) 

Se&./M* 3. Ira man and woman maybe truly husband 
and Wife without a folemn Marriage, then a Minifter and 
People may be truly conjoined in their Relations and Church- 
State without his folemn Ordination. For thefc are very neer 
of a Nature. A private Contract between themfelves may tru- 
ly make them Husband and Wife : and then the ftandtng Law 
of God conveyeth to the man his Powcr,and obligeth him and 
the woman to their duties, without any Inftruraental invefti- 
ture : And yet if there be opportunity it is not lawful for any to 
live together in this relation, without the inveftiture of Solemn 
Matrimony, for Order fake, and to prevent the fornication and 
baftardy,that could not be avoided if Marriage be notOrdinari- 
ly publick, Juft fo it is a very great fin to negled Ordination 
ordinarily,and where it may be had y and cendeth to the baftar- 
dyofthe Miniftry, and of Churches 3 and foon would moft be 
illegitimate if that courfe were taken. And yet if Paftorandi 
People go together without Ordination , upon private Co&- 
m&,incafeofNtceffity , itis lawful; And if there be no Ne- 
ceffity,it is finfui, but yet doth not Null the Baptifm,and other 
Minifterial adroiniftrations of any fuch perfon 2 to the Church q£ 
Chrift,or the upright members, 

Seft 45 * 4. If a man may be a true Chriftian wuhoHt € Bapfm % 
and have Chrift and pardon and J unification and eternal fife 
without it v then may a manbe a true Minifter without Q*di- 
nation* For no man can reafonabiy„ plead that Ordination is, 
oiore ncceflfary to a Minifter cbenBaptifm to a Chriftian. Even 
tfet P&pife s.ha* make a, Sacrajnent of it % and afcribe to it in inv. 


C Kf J ) 

dehble Charader, muft needs fee it fomewhat lower then Bap- 
tifm. Baptizing is commonly called our Chriftening,as that in 
fome fort makes us Chriftians. And yet for all that the true 
ufc of Baptifra is but to folemnize the Marriage between Chrift 
and us, and to Inveft and inaugurate them in a ftate of Chriftia- 
nity folernnly, that were indeed Chriftians before. And the 
Papiftsthemfcivesconfefs that when a man firft repenteth and 
belie veth ( with a fathformata Ckantate ) he is pardoned,and 
in a State of Salvation before Baptifm , and (hall be faved 
upon the meer Votttm Baptifmi, if in cafe ofNeceffitybedie 
without it ( Though the partial Prodors will damn the infants 
for wane of Baptifm, that never refufed it, when they fave the 
parents that have but the defire.J No doubt but Conft*ntine % 
and manp other, that upon miitake deferred their Baptifra, 
were ncvertheiefs Chriftiansjand judged fo by the Church both 
then and now. And yet to negled it wilfully were no final fin. 
So if in our cafe, men want Ordination, they may be re- 
ally Minifters, and their Miniftrations Valid •, but it is their very 
great fin, if their wilfull negled be the caufethat they are no* 

Sed. 46. As Baptifm is the open badge of a Chriftian, fo 
Ordination is the open badge of a Minifter : and therefore 
chough a man may be a Chriftian before God without Baptifm, 
yet Ordinarily he is not a Chriftian before the Cburch without 
Baptifm, till he have by fome equivalent Profeffion given them 
fatisfadion : And therefore if 1 knew men to be utterly unbap- 
tized, I would riot at firft have Communion with them as Chri- 
ftians. But if they could manifeft to me that Neceffity forbad 
them, or if it were any miftake and fcruple of their confeiences 
that hindered them from the outward Ordinance, and they had 
without that Ordinance made as publick and bold a profeffion 
of Chriftianity, and fatisfadorily declared tbemfelves to be 
Chriftians by other means , I would then own them as 
Chriftians , though with a difowning and reprehenfion of 
their error- Even fo would I do by a Minifter: I would not 
own him as a Minifter unordained, unlefs he either (hewed a 
Neceffity that was the Caufe, or elfe ( if it were his weaknefs 
and miftake ) did manifeft by his abilities and fidelity and the 
confent and acceptance of the Church, that he were truly cal- 

Y 2 led : 


led*. And i* he did fo. I would own him f though with a dif- 
owning and reproof of his miflake, and omitfion of fo great a . 

Sed 47- 5. There is no: a wo-d of God to be found that 
trnkes Ordsn-iuonofahfolureNecedicy to the being of the Mi-. 
n ftrv * therefore it is not fo to be efteemed. The examples of 
Scrip:u-efhewit to the regular way, and therefore Ordinarily, 
a duty : but they fhew not rhat there is no other way. 

Sed. 48- Objed. Itisfufficient th%t no other Way it revealed^ 
ani therefore till jou find another it Scripture^tkirrKufibetakjn 
for the only way* Anfw.i. Scripture is the Rule of our Rigbt 
performance of all duties : We cannot imagine tha t in the Rule 
there fhould be the leaft defed ; and the r efore no precept 
or linkable pattern of fin in the fmalleft matter is there 
to be found. And yet it followeth not that every fin doth 
Nullifie a Calling, beeaufe there is no Scripture warrant for that 
fin. All that will follow it, that.no, other way is innocent or 
warrantable : and t^at onlywhenNecefiicy doth not warrant, 
it. 2. 1 have (hewed already that there are other wayes war- 
ranted in fome cafes in the Scripture : And I (hall (hew anon 
that as great omifsions nullifie not the office. 

Seel:. 49. Objed. Btttho^jb*!} they preach unlefs they hefent} 
faith Paul, Rom. 10. Anfo. But the queftion is, Whether no 
man befentthat have not humane Ordination? The test doth 
not affirm thk Let that be Gods Ordinary way : butyet it 
followeth not there is no other. If God fend them however, 
they may preach •, 2.%Edefi'4i i FrptmenUu' % Or\gen % and others 
did of old. 

Sed. 50. Argument 3. He that hath the Talents of Miuifte- 
rial Abilities, is bound to improve them to the ferviceofbjs 
Matter and beft advantage of the Church : But fuch are 

many that cannot hive Ordination: ergo Concerning 

the Major, note that I fay not. that every man that is able is 
bound to be a Minifter, much lefs to enter upon the facrcd fun- 
ction without Ordination: For 1. Some men that have Abili- 
ties may want liberty and opportunity to exerciCe them.2.0thers 
that have Minifteria! Abilities,may alfo have Abilities for Magi- 
flfftcy, Phyfick, Law, &c. and may live in a Country where 
the excrcife of the later is more Necetfary. and ufefal to the 



good of men, and the fervice of God, then the exercife of the 

Miniftry would be. For thefc men to beMinifters, that either 
want opportunity, or may do God greater fervice other waies, 
is not to improve their Talents to their Maftcrs chiefcit fervice : 
But (till the genera! obligation holds,to improve our Talents to 
the bed advantage , and do good to as many as we can, and 
work while it is day. And therefore i. Such a man is bound 
(if he benototherwife called out firft ) to offer his fervice to 
the Church and feek Ordination : And if he cannot have it up- 
on juft feeking, in cafe of Neccffity,he is to exercife his Talents 
without it: left he be ufed as the. wicked flothful fervant , that 
hid his Talent, Mat: 25 . 

Sed. 51. If this were not fo , it would follow that the 
Gifts of God mud be in vain, and the Church fuffer thelofs 
of them at the pleafurc of Ordainers .* and that the fixed 
univerfal Law that fo feverely bindeth all men , as good 
Stewards to improve their Matters flock ( their Time, abi- 
lities , intereft , opportunities ) might be difpenfed with at 
the.Pleafure of Ordainers. And that God Mth bound us to 
feck in vain , for Admittance to the exercife of the Talents 
that he hath endowed us with : and that even in the Ne- 
ceflities of the Church. Which are not things to be gran- 

Seel. 52. Object By this dotlrine you will induce diforder 
into the Church, if all that are able mufl be Afinifierj when 
they are denied Ordination : For then they trill be the fudges 
cf thtir own .Abilities , and every brain- fick^ proud Opinionifi t 
will thinks that there is a Necejjity of his Preachings and fo 
we /ball have confufion, and Ordination will be msde contemptible 
by Pretences of Necefsity 1 

Se&. 53. Anfw.i, God will not have the Neceflities of 
mens fouls negle&ed , nor allow us to let men go quietly 
to damnation , norhayehis Churches ruined,. ..for fear of oc- 
cafioning the diforders of other men. Its better that men be 
diforderly faved, then orderly damned • and that the Church be 
diflbrderly preferved, then orderly deftroyed ! God will not 
alllow us to fuffer every Thief and Murderer to rob or kill our 
neighbours, for fear left by defending them, we occafton men 1 
to neglc& the, Magiftratc : Nor. will he allow us to ictraen 

Y3. pertfk^ 

perifb in their ficknefs, if we can help them, for fear of en- 
ng the ignorant ro turn PJr z. Thee is no 

par: ol s >- that can be ufed , n of 

tothepenrerfe; Chrift bhftfelf is the .ail as well as rb ri- 
ling of many ; and is a Rumbling Sore ar.d Rock ofotfenct : 
ana yet no: for that tobedenyed. There is r.ojuft and rea- 
' fon" aft in the do&rine v.h!ch I here ex- 

's. 5. Triie Netefiitj willexcufe and Juftifietbe unordain- 
cd before Gcd for exercu'xg their Abilities tohisfervice. Bat 
teafshj will no: Juftirle any ; And the 
. judgement is s: bar d , when all thingsfhall be let ftrsir^ard 
c c ■ erffeit fhail be difcerned. 4. Until 
: in force diforder in this world, be- 
fe there is fin the world, which is the diforder. But our 
nedies arethe.e , :. To teach men their duties truly, and 
not to lead them into one evill to prevent another, much lefs to 
a mifeftief dcftru&ive to mens fouls, to prevent diforder. 
2,TheMagiftrateha:h the fword of jciftke in his hand, to re- 
ftrainfalfe pretenders of NeceiTIty ; and in order thereto , it 
is he , and nor the pretender that fhali be judge. And 3 .The 
Churches have tiic Power of cafting the pretenders ( if the 
. defcrve '#) out of their communion • and in order there- 
to, it is not he but they that will be Judges, And other re- 
medies we hive none till the ltd day. 

SeA. 54. Queft. Bnt what would y:u have men do that 
think tbert is a NcccfsUy of their Infants, and that thej have 
Miniftirial abilities } Anfvt. i . I would have them lay by pride 
and felnfhnefs, and pafs judgement on their own Abilniesin 
Humility and felf denyal. If their Corruptions are fo frrong 
that they cannot ("that is, they will not ) do this, thatslongof 
rhemfehres. 2. They muft not pretend a NecefTity where is 
none. 3. They muft offer themfeives to the Tryal of the Pa- 
yors of the Church that beft know them. 4. If in the judge- 
ment of the godly able Paftors that Know them , they are 
unhr } and there is no need of them, they muft accruiefce in 
their judgement. for ab.'e Godly men are'not like to de- 
firoy the Church or envy help to the fouls of men. 5. if 
they have caufe to fufped the Paftors of Corruption, and falfe 
judgement, let them go to the other Paftors that are-feitb- 



full. 6. If all about us were corrupt, and their judgements 
not to be reftcd in , and the perfons are aflured of their 
Ability for the Miniftry , lee them confider the State of the 
Church where they are ; And if they are fure ("on Confultation 
with tbe wifeft men ) that there is a Nccefiity , and their en- 
deavours in the Miniftry are like to prevent any notable hurt, 
without a greater hurt , let them ufe them without Ordinati- 
on , if they cannot have it. But if they find that the Churches 
are fo competently fupplied without them, that there is no Ne- 
ceflity , or none which they can fupply without doing more hurt 
by offence and difordcr then good by their labours, let them 
forbear at home, and go into fomc other Countries where there 
is greater need ( if they are fie there for the workjif not,let them 

Sed. 55. Argument 4. If unordained men may Baptize in 
cafe of Neceftity, then may they do other Miniftcrial works in 
cafe of Nccefliey : But the Antecedent is the opinon of thofe 
that we now difpute againfc And the Confequence is grounded 
on a Parity of ReafomNo man can (hew more for appropriating 
the Eucharilt, then Baptifmc to the Minifter. 


risr.6 *iy.t- t).v.'- <!y i ir&.G t>rr . . «. «F£ e v - tyi i£**.C. tW.O «X^r ( ft!f.t-- c^ f ; t ^ G 
^*~ -Jt. - *\g' ~« ^X" ^X' "X' "i U .'._^X^ X* X» ^1" ~X' -1 ' 


cl^a uninterrupted Succefsion of Regular 
Ordination, is not U^Qecejjary. 

Ofthis I de- 
fire the Rea- 
der- toperufe 
what is writ- 
ten by Voztius 
dt defper&ta 

StS.i. iaffEfrlr&EtoA Aving proved the Non-necefiity of 

Ordfnation it felf to the Being of 
the Miniftry, and Validity of their 
adminiftrationsj may be the fhort- 
er in mod of the reft, becaufe they 
are fufficiently proved in this. If 
Ordination it felf be not of the 
Necefiity which the adverfaries do affert, then the Regularity 
of Ordination cannot be of more Necefticy then Ordination it- 
felf: Much lefs an uninterrupted Succefsion of foch Regular 
Ordination : Yet this alfo is aflerted by moft that we have now 
to do with. 

Sed. 2. By ReguUr Ordination^ mean in the fence of the ad • 
verfaries themfelves, fuch as the Canons of the Church pro- 
nounce not Null,and fuch as by the Canons was done by fuch as 
had Authority to do it-' in fpecial, by true Bifhops ( even in their 
Own fence. ) 

Sed. 3 . And if the uninterrupted fucceffion be not Neceffary, 
then neither is fuch Ordination at this prefent NeccfTary to the 
being of the Miniftry : For if any of our prcdeceffors might 
be Miniftcrs without it, others in the like cafe may be fo too. For 
we live ucder the fame Law, and the Office is the fame thing 
now as it was then. 

Se&. 4. Argument 1. If uninterrupted Regular Ordination 
of all our Predeceflbrs be Neceffary to the Being of the Mini- 


ftry , then no man can know that he is truly a Minifter of Chrifr. 
Buc theConfequentisfalfe, and intolerable; therefore Icfia the 

Sc&. 5. The truth of the Minor is apparent thus. i.Ifu-e 
could not be fur e that we are true Miniiiers, then nomanaui 
with comfort fcek the Minftry , nor enter into upoa ic. For 
who can have encouragement to enter a calling when be knows 
not whether indeed he enter upon it or r.oc ? and whether 
heengage not himfclf in acour'eof iln , and be rot guilty 
as Vzz* of medling with the Ark unlawfully ? e r pecia!;v 
in fo £ r e*t and tender a cafe where God is Jo exceeding 

Sect. 6. And 2. who ran go on in the Callirg of the Mini- 
ftry,and comfortably do the work, and bear the burdcn,that 
cannot know throrgh ail his life , or in any adminiftracion, 
whether he be a Mtnifter or a U/urpcr? What adampmuft it 
call upon our fpirits, in Prayer, Praife, adrr iniilration of the 
Eucharift and all ptblick worfhip, ( which (hould be perform- 
ed with the grcatcll alacrity and delght) when we remember 
that we are uncertain whether God havefentu«, or whether 
we are ufurpers, that muft one day hear , £ Who fint 
yen > Whence had yon your Power } and who required this at pur 
hands ? 

Se&. 7. And the Confequerceof theMsjor ^ that we are 
all uncertain of our Call and office, both Papifls and Protc- 
ftants ) is moQ clear ( in cafe of the Necefli*v of fuch fuccefsive 
Ordination ) "For 1. No man ever did, to this day demomftratc 
fnch a'fucceftion , for the Proof of his Mtniftry. Norcanall 
our importunity prevail wi:h Papifts (Italians or French) to 
give us fuch a proof. 2. It is a thing impofnbie fev any man 
now alive, to prove (he Regular Ordination of all his Precie- 
ceffors, to the Apoftles daies , yea or any Ordination at all. 
How can you tcM that he that ordained you, did not counter- 
feit himfelf to be Ordained? Or at leift that he was cot or- 
dained by an unordained man ? o; that h s P. eJeceffjrs were 
notfo. ? ic isameerimpoiTibiliryforus to know any fuchching; 
we have no Evidence to prove it; 

Sed.8. Object. But it is probable though not certain*, for 
the Church frocetdeth bj fuch Kales, andtakithtbe matter to be 

Z of 


: : fo great might , that there is no frobabilitj that thej would 
fuffer any to go jor Pafiors or Bi/hops that Are mordained y in fo 
great a cafe. 

tsinfo. i. All this is no certainty * and therefore no 
proof .* and no fatisfa&ion to the mind of a Miniftcr,in the fore* 
mentioned doubts. 2. Yea we have fo great reafon to be fufpici- 
ous in the cafe that we cannot conclude that we have fo mnch as 
a prohabily. 

Se&. 9. For, i.We know that there is fo much felfifhnefs 
and corruption in man as is like enough to draw them to deceit. 
Ordainers may be bribed to confecrate or ordain the uncapable, 
and the Ordained or Confecrated may be tempted to fcek it in 
their incapacity ; and many may be drawn to pretend that they 
were Ordained or Confecrated when it was no fuch matter, 
And fo there is not fo much a a Probability. 

Se&. 10. 2. And we know that there were fo many herefies 
abroad, and ftill have been, and fo much fadion andSchifm in 
the Church; that we cannot be fure that thefe might not inter- 
rupt the fuccefiion , or that they drew not our predectfTors to 
counterfeit a Confecration or Ordination when they had none,or 
none that was regular. 

Se&. 1 1 . 3 . And we know our felves that the thing hath been 
tooufual. When I was young, I lived in a village that had 
but about twenty houfes. And among thefe there were five 
that went out into the Miniftry. One was an Old Reader whofe 
Original we could not reach. Another was his fon,whofe fclf -Or- 
dination was much fufpe&ed s The other three had Letters of 
Orders,two of thcmfufpe&ed to be drawn up and forged by him, 
and one that was fufpe&ed to Ordain himfelf. One of them, or 
two at laft were proved to have counterfeit Orders, when they, 
had continued many years in the Miniftry. So that this is no rare 

$c&. 22. Among fo many temptations that in fo many ages 
fincethe Apoftles dayes, have befallen fo many men, as our pre< 
ckceffors in the Miniftry , or the Bifhops prcdeceflbrs have been, 
it were a wonder if all of them ftiould fcape the fnare : So 
that we have reafon to take it for a thiEg improbable, that the 
fucceffion hath not been interrupted. 
Se&. 1 3, And we know that tn feveral ages cf the Church the 


C 1 7i 3 

Prelates and Prieftshave been fo vile, that in reafon we could ex«^ 
ped no better from men fo vicious , then forgery and abufei lie 
that reads what (jildts and others fay of the Brittifb, and what 
even Baronins y much more Efpencaus, Cornelius LMptf. and 
others fay of the Romanifts ; yea he that knows but what 
ftate the Bifhops and Priefts have been in and'yet continue in, 
in ourowndaycs, will never think it an improbable thing that 
fomeofour predeceffors (hould be guilty either of Simony or 
other vice that made them uncapable , or (hould be mcer ufur- 
pers under the name ofBiihopsand Minifters of Chrift. 

Sed. 14. Argument 2. If uninterrupted Regular Ordination 
of all our Predeceffors be NecefTiry to the Being of the Miniftry, 
then can no Bifliop or Paftors whatfoever comfortably Ordain : 
For who dare layihis hand on the head of another , and pretend 
to deliver him authority 1 in the name of Chrift, that hath no 
affurance { nor probability neither ) that he hath any Coramff- 
fton from Chrift to do it ? But the Confcquent will be 
difowned by thofe that difputeagainftus? therefore fo (hould 
the Antecedent be alfo. 

Sed. .5. Argument 3. -If there be a Neceffity of an unin- 
terrupted fucceftion of true Regular Ordination, then no man 
can know of the Church that he is a member of, or of any other 
Church on earth, that it is a true Church. ( By a Church I 
mean not a Community, but a Society: not a company of 
p ivate Ghriftians living together as Chriftian«neighbours,but a 
Politick Church confifting of Paftor and people affociated for 
theufe ofpublick Ordinances and Communion therein.JButthe 

consequent is falfe ; &c. 

Sed. 16. The Ma/or, or confequence is certain : For no man 
can know that the Church is a true Political Organized Church, 
that knows not chat the Paftor of it is a true Minifter of Chrift. 
Becaufe the Paftor is an Effential conftitutive, part of the Church 
in this acceptation. And I have proved already that the truth 
of the Miniftry cannot be known upon the Opponents terms. And 
for the Minor , I think almoft all Church members will grant it 
me. For though they are ready enough to accufe others, yet 
they all take their own Churches for true, and will be offended 
with any that queftion or deny it. 

Sed. 17. Argument 4. If there be a Neceftityof an unin- 

Z 2 terrupted 


errupted fucceftion of true Ordination , then cannot the 
Church or any Chriftian in it, know whether they have any 
trueMinifterialadminiftrations,whe;her inSacrasnents or other 
Ordinal ces. For he that cannot know that he hath a Minifter, 
cannot know that he hath the adminiftntion of a-Minillcr ) But 
the consequent is untrue, andag-.inft the comfort of alfChrifti- 
ans , and the honour of thrift » and is indeed the very do- 
ctrine of the Infidels and Papifts , that call themfelvci Seekers 
among u c . 

Sed. 1 8. Argument 5. If the Churches and each member of 
them are bound to fubmit to the Miniftry of their Pallors 
without knowing that they are regularly orcbincd, or that they 
have an uninterrupted fucceffion of fuch Ordination , then are 
they quoad Ecc left am, true Paftors to them and their administra- 
tions valid.though without Ordination or fuch a fucceffion. But 
the Antecedent is true, and granted by all that now we have to 
deal with. Though they will not grant a known unordained man 
is to be taken fot aMinifter, or one whofe fucceffion had a 
known interdfion ; Yet they will grant that if the Nullity 
b*u: -known, it freeth not the people from the obligation :o*hcir 
Pa. tors. 

Seft. 19. BtlUrmine ( lib 3. deEcclf.c. 10. ) was To Hailed 
wi.h thefe difficulties chat he leaves it as a thing that: we cannot 
br refolvedpf; that our Paftors have indeed Q PettftatemOr- 
dinis & Jftrifdi£lUnis~] that is , that they are true Pa/tors. And 
he faith that [ Ntn habemus certitudincm nifi Morahm^ quod 
Utifint vere Ecifccpi. ] But when he (hould prove it to Us 
that there is a Moral Ccrtaintj.be leaves us to feek and gives us 
not fo much as a ground to conjecture at any probability. 

Sect. 20. But he faith that we may know that [_ {owe Paftors 
at leaf! are true : or elfe Gedbad ferfaken h-s Church. ] A fw. 
feat what the better are we for this, if we know not, which 
they are that are the true Paftors, nor cannot poffibiy come to 
know it ? 

Sect 21 . But he faith thu[ JS.U0 I Chrifii tecum te*cr.t,& quod 
dtbemus Mi* obedientiam" may he known : and thereupon he faith 
that [Certefumus cert itu dint infallibili quod 1 fit quoi vidimus jint 
vert Bpifcopi & Paflores noftri: Nam ad hoc mn rcquiritur, nee fi- 
des net Charafter Or dims. Kic leiitirva Eleclio, fed folum ut 



hubeantur pro talibus abEccle/ia. ] From all this you may note 
i . 1 hat they arc veri Epifcopi & P aft ores noflri, that were never 
ordaincd,if they are but reputed (u.h by the Church, 2. That 
we may know this by infallible Certa *'*ty t 3 . And that we owe 
them obedience as fuch. So that as rothe Church thjy are 
true Pafto: s'without Odination,and confequen ly to the Church 
a fucc:ffion is unneceffary. 

Secc 22. Yec of fuch Usurpers he faith [ Eos cjuifom non (fe 
in feveros. Epifopos, tamendsnee pro talibus hubentur ab Ec* 
clefiA , deberi tills obedientiam , cum confeicntia etiam error, ea 
obliget. ] So thac they are not veri Epifcopi in fe : and yec they 
are veri Epifcopi & Pfiftorej noftri, if Bellarmine fay true; 
And the words havefometruchm them, underftood according 
ro the diitinction which I ber'ore gave, Ch*p. 1. S/tl. 56. He 
hath no fuch Call as will fave himfelf from the penalty or ufur- 
pation ( if he knowingly bean ufurper j butheha:h fuc':aCail 
as (hall oblig- the Church to obey him is their Bishop or 

Sect. 23 But his rczionfCum cenfeientia etiam erronea obligct] 
is a deceit • and neither the only, nor thecbie; reafon, not any 
reafon. Not the only nor chief 'reafon ; becaufe the obligation 
arifeth from God, and that is the greaieft. Not mj reafon ; 
1 • Becaufe indeed it is net an Erroneous Confcience, that tells ma- 
ny people that their ufurpingBfhopsor Paftors are to be obey- 
ed as trueMinifters . For as it is terminated on the Pallors act 
or Rate, it is no act of Confcience at all and therefore no er- 
ror of confcience. For confcience is the knowledge of our own 
affairs. And as ic is terminated on our own Du:y or" obeying 
them, it is not Erroneous ; but right •, For it is the Will of God, 
that for order fake we obey bo:h Magistrates and Paftors that 
arefetledinP^fFflion, if they rule us according rothe Laws of 
Cbrift ; u ieaft, if we do not kr.ov the Nullity of their call. 
2. And its faifc tha t an Erroneous Confcience bin&eth^hz: is, makes 
usaDntji For at the fame inftant it is it f elf a fin and we are 
bound to dep;fe it, and change it, and renounce the error, 
Itdothbu:in:a r glca man in a Necefficy of finning till it belaid 
by. But it U God only that can make our duty, and caufe fuch 
an obligation. 
Sed.24. From tbeadverfaries^onceffions then an uninter- 

Z 3 rupted 

COptcd faccefison, or prefer, t true Ordination is not of Necefii- 

tytothe being of the Mmiltry, Church or Ordinances quoad 
Eeclejiam ' for the Church is bound to obey the ufurpers, and 
that as long as they are taken for true Paftors. Which is as much 
as moft Churches will defire in the cafe. 

Se&. 25. And theconfequenceis eafily proved: For where 
Godobligerh his Churches to the obedience of Paftors (though 
ufurpers) and to the ufe of Ordinances and their Mmiftration, 
there will he blefs the Mmiltry and thofc Ordinances ( to the 
innocents, that are not guilty of his ufurpationj and that obey 
God herein. And confequently the Ordinances (hall not be 
Nullities to them. God would never fet his fervanrs upon the 
ufeofameans which is but a Nullity; nor will he command 
them to a duty , which he will blait to them when he ha:h 
done without their fault. Its none of the Cturches fault 
that the Bifhop or Pafior is an ufurper , while they can: 
know it , and that any of his PredecefTors were ufurpers 
fincc the Apoftles dayes. And therefore where God impo 
feth duty on the Church and prefcnbech me^r*. 
Prayer , the Lords Supper, Church G 
it is certain that be will no: blaH it, bu: b:- 

dient , nor punifh the Church fo for the here ki 

not who, committed I know not wheie nor when, perhapsa 
thoufand years ago. 

Se&. 26. Argu:nent6. As other actions o f ufu-pcrs arc not 
Nullities to the innocent r hurch 3 fo nether is -heir Ordina* 
nation : and co^ equencly, thole ihu are Ordained by ufurpers, 
may be true Miniiter«. IfrheirEapt zing, Preaching, Praife?, 
Confecration and adminiftration of the Eucharift,b ndmg and 
loofing^ be not Nriflitics, it follows undenyabl on the fame 
account, that their Ordinations are no: Nullities -. and con- 
fequently, that they are true Minifters whom they ordain^and 
fucceflion of a more regular Ordination isnot of Neceflity/.o 
the MmiLtry, r burchor Ordinances. 

Se#. 27 Argument 7. If Juch uninterrupted fucceffion be 
not Neccffary to be Kmwn , then is it not Neceff-rvto the 
Bting of the Miniltry or Validity of Ordinances adminiftred; 
Bnt fuch a fuccefBon is not Neceffary to be known : there- 
fore ■ '"The Confequenxe of tfre Major is plain, be- 


C ill ) 

caufeche Being or Nullity of Office and adrainiftrations, had 
never been treated off by God to men , nor had it been re- 
vealed, or a thing regardable, but that we may know it : 
Nor doth it otherwife attain its ends. And that it is not neccflary 
to be known, I further prove. 

Se&. 28. If this fucceflion mud be known, then either, to 
the Paftor, or to the Church, or both : but none of thefe- 

therefore . t. If it rauft be known only to the Paftor, 

then it is notNeceffary as to the Church. And yet it is not 
Neceffary to be known to the Paftor himfelf neither. For (as 
is (hewed) itsimpoftiblefor him to know it, fo much as by a 
Moral Certainty. His Predeaffors and their Ordinations 
were ftrange to him. 2. Not to the C hurch. For it is not 
poffiblc for them to know it : Nor likely that they fhould 
know as much as the true Ordination of their pre fent Paftor 
according to the Prelatical way,, when it is done fo far out of 
their light. 

Seel:. 29. If the forefaid uninterrupted fuccefsion be necef- 
fary to the being of our MiniOry, or Churches or Ordinances, 
then is it incumbent on all that will prove the truth 
of their Mintftery , Churches or Ordinances , to prove 
the faid fuccefaon. But that is not true; for then none (as 
is aforcfaid ) could prove any of them. Either it is meet that 
webeable to Prove thetruth of our Miniftry,Churchesandad» 
miniftrations, or not. If not , then why do the adverfaries-eall 
us to it? If yea*, then no man among the Churches in Enrepe 
( on their grounds ) hath any proof • and therefore muft not 
pretend to the Miniftry*, Churches or OrjIm?nces, but we 
muft' all turn Seekers to day, and Infidels to morrow, by this 

Seel. 30. Argument 8. The Miniftry of the Priefts and 
Levities before the incarnation of Chrift,and in his time, was not 
Null, though they wanted as much or more then fuch a fuccef- 
fion of right Ordination : therefore it is fo ftill with the 
GofpclMiniftery. The Antecedent I ihall more fully manifeft 
neerer to the end : Only now obferve, that when Abiatharvt&s 
put out by Solomon ; and when fuch as were not of the line or 
Genealogieof the Priefts, were put as polluted perfonsfrom 
the Priefthood ( Netuj. 64, 65. andi^ 29, 30, Ezra 2.62,/ 


yet were net any of their adrniniftrations taken to have been 

Sed.sr. Argument o. If rhe Miniftration or Governing 
ads oiVfftrptng Princes may be Valid, and there need no proot' 
of an uninterrupted fuccefsion to prove the validity, then is it fo 
alfointhe Miniftry; But the Antecedent is ceruir; therefore, 
tfrc* The Validity of the confequer ce from the parity of Rcafon 
I (hail manifefl anon. 

Seft.32. Argument 10 If an uninterrupted Succession of 
Canonical cr true Ordination be Neccffiry to the Being of the 
Church, Miniftry and Ordinarces,then Rome and EngUndhzve 
loft their Miniftry, Churches, and Ordinances. But the Con- 
sequent will be denyed by the adverfaries \ therefore fo alfo mud 
the Antecedent, if they regard their (landing. 

Sed. 3 3 . Though this be the Argument that I h: re the great- 
eft advantage to prefsiheadverfary with, yet becaufe 1 have 
made it go^ d already in two or three other writings ( in my Key 
for Cathoi cks,ard my Safe Relg : oo, and Chrift an Comord) 
I (hall fay but little of it now. But briefly this may fuffice: 
1. For the Church of Rome, if either Herefic, Infidelity, Sodo- 
mie, Adultery, Murder, Simony, violent intrufion, ignorance, 
impiety, w?nt of due election, crof ducconfecration,or plura- 
lity of Popes at once, can prove an interruption of their fueeef- 
fion, I have (hewed them already where its proved ^ But if none 
of thefc prove it, we are fafe our felves. 

Sec%. 34 But Grotitts ( in Difcuf.tslpolog. Rivet,} pleads 
for them, that if any intercifion have been made at Rome, it hath 
been made xpft*m other Churches,~]Anfw. I. That is not proved, 
but nakedly affirmed. 2. Nor will ic ferve the Papifts turn, 
that muft have all Churches hold from Rome and her fuccefsion, 
and Rome from none, nor to be patent up from their fuccefsion. 
3 . Be fafto the contrary is certain : For 1 . Thofe other held rheir 
Miniftry as from theuniverfal Headfhipofthc Pope •, and there- 
fore had themfelves their interruptions in the former interrupti- 
ons of Rome ( as being but her members : ) and therefore were 
not capable themfelves of repairing of her breaches, 2. The fuccef- 
fors of the illegitimate Popes ((uchas dtfofcdEfigenius,&c. ) 
and menas bad as they, have continued the focceflion.- And the 
Biftiopsthat were confecrated by power received from the ille- 


gitimate Pop??, were the only perfons that were the repairers of 
the breach. And yet the Pope will hardly yield that he recei- 
ved his power from any of thefe. 3 . There have been greater 
defe&s in the fuccefsion then this of Consecration, even of due 
Eledion, Capacity, yea of an office it felf winch Chrift will own. 
The Vicechnllfhip of the Pope is no office of Chrifts planting. 

Sect. 35. And 2 For the Englilh Prelates, as they arc unable 
to prove their uninterrupted fuccefiion, fo the interruption is 
proved, in that they derived and held their Power from the 
Yicecbrift of Rome y and that qua talis y for fo many ages. This 
was their own profefsion : and all that they did was as his Mini- 
ftersby his Authority, which wasnone. 

Se&. 3 6. Ob je&. But this nulled not the true Authority -which 
they received from the Pope or T relates as Prelates* Anfiv. The 
Pope was uncapable of giving them Authority (and whether the 
Prelates as fuch were fo too, we (hall enquire anon J And though 
1 grant that (where the perfon was fit ) there was yet a Miniftry 
Valid to the Church(and perhaps to thcmfelves in the main)yet 
that is becaufe Canonical Ordination is not of Neceffity to the 
Being of the Miniftry- ( but by other means they might be then 
Miniftcrs, though this corruption was conjunct, that they re- 
ceived their Power imaginably from Rme ) t>ut that the fakf 
Canonical fuccefiion was interrupted, by this Papal tenure, and 
many a delinquency^ neverthelefs fure,and fufficient to inforce 
the Argument as to them that now are oar adverfaries. But 
fo much (hall fufficc for the Non-neceffity of this lucceffion of a 
true and Regular Ordination. 

t r- - 

A a GHA?« 

&£$) PtTQ »2*} (e>£^ ^'-- r $2?) $£*] P^ 6 ®2£°] (?&>} frt- 7 : £'-*■ &£\ {&£?* ? P?^ 

".&'* *i~ "t " -xv *" Z' 111 *-' r" £"• ZJ..1- ' v • 


Ordination by [uch as the Englijh Tre<* 
lates, not Zh(ecejjaryto the ^Beingof 
the ^Minijlry. 

Sed. i. S^SPB^SS Have made ^is work unneccf- 

fary by the two former C hap- 
ters : For if no Ordination be of 
Ncceffity to the Being of the 
Mini(try,noran uninterrupted 
Succeffion NecefTary , then 
doubtlefs an Ordination by 
thefe Prelates in Specie is not 
NecefTary at prcfent, or as to fucceffion. But yet ex abundm 
I add. 

Sc&.2. Argument i. Adhominem^ may well argue from the 
Conceffion of the Englifh Prelates themfelves and their moft 
zealous adherents ; And their judgements were i.That (uch a 
fucceffion as aforefaid of right Ordination was not of Neceffity ; 
And for this they that write againft,che Papifts do commonly and 
confidently difpute. 

Sed. 3. And 2. They maintained that the Proteftant Chur- 
ches that had no Bifhops were true Churches, and their Mini- 
Iters true Minifters, and fo of their adminiftrations, This was 
fo common with them that I do not think adifTenting vote can 
be found, from the firft Reformation, till about the prepara- 
tions for the Spanifh match or little before. 

Sed.4. 1 have in my Ckriftiax Concord cited at large the words 
ofmanyjand the places of the writings of more, as i. Dr. Field, 

2, Bifhop 


2..Bi{hopZW»4j»; 3- Bifhop 7^/, 4..Sdr4via, 5. Bifhop 
-4%, <5.B ihop PilfyntOM, 7. Bifhop Bridges, 8. Bifhop £*7- 
yfo, 9. Ahxander Novel, 10. Grotius ( their friend then ) 
iiyMr.ChyfenhAl, 12. The Lord Z);^ , 13. Bifhop ZWi- 
»4*r, 14- Bifhop Prideaux , 15. Bifhop Andrews, 1 6. C&7- 
iingtoorth, 17. I To which I. now add J Bifhop Bromball ( of 
Schifm) 18. Dr. Fern, 19. Dr. Steward ( in his anfwer to Foun- 
tains\txxtr ( ttaie of the later, or prefent fort j 20. And Bi- 
fhop £//&*r (whofe judgement of it is lately publifncd by Dr, 
Bernard at his own defire ) 2 1 . And Mr. Mafon ( in a Book of 
of purpofe for juftiflcation of the Reformed Churches ) hath, 
largely pleaded this caufc. 22. And Dr. Bernard faith that 
Dr. Overall was judged not only to confent to that Book,buc 
to have a hand in it. 23. And no wonder when even Bancroft 
himfelf ( the violenteftof all the enemies of them called Puri- 
tans in thofe times ) is faid by Spotswood ( there recited by Dr, 
Bernard ) to be of the fame mind, and to give it as his judge- 
ment, that the Scotch Minifters ( then to be Confecrated Bi- 
fhops^ were not to be reordained, becaufe the Ordination of 
Presbyters was valid, 

Se6t. 5. Thefe Novel Prelatical perfons then, that fo far dif- 
fent frrom the whole dream of the Ancient Bifhops and their zfa - 
herents,have little reafon to cxped: that we fhould regard their 
judgement above the judgement of the Englifh Clergy, and the 
judgement of all the Reformed Churches .If they can give us fuch 
Reafons as fhould conquer our modeftie,and perfwade us to con- 
demn the judgement or the Plelates and Clergy of England fie- all : 
other Churches of the Proteftants,and adhere to a few new men 
of ye(tcrday,that dare fcarceiy open the face of their own opini* 
ons; we fhall bow to their Reafons when we difcern them: But 
they muft not exped that their Authority fhall fo far prevail* 

Sed. 6. And indeed I think the raoft of this caufe is carried on 
in the dark : What Books have they written to prove our Ordi- 
nation Null ? and by what Scripture Reafons do they prove 
it? The task liethonthem to prove this Nullity, if they would 
be Regarded in their reproaches of the Churches of Chrift, 
And they are not of fuch exceffive Mode'ty, and backwardnefs 
todivulgc their accufations, but fure we might by this time ; 
have expected more then one volume from them, to have proved 

A a % fis*»i 


us, No Miniftcrs and Churchess if tbcy could have don e 
And till they do it; their whfperings are notrobeered ited 

Sed. 7. Argument 2. Ifthat fort of Prelacy that was- exer- 
cifedin England was not ncceffary it felf, yea if it werefin- 
fuli,and tended to the fubverfion or exceeding hurc of the Chur- 
ches; then is rhere no Necefiicy of Ordination by fuch a Pre- 
lacy. But the Antecedent is true: therefore fo is the coafe- 
quent. The Antecedent hath been proved at large in the fore- 
going Deputation. Such a Prelacy as confiftcth in the under- 
taking of an impofsible task,even for one man to be the only Go- 
ve nonr of all the fouls ih many hundred Parifhes, exercifing it 
alfc by Lay men , and in the needful parts, not exercifing it all 
ali ; a Prelacy not chofen by the Presbyters whom they Go- 
vern s yea fufpendisg or degrading ehe Presbyters of all thofe 
Churches, as to the governing part of their office, and guilty of 
the reft of the evils before mentioned , is not only it felf unne- 
ceffirv, but (inful,and a difeafe of the Church which ail good 
men ihould do the beft they can to cure, And therefore the 
effeds of this difeafe can be no more Neceffary to our Minifhry, 
then the burning of a feaver, or fwellingof a Tympany, is ne- 
ceflary to the body. 

Sed. 8. NoBiihopsare Ncceffary but fuch as were in Ven- 
ture times : But there were none fuch as che late Englifti Bifhops 
in Scripture times : Therefore the Englifti Bifhops are not nc- 
ceffary. He that denyeth the Major,muft go further in denying 
the fufficiency of Scripture,tbenl find thcPapifts ordinarily to do: 
For they will be loth to affirm that any office is of Necefiicy to 
the Being of the Church or of Presbyters,that is not to be found 
in Scripture a or that was not then in Being : Therefore fo far we 
are fecure. 

Secl.9. And for the Minor, I prove it thus. If the Englifh 
Bifhops were neither fuch as the unfixed General Minifters,nor 
fuch as the fixed Bifhops of particular Churches , then were 
they not fuch as were in Scripture times. But they were neither 
fuch as the unfixed General Minifters, nor fuch as the fixed Bi- 
fliops of particular Churches ; therefore, &c. 

ScG. 10. Befidesthefetwo forts of Minifters, there are no 
more in theNewTeflarocnt. ( Andtrefearediverfifiedbutby 
thecxercife of their office, fo far as they weie ordinary Mini- 



fiers to continue. ) The unfixed Miniflers (whether ApofUef, 
EvangeJiftsor Prophets ) weie fuch as had no fpecial charge of 
any one Church as their Diocefs, but were to do their bell: for 
the Churth in general, andfollowthe direction and call of the 
Holy Ghoft fur the exercifing of their Miniftry. But its known 
10 ali that our Engsifh BilViops were not fuch. 1 hey were no 
ambulatory itinerant Pi eacheis : they went not about to plant 
Churches, and confirm and direct fuch as they had planted : but 
were fixed to a City, and had everyone their Diocefs, which 
was their proper char ge ( but Oh how they difcharged their un- 
dertaking! ) 

Se&. ii. Objed. The Affiles might agree among them 
/elves to divide their Provinces, and did accordingly , James beinz 
Bifbop o/JeruitfUrri, Peter of Rome, &c. Anfw. No doubt but 
common reafon would teach them when they were fent to 
preach the Gofpel to all the world , to difperfc themfelves, and 
not be preaching all in a place,to the difad vantage of their work: 
But i. Its one thing to travail feveral ways, and fo divide them- 
felves as itinerants ^ and another thing to divide the Churches 
among them, as their feverai Diocefles to wheh they fhouldbe 
axed : Which they never did , for ought is proved. 2. And 
its one thing prudently to difperfc themfelves for their 
labour , and another thing to claim a fpecial power, over 
a Circuit or Diocefs as their charge , excluding a like charge 
and power of others. So far as any man , Apoftle or other, was 
the Father of fouls by their conversion , they owned him a fpe- 
cial honour and love , which the Apofties themfelves did fomc- 
times claim: But this was nothing to a peculiar Diocefs or Pro- 
vince. For in the fame City ( as ferufatem ) fome might be 
converted by one Apoftle, and fome by another. And if a Pres- 
byter convert them, I think the adverfaries will not therefore 
make them his Diocefs, not give him there an Epifcopal Power, 
much lefs above Apoflles in that place. Nor was this the Rule 
that Diocefles could be bounded by, as now they are taken. ^ 

Sed. 12. Nor do we find in Scripture the leaft intimati- 
on that the Apotlcs were fixed Diocefan Bifhops , but 
much to the contrary. 1. In that it was not confident 
with the General charge, and work that Chrift had laid upon 
them to go into all tbe world ,'■ and preach the Gofpel to 

A a 3 every 


every creature : How would this ftand with fixing in a peculiar 
Diocefs ? 

<;eft. i 3 . And 2. We find them anfwcring their Commiflion 
in their practice, going abroad and preaching ana* planting 
Churc hes, and fometimes vificing them in their pafTage,but not 
fctling on them as their Dioccffes ^ but going further, if they 
bad opportunity, to do the like for other places. Yea they 
planted Bifhopsin thefeveral Cities and Churches which they 
had gathered to Chrift. Though iWftaid three years at E* 
yhefus and other adjacent parts of tsifia , yet did not all 
that abode prove it his peculiar Diocefs : ( And yes its hard 
to find again fo long an abode of Paul or any Apoftle in one 
place J Elders that were Bifhops we find at Efhefus,/4cls 20.and 
fome fay Timothy was their Bifhop, *nd forae fay John the Apo« 
flic was their Bifhop • but its clear that it was no peculiar Di- 
ocefs of Paul. 

Sc&. 1 4. And 3 . We ftill find that there were more then one 
of thefe general itinerant Minifters in a Place, or at leaft that 
no one excluded others from having eqnal power with him in 
his Province, where ever he came. Barnabas ■, Silas , Titus, Ti- 
7notheus,Efafhroditus, and many more were fellow- labourers 
with Paul in the fame Diocefs or Province, and not as fixed 
Bifhops or Presbyters under him , but as General Minifters as 
well as he. We never read that he faid to any of the falfe 
Apoftles that fought his contempt [This is my Dioccfs,wbac 
have vou to do to play the Bifhop in another mans Diocefs ? ] 
Much lefs did he ever plead futh a Power, againft Peter, Barnabas 
or any Apoftolical Minifter * Nor that James pleaded anyfuch 
prerogative at Jerufalem. . 

Se&. 1 5. And therefore though we reverence Eufebius and 
other Ancients , that tell us of fome Apoftles DioccfTes,we take 
them not as infallible reporters , and have rcafon in thefe 
points partly to deny them credit from the word of God. The 
Churches ^hat were planted by any Apoftle, or where an Apo- 
ftle was longeft refident, were like enough to reckon the (tries of 
iheir Paftors from him : For the founder of a Church is a Paftor 
of it, though not a fixed Paftor, taking it as his peculiar charge, 
but delivering it into the hands of fuch : And in this fence we 
3iavc great reafon so underftand the Catalogues of the Antients 



and tketr affirmations that Apoftle* were Bifhops of the Chur- 
ches. For Paftors they were : but fo that they had no peculi- 
ar Dioccfs , but ftill went on in planting and gathering and con- 
firming Churches: Whereas the Bifhops that were fetled by them 
( and are faid to fucceed them had) their (ingle Churches which 
were their peculiar crurge ; They had but one fuch charge or 
Church, when the A pottles that lead in the Catalogues had ma ny; 
& yet none fo as to be limited to them. And why have we not the 
Diocefs ofPaxland fohn t and CMatloe »» and Thomas y and the reft 
of the twelve,mentioned,as well of Peter and James} Or H Paul 
had any,it feeras he was compartner with Peter in the fam e City 
( contrary to the Canons that requireth that there be but one 
Bifhop in a City. ) 

Se&. 16. Its clear then that the Englifh Bifhops were not 
fuch Apoftolical unfixed Bifliops as the I tinerants of the firft age 
were. And yet if they were, 1 fhall fhew in the next Argument 
that its nothing to their advantage; becaufe Archbiihops are 
nothing to our queftion. And that they were not fuch as the 
fixed Bifhops of Scripture rimesj am next to prove. 

.Seel. 17. The fixed Bifhop^ in the Scripture times had but a 
fingle Congregation , or particular Church for their Paftoral 
Charge : But our Englifh Bifhops had many ( if not many 
hundred) fuch Churches for their charge •* therefore our Englifh 
Bifhope were not of the fame fort with thofe in Scripture. The 
Major I have proved in the former Difputation. The Mi- 
nor needs no proof, as being known to all that know En* 

Sed. 18. And 2. The fixed Bifhops in the Scripture times had 
no Presbyters , at leaft, of other particular Churches under 
them , ( They Governed not any Presbyters that had other 
affociated Congregations for publick Worfhip. ) But the En- 
glifh Bifhops had the Presbyters of other Churches under them 
( perhaps of hundreds: ) therefore they are not fuch as the 
Scripture Bifhops were. There is much difference between a 
Governour of People,and a Governour of Paftors ; Epifcopus 
grtgis^ & Epifcepm Epifcoptrum;s not all one.None of us kith, 
Cyprian in Concil. Carthagi*. calleth himfelf, or takes himfelf 
to be Epifcopum Epifcopomm. No fixed bifhops in Scripture 
timeswere the Paftors of Paft ors, as lea ft, of other Churches. 



Se&. 59. Tins! fuppofeimay take as granted defatlo from 
the Reverend i J pvine whom 1 have cited in the foregoing Difpu- 
t;.tion, t! at faith ( Amotat. in Art. n # ,J| that [ Although this 
Vide of rifstffo^?* Elders, have been alfo. extended to a fecond or- 
der in the Church; and now i only in ufe for them, under the name 
(f Presbyters •, yet in the Scriptnre-times it belonged principal/}, if 
%ot ahne to BUbsp 1 •, there being no Evidence that any of that fecond 
fjrdtr were then in ftitutedy though Joon after, before the writing 
of Ignatius Eiifi Us % there were fuch inftitutedin all Churches ]So 
ri at he granteth that *k faUo there were then no Presbyters hut 
Bift>ops£n& that they were not inftituted : and therefore Bifhops 
had no fuch Presbyters to Govern; nor any Churches but a 
{ingle Congregation : For one Bifliop could guide but one Con- 
gation at once to publick worfhip ^ and there could be no Wor- 
shipping Congregations (in the fence that now we fpeakofj with- 
out TomePresbyter to guide them in performance of the worftn'p. 
Se&. 20. So faith the fame Learaed man, Differtat. 4. de E- 
fifcof. page 208, 209. £ w quibus p lures abfq>, dubio Epifcopi 
fttere, nulliq, adhuc qms hodie dicimus Presbyteri ] And there- 
fore be aifo concludeth that the Churches were then Governed 
by Bifhops aflitted by Deacons without Presbyters, inftancing 
in the cafe of the Church of ^A^/fw, AB. 6. and alledging thie 
WOfdsof Ciem. Roman. Kara yJ^.i *) t>ah$ KnpjxwTiS y&Qi- 

^cf.vov ?«< ctnuf^i cf-jTWy en im*vmvt *} olicLzovaSj ^ Cm ( HOW 

Grotius was confident that Clemens was againft their Epifcopacy, 
Ifhewed before)To the famepurpofe he citeth the words of Cle- 
mens Alexandrinus in Eufeb.offohn the Apoftle,concluding r L i:# 
his ratio con ft at tjudre fine Preshyterorum mentione interveniente, 
Epifcopis Diaconi immediate adjiciantur, quiafcilicet in fingulis 
Macedonia civkatibus tfnamvis Spifcopus effet^nondum Presbyttri 
conftnuti funt\Dia*onis tantum *fr vx»pe*i*p ubiq epifcopis adjun- 
£lis'}Dijfertat.4 cap. lO.Secl.l 9,20,21. Soalfocrf/M I.Sett.2.& 
Alibi paffim. 

Seft . 2 1 . Ob je&. But though de fa&o there were no Bifhops 
ruling Presbyters then, nor ruling any more then a Jingle Worfhip* 
ping Church >, yet it was the Intention of the Apoftles that they Should 
afterwards enlarge their Diocefs, and take the care of many Chftr* 
chef, and that they fhould ordain that fort ef fubjett Presbyters 
that were not inftittitedm Smptm-titms* ^/w*I)<*yoo prove 

thcfecrct Intention of theApoftles to be for fuch a Mutational 
then we (hall be fattsficd in that. But cill then it is enough to us 
chat we have the fame Government that dejaclo was fet up by 
che Apoftles, and exercifed in Scripture times. And that its 
granted us that the office was not then inftituted which we de- 
ny ■. For it is the office of fuch fubjed Presbyters having no 
Power of Ordination that we deny. 

Sed. 22. Objed. But though in Scripture times there 
were no Bijhops over many Churches and Presbyters, yet there 
-were Archbishops that were over many. Anfa. Becaufe this 
objedion contains their ftrengch , 1 (hall anfwer it the more 
fully. And i. IF there were no fubjed Presbyters in thofe 
time?, then Archbifhops could rule none. But there were 
none fuch, as is granted ; therefore, &c. And what proof is 
there of Archbifhops then ? 

Seel. 23. Their firft proof is from the Apoftles : But they 
will never prove that they were fixed Bifhops or Archbifhops. 
1 have proved the contrary before. But fuch an itinerant Epif- 
copacy as the Apoftles had ( laying by their extraordinaries) for 
my part I think (hould be continued to the world and to the 
Church (of which* after. ) 

Another of* their proofs is from Timothy and Titus , 
who, thy. fay, were Archbifhops. But there is full evidence 
that Timothy and Titus were not fixed Bifhops or Archbifhops, 
but Itinerant Evangelifts, that did as the Apoftles did, cvin 
plant and fettle Churches, and then go further,and do the like. 
See and confidcr but the proofs of this in l>rins unbifhoping 
of Timothy aud Titus. Such Planters and Itinerants were pr* 
tempore the Bifhops of every Church where they came, ( yet fo 
as another might the next week be Bifhop of the fame Church, 
and another the next week after him, }ea three or four or 
more at once, as they fhould come into the place ) And there- 
fore many Churches as well as Ephefus and Creet its like might 
have began their Catalogue with Timothy and Titus : and ma- 
ny a one befides Rome might bave begun their Catalogue with 
Peter and "Paul. 

Scd. 24. Another of their proofs is of the Angels or the feven 
Churches which they fay were Archbifhops. But how do they 
pcoYeit? Becaufe chofe Churches or fomcof them were plane - 

£b cd 


ed in chief Cities, and therefore the Biih Dps were Metropolitans* 
But how prove tliey theconfeq-ier.ee? By their ftrong imagi- 
natic rrraatibn. The Orders ofthe Empire had not then 

fuch connexion and proportion, and correfpondency with the 
Orders ofthe Chnrcb. Let them give us any Valid proof that 
theBifh pof a Metropolis nadihcn fin Scripture times) the 
Bifhop : ' herCirifs under him, as the Governor of them, 
and we (hall thank them for fuch unexpected light. Bu: pre- 
furoption atoll not go for proofs. They were much later tfT.es 
that afforded occasion for fuch contentions as that of Baftlar.d 
jbitjrjmjts, Whether the bounds of their Epifcopal Jurisdicti- 
on fbonld charge as the Emperonri changed the State of thePro- 
vince;?^ Lee them prove that thefe^^k* Angels had the BiChopt 
of other Churches, and the Churches themklves under their Ju- 
risdiction, and then they have donefomething, 

Se&. 25 , Bat if there we~e any preheminer.ee of Metropoli- 
tans neer cbefe times, it cannot be proved to be any more then 
an honorary Primacy : to be £fi{cQfusfrim* fedu t but not a 
Governour of [he reft. How ei;e could Cyprian truly fey ( even 
fo long after ) as is before ailedged, that none of them wasa 
Bifhop of Bifhops, nor impeded on others, bu: all were left 
free to their own confc ; ences ; as being accountable only to God? 
Se&. 26, Yea the Reverend Author above mentioned fhews 
(Differ tat. ii Ip;fccp. 4. C4f. IG. Sea. 9, IQ, & Mi ) that 
there were in thofe times more B.fhops then one in a City, 
though not in «u £:clefu ant Cce'h. And the like bath Cronus 
oft. So that a City had oft then more Churches then one, and 
thofe Churches had their feveral B.fhops: and neither of thefe 
Bifhops was the Governour ofthe other, or his Congregation: 
ranch !ef> ofthe remoter Churches and bifhops of other Cities. 
And this they think to have beei the cafe ofTetrr and Pant a: 
Rcme, yea and of their immediate fucceflbrs there. And foin 
other places ( Lege Dlffcrt. 5 r, 1. J 

Sed. 27. When the great Qregorj TbaftmAturgHt was made 
Bifhop of Ntmtfdresjbi had but feventetn Cbrifiidus in his Cttyi 
and when he had ircreafed them by extraordinary fucccfles.u: 
we find not that he had fo much as a Presbyter under him. And 
if he had, its not likely that Mufenius , \ and chief enter- 

tainer, would have been made but bis Deacon, and be the on'.y 


C'8 7 ) 

man eo accompany bim and comfort him in his retirement in the 
perfection, and rhat no Preshyrer fhould be mentioned : which 
fhews chat Bifhops then were fuch as they .vcreinScriprure- times 
( at leaft in moft places ) and had not many Churches w irh their 
Presbyters fubjed to them,as Diocefan Bifhops have. And when 
Comana> a fmall place not far ofThim, received the faith, Gregory 
O dained Alexunder^thz Colliarjcheir Bifhop,over another (in- 
gle Congrcg2tior s and did not keep them under his own Part oral 
charge and Government : Vid. Qreg-Nyfen in vita Thaumat. ) 
Seel. 28.Bucbecaofe that our D.ocefan Bifhops arefuch as 
the Archbifhops that firft affumed the Government of many 
Churc|ies,and becaufe we (hail hardly drive many from their pre* 
furaptfon,thac Timothy and Titus were Archbifliopsf befides the 
Apoftles, ) I (hall now let that fuppofition ftand^ and make it 
my nex: Argnmeut that, 

(Argument 3.) Ordination by Archbifhops is not necef- Arg. 3 
fary to the Being of Miniftersor Churches. Our Englifh Bi- 
fhops were indeed Archbifhops : therefore Ordination by them 

is not NecefTiry ] It is not the Name, but the office that is 

pleaded Neceffary. 

Sc&. 29. And for the Major,! think it will not be denyed. Ail 
that I have to do with,Pro:eftancs and Papifts, do grant the Va- 
lidity of Ordination by Bilheps. And for the Minor, it is eafily 
proved. The Btihops that are the Governours of many Chur- 
ches and their Bifhops,are Archbifhops. The Bifhops of England 
were the Governours of many Churches with their Bifhops; 
therefore they were Archbifhops. The Major will begranted. 
And for the Minor I prove it by parts : 1 . That they were ( by 
undertaking ) the Governours of many Churches. 2.- And of 
many Bifhops. 

Se&. 30. HethatistheGavernour over many Congregations 
of fhriftians ajfociatedfor the publichjVorfhip of God and holy com* 
munion and Edification^ under their Proper Pafiors, is the Cover*-' 
nour of many Churches . But fuch were our Englifh Bifhops : 
therefore, &c. That fuch Societies as are here defined are true 
Churches, is a truth fo clear, that no enemy of the Churches is 
isabletogainfay with any (hew of Scripture or reafon, they be- 
ing fuch Churches as arc defcribed in the Scriptures. And 2 .That 
our Minifters were true Pallors, if any will deny, ( as the Papifts 

B b 2 and 


and Separates do) I (hall have occafion to fay more to them 


Sed. 5 1. Argument 4. If Ordination by fuchos theEnelifn 
Blfhops.be of Ncceffity to the Miniftry and Churches then 
was there no true Miniftry and Churches in the Scripture 
rimes, nor in many years after: But the confequent isfalfc- 
therefore fo is the Antecedent. The reafon of the Confequerce is 
becaufe there were no fuch Bifhops in thofe times; and this is a!- 
ready proved, they being neither the Itinerant Apoitolical fort of 
Bifhops, nor the fixed Paftors of particular Churches- befides 
which there were no other. 

Sed. 3 2. Arguments. If Ordination by fuch aatheEnglifh 
Prelates be NecefTary to the Being of the Miniftry and Churches 
then none of the Proteftants that have not fuch PreJates( which is' 
almoftall) are true Charches or have true Minifter* : But the 
Confequent is falfe : therefore fo is the Antecedent. Ot this I 
{hill fey more anon, 

Scd. 3 3 . If n#ne ot the Proreftants Churches that have not fuch 
Bi(hops are true Churches, and have not a true Miniftry, then 
neither Roman finely Armenian. v£thiopian t &e. or almoft any 
through the world are true l_ hurches - For they are defective in 
fome greater matters, and chargeable with greater errors then 
th fe.But the Consequent is falle- therefore fo is the Antecedent. 
Hethatdenyech all thefetobetrueChurches,denyeth the Ca- 
thoiick Church: And he that denyeth the Catholick Church is 
next to the denying of Chrift. 

Sed, 3 4. Having thus proved that there is no necefBty of Or- 
dination by fuch as the Englifh Prelates, I have wichall proved 
that men are not therefore ever ttie lefs Minifters, becaufe they 
have not their Ordination,nor our Churches or Ordinances ever 
the more to bedifowned. 

SeA. 35. Yet where there is no other Ordination to be had ft 
may be a duty to fubmit to theirs : Not as they are Epifiopi ex- 
ortcsfa even Groti*s calls them)orof thi* /pedes -but as they are 
Paftors of the Churchy not withftanding iuch fuperfluities and 

Sed. 36. It is not the duty* therefore, but the fin, of anr" man 
that was Ordained by fuch Prelates to a lawful office, to declaim 
and renounce that Ordination ( as fomc do. ; For it is not every 



irregularity that nuliifiethit : There may be many modat cir- 
cumftantials , craccidental mifcarriages that may not Null the 
the fubftanceof the Ordination it ft If. 

Sett. 3 7. Yet it muftbe concluded, that we may not be wilfully 
guilty of any fin in the modes or accidents : But that may be a fin 
in the Ordamer,wh ; / h the Ordained may not be guilty of, :.s do- 
ing nothing that fignifieth an approbation of it, bur perhaps dr- 
owning it. 

Sect. 3 8. If we have been guilty of fubmictfng to a corrupt or- 
dinarioni as to the accidents, we moftdifown and repent of the 
finfull mode and accidents , though not of the Ordination 
it felf in fublhnce. As we muft bewail the crrours and infirmities 
of our preaching, prayer, and other holy duties, without re* 
nouncing the duty it felf, which isof God, and to be owned. 

Se<5t. 3 o. As to the Queftion of fame % whet her a man may he 
twice Ordained, in cafe he fxfpecl his firft Ordination : I anfwer, 
1. You muftdiftinguifh between a General Ordination to the 
office of the Miniitry , and a fpecial Ordination to a particular 
Church. (' Asthe licenfingof a Phyfician; and the feeling him 
over a City or Hofpital ) The firft may be done but once,in cafe 
it be truely done : but the fecond may be done as oft as we re- 
move to particular Churches : Though yet both may be done an 
once, at our firft Ordination • they are ftill two things ; Even a* 
Baptizing a man into Member-fbip of the univerfal Church, and 
taking him into a particular Cfiurch. Its not like that the fepa- 
ration and Impofnion of hands on Pattl&nd Barnabas, Acl. 15. 
2,3.. was to their firft Apoftlefhip. 

Sed. 40. If a man have weighty rcafbnsro doubt of his firft: 
Ordination, his fafeft way is to renew it, as is ufuall in BaptifOi, 
with a [_Si non Baptiz.Atns es Baptizo te] It thou be not Ordain- 
ed I Ordain thee. This can have no danger in fucii a cafe. 

Kb 3 CHAP; 


chap, v r 

Ordination at this time, by Englijh Tre* 
lates efpecialiy, is unnecefjary. 

Scd. i; fe^^e^^^^Efides wbar is faid againfl: the Necef- 

fny of fuch Prelatical Ordination in 
it felf, I conceive that more may be 
faid againft it as things now (land 
from le veral accidental reafons,which 
make it not only unneceflary but 
Se&. 2 As i .The Obligation that was uponus from the Law 
of the L?.nd , is taken off (".which with the Prelates them- 
felvcs is no final! argument, when it wa^ for them) So that we 
are ho further now obliged, then they can provtus fo from Scri- 
pture Evidence , and how little that is, I have (hewed before. 
The EnglifhPrtluy is taken down by the Law of the Land : we 
are kfc at Liberty ,rom humane Obligations at leafr. 

Seel. 3 ..'IF an 5 man lay ,that it is an unlawful power that hath 
made thoft L/iws by which Prelatical Government is fallen down. 
Ianfwer, i. It is fuch a Power as they obey themfelvcs, and 
therefore they may permit others to obey it. They hold their 
eftate. and 1* ves under it, and are protected and ruled by it; and 
profe.s iubmiffion and bbedience,for the generality of them. And 
wjicn another Species of Government was up, that commanded 
meato akcan engagement, to be true to the Government as 
eft 111 (Tied without a King and Houfe of Lords, when our Con- 
fcientc* rdukd ttia y Engagement as unlawful, c he generality 


of the contrary minded took it ( even all that I was acquainted 
witb,thac were put upon it ) So that I may take it for granted 
that they judge the power which they obey themfclves , to be 
obeyed by others. 

Sed, 4. And 2. 1 would be glad to hear from them any regar- 
dable proof that thofe thatGoverned when Paul wrote the 1 3 th 
Chapter to the Romans had any better Title to the.r Govern- 
ment ; Let them review their own late writings on that fubjed, 
and they may have arguments enough that are Valid adhomincm 
at leaft. 

Sed. 5. ThcLawsof the Land do make the Ads even of an 
Ufurper Valid while he is in poffefiion, and make it trc*fon to 
them that do againft him that which is treafon if it were againfi 
a lawfull Prince : and therefore if we granted them what they 
here affirm,it would be no advantage to their caufe. Subjeda 
muft look at the pirefent Governours with peaceable fubjection: 
For if they be left to try their Princes titles , and fufpend obedi- 
ence upon their fingle opinions, you know what will follow. 

Scd. 6. And 3 . It will be hard to prove that many a Prince 
that bath ruled in England, had a better Title : Its knownthat 
many of their Titles were naught ; And yet their Lawcs are 
Valid ftill, or were fo to Poilerity . And how can they convey a 
better title to their Heirs then they had thcmfelves? If you fay 
that che Confent of the People gave them a better, I muft return 
that if that will ferve, the people in Parliaments (more then one) 
and in their real fubjedion, have confented to this. But this is- 
a fubjeft that rcquireth much more to be faid of it, or nothing 
at all: and therefore I (hall take up here, with this little which 
he prefent caufe makes neceffiry. 

Sed. 7. And I may add a further Reafon; that we are not 
only difobliged by the Laws from former Prelacy,but we are ob- 
liged again!? it. The Rulers have depofed and forbidden it 
And in lawfu 1 things it is a duty to obey our Governonrs. 
And that the demolifhing of the Prelacy , is a lawful thing 
( in it felf confidered : For I meddle not with the manner at this 
time. ) I have faid enough before to prove. It hath been ufual 
for Princes to decafe bad Priefts, and heretical or contentious Bi- 
(hops , and to correct diforders,and reftrain ufurpations of Pre- 
lates among themfelves. And if any fuch thing be now done 


(15)2, J) 

by our prefent Governours, I know not any thing of that ne- 
c^jfficy in the Lnglifa Species of Prelacy, as will warrant us to 
d fobey them. 

Seel. 8. And it is a thing that is inconfiftent with the Peace 
and Unity of thefe Churches : Which is another reafon. 
for 1 . We have fcen rhe ill effects of it( which I am not willing 
to open to the worftj 2. And the multitude of the rood confei- 
entious people are againft it. 3. And the generality of themoft 
ccnfcionable faithful Minifters are againft it •, So that it could not 
be reftorcd, without the apparent ruine of thefe Churches. 
4. And a Learned Reverend Aflembly of Divines, chofen out of 
the feveral Counties by a Parliament, were againft it. 5. And 
many Parliaments have been againft it. 5. And the generality 
of their adherents in the two Nations, that then lived in Aeir 
Power , have taken a Solemn Covenant againft it. Not 
againft all Epifcopacy, but againft the Enghfh fort of Pre- 
lacie. So that it cannot be reftored, without incomparably 
much more hurt, then the continuance of it would have done 
good,and without fettir.g all thefe Churches on a flame; So 
far is it now from being a likely means of Unity or Peace among 

Seel. 9. And if yet they plead che obligation of the ancient 
Laws ( which is moft infifled on by many ) I muft by 
way of juft excufe, remember them of one thing, which its 
like they do not forget: that if thofe Laws are ftill in force to 
oblige us to feek Ordination from the Prelates, and to Au- 
thorize the Prelates to Ordain, notwithstanding the Laws of 
later Powers that have repealed them, then it muft needs fol- 
low that thofe later Powers are taken for no Powers: and confe- 
quently that the fame Laws do oblige the Prelates to put the 
Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy, as to fome other Power ,up. 
on the Ordained before they lay hands upon them.and oblige 
theOrdained to take thole Oaths, as well as to be fo Or- 
dained. Lor if they be yet of force in one, they are of 
force in both. And fo no man can be "Ordained by you 
without being guilty of that which the prefent Lawes make 
Treason, and forfeiting his life : which I know nothing in the 
ca'jte that requireth him to do. 
Scd. 10. And I think I may conclude that it is your own 



Judgement:, that men (Tumid rather forbear your Ordination 
then hazard cheir lives,or violate the prefent Laws,becaufe whe n 
a Declaration or Order came forth not long ago, prohibiting 
men of your peiTwafionthac had been fequ eft red to Preach o r 
Adminiiter Sacraments, the generality or ) ou prcfently obey- 
ed it, and fome wrote for the forbearance that they pra&ifed. 
And if an Ordained man fhould obey the prefent power , by 
forbearing to preach and adminifter Sacraments , or may for- 
bear thefetoefcape a temporal danger j much more may men 
do fo about your fort of Ordination. 

Seel. 1 1. Moreover 4. We (hall be guilty of a fixed Schifrn 
among the Reformed Church s , and of making the heal- 
ing of our breaches impoffible, if by our compliance we 
own your dividing Principle, that [No other are trueMini- 
fters or Churches but fuch as have your Manner of Ordina- 
tion ] For by this Rule all the Mmifters in thefe and other 
Proteftant Nations muft be degraded, or taken for no Mini- 
fies, and all the Churches for no true Churches ( though per- 
haps they may be confeffed Chriftian Communities , ) Nor 
the Ordinances and adminiflrations true. And do you think 
thefe are Hkely terms for Peace? Will they ever be yielded 
to by fo many Churches ? Or is it a defirable thing ? 
Should Rome be fo much gratified ? And our Churches ru- 
ined? and the fouls of millions call away, and facririced to 
your opinions, or Peace? While your Prelacy pretended to 
no more, but to be the heft fort of Government, and your 
Church to be the hfi of Churches, wc could fubmit to you 
in all things that were not flatly (inful : But when you 
will be the only Churches, and unchurch all others, even the 
moft flourishing Churches for. knowledge and holinefs, and 
'when you muft be the only Miniftcrs, and others muft be 
none, unlefs they -will be Ordained by you ; this is enough to 
put a fobcrmanto a ftand, whether he dial I not be guilty of 
notorious fehifm , by complying with fo fchifmatical a prin- 
ciple 1 if he fubjed hjrafelf voluntarily to a Prelacy that bath 
fuch principles and pretences , and to an Ordination that 
is adminiftred on thefe grounds and terms. This was not the 
ground, nor thefe the principles of the (owner Englifh Pre- 
lates : and therefore we were more capable of fubjeftion to 

C c them 

them or Communion with them. We could have lived in their 
Communion and in the Communion of the reft of the Proteftant 
Churches that have no Prelacy. But if by innovation, you have 
made fuch a change.asthat we muft feparate from all the Reform- 
ed Churches and MinKters that have not your kind of Ordinati- 
on ,if we will be your fubje&s or be Ordained by you according 
to your grounds,its time for us to look about us, that weefcape 
that reparation and fchifro, that you would lead us into and cn« 
gage us in by your way of Ordination. 

Sed. 12. Among your felves there arc many that affirm thaj 
if the Pope would have been content with his old Patriarchal 
Power, and principium unkatis , or primacy of Order, and 
wave his laft four hundred years determinations , oratleaftnot 
obtrude them on other Churches ( as Biftiop Bromhali 
fpeaks) they could have held communion with him, that now 
cannot •, If Rome would have been content to be a Member 
of the Catholick Church , though pretendedly the noblcft, 
they could have owned it: But when it will be The Catholick 
Church, and feparate it fclf from all the reft, unchurching 
all that are not fubject to them , and united in their Go- 
vernment , they then drive us further from Communion 
with them. Imitate them not ia any degree in this No- 
torious fchilm and feparation. Be contented to be Minifters 
and Churches; and tell not Chrift , he hath none but you, 
and fuch as you ; and tell not Satan , that the Kingdom of 
Chrift is thus cut fhorc , to the honour or rejoycing of his 

Sed. 13. It was not fo ridiculous as fad to me, to read 
in Mr. T. Ps. Self-revenger againft Mr. Barlee^pag. 37. and 
Ordination called a £ ** Notorious Comes Tragedie , equally 
*' fad and ridiculous , which he and others lately ailed in Dai** 
'! try Church, intituled by the AH or s y An Ordination of Mini- 
" fters, but by many of the S f eclat or s, An Ordination of Lay* 
** 'Preachers to be Lay preachers ftill, and ( without repentance) 
"for ever uncap able of the Priefthood, by being Ordained by fuch 
** Prie(ls as were uncapable of Ordaining.^ Thus Mr* P. 

Seer. 14. And it feems he was of the fame judgemenr, 
( whoever he was ) that would have abufed Bifhop Z>/ber,by 
giving out that he told him, that Z as f or Holland, hequeftien- 



ed if there WAS a Church krrong them, er mt % or words futtj f 
thAtPurpofe] Againft which abufeofthe Dr. the Bifhcp was 
fain to vindicate himfelf. Seepage 124, 125. OfhisPofthumous 

Sed. 15. Moreover, 5. We know not of almoft any Bi- 
fhops in England , by whom men may be Ordained. Four 
or five Reverend Learned men of that degree are commonly 
faid to furvive among us (whom we much honour and value 
for their worth ) But as thefe are fo diftant, and their reft* 
dencc to the mod unknown , fo the reft ( if there be any ) 
are known to very fewat all, thatl can hear of •• Itsfamed 
that many Bifhops there are ^ but we know it not to be 
true, nor know not who they be •* and therefore it cannot 
well be expeded , that their Ordination fhould be fought. 
If they reveal not themfelves and their Authority , and do 
not fo much as once command or claim obedience from the 
generality of Miniftcrs, how can they exped to be obeyed? 
Jfthey plead the danger of perfecution , I anfwer, 1. What 
Persecution do they fuflfcr that are known ( above others 
of tbeir way ? ) 2. If that will excufe them ( when we never 
heard of any that fuffered the lofs of a penny for being known 
to be a Bi(hop,(ince the Wars were ended ) then it feems, 
they take the Being of the Miniftry and Churches to be but 
of fmall moment , that are not worthy their hazzsrd in a 
manifeftation of their power : And if this excufe them from 
appcaring,it mud needs in reafon excufe others from knowing 
them,obcying them, and fubmitting to them.. 

Sed. 16. And when they (hall declare themfelves to be our 
Bifhops , they mult in all reafon exped that the proof of 
it as well as the naked affirmation, be defired by us. For we 
muft not take every man for a Bifhop that faith he is Co. 
They muft (hew us according to the Canons that the Clergy 
of the Diocefs lawfully Eleded them, and Bifhops Confecrated 
them ; which are tranfadions that we are ftrangers to. If 
they take the fecrct Eledion of fix. or feven or very few in 
a Diocefs, to be currant, becaufe the reft arefuppofed to be 
uncapable by Schifm ^ 1. Then they (hew themfelves fo ex- 
ceedingly unjuft as to be unmeet for Government, if they will 
upon their fecrct preemptions, and unproved fuppofitions , 

Cc 2 mi 

cut off or cenfure fo nany pares of the Clergy , without ever 
accufing them, or c.iling them to fpeak for themfelves , or 
hearing their Defence. 2. And if upon fuch prefumptuous 
Confutes you make your felves Bifhops befides the Canons, you 
cannot exped obedience from thofe that you thus feparate from, 
and cenfure unheard. 

Sect. 1 7. Its known that the Englifh Bilhops fas GrQtius him- 
felfaftirmethj werechafenby the King according (Othecuftom 
here, the Chapter being fhadows in the bufincfs : And if the 
King may make Bifhops, be may make Presbyters; and then 
Ordination is unneceffary. But if you fay that the Confe- 
crators make them Bifhops, and not the Kiags Eledion,thcn 
Rome had many Bifhops at once, when ever three or four 
Popes were confecrated at once ( which uiarrs all fucceflion 
thence dinved, ) and then if fome Bifhops confecrate one, 
and fome another, boch are true Bifhops of one Dioccfs, and 
many Paftors ma} be thus Ordained to one Church. 

Sed.18. And it concerneth us before we become their 
fubjeds to have fome credible Evidence that they are fo Or. 
rhodox, as to be capable of the place. And the rather becaufe 
that fome that arefufpeded to be Bifhops (how truly I know 
not) have given caufeof fome fufpicion : Either by writieg 
againfl Original fin , or by owning Grotins's Religion a 
( which what it was I have {hewed elfewhere , ) or by un- 
churching the Proteflant Churches , and Nullifying their Mini- 
(try that have not their kind of Ordination, while they take 
the Roman Ordination to be Valid,and theirChurch and Mi- 
niftry to be true, with other fuch like. 

Sed. 19. And 6. Ifwefhouldnow, when better may be had, 
fubjed our felves to the Ordination and Government of the 
abo!ifhcd Prelacy, wefhould choofe a more corrupt way ofad- 
miniftration , ard prefer it to a more warrantable way; {That 
this way is corrupts proved in the former Deputation. That 
a way more warrantable may be had, I fhali prove anon. ) 
Though fubmifiion to a faulty way in fome cafes of Nee cjfity 
is excufable , yet when we have our choice,the cafe is altered. 
- Sed. 20. And a tender Confcience ha:h very great retfon 
to fear left by fuch voluntrary fubjed^on , they fliould incur 
moreover this double guile ; 1 . Of all the hurt that this corrupt 



fort of Epifcopacy did, before the abolition. 2. And of all the 
hurt that ic might do again if it were introduced ; which is nei- 
ther fmall, nor uncertain ; He that hath feen the fruits that ic 
brought forth but for a few years before the abolition , and 
weighs the arguments brought againfl; it, methinks fhouldfear 
to be the reftorer of it. 

Se&. 21. If any man fas Mr. Thorndike&nd others do) (hall 
write for a more regular fort of Epifcopacy, its one thing to find 
a tolerable Bijhop in his Book^ and another thing to find him exi- 
gent in England: For we know not of any New fort of Regu- 
lated Epifcopacy planted : and therefore mull fuppofe that \z is 
the Old fort that is in being. Let them bring their Moderate 
forms into exigence, and then its like that many may be more 
inclined to fubmit to their Ordination : but their moderate prin- 
ciples having not yet made us any Moderate Epifcopacy, I fee net 
how we fhould be ever the more obliged for them to fubmit to 
the Old : but rather are the more julHfied in drowning ir,when 
their own reformed model! is againft it. 

Cc 3 



mMmwM^wmm : wwwwMW^ 


The Ordination ufed noW in England 
and in other Troteflant Qhurches, is 
Valid, and agreeable to Scripture and 
the Tra&ice of the <tAncient Qhurch. 

Whether ma- 
ny alwaies 
fometime one 
only, Calvin. 
and after him 
Vawel Colom- 
us ( lib. 4. 
Difp. 1. ex 
Calvin. lafli- 

m. 1. 4 

Read their 

Seft. 1. SsSMkM Ht Avin S already proved that the late 

Englifh Biftiops Ordination is not of 
neceflity; it is fatisfa&ory without 
any more ado , to them that would 
nullifie our Miniftry and Churches 
that have not their Ordination. But 
becaufe we may meet with other ad- 
verfaries,and becaufe in a cafe of (o much weight, we fhould 
walk in the cleared light that we can attain, for the fatisfa&ion 
of our own Gonfciences, I (hall further prove the Validity of 
tl.Sefi.16) Ordination , and the truth of our Call, and Minftry,and 

thought un- ""*• Vl /' ' ■ * 

certain Churches. 

becaufe of Se&. 2. Argument 1. The Ordination is Valid wjiich is per- 

%Tm.i.6,&e. formed by fuch Biftiops as were inftituted and cxiftent in Scri- 
ture times. But our Ordination ( ufed in England and other 
reformed Churches J is performed by fuch Bifhopsas were in- 
itituted and cxiftent in Scripture times : the rcfore fuch Ordina- 
tion is Valid. 

The Major will not be denyed ( being underftood with a fup- 
pcfuion of other requifues that arc not now in controverfie : ) 

For thofe that we have to deal with do grant, that fuch Bifhops 
as are mentioned, Atis 20. i Tim. 3. Tit. 1. Phil. 1. 1. and 
in other paflages of Scripture, had the power of Ordination,and 
that it belonged not only to the Apoftles and Evangeiifts, and 
(fuch as they call; Archbifhops- but that the fixed Bifhops of 
particular Churches had if. 

Se&. 3. The Minor I prove thus (that our Ordination is by 
Scripture Bifhops. ) The Scripture Bifhops were the Paftors 
of Particular Churches, having no Presbyters fubjed to them. 
Moft of our Ordaincrs are fuch Paftors : therefore moll of our 
Ordainers are Scripture Bifhops. 

Sc&4.Thc Major is afferted at large by the forefaid Reverend 
DrM.H. Annot.in Art.i 1 .£./>407.> Where he ihews that [/f/- 
t hough this title */n?s* , &//if 9 j Elders have been alfo extended to a 
fecond Order in theChurch y & is now only in ufefor them,undcr the 
name of Presbyter s,yet in the Scripture times, it belonged frinci- 
pally if not only to Bifhops, there being no evidence that any of that 

fecond order were then inftituted ] So that the >cnpture 

Bifhops were the Pallors of (ingle Churches having no Presby- 
ters under them ; for there were no inferiour Presbyters ( that 
had not the Power of Ordination) inftituted in thofe times, This 
therefore may be taken as a granted truth. 

Sect. 5. And that our Ordainers are fuch,is commonly known; 
1. They arc Paftors : (it is but few of the Prelates thacdenyed 
this:) They are * ReElorsoi the People, and have the Pafio- * Mr. T<p. 
ral charge of fouls. 2.They are Paftors of Particular Churches, calls himfel 
3 i They have ( for the moft part at leaft ) no fub jed or inferi- Rea ° r of 
our Presbyters under them : therefore they are Scripture Bi» Bm & ttn >- 

Se&. 6. Objed* The difference lyethin another point: The 
Scripture Bifhops had the Power of Ordination : Tour Paftors 
have not the Power of Ordination : thereefore they are not the 
fame. Anfw. That is the thing in Qieftion. I am proving that 
they have the power of Ordination,thus : In Scripture times all 
fingle Paftors of fingie Churches had the Power of Ordination, 
there being no other inftituted : But our Ordainers are the (in- 
gle Paftors of (ingle Churches > ( and of Chrifts inftitution; ) 
therefore they have the Power of Ordination.lf the Paftors now 
are denyed to be fuch as were inftituted in Scripture times 



i. Let them fhewahodid inftitutethem, and by what authori- 
ty. 2.ThefolePaftors of particular Churches were inftitu*ed 
in Scripture times : But fuch are ours in queftioa, therefore, &c. 
Sect. 7. There is no fort ofPaftorsIawfullinthe Church buc 
what were inftituted in Scripture times : But the fore of Pallors 
now in queftion are iawfull in the Church : therefore they were 
iuftituted in Scripture times : The Minor will be grafted us of all 
thofe that were Ordained by Prelates : They would not Ordain 
men to an office which they thought unlawful. The Major is pro* 
vedthus:NoibrtofPaftors are lawful in the Church but fuch of 
whom we may have fufficicnt evidence that they were inftituted 
by Chrift or his Apoftles ; But we can have fufficient evidence of 
none but fuch as were inftituted in Scripture timcs,that they were 
inftituted by Chrift or his Apoftles:therefore no other fort is law- 
full. The Major is proved in that none but Chrift and fuch as he 
committed it to, have power to inftitute new Holy Offices for 
Worfhip in the Churchy But Chrift hath committed this to none 
but Apoftles ( if to them, ) therefore,^. Whether A poftles 
themfelves did make any fuch new Office 'I^il! not now dif- 
pute; but if they did, 1. It was by that fpecial Authority which 
no man fince the planting of the Churches by them can lay claim 
to, or prove that they have. 2. And it was by that extraordi- 
nary guidance and infpiration of the Holy Ghoft, which none 
can manifeft to have been (ince that time communicated. 

Se&. 8. Moreover, if there were a Power of inflitutingnew 
Offices in the Church fi nee Scripture times, it was either in a 
Pope,in Councilor in fingle Paftors.But it was in none of thefe; 
not in a Pope; for there was no fuch Creature of long time af- 
ter,rauch lefs with this authority.Not in a Council: For 1 . None 
fuch was ufed : 2, None fuch is proved. 3-Elfe they fhould 
have it (till. Not in every Bifbop, as will be eafily granted. 

Se&.o. If fuch a Power of inftituting New Church- Offices 
were after Scripture times in the Church,thcn it is ceafed fince, 
or continueth (till ^ Not ceafed fince. For 1 . The Powers or of- 
ficers then left continue full -, therefore their authority continu- 
ed ftill. 2. There is no proof that any fuch temporary power 
was given to any fince Scripture cimes. Nor doth any fuch con- 
tmueftili; Othcrwife men might fliil make us more New Of- 
fices, and fo we fhculd not know when we have done, nor 



Should we need colook into Scripture for Ciirifts wilt, but torne 
willof men. 

Seel. 10. Argument 2. No men firce Scripture times had 
power to change the Inftitucions of Chrift and the Apoftles,by 
taking down the fort of Paftors b> them ePab'ifhed- a d fee- 
ting up another fort in their {lead . But if the e be lawful Pa- 
yors of particular Churches that have nor poster or Ord nation, 
then men had power to make fuch a change. For the fort of 
Paftors then inftitured were fuch as had buc one Church, and 
were themfelvcs perfonally to guide that Church in aftual 
Worfhip, and had the power uf Ordination , and there was 
no fub jed Presbytcrs,ri0r no fmgle Paitors that had not the Pow- 
er of Ordination •* All fingle Paitors of particular Churches had 
that Power then : But all, or aim oft ail fuch fingle Patters of 
particular Churches are by the DifTcrters iuppofed to bewit-h- 
out that Power now: Therefore it is by them fuppofed that 
Chrifts form of Church Government and fore of Officers are 
changed, and confequently that men had power to change tbera, 
for they fuppofe it lawfully done. 

Se&. 11. Argument 3. The Paftors of City Churches may 
ordain ( efpecially the fo!e or chief Paftors : ) Many of our 
prefent Ordainersare the Paftors of City Churches ( and the 
fole or chief Paftors in fome Places : J therefore they may Or- 
dain. The Msjor is proved from the dodrineofthe Diffenters, 
which is, that every City Church fhould have a Bfhop, and thae 
every Biihop is the chief ( and fometimes only J Paftor of a 
City Church. If they fay that yet every Paftor (though the fo!e 
Paftor ,)of a City Church is not a Biihop. I anfwer,that then they 
will infer the fame power of changing Scripture Inftitucions, 
which I mentioned, and difproved before. Let them prove fuch 
a Power if they can. 

Sed. 12. The Minor is undenyable,and feen dt fafio, that ma- 
ny of onr Ordainers are fuch Paftors of City Churches, and that 
of two forts : fomeof fuch Cities as have both the Name and 
Nature of Cities : And fome of fuch Cities as have truly the na- 
ture, but in our Englifh cuftom of fpeech have not the name : 
fuch as are all Corporations , in the feveral Market Towns of 
beft. 13. Arguments Thofc Paftors thac have Presbyters 

D d under 


,« rider them, have power of Ordination : But very many Engh 
lidi Paftors at this day have Presbyters under them : therefore 
they have Power of O dination ; By Presbyters I mean not men 
of another office, but gradually inferiour in the fame office. The 
Major is proved ad hominem Vom the Conceftlons of the Diflen- 
ter«.- For ( though I rarely meet in their difputations for Bi- . 
fhops, with any Definition ofaBifhop.yet ) This is it that they 
moft commonly give us *s the Effential difference of a Bifhop, 
chat he is one thn is over Presbyters. Yea this agreeth with their . 
higher fort qf Bifhops that they fay were in the Church in Igna- 
tius daies, when fubjed Presbyters we^e inftitured : and there- 
fore thc>fe : Pallors may ordain that are -of that higher fort of 

Sed. 14. The Minor is notorious .- Many .of our Pallors in 
MarJcejt Towns ind other large Parishes have a curate with them, 
in the fame Congregation, and one or two or more Curates ac 
federal £ happed of eafe , : -that are in the Parifh. And thefe are 
finder them i.DeJacio 1 being chokrt and brought in by them, 
Ruled by them,and paid by them and removed by them. 2.ZV 
jure , the Bifhops and Laws of theLand allowed this. 

Seft. 1 5 . Argument 5 . The ftated or fixed Prefident of aPref- 
bytcrie may Ordain ( with his fellow Presbyters ) Bur many of 
our Parifh Paftors are the fixed Presidents of .Presbyteries: there- 
fore they may ordain* The Major I take for granted by ail that 
::ar.d ;o the Ordinary, defcriptionsof a Biihop : Tor the ftated 
?refident of a ?resbyterie,is not only a Bifhop,in the judgement 
of Forbes, B '.fhep &*U % B.fhop VJber and (uch other,but is in- 
deed the Primitive Bfhop in their judgement, and fuchaBt- 
fhop in whom they would r f fl fiayfiqd , and do propofe fuch 
:he Churches Peace, 

Serjh 1 6. And the Minor is notorious : Tor 1 . In the molt 0? 

our ordered Churches there is a Presbyterie of Ruling Ecclefi- 

aftick Elders. 2. In many there are divers preaching Presbyters 

( which may faririe them that are againft meet ruling Elders ^ 

as I fhewed before. And it thefe be not inferiour to the chief 

Paftorin Ecclefiafticai Degree, ye: they arehis Com presbyters, 

and he is ( in all Parifhes that I Know where Curates or Aili- 

rfams are) their fiat ed Prefident or Moderator ,fo that we have in 

ill fuch Congregations^ according to the do&rine.of. the Bifhops 



themfelves ) not only fuch Bifhops as were in the Apofttes days 
when there was no fubje& Presbyters , but alfo fuch Biftiopsas 
were in Ignatius daies, when the fixed Prefident or Bifhop had 
many Presbyters • to whom he was the Prefident or. Mode- 

See*. 17. Yea it you will make his Negative voice Ejjentidl 
to a Bifhop ( whichModerateEpifcopalmendeny ) yet com- 
monly this agreeth to fuch Pari (h Bifh ops as have Curates un- 
der them : For in the Presbyterie they have ordinarily a Nega- 
tive Voice. 

Sed. 18. Yea where there are no fuch Presbyteries widh a 
Prefident, it is yet enough to prove him a Bifhop, that he hath 
Deacons under him, Qr but one Deacon •* faith Dr. H H^An- 
not At. in Aci. 11. b. {'When iheGofpd'WAs'firft preached by the 
Ap- files , And but few 'converted, they ordained in every (fity And 
Region, no more but a Bijhdp,and one w more DeAConf to Attend him, 
thete being At the prefent fofmall ftore out of which to takf more, 
and fofmall need of Ordaining more ] 

Seel.; 19. Argument 6. The Moderator or Prefident of ma- 
ny Paftors of particular Churches afTembled,may Ordain,and his 
Ordination is Valid. But fuch a Moderator or Prefident is or- 
dinarily or frequently One in our Ordinations : therefore they 
are Valid. The Major is granted by many of the DifTenters,and 
all their principles, I think, do infer it : For fuch a one isaBi- 
fhop, not only of the Apoftolical inftitution : Nor only fuch as 
was in Ignatius d* vsbut fuch an Archbifhop as next afterward 
fprungup. Wbeaitisnotenly one Church and its Presbyters 
that are under him, but the Presbyters (or Bifhops,) of many 
Churches thatheis Moderator or Prefident of, raethinksthofe 
that are for tbe higheft Prelacy, fhpuld not deny the. Validity of 
his Ordination. 

Sed. 20. But two things will be here objected : The one is, 
th&thewas • not .aonfecrated. to this Prefidency or Moderator Jhif y 
by Bifhops* fo whieh I anfwer, 1 . That Confecration is not of 
Neceflity to fuch a Bifhop according to the principles of Epif- 
copal Divines; it being no new Office or Order tharthey arc 
exalted to, but a new Degree ^Ordination (which was recei- 
ved when they weremade Presbyters) may fuffice, and is not 
to be iterated. 2. The EleSionof the Presbyters ferved (as Hi- 
erom teftifycth ) in the Church of Alexandria : therefore it may 

C 2.04-) 

fer ve ndw i C otahich more anon. ) 3 ♦ He is chofen by true Bi- 
fhops, as is frrewed. 

Se#. 2 1 . The other Obje&ion is, that our Preftdents are but 
pro tempore, and therefore are not Bijbops* To which I anfwer, 
i.Thatinfome Places they are for a long time, and in fomefor 
an uncertain time. Dr. Twifs was Moderator of the Synod ac 
Weftminfter, for many years together, even durante vita; and 
Mr. Herle after him was long Moderator : The London Pro- 
vince hach a Prefident for many raoneths j even from one Affem. 
bly to another. 2. 1 never yet met with an Epifcopal Divine 
that maintained that it was eflential to a Bilhop, to be fuch du- 
rante vita : I am fure it is not commonly aflerted. If a man be 
made the BilTiop of fuch or fuch a Diocefs , for one and twenty 
years, or for feven years, it willbefaid to be irregular; but I 
know none of them that have averred it to be fo great an Er- 
ror as nullifleth his Power and adminiftrations. And if it may 
(tand With the Being of Epifcop:cy to be limited to feven yeara, 
then alfo to be limited to feven moneths, or feven weeks, or days.- 
Efpecially when ( as ufually with us ) they fix no time at the 
firft Eleclion, but leave it to the liberty of the next AlTembly to 
continue or to end his power. Let them prove that affirm ir y \ hat 
duration for life is efTentiall to a Bifhop. 

Seel. 22. Argument. 7. Where all thefe forcmentioned qua- 
lifications of the Ordainer do concur, (viz. 1. That he be the 
Paftor of a particular Church, and the chief Pallor of it, and the 
Paftor of a City Church, and have Deacons and Presbyters under 
him, and be the fixed Prefident of a Presbyterie * and the Mo- 
derator or Prefident of a larger Presbyterie of the Paftors of 
many Churches,) there ( according to the principles, even of 
the rigidtf fort of Diffenters ) the Ordination is valid ; But all 
thefe forementioned qualifications do frequently concur to fome 
of our prefent Ordainers in England : therefore even accord- 
ing to the more rigid Diffenters , their Ordination is Valid ; 
The premifesare fo plain r hat they need no confirmation. 

Seft. 23 , Argument 8. Ordination by a Presbyterie is 
Valid. But in England and other Reformed Churches we 
have Ordination by a Presbyterie 4 therefore our Ordi- 
nation is Vahd. The Major is proved from 1 Tim. 4. 14. 
£ Neglett n9t the gift that is in thee which was given thee 
ty Prtfbetj , with tfo i*p#g *>* of the hand* *f the Pre/- 

(zoy ) 

Fresbyttrie. Alfo from Atf. 1 3 • 1 ,2,3 • Th*y were the Prophets 
and Teachers of the Church of Antiocb that imposed hands on 
Barnabas and ȣ**/, ( whether it were for their firft Ordination 
to the Office, or only for a particular Million , I now dnpute 
not. ) The Church of Antiock hid not many Prelates, if any: 
but they had many Prophets and Teachers, and thefe and none 
but thefe are mentioned as the Drainers. As fa- then, that 
fay thefe were the Bifhops of many Churches of byn* y when 
the Text faith they all belonged to cms Church of Amioch, they 
may by fuch prefumpcuous contradictions of Sci ip.ure (ay much, 
but prove little. 

Sed. 24. As for them that grant ir, that there were no 
fubjeft Presbyters inltituted in Scripture- times, and fo expound 
the Presbyterie here to be only A potties and Bifhopsof the 
higher order, I have (hewed already, that they yield us the 
Caufe : though I muft add, that we can own no new fore of 
Presbyterie, notinftitutedby Chrift or his Apoftles. Bur, for 
them that think that Prelates with fubjeft Presbyters were ex- 
igent in thofe times, they commonly expound this Text of On 
dination by fuchfubjeft Presbyters, with others of a Superior 
rank or degree, together ; Now> as to ourufe, it h fufficienr, 
that hence we prove that a Presbyterie may ordain : and that un- 
deniably a Presbyterie confifted of Presbyters, and fo that Pref- 
byters may ordain. This is commonly granted usi from this 
Text. That which is faid againft us by them that grant it, is, that 
Presbyters did Ordain,but not a!one, but with the Bifliop?, 

Seel:. 25. But, 1. if this were proved, its nothing againfl: 
us : for if Presbyrers with Bifhops have power to Ordain, then. 
it is not a work that is without the reach of their Office, buc 
that which belongeth to them :an<j therefore if theycould prove 
it irregular for them to Ordain without a Bifhop, yet would 
they not prove it Null. Otherwife they might prove it Null, if 
a Bifhop Ordain without a Presbyterie, becaufe according to 
this Objection they muft concur, fa Buc indeed, they prove 
not that any above Presbyters did concur in Timothies Ordina- 
tion, whatever probability they may fhew for it. And till 
they prove it, we mult hold fo much as is proved and granted. 

Sect, 26. As for 2Tj0M-6.it is no certain proof of it. h 
iaay fee irapo!atk)Q of hands ifl .Confirmation ^ or for the firft 

Pd 3 giving 

giving of the Holy Gboft after Baptifm ( ordinarily ufed by 
theApoftles) that is tbere fpoken of : which alfo fee meth pro- 
bable, by the Apoftles annexing it to Timothies Faith, in which 
he fucceeded his Mother and Grandmother j and to the fol- 
lowing effects or \_the Spirit of Power , and ef Live, and of- a 
found min d^~] which are the fruits of Confirming Grace: ad- 
monifhing h*m, that be be not afhamed of theTefiimonjof our 
Lord; which is alfo the fruit of Confirmation. However the 
p-obabiiitygo, they can give us no certainty, that Taxi or any 
Apoftle had an hand in the Ordination here fpoken of : when 
the Test faith that it was £ with the laying on of the hands of the 
Preibjt£rie~] we muft judge of the office by the name : and 
therefore i. we are fure that tbere were Preibyters. 2. And 
if there were alfo any of an higher rank, the Phrafe encoura- 
ged us to believe, that it was as Presbyters, that they impofed 
hands in Ordination. 

Sect. 27. Argument 9. If Bifhops and Presbyters ( as 
commonly diftinguifheJ ) do differ only Gradu> no* Or dint, in 
Degree and not in Order, (that is , as being not of a diftind 
office, but of a more honourable Degree in the fame office J then 
is the Ordination of Presbyters valid, though without a Bifhop 
(of that higher Degree ) But the Antecedent is true : there- 
fore fo is the Conlequenr. The Antecedent is maintained by 
abundance of the Papiftsthemfelves; much more by Proteftants. 
Tbereafonof theConfequence is, becaufe ad ordinem fertinet 
ordinare. Being of the fame office, they may do the fame work. 
This Argument BifiioplV^r gave me to prove that the Ordi- 
nation of meer Presbyters without a Prelate is valid, when I askc 
him his Judgement of ir. 

Se&. 28. Argument 10. If the Prelates and the Laws they 
went by did allow and require meer Presbyters to Ordain, then 
muft they grant us that they have the Power of Ordination : 
But the Antecedent is true, as is well known in the Laws, and 
common Pradice of the Prelates in Ordaining : divers Presbyters 
laid on hands together with theBi(hop : and it was net the Bi- 
fhop but his Chaplain commoniy that examined and approved : 
ufually the Bifhop came forth, and laid his nanus on men that he 
never faw before, or ipoke to, but took them as he found them 
prelected to him by his Chaplain : fo that Presbyters Ordained 


( *°7 ) 

as weJl as he , and therefore had power to Ordain. 

Sed. 29. If it be Objected that they hadno porter to Ordain 
•without a Bifiop : I anfwer, 1. Nora Bifliop quoad exercitium^ 
without them, according to our Laws and Cuftoms, at leaft 
uiuallyv 2. O.dairiung with a Bijhop proveth them to betfV- 
dainers •, and that it is a work that belongeth to the order or 
office pi a Presbyter : or elfe he might not do it at .all, any more 
then Deacom, or Chancellors, c^r. may. And if ic be but the 
worj; or' a Presbyters office, it is not a Nullity, if Presbyters do 
it without a Prelate, if you could prove it an irregularity. 

Sed. 30. Argument 1 :. If the Ordination of the Ettyjifh 
Prelates b* valid , then much more is the Ordination of Pref- 
bycerf, ( as in Er,g/.i?jd<[nd other Reformed Chut ches is in ufe, ) 
But, the Ordination of Englifh Prelates is valid, (\ amfurefn 
the judgement of -them thac we difpiite .againft : ) therefore io 
is the .Ordination of Engisfh. Presbyters much mere, 

Sed. 31. The reafon of the Conicqucrce is , becaufc the . 
. Englifh Prelates are more unlike the BiCr.ops thac were fixed by 
Apoftolical lnfticution or Ordination, (hea the Eriglifti Presby- 
ters are, as I have (hewed at large in the former Deputation : 
the ScriptureJ>ifhops were the (ingle Paftoi s of -(ingle Churche^ 
personally guiding them in theworfhfpof God, and governing 
them in prefence, and teaching them by their o*'n mouch?,vi{i- 
riag their ficK-, adminiirring S^crameirs , &c. And Inch are 
die Er.girfli presbyters ; Rut fuch are not the lice Er:g!iih"Pr^- 
lates that were the Governors of an hundred Churches, and did 
not perfonally teach then, guide them in worfhip, govern them 
in : prefence, and deliver die in the Sacrament 3, but were ab'enc 
from xhem all fave one Congregation. Thefe were unJLker 
to thc'Scripture fixed Bifhops , defenbed by Dr.' H. H, then 
our Presbyters are : therefore if they may derive from them a 
Power of Ordination, or from the law thac jn-iitmed them.) 
then Presbyters may do fo much more.- 

Sed-. = .3 2. Argument -12. If the Ordination of Papifl Bi- 
fhops be valid, much more is the Orcinidon of Englifn P. e by° 
teisfo: but the Antecedent is true, in the judgement of thofe 
again!} whom we.difpute ; therefore the Confequcnc muft .as 
granted by them on that fuppoiltion. 
Sed, 3 3 , The reafon of tbeCon^^^nceis^bccaufethe Popiilf 

Bifnbi? i 


Biftopsare mo're unlike to the Scripture Bifhops, and morenrca- 
pable of ordaining, then the Presbyters of the Reformed Churches* 
are, "For i . The Papift Prelates profefs to receive their Power 
from a Vice-chrift, at leaft ejwaJL exercitium,& media confe* 
rendi, which Proteftant Presbyters do not. 2. The Papift Bi- 
{hops profefs tbemfclves Payors of a new Catbolick Ghurch , 
which is headed by the Papacy as an eflfential part; and which 
Chrift will not own ( as Inch .- ) But fo do not the Proteftant 
Presbyters. 3 . The Papift Prelates Ordain men to the falfc Of- 
fice of turning Bread into the Body of Chrift by the way of 
Tranfubftantiation, in their Confecration, and offering it as a 
Sacrifice for the quick and dead, and delivering this as the very 
Body of Chrift, and not Bread to the Communicant, and per- 
fwadingthemthacitisfucl^and holding and carrying ic to be 
Worshipped by them with Divine Worfhip, and the like : But 
the Proreftant Presbyters are Ordained , and do Ordain others, 
to that true Office of a Presbyter o r Pallor, or Bifhop which 
Chrift hath inftituted. 4. The Papift Prelates have abundance of 
fa'fe.do&rines, and practices in Worftvp, which the Proteftanc 
P. esbytcrs have not. 5. And they have no more to fhew for a 
Power of Ordination, then our Presbyters have •••fo that thefe, 
with many the like confiderations , willprove,thatifthePapifts 
Ordination be Valid, chat of the Proteftant Churches by Pref- 
byters is fo much more. And doubtlefs, they that plead for a 
fucceflion from the Papift Prelates, do hold their Ordination 

Seft. 34. Argument 13. If the Proteftant Churches that 
have no Prefaces be true C hurches ( in a Political fenfe, ) and 
the Ordinances among them valid, and to be owned and received, 
then are the Paflors of thofe Churches true Paftors, though 
they have no Ordination but by Presbyters. But the Antece- 
dent is true : therefore fo is the Confequcnt. The reafon of the 
Confeqjcnce is clear, and grantei by them that we have now to 
do wich : Bcca-ufe the Pallors are efTential to the Church as 
Political, and the faid Ordinances of Publike worfhip, (as the 
Lords Supper, ) and Government, cannot be allowable without 
them, nor fuch as ihe people fhould fubmit to or receive. This 
therefore we may take as gran:ed. 

S;&. 35. And for the Minor, that the Proteftant Churches 



are true Churches that have no Prelates, i. There are fo few of 
them that have Prelates, that he that will unchurch all the reft , 
Ifuppofe ( when he playes his game above board ) would take 
it for an injury, to be accounted a Proteftant himfelf. 2. if 
the Churches of the Weft called Papifts, and the Churcbei of 
Africa, A ft a , and tumeric a, be true Churches of Chrift, and 
havetrueadminiftrations, then ( much more confidently may 
we affirm that) theProtcftantsarefo too. But the Antecedent: 
is maintained by thofe that we now difpute againft, ( except, 
ing the Papifts, who yet maintain it as of their own Church ) 
therefore, &c. 

Se&3<5. Thercafon of the Confequence is, becaufe the Pa- 
pifts, Greek/, Armenians, Georgians, Sjrians, ^Egyptians, Aba* 
fines, &c- have much more to be faid againft them then we have : 
And if the leffer ( or fuppofed ) Lmperfe&ion of the Proteftant 
Churches do unchurch them , ( for wanting Prelates, ) then 
the many great, and real defe&s of the other Churches will 
unchurch them much more.Efpecially this holds as to the Church 
of Rome,wh\ch yet is taken by the Diflenters to bea true Church, 
andbyfome of them, ac leaft, denyed to be the feat of Anti- 
chrift. Their Viccchrift and ufurping head, and all the Mini- 
ftry that hold by him, afford us other kind of Arguments agamic 
their Church, then want of Prelates can afford tbern or others 
againft our Churches. 

Se&. 37, Andifany will deny the Antecedent fo far as to 
unchurch all the Churches in the world, that are more defective 
then the Proteftants,he will blot out of his Creed the Article of 
the Catholick Church, and being a Seeker or next one today, is - 
like to be an Infidel ere long,as I (hall further *hew, wheal fpeak 
of the finfulnefs of fuch. 

See*. 38. Argument 14. If the Adminiftrations of a Ufur- 
ping Presbyter to an innocent people are Valid ( and not Nul- 
lifies, ) then the Ordination of an Ufurping Ordaincr to an In- 
nocent expeftant, is Valid; (andconfequently the Ordination 
of Presbyters is Valid, if they were Ufurpers, as they are un~ 
juftlyfaid to be, ) But the adminiftrations of ufurping Pref* 
byters to an Innocent people are Valid : therefore, &c. 

Sed. 3 9. The Antecedent is granted by BelUrmwe himfelf 
(ip the place before cited J who faith that no more is required to 
oblige the people to obey him, and fubrait, then that he be re- 


puted aPaftor.- And all mufl fay fo, i.That will not rob the 
Innocent of the Benefit of Gods Ordinances,becaufeoPan usur- 
pers faulr. 2. And that will not leave the people, almoft com- 
monly, in an utter uncertainty, whom they fhould take for a Pa- 
iior andobey^and when the Ordinances are Valid for their good. 
Se&. 40. The Confequcnce is made good by the Parity of 
Reafon that is in the two cafes. If ufurpatioa caufe not a Nul- 
lity, invalidity or unprofitablenefs in one cafe, to the innocent 
receiver, no nor make it his fin to receive, no more will it in the 
other ^ For there is no Reafon for any fuch difference. Nay It 
it be a duty tofubnic to an unknown ufurpcr, in fever al cafes, 
in receiving the Sacraments, hearing, praying}, &c. fo is it a 
duty in fuch cafes to receive Ordination. 

SecT.41. Objcft. But the ufurping Presbyter doth nothing 
but what belongeth to the office of a Presbyter : but the ufurping 
Ordaintr doth that which btlengsnot to the office of a Presbyter: 
and therefore his aclion is a Nullity, as being extra proprmm 

Sed. 42. esfnfw. 1. It is proved before to beloi.f ' the of- 
fice of a Presbyter to Ordain : 2.Butfuppofcit wcrrnqt$"yet 
the objection is vain ; becaufeitistheofficeof a£ the 

Ordaining Presbyter doth pretend tb,and which you irnagircthat 
lie doth ufurp. Thej fay that fubjed: Presbyters ( ejuoadordi- 
mm vel Offichtm) arc no creatures of Gods appointment •, and 
therefore they renounce that Office ; and claim that otfee which 
you call Epifcopacy, and hath the Power of Ordination. The 
quarrel between us is not about meer Bifhops ( fuch as Dr. R H. 
defcribeth ss aforefaid^Thefeare not denyedtbut the I^arifti Mi- 
nifters profefs themfelves fuch Bifhops; But it is about the other 
fort of Presbyters, fubje& to Bifhops, that the quarrel is ; For 
they fay, that the Church fhould have none fuch, and Dr H. H. 
faith there is no Evidence thit any fuch were inftituted in Scri- 
pure times. Now as a pretended Presbyters adrainiftmions 
are Valid to the innocent receiver of the Sacrament , fo a pre- 
tended Bifhops adrmniftration in Ordination is as Valid to the 
innocent, ceteris paribus. 

Sed.43 . Argument 1 $ . They that have the Keyes of the King- 
dom of Heaven , have the power of Ordination: But Parochi- 
al! Pallors called Presbyters have the K*yes of the Kingdom of 



Heaven ? therefore they have the power of Ordination. 

Se&. 44. The Minor is granted commonly by Pa pi (Is and 
Proteftants, as to/ewe oftheKeyes, but it is by many cleaved as- 
toother. They fay tbat every Paftor hath the Key of doftrine 
and of Order, but not the Key of Jurifdidion. but i.Chrift 
gave the Key cs of the Kingdom of Heaven together and never 
divided them. Therefore they arc not to be divided. He did 
not give one Key to one,and another to another , but all to the 
fame men : And what God hath joyned together, let no man 
put afunder. 2. The Apoflles in delivering chefe Keyes to 
Other?, arc never found to have feparated them. Tor Subject 
Preibyttrs vet re not infiitxted in Scripture-times : Therefore all 
that were then Ordained Presbyters had all the Keyts together, 
and fo that oijurifditlion £ as it is called ). with the reft. 3 .That Cyprian Fn 
Presbyters had the Key of Order, will prove that they may 28.^4, 
Ordain , as isaforefaid. 4. But that Englifh Presbyters had the • :d ch um & 
Key offurifdiftion is proved, 1. In that they werewkh theBi j^rlTTT" , 
{hops to Ordain by Impofuion of hands, z. In that they were dl vhti'umwp 
by the Book of Ordination charged to adminiiler D fciphne : &T$nu»at? 
though this wasdifufed,ardthc Prelates fruitrated their power. ^yfdUcwt^ 
Sec^. 45.I (hall recite the words of Reverend VJberfor the P 'f,ff 0Yi,lc? 
proof of this , Reduction of Epifcopacy , ®-c. [ By Or^}^- 1 ^')^ 
der of the Church of England all Presbjtcrs are charged rei- iwipoad 
( in the Boo^ of Ordination ) to adminifter the Doclrtne ^ € folumiu-- 
ef Sacraments and the Dlfcipline ofChrifi , as the lerd dieem ' dl >*> 
hath commanded , and as this Realm hath received th* hue deck 
fame ; and that they might the be Ur under (land what the abfentes f,r y 
Lord hath commanded therein^ the exhortation of St. Paul ncc locum 
to the Elders of the. Church of Ephcfus is- appointed to ■['■ u "f z 'J f tya 
to be read unto them at the time of their Ordination^ Take p/ itav r .^T » 
heed unto your (elves and to all the flock, among whom the b*c ferule-' 
Holy Ghofl hath made you Overfeers,;to Rule ihe Congre- w/n3f«rfi 
gationof God which he hath purchafed with his blood. $> & l ' im w- 
Of the ykaij Elder swho thus in common ruled the Church of m L e .® H * 
Ephtfus , there r?as one Prejident } whom our Saviour in his lentum cam 

coUeg- r mis 
fcd'& cam pick ipfa nrnzcrfa : How big was the Diocefs then , and how much the Biihop 
ruled alonc,may be hence conjectured 5 and whether Presbyters lud'eny hand in ruling, 
Why doth lg/i.tlitis and TcrtuU^n comrmnd them to be fubjecfro t-'ic'Presbycei s as re -.ik ? 
Aroltles cf Chun:, if they had not the Key of Government-;- 

Ee 2 Bfifile 


in a peculiar manner 
Angel of the Church if EphdUf. Ami :grr us wamtth 

' -.v: lie years after ^n:: :>:; A^eChurch y 
calleth the Bifiop thereof. Betwixt the Bifcp and the Pt 
byterie r xhat Church , what an harmonious confent tkf 
•*..: m tie trJfr ng / the Church government ,me 

:do:hfui* f, fa the hSr. 

Communi by 

or Elders who then had a hand net only in the de liver y of 
.md >acraments but alft in the Administration of 
D- cifKmt f Chrifl : For further proof r which weh. 
•xn Tffiimcnj o/Tertullian ttratl Apologjf f 

Chriftians : in the Church Are u fed exhort at Uns^chafti fe- 
me*:: ar.i ; .' ■ 'ure , fir judgement is given with g 

I let as among thofe who are certain they are in the fight of 
C:d- 9 and tt is the cbiefefi forejhewing of the fudgemer.t 
: to come , if a ny mar, have jo iff ended that he he ha- 
nijhed from the CemmuK. , and if the ». 

hlj , and of all holy 'dents that bear 

rule therein arec iders y wks have obtained 

thishsnsw tun bj Re war.- goof report , who -mere no 

other ( as hi I i m ''. .' i ; m - ; . . .' ;' 't vr her?, but thofe from 
- : ' -:inx; :hei u 'ed ?s re:>iV: the SmXruwttwt of the tmhar 

For with the Bifbzp wh: was tht chief ?ref\dtnt y {and 
tbr f.i -7 tne 'am .Tertbflan in anther place, fara- 

-? Sacrrdcs for di-tirStizn fake) thtrefiofthe Mfptm 

cf the TV or a and Sacrament: jojnedinthe cemmen Govern- 
met: r tm Church ^ and therefore where in matters of Ec- 
'jiafaal judicature, Cornelias Bifo-op -f Rome fifed the 
recisvea form o' Zithe-inj toe PreshnerU. of*hat 

per fens that did conftjt, Cyprun V declarttk\whtuhc 

wtjheth him to read his Letters ;; :bejlonrifi*r Clergy which 
there a.ia pre 5ae :r rule with Kim, The prefence if : he Clergy 
being thought fo requifite in matters ofEpifcspal audience jhat 
in the fourth CchhciI cf Carchage \t was concluded , That 
the Bi/hep might hear nc mans cauft without the prefer,: 
the Clergy • and that stherwife the Bifkops [enuncefhomUhe 
void y unJefs it wtrt confirmed bj the prefence cf the CI: 



which we find a' fo to be infer ted into the Canons #/Egberc, who 
was tsirchbifhop of York in the Saxon times, and afterwards 
into the body of the Canon-Law it [elf. 

True it is that in our Church this kind of Presbyterial (7«- 
vernment hath been long difufed, yet feeing it flillprofeffeth 
that everyPaflor hath a right to rule the C bur ch( from whence 
the name ofRetlor alfo was giver, at firjl unto him ) and to 
adminifler the Difcipline of Chrifl , as well as to difpence 
the DoUrine and Sacrament*, and the refiraint of theexcr- 
cife of that right prcceedeth only from the cufiom now re- 
ceived in this Realm ; no man can doubt but by another 
Law of the Land , this hinder ance may be well removed } 
Scdt.46.And indeed the ftream of Antiquity, and the Authors 
that are principally retted on for Epifcopacy , are full againft 
them that deny the Government of the people to the Presbyters; 
And it is the principal mifchief of the Englifh Prelacy, thus to 
degrade ( or quoad exercitium to fufpend at leaft ) all the Prcf- 
bycers from their office : Not as it is a denying them any part of 
their honour ( thats not to be much regarded ^ ) but as it is a 
difcharging them of their work and burden, and confequcntly 
leaving the Churches ungoverned. And for the Government 
of Presbyters themfelvcs, in Cjt ria * s dayes the Bifhop did not, 
could not, Ordain, or cenfure any Presbyter without his Cler- 
gy , and Councils have decreed that fo it fhould fee. Yea and the 
plebs univerfa alfo was confuked with by Cyprian. 

Scd. 47. And now I come to the Major of my Arrgument 9 
which I prove thus. Either Ordination is an ad of the exercife 
of the power of the Keyes, or offome other power: But of 
no other power : therefore of the Keyes. If it be the exerxifc 
of any other power, it is either of a fecular power, or an Ecclc- 
fiafhek : but neither of thefe, therefore of no other. Not of 
another Ecclefiaftick power : for there is noEcdefiaftical pow- 
er, ( at leaft which Ordination can be pretended to belong to) 
but the power of the Keyes ; not of a fecular power; for that be- 
longcth not to Minifters, nor is it here pretended. 

Se&. 48. And I think it will appear that the power of Bap- 
tizing, and judging who (hall be taken for Chriftians,and who 
not, and the power of adminiftring the Eucharift and Eucha- 
riftical aSions in theChnrch,isas great as this of Ordination, 

Ee 3 efpecially 

cfpeeialty fuppofingthataPresbyteriemuft concur in this, and 
a fingle Pesbyter may do the other. And therefore the one 
being granted them, the other cannot be denyed. 

Se&. 49. Argument 16. Iftheadminiitrations ofthePriefts 
and Teachers in Chriftsdayes among the Jews was Valid to 
the people, then the Ordination of our Presbyteries ,and the ad - 
miniftrations of our Presbyters fo ordained are Valid to the peo- 
ple and receivers now : But the Antecedent is true : therefore 
fo is the Confequent. This Argument is managed fo frequently 
and copioufly by our Minilters heretofore againft the ScparatifU, 
that I fhali need to fay but little of it. 

Sed. 50. The Antecedent is proved eaflly from Scripture. 
Atts 13. 27. & 1 5. 2 1. (hew that M*fes and the Prophets were 
read in theSynagogues every Sabbath day,andZȣf 16.29.fhew * 
that it was the peoples duty to hear them , Mat . 23 . 1 , 2,3. 
Then fpake fefusto the Multitude and to his Difcip/es JfayingfThe 
Scribes and the Pharifes ft in Mofes feat : all therefore what- 
foever they bid you obfervejhat obferve and do : but de not je after 
their works : for theyfaj and do not. ] Mat. 8. 4. Mark 1 . 44. 
Luke 16. 29. But go thy way , JJjew thy felf to the Prieft,and of 
fer for thy cleanfing thofe things v hie h Moles commanded, &c^ 
So that it was the peoples duty to hear ,and fubmit to the Teach- 
ers and the Priefts. 

Se&. 51. Thereafonof the Confcquence is, becaufe thefe 
Priefb and Teachers had not fo good a Call as our Presbyters, 
to their Office, but were lyableto far more exceptions. The 
Priefls were not of the line that God had by his Law appointed 
to fucceed in the Prietthood : the fucccfiion had long failed, as 
tothe juft title of the Succeffjrs. The Priefthood was bought 
for money of the Civil Powers ; and inftead of being the Pried 
for life, he was oft changed every year : chofen by a Pagan 
Prince, and by him difp'aced : and moft think there were two at 
once. The Scribes and Pharifes had abominably corrup'ed the 
Law by their traditions and falfeexpofitions- and their Calling 
was much more defective then ours :To that if they rr.uft pafs 
yet for Minifters of God , and their adminiftrations be valid, 
then fo rauft Presbyters and their adminiftrations be efteemed 
much more. I know we need not this odious comparifon cf. 
our Miniltry with the Prkfls or Pharifes, but to fhew the adver- 


far ies the odiou kefs of their accufations, and grofsncfs of their 

See*. 52. Argument 17. If Presbyters may make a Bifhop, 
then they may make a Presbyter. But they may make a Bifhop : 
therefore they may make ( or ordain ) a Presbyter. The Con- 
fluence of the Major is proved thus. 1 . They that may confer 
the higher Degree, may confer the lower : the place of a Bifhop 
is fiippofed the higher Degree, and the place of a Presbyter the 
lower. 2. The Bifhops themfelves require more power in or 
to the Confecration of a Bifhop, then to the Ordination af a 
Minifter, called a Presbyter. Trie later may bs done, according 
to their Canons, by one Bifhop ( with aflifting Presbyters, J 
b-c the former muft have three Bifoops at the leaft. 

Sed. 53. To this it is commonly anfwered, that Pracife the 
Ordination of a Presbyter, is a greater work then the making of 
a Bifhop ; and therefore the Major is denyed. To which I re- 
ply. 1. I fpeak not of a Greater work • becaufe the word greater 
is ambiguous, andmayfigniflethe greater change in regard of 
the Termini a quo, which is not ic that I intend. But the addi- 
tion of an higher degree of power, may require more power to 
theerleding it, then the giving of the Lower degree, though 
the lower be pracife the greaccr .change : for the higher is the 
greater change as to the terminus ad quern ; and as Epifcopacy 
comprchendeth or fuppofeth Presbyterie,fo the power of making 
aBifhopcomprehendethor fuppofeth the power of Ordaining 
Presbyterf. It may be pr&cifc, for cum pr&cifione^ the School- 
men (peak ) it may be a greater work to make a beggar to be 
- the chitf Prince next to the King in a Kingdom .-and ytl fine 
prAcifione and in regard of the terminus ad quern it is a greater 
work to make him afterward a King ; and doubtlcfs the additi- 
on of this Power requireth the Greater power to efFed k. 

Sed. 54. Otherwifc , if the Diffenters will ftand to their 
anfwer, we (hall from their own grounds infallibly overthrow 
their caufc thus, it is a greater work to Baptize then to Ordain 
or Confirm; therefore he that may Baptize, may Ordain and 
Confirm. Juftas making a Presbyter is cum pr^cifiom , and in 
refped to the terminus a quo, a greater work then Confecrating 
or making a Bifhop ; fo Baptizing is cum prtcijhne and in rz- 
(pz& to the terminus a quo, a far greater workmen Ordination; 



d.e one making a Chriftian, and the other a Minifter of a Chrir ,.. 
ftian. See Aqnil. in ScotcL in ^fent. d.y. q.2. pag. 8 1 6. of Con- , 

Se A. 5 5 . It is only the Minor therefore that will hold difpute, 
which I prove from the well known words of Hierom to Eva- 
grim ( which Bifhop V/her told me he alleadged to King Charls 
at the Jfle of wight to this end, when he was asked by him for 
an inftancc of Presbyters Ordaining) [Quodautem poflea untis 
elccltis eft , qr.i ceteris praponeretur, in fchifmatis remediam 
faBameft, ne nnuf qui fane ad fe trahens Chri(ii Ec clef am rum- 
peret. Nam & Alexandria a Marco Evange/ifta ttfque ad Hera- 
clam & Dienyfittm^ Epifcopos, Tresbyteri femper unum ex fe 
elettum, in excel/tori gradn coUocatnm^ Epifcopnm mminaban: : 
qmmodo ji exercitus lmperatorem faciat : ant Diaconi eligant de 
fe , qaem indnftrittm noverint , efr sArchidiaconnm yocent. 
Presbyters then made the firft Bifhops at s4 lexandria. 

Sed. 56. Tothisitisanfwered, that it was only Election of 
Bifhops that Hierom afcribeth to the Alexandrian Presbyters , and 
not Ordination of them- y for that Was done by fome other Bijbops : 
and that it U Ordination that makes a man a Bijbop. 

Scft. 57. To this I reply : 1 . Hierom here undertakes to tell 
us, how Bifhops were made at Alexandria •, butmakcthnot the 
ieaft mention of other Ordination or Confecration, then thefe 
words exprefs as done by the Presbyters : And therefore till they 
prove it, we rauft take the affirmation of another Ordination to 
be but the groundlefs preemption of the Affertors. 2. Hierom 
doth purpofely bring this as air argument, to prove the identity 
firft, and the neernefs afterward, of Bifhops and Presbyters 3 
that £ Presbyters made Bijhops : ]. which would have been no 
argument, if it was not Presbyters but Prelates that made thera 5 
and if the Presbyters only chofe them; for, 3. The people 
may choofe a Bifhop, as well as the Presbyters, and ordinarily 
did it : and yet this proveth not that the people were necr the 
Bifhop in degree; thajt which the people ihesnfclves may. do, 
and frequently did, is not the only thing that Hierom here a- 
fcribeth to the Presbyters : but fuch is the Elcdion of a Bifhop .* 
therefore, &c. 4. It is the Original or firft making of Pre- 
lates at Alexandria that Hierom here (peaks ofj which he (hews 
was from the Presbyters confect. This appeareth plainly in bis 
1 ~" ~ words 


words ( though fomc can make the pJainefl words to /Igni/Je 
what they would have them,) For i. He begins with a [_Pres- 
byteris, id eft £pi 'fop's, ~] and 2. proceedeth from many fcri- Al pbo*f>>* 
pture paflages, to prove chem in fcripture times the fame : and mlfatJniL& 
thunozon\y tj wad nom err, but officiant', for 3. When he had Hermsopi- 
done with the Tcilirronies of Saint f.hn in his two Epiftles, he n J°"v/a> 
immediately addcth [_ Qxod astern poftea uius ekclns eft, cjm ^ nde e<ithc 
ceteris prapomretur &c. ] where note, both that £ p.nus qui ft^jjf^i-jn 
ctterU prtpcneretttr] is more then the bare name : and alfo that and frequent 
[_ Poftea] referrethto thedate of Johns Epiftles, and therefore exprefllons 
he plainly averreth, that it was aker fans Epiftles, that [«^ ™ e ayerritto 
rvas cbofen to be before the reft.'] 5. And to the Anfwer I further bukcdftheoi 
reply, that here is all cfcac was done, and all that was needfull that pretend 
to be done, afenbed to the Presbyters : For 1. They elected die contrary. 
one. 2. They did /• excelftori gradu eleclv.m collocare , place H e&or*oer 
him in an higher degree, and 3. Efifcopummminabant : they f J™A ^7* 
named him the Bifhop ( by way of excellency. ; And if Ele&i- (scol 
on and placing him in the Degree, and giving him peculiarly the Hiflor.L7.f9U 
name, be not Ordination, then Oidinauon is but fome Ceremo- II8 -^ ) that 
ny ; forthefe contain the fubftance. 6. And Hierom exprefly ^ nte J P 3 a f} m 
refembleth this a&ion of the Presbyters roan Armies making an fraguexMa- 
Emperour or General • as if he had faid, As the Army makes nacbk & cut- 
in Emperour ( Imperatorem+faciat ) (o Presbyters made the d*js pomifias 
Bifhop ; but the Army fo made the Emperour, that they left g*^jf"* >v 
it not to another power to make him ( and to them only. ) So then ordained 
that it is both [Making aBfhop] that is here afcribed to the them butPres- 
Presbyters, and fucb a mahjng~] as leavethhim not unmade, byter s . 
to the making of another. 7. And he refembleth it to the making " AsAM*** 
of an Arch-deacon, fuppofing that the Deacons do 1. Eleft. ^H^m- 
2. Judge of the perfon ( qucm induftnum noverint.) 3. And bebmtanteal 
give him the name ( & Archi diaconumvwent.) 8. And he ScotifuoTE- 
affirracth this to be (femper ) the conftant cuftom of the Alex- piftopos acMi- 
andrian Presbyters, till the dayes of Heraclas and Dionjfius : ^•^^ 
intimating that then the cuftom changed : but what cuftom was nlfkrhplebiufn 
then changed ? Not' the Election of a Bifhop by the Presbyters, fuffi-agiis ele- 
( with the people) for that continued long after : and therefore ttwipren* Aft- 
it mu(t be tta Conftitmion, which afterward was done by Neigh ^ fum T '\ 
bo'ir Bifhops in Cenfecration, but till then by the Eleiiion, Ce/. tanrmvi^^ 
location, and nomination ot the Presbyters of that City-Church, bant* 

Ff 9. Havirg 


g] Having fhewed thus, that Bifliops and Presbyters were the 

fame, and in the beginning called them by the fame name,be af- 
firms that \j)mnes Apoflolorum fucceffores funt~] that is, All 
thefe Blfbops. 10. And he plainly affirms that the difference is 
made by Riches and Poverty : He is the greater that is the richer^ 
and he is the inferiotir that is the poorer. [Potentiadivitiarum ejr . 
pattpertatis hnmilitas, velfnblimierem, velinferUr.em £pifcopxm\ 
facit. ] Let any impartial Reader perufe the Epiftle it felf and 
confide- of thefe ten paffages, and then believe if he can, either, 
that Hierom did imply that other Bifhops made thefe Alexandri- 
an Bifhopsi and not the Presbyters, or that thefe Presbyters 
altered but the name, and gave not the Bifhop his new degree, 
or that this was not a thing that was now de novo, in remedinm { 
fchifmatis contrived or performed by th^n. There is evidence, 
endugh againft thefe conceits. . 

$e&. 58. And further, for them that think it was but the 
name that was now changed, I would ask them thefe few Queltk 
ons, ( fuppofingthem to be of their mind, that tell us that In- 
feriour Presbyters were not inftituted in Scripture times, and 
that it was only Prelates that are called Bifhops and Presbyters ia 
Scripture. ) 1. Is it not ftrange,that when after Scripture- times, 
a New Office Was made, it fhould not have a new Name alfo 5. 
but fhould have the fame name with the old fuperiour office r 
2. And is it not Orange that both, names of the fuperior Office* 
( Bifhop and Presbyter ) (hould be commonly given to the new 
inferior Office, at thefirft? 3. And ftrange that the Church 
muft afterward be put to change the names, and retrench or 
recall the name of a Bifhop from the new fort of Presbytersjand 
confine it to the old ? leaving (^asoldj the name of a Presbyter 
to the new inferior Office. 4. And if in Scripture-time* (in 
the dayes when John wrote his Epiftles and Revelation ) the 
names of Bifhop and Pretbyter were both appropriated to Pre-, 
lates, there being no Inferiour Presbyters then inftituted ; and 
yet from Mark, the Evangelifr, the AleKsndM'an Presbyters 
brought back the name of a Bifhop to the Prelates, retaining the 
name Presbyter themfelves, Qu&ro How long time, was ther* 
after the Inftitutionef Inferior Presbyters s till the regttlatingof 
their names , from the dayes of Mark f About thirty tour years 
backward v Marl^ dyed in th.f eighth year of Nero, and the 



Presbyters made ArianttsTMhop after his death, who continu- 
ed twenty two years, even from the eighth of Nero, to the fourth 
of Domitian, as Eufeb'tus in Htfior.Eccief.l.2.cap.2$. & M.$. 
cap. 12. & in Chronic. & Hieronjm.in Catalog. 0- ex Mis Ufher 
AnxaLVol.z. ad an, D0m.67.pag.67j. And Eelvicus and others 
are r.eer the fame time. And iaith Helvicus, John wrote the 
Revelations about the fourteenth year of Domitian, and wrote 
his Gofpel about the firft year of his Succeffor Nerva. So that 
'Mark, dyed about thirty fix years ( or thirty four at leaft ) be- «£& 
fore fohn wrote his Gofpel -, fo that here you have your choice, 
whether you will believe, that (ubje& Presbyters did regulate 
the names of themfelves and Bifhops, anddideled for make, 
Bifiiops thirty fix years before they were inftituted themfelves ; 
or whether you will believe, that yet at the death of Mark^ 
there were no inferior Presbyters at Alexandria, and fo no fupe- 
rior Bifhops, for all this that Hierom doth report. 

Sed. 59 As for the Epifcopal Divines that diffent' from the 
Principle of the forecited Learned Author ( who faith that there 
is no evidence that aay of the fecondfortgf Presbyters were 
inftituted in Scripture times ) I need not deal with them in this 
Difputation : for all of therx: that ever I yet met with, do grant 
the validity of Presbyters Orainflion, and the truth of the Re- 
formed Churches and t heu Miniftry, and Ordinances : otherwife 
it were eafie enough, to vindicate all thefc from them alfo, if they 
denyed them. 

Sed, 60. Argument 18. Ad hsmnew* If the late Englifh 
Prelates had a lawful call to their Prelacy, then much more have 
Minifters Ordained by Presbyters a lawfull call to their Miniftry. 
But the Prelates fay that.they bad a lawfull Call to their Prelacy: 
therefore, &c. The reafon of the Confluence (which only will 
bedenjedj is, 1. Becaufe the Presbyters are Ordained to an 
Office that is of Chriftslnftiturion ; but the Prelares are Confe- 
crated to an Office that is not of Chrifts Initiation, but againft 
it, and againft the light of Nature (in taking on them the im- 
poffible Government of an hundred, or n,any hundred 
Churches) as was (hewed in t^e Corner Difputation. 2. Be- 
caufe the Prelates hold an uninterrupted Succeflion of Legiti- 
mate Ordination neceflary to the Being of their Prclacie (I 
mean, fuch as now we difpute againft, hold this J but fo do not 

F f 2 the 

( 110) 

the Presbyter?". The faid diflenting Prelates arc ftill upon their 
Nitno dat quod nonhtbet \ which therefore we may urge upon 
them. And i. They cannot prove an uninterrupted Succefsion 
themfelves, on whom it is incumbent, according to their prin- 
ciples , if they will prove their Call. 2. Wc can prove that they 
are the fucceffors of fuch as claimed ail their Power from the 
Roman Vicechrift, and profefled to receive it from him,and hold 
it of him astheCatbolickHead , and fo that their Ordination 
comes from a feat that hath had many interruptions , and fo 
had no power of Ordination, by their Rule : For when the 
fuccefiion was fo oft and long interrupted, Nemo dat quod nor. 
hdbet : and therefore all that followed rauft be ufurpers and no 
Popestand thofe that received their Offices from them muft be no 
Officers: But the Presbyters that Ordain will give a better proof 
©f their Call then this. 

Sed.61 . Argument 1 9.Where the Office is of Gods Inftituti- 
on, and the perfons are endued with Minifterial abilitities,and are 
Orderly and duly defigned and fcparated to the Office of the fa- 
cred Miniftry, there arettue Minifters,and Valid adroiniftrations. 
But all thefe are found in the Reformed Churches that have Or- 
dination without Prelates; therefore, &c. The Major is unde- 
nyable, as containing a fufficient enumeration of all things necef- 
fary to the Being of the Miniftry. 

Sed. 62. The Minor is proved by parts. 1 . That the Office of a 
Tresbjter is of divine inftitution,is conftfTed by raoft: And I fup- 
pofe thofe that deny it to be of Scripture infirutionjWill yet have 
it to be D:vine:But if they deny that, yet it fufficeth us, that it is 
the fame officer that they call a Bifhop;and we a Presbyter ; that 
ts,the chief Paftorofa particular Church. 

Seel:. 63. 2. And that the perfons are duly er comfetenly qua- 
lified for the Miniftry, notbingbut Ignorance, Tadionand Ma- 
lice, that ever I heard of, do deny. (Suppofing the humane 
frailties, that make us all insufficient gradually for thefe things) 
The Ignorant that know not what the Minifterial qualifications 
arc, do judge as carnal intereft leadeth them. The Factious rail 
at all that be not of their mind. Grows thought the opinions 
of theCalvinifts made them unfit materials for the Catholick 
Edifice that by his Pacification he was about to frame. So do 
njoft other Se&s, rejett thofe as unworthy that fuit not with 


(l2 I } 

their minds. And malice ( whether zn mated by Herefie, Pro- 
pbanefsor Carnal intercft ) will e&fily find faults, an.d unweari- 
edly (lander and reproach: But beiidesfuch I meet with none 
chat dare deny the competent abilities of thefeMinifters. 

Se&. 64. And 3. That thepcrfons art Orderly anddu/jfepa- 
rated to the work^ of the Mmiflry is thus proved. Where there is 
afeparation to the Mintdry by mutual Confnt of 'the per fan and 
the flocks, and by the Magiftrates authority , and by the Appro- 
bat ion and Inveftiture of the f Ate ft Sccleftafticul efftcers that are 
to be had, there is an orderly and due reparation to the Miniftry * 
But ail this is to be found in the Ordination ufed in England 
and other Reformed Churches , without Prelates : therefore 
&c. This proves not only the Validity of their Ordination,but: 
the full Regularity. 

ScSt.6$.Godhimfelf (as hath been (hewed ) doth by his 
Law appoint the Office of the Minidry, impofing the duty up- 
on the per fon that ihall be called, and giving him his power, by 
that Law. And then there is nothing to be done, but to deter- 
termineof the per fon that is to receive this power and folemnly 
to put him in Pcffeffion by Inveftiture. Now the principal pare of 
the former work is done alfo by God himfelf.- by his Qualifying 
the perfon with his eminent Gifts . and giving him oppor- 
tunities and advantages for the Work. So that the people and 
Odainers have no more to do,but to find out the man that God 
hath thus qualified, and to eled, approve and invert him ; and 
ufually heiseafily found out, as a candle in the nighr. So that 
the two great ads by which God maketh Minifters , is his In- 
ftituting Law that makes the office, and his Spiritual and Natu- 
ral! Endowments given to the perfon ; which the Church is but 
to find out, and call into ufe and exercife. And therefore we 
may Hill truly fay, that the Holy Ghoft maketh Paftors or 
OverfeersoftheChurch,as well as formerly he d\d{Acl. 20. 28.) 
becaufe he giveth them their Gifts, though not fuch Miraculous 
Gifts as fome then had-, By his common Gifts of Knowledge 
and Utterance, and his fpecial Gifts of Grace, it is the fpirit that 
(till makes Mimfters,and full Chrift giveth Pallors to the Church. 
Seft. 66. It is therefore to be noted that,.E/?&.4. 6,7,8,1 1 , the 
way of Chiles giving officers to his Church is faid to be by {gi- 
ving Gifts tomen~} and the diverfity of Office* is founded in the 

Ff a dy 


xiivtrfity of the Meafure of Grace , ( or thefe Gifts )- Q To 
every one of m is given Grace according to the met fur e of the gift ef 
thrift. Therefore he faith, sslfc ending on high he led captivity 

ca-tive,and gave Gifts to men ( %$&** fcyA-i* ) And he gave 

fome Apoft/es , fome Prophets , fome Evange lifts, and feme Paftors 
and Teachers^] So that giving Gifts, and giving Apoftles, Pro' 
fi&t'Si &c. are here made the fame work of God : Not that 
the Trial and Approbation of thefe gifts is hereby raade unnecef- 
fa»y, but that this is Gods principal ad by which he giveth Pa- 
ftors and Teachers to the Church, and by which the Officers 
arediftinguifhed. For the Church is to difcern and fubmit to 
thofe that are thus gifted • and to follow the Spirit, and not 
either contract! or lead him. When God hath thus gifted men, 
the main work is done, for making them Minifters (tfwithallhe 
give them opportunities and advantages for the work J and it is 
the Churches Duty to Own and Approve thefe Gifts of God, and 
to do their parts to introduce the perfon : And if the Ordainers 
refufe this, in cafe ofNecejfity, the gifted perfon is bound to im- 
prove his Gifts without them. I fay [ in cafe of Neajfitj ] ufing 
the bed Order that is left. 

Scft. 67. This being premifed, I come to the Argument 
( §. 64. ) And the Major is undenyable, becaufe there are all 
things enumerated , that areNectffary to the determination 
of the perfon qualified, that is to receive the power from Chrift, 
Sed. 68. And the Minor I prove by parts, 1 . That our Mi- 
niftry have ufually the peoples confent, is a known cafe that 
needs no proof.* 2. So is it that they have the Magiftrates allow- 
ance , and his Authority appointing Approvers for their In- 
troduction , and allowing Ordination and commanding Mmifte- 
rial Works. 

Sed. 69. And doubtlefs the Magiftratebimfclf hath fo much 
Authority in Ecclefiaftical affairs, that if he command a qualified 
perfon to preach the Gospel, and command the people to re- 
ceive him, I fee not how either of them can be allowed to difo- 
bey him : ( Though yet the party ought alfo to have recourfe 
to PaOors for Ordination, and people for confent,where it may 
be done ) And Gm/'/rf/commcndeth the faying of Mufcttlus, 
that would have no Minifter queftion his Call , that bemg qua- 
lified, hath the Chriftian Magiltrates Commiffion. Aad though 




this affcrtion need fome limitations, yet it is apparent that Ma- 
giftratcs power is great about the Offices of the Church. For 
Salmon put^ut Abiathar from the Priefthood,and put Zadtckjn 
his place, i Kings 2. 27, 35. Dxvid and the Captains of the 
hoft fe para ted to Gods fervice thofe of the fons of Afaphznd 
of Heman &ndofJedptthitn who fhouldPropheficwichHarps,^. 
1 fchron 1 6. 4. And fo did Solomon, 2 Chron. 8. 1 4, 1 5. They, 
were for the fervice of the houfe of God,according to the Kings 
Order, 1 Chron.2$.i t 6.And methinks thofe men fhould acknow- 
ledge this, that were wont to {tile the King £ In all caufes t and 
over all perfons the fnpream Head and Governonr. ] 

Sed. 70 ) But 3, We have moreover in the Ordination of the 
Reformed Ghurche9, The approbation and folemn Inveftiturc of 
the fit t eft; Ecclefiaflical Officers that are to be had. And no more 
is^rcqutfne toan orderly Admiftion. There being nothing for 
man to do,, but to determine of the qualified perfon,and prefent 
him to God co receive the power and obligation from his Law; 
itis eafie to difcern, that where all thefe concur ( the Peoples 
Ele&Lon or Confent, the Magiftrates Authority , the decermn 
nation of fit Ecclefiaftical Officers, and the qualification and 
confent of the perfon himfelf , ) there needs no more to the 
deftgnation of the man. Nor hath God tyed the eflence of the 
Church or Miniftry , to a certain formality, or to the intereft 
or will of Prelates •• nor can any more ad-ordixem-be required, 
but that a qualified perfon do enter, by the beftand moft Orders 
ly way that is open to him in thofe times and places where he 
is. And that we have the ficteft, Approvers and Ordainers.l 

Sed. 71. IfthemoftoftheProteftant Churches have noother- 
Ecclefiaftical Officers to Ordain but Presbyters, then is it the 
raoft fit and orderly way to eneer into the Miniftry in thofe. 
Churches by their Ordination,, and thofe Presbyters are the fit- 
ted that are there to Ordain. Butthe Antecedent is a known> 
truth. If any in denyal of the Confequence fay, that the 
Churches (hould rather be without Minifters then have Ordina* 
tion by fuch r they are confuted by what i* faid before. 

Sed. jz. And if you fay, that they foould have Bi&ops f 
and it is theirown fault that they have not $ 1 anfwer^Suppofe- 
that were a granted trutlyt can readout to fome thatha vc 'he 


Rnie; It is not the fault of every Congregation, or expjftant of 
the Miniftry : It is not in their power to alter Laws and forms of 
Government : and therefore tl.cy are bound to enteLby the fitteft 
way that is open to them. 

Se&. 73. Moreover, even in England; the Presbyteries arc 
fitter for Ordination then thaprefent Bifhops : ( as to the Nati- 
on In genera ^therefore che Ordination by Presbyteries is done by 
the fitted Ecclefiaftical orTicers,and is the moft regular and defin- 
able Ordination. 

Sect. 74. I prove the Antecedent by comparing the Ordina- 
tion of the Presbyteries and the prefent Prelates. 1. 1 have 
before (hewed that the Eng'ih Prelacy is more unlike the 
Primitive Epifcopacy, then our Parochial Presbytery or Epif- 
copacy is ; and therefore hath lefs reafon to appropriate 
to themfelves the Power of Ordaining. 2. The Ordaining 
Presbyters are Many, and known perfons • and the Prelates 
f .w, and to the moft (and except three or four,to almoft all that 
I am acquainted with) unknowr. 3. The Presbyters Ordain 
Openly where all may be fatisfied of the impartiality and Order 
of their proceedings : But the Prelates Ordain in Private,where 
the fame f tisfa&ion is not given to the Church. 4 Hereupon 
it is eafie for any vagrant to counterfeit the Prelates fecret Or- 
ders, and fay he was- Ordained by them, when it is no fuch mat- 
ter ; and who candifprovehim ? But the publick Ordination of 
Presbyters is not fo eafily pretended by fuch as have it not, and 
the pretence is eafily difcovered. 5 .The Prelates for ought I hear, 
a r e very few,and therefore few can have accefs to them for Ord - 
nation: But Presbyteries are in moftcountreyes.6.TbePreIates,as 
far as I can learn, Ordain Minifters without the peoples confent 
over v* horn they are placed ,and without giving them any notice 
of it beforehand, that they may put in their exceptions if they 
diffrnt; But the Presbyters ordinarily require the confent of the 
people- oratleaft will hear the reafons of their diffent. 7. The 
Presbyteries Ordain with the Magiftrates allowance, and the 
Prelates wirhout and againft them. Thofe therefore that are 
Ordained bvPi'elitesufually, ftand on that foundation alone, 
and want the confent of People and Magiftrates; when thofe 
that are Ordained by Presbyteries have all. 8. Ordination by 
Prelates is now pleaded for onSchifaucical grounds, and infub- 


mitting to ic,with many of them,we muft feem to confent to their 
Principles (that all other Ordination is Null, and cheChurdes 
are no true Churches that are without ir. ) Hut Presbyteries Or- 
dain not on fuch dividing terms. 9. We hear not of reer fo much 
care in the Prelates Ordinarions in thefe or former times, as the 
Presbyteries; I could give fome inftances even of late of the 
great difference, which I will not offend them with exprefiing. 

10. Moft of them that we hear of, Ordain out of their own 
Dioccffcs, which is againft the ancient Canons of the Church. 

11. Some of them by their Doctrines and their Nullifying all 
the Reformed Churches and Miniftry that have no Prelates , do 
fhew us that if they had their will, they would yet make more 
lamentable dcftru&ive work *in the Church then ihc hotted per- 
fecutors of their late predeceflbrs did. For it is plain that they 
would have alktheMinifters difowned or caft our, that are nc t for 
the Prelacy. And what a cafe then would this land (and others) 
bein?(Ofwhichmoreanon.)Sothatweh3vereafon to fear than 
thefe are deftroyers , and not faithful Paflors. I fpeak not of all, 
but only of the guilty : For again I fay,we very much Reverence 
fuch Learned, Worthy men as Bilhop Morton, Bilhop Brown- 
rigg t and fom-w others yetfurvivingare. 12. The Ordination 
by Prelates, as things now (land, endangereth mens liberty in 
the excrcifeoftheMini{try,by.fome things in the Manner which 
I (hall not mention. Review the reft that I faid before in Cap. 
5«and6. and then judge, Whether he that in thefe dayes is Or- 
dained by a Learned Grave Presbytery ( and perhaps where a 
City Paftor is Moderator or Prcfident,and many of the Ordain- 
crs arc the fixed Prcfidents or Bifhops of a Parochial Church, 
having a Presbytery where they prefide, ) I fay, Whether fuch 
be not feparated to the Miniftry in the moft orderly way that is 
now to be found cxiftent ? and come not in at the door that God 
would have them to enter at. 

Se&. 75. It is ftrange that thofc men( among thePapifts ) 
that allow of the Cardiials choofing a Pope, and exercifing fo 
much Government as they do over all the Chriftian world, and 
all this under the name of Presbyters if Rome , fhould yet be 
againft Ordination by fuch Presbyters as are indeed Parochial 
Bifhops,and accuse it to be a Nullity. I fee not how thefe things 

Gg SedK 


Seft. 76. But yet many Papifts arc more moderate in this,then 
thofe ac home that we now deal with. That Erafmus^Richardus 
Armachanus, Gtii'eL Durante* , and many more of them, were 
on our fids in this point, is commonly known, and manifefted 
by abundance of our writers, fome of them Bifhops, and fome 
Epifcopal Divines themfelvei. 

Sed. 77. And divers of their Schoolmen do maintain that the 
[ Or do Epifcopalis non differt a CaraUhere Sacerdotali, nifi ficut 
forma intenfa a fe ipfa remijfa ] as Soncinas relateth ( in 4. Sent, 
d. 25.) the fentence of Paludanus % which Voetins recites. 

And the fame Soncinas ^ad Voetius after him do cite Aare-olus, 
proving that Gradus Epifcopalis & Sacerdotum nonfunt difiintla 
poteftates, &c. guiaSaccrdos autkoritate Papapote(l Sacerdo- 
tern infiituere. Ergo non differ unt potefias Epifcopalis & Sa* 
cerdotis, nifi pent potefias impedita & non imp edit a : qua tame* 
efi eaiem. Antecedens probatur, quia omnis virtus atliva^ non 
impedita, potefi transf under e feipfam ] To the fame purpofe Cur 
fanus and many more. 

Sed. 78. Hence it is that Presbyters have of old had a place 
in Councils,yea and a fuffrage too : and the Council of Bafildid 
decide and pradife it : which is allowed by many of the 
Papifts. And hence it if that divers of the Papifts do make 
Epifcopal preheminency to be but» of Eccltfiafiical Inftitution, 
Sed. 79. That the fhcrepifeepidid ordain, and their Ordina- 
tion was Valid, though they were not accounted Bi (hops (any 
otherwife then our Parochial B i(hops are ) is a thing that hath 
been fpoken offoofc, and by fo many, even Bifhops thcmfelvcs, 
that I (hall pafs it by. 

Sed. 80. And faith Voetius t even among the Papifts, the Ab* 
hots andfuch regular Prelates that are no Bifhops, and the Cha- 
pter ofCamns may Ordain ; yea and exercife other ads of Jurif- 
didion, as excommunicating, &c. It is not therefore prorec 
to the Bifhops. 

Sc&8i. It is therefore as i7i>wf»fpeaks of Confirmation by 
a Bifhop only, in houonm Sacerdotii, a matter of Ecclefiaftical 
inftitutton for Order ,and not of Divine inftitution that Presby- 
ters without Prelates fhould not Ordain : As Leo firft Bifhop 
of Rome faith ( EpifioL 86. ad Epifcop. Gall. & German,) there 
are guadam Sattrdotibu* Prohibitaper Camnes Eccleftafiicos^ 


( i2 7) 

m Cenfccratio Presbyterortw & Diaconorum. ] It is the Canons 
that forbid Presbyters to Ordain, and not the Scriptures that 
never knew a Presbyter without the power to Ordain. 

Se& 82. Were there no Ordainers to do that effice^r none 
but fuch as would oblige us to fin, it were Gods regular way to 
enter by the Peoples choice and the Magiftrates authority with- 
out them, this being in fuch cafe the open door: therefore it is 
more evidently Gods Regular way , when we have both thefc 
and the beft Mtnifterial Ordination befides , that is on good 
terms to be had. I do not only here plead that fuch a Miniftry 
is not Null (as I did beforc^but that the entrance in fuch a cafe 
is not finfull. 

Sed. 83. There being nothing left to men herein,but the due 
defignation of the perfon ( before the reception of hii power 
from God ) the Peoples Ele&ion it fclf may ferve for that de- 
fignation, where Minifterial Approbation is not to be had. But 
the ordinary courfe, where Neceflity doth not prohibit us,is that 
all three concur, z-iz. The Confent of the people,becaufe we can* 
flot Teach and Rule them againft their wills : 2. The Appro- 
bation of the Miniftry , becaufe they are beft able to judge 
of mens abilities. 3 . The Allowance of the Magiftrate, for the 
orderly and advantagiousexercife of our office. But the firftis 
of the greateft neceflity of the three. 

Sed. 84. That the people have power ofEleftion , when 
jaft authority ( Civil or Ecclefiaftical ) doth not fufpend ic 
or limit ic, isfo eafily proved that it is commonly confefled. 
Its well known that for many hundred yetrs the people had in 
moft or many Churches the Choice of their Bifhops or Paftors, 
or joyncd with the Presbyterie and Ordainers in the choice. 
BlondellttSi Voetius and many more have fufficiently proved 
this and other parts of the peoples intereft, by unanfwerable 

Scd. 85. Cyprian faith that this is by Divine Ordination. fj*\™*']^' 
Epift, 68. ( edit GouUrtii ) p. 201. [ Propter qued pltbs cbfc- VdntriZpijc^ 
quens praceptis Domimcis 9 & Deum metuem , a peccatore jtaium men®, 
prdpofita feparare fe debet , nee fe ad Sacrikgi Saccrdotis fa imm ° ^;* 
erifiaa mifcere.qttando ip/a maximehabeat pvtefiatemvel eligendi P% r ^£* 
dignos Sacerdotes^velindigmsrecufandi : Quoad ipfumvidemm Dti'in&ctim* 
de Divinx authertate defcendere , at Saardes phbe prafeme , &c. 

Gg 2 (lib 


ah that cpirtere, ut febe frtfckit vet deuganeur maUrmm criminate! 
dis Churches y :n orummtrita pradicentur: & fit Ordinatio jufla & leguima^ 
da^werenot v ;/<£ cmn - um f h jf r4 £ iC &j***a* fuerit txaminata. J^odpoftea fit* 
DiocefaiMron- c'undum TfcvitUt MAgijieria obfervAtur in tsittii Ap- ft tier urn 
fitting of ma- quando de Ordinandi %n tecum JuCSC Epifccfo Petrus ad phbtm 
ny particular l Q qui;ur, fmrrexU iujuitPeiYUiinmcdiQ difecntimm ; /*i* *«ff;7J 
S'SS tur ^ 4 ** **° : ^* ^" r w Epifceporum tantum & Sacerdo'umjed 
peoptecouM * n Dim r t mrm m Ordinatiw.bus obfervaffe Apoftolos animadverti- 
noc have been WBsjU qm & ipfo in tAEtu esrum fcriftum eft : Et anvocave* 

preficnt, be- runt^ir.quit i!!i dtiodecim tcumplibtm difciputorum £lucd 

^ 0l rf :S ,^ n Htiq*t idcircotam diligent er & CAUte convoata plebe Uta gereba- 
the Ordinati- tp - r '> Mtfuij ad altaris CMinifterium, vet ad Sacerdotalem locum 
on of the Bi- itutigmMS obrepe r et. Ordwxri enim nennunquam indigncs no* feenvr 
(hopx. dumD:i volmttatcm , fed fecundnm hamanum prafumptionem, 

<£■ hxc Dee difplicere , q-A* mm ventant ex Iegitima & j»fta Or* 

I Sail this nation* , Deus tpfi mani'ejtat per OTec Prophet am dicens. ftbi ip * 
fhews, that r fi . r J it 1 r> j-r • 

the Churches fi ctnjtitverunt Regem y Crnonper me. Propter qucd diligent er ae 

of BUhops traditions Divina & Apofttlica obfervatione obfervandum tfi & 

v.erethenno ttr.endum, quidapud ms qxsq, & fere Provinc'tAS univerfas tene* 

greater then tur ^ m A ^ Qrdinationei ri:t cciebrAndds, ad earn phbem cm prapo- 

in. niT f/^U v^ JJfMS^MfUUMr^ £fipc§fi ejufdem frevmcia prcxlm'i quiq\ ccnve~ 

prefeat mt$*t 9 & Efifcopus deligAtur pltbe prafnte, quafingulorum vitAm 

and ,'fcre-ac- pler.ijfime »:v:t, & wiufcwufq 5 acIhw de ejus ccnvi*faticne 

quaimed with perfpexir. \ j£uod & afud vos faclum videmus in Sabtni colltga 

Y-' e h nffiri ordtratione , ut de ttniverfe fratermtAtis fuffrAgio & dt 

?.as the peo- E?''f cc ? rHm P* ** *r*fen:ia CQnvenerant^quiq^ de ec ad vos lit eras 

pies duty not feceram judici$ t Epijccpatus ti deferretur , & m anus ei in locum 

only to elect, B^ft/idis irKpcneretur. J Ard fo be goes on to (hew that even the 

^V 01 ^^ Biihopof jfowfjreftoringof Baf tides, was not valid to refcind 

tixdciptia* c ^ e ^refaid Ordination of Sabinus , which was thus made by 

Ann: £^c- cheBifhops on the peoples fuffrages. And yet our Dioccfans 


Eccl. /. 5 c. 1.3. out of MUamm telleth us Viat AitJthAa a Montanift, being a thief, the 

Congregation of which he was Paftor ( for that was his Diocefs ) would not admit hin\ 

Cjfr. £:;7.i 1. Pldi Secukiwvtftia Vsvma fajfraga Conjuraii & ScdaraU de 

Ecclefia ffiatt fepefr;* 


have, alas, too commonly thruft on the people againft their 
confcnt, fuch unworthy perfons, as of whom we may fay as 
Cyprian (ibid, ) of thefe , [ Cumj ; alia mtilt* ftnt & gravia 
deHtla auibus Bafilides & Martialis implicate tenentur ; frufta 
tales Epifcopatum fibi ufurpart conantur , cum manifeftum fit 
ejufmodi homines nee Ecclefia Chrifti pojfe prteffe, nee Deo Ja- 
crificia efferre debere. ] I have cited thefe words at large # becaufe 
they are full and plain to (hew us the practice of thofe timee,and 
are the words of an African Synod, and not of Cyprian alone, 
andfhew that then the People had the chiefeft hand in the Ele- 
ction or defignation of theperfon,whichisitthat I have now to 

Se&. 8<5. Pamelius himfelf while he feeks to hide the ihame of 
their Prelates Ordination, from the light of thefe pa ffages of Cj- 
prian y doth yet confefs and fay, [Non negamus vairem Eletlionis 
Epifcoporum ritum , ejuoplebe pr*fe»te ^trnmo & faff ragiis pic bis 
iligi folent. Nap* in Africa ilium obfervatum confi at txclcttione 
Eradii Succejforis D. Auguftini, de quo extat Epiftola e'yus 120. ConflaMine in 
In Qracia Matt Chrjfofi. ex lib. 3 . de Sacer. In Hifpaniis ex hoc his Epiftle to 
Cypriani loco, & Ifidor. lib. de Officii*. In Gall'us, ex Epiftol. ^^^jf 
Celeftin. Pap. 2. Roma, ex Us qua fupradiximus,Epi(t ad dn- JhcnTthat Tin 
ton. Vbiq\ ttiam alibi ex Epifi. Leonis 87, Et perdurajfe earn the eledion of 
confuetuAinem adGregor. I. ufq\ ex ejus Epiftolis: immo & ad their Bifliops 
tempora tifcj^ Caroli e£* Ludevici Imperatorum , ex l.lib. Ca- ^ lm .^ n f 
pit riorum cor undemfatisconft at.] This full confeffion from the je^ei [hei? 
mouth of an adverfary^may fave me the labour of ro*ny more a!- opinion, and 
legations concerning the judgement and practice of the ancients, the general 

Se&. 87. He that would fee more may find enough in Voetius juffrage of all 
de Defparata caufa Papains lib*2.c.l2.Secl.2. & pafftm. And in ^^ h \ QVi ^ 
Blonde 1. de jure plebis : & Goulartius on the forefaid notes of dered-becaufe 
Pamelius on Cjprianj. 205. Among others he there ciceth thofe Ecelefiaftical 
known Canons of the Cubage Councils, three and four out of Honours 
Craiian £ N*ll*f ordinetur clericus nifiprobatus, ve I examine ^? u ^ be ob ~ 
Epifcoporum t vel populi teflimonio ] Et Q Epifiopus fine concilio con f erre d 
clericorumfuorum clericos non $rdimt , it a ut civium conniventi* wihtout trou-" 
*m & tejlimonium quarat] (What and where is that Clergy bleanddif- 
without whofc Council our Prelates Ordain not ; and thar pco. cor «J "^ — 7 ) 
plewhofc fuffrages they require ?) And faith (? fl ii/iirrw f lO*- ^^7«* 
ftrvandaefi Caroli fit & Ludovici Confiitutio £ Sacrorum Ca* 


mnum noriignari , ut Deintmine facrofazfta Eecltfia ftt$ liberies 
potiatur honort, aflexfumOrdixi Ecclefiafticopr&bentus t ut Efif- 
copiper Eletlionsm Cleri & p)puli y fccundum (latw.a Canonum 
tligantur.~\ Its certain then that the people^ were fometime the 
fole choofers, and the Paftors the approvers ; and fometime the 
People and the Paftors joynt Eic&ors • and fometime the Paftors 
chofe, but forced none on the people, againftor without their 
Confent ( m Pamelius confefTeth ) till Popular tumults, divi- 
iions, and other reafons occafioned the change of this ancient 
Cuftome. And therefore it is moft certain, that an Ele&ion by 
the people may be a valid derermination of the perfon. 

Sed. 88. And the perfon being once fufficiently determined 
of, the power and obligation doth fall upon him immediately 
from God ; fo that t*ere it not that the Paftors Approbation is 
p?.rc of the Determination , there would be nothing left for 
Ordination, but the folemnizing of their entrance bylnvefti- 
ture, which is noteffential to the Minifterial Office, but ad bene 
ejfe, makes to a compleat and orderly poffefsion, where it may 
be had • and where it cannot, Ele&ion may fufificc. 

Seel. 89. Voetius, de Defperata caufa Papatus, lib. 2. feci. 2> 
cap. 20. doth by (even Arguments prove againft fanfeniuj, 
Elctlionem tribuere M'inifterium : & ejfe p'opriccjus fundamen- 
tarn. The firft Argument is from the Definition of Election : 
the fecond from the Canon Law, which give:h a Bifhop his 
power before Confecration, and gives the Pope a power of go- 
verning the Church before he is inthroncd or Confecrated, 
,The third is afimilibus, in Oeconom't and Policie:the founda. 
tion of marriage- union is mutual Confenr, and not Solemniza- 
tion. Coronation ( faith he ) doth not make a King ( he 
means, not fundamentally, but compleatively,) but hereditary 
Succefsion or E'e&ion. He may well be a King without Coro* 
nation, as (faith he) the cuftom is in Caftile, Portugal, &c. 
The King of JVrf^dependeth notpra jare regnl on the Arch- 
bifhopof Rhemss, but faith Barclay, hath the right and honour 
of a King before his Coronation, An elect Emperour govern- 
ed before his Coronation. Quoad pot eft at cm adminiftrandi regni 
( Galilei ) untlio & Coronatio nihil addunt intuit Csmmintatcr 
fanWtomspragmtt.feL^. His-fourth Argument is from the na- 
ture of all Relations j qua fofits fundaments & terming in fttb- 



jtfto Scptntur txlfiere : at qui Solcmnl^atio, fen Confecratio, fen 
Ordinttio, feu Jnveftitura ( i*Z?wiew!v vacant patres Graci ) 
ilia externa quam nos confirmatisnem dicimut^ neque eft funda- 
ment urn, neque terminus Aiinifterii t aut Aiiniftri\ fed legitime 
e/etlio e^X.^^™' 1 * Scclefta eft fundamentum Afinifterii, & ifta 
vel ilia particular is Ec cleft a eft terminus , in quo eft correlatum 
Ovesfeu difcipuli> ad quodrefertur re latum Dotloris feu Paftoris, 
(Though fomeof this need explication and limitation , yet it* 
worthy confideration. ) His fifth Argument is from the Confef- 
fionsof the Adverfaries, citing Sjlveft. Prieras, ImmanuelSa, 
Onuphrius, Navarrus, yea Bellarmine and Pope Nicolas , who 
maintain that £ Infummo Pontifice poft Eletlionem nulla alia 
requiritur confirmatio •, quia ftatim ut iletlus eft fufiipit admi* 
niftrationem. And to this ^grcech their Practice , who at the 
Council of Trent had many Biftiops meerly Eletl^ zn&Elebl 
Cardinal? are admitted to Elect a Pope. His fixth Argument 
ls > [_J£**od Confecratio feu Inveftitura pot eft abeffe aliquo in Cafu: 
Eletlio aut em nunquam : ergo fundamentum Minifterii feu /><?- 
ttftatis Eccleftaflicd eft Eletlio & ncn Confecratie ; which he 
endeavours to confirm. My opinion of thz fundamentum potefta- 
tis % I have exprefTcd in my Chriftian Concord othrrwife : but 
yet I confent, as is there exprefled, to the Neccfiity of the 
peoples Ccnfent to our Office. 

Sed. 90. Argument 20. If thofe in the Reformed Church- 
es that are Ordained by Presbyters, have as good a call to the 
Ministerial Office, as the Princes of the Nations ( yea any one 
of them ) have to their Soveraignty or Power, then arc they 
true Miniftcrs of Chrift, and their adminiftrations valid to the 
Churches, and their Miniftry to be received. But the Antece- 
dent is true : therefore To is the Confcquent. And I prove, them 

Scd. 91 . The Secular power will be granted, as to the moft 
(at leaft ) of Chriftian Princes and other Soveraigns ; when the 
Holy Ghoft commandeth fub jection to the Higher Powers, even 
when they are Heathen, and come in as Ner% did, Ram.11. 
we may well take it for granted that Chriftian Magiftratcs, that 
have no better title then he, are fucfa as we muft be fubjeci: to .• 
even thofe that have not (0 lawful an entrance, as may juftific 
their poffeffion, or free them from the guilt of flat Ufurpation , 


before God, may yet bz fuch while they are in pofTefsion, ss we 
mull be fubjecl to for Confcience fake : and aii their adminiftta- 
tions areas valid to the innocent fubje&s, as if they had as good 
atitle-as the belt. They that deny this, muft overthrow almoft 
all the Common- wealth's on Earth, and turn Subje&ton into 

Sect. 92. The Confequence then is proved from the parity 
ot Reafon, in" both cafes. The title of fucb Princes is ibfar 
good, asthatfubje&ionisduetothem, and their Government 
valid : our title to the Miniftry is at Icaft as good as theirs : there- 
fore fubmifsion or obedience is due to us, and our administrati- 
ons valid to the Church. And that our title is*s good as their?, 
will appear by a due comparifon. 

Sect. 93. 1. God is equally the Author of our Office, and 
of theirs. He that appointed the Magiftrate to Rule by force, 
appointed the Miniftry to Teach, and Guide, and Worfliip pnb- 
likely before the Church. There is no Power but of God : even 
Magiftrates could have none, unlefs it were given them from 
tbove. 2 . Ufurpation therefore is a fin in Magiftrates as well as 
Miniitcrs. And there is the fame reafon, why it fhould invali- 
date their actions, as ours, if we were guilty of it. 3 . 1 be Dif- 
fenters rule [ Nemo dat quod non habet ] concerneth the Magi- 
ftrate as much as the Miniftcr, and fomewhat more. A man 
may do more in works of fervice to others without a fpecial 
Office, then in Magifterial Government. Magiftracy is a Rela- 
tion that muft have a foundation or e'fficicnt caufe, as well as 
Miniftry. If a Giver that himfelf bath the Power given, isne- 
ccfTary to make Minifters, then alfo to make Magiftratd (which 
yet is falfe in both, if you fpeak of humane Donation to the 
Soveraign) The effed can no more be without a caufe in them 
then in us. 4. If the Election or Confent of the people be 
enough to make a Magiftrate, or to be the foundation or dona- 
tion (as they fuppofej of his authority, then much more may 
the ele&ion or confent cf the people, with the approbation and 
inveftiture by Presbyters, and allowance of the Magiftrate,prove 
thofc inqueftiontobe true Minifters. 5. No Prince on earth 
that ever i heard of, can prove any thing like an uninterrupted 
fuccefsion of legitimate Princes from a Predeceflbr iromediatly 
a::-.! o r izcd by God. If Hereditary Princr l iat are the Succef- 


forsof Ufurpers are not to be obeyed, it will be hard to find an 
Hereditary Prince that is to be obeyed -. To that their cafe is worfe 
then the cafe of Minifters. 

Sed. 94 For, though i. No PaOors ou Earth ran prove an 
uninterrupted Succcfsion of perfons lawfully Ordained. 2. Nor 
is itneccffiry.to prove a Local fuccefcion •, bfcaufe God hath noc 
tyed his Church to Tip wns or Countries , and a Church and Pa- 
ftor that are banifhed into another Land, may there be the fame 
Chut ch and Paftor , though in and of another place : yet 1 . We 
have a fuccefsion of poffefsion in the Office icfejf. 2. And a 
fuccefsion of a&ual Ordination in great probability : no man 
can prove agiinft us chit we receive our Miniftrie from any that 
. were not a&ually Ordained. Yet this much is noc N-.cefTary to 
cur Office. 

Sed. 95. Object. But Chrifl hath tyed the Office of the' 
Afiniftrj to a legitimate Ordination ; but he hath not tyed the 2Ha- 
giflracy to a lawful Title* Anfw. Here are two falfhoods barely 
affirmed, or implyed. One is that ajuft Title is lefs nccefTary 
to the Magiftratc then the Miniftcr • when the Reafon of both 
is the fame. Title is the foundation of Right. Magifiracie is a 
Right of Governing. No Relation can be without its Founda- 
tion. The other is, that God hath tyed the Office of the Mi- 
niftrie to a legitimate Ordination. This is unproved, and I have 
proved tbe contrary before. lt\s cur Duty to enter by Ligiti- 
mate Ordination where it may be had ; and thus *e do. But if 
any of our PredeceiTors (perhaps a thoufand or five hundred 
years ago ) did enter otherwife, that doth not invalidate our 
Ordination or Miniftrie, nor is it any of our fin. 

Se&. 96. As Minifters were at fir ft Ordained by Iropofition 
of hands, fo Kings wcrechofen by God, and ( in the C hurch ) 
anointed by a Prophet, or fpecial Officer of God j and fome- 
time by the people (that is, by their fufTrages appointing it, or 
confenting to it ) as appeareth, 1 Sam.10.1. & 15 . 17. & 16. 
13. & 24.6. 2 Sam. 2.4,7. & 5-3- & J 2.7. & 19.10. 1 King. 
I.4S- & 5.1. 2 King.l 1. 12. & 23. 30. 2( hron. 22. 7. fo that 
there is as much in Scripture for this manner of their inveftiture, 
as there is for Minifters Ordination by impofition of hands ; yec 
may they be Kings that have no fuch Inveftiture ; much lefs all 
their prcdccefTo/s* We then that have a due Inveftiture, may 

Hh prove 


prove err MtmQfy, whatever our prcdcccflori i*d. 

Seft. 97' I tdmcnow to the Argument of :he adverfaries of 
cur Miniflric, v. h:ch I reed not fiar.d !org on, becsufe they arc 
few a; d force ccr.fiderab!e,and (efficient!? tnfwered ;n what is 
bid. ft ad Slfl itf fa:d by a Learned man ( Difertm. At Eiifcop. 
n Btoodd, Tri m— it . *dLtQ&r.fe&.+.i 3, J [_Xosillud in 
.rf :r: coKce^c fefitwm ccmftbiMmj\ Niemheim reBt 
dert qmlwtn bmbet : eumque mm e»s qui hac fetefidH Imheti «#*- 
qM*mf*eri*t fiwtVuUtism am facrilegia quscbtm fibi arrcgnre 
M$tt + Turner e aw mlm tqu? a Br, wen 1 scitis, au: mijfu cimmnni* 
cdrcntntuptdrnf^fe. [_ ItmdbicmbtA nmicnm mtnrimji f*fficict % 
tummqmnmfmi >n t/4mglicd»4 Ecciefim ok Epifcefii trdim*tnm 
Prubj-.trxm . nulla ordinandi ml §j fmxmhmtt ( aut per /r, **r 
^x;? fnjiUbtt cempariam cam munitnm ) pr'eaitum tjfe, ntc igitur 
earn fhireBtm mrrvgmftft wmmm fl Dimcentrnm, immo Laico- 
nim Mn*s 9 Mm finrefftmli po:efta:e nnllmttupi heehtti t idemau/urt 
fn:.~] Tr.ciumm is: Prcsbpcrs bdvt wM xbu fewer; therefore 
tbejcmmmt gfati it. 

beet. 98. Anfw. If the Argument run thos [No man can 
give that which he hath mi : Prtsbpers bdvemt the Office tf * 
Pre*hjter « therefore thej c Ann:: give it. ' I then deny the Minor : 
They are no: Presbyters^ if they have no: the Office of a Presby- 
ter : that therefore w \uei p ( to fpeak in the D {Tenters 
language J they MAjgivr. 

$e&. 99. Bu: if the Argument be this [ Ne man can give 
tbmt which he bmtb not : ?t tihy.tr i bkzrt net a fewer tf Ordaining : 
tberefert thk) iemmt give m fewer tf OreUemmg] I anfwer as fcl- 
ioweth. 1. We receive not our Office by the Gift of man, whe- 
ther Presbyters or Prelates. The Power is immediately froa 
Chrifr, and men do but open us the door, or determine of the 
perfon that fhall from Cbrilt receive the power, and then put 
him folemniy into pofTefsion. It is :he fir ft Error of the adver- 
faries, to hold chat this power is given by men as firft having it 
themfelve's. In the Popes cafe Beliarmixe himfelf will grant us 
this ' Refpcnf. Ad 7 Tbtolog.T'enet.p. 246.232. ) [_Sape {injmt) 
yam diEtttm eft, Eletlionem CardinaHum n:n conferre potejfmttm, 
fid di(ignAre tantHmmodo perfonmmy cr.iBtHs peteftAtem trihwt.] 
And yet that {_lnfnmmo Pontifice peft eletlionem r.ulU alia re- 
(jnirifftr co»firmatio ) quia ftaiim *t el; tins tft % fufcipit admini- 

JIrAticHirr, y 

flratienem , ut dcclarat Nico!. Papa £an. in nomine % dif.Zl.'\ 
pag. 1 75. And of the Power of Princes, the DifTencers will grant 
it ( for we have it in their writing* ) chat the I'ower u from God 
immediately, though the people may e!eS the perfon. You wili 
thruft out all Princes of the world by this Argument, and fay, 
[No man giveth thn which be hath net : the people have not a 
Power of Government : thertfore they cannet give it. ] I wonld 
anfwer you as here : God hath the Power, and he give:h it ; but 
the people that have it not, may defign the perfen that (hall receive 
it from God:astheBurgefTes of a Corporation may choofe a 
Major or Bayliff to receive that power from thevSoveraign ( by 
thelnftrumentality of a Law or Charter) which they had not 
themfelves to ufe or give. And (o a Presbyterie ( and fometime 
the people alone) may defign the perfon that (hall receive the 
Office of the Miniftrie frora God, though they had it not them- 
felves to ufe or give. 

Sed. 100. Refp. 2. By this Argument and its fuppofiffon, 
none are true Minifters that are Ordained by Prelates : for they 
have not the Power of the Miniftrie to Give H bec only to Vfe : 
no Ordination is a Giving of the Power, fave only by way of 
Invefticure, which fuppofeth a Title and Right before, and is 
not of abfolutenecefsity to the PofTefcion : for in feveral cafes ic 
may be without it. 

Se&. 1 or. Refponf. 3. A man may Infirumentally give or 
deliver both Right and Invefticure in that which he hath not him- 
felf ? nor ever bad. Your fervant may by your appointment, 
deliver a L'eafe, a Deed of Gift, a Key, or twig and turf, for 
Poffefsion of houfe and lands, though he never hadhoufeor 
lands or poflefsion himfelf. It is fufficient that the Donor have 
it, that fends h'm. 

Se&. 102. Refp. 4. Presbyters have the Power of Presby- 
ters, or the Minifterial Office .-and if they can give that ("which 
certainly they have,) then they can give a Power of Ordaining 
other Presbyters. For to Ordain ethers, is no more then they do 
themfelves in giving the Power or Office which they have : there- 
fore if they may doit, thofe that they give their Power to may 
doit*, that is, may alfo give others that power which they 
Sect. 103. But as to our cafe in hand, it fufficeth that we 

Hh 2 prove, 


prove, that Presbyters may give others the Office of Presbyters ; 
whether this Office contain a Power of Ordaining, is another 
Queftion, butfoon difpatchr, if this be granted ; becaufe (as 
is faid ) to Ordain is nothing el^ bur to inveft others with the 
Office or Power which we have our felvesr 

Se6t. 104. Refp. 5. The Argument maketh more againft 
the Prelates Ordination, on another account • becaufe that 
( as is proved already ) that Species of Prelacie that was excr- 
cifed in England ( the fole Governours of an hundred or two 
hundred Churches ) is fo far contrary to the Word of Godi that 
we may boldly conclude, thai as fucb, they have no power to 
fife or give : their very Office is humane, and deflru&ive of the 
true Paftoral Office : and therefore as fucb, they have lefs pre- 
tence of Divine Authorise, then Presbyters, whofe Oflree is of 
God. Yet do I not make their Ordination Null, becaufe they 
were Presbyters as well as Prelates, and alfo wtre in Poffefsion 
of the place of Ordainers, and had the Magiftrates authority. 

Se&. 105. Refp. 6. Presbytrrs have a Power of Ordaining : 
it is already proved. And to your confirmation ( where you 
fay that the Bifhops gave them no fuch Power ; therefore they 
have it not:) S anfwer : 1. I deny the Confeqoence. God 
gave it them: therefore they have it without the Bifhops gift. 
2. If by £ Giving ] you mean but an accidental Caufation, or 
the action of a Cattjafinc qua nsn, or a defignation of the Per- 
fon that (hall receive it, then-Ideay the Antecedent. The Pre- 
lates ( and Electors ) defigned the perfon , and alfo inverted 
him folesnnly in the Office, which containeth this Power of Of- 
dination which you deny them. 

Sedr. 106. Obj. The f relates exprejfed no fuch thing in their 
Ordination. Anf. 1. It being not the Prelates but Chrift that 
makes the Office, wemuftnot go to the words of the Prelates, 
but of Cbttlttoknoww&tf the Office is, though we may go to 
the Prelates (while the work was in their hands) to know who 
the yerfon is. If a Prelate Confccrate a Prelate, and yet mention 
not particularly the works that are pretended to belong to a 
Prelate, you will not think him thereby reftrained or difabled to 
thofe works. HethatCrownethaKing, and they that cboofe 
him, though they name not the works of his Office and Power, 
do thereby choofe him to ail thofe works that belong to a King. 




God hath fet down in his Word, that the Husband (hall be the 
Head or Governor of his Wife : if now the woman (hall choofe 
a certain perfon to be her Husband, and the Minifter or Magi- 
ftrate folcmnize their Marriage, without any mention of fuch 
Governing Power, the Power doth neverthclefs belong to the 
man j becaufc God hath fpecifiedby hit Law the Power of that 
Relation , and the man is Lawfully put in the Relation that 
by the Law of God hath fueh a Power : fo is it in the cafe in 

Se&. 107. But yet 2. I add, that the Prelates and the Laws 
of England gave to Presbyters a Power of Ordination. For 
in all their Ordinations, the Presbyters were to lay on hands 
with the Prelate ( and did, in all Ordinations that I have feen. ) 
And if they a&ually impofed hands and fo Ordained, it was an 
adual profeflion to all that they were fuppofed to have the 
power of Ordination, which they exercifed. 

Sed. 108. Obj. But the) had m Power given them to do it 
without a Prelate. Anfw. 1. By Chrift they had. 2. You may 
as well fay, that Bifhops have no Power to Ordain, becaufe 
they were not ( ordinarily at lead ) to do it without the Pres- 

Se&. # ioo. Obj. Saiththe forefaid Learned Author (Dif- 
fert. Prantonit. fttt. 1 0. 1 1 . ) Q Vnum tttnk Mens interrogarem, 
an Hieronjmus, dttm hie effet^e^ Presbyteratu fecundario fun- 
geretnr partiaria tantxm indnt%s potefiate , prdffente, fed fpreto 
& infuper habito Epifcopo, Diaconftm ant c Presb)terum ordinary 
( aut Presbjtero uni autjitteri ad\u*BHs ) retie potuerit ? fi *f- 
firntetttr, dicatur [odes , qua demum ratione ab e$ diclnm fit , 
Epifcopum fofa ordinatione ( & ergo ordinatione ) a Presbjtero 
dijferminatum ejfe ] fin ntgetttr, qttomodo igitur Presbjtero Angli- 

cano y cui nullam, qua Hon Huronjmo poteftatem, &c. -] 

Anfw. 1. This is none of our cafe in England : we Ordain not, 
frafentefed fpreto Epifcopo : but moft Countreyes know of no 
Bifhop that they have, but Presbyters. 2. Hierom might have 
Ordained with his fellow- presbyters, according to the Laws of 
Chrift, but not according to the Ecclefiaftical Canons, that 
then obtained, orborefway. 3. Hierom plainly tells you, that 
it is by Ecclefiaftical appointment for the prevention of fchifrae, 
that Bifhops were fet upfo far as to have this power more then 

Hh 3 Presbyters, 


Presbyters, in the point of Ordination. 4.The Englifh pres- 
byters are Parochial Bifhops , and have an Office of Cbrifb 
making, andnotofthe Prelates; and are not under thofe Ec- 
clefiaftical Canons that retrained Hierem from the exercifeof 
this power. And therefore whereas it is added by this Learned 
Author [ Quid huic dilemmati reponi , aut opponi peffit, fateor 
equidem me non adeo Ljnceum ejfe ut perfpiciam j he may fee 
that he could fcarce have fet us an eafier task then to anfwer his 
di lemma. 

Scd. no. The fecond and their principal objection is, that 
We have no precept <r example in the Church for Presbyters Or- 
daining without Prelates : therefore it is not to be done. Anfw. I . 
I told you before how Bifhop VJker told me he anfwered this 
Objection to King Charls. viz, from the example of the Church 
of Ahxandria where Presbyters made Bifhops, which is more. 

Sed. in. But 2.1 arfwer, ycu haue no example in Scripture 
or long after that ever Prelates of the Englifh fort , did or- 
dsin , nor any precept for it , nor was fuch a Prelacy then 
known, as is proved ; and therefore their Ordination bath lefs 
warrant then that by Pretbyters. 

Sed. 112. And 3. I have told you before of Scripture war- 
rant for Ordination by a Presbyteric, andalfobythe Jeachers 
and other Officers of a fingle Churches was the Church ofAxti* 
cch. Prove that there was any Bifhop. 

Sed. 113. Laftly , itisconfefTedby the Di (Tenters that fuch 
Presbyters or Bifhopsas are mentioned, ^Acl. 20. Phih 1. 1. 
1 Tim. 3. Tit.i,&c. had power of Ordination ; But according 
to the the judgement ofmoft of the Fathers (that ever I fawor 
heard of that interpret thofc texts) it is Presbyters that are 
meant in all or fome of thofe texts. It is granted us alfo by the 
Diffenters that the chief or fole Paftors of fingle Churches in 
Scripture-times did ordain, and had the power of Ordination .* 
But the Presbyters of England , and other Proteftant Chur- 
ches are the chief or fole Paftors of (ingle Churches-, there- 
fore, &c. 

Sed. 114, Ob jed- 3. But the Englifh Presbjters have broal^ 
their Oaths ef Camical obedience % and therefore at leafl are febif- 
matical. tslnfw. I. Many never took any fuch oath, to my 
knowledge: For my part I did not. 2, The particular perfons 




that are guilty muft be accnfed : and neither muft they be judged 
before they fpeak for thcmfelves , nor yet muft others be con' 
demned for their fakes. In thefe parts, there is not one Presby- 
ter I think of ten, who differs from the Ptelates about Ordinati- 
on , that ever took that oath. And therefore it is few that can 
i>e called Schifmaticks on that account. Yea 3 And thofefew that 
did take that Oath, have few of them that I know of, done any 
thing againft the Prelates. 

Scd. 115. Object. 4. The BngUJh Presbjters have pulfd 
down the Prelates, and rebelled againfl them, and therefore at leafi 
are guilty of Sc hi fm. Anfy. i.Thc guilty muft be named and 
heard: their cafe is nothing to the reft. It is not one often I think, 
perhaps of twenty, that can be proved guilty. 2, It was noc 
the Scripture Bifhops that they Covenanted againft or oppofed ; 
but only the irregular Englifh Prelacy before defcribed i And 
the endeavour of reforming this corrupted Prelacy, and reducing 
it to the Primitive frame, is in it fclf no fchifm. 

Se&. 116. Object. 5. Ignatius commanded them to obey 
the Bifhops and d$ nothing without them* Anfw. 1. Ignatius alfe 
commandeth them to obey the Presbyters as the Apfllcs of C^fit 
and to do nothing without them. 2. The Bifhops ihtt Ignatius 
mentioneth werefuchasour Parifh Bifhops or Presbyters are, 
that have a Presbyterie to aflift them : They were the chief Pa- 
llors of a fingle Church, as is before proved out of Ignatius ,and 
not the Paftors of hundreds of Churches. 
Seel. 117. I fhall trouble the Reader with no more of their 
ob jc&ions, feeing by what is faid already, he may be furnifhed 
to anfwer them all : but I fhall now leave it to his impartial fober 
confederation, whether I have not proved the truth of our Mini- 
ftry and of the Reformed Churches , and the Validity of our ad* 
miniftrations, and of our Ordination it felf ? 




The greatnefs of their fin that are now 
labouring to ferfrade the Teople of 
the Zh(ullitj of our Mini/iry Chur- 
ches and adminijlratiom. 

Even there g e £ _ x . ^^ ogga^gAving laid (o fair a ground for my 

ChurcheTthat ^ liPi^l ft application, I think it my duty 

haveSuperin- /§ Ef8gli*S!3 IS to take the freedom to tell thofe 

tendems are ||j y^a^ss j Irs R e rerend perfons that oppofe 

unchurched W WGjfjiS&ffl l|| usin this point , the Reafons 

f y r tTJt I l%lli II wh v l dire not '°y n with them . 

trueOrdina- SU^^E?SiJi^ and the guilt that I am perfwad- 

cion.For their &Sr€WmBlW^^^ cd chcy heap upon their own 

Superimcn- f ou l 5 . wherein I proteft it is not 

comman-ly raine intent to make them odious, or caft difgrace upon them 
ordained by ( f° r * do w * tn great rclu dancy obey my Conscience in the per- 
meer Presby- formance of this task *. ) but my intent is, if k be the will of God 
terser fettled f give fuccefs fo far to thefe endeavours , i . To humble them 
only by the f or t jj C j r g rcat an( j hainous fin and fave them from it •, 2. And 
'cr.^So ^ST" t0 ^ ave t ^ e ^ nurca ^ rom tn e divifions and difturbances that 
vemarh is already caufed by them and their opinion; 3. However 
when their 

feven Bifhops were depofed , feven Presbyters were Ordained Superintedents by Johan. 
Bugtribagius* Yomtranus a Presbyter of mitenberge in the Prefence of the King and 
Senate at the chief Church in Baffiiia : See Fit, Bugenbarll m Mtlch. Adam* vtt.Germ* 



to difcharge my Gonfcience and tell them plainly,what frightneth 
me from their way. 

Seel:. 2. And i . It feems to me ( upon the grounds before ex- 
prefTed) thatthofe men that would Nullifie all the Proteftant 
Miniftry, Churches and adminitfrations, that have not Prelates 
are guilty of fchifm, and are plain Separatifts. They depart 
from truly Catholick principles. That man hath not the juft 
Pxinciples and Spirit of a Gatholick, that can on fuch a pretence 
as this degrade or nullifie fo many Learned, Godly Minifters, 
and unchurch fo many excellent Churches of Chrift ; they make 
a plain Schifm, and feparate from us on as weak grounds as the 
ancient Separatifts did, whom yet they account an odious genera- 
tion. And the writings of Paget t Ball, Bradjhaw, Hilder- 
fb*m y Bernard, and the reft that defend our Miniftry and Chur- 
ches agunft the old Separatifts, will ferve in the main to defend 
them againft thefe new ones, which therefore I refer the Rea- 
der to perufe.Many of the fameArguments are as forcible againf? 
this adverfary. 

Sed. 3 . 2. And by this means they condemn themfelves that 
have fpoken fo much againft the Separatifts, calling them Brow- 
nifts,Schifmaticks,and the like ; and now take up the caufe (in the 
name ) that in them they fo condemned. Will they turn Schif- 
maticks that have fpoken againft Schifmaticks fo much } 

Seft.4. 3. By this means alfo they exceedingly wrong the 
Lord Jefus Chrift, by feeking to rob him of his inheritance ; by 
teHing him that his Churches are none of his Churches, and his 
Minifters are none of his Minifters, and his Ordinances are not 
his Ordinances indeed. Let theaj firft prove that Chrift hath 
renounced thefe Minifters, or unchurched or denied thefe Chur- 
ches, or given them a bill of divorce : and then let them fpeak 
their pleafure. But till then they were beft take heed what they 
do, left they have not the thanks from Chrift which they ex- 

Se&. 5. 4. They go againft the plain commands of Chrift, 
and exam pies of his fervants : Chrift himfelf bid concerning fuch 
as caft out Devils in his name, but followed him not £ Forbid 
him not •, for there is no man that /ball do a Miraclt in mj name 
that can lightly fpeak^evilof me : for he that is not againft us is 
on our part, Mark, 9. 37, 38, 39- He liked not their humour 

Ii that 

that would have the fuhfiance of fo good a work forbidden,for 
want of a due circum tence, mode, or accidenr. He command- 
echus to Pray the Lord of the Harveft to fend Labourers into hi* 
Harveft > becatife the Harveft is great, and the Labourer* are few : 
And thefe men would have multitudes of Labourers thruft our, 
in the Neceflity of the Churches. Paul re joyced that Chrift 
was Preached, even by them that did it in ftrife and envy, think? 
ing to a&d affliction to his bonds. But thefe men would filence 
them that preach in fincere companion of mens fou's. Mofes 
would not forbid Edlad and Medad prophecying,but wifhc that 
all the Lords people were Prophets. While men do goodsnd 
not harm, or more good then harm in the Church, I fhould 
fee very good grounds, yea and Neceffity for it, before I fhould 
filenee them,or be guilty of filencing them. 

Se&. 6. 5. They manifcft a great deal of felfifhnefs znd pride 9 
that dare thus confent to the injury of Chrift, and the Church 
and fouls of men , becaufe they may not bear that Rule 
which is according to their principles and fpirits.Self denial would 
do much to cure this. 

Sett. 7. 6. And yet they do as felf-feekers commonly do,even 
feek after mifery and deftru&ion to themfelvcs. While they look 
( its like ) at the honour, and forget the work, they plead for 
fuch a load and burden,as is enough to break the backs of many, 
even for the doing of a work that is fo far beyond their ftrcngth , 
thatitsameerimpoffiblity; How can one man do the works 
which Scripture laycth on a Bifhop , for a hundred or 
two hundred Churches ? and for thoufands that he never fees or 
bears of ? 

Se&.8. 7. And above all, I admire how the heart of a confe- 
derate Chriftian, can be guilty offo great cruelty to the fouls of 
men, as thefe men would be, if they had their will, in the pra- 
&icc of their principles t What if all the Churches that have no 
Prelates were unchurched ? the Minifters caft out as no true Mi- 
nifter$,orthe people all prevailed with to forfake them, what 
would be done for the thoufands of the poor ignorant carelefs 
fouls that are among us ? when all that all of us can do is too 
little, what would be done if fo many and fuch were laid afide ? 
How many thoufands were like to be damned, for want of the 



mean?, that according to the ordinary way of God, might have 
procured ihcir converfion and Salvation ? 

Sed.9. If they lay, that others as good as they fhouU foffefs 
the places : I anfwer, they fpeaknot tomen of another world, 
but to their neighbours,, that well know that there are few to be 
had of tolerable worth to puflefs one plareof very many, if all 
th it they oppofc were call out or forfaken. Do we no: know 
who and what men they arc that you have to fupply the room 
with ? 

Scd. io. If they fay that mere obedient men would foo* ffring 
uy y or manyofthtfe would change their minds , if they Were forced 
toit\ I anfwer, i . So many would be unchanged as would be a 
greater lofs to the Church ( if it were deprived of them ) then 
ever Prelacy wa* like to repair. 2. And what (hould become 
of poor fouls the while your young ones are a training up ? 
3 . And in all ages after t the Church muft iofe all thofe that 
fhould diffent from your opinion. 

Sed. 1 r. If you fay that, It is not your de fire to ftlenceallthefe 
Preachers thttyoM difown : 1 anfwer, How can that ftand with 
yourdodnneor your practice ? Your Dodrine is, that they 
are Lay-men , and no true Minifters, nor to be heard and fub- 
mitted to as Minifters, nor Sacraments to be received from them* 
And would you not have them then caft out ? 2. Your practice 
istodiffwadethe people ( efpecially the Gentry that are neer 
you)to feparateand difownthem accordingly • and it is done in 
many places. And would you not caft them out.whom you would 
have forfaken ? 

Sed. 12. If you fay, It is your deftre that they fhould for fake 
their error and %bey you 9 and fo be continued and notcafiout: I 
anfwer, 1. But that is not in your power to accomplifti, nor 
have you reafon to exped it. They are willing to know the 
mind of God as well as you, and perhaps fearch as diligently, and 
pray as hard as you; and yet they think that its you that are in 
the wrong • you fee that for many years the Reformed Churches 
have continued in this mind: And it appears that if they will 
not turn to your opinion, you would have them all caft out or 
forfaken. Chrift (hall have no fervants, nor the Church any Pa- 
llors that will not be in this of your Opinion. 
Sed. 13.8* Hereby alio you would run into the guilt of a 

Ii z more 


more grievous perfection , when you have read fo much in 
Scripture againft perfecutor?, and when you have heard of and 
feen the judgements of God let out upon them* Itisaneafie 
matter for any Perfecutor to call him that he would cafl out, a 
Schifmatick, or Herctick, but it is not fo eafie to anfwer him 
that hath faid, He that ojfenMth one of thefe little ones, it were 
better fer him t &c. God will not take up with fair pretences or 
falfe accufations againft his fervant$,t-o juftific your perfecution. 
Se&. 14. 9. Yea you would involve the people of the Land, 
and of other Nations, in the guilt of your perfecution ; draw- 
ing them to joyn with you, incaftingout the faithful labourers 
from the Vineyard of the Lord. This is the good you would 
do the people, toinvolve their Souls into fo deplorable tftate of 

Sec%. 15. If you lay, It is joh that are perfected, as I read 
fomeof you do : I anfwer. 1. If it be fo, you are the more un- 
excufable before God and man, that even under your perfecution, 
will cherifh, defend and propagate fuch a doctrine of perfecu- 
tion, as fxrikes at no lefs then the necks of all the Reformed 
Minifters, and Churches that are not Prclatxal, at one blow. 
2. For my pare, I have oft protefted againft any that (hall hin- 
der an able Godly Minifter from the ferviceof Chriflandthe 
Church, ifhebebut one that is likely to do more good then 
harm. But I never took it to be perfecution to caft out Drun- 
kards , fcandalous , negligent, inefficient men , where better 
may be had to fupply the place •• no more then it is perfecution 
to fuppprefs an abufive Alehoufe, or reftrain a thief from making 
thievery his trade. 3. Theprefent Governors do profefs their 
readinefs to approve and encourage in the Miniftry any Godly, 
ab.'c, diligent men that will but live peaceably towards the Com- 
monwealth. And I am acquainted with none ( as far as I re- 
member ) of this quality, that have not liberty to preach and 
exercife the Minifterial Office. 4. But if you think you are per- 
fected, becaufc you may not Rule your Brethren, and perfe- 
cute others, and take upon you the folc^Government of all the 
Churches in a County, or more, wc had rather bear your accu- 
fations, then poor fouls (hould bear the pains of Hell, by your 
neglect and perfecution : if you are perfecuted when your hands 
are held from ftriking • what are your Brethren, that cannot by 



your good will have leave laborioufly to ferve God in a low 
eftate, as the fervants of all, and the Lords of none ? 

Sect. 16. 10. By this means alfo you (hew your felves im- 
penitent in regard of all the former persecutions thacfomeof 
you and your predeceflbrs have been guilty of. Abundance of 
mod Learned Godly men have bcenfilcnced, fufpended, and 
fomeof them perfecuted to banifhment, and fome to death. The 
world bath had too few fuch men for exemplary abilities, dili- 
gence and holinefs, as Hilderfianf, Bradjharp , Bayn , Nicols, 
Brightmayti Dod, Ball, Paget, Hering, Langley, Parker, Sand- 
ford, Cartn right, Bates, Ames, Rogers, and abundance more, 
that fome fufifered unco deub, and fome were (ilenced, fome im- 
prifoned, &c. for not conforming to the Ceremonies : befides 
Eliot, Hooker, Cotton, Norton, Cobbtt,Davenant, Parker, Nojes, 
and all the reft that were driven to New England ; and befides 
Ward and all that were driven into Holland : and befides the 
thoufands of private Chriftians that were driven away with 
them : And befides all the later moreextenfiveperfecutionof 
fuch as were called Conformable Puritans , for not reading the 
Book for dauncing on the Lords day, and for notceafingto 
preach Lectures, or on the Evening of the Lords day, and fuch 
like; A I this I call to your mind, as the fin that fhould be la- 
mented, and heavily lamented, and not be owned, and drawn or 
continued on your own heads by impenitencie ; and how do you 
repent, that would do the like, and take your felves to be per- 
fected, if your hands arc tyed that you may not do it t For 
my own part, I muft profefs , I had rather be a Ga-Hy- flave, or 
Chimney-fweeper, yea or the bafeft vermine, than be a Bifhop 
with all this guilt upon my foul, ( to continue, ) how light fo- 
ever many make of it, and how impenitcntly foeverthey juftifie 

Sed. 17. j 1. Yea more, after all the warning? you have 
had, in the waies and ends of your predeceflbrs, it feems that 
you would yet incomparably outftrip the moft of them in per- 
fecution, if you had your way. For few of them did attempr, 
or make any motion, for degrading or denying moft of the Pro- 
teftant Minifters in Ettrope, or fuch a number as in England and 
Scotland are not Ordained by Prelates , and to unchurch all their 
Churches. This is far higher then thefe before you. 

Ii 3 Sed. 


Scft. 18. 12. And take heed left continuing in fuch a (in, 
after both prohibitions and judgements, you (hould be found 
fighters againft GodM thofe that defpife the Minifters of Chrift, 
defpife Chrift himfelf, what (hall we think of them that do it 
themfelves, and fetch men fo to do, and have pleafureinthem 
that do it ? Its fearful to draw near that forlorn Condition of the 

Jews, 1 Thef.2.i$,i6. £ and have perfecuted pis : and they 

pleafe not God, and are contrary to all men ; forbidding us to fpeale^ 
to the Gentiles that they might he faved, to fill tip their fins alvray : 
for the vorath is come Hpon them to the uttermsft. ] 

Sed. 19. 13- Jt is apparent that your do&rinc and pra- 
ctice oendeth to let in the old ejected rabble of drunken,ignorant t 
ungodly perfons into the Miniftrie. ( And what can be more 
odious to the moft Holy God I ) For if once you caft out all 
thofe that have not Prelatical Ordination, or all that are againft 
it, (efpecially after a former Ordination, ) you muft take in 
fuch as thefe, and with Jeroboam, make Priefts of the vileft of the 
people, or elfe the places muft be vacant : for we know that 
there are not able godly men to be had of your mind to fupply 
the vacant places. 

Se&. 20. 14. Your dodrine doth tend to harden malig- 
nant wicked men in their enmitie againft a faithful Miniftrie : and 
we fee this unhappy fuccefs of it by experience. Our do&rine 
is fo much againft the inclination and intereft of the ftefh, ard 
men are by corrupted nature at fuch an efimity to God, and all 
that is truly Spiritual and Holy, that we have ss many enemies 
tis hearers, till Grace do either reftrain or change them. But 
when they have fuch an irritation and encouragement as this, 
and that from men that would be reputed as Godly as the beft ; 
then no wonder if they are hardened in their malignity. When 
we would inftruct them and mind them of their everlafting ftate, 
and help to prepare them for their Utter end ; they are told by 
Learned men, that we are no Minifters but Lay-men and Schis- 
matics, and that it is their fin to own us, or receive the Ordi- 
nances of Chrift from us as Minifters: and fo the poor people 
turn their backs on us, and on the Affcmbliesand Ordinances of 
God ; and being taught by wife and learned men to difown us 
and defpife us, they follow their drunkennefs, and worldlinefs, 
and ungodly nefs with greater fecurity, and with le(s remorfe: for 





now they have a defenfative againft the galling dodrine of thole 
prccife Preachers, that would not let them alone in their fin-.- 
they were wont to be difturbed at leaft by Sermons, and forac- 
time they purpofed to return, and were in the way of Grace, 
and in fome hope : but now they are taught by Learned Godly 
Divines to keep out of hearing , they can go en and fin in 

Sed. 21. 15. By this means alfo you rob God of his pub- 
like worfhip : People are taught to turn their backs on it : you 
teach them that it is better that God have no pubiike Minifterial 
worfoip at all, in Prayer, Praifes, Sacraments, &c. then that he 
fliould have it from any but Prelatical Minifters I Ofacred do- 
ctrine ! And if you had your wills for the filencing or ejeding 
of all that are not Ordained by Prelates, how many hundred 
Church-doors muft be (hut up in the Chrifttan world , or 
wotfe 1 

Sed. 22. 16. By this means alllmpiety would be cheri(hed 
and let loofe. When once the mouths of Minifters were flopped, 
the mouth of the fwearer, and curfer, and railer, and fcorner at 
Godlincfs would be open : and fo would be the mouth of the 
drunkard and glutton. If all that can be done, be fo much too 
little, as experience tells us, what a cafe would the Nations be 
in, and how would iniquity abound , if Minifters were eaft 

Seft. 23. 17. Yea it might endanger the Churches, by the 
introduction of Infidelity or Heathenifm it felf. For nothing is 
more natural as it were, to corrupted man ; and if once the Mi- 
niftry be taken down, and they have none, or thofe that are 
next to none, Infidelity and Atheifm will foon fpring up : And it 
will be a more dangerous fort of Infidelity, then is among ma- 
ny of the open Infidels, becaufe it would be palliated with the 
name of Chriftianity, and leave men further from convidion, 
then fome that never heard of Chrift. 

Si&. 24. 18. And it is a temptation to Infidelity and Con- 
tempt of the Church and Miniftrie, when men (hall fee that one 
party of Chriftians doth thus unchurch another, They wili 
think that they may boldly fay that of us, which we fay of one 
another; oneparty unchurchcth all the Papifts:thefc that we 
arenowfpeakingto, do unchurch all the Proteftant Churches 



that are not Prelatical. The Papifts unchurch all but thcmfelves , 
-and fo among them, they leave Chrift but a very fraall part of his 

Se&. 25. 19. Yea I fear that by Confequence ( and too 
near and pla'n a Confequence ) they diflblve the Catholike 
Church it felf. And if it be fo, let them judge whether their do- 
Srine fubvert not Chriftianitie ? I ufeno violence for the infe- 
rence. If want of Prelatical Ordination do Null the Proteltant 
Miniftrie and Churches, then it muft needs follow that far grea- 
ter defe&s ( and more againft the vitals of the Church ) will 
do as much to unchurch the Romanifts, the Greeks, Armenians, 
Syrians, Ethiopians, Egyptians, &c. But alas, how cafie is it 
to prove that ail thefe have far greater defe&s then the Pref- 
byterian Proteftant Churches .'andfothe whole muft fall toge- 

SeS. 26. 20. By all thefe means they joy n with the Qua- 
kers, and Seekers, and Drunkards in oppollng the fame Miniftric 
that they oppofe. Ton are no true Minifters of fefus Chrift, fay 
the Quakers, Seekers, and other Se&s ; fo alfo fay thefe that 
now we arc fpeakingof : and if they preach their do&rine, and 
fide with them againft the fervants of Chrift, let them be afraid 
left they partake of their Spirit and Reward. 

Se&. 27. 21. Their do&rine and pra&ice tendeth to grieve 
the hearts of the moft experienced gracious fouls. Should all 
the Miniftersbecaft out that are not Prelatical, and the places 
fupplyed, as they muft be in their ftead, with fucbascanbe 
had, O what a day would it be to honeft humble fouls, that 
were wont to delight themfclves in the publikc worfhip of God, 
and to find inftru&ion, and admonition, and confolation futable 
to their necefiities ! If now they fliould have all turned to what 
the Doctrine of thefe men portends, their fouls would be as in 
a Wildernefs^ and famine would confume them, and they would 
lament as David in his banifhmcnt, and the Jews in their captivi- 
ty, to think of the daics that once they faw. 

Sed. 28. 22. And doth it not imply a great deal -of unbolt- 
nefs and enmitkto Reformation, when men dare thus boldly un- 
church the moft of the Reformed Churches, and pafs fuch de- 
fperate nullifying cenfures on the moft holy, able, painful MinU 
fters of the Gofpel? O how many of them are ftudying, and 



watching and praying for their people day and night, and teach- 
ing chem publickly and from houfeto houfe, and that force- 
times with tears, willing to fpend and be fpent fo their Salva- 
tion, not fecking theirs but them \ and when they have done 
all, they are reproached as noMiniftersof Chrift, and the peo- 
ple taught to difown them and torfake them. Is this a fign of a 
fonof God, that is tender of his honour and intercft r" or of a 
Holy Gracious foul ? 

Sed.29. 23. Ac leaft by this means the hands of Minifters 
are weakned in their work, and their difficulties increafed, and 
their hearts grieved, becaufe of their peoples mifery. O if they 
could have but a free unprejudiced hearing with poor finners 
tome good might be done 1 But they will not hear us, nor 
come neer us, or fpeak to us : Efpccially when they are taught to 
forfakeusbyfuchmen. I would not be the man that fhouldtbus 
add burden and grief to the faithful Minifters of Chrift, upon 
fuch an accounr, for all the Bifhoprickson earth. 

Se&. 30. 24 Theyalfo diftradi the minds of Cbriftians, when 
they hear men thus degrading and unchurching one another; 
fo that weak perfons are perplexed, and know not what to think 
nor what Church or Religion to be of: yea it is well if many be 
not tempted hereby to be of no Religion at all ; when they hear 
them condemning one another. 

Se&. 31.25 .Thefc (hew too much formality and CeremoniouC 
nefs,when they fo much prefer their own opinon,about acircum- 
ftance, Ceremony or Mode, before the very being of the Chur- 
ches and Miniftry, and the fubftance of worfhip it felf, and the 
Salvation of men fouls .- As if it were better for Churches to be 
no Churches , then not Prelattcal Churches : or for fouU to be 
condemned, then to be faved by men that are not Prciatica!. I 
fpeak not thefe things to exafperate them ( though I can expect 
no better : ) but in the grief of my foul for the fad condition that 
they would bring men into. 

Sed. 32. 26. They lay a very dangerous fnare, to draw Mi- 
nifters to be guilty of carting off the work of God. Flclh and 
blood would be glad of a fair pretence for fo much liberty and 
cafe. O how fain would it be unyoaKt, and leave this labour 
rious, difpleafing kind oflife / And when fuch as thefe (hall 
pcrfwadc them that they are no Minifters, tbey may do much to 

K k gratific 


t • 

;^,.-.' C-^.";~ is.-l .:■ 5" ... 'i "*. ' r:: :: :r ;<«.:!?. A' .e;:: 
[.:■«;. :: = ?: ze." :: .'.:;. :::.-:.::> ::a: -•;_ ; :. ;:;.:-•; ::•- 

Sea .33 :-.BycfcsMMMlfrAty onke tie tracks tine 

ere tnocg as co be imrafir, tntf prodisn dBenfcfres otter - 

Iv -.—?•: :~--c «:; :o ::c z:S •::" :h: 7:;-r§ir: Curch-cs. 
Foe if tber wifl have no rrnof itwinii or cocbnojoo vtt 

::•;-.. :.. . ::ey fr.i .:•:.-•"« j ::.tr :*./«« -: C:::;:_.s> ; «-; :i : 
c £ a : : : " } '. : . rsay is well fay fUtiy ,they wil fci*c 

r : .~ : t : i . r ; : r.o rei . ": r..i : e ~ i r. ; * r. ~ j :-;•:* e i :< cr : ; i : 
c -. e ::: e :.': - e ? :r, :::;•::::•: : t: * : : * r i a' h : - : ; e . =rs it- 
c itz r: V- f:cf-» :•" C; .'::;?. ;• : : zi~: : : ::::. :..-.-• Com*. 

Seel. 5 4- 28. Aad it icifie to tec how snch diey befriend and 
cu ui f igi the Pipifts in ill this. Is it 00c enoogh that too 

hi-c v::i:«: ::c:.:«e ::•:=: :<->s ::e A -..:..: ::..":. :.: [::? 

lot #1— is a me Chord), their 

, * _• . '^. •. , . . * 

1 - r c •; » 

bar althePrateftantChnuhfi.ini 1 — rrrfaririT mt iwlni 

::er :< i rip:": n::e: ::-- * re-rrer 0:':.:: i ~ - : :c.'i - : 

c .- e :V.: . x :.:: : : e :•-.-;. . : - ; . : : ; -< - :'i ; t ■ C : : : v 

C . ) 

< I - 

Apofbrr : aodtsac i iinml ^ifif 1 inu iMBB f flioald 
c— ipiny tnefpirnal p£flfoo doc we bare cooIcb. 1 aoi 

hiding to the Nation! : and that his judgements fhoufd write as 
upon our doors, This is the people that wilfully cajl eut the Ail- 
nifiers and mercies of the Lord. 

Se&. 36. 30. And if all this were but accompliftied , in the 
Conclufion I may be bold to ask, what would the Devil himfelf 
have more , except our damnation it fe If 1 If be were to plead 
hisowncaufe, and to fpeak for himfelf, would he not fay ihe 
very fame asthefe Learned, Reverend Difputers do ? would he 
not fay to all our gracelefs people, Hear not thefe Minifiers : they 
are no true Minifiers: foyn not in Communion with their Churches^ 
they are no true Churches ? I doubt not but he would fay many 
of the fame words,ifhe had leave to fpeak. And fhould not a man 
of any fear be afraid, and a man of any piety be unwilling to 
plead the very caufc of Satan, and fay as he would have them 
(ay, by accufingfomany famous Churches and Miniftcrs , as 
being none indeed, and drawing the people fo to cenfure them 
and forfake them ; This is no work for a Minifter ofChrifr. 

Sed. 37. Befidcs what is here faid,I defire thofe whom it doth 
concern,that are afraid of plunging thernfelves into the depth of 
guile and horror, that they will impartially read over my firft 
ftieec for the Miniftry, which further (hews the aggravations of 
their (in that are now the qppofers and reproachers of them. 
Confider them,and take heed. 

Sed. 3 8. But again I defire thefe Brethren to believe,that as it 
is none or the Prclatical Divines that I here fpeak of, but thofe 
that thus nullifieour Church &Miniftry,whiIe they own the Mi- 
niftry and Church of Rome,(o it is none of my defire to provoke 
even tbefe, or injure them in the leaft degree •* But I could not 
irvthis fad condition of theChurch,but propound thefe hainous 
evils to their consideration, to provoke them to try, and to take 
heed left they (hould incur fo great a load of guilt, while they 
think they are pleading for Order in the Church. How can there 
be any charity to the Churcb,or to our brethren in us,if we can 
fee them in fuch a gulf ofiin as this,and yet fay nothing to them, 
for fear of provoking them to difplcafurc ? 

Sed. 39. And I think it neccflary that all young men that are 
caft by their arguing? into temptations of falling with them into 
the fame tranfgreffions, (hould have the cafe laid open to them^ 
that they may fee their danger ; and not by the accafations of 

Kk2 Scbifm 

Schifm be led into far greater real Schifm ,with fo many other fins 
as thefe. 

Se3. 40. Yet is it not my intent to juflific any difordersor 
mi r carriages that any have been guilty of in oppofition to the 
Prelace. And if they can prove that i have been guilty of any 
fuch thing my feif, I (hall accept of their reproof, and con- 
demn my fin as foon as lean difcern ir. Only I mud crave that 
the ufual way of preemption, affirmation, or bare names of 
crimci be not fuppofed fufficicnt for Convidton, without proof, 
and before the caufe is heard. And alfo I do profefs that for 
all that I have here faid againft the Enghfh Prelacy, and though 
I earneftly defire it may never be reftored,yet were I to live un- 
der it again, I would live peaceably and fubmiffively, being 
obedient, and perfwading others to obedience, in all things law- 



The finfulnefs of defpijing or negleBing 

Scfto 1. ®5S^ ESS^ SSSfT is a thing fo common and hard- 
ly avoided, for men in oppof 
one extreara, to feem to rountc - 
nance the other and for men that 
are convinced of the evil of one, 
to run into the other as the only 
truth, that I think it necefla- 
ry here fo endeavour tfie pre- 
vention of this mifcarriapc .* and 
having faid fo much againft the Neceffity of Prelatical Ordina- 
tit^and inforae cafes of any , I (hall next (hew the greatnefs 


of their fin that defpife or neglect Ordination when it may be 

Se&. 2. For the right undemanding of what is to be faid, I 
muft again remember you, that though it be not at the Ordain- 
ers wilt to deprive the Church of Minifters f and it is none of 
the Queftion which they have to refolve, Whether the Church 
Shall have Miniflers or non- (and therefore there may be Minifters 
without them, if they would hinder or refufe ■ ) And though k 
be not the Queftion which if put to rfieirdecifion, what kind of 
Miniflers the Church Jhall have ( for that Chrift hath determin- 
ed of ; ) nor yet what Qualifications arenccejfar) to them,(foT 
that alfo Chrift hath already fee down ; ) yet is it a great and 
weighty cafe that is put to the decifionof Ordainers, that is, 
Whether this man be thus qualified as Chrift hath defcribed and 
required in ^Miniflers ? and whether he be the fit t eft per fon ( or 
fit at leaft ) for the particular charge to which he is called ? And 
the right determining of this queftion is a thing that the Chur- 
ches welfare doth very much do depend upon. 

Se&. 3 . And therefore it is the decifion of this one Queftion, 
that Minifters, People and Magiftrates themfelves, muft all con- 
tribute their powers and endeavours too in their feveral places. 
Ail that they have to do is but to fee that the Churches have fie 
men, even fuch as are qualified as Godrequireth. The Peo- 
fltmwft. choofe fit men : orconfent to them when chofen for 
them: The PaVorsmuR. try them, and Approve them >*nd only them 
that are fit : The Magiflrate muft encourage, affifl and defend fit 
men, and forbid fuch as are intolerably unfit, and not permit 
them to abufc the name and Ordinances of Chrift, and wrong 
his Church. 

Sed. 4. This treble guard it the door of the Church doth 
much tend to its fecurity, and preservation from the great evils 
that intruders may introduce. And each party of the three hath 
a fpecial intereft which fhould make them carefull of the bufi- 
nefs. 1 . The people have great reafon to have a hand in it , and 
to be carefull: For it is their Souls for which their Overfecrs 
watch, and their Salvation that is concerned in if. And he chat 
wilt nottruft his Son with any Tutor without due choice,nor his 
ftatewith every Lawyer, nor his body with every Phyfician, no 
nor his land, or cattle with every fcrvant, but will choofe the 

Kk 3 heft, 


beft, hath rcafontoknow upon whofe care he trufteth his foof. 
For though it may be fomeexcufe , it will be no juftification of 
them that Jie in fin and mifery, to fay , Onr Teachers Si mif- 
leadus. For if the blind lead the blind, it is both that fall into 
the ditch : And as Cyprian faith ( with the reft of hisCol- 
legues, ) Eptft. 68. ( alias Li. I . Ep. 4. ) [ Propter quod plena 
diligentia y exploration [incer a eportet eosad Sacerdotittm delegi, 
qnos d Deo conjlet audiri. *Nec fibi plebs blandiatnr, (juifi im- 
munis ejfe a contagio delicti pojfit cum Sacerdote pec cat ore commn* 
means, & ad injuftptm atq\ i Met turn prapojiti fui Epifcopattm 
confenfam funm commodans y &c. - ] Befidcs the work 

of the Miniftry is Teaching and Perfwafivc,and the fuccefs is only 
on the Willing : and feeing we can do nothing on them for their 
good againft their wills,or without their own Confentjt is need- 
Sill therefore that fome way or other their Csnfent fhould be 
procured,unlefs we would fruftrate all our labour, and mifs our 
end. And alfo, a Church is a Society Voluntarily conjoined for holy 
.Worship and Living: and therefore it is contrary to the nature of 
it s that they (hould have Paftors, or be members and not finfent. 
Scft. 5. And 2. For the Magijlrate , there is great rcafon 
that fee have his part alfo in the work: For the honour of God 
muft be his End ; the Law of God his chiefeft Rale • the 
Church of Chrift his chiefeft fubjeds ; and the work of Chrift, 
his chifeft care andbufinefs. And feeinghe Ruletb/rowChrift^and 
by Chriftjand for Chrift,it is ncceffary that he take care of the 
< quality , and enterance,and carriage of Minifters,on whom Chrifts 
work and honour doth fo much depend. 

Se&.tf. Yet is there here a fpecial difference between the works 
of tbefe feveral parties in admitting men into the Miniftry. The 
proper or neceffary work of the peoplc,is but to difcernand con- 
Tent: Whether they be the firft Ele&ors,is a matter of indifTeren- 
,cy in it felf^ is fometimc fit,and fometime unfit.The Magiftrates 
work is not to Ordain Minifters ; but carefully to Overfec the 
Ordainersand thePeople,that they put in none but worthy men: 
And if he find that they mifcarry, he is not (ordinarily at lcaft) 
to take the work upon him, and Ordain fitter men himfelf; but 
to correct them to whom the work belongs, for their male-ad- 
miniftration, and reft rain them from mifdoing, and urge them 
;by due means r,p do it better, or caufe them to be difplaced thai 


arc unreformable,that better may bechofen in tUeirftead, that 
will be faithfull. 

Se&. 7. And 3 . The reafon of the Minifters intereft in the 
work, I (hall more at large lay down anon. And though there 
be a pofUbilicy of frequent differences arifing, through difa- 
grecment of thefe three feveral parties, yet Chrift would rather 
ufethis treble guard for caution, then for the preventing of divi- 
fion, lay open his Church to the injury of intruders. 

Sed.8. And remember again, that it is not in the Power of Ma- 
giftratcs, Ordainer?, People and all to make a Minifter of Chrift, 
of a man that wanteth the Etfencial Qualifications : Exquevis 
ligno nonfit Mercurius. He that is not qualified for the works 
EfTertialtoa Minifter, cannot by Ordination be made a Mini- 
fter .* No more then the bare (lamp can make currant money 
of a piece of lead, when the Law makes the Mettal Effential to 
currant Coin: And no more then alicenfe will make him a School* 
maftcr that cannot read : or him a Pilot, that knows not how to 
Rule thefhip: faith (j prian ubi ] Hp. \_Sedenim depderio huic 
veftro, non tarn noftra concilia , (\UAtn Divina precept a refpondent 5 
quibhs jampridem mandatur voce ctltfti, & Dei lege prefer ibi- 
tur 9 qnos & quale 's eporteat defervire alt art, & Sacrifice a Di- 
vina celebrate. ( Here he citcth Scripture ) Sua cum praditla 
& manifefta fint nobis tfracep lis Divinis neeejfe eft obfequia noftra 
ieferviant : Nee ferfonam in ejufmodi rebus aceipere y aut alifuid 
cuiquam largiri pott ft humana indulgentia ubi intercedit, & /*• 
gem tribuit Divina prafcriftioA God gives not men authority 
to contradict his Law, or co Ordain a man uncapable of Ordi- 
nation • nor introduce the form, where the matter is undifpofed 
for it. 

Se&. 9. Perhaps fome will zsk^ht/heuld be done^in cafe that 
thefe three parties difagree : If the Magi prate would have one 
man, and the Or dainers another, and the people a third , or if two 
of them go one way y and the third another t To which Ianfwer, 
There are many things that mutt be taken into confideration 
for the righc refolving of the cafe. Either the perfons nominated 
arc equal or unequal: Either they are allcapabie,orfomeof 
them uncapablc : Either the welfare of that Church dependcth 
on the choice : or elfeit may be fomewhat an indifferent caf*. 
x. If there be but one Minifter to be had, and the DifTcnters 



would have nonc,then it is paft concroverfie, that the Diffenters 
are to be difobeyed. 2. If one party would have a Godly, Able 
Minifter, end the other would have an incapable, intolerable 
perfon, then it is paft doubt, that the party that is for the worthy 
perfon ought to prevailed it is his duty to infift upon it,and the 
duty of the reft to yield to him. 3 . If any will make a contro- 
verfie in this cafe where there is none, and fay, [Ton fay this man 
isfitteft, and 1 fay the other man ( that isuncapable) isptteft, 
and who (kail be judge 1 ] The party that is in the right muft 
hold to their duty, till they arc perfecuted from it,and appeal to 
Gcd,who will judge inequity. If a blind man fay to a marl 
that had) his cye-fighc £ ICoufay that yon fee ; and I fay that lfee- 9 
yon faj that it ik day 7 and I fay it u night j who /ball be believed? j I: 
is not fuch words that will warrant a wife man to renounce his 
eye -fight. God will judge him to be in the right thac is fo indeed. 
4. But if really the feveral parties are for feveral Mtnifters that 
are*// tolerable , yet if there beany notable difference in their 
fitnefs, the parties thac are for the lefs fit, fhould yield to the 
party that is for the more fit. If you fay, They difcem it nor 3 
I anfwer, rhat is their fin , which will not jultifie them in a 
further fin, or excufc them from a duty. They might dif- 
cern , if they were not culpable , in fo great a difference, 
a,t leaft whom they are bound to take for the moft fit. 
5. But if there be no great inequality , then tliefe Rule* 
ihould beobferved. 1. The Magiftrate fhould not deny the 
people their Liberty of choice, nor the Min'fters their Liberty 
in Approbation or diffallowauce * but only Overfee them all, 
that they faithfully do their feveral duties. 2. The Minifters 
ihould not hinder the people from their Choice, where both 
parties nominated are fit , but content themfelves wirh their 
proper work. 3 . The People fhould not infift upon their choice, 
if the Minifters to whom it belongeth, do difallow the perfen, 
and take him to be unmeet, and refufeto ordain him : becaufe 
obedience in fuch cafes is their duty , and a duty that cannot 
tend to their lofs : at leaft not to fo much hurt to them 
as the contrary irregular courfe may prove to the Church. 
4. If Magistrates or Minifters would make the flrft choice, and 
urge the people to amftnt if the perfon be fit, it is the fafeft way 
for the people to obey and confent, though it were better for 




2 57) 

the Rulers to give them more freedom in the choice. 5. If a 
people be generally ignorant ( in too great a meafure, ) and 
addi&edto unworthy men, or apt to divifions, &c. it is their 
fafeft way to defire tiie Minifters to chocfe for them. Or if they 
will not do fo, it is thefafeft way for the Minifters to offer them 
a man: Yet fo thatMagiftraces and Minifies (hould expe& their 
Confent, and not fet any man over them as their Paftor without 
confent fome way procured. 6. But if they are no Church, but 
uncalled perfons , and it be not a P after of a Church , but a 
Preacher to Convert men, and fit them for a Church-ftatc, that 
is to be icttled, then may the Magiftrate fettle fuch a man, and 
force the people to hear him preach. 7. If Necejfitj require 
not the contrary, the matter {hould be delayed, till Magiftrate, 
Minifters and people do agree. 8 . The chofen Pallors fhould de- 
cide the cafe thcmfclves : Tbey fhould not accept the place, and 
Confent, till all be agreed, unlefs there be a Neceffity. And if 
there be,then die greatcft neceffity fhould raoft fway. If the 
Magistrate refill, he will forciby prohibite and hinder you from 
preaching. If the Minifters re lift, they will deny you the right 
hand of fcllowfhip. If the people refift, they will not hear nor 
join in worihip nor obey. All thefe if poffible fhould be avoid- 
ed. The Peoples confent (toaPaftorof a Church)is of Neceffity. 
We cannot do the work of Paftori withoat it. And therefore nei- 
ther Magiftrates or Minifters can drive us on where this is wanr- 
ingfunlefs it be only to feek it, or only to do the work of Preach- 
ers to men without. ) Unity and Communion with Neighbour. 
Churches is fo much to be defired, that nothing but Neceffity 
can warrant us to go on without it. And the Magiftrates reftraint 
is fo great a hindcrancc, that nothing but Neceffity can warrant 
us to caft our fel ves upon if. And therefore out of cafes of Ne- 
ceffity, the Minilters nominated (hould not confent till all agree : 
Bucincafcs ofNeceffity, the fouls of men and the worfhipof 
God, muft notbe difregarded or negle&ed , though neigh* 
bour-Churches or Minifters difown us, or Magiftrates per fee ute 

Se3. 1 o. Remember thefe Diftin&ions for the undemanding 
of what follows. 1. Its one thing to be Approved, and another 
thing to be folemnly Inverted. Ordination confifteth of thefe 
two pares. 2,Wcmuft difference between Ordination, by one; 

L ! Paftor,* 


Puftor, and by many. 3. Between Ordination by Paftors of 
the fame Church, or of many Churches. 4. Between Ordi- 
nation by fufficient or infufficient Minifters. 5. And between 
Ordnation by Neighbour Miniftcrsor Strangers. 6. And be- 
tween Ordination by Divided Minifters, and Concordant. On 
thefe premifed I propo r e as followcth. 

Se&. 11. Prop. 1. Approbation by Minifters is ordinarily to 
be fought and received by all that will enter into the Mkriftry. 
I gave fome Reafons before, Cta?. 2. Which here I (hall enlarge, 
by which the finfulnefs of Neglefting this Approbation may 

ScA. 12. Reaf. 1. It is the way that God hath appointed us 
in Holy Scripture, and therefore to be followed. They that 
Ordained Elders or Bifhops in the Churches,did more then Ap- 
prove them, but could do nolefs, 1 Tim. 4. 14. Timothy was 
ordained by the Impofition of the hands of the Presbyterie , 
1 Tim. 3.15. Pa»/giveth Timothy the defcription of bifhops 
and Deacons, that he may know how he ought to behave himfeif 
in the houfcofGod, which is the Church, &c. That is , that 
hemay know whom to Approve of or Ordain, 77m. 5. Titus 
was to Ordain Elders in every City, tdftj 13. 1,2, 3. The 
Prophets and Teachers in the Church at tsfntioch did feparate 
Barnabas and Paul to the work, with Failing and Prayer,and 
impofition of hands. It was theApoitlcs that Ordained them 
Elders in every Church, /4tfj 14. 23. Sappofe itmuft be read 
£ by Suffrages] as many would have it, that proveth no more 
but that the People did confent : But (Ml it is /Wand Barnabas 
that Ordained them Elders, though with the peoples furTrages, 
and it is they that are faid to faft and pray in the next words. 
<s4ft.6. 3. Exprefly (hews that the People chofe the Dea- 
cons , and the Apoftle9 ordained them [ Look ye out among 
your felves feven men of honeft report, full of the Holy Ghoft 
and ? i'dom,whom toe may appoint over this bufinefs/But I fh*U 
cut ftiort this part of my task,becaufe fo much is faid of it already 
by many that have written for Ordination, to whom I (hall re- 
fer you, 

Scd. 1 3 Reaf. 2. If there be not a (landing regular way for 
Trying a d Approving fuchas enter into the Miniftry, then men 
will be left to be their own judges, and if they can but get the 



confcntofany Congregation, will prcfentybePafton.But this 
courfe would tend to the ruine or confufion of the Church, as I 
(hall martifed by evidence. 

Se&. 14. 1. If all men may enter into the Minidry that will, 
upon their own perfwafion that they are fie, the mod proud, 
felf-conceited, worthlefs men will be the readied to go, arid if 
tbey can get hearers, will mod abound in the Churchy and the 
people will quickly have heaps of Teachers. For we all know that 
many of the Ignorant arc leaft acquainted with their ignorance : 
and commonly the Proud have the highelt thoughts of them- 
fel ves,and think none To fit to Teach and Ruk as they, And wh3E 
could be more to the fhameand hazzard of the Church,then 
co have it taught and guided by fuch ignoranr unworthy men ? 
Sed. 15. 2. Moreover, Humble men are fo confeious of 
their weaknefs , and fenfible of the burden and grcatnefs of 
the work, that they think themfelves unworthy , and therefore 
would draw back- and fo by their forbearance would give way 
to the forefaid proud intruders. And thus the Church would 
foon be darkened, defiled, and brought low, if all men were 
their own judges. 

Scd. 16. 3. Moreover, it is the common difpofition of Er- 
roneous and Heretical perfons to be exceeding zealous for the 
propagating of their errors, and bringing as many as is pofsible 
to their mind. So that if all be left to themfelves, the mod He- 
retical will run fird, and carry their filth into the houfe of God t 
and fedaceand undo men inftead of faving them. 

Sed. 17. 4. By this means alfo the Covetous and fordid 
worldlings will crowd in : and men will do by Preaching, as they 
do by Ale- felling, even make it their laft Trade when others 
fail ; and he that breaks in any other Trade, if he have but any 
volubility of fpeecb, will prefently turn Pried ; till the Office 
and Ordinances of God feem vile, and be abhorred by the 
people. This mud be the Coafcquent if alH>e left to their own 

Sed. 18. 5. And it is too known a cafe, that the people 
will bid fuch perfons welcome, and fo they will make a match* 
The erroneous and giddy party will have fuch as arc futable to 
them. And the Covetous party will have him that will do their 
work bed cheap : if they will preach for nothing or for little, he 

LI 2 (hall 

: t i r- - : :hea, though he would lead i 1 1 - • - :::::• 
on. If itbepoyibn.thcyittieit, if it coil them coining. And 
cAny there be that will have their owe kindred or friends to 
mttt Prief s of ; tnd all chat the? bare intereft in muft joyn 
with them on the account of fnendftrip. And the cfcddiih in- 
judicious fort of Chnfbans will follow them tha: :r c :r.e 
LDOothcftcongoes y orbeftopnortiininesandadTactagesto pre- 
vail with them. And fotbey will** fftdmfsjuiasw*^ smd c*r- 
rjtd f jBuifrt with every wimdef ds>Bri*e y *cctrdt*g f the cwmmag 
keight mmd fmktUty ef me*, kj winch they Lei* w*i? to deceive. ] 
£pb. 4. 14. %Amm they will he csrried sb tm with divers mm A 
-•4-;;.: --^v. H.b :: ; 

Aeif. 3. Acd when the Mimiftrie is thus corrupt - 
ed f by making every man judge of his own fitnefs ) the 
Cmxrch will be ccmfteJ, and degenerare in:o a common fia:e, 
■ /t :; be i C:._::h .:'?,::'.:- a:. :^ co cc: :":c p ::e gir- 
Z'zrc :•;: :; ;:Tr::.;. 2 .: : - _-: 

:re qui ::-. 0: :ze M -.":.-. e. A~ g-.::i.-: v.r.. -.:. zr: £.-. g. 
r. :-:i .-.::;■:■ p. e . ir. crr:r.ecu> }.'.r.:::r e, 5 re _r. e::;:g per.: ; 
a fcandalous Minifiric, and a fcandalous people commonly go 
rcgc::e- 1 <ePricft.ikx p eop l e i? :;.!ccr-;::2.'i 

Sed. 2a Real". 4. And by this means Chrifiianiry it feif 
u . :e : ^:::-:e: .i?.c :-;t~ :o :e :_: 1 ;::::; re :.:r..»rd :b 
bu: 1 ce:e : . :o i:e gre-: c :r:r:u- c" Je-'-s C::.:": . r';r :'re 
world will judge of him and his canfe, by thcltTcsof them that 
itizi : *~z pro"'e:« .:. 

Scrt 2:. Ream* 5 And by this means God will be proro- 
.srd :o;e:i': rrc~ -», r:::i-.;::;::::s:::c* c fhorc wr- 
ing him. If he would fpew one of his month lukewarm LmO- 
;-4. what wonld he don :b degenerate iodetics? If moftof 
re .:>:-. ^:-':~: : . . r .*: : is ;- ni :':.?' warr:rg« •:: h-cs:- 
r. r£> :":: ."n. r :i_.: : . ^ . i: *:-.:::::: :-:_:: ■; r. ; :' rg u = 
•: the L::d ■ 

Sect :: Real 6. If you fbeuli be men of *b. tnd 

and Ordination,yer others might be encouraged by your exara* 

kcownotbowto keep out woolrcs arc * re : t ::.? pe :;>; 

not we enter unordained^ as we/l as finch and finch t 

Scd. 23. Rcaf. 7. By this means alfo you will leave many 
fober godly perfons unfatisfied in your Miniftry, as not knowing 
whether they may own you asMinifters or not! &how much you 
fhould do to avoid fuch offence, me thinks you might perceive. 

Sc&. 24. Reaf. 8. By this courfe alfo you will walk con- 
trary to the Catholike Church of Chrift, and that in acaufe 
where you cannot reafonablv pretend any neceftity of fo doing. 
Ever fince Chrift had a Miniftry on earth, the conftant ("ordina- 
ry ) way of their admittance hath been by Ministerial Ordina- 
tion. If any man defpifethis, and be contentious, we have no 
fuch Cuftome, nor the Churches of God. Is it a defign be- 
feeming an humble man, aChriftian, a fober man, to find ouc 
a new way of making Minifters now in the end of the world ? as 
if ail the Minifters from the Apoftlcs dayes till now, had come in 
at a wrong door, and wanted a true Calling ? This is too near 
the making a New Miniftry : and that's too near the Making of 
a new Church : and that's too near the feigning of. a new Chrift. 
The Church hath many promifes, that the gates of Heilftiall 
not prevail againft it- that Chrift will be with her Minifters to 
the end of the world, they being given by him for the perfect- 
ing of the Saints, and edifying of the Body of Chrift • till wc 
all come in the unity of the faith, and knowledge of the Son of 
God, to a perfect man, ^.£^.4.12,13. And therefore we 
muft not e ifily believe,that the Mi^jftry of the univerfal Church 
have been falfly called or admitted untillnow, and you have 
found out a better way at laft. 

Sed. 25. Reaf. 9. You would bring that irrational confu- 
fion into the Church of the living God, which is not to be in- 
troduced into the bafeft Commonwealth or fociety in the world. 
Yea have more wit then to let all men play the Phyfitians : but 
will fir ft have them tryed by men of their own Profeffion.-or 
elfe the lives of many may pay for your Licentioufnefs* You 
will have Schoolmafters approved by them that have Learning, 
before you will commit your children to their truft.* And fhall 
every man be a Teacher and Ruler that will in the Church of 
Chrift:, as if it were the only confufed contemptible Society in 
the world ? God is n ot the God of Confufion, but of Peace, as 
in all the Churches, faith the Apoftle, 1 Cor. 24.33. 

L 1 3 $eft. 


Se&. 26. Reaf. 10. Do but confider how high, and holy ^ 
gnd honourable a Calling it is to be a Minifter of the Gofpel.and 
then it will appear,that it is horrible Profanation of Holy things, 
to fuffer all that will, to invade it. They are to be the Erobaffa- 
dors of Chrift, and fpeak as in his Name, and to be Stewards of 
his Myfterics and Houfhold, and to Hand near him, as at his 
altar, and to difpenfc bis treafurc>to magnifie and praife his Name, 
and to adminifter his holy Sacraments, &c. Andfhouldall that 
will, be taught to ufurp or invade fuch an holy Calling ? 

Seft. 27. Reaf. 11. Confider alfo, how great a Trufi it is 
that is committed to all thatareMiniftersof theGofpel. The 
fouls of men are committed to them : the Myfteries of God, 
the precious proraifes and glad tidings of Salvation are commit- 
ted to them : rhe order and affairs of thehoufcof God are com- 
mitted to them i thofe that are Chrifts Sheep , his Jewels, his 
Friends, his Brethren, his Spoufe, his Members, and as the apple 
^f hiscye,arecomraittedtotbem. Andisit futablc to fo great 
aTruft, that men untryed, unapproved, that do but think well 
of themfelves, and their own doings, (hallat their pleafure take 
fo great a charge ? Whatman of honour and wit among you, 
will give every man leave to be your Steward, that hath but fol- 
ly and pride enough to think himfelf fit for it ? and will not ra- 
ther choofe your Stewards your fel ves ? 

Se&. 28. Reaf. 12. And is it not evidently notorious Cru- 
elty to the fouls of men, to*aft them upon every uaworthy fel- 
low that will but be impudent enough to undertake the charge ? 
Do you fetfo light by mens evcrlafting Joy or Torment? You 
would not focontemptuoufly caft away mens lives : and will you 
focontemptuoufly caft away their fouls ? And what a contempt 
is it of the blood of Chrift, that the purchafe made by it fhould 
be thus negle&ed ? You will lock up your money, and look to 
your goods, and take care of every groat of your eftates:and 
ihall the fouls of men,and the blood and the inheritance of Chrift 
be no more regarded ? This is unjuft. 

Se&. 29. Reaf 13. Yea and it is a way of Cruelty to the 
men themfelves, if every man that is lick of felf-conceir, or 
Pride, Ihall have leave to ezerdfe it, and run themfelves into 
iinfpeakable guilt, by undertaking fuch works as they are no 
sray able far ; Alas, have not thefe poor firmers trangreflions 



enough of their own already, butyoumuft encourage them to 
draw the blood of fouls, and the (ins of fo many others upon 
their heads? O what a burden do they take upon them ! and 
what a dreadful danger do they run into? Had you fair hand 
any pitty of fouls, you would rather ftudy to do your beft, 
to prevent mens deftroying of themfelves and others, and fal- 
ling altogether into the ditch. Iknowyou'l fay, that you are 
guilty of no fuch thing : it is the faving, and not the deflroy-. 
ing of fouls that you intend by being Minifters unordained : 
but your intentions will not juftifie your cruel and deftruftive 
practices. Its plain that you teach men by your doctrine and 
example to be their own judges of their fitnefs for the Miniftry, 
or to neglect the judgement of the Paftors of the Church; and 
what better can this courfe produce ? 

Se&. 30. Reaf. 14. Either you are fit for the Miniftry, or 
unfit ; if fit •, why (hould you be afraid of tryal ? He that doth 
evil comes not to the light : it is a fign of an ill caufe that can- 
not endure a juft tryal. But if you are unfit, is it not better to 
forbear ? 

Se&. 31. Reaf. 15. Your very refufing of a tryal doth 
give the people fuflicient reafon to queftion your caH-and fitnefs 
for the work, or your humility at leaft ; for humble men think 
meanly cr of themfelves, then to judge themfelves meet for 
fuch great employments, when they have not the encourage- 
ment of men that are more tit to judge 1 the good men of old 
were wont to run away from a Bifhoprick, or Paftoral dignity 
inthefenfeof their unfitnefs ; fo that the Bifliops were fain to 
feek and fend after them : and Gregory of Neocefare* was Or- 
dained by Tbcdimuj when he was three daies journey from hiro, 
even againft his will ; and then charged by him in the name of 
Chrifl: to yield unto the Call. And what then fhall we tbink of 
that fort of men, that think themfelves fo good and worthy, 
as to run on their own heads, without due approbation ? 

Sed. 32. Reaf. 16. It is natural for man to be Partial in 
his own Caufe ; infomuch as no law or equity will allow men to 
be witneffirs or judges for themfelves in the fmaHeft civil contro- 
verfie : and (hall they be judges of themfelves in fo great a caufe ? 
Are not others more impartial ? 
Seft. ii, Reaf; 17, You caft away your own encourage- 


ment and fupport, and create vexation to your own Conferen- 
ces. There are fo many difficulties to be conquered in this work, 
and fo many furTerings to be endured, that if a man be not clear 
that his Call was good, he is like to be left to great difcomfons 
We have exceeding great labours to undergo : we have abun- 
dance of enemies and impediments to ftrive with : we have 
many a fcorn and unthankful return, and perhaps iroprifonment 
or death toundergo:wcare°our felves, alas,too weak and infuffi- 
cient, and mull depend on God for daily helps. And with what 
confidence can you exped his help, if you Call your felves, and 
enter not by his Approbation ? And how will you ever go 
through all this, and fufTer fo much with Cbriftian comfort,whcn 
you cannot fay that you are fent of God, and have nothing 
but your own overweening conceits of it? Could you but fay, 
QI entered by the way that God appointed, and wascotmy 
own Judge ] you might have fome more boldnefs and confidence 
of Godsafiiftance. 

Sc&. 34. Reaf. 1 8. The moft that plead againft Ordination, 
that are worthy the name of fober Cbriftians , do plead but 
againft the Nectffitj of it, and cannot deny it to be I Awful : and 
Ihould not all the reafons before mentioned prevail with you to 
fubmit to a lawful thing ? 

Sc&. 35. Reaf. 19. And if it be thus undenyable, that men 
muft not be their own Judges, it will foon appear that Miwfierj 
are the {landing Judges of mens fitnefs for this work, becaufe 
no other Judges are appointed to it, or capable of it. It muft be 
an ordinary ftated way of Approbation, that can give us fatif- 
fa&ion .-for if God had left the cafe at large, for men to go to 
whom they will, it would be all one as to goto none at all, but 
to be Judges themfelves. And if a (landing way of Approba- 
tion muft be acknowledgedjet us enquire where it is to be found : 
and look which way you wilJ, and you fhali find no other, but 
this which is by men of the fame Calling with them that are to 
i>e Ordained. 

Sed. 36. For 1. Magiftratent cannot be : none that I know 
pretend to that. Magiftrates in rnoft of the worlJ arc Inficcls: 
and therefore cannot there be Ordainers : and none of them 
hath the work committed to them by Chrift, nor do any that I 
know, affume it to themfelres. 


Se&. 37. And 2. The people it cannot be : For 1. No man 
can (hew a word of precept or example for it ; nor prove that 
ever God did give them fuch a power : Confent or Eledion is aH 
that can be pretended to by them. 2. It is a work that they are 
commonly unable for: the Schollars may as well Try and Ap- 
prove of their Schoolmafter. We confefs the People rfuftbya 
judgement of difcretion, endeavour to find outthebeft they 
can : but if they had not helps, and if they were alfo called to a 
judgement of dire&ion and decifion, what work would they 
make ? Do the Major vote, ( or the Minor either ) in moft or 
alraoft any Congregations, underltand whether a man know 
the meaning of the Scripture, or to be able to defend the truth, 
or whether he be Heretical or found in the faith, &c. ? God 
would not fet men on a work that is thus beyond the line of their 
Capacity. It is a thing not to be imagined, that they that call 
us to be their Teachers, ihould already be common'y able to 
Judge whether we are found or unfound, and able to teach 
them or not : for this importech that they know already as much 
as we ( for wherein they are ignorant, they cannot judge of 
us. ) And if they know as much already, what need have they 
of our Teaching? 3. And it is contrary to the fub je&ion and 
inferiority of their Relation -they that are commanded to learn 
and obey us as their Guides, may yet confent or choofe their 
Teachers, when Approved, or to be Approved by abler men; 
bnt they cannot be imagined to be appointed by God to Ordain 
their own Overfcers : this is a moft ungrounded fi&ion. 

Se&. 38. Reaf. 20. On the other fide, it is thePaftorsof 
the Church, and only they that are fitted to be the (landing Ap- 
prover! or Ordainers, as will appear in thefe particulars. 1. Ic 
is they that arc juftly fuppofed to be of competent abilities to 
try a Minifter. If here and there a Gentleman or other perfon 
be able , that is a rarity, and therefore no (landing way for the 
Church in Ordaining Minifters can be gathered thence. 2. Mi- 
nifters are doubly devoted to God and to his Church : and there- 
fore (hould have, and ordinarily have, the tendered care of the 
Church. 3. Itis juftly fuppofed that Minifters are ordinarily the 
moft pious and confcionablc men that arc to be bad (or els they 
ire too blame that choofe them to be Miniiers ) And therefore 
they may be expected to be moft faithful in the work. 4. And 

Mm they 


they are fewer, and have lefler perverting intereftf ,and therefore 
are like to be lefs divided in fuch determinations, then the people 
that are fo many, and of fo many inrerefts and minds, that if it 
were not for the Moderation of Magiftntes and Ministers, they 
would alraoft everywhere be all to pieces, one being for one 
man, and another for another ; fame for one of this mind and 
way, andfomefor one of another; fome for the Orthodox, 
and fome for the Heretical. 5. Laflly, it is Mtnifters, whole 
Office God hath eyed Ordination to, and who have time to wait 
upon it as their duty : fo that lay all this together, and I think 
the firft Proportion is proved, for the Neceflity (ordinarily J 
of the Paftors Approbation , and the finfulnefs of neglect- 
ing it. 

Se&. 39. Prop. 2. It is not only the Paftors of one particu- 
lar Church, but alfo the Paftors of Neighbour chuxhes that 
hold Communion with that Church, thatfhould regularly Ap- 
prove or Ordain Ministers : though I deny not but he may be 
a Minifter that hath no Ordination but by the Paftors of a 
particular Church , yet I conceive that this is not a regular 

Sed. 40. Myreafonsarethefe. 1. Becaufeifit be ordinarily 
tyed to the Paftors of the fame Church only to Ordain, then it 
W!ll be done ordinarily without any Paftors et all. For moft 
pirticu ! ar Churches in the world have but one Paftor : and when 
he is dzad, there is none left to Ordain ; and therefore others or 
none muft do it in fuch cafes. 

Sed. 41. And 2. If there be one left, and all the power be 
left in him, thcwelfareof the Church would run too great an 
hazzard t if every man (hill be Ordained a Minified hat can 
procure the Approbation of a (ingle Paftor, the Church will be 
fubjeded to moft of the lamentable miferies before mentioned 
fuppofing that men were judges for themfeives. 

Sed. 42. And 3. We rind in Scripture, that it was not the 
way appointed by the Holy Ghoft, for fingle Paftors to Ordain. 
The forecited Texts and examples arc a fufficient proof. 

Sed. 43. If any lay, that the Ruling Eiders may concur, I 
anfwer. Though I make no great matter of it, nor would not 
raife a contention about it, yet I muft fay, that I never yet faw 
anyiatitfadory proof, chic ever God did inftitutc fuch Elders 



as this Obje&ion raeaneth, in the Church : that is, i. Such as 
are not Ordained, but come in by mcer Eie&ton 2. And fuch 
as have the Power of Difcipline and Overtighc without Autho- 
rity to preach or adminifter the Sacraments. I think thdeare 
but humane creatures • though I doubt not but there mav be 
fuch as Aft uallj(h*\\ forbear preaching and adminiftration of the 
Sacraments, when fome of their collcagus are fitter for ir. 

Se&. 44. But 2. ]f fuch an Officers be proved, 1 defpair 
of feeing it proved from Scripture, that they have authority to 
Ordain. 3. And how can they have Authority, whenmoitof 
them have not Ability? And I think it is fuppofed that they have 
not Ability to Preach, in them that deny them Authority* m& 
if they want Ability to Preachy its two to one but they want Abi- 
lity to Try and Approve of Prea r krrs. 4. And how come they to 
have Power to Ordain others, that are not Ordained themfelves, 
bat are admitted upon bare Election? 5. And this courfe would 
profticute the Churches to unworthy men, as aforefaid. 

Sett. 45. And 4. It is not a contemptible Confideration, 
that the chief Paftor of every particular Church , hath ever 
fince the fecond Century at leaft, been Ordained by the Paftors 
of other Churches. And how it was before, we have but ve- 
ry defective Evidence, except (o much as is left us in the Holy 
Scriptures, of which wc have fpoke before. 

Se&. 46. And 5. The Church of Chrift is a Chain of many 
links : a Society united in Chrift the Head, confiding as a Repub- 
like of many Corporations^ or as an Accdemy of many Col- 
ledges : and a greater Union and Communion isrequifite among 
them, then among the parts of any other Society in the world. 
And therefore feeing it is the du;y of Neighbour Paftors and 
Chu rches, according 1 their Capacity to hold Communion with 
that particular Church and its Paftors, it fcems reafonable, that 
they have forac antecedent Cognifance and Approbation of the 
perfons that they are to hold Communion with. 

Se&\ 47. And 6. It is confiderable aifo, that whoever is 
according to Chriftsinftitution Ordained a Minuter of a parti- 
cular Church, iswithall (if not before) Ordained a Miniftir 
fimply ; that is, one that iftay as a feparatcd Meffenger of Chrift, 
both preach for the Converfion of thofe without, and gather 
Churches where there are none, and fro tempore do the Offir* 

Mm 2 


of a Miniftcr, to any part of the Gttholike Church, where he 
cometh and hath a Call. And therefore as he is (imply a Mini- 
fter, and the Unconverted world, orthellniverfal Church are 
the Obje&s of his Miniltry, the Paftors or Members of that 
particular Church where he is fettled, have no more to do in 
Ordaining him then any other. Asa Corporation may choofe 
their own Phyfitian, Scboolmaftcr, &c. but cannot do any 
more then other men, in Licenfing a man to be in general a Phy- 
fitian, Schoolmafter, &c. So may a Church choofe who (hall be 
their Teacher, but not who (hall be (imply a Teacher or Minifter 
of Chrift, any more then an other Church may do, that's fur- 
ther from him. 

Sedt. 48. And 7. It is alfo confiderable, that it is the fafeft 
and raoft fatisfadory way to the Church and to the Minifter him- 
felf, to have the Approbatien of many. And it may leave more 
fcruple concerning our Call, when one or two or a particular 
Church only do Approve us. 

Se&. 49. And 8. It is granred in their writings by thofe 
that are for Ordination by a particular Church only, that the 
Concurrence of more is Lawful - and if Lawful, I leave it to 
Confidcration, whether all the forementioncd accidents make 
it not fo far convenient, as to be ordinarily a plain duty, and to be 
preferred where it may be had. 

Sed. 50. Yet do I not plead for Ordination by Neighbour 
Pafto" c , as from a Governing Authority over that particular 
Church : but as from an intereft in the Church Univcrfal, and all 
its Officers within their reach, and from anintereft of Commu- 
nion with Neighbour Churches. 

Sed. 51. And it is obfervable in Scripture, that the Itinerant 
jMimfters, that were fixed and appropriated to no particular 
Church, for continuance, ( fuch as the Apoftles and Evangelifls 
were, and Titus, Timothy , and fuch others ) had a Principal 
hand in the work of Ordination whereever they came. It was 
they that Ordained Eiders in every City, in every Church. 

Sed. 5.2. Prop. 3. Ifany (hall cull out two or three or more 
of the weakeft injudicious, facile Minifters, and procure them 
to Ordain him, hiscourle is irregular, and bis call unfarisfado- 
ry, though the formal part be obtained to the full. For it is 
aotformeer formality, buttofa-sfie the perfon called, and the 


Church, and to fccurc the Miniftry and facred works and fouls of 
men , from injury by Ufurper9, that God hath appointed the 
way of Ordination; And therefore it is fraud, and not obedi- 
ence, for any man fo toufe it, as to cheat himfcf and the Church 
with a formality, and fruftrate the Ordinance , and mifs its 

Se&. 5 j. Prep. 4. If any man, avoiding the Orthodox and 
Unanimous Miniftry, (hall apply himfelf for Ordination to fome 
divided fchifmacicai or heretical perfons, that will Approve him, 
and Ordain him, when the others would rejed him, this alfo,as 
the former, is fraud and feif-deceit, and not obedience ; upon 
the laft mentioned grounds. It is the bafeft treacherous kind 
of (inning, to turn Gods Ordinances againft himfelf, and to fin 
under the (helter and pretence of an inftitution. By ufingthe 
means in oppofition to its end, they make it no means, and ufe it 
not as a means at all.Though Paftors muft Ordain , yet is it not 
all kind of Paftors- Ordination that (houid fatisfie an honefl 
meaning man; but that which bath the qualifications fuited to 
the Rule and end. 

Seel. 54. In fuch cafes of unjuft entrance, if the People fin- 
fully comply,and the man have poffefiion,it may be the duty of 
fome particular perfons, that cannot help it, ( having done their 
own parts in difowning it ) to fubmit , and not therefore to 
feparate from the Church, except in defperate extraordinary 
cafes (not now to be enumerated ) And all the adminiftrations 
of fuch a man (hall be not only Valid to the innocent,but with- 
out any fcrupleof confeience may be ufed and received, with ex* 
pw-Aation of a promifed bleffing. 

Sed. 5 ? . But yet quoad de6itum.it is the Churches duty ( ex- 
cept in Cafes of Necefiity ) to difown fuch intruders, and 
to fufpeA and fufpend obedience, to thofc that indirect- 
ly enter, ( by a few ignorant, or fchifmatical Ordainers, re- 
fufing the tryal of the unanimous abler Orthodox Miniftry ) 
till they have either perfwadedthe man to procure their Appro- 
bacion, or have themfelves fought the Judgement of the faid 
United Minifters concerning him. And feeing all the Churches 
of Chrift fhculd be linkt and jointed together , and hold com- 
munion and correfpondency, according to their capacities , the 
Members of a particular Church are bound in reafon, and to 

Mm 3 thofe 

(2, 7 o) 

thofe ends, to aefvifcin fuch fufpicio us cafes with neighbour 
Churches, and not to receive a Paftor that comes in by way of 
Difcord, or tha-: negle&eth or refufeth the concordant way. 
For he that entrcth in a divifive way, is-like to govern them ac- 
cordingly, and flill to fhun the Communion of the Brethren. 

Sed.56. This Cjprian fully (hews in the fore-mentioned Ep. 
68./>,20i. perfwadmg the people to fhun the unworthy though 
they were Ordained by Bifhop*, adding [OrdinAri wmnnnqnam 
indignos, nonfecunAumDeivoluntatem, fed feenndum humanam 
pmfhmptionem; & h&c Deo difpiicere, qus. non veniant ex legitime 

&jttfta Ordinatione, Dens ipfe manifeftat, &c. ] Necef- 

fity may juftiSc fome things that other wife would be irregulari- 
ties ; but when Q Ptr urbes fwgttlas ( that is, in every Church) 
Ordinate fint Efifcopi, in £tate Antiqui,in fide integri , in prejfnra 
probati, in perfecutione profcripti, illefuper eos creare alios pfeudo- 
ppifcapos AttdtAt ] this is a fad that the poeple fhould difown. 
And L S^} n ^\ unitAtern fpiritus nee conjunclionem pacts ebfer- 
vat^&fc ab Ecclefi& vinculo, atq; d Sacerdstum collegio fepa» 
rat, Epifcopi ntc poteftAtem poteft habere, nee bonorem, qni Epif- 
copatns nee unit AX em volutt tenere, necpAcem. Cjprian Epift.52. 

Se&. 57. Prsp. 5. Solemn Inveftiture is the iaft part of Ordi- 
nation, by which the man that by confent of the people and 
himfelf, and by the Paftors Approbation , had received from 
Chrift a Right to the Power and Honour, and Priviledges , and 
an Obligation to the Duties of the Officers folemnly introduced 
and put in Poffeffionof the place. 

Sed. 58. Though in fome cafes a man may exercife the Mi- 
niftry upon the forefard Approbation and Election ( which are 
moft neceffary ) without this fojemn inveftiture,yet is it ordina- 
rily a duty, and not to be neglc&ed : And the people fhould re - 
quire the performance of it : I need not Hand upon the Proof: 
for it is proved before by what was faid for Approbation, feeing 
they have ever gone together. Though fundamentally he be a 
Chriftian that hath entered Covenant with Chrift ; yet befoi e the 
Church he is Vilibly no Chriftian that hath not been Baptized, or 
at leaft made open Profeffion of that Covenant. Though fun- 
dAmentall) they are Husband and Wife that are contracted, or 
knii; together by private Confent ; yet in forvCivili, in Law 



r «nA Kefore men tbcv mud be folcmnly married, or die they 
S^SS. And fhouldany fantaftical perfonsfeek Jo 
ca tbvlhis publ.ck inveftiture or folemn Marnage, as unneceC 
1 1 h would but let in common Whoredoms: The folcmmty 
ir nubSonin Inch Gafes is of great Neceffity. And in ranch 
Tr S to the ereater obligation of Paftor and people to be 
S2£ W°£ fogecher: a/d to have folemn Prayer for Gods 

^55taS£ted only to theMiniaryn 

Sfi^SffiSc^Slteft way by far that 

■ ^ Ordamedinthe face ofthe Church that the peop^ and 
Sey may be mutually engaged,^. Though yet th.s be notab- 

th?we& point, concluding with thefetwo rcquefts to my 
Bthen that (hall perufe it: i. That before they let out these 
d.foeafute againft me for contradiftmg any of ^ «*>«*?• 
Z would humbly, impartially , and w.th modeftef-fufp,- 
nn wh ftudy and pray over what they read, and not temera- 
r'iouhy ruffo the battell as pre-engaged men. 2. That they 
will alway keep the faith and charity, and felf-denyal and tender- 
S of Chriftians upon their hearts, and the great Ends and In- 
"tft of Chrift and Chriftianity before their eyes ; and take heed 
howtnvv^ ^^ure upon any controverted points or praa,ce,« a 
v^n tnit certainl? contradideth the Spirit ofChr>ftia»uj,md 

■ ^l^Xfthe Churches Unify, Peace and Holinefs, ^.1 
1 , <1 true means are appointed, and muftbeufedtoatta.n. 
t^lreZo^^ealrZujattMUtus w+b tb. £m 
Ifr 7JSd th* f«™ »«**'• Phil. 3.16. XmmMnstbMfn 
XirlZLhJ encumkon tvfrt, nor HnircwctfionM 
Chrtjtfeius Adll „. alwa ik According to this R»k,Pe*cs 

The Third 



Such forts of Eptfcopacy,or 

Difparity in Exercife of the Mi- 
niftry, as is Defirable or Con- 
ducible to the Peace and Refor- 
mation of the Churches. 

By Richard ^Baxter; 


A A ^ A 2y & 


Printed by Robert White, for Nevil Simmons ;, Book- 
feller ia Kederminfter, Anm J)$m. i6j8. 




Epif copacy Defirable for the 

Reformation, Prefervation, and 
Peace of the Churches. 


Of (general unfixed TS'ifhop or <£S/Linl 
fters. • 

T is but delufory dealing of them that 
make the world believe that the quelli- 
on between the Prelatical Divines and 
the reft of the Reformed Churches, is, 
Whether the C^ Hrc ^> fiould be Govtrn- 
ed bj Bifbops f This is a thing that is 
commonly granted : But the contro- 
verfie is about the Sftcitt of Epifcefaey: Not whether Bifcopt, 

N n 2 but 


but what fort of Biftiops fhould be the ordinary Governours of 
the Church of Chriftr* 

§.2, And therefore it is alfo very immethodical and unfatis* 
fa&ory of ©oft that ever I read for Epifcopacy,that plead only 
for Epifcopacj in General, but never once define that fort of Epif- 
copacy which they plead for , but go away with ices fmoothly 
when the queftior? is unftated, as if they underftood themfelves, 
and others were capable of underftanding them-, and fo they 
lofe their Learned labours. 

§.3 .1 have already in the firft Difputation told you among ten 
feveral forts of Epifcopacy, which they be that I think defirable, 
and which I judge tolerable, aad which intolerable. And I have 
there already given you the Reafons why I judge fuch a general 
unfixed Bifhop to be of ftanding ufe to the Church and world,as 
here we are fpeaking of : and therefore I fhall forbear here 
the repeating of what is (aid already. 

§, 4. That the world and Church fhould ftill have fuch a 
General Itinerant unfixed Mini firj, as that was of the Apoftles, 
Evangelift s and others, having there already proved, I have 
nothing to do more but to (hew the ufe of it, and to anfwer the 
obje&ions that fome very learned Reverend Divines have ufed 
againft it. 

§.5. The principal ufe of a general Miniftry,is for the convert- 
ing of the unconverted world, and Baptizing them whencon- 
verted,and Congregating their Converts into Church order,and 
fetling them under a fixed Government. And the next ufe of 
them is, to have a Care,according to the extent of their capacity 
and opporunities,of the Churches which they have thus Congre- 
gated and fetled, and which arefetledby other Miniflers. 

§.6 . Let it be remembred that we are not now difputing of the 
Jfawe , but of the Thing : It is not whether fuch an Officer of 
Chrift be to be called an Apoftle or an Evangelifi^ or a Prophet , 
or a Bifiop i or a Presbyter: But whether unfixed general Mi- 
nifters , to gather Churches and fettle them, and take the care of 
raany,without a fpecialPaftoral charge or any one above the reft, 
were appointed by Chrift for continuance in his Church : This 
is it that I affirm ,and have already proved. 

$. 7. Nor yet is it any of our Quedion, Whether the difference 
between thefe general unfixed Minifltrs and ordinary fixed Pres- 


byters , be in point of Authority or of exercife only. Whether 
they aretwodiltind Species of the Miniftry, or but one of the 
fame Office in Specie, varioufly exercifed : 1 have given in my 
thoughts of this before, fo far as I can yet reach : Butifit be 
granted that fome (hould ordinarily exercife their office generally 
and ambulatorily over many Churches,as others ordinarily muft 
exercife it fixedly in one particular Church, Khali not contend 
whether they are to be called One Office or two : nor yet whe- 
ther the fixed Miniltcr may not extraordinarily upon a fpc- 
cial reafon , do the fame work as the. itinerant Minifter in 
the fame way. But Minifters there muft be for both thefe 

J. 8. And that fome (hould make the general work before 
mentioned their ordinary bufinefs, and not take the paftoral 
Charge of any particular Church, I conceive (bcHdes the for- 
mer proofsjis further raanifeft,! .In that the work of Con verting 
Unbelievers, and bringing them intoafitnefs for Church Com- 
munion, is the work that is to go firft, and is the greateft work: 
Its the greateft in weight( praecifively confidered,and as to the 
terminus a faoof the change that it effe&s:) and it is the greateft 
in regard of oppofing difficulties: the winning of a foul, which 
rejoyceth Angels, and rejoyceth Jefus Chrift himfeif, will have 
fo much of Satans malice to oppofe it , and hath fo much 
refiftance in the heart of the (inner, that it requireth the whole 
work ( in ordinary ) of thofe Minifters that arc fpecially called 

$.9. And 2. Withall it commonly falls out, that there are 
for greater numbers to be converted, then K> be Governed after 
Converfion : If it be not fo in fome Countries ( where the 
face of God hath fhined moft efTe&ually ) yet in others, and 
in moft it is .- even in the far greateft part of the world. O how 
many millions of fouls are there that perifh for lack of know- 
ledge , and know not for want of teaching ; and never heard 
of Jefus Chrift in any likely manner to prevail , in afl their 
lives } Surely fuch multitudes of Miferable fouls, yea Nations, 
require Minifters wholly fet upon this work. 

§. 10. And 3. It ordinarily falls out too,that the unconverted 
unbelieving part'of the world do live at a great diftance from 
the Churches of Chrift : and therefore the fame man that is 

N n 3 Pallor 


Paftor of a Charch hath not opportunity to fpeak to them; 
Or if they live in the fame Country, they feldom meet in greateft 
numbers m the fame Affemblies •* And therefore when the Pa- 
llor is upon his own work, it isrequifite that there be fome to 
fpeik to the reft. 

§. 1 1 . And yet I doubt not but as there are hypocrites in moft 
Churches, and among us many that by their ignorance, or impi- 
ety we have c&ufe to judgetobeyetnoChriftians, are our Or- 
dinary hearers, fo the Pallors of the Cb arches may and muft en- 
deavour their conversion , and much fuit their preaching to the 
condition of fuch fouls. But yet thofe millions that in other parts 
of the world ( and perhaps in Ireland, wales and the Highlands 
of Scotland, too many fuch may be found ) that neither knQw 
whatChriftianity is, nor are the Ordinary hearers of a fixed Mi- 
niftry , and live not within the reach of fuch , fhould have 
a Converting Itinerant Miniftry for thcmlelves, 

$. 12. Moreover, 4. The Paftoral work is ic fci f fo great.and 
the charge that we take of particular Churches, and our obliga- 
tion to them fo drift , thac it will ufaally ic felf take up the 
whole man, and will not allow a Paftor time for the other work 
on thofe at a diftance yet uncalled, without neglecting the fouls 
that he hath undertaken to overfce. 

$. 13 . And 5. "For want of fuch geaeral Miniflers, the ftate 
of perfons is in fome places confounded, and the world and the 
Church are thruft together , as if there were no difference to be 
made. Becaufe there are no Minifters known but Paftors, there- 
fore there are no People known but as Chriftians, where yet the 
very knowledge of Chriftianity is too rare. Whereas if (where 
numbers and diftance make it neceffary ) the preparing Miniftry 
had fir ft done their part, it would have prevented much dange- 
rous confufion, and felf-deceit that followeth hereupon in many 

$, 14. And 6. By the miftaken fuppofition, that fuch gene- 
ral I or unfixed Minilters are ceafed, men have been drawn to kt 
Lay-men upon the greateft and noblelt work of the Miniftry: 
and a conceit is hefice rifen among fome , that becaufe this is 
not proper to the Pallors of aChurch,thereforei?isnot a Mi- 
ni fterial work, but the work of gifted Brethren: And here- 
upon uncalled men are tempted toexercifc it : and by laying 



afide the officers appointed hereunto by Chrift, the burden is caft 
on the weakeft men. 

§. 15. Yea 7. By this means many Minifters rhemfelves 
underftanding not the Nature and extent of their own Office, 
when they do but preach to any that are not of the Church thac 
they have charge of, imagine thac they preach but as meer Lay- 
men J and if they preach for the Converfion of unbelievers,they 
profefsit to be no aft of their office: which is an ad that hath 
more inconveniences then I (hall nowexprefs. 

§. 16. And 8. Which is worft of all, by fuppofing that no 
Minifters are now to be appointed for the Converfion of Infi- 
dels, and gathering and planting Churches, it is come topafs 
thac the moft neceflary work in all the world is neglcded,caft 
off, and almoft quite unknown in the world: except Mr. Eli- 
ot s and a few with him in Neft England^ and fome of che Jefu- 
ites and Fryars in the Eaft-lndies and America, who have 
been fent , or have adventured them felves for the Converting 
of the Nations. Were it but known and confidercd, how much 
of the Will of Jefus Chrift is to be fulfilled by this moft bleffed 
work, Princes would have ft udied it, and contributed their a f- 
fiftance ; and many would have been ready to have offered them^ 
felves to God for the work, when now it is looked on as no part 
of our duty, not only becaufe that fluggifhnefsandcowardize 
calleth it impofiible, and the adventure unreafonable ; butalfo 
becaufe we think it was a work that was proper to Apoftles 
and E^ngelifts •, and Minifters are now tyed to their proper 
flock. "And thus the poor unbelieving world is left in their 

$. 17. And 9.I doubt by this miftakeand negle& we for- 
feit the benefit of thac fpecial promife, in too great a meafure, 
Mat. 28.20. and mifs ofthat eminent affiftance and prefence 
of Chrift with our Miniftry, that otherwife we might expect . 
If we did go into the world, and preach the Gofpel to the Na- 
tions(havingufedourinduftry firft to learn their languages, ) 
we might exped: that Chrift would alwayes be with us to the 
end of the world > in a way of afliftance and owning of our 
Labours, anfwerable to our engagements for hira, and fervice 
to him. Were we decplier. engaged for Chrift, and did with 
Feter caft our felves into the Sea, or walk on the Waters at bis 



Call, wefhouldfindChrifta&ingasif he were anfwerably en- 
gaged for our indemnity, or at leaft for our eminent encourage- 
ment and reward. If ever we might exped Miracles again, it 
would be upon our engagement in the anticnt work ; though I 
know that even for this they arc now no more neceffary , nor I 
think, promifecl. 

$. 18. And 10. We do hereby feem to accufe Chrift un juftly 
of Mutability, fuppoftng that he had fetled one fort of Miniftry 
and Government in his Church for one Age only,and then chang- 
ed it for another, that is ever afcer to continue alone. I know 
the extraordinary work of that age ( to plant Churches by rcw 
dodrine and Miracles, and reveal the new Articles of Faith and 
Practice in Scripture to the world ) did require fuch enable- 
ments thereto, which ordinary works do not require : and there- 
fore the Apoftles, as immediatly fent, and as inditing Scriptures, 
and working Miracles, and Prophetically bringing new Reve- 
lations ? havenoSuccefTors. But the Apoftles as preaching to the 
Nations,and as planting Churches, and as fetling them,and taking 
care of their profperity after they had planted them, and asex- 
ercifing their Miniftry itinerantly,as not fixed to a fpecial charge, 
thus they have SuccefTors, the work being ordinary , and fuch as 
fhould be done now as well as then • and muft continue while 
thenecefilty of it doth continue. 

{. 19. There needeth no other proof of this, then by ob- 
serving that it was not Apoftles only, but all the Miniftry at firft, 
that was thus unfixed and itinerant ; and that the Apples af- 
fumed fuch to their affiftance,and employed them all their dayes 
in this work. 

$. 20. The feventy Difciplcs as well as the Apoftles 
were at firft by Chrift fent forth in this Itinerant way, for 
theConverfionof the inhabitants of f#d<ea. And thus John the 
Baptift had preached before them. And after Chrilts Refur- 
redionand Afcenfion, it was not only the Apoftles, but \i was 
they that were fcattered abroad, that went everywhere preach- 
ing the Word, A8.S.4. And who were thefe ? £ A#.8.i. Thty 
were all fcattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea and Sc- 
maria,f *?*;>* the Apoftles, J And the Evangelifts of thofe times 
areconfeffed to have exerctfed this Itinerant Miniftry :fo did 
s £arnabaj y Silas ', Mark* EfAphrodltHs y Tj/chicm , Trophimm^ 


Timothy y Titns, Luke, and others ordinarily. It was the firft and 
moft ordinary way then of exercifing the Miniftry. 

(. 21. And if we lived our felves in Heathen or Infidel 
Countreys, we fhould be foon taught by experience, that this 
muft be ftill an ordinary work. For what elfe is to be done till 
perfons be converted and brought into the Church > They muft 
be made DiTciples before they can he ufed as Difciples , and 
caught to obfervc all things that Chrift hath commanded. 

§. 22. But againft this it is objected, i. That the Apoftles 
were extraordinary Officers, and therefore have no Sftcccjfors. To 
which I anfwer, i. That I have before fliewed in what they 
were extraordinary, and in what not : in what they have no Suc- 
ceffors, and in what they have. As Apoftles fent immediatly by 
Chrift to Reveal a new do&rine, and confirm it by Miracles,thcy 
have no Succeffors : but as general Minifters of Chrift to convert 
fouls, plant Churches, and take a care of many, they have Suc- 
ceffors ; call them by what name youpleafe. 2. And whatif 
the Apoftles have no Succeffors? Had the feventy Difciples 
none ? Had A polls, Tit as, Timothy , Silas, Barnabas , &c. none ? 
Had all the Itinerant converting Miniftersof thofe times none , 
that were not affixed as Paftors to a particular Church } 

§.23. Obj. 2. But at haft in the extent of their charge the 
Apoftles were extraordinary y in that they were to preach the Go/pel 
to all Nations, I anfwer- in point of cxercife, being furniflied 
with tongues and Miracles for the work, they were obliged to 
go furthe-r,or to more Nations then moft particular Minifters arc 
now obliged to go : but that is not becaufe we wane Authority, 
if we had ability and opportunity, but becaufe we want ability 
and opportunity to exercife our Office- The Apoftles were not 
bound to go into every Nation of the world, inclusively-, but 
to avoid none, but go to all, that is, to as many as they could. 
Otherwife they had finned in not going to Mexico, Pern, Bra- 
file, the Philippine or Molucco Iflands, to fapon, China, &c. 
And it is our duty to extend our Miniftry for the Converfion of 
as many as we have Ability and opportunity to do. That which 
was common to the planting and watering Miniftry in the Apo- 
ftles dayes, was not proper to the Apoftles : but to go up and 
<iown the world to Convert, and Baptize, and plant, and water 

O Churche? , 


C hiirches was then common to fach ( as Apollo y $ilas y &c. ) 
therefore, &c. 

§. 24. Obj. 3. But ( fay others) the A; (files were not At 
lafi fuch unfixed Minijlers asytu imagine, but fixed Diocefan Bi- 
Jb&jts. Peter was Bijhop of Amioch fir fi, and of Rome After : 

Paul rv^s Bijbvp &f Rome : James of Jerufalem, &c Anf. 

That any Apoftle wa> a fixed Bifhop, taking on him durante vi- 
tA the fpecial Paftoral charge of one particular Church or Dio* 
cefs, as his peculiar, is 1. Barely affirmed, and therefore not to 
be believed. 2. And is contrary both to the tenor of their Corn- 
mi flion , and the Hi^ory of their Mimftratrons. And 3. Is 
alio contrary to Charity it feif, and therefore is not worthy of 
any credit. The Apoftles were not fo lazy or uncharitable, as to 
affix themfelves to ParifhesorDiocefles, and leave the Nations 
of the world in their unbelief; and to ceafethe work that they 
wee firlt fent our upon, before the neceility of it ceafed. Peter 
and Paul were Bifhops of Rome , as they were of oiher Church- 
es which they planted and watered, and no more : even as Paul 
wasBiihopof E p hefus y Philip pi r Corinth, &c. And fames was 
either no Bifhop of ferufalem, or no Apoftle ( but as many 
think, another J Ames. ) Indeed pro tempore not only an Apoftle, 
but other Itinerant Minifters were Biftiops of the places where 
they came ; that is, were Officers of Chrift, that might exercife 
any ad of their Office ("Teaching, Governing, adminiftring 
Sacraments,^.) to any people that gave them a Call, or fo 
far as opportunity and need required. And fo I doubt not but 
every Minifter now may do in any Church on earth. If he be 
invited to ftay a day, or week, or month among them, and do the 
work of aMinifter, yea or if he be invited but to preach a Ser- 
mon to them, he may do it, not as a private man, but as a Mini- 
fter in general , and as their Teacher or Paftor pro tempore, & ad 
hoc, that give him the invitation. Por though the firrt Call to 
the Miniftry , feparating us to the Gofpel of God, do give us our 
Authority in general to perform any Mimfterial ad ■ yet I have 
before (hewed that a further Call is neeedfull for the particular 
exercife of this power .- and this is ufually by the people : who 
may fometime call a man to be their ftated Paftor, and ibmetime 
but to exercife fome one Paftoral ad, or elfe to exercife all but pro 
zt&por*, as there is need, 

§. 25. And by this means it came to pafs that the line of Sue- 
cefsion in mamy Churches is drawn down from the Apoftles, by 
EtifekittS) Hierom, and o<:her antient writers. Not becaufe the 
Ape e the ftated Ixed Bifhops of thofe Churches, as the 

Sfccccflfors were , but beciufe they firft planted and Governed 
them, and were their Bifhops pro tempore till they had fe;lecrBi- 
fh jps over them ; and then went and did the like by other places .• 
fo that one Apoftte. or Evangelift, or unfixed Minifler, might be 
the root of Succefsion to many Churches, even as many as they 
firft planted . but their SuccefTors had but one Church. 

$. 26 Object. 4. But ft hat ufe is there among us for fuch 
Minifler s as thefe, when all the Nations are Convirtedfrom Infide- 
lity already? Anfvt. 1. If there were no ufe of fuch with u§, 
we muft not forget the lamentable necefsity of them abroad in 
the world. 2. As I before faid, experience of the ignorance and 
unbelief of many about us in thebeft Parifhes, dothcaufe me 
eafily to believe that in Ireland, and part of 'Scotland , and Waits, 
and other places where fetled Minifters are few, fuch an Itinerant 
Miniftryisof neceffary ufe among us. 3. But yet where there 
arc fetled Teachers enough, they may be fpared : for if we had 
Parifhes thac had not the knowledge of thrift, is is a greater 
work of mercy to fuch a Parifh, to fettle a converting Teacher 
among them to fit them for a Church-ftate, thatfo they may 
have frequent Teaching, then to fend them but now and then a 
Sermon. But where Minifters are not fo plentifuLit were a g'eac 
fin for an able man to confine himfelf to one Town or Parifh, 
and negled the Countrey round about. 4 And alfo there is ufe 
for Itinerants to water and take care of the Churches which are 
planted , as the A poftles and others formerly did. 

$. 27. Concerning thefe unfixed Minifters, I add thefe fol- 
lowing Proportions, i. That fuch Minifters may not deprive 
the fixed Faftors of any of their Power : they may not difable 
them from Governing their own Churches as fully as if there 
were no Itinerant Minifters. If they are admitted pro tempore to 
aftift the Churches where they come, that will not enable them 
to hinder them, or aflume a Lordihip or a Rule over the Paftors 
of the Churches. 

§. 28. 2. Tbefe Itinerant unfixed Minifters, arc n^ot fo ob- 
liged to perpetual motion, but that they may rcfidc for a confi- 

O 2 dcrabte 

(2g + ) 

d-crable time in a place, cither for the following on the work of 
Convcrfion, where they finds plenteous harveff, or for fetling 
Churches > or furprefsing herefies or diibrders, or becaufe of 
their own durability to travail. And thus Taulfaid at and about 
Efhefus in Afa three yean, -45.20. 31. Their (lay muft be 
prodemially apportioned to their work and opportunities. 
• £• 29. 3- No Itinerant Minifter can ( of himfelf ) exclude 
another from his Province, and appropriate it to himfelf,ar.d fay, 
Here J will work, alone , or here 1 have greater Authority then jou 1 
nay it was ufual for ttefe Minifter s to go by companies, or more 
then one fas Paul and Barnabas, Paul and Silts, PattUnd 
Timothy, Titus, dec. ) fo that it was no mans Province or Dio- 
cefs where they came. For they that Convert Souls to Chrift 
and not to themfelves, and Baptize into his name and not in their 
own, do know the greatnefs of the work and burdcn,and there- 
fore are glad of all the afsiflar.ee they can get : when thofe that 
do nothing, are the men that thruft others out of the Vineyard, 
and fay, This is my <Diocefs or Province -, y§u have nothing to do 
to labour here. J 

§. 30. 4. Yet may there lawfully and fitly be a Prudential 
diftribution or divifion of their Provinces among fuch unfixed 
Converting Minifters : for to be ?.il together and go one way, 
rauft needs be a negle&ing of moft of the world, and fo not a 
wife or faithful performance of the work of Chrift. And there- 
fore foraefhou Id go one way, and fome another, as may mott 
promote the work. 

^.31. And ordinarily it is moft convenient, that there go 
more then one to the fame people , ("and therefore they will not 
be like a fixed Diocefan biilop) for they have many wayes 
need of mutual ailiftancc : one would be opprtffed with fo great 
a work, and have many difad vantages in the performances. Paul 
afcdnot to go alone. 

§. 32. The pe/fons to be exercifed in this ambulatory Mini- 
flration, may be determined of, and their Provinces diftributcd 
any of thefe three wayci, or all together. 1. By the Judgement 
and Confent of Paftors.. ii n.any fhalichoofeoutone, or two 5 
or more, as fit for fuch a work, the perfons ehofen have reafon to 
obev, uqlefs they can prove, or. know the Paftors to be miftaken, 
and sp have been mifguided in their choice. The Prophets and 

*" Teachers 



Teachers of the Church at Antioch muR. fend or feparate Saul 
and Barnabas, for the fpecial work in which the Holy Ghoft 
would imploy them, vtffl.i 3.i,2.whichfeemstome, to be but 
afecondaryCall to fome fpecial exercife of their former Office, 
one way rather then another. Thus alfo by mutual agreement 
their Provinces may be allotted and divided. 

§. 33. 2. By the Magistrates appointment and command 
alfo, may this be done. Though he make not Mmifters, yet 
may hedomuchin adigning them their Provinces, Seats, and 
Stations : and it is our duty to obey his Commands in fuch cafes 
if they be not plainly deftru&ive to the Church : much more if 
they are beneficial to it. 

§. 34. 3. Alfo by aMiniftersowndifcernirg of a fit oppor- 
tunity to do good, either by the Magiftrates bare perm /Hon, the 
peoples invitation , or their wiliingnefs, or not oppofing -, or 
though they do oppofe, yet fome other advantages for the work 
may be difcerned, or Hopes at leaft. Now though the Call of 
Ordination mull be from the Pallors of the Church 1 , znd neither 
Magiftrates nor people can make us Minifters, yet the Call of 
Opportunity may be from the people aud Magiftrate, more com- 
monly then any. And he that is already a Minifter, needs noc 
alwayes another Call for the exerciiing of his Miniftry, fave 
only this Call by Opportunity. He had his Authority by that 
Call that placed him in the Office ^ which was done at firft, t.nd 
muft bedonebutorce. But he hath his Opportunity and fiat ion 
for the exercife of that Authority by the people and Magiftrates,. . 
and perhaps may receive it over and over many times. 

§• 35» 5^ This way of exercifing the Miniftry is not alike 
necefiary in all times and places; but with great variety ^ it is 
exceeding neceflary in fome Countreys, andnot in others, but 
ufeful in fome degree in moft as I conceive. 

$. 36. If the Qieftion be, .whether fuch a Miniftry beufeful 
in thefe Dominions, or not ? I have anfwered before, that in 
fome darker and neceftkous parts, where ignorance doth reign, 
andMinifters ( or abk ones at leaft ) Are fbrce^ there fuch an - 
exercife of the Miniftry is necefTary : but in other- parts it- is noc 
of fuch necefsity : yet much work there may be for iuch, or for 
thofe in the next Chapter mentioned, in mod Countreys .« of 
:bem therefore i (hall next fpeak* 

O.o $\ CHAR' 

CHAP. II- ♦ 

Of fixed Taftors that alfo participate in 
tbework^ of the unfixed. 

§. i. ;^|pp2§SfeT * 5 not on ^ c ^ e m fi xe A Minifters that may 
lawfully do the fore-defcribed work, but the 
fixed Paftors of particular Churches may 
take their part of it •, and ordinarily fhould 
do fomewhat toward it ; though not fo much 
as they that are wholly in it. ' 
§. 2. I fliall here (bew you, i. What fuch may do. 2. On 
what terms. 3. And then I fhail prove it. And 1. They may 
as Minifters of Chrift, go abroad to preach where there are ma- 
ny ignorant or ungodly people in order to their Coaverfion. 
2. They may help to Congregate Believers into holy Societies, 
where it is not already done. 3. They may Ordain them Elders 
in fuch Churches as they Congregate. 4. They may oft enquire 
after the welfare of the Neighbour Churches , and go among 
them, and vifit them, and ftrengthen them, and admonifh the 
Pallors to do their duties. 5. They may inftrud and teach the 
Paftors in publike exercifes. 6. They may exercifc any ads of 
Worfhip or Difcipline upon the people of any particular Church, 
which giveth them a due invitation thereto. 7. They may pub- 
likely declare that they will avoid Communion with an impious 
or heretical Church or Paftor. 

§. 3. But 2. As to the mede or terras, it fhould be thus 
performed. 1. No Paftor of a fingle Church muft leave his 
flock a day or hour without fuch ncceffary bufinefs as may prove 
his Call to do fo. We muft not feign a Call when we have none ; 


C*8 7 > 

or pretend necefsities. He that knows his obligations to his par- 
ticular charge, and the work that is there to be done, methinks 
fhould not dare to be flepping afide, unlefs he be fare it is to a 
greater work. 

§. 4. And 2. No Paftor 0/ a Church Should be bufie to play 
theBifhopin another mans Diocefs, nor fufped or difparage 
the parts or labours of the proper Paftor of that Church, till 
the fufTerings or dangers of the Church do evidently warrant 
him, and call him to afiift them. 

$. 5. 3. No Minifter of Chrift ftioiild be fo proud as to 
overvaiueiiis own parts, and thereupon obtrude himfelf where 
there is no need of him ( though there might be need ofpthers) 
upon a conceit that he is fitter then other men to afford aTsiftance 
to his Brethren. When the cafe is really fo, he may judge it fo: 
efpecially when his Colleagues or fellow Miniftcrs judge fo too, 
and deilrehim to the work: but Pride muft not fend out Mini- 

J. 6. 4. A Minifter that hath divers fellow Presbyters at home, 
to teach and guide that Church in his abfence,may better go out 
on afsifting works then other men. And fo may he that hath 
help that while from Neighbour Presbyters, or that hath fuch 
a charge as may bear his abfence for that time, without any 
great or confiderablelofs. 

§. 7. 5. And a man that is commanded out by the Magi- 
strate, who may make him a Vifiter of the Churches near him, 
may lawfully obey • when it would not have been fit to have 
done it without fuch a command, or fome equivalent motive. 

§. 8. 6. A macufiat is earneftly invited by Neighbour-Mini- 
fters or Churches, that call out to him, Come and htty hs^ may 
have comfort in his undertaking^ he fee a probability of doing 
greater good then if hedenyedthem, and if they give hirafa- 
tisfadory reafons of their Call. 

§. 9 7. Men of extraordinary abilities, (hould make them 
as communicative and ufeful to alias pofsibly they can : and 
may not fo ealily keep their retirements , as the Weak may 

§. 10. 8. Andlaftly, No man fhould upon any of thefc pre- 
tences ufurp a Lordihip over his Brethren, nor take on him to 
be the ftatcd Paftor of Paftors, or of many Churches as his f pe- 

• (2.88) 

cial Charge. It is one thing to do the common work of Mini- 
Iters abroad, by feeking mens Conversion, and the planting of 
Churches, or elfe to afford afsiftance to many Churches for their 
prefervation, eftablifhraent or increafe : and its another thing to 
cake charge of thefe Paftors and Churches, as the proper Bifhop 
orOverfeerof them. The former may be done; but I know no 
warrant for the later. 

§. 11. That fixed Minifters may do all thefe forementioned 
works, with the aforefaid Cautions, I (hall briefly prove, i . By 
fome general Reafons, fpeakingto the whole ^ and 2. By go- 
ing over the particulars diftinftly, and giving fome reafon for 

$. 12. And i. It is certain that a Miniftcr doth not ceafe to 
be a Miniftcr in general, nor to be an Officer authorized to feek 
the Difcrplingof them without, and Congregating them, by his 
becoming the Paftor of a particular Church : therefore he may 
(till do the common works of the Miniltry where he hath a Call, 
as well as his Paitoral fpecial work to them that he hath taken 
fpecial care of. As the Phyfitian of an Hofpital or City may 
take care alfo of other perfons, and cure them, fo he neglcft not 
his charge. 

J. 13. 2. AMinifterdothnotlayby his Relation or Obli- 
gations to the unconverted world, nor to the Catholike Church, 
when he affixeth himfelf to a fpecial charge. And therefore he 
may do the work of his Relations and Obligations, as aforefaid. 
Yea thofe works in fome refpeds fhould be preferred^ becaufe 
there is more of Chrifts intereft in the Univerfal Church, or in 
many Churches then in one ; and that work in\vhich the raoft of 
our ultimate End is attained, is the greateft work : that in which 
God is mod honoured,the Church moft edified,and moft honour 
and advantage brought to the Gofpel and caufe of Chrift,(hould 
be preferred : But ordinarily thefe arc more promoted by the 
Communication of our help to many ( as aforefaid ) then by 
confining it to one particular Church. Thecommoneft good is 

5. 14. 3. Ofc-times the Ncceffity of fuch Communicative 
labours is fo apparently great, that it would be unmcrcifulnefs 
to the Churches or fouls of men to neglect them. As in cafe of 
Reforming and felling Churches ( upon which Luther , Me* 


lanchthon^Chjtr&us^Bugenhagitts, Vomer -anus ^Calvin, and others 
were fo oft imployed. ) As alio in cafe of refiltirg fome defini- 
tive hercfie? : In whxh cafe one able Difpucant and prudent 
adviier, and perion that hath intereft in the people, may -do 
good to thoufands , even to many Countries, and more then 
multitude* of others could do. And God doth not fet up fuch 
lights to put under abufhell, nor warrant any man to hide his 
talents-, nor doth he beftow extraordinary gifts for ordinary 
feviceonly, but would have them ufed to the utmoft advantage 
of his caule, and for the greatcft good of fouls. 

$.15. 4 And it is not the taking up of another calling or 
Species of Miniilcrial Office ; For the Miniftry is one office (di* 
ftind from that inferiour fort of Miniftry of DeaconsJ and con- 
tained the power and obligation of doing all this, when wc 
have particular Cals : It is but the exercile of the fame orfice 
which we had before.- We do but layout our (elves more in 
fame pirts or acts of that office, then more retired Paftors do. 
§. i/5. And 5.1* belonged] to the Magiftratcs to take care of 
the Church and the right excrcie of the gifts of their fubje& 
Miniiters • and the/eforeiffhey command one man mort labour 
then another ,evcn the Planting,or Vifiting of Churches, it is our 
Duty to obey them. 

$. 17. More particu'arly : i.That a fixed Pr ft or may p" each 
abroad am^ng the unconverted . I hope none will deny. It was 
the ancient cuftom of the fixed B<(hops,b.fides the feeding of 
their flocks, to labour the ^onrerfion of a 1 the Countries about 
them tha: were unconverted : The example of Gregory of Neo- 
cefarea mayfuffice, who found but feventeenChriitians in the 
City, but converted not only all that City ( except feventcenj 
but alfo raoft of the Countries about , and planted Churchy 
and ordained them Bifhops. And fo have abundance others 
done, to the increafe of the Church. 

§ . 1 8 . And 2. That fixed Bifhops may congregate new Churches 
where there are none^ of fuch as they or others do convert, is in 
the forefiid conftanc pradicc of the Paftors of the ancient Chur- 
ches, putpaft doubt. But fo, asthatthey ought not to' Con* 
g^egatethofe Churches to themfelves, and make themfclves the 
Bifhops or Archbifhops of them, when they have a fpecial charge 
already, but only fettle them under Bifhops of their own: And 

P p this 


this is but by dire&ing them in their duties , and trying the 
perfon, and invcfting him that is to be their Paftor. Whether one 
or more rouft do this work, 1 have fpoken already in the former 

§. 19. 3. And that fuch as thus convert a people, or Con- 
gregate them, may ( according to the fore- mentioned Rules ) 
Ordain them "Paftor s, bj the peeples fftjfrages or Confent, is ai- 
fo fufficiently proved in that foregoing difputatiomand therefore 
may beheiepaft by. 

§. 20. 4. And that fuch may t*ke care of all the Churches 
mthin their reach », fo far as to do them what good they can y is 
plain in theLiW of Nature thatrequireth it; and in the general 
commands of the Gofpel feconding the Law of Nature; while 
we have time we muft do good to all men ; Efpecially to the 
houfholdof faith. And its plain in the Nature of the Catholick 
Church and of its members, and in the nature of the work of 
Grace upon the foul. We are taught of God to love one ano- 
ther : and the End of the Catholick Society is, (as of all Socre. 
ticsj the common good, and the Glory of God : and the Nature 
o( true members is to have the lame tare one for another , that fo 
there may be no fchifm in the body , and that they all furTer and 
rejoice with one another, in their hurts, and in their welfare, 
i f Cer. 12.25, 26. It is therefore Iawfull for Pallors to improve 
their talents upon thefe common grounds. 

$.21. 5. That fuchfett'ed P afters may Teach or Preach to one 
another, is a thing not doubted ofaraongus.For wccommonJy 
practice it at; Lc&ures and other meetings of Minifters , as. 
formerly was ufual at visitations, and Convocations. And if 
it be lawful to teach Minifters, then alfo to do thofc leffer things 
before and after mentioned. Yet do we not preach to one ano- 
ther as Rulers ov£r our Brethren, but as Minifters of Chrift, 
and Helpers of them in the work of grace. As when one Phy- 
fitian healeth another, he doth it asaPbyfitian, helping and 
a^ifinga Brother in neceflity : but when he cureth one of his 
Hofpital, he doth it as a Phyfitian performing his truft to one of 
his charge. So when a Paftor preacheth to Paftors, he doth it 
not asa private man, but as a. Paftor obliged to help his Bre- 
thren, s But when he preacheth to his People , hedptb.it as 


one that hath the charge of their fouls, and is their guide to lik 

§ . 2 2. 6 . ±And that Paftors may exercife atls of Difcipline and 
adminifler the Sacraments to other Congregations, upon a fujfici* 
ent Call, \s evident from what is faid already. If they may 
Preach to the Paftors themfelves, they may help to Rule the 
flock : For, as is faid , they ceafc not their Relation to the 
Church of Chrift in general , by being engaged to one Church 
in particular. If general Minifters, fuch as Apoftles, Evan- 
gel ifts, &c. might adminifter the Sacraments where they came 
in Churches that were not any of their fpecial charge above 
others, then may other Minifters, of Chrift do it upon a fuffici- 
ent Invitation , though the Congregation be none of their 
fpecial charge: And in fo doing, they ad not as private men, 
nor yet as the dated Paftors of that flock, but as Paftors , Afli- 
ftant to the ftated Paftors, and Ruling/?^ tempore the people 
under them in that Affifting way : Even as a Phyfitian helpeth 
another in his Hofpital, when he is defircd , and the neither 
as a Private Ordinary man , nor as Superiour to the Phy- 
fitian of the Hofpital, nor as the ftated Phyfitian of ithimfelf, 
but as the temporary affi ftant Phyfitian of it. Or as a Schoolmafter 
helpeth another in his School for a few dayes in Necefiity , as his 
temporary ajfrftant. 

$.23. 7. And upon the fame grounds it will follow that one 
Church or Paftor on juft §ccafion may avoid Communion with 
another, and declare that thejfo refolve to Ao ; and this without 
ufurping any Jurifdidtion over them, it being not the cafting 
out or Excommunicating of a member of our charge, as the 
Rulers of that Church , but the obeying of a plain command of 
the Holy Ghoft , which requireth us to Avoid fuch, and have 
no company or Communion with them , and with fueh no 
not to eat : And therefore it is a fond Argumentation of the 
Papifts , that would conclude their Pope to be Hcadand Go- 
vernour , as far as they find he ever did excommunicate. 

§.24. He that doubtethofanyofthis,muft not firft enquire, 
Whether a Miniier have fo much Power, but firft Whether he 
may be obliged to fo much work^ and fuffering as his duty. And 
then he (hall find that if there were no fpecial examples or com* 
mands, yet the general commands, which require us,to do good 

P p 2 whilr 

mbtle we have time to all, to be the fervims ofali,and feek their 
falvation, &c. do as certainly oblige us to particular duties, as if 
they were named. 

$.25. Object. That cannot be ' For, a General command of 
doing good to ally obligeth not a Mini/fer any more then another 
man\ But it obligeth not another man to Preach ^admini /'/ er Sa- 
craments, &c. therefore it obligeth not a Mimfter. Anfw. To 
the Major I anfwer , that 1. It may oblige to more , where 
it obligeth not more , as to the EflTence of the obligation. 
2. The General command obligeth feveral men to feveral a&s 
according to their feveral Abilities , opportunities and ca- 
pacities. If all be required to improve their Matters lock 
or talents, yet all arc not required to improve the fame talents, 
becaufe they have not the fame: But one hath Riches to improve, 
and the general command oblige. h him to improve chat talent; 
And another hathy?r^^,another interefl and friends , another 
w>, and another learning, and every man is bound to improve 
what he hath , and not whjt he hath not. The command of Do- 
ing good ro all doth oblige a Thjfnian tohe'p tor»r* men,and 
a LMagiftrate to benefit them by Government, and a Lawyer 
by Cotinfell for their eftarcs, and a Minifler by the works of 
a Minifter, for their falvation. Ifyou fhould fay that Q this 
General command doth bind a Magifirate, or a PhjfitUn no more 
then another man : but it bindeth not another man to do good bj 
Ruling or by Phy/icJ^, therefore neither doth it bind them) J would 
not the fallacy be obvious ? So is it here. 

$.' 26. It being proved that fuch AJfiflant Miniflerial works 
may be performed by a fixed Pafiur to thofe about him, and with- 
in his reach, it will clearly follow that convenient means may be 
ufed to bring this to performance, and help the Churches to the 
actual benefit of fuch A fiiftance. And by the three forementi- 
oned wayes it may be done. As 1. If the Pallor and People 
of any Neighbour Church, or the people alone, where there is 
no Church, do invite fuch men to come and help them. 

$; 27. And 2. The Neighbour Pallors may agree together 
for rhe perfwading of the fitted men among tbem to undertake 
fuch AfTiftances; as is ufual in thefetlingof Leclures •, and as 
in this County we have fuccefsfully for above thefe two years 
nfed the help of four Itinerant Lecturers , that have taken their 



ftveral circuits, one Lords day in four, ( which was every Lordi 
day among thera all,) to help their neighbours. 

§.28. And if the Invitation of a People, or the Agreement 
of Parlors may do this, no doubt then but the prudent Govern- 
ment of a M^giftrate may do it. And he may appoint Certain 
Paftor* their bounds and Circuits, and appoint them to afford 
convenient afiiftance to the Paftors and people within thofe 
bounds. And thus he may make thera Victors of the Chur- 
ches and Country about thewjn which vifitation, they may Teach 
and do other Minifterial offices by .Confcnt •, and may by the 
Magiftmes command, take notice whether the Churches be duly 
Conftitutcd andGoverned,and may acquaint theMagiftrate how 
things are ; and may fraternally Reprove the Negligent Pallors 
and people where they come; And a'fo may provoke them to Re- 
formation^! h of Church- conftitution and Church-adrainiftrati- 
ons; And chefe vifitors may give notice to the neighbour 
Cburches,of fuch Pallors as they find unfit for the Mmiftry, 
that by confent .they may bedifowned by the reft. 

$.29. And though one Paftor have not of himfclf ( as a Pa- 
llor ) fo much Power over any of his Brethren, as to require 
him to come to him to give him an account of his wayes , ycc 

1 . The AfTociated Paftors may defire him to appear among thera 
to give them fatisfa&ion , when there is matter of offence : ( For 
one may better travail to many, then many to one. ) And 

2. The Magiftrate may lawfully command Minifters to appear 
before fuch Paftors as he hath appointed to be Vifitorsj and 
then it w.ll be their duty in obedience to the Magiftrat.es com- 

§. 30. Yet Magiftrates mufttake heed that they put not the 
/word into the hands of Minifters, nor enable them with coer- 
civepower,by touching mens bodies or eftates: Wcdonoton* 
ly forbear to claim fuch a power, but we difclaim'xt, yeaftnd 
humbK and earneftly befeech the Princes and Senates of Chri- 
ftian Common-wealths, that they would keep the fword in their 
own hands, and not put it into the hands of any Minifters, and 
then we could better bear the claims and ufurpation;, noc only 
of Exorbitant or tranfeendent Prelates, but of the Pope hirafelf. 
Lcc them come unarmed, and hare no weapon but fpiritual,tbe 
word ofGod,and then we (hail lefs fear them. The Divifions,and 

P p 3 tyranny 

tyranny, & bloodftied through the Churches hath been by truft - 
ing coercive Magifterial power in the handsofMiniftersofthe 
Gofpel.Though I confefs I think it not a thing unlawfullin it felf 
for a Minifter to be a Magiftrate alfo, yet I think that notliing 
but neceffity can warrant it ; and fo much as hmderech him 
from the work of his calling ( which requirecha whole man ) 
without this Neceflity, is utterly unlawfuil. Were there a 
Country that had no other perfons tolerably fit, I doubt not but 
the fame man that is a Minifter or Paftor, might be a Juftice of 
Peace, Parliament man, or a Prince : But while there are others 
that are capable of bearing thefe burdens, he is not worthy to be 
a Minifter of the Gofpel, that would wifh the leaft of them upon 
his fhoulder s.Either Magiftescy or Miniftry is enough for one. 
Had the Englilh Prelates been armed with none but fpiritual 
weapons,they had never appeared fo terrible or fo odious. 

§. 31. Itfeemetha courfe that fuiteth with the ftateofthe 
prefenc Churches among us,to have in every County, three or 
four fuch able, faithfull Paftors to be by the Magiftrate made 
Vifitors of the reft , not giving them any power of medling 
with mens bodies or eftates, but joining with them a Magiftrate 
as a Juftice orComroifiioner, that one may per/wade, and the 
* TV Tefults *^' r con ft ra * n y as ^ ar as theSovcraign Power lhall think fit. This 
and Fryars do « not to Jet up any New office or the leaft part of an office in the 
nottakethe Church. As it is meerly accidental to the Being of a Phyfitian, 
Generals or whether he be tyed to a City, or to an Hofpital,or to a County, 
^•^Orderf 0r t0 n0 p * ace ' ^ ut P rac ^» ce as ne findeth opportunity j thefe be- 
to be menTf * n 8 ^ ut tne various modes of ufing the fame * Office and works ; 
anotherOr- fo may we truly fay of the Miniftry. 

der, though §, 32. Yet is there no fuch Nee ejfitjoi this appointment of 
they have a yifitors or Superintendents^ Affiitants by thcMagiftrate,or by 
ling and that ag^cment of Miniftcrs,or any fuch courfe as if the Beings* the 
Tyrannically. weHfcre of the Church were laid upon it. For without any fuch 
Ek&ions or Appointments 5 chc Graces and Gifts of tbe Spirit of 
Chrift will (hew themfelves, and be communicative for the Edi- 
fication of Cbe Churches. We fee by common experience, that 
where no one man is commanded or commended by the Magi- 
ftrate to the care of many Churches , above his brethren, yet 
fome men are as diligent and faithful! in doing good to all with- 
in their reach, as if they had been chofen and nominated to 


the work. Many able painfull Minifters of Chrift , that thirft 
for mensfalvation, do go up and down among the ignorant, or 
weak, and preach in feafon and out of feafon , notwithstanding 
the burden of their particular flocks , which they faithfully 

$ . 3 3 .And the parts and graces of thefe men do win them audi- 
ence andrefpeft where they come, without any Humane Au- 
thority to awe men. In almoft all parts of our Co un trey we 
have either fettled or movable Ledures: and when do we fee 
a thin Congregation before a lively rowfing Minifter, or any 
man of great ability in the work ? No,but we fee the Temples 
crowded ; and find that the people reverence and hearken to 
fuch men as thefe, in whom the Spirit of God appears. 

$.34. Yea and thcMinifters themfelves will conftilt with the 
Wife, and Love thejroe^and learn of thofc that are ableft to teach 
them : and imitate the ableft preachers asnecr as they can. So 
that I may truly fay, that there is a certain kind of Natural, or 
rather,fpiritual Epifcopacy everywhere excrcifed in the Church. 
A great light that burneth and fhineth above others, will draw 
the eyes of many to it : and if it be fet on a hill it will hardly be 
hid. Calvin was no Prelate ; and yet his Gifts procured him 
that Intereft, by which he prevailed more then Prelates for the 
conformity of the minds of many to his own. There is fcarce 
a Country but hath fome able judicious Minifter, who hath 
the Intereft of a Bifhop with the reft ; though he have no 
higher an office then themfelves. Gods Graces deferve and 
will procure refpe&.Evcn in Civil CouncilSjCourts^ommittees, 
we fee that fome one of leading parts, is the Head of the reft 
though their authorky be equal. 

§. 35. Andind<ed the conveniences and inconveniences are 
fuch on both fides, that it is not an eafie matter to determine, 
Whether appointed Vifttsrs *r Superintendents, be more de fir able 
then thefe Arbitrary Vifitors that have the Natural Epifcopacy 
of Intereft procured bj their meer abilities .On the one fide,if Magi- 
ftrates appoint fuch Vifitors, the people, yea and many Minifters 
will the more eafily fubmit, and hear , and obey, and more unani- 
moufly concur, then if we offer our affiftance without any fuch 
appointment : Thatsthe convenience: But thenheres thein- 
convenience.'Thc Magiftrate may choofe an unworthy man, and 



then he may be/i?4ra/,but"not honoured nor loved; but greater 
lights will be greater ftill, let the Magiftrate fet the lefler on 
never fo high a Gandleftick ; And then the Minifters and people 
will meafure their efteem of the man according to his worth, and 
that will irritate his difpleafure • For when he is lifted up he ei- 
ther looks to be valued by his Height ,and not his Light oxfVorth^ 
or elfe that his Light fhould be judged of by hi? Height. And 
as this will turn to heart-burnings and divi(ions,fo the efteeaa 
that is procured by humane Conftitution, will be more humane, 
and ordinarily lefs Divine then the calling and work of a Di- 
vine requireth. On the other fide^ if none be appointed by the 
Magiftrate, but every man go forth in the ftrength of his zeal 
and Abilities ; we are like to be caft on many difadvantages with 
carnal temporizing men,and to have lefs unity among our felves* 
But then that unity, and peace, and refped, and fuccefs that we 
have will be more voluntary and pure. 

$.36. Thcbeft way then, if we could hit it, feems to be the 
joining of both tbefe together. To have fuch Magiftrates as will 
appoint only themoft judicious,able,faithfuJ! Minifters to be Vi- 
ctors of the Churches, that (hall go forth both in the ftrength of 
the Spirit of Chrift, with eminency of gifts, andalfoin the 
ftrength of the Magiftrates Commiffion. But if this cannot be 
attained, I (hall not long for conftitu ted Vifi tors or Superinten- 
dents ; but fhall be content with th* Holy Ghofts appointment. 
§, 3 7. It is therefore the moftChriftiancourfe to lay no great- 
er ftrefs on thefe modes and forms of Miniftration then they 
Will bear ; and therefore to live obediently and peaceably under 
either of them • obeying fuch Vifitors as a^e appointed by the 
Magiftrate, and honouring the graces of the Spirit, where there 
is no fuch appointment ; and not to think the Church undone 
when our conceits about fuch tilings are croft. 




It is Lawful I for the fever al <>Jffociati- 
ens ofTaflors to choofe one man to 
be their Trefident, durante vita^ if 
he continue jit. 

5 i . . ®Sp§EP§SKSJ Come next to /beak of a third fort 

1 of Miniftry, wnich hath a greater 
refemblance to the ancient Epifco- 
pacy, then any of the reft : Yea 
indeed is the fame that wrsexercifed 
about the fecond or third Century 
afrer thrift. And that is, the fix- 
ed Presidents of the Presbyters 
of many Churches a ffociated. In the fir ft fettlernent of 
Churches, there was either Single Paftor to a fingle Church; 
or many Pallors , in equality , at leaft of Office ; And 
whether from the beginning or afterward only , one of 
them became the ftatedPrcfidcnt, is very uncertain : of which 
anon. But when the Churches encreafed in magnitude, and 
many Congregations. were gathered under one Presbyterie, 
then that Presbyterie aifohada ftated Prefident , as the Con- 
gregational Presbyteries perhaps had before. And thus be 
was an Archbifhop under the name of a Bifhop, that awhile 
before was either unknown, or eife muft needs be efteemed an 

$.2. That thefe men {hould take the P after at charge efmanj 
Churches, or that they (hould faff end the Governing Pewer of 

O q 'the 

(2 9 8) 

the Presbyters, upon pretence of a Presidency, or fuperiority, 
is I think, a matter not warrantable by the word of God. 

$. 3. But that fuch Jactations of the Paftors of many Chur- 
ches (hould ordinarily be, for the fake of Union and Communi- 
on ; as alfo that it is lawfull for thefe AfTociatied Miniflers 
to choofe one among them to be their Prefident y is granted by 

$.4. But all the qac{Hor\\s y Whther thefe T rejtdents (hould be 
enlj fro tempore, or durante v >/*,fuppofing that they forfeit not 
the truft ? I (hall not fay much of the point of convenience y but 
I affirm,that of it felf it is lawful to choofe a Prefident that (hall 
be fixed durante vita, ft turn din bene fe gefcrit. Yea it is lawfull 
now in England, as things (tand. 

$. 5. And 1. Itroay fufficefor the proofof this, that it is no- 
where forbidden in Nature or in Scripture •, dire&ly or by con- 
fequence : and, therefore it is lawfull : Where there is no law , 
there is no tranfgrcflion : They that fay that it is a thing 
forbidden, rauft prove it from fome word of God , which I 
think, they cannot do. 

$.6. 2. If it be lawfull to choofe a fixed Prefident for half 
8 year, or a year, or feven year, then is it lawfull to choofe 
and fix fuch a Prefident for life (on fuppofition (till of a continu- 
ed fitnefs ) But it is lawful to choofe fuch a one for a year, or 
feven year : therefore alfo for life. 

§. 7 The Antecedent is granted by the Presbyterian, Con- 
gregational and Eraftian party, ( which arc all that I have now 
to do with;) For all thefe consented that D. Twifs (hould be 
Prefident of the Synod at Wefiminfter, which was till bis death : 
or elfe was like to have been till the end ; Andfo another af- 
ter him. And ordinarily the Provinces and Presbyteries choofe 
a Prefident till the next AiTembly. And I remember not that 
ever I heard any man fpeak againft this courfe.. 

§. 8. And then the Confequencc is clear, from the parity of 
Reafons : For 1 . Seven years in contracts is valued equal with 
the duration of a mans life. 2. And no man can give a Rea- 
fon to prove it Lawfull to have a Prefident feven years,or a quar- 
ter of a year r that will not prove it Lawfull in it felf to have a 
Prefident during life. And Accidents muft be weighed on both 
fide*, before you can prove k tyiccidentallj evil: And if it be 


but fo, it may be one time good, if by accident it be another 
time bad. The weight/eft accident muft: preponderate. 

§. 9« 3« Order is aching lawful in Church Affembliesand 
Affairs : the dated Prefidency of one, is a ftated Order in Church 
AfTemblies .« therefore it is lawful that all things be done in Or- 
der, is commanded, i Cor. 14.40. And therefore in general Or- 
der is a duty, which is more then to be LAwful. And though 
the particttUr wajes of Order may yet be comparatively indiffe- 
rent, yet are they L*wfnl y as the Gtnus is necejfary. 

$. 10. And that this Prefidency is a point of Church Order w 
is apparent in the nature and ufe of the thng : and alfo in that it 
is commonly acknowledged a matter of Order in all other focie- 
ties or AfTemblies, though but for the low and common affairs 
of the world : in a Jury you will confefs, that Order rcquireth 
that there be a Foreman : and in a Colledgc that there be a Ma- 
tter ; and that an Hofpital, a School, and all Societies, have fo 
much Order at leaft as this, if not much more. And why is 
not that to be accounted-Ordcr in the Church, that is fo in all 
other focieties ? 

J. 11. 4. That which maketh to the Unity of the Churches 
or Paftors ( and is not forbidden by Chrtft ) is both lawful and 
deferable : But fuch is a ftated Prefidency : therefore, &c. The 
Major is grounded 1. On nature it felf, that tells us how much 
of the ftrengtb, and beauty, and fafety of the Church, and of all 
focieties doth confift in Unity. The Minor is apparent in the 
Nature of the thing; 1. That Prefidency makes for Unity, is 
confeft by all the Churches that ufe it to that end. 2. And the 
continuanceof the fame makes fomewbat more for Unity then 
a change would do : there being fomc danger of divilion in the 
new elections ; befides other and greater inconveniences. 

$. 12. 5. The perfon that is raoft fit (Confidcratis (*o*fide- 
randis) fhould be chofen Prefident ; But one and the fame per- 
fon ordinarily is moft fit durante vita : therefore one and the fame 
perfon fliould be continued Prefident. God doth not ufe to 
change his gifes at every monethly or quarterly Sefsions of a Claf- 
fis or Provincial Synod. Either the Prefident chofen was the fit- 
ted at the time of his choice, or not : if he were not, he was ill 
chofen : if he were fo then,its like he is fo ftill, at leaft for a long 
tirae. And a mans ability is fo great and confiderablc a qualify 

Q^q 2 cation 


cation for every iraployment, thatitmoftbe a very great acci- 
dent on the other fide that rauft allow us to choofc a man that is 
icfsable. AchangecanRotbcmadein moft places, without the 
injury of the AfTembly and of their work. The worthieft per- 
fon therefore may lawfully be continued for the work fake. 

§. 13. 6. That way is lawful that conduceth to the Reconci- 
liation of diffenting and contending Brethren ( fuppofing it not 
forbidden by God. ) But fuch is the way of a ftated Prcfidency, 
durante vita : therefore, &c. Though the Major be paft doubt, 
yet to make ic more clear, confider, that it is 1. A Learned par- 
ty ( as to many of them ) with whom this Reconciliation is de- 
fired : and therefore the more deferable* 2. That it is a nume- 
rous party : even the molt of the Catholikc Church by far. All 
the O^Church, the Armenian, Syrian, Abajftne, and all others 
that I hear of, except the Reformed, are for Prelacy ; and among 
the Reformed, England &n& Ireland had a Prelacy*, and Den- 
mark,) Sweden, part of Germany, Tranfilvania, have a fupcrin- 
tendency as high as I am pleading foratleaft. And certainly a 
Reconciliation, and as near a Union as well may be had, with 
fo great a part of the Church of Chrfft, is a thing not to be dc- 
fpifed ; nor will not be by confiderate moderate men. 

§. 14. Anditis very confiderable with me, that it is the fa* 
ture and not only the prefent Peace of the Churches that we 
fhall thus procure. For it is eafie to fee that Epifcopacy is nei- 
ther fuch an upftart thing, nor defended by fuch contemptible 
reafons, as that the Controverfie is like to die with this age : un- 
doubtedly there will be a Learned and Godly party for it, while 
the world endureth • unlefs God make by Illumination or Reve- 
lation fome wonderful change on the Sons of men, that I think, 
few men do expe&. And certainly we fhould do the bed we can 
to prevent a perpetual diffention in the Church. Were there not 
one Prelatieal man now alive, it were eafie to forefee there would 
foon be more. 

§. 15. Yet do I not move, that any thing forbidden by God 
(hould be ufed, as a means for Peace or Reconciliation with men. 
Itisnottofetupany Tyranny in the Church, nor to introduce 
any new Office that Chrift hath not planted : it is but the or- 
derly difpofajof the Officers and affairs of Chrift, which is plead- 
ed for* 



$. 1 6. Object. But (Tome will foy ) jour Minor jet is to be 
denyed -, /or f/?rf if m>r away to Reconciliation. A fiated Prefidency 
wiLl notyleafe the Prelates that have been ufed to the fole Jtirisdibli- 
on of a whole County * and to fole Ordination. Anfw. I . V/e know 
that the moderace will confent. 2. And fome further accommo- 
dation (hall be offered anon-, which may facisfie all that will 
(hew themfelves the Sons of Peace. 3 . If we do our doty, the 
guile will no longer lie on us , but on the refufcrs of Peace ; but 
till then, its as well on us as on them. 

§. 17. 7. That which is lawfully practifed already by a* Con- 
currence of judgements, may lawfully be agreed on : But the 
Prefidency ( or more ) of one man in the AflemHies of Mini- 
fters, is in moft places pradifed ( and that lawfully ) already : 
therefore, &c. There is few Affociations, but fome oiae man isfo 
far efteemed of by all, that they give him an a&ual or virtual 
Prefidency, or more: why then may they not agree expreflyfo 
to do? 

jf. 18, 8. Laflly, The fo common and foantient practice of 
the Churches, ftiould move us to an inclination to reverence and 
imitation, as far as God doth not forbid us, and we have no fuf- 
ficient reafon to deter us : of which more anon, 

$. 19. Yetarenottheytobej'uftificd that raife contentions 
for fuch a Prefidency, and lay the Churches Peace upon it. I fee 
not yet but that it is a thing in it fclf indifferent, whether a man 
be Prefident a moneth.a year,or for his life : and therefore I plead 
only for condefcending in a cafe indifferent, for the Churches 
peace: though accidentally order may make it more dcftrable" in- 
one place 1 and jealoufies, and prejudice, or danger of ufurpati- 
on, may make it lefs defirable in another place. But none (hould 
judge it neceffary or finful of it felf. 

$. 20. If you ask, What Power {hall thefe fiated Prefidents 
have ? I anfwer, 1. None can deny, but that it is fit that jit 
every Affociation of Churches, there fhould be a certain way of 
Communication agreed on. And therefore that fome one (houid 
be chofen to receivefuch Letters or other matters that are to be 
Communicated, and to fend them, or not ice of them unto all; 
This is a fervice y and the power of doing fuch a fervice cannot be 
queftionable while the fervice is unqueftionable. 

j; 21. 2. It is meet that fome be appointed to acquaint the 

Qj| 3 icft. 


rcl, as with bufinefs, fo with times and placej of meeting : the 
nomination of fuch times and places, or the acquainting others 
with them when agreed on, is a fcrvice that none can juftly que- 
ftion ; and therefore the lawful nefs of the power to do it,may not 
be questioned. 

$. 22. Object. B fit what's this toG 'over nment} this is to make 
them Servants, and not Governors. Anfw. It is the more agree- 
able to the will of Chrift, that will have that kind of greacnefs 
fought among his Minifters, by being the fervants of all. 

§. 23. But 3. He may alfo be the ftated Moderator of their 
Deputations and Debates : this much I think will eafily be grant- 
ed them; and I am fure with fome ( as I (hall (hew anon} this 
much would feem fatisfadory. The Principal Prefident or Ma- 
tter of a Colledge is thought to have a convenient precedency 
or fuperiority, though he have not a Negative voice. And why 
the Prefident in an AfTociation of Pallors (hould have a greater 
Power, I fee as yet neither necefsity nor reafon. 

§.24. But 4. If Peace cannot otherwife be obtained, the 
matter may be thus accommodated, without violation of the 
Principles or Confcicnces of the Epifcopal, Presbyterian, or Con- 
gregational party. 1 . Let it be agreed or confented to, that no 
man be put to profefs, that it is his judgement, tbatBifhops 
Chouid have &$j*redivin<> a Negative voice in Ordination. Thii 
was never an Article of Faith : it is not ncceflary to be put 
among oue Credenda. It is only the Practice that is pretended 
tobeneccfTary, and ifubmiffi on to it. Seeing therefore it is not 
to be numbred with the Credenda, but the agenda, let A&ion 
without profeffed Belief fuffice. 2. Yea on the fame reafons, 
if any man be of a Contrary judgement, and think himfclf bound 
to declare it raodeftly, moderately, and peaceably, let him have 
liberty to declare it, fo his pra&ice be peaceable. 3 • This being 
premifcd, Let the Prefident never Ordain, except in cafe of necef- 
fit], but with the f re fence or confent of the Affemblj ef the Affo- 
dated Pafiors. 4. And let the Paftors never Ordain any, except in 
cafes of Neceffitj, but when the Prefident is there preftnt,mr with- 
out his Confent. And in Cafes of Neceffity (as if he would de- 
prive the Churches of good Miriftcrs, or the like ) the Epifcopal 
men will yield it may be done. 
$. 25. If fome think the Prefident Mufi be one, and others 



only think he May be one ; it is reafonable , if we will have 
pfcace, that our Maybe yield to their Afaft be. For fo we yield 
but to what we confefs lawful : but if the] fhould yield, it mull 
be to what they judge to be finful. If it be not lawful to hold 
their Mh^ that is, that a Bifhop hath a Negative voice, yet is 
it lawful to forbear de facia to Ordain till he be one, except it be 
in cafe of Necefsity. 

$. 26. If in an Affociation there be a company of young or 
weak Minifters, and one only man that is able to try him that is 
offered to the Miniftry, as to his skill in the Greek and Hebrew 
tongues, and his Philofophy, &c. is ic not lawful here for all 
the reft to coafent that they will not Ordaix? any, except in 
cafes of Ncceflity, bot when the forefakt able man is one? Who 
can doubt of this? And if ic be lawful in this cafe, it is much 
more lawful, when both the ability of the faid pcrfon, and the 
Peace of the Churches doth require it: or if it bebutthelaft 
aione, I think it may well be yielded to. 

$. 27. But ( the Epifcbpalmen will objed, ) if every man 
fhall have leave to Believe and Profefs a Parity of Miniflers, the 
Prefident Kill bnt be defpifed y and this will be »9way to Peace, but 
to Contention: Anfye. You have but two remedies for this, and 
tell us which of them you would ufc. The firft is, to for«e men 
by Club-law to fubferibe to your Negative voice, or not to hold < 
the contrary .- The fecond is, to caft them all out of the Comma- < 
nion of the Churches, that are not in judgement for your Nega- 
tive voice, though they be Moderate, Peaceable, Godly men. 
And he that would have the firft way taken, is a Tyrant, and 
would be a Cruel Perfecutor of his Brethren as good as himfelf. 
And he that would take the fecond way ,is both Tyrannous, and 
Schifmatical, and far from a Catholike peaceable difpofition; 
and if all mud be call out or avoided by him, that are not in fuch 
things of his opinion, he makes it impofsiblefor the Churches to 
have peace with him. 

$. 28. But they will further objed : // in Nectffit) they fhall 
Ordain mthoutthe Prefident, this Niceffit] will be ordinarily pre- 
tended ; and fo all yostr offers -mill be in vain. Anfw. Prevent that 
and other fucb inconveniences, by producing your weightieft 
reafons, and perfwading them ; or by any lawful means : but 
we muft not have real Neceffities negle&cd, and the Churches 



ruined, for fear of mens unjuft pretences of a Neceffity : that** 
but a fad Cure. 

$. 29. But on the other fide it will be objected, This is but 
patching up a peace. If 1 thinks that one man hath no more right 
then another to a Negative voice, fthy fbcutt I feem to grant it 
himbymypratlice> Anfw. As when we come to Heaven, and 
not till then, we (hall have perfect Holinefs ; fo when we come 
to Heaven, and not till then, we (hall have perfeclVmty and 
Peace. But till then, I (hail take that which you call Patching, 
as my Duty, and our great Benefit. If you think one man have 
not a Negative voice, we neither urge you to fay that he hath, 
nor fo much as to feem to own his claim. You (hall have leave 
in the publike Regifter of the AiTociation, to put it under your 
band, that [Notts owning the claim of the Pre fidents Negative 
voice, but as yielding in a Lawful thing for Peace, you do Confent 
to forbear Ordaining any without him, except in Cafes of Neceffi- 
ty. 3 This you may do, Wichout any (hew of con&radi&ingyour 
Principles, and this is all that isdefired. 

$. 30 Que'ft. And maj we net for peace fake % grant them as 
much inpoivt of jurisdiction, as of Ordination, and Cenfent to do 
nothingwit.fant Neceffity, but Vohenthe Prefident is. one, and dot h 
"(fonfent I Anfw* Either by Jurisdiction you mean Law makings 
or Executive Government. The firll belongs to none but Chriir, 
in the fubftance of his Worftiip •, and the Circumftances no man 
may Vnivcrfally and Unchangeably determine of; but pro re nata, 
according to emergent occasions, the Magiflrate may make 
Laws for them,, and the Pafters may make Agreements for Con- 
cord about them ; but none fhould determine of them without 
need: and therefore here is no work for Legislators ("the Ufurpers 
that have grievoufly wronged the Church. ) Arid for Execu- 
tive Government, cither it is over the People, or over the Paftors. 
To give a Negative voice to the Prefident of an AfTociation of 
the Paftors of many Churches, in Governing the People of a 
ftngle Church, is to let up a new Office ( a fixed Paitor of ma- 
ny Churches ) and to overthrow Government, and introduce 
■the noxious lort of Prelacy, which for my part, I intend not to 
be guilty of. And for proper Government of the Paftcrs,\ know 
none but God and Magiftrates that have that Power. Every 
B'rfhop,faith Cjprian,tRd the Council of Carthage, bath Power 

of his own will, and is rcfponfible for his A&ions to God, an<T 
none of us are Epifcopi Epifcoporum, Bifhopsof Bifhops. But 
there is a Communion among Pallors and Churches to be exerci- 
sed, and fo an avoiding or rejecting from Communion rand this 
fome call ( improperly ) a Government. And in this, for my 
part, I (hould confent, where peace doth require if, that we will 
mt agree upon the rejttling of any Paftor of our Affociation ( no 
more then co the Accepting or Ordaining of them) without 
the Prefidcnt, hut in cafes of Neceffitj : and that juft on the terms 
cxpreft about Ordination. 

<). 31. As for inftancc, In a particular Church, there is a Com* 
mumon to be held among all the membtrs, though none of them 
but the Officers are Governors of the Church. And in many 
cafes where the Peoples Corifent is needful, its common to ftand 
to a Major vote : and fo great a ftrefs is laid on this, that by ma- 
ny of the Congregational way the Government of the Church 
is faid to be in the Major vote of the people : and yet 1 . This 
is indeed no Government that belongs to them ; but Confent to 
Communion or Excfufion -, and 2. No Scripture doch require a 
Minor part to ftand in all cafes to the decifion of a Major vote, 
nor give a Major vote any Rule over the Confcicnces of the Mi- 
nor part ( (hew us this voting power in Scriptur; ) And yet ^ 
3. All agree, that upon natural Rcafonsand General Rules of 
Scripture, the Churches are allowed , jreji obliged , in lawful 
things, for maintaining Vnity an& Pe*ci y to ftand to the judge- 
ment of a Major vote, ( in Cafes that belong to them to vote 
in) though there be no particular word for it in the Scripture: 
Even fo AJJociate Paftors have not a proper Government of one 
another, neither by Presents or Major votes, ( though over 
the people they have,) but are all under the Government of 
Qod and the Magiflrate only. A nd yet they may in ads of Con- - 
fent about Communion or Non- communion with one another, 
prudentialiy ag r ee, to take the fonfent of the Prefdept, or of 
the Major vote of Paftors, or of bo:h, where Peace, orOrdcr, 
or Edification reqtiireth it : except in cafes of Neceftity. 

§. 32. Queft. But what will you t ah for a Cafe of Ncccffity ? 
which you will except . ? Anfw. 1. If the Prefident be dead. 2. Or 
fick, or abfent and cannot come. 3. Or if he be malignant, and 
wilfully refufe to Confent that the Church be well provided for, 

Rr or 

or Governed. 4. And withall fuppofing that without the great 
hurt or hazzard of the Churches, we cannot delay the bufinefs, 
till he beone,ordoConfent. 5. Efpecially if hebefctin enmi- 
ty againft the welfare of the Church : and by pretence of a Ap- 
pending vote would deftroy the Church, and bring in unworthy 
hurtful perfons or things. In all fuch Cafes of Necejfitj, its 
time to lay by our humane Rules for peace and Order. 

§• 3 3. Objeft. But who fall be judge of this Neccffity ? 
Anfw. The Magi fir ate only (hali be the Compelling Judge. The 
people (hall be the Difcerning fudges : the Paflors (hall at lead 
have as much power as the People \ each of them (hail Difiern, 
fo far as they muft obey and execute. And God only (hall be the 
final Judge. 

(. 34. Objeft. Butttis will but catife Dhifiont and Ccnfw 
fieri s \ while the Pre fident thinks one thing Necejfary , and the 
P 'aft or s ar. other y a*d the Teople another. Anfw. I anlwered this 
before. Reafon mud not be cart by, and the Churches ruined, 
and poyfon and deftruSion taken in, on pretence of fuch incon- 
venierces. if fuch a Cafe cf difference fallout, each man will 
execute as he difcerncth or judgeth, (being to anfwer for his 
owna&ions, and having none that can undertake to anfwer for 
him) And when we all come to the Bar of God for final Judge- 
ment, be that was in the right (hall be juftified, and he that fa'fly 
pretended Necefsity againfi duty (hall bear the b ame. 

5. 35. Object. But in the mean time, the Churches will be 
divided. Anfw. 1 . I told you there is no more hope of a f erf ell 
Vuitj on eanh, then of perfect Holintfs- 2. When two evils are 
before up, (though neither mull be cho[cn % for ExHlls mot an 
Objed of choice., unlefs as fecming good, yet ) the Greater Evil 
mult be firft and rnbft fludioufly repelled. And the deformity 
and deftru&ion of the Churches, and the cafting out of the 
Gofpel and Worfivp of God, is a greater Evil then diforder 
about good adior.s, and differences about fome Circumflances of 
NecefTary works. 

$. 36. All this that I have faid about the Negative (defatlo, 

though no: de jure ) that I wou!d have Contented ro for peace, 

I inreni not to extend to thofe Cafes and Countries where peace 

required i:r.or 3 but rather the contrary ; much lefs to encou- 

^age any so think fuch a Negative Necefiary in it felf. Some 



things may be Lawfully granted that are unlawfully and upon 
miftake defired, 

§. 37. Laftiy underftand alfo, that when I fpeak of yielding 
to this Negative voice in Ordination, to the Freiidentoffuch 
an Aflbciation, I intend not to exclude the Presbyterie of a 
particular Church ( where ic is fufficient ) from thefaid Pow- 
er and exercifeof Ordination : of which I am to fpeak, in the 
the following Chapter , which is ef the Trefidwt of fxch a 

- ■ — ' : — ■ ■ — — - ? — i . " 


It is Lawful for the Presbyters of a par- 
ticular Qhurch, to have a fixed Tre~ 
jident, during life. 

§• *• IMiffih^mtib Come now to the moft Ancient fixed 
Bifhop that the Church was acquainted 
with, except the mtezEpifc$fusGregi* % 
the Overleer of the flock ; and that is, 
A ? rep bent of many Elders in one parti- 
cular Church. The Diocefan B (hop 
was long after this: The rlrft Bifhcps 
( if you will call them fo ) in the Church were the firft menti- 
oned Itineranc Bifhops that were fent abroad to convert fouls 
and gather Churches ,and afterward took eare to water and con- 
firm them. The next fort of Bifhops ( and the firft fo called) 
were the fixed Paftors of particular Churches, that cannot be 
proved to have any fuperiority over Presbyters. Jhe third 

Rr z fore 


fort of Biftiops ( in time, and the firft fixed Bi (hops that 
were fuperiours to other Paftors ) were thefe Prefidents of 
the Presbyteries of particular Churches. And thefe are they 
that now we have to fpeak of. And I fhall prove that it is not 
unlawful to have fuch. 

§. 2. But firft 1 muft tell you what I mean ^ and (hew you 
that fuch may be had among us. I have in one of the former 
Difputations, defined a particular Church. It fhould ordina- 
rily confift of no more then may hold fer final Communion to- 
gtther in Gods fublick^ fVorfhip. But yet take notice, i . That it 
tendeth ro the ftrength and honour of ir, that it be not too 
fmall- but confiding of as many as are well capable of the Ends. 
2. And it is Uwfull for thefe to have fome other meeting places 
for pare of the Church, befidesthe principal place which is for 
the whole. Chappelsof eafc may lawfully be made ufe of, for 
the benefit of the weak, and larae,andaged,that cannot alwayes 
or often come to the common AfTembly. And where fuch Chap- 
pels are not, it is lawfull to make ufe of convenient houfes. 
Yea if there were no Place to be had, fufficiently capacious of 
a full AfTcrablyj or elfe if perfection forbad them to meet, it 
might ftill be but one Church, though the members met in fe- 
veral houfes ordinarily : as five hundred in one, and three hun- 
dred in another , or one hundred only in feveral places, every 
one going to which houfe he pleafed, and having fcveraLPa- 
ftorsthat in Society and byConfent did guide them all. But 
though fomewhat difordcrly may be born within cafes of Ne- 
ceffity ^ yet I; As it is NecefTary to the Ends, and fo to the Be- 
ing of a particular Church that they be a Society capable of 
perfonal Communion^ and the perfonal Teaching,Guidanceand 
Overfight of the fame Paftors, So 2. It is defirable, as much 
tending to Order and Edification, that all of them that are able 
do frequently meet in one AfTembly , for the Worfhipping 
of God with one heart and mouth. And this is the Church I 
fpeak of. 

$ 3 .It is not ofNeceffitj to the Being of fuch a particular Church, 
that it have more Paltors then one : And when one only is the 
Paftor or Govcrnour, that one alone may do all the works of a 
PaftoF or Governour ( For what elfe is his Office, but the ftate 
or Relation of a raan obliged and authorized to do fuch works? ) 



The Learned Dr. H. H. thinktth thac the Apoftles planted 
rone in Scripture times but (ingle Paftors or Bifhops ( called 
alfo Presbyters) in every Church,with Deacons under them, 
without any other Presbyters ( fubj\-& or aflllhni) over thac 
Church. This I conceive cannot be proved, nor fo much as 
the probability of it ^ nay I chink.adeaft a probability, if not 
a certainty of the contrary may be proved, of forae Churches, 
But yet it is moft likely that it was fo with many Churches. 
And reafon tells us, thac the thing being in it (c\f indifferent, 
was futed by the Apoftles to the ftate of the particular Churches 
that they planted. A fmall Church might well have a Jtngle 
Pafbr, when a large Church, efpecially in times of perfecution, 
when they muft afTemble in feveral houfes at once, required 
more. Some places might have many perfons fit for the 
Office , and fome but one : Which cafes muft needs have fomc 

$. 4 . Where there are more Paftors in fuch a Church, then one, 
I know of no Necejftty that one fhould have any fuperiority over 
another.- nor can I prove that it was fo from the beginning. Some 
Divines of the Prelatical Judgement think that this was an Or- 
dinance of the Apoftles, at the firft planting of fuch Churches ; 
Others of them think that it was of their appointmtnt, but not 
actually exiftent till after Scripture times. Others of them think, 
thac as Hierom faith, ic began when fadions rofe in the Church, 
not by Divine Otdination, butEccleliaftical agreement, for the 
preventing or cure of fchifm. 

$ . 5 . The firft Church that we find ic in, in Hiftory , is that of 
Alexandria. And Alexandria was a place exceedingly given to 
fedition, tumults, and divifions : the contentions between Cy - 
riUndOreftes, the murder of Hypatiaby Peter and hiscompa- 
ny,the affaulc made upon Oreftes by Ammonius & che other Ni- 
trian Monks, and many fuch feats in the dayes of Theophilas,Di" 
e*yfius, and up to the beginning, do (hew what they were. And 
Socrates faith of them exprefly, /*. 7. cap. 1 3 . that £ The pet- 
pie of Alexandria above all other men, are given to Schijm and 
contention • for if any quarrel arife at any time among them, pre* 
fently hainous und horrible offences ufe to follow, and the tumult 
is never appeafed without gnat blood- Jbtd, ] fuch were the Alex* 


§.6. But yet it is certain that the Original oF this cuftora,of 
fettfog nponeas Prefident or chief Presbyter in a particular 
h, cannot be fcund out, io as to fay, by whom and when 
it was fir ft brought in. But if k began upon the death of Mar\ 
atsSihx&dria , it muft needs be long before the death of John 
theApoftie, ( in that Church, what ever other Churcesdid. ) 
But itfeems i hat there was then a difference and indifTcrency in 
this point, and that other Churces did not prcfently imitate the 
Churches of Alexandria and Rome herein. He that reads Cle- 
mens Epifile to the Corinthians without partiality, I think will be 
of Gr otitis mind ( before cited, Epifl. ad Gal. ad Bignon. ) that 
Clemens knew not any fuch Prelacy among the Cormhians^wbta 
he wrote that Epiftie : And fo we may fay of fome other 
Witnefles and Churches in thofe times, and afterwards in ma- 
ny places. 

$. 7. It is not another Order of Minifters, or Office, that was 
in fuch Churches diftin& from the Presbyters that aflifted them. 
Their Presidents or Eminent Bifhops werenotmade thenEpifcofi 
Epifcoporum, vel Paflores Paftorttm^s having an Office of Teach- 
ing and Governing the other P*fiors , as Paftors have of teach, 
ing and Governing the flock. But they were only the chief Pres' 
bj'ers, or chief Bifliops or Paftors of that Cburch,as an Arch' 
deacon is to the Deacons when he is made futh by their choice, 
as Hieroms comparifon is (adEvagr.) 

£ 8. Norisklawfull noWjeveninthefmalleftParifh/or any 
One to sffume fuch a fuperiority over any Presbyters ( though 
fuch as have their maintenance from him, and are chofen by ; bim, 
and are called, his (^urates ) as if he were of a Sup* rlour Order ox 
offiecy&ndfo the Governour of the other ashisinferiours. 

$.9. But yet that a Primacy of degree, or Prefidency, or 
flated'JModtratorfkif of one in fuch a Church and Pre*byterie, 
is lawful!, I think with fmall labour may be evinced. And 
1 .All r he Arguments before afed, for the Prefidency o- one in an 
AJfociation, will prove this Parochial Prefidem y with advantage. 
'{. 10. 2. It is a thing that is conftantly or very ordinarily 
praclited among us already, with common approbation , or 
without contradiSion,as far as 1 have heard. Many places have 
one Mimiter only that is preferred by the Patron - 9 and this one 
Paitor hath divers with him ( or as the common fa) ug n^Vnde^ 

kirn 1 J 


him : ) If it be a great Congregation.raany have a Curate or af- 
fiftant in the Town with them, and other Curates at Chappels 
that .depend on that Town. Though there be but one Cnap- 
pel in this Parifli where I live, yet this Church hath three or 
four Preibyters, and three or four Deacons. And the Law of 
the Land doth give one Minifter only the Maintenance (called 
the Benefice) and the Power of the Temple, and the calling of 
Affemblies, and the choice of Curates, whom he is to maintain. 
And they that are chofen and maintained by him, mud and will 
be ruled by him; at leaft in &\\circumfiantial things. It belongs 
not to them to Rule even the People contrary to Gods word; 
nor in fubftantials to inftitute new Ordinances of Worfhip : 
But in circumftantials which are \tk to humane derermina- 
tion (as time, place, particulars of order, decency, &c. ) no 
doubt but the chief Paftors in each Parifli, do exercife adually a 
Negative Vote, and the Curates do nothing without their con- 
fent. So that this fort of Prefidency being common among us, 
without contradidion I may take it for granted that it hath 
the common confent. And if any allow not of fo much as is com- 
monly ufed, yet a Prefidency is a far lower thing. 

\S.ti. 3. This fort of P/efidency, ( yea with fuch a Nega- 
tive voice as in the foregoing Chapter is granted ) is ufually 
grounded on Nature and the Qeneral Rules of Scripture, and 
warranted by them. Nature teachech us, that the younger and 
more ignorant and unlearned, (hould ( proportionably) fub- 
mit to the Elder and Wifer, and in a fort be Ruled by them. 
And Scripture faith the fame, 1 Pet. 5.5. [ Te younger fubmit 
your J "elves unto the Elder ] Even the agedwoemen ( that were 
no Officers ) mnft teach the younger ,7*V.2.4. Now it common '* 
ly falls out that in every Pariih that hath many Minifter , 
there is but one that is aged, or grave, and that one common- 
ly is more Learned and Judicious then the reft, who are ufually 
forne young unexercifed men. Now infuch cafes, (which is 
common) no man can deny that authority to age or Wifdom 
that is naturally duetoit, nor exempt the younger ignoranter 
men from that fubmiftion which naturally they are bound to. 
Equality of Office may ftand with inequality of gifts and age,and 
confequently of duty. 

J. 1 2. 4. The good of the Church requireth it that this dif- 



proportion of Minifters gifts in one and the farce Congregation 
fhould be the ordinary cafe ( And rules mutt be faced to ordi- 
nary cafes, rathei then to extraordinary.) For God docLj not 
( as we fee by long and hd experience,) beltow his excellent gifts 
fo commonly, as that one Church ( ordinarily ) fhould t-ave 
many Learned able men: There are but few that are of eminen- 
cy for judgement and other Minifterial abilities : Not one for 
many Pa n (lies : If therefore many of thefe fhould be placed 
together in one Church, it would beagainit the common good, 
and an un juft ingroflment, and injurious unto others. Provi- 
dence therefore by the rarity of eminent parts, doth teach us 
to make it the ordinary courfc, that in every Congregation 
where there are many Paftors,fome one of chiefeft parts be cho- 
fen to be (landing Moderator of the reft. 

§. 13. 5. That which is lawfull for Private me* to do to- 
wards one another , is lawfull Prudentially for Paftors tbac 
are confeious of their own imperfedion , to do towards one 
that they think more able then themfelves. But it is lawful for 
Private men to be fubjeft one to another in humility : therefore it 
is lawfull for fuch Pallors, 1 Pet. 5. 5. Q Tea all of you be fub- 
jeft one te another \ and be c loathed with humility ] A voluntary 
fubjedionto another, in lawfull adions, is nowhere forbid- 
den , but here commanded ; and is a great part of Chriftian 
felf denyal : and therefore lawful. * 

§. 14. 6. And it is a thing that dependeth fo much on the 
Wifdom and will of Presbyters, that no w&n can hinder it. I 
can make another Minifter a Bifhopto me, whether other men 
will or not. Honor efi i^henorante. lean 1. In judgement eftcem 
him more able, yea or moreauthorized,then other men. 2. And 
I can have recourfe to hira for advice. 3. And I can give him 
a Negative vote in all my Minifterial Adions, fo far as they are 
left to humane determination : I can refolvetodo nothing in 
fuch matters, but by his confent. And if I find reafon for this 
inbisabilities,andmy difabilities, it is Lawful. The thing there- 
fore being La wfull, and fuch as none can hinder me from, I fee 
not why it may not be made the matter of Confent, when the 
Churches Peace requireth it. 

§. 15. 7. Moreover, as Divifions juftly provoked the Chur- 
ches at firft to think of fuch lawful means, for the cure : fo our 



Divifions, or danger of them, do make it as Neceffary, or eonve* 
nien:, now as then. We fee to our fhame, that in moft or ma- 
ny Congregations, Minifters that are equal or neer to an equa- 
licy in parts and place, can hardly agree and live in Pesce : but 
they a r e jealous of one another, and envying each other sefteera 
and interelt ( Though I confefs this is fo odious a vice, that its 
an abominable (hamefuil thing, that any Minifter of Chrift fhould 
be tainted with it.-but fo it is, we cannot hide it. J And therefore ic 
is our ordinary courfe to have fuch a difparity of age, and parts, 
and interefts,that one may have the preheminence,and fome rule, 
and the reft be ruled by him. 

$. 1 6. 8. Laftly, the Antiquity and fpeedy Univerfality of 
this courfe, is a ftrong argument to make men moderate in the 
point. For i.Itfeemeth a moft improbable thing that all the 
Churches, or fo many y (hould (ofuddenly take up this Trefidcncy, 
Prelacy, or Difparity without fcru pie or re(iftance,if it had been 
againftthe Apoftles minds. For it cannot be imagined that all 
thefe Churches that were planted by the Apoftles, or Apoftolical 
men, and had fcen them and converfed with them, (hould be 
either utterly ignorant of their minds, in fuch a matter of pub- 
like practice, or elfe fhould be all fo carelefs of obeying their 
new received dodrine, asprefencly andunanimoufly to confent 
to a change, or endure ; t without refiftance. Would no Church 
or no perfms in the world , contend for the retention of the Apo- 
ftolical inftitutions ? Would no Chwch hold their own , and 
bear witnefs againft the corrupiion and innovations of the reft? 
would nsperfons fay, [ you go about to alter the frame of Govern- 
ment newly pLnted among us by the Holy Ghofl ; It yeas not thus 
in the dayes ef Peter, or Paul, or John; and therefore we will have no 
change. ] Thisfeemsto me a thing incredible, that the whole 
Church (h«uld all at once almoft fo fuddenly and filently yield to 
fuch a change of Government. And I do not think that any man 
can bring one teftimony from all the volumes of Antiquity to 
prove that ever Church or perfon refilled or difclaimed fuch a 
change, in the times when it muft be made, if ever it was made, 
that is, inthefirftorfecondages. 

j. i7.Yea 2.1t is plain by the teftimony ofHierom before men- 
tioned and other teftimonies of antiquity, that in Alexandria, at 
leaftj this practice was ufed in the dayes of the Apojllesihem* 

Sf ' fclvcsv 

(3 1 40 

felves. For they tethfiethat from the dayes of Marh^ the Evan* 
gelifi till the days of Heroclas and Dionyfius , the Presbyters 
chofe one from among them,and called him their Bijhsp, Now it is 
fuppofed by the beft Chronologers thatj^r^was flain about the 
fixcy third year of our Lord,and the tenth ofiW™;and that Pe* 
ter And Paul were put to death about the fixty fixih of our Lord, 
and thirteenth of 2{jro, and that John the A pottle died about 
the ninety eighth year of our Lord, and the firft oi Trajan % 
which was about thirty five years after the death of Mark. 
Now I would leave it to any mans impartial confideration,whe~ 
ther it be credible that the holy A potties, and all the Evangelifts 
or Afliltants of them, then alive, would have fuffered this in- 
novation and corruption in the Church without a plain drown- 
ing it and reproving it : Would they filently fee their newly 
ellablifhed Order violated in their own dayes, and not fomuch 
as tell the Churches of the (In and danger? Or if they had in- 
deed done this, would none regard it, nor* remember it, fo much 
astorefift the fin > Thcfe things are incredible. 

§. 1 8. And I am confident if the judicious godly people had their 
choice , from the experience of what is for their good , they 
would commonly choofe a fixed Prefident or chief Pafior in 
every Church. Yea I fee, that they will not ordinarily endure 
that it fhould be otherwife. For when they find that God 
doth ufually qualifie one above the reft of their Teachers , 
they will hardly confent chat the reft have an equal power 
over them. I have feen even a fober unanimous Godly 
people , refufe fo much as to give their hands to an af- 
fiftant Presbyter whom yet they loved, honoured and obeyed, 
though they were urged hard by him that they preferred, and 
all from a loathnefs that there fhould be a parity. I know not 
one Congregation to my remembrance, that hath many Mini- 
iters, but would have one be chief. 

§. 19. Objed. But, ( the Prelatical men will fay) our Purifies 
are not capable of this. t beeaufe tbej have commonly but one Pafior , 
mr have maintainance for more- Anfw.\, Though the greater 
number have but one > et it is an ordinary cafe to have two , or 
thrce,or more, where there are Chappels in the Parifh, and the 
Congregations great, as in Market Towns. And if ever ue 
have Peace and a fetled faithfull Magiftrate that will do his pare 

for the houfe of God, we (hall certainly have many .Mimfter:? in 
great Congregations : Or elfe they are like to be Iefc. defofate ; 
ForMinifters will over-run them , for fear of undertaking far 
more work then with their utmoft pains they are able co per- 

J. 20. And 2. There are few Congregations, I hope,of God- 
ly people, but have fome private men in them that are fie to be - 
Ordained A Mi itant Presbyters,though not to governa Church 
alone ( without neceflity ) yet to aflifl: a Learned, judicious 
rrvan, fuch as underftand the body of Divinity, (as to the great 
and necefTaty points ) and are able to pray and difcourfe as well 
as many or raoft Minifters, and to exhort publicklyin a cafe 
of need. He that would imitate the eximple of the Primitive 
Church ( at leaft in the" fecond Century ) fhould Ordain fuch as 
thefe to be lorae of them AJfiftmt 'Elders, and fome of them 
Dwcons in every Church (that hath fuch ; / and let them not 
teach publickly, when a more learned, able Paftor is at hand to 
do it ♦, but let them aflift him in what they are fitted to perform ; 
Yet let them not be Lay Elders : but authorized to all Paftoral 
adminiftrations,and of one and the fame office with the Paftor, 
though dividing the exercife and execution according to their 
abilities and opportunities ; and ndtcomming in without Ordi- 
nation, nor yet taking up the Office only pro tempore. And 
thus every Parifli, where are^ble Godly men, may have a Pref- 
byterieand Prefidenr. 

$. 21. Till then 3. It is granted by the Learned Dr. H. H. 
that it is not neceffary to the being ofaBifhop that he have fel- 
low Presbyters with him in that Church : If he have but Deacons 
it may fuffice. And this is eafie to be had. 

§. 22. And indeed 1. The parts of many very able Chriftians, 
are too much buried and loft as to the Church, for want of be- 
ing drawn into more publick ufe. 2. And it is it that tempteth 
them to run of themfelves into the Miniftry , or to preach with- 
out Ordination. 3. And yet few of thefe are fit to be trufted 
with the Preaching of the word, or guiding of a Church alone, 
no nor in equality with others : for they would either corrup: 
the do&rine, or divide the Church. But under the infpe&ion 
and diredion of a more Learned jadicious man,as his affiftant?, 
doing nothing againft his mind, they might be very ferviceable 

Sf 2 to 

i? 6 ) 

to fome Churches. And ftich a Bifhop with fuch a Presbyterie 
and Deacons ( neither Lay, nor ufually very Learned ) were 
the ancient fixed Governours of the Churches, if I can under- 
ftand antiquity. 


ObjeUioni againjl the Trtfidency fore- 
mentioned^ ari/wered. 

U T it is not likely but all thefe moti- : 
f ons will have Diffenters on both fides ; 
It wcrcftrangeifin a divided age and 
place , and among a people engaged in 
fo many feveral parties, and that fo 
deeply as now men are, there (hould 
any healing remedy be propounded , 
that {hould not have abundance of oppofers; Mod men are 
prejudiced and afTe&ed at their Education ^ or opportunities,or 
parties , or feveral intereft fway them. And therefore I exped 
that moll: ffaould reject all that I fay , and fome of them with 
much reproach and fcorn. Our difeafc were not fo great and 
dfrngerous,if it could but endure the remedy. But let us confi- 
der Tome of their Objections. 

§.2. Object, i. The mfeaeeable men of the Prelatical way will 
fay [_Thisisbut to turn a Bifhof into a Parijk-Triefi ; and to 
wake him the Ruler of a Parijh and a Curate or w>, and in many 
f laces , of %o Minifters at all: A fair Promotion. It feews 
jou would leave them bfft a name and Jbadow> andmaks them to be 

§, 3. Anfw, I, Remember that I grsntyoualfo the Prtfiden-- 

cy of Affocutions^ &c* which you may call an Archbifhopkk^ 
if you ple.afe. 2. Is it honour that you contend for , or labour 
and fervice to the Church ? If honour, you muft get it by being Its more ^ 
the fervtnts of others, and not by being Lords of the Clergy i>. h.h. 
or heritage of God. If you are feeking honour of men,afld fpcaksofthc 
founding offices in the Church, by fuch directors as ambition, 1Jfimitivc Bi ~ 
you arc not the men that we can hope for Peace or Holinefs from, j^^Pr * 
and therefore can have little treaty with you, but to lay by iy t€i s under 
your wickednefs. But if it be fervice that you contend for, in or. them but owe 
der to the Churches good,try firft whether a Parijh will not find or m °;e Dca- 
you work enough. I have tried it, and find that if I were ten men, 00 ™* 
I could find as much as I am able to dojfl this one Parifh.Though 
I do as much as I am well able night and day , and have fo many 
helpers, yet it is fo great a trouble to me, that my work and 
charge is quite too great for me, that I have been often tempted 
to defertit, and go to a fmaller place : And nothing ftayes me 
but this confideration ; that God requireth no more then I can 
do, and that its better do what I can then nothing : and that if 
I leave them, the next is like to do no more. Could I but fpeak 
with each man in my Parifh by perfonal Inftru&ion, once a 
moneth, or once a quarter, or halfyear, it would put me into 
high expectations of making a very great change among them, 
by this means: But when I am not able to fpeak to them paft 
once a year,or two years, Imuft needs fear left the force of former 
words will be loft before I come again. And yet muft you 
needs have more work^ and fervice, and more fouls toanfwer for ? 
To deal plainly and faithfully with you, Brethren, impartial 
ftanders by conceive that its time for you rather to be more dili- 
gent in a fmaller charge,and to lament your negligence in your 
Parities, and publickly to bewail that you have by your idienefs 
betrayed fo many fouls.-letting chem alone in their ignorance and 
ungodlinefs,and commonly doing little in your charges,but what 
you do at Church in publick. Overfeers think that moftof you 
are fitter for fmaller charges rather then for greater. I doubt 
this will offend many. But yon were better ufe it to your Repen - 
tance and Reformation,then your offence. 

$.4 .And 3 .1 pray you confider how your PafSon and partialU 
tymaketh you contradict your fclves. Do you not ufe to re- 
proach the ?rzsb]tm % that they would all be Bifhops, and they 

Sf 3 would . 


^ouidhavea Bi(hop in every Pariih,and fo are againft Bi (hops, 
that they may be Bifhops themfeh es ? And what/ is a Parifh Bi- 
fhoprick fo great.a prize for our Ambition, and yet is it fo con- 
'temptible to yours? Are we proud for feekingio be Parifi Bifiops, 
/and do you rake it as an empty name or fhadow ? At leaft then 
confefs hereafter, that your Pride is fo much greater then ours, 
that the Mark of our Ambition is taken by you to be a low difho- 
nourable (tare. 

§. 5. And 4. I would intreatyou impartially to try, whether 
the Primitive Apoftolick Epifcopacy fixed in particular Churches 
wer^ not a Parochial Epifcopacy ? Try whether Iiave not pro- 
ved it before ? And if it were, will you pretend to antiquity, 
and Apoftolick inftitutton,and yet defpife the primitive fimplici- 
ty,and that which you confefs wa^fcttled by the Apoftlc$?Let the 
Eideft carry it without any more ado. 

^.6. And 5. At leaft fay no more that you are for Epifco- 
pacy, and we againft it : when we are for Epifcopacy as w r ell as 
you. Icisx>n!y your tranfcmdent, or exorbitant fort of Epif- 
copacy that we are againft. Say not ftill that we have no Power 
of Ordination, becaufe we are not Bifhops \ but becaufe we are 
only Bijhopsofone Church. Put the controverfie truly as it is , 
Whether it be lawful for the Bifhop of one Church with his Prebjte- 
ryto r rdain? Yea or whether many fuch A floriated may Or- 
dain? Or rather, whether it be tyed to the Bifhop of many 
Churches ( as you would have it : ) that is. Whether Ordination 
belong to Archbifhopsonly ? Is not this the controverfie ? 

(>. 7. And then 6. Why do you in your Definitions of Epifco- 
pacy ( which you very feldom and fparingly give us ) require 
no more then a Parochial Epifcopacy, and yet now defpife it as 
if it were no Epifcopacy at all? Tell us plainly what you mean 
by a Bifhop ? I thought you meant a Primus Presbyterorum, or 
at leaft, a Ruler of People and Presbyters? And is not this to be 
found in a Parifh Bifhop,as well as in a Bifhop of many Parifhes, 
or Churches? Change your Definition from this day forward, 
if you muft have a change of the thing defined, as it feems you 

$.8. And I wou'd know whether you can prove tbat it is £f- 
fential to a Bifhop to have more Churches or Parifhcs then one? 
Prove it if you are able. Was not great Gregory of Natcefarea a 



Bifhop With his feventeen foals ? And was not Alexander (the 
Colliar) whom he Ordained at Comana i a Bifhop, chough bug 
of a fmall Affembly ? Do not fome of you confefs, that tfiihops 
in Scripture-times had no fubjed: Presbyters, and confequently 
bad but a fingle Congregation ? If then a Parifh or Congregati- 
onal Bifhop were a true Bifhop, why may he not be fo (till ? 

$. Q. Obje&. 2. But the Church under Chrijiian Frinctt 
fljould not be confer me A to the model of the Church under perfec- 
tion : Shall Bifiops have no more power and honour now then they 
had then ? Wffee in Conftantines dayes a change was made. Aiujl 
they be tyed to a Parijb now, becaufe thej, were Bi/hops onlj of & 
Tarifhin Scripture' times ? 

$. 10. Anfw. 1. We would not have them perfecutei now, 
as they were then, nor yet to want any due encouragement or 
affiftance trnt a Chriftian Magistrate can afford them. But yet 
we would have Gods Word to be our Rule, and Bifhops to be 
the fame things now as then, and we would not have men make 
the profpenty of the Church a pretence for altering! he Ordi- 
nances or Inftitutions of Chrift, and making fuch changes a& 
their conceits or ambitious minds incline them to. Wc (hall never 
have a Rule nor fixed certainty, if we may change ih Egi-our 
felves on fuch pretences. Prtfend not then to Antiquity, as you do~ 

$. 11. And 2. I have in the former Difpucation proved by 
rnany-Reafons, that it was not the mind of the Apoftles tbem- 
felves, that the Parochial or Congregational Churches which 
they planted, fhould be changed into another fort of Churches. 
Nor is there any rc^fon for it, but againft it, in the profpericy of 
the Church, and piety of Magiftrates. For 1. Pious Magiftrates- 
fhould help to keep, and not to break Apoftolicalinftnutions. 
2. And pious Mag ftrates fhould further the good of the Church, 
and not hurt it to advance ambitious men. 

§. 12. For 3. Minifters are for the Churches, and therefore 
no change mud be made on fuch pretences that is againft the 
good of the Churches. If every Parifh or Congregation then^ 
were meet to have a Bifhopand Presbyterie of their own, why 
(hall the Church be now foabufed, as that a whole County (hall 
have but one Bifhop and bis Presbyterie } If every Hofpital or 
Town had a Phyfitian with his Apothecaries and Mates, in your 
Fathers dayes,wou!d you be their benefa&ors, by procuring that 



ail the County (hall have but one Phyfitian with his Apothe- 
caries ? Or if every School had a Schoolmafter in your Fore- 
fathers dayes, will you fay, there (hall be but one in your dayes, 
in a whole County ? Do you thus think to honour Phyfitians and 
Schoolmafters, totheruineof the people and the Schools } So 
do you in your advancement of Bifhops. Upon my certain ex- 
perience I dare affirm it, that every Parifh* of four or five 
thoufand fouls, yea of a thoufand foul*, hath need of fuch a 
Presbyterit for their Overfight. And is not he that hath a Coun- 
ty on his hands, like to do lefs for this Town or v Parifh, then if 
he had no more then this? If your Bees fwarm, you will not 
keep them all ftill in an hive, nor think of enlarging the hive to 
that end : but you will help the fwarm to an hive of their own. 
If ) our Children marry, you will rather fettle them in Families 
of their own, then retain all them and all their Children in the 
Family with your fdves. So if a Bifhop of one Church fhould 
Convert all the Countrey, he fhould rather fettle them in feve» 
ral Churches, proportionable to their numbers and &ftances,then 
to call chemall his own Church. 

§. 13. Objed:. 3. But by thU means the Church would be 
pefieredwith Bifhops. What a number of Bifhops would you have, 
if every Parijh-Prieft were a Bijhip ? We read not of fuch numbers 
as this wou/dprocure 1 in the antient ttmes. 

§. 14. Anfw. I. I find where Chrift commandethus to pray 
the Lord of the harveft to fend forth Labourers ( that is, more 
Labourers ) into the harveft, becaufe of the greatnefs of the 
harveft. But I find not where heoncerequirethus to pray or 
wifh that there may not be too many, for fear of peftering the 
Church, or diminifhing the honour of the Clergy. Mens purfes, 
I warrant you, will hinder the over- abounding of them ; and 
Gods providence doth not enrich' too many with abilities and 
willingnefs for the work. Do you undertake that they (hall not 
be too bad ; and I dare underrake they will not be too many. 

$. 15. And 2. Is it not the fehctty and glory of the Church 
which you objeel: as an inconvenience or reproach ? O blefled 
time and place that hath but enow that are able andfaithfull i 
But I never knew, nor heard, nor read of the age that had too 
many that were good and faithfull in the work. Would you 
not have a chief Schoolmafter in qvery School, or Town, for 




fear the Land fhould be peftered or overwhelmed with School- 
matters? Why how can there be coo many, when people will 
imploy no more then they need ? Oraiferable Church that hath 
fuch Bifhops,that are afraid Gods vineyard fhould be furmfmd 
with labourers, left their grcatnefs and honour fhould be dimi- 
nifhed / Do you no: fee how many thoufand fouls lie ftili in ig- 
norance, preemption and fecurity for all the number of labourers 
that we have? And fee you no: that fix parts of che world arc 
Infidels,and much forjwant of Teachers to inftrud tbem?And yec 
are you afraid that there will be too many ? What could the ene- 
my of the Church fay worfe ? 

$. 1 6. Objcd. Wedonot mtan too mav) Teachers Jbut too many 
BiJbops\ that isjeo many Governours of the £hurch. Anfw. I .God 
knowech no Governours Miniftcriall but teachers : Ic feems you 
would have fomewhat that you call Government ^ni leave the la- 
boar of Teaching to others; As if you knew not that it is they that 
are especially worthy of the double honour that labour in the word 
anddottrine, i77/#. 5. 17. Or as if you knew not that even the 
Government of PaRors is motily by teaching. 2. Government 
and Teaching go together,and are both neceffary to the Church; 
And the diminifhing the number of Governours and ofTeacbers 
is all one : As a Phyfnian doth Govern all his Patients in order 
i y their enre^and a Schoolmafter all his fchollars in order to their 
learning ; fo doth a Paftor all his flock, in order to their fandi- 
fication and falvation. And for the Government of the AiinU 
fters themfelves y the number (hall be increafed as little as may be. 
Parifh Bifhops will Govern but a few ^ and therefore they can 
wrong but few, by their raif-governraent. 

$.17. Objed. 4. But by this means rwe fhdl have unworthy, 
raw, and ignorant men made Bi/hops ' What kind of Bijhops fhi.ll 
we have , if every Parifb Pritfi mufl be a Bifhop ? Some of them 
are boyes , andfome of them empty , filly fouls to make Bijhops ef 
§. 18. Anfw. I (hall lay open the nakednefs of this Objedion 
alfo, fo that ic fhall be no flicker to domineering in the Church. 
1. Awike the fparks of humility that are in you,and tellus open- 
ly, whether you think your feives more able worthy men to 
Govern a County, or a hundred Parifhes, then fuch as we arc 
to Govern one? Though I have been many and many a time 
tempted with Jonas to run away from the charge tbatiscaft 

T e upon 

03 2.O 

uponme,asaburdentool3eavyformetobear , and I know my 
feif to be lamentably inefficient for it : yet I muft profefs, that I 
am fo proud as to think my felf as able to be the Paftor or Bi- 
(hop of this Parifh, as mod Bifhops in England, yea or any one 
of them , to be the Pallor and Governour of a County, or an 
hundred or two hundred Parifhes. Were you humble, or did 
you dwell at home, or cake an account of your own .abilities, 
when you reproach oihers as unab'e to be the Bifhops of a Pa- 
nfh,and think your felves able to be theBifhops of a Diocefs and 
contend for it fo eagerly ? 

M9. And 2. 1 further anfwer you: We will leave you not a 
rag of this Obje&ion to cover your nakednefs. For if any Pa- 
lters or Parifh Bifhops be more ignorant then others,and unfic ; 
to Teach and Rule their flocks without the affiftancc, teaching 
or direction of more able men, we all agree that its the duty of 
fuch men to Learn while they are Teachers, and to be Ruhd 
while they are Rulers , by them that arc mfer . For as is faid , 
a 'Pa>itj in regard of office, doth not deny a difparit) ofgfis 
and farts i And we conllamly hold, that of men that arc equal 
in regard of office, the younger and more ignorant fhould 
learn of the aged that are more able and wife v andbe/Wf^by 
their advice, as far as their infuffiriency makes it neceffary.And 
will not this fufficc ? 

§. 20. And 3. If this fuffice not, confider that Aflbciated 
Pallors are linked together, and do nothing in any weighty mat- 
ters of common concernment (or of privace,whereinthey need 1 
advice ) without the help and directions of the reft. And a 
young man may govern a Parifh by the advice of a Presb^tcrie 
andalfo of Affociated able Paflors,as well as fuch Bifhops as we 
have had, have governed a Diccefs. 

1 J.a.i. And yet 4. If all this fuffice not, be it known to you 
that we endeavour ro have the beft that can fee got for every 
Parifh: and Novices we will have none, except in cafe ofmeer 
ncceflity : And we have an a6t for rejecting all the inefficient, 
as well as the fcandalous and negligent • and any of you may 
be, heard that will charge any among us with infuffiriency. Sure 
I am we are cleanfing the Church of the inefficient and fcanda- 
lous that the Prelates brought in, as faft a we can : if any prove 
like them, that fincc ire introduced, we defire that they may 

fjpeed no better. What fide foever they be on, we dcfireable 
faithfullmen, and defire theeje&ionof theinfufficient and un- 
faithful). And youth doth not alway prove inefficiency. Wit- 
nefs Timothy ,whofe youth was not to be defpifed. At what age 
Origen&nd many more of old began, is commonly known. Vige* 
lius was Bifliop at twenty years of age ("the Tridentine Bifhopj 
We will promife you that we will have none fo young to be 
Parifh Presbyters, as Rome hath had fome Popes and Cardinals 
and Archbifhops and Biftiops. Nor (hall any fuch ignorant in- 
efficient men, I hope, be admitted, as were commonly admitted 
by the Prelates. 

§. 22. Objcd.$.But the Apofiles and Evangelifls had a larger 
circuit then a Parifi^nd therefore fo Jhsuld their Succejfors have > 
*Anfw. I grant you that they had a larger circuit, and that here- 
in, and in their ordinary work they have fueceflbrs : And we 
confent that you (hall be their Succeflbrs. Gird up your loins, 
and travail about as far as you pleafe, and preach the Gofpel to 
as many as will receive you ( and fure the Apoftles forced none ) 
and convert as many fouls as you can, and direct them when 
you have done ia the way of Church-communion, and do all 
the good that you can in the world, and try whether we will hin- 
der you. Have you not liberty to do as the Apoltles did ? Be 
ye fervants of all, and feek to fave all, and take on you thus 
the care of all the Churches,and fee who will forbid fuch an Epif- 
copacy as this? 

$. 23 . Objed. 6. But it feems joh would have none compelled 
to obey the Tttfhopsjtut they only that are willing fhould do it : and 
fomen fall have liberty of conference , and anarchy and parity and 
confu/ion will be brought into the Church. Anfw. 1 . 1 would have 
none have liberty for any certain impiety or fin : And yet I 
would have no fin punifticd beyond themeafare of its deferts. 
And 1 would not have preachers made no Preachers funlefs the 
Church may fpare thcuj)becaufe their judgements are againft DU 
occfan Biftiops .* and therefore I would have none filenced or fnf- 
fpended for this. 2. And what is it that you would have thats 
better ? Would you have men forced to acknowledge and fub- 
mit to your Epifcopacy ? And how ? Small penalties will not 
change mens judgements, nor confidences. Silencing or death 
would deprive the Church of their labours: aedfovvemoft 

Tt z lofe 


We our Teachers left they difobey the Bifhops. If this be your 
cure, it difgracetb your caufe. We defire not Prelacy at fo dear 
a rate. Its a fad order that deftroyes the duty ordered. 

f, 24. Object. But this is to take down all Church-Govern' 
mtr>t s if All ft ill have what Government thej Up, Anfw. I . Was 
there no Church- Government before the dayes of CwPantint 
the Emperour ? 2. Do you pretend to antiquity, and fly from 
the Antient Government as none ? You fhall have the fame 
means as all ihe Bifhops of the Church had for above three hun- 
dred years to bring men to your obedience : and is that nothing 
with you? Why is it commonly maintained by us all, that the 
Primitive ftate was that pureft ftate, which after times fhould 
tfnve to imitate ,if yet it was fo defective as you imagine/ 3 . And 
why have you Hill pretended to fuch a power and excellent ufe- 
fulnefsin the Prelatical Government, if now you confefs that it 
is but anarchy, and as bad as nothing , without the inforcc- 
ment of the Magiftrate ? What Magiftrate forceth men to obey 
the Presbyteries now in England^ Sc$tland, *or many other 
places? 4. Yet it is our defire, that the Magiftrate will do his 
duty, and maintain order in the Church, and binder difordcrs^ 
and all known fin : but fo, as not to put his fword into the hand 
orufeit at thcpleafureof every party that would be lifted up. 
Let him prudentlycountcnance that way of Government, that 
tendeth moft to the good of the Churches under his care -, but 
notfo as to perfecure, filence, orcaftour, all fuch as arc for a 
different form, in cafe where difference is tolerable. 5. And in 
good fadnefs , is it not more prudent for the Magiftrate to keep 
the fword in his own hands if really it be the fword that muftdo 
the work? If Epifcopal Government can dofo little without 
the compulsion of the Magiftrate, fo that all the honour of the 
good effe&s belongeth to the fword, truly I think it prudence 
in him to do his part himfelf, and leave Bifhops to their part , 
that fo he may have the honour that , it feems, belongs unto his 
office, and the Bifhop may not go away with it, r.or the Pres- 
byterie neither. Let the fecular Biihop have the honour of all 
thai Order and unity that arifetb from compulfion.- and good 
reafon, when he muft have the labour, and run the hazzard if be 
doit imifs: and let the Ecdefiaftical Bifhops have the honour 
ef ail that ojder and unity that arifetb from their management 


of the fpiritnal fword and Keyes. 6. Andlaftly I anfwer, that 
this is not the fubjed that you and we have to difpute of. Ic is 
Ecclefiaftical Government by Miniftcrs,and notfecular by Magi- 
ftratcs that is our controverfie. It is of the Power left by Chrift 
to Paftors and not to Princes 

$.25 : Objed. But at leafl thofe fbouldbe excommunicated that 
deny cbeditneeto their Bifbops : that is d 'Power that is left in 
the Bi flips th(mfelves y whether the Magifirate confent or not; 
A*fu>. i. Excommunication is a fentence that fhould fail on 
none but for fuch grofsand hainous fin, if notalfo ©bfHnacy 
and impenitency in them,as is mentioned in Scripture: Ufing it in 
cafes of controverfie and tolerable differences, is but a tearing and 
dividing the Church. 2. We take it not for our duty to excom- 
municate you, becaufc you are for Diocefan Prelacy : therefore 
you (hould not take it for yours to excommunicate others be- 
caufc they arc againftir. For 3- If your fpecies of Epifcopacy 
be fuch as I have proved it , you have more need to repent and 
amend, and ask forgivenefs of God and men, then to excommu- 
nicate them that are not of your opinion , and for your (in. 
4. But if you take this to be your duty, who bath hindered you 
from it thefe twelve years ? You had liberty, for ought I know, 
to have difcharged your confeiences, and to have excommunica- 
ted us all .5 . But you might fo eafily fee what was like to come of 
it, that it is no wonder that you forbore. If fuch a Miniftry 
and fuch a people as arc now your adherents ( whofe defcripti- 
onl forbear ) fhould execute your fentence, and caft us and 
our adherents out of their communion, what contempt would it 
bring upou you in England ? The Ale-houfcs would be fhut up 
for the moft part, againft us : But that and the red, would be 
eafily born : I think this is not your way. 

$. 26. Objed. 7. But what need you form us a new fort of8p* L 
c$pacy f -mere we not well enough before f Why did you pull d'** 
that which Was wellplanted.and now pretend u commend a be*** to 
Hs } We were well if you had let us alone. ^ 

$. 27. Anfw. 1 . But We were not well, becaufe you would nor 
let us alone. The Minifters that were filenced, and ^prifoncd, 
and banifhed, and the thbufands of people that w-refain to fol- 
low them, and all thofe that were undone by y^ r profecutions 
in England^ were not well. But this is a fmal^tter : The ig- 

Tt 3 norant 


norant Congregations that had ignorant and drunken guides, 
where Piety was fcorned as Puritanifm, and impiety made a 
thing of nothing , and where Satan was fo commonly fcrved ; 
the many hundred Congregation* in England that never knew 
what true Difcipline meant, nor never law in all their lives, a 
drunkard, oppreffor, railer,blafphemer, either cart out, or pe- 
niteqdy confefs his (in, before the Church, all thefe were not 
well,tbough you were well. 2. Whether we were well before, 
I have (hewed in my firft Difputation, and thither I refer you. 
3 . And whether we have brought in anew Epifcopacy, or only caft 
cut a new one , and defire to bring in the Old, we are content to 
put it to an equal tryall. We all concurr in offering you this mo- 
tion. Let the'oldefl (land, and the neweft be cafi out. 

$V2& Objed. 8. Judge nowbj the effeEls : The Epifcopacy 
which you blame , did k$ep up Order and Vnity in the Church ' It 
kept under thofe weeds of here fie and error that fwee fprung up ; We 
had then no Quakers , nor Seekers, norfuch other Sells as noi? 
abound •' This [warm of Errors (hews which Government is befi. 
j. 29. An[w. This is a grofs h\\icy,dnoncaufaprocaufa: to 
which I return you my anfwer in thefe feven considerations. 
1 You tell us of the good that you think you did: but you tell us 
nc t of the hurt. I hope I love Divifions or Hercfies as little as 
ever a Biftiop in England : and yet I rauft profefsthat I had ra- 
ther an hundred times, have things continue as they are with all 
our fwarms of herefies,then to bereftored to their ancient pafs. 
Qur lofs is as great isfofephs in being removed from the Prifon to 
Pharaohs ungodly family ; I mean in fpirituals (of feculars 
anon. ) I know not of an Anabaptift,Separatift, Quaker or any 
other Sectary in the Town that I live in,ror all this noife -, unlefs 
you will take a few Infidels for Sectaries, or a few ignorant Pa- 
Jfcfts, or thofe of your own way. But on the other fide, I hope 
thtr^ are many hundreds that truly fear God , that formerly 
were downed in ignbrance and ungodlinefs. The families that 
were wcrj C tocurfeand fwearand rail at GodIinefs,do now wor- 
ship God^d f et U p holy inftru&ions,and caft out fin : and this 
is o#r change ^d j n f ome ra eafure,I have reafon to believe thai 
it is fo in othet\i aces a jf 0# 

§.30. 2 . The^ rrors f t h e timc$ arc man y of them your %wn, 
and therefore youN^im aga j n p. J0Hr fo vii% n lt f J0Ur oyim 


C 3.2-7) 

: i that men arife^ that write againft: Original fin 9 and for 
Liberty of Prophecying, ( which \s more then Liberty of Belie- 
ving ) and for a kind of Limbns Patrum and Infantum, and 
for humane SatisfaBions for fin to God, and for the Primacy of 
the Pope, and that all our Proteftant Churches are r.o Churches, 
or Miniftcrs no Miniiters, that have not Prclatical Ordination, 
yea and a Succefllon of it ; with many the lik^ ( to fay nothing 
of other Pelagian weeds. ) It doth not therefore become you o 
reproach us with our fwarms of Errors while you introduce 

§. 3*. 3. There were Herefies and Seel* even inthedsyes 
of Prelacy. Had you not then the Families, the Grim'dieconi- 
an?, (luchas/fofj^andCo^/Hf^and Arlington) and the 
Anabaptift^andSepiratifts^nd Ancinomians, and Papift?, and 
fuchlike? befides the contention? between \X\t Arihistafas and 
Antiarminians, and the contentions raifed by Epifcopacy it felf, 
and the Ceremonies that it upheld ? Who were they that rofe up 
againft; the Bifhops and pulled them down, if there were Unity 
under them, as you pretend ? 

$.32. 4. The truth is, it was the Magiftrate and not Epif- 
copacy that kept that Unity and Peace among us which we had ; 
and that kept under Herefiesforsuch as they were kept under. 
Take not therefore the Magistrates honour to your felves. Who 
would have attended your Courts,or fubmitted to your cenfures, 
had it not been for fear of the Secular power ? I think but few. 
You know the He eticks themfelves obeyed you not for Confci- 
encefake. Nor would they have regarded your Excommuni- 
cation, if the Magiftrate would have let them alone. If it was 
the fpiritual fword in your hands that kept out Herefies, why 
did you not keep them out fince, as well as then ? You have the 
fame power from Chriftnow as ever you had, And I hope the 
fears of perfecution will not hinder you from your duty • efpe- 
cially when you can name fo few that have fuffered for exerci- 
fing Church- difcipline by Epifcopal power 1 at leaft this was no 
hinderancc a few years ago. For my part, I heartily wifh you 
free from perfecution, if you are not. But again I rell you, 
that which I fuppoie you know- that as free a Toleration of 
Prelacy in Bngln ndzs there is of Presbyteric, were the likelyed 
way to bring you into perpetual contempt. Fot we cannot but 

know, \ 


know, thatbefidesafew Civil engaged Gentlemen,Mini{ters,and 
others, your main body would confift of thofe that for their 
notorious impiety ,fcandsl or ignorance, arc thought unmeet for 
Church-communion by others : and that when you came to ex- 
ercifeDifciplineon them, tnty would hate you and fly from 
you as much as ever they did from Puritans : and if you did in- 
dulge them , and not reform them or caft them out, your Church 
would be the Contempt of the fober part of the world, and 
your own fobrr members would quickly relinquifh it for fhame. 
For Q the Church of England ] \( you would needs be fo cal- 
led, would be taken for the fink^ of all the other Churches in 
England. This is a clear and certain truth that is eafily difcern- 
ed, without a Prophetick fpiric : and the difhonour of all this 
would refled: upon your Prelacy. 

$.33. 5. And further, I aofwer your Ob je&ion ; that it is 
not the infufficiency of other Church- government in compari- 
fon of Prelacy, that was the inlet of our Herelies and Dvifions • 
but it was the Licentioufnefs of a time of war, when all evil fpi- 
rits are turned loofe, and tbefubtilty of the Papifts that have 
taken advantage to fpawn among us the Quakers, and Levellers, 
and Bebemifts, and other Paracelfians., and the Seekers to con- 
found and difhonour us if they could, and to promote their 
caufe. And in times of war, efpecially when fuch changes in 
the Civil itate enfue,and fo many adverfaries are watching to 
low tares, fuch things are common. 

§ . 34. °"- And you cannot fay, that it comes from the infuf- 
ficiency of other Government in comparifon of yours, becaufc 
you fee no other Government fetled inftead of yours, fo far as 
to be feconded by the fword or fecular power ; no nor fo far as 
to have a word of command or perfwafion to the people to obey 
it, ( except an Ordinance that in rooft places was hindered from 
execution ; ) nor is there any one Government fo much as own- 
ed alone by the Magiftrate. Befides, that the Civil power it felf 
reftraincth not thofe that you fpeak of^ as to the; mod of 

$.35- 7. Laftly, if you would compare your Prelacy with 
other Government, compare them where the cafe is equal. Hath 
notPresbyterieiniym/rftf^andin J/<w* (with much lefs help 
and countenance from the Magiftracc ) kept out Heretics and 


divifions, as much at lead, as ever Prelacy did? h it certain thae 
it hath. 

$.36. And yet I nuft add, that the multitude of Sefrsand 
Herefies that fprungup in tic firft, and fecond, and third Ages, 
was no fuch difhonour to the form of Government then ufed in 
the Church, as fhould encourage any man to diflike or change it. 
If it was Prelacy that was ufed, then fwarms of Se&s and Here- 
£cs may come in not withftanding Prelacy {even in better hands 
then your?. ) But if it were not Prelscy that was then the Go- 
vernment, Herefies are no more a fhame to that Government 

$. 37. I know many Readers will think, that this writing 
that purpofely comes for Peace, (hai-tld not be guilty of repeat- 
ing and remembring the faults of others, nor.fpeakto them fo 
plainly as fs liker to exafperate then pacific. But to thefe I fay, 
1. Their Objections which they infill on, cannot be anfwered 
bat by this opening of the truth. And 2. The truth is, thofe 
rntn that own all the abufes and perfections of the late Prelates, 
and are impenitent as to their guilt, and wifh and would have 
the farrve again, are no fit materials for a concordant frame". If 
their bufinefs be deltroyinp, they will never well joyn with us in 
building and in healing. Repentance is the beft Ingredient in oar 
Salve. We content to the fame conditions that we propofe, and 
will thank them if they will help us to Repentance; especially 
of fuch fins as are defb active to the Churches peace. 

$. 38. And the Godly Moderate Epifapal men do concur 
with us in the blaming of the abufes of th~ir party. Saith thac 
good and peaceable Biftup Hallln his moddl: offer tor be AfTern- 
bly, pag.$. [IJhwldh a flatterer of the times paft, if I fhould 
take upon me to juflifie or approve ef all the carriage* of fame, that 
have hen entru/ledwith the Idyss of JEcclcftaftical Governments 
or to blanch over the corruptions of Conjiftorial Officers : in both 
thefe there was fault enough to ground both a Complaint and Rs* 
formation : and may that man never profper y that de fires not an 
happy reformation ofwhatfoever hath he##r is amifs in the Church 
of Cod. } 

$.39 Object. 9. But it is not only the abnfes of JBpifiopacy, 
but the thing it (elf that hath been Covenanted again/} in England, 
and oppofed : nor # it only the EngUJh Prelacy , but all Efifcofacy ' 

U u *n& 


and therefore j/our mtion for anther fpecies*/ like to find but [mall 

§.40. %sfn[w. It is not true that all Epifcopacy hath been 
Covenanted againft or taken down in England. Nor is it true of 
any of the forts of Epifcopacy which 1 have here mentioned. 
It was only that which was then exiftent that was taken down, 
and only the Englrth frame of Arch-bifhops, Bifhops, Deans, 
and the reft,as here they Governed,that was Covenanted againft. 
Of which I (hall fpeak more anon in anfwer to the Ob je&ions 
of others. 

§.41. Objeft. 10. Youhauecoveteufiyfeized on the Revenues 
of the Tijbofs, and made yiur [elves fat with their PojfeJJlons, and 
this was the prize that you aimed at in taking them down. Anfw. 
The world feetb the falfhood of thisflandcr, in the open light; 
and therefore for your credit fake, you were beft recant it. Eng- 
land knoweth that the Bifhops lands were fold, and given to the 
Souldiers, and not to the Presbyters. It maintained the Army, 
andnotthcMiniftry. And that the Dean and Chapters lands is 
gone the fame way, or the like, to pay the debts of the State. 
And that Presbyters have none of them all, favc that here and 
there one that had about ten, or twenty, or thirty pound a year, 
have foraewhat in Augmentation, that the Churches may not be 
left to Readers, and blind Guides, as they were in the Prelates 
dayes. I that have a fuller maintenance then moft in all the 
Country where I live, do receive but about eighty pound and 
fometimes ninety pound per annum : and did I need to pull down 
Prelacy for this } 

|» 42. T Come now to the Objections of rhe other fide, who > 
JL will be offended with me for confenting for peace, to 
fo much as I here do ? And i.Some will fay, that we are en- 
gaged againft all Prelacy by Covenant, and therefore cannot yield 
to fomuch asjtu dejvithout the guilt of perjury. 

§.43. Anfw. That this is utterly untrue, I thus demonflrate. 
1. Whcnthe Covenant was ptefented to the Affembly, with 
the bare name of £ Prelacy ] joyned to Popery, many Grave 
and Reverend Divines defired that the word £ Prelacy ] might 
he explained, becaufcitwasnotall Epifcopacy that they were 


againft. And thercnpon the following Concatenation in the 
parcnthefis was given by way of explication : in thefe word* , 
[_that is, Church-government by Arch-bifhopt, Bi/hcps, their 
Chancellors and Commiffaries^ Deans , Deans and Chapters, Arch- 
deacons, and all other Ecclejiaftical Officers, depending on that Hie* 
rarchj.y t By which it appearcth that it was only the Englifh 
Hierarchy or frame, that was Covenanted againft : and that 
which was then exiftcnt, that was taken down. 

§ . 44. 2. When the houfc of Lords took the Covenant, Mr. 
Thomas Coleman that gave it them, did fo explain it and profefs* 
that it was not their intent to Covenant againftail Epifcopacy.* 
and upon this explication it was taken : and certainly the Parlia- 
ment were moft capable of giving us the due fenfe of it ^ becaufc 
it was they that did impofe it. 

§.45. 3. And it could not be all Epifcopacy that was ex- 
cluded, becaufe a Parochial Epifcopacy was at the fame time ufed 
and approved commonly here in England, 

$.46. 4. And in Scotland they had ufed the help of Vifitors 
for the Reformation of their Churches, committing the care of 
a County or large Circuit to forae one man, which was as high 
a fort of Epifcopacy at leaft, as any I am pleading for. Befides 
that they had Moderators in all their Synods, which were tem- 
porary Bifhop?. 

$.47. y. Alfo the chief Divines of the late Affembly at 
Weftminfter, that recommended the Covenant to the Nations, 
have profeffed their own judgements for fuch a Moderate Epif- 
copacy as I am here defending : and therefore they never intend- 
ed the exclufion of thu by the Covenant. 

§.48. Objed. 2. By this we Jhall feem mutable, while we 
takedown Epifcopacy one year^ and fet it up again the next. Anfw* 
We defire not the fetting up of that which we have taken downs 
and therefore it is no mutability. 

$. 49. Object. 3 . But this will prepare for the reftauration of 
the old Epifcopacy. By fuch degrees it invaded the Church atfirfl : 
and if we let in the preparatory degree , the reft in time is like to fol* 
low ; all that we can do is little eu$ugh to keep it out. 

§.%o. Anfw. i. If we had no other work to do, we would 
do this as violently as you defire : but we have the contrary ex- 
tream co take heed of and avoid ; and the Churches Peace, if it 

Uu 2 may 


raay .b«, to procure. 2. As we tsuft not take down the Miniftry r 
left it prepare men for Epi r copacy, fo neither muft we beagair.ft 
any profitable exercife of the Miniftry; or defirab!e Order 
among them, for fear of introducing Prelacy. 3 . Nor is there 
any fuch danger of it, as is pretended • as long as the Magiftrate 
puts not the fword into their hands,and no man can be fubjecUd 
to them, but by his own Confent, what need we fear their en- 
croachments on our liberties. 4. It is not in your power to hin- 
der the Species of Epifcopacy that is pleaded for, from being in- 
troduced : but only to with-hold your own confent, and hinder 
peace and unity. For any Minifter that will, can efteem another 
his fuperiour, and be ruled by him, and do nothing without his 
confent : Thefe are the adions of his own free-will. 5. As long 
as you are free from violence , if you find an e?il or danger, you 
may draw back 

$.51. Objed. 4. Have we not fmarted by them late emugh 
already ? Jball we fo foot* be turning back, to v^gjpt ? Anfw. That 
which you have fmarted by , wc defire you not to turn back 
to ; but that which is Apoftolical, pure, and profitable to the 
Church, and thats nor *s£gypt. 

$.52. Objed. 5. Ten do all this for Peace with E pi f copal T)i* 
vims : ancL where is there any of them that is worthy fo fiadious 
a Pacification} Do they not commonly own their former impieties 
and perfections ? 4 re they net meer for ma lifts and enemies to 
pratlical Godlinefs*. Would they not mine the Church >and do as 
t key have dene, if they had power? Hath God breught them down . 
for their own wickednefs t and Jball we fet them up again i 

$.53. Anfw.i. All are not fuch as you defenbe : Many of 
them are godly able men, thatdefire and endeavour the good 
of the Church. 2. If bhere were none in this age worthy of our 
communion- yer, if we will have a lading peace,we muft extend 
the terms of it fo far as to comprehend all that are fit for Com- 
munion. And fuch we may eafily know , there will be ofihis 
opinion throughout all ages. 3 . And moft of the Churches m 
the world bcingalready for a higher Prelacy then this, we fhould 
agree with them as far as well we may. 

$. 54. Objcd. 6. But the Parliament have enabled in the fettle- 
mpit of the £ivil Government jhat Popery and Prelacy Jball not be 
tolerated. A»fw, That i$,tfic Englilh Prelacy excluded by the Co- 



venanr, and that,ask would be exercifed by vio!c»ce,^nd forced 
upon df {Tenters, Its known what Prelacy was in England* and 
they cartnot rationally be interpreted to fpeak againftanybut 
wh?t was among us,and taken notice of under that name. You 
fee thefarrK Power allow a Parochial Epifcepacy, and alio Ap. 
f rovers of all that are admitted to publick preaching •, and you 
fee they aiiow an Itinerant Miniflrj in Wales : and they join 
Magiftratss and Miniftsrs for the ejecting of the inefficient Mi- 
nifler. and they never forbad or hindered a ftateJPrefidencj, 
or any thing that I have pleaded for : yea they continued a Mo* 
derator of the AfTembly at jveftminfler for many years, even to 
his death. And what fuller evidence would you have that it fs 
not any fuch Epifcopacy whofe liberty they exclude, under the 
name of Prelacy ? Only they would not have the Hierarchy by 
Law-Chancellors to govern the Church, and that by force of 
the fccular power annexed unto theirs : and fo they deny them 
Liberty to deprive all other men of their liberty. But this is no- 
thing to the matter in hand. 

$. 5 $ . To conclude, let it be noted, in anfwer to all other ob • 
je&ions, that the Prefidency , or preheminence pleaded for,doth 
enable no man to do harm • but only give themielves advantage 
to do good. They can hinder no man from prciching, or pray- 
ingor holy living, or improving his abilities to the goodofihe 
Church i Nor can they Govern any man further then they have 
his own Confent.All which being well confrdered,! may conclude 
that this much may be granted in order so she healing and Re- 
forming of the Churches. 

Uu; CHAP,' 

(bs) ;"• 


The fum of the foregoing Tropofitionr , 
and the Qonjijlency of them with the 
Trinciples of each party , and fo their 
aptitude to Reconcile. 

i , Parochial 

§. i. p pg^^^^ HE fumm of ail that I bavc pro- 
pounded is,that though we cannot, 
we may not embrace the Govern- 
ment by Prelacy, as lately cxercifed 
here in England ( how confident- 
ly foever fome appropriate the title 
of the Church of England to the ad- 
herems of that frame, ) yet would 
we not have the Church ungoverncd , nor worfe governed, 
nor will we rcfufe for peace fuch a kind of Epifcpacy as is 
tolerable in thcChurch.And there arejW forts of Exerc if c of the 
Miniftry,which if you pleafe,you may call Epifcopacy, which we 
(hall not refufe when it may conduce to Peace. 

JL 2. I.Wefiiallconfcnt that the Ancient Parochial Epifto- 
pacy be reftored : that is, that in every Parifh that hath a parti- 
cular Church, there may be a Paftor or Bifliop fetled to govern 
ic,according to the word of God \ And that he may be the chief 
among the Presbyters of that Church,if there be any * And may 
aflume fit men :o be affifting Presbyters to him, if there be fuch 
to be had. If not, he may be content with Deacons. And 
thefe Parochial Biftiops are moft antient, and have the Power 
of Ordination, 


$.3. Yet do we not fo tye a Church to a Parifti, but that in 
places where the ignorance, infidelity, or impiety of the people , 
or the fmalnefs of the Parifhes isfuch, as that there are not fie 
pcrfons enough in a Parifh to make a convenient particular 
Church, it may be fit for two, or three, or four (in necefiity) 
Neighbour Pariflies to joyn together, and to be formed into one 
particular Church. The feveralMinifters keeping their ftations, 
for the teaching of the reft as fotecbumtns, but joyning as one 
Presbytcrie, for Governing of that one particular Church, that 
is Congregate among them. "And having one Prefidcnt, with- 
out whom nothing (hould be done in matters left to humane de- 
termination. Yet fo,that the Presbyters be not forced to tbis,but 
do it freely. 

$.4. II. We (hall confent that thefeParifhCW^.r be Af- ».Thcftat<rd 
fociate ,and that in every Market Town (or fuch convenient Jj^ fi - e "5p f 
places as (hail be agreed on ) there may be frequent meetings of £ ° Ci 
the Pafton, for Communion and Correfpondeocy • and that one 
among them be their ftanding Moderator durante vita* or their 
Prefident ( for fo I would call him rather then Bifhop, though 
we would leave men to ufe what name they pleafe ) And to hira 
fhould be committed the Communicating of times and places 
of meeting, and other bufinclTes and Correfpondencies. And 
the Moderating of the debates and difputations. 

$.5, And for my part.I would confent for peace that defatlo 
no Ordination be made in either of the forefaid Presbyteries, 
without the Prcfident, but in cafes of Neceffity : fo be it 1 . Than 
none bt compelled to own any other* Principle of this Pradice, 
then a Love of Peace ; and none be compelled to profefs that he 
holdeth the Prcfident to have dejure a Negative voice : yea than 
all have liberty to write down on what other Principles they 
thus yeild, that the Pratlice only may fuffice for Peace. 

$. 6. 1 1 1. We (hall confent alfo, that one in a Dcanry or 3 .A Vifiter 
Hundred, or other convenient fpace, may by the Magiftrate be of the neigh- 
chofen a Vi fit or of the Churches and Conntrej about him ; having k*j" ^ r " 
Power only to take notice of the ftate of things, and gravely ta cbantfey; 
admoniih the Paftorswhere they arc negligenc, and exhort the 
people, and provoke tbemto Holinefs, Reformation and Unity; 
only by pcrfwafions from the Word of God. Which is no more 
then any Minifter may do that hath opportunity : only we defire 



the Magiftrate to defign a particular perfon to do it ( requiring 
Minifters and people to give him the meeting, ) becauie that 
which is every rams work is not fo well done, as thac which is 
fpecially committed to forae. And we delire that hemayac- 
qaaint the Magiftrate how things are. 
Thefe two to $• 7- ^ n & l0 avo 'd the inconveniences of dividing thefe works, 
be in one we are dciuous that thefe two laft may meet in one man : and fo 
man. he that is chofen by thePaftor*, the Preftdent of their AfTocia- 

tion, may bz chofen his Vifitor by the Magiftrate, «nd do both j 
which may be done by 'one in cyery Market- town ( which is 
truly a City in the antient fenfe ) and the circumjacent Villages. 
Yet this we cannot make a {landing Rule ( that one man do 
both ) becaufe the T^aftors muftchoofe their Preftdent, and the 
Magiftrate his Vtfitor-^nd its pofiible they may not alwayes con- 
cur. But if the Magiftrate will not choofe fuch a Vificor,the Pa- 
yors may .But then they can compel none to meet \im or hear him. 
4 . General $• &• IV. Befides thefe three (or two, whether you wi:l^ 

unfixed Mini- before mentioned, we (hall confent that there be a general fort 
fttrs. of Minifters, fuch as the ApofHes, Evangelifts, and others in 

thofe times were, that (hall have no fpecial charge, but go up 
and down to preach the Gofpel, and gather Churches where' 
there are none, and contribute the beft aftiftance of their Abili- 
ties, Intercft and Authority for the reforming, confirming, and 
right ordering of Churches. And if by the Magiftrate* Com- 
mand, or Minifters confent there be one of thefe afligned to 
each County, and fo their Provinces prudentially diftinguifhed 
and limited, we (hall not differ*. Yet we would have fuch bun 
where there is need. 

$. 9. V. Befides thefe four forts of Bifhops, we arc all 
agreed on two forts more ; 1 . The Epifcepi gregis >or Paftors of 
every Congregation, whether they have any afliftant Presbyters 
or no, or being themfelves but fuch afliftant Presbyters. 2. The 
Magiftrate,who is * a fecular Bifhop, or a Governor of the 
Church by force. And we defire the Magiftrate to be a nurfing 

* So Conjlav- 
tmt calls him ■ 
felf a Biihop. 
S nfeb. vk. 

C 01JI.I.4.C 24 

And he made his Court a Church, and affembling the peopk,did ufe to take,the holy Scri- 
tiue,and deliver Divine contemplations out of it,or clfe he would read the Common -Pray- 
ers to the whole Congregation, CiZp.17.And it is plain that it was Cm$iinX\n° that kept the 
Churches in Unity and Peace, when the Bifhops elfe would have broken them to peices, 

And the Emperotirs frequently took down and fet up Bifhops at their pleafurejefpecially in 
the Patriarchal Scats as Kom^ Confiimimplci Ant'mhy Alexandria 



Father to the Church, and do his duty, and to keep the iwoni in 
t)h own hand; ?nd for forcible depoiing Minifter?, or anypu- 
nifhrr.ent on body or eftate,we defire no Bifhops nor other Mi- 
ersmiy be authorized thereto : Bun if Paitors exclude an 
unworthy Paftor from their Communion, let the Magiftrate on- 
ly deprive him forcibly of his place and maintenance, if he fee 
caufc. When the Council of Antioch had depofed" PauIus Sa- 
mofateuus y he would not go out of the houfe \ And all the Bi- 
fhops in the Council could not force him out, but were fain to 
procure the Heathen Emperor Aurelian to do it. 1 1 lyeth as a 
bloc on C] rl l or Alexandria, that he was the fir ft man that ar- 
rogated and exercifed there a fe^ular Coercive Power, under the 
name of a Biihop of the Church. 

$. io. There is enough in this much to fatisfie any moderate 
honeft men for Church-government, and for the healing of our 
Divifions thereabout : And there is nothing in this that is in- 
confident with the Principles of the moderare of any Party. 

$. ii. i. That a Church orgAxizcd, called by fome Ecclefia 
frima , fionli be no greater then I have mentioned , is not 
contradictory to the Principles of the Epifcopill , Presbyteri- 
ans, Congregationail or Eraftian. Indeed the two firft fay, that 
it mAj be bigger : but none of them fay, It mufi be bigger. The 
Presbyterians inftances of the Church of ferufalem ( which 
fcrued to the bigheft, cannot be proved neer half fo great as fome 
of our Parifhesj and fuch other Churches , are but for the 
may be % and not for the mufi be. And therefore if they be peace- 
able, this will mike no breach. 

►$. 12. 2. That Parochial Churches And Ajfociations have fixed 
Prefidentf y is nothing contrary to any of their Principles, as far 
as I am able to difcern them . 

$. 13. 3. That PAflors way be lawfully Appointed to vift and 
help the Country and the neighbour Churches , and exhort them 
to their duty,and give the Magiftrate information of their flat?, 
is a thing that none can juftly blame, any more then preaching 
a Ledure among them. Nor do I know any party that is againft 
it,fof thefefour.) 

$.14. And 4. That there may be more General Minifter s togA* 
ther, And take CAre of many Churches , I think none of them will 
deny. Sure the Itinerant Minifters in Wales will noc : Nor 

Xx yci 


yet that thefe may have their Provinces diftingaiftied. 1 If 
I could imagine which of all tbefe forts would be denied , I 
would more fully prove it, yea and prove it confident wich the 
Principles of each party - but till then its vain. 

$.15. The only point that I remember, like to be queftioned, 
is ,the confentingto forbear Ordination in feverjtl Tresbjteries , 
till the Prefident be exejxeept in cafe ofNiCcffuy : And nothing is 
here questionable, that I obferve,but only Whether it be confiftah 
with the Principles of the Congregational party fang they would 
have all Ordination to be by the Elders of their own Church , 
and where there are none, that ic be done by the people without 
Elders. To which I anfwer, 1 . That we here grant them that a 
Congregational Presbyterie with^their Prefident may ordain an 
Elder for that Congregation. 2. The Moderate Congregational 
men do grant us that the Elders or Parlors of other Churches 
may lawfully be called to affift them in Ordination, though they 
tkink it be not neceiTary.lt is not therefore againft their Principles 
to do fo. For furc they may do a Lawful thng, efpccially when 
the Churches Peace doth lie fo much upon it as here itdothT 

$. 16. I conclude therefore that here are healirg Principles 
brought to your hands, if you have but healing inclinations to 
receive them. Here is a fufficient remedy for our Divifions, 
upon the account of Church-goveroment,if you have but hearts 
to entertain them, and apply them. But if force on one fide 
will adhere to all their former exaflcs and abufes, and continue 
impenitent , unchurching the befl of the Proteftant Churches 
that are not Preiatical ( while they unchurch not the Church of 
Rome:) And if others on the other fide will Aifly refuic to yield in 
things that cannot be denied to be lawful), yea and convenient 
for the Chu- cbes, and fct more by all their own conceits then by 
the Peace of Brethren, and confequently the profperity of the 
Church, we muR leave the care of all to God, and content cur 
fclve s that we have done our duty. 



Some in/lances to prove that moderate men 
mil agree upon the foregoing term?. 

$• i. *^S§5^1^ ^ST any think that it is a hopelefs work 
^ that I have motioned , and the parties 
will not agree upon thcfe terms , I fhali 
{hall next prove to you chat the godly and 
moderate of each party, are agreed already 
( adeafttheEpifcopaland Presbyterians, 
and I think the red: ) arid that its in Practice more then Princi- 
ples that we difsgree. 

$.2.1.1 wiU-begin with the E pi/copal Divines^ whom there 
ate two parties, differing much more from one another,then the 
one of them doth from the Presbyterians. The ancient Bifhops 
and the moderate oflate,did maintain the Validity of Ordination 
by Presbyters,and own the Reformed Churches that had other, 
fuppofing their Epifcopacy ufefuli to the perfection or well being 
of a Church, but not neceffary to the being of it. And this fort of 
racnfwho alfo agree with us in doftrine)we could quickly be re- 
conciled with. But of late years there are many Epifcopal Di- 
vines fprung up,tbat embracing theDodrine called Arminianifm, 
do withal deny the Being of the Miniftry and Churches that want 
Prelaticalordinatiomand withthefe there is no hope of concord, 
becaufe they will have it on no other terms then renouncing our 
Churches and Miniftry, and being again ordwed bjthem^ and 
thus coming wholly over to them. Thefe feparate from us, and 
pretend that our Churches have no trueWor(hip(wondcrous au- 
dacity, ) and our Minifters are no true Minifters, and call the 
Church into private houfes fasD. Hide exprefly in his QChrift 
and his Church] in the beginning of the Preface; and many 
others. ) Of whom I fpoke before. 

§. 3 .That the ancient Englifh Bifhops that hold to the doctrine 
of the Church of England, and are peaceable men, arc eafily 

Xxz agreed 


agreed with u>% I firft prove from the example of Reverend 
fhop HallAn his Peacemaker he hath thefe words, \_Pag. A^AWk 
48,49. The D vi [ions of the Church art either General betwixt oar 
Church And the ether Reformed ; qy /fecial with thofe within the 
bofome of etir own Church •, both which re^u re fever al cenfidtra- 
lions . For the former, bleffed be God .there is no difference In anj ejfen • 
tial matter betwixt the Church of England and her Sifttn sf the 
Reformation : We accord in every point of Chriftian Dcclrine with- 
out leaf the variation. (NB) Their publike Confijfions and ours, 
arefuff.cient convicliens to the wo r ld, of cur full and abfolute agree- 
ment ; the only difference is in the form of cuiward admimftration i 
Wherein alfo we are fo fir agreed, as that we all profefs this form 
ttct to be ejfentialto the being cf a Church ( N- B. ) though much 
importing the well or better being of it, according te our fever al 
apprehenjions thereof ; and that wt do all retain a reverent and 
loving opinion of each other in our own feveral wayes : net feeing 
An] reafon why fo poor a diver Jity fhould worh^ any alienation of af- 
fection in us, one towards another : But withall, nothing hinder 1 
but that we ma) ceme yet clofer to one another, if both may re five to 
meet in that Trimitlve Government ( whereby it is meet we fhould 
both be regulated) univ erf ally agreed on by-all antiquity ; wherein 
all things Kere ordered and tranfacled by the Confnt of the Fre-by 
f^ terie, moderated by one conftant Prefident thereof: the Primacy 
and perpetual practice whereof no man can doubt of that hathbxt 
fcen the writings of Clemens and Ignatius, and hath gone along 

with phi Hiftory of thofe primitive times Wem*y well re ft ix 

rhe judgement oj Mr. John Camero, the Learned]} Divine, be it 
fpeke withsut envy , that the Church of Scotland bath afforded 
in this laft age : j Nuliuseft dubitandi, locus, (frc. There is no 
doubt at allffaith he, but that Timothy was chofen by the Colledge 
tf the Presbyters, to be the Prefident of them, and that nst without 
feme authority ever the reft, bat yet fitch as have the due bounds and 
limits'^ And that this was a leading cafe, and common to other 
Churches, was never denyed by any authsr. Words may r.ot breaks 
f quart , where the things are agreed. If the name of a Bifiip dif- 
fleafe, let them call this man a Moderator, a Trefident, a Super- 
intendent, an Overfcer ; r nly for the fixednefs or change oj this per" 
fin, let the ancient and univ erf all praclice of Gods Church be 
thought worthy to over fw ay. And if in this one point ( N. B. ) 
( wherein the diftance it fo xarrcw , we could condescend to each 

■ other , 


<ether , *// er£^ circumftancei and appendices of varying pr attic es 
or opinions , might without any difficulty be accorded. But if there 
muft be a difference of judgement in thefe matters of outward Po- 
licy , Kvhyp; -uld not our hearts be ftill one ? why fhould fuch a di- 
verfity be of "Tower to endanger the dijfolving of the bond of brother - 
hood ? Aiay we have the arace but to follow the truth in Love, we 
JIjaII in thefe fever al trails overtake her happily in the end ■, and 
find her embracing of Peace ,ani crowning us with bhjfednefs ] 
SofarBifhop Hall; fo that you fee that only tlic fixing of 
the Moderator or Prefident will fatisrie fuch as he : »nd 
fo with him and fuch as he, for my parti am fully agreed al- 

§.4. And here by the way, becaufe there are fo many Epifco- 
pal feparatifts of Utc, that hazzird the fouls of their partial fol- 
lowers, and becaufe the right habituating of the m nd with Peace 
is an excellent help to a foun J understanding , and the ekaping 
the errors and hainous fins that Faction engageth too many in, I 
therefore make it my requeft to all tbatrcad thefe iines,but fober- 
ly to read over that*one Book of Bifhop Halls,cx\ted the Peace- « /ndMr. 
maker ', once or twice : which if I could procure,! think I fhould Burroughs 
do much to the Peace of thefe Churches, and to the good of lremo,u 
many endangered fouls, that by pa (Fiona, te and factious leaders 
are mifguided. 

§. 5. The fame Reverend man in his Humble Remonftrance 
hith thefe words, Pag. 29, 30, 3 1. [_ The fecend is intended to 
ra'fe envy againft us, as the uncharitable cenfurers and condemners 
of th;fe Reformed Churches abroad, which differ from our Govern- 
ment : wherein we do juftly complain tf ,a fandtrous afperfun caft 
upon us : We love and honour thofeSifler Churches, as the dear 
fpsufe of Chrift ; we blefs God for them ; and we do heartily wifh 
unto them that happinefs in the Partner /hip of our admin'ftratien, 
which I dtubt not but thej do no lefs heartily vtifh unto tkemfelves, 
Good words you will perhaps fay; but whit is all this fair comple- 
ment, if our all condemn them? For if EpifcQpAc'y fland by Di- 
vine right, What becomes of thefe Churches that want it ? Malice 
and ignorance are met together in this unjuft aggravation : 
I. Our p&fition is only affirmative, implying thejufiifiablenefsanet 
holinefs of an Efifcopal calling, without any further implication : 
Next % when we (peak, °f Divine right, we^ mean not an cxprtfj Law 

XX 3 •/ 

(H z ) 

of GoAreqnl'i' g it tiptn the ab folia v e Necessity of the Being of a, 
Church ( what hitderances fcever m.y interfofe ) but a Divine 
inftitution warranting it where it is> and requiring it where it may 
be hid. Every Church therefore which is capable of this form 
of Government \ b&th may and ought to affitl it ■ ■■ - but 

theft particular Churches to whom this power and faculty is denyed 9 
hfcKttyngofthe true effence of a Church jbouglot bey miff feme 

thing cf their glory and perefeUion • tsfnd page 3 2. Q Our 

for 91 of Government differs little from their own, fave in 

the perpetuity of their (vprzeUor) Moderatorfhip,andthe exclu* 
fion eft hat Lay -Presbyterie which never till this age had footing 

in the Chriflian Church- ] - And Page 41 , 42. [ Alas 

my Br then, while we do fully agree in all the fe, and all other 
Doctrinal and P radical points of Religion , why 'will you be fo 
uncharitable y as by thefe frivolous and caufelefs Divifiens to rend 
thefcamlefs coat of Chrift i It it a Title, *r a Retinue \ tr aCe* 
rtm&uy , a Garment* or a Colour, or an Organ Pipe, that can makg, 
us a different Church, whiles we preach andprofefs the fame faving 
truth 1 whiles we de fire (as you prof efs to do ) to walk^confciona- 
b'y with our God according to that one Rule of the Roy all Law of 
cur AiAker , -whiles we oppofe one and the fame common enemy f 
whiles we wfeignedly endeavour to hold the unity of the Spirit in 
the bonds of Peace} — For us, we make no difference at all 
{in the right and inter eft of the Church ) betwixt C^ ey U a "^ 
Laity, betwixt the Clergy and Laity of one part and of anoiher : 
weare aHyoxr true Brethren-, we are one with you, both in heart 
and brain , and hope to meet you in the fametieaven : but if je will 
needs be otherwije minded s we can but bewail the Churches mi- 
fiery and your fin. — ] You hear how this good Bilhop was far 
from a (epiration. 

$.. 6. How contrary to thiols the forefaid writing of Dr. Hide 
( whichlinfUncein, becaufe itis come new to my hand/ who 
(tignntizeth the front of his book with the brand of feparacion, 
and that of one of the moft rigid and unreafonable kinds. Thus 
be begins, [_" When Confident icus Minifters cannot afftciate in 
44 the Church, and Ccnfcientious Chriftians cannot go toCburch^and 
ic Cftftemary Ch'riftUns go thither ', either to little purpofe, becaufe 
i,i tonotrucworjhip,ortogreatfhame, becaufe to no true LMini- 

"fieri , /;/ fit tht t^burch fhouldcom to private beufes ] 



Doth he not begin very wifely and charitably? What could the 
moil Schifmatical Papift fay more ? What ! notrut worjhip \ no 
true Minifters I and but Cuftomary Chriftians that come thither ? 
Yes, and that's not all .- he purfues it with an exprobration, than 
we are fain from our Religisn, ( p. 4. ) and yet that's ro ! : a ! i : 
he adds, [ " Here feems yet to be a v'erj bad certainty of their Re- 
?' ligion •, and how fan there be a bitter Certainty of their falva- 
u thn ? unlefs ( that we may gratifie their fngularity more then 
tf our own veracity ) tve will fay, There may be a company tf 
" gocd Chriftians out of the Communion of Saints , or a Commu- 
M nion of Saints out of Chrifts Cath like Church. ~| Should we. 
laugh or weep at fuch a man as this? What ! no communion of 
Saints, but with the feparating party of the Prelaws ? Unhap- 
py we that live in England, aud can meet with fo fmali a number 
of thefe Saints. Is the Catholike Church confined to this party ? 
and Salvation to this C hunch ? Tranfccndent Papal arrogancy ! 
Its well that thefe Prelates are not the only Key- keepers of hea- 
ven I for we fee how we fhould then be ufed. I tnuft tell this 
Dr.andallof his mind, that it is an eaner way to Heaven, then 
\ we dare hope to come thither by, tojoynour fejves to their fe- 
parating Communion of Saints, and live as the moft that we are 
acquainted with, that are of that Saint-like Communion, He 
had been better have talked at thefe rates to men of another Age 
or Nation, then to us that fee the lives of their adherents. We 
never changed our Religion nor our Church, What if he read 
his prayers, and I fay mine without book; or what if he pray in 
white, and I in black} or w'oat if he kneel in receiving the Eu- 
chanft, and I fit or ftand ? or what if he ufe the Croft in bap- 
tifme, and I baptize no better then the Apo(\les did wi hout ir; 
do thefe or fuch like make us to be of two Religions f Do I change 
my Religion, if I read with a pair of fpefkehs, or if I look to- 
wards the South crWeft, racher then the EaR &c. ? We fee 
what thefe men would make the fhriftian Religion to be. Were 
the ApoRles no Chriftians, becaufe they bad no kneeling st the 
Eucharift, nor Crofs in Baptifm, nor Surplice, nor (atlealt 
our) Common Prayer- book, &c ? Dare you fay they were 
no Chriflians ? or yet that Chnftian Religion was one thing 
then, and another thing now r" And for our Churches, we do. 
not only meet in the fame pUces, but we have the fame doctrine, 


C344) I 

the fawnvorftjlp ( in every part, though he talk of our rio true 
worfhtp; as if Praying, Praifing God, &c. were no true wor- 
fh : p ; ) the tilings changed were by the iropofers and defenders 
( fee Dr. B&rgefs Refoynder ) profeffed tobe no parts at ail of 
worfhip,but meer accidents ; we have ih? fame people, fave here 
and there a few that fepirate by you $ and others feduccment,and 
fome vile ones that we caft out . we have abundance of the fame 
Aiimflers that we had. And yet muil we have no wo'Jhip, Mini" ■ 
ftrj^Commpinienof Saints, or Salvation s becaufe we have only a 
Parochial and not a Diocefan Epifcopacy ? Forfooth we have 
loll our Region, and are all loft men, becaufe our Bifhops have 
butfingk Panfti churches to overfee ( which they find a load as 
heavy as they can bear, ) and we have not one Bifhop to take 
the Government of an hundred or two hundred Churches. At 
R^me he is a damned man that btlicveth not in the Pope : and is 
cur of the Catholike Church, becaufe he is out of the fubje&i- 
on of the Pcpe : and with thefe men, we are loft men,if we never 
fo much believe in Chrift, becaufc we believe not in an Arch, 
bifhop, and arc out of the Catholike Church and Communion 
of Saints, becaufe we will not be ruled by fuch Rulers as thefe. 
And what's all thi?, to fuch Counties as this where 1 live, and moil - 
eife in Enghnd that I hear of, that know of no Bifhop they 
have ( and they rejected none, ) nor doth any come and com- 
mand them any Obedience f Muft we be unchri(lened,unchurcht 
and damned, for not obeying, when we have none to obey, or 
none that calls for our obedience ? But I (hall let thefe men pate, 
and leave them in iht\rftp*ration % &tfa\Qg that they had Catho- 
like fpirics and princples. This much I have faid to let men fee, 
thatthereisnopolTibilityof our union with this fort that are 
refolved on zfeparation; and that it is not thefe Novelifls and Di- 
viders, but the antient JEpifcopal party of England that we can 
eafiiy agree with. 

§7. The next that I (hall inflance in, that was agreed with 
thefe Principles of ours, is the late Reverend and Learned B!-, 
(h p Vfier, of whofc Concord with us, I have two proofs. 
The one was his own profe/Son to my felf. The other is his 
cwn writin^s.efpecially his Propositions given in to King £harls y 
now printed , called [ The Rehnclkn of Epifcopacy to the form of 
Sjxsdicai Government^ receivedin the ancient Church ] which 



confifteth of four Proportions ( having firft proved that all 
Presbyters have the power of Difcipline and Church-govern- 
ment : ) the firil alloweth the (ingle Reclor of the Pirifh to take 
notice of the fcandaious, reprove^ admonilh, #nd debar 
them from the Lords Tables The fecond is, that in every Ru- 
rall Deanry, all the Pallors within the Precinct , may by the 
Chorepifcopus or Suffragan, be every month AiTembled in a 
Synod, and according to the Major part of their voices, he con- 
clude all matters that (hill be brought into debate before them, 
as Excommunication &c. The third is, for a Diocefan Synod 
once or Twice a year, whereby the confent of the Major part 
of theRe&ors, all things might be concluded by the Bifhop or 
Superintendent, call him whether you will, or in his abfence, by 
one of thefuffragans, whom he deputes to be Moderator. The 
fourth is for Provincial and National Synods in like fort. 

$.8. And when I had perufed thefe papers, ( in M.S. ) I 
told him that yet one thing was left out y tfmt the Episcopal par- 
ty would many of them (tick at more then he, and thai is, a 
Negative voice in Ordination in the Preiideot, to which and the 
reft I propofed this for accommodation in brief Q i. Let every 
particular or Parijh Church have a Bijhop and Presbyters to affifl 
him, -where poffibly they can be had. 2. Let all thefe Ajfociate and 
their fever al Affociations have a (iatea Prefident. 3 . Let all men 
be at liberty for the name, whether they will call him a Bijhop, Pre- 
fident, Moderator, Superintendent, or the like, 4. ssfnd frr the 
Negative voice in Ordination^ let all CMiniflers of the Affs.'lati- 
Qn agree that de facto they will not Ordain without him, bat in Ca- 
fes of Necejfity ; but let every man be left free to his own Princi- 
ples on which he fh all ground this pratlice, and not be bound to con- 
fent, that it jure* Negative vote is due to the Prefident. } Tfl 
terms did I propoie to cbc Bifhop for Accommodation, and in- 
treated him to tell me plainly his judgement, whether *luy are 
fatisfadory and fufficicntfor the Epifcopal party to yield ro 
Peace and Communion ? and his anfwer was this [ Thej are fuf 
ficient, and moderate men will accept them, but others will not, a$ 
J have trjed : for many of them are offended with me for propounding 
fuch terms. ] And thus this Reverend ^Bifhop and I were agreed 
for Peace in a quarter of an hour • ( the truth of wh'ch. 1 fo- 
lemnly profefs : ) and fo would all the Minilters and ChriOians 

Yy ia 


in England, if they were not either wifer or fooliflier, honefter 
or difhonelier then he and I. And this I leave on Record (o 
Pofterity, as a teftimohy againft the dividers and contenders of 
this age, [TThat it wat n$t long of men of the temper and princi- 
ples of th'.s Reverend Archbifhop and mj [elf, that the Epifcopal 
party and their diffenting Brethren in England, were not fpeedily 
and heartily agreed : for we atlually did it, ] To no hono'ur of 
mine, but to the honour of this peaceable man, and the fhame 
of theunpeaceablehinderersor refafers of our Reconciliation, 
let this teftimony live, that Pofterity may know whom to blame 
for our Calamities ; they all excoll Peace when they reject it 
and deftroy it. 

§ . 9 For a third witnefs of the Reconcileablencfs of the Mo- 
derate Epifcopal party on thefe terms, I may well produce Dr. 

Dr.Hdldf- Hold/worthy who fubferibed thefe fame Propofitions of Bifhop 

worth. Vfhtr to the King : and therefore was a Confemer to the fame 

way of Accommodation. 

Dr. Forbs. $. i o. A fourth witnefs is Dr. Forbs of Scotland, who having 

written purpofely a Book called his Jrenicon, for Accommoda- 
tion on fuch terms, I need to fay no more of him, but refer you 
to the Book. I fhall name no more of the Epifcopal party. Thefe 
four are enow to my purpofe. 

$.11. That the Presbyterians (of England fpecfally ) are 
willing to clofe upon thefe terms of a fixed Moderator, I prove, 
i. By the profeftConfent of that Reverend Learned fervant of 

Gather. Chrift Mr. Thomas GataJ^r, a Member of the late Affembly at 
Weflminfter, who hath profeffed his judgement of this matter 
in a Book againft Lilly. I refer you to his own words, for bre- 
vity fake. 

^ht Undon ^ I2# My next witnefs, and for brevity, many in one, (hall 
TrGviw belAr.Geree, and the Province of London, citing him in their 
Jh& Bivinnm Miniflerii^ fag. Append. 1 22. the words are thefe 
L That the Ancient Fathers in the point of Epifcepacy , differ 
more from the high Prelatifl then from the 'Presbyterian : for the 
Presbyterians alwayes have a Prefident to guide their atlions, which 
they acknowledge may be perpetual durante vita modo fe bene gef- 
fenc ; or temporary to avoid inconvenience, Vehich Bilfon takes 
hold of as advantages, becanfe fo little difcrepant, ( at he 
faith) from what he maintamth.'] See the reft there. 



4.13. 3. Beza ( the Leader againft Prelacy ) faith, degrAd. se^u 
Minifi. EvAng. Inflittiti Divini eft, ut in omni costu Presbytero- 
mm unus fit quiordinc praeat & prafit reliquis. It is of Divine 
Inftitution that in every Affembly of Presbyters, there be one that 
go before and, be Above the reft. J And dividing Bifiiops into Divine, 
Humane, and Diabolical , he makes the Humane tolerable Pre- 
lacy to be the fined Prefid en r. 

§. 14. 4. Calvin ( whoisaccufed for ejecting Epifcopacy) cdv'm. 
beiides what he writes of it to Card Sadolet, faith in his Infti- See alfo Dan. 
tut. lib. 4. cap. 4. $. 1. [_ Ea CAutione tot Am fuam Oecommiam Cetomiamhto 
compofuerunt ( Ecclefit veteris Epifc&pi ) Ad unicAm illam Dei ^ 1 %** A *5. 
ver'hi normam, ut facile videas nihil fere hac parte habaijfe a iV&fp.^' 
verbo Dei alienum. ] §. 2. ^^nibfts ergo docendi munusin- §.13.14. 
juyffum erAt y eos emnes mminabant Presbyter os. Mi ex fuo nu- 
mero in finguli* civitatibus mum eligebant, cui fpecialiter da' 
bant tit ulum Ep'fcopi : neex &q tiAlit ate \ut fieri filet, dijjidia naf- 
cerentur. Neque tanrcn fie honor e & di gnit At efnp trior erAt Epif- 
copus, ut Dominium in CollegAS haberet : fed q has partes habet 
Conffil in Senatu, ut refer at de negotiu, fententias roget,confulendo % 
monendo, hortando, aliis praeat, authsrita-te ftta totam aBionem 
regat • & quod deer e turn Commnni Conflio fuerit, exequatur : 
id munus fuftinebAt Epifcopus in Presbyterorumcoetu ] & §. 4. 
fine £ Gubernationemfic conftituti nennulli HierarchiAm vocarunt y 
nomine ( ut mihi viderur ) improprio t certe fcriptaris inufitato : 
Cavere enim voluit fpiritus fantlus, nequis principatum am do- 
minationem fomniaret , quum de Ecclefit gttbernatione Agitur. 
Verumfi rem, omijfo vocabuk^intueamur ( N. B. ) reperiemus 
veteres Ep'ifcopos non aliam regenda EccleftA formAm voluiffe 
fingere ab eA quAm Deus verbo fuo prtferipfit ] This he writes 
after the mention of Archbifhops and Patnarcks, as well as of 
Bifhops governing in Synods. 

§. 15. Whereby the way let me give you this obfervation, 
that I^iftiops Governing but in Synods can have no other power 
of Govermcnt then the Synods themfelves have: But Synods 
themfelves as fuchzrt not directly for Government , but for 
Concord and Communion of Churches, aRd fo ccnfequentlj for 
well-governing the feveral ftockj : Nor hath a Synod any Go- 
verning Power over a particular Paftor, as being his fuperiour 
appointed to that end ; but only a Power ofConfent or Agree- 

Y y 2 ment : 

raent: to which for unity, and communion fake, he is confe- 
quentially obliged ; not by Virtue of Gods Command, that re- 
quired us to obey the Higher Power ( for three Pallors are 
not made fo the Rulers of one) but by virtue of Gods com- 
mands that require us to do all things in Unity, and to main- 
tain the Peace and Concotd of the Churches, and to avoid Di- 
vilionsand difcord. 

$. 1 6. If any think that this doth too much favour the Con- 
gregational way, I muft tell him that it is fo true and clear, 
that the Epifcopal men that are moderate acknowledge it. For 
inftance : the Reverend Bilhop Vfber did, without asking, of 
himfelf profefs to me that it was his judgement [that certainly 
Councils or Synods are rot for Government but for Vnity^ and that 
a Bifhip out of Council hath the fame Governing Power as all the 
Conncil , though their vote may bind him for Unity to con fent. 

j. 1 7. This being fo,it muft needs follow that an Archbifliop, 
or the Prefident of a National, Provincial, Diocefan, orCIaf- 
ficall Affembly, orof any Affociation of the Paftors of many 
Churches, hath no fuperiour Governing power over the Paro- 
chial or Congregational Bidiop of one Churchy but only in 
concurrence with the Synod, a Power of Determining by way 
of Agreement, fuch points as he (hall be obliged for Unity and 
Communion to confent to and perform, if they be not contrary 
to the word of God. This evidently follows from this Reverend 
Archbifhops do&rine,and the truth. 

§. 18. And if any fhall think that the Presbyterians w\\\ not 
yield that a particular Church do ordinarily confift but of one 
full Congregation, I confute them by producing their own Con- 
cefiions : in the London Minifters Jus Divinum Minifterii. ap- 
pend, pag. 123. they plainly fay, that [ TJoe later (BiftiopsJ 
gg* -were Diocefan, the former ( that is the Bifhops of the firft or an- 
cient times ) were Bifhops only of one Congregation^ And pag.82. 
they fay Q Thefe Angels were Ccngregatienal, not Diocefan : In 
the beginning of Chriftianity, the number of 'Believers , even in the 
greateft Cities were fo few, as that they might well meet> cm to avrs 
in me and the fame place. And thefe were called, the Church of 
the City, and therefore to ordain Elders K&? w^miclv and**** 
v'ow, are all one in Scripture J Thus far they yield to the Con- 
gregational men. 

§.19. 5- One other witnefs of the Presbyterians readinefs to 
accommodation thefe terms, I fhall give, and no more, and that 
is Mr. Richard Vines y a man that was moft eminent for *his ma- 
nagement of the Presbyterian caufe in the Affembly, and at Vx* 
bridge Treaty, and in the Ifle of Wight ; the Papers there pre* 
fentedtorhe King are to be feen in Print. When we didfet up 
our AfTociation in this County,! purpofing to do' nothing with- 
out advife, and defigning a hearty clofure of all fober Godly 
men , Epifcopal, Presbyterian, Congregational and Eraftian : 
didconfultflrftaboutitby Letters with Mr. Vines, and in his 
anfwer to mine , he approved of the defign, and thought our 
diftance very froall, and yielded to a fixed Prcfidency , though 
not to a Negative voice ; ( which I would have none forced toj 
Becaufe they are too long to put into this fe&ion,! will adjoyn 
that part of his Letter that concerns this fubjed, prefixing one 
that went next before it , againft the felling of the Church 
la&ds,that theBifhopsmay fee how little fuch meh as he con- 
fented to it or Iked it ; and may take heed of charging them 
with Sacri'edge. 

$ . 20. Laftly the EraflUns arc known to be for Epifcopacy it 
felf, fo be it, it come in by the power of the Magiftrate. And 
that nothing propofed croffeth the Principles of the Congrtgatio « 
**//men, I have (hewed before: But whether really we (hall 
have their content to a Peace upon thefe propofed terms, I know 
not ; becaufe their writings that I have feen, do not meddle with 
the point, fave only one Congregational man-, Mr. Giles Firming 
hath newly written for this very thing, in his TreatifcofSchifm 
agaixft Dr. Owen, page 66,6 7,68. I defire you to read the 
words to fave me the labour of tranferibins them. In which he 
g'rvethus to underftand, that fome of the Moderate Congrega- 
tional Party, will joyn with us in a Reconciliation on thefe terms: 
Whether many or all will do fo, I know not. Let their pra&ife 
(hew whether they will be the flrft or the laft in the Healing of 
our Divifiont . But if they refufe, we will not for that rcfufe to 
Love them as Brethren, and ftudy to perform our duty towards 
them : as knowing that we fuffer much more when we come 
fhort of our duty and love to others ,then when they come fhort 
of their duty and love to us. 

Yy 3 Mr. Richard 


Mr. Richard Vines bis Letters before mentioned as a Tefttmony 
tbac the Presbyterian M'inifters are not sgainft a fixed Prefi- 
denr, or that Epifcop3cy which BifhopH*//, &c. would 
have been fatisfied with. 

Reverend Friend, 

1 Received your two lafi j and as for a Schoolmafter I Jball do 
the be$ I can to propound one to you t &c. Asfer your jQucftion 
about Sacriledge, 1 am very near you in prefent opinion. The point 
was never Jiated nor debated in the I fie of Wight. 1 did for my 
part decline the difpnte : for I C6uldnot ma ; main the caufe as en 
the Parliaments fide 'and becaufe both land others -were unwilling jt 
was never brought to any open debate : The Commifft oners did ar- 
gue it with the King : but they went upon grounds of Law and Po- 
licy ; and it was only about Bifbops Lands : for they then averred 
tht continuance of D. and Chapiters Lands to the uft of the Church, 
Some deny that there is any fm of SacrileJge under the Gofpel: 
and if there be any ^they agree not in the definition'* Seme hold an 
alienation of Church goods in cafe of Neceffity \ and then make 
the Neceffity what and as extenfive as they p leafs. The mofl are of 
opinion that whiles the Church lies fo unpnvidedfor, the dwati* 
ons are not alienable fine Sacrilegio. If there were a furplufage 
above the competent- maintenance , it were another matter. Its deer 
tnough that the Donors wills arefruflrated, and that their General 
intention and the General ufe y viz. the maintenance of Gods wor- 
Jhipand Afwifiers, Jhwldftand, though the particular ufe might 
be fuptrftitions, I cited in my laft Sermon before the Parliament 
( uxprinted) a place touching Sacrif edge out of Mr. Hiiderfham 
on Pfal. $ I. It did notpleafe. Tou may find the words in his book^ 
by the Index. If his defcription of it be true , then you will {lilt 
be of your own mind. I dare encourage no pur chafers ^ but do 
deftre to havefome more of jour thoughts about it, and I fball return 
you mine : as I do my thanks for your excellent and worthily efteem- 
td Treatife which you vouchfafed to prefix my name beftrei 
Sir, I have no more time or paper but to ftrbferibe myfelf 

Tour truly loving Friend. 
London, July 2C. R. Vine*. 



T Hough IJhouldhave de fired to h*ve under ft oody our thoughts 
about the point of S acr Hedged hat fo I might have formed up 
my thoughts into fome better order andcleerer ijfue then I did in my 
la? : yet to Jhevr untojou hoW much I value this correfpondence 
With you, lam willing to WA^e fome return to your laft- And 
fir ft touching the Scheolmafter intended, &c. The Accomo- 
dation you /peak of is a great and a good work for the gaining into 
the worl^fuch ufeful parts and inter efts as might very much heal 
the difcord,and uiite the ftrength of men t o cppofe deftruliive ways, 
and in my opinion mne feafible With thofe men then any other, if 
they be moderate and godly : for We differ with them rathir about 
fome pinacles of the Temple then the foundation er abbuttreffes 
thereof. I would not have much time fp ntin a formula of dotlrine 
orworfhip : for We are not much di ft ant in them and happily no 
more the* with one another : "But 1 Would have the agreement at- 
tempted it that very thing Which chiefly made the divifton, ar.d 
that is Government^ heal that breach and heal all I there beg in and 
therein labour all you can. What influence this may have upon 
others IknoW not in this exulctration of mens minds : but the work^ 
fptakj itfetfgod, andyour reafonsfor the attempting of it are ve- 
ry conjiderable, For the Affembly, you know, they can meddle with 
juft nothing but what is fent unto them by Tar Lament or one honfe 
thereof (as the order faith ) and for that reafon never toole^ upon 
them to intermeUe therein. What they do infuch a thing, muft 
be done as private perfsns, and not as in the capacity tf ' Affembly 
men, except it come to them recommended by the Parliament. The 
great buftnefsis to finda temperament in ordination and govern' 
went, in both which the exchifion or admittance of Presbyter* ( di- 
cis caufa ) for a foadow , Was rot regular: and no doubt the 
Presbyters ought and may both teach and govern, as men that muft 
give account of foxls* Tor that you fay of every particular ( hurch 
havingmaty Presbyters, it hath been confidered in our Affembh, 
and the Scriptnre fpe?*k* fair for it , but then the Church and City 
Was $f one extent : no farijhss or bounds affigned cut to particu- 
lar men ( as noW) but the Minifierspreacht in circuftu or in com- 
mon and flood in relation to the Churches as to mi Church , though 



muting haply in divers houfes or places ( as uflillthe manner of 
fome Cities in the Low Countries.) If yon Will follow this model % 
you rnuft lay *kt£ity all into one C touch particular, and the Vil- 
lages half a dozen of them into a £hurch I which is a bufinefs here 
in England of vaft Mfgn and conference. And as for that you 
fay cfz Btftiopover many Presbyters^not over many Churches ; 
1 believe no fuch 3ifhops will plea fe our men: bat the notion as 
you conceive it t hath been and is the opinion of learned men. Gro- 
tius in his commentary on the AdiStn divers places and particular' 
ly Cap. 17. faith, that as in every p articular Synagogue (many 
of which was in fome one City ) there was &WJvvciya>yQ- \ fueh 
was the Primitive Bjhop : and doubt lefs thefirfi Bijbops were 
over the community of Presbjters as Presbyters in joint relation 
to one (fhurchor Region 5 which Region being upon the increafe 
ef believers, divided into more Churches, and in after times thofe 
£bnrchet affigned to particnlar men '• yet hf the Bifbof continued 
Bipovp over thtmftM- For that you fay, he had a Negative voice, 
thats mo Y e then ever If aw proved, or ever fh all \ 1 believe for the 
fir ft two hundred years ; and yet 1 have lab our ea to enquire into it. 
That makes him Angelus princeps , not Angelas praefes as Dr. 
Re'igr\o\d$faithCa\v\ndenies that^& makes him Conful in Senatu. 
or as the Speaker in the houfe ef Parliament, Which as I have heard 
that D. B. did fay, was but toma\e him fore-man of the Jury. 
Take heed of yeilding a Negative voice. As touching the Intro* 
bullion of ruling Elders, fuch as are modelled out by Parliament, 
my judgement is fufficiently knoWn : lam of your judgement in 
the point. There fhould be fuch Eiders as have power to preach 
as well as rule : 1 fay power •, but how that Will be effetled hire I 
know not, except We could or Would return to the Primitive na- 
ture and con/litution of particular Churches : and therefore it 
mufi be helped by the combination of more Churches together in- 
to one as to the matter of government ,and let them befttlldiftintl 
as to Word and Sacraments. That is the *afieft way of accommo- 
dation that yet eccurs to my thoughts. Sir 1 fear I trouble you 
too long, but it is tofhiw how much lvalue you and your Letters 
to me: for Which 1 thank J M, and reft 

Tours in the be ft bonds 
Septemb, 7. R. Vines. 



T Hough Mr. Vines here yield not the Negative Voice to 
have been defaclo in the firft or fecond age, nor to be de 
jure, yet he without any queftion^ yielded to the flatingof a 
Prefidcnt, durante vita, if he prove not unworthy, ( which 
was one chief point that I propounded to him. ) And I 
make no doubt but he would have yielded to a voluntary Con- 
fentof Presbyters defatto not to ordain without the Prefident, 
but in cafe of Necefiity -'But that I did not propound to him. And 
the difficulties that are before us defatto in fetting up a Parochi- 
all Epifcopicy which he racntioneth, I have cleared up already 
in thefe papers, (hewing partly that the thing is already cxiftenr, 
and partly how more fully to accomplifh it. All would be eafie, 
if Holy, Self-denying, Charitable hearts were ready to enter- 
tain and put in execution the honeft, healing Principles chat arc 
before ui,and obvious to an ordinary underftanding : Or (if ftill 
the Paftors will be contentions ) if Holy, Peaceable Magillrates 
would ferioufly take the work in hand, and drive on thefloathful 
and quarrelfome Minifters to the performance of their, duty. 

The Epifcopacy of the Proteftant Churches in Poland. 

ADrian. RegenvolfciusHiftor.Ecclefiaft.Sdavonicar. Pro- 
vine, lib. 3. page 424. 
N. B. Quoniam h prima Eccle par urn in minoris PoUnU Pro* 
vlnciafieformat'tone , ufu & confuetudine receptum eft, ut e feui- 
eribns hifce omnium Diftriftuum Quorum nemina $6.recenfuimus t 
unus Primarius, five in or dine Primus, qui vulgo Superintendent 
Eccle par urn mimris Polonia vacatur , Sjnodifque Provincialibus 
prapdet $ totius Synodi Provincialis authoritate, confenfu ac fuf- 
fragiis eligatur, ac, no* quidem'per impoptionem manuum^ (prop- 
ter evitandam Primatus alicujus fufpicionem, am juris ac potejia- 
tis alicujus in cateros feniores (peciem, ) benediclione tantum, /ra- 
ter* aappre cat ione, Offictorum qua hocce concernunt munus prah- 
H> : 9ne y piifq-^ totius Sjnsdi precibus , Regimini* dmtaxat & Or* 
dixit boni in Eccle pa Dei canfa, inaugural ur ad declaratur;^(o m 

Z z wins 


mint Primtriorum horum Senior urn, five Minor. Polon. EccUfi- 

urnmfnperinxendinm. ] 

The Churches of the Bohemian Confefs. called Vnitatls Fra- 
rr*«,have among the Pallors of the Churches, their Confcniors, 
and Seniors, and one Prefident over all. Id. Regen.Volf ?. 3 1 5, 
[Seniores five finpertttendentesEcclefiartim Bohemiearum & Mo- 

rtvicsrtm, &C < pler*mq\ e Ctnfenioribns elignntnr^ no 

fer imfofisionem Manunm publicAmq^ induguratienem, in mn- 
tint Senior *t us or dinantnr ac confeertntur. Et long* con fa* 
etfidine in Ecclefa trium hsrum provinciar/tm receptum efl, 
nt e fenioribns unus Primaries ( five in or dine Primus ) 
quern vnlgoilli Prarfidem vocant t non eligatur quidem^ nee pun- 
lariter Ordinetur, fed poft dccejfnm aliorum , ipfo OrdinAtioms 
tempore prior fucccdat 2 


The Fourth 


Of a Form of 


How far it is Neceffary, De- 

firable, or Warrantable ; In or- 
der to a Peace between the Parties 
that differ herein, and too unchari- 
tably profecute their difference. 

By Richard Baxter.- 



Printed by Robert White, for Nevil Simmons, Book- 
feller in Kederminflcr, Anno Dem. 1658. 



Qu. Whether a [tinted ] Liturgy , or form 
of JVorfh'ip , he a, defirable means for 
the Teace ofthefe Qhurches . 



pSt^i NnecciTary prolixity is not fo acceptable to 

the Reader that loves botn Truth and 
time, but that I may take it for granted 
that you defire me to leave out fuperfl ui- 
ties in this Difpute. i . The Etymologifts 
(hall be better agreed among thcmfelves 
of the derivation of kht*$ yU and kht^a t 
before I will trouble you with their judge- 
ments. But we are commonly agreed 
that >MT*?y\* i% oft ufedfor any Miniftr ation , but more ftrid- 
ly , and ufually for a fublick^ Miniftration , or any work^ 
of vnbtic\ office ; and yet more ftri&ly from the Septu- 
agint, Ecclcfiaftick writers havealmoft confined it to Holy 
Miniftration , or public k^fervice or Worftiip of God. The 
fevcral ufes of the word in Scripture , and prophane and 
Ecdefiaftick Writers, you may find in fo many Lexicons at plea- 
fare, that I (hall pafs by the reft. BelUrmine doth too grofly 
pretend that when its applied absolutely to holy things,the word 
is taken alwayes in the New Teftament, for a Miniftration in 

Z z 3 facri- 

facri'ficing. A little obfervation may confute that miftakc. 
Nor isitagreeab'e cither to Scripture or the ufeof the Antienc 
Church, to calJ only Forms of pub'ick worfh p that its written, 
by the name of a Liturgy. Whether it were Form, or no Form y 
Writren or not written, Premeditated or extemporate, Words or 
AftionsfW the Publlch^holy Mimftratlcn or fervice of God, was 
of old called The Churches Liturgy t And fo men may be for a 
Liturgy that are not for a Trayer Book. But latter times have 
moftulcd the word for thofe (tinted forms, that fome call Offices 
containing both the Rubric!^ or Dlretlory^nd the Form of words 
prefcribed as the matter of the fervice. And freing that thofe that 
now we fpeak to, underftand it in this fenfe, we muft fpeak as 
they do, while we are fpeaking to them. 

2. Note that it is not any one part of Publick Worftiip that we 
fpeak of Alone , either Prayer, Praife, or other part, but we fpeak 
of the whole frame ,and therefore oft Liturgy, or Prefcribed words 
in General, becaufe that is the controvcrfic that the times call us 
to decide. 

That which I take to be the Truth , and ufefull to our 
Healing , I (hall lay down in thefe ten Propofitions follow- 

Prop. i. A filmed Liturgy is in it f elf LavfulL 
2 . A flint ed Liturgy in fome farts of public^ holy fervice is or* 
dmcrlly nccejfary. 

3. In the Parts where it is not of Necejfitj, it may not only be 
fubmitted to, but de fired when the Peace of the Church rtqnir- 
eth it. 

4. There is fo great d^fftrence between Min\fters,and Teople, 
and Times, that it may be convenient and eligible to fome , at fome 
times » and unfit and not eligible to others ^and at 9ther times. 

5 The tJMinifler sand Churches that earneftly de fire it, fhsuld 
f he Magi flr ate be generally or abfolutely forbidden the ufe of 
nvenient prefcribed Liturgy. 

6. To prefcribe a frame of ft inted fervice, or Prayer, &c. and 

a Nectjfity, or the Peace of the Church upon it, and to punijh, 

e fufpend, excommunicate, or reproach the able, peaceable, 

Mmifiers, or people that (juftlyor unjuftly) fcrupiethe 

it , is fo great a fm % th^t no conffionable Alinlfters 



[hould attempt it, or dsfireit, nor any godlj AlagiflrAte fvjfer it. 
7. The [aft ft way of compofing fuch a Pub Ike Form , 
u to take it all } for matter and words, out of the Holy Scrip- 

S.Tet is not this of fuch Necejfity, but that we may join in 
it , or fife it, if the form of words be not from Scripture. 

9. The matter of a common Liturgy, in which we expeft ar,y 
General Concord, fhduld not be any unnecejfary things, much Ufs 
things doubtfully or forbidden. 

10. Forms of Public^ Prayer fhould not be conftantly ufed bj 
M ni ^ers that are able to pray without thtm : and mne etfe fhould 
be admitted ordinarily to the Afiniftry , but fuck as are able 
competently to pray without fuch Forms \ unlefs in great Neccjji* 
ties of the Church. 

Thefe ten Propofitions are the fumm of all that I (hill 
trouble you with, which I flull now review , and prove in 

Prop. I. A Stinted Liturgy is in it felf lawful. 
JljL This is thus proved: 

Argument 1. That which is not diretlly sr confluent'' ally for- 
bidden by God, remaineth lawfull: A flint ed Liturgy is not di- 
retlly or confeqHinttally for bidden by God', therefore it remaineth 

The Major is undoubted, becaufe nothing but a Prohibition 
can make a thing unlawful). Sin is a tranfgrejjion of a Lawx 
Where there is no Lawjhtre u no tranfgrtffim : And yet 1 have 
heard very Reverend men anfwtr this, that it is enough that it 
is not commanded , though not forbidden. Which is plainly to de- 
ny both Scripture and Civil Principles; Precept makes Duty,or 
a Ncceffity ex pracepto : Prohibitions make an a&ion finful', 
which is prohibited, as Precepts prove an Omiffion finfull of 
the Duty commanded. But Licitum which is between Duty 
and fin, is that which is neither commanded nor forbidden. 
And fuch an ad is not ABus Morality being neither good nor 

Here note thefe two things. 1 . That though we fay that a 
titurgy is in it felf lawful), and that all things not forbidden are 



Law full ; yet in theacluall exercife hie & nunc, it will be hard 
to find onea&uall ufe of it, which is not a duty.orafin. For 
though I am not of their mind that think every aft both fimply 
and refpectivel y confidered is a duty, or a fin (Tor i then every 
aft rauft be Aftu$ Moralis, and fo deliberate and chofen,which 
is not true; as for inrtar.ee, the winking of the eye, &c. 
2. Then nothing were indifferent. 3 .Then every aft rauft have a 
Reafon for it. 4. And the Conferences of Chriftians muft be 
perpetually tormented: as e.g. to give a rcafon when I walk, 
why I fct the right foot forward before the left ; or when two 
eggs of a bignefs are before me, why I take one rather then the 
other: thefe are not moral afts. ) Yet I muft needs think that 
in the worftiip of God, its hard to imagine fuch a cafe, in which 
the ufingofa Liturgy will do neither good nor harm : Or in 
which a man cannot difcern, whether it be like to do more good 
or harm : and fo make it the matter of eleftion or rcfufal. And 
therefore as Paul makes Marriage indifferent in it felf , when its 
hard to find a cafe , in which it (hall not be a doty or a (in to 
particular per(bns,fo fay I of the point in queftion:and yet poffi- 
bly fomctime iuch cafes there may be. A man fometimes in Pru- 
dence may find that conftantly to ufe a form would be to him 
a (in, byreafon of the ill consequents, andfoit wonldbe con- 
ftantly to difufe it : And therefore may find himfelf bound ( by 
accident ) fometimes to ufe,and fometimes to difufe it : And yet 
may fee no reafon at all , as to the particular day and hour, why 
he (hould ufe or difufe it this day rather then another ,or in the 
the Morning rather then the Evening. 

2. Note alfo that God being the fupream Lawgiver of the 
Church, having by Mofes given a Law to lfrae /, did in general 
command, Deut. 12.32. that they fhould add nothing thereto, nor 
ta\e ought therefrom: And confequently, we may conclude it 
prohibited under the Gofpel ; Nay indeed the very prohibition of 
fclf-idolizing makes it a fin for any man to arrogate that Legif- 
lation which is the Prerogative of God. For thatwere to deifie . 
himfelf. And fo this General prohibition doth make all un- 
warrantable Additions to be (infull , that is , all Additions 
which God hath not authorized men to make. But then, fuch 
additions are not /infull formally , becaufe not eommanded,bul 
becaufe for bidden by the General prohibition of £ not adding. 2 * 



Now for the Minor, that a fiinted Liturgy is not forbidden, we 
need no other proof chen that no Prohibition can be produced. 
If it be prohibited, it is either by (omefpecial Trehibition,ot by 
the General prohibition of not adding.But it is by neither of thefe, 
therefore not at all. Speciall prohibition 1 never yet faw any pro- 
duced. God hath nowhere fo. bidden a form of Prayer. And 
the General prohibition of mt adding, extends not to if. For 
i.Icis the Worfhip of God which is the matter that we arc 
there forbidden to add : But the Praying with a form, or with* 
out a form, asfuch^rz neither of them any part of the worfhip 
of* God ; nor fo intended ( as we now fuppofe ) by them that 
ufe it : It is but an indifferent Mode or (fircumfiance of Wor- 
fhip, andtiotany part ofWorfhip. 2. J f Prayer wirjiaforra 
bean Addition to Gods Worfhip, thenfo is praying without a 
ftrm ( for God only Commands Prayer, but neither commands 
a form, nor that we fir fear a form) But the Confequent is 
falfe.as the Opponents will confefs • therefore fo is the Antece- 
dent. 3. Undetermined mutable Modes and Circumftances are 
none of the prohibited Additions, but left to humane deter- 
mination. Bur fuch is the form inqueflion. God hath bid us 
Preach, but not told us whether wc fhU! jtud^ a form ofexprefs 
words alwayes before hand, but left that to prudence : more in- 
ftances will be added under the next Argument ; and therefore I 
(hall now forbear them. 

Argum. 2. The Prudential Determination of fuch Modes and Ar gum 
Circumftances of worfhip as God hath left to humane Deter mina' 
nation, is Lawfw" 4 fiinted form or Liturgy may be fuch a De- 
termination ; therefore a fiinted form or Liturgy may be ( or is in it 
felf) lawfull. 

The Major is part doubt,if the Hypothefis be firft proved, 
that fome modes and circumftances of worfhip are left 
to humane Prudential Determination. And thats eafily proved 

Thofc Modes or Circumftances of worfhip which are Necef- 
fary in Genere, but left undetermined of God in fpecie, are left 
by Gx)d to humane Prudential JDetermination : ( elfe an Jm- 
poflibility fhould be neceflary r ) But many fuch there are 
that are Neccffary in Genere, but left undetermined of God 

A a a in 


in fpecie % therefore many fuch are lefr to humane Prudential De- 

The Minor is fufficiently proved by inftances. God hath made 
it our Duty to Affemble for his Publick Worfhip .* But he hath 
not told us in what place ; nor in what feats each perfon (hall 
fit. Yet fome place is neceffary : and therefore it is left to mans 
Determination: Nor hath he tied'us for weekly Lectures to 
any one day; nor on the Lords day, to begin at any one certain 
hour : and yet fome day and hour is necelTiry ; which therefore 
man muft determine of. So God hath commanded us to read t^he 
Scriptures : But hath not told us whether they (hall be printed or 
written • whether we distil read with Spetlacles or without ; what 
Chapter we (hall read on fuch or fuch a day •, nor ho'w much at 
a time ; Minifbrs muft preach in feafon and out of feafon ; But 
whether they muftftand or fo, or what text they (hall preach oh, 
or how long, and whether in a prepamdform of words or not, 
whether they (hall ufe notes, or net , or ufethe Bible, or recite 
texts by memory, &c. none of thefe things are determined by 
God- and therefore are left to humanfc prudential determina^ 
tton. Abundance of fuch undetermined circumftances may 
be enumerated abput Ringing, Praying, Sacraments and all 

Now that the form of Liturgy is of this nature is manifeft ; God 
hath bid us Pray ; but whether in fore-conceived words, or not , 
or whether in words of other mens firft conceiving or our own, 
or whether oft in the fame words or various, and wherher with 
a Book or without, thefe are no parts of Prayer at all, but only 
fuch undetermined Circumftances or Modes as God hath left to 
our prudential Determination : And the forementioned In- 
fiances, about Reading, Preaching Singing, e£r. areas pertinent 
to our qucftion as this of Prayer, they being all parts of the Li- 
turgy, @r publick fervice, as well as this. 
im; ^; Argum. 3 . There are many exprefs Examples in Scripture for 
forms of Gods fervice : therefore they are mqueftionablj lawful. 
The Tfalms of David were of common ufe in the Synagogues 
and Temple- worfhip, and alfo in Private ; and indited to fuch 
ends. Hezekiah commanded the Levites to fing Praife unto the 
£ord, wnh the words of David and of Afaph the feer, 2 Chron. 
29,30.. The 92. Pfalm is entitled Q A Pfalm or Jong for the 



Sabbath day"] Pfal. 1 02 is entitled, yt Prayer of the afflicted 
whe-n he is overwhelmed, and foureth out his complaint before the 
Z9rd. ] The reft were of ordinary publike ufe. Pfalms are 
Prayers and Praifes to God for the raoft part : and both as Pray- 
ers, and Praifes, and as Pfalms, they*re part of the Liturgy. 
I Chron. i 6.7. [_ On that day David delivered firfl this Pfaim, 
to thank^the Lord, into the hands of Afaph and his brethren,^ 
The fong of Mofes is delivered in form, Exod % i$. And the 
Sainti in the Revelations 15.3. are faid to fwg the fong of Mofcs, 
Numb. 1 0.3 5, 36 -there is an oft- repeated form of Mofes pray- 
er. There is a form for the people, Deut. 2 1.7,8. ff*dg.$. there 
is Deborahs Song in form. There is a form of Prayer, foelz. 17. 
Abundance more may be mentioned but for tedioufneis. 1 (hall 
now only add, 1. That the Lords Prayer is a form direded to 
God as in the third perfon, and not to man only as a Directory 
for prayer in the fecand perfon : it is not [ Pray to God your Fa' 
ther in Heaven, that his Name may be hallowed , his Kingdom 
come,8>cc. ^ But [Our Father which art in Heaven, Hallowed 
be thy Name, &c. ] And it feeras by the Difciples words thac 
thus John taught his Difciples to pray, LuJ^. 11.. 1. So that we 
have in the Scripture the mention of many fee forms of fervice 
to God, which therefore we may well ufe. 

Argum. 4. It is lawful to pray to Gidin the fet ^eords that we ^ r2um 
fittd in Scripture : but fo to pray (in the fet words of Scripture) ° 
is a form \ therefore a form is Lawful- 

I do not here plead example, asm thelaft Argument, but the 
Lawfulnefs of praying in Scripturewords. They thac deny this, 
mud be fo lingular and unreasonable, as thac there is no need 
of my confutation for the manifefting of their error. And that 
it is to us a fet form if wet3ke ic out of Scripture, as well ss if 
wecompofeir, or take it out of another Book, is paft all que- 
ftion. A multitude of the pra\ers of holy men are left on record 
in the Scripture, befide thofc that4vere the prefcribed forms of 
thofe times : He thac will but turn to his Concordance to the 
word Qo Lird^ and then to all the cited TeKts, (hail find ma- 
ny fcore, if not hundred Texts that recite the prayers of the 
Saints- which when we ufe, we ufe a form, which we there 
find written. 
Argum. 5, (fhriji hath left us his Approbation of fitch forms: ArgurjlS.5. 

Aaa 2 therefore' 


therefore we may ufe them. 

His Approbation is proved, i. By his owning and qVng 
Btvids Pfalms, Z,«£.2 o. 42. & 24.44. &c. 2. By h IS ufinga 
Hymn with his Difciples at the Pafsover or Eucharift, wheh 
we have great reafon to think was a form that had been of ufe 
among the Jews. But however, if Chrift had newly then com- 
pofed ir, yet was it a form to his Difciples. 3 . By his thrice re- 
peating the fame words in his own prayer. 4. By his teaching 
his Difciples a form, as John taught his. 5. By his never ex- 
prefllng the lead difLke of the old Jewiih .cuftom of ufing 
forms: nor doth Scripture anywhere repeal it , or forbid it. 
6. The Apoftles command the ufe of Pfalms and Hymns, which 
cannot be ordinary in the Church without forms. All this pro* 
vctb Chrifts approbation. 

Argum. 6. Argum. 6. If it be lawful for the people to ufe a filled form of 
words in publike prayer , then is it in it felf lawful for the Paflors : 
but it is lawful for the people : for the Paftors prayer ( which 
they muft pray over with him, and not only hear it j is a (tinted 
form to them, events much as if he had learnt it out of a Book. 
They are to follow him in his method and words, as if it were a 
Book prayer. 

Argum. 7. Argum. 7. It is lawful to ufe a form in Preaching \ therefore 
n fit-sited Liturgy is lawful. 1. Becaufe preaching is a part of 
that Liturgy. 2. Becaufe the reafon is the fame for prayer, as 
for that in the main. Now that ftudyed formed Sermons are 
lawful, is fo commonly granted, that it (hall fare. me the labour 
of proving it (which were eafif.) 

Argum. 8. - Argum. 8. That which hath been the practice of the Church in 
Scripture times, and down to this day, and is jet the praclice of 
. almejl all the Churches of Chrift on earth, is not Ike to "ire unlaw- 
ful: but fuchistheufc ef feme flinted forms of pub lick, fer vice : 
therefore, &c. That it wasfo in the Jews Church, and approved 
by Chrift, I have (hewed., piatit hath<been of antienc ufe in 
the Church fince Chrift, and is at this day in ufe in Africk^^fia, 
JEar^evenamongthe Reformed Churches In France, Holland, 
Geneva, &c. is fo well known, that I think I need not ftand to 
prove it: yea thofe few that fcem to difufe it, do yet ufe it, in 
Pfalms > and other parts of worftup, of which more anon. 



Prop. 2. A Stinted ^Liturgy in fome parts of publick hJy [er- Prop, z. 
A vice u ordinarily neceffary. 

This Propofkson is to be proved by inltances,*nd the proof of 
the parts. The Darts where a fee form is ufuaily nctefla-ry, J . 
fhalle;:u^£rate:cfefinngyou by the way toanderitand, i. That 
I fpeak not of an Abfolute Necejfitj ad fitem, as if no other 
could be accepted ; but a Necejfitj of Duty : it ought to be done, 
asthebeft way. 2. That I fay but [ordinarily ] as excepting 
fomeunufual cafes. 

1 . The Communication or revcalation of the will of God to 
the Church by Reading of the Holy Scriptures, is part of the 
publick ferv.xeof God. As Mofet and the Prophets were read 
every Sabbith day, fo by parity of reafon fh>uld the Gofpel ; 
and Taul required the publick reading o^his Epift'es, Ab~l.i$.. 
27. & 15-21. zCor.1.1 5. Lt*k : \6<i9<C<>lA^6 1 Thef. 5. 27. 
Rev.i.s* But this* Reading of the Scripcures is the ufing of a 
fetformin publike fervice. For they are the Lime words thac 
we read from day to day, and ufuaily Muft read. 

2. The Publick Prayfing of God by fingingof Palms y is a 
part of publick worftiip: and a moftexcejlent parr, rot ufuaily 
tobeomited. But this part of worfhip is ordinarily to be ufed 
in a ftinied form ;becaufe the gift of compofing P films ex- tem- 
pore without a prepared form, jWiot ufual in the Church : and 
if it were fo to one, it is not to trie reft that mult ufe this wor- 
fhip. Had we not (tinted forms of Pfalms^ we fhould have ill- 
favoured work in the Church. 

3. Baptifm? is ufuaily to beadminiftredina form of words: 
for Chrift hath prefcribed us a form, Maith. 28. 19. [ Bapti- 
zing them in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Hdj Ghoft ] I think few fober men will think it ordinarily meet 
to difufe this form. 

4. The ufe of a form in the Ccnfecration and Adminijl ration 
of the Lords Supper ( though not through the whole adion ) 
is ordinarily moft fit : for Chrift hath left us a form of words, 
Take ye, Eat ye, 6cc. 2 which are moft exacl, and fafe, and none 
can mend. And Paul recitcth his form, 1 Cor. 11. And fmall 
alterations in the very words of Bapt'tfme, or Ddiverirg the 

A. a a 3; "~~"~ Lords > 

Lords Supper, may eafily corrupt the Ordinance in time. 

5. The very Sacramental E foments and Attions are ftintcd 
forms of AdminiiTration, which none may alter. As the waft- 
ing with wac^r,the breaking of. bread, and powring out of wine, 
and giving them, and taking them, and eating and drinking, &c. 
Thefe arc real forms, not to be changed, at ieaJJ without Neccfii- 
<ty, if at all. 

6. TheBlefsingof the people in the Name of the Lord, was 
done by a prefcribed form of old, Ntim.6.23 . and is ufualiy to 
be done in a form (till. For in all thefe forementioned parts of 
worlhip, fhould we (tiil ufe new exprefsions, when fo few and 
pertinent rauft b*e ufed, we fhould be put to difufe the ficteft,and 
ufefuchasarelefs fit. 

7. In our ordinary Preaching a form (notimpofed, unlefs in 
cafes of great Necefsi^y and unfitnefs, but ) of our own pre- 
meditating, it ufualiy fitted : I think few men are fo weak as to 
prefer (with moft preachers ) unprepared. Sermons , before 
thofe that have more of their care andftudy. And then at leaft, 
the Text, Method, and fomewhat of the words muft be premedi- 
tated, if not all. 

8. Ordinarily there (hould be fomewhat of a form in Publick 
Confefsions of the Churches faith. Tor how elfe (hall all concur ? 
And it is a tender point to admit of great or" frequent mutations 
in : fo that in Baptifme, and at other feafons when the Chriftian 
faith is to be openly profefle4J>y one, or more, or all, a form 
that is exact, is ufualiy meet to be retained h though in many 
perfonal Cafes, explicatory enlargements may do well. 

9, If there be not a frequent ufe of many of the fame words, 
and fo fomewhat of a form, in Marriage, Confirmation, Abfo- 
lution, Excommunication, the danger will be more, then the be- 
nefit by mutation will be. 

10. And with fome Minifters (of whom anon ) even in 
Prayer* efpecially about the Sacraments, where there muft be 
great exadnefs, and th« matter ordinarily, if notalwayes the 
fame, the ordinary ufe of a form may be the beftand fttteft 

In the moft of thefe Cafes 1 . The Nature of the thing fuffi- 
ciently proves the ordinary ficnefs of a form. 2. The conftant 
Pra&ice of almoil; all Churches ("if not all,) is for it : even 



they thatfcruple forms of Prayer 5 ufecon(tant!y forms of Praife, 
of Reading, of Sacraments, &c. 3 . The reft are proved fitteft 
as aforefaid by the Apoftles generall Rules, 1 for. 14. 26, 40. 
Let all things be done to Edifying • and Let all things be dene de- 
cent Ij a.nd in order. Now in the cafes before mentioned, the Edi- 
fication of the Church ( to fay nothing of Order) requireth the 
ordmary ufe of forms* 

Prop. 3. T N thofe parts of publiek^worfhip where a form u Prop. 3, 

X not of ordinary nccejfity-y ■ but only Lawful 1 1 jet may it 
not of^y be ffibmittedtOibm defred % yphenthe Peace of the Church 
doth accidentally require it. 

This Proportion needs no proof, but only explication. For 
he is fsrfrom the temper ofaChriftian thatfetsib light by the 
Peace of the Church, that he would not ufe a Lawfull means for 
the procurement of in r when Paul would become all things to 
all men to fave fome,and would eac no flefh while he lived rather 
then effend his weak, brother. 

But here you muft take thefe cautionsjeft you mifunderftand 
this Proportion. 

1. The Peace of the whole Church muft bejn our eye, before 
the peace of a part ; and of a great and more considerable parr, 
rather then of a (mziter ,cateris paribus. 

2. It is fuppofed that ( befides the fimple lawfulnefs of the 
thing ) there be alfo no other accidental inconveniencies on the 
other i\dQ ( that will follow the ufe of a form ) that is of fuffi- 
cient moment to weigh down the argument from the Churches 
Peace. For when a thing is only good or evil, ( I mean, necef- 
faryor finfull,) by Accident, and not in it felf, we muft confider 
which fide hath the moft weighty accidents,and accordingly muft 
choofe or refufe it. 

3. It is not the fulfilling of the humours of every unreafonable 
expectant, or every proud Magisterial ufur'perthat is the Peace 
*f the Church, that now we fpeak of : If a few proud-men will 
hold no Peace with us,unlefs we will ferve God in their unnecef- 
fary forms, as if none had wit enough but they,to know in what 
words the Churches (hould ferve God.- and all muft fp^k but 


what they teach them, it is not the humoring of thefe Proud 
uiurpers tba! is the Fence thus to be bought. 

4. Wc mutt look to the future as well as the prefcnt Peace of 
the Churches : And therefore if any will hold no Peace with us 
now, unlefs we will own fome formal Engine that is like to make 
hereafter more divifion then unity in thl Churches, ( by laying 
the Unity or Peace of the Church on things that will not bear it, 
and making thir gs necelTary , that are not necelTary, nor to be 
madefo) in fucn cafes, it is not our duty to betray the gene- 
neral or future Peace of the Church for our private or prefenc 

5. The defireablcnefs of this Peace of the Church which we 
mult feck, muftbemuch ju J g^d of by its tendency to th#pro- 
moingof holinef>, the faving of mens fouls, the furthering of 
the Gofpel , aindprofperityof the Church in fpiritual refpefts; 
For a Peace that undermineth and betrayeth thefe,is not defire- 
able. The means is to be valued by its tendency to the attain- 
ment of the End. 

6. There is need therefore of very great prudence, to compare 
things with things, for a man to know how to carry himfelf in 
fuch cafes. For imprudent overiights, or laying greateft ftrefs 
on fmalleft things, and flighting greater, will make men live in 
conftant fin by ahufing things indifferent. 

But ftill the Proposition hoWs good with thefe cautions,thae 
forms and fuch like indifferent things are to beufedor difufed 
much with refped to the Churches Peace. 

_ Prop. 4. Co great is the difference between men and men, timet 

Pf ^P* 4' i3 and times , that forms may be a duty to fome 

men-, and at fome times , and a fin to other men> and at other 
times. m 

As to private men in their families , it may be one mans du- 
ty to ufe a form, or book, and another mans- fin, fois it with 
Miniftersalfo in the AiTemblies. Three diftindions ( among 
others^ are obvious, in which this is manifeft. 

1 . Some Minifters are better able to [perform Gods pub- 
Hck worfliip ( except in the fore-excepted cafes ) without 
• a form : and fome are better able to do it by a form. 

2. Some 


2. Some Minifters have a Peep/e that are fcrupulous of ufing 
forms, and fome have people that icruple the difufing them , 
and fome have both forts mixt. 

3 . Some Churches live under Magiftrates that command a 

form, or with Churches that unanimoufly agree on a form ; and 

others live in timet and places where there is nofach commands 

. or Agreements, And according to thefe differences it may be 

one mans duty, and anothersfin to ufe fome forms. 

i. Gods work fhou'd be done in the mod edifying manaer. 
Where Miniftenare able to perform the publick prayers of the 
Church in the moft profitable manner without a form, there ic 
is their duty to difufea form, unlefs fome other greater acci- 
deac preponderate. Scill remember that for Pfalms and other 
fore-excepted parts, I take it for granted that ordinarily a form 
isneceflary. But our main queftion now 4s of Praying and 
Preaching, and that efpecially with refped: to one ftanding form 
that is not ufually varied in Prayer , and an impofed form , 
or compofed by others, in Preaching. Itfhould be the ordina- 
ry cafe of the Church that Minifters (houkl be able to do thefe 
without a conftant form of words , to the peoples greater edifi- 
cation, gut yet it is not alway fo. And where it is not, it is 
better for Minifters to ufe a form, then to do worfe,and difho? 
nour the work of God, and wrong the Church by their errone- 
ous or over-rude defective management. I know the great obje- 
ction will be, that fuch men are not fit to be Minifters, and that 
its better to have none. But this is fooner faid then proved. 
I am far from defiring any man to undervalue the precious mer- 
cy of an able Miniftry, and* from wifhing for formates and 
reading- Paftors inftead of the learned able guides tha^ve here 
enjoy. I hope I fhould door faflrerasmuch as another to pre- 
vent fo great a Calamity as an ignorant, unable, or negligent 
Miniftry. But yet I am fully fatisfied of it, that its better for 
the Church to have Readers then none. 

i . Confidcr that there have been fome very Learned able Di- 
vines ( Dodors of Divinity ) that by age , or other decay of 
Memory, or natural impediments difabling them from exteropo- 
rate performance?, cannot do any thing in the worfhip of God 
without the help of Notes or books j or at leaft without prepa- 

B b b ration 

C 57° ) 

ration for exprefiions ^ when yet upon preparation, and by con- 
venient kelps, they excel! many exteraporate men. 

2.TheNece(Iitiesof the Church may require an allowance 
or toleration of fuchas/nave notability to compofeextemporate 
Prayers,or Sermons, no nor to prepare fuch upon deliberation 
neither, but meerly read the Sermons and Prayers coropofed by 
others. I know Come will not believe that fuch fhould beMinifters^ 
But they would have them only read as private men, rather then' 
cbe people fhould have nothing : For they think that a man that 
cannot preach or pray is no more capable of being a Minifter , 
then a man that cannot command an Army is capable of being a 
Commander, &c. 

But 1. Let fuch brethren confider that there may be all abili- 
ties effentiallj requifice to a Paftor, without the ability of praying 
or preaching without a form ( Though ftiil I pray God to favc 
us from a Necejpty of fuch. ) A man that can Teach men the 
fubftancc of the Chriftian Religion , and adminilter the Sacra- 
ments, and Overfeeand Govern the flock , hath as much abi- 
lity as is neceffary to the Being of a Paftor. But thofe may 
haveailthis that cannot fitly preach or Pray without" a form. 
They may be godly men, able in conference to inftrud the peo- 
ple in the fuhftance of Religion, and tcr read the Scriptures, and 
the Holy writings of godly men, and to admiriifter Sacraments, 
and prudently and diligently guide the people. And by the 
fame rule as you will conclude it better that {e.g. ) jyales, 
lreUnd,&c. have private men to read good books, rather then 
none, left they turn heathens ; I may alfo conclude that it is 
better for them to have Churches and Paftors of this weaker 
fort, thBtohave none, and leave their children unbaptized, 
and live^ithout the Sacraments, and Church-Communion, and 

2.ConfiderI befeech you ( which moves me more then any 
thing clfe ) the ftate of the Chriftian world. In Ethiopia, 
S "jria, Armenia , Rujfiafirecia, and abundance of other Churches 
of Chrift there are very few Preachers, but mcer Readers. And 
can any man think that it is beft for all thefe Churches to be 
without Minifters, and SacrameRts, rather then to have fuch ? O 
that God would give them better I But till the%J (hall pray that 



he will continue thefe among them, rather then leave themde- 
ftitute. I know many godly judicious men, of able parts for 
conference , that yet are unable to compofe a Sermon ( though 
if they could , it were a form ) that yet I am confident by 
Reading fuch Practical Books as arc now extant, and by prudent *£# 
overfigbc, might be tolerable Paftors for many a Congregation 
in Wales y that now have none. 

2. In a time and place wheYc no obligation by Magiftrates 
Commands,or Churches Agreements is laid upon us for the 
ufe of forms, I am fully perlwaded wefhouldmake no moreufe 
of them, then Necffluy compelleth us to do; But tbe thing be- 
ing lawfull, the Command of a Magiftrate, or the agreement 
of the Churches may go far in moving us ; And indeed muft pre- 
vail with us, unlefs in cafes where there are weightier Accidents 
to weigh down on the other fide. For obedience and Agreement 
or Concord in Lawfull things is our duty , where we have 
not fome greater reafon to forbid it. There is much difference 
between men that are left at liberty, and men that are bound 
by lawfull Governours. Yea though they do not well-in com- . 
manding , yet may we be bound to obey, when the mat- 
ter is fuch as belongeth to their jurifdi&ion, and not forbidden 
by God. 

3 . A man is alfo much to regard the minds of his people : not 
out of man-pleafing difpoiition , but in order to their good. 
Prudence will tell us which way is likeR- to attain our Ends. 
Food is to be fitted to mens tempers and ilomacks, and Phyfick, 
to their difeafes. If a Church be fo weak that they cannot bear 
the difufe of forms, and others fo weak that they cannot bear 
the ufe of them , the Pallor mutt fit his pra&ice to their Edifi- 
cation , till he can bring them to a wifer judgement, that fo they 
may receive that which indeed isrrjoft fit to edifie them. Pru- 
dence muft guide us in the circumftantials of worfoip, which 
are kft to our Determination ; that we may vary them as 
the condition of our flock requiretb, to their good •, ( of which 
more anon : ) 

B b b 2 Prop. 

Of 1 ) 

Prop. J. P f0 P' 5- TH ^^ Minifiers and Churches that earnefllj de- 
X fire it, {bQHldvm by the Magiftrate be abfolute! 
Ij , 4«i generally frohrbk^ the nfi of a convergent fiintedLi- 

Note here that I fpeaknot of the de&rer of any inconfide- 
rabie perfons, contrary to the'defiresof that whole Churcb. 
If a few ignorant or wilfuli people fhouldbe eager for a form, 
when the Paftor is able and willing to manage the work of God 
without it, and the Congregation profeffeth that it hindereth 
their Edification ( by whit accident foever , I am not now' 
queftioning, ) it is fie that thofe unreafonable perfons fhould be 
denyed their defires (in that Church ) rather then the whole 
Congregation. Alfo if the Magistrate fhould perceive that a 
whole Congregrtion , or many, or the Pallors themfclves are 
eager for fome one particular form , out of a corrupt humour, 
and in any ill deiign to the ditturbance of the Churches Peace, 
or that they will needs have an unlawfull Form, that for mat- 
ter is erroneous, or for manner abfurd , or apt to breed unre- 
verence, or binder Edification, the Magiftrate (hould pro- 
hibits this : Yet fo , that Prudence and Moderation meafure 
out his penalties in fuch a fort, as that he Churches Edifica- 
tion be not hindered by his over-rigorous correcting mens di- 

But out of thefe and fuch like Cafes, when k is meer weak- 
nefs that caufeth Paftors or people to be fet upon a ( lawfull )' 
form , The Magtitrate ough: not to prohibite them by fuch re- 
ftraims,as fhall deprive them of the liberty of worfhipping God, 
or hinder their Edification. 

The Reafons of this Proportion are thefc. 1 . Becaufe the 
thing being Lawful!, no Power fhould caHfelefly reftrain men 
from theufe of Lawfull things. God having left men to their 
Liberty, none (hould without great reafon deprive them of it. 
2. The Magiftratefhiuid not hinder the Peoples Edification 
in the manner of Gods worfhip : But in many places a ftinted 
Liturgy is moft for the peoples Edification. Therefore, &c . 
Whether it be the Minifters Weaknefs, or the peoples, that makes 
it moft ufcfull to them , yet when the Magiftrate cannot cure 



that weaknefs, he mud bear with them. It was the weaknefs 
of Nicodemus that made him he could not bear the day-Iighr,in 
coming to Chrift ; yea and fuch a weaknefs, as fhewcd, or was 
Joined with an unregenerate flate, and yet Chrift would rather 
teach him privately then not at all. ■ 

3. Where Confciences are fcrupuious , and think it a fin to 
worfhip publikely without a form, (though it be their error yet) 
the Governors are not to drive them away from it -, becaufe then 
they will not publikely Worfhip God at all : And no -worfhip is 
worfe then a lawful form of worfhip. 

4. JtfMinifter that is for the Neceftity of a form (though er- 
roneoufly) may be in other refpe&sfo ufefull to the Church, 
that he fhould not be laid by and loft to the Church for fuch a 
thing as this. 

5. The ufe of fome forms ( as aforefaid ) being necef- 
fary, and of other forms, not only lawful!, but of almoft com- 
mon reception through all the Churches onea/th , Governors 
fhould be very cauteious in denying men liberty in that which 
almoft all the Churches have Liberty in, and more; even thae 
which is their conftant ufe. 

Prop. 6, r Y n O prefiribe a Form of Prayer , Preaching ( or ,p r op g. 

X other fer vice where is no Neceffitj of it ) and to lay 
a Neceffitj on it, as to the thing it felf, or the Churches Peace ,&c. 
and to panifb, [Hence, fufpend, excommunicate, or reproach as 
Schifmatickj, the able, godly, peaceable Minifters or People, that 
( J u fth or unjuflly ) dare not ufe it , u fo great a fin , that 
no G$dly Minifters flout cl deftre or attempt it, nor any godly Ma • 
giflrate fufferit. 

' This was the great fin of the late Magiftrates and Prelates in 
England; and it is the main difference between their party and 
others at this day. The Magiftrate doth not forbid men ufing 
a form or Liturgy (thougb they forbid one particular Liturgy 
more ftri&ly then I could wifh:) But there is a very few of 
thefe men that I know of, that can be contented with a Liberty 
of ufing it themfelvesjf they may not have all others compelled 
to do as they do, and go to God with the words that they 
have formed for them , or thatarebeftin their efteem. They 

Bbb 3 rauft 


mult be all Schifmaticks that will not ufe their form, arid the 
Churches Peace Wift be laid upon it,and no man muft be thought 
meet to preach or pray that will not be of their opinion, but 
theablefl P^ftors of the Church muftbefiiencedandcaftby, -if 
they will not Life the Common-Prayer. The finfuinels of this 
pradice (hall bemanifefted in the next difputc more fully , to 
which I refers the mod of my reafons againftit : In the mean 
time let thefe few be well confidered." 

1 . It is a certain way to the .Divifton of the Church : when men 
will lay its Unity or Peace on thac which will not bear it^ they 
are the moft defperate difturbers and dividers of it. If off form 
of Prayer or Preaching had been necefftry to the Churches 
Unity or Peace , Chrift or his Apoftles might as eafily have com- 
posed It , as they did other neceffaries. Nay experience tells us, 
that it is not held neceffary by men themfelvcs : For the Ro. 
maniftsufe one or more forms: and the Grecians another, and 
the Ethiopians aaother, and fo of other Churches. In the Biblio- 
theca Patrum how many Liturgies have they given us ? And if no 
one of all tiicfe is neceffary to all Churches/iien not to any. one 
Church, further then accidents, and mens impositions make it 
neceffary. And no man fhould make that neceffary, that is not 
fome way neceffary before. It is eafie to know that either the 
Form as fuch , or fomewhat in the Form, is like to be fcraplcd by 
fome, even godly, able men.- and fo it will prove an engine of 
diYifion. The Church hath been brought to that torn divided 
condition that it is in , by this arrogancy of domineering im- 
pofers, that muft lay its Peace on their unneceffary devices : and 
will not let us have unity in Chrift and his Inftitutions and peace 
upon his terms. 

2. By this means the people mil be involved in the guilt of bitter 
contending, and hating all that conform not to their rvaj^and uncha- 
ritably reproaching them as f chi finances, and confequently of dif- 
liking the very dodrine that they preach, or hold, and the way 
tbey take- and thus if uncharitablenefs, and all ibis' (in, the 
ofT-fpring of it, be the way to Hell, then you may fee what a 
notable fervice they do to Satan, and how they enfnare and undo 
mens fouls, that make fuch forms of common Neceffity to the 
Unity or Peace of the Church. 

3 .Bj Ms means they mil involve themfelvcs and the MagiftraH 



in the guilt of perfect** ten : For no better will it prove, even 
in many cafes where the refufers fcruples arc unju(r. # 

A. By this means they will hinder the Edification of the Church. 
What if a Minilter have a Congregation chat (fuppofe upon 
miiUkes ) do fcruple thefc forms, and by prejudice or weaknefs 
are hindered from ferving God with cheerfulinefs and profit, 
where they are ufed ; mutt we be bound to deny them thac 
mode of worfhip which their weaknefs doth require? and to 
force -them to that which will not down with them ? Mu(t a 
Phyfitian be bound to give all his Patients one kind of d yet ? 
What if it be wholefome ? Will you fay, If that mil not down 
with him y he /hall have mne \ let him die ? This is contrary to the 
end of our office.-, we are commanded to do all to Edification, 
which this doth contradid. 

5. It is contrary to the Office, Power and Trufi of the particu- 
lar Paftors of the Churchy to be thus compelled in variable things. 
As it is the office of a Phyfitian to fudge what dyet and phylick 
to prescribe his Patient?, and to vary it as psrfons do vary in 
their tempers and difeafes, and to vary it with the fame perfons, 
as their condition changeth and requireth it .* and as it would be 
foolifh Tyranny againft the very office of the Phyfitian to re- 
train him from this exercife of his prudence by a Law, and to 
tye him to give one kind of food or phyfick to all • fo is it in 
our prefent cafe. What is a Paftor, but the guide of a Congre- 
gation in the worfhip of God? &c. .And if Magiftrates and 
BifUops take this workout of their hands by their unneceffary 
prefenptions, they fo far prohibite him to do the work of a 
Pallor. What a grief is it to a Minifter ( that being in the 
place, and knowing the people, is the moit competent Judge 
what is fit for them ) to be conftrained by men that know not 
the (late of his Mock, to crofs their Edification, and to be for- 
bidden to ufe his prudence and due power for their fpiricual 

6. And what a ftnful arrogant ufurpation is this ,. for any man 
to be guilty if ? Ic is Chnft that bath given his Mi nifters their 
Power, and chat for 'Edification : and who is he that may pre- 
fume to take it from them? If they are unworthy to be Mini- 
fters, let them not be Ordained, or let them be degraded or 
depofed. Bu: if they muftbeMinifters, letthem do the work 



of Minifters; left as he that defpifeth them, defpifcth Chrift, 
fo he thafrrcftraineth theoi from their duty, and depriveth them 
of the exercife of their power un juftly,be found one that wauld 
arrogate an authority over Cbrift. . 

7. tsfnd what intolerable Pride is ihis % for a few Tiijhefs to 
thinks fo highly of themfelves, and fo bafely of their more \udic\oui 
Brethren , at if no man mttfl ffeak^ to God but in their words f 
Thefe forms of Prayer are conceived and invented by fomebody. 
And why fhould the Conceivcr think fo highly of his own un- 
demanding, as if he were fie to teach a whole Nation what they 
muft daily fay to God ? and why fhould he think fo unworthily 
of all others in comparifon of himfelf, as if none but he (and 
his Companions in this ufurpation ) 4inewhowto pray or utter 
their minds, but by his dictates or prefcriptions ?• Is this Humi- 
lity ? 

8. Moreover *&i/ Impofition of forms {as before defcribed ) 
doth difcover too much CrHeltj to the Church : when they had ra- 
ther Minifters were caft afide, and the people left in darknefs, 
then Minifters fhould teach them, and worfhip God with them, 
that will not eye themfelves to the very words that they devife 
for them. What abundance of ignorant, drunken Readers and 
other Minifters were fuffercd in England, while the learned, 
godly, painful Minifters were caft out, and filenced, or perfecu- 
ted, becaufe they would not conform to all the forms and cere- 
monies impofed by the B^fliopi ? And fo how many thoufand 
foulS may we think are gone to Hell, through the ignorance 
or ungodlinefs of their Guides, as if their damnation were 
I moredefirable , then their faction by the teaching of Minifters 
f that dare not ufe the Common Prayer Book and Ceremonies ? 
Iiuiow they will fay, that rach Schifmatical Preachers do more 
hurt by breaking the Churches peace, then they do good by 
converting fouls. But who was it that laid thefe fnares in their 
way ? Who laid the Churches peace upon your inventions ? 
Had not the Church a fure Rule, and an happy order, and unity, 
and peace, before your Common prayer Book or Ceremonies 
were born ? Why muft the Church have no peace but upon 
fuch termsPWho made this Nece-ffity, that all men muft be taken 
for intolerable fchifmaticks that dare not ftint themfelves in the 
publick worihip by your impofitions? Will you not be confound- 


(ed before God, w hen thefe Queftions muft be anfwered ? The 
Church might have kept both Peace and her Pallors, if you had 
Jet all alone as the Apoftlesleft it, and had not turned the form s 
of your Devotions to be a fnare for others. 

9» Audit is great unmercijulnefs to the Souls of particular men^ 
when you will drive them into fuch fnares, and cempell them to 
go agair.il their confctenccs in indifferent things : what ever is not 
of faith is fin. And whether they believe it good or bad, you will 
compell them to pra&ife all that you un pole. Have you not Con- 
sciences your felves? Do you not know what it is for a man to be 
driven againft hisConfcicnce ? If not, you are no Chriftians-.and 
then no wonder if you want the Charity and companion of Chri- 
ftians,andfocafily for nothing, abufe and injure the ChrifHan 

io. And in thus doing, you deal umufilj , and do net as jou 
would be done by. You would have Liberty jour [elves now to 
ufca Liturgy ; And whyfhouldnot others have Liberty to 
difufe it ? Either you tajce it for a thing NeceiTary in it feif, or 
for Indifferent. If as NeceiTary, then you arc fo much the 
more arrogant and injurious to theChurches,and your ufurpati- 
on is the more intolerable,and you do much to Juftifie them that 
deprive you of your own liberty:For I know no Liberty that you 
ftiould have to make univerfal Laws for the Church .• or to make 
new duties by your own meer wills, or turn Indifferent things 
into NeceiTary, and fo to multiply our work, and burden, and 
danger- and to filence, fufpend or excommunicate all that dare 
notfubmit to your ufurped Dominion. Butifyoutakeit for a 
thing in it felf Indifferent, whether we pray in a Form of prefcri- 
bed words,or not,then as we arerontent that you have your Li- 
berty on one part, you have as juft caufe to allow us our liberty 
on the other,and to do as you would be done by. 

1 1. And by thefe Trnpofitions,^/*/^ up a New Office or Power 
in the Churchy Confifting of a New Lm flatten, and a Government 
of the Church by fuch new humane Laws. We know no La w- 
giverbut i. Chnft as to univerfal Laws of {landing neceffity 
to the Churches, in the matters of Salvation. And 2. Magiftrates 
to make by-laws under Cbrift for a juft determination of thofe 
mutable circumflances that ought to be determined by humane 
Prudence •, and 3 .The Minifters or Paftors of particuclar Church- 

Ccc ci 


cs to direft and guide the people as there is eaufe. As for 
Biihops or Councils, we know of.no Leg dative Power thac 
they have over their Brethren, though Agreements they may 
make, which may be obligatory, i. by confent, as other con- 
tracts, 2 . and in order to unity, where the cafe requireth Rich 
Agreements. Buttofet up a New fort of Jurifdiction in the 
Church, by Legiflation to make Forms and Ceremonies obligato- 
ry, and by Executions to punifh Paftors that wil! notprafti r c 
them,is a dangerous device. 

12. Laftly by this means you mil harden the Yapifts, that by 
their Inventiont and Impufuions have divided the Church, and been 
guilt] of fo much ufurpation and tyrannie ; For how can we con- 
demn that in them that is pra&ifed by our felves ?■ And though 
in number of Inventions and Irapofitions they exceed, yet it is 
not well to concur with them in the kind of unneceflary Im- 
pofitions,and fo far to Juftifle them in their injury to the Church. 
If none of thefc or other Reafons will alloy the Imperious 
diftemper of the Proud, but they muft needs by a ufarped Legif- 
lat ion be making Indifferent things become nccefTary z6 others, 
and domineer over mens Confciences,and the Church of God, we 
muft leave them to him,that being the Lord and Lawgiver of the 
Church, is Jealous of his Prerogative, and abhorrcth Idols, and 
will not give his glory to another, and that delighteth topulf 
down the Proud, and humble them that exalt themfeves. 

But yet how far an Agreement or voluntary Confent of the 
Churches is defirable as to a Liturgy , I ftuli (hew more anon. 

Prop. 7. Prop. 7. mm T m H B fafefl way ofcompoftng aftinted Liturgie , is to 
X. take it all, er as much as may be, for words as well- 
as matter, out of the Holy Scriptures. 

Reaf 1. This way is leaft lyable to fcruple, becaufc all are 
Satisfied of the infallible Trjff. ofScripturc, and the fitnefs of its 
cxprefiions, that are not like to be fatisficd with mans. And 
it is a laudable difpofkion in the Creature to prefer the words of 
God before til other, and therefore not tobedifcouraged in 

Reaf 2. This way tends moft to the peace of the Church. 
All will unite in the words of God, that will not unite in the 



forms and words of men. If they underftand not a word of 
God, yet knowing it to i>e true, they will not quarrel with it, 
but fubmit : But ifthey underftand not the words of men, they 
will be ready to fufped them, and fo to quarrel with them, and fo 
the Churches peace will be broken. Befidcs, the judgements of 
men being fallible, many will fufped that its rjoffible there may 
be fome error in their forms, though we fee them not, and God 
fhould be worfhiped in the furelt way. 

Reaf. 3. There is no other words that may be preferred 
before the words of God, or Hand in Com petition with them : 
and therefore me thinks this fhould eafily be decided. 

Objed. B -.it the Scripture bath not form's enough for til the 
Churches ufes. Anfw. It hath muter .and words for fuch 
Forms. Without any additions, favc only terms of Connection, 
the fentences of holy Scripture may fuffice the Church for all its 
ufes, as to forms. 

Objeci. But men may fpeah^ untruths in Scripture words if 
they will, and by miff lacing And mifafplying thcm t may make 
them ffeakjf hat was never meant in them. Anfw. But I. When 
they ufe no expofitory terras of their own, bat meerly recite 
the words of Scripture, the perverting them will not be fo ealie or 
common t And 2. When they have placed them how they 
pleafe, the people are left at liberty to interpret them ac- 
cording to the fence they have in the Scripture, and not accord- 
ing to what mens mifplacing may feem to put upon them v* 
when we profefledly make our forms out of Gods word,we do as 
it were tell the people that they mud give each fentenceits pro- 
per interpretation as its meant in Scripture, becaufe we pretend 
not to change it, but to ufe it. But when its our own words 
that weeompofe our own impofed forms in, the people are left 
more uncertain of the foundnefs. For the maker is the Inter- 

ObjeQ. But the Church hath antient venerable fo r ms already ; 
and who may pre fume to filter them f 

Anfw. 1 .Hath it any that are more Ancient or more venerable 
then the Scripture t undoubtedly it hath not •, nor any but muft 
ftoop to Scripture. 2. All that is in the words of Scripture, 
we are contented be continued fat leait. ) 3. If it were 
lawful for the firft deviiers or compilers of the^c Forms, to 

Ccc z make 


make a new Liturgy, when the Church had fo many before, 
then is it lawful for others to do the like. And if the compilers 
of the firft of thofc Liturgies, might make a new one in their 
own words, why may not others make a new one in the Scri- 
pture words, that will be new only as to the connexion of 
Sentences ? 4, The Church of Rome that is raoft for their 
forms, have yet fo often innovated, that they havenoreafon 
to condemn it in others. 

Pf*p. 8. Prop. 8. ^JpHougb it be fafeft 4*d moft venerable in Scripture 
JL words, ytt is not this of fo great nece(fity\ but that 
we may Uwfullj ufe a Liturgy that is not thus, taken out f/ $&* 

As long as thematter is agreeable to Scripture, it is more for 
Con veniency, then neceffity,<hat the words be thence,as is eafily 

1. In our Preaching we judge it lawfull tofpeak words that 
are Rot in the Scripture .- therefore by parity of reafon, we may 
do fo in Prayer,. 

2. In our extemf orate Prayers we judge it lawfull to ufe our 
own words that are not taken out of Scripture : therefore we 
may do fo in a Liturgy. 

3 . Some perfons may be fo ftrange to Scripture Ianguage^that 
for a time more familiar Phrafes may be more edifying to 

4. Words are but to exprefs our minds : If therefore our 
words arc congruous expreffions of found and well ordered 
conceptions, they are not only lawful) but convenient. And 
therefore it is not warrantable for any man to quarrel with 
expreffions becaufe they are not Scriptural, nor to fcruplc the ufe 
of Liturgies, becaufe the forms are not in the words 'of Scri- 

Prop. o. Prop. 9. 'T'Hf matter of a common Liturgy inwhich we ex- 
' * ' A peft any general 'Concord .fhould not he any doubtful! 

$r nnneceffary things, 
1 . It fliould impofc no doebtfull or unnccefiary ceremonies, 

(of which I (hall fpeak by it felf in the next Difputation. ) 
2.It(houldnotreftrainmcnneedleflyin things indifferent, by 
determining of mutable circumftances, as time, place, gefturc, 
veftures, words, &c. ( Of which alfo in the next. ) 3 . It (hould 
not make thofe things to be of general indifpenfable immutable 
neceffity, that are but fometimes neceffary, or meet-, but Pa- 
yors (hould have their Liberty to vary them as there is occafion. 
4,*Much lef$ (hould any thing Materially dubious and uncertain 
be put in. 

For God will be worfhipped in knowledge and faith. And, 
as is faid before, the Church will be divided, and the Confci- 
ences of men enfnared, by laying fo much on unneceffary 
things. And therefore though fuchimpofers pretend to a perfe- 
&er Unity and Concord , then in a few Generals or Neceffaries 
can be had, yet they will find they mifs their mark. 

Prop. 10. 

H V mane Forms of publicly prayer y or other wor- 
ship ( excepting the fore-excepted Neceffary Pra ?' I0 ' 

cafes , as Pfalms, &c.) /hould not be cortfiantly ufed by Mi 
xiftrrs, that have their liberty, and are able to pray without them 
Nor [boH Id an) be ordinarily admitted into iheCMiniftrj{ except 
in the great necefpties of the Church) that are not able to pray with- 
out fuch forms. 

In this Proposition are thefe confiderable points implyed,and 
exprtffed. 1 . That it is not unfit to have forms by the common 
Agreement of thcPaftors, to be ufed when its meet (as is be- 
fore and after expreffed. ) There are few Nations in the world, 
fo well provided for with able Minifters, but that fome places 
muft be fupplied with men that have need of forms of Prayer, 
if not of Preaching , compofed by others. And therefore it is 
fitteftthat fuch (hould have Forms that are Agreed on by all. 
And therefore I doubt not but when we came newly out of Po- 
pery , and had not a full fupply of preachers, it was a u-ife and 
lawfull courfe to compofe a common form of Prayer. For, 
1 . It will be the fureft way to keep out unfoundnefs and abufi ve 
paffages, when nothing is allowed as apublickform but what 
bath obtained the common confent.2.It will be the way of fulleft 
concord : w^enforms are neceffary,. there is more of Concord 

Ccc $- in 


in it, to have one . that is approved founds then to have as -ma- 
ny as men pleafe. 3 The C hurches may the better know whom 
to hold communion with in Prayer, ( though the Paftors may be 
unable to pray without forms j when they know thefubftance 
of their Prayers. 4. The Magiftrate may the better do his duty 
and be refponfible for the fervice that is offered to God,even by 
the weakeft Paftors, and fee that Gods name be not abufcd. Ic 
is therefore dcfirajble that a Common Liturgy be extant. • 

2. And for the ufe o/*V,let thefe Rules contained in the Propo- 
rtion be obferved. 

if tec no man be ordained a Minifter that is not able to Pray 
without a Form, in fuch a manner as is not di (honourable to 
tbeworfhipof God, unlefs the Necefii;y of the Churches fliall 
require it. Ail friends of the Church wi.il agree to this, that 
the Church have the ableft Paftors that can begot. 

2. But becaufe ic is not to be hoped for that all the Churches 
can be thus fupplied fat leaft in hafte, ) if the Ordainersor 
Approvers (hall appoint any to the work in wdes or other ne- 
ceifirous places, that are not able competently to adminifter Sa- 
craments, &c. without a Form of Prayer,let them tye fuch co 
ufe the Form Agreed on. 

3. If they approve only of fuch as are able to do it without 
a form, but yet fo weakly (Tome of ihemj as is lefs to the Chur- 
ches Edification , then the form would be, let fuch bead vifed, 
foments to ufe the Form, and fomctimc to forbear it, till they 
are more able. 

4. And that h may be no difhonour to the publick Form, that 
it is ufedonly by the weak, let the Ableft Minifters fometime ufe 
it , but with thefe cautions : 1 . Let thesa not be compelled to it 
againft their judgements, but pcrfwaded. 2. Let not the ableft 
ufe ic fo frequently as the weak, ( unlefs their own judge- 
ment require it. ) Let the weaker ufe it ofter, and the Abler 
more feldom. 

5 Let neither of them (that can competently worfhip God 
without itj ufeic Confiantlj ; but fometime ufe it, and fome- 
time forbear it. And this is the main point that I intend in 
this Proportion , and therefore (hall now briefly give my Rea- 
fons for. 

Reaf. j. Tie conftant ufe of form s ( and fo of Ceremoniej and 

any Indifferent things ) doth potently tend to per/wade the people 
that they are matters of Neccjfitj, and not indifferent. All the 
.word* that you can afe will not fatisftc them that it is indifferenr, 
if you ufcit noc Indifferently. Wc fee by experience the 
power of cuftome with the vulgar. 

But you will fay, What if they do overvalue it as ne~ 
cejfarjt what danger u in that} I anfwer very much. i. They 
will offer God a blind kind of fervice , while they place 
his worfhip in that which is no part of worfhip ( as forms are 
nocasfuchj but an indifferent circumftance. 2, They will be 
hereby induced to uncharitable cenfuresof other Churches or 
perfons that think otherwife,or difufc thofe cuftoms. 3. They 
will be ftrongjy induced to rebell againft their Magistrates and 
Paftors, if they (hall judge it meet to change thofe cuftoms, 
^. They will turn that Arcana of their zeal for thefe indifferent 
things, that fhould be laid out on the matters of Neccflity : 
and perhaps in vain will they worfhip God , by ah outfide hy- 
pocriticall worfhift while they thus take up with mens Traditi- 
ons. 5 . They will forfake Gods own Ordinances , when they 
cannot have them cloathed with their defired mode. All this 
we fee in ourvdayes at home. The mod ignorant and ungodly 
do by hundreds and thoufands, rejed Church dtfcipline, and 
Sacraments, and many of them the Prayers and Affemblies rhem- 
felves, becaufe they have not the Common Prayer, or becaufe 
the Churches kneel not at the Lords Supper in the ad of Re- 
ceiving , and fuch like. So that it is a grievous plague to our 
peoples fouls to be led into thefe miftakes , and to think* 
that Circumftances and things indifferent , are matters ofNc* 

And yet on the other fide , left the confiant difufe of all cor:- / 
ventent forms, (hould lead the people into the contrary... tx- 
tream,to*think them all unlawfull ( and fo to be guilty of the 
like uncharitable cenfures and evils as aforefaid) I think it fa- 
feft, that the ableft men fhould fometimeufe them. And this 
Indifferent ufe of them , will lead the people to indifferent 
thoughts of them, and fo they will not proveks God by bund 
worfhip, nor be (o ready to fly in the faces of their Mir.uUis 
when they crofs them herein, as now they are. For example, 
whitaftir have we if menraay not kneel at the Sacramen^ or 



if the dead (in cafe of Minifters abfence, or other hinder ance ) 
have not fomewhac faid over them at the grave-, and in fome 
places, if Minifters go not in proceifion in Rogation week, and 
many fuch like cuftoms. If thefe were fometime ufed (in a good 
and lawfull way ) it would keep men from miftaking them to 
be uniawfull ; andif they were fometime difufed , people would 
not take them as things neceilary , nor fo bate and reproach 
both Minifters and brethren that neglect them, or do not al waya 
humour them herein , yea or that were againflibem : nor would 
men feparate on thefe accounts. 

Reafi 2. The conftant ufe ef Terms of Prayer deprivtth people of 
their Minifters gifts, and potently tendeth to work, the people into a 
dull formality \and to a meer out fide heart left f^»doffervice 9 'Whkh 
is as great an enemy to ferious Devotioa,and confequently to 
mens fa!vation,asa!m£ft any thing thats to be founfl among pro- 
feffed Chriftians in the Church.How dangeroufly and obftinate- 
ly do fuch delude themfelves, and think that they are as upright- 
ly religious as the bed? and fo refcife all .the humbling con- 
vincing iight that ftiould bring them to a change, and blindly 
mifappJy the promifes to themfelves , and go on in meer preem- 
ption to the lad : and all becaufe they thus draw neer to God 
with their lips , and fay over a form of words , when their 
hearts are far from him, and they know not, or obfervc not what 
they fay. 

And that conftancy in Forms doth potently tend to this 
dead formality, we need no other proof then experience. How 
bard doth the beft man find it to keep up life and fcrioufnefs in 
the conftant hearing or fpeaking of the fame words? If you 
fey that it is our fault; I grant it: but it isanuncurable fauk 
while we are in the flefh: or at leaft its few that ever are 
very much cured of it , and non wholly. Theres much aWb in 
nature ic.fclf to caufe this. A man that delighteth in Muikk is 
weary of it, if he have conftantly the fame inftruracnt and 
tune * or at leaft cannot pofflbly have that delight that Vari- 
ety would aiford him. So is it in recreations , and oft in dyet , 
and otber things. Novelty af&Seth : Variety plea fcth : Com- 
monnefs dulleth us. And though we muft not therefore have 
a New God, or a New Chrift, or a New Gofpcl ( the fulnefs 
©f thefe afiordeth the foul a daily variety,: and alfo their per- 


fe& goodnefs is fqch as leaves no need of a variety in kind*) 
yet is it meet that Minifters fhould have a gratefull variety of 
Manner , to keep up delight and defire in their people. A fick 
ftoraack cannot take ftill the fame Phyfick, nor the fame difh. 
I know that an ancient prudent man, efpecially the Learned 
Paftor himfelf, that better coraprehendeth what a form of words 
contains, can make a much better ufc of forms, then younger 
Chriftians can do. But I think with all, I am furc with the 
generality, (to whom we muft have refpe&J a conftant form is 
a certain way to bring the Soul to a cold inlenfible formal wor- 

And On the other fide,ifa form be Confiantly dlfufed^nd peo- 
ple have not fometimes arecitallof thefame, again and again, 
it may tend to breed a childifh levity, and giddynefs in 
Religion- as if it were not the matter, but raeer Novelty and 
variety that did plcafe ^ And fo it may alfoeafily make Hypo- 
crites, who {hall delude themfelves with conceits that they 
delight in God and in his word, when it is but in thefe novelties 
and varietiei of exprefiion, that they are tickled and delighted ; 
and their itching ears being pleafed, they think it proves a work 
of faving grace on the heart. And therefore to fix Chriftians and 
make them found, that they grow not wanton in Religion, and 
be not as children carryed up and down with variety of do&rines 
or of modes, I think it would be ufeful to have a moderate fea- 
fonableufe of forae forms as to the manner, as well as often to 
inculcate the fame matter ; Avoiding ftill that conftancy that 
tends to dull their appetites, and make them weary or formal in 
the work. 

Reaf. 3 . Tht conftaxt nfe of m flint ed LHnrgj y or form of 
Prayer j doth much tend ts the remfnefs and negligence of the Mini* 
ftrj. When they know that the duty requireth no cxercife 
of their invention, and that before the Church they may as well 
perform it with an unprepared as with a prepared mind, it will 
ftrongly tempt them (and prevail too commonly)to negleft the 
ftirring up of their gifts, and the preparing of their minds.When 
they know that before men they may (in Reading a Pray er) 
come off as well without any regard to their hearts, as with the 
greateft ferioufnefs of devotidtf ,we muft expect that moft fhould 
do accordingly .-For we fee that Minifters are men^nd too many 

D d d are 

( 3 8<J) 

arc carryed as well as others, with the flreara of temptati- 
on. But thofe Prayers and other duties that depend upon their 
parts, require preparation, or at leaft fome prefent care and di- 
ligence for the awakening of their hearts, and excitation of their 

Reaf. 4. But the principal danger of aconftant ufe ef pre- 
fcrikeaformjjsjeft it Jbould let in an unworthy Miniflry into the 
Church. Tor though I had rather have as weak Mimfters as 
I before defcribed, then none; yet it will be very dangerous 
when fuch are tolerated becaufeofNccefiky,left the negligence 
of Ordainersand Approvers will take advantage of this, and 
pretend neceffity where there is none, or hearken to them that 
come with fuch pretences, and fo undo the Church by an igr.o* 
rant inefficient Mtniftry ; fo hard is it for men to avoid one ex- 
tream without running into another. Now the utter prohibition 
of dinted forms will prevent this, but not without an evil on the 
other fide. And therefore to avoid the evils on both (ides, me 
thinks it would be bed to let fuch forms be ufed , but unconitanc- 
ly, unlefs by men that will lie under the difhonour of being able 
to do no better. A nd that difhonor will hinder men from rett- 
ing in them, and the frequent cxercife of other mens gifts, will 
awaken them to their duty, and the neceffity of it will as well 
keep out inefficient men as if there were no form at all. For 
an inefficient man can no more perform the work once a day 
without a form, then twice a day. I (hall add no more Rea- 
fons, becaufe they that write againft forms of Prayer, though 
they run too far, have faid enough of the inconveniences. The 
motion that I make being for a voluntary and an unconftant 
ufe of them,I muft expect to meet with objections on both fides, 
which I (hall briefly anfwer. 
Objeft. 1. Object. 1. Thofe that are utterly againft forms , will fay that 
I am opening under pretence of Peace and Liberty away to let in 
ah unlawful! yporfiip and a lazy infufficient Miniflry. To which 
I anfw. 1 . For them that take all forms to be unlawful!, I think 
them fitter for eompafsion then difputes ,and judge their reafon 
to be as low as the Quakers that cry down the ufe of hour- 
glaffes , and ferraon- notes, and preaching on a Text of Scripture. 
2. And for the reft of the objection, its- anfwered before. 
The ufe of a Liturgy in the way defcribed, will not more Coun- 

08 7 ) 

tenance a lazy infufficicnt miniftry, nor hurt the Church, then if 
there were none. 

Ob jed. 2. But what need is there of it }Are we not well without Ob/eft. 2. 
it ? why wmld J oh dijtttrb our peace, to pleafe the adversaries} 
Anfw. i. We are not without a Liturgy, as (hail be further 
(hewed, and therefore you cannot fay we arc well with- 
out it. 2. Some yong weak Miniftcrs (we muft fpeak the 
truth,) do wrong both Baptifm and the Lords Supper by many 
raifcarriages, for want of further help?. 3. Wales and many 
pans of England muft be fupplyed with Forms, or be without, 
which is worfe. 4. The Confciences of many of thofe that you 
call adverfaries (and I call Brethren) muft be indulged with the 
liberty of a convenient form, or elfe we (hall not walk charita- 
bly. * 

On the otherfide it will be obj-ded, by them that would Obfcft, r' 
have all men forced to the conftantule of forms, 1. that If we 
have not forms, men maj vent what they pleafe in prayer : fome 
raile in prajer 9 andfome vent error, and fome rebellion, &c. Anfw. 
1. This Argument makes againft all Prayer of Minifters, but 
what is prefcribed. For if you force them to a form, and yet 
give them leave with their Sermons to ufc alfo either extempo- 
rateor formed Prayers of their own, they may as well vent 
rebellion, herefie or malice in them, as if they had no Liturgy 
at all. And if you would have Miaifters ufc no prayer but what 
they read out of the impofed books, for fear of thefe inconveni- 
ences, you will (hew your felvei enemies to the Church, and 
cure an inconvenience with amifchief. 2. And if men were 
forbidden all prayer but by the Book, yec it is more eafie to 
vent error or malice in a Sermon. So that unlefs you tie them 
alfo to forbear preaching fave out of an impofed book, you are 
never the better. And if you would do fo,you arc forry helpers of 
the Church. 3 . You have a better remedy then thefe at hand. 
Put no fuch Jnfufficient men, or Hereticks into the Miniftry, 
that will fo abufe prayer : or if they be crept in, put them out 
again, and put better in their places, that will not abufe it. If 
fome Phyfitians kill men by ignorance or malice, will you tie 
them all to go by a Book and give but one medicine, or will 
you not rather call out the unworthy, and licence only ablet 

Ddda Objea; 

Objefi.2, Objeft. 2. But how can ljojn with 4 Mimfler tri prayer, If 
1 know not before hand what he will fay , when for ought 1 know he 
v&y.praj bUfphemy or herepe ? 

%knfw. i. By this objedion , you take it to be unlawful to. 
joyn with any prayers at all, whether publtck or private, bc& 
what you know before : And fo it feems you think all prayer 
but whats by the book, unfit for any but a folitary perfon. And 
ff this be your mind,thatyour Book- Prayers muft needs (hut ou% 
all others, blame not men fo much to (hut out your Book, when 
you fo far provoke them. 2. According to this Ob je&ion you 

muft not fend for the Minifies to pray with Y ou w ^ en you are 
fick, or in trouble, unlefs he eye himfelf to your Book. And 
why then may not another do it as well as he ^ or at leaft, the 
* fillyeft man that can read as well as the moft able? 3. It is the 
work of the Minifter,to be the peoples mouth in prayer to God, 
and therefore if he fail in the manner of his own work,it is his fin^ 
and not yours, and you may no more refufe for that to joyn 
with him, then fubjc&s may refufe to obey the foveraign powep 
becaufeof fome mifcarriages, yea or to fight for them ; and defend 
them. 4. Your prefence fignifieth not your confent to all that 
you hearirosn a Minifter : And your Heart is not to follow him 
in evil,but in good.* and therefore feeing you are at liberty,what- 
caufeoffcruple have you ? 5. It is fuppofed that no man \s 
ordinarily admitted, or tolerated in the Miniftry, that will fo\ 
abufe prayer that men may not lawfully joyn witr} 
them. If they are fuch, call them out : If you cannot caft 
them out, if they arcHereticks or Biafpheraers, come not neer 
tb<nj.But if they are men fit for to be tolerated in the Minillry, 
you have reafon to truft tberafo far in their office, as not to t x- 
pe& Herefies or Blafphemies from them,till you hear them: An4 
if you hear them guilty offuch,affer a Firft and Second admoni- 
tion avoid them. But let not wicked uncharitable cenfures be. 
an argument againfl the worfhip of God. You know not but 
a. Pbyfician may poifon you, and yet you will choofe the bed 
you can, and then truft your lives with him. You may much 
more do fo by a Minifter, becaufc you proceed not hy fo implicit^ 
a faith in the matters of your Salvation. You may refufe any 
evil that the Minifter offereth. 
% 9 Objeft, 3, 3nt r**»] of sh:& freaky tnduntevcrer.l 



vords^ndabufe Gods yporJhif,Anfrv.Gti better in their ftead^haft 
are able to do Gods work in a more fuitablc manner. But 
that your quarrel fome capricious wits, do not odioufly aggra- 
vate imperfections, or make faults where there are none. And 
remember that you have not Angels, but men to be your Pa- 
ftors ; and therefore imperfe&ions muft be cxpe&ed: But a 
blefsr g may accompany imperfect administrations. But if Peo- 
ple, Patron, and Ordainer will choofeweak men, when they 
may have better, they may thank themfelvcs. A Common 
Prayer book will make but an iroperfed fupply, inftead of an 
able Mmifter : Though in fome cafes I ara for ir, as aforefaid . 

Objed. 4. But prayer is a fpeaking to Ged : and *ber*fir* Obfc&.A, 
menjbouldfay net king bnt what is exatllj mighed before hand. 

Anfw. 1. We grant all this. But men may weigh before 
hand the matter of their rcquefts, without preparing a form of ~ 

words : or a man may fore-confider of his words, without a 
Prayer-book. 2. Preaching is a /peaking in Gods napte^ as 
though God[peak.ty*s i m& as Chrifls embajfadors in his ftead* 
2 Cor. 5. 19, 20. And ta fpeak as in Ch'nfts (lead, and Gods 
name, requiretb as great preparation, as to fpeak to God in the 
peoples name. It feems more, as it were to reprefent Chriftin 
fpeaking,then to (peak to Chrift while we reprefent but the peo- 
ple^ And therefore by this argument you (hould let no man preach 
neither,but by a book prefcribed. j.Qod is not as man,that looks 
moft at oratory and fine words.lt isanhumble,contrite,faithfuli» 
honcft heart that he looks at : And where he fees this, with earned 
dedres, and that the matter of Prayer is agreeable to his will, he 
will bear with many a homely word. One Cold requeft>or the left- 
formality and dulnefs of afTe&ion,and carelefnefs and difefteem of 
the mercyjs more odious with God^hen a thoufand Barbarifms, 
andSolaecifms,and unhandfome words. Yet the tongue alfo (hould 
carefully be lookt to:but men (hould not miftake tnemfelves 5 and 
think chat God judgeth by the o *tward appearance, and as man 
j,udgetb a 4.Still I fay .getMinifters that are able to do better if you 
have infufficient ones. A man on a common prayer-book is 
likelier to provoke God, by a carelefs, heartlefs, cuftomary 
fcrvicc, and mcer lip labour, let the the words be never fo exad, 
then another ( that fears Godj is like to provoke him t>y difor- 
icdy or uahandfomc words : Though both fhould be avoided, 

Ddd 1 Cbj'c& 


Object. 5 . Obje&. 5. Our minds are not able to go along with a Mlnfter 
en the fudden.unlefs we knew what be will fay before hand. 

Anfw. A diligent foul that marketh what is faid, may with 
holy afTc&ions go along with a Minifter without knowing what 
he will fay before hand. The experience of Cbriftians confuteth 
this objection. 2. And this would not only plead for a form,but 
(hut out all other prayer : which is fufficient to difgrace it with 
any undemanding man. 
Obje&. 6. Objcd. 6. Thepublic^Trayerj of the Church are they that 
wemufl own by our concurrence : His own conceived Prayers are 
but the Private Prayers of the Minifter. Anfw. The Minifter 
is a publick perfon , and his prayers publickiy made for and in 
the Church,are as much the Publick prayers of that Church as 
if they were read out of an impofed Book; But indeed when 
many Churches Agree in a form, that form may fo far be called 
the Common Prayers of all thofc Churches : but its no more the 
Publick Prayers of anyone Church then fudden conceived pray- 
er is. And when there is no form, yet the matter may be the 
Common Prayer of all Churches. 
Object 7. Ob je& . 7. But what confufion will it make in the Church if one 
Congregation Jhalihave d Form> and another nont % and every man 
{hall be left to do whai he lift in Prayer f 

Anfw. This is the vokrof^hat Ignorance, Pride, and Divi- 
ding ufurpation that hath eaufed all the Schifms and troubles of 
the Church. Mult the Churches have no Peace but on your 
impofed terms ? Muft none be endured, but all cad out of the 
Church of God that dare not fay your forms of prayer, though 
they arc as wife and pious and peaceable as you ? Nothing 
but Proud arrogancy and uncharitable cruelty will fay fo. z.But 
if we muft needs all Agree in the manner of our Prayers, we 
muft (hut out ail forms, and agree all to be without them 
( which yet I confent not to. ) For there is no one Form that 
you can expect that all fhould agree in , thats of humane 
invention ; Not but that we may well do il : but it will not be. 
3. How had the Church Uniiy before any of your forms 
were known? 4. If it be no blemifh for fevcral Nations to have 
feveral Forms , and manners , it is tolerable for feveral 
Congregations, 5. How did the Ancient Churches maintain 
their Unity, when Liturgies were inufe, and the variety was 



fo great as Is commonly known ? Many Churches had no fudg- 
ing of Pfaims ( Vid. Pamel. in Cyprian, de Orat. Dom.Not*6.) 
Others ufed it by the whole Aflemblies ( fee Ball's Friendly 
Tryal, page 60. citing the Authors that atteft it ) Other Chur- 
ches did u(e to fi ng by courfe, or two at a time. ( See it proved 
by Ball ibid, out of many witnelTes.) This variety and much 
more confifted then with Unity, and may do now, when forced 
uniformity will not. 6. We are all now at Liberty what Ge- 
fture we will ufe in flnging Pfaims, &c. and is here any difcord 
hence arifing ? But men were forced to kneeling only in Recei- 
ving the Lords Supper, and there came in difcord. Mens fan- 
cies makes that fecm confufion that is no fuch thing. No more 
then that all that hear or pray, have not the fame coloured 
cloaths, comple&ions, &c. 

Objed. 8. But /hould not men obey ^Authority in forms and Objeft & 
matttrs of indijferency} Anfve. They (hould, if they be indeed 
indifferent. But {hould Authority therefore enfnare the Church 
with ncedlefs Impofitions } All men will not be fatisfied of the