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Full text of "Church-history of the government of bishops and their councils abbreviated. Including the chief part of the government of christian princes and popes, and a true account of the most troubling controversies and heresies till the reformation .."


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//:Ar//fyK. OF THE ^^^'i/fyrt 


O F 






Including the chief part of the Go\^ernment of 

Chriftian Princes and 'POPES, and a true Account of 
tlic moll troubling Controverfics and Hcrcfies till the 

K E F K M A r I K 

-Written for tlie ufc efpecially of them, 

I. \A^ho are ignorant or mifiiiformed of the State of the Ancient Churches. 

II. Who cannot read many and great Volumes. 

III. Who think that the Univeria! Church mull have one Vifible Sove- 
raign, Perfonai or Colledive, Popeor General Councils. 

IV. Who would know whether Patriarchs, Diocelans, and their Councils, 

have been, or mull; be the cure of Herefies and Schiimes. 

V. W ho would know the truth about the great Herefies which have divided 

the Chriftian World, efpecially the Domtifis^ KovatUns^ Arrims^ 
''f^acetloniiinSf Nefioriafis, EHtichiansy Afo77oihelites^ &C. 

Bs KICHJRD BAXTER, :i Hater of fallb Hiftory. 


Printed, and are to be fold by John Kidgell at the Atlas In Conihill^ 
near the RoyM Exchange^ MDCLXXX. 





eX. t-t^ f^ 



TH^ grtat 4tjcfnltiefs fif Hijlory fKeds nut many nords to 
prove /Y, Jeeh/g natural wcl/Kation it Jclf is Jo much for it^ 
andreafmand exferietice tcU nicn^ thut they cannot Jpare it ^ 
ax to Natural^ Ch'il, er Religious hJc. God hintjelf hath highly com- 
vtendcdit tous, by vritingth Sacred Scriptttres fo much Hijioricully -^ 
jeaand making Jome of it fart of the necejfiry Articles of our Creed, 
Children that yet midcrjlavd not the DeQrinalfart of the Bible^ do 
quickly tak^ delight in the Hijiorical part ^ trhich prcparcth them for 
the rejh. Ignoraftt and ungodly peribns that have no true fenjl of 
Sacred Do&rine^ can )Ct undcrjland and rritb leffe avcrfnefs and 
tfearinefs read the hijlory. Mchncholy and Jad perfons vcho can 
httrdly hear long Doar/nal Jivdies , arc often eafed and recreated 
vpith ujejiil Hijlory. 

Man it a part cf the TJnizarJe, and every man is a fart of the 
world of mankind^ and thcrejbre thml^th the cafe oj the whole to be 
much efhiscoficciite. And rvcrc not nanow felfiflmes much of our 
Pruvity, we Jhould talf tic t/niterfal and fublnk^ good , and Geds 
Love to it and l?lcajcdncfs and Glory in it, to be much more our end., 
dindihc oLjcH of eur.dejire and dehgl.t , than any fcrjcnal felicity of 
Ohrown:, It is a Mittjier of inhumanity in the Do&rinc of the Sad- 
ducccs, Spinofa, Hobbcs, and tleir IruiiiJI) fvllojrers, that they Jc! 
Kf Indfzidual Jclf ft/tcrcjl as a mans chiefcjl end and objccf of 
rational Love and defirt ^ and oven no Good, but that niich 2?c/,.-- 
tively is Good to me, that is, cither my perfcnal life and picafiirc <i 
the end, crotl.a- things as a r-fcojis thereto: Though Cracc on'jJuz;}:g~. 
lyatre this baje inhumane maJadie, yet common rcafon Icarcthrcii- 
7iefs againji it,, and only fcnfc, rfWiircafbn captivated by fcnjc do pa- 
tronize it. Put 7:0t the (jucllion to a rcajin.ible man^ though wicked, 
what he can do or dotli ; But what in rcafon he ll:ould do, and 
he catmpt deny luf that hepordd tlinh^ofa more txcel'c::t pcrjon at the 
Indie?, th^'it nexcr rcilldo anything fr hnm, as more amailc than him- 

A 2 . Jclf, 

The Preface. 

felf^ much fftare many ihmfands fiiih -^ Afrdas Goodnels oftd Ami- 
Tibkneisare all One, Jo thM whii'h ij-focft, pouldhe loved beft * And 
■ he that Muld not die to Jkti his Ctuntry is vecrfe than foier ^Heathens 
were. And he that vpoiild not rather be annihildttd than all or halfe 
the world pmld he annihilated, isfo bafely fcljijh, that I Jbmildjecner 
kljere that analogical Rcafon nileth Jomc Irvites , than that true 
ReApn determinctb ihis mans choice. 

Spinofa tak^tb the Knowledge of our Union with Univerftl 
naturt" (rrhich he callcth Ged') to he mans ferfeOion^and his ckiffgotdy. 
in cotn^'arifon of which Jenfual Pleafure, Riches and- Honour are 
ht tronbks further then they areumtanes hereto : And if he had bet- 
ter kpOTfn God , as the Creator and Governour and end of the mA- 
terial Umverft rchich he tcek^ to be God , and had joyntd Q holy 
Uniteing Joyful Love to the Univerfe , and (pccially to the 
Heavenly Societfy-dWd' above them all to God himfelQ unto this 
Knowledge, aj^d extendedit to the perpetuity of stn Immortal jlate., he 
had ken happily iA the right, irhich mijfwg, he became a perniciotts . 
Jedmer of himfclf and others . 

BntthMS7raturc And Grace do loudly tellvs, that each f&Tt Jhotdd 

'* ' he greatly concerned fjr the whole,' '<»«/ therefore every one Jhoiild 
deftreto kiiswas nnicb of tie vAicAt, asheiscapdblc,andastendetb 
to his duty and delight. Andhovpfnulla pared o/Time, or Men, 
or Aftions arc prcja:-t or in car dares .■? Hsw little l^noiceth he 

'•"^^'■thdt k>!OV(cih no more than he hath lived to Jic> What Religion can 
ke hoTcC vpko hjevpeth not the Hrflory of Creation, Redemption or the 
giving of the Holy Ghcft, oi' the plaiJting and 'propagating the 
Church., and alfo what will he tvhcn this life is ended } 

But it is not all Hijlcrj that is fieedfnl or ufcful to us : There tire 
many things dene which m are not concerned to be acquainted with. 
But the Hijlory of the Chcrch, of the propagation of the Chriftian 
faith, <?wtf/ what the Doftrine was that was then received. Mid box* 
it was praSifid, promoted and defended, and how it was corrupted 
invaded at/d perjecnted, is of Jo great ufeto pojlerity , that next 
rothe Scripture and the illitmination of Gods Spirit, I remember nO' 
thiv^ more needjid tc beknorvn. 

'.-«, «'7f7«/i; Philip Neriusy?f«j; A// Oratorian exercijes at R,ome, as 
to wiU the people, they found it ncccffary to nje large affe£iionate ex- 
tcmpcr.ttc prayers :ind ixpofi'.ionsandSermons, fb the next thing found 
f:c.cjj^ir}' u.\rx, to hcjlcv confuu-tly offc cxercijcin opening C hurcb-HiJio- 



ry tothf -ptcple. And this did bcib crtkc ikcir ait€vt:c>:s by deli^bt^ 
and aljo by Jiihng rcpcrts more to the Papal ifttereji that/ to the trHth-, 
did greatly bewitch them tftte a lenfidvtt bcliefi^ that ike Papai /e3 
. was ail the trne Churchy and all other Cfr/j!i.ms roere hut fe&ariesand 
bvanckes broken off and Tppithered^ and there fere to he burned here and 
hereafter (abupig Joh. 15.5. C'v. ) 

An dl have oft thought that the right j;fr. of fuch an Hifioricd cx- 

ijy trcifi^ in an ordinary cotigrcgatiou troufd be of great tijc to the igno- 

y!!>%%\ i-jmt z-ulgar And unlctirncd zfalo/ts fcrt ofQirrjuan r : For I find that 

• \fc l^ir vpant of the kfiovekdge of Qhurch-Htfiory , ttnd hove things have 

» ■ . gone before us in all former times^ muny enours and (ins are kept up 

«»■*•■ thai eljovpoutd mere eufdy he forfaken-i'* Tv infiance in fonic ferv. 

'{a. id ] L^Asit vc.u the craft of haronms (vrhfi performed that cxercife 

i>iil dH ^riusfi/V Qonvettticles at Rome,) to rrritt aficitrui-d his Qhurch- 

K\h. » 'Hijiqry in Latin fo vflumwoufly^hat fen- but the Clcrgie byaj/ed by mtercji 

i^ rV-tPOH'd read it^ and (3 the Clergy nt/ghtle the neditcd reporters of all 

. '^-itoth^ X'ulgar y.fo to this day, the Papiji-Priefis contrive to be the 

Maflers and reporters of Chiirch-Hijiory us rrcll as of umxritlcnTra^ 

h.i>-'\\dJtff^,.:afrdfO'J{ccp the Laity fo fur ignorant of it, that lehen they tell 

to* ^^^fTtcn confident fiories for their adrantagCy ferv or none tuuy be able to- 

rontradfCftl.cn/, a»dfo their report /nuji pajfc as undc/zycd truth. And 

thus ftilje Hifiory is made the chief fvund^ii ion of the Roman Ki/rg- 


. '^hns tity rcill face you doivn that you arc igi.orant or impudent, 

^h. M^i;, Jf jou qkejiionrrhcther Pctcrn-us atrue B/jhop at Rome, (ycu 

9A1 ]t!fir civr tJ^re,nhich N\\\is hath JJ.iexcd to be fbn/ewhat uncertain ) 2. 

Or that he fctlcd the Roman Bijhop us his fucceffcur Hn a f^prentacy 

g-dcrullthe Qhriji/an world, 3. Or that the Popes Primacie wasozcr 

all the Churches on earth, which indeed rvas but (as Cantcrburie isiti 

pj/gland,') m one Roman Empire ovly. 4. They rcill pcrfwade you 

* that this Pri/nacie iras felled by Chrifl or his Apofiles , which veas done 

•'"' only by Councils and En/perours of ?<.ov[\c, 5. They veould nial^ \cu 

bthctc that this n>as fr^//t the Apojilcsdaies, which begoji long afier, 

■« ' 6. They wouldpcrfrvade you that all the Chr/jiiMt world fiibn/iltcd Icr 

it,eien Abaflia, and all the exira-i/nperial Churches, wL/tbis no fuch 

■«» ,vt matter, 7. Tea^that befora iMlhcx rone cok'trad/Hcd the Pupal power 

-SA r-and cUi»/e, but all the Chrijiian world were Papiflr. By tnany fuch 

"^ ^^ ties they elective thcufimas of the ignoratit :. And when they rhai- 

•■" h gc /Hcn to dijpute, by- wovd or iprii/ng, then: laji refuge is to bring thc//t 

V A ^ ' v.io 

The P 11 E t^ A C E. 

i/.to a reeocl of Hiflory-, that there thcyfHuj cither min the game or end fhp 
chafr-i And if a Mtnijier of Chrijl be not nfmediere, tt) confhtc their 
f./Jhrrcal forgfrks, they wifl take it fir' a vRtx^ and iriumpfy, which 
MoJe Ji:c vcrite Kiy laji book^ againji J ohn(bn V <>'■ Terrt^t) to JIktv tii- 
(IcriCidly the Anil quity of cur Chttrch^ and the novelty of theirs (rchirh 
[could vcifi yntng Minijlers itnacquaititcdTPithChwch-HiJiorj would 

But if o»r people rvcretrifcly acquainted hotp things have gone in the' 
Church front the ieginning^it rcotild be one of the moji effeliual^ prejer- 
l-aiivcs againji Poper}!, when new i he faljff cations are become its jireftgth. 
J have oft thought that it had been greater policy in the Papijis, if they 
coitld^ to- have burnt all ChHrch-Hijiory^ but fpecial/y of theCoiwcils, 
that the credit ntight haze depended on their bare word: For verily 
cncc reading of Crab^ Binn'ms, Surius, or NlcoWTmswrndd fttrn agait/J} 
tkent a7ty jioKtacl{^ihat is not confirmed in their own difeafe. But tney ' 
have overdone Baronius, and now made fo great and cojily a bad of 
the Cottncils, as that the defciency of money ^ time^ wit and patient 
indujlrj^jhallfive the mofyCven of the Pricjihocd fram the iindcrjiand- 
hig of the truth : And Jitch Epitomes as Caranza's leave out n/ojf^ of ^ 
the culpable part: and yet even fiich they can hardly tolerate. ^ , 

//. Tne more moderate French Papijis who magfrifeOoHncih attOue' ' 
Popes, irvfld make us believe,that though Popes arc fallible andmaymij- 
c.nry^yet GcneralConncils Jhave been the univerjal Church-reprejentative^ 
which have a Lcgifativc and "judicial TJniverfal powers and that our 
concord mitjl be by centring in their decrees ^ and all are Schifmaticl^s at 
leaf, that take not their Faith and. Religion upon their trtijl : But if 
men k."ewthat there never rvais a General Council of al/ the Chrijiian 
Churches but only of the Empire, and how wofully they hai'e mifearriedy 
it would do much tofavc them from all fuch temptations. 

III. The ovcrvalucrs of Church gran dure, and wealth, atid ntain- 
taincrs of the corrupt fort of Tiiocefane Prelacy, Patriarks,^c. write 
books and tell the ignorant conjident fi cries, how fuh a Prelacy hath 
. been in the Church ever (ince the dayes of the Apojilcs, atid that all the 
Churches on earth conjentcd to it: But if the people were acquainted with 
Church-Hijiory they would ^WfJjr, that the pri >>. itivefx cd Epifopa-.y w.is 
Parochiiil,or every Chnrch ailbciatcd for pcHonal preflntCo nmu- 
iiionhada Bi(liop,Pre(bvtcry and Deacons of their own: (urfxed 
Itinc:\V!tGcncralPafors,}ndeff/7icly taking care of mi/njCht;rclcs ).And 
that 7t was the Bifopsjirivingwhofmtld be grcaiejl, and turning fm^lc 


The Preface. 

Cbitrches into an AJfociatien of many Churches^ and tabc but Chappets 
#r partt of the Dmejitt Church (that their psrcer and reealth wight 
btetilargtd mtb their Territories) and the turniHg of Arbitrating Bi- 
jhtps into the Common Judicature:^ vehich ntuft grcern all Chrijiians^ 
andfnch like^ which poyfoned the Church, and turned thcfpccies of par- 
tiatlarChurcheSy Efifcopacy, Presbytery and DifiipUne^ quite into ano- 
ther thing. And tojpta^ f'^flji '^ '"'^•'^ '^^ ntany blind volumes and 
(onfdent clawonrs of fome men, that rail at ut^ as denying an Epijcopa- 
ty, Xfhuh the nniverfal Chnnh hath alrvuys agreed in, rohuh drew nte to 
write this abridgement of the Church Hijiory of Bijliops, Councils and 

IV. And thoje that make the Ignorant believe that Jeditiouf difojfedient 
Presbyters have in all Ages been the dividers of the Church, and the Bi- 
Jlxips the means of "Unity, concord and Jitpprcjfion of JitchSrhi final ic^s 
and Hcreticks, could ncvei- thus deceive the .people, were but fo much 
Church-Hijlory commonly l^own, as I have here col/e&ed. Read Churcb- 
Hijiory and believe that if yon can. 

V. And many that tak^ up atiy iterv opinion or dotage which is but 
newly broached anfcnglfj/em, wfuUL have been favccl from it, if they had 
but kjtown how that fa'tie opinion or- the lil<e, was Icng ago taken up by 
Hcrctickfy and exploded by the faitbfid Pajhrs and people of the Church. 

11, And thefiSaries who raftdy feperatc from fome Churches, he- 
cAufe p/'T^/z/t' fornis, opinions or ceremonies, whuhalmojlallClr:- 
Jli'ans on earth have /if a, in the former purer ages, and fill ufc, wouH 
bc^more cantelous and fearful in examining their grounds, and would 
hardlf venture t(> fepc{'-Jtc from any Church far that, which on thcfimc 
reafon woidd 'mpve them to fcparale from almoji all Chriftians in the 
whole world j if net Unchurch the Church of Chrijl : And ancient 
errours and crimes would affright us f-om imitatrngthem. 

VII. And if>oJe that m.ike new ambiguous words or uuneccffiry pra- 
ctices to become neceffary to Church Communion^ and hereticate all that 
differ from them, or pcrfecute them at leaf, woidd be more frightened 
front Jiich pernicious courjes, if they well kpew what have been the ef 
feUs of them heretofm-c. 

VllL And it is not unufeftd to Princes and Magi f rates to fee what 
hath corrupted and difurbed the Churches in frm<r times : aid what 
cauje they have toAeepthe featlar power from the Clo-gics kinds, and to 
va.ue tl.ofc that jor knorvkdie and piety are meet for their proper guid- 
ing office, and uji oj the Church Kejs : but not to coirttpt them bj cx- 


The Preface. 


cCjQ of rrorldlji ncalih and pon-cr^ vor to permit them by flriving^ who 
Palljccm GKEATEST, WISEST af?d BEST, to become 
the jncct;d}arks of the Church avd rvcrld, and the perjecittors of the 
Icfi that camiot Jene their rrorldlir.efs ami pride. 

The Reader Mufi Ncte^ i. That though much of the Hifiory be takfn 
from others^ the Council j are named and numbred according to Binnius 
and Crabbe : 2. And that becanfe fo much evil is ncceffarilj recited^ I 
thought it needful in the beginning and end to annex a defence of ih9 
V.ijhrs and their office and Tvork.-, leji any pould be tempted to thinly 
hardly of Religion and the Church fir mens abufes. 3. And if Micrc- 
lius, Gutlerbeth, Phili Parens, Funcius, Carion, Melanfthon, Bu- 
chotzcr, Scultetus,Pezclius,Helvicus, or any other that I havejeen, had 
anjkered the ends rrhich I here i/rtend^ Iflwuld have gladly faved my felf 
this labciir and have refer d the reader to them. 

The Councils are norv publified voluminoufly, a»d many young f}udcnts 
rcant money and time to read them at large. Tofuch this abridgement 
may not be unufeful ; efpcciaUy to men that have mifiak^n the cafe of the 
great hercfics and kereticators, and vponld know what Prelacy and toitn- 
cils have done to the concord or difcord of the Churches. The Defcrip- 
tion of the State of Alexandria recited in the beginning as a Letter from 
a friend^ was from Mr.Clerkfon a Learned and worthy Minifier (though 
Jflenced) new in London. 

The Lord pardon and heal our common ftmltinefs^ and give better 
Teachers to his Churches when we are dead and gme^ who will takf 
warning by all our errours and mifcarriages^ efpecially to efcapea wordly 
fpiritypride^Chmch-tyamiy and fchifm^ and ferving the world^ thefiefk 
and the Devily by pretence of Authority fromChriJi, Amen. 

Marchji. i<J8o, 


What Hiftory is Credible, and what not. 

As the Holy Ghoft faith, BelUve not every fpirit ; I may fay, Believe not 
all Reports, or Hiftory. It was not only /4/wt/ Prophets, in whofe 
mouths Satan was a lying fpirit : As lying and deceiving is his work in the 
world, for the deftroying ot Ho/m*//, and oi Souls, even wiien he turncth 
himfclf into an Angel of Light i fs is it the work of his Minifters, when 
they fectntobeMiniftersof Righteoufnefsi when it is oft faid (Be «o» dt-- 
ce'tved) and ^Let no man deceive yon with vain reords ,] it is more neceflary ad- 
vife,andhardiier followed, than moll men underlland. As Truth is Gods 
means to work the will to holy love, and lead us in a holy life, fo Lying is the 
Devils means to oppofethem : and of ail Lyars, none are more pernicious 
than lying Hiftmans, and lying Preadyers. It is a fad perplexity to the world, 
that when men read and hear, even the more confident and plaulTble Hi- 
florics and Reports, they know not whether they are true or falfci and if 
they belicvethat tobc true which is not, thee/fed: is worfc than this /'er- 
fleitity. 1 will tell you what I take to be credible, and what not. 

I. It is prcfuppo/cd that a man mull believe his fenfes, if <b'Jnd, about 
their proper objects : Papifts that tell us that all mens (enfcs are deceived, 
when they feem to perceive Bread and Wine in tlic Sacrament, do but tell us 
that no man then is to be believed, and therefore not they thcii.felves. 

II. The Hiftory of the Gofpd is certainly credible, bccaufe it was con- 
firmed by multitudes of uncontrouled Miracles wro.;ght by Chrill, and by 
his Apofiles, and multitudes of ChriiUansi as the Dodrine it fclf bcareth 
the Image and Superfcription of God. 

III. The Propliets that had Divine Infpiration and Vifion, had that Evi- 
dence which gave thtmfclvcs a certainty, though not toothers. 

IV. \\ hen Hiftory dclivereth a matter ot fad and fcnfe, by the com~ 
mon confent of all men that knew it, though of contrary minds, difpoli- 
tions, and intcrcfts, it giveth us a certainty which maybe called Naturals 
becaufc Nature hath nothing in it that could caufe fuch aConfpiracy in Ly- 
ing : That it is fo credible as to be a Naturjl certainty, that there is fi.ch a 
place isRome, P.iris,Jertifalem; tliat the Statutes ot the Land are not For- 
geries, while all Contenders plead them againlt each other, and hold by 
them their Eftates and Lives; And fo that there was fuch a Perfon as Jtfus 
Chrift, and that the Scriptiues were written by the Prophets and Apo- 
ftles, &c. 

V. when the Hiftory of any perfon and adion is proved by continued or 
vifible effeds .• asthit JVilUam of NonmnJy conquered Englmd, while fo 
many of the cffeds of that Lonqueit in our Laws and CuIioTis are Itill vifi- 
ble •• And that the l^ilfh Were th; Ancient Britains, driven by the Sax!>nr in- 
to Wales, while their' Language, Habitation, &c. Ihew it; And lo that 
Chrift inftitutcd BaptiGn, and Church-Communion, and the Apoftks fe- 

a paxated 

parated the Lords Day for holy worfhip, when the Chrifiian World hath 
ufcd all thefepublickly in all places evcrfince, anddo ftili ufe them: And 
fo that Temples were built for holy worlhip, and endowed, when wc Hill 
fee and polTcCs them. 

VI. That Hiltory is credible which confcntir:gly fpcaketh againP- :• 
known intereft of the Author > for mans corrupt nature is apter r. 
boafting, than to faKe Confcilionsof Sin > againll a Conf:lTor there >">-cii 
noWitnefTes: And this is much of the credibility of the hirflitr part of 
the Church-Hiftory which I here recite : What I fay of the mifcarriagcs of 
Bilhopsand Councils, is moftly in thcirown words i and what I fay againft 
Popes, is but the recital of what is faid by the greateft Defenders or Flat- 
terers of Popes : I give you no Reports againft the pride, contentions and 
corruptions of Patriarchs and Prelates, out of the fuppofed Hereiitks, or 
Proteftants i I give you not a word out of Luther (who de Conciliis) halt 
very much > and efpccially fpeaketh much like as I here do of Cyril arid 
Nejloriui •■> nor out of lllyrkus his Catalogus tcjliitin VeritatiSy nor out of 
the Magdtburgenfes, Ofunder, Skidan , Cation, MelanCihon, Mornay's Myflery of 
Iniquity, no nor out of the Coliedlions of Gaidajinf, M-irqiiJi-Jut^ Freljeri*/., 
Huberus^PiJiofius^&c. But the fubftanceof the common Hiftory is taken 
sut of tlic commonly received Chiirch-Hiftoriins (Eufebius, Socrates, Sozf- 
tnene, Cafiodorus, T'heodorite, Kuffinus, Evjgrius, Nazianzen, Hierom, ViHor^ xV 

Nieephorur,Liberatus,l^icetas,ind(ach others', and th "11 of the Couq- 
cils and Popes is out of Bartnius, Anaftafius^ but moft Ou '. •. 3ifl«/«/,and ?la- 
' una, and JSLneas Sylvius ("a Pope,) Petjvius^ and fuclj of her as are the 
greatefl Papal Zealots: When thefe fpeak for their Cauje , i leave you to 
\a& fnjpiiion\ but when they fpeak a^azw/? it, by way ofconfelfion or la- 
mentation, they are not to be fufpedied. 

VII. The next degree of credibility dependeth on the Veracityor credi- 
ble titnefs of the Reporter ■■, fome men arc much more credible than others ; 
For inftance. 

J. One that was «/>(;«*/'? ^/j«, znA farv what was done, or lived near, 
■where he had full information, is (ceteris fsribus) more credible than 
enethat followeth uncertain reports, orhear-fay. , 

2. A wife man is much more credible than a proud fslf-conceited Confi- 
dent Fool. 

3. One that hath made a matter his long and hard ftudy, is (c£teris pari' 
bus) more to be believed in that matter, than many ignorant men. 

4. One that is impartial, a lover of peace, and not ingaged by fadion ©r 
intereft to one fide againft the other, is c£teris paribus much more credible 
tlian a fadlious intcreiicd man. 

51 A (ober, calm, confiderateman, that will ftay and try before he judg- 
cili, is more credible than a pailionate or hafty judger. 

<5. A man of manifeft honelly, confciencc, and the fear of God, is much 
more to be believed than a worldly , wicked, bloody, unconlcionable 


7. Ceteris 

7- Ctttris Pjr/^K/ many agreed honeft impartial men are more to be be- 
lieved than one, or a few odd and fingular perfons, who have no more ad- 
vantage than the reft to know the truth. 

8. The young and unexperienced owe feme Reverence to the judgment 
of their S'Mfor/, as more credible by age and experience than their own. 

p. Accordingly Children to their Parents, and Scholars to their Maftcrs 
and Tutors owe fuch belief as isanfwcrablc to their difference, and theufc 
of their learning of them. 

By this you may fee on the contrary who is not worthy of belief. 

I. One that pretcndeth Infpiration, Vifion, Revelation, and giveth the 
hearer no fuflicirnt proof of it. 

II. One that pretendeth to tell you things beyond his reach i as many 
-Philofophers do about the my flcrits of Nature, fpiritual and corporeal, E- 

lemcnts or rr.ixt bodies, above and below, of which the Books of many arc 
full, and malignant men, that take on them to tell you other wenx /^«wf/, 
without jtfi proof, that they are hypocrites, and intend that which they 
never did, or meant ill, when they faidor did well ■■, and when falfcHiOo- 
rians will tell you with what Cunprovcd; illpurpofcs or deceits, perfons a 
thoufand miles off, and perhaps a thouland years palt, whom they never 
knew, did fay and do all that is reported of them. 

III. when there are but few reporters of things pretended to be kriown 
publrckjy in the world , efpecially when more credible perfons contradict 

IV. When the pcrfon is deeply ingaged in a Party, and carryingon alitor 
theintercll of his Party, doth give you but his word, or the report of his 
own Party for what he faithi fo that you may perceive that intcrcft byafTcth 
him to partiality. 

V. When theHiflorianfhcwctha mali'gnant fpirir, that cxtenuatcth or 
denieth all the good that was in his Advcrfaries. and faftcncth on them as 
mucli Odium as he can without juft proof, and juHifieth all the reproach 
that is ufcd againd them. 

VI. When the Hiilorian livcth fo far o/f from the place and time, that 
he is no competent reporter, having all his notice but by the fame of his 
own Fadion, as urcapablcas himfclf. 

VII. VN hen the fober moderate men of his own party contradiA him, 
and fpeak well of the perfons whom be reproacheth. 

VIII. When the reporter i"; maniftltly a proud, worldly, wicked, uncon- 
fcionable n,an, efpecially of a bloody hurtful dilprfition ; For as Gods three- 
fold Influence, or the t^Wo:/?jW(/>;.;?, Ifill and Life is bv.t ore, fo the De- 
vil dcth ufually vitiate togedur the Zhiderflanding^ Will and Life j and he 
that is from the beginning ^n Enemy, and- a Murderer, fs alfb a Lyjr^ 
Though a rpick^d^mjlig/unt ,znd eruel w;j/j. may yet have an opinionativc faith 
and knowledge, and preach the truth, when it is for his carnal intcreli i yet 
when his malice and interefttemptcth him againft it, there is no trufHng his 

.a 2 IX. Wiici 

IX. when an ignorant proud man thinkcth that he muft be believed 
mecrly for the reverence and authority of his place. 

X. When the reporter livetli in a time and place where carnal intereft 
hath got the major Vote for fal(hood, and it paffeth commoDJy for truth 
efpeciaily where Tyranny, Civil or Ecclcllailical, filenccth the truth in 
Prefi, Pulpit, and Difcourfe, that it dare not be Ipoken > by which the Pa- 
pifls have not only made their ovvn writingsand reporrs incredible, bjt by 
their Indices Expxrgaiorios, and bafc corrupting of ancient Writers, have 
weakned our certainty of much of the old Hillory and Fathers- 

XI. When the reporter is a weak and lilly man, that hath' not wit tofift 
out the truth. 

XII. Whenheis paiTionately raft, and of haDy judgment, and hath not 
patience rofiay and fufpend his judgment till he hear all. 

XIII. when it is a Novice or raw Student, that hath not had time, helps 
and experience to know what he pretends to know, and yet contradidfcth 
wifer men of more advantage and experience. 

XIV. When prefent experience tellcth us, that the party that he writeth 
againft as unlearned or wicked, are men of Eminent Learning , and the 
i'earof God i- and that the party that he magnifieth as fuch, are contrary » 
by fuch marks incredible Hi/lory may be difcerned. 

Qu. But hBfP canrveknotvmens wifdome, and piety ^ and honejly, and impar- 
tiality, when we ueverkricrv-tbe men ? Anf. Thougib hypocrites may much coun- 
terfeit truth and goodnefs, its hard fo to do it, but the contrary which- 
rukth in them will break out, as a iVmk will get through narrow pafTages : 
and though truth and honeliy may be much clouded, they have, like light, 
afelf- revealing power. 

To give you fome infiances i as among Phyfitiansi^/'^crj/pJ-, and Gakn^ 
lindCelfufoi o'd i and of late Montanits, Crato Fernelius, PUterut, Hildj- 
n«/, and fuch others, do fpeak with that felf-evidencing honci>y, and many 
Faracelfians with that palpable vanity, that one of them will conllrain be- 
lief, and the other unbelief, even in them that never heard what they were : 
So among Hillorians , Eufebiiu, though counted an Arrian, and Socrates^ 
and Sozometi, though called Novatians, and Iheodoret^und Liberatuf, and fome 
others, do write fo as toconllrainbelicf of things which were within therf 
notice, and with honcU impartiality : Among the Papifts, what clear foor- 
ilcpsof underlianding, honefiy, and impartiality,and fo of truth, is there 
in. T'huanur , and much in Commines, Gtticciardint^ Father Paulus Servita 
Hift. of Trent Council, and divers others : Though Dofter Jtmei bid us 
keepCrjt, becaufe the later Councils are corrupt, and all of them muft be 
taken witlvdue Antidotes, yet becaufe irioii of the matter is fetcht from pub- 
lick Ads and Records, they arc more credible than moft fingle Hiftory i 
Acojia fpcaketh impartially of the /^e/? Indies, and Godignus of the AbaJJi" 
ans, Matth. Paris of England, and the Pope, and fo of fome others: Of Pro- 
teftants, fome do but recite recorded tcdimonies, or publick ads, and the 
very wruirgs thciriclvcs of the times they fpeak of, when others do but- 



tell youftories on their bare word : Golds(ltis,Kuhtrus^ Freherm and Pijh- 
r/K/,dobut give usColIc<ftionsof the writings ofthofe former Ages, and 
nothing of their own : So doth Mr. KnJhKorth now in his three Volumes of 
CoUcdlionsi and Mr. F»//w hath partly dono fo, and writcth n.oderatcly> 
Mr.G«7i?rt B«r«rt thuswriteth the Hiftory of the Reformation,, laying not 
the credit on his word, but on his Evidences', and Cambden impartially 
thus writeth of Queen Elizabctb^2nd in his Br/ttania: 'LyT^cr harhdone the 
like, de fuccef. Ecclef. of the JValdenfes i and in \\\sdc irimordiU Eccl. Brit, 
of the Pelagians^ not faying, but prev in g by Records, and old Evidences, 
what he dehvcfeth , bclides the advantage of his known extraordinary 
learning, honcfty, and impartiality ") fo doth Fox for the molt part in his 
Martynlo^y give y( u but the publick Record, or proved Hillorics f though 
Cope call him lyar) MdanShon and Bucholtzer were men of fuch known lin- 
cerity, as conftraincth credit to their reports. 

On the other fide, who can believe fuch palpable Railcrs as T)mpius, Co- 
chleMf,Geiieb)-ard,art(i many fuch, that lye contrary to certain aidence ? fuch 
as make the Vulgar believe, that L«//;fr learnt his Religion of the Dcvii, and 
was killed by him i that Oecolampadius was kill'd by the Devil ; and that 
Bucer had his guts pull'd out, and caR about by the Devil ■■, that Calvin was 
a ftigmatizcd 5'o(/rt»«/>f and Senfualill i that Bf«u died a PapiftCwho lived 
long after to write a Confutation) and abundance fuch, Mckbior Adam 
gathereth hisHiHory of Lives from the Pens of thofe that moft intimately 
knew the perfons, what able, holy, laborious, and excellent fervants of 
God were Crf/ivn, Bez,», Daneus, K>wx, and many fuch, as defcribcd by Adj' 
mMSt and in the judgment of thofe that were their moft knowing obfer- 
vers: But what vile rebellious wretches were they in the judgment of Do- 
GoT Hcylin, and fuch as he ? what excellent perfons did God ufc for the 
beyond-fea Reformation ' even as in Vr.inces and Holland ; Jetircl, Biljon^ and 
other Bifhops, defend that which He)lin defcribcth a5 the molt odious Re- 
bellions: He n\3ktt\\ the Geneva Presbyterians to do that againii their Bi- 
ftiop, which Dr. Ftt. Moulin in his Anfwer to Fhilanjx An^licits, Ihcwcih 
was done before, while they were Papii^s. Some things in Hn/w/ HiHory 
of the Rcform.ation, and the Prcfb^tcrians, I believe, which he bringerh 
Records for i but upon his own word I can fcarce believe any thing that he 
(aith,fo palpably partialis he, and of fo malicious and bloody a iirain, re- 
.prcfcnting excellent perfons as odious intollcrable Fvogues, and the Refor- 
mation, even of the Lutherans, as too bad s but that in France, Blgia, Friefi 
land, the Palatinate, Httngary, Tranjlhania, Scotland, to be but aftriesof the 
moff odienis Rebellions, Murders, and horrid Sacrilccige i and ours in Eff^* 
land to be much the Spawn of Ring Henries Lu{\, and thinking Ring Ed' 
»'ijr^ 5. his death afeafonable mercy > and odioufly rcprtfenting fuc!> ex- 
cellent Billiops zsGrindall, Abbot, and Z^/:er, and fuch excellent Divines as 
we fent to Vort Vavenanty Hall, War d,Carlton, &c. It pleafcth the Prelaf i/is 
to fay tiu ) of me, that I am no Presbyterian, and therefore fpcak not for 
the perLns in partiality, as one of jheir party i but 1 niuft fay, as in Gods 


fight,: that in my own acquaintance,"! have found that fort of men, whom 
Dr. Heylin and fuch other reproach as Presbyterians and Puritans, to be the 
moft fcrious,confcionable,prad:ical, fcber, and charitable Chriftians that fi- 
ver I knew, yea verily the knowledge of them hath been a great help to 
the /Icdfaftnefsof my Faithin ChrilT: Had I known no Chriftians but car- 
nal, worldly, and formal men, who excel not Heathens in any thing but O- 
pinion, it would have tempted mc to doubt whether Chrift were the Sa- 
viour of Souls, as I fhould think meanly of thePhyfitian that doth no 
cures: But when I fee holy mortihed perfons, living in the love of God 
and man, I fee that Faith is not a dead fancy i And when I have lived in 
intimate familiarity with fuch, from my Childhood, to the fixty fifth year 
of my age, and known their integrity, notwithfhnding their infirmities; 
and then read fuch Hifiories as rcprcfent them as the moft odious, flagitious 
perfohs, I fee it is not for nothing that fome men are called A/a';3aAo< in the 
Scripture, and the Children of their Father the Devil, who was from the-he. 
ginning a lying malignant Murderer- 

Two Crimes I have long ago heard the Rabble charge on thofc whom they 
ciUcd Puritani, Lying znd Covetoufncfsi whereas near two thoufand Mini- 
ikrs arecaftout, and fuffer, which they could moftly efcape, if they durft 
but lye i and if I ask money for the Poor (of what party foeverj I can 
fooner get a Pound fromthofe called Turitans, than a Shilling from others 
far richer than they. Can I take any men to be other than malignant lyars 
who would make men believe that luch men as Hilderfham, Dod, Rogerr, 
Ball, Paul Bagne, Ames, Bradjharv, &c, were Rogues and feditious Rcbcl«, or 
that revile fuch as Vfher, Hjll,I>jvenant, &c. ? Reader, believe not a word 
of any of the revilings or odious charadtcrs and llorics, which any afpiring 
worWIy faftious Clergy man writeth of fuch as are his Adverfaries; lying 
is their too common language ■■> yea , if they do' but once fet themfelves 
eagerly tofcek Prefei"hicnt, I will never trull them, or take th:ir words: 
It hath been fo of old, the fame man that was a Saint to his Acquaintance, 
hath bcendcfcribed as wicked, or a Devil by others ; How bad were Origen 
zvdChryfilioinc to Jhenphilas, Akxand.zndEpiphanitis ? And how bad was 
'X::eophilHs to the Hilloriansthat write hisaftions-' How excellent a perlon 
was Cyril Alex. 1 1 the Council of Calxdon, and how bad a man was he to 
Iheodorct, Iftdore, ?eliij'. &c, Ignatius Coiili. was a Saint to Nicctjs, and many 
others, and to Photius he was an Antichriji, and nvcked limb of the Devil : 
Phdtiiis was a holy man to his Party, and a n'icked wretch to Nicet.ts, and o- 
thers: Yea, fee thecredit of worldly Prelates i the fame Bifliops one year 
cry down Ignatius as a ivicked man, and call Photius a holy perfon and the 
next year, Or (hortly after, cry down Phjtius for :i Rogue, and cry up Igna- 
tius ^ yea, and upon the next turn cry up holy Photius whom they had ana- 
thematized : Thefc doings were familiar with carnal Prelates. 

But as Gods Spirit in his fcrvants is fo fuitcd to the Dodrine of the 
fame Spirit, that they rclilh it where they find it ; fo their piety and honefty 
is fuch a felf evidencing thing, that pious and honcfi men that knew therat 
cannot believe their lying llanderers. And 

And when Satan hath done his worft, the very ivritingsof fucfi m^n as 
Calvin, Beza, Mdandhon^ Perkjns, Hildcrjhjm, Ames, Vcd, B.-irjJCf, Galaker, 
VJher,Davenant,Hall,&c. will not fuffer men to believe their odious re- 
vilcrs ; Even among Papilts , wlicn 1 read the works of Bernard, Gerfon, 
Kempu,ThaHlerMr.Sjlet, and th^ Lives o( Ncrius, Rtnti, &c. I cannot be- 
lieve him that would tell me they were wicked men t hr ugh /»«'/)■ .- And 
the Lives written by Adam, C/crj^,, Fuller, &c. fliall be believed bctore Ca- 

Alas, how little arc moft Hiftories to be believed, where they prove not 
what they fay i there are about llxty that fay there was a Pope Jwaj, and 
»ear as many that fay nofuch thing. Hildebrand to one half of the Eilhops 
Wisthcholy Rejiorerof the Church, to the other halt the vilejl Rebel. \\c are 
rot agreed here in Louden who tur/it theCity in 1666. nor what forties be- 
gan the late fVar, noi what party broHght tJw King to dijth, while wc are a- 
fivcihat faw thcfc piiblick tads; Not only Lads that knew it not, but 
Heyl/n (^the great Kcproachcrot the Reformers J would make men believe 
that it was Prejbyier/j)ii ia England tliat began the llritc and War, wlien 
}Ct he had hinifclf laid fo much of it on ArchbilliopSj ar.d Bilhops, and-on 
the Parliaments complaints of Popery, Arminianifm, and Aibi:rary Illc- 
galiticsi and after faith fHi/t. Prcsb. p. 465. 470.^ The truth if, that as 
the Engliih generally nere net nilling to netive ihjt yoakj, fo neither did the 
Houfes really intend to impofe it on them, though for a ivhile to hold fair quar- 
ter n'ilh the Scots, the)' feemed femrardin it. This appears by thdrDcclaratiiVt 
*/" April I 6^6 — Nor hnie they lived to' fee their dear Presbytery fetled, or their 
Lay-Elders entertained in any one Parijhef the Kingdome Cthat's falfc on the 
other lideji and jet alln.utl be done by this Patliiment, as Presbyterians, 
four years before, when they were Eprfcopal, diftafting only the pctfons and 
anions of Bifliop Lj«/^, ll'^ren, and tome other prtfcnt Eilhops. 

Iflhnda man like Schluffelburgius , fall Pe//-mr// with reproach on all 
that differ from him, or Dr. /Jtv//«, fpeak of blood with pkafure, and as 
thirrty affcr more(asof Ihaek^r, Vdall,&c.) or as diligning to make Dif^ 
fentersodious, ashcand mofiof thePapiAs Hifioriansdo. (as the Image of 
both Cluirchcs, Pbilanax AngUcus, the Hiftorical Colkdtions out of Hey- 
l/n) I will believe none of thcfercvilers, further than they give mc Cogent 

I hear of a Scots Narrative of the lreafons,Fornications,lFitchcrafis,zn^ 
other wickedncfs of fome of the 5'ctf«//& Presbyterians > and zs for me, the 
Ambor kiioxveth not wbattocgllme, unhj'sit bt a Baxtcrian, as intending to be 
a Hittl'izichai being neither Papijif nor of the Church of England, nor Presby~ 
terian, nor Independent, &c. 

To this I fa>, I have no acquaintance with any Scots Minillcr, nor ever 
had in niy life, except with Bifhop Sharp that was murdered, ond two o- 
ther Bilhops fand two or three that live here in London) therefore what 
tiuyare I know not, favebyFame: But though I have heard that Coun- 
try aiptili, as too much inclined to Fornication, I never before heard the 


Religious part and Minifters fo acciifcd ; Either it is trw, or fjlfe; if fjife 
fliame be to ^he reporters i if true, what doth it concern us here, or any 
that are innocent, any turthcr than to abhor it, and lament it, and to be 
thankful to God that it is another fort of men that arc tailed Puritsni in 
"England-, and that in all my acquaintance with them thefe <6 years Crvhich 
hath been reith very many in many Countries) Iremembcr not that ever I heard of 
cnt Puritan, manor rvoman^jave one ^ accufed orfuJpeSed of fornication ■, and 
that one yet living, though openly penitent, hath lived difowned and 
fhamed to this day i but I have heard of multitudes that revile them that 
make a jeft and common pradlice of it; Try whether you can make the 
Inhabitants of this City believe, that the Nonconformills or Puritans arc 
fornicators, drunkards, or perjured, and that their accu(ers and haters are 
innocent men that hate them for fuch Crimes ! But its poffible that you 
may make men of other Countries or Ages believe it, and believe that we 
wear Horns, and have Cloven Feet, and what you will> but I fear not all 
your art or advantages on thofc that are acquainted with both fides : But 
themifery is, that fadion ingageth men to aflbciate only with their party 
where they hear reproaches of the unknown diffenters, from whom they 
fo ellrange themfelves, that the Neighbours near them are as much un- 
known to them, favc by lying fame, as if they lived an hundred miles from 
thrm. I remember Mr. Crej^j once wrote to me, that he turned from the 
Protefiant Religion to the Roman, becaufe there rvas among us no fpiritual Books 
of Devotion for Soul Eltvatient , and affedionate Contemplation : And I told 
him it was Gods juft Jadgment on him, that lived fo Itrange to his Neigh- 
bours, becaufe they are called Puritans, and to their Writings, which Shops 
and Libraries abound with i had he read Eifhopflj///, }At. Greenhams 
Mr. Ri. B-ogers, Mr. Jo. Rogers, Mr. Hilderfhams, Mr.Boltons, Mr. Perkins^ 
Mr. Vorvnhams, Mr.Kywr/, Dr. Sibhes, &c. yea or no better than my owri 
(the Saints Reft, the Life of Faith, the Divine Life, theChriliian Diredory, &c.) 
or had he read the Lives of Divines called Puritans for but fuch as two 
joung nun Cpublilhed partly by my felfj Jofcph Allen, and John Janeway) 
he would never have gone from the Prottftants to the Papills, becaufe 
of our formality and want of an affedlionate fpiritual fort of devotion e- 
fpecially knowing what exceft of formality is among the Papifts, and how 
much it is of the Clergies accufation of the Puritans, that they are for 
too little form, and too much pretence of fpiritual devotion. 

But if any called Religious, or Puritans, or Presbyterians be vicious I 
know no men that (o heartily dcfire their punifhment and ejedfion, as thofe 
that are called by the fame names; I thank God that thefe twenty years 
while neither IVit /iT/V/, nor Powrr hath been wanting againfl them, I have 
fcarce heard ot two men (if one) that have been judged and proved guilty 
of any (uchiiumorality, of all the ejcdled lilenccd Miniiiersin this Land ; 
I would I could fay (o of their Advcrlaries. 

IL And now I muft fpeakto the Accufcrs fpeeches of my felf i I thank 
you Sir that you feigned no worfc againfl me. i if I am an Hxrefiireha^ why 



would not you vouchfafc to name that Hcrefie which I have owned: I have 
given you large Field-room, in near 80 Books > and few men can fo vviite, 
as that a willing roan may not find feme words which he is able to call Hc- 
tefie : A little learning, wit, or honefty, will fervc for fuch an hcreticating 
prefunjption. 2. I never heard thzt Arminiits was called zn Arminiaii, nor 
Lut^ a Lutherdn , nor Bifliop Land a Laudian i but if you be upon the 
knack of making Names, you beft know your ends, and bcA know how to 
fitthemtoit. j.But ferioufly, do you not know my Judgment? will not 
abo»rf*£i3 Eooits inform you ? how then can I help it ? 4.. No, but 5 ou know 
not )shft Party I am of, nor what to call mc > lam forricr for you in this 
than for my felt" i if youknownot,! will tell you, I ama CHRISTI- 
AN, a MEER CHRISTIAN, of no other Religion i and the 
Chuichthat I am of is the Chriftian Church, and hath been vifible where c- 
ver the Chrifiian Religion and Church hath been vifible ; Rut mull you 
know whatSedor Party I am of? I amagainft all Scd-s and dividing Par- 
tics : But if any will call MeerChrrji tans by the name of a Party, becaufc 
» they take up with wcer C/;rV?**n/<)',C>'f('(/, and 5crf^fKre, and will mot be of 
any dividing or contentious Sctll, I am of that I^jrty which is To againrt 
Parties: If the Name CHRISTIAN be not enough, call mc a CA- 
THOLICK CHRISTIAN! notasthat word fignirieth an Jicrs- 
xicitmg majority of Bifhops, but as it (ignif^qth_bne that hath no Rtligictni 
but tlidt which by Chri/l and the Apofiks Wasl^ft'to the Catholick Churth, 
ortheEody of JefusChrifionEaith. ", '' 

Atid now Sir, I am ferry th±f you are notcontcnt with mctfr Chriftiani- 
ty, and to be a Member of tlic Ca^holick Church, and iiold the Communion 
of Saints, but that you mu/l needs alio be of a Sc^t, and have (bme ojJitr 
Naroc; And how (ball I know that ..your. Scffl is better than at^otha.'' 
Werenot thePapifi5 Sedarits and Scbifmaticks, damning n.oll of Cbrjlts. 
Bod^'on Earth.Tcr not feeing rilbjfdl to their Pope, I fliould not be ft)"irueh^ 
agaifmibem* Ifindpromifesbf Salvation in Scriptures to Believers, that"' 
is, Chriftiansasfuch (if luch fincercly,) but none of the falvation of rrcn 
zsPapijh^ T'iocefjns, Grccuns^ Nejiorians, EuiychianT, &c. I would fay alfo 
[_nor as Proteji.tntf^ did I not take the Religion called Protcftai.t fa Name 
which I am rot fond c\') to be nothing but fimple Chrijiijiiity, with oppo- 
fition to Popery, and other (uch corruption. And now you know your 
own deligns, \ our tongue i? your own, and who can controul you, what- 
ever you wil! call us i but I, and fiich others, call our ftlvcs MEER 
all Sedfs and Sedtarian names, and haters boch of ti le fLrcfic, SclvpftT^ and 
fnud^unrightcouiihactieuting zad A nathi mat izmg. Plal. A..O ye fonsof mcH , 
/»!» long tvill yc turn my ghry into fi' ime ? hiiv long will ye love vanity^ and 
fttk^ after lying? Bxtk^orvthut the Lord hath fct apjirt him that is godly for 
himfflf: Pfal. 12. i, 2, 3, 4, 5. Help Lord, for the godly man eeafetbi forthe 
fiithfid fail from among the children of men : Jhey ffeak^ vanity cvir^' one lyith 
bis Neighbour^ &c. Sec the reit. 

b I will 

I will adJ, that if to be fcriovisin the belief of theChriftian Faith, and 
the Life to come, and in fceking it above this world, and in confbnt en- 
deavours to pleafc God, whoever be difplcafcd by it, is it that maketh 
a man a Puritan, bccaufc he is hot a fdrmal Hypocrite, then I would I were 
worthy of the Titles which your Pfmdo Tilenus and his Brother give me, 
who fay, I am Phthi Pittus Puritanut, and one qui totHm Pwitanifmttm P«- 
tus Jfirat: Alas I am not fo good and happy. ButP>.eadcrs, when this fort 
of men hive dcfcribed the Puritans as the moft intoikrable Villains, you 
that knew them not may concliid', that they were men no more erroneous, 
or woife than I, how much better foevcri for Bifhop Morley dith o(mc,Ah 
ttno dijcc omnes : And of my Doftrine, I 'lave left the world a full account .i 
and rauft (hortly be accountable for it and m.y life to God, whofe pardon 
and grace through Chrilt 1 daily beg and truft to. 

A Notice concerning Mr. Henry Docln>eU. 

MK.Dodjvell having written a copious Dilcourie, aflTcrting, 
that we have no right to falvationj but by Gods Covenant 
validly fealed by the Sacrament f and that the Sacrament is not 
valid^ unleft delivered by one that hath Ordination by (uch a 
Bifliop as hath his Ordination by another Bifliop, and fo on by an 
uninterrupted fucccffion from the Apoftles, with much more fiKh 
Schifmatical ftufF, which I fully confuted in my Books called, 
{The true twd «nly terms of the Cot/cord of all the Chriflian Churches^ 
and I aggravated his Schifmatical condemnation of the Reform- 
ed Churches, and moft others (as having no true Mimjfrj; Sarra- 
tucut s^ nor Covena7Tt-tHk te jlxlvatiov^ and as finning againft the 
Holy Ghoft, becaufc he p-ofcjfith himfclf a Vroiefia»t ; The faid 
h'lr.DodvKll faith, that thcfc words would perfwade men that I 
tali^Lim for a Pcptji, and cxpcdcth that I therein right him; Be 
it therefore known to all men, that I never meant by that word 
to accu(e. Mr. Dodwell of kuig a.Vapiji^ but to aggravate his a- 
buCe of Proteftants5 and th;it I take my felf bound to charge no . 
man to be of a Religion which he dcuieth.- And what his Rcli-- 
gion fcally is, his Books. may bcft inform him that would know., 


— _^___ ■ia^'s! .11 ha.- • 



Chap. I-\ X THiit Order atidGczcrNmct:t Chrifl andhts Spirit fct- 
Y V ^^^^^ "' i^^ Churches •-, and jvhut teas the appointed 
2roi\of BijJjopy. 1 hat particular Churches^ that had every one a Bt- 
fiop^ were ajffoaated for pcrjival Contmmiion of veighhours : That 
tioveoM earth for about two kumlred jcurs, aiidnotit but Rome And. 
Alexandria for letiger time , ca?i be proved to be more numerous 
than our greater PariJ/:es, »ot/or half Jo big. The Cafe even «7/~Romc 
^;/^ Alexandria examined^ and the lih( proved even of them agair.-Ji 
the contrary arguments. Hove the change -was made ^ and rvhat 
change it is. How Prelacy became the dtfeafing tumour of the Church. 

^..^lofiy ReaJcKi againji a/tilluje of the Htjiory of Councils and Pre- 

. lates ujurpdiicns ^ that no man thence dijhoncnr Cf.riji^ Ckrijiiamfy., 
the I^linrji'rj or Church. 

Char. 2. Of Hcrcfses : What Etrors are not damning, at.d rvhat arc. 
Horv the mojl Erroneous come to cry cut againji Errors : Injiancecl 
in all wicked Men., and in Papijis., Arrrans., Ncf.orius^ Dwfccrus, 
ficc. Uhat horrid U orI{ blind Zeal again ft Etror h^th m.rde, ma- 
»y injiances , Citn good Men, as H\\hr\ ^nd Popes and Counii/s. 
'The Hijlor^ of all the Cottncils bcgjm. 1 he frji Councils about )i^(\.^-r 
contrary to eath other. The Jecond being at Carthage erroneous, and 
Tcrtullian, No\ atus a7rd No\atian. The Reman Pnshiters .go- 
■ XQVii tie Chiinhund call a Louncil, ha7.ing no Biflwp, and are /aid 
by ^iiims to h-^i€ thcc.ireafihejiniverfulChi.nh. Cvprians Coun- 
cil condcmneth u dead man Victor, for making Faufcinus a Prcsbt- 
biter. Guardian of Us Sons, and id entangling him in worldly bufi- 
rcfs. The Council IconiculL/j (aid toerrc^ and allthnje Oriental Bi- 
f}Ops excommun?( aicd by. the Pope (^abcut Heretii ks Baptijm'). Many 
other Councils for rcbaptizing, with C\\>n:iV[s pleading Tradition. 
Bjpops of Bijhops there ccnjured. Cvprian'j Conzcriion. A r<d 
Heretical ingCiumil ^^Cirta againji Iradilicns. Tie Concilium 
Elibcr Niivatiani : Afid againji Images m Chnrches^c:. approved by 

b. 2 Popes 

Ibe Contents, 

Pcpe Innocent. The hcghimtJg of the Don.U/jis S^ hijht for a hiJ^Mf. 
Conftautip.cs ;T]r?w/(?/ Alexander iu;d A Tiusjilcvch/g thir dilfutcs. 
CouciL L;iodic. SUvcftcrs_/ir<?;/^t' Row^j! Coiimil. 
Chap. ^. The Coufw/l ofN'xcc: Conftantine kccpeth tkcmhi pc.ice. 
Thejirange Sckijhz bchveen Peter iWo^^avd Meletius / Trco Bi- 
JJjops and Churches iu the fame Cities. TheJadJiorytf/ilcTiajndcss 
troubling the Mektians^ at/d driving them to feel^hclp of the Arrian^ 
avdfo tojircngtheu them. Ep'iphdnms good charac/er of Coniian- 
tius <.wd Valcns. His //otaLleCh.n-a&er of Axid'ius^ a?!dhorv the vio- 
- lc»ce<>f dijfolittc B/fiops fcrccd him to fiparaie •■, ^W <>^ Alexander 
avdafCvtCcenXAU^'sJirife : and offomc Confejfourr and Martyrs 
great faults. Audius bamfied converteth the Cothes. The Slander 
c/"EuftathmsAntioch. Notes of tf^e N'lccne decrees: Thecnlina- 
iion offiandalous uncapablc men nulhjtcd 'by tlxm. Concil. Rom. the 
people united at the vmking ofl^ipops andPriejis. Arius's Creed and 
rejioration at a Council. Jerufal.Marccl.AlJcyr. Coudemned at Confi. 
as denying Chrifls Godhcad^by the Arrians rchom he woifor the fame 
caufe again jl. A Concil. Antioch depoJ(dk\\\sx\?&MS and made Canons 
for Conformity. Anno ^/[^ a four fh Creed reconciling at Antioch: 
The General Council tf/Sardica divide: The Oriental BiJI-Wps at 
Philippolis Jirange charge againfl Athanafius, Paulus Conft. &e. 
and their plea fur peace. The Donatijis unjuji Jujiice. Thcflanclcr 
wd fall of ^iJl}op Euphratas. Anno ? 5 5 -^ General Council at Mi- 
lan Tckcrc the Arrians prevail. Hilary bani/Jxd by the Semiarian 
Bifiops as a ftfaratiji. The Council <7/Sirmiura curfe Arius, Pho- 
tininns, and condemn Athanafius, pretending to reconcile. Conftan- 
tius labours union : Thw General Council divided at Ariminum and 
Seleucia/T/^e Ariansf)rthodox , and Reconcilers fall into more SeBs : 
Ten creeds, Jometimes one^femetimcs another liked or condemned : The 

■ "^ifiops depofng and dawning each other. O/ivleletius Antiochenus, 
the dijfaition^ danger and reconciliation about hypoftafis & pcrlbna, 
at a Council of Alexandria. Julian, ^ov'vm for peace :. Valentinian 
a/id V:t\i:ns charge the Afian Bifiops to giveover perficutivg any of 
Chrifis Labourers. Valcns a zealous Arrian Perfeaitor, Damafus 
bloody Elc&ion againfi Silinnius. TheSchifm at Antioch hoivended. 

(ilrap. 4. Vyhy Rome vpjs yet Orthodox. § i , Valens perfecirtion. 
§ 2. Grntian 'i/z^/Vakntinian Junior, Theodofius. The Council 
at Conftance. § 4. Greg. Nazianzcns cafi. §5. His fid defer ip- 
i'.Ofi of the Ciw: oils and madr.efs of the Prelates of his time. (^ y.8. 

■ 'Tl.exaje,of AM'-Oihs Schifm again, Ncctarius a Bif)op and Patri- 


Ibe Contents. 

ark^ hefere he torn a baptized Chrijiimt, § lo. The Cottmils (decrees. 

, (j I l.The Hifiory efthe Brjhopj that profectrtcd the Prijallanijis^aiid 
5/. Martins. ^ \^.\(). A Cotwal at Csl^;^ decreed that t he tVi-oBrJhops 

.. aftdChmrhes tit Aatioch Live 7t/ love af id peace, (j 20. B/Jbop YjO- 
noCus herefie denjzng Mary's perpetuai zjrg;mtji. § 2 r. Jovtnians 
hrefie dcjcribed. § 23. ^ vcifi NovathinCojincil. § 24. Carthage 
goodCeiwdls. § 31. 52,5:?, 34.7I'e Hijloryef Mclania, and the 
BiJ])ops perjcctiiion of the friends of Ongenc. ^ ^rt.e^r. Thco- 
philus Alex-ftory.§57. 58.3^. ChryCofiomcs Hijiorji. ^/^o.And 

. the Joannitcs. § 4 ^ • Tho/e that bclkz c the Ajirologcrs ami Mat hew. i- 
iiduns curjcd atTo\ct. § ^J.The MclivitaneCOTwrz/j agairiji Ap- 
peals to Kome., aftd of LUiirgies ts be approved. ^55. Pelagius ^/-t/ 
Celeftius abfolvcd bjf one Council and cue Pqpc and condcnmed hj 0- 
//)e/v,§. 5 ::$.&:. Pelag'ms Cofjfcjfion^ '^j. BoniBcc and EuLilius 
fchifin <7f Ro.'Tu.v^59. P. Bonifoce's dcn-ce that no Billiop be 
brought orfet before any Civil or MiFitary Judge, ^60. The 
Jixth Conmil ^j/Cartliagc ih.tt redjicd the Popes, § 6 1. P. Celcftines 
dep-cc, tli^t no Bifliop be given to the umvilhng. ' ' : 

Chap. 5, Atticus Conft. pcaceablenejs : The pmty lifl)y ^f fh^ petfic 
dipofiftg IkheodoCms B/fyop <>/" S)'nada,§ 2. Cyiih 7 ielencc :, the 
AIoKk.sa/faidt(f Orcftes, and the ptPplcs^nlelu|Jgeofli\p:{tu^,^ :?. 
■ Alcxand. Antioch. and Atticus Conft. by his Council arc fir rejier- 
jng the No/p-twrform(is foannits .* Cvn]s i-cajbn again ft 7f, § 4. 
Whether' Cynl repcnicd^f, f^. Ilitlore l\'1uC TVords of hint, § 6. 
Proclus refufcd Bijiwp at Cyzicuni by the people, (^7. Ncl\or]ws 
chojcn^ § 8. He is a perfccuter of Heretrcl{S. His opi7uon § C). The 
JirJiEYhtC Council, (^ \0. They divide and conde»in and depose each 
ttlicr andpght., <«w/Ncftorius, Cvril <?WMenmon, are delfofedby 
the Ewperours Contmdnd., but the treo lajt rejhred. f f 7.o//jcr Nelio- 
rius or Cyril rcas the Heretick. The ifjvc oj that Cotwcii, § 1 2 . 1 3. t 4. 
Derodon prcovts that Cyril was an Eutychian ^WNeltorius Or- 
tht'dfx , § 18. 19. The truth, § 20. Theprefent Churches of the Nc- 
Jicnans. That thejc B/jJ)ops Jet the rccrld on fire akut a ircrd nL/lc 
they agreed in fenfe, § 20. 2 1, &c. The Einperour forceth the Brfiops 
toConiKiufiien, and /t'/fc/A Simeon Stilletes /<? pray down iheie (,cr- 
nd clijcord, § 23. Bcroifig Eajhrard fir l^idicn, bccaujetbe Wanichccs- 
bowsed to the Sun avwng them, § 29. Leo's Rowav Cou?htI of B/- 
fjops^ Priejis and L^y-mcn: Another againji Hilar}' Arclaten- 
lis, § 31- ?2. ■ ■■ 

Chap.6. Of thcEufyc^ians^Scc. 7i';\/v. .. ,. of tf:e>Co}tirovcrftc,% 7. 


The QontenU. 

Z^HitytJk"^ h ^"^ f'^^ fr*" undivided, and by the otlxr fir xindi- 
i]ingiiini.ed, Wy3 ike, nortdfit ac^ah: on fire : The Conftantinoplc 
Xcmnil' ahciit Eutychius, § 5. Another Conftantinoplc Coumil con- 
irarily clcdvcih bwi, § 8. Ibas cleared at Cotoidl Bcryt,§ 7. The fi- 
coffd Efhefivc CoiimJl, nvder Diofcorus. Eutyches Jujirjitd there. 
Flavianus, Eufcb. Dor. Ibas <?W(5^ Theodorite condemned and dc' 
jtofid. All the Vatriarks t'//? ^ifd Bipops Jiibfcribe^ fave the Popet 
legdtfs. Flavianus /^/?7 and dieth^%<). hQO in a Roman Council 
rondc/f/j/eth ihjs, Eph. 2. § 10. Qiolcorusw aSynod at Alexandr. 
excomnjunicaleth Leo, § li. Theodofius virtue and miraculous f^i- 
ciory, § 15. His praije of the fecond Eph. Council,^ 16. Martians 
reign , and ihc Council p/ Calcedon, § 14.17. Turnings^ mutual con- 
demnitigs^ recantings and riger there, § 17. 18, 19. The cry of the 
Egyptian Bijhops, § 24. The Abbots protejiatioti to cleave only to the 
Niccne Creed {as Piofcorns did to theN\ccr\eCouncil and Eph. l.^ 
and hOt to fuhjirihc Leo's Epijile, and to contemn excommunicati- 
ons^ § 2 5. Diofcorus not condemned for hercfie , fiith Anato- 
lius, § 26. Theodorites ?/A>^c by the Br/Jjops, i) 2J. The Canon e- 
iqual/ing Con(i. and Ixome, § 33. The doleful iffue of this Coun- 
cil^ § 5 i,:The Tpoful work^ at Alexandria. The murder of Prote- 
rius, ^ 55. 34. The bloody Tragedy aga/nji the Caleedon Council 
/W Juvenal (as betrayers of the N'lccne Faith) by the Manias at 
Jerulalem, § 5 6. ^wAocixand Pulchcria the Spring of all, Leo 
is Empcfour, and for the Council of Caleedon. He defpo/eth Ti- 
inothy i^lurus a^ Alcxandria,Feter Gnapheus ufurpcth Mar'tyrius 
Seat at iKxiUQch. : Martyrius renonnccth lis rebellious clergy unci peo- 
ple. Gnapheus banijixd by Leo. Stephen that is for the Council is 
put in : The boyes kill him with foarp (i^lls, and caji him itHo the 
River ^ § 37' ^cno Empmmr, Balilifcus ujiirping commandcth the 
B/JIwps to renounce the Council of Caleedon. Three Putriarl^s and 
five Hunched Y^tjhopsfubjcribe againji it (before moji rvere for 7/)Ba- 
nlilcus changing his mind com'nandclh that the Council be orcned. 
The Yjifiops obeyed this^ ^5 8. Zeno rcjiorcd, a>:d being for the Coun- 
cil^jhe Mhn Bijbops /aid they fuhfcribcd to ^x\\\\c\\s firjl Orders 
fr fear, and asked pardon. Zeiio by hfs Henoticon (ilenceth the con- 
troycrfic^ leaving it free to all to own or difiwn tie Council. The 
'S>iJlM!ps and people are fiill vrorJt\ .'/Alexandria ./«<;/ Antiocb,-6^f. 
Acacius ContL and Falix Kova excommunicate each olUr^ff^^). 
F'iavitas Conft. ckeaieth the Empcrour that would haxe God by an 
Angel: choofi iheY^iJIop^^) ^o. T/'c B///'^;'/ tff Alexandria and kw- 


The Conte^s, 

t'xoch Juccejjkjely curje the Council : And the ^ijfjop flf Rome and 
• Conft. CHrfethcm forit.^ ^1. Anaftatius Rmpcrour is far toie- 
■ ration: Three parties of Y)Jf}ops there condemning each other in 
Eaft, Weft and Ljbhy Jome Jiri3 for the Council -^ fomc ciirfvc, 
it , and fome for the henoticon or peace. He defpofeth tu- 
phemius Conft. and veould have dcpofcd Macedonius that came 
next, but the people rojc for him, and fir red the Empcrour tf 
fitbmit, ^ «J. 5 . Cruel bloodfxd in A ntioch of Monks and otlxrs, ^ 44. 
Xcnains an ttnlhrijiencd man made Bipop , forccth the BiJJi^s to 
curfe the Council, §45. Sevcrus at Antioch ntakfth men curfe the 
Council :JomeDiJ/}eps repent and condemn Scvenis, ^'y . The Enrpcror 
againji all bloud for this Canfc, and the Monks in Palcftinc fir 
it, ^ 45, 4f6. Heltas Bipop of Jcrufalcm and the Monl;es rc^iji the 
Empcrm/rs Souldiers, once and again, § \6. Timothy Conll. on 
both fides^ ^ 46. Rome tmder ThcoJorick^ their Schifm or trco 
Popes vcith blood three jears, § 47. Anaft.itius nraried ir/th tic Or- 
thodox rebellions, offereth to refign his Croirn : In remorfe they dc- 
Gre his continuance, (^ ^S. Valentinian maketh a L-jtp, ifjut Bi- 
fjops (except chojcn by both Parties )pall no more be 'judges in avt 
Caujes, favc of Faith and Religion. Bin i us rcpreatlxththis, as being 
ahjifrd, that the Sheep Judge the Shephcard^\) ^c). Fully co*fvtcd. 
The Pope excommunicatcth Acaeius Conft. rr//^' j Qnunquam Ana- 
thematis vinculis exuendus"] ^58. Leo Rom. his Difree again (i 
the Mavichccs, and all ether that take the Bread withpt:t the Cup,^ 60. 
Oelaftus .• T/f Popes Separatijis^condemn Euphcraius and Acacius.- 
Gelafiu^_/J//A a?7y Bijbup may excovrmiinitaie an Heretick^BiJl.Kp 
(though u Patriach) his Catalogue ofApoc rjpha, and canonrzing Lco'f 
Epijilc, ^63. ly.e Pope excommunicaieth the Greek Emperour and 
Prf/?7jr<7j ^Conftantinoplc, but not iC/^^Thcoclortck the ArriMi 
at home, § 64. Oidi nation refilved en againfi the Kings com- 
nianas ^65. C<);/W( // Agath. decreet h ihat\{a Bifhop excommuni- 
cate any wrongfully, another B'pop may receive him, fee. That if 
any Citizen on the dayes of great folcmnity refufe to meet 
where the Bilhop is, he is three years denied Communion (trhich 
flxvrcih, that the Bif.wps Church tPos no greater than cur Parifics ') 
Laj-.-nurdetrrs putnjhed rvith denying them the Co fwtnnicn, aid 
Deacons put in Monajieries, die, f) 67. Council Apannens Jaith 
Hcrcticks Temples cannot be purged nor applied after to Holi- 
ness, ^ 68. Council Sydon airjc ^(bcCalcedon Council^ 60. Bijbops 


ha7:h!g the third ( or fourth )p<tiiofaUChurchp'ofitsJf:iejveth horc 
iTgtkcir DiDicfs or Chirches\thenvKre § 72. Cottncjl Gerund ef 
Jhht Bifbops ordered Litajiies, and that the Metropolitanes Lilm- 
gy he ujcd in other Churches kjo- Juftine the Empcrotir aga/i.'ft Eu- 
tychians rej}«rcth the names ip/Euphemius and Acacius again ft the 
Vopc^ their Caje opened § 7-5. Juftine an Orthodox murderer. An- 
tioch CcTJi donn if an Earthquake ^ the BiJIiop killed^ the reji burnt by 
the light ni77g^ § j,6.'' Euphremins the iJaitenant relieving thePcoplc ■ 
is chofcn their Bijhop. The Bifieps turn to the Cotincilof Calccdou 
again^vvder]\\{^mQ^() 7 J. &C. Popes profccute the dead BiJJiopt. 
of Confiiintinoplc. ^79. Juftine znolent againji Arrians. Thco-' 
dorick maketh Vope John go beg for them, leaji Italy fitffcred as 
much'. He kilteth S-^mva^c^xxs and^oti\VLS^imprifoneth]o\ma}Td 
ffr'akcth^c\\\Vope^() 8q. Clergy murderers Jiifpended from the Sa^ 
a-ament, &c. ^ 8 1 . Theodorick fubje&eth the Clergy to Civil Ju- 
dicature. Athalaricus/rce^/) thctn again ^85. Juftinian/v/ Laves, 
he is againji theEutjchians, and his Wife for them, ^ 87, 8^. Thir- 
ty thoufwd kill'd by infirre&ion in Conftantinople, ^89. The mi- - 
raculous fpeah^ng of Preachers, when their Tongues rccre ait cut by 
the Kings command, ^ 90. King Thcodorus a lover of Books giz~ 
eth up Rome, ^91. In Juftinians time three Countries converted: 
The Perfjans prevail: A dreadful Plague, 492. Pope Boniface cho-, 
Jen by the Arrian Athzhncus,^ CjG. Pope Hormifda denying that 
(^one of the Trinity was crucified] Juftinian/eWw/g to Pope John 
vchojaidthecontriwy ^ Binius exaije is [^ Weapons muft be chan- 
ged with changed enemies.] Alany Notes on the excellent difpu- 
tation of Hypatius with the Eutychians caufed ^j Juftinian, open- 
ing fully Cyn\srpeaknefs,and that the difference was hut verbal,^ 99. 
ACom:cil ^/f Conftantinoplc ww^/er Menna called /'/V;/ Patriarcha 
Oecumenicus, and fet Leo after the before cur fed B/JJjops. Macedo- 
nius the Orthodox Bipop put cut, the People that were Orthodox /c- 
perate, ^ J03. Silverius made Pope by an Anian, P. Vigilius 
the Ami pope imprifoneih and famijlKlh him, ^ 105. The Schifm 
between two Bijhops and their Parties in Alexandria , one fir the 
corruptibility of Chrjjis body called Cm'upticcU -^ the ether for the 
incorruptibility called the Phanta('.a(i£ ; and the bloody fight be- 
tween, them,^ 107. Pacilus Alexand : AL/rderofaDcacon^ j 1 08. 
P. Vigilius ^/c;//e//j/n'C j/atures,^ 109. P.VigAinsexcommunicateth 
Menna, andisdragg'djrith a Rope, till he repented, 110. Jufti- 
nian called a Hcntick^ and damned hy Evagrius, $111. 



The Concents. 

CHW.y.Ofthe Contrcverfie de tribusCapitulis,<^ the p'fth General 
Cot4»cil,€ic. of the herejie of the Apthardocitrr, &" J ullinians />/£•/> a»d 
berefie-S^ the Bijheps appeal to Anaftafms Antioch.^.i,i.77^(f converjion 
of the AuxumiteftJuftinian'j-/i««//*/«g the Sodomitkal Herejie offorne 
Bijhops.f^.yThe People dye rather than eat Flejh in Lent.7/r Council at 
Orleance Decree that Qui omnibus pra:ponendus ell ab omnibus 
eligatur : Ofhcefi , Too Jlriil keeping the Lords-Day. ^. 4. Concil. 
Avernenf Decree that men feek to be Bifhops ly Merits, and not by • 
yotes or Favour, yet he chofen hy all. if. 6. All Citizen Chrijlians ta 
he in the Bijhops Meeting at Earter, &c. by Concil. Aurcliail. §. 7, 
And the Bijhop to be Ordained in that Church which he mujl overfee. 
Theodor. Ctfar'j projeB to condemn the tria Capitula (Theodor. 
Mopfuefl:. Theodorite and Ibas : ) Juflinians endeavours. ^. 9. An 
Orleance Council decree that King, Clergy and Laity agree, and none 
be made Bijhop, populo invito, or forced to confent^ and that the Bi- 
fhop elfe be depofed. The Bijhop to relieve all the Pdor. f 12. Null 
the former living. Its Emperours that call Councils, faith Juflinian, 
4. 13. The fifth Qon^2S)X.Qo\xn6\ to cure thedolefulfeparationsofthe 
Bijhops ^. 13. /'. Vigilius difficulty : dare not Joy n with the Council: 
Their flighting him : only two or three Wejlern Bijhops at the four firjl 
Generals Councils. ^. 1 J. Theod. Mopf accufed. Theodorite ai- 
cufed for faying that Mary begat not God in the nature of God, but 
Man as united to the God-head : that Chrift was forfokcn, fuffer- 
ed, hungred, flept, &c. as Man and not as God. (f. 1 7. Theodorite^ 
virulent Ep. againjl dead Cyril, and the Theopathitx. ^. 1 7. The 
tria Cap. condemned VigiliusVyo^(fr judgment of it. (). 18, 19. In- 
J} e ad of healing, this Council fet allonfire.andjnt^itlhnonpeifecuti- 
on. if.ri. Vigilius changeth ; and condemneth .igain the tria Capitula. 
^. zi. Vigilius is ly Binnius called, homo perditus, the buyer ot 
anothers place, a violent Invader, a Wolfe, a Thief, a Robber, nor 
entring by the Dores, a fallc Biihop, and tjuafi Antichrijlus, that the 
lawful Pallor vet living did add pernicious Hcrefie to his Schifm : 
Tet fanftinimus V^'^-x asfoon as he had murdered his Predeceflor,and 
had fole pfl[ftJhH.^.i:\.A Jerufalem Council received the Conc.Con(\:.^. 
x^.A Council at Aquileia condemn it, and theWcJlern Bijhops arejepc- 
rated near lOO years from the Cath. Church {about the words of three 
dead wi'wO^-i^.Juftinian made Pclagius Pope;two Bijhops fe* a Presby- 
ter ordain him,tbe IVejhrn Bijhops dijobey him & reject him, and fo rejeii 
the Council Conll. V. confirmed by a Pope : He gets Karfes toper- " 

c Jevut^ 

^ r* 


[emtc them. ^. x8. The Romans/^r tkis incline to the Goths again. 
Juftinians Laws cenfured hy Binnius. ^.30. A Council Vwii.coH- 

firmcth the free EkHion of Bijhops hy the People and Clerks. ^. 3^1, 
All Here ticks that refufed to eat Hear Is hoilCd with Flejh. f 34, 
VVfjether only the Bijhop muflfay the Pax vobifcum,(a«</ to have hut 
sne Church.) ^.^^.King Q\othzx'vXi,forceth the Bifiops to receive a 
Bijhop of his choice. ^. T^y.Not Popes, Councils nor Bijhops, lut Kings 
divided Dioceffes and Parifhes, as Bin. ^.38. A Coumil at Tours- 
that Bifhops may keep their Wives as Siflersfor Houfe-keepers,fo they 
lye not with them. All condemned Malefattors that are penitent and 
will obey the Preacher, to he pardoned. §.39. The Villanies of two 
Bijhops quit ly the Pope. $. 40. A Canon againfl reading Apocrypha 
or any thing but Canon Scriptures in the Church. ^. 41. Pope Pelagius 
thejecond, got Sinaragdus to force the Wejlern Bijhops to condemn the 
tria Capitula.f 45:. King Gunthram repreffeth the Murders and Adul- 
teries of Btfhops againfl the Clergies Sent e nee. (f. 47. A Council at Con- 
ftantinople calleth JohnConfl.UniverfalBifliop.ff'y&f Pelagius thefe- 
cond damneth the Title as unlawful in any, andcammandeth them rather 
to dye than yield. it ^. Some queries hereupon. (). ^i. King Gunthram 
finding all grow, wsrfe and all long of the Bijhops, calls a Council at. 
JVIafcon, ivhere the flriiler keeping the Lords day is Decreed. ^. 5-4. 
The Bijhops ofVemce, Iflria <z«rf Liguria cent inuefepar ate from Rome- 
and chofe PauHnus Bijhap /?/'Aquileia their Patriarch, and fupr erne 
Bifhop inftead of the Pope. ^. 5" 5". Oft Pennance to embolden oft Sinning. . 
^'. J.7. . Philoponus againjl.the Council o/Calcetlon. ^. 60. The Fa~- 
iiions now called Jacobites and Melchites, and why. (). 61. The Ax- ■ 
menians plead Tradition for their Error. ().6x. 7 he Pariarchs of K- 
qnlkia, perfecuted ly Mauritius and Pope Gregory. ^. 6). Dead 
(jtQ^ory fights with Sabinian his Succeffor that would have burnt his 
Books, (j. 68. Boniface the third chofen by Phocas, $. 70. 

CHAP. 8, Councils about the Monothelites .md others. Cyrus 
Alex. /y the word\\^ci\\\x}X\.s] would heal the Divifions [in vain,) 
^. i,x. Pope Honorius called a MonotheUte, for his good Council, 
f 2, 3. The Emperour Heraclius a Monotlielite cenfured by Bin-L 
niusyijr ufing his own judgment in matters of Faith, $. 4, A Conflan- 
tinopohtanc Council for the Monothelites, ^. iz. The Emperour 
condemned, and Pope Honorius commended for forbidding the names 
of[Or\t\ or [Two] operations and Wills, f \^. The Popes Agents 
leuten at Conftautinopie, ^. 18. T'^/o" Martin imprifbned,ba>iifloed 
and dead by the Emperour for condemning his A^ offilencing [One 


The Contents. 

afidTwo] called Typus. ^. 19. His Laterane Council ajferteth 
/tt'(7 Operations <7«rt' Wills, if. zo. The King of ^^pxn fading all 
Laws fail againfi Priejis and Eifhops Leackery, decreeth that the 
children of their womex fervants he uncapahle of inherit afire, and he 
the Churches fervants, and the Concuhities whipt with an hundred 
ftripes. §. 13. Kings Preach to Bijhnps. (). 14. 21. Ordnidtiou 
without EleflioM of Clergy <7«d' People nnff. f 2 5-. The Bijhop of 
Kzvcnn^ reconciled to Rome, ajter long feparation. ^. 50. WMii- 
lan Council, and the third ConiHntino^le, (6 General) condemn the 
Monothelites, and Macarius Antioch, tbj^t would have fiUnced 
[pnel and {two] but not affert [two.'] ^. 34. Their partiality. ^. jjT. 
Pope Leo confirmeth the ConlUntinopohtan CohhcH which damned 
PopeHonoriusas an fferetick. ^. 36. A new contronjerfie , whether 
Chrift hath three fnhflances. Divinity, Soul, and Body, f 40. A 
Tolctane Council defends it , and that Voluntas genuit volunta- 
tcin. i). 45-. The Concil. Trull, called Quini .Sextum.- Railed 
at by Papills : l<lotes hereon. ^. 47, 48. Called by Binnius Mo- 
nothelites; The fame men that were in the t)\h Council. It forbid- 
eth Priefis to put away theirmves. ^. 50. It depofeth Bifhopsand 
Vriefls that were not duly Examined and Elelled. ^. fo. It ejuai- 
eth the priviledges of Conilititmo^le with Rome. ^. 5-3. It (ill) 
ordereth, that whatever alteration the Imperial power makes on 
any City, the State Ecclefiaftical follow it. ^. 5-4. Other nota- 
ble Canons. ^. J), 6cc. Every Parijh of twelve Families muj^ 
have their proper Cover nour (jn S^'xm.) ^. 5- 7. )?z\x\ contradi^ed 
as to the believer and unbeliever ftaying together' (f. 5 8. A CouH- 
cil at Aquileia condemneth she 5th General at Conflantinopfe. 
^. 6q. K. Wiliza and the S:i>aniards forfahe Rome. ^. 6^. A Ge- 
neral Council of inn\xmeT2.h\e Bifbops at Conftantinople «w</fr Phi- 
lippicus are for the Monothelites. <f. 67. They condemn the 6th 
General Council that was for two Wills and Operations. Binnius 
note of the Bijhops temporizing. 

Chap, 9. councils about Images and others. Images how in- 
troduced in England. ^. i. &c S^lmzns proof that the oldSzxons 
prayed not to Saints. ^. 3. A Parliament Role recited, provt»g 
the eld Popifh Worfl^iping of Images. (). 4. Leo Ifaurus puts 
down Images : Gregory the fecond rebels for it, and confederates 
with Charles Martell againfi his Prince, and abfolveth his fuhjeHs 
from their allegiance. Binnius records it as an excellent example xa 

c X poUeri- 

The Contents. 

poller ity, not to permit pertinacious Heretical Princes to reign- 
^. 5-. The confequents of this dotlrine : How the Pope ruined the 
Eailern Empire, and betrayed Chnftianity. ff. f. \ViltridsO^//;/<7 
the Pope. (f. 6. Councils pro Imaginem cultu, A\icn(usjirjicalh 
himfelf The Catholick King, f 9. P. Zachary, and Charles 
Martell againji the Emperour : Pipin and the Popes Treafon /« 
France, and Baronius and Binnius treafonable dottrine. f n. 
Twenty Queries hereupon. (). 12. P. Zachary and Bijhop Boni- 
face Mxcommunicateyirgd'ms for holding Antipodes: Queries here- 
upon. ^. 14, 15". Philaftrius of the fiars. ^. i6. A caution a- 
gainfl tnifapplying all. f 17. When Lardmujlhe eaten. P. Za- 
chary'j decree. ^. 1 8. CarolomanV Council to recover Chrifliani- 
ty, andfave mens fouls from falfe Priefis. ^. 19. Boniface finely 
made Arch-bijhop of Mentz •• accufeth Bijhop Adelbert and Clem- 
ens. ^. zi, 21. Pipin helpeth the Pope and Defiderius Tr^^orj, 
and maketh a Donation of Cities to the Pope. ^.23. A General 
Co««c// <r^ Conftantinople condemn Image Worfhip as Idolatry, and 
fwear men againfl it, and again/1 praying to the Apofiles, Martyrs, 
and Virgins { I fuppofe before Images.) ^. 24. This Council and 
the Council ofNice jeco>fd, determine that Chrifls glorified body is not 
flefh (w/^/; Anathema.) ^. z6. Noted as to Tranfubflanti.^tion and 
ether Err ours. ^. 26, 27. Pipins Council decreeth every City 
a Bi(hop, and joyneth the fword or force to Excommunication , ba- 
nifhingthe defpifers of it. ^. 28. The Greeks accufe //^eLatines 
Jor adding [Filioque.] ^. 30. The People Jlill chooj'e Popes. ^. zg, 
31. Three Popes fighting for it : one putting out the eyes and cut- 
ting out the tongue of the other, and of his adherents. ^.31. Con- 
Aztitints A^s invalid, except Baptizings and Confecrating. ^. 33. 
Cliriftophers eyes and life taken away through the Pope that hefet up. 
4-3 5". DefideriuS;7^/7/(?//.7 again jl the Pope, Cnarlcs M. overcometh him, 
,and maketh ^ope Adnzngrater than any before him. ^.j^y.WJjy Deacons 
weft ly made ^opes : No Bifhop might be made Pope, of removed.^. 39. 
. The termes of Papift Writers expounded. ^. 40. Putting penance on 
Murderers for hanging, filf d the Church with Rogues, (f. 41. The 
Hiflorians give the lie to each other about the power given Carol. 
M. in making Popes and Bijhops. Bzron'ms Argument againft it vain. 
That the People and Clergy by the French Confti tut ions flill choofe 
Bijhops. ^. ^x.htnQfet up Images again: Women and Rebels fet up 
Wopes. $. 46. The Fable of Sylvefters baptizing Conllantine, and 


The Contents. 

the Images jheived him. (). 48. Vope Adrian owneth the whole 
Council of Calcedon. (). 47. Many mtahle old Camus fent by A- 
drian to Carol. M. A Bijhop negletlhig to convert Heretkks, /r 
was to have them that delivered them, &c. ^. f i. Ch. Mag. forcetb 
the Saxons to prefefs themfelves Chrifiians and fwear perjeverance^ 
which they oft broke, (f. 51. Eight more old Canons coUetled by hr 
drian, e. g. The Bifliops fentence void, not confirmed by the 
prefence of the Clergy. The judgment of a Bifliop m anothers 
Parilh void, for none is bound by the fentence of any but his 
own Judge. Foreign Judgments forbidden : All to be judged 
by Men chofen by themfelves. No Clergy-man to be judged 
without lawtul accufers prefent, and leave to defend himfelf 
Bifliops tyrannical judgments null : Conftitutions contrary to 
good manners of no moment. Delators, that is, qui ex invidia 
produnt alios, to have their tongues cut out, or their heads cut 
ofT The danger of the Judge greater than of the judged, &c 
And let no man receive a Lay mans witnefs againil a Clergy- 
man. (No ivonder if the Qlergy were unpunifl^ed and wicked.) ^. fj. 
Irene calls a Council at Conltantinople for Images. The oldSonl- 
diers of the former Emperours not enduring it, routed them. She 
and Tarafius agreeing call them to Nice. The Bijhops that were 
/worn againft Image-worjhip, prefentl^ turn generally for it, by a 
fVomans and a Patriarchs known will. ^. 49. 5-4. How could the 
Iconoclafl: Emperours be Hereticks, unlefs the ufe of fuch Images 
were an Article of Faith i §. 5-5-. The Emprefs and Emperour 
called The Governours of the whole World : They are the cal- 
lers of that Council, f ^6. Bafd Kncyr. and other Bijhops that 
were Leaders again]} Images in the former Council, lament it, and 
curfe aO that are not for Images, and all that favour fuch, &c. 
Theodofius Bifhop of Amoricum alio curfeth himfelf, if ever he 
turn again, and curfeth thofe who do not from their hearts teach 
Chrifiians to venerate Images of all Saints, praying for their inter- 
cejjion, &c. Queries hereon. IVJjen General Councils curfe each 0- 
ther, is the whole CJ.'urch curfed? &c. ^. 59. A crowd of ch ang- 
ling Bifhops crying mercy, Tarafius puts them hard to it, what made 
them of the contrary mind heretofore, and what reafon changeth them> 
^. 60. Whether thefe penitent Hereticks jhould be reflored to their 
Bifljopricks. Tarafius faith, Arians -and thefe againft Images and 
.all Herejies and Evils are alike. But another, That this was 


The Contents. 

greater than all' orivef Herefies, fubverting Chrills Oecono- 
my. The inJiiiHce of the Calcedon peccavinius omnss prevail- 
eth. ^ 6x, ^3. A Jhretvder doubt raifed. Whether all thefe werf 
^truly ordained by former Heretkks (Iconoclafts-) The Popes Vi- 
car deuyeth it. Tarafius durf} not jo urtpriefl almofi all the Chri- 
(iian world of the Eaft, and is contrary. By a cunning argument 
he prevailed; Viz.. The Fathers agree among themlelves: Er- 
go, all tlie rell: are of the fame mind wit/^ fome before cited. 
^. 64. Gregory Bifhop of Ncocoefaria nest recanteth , a Leader 
of the Iconodafts. f 67. Tet Tarafius and this Council dij- 
claim giving Latria to Images of creatures. Tea honour them iut 
as memorative. ^. 67, 70. The Conftantinopolitaa Councik 
Arguments againfl Images. ^. 68. 6fC Bread not Tranfubflan- 
tiate. ^. 7Z. The two Councils contrary about Tradition of Ima- 
ges. ^. 73 . The Nicene Council curfeth from Chrifl all that are 
not for faluting and adoring Images. ^. 76. Bifhops and Priejhs 
Made by Magifirates Eletlion , or that ufe the Magijirate to get 
the place, are void. A Canon againfl filencing Preachers andfhut- 
ing up Churches. ^. 77. A fober Council at Horojulium. ^. 80. 
Fceiix Urgelitanus, and Elepandus, condemned, for faying Chrijl 
was Gods natural Son in the Deity, and his adopted in his Uutno' 
nity. ^.81. Claudius Taurinenfis againfl Images. ^. 8i. Car. 
Awg. Book, and the Council of Franckford againfi Images. ^. 8x, 
84. Fceiix and Elepandus condemned, for faying Chrifl was a Ser- 
vant, if. 85". The Frankford Council decreeth that Chrifl was not 
a Servant fubjed to God ly penal fervitude- ^ 89. Pope hco^s 
eyes put out, and tongue cut out, and reflored, and he made great 
/y Charles the Great. ^. pi. Kiffing the Popes Foot. ^. pj. Irene 
kiSeth her Jon, and is banifhed her felf ^. 94. Filioque added 
by the Spaniih and French Bifhops without the Pope. i). 96. Ca- 
rol Mag. being dead the People Rebel againfl the Pope, till 
Ludovicus fubdued them. ^. 97. A Council at ConftantinopJe 
for the Emperours Adultery : And another againfl Plato and 
Theodorus Studita, that were againfl it ; ivhich faith Binnius 
paj^d the fentence of Anathema on the whole Catholick-Church. 
An4 decreed that Gods Laws can do nothing againfi Kings, nor is 
any man a Martyr that fuffereth (as Chryfoftome) for oppofing th^ 
for truth and juflice. 4-98. A Council at kt\ts, and another at 
Tours have good Canons , One that is for the old prohitiort of genu- 

The Contcmsi 

fiexien on the Lords daies. ^. X04 Charles M. refioreth Learn- 
ing : A Council at Chalones decreed againfi the Oath of Canonical 
ohedience. ^. 105', lod. Another againfi Arch-Deacons ruling 
^Freshyters, and taking Fees of them. ^. 107. Others for the old 
Excommunication, and about Confejftonto God and Man, and againfi 
trufi in Pilgrimages. ^. lo8, 109, no. Another Council at Qon^ 
ftantinople curfeth that at Nice, xd, and pull down Images^ and 
the Bifl^ops turn again. ^. 113. The murder ofBifhopspunifhedby 
payments at lafi. ff. 114. Ludovicus Pius, Emperour, Bifi^ops 
tvith Bernard rehel, Stephen made Pope without him, pardoned. 
^. 1 1 5". His care of lofi Learning : A pious Treatife out of the Fa- 
thers ; againfi Bijhops domination, and for their equality with Pref- 
hyters in Scripture-times. ^. xi6. Againfi Clergy fins, and Wo- 
tnens company. Againfi genufie£tion on the Lords days : Auguflines 
contempt ef appeals to Councils and Rome : A ftrange temperance 
of the Canonical Monks, that were tyed to four pound of Bread and 
five paund of Wine in a day ; or in J card ty, to three pound of Wine 
and three pound af Beer ; or in greater fcarcity, to one pound of Wine 
and five of Beer. ^. ii8. lAXi^oylcvisVwxs tnaketh the Pope great- 
er than ever. ^. izo. Michael Balbus murdering Leo, Armenus 
fendeth to Ludovicus Pius alout Images .- An Affemk'y at Paris 
called by him judge the judge of the World, .ind the Niccne fecond 
Council faith Bdhrminc. 4- 12.4- Now loth ExO: and Wed judg- 
ed the Pope and his Qenerd Council to erre ; yea this Emperour that 
made him Great. ^. izj. A hook of concord ly the Pope and Em- 
per our, that Images are neither to be contempt uouQy Iroken, nor 
adored. BcIIarmincs words againfi it. He revileth the Popes 
words, that Princes are Govcrncurs nf the Church. ^. izj, izg. 
Confuted. Faith and Love may he without Images, i). 1x9. It 
was the right of the Empire to confent or not, to^ the cbofen Pope. 
^. 131. Platina wifhcth for a Ludovicus to reform the luxurious 
Clergy then. ^.133. A Paris Council write an excellent Book : 
They tell of fome Jlruck with Thunderbolts, Cenzuljions, &c. for and 
as workinz, on the Lords day. And fay Bcati Petri viceni gcrimiis. 
^. 136. The Emperour making his three Sons Kings, i bey Rebel : 
He conquer eth Pipin, LotJiarius rehellith again, Ebbo and a 
Council of Bijhops wickedly depoje him ahjent and unheard, and force 
him to refizti his Scepter on the Altar, and thrufi him into Prifbn : 
Thiu was the .befiy Princes that mofi advanced the Clergy ufed Iv 


The Contents. 

them, OH Religious pretenfe Ludovicus refiored the fecond time^ 
Lotharius relelleth ftill, till pardoned- Ludovicus dyeth- ^.137. 
The -form of kis condemnation by the Bifl^ops at large ; with all the 
Articles of Accufation and his penance at the Bifhops high Court of 
J^ujiice- f). 139- The Emperour refiored hy force, the Bifhops re. 
tant and he forgiveth them , Ebbo refigning- 4* 140- The Wars 
Between Ludovicus Sons : Lotharius jujlly conquered- <). 145. The 
Bifhops depofe him upon impeachment as they did his Father by his 
will. ^. 146- Images refiored at Conftantinoplc by Theodora 
a Woman : fhe fped as Irene. Photius Patriarch §. 148, 149. 
The Bifhops fuddenly turn again. ^- ifo. Strife for the Popedom 
<)- I J I. Lotharius and his brothers agree- ()• \^y The Arch- 
bifhop of Rhemes fled and the feat vacant was ten years Governed 
ly two Presb\'ters- ^. i fi- Carolus Calvus alienateth Churcli- 
lands- 4- i5'3- ^op' Leo and his City Lconina: He writetb 
Majjing Rules, and depofeth Priefls that cannot read till they amend- 
$• 1 5' 4' Singing Liturgies the eccafion of impofed forms- ^- 155". 
A Qouncil at Mentz punifheth murder even of Priefis, but with 
putting them from the communion. (). 15^7. 

CHAP- lo- Councils about Ignatius and Photius, with 0- 
thers' Hincmarus'x defcription of Godefcalcus and his Herefie. 
()• !• Qanons ., that Arch-Presbyters examine every Mafler of a 
Family perfonally, &c. That none denyed Communion have any Of- 
fice civil or Military, ^- 3 • Whether unconfl rained fufferers are 
Martyrs. §. ^. A hard cafe about the nullity of Ebbos Ordinations: 
Two Popes differ. ^- 5-. Ignatius cafe- ^- 8- Remigius and ele- 
ven more at Valence make notable decrees about Predeflination, 
Redemption, Perfeverance, and choice of Bifhops- §- 9' The Cler- 
gy and People to choofe Bifhops. ^- 9, 10. Lotharius turneth 
Monk- ^- II. No Pope Joan. ^- iz- Two fl rive for the Papa- 
cy: Analtafius j^.7/;;// Images, repuljl- ^. 13, 14. Thunderbolts 
in the Church. ^. i6- John Bi/hop of Kzvenna. forced to Jubmit to 
the Pope- §- 1 7. The Schrfm between Ignatius and Photius. 4. 1 8. 
Bifhops for the Emperour s divorce, cenjured by the Pope, defpife him. 
^- 19. /'i?/'<? Nicolas, ^g^/;?/'/ Hincmarus: Againjl the Gra^k Em- 
perour : His notable Ep/llle : He m.iketh the greater number of Bi- 
fhops and People no fign of truth ; nor f'wnffs cf err our- ^- 1 1. 
Bapt/fm v.ilid by one that is no Prieft nor Chrifli.in- (). ai. None 
proper Patriarchs but ApofUes Succeffours- 4' 2Z- All other Chur- 


The Contents. 

ches attil Dignities made by Komt, a»(l Komt hjChr/jh ^. 14. Pe- 
ter had the Empire of Heaven and Earth. Ill chofin Popes not Apo- 
Jlolical, ^ 1^- Many other Papal Vfurpations^ againji Oaths, Prin- 
ces, (i)c. <) ^6, (£)c. People Jlill chnje Bijhops, ^29. None may 
hear Mafs of a fornicating Priefi, ^30. Lay men mujl :.\'t judge or 
fearch the lives of Priefls- /'• Q\\xt\ts faith none lut the Bipops may 
dcpofe him, ^32. V\\0X.'\\\s fet led by Councils, ^ 31, 33,3)". Divers 
Councils for K. Lotharius divorce againfl the Pope, ^ 58,39, 40- TItc 
Tope curfeth ther>ij(f /^i,and curfeth his Legates at Conft. ^ .^x, and at 
MetZ, ^ 4<j. Hiucmarus and the P ope* s Contention, ^ 43, 44. Hi- 
fi or ians fay the Papacy was void eight years, and others but feven 
days, 4 fO- Photius and his Counfels defpifed the Pope. His depo- 
fition by Bafilius a Murderer, ^ fl. Bafilius craveth the Popes par- 
don for the mjhops, becaufe they had almoil all been deceived or falfe^ 
by following the upper Powers, and the Churches would elfe be left de- 
ftitute, ^ 51. IVhat nullifying Ordinations hath done, ^ fj •• Men 
wrongfully excommunicated to be received by other hifhops : Presby- 
ters to annoint the fick, becaufe the Vtifhops cannot vifit all, ^56. A 
Conft. Council cjeSteth Photius ; where the Bijhops that were for him, 
turn again and condcntn him, crying pcccavimus ; fave fome few : 
Subfcriptions denyed, and why, ^ f/. This eighth General Council 
decree th equal honour to Chrifls Image as to the Gofpel : Forbiddetb 
Patriarchs to require Bifhops to fubjcrihe to them, but only to the 
Faith, and depofeth them that do it, § 58 : Curfeth them that fay 
man hath two Souls .■ All J^fhops to be worfhipped by Princes, and 
not go far to meet them, nor light from their Horfes to them, nor Pe- 
tition them, on great Penalties, ^ fS. Princes as profane may not 
be prefent at Councils; nor have been, {impudently ^ $"8. No Lay 
man may difpute Ecclefiaflical San^ions , be he never fo wife or good : 
But a Wifhop mujl not be refifled though manifeflly defiitute of all vir- 
tue of Religion, ^ 5:9. They decree that Photius be not called a Chri- 
flian, ^ 60. Bifhops above Kings, as Heaven above Earthy ^ 61. 
The Pope but one Patriarch cannot abfolve them that many Patriarchs 
condemn, ^ 6z- N'lcet^S Life of \gn:iti\iS in brief, § 6y The P ope ' 
depofed by a Conft. Council The Bifhops wrote not Photius condem- 
nation with Ink but with Chrifls blood, and yet reflored him ayid ho- 
noured him as the Emperour tnrned. Photius depofeth and rc-ordain- 
eth, and requireth fuhfcription to him, ^ 63. J''otes hereon, ^ (J4. 
Tke Contention between Rome and Conft. for ruling the Bulgarians, 

d and 

The Contents. 

and the ffrells, ^65-. I he Pope's Monarchy then unknown, () 66,6^. 
The Frencli Btjhops aga'mft the Pope gave Ludovicus'j Knigdtm io 
Charles Calvus, ^ 70. Tlie King, Hincmar. and Btjhops agamfi the 
Pope, ^ 71, 72- Depojing and blinding Hincmarus Laudmenfts. 
y/'f Romans imprifon Pops' John, ^75. HuAds; decree for per- 
jury, ^ 'jS,yj- Going to Rome merits the pardon of Murder, ^77. 
Service in the Schvon'i&n Tongue forbidden them, ^ 78. Aufper- 
tus Bifhop of Milan refufeth to obey the Pope : Sclavonian Service 
yielded to: The Bifhop of Vienna rejetteth a Bijhop «?^" Geneva 
(Aptandus) fent by the Pope, bccaufe he was never baptized, made 
Clerk, nor Learned : The Pope tells him that he himfelf had none of 
thefe when he was confecr at ed Bifhop ^/Vienna, ^ yj. Whether the 
Right ef Emperours was only by the Pope sGuift, ^78. Binius refo- 
lutton : One Church had two Bifhops, 4 81. A General Council at 
Conflant. refioreth Photius, expungeth filioq; condemneth the lafi 
General Council there \ yet both approved by Popes, ^83. The Coun- 
cil accufeKomt,()%7. Rome's jurifdiflion excluded, ^87. Adders 
to the Creed (filiocii) anathematized : Pope Martin .7»^ Hadrian con- 
demn Photius, and enrage the Greek Emperour againjl them, ^ 80, 
9 1 . Bifhofs and Lords dej^ofe Carolus Craffus ; he is put to beg his 
bread, ^91. The Pope above Emperours as Heaven above Earth -^ 
Kings are Servants, and not above the Clergie their Maflcrs, ^92. 
A King ruling ill decreed to be a Tyrant : Bifhop s and Priefts lying 
with their oivn Sifters, rejirained : but no Bifhop is to be accufed by 
a Presbyter, mr judged under Jeventy two Witnefjes, nor Priefts un- 
der, forty tpjo, ^c. He that would lye with his Sifter before fo many 
deferved blame : Murderers of Vriefts denyed Flefh, Wine, Coaches, 
&*<:. $ 91^,97. \o'Cvao{^x% perjured, was the frfl Bifhop that cvev 
was made Vope, ^ C)<). 

CHAP. II. The Progrefs of Councils, till Leo the 9th, ejpe daily 
in the Weft. 

The Bifl^ops depofe Odo, and fet up Charles, f i . The Virgin '^\x- 
ry'sSmock works wonders. ^.i.BlouJ and confujion inltzly. $.3. Bi 
fhgps to be obeyed before Earls and Magiftrates. Clergy-men muft not 
be put to /wear. No Presbyter to be depofd, but by fix Bifhops, 
4. 5". Two wicked Popes at once : Stephen Judgeth, Difmembreth, and 
drowneth dead Formofus, and re-ordaineth thofe ordained by him, 
(j. 7, 8. The Bift^ops in Council approve it ; yet now Papifls detefl it. 
§^^ .When Popes are hifallible, (). lo. Popes undo what their Prede- 


T4ie Contents. 

cejfors did. ^. n, 13, 14, 15, i?- Platina's difcriptif>n of a Mali^njfit 
Pope.- ().J^.Pope5 Crown for fear, and uncroiv/i, and C/oivx others. 
^. ty. Bijhops turn and return, and fry Pcccavimus. Reordinat'ions 
for hidden, (f. \6. Bad Princes the caufe of bad Bilhops. ^.17. Wick- 
ed Chrijiians on whom the Pope durji not uje Difcipline. (f. 17. 
Schifmes and violence OH Popes, f 18,19,10. Sergius made Pope the 
third time, keeps it ; hy Whores and Whoredom the tnoji wicked of 
men, faith Baron, and Bin. ^. zx. Formofus again executed dead, 
^.z^.Quffiions tothe Papijis of their holynefs and Succeffion. (j. x^. 
Photius lafi depofltion, and the Murders, of Emperours at Con- 
Hant.f x6. A Where Ruleth at Rome, ^ zi. She maketh 
her Fornicator Pope ; Baronius and BiRnius. hard put to it 
4. 6x. Ear I Her ihcrt's Sen, net five years eld, made Archhifhop 
fo Rhemes. ^.}0. Ratified hy Pope John, lamented by Baron, that 
iy this Example other great men did the like : Johns end ly a Whore ^ 
(j. 30- None to marry within the feventh degree, as ineeft. ^- 3 !• Ser- 
gius haflard-Son tinder age made Pope John by a Whore, and deflroyed 
after a Monjler faith Binnius- ^- ■^^- None to faft privately, but by 
the Bifhops confent. ^. 3 6. The King of Denmark made Chrifiian by 
Henry King of Germany- f 3 9 • St- Peter made the example for ma- 
ny Bijhopricksto one Bijhop- ^. 40- Albericus ra/rr^, and mangle ththc 
Pope. ^•41- The Bifhops judge the Infant before the perjured Monk 
to he Bifhop of Rhemes, ^ 43 . The treafons and changes in France, 
^44. Try\>hon illiterate finely cheated of his Patriarchate Confl. 
() 46. Councils do and undo between the two Bijhops of Rhemes, § 
48, 49, fO. John XII Lawful Pope wanted all things neceffary to 
a Popg., fay B^roviiM^ and B\nnm%, ^ ji. Notes hereon, ^ 5'z. Pope 
John difmembreth his Cardinals,^ ^3. He fled, ^^y The Bifhops 
depofe him, and make another by Otho'j means, ^ 5'4. The horrid 
charges againjl Pope John fwcrn, ^5^3. Baronius fl»//Binnius <rg<7/;ry? 
his condemnation anfwered, § ^6. Two Popes and Churches, ^57. 
Not yet known who ivas the true Pope, ^ 5:9, John killed in Adul- 
tery, ^ 60. Another Antipope perpiriou'ly chofen, ^ 6\- A Msr- 
fyt, () 6i, 64. An interruption of the Succeffion by Baronius and 
Binnius account, () 6f- Otho faveth them. The next imprifon- 
"td and fir angled, f) 67. Boniface VII. r«»; ^c Conftantinople »w//j 
the Church Treafure, ^ 69. Two more Popes, ^ 69, 70, 71. Boni- 
face murders another Pope, and gets in ; dyeth, and is dr.gd about 
the Streets, ^74. Jonn XV, durflnot dwell at Rome, ^75'. Uxx- 
%oC^Y'^t turneth the Bifhops, ^ y^. Popes fighting. JohnXVlI, 

d 1 lliHc'ed, 


The Contents. 

blinded, manqled, dijgraced, kill'd , (f 84. Seven EleHors of the 
Emperour jettled, ^ 85-- Gerbert kom made Pope, ^87. The 
AV»g 0/ Hungary Co«wr/j?/'(? Tranfilvanians, ^ 87- Good Kings, 
§ 90. Leurheiius Arckhijhop o/SeuS againjl Tranfuhjiantiation^ 
^91. Tn-o Popes fighting. The Kingofhiuag^xry converted ly the 
Ewperour Henry, ^ JJ- The JirJ} hiirningof Hereticks {jSizmchQes) 
§ 97. Henry th: limperour leavethhisWife aFirgin, (f lOO' Be- 
ncdiiV. IX- a delo'ift loy-Pope : put cut again, ^ 103. Gets in a- 
gain : A third enters at once- 'J he Cerbcrus hired all out by divi- 
ding the Church-rents between them ; do reftgn ; but the hirer as 
pacifcafor is made Pope, ^103- Six that had been Popes alive at 
once : One honeji Pope that could not read made a fellow Pope to Jo 
it, ^ 104- Gregory VI- The illiterate reconciling Vope variouCy 
defer i bed', put out ivith the other three, and a Fifth chojen, ^ 107. 
henedi\.(k.gets in the third time, ^ 107. Another gets in by Poyfon, 
and dyeththe 23 day, I:) no. Baron, anfvcered, ^ iii. Ike Monjier 
Bened. 9. ?y /'^ that condemned Berengarius,^ iix. Leo ^th. of the 
Refurretlion: Renounceth the Title of Vniverjal Patriarchs, as of 
thebawdof Antichrifi: Vettr not Vniverfal Apojlle. Bifhops equal; 
varied by City priviledges, fave in Africa by fenierity. The R0- 
mifh Church ufurped by no P afhrs , ^ zoj. Michael Patr. oj Gonft. R&- 
laptizeth Papifls, faith they had no true Bapifm, or Sacrifice, ^ zo^. 
A Roman Council pardon fimoniacal Bifhops and Priefis, left the 
Church be utterly deftitute,^ zc6. The Popes hold a Council in 
Trance agaiffl the Kings will: A Bijhops horrid Crimes, and a mira- 
cle there. Still Clergie and People mujl chufe every Bifiop xoj. 

CHAP. I z. The continuation till the Councilof Conftance .• Counr 
cils aiainjl Berengarius, ^ z, &c. Adulterous and Symoniacal Bi' 
(hops : A miracle, ^ 4, 9. Hildebrand, a Sub-deacon, prefideth in 
Councils, and depofeth Bifhops, and Excommunicateth, ^9, 10. Bi- 
fhops by Excommunication rule K.Ferdinand, ^ i,z. Mihnfeparated 
from Rome zoo years, () 16. Another Schifm, ^ 17, i8. Hildebrands 
new Foundation of Popes {by Cardinals Eletlion) $ zz. Notes hereon, 
^zz. A Kom^n Council Jorbids hearing a Fornicator Priefl, ^ Z3. 
Bloody fights between two Popes : Five years fchifm, ^ x^, P. Alex- 
ander ^^/t;^//.^ England/^ William the Conqueror, ^ %j. Councils 
for each Pope, ^ z8, Z9. Gods word affirmed violable, ^30. Hildcr 
brands War in Kome: Italian Bifhops againjl him. His hard wo^rk,. 
obedience to the Pope forbidden by a Council at Mentz. He depofeth 
the Emperour for feeking /^tfdiminilh theMajefty of the Church i: 


The Contents. 

futd abfolveth his fivorn SuhjeHs : Att Antipope made that fate x i 
years, (the zyd Jchifm.) The Emperour barefoot tn froft three days 
legs pardon, and prom'tjeth obedience. He is again curfed by the Pope 
in Council, as having power to take aivcr^ Kingdoms, and all that men 
have,<) 41,42. The Siege of KomQ: Two Topes: Gregory's death, 
^ 4X. He threatneth to depofe the King of France : cLums Hunga- 
ry ,&c HS-Binnius record of THE POPES DICTATES, /^//iw in 
17 Articles WHAT POPERY IS, ^ 44. He claimeth Spain, ^ 
46. and Dalmatia, ^ 49. A great part of the Bifhops againfi hin7, 
^ 49. Pronounc?th unjnicere repentance fruitlefs, ^ 5-0. Denyeth Di- 
vine Service in the Schvonhn tongite, ^51. M weather imputed to 
the ill Lives of Priefls: /"/'f Armenians errours what, ^ 51. Apu- 
lia, &c. the Popes, ^51. One man turned an hundred thoufand men 
in Spun from the Pope. He threatneth to Excommunicate and depofe 
the King of Spain, as an Enemy to the Chriflian Religion, ^ 5-2. He 
newly found St. Matthc'A'S body, ^54. He will expofe the Prince of 
Sardinia unlefs he obey him in making all Priefls f nave their beards^ 
() ^t). Notes hereon. 7 he Yrcnch. convert the Sweeds, and the Pope 
would reap the fruit, ^5^6. His notable Epif He to prove Popes, Priefis, 
{and Exorcrfis) above Kings, ^ ^j. Anfwcred, ^58. Vcter-pence, (f 59. 
An Arch-bijhop fufpendcd for not vif ting Komc, § 60. A pious Lit 
for Peace n a fin, ^61. The t^/^Spanilh Liturgy partly contrary to 
the Chnflian Faith till now, ^ 6z. His refpetl to William the Con- 
queroui-, (ijc. ^ 64, G6. The German Eijhnps hereticate the Pope, 
for forbidding Marriage, ^ 67. Matthew isforfaken, § 68. Philip 
King of France and many great Bifhops excommunicate, <J 69. 
Divers Councils excommunicating cojtrarily ; the Antipopes , ^ 
69, to 74. Ordinations null that are made pretio, prcci- 
bus vel obfcquio, and not by the common ccnfcnt of Clergy and 
People, 4/5- He cxci>nnnufiicateth the Gr^Qk Emperour ufurping,^ 
j6. 77'c> Greek affairs jumm d up, (i.-j-j . The t>ower of V ope and Bi- 
fhops to depofe Kings, ^ 79.^ Council Charalier of [Gregory , ^ 80. 
A Council make Loyalty to be H.xrefis Henriciana, f 87. The Dif 
ciple is not above his Alafier, anfwered, ^87. Wecilos herefie, that 
men obey not unjuji Excommunications, but may by. others be received, 
^88. Thez}6, Schifm, ^^i. Vigor's Soldiers conquer Clement's, ^ 
91. Lay Princes prefent at ions or Inveftitures are Herefie: every 
Heretick is an Infidel: It's better be iviihout vifible Communion than 
have it withjuch, <^^y Confellaries overthrowing Rome, ib. A 


I ■ v .. 

The Contents. 

fteu) Pope tnarrietb MathilJ/s to Welpho on condition they nfe not 
carnal Copulatien, () 9^. A Jerufalem expedition caufeth peace at 
home. Cjont^d&rehlleth againji his Father, (f^^ The Emperour 
commits Fornication, ^101,103. Wrongs on Monday, Wednefday, 
or Thurfdayt no breach of haly peace : No Bi/hop or Prteft muft/voear 
er promife Allegiance to a ^i»g, ftor take Preferment from any 
Lay man, ^ 104. None to communicate in one kind, ^ lOC. All the 
Btjhops ^Englandy^/x'^ Rochefter renounce obedience andfociety with 
Anfelxiia Archbifhop of Canterbury, becaufe he would not renounce 
the Pope, faying, he blafphemed the King, Jetting up any in his King- 
dom without his confent, $ 106. Time given the King (?f England 
to repent, ^109. The Anti-Pope Clement dig^d up and burnt : 
Pafchal %. Council Decree that all Bifhops of the Henrician HereTie 
{Loyalifls) if alive be depojed, if dead ^ aigg d up and burnt {that is, 
moji of the Wefiern Bifhops^ ^xiz. The Schifm continued, ^ ilj. 
The Popefet upyoung Henry againfi his Father, who taketh him Prt- 
f oner to the death : He keeps his Fathers Corps five years unburied, 
becaufe Excommunicate, let proveth Hereticus Henrician OS, Im- 
prifoneth the Pope till he grant him Inveftitttres. The Vope abfolveth 
himfelf, 4 114, 115". Cafes on Binnius, ()ii6. Note that Invefii- 
tures Juppofed the Veople and Clergies free choice of Bifhops, ^117. 
The Bijhops ufage of old Henry to the laft, $118. To take the Vopes 
Excommunications ^( not obligatory is a TTerefie, ^ ii^.The dangerous 
Doliritie of Flueiltius Bijhop ^Florence {that Anti-Chrift was come) 
^ I %o. Only the Church made Hertry rebell, ^121, 1 rx.Ty bur colour- 
ed with hloud : The Earl c/ Millans Fie fh given to Dogs : The Vepes 
facramental Covenant broken, (f 117. Qod will have no involuntary 
fervice,^ izji. The fame is a Henrician Herefie in others which is- 
none in the Vope, ^131- tTe mayforfwear for the Veople of God. ^131, 
Two Vopes contending and excommunicating : The Emperour giveth 
up Invefl it lures, ^ 1 3 5: /o 1 3 8. Four Dothines of Guilb. Porretane 
condemned in Council; i. That Divinitas andDtUSarenot the fame 
{in fignification : ) 2. That the three Verfons are not unUm aliquid .- 
3. That there are eternal Relations hefides the Verfons : 4. That it 
was not the Divine Nature that was incarnate. Two more Popes, 
^ 138, 142. A Preacher murdered at Rome, ^ I44. Two more 
Popes, the Jucceffion from the wrong, () 145'. They fight for it, ^ 1^64 
How Clergy and Veople firfl loll their Votes in choice of Vcpes, ^ 147. 
tiiioVopes flill flriving, ^ 149, &c. Many Cafiles in England built 


The Contents. 

ly two Bijhoys, ()i6o. AbailarJ condcmmA unhs.vd, ()\.6i. Car- 
ieftineir. the firjt Poj^e without the IPeofles eletUm, An. 1141. 
Rome againfi the Vcfe : Bijhcps are hisjire^gth, ^ 168. Porrc- 
tane a^J/ft nccufei/, and ptuzled the Council, ^170. He is again 
dccnfed ly Bernard, \vh«m the Cardinals accufe for ivriti»g his 
Faith and gettiKg Bijhops hands to it, ^ lyi. The RommQ /^eo- 
pie excommunicate h Pope Adrian 4. They are for a Preacher called 
hy him an heretick, ^ 174. Komt Jighteth with Pope and Emperour.- 
They fight again, and expel the Pope, f "174. The 17 pair of Popes : 
Wars between the Emperour Frederick and Vope : The Crown of' Eng.- 
land held as from the Pspe : J'et Rome receiveth him not .- 7%e Em- 
peroHr fubmitteth, being defer ted,^c. ^175'. The fet ling the choice 
of Popes by Cardinals : The Vope no Bifhop by the Canons, ^177. 
The Roman Succefiion is from Alex. 3. when the Clergie, People, Em- 
perour, Vrinces, and a Council of innumerable Bifhops were for Vi- 
ctor, \ 176. Parliaments called Councils, ^ 179. Ireland the 
' Popes, ^ 1 8a The Albigenfes Henricians, ^ i8i. No Bijkop may 
f^pend a Presbyter without the judgment of his Chapter : A perjured 
Clergie-man perpetually deprived: Doubtful words to be underjhod 
asufually, ^ i8i. The Vopes Party inKome. have their Eyes put out, 
^183. Frederick drowned in Afia, ^ 187. The Kingdom 0/' France 
intsrdi^cd, ^190. The Pope fet s up an Anti-Emperour, who prc- 
vai'cth, () 192- England isterdi^ed fix years and three months ^ 
^ 194. The famous twelfth General Council at the Laterane under 
Inoc. 3. for Tranfubjiantijtion, exterminating hereticks, depofin(^ 
'Princes, abjolvingSuhjeds, forbidding HnUcenfedPreachers,^c. ^ I95'. 
Almaricus burnt dead, ^ 196. Stephen Langton and King John, 
() 197. TenQjicries upon this Council, ^198. The Qanons of this' 
Ccanal true: Mr. DodweF.f 17 Arz^uments for it, ^ 199. The' 
Papifts excufes anfwered, ^ iSo. (mifnumbred.) The bloody Execu- 
tion, ^181. Oxford Canons, that every great Parifh Have two 
or three Presbyters, Cffc. ^ 183. Againfi Preaching when filenced, 
$ 184. The Pope twice ban'ifi^ed by the Romans.- The Emperour 
txcommunicate and depofed-, fights it out: The Pope dyeth, ^ 186. 
A tnortalfin to have two Benefices, if one will marntain him, ^ rSy, 
The Emperour again excommunicate : A merry Excommunication, 
^ 191. Rebellions, ^ ipx. Conrade and King Henry, § i5>3- 
Bijhop Grofthead'j natable Letter t9 the Vope^ and its recrption, 

^ 19^ 

The Contents, 

^ 195:, 1^6- ObeJ/ent difobedience : All Vower for edification, ih. 
The Vope calls the King of Kngland bJs Sbve, whom he com irnpri- 
fort, &1-. ^ 1 9 (J; The Qardinals Speech to quiet the Vope : A De- 
fetlion foretold, () ip^.Grolhcads death : Hetakeththemfor Hereticki 
that tell mt great men cf their fin, &c The Vope Antichrifl, for de- 
flroying fouls. The Vopes pardoning Letter : The Vope defer tied, () 
193. Miracles at Robert Groflieads death: The Vope would have 
hurnt and damned his Corps : In a I'ifion he mortally ivoundeth the 
Vope, ^ lyS, 199. H. 111. pawneth his Kingdom to the Vope, ^ 
200. The 13th General Council at Lyons excomtnnnicateth and 
depofeth the Emperour and abfolveth his Suhjells, ^. zox. Guelphus 
for the Vopes, Cihelins for the Emperour, ^ xoy 77;^ Englilh P<7r- 
lianient demand the choice of the Lords Jufiice , Chancellour and 
Treafurer, ^ lo^}. The Vlot of King Henry and the Bifhop ofHcTQ- 
ford, to get money by the Vope, () zo6. The Varliament refiji it : 
IsA.V^ns talks too boldly of the King, ^ zo6. Buying Bifhopricks : 
Brancalco ^/^Rome maflereth the Vope, ^ 208, %6^. Sewale Arch- 
Bijhop of Y ork againfl the Vope : doth Miracles, ^ 212. Rome not 
ruled by the Vope, ^214. Tl ear three years vacancy of the Vapacy, 
^219. Cardinal Vortuends jeafl, 220. Thefoolifh Vope ]cAmfadly 
confuted, ^224. King Peter of Arragon depofed, §zi6. The Popes 
Tenth peny deny ed, ()izZ. Two years more vacancy. TV.'f Greeks 
enmity to Rome, (). 229. Pope QQ\&{\in.t cheated tor efign, andim- 
prifioned, ^233. Boniface the VIII. his conflitl with the Kin^of 
France; taken prifiner, anddyeth : Vh.t\.wxs good Counfiel to all Ru- 
lers, () 224. The Clergy not to be taxed by Princes, ^ z]^. The 
Popefetled inYxd^ncc hy Clement V. Qontinueth 70 Tears, ^236. 
Above 2 years vacancy, ibid. 40. Articles of the King of Franci? 
<7^<?i»/? Boniface VIII. Three Her i/ies of Vctnis J oannis, 1. The 
rational foul, as fuch is not forma corporis humani. 2. Grace ha- 
bitual, not infufed in b apt if me to Infants. 3. The Spear pierced 
Chrifl before his death, 4 242. The Herefie of the Beguines and 
Beguardes for perfetlion, ^ ibid. Pope Clements Decrees, De 
fide. I. Of the form of the body {the foul.) 2. Infants infufed 
Grace. 3. Vfury a jin. 4. To be reflored. The contrary to 
jujfer as Here ticks, § ibid. The falfhood of fiome of thefie new Ar. 
tides of Faith, ^ 243. Magifi rates excommunicated that di^race 
wicked, Priefis, ^ 247. Or compel them to anfwer to them, ^ 248. 
. ■ Vopes 


The Contents. 

Popes and Councils cotidetrm each other as Hereticks,^ x^o. The Pope 
(Ijimeth the Empire hy Efcheate, (f x^i. The Priefi to take the- 
name oj every PariJhoiter,that heingcOHfeffed and confirmed they may 
u>mmuHicaie only hy his counfel, (} Zjz. The Greek ajjairs, ^ 256. 
A Toi.Ql9.nQ Council Decree that their Provincial Conjiitutrcns 
hind only ad pcenanl, not ad culpam^, lefi ChrijNans Confciences he hur- 
denedy ^157. After feventy years refidence at Avignion , forty years 
more there were two P oyes {and fametime more) one at Avignion and 
one at Rome. Difierd choofetij an honefl Pope, hut Concord an Anti- 
Pope. Thfir Wars : The Pope drowneth Curdinah in Sacks, and 
makes twenty nine new ones in one day, ^i6o. Italy flill the mojl 
Mnpeaceahle warri>tg place of the World, i) z6z, 263. 7he Popes 
bloody way of curing Schifm^ ^ i6}. ^ The Council ^Pifa thinking to 
.have hut' one Pope made a third, (f 2.67. Who Depofed King Ladi- 
.flaus, ^z68. 

-' ' ■. .c ■ . ' 

CHAP. 13- The Cauncils fl/ Conftance, Bafil, ^c. Tl:<at at 
Conftancc, called hy Pope 'idixn xi (alias xi or 23 or 14) hy SWi(- 
mund the Emperours means. Councils ahove the Pope, ^ 3. Wickliift 
Articles, ^ 6. One is, that they are Traytors to Chrifi, who give o- 
ver preaching, and hearingGods word, for mens Excommunications, 
^ 6, 54. heynous Articles againfl Pope John, commonly caUedThe. De- 
vil incarnate: Ah thfiinate Heretick, denying the life to come,^c. 
^^8. He ratifieth all himfelf, and with other two Popes is depofed, 
^ 9- A decree againfi giving the Sacramental Cup, though Chrifi and 
the Ancient Church ufedit,i) lO- Articles againji JohnHus as Wick- 
lifT's; More as his own, (f iz, 13- Excommunication mufi not make us 
leave off Preaching.- Againjf Hicrome of Prague Ireakingfafe Con- 
dutls,^ 14, 15-.. The third Pope deposd, (f 16. Decrees for frequent 
General Councils : Popes Elettions regulated : A new Pope chofen 
^ 17. . The Fate of P. John and the reft, ^ 18, ly. Continued Wars at 
Rome, againfi the Pope, and in Italy, (f xy 7 he Council at Bafil. The 
Bolieniiaiis cafe: Their four Articles, i. For the full Sacrament, 
z. For corretling puhlick Crimes.^. For liherty to preach Gods 
Word. 4. Againfi the Clergies civtl Power ; all eluded, ^24. Bifhop 
Auguftinus de KomcLSerrours (Phanatick) Pardon of all (ins confcft 
with a contrite heart, fold for money and fafling, ^17. 7 heir Catho- 
lick Ferities : i . For Councils Supremacy, x. They may not he dijfoh- 

e ed, 

The Contents. 

ed, jemved, prorogneti, hut eonfetttiHg. y lis Herefie tooppugHtkeji 
I) i8. P. Eugeniiis depofeJas ap8rtittaciouiHeretkk,&c.().'Li.Q4t€riei 
hereon,^ 10. Ihe immaculate Conception decreed, ^31. Two Popes 
again, ^ji. Epijiles of and againji thePoi^e, ^33. Four Treat ifet 
againji the homvsmm four great Articles, f 34, 35'. Qod oniy par- 
doneth the fault, and the Pope part of Church Penattcfis. Whether 
fileuced Preachers nuiji ceafe : Vujuft Sentences twt regardahle, coth 
fejfed : The Council confirmed^ ^ 35". 3<J- A Council at Briges co»- 
firmeth this, ^37. The Council at Florence .• Tivo General Coun- 
cils at once, ^38- The Rojnans ft ill fight againjl the Pope, 4 39. 
Conflantinople lofi, ib. P. Pius x- his GharaBer and Sentences : 
For priefts Marriage : Tet for Rome'jr Vniverfal Headjhip to he re- 
ceived as neceffary tofahatim, ^,^<\' V^^^yAx. a jufl and clement 
Simoniaft and Tyrant : Torment eth Platina and many others : Accu- 
feth them of Herefie for praifing Plato and Gentile Learning, ^e. 
Againjl Learning, 4 45"- P- SixtUS Wars and treachery, ^ 46. De- 
ny rng the Decrees 6f a Gentral Council de fide {of the immaculate 
conception of B. MO m'JJerefie^ ^ 47- P^ If^oc 8. fights to be Hint 
,4>f Naples, ^ 49- \ 'j'h -s; v\\. rV.wv.O ,'*.a;.^jV^ vviir.^ic,;. ui. 'jA\ LriP. T* 
Po(^s Alexander the- Sixth his ugly Cbaraller , and his Son 
Ciefar Borgia'^ Villanies : Both driniing the poyfon prepared for 0- 
thers : ,The Pope dy eth of it, ^50. Pius 3. ^ fi. P. Julius i. Ita- 
ly /« hlood flill hy him, ^ §l. Councils agaiuft the Pep6 : The King 
1^ France excommunicated, ^ 5'3, s^- ^^^ Anti-Council at Lateran, 
■againft theV'i'^'XKse,, againft the }crtach pragmat.Sandion : The nota- 
ble Titles of the Pope, § ^S- Decreed that Simoniacal Eleilion of 
Popes is null, and giveth no Authority, (which nullifieth the Roman 
fucceffwn) ^ ^6. Decrees ahout Souls, \ S7- Leo 10. a Cardinal 
4/13. and an Archhtfhop in his Childhood: His Wars and blood- 
fhed, ^ f8. Luther: The Reformation : The end ef Charles f. ^ fg. 
Leo'j death, ^ 60. Reformers drive the Papijls to Learning, $ (Jr. 
All Pap/ft Princes owe their fafety, Crowns, and deliverance from 
Vapal depofition to the Reformation ; and Italy its peace, ^ 62. The 
Hi (lory of the Reformation, atfd of Pap ifls Murders of Martyrs pi^- 
fed hy, ^ 63. Freder. of Saxony refufeth the Empire and Money, 
and chofe Charles, ^ 64. Thirty five cafes for which men mufi he de- 
ity ed Communion in the Eucharifl, ^65'. Later ReformingPapifi 
Councils, ^ 66, ^c. The Conclufion, what this Hiflory fpecially 


The Contents. 

Church MffiVnt "-^ ,^:K■^ty^v..v^uB i. ,-.,.,m:t..'6 u.k..^ v 

CHAP. 14. ACoitfHtaiioii of f'apifts aHiSe^arifftioWi^ qn4 

offtf^ the Miniftry tf the Reforipcd Churches: :.'' :J . ''■\ 

CHAP. */.' A CnfufufJod tf the ^^^^e 0pp^rs cf the m-, 

ttijlrj. ''■'■■ ..,. ■ 

■VV« -11 ' *' v.] 

^>»v\»^-j j«t*iV"Hr-» 

"'- ■-■•-• ■• ■•'• ■. .■•.,i ,^..0 > . ' y r'r 


An Account offpmciBooIcnaitely Printed for, and to bcSold by 
Thomas Simmotts, at the Princes Arms, in Ludgate-ftrcet . 

'^^SufflemtnttoKnoMedgt^ /in^ii'riifl/ce : Wherein the main things ne. 
^*" ceflary to be known and believed, in order to Salvation, arc 
more fully explained, and feveralaewDireftions given for the promot- 
ingofrealHolinefs, both of Heart and Life: Townich is added a ferious 
diiTwafivefrortifbhieof the feigning and Cuflomary (ins of theTimes.Tiz.. 
Swearing, Lying, Pride, Gluttony, Drunkennefs, Uncleanners, DiC- 
content, Covetoufnefs, and Earthly-mindednefs, Anger, and Malice, 
and Idlcnefs ■■, by Sam- Cradock,B.D. late Redlor ot Nor th-Catihnry,\n Somtr- 
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The lively Effiges of the Reverend A^r. Muthevf Pool: So well performed 
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Moral Prognofltcatigns : i. What fliall befall the Churches on Earth, till 
their Concord, by theReftitution of their Primitive Purity, Simplicity, 
and Charity : 2 • How that Reftitution is like to be made (if ever) and what 
fhallbefal them thenceforth unto the end, in that Golden Age of Love : 
Written by Richard Baxter ^vihtn by the Kings CemmiJfion,wt in vain treated 
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There is Publtfljed every Thurfday, a Mercurius Librarius, or A Faithful 
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DircBions torfcf j?<Wfr»/ Baxter's Church Kill ory, &c. 

After the Title Sheet follows a,b, c,d,e •, thenB.C, D, E, F, G,H, I, 
K,L, M,N,0,P, Q, R,S, then A A, B B, CC, DD, E E, FF, GG, 
HH, II, KK, LL, MM, NN, OO, PP, then S S, TT, V V, XX, 
and i"o on to Q^Q^Q ; which Signiture ends the Book. 


O F 


And their 


A B R I D G E D, <?.. 


Of the facte J Miniflry, Epifcopacy and Councils, necejfary Pre- 
monitions : and ef the Deftgn of this Book. 

§. i.^" ^ OD that could have enlightned the Earth without the 
■ Sun and Stars, could imrnediately alone have taught his 

^ -y/r Church, and communicated knowledge to mankind : But 
^^»JI as he is the moft communicative good, he was pleafed 
not only to make his Creatures receptive of his own in- 
flux, but alfo to give them the ufe and honour of being efficient fub-com- 
municants under him, and caufes of good to them fclves and to one ano- 
ther : And as his Po\wr gave Bein^ and Motion, his IVifdom gave Order and 
Harmony, and his Love gave Coocbiefs and Perfeiiion, felicity znd love, as 
he is the creating and conferving Caufe of Nature-, and this in much ine- 
quality, as he was the free difpofer of his own ^ fo in the Kingdom of 
Grace he doth by the Spirit of Life, Li^:^ht, and Love , i. Qnickcn and 
ftrengtlien the dead and weak fouls, and awaken the (lumbering and floth- 
ful i 2. Illuminate the dark with I-aith and Knowledge, and j. Sandifie 

B the 

'Church-Hijiory of Bifhops and 

the malignant Enemies of holinefs, by the power of his communicated 
love, making them friends and joyful lovers : This Spirit firft filled the 
Humane Nature of Chrifb our Head-, who firft con . micatcd ittofome 
chofen perfons in an eminent manner and degree, a;, Mature raaketh the 
heart and brain and other principal parts to be organical^ in makings fre- 
fovingi and governhig the refb. Tothefe h? gave an eminence of Power 
to work .Miracles, ol Wifdom to propagate the Wcvd of life, and infal- 
libly by Pleaching and Writing promulgate and record his facrcdGofpel, 
and of Z;*/)' /or<r to kindle the like by zealous holinefs in the hearts ofo- 
thcrs. To thefe organical perfotis he committed the Oeconomy ot being 
the witnejfes of his words and anions, his refurredion and afcenfion, and 
of recording them in writing, of planting his firfl Churches, and leal- 
ing the truth of their teftimony by many Miracles, promifing them his 
Spirit to perform all that he committed to their trufl, and to bring all to 
their remembrance, and to lead them into all truth, and to communicate 
inftrumentaiiy his Spirit tooihers, the faniftifying gifts by blefllng their 
Dodrine, and the miraculous gifts by their impofition of hands. 

§. 2. By thefe principal Minilttrs the firft Church was planted at 7^r«- 
falem, ('fitlieft called the Mother-Churchj and after bythofcthat were 
font thence many Churches were gathered in many Kingdoms of the 
world, darknefs being not able to refift the light. The Apoltles and 
Evangelifts and Prophets delivered to them the Oracles of God, teach- 
ing them te obferve all things that Chrifi had commanded them, and pra(ftically 
teaching them the true Worfhif of God^ ordering their jiffcrtihlies , and or- 
da.imng\!ntxa fuch Officersfor iacred Miniltration as Chrift would have con- 
tinued to the end of the world, and fhewing the Churches the way by 
which they w)«/? he continued, and defcribing all the work of the Office ap- 
pointed them by Chrift. 

§. i The Apoltles were not the Authors of the Gofpel, or of any ef- 
ftntial fart of the Chriftian Religion, hxiX.l\\Q.Eeceners of it from Chrijlj 
and Preachers of it to the world : Chrilt is the yiiithor and fi/:ijlier^ or per- 
feifter of our faith. But they had befides the power of infallible remem- 
bring, knowing and delivering it, a double power about matters of Order 
in the Church : i. By the fpecial gift of the Spirit's infpiration, to found 
and Jlablifli fuch Orders as were to continue to the end, and none that 
came after them might change, they being the Ordinances of the Holy 
Ghofl in them. 2. Temporarily, fro re nata^ to make convenient muta- 
ble Conftitutions, in matters left by the great Lcgiflator to humane pru- 
dence, to be determined according to his general regulating Laws. In 
this laji the Apoftles have Succeflbrs-, but not in the former: No other 
have their Gtft , and therefore not their Authority .- No men can be 
feid to have an Office that giveth them Right to exercife abilities which 
they never had nor fliall have. 

§.4. Chrift fummed up all the Law in LOVE to God and Man, and 
the works of Love •, and all the Gofpel in Faith, and HopCf and Leve by 


their Councils abridged. 

them kindled and exercifed by the Spirit which he giveth theni^ even by 
the Belief and Truft of his Merits, Sacrifice, Interccflion and Promiles, 
and the profpe^ of the future Glory promifed, fortifying us to all holy 
duties of obedience, and diligent feeking what he hath promifed, and t» 
patient bearing of the Crofs, conquering the incudiaate love of the 
world and flefh and prefent life, and improving all our prefent fufterings, 
and preparing for his coming again, and for our change and entrance in- 
to our Mailers joy. 

$. 5. Chrift fummed uptheEflcntials of Chriftianity in thcBaptifmal 
Covenant, in which we give up our felves in Faith, Hope, and confenting 
Love, to God the Father, Son, and Holy Gholl, our Creator, Redeem- 
er, and Sandifier, and in which God receiveth us in the Correlations as 
his own. And all that are truly thus baptized are Chriftened, and arc to 
be efteemcd and loved as Chriftians, and to be received into Chriflian 
Communion in allChriftian Churches where they come, until by apoftafie 
orin-^enitency in certain difobediencc to the Laws of Chrift, in points ne- 
ceQary to Chriftian Communion, they forfeit that priviledge. Nor are 
men to deprive them of the great benefit thus given them by Chrift, on 
pretence of anynvf or holimfs^ or power, to amend Chrifts terms, and 
make the Church Doors narrower, or tic men tothemfelves for worldly 
ends. Yet muft the Paftors flill difference the weaker Chriftians from the 
flronger, and labour to edifie the weak, but not to call them out of the 

$.6. Thefacred Miniflry is fubordinate to Chrift in his Teaching, Go. 
verning^ and Pricflly OlRce, and thus ellentiated by Chrifts own inflicudon, 
which man hath no power to change: Therefore under Chrift th;y muft 
teach the Church by facredDoclrine, guide them by that and facred Di- 
fcipline, called The power of the Keys ( that is of judging who is fit to 
enter by Baptifm, to continue, to partake of the Commun'on, to be fu- 
fpsnded or caftout^ and to lead them in the publick Worfliip of God, in- 
terceding in Prayer and fpeaking for them, and adminiilring tothcm the 
Sacraments or holy Seals of the Covenant of God. 

$. 7. The firft part of the Miniftcrs Office is about the unbelieving vorlJ^ 
to convert them to the Faith of Chrift; and the fccond pcrfedive part a- 
bout the Churches. Nor muft it be thought that the firft is done by them 
as meet private men. 

$. 8. As Satan fell by pride, and overthrew man by tempting him to 
pride {ta become as Gods in Knowledge) Co Chrift himfelf '.vas to conquer 
tile Prince of pride by humility, and by the Crofs, by a life ot fnftri/ig ; con- 
temped by the blind and obftinate world, making bimfelf of 1:0 rcput.jion, 
defpifmg the piame of luffering as a Malefaftor (a. Traitor and Blafpi-cm. r:) 
And thcbe^iring of the Crofs was a principal part of his Precepts and Cove- 
nant to his bifciples, without which they could not be his Foi!o vers. 
And by Humility they were to follow the Captain of their S^lvaticn, in 
conquering the Prince of pride, aad in treading down the Enemie-world, 

B 2 ^ eve.) 

Church- Hi jiory ofBiJhops and 


cvtn the lu/} cf theflejh^ the//*,? of the eyes ^ and pride of Hfey which Are mt 
ef the Father but of the world. 

$.9. Accordingly Chrift taught his chief Difciples, that if they were 
not lb cchverted as to become as little children, they could not enter into the 
Kingdom of Heave7i~, Afatth. 18. 3, His School receiveth not mall erly Di' 
fciples, but humble teachable Learners, that become fools that they may 
be wfe. 

And when they wcredifpnting and fecking which of them Jlwuld be great- 
ejl, he carnellly rebuked all fuch thoughts, fetting a Utile child before 
them, telling them that the Princes of the Earth exercife authority^ and arc 
called BcKcfa^ors (or by big Names) but with them it fliould not be fo \ 
but he that would be the greatefi mujl he fervant of all, LhI^ 11. (hewing 
them that it was not a worldly grandeur, nor forcing power by theSivord 
(which belongcth to Civil Magiltrates) which was to beexercifcd by the 
Pallors of the Church: But that he that would be theChiefcft, mull be 
moft excellent in Merit, and mofi: ferviceable to all, and get his honour 
and do his work by meriting the refpcd and love of Volunteers. The 
Sword is the Ai.jgijlratei^ who crc alfoChrilts Minifters^ (for all Power 
is given him, and he is Head over all things to the ChurchJ But they are 
emmently the Minifters of his Power ', but the Pajlors and Teachers are moft 
eminently Minillers of his Paternal and faving love and wifdam. And by 
wifdom and love to do their work. The Word preachtd and applied gene- 
rally and particularly fby the Keys) is their Weapon or Arms, and not 
the Sword. 

The Bol>emians therefore knew what tlicy faid, when they Teemed dam- 
nable Hereticks to the worldly Clsrgie that deftro^'cd them, when they 
placed their Caufe in thele four Articles: i. To h.ive the whole Sacra- 
mcnt, Eread andWitie. 2. To have free leave for true A'fintflers to preach the 
word oj God Cwichout unjult filencing of proud worldly men that cannot 
fland before the truih.^ 3. To have Temporal Dom-niai (or Government 
by the Sword, and power over mens Bodies and Ellates) taken from tht 
Ciergie. 4. To have grcfs fn ftipprejfed by the imfitl Magiflrate by ike 

$. 10. Had icbecnncccfiary tothe Churches Union againft Scbifw or He- 
rp/7(r for ChriRians toknow- that Peter or lb ma one of his Apoftlcs mult 
be his Vicar-General, and Head of his Church to whom all mult obey, 
who can believe that Chrift would not only have fllenced fo necefTarya 
point, but alfoata timewhenhcwasdeflred orcalledto decide it, have 
only fpoken fo much agalnft it, to take down all fuch Expeiftations. Yea 
we never read that Peter cxercifed any Authority or Jurifdidions over any 
other of the Apoftlcs, nor more than other Apoftles did", much Icfs 
that ever he chofe a Bifhoptobe Lord of the Church, as his Succeflbr. 
Nay he himfclf fcemeth to fore-fee this mifchief, and therefore faith, 
\'Pet. 5. 1,2, 1.. The Elders which are among you I exhort^ whoamatfo an El~ 
tier and a. Witnefs of the Sujferings of Chr'Ji, and alfa a Partaker of the 


their Coimcils ahridyecl. 

Glory that jhall be revealed- (Thefe are his Dignities-) Feed the Fiock^of 
Cod which is among yoh^ (not out of your reach and hearing in a vaft Dio- 
cefs) taking the overfwht^ mt by conJIrMtit^ hut veillingly (,and on willing 
mcn^ not for ficby lucre, but of a ready wind:, neither as being Lords over 
Cods Heritage^ but being Examples to the Flockj, and when the chief Shepherd 
JJiall appear^ ye fliall receive a Crown of Clory that fudeth not away. 

§. ii. Nothing is more certain than that the Church for above 300 years 
had no power of the Sword, that is, forcibly to meddle with and hart 
mens Bodies or Eflatcs, ("except what the Apoftles had by miracle j : And 
to this day no Proteftants, and not moft Papifis claim any fuch Power as of 
Divine Inftitution, but only plead that the Secular Powers arc bound by 
the Sword to deltroy fuch as arc judged Hereticks by the Bifhops, and to 
punifhfuchas contemn the cenfures of the Church. 

§. 12. He that would fee more for the Power of Princes vindicated 
from the Clergies Claim and Ufurpation, may find much in many old Trea- 
tifes, written for the Emperours againll the Pope, collccled by Colda(lm 
de Monarch, ^nd inWill. Barclay^ but much better in Bilhop Bilfon,oi Obe- 
dierce^ and in Bilhop Jndrew\ Tortiir.i Torti, and in Bilhop Buckridg/: 
Rojfenfiso^ the Power of Kings, and much in Spalutenfs dc Rcpub. 

§. 13. The Vniverfality of Chrijlians is the Catholick^Omch, of which 
Chrillis the only Head or Soveraign :, but it is the duty of tl.efe to worfliip 
Godinfolemn Aflembiies, and to live in a holy Convcrfation together ^ 
andto join inftriving againft fin, and to help each other in the way to 
life ; therefore Societies united for thefe ends are called , Particular 

§. 14. When the Apoftles had converted a competent number of Chrl- 
ftians, they gathered them into fuch Aflembiics, and as a Politick Society, 
fet over them fuch Miniftersof Chrift, as are afore dcfcribed, to be their 

§. 15. Thefe Officers are in Scripture c.illcd fomctime Elders, and 
fomctimcs Bi(1>ops, towhcm Deacons were added to ferve them and the 
Church fiibordinattly. Dr. Hammond hath well dcfcribed their Oificc ia 
in hh Annotat. which was fo preach conjlantly inpublickj, and private, to ad' 
minijler both Sacraments, to pray and praifc God with the Pe-ople, toCaiechiz^Cy 
to vijtt and pray with the fiik^., to comfort troubled Souls, to admomfl) the unruly, 
t0 rejeH the impenitent, torcjiore the penitent^ to take care of the poor, and in a 
word, of all the Flock. 

§. 16. The Apoltles fet mually more than one of thefe Elders or Bifhops 
in every Church, not as if one might not rule the Flock where no more 
was necelTsry, but according to their needs, that the work might not be un- 
done for want of Minifterj. 

§. 17. They planted their Churches ufually in Cities, btxaufe Chriftians 
comparatively to the reft were few (as Seds are among us) and no where 
elfe ufually enough for a Society, and bccaule the Neighbour-fcattercd^ 
Villages might beft come to the Cities near them •, not but that it was- 


Church-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

lawful to plant Churches in the Country, where there were enough to 
conftitutc them,and fometimes they did fo, as by Clement Romxn. ud Corinth. 
byHiftory appeareth. 

§ \%.Grotiui thinketh that one City at firlt had divers Churches and Bi- 
fhops and that they were gathered after the manner of theSynagogues ^ and 
'Dv. Hrmrngtid thinketh that for foinc time there were two Churches and 
Bifliops in many Cities, one of Jews and one of Gentiles; and that in 
Rome Pan! and Peter had two Churches, whom Litms and Cletns did fuc- 
ceed, til! they were united in C/f/«c»;. 

$. 19. There is great evidence of Hiftory that a particular Church of 
the Apoitles fetling was eilcntiilly only C"' a Company of Chriftians, Pa- 
■"■ ftors and People a Hoc i ate d for pcrfonal holy eommunion and mutual help 
''in holy Do-lrinc, Worfliip, Converfation, and Order.] 

Therefore it never confilltd of lo few or fo many, or fo diltant as to be 
uncapal'Ie of fuch perfo^al help atid Communion : But was ever diflinguifh- 
cd as from accidental Meetings, fo from the Communion of many Chur- 
ches or diftant Chriftians, which was held but by Delegates, Synods of 
Pallors or Letters, and not by pcrfonal help, in prefen c. 

Not that all thcfe mult needs always meet in the fame place : but that 
ufually they did fo, oratdue times at Icaft, and were no more nor more 
diltant than could fo meet: Sometimes Perfecution hindred them; fora- 
times the Room might be too fniall : Even Independent Churches among 
us fometimes meet in divers places : and one Parifli hath divers Chappels 
for the aged and weak that are unfit for travel. 

§. 20. Scotus began the opinion (as Davenport^ Fr. a Santa Clara inti- 
mateth"! and Dicn Petavins improved it, and Dr. Hammond hath largely 
afTcrted it, that thi Apoftles at firft planted a fingle Biihop in each 
Church, with one or more Deacons, and that he had power in time to 
ordain Elders of a different Oider, Species, or Office, and that the word 
Elder and Blfhop and Pallor in Scripture never fignifie thefe fubjcft El- 
ders, but the Bifhops only, and, faith he, there is no evidence that there 
were any of the fubj.ft fort of Presbyters in Scripture-times : Which 
concefilon is very kindly accepted by the Presbyterians; but they call for 
proof that ever thefe Bifnops were authorifed to make a new Species of 
Presbyters which were never made in Scripture-times? and . indeed 
they vehemently deny it, and may well defpair of fuch a proof 

§. 21. But for mvpart I believe the foundation unproved (thJtthen 
there was but one Elder in a Church) and think many Texts of Scrip, 
ture fully prove the contrary. But I join with Dr. Hammond in believ- 
ing that in Scripture-times there was no particular Church that had more 
ftated meetings for publick Communion than one: For if there was fo 
long but one L-lder, there could be but one fuch Aflembly at once; for 
they had no fuch Affemhlies which were not guided by a Presbyter or Bi- 
fhop, in Doftrine, Worfliip, Sacraments and Difcipline: And they ufcd 
to have the Eucharifb every Lords day at Icalt, and often much more And 
one man can be at once but in one place. J. 22. 

their Councils abridged. 

§.22. I have elfewhere fully proved, that the ancient Churchesthat 
bad Bifliops were no bigger than our Pariflies (and few a quarter fobig 
as the greateft of them) andconfiftedof no more than might havefuch 
prefent perfonal Communion as is before defcribcd i the proofs are too 
large to be here recited. j^n«f«»j is the plainefl:, who faith^ that this was 
the note of a Churches Unity, that [To every Church there was one Altar ^ 
and one Bijlwp^ veith his Fellow Prefbyters and Deacons .] And elfewhere 
chargeth the Bilhop to take account of his Flock whether they all come to 
Church, even Servant-men and Maids. 

Clemens Romanus before him intimateth the like, mentioning even Coun- 
try Bilhops. 

Jiiflin Martyrh Dcfcription of the Chriflian Aflemblies plainly proveth 

IcrthlHan's Defcription of them and many other paiTagcs in him prove 
it more fully. Heprofefllth that they took not the Lord's Supper fave 
only from the hand ef the Bifltej (^Aitijiitis manu) whocould give it but tO 
one AITembly at once. 

Many Canons alfo folly fliew it (elfewhere cited j fomc appoint all the 
people to joyn with the Bilhop on the great Feftivals of the year, even a- 
bove 500 years after Chrift. 

TheCultomalfo of choofingBilhopsfheweth it, where all the people 
metand chofe him : Yea in Cyfrian% time the Exercife of Difciplinc prov- 
eth it, when even in fuch great Churches as Cartk^ge it was done in the 
pretence of the people, and with their confcnt. 

§• 23- The only Churches in the World, that for about 200 years af- 
ter Chrift, if not more, had more than one ordinary Allbmbly, for 
Church-Communion, though but like our Parilh Chappels, were ^owf and 
Alexandria, as far as I can learn in any Hiftory : For that at JerKfAlcm for 
all the numbers had no more dated Members than oft met in one place 
Texceptingoccafional abfentsj. And I find no rcafon to believe that ever 
thefe two (the chief Cities of the Empire,) had folong more than fome 
iw^ow Parilhes (which have aboveflNtythoufard fouls as is fuppofed^ no 
nornear (if half J foniany. And becaufc elfewhere I have only except- 
ed thefe two Cities, I will yet add fomevvhat to Ihew, that even there the 
cale was not as many now imagine, 

$. 24. Cornelius in an Epillle to F^bins of Antiocb fin Eufcb. Hift. I. (J- 
€.^'i. alias 42J faith that ''in the Church of Rome were 46 Presbyters, 
*' 7 Deacons, and of other Officers 94. that is, 42 Acolitcs, 52 Exor- 
*' cifts and Readers, with Porters, Widows, and impotent perfons 3- 
'*bove 1050 fouls, who are all relieved by the grace and goodnefs of 
*' Almighty God, &c.'2 This is the chief teftimony in the third Age to 
prove that this one Church had more than could either meet in one place, 
or hold perfonal Communion. 

§.25. But let it be confidered, 1. That partly for the honour of quali- 
fied perlbns, and partly that all the Church might in feafon have the help 


8 Chwch-Hiflory of Bijhops ami 

of ?.ll mens gifts, they were fo far in the ancient Churches from having 
lb few as Dr. Hanwiond and Petavius imagine, that they multiplied Offi- 
cers, and digniiied, and fo employed a great part of the Church that 
hsdufeful gifts: hifcmuch that a moft credible Witnefs fliortly after, 
even Greaoyy Nuzjan^en, faith, Orat. i. Pa^. 45. that by the intrufion 
of men for dignity and maintenance, "T/;<r Church-RuUrs were almoji 
more than the SitbjeUs. The words are 'HySrhtv Cmf .^ a^^av. Sec. Of 
•' otkeis J am ajhawcd^ who wboi tbiy arc r,o better than others, {and 
*■'■ J wi(l) they were >iot much worfe) thr lift thcmf elves upon the tnoft holy Aty- 
*"' fteries, as we fay^ with itnrvapeti hands and frophane minds, and before 
" they are worthy to ajproach to holy things > ambitioiijly enter the Fejiry it 
V fclf Cor Chancell j and prefs and thriift themfihes about the holy T.ible, 
" as tf they jud/red this Order not to bean example of Virtue y but an occafon 
* ' and help of getting maintenance, and not to be an Office lyable to give Account ^ 
' ' but a Command in which they may be jrce from Cenfure : Who being mifera- 
PJ3 " ble (cr pitiful peribnsj as to Piety, and unhappy as to Splendour, thzt is, 
'"■low in the World and Parts) do now in number almoft exceed thofe whom 
" they are over ("or are to govern). LThis would make one fufped that 
**• there were then many Ruling Elders that preachM not ; but it's plain 
*■' they had an Office about the Sacraments] Therefore this Evil incrcafmg 
*"' and gcttinq^ ftrength with time^ it fecms to me that they will have none under 
*' them to rule, (or guidej but that all will turn Teachers and will Prophe/ie, in- 
*'y7f.t^ (as waspromifedby God) ofbelngall taught of God: Sothatofold 
•' the Hijlory and Parable faid, Saul alfo is among the Prophets. For there 
^'■neither now i^ tior ever W'ls fo great plenty of any other thing as there is now 
*'■ of thefe frequent Shames and Criminals'-, for ether things, as they have their 
'■^fiourif ling time., have alfo their decay. And though to reprefs their impetu- 
'■' oitfnefs he a work^ahove tny ftrength., yet certainly to hate it and be aftiamedis 
" not the le Aft part of Piety- 

Judge by this, what numbers of Officers or Clergy- men then the Church 

§.26. Next for the Poor^ confider their proportions in and by other 
Churches-, Chryfoft- in Matth. Edit Savil. p. 421. fuppofeth the Poor of 
the Church of Antioch .'whence he came j to have been about the tenth part 
and dividing the City into three Ranks, he accounts a tenth part rich, 
and a tenth part poor, and the reft of a middle Eftate between both. 
Now in Chryfcftom^s time the Church was fo high, being owned by the 
greateft Emperours as we may well fuppofe almoft all or moft of the rich 
came in: Whereas at Rome in the time of Cornelius it being under re- 
proach and cruel perfecution, we may well conclude, that moft of the 
rich ftood out, and thty might fay with PW, not many Great, not ma- 
ny Noble are called :, few rich men comparatively receiving the Gofpel, 
it's moftlikcly that the poor were then far more than a tenth part, if not 
the greater part of the Church. But fuppofe them a t. nth part, which is 
DOt probable, the whole Church of Rome then would be but 10500 Souls, 


their Councils abridged. 

which is about the fifth part or fixth as big as Martins Fariili, and about 
a quarter as big as Steamy Parilh, and about a third or fourth part as big 
as Giles Cripplegate Parilh, and not half fo big as Giles in the Fields and o- 
ther Parifhes. Moreover Chryjojlome^ Hom. ii.in -/4<^. /). 674. computes 
the poor at Conflantimplt to be about half as many as all the other Chrifti- 
ans, and this in the moft flouridiing Gity and Age . And by this meafure 
they would yet fall further fliort. 

It may be you will fay, that thefe were not the pooreft of all that were 
kept by the Church : But it's known that ever v.wce. the times of extraordi- 
nary Community, the Churches relieved all the needy according to the 
leveral degrees of their wants ■, and thefe were fuch as were in want, 
though not equally, and they are fuch poor as v/erc diftinguiflied not only 
from the Rich, but alfo from the middle fort •, and fuch as the Church took 
care to relieve. 

§. 27. And as for j^lcxandria, the grcatelt City of the Empire next 
Rome fas Jcfephus faith, de bello J lid. i 5. r . ult. it is certain that in the third 
Century the Chriftians had more Meeting Places for Divine Worlhip 
than one, and in the fourth Century had many. Epiphanius namcth 
divers, Hxref. 6g.p. jzS. ylnus having one wherein he preached, had that 
advantage to propogate his Hcrefie. But all know that the building of 
Temples began after Emperours were Chr illians, and the fair Churches 
which, Eiifehiits faith, they had in DiocUftAns time (till he deftroyed them j 
were but like our Tabernacles or private Churches, and grew to Number 
and Ornament but a little before, as Ei<fchins intimatcth. It was a good 
while before there were two Churches, even in Cor.flaminople. Indeed, it 
is noted, as a (Ingularity, that they had two Churches : But they miftakc, 
that apply that to two Mcetinj^ Places, which is fpokenoftwo Societies, 
becaufe iu Meletiiis time they had ^vo Bifliops. 

§. 28. But yet let us fee how big the Chriltian Church was in this great 
City, even when it had many Chapels •, even in Athatiafms time, in the 
fourth Century, Tow. i . Ed. Commel. p. 5 j i . in his Apology to Cenfiant. you 
may find (in words too large tobeall tranfcribed) that he being accufcd 
for aflcmbling the People in the Great Church, maketh this part of his 
Defence, C *■ The confiiience of the Petplc at the Falter Solemnity was fo great., 
' that if they had met in feveral Jjfcmil,es (or by parties>/jf ether Chwches wert 
*fo narrow cr /null that they wculd have been in danger offufferin^ by the Crowd', 

* f7or would the tinivcrfal Harmony and Concord of the People have been fo vifble 

* and cff.c.icious if they had met in Parcels •, Therefore he concliideth it better for 

* the whole Multitude to meet in that^^reai Chitrcb., hc'wg a place large enough 

* to receive them altogcthcr)^»i:/ to have a concurrence of the People all with CKt 

* I'^oice (la Symphony : ) For'if according to Chrift\<prontife where two fljall agree 

* ofai.y thing it Jliallbe dene for them — how prcv.dent will be the One-voice offo 
' numerous a People njfembled together., and faying., Amen, to God ? Who therefore 
' would net admire { Who would not count it a hafpinefs to fee fo greaPa People 
''/net together in one placed And how did the People re Joyce to fee one another y 

' wlxr 


I o Churcb'Hiftory of Bijhops and 

*■ whereas formerly they ajfembled infevcralflaces.'} Thus phinly ulthanajius^ 
1 do not hence gather that every Man, Woman, and Child was prefent : 
In our Parilh Churches that hold the AlTembly, fome are there, and ufually 
fome ftay at home and come by turns ; But it feemeth hence plain that even 
in jilexmidria. the Chriftians were no more than that the main Body of 
them at great Solemnities could meet and hear in one Affembly. Which 
in many of our Pariflies they cannot do. 

§. 29. Add to this, that >^f/j<j»<«/7«j tells them that his Predeccflbr Mex. 
ancler did as much as he had done, on fuch occafions aflembling their whole 
Multitude in one Church before it was dedicated, ^a^. 5 j2. 

§. 30. I add a further Argument from the City it Jelf, as offered me alfo 
while I was writing this, by a learned Friend in his own Words. 

This City JV.t/, hy Strabo'j etefcription of it, Itke a SoitUiers Coat^whofe length 
tit either fide was almojl thirty furlongs, its breadth at either end feven or eight 
Furlongs f Geogr. li. 17. p. 5 ^6. So the whole compafs will be lefs than ten Miles. 
A third or fourth part of this was tal^n up with piibltck^Buildings^ Temples, and 
Royal Pal.icej, ibid. Thus is two miles and a half^ or three and a quarter taken 
up. I taks this to be that Region of the Ciiy which Epiphanius calls fp»^«» 
(where he tells us was the famous Library c/Ptolomy Philadelphus) andfpeaks. 
of it in his time as defiitiite of Inhabitants, de ponder. & nievfifr. n. 9. p. 166. 
ji great part of the City was ajfignedio the Jews. So Strabo indefinitely, as Jo- 
fephUS ejuotes him, Antiqu. jud. 1. 14. c. 12. Others tell tis more punEluaHy 
that their JJiare was two of the five Divifions (Vfiiers Annals Lat. p. 859.^- 
Though many of them had their h.ibitations in the other Divifions^ yet they had 
two fifth parts intire to themfehes : And this is I fuppofe the ti'otj iJ'iot which 
Jofcphusp/f/; the Succejfoiirs p/ Alexander fet apart for /fcfw, Bell. ]ud. 1. 2. 
c. 2. 1. Thus we fee how fix or feven nnles of the ten are d'fpofed cf. The great efi 
part of the Citizens {as at Rome and other Cities) in the beginning of the fourth;. 
Age were Heathens. Elfe Antonius had wronged their City, who tn Athanafius 
time is brought in thus, f.vclaiming by Jerome, nt. Paul. p. 24 5. Ci vitas me- 
rctrix in quam totius orbis Dciemonia confluxere, &c. A charge thus form- 
ed fnpppfith the prevailing Party to be gi'-Hty. But let us fuppofe them equal 
and their proportion half cf the five or four miles remaining. Let the refl be di- 
vided between the Orthodox^ and the Arians, and tiovstisus^ and other fortt» 
And if we bejufr-, a large part will fall to the fl)are of Hcreticks and SeB.iries. 
Eor (net to mention others ) the Novatians hadfeveral Churches and a Bifliop 
thire, till Cyrils time, Vjd. Socrat. Hilt. 1. 7. c. 7. The Arians were a greai 
p.rrt of thofe that profeffed Chriflianity, Sozoni. Hifl:. li. l.C. 14. And if we 
may jitdg of the Followers by the Leaders, 710 lefs than half : For whereas there 
were nineteen Presbyters and Deacons in that Church fTheodor. Hift. li. 4. 
C- 20.^ (Twelve was the number of their Presbyters by their ancient Conflitit- 
tion, and feven of their Der.cons as appears by Eni'^cWm'iyhere and at Rome, and 
tlfewhere ) fix Presbyters with Arius, and five Deacons fell off from the Catholicksy. 
Sozom-Hilt. li. i.e. 14, But let the Arians be- much fewer., yet will not the 
prcfpertim ofthi CAthelitk, Bijhops part in this Citj be more than that of a fmali' 


their Councils abridged. 1 1 

Town, one cf eight or twelve Furlongs in cempafs. Ar.dfo the number of Chri. 
Jlians on this account, will be no >nore than might well meet for IVorJhip in one 

If the Reader will perufe Epiphanius Hiftory of the Fraclion between 
Alexander and the Followers of Meletius in Alexaridria^ how Alexander 
was impatient with their leparate Meetings, when Alelcttus was dead 
^though till then two Bilhops and Churches lived quietly in one City) bc- 
caufe they came not to his Church i with the reft of the ftory, he will 
eafily fee what a Church was then e\cn in Alexandria. 

Thus you fee the difference of a juft computation, and the halty ac- 
counts of men, that judg of Places and Pcrfons as they are in their milled 
imaginations, and not as they were indeed and truth. I\lr. Dcdwell in a Let- 
ter to mc layeth fo much on the number of the Officers and Poor before 
mentioned^ as if it proved undoubtedly a Dioccfane Church, when the con- 
clufion arifeth from an erroneous comparing their Cities and times with 
ours, and their Presbyters with our Parilh-Prieftsand Curats. 

And when all's done a grand Patriarchal Church is not the meafure of 
a Diocefanc, or of every Bifliops Church : their Presbyters had other 
work than our Curates have : They met in the fame Aflembly with the 
Bifliop, and fate in a Semicircle on each lldehim, and were as a Collcdge 
ofGovernours to rule one Church, and that only by the Word ^appiycd 
by the Keys) and not by the Sword, till C)r»/ hrll ufurpcd it, for which 
by Hiftorians he is noted. If our times tempt you to marvel how fo many 
Officers or Clerks were maintained by fo few People, Church- Hiltory 
affbrdeth you matter enough to rcfolve your doubt. ' 

f. ji. But if thefe two great Cities had indeed had yet more Altars and 
Churches, Orbis major ej} Vrbe., faith Htercme : Twofinguiar Cities may 
rot over-weigh the contrary cafe of all the Churches.- If any other had 
been like them it would have been y?/rf/of/nhe third Patriarchate, when • 
as in Ignatius tirae, as is aforefaid , the Churches unity there and elfe. 
where was notified * by Di' ^V7ia<rfciw ^ "^ inr7ncTc<, One Altar (or Altar- * That «"" 
place) and One Bijhop with his Presbyters and Deacons."^ ^"'"l ^*'^ 

And hence came it to be the note of a Schiiin, to fet up Altare contra '^'^'"^.l . 
^//4>r becaufe one Bilhop andCiiurch had but one Altar. Mr. Mede(no dewhere 
injudicious nor Fadious man J faw this, and aliertcth it from the plain f-ovca. 

words of Ignatius. gu'wfi rbeix 

§. 52. How the cafe came to be altered it is eafie to know : Eutwhe- ^'■'" M '' 
tbcr it was well or ill done, is all the controverfie, or the chief. 'cm:«m7- 

I confefs there want not fome that think that the Apoftles had their fc- catmg bo- 
veral afligned Provinces, and that they left them to twelve Succeflburs, and <^_y edhear- 
this is the foundation of Patriarchal or Provincial Churches, with fuch un- '"^'" ""* 
proved Dreams : i. We doubt not but that the Apoftles wifely di- ^'-i^"^' 
ftributed their Labours : But we believe not that they divided the 
Countreys into their fcveral Diocefes, or Provinces: nor that two of 
thcmCf.^ John zi\f\ Fault Peter and Paul^ James and Other ApoRlcs) might 


Churcb-Hiftory of Bifhops and 

not and did not do the work of an Apoltle in the fame Country and City. 
Much lefs do we believe that oneof thcra {e.g. James ^t "^erufalem, whe- 
ther an Apoflle or not 1 contend not) was a Bifhop over the Apoftles 
when they refided there. 

2. Nor do we believe that they left any fuch divided Provinces to their 
Succeflbrs: If they had, it's ftrange that we had not twelve or thirteen 
Patriarchal or Provincial Churches hence noted. Which were they, and 
how came they fo foon to be forgotten and unknown ? And why had we 
Rrft but three Patriarchs, andone of thofe ('^/f.v.jw^f*-*) accounting from 
no Apoftle, but from S. Miri^, and the other two reckoning from one and 
the fame Apoftle, fave that Rome reckoned from two at once, Peter and 
Paul^ when as one City muft (fay they) have but one Bifhop ? 

$. s5. The cafe is known:, that, i. When Chriftians fo multiplyed, 
that one Allen^bly would not ferve, but they became enough for many, 
the BiiTiopsgreatnefsand wealth increa(^ng with the People, rhey conti- 
nued thtm all under their own Government, andfo took them all to be 
their Chapels, fethng divers Altars but not divers Bifhops in one Church. 
2. And herewith their work alfo, by degrees, was much changed ^ and 
they that at firft were moft employed in Guiding the whole Church in 
Gods publick worfhip, and exercifed prefent difcipline before them, 
and were the fole ufual Preachers to them all, ( the reft of the Elders 
Preaching but when the Bidiop could not, or bid them,) didafter become 
diftant Judges, and their Government, by degrees, degenerated to a fi- 
militude of Civil Magiftracy. 3. And then they fetupthe old exploded 
queftion"^ which of them flaould be the chief or greateft : And then 
tney that had the greateft Cities being the richeft and greateft Bifhops 
in intereft, becaufe of the greatnefs and riches of their Flocks, they got 
the Church Government to be diftributed, much like the Roman Civil Go- 
vernment within that Empire ; And where the Civil Magiftrate had moft 
and largeft command, they gave the Ecclefiaftical Bifhop the like .• And 
fo they fet up the Bifhops of the three chief Cities as Patriarchs, Rome 
being the firft, becaufe it was the great Imptrial Seat, as the Chalcedon 
Council giveth the true reafon. Afterwards Conflantinople and Jemfalem 
being added, they turned themintofive: And Carthage^nd. other places, 
not called Patriarchal Seats, had exempt peculiar Jurifdidions with a 
power near to Patriarchs. And the reft of the Bifhops ftrove much for 
precedency, and got as large Territories as they could, and as numerous 
Flocks and many Parifhes, though ftill the name ParcecU was ufed for 
the whole Epifcopal Church when it was turned into aDioceft. 

§. 34. 1 conceive that this Change of One Altar into a Dlocefane 
Church of many Altars and PariJJies was not well done, but is the thing 
that hath confounded the Chrlftian World, and that they ought to have 
increnfed the number of Churches as the number of Chriftians did increafe, 
as the Bees fwarminto another Hive. My Reafons are, i. Chrift and 
the Holy Ghoft in the Apoftles having fctled a Church Species ^nd Order 


their Councils abridged. 1 3 

Hike that'of the Synagogues, and noc like that of ihe Temp. cj no man 
ciighc to have changed that Form : Becaufcthcy can prove no power to 
do if. and becaufc it accufeth the Inftitution of Chrift and the Holy 
Ghofb ef infuffieicnc7 or errour, which rauft fo fcon be altered by them. 
PerfeOlive addition, as an Infastgroweth up to Manhood, we deny not. 
But who gave them power to abrogate the very Specus of the firft Infti 
tutcd Churches ? That the Species is altered, is certainly proved by the 
different ufes and Termini of the Relation. For a Church of thcfirll In- 
ftitution was a Society joyned for ferfonA Communion in DoElrinc, iy*rpip, 
«nd holy living: Bot a Diocefs confifting of many fcore or hundred Pa- 
rifhes that never fee or know or come near one another, are uncapable 
of any fuch prefent perfonal Communion, and have none but Mental, 
and by Officers or Delegates. 

2. By this means, all the Paridi-Churches being turned into Chapeli 
and un-Churched, are all robbed of their Right •, Iccing each one ought: to 
have a Bifhop and Presbyters,and the benefit of that Ollicc and Ordcr,which 
is now denied them, and many hundred fuchParilhcs turned into Chapels 
have no Bifhop to themfelves but one among them all to the Diocefs. 

3. Becaufe by this means true Difcipline is become impotfible and un- 
praclicable •, by the dillance and multitude of the people, and the diftance 
and paucity of Bilhops.- What Chrifb commandeth , Mm. 18. being as 
impoffible to be done in many hundred Pariflies, by one Bilhop and his 
Conliftory, as the Difcipline of fo many hundred Schools by one School- 
maftcr fthough each School have an Ullierj or the care of many hundred 
Hofpitals by one Phyfician, perhaps at twenty, or forty, or eighty, or an 
hundred miles diftance. 

4. Becaufe it altcreth the antient OlTicc of a Bifhop and of a Presbyter, 
arid fetteth new ones in the ftead : As a Bifliop was the Bifhop of one 
Cluirch, fa a Presbyter was his Alliftant, EjufdemOrdwis^ in the Govern, 
tnent of theChurch^ who now is turned into ameer Ulher, or Werjhpping. 
Teacher, or Chaplain. 

5. Becaufe it certainly divideth the Churches : For Chriftians would 
unite in a Divine Inftitution, and the exercife of trnc Difcipline , that will 
never unite in a humane Policy which abrogateth the Divine, and certainly 
deftroyeth commanded nccelfary Difcipline. 

§. 55. The very work alio of the Bifhop, and fo the OIHce came thus 
tobechanged .• Chrift having appointed no other Church Governours (be- 
fides Magiflrates^ but fuch ("as Philolbphers in their Schools^ who were 
appointed to fet up Holy Societies for Divine Doclrine , Worlhip, and 
Holy Living, and to Guide them accordingly, by Teaching, vVor.Cliip, and 
Government by the Word, forbidding them the Sword or Force, they arc 
faid \.o\\i'vzt\\t Keys of :lie Church and the Kingdom «f Heaven, bccauf: as 
Grace is Glory in the feed,the Church is Heaven in the ieed,and the Paftors 
were the Adminiftrators of Sacraments and Charch-priviledges, and there- 
fore the J'jdi^es who were lie for them , who (hould be Baptized, who 


1 4 Church- Hiftory of Bijhops and 

fliould Communicate, and in what rank, and whofhouldbe denied thefe, 
admoniflicd or e.xcluded, and who fliould, as far as belongeth to others, 
be judged meet or unmeet for Heaven.- And fo the Chnltian Societies 
were to be kept clean, and not to belike the polluted World of Infidds. 
And the Pallors had no other power to ufc •, but were to judge only thofe 
within, and leave them without to Gods own judgment, and to the Magi- 
ftrate, who was not to pnnilh any one for not being in or of the Church, or 
for departing from it, which is a grievous punifliment itfelf. 

But Magi Itrates being then Heathens, the Chriftians were hard put to 
it for the decifion of their quarrels: For the lore of the world and felfiOi- 
nefs were but imperfeftly cured in them. They went to Law before 
Heathen Judges with each other-, and this became a fnare andafcandal 
to them. S. ?<»«/ therefore chideth them for notendingdiffercncesby Chri- 
Itian Arbitrators among thciniclves, as if there were none among them wife 
enough to Arbitrate. Hereupon the Churches taking none to be wifer or 
truftierthan their Pallors, made them their Arbitrators, and it became a 
cenfurable fcandal forany toaccufe aChurch-member toaMagiftrate, and 
to have Suits at Law. By this means, the Bifliop becoming a Siatt-d Arbi- 
trator, thereby became the Governour of the Chriftians, bit with his Prefl 
byters and not alone. But becaufe Bifhops had no power of the fword, 
to touch mens bodies or eltates, but ouly to fufpend them frum Church- 
Communion, and Excommunicate them, orimpofe penitential (onfelTions 
on them, therefore they fitted their Canons (which were the Bilhops A- 
grecments) to this Governing ufe, to keep Chriftians under their Go- 
vernment from the Magiftrates. And f b they made Canons, that a Forni- 
cator or Adulterer fliould be fo lon^ or fo long fufpended, and a Mur- 
derer fo long, andfo of the reft. 

§. 36. And when Co«//.wn«<r turned Chriftian, he had many reafons to 
confirm this Arbitrating Canonical power to the Chriftian Bilhops by the 
Civil Sandion. i. Becaufe he foundthemin pofleflion of it as contracft- 
ers by mutual confent -, and what could a Chriftian Prince do lefs than grant 
that to the Chriftians which they chofe and had. z. Becaufe the advance- 
ment and honour of the Teachers and Paftors he thought tended to the 
honour of their Religion, and the fuccefs of their Doftrine upon the Hea- 
thens with whom they dwelled. Grandure and Power much prevail with 
carnal minds. 3. Becaufe he had but few Magiftrates at firfl that were 
Chriftians, and none that fo well knew the aftairs of Chriftians as their 
own chofen Bifnops. And he feared left the power of Heathen Magi- 
ftrates over the Chriftians might injure and opprefs them. 4. He defign- 
ed to draw the Heathens to Chriftianity by the honouring of Chriftians 
above them. 5. And withal his intcreft lay moft in their ftrength^ For 
they werethe fafteft part of hisSouIdiersand Subjeds, that for Confci- 
ence and their own Intcreft, rcjoyced to advance and defend him to the 
utmoft, fwlien he loft many of the Pagans) and they v/cre not of the fpirit 
of the old Pretorian Souldiers, that fet up and pulled down Empcrours 


their Councih abridged. I 5 

at their pleafure. Had Conflantine fain, the Chriftians had much faJn witli 
him, and had the Chriftians been weakned he had been weakened: They 
were become his ftrength. And heforefaw not the evils that afterwards 
would follow. Some muft govern,and there were then no wifer nor better mea 
than the Bifhops and Paftors of the Churches. And their intereft in the 
Chriftian people (that chofe them) was greatelt : As now all differing par- 
ties of Chriftians among us CPapifbs, Presbyterians, Independents, Ana- 
baptiftsj would defire nothing as more conducing to their ends, thantliat 
the King would put the greateft Power fefpecially of Religion) into the 
hands of thofe Teachers whom they efteem and follow ^ even fo was it 
with the Chriftians in the days of Con(lar.tlne : And hereupon Laws were 
made, that none fliould compel Chriftians toanfwer in any Court of Ju- 
ftice, laving before their own Bifliops, and fo Bifhops were made almolfc 
the fole Governoiirs of the Chriftians. 

§. 37. By this means it isno v.'ondcr if multitudes of wicked men flock'd 
into the Church and defiled and diflionourcd it .• For the Murderer that was 
to be hanged if he were no Chriftian, was but to be kept from the Sacra- 
ment if he were a Chriftian, and do fomc confcfting penance i which was 
little to hanging or other death:, And foproportionably of other Crimes. 
Bad Chriftians by this device were multiplycd. The Esipcrouralfo being 
a Chriftian, worldly men are moftly of the Religion of the Prince or high- 
eft powers. 

§. 38. And no man that can gather an effe<fl from an effedual caufe 
could doubt, if neither Nax^ianz^en^ or any Hidorian had told it him, but 
that proud and worldly men would ftrivc then tobeBilhops, and ufeall 
poftible diligence to obtain fo groat preferment: Who of them is it that 
would not have Command and Honour and Wealth, if he can get it? 
V\'hiie the great invitation to the facredMiniftry was the winning and edify- 
ing of Souls, thofc that moft valued Souls, dclircd it fyct defircd it to be 
kept from fuch Poverty and Pcrfecution as cxpofed them to hinderancc 
and contempt^ But when Riches, Reputation and Dominion were the 
Baits, who knoweth not what fort of Appetites would be tlrkeeneft? 
Chiifttelleth us, how hardly Rich men are good and come to Heaven. 
Therefore when Bifliops muft be all Great and Rich, either Chrift muft be 
deceived, or it muft be as hard for them to be honeft Chriftians as for a 
Camel to go through the Needles eye- And thusj Vencnam fmditur in 

$. 3 9- The World being thus brought into the Church without the cure 
of the worldly mind, and the Guides being foftrongly ti.mpttdtobe the ve- 
ry worft, no wonder if the V^'crldly Spirit now too much rule the Church, 
and if thofe that arc yet of the fame Spirit, approve, plead, and ftrivc for 
what thev love nud drfpilbthe bniincfs of the Crofs, and Chriftian Humi- 
lity, and Simplicity to this day: And if Bifliops have done much of their 
work accordingly, ever fmce Cw/?.i?/r»>i'<j vand much before) it hath been 
the Devils Work to carrv on his. War againft Chrift and Piety, undec 

1 6 Church-Hijlory of Bijhops and 

Chrift's own name, and the pretence of Piety, as an Angel of Light and 
Righteoufnefs and Unity, and to fet up Pallors over the Church of Chrift, 
that hatcihe Doctrine and Life, and CrofsofChrift, that by pleading for 
Godiinefs and Concord, mnybethe eftedlual Enemies of both, and may 
fight againft Chrift in his own Livery, under his Colours, and with his 
own Arms. IVhcfe God is their BcHy^ velio glory in their fl]arm, who mind earth- 
ly things^ being Enemies to the Crojs of Chrifi : The Hiftory of whom you 
will hud in the following part of this Treatife. 

$.40. But here 1 mult above all remember the Reader, that he is not 
for this Corruption of the Clergy, and Government of the Church, to 
think that the Church here ceafed to be a trpe Church, or that the Mi;iifl;ry 
v/aslofc, or that 't became unlawful to hold Communion with any fuch 
Churches-, muchlefsto think hardly of Chrirdanity it felf, as if it were 
no better than falfe Religions, bcr.siifefo many of its Pallors werefobad. 
None of Code's Counfels were frultrate by mans fia : None of his Pro- 
mifestohisChurch have failed. Forallthis Chrnt is the Saviour of the 
World, the Prince of Righteoufnefs and Peace, that cam. codeftroy the 
Works of the Devil, and to fave his people from tl.eir Sins j and all that 
are given him of the Father lliall come to him, and he will call none of 
them out, nor Ihall any take them out of his hands ? 

f.41. I. Letit be Hill remembred, that as the Chronicles of Kingdorns 
mentiononlythepublickAclionsof Princes and great Men, but name not 
the poor and private fort, fo alfo our Church-Hiftory of Councils and 
publick things, fay little of godly private C iriflians, but of Patriarchs 
and great Prelates, who yet arc thcmfelves but a very fmall part of the 
Chrillian World- 

n. Note nlfo that every Bifliop had many Presbyters ; whofe work was 
not toltrivc for fuperiority, nor trouble the world in Councils (where 
nfuaily they camenot^ and fo had not a quarter of the temptations that the 
Bifhops had : And though we find mention fometimes of the Presbyters 
alfo that were naught, yet the numb^-r fo reproved and proved bad, is 
not proportionable to the number ofPrelates compared among themfelve?, 
that mil(:arried in Councils- The Presbyters thnt Haid at home and fol- 
lowed their work in private with the Flock, and came not on the Stage 
in publick affairs, kept up the lubftance and praiflice of Religion. 

III. And thg private Chriftians had yet lefs temptation, and were not fo 
overvvhelmedwith worldly things, lior carrycd away by pride and ambi- 
tion and covctoufnefj:,, asthe ruling party were. 

■ IV. And the Monks, and other retired Chriftians, thatfaw the Prelates 
fnardfiarcs, ("ihoighn^any of th.m had their failings too, yet) r.o doubt 
kept up much iLrious piety, ai,d a holy life. 

• V. And no doubt but very many of the Biihops thcmfelves were hnm- 
bleh'cly f.iiu'ful men, thrtgrieved for the mi.'cariiagesofthercH. Though 
fuch excellent pcrfons as Gregory Ncoccfarcs^ Gregory Nnz.'am.en^ Gregoyy 
Nyffe», Baji!^ Chryfofione , Angtiflir.e, H-.lUiy^ I'rofper^ Fulgcutim ^ &c. 


their Councils abridged. j j 

were not very common, no doubt but there were many that wrote not 
Books, nor came fo much into the notice ofthe world, but avoided con- 
tentious and facftious Stirs, that quietly and honellly condudlcd the Flocks 
in the ways of piety, love, and jufticc. And fome of them f'as S. Martin) 
feparated from the Councils and Communion of the prevailing turbulent 
fort of the Prelates, to fignifie their dilbwning of their fins. 

Vf. And oft times, when the Prelates were at the worfl:, God raifed up 
fome very Godly Princes, that maintained Religion more than the Clergy, 
and were an honour to it when the Bifhops dilhonourcd it. 

VII. And it is not to be contemned, that miKh piety was kept up among 
great numbers of Chriftians, whom (for fome miftake) the reft reviled and 
condemned as Schifmaticks or Hereticks. Little know we how many holy 
fouls were among thofe that are in Epiphatiius Catalogue. Of the .Aiidians 
and fome others hefeemeth to confefs as much himfelf. Iht Novatians 
were tolerated in almoft all the Empire,^nd had their Churches and Bifhops, 
having the teftimony of the Orthodox that they were ufuaily of found 
faith and upright lives, and ftrifter than other Chriftians were. And God 
pardoneth the infirmity of a fmall miftake in judgment, when men are fin- 
cerely addidled to his fervice. Now and then a cruel Prelate did pro- 
fccute them, but fo did not the gentler fort f as y^f/;c/«, Proclw^ &c. at 
Conflantimpht crr-) nor the Emperours themfelves , fave when fo infti- 

VIII. And though the Churches in the Roman Empire kept up this gran* 
dure of Patriarchs, Metropolitans, and rich Prelates, that after over-top- 
ped Kings, it was not fo in other parts of the Chriftian world, but the 
Clergy lived more humbly and quietly. The Scots under ColHmb.wm and sce Mr. 
their other Presbyters, long lived in great piety without any Bifhops. And Junes - 
when the Scots Presbyters Finan^ Jidan-, &c. ordained Bifhops in Nor- ^''"^'^ ^•- 
thumhcrUnd^ they were commonly humble, holy men, like themfelves. '^'^"'S"' 
And both Scots ^ndBritaitts fo much millikcd thcS(7»»4«f-grandure and way, jJ'dcfcrib- 
thatwhcn -/4A(^*</i'»>7ff the Monk came in, they would not fubjccft themfelves ing the 
to the Pope, or any Foreign Prelates, nor fo much as cat and drink with EigiiJU^ 
the Miffionarics. And the like we may fay of fome other Extr.i.imferial SucceOi- 
Churches. The Spaniards themfelves not only while ^ri,v! Goths (of °"" 
whom fee the teftimony o( Sahian, to the fhamc of the Orthodo.x^ but 
ai^KT RccaredfU days, for many ages, lived in great quietnefs, vihWc Italy, 
France, and Gtrmany were employed in Hercticating, Curfing, Excom- 
municating, orbloudyWars. The great Empire of A[-af}a fasthccre- 
dibleft Hillory faith) never had Bifhops to thisd.\»', but only one Galled 
tht j^bitna^ while the whole Clergy are exercifed vthonghintoo much ig- 
norance) in their Prieftly Office. Brecardtu, that lived at Jcrnfdem^ tc- 
ftificth that thofe Eaftern Chriftians, called by the" Papifls, Ntftori.ins^Ja- 
cobites^ Etttychians, were commonly plain honcft Religion"- people, free 
from Hercfie, and of better lives thanevcntho Religious of the Cinirch of 
Ro;ne^ and that there were not worfe men at 'Jerufjlem than the Ron:a i 

D Cd- 


I S Church'Hijhry of Bijhops and 

Catholicks. The ^>-»»f««/»wj have many Bilhops, and one chief, but live 
(though too ignorantly and fuperltitioully , yet) ia great aufterity of 

IX. In all ages fince Prelacy fwelled to the corruption of the Chur- 
che«, and annoyance of the Peace of Kings and Kingdoms, there have been 
ftill a great number of pious lamenters of the Corruptions of the Church, 
that have groaned and prayed for relbrmation : Infomuch, that Dr. Field 
niaintaineth, that even in the Church of Rome there have been ftill conli- 
derable numbers of Doctors, that owned truth and piety , and mifliked 
the Papal ulurpations and errours. ThsWaUenfes znh Ahigenfes (exceed- 
ing numerous j faid, they had continued from the Apoftles, and fo from 
thedaysof S>'/wy?fr (or Conjiantine) had diflented from tht Roman pride ^ 
and corruptions. And God hath made the Proteftant Churches fince the Re- 
formation, as his Vineyard, where truth and piety have profpered, though 
Satan hath been ftill at work, and here alfo had too much fuccefs. 

X. And itmuft be remembred, that God hath made ufeof many proud 
and turbulent men, to propogate and defend the truth of the Gofpel : 
And their Gifts have ferved for the good of the fincere. As the husk or 
chaff and ftraw is ufeful to the Corn •, fo many worldly Prelates and 
Priefts have been learned Expofitors and ufeful Preachers, and taught 
ethers the way to life, which they would not go inthemfelves. Befides 
that, their very Papal power and grandure, which hath corrupted the 
Church, hath yet been a check to feme, that would have aflaultcd it by 
force-, and as a hedge of thorncs about it. Worldly intcreft engageth 
Pope, Patriarchs, and Prelates, to ftand up for the Chriftian Religion, 
becaufe they gain by it (as Leo the icth is laid to have odioufly con- 

$. 42. And the old Fathers, till Conftamnes time, did moft of them think 
that the laft thoufand years would be a time of fuller glory to the Churchy 
as many yet think, though 1 confefs my felf unskilful in the Prophe- 

But I make no doubt, but though this earth be fo far defected by God, 
the Glorious Kingdom which we fhall ihortly fee, with the new Heaven 
and Earth, wherein dwelleth righteoufnefs, will fully confute all our pre- 
fent temptations to think hardly of God or the Redeemer, becaufe of the 
prefent corruptions and diffentions of this lower world. 

$. 4j. We may conjecture at former times by our own: We fee 
now, that among the moft Reformed Churches, too often the moft world- 
ly part are uppermoft, and perhaps are the perfecuters of the reft, and 
though they may be the fmaller part, it's they that make the noife, are 
the noted part that carry the name, and that Hiftorics write of. A few 
men got into places of power, feem to be all the Church, or Nation, by 
the prevalency of their actions, which few dare contradift: They may 
give Laws", They may have the power of Prefs and Pulpit, fo that 
notching ftiall be publiflied but what they will', They may call thenifelves 


their Councils abridged. i ^ 

the Church, and call all that obey them not Schifmaticks and Seda- 
ries, and ftrangers may believe therefore, that it is but feme few in- 
confiderable fellows that are againft them, when yet the far greatell 
part may utterly ditTent and abhor their'pride. I have lived to lee fuch 
an Aflembly ofMinifters, where three or four leading men were fo pre- 
valent as to form a Confcffion of Faith in the nameof the whole party, 
which had that in it which particular members did difown. And when 
about a controverted Article, Oww<i«hath ciiarged me deeply, forque- 
ftioning the words of the CWc/;, others that were at the forming of that 
Article, have laid it all on that fame man, as by his impetuoufnefs putting 
in that Article, the reft being loth to ftrive much againft him, and fo it 
was hehimfelf thatwastheC/j«>-f/j, whofe authority he fo much urged, at 
leaft the effectual fignify ing parr. We cannot judge what is commoncft by 
what is uppermoft, or ingreateft power. In divers Parifhes now, where 
theMinifter is conformable, perhaps ten parts of the people do diflilce it:, 
and fomctioics you may fee but three or four perfons with him at the Com- 
mon-prayers \ And yet all know, that Diflciitcrs arc talkt of as a few 
fingular Fanaticks. 1 compare not the Caulbsjbut conclude.that fo alfo for 
the A/wwtf >;,humblcGodly perfons might be very numerous,though only the 
actions of worldly Prelates do take up moft of the Hiftory of the Church. 

Yea, 1 believe, that among the Papifts themfclves, five to one of the 
people, were they free from danger, would declare their diflike of a great 
part of theaftions and Doiftrines of their Prelates, and that thegreateft 
part thatarenamed Papifts, are notfuch throughly and at the heart. 

When the Rulers, Scribes, and Pharifees were againft Chrift, and per- 
fected him and the truth, the common people fo much adhered to him, 
that the pcrfecutorsdurft not feize on him openly by force, but were fain 
toufe a Traytor, to apprehend him in the night, and in a folitary place, left 
theylhould be ftoned by the people, who faid, Never man fpake as this 
man fpeaketh. 

§. 44. Let us not therefore turn Church Hiftory into a temptation, nor 
think bafely of the Church, orChriftianity,or Chrift, bccaute of Papal and 
Prelatical pride and tyranny. God can make ufc of a furly porter to keep 
his doors ^ yea, a maftiff-dog may be a keeper of the houfe-, and his 
Corn hath grown in every Age, not only with ftraw and chaffe, but with 
fome tares: And yet he hath gathered, and will gather, all h.s chofen. 

§. 45. Nor isthe Miniftry it fclf to be therefore difhonoured : For as 
attliisday, whileafew turbulent Prelates perfecute good men, and much 
of the Miniftry is in toomany Countries lamentably corrupted, yetisRe- 
ligion, piety, and honefty kept up by the Miniftry, and never was well kept 
up without it : For the Faithful Minifters labour Itill, and their very fnffer- 
ings further the Gofpel, and what they may not do publickiy they do pri- 

Yea, tleir very Writings flicw, tliat ftill there are fuch as God doth 
qmlifietodohis work, even among th: Papifts, he that recdcth the pious 

D 1 Writings 

20 CImrch-Hiftory of Bijhops a7id 

Writings of fuch men as Gerfou, and Gerhardus Ziaphanienjis^ and Thaule- 
riis, Thomas .i Kempis, Ferus, and many fuch others, will fee that Gods fpi- 
rit was ftill illuminating and ianiflifying fouls. And hs that readcthfucii 
L'wisn^ Philip NeriM, perfecuted by the Bifhop as an ambitious Hypocrite, 
for fetting up more ferious Excrcifes of Religion thin hsd been ordina- 
rily ufed among the Formalifts, (to fay nothing of fuch privater men as 
M. cie Renty and many others) will fee that it is not all Church-tyranny and 
corruption, though very heinous, that will prove that Chrilt hath not a 
Holy Generation whom he will favc 

§. 46. Yea amongthe very corrupted fort of the Clergy, many that 
are overcome with temptations in that point, and take ufurpation and 
tyranny, and worldly pomp and violence for Order , Government, and 
the intereft of the Church, have yet much good in other refpefts: Even 
amongthe Cardinals there have been fuch men as Charles Boro/naiis, Ba- 
roni-M (Neriits'^s companion) Bellarmine^ and others, that would Preach 
and praftife the common Doftrines of ferious piety. Yea, among the 
Jefuits there have been divers that have Preacht, Written, and lived very 
ftri(ftlyi much more among their Fryars : and fuch Bifh ops as Sales : And 
though their times and corruptions blemifhed their piety, I dare not 
think they nullified it. 

$. 47. And itfiieweth the exxellency of the Sacred Office, i. That 
Ghrill didfirftmakeitasthe noble Organical part of his Church, to form 
the reft. 2. That he endued the firlh Officers with the moft noble and ex- 
cellent gifts of his fpirit- 3. That he founded and built his Church by 
them at firft. 4. Yea, that hehimfelf preached the Gofpel, and is called 
TheMinifter of theCircumcifion, the chief Shepherd, and the Bifhop of 
our Souls. 5. That he hath ufed them to enlarge, confirm, prefcrve.and 
cdefie his Church to this day. 6. That he maketh thebefl of them to be 
thebeftof men. 7. That he putteth into the hearts of all good Chrifti- 
ans a fpecial love and honour of them. 8- Th.it he ufcth even the worfer 
fort to do good, while they do hurt; efpecially fome of them. 9. That 
Satan ftriveth fo hard to corrupt them and get them on his fide. 10. That 
Religion ordinarily dyeth away, or decayeth, when they fail and prove 
vinable and unfaithful. 1 1. That Chrift commandeth men fo muchtohear, 
receive and obey them, and hath committed his Word and Keys to them, 
as his Stewards. 1 2, And hath promifed them a fpecial reward for their 
faithfulnefs : and commanded all to pray for them and their prefervation 
and fuccefs. And the nature of the things tells us, that as knowledge in 
lower thin2,s is not propagated to mankind, but by Teachers ( man be- 
ing not born wife^) fo much lefs is he.ivenly wifdom. And therefore ic 
is, that God is fo regardful of the due qualification of Minifters, thatthcy 
be not bliid guides, nor novices, nor proud, nor carelcfs lluggards, 
nor felf-feeking worldlings, but skilful in the word of truth, and lovers 
of God and the fouls of men, and zealous, and diligent, unwciried, and 
p-.dent iatiicir holy work. And when th:y prove bad, he maketh them 


their Counciii abridged. 2 1 

moft contemptible and punifheth thtin more than other men, thecormp- 
tion of the belt making tiiem the woflt. 

§. 4S. Therefore lee us make a right ufc of the pride and corruption of 
the Clergy, to defire and pray for better, and to avoid our felvcs the Sia 
which is lb bad in them, and to labour after that rooted Wifdonie and 
Holinefs in our felves that we may Hand, though our Teachers fall before . 
us. Let every man prove his own Work, and fo he Ihall have rejoicing 
in himfelf, and not in others only, Cal. 6. But let us not hence quellion 
the Gofpei, ordifhonour the Church and Miniftry •, no nor any fuither 
feparate from the Faulty than they feparate from Chrift, or than God al- 
lowcth us, and necefliiy rcquireth : As we mufl not defpife the needful 
helps of our Salvation, nor equal dumb or wicked men with the able 
faithful Miniftcrs of Chrift, on pretence of honouring the Office •, fo nei- 
ther muft we deny the good that is in any, nor defpife the Office for the 
Perfons Faults. 

§. 49. Efpecially let us take heed that we fall not into that pernicious 
Snare that hath entangled the Qjtaktrs and other Schifmaticks of thele 
times, who on pretence of the faults of the Minifters, fet againfl: the belt 
with grcateft fury, becaufe the belt do moft relift them, and that revile 
them with falfe and raihng language, the fame that Drunkards and Mb- 
lignnnts ufe, yea worfe than the prophanelt of the Vulgar •, even becaufe 
they take Tythcs and iieceflary Maintenance, charging them with odious 
covctoufnefs, calling them Hirelings, deceivers, and what not. Undoubt- 
edly this Spirit is not of God, that is fo contrary to his Word, his Grace, 
and his Intereft in tlie World. Wh,u would become of the Church and 
Gofpcl, if this malignant Spirit fliould prevail to extirpate even the belt 
of all the Miniltry ? Would the Devil and the Churches Enemies defa-e 
any more ? The very fame Men that the Prelates have filenced ( near 
1000) in Eii^lM'dt\\zk fifteen or fixteen years together, are they that the 
i^ahrs moft virulently before reviled, and moft furioufly oppofcd. 

§. 50. Nor will the Clergies corruption allow either unqualified or 
uncalled Men to thruft themfeives into the Sacred Office, as if they were 
the Men that can do better, and muft mend all that is amifs. Such have 
heentryed in Licentious Times, and proved, (bmeof them, to do more 
hurt than the very Drunkards, or the ignorant fort of Minifters, thnt did 
but read the holy Scriptures. Pride is too often the reprchender of other 
Mens Faults and Imperfections, and would make other Mens Names but 
a ftcpping-ftonc to their own afpiring Folly : As many that have crj'ed 
otit againft bad Popesund Prelates, that they might get into the places, have 
been as bad themfeives when they have their Will : No wonder if it be 
ib with the proud revilers of the Miniftry. 

■5. 51. There is need therefore of much Wifdome and holy care, that 
we here avoid the two extrcams-, that v/c grow not inditftrent who aic 
ourPa.lors, nor contrait the Guilt of Churclvcorruption, but mourn for 
the rcpio.vcl'. 0: the fo'ema AlliinbUcs, aad do cur belt for true aid need- 

22 Church- Hiflory of Bijhops an J 

fill Reformation, that the Gofpel fail not, and Souls be not quietly left to 
Satan, nor the Church grow like the Infidel World •, and yet that we neir 
thcr invade nor didionour the iacred Office, nor needlefly open the naked- 
nefsofthc Perfons, nor do any thing that may hinder their juil endeavours 
and fuccefs •, we mull fpeak evil of no man either falfly or unneceflarily. 

$. 52. I thought all this premonition necellary that you make not an ill 
ufeot the following Hiftory,and become not guilty of diabolifm or falfe 
accufing of the Brethren,or difhonouring the Church: And that as God hath 
in Scripture recorded the Sins of the ungodly, and the cffetfts of Pride and 
of malignity, and Chrifl: hath foretold us that Wolves fliall enter and de- 
vour the Flock, and by their Fruits fof devouring, and pricking as 
Thorns and Thiftles) we fhall know them, and the Apoftles prophecied 
of them ; I take it to be my duty to give you an Abflraift of the Hiftory 
of Papal and afpiring Prelacy, ufurping, and fchifmaticaJ, and tyrannical 
Councils, as knowing of how great ufe it is to all to know the true Hi> 
ftory of the Church, both as to good and evil. 

§. 55. Yea Blftops and Councils muft not be vvorfe thought of tharr 
they deicrve, no more than Presbyters, becaufe of fuch abufes as 1 recite ; 
The bcft things arc abufed,even Preaching, Writing, Scripture, and Rea- 
ibn it fclf, and yet are not to be rejefted or dilhonojred. There is an 
Epifcopacy vvhofevery Conftitution is a Crime, and there is another fort 
which feemeth to me a thing convenient, lawful, and indifferent, and there 
is a fort which I cannot deny to be of Divine Right. 
§ .54. That which 1 take to be it felf a Crime, is fuch as is aforemention- 
ed, which in its very conftitution over throweth the Office, Church, and 
Difcipliiic, which Chrift byhimfelfand his Spirit, in his Apoftlcs, infti- 
tuted : fuch I take to be that Diocefane kind which hath only oneBifliop 
over many fcore or hundred fixed Parochial Affcmblics ; by which 
i.Pariflies are made by them m Churches, as having no Ruling Pallors that 
have the Power of Judging whom to Baptize, or admit to Communion or 
refufe, but only are Chapels, having preaching Curates. 2. All the firft 
Order of Bifliops in fingle Churches are dcpolcd, asif the Bifhopof ^/;- 
tioch fliould have put down a 1000 Bifhops about him, and made himfelf 
the IbleBilhop of their Churches. 5. The Office of Presbyters is chang- 
ed into femi Presbyters. 4. Difcipline is made impoffiblc, as it is for 
one General without inferiour Captains to Rule an Army : But of this 

$.55. Much more doth this become unlawful, i. whendepofing all the 
Presbyters from Government by theKcyes of Difcipline, they put the fame 
Ktycs, cveiithc Power ofdccrctive Excommunication and Abfolution in-- 
to tile hands of Laymen, called Chancellours, and fetup Courts likcr to 
the Civil than Ecclefi-.illical. 2. And when they oblige the Magiftrate 
to execute their Decrees by the Sword, be they jufl orunjuffc, and to lay 
Men in Coah and ruine them, mcerly becaufe they are Excommunicated 
by Biffiops, or Chancellours, or Officials, or fuch others, and are not re- 
conciled : 

their Ccimcils abridged. 


conciled : And when they threaten Princes and Magiftrates with Ex-commu- 
nication ('ifnocDepofition) ifchey do but Communicate witii thole thst 
the Biiliophath Excommunicated. 5. Or when they arrogate the po-.ver 
of the Sword themfelves, ^^ Socrates uith Cyril did : Or v.'ithout ncccliity 
joyn inone perfon theOificeof Priefthood and Magillracy, when one is 
more thin they can perform aright. 

§. 56. And it becometh much worfe by the tyrannical abufe, when f be- 
ing unable and unwilling to exercife true Difcipline on ib many hundred 
Parifliesj they have multitudes of Atheifts, Infidels, grofs ignorants, and 
wicked livers in Church-Communion, yea, compel all in the Pariflies to 
Communicate on pain of Imprifonment and ruine, and turn their cen- 
fures cruelly againit godly perfons, that dare not obey them in all their 
Formalities, Ceremonies, and Impofitions, for fear of finning againft God. 
And when conniving at ignorant ungodly Pricfts that do but obey them, 
they filence and ruine the moll faithful able Teachers, that obey not all 
their impofmg Canons, and fvvcar not, and fubfcribe not what they bid 

§. 57. Undoubtedly Satan hath found it his molt fuccefsful way, to 
fight againit Chrift in Chriltsownnamc, andtofet upMinifters as the Mi- 
ni Iters of Ch rift, to fpeai^ indiretftly againit the DoArine, Servants, and 
intereft of Chrift, and as Minifters of Light and rigbteoufncls , and to 
fight againit Church-Government, Order, Difcipline, and Unity, by the 
pr-etenccs of Church Government, Order, Difcipline, and Unity .• and to 
cry down Schifm to promote Schifm, and to deprcfs Believers by crying up 
Faith, andOrthodoxnefs, and crying down Herelie and Errour: Yea, to 
plead God's Name and Word ngainit himfelf, and to ^e.t up Sin, by accullng 
Truth and Dutv as Sin. 

•$. 5S. 11. That which I take for Lawful Indifferent Epifcopacy is fuch 
a? //'V'TWf faith, was introduced for the avoiding of divilions, though it 
was not from the beginning: When among many Elders in every fingle 
Church, one of moft wifdom and gravity i5- made their Prefident, yea, 
without whom no Ordinations or great matters fhall be done. The 
Churches began this lb early , and received it lb univerfally, and with- 
©ut any confiderable diiTent or oppofition, even before Emperours be- 
came Chriftians, that I dare not be one that fhall fet againft it, or difho- 
nour fuch Epifcopacy. 

§. 59. Yea , if where fit men are wanting to make Magiftrates, the 
King ftall make Bifhops Magiftrates, and joyn two Offices together, 
laying no more work on them than will confifl; with their Ecdefiaftick work, 
though this will have inconveniencics, I (hall not be one that fhall dilho- 
nour fuch, or difobey them. 

■ §. 60. III. The Epifcopacy, which I dare not fay is not of Gods infti- 
tution, (befides that each Paftor is £/)//cop; G'rf^jV.) is that which fuccced- 
eth the Apoftles in the Ordinary part of Church Government, while feme 
Senior Paitors have a fupervifmg care of many Churches, fas the Viiiters 


24 Chnrch-Hijlory of Bijhops and 

liad in Scotland^) and are fo far Epifcopi Eptfcoptnmt, and Arch-bilhops, 
having noconftraining power ofthe Sword, buca powcrtoadmonilli and 
inftruftthe Pafiors, nnd to regulate Ordinations, Synods, and all great 
and common circumftances that belong to Churches. For ifChrilt lee 
up one Form of Government in which fomePaftors had foextenlivcwork 
and power, (^^ Timothy, Titus, and Evangelifts as well as Apoftles had j we 
muft not change it without proof, that Chrift himfelf would have it 

§. 6i. But if ncnonthis pretence will do as Rome hath done, pre- 
tend one Apoftle to be the Governour of all the reft, and that they have 
now that Authority of that Apoftle, and will make an Univerfal Monarch 
to rule at the Antipodes, and over all the World, or will fet up Patriarchs, 
Primates, Mctrapolitans and Arch-bifhops , with power to tyrannize o- 
ver their Brethren, and caft them out, and on pretence of Order, and imi- 
f ating the Civil Government, to mafter Princes, or captivate the Churches 
to their pride and worldly interefts, this will be the ^vorft and moft per- 
nicious tyranny. 

§. 62. And as it is not all Epifcopacy, fo it is not all Councils that I 
defign this Hiftory to difhonour. No doubt but Chrift would have his 
Church to be as far One, as their natural political and gracious capacities 
will allow : And to do all his work in as much love, peace, and concord 
asthey can : And to that end, both leafonable Councils, and Letters, and 
Delegates for Concord and Communication, are means which nature it felf 
direfteth them to, as it doth direct Princes to hold Parliaments and Dyets. 
In the multitude of Councellours there is fafety : Even frequent ccnverfe 
keepcth up amity : In abfence Handerers are heard, and too oft believed: 
A little familiarity in prefcnce confuteth many falfe reports of one ano- 
ther, which no diftant defences would fo fatisfyingly confute. And a- 
mong many we may hear that which of few we lliould not hear. How 
good and pleafant is it for Brethren to dwel together in Unity? And the 
Concord of Chriftians greatly honouretli their holy profeflion, asdifcord 
becomethafcandal to the world. But all this, and themeafures and fort 
.of Unity and Concord which we may expert, and the true way to attain 
it, I have-fullier opened in a Treatife entitled. The true and only termt 
of the Concord of all Chrijiian Churches. 

§. 63. When Chriftians had no Princes or Magiftrates on their fide, 
they had no fufficicnt means of keeping up Unity and Concord for mutual 
help and Itrength, without meetings of Paftors to carry on their com- 
raon work by confent. But their meetings were only with thofe that 
badnearncfs or neighbourhood: And they did not put men to travelto 
Synods out of other Princes Dominions, or from Foreign Lands, much 
lefs did they call any General Councils out of all the Chriftian Churche s in 
the world. But thole tliat were capable of Communion by proximity, 
and of helping one another , were thought enough to meet for foch 

§. 64. And 

their Councils ahridged. 2 5 

§. 64. And indeed neither nature nor Scripture obligeth us to turn 
fuch occafional helps into the forms of a State-policy, and to make a Go- 
vernment of friendly confultations. And therefore though where it may 
be done without fear of degenerating into tyranny, known times of Ra- 
ted Synods or meetings of Pallors for Concord are belt, ('as once a month 
in lefler meetings, and once a quarter in greater,) yet where there is dan- 
ger of fuch degeneracy, it is better to hold them but pro re «4r<*, _ occafioo- 
ally, at various feafons and places. 

§. 65. The lefTer Synods and correfpondcncy of Pallors before there 
were Chriftian Magiflrates were managed much more humbly and harm- 
lefly than the great ones afterward .• Becaufe that men and their intercfl 
and motives difered. And even of later times, there have been few Coun- 
cils called General, that have been managed fo blamelclly, or madefo 
many profitable Canons, as many Provincial or fmaller Synods did. Di- 
vers Tolet.ttie Councils, and many others in Spaiti^ England, and other 
Countries have laboured well to promote piety and peace : As didthcyrf- 
frican Synods, andmany othrrsof old. And fuch as thefe have been fcr- 
viceable to the Church. And the Greater Councils, though more turbu- 
lent have many of them done great good, againfl Herefie and Vice; efpe- 
cially the firft at Nice : And nothing in this Book is intended to cloud their 
worth and glory, or to extenuate any good which they have done: But I 
am thankful to God that gave his Church fo many worthy Paftors, and 
made fo much ufe as he did of many Synods for the Churches purity and 

$. 66. But the true rcafon of this Colledion, and why I have befides 
good products, madefo much mention of the errours and mifchiefs that 
many Councils have been guilty of, are thefe following. 

I. Thecarnaland afpiringpart of theClergy, do very ordinarily, nn- 
derthe equivocal names of Bidiops, confound the Primitive Epifcopacy 
with the Diocefane tyranny before defcribed.- And they make the ignorant 
believe, that all that is laid in Church-Writers for Epifcopacy, is faidfor 
their Diocefatie Species : And while they put down an hundred or a thoufand 
Bifhops and Churches of the Primitive Species, they make men believe that 
it is they that are for the old Epifcopacy, and we that are againft it, and 
that it is we and not they that areagainll the Church : while wc are fubmif- 
five to them as Arch-bifhops, if they would but leave Parilhes to be Churches 
(or Great Towns formerly called Cities at lealt^ and make the Difcipline 
of all Churches but a pofilble pradicable thing. 

$. 67. II. And CO promote their ends, as thefe men are for thelargeft 
DiocelPcsand turning a thoufand Churches into one only, fo they are com- 
monly for violent Adminiftration, ruling by conftraint, and cither ufurp- 
Jng th; power of the fword thcmlelves, or perfwading and urging the Ma- 
gillratc to punifh all that obey not their necdlefs impofitions, and reproach- 
ing or threatning fat kali; the Magillratcs that will not be their Execu- 
tioners. And piaking themfclvcs the Church fnr.fters, Cor made witliout 

E - the 

26 Church-Hijlory of Bijhops a7id 

the -Churches confent) their Office is cxcrcifod in putting out the Lights,, 
fometimcs hundreds of lalihful Minifteis b.ingfilcnced by their means in 
a little time. And they tal<:e the fword of Dfcipline or power of the Keys 
as the Church ufed it 300 years to be vain, unlcfsprifons or mulfts enforce 
it. And toefcapethc Primitive poverty, they overthrow the Primitive 
Church, Form, and Difcipline, and tell men. All this is for the Churches 
honour and peace. 

§. 68. Yea all that like not their arrogances and grandure, they render 
odious as Aerian Hereticks or Schifmaticks, provoking mtn to hate and 
revile them, and Magiftrates to deftroy them , as intolerable. And by 
making their own numerous Canons and Inventions neccllary to Mini- 
ftry and Church-Communion, they will leave noplace for true unity and 
peace, but tear the Churches in pieces by the racks and engines of their 
brains and wills. 

§. 6(j. III. Yeaworfe than all this, there are fome befides \ht French 
Papiflrs, who tell the world, Th.it the Vniverfd Church on Earth is one vifi- 
ble political body^ havinf a vifihle Head or Supreme vicarious Government un- 
der Chrift^ even a Colle^live Supreme^ th.it hath wiivcrfji Legijlaiive, judici- 
al and Executive power. And they make this Summa Poteftas Conllitutive of 
the Church Vniverfal, and fay that this is Chrijis body cut of which none have 
his Spirit nor are Church-members., and that there is no IJnity or Concord but in 
eheying this fiipreme vijible porvcr ; And that this is in General Councils and in 
the intervals in a College of Bifhops Succejfors of the Apofiles, ( 1 know not 
who or where, unlefs it be all the Bifhops asfcattered overthe earth) <««<i 
that they rule per literas formatas : (as others fay, It is the Pope and Roman 
Clergy or Cardinals.) 

§. 70. And when our Chriftianity, Salvation, Union and Communion, 
yea, our Lives, Liberties and mutual forbearances, and Love, is laid upon 
this very form of Church-policy and Prelacy, andChriflis fuppofedto 
have fuch a Church as is not in the World, even conftituted with a Vifible 
Vicarious CoUedlive Soveraign, that mull make Laws for the whole Chri- 
ftian World, it's time to do our bcft to fave men from this deceit. 

§. 71. 1 muft.confels, If I believed that the Whole Cht^rch had any 
Head or Soveraign under Chrift, I fhould rather take it to be the Pope 
than any one, finding no other regardable Competitor. He is uncapable 
of ruling at the Antipodes and all the Earth;, but a General Council is 
much moreuncapable, and fo are the feigned College of Paftors or Bi- 
ftiops, (none knoweth who./ 

$. 72. IV.- And a blind zeal againft errour, called Herejie., doth cry. 
down the neccffary Love and toleration of many tolerable Chrilliansi 
And fome cry, down with them, and away with them that errc more them- 
felvcs, and by their mcafurcs would leave but few Clriftians endured by 
one another in the World: Thus do they teach us to underftand Solomon., 
Ecel. 7. 16. Eenot righteous and wife overmuch: fo much arethtfe ITfen for 
llnity, that they will leave no place for much Unity on earth. As if none 


their Councih abridged, 27 

Ihould be tolerated but men of one Stature, Complexion, &c. 

§• 73. Briefly, they do as one that would fetnp a Family Government ^ 
made up of many hundred or thoufand families diflblved and turned into 
one, and ruled fupremely by a Council of the Heads of fuch enlarged Fa- 
milies, and then tell us, that this is not to alter the old Species of Families, 
but to make them greater that were before too fmail.- Keep but the fame 
name, and a City is but a Family ftill. And when they have done, they 
would have none endured, but call out, imprifoned or baniflied, as fedi- 
tious, that are for any fmaller Family than a City, (or any Icffer School 
than an Llniverfity.) And thefe City Govcrnours niuft in one Conventioa 
rule all the Kingdom, and in a greater all the World. 

$• 74- I (hall therefore firft tell you, what errour mult not be tolerated, 
and then by an Epitome of Church-Hiftory, Bidiops and Councils and 
Popes, (hew the ignorant fo much of the Matter of Fa>5l, as may tell them 
who have been the Caufe of Church-corruptions, Herefies, Schifms and Se- 
dition, and how: And whether fuch Diocefanc Prelacy and grandure be 
the Cure, or ever was. And, if God will, in a Second Volume fliaU 
prove the finfulnefs and novelty of that fort of Prelacy, and anfwe^ 
the chief that have defended it. 


2 8 Chwch'HiJlory of Bijhops ami 

CHAP. 11. 

Of fferefies, a?id of the firfi Councils. 

5* ^' ^ ■ ^ He A poftle 7'«»»f/ faith, ch. 5.19,20. Brethren^ if any one of 

H you do erre from the truths and otie convert him, LcthimknoVf 

JL t^^t he that converteth a finmr from the erroiir of -his way, doth 

favea foul from deathy and hide a multitude of fws. By which it 

15 implyed, that £?-ro«/- tendcth unro Death: But what Errouritit? Is it 

all ? Who then can befaved ? It is of great ufe to know, what Errours 

are mortal, and what not. 

§. 2. There are errours that are nofris, and errours that are fins. 
Thofe which are not voluntary either in themfelves, or in their antece- 
dent caufes, are no fins : Thofe which are not voluntary either by the aft 
or by the omilTion of the will, are no fins. Thofe which are unavoidable 
through a neceflity which is not mora! but natural, arenolln : As if Infants, 
Idiots, Mad-men, erre in matters of which they areuncapable: Or if any 
erre for want of any revelation of the truth. As if the Papifts did rightly 
charge thofe with errours whom they burnt for denying Tranfubftantiation, 
yet it could henofi/fulerrour, becaufe it is ncceflary and unavoidable. For 
the firft difcerning principle is fenfe : And if we are deceived while we 
ytidgtthzttohe Bread and Wine, which all the found fenfes of all men in 
the World perceive as fuch, we have no remedy. For whether fenfe be 
fallible or infallible, it is certain that we have no other faculties and or- 
gans to perceive immediately fenfible things by. I can fee by nothing but 
my eyes, nor hear any other way than by my ears. If they fay, that we muft 
believe that all mens fenfes are deceived when God telicth us fo ? I anfwer, 
\f we do not prefuppofe that by fenfe we muft perceive things fenfible, it 
is in vain to talk of Gods telling us anything, or of any of his Revelati- 
ons, or faith therein : For I know not but by fenfe, that there is a Bthle, or 
a /i/i«, or a roice or Word, to be believed. And as humanity is prefuppo- 
fed to Chrifiianity^ fo is fenfe and rcnlbn to faith and the objeds according- 
ly. And to fay, that all mens found fenfes about their due placed objefts 
are fallible, is but to fay, that no certainty can be had. 

§. 5. Of thofe errours that ^/fyTwj, it is not all that are effeftively mor- 
tal or damninglins: Fife no man could befaved. There is no man that hath 
:iot a multitude of errours, that hath any aftualufe of rcafon. 

|. 4. Errours are of three forts.- i. Errours Ol Judgment (to fay no- 

their Councils abridged. 29 

thing of fenfe and imagination.) 2. OfWilt-^ ;. Of Ufe^ or praftice. The 
Jud^^mcnt is to Gnide the V^iS-, and ine Will is to command our pr^Bice. 
Therefore thofe crronrs arc leaft dangerous that leafl: corrupt the n'l/l and 
proBlce, and thofe moll dangerous that mofl: corrupt them. But every 
errour contrary to any ufcful truth is bad, as it is a corruption of thejW^- 
meiit^ tending to corrupt the will and paBice. 

$. 5. 'i. No errour is effedlively damning which turneth not the Heart 
or Will in a predominant degree from the Love of God to the Love of the 
Creature, from the Loveof Heaven and Holinefs to the prevalent Love of 
Earth, andfinfulpleafure, riches or honour therein •, from things Spiritu- 
al to things Carnal : For God hath prepared unconceivable glory for them 
that Love him: The Kingdom of God confiftah not in meats and drinks, 
but in righteoufnefs, peace and joy in the holy Ghofl: : And he that in thefe 
things fcrveth Chrift, doth pleafe God, and is acceptable to {'good j men, 
Rom. 14.. 17, iS. 

§. 6. 2. I think no errour is effeiftively damning which a man doth fin- 
cerely defire to be delivered from at any rate, and when he that hath it 
doth faithfully endeavour to come to the knowledge of the truth, in the 
life of fuch means as God vouchfafcth him •• He that fenrcl.eth the Scrip- 
ture witli a Lovcto truth, and fincerely prayeth for Gods illumination, •' 
and fincerely pracliceth what he already knovvcth, and is willing to hear 
v.'hatany mancnn fay te his Further infornntion, God will hide nothing nc- 
ctllary to his lalvation from fuch a mnn. For this is a work of fuch difpo- 
fitivc Grace, as fhallnotbe received in\-tiin. 

§. 7. Obj. Bh: may ncttr.c that btliti<<;h mt -in God^ or Chrijl, er ifx Life 
10 come, fjy aHthis^ rh.-t he defireth andende/ivottreth tol'nitwthc trmhl 

A>f, I. Thefe tbngs arc fo Grf.^r, fo f t/i/rwr, andfo A'rr^j/rfr)', thatthey 
cannot be unknown to one that hath the Gofpel, who hath tnc torefaid fin- 
cere defircs and endeavours. And as for them that have not the Gofpel, I 
have fpoken to their cafe before. 2. God that giveth fo much grace doth 
thereby fignifichis willingnefs to give more. 

^. 8. Obj. Tt}is inttniarcth that Greet is ^iven (ccordingto Adyits. 

Af T. Not the firft Grace: But to him that hath fandimproveth itjfhail 
be given, and from him that hath not ffuch improvement j Ihall be taken a- 
way even that which he hath. ^ No Grace or Glory is given according to 
Merits in point of Commutative Juftice, as ejiiid pro ^m, as ifit did profit 
God. But to him that asketh it fhall be given. We mud have a Beggers 
iNIerit: Brgjing and thankful accepting; Andyet tliata'foisof antecedei\t 

$. 9. Onthecontrarv, '• Ail errour is damning which exdudeth the life 
of faith, Wf , love and firxere obtdience : For thcfc are of Reccllitv to falva- 
tion : without hoiinefs none fliall fee God, Ucb. 12. 14. The wiklom from 
above is firft pure, and then peaceable, and '.null: be fliewn out of a good 
converfation by works with mecknefs of wifdom, Jam.i,. 1 5, 17, He that 
Loveth nocGod, Heaven, and Hclinefs, withapredoniinauc Love, doth 
damnably erre. " §. iq. 

2 ChurcJ)-Hi'}ory of Bijhops an J 

§. lo. Second, y. Therefore all errour of jidgnient which (ffiBively 
exxludeth the t(//f/ofauy o( the Effentiah of Gcdlinefs^ or of Chrtfiidnity 
where theGofpelis, is damning errour : Becaufe a Mans Will and Lift 
can be no better than i.is belief or ptdgment is. No man can love that God 
that he believeth.iot to be amiable, nor obey him whom he believeth net 
to be his Governour \ nor feeks for a happincfs which he believeth not ; 
And it is in the face of Chrill, a Redeemer, and Saviour of loll Sinner's, 
that Gcds amiablentfs fuitably app.ajreth unto man : And it is by his 
Word and holy Spirit thatChrifl renevveth Souls. 

§. II. And an ungodly carnal worldly man fthough he be a learned 
Preacher of the Truth) is damnably erroneous, and hath really t'le fum of 
manifold Herefies : i. He erreth about the grcatell and moft n. cellar/ 
things : He takcth Gcd to be lefs amiable than the Creature, and Heavcu 
than Earth, and Holinefs than the Pleafure of Sin. 2. His errour is 
pradicnl and not only notional : 5. It exckideth riie contrary truth, and 
is predominant •, fo that what contrary truth he acknowledgeth, he doth 
notfoundly, pracftically, and prevailingly believe. 

§. 12. Were it not befides my prefent purpofe I might manifeft that 
every carnal ungodly man among us, 1. Doth not truly believe any one 
Article of the Creed with a ferious pradtical belief-, 2. Nor doth he con- 
fent to the Baptifmal Covenant;, 3. Nor fmcerely defire and put up one 
Petition of the Lords Prayer, rightly underflood i 4. Nor fincerely obey 
one of the Ten Commandements ; 5. Nor can fincerely receive the Sacra- 
ment of the Lords Supper ^ Nor, 6. Isafincere Member of the holy Ca- 
tholick Church, nor can fincerely hold Communion with the Saints: He 
is an Hypocrite and damnably erroneous, even while hefeemethto be Or- 
thodox asd plradeth for the Truth, and ciyeth out againft Herefies aad 
Errours :, which he may eafily and ordinarily do. 

§. 1 5. it hath ftiii been one of Satans effeftual Snares to deceive and 
damn unpodly men by, to hide their own practical errour and wickednefs 
from their Gonfcienccs, by feeming to be Orthodoxy and crying down Er- 
rours and Hi.refies in others : But alas, how unfit perfons are they for 
fuch Work ? And how dreadfully do they condemn themfelves .' It is a 
pitiful thing to hear a man that is falfe tothevery efience of his Baptif^ 
mal Vow, to revile and profecute a poor Anabaptifl ( though errone- 
ous) for holding that Baptifm fliould be delayed till years of difcretion 
that it may be the better kept : Or to hear a man that obeyeth not God 
himfelf, but his flefhly LuH", to cry out agninft every DiOenter, how con- 
fcionable foever, for w* obeying the Church in fome queftionable points: 
or to hear a man that fticketh not at any wickednefs that maketh for his 
worldly ends or pleafure, to cry out againft thofe that in fear of Perjury 
or Lying or other finning againft God, dare not take fome Oath, Sub- 
fcription, Profefilon, or Covenant which is impofed : Asthefe notorious 
Hypocrites who live quite contrary to theChriftian Religion which they 
profefs, do ufe to call thofe Hypocrites that labour in all things to pleafc 


their Councils abridged. 2 1 

God, if they do but millikc any thing in their Lives. Soalfo while they 
are drowned in damnable Errour, they cry out againfl: Errour in thofe 
that practically hold all the Eflentials of Chriltianity, and are certainly 
in the way of Life, if they do differ in any thing from them, or are igno- 
rant ofany thing which they know. He that never puts up a fincere Pray. 
er to God for his Grace, nay, that would not have it, to make him ho- 
ly, and deprive him of his finful pleafure, will yet call others erroneous and 
Schifmaticks, if they pray not by his Book, or in all his Circumftances •, 
while his Heart and Family are prayerlefs, and God's Name oltcr heard 
in Oaths and Curfes than in Prayer. 

§ 14. Becaufe bare opwion may confillwith worldlinefs and fieflily lufts^ 
therefore it hath long been the trick of the ungodly tofeem zealous for 
the true Church, and for ri^ht opinions., and to over-do here to quiet their 
Confciences in Sin : And it hatii been a Snare to many confcionable Peo- 
ple, to tempt them to lufpeift anddillike theTrutli, bccaufc ungodly Men 
thus ftand for it i and to think it muft be fomc bad thing which wicked 
men feem fo zealous for : when as they do it but for a cover for their Sin, 
as Hypocrites an(d Opprellbrs ufe lon^ Prayers., which would not ferve 
their tarn if there were not fomc good in it. 

§. I J. And yet Errour is fuch a blinding thing, that it's very ufual evea 
for grolly erroneous men, to cry out molt fiercely againlt Errour : For 
they know not thcmfelves, and they are proud and felf conceited, and oft 
by malignity apt to fufpcd and condemn others. What did the Jews pcr- 
fecute tlie Chriltians for ? For fuppofcd Herclicand Errour: What did 
the Heathens caft them to wild Bcalts and Torments for ?■ For fuppofed 
Impiety and Errour : becaufe they would not erre in their Idolatry 
as they did. What hath difquicted and torn in pieces the Chriftian 
World , but erroneous and worldly Popes, Fatriarcks, and Prelates 
inordinate out-crys againft fuppofed Errours? For what have they filen* 
ced hundreds and thoufands oflaithful Minifcers of Chrill? for Errour. 
For what have they racked, tormented, burnt to adics, andflain by the 
Sword fo many tlioufand, and hundred thoufands? O, it was for Hcrc- 
fie or Errour. And are not thcfe men pcrfc<;i:ly free from Errcur thcm- 
felves, that have fo great a zeal againft it?" No, fo grolly erroneous are 
they, that they deny credit to all mens Senfcs, and know not Bread and 
Wine when they fee, and touch, and tafle it; and would have all thofe 
deltroyed that will not deny b. lief to ftrfe ns well as they : So erroneous 
are they, thatchey pretend a mortal m.in to be the Church Govcrnour of 
afl the Earth :, fo erroneous, that they think God well Wordiippcd by 
praying in words not und^rficod ; and dare deny half the Sacrament of 
the Lords Supper to the People, which they confefs that he inltituted, and 
all the Church did ufe i fo eitoncous, that they think the fl5mes of Pur- 
gatory will help th^m the better tolovethat God that doth torment them. 
How foul and many are their Errours that kill, and burn, and damn others ■ 
as erroneous? But S. James, hzih to!d us, Jam. 3. Tha: theWt[dom is nof 




Church-Hijhry of Bifhops and 

from abovcy hut is earthly, fevfital^ and deviUiJiiy vfhich bath an tnviotts ftri- 
vini z.eaL •■, and that if it work, fot by mecknefs of vcifdom., and be not fure^ 
peaceable, gentle, cafe to he inrreated, full of mercy and good fr Hits, without 
partiality and hypecrtfe, fowiiJg the fruit of riyhteoufnefs in f/eace, by peace- 
maki'igt hut hath bitter contention, it is not of Cod, but hringeth confujion and 
every evil work^ 

§. 16, The Arians were cruel Pcrfecutors, on pretence of zeal againfl: 
Erroiir, as they accounted it: They banifhed godly Pallors-, they killed 
them, they cut out the Preachers Tongues •, they reproached them. The 
Enipcrours Valens and Confantins were more fierce than the Arian Goths 

Macedonius thnt denyed the Deity cf the Holy Ghe" , was a great pre- 
tender to Ortliodoxnefs, and a great decryer and perfccutcr of others, as 
erroneous and Hereticks. 

Ncflorius (though fomcwhat worfc judged of by Cyril than he dcfervedy 
was juftly condemned, were it bur for his heat and fierccnefs agr.jnffc 
others : He fell prefently upon the Novatiaus and other Parties, ar. J began 
with this overdoing zeal at his entrance, Emperour, give vt: a Church 
without Herefie, and I will give thee FtBory over the Perfans : that is, De- 
Ilroy all thefe dillsnting Parties and God will profper thee; ."^nd very 
quickly was hedepofed, condemned, and at laft baniflied even 10 milery 
and death as an Heretick (whether juftly or no 1 (hall fay more anon.) 

The Eutychiars were as great Zea'ots againfl; Errour :1nd Herefie as any 
of the reH .- They took Cyril for their Captain whom Theodcret and Jfydore 
Feli'.fiota that knew him, defcribe as heynoudy proud and turbulent, and 
Socrates as the firfl Bifhop that himfelf ufed the Sword. Diofccnts raged 
at the fecond Council of fp/rf/i.'/ againfl: diflenters, and all in Zeal againfl: 
Ntfcortan Herefie. But what dreadful work his Eittychian Party and Suc- 
cellbrs made, I have elfewhere ihewed : And all as againfl: Herefie. 

The Anihropomorphite zealous Egyptian Monks thought it was Errour and 
Herefie which they ib furioufly oppofed, when they forced Theophilus A- 
lexand. to diflcmble to favc his Life. 

Ic was zeal againll: Origins Herefie and Errour which fet £p/pfc4»«A'j and 
Theophilus Alexand. upon their irregular and inhumane oppofuion toChry- 

What abundance of grofs Errours doth Philufhius vend while he thinks 
that h; rccitcth ether Mens Errours : 1 have given a Catalogue of them 
elfewhere. Befidts the inconfiderable Errours which hecalleth Hertfies. 

It was zeal againfl: the A,i:ir Herefie which made Lucifer Calaritanuj oc- 
cailon the Schiim between two Bidiops at Amioch^ and after become the 
Head of a ft parating Party, becaufc lie would not receive the returning 
Arims into Communion as others did. 

• And it was zca! r:gainfl Herefie thst made others for this account him 
a Heretick., an^j call his Followers Liwiferinns. 

U was zeal .'gainft Errour which made both the Novations and the Do- 
■ ~ natfs 

their Councils abridged. :> ^ 

7itttifts run into Errour, and keep up their Parties as more pure ^rom the 
Crimes of Idolaters, Traditors, Libellaticks, and other Criminals. 

Siilpitius Scveyut defcribeth Jthacins as a man that cared not what he faid 
or did , and the rell of the Synod of Bifliops about him as unfit to be 
communicated with i that would bring Chrillianity it Iclfinto reproach by 
their furious oppofition to Hereticks : And who would have thought but 
thefe Bifhops had been very good men thcmfelvcs, that were fo zealous a- 
gainftthePr;/c////<i;;;y?/, as to procure the Death ot fomc, and the Banidi- 
raent of others, and bring Martin himfelf, and other ftrid abftemious 
people into the fufpicion of Pnfciliijnifm ? 

It wasazeal forChrift, and againlt fuppofcd Errour, which raifed the 
doleful contention about the corruptibility of Chrift's Body; one Party 
calling the others Phantafiajlickf, and the other cajlingtliem Cor,7<p/,co/tf ; 
into which Errour the Emperour jHJliman himfelf did lapfe and become 
a zealous Heretick, as the Orthodox Party called him. 

And even S. Hilary PiRav. /• lo. iie Trimt. feemeth not free, when,p. 20 j. 
he faith C I'' (jU(»* cjudmvii aut i^m imidcrct, ant vidnus defcenderct, aut 
nodi concnrrerentf aHtfufpenJio elevaret, affayent cjiiidcm hac imfdum p^jficfiis^ 
Hon tamen dolorem pajfionis infcrrent , ut tcliim ttliquod aut acjiiam perforanSf 
ant ignem compmigcns^ ant Aravulneyans : Omties ejuidem has pajfwnes Katura 
fH.e infcrt^ ut perforct, ut compungat, ut viilncrct •, fed naturam fuam hdc paf- 
fto illata nen yetinet ^ dum in fiatMy.'t non tjl vel acjnam forari^ vel pun^i ig. 
mm, vel ara vulnerari^ cjuamvis tiatiira leU ft valuer are dr compungert Cr 
foyare : Pajfus cjuidem Dominus Jefus Ojyiflns dinn cteditur, dum Jufpenditur^ 
dum crucifi^ituy^ dum moyitny ", fed in Corpus Domini iryitens paffio^ nee non 
fuit paffio^ nee tamen uataram pajjloiiis cxeycuit : Cum G~ pceiialt minifleyio ilia 
defdvit^ C" Z'iytus coypoyis Jine fenfu poen£ vim pa:n<t in fe deftvientis excepit.2 
Yet it was againlt Herefie that the good Father defended this ('worfe than 
many of Fhilafiyius^ yea or Epipbanius's, Herefies.) Pag. 2c8. faith he, Ale- 
turn Domino hxrefis afcribit : ' Timuijfe tihi, O HxreticCf Domimu gloria 
pafftonem vidctur Pag. 2 1 6. Non vis, impie luretice, ut tyatifeunte pal- 
mas clavo Chriflus non dolueyit, mcj-, vulnus illud nullum aceybitatem tcli ccm- 

pungentis intuleyit. Inteyyogo^ cur pucri ignes non timuerint nee doluerint 

So p. 217, 218. you fee how little heed is to be given oft to good mens 
outcries againft Herefie; He fpake much better, tbid. pag. 2ji. In fm. 
plicitate fides eji *, in fide jufiitia ej}:, in co>ifejfione pic t as efl : Non per diffici- 
les nos Deus ad beatant vitam qitsftioncs vocat ^ nee multiplici eloquentis fa- 
cundi£ genere folicitat. I» ahjoluto nobis ac facili efi dtcrnitas^ Jefum fu- 
fcitatum a mortuis per Deum credere, & tpfum ejfe Dominum conpteri.'^ And 
Lib. II. p- 5 ? 2. if'itio \^Non cnim ambiguis nos dr erraticis indefinite do^ri- 
ttsfiudiis dereliquit, vel incertis optniornbus ingenia humana peymift., fi^tutis 
per fe O" oppofitis obicibus in Itbeytatcm inteUigcrtix volant at ifiq-^ concliidtrs, ut 
faptre non mfi ad id tantum cjuod pntdicatum a fe fuerat, nos funrct., cum p r 
dcfinitam fidei indemutahilis conjlitutionem , cyedi alitcr at.jiie alitcr non /«- 

F §■ 17. And 

54 Chunh'H'/Jfory of Bijbops and 

§. 17. And it is not only particular perfons, but many General Coun- 
cils, that have erred and perfccuted others-, as if all the while they 
were but cleanllng the Church of the moft odious Hcri.fics. 

The many Councils of the Aria,n \ may after touch upon, liz.. at 
Tyre^ Ar'tininum^ Syrmium^ C-c I will before its time here mention that 
ot Sardica : What horrid Herefiesand Villanics do tlicy lay to the charge 
Cnot only of AiArcellus, hnx) of AihMnfm^ of Paidm Conflant. of J;tliitj 
Bifliop oi Ro?ne , o^ Protbogercs, and others, wl.om they cxcomniunicate 
as if they had been the very plagues of the earth ? See the Copies of 
their Epiflle in ////..t)' Pu'K Fragments,/). 4 h, Oc. 

§. 18. And becaufe Papal Approbation is made by the Papiils tlic 
mark of an unerring and infallible Council, note that even the Jrian 
Council of Syrmii'.m was ex'prefly approved by Pope Liicrius in his Exile, 
as you may fee \\\ Hilary^ ibid. j>. 426, 427. faymg, [/r^f, amoto Atha- 

rafio a cemmiinior.e otnriium noftri:fii, en jut vec Efiftoli* H me fiifcipiendn Jiint, 
dico me p.irem cum oninibus vobis, QS" cum Vniverfis Epifcopis oricntalibus., fat 
per univerf.ts provincias paccm cj- unitatein habere '■ Nam itt veritts fciatis me 
vera fide per hanc Epiflolam ea loqiii, Do/ninus C^ frater mens commwiis IJe- 
mofilus, ^iii diguAttts efi pro fita beuevolentia {Idem O" catholicam e.xponere cjua 
Syrmium a plnribus frntribus (^ co-epifcopis nojlris traEiata^y expojita, o- Ju- 
fceptj f/?, ab omnibus qui in prafenti f iter nut ^ h.i77c ego libenti aninn fufcepi *, 
in nulla contradixi\ corifcnfttm accommeduvi^ h.znc fe.jHor, h<tc a tne tcnetur-^ 
Jane peteaditm credidi SanElitatem Fefhram, (jnia tarn pervidetis in omnibus 
riie vobis confcntancitm ejfe., dignemirii coi/wuirii anxilio nc fiitdio laborare, eju.t' 
te>:us de exilio dimittar, C^ ad fedem^ cjua mihi divinit:ts credita efi, revtr. 
tar.'} In reciting of which Hilary thrice faith {_AnAthein-i tibi, Libert 

prevaricator'] -If they fay that Liberiits did thisin his Exile through 

fear or fuffering, lanfwer, his Sufferings were fmall-, and Hilary annex- 
eth another of his Epiftlcs to the Arian Bifliops, in which he fwearerh 
orcalleth God himfelf to witncfs, that it is not for his Sutfenngs which 
are not great, but for the Peace of the Church, of which he knew thofe 
Bifliopstobe Lovers, and which is better than Martyrdom, that he did 
■what he did. 

■§. 19. I. Before thefe there were many Provincial Councils called 
to decide the Controvcrfic of the time of Eafler\ and asth.u at Rome, in 
JPaleJliKe., Ponti;is, and one in France went one way i fo that of Afia^ 
'"ander Polycrates Ephef. went another way, profefling to ttick therein to 
tlieGofptl, and the Tradition of their Fathers: For which l^tEior would 
•needs excommunicate them, which Ireaxns fliarply reprehendeth. Its 
•worth the noting, That as t;,c wrong party pleaded Tradition, fo the right 
party pleaded Rcaibn and Scripture, as you may fee in Beda''$ Fragment 
■o^ the Pale ft ine Council, /wi' Theoph.C^fir.Bin.T. \.p. 132. And that the 
main argument ufed was the Divine Bencdiftionof the Lords day : which 
they may note.that qucRion the ancient obfervation of that day. 
. §. zo. II. The ;iext Council recorded (Biri.p.ii^,) is oae ztCarthagef 
' "' under 

their Cc:mcil.s abridged. 

under ^^hfpinus^ which decreed the re baptizing of thofe that were bapti- 
zed by Hercticks : For which they are commonly now condemned. 

§. 2 I. And Binniits notcih that they had this from their Countryman 
Tertidlian, whofe zcal againft.Hereticl^s was fo hot, that he would have 
iiothing, no not Baptifra, common with them-, fo B.iron- dti.zxi.f- 1,2, 
3. & an. 258. n. ly, 20. Yet is this man now numbrcd with Hercticks. 

$. 22. HI. The Concilium Labefttunuin is the next in order, v.'here one 
TrtvatHs was condemned for an Herecick (^mentioned by CyprtMi^ Epift. 55 J 
But, faith Binniits., what his Herefie was is not known nor mentioned. 

§•2 J. IV. Next we have an ^r^<;»« Council, in which the Errour of 
the 5c«//A/orf.?//V)' (allowing it only to rife again with the Body at the Re- 
furredion) was excellently oppugned and cxpugned by Origin \, but it was 
by that Onigen whohimfelf is called a blafplicmous Hcretick. 

§.24. V. The next mentioned Council (fi/». p. 158.^ wa$ at Rome^f a- 
bout the reftoring of the Lapfed upon Cyprinnh motion. A bufinefs that 
made no fmall diirention,while Lucunns and fome others made the Church- 
door too wide, and NovAttis, and A'«-j<«f».i«/o made it too narrow, and 
Cypr«.?«and the Ronuvi Clergy went a middle way : bitter and grievous were 
tlicCenfures of each other, and long and fad the Schifms that didenfue, 
the rigour of thtNovatiaus being increafed by their Offence at other mens 
iinfal latitude and tepidity. 

§. 25. By the way it is worth the confidering by fomc Pafijls., who 
make both a Biihop Ellcntialto aChnrcii, and a Pope to the Church-Um- 
yerfal, and deny Church-Government to Presbyters, that this Council 
isfaidto be called by the Rov>.m Clergy (the Presbyters and Deacons) 
when the Church had been a year or two without a Biihop (through the 
fliarpperfecutionof JDmw upon h\ibians DcathJ. And it is to the Ro- 
manCkr^y (presbyters and Deacons) that Cyprian at this time wrote di- 
vers of his EpilUes, as they wrote to him ^ infomuch that Bimuus ftick- 
eth not to fay, that in this interregnum the Roman Clergy had the carc^tr 
charce of the Vnivcrful Church. 

Qjt£r. How far their Government, even of Bifliops Cwhom they Aflem- 
bltd in tiiis Council) was Canonical or valid ? 

§• 26. VI. After this there was another Council at Cjrihj>^e<,^r\A two at 
Rome., and one in Italy., and another at Cartha^^e^ about the lame Contro- 
vcrfie ; wh-^re it was determined that the Lapfed Ihould be received to Re- 
ix-ntance, and after a fufikient fpace of Penance, lliould communicate, 
butnotfooner : And that the Billiops that lapfed fliould be uncapable of 
Epifcopacy and comnuraicate only with the Laity rpon their penance: 
YetCypr/rf«in time of a renewed Perfccution thought meet to relax this, 
and take in the Penitent prefcntly, left they Hioiild be difcouraged under 
Sutftring. But Foeliciffimus one of his Deacons made himfelf the Head of 
a Fadton, by taking men in by his own Authority too foon, and Nov.itus 
and Nevatian, as is laid, being againft their taking into Communion at 
2ll> the Councils exconxnuaicaced them nil asSchifmaticks. Where note, 

F 2 that 


^6 CImrch-HiftoryofBijhopsand 

that NovAtHs an Afrkm Prieft, that went to Rome and got Novatian or- 
dained BiDiop, did not deny them Pardon of Sin with God, but only 
Church-Communion, z. Nor did he deny this to other great Sinners re- 
penting, but only totbofe that lapfed to Idolatry or denying Chrift. But 
the Novatuatis long afrer extended it to other heynous Crimes, as upoH 
fuppofcd parity of Reafon. 

§. 27. VII. Next this we have Cyprians ^^/^/mw Council in which fafter 
the cenfuring of fome that reproached a Paftor) they condemn a Dead 
Man called y'ttlor^ bicaufe by his Will he left one Faujiinus a Presbyter 
the Guardian of his Sons, which the Canons had forbidden, bccaufe no 
Minifters of God fhould be called from their facred Work to meddle with 
Secular things : Therefore they Decree that VtUors Name (hall not be 
mentioned among the Dead in Deprecation, nor any Oblation made for 
his Rell". ( Non efl c^nod pro dormitione ejus apud voj pat ohlatio, ant deprecatio 
fiUqtia nomine ejus in Ecclefii frc^ucvtetnr.) The cafe of the Clergy is much 
altered fincc then •-, And whether the penalty had more of Piety, as to 
the end, or Errour in the rigor, and the matter fas if it were a Punifhment 
to the Dead, not to be offered for, or prayed forj I leave to further con- 
fideration, Cypr. li- i. EpijI. 66. 

^. 28. VIll. The next Council we meet with is Concil. Iconienfe an. 258. 
where the Bifhops of Ci!pp^i^tfCM, Cilicia, Galatiu, and other Oriental Pro- 
vinces at Iconiim in Phry[^i.t^ Decreed that the Baptifms of Hereticks, their 
Ordinations, Impofirion of Hands, and other facred Actions were inva> 
lid. For which, faith Baroniiis an. 25S. n. 14, 1 5, 16. Pope Stephen Excom- 
municated all thefe Oriental Bifhops, and Reprobated the Council, and 
would not receive or hear their Legates : Of which Firmlianus Cdf-tr. Cap.. 
pad. writeth to Cypri,i:i againft him. 

$. 29. IX. Atihs I'amQ time, Enfeb. lib- 7. c. 6. tellsus, there was alfo 
a Synod at Synadir^ yea, divers in other places, that all decreed the fame 
thing, for rebaptiv-ing thofe that were bapti/.cd by Hereticks i and that 
this had been the Blfhcps opinion of fo long time before, that Eufebius dni[t 
notcondemnit- F,d. B.:rc>u Am.o z^'^. n. 17. But it is now commonly con- 

$. 30. X. If they had confined their opinion of rebaptizing to fuch He- 
reticks as areftridly fo called, that rcnoimco any eflcntial Article of the- 
Faith, they might have made the Controvcrlie hard-, But as Hereticating 
iacrcafcd, fo theirown difficulties inereafed. And nowthe Nozatians were 
pronounced Hereticks, it grew a hard quellion, whether all that the No- 
i'<?//4«^ had baptized mud be rebaptized. And for this an -^/r»M» Coun- 
cil, jiano 258. concluded affirmatively: Becaufeall that are baptized are 
baptized into the Church : But Hereticks are not in the Church, and fo 
baptize not isto the Church : therefore fuch mult be rebaptized. CyprUn 
and many very Godly Bifhops conlented in this errour. 

§. 51 XI. To try this bulinefs further, Qpr/'/tw gathered another Couiir- 
cil of abo.ve 70 Bifhops out of jijrid'Zn^ Nimidia., and all were defired to, 


their Councils abridged. ^7 

declare what was the Tradition of their Fathers ^ And they all agreed that 
according to Scripture, and Tradition, the Baptifm of Hereticks was a 
Nullity, and it was no rebaptization to baptize fuch as they bapti7ed : (fee 
here what ftrength is in thePapifts argument of Tradition in fuch cafes. ^ 
But this Council and their Do(.T:rine Pope Stephen condemned.- But they 
never the more altered their judgments, not believing his Infallibity or 
power to judge between them in fuch matters of Faith. 

In this Council is fet down every Bilhops Reafon of his Judgment. 
§. 32. XII. WhcnPope Stephen had condemned thefe Bifliops, Cyorian 
calleth yet a greater Council of S7 Bifliops, who confirmed the fame Do- 
dlrine,and rejeifted the Popes opinion and his arrogancies, that would make 
himfelf to be a Bidiop of Bifliops, and by tyrannical terrour and abufe ot' 
Excommunication, force others to his opinion. And with ihe Africans ia 
this judgment joyned Firmlltan, with 70 v^<«« Bifliops, and fsith Bmniit.^ 
DionypHS AUxandrinm alfo. 

§. j3. But I muft here tell the Reader, that I mention not thefe inftan- 
ees to breed ill thoughts in him of thtfc African snd Nhrndtan Bifliops; 
For as far as lean difcern by their Writings ar.d by Hiltory, they were the 
Codlieft, Faithful, Peaceablccorr.pany of Bifliops that were found in any 
part of the World llnce the Apofllcs times : Cyprian''^ fty le and the teftimo- 
ny of all jiift Hiltory which conccrneth him, as well as his Martyrdomc, de- 
clare him to be a Saint indeed. \^N,iz.iar:z.en dcclareth the flrangc occalion 
of his Converfion-, viz.. That he loved or lulUd after a Chriftian Virgin, 
and wiien he could not obtain his will, being given to Magick, he agreed 
with theDevil to procure hisdclire-, but when he faw that the Devil con- 
feft himfelf unable to do ir, and lb that he was too weak for Chrill, he 
forfookthe Devil and turned Chriftian : ) The Papifts (Biaiiiiij, Barcnihs, 
&c.) conjefture that Cyprian before his death reformed this Errour, but 
their conjecture mcerly tells us what they willi, without any reafon, 
but that he dyed a Martyr and his Succcflburs honoured him. As- 
if none might fo die and be honoured that I ad any errour, which? 
no man living is without. 2,. And this may be faid to cxcufe their errour. 
I. That the ftriiiteft men oftner cire on the ftri<n:er lideagainfl fin, than 
the complying Carnal Clergy. 2. That they thought it the fafer way ta 
baptize fach again, (''on the fame reafon as we do in cafe of uncertain bap- 
tifme, with ^finon b.''ptiz.AtHs es, baptizo te i ) not knowing why there fhould 
beany danger in thcmiftake : Much like as in Enalanduow, the Bifliops are 
forthe re-Ordaining of all fuch as were Ordained by others th.it were not 
Diocelanes, and yet do not call it re-Ordaining. 3. That in thofe times of 
Heathenifmc and perlecution, theCliiiflians had no way to maintain their 
fbrength bat by the Churc hes Concord •, nor could they otherwife have kept 
up fo ftriift adifcipline as they did, having no forcing power of Chriftian^ 
Magiftrates ■■ Therefore they were ntcefiltated to be fcverc withdividcrs. 
4. And the ambiguity of the word Llhrcfe'] w.'.snotthekaftoccalipn of 
tlieir errour. The Nicivt Council afterward rebaptiied fuch as thofe He- 


5 8 Church- Hijiory of Bijhops and 

rcticks Baptized, who corrupted the fubftance of baptilme it f^lf, but not 
others. And Chriltiansatfirfl had more wit and charity thau to call every 
errour a Hcrcfic, cdle there had been none but Hcrcticks'J fuchasdenyed 
fome cllcntial point of faith or pradicc, and drew a party to maintain it, 
were called Hercticks in the former times -, but afterward every Schifm or 
Party that gathered by themfclves, and i\:t\i\) ^Itare contraaltare upon the 
fmallclt difference, was called a Herefie. And lb the fame name applyed 
to another thing, deceived them. The Biihopj were men of eminent piety 
and worth. 

§. 34. XIH. jimu) z6i. They fay there was a Council at /*!w«e to clear 
Dmiyfms AlexMd. of the imputation of Herefie, occafioned by fomc doubt- 
ful words which he wrote againft Sahclliiis. 

§. 55. XIV. ylnno 266. They fay there was another at Antioch againlb 
their BifliopFW/^Sww/^jr^ww;, a grofsHcretick: But he renounced his er- 
rour in words, and for that time kept his place. 

$. 3^6. XV. P.i/</.7/ returning to his Herefie^nd a bad life, v^.'Two 272. an- 
other Council at Jntioch depofed him \ but he would not go out of the Bi- 
Ihops houfe, and the Emperour JitreliMi a Heathen put him out. 

§. 57. XVI. Amtoioi. Thcnext Council was at Gi^? in AW;/W«.«, Se- 
cMnd:-siiglfitanus being chief and calling them. Here Secimdns accufed the 
Bifhops one by one asTraditors (dilivering thelacred booksto beburnC 
in perfccutionto fave themfclves, which was then judged perMioufnefs.) 
The Bilhops partly excufcd , partly coafefRd ir, and asked pardon ^ 
Till at Jalb Seciuidus ready to judge them, nccufed a Bifliop PHrfiiytii^s of mur- 
dering his own Sifters Sons: who to!d hinuhat he fliould not think to terri- 
fic hmi as he had done the reft •, He hrd killed, and would kill thoie that 
make againU him , and asked him whether he liad not been a Traditor him- 
, feP", andb'ginning to evince ir, bid him not provoke him to tell the reft . • 
VV hereupon Si c//«d'«/ his Neph^vv told hisllnkle. You lee that he is ready to 
depart and make a Schifnijand not he only but all the reft,?.nd you hear what 
they fay againft you : And then they will joyn and pals fentence on you, 
and fo you will remain the only Hcretick {Her^stiaitwg went thai by the Fote ) 
5fa/?i!/«/wasnonpluIt, and askt two others, what it was belt to do i* And 
they agreed to leave them all to God, and fo the Bifliops kept their places. 
Aii^^efiii-:. ccnt.Crejcon.i. i-c. 26,27. 

\. jS. XVII. Nex'tthcy deliver us Co«/7////wS/»wjp»///«, whether true or 
forged is too hard a comrovcrlic. It wasofr/jrce hundred Bifhops ("how 
big were their DiocclH s think you above our PariOies? J who all came fecrer- 
]y together to a Town now unknown, and met in a Cave that would hold 
but 50 at a rime, for fear of perfecution : The buflncfs was to Conviift Pope 
Ai.-.rcclliriu of Idolatry /or offering lacrifice to Hmnles, Jupiter, and SMiirn : 
which he confellld. 

§. 59. XVllf. Anno 505. Was held a Council of ipBifiiops at JHrberis 
\nSp.tiii: wiHTC many good things were agreed on .• But not only to iha 
Iuclat;ou; Up.'el, buUooihcr hcinovs crir»cs they denycd Communion 



tJ)€ir Councils abridged. :>^ 

to the death, notwithftanding rcpcnr.inre. And that thcfe B fhops Ihould 
be Orthodox, and yet the Nov.,ti.n,s Here ticks, it is not ealle to give a rcaron -^'ff?'- 
of. Theirdiftirittioiiof /'fi.'^'/Cf, Sacraiiie/it^2r.<iCcmrntmon, will not well '"'"j'^'^"'' 
perform it. Therefore Mdch. C^rnrj chargcih them with Erroin lib. 5 c.4. ^eth\li'e*' 
and Bella mine much more, lib- 2. He Jt>:t^_. c. p. That it is Concilium von coiifv- lv(l ot it. 
niaiim, frtejucntererr.ijfe., &c. A Biihop, Pricit or Deacon in Ollice, thit Kit of 
h.uh committed Fornication, was not to have Ccramimion, no not at de^th: *-^''- 54. 
and divcis ethers. No Billiop was to receive any Gift from any one that a°voifc''' 
did not Communicate. It pofaii the P.ipifts themfelvcs to expound Can. fence than 
34. Cercos fcr diem flMiut iru Camitcrio)ii.n incendi: Irji^nietandienim San^orum this of 
ffiritits r.oii flint : Bim,ins will have it to be th: Spirits of the living Sainis, ^"""'''' 
that arc not to be difquietcd with tronbicaboutLights fctupby da/. But 1 
wiflnhnt be the meaning. But the $6 Can. more troubleilithcm, PUcnit 
ficluras in Ecclefa cjfc mn deberc, ac quod coUtiir ant adoralur, in parictibus 
dcfingMitr. Can. j8. A Lay-man, incalcof ncccfiicv, iscnalfled to Bapti/e. 
Can. 59. Gentiles unbapti7.cd may be madoChriilians.it lall, l)y lm]:;oiItion 
of hands. Can. 65. If a Clergy-man's Wife play the Whore, and he do 
not prcfently caft her our, le mull not be received to the Communion to 
the laft. Can. 73. If a Clinflian turn Acculcr (Delator) and upon hisaccu- 
fation any one be baniflicd or put to death, he is not to be received to Com- 
munion, no not atlalt. Can. 75- Nor hethat falfly accufeth a Bidiop, Pref- 
bytcr, or Deacon, and cannot prove it. Can. 79. He thatplayeth at Dice, 
orTableSi was to be kept from the Communion. N'any other Canons fa- 
vour, fome of Piety, and fomeoftheiVirtwr/.w/. Thirty fix Presbyters fite 
with thcfe Nineteen Bilhops- Pope Innocent approved thcfe almoll Ncva- 
tiau Canons, and Einniin excuftth them, p. 246. 

§. 40. XIX. Anno 306. ACouncilatC;>-r/5^^r of about 70 Bifhops be- 
gan the Schifm of the Donatiflsy contending ivhofliould have the Bifliop- 
x\<:ko{ Carth^ic: One party had chofen Ctcilianus to fucceed /1/«;?//<;-«w, 
Theother party accufing him as beingaTrndttor, and Ordained by Fccli.v 
a Traditor, and had forbidden bringing food to the Martyrs in prifon, 
they orilained one Afjjorints Biliiop in his ftead : CicHimus had the 
countenance of the Biihop of Jiome^ and Hood it out, and kept the place : 
Hereupon t'he Church being divided, the divifion run through all Afnck, 
sndN'umidia, while the accufing p.irty renounced Commuuion with Cart- 
lianns-1 fo that for many years alter ("two hundred at Icafl:) they did with 
plaullble pretence claim the title of Cathclickf^ tiiough they were after 
called Donatijls (from Don.itus a very good BiOiop of Carthage heretofore, 
whom they pi aifed, and not from Donatns a Cafsnigris^ as ibmc think, j 
Sccundus Tfgifta>;ns Frlmzic of Nn»:idia^ furthers the breach, and the Or- 
dination of Mtprtnns fixed it. Thus the doleful Tragedy of the Donattfls 
began by Bidiops divided about a Oirtb.tic-)i\\\\Q\}. 

if. 41. XX. ./^w7o joS. Another Council was held at C.«r;/;rj^f, whcreno 
Icfsthan 270 Donatift Bilhops, for moderation, agreed to Communicate 
with penitent Traditors, vi-ilhcut rebnptizing them, and fo did for 40 
years. J. 42. 

Chwch-Hijhry of Bijhops and 

§. 42. XXI. Jmio ^ 5. The Schifm continuing, the Do;:<i///?/ cleaving 
to ALijorimis, appca'cd agair.fb Cdcilutm to Conjianiine (now Empcrour.) 
He lirftnppointeth three f></rf/; Bifhops to judge the Caufc, but after 19 
Bilhops (called a A;w«/«« Council j metat^ow^ to hear both Parties : where 
Mdchiades and the reft acquitted Cacilianns^ and condemned Donatus a 
Cajis fii^ris (a promoter of the Dofiatijh Caulej asguilty of Schifm. But 
the Doaatifls accufir-g /Ii'f/V/;/W« alfoas aTraditor, the Schifm was never 
the more ended : A motion was made that both the Bifliopsfliould remove 
CCxciliafiusind M^jori'ius) to end the Schifme •, But the Daw^f//? BiOiops 
were fo very many ia number, that they thought they vt'ere to be 
-called the Church, and the Cxciliamjls the Schifmaticks, and therefore would 
not fo agree. Thus Bidiops about Bifhopricks fct all the Country on a 

§. 45. XXlI. Next 0«/.«;?r;'«f would hear the Caufe of thefe contending 
Bilhops at a Council at ^rUs in France, fbefore 200 Bilhops at lean:)where 
Cdciltamis was again acquitted, and the Donatift Bifhops calt,by the witnefs 
of their Sct'ihz Ifigtiitius, who (being racked) confelled that he was hired 
to give falfe witnefs in the Cafe. Several good Canons were here made for 

§. 44. I have heard many Popifli Pcrfons liken the Separatifts among us 
to the DoKatifis: But fo unlike them are they, That, i. The faid Sepa- 
ratifts are againft all Epifcopacy, but the Donatifls were Bifhops, and 
contended for the higheft Places of Prelacy. 2. The Separatifts are con- 
teffedly a Minor Part departing from the Major Part. But the J)e;/4f//?/ 
were the Major Part of the Bifhops cafting out the Minor Part as Delin- 
quents. The Truth is,in thofe times the Bifhops being ufually in contention 
and Church- Wars among themfelves, ( efpecially when Conflatitine had 
given them peace and profperity,) the ftrife was. Who fliould get the 
better, and have their will: i. Sometime the ftrife was about Opini- 
ons, who was in the right, and to be called Orthodox, and who was to 
be accounted the Hcretick, 2. The other part quarrel who fliould be 
the Bifhop, or who fhould have the higheft places- 3. And the next quar- 
rel was whofe fide fliould carry it in fetting up any Bifhops, or in judg- 
ing and depofing them, and who fliould have their Heads or Friends 
brought in. And the way to get the better, was, i. At the firft, by the 
majority of the peoples Votes in chufing Bifliops, and of the Bifhops in 
depofing them. 2. But after, moft went in chufing and depofing by the 
majority of the Bifhops Votes in the greater Seats, ('the peoples con- 
fent ftill required J at Icaft if a Council did interpofe. 3. And at laft, it 
went by the favour or difpleafure of the Court i either the Empcrour, 
or the Emprefs, or feme great Officers. The African Bifliops it fecms 
were far the greateft number againft C^cilian, (when 270 met at one 
Council, and A^.7c^<W« Council at Rome had but 19, and that at lUtbe- 
ris 19, and that at >4«c)';-^ 18 Bifhops.) Therefore the Bifliops thought 
that majority of number gave them ri^ht to the Title of Catholick), 


their Councils abridged. ^ \ 

that thofe DifTenters muft be called Hertticks^ as was too ufuai. And iee- 
ing they lived in the Country where many Councils under ^^ippirus and 
Cypriafj,zn<i Firmilian,[\a.(i voted that Herericks were not of the Cnurch,and ^'^'^ "" 
thofe that they had baptized, were to be rebaptizcd-, they thought that Councfl 
they did but keep up this Tradition i and fo they faid that they were all had judg. 
the Church of yifrica^ and that the Cfc;7;4ff/ were H.rctiiks and Sefaratifis ^^ againft 

from the Church, and that all that they baptized were to be rebaptizcd, **"^'"' ^"' 
aswas formerly held. So that indeed the X)e«rfr//?j did but as ^^^ P^fifls,^^^ ^^^ 
and their worldly Clergy ftill have done, who take the advantage ""* 
of ^majority to call themfelvcs the Church and Catholikf , and to call ttie 
Diflenters5c/;///«jr;ctjand fi'frfrtci^/, fave that they added Cyprian''s rebap- 
tizing. And when it was for their advantage they communicated 40 years 
withTraditors :, but when the power of the Court and the bi(\\.c( Rome bore 
them do-.vn,they kept up their party by pretended ftri(fl:nefs,and reproach- 
ing the others as a Sein:,3nd as Heretical and perfccuters of the Church. So 
that it was the Multitudes and Councils of thePrclatcs that fet upDonatifm. 

§. 44. XXIII, The next was<t». 3 '4- at Ancyra in GaUtia ol' eighteen 
Bifhops, who met to determine how many years the Lapfed fhould repent 
,,or do penance) before they were admitted to Communion. Cu». 1 7. for- 
bad thofe,that were ordained Bidiops to any people and were not accepted 
by tlie Parifh to which they were ordained, to thruft: themfelvcs on other 
Pariflies, or raife Sedition, but allowed them to continue Presbyters. 
Cm. 21. Wilful Murderers were to communicate at laft only. 

§.45. XXI V. The Churches having now peace under Covft.tntine a Council 
of I } Bilhops that had been before molt AiAncyra met atAWe/irr-t^but the 
fmall number did better work than many greater Councils did, making 
fome good Canons againft .adultery and Fornication^Though the yihCan. 
that forbids Piiefts to dine at the fecond Marriages of any, bccaufe fuch 
muft: repent, be of doubtful fenfe and truth: The firfl: C.i«. is againft 
Priefts marrying and Fornication. The lad, that the number of Deacons 
muft be juft feven, be the City never fo big. 

§.46. XXV. Next a ^pw.»« Council is mentioned by 'Binnius p. 279. for 
a Conference with Jews before Confinfitine^ but he faith the Ads t!;at now 
are extant are full of falfehoods. 

§. 47. XXVI. Af>. 315. They place us a Council at Alexandria in 
which Alexander, with many Bifliops, condemned Enfehius Nicomcd. with 
Ariits and that the reft adhered to them, efpcciailyas holding that Chrifl: 
was not Eternal, but was a Creature that had a beginning, and that the 
Wtfdom and Word of God was not the Sou., but made the Son. 

$.48. XXVII. Another Council at Alex and. xIk^ tell us of, againft 
the Ariatis., z:iAt\\Q A^eUtian Schtfmaticks: but the AAs are not known. 
To this is annexed an Epiftle of Ccnftamitie to Alexander ard >^?-/«/,record- 
edhy Eufeb.Cdfar in zii.i C(7«/?^f7;^. in which Cor/? -wr/w* chideth them both 
for their Contention, andfeemethto take the Qneftion for unfearchablc 
and to bedifputed,faying,'i undcrftandthat the foundation of thcCcntro- 

G '■'\erfie 

42 Church-Hijiory of Bijhops and 

" verfie was hence laid, that thou AUxandtr didft ask queftions of the Pret 
"byters about a certain Text of Scripture-, yea, about a certain idle Par- 
''ticleofaQueftion didft enquire, wjiat every one of them thought? And 
*■' thou y^r/«; didft inconfiderately blurt out that which thou hadftnot be- 
♦••fdre thought of, or if thou hadft thought of it, thou o'lghteft to have 
'^paft by in filence: Whence difcordwas ftir'd up among you, and the 
** meeting hindered which is wont to be made in the Church, and the 
*'moft holy people diftracfted into feveral parts, is divided from the 
'*^compagination of the whole body of the Church. Therefore both of 
"you, forgiving one another, approvcof that which your fellow-fervanc 
"doth not without caufe exhort you to: And what is that? That to 
*' fuch Queftions you neither Ask, nor Anrwer, if asked : For fuch Qjc- 
"ftionsas noLaw or EcclefiaftickCanon doth neceflarily prefcribe, but 
•♦ the vain ftrifc of dillblute idlenefs doth propofe, though they may ferve 
" to exercife acutenefs of wit, yet we ought to contemn them in the inner 
"thought of the mind, and neither raflily to bring them out into the 
"publick AlTemblies of the People, norunadvifedly to truft them to the 
*' Ears of the Vulgar. For how few are they that can accurately enough 
"perceive the force of things fo weighty, and fo involved in obfcurity i 
" But if there be feme one that is confident that he can eafily do and reach 
*'this, yet 1 pray you, how fniall a part of the multitude is it, that he 
** can make ro undcrftand him ? Or who is there, that in the curious fearch 
^'of fuch Queftions, is not in danger of a fall/ 

The reft is well worth the Reading, as to the common cafe of Theologi- 
cal Controverfies, though it feems that Conflantine made too light of tiie 
jiriati errour. But 1 dare not be To injurious to Eufcbius as to queftion 
whether he faithfully recited theEpiftle, when ^/w^w; himfelf backs his 
doubt with a dicere nonauderem: And if we give away the credit of that 
oneHiftorian,it will leave much of Church Hiftory under doubt, thatnow 
goeth for certain : Pcrhtips Peters being ever at ^"we, &c. 

§. 4$>. XXlX. The next mentioned is the Council of Z-W/cm \n Phry- 
£14 Paccdt^ (not Syria) of jjBifliops, gathered by Niinechitts aBifliopof 
Phrygia. They were fo few that without contention they made divers 
good Canons : The 46 Canon rcquireth that the baptized fliould Icara 
the Creed, and on the Friday of the laft week repeat it to the Bilhop 
or Presbyters. (By which you may con je^^ure how large a Biflioprick then 
was.j And Can. 56. The Presbyters were not to go into the Church be- 
fore the Bifhop, but with him- (For then every Church had a Bi(hop,though 
fome Chapels far off had Presbyters only. J And Can. 57. It is ordered,, 
that Sijlwps Pwuld >iot be Ordained in fmall fiHages and Hamlets^ but Vtftors 
fhould be appointed them. But fuch (Bijltr-psJ m had been kentofore there Or- 
duinedj fjciild do nothing without the Confcience of the City Bijliop. Which Ihew- 
eth that before Bilhops were made in Villages ^ as Socr.-rteshith then they 
were in ^r<ji>4, zad the Phrygiaf3NovatiaKj, &c. The laft Can. rcciteth 


their Councils abridged. 43 

the fame Canonical Scriptures that we receive^ fave the A^eculyp^ which 
is left oat. 

$. 50. XXIX. Next we hare a great Roman Council of 275 Bidiops, 
faith Crah-, under Jy/tr^fr, which hath 7 Canons: The lafl: faith, That no 
Bifliop fliall Ordain any, but with all the Church united.. But whether this 
was before or after the Nicene Council, is uncertain. 

And another he mentioneth under Sylvefler ztRome, which 5/«;7/"«i hath, 
where Conflantine baptized oiSyhejier was prefent and 284 Bifhops- ( Whe. 
ther itbe tnieor a fi(ftion is uncertain.^ But if true, it was a very humble 
Council : For they all profefTed only patience, renounced giving their judg- 
ment at all, but only heard v^lwt Sylvcftcr would" fay, profefling none fit 
to judge bnt he. But they all with f reshyters and Deacons fubfcribcd what 
he faid (if true.) What he fa id I do not well undcrftand, fuppofing much 
of it to be fcarcc fenfe: I am fureit isfar fromC/Vfro'sLatine. 1 59 Bifhops 
Came, f.v Zlrbe Rcmavelnonlonge ah ilia., Qft of the City of Rome^ or net far 
from it: (How big were their Diocelles ?; Here, Cap. 2. three men are curf- 
ed, ('anathematized:) One was a Bifhop, VtElorinus, that heini^ ignorant cf 
thecoiirfe of the Moon, contradided the right time o( E after. It's well the 
Al^kfvs ^u^ylp^rovers of our Impofcd Ens^hfl) Liturgy fell not under SyU 
rry/fr'sfeverity, who have {al:.s, miftaki'ngly) told us, that HEajhr-day^ 
en which the refi defend, i< always the frji Sunday after thefirji full Mocn.^\vhtch 
ha^f ens next after the one and twentieth day 0/ March : And if the full Moon 
k.ippen on .t Sunday, EaUcr-day u the Sividdy after-'} This is one of the things 
that about 2000 Minifters are hlenced, for not Declaring j4ffcnt, Confent 
and Approbation of j yea to the «/<?«»/»;, and fo to keep'£<»/f r at a wrong 
time. But how Sylvefler came to have power to fay all, and to banifh men, 
and Conflantine fit by and fay nothing, 1 know not : Dedit eis anathema (^ 
damnavit ees e.xtya urbes fiu/. 

Cap. J. He Decreed, th^t no Presbyter JJtaS accufe a Bijiwp., no Deacon a 
Presbyter, c^c. and no Layman, any of them: yindthat nt Prelate fliaH be con- 
denmed but in 72 Tefti monies , nor the chief Prelate he ]ud(^cd of any one., hecaufe 
it IS written., The Difcipleis not above his Mafter. ^ndno Presbyter fliall he coh~ 
demncd but in ^.^-Teftimonics '-, no Cardinal Deacon but in^6,&c. And what 
may they not then do or be ? 

Cap. 5. He Decreed clara voce., that no Presbyter flwuld make Chrifme, 
hecaufe Chrifl is fo called of Chrifme. 

The 1 2. Cap. is, 2Vir/;w det pccnitcntiam., nifi quadrarirta annorum fetenti .', 
Let no man give repentance {^OX penance) but toone that faketh forty years. 

Cap. I4. Let no man receive the whnefs of a Clergy-man againfl a Lay- 

Cap. I 5. For no man may examine a Qcrgy-jnan but in the Church. 

Cap. ]<5. LetnoClnkj, Deacon., or Presbyter, for any Caufe cf his enter into 
any Court, becaufe Omnis Curia a Cruoredicitur, every Ccurt is fo called from 
blood, and is an offeringto Images-, For if any Clergy-man enter into a Court, 

G a let 

4 4 Chnrch-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

let him takt ins yinaihima^ never returning to his Afothtr the Church. 

Cap. 17- Let no man put a ftming Clergy-man to death, no Tresbyter, no Dea- 
con^ vo BiJIwp^ that is over a Clerk, or Servitor of the Church, may bring him 
to death. But if the Clergy man s caufe fo require, la him be three days depri- 
ved of honour J that he may return to his Mother-Church. 

Cap. I 8. No Deacon may effcr againfi a Pricft a Charge of filthinefs. 

Cap. 20. A'o wan (liall judge of the Prime feat -^ btcaufe all feats defire juflice 
to he tempered ef the frjl feat. Tht Siibfcribers were 284 Bifhops (what did 
the other 57?) 45 Pnelts, and 5 Deacons, and the two following., and Con- 
il^nuns and his Mother Uekr\3. O brave Pope and Clergy / O patient 
Council that fubfcribed to one man, and pretended to no judgment/ O 
humble Co?iJ}af!tine, that fubfcribed to all tiiis, and faid nothing! And a 
womans fubfcription perfedeth all. And O credulous Reader that believcth 
-this ! 



■^i— — ^ 

their Councils abridged. 4 5 


The Council of Nice, arid fome followi?ig it. 

$. I. XXX."T'"¥ TE come now to thefirft General Council: General 
%/l/ only as to the Roman World oz Emf ire, asthcHifto- 
T T ry and Subfcriptions prove , and not as to the 
Whole Worlds as the Papifts with notorious impu- 
dence afRrm : which I have elfewiiere fully proved. This Council was 
called, as is probably gathered, ^nmii<i. in the 2://j year olCcnfiwtint 
(though others allign other years.) That they were congregate about the 
Arian Herefie and the Ealtcrn Controvcrfie-is commonly known : As alfo 
what wifdom and diligence Cvnflamine ufed to keep the Bifliops in peace: 
Who prefently brought in their Libels of accufations againfl each othcrj 
which he took and burnt without reading them, carneftly exhorting them 
to peace, and by his prefence and prudent fpecch repreffing their heats 
and contentions ; whereby the Synod was brought to a happy end as to 
both the controverted Caufes- And Euffiins Ntcoiued- and ^•^r;'/tf were 
broughtto counterfeit repentance and confcrit to the Ktcene Faith ■■, which 
Conflantwe perceiving, being fct upon the healing of the divided Bi/hops ^ 
and Churches, he commanded that -<4r/;(; fliould fas reformed; be recei- 
ved to Communion •, which Atbjnjfms refulicg caufcd much calamity after- 

§. 2 Becaufe the Cafe of the Afeletians is brought in by this Council, I 
thmk itufeful (for our warning in thefe times} to recite the fum of their 
ftory out 0^ Eptphaniui, f-jiji&c. H<tr. 63. 

MeletiiiJ ('faith he) was a Bilhop in TUbaU in Egypt^ of fincere Faith 
even to the death. In D<cc/frj.yw Perlctutiou, Fctcy Bilhop oi yiUxAndrt^^ 
and he, were the chief of tlie BiJhops thnt were laid in Prifon, as dcfigncd 
to Martyrdom-, while they were there long together with many feliow- 
prifoners, many called to Tryal before them were put to death, andmany 
for fear fubfcribed to Idolatry, or denyed Chrift :«And when they had done, 
profelTed repentance and craved peace of the Church : As it had been in 
iVozww his Schifmes, fo it fell out here, Peter Bifliop of y^/f.v.«/;. was for 
peace and pardon j Mdeiius and moft of the other fuffcring prifoners 
were againfl; it, and laid. If they may thus revolt to fave thcmfelves, and 
be prefently pardoned, it will tempt others to revolt : Pcnr feeing his o- 
pinion was rejeiTted, raihiy took his Cloak and hang'd it like a Curtain 
over themidfl: of the prifon-room, and faid, Tnofeilut are for wr, comt 
to me on this fide, ard thofe th.it are for Meletius ^po on that fde to him: 
Whereupon far moil of the Bifhops, Prien;s, Monks, and people that 
were in prilbn went to Mdetius, and but few to reter. fA fouler Rupture 


- 4-^ Clynrch-Hiftory of Bijhops a?iJ 

than that of the EngUlh Fugitives zt FrankforJ.) Tliis unhappy word and 
hour began the mil'ery, aniong'good men, expe(fting death: From that 
hour they keep all their meetings fcparate. Shortly after Petir was Mar- 
tyred, and /1/<r/f/;/M was judged to the Mines: As he went thither through 
the Country, he every where made new Bilhops and gathered new Churches, 
^^ fo tl'.at there were two tn the fevtral Cities : Thofe old ones that followed 
P.-ff>- called their Meeting, 7bcCatholick.Cbi(rcb ■, The other called theirs, 
' The Martyrs Church: But yet they held a Unity of Faith. Even the fiifFer- 
nf* ers that laboured in the Mines divided, and did not pray together. At 
laft^/(?/fm/iand the reft were reftored unto peace, and ztj^lcxandria^ A- 
-lexa>idcr^.nd he lived in familiarity^ and McletiHS was he that dcteiftcd A- 
■ rius and brought. him to Alexander to be tryed. ^\it vfhtx\ Mekt ins was 
Cf" dead, y^/fA.jW(r grew impatient at the private fcparate Meetings of his 
followers, and troubled them, and vexed them, and began to ufe violence 
' rgainftthcm, and would not have them depart from his Church: They 
■"Tefufed [bill, and this bred flirs and Tumults. >^/f.v^«^f>-perfecuting them, 
«"and following them yet more (liarply, they fentfome men, eminent for 
piety and parts, to the Empcrours Court, to Petition for Liberty for their 
' private Meetings, without impediment. Of tliefe PaphmitiMs and fohn their 
^Bifliop, and Callinitus Bifhop of PcI/u/iHmwere chief: who when they came 
' to Court, being named A-uletiars, the Courtiers rejected them and drove 
' them away, and they could not get accefs to the Emperour. On this oe- 
cafion being put to wzklori^T^t Cofifiiintinople and Nicomea'ta, they fell into 
acquaintance with fw/f^'Wi, bin-'.op of Nicomedia, the Head of the^rww, 
who pretending repentance was become great with the Emperour, v/ho was 
. all for the Clergies peace and concord. To Enfehiiis they open all the mat- 
ter: He craftily took the advantage of their fufFering and long waiting, 
and promifcd his help, on condition they would but Communicate with 
r-Sa) y^r/;M, who feigned repentance. The temptation overcame them, and they 
^^ yield i They that had gathered feparate Churches, becaufe they would not 
Communicate with the repenting L^pfed (to Idolatry,) yet yielded to Com- 
municate with Ariiis, that tlxy might be delivered from the perfecution of 
a Godly Bifliop, and keep their Meetings. They are brought to Cenflantire, 
who being all for peace, though againftSchifm, grants them the freedom 
of their Meetings; An€ thus joyning with the Ariavs for the liberty of 
their Aflemblies, this became the greatefl fupport to the Aricns, without 
which f faith Epiphaniits) th(:y could not' have flood. (So much doth Hi- 
fbops tyranny or feveriry crofs its own ends, and deflrcy the concord which 
they think by fuch tearing means to force", And fo hard is it formcnthat 
could fuffer Martyrdome from Heathens, innocently to bear the p:if-citi- 
on of their Brethren, and fo greatly doch it tempt them to ufe unwarrant- 
able means for their prcfervation : Jufb as if the Non-conformifls at this 
time UiouIJ feek, by the favour of the Papifts, to be delivered from the 
filrncing and dcftroying Prelates, upon condition of a common liberty: 
The Calls are not much unlike. J Necjne emm Cfaith EpiphaniHs) c-enfftere 


their Coinicils abridged. ^-j 

Arius, aiitfiditciam iilLm habere potuifjety rilji Civn ef)ci occafiomnt nact;:;; ajm 
teffim.'.m inter illos ad bodiernnm nfcjucciietn ccncordi^mdeiiifixit. fBiiC O, Fa- 
ther Efiphanius, why took you not warning by this, when you un-Biil,op- 
like and un-Canonicaily fct your felfagainlt holy Chyfojlcwe?) 

Alexander being dead, andj^thanafus iliortly Iliccctding him, he could 
not bear the ^/f/rfi".«« Churches in his City : Andafter fair means he ufcd 
foul ; And going himfc'f to look after Rich Meetings, with his Retinue, 
one of his Deacons in the Mektian Meetings broke a certain Velfel, which 
occafioned fome chiding and fighting, which occafioned Accufations of 
the Mdctianst and Calumniations of the Brians againfl; yiihana/ius as a 
Man of Violence and Tyranny; which Conjlantinc abhorring in a Bifhop, 
and CAj/f^.iV/cow^.reprefenting the Matter as worfc than it was, the Em- ■ 
perour (having granted the AicUtians liberty for tlicir Meetings, which 
^r^.wa/</f; violently denycdthem) in great anger commanded a Synod to 
beheld at Tyre to examine the Matter, and Eufd-ius C<c/"-m«/. with fome 
others toprcfideor order it : Where Poramo Bilhop of //a--!i-/r4 feeing F«- 
ftbius C<t[. Ct as Judge and A(hana(iHs ftand, with Paflion and Tears in- 
veyed againft Eufehius^ frying-) ^i^o c.m endure to kt thee^ Eiifcbiu«, y?f 1=^ 
and judge innocent Athanafus .' W^ere not thou and J tn Prifon together in time 
of PerfecHtiev, andvehtn Ilc(l nn Eye far the Tiwh^ thoucAtnefi cut w:maimtd ? 
And how came that topafs, if thou did/} not fromife feme K>iil;(d dcedor ether t» 
*he PcTftcutors^ ordofonre'f £;//fi'/Af hearing this, fuddcniy rofe and dil- 
rniffcd tlie Council, faying, Jf yon dare carry it thus hcre^ your Advtrfaries 
Acciij\itions are to be believed : For if yon flay the Tyrants hire, you do it much 
more in y cur own Country. Hereupon two yirian Bifliops Vrjaliuj and Valcns 
:ire fcnt into fijj'pf to enquire alter the Truth of the Matter, who coming 
back with Calumnies againft Aihanafius., he fled from the Council by 
Night to the Court to the Empcrour to give him information •, who taking 
Aihanafiis for falfe ard Tyrajinical would not believe him, but upon Let- 
ters from the Council , and upon the provocation of Athana.fius, who 
told him God would judge him for believing his Accufers, banilhcd him, 
where he remained Cin Italy) twelve or tliirtcen years, even till after C«m- 
fiantins Death. And when Cow/?<?hj had compelled his \!>vo\\\zt Cenfiantiut 
to reftore him, he was again baniflied-. For George that had been made 
Bidiop by the Arians f and by Gnftaj^tius) was killed by the Heathen People 
in Julians time, and his Corps burnt, and the Alhes fcattcred into the 
Wind, which incrcafcd the fufpicion of Tyranny againft Athanaftus: But 
in Jcvians Reign he was again reftorcd •, And after his Death, he con- 
flidcd with Infamies again : And when y^,fcrffw/7w was Dead, the Empe- 
rour Valens ftt tuciits over them , who affli^^ed the People that had 
followed Athana/ius, and Peter vihom they hau rhofen for their Biftiop, 
and by Banilhment, Death and Torments, made them knew what Church- 
Tyranny was indeed. 

Thus far Epiphamas giveth us the Hiftory of the Melctian Schifm, and 
thccffefts of good Bifliops impatience -with Oilfenters. " 

§. J. But 

48 CJmrch-Hiflory of Bijhops and 

■ ■I III I — - - - 1 — — _] 

§. 3. But 1 muitnot cor.ceai fronuiie Reader tliat Burouiis and Dioi. 
Fctaviiis rny,th?.t EpiphAnius is deceived in all this Hiflory, and maketh 
the cafe of the AicUtt^ws better than it was ; and that fome Miktian Icnave 
beguiled him : Bur, «• They give us no proof of any fucn knaves beguiling 
him a: all •• 2. And het!iat was fo apt to over~do in fufpcdingand aggra- 
vating Hcrelies, (2s\i\0r:gm''s ^nd Cl:ryfoJ}ome''sCzk.,) was not likely to 
make the Cafe here fo much better than it was : }. And how much nearer 
was Epipbaniiis in time and place, than Baronius and Petavius ? and how 
eafie was it then for him to have true notice of fuchpublick things? 4. And 
if they make Epiphafiiiu fo fallacious in fuch aflory as this, lb near him, 
what a fhakedotti it give to the Credit of his copious Hiltory of the ma- 
ny other Herefies, which he had lefs opportunity to know : and confequenc- 
ly to the Credit of much of Church Hiltory ? Yet I confefs, that the man 
fcemeth not to be very accurate in his Difputes, nor all his Narratives; 
But rather by far to be fufpcifted of making things worfe than they were, 
than better. And 1 believe that fome paflages in this Hiftory are miftaken 
by him (as that the /I/f/ff/<<;?/ joyned with the Arians before the death of 
yiUxandey.'jbwt that maketh their Cafe the better. Petavius faith alfo, p. 286. 
Jlnimad. in Epiph. A^itltum in Hiflori.i Meletii Upfum ejfe fiipra vidimus ., 
Largihs in Arhnis Hxrejis defcriptionepeccavit vir alio^iti di/ijrentijfimus. Atld 
in his inftance of the time of Arins death it's undeniable. But if in fuch 
famous Hiftories, we muft read him with fuch fnfpicion and allowance, 
how much more in the many little ones that were more obfcure .' 

§. 4. As to the yfr»4;w Herefie, the two EpUlles of /^W«^ recorded by 
£pfp/3.!w// tell us much of the truth of his miftake: And the jiri.tns Argu- 
ments by him are at large recorded and anfwered. He that denyeth the 
Deity of Chrilt, denyeth his ElTerjce : And he that denyeth his Ellence,de- 
nyethChrill, and is no Chrittian. But the SAmofatenims^ the Photinians^ 
and our late5oci;;Mw, are far more pernicioudy Heretical than the v4r<4w. 
For the y^Wiiw/ maintained, tlut Tresfmt hypofiafes, Pater, Filius& Spiritus 
SitnBus^ and that God did atite fempiterna temporaunigemtum fHium gigvere, 
per (juein Crfxcula Cr relicjna procreavit omnia -^ viz,, fitbfjicr/tem ilium fiiapte 
volutitate corididiffe, ejiifmodi nt nccjue converti Kecj»e mutari pojfit, perfe[iam 
Dei creaturam, Jed non tanquam renim creatamm aliquam ", fcetiim itidim, fed 
nontanquamunitm e ceteris. They thought that before God made the reft of 
the creatures , he made one fuper-angelical perfeft Spirit, by which he 
made all the reft, and that this is Chrifti and that he received no other 
foul but a body only at his Incarnation, and this fupcr-angelicalfpirit was 
his foul. This was the dangerous herefie of ^Wkj. •.' 

§. 5. Dion. Petaviits truly tellcth us, that his great advantage was, 
that many of the Fathers of that Church had fpoken in fuch kind of words 
before him, the Controverfie being not then well confidered; p iS^. ad 
Htrej. 69. having fpoken of Z/«c»4«, the Martyr's giving advantage to -^- 
rius, he addeth, ^tod idemplerifque'VcterHmPatrum ciimin hocnegatio, tkm 
in a'jis fidci Chrifiimi c^tpitibus nfu venit, itt ante erromm atque hare/eon, qui- 




tJjeir Councils abridged. a q 

bus ea fr.gillatim oppu^>iabantur, originem, ncndumfatisillujlrat.i <^c pAtcfaB,i 
ret verttate, qiudamfiiis firiptis afpcrfcrint, qu^cttm crthodoxt fidei reTnlutm- 
tiime eonfentiant. ("And yet the Papifts fvvcar, not to expound Scnpture" 
but according to the unanimous confent of th? Fatiiers.j A^ aihcc Trim, 
tads myflerio ac ijusjlionc difcedam, chfc-iV.iViirut! j.'irditdum Juflinum Mart. 
Dialogo cum Trypll. dc fiHo Dei idem propc/aod.im cum Alisms fefitnc. 
And in his Books, DeTrinit. he atlargeciteth tlic very words ofhimand 
many other Fathers. But he lierc giveth them this gentle cxcufe, Sed ah 
omiii culp.i tAmhic ^K^wLucianus aliique liberaiidi fnnt^ cjui nof?dnm aeitatu 
controverfia^ panem de e.i commode proriunci.'ijfe vide>!iH>: Simile cjinddam de 
Dionyf. Alex, ir.tdit, Balilius, Ep. 4i,C7-c. But it is enough to thini< cha- 
ritably, that they were faved, without going fo far as to fay, they were 
without all fault. For Chriftianity is the fame thing before fuch Controvcr- 
lies and after: AiKlit's hard to think how he can be aChriftian, thatde- 
nycthChrills Eflencc : But God is merciful, and rcquireth not knowledge 
alike in all, that have not equal means of knowledge. Which charity 
muft be extended to others asvvcll as to thefe Fathers. Yet the fame Feta- 
w'<« cannot endure Cfwfr.^?-//.'/, for faying, x.Wtyitha>:.ifius^ though a vali- 
ant Champion of the truth, dad/owf/JW tudnlge hisowndejires^ audmixfome 
ill with/acred thi^^s : But if he were not at all to be blamed, Conflantitie was 
much the more to be blamed for banifliing himi And why fliould not his 
honour be of fome regard ? The truth is, the -<4/f.v4;;^r/,?« Bidiops and 
People were long more violent and troublefomc than others, as not only 
Socratesy but many other Hiftorians note.- And as it was noted withdiflio- 
nour in ThcophiliMznd Cyril., and Diofcoriu^ Sec. fo it can hardly be believed 
by them thatrcad the Hiftory throughout, that utlcxander and yithanafms 
wanted not fomething of the humble patience, meeknefs, and healing ten- 
dernefs and skill that their Cafe required: For who is perfe^fl .' And how 
apt are grcatBifliops to be too violent againft Dillenters, inlteadof heal- 
ing them with Love and clear convincing Evidence ? 

§. 5. Happy had it been if Prudence had filenced this Herefie betimes, 
for never anyone did fo great mifchief to the Church. The badnefs of 
it, was the honour of the Mcfw Council that fuppreflcd it, as far as in 
them lay. But alas, the Remedy feemed quickly conquered by the Difeafc: 
As Conftantine had work enough to keep Peace among the Bifhops in the 
Council, by his prefence and reproofs \ ib when the uirians profcfi'd re- 
pentance, his peaceablencG caufed him too far to indulge them \ by which 
fome of them got fuch interell in his Court, as proved the following Cala- 
mity of the Church. And it is the fadder to think on, that the two great 
Emperours, ConftantinsznAVaUfis., that were deceived by them, and drawn 
into violent Periecution, are noted to be otherwife none of the worfl men. 
EpipiiMiiits faith, p-llj. Accejfit & Imp(ratornm favor cujusinitium a Con- 
fi^^nuolmpcraioreprffiilumeft: ^hti cum ceteris iu rebus pcrhumanus ac horus 

'JP'y "C:^ alioyiinpius ex multis prohitatis crnamcntis prcditus, hac una re ab* 

rrravit^ quodnonimprejf.t a ptirer.te fideivejligiii fcqy.utHs cfl; ^odipfmri ta' 

H tneit 

5© ChurcJ)-Hijhry of Bijhops am/ 

ran non illins culpa factum fed miinHllorum fraudt^ cjui in die Judicii rationcm 
teddimri fnnt ', tjiii Jpecic (^ nomine tenlis f pfcopi, friceram Dcif.dem labefaita- 

Tunt. •fr^fjf/ Conllaiilii in crrorem ah illis induSii, t]i'.i rtcU fdei rt- 

gulnmi^ntrtivit^ e.idem(jiit i^KorM2ti.i ad ill or urn fe ntpote facer dot um yiuihori- 
t.jtem aecorr.msdavitj cjitod ipfm't error illornm, ac ca itM,depravtitaqHe fdes cj" 
ex diaboli prcfefl aconjilio, later et. j4cccjfit O" alia caiifu ejim huic firpentu^t^ 
o^cine plurimumetdjccit lirinm^ Eufebius/c/V/cff, ejui c.illidefe in/imuns, Valen- 
tis I'.nres pH ac rdigicf Imperatoris, ac Divim tii.minis amamijfimi^ corriipit. 
Qjticjuod abillob^pti.j'moft ifiiriatus, cacaufafuit cur luc fa^lio jlahilis ac fr. 
m.t con/ijieret. \{EptphA>ms fay true, we fee what men thefc Pcrfecuting 
Empcrours were 

§. 6. Astoth: other part of the Councils work, the fixing of Eajler- 
day, had not the Rifliops been finfully fierce about it, againft each other, 
it had never been taken for a Herelle to miftake the time, nor haditbe>;n 
a work fo ncceflary and great to determine it: feeing zs Socrates^ Soz.o- 
men^ Scc- tell us, many Churches differed in this, and matters as great as 
this, without condemning or feparating from each other: Andthe^yTjw 
erred by the Motive of Tradition, and Irenxns had long before cenlured 
the Roma:'} Biiliop for his violence in condemning them. And many good 
Chriftians even after the Councils determination, durft not forfake their 
old Tradition, nor obey them; Among whom, how long our Britains 
and the 5cfff J flood our, 5c<:/.« tellethus. And though the J^udia»s, that 
aifo difobeyed, were called Hereticks, I would all Advcrfaries to Hcreticks 
were no worfe men. 

§. 7. And becaufethefe v4/.'<5//4wjrore about that time, I think it worth 
the labour to add the fum of their Hiftory out of Epiph.-wins^ that the 
World may better perceive what fpirit the Herericating Prelates were 
then of, and how fome called Hereticks were made fuch, or defamed as 
fuch, and who they were that did divide the Churches and break their 

•*' Epiph. I. j.Ttfw.i .p.S 1 1. Of theSchifm ef the Audians, which is the yoth 
■*' or yorh Herefie : The Audians live in Monafleries, in Sohtudes, &:c. Aii- 
""</»/« their Fonadst ztok in A^efopotamia, famous for his integrity of life, 
"''and ardent zeal of Divine Faith. Who oft feeing things ill carried in 
**• the Churches,feared not to their faces to reprove and admonifh the Bifhops 
■■**andPriefts, and fay, Thcfe things fhould not be fo done: You fhouid 
*' not thus Adminifter : As a Lover of Truth, he ufed to do fuch things as 
''"thefe, which are familiar with men of exquifite honefby, who through 
" their excellent ftudy of Godlinefs, ufe this great liberty of Speech : There- 
^'fore when he faw things ill carried in the Churches, he fometimes fpake 
'*' his thoughts, and could not forbear blaming them. As if he faw any of 
■**■ the Clergy over covctou: of Money, be it Bifnop or Prieft, he would re- 
'^'^ prehend th:m: or if any abounded in luxury and pleafures", or if they 
■"corrupted any part of the Do(ftrinc or Difciplinc of the Churcli, he 
'^* would not bear with them, but blame thcra- Which was troublefome to 


their Coundh abridged. 5 1 

" men of a difToIute life: And therefore he underwent the greatcll con- 
•'tumelics, being exagitated by the hatred and malicious words of them all. 
"But he being thus tolled about, and beaten and reproached, did bear it 
"all with an equal mind i and thus long continued in the Communion of 
**• the Church \ Till fome that were more vehemently offended with him for 
" thefe Caufes, caft him out: But yet he patiently bore all this, but being 
•■• more earneflly intent for the promoting of the Truth, he ftill lludied not 
"• CO be drawn away from the Conjunftion and Society of the Catholick 
*■' Church. But when he and his frit-Mds were ftill beaten, and fuffered un- 
*' worthy ufage, groaning under thcC: evils, he took Counfel ofthe vio- 
*' lence of thefe calamities and contumelies: And fo he feparatcd himfcif 
*'from the Church, and many falling away with him, a new Divorce was 
"hereby made. For he did not in any thing depart from the n^t fuith^ 
"but he wichhis partakers held in all things fmcere Religion. Though in 
•'one fmall matter they are too ftiffi About the Father, Son, and Holy 
" Ghofl; they judg excellently, and as the Catholick Church, and fwervc not 
"a jot .- and th« reft of the order of their Lives is truly moft excellent 
*< and admirable-, fo that not only He himfcif, but even the Bifiiops,Pricfts, 
*'and ail the reft of them, live by the labour of their bands. 

Indeed they had a conceit that the Body did partake ofthe Image of God, 
and they thought that to pleafe Confiamine, the A^/Vf«« Council had altered 
the Cuftom and Tradition ofthe Church about Eaficr : But thefe were not 
thccauftsof their departure from the Church, but the violence of dijfolme 
Bifliefs^ that caft them out, as being impatient of their ftritftncfs and op- 
pofition to their fin. 

§. 8. Ahowt Eafier^ faith Epiphanius, p. 821. Necjite criidttt! i^notum e(l^ 
fpum fccfe diverfs tcmporibHS de ill: us fefli celcbntatc varti Ecclcfiajiicx difci- 
plina tumult us ac contentioties oborticfnt : praferti/n Polycarpi ac Vidloris tctare, 
ciim Orier.tiiles abOccidentalibus dividf^^acijicas a fe inviccm liters tiuUm accU 
fereiit. Q^iodidcm & aliis temperibHs accidit : ■uf/«t Alexandri Epifcopi A- 
kxandrini o- Crefcentiiv cjuemadmodiwi contra Je mutuo fcrlpfertnt O" r,cerri- 
mlfuinaverint. Qjt£ ammornm opinionuntjuc dtjlraiiio^ ex tjuo fcmel pojl Eplf- 
copos illos cjui ex circumcifone rxc Jud^crum fc^a ad Chnfium fe ecnverterantf 
^^itAri corpit, admflraufque te/r.pora eodem ej} tenor e perdiicta. By which we 
fee, 1- With what caution Tradition mult be trufted; 2. How early Bi- 
ftiops began to divide the Church about things indifferent. 

§. s^ That men that all, in the main, fear God, fliould thus contend, a- 
bufe, and perfecute one another, is fad, and hath even been a hardening 
of Infidels: But, alas, the remnant of corruption in the beft will fomewhat 
corrupt their converfations. It is a fad note ofEpiph.tnins, ib- p. S 16. [^* I 
''have known fome ofthe Confeflburs, who delivered up Body 2nd Soul 
**' for their Lord, and perfevering in confeflion and chaftity, obtained great- 
*' eftfmcerity of faith, and excelled in piety, humanity, and Religion, and 
^'were continual in faftings, and in a word, did tlourifli in all honcfty and 
/'virtue: yetthe fame men were blcmiflied»v'th fome vice-, as either they 

H i "were 

5 2 Church-Hi ftory of Bijhops and 

*•■ were prone to reproach men, or would fwear by the name of God, or 
" were over talkative, crpronctoangcr> or got gold and filver, or were 
•' defiled with Ibme fuch fUth , which yet detradt nothing from the juft 
*' meafure of virtue.] 

§. 10. But as God made a good ufe of the falling ontof Paul znd Bar na^ 
has, fo he did o'i Judim his unhappy cafe. Being caft out of the Church, 
hetookittobehisduty to Communicate with his own party, and aBifhop 
that fuffered forth; like, made him a Bilhop, and the Bifhops accufed him 
to the Emperour, that he drew many people from the obedience of the 
Church, and hereupon the Emperour banifhed bim into Siyihia. Dwel- 
ling there, he went into the inner parts of Gothia^ and tu'.rc inltrufted 
many of the barbarous in the principles ofChriftianity, and gathered ma- 
ny Monalleries of tiiem, who lived in great religious ftridnefs, p. 827. 
But itishardto ftop fhort of extreams, when men are alienated by fcan- 
dal and violence .■ They came to fo great a diflike of the Biihops of the. 
common Churches, thatthey would not pray with any man, howblamelefs 
foever, that did but hold Communion with the Church. Vrunius a Bilhop 
and fome others joyningwith them, made Bifliops of the CTof^/. (Note out of 
EpipLmi/is,]}. 827,828. what Country was called Gc^t^M in thofe times J 

$• II. It is not to be pafl: over that at the N/ccw Council, thefirftfpeak- 
er, and one of the chief againft the Aims, was Enft.nhi/ij Bilhop 0^ Ar.ttoch^. 
Arid when Eufebius Nicomed. was made Bifliop ofCofiftanii>iop!e, he pretend- 
ed a defire to fee fiYHf.de/n, and paffing through ^wr/W/; fecretly hired a 
Whore to fwear, that Enjiaihiiis was the Father of her child : and getting 
fome Bifliops of his Fadtion together, they judged EnftathiHs to be dcpofcd, 
as an Adulterer', and got the Emperour to confcnt and banifh him: And 
after, the Woman in mifery, confefled all, and faid, that it was one £«7?*- 
thius a Smith, that was the father of her child. 

§. 12. {n Pifaritu'% Cvridl.Nic- Bin. p. HI. this Eiiftuthius is made the. 
fait Difputer againft a Philofopher •. And whereas the great caufeofthe 
Arians Errour was, thatthey could not conceive how the Son could be of 
or. efnb fiance with the Father, without a p.iw/r/(»/ of that fubltance, EuftathtHs 
tells the Philofopher that took their part and urged, Faciamiis heminem ad 
Imagincm, &c. that The Image of God is fimple., and Vfilhout all CompoJiriotJy, 
beit:<r ofthen.iiKreofjire: but he meaneth fure but analogically: 

§• 13. In the fame Pifams, lib. 3. p. 545. Bin. the defiiription of the 
Church is, There is one Chunk i>i Heaven and Enrih:, in this the Holy Gholt 
refteth •, But Htrefes that are without «>— are of Satan. — Therefore the 
Pope was not then taken for the Head of the Catholick^ Chnrch ^ For he pre- 
tendethnot tobetheHeadof them that arein //f<iw«- See what the C4- 
tholicl^Church then was ! 
^^g^ $. 14. Note that, 1. the Council of Nice nameth none Patriarchs. 
r^ 2. They nuUifie the Ordination of fcandalous and uncapable men. Can.'. 
9. and 10. Which will juftifie ?opt Nichcltu forbidding any to take the 
Mafs of a Fornicating Prielt. ^. That Rural Biihops were then in ufe, 


their Councils abridged, 5^ 

and allowed by the Council, Can.S. 4- That no Bifhopwas to remove 
from one Church to another, Ca/i. 1 5. ('which EMfch- Nicom. foon broke.) 
5. Even in the ^r^t/ci^ Canons the 4th. yr populo placebit, is a Condition of 
every Bilhops Eledion. 6. The jch ^rab. Cznon, in cafe of difcord a- 
mong the people, who fhall be their Bifhop or Prieft, it is referred to the 
people to confider which is mofl: blamelefs : And no Bifliop or Prieft muft 
be taken into anothers place, if the former was blamelefs. (So that if Pa- 
ftors be wrongfully call out, the people rauft not forfake them, nor re- 
ceive the obtruded.^ 7. Thofe Ordained by MeUtius were to be re- 
ceived into the Miniftry where others dyed. If by the fuffrave of the pee- 
fie they were judjtd ft^ and the BtJl}op of Alex. defigmd them. Sozom. 1. 1- 
C. 2}. 

§.15. XXXI. The next Council in Bmnius ('and in Crahs Order^ is faid to 
beat ^o^wr under Sylvefier^ with 275. Birtiops: But this is confelfcd to be 
partly falfe, if not all : And is the fame that is before mentioned ^ 
which ordered thatno Bifliop fliould ordain any Clerk nifi cum omm ^duna- *^3 
ta Ecckfia^ But with all the Church united, or gathered into one : (Which 
Canon feemeth made when a Church was no more than could meet to- 
gether, and when the People had a Negative X'oice-^ 

But the Concil. Ganrrenfe is Binnius's ntxc (though Crab put afterward 
fome of the foremencioncd alfo^ faid to be in Sylvfflcrs days j (and yet 
Soz.o/>ien and -fome others, fay that the Council of A7cr v,'as in j'uHhs 
days, though moft fay otherwife.) Here were fixceen Bidiops, who 
condemned fome Errours of Enjfathius of Amicmo; or rather one Eiittt- 
iliis, as £/«. thinks, who was too fevereagainft Marriage, as if it were 
finful, and againft eating FlcHi, and againft receiving the Sacrament at 
the Hands of a married Prieft ; he made Servants equal with their Ma- 
fters, he {et light by Church- A ifembhes, he drewVVives to leave their 
Husbands for Contincncy, and on pretence of Virginity dcfpifcd married 
Perfons ^ Thefe fuperftitions they here condcmred. 

§. 16. XXXW. j4n. 335. The Council at 7>re was held for the TryaJ 
ol Athanafus^ where he was unjuftly condemned, and thereupon by Coi- 
ftantiae banifhed, though his innocency was after cleared : Had not his 
fcverity againft the Mdetians driven them to joyn with the Anans againft 
him, Epiphaniiis [Ritby they had not been able to make head thus againft 

Confiantinet'Ep'i^W to the Alexandrians y lamenting and chiding thcrii- 
for their Difcords, is well worth the trauilating, but that I muft cot 
be fo tedious : See it £».v. p. ,9 1. 

$. 17. XXXllI. The next is a Council at ferufalem, An. 355. where 
Ariusta'ith was tryed, approved, and he reftored to Alexandria und the 
fiivour of Cofiftantine. The Creed which he gave in, was this. 

We believe in one Gcd the Father Almighty., and i» the Lordjefus Chrift hif 
Son, begotten of him before all Ages, God, the Word, by whom all things we-.e 
made which are in Hcti-j(H and in Ear4b : Who came dow», 'i>:d was Jticarnate, 


tA Chia-cb-Hijiory of Bijhops an J 

and Suffered^ and Rcfe <<2'»»«, and vifcended to the Hcavtm^ andfy^/l come tt' 
qain to Judge the Living and the Dead : j4rid in the Holy Ghoft : The Refur- 
'reUicn of the FUjli : The Life of the World to cokc, and the Kingdom of Hea- 
ven : Jn or.e CAtholick Omrch of Cod, extending it felf from one end of the 
Earth wito the other. 

Afim with this, protefting againft vain Subtilties and Controverfies, de- 
fircth the Emperour to accept of this as the Evangelical Faith \ and the 
Council and the Emperour receive him, as for the joyful reftoration of 
Unity and Peace, and fo would undo what was done at Nice. The Em- 
perour was fo greatly troubled at the continued divifions of the Bifliops, 
' that he was glad of any hope of Unity and Peace : But this proved nofi 
the way. 

$. i8. XXXIV. An. 3?6. A Council was called at Conflantinofle-f in- 
which they accufed, condemned , and banifhed MarcellHs Ancyranns, an 
Adverfary to the Arians, as if he had denyed the Godhead of Chrift, 
(upon fome wreftcd wordj though it was their denying it that offended 
him : Here alfo Aritis was jultified and Athnnafus condemned : But Arihs 
dyed fliortly after. 

$. 19. XXXV. The next is a Council of 1 16 Bilhops at Rome, in or a- 
bout An. 1 57. under Julius % in which the Mcf;?^ Creed was owned, and 
the ^n>w condemned , and nothing elfe done that is recorded. 

§. 20. XXXVI. The next was a Council at Alexandria which vindi- 
cated AthMafiiis from his Accufations, when ConfiamivHs junior fent him 
home from his Banifliment. 

$. 21. XXXVII. The next was a ComiciF at Antioeh of near 100 Bi- 
fliops (of which ?6 were Arians) the moil Orthodox Cand the holy James 
of Nifhis one : J yet they d^pokd Athanafins^ and the >4i-/4/.'/ (it's like by 
the Empcrours favour j carrycd it ; In his place they put George a Gippa- 
^^•c/.ii«rulpe(ftcd to bean Aria>^!, whom, ('as I faid before^ the Ptople mur- 
dered, burnt, and fcattcrcd his Afhes in the Wind, and he was one of 
the Arians Martyrs. fUnlels England had ever beer> Anan^ I cannot be- 
lieve them that fay that this is the St. George, that the EngUjl have fo much 
^ J.- 2 5. This Ari.i>7 Council finding that the Emperours favour gave 
•~^ them the Power, made many Canons againfl Non-Conformijls. The firft 
Can. is againlt them that keep not Eujhr at the due time. The fecond 3- 
gainfl them that come to the hearing of the Word, but communicate not 
publickly in the Lords Suppler and Prayers, and againft them that keep 
private Meetings, and that communicate with them. Can. 4. Was to 
make their C.ife hopelefsthat cxorcife the Miniftry after they are Silenced, 
orDepofcd, be they Bifhops, Priefts, or Deacons- Can. 5. V/as that if 
any Piicflor Deacon gathered Charches or Allemblies againft the Bifhops 
Will, and took not warning, he was to be Depofcd : And if he go on, 
to be oppi\ired by the cxieriour Power as Seditious. (There is their 

\ Can. 

' * t 

their Coimcih ahridged, 5 5 

Can. 6, and 7. Mone iufpcndcd by his own Bifliop was to be received 
by another, nor Jiny Stranger without Ceitificates. C^7. 8. Couatry- 
Priefts may not write Canonical Epifllcs, bin Rural Biiliops may. C^w.y. 
NoBilhopmufl: do anything without the Metropolitanc, favc wlut be- 
longcth ( byOrdir,arion and Guidance) to his own Church. C.w. ic. 
Thoug,h tile rural Bifliop5 arc conlccratcd as true Bilhop?, yet they fhall 
only f",ovcrn their own Churches, and Ordain fuch lower Orders as they 
need, but not Ordain Presbyters or Descons without the City-Biiliops, 
to whom they are fubjecl:. Can, 1 1. Call:eth out all Bidiops or other 
ClcrRy-mcn, that go to the Frincc without the SletrcpolitauL's Couaici 
or Letters. Qan. 12. Dcpofed or iilcnccd Minillcrs mull not go to Pria- 
ccs for relief, but appeal to a Synod. Can. 1 3. Bifl'.ops muft not go or 
t'rd^in in other Dioccfs, unlefs feat for by the Mctiopoiitane i elfe their 
Ordinations there to be null. Qav. 15. A Bifliop condcn:ncd of all may 
not appeal. Q.ew. 16. A vacant Bifliop leaping into a vacant Biflioprick 
without a Council (the Metropolirane prefent) is to be ejected, though 
all the people chiife him. Q-^n. 17. If any Bifliop be ordained to a Church, 
and rcfufe or ncglefft the OlTice, let liiiii be CACommunicate till he receive 
it. Can. j8. If any Biihop ordained to a Parifii ncgled it, becaufe the 
people will not receive liiin, icr him cniav the honour, and be heard in a 
fall Synod. Qan. 19. The Ordination of a Bilhop isnuii, which is done 
without a Synod, and the Metropoiitane- &c. 

§. 24. XXXV'UI. Ancthcr Council at Rome under Julius undid whatthis 
former did, and acquittal u^ihuaajlns, M.irccllHs., and other injured Bi- 
Hiops : ( prrhaps £«y/4/Aji,Y.f, faith Bm.) 

§. 25. XXXlX. yithannfiMs \.cm^ fent back when Gregory was put in his 
place, the City being ready to be in an uproar, Athanafms retired to Row.c 
(or hid himfclf) forcfecing it-, till fue and blood had proclaimed the Cc- 
Limity of this Epifcopal Ihifc. And Pope 7/.'/;;/; called another Council 
tiRcme, tOEnfwerthe Letters of the Oriental Synod, which charged him 
with ufarpaticn and delpifed him. 

§. 26. XL. yinro 544 Another Council was held atA'itioch, by thofc 
called yirians by fome, Reconcilers by others, and Orthodox and Ca- 
tholicks by themfelves", in which they renounce A/i/is and his fayings, 
but yet leave out the word oucLiQ- Cof one fubltance.] This they did 
in a new-made Creed ■■, fitted purpofelv, as they faid, to reconcile ; as o 
thcrs, to deceive ; To which end four had been made before, and not 

§.27. XLT. A Council at /1/iy.iM examined this Creed, and rejected 
it, for leaving out [^of the f^me jnhjJa/ne'] and becaufe the Niccne Creed 
was fufficient. 

§. 28. XLII. The next is called an Univerfal Council, of 576 Bifliops 
at Sardica., which cleared Athan^tfuiy /If.vcel/ns., and others. And yet 
Augiifiine.^ and many others, rejed this Cuancil. It hath divers good Ca- 
nons, but one among them for Appeals to Kcm\ which ihrce. Popes 


^6 Cimrch-Hijhry of Bijhops a?id 

urged to yinrclim, Aiigiifiwe and the other Jfricam^ as a Canon of the 
Council of A';cf .- And ivhenas neither any ofthefe Popes, nor the y^- 
frican Bifhops once took notice that thofe words were in the Council of 
'SArd:c.t\ the Pr.pifls nnfwer, ]. That the y4/r/c,i«/ knew not of this Coun- 
cUs Canons, bun had loft them, (though Grants Billiop of Carthage was 
one J 2. And that th; Popes took the Canons of Sardtca to be but Expli- 
cations of the Niceue^ and fo they were but as one. CBut why did they 
give no fuch anfwer ? ) 

Bifliops arc here condemned that remove to any other Church \ and 
they that arc above three days non-relidcnt i and efpecially they that go 
ad ComitatHni, to the Palaces of Princes or great Prelates i but if they 
have juft bufmcfs they are ordered to fend it by a Deacon. 

$. 29. XLIII. The' Orient^.l Bifhops departing from S.irdica came to 
PhUippcpolis, and gathered a Council by themfelves, and condemned thofe 
whom the other had abfolvcd, and others for Communicating with them. 
Yet they renounced Jriitr^ but alfo caft out the word [_ot4x>i^(9-, of the 
fame fiibjlaiwc'} as not Scriptural ; and are called Semi-Ariam. 

The Perfons excommunicated by them were Athanafms, Oftus^ Marcel- 
Ins^ Trotogenes^ AfcUpas, Gaitdemius, AlaximiriHs, Panliis Confl, and Pope 
Julius. They write a circular Epiftle, fpecially knlto Donatus Carthag. 
in which they fo vehemently fpeak for peace and piety, and lay fuch 
Crimes to the charge of Atbana/ius, Paulm, and Atircellus, as would a- 
ftonifli the Reader, and confound his judgment, whom to believe. Cruel 
Perfecution, bloudy Murders, Profanenefs, burning a Church, and fuch 
like they charge on Jthanafius •, and fay that they offered the Weftern 
Bifhops of Sardica to fend five of their Bifliops with fix of theirs to the 
place where thefe things were done, and if they prove not true they yield 
to be condemned. On Mtrcellits they charge written Herefie (which Bajil^ 
Chryfoftom^ and others believed.^ On Paulus Guf}. they charge that he 
was guilty of flames and Wars, and that he caufed Pricfls to be drag'd 
naked into the Market-place, with the Body ©f Chrift tyed about their 
necks ^ and that before a concourfeof people he caufed the confecrated 
Virgins to be ftrip,: naked in the open Streets, unto horrid fiiame. And 
for fuch Reafons tliey require all good Chriftians to abhor their Com- 
munion. Thus the Reader is called to grief and fhame to hear Bifliops 
thus odioufly reviling each other, and tempting Infidels to take them 
all for wicked and utterly unpeaceable men. 

$. 30. XLIV. An. 548 or 349. was a Council zt Carthage ("called the 
firlt : ) It was gathered agaififl: the Dtf?w?y?i, whofe Bifliops pretended to 
be the only Catholicks ; and their Circumcellions being violent Refor- 
mers, taking from the rich that they thought had wronged any, and 
righting the injured, and unjufl:ly doing jun:icei and refilling the Em- 
perour Conjlans his Officers, fo that they were fain by Souldiers to fup- 
prefs them, and call out Donatns Carth. and by gifts reconciled the peo- 
ple th»t followed them. 


their Councils abriJgeJ. ^ - 

Many good Canons for Church Order were made by this and inoft of 
the African Councils, no Bifliops being faithfuller than they. Several paf- 
fages in their Canons fhew that their numerous bifhops had Churches of no 
more people than our larger Parifhes. And Can- 12. of this Council or- 
dereth that where the Bilhops by Contraft divide their fevcral People, one 
take not from the other. 

§. J I. XLV. Anno \<f>. A Council at /^//7<<« received the repentance of 
VrfitimsTidyaUm that had accufed Athamfus, and gave them Letters of 

§. J 2. XLVI. Giiflans coVi^iTZ^nzd ConJlantiusioxcciW AihanAjius, but 
was him felf murdered by /1/<»g«<'»'»«.f before he came thither: But ztjeruf*- 
Umz Council was held in the way, which judged his reception, and wrote 
to Alexandria to that end. 

§. n- XLVII. Among the friends of y^/^<^«^y7>r.r, £//f/;r.«f4i Bifhopof 
Co//f« was one, thatwasfent onaMcdagcintothe Eafi-., where Stephen an 
^n<j« Birtiop of ^wr. got a Whore to go into him: When flie faw an old 
man, inftead of a young one, which fheexpecHicd, fhe immediately confefl- 
ed all, and Bidiop Stephen was call out for it. But Euphrataitt after all, 
tmned Photinian and dcnyed Chriftto be God, and a Council at Co/f«de- 
pofed him. 

§. j4. XLVIII. Theytalk of3 C(»;;c»7/<i ^<a/(r?7/?.r, orrV^'f);)!*, andthat 
they ordered [_As it wm in the beginning] to be added to iht doxehgie : But 
there is nothing of moment certain of them. 

f. 55. XLIX. Aw:o 552. L»/)fr/«; had a Council at .Raw; about y4f/j4;7<»- 
JiHs^ and fending a Mefl'age to Conftantius. 

$. }6. L. Anno J55. At a Council at >4r/r.', Athanaftus is condemned, 
and the Popes Lcgnie forced to fubfcribe it, with other Bilhops, and fome 
banilhed that refufed it. 

§. 37- LI. Pope L;7'<rr/«.f defired a Crwr**/ Cc«w«7, which the Empcrour 
granteth, and it's held at iW^i/^?;. Above 300 Weftem Bithops were there, 
moftof the Eaft ('where the Avians reigned) could not come r**". 355-) 
Athanajius his Condemnation (Vrfatiiis and I'^lens revolting, and again 
accufing him) and Communion with the Arians, wert the things there urged 
by theEmperour: Lucifer Calxritanns (after called a Heretickj and Ett- 
febitisyercdlenfs^ and a few more, refufed to fubfcribe, and were banilhed; 
as Libcrius after was ; and Foelix made Pope : But molt of the Bifhops for 
fear, and defire of peace, fubfcribed. The Empcrour himfelf wrote to 
Eujfb. rercel. to be there (who had refufed) with great profcdion of zea- 
lous piety, and defire of the Churches peace. Butthisfcandalandmifcar- 
riageof the Bilhops, and I'uccefsof tht Arians^ wasthceffedof this Gene- 
ral Council. 

§. j8. Lll. The 5fw;-v^?7;«;;/ pretending to Univerfal Concord, thus pre- 
vailing by the Emperour and a General Council, Hilary PiBav. fa Marry- 
ed Citizen made Biihop) drew fomc Orthodox Bifliops of France to fepa- 
rate from the Arun Bilhops, and renaunce their Communion \ Ti c Ari.t,:s 
f 1 (or 

5 8 Church'Hijlory of Bijhops and 

(or Semi-Ariam) taking tliefe for leparr.tifts, and injuiions to them, (cfpe- 
cially StUHrmnus) procured a Council at Byterns, to coiid>:niii them as 
Schifmaticks ^ where Wi/^r^ was condemned and banillied, an. 356. 

§. 3p. LIII. The General Council at S/Vw/«w I out of order began 
with. Jnno 3 5 7. Conftamius refolving by all means to brin^ all the Bilhops 
to one Communion, wasprefcnthimfclfi There were above 300 Bilhops, 
out of the Wejl^ bchdes all the E^.ficrn Bilhops, : The confufion was, fo 
great, that men knew not who were ox were not Hergticks. Fhotims deny- 
ing the Godhead of Chrift, the Bilhops called Arian., defired this Council 
toaccufeaad condemn him, as they did: They drew uptwoor three Con- 
fefTionsthemfclvcs: Thefirft was no: Heretical diredly, fave by the O- 
f-aj milTionofthe C'V'85751' :] which fomeperfwaded the Emperour. being netv 
•~^ and no ancient Scriptural or Symbolical word, was the Caufe of all the dt- 
vifionsof thcBifliops, and were that left our, all would be healed. This 
Council called ^«.t«, palled 27 Anathema's againft the Arians and Plio- 
t'mans: Pope Liberins lubfcribed toit and approved it, as the forcited 
words of his Epiftle in Hilri-y fliew. ('And yet many Papilts call it a Repro- 
bate Council.) Old0|///«, thatprelidedat A7cf, w.as forced by ftripes, ton 
fubfcribe to it, and to the condemnation of Aihonafu^s-l/That the Son w.is in 
all things like the Fathr,'} was the fubftitute Form here ufed. In their fqcoocl 
Form they fay,that [^Oftia i7ndtos connmvct v'ox^ fnhfiantia^ vcl<i^t-^ hpc ej}^ ut 
diligentiiis co^nofcatiir illiid cjuod <>iMi>:-jicv dicitur^ aiit'^i^^iirtcv^ niilLtm earn/it 
'uscnmmentionem debere fieri ncqne dc iis fermocniatidum in Eccltfin cepfc/tius, 
ejHodde iis nihil fcriptnw fit in facris Uteris^ Qr edited ilia honiimim ir.tclh^Hm & 
nientem tranfcendant^ (^ t^isod nemo pojfet genertttionem Jiiif enarrafe, ntfcriftuntj 
Generationein ejus cjnis enarrabit ? jolitm enim Fairc/n, [are ^twmodp fHitint 

fmwi gcniicrit., ccrtiim eft dr n.emo i^ncrat dit^ ejfe jierfonas Parr is & Fi- 

lii^ ac froinde Patrem >/iajoren>, Filimit ex P/itre gcnj/nm,-iPeiintex Deo^ L»-r 

men de Lttmine ] Many thought this a necefTary reconciling way : 

The words [J'erfon~\ and \_Snbflame'} (tumbled the Arians : For they knew 
not how to conceive of three ^erfons that were not three fubftances\ nor 
fiowthe Son could be of the /.t»;c fuhftance with the Father, unlefs that 
fubftance were divided : And at lalt wearied with contendingi they thought 
thus to end all, by leaving out the name \_fnbfiunce-, ] and profeOTing the 
Generation of the Son unft.irchable. 

The third Sirmian Creed had, [in nnigenitum filinmDti,, ante omnia fccnla 
(y' initin Cr ante cwnc tempus quod in intelleclum cadere potefl exiftentem \ c^ 
ar.te omnem comprehen/itilemfubftantiain, natiim itipajfibiliter ex Dec, folum ex 
job Patre, Deum de Dco^ (imilem Patri fuo cjiii ipfum genuit, ciijits ^eneratio- 
mm nemo riovit nifi foh.s ejni tarn gennii , Pater. Kofabuliwi vcro fubflcin- 
tiiC cp'.ia(i>Hpl:ciiis A Patribiis poftiim f/?, C^ a populis ignoratr.r-, O" Jcandalunt. 
offer t^ CO. cjKod infcyiptnn: non contincatur, placutt itt.de medio tolUretuk.^ Gr nnl- 
li^t poftLic ds Dei fubfta/iria mentionein elfe f^ciendam. 

§. 40- 

their Councils abridged. 5^ 

§, 40. LIII. The Oriental Bilhops offended at the fccond Confcillon at 
Sirmiim, for leaving out the word fubftance^ gathered in Council atyiicyra, 
an. 558. and rejecfting the -/^r/4«;, were called Sf/««-^?-/4;7j , bccffdfe yet 
they were not for l^oy.oijiov'^ but the [^ouo/ir/tr, 3 'i^otLthe fame f ub fiance^ 
but [^Like fiibfi.vice.'} Thefe afcer turning MactdonUns (tor Macsdonius was 
one of them) deny the Holy Shoji to be God- 

$. 41. LIV. Conflantiiis finding that all his endeavours mifled their end, 
and that infttad of bringing all the Bifhops to Concord and one Communion, 
the very ArUns, and the Semi-Arians^ divided and fubdividcd among them- 
felves, did fummon another General Council at Nktmedia: But the City 
fuddenly perifliing, he called the Wcflem part to Arimimm, and the Eaflcm 
to Sclencia^ taking them yet but as one Council. Above 400 Biiliops met 
at Aiimimim, who were to determine firfl: Doftrinal and then Perfonal 
Controvcrfies, and then fend ten Legntcs of each part to the Emperor, with 
the rcfults : The moft were Orthodox, but the Arian Legates were better 
fpeakers, and prevailed :, fo that the Emperour delayed them bccaufe of 
an Expedition thathe h.id in hand againfl; the Barbarians ", In the mean time 
Ibme AOcmbled at NUe^ and drew up Another Conftflion: And when 
the Legates returned to Arimimm, the Arian Party of Bidiops, by theEm- 
pcrours countenance, lb far prevailed, as that almoft all the Orthodox 
labfcribed to them. (G a 11 dentins Bifliop of Anmimtm was murdered by the 
SoiildiersJ Binnins and fomc ochers, would have this Council ztArimi- 
tnim to be two; the firfl; Orthodox, the fecond yir««in .• Btllarmme and o- 
thers called it but one : which was Orthodox in the beginning, but for fear 
and coraplyance felloffat thelalt. 

§. 42. LV. Whether the Council at Seleucia {lull be taken for one of it 
felf, or but for part of that at Ariminum-, though far dillant, I leave to 
the Reader. But here the Hecerodox Bidiops carried all, butfoas to di- 
vide among themfelvcs •, One party called Acaci,ins were for forbearing the 
word [^fubfiance."} The Semiariatis condemned both them and the Arians, 
and were for [.Like fnbflances.'} They excommunicated and depofed ma- 
ny Arians y whoappealed to the Emperour, andcraved yet another Synod. 
So thst the further he went for concord , the further h; was from 
it, the Bifhops dividing and fubdividing more and more; and the 
Emperoursand Bifliops, by diverfity of Judgment, and by Herclie, be- 
came now to the Church what Heathen Perfecutors had been hereto- 

Sitlpiiius Sevcrns tells us,tliat one thing that drew many to fubfcribe to the 
Arian and Semiarian Creed?, was a certain liberty of their own Addi- 
tions or Interpretations, which was granted the Orthodox to draw them 
in. nSubfcribe in your own fence, tj. d."} And fo conditional fubfcri- ^^_^ 
ptions quieted their Confcieiices, and when the Arians thought they t--* 
had the X^iulory , and had made the refl; Conformifls, it proved otherv 
wife, for they did not iu fence and with approbation fubfcribe. 

I z But 

6o Chi^rch-Ni/iory of Bijhops and 

But though the Filch of the -/4rM« Hercfie juftifie all jaft care and endea- 
vours to keep it out, the multitudes of new Creeds, then made by one and 
the other Party became fucha fnare aiid Ihame to the Church , that HiU- 
ry, amongothers, greatly lamented it, even in thefe fad expreflions. 

Pofl Nicenam Synodum nihil /ilind qtinm Fidem fcribimHS ", dum in Verbit 
fit^riA cfl •, dum de novitatibiis cjiuftio efl j dmn de ambiguis^ dnm de authori' 
bus <j»erela efl ; dum de Jlitdiis certamen efl ; dum in coiijenfu difficultas efi ; 
diimc]\ alter alter i Anathema ejfe caspit, pro pe jam Nemo eft Chrifti. Proximi 
anni fides rjuid itnmutationis habet ? Primum decreti'.m Homoufian decernit taceri : 
fcquens rurflis Homoiipan decernit C7- prtdicit : Tertium nfiam /impliciter a Pa- 
ir ibus pr<ifnmptam ptr indtilgentiam cxciifat •, Poflremum ^ti^irtiimque tion excii- 
fit fed condemnat: Tandem eo procejfum eft m neq\ penes vos, neq-, penes quetu 
quam ante nosfanftum txinde aliqnidatej\ inviolahile perfeveret. Annims atq-, Men- 
Jjruas de Deo Fides decernimus : dccretis pxnitemiis \ pcenitentes defendimus : 
dtfenjos Anatbematiz^anius ; ant in noflris altcna-, ant in alienis noftra damna- 
mi:s, O" mordentes invicem jam abfunipti [limns ab invicem- 

Is not this a doleful delcription of the Bifliops fo foon after their won- 
derful deliverance and exaltation ? 

The caufeofall hetellsus was partly forfaking the flmpleForm ofBap- 
tifmal Faith as not fufficienc, and partly following Votes and worldly 
Powers. Dum a qitibns ea rrcjuiritur fua fcribmt dr non qudt Dei funt pre- 
dicant, orbem £ternnm erroris & redeitntis in fefempcr certamims circHmtuUritnt. 
Oportnerat humana infirmitatis modeflia cmne cogitationis divina facramentum 
illis tanttint confcientia JiiJifintbiis contnieri cj(ubuscrcd:dit : Ncque poflconfeffam 
C3" juratam in baptifmofidcm in nomine Patris^ Filti & Sp. fanEb^ quicquam aliitd 
•vel ambigere vel innovare. And fpcakingof mens perverting the fence, he 
addeth. Scribend<e dr- innovand^t fidci exinde iifns inclevit : i^ii poflquam no. 
vapotim ccepit condere, quamaccepta retincre^ nee Vetera defendit^ nee tnnovatA 
firmavit, & faUa efl Fides temporumpotiiis qltam Evangeliorum : dum&fccun. 
dhmaniws [eribitur, & feciindiim co .fejftoue/n baptifmi non temtur- Periculo- 
fum admo^-itn nobis Cr mifirabilecfl tot nunc Fides ex:[lere^ quotvoluntates : cr 
tot nobis doEirinM ejfe qnot mores, Qr tot can fas biifphemiarmnpulliildre^ quotvi' 
tiafunf^ dum ant it.i fides f rib ur.tur^ iitvolumiu^ ant ita Htvolumusintelli^un- 
tur. Et cum fecHndhm mmm Deum, & unum Demi'um & nniim baptifma fides 
una fit ^ excidifKiis Yib ea fide quxfola efl'-, cr dum plitres fin/jt, ad id cirpernnt 
effe nc itUafit : Creferring to Nice.) 

Fides enim qnttritur qiiafi fides nulla fit : Fides fcribcnda efl quafi in cordis 
i— a, non fit: Re^eneratiper fidtm nunc ad fidem docemur ; quafi rej^eneratio ilia fine 
fide fit : Chrifli'm pofl b.iptifna dijliniiu, qitafi b^p'ifim aliqiiid effe poffit fine 
Chrifli fide : Emendamits ; qiufi in fpiritum funftum fiecc.ijfe fit venia. Sedimpie- 
tatif ipfiits hi) c vcl prxciptie caitfa perpetua efi^ qnodfidem Apoflolicam feptuplo pre. 
ferentes, ipfitumen fi.icm Evan^elicam volnmuscovfiteri-^ dum impietates noflras 
nobis in po^itlis nuiUiloqn'n defendimn-s ma^^niloquentiit v.inifate aures fimplicium 
verbis fdUentibus illndimiu, dum evitamm dc Domino Chriflo ea crede.e, qitx de 

their Councils abridged. 61 

1 . ... I ■ - I" I 

fe docuit credenda •, & per fpeciofitm pads nomen in unltatcm perfidU fubrepimtu^ 
<^fub rejiciendii MPvitatibHS ritrfitm ipfinovis ad Beumz'ocihus rebtllamtu c^ fub 
Script ur or urn voeabulo non /crista tnentimnr. Tutiffimitm nobis eji primam G" foUm 
EvMigilicamfidtmconfeffaminbaptifmate, inttlh^amq-^ refiner e°^^ mc demu. 
tare ejuodfolumacceptHm atcj., aiidttum hubeo bene credere : Nonutea quxfynedo 
TatrHm nojborum (the Nicene) comiaentur, tancjuum irreligiose d" impiefcripta 
damnandi fttit \ fed cjiiia per temeritatemhumanam ufurpantHr adcontrttdi^io>iem\ 
quod ob hocfub nomine novitatis^ Evangelinm negaretHr impericulofc , tanqiiam 
fub emendatioiie imiovctiir- Q^nod emendatHm eft^ femper proficit '■, G~ dum omnis 
cmendatio difplicet^ emcndMioncm oinnem emend uio confcquuta coiidemnct^ ac fi "» 
J4/W, cjniecjHtd Hind efl, non emcndMio alicjua ft emendationis^ fed caperit e^e 

Andas to thefecondCaufc, he faith, ^cprlmum wlfereri licet nnfiraatatis 
labor em (^ prtefentiumtcmporiimflultAiopimoncscongtmifcere-^ cjtiibntputrocinari 
Deo humaria credftntur, Gr ad tiiendam Cbrijli Ecclefiam ambittone f^cidari laho- 
ratur- Ore vos^ Epifcopi^ qui hoc vos rffc credit is : quihnjnam fnffragii^ ad pr£- *^3i 
dicMdumEvangeliitm y}popoli lift funt? £luibM adjntt poteJJattbiis ChriJ}umpr£- 
dicaverunt^entefjyferc omnes ex idolis ad Dcitm tranflidernn ? Anne aliquamfbi 
affiimebant e palatio dignitatem^ hymnum Deo in carcere inter catenas Cr pofifla- 

gella eantantes? At nunc proh dolor ! divinam fdem fujfragia terrena commen- 

dant :, inopfcj^virtntis fu/tClonfliis, dum ambiiio 7wmini fno conciliatnri ar^nitHr. ' 
Add what he faith of the Caiifes of Errour, Lib. ic. de Trin. initio. Nen 
e(l amiguum omnem humani eloquii fermonem contradiBioni ohncxium femper fn- 
iffe, quia dijfentientibiu voluntatnm motihtts, dijfcnticns qnoq\ fit fenfus animo- 
rum: Cnm advcrfai.tiiim jndiciorum affeclione contptignans, ajfirtionibiis his qiii- 
hits off'cnditur, contr.tdicit. Qnamvis entm cmnc diHnm vcri ratione perfc^umfit., 
tamen dum aliitd aliis aitt vidtturaut complacet, pattt veritatis firmo adierfan- 
tiiim rcfvonfoni : quia contra vcyitatem am non intclUiiam ant ojfcndentcm vel 
(I nit a v(l "v'iticft voluntatis error obnitiiiir. Jmmoderata enim efl omnis fa f- 
ccpta-'um voluntatnm pirtm.icit^ & indeficxo no'n advcrfandi fiudimn pcrfjln, 
ubi non rationi voluntas fubjicitur, nee ftudiiim doclrinte impcnditnr, fed tus qua 
volunuis r.ttionem conqi:iriniM, Cr his qna fliiden us dotlrinam coaptamus. Jamcfj 
rtoniinis potiits qitam nature ertt dcUrina <jm4! fsngitur, O" j^im non veri tnancbit 
ratio., fed placiti. CiUcra ibi videat Letlor- 

But having l^een longin this Citntionof ////arj, I return to the Hilto- 
ry, of what followed tiiefe Councils and Creeds aforclaid. 

§.45. LVl. In the mean lime Co«/?<i;rr;«j calleth a Council of 5oBifliopS' 
to Conjlantinoplc, where i^£tins was condemned, and a ninth Creed fince 
the Nicene formed, which excluded both the word /tf^y?.f;;« and i.ypoflajTs 
CT fiibfi/lcnce. Ihc Srmi-Arijns dctelVing this, condemned and bamllicd 
the Authors. But another Form fent from Arimirmm was preferred, and- 
impofcd to be fubfcribcd on all the Bilhops ofEafl: and Weft. 

$.44. LVII. An. 160. Afelains Billiop o( Aiticch being put in by rhe- 
Acacians proved Orthodox coiUrary to their cx'pcL^ation ; And being. 

^2 Cburch-Hijhry of Bijhops and 

preaching for the Trinity his Archdeacon ftopt his Mouth, and he preach- 
ed by his Fingers, holding forth Om and Ihrce : And for this was ejected, 
contrary to fome former Covenants. Wherefore they were fain to call 
a Council at Arnioch to juftlfie his cjedlion. Here they made yet another 
Creed, the worft of all i:3fore it. 

§. 45. LVllI. Ccfifiantius being dead, julian the Apoftate is made Em- 
perour ( would not this end the Quarrel of Chriftian Bifhops.'^ Atha- 
nafms returneth 10 yilcxAndria after the third banilhment, and five years 
^ hiding, an. 362. Gregory the Bifhop being as is aforefaid murthered by 
\. the Heathen, and burnt to Afhes. He calls a Council at jilexatidria: 
Here befidcs the receiving of thofe that unwillingly fubfcribed to the 
yiriatis^ divers new Controverfics are judged. 1. Eunomhts^MtKedoniiis, 
and the Sfwwn*?j deny ed the Godhead of the Holy Ghofl:, which was 
hercalTerted. 2. JfolUnaris thought that Chrift took but a Body at his 
Incarnation, his Divine Nature being inltead of a Soul, which was here 
condemned. 3. The Orthodox Grrc/^f and Latir.es could not agree by 
what name to diftinguifh the Trinity: The Gretki faid there were three 
hypofiafes, which the Latincs rejeded, as Signifying three fubflanccs: Hie- 
Yome himfelf could not away with the word Hypoflafis. The Latlr.es ufcd 
^ the word {Ptr^on.'X The Greeks rejcded that as fienifying no red diftin- 
Bion^ fand are the Schoolmen for a real diftindlion yet? j For they 
thought Perfona ^xgmfvzA but the relation of one in Authority or Office. 
And thus while as Jercr)ie faid, Tota Craconim prophanorunt Schela difcri- 
men inter hypofir:fin & iific.m ignorabat (^Fp. 57.) and the fenfe of the word 
ZPerfon'2 was not well determined, the danger was fo great of further 
dllTcntion among the Orthodox Bifhops themfclves, that as Greg. Kfaz. 
faith (^de land, u^ihanaf.) Thetnattcr came to thttt p.-jfs, th.it there was prefer.t 
danger, that together with thefefyllables the cfjd.s of the World (Eaft and Weft) 
jlwuld have been torn from each other, and broken into parts. But the Synod 
agreed that the Greek /3);>6/?^y7^ and the Latine Pcrfona fhou!d henceforth 
be taken as of the fame iignification. ('But what thatfignification is, it was 
rot fo eafe to tell) Yet (faith Einnius) .Angnftinc deTrinit. I. 5. c 8, 9. 
and the £-^2/?wf/ afterwards, were difplcafcd with this reconciliation, and 
Hiercme himfelf, who yet obtain'd of Damafus, Ep. 57. that the con- 
ciliation being but of a Controverfie de nomine, might be admitted. 

$. 46. LIX. An. 562. Jidian reigning ('fcvcraf Vrcrch Councils be- 
fidcs^ one then at Paris, were employed in receiving the repentance 
of the Bifliops that under Conflnntius had fubfcribed to \.\\z Arians. 

§. 47. LX. At J«/;<«wj death ^r/;rt?.'4/?«;callcth feme Bifliops to ^/f.v<i/;- 
dria, betimes to fend to the Emperour Jovianiis their Coufcfllon, to pre- 
vent the A-iairs, aiid other FIcieticks. 

§ 48. LX!. A Conncil alfo was called at Ar.ttoch on this occaflon. 
The Semiarians petitioned Joviarus that th'e ^c<ja,«wj, as Hereticks, might 
be put out, and they put in their places : The Emperour gave them no 
other Anfiver, but tliat he haied contention, but would, love and honour thofe 


tbeir Councils ahritliiah 


that mre for concord : They feelirg his pulfe, got Mcletius to Call 3 Coun- 
cil ac j4i:ticcb^ v.here they feemed very found, and twenty feven Arian 
Bifhops without any Hop ilibrcribed the A'jffw Creed : So bafely did thefe 
Bifliopa follow the ftronger lidc •, and, faith Bismns, cffo mat conjiqufncc 
rvith Bifwps is the Emperours inird. 

§. 45^. LXII. ytn. 564. raUmi!:Ln beirg Emperour lefc tlie BUhops 
to meet when and where they would themfelves. Aiid a Council was 
held at Lumffacus , where the Semi.trians condemned the Arians. And 
though fome call it Orthodox (Bafl, and Ibme good men being there) 
BhuuHs faith, that the yJ/^^cf^ew/Ww here vented t»ieir dsnyal of die God- 
head of the Holy Gholl, and that the Heictici^s preceading to own the 
Niccne Faith were rccievcd by Liberius. 

§. 50. LXIII. A Council in S/cf/)' owned the A^/cfw Creed- 

§. 51. LXIV. Some Biiiicps at Illyrkmn rcftored the A7rr«.» Creed, 
the Emperour being now for it. And Vdcminian and r.//f;;j wrote to the «^3 
jiftan Bifliops to charge them to ceafc Perfecuting any of Chrills labour- 

$. 52. LXV. Ati. 365. At a Synod in Tymui C/ippadoc. Enftathim Se- 
haft. by Pop2 Liberiiu Letters was rcftored to his Bilhoprick; and af- 
ter curfed the Homoitfioit^ fthe N:ce>!c Creed,'* and denyed the Godhead 
of the Holy Ghoft : I3y their means B^t/il returned fromh's Wildernefs 
to CrfprM, whence he lied to avoid the enmity of £/(/fi;V« the Bilhop; 
who received him upon his profcllcd rclblunon for Peace, which he would 
buv at any rates. 

$. 5;. LXVI. The Emperour r.i/f;;j funhappily taken in to r.dcntimati) 
after the conquelb oi Frccopins ^ defired Baptilme, and having an Arian 
Wife, was baptized by Eudoxitts Conjlatit. an A, tan Bifliop^ who en- 
gaged him to promote the Arian Caufeii which he did with a blind 
religious zeal, perfecuting not only the Orthodox and Novauans^ but 
alfo the Sinu.iritir.s and Macedcvians. And a Council of Bifliops in Ca- 
rta, rcjeftcd [Coiifuhflantial^'} and refiored the AKtiochian and ScUucian 
Creed as the bell. 

§. 5+. LXVII. A>!. 1,66. Some y?r/'.j« Bifliops at Sin^edim in A-fyfia^ 
refiored the Ariiniiutm Creed [of Like f/iilhince'} and folicited Ccmirjim 
the Semiarian Bilhop toconfent, but prevailed not. 

<S. 5 J. LXVIII. Two Councils were held at R:)»e by Dawafus \ one 
to condemn Falcus and Vrfatius^ old Arian Bifhops : Another to con- 
demn Aiixentiiis Bidiop of Mtlan. and Sifmus as a SciiTmatical Com- 
petitor with himfelf: For when Da,m-fus wns chofen, the people were 
divided, and D^;m[us his Party being the more valiant Warriors, they 
fought it out in the Church, and left one day an hundred thirty feven 
dead Bodies b:hind them, to flievv that they had no Communion with 
them. And bccaufe Sif.niia and his Party ftill kept Conventicles, lie 
was banirtird, and many with him, aud now sgaia condemned. 

§• 5:- 

^4 Chirch-Hijiory of Bijhops and 

§. 56. LXIX. Another Council at Rome he had to condemn Fitalis 
and the. Jpolltnariafjs (that took Chrilts Godhead to be inftead of a Soul 
to his Body^ and the Mill:na>ies. 

§. 57. LXX. A Council was called at hntioch to end a Schifin, there- 
being three Bifliops, two Oithodox, Meletiut and Panlinus\ and one 
Arian, Euzjo'iks : They ended the Schifm, by agreeing that Mdetiui and 
PaulinHs (hould both continue, till one dyed, and then the other alone 
fhould fucceed him •, the Presbyters being fworn not to accept it while 
one of them lived. But MeUtius dying firll, Flaviams a Presbyter was 
faid to break his Oath, and was chofen in his Head, while PaHlimt (an 
excellent perfonj lived ; And fo the Schifm was continued. 

? CHAP. 


their Cowicih abrU^e^. ^r 

C.H A P. IV. 

The Fir ft General Cotoicil at Conftantifiople, a}id fome 


j. I. r"a~^He reafon why the Wcji with Rome wa? freer from the A- 
I >■»■<«» Hcrcfie than the Eafi^ wasnot, as the Papifts fay, bc- 
* caufe Chrift prayed for Peter that his Faith might not fail, 
but bccaufe the Empcrours of the Wefl were Orthodox, 
wliile thofe in the Eajl wcrej4riaf:s : And the Bi(hops much followed the 
Emperours Will. That this lafl: was thcCaufe, isnotorious in theHifto- 
ry: ThatChriftsforefaidpromife was not the Caufe, is certain. Becaufe 
whatever promife Chrift makctli, he fulfiilcth : But he hath not k^pt all 
the Bifhopsof /3<?;«f from failing in their Faith : Therefore he never pro 
•mifcd fo to do. The miftor is certain by Hiftory : To pafs by Marcellww 
and Liberius and Hemriui falls , (which were but like Pcren) all thofc 
wicked men whom Councils dcpofed as Infidels, orHereticks, Simoniacks, 
Murderers, Adulterers, oneasaDevillncarnatc, and all thofe that ^jrcw- 
ui and Gerubrard ii'\gvnu\zt 2S Apoftatical , and not Apoftolical, (50 to- 
gether) had not this promifc fulfilled: Nor Stxtm i^imiis, '\i BellartniHc 
judged truly, that he was damned : For it was not a dead faith, but ^f4vi»^ 
faiih^ which Chrift promifed Peter fliould not fail •, fuch a faith as had the 
promife of life •, He that believeth and is baptized jliall be faved: Whoever be- 
lieveth in him P'allttot periflj, hut have everl<*ftin^ life : a faith that vcorkfth by 
love : Elfe Peter might have been a wicked man, and damned, notwith- 
ftanding this Prayer of Chrift, and Promife. l( the fa\tho( Grijlantinefe- 
nior dr junior , Conflans, falentinian, Theodofms^ Honorius^ Gratian, C^'"c. 
had failed, the General Councils at AitUn^ and Anminum, tell us,- how 
failing the Biftiops faith was like to be-, when Jerome faid, that the whole 
world poarcd to find it felf turned Arian. 

%. 1. The blind zeal of Falens made him reftlefs in PerfccUting the Or- 
thodox in the £-«/? •• At Antioch he vexed thofe that would not Communi- 
cate with Eiiz.oini the allowed Arian Biftiop : At Cjz.icnm Euncmitu was 
put in Elciffiu place •, but his followers built them a leparate Church with- 
outthe Walls. (Socrat.Ub. 4. c 6, 7.) He Perfecuted the Novatians^ and 
exiled ^^f/i/« their Bifliop at Cw/?. He baniftied Euflathiiu Amioch. and 
Eva^im, chofen by the Orthodox Bifliop of Confl. againft DemophilH-s the 
Arian. Fourfcore Biftiops fenttocrave Juftice of him, were put to Sea 
in a Ship there ■^et on fire, and were both burnt and drowned together. 
{Socr. I. 4. c. 1 ?■) In nil the Eajl he dcpofed, abufed, murdered many that 
would not forfakc the Nicene Creed. Hefet his OiRccrs to fupprefs their 

K Conven- 


66 Chircb'Hiftory of Bijhops and 

Conventicles. At Alexandria he imprifoned Peter that fucceeded yithan*- 
fus^ and banilhed his Presbyters, and fetup LuciMza Arian Bifliop. He 
perfecuted the Monks of the Wildernefs of Eg-j^t {Nitna and Scitis) and 
deftroyed thei r Houfes : Banifhed Afacarim of Exypt, and Macarins of Alex- 
andria, their Leaders. He perfecuted Bajil at C^farea : He went in perfon 
at Antioch, to difturb and fcatter the Conventicles of the Orthodox •, And 
when he had banifhed one of their Bifhops {Meletim , enduring TauUniu) 
the Presbyters kept the Meeting : when he drove them away, a Deacon 
kept it up : At laft Ihemiftm, a Philofopher, made an Oration before 
him, bidding him not marvel thattheChciftians had fuch differences, for 
they were nothing tothofe of the Philofophers, who were of three hundred 
different Opinions ^ and that God would be honoured even under diverfl- 
ty of Opinions: This fomewhatalTwaged him? and fhortly after in the jerfe 
year of his age, hewasflain. 

$. 3. Gratian (and ValentinUn junior ) coming to the Empire, Liberty 
of Confcience and Reftoration was given to ail Seds, except the Eunomi- 
<wj, PhotinianSy and Manichees {Socrat. I. 5 c. 2.) He took Theodoftm iato 
the Empire with him : And fo the Orthodox Party got up again : and the 
Arians after this went every where down , fave among the Goths. 

§. 4. LXXI. Theodofius called a General Council at Conftantincple ,- 
where the chief things done, were, i. the fetting up olGregory Naxjan. 
Xfw« as Bifhop, 2. The condemning of the Macedonians^ 3. The giving of 
the fee end Patriarchate to Con/?4wfiw;)/f, becaufeitwas the Imperial Seat-, 
putting under him the DiocefTes of Pontm , HeracUa and Afia : 4. The 
putting down of Naz.ianz.ene again, and putting NeBariui in his ftead. 5. The 
fetling Flaviantts at Antioch. 

$. 5- Somewouldperfwadeusthat it was two Councils and not one that 
did thele things : But the queftion is but de nomine. In the beginning they 
difpatch'd partof their worki and before they departed A/lf/er<V« the Bi- 
iho'^oi Anttoch dying, the Bifhops returned to Council, and more £^/»h- 
an Bifhops came and did the reft. 

§. 6. ThtCzkof Gregory Naz.. was thus: A Council at ^«f/offc in the 
reign of Arianifme , fent him , with three more able fpeakers to go 
vifit the Churches, and dtzw them from Arianifme. He came to Conjlanti- 
Tjople., and an Arian being in pofleffion, he got into a little empty Church, 
and there folong Preached, till he had recovered much of the City from 
Arianifme. Hereupon ?«rfr, Bifliop of .^/fA:<i»^r«4, fignified by Letters, that 
he would have him be Bifhop of CenfiantinopU (againft the Aridn Bifliop : ) 
The Orthodox Party chofe him : One Maxinrn, that of a Philofopher 
turned Chriftian, and infinuated into Gr<rfor»w familiarity ^ by money firft, 
and threats after, gets Peter of Alexander., and the Egyptian Bifliops, to 
make him Bifliop of Confiant. fuppofing Gregory not yet lawfully fettled : 
Meletttu Antioch : being at Conft. Ordaineth Gregory Bifliop. The Council, 
when Convened, Confirm him, and caft out Maxirmu Cthat never had poP 
fefljon;; Theodo/itts ov^nctii Gregory^ and putteth out the .«4nVjn Bifliop, and 


their Councils abridged. 6j 

poflefleth him of the Great Church. The Jntiockhn Controverfie falling 
in at the death o[ Melctiu^^ Gregory was sgainQ: Flavian •, The Egyftiai$ 
Bifhops being for him, fet againft Gregory, and refolved to call him out 
andchoofe another : He feeing their refolution, and offended at th;ir fu- 
rious carriage in the Council, reflgneth to the Emperour, and departeth : 
fbmemakcit, asif hisrefignation wasunconftrained, but his own words 
(hew,that he did it but to prevent the depolTtion which they refolved on.Ejfe 
he durft not have deferred hisFlock that lamented his departure. Jn his 
place they chofe NeiiariM a Pretor, that was no Chriftian, in foro Eccle- 
fu, as being not yet baptized ^ and fo was indeed uncapable, and the choice 
null: Buttheman washoneft; And Nicephortu faith, that they put down 
his name in a Paper with others, leaving it to the Emperour to chufe one 
of them, and that he chofe Neflantu. 

$. 7. The dcfcription of this Council, and the good Bifhops of his 
iimejhY Gregory Naz- in his Poems and his Orations, is very doleful; How 
implacably fadtious and contentious they were, how fierce and violent, 
leaping and carrying themfelvcs in the Council like mad-men. He de- 
fcribeth the People as contentious, but yet etidtted with the love of God^ 
though ffce»> ;,m/ »r4wff<i knowledg : P*ge ^^i^.Orat. J2. •' The Courtiers, 
*' he faith, whether true to the Emperour he knew not, but for themoft 
'*part perfidious to God: And the Bifliops as fitting on advcrfe thrones 
*'and feeding adverfe oppofite Flocks, drawn by them into fadlions, like 
*' the clefts that earth-quakes make •, and the peftilent difeafes that 
*' infedall about, and diftrading and dividing all the World, fepara- 
**ting the Eafl from the Wefl, by the nolfe of /«f/</ & tuus, Amiquiis & e^ 
" NoVHS, mkiliorcr ignobilior^ multitKMne opnlentior out tenuitr., ragmg like 
•^^ furious horfes in battle, and like mad-men cafting dull into the air, 
*' and under their feveral Heads (or Leaders) fulfilling their owncontenti- 
*' ons, and becoming the determiners of wicked ambition and magnificence, 
" and unrighteous and abfurd judges of matters : The fame men (,f<iith he) 
*'arctoday of the fame throne and judgment as we arc, if fo our Leaders 
*'and chief men carry them; Tomorrow, if the wind do but turn, they 
*• are for the contrary Seat and Judgment : Names (or Totes) follow ha- 
*' tred or friendlhip : And which is mofl grievous, we blufli not to fay con- 
"trary things to the very fame hearers ; Norareweconflanttoour felves, 
*' being changed up and down by contention : You would fay we are toffed 
" like the waving EiiripM. Therefore he profelleth, that it is unfeemly for 
**him to joynwiththcm» in their Councils; as it were to leave his ftudies 
*'and quietncfs, to goplay with the Lads in the Streets, Page^z^. 
The like he hath in his Poem, De -vita /«4, Page. 24, 25, 26, 27. 

0( jap 'T^hJ'g^ii, &(. 

Etenim Magijlri Plebis attjue j4ntiflites 
SanEli datores SpiritMs^ d" <?«» thronis 
FiindHtn ab altis verba ijiieis patitur falus^ 
Qmilifque pacem jugiter qui pnedkant^ 

K 2 In 

6 8 Church- Hi ft ory of Bijhops ajid 

In &de medi.i vccibia clarijfimis 

Tan to furore ft fctimt fihi itivicem^ 

TionHltuando, comrahendo copiat, 

Carpendo frfe mutito lingua ejferSt , 

Saliendo, mentis ut feltntfutu imfotes, 

Prxdiindo quos quis ante pradari qiteut 

Ruhida Jmperandi ditm tenet mente ftis 

( Q^ujnam tfla verbis^ & cjitihus digne clcqu:ir ?) - 

Orbem univerfum prorfits ut dnulferint '■, 

Ortumque jam cr Hefperum Jeindit magis 

uirdens fimidtM^ quam loci vel climata : 

Namqiie ilia fi eon finis, at media uniunt't 

At has ligare vinculum nitUiim potejl : 

Nbn Cauja Pietui (Bills hoc excogitat, 

yld mentiendiim, prona,} fed Lis ob Thronos : * 

l^iiidnam hoc vocarim ? Prafules ? Non prafules: &c. 

Are not thefe lamentable defcriptions of the Bifliops of thofe happy 
times, and excellent Councils: Even in the days of good T;fe«^o/«j ^ when 
the Church recovered from under Arianifme^ and came newly out of the 
fire of Perfecution ? The truth is, All times have had feme itw fuch ex- 
cell-ent perfons as Naz.ianz.cne, Bafl, Chryfojlome, c-c But they have or- 
dinarily been born down by the violentitreamof a more ignorant, felfilh, 
worldly fort of men. 

All this here cited out of Gregory, is much lefs than he faith in his laft 
Oration, De Eptfcepts, Vol. i. too large and (harp to be no.v recited : 
Therefore I leave it to the perufal of the Learned Reader. 

One Papift faith to me, that it was the Jrian or Macedonian Biihops that 
Gregory meant: But the whole tenor of his writing fpeaketh the contrary; 
and that he fpake of this fiifl; Council at Confia^.tmople, one of the four 
which is equalled to thsfour Evangelifls: And mhis 59£/j Epift. to5o;;/jro^ 
fiius, PageS l6. he faith, Stecs inveuentis non ob fdn do^rinam., fed ob pri-^ 
vat as fimuliatcs inter fe difiralios cr divtilfos , quod quidem ipfe obferv*' 
vi, S\C. 

But feme may fay that psilion moved him to the fatyrical exaggerati- 
on of his own received injuries .- But, i. He fpeal^ech not of this Council 
only, but of others alfo : 2. He acknowledged, that till the Egyptian Bi- 
ihops came, he had ihe Council Vote for his place. 3-. His fpirit and all 
his endeavours were for peace, and not to make thingsvvorfe than they 
were^ And for peace he quit his Seat. 4. And in his Epiflies to the 
Civil Magiltrates ! c afterwards wrote earneltly to them to keep the Bifliops- 
at the next Council in peace, left they (hould make Religion a contempt 
and fcandal. So that few men could worfe be charged with abufive invciHiLves 
than this Pious, Liiarned. peaceable Bilhop. 

§. 8. In: 


their Coimcils abridged. 6^ 

§. 8. In his $ph Epift. to Pneopius^ pa^eSi^. refufing to come to their 
Council, he faith, '' If Imuft write the very truth, I am of tJie mind tolly 
"from Cor avoid) every Meeting of Bifliops : For I never faw a joyful and 
" happy end of any Council •, nor any that gave not more addition and 
*'increafe to evils, thandepulfion (orreformationj For pertinacious con- 
*' tentions and the lulls ot Domination ^or Lording, ) (Think mc not 
'' (fiitli he) grievous and troublefome for writing this,; arc fuch, as no 
"■words can exprefs : Andaman that will (there) be a Judg ofother?, iliall 
" fooner contra(n;dinionell:v himfeff, than reprefsthe diilionelty of others. 
Tlvey that fay he fpcaketh only ot Heretical Councils dciie the light, and 
will be believed by none that know the Hiftory. 

§. p. The Cafe of Antiocb^ briefly, was this.- Aieletiiis was a good 
man, but of a healing difpofition, madeBifl:op by the Arians miftaking 
him, and put out by them when they knew him, yet he held Communion 
with repenting Arians. Enjoins an Ari.m was put into his place, and he 
kept Conventicles. The grand Controvcrlie of alt the foregoing Ages, 
was about Communion with thcLapfed, that yielded to IdoIatry,orHcrelie: 
fomc over zealous were too proud cf their own fuff^rings, and were very 
rigid againll receiving fuch Penitents, faying they were Time fervors, and 
receiving themv/ould encourage others to fave themfelvcs in fuileripg'^ 
and then repent .• Others were too wide in receiving them upon unfatif- 
fadory profelfions of Repentance : TheWifeft went a middle way. ^U' 
ay Antiochians feparatcd from Afdctius, becaufe the Ar i a>i s choi'c him, ard 
he received penitent y^v/'^/jj : And Lvcifcr CaLtnt.irns^ Rnd Eufdius ytr- 
■ cclUxifis of France going t« fettle ihc Peace nt Ai.ricch, £///<•/>//</ dilliked 
their oppofltion to MtUtins, and left them. Lucifer a good Man, but rigid 
and hot againfl: the Ariahs^ faid that Afiktiks could be no Bilhop, and 
ordained them Paiilim» (and fo there were three as isaforemcntioncd-^The 
Bifliopof^^wf who would have a finger in all, encouraged Luc>fir\ rm. 
li»Hs was a man of e.xtraerdinary gccdnefs .• but yet the Canon nullified the 
Ordination of a Bilhop into a fore ponillld Seat -, And when half cleaved 
to Afcleti»Sy and half to Paidihin Jboth very good Men,) a Synod fas is 
aforefaidj ended the difference, by tolerating both till the death of one,, 
and then making him Ible BiP-iop : ThzFrcsbyers (it's laid) were fworn 
to this. AieUt'uii dycth firft \ yet FUviunus a Presbyter that had ftucfc 
to them in rJais Perfecution, is chofen Bifiiop by the AiUetians^ who' 
will not joyn with Paulwuj as a Schifmatick. The Pope owneth* 
FuiiUnHs : The Council at ConjlantiscfU own Milctiia firfl, and FUvia- 
TiHs after : Gregory N^danz.cf;e and Others were againfl: Flavianus^ be- 
caufe they faid" he came in by Perjury, having fworn not to accept it: 
Some fay he did not Svveir. Lucifir C/iUrit.r,:;ts that Ordained Panlinuj, 
forlbok the Party called th^Catholick Church, and gathered fepnrated 
Churches, and became the Head of a Schi'ni, called iince Ludfcrian He- 
rHicks, meerly becaufe the Churches received the confefling returntng 
An ofis to Commur>:on, and he owned FUviAfnts. Apd thus even good' 



yo Chwch-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

Bifliops could not agree , nor leaps the imputation of Hcrefic. 

§ 10. 54>c«(KJ and 5/w//«i after him, fay, Naz.ian2.enushaftcdtfcmrdiam 
fua abdicatiofie compofition iri arhitralus, fedt Conftantinopolitanse cum con- 
fenfn ImperMoris^ twn fine vu^no Bomr urn ac fofuli fietu rcuunciat^ at(j, fiatim 
pojl habitas i» Synoda diijuot atliones, comitantthus eptiwis qmbitfcHnq'-) OrientM- 
libus^ in Cappadociam difcedit. Turn cjui fupererant ibt Epijcofi ac Sacer- 
dotts Nundititirii^ in locum Chriftiarii perfeBijfimi, Theolo^i sbfolutijfimi^ Mo- 
}/achi caftijfimi, NeBartitm hominem nc>rdnmChriJ}ianum fed adhuc CatechMme- 
num^ rerum Ecclefajlicarnm penitits imperitum, in volnptattbus fault C^ cariiis 
haHenks verfatum, ftjfeccrwit. 

%. 1 1. This Council added to the A^««»f Creed fome words about the 
Holy Ghoft. The advancement of the ConftantinopoUtane Bifhop by this 
Synod with the reafons of it, brcdfuch a jealoufie in the Bifhops oi Rome, 
as hath broken ths Churches of the Eajl and Wejly which are unhealed to 
this day. 

§. 12. LXXII. Two Bifhops, PalUdim <ind Secundiams, complained to 
Gratian, that they were unjuftly judged Avians^ and defired a Council to 
try them. Ambrofe perfwaded him not to trouble all the World for two 
Men. A Council of 32 Bilhops is called for them at Aqudeia. They re- 
fufe to be accountable to fo few, and are condemned. 

§. 13. LXXUI. An. 581. Twelve Bifhops met at Cxfarau^ufta againft 
the Prifcillianifts : Thefe Men had divers other Councils in thofe times. 
Ithacius and Idacius were the Leaders. The whole Story you may find ia 
Sulpitiiis Severus in the Life of Martin^ &c. The fum is this : Pnfciilianus, 
a rich Man, of much Wit and learning, was infe(fted with the Herefie 
of the Gnoftickf cind ALinichees. Many followed him*, his party was much 
in Fafling and Reading: The Bifhops in Council excommunicated them. 
Yet they kept up. The Bifhops in Council fought to the Emperour (Jr**- 
tian to fupprefs them by the Sword : A while they prevailed : But the 
Prifcillianifis quickly learned that way, and got a great Courtier to be 
their Friend, and Gmfj^^reftored them. Cratianhe'ing killed, when Ma. 
ximus was chofen Emperour by his Army, the Bifhops go to Maximus for 
help : The Arians having got Head againft Ambrofe at Milan^ and thefe 
Sectaries troubling the Churches in France, Spain^ and Italy, Maximus (a 
Man highly commended for Piety by moft Writers, faw that being forced 
by his Army to accept the Empire, he was a Ufurperj being once engaged, 
thought the defence of the Orthodox would ftrengthen him : So he forced 
Kalentinianhy Threats to forbear wronging Ambrofe ; And to pleafe the 
Bifhops he put PrtfcilUan to death, and baniflicd fome of his Followers. 
Martin Bifhop of Tww (beinga Man of fmall learning, but of great Ho- 
linefs, andaufterityofUfe, living like a Hermite in the pooreft Garb and 
Cabbin, lying on the Ground, faring hard, praying much, and working 
more Miracles, if Sulpitins, his Schollar and Acquaintance may be be- 
lieved,, than we read of any fince the Apoftles, even than Gregory Thau- 
f»atur£uj) did abhor drawing the Sword againft Hereticks, and dif- 


their Councils abridged. j j 

fwaded the Bifhops and Emperour but in vain : The prolecution was ib 
managed by the Bilhops, that in the Countreys, thofe that did but Faft 
and Read much were brought under the fufpicion of PrifciUiMnifm, and 
reproached : This common injury to Piety from the Bifhops grieved Mar- 
tin yet more, fo that he renounced the Communion of the Bifhops and 
their Synods .- whereupon they defamed him to the Emperour and People, 
as an unlearned Man, a Schifmaticlc, fufpe(fled of favouring /'n/c/&4w«/w ! 
But MArtins holinefs and Miracles magnified him with the Religious fort. 
At laft a great PrifctUianift being fentenccd' to death, M^rtm travelled 
to the Emperour A/<»a://««; to beg his Life. Maxtmm told him, he would 
grant his defire if he would but once communicate with the Bifhops .• Mar- 
tin preferring Mercy before facrifice, yielded, and did once communi- 
cate with them. But profcfled that in his way home, an Angel correcfted 
him and threatned him if he did fo any more.- and that from that time 
his gift of Miracles was diminiihed : and fo he never communicated 
with them more to the Death : Sulpitius his Narrative puts the Reader 
to a great difficulty, either to believe fo many and great Miracles as he 
reports, or not to believe fo learned, pious, and credible an Hiflorian, 
who profefFeth to fay nothing but what he either faw himfelf or had from 
the Mouth of Martin, or thofe that faw tliem, and who fpeaketh his own 
knowledgofhis eximious Piety. He fpeaketh hardly ot theBlfliops, not 
only as complying with an Ufurper, but that Ithacius in particular of his 
knowledge, was one that much cared not what he faid or did The Bi- 
(hops would have denied that the death of PnfcilliMi was by their means.- 
Is it notftrange that the Church of Rome fhould Canonize Martin for a 
Saint, believing his great Miracles, and yet them felves go an hundred 
times further againft the blood of Diflentcr?, than the Bifhops did whom 
Saint /Ww-f/w therefore oppofcd and feparated from to the death ? 

The Churches in 5f<jiw, and elfewhere, were dilturbed and fcattered or 
endangered by Souldiers to pleafethcfe Bifhops not(as fomeforge) that 
A/aximus did pcrfecute the Chriftians for the Prey .- For mod U'riters 
magnifie his Piety and Defence of jimbrefe^ and the Orthodox that con- 
demn his Ufurpation, though he fald, theSouldieis in Britain forced him 
to it. 

§. 14. LXXIV. A General Council was called to Rome by the Empe- 
rour and Damafuj ', but the Oriental Bifhops would not come fo far, but 
met at Conjlantmofle : Here Damafus owned PaitHnm at u4ntioth^ as the 
Council of Conjl. had owned Mdettus .- And fo neither would be obedient 
to the other i the General Council, nor the Pope. But Damafns durft 
not excommunicate Flavtanus, but permitted two Bifhops to continue at: 
^nticch\ accounted a Schifm, which continued long. 

f. 15. LXXV. The Oriental Bifhops that would not come to Rome^ 
meeting at Co«^4wf;«of /f,wrote to Rome to tell them their Cafe and Faith, & 
minded them that it was according to the Canons that Neighbour Bsjliops 
fand not StrangcrsJ Ihoald Ordain Bifhops to vacant Seats Cto juftifie 



7 2 Church-Hijlory of Bijhpps a?id 

llicir fetting up FUvianns when /lowf fct up Paiilimis: J And they give 
account of ilic advancement of Confi. and Jerusalem and call JerufMim 
lyhe Afolbir cf all ether Churches.'} 

$.16. A Synod held at Syda againfl; the AfafJians, little is ivnown of. 

§. 17. LXXVI. A Council at BoHrdeuux condemned Injlamms PrifciSi- 
an. who thereupon was llnin at Treven. 

§. 18. LXXVll. An. 3S6. A Council at ^owf under Syrj'cw, repeated 
feme of the old Canons. 

§. ip. LXXVIIl. T'/w^jw^fz/jhavingcxcommunicatedZ/W/rt/jand rcprc- 
jiendcd the Biiliops, as irregular and bloody for procuring the Death of 
PrifcilUan., a Council called at 7Vfw/-; did julhifie and acquit Ixim.- Unjull- 
ly, fay, even Bi/mins znd Bayoui us: who here repeat out of Sw/jxr/za /i^jr- 
r;>u once communicating with the Bifliops thereto favc two Mens Lives, 
and the Words of the Angel to him QMr/ro, Marti ne,co/«/)««^fm .- Sedah- 
ter exire tiequ'ifli : Ref-yu vntniem; refitme Corifi.intiam ^ »e jam >ion fericu' 
lumQ^lori^, fed faluiis incurroi : Itacjue ab illo tempore fatis cavil cum ilia Itha- 
cianse partis coriinmnwne mifceri: Cateritm cum tardiits cjuofdam ex er^ume- 
nis, cjitam folebat^ G~ grMiu minore curaret ; fubindc nobis cum Lichrymis ft- 
tebatur, fe propter commHnionis i Hi us malum, chi fe vel punBo temporis necejft- 
tate, non Jpiriiii., -mifcuijfet., dctrime>itum virtiitis fentire : fexdecim pu/l vixit 
annos^ vullam Synodum ad/it, O'c. 

Is it not llrange that Papifts blufh not to recite fuch a Hillory with ap- 
probation, which exprelleth a teftimony from Heaven againft far Ids 
than their Inquilltion, Flames, Murders, Canons de herMicis-cowbarendis g^ 
cxtermir/andis, and Dcpollng Princes that w^ill not execute them- And which 
fneweth fuch a Divine juftification for reparation from the Bifliops and 
Synods of fuch a way, yea, though of the fame Religion wi".h us, and not 
fo Corrupt as the Reformation found the Roman Papacy and Clergy ? 

§. 20. LXXIX. The two Biffiops continuing at Aniocb^ Evagrtus fuc- 
ceedingP^///'V'W, and /Jawf owning him, and the £^/?F/4t'»Vw«/, a Council 
r^ iscalledat Cr/)«.i; f/4w.?«refufeth to come: The Council had more wit 
than many others, and Ordered that both Congregations {Flavians dindE- 
'va^riiis''s ) being all good Chriftians, ihould live in loving Communion. 
^'Otliat others had been as wife, in not believing thofc Prelates that per- 
Tvvaded the World that it is fo pernicious a thing for two Churches and 
Bifliops to be in one City, as Peter and Paul arefaid to be ztRomel) And 
they referred the Cafe to Ihcophilits Alex. 

■§. 21. But this Council condemned anew Herefle fHereticating was in 
falhion^j 1//Z,. of oneBijliop Bonofus, dcn/ing Mary to have continued a 
Virgin to the death. And they condemned Re-baptizing and Re-ordaining, 
and the Tranflation of Billiops. 

§. 22. LXXX. Next comes a Provincial Council ('or two) at Aries, 
which doth but repeat fome former Canons. 

§. 2j. LXXX'. Next we have a flrange thing, a Herefie raifedbyone 
diiCivas no Bilhop: But the beflis, it was buta very little Herefie: PJie- 


their Councils abridged. - , 

rtme is the dercriber of it, who writing againfl: the Author, jovinian a 
/W/74»Monk, no doubt according to his fharpnefs, makes the worftof it: 
At the worit it containeth all thefc: i. ThatVirgms, Widows anAMArrycd 
Womctt^ being all haptiz.ed (or wafhed J inChrifi, and not d-jfeying^ tn any o- 
ther works, are of equal merits, z. That thofe iliat;)/f«.z ^rif with ■i full faith 
are bom again inbjftifmc^ cannot he fnbverted by the Devtl- j. There is no 
difference of mtx\thttvitzaabftaimng from meat ^ and receiving it \v,th thanlts. 
giving. 4. That there^s one Reward tn Heaven for all that keep their baptif. 
malvow. Siriciusc^tchins,Jov>man hid zt Rome, fends him to Mian, where 
a Council Hereticateth him. 

§. 24. LXXXII. It's ftrange that Binnius vouchfafeth next to add out 

of Socrates, l-^.cio. (when he Hereticateth him alfoj a Council of the 

Novatians ; Socrates and Soz.omcn are called Novatians, by the Papifts , be- 

caufc they rail not at them fo valiantly as the Herecicators do-, And it 

may be they will call me one, if I fay that I better like this Councils Canon, 

than burning men for fuch a Hcrelic. They decree that as from the Apo- 

fbles the differcnttimc of keeping Eafter was not taken for fuflkientcaufe 

for Chriftians to renounce Communion with each other, foit ihould be 

elleemcd ftill, anditdiouldbc fofar left indifferent, thatthey live in love 

and Communion that are herein of different minds. And 1 would fay as 

lowd as I can fpcak, Jf all theproud, contentious^ amhitioits, hereticating part 

of the Bijlwps had been of this Chriflian mind, O what ft n., what fcandal and 

piame., what cruelties, confufions and miferies had the Cljriflian world rfcaped! 

But yet men will fcorn to be fo far Novations, in defpight of Scripture, 

rcafon, humanity and experience, whatever fin or niifery follow: (As 1 

faid before) in £;?^/,Wthe Convocation and Parliaments overfight hath 

determined of a fa lie rule to know i^/^r-day, and filenceth Minifters for 

not Alfenting, Confenting to it, and approving the life of it, even the 

life which confifteth in keeping Eafler at a wrong time, which makes as 


§. 25. LXXXIII. An. J9J. A great Council was called 2.1 Hippo, where 
jinfttn., yet a Presbyter was there. Good men will do well.- Here was no- 
thing but pious and honelt, for reformation of Difcipline and Manners ^ 
Andmoftof thc^/r«ir<w« Councils were the beft in all the world. Their 
Bilhopricks were but like our Paridies, and they ftrove not who fliould be 
greateft, or domineer. 

§. 2 6. LXXXIV. Next a Council at Conftant. dccidcth a Crontroverfie 
between two men ftriving for a Biihoprick, Bin. p. 559. 

?. 27. LXXXV. Concilium Adrnmetinum did we know not what. 
§. 28. LXXXVI. An. 394. A Council of Douatifts was held at Ca- 
vernx, about a fchifm between two men fet cp for Bilhops againft each 

§ 29. LXXXVII. At B.igai another Council was called by the Dona. 
t'fis, for the fame Caufc, whixc Priima>uis Carthag. having s^o. Bilhops, 
condemned ^/rf.v*W<«7KJ his Competitor , abfcnt. Note h.ic, i. Hovr 

L great 


74 Church-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

great a number the D<?«4f«7?j were, and on what pretence ("as over-voting 
them j they called others Hereticks and Schifmaticks. 2. How fmall Bi- 
fliopricks then were, the number tells us. 

$. JO. LXXXVIII. A Synod was held at Tanrinnm in Savoy ^ where a 
difference was decided between the Bifliops of j4rlej and yieme, ftriving 
which fhould be greatefl : And he was judged to be the greateft, whofe feac 
was proved to be the Metropolitan : And a cafe of Communicating with one 
Fcelix a Partner of Ithacius and the bloody Bifhops was debated. 

§. ii. LXXXIX. Another Carthage Council called the fecond, which 
£;«»/«; faith, was the laft, is placed next-, which decreed feveral Church 
Orders, fome of which (hew, that a Bifhops Diocefs had then but uxum 
f-^ altare •, As when reconciliation of Penitents, (as well as Chrifme, and Conr- 
""^ fecrating Virgins) was to be done by the Bifhop only, except in great ne- 
ceffity. And when Chriftians were multiplyed, they that defired a Bifhop 
in a place, that had none before, might have one. And the prohibition 
cri^efidi aliitd altare, &c. was repeated. 

§. 32. XC. Another C«rffc^^<f Council called the third, hathmanygood 
"Orders: OneisCan.26. "That the Bilhop of the firft Seat, (hall not be 
''called the Chief Priefi: (or Bidiop^ or any fuch thing, but only the Bi- 
"fhopof the fiift Seat- To avoid all ambitious defigns of fuperiority : 
Whence 5«'»«jw elfewhere noteth, that Carthage had not an Archbi/liop. 
No doubt they had a fenfeofthefinandniifery, that came by the Patriar- 
chal! and other ambitious flrifes. 

§. ??. XCI. Another Carthage Council hath the like Canons, adding 
tothis aforefaid, as Cr^rw^citeth it, {Vniverfdis aittcm necetiam Romanus 
Pontifex apfellctH)-.'} To which Bmnius hath no better an anfwer than, 
1. Thatit IS only fwelling titles, and not the fuperiour power that isfor- 
bidden. 2. That the Afrkaru had no power to makeLawj ioxRome\ But, 
1. Sure the Name is Lawfal, if the Power be Lawful. 2. They that could 
make no Laws for Rorr.e^ might declare their JuHgmcnt of Gods Laws, and 
that Rome might make no Laws for them. This Council alfo forbiddeth 
going beyond Sea with Appeals. 

J. 34'XCII. The next Carthage Council hath 104 Canons for Difci- 
p'ine.- mofl very good. Divers Canons lay fo much on the Bifliop, as 
plainly fliew each Bilhop had but One Altar. Can. 14. " That the Bifliops 
XZ^ "Cottage be not far from the Church : Can. 15. Ttiatthe Bifliop have but 
" vile or cheap houlhold ftuff", and a poor table and diet; and feek his au- 
"thorityor dignity by his faith and defert of life. 16. The Bidiop muft 
" not read the Gentiles Books; I9. Nor contend for tranfitory things, 
" though provoked. 20. Nor take on him the care of Family for comnionj 
" bufinefs, but only be vacant to the Word and Prayer. 2j. The Bilhop 
" fliall hear no Csul'e but in the prefence of his Presbyters •, elfe it fhall be 
" void that is fcntenced without them, unlcfs confirmed by their prefence. 
" 28. Tii£ unjufl; condemnation of Bifliops is void. 50. And judgments 
*' againtl ti.e .sblfnt- 35. 1 h; Billiop to fit higher than the Presbyters ac 

*' Church 

their Councils abridged. 75 

*' Church and their Meetings , but at home know that they are his Col- 
*'leagues. yi. A Clerk how Learned foever in Gods Word, muftgethis 
*' living by a trade. 52. That is, by a trade or husbandry, without dc- 
*' triment to his Office, jj. All Clerks that are able to work, (houldlearn 
" both trades and Letters. 55. The Bifliop mud not admit an accufer of 
** the brethren to Communion ^ Nor to enter into tlie Clergy, though he 
** amend. Manyagainlt Clergy-men that are flatterers, betrayers, foul- 
*'tongucd, quarrellers, at difcord, fcurrilous, of filthy jealts, that fwear 
"by creatures, thatfing at feafts, of former fcandal, &c. 83. The poor 
"and the aged of the Church to be honoured before the rclt. 83. He that 
'* goeth to any Shows or S ghts, on publickdays, inftcad of going to the 
** Church-afTembly, let him be Excommunicate. 98. A Lay-man mult not 
** teach when the Clergy are prefent, unlcfs they bid him. 100. A woman 
" muft not baptize. 

$. J J. XCIII. Jrt. 398. Another Council wasatC^rf/M^rofvj.Bilhops 
for Difciplinc. 

J. }6. XCIV. yin. 399. TheophilM[ie\dASynod at yiUx4nd>ia, zgAintt: 
a dead man, Ortgen. The occafion S<«ro««W and Bmnim thus deliver : Mc- 
lania, a Woman of greateft Nobility in ^owf \n FaUnttht Arlans Pcfecu- 
tion, hid five thoufand Monks, and a while fufteined them, and when 
they were banifhed, with great zeal, followed them to maintain them out 
of her fubftance for cltate : ) When they were reftorcd from. banUhment, 
llie built for hcrfclfa Monaftery at fe>nfaltm, in which, befides fifty Vir- 
gins that dwelt with her, (lie entertained and maintained holy Foreign 
Bifliops, Monks, and Virgins, twenty feven years: Whereby it happened 
that both fhe and Ruffims , were by DiAymm AlexAndrimtt, (a man blind, 
but of great learning and fame, too great an admirer of Orj-'ra's works) en- 
tangled (as their accufers faid) in On£eti's errours, and received and di# 
vulged his ^ook, called Pcriarchon: After 25 years abfence in Efftft and 
Falcjiinc, returning to Ronu with great fame ot Holinefs, and bringing with 
them a piece of the Crofs, they with fraud bring to Rome Origins PerUr- 
chon^ ( that is, Trandated and Corrected by Rujfinm.) Another Woman, 
Marcella^ acculeth them of Ori^fw's errours, which they deny, and get- 
ing Communicatory Letters from Pope Stridus, forfake Rome, (where fuch 
Merits and Holinefs would not procure an aged Lady a quiet habitation, 
without being Hereticated, becaufe (lie highly valued Onsen's Works,which 
had divers errours i and who hath not ? ) Hereupon Pamachiw, and Ocm- 
««/, vititc to Hierome topublifh Origcri's Peri.ircbon entire, and deteifl his 
errours; which he did, (hewing that Ruf[inns had mended fome, and left 
others unmended : This occafioned ftirs againft Hierome, and a Council 
call'dat Alexandria^ an. 599. where Ongcn is condemned. Theophtlus by 
his Legates e.xpells Origm's followers out of Egypt and Pakftwc : Being 
expelled they go to Chryfojlome to Conflaminoplt^ and complain of Theephi- 
Ins as perfecuting them that were innocent Catholick?, and defired his help: 
He undcrtaketh to reconcile them to Theophilnj .- Epiphanths foUoweth them 

L 2 to 

7 6 Church- Hi flory ofBiJhops and 

to ConftiDitinofle, and rcquireth Chr-yfoftome to Excommunicate them and 
Expel ihem:, Chryfoftome durltnot do ir, againft prople profefling trutli 
and picty> without a Synod: Whereupon Fplphanius irregularly accufcth 
Chryfoflome^ and publickly inveyeth againft him in his own Church ; of the 
proccis of which, more anon. 

§. 57. Fortheb:tcerundcrftanding of thefe matters, I will infert fome- 
what of Th'-9philH! and ChryfoJ}omc ^ont of Soo-atcs^hcczuic he is a moll credi- 
ble Hifl:orian,and faith, they were things done in his o.viidays. Theophilus 
was noted for a Lordly Prelate •, Ijidort Telnfteta faith more : When Chry- 
/ff/owe was to be Ordained Bifhop of Co«/?4'?««op/f, Theophilus rcfufed to 
Ordain him, becaufe he would have preferred to it, one Jfdore^ a Prcf- 
byter of his own ", But Eutropiits^ a Courtier, having go: Articles againft 
Theophilus, fhewed them to him, and bid him choofe, whether he would Or- 
dain Chryfoflome Birtiop, or ftand at the Bar and anl wcr thole crimrs .■ Theo- 
fhilus was lb afraid at this, that he prcfcntly Conftcrated Chryfojiome : 
Socr. 1.6. c. 2. But prefently after began bufily to devife how he might work 
him mifchief, which hepradtifed privately by Word, and by his Letters 
into foreign Countries : But was vexed that his malicious praftices had 
not better fuccefs, for he thought to bring in this Jfidore (cap. 5.^ 

§■ 38. Oneof the Articles againft Theophilhs was this: When Theodo- 
fius was going to fight againft Maxinms the Tyrant, Theophilus lent pre- 
lentsbythis/yT^oretothe Emperour, with two Letters, charging him to 
give the prefents and one of the Letters to him that fhould have the upper- 
hand. Iftdore got him to Eome, to hearken after the Vi<flory : But his Reader 
that kept him company, ftole away his Letters.- Whereupon Ifdore in a 
fright took his heels prefently to Alexandria. 

§. 3y. Another thing to be fore-known to this ftory is in 5ocr^r./.6<-.7. 
Thefchifmeof the Anthropomorph'ites new rofe from Egypt: fome of the 
more unlearned thought taat God hnd a body and the fliape of a man, but 
Theophilus (and the Judicious) condemned them, and inveighed againft 
them, proving that God had not a body. The Religious o^ Egypt hearing 
this, flocking in blind zeal to ^/e.v<«//^>7'^, condemned T;fcfopW«'/ for a wic- 
ked man, and fought to take away his life: Theophilus very pcnfive, de- 
vifedhowtofave his life: He came to them courtcoufly, and faid; When 1 
faflen mine eyes on you, ntcthinkl J fee the face of Cod. Thelc words allayed 
the heat of the Monks ;, who faid, If that be true that thoufayefl, that the 
face of God is like ours, then curfe the Works of Origin which deny it : If thou 
de/yihis., be fare thou fiialt receive at our hands the puniJJiment due to the im- 
pious and open enemies of God: O brave difputing.' Were thefe mortified 
Monks ? Theophilus told them, he would do what they would, for he ha- 
ted the Books of Origen. 

But that which ripened the mifchief was, that the Religious Houfes of 
Egypt having four brothers, excellent men,for their overfeers, Theophilus was 
reltlefs till he got them away to him ; one ofthcm, Diofcorus, h; madeaBi- 
fhop,others living with him perceived that he wasfet upon heaping and hoarding 


their Coimcih abridged. 7 7 

mo/icy^ and thnt ail his labour tended 10 ^atluri'!^-, [Dr. H^f.'iner tr.iiiflating 
this, puts in the Margin t This Bipjop !}.nh more fellows m the World. And 
noting how Theophilns to revenge himfelf perfccuted his cwn Opir.iotis 
faith, This is a fm aganift the Holy Ghoft.'} would dwell with him no ionge; , 
but returned to their Wildcrnefs- Tbcophiliit prone to anger and rcveiiC-., 
endeavoured by all means to work themmifchief i And the way he touiv 
was to accufe them to the Monks, for fayingtohim, that God /Wwf<i/w- 
dy, nor hum.inc fupe : And he himfcif was of ti.c fame Opinion, yet to be re- 
venged of his Enemies,he ftuck not to oppugn it^ and font to the Monks, not 
to obey Diofcorus or his orcthren, for they held that God had no hody^ where- 
as Scripture faith, that he hath eyes, e^rs, hands and feet, asmenhave ^ whicli 
with Origen they deny : By this treachery he fct them all together by the 
ears; one fide calling the other Or«>;«/'?.', and the other t\\tm Antycfc. 
merphites -^ fo it turned to bickering among the Monks, yea , to a deadly 
battel : And Theophihu went with Armed men and helped the Ai.ihrope- 

So you fee, if Socrates fay true , how wickedly this Sainted Patriarch 
lived, and how he came fo much engaged againlt the Orireni/}.'^ whole cr- 
roiirs doubtlcfs were worthy blame : but many good pcrfons who honour- 
ed On^fw for his great worth, and owned not his crrours, were called O- 
rigenifis, becaufe they honoured him : And that which was erroneous in him, 
was confident with far greater Learning, Piety, and Honefty, tiian Socra- 
tes^Ifidore Pcluf. and Others thought there was in Theophilns : Eitlier credible 
Socrates^ and others were grofs Lyars, or this Patriarch and Saint was a 
downright knave, oracled like one. 

§. 40. Now wc are upon it, let us proftciite C/jry/c/?<7Wf's Hiftory fur- 
ther. He was a ftudious iioly Monk of a Houfe, mar j4i:tioch : After A>- 
£iariHj death he waschofen Bifliop for his nicer piety and worth : He was 
a man of great piety and lioncfly and an excellent tongue, and as good a 
life, but bred in a Cell and nor to Courtfliip, knew not how toflattcr 
Courtiers and Court-Prelates : He was naturally fharp and cholerick, and 
his confcicnce told him, that a Bilhop muft not be a dawber, nor liatter 
the greatelt wicked men : (For Biihops ia that Age were ilic Preachers,) 
not having a thoufand Congregations to preach toj He faw even the 
Clergy nddieT:ed to their appetites .■ and he kept a Table for them, but 
eating with great temperance he always eat alone-. He rebuked the Luxu- 
ry of the Court, and particularly of tlie Emprefs, who conceived a dead- 
ly hatred againft him ■■ And the Cuftomeof the Court was, for the Wo- 
men much to intluence both Empcrour and Courtiers, and then what Bi- 
fhop Ibever was tooprecife for them and bold with their fins, to get a 
pack of the Worldly Clergy prefeiitly to meet toi;c;her and depofe him: 
(For Synods of Bifhops 1^ not the Pope) hadthaulie power. ^/ They would 
not be feen in it thcmfelves , but a Patriarch of AUxandria Ihould cr.U a 
Synod, and do it prefently. " Chr\foftome was a man of no Courtfhip to 
take off their edges ^ butthsworfc Courtiers, Bilhops; andPrielb were, 


7 8 Church- Hijiory of Bijhops and 

theworfc hcfpakeofthem-, Andallthehoncft plain people believed and 
loved him i but the rich and great Prelates abhorred him. His own Cler- 
gy hated him, becaufe he would reform them : Thofe that would not amend, 
he Excommunicated : Which they could not bear : fo that one of his Dea- 
cons Sfr^p'ow, openly faid to him, O Bil^iopf thou ^iMt never be ahlt to ruU 
allthefe oi thonwouldjly nn!efs thou make them all toft of one whip. Every one 
was his Enemy who was his own, and was engaged by guilt againft his 
Difciplineand Dodrine. 

The Guilty hated him : His Hearers loved him : Swift- Writers took his 
Sermons, whichtellus what he was to this day : And it was honefty and 
policy in Innocent Biihop of Rome to own him, who had worth to add to 
the reputation of his defendants. Among other of his accufations, one 
was, that Eatropius an Eunuch, Chamberlain to the Emperour, procured 
a Law againft Delinquents taking the Church for a San<ftuary. And fhort- 
ly after being to be beheaded, for a crime againfb the Emperour, he took 
the Church for a Sauttuary himfelf;, And Chryfoftome from the Pulpit 
Preached a Sermon againft him, while he lay proftrate at the Altar. Al- 
To he refilled Gainas the Arian, who turned Traytor and was deftroy- 

Another caufe of Chryfofiotne''s difturbance was, that one Stveriantit Bi- 
fiiop of G<«W* in SyrM, came into Confl ant imple, and Preached for Money, 
and drew away the hearts of the People, while Chryfoflonte was about choof- 
ing aBilhop for Ephefus : Serapion a turbulent Deacon quarrelled with the 
Syrian Bifhop, and would not reverence him : The BiQiop faid, // Serapi- 
on die ti Chrijli/in, Chrift was not Incarnate. Serapion tells Chryfofiome the 
laft words without the firft : Chryfofiome ^oth\<ii^Severianus the City: The 
Emprefstaketh his part, and importuneth Chryfofiome to be reconciled to 
Severiamts. But the Core remained, Socrat. 1. 6. c lo. 

$. 41. Socrat. c. 11. Shortly after Epiphamns ("the Colleftor ofHere- 
fies) came from Cyprus to Confiantineple^ and there irregularly in Chryfo. 
ftomes Diocefs played the Biftiop, ordained a Deacon, and called toge- 
ther the Bifhops that were accidentally in the City, and required them to 
Condemn the Books of Origen; which fomedid,andfomerefufed, faith 
Socrates., cap. 1 2. " Obfcure men, odd Fellows, fuch as have no Pith or 
*' Subftance in them, to the end they may become famous, go about moft 
" commonly to purchafe to themfelves Glory and Renown by difpraifing 
" fuch men as far excel them in rare and lingular Virtues. Chryfofiome bore 
patiently Epiphanius''s fault and invited him to take a Lodging at his 
Houfe. He anfwered him, "I will neither Lodg with thee, nor Pray 
" with thee, unlefs thou banilh Diofconts and his Brethren out of the City, 
" and fublcribe with thy own Hand the Condemnation of the Works of 
*' Origen : Chryfofiome anfwered, that fuch things are not to be done with- 
out deliberation and good advice. Epiphanius in Chryfofi erne's Church at 
the Sacrament, ftands forth and Condemns Ongen., and Excommuni- 
cateth DiofcorMsz Bifhop, and reproveth Chryfofitme as taking their part. 


their Councils abridged. 7^ 

Chryfofiwte fent word by SerMfton to EpiphantHt that he did violate the Ca. 
nons, I. In making Minifters in his Dioccfs ; 2. In admioiftring the 
Communion without his Licence, and yet refufing to do it when he de- 
fired it- Wherefore he bid him take heed left he fee the People in an up. 
roar, for if ought came amifs, he had his remedy in his Hands. Epipha. 
nius hearing this, went away in fear, and took Ship for Cyprus .- The re- 
port goeth (faith SocrAtes,cAp. i j.) that as he went he faid of /<?««, J hcpe 
thoHfliitlt nevtrdyea Biptp: And that Chryfifltme anfwer'd him, J hope thou 
ffAlt ntver come Altve into thy Countrey. And it fo;fe]l out : For Epipharuiu 
dyed at Sea by the way ■■, and Chyfojlome dyed depofed and banilhed. 

5.4;.The Emprers£«</o.»:/4 was faid to kt Epipham hs on work. CtiryfoJIomt 
being hot, made a Sermon of the faults of Women ; which was interpreted 
to be againft the Emprcfs. She irritated the Emperour againft him i and 
got Tlieophilus to call a Council againft him, at Q^iercMs near Chslcedon^ 
and CorftMt. Thither came Sever tanns, and many Biihops that Chryfoflome 
had depofed, and many that were his Enemies for his ftridncfs^ butcfpe- 
cially timefervers that knew the will of the Emprefs, if not theEmpC' 
rours : When they fummoned him to appear before them, He anfwer- 
ed, that by the Canon there muft be more Patriarchs, and he appealed 
to a General Council, yet not denying to anfwcr any where, if they 
would put out his Enemies from being his Judges, and that in his own 
Patriarchate. But they fcntenced him depofed, for not appearing : The 
People were prefently in an uproar, and would not let him be taken out 
of the Church: The Emperour commanded his banilhment .• To avoid 
Turaulr, the third day he yielded himfelf to the Souldiers to be tranfpor- 
ted .- The people hereupon were all in an uproar, and it pleafed God 
that there was an Earthquake that night : V\"hcreupon the Emperour fent 
after him to intrcat him to return. When he came back he would not 
have officiated, till his Caufe wss heard by equal Judges, but the People 
conftrained him (o Pray and Preach", which was after made the matter 
of his Accufation. Tbecphtlus was hated as ti',e caufe of all, and Scverimms 
as the fecond. After this Theophtlus turned his Accufarion upon Heraclides^ 
Bilhcpof £/j/;f/«j, put in by Chryfcftome : They condemned him unheard, 
in his abfence .- Chryfoftcme faid that fhould not be : The Alexandriani 
faid, Jt was j/ij} ■■, They went hereupon together by the Ears, and fome 
were wounded and fome were killed, and Theophilus glad to fly home to 
Mexandria i but was hated by the People. 

§.43. After this a Silver Imageof the Emprefs was fet up in the Street, 
and Plays and Shows about it, which Chryfpjicme perhaps too Hiarply re- 
proached : This provoked the Emprefs to call another Council i which 
depofed Chryfoflome, for feizing upon his place before a Council reftored 
him : He ccaied his OfRce : The Emperor banilhed him : His People in 
pafllon fet the Church on Fire, wh.ch burnt down the Senstours Courts 
for which grievous fufTerings befell them. Upon this they forfook the 
Church and the new Bilhop (v^i/<»c/«/,ancid ufelefs man)and gathered Con- 


8o Chfircb-Hijiory of Bijhops and 

[;3^ venticles by themfLlves, and were long called Joamttes from his Name, 
and taken for Schifmaticks : But they never returned till the Name and 
Bones o^ Chnfcflome were reftored to Honour. 

$.4^. ih. Ncvaiims qua relied with Chryfoflonie as too loofc in his 
Doctrine and too ftritt in hi. Life, becaufe he faid in a Sermon, If you 
Sin an hundred timcs,thc Church Doors fliall be open to you, if you repent. 
And Chryfofiomc zngry with Sifimitu x!\\t Novatian Bilhop,told him. There 
fhould not be two Bilbopsin one City, and threatnedtofilence himfrom 
Preaching : He told him thst he would be beholden to him then for faving 
him his labour. But Chryfoftome anfwered him, Nay^ if it be a labour, go 

§. 45. XCV. A Council in y^fikl^to renew the Priviledgcs of Churches 
for Sanftuary •, that none that tied to them for any Crime, (liould be 
taken out by force : Juftice was taken for VVickednefs. 

§. 46. XCVI. Two Councils met, one atConJi. to judg Amonins, Bi- 
fliop o^EpheJus^ for Simony, and many other Crimes : Another at Ephc- 
fus to judg fi\' Bifliops for Simony. 

§. 47. XCVll. About ^/;. ^o:^. A Council of I9 Bifhops ztTolctumx^' 
prefs the Prifci!liaris\ and make divers Canons for Difcipline',as that a Clcr- 
gy-Man (hall have power over his oftending Wife by force, but not to put 
her to death ■■, that a man that hath no Wife but one Concubine fliall not 
be kept from Communion ('though fome think that this Concubine is tru- 
ly a Wife, but not according to Law, but private Contract, and more 
fervile.) Many other better there be. 

There is adjoyned a Rsffida fidei of many Bifliops approved by Pope 
Leo, in Bin.p- 565. To which are adjoyned Anathematifms againll the 
Prifcillians : One of them is. If c.ny one fay or believe that other Striptures 
arc to he had in jinthority and Reverence^ be fides thofe rrhich the Catholick^ 
Church receiveth, let him be Anathema. ('Yet the Papifls receive more.) An- 
^^!^ other is, If any one thinkjhat Aftrology or Mathemattckt is to be believed (ot 
tnilted) let him be anathema. 

There arc in ^/w. divers Fragments cited, as oftheTo/fr. Councils. One 
faith that Arch-Presbyters are under the Arch-Deacons, and yet have 
Curam animariim over nil the Presbyters- Another determineth that there 
ihall hi but one Baptifmal Church, wl.ich is there called. The Mother 
Church, with its Chapels , in the Limits afligned : And another diflin- 
guiiheth of Offerings made at the Pariili Church, and Offerings at the Al- 
tars :, which [heweth that then there were no Altars but where the Bi- 
Diop was- 

§. 4S. XCVllI. Two Councils were hdd at Cunhaje about 401. The 
laccr about the Donatifls. 

% 49. XClX. A:. 402. Was the Council Mckviian. about certain Bi- 
friO!)S qu?rrcJs , and who iliould be the hightfl: Bifhop in Nm.idut. 

§. 50. C, An. 403. Was th« Synod tid Qnercum, which depofed 
Chrxfffo'- e- 

- ' ^ S'- 

their Coumils abridged. g j 

§. 5 1. CI. An. 403, 404, &c. There were fevea Councils in ^/r »£•/(;, 
againftthe Donatifis^ to procure //owm; to fupprcfs them by the Sword, 
not as a Hirejie, but becaufe they rofe up by Ftre a^d Sword ag3ix)ii the Ca- 
tholicks, and abufed and killed many. But when Attains invaded Afnck, 
the Emperour proclaimed Liberty for them, to quiet them ■-, which he after 
recalled. Another Synod was held againft them at Cyrta. One at ToUtHm 
about Ordinations ■, and one at Ptolcm<ns to Excommunicate Andronicas^ an 
opprefling GovcrHour. 

J. 5 2. ClI. The Do«rtf»/?Bifhops held aCouncil,decreeing,thatwhenafcn- 
tence of banifhment was palled on them,they would not forfake their Church, 
but rather voluntarily die, as many did by their own hands .• For they 
took themfelves to be the true Church and Bidiops, and the reft perlecu- 

$. 5}. cm. The Concilium DiofpoUtannm of 14 Bifliops in Palejline ac- 
quitted PW4^/«/ upon his renouncmg hisErrours. 

§54. An. 416. A Council at Carthage of 6-j BiHiops condemned Pela- 
gins and Cdcfiwe -, whom the former had abfolvcd. 

§. 55. C\'. A Council of 60 Bilhaps at A///<rv« condemn PeUgtus. The 
22. Canon gallcth the Pontificians .- If Presbyters, Deacons., or other >«• 
fericiir Clergy , ftiallin their Caufes comfUin of the BiflwfSythe netghhour Bijhops 
fhMl heir them and end the huftnifs -^ being ufed i>y the confem of thetr Stjhofs: 
But if they fee caufe to appeal from them alfo, let them appeal to none but te Afri- 
cans Councils, or to the Primates of their Provinces : 'But if any wtS appeal to 
*ny places beyond the Seas., let none in Africk receive them into Communion. 

In this Council was Aurelins^Alyptas., AitguftmHSf Evoditts, and Pojfido- 
niits., and thefe very great with Pope Innocent., one of the belt and wifelt 
Popes (who excommunicated Theophtlns, Arcadtns and the Emprefs, &c. 
for Chryfoftomes caufe.) Yet did this pafs then without contradiction. 
Can. 12. of this Council Liturgies were made necellary approved by Coun- 
cils left any Herefie (hould be vended. 

§.56. Cdefline and Pf/<«^»/« being condemned \)'j thz Africans., efpeci- 
ally upon the Accufations of Lazjirus and Jierotes Bifliops, faid to be 
holy men •, Innocent joyned with the Africans^ but after his death Pope Zo- 
y?w«j having a fair Appeal of C£/€/?y«», crc. to him, abfolvcth them both 
and condemncth their Accufers. He writeth an Epiftle, had the caufe *^3 
been good , very honeft againft rafli condemning innocent men , tel- 
ling them how greatly they were rcjoyced at Rome to find them Ortho- 
dox-, and whatfalfc and bad men Lazanu and Herotes were : It was La- 
tArtts cuftorae to accufe the Innocent, as in many Councils he had done 
Saint Brttins a Bifhop of Tohts ; that he got by Blood into the Bilhops Seat, 
and was the fliadow of a Billiop, while a Tyrant had the Image of Empire, 
and then his Patron being (lain, voluntarily dcpofcd himftlf. The like 
he faith of Herotes i and that neither of them would come perfonally to 
Rome, but lay in Bed and fent falfe Letters of Accufation : Therefore he 
admonifiiech the Africans (among whom was Angufline) to believe fjch 

M whiCper- 


8 2 Church-Hiftory of Bijhops a?ic/ 

vrhifperers no more againft the innocent : But Binnim out of Profper maketh 
the accufers holy men, and the other wicked : Sin. p. 607. 

§. 57. PclagtHs lent Zofimus a Confedion of his Faith, and therein 
condemning all the late Hcrefies, profefl'eth, That he fo holdeth free-veill^ 
Of yet that we always need the help of God'-, and that they erre xfho fay with 
the Manichees, that a man cannot avoid fin, and they that fay with Jovini- 
an, that a man cannot fin ^ for both deny thefreedame of the will : But he bold- 
eih, that always a man can fin andean forbear fin, fo at he fitll holdeth the free- 
dome of the will. 

I5ut fubtile Auguftine and the reft, fent back many harder queftions to 
put to PtUgiiis and Calefiine for their tryal, upon which they after paft 
for Hereticks. 

$. 58. CVI. Therefore iivBifhopsin a Council at Cir//j<«^c having re- 
ceived Zofimus Letters, decreed to ftand to their former judgment and 
Innocents, againft PclAgms and Cskfline, till they fliould confefs certaiH 
points fforGracej drawn up by Paulus Diaconus. 

§• 59. CVII Zofimus being dead, Boniface and Enlalius ftrove for the 
Popedome.- Both were chofen .• The Emperour Honoruts was fent to for 
both : This Cafe being too hard for him, he referrcth it to a Council 
at Ravenna : It proved too hard for them. Therefore the Emperour 
commanded them both to remove from the City, and another Bilhop to 
officiate, till it was decided by another Council. But Eidaliiis difobey- 
ingthe Emperours Command, and coming into Rome at noon-day, oc- 
calioned a tumult, and the people were neer to fight it out. Which the 
Emperour hearing, e.\p:lled Enlalius, and a Council obeying him con- 
firmed Boniface. 
1^ §. do. Among the Decrees of Bomface one is. That no Bifiwp fliall 
be brought or fet before any Judge Civil or A^ilitary, either for any ■ Civil 
or criminal caufe. So tliac a Bilhop had the priviledge of abadPhylician ; 
he might murder and not be hanged ', For any ovw^, he wasto anfwer but 
before Bilhops, who could but Excommunicate and Depofe him. But ano- 
ther Decree is becter, AgRinfk B(fl)ops that fall cut and defire to hurt their Bre- 
thren: But, alas, to how little effedt? 

§. 61. CVIII. Another Council at Ctr//?,«^f, f called the fli'th, and by 
fome the fifth) iiad the famous contention with three Popes, Zofimus, Boni- 
face, and Cdefline, fucceffively, againft Appeals to Rome, and the Popes 
fending Legates into Jfrica to judge. The Popes ailedged the Council of 
Nice for it. The African Bifliops knew no fuch Canon : They take time for 
Tryal, and fend to Confiantinople and Alexandria, to Atticus and Cyril, for 
their true Copies of the Councils : None of them have any fi-ch Canon : The 
Fathers write to the Pope to take better heed whathcaffirmeth for thetime 
tocome, and to forbear fuch pride and ufurpation : alledging that by the 
Canons all ftrifes were to be ended by their neighbour Bilhops and Coun- 

Here thePapifts fweat about thefe anfwers and the event. Some fa^y 


their Councils abriclged. S3 

(jAs Harding) th^t the Jfr icons continued long, (Tome fcyalmoft 100 years) 
inSchifm: And an Epiftle under the name of Pope Bonijace the fecond to 
EHlaliui iaith the fame : Others wifer (as Btnnius) fee that to Icfe Au^^HJiines 
authority and have him and all the African Bifnops (the bell of the Worlds 
againfl; the Papal power, would be to heavy a burden for them: Therefore 
they fay, that the y^/noj^^ were no Schifmatick?, that the Canon not found 
was in tlie Council oiSardica •, and that That went for the Council of Nice : 
That the Africans did not deny the Popes power of judging them, but only 
of fending Souldiers and doing it violently by force, and liich other fhifts, 
which the exprefs words of the African Council and Letters plainly coa- 
fute: If any difpute it, 1 appeal to the very words. 

Either another Council or a fecond SelUon of the lame is called the fe- 
venth at C^thage. 

$. 62. CIX. All this while theSchifm continued at ^c-m.-, and Enldms 
partly would not Communicate with the reft, each fide faying, that theirs 
was the True Bifliop, and the other an Ufurper and Schifmatick. But Thct. 
dofius was for Cdcfltne. In his time another Carthage Council made up their 
Canons 105. Among which are .- 6. Thatvo Sijhop te caHcdthe chief Btjlcp. 3 5. 
To deal getitUer with the Donatiits. j6. Tojend to themfor peace. 55. That Bi- 
Jlwps latelier ordained may not dare to prefer themfeives before thofe that 
were Ordained before them. 6%. For pacifying the Churches of Rome and Alexan- 
dria, G-c. 

$. 63. It fell out well for ^«/?««againft the Pf/4f/>«/, that by the means 
oi Proffer and Hilary ?o]iQC<tlejhne was wholly on Anjlms lidc, and con- 
demned the Pelagians. Aad among his own Decrees one was Nh/Im myitis 
detur EpifcopHS : Cleri, plebu G~ or dints Comm. fenfus ac defidcrimn recjairatur. 
Many Canons of thofe times (liew that the Bifiiops Churches were no big- 
ger, than that All the Laity could meet to choofeor accept the Biftiop, and 
have perfbnal Communion. 
J. 64. ex. An £.»//fr« Council againft the ^rf/u//<»7/. 
§. 65. CXI. Next cometh the iVf}?m4;; War : Pope C-t/r/Ftw provoked 
by Cyrtl AUx. called a Council at Rome, and condemned A>//cnw, unlefs 
he recanted in ten days. 

$. 66. CXII. Cyril calleth his Council at Alexandria, and pafTeth the 
fame fentencc, having got C^/<>/?»«f to back him, and fends it with many 
Anathematifmesto A'f/onw, calling for his abjuration. The whole caufe 
is opened at the next Council at £;/«/'«. ., 

M 2 C H A P. 

84 Church- Hi ftory ofBiJhops and 


The Firft General Council at Ephefus, with the Second^ 
andfome other following. 

i.x. ^TT^ He Church zt ConftantinofU growing to be the greateft, by 
I the prefence of the Court (v/hich was ihefpringor poifeof 
JL raoft ofthc Bifliops courfes, and indeed did rule,) it became 
the envy and jealoufie, efpecially of the two great Patriarchs, 
'Rome and Alexandria. Alexandria being under the fame Emperour had more 
to do with Conft. and made the greater Stirs •, For when the Empire was di- 
-Tided, Rome being under an Orthodox Emperour, had little trouble at 
home, and little opportunity for domination in the Eaft: Yet keeping up 
the pretence of the prime Patriarchate, and the Ca^nt Mtndi Romans , the 
Pope watch'd his opportunity to lay in his claim, and to keep under the 
stronger fide, andwhiietheydidthework inthe£<r/? againft one another, 
-he fent now and then a Letter or a Legate, to tell them that he was fome- 
body ftill : And indeed the hope of help from the Wefltm Emperour by the 
countenance of the Pope, made the Eaftem Churches ftill vexed with Here- 
fie and Perfecutionsand Divifions, to feek ofc to Rome and be glad of their 
approbation, to ftrengthen them againft their adverfaries. 

\ 2. When Arfaciuf was dead, Atticns fucceededhim at Confiantinophf 
a wife and pious healing man, who greatly thereby advanced that Church 
and all the Eaftern Churches .- He dealt gently with the Novatians and lived 
in peace with them. He encouraged Hereticks by kindnefs to return to the 
Communion of the Church. At Synada in Phry^ia Pm. was a Church of 
■Macedonians : Theodofius Bifliop of the Orthodox Perfecuted them with great 
fcverity : And when he found that the Magiftrates of the place had not 
power to do as much as he expefted, he got him to Conft antinofle for greater 
power: while he was there A^a^ettu the /^^cif^/owwa Bifliop turned Ortho- 

ittrat^\,y. dox, and all the Church adhered to him, and fet him in the BiJIiops chair. 

C.J. ' When 7lbM<fc/<«< came home with power to perfecute him, he found him in 
his place, and the people fhut the doors againft 'Theodofuu : Whereupon 
he went back to Confi. and made his complaint to Atttctu how he wasufed. 
AtticHi knew that it fell out for the beft, for the concord of the Church,and 
he gave Thetdofmt good words, and perfwaded him only to be pati- 

§. I. •Cyril at that time fucceeded his Unkle Theofhilus at Alexandria^ 
in place and in unquiet domination, taking more upon him than Theophi- 
itu had done, even the Governmentof temporal affairs: He prefently fliut 

<«nib.c7. up the 2Viw<i;w«. Churches in y^/f;^. rifled thera of all their Treafure, and 


their Councils abridged. 8 5 

bereaved Theepempnu their Bifliop of his fubftance Tlie Jews at that time 
falling out with the Chriftians.murdered many of t.'icoi. Cynl executed ibmc, 
and banifhed them all. Oreftes the Governour took this ill: Fifty Monks 
of Mount Altria come totake Cyril's part, and aflault the Governour, and 
wound him in the head with a Hone : The people rife and put the Monks 
£0 flight, but take him that did the Fad, and he is tormented and put to 
death: Cyril pronounced the Monk a Martyr, but the people would r.oc 
believe him one. At that time there was a Woman, Hypatia, lb famous .^c.;-. c i j. 
for learning, that (he excelled in all Philofophy, and taught in the Schools 
:(whichP/ef/«« continued: j fo that (he had Scholars out of many Countries, 
and was oft with Princes, and Rulers, and forh:r raodelly and gravity 
^was much efteemed. Oreftes the Governour oft talking with her, thepco- 
plefaid. It was long of her that he was not reconciled to C)r»/: Tlieylaid 
holdofher:, drew her into a Church, ftript her ftark naked •, rafetheskin, 
andtarethel]elhotf her body with fliarp ihells till fhedyed : they quarter 
her body and burn them to alhes ; which turned to the great diflionour of 

§. 4- All this while the followers of Chryfoftome remained Nonconfor- 
milts and Separatifts at ConftantitiopUy and were called Joannitcs^ and kept 
in Conventicles of their own. jitnctu knew that love was the way to win 
Xhem, andhepurpolingtotakethat way, writeth to Cynl ^Ux. that the 
rcftoringof Cfcry/e/o/wf'sname in the Church-Office would tend to heal their 
fad divifion, and give the Churches peace .• He told Cyril, that Pcfulns m4- e^ 
J9ri ex parte per f/iflionemfctJfHS extra mttros ccnve?itns egerit, O" f I cykjhc fa- 
cer dotes O" collegit tioftri Efifcopi Cr a mntH.i comtmmicne difccdeiites , honam 
^lantationem Damini pariim abefi quin avulferint, (^c. '*' IMoft of tlie people 
*' were gone and had feparate meetings without the Walls:, Pricfts and 
*' Bilhops fcparating from one another were like to dcllroy the Church, and 
"thatiihe confented notto reftore thenameof dead C^>yo/?o«;f, the pco- 
" pie would doit without him, and he was loath that Church-adminiftra- 
*'tion fhould fo fall into tlie hands of the Multitude, and therefore he 
** would take in Chryfoftojn's name. 

Alexander^ a good Bifliop of y^wf wc/? put him upon this way: ^MtCyrtl Kicefh.]. 
did vehemently oppofe it CHowdidheobey ^ow? then, when the Pope had '+ '^•^7. 
Excommunicated Chryfoftom\ perfecutors?^ And firft he pleaded, that 
the Schifmaticks were but few (as if their own Bilhop knew not better than 
hei) and that Cbryfoftcme being ejeded dyed a Lay man, and was not to 
be numbered with the Clergy, that Atticut had the Magiftrates on his fide, 
that would bring them in by force (Reader^ there is netbin^ new wider the fun: 
the things that have been arc.) And a little time would reduce moll of them 
to the Church (though they increafed:,) That by favouring the Schifmaticks 
he would lofe the obedient (Conformifts,^ and would get nothing by pleaC 
ing fuchdifobedient men, but ftrengthen them-, That the Conformifts (or 
obedientj were the far more confiderable part, even the Bilhops and 
Churches of £iy'pf, Libia, arc. andthreatnedchathev^ould fe«k a renie- 

8 6 Church- Hi jlory of Bijhops ajid 

dy liimfclf i And reproaching Cbryfojlomr^ he tellcth Attkiu, That Con- 
formity to the Canons was more to be obierved than the pkaling of fuck 
Schifmaticks, and that violating the Cr.nons would do far more hurt thaa 
plcaling fjch nicp. would do good i Anu ihatfuch men will never be fatis- 
ficd by rcafons, norjudj^.c truly of thcmfelvcs: And he likened the rcftoring 
of Ck.yfaftotne\ NsiTie, to the putting in th.-* name of the Traytor Jndas 
with AiMthiM. He addrd. That if ignorant wilful fellow^ will forfake 
the Church, what lofs is it?And thei efore that ?. few mens talk mufi not draw 
Jittkut to pluck up the Church Sancftions. And as ioi Alexander Antioch. 
who perfvvaded him to it, He was a bold-faced man that had deceived ma- 
ny:, bur ihisdifeafeninfl not thus prevail, butbecured. ThusCyr/'/ toy^r- 
tieus: How uft have 1 heard jufi; liAh language ? Reader, How hard is it to 
know T/hat Hifcory tD believe, v\ hen it comes to thecharaclerizing of ad- 
vcrfaries? Howliitle is a domineering Prelates accufation of fuch men as 
Chryfojhme to he credited ? And how ordinary is it with fuch, to call their 
betters, not what they are, butwhatthey would have them thought, ifnot 
what they are themfelves ? 

But Attictn was wifer than to take this Counfcl •, but obeyed the Wifdom 
which is from above, which is firfl pure and then peaceable, gentle, &c. 
And God had fomuch mercy on Conflant. as to defeat the evil Counfel of 
Cyril, and turn it into foolifiincfs : For Attkm reftored thenameof OS^ry. 
fojjonte, andufed theNonconformifts kindly, and they came into the unity 
of the Church : And when /'>(7rte, after him, fetch'd home his bones with 
honour, the breach was healed. 

$. 5- No credible Hiltorytelleth us, that either Thcophilns or Cyril did 
repent of this ^ (Though the Papifts fay, that the Pope Excommunicated 
TheophilM for it i yet they are now honoured, becaufe the Pope did own 
the Caufe againfl:iVf/?on/«.j Theodoret^s Epillle to Job. Antioch. upon the 
death of C<iril^ taking his death for the Churches deliverance from a turbu- 
lent enemy of Peace, intimates, that he repented not: But ('God only 
knowethrj Nice^horus outof /V/af.tUhe Philofopher, tells us a report,that 
after all this, before he dyed, a dream did cure him:, I'iz.. That he faw 
Chryfoflome drive him out of his own honje, ha-oinaa Divine company wkhhi/n^ 
and that the rirj^in Mary iiitreated for him., Q-c. And that upon this Cyril 
changed' his mind and admired Chryfoflome, and repented of his imprudence 
and wrath, and hereupon called another Provincial Synod to honour him, 
and reltore his name- ( O dnB tie Synods \ And O unhappy Churches, whofc 
Paftorsmufl grow wife, and ceafedeftroying, after fo long finning, and 
by an experience which cofteth the Church fo dear ! ) And Nicephortu faith, 
that Ifdorc Pelnfiot^'^s reproof conduced much hereto, Nueph. lib. 14. 
cap. 28. 

§. 6. J/idore Pcl*tf. words you may fee at large in his Epiftles : Nicepho- 
rtu reciteth thus much of them, lib. J4' c. 55. Cynllum fane nt ho- 
mincm turbulent itm refi liens hxc fcribit : Favor is affeEiio aciitnm non videt : Ho- 
Jl-ilis vcro animi odium nil pi'orfus cernit : Q^od ft utroqite hue vitio te purga- 


their Councils abridged. 8 7 

re ipfu/n & Itbtrare vu, ne violent as fententias txtorcjutto^ fed jnfiojudicio cait- 
fas committe : — Afiilti qui Ephefi tecum congregati fuernnt^ pHhlicc te tra» 
ducunt^ quod immiciti,u tuat ferf(CHtus fs, & non rite O" ordine juxtn re^tt 
fidei fententiam ea qiutjcfrt Qhrijli [ant qu^Jivcris: Thcophili> irqntHnt^ cum 
ex fratre nepos Jit, mores queque illins tmit^tur : ficut Hie apertam infaniam 
infann^iim G" Deo dileilum Joannem ejfudity it a O' iftegloriain eodem aJfcH-at mo~ 
do. And after other fharper words, he addeth. Ne ego ua (Ofidemner, O" 
ttetH ipfeetiam a Deocofidemneris-, comentiones fopito: Necinjuris propria vin- 
diHa qn£ ab homiiiibus provtnit^ vidcntem Ecclefam per aflni^zs a^iones, f^Has. 
And of Theophilus, he faith. Eudi quatiior admimp.rn feu potius defertoribni 
fuii circumvalUtum, qni Dcum amantem, Dciimq\ prxdicantemvirum (Chryfoff.) 
hojlilfter opprimerct, quum occafoncm & can/am tmpictatii fiu arriptiijfet. Thus 
IJidore fpeaketh of them. 

$. 7. Atttcus dying, the Clergy were for Philip or Prcclns^ but the Lai- sccr. 1. 7. 
ty choofing S»y<";-7;>/w prevailed : He was a good and peaceable Man, and c. iS. 
fent Proclus to be Bijlwp of Cyzjcim , but the People rtfufed him and chofc 

§. 8. After the death o^ Siftmiius to avoid ftrife at home the Emperour 
cauled Ncjioriiis to be chofen, a Monk from the Houfc by Antioch, whence 
Chryfeflome canic. He was loud, eloquent, a!;d temperate: But hot 
againit the liberty of thofc called Hcrcticks : He bigun thus to the 
Emperour , Give me the Earth weeded from Hereticks , and I will give 
thee H^.4ve>i : Help n.e ag.tinfi the Hereticks aid 1 wiH help thee a- 
gtirji the Perllans. Ttii'S turbulent heteticators mud have the s y,-. c. i^. 
Sword do the work that bclo.igeth to the Word : Princes mull do 
their V\'ork, and they will pretend t:'at God ihall fcr their fakes advance c. 31. . 
thole Princes : But he was rewarded as he dcfcrved. He prefcntly en- 
ragtdthev#r».i«j by going to pull down th:ir Church, and they fee it on 
Fire thcmfclvcs to theha/ard of thjCiLy. Soth.it lie vvasprcfcitly calkd 
a Firebrand. He vexed the Novatiais, and railld llirs in many places, but 
the Emperour curbed \(\\\\. Antony B ihop o\' Gcrtn.i vexing the M.:ccdomans^ 
they killed hira : whereupon they were put out of their Churches in many 

§. g. At laft hisownroine came asfoliowcrh. Ntftorius defended his 
Prieit A'uflafiits ^(01: faying, that Afary was not to be called SrioloKo^y the Afcther c. js, • 
of God : This fet all the City in a divi'iTon, difputingof they well knew not 
what, and fufpcifting him of denying the Godhead of Chfiil: But he was 
of no fuch Opinion, but being eloquent and felNconcoited read little of 
the Ancients Writings, nor was veryleariicd-, and thought to avoid all 
extreams herein, and lb would not call Mny the Mother of God^ nor the 
Mother cfMati, but the Mother of ChnlJ who w^ts God and Man. 

At that time fome Servants of fome Noble Men impatient of their Ma- 
fters feverities fied to the Church ; ^ad with their Swords rcllfted all that ^ 
would remove them, killed one Prieft, wounded another snd then killed ' ^^' 

§• 10. 

88 Church-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

i. ic. CXUI. The Emperoiir Thcodofms jun. a Religious Peaceable 
Prince, weary of this Stir, called a General Council at £ffef/«w, and gave 
Cyril order to prcfide, fthe Papifts pretend that he was Pope Ctltjiiue's 
Legate, who indeed joyned with him by his Letters, when he faw hovr 
things went J Both Cyril and Nejloritu defiredthe Council (Letters be- 
fore .'aving made no end) Cakftine nor the ><(^»C4»« could not comci ^«- 
giiftine was dead : Neftarim, Cyril ^ and Juvenal of ferufalem came : John 
ot\Jnt:och was thirty days journey off, and his Bifliops much more, and 
flayed long. Cyril znd Memnon of Ephefm would not ftay for him: AV/?«- 
rim came the firft day •, But C}ril and the reft being fliarp againft him, for 
not calling Mary the Paretn of God^ he faid to them, Ejro himeflrem am 
trimeftrem Deitm von facile dixtrim : Vroinde futrtu fmn a veflro fangnine : 
infojlcrHm ad -JOS nonvcniam. That is, / will not eajily fay, that God is txvf 
er three months eld : I am clean fi-om your blond, and will come to you ti9 mere. 
Some Bilhops gOing with him, they metby themlelves. Cyril fummoneth 
him : He refufeth to come till John Bifhop of A/itioch came. They examine 
his Sermons and WitneiTes, and condemn and depofc him, as blafphemous 
againltChrift. Three or four days after, Jo^w of y^«f/ocJi>, and \\\sEaflern 
Bifliops come .• Hetookit ill that they flayed not for him .- He joyneth ina 
diftindt meeting with iV^f/?orz/«^: T/jcWar^f accufethC^ri/'s Anathematifmes 
of crrour : They depofe Cyril and Memnon : CyriPs Synod citeth John : 
He refufeth to appear : They depofe him and his adherent Billiops: And 
t^ thus two Synods fate depofing and condemning one another .- Both Parties 
fend their Agents to the Emperour : His Officer Candidiasis took part 
with Ncjlorim : He fendeth another Johanr.es Comes, with charge to de- 
pofe the h. ads of both the depofing Parties, and lb to make good both their 
dtpofitions, w'z:. Nejlorim, Cyril, and /yfcm>:on: Candidiarms before had 
teld the Emperour, how all was done in violence and confufion, and he had 
pronounced all Null, and charged them to begin all a-new. When Johnn- 
Siii.pySS.nes Comes came, he wrote to the Emperour, that yill being in confufion, and 
Cyril andlAimnon fortifyim^ themfilves, he fummoncd them all to come to him\ 
And Irjl they jiwitld fall together by the ears, (which he feared, by reafon of their 
fringe fiercenefs) he ordered their coming in fo^ that it might not be fromifciiouf- 
ly : Nellorius and Joiin c/Antioch being comefirjl, Cyril and his company (ex- 
ccptMcmnoiiJcafienext^ Mid prefcntly a great tuMult and flir began^ CyrilV 
Party faying, th.tt the fght of NcdiOTius, whom they haddepofed, was not to be 
endured: Thiy would h.ive the Scripture read: But thofe that favoured Cyril, 
ftid, that the Divine and terrible Scriptures were not to be read without Cyril, 
}:or while Nellorius ai:d the Oriental Bilhcps were prefent ; and for this Hjere w.w 
a Sedition, yea, a Wxr, and fight : The fame faid the Bifliops that were With 
John, th,it Cyril onj^ht not to be pnfent at the Reading of the Scriptures, he and 
hlcn'r on bring depofcd : The day being fir [pent thus ^ he attempted, excluding 
Cy ri 1 and Ncf lorius, to read the Einpcroitrs Orders to the rcfi ; But Cyri I'j- Party 
wouldnothear them^ hccjufe they faid Cyr'd and Memnon were unlawfully de- 
vfed: He h.^d much ado to pcrfv de tl.em at lafl, (^and indeed thruftin^ out 


their Councils abriJgec/. go 

Ne/lorius andC^vW by force) fomich m tc hear the Emferei'.rs writing. Bm 
he made them he^r it .- In, which Neftoriiis, CuiJ, and Mtninon, were difofcd. 
Thofe thatwere ffith]o\\X\hcard it fncr.dly, nnd afp-ovt^it : The ttl.tr cUrwitt- 
edy that Cyril and Memnon fve>e Wronafu/fy dcpeftd;. T» aiotd Sedtttt>ri Nc- 
Horias was committed 10 CindiA'ismMConeii ^ftd Cyril to Jacobi-is Comes 
(and Memnon after.) Hecondudcth, i^iiod f fumijfitnos Epifcopes videre 
implacatos & irrecandlialnleSy {Nefcia iinde in hanc rr.htem G i<fperttaiem xv 
nerint^) cc. This was his DeTcription of the carriage ol this Coun- 

Both Parties fent feveral Biniops, as their Delegates, to Cenjlartinople : 
The Emperour would not permit them to come nearer than ChAlctden^ 
(which is as Soiithwark, to London.) While they wait thtre, TlHodorite, one 
of John's Party againit Cyril, wrote back, that the Court was againfl Nc- 
flvritu, but nioft of the People were for them. It's faid that Pulcheri/t, 
the Emperours Sifter, was much againft him. At laft Pope C*lejiive''s Le- 
gates came to the Council and took C^r»7's Part. The Emperoar faw hosv 
great the breach would be, if Cyr»7 were depofed, and he revoked the de- 
pofition of him and Memnon, but not ofNeftorins, and wrote a thrcatning 
Letter to Cynl and john^ to charge them to agree and joyn in Communion, 
and not divide the Churches, or elie what he would dotothembothThefe 
terrible words cured them both of Herefie: They prefently confultcd,and 
fent each other their Confcllions, and found (good men) that tbey wer» ^3 
of one mind and did not know it- And fo having their will upon N'ejlo- 
rtHt and his adherents, the reft united. But fo, thatjofc'j and Tbttdsriti 
took Cyr»/ for a Firebrand to the laft. 

§• II. AVyFor/w being depofed retired quietly to his Monaflcry by y^«- 
ticch., and lived therein honour four years, but then was banifhcd and dy- 
ed in diftrefs: ("fome Fable that he was eaten with Worms.) 

$. u. The event of this Council was, that a Party of the Orientals 
adhered to Nejhriusy took C^r/7 and this Council for Hereticks, and to 
this day continue anumerous Party of Chriftians, called Hereticks by the 
Pontificians, becaufe they are not for thera : And the Entychians on all oc- 
cafions accufed their Adverfaries the Orthodox to be Nej}orians, and the 
Churches were inflamed by the dilTention through many Ages following. 

$. 1 J. And what was really the Controverfie between them ? Some ac- 
Cuie NeJitriHs as afTerting two perfons in Chrift as well as two natures, 
which he ftilldenyed- Others accufe Cyril z% denying two Natures .• But 
his words about this were many, but he affirmed two Natures belorc the 
Union, Cand fo did the fwryr /jmwj) but one after : I>aiid Derodon a moll 
learned Frenchman hath written a Treatife De Suppojito, in which he co- 
pioufly laboureth to prove that N'efiorius was Orthodo.v, holding two 
Natures in one Perfon, and that Cyrtl and his Council were Hereticks, 
holding one Nature only after Union, and that he was a true Eutychiar!,nr'A 
DiofcorHs did but follow him, and that the Council of C/.'4/rfi/c» condemned 
NefiortHs and ftablilhed his Dodrinc, and extolled CyrH and condemned 

N ' hi$ 

po Church'Hijlory of Bijhops and 

Cf" his Dodtrinc. But for my part 1 make no doubt that, de re, they were both 
fully of one mind, and dtjf'ered only about the aptitude of a fhrafe: Whether 
it were an apt Speech to call Mary the Parent of God, and to fay that God 
was two moneihs old, God hundred, God dyed and rofe^ &c. which Nefiortut 
denyed, and Cynl and the Council with him affirmed. And what hath 
the World fuftered by this Word Warr. But which was in the right. 

Wc commonly fay that/*;* w.> denominate cfr locutio formalii ejl maxime pro- 
pria. And fo Neflcrins fpake moll properly : But Ufe is the Matter of 
Speech, which tyeth us not always to that ftritlnefs, and fo Cyril well 
interpreted fpake well : cfpecially if the contrary fide fhould intrude a 
duality of Perfons, by their denying the Phrafe : VVhile Nejiorius accufeth 
Cyril as if he fpake de ahjlrade, he wrongethhim : while Cyril accufeth 
Neftorius as if he fpake de covcreto^ he wronged him : They both meant 
that Mary was the Mother of Chrijl veho was God, and of the Vnieitof 
the Natures, but not the Mother of Chrift as God, or of the Deity. So 
that one fpeaking decencreio, and the other de ahJlraSlo, one materially and 
the othtT formally, in the heat of Contention they hereticated each other 
and kindled a flame not quenched to this day, about a word while both 
were of one mind. 

§■ 14- If any fay it is arrogancy in me to fay that fuch men had not 
skill enough to efcape the deceit of fuch an ambiguity, I anfwcr, humili- 
ty maketh not men blind : The thing proveth it felf. Judg by thefe fol- 
lowing words of Neftorius and Cyril what they held. 

§. 15. Neftorius Epi(l. ad Cyril: Nomen hoc, Chriftus, utramque natu- 
ram, patihileni fcilicet O" impatilibem in nnica Ferfonl denotat. ^no idemChr- 
Jlfts patihilis & impatibitts concipi cjueat ; IHud qnidem fecn»diim humanam 
natHram, hoc vsro fecundlim Divinam- — In eo no>i injuria te laudo quod diftin- 
^ionem naturarum fccundum Divinitatis & humanitatis rationem harumque in 
Hn.i duntaxat perfonJi conjunEHonem pradicas. — Ec quod Divinitatem pati uon 
fotuijfe dijerte pronuncias : HdC enim omnia & vera funt cr Orthodoxa ; ct* 
vanis omnium hareticorum circa Domini naturas opinationihiis quam maxime ad- 
verfafunt. Non dicit,folvi(e Divinitatem meant O" intra tridmim exfufcitabo illam', 
fed folviie Templumhac^CT'C. — Vbicunque Divim Scripturtt Dominic<t difpen- 
fationis metttionemfaciunt, tum incarnationem, turn ipfim mortem G" Pajfionem, 
von Divin4t,fedHumanA Chnfti naturafemper tribuu»t. Ergo ft rem diligentius 
confideremut, facra f^irgo non Deipera^fed Chriftipera, appelLwda fr/> ('which 
fignifieth that She is the Parent of the Humane nature, receiving the Di- 
vine in Union of Perfon.^ — Quis it a deftpiat ut unigeniti Divinitatem Spiri- 
tus faafli creaturam ejfe credat. — Sunt innumern fententix qu£ Divinitatem 
neque nupcr n.ttam, mque corporcA perpejfionis eapacem ejfe teftantnr. — Return 
Evangelicdque traditioni conjentaneum eft, ut Chrifti Corpus Divinitatis Tim- 
plum ejfe confiteamur, illudque tuxu adeo fublimi Divinoque & admirabili ipfi 
conjunllum ejfeft'atuamus, ut Divina natura eaftbi vendicet, qua Coporis alio- 
quifiiit propria: f^erum propter earn Jive communications ftve apprgpriationis no- 
ti one nit nanvitateni) pajjionem-, mgrtem carer afque (Amis propietates Divino 



tJjeir Councils abridged. p i 

Vtrhoafcribere, id demiim, m frater, mentis efl pa^anor ion more rerc errnntis 
4Ht certe infant Apellintirii & J^rii aliorumque hirettccrum morbo aut alio etiam 
graviere UborAntis. Nam qui appropriatienis vecabulmn iia deiorijuent t/los 
Deum verbiim laBatitnis particip'.m & fnccedatiei mcremcnti capacem &ohfor- 
midinei)! Pajfionis, &c. — ■ 

Neftor. Epijl. Z. ad Cslefl". Outdum de Ecclejiaflicif qnatidam coittcnipera- 
tlonis imi^inem ex Deitate (j- HumAnit^^te acciptcr:tes^ coiporis pajficncs audent 
fitperfundere Deitati unigenitiy &■ immHtabtUm Dcitatem ad naturam corporis 
tranjiijfe co>:jinj^unt, /itcjue utramque nainram qna per conjwitlioiiem fumtM/tm 
&■ inconfufam tn Uoica Perfona Hmgeniti adoratur, contcmpcraticne confiin, 

Neflor. Epiji. ad Alexand. Hierapol. Condi. 5. jiil. Sejf. 6.0portct nm- 
ncrc tjaturas in fids proprietatthns^ <y jic per mirabdem & omnem rationem ex- 
Ccdentem unitatem utmm cofifiteri filtttm. Non dnaj perfonas imam facimHSf fed 
ma appellalione Chrifti duas natural fimul fij^nificamHs. 

In Scriptis Neftorii recitatis in Coned- Ephcf. 1. Tom. 2. c. 8. Ide/n emnin» 
& InfaMS crat c^' Infant em babitabat. Item, Dchs Verbmn ante incamattonem & 
Filiiiserat O" Dens crat:, At -jero innovijfimis temportbits fervdcmejHoque for- 
t/iam ajfumpfi ", Qetertim cum ante Filius effet^ Filius appelUretitr , attamen pofi 
Catnem affumptam., feorfim perfe Filii nomine appellari non debet, ne duos Filios 
'videamur inducere. — Item, voce Chrijli tancjuam utrtufjue nature, notionem 
cempleclente accepta, citra periculum ilium ajfumpfijfe fervi formam affeverat & 
Deum nomi»ar ; diBorum vim ad naturarum dualttatem manifefle refer ens. 

Cyril lib. de rcRafide ad Retinas pag. 55. de Ncltorianis, I'erbum & 
humanitas (ut ipfi loquuntur^ in unam Perfonam co»currunt : ZJnienis enim tjux 
tfi fecundum naturam G~ qua una efi., nulla afud eos habetur ratio — Et p. 66. 
de Neftor. Si Chrijlus fola unione fecundum Perfonam cum Dei Verba con<un~ 
Bienem hubeat., (fie enim illi loejuuntur) quomodo in illis qui pereunt Evangelium 
Dei abfcenditum eft ? By which Cyril fpeaketh for one Nature, and A'eflo- 
rius for one Perfon. 

Cyril./. I . Ww>/. Neftor. p. 16. thus rcportcth Nejlorius faying, Nic 
qui videtur Infans., hie qui recens apparet^ hic qui fafciis corporalibus egef , bic 
qui fecundum vifibilem tffentiam recenter efi editus, Filius utiiverforum opifcx, 
Filtus quift(£ opis fafciis dijfolubilem creature naturam aflringit. — Item., Infans 
enim eft Deus liber., poteflate ; tantiim abejl f Arie) ut Deus I'erbum fit fub Dei 
poteflate- — Again, Novimus ergo Humanitatem infantis 0* De it at em; Filia- 
ttonis Vnitatem fervamus in Deitatis hi'.mar.itatifque ttatura: faith Drro</o//, 
I dare boldly I>iy no Chriftian hath hitherto fpoke truher and plainer of 
the Unity of Chrilh Perfon in two Natures, than iVf/?on;.'/. 

Ex lib. Cyril z. Cent. Neftor.f.4- He thus reporteth Neflmus, Hoc quod 
Chriflus efl nulLnn patitur ^edi^im, fed Deitatis., & Humanitatis eft Siaj^-sn ■■ 
Chriflus quaChriftus efl u-^iaufiTK ; Kcqite enim duos Chriflos huberrus ncque duos 
Filios : Non efl enim apud nos prin.us d" fecmidus., neque alius c~ alius, neque 
rurfus alius Filius O- alius rurfus i fed ipft iUe imus c/i duplex non dijptitate, fed 

N z Cyril 

^2 Church-Hijiory of Bijhops afid 

Cyril faith that Nejhrius was tiie Difciple of Dloderns Tarfenfs from 
whom he learnt his Herefie, Efift. ad Smcef. and that he was the hearit 
o(Thcodornj Afopfucf} condemned in Council, for the fame Herefie as Nej}o~ 
rim. But (a.\th Dergjan, F.icundustoto lib- 4. largely proveth that LHod.Tar- 
foifis was Orthodox by the teftimonies of Atlo4nafiMs,Bifu, Chryfojfeme, Epi- 
fhaniHs, c~c. Et lib. }. G" p- he provcth the fame of Theod. Mopfiirfi. citing the 
places where he alferteth two Natures in one Perfon, Ftd. Facund. I. 3.C.2. cr 
l,g.c.i-& 4. And Libtrnius tn Brcvwr, c. i o. faith : Diod. Tarfoifis cr Theod. 
Mopjueft. cr alHEvifcopi contra Eunomium cr Apollinarem umusNatura aj- 
fertores libros compojuerunt, dnas tn Chrifto ojlendtntes natnrai in un,i perfon j : & 
ibid. D«^/ Job. Antiocheni Epiftolasyprimam & tertiam, LtHdes Thf^od. Mop- 
{\icit. continenrts Chalced. Synodus Oecumcnicaperrelationem fuAm Martiana 
Itnperdteri direElam., fufcepit c~ conjirmavit. 

§. 16. By all this it is evident that Ncflorim was Orthodox ; and own- 
^^. ed two Natures in one Perfon : And that the Controverfie was de nomine., 
^^ unlefs Cyril was an Eiitychinn. And that it is a more accurate cautelous 
Speech /« /o^-wi to fay that God did not increafe, hunger, die, rife, c~c. 
than to fay God did thefe •, becaufc it fcemeth to intimate that Chrift did 
fuiFer thefe, aiu Dens, As Cod., which is blafphemy. But that it is a true 
fpeech that 6 ad didfufer thefe, meaning not qu'i Dens, but Chriflus qui Dens : 
?.nd that one Syilibie of diftinclion between ^//.J and cjid might have faved 
thefe Councils their odious Contentions and Fighting, and the Churches 
for many Ages the Convulfions, Diftraiflions and mutual Condemna- 
tions that followed, and the Paputs the odious violuion of C'lriftiaB 
Charity and Peace in calling the Ealtern Followers of iVf/?o!/«.f, Ncflo.i.m 
Hercticks to this day. Judge how much the World was beholden to Cyril^ 
■CalrFiine., and this Council. 

%. I 7.0bj. By this you make the Bifliofs and Councils to be all Fcols.^that k^ow 
'.'0! rvhat they do, and to he the very fl.ignes and fl)ame of humane nature, that 
vouldkitidk futh ti jUme not yet quenched about y.othing. 

Anfxv- 1- If we muft meafure. ^^fwj per perfona^, yea, judge of matter 
of Fail by refpecl: of perfons, judge foby the Councils at Ariminum, Syr- 
mium, Milr,>^ Tyre PiKo:, Judge fo by the Second Council o[ Ephefus., and 
abundance fich: How liiall we know which of them fo to judge by? 
2. Good men have foul Vices .- Faftion, and Contention, and Pride, have 
imdeniably troubled the Churches : When Co'Xil. Carthaa. 6. forbad 
Bifhopsto rcadtheBooksof6'f«:;7fj, it is no wonder that the number of 
Learned Bifliops wasfmall; An5 when no Bifliop was to be removed 
from place to place, but all Bifhops made out of an Inferiour degree, 
ufunlly of the famePariflr, Yea, and when Academies wercfo rare, it is 
pall doubt thni. Learned Bifhops were rare: U'hen Nc^.^.rius mufl be the 
great Patriarch, that vvasyet noChriftian, and when Synefius.^ becaufe he 
had Philofophical knowledge, is chofen 'Jifliop, eJfren before he believed 
theRcfi-rreiflion ^ When t'ney were fuch, as credibly Nf-x^anzjene, Jfidore 
Pelufiota., and long after Salvinn dcfcribes. It isnoti, but the!c knowing 


their Cojtncils ahrictgeJ. ^^ 

Wicnefles, and their own actions, that charaderizcthtm. Doih uot J^a- 
cTMtes^ tbzt knew Nejhriut^ i?Y\ that he was not Learned ? And he, and o- 
thers, that cyr»7 was high and turbulent? Tluodoret was a Learned nicP, 
and he thought no better of his Adverfaries. 

The Objedions ag.iinft Neftorins and Theodo-us Aioffneft ^ are largely 
anfwered by Derodou, Hhi JKfr.i- 

^. 18. The fame Dtridon lahoureth to prove, tha: Cv>;/ was an Here- 
tick, the Father oi thcFutycijidns, and fo were the Efhcf. Council, and 
Pope C<«/(/?;«f. His prools againll Q-r*/ arc reducedto thefe H.ads. i.His 
exprefsaflerting One Nature only iiiChrill. Epij}. 2. adfMcef. Diccefar. 
i^i igitur nccejfitas ipjitm pMi in fiopri.^i n At lira, f f»ft urtor.ctndicatHr una 
VIrbi Natura inotrnatt ? 

Icem , Lrmrant ritrfus qui rc^a pervertunt^ cjHod jiixta yeritattm ma fit 
tiaturaf^crbt irtcarnMa: (lenimiinHS efl filius tiAturu O" veri f^trhum cjHod inef- 
fabilttfr ex DcoPatrc efl 'renitHDi, & f idem per ajfumptioncm c*rnis nrn e.\\t- 

ti'imis fed animAtm anim.l intellii^ente procefit homo de inHhcre ■ No^ emm ttx 

folis ftniplictbH! IJ'iHm fecunditmmturamvcye dtcitHr^ fed ttiAm deiis rjuxjuxts 
compefitto/icm c»me:nrunt^Kt efi v.g. /v/;.(?, (jiti covjlM aniim &■ corpore^ hdc efintx 
inter fe drfferuntfpccity verurt.tmeti timtd WJitm naturam hoininis ithf»lvttr.t , i^itiim 
vis adfit ratiene compofitionis dijferentia fecHtid:(m nMinam reriim^ in nnitaient 
towurrtutiuiit : fiiperfir' t^itiir fcrmortbiu imwor.iutiir rjiii dicKnt^ fi wm rjl 
natura verbi incarHMt.i^ fetjiiitur ut permixtio confufeejtie genereliir. 

NtftoriHs third Objection was from Chrifts voinntary pafiions", Ergodn- 
M natHvM fnhf(Iere pojl timonein tndivifc Cyril aiifwereih, jidvtrftis rurfiit 
httc eorum fropcftit mhilominus iis <jut dicu:it nnam cjjc Filii naturam inctrnAt-im 
sdque velut incptum volcntcs ojlo^dere, iibitjite diias mtitrof fnifjieiiics conanmr 
dflrutre \ fed i,>norant iju.tcuncj>ic aon dijltnjruiDitur fola mentis confdertUione, ea 
frorfus etiam in diver ftAtcnidtjlir^am om>:ifaritim 4C frivatim a fe mutno fe^rc- 
gari : e. g. Homo— duos 111 eo riMnr^s intcllifiniMs^utMm animtc^iUtoamcerptris., 
fedcuin joladfcrcveritnus intelU^entia & aijfcrcntiAm ftibtili iciitcmfUitoie fen 
mentis ims^matione conciperi/r.us, non tanien feorfim pcviuuis tiatura.'^ fed imiu: 
tfft intelUginiHs. Itaut tll^duxjamnoft pntdiu, fed ambtt unum annual abfol- 
vunt. Tandem it 4 concludit. ^Z^ Hsc ii^itnrex ejMbns efi untu (fr folns filins 
Dontinus Jtfiis Qhnfius cogitAtionibus ctmplcxi, duas ejiiidAm naiuras urtitas 
»fferimus •, pofl aniontm vera tuucjHam adewpta jam in duas difiinCliont nntm 
effe credimus filii 7tatnram tancfuam unius^ fed inhiiniati cf" incarnatt. It's 
ftrange, how Cyril and the JEntychiars mc^nt, that Chrills Natures were 
two before the Union. Did they think that the Humanity exifted before the 
Union ? 

So Epifi- 1- Cyril, ad feiccejf- Alhil injufiifacimu.i dictntes exduttbut tfa 
tm-isfa^i'.m elft concitrfum in iwifatem •, pafi Hnionem vera non difiin-mmns «* 
ritras ttb invicem^ nee in duos f'ici nnnm C-!r individ/ruH partinmr, fed dtcimKs 
u»Hmfilinm^ Q- ficut Partestilternm trunt^ Z);urt NutuoTAin Dei fcrbi inr.ir~ 

Eadcmdicit Epifi. rt^/ Acacium Mclct. Pifi i'.>noncm ftblittai^fn in duo.: r'ij^ 



p4 Church- Hi (lory of Bijhops and 

j;;^ flinBioiie imam ejfi crcdimus flit nacitram, taucjuam uniuj, jcd inhumati- 

Cyril. Epift- ad Eulo^-Presb. Nos ilUs (duasnatHras) ndunantes unum fi- 
lii(m, unum Dominum confitemHr^ deinde G~ Hnam per TtAtHram incarnatam, quod 

C^ de communi hoimtte dicevdum. Dum u»itatem conjitemnr, von diflinguuntur 

antflius tjiiicfunt unita : fed uniis jam eji Chrlfius & mm efi if fins tanquanitncar- 
tiati F'erbi natura. 

Cyril. /;/7.co«f. Ncftor. p. 51. Hie recenttjfimi i/nfirtatis inventor quamvis 
Chriffitm unum fe dicer e fmiilct^ attamen uhicjue natural dijiin^uit. 

Et p. 45. Quomodo iZhrifiumunum cir tndividuum dicii effe ditflictm natural 

Cyril- lih.dereBa f.dcad rej^ifios p. 63. AJfHtnitHr in unum Deitatis Natu- 
ram uniis Chri(}ns Jefiis per tjiiem omnia. 

Cyril. Dia!o<^. i^iiod units ft Chrijlus. \Vnumferro fliiim & unam ip/ins 
Naturam ejfc dicimus, licet cartiem amma intelliffcntefrdditam ajfumffcrit .~\ 

Many more fuch paflages are wiCyril. Here Dcrodon ■^xo^ct'n, i. That 
Cyril took not fi^'w for Perfona. i- That he took not J''cufi<ni for Divifi- 
on hut Difiinftion: If he did, it was an ill quarrel, when Neforins afiert- 
ed notabivifion, but a Diftinftion. j. That Cyril ^\\\ rcpvoycth Neflo. 
riits for aderting only a union ficunditm perfonam^ and not fcimdiim natu- 
ram. 4. That Cyril (as Diofcorus) declares what union he nieaneth, not 
by Confufion, Commixtion or Tranfmutation, but by Compofition, (and 
fo faid the Eutychians.) 

Thefecond order of Derodons proofs is from all the places where C^nV 
pleads for one hypojlafis, and he fheweth that by hypeflafs Cyril meant «<t- 
tiira or fuhflantia fmgdarii. The citations are too long to be repeated. 

3.His proofs are from all the Texts where he laith the JJ V</,and Humcr- 
nity concurred hi^h. 

His fourth proof that Cyril was an Eutychian^ is from all thofe places 
where he faith, that the Godhead and Manhood are made one nature as the 
foul and body of man are. 

His fifth order of proofs is from the words where he oft attributeth 
the fame operations, and the fame attributes to both nature. 

His fixth proof is from theteftimony oilbas Edef apudFacnnd. I. t.c. j. 
Gennad. Conft. ibid, I. 2. p. 77, 78. Johan. Antioch. Theodoret, drc. 

§.20. For my part, I again fay, pafl doubt, that neither Neftorius nor Cyril 
were Heretical de re-, but that they were of one mind, and that one fpake of 
the concrete., and the other of cbe abftraB-^thzt one fpake of Chriflus ijai Deus^ 
and the other of Clmftus qua Dens. But (pardon truth, or be deceived 
ftillj ignorance, pride, and envy, andfaftion, and defire to pleafe the 
Court, made Cy^;/ and his Party, by quarrelfomc Herctication, to kindle 
that lamentable llame in the World. But fin ferveth the finncrs turn but for 
the prefent, and becometh afterward hisfhame. All the Bifhops would not 
follow Cyn'/. At this day the falfly Hereticated iVf/?o>-«4«.f (faith Breerwood 
Enqitir. p. 139.) inhabites a great part of the Eaft, for befidesthe Coon- 
tries of Babylon, Jffyria-, Mtfopotamnt^Parthia., and Media-, they are fpread 
far and wide, both Northerly to Cataya, and Southerly to India : Marcus 


their Councils abridged. ^5 

Taulus tells us of them and no other Chriftians in Tartary, as in Cajfar^ 
Sarmttcham^ Carcham , Chinchiiitalas > Taugnth , Suchir , Ergimuly Tenduc^ 
Ctiraim, Mangi^ &c. fo that beyond Tigris there are few other Chriftians. 
The Perfian Emperours forced the Chriftians to Nejlonxmfmt'-, Their Pa- 
triarch hath his Seat at Aiufd in Afefopotamia or the Monaltery ofSt-Ermes 
near it, in which City the iv>/?on4w^ have 15 Temples.- They are falfly ac- 
cufed ftiU to hold two Pcrfons in Chrift : They fay as Neflorim himfelf faid, 
Tou ntay fay that Chrifi^s Mother is the Parent of God, if yon will expound it well, 
but it is improper and dangerous. They take Neflorius^ Diodorus Tarfenfis and 
Theodorus Mopfuefl, for holy Men , They renounce the Council Ephef. and 
all that owned it, and deteft Cyrtl. They Communicate in both kinds: They 
ufe not auricular Confefllon : nor Confirmation : nor Crucifixes on their 
Croffes : Their Priefts have liberty for firft, fecond,or third Marriages, &c. 
Breerwood, ibid., p. 1 44. 

§. 2 1. I need no other proof for my opinion, that thefe Bifliopsfet 
the World on fire about a Word, being agreed in fenfe, than the recon- 
ciliation of the Patriarchs C^rr/ znAJohn when forced, and rheir Parties, 
profeflingthat they meant the fame and knew it not. Ohj. But they all con- 
demned ivif/?o?/«;. Aif- To quiet the World, and to pleafe the Courtiers 
and violent Bidiops. And the Eraperour himfelf (faith Socrates, L-].c.^i.otiq 
that excelled all the Priefts in modefty and meekncfs, and could not away 
with perfecution,) was the more againft Nejlorius becaufe he was a perfecu- 
tor himfelf. 

Read Theodoret''s Homily againft Cyril, Bin. p- 007. and Jehan. An- 
tioch. ibid. But neither the one fiAz{_Nejloriushsie(iarchaimpiilfimus,~\i\oT 
the other fide C Cyrillus fuperbus & hlafphcmut ] lliould lignifie much with 
menthatknow what liberty adverfc Bilhops ufcd. 

§. 22. As for them that fay, Neftorim did dijfemble when he ajferted the 
Vtiityoftwo Natures in one Peyfon: and ts not to he judged of by his cwnwtrdsj I 
take them to be the firebrands of the world, and unworthy the regard of 
fober men, who pretend to know mens judgments better than thcmlclves, 
and allow not mens own deliberate profelllon to be the notice oftheir Faith. 
§. 2 J. When the Emperour faw that there was no reconciling the Bi- 
fliops, but by force, he authorized AriftoUns., a Lay-Magiftrate, to call 
Cyril AXiA'toh. Antioch. to Niconiedia^ and keep them both there till they 
were agreed : whereupon Jo/w communed with his Biihops, and they yield- 
ed, having no remedy, to the d?pofition o( Ncfiorius, the Ordination of 
Ma.\imwiunits in his ftead, and communion among themfelves. This is cal- 
led another Council- 
It would grieve one to read the Empcrour Thiodofius importuning Simeon 
Stylites, a poor Anchorite, to try whether by Prayer and Counfcl he could 
bring the Bifliops to Unity , and concluding, [This difeord doth fo trouble wf, 
that I judge th.tt this only hath been the chief occapon of all my calainities.~\ Bin. p. 

§. 24. CXiV- An. 45 1- Tiicrc was a Council called at Rme to clear 


^6 Church-Hijtory of Bijhops ami 

Pope Sixtm from an nccufation of one Bajpts, of ravifliing a Nun. 

$. 25. CXV. There istalk of a Council at Route to dear one Pelychroi.iitt 
Biihop of Jfrff/^/fTw, of accttfationsof5iwewy; But contradictions makethij 
(and the former) to bealto.^cthcr uncertain. 

5. 26. CXVI, The >4r»»f«/<fw/ in Council are faid to condemn Neficrim 

5.27. CXVII. ACouncil was held at Co»/?4«/. to decide the Controver. 
fie between the Alexandrian and Cw/?4«r.Biniops, which (hould be greateft, 
and rule the Eaft^ where it was carried for Conflttnt. And Theodoret pleading 
for Antioch, Diofcorus (the Jlex. Agent) hated him ever after, (as he faith 
Epijl. 86.) 

§. 28. CXVIII. Ai.4i9. ACouncil ztRegicnJe of 13 Bidiops did fome- 
what about Ordinations, &c. 

5. 2p. About this time Z-fo at ^<?wf was fain to forbid bowing toward the 
£4/?, becaufe the ManUhees joyned among them, and bowed to the Sun, 
and could not be elfediftinguiflied from the Orthodox, Bi». de Leone. 

j. JO. ClflX. A Council at ^r<««/?frt« repeated fome old difciplinary Ca- 

$. 31.CXX. LfoheldaCouncilat ^owifofBithops, Priefl:s,and Laymen, 
to detedl the wickcdnefs of the ALtmchees, and warn men to avoid them. 

$. 32. CXXI. An. 445. Lfo held a Council at ^owf againft Hiiary BU 
{hop of Arlet, for difobedience to his Decrees. 

$. 3 }. CXXII. A Council called Cenerd in Sfitin^ recited the Profefli- 
on of Faith againft the PrifiiUianiJis. 


their Councils abridged, ay 


Councils about the Eutychian Herefie andfome others. 


$. I. CXXIIT. ^"^Tril had by many words fo carried the bufinefs at 

Ephefus againft Neftorius, and himfelf fo often faid, 
that after the Vnion, the Natures were one, that his 
Admirers took that for a certain truth .• But when 
that quarrel was over, Truth was truth ftill, and the Orthodox would not 
fly from it, for fear of being called AV/priijwj-, for they difdaimed A^«/o- 
rius, but difowned the Dodrine o(One nature. Entyches an yirchtmundnte., 
and Diofcoriis, Succcflbur to Cyril, bclived that they did but tread in his 
fteps, and hold to the Ephef. Council. But that would not now ferve^when 
the Scene was changed. 

$. 2. Reader, It is ufeful to thee, to know truly the ftate of this Tragi- 
cal Controverfic, which had more dividing and direful efFedls than the 
former. Jhc Euiychi mis f^y, th^f Chrij} hefore their ZJmon by ircarnation had 
tvpo natures, that is, confidered mentally, as not united; b\it after the union ^n 
had hut one nature. They took up this as againft i\/ify?or»4«»/w». The truth 
is, Though they ftill go for defperate Hereticks, I verily behcvethat all 
the quarrel was but about ambiguous words : fome of them underftood the 
word ZNature"] in the fame fenfe as their Advcrfaries took the word [_fiy. 
poflafu'] or \_Perfon~\ And Cit's fad that it (hould be true, but j moft of 
them confounded [Vniiy undiJftn^uiJIied^^ndZVnitin^ undivided.^ The Euty- 
chiatis thought.How can that be called 'L'niVy which maketh not one of two f 
And no doubt the Natures are One ; But One what f Not One Nature, but 
One Perjon •, Yet (to bring off Cyrtl) it may be faid that even the No- 
tures are One, in oppofition to Dtvtfion or Separation , but not One iu oppo- 
fition to diftinBion. He that had but diftinguilhed thefe two clearly to 
them, and explained the word {^Nature'} clearly, had better ended all the 
Controverfie than it was ended- It's plain that Cyr»y and the £«fycfc»jwx 
allowed mental diftmBion^ though not that the Mind (hould fuppofe them 
divided : And it's certain that the Orthodox meant no more. 

j. ?. He that readeth but Philofophers, Schoolmen, and late Writers, 
(ruchasF<;rf««. Ltcetus de natura, &c.) will fee how little they are agreed 
aboutthemeaningof the word t.Nature,'] and how unable to procure a- 
greement in the conception. They that lay it is principium motns c~ .^«f- 
tis^ are contradicted, as confounding divers Principia: and as confound- 
ing Jflive Natures, and Pajfive, the J^ive only being Principium Motm, 
and the Pajfive, Principium cjiiietis. And on fuch accounts the Eutjchians 
pleaded for One Nature; bccaufe in Chrift incarnate they fuppolcd that 

O the 

98 Church' Hi ftory of Bijhops and 

the Divine Nature was the Principium frimHmmotus^ and that allChrifts 
actions were done by it, and that the humane foul, being moved by the 
Divinity, was but Principium fuberdinatum^ which they thought was im- 
properly called PrincipiHiny fAs molt Philofophers fay, that Forma generic 
ca is improperly called forma hominis, becaufe one thing hath but one form | 
fothey thought that oncperfon had but one proper Principium mctas. 

§. 4. Alas how few Bifhops then could diftingui(h as Derodon doth, 
and our common Metaphyficks , between, i. IndiifiJuumy 2. Prima fub- 
fi,wtia, i. NatHra, 4. Suppofiium, 5. Perforia, 6. and have diftinguilhed, 
arightf^fwcf and ^^po/?/?/;/, or fubfijhnce, c~c. and defined all thefe. Na- 
tH/f faith Dirodon de fuppof. p. 5. is taken in nine fenfes^ Butthe/<rw/<r was 
not here agreed e>i, before they difpntedof the matter. 

E\'embo\}tthe Nature of Man^ it is difputed, whether he conflftnotof 
many natures '^ Whether every Element CEarth, Water, Air, Fire) retain 
not its feveral Nature in the Body, or whether the Soul be Mans only 
Nature^ and whether as intciledtual, and fcnfitive and vegetative, or on- 
ly in one of thefe? And is it notpity that fuchqueft ions fhould be rail^ 
cd about the perfon of Chrift by felUconccitcd Bifhops, and made nccef- 
fary to falvation, and the world fet on fire, and divided by them ? Is this 
good ufage of the Faith of Chrift, the Souls of Men, and the Church of 

§. 5. But to the HiHory: At a Cou:\cil of Conjlantinop. under Flavia- 
nvs, Eufel^i/tj h'lihopof Dorilciimsccttkd Eutydes, for affirming Heretically 
as aforefaid, {ihzt after the Vnion Chrifi had but one Nature.) Etttiches is 
fentfor: Herefufethto come out of his Monaftery, After many Citati- 
ons, heftlU refufing, they judge him to be brought by force: He firft de- 
laytth : Thencravethofthe Emperour the prefenccof Magiftrates, that he 
be not calumniated by ihc Bilhops. He is condemned, but recanteth 

§. <5. A meeting of Bifhops at Tyre cleared Ibas Edrff. from the accu- 
fation of }^eJ}oria>iifme^ made by four Evcommunicace Priefts , two of 
them perjured ^ and reconciled him to fuch Priefts for Peace fake. 

$. 7. Another meeting ot Bifhops at Bcrythum, cleared Ibat from a 
renewed accnfarion of \^rJiortanifme, being faid to hare fpoken evil of Cy- 
ril- AnEpiftleof his to M^trif aBifhop, was accufed, which the Council 
at Calcfdon after ablblved, and the next General Council condemned. 

5. 8. CXXIV. Another Council is called at Cowy?<?«r/;i<';i/e, bythemeans 
of feme Courtiers, in favour to Eutiches, where, upon the teftimony of 
fome Bifhops, that Flavians Bifhop of Conflantinople condemned him him- 
felf, before the Synod did it, and that the Records were altered, all was 
nullified that at the lall Synod was done againft him. 

$. 9. CXXV. Theodofiw calleth a fecond General Council at Ephefut 
an. 449. and makcth Diofiorus Bifliop of Alex. Prefidcnt. Diofcorus for- 
bad Ibas and Theodoret to be there, as being lieflorians : The Emperour 
himfelf was fo much for peace, and fo deeply before engaged in CyrtPs 



their Councils abridged. 9P 

caufe againll Nf/?on»«, that he thought it levity to puU down a!I fo foon 
again, ihs Emychijus perfywading him that they ftuck to Cyril and the £- 
phefne and Stce:e Council. Diofcorus thinking the fame, that Eurkhfs 
and CyrrY were of one mind, and that it was Nffioriar? if ne which they were 
againlt, carried matters in this Synod as violently as CyrtI had done in the 
former. The Bifhops perceiving the Empctours, the Courtiers, and £>»- 
■cfcoms mind, could not reiift the ftronger fide. TheBfiiopof Rome was 
commanded by the Emperour tobeprefent. He fent his Legates-, with 
his Judgment in Writing of the Caufe. The Emperour forbad thole to 
be Speakers that had before judged Entyches. The ^om^w legates exceptcci 
thzt DiofcoTHs prcfided : (It fcemcth the E^pcrn Empire and Church, then 
believed not that the Popes precedency vvas jure divi»o.} Dirfcoms de- 
clareth, thattheGouncil was not called to decide any matt-erof Faith, but 
to judge of the proceedings of FUviama againll Entyches. The Ads of 
the Coiiftant. Synod (after the Emperours Letters,) being read, Eutyches 
is abfblved : Damms^ Patriarch of Amioch, Juvcnd , Patriarch of Jern 
fitem, the Bilhop of £/><;/•/«/, and the reft, fubfcribed the abfolution, (which 
after they faid they did for fear, when another Emperour changed the 
Scene.) This being done, the Ads of the former Efhtf. Council were 
read, and all Excommunicate that did not approve them. (So that this 
Council of EntycbtAns thought verily the former was of their mind.) Four 
Bilhops, Flavtanns^ Eufchms, Deryl, Iba4 Edif. and Thcodorct Cyri, are 
condemned anddepofcd: AlltheBiftiopsOibfcribed except the Popes Le- 
gates ; fo that, faith Bimnus, Jn hoc tarn horrendo Epifcoporum fnffra^io^ fo- 
lanaviluU Petrd incolitmis emergens falvatur, p. 1017, Judge by this< Firlb, 
Whether Councils may erre, Secondly, Whether they are the juft Judges 
or Keepersof Tradition, Thirdly, Whether all the World always jjeliev- 
ed the Popes Infalhbility, or Governing power over them, when all that 
Council voted contrary to him. 

FUvianus here offering his appeal, was beaten and abufed, and dyed 
of the hurt, (as was faid in Comil. Caked, and by Liheratus.) But this was 
no quenching, but a kindling of the fire of Epifcopal Contentions: Tlxo- 
liofins milled of his end. 

§. 10. CXXVI. Leo at Rome in a Synod condemneth this Ephejian 

§. II. CXXVU. Diofcorns in a Council at Altxandria^ Excommuni- 
cateth Leo. 

§. 12. CXXVIII. Theodejius the Emperour being dead, Martian vi^% 
againft the Eutychians: Arutolms at a Synod at ConjUntincple., maketh an 
Orthodox Profefiion of his Faith, likeZ-w's. 

§. 13. CXXIX. And at Milan a Counril^owneth Leo's judgment. 

§* 14. CXXX. Now Cometh the great Council at Cakedon, under the 
new Emptrour Maitian, whtreall is changed for a time-. Yet PnUkeria 
who marryed him and made him Emperour, and whofc power then was' 
great, was the famcth.it before had been againft Yirjhrnts in her Bro- 

O 3. thers 

I o o Churcb-Hijiory of Bijhops aiid 

thers reign: Never was it truer tlian in tlie Cafe of General Councils, that 
the Multitude of Priyficians, exafpsratech tile Difeafe, and killeth the Pa- 
tient. The word QStJTDic®-] the \_onc rtatnre after union] the words {^mt 
will zndonc tpperation'} had never done half fo much mifchief in the Church, 
if the erroneous had been confuted by negleft, and Councils had not ex- 
afperated, enraged, and engaged them, and fet all the World on taking 
one fide or another. One skilful! healing mm that could have explicated 
ambiguous terms, and perfwaded men to Love and Peace, till they had 
underftood themfelves and one another, had more befriended Truth, Pie- 
ty, and the Church, than all the Hereticating Councils did. 

§. I <;. If what Socrates writeth of Theodofius junior be true, ( as we 
know no reafon to doubt) God owned his Moderation by Miracles, not- 
withftanding his favouring the Eutychians^ more than he did any ways of 
violence. Socrates idXXh, /. 7. (7.41,42. that Theodojius Vf3.s the miUeJl 
man in the World, for which caufe God fubdued his enemies to him without (laugh- 
ter and bloodjhed-1 as his Vidory over Johm.n6. the Barbarians (hew: Of 
which he faith, Firft, Their Captain ^«^4f was kill'd with a thunder-bolt; 
Secondly, A Plague killed the greateft part of his Soldiers-, Thirdly, 
Fire from Heaven confumed many that remained. And Proclus the Bifliop 
being a man of great Peace and Moderation, hurting and perfecuting 
none, wasconfirnted by thefe providences in his lenity, being of the Em- 
perours mind, and perfwading the Empcrour to fetch home the bones of 
Chryfoflome with honour, wholly ended the Nonconformity and Separati- 
on of the Joanites. 

$. 16. Before Theodofius dyed, Leo Bilhop o^ Rome fet Placidia and 
Eudoxia^ to writetohim againft Dtofcorus, and for the caufe of Flavia- 
nus : Yen, and Vulcntinian himfelf. Theodofus wrote to yaUminian ( and 
*' the like to the Women J "That they departed not from the Faith and 
*' Tradition of their Fathers, that at the Council of Ephefus fecond 
''things were carried with much liberty and truth, and the unworthy 
" were removed and the worthy put into their places, and it was the 
" troublers of the Church that were depofed, and Flavianus was the 
"• Prince of the Contentions , and that now they lived in Concord and 
*' Peace. 

§. 17. The Council at Calcedon was called, an- 451. Diofcorus is accu- 
fed for his Ephefwe General Council, and for his violence, and defence of 
Eutiches, and the death oC Flavians. He alledgeth the Emperours Order 
to him [^Authoritatenr & Primatumtutt prtbemus heatitudini^ (If the Popes 
Univerfal Rule be eflential to the Church, then the pious and excellent 
Emperour Theodofus^ and the General Council that confented, were none 
of them Chriftians that knew it, but went againft it.) Eos qui per addita- 
mentum aliquod, ant tmminutionem conati funt dicere, prater qua funt expefita 
de fide CuthoUca a funEiis Patribus qui in Nicaa, dr pofl modum qui in Ephc- 
fb con^re^ati funt, tutllam omnino fiduciam in fanHo Synodo habere patimur^ 
Jtd &fub ■uejlro judicio ejfe volumus.^ Here Binaius accufeththe good Em- 

tijeir Councils abridge J. i o i 

perour as giving that which he had not but by ufurf.ition^ and this thrcugh 
ignrance of the Ecclefiaflical Canons. But were all the Bilhops ignorant of 
it alfo ? Or was lo good an Emperour bred up and cherilhed in ignorance 
of fiich a point pretended by the Papiftstobe neceflary to the Being of a 
Church, and to falvation ; The Bifliops of JerufaUm and SeUucia alio par- 
took of the fame power by the Emperour's Grant- Diofcortis anfwercd 
that All the Synod confentcd and fubfcribed as well as he, <»«i!/ Juvenal Hierof. 
and Thaiaffias Seieuc. ' 

TheBifhopsanfwered, that they did it againU their wills, being under 
fear •, Condemnation and Banifhment was threatncd ■■, Souldiers were 
there with Clubs and Swords : Therefore the Oriental Bifliops cryed out 
to caft: out Diofcorus. Stephen Bifhop of Ephefus ('who had been Diofcorus 
chief Agent therej cryed out, that fear confirained them : The Lay Judges 
and Senate asked, who forced theml Stephen fa id Elpidim and Ehlogitts^ 
and manv Souldiers threatned him. They asked, jD/<i/ Diofcorus ufe vto. 
lence with yon? He faid that he was not fulFered to go out till he had fub- 
fcribed- Theodorus B\(hop of Clandiopolu fad, that Diofconu, Juvenal^ and Btn.Ttn^i 
the leading men, led on them, as fimpic ignorant men, ihat knew not the^ 7> '- 
Caufe, and frightned them with defaming them as Neftorian Hereticks- 
Thus they cryed out that they were frightned. 

The Egyptian Bilhops anfwcred, timt A Oiriflian feareth no man-, ( and 
yet they were afraid before they ended) ACatholick,fearcth no mar-, wt 
*ire infirti^cd by flitmes : If men were feared, there would be no Martyrs. 

Diofcorus noted what Bilhops t!iofe were that faid they fuhfcribed to a blanks 
Paper^ when it was about a matter of Faith : But asked, who made them 
by their fcvcral interlocutions to fpcak their confent? Hereupon the Aifts 
of the Ephff. Council were read, among which were the words of Dio- 
feoriu, Anathematizing any that fliould contraditflor retraH: ary thing held 
in the Nicene or the Ephefine Synods : Adding, hovf terrible and formidable 
it was. If a man fn againfl God, who fliall intercede for him ? If the Holy 
Ghoft ftt in Council with the Fathers., he that retraBeth cafhiereth the Grace cf 
the Spirit. The Synods anfwcred, IVe all fay the fame : Let him be Ana- 
thema that retraElcth •, (thefe Bifhops that curie themfelves willeafily curfc 
others,^ Let him be caft out that yetroEleth. Diofcorus faid, No man orderetb 
things already ordered: The holy Synod faid, Thefe art the words of the Ho- 
ly Ghoft., &c. Theodorus denyed thefe words recorded. Diofcorus faid, 
thev may as well fay they were not there. 

§. i8. Here alfo £«fyc/je's Confellionat Efhefmvizs read, in which he 
profeffeth to cleave to the former Ephefme Council , and to the blefled 
Father C^ril that prefided, difclaiming all additions and alterations, pro- 
feffijag that he had himfclf Copies in a Book which Cyrtl himfelf fent 
him, and is yet in his hands •, and that he ftandeth to the definition of that 
Council with that of Nice. 

Eufebius Biiliop of Deril. faid, He lyeth 7 tha$ CouncH hath no fuch Dt. 

-»; Diofcorn* 


Chwch-Hijiory of Bijhops and 

Diofiorus faid. There a; e foHr Boi,\is of it, that all contain this Difuiiticti. 
Dt you accitfe Ml the Synodical Booh ? J have one, and he h.vh one, and he 
huth one'-, Let them be brought forth. Diogenes Bifhopof Cyrilum laid, They 
deceitfully cleave to the CoHf.ctl of Uke : The Qijcftion is of additions made 
againll Herelies. The Hilhops of E^ypt faid, None of m receive additions 
or diminutiors : Hold wh.u is done at Sfice: This is the Emperour^s Com- 
mand. Tile Eaftern Bifliops clamoured [_7ujl fa faid Eutyches.'] The £j^- 
tia>i Bifliops (till crycd up the Niccne Faith alone without addition. 

Diofcortu accufed the Bilhops for going from their words, and faid [_If 
Eutyches held not the Dolirme of the Church, he is Worthy of puniflment and 
fire., (ex ore tuoj A'fy regard is to the Catholtck and j4pojlolick Faith., and 
>!ot the Faith of any man : I look^ to Cod himfelf, and not to the perfon of aty 
man, nor care I for axy man, but for my foul aiid the true and Jincere Faith."^ 
The £^^/)ri^« Bifhops cryed out [_Let no 7»an f par ate him that isindtvifihle. 
No man ciilleth one Son two.'] The Eaftern Bifliops cryed, QAnathema /<? ^/» 
that divideth. Bafil StUitci£ faid, Anathema to him that dividcth two na- 
tures after the union ; and Anathema to him that kncweth not the properly of the 
natures. The Egyptian Bifliops cryed out, [_j4s he wm horn he fufered : 
There is eve Lerd,^ and one Faith: None calkth one Lord two. 1 his was 
Nefloriut voice. The Eaflern Bifliops cryed, Jnathema to Neftorius and 
Eutyches. The Egyptian Bifliops cryed, Divide net the Lord of Glory, that 
is indivifible. 

Bafil Bifliop of Siltuc reported how rightly he had fpoken at Epheftu, 
3nd how the Egyptians and Monks with nolle oppofed, and cryed [Cut 
him in two that Jaith Two Natures, he is a Neftorian.^ The Lay Judges 
asked him, // he fpake fo well, why did he condemn Flavianus ? He faid, Be- 
caufe he wm necejfitatcd to obey the rtjl, being i jo Bijliops. Diofcortu faid, 
r-^ Out of thy own mouth art thou condemned, that for the jhanie of men hafl pre- 
variciitfd and defpifd the faith. Bu/ilius Seleuc. faid. If I had been called to 
Martyrdom before the fudges I had endured it :, but he that is judged of a Fa- 
ther ufethjuji mans : Let the Son dye that fpeaketh even things jufl to a Fa- 

But the Eaftern Bifliops better cryed out, [^We have all finned , we all 
beg pardon."] And Thatajfius., Eufibius, and Euflathius, ( jeadmg Bifliops) 
cryfd the fame, [We have aH finned, wc all crave pardon.] After this the 
A(fts of Ephif. and Confl. were read. 

$. 19. By what I have recited out of Binnitu, and others, thefe two 
Jamentable things are undeniable : 

1. That this doleful Contention, Anathematizing, and ruining each 
other, was about the fcnfe of ambiguous word«, and that they were of 
f-a^ one mind in the matter, and knew it not: The Egyptians (Eutychians') 
^-^ took two Natures and isvo S^ns to be of the fame fenle, which the others 
d.d not. And they thought that the rtft had aiferted a Divifion of the Na- 
ture;, when they meant but a Dtflit.^Hon : And the reft thought that the 
£ y lians had denyed a D'fl.n^imi, who dcnyed but a P.'.rtition or Divifion. 

II And 


their Councils abridged. 105 

II. And it is plain, that while all fides held that Nefltritu did hold 

that there were Two Sons ^ which he exprefly denycd « that they curfed •^ 
NtfiertM in ignorance, and maintained his Doflrine (except of the apti- 
tude of the phrafe 3*tT«x®-,) while they curfe his p)erfon or name. The 
Doiftrine of this Council is found, and Neftoriuis was the fame, for rtr# 
natures in one ferfon, and one Son. This is true, whatever Fadtion fay a- 
gainft it. 

III. That thefe Bilhops Cthoiigh we honour them for all that was good in 
them) were fo far from the Martyrs Conftancy, that they turned as the 
Emperours Countenance, and the Times, and worldly Jntercfl: turned j 
voting down Things and Perfonsin Councils, and crying «/?»?« peccavi- 
rmu in the next.- Only Peterh Ship, faith Binnim , leaped drowning at 
Efhefiu^ and yet here at Calcedon under Martian all arc Orthodox. 

IV. But that which is vrorft of all is, that yet the fame men that cry peC' 
cavimtu are here violent againft any mercy to the E^^yptian Bilhops and 
Monks with whom they had joined at Epfiefus. ^ 

$. 20. When an Epiftle ot (^r;// was read, the ///)'r;c4»^ Bi (hop crycd 
out, We all believe AS Cynl did: ThroJcrete fthat had been for Ncjlonus a- 
gainft Cyrd, and caft out by Diofcorw) Ipakc more warily, and laid, 
Anathema to him th/it fuiih there arc two Sons : HV adore our Lord JefitSy 
C-c. All the Bifhops crycd, Wc beltve a^ Cynl. Had not O'n/'s name bet- 
ter hap than DiofccrHs and Eutyches, that followed him as far as they could 
undcrltand him, and fpake the fame words as he? 

Tht Orientals cryed, Webelive ai Cyx\\. The Egyptians crycd , IVe ke- 
licve as Cyril, We are all ef the fame opinion and mind ; Let not Satan ^et place 
and advantage amon^us. The E.</?frw Bifhops cryed, Lruand yinatolius are 
of this mind; The Emperour and Senate are of this tnirtd : The lay Judge, 
bcnatc, and all the Council cryed, The Emperour^ the Emprefs, and all of 
us are of one mind: IhQ Egyptian Biihops cryed, All the World are of ihs 
n>ind\ Weareof a mind. fAnd who would think that yet they were dif- 
agreed, even toHcrcticating and Depofing, Pcrfeciiting one another. 

O but fay they to the Ejryptian Bifhops, If ycu arc all of thi^ mind, IVhy did 
yon commnnicatewith^Vity Ct\es^ and condemn f\iv\snui ? X)/e/ccr«i appealed 
to the Records. And here Enflath;ns Beryl^ Oiewed what labour Cynl 
ufedtoexpbin his own meaning, in his Epiftlcs to ^aaus^ Valertat:m, 
and Succcffm Bifhops, and that thcfe are his words i ^Ve mnj} not under- 
fl and that there are two natures, but mie nature incarnate cf God the Word: 
And this faying he confirmed by thcTeftimony of jithanafiw. The Ori- 
ental Bifhops cryed out, This is the Uying of ^MX.ychc'i and D\o\'con]% Tyct ■ 
thefe menjuftnow wcrcall of C)r;7's mind.) Dicfcortu (mA, Weaffirmnci- 
ther confnfon of natures, nor divifion^ nor converfion; Anathema to him that 
doth. Doth not this flicw that they all agreed in Diflin(ftionof Natures? 
asalfoCyr// did. The Judges fay, Tell us whether Cyr/Y's Epiftles agree 
to what is here reported of them 'by Eullathiw, ) Enflathius flieweth the 
Boi'k, uu.l faith j If I have faid amtfs fee the Bookj-, A'iathematiz.c Cy- 



1 04 Church-Hiftory of Bijhops a?id 

ril's Book^Ofid jinathematixje me: The Egyptians applaud EuftMhim ^ 
-' faying, EuJiMthius reporteth Cyn/'s words, in which v/cic , We muji 
not underft*nd two natures , but one incarnate natnre of Cod the xtord. 
And EuJiathfMs added, He that fatth there is hut one nature fo as to deny 
Chrifts fiefti which is confubftanttal with w, let him be Anathema : jindhe that 
faith there are two natures to the Divifionof the Son of God^ let him t« Ana- 
thema, (one would have thought this Ihould have ended their quarrelj 
And Ehftathini added of Flaviamu himfelf, that he received thefe ndkej 
words J and gave them theEmperour;, Let it be ordered that his own hand be 
jliewed. The Judges faid, Why then did ye def of e him} Eujlathiutaniweiedy 
Erravi, I erred ■ 

J. 2 1. Let it be here noted, that thefe Eutychian words of Cyril are here 
openly proved, paft denial.- yetfharaelefly doth Binnitts fzy, that this is 
Eujlathii allegatio pejf.ma tr haretica : What, to repeat a mans Words ? 

Ef* Secondly, Is it not here plain that they were ail of a mind, and did not, 
or through faftion would not know it ? when Euftathim by a clear di- 
ftindlion had proved it , and none of them did or could contradift 

§. 22. Diofcorus faid that Flavianus in the words following con- 
tj:adi(fted himfelf , and was depofed for holding two natures after 
the union -^ adding, J have the tefiiwony of the holy Fathers, Ath2naii]ls,GlC' 
gory, Cyril, in many places, that we muft not jay ^ that after the union there are 
two natures, hut one incarnate nature of God, the word ^ 1 am ejeiled with the 
Fathers ; / defend the Fathers fayings ; / tranfgrefs not in any thing •, / have 
their Tefimonies, notfmflyortranftorily^ hut in Boohs. 

$. 2 J. ty£!hericMs, Bilhop o( Smyrna, being queflioned about his fub- 
fcription, faid, he did as he was bid. In the fecond Aftion Diofcorus de- 
livering his opinion faith. Ex duabus fufcifio, duat non fufcifio. ThatChrift 

r-A^ is [_of two natures'} but not that he [_t6 or hath two natures.} Eufebim Doryl. 

^^^ tells him of his wrong to Flavianus and him ■, Diofcorus confelleth, faying. 
Then offer fatisfaUion to God and you, meaning repentance. But EufebtM 
faith, that he mufl fatisfie the Law •, And fo the Verbal quarrel turneth to 
Perfonal revenge. 

Bifil Seleuc. (though before accufcd of Herefie^ well reconcileth the 
Controverfie at laft, if they would have heard him, faying, Cognofcimus 

n^ duos Naturai, non dividiinus ; nccjue divifas, necjue confitfas dicimuS' 

Euryches words ^tConfantinofle he'ing recited, he faith, that he foUow- 
eth Cyril^ AthAnafna and the Fathers. After Diofcorus and others had 
denycd what each other faid in the ip^f/Fwe Council, the faying of all the 
Bifhops were read, each one abfolving £«/)rkj, in words and reafonsat 
large. After which the BiOiops cry again, Owww erravimus j emnes vent- 
am mcreamnr. 

In the third Aftion many things were read that concerned their pro- 
ceedings, and among the reft a Law o( Theodejius jun, for the conHrm- 
jng of die f.cond Ephefine Council, and the condemnation of NeJloriM, 


their Councils abridged. 105 

and of FUvianH4, Downm, Eufehim, and Jheodoret, as Ntfiori^m Hcrcticks, 
dcpofing all of their mind, forbidding any upon pain ot Confiltation to 
receive them, and commanding that none read the Booics of Nefter:u4 or 
Theodoret, Jjut bring them forth to be burnt, C'c. So far could fierce and 
factious Prelates prevail with a pious and peaceable Prince, by the pre- 
tences of oppofing Hertfie and Schifm. Afartian msd.: Laws alfo clean 
contrary for the juftifying of the men before condemned. 

S. 24. In the fifth Atiion the Egyptian Bifliops Petition was read (who 
were accounted Eutychians, adhering to Dtofcoms : ) They profclled their 
adherence to the Council of Mce and £p/;f/i« i. and to A:hanafiu^ Theo- 
fhilui, and Cynl. The Bifliops cryed out, Why do they not curfe the 
opinion oi Eutiches? They offer us their Peli:ion in impofture: They 
would delude us, and fo depart. Let them curfc£«f)c/5a and his Opini- 
on, and confent to Leo's Epilllc While they cryed out to them to cnrfe 
Eutyches, they anfwered (by fJtoacM,) If any, vrhethcr Eutyches, or any 
other', hold contrary to the thin(rs contavied in our Tmfejfign ('the Niccne and 
Efhef. Councils) let him he acciirfed. But for LeoV Epijlle^ %ve mnfl not go 
before the fentence of cur ylrchhijhop (of Alexandria., ) for xve follow him tn 
all things : The Council of Nice ordered that the Bijhops of Egypt do nothing 
without him. EnfebiHs Doryt. hid, They Uc. Others bid them prowjf. Other 
Bifhops cryed out, ipenly curfe the opinion of Eutyclics.- He th.tt fubfiribeth 
not l,co^s Eptjlle to whtch aU the holy Synod confent cth is aHtrctick- Anathema *^~\ 
to Diofcorus, and to them that love him : How ftall thry chiife them aBiJliop 
Cinfteadof D«o/(ror«j) if they judge not right the>»f(hes : The Egyptian Bi- 
Ihops faid, The efueflion ts about Faith, (j\ot mcnj But thev cryed out fo 
long, Curfe ^wVjChzsor yoiiare Hcrcttcks, that at laft the Egyptians faid, 
\_Anathemato'L\ityzht% and to them that helteve him,2 The Billiops crycd tO 
them {Subfcribehzo's Epiftle, elfe you are Hereticks'- The Egyptian Bifhops 
anfwered, We cannot fubfcribewithoHt the will of our Archbi(l:op. Some faid, 
Alt the Synod nmftnot attend for one man : Thiy that at Ephefus difiurbcd all 
things, would here do fo too: we defirt that thismi-y not be granted them, b»t 
they may confent to the Epifle, or receive a Canonical damnation , and k!;ow 
that they are Excommunicate. Photius Biihop of Tyre laid. Hew endeavour 
they to ordain ftheir Arch-Bifhop^ who are not of the fa^ mind with the Synods 
If they thinkj'ightly let them fubfcribe the Epifile, or be Excommunicate. The 
Bifliopscryed, IVe art. ill of this mmd. The £^j/)f«.j« Bilhops faid, IVecame 
not hither without a juji profejjion of our Faith. But (H'i to Leo'i EpiftleJ 
we are but few (12 Bi(hops) and the Bifliops of our Country ^revery many^ mnd 
we cannot give yoit all their niinds, cr r^prefent tlmr pCrfons: Wc befeechthts ' 
holy Synod to have mercy on ut, (.There is no mercy where the Biihop of Jiomc 
IS concerned) and do but fay till we have an Arch^bijJiop, that according to the 
ancient Cufiome of our Country, we may follow his judgment : For if we break p'-e- 
fumptioufly the the Canons and Cuflome, and do any thing without his will, aU the 
Regions of R^ypt Will rtfe. up agamjb hj; therefore have m'rcy cnourj^c: have 
mer^ tniUf and futM'not to end our Ufe^in- bani\]:meikt. ffiie fame 'Egyptian 

P Bijlicps 

1 06 Church' Hi jiory of Bijhops and 

Bipops caft down the tjif elves on the Eartht and faid, Tou are merciful men, ffive 
mercy on its: Cecrofiits Bifliop of Sebaft. faid, The whole Synod isCreattr 
and worthier of credit, than the Country of Egypt. It « not juji that ten Here- 
ticks be heard, and I200 Biflfofs he faft by: We bid them wt fltevf their Faith 
for ethers hut themfehesl The Bi(hops ot Egypt cryed, Then we cannot dwell 
in the Province '-, Have mercy on us: Enfehius Dor. (aid. They are procnra- 
ters for the refl : The Popes Ltg^ite laid. If they erre, let them he taught by 
the magntfcencc of your foot ftepi, &c. The Egyptians Ct'jtA^ We arekiUcd-y 
Have mercy onus: The Bifhops all faid, Tou fee what aTeJlimony they give 
of their Bijhaps, ^'Dg, we are killed there : The Egyptian Bl(hopscryedyWe 
die by your footjieps : have pitty onus, and let us die by you. And not there. Let 
but an Archbifljop here be made, and we fubfcribe and confent , Have mercy oh 
our grey hairs. Give ui an Archbijliop here: Anatolius knoweth that it is the 
Cufiem of our Countrey that aH the Bifliops obey the jirchbijhop : Not that wt 
obey not the Synod, but we are kiHed there in our Country : Have mercy on us; 
Tou have the power ; We are fubje^s ; We refufe not. We had rather die by the 
Lord of the World ('the Emperou r) or by your magnificence, or by this holy Synod, 
than there. For Gods fake have pity on thefegrey hairs ; Jpare ten men : We die 
there : It is better die here. All the moft Reverend Bifhops crycd out, Thefe 
are Hereticks. The Egyptian Biiho^ps faid. Ton hav$ power on our livei\ fpare 
ten men:, Lords are Merciful: Anatolius k^oweth the Cujlome; W» are here 
till an Archbifhop be chofen : If they would have our Seats, let them take them: 
We are not willing to be Bijljops : Only let us not die. Give us an jirchbifhopy and 
ifwegainfay, punijlt tu : We confent to thefe things which your power hath decreed'. 
We contradict not; but choofe w an Archbipcp : We here flay till it'' 1 done: All 
the moft Reverend Bifhops clamoured) Let them fubfcribe to the datnnation 
■of Diolcorus. 

Thus the ^ooiEgyptian Bifhops that had the upper hand under Theoda- 

fius, were in a ftreight between the mercilefs Bifhops in the Synod (that 

had lately at Ephefus joyned with themj and the furious Bifliops and peo- 

r-a. pie of their own Country that would have killed them when they came 

^"^ home (too common a Cafe at Alexandria.) But when all their dejefted 

cryes and begging could get no mercy from the Bifhops, the Lay Judges 

had fome, and moved that they may be made flay in the Town till their 

Archbifhop was chofen ('of whom you fhall hear fad work anon.) The Popes 

Legate requefted, That if they would needs jhew them any humanity, they 

fliould take fureties of them, not to go out of the €ity, till they bad an Arch-bi- 

fhop. And fo it was ended. 

$.25.The next bufinefs was with the Abbots of the Monks : They had pe- 
titionQdMartian,that a General Council might be called,to end their lamen- 
table broils,and that without turhations,forced fubfcriptions or perfecutions by the 
fecret contrivances of the Clergy, and cafling men out before due judgment. And 
they gaw in a profeffion of their Faith, and petitioned that Diofcorut 
might be called, becaufe the Emperour had promifed them that nothing 
T)iit the Nicene Faith fhould be impofed. which he profeffed : The Bifhops 


their Councils abriJged. 107 

all clamoured out their repeated CurfeagainU Diofcornsy and their 7*o//ei»- 
juriam a Syno^o, Tollc violtnti.im ,t Synodo, Tolle not^m a Syi:oJo, IJles mit- 
t( foras. thatis, Away xviththcnf-, and would not hear their petition i But 
the Lay Judges made it to be read: In which the Monks profcfs to hold 
to the NiccneCrcedy and that the Church might not have difcord by impo- 
fing more : Protcfling that if their Reverences, abufing their power, refifled this, 
oi before Cod. and the Empcrour, the Judges, the Senate, and ths Confcienccs of 
the BiJl)ops, that they pake their garments againjl them, and put thcmfelves be- 
yond thetr Excoinmnntcatien : for they Vftuld not be Commtwicarors with ihofe 
that thus refhfe the N icene Fntth. The Council ftill urged them to fubfcribc 
Z,fo's Letter. Carofus and Doretheus in the name of the rt^oi tht Abbott 
faid y They were Baptized into the Nicene Faith ; They kl'fw no other : They were 
bid by the Bijlwp that Baptized them Receive ne other : We believe the Baptifmal 
Creed : We fnbjcrihe not the Epijile : They are Bijlops ', The)/ have power t» 
Excommunicate and to Damn, and to do what they will more : But we knew no o- 
thcr Faith : The Arch-Deacon urged Carofus to Subfcnbe to Leo's Epiftle 
asExpofitory of the Nicene Faith, and to Curfe Neflorius and Eutyches: 
Cirofus anfwered , What have J to do to curfe Neftorius , thjt have once, 
twice, thrice, and often ciirfed and damned him already. c/£/»r«/ faid, Doji thorn 
cHrfe Eytichts M the Synod doth or net ? Carofus replyed. Is it not written., 
fudge not that ye be not judged ? Again he repeated, that he believed the Ni- 
cene Creed into which he was baptized; If they faid any thing elfe to him he 
knew it net : The Apoftle faith, Jf an Angel from heaven preach another G of .- 
pel, let htm be accurfed : what flmild I do? If Eutyches believe not m the 
iiniverfal Church belitveth ; let him be Mccurfed. 

§. 26. At lafl: there was a diflention, whether Leo'^s Phrafes fhould be 
put into their Definition of Faith (now drawn up a new.) A while it was 
cryed down, but at laft yielded to, when the lUtricane Bifhops had firll 
flighted Rome, and cryed, ^i contradicunt {diffinittoni) Neftoriani funt : 
^ui contradicunt Romam amhulent. 

And AnatoUus Bifliop of ConflAtttineple openly declared, That Diofco- 
rus was not condemned for matter of belief, but becaiife he Excommunicated 
Leo, and when he was thrice fummoned did not appear. 

6. 27. After this Theodorets turn came, that had been for Nefleritu., 
and the Bifhops all cryed out. Let Theodoret curfe Neftorius. Theodoret 
defired that a Petition of his to the Emperour and to Lfo's Legate, might 
beread; that they might fee whether he were of their belief or not. They 
cryed out, We will have nothing read ; prefently curfe Neftorius, Theodoret 
told them that he had been bred of the Orthodox, and fo taught, and 
preached; and was againfl not only, "i^t^onxiS <j»i^ Eutyches, but all men elf: 
that held not the right. The Biihops interrupted him , clamouring, /p^i^ 
eut plainly, cwr/J-^te Neftorius and his Opinions ; curfed be NeR^onws and thofe 
that love Ijim. Theodoret anfwered, / take not my felf to fay true, but I know 
I pleafe Cod : I would frfl fatisfie you of my belief ; for I feel^not prefer- 
ment, I need not honour, ner come hither for that: But' be cm fc I am calumni- 

P 2 ated 

I o 8 Church- Hiftory of Bijhops and 

ated, I come to fatisfie you that 1 am Orthodox i and I Anathematixje every He- 
rctick^ that will net be converted^ and Ncftorius and Eutyches, and every man 
that /./if/;, there are i\vt> Sons^ or thinks fo, I jInathematiJLe. The Bifliops 
again took this for dawbing , and cryed our, fay plainly, Anathema t» 
Nellorius, and them which hold thitt xvhichUhn. Theodoret laid, Vnlefs I 
may expLffn my own hcluf, J will not fay it. I believe — Here they interrupt- 
ed, and all cryed out, He is a Heretick^, He »^ 4 Neftorian '. caj} out the 
Hcretick: Reader; would a man have believed that were not forced by 
Evidence, That this Conncil was of Neftorius'j mind, and confirmed his 
own Declrine of the Vnity of Chrifls perfa/i and two Natures, who thus fu- 
rioufly cryed down Theodoret? (except as to the aptitude of the word 
^CT!.K&-.J And is it not a doleful Thought that the worthy Bilhops of the 
Church, even in a General Council, Ihould no better know the way of 
peace .' And do not ibefe words here tranfla.ed out of Binnius, p. gi. and 
icc5. agree too well with Cre^. N'azJMz.en's Chars^ftcr of Bilhops and 
Councils .? Not but that the Church had always fome Learned, Godly, 
Wife, and Peaceable Men, ffuch as Gregory Naz. and Theodoret were, 
and many more, efpecially \nJficl;\) but you fee that they were born 
down by the ftream of unskilful, worldly, temporizing, violent Men ; 
after once worldly greatncfs made it the way to preferment, and it be- 
came their butincfs to ftrive who fhou'.d be uppcrmoft and have hi? 

But Theodoret when he found that there was no hope of fo much as a 
patient hearing of his Explication and ConfefTion, vvas fain to yield, and 
fay, A/mthema to Neftorius, and to him who faith net that the Virgin Mary 
was the Parent of Cod, and who divideth the only begotten Son into two Sons \ 
which was yet cauteloufly exprelfed , as if he faid, f/ppofng that Neflorius 
did fo (which himftlf denyed) let him be accurfed: And lb Theodoret was: 
abfolvcd and counted worthy to be a Bilhop. 

§. 23. Jiivinal Hierofol Thalaflns, and the reft of the Leaders, at E- 
phff. Council 2, were pardoned : Ibas his Epillle to /ifatis againft Cyril- 
vvas acquit, or at lead the Bifhop upon the reading of it. It is a fad Nar- 
rative of the Calamitous Divifions which thtfe Prelates and theirCoun- 
cils made. He faid that Cynl writ againft Neflorius that there was but 
one nature in Chnfl, &C. Hxc omt/ia imfiet.nis plena: Kc tells how C)r/7 
prcpofdled the Biihops before they met, and made his hatred of A^?/?(7- 
riits hisCaufe. How he condemned Neflorius two ^ay^hehrc John of An- 
ticch came : How afterward they condemned and dcpofed one another .• 
Wovi NiftoriHswz'i in hatred with the Great men o[ Conjfantifrople, which 
was his fall : How John and Cynl's Bifliops or Councils would not Com- 
municate with each other; How they fet Bilbops againft Bifhops, and 
People againft People, and a mans Enemies were thofe of his own houfe- 
hold : How the Pagans fcorned the Chriftians hereupon: For ('faith he) 
iZs' "0 '">"' ^'^'fi travel from City to City, or from Province to Province, but each 
o/je pcrjtcutcd his mighbcur as his enemy : For numy not having the fear of 


their Councils abridged. \ o^ 

Gcd, by tccafion of EccUfiAfiical aeal^ made hafle tt hrin^ forth the hidden eru 
mity of their hearts again fl others : ('he inftanceth ia fome Perfecutors^ and 
flieweth how Pauliis EmijfeuHs helpt to heal them. 

f. 29. In the eleventh Adtion two Bifhops ftrive for the Bifhoprick of 
Ephefus, Bafianus and Stephen (that had been Diofcorus Agent j .• And in 
their Pleas each of them proved that the other intruded by violence into 
the place, both he that firft had it, and he that thruft him out and took 
his Seat, and one of them made his Clcn^y fwear to be trne to him and not 
forfake him , And while the Bifhops were for one of them, the Judges 
pad Sentence to cafi out both, and all confented. 

S JO. But after all the crying up of Lro's Epiftic, this Synod fet Co 
light by Leoy as that, fome fay, againft his Legates Will, they made a 
Canon, (l3) Th,it evoy where following the Decrees of the Fathers^ ard ac- 
knowledging the Canon which was lately read made by the I50 Bijl'ops, we alf» 
Decree the fame ^ and determine if the Priviledgesoftht holyChnrch o/"Connan- 
tinople new Rome : For the Fathers did give for attribute j righly the Pri- 
viledges to the Throne of old Rome, becaufe th.xt City rnled (or had tbe Empire)^ 
And moved by the fame conf deration the 150 Biflwps Lovers cfGod^ gave (or 
attributed) eijual Priviltdges to the Throne of New Rome ■■, ^'g^'ly judging that 
the City which is honoured with the Err.pire and the Senate ^ and er.joycth e^ualPri- 
viledges with ancient Queen. Kome, JlwHlii alfo in things Ecclfft^fitcal be extolled 
and magnified, being the fecord after it. The Popes Legates h^n^ Bonif-ce xs 
fubfcribed to all-, and Euftbius D<!r;7. thus fubfcribcd S/'o^/fy///;/fr//i/»", quo- 
niam & hanc regulam fviElijfimo Pap.e in Vrbe Roma cro rele^i prefcntibusCle- 
ricis Condantinopolitanis , emiq-^ fifccpit. And this Council was after 
over and over approved by the Roman Biflxp''. 

§ 31. It in is this Canon notorious, i. That the whole General Council ^^3 
and fo the univerfal Church did then believe, that the Popes or Reman 
Privilcdges were granted by the Fathers fthatis,by Councils') and ffocd 
not by divin; appointment. 2. That the rcaroii that the Failicrs granr- 
cd them, was bec.iufc it was th; Imperial Sear. Had ihcy believed tliat 
the Apoftlcs had inftitutcd it, they had never faid that the Fathers did it 
for this reafon •, and that Co'jlar.tirople fhould be equal or next it for the 
famereafon. 3. The Church of Cc'7/?,f,vr/ff(;p/f never claimed their Prero- 
gative jure divino ^s fuccccding any Apollic, atid yet jure In.perii claimed 
eqjal Friviledges. By ail which it is undeniable that the whole Church 
in that Council, nod efpccially the G""rffb,did ever hold Ro/neh Primacy to 
be a humane infbitution, upon a humane mutable reafon. V\"hat the Pa- 
piftscan fay againft this, I have fully anfvvcred againft iV. Johnfon in a 
Bock called, Whxb is the trite Church. 

§•33. The Qjcftion now is, What concord did tlufehtc Ccii'ds procure 
to the Chinches ? 

Arif. From that time moil: of thcChriRian World was diltraiT; d into 
Facflions h:rccicating, damning, dcpollng aid too many murdeiiog one aiio- 
thcr. One party cleaved to D ofcoras and w.re called by tbe other Fmy- 

(Lians \ 


Chmch-Hiftory of Bijhops aiicl 


ehuins ■•, Tliefe crycd up the Sufficiency of the Nietnt CsHncils Faith^ as that 
which they were baptized into, and would have no addition nor diminu- 
tion', and condemned the Crf/cf<;/o» Council, and excommunicated and dc- 
pofed thofe that would not Anathematize it : Thofe that were againfl 
them they called NeftorUns. 

On the other party were thofe that had cleaved to Nefior'ms by name, 
and had been perfecuted for his Caufe •, And thcfe were a feparate Body, 
and cryed down the other as Eutychims. 

Thofe called Orthodox or Catholicks cryed down Neflorimns and Eutychi- 
*«ibyname, indeed defending the fame Dodrine ^s Nejiorius, except as 
to the fitnefs of the word ^ilom- And the chief ofNeftorius his firft 'ad- 
herents perceiving that indeed they were of one judgment, united with 
thefe againlt the Eutychians. 1 have fhewed that all of them feemed to 
make all this ftir but about fome Words which one party took in one fenle 
and the other in another. For thefe words the Bifhops caft the Chriftiaa 
World into confufion, dcftroyed Love and Unity under a pretence of keep- 
ing the Faith *, fo that the Church was lamentably militant •, Bilhops againft 
Bifliops, in continual enimity and rage. The Emperours at their wits end 
not knowing how to end the Ecclefiaftical odious Wars : And the Hea- 
thens hardened and deriding them all and their Religion. 

§.35. When the Council was ended, and Proterius made Bilhop ol A- 
lexandria in Diofcorus ftead, the City was in fo great difcontent that the 
Emperour Martian was fain to fend a Lay-man to moUifie them •, for they 
would not endure a Calcedonian Bifliop : They fet more by Diofcorus than 
before (fo that Binnins incredibly faith, they offered him Divine Ho- 

$. H- It was not long till Martian d^jcA, and then they let the World 
know that it was Emperours and not Popes or Councils that they regarded. 
They thought then they might Ihew their minds, and what they did Lihera- 
tHsw Breviario, Eva^rius, Nicephorus and Others tells us at large : But I 
will give it you in the words of the f^^pr^w Bifhops which conformed to 
the Council, Bin. p. 147. One Timeihy ElarHs of Diofconts Party who had 
gathered feparated Congregations before, fince the Council of Calcedon, 
got fome Bilhops of his own Party to make him Archbifhop : The people 
foon Ihewed their minds though it depofcd their Archbifliop. They let 
up Timothy^ and he ''■ prefently made Ordinations of BiJJjops and Clerks, &C. 
" while he thus went on, a Captain, Dioniluis, came to drive him cut of the 
" City : The people rage the moie againft Proterius : He gets into the Bap- 
*'■ tifiry to avoid their ragey a place reverenced even by the Barbarians zwA 
" thefierccft Men : But thefe furious people, fet on by their Bifhop Ti- 
'"'- morhy y neither reverencing the Place, the Worfhip, nor the Time, 
''(which was £<«//fr') nor the Office of Priefthood, which is a Mediation hc- 
*■* trvcenCod and Man, did (Irike the blamelefs Mun^ and kill him crnelly, with 
"■ ftx more \ and dragging his wounded Carktfs every where, and cruelly drawing 
^* it about, almoji thrcH'^h all the parts of the City^ did meycilcfly beat the fenfe. 

" lefs 


tJjeir Councils abridged. in 

" kfs Corps, and divided his Parts^ and [pared not to taji his Entrails wiib their 
''^ Teeth liks Dogs-^ whom they JhoitU have thought the Adediatour of God and 
*' Man \ and cafting the refl of his Body vito the Ftre, they fcattered his yijhes 
'' into the Wind, traufcending the fiereenefs of allBeafis : And the Archittd of 
" «ll this was ftheir new Billiop " Ttmothy ; firft an Adulterer (taking ano- 
*' thcrs Church) and then a Murderer, doing it in a manner as with his own 
"hands, in that he bid others do it : This man rnleth the Alexandrian 
"■ Churchy and going on doth worfe. 

This isin thcEpiftleto the Emperour Z-fo •, The like they write in ano- sinp.j^j 
ther to AnatoliHs^ adding, "that he Anathematized the Council ofCalce 
** don and all that communicate wuh it, and received none that rceive it^ till 
" they renounce it. 

§. $5. On the other fide Bifhop Ttmothyh Adherents wrote to Leo in 
praife of their new Bifhop, profefling the Nicene Faith, and declaring 
what great Concord and Peace their City now had, and craving the Em- 
perours approbation of him. 

$. 36. In Palefiine alfo the fame Fire kindled : The Monks that had been 
at Calcedon returned lamenting that the iV;ffw; Faith was there betrayed, 
and ftirred up their Fraternity to rcfcind the A<rts"i They got together 
and expelled Juvenal Bifhop of JcriifaUm^ as a Traytor to the Catholick 
Faith and a Changer. The Emprefs Eudocta) faith Nicephoms) took their 
part^ and ftrengthncd them •, At SchythopoUs they killed Sevenanus the 
Bilhop, they compelled men to joyn and communicate with them. At Jt- 
rufalem they ]f^i\kd Athanafius a Deacon for contradi(ftingthem, and gave ...^^ ■ , 
his Flelhto Dogs. Dorotheus the Emperous Lieutenant would have kept 15'^' i. 
the Peace, and they compelled him to joyn with them : But after twenty 
moneths Juvenal was rellorcd. Thus in many Countreys the War wenc 
on ; And they that knew not the Arcana Imperii thought all this was done 
byBifhopsand Monks; But the truth is EiidociaTheedofiHs''s Widow ^ and 
PulcheriaTheodofius\ Sifter and AUrtiMpi Wife, were of two fides ". And 
Women had great power with Emperours, and confequently with Bi- 
fliops : But at lafl: PuUhcria procured the convcrfion of Endocia to her 
fide, and then (lie owned the Council, and then others owned it. This 
was in Martians days. 

§. ij. The great number of Letters fent from the Bidiops to Lt* when 
he was made Emperour, which were fent in anfwer to his own to them, 
engaged him the more for the Council Party, and againfl; Timathy ^y£lH- 
rus ■■ He depofed him and put Timothy Salophaciolns in his place : But the 
City was all in confufion between the two Timothies^ Bilhops- The Egyptian i;,ctfhi l. 
Bilhops write to the Emperour againfl Timothy and Eutychians. The Em- iff- 17, 
perour fends forth his circular Letters, commanding all to own the Calce- **> '9- 
doH Council. At Antioch Petrus Cnapheus ambitious of the Archbiflioprick 
got into MartyrtHs place i by Zeno's help : And thinking they were ftill 
managing only the Controverfie againft the Nefiorians, and taking the 
Orthodox for Nefiorian Hereticks , all were accurfed by Anathema's 



Church-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

that would not lay that God wus crucified and fnffcred (The Orthodox 
doing the fame,") and thus they iucreafed the Confulions. Murtyrius r\\ciZ 
true Bilhop when he fiw that he could do no good upon them, forfook 
them, with thcfc words, Chro rcheHi, c^ ftpulo inobcdienti, c^ Ecclejiit 
contaminatA Niincium rcmilto. I rcneunce a rehclUottt Clergy., a difobedtent 
Peofle^and a dcfiltd Church. Pctrus Cnapheus kept the Bi(hoprick,and reviled 
theCtilcfdon Council. Leo the Emperour banilheth hira : Stephams a friend 
to the Council is put into the place : That you may know how the Coun- 
cil had united the people, even the Boys were fet oa to kill this new 
Bifhop with fliarp Quills. 

Common execution was too ealie a death-, Being killed they call his 
Corps into the River, for favouring the Council of C^lcedon., and fuc- 
cecding their defired Biiliop : But Cakndion fucceeding him, made them 
Anathemati/.e the fame P a er Cnapheus. 

§. j8. While M*>7;>« and Lfo, reigned thus, the Council oi Calcedon 
was kept up, and almoft all iht Bifliops were brought to fubfcribe to it^ 
But death changeth Princes, and thereby Bifhops. Z-fo dyeth, and dif- 
folute Zcno fucceedeth him : He would fain have had his peace among 
them in fenfuality. Baflifcus taketh the advantage of his difTolute Jife, 
and ufurpeth the Empire, and maketh ufe of the bifhops Schifm and con- 
tentions to get him a party : fFor the Bifhops Schifms greatly ferve U- 
furpers ends.) And firfl he publiflieth his Circular Letters againft the 
Council of Cakedon, requiring all the Bifhops to renounce it, fbecaufe 
r^ his PredecelTours had been for k.) To this, faith Nicephorus., lib. 6. 
cap. 4. three Patriarchs, and no fewer then five hundred fubfcribed, and 
renounced the Council. (And yet how violently they damned all that 
would not receive it, and writ for it to Leo, but a little before you 
have heard, j But quickly after, yicacius Patriarch of Cwy?4«r»»tfp/r, and 
Dan- Colummlla, perfwadcd BafilifcHs to write clear contrary Circular 
Letters, Commanding all to own the Council: For they convinced him 
that this was the more pofTible way: And thefe alfo were obeyed. But 
Zem was fhortly after reftored to the Empire, who was for the Coun- 
cil: And then the Jfan Bifliops turned again, and wrote to get their 
* Pardon, faying. That they fubfcribed to Baflifcus firlt Letters, not vo- 
luntary, but for fear ! fO excellent Martyrs.^ Niceph. I. 16. c p. 

§. ig- Upon this the Council was up again, and the Bifhops became 
Orthodox once more: Till atlaft Zem thought (as the Acacians did a- 
bout laying by o,«*sf;(!>) that the only way to unite thefe Bifhops, was to 
leave allfrec, neither forbidding any to own the Council of Gj/c-f<;^<?«, nor 
■' yet compelling any to it. And fo he wrote an Edicft of Pacification, fi- 

■' lencing the caie, which he called his Henoticon: For he thought that the 
Bifhops would never agree either /«r it or againf it. But yet this end- 
ed not the quarrels: The fire ftill Ifamed: Liberty contented not the Bi- 
fhops: They were zealous for God as againft his Enemies the Hereticks: 
And every Party W'Cre thefe H:i"eticks and Enemies in the judgment of 


their Councils abridged. j ^ ^ 


the reft.All muft be damned and ruined that would noi; be for God, that is, 
that was not of their minds. When Liberty was once up, the pe.ople 
were fignificant, and their mind was foon known. At Annoch, CMendion 
wa'S caft out of his Seat, and Peter .Cmfhins got in again. fFor a Com- 
bat for a Bilhoprick was a War which they fcrupled not.; And at Alex- 
andria the whole City was in confufion while Peter Mo^^m and John ftrove 
who fliould bs Bifhop. Mtggfi of Alcxa»drsa anathematizing the Cake, 
don Council, and perfecuting Dilfenters, the Emperour laboureth to re- 
concile them. Acacius at ConfiantmofU^ though fuppofcd Orthodox, Com, 
raunicateth with Peter Moggm : whether in obedience to Zeno% Henoxi- 
con^ or weary of hereticating, and why, is not known. (O how com- 
mon were feparatift Bilhops in thofe days ! ) FJix Bifliop of Rome con- 
demneth Acadtu Bifhop of ConjlMtimple for this : Acacitu had equal pri- 
viledges given by the C^/cf^a« Council, and had the prefence of the Em- 
perour and Senate, and he again condemncth Faltx \ blotting his name __^ 
out of the facred Alhe (their Book of life.) "CI 

§. 40. ^Mc/Kj Ihortly dying, the Emperour found it too hard a task 
to choofe a Patriarch, that (hou Id not keep up the Sedition; Therefore 
he will refer the choice to God: To that endheputteth a blank paper 
on the Akar, and another by it, rcquclling of God that an Angel 
might write there the name of him that God would have to be Patri- 
arch: The doors arc fait locked, andforty days Falling and Prayer com- 
manded, to prevail with God .• The Keys are committed to a fiire and 
great Courtier, but one that wasfubjcift to Angels : OneFlavit.u bribetli 
him, and he writeth Flavitas''s name in the paper, and (ealeth up the 
doors : And fo there was an Arch bilhop chofen by an Angel. This man 
joined with Peter o( Alexandria by Synodal Letters, to command all to 
curfe the Council : and yet wrote to the Bifhop of Rome^ that he re- 
nounced Communion with Peter., and he wrote to Peter that he renoun- 
ced Communion with the Bifhop of Rome. But its fearful fporting with 
God and Angels : He dyed within four Months. 

§.41. After FlavitM ihccceded Euphemitu : He joined with the Bifhop 
of Rome, and rafed Pcterh name out of the Church Book : Peter and 
EiiphemiMs as two Generals were about gathering Synodical Armies againfl: 
each other, and againft, and for the Council. But the Foot that fpurn- 
cth abroad and fpoileth the Deligns of Worldlings, even Death pre- 
fently removed Peter- One Athanafus fucceedeth Peter, and fain he 
would have reconciled and united his Clergy and People, but he could 
not : Holy zeal is too eafily quenched, but not contentious carnal zeal. 
Palladtus fucceedeth Peter Cnaphens at Anticch : Both thefe great Patri- 
archs join together to curfe the Council o^Calcedon\ and down went the 
Council. But death again maketh a turn, they both dye, ^\ A John 
fuccecded .it Alexandria., and Flaviams at Anticch. Yet thefe muft be of 
the mind of the major part, and both joinalfo to curfe the Council : And 
the Patriarchs of Rome and Conflatnintflc curfe them, and are for the 

Q C0811 


Church'Hiftory of Bijhops and 

Council : And thus Curfing was the Religion of the Age. 

§. 42. But now Ztno the Emperour dyeth, and AnA^auni Dicorusis 
chofen Emperour. Ntctphortu, lib. 16. c. 25. faith, that he being a man 
of peace, and defiring the ceafing of Contentions, followed Zeno*s He~ 
mticon, and left all to their liberty to think of the Council as they plea- 
fed. Hereupon the Bifhops fell into three Parties ; fome fervent for e- 
very word of the Council ^ fome curling it •, and feme for the Henoticon 
, or filent peace. The Eaft was one way : the Weft another : and Lybia 
another. Yea the Eaftern Bifhops among thcmfelves, the Weftern among 
themfelves, and the Lybian among themfelves, renounced Communioa 
with one another. Nicefhor. c. 25. Taniaconfujio inentiHrrq., caligo (faith 
the Hiftorian) orbem univerfum inceffit, ( it is not my cenfure) fo great con. 
fufwn and bliridnefs of mind befell the Vfhtle world : This was the EfFed even 
of Liberty. 

§. 4}. The Emperour refolving to keep peace did purpofe to fall oa 
the moft unpeaceable whoever, even on both fides. At Conflantimjde he 
put out Eufhcmiiis : (as fome thought upon a perfonal diflike or quarrel :) 
For before his inthronizing they fay he had given under his hand to En- 
phemius a promife that he would [land for the Council ; and when he 
had poffeflion he demanded up his Writing : Euphemins denyed it him, 
and was caft out : Macedonius fuccceded him, and got the Writing: The 
Emperour demanded it alfo of him •, he alfo denyed it : The Emperour 
would have alfo put him out : The people rofe up in Sedition, and cry- 
ed, It is a time of Martyrdom^ let hs all flick^to the Bijlwp: And they re- 
viled the Emperour, calling him a Mamchee^ and unworthy of the Em- 
pire. The Emperour was forced hereby to fubmit to AiatedomuSf left 
he Ihould have lofl all : The Bifliop fharply rebuked him as the Churches 
E-nemy. But thefe things made the Emperour more againft the Council, 
partly as more againlt him } and when he fa v/ time, he rcmembred Aface- 
donihs, and caft him out : yea he ^\xtTimothy in his place, and burnt the 
Councils Afts. Timothy pulled down the Images of Mtcedonius. The 
?^tn^lChs of Jlexafidria, Ai3tioch : and Jerufijlem,. wctQ all caft out. 

$ 44. Peter Cnapheus Antioch had made one Zemiat a Perfian Servant 
and unbaptized, Biiliop of Hierapolis. This man was ag.ninft Images and 
againft the Council. He brought a Troop of Monks to Amioch to force 
Flavianm the Bifhop to curfe the Council ^ FUvianns refuleth: The peo- 
ple ftuck to the Bifhop, and difputed the cafe with fuch unanfwerable ar- 
guments, that fo great a number of the Monks were flam, as that they 
lllf*- threw their Bodies into the River Orontej, to fave the labour of buryr 
ing thtm. Niceph. 16. c, 27. But this cndeth not the difpute-, another 
Troop ol Monks of Cwlo-fyria^ that were of FUvianns and the Councils 
fide,, hearing of the tumult, and the danger of the Bilhop, flock to Anr 
ttQch, and made another flaughtcr, as great Cfaith Wi-cephorns) as the 


§. 45> The. 

their Coimcils abridged. 115 

§. 45. The Murders done by Bifliops and Chriftians were fometimes 
punilhed by Exxoramunkation, but not by Death in thofe profperous 
times of the Church .- The Emperour hereupon did banifh FUvianus, which 
his followers took for perfecution i Peter Akx. being dead the BiOiopsof 
Alex. Egyft^ and Lyhla, fell all into pieces among themfelves, each having 
their feparate Conventions. The reft of the Eaft alfo feparated from the 
Wejl^ becaufe the Wefl would not Communicate with ihcm, unlefs they 
would Curfe Neftorins^ Eutyches., Diofcoru.!^ Mo^gm, and Acacim : And 
yet faith Nicefherw^ 1. 1 6. C. 28. Qui germAni Diofcori d" EutychnesfeBatores 
fuere ad Maximam faucitatem redaHi furit. Xevaias bringeth to Flavian, 
the Names of Theodore., Thcodorite, Ibas and others as Nefiorians ; and 
tells him, IfheCxnk not all thefe, he is a Neflorian\ whatever he fay to 
the contrary .• Flavian viz^ unwilling, but his timcrous fellow Bifliops per- 
fwadedhini, and he wrote his Curfe againft them, and fent it to the Em- 
perour. Xenaias then went farther, and required him to Curfe the Coun- 
cil. The //4«W<«« Bifliops were drawn to confent to Anathematize it .The 
refufers are all renownced as Neflorians. And thus the Council that Curf- 
cdNeJloriHs, h Cui:kd o( Nefioriati : The Eutychtans perceiving how near 
they were agreed. 

After Flavian^ oneSf«r->«gotto beBifliop at Anticch (a fevere Enemy 
of the Neflorians., and of the Council.) The firft day when he was got in, he 
curfed the Council, though 'tis faid that he had fworn to the Emperour 
that he would not : Nicefh. I1b.i6.caf.z9. 

In Palefline the Condemnation or Ejeftion of Flavianus and Macedo. 
vim renewed their diftradions and divifions. 

About ^^wt/ocfciSfi'w// grew foearneft, and wrote fuch Letters to the 
Bifliops under him, as frighted many againft their Judgements, to Curfe 
the Council, and thofe that held mvo iVWr^rf/, as Hereticks ; Some Bifliops 
ftood out and refufed ^ fomc fled from their Churches for fear. The Ifatiri- 
4« Bifliops, when they had yielded, repented, and when they had repent- 
ed they Condemned SfOTr«j, that drove them to fubfcribe. Two ftout 
Bifliops, Cofmoi^ and Severianus^ fent a Sealed Paper to StverM\, and 
when he opened it, he found it was a Condemnation under their Hands. 
The Emperour had notice of it, and he being angry, that they prefumed 
to Condemn their Patriarchs, fent his Procurator to caft them out of their 
Bifliopricks, fhimfelf at laft being againft the Council.^ The Procurator 
found the People fo refolute, and bent to Refiftance, in defence of their 
Bifliops : That he fent word to the Emperour, that thefe two Bifliops 
could not be caft out, without bloud-flied. The Emperour fent him word, 
that he would not have a drop of bloud flied for the bufinefs •, for he did 
what he did for peace. 

$. 46. Hcliai, Bifliop of JerHfalem, found all the other Churches in 
fuch Confufion, the Bifliops Condemning one another •, that he would 
Communicate with none of them, f^ve EHphentim oi Corjflantintple ('before 
hisEjedbn)iVicrpfc. c. ji. The Monks were engaged for the Council by 


I r^ Chwch-Hiftory ofBiJhops and 

fuchameansas this. One ThcoJoJiia, a Monk Tor Abbot ) gathering a 
great adembly, lowdly cryed out in the Pulpit to them. Hlfany nutn eejuai not 
the four Councijs^ with the four Evanitlijis^ let him he Anathem^.l^ This 
Voice of their Captain, refolvedtheSlonks ; and they thenceforth took 
it as a Lav/, that the four Councils (hould be /icWW/^rn accenfenda, added 
or joyned with the facred Books. And they wrote to the Eniperour, 
\_Certamen fe dc eis ad faniHinem itfq, fiibitiiris, that they would make good 
the Conflift for them, eventoblood: Thus Monks and Bidiops then fub- 
mitted to Princes. Thcfe Monks went about to the Cities to engage 
them to take their fide for the Councils. The Empcrour hearing of this, 
wrote to the BiniopH^/t/^ to reform it -. Herejeeteth the Etiperours Let- 
ters, andrefufeth : The Emperour fendeth Souldiers to Compell orrclt- 
rainthem. The Orthodox Monks that were for the Council, gathered by 
the Orthodox Bifhops, tumultuoufly caft the Emperours Souldiers out of 
the Church, Ni<re;?fo, c. 54. After th-is, they had another Contention, and 
there Anathematized thofe that adhered to Severn. The Emperour more 
provoked by all this, kntOlympifts with a band of Souldiers to Conquer 
them : Olympim came, and caft out Bi(hop Helias, and put in John. The 
rj^ Monks gather again, and the Souldiers bieng gone, they come to Johny 
and make him engage himfelf to be againft 5fyfr«;*, and to ftand for the 
Council, though it were unto Blood : He yielded to the Monks, and in- 
gaged himfelf to the Council, and brake his Word made to Olympic. 
TheEmperor is angry with 0/yw/7;V« for doing his Work no better ■, and 
puts him out, and fendeth another Captain Amflatim-^ who c.ime and 
put theBidiop 7o^«inPril"on and Commanded him to dtfpire the Council . • 
y^^wconfulting v/ith another Biftio}-) craftily promifed to obey him, if he 
would but let him out of Prifon, two days before, that it mightnocfeema 
forced aft. This being done, the Bifhop on the contrary in the Pulpit be- 
fore the Captain and the People, cryeth out If any man afem to Eutyches, 
md Neftorius, ^Contraries) and Severus, and Sotericlius, Cirarianfis, 
\tt him be Anathema : Jf any follow net the Opinions of the fo'ir Vniveifal Synods 
iethim be Anathema. The Captain feeing himfelf thus deluded, fled from 
f he Multitude and was glad to fave himfelf, the Emperour being offend- 
ed more at this. The Bifhops write to him, ?W<«f Jerufalem the Fountain of 
DoElrineythey were not now to learn the trnth.fl.'a.^ that they would defend the Tra- 
dittws if need he even to hlood, Niceph. 16. c. 54. 

fitConJlantinople the Bifhop Timothy would pleafcboth fides, and pleafed 
neither: Tofome he fpake for the Council, to others he Curfed it. Be- 
ing to make an Abbot, the Manrefufed hisEIeftion, unlefs he confented 
. to the Council of C<t/cf<^o« .- T/w«fc}' prefently Curfed thofe that received 
not the Council. His Archdeacon hearing him, reproached him, that 
like Enripus roled every way. The Emperour hearing it, rebuked him : 
And Timothy wafht away the Charge, and prefently Curfed every one that 
received the Council, Mc?;;^. /. 8. c. 3 5. 
§. 47. But what did Rme all this while? It were too long to recite 


their Councils abric/geJ. \ij 

their proper Hiftory : They were for the Council^ and they liad other 
kind ofConflidts: The GothshdA them in W.irs,and had conquered chcni 
and Theodorickjcxgnzd there as King, and fo they were broken off from 
the Empire: ^r/4w ruled them, who yet if 5<l/^7■<^^; fay true, did ('afcer^ 
fliame the Orthodox in point of Temperance, Truth, and Juftice. 

But befidcstlieir following greater Schifms, this Schifm alfo d;d reach 
to them. Fcjlus a Roman Senator was fent by Thcodortck^ to the Empc- 
rour on an Embaflic .• which having done, he defircd of the Emperour 
that Confiamimfle might keep the Fcftival days of Pt/^r and Faul (which 
theydidnot before) as they did at ^owc:, and he prevailed: And he fe- 
cretly alTurcd the Emperour, that Jtuftafiut Biflicp of Rcn:e would re- 
ceive the Horoticon (xo fufpend the confcnting to the Ci/rr^cn Council) 
and would iubfcribe it. When this Ambadadour came home the Pope 
was dead. To make good his Word to the Emperour, he got a party to 
choofe Laurentiui Pope, v\ ho vfould receive the Hoi^oucm : The People 
chofe SymnMclms their BiHiop. And fo there were two Popes fettled, and '^^ 
the fedition continued three years, not without Slaughter, Rapines, and Mfi- 
other Calamities: Ntcepher. cap. 55. Theodorick^zn Anan, more righ- 
tuous tlian the Popes, would not deprive them of their liberty of choice, 
but called a Synod, to judge which vvas the rightful Bifliop, and upon 
their judgment confirmed Symmachus : But Laurentiw loth tololc the prey, 
ftirred up the People to Sedition, and tliereupon vvas quite dcgraded- 
This Was a beginning of Schifms at Rome. 

§. 48. The Emperour at Cchilantmople favouring the addition [_QHi 
cr/icifixiis tfl pro fiebisi] the People wlio dillikcd it, Kditioufly cut off a 
Monks head, and let it upon a pole, infcribing [_Jn Enemy to the Triniiy.^ 
The Emperour overcome and wearied with their Confufions, and Or- 
thodox Murders and Rebellions ^ called an AlTenibly, and offered to re- 
lign his Empire, dcfiringthem to choofe another .- This fmcte them with 
remorfe, and they defired him to reallnrae his Ctcwu, and prpmij(e4 to 
forbear Sedition : But he dycdfliortly after. . ' ,," 

§. 49. Amo 452. ValemintAn the Roman Emperour attempted a great 
alteration with the Bifhops, by a Law recalling the Judicial Power of the 
Bifliops in all Caufes, except thofe of Fwh and Religion., unlefsthe par- 
ties contending voluntarily chofe them for the Judges. 1h\% Bimitu {zx\d 
the other Papills j take for a heinous injury to the Church. In till mens «^2 
judffHcnt, laith BimiitiSy it is ahfitrdtbat the Sheep ptuld judge his Shepherd: 
1/ today the Pre tor (i^and <tf the Tribitfjal of the 5>/?jo/>, and to tnorrowthe Bi- 
jfjop may he called to the Pretors Bar f That a>! Earthly judge may take and 
fMnifl) the fervants of the highefl jtilg't '^'^ confecrated men : who will not fay 
that this is mofl abfurd ? 

Anfi». This (heweth what Churchgrandure and power thefe men ex- 
pert ; Ifthey have not the Civil power, and be not Magiftratcs or Lords 
stall, the Church is wronged. This Clergy-pride is it that hath fet the 
World on fire, and will not confent that it be quenched. 

I. By 

1 1 8 Chwch-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

1. By this rule all Chriftians lliould be from under all i Power of Kings 
a id Civil Rulers : For arc they not all C''-'* fervants of the highefl Jud^ es^ 
Hith God no Servants but the Clergy ? 

2. By this rule both Princes and People (liould be free from the Bi- 
fliops judgment : For are not thefe Bifhops Men as well as Princes? and 
are not Chriftiaa Princes and People the fervantsof thehighejl Judge, and 
therefore (hould not be judged by Bifhops. 

}. But what a wicked rebellious dodtrine is intimated in the difttn- 
<ftion, that Primes are Earthly Judges^ and VreUtes are the fervar.ts of the 
hiohefl Judge? Are not Prelates Earthly Judges as well as Princes, in that 
they are men that judge on Earth .' And are not Princes Judges of Di- 
vine appointment and authority as well as Prelates ? Yea, and their 
power more paft all difpute ? 

4. And what abfurdity is it, that every font he fnhjeEl to the higher power? 
And that he that's one of your Sheep in one rcfpeif^, may be your Ruler in 
another? Why may not the King be the Ruler of him that is his Phyficiaftov 
his Tutor? And why not of him that is his Prirfi. Was not Solomon Ru- 
ler of Ahiathar when he difplaced him? May not one man judge who 
is fit or unfit for Church Communion, and another judge who is punifli- 
ableby the fword? Did Chrifl; come to fet up a Miniftry inftead of a 
Magiftracy ? He that faith, Man who made mc a Judge , came not to 
put down Judges: He that faith, By me Kings reign, came not to put 
down all Kings. 

Obj. Chrifi fets Hp a Kingdoms of Priefis^ or a Royal Prieflhood. 

yinfw. But his Kingdom is not of this World, or Worldly: It is a fpi- 
ritual Kingdome,concjuering fin and Satan, putting down the World out of 
our hearts, and making us hope for the everlafting Kingdom which we 
fliall fhortly enjoy. The Difeafeofthe Difciples that ftrove who (hould 
begreateft, and fit at the right and left hand, and faid. Lord wilt thou 
at this timereftore the Kingdom to Jfrael, hath prevailed after all this 
warning on a Worldly Clergy , to the great calamity of the Church. 
And what wonder, when even then St. Paul faith, All jeek. their own 
(too nnichj and none the things of fefiis Chrifi (fo naturally as Timothy 
did) and fo zealoufly as they ought- Too many Popes haue been Peters 
Succefiburs in the Charaifter given him. Mat. 16. Get thee behind me Sa- 
tan, Thou art an effence unto me-^ For thou favonrefi not the things that bt of 
Ced^ but thofe that be of men. I underftood not who were the fpring of 
our late Fifth-Monarchy mens difeafes, till I read Campanetla de Regno 
Z>«, and fome fuch Papills, where 1 fee that Chrlfls reign by his Vicar 
the Pope over aH the Princes and People of the World, is the true Fifth-Mo- 
nafchy Herefie ; For which they bring the fame Prophecies as the Mille- 
naries do for their Expecftations. 

Obj. But theTope^ Prelates and Clergy (called the Church) are net to reign 
by depofing Kings, but by Ruling them and being above them : As Love is a- 
bove the Lavf, yyhichyet is made for the ungodly that want Love^ and mufi he 


their Councils abridged. 1 1 9 

rnled by fear '-, fo Princes Are for the World of wibdieverS^ hut not for the 
Church and Spirtrual perfom who live above them in the life of Lore. 

Anfvf. I. This was one of the firfl: Hcrefies which the Apofties wrote 
againft: Many tempted Chriftians then to think that Chriftianity freed 
them from fervice and fubjettion and made all equal : But how plain- 
ly, frequently and earneftly, do PauI and Peter condemn \t? Is it not a 
{hame to hear fuch Papilts as cry up fuch a Hcrefle as this, cry down 
and damn a Neftoriau, or an EutychiaK^ or a Mcnothelite^ for an unskil- 
ful ufe of a word? Paul faith, He that teachcth otherwife (againft fub 
jedtion) is proud, knowing nothing, but doting. 

2. Love doth indeed let us above Fear, and Legal threats fo far as 
it prevaileth: But it is impcrfeft in all, and Fear ftill nccellary. 

3. And this taketh not down either the Law or Magiftracy to us, but 
only maketh us lefs need fuch means. It's one thing to love and live 
fo holily and jultly as never to need or fall under the fword of Magi- 
ftrates j and another thing to be freed from fubje^Ition and obliga- 

This increafeth in many the opinion, that the Papal Kingdom is An- 
tichriftian, in that they fet up themfelves above Rulers thac are called 

3- But why muft this priviledge extend to the Clergy only ? Have 
not other Chriftians as much holy love, and fpirituality, as moft of them ? 
And muft Princes rule only Infidels? 

Some fufpeft none as inclining to Popery, butthofc that take upfome 
of their Dodrines of Tranfubftantiation, Purgatory, Images, ^c. But 
they that on pretence of the railing of the Church, and defending its 
power, do firft call the Clergy only the Church, and then fcekto make 
themfelves the Lords of Princes, by the pretences of an Excommunica- 
ting Power, and plead themfelves from under them, and take it for 
their priviledges to be free from fuhjedion to them and their penal 
Laws, are doubtlefs levened with that Popifh Herelie, which hath done 
much of all the mifchiefs, which the forecited Hiftory defcribeth. 

$. 50. CXXXI. Btfides fome little contention at AlcxMtdria, under 
Proterim, before he was murdered ; the next in Bimiiitf, is faid to be at 
An^ices {^Aniegavenfei) which faith over again feme of their old Canons 
againft Priefts living with Women, and removing from place to place, 
and fuch like. And the Papifts fay that this Conncil was to contradift 
the Emperour Valeminians Law, and to vindicate the rights of the Church, 
as not being lyable to Civil Judicatures, or under Kings. 

§. 51. CXXXII. Anro 45}. A Vrench Venetick Council was called 
about Ordinations, which repealed fome former Canons, and was fo 
ftrid, that the firft Canon kept Murderers and Falfe Wicnclfes from the 
Sacrament, till they repented (inftead of hanging them.) And the fecond 


1 20 Chwch-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

"Canon denyed the Communion to Adulterers that ualawfully put away 
tneir Wives, and tookothers. (Oftridl LawsJ 

J. 52. CXXXIII. Am. 459. A Council at dnflan/wople., forbad Si- 

5. 53. CXXXIV. jim. 467. A Council at Rome, of48BUliops ; decreed 
that men that had 6W0 Wives, or the Husbands of Whores fhould not be 
ordained: That they that co«W w«t ReaJ^ and they that were maimed or 
difmembred, or the Penitent, Ihould notbemadeMinifters, o-c. 

§. 54. CXXXV. Jm. 482. Ten Bifhops at Tomt, made fuch honeft 
Canons, asiftheyyetreteinedfomewhat of S. Ai»nw Piety. They ear- 
neftly difwade the Clergie from their Fornication : They go a middle way 
between them that forbad Priefts to get Children, and thofe that turn 
themloofe, and decree that married Priefts that continue to get Children 
fliall be advanced no higher : They forbid the Clergie to be drunk: And 
to take in ftrange women : They forbid them to forfake their Minifterial 
Funftion: (but what if Prelates filence them) They keep ihofe from the 
Communion that lye with Nuns (devoted to Virginity) tiJI they Re- 
pent : They keep Murderers from the Communion, till they penitently 
confefs. CThisis not hanging them in Chains; But who fliall-anfwer for 
that Blood, and for the next that this man killcth? ) others fuch honeft 
Canons thofe vertuous Bifhops made foft made before) 

§. 55. CXXXVI. They fay Fa//A.' called a Council at Rome to admonifli, 
and Excommunicate Fefe/-Ca(»p^, Jntioch About the time time that he Ex- 
communicated Acacins Confl. and Acacius damned him again. 

§. 56. In thisftormagainft Acacius^x^t Pope engaged other Bifhops, one • •" 
was Q^tintiatiiM^ who fent Peter z dozen Curfes for his Cure : Of which one 
reached CyW/ being againft thofe that fay [Vnam N/ituram'} Another wa» . 
{^SiqHiS Deitm-homine»>, dr nonmagis D(Hm & homineumdicit-, damnett^r'}^\i^t >, 
is, if any one fay Cod-man^ and not rather Godand Man, Uthimbe damned.-, oJ 
r-«3 How carekfsarePapifts, and Proteftants, that fo commonly venture ott 
the Word ^-o-yS'a-zrQ- to their damnation : If our Neigjibours, that com* - 
monly thcfe thirty years laft ufe the word ^Goddamn me had but put Thet^ 
inftcad ofiAW^ I fhould have fufpeded that the Councils and Bilhopshad 
made their Religion. 

Ss7-CXXXVII. They fay that >^;7«. 48} y^c;?c/«/(ns bad as the Pope, 
made him) call'd a Council at ConJiautir.ofU ^ to Condemn Peter' 

§• 5''. CXXXVIU. Faelx called 7/Bniops 10 i?;wf, on this occalion : 



their Councils abridged. 121 

He fent his peremptory Letters to Acaciw^ConJl. and fome to tlie Emperouc 
Zetto, by two Bifhops, Afifenus and Vualii : The Empcrour took away 
their Letters •, and (not knowing then the Popes Soverainty) laid them by 
the Heels, till he made thera glad to Communicate with thofe Bifhops that 
they came to Condemn : For this FWs.v and his Bifliops, caft them out of 
the Epifcopal Office ^ and they prefumed to excommunicate Acaciiu^ as 
afore faid, even with this Claufc, Nunquam Anathcmatis vtncnlis txuindus: 
Never to be abfolved from the Curfe ! What no Repentance, for one that 
wasno Heretick ! butfalflyfo called, for obeying the Empeiour, in deal- 
ing gently with fome EHtycintuit •, were not this Council and fope No- 
-vtttiaru ? 

§. ^9. CXXXIX. Yet Ann. 487. The fame Fdix is faid in a Coun- 
cil of 5S Bilhops, to decree Communion to the Lapfed, and Rc-bap- 
tized> penitent Africans. 

§. 60. At this time, and before |in PopeLro's time; fome M.michet 
in Rome^ would not be Recufants, but Conformilts, and come to Church, 
and take the Sacrament *, but they took only the Bread, and not the Wine. 
Lto, Serm. 4 de Temp, quadrog. writeth this againft them. When to cover 
their Infdeluy ihey dare be frefent at eitr My/leries, thty jo temper themfelveSf ,^ , 
that they may I fely lye hid, in the receiving «f the Sacrament, that they wUh 
an unvtoithy moHth, receive Chriji s Body, but refnfeto drinh the blood of Re- 
demption. Wnicb we would have your holinefs to undcrft and \ that fuch men 
nuty be i^'W" to you by thefe marks : And that when their Sacrelegious diffimulati- 
on is iltfcernedy b'inj^ difcovered they may by the Frieftly Authority be driven front 
the Society of the Saints. Hereupon the Pope decreed that none Ihould Com- 
muiiicatCj^but in both kinds : The Words of the Canon dift. 2. de Confecrat. 
are thefe. Wcfitid that fomt taking only a portion of the holy body., ahflein 
from the Cup of the holy blood : Becaufe Ikriovf not by what fuperjlition they are 
taught to be thus bound :, let fuch either receive the whole Sacrament, or be dri- 
ven from the whole '■ Becaufe a divifon of one and the fame my fiery, cannot come 
hut from hejnous Sacriledge. Reader, Is Rome conftant in their Religion .' 
And have tliey nol.movatians ?Is notBiumus impudent in calling it foolifh 
to cite this Canon of their own Pope, againft them. Confider it and Judge. 

And as impudent is he, p. 232. in expounding thefe words of Gelafus. 
Non defiriit fubfiantia vehiatura paws C^ vini. That is. The fubflame or Na- 
ture of the Bread^ and Wine ceafeth not: As if it fpeaks Only of the Jub- 
fiance and nature of the Accidents : As if Accidentshid fiibjlance, ind Nature 
of their own : What words, what evidence can be fo plain as to convince 
fuch men. 

§. 61. Among the Epifllesof G"<-/i«/»«-, one is to Euphemim Bilhop of ^"^ »<"-• 
Confiantinople, denying him Communion, till he put the name of Acacim '"S'b'y^f' 
out of t he Dypticks, both of them being Orthodox j only becaufe Acacim ^Jq^^ 

R Commnn!.'Dai,iji"r« 


Church-Hiftory ofBiJhops and 

Communicated with an Eittychian; even when he is dead, thofe that 
f;^ Condemn him not mull be excommunicated i were there ever greater f^- 
paratilts than thefe. And is it any wonder if now the Pope leparate from 
moftofthe Chriftian World. 

There is alfo his Commmitorium Written to FmijIhs the Fmbaflador of 
Thefdorike at Conflantinofk ^ in which he infiftethon the fame way of Sepa- 
ration. All the world muft be in an EcClefiaftical Epifcopal War, if they 
will not damn and fepar ate from every onetliat fpeaketh an unapt word,ifa 
Council or Pope will but call it Herelie. 

But here the Papifts would have us believe that excommunicating in thofe 
days wasa proof of fupcriority : But Celafms himfeJfherc tells them o- 
tkerwife. It was objetT:ed againft him h)Enphemii*s Conftant. That one manmay 
mt excommmkate AcaciHs RPatu^vch. And heanfwereth, i. That it was the 
ad of many i that is, of the Council which condemned the Emychians in 
general. But is this good Law, or Divinity ? Is every offender condemn- 
ed, »p/oj"«>-f, before his perfonai guilt is Judged? Becaufe the Law con- 
demneth all Thieves, may every man Judge, and hang them, jicacim is 
confelTed to be no Eutychiaf:^ but to have obeyed his Prince, in Communi- 
cating with one .- EuphefHiMWZs no Eutychian, but Would not difobey his 
Prince at the Popes command, by blotting out Ac*cius Name. But his 
J^ Second Anfwer is, Q^gd mu Mum PrafuU ApeJlolUo facere licet, fed Citi- 
CHticj-, Tontijici Ht quosUdet & quemlibet locu>n^ fecundwn re^ulam hiirtfe^s itfiHs- 
antedttmnatit,^ a Catholic a Comtnuniotitdijctrntint. That is. It is Lawfnl not 
only to an ^poflolical Prelatty but to any Sipjop to exclude from CatholickSommH. 
nien'f any Per fans, and any place, according te the Rnle of bis fore.damned fie- 
rtfie. And accordingly, others have excommunicated the Pope, and 
lower Prelates have Excommunicated Patriarchs \ and the lower Patri- 
archs the higher ■• Excommunication, as it is an Aft of Government, is 
done only by aGovernour: But as all Chriltiansare commanded to avoid 
fcandalous Chriftians, fo in their feveral places they may pradice this, the 
gui4t being proved ^ I may tell him that I have no rule over, / will have no- 
Commttnion xvith you : But I cannot thereby oblige all others to do the 

This GelafiHS alfo oft {Epiji. ad Anaflaf. Jmperat, c^c.) fetteth up the 
Priefl: above the Prince, as Gods Laws are above mans : As if Kings were, 
were not to Govern by Gods Laws ? and as if the Bifliops Canons were not 
mans Laws ('if they be Laws J 

}, 62. CXL. It's faid that 70 Bifliops at Rvum under Ctlafms determm- 
cd of the Canon of the Scripture, and alfo of accepted and rejected Books. 
In the Canon they put a Book called Or<i» Hiflorinrum \ with one Book of 
Tobiai-i one o( Judith^ one of the Maccabees, Nehemias is left out. Among 
the approved Books the Epiftie of Leo to Flavian Confl. is thus impofed, 
^^ XTht Text whereef if any man Jhall difpute, even to one iota for tittle) and 
doth not venerably rtceivi it in all thin^s^ let him be accurfed-'^ A multitude 


their Councils ahridged. * 122 

of heretical and rejeded Books are named : Eighteen pretended to be by 
or, of fome Apoftles, and fucli other : And among others the Hiftory of 
EHfebius /yet before approved, unlefs here he mean only de vitA Ccnfi.) 
The Works of TcrtHllian, LaBamim, jinwhitis, Clemens j^lexa>:d: jifria- 
tiMy Cajfumu, ViEioririHS PiBav. Faufiiis Rhegicuf. &c. Of the Canon of 
Scripture Bilhop Coufms hath colleded the true Hiftory from greater An- 

%. 6 J. CXLI. VitalUznA Mifcnm^ tlic Popes Legates at ConJlantmpU, 
having been Excommunicated for Communicating with ^'c^^aw, 6cc. rua- 
lis dyed To, but after eleven years Mifcrm repented, and wasabfolved by 
a Council of 5 5 Bilhops : Tmight not the Pope alone have done it ? ) 

§. 64. CXLII- You have heard before how Fefius got Lanrcntltu the 
Arch-presbyter chofcn Pope at Rtmt^ and more chofe Synmachus : Tlmdo' 
r/cl^aa ^»«j being King was juft, and had fo much wit as toplcafe the 
Clergy while his Kingdom was unfettlcd. The Pope, under his prote- 
tflion, excommunicated both Emperour and Patriarch oTConfiantinople, for 
Communicating with Hereticks v but he never excommunicated TheoJc. 
rick.at home, though an Ari4n-. There was reafon for it : Intercfl: is fuch 
mens Law. But while the Schifm between Symmachns and LaHrcntius di- 
vided the Senate, the Clergy, and the People, five or fix feveral Councils 
are called at ^owf, moftlytoheal this rupture: For at firft the Laurenti- 
MIS laid fome Crimes to the charge of Syiwnachus ; and when the Coun- 
cils would not cafthimout, they fell to rapine, violence, and bloodfhed, 
many being killed, and all in confufion: So that it was work enough in 
three years for King and Council to end the Schifm. 

f. 65. CXLIIl. When Xhzjirian Perfecution abated \r\ AfricA, ThrM- 
famundus ihtVimZ^ contriving which way to root out the Orthodox with- 
out violence; he commanded that when any Bilhop dyed, no other 
fliould be ordained in their places. Hereupon the Nonconformifts feeing 
the Churches like tojdecay, atm. 504. held a Synod, in which they de- 
creed that though they fufcred death for it they would go on, and or- 
dain, and do their Office :, concluding that either the mind of the King 
would be mollified, or elfe they fliould have the Qown of Martyrdom. 
This is called ConciltHm Byz^cenum. 

§. 66. It is greatly to be noted, that many following Councils in Sp4ift, 
France, and other parts of Europe^ which were held under the Cothiflj eff5 
Kings, were more pious and peaceable than the reft fore-defcribed. The ^^ 
Reafons feem to mc to be thefe: 1. Thefe Kings being conquering Jri- 
Mis, the Bifhops durft not damn them for Herciie, for fear of their own 
necks i and fo were greatly reftrained from the hereticating work of 
Councils. 2. Thefe Kings h-U'ing a narrower Dominion than the Em- 

R 2. pire^ 


124 Church-Hiftoiy of Bijhops and 

pire, and being jealous of their new gotten Conqiiefts, were nearer the 
BiQiops, and kept them more in awe than the Emperour did 3. And 
thefe Councils being fmall ('of a few Bifhops) had no I'uch work for ar- 
rogancy and ambition, as the great General Councils had- 4. And the 
great proud pretending Patriarchs that fet the World in a continual 
War, were not here to ftrive who fliouid be the greatcft. The Pope 
hinifelf was feldom mentioned in the Spanijh and French Councils, or 
the jifricAu. 

§. 67, CXL!V. One of thefe honefl: Councils is ^^rfffc(f«/f by the per- 
miffion of Alaricm, by 35 Bifhops, C<tfarim AreUtafis being chief: 
Where many Canons for the Clergy were made or repeated- 

The id Canon is, that if BiJIiops wrongfully excemnunicAte any one^ other 
^^ Bidwps fliall receive thim. (Did :he Popes obferve this with Acm'ihs, Eh- 
phemitu^ &cj Can. 63. If any Citix.ens on the great folemntties, th/tt is, 
Eajler-, the Lords Nativity, or Whitfimtide , fhull neglt^ to meet where the 
BiJIiops are, (feeing they are fet in Cities fir BenediBton and Communion ,) let 
p^ them be three years deprived of the Communion of the Church. ( Doth not 
this prove that the City Churches then met all in one place, and fo were 
but one Aflembly at thofe times ? How elfe could all the Citizens be with 
the Bifhopatone time?) But even thefe Canons forbid Clergy-men to 
- fue any before a Secular Judge, or to appear or anfwer at anothers 
fuit, Can. 32. Othcrwife both are to be excommunicate, Can. 37. It 
punifheth thofc that kill men, but with denying them Communion. Can. 
50. Only if a Bifhop, Presbyter, or Deacon, commit a Capit.il crime., 
he jiiall he depofcd and put into a Monajlery, and have but Layctmmunimt. 
. (When Murderers are hang'd, and Traytefs alfo quartered, this Canon 
." is laid afide.) 1 thought a Monafiery had been a deftrahle place, and not 
bad enough to ferve Traytors and Murderers inftead of the Gal- 

§. 63. CXLV. A Council at Apanna under Sigifmund King of Bur- 
gundy, recited fuch like Canons as the former : favc that there is one 
jult fuch as our Fanaticks in England would have made, who would not 
worfliipGod in any Temple which the Papifts had ufed to their Mafs: 
fo faith Can. 3 ^ The Temples (or Churches') of Hereticks, which we hate 
rvith fo ^eat execration , we defpife to apply to holy nfes., as judging their 
pollution to be fuch at cannot be purged away. But fuch at by violence they 
T^ too\^from us we may recover. This is juft Down with the Idolatrous Steeple- 
houfes. But if they would give the Nonconformifts in England leave to 
Preach in fuch places, they would be thankful, and think God will not 
impute the fin of others to us. 

§. 69. CXLVl. A Ccnncil at Sidon of SoBiihops, was called by the 
Eroprrour Am^nafmi, where tliey agreed to curfe the Conncil oiCalce- 


their Councils abridged. 125 

don, and Flaviantu Antioch, and Johnn. Paltenf. were baniflied for re- 
fufing. This was about the time when the forefaid Fight was between 
the Monks and the Anuochians, wiiea the CarkalFes of the Entychian 
Monks were caft into the River. 

§. 70. About this time was the fall and rife of the Papacy- The 
fall, inthit the Eaftem Empire made httle ufe of Popes, but did their 
Church work without them- Their rife, in that the Weftern Empire 
and Africa, being divided between many late conquering Kings, they all 
labour to fettle themfelves in a peaceable poirelFion by pieaflng the 
Qergy, who, as they found, had no fmall interelt in the People. 

§. 71. CXLVIl. Hincmazju in the life of Re/ni^^im, tells us of a 
ftrange thing done ata Council at Rhemes; that one Arion Bifliop chal- 
lenged all the reft to difpute, and when Rhemi^im came in would not 
rife to him, but upon the Ihaddow of Remii^im parting by him, he was 
ftruck dumb, and falling at Rbemi^jtu feet, by figns askt pardon, and 
was fuddenly cured of his dumbnels and Herelie, confclTing the Deity of 

§. 72. CXLVUI- Becaufe ^o^xw. Nicofelit. did but call fome of his 
, Bilhops to tlatter the Pope, and to curfe all Herefies and Acacitu, this 
' is put in among the Councils. But tlie Condi. Tarracerfe ^ Anno 51 6. 
feems more rtgardable ( under ThcodorickS) where the Clergy are re- 
ftrained /row /'"^'w? chafer Mid felling lit^rcrt\\^n others, fthis it feems 
grew to be 'a part of tlieir priviledges.-) and from judging canfes on the 
Lords day: And it is ordered that the Bifhop fend a Presbyter one week, 
and a Deacon another, to the Country Congregations, and tovifit them 
himfelf once a year, becaufe by the old cuftorae he is to have a third 
part of all the Church profits. 

£l^£r. Whether a Bifliops Dlocefs then was any bigger than one of 
our Corporatioas with the Neig'iboar Villages? And if one of our 
• Bilhops that have above a thoufand Pariflies, or many hundred, fhould 
:havc the third part of all (or as other Canons fay the fourth,) Would 
not our Bifhops be yet richer men than they are? Efpccially if they that 
confine Bifliops to Cities, could get a Prince to call no Corporation a 
City but one or two in a Kingdom, and be as the Ahuna is in Ethiopia, 
that hath the thirds of all the Ecclefiaftical benefits in the Empire. This 
Council had ten Bilhops. 

§. 73. CXLlX. The ConciUiim Gerundenfe is next, A/mo 517. under 

7heodornk-t It confided of feven Biihops, f Bifhopricks began to grow 

fo big, that they could not fo fuddenly meet by the fcoies and hundreds 

- as when every Church was- known by one' A'fift^and oae Bi^toff a* Tg- 

-o.iii;.' natiut. 

I %6 Clyurcfj-Hifiory of Bijhops and 


mtiKt fpcaks.) The feven men wade Canons, that the lame Liturgy 
Ihould be ufcd in the other Churches of that l^ovincc as were iifed m 
J3» the Metropolitan Church. (For formerly every Bilhop in his own Church 
did pray as he thought bell, without Impofed or agreed Uniformity 
of many Churches, much lefs of all in a Nation J They Decree alfo 
that Litanies be ufed on the Kalends of November. A Litany then figni- 
fied a foiemn fupplicating of God by the People Aflembled , Falling , 
Walking, Singing, and Praying, as is ufcd herein the Rogation Week; 
fometime they walked to the Memorial of fome Martyr, fometime a- 
bout the ftrcets, oft bate- foot, continuing it with Falling for cer- 
tain times. The Lall Canon is , That the Priep f^y the Lords Vnt^ 
trvke a Day, Morning a?id Evemng. CThat was a Hiort Liturgy.) 

§. 74 CL. When Jnfim was made Emperour, the Bifliops turned in 
the £aji^ and down went the Eutychians^ and a Synod of 40 Bilhops 
at Conjiamncple ufoWedt that the Names of £«pfe^«j/«j and Macedonitts 
ihould be rellored into the Dyptick Ctheir Book of life) and that 5fi/<- 
rm Ihould be condemned with his Adherents. 

$. 75. The Cafe hath been oft intimated before •, In thofe times when 
all the Empire was in confufion between Eutychians^ and the Orthodox, 
and fome Emperours took one fide, and fome the other, and fome in 
vain endeavoured peace : The Churches of Antioch and jilexandria were 
more Eutychian than Conflxntinofle, though the Emperour that favoured the 
Eutychians were prefent : Acacim was Orthodox, but pleafed the Empe- 
rour fo far as to Communicate with, or not curfc and excommunicate 
the Bilhops of Anticch and Alexandria. For this, as you have oft heard, 
the Pope Excommunicated him, and he fo dyed ("laving done as much 
for the Pope.J Enphemius and Macedonius that fucceeded were both Or- 
thodox, and commanded by the Emperour to Communicate with the Ei^ 
tychians, and pcrfecuted, and both call out by him, for not obeying him, 
as is before defcribed in that and another fuch matter : The Pope had 
required them to blot Acacius name out of the Dyptick : The Court, 
Clergy, and People were againfl it, thinking it arrogancy in one man> 
]to Excommunicate the Patriarch of the Imperial City that was Ortho- 
dox, upon his perfonal revenge or quarrel : They obeyed not the Pope : 
The Pope is againfl: them for not curling a dead Orthodox Biftiop A- 
€acius: The Emperour was againll them for being againfl the Eitty- 
fhiansf as the Pope was for not being more againft both themi, 
and all; that did not curfe them as much as he did. Were not 
thefe Bilhops in a hard cafe ? Both agree to their extirpation, and 
when they were dead to damn their names : But the Clergy and People 
agreed not. The E^flern and Wejiern Churches were hereby divided, 
(thatis, Conftantimple And Rome.) Is not the Chrifl;iaa World beholden 
to fuch Tyrants and proud pretenders for its diftraclions and calamities? 
AThat will rather divide the Chriftian World* than endure the names of 
-••v Ortho- 

/fey Councils abridged, \ 27 



Orthodox perfecuted Biftops ta be honoured when they are dfead^ be- 
caufe they would not blot out and abhor the name of another dead Or- 
thodox Bilhop their PredeccfTour, when the Pope curfed him for Com- 
municating with an Euiyehianr I fcnow the Papilb will cry up, The pre- k^ 
fervation of the pMith and Purity., But if ever any did overdo the Pha- 
ri(^es, that reproved Chrift for eating with Publicans and Sinners : If 
ever any became Plagues of the World, by being W</r, Orthodajc^ofid Righ. 
teous tvermuchy and made ufe of the name of FMth , to deftroy Fanh, 
Lovcy HHmaaitjy and Pe4ce., add cryed up the CAwci, andU/j//y, asC«- 
thoUcks., to deftroy the Church and Unity, and crumble it into Sedls and 
Faftions ; it is certainly thefe men- 

But the £4/? and Weft that thus began their reparation by the fpirit 
of Pride and Envy that Rome had againll the growing greatnefs t)f Cw«- 
ftantinopUy continue their Divifion to this day •, And it hath been no fniall 
caufe of the ruin of the Empire and the Chriftian Caufe, and delivering 
all up to the Muhmetans : Which the good Pope fecmed t« judg more 
tolerable (with all the dreams of Blood that went before and after^ 
than thathefhou'd not have his will upon an Orthodox dead mans name. 
Sure fiat Jnftitia & rnat Cklnm, was devifed by thefe precifc over righ- 
teous Popes ! 

§. 7<5. EvAgrm (Jib. 3O faith, that JuSlin came to the Empire as fol- 
loweth: jlmantins was one of the Greatcft men, but uncapable of the 
Empire, becaufe he was an Eunuch .- He gave a great fum of Money 
to Jitfiine, to hire the Souldiers to choofe Theecriins, his bofom friend: 
Jaffinc with that Money hired them to choofe himfelf, and quieted 
jimantius and Theocritia^ by murdering them both. And becaufe Vita- 
liofm (that had ufnrped and laid down,,) was then great, he drew him 
in to be a Commander near him, and fo got him killed. But he be- 
cometh Orthodox, and faith BinnmSy p. 374. The j^rtat Patron and DC' 
fender of the Cutholicks, by the fingular favour of Cod obtained the Empire. 
So zealous was he, that he caufed the tongue of Severus the Eutychiofi^ 
Archbifliop of Antioch^ to be pulled out of his head, for curfing fo oft - ,, 
the Council of C«Uedon^ andfuch like things. Panlns fucceeded him and cap""^ '^* 
dyed, and Eufhrafm fucceeded him, who was buried in the ruines of 
the City, it being call to the ground by a terrible Earthquake, and "^ 
the remnant burnt with fire from Heaven, in the lightning that went 
with the Earthquake. But Euphrmius Lieutenant of the £<?/?, did fo £'-T'-1*- 
charitably relieve the People, that in reward they chofe him for their "?■*• 
Bifliop. Reader, Was not a Bifhoprick then grown a confiderable pre- 
ferment, when the Emperours Lieutenant of the Eafi took it for fuch, 
even to be Bilhop of a City that lay on heapes ? 

§. 77. CLT. Things being now on the tura, a Synod at Jtrufakmxotn 
up the Council of Cakedon., and cry down StvtrHs. 

Chtcrch-Hiflory of Bijhops a?u/ 

^^j^'-^^. CLlI. And another at Tyrt doth tke like- 

-rt §. 7^ CLIII. And another Coancil utR^rne again dccreeth the dam- 
nation of the three dead Bifhops of Cc«/?4«r/>;«»/*, Acacim^ Euphemiui, zad 
Macedoitim : What, never hare done with dead men .' Methinks ftark 
■**"• ^ dead might fatiific Pride and MaUce. • ! : ;" •= 

SinniHf fairh, that the Eaflcm Church yielded to blot out of the Dyp- 
ticks xhznzmzs oiAcaciui,EHiiht.miHs and A^acedonitu (not the Heretick) 
and the Emperonrs, Zw/p, and Anafittftu : The Pope maketh himfelf the 
Governour of Hell •, where he thought thefe Emperours and Bilhops 
were. But it is worfe than Savage malice that will not ceafe towards dead 

;men! And if the Empire yielded, they fhewcd more love of Peace than 
Rome did, but not much wit, in giving a Prelate ofanother Princes Do- 
minion fuch power to defame, andforcethcm to defame their Emperours 
and Patriarchs at his pleafure. 

S- So. The zeal of 7wi?«K to ei^adicate the Jritns^ and take all their 
Cqurc'.ies from them, provoked T/?^o^V;c;^ (though ?. juftman, that gave 
the Orthodox liberty, proteftion, and encouragement, yet an -^n<«n, and 
gave the y^r»^ »/ liberty alfo) to refulve, that he would ufe the Orthodox 
in Italy y as JiiFtin did the Arians in the EaJ}: Whereupon John, Biihop of 
Xome, with feme others, went as his AmbalTadours to ConjUvt. to mediate 
with Ju^in for the Avians eafe. Anaftafttu in lib. Vomtf. faith he obtain- 
ed it.- £/««/«« out of Crff^^r. T«ro«. faith the contrary : which i<; more pro- 
bable. However by going on fuch a MelT ge for real Hercticks, it ap- 
•peareth with what fincerity the Popes profecuted the dead names of the 
three Orthodox Conftant. Bilhops, on pretence of zeal againll Herefie: 
f-«a When their intereft urgeth them, Ltt the World be fet on fire rather than 
yoH Jliall fpeak^favourably of an Eutychian : But wlicn intereft changcth, Ra- 
therthan they in ]ta\y Jhuli fiffer, ]ohn £oeth to Conllantinople /or /<iw«r 
to the Arians. Suppofe he did not fpecd : What went he thither for ? On 
this provocation, Theodoricl^, on other quarrels, put to dusth Symmachus, 
_ , .. and his Son-in-Javv Boetim ^ Roman Senators and excellent men, and ira- 
''■''l.'-, prifoncd^t/jw when he returned, and in the prilbn he dyed : And when 
he was dead the ^//^/w King choleFa//> the fourth Pope: Was this Eledi- 
• on valid? If ye?, hcthat isftrongeft, though a Heretick may choofethe 
Pope.? If not, than their fuccellion was then interrupted. 

§. 8 1. CUV. We have next a great Council called Ilerdenfe of eight 
Bilhops :nder Theodrick^ to mend fomc faults of the Clergy, viz.. That 
they that Minifter at the Altar abftain from mans blood, Can. i. That 
they that c-)mmit Adultery, and take Medicines, or givethem to call the 
Birth, or that Murder the Child, lliall ?,bllain from Communion fevcn 
jea $: And if they be of the Clergy, mult be content with tl>e Communi- 
on and ih; Chore without their Office, Can. 2. None Ihall draw an 

*■ , offender 

their CouncHs abridged, 1 2^ 

offender, though a Servant out of the Church, (nor fay oth?r Canons 
out oftbeBiniopshoufc; that flyeth thither for any Crime (The Church 
aiidBiftiopsHouteshadthe priviledge to be the harbour for murderers. 
Thieves, Traytors, &c.) But Can. i i.alloweth the Bifhopto punifhthem 
more than others (with longer forbearing the Sacrament^ if thofe of the 
Qcrgy murder one another : O fevere Laws ! 

5. 82.CLV. Next we havea Cosncil (not all fo great, having but fi): 
Bilhops) under 7K>f(xi»>-/ci^, that ordered that the Epiftle (hould be read 
before the Gofpe), and fome things like others. 

S.Sj.CLVI. And four ordinary fayings, srcre faid over again by fif- 
teen Bilhops at AAcs. 

f. 84. It feems the S<ff»«f/)f/<»^»4«/ then much prevailed: For "one Luciim 
madca Recantatioi of his Errors to a Council of zyBiiliops at Lyons, as 
urged by thert .• One ofhisfuppofed errors was, thzt Some are deputed to 
death., and athersfredeftinate to Life-, and another, itiTiltuneof the Gentile t 
before ChrtJ} were faved by the Itght of Nature : And now he owneth : That 
in the order of times., fome were javed Iry the Law ef Grace., others by the Law, 
cf Mofcs, and others by the Ldwef Nature \ But none ever freed from Original 
Sin., but by holy blood. 

And FaHflmRheg. againft the fr<ft/f/?wMri4»/ was owned by the forefaid 
Council at ^r/f/,£>»- f- 385. 

§•85 Tlieodoricksn^Az the Clergy Subje(fl to Civil judicatures •, allowing 
theiti their liberty of Religion : When he dyed (of whofe Soul in HeU 
they pretend vifioQs^ his fucceflburs AthaUricns., for the quiet poflcflion 
of his Kingdom, at the Clergies Complaint of this as an injury, was pleaf- 
ed to reftore them to their Dominion, and Freedom from fubjectl- 

§. 86. fufiinian fuccceding y«/?/w, ^by his choice) Compileth the Laws 
into better order then before, and to the great advantage of the Ortho- 
dox CI ;rgy, and againft Hcrcfies : And yet two things trouble the Papifts 
in them. 1. Thatne feemeth to pretend to a Power over the Church 
Laws: But their (hift is to fay that he did itbntasa defence and Confirma- 
tion of the Bifhops Laws. 2. That he reftorcd the Names of his Predeccf- 
fors' ZfMo, and AiaftafiM, with Notes of Piety and Honour i whotn 
the Popes had prefumed to damn as Entychians or ToUra'ers of them : But 
for this they fay , It was the doing of TrU>omaMHs, 2 Heathen Lawyer, that 
did the work : As if Juftinun would let him do what he difliked, and not 
corrcA it. 

§ 87. When 7«/?i«»-«; refolved tofct op the CobdcU oi C^Ueden-., he 

S G^fed 

1^0 Church-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

Curfed Severus^ and dcpofed the two Patriarchs, jinthimtus of Conftdnti. 
nofle, and Theodo/i;is of yilcxandria, foT thsy v,' ere both EutychtMS : Sevr- 
rof had per fwaded them rather to forfake all worldly interelt, than the 
Faith fas he called it J But here I cannot fee how the Hiftorians (as £©4- 
^r»«i 3 will be reconciled with themfelves; that fay, 7></?»« caufed Se-ve- 
r«j Tongue to be pulled out i and yet, that he afterward perfwaded ^r)tr 
tnius at Cofift. unlefs he did it only by writing. 

' $.88- So far was 7«^»'«i4«'s refolution, and power, from reconciling 
the Bifhops of the Empire, that he could not keep Unity, in his own Houft 

' or bed: For his Wife TifcfO(ii»'<j,was firm to the £«ryc^M«/-, and cheriflied 

them, as he did the Orthodox, and both with fo great conftancy, that £- 
•u4gr//<xfnfpeLleth they did it politickly, by agreement, ffor the peace of 
the Empire ) that each party might be kept in dependance on 
§. 89. An Infurreftion in Confiaininoflc occafioned the killing 

lvag./.4. of about thirty thoufand, faith BvagriH$ c ij. out of Pro- 

c.io.ii. copius. 

mndtikep. 5. 90. Aboutthistime a miracle is fpokenof fo credibly, that I think 

/.17.C.7. it jiot unfit to mention it * Hitrmerikus in Africa, being an Ariati^ Goth per^ 
fecHted the Orthodox Bifliops, efpecially on pretences that they refuted 
to fwear fidelity to hira, and his Soa : (fay fome j They were forbidden to 
preach, and for not obeying, or for Nonconformity ; the Tongues of 
many were cut out, who they fay didfpeak freely after as before .• Ft 
were hard to be believed •, But three Hilborians I have read that all pro- 
fefs that they faw, andheardthementhemfelves>wz.. VtilorVticenfis^. 
ft£asGaz.£i!S de Anima., & ProcoftHS in Evagrius, I. 4.C. 14. Who yet add- 
eth that two of them upon fome finfulnefs with Women, loft their fpeech 
and remained dumb. Nicephor. faith Rcfti cHmfoeminit habuijfcm : AIas,that 
miracles will not prevent Sin. 

$.91. In the eleventh year of 7«7?iV7»4«, .i^rW4r»c«i being dead, and 
Theedat us tiKinimzn fucceeding, thisman loving books better than War, 
yielded up Rome and the Crown to BeUifi$rini Jnfti>iiA>is General \ and io- 
after the Gof/jw had kept it 60 years, it was reftored without a drop of 
blood, faith Evagrins I. ^. c. 18. But when BeUifarim went away Tetilas 
came and recovered Rome : And BelHfartM returning, recovered it from 
che Curfef J again, c.20. 

$.92. Three feveral Countries about that time, received the Chriflian 
Faith, mnch through the Reverence of 7«/^*«<«j«x power, viz.. The Hernlt., 
the Abafoi^ and they of Tanais^ Evagr- c. 19. 11.22. But the grievous 
Wars and SucczfTesoiCofroenhe Per/:,fn intheEaft, and a plague of fifty 
£wo years continuance, w'lichdeRroycd a great part of mankind, took 
down much ofthe Roman Glory. 

S- 49. 

— =: ^ -- . ^ , -. — , ■ 

their Councils abridged. . ja j 

f 95. CLVII. A fecond CwcwSfMpn y<r4«/<c<»/«w Condemned StmepeU^,. 
tfnifme, propagated by f4«/?«/ BiOiop of Rhe^rimt after Proff. who had 
been of the contrary mind. 

$. 94. CLVIII- A ConcilfHm f^dfenft of ten Bifhops, decreed thatPa- 
ri(h Priefl: fiiould breed up young Readers, who may marry at age i that 
the parifh Priefts (hall preach,or in their abfence.theDeacon read a Sermon .• 
That LerdhAve mercy on hs be often faid .• That Holy^ Holy^ Holy, be oft 
iaid : That, jis it Vfat in the htginntngy &C. be oft faid. 

§. 95. CLIX. A Synod of 16 Bifliops at CarftntetM^t decreed that the 
Bifhop of the City fliould not take all theCouatrey PariOi maintenance to 

i96. CLX. As Ftclix was chofen Pope by T'htoderick; (o Athal*ricHi 
claiming the fame power, chofe after him Boniface the fecond : An jirri- 
4HHeretickmade the Pope •• Others not willing of the Kings Choice,chofe 
Diofcorus ; fo there are two Popes : But Diofccrus quickly dyeth ; and 
Boniface Condemncth him when he is dead, on fome pretence of money 
matters, as Simoniacal ^ and calling a Synod, appointeth yirtiltus a Dea- 
con, his Succeflbr. After he calleth another Synod, to undo this Choice, 
upon his Repentance •, and fhortly after dycth himfelf. jl^apetus that fol- 
lowed him, abfolveth the dead man Diofccrus^ whom Boniface Curfed .• 
fuch work did Cliurch-Curfing then make, as the Engine of Ambition. 

§.97'CLXI. A Councilof 8 Bifhops at To/rt4w, faid fomewhat again to 
keep Bilhops from Women, and from giving their Lands from the Church. 

S.98. CLXII. phnvfAs put by fupnidn, to call a Council at Rome on 
an odd occafion (which fheweth what it was that Bifhops then divided the c^ 
the World about) In the days of P. Hormijda^ there was a Controverfic 
(de mtnine) whether it might be faid .- One of the Trinity was Crucified : Hor^ 
mifda declared againft it,becaure they that were for it,were fufpcded of £/<- 
tychianifme^ ('and condemned after) But the Nefierians laid hold of this, 
and faid : // we may net fay that one in the Trinity was Crucified ^ then we 
may not fay: Mary was the Parent cf one in the Trinity : Jufiwian (ent about "^J 
thisto7fl/3», and he and his Synod faid contrary to Hormifda: That wc 
may fay, that one of the Trinity was Crucified. Doth not this plainly confefs 
ihebloud and doleful divifiorrs,caufed by Bifhops and Monks for fo many 
Ages about Neftorianifme, and Eutychianifme-, v. as but about a Word which 
in one fence is frMf, and in another falfe, which one Pope faith, and ano- 
ther unfaith. When Binnins after Baronius hath no more to fay for f xcufe 
of tins i but that Ita mutatis hofiihu arm,i mutarinecejfefuit : O for lionelly .- 
. hainft ds-iers Enanies we mii/} ufe di'VeriWeafor,s. But Sir may youufe contra- 
ry ajfcftions^ as Articles of Faith ? Or do you not here undenyably tell cs 

S 2 that 


1^2 Church-Hijlory of Bijhops and 

l\iKt Amhigucitswordi^ Sind Clergy JurifdiHion^ have been the caufes of al^ 
moll all the Divifions, and Ruines of the Church for i joo years .' 

§. 99. jHftiniaa took a better Courfe to Convince,, and Reconcile difTen- 
ters, than violence. There is in BinniHi^ p. 409 <^r. The recital of a difpu- 
tation, or Friendly Conference between the Eutychian Bilhops, and H)fati- 
tm^ with others of the Orthodox : The moft clear, rational, and moderate 
of any thing, that 1 find before that time explaining their ControverGe; 
And which fpllyprovethvvhat I have all along faid as Hiy Opinion, that in- 
deed the world was confounded by unskilful men about iMrdylmbt^Hous wordi 
and by a Lordlyyfelfijh^impo/ir'^ Spirit, in toomany of the Captains of thofe 
Militant Churches: And that </«<ir dtftinguijhin? explication ofTermSy with 
hu/Tjhle Love, would have prevented molt of thofe divifions. 

In that Conference, thefe things are fpecially notable. 1. That the Orien- 
tal Bifhops called £«rycfc»4w, condemned Eutyches, and yet honoured D»- 
efcorus, who defended him •, fo that it was a quarrel more about Men, 
Names, and Words, than Doutrine. i.Jh^t fJypatius^ and the Orthodox 
(though they were not willing to fufped Corruption in cyr»/'sEpiftles,yet^ 
could not deny but Cyril ufed Eiuyches words, that is afferted, one Nature of 
Cod LicArnate^ after the Union. 3. That yet they proved that Cyr*^ alfo 
held two Natures : (butfav the£«;)c/7</««>, heonly held two before theU- 
nion confidered intelleAually)fo that eithcrCyr// wasan£«r)'c^;<j«,orelfehis 
unskillful fpeaking,as both parties did, fet the world together by the Ears. 
4. That unrighteous partiality greatly prevailed wi:h the Orthodox Bi- 
Ihops, and Councils of thefe times ; when they could (as Hypatiut here did) 
put a Charitable Conftrudion upon the fame words of Cyril, for which they 
condemned fo many others, who as his obedient followers, held what they 
did ofCynrs. Vn^tmnaturam Dciincarnati : They {^y^We neither Condemttit^ 
r.ar Jh/Iijic it. If they had ufed that moderation with all others, all had been 
in greater peace. 5. That they fay fo much of the falfifying of A'hanafus E- 
pifUc to Epifietai, of Jppollimncs Epiftle fathered on Julius, of the falihood 
of the DyonyfiHs Areopno^.&c. h%\\^ tellsus,that vve muft not be over credu- 
lous in trufting to writings allribcd to the Ancients. 6. That Nidlns ex ami- 
(juisrecordatHsej} ea ; was thought a good argument againfl; the Authority 
of DyunifiHs yireopa^itd. 7. They inltance in the difference between the 
Greeks and Latins about the words Hypoftafis, and Pirfona., which fet the 
Latins on condemning the Greeks as ArriMs, and the Greeks it on condemn- 
the Latins as SAbellmiif, till AthMiaftus that underltood both Tongues, per- 
fwaded them, that their meaning was the fame (And nectifity urged Aihana- 
fas to reconcile them) which Greg. Nitz.i4»i.e»e and other peaceable men af- 
terward promoted;, And yet Hiercmc WAS }\idgsd a Heretick^after, for dif- 
tikingthe word Hypoflafts.') knd yttmvi^ Hard Ambiguous words Confound 
and divide the Churches Hill/" 

8. They confefs that Cyril-, [jdem dicebat effe fubjlantiam, cjuodnaturam 
vel fiibfijie>itiat>i'2 C" ideo in duodecim Capitulis fuis pro duabiis jnbftavHn vel 

mtHriidji^i jubfjltfitMspefiiit. Reader, If this great Learned Voluminous 



their Councils ab) idged. 153 

Prelate had no more accuratenefs of Speech than to confound fubjhnce^ e^ 
nature y and fp^fifience^ and put them one for another \ what could be 
expeded from the multitude of poor unlearned Prelates, that took his name 
for their guide, and cryed out in Council, Grtat U Cyril ; We beiteve at 
Cyril : And what then j" Could the confufions of the World be caufed by 
(hetwctn Nejhrians, Euiychiatit^Severians^Monothelttes and Cathelicki) filch 
a 11 rife about words as C^r>7 had occafioned.' 

9. Note that /a[)/>.jr;»« and the Orthodox here maintain, th^t FUviama 
himfelf fubfcribed asifmuch for one Nature as Diofcortu could have defired : 
And that the Controverfia lay in a fyllable, Whether Chrilt were one Per- 
fon? ExduahffsnatHrii, or, Indtuibm'i the Eutychians faid £.v, and the reft 

faid In : and Flavian yielded to jE.v, and the Synod of Calccden accept- «^3 
ed both : Neque illi iflos rcprehendunt^ neq\ tjii illos tancjuam uritts hono- 
rtt arbitratt voces utrafyue, tjuando & mum naturAm Dei verbi inearnatam., ntn 
renuic heatus Flavianus in ctnfefftone (jnam propria martH fubfcripjitftiicere, &C. 
'Where Flavians words are recited to Theodofms^ EtunAm Dei-jerbi naturam 
inearnatam tapun dicer e non Kcgamtts^ qma ex Htnfque unus idemque Deminus 
JefuiChrifiusefl. And would not this much ufcd 10 all other, have healed 
all the Churches / 

10. Note thzt HypatiM^uA the Orthodox makenotC^n/ infallible, but 
fay, that his SynodicalEptftles thtyrecetveynotafhis^ but the Synods : But for 
ihireft, NtcjHe damnOmus eat, rntjHffHJapinttti. 

11. That theContcoverhe v\as Logical (p.41 jj how 'Vniuon maketh 
or denonnnateth one. 

12. Note that they cxpreilv Tay, Vbt Vnitio dicitur^ non Vnius frrnifica: 
tur rci conventus Cio all (ay) ftd dnarum vU plurium CJ" diverfariim jcciindum 
tiaturam : S» er^a dtcmms IJnitioncm^ procnl dubio corftemnr^ cjhod carnh 
ammatA lir* %erbi: Jid cr hi cji4tdnas naturae dicmit , ide/n jmtimit. And if 
this be twie, were they net all of a mind ar.d knew it not .•" 

13. Note that the Eiuychtar.s rook Theodorets Anathema, Ncftoria c 
Emychiti , with a f'alcte added for a llur, and a deceit: and Hypatiut 
was fain to intimate a blame on the Council, that had not the patience 
once to htar inch a man as Theodorite to open his judgment, but cryed 
out only, Cwfe them, cnrf< tlnm, and he interprets Theodorets yaUtc, as 
feying. Now take my BtjMprid\if you pUafe. 

14. In a word> had this Light and Leve been ufed by the Bidiops, whicii 
this Conference exprelTfth, it had prevented much Confnfion in the Chur- 
ches, fcorn againll tlie Bilhops, hardening of the Infidels, anddeftniifti- 
onofChrillian Love and Peace. And though the £^fra Bilhops yielded 
not, many of their toliowers did. " 

$. 100. CLXIII. They fay an ^^'"m<i« Council fent to Tnlri>nnn to pro- 
cure the reftoration of their Liberties, which the ymdall Jrians had ta- 
ken away fyA'/'J/A;/**;; having recovered Afrtca.) 

$. 10 i. ]Po^<: J^apeiiis was forced by King TheedatHs to go on anEm- 


1 54 Church-Hiftory of Bijhops and 

baflie to 7«/?«>»;4«, to turn by his Armies itom Italy, which he did, and 
not prevailing ('having r€je(^ed -<^<tfjb»iw>«^ he dyed there, yimw 536. 

§. 102. CLXIV. Mema being made Bifhop of Co«/?. a Council was 
there called. Sure no ^(»w4« Prefided ^ for there was then zxi Inter-rtgnum: 
But was it then a good Council? Aspleafethe Pope .' Yet fo impudent is 
Binnikj as to fay, that Aitrnia, was the Popes Vicar, and his Legates pre- 
fided, when there was no Pope on Earth. 

The work of this Council was to condemn and curfe jiutlMmm, (a Bifliop 
olConft. got in by the Emprefs, and put out by the Emperour) withSwr- 
rHi late Bifhop ofjintiochy and Peter Bifhop ofj^pamea^ and Zoariu a Monk, 
as being v4cfpW>, that is, Severians^ or Eutychiarti^ as they were variouQy 
■■ called : Sevtrta and Peter have cruel perfecutions alfo laid to their charge, 
(for per fecution hath but its time.J The Emperour hereupon raaketh a 
fevere Law againfl: them, fending them by banifliment to folitude, and 
condemning their Books to the fire, and judging their hands to be cut off 
that writ them. ('We may fee whence our Church Hiftory moftly cometh, 
even from the flronger fide, that had power to burn all which they would 
not have known. J 
•-4, Two things in this Council offend the Romanics : i. That Johfi Bifhop of 
^^ Conftanti>:ople is called PatriarchxOecumenicui: 2. That Eufhemins, Macido. 
tntuy and Lf» are named, and X.f laft .■ the two firft having been damned 
by the Popes fo oft fince they were dead. And they have no better reme- 
dy, but to faythpt fome ill Grtfi^ hand hath falfified the Councils. (Is that 
all the certainty Wv ave of recorded Councils.) Ifyoufufpeft the<7r«<y, 
why may wc not alfo fufped the Romans 5 efpecially in the days of wicked 
Popes .'' 

The People cryed out here, Quid manemus in commumcati ? Bhirtitu no- 
teth, that^ow the time that Macedonius their Orthodox Bijhop voas ejected, the 
j_^^ faithful CitthoUcks withdrew themfelves from the Coniffiunion of intfioHS Timothy 
^ th»t w.ti put into hispUce. Note 1. that this M-tcedonius is he that the Ro- 
mail Popefo often damned alive and d«ad: 2. That the Peoples feparation 
ffom bad polRiibiirs of the Bifhops Scats, was then anufualand jiiflified 

f 10?. CLXV. Afouncilat r<r>;(//*/tw having notice of what was done 
atCff.v/?. dothefanieagaiull >^«f/;w;/«, Sewrns., Peter, zndZoaroi. 

X04. AnaflAfitu in lib. Pontifc: faith tiiat the Arian King Theodatus cor- 
rupted with Money, made S.'/L'frww Pope , And at the lame time the Em- 
prefs The odor a T^iioitVAcd the Popedom 10 yi^ilms, on condition he would 
rcftore y^j<r,',';w;a and tliofc that the Council had damned .- which he pro 
mifing, tiic Emprefs f.nt him with Letters to BellfariM to fee it done. 
Silv^rius was bot a Sub- Deacon, and l-^igihns an Arch-Deacon, fon to 
Popt Hon!:ifda: Siiverius was accufed by many witnclfcs of Trf<»/ci« in of- 
fering to let in the Ceths into the City, and wasbanifh?d, z\id P"i£iliHspm 


their Councils abridged . 135 

in his place, and had the keeping of him andfaniifhed him to death, and 
fucceeded him. So that here were 3 while two Popes at once, one chofen 
hy an Arian, andtheothcr a perfidious Murderer, tl>at undercook tore 
ftore thofe that were ejedled as Hercticks : And was this man to becoln- 
municated with any more than Acaciu!^ Embymius, or Macedonins} 

%. 105- Theodofius a Bi(hop o^ AUxandritt refufing to fubfcribc tothf 
C?/«^o« Council, was ejededandbanifhedby 5'«/7»w»4«, and F4«/«j as Or- 
thodox put into his place : who being accufed of Murder was alfo put out 
and banifhed, apd Zoilus put into his place. 

§. 106. But TheodopKs is fgid by Liberat. and others, to have firft defert- 
cd the place, being wearied with the Peoples Wars: The cafe was this: "Cl 
A new controverfie va? iTarted, whether the body of Chrift was corruftihle 
Qi incerruftibU} The divifion about this was fo great, that the Church Bi- 
vided, and chole two Bifbops : Thofe that were for the iwerrnptahiltty, hid 
Gainas for their Arch Bifhop, and were called by the other Fhantafiafta^ 
and Gaimtes : Thofe that were for the corrfftebUtty, had Theodofius for their 
Arch-Bifhop, and were called by the other co-ru^tuol't, and Thcodofians. 
Moll communicated with(7<«w<M; but the Soldiers were for Theodofius. Li- 
berat us Bynitr.c. 20. faith, that they fought itont, and The People fought 
ftr Giinas, mAny days'-, and being jUin by the Soldiers lo/i their greatefi part : 
hat yet a^r eater tuin^er fell of the Souldsers : y^'rd NUrfes WM averccme, rtt 
with Arms ^ bat with the concord of the Ctttz.ens : The women cafiflones on them 
from the tops eft he Houfes', But the Seuldters did that by Fire which they could 
not do by Arms- And faith LiberatHSy That City is divided with that Schifmra 
thii day, fomc being called Gainites^ and fhantafafls^ and the other Th$0- 
dofanSy and CerrnpticoU. 

$. 107. ThcCafcoftheOrthodoxP4«/thatfucceededhim, isdcfcribed 
by Libtratus^ c. i j. He intending to put out EUa* the Matter of the Soul- 
diers as aHeretick, by a power received from the Emperour, one of his 
Deacons difcovered it to £/?<« by Letters. Paulns fearing the fate oi Prt- 
ttriusy and getting the Letters, got Rhedo the Empcrours AugHflal Magi- 
ftrate to fecure the Deacon, who by one Arfenius Murdered him : For 
which alledging the command of Paidus the Bilbop, and the Emperours 
command to obey Panl, the Emperour put to death the Magiftrate ^Wo, 
and depofcd Patdns^ and put Zoilus in liis place. 

§. io3. There is in Liberattts^ c 22. An Epillle of Pope rigilius, in 
which he perforraeth his promife to the Emprefs, and owneth Communion 
with AitthtmHS, &c. and dcr;yedi two natnreSy &c. But Baromus and Binni- 
us take it for a forged Epillls-, when as we have fcarce a more credible 
Writer than Ltheratus. 

§. lOy. Ntccfh. 1. 1.7. c. i6. faith, that VigiUns^ when Rome was again 


V — < 

1 5^ Church-Hijlory of Bijhops ajid 

taken by the Goths^ lied to Confiann/iopU ; There he fell out with MtnrM the 
Orthodox Patriarch (Cut Aj^aihen Pafa, ^uod nuncfuatn anteafatiumefi, ma- 
tiHs impofutr^ faith Niceph.c. 9^) and eo infolet.tia progrtffus eft^ he grew fo 
infolent that he Excommunicated Mcnn* for four Months : which lb pro- 
voked Jiiflirttan, th^t he fent men to apprehend him, and when he fled to the 
Altar, they drag'd him away, ^ni Ana(i.ifius in Hb.Pontif. faith, Theyty- 
cd a rope about his neck anddrag'd him about the ftreets till the evening^ 
and made him glad to communicate with Mcnna. But at laft he was re- 
ftored to his Billioprick. 

$. no. Two heinous crimes Evm^Ihs chargeth Jufliman with : 1. In- 
fatiable covetoufnefs and extortion. (But he u fed to do very great good 
works.) 2. Encouraging Murderers (fee £i/^^r, /. 4. c. 51.) lb that men 
were no where lafe, but they that killed them, as in an aft of manhood 

§. III. And though he wasthe great Zealot for the Orthodox againft 
all Hereticks, he dyed a reputed Heretick { in fo much that Evagrius over 
boldly pronounceth. That when he had fet the whole World tn tHmults and fe- 
elition, atidat lajl received whttt was due for bis lewdprailices^ he departed into 
endlefs torment prepared f«r hint by the jujl judgment of Cody I. ^.c- i. An ar- 
rogant fentence. And will Orthodox Zeal for the Church do no more to 
lave a Soul from Hell. 


,. I- W -| Uf-^ 

their Councils ahriihed. 



Of the Controverfies de tribus Capitulis, and the Fifth Coufictl cal- 
led General^ and many other. 

§ I . T^ Fagrius 1. 4. c. 3 8. tells us, that Jufi'mian fell fiom the right Faith, af- 
xli hrming, That the BoJy of ChriH was every way incorruptible \ and 
that he wrote an EdiB, in which hejairl. That the Body vf the Lord was not fiib- 
jecl to death or corruption ; that it was void of natural and unblameable affeilions, 
&(c. which Opinions he purpofed to compel both Priefls and Bipops to fubfcribe : but 
they put him off, as expcilmg the Opmicn ( not of the Pope, but } of Anaftafius 
B^wp of Antloch, then fawcts for his skill and gravity : But Anallafius would 
not be moved, and Juftinian threatmng to bamjh him, dyed before he did it, or pub- 
liped his Edith So hard was it tiien to cfcape Hcrelie. 

§ 1. So hot was fufiiinan in tliis Error, that he ejected Eutychim that refift- Some lacc 
cd him at Conjlantinople, (aith Niccph.l.i-/. f.25. fulianus HalicarnaJ. and Camas Hiftoriaiis 
railed this, holding that ChrtJFs hungcr,thirit and fuffering, were all immediately ^^11 us of 
ifoluntary,afjd not as cms by naturafnccej/ity. They (aid that as wc all hold Chrifts '"<^'''j|^'hlc 
Body incorruptible after his refurrcBion, jo did they before it,yet ccnfubjlantial wtth of tj,c I;- 
ours. The Orthodox diftinguilhed of Corruption : gyptian 

I. Blamele(s Paflions of Hunger, Thirll, Wcarinefi, c^c. i. Diflolution of Cliriftians 
the Bodies Elements. The hrll they laid Clii-ifl; was (ubjetl: to before the Rcfur- - 15"". 
rc^lion, but not after ( nor wc : ) The later not at all. The Hereticks that held ^cftrmxcl 
the contrary, were called the Aphthartodvctta , faith Nicephorm, [ ^d multi in this 
mart ales corrcpti funt, non folum ex ek, qui honores e^ magiftratris gejjerunt , fed Wind zeal 
etiam Hierarchy primarii,<i;' Afonachi vita illujfres, d^ ex facerdotali or dine alit, ^^ j r i 
ut /^ye Jw^e)V7f(jr J uftinianus. ] The Hereticators and Damners arc divided about n^, (^^.1!' 
Jufiiniaih foul and name ; lome place him yet in Heaven, and others in Hell, thing ia 
If it be true that Ntcephor/rs faith of him , my Vote lliould go againfl: the the oJd 
Damners, viz. [_ Nil tale de Chrifio propter fummum tpfus erga ilium amorem ^ Hiftorians 
defderium aujire ccnftituerit : Trtnceps etcmm ifie tanto inChriftum pietatts ardore wa"^too"" 
flagrajfe,ab eis qui res iUifts memoria pofleritati mandarunt, dieitur,quanto alius, bad. 
qui ante eum imperium cbtinuerunt,nemo, tcrmaximo iUo Conlfantino femper (x- 
cepto : Itaquc propter vehewentem in Chrifium amorem illius gratia multa etiam 
■ Vivien ter fecit, &c. And if it came from vehement love to Chrirt, all I will fay 
is, I. Let him tlrat is without Error, be the Hrft in damning him. 2. But it 
was jull with God to leave him to be nuu;bered with Hcreticlcs, who was (o 
blindly zealous in executing the Sentences of Hereticating Prelates : ( The Cale 
of Nejlorif.-s, and many others before. ) 

§ 3. In his time the Indian Juxumites turned to Chrift, and Jufiinian joyful- 
ly lent them a Bifliop. 

And I tiikc it for more diflionour to theBiniops than to him, that Nicephorus 

A a faith. 

178 Chunh-Hiftoy of (Bijhopi and . 

(:i;th, c- '^X. \_lnVontificet qtws admodi^m lie Sodomorum bareji infanire com per c- 
rat^accrbe, Jeu fotitts fade, Juftinianus animadvtrttt. — 

And it is noted ( ibtd. ) that in a Fawme he commanded Flcdi to be (old in 
Lent 5 but tlie People would dye rather than buy it , and break their 

§ 4. CLXVI. A7i.'^J^o. A Council of 25- BiiTiops at Orleatice, made lomc 
Canons of Difcipline. The 3d Canon about Ordaining Bifiiops, layeth down 
the old Rule, [ .^i praponcndm eH omnibus, ab omnibus ehgatur , ] that is, of 
the Clergy and People : ( The Churches yet were no greater than that all the 
People could join in choohng the Bifhop. ) The i cth Canon diilohtth incelKi- 
ous MaiTiagcs made after Baptifm, but not thole made before ( as if the reafon 
were not the fame ! ) The 17th Canon Hnding lome too j^f^;///; in keeping the 
LoriTi-day, that would not ufe a Horle or Chariot to carry them, nor would 
drefs Meat, or do any thing to the adorning of their Houlcs, or themfelves, for- 
biddeth only grofler labours, which hinder the holy duties of the day. 

§ 5". CLX\^II. The Canones B/ircim7i(nfes, (peak of the order of Liturgy,that 
Clerks muft cut their Beards, but not fiha\'c rhcir Beards, and (uch like. 

§ 6. CLXVIII. ( To pa(s the Concil. ByzaXjOiurn, as having nothing noted of 
it ) Anm 54 1 . a Concil. Arvernenfe decreed ( under King Theodebcrt ) one 
Canon, which, if praftlfed, had been worth many Kingdoms, Ca. z. Q That no 
one feek the f acred honour of a BtJJwp by Votes, but by Alerits : nor feew to get a 
85* Divine Ojfce, rebus, (ed moribus : and that he afcend to the top of that eminent 
dignity, by the ELECTION of ALL, and not by the FAVOR of a FEW' : 
That in choojing Triefls there be the greatefi Care, becaufe they ^lould be inep-ehen- 
Jible, vjho muft- ride in correBing others, (Jcc. 

§ 7. CLXIX. An. 5-45-. Another Council at Orkance under King Childebert, 
among other Orders, faith, Can. 3. that the Synod forbiddeth the Citiz,ens to cele- 
brate Eafter out of the City; bee aufe they muH keep the principal Fefti'vities in the 
prefence of the BiJIwp, where the holy Ajfemhly muft be kept. But if any have a 
'^ neceffity to go abroad, let him ask leave of the Biflwp. ] This Canon, and many 
other to the (ame purpofe tell us, that then the InHdels were ftill (b many, tliat a 
Bifhop's City-Church could all meet in his prejtnce in one place. 

The 5th Canon decreeth, that a Bifhop (hall be ordained in his own Church 
which he is to overfie ; which implicth, that then ordinarily there was but one 
Epifcopal Church. And indeed ii was long before the Countrey meetings were 
any other than Oratories or Chappcls that had no Altars,nor any but the Bifhops 

Much ado many Councils made to keep Priefts and BiiTiops from Wives, and 
to reftrain them from Fornication, 

§ 8. CLXX. In a Synod atCor.fta»t:?jople, An. 5-47. the bufinefs was debated ' 
de tribris Capitulu. 

§ 9. Here the occafioa of this ftir niufl: be noted. One Tbeodorus Bifhop of 
Cafar. Cap. was an Eiitychian, but for his skill in bufincfs, was great with the 
Emperor. He thought if he could but caft any flur on the Calcedon Council,it 
v/ould juftifie their Caufe : And the Emperor being (peaking againfl: the £«- 


t]?eir Councils alrui<reJ. 



Tjc/jians, ( or Acc^hali ) Tbeodonts told him that he might cafily bring them aJI 
in, if lie would but condemn T/jeodorusMpfueJfenus^nd the Writings oiTheodi- 
?-ff,and the Epiftle of Ibas againft QT//,which the Council had received,!! would 
{atisHe them. This fecmed to the Emperor a happy way of concord ( the Em- 
prcfs puttin2; him onj and fo he (et himfclf earnelHy to effeft it. Thefe three 
men had been accounted Nefiortaffs, and two of them had written finartly againll 
Cyrd as heretical and turbulent ; but vet renouncing Ntfiorr/s they were recei- 
ved, and juftitied at Calcedcn againft their Accufers. And if one may judge im- 
partially by the Evidence that is kit us, they (eem to have been far wifer and 
better men thantlie majority of the Bifhops of thole times : But neither Learn- 
ing, Piety, nor (oundneis in the Faith, is any fecurity infuch limes,againft Hereti- 
caters, that Cin but get tlie upper hand and major vote. And Ignorance ufually 
is moft proud and loud, moft confident and furious ; and fuch can eafilier make 
wife men pafs for Hcreticks, than learn of them to be wife. But the final judg- 
ment fets a flrait. 

\\'hcn Juftmian was earncftly fet upon this Pi-ojedi, the Defenders of thtCal- 
ccdon Council perceived themfches in a ditSculty ; fliould they condemn thefe 
three men, they would fl'cm to condemn the Council ( about which there had 
been fuch a ftir in the Empire : ) And they fhould fccm to iuftifie the Eurjchiars, 
and to flrengthen them: And if Council were againft Council, it would dif^ 
honour Councils : And if tliey fhould refute the Condemnation,they would feem 
to defert Cyril, and the firft Ephejian Council, and perhaps might be called Nejic- 
rians ; but, worft of all, they fhould difpleafe the Emperor, and might occalion 
his favouring the Eutychtans. Therefore they took this prudent courfe, to put 
ofi the buflnefs to a General Council , and to delay till then the Emperors at- 

But the Emperor did firft publifh his Edi6f, in which after the Confeflion of 
his Faith, and praife of the four Councils, he addeth ten Curies ( Anathema- 
tifiiis , according to the Cuflom and Religion of thofc times ) of which the 
three laft are againft the tna Cafitula, or the Councils fecming appi-obation of the 
three forcnamed men. The Bifhops refifted a great while,but at laft were forced 
to flibmit. 

§10. CLXXI. To this purpole Vigilim Roma»us had a meeting of about Conjiant. 
50 Bifhops, where J 'iiV;7/.'w yielding was called a Dcfertor, as prevaricating to ■*"• f47- 
pleafe the Emperor ; he got them to give in their realbns on both fides in wri- 
ting, and then gave all to the Emperor's party, and pei-fuaded the reft to filence 
and communion till a Council,becaule it was not a ControvcrTie about Faith, but 
about Pcrfbns. 

§ 1 1. The Emperor's Party ( acled by Tl^eoJore Cafar.) got fbme Bifhops to 
aCTemble at Mcpj'ueiL An. 5- 5-0. to prepare a Cxjndemnatioii of their former 
Bifhop Theodoir, by f'lying that his name was not in tiieir Book. 

§ IX. CLXXII. King Cbtldebert called another Council at Or/MW« , where 
many old dilciplinary Canons were repeated : Among others. Can. 9. That ne 
Lay-man be made a Bijhop withjut a years time to learn ha Function. ( You may 
conjedurc what Scholars they were then I ) Can. i o. Tlat mne get ti Bijlinprtck 

A a x by 

i8o Chwch-Hijfory of (Bijhcps and 

by gijts, or jeeking j but •with the vjHI of the Kiftg, by the eUBion of the Clergy and 
o5" the Lay-people. Can. ii. ylljo ( of the ancian Canons ha've decreed) Jet none 
be made Bijhop to an timviUing Veople ( or without the Peoples confent ) nor let the 
People or the Clergy be inclined to confent, by the opprefion of perjons in power( which 
is not lawful to bejpoken : ) But f it be otherwtje done, let the Bijlwp be for ever 
depofed from hts obtained honour of Pent if cat e, who is ordained rather by fcrce,than 
<^ laiiful decree. C. While one Bijlwp is livitig , let not any other be there made 
Bi(hop ; limlefs perhaps in his place, who is eje8ed for fome capital Crime. Can. z t. 
Though all Priefis, and others, mujt be careful to relieve the Poor with' »ecejj'aries,yet 
tjpecially every BiJhop mufi from the Church-houfe as far as they can, adminijfer 
necejfaries for food and rayment tofuch as are in weaknefs both in his Territories and 
Lis City, &c. ] 

Note I. W'^erc thole Bifhoprlcks any bigger than our Pariflies of Market- 
Towns with the Chappellcries? where i . All the Laity met to chooft the Bifliop. 
a. Where the Bifhop could know and relieve all the Poor. 3. And this from 
the dom.'ts Ecclefia, which was but one. 

II. Our Nonconformifls plead,that according to thcfe ancient Canons, i .Thofc 
Bifhops are no Biihops who came not in by any choice or ccnjent of the People or 
Clergy, but by power are impofed on the moil unwilling. %. That thole Mini- 
ftcrs that were never depofed for any Crime, arc not to be forfaken by their 
Flocks, nor impofed perlbns thruft into their places, accepted by the People, while 
the firft hath true right. 

§ 1 :5 . CLXXIII. We come now to that which they will needs call the fifth 
General Council at Co77/?rt»r/73fl^/£,y^'w. 5^5 :5. of i65rBifliops. In which let thefe 
particulars be noted, i . That fuflinians. Letters or Formula were firft read,in 
which he exprcfly affirmeth , that it was the Emperors that called the former 
General Councils, and he that called this. x. That he lamenteth the divifions 
which former Councils had left unhealed : ftying, [ T!je followers of Neftorius 
and Eutyches made fo great trouble m the holy Churches of God, that divifions and 
fchifms were made in them, and the Churches had no Communion with one another : 
For no man that travelled from one City to another, did prefume to communicate , 
?!or any Clerk that went from 07ie City to another, to go into the Church. J Here was 
lamentable (eparation indeed. 5. That 7'(/?'»''^« w^^s made believe, that thefe 
divifions would be healed, if the tria Capitula of the Council of Calcedon were 
but condemned : For the Etitychians did fb much boall of Cyril, being confident 
that they did but follow him, and his firft Ephefian Council, that if he were vin- 
dicated, he thought they would be fatisficd. 4. And he thought that the three 
Biftiops were indeed fb far to be condemned, having difgraced Cyril, and favor- 
ed A'f/yori.v/, and the other was iVf/?o«V«'s Maftcr. J. That the receiving and 
the curfrng of. the Council of Calcedon, having hitherto been the great Conteft 
among the Bifhops, fbme were loth now to caft fb great a difhonour upon it, and 
to give the Eutychians fb much caufe to boaft ; fuppoling they would but be the 
more confirmed in their oppofition. 

§ 14. Note alfb, that ^/t;-;/ii!/j Bifhop of Row^e was then at Cw/^wAiwo^/f, but 
came not to the Council, nor (ent any Legate to it : But the Empcrcr tells the 


tJ?cir Councils abrid'^eJ. 

Council, "T/}at when Vigilius Bijhop cf Rome cawe to that City, the Emperor 
" exactly opened to him all things about the tria Capitula, and atked him what he 
" thought of them ; and that YigiUus not cnce nor twice, but often in writings 
" and without writmg,anathcmatiz^d the im'picus tria Capitula. ] And that he had 
" fiewed that he -was e-ver of the ^ame judgment, &c. 

And they had made fuflitiun believe, that Ibas in his Epiftle devieth God the 
Word to be made man, and the Virgm Mary to be thi Alothcr of God, 3 

§ 1 f. The Emperor's Writing being read, at the next meeting the Council 
(ent toy/^///«^ to (it with them, but hcliill refu(cd,alledging, Toat there were 
few of the IVefleni Biflwps there. To which their anfwcr is notable , that {_ Tlie 
meeting of all the refi ought not to be delayed for the Weflern Bijhops : For in all the 
four General Councils, there was never fcimd a multitude of the fVeflern Bi^ops,but 
only two or three Bijhops, and a few Clerks. But now you are here, and many Ita- 'SH 
lian Bijlwps are at hand, and many of Africa, lllyricum, (^c. And if he would 
not meet them, they mujt do it without him'. They urged him alio with the Em- 
peror's words, that he being alcne, had oft in writing, and without writing , con- 
demned the tria Capitula, and the Emperor dcTired him but to do that with ethers, 
which he had done by himfef. But yet Vigilius would not come: Whether it 
was becaufe he underftood not Greek, and 16 fhould be a contemned Cypher (for 
he faith, They all knew that he under jlood it n.-'t ) or whether it was to avoid the 
Cenfure that he had before incurred,or both,is not known. For you mull imder- 
ftand, that F/^//«//j had (uttered defamation at Rome already, as a Revolter from 
the Calcedon Council, for joining herein with the Emperor in tlie beginning, and 
his chief intereft lay at home. 

§ 1 6. Theodonfs Mopfuefienris \-\'ritings are (earchcd ; and though he is highly 
extolled by many good Authors, yet many palTages recited in the Council, and af- 
ter by F;^/7/w^, do ihew either the enor ot his judgment, or his unskilhilnels in 
fpcakingj for they are not juftihablc. But if evtiy Papiil: voluminous Writer 
fliould be damned as a Here lick, whole Writings have more and greater Errors 
than the Council gathered out of TlKodore Alcpfutflentts, it would be a hard re- 
ward for their exceeding labours. When (iich men as 7t/?<j;.v/, Aqum.rs, Scot:.'s, 
OcLim^ Durandns, &ic. Bellarmine, B.vontiis, Suai-cz,, Va',cfucx.~, Cajetane, &c. have 
fpcnt their days in diligent labours, how calie a matter is it for a proud idle 
Drone that doth nothing or worfr, to gather as many and as great Errors out of 
their Works, as were in many then counted Hcrcticks. But the approbation of 
God, who pardoneth failings, will be the comfort of fuch as improve their Ta- 
lentsj when the flothful, unprofitable Servant fiiall be condcmned,and quarrelling 
with the imperfeiftions of the diligent will not lave them. 

It is evident thAtTheodore and Neflonrts acknowledged ChrilVs Godhead and 
Manhood, Soul and Body, and the perlbnal Union of them. But they were none 
of themperfevSlin Loglck and Metaphyiicks, norfbfpakeas that no man could 
blame their words. 

§ 1 7. Next the words of learned Thcodorite are {canned ; and many very 
Cnartpa!iages againft C/n/ are recited: Many verbal Controverfies arc repeated. 
Theodoriti is accufcd for faying, That Mary begat net God tn the nature of God; 


Si ' Church- Htflory of ^ipo^s and 

^ tut j\Lm as tinned to the CodLead \ That Chriji ivas forfaken^uffereJ., hungered, 
Jlept, tvas ignorant of that day and hc,iir,S<c. as n:an,and net as God : That it -was 
7tot God that was ignorant, ( he meant not as God, or notf/;e Detty ) hut the form 
of a Seyvant, ■u.-htch knap no more than the Detty revealed : And (b of many 
other propCTtics or afls of the Humanity, he fiiith, It ivas net Deus Verbum that 
ovift, that learnt obedimce, ikc. meaning only not qua. Deus, or not Deitas, for 
want of care in (peaking. And Ep. ad Job. Anticcb. ( Bin. p. jjg. ) it's appa- 
rent that he alio mifimderftood Cyril, and thought he he'd mat by Unity of Na- 
tures, the Deity was properly become very flclh. A levcre E.tiji.adjoan. An- 
mc/j.againftC}?-// after hlsdeatli is there charged on him, in which he with grenr 
ftltncfs rcjoiccth in his death, j^ Aliferum ilium nee ad fimiUt:ulinem aliorum dt- 
mifit nofirariim animarum gnbirnaior diutitis eorum potiri, cju^ videntur ejfe d(- 
leclabilta ; fed crefcentem qitolidte 'viri ma'ig7i:tatem fcuns O" forpori Ecciefa no- 
cent em, quafi peflem quajidam amputavit c^ nbfltdit opprobrium a f.L'ts ll'rael : La- 
tifcabit Juperjlites ejus difcejjio : Contrijlat'it t'eio forjitan mortuos, ^ timer efi ne 
pragra-vati ejus cvn'ver fat tone, iterum ad nos remittant, vel illos diffugiat qui eum 
abduciint,Jicut ille tyrarmus Cyri Ciliciam : Procurandum efi igitur,^ oportet tuam 
Sanilitatem maxime hanc fujctpere fi'fiinaj?tiam,id^ jubcre ccUcgio mortuos ajportan- 
tium lapidem aliquem maximum c^rgraz/tffimum Sepulchre tmponere^ ne iterum hue 
feyveniret c^ injlabilem 'vohmtatem iterum demonjlraret : Inferttis nova dogmata 
adferat : Ibi dm noHuque fcut njidt jer}-nocmetur : Non tnim timemus ne O" iUos 
divider et~filet mifer invtttis: Nudata tllnts facia alligant linguam,objh-utmt os,fi-te- 
nant jcnfum. — Ideo plango mifer um d^ ploro : Nee entm pur am mihi deleSlationem 
feci: mortis ejus denu>ici.itin,Ud dolore permixtam : Ltetor £>>• jucundor ejufmodi 
f-efhlentid commune Ecclefta vidtns liberatum : Contriftor 'vero (^ ploro cogitans 
quod nee requiem maLrum miferabihs fufceperit, fed major a ^ pejora pertentans 
defunftiis eft ; fomniavit enim, ut dicunt, d^ regiam urbem perturhare, df tuam 
SanBitattm accufne, utpote ea colentem : Sed vidit Deus ^ non dejpexit : Immift 
fmum in cs ejus, d^fienum in labia ejus, ^c. 

Binntus thinketh fome bad man fathered this falfly on Theodoret, I would hope 
fo too : But it's ftiange that the Council fathered it on him, and none did vindi- 
cate him. And the next Charge ( Bin. p. ')^q. ) rebuketh liis Charity, ivji. his 
Speech at Anticch in the prelencc of Domnus, [_ Nemo neminem jam ccgit blaf 
phemare — non jam est contentio : Oriens df yCgyptus fub uno jugo efi : Mortua 
efi invtdia ; df cum co vbruta esl contentio : requiefcant Theopathita:. J Is not 
this of the (ame kind ? And this is not denied to be his. Whofbever it was, it 
was fad that Biftops fliould have fuch minds, and ufe (iich words of one another, 
cfpecially if it be as I confidently believL-,fi2:.. that not diftinguifhing the concrete 
fi-om tlic abftracl, and .1%; Detts, from J^d Deus, they both meant the fame 
thing, and dirtered but about the aptitude of words,for want of explication and 

§ I 8. In brief. After the reading of many Papers, and Ibas Epiftlcs, the tria 
Capitula were condemned, vi?,. Theodore Mopfuejh and the writings of Theodo- 
ret againfl: Cyril, and Ibas Epiftlc. And Co the Emperor found the Council as 
obedient as he deCred. 


ibeir ConnciU abrul^cd. i 8 3 

§ 19. But Vigilim Bifliop of 2?owf, who would not come to the Coundl,now 
givtth in his Confiitmum, or his own judgment upon the whole Gife , and that 
with great moderation. He Hrft recitcth many pallages of Tbtodcrc Mcp,uefi. 
which he renounceth ; and he dilpraileth the paflagcs of TheoJoret and Ji'^,buc 
he i-efuleth to join in the anathematizing of them, aliedging tliat good men ha\e 
their errors, and Inllancing in many wliofe errors were noted, and yet their pcr- 
Ibns not condemned, efpecially wheii they had either recanted thcm,or better ex- 
plained their words : And he notctli that it would be a great injur}- to the Ca!- 
cedon Council, to have its own members now thus condemned,tiiat were b}- them- 
accepted. [ ^^iid etiim aliud eft mendaces aut fmu' antes ^rofejjimcm retta fidei 
Tatres in fanUa Caked. S)tiodo refdetites cftendere, quam dicere alicjacs f.v eis 
ftmdiij faptfi£e Neftorio ; quorum judtcw Niftormm tjufque dogmata jfuiffc dam- 
nata. j 

And fbberly he faith, [_It ts riot lanful to pafs any new judgment on the per- 
funs of the dead , but we mtift leave all men m the cafe that death fcttnd tbvm^ 
and in Jpecial Theod ire Mopfueft. what the Fathers did is evident from vhat 
is [aid j / dare 7tot condemn him by my fe7ite?tce, nor yield that any one elje condemn 
htm : hut far he it from mc to admit his nrcng opinions. J 

This was the right way : If they had all dealt as wilely and Chriftian-likc, 
Counlels had not been the Confounders of the Churches. 

§ xo. A7a'F/'(.>?« nametli many of Or/^a/s Errors tliat were condemned in 
this Council , but it is not found in the Adis. Btnntus doubtcth not but tlie 
Ortgentfts Hole them out, and tallihcd the Records, and alfo forged thoft- EpilUcs 
of Figiliffs, in which the opinion of One Operation is aflcrted. But will they al- 
low us equally to fu(pci!i (uch Records as have been kept at Rome ? 

^ zi. What good this Council did, and how the peaceable Emperor attained 
the end that Theodore Cafar.promiicd him, of uniting Diilenters, I lliall tell you 
but in the words of Bitmius (who fblloweth Sarcnius in almoll all) " Uhat 
" Theodore dcdr.promifed, that the Eutychian Hcrcticks called Helitants, U'/vw 
" the three Capitula v-'ere condemned, would receive the holy Calcedon Council,w.fs 
" not obtained, when this war ended ; hut rather a moft grievous mi'~cLf»f w<is ad- 
^^ dcd to the Church: Far wMTrihe Defenders of the //;ree Capitula, with Vigilius ^ 

" the Tope did not accjutefce m the Councils decree, the whole Catholtck Church was 
" torn by Scbifm ; a-nd which is worfe,the Emperor f/r d up Perfccution, tn which 
" he depojed or bantjlied \'igiUus ( holding to bis Conllitutum ) Victor. Afrtc. and 
" others. 

§11. I do impartially commend /^7^///>.'/s moderate Conftitutum, hut I muil 
needs lay that there needeth no other inllancc than I'lgilius, that Intercsf is a Liw 
to (bmc Roman Bifhops, and that their pretences of Infallibility , Tradition and 
Antiquity, notwithftanding they have changed their very Faith, or judgment of 
Councils at leaft, as their worldly motives changed. Vtgtlsus Hrll fiat'tercd the 
Emperor, and joined with him againft the tria Capitula, Cone. Caked, that is 
.xgMn[\ Theodore A'fopfu. Theodorct and Ibas three Bilhops,l;iith Bnmi/ts p.CtoS. 
'■'■[Seeing therefore that before this Council a Schifm aro/ein the W'eftern and Afri- 
" cane Chwcb »• kcauji Vigilius had confented ro the Empero;^s ofmm, it becatfte 



184 Church-Hijlory of ^ij])0ps and 

" necej]tiry,for the avoiding of Schifm, SacrileJge an J Scandal, that he flwuld fub- 

" /;/Jj his Conftitutum , tn defence of the tria Capitula, hy 'vertue whereof the 

^'■Wcficrn Churches jlioiild he united, dvd the contempt of the Cakedon Council 

'■^ fliould be avoided, which the Imfugners of the tria Capitula did fraudulently con- 

'■'■trive-^ and that theUniverfal Church Jiwuld leai-n by this example^ that no man 

" that dyed in the true Faith, fliould be condemned lichen he is dead : But, ( did 

" Vigil ius 7?fl/) here ? ) Av, /.j///j Binnius, \_Biit when nftcr the end of his Council 

" the Church received yet greater damage, a?>d the Emperor perfecuted them that 

" And " contraditled the Syfjod * , a?id it wis feared that the whole Eafl: would be divi- 

wodd « Jg^ ^„J feparated fi-om the Roman and W'cftern Church, tinlefs the Bt^icp of 

havcPnn- " ^°'"^ apprcved the fifth Synod, then Pope Vigilius, in a Cauje which could bring 

CCS do lo.' " "'' p>'cjudice to the Orthodox Faith^ did well and jufily change his former fen- 

" tetice, and approved the Synod f.l Decree, for condemning the tria Capitula, and 

" revoked and made void his Condi tutum, which he before publi^ied tn defence of 

" the tria Capitula. The prudent and picus Pope ( that came to the Popedom by 

" Bribery, Tyranny, and Aiiirder of his Predecejjor ) did in this prudently imitate 

" St. Paul about Circumcifon, &:c. 

O what certainty and conftancy is here in the Papal judgment ; For a Pope 
about one Caufc to judge for it, againft it, and for it again in fo fliort a time ? 
And all this upon realbnof Policy and State. Did the lame (b often change,and 
prove lirft true, and then falle, and then true again ? 

But the Papifts cxcufe is, that It was de Perfonis, non de Fide. .Anfw. But i . Is 
it lawful to take the fame thing for true and falfe, good and bad de Perfonis, as 
our interell: requireth ? a. Why arc the Perfons condemned but on (uppofition 
that their Faith was condemnable ? 3. You confefs that It was for the advantage 
- of the Eutychian Faith, and the deprellion of the Faith of the Calcedon Council, 
that the m^ Crt^;W-« were condemned. 

Reader, If all this will not tell thee how much need there Is of a furer and 
more ftabfe fupport of our Faith than Popes and Councils, yea and better means 
of the Churches Unity and Concord, I muft take thee for unteachable ; what 
ha\'e fcch Councils done, but fet the Churches together by the ears ? 

§ zg. Liberatas in his Breviary faith, ( c. 3. 10. a4. ) that Theodore Mopfu. 
his Works were app;-ovcd by Procltts, fohan. Antioch. the Emperor, the Council 
of Calced. &c. But Binnuis iaith, Nimis impudenter c^ incaute : Yet all acknow- 
ledge Liberates a moft credible Hiftorian, and lived In Juflijiians time. He faith 
aUo, that Nefcidijfimum h^reticum Thcodoretus df Sozomenus laudarunt adeo ut 
hac de ccMid uttrejue magnam nominis fui jatltiram pajjrts fucrit, &c. But wife 
men are apt to think as hardly of fijch as can cry out NefandiJJimum hareticum 
againllallthat fpeakas unskllRiUy as tliis man did , as of charitable men that 
pralfe them for what Is good, while they diibwn their frailties aiid imperfecflons : 
If it be as he fiilth, many thought that Jheodoret allumcd his own name from this 
Theodore, by reafbn of his high- efteem of him, it's like he had fbme fpeclal worth, 
though he haih many culpable cxpreliions. And Soz^men Is an Hiflorian of fb 
defervcd reputation, that it lecmcthto me no argument of PopQ Gregory's Infalli- 
vbility, that hcfalthjllb. 6. cp. 95-. Sox,ommum ejiifcjtie Hifroriam fedes ApofioUca 

ncipre %., 

their Councils abridged. i § < 

recipere reciifat ; qmniant mulra mcnt'itur, & Theodorum MopRieftia: vimliim 
laudat, at^ue ad dicm ob'mts Jui ma^nm Do'dorcm Ecdifta fuijje ferhibet. J I 
think the Author of Gregcr/s Dialogues did plura mentiri , and yet that Gregory 
was Magnus Ecckjiie Bcctor. 

§ T4. The Contro\'eiTie whether Vigilms were the Author of the Epiftle to 
Minna,! pafi by : But, methinks, Binnius is very partial to jiiftifie Ibmuch wliat 
he did after Silvcrins's death, as beginning then to have right to his Papacy,and 
to give him lb diftcring a Character ( from Sanclijfimus Papa ) before, wliile he 
poilefled the fame Seat, as theft words of his exprels, [_ Cum omnium, &c. jeemg 
thatVillany (^or Crime') of Vlgiiius, did exceed the Crimes of all Schijmaticks,hj ■ 
vLich making a hargaifi -u-it/j Hereticks, afid giving money by a Lay-man, he by 
force tkpdled Sih'crius Bipwp of the priine S<.at, and j^otled of his Pritfily indit- 
ments ( or attire ) bani^nd him into an Ifland, and there caujed him to dye , it 
fiould feem no wonder to any man, if a dcj^crate -urctch ( homo perditus, ) the 
buj(.r of another s Seat, and a 'violent Invader, a JVolfaTlnef a Robber, not enter- 
ing by the true doer, a falfe ( or counterfeit ) Bijliop, and as it were Antichrtsi,the 
lawful Pajhr and B^jop being yet living, did add moft pernicious Hcrejie to his 
Schifm. 3 Yet this man became the moji holy Pope, by the vertue of his place, as 
(bon as he had but murdered Silverius, and was accepted in his fl:cad,and then it 
became impofllble for him to err in the Faith. 

§ ij'. CLXXIV. Anno 5:5' 5. A Council was called at Jerufalem hy Jujli- ^ 
nian's Command, who lent to them the A6b of the Conftantine Council de trt- 
bus Capitiilis, to be by them received ; the Bifliops all received it readily , lave 
one Alexander Abyfis, who was therefore banlfhcd, and coming toCcnjtantinople^ 
fay Barontus and Binnius, was (\vallowcd up, and buried by an Earthquake. If 
this was true, no marvel if it confirmed the Emperor in his way ; But I doubt 
the obedient Bifhops were too ready to receive iiich reports. 

§ z6. CLXXV. The lame year 5- 5' 5. the U'ejiem Bilhops held a Council ai ^ 

Aquileia, out of the Emperor's power, where, as Defenders of the Council of 
Calcedon, xhey ■ condemTied the fifth Conftantine Council aforefaid, :ii\d (Co (aith 
Binnius) (cparated thcmfelves h'om the Unity of the Catholick Church , and lb 
continued tor near an Hundred years, till the time of Pope Sergius, who reduced , 

them. Were not thefe great Councils and Bilhops great Healers of the Churcli, -^ 

that about condemning Ibme wiitten Sentences of three dead men, thus ralle a 
^^'^ar among the Churches ? Were Hereticks cr Hereticaters the great Divi- 
ders ? 

§ 17. But here followeth a Cafe that raKeth a great doubt before us,\Vhether 
the Pope alone, or all his IVcJtern Bilhops, when they difter from liim, are the 
Church ? After the death of Vigilius, the Secular Power procured Pelagius the 
Archdeacon to be made Pope ; the U'eftern Bilhops difclaimlng Jitfitnians Coun- 
cil, and Pelagiiis obediently receiving it ( and the Popedom, } there could not 
be three Bifhops got that wcjuld ordain him, as the Canons required, (b that a 
Presbyter OJlnnJis was fain to do it. 

Bclides the Qiieftion( Which now was the Church?)herc arc other hardQuefti- 
ons to be Iblvcd. 

B b ®«. I : 

1 8 6 Church-Hijhyy of !BiJ])ops and 

^. I . Whetlicr yuJUnian^s Election of a Pope was valid ? And if lb, 
Whether other various Electors may do it as validly? 

J^i'. i. NVhetlier a Presbyter's Ordination of a Bifllop or Pope was valid ? If 
fb, Whether Presbyters may not ordain Presbyters ? 

^. 5. Whether this Pope was truly Head of the Catholick Church , when 
his Bifliops obeyed him not ? 

-%. 4. Whether it was then believed at Ro??7e it(elf,and in the M'efi , that a 
General Council, approved by the Pope, was either infallible, or neceliarily to be 
obeyed ? 

j^r. 5-. Whether it be true which W. fchnfon, alias Tenet, ofren tells me,TI}at 
it is not fojfible that there can be any Schijm in the Catholick Church, becauj^^ t^e 
eJJ(.ntia!ity of its Union ? 

§ ^8. Note that this Pope TeJ^tgius, becaufe his Bifhops rcje^l^ed him and the 
Council, got Narfes the General to compel them : And then who can doubt but 
he was Pope, and they his Subjcifts ? 

But Narfes (crupled it, left he ihould be guilty of Perfecution ; Jtifiinianh 
VopePelas^ius tellcthhim, it is no fin, and bids him not fear it ; for it's no Pei-fe- 
cution which compels not men to fm: but all that flparate from the Pope, and 
aflcmble (eparatedly do fin, and are damned Schifmaticks ; therefore he defireth 
him to fend the Bifliops of Aqiiileirt, A'lilanfi.nd the reft that yield not,Prifbners 
to Ccjifiantimple. Narfes obeyeth the Pope and Emperor ; the Bifliops excom- 
municate Narfes; the Pope writcth to him, that it is no news for erring Bifliops 
to take themfelves for the Catholick Church, and to forbid others their Com- 
munion, and counfelleth him to go on and reprcfs them. And the Civil Sword 
and the Ecclefiaftical were thus engaged in a Roman War ; one Bifliop S.ipanJus 
of Ares in FraJice the Pope got fjiccially to ftick to him, whom therefore he com- 
mended to King CiJiUebert, &c. 

§ a 9. CLXXVl. A Council at Paris depofcd Bifliop Saphoracus for (bnie great 

§ 30. U'hile the Romans were rcf)lving to fubjeft themfelves to the Goths 
again, becaufe the Pope made Ninfis tlieir Pci-fccutor, Narfes took it fo ill, that he 
*'Banvios went away from them, but the Pope drew back, and he * fliortly died. Belli- 
'a'm-'^' _/«rw/j alio was ruined, and yuflinian himlelf fliortly dyed. Binnius faith it is 
4> r-'fus '■^poi'f'-''^ ^^'"^^ '■'^ ^'^^^ '"'o Learning, and thinketh that his Civil Laws were Tribo- 
ik. others www'virid his Ecclefiaftical Theodoras C^jarienfis's. And liiith that the Church re- 
in th':sj jedleth hisLav/sof Ufury, Churches and Ecckfafiical Pcrfons, as arrogant Ulur- 
poiiu. pations. i^. VMiether tlie Reman Power was then underftood by Princes or 
People ? 
^,^^„ §31- CLXXVIII. Another Synod at Paris repeated nine old Canons : The 

''B.rrjhius Sth wus, \_ No man may be ordained a Bishop againH the will of the Citiz^etis-, 
thinks nor any hut whom the tleFtion of the People and the Clerks, fiall feck with plenary 

( not he, but ) 
Council at Brac- 

jimimrc. carc'niGalicia,\\'h.Qre eight Bifliops opened fb much of the Prifcillia?iHcixfie, as 


their Councils ahruhrcd. i8^ 


may tell us it was worthy to be detcfted ( not much unlike the Manichees >) 

and many old Canons they recited : But I could have wiQied that they had not 

made a mans diet the note of his Herelie, and a fiifficient cauft of his conviifVion 

and damnation. The Tri'^ciUimiifls ( as thele fay ) would not eat fleih , hot 

herbs boil'd with flefli This Council ordered that if any that abftained from tlcfh, -ti 

did not eat herbs boiled with flcfh, he fliould be taken for an Heretick. This is 

not conformable to VauPs Rules or Spirit. 

§ 3g. This Council ordered that none fliould be buried within the Church, 
which Binnius well ftts home. And whereas PriJaJlian taught that in the Litur- 
gy [ the Fax 'vobts. Peace be unto you ^ fhould be faid only by the Bilhop,and 
Dommus vcbifcum by the Prieil, the Council contradiiled him. i . W'c lee here 
what Trifles divided men ! r. We (ee that yet the Churches ufually were no big- 
ger than met in one place with the Bifliop, or might do : For it is fiippoled that 
cvaj Church-Aflembly had a Bifhop preient to (ay his part. 

§ 54. 77jeoJomirits the ^r/cf/^w King, under whom this Council was held,was 
the lirli of that race that turned Orthodox j all the Sueves before him (with the 
Goths ) having been Arrians. 

§ 3 5". CLXXX. Anno 5-66. The conteft about choice of Bifliops grew iharp. 
King Clot harms made one Emerins Bifliop Satncmenjis jthcGuions had betorc 
decreed that Kings fliould choofcnone, but all t\.K People and the Clerks, and the 
Mctrofolitan ordain him. The King's Bifliop is depofed by a Ccvcil. Sante- 
nienfe, of which Leant ins of Bourdeaiix was chief They (entthe King word of 
it by a Presbyter : The King tilled a Cart with Thorns, and laid the Prieft on 
them, and ftnt him into Banifliment, and forced the Bifliop to fubmit to his 

§ 3 6. That it may be known that neither Popes, Councils, nor conlenting '%st 
Bifliops divided Dioccfles and Pariflies, here Binnius giveth us at large, lirft Con- 
fiantineh divifions in Sfain, and next the fuller divilion of King IVamba. Bin. 
p. 649, &c. 

§37. CLXXXI. At Tows in France ( eight BilTiops ) in a Provincial Coun- 
cil, revived many Canons of the old matter, ( to keep BilTiops and Pricfts from 
Women) Can. i 3. The Bi jimp way keep hts M'lfe as a Stfler^togo^'ern hts houfe: 
But Can. lo. Triefisthat will keep Hl-ves, muii have fomc U'ltnejj'es to he m the 
fame Chamber, to fee that they lie not vith them. And Can. 14. Epifcopum,Epif- 
copam fion babentem^nulla fcqtiatur turba mulierum, &c. 

Can. 2 I . They fty, [ 7%ofe that the Law cemmanJcth to be put to death , if 
they defirc to hear the Preacher, we wdl ba-ve to be conviUed unto life, ( that is, 
not to dye:) For they are to be fain with the /word of the mouth, and deprived 
cf Communion, if they will not obferve the Decrees of the Seniors left them , and 
do dejptfe to hear their Pajlor, and will not be fcparateJ] Some SeiStaries among us 
are of the fame mind, againll putting penitent Malefaftors to death. 

§ 38. CLXXXII. Anno 570. There was a Council at Lyons of Fourteen 
Bifliops, who recited fix Canons to reftrain the Vices of the Clergy. BmniuSf 
out of Greg. Turofi. telh you the occafion was, that ofie Salonius and Sagittarius, 
us ibon as they were made Bifliops, being then at their own will, broke out into 

B b X Slaughters;, 

1 8 8 Church-Hijhry of 'Bijhcj^s and 

slaughters, Murckrs, Adulteries, and otlier wickednefs. And ViHryr Bifliop of 
Z>;f tf/. keeping; Vi;s Birth-day, they lent a Troop with Swords and Arrow? , who 
cut Ills Cloaths, beat his Servant?, and carried away all his Provifion, leaving; him 
with reproach : The King Gwif/jr^w hearing of it, called this Synod, which 
found them guilty, and depofcd them : They tell the King that they are unjullly 
cad out, and get his leave to go to the Pope, John 3d. The Pope writtth to the 
King to have them,as wronged men, reftored, ( this was the Papal Juflice and 
Reformation : ) The King chideth, but reftoreth them ; but they grew ne\-er 
the better afterward, but asking pardon of Blfliop Fiilcr, he forgave them, and 
for that was afterward excommunicate. 

§ 39. CLXXXIII. yin. ^yz. aComicilwas called under K\ng ^riom ire at 
Braccara of^ 1 1 Bifhops : They are moftly forbidding Bifliops to take money 
for their Ordinations, Confecrations, and other Actions. And the firfl; Canon re- 
quireth them to walk to all their Parifhes, and fee that the Clerks did things 
rightly ; that Catechutncfis learnt the Creed, and to preach to the People to for- 
bear Murder, Adultery, Perjury, Falft-witnefs, and other mortal Sin?, to do as 
they would be done by, and to believe the Rcfurrediion, Judgment and Reconi- 
pence according to Works. 

§40. CLXXXIV. Afi. 'yfT.. a.Co7iciIiiim, Lucenfe did receive ^rom Martin 
Bifhop of Braccara 84 old Canons, of which the 6jih. was againft reading 
{f5* Apocrypha, or any thing but the Canon of the Old and New Teftament in 

§ 41. After Juflinians death, his Sifters Son Jufimiis was Emperor, a (cnfcal 
and covetous man, who murdered prcfently a Kinfman of his own name , upon 
fufpicion that he was too great; yet he drew up a good Pro fcfTion of Faith, ex- 
horting all the Bifhops to agree in it : But Chofroes, King of Verfu, invaded his 
Empire, bccauft the Greater Armenia ( which was then under the Vtrfiavs , as 
the Leffir was under the Romans ) to avoid the Perjtatis per(ecutions,had revolt- 
ed to the Empire, and deflroyed their Rulers: The Pfr/?(/«.f conquered (o much 
of the Eafiern part of the Empire, and '7«jfwe's Soldiers made lb little rcfiftance 
as drove him' out of his wits ; and his Wife, by intreaty,got the Verfians to make 
a Truce. Tiberius was then made defar , and afterward Emperor upon JujHnt's 
death ; and Jtifiinian his Captain repelled the Verfians^ and recovered much of 
what they had conquered. 

§ 4^. An. ')j6. Divers Kings of Fr/r?7ce by War among thcmfelves deftroy- 
ed Churches, and confounded all ; and a Council at Parit was called, but in vain, 
10 have perdiaded them to Peace. 

§ 43. After Bi7fedtBus, Telagim 16 was Bifhop ztRcme \ Ttberins an excel- 
lent Empt ror quickly dyed, and by his choice Mauritius (uccecdcd him. Telagius 
( by Gregory his Deacon ) wrote againft the Bifhops that would not condemn 
the tria Capifula : And when all his writings prevailed not,he got Smaragdus the 
Exorchate to force them by the Sword : ( Tlic great remedy which Rome hath 
trufted to. ) 

§44. CLXXXV. Afercveus Son and Heir to Chilperic King of Frafjce , 
niarrj?ing his Uncles Widow^, oficndcd his Fathcr,and tied to Si.Adarti}>''s Church 


their Councils abridged. 189 

at Toitrs, and forced Biihop Grtgcry to give him the Sacrament.The King could 
not get the Biiihop to deliver him up ; he fled, and the King called a Synod at 
Taris to judge PretextatHs a Blfliop, whom he accud'd for marrying him , and 
confederating with him. 

§ 45". CLXXXVI. The two Blfhops forenamed, 5<7/(;w//« and Sagittar/i4s,heing 
again acculcd of Adultery and Murder, and being freed by profeirmg Repen- 
tance, King Gtmthtramus called a Cuhilme Synod, and acculed them ot Trealbn, 
and (6 dcpoled and banifhcd them. 

§46. CLXXXVII. ^w. <yZx. King Gunthram called a Synod at M<7y^w/, to 
revive the old Canons for reftraining the Lufl and Vices of the Biftiops and 

§47. CLXXXVIII. .^w. ^85. A Cuncil. Rrcnaccnfe is called, to try Gregory 
Bifhopof Tcurs, filflyaccufcd of" charging the Queen ot living in Adultery with 
a Bifhop jan Archdeacon and a Deacon bore hal!c \\'itnef3: but all came to light, 
and Gregtry was cie-ared by his Oath. 

§ 48. CLXXXIX.y^AJ 87. A Council at Cofjjhminopk increafed theChurclv 
divifions which continue to this day, wherein Juhn Bifliopof Ccfijrantinople was 
decreed to be called. The Univerjal Bijhop, which Pope Fclagius could not endure. 
O what hath this Qyeftion done to the World, JIIm jluU be the chief or greatefi ? 
So much of the image and work of Satan hath been tound in the profclled Ser- 
vants of a crucified Saviour, and in thofe that have worfliipped the 
Crofi ; 

In this Synod Gregory Bilhop of ^ntkch wa.s trycd, and acquitted of a falfc 
Acculation of Inceft with his Siller another man's wife. 

§ 49. Velagitis writcth agalnlf Johns Univerfal I'ltlcjlaying, [ Uiiiverfalita- 
tis mmen quod Jib i illicit e ujivpavit, nAite atttfiJirc, &ic. Nullus enim Vatriarcha- 
rum * hoc tam profano ■vocabnlo iinquam iitatur : <^uia (i fiimmus Patriarcha Uni- * No not 
verfalis dicitur, Patruircharum ncmm cauris Aerogatur. Scd ahjit hoc , abjit a ^^'^ ^- 
f delis cujitfcjuam mcnte hoc Jibi vel -vclle c^iiewpiam ampere, unde honorem fra- *"•'"• 
trum fuorum iimnmiiere ex tjitanluldcunijue parte indaimr. >^apropter Chji it.is 
z'efira nemincm unciuam (uis in Epiftolu Univerlalem mminet, nc fibi debsiitm 
fubtrahnt cum altert hor.orem ofert indebitum. jid-verfarius enim mjhr Diabolus 
quic07ttra humiles fazriens Jicut Leo rugiens circuit, fjuarens que?n dev6ret,»of> jain, 
ut cerninius caidas circuit. — Omnia qui (oil uni Capiti coharent, 'videlicet CLrifio, 
per elcHionem powpaticifermonis ejufdem Chrifli fibi ftudeat membra fubju^are, 
Ncc mirum qucd file tcntator qui initium omnis peccati jcit cjje fupcrbiam, fee. And 
(b he goeth on, exhorting them rather to dye, ilian to (iibmit to the Title Uni' 
'verfiil, and relblvingExcomnumicition again ll the Ufcr of it. 

§ 5^0. Btnnius faith, It is ridiculous hence to impugn the Primacy of the 
Church : But .^. i . Is it not impudent after this, tor them to ufc the Title of 
Univerfal ? J^.. 1. Doth not this allow us to leparate fi-om them that uliirp it ? 
J^. 3. Doth not V el agius\\evc plainly diftinguidi between the place of Prime 
Tatriarch which he claimeth, and Um-verjal Bijhcp or Patriarch which he 
damneth. X^. 4. Doth he not defcribe this daamed Uiavpation, to be a [ubjcft' 
iftgallChrifi''s members to bimfelf? ^. f. Doth not the Pope now ufe both the 


190 Church- Htftory of Bipops and 

fiameand thing as far as he can attain it? ^, 6. Did not Velagitis and Gregory 
know that yobv did no more intend to put down all other Patriarchs or Bifliops 
by this Title, than the Pope doth? .^«. 7. Doth not the Pope now claim that 
us by Dirinc Right, which j^o/^m claimed but as of Humane? Modclly can deny 
none of this. 

§ 5 1. CXC. An. ')ij. Nine Bifhops at Lyons repeated fix old Canons about 
\\'omcn, d^iT. 

§ yi. CXCI. A7]. 5-89. King Giinthrum finding all things grow worfe, and 
that all was long of the Btjlmps cjielj, ( faith Binnius ) called a Council at Alaf- 
C(7«, where the il:ri;ler keeping of the Lords-day w;is commanded. 

§ 5 3. Here Biniiuis notcth that Frifiiis is called Patriarch, and that the BilTiops 
of J^eiiice, Ifiria and Ligiiria, continuing ftill (eparate from Rome, chole Pattlinus 
Billiop of Aquikia their Patriarch, [ ^letrt ftbi loco fummi Tontificis fuprewittn 
Oj- A^itiftitem ccnjiitnerent.l ^«. Did the Bifhops then' believe that the Pope's 
llnivcrlal Government was cfTcntial to the Catholick Church ? And that none 
were tlae Church but his Subjecl:s ? 

§ 54. CXCII. King Gumhram, An. 5 89. by a Council at Valence, (etled his 
Benevolences on the Churches. 
? § f T- CXCIII. An. 589. At Toletnm King Recaredus czWed a Council, and 

renounced Amamfin, and recited (cveral Canons j among others,that Biihops and 
Pricfts Wives might dwell with them, but not lie with them. And they lament 
and condemn the praftice of fiich as kill their children, appointing them (harp 
difcipline without capital puniilimcnt. ( Had the Church power to free Mur- 
derers from death, as they long did, Was this holy Reformation? ) 

The I ith Canon faith. That they found that in many Churches of Spain, men 
flthily and not regularly did Penance, that they might fin as of t as they would, and 
he as oft reconciled by the Vriefls, &c. Many reforming Canons were here made. 
There were 6 7 Subfcribers befides the King, and of divers Cities two Bifhops, 
which was unufiial. 

§ 5 '). CXCPk". ( Paffing by a meeting at Rome ) Another Council at Nar^ 
hon was held by Recaredus, who brought over the Goths from Arrianifm. 

§ 5 7. The Emperor Mauritius, though a great and excellent perfbn, was rui- 
ned by the mad and uncurable mutinies of his Soldiers, and at laft , with his 
Family, cruelly murdered by Vhocas, one of lais Captains ; a terrible warning to 
Princes not to trufl too much to Armies. 

§ 5 8. All this while the oppofcrs of the Calcedon Council kept up, and were 
divided in the Eaif into many Parties among themfelvcs : Among others , the 
great Veripatctlcy ohan.Thiloponus was their mod learned Defender, writing with 
(iich fiibtilty, that the Natures really two, were to be called One Compound Na- 
ture, as the Soul and Body of a man are, as ( faith Nicephorus ) was not eafie to 
be anfwered ( by which, how much of the Controvcrfie was de Nomine d^ de 
Notione Logicd, let the Reader further judge , ) he that will fee fbme of his words, 
may read them in Nicepb. I. 1 8. c. 45:, 4(3, 47, 48. his Notions made men call 
him a Tatheite. 

§ 59. Jacobus Zanx,alus being a great Promoter of the Party, many ever 


their Councils abruhcJ. i Q i 

fince have from him been called 'Jacobites : And the divided Parties that oppo- 
fed the Council, called tlie other Mtlchitcs^ that is Royalifis , bccauie they took 
them that followed the Council, to do it mecrly in obedience to the Emperor, 
( for it was not the Pope then that was the Mailer of Councils. 

§ 60. Among the ^rmaiians alfb (bme railed the like Herelies about the Na- 
tures of Chrift,(bmc thinking his Deity was inllead of a Soul to his Body , Cfc. 
To which they added fuperflitious Falls, and worfliipping theCrols, and (iicli 
like, not pleading Rcafon, but old Tradition for their Errors,(aying they had them 
from Gregory, vide Niccpk /. i 8. r. 5^ j, 5'4. But I muft go forward. 

5) 61. Pelagitts dying, Gregory called yV//7?w/«, liicceedcd him at Rome : He 
continued the Controverlie about the Title of L');/xYr/<?/ Bipop , writing many 
Epiftles againft it : He flattered Vhocas the murderous Tyrant, with a Latentur 
Cceli &• cxtdtet Terra, i5cc. yet was one of the beft and wifcft of their Billiops. 
He lent Aiigiifime into England, who opprclled the Brittjl) Church,and converted 
the Saxon King of Ketit. He introduced more Supcrftitions,and greatly altered 
the Liturgy. Of which read Mr. T. Jones of the Hearts Sovereign. 

§ 6z. CXCIV. A Concilium HiJ^alenfe of eight Bifhops recited three 

§ 6 3. CXCV^. Mauritius before his death, defircd Gregory to call a Synod at 
Rome, to draw in the /f?/?e)7; Bl (hops that (cparatcd,and to call them out if they 
dilbbcycd : which he did, and they refufmg his Summons, Scverus of Aijuihta, 
and other Billiups were ruined. They thought God dcftroyed Alauritius for 
perlccuting them. Gregory thouglit God would have them deftroyed as SchiP 
maticks. The Bifliops of Rome lor near an hundred years were forced the 
more to plcal'e the En>peror, bccaufe their own Billiops had call them off, and let 
up another Head againft them. 

§64.. CXCVI. y-/?;. 5"9o. A Co»«/. .^?/f//?,.«W7;/e m.ide divers Canons againft 
Superftitlons, and fome too luperftitious ( as that \\'omen muft not take the Sa- 
crament in their bare hands, &-c. ) 

§ 6'5-. I lind it fo tedious to mention all the Httle Synods, that henceforth I 
fliall take but little notice of them, but of the greater only. 

One under Rtcaredns at Cafar~Augufla, made three Can^BI about the Ar- 
ria ns. 

One in Numidia dilplca(ed Gregory. 

§ 66. A Council at Poitiers was called on occafion of two Nuns,duughtcrs to 
the King of France, that broke out of the Nunnery, with many more, and ac- 
culed the Abbefi, and got men together, and ftript her ftark naked, and drew 
her out, and let all France in a Commotion , and were forced to do Pe- 
nance. ^ 

A Cour.cil was called at Metz, to reduce the BIfljop of Rbemes conviul of 
Trealbn ( for Billiops that were Travtors or Murderers were not to dye. ) 

A Synod at Rome under Gregory abfulved a Pritft of Calcedon condemned by 
John of Confiaiitinople ; what one did, the other undid. 

-^w. 5:97. Under King Recaredus, 13 Bifhops made rwo Canons for Priefts 
Chaftity, &c. 




1 9 1 Cmrch-Htjlory of 'J^hops and 

Another under him, yi'w. ^98. A Coiuik Ofiiewfc made two fuch more. 
^n. 5'99. A Council at Conflantinofie did we know not what. 
^v. 5^99. Under King Rccaretlus,ii. Bifliops at Barcincn made four Canons 
againft Bilhops Bribery, d^c. 

A Council of zo Bifhops, 14 Presbyters , and 4 Deacons at /?owe made a 
Canon for Monks. 

Another there, jip. 601. againft a falfe Monk. , 
Another at B)Z,acen againft a Bifhop. 
Another in NumiAia about a Bifhop and a Deacon. 

§ 67. Grffor;' dying, Sabm':a?i Riccccded him, who reproached him,and would 
have had his Books burnt as unlbund, faith Onu^hrius : And,laith Sigtbert, Grego- 
ry appeared to him in a. Vifion,and reproving him for that and Covetoulhels , 
knockt him on the head, and he dyed. 

§ 68. Boniface 3d rucceeded,cho(en by Vhccas the Murderer, who hating his 
own Bifhop of Confi.Cyriactis, ordered that Rome fhould be the chief Church. 

§ 69. A Council at Rome forbad chufing a Pope, till the former had been 
three days dead, becaufe they Ibid their Votes for money. 

§70. Boniface the 4th is made Pope,and Vhocas giveth him the Pagan Tem- 
ple, called Pantheon, for Chriftian Worfhip. In his time , Phocat was killed by 
Heraclius, as he had kill'd Ala iiri tins. 
§71- An. 610. A Council at Toletum, under King GtmJemar , about the 

Bifhop of Toletum's Primacy, which the King fctleth by EdI6f . 

§ 7 ^. A Council at Tarraca under King Stfebtitus took the fhortelt way, and 
only confirmed what had been before done for Priefts Chaflity. 

§73. Detis dedit was next Pope, in whofe rime the Perftans conquered yeru- 
. falem, and carried away the Bifhop, and ( they fay ) the Crofi. 

§ 74. Boniface 5th fucceeded : Heraclius the Emperor is worfled by the 
Perjians, who would not give him Peace , unlefs the Empire would renounce 
Chrift, and worfhip the Sun ; Heraclius overthroweth them ; Mahomet now 
rifeth, and maketh a Religion of many Herefics. 

§ 75^. At a Synod at Mafcou,AgrcJlinus accufed Columbanus of Superflition, 
for CrolTing Spoons, ^c. but was refelled. 

§ 76. Seven or eight Bifhops at Hij^alts, condemned the Eutjchians, and cal- 
led them Ace^hali. 


their Councils 



CHAP. ^^ 1 1 1. 

Councils held about the Monothelites, with others. 

§ I .T) Eing come to the Reign of Pope Honcrius at Rome, who was con- 
j3 clemned by x or 5 General Councils for a MmctheUte Heretick, (as 
Vigihus was by his own Bifhops for an Eutychtan ) and having lliewed you 
what work both the heretical and hercticatingBifhopsand Council made in the 
world about (not only ouiiun^- , but) 'ir^cnr.&.one Natiire^znd the conJcmning 
of dead men;! (hall next fhcw you what work they made alio about the words, 
[OncOferatir,7i,^r\l 0ns If'tll,^ or[ Two Op(rations,AX\d Tu-o TCiUs. ] Reader, 
Wouldll: thou think that there were venom enough in one of thele words, to 
poyfon almoll: all the Bifhops in the world with the Plagues of Herciie , or 
Heretication and Contention ? 

§ 1. The old Controverlie ftill keeping tlie Churches all in pieces , fomc 
being for two Natures after Union, and tor the Calccdon Council, and others 
againfl: it, and but for one Nature after Union : Cyrus, Bifhop of Alexandria, 
was told, that it would unite them all, if they would confcis One Ope- 
ration, and One Hill in Chrift, or at lead lay by the talk of One and 77w,and 
u(e the words, [ Det viriln Operatic, j The Operation ( and JVill ) ot God- 
man. CXCVII. He therefore called a Synod at Alexandria , in which this 
was decreed ( called Satisfaifion. ) For tliey (aid that Det I'irilu fignified 
two Natures, and lb they thought they had at laft hit the way of concord, 
which neither the General Council of EphtJ.i. Ephef.T.. Cunflant. 1. Calcedon. 
CcKjiant. 3. had found out : but all fet tlie Bilhops but more by the ears. 

Cyrns (cnt his Decrees to Sergius Bifhop of Cmijlantinople , SophrcmtKs 
Bifhop of yerufalem perfuadcd the filencing of the names of [ One ^ or 
\_ Tn-o 3 Operations or M'tlls. Sergius lent the Cafe to Hcmrius to Rome ; 
Honorius rationally pcrfuaded them to ufc neither the one word, nor the other, 
{ One or Tvo ) forclccing that a new quarrel was arifing in theie words,and 
( little knowing how for this he was by General Councils to be Hcreticatcd, 
when he was dead ) pcrfTiadcd them to a lilcnt Peace. It is but few Popes 
that were (b wife and peaceable; and this one muft be a Heretick for it, or 
General Councils be fallible, and much worfc. 

§ 5 . Bccauie ( knowing the cflcvEl of the old unhealed Cauft-} I forefce 
that Uich men will go near to Hereticate me alio when I am dead, for cort- 
demning Hereticating Incendiaries in the Nefiortan,EHtychian, and Alonothc- 
lite quarrels ; I will recite the words of Binnius himdlf, who faith the fame 
that I have faid from the beginning, ( though I juftitie him not from felf- 
contradi<f1:ion. ) 

To7?j.z. p-991. [^Honor'ius, fearing [vhich after came to fafs, aitd ■u'hub 
he knew bad fallen cut in former Ages about the word Homooufion 'i-i' avd 
many others ) hfi that CcntentKn Jhould grow to fome great Sehifm, and feeing 

C c uitkaB 

— _ '* 

ip4 Chwch-Hijhry of 'Bijhoj^s and 

vithaU that Faith ?fiight be fafe -ii^hhcut thefe worAs, he oi'.ts v-iUhig to recon- 
cile both Op:r7iG».<,and ^vithah to take cut of the ivaj the matter of Scandal and 
Cotitention. ll'rtuvg therefore to Scrgius, he advijed him to abjlain from the 
"word L One Operation J left they fhculdfeem with Eutyches to ajjert but One 
Nature in Chnft; and yet to forbear the word [Two Operations ] I: ft wirh 
Neftorius, they fcemcd to ajjert Tiro Terfons. ( A SlanJcr contrary to liis 
words. ) 1 again fiy,lf all the Hcrcticuting Bifhops and Councils had follow- 
ed this difcretion and moderation, O what had the Church efcaped ! 

Yet they are fain to llretch their wits to excufe his words cllcwhere, [Unde 
e^ JJnam ]''olu;itr.tcm fatcmur Domini nvftri Jcjii Chrifti. J But it's certain 
that in (bme fcn(c it is One, and in another lenle Two. 

§4. The Emperor Ht/vc/iw; intcrefled himfelf In the Controrerfie, Bin- 
Tiias (aith by the fraud of Anaftafiits Patriarch of the Jaccbites, he was de- 
ceived, Atiimo defend^ndi Concilium Calcedoncnfe. The "Jacobites were Et<- 
tychians, the grcatcft enemies of the Calcedon Council 5 and it's ftrange tlien 
how they deceived him, to defend it by deftroying it. 

But, laith he, [ iniile he, befides his place and office, by the perftiafion of the 
De'Vil, was wholly taken up in defending tjueftions of Faith by his own judg- 
ment, &cc. '] Here you may fee what thePapifls Clergy would make of Kings 
and all Lay-men : If they be wholly taken up in defending c^ueftions of Faith 
by their own judgment,t\iey pronounce them to be pcrluaded to it by the De'uil. 
Error is from the Devil ; but (bllicitous fcarching after the defence of Truth, 
is likci- to be of God. But they muft not do it by thetr own judgtnent : By 
whofc then ? By the Blfliops no doubtj What Bifhops ? General Councils. 
And had not the Emperors long enough followed Councils, and baniilied-fuch 
as they condemned, til',while they almoft all condemned one another , the 
world was (candallzed at the odious Divifions and Cruelties of the Church? 
But muft they follow Bifliops without ufing their own judgments about the 
Cafe ? What, as their mcer Executioners ? Muft the Princes of the world aft 
as Brutes, or Idiots, or Llcfors ? Was this the old Doflrine, Let every Soul 
be fubjeil to the higher Vower, &c? 

§ 5-. CXCVIII. King Sifenandus ( the fecond that had all Spain ) called 
a Council at Ttlsturn of all his Kingdom, j4n. 633. of 70 BIfhops , who 
made many good Canons for Faith, Order, and Reformation ■ the laft is a 
large defence of the King againft Rebellion : But they order that when a 
King is dead, the Prime Men of the whole Nation, with the rriefts,by common 
consent, chufe another, that retaining the Concord of Unity , there fiiould be no 
ftrife through Force or Ambition. 

And they decree the Excommtinicatlng of wicked Kings that live in great 
fm ; which I doubt wlicther the fifth Commandment forbid tlum not to 
have done, it being a purpofed diOionour. 

§ 6. CXCIX. Another at 7i/c/«w was called 6 3 (J, hyKmg Chintillanef 
which went the (ame way ; Kings were Rulers here, and not Popes. 

§ 7. CC. Another at 7l/ff,'w;, ^w. 638. by the fame King to the fame 




ihar Councils aLriJ^ed. 195 

§ 8. The Emperor Heradius publilhed an ¥A\ck tor the MonotheUte Opi- 
nion, called his Echtejis j and Sergius Ccrtfi. joined in it. 

§ 9. Sirgius dyeth,and Vjrrhus a A-Ianotbelite fucceedcth him. 

§ I o. Scjirinus is chofcn Pope, but being not Confirmed ( as was udial } 
by the Emperor's confent, he is plundered or his wealth. 

§11. The Saracaie Arabians conquer Vtrfia, and the Eajlrrn parts of the 

§ I X. Scrgius before his death called a Council at Covfiantincfe , which ^ 

contirmed the Emperor's Faith, and the Atcnothelite Opinion. 

§ 13. yi';;. 640. Jo/m 4th was made Pope, who condemned the Empe- 
ror's Ec/jtcjis ; and, it's fcid, tlic Emperor dilowned it, and ftid that Sergius 
made it, and ddired it might be publifhed in liis name. 

§ 1 4. Hcracliiis dycth, Corifiantifu fiicceedeth him,and dyeth in 4 month.''. 
Htracko fucceedcth : After fix months tlic Senate depofe him, and cutofi his 
Nole, and cut out his Mother's Tongue, on lufpicion that they poy(bn«d Cm- 
fiantine, whole Son Conftatis is ne^t let up. 

§ 1 5-. P/)Tj6«/,thought guilty of Conjtantmes death, flieth into Africa, 
and Vaulus a Momthelne hath his place. Yyrrhus (cemeth coavertcd by Maxi- 
mus in Africa, Cometh to Rome, and is owned by the Pope againll Vaulus. 
Paiilus perluadeth the Emperor to publifti a V}^«/, requiring all the Bifliops to 
lay by the Controverlie and Name of One and of Two H'dls and Operaticns 
cf CiniH. But this which was approved in Pope Hononus, is cryed down 
as Heretical in the Emperor. 

Tyrrhus returncth to his Opinion, and PatU dying, he is again put in his 
plate at Ccnfratitinopk. 

Binnius no better anfwercth die Objection, [that the Eniferors Edict faid 
hut ivhat Pope HonoriUfi /^z;^, 3 than by laying, that the time math the ilif- 
ference. It was good in HonoriHs's time, and bad after to be quietly filent in 
fuch a Cafe. 

§ 1 6. They fay there was a Council in NitmUia-, another at B)Xuice»e, at 
Carthage another of 6 8 Bifliops, about the Momthelttes. 

§ 1 7. CCI. Another Council w;is at Joktum under King Chindafcrirf 

§ 1 8. ecu. The Pope, with one of his little Councils at Rome^ ( for the 
forclald Italian Bifhops yet dilowned him, and obey the Patriarch of /i'^/(i- 
laa) prcliimed to condemn Vaulus Qonfr.O-Pyrrhus, and the Emperor's 
Edict, ( T)pus i ) Wherefore his Agents at CmJlantmofU were caft out, 
beaten, their Altar overthrown, c^c. 

§ 1 9. Martin h made Bifliop at Romt : He coHdcmncth the Emperor's 
Edii^t ot .Silence (as to Two I i^ ills and Operations, or One.) The Emperor 
(cndcth for him, he is brought Prilbncr to Cmjtantinople, laid in Irons under 
fevcral Accutations ; banifhcd and dyed. 

Here the P(;pc pretcndcth that Truth niuft not he fiknced : The Empcix>r 
(aith, Peace must not be hidden fcr need/efs ■words : ^er. Whether he be a 
JMartyr that lufiers for oppugning fiich Peace ? 

C c 1 § lo. 

1 p 6 Church-Hifiory of 'Bij])Dps nni 

§ ^o. CCIII. His LdferjM^ Council, y^». 641. is very largely recorded, 
in which the Emperor's Edi6>, with C)Tffj Alex. SergiHs, Pprkta (^ Taului 
Cotiftnnt.^rc condemned, and two Operaiions and JCil/s aflcrtcd. 

§ai. CCIV. ( Palling by a Synod at 0>7t'<:«ftf) y^. 65-3. another Coun- 
cil was held at Tclctum againft incontinent and ignorant Priclls. Kings here 
wfl'd to preach to the Bilhops by their Letters and Decrees. Dukes and Lords 
liere fubfcribed. 

§ ^^. Eugaiiiis is Pope, and dycth ; Vitalianus fucccedeth him ; Ccmll,ms 
the Emperor comcth to Rome., giveth them gifts, and communicateth 'vith 
them. It's fiid he kilFd bis Brother nKotloJius,znd after was kill'd himfelf : 
Mezentius ufurpcthuhe Empire. Conftarttive Togonntiis, Son to Covjfa>is,con- 
quereth him, and reigneth. Pope Vitalianus helpeth him, and therefore ex- 
pefteth his help. Rome ftood (b ranch between the Eafiem Empire, and the 
JViftirnYJmgs {Goths., Lmbanh, Franks, ^c.) that both fides flattered 
the Roman Clergy, ( tliough they oft fuffered from both. ) The Empire to 
keep them from turning to the Goths , &c. and the Goths to keep them from 
turning to the Empire. And they that had moft need of the Popes , mod 
ad\'anced them ; and they that had leaft need and moft domImon,kept them 

§ 13. CCV. Another Council at Toletum , Jn.6^f. called byK. Re- 
ajjuinthus, ( not the Pope, ) made divers good Canons for Church-order ; 
among which the tenth is, that bccaule all the Canons oft made , could not 
keep Bifliops and Priefts from Lechery, they tryed this additional way , to 
decree that all their Children begotten of their Servants, Maids, dfc. mould 
be uncapable of inheritance, and fliould live in continual ftrvltude to the 

King Recaredus made a Law, that Bifiiops and Pricfts Concubines fhould 
be whipt with an hundred Stripes j and others, that they fliould be (old for 

§ 14. CCVI. The King of France ( Clqihiieus ) called his Bifliops to- 
gether at a Village called Cljpiacttf»,znd made a Sermon to them , and they 
applauded him. 

§'2.'). CCVII, He called another Synod z.x. Cahilo7ie for Church-order, 

55- where Can. i o. it was decreed, that all Ordination of Bifliops fliould be null, 

that was otherwlfe made than by the eIe(5tion of the Comprovincia/s , the 

Clergy, and the Citizetis. ( A thrcebld Lock is not eaiily pickt ) Let 

England underftand this, to be the old Canons and CuCrom. 

§ 1.6. CCVIII. A Ccncil. EmeritenJ'e,cn\kd by King Recejfttinthus, made 
more Orders for regulating Bifliops and Priells, O'c. 

§17. CCIX. A Synod at 7?ow« juftified aBifliopof Crete, wronged by 
his Archbifliop. 

§ ^8. CCX. Another ^t Toletum under King IVamha?!, An. 6 jy. (ought 
to reform the Bifliops-and Ckrgy. 

§ 2.9. CCXI. An. 675". the lame King Wamhan had a Synod at Braccara, 
£jr reforming the Ctcrgy . Can.'^ . was to corrcit the Bifliops that had turned 


their Councils alvl.hcJ. 197 

Piety into Pride and Vanity; going to the So'emnitics of the M.irtyri, with 
Rehques hanged about their necks,carried in Chairs by Deacons in whJte,c^ir. 
O what hath the Pride of Prelates done in the world I 

§30. Pope ^^W^/fOT, and after him Dow.',-^ reigned at i?6;77<', and the Pa- li, 

triarchs of Cctijfavrincpk and y'ntkch were AJcticthilnesyZnACtrftanthte need- .?}«?' 

ing the /'ff/?, having loll: the EafI-, took part with Rcme. ' "* 

After Dofins came ^gatby, in whofe time the Billiop of Ravenna , after -gj 

long rejc6T:ing the Bifliop of Rome as heretical, returned to communion with 
him. Ccnfijfifme fent to /?<;wf, to rc.]ulre the Bifhop to keep Millionary 
Legates at Conjhntimf.e, and intrcatcd ihtm to lay b\- Pliilofophica! Contro- 
verfies, and preach the pure Scripture, that the Churches at laft might have 
Peace. ( But alas how long was that counlel vain !) 

§ 3 I. CCXII. Bedii faith, an Engl/jli Couilcil met, ^?i. 679. under The- 
odorsts^to own theCatholick Faith, fici?. /. 4. c. 1 5. 

§ 3^. CCXin. The fame year 679. A Council at Milan told the Empe- 
ror their opinion for Tvo ICilh and Operations. ^ 

§33. CCXIV. A Synod at 7? <jw< prepared matter for the General Coun- 
cil againfl; the Monothelites. This tended to plcale the feparating "Bifliops of 
Italy that divided from the Pope, for teeming to dcftrt the Ca!ccdo7i Coun- 
cil by condemning the tria Capitu'a. 

§ 34. CCXV. Now Cometh the 3d Council of Cor_/?.j«//"wf, called the (ith 
General Council, in which 189 BilTiops condemned the Monothelites , that 
were for One If'tll and Operation. Conjlnntine Fog. being agaiinft them, 
Aiacarius Patriarch of Anticch was the chief of them , who would have 
contented to name neither One nor Two, but when they had done all, profeG 
(cd that he would be call into the Sea , before he would (ay there va-e in 
Chrifi two TVtIls and Operations ; thinking that he held to Cyril, and the firfl 
Ephefian Council ag;iinll Nefiorifis. George Bifhop of Conflantinopk deferted 
him, and he was depoftd and banifhed ( to Rome j no hard Banilliment but 
for ill company. ) 

§35". Along ftir there was among them , perufing former \\'riting3 ; 
Maearius and his Party producing many, which others laid were falliHcd (lo 
little certainty is there oft of Copies. ) The Epiilles of Sergitfs Conjl. d?* 
Hator. Rom. are read , which I fliould think peaceable and honeft ; but the 
General Council damned and curled them both as Hereticks. The Papifts 
fay, General Councils may err in matter of Fail : How much more then in 
matter of Faith, which is more obfcurei* and matter of Fa6l is much of tlie ' 

matter of our Faith. 

No Man's name had lb flrange a Fate againfl Hereticaters, as the great 
Hereticater Cj>;/'s j who (in this Council in C/r«r tfr.'ir. and many others) 
was fully proved to aQcrt One Nature of God incarnate after the Union j and 
yet called Orthodox, and thole that laid as he, and much lels, were damned 

Some that confeiTed two Natures, yet denying two Wills after the Refur- ^ 

refllon, fuppoCng the Humane Will called Natural had been laid by , were 
here damned with the reil § 36,. 


ic,8 Chunh Hifiory of 'B'ljhops and 

§ 36. CCXVI. ^'?;. 68i. King. Eru/g/.// held another Council ztfolc- 
tum, tor the Royal Power, and rctormincr ihc Clergy. 

TiiePope had lb little to do, and the Kings lb much in all thelc 5fw»//7; 
Councils, that it's ftrange Sp/ti» is now become lb fervile to the Pope. Bi»- 
niits is forced to confefs here f Ti. 3. /». 1 1 o. j that [_ The Jiudy and Libor cf 
cl.ujingf.t mm to hi m-iJe Bi^iops, ii'as hi the pcvnr or bands of the Gothiln 
Kings, which by the mdtilgence oj the Roman Fopes is in the Spanilh Kings 
even to cur times 3 which he provctL ( O indulgent Popes, who let go 
what they cannot keep ! ) 

j4n. 68i. Some Synods in France did, we know not what. 

§ 37. Leo ^d is made Pope by the Emperor ; and becaufe he confirmed 
the Acis of this Council, which damns Homrirts as an Hcretick, the Papifts 
Cy" know not which, way to turn thcmfelves. Baronms would have Leui Epilllc 
forged. Binnias will have either the Acls corrupted by Theodore Conft. be- 
fore they were lent to Lee, or that nccelllty compelled him to this hard con- 
dition by the iniquity of the times,and that Hcrelie elle would have revived, 
(j;-c. lb that by their reckoning, they that relie all on Tradition and Fathers, 
leave not Fathers, Councils or Traditions certain for one Age. 

§ 38. CCXVII. ^?;. 683. K. £ra//^/.-« had another Synod of 4^^ Bifhops 
at Toietum , for reftoring Ibme guilty of Trealbns , iecuring the King, 

§ 39. CoK^iintine Tcgon. Te(\:oTed to Rome the power of making Popes 
vvlthuut the Emperor , which the GothiJIi Kings and other Emperors bid long 
denied them. 

§ 40. Benedict td is made Pope : A new Controverfie in his time is rai- 
led. The Sp^mjh Bifliops write an Epiftle , in which they aflert Three Sub- 
fiances in ChriH, his Divmity, his Soul and bis Body, and fay withall that a 
7^1' ^''^' f^''U l^ig^t a Will, that is, the Difine JVill begat the Humane. The numbers 
"' ' of One, Two, 'and Three, had fo confounded Men in thofe. times , that the 

word; frightncd the Pope, and he expoftu'ated andw;irned them to take heed 
in what fenle they uled them ; which hath made it a queftion whether this 
Pope were not erroneous himlelf. 

§41. CCX\'III. Another Council at Tdetum agaiuft the Monothe- 

§ 4T. Pope 'John fth was the firll Conlecrated without the Emperor fince 
the liberty granted. 

Theodoric King of France called a Council, yi«. 685". in which he dcpo- 
fed levcral Bifliops. 

§43. C(mfiantmeVog.dy\n^,'Jiifiinian xd hii Son is Emperor. Birniius 
faith, he was not found in the Faith (a hard thing then ! ] And that he re- 
pented of the liberty grunted in chuling Popes, and (b ordered that the Ex- 
arch of Ravenna approve them, bv which Bribery was uled with the Ex- 
archs. And while the Soldiers and Clergy could not agreCj they were fiiin to 
coalent to a tliird, Ccmn, to be Pope. 

§ 44. CcMH being dead, Theodore and Pafihal ilrovc for the :Popcdom, 


their CgwiciIs ahnd-n'd. iqg 

and got their Parties to ftand it out for tlicrn. Vnfchal promKed the Exarch 
a great Sum of Gold to make him Pope. \\'hen tlicy could not agree, S(r- 
gius a third was chofcn. The Exarch forced him to pay the Gold,aud lb he 
got the Soldiers love and the Popedom. 

§45". CCXIX. ^n.6%%. Another Toktan Council writ a defence of 
their affertion, that Chriil had thr(e Subftanca, and that I'olufit.u gcnuit fo- 
limtiiterrr. - 

§ 46. CCXX. A Council at Ca^far-Au^ufla, made five Canons ; the lafl 
was, that when the Kings dyeJ, the Queens ihould lay hy their civil Habits, 
and be put into a Monalicry, and protels Chatlity. 

§47. CCXXI. An. 691. Was the famous great Council called the 
.'^rni-Sextum at Ccnfiantinofle^y Jufiwian zd's Order ; why it fliould not 
be called a ych General Council, I know not. Ic w.is called by the perfua- 
fion of Ca'dinicus Ccnjtant. to make a Rill Body ot- Canons for Pravfficc, be- 
caule the 5^th and 6th Councils made none. Bmnim (aith. It could not be a 
General Council, bccauie the Pope was not there by himfelf, or iiis Legates, *&! 

and yet confeflcth that ncitlur was he or his Legates at the rirfl Omfl^mtine 
Council, and yet it was univcrfal. And why doth not another Bifliops ab- 
fence ( £. G. y.lextviii. yertifal. dfc.) null a General Council as well as 
the Popes? The Papilb rail at this Council as a Convent icn of Mahgnants, 
( Bm. p. I 5'4- ) and againfl B^Jjamcn^ that defendcth it as a wicked Greek 
ImpotW; ( the word [ vicked "1 in thclc Mens writings is a term of art and 
intereft, and no jnoral term. ) They recited abundance of old C^inons, ma- 
ny of great ufe. One would wonder whence the anger againftthtm arifcth. 
It was per [iimrfKtm ?jcij«/.';.7w, laith BinT>tus,xhM they called thcmfelves a 
General Council : And the Holj Gboft vJitrnot with thtm, becaufc the Pope 
was not with them, ( f. i 5-4, i ^f. 1 and they ordained many things contra- 
ry to Apoftolical Conftitutions, and the Canons of General Councils. Reader, 
you lee here, i . How litt^rull Papilb lay on that part of Tradition which 
dependeth on Councils? a. That it is the Pope ( one Man ) that is the cer- 
tainty cf Tradition and fitdgmcnt , without whom Councils are nothing. 
5. That if the Pope be ablent, all the other BilTicps aflembled in Councils 
by the command ot Emperors, may be called Knaves and wicked Malig- 
nants. Alas how few Bifhops adhered to the Pope, (' when Italy was not 
yet cured of Separation from him ) in comparilbn of thole that met in thcfe 
Eafiern Councils which they revile ! 4. You lee liere,how far thcv are frrin 
truth, that fay the Univerfil Church ftill cleaved to the Pope, when moft (by 
far ) of the Bifhops in the world forlbok him ! you lee Luther was not the 

§ 48. Note that 7i/7r<7^'?.'Af Blfhop of Con^.intimple, yin. 6^%. in the ad 
Council of iVJff, tells them, that it ■was the ftme Bf\l]ops that met in the 6th 
Gffneral Council at Con/fantinople, who met again here under yuftmian. And 
were not the Biihops of the place fo near the time competent judges of the 
matters of lb notorious Faff ? And were the lame Bifhops an infallible Gene- 
ral Council at the 6th Council, and yet all wicked Scliilinaticks or Knaves, 



Charch-Hijlory of Bipops and 

and wicked Men, when they meet again but to make Church-Canons for 
Reformation ? If this do not tell you how truly Bmnins (aith, in their own 
judgment [] that Councils ha've jiift jo much uiithority as the Popegrjetb thern^ 
what can tell it you ? 

§49. Vca,B/n«;/// makes this Council to be Alonothclitei : And were the 
Cimc Men Orthodox in the 5 th or 6 th Council ten years before,and Hercticks 
in this? Is this the conftancy of the Church and Biihops Faith ? 

§ fo. The I 3 th Canon is one that difpleafcth them j in which the pra- 
flj" (Ttice of the Church of Rome In (epaniting Pricfts from their Wives , is ex- 
prclly renounced j and it is decreed that no Pricll be required to feparate from 
his Witc, ( (b be it they abftain at Fafts and iKCcflary Sealons ) nor any 
Prieft endured to put away his Wife, on pretence of piety; elle he muft be 

§ f I . Andther is the 1 6th Canon, that maketh Deacons like Overfcers 
of the Poor. ^ 

§ 5:1. The 2 id is a hard Canon that BIfliops and Priefls, ordained with 
money, and not by examination and elecUon, be dcpofed , and they that or- 
dained ihcm. 

§ fj.The 36th Canon difpleafcth them aho, which confefs the Church 
of Co7iJlantino^le's Priviledges as equal with Rome. 

§ 5'4. The 5 8 th Canon containeth one great caufe of the old Confufi- 
ons, "jix,. TIjat tuhatever alteration the Imperial Fover makes on any City, the 
Kcclefiaftical Order alfo follow it. Did God make this Law ? Are not as 
many Souls in a Town that's no City as capable of being a Church as Citi- 
zens ? It is in the Princes power to make and unmake Cities : May he ac- 
cordingly make or unmake Churches? What if a King will have but one 
City in his Kingdom, mull: there be no moi-e Churches or Bifhops ? What if 
there be no Cities { as in many .^wfnc(r« and jirabian Countries) muft 
there be no Churches ? What if the King \^^ disfranchize moft of the 
Cities, and another will make every Market Town a City ; muft Churches 
be altered accordingly ? If (b,0 that our King would make us fb many 
Cities, as the work and the fouls of Men need true Bifliops, that one might 
not have a thouland Parifhcs without any lubordinate Bifhop ! But if this 
hold, the Emperor might have taken down Rome, and let up Confiatitimple, 
or any other at pleafiire. 

§5'). CiVi.^o. Forbad Clergy and Laity to play at Dice, on pain of 
Dcpohiion, or Segregation. 

And Can.'^i. forbids going to Shews, Jcftcrs,Stagc-Plays,Huntin?s. 
The 5:5'th Canon commands the Church oi Rome to amend their Cuftoms, 
and not to faft on Sabbath-days. 

Can. 62. h'orbids Womens Publick Dancings, and Mens and Womcns to- 
gether , and their putting on Mafquers or Players Apparel , or Perions, 

CV«. 65. Command"th the burning of falfe Hiftar.'es of the Martyrs, as 
tending to bringing Rcligijninto reproach.^ 


their Councils ahnd':ed. 



continual joyful Praifcs to God, and holy Exerclfes, and to ulc no Horfe-Ra- 
ces, &c. 

The 6 7th Canon is againft: eating Blood. 

CtiM.jT.. Nullifietli Marriage with Hcreticks. (Alas, good Bifliops, did 
you think the Papifts would have Hereticated you as Monothelhes, and nulli- 
fied all Marriages with you by this Canon ? But two Hcreticks Marriage 
is not null. 

Can. 7 8. Commandeth all the illitminate ( bapli7-cd ) to learn the Be- 
lief, and every Friday to fay it to the Rijliop and Fresh) ten. ( How many Pa- 
rifhcs or hundred Pariflies had the Bifhop then to hear ? Not lb many as 
ours. ) 

§ 5-(). Tie 8x Canon offends the Papifts, forbidding the PitSlure of a 
Lamb to be made for Chrifl as the Lamb of God. 

The 90th Canon is ( an old one ) Not to kneel on any hored-iay , and 
that this begin on the evening before. 

P. 1 5: f. Binniui reproveth them for calling Cyprian Archblfliop , and he 
provcth that Africa then had no Archbifhop or Primate. 

§ 5-7. CCXXll. ^'w. 693. was another 71 /cr<»» Council, called by King 
"Egtea : Before it the King writeth a Sermon for them, wherein he tclis them, 
That every Partjli that have twelve Families, mu^ have their proper Gover- 
nor : But if hjs, it mufi be part of amthers charge. 

§ 5-8. CCXXIII. Jn.6^4.. was another To/f/rt;* Council under the fame 
King Egica : ( One would wonder that the Legillativc vertue of the Church 
fhould be continued to fuch fertility and multitude of Laws, as muft follow 
if in all Countries there be every year a Council': How gjeat muft the 
Volumes of L;iws be at laft ? ) Bimtins in liis Notes on this Council tells us. 
That though Paul would have the believing Husband or Ji'ife fray with the 
Unbeliever, in hope of Converfrm , yet many hundred years experience hath 
taught us the contrary, ( that it tendeth ratho- to hurt than good ) and there- 
fore now It ?ruft be otherv'tfe,and they mufi feparate. 

§ 5-9. CCXXIV. Even to thoft days the number of Vagans and Infidels in 
moft Countries was the greateft, and the care of good men was to convert 
them : ( And therefore we read ftill of lb many baptized at age. ) A Coun- 
cil at Utrecht decreed ( ll'illebrood { or Ji'illifr id) znd Suibert being Lead- 
ers ) that the beft Preachers fliould be lent from the Neighbor Chui ches to 
convert the Heathens, ( that was better work, than ftriving who (hould be 
chief, or raging about hard words.} 

§60. CCXXV. A Synod at Jc^uileia, An. 698. condemned the i)th 
General Council at Confiantmcplc, for condemning the tria Capitula of the 
Council uf Calcedun. ( O what Concord Councils caulcd ! ) 

§61. Pope Scrgt.'is refullng to own the Council of Covfiant- at Trul. 
under yufimian id, the Emperor commanded that he (hould be brought Pri- 
lijncr w Covfiant mople. The Soldiers of Ravenna (5erg/.-« having paid them 
the 1 00 /. of Gold ) hearing of it, rofe up and refcued him, and made the 
Emperor's Officer in feai" beg for his life. By luch Obedience Rome kept up. 

D d § 6i. 




Cbwch-Hijlory of ^ijlops and 

§ 6r. Ttberius the id depofed yujiinian the id, and cut ofi his No(e,and 
banifhed liim. yuflmian was reftored, and expofed Ttbai.'fs to (corn , and 
killed him , and baniflicd BiQiop CaUinicus to Rome for unfaithfulnefi to his 
Prince, yohn the 6 th was now Pope. 

§63. John the 7 th b made Pope ( another Gjuncil at Tele turn under 
King ///.'/z.^ I pals by) he was a Gr«j{;. CCXXVl. He gathev'd a Synod 
nt Ror»e,io debate 7"7?'»'^w's Order for the receiving the Trull. CmciL 
And our Englifh Willi fr id, accufcd by his King, was here jufliilied, as a Son of 
that Churcli : And a Synod in England received him, when the King was 

§ 64.. Sijimiins made Pope lived but ro days, and Conflantine fucceeded 
him, who was (ent for to Conftantinofle, and honoured by yufl'mtan. 

§65-. About this time (An. 700.) S^am was conquered by the 5<J7-^- 
0^ cens; Ei/mius ^th, Becatife Kmg Wkizz forjook the See of Rome. By which 
we ftill fee that Rome was fovlaken even by the beft Church, fuch as Spain 
then was, and was not the Ruler of the World. 

§ 66. Bardanes Philippicus by Rebellion depofed ynjiinian^nd was made 
Emperor ; and within two years was Co uftd bimfeif by Anafiajius, ( his 
eyes put out, and he banilTied. ) 

§ 67. CCXXVII. The Emperor Thilippicus and Job. Confiant. called 
General Council at Ccnfiantinofle j I may well call it General, when Binnias 
faith, Tiere "ivere innumerable Bi^wps, which is not ^id of any other Council. 
They all condemned the 6th General Council, and their Opinion of two 
IVtlls, and two Operations. Where it is manifcft, 

3. How great a part of the Church regarded not the Authority of 

1.. Nor thought a General Council infallible, when imiumerabh Bijhops 
are againft both. 

3. And how ftrong the Monothelite Party was. 

4. And alas, how bad too many Bifhops, that can change as fall as Empe- 
rors will have them. For faith Binmus ( after Baronius ) [ Thus at the beck 
of the Emperor, and at the will of a Monothelite Tatriarch , the holy fixth 
Synod is condemned, atid what they decreed of two TVills in Chrifi, and two 
Operations, and all retraced by the Decree and Subfcription of 'very many Ori- 
ental BiJJiops, that were m one momejjt turned from being Catholiijiies, to be 
Monothdites. ] Is tliis the conftancy of Bifhops, and the certainty of their 
Tradition ? But why have we not the Adts of this great Council , us well 
as of the reft ? 

C H A P. 

their Councils ahridzed. 



CoUficils called about Images ancl feme others. 

§ I .T) Ope Gregory the id is the Man that mud (et up Imagc-worfhip 

JL againft all oppofition, rebel againil: his lawful Sovereign , and con- ^ 

federate with other Princes to alienate the TVefiem Empire, when the Eaft was 
almoft ruined before, and fo to weaken the Chrilllan Power , that the Turk 
might fhortly win the Empire. 

§ I. To have recited all along as we went on , what new Ceremonies, 
Formalities and Orders were invented and brought in by tlic Popc3,and how 
Doftrine and Pradlice grew corrupted, being a thing done already by many 
others, would have been tedious here, and beiides the defignof this writing, 
which is but to fhew how Prelates have ufed the Church by their conten- 
and what hath been the work efpecially of General Councils. But we can- 
not tell you well the work of the following Councils, without telling fome- 
what of the occafion of the matter. 

The Primitive Chriftians u(ed not Images in the\^'orfhip of God, ( read 
Dalarts de Imaginibus.) But the contempt of Chriftianity by the Heathens, 
occalioned many to oppofe their contempt by glorying in the CroG of Chrift, 
and by making the tranlicnt fign of it with their fingers ; and thence they 
grew to ufe the fixed fign of it ; and thence to fpeak of and believe many 
Miracles wrought by it ; and thence to make the Image of Chrift crucified, 
( which yet Epiphatiws condemned ; ) and thence by degrees to make the 
Images of the Apoftles and Martyrs ; and thence to make in their Churches 
the Images of their deceafcd Biihops, ( till an Excommunicater arofe of an- 
other Opinion, that pull'd any of them down. ) 

And abundance of Dreams, Vifions, Apparitions and Rcvelation'J were the 
pretended Proofs that prevailed for many (iich Superftitions, but efpecially 
for Images, and Purgatory, and Prayers for the dearl. Among others , an 
EnglijI) Monk, Egwin of Evcjliolme, cholcn Bilhop of Itorcefier, niuft lead 
the way, by pretence of a Vilion, (a Dream, no doubt ) (ce Spelmans Con- 
di, p. 109. in his own Chart Egwin laith, \jThat the Virgin Mary fir ft ap- 
peared to a certain Shepherd called Eoves, and afterward to himfelf witb two 
Virgins, holding a Book in her hands, and told him in what place jiie would 
have him build her a Monafltry. The crafty Dreamer divulged the Vihon, 
and fbme good Men oppoling it, the Pope muft have the hearing of it. Tl:e 
Pope put it to the Oath of £gTA';«,whether ever he law (uch a Vifion or not? 
Eguin (ware it, and the matter was pall doubt, ( juft as honeft CoTvnjenins 
took Dauhitius\ Prophefies to be of God , becaufe the melancholy Man 
fware that they were true. ) Hereupon Egvnn is lent home, and a Council 
called to take Egwnh words again that he had (uch a Vilion , ( and in the 

D d X end 


104 Ctiaxh-Hijhry of ^iJlKfs and 

end was added, Tl\n the Kirgin Mary'; Itfiage mufi he fet up in the place. ) 
The Pope fent to King Kenred and King Offa by Bilhop BrithwaU, to 
grant what the Vifion intended j who obediently make over a great part of 
the Countrey to that Monaftery,as you may (ce defcribcd in Spe!man, Cone, 
p. i09, xio. inCharta Kenredi ^ Oftae Regiim. And p.1.11. in Charta 
Egwini, who (aitli himfelf, that {^God being propitiorts to him , he had in a 
little time got_ for the /aid Church an hundred and twenty Farms given , ar 
ts written and confirmed in the Charter of that Church. Many Villages are 
there named, and (bme great cnes,in the fatted and richeft part of the Coun- 
ty of /f^r«y?«-. Was not this a profitable Dream or Vifion? And fhould 
we not have many Dreamers and Swearers, if they could get as much by it 
as Egwin did ? And herewith Ijnages are fet up. 

§ 3. But Baroni.'/s and Binnins qutftion whether Nauckr and Bale fdy 
true, that this Council Hrfl: brought Image-wordiip into England, becaufe it 
'Paj.iiy, came in before with .Aujlin _ the Monk. To which Spelman * well answer- 
zi8. vide eth, That the ufe of the Crofs in banners and otherwifc was here before,and 
cxter.i. ^jj^g Images for Inftruciion and Commemoration, as Bedas own words in- 
timate ; but not any worfhip of Images, or worfhiping before and towards 

And Sir H. Spelman (aith, ( proving that Imagc-worfliip was not then in 
uft among the 6'<7jccw J that even praying to the Saints thcmftlves was not 
then in uft, mentioning an old Pfalter of his written about the time of the 
ad Nicene Council, in which there were an hundred (eventy and one Pray- 
ers inferted between the Sections of the i 1 9 th Tfalm, and in them all not one 
name of any Saint,or the Virgin /Ti^jry, much le(s any Prayer direfted to 

§ 4. If one talk now v/ith our E?fgli(h Papifts , they^ are Co loth to 
own their own Do£i:rine and Praftice, that they will tell you they hold not 
the v/orfhiping of the Image, but of the Perfbn fignificd by it. But to tell 
them how commonly their Writers defend worfhlpping Images , ( if Colere 
and Cultfis fignilie Worfhip ) and what Ac^Hm.js (aith of giving the worfhip 
of Latria to the Image of Chrifi, and to the Crofs, though undeniable, yet 
will not be taken for fufficient proof. I fhall tlicrefore give you here the 
(enfe of the Papal Church in England, in the form of Abjuration which 
they prcfcribcd to thole that they then called Lollards, as it is found in the 
Towtr Records ; and you muft take it in the old Eng!!(li in which it is writ- 
ten, becaufe I do but tranfcribe it, and muit not alter it, the (enfe of it being-, 
plain and obvious. 


their Cowicih abridged. 205 

" £.v Rotulo Claafax. Je Anno Re^i Regis RicarM fecimdi 1 9 membr. 
" 1 8 dors. 

MEmorand. quod frimo die Se^tcmbris j^mio Regni Regis Rkardi fc 
ctmdt poJ-} Ci/nquejhm decimo tutio If'tUie/mus Dynel df Nicholaus 
''^Taillour, Michaelirs Poiicher, d^ litllielr»:is Srejff70ur,de Nottingham in Ctm- 
" ciUar. ipjius Regis ferfmaliter confittutt Sacrament a drcijim freflitcrunt (ub 
" eo <jui jcquitur tcncre. [^I If'illiam Dynel befor jhoiv worchiptfuH Fader and 
" Lorde Arcbbjjliop of Thorke and yhowr Clergie, with my free wdl and full 
" avyjide ju>ere to Gode and to all his jeyntes nppcn this holy Gofpelle that fro 
" this day fi-rthwarde 7 JJ?«// Worihlp Ymages zritb preying and'offertng unto 
" hem in the u-crfchif cf the Jeintes thae they be made after and alfo I 

^^ Jliall neiter more dcjpyje pygremage nejhtcs cf halyChyrche in no degree. And 
" alfo Ijhall be buxum to the I awes of holyChirche and to y hew as myn Atch- 
" by^op and to myn other ordinares and Curates and kepe yo laives uppon my 
" power and meynten hem. And alfo I flull meynten ne techen ne defcndtn 
" errours ccncluficns ^ techynges of the Lollards ne jwych conclufcns and 
" techings that men ckpyth Lollardes dcitryn Ne I jhall her bokes ne fu'ych 
" bokes ne hem or any {ujfecl or dtjf.imed cf Lcllardery refceyne or company 
" with all wyttyngly or defende mys m.Uters and if I know ony fwych ipiall 
with all the hafi that Imjy do ghowe or els your ntr Officers to wyten and 
" of her bokes. And alio I (fiall excite and ftirr all tho to good dottr)n that 
" / ha've hindered with myn doilryn up my power. And aljo I pall ftmde to 
*' yhour declaration wych es Inrefy or trrcur and do therafttr and alfo what' 
" peTktnce yhe wel for that I h.xue dn for meyntenyng of this falj doilryn 
" menyne and I pall ftilfid it and I jubmtt me therto up my poU'cr. And 
^^ aljo I pall make no other glofe of this myn ctb bet as the vcrdes Jlcnde. 
*' And if It be fo that I come agayn or do agayyt thtt oth or any party tbaerf 
" / holde me here cowpable as an her^tyke and to be punyped by the law as an 
*^heretyk and to forfeit all my gcca'cs to the Kynges will w)th cutcn any cthr 
" frocejfe of lawe. And therto I require the Notarie to make cf all this tho 
" whych IS my will an inftrument agens me ut ex babundanti idem Jiillielmrts 
" Dynel eodem die -volHit O" reccgno-vit quod omnia bona df catalUfua mobillia 


nobis Jint forisfaEla in cafu quo ipfe jaramentum prtsdiilum feu aliqua iii 
eodem jwramcnto content a de cetera comravenerit ulto mode. 

Here you fee whether Paplfts worfhip Images, and whether they take ir 
not for Herefie ( which is deatli ) not to worlTiip them , and whether they 
leave it to mens liberty or not. 

§ f. Leo Ifaurus bcin^ Emperor, he took the worpipp'mg of Images to be 
Idolatry; and liis Empire being invaded by the Saracens, who were Icandah-i 


2 0.6 Church-Hijlory of Bijho[JS mi.l 

zed by the Chriflians Images, he thought it was a warning to him to reform 
them i and he publifhcd his Edi(£b accordingly againll the Religious adora- 
tion and ule of the Images of Angels, Martyrs, or Saints. Gregory , Bifhop 
of Rome, refilled him, and made Men believe that this was to tight agaitill: 
Chrill, and impioufly to defpifc the Saints. The Emperor commanded liis 
Obedience on pain of Depolition. He would neither obey nor (lifter. The 
Emperor lent Men to apprehend him, ( (bme (ay to kill him , ) but he e(ca- 
pcd them. The Lombards were ftirred up to make \Y-ix againft the Em- 
(O pcror as an Enemy of Chrill: [Tie Vope (faith Bhwi.'/s , f. 177. out of 
Zcfiaras ) entered into a Leag^ne -with Charles Martell King of France , 
that, if there -were need, he \huuld defend the Church of Rome agninjl the 
Emperor ( their proper Sovereign ) which League being prudently made, the 
Emperor abfiained for fear of Charles, who by great ytthrtes was become fa- 
mom. — But when the Emperor would not obey the Topers pious warnings , but 
ufed Tyranny in the Eaft againft the Orthodox , then the Pope anathematized 
him as a known declared Heretick, and exhorted all ha Subje^s in Italy t» 
depart from his obedience. '\ 

Note how Rebellion is the work and flrength of the Roman Papacy: But 
do not our Papifts now difown all this, and profefi themfelves to be the 

Loyalleft Subjects ? 

uinfw. If they do, let them join Reftitution with Confeflion. If the Fa- 
ther feize on another mans Inheritance, and the Son keep it, and difclaim his 
Fathers a£l:, this is but a dead Confeflion. 

But hear the next words in Btnnius, and judge what Doftrine yet they 
hold, \_.^o faEto SancliJJimus Pcntifex clartjjimum pofteris ftifs reliquit ex- 
emplum j ne in Ecclejia Chrifii regere permittantur haretici Principes , f fre- 
^uefiter moniti errori pertinaciter adharefcant.'] That is,BY WHICH FACT 
( depofmg the Emperor in Italy , and abfolving all his Subjefts from their 

Note this ye Princes and Rulers that hear of Papal Loyalty. 

I. It is not lawfiil for them, if they can help it, to permit any of you to 
reign over Chriftians, if they do but judge you Heretical. To tolerate you 
is againft their Confciences, if to depole you be not above their ftrength. 

X. By this Rule you fee, that they were virtual Rebels to moft or many 
Emperors, when they durft not actually rebel, i . When Confiantine the 
Great baniftied Athanafms, it's li]<e they would have taken him for an Here- 
tick. %. Conftantius and Valens being Arrians, the Pope did virtually rebel 
againft them, and depofc them (if then they were of the ftme mind as now.) 
|}. Tbeodfius junior, Zenc, Annfiafus, and other Emperors they virtually de- 
pofed as Eutychians. 4. Jtifiinian the tirft they virtually dcpofed as a Phan- 


their Councils abrid<red. 207 

tajiaftick. J. T/jtlippkus, and many more Emperors are called by them Mc- 
mthelites. 6. Leo and Ccnflantine^ and others, are called IcmocJafi^e. 7. Ma- 
ny Chriftian Princes and States, now are called by them Protejlant or Luthe- 
ran Hereticks. All thefe, they &y, are fuch as may not be permitted , and 
therefore they have interpretatively and virtually rebelled , and depoled 

3. You fee how great a matter this Excommunication is,and how impofll- 
ble it Is, by it for Kings and States to continue long in any right to their Dc- 
minions : For all men err j and while there are fo many Patriarchs,Prclates, 
if not Priefts that hare the power of Excommunicating, all men ma}- expert 
it .• For he that is orthodox in the judgment of one Patriarch, will be a 
Heretick in the judgment of another : while Rome, Confl. AkxatiJ. Antwch, 
Jerufal. are lb fcldom of one mind. If with the repenting Lollard (, aforc- 
6id ) you will fwcar to hold that for Error which the Archbifhop of York 
(aith is (uch, perhaps the Archbifhop of Canterbury may be of the contrary 

mind : Tho(e called Adrians, Neff^orians, Eutychians, Alenorhehtes, Icottoclafisj 'ti 

&c. have in their turns had moft of the known Chriftjan \\'orld. And 
he that is Excommunicate by one, muft be received by none. 

4. But if it be the Popes prerogative, that though more may Excommu- 
nicate Kings and Emperours, none but he can Jepofe them, and difobhge all 
their Subjcils, it's pity but thole Princes that are in love with fuch a Papacy 
fliould know by experience what they love : For he that will take Satan for 
his Ruler, mull bear the inconveniences of his Government. 

5'. You (cc here how the Empire was weakned, and lb expofed to tlie 
Turk \ even by the Rebellion of Rome cutting oft the Wejtem Empire from 

6. And you lee what true Subje^ls they were to the Arrian, Gothijh Kings, 
at Rome, Spain, &cc. who would have depoled them if they could. What 
wonder if the Goths kept down the Pope. 

§ 6. In theft times the Pope met with an Englifl) Birtiop Wilfrid, who ex- 
traordinarily flattered and adored him, and he accordingly made him B"lliop 
of Alentz,, and his great agent { even about this forclaid Englifh Council 
which was to let up Church-Imag(;s ; ) and recommended him to many 
Chrirtian Princes: And why was a.l this ? and what was liis rare mer't ? He 
took this Oath to the Pope ( Bin. p. 1 7 8 j [_ ' ' In the name of the Lord Je- 
' *■ ff/s ChriJ} our Saviour, tnthe Reign of Leo the great Emperutr 5cc. / Boni- 
* * (icc,Btjhop by the Grace of God,do Promtje to t/jec,Tctcy, Prince of the A:o- • 
' ^ ftles,and to thy Vtcar Pope Gvcgpry and hisSuccc^ors, by the Father,Scn and 
' ' Holy Ghf.j}, the infeparable Trinity, and tbis m:fi Holy Bo.'y cf thine, that 
' ' I wdl exhibite all faith and purity of holy CathoUck faith, and in un:iy of 
' ' the fame faith, God operatifig. Will perfiit, m which all the fal-vaitjn cf 
' ' Chrifiians is pro'vcd undoubtedly to conffi ; and will no way ccn'hit, 
' ' whoever perfwadeth me,ngamji the unity cf the common and unrocrfal Churchy 
' ' but, as ffaid, will exhibite my faith and purity and concourfe to thee and to 
' '■the Profits of thy Church, to whom by the Lord the Power of binding and 

" hofi'^z 



208 Church-Hijhry of (Bijhops and 

" loojmg is given , a?)d to thj aforesaid J^icar and hU SuccejTors in all things^ 
"&C.J - ' 

Nothing is more mciitoncn:s wltli a Pope, or any Prelate of that Spirit, 
thaii to be ahfolutcly dcvctcd to him, and (wear obedience to him : Indeed 
they that are fiilly ful'.cn from God ( as Satan is \ would be as Gods to the 
world themlclves, and have all men depend upon them,and obey them. 

§ 7. \'\'har Arguments moved the Emperor to be againft Images, (fpecial- 
ly the xd Commandment ) and how Gregory thought that it was not the 
Images of God and Chrill,and Angels and Saints that were forbidden, you 
may lee in his Epifilcs too long to be here recited. 

§ 8. Here Bimiius inferteth three Roman Councils. One curfmg unlaw- 
ful Marriages. Another perluading Corhwianus to keep his BilTioprick, who 
would fain have laid it down. And a third for Images, againft the Icmoclafts 
( the Emperor's Herefie. ) 

§ 9. Gregory 3d fucceedcth Gregory xd. He lendeth his Epiftles for 
Images to the Emperor. The firft Meflenger durft not deliver xhem. The 
reft were ftopt at Stctly, and kept Prilbners. Tiie Lombards infefted Italy 
and Rome. The Pope importuneth the French King for help. Al^honfus is 
made King in Sfam againft the Saracetis, and firft called himfelf [^Catholick 
e^ Kmg.'] Two^Councih-,B/«»«« laith,were held at Rome for Images. The 
Title of the lecond is, [ Pro Imagi'iumCuUii, for the Worllilp of Images : 
yln. jT^x. Image- wcrfhip was then avowed. But the £<?/?«•« Churches did 
more obey the Emperor. 

§ 10. Pope Zachary coming mxt, in whole time Italy was diftrefled by 
Luitfrmjdiis King of the Lombards, who took four Cities from the Pope, be- 
caule he protected Trafr/nimdui Duke of Spoleto : The Romans helped Trafi- 
mtmd, on condition he would reftore to them the four Cities ; he performeth 
not his promile : wherefore Pope Zachary turned to Luitpand, and to win 
him, S^lntaria nil pradicavitflkiih j'JnafiaJiiis j and he promifcd him to re- 
ftore the four Cities. For the performance whereof, this Pope travelled to 
him himfclf, ( noted by AnaflajiHs as a great a6i: of (elf-denial, as venturing 
his life for the Caufc of God, that he would go to the King to ask for four 
Cities ) which he happily obtained. 

§11. In this Pope''s time the Crown of France was tranflatcd from the 
King and his Line, to a Subjc6f, his AJajor Domus. 

Charles Martell the great French Conqueror was the Pope's Patron againft 
the Emperor who was his Sovereign. Gratian. d. 16. <^. i. pos} Can. 5- 9] 
tells it us as a m.atttr ofChurch-crcdit,that when he was dead,he was damned 
to Hell ( much blood, and defending Pcpes that rebel against their So'vereign 
arc a very lilcciy prooh ) Carolumanjms fticcecdcd him, who, after two years 
Reign, rcfigncd his Crown, and chole a Monaftery. Chilperic that came 
ahei-, proved very dull and jaiftial, and giving himl'elf to Iiis pleafijre, let 
the biiiincls of Govcrr.mcnt lie moft on the hands of Pepin , who was his 
Major Domiis., who theieby got the poiver and the rej^ecl that was proper to 


ti?eir Coioicils abridge J. 209 

the King, while the King grew into contempt. ('And if Kings cannot keep 
up their Power and Honour by the meer dignity of their place , without 
ferfonal worth and perform am c-^\i\\y (hould Popes,Prelates and Priefts,(whore 
Power and Honour, as a Phylicians, depend upon their Worth and Work ) 
expect to keep up their Power and Honour mccrly by their Offices? ) Vefm 
won firft the Nobles of Frimce^ and then the Pope ; For, as Baromus and 
Binnius (p. 197.) tell us, '■'■^It feemed to the m oil Potent Fepm (Major 
" Domus) (*) and to the reft of the chief Mat, and to all the People, that / » 1 j^^^ 
" he that had not the Matter and Force of the Kingdom , flmuld not have wonder. 
" the name of a King ; and on the contrary, he that bad the Riches, Power 
" and Virtue, jhould aljoha've the name of King: And hecaHfe thefe Princes 
" and People were Chrtfiiam, they judged that thefe their Councils would net' 
" ther fiand ratified to Pofierity, nor be acceptable enough to God, imlefs they re' 
"ceived Authority and Force from the common Father and Paftor of the 
" Chrtflian Church, the Ficar of the Lord Chriit , and Succejfor of St. Peter. 
" Therefore they fend Legates to Rome to Zachary,of whom Bijlwp Burchardus 
" Hcrbipol. was the chief, who were to ask the things aforefaid cf him. He 
" confentcd, and decreed, and wrote back, that Chilperic being thridt into a 
" Monafiery, ( * ) St. Boniface Jljould declare and anctnt Pepin Kmg in Ger- ( * ) V^'crc 
" many atid France : Bonifiice, Bi^iop of Mcntz, obeyed Pope Zachary , and notMonks 
" by the Authority of the See ApoftJic, depcfed Chilperic, ( called al/o Childc- ^^^^^ j,"^" 
" ric ) and placed Pepin /;; his fead. Thus JeginLart tn Fit. Car. Adcg. 
" Annal. Franc, an. 7fl. Paul. Diac. li.ix. Adarianus Scotus It. j. Rtgmo 
^^ li. 1.. an.j\^. Sigtbert in Chron. Lambert in HiH. Germ. Otho Frifng. 
"//. 5-. XI. Ado. aiate 6,fol.xi'}. Aimoinus li.^ c. 65',&c. Tea (lay ihey) 
" the Hereticks of our times deny not the Hiflory. — But they fijor ply imfugn two 
" circumftances : Tbefirit is, that it w.is a great wrong to Chilperic, that the 
"Kingdom was taken from him : The [econd, that the laid Iranjlation was 
" made by the confent of the Council, Nobles and Ccmmcns, without the Autba- 
"rity of the Apcjiolic Seat *. Scrarius prcveth that the canje of the Tranjla- * jf ..q^ 
" tion of the Kingdom was ju^. 1 . Becauje all the btH men did d(f;e and will 
" wif} it, and did by their cotmjd and help co-operate to it. x. Bccaiife St. needs 
" Btjhop Burchardus did,as Legate, follicite thePopefcr it. 3. Pope Zachary t^*'*^ ^^'^ ^ 
" commanded it to be done ; 4. And the moft Holy Boniface at the Ptfi^s f^ j^j^j ^ 
" command did execute it. f. And being appro-oed hy Divine Tifiiminy, it work, 
" e recited m the [acred Cations, i ^. q. 6. c. alius. 6. And by none cf the ' th^t you 
" old Hiftorians not praifed, or difallowed : Only cur new Hereticks,tbat love '" y h^^'C 
" No-velty, Arrogance and Rebellion by their pcr-jerfe judgment by Ccntumilies V, ,},(. 
"andLyes dijallow it. And that it was by the Auibority of the Apcfoi.ck l-.kc; take 
*^ Seat, that the Kingdom w.is tranjlated from Chilperic to Pepin, tit fere- ^^' 
^^faid Hifiorians do jo exprejly jay, that it's a wonder with what front the in- 
"no-vating Hereticks dare call it in rjutfrion. Lf.frly, It is btre to be r.oted,that "^^ 
" It was by thts jame Pope Zachary that the nommanin or p^fiulation of Bijlieps 
*^for the "vae.int Churches m his Kingdom, was granted to King Pepin. Tlere- 
*'■ fare if elfewhere you read that the Kmgs <>/ France gtve Bishops to the Chrrches, 

E e . " rcMtinber 

2 10 

Church-Hifto)-y of 'Bijhps ajid 

" remember that it is nut dene by thetr o-um Right, but by the Grant of the 
" Afoftolick Seat : In "cam therefore do the innovating Herettcks glory in this 
" Argument, who endeavor tofubjetl the Church to Kings. ] So far Bmnitis 
^ after Baruniiis. 

§ 1 1. From tills Story and tlicfe words, let the Reader think how to an- 
fwer thefc Queftions. 

.^ueji. 1. Had not Kings need to take heed of making any one man too 
great, if grcatneG and exercile of Government, give him fo much right to 
the Kingdom ? 

J^. 2.. Had not Kings need to look to their manners, for their Crowns 
ftke, as well as their Souls; if Lull, Senliiality and Dulnefs forfeit their King- 

^t. g. Did not Wars and weakning of the Empire make a great change 
with Popes, when they that were (ct up anci banilhed at the Emperor's plea- 
fiire, can now firft depolc the Emperor iii lie I'/est, For being aguinll: Images 
and Pcrfecuting, and then can tranilate tliC Crown of France ? 

^u. 4. Was not an ambitious Pope .; fit Tool for Ve^m and his Con- 
federates to woi-k by, to put a pious glofi on their Confpiracy ? 

=5.'/- f- Did not the Pope rile thus by (erving the turns of Confpirators, 
and of Princes in their quarrels with one anotlicr ? 

^/. 6. Arc Subjects Judges when a King's Sins make him unworthy of 
the Crown ? 

^H. 7. Yea, is the Pope Judge, and hath he power to depoft Kings , if he 
judge themiuch Sinners, and unfit for Government ? 

^. 8. Is it a good Reafbn that a King is juftly depofcd, bccaule Good Men 
and Holy Bifliops are the Dejirers and Fromaters of it ? 

.^«. c). Would not this Reafbn have (crved Maximrts againfl Gratian ? 
Was it not Cromwel's Plea ? If he had but had the Pope and People on his 
fide, you fee how it would have gone. 

^1. 10. Is it the mark of an Innovating Herctlck, tofay f;&.rf the Church 
Jhould be fubjeif to Kmgs ; when Faid and Feter laid it of all Chriftians lb. 
long ago? 

^1.11. Is it a Note that Prorcdants love Rebellion, becaule they are 
againfl: Popes depofing Kings ? Or is there any heed to be taken of the words 
of impudent Revilcrs, that dare fpeak before God and Man at this race? Is 
depofing Kings the Papifl:s freedom from Rebellion, and is our oppofing it 
a chararkr of Rebels ? 

i^<. I 2. Is it any wonder that Bifliop Burchardfis dcfircd it , and that 
Bilhop Bonif^.ce executed the Pope's command,who had been tranflated from 
Enghi-id by liim to luch dignity, and had fwom Obedience and Service to 
him ? 

,^. I 3. Is it any v/ondcr that the Pope made thefc BiOiops Saints? 

^/. 14. I hope they were really godly Men : But is it any wonder that 
fcaie TOod Ivlcn at liich atiraeas.that, did think it had been for theintereft 


thciy Councils ahriched. 

21 I 

of Religion, to have all Power in the Clergies hands, cfpecially being them- 
felves Bilhops that were to have Co great a fhare? How few Billiops are 
afraid of too much power, or ever do refufe it I 

^. If. If the King of France had his Kingdom by the Pope's gift, what 
wonder if he had the power of nominating Bifliops al(6 by his gift ? 

^. 1 6. \Vhether he that hath power to give , hath not power to take 
away, and be not Judge when the Caule is jiilt ? 

r^. 1 7. With what face do Papifts at once make thefe claims,and yet pro- 
fcfs Loyalty to Kings ? 

o^/. I 8. Whether it concern not Kings to underftand on what terms they 
ftand with the Pope and his Clergy , that muft not be fubje^t to them , but 
have power to depofe them ? 

^. 19. If there be any Party among them that hath more Loyal Prin- 
ciples, is it a fign of the concord of their Church, tliat agrecth not in mat- 
ter of Co great moment ? Or a proof that the Pope is tlie infallible Judge of 
Controverdes, that will not determine fo great a Point on which the Peace of 
Kingdoms doth depend ? 

§ I 3. About the fame time they perfuadcd Racbts King of the Lortgo- 
iW^, Succellbr to Li<irpra»J,CoT the love of Religion to lay down his Crown, 
and go into a Monaflery ; Co that Monaft eries are places for the worft and 
the bed: ; lomc too bad to reign, and (onie too good, left they (hould over- 
maftcr the Clergy. 

§ 14. It may be you will think that this Pope Zachary, and his fworn 
Vaflal St. BinifiTce, were fbme very profound Divines, that could by their 
wifdom and piety thus mailer Kingdoms. Doubtlcfi they were zealous Ad- 
vcrlaries to Hcrcfies (except their own ) and SuccelTors of the Hereticating 
and Damning Fathers. Fov Ephi. 10. ( Bin. p. xo6,roy, roi.) Zachary 
writeth to Boniface, to expel Viygtlius from the Church and Priefthood , for 
holding Antipodes, viz. that Sun-Ihine, and Moon-light, and Men are under 
theEarth, as well as here which we call over it. The words are , [^De per- ,^ 
'versa antcn C^ intqua doBrma,qUie contra Dominum (^ Animam [nam locutus 
eB, ficlartficatum ftierit ita eirni ccnfiteri, i^uod alifts Mtindns d^ aln homines 
Jul/ terra Jint, feu Sol d^ Luna ; himc habito Concilio ab Ecckfia pelle Sacerdotii 
honore prii'atum. J That is , " But as to the pert-erfe and imjiijl Dcihine 
" which he hathjpoken againti the Lord and his own Sou!, if it be made clear 
" that he fo confejfcth, that under the Earth there is another world and other 
" Mm, and Sun and Moon ; call a Council, and de prizing htm of the honour 
" of Trnfihood, driz'e him cut of the Church. J That by [ another world J is 
meant Antipodes , or the other fide of the Earth inhabited , is doubt- 

% tf. -i^- I. Did God make Popes to be the Governors of the Antipo- 
des, for lb many hundred years, before they knew riiat there was any Antipo- 
des ? And when they excommunicated and filenced thoft tliat affirmed it ? 

E e i 4L"- 1- 

2 12 

Chtoxh-Hijhry of 'BiJ])Cps and 


^. X. Were thefc Popes and Bifhops Men of fuch wifclom, as were fit to 
hercticate Dillenters as they did ? 

.^.3. Do we not fee here what fome Gjuncils were , and did in thole 
times ? 

.i^/. 4. Do we not fee what HereGe fignified at Rome , and how little 
heed there was to be taken of their outcry againft (bme Hcrelies ? 

J^. 5'. Whether was all the World, or all the Weft bound to avoid Com- 
munion after with Virgiltus ? 

^. 6. Do we not fee here ot what Infallibility the Pope is, in judging 
of matters of Faith, and how happy the World is to have fiich a Judge, and 
of what credit his Heretications and Excommunications are ? 

^H. 7. Do we not (ee how Religion hath been depraved and difhonoured 
by the Pope and his Clergy, calling Good Evil, and the moft certain Truths 
by the name of \_ Per-ver/e and imjuft DoSlrines, again?t the Lord, and Mens 
own Sctf!.i?^ V^'hat heed to take of the(e Mens words, when they feera zea- 
lous againft Sin and Error ? 

§ 1 5. Perhaps you will ask, How could any but Idiots be- fc ignorant ? 
Whither did they think the Setting-Sun went ? Or what did they think the 
Earth ftood upon ? 

^njw. The eafieft things are ftrange to Men that never learnt them ; it's 
pity that it fhould be true, that Lcctantins and other AncientSj yea , ylufiin 
himlelf wsrc ignorant of the Anupv^s; but yet they had_ more Mociefty 
than to hereticate and excommunicate them that affirmed it. Few Bifhops 
had much Phllofophy then. Origen and j^pdhnaris that were moll Philofb- 
phical, had been hereticated and difgraccd it. Clemens and Tatiamts fped 
not much better. Councils had forbid Bifhops to read the Books of Hea- 
thens. Aufiin had a truly Philofophical head, being tlie Father of School- 
Divinity; but he was a.vliJ'iJky!]^- , and had little from his Teachers. You 
may fee in a great Hereticater Thilaflniis, what they thouglit then of the 
courfe of the Sun, by what he faith ot the Stai-s: As it was one Herefie to 
call the Stars by the names of living Creatures, fo- it was another to deny that 
the Stars were Luminaries arbitrar'Jy moved, that by Angels were fet out af 
night to light tlx World, and at morning ret/red inwards , or were taken into 
their place again, as Men fet out lights to the flreet at night, and take them iyt 
again. I confefs that no General Council declared this, ( as they have done 
wor'e things ; } but you fee what kind of Men were hereticated by Pope 
Zachary, St. Bmiface, and St. Fhilafirif/s, and fuch Billiops; and how little it 
fignifieih in fuch Writers, whctlicr you read a Man called a Saint, or a Sin- 
ner ;. an Orthodox Catholick, or Nefafidtfjtmi/s Hareticr/s , as they ufe to- 
^eak : I (peak it only of fuch Men. 

§17. For,Rcadcr,l mull: ftill remember thee, that this Folly, Pride, and 
almofl: Fury, was not the Gcmus or Gharader of the true fpiritual Miniffers 
and Church of Chrift, but of a worldly, ignorant, domineering fort of Men,' 
tjiat made it their bulinels to get Preferment, and have, their wills. God had 



thar Councib abnthcd. i 1 2 

all this while abundance of hiithhil Miniflers that fate down at the lower 
end; and humble holy People, that (et not up themfelves in worldly Gran- 
dure,and came not much on the Stage, but approved themlelves in Iccret, 
and in their (everal Places and Convcrlations to God,(bme Lay-men, (bme 
Priefts, (bme Bilhops, fbme of their names are come down to us in Hiftory,but 
thole are few. They ftrovc not for great Places, nor did their Works to 
be leen of Men, nor looked to Men for their Reward. 

§ I 8. Some of the Canons and Councils of thelc Univer(al Paftors were 
anfwerable to their Excommunications. In /^achary's i ath Epijf/e to his 
Vaflal 5r. Bo»iface,ht: gWi-th him the rcfolution of m.iny doubts. One is, 
[^ After how long time Lard may he eaten ? And it is relblvcd by the Pope, 
T/:at there is yet no Canon or Law for this by the Fathas , but he iktammtth 
himfelf i . That it naisl n&t be eaten before :t be dried in the fmoke, or boiled, 
( or bafled ) with foe : But if yon lift to eat it raw^it muff be eaten after the 
FeaFt of Eailcr. ] Binnius, p. 109. ( What would become of the Church, if 
there were not a Judge of liich Controvei-lies, and an infallible Determiner 
of fuch Queftions ' } 

§ 1 9. CCXXV. I told you before how the Pope commanded Boniface to 
call a Council to ejccf him that aflerted the Antipodes ; I mud next add a 
French Council called by King Carolomatmus, to R<.form the Clergy ( an. 
741. ) and to recover Chrifian Religion, which in the dayes of form tr Prin- 
ces dillipata corruit, being dijff!pated,waf ruined; and to jbew the People how 
they may come to fave their Souh, who haue bctn hitherto deceived by falfi 
Priefis. (They are the words of the King and Council, Biti. p. 110. c. i. } 
^^'here it was decreed that Priefts be not Soldiers, ( unnccellarily : ) That 
they keep not Hounds to go an hunting with, nor Hawks : That every Re- 
ligious Fornicator fliaJl in the Jayl do Pennancc with Bread and Water. If 
the Fornicator he a Pricft, he fhall be ifti (courgcd, and then remain in Pti- 
(bn two years : But it an inferior Clerk or Monk (b fall, he Ihall be whipt, 
and then do Pennance a whole year in Prifon, and (b the Nuns. 

This was Ibmewhat like a Reformation : Had it not been done by a King, 
it might have pad for Herclie. It was at Ratisbonne, Boniface preliding. 
Such another Council called Lcptinenfe, thcve was under Carolomannus. 
Another Council at Rome repeated the oft repeated Canons,to keep BilTiops 
and Priefts from Nuns and from Fornication. 

% ro. An.'j\^. Another Synodits Suc/Jion. under Cbilperic governed by 
Fe/i^«, condemned again Aldebcrt ( that ftt up Croflcs in Itveral places, and 
drew People to himlelf ) and another as Hcrcticks. 

§ ^I. Another Council in Gf>-;«(7w;', «». 745-. handfomly fet Boniface the- 
Pope's Agent in the Aichblfhoprick of Alentz,. Firft Geroldus the Arch- 
bifliop is lent out againft the Saxcns with an Ai'my, and he and moft of them 
killed: Then Gfrz;/7w his Son, a Lay-man, is made Archbifhop toc<mforr 
him. At another War he pretends a Conference with him that kil.'a his 
Father, and murders him ; this is paft by as blamelels : But Bmiface l.'iith. 
That a. Man that had hu band in Blood, nuts} not be a~Bifiiop \ and lb gcJ 


2 I 4 Chuich'HiJJory of 'Bijhops mid 

him out, and was made the chief Archbifliop of Germany himftlf in his 
place. Judge whether lie Icrved the Pope for nousrlit. 

§ XI. Yet Boniface had not done with the two Hereticks , AUebcrt and 
Clemats, a Frtvc/j man and a Sect. Boniface fcndetli to Rome (Bin. p. a 1 6. J 
to dcfire the Pope, that as hehadhimlelF condemned tiielc two Hereticks,the 
pope would alio condemn them, and caft them into Prilbns , where none 
might (peidc with them. (Thus the Pope obtained his Kingdom, -and edi- 
fied the Church. The motive was, that Boniface profecuting them, had fuf- 
fcrcd much for their lakes, the People laying that he had taken horn them 
holy Apollolick Men, (but this was not a Prilbn. } Tlic Crimes which he 
chargeth on Aldebert a Bifhop are , that he was an Hypocrite , ( an open 
Crime .' ) that he had laid an Angel appeared to him, and he had lome r^re 
Reliquei, and that he laid he was Apollolick, and wrought V\'onders ; that 
he got Ibme unlearned Bifliops to make him a Bifhop ablolutely , againfl: the 
Canons. He would not conlecrate any Church to the memory of an Apoftle 
or Martyr j and fpake againfl viluing in Pilgrimage the Temples of the 
Apoftles : He made Churches to his own honour, and ftt up Oratories and 
CroHes up and down, and drew People from other BilTiops to himlelf That 
he gave his nails and hair to be honoured with the Saints Reliques , and 
would not hear Confcllions, faying he knew their fins already. J If all this 
was true, ( which I know never the more for this Accufation ) he feemed an 
Hypocrite indeed, but whether an Herctick, I know not. 

The 5fo? Hcretick is accufed as denying the Church Canons, and the 
meaning of Ibme Fathers, delpifing the Synods Laws, laying that he may 
ft ill be a Bifhop (for lb he was) though he had two Sons, ( in Adultery, 
laith Boniface, perhaps in Marriage ; ) and ( as he faith ) holding that a 
Man may marry his Brothers Widow, and that Chrift at his Defcent deli- 
vered all Souls out of Hell. ] TOb was a foul Error indeed , if truly 
charged. Thefc were charged by Boniface and the Roma7i Sjnod , to be 
forerunners of Antichrifl, ( and how hke are Ahlehert"^ Prctenlions to ma- 
ny Rom,-,n Saints! ) A Pra)'er alio of jil/lcherts was read, in which he pray- 
ed to Angels under fcveral flrange names : Bifhops and Presbyters had Votes 
in this Council, and liiblcribed the Hypocrites condemnation. Bin.f. ai8. 
But there is no certainty that he named more than three Angels. 

§13. iVfp/'w the xd was chofen Pope by ALL THE PEOPLE after 
Zacharj, and dyed four days after fuddenly. 

§ X4. Stephen the ^d was chofen by all the People ( faith Jnafiafius. ) 
Aijhd^hus , King of the Longobanis, tlireatned Rome, took their Gifts, and 
demanded their Subjetflion. The Pope {^hcr Gregory ihc xd's Rebellion j 
was glad to fend to the Emperor, to crave an Army to five Rome and Italy ; 
when he could get no help fi'dim Ccnfia?it. he ftnt to Pepin King of France. 
One that he had made King by Rebellion, was obliged to help him, and by 
an Army forced Aifiulfhits to coveifjtnt to reflore Ravenna, and many other 
Italian Cities, ( not to the Emperor, whole Agent claimed his right,and was 
denied by Fepn j ) but to the Pope, ( to reward him, and get the pardon of 


their Councils abruhcd. 

2 I 

his fins. ) Aijiulph;:s broke his Covenant?. Fefm with another Army forceth 
him to deliver them, and rerurneth. yiijiulpbus dyeth ; Dejzderitis a Captain 
by Ufiirpation invadeth the Kingdom, RaJcbis that had been King before, 
and went into a Monaftery, and the Nobles of the Longobards rchll the 
Rebel. He lendeth to the Pope, offering him ail that he could delire ( more "fs 
Cities ) to help him : The Pope maketh his own bargain with him,as he did 
with Tepln^ ( and Charles Alartell before ) and by the help of the Fraicb^ 
fetleth the Rebel DefiJerius in the Kingdom. Pepin maketh a Deed of Gift 
of all the forcfaid Cities to the Church of Rome, ( U'^as this Covfij»tine\ 
Gift ? j He gave away another Mans ( the Emperor's ) Dominions , and 
with DefideriniS additions, now the Pope is become a Prince. 

§ 14. CCXX\ 111. \\'e come now to a great General Council of 5^58 
Bifhops at Cotifiantmople, Ati. J^^. under Ccnjhmine Coprcnjmus againltthe 
worlhiping of Images: The Advcrfaries of it will not have it called the ^cYi}" c^' 
7th General Council, bec.iufe divers Patriarchs were abfenr, and it decreed, Pc, 
(ay they,againll the Truth. Tljey not only condemned the vwr^iiping of Ima- Cr.jl-'jc 
get, and Gcrmanns Conftantinus, Georgius Cyprius, Jo. Damalcenu.«,<w</ other /'■4S^- f^Y " 
M'orjhipcrs of tbc-^:, as Idolater s\ hut deflrojed the Relit>uis of Martyrs , /md ^p^^'.^^ ^^ 
exahed an Oath of Men ( by the Crofs,and the holy Euckariii ) th,it they hux. B-'n- 
womU never adore Images, but execrate them as Idols, nor ever pray to the ho- mus con-- 
ly Apiftles, Alartyrs, and hkjfed Virgin, (aith Baronifn znd Bi/inius,p.z^^. futcth 
But the 1 5-th anii 1 7th definitions of this Council recited in the id Kicene "^' 
Council, fhcw that they were not fb free from praying to the Virgin Alary 
and Saints, as we could wifh they had: For they decree we mull craze her 
mterceffions, and theirs ; but they forbad praying to their Images. 

§15". TheA<3sof this Council f not plcaGng the Advedarles ) are not 
delivered fiilly to us ; b\it it fell out that their Decrees are repeated word by 
word in the id Niceuc Council, and lb prefcrvcd. 

§ 1.6. There is oneDortrinal definition of this Council, owned alio by 
their AdverCiries the id Coned. Nicen. which by the way I will take notice 
of, about the glorified Body of Chrill, ( and confcqucntly ours after the Re- 
liuTcclion ) that it is a BjJy but not Flefly, Bin. p. 378. defin. 7. " [ Si^^^ras 
*^ non cctffefftts fuerit Domintim mftrum yejum Chrtfium poH ajjumpttonem 
" animatiC, raticnala Cf intelleBualis Caniis Jimid (edere cttm Deo (^ Vatre, 
*' at(^Me ita t^tw^ae rurjrts 'venturmn cum Patema Aiajefiate, judicaturiim i';-.', .f 
" df mortuos, non amplius qui<lem Carnem, neqtie iticorportum tamen iit -videa- -CD 
" tur ah Its d efuib»s compunihts eft, <ir mamat Deus extra craffitudmer,} car- 
"■ nis,^lnathema. J To which faith the Niccne Council by Epiphani/rs, 
[" Hue ujtjMe reife fentiimt &■ Valrum traditionibus convenientia dicimt, &c. J 

Two forts I would have take notice of this : 

I . The Tapifts, who fay that the Bread is turned into Chrift's z'cry FIt(Jj, 
when he hath no very Flcfh in Heaven : And therefore the meaning muft be 
of the Sacramental Sign, that it is the Reprefeutation of that real FAj7j of 
Ghrift which was laaibccd on the Ciols. 

^.. Same 

1 1 6 Church-Hijhry of 'Bijhops and 

r. Some prejudiced Pr(jfe/?/i»fi that think he that faith, [^OurBodia (a?id 
Ckrifis ) in Htavcn, will net be Fhjh and Blood formally and properly fa cal- 
led, hut Jpiritiial glorious Bodies j doth (ay Ionic dangerous new afiei'tion j 
liich grols thoughts have grofs heads of the heavenly ftate. To thcle I fay, 
I. You contradi£t the exprefs words of God's Spirit, i Cor. i^. Fleflj and 
Bleed ca?mot enter, 8cc. That it is meant of Fomial Flcfh andBlood,and not 
Metaphorical ( Sin ) is plain in the G^ntext , Ice Dr. Hammond on the 
Text. X. Give but a true deHnition of Fh^j and Blcod,u\^ it will convince 
you of itielf. 3. You (cchere that you maintain an Opinion wliich thefe 
two ( even adverft ) General Councils anathematized. 

%ij. By this Council we may fee, how little General Councils fignifie 
with the Papijls, cither as to Infallibility, Authority, or prefcrvation of Tra- 
dition, longer than they pleafe the Pope. As to their Objcdlion, that call it 
Pfeudo-fepiimum, that the Pope was not there ; I anfwer i. No more was he 
by himfelf or Legate at the Hrft of Confiant. called the id General Council, 
as Bitmius profefleth. i. Is not the Church the Church, if the Pope be not 
there ? Then he may choofe whether ever there fhall be more General Coun- 
cils, ( as indeed he doth. ) 

§28. CCXXIX. ^n.jtj6. King Pf^iw called a Council in Fr<7«c«, decla- 
ring that things were (o far out of order, that he could attempt but a partial- 
Retormation, leaving the reft till better times. The fii-ft Canon was , that 
Cj" eveiy City have a Bifliop ; of old Tmhn , lignified every fuch Town as our 
Corporations and Market-Towns are : And by all the old Canons and 
Cuftoms ( except (ome odd ones ) every fuch Town of Chriftians was to 
have a Bifhop ; and in VJorygia, Arabia, 8cc. the Villages had Bifliops, ftith 
Socrates, &c. And in many places the Villages had Cborepifcopos, which Fe- 
tavius ( Atmot. in Epifhan. Artan. ) fiiUy proveth were true Bipops. And 
yet then the moft of the People in moft Countries were without the Church; 
lb that then a Church was no greater than was capable ot perfbnal Com- 

Here this King (^being m.ulc by the Pope ) ib far gratified the Clergy,as 
to decree that Contemners of Excommunication fliould he h^niflied. And 
no-w the Keys do fignifie the Sword, and Church-Difcipline is made another, 
tiling than Chrift had made it. 

Tlie I ^th Cap. is. That no vacant Bifliop meddle in another Biftiop's Parifli 
without his content, ( by what true authority then can the Pope meddle in 
other Mens Dioccfles, fince the foundation of his humane authority in the 
Empire is fiibvcrted? ) 

Tiie 1 4th C.i/'.dccrced,That Men may u(e Horfcs and Chariots for Travel 
on the Lord's-day, and get Meat and Drink, d^c. but not do common 

The I 7th, That no C'erk try his Gaufe before a Lay-Judge, without the 
B;flKjp''s leave. 

§ 19. Pope Stephen dy'ng, in the divifion at the next choice, (by all the 
People} the ftronger part chole ?»?w//« a Deacon, CCXXX. in his time ;i 


their Councils abridged. 2 1 7 


Gil man Council condemned Oathmarm , Abbot of St. Galliis, for Inconti- 
nence, and put him in Prifon, where he dyed of Famine j as Hiftoiians (ay, 
malicioufly upon felfe accufation. 

§30. At this time the G?fe/I/ accufcd the RcwiTH/, for adding the word 
[ Filiocfue ] to the Creed : And about that and Images, they lay there was <^ 

lome Synod at a Village called Gcntiliace. 

§31. Pope Tiiul dying, and the People having ftill the choice , he that 
could get the greateft ftrength was in hope of fo rich a Prey : And Cmftan- 
tme. Brother to one Duke Toto, g^ "ing the ftrongcll Party, by fear compel- 
led George Bifhop of Tranefttm, with two more Bifliops, to make him Pope, 
( being hrll ordained Deacon, ) he poflefTcd the Popedom alone a year and a 
month : Then one Chrifiopher the Primcceriuj,zi\d his Son Scrgius being pow- ^ 

crfii), got out to the King of the Longobards, and craved his help againft 
Conjiantine as an IKiirper ; and gathering (bme ftrcngihgot into Rome, killed 
"loto ; and caufed Ccn/f amine the Pope, and another Brother Vajji'vus to take 
Sanftuary. OntJVaUifertus a Presbyter was of Cl.-rifopie/sVany, and to 
make halle,without Chrifiophers knowledge, he gathercth a Party, and they 
make one Fhilip fa Presbyter) Pope. ( So thcie were two Popes. ) Chrific- 
pfoorus incenfed, fwore he would not enter Rome, till Fhi/tp was puU'd out of 
the Bifhop's houft ; which Gratiofus, one of his Party, prefcntly pcrformcth, 
and Phtlip returncth to his Monaltery. Chrijlophorns callcth the Clergy, Peo- 
ple and Soldiers together, and ( by his means ) they chufe another Stephen, 
{ and fb there are three Popes. ) The Actors being now in their Zeal, go 
to Theodorus a Bilhop, and VtcedommMs that joined with Pope Ccnflt:t7tiTie^AV\<i 
they put out his eyes, and ait out his tongue. Next they attempted the like 
€Xcaecation on Paffivus. Bilhop Theodore they thruft into a Monaftcry, and 
there (while hccryed for a little vratcr ) they famithcd him to death. PaJJi- 
vus they put into another Monaftcry. They took all their Goods and Pof- 
(effions. Pope Ccnflantine they brought out , and fct on Horftback on a ' 
Womans Saddle with Weights at his Feet, and put him into a Monaftcry, 
( How holy then were Monafteries ! ) Sliortly after they brouglit him forth , 
and Pope Stephen and (bme Bifliops dcpo(c-d him. Then the Citizens were to 
make their penitent Confellions tor owning him. Ke.\t the Army gocth to 
^Jatrum in Campania, where Graeilis the Tribune that had been for Coi- 
y?<?nr;«e is apprehended, brought bound to /^owc, imprilbned , and after his 
eyes put out, and his tongue cut out. After this, Gratiofus and his Zealots 
go to the Monaftcry where they had thruft Pope Conflantim; and drag him 
out, and put out his eyes, and leave him blind in the ftrcct. Next, they o;o 
to their own Friend Prieft JVah!ipertus,and feign that l.c had laid a Plot with 
the Lcngohards to kill Chriflophtr, and (end to apprehend him , and when he 
fled for Sanctuary to a Temple, they drew him out with the blefted Virgins 
Image in his hand (' even then when they were rebelling for the fake of 
Images ; ) buttlrat would not (iive the Prieft, (bccaule he let up Vhilip for 
Pope ; ) they thruft him into a filthy Dungeon-hole, but that was too good 
for liim : In a few days they drew him out, and cafting him on the carih,j'!nt' 

F f out 

2 I 

Church- Hifiory cf 'Bijhops and 

out his eyes, and cut out his tungue, and put him into an Hofpital, where he 
dyed of the pain. And now Pope Stephen had, no doubt, a lawtul calhng to 
be Pope. He fends his Lcgats to the King of France. He brings torth 
blinded Pope Con/Iantme to anfwer for his Crime,who falling flat on the earth, 
he lamcnteth his lin as more than the Sands on the Sca-ihore , and profelleth 
^ that the People chofc and forced him to be Pope, bccauie of their fiiflcrings 
* under F/iul : But at his next appearance he tells them, that he did no more 
than many other Lay-men did, who invaded Bilhopricks ; as Sergtus Arch- 
bilTiop of Ravenna, Stephen Bifliop of Naples, &c. when they heard this, ail 
the Priefts caufcd him to be bufteted, and call him out of the Church , and 
burnt his Papers, d^c. And the moll holy Pope Stephen call himlelf on the 
earth, with all the Prieils and People of Rome, and with tears lamented their 
fin, that they had taken the Communion from the hands of Pope Cotijiantine, 
( it fecms it is a lin to communicate with Bilhops that are brought in irregu- 
f5" larly by fecular Power without due Ele5lion, and they are po Schilmaticks 
that refufe It. ) And (b they all performed their Pennance for h ,~^najiaf. in 
ejus 'Vita. 

§ 3 1. CCXXXI. On this great occafion Pope Stephen ( being far unable 
now to call General Councils ) fends to the King of France, to entreat him to 
fend (bme wife Blfhops to a Council at Rome, who fent him about a dozen, 
who, with fbme others, agreed againll Covjiantines Eledlion, and fuch other 
for the time to comej and damned a Synod that Conjiantifie had held ; and 
alfb palled their judgment for Images. 

§ 55. But here was a great difficulty, (fuch as often after happened) 
Whether Ccw/?tfwf/we's Papal A£ls were valid ; and the Council dtQ-ccd that. 
they lliould all be void except his Baptizings, and his Confecrattons : And Co 
thofe Pricfls that he Conlccrated, when they were after duely chofeni, officla- 
•^ ted without a new Confecration. Either he was a real Pope, or no Pope. If 
a Pope, then by the Canons Stephen was no Pope, and (0 the Succellion there 
failed. If no Pope, then, i . How come hi-i Confccrations to be valid ? 
X. Are not Presbyter's Ordinations better than a Lay-mans? 5. Then the 
Univcrlal Church had no Head, and fb v/as no Church ( with them ) while. 
Cojjjtimtlne was Pope. 

§ 34. A like Schifhi fell out at Ravetma : The pov/cr of the Magiftrate 
made one Mchael, Scriniary of the Church, (a Lay-man j Archbifhop, thcv 
People being for one Lsc, whom they imprifbned. . He kept the place above 
a year, but by the help of the Pope, and the French, the People role and 
call him out, and brought him Prilbner to Rome, and fct up Lee. 
\ § S)- Chrifropher and his Sow.Sergius were the Captains that had wrought 

this great deliverance to the Church :. And now they plead wlili King Deji- 
derius tor St. "Peter's Rights, as flill zealous for the Pope. The King is angry 
with them, and jealous of their power, and ft'ckcth to dcdroy them,and par- 
ticularly to fit dicir own Pope againll them. They get the Citizens to lland 
by them, and the King cometh with an Army. The Pope feeing which was 
like to be the Ihongcr lidc, in great wif^om went out to the King, and,, after 



their Coimcils abridged. 2 i 

(bme days conference with him, (endetli 10 Ch-ifiofhcr to render hinifelf ro 
the King. The Citizens hearing this, forfbok Cbrijhpher and Sergius ; Gm- 
tiojr/t ( feeing they were deferted by the People through the Pope ) went 
out firft to the King and Pope, and Scrgiirs next , and Chrijtophcr laft. The 
Pope was Co kind to them that made him Pope, that he made them Monks, 
and put them in San£l:uary in St. Feter's Church to (ave their lives : But thev 
had y/(/c«;Jc't.f/fe'sjul1:ice, and were fcon drag'd out thence, and C/jnJfopIxn 
eyes put out, of which he dyed. But Sergitts was awhile a Monk, and 
then t'hruft in the Laterane Cellar. Thus went the matters of the Univcr- 
fal Monarch at Rome. 

§ 36. A little before the Pope's death, 5crg;;.7x was fetcht blind out of tlic 
Cellar, and kill'd ; the next Pope (carcht out the Authors, and found them 
to be Yaulus Ciihicularitis, and the laft Pope's Brother, and other great Men ; 
and he prolccutcd (bme of them to Banimment, but die Archbilhop of Ra- 
■vc?wa caufed Paul to be killed. 

§ 3 7. It was Adrian ( a Deacon ) that was then chofen Pope ( Son to 
the chief Man in Rome, ablcll: to efle(5t it. ) Upon theft ftirs, Dcfuiains dcfi- 
rcd h-iendlhip with the Pope ; but he demanding the Cities which Vepin had 
given the Church ( (bme of which Defiderirrs ft ill kept ) and doing the 
fbrelaid juftice on the Friends of De/iderius, he came with an Army and 
killed many, and took many Cities. The Pope urgeth the rellitutlon of all his 
Cities, ( indeed the Emperor's j given him by Peptn ; he ftill dcnicth ; the 
Pope gets Charles of France to come with an Army, for fear of whom the 
Longobttrds flic. The Dutchy of Spoletum, and other Cities , yield thera- 
lelves to the Pope, ( and, as a token of fubjeftion, receive tonfure.) Charles 
befiegeth Dejiderii/s in Papia, and forceth his Brother Carloman'i Wife and 
Children that fled to the Longohards, to yield themfelvcs to liim ; while the 
Siege continued Charles went to Rome, and was glorioufly entertained by the 
Pope, and renewed to him Pepin's gift of all the Exarchate ot Ravenna, and 
many Dukedoms and Gties, ( which were none of his own to give ) and 
now tlie Pope is a Prince indeed. And Charles returning to the Siege, con- 
quereth Papia, taketh King DefideruK, and winnetli all the Longohards King- 
dom : And thus Strength gave Right (according to the Athcifts Opinion now 
llirring, that [ Right is nothing hut a power to get and keep. ] Pepin and 
Charles make themfelvcs Kings, and the Pope a Prince j that while they iTiare 
the Emperor's Dominions between them, they might be a ftrciigth to one an- 
other. And Dejiderius being himfelf but an Ufurper, helped by the Pope in- 
to the Throne, no wonder if when intcreft changed, the lame haHd^afcr him 
down. How Charles his Brother Caroloman dyed, and why his Wife and 
Sons fled from Charles to the Longohards, and what became of them , is not 
well known. 

§ i%^o^cAdrian the ift thus made a greatcrPrlnce than any before him, 
did greater works than they h.id done, and oh nimium amorem Sand: Petri, 
df ex inj^iraticne Dmina, built many great and ilately Buildings , madv- all 
places about liis Palace, Baths, <^c. tit for fplendid pomp and pleafure , and 

F f X aU 


Church-Hijlory of (Bijhcp and 


all this from mccrfclf-denlal and holineG: Many Churches alfb he repaired 
and adorned, and did many other fuch good works. 

§ 39. This great y4<y>-w» was before but a Deacon. I have oft mar- 
velled to read that Deacons were (b ordinarily then made Popes, ( and Ibme- 
times Lay-menjwhen yet the old Canons required an orderly rlfing through 
f^ 'the (everal degrees. It was no wonder that then a Deacon at Rome was a 
far higher preferment than a Billiop : For a Deacon ( and a Pried ) might 
be chol'en Pope, but a Blfhop could not : For of old ( when Diocefles and 
Pariflies were all one ) the Canons decreed that no Bifhop fliould remove to 
another Church, ( except being Confccrated by others, he never contented 
nor had pofleffion ; ) (b that every Bifhop muft live and dye in the place 
■Where he was firft Ordained ; Co that Rome , Conlf. Alex. Jntioch, &c. and 
all the great Seats choie either Deacons, Priefts, or Monks to be their Patri- 
archs and Bifhops. No wonder then,if as Nazianzen (aitli, 0>at. j . it was 
the cuftom to have almoft as many Clergy-men in every Church as People, in 
tcgard of the prefent Honour, and the future hopes of Preferment. Indeed 
he carried it that had the greaieft Friends, which was as commonly the Dea- 
con, as tlie Prieft or Archdeacon. By which we may conje£lure,whether the 
worthieft Men were made Popes : For if they were the worthieft, why were 
they by former Popes never made higher before than Deacons ? Did not the 
Popes know the worthieft men ? 

And if a breach of the Canons in Ele£l:Ions nullifie the regular Succefllon, 
by this it is evident, that the Roman Seat hath no (iich Succeflion. 
* § 40. By the way the Reader muft note, that in all the Writings of the 

Popifli Clergy concerning thefc matters, there are certain terms oi Art , or 
Intereft, which muft be underftood as foUoweth, 'viz. 

I. Sanchjfmrrs Papa, the moft Holy Popc,rignifieth any profperous Bifhop 
of Rome, how wicked (bever in his life. 

a. Rex Tkvtijjim:-!!, the moft Pious King, fignificth a King that took part 
with the Pope, and advanced his Opinions and Intereft. 

3. Impcrator SceleratiJJim.'/s, O" Hareticus NefanJits, &'c. a moft wicked 
Emperor, ( or Patriarch, or any other ) and abominable Heretick^ figni- 
fjeth one that was againft the Pope, his Intereft or Opinion. Homo menda- 
cijjimtis, a Lyar,\% one that faith what the Papifts would not have to be true. 
If you underftand them otherwifc, you are deceived { ordinarily. ) 

§41. About the death of Taulus Cubicularius, and others, note , that it 
had long been the way of the Churdi-Canons, to contradiifl God's great Law 
for humane fufety, [^ He that jlieddeth Matts blood, by Alan fliall his blood be 
ped ; 3 and on pretence of being ( more ) merciful ( than God } to entice 
Murderers, Adulterers, and all wicked Thieves and Criminals to make up the 


Church of Chrlft, by decreeing, that inftead of being Hanged, or Beheaded, 
if they would but be Baptized, they fhould but be kept for a time from the 
Sacrament, or do Pcnnance j, and what Villain would not then be a 
Chriftian ? 


their Councils abridged. 2 2 1 


§ 4^. Here arifeth a great Controverfie with Sigiirert, ( a Monk-HIfto- 
rian) and Gm^ww himfelf, which Barovius and Bmnius take u^,ijt2j. the tirft 
fiy,. [ That Charles being at Rome,a Council there with Pope Adrian gax-e him 
the power of chujing the Tcpe,and ordering the Apoftoltck Seats; and all BiJIiops 
and Archbi^ops in all Provinces, to receive InVefiiture from him,and that none 
jliould Confecrate aBijhop unlefs he were praifed and invefied bj the King ; and 
that they Anathematize all that rebel agamsi this Decree, and ccnfifcate their 
Efiates if they repent not : But, (ay Baronius and Binniits, thu is a lye, and dt- 
vtfed deceit to flatter the Emperor Henry a Schifmattck. And wliile Chro- 
niclers may have the Lye given them (b eafily by Didenters in matters oHuch 
pubKckFaft:, we are left at great uncertainty in Hiftory, others iis contident- 
ly giving the Lye to the Papal Flatterers, as they do thofe of their own Re- 
ligion that do not pleale them. 

One of the Reaions againft this Decree, is the contrariety of \hc French 
Conftitutions, /. i. r. 84. faying, [^ Not being tgmrant of the facred Canons 
we confented to the Ecclefiaftick Order, to wtt, that Btjliops be chofen by the ^ 
EleBim of the Clergy and PEOPLE, according to the Statutes of the Canons 
out of their own Diocefs, without reJpeH of Perjons or Reivards, for the merit of 
their Ife, and their gift of wifdom, that by eKample and word they may every 
way profit thofe that are under them. 3 

I. This indeed fheweth how Blfliops by the Canons were to be cho(cn, 
even till thcle days of Charles the Great ; he was to be taken for no Bifliop 
that came not in by the Peoples ( as well as the Clergies ) Eicdlion, or con- 
fent at leaft. 

z. But this contradicteth not what Sigihert and Gratian (u)j the Emperor 
might ftill have a negative voice after all, cfpecially as to a Pope ; In very 
deed, the door is (afe that hath divers locks, i. It bclongcth to the Clergy 
and Ordainers to judge who fhall be [A Bijtjop or Mmifter of Sacred things.^ 
a. It belongeth to the Flock to dilcern whom they will accept for THEIR 
Bifhop or Pallor. 3. It belongeth to the Magiftrate to judge whom he will 
countenance or tolerate in that Office. 

§ 45. Paulas Diaconiis theHiftorian was Secretary to DcfJaius the Lcn' 
gobard Kivg;Charles in anger commanded his hand to be cut oft , for doing 
lomewhat for his own King againft him ; the Courtiers added , that hu eyes 
[Iwuld be put out ; wliich made Charles confider and fiiy. If we do but cut off 
his hand, where Jliall ve find fuch another Hifioiian ? 

§44. Conflantine the Emperor now dying, called Cojwaw/WMj ; the P<»^//?j 
call us to take notice what a Leader we follow that are againft the Worfhip 
of Images ; faying that he dyed with the beginnings of Hell-fire, convinced 
of his (m againft the Virgin Mary, and that all his life he loved the fincll of 
dung, and ftinking things; ; ftrong Arguments for I mage- worfhip, as worthy 
as Sigeben's and Gratian s, to be fufpeifled as Lyes , or of little cer- 


Church Hif-ory of Bijhops md 

§ 45'. While Lto Ifaiirus and Confi^ntine livcJ, the Councils ot BJihops 
went with them, and Images went down in the Eaftern Empire : Covfiantine 
dying, his Son Leo fuccceded him, faith Bimiiits, in his Hcryie, hr.piety and 
Sacrilcdge, that is, in his oppolition to Imagc-woifliip, and fiich lii;c. Peta- 
'vipsiluth, he iirft feigned himlelf a Catholick, (that is, tor Images ) but 
after fell oft": His Sacrlledge was, that loving Jewels, he took for himlelf a 
rirh Crown, which Maurue had devoted to the Virgin Alary ; whereupon 
Carbuncles :u-o(c on him, ^nd he dyed : but had not Alatolce himiclf a lad- 
der death ? Thus partial HiiWians feign and apply Judgments. 

§4(5. Irene, Leo i Widow, with her Son Conjtantine a Child, next ruled, 
and, laith Binniiis, God by a Widow and an Orphan Child, by a Wonder , dii 
tread den)n the Impiety that had been fet up, and reflored Religion, that is. 
Images. And indeed Rome's intercft and proper way hath been cliiefly advan- 
ced under H^omen and Rebels. And It Is no wonder if Ire7ie a Moman, and 
her Child, were more for Images than their Predeceflors. Children u(e to 
play with Images, and Womens Fancies are oft not unfuitable to them. I 
think It as obftrvable a matter, as Binnius doth, to note the Inftru- 

§ 47. There are in Binnius the Titles of 44 at leafl: Epiftles of Pope 
^ Adrtath recited : The 3 6th lalth, [//e profejjeth that the Church of Rome 
doth embrace and reverence the Whole fourth Calcedon Council. Remember 
then that the laft Canon is approved, which declareth die realbn of the Rc- 
tnan Priviledges to be becaufe It was the Imperial Seat , and therefore that 
Confiantine fhould have the like, and that it was given it by the Fathers. 
^ Moil or many of them are thanks to Charles for giving St.Feter Co ma- 

ny great Cities and Dukedoms,and Exhortations to him to continue his boun- 
ty. By their ordinary language you would not fufpeft any Selfiflinefi,Pride 
or Covetoufnels in the Popes ; it is bU|t for St. Peter that they defire 

§48. In his Eplftle to Co«/(Zwf;«e and 7rfw, ( the Child and Mother ) to 

• See Hen. entice them to be for Images, , he tells a fabulous Story * of a Vlfion of Con- 

Fotrlis o'i flantines fending him to Silvefler as his Guide , to be baptized of him, and 

Papifts j.g j^g thereby cured of a Leprofie: It w^ Peter and Paul that appeared to 

P. 1 20. ' ^^™ '■> ^"'^ ^^'^ asked Silveftcr whether there were left any Images of Peter 

proving and Paul, which he affirmed, and Ihewed him their PI6lures ; and the Elmpe- 

the whole ror cryed out, 'Thefe are the Aden that appeared to me. And part of their 

f?r^ Meflage to him was, that he fhould bring all the world into the (ubjedlon of 

the Church of Rome. ~\ Was not here a ilrong Argument to a Woman and 

a Child to be for the Pope and for Images, contrary to current Hiftory, ( that 

tells us Conftantine was baptized at Ntcomedia a little before his death, ) and 

without any credible proof Thus the Papal Rome was built. When Adrian 

had given away the Weftern Empire to Charles, yet he thus iiatteretb a 

Woman and Child in the Eaft , as if he had done them no wrong at 




their Cnnnah abridged. 22? 

§ 49. ?,?«/ Bifhop of Ccnjr. having f.vorn againft Images , and re- 
penting, is liiid CO rcliga his place, and to tell them that they mull have a 
General Council ; and TaraJiHs fiiccccding him , being for Images , got a 
promife of a Council. It leems by thcii- Epiltles, though they agreed about 
Images, Pope Adrian and this Tarafvts acculcd each other as (ufpcdlcd of Si- 
mony, (ec Bm. p. x6r. and the Epiftles. Irene knew that Tara/itis was for 
her turn, and Jarajius knew that Iyc7ie was for Pictures ; and (6 between them 
common notice was given abroad before-hand to the Bifhops, ( that lately 
had condemned Image-worfliip, and puU'd them down ) that the Emprels "tS 

3jid the Patriarch were for reftoring Images, and would call a Council to that 
end : and this was enough to prepare the majority of tl^ Bifliops for a liiddcn 

%'yO. Befides a Council at Wormes, An. 771. to little purpolc, Fe^rwr 
hath publiilicd one ot that year at Dingohctnga in Ba'varta under Duke 
Taljilo, which had divers Canons of Equity, and lomc of Superftition ; one 
was, that certain Biihops and Abbots agreed, that wliofbercr dyed firft, tlic 
reft fhould (ing (6 many Ffalms, and get thirty Mafles to be laid. And a 
notable Priviledge is granted to all that will but fcek liberty or Iheltcr in tlie 
Church, that both they and thftir Pofterity fliall be free, unlefi they bring a 
debt undiichargeable on thcmfclvcs. 

§ 5" I . There is by Canijins publiilicd an Epitome of the old Canons (ex- 
cept the Nicefte ) as gathered by this Adrian , and fent to Charles Afag. 
I will recite a few of them, £.v Clem. c. 13. " Let a Bi(l)op, or Presbjter , 
" or Deacon, taken in Fornication, Perjwj, cr Theft, bede^oyd, but not ex- 
" communicate. 

"C. z8. That a Bifijop who ohtaineth a Church bj the SccuIarVoivers be 
" d^-pofed. _ 

" Can.Antioch. 8. Cotmtrey Tresbytcrs may not gi've Canonical Epifiles, but 
" the Chorepilcopi, ( by which it is plain, that the Choreptfcopi were not 
, Presbyters, but fas Pcr^j-z/z/w on Epiphan. Arrim hath well proved) "true- 
" Bipwps. 

" C. II. Tljat condemned Cltrks fliall never be refiored if they go to the • 
" Emperor. 

" Can. Laodic. c. 3 5. \_That no one praf withHereticks or Schifwancks, J -i:i 

( which fccmeth to oblige us to fcparate from the Roman Prelates , who arc 
grievous Schifmaticks, by impolmg things unlawRil on the Churches, andli- 
lencingand perftcuting thofc that obey not their i1nfi.1l Laws. 

Before the C;?«. 5«r(i'/c. he mcntiop.eth the wcakncfs of o'd Ofifff that faivi 
that they were both in the right, who ulcd the word [ of one fuhjl.wce, ] 
ajid \^of the hkeJishfiance. ~\ 

" Can. Sard. i. That a Bijhop that by Ambition cbartgetb bis Seat, fliall r.ot 
** have ( (b much as ) L.ty-communim ( no not ) at the end. 

"C. 14. C. I y. That ?}o Bifhop be above three weeks in another City , nr.r ■»" 

'■^ above tivo weeks from bis cvm Church, ( which implicth iliattach yilliop 
had then his own particular Church. ) 



1 2, 4 Chu.rch-Hilhry of 'Bijhops and 

^ " Can. Afric. c. i 5'. That there be no Rc-baptiz.:ng, Re-ordaimng, nor Tran- 

'■'■ fat tons of B'llmps. 

" C. 1 7. That rf a Bifljop to be Ordained be CmtradiBed, (that is, by any 
objected unfitnels ) " he jhall mt after be Ordained as purged only by three 
" Bijhops, but by manj. 

" C. 1 9. That Dioceffes that -waTits Bijiwps^recei've notK -without the conftnt of 
" the Bi^jop who hitherto held them , ( lb it was ) not proudly ; For if he 
" overbold them-t ( that is, hold them under himftlf alone, when they, need 
more Bifhops ) " afecling to fit over the People,and dejpifing his Fellow-BijJwps, 
" he IS not only to be driven from the retained Diocej]es, but aljo from Im ovm 
" Church : 3 (lb that no proud Bifliops fhould have power to hinder the 
Churches from having as many BifKops as they need. ) 

" C. 6 o. That Bifiops that are of later Ordination , prefume not to fet or 
" prefer themfel'ves before thofe that were befre them. 

" C. 94. Jf a Bijijop, fix months after admo7ntion of other Bi^wps, negleEi to 
" make Catholicks of the People belonging to his Seat, any other fljall obtain them 
^ " that jJiall deliver them from their Her efie : ( that is, Donatifin,or the like; ) 
(b that if one Bifliop negleft the Souls of his People, and another that is 
more able and faithful convert them,they maybe the Flock of him that con- 
verted them, without removing their dwelling. 

" C. 105. T/^at a Bipop jJiall tiot Excommunicate a man on aConfeJfton 
" made only to himfilf: if he do, other Bipops pall deny Communion to that 
" Bifiicp. 

% ^1, Several Gerw^w Councils are mentioned, {ztlVormes, Paderbotne, 
Daria, in which ( by a new example ) Charles Alag. is confirmed to force 
the Saxons to proftfs themftlvcs Chriftians, and to take an Oath, never to re- 
volt : who yet ( doing it by conftraint ) were oft perjured and revolted, till 
at laft their Heathen )Duke JVttichmd became a voluntary Chriftian him- 

§ f 3 . There are 8 o more Canons againft OpprefTors of the Clerg)', fald 

to be coUefted by Adrian, of which one is the old one, " That no Bifwp 

'^' ^^ judge the Caufe of anyPrieil, vi.'hoHt the prefence uf h/s Clergy; becaufethe 

" Bipofs Sentence pall be void, if it be not confirmed by the prefence of the 

" CUrgj. 

Another, " That no Bipop ordain or judge in another s Par if), elfe it pall be 
" void; For we jud^e that no one is bound by thefentence of any other Judge, 
" but his own : ( Who then is bound by the Pope, or any Uftirper, who 
will Excommunicate thole that are not of his Flock ? ) 
^ Another liiith, " [ By a general Sanation we forbid Foreign judgments, 

^''becaufe it IS unmeet that he pould be judged by flrangers,who ought to have 
" Judges of the fame Province, and that are choftn by himfelf. 
otj- Another, [" That no Bipop prefume to judge or condemn any of the Clergy, 

" unlels the accufed Ferjon have lawful Acculers prejcnt, and have place for 
" defending himjelf by anfwering to the Charge. 



their Councils abridged. 


Another, " For Nullifying fuch BiJIjops judgments as are done without due 
" Tryal, hy Tyrannical Power, and not by Canonical Authority. 

Another fairii, " Confiitntions that are contrary to the Canons , and to the ,^ 

" Decrees of the Biflwp of Rojne, or to Good Manners, arc of no moment : 
( which nuUeth even many of the Bifhops of Rome alio , as againlt Good 

Another notable Canon is, " [_ Delator/ aut lingua capuletiir, aut cotnjtHo 
*^ Caput amputetur : Delatores autetn funt ejui ex invidia produnt alios, j That 
is, " Let a Delator s tongue be puli'd out, or if Convicl,his Head cut ojf : Dela- 
" tors are thofe that through ewy betray others ; ( or envious Accufers. j Alas ! 
if our Delators, Calumniators and Informers were thus ufcd now,what abun- 
dance would have fuftered for wronging (onie one Man ? 

Another Canon is, '■'■ If a Man be often in cjuarrels, and eafie ( or for- 
ward ) " to accuse, let no Man receive his Accufatton without great Examina- 
*^ tion ? ( What then will be thought of the iifual AccuQtions of Clergy 
Calumniators, that forSe6ls, and worldly huercft, can reproach others wlth- 
0UC (hame or mcafiire ? ) 

Another is, " That the danger of the "Judge is greater than the danger of 
" him that is judged ; therefore all care muiJ be taken to avoid unjuit judg- 
" ment and punijhments. 

Another is, [_ " Let no Adan receive the witness if a Lay-man againft a 
'''' Clergy-man. J ( And Door-keepers, and Clerks, and Readers , were then 
Clergy-men ; Was not tliis a great privilcdge to the Church ? ) 

§ J4. CCXXXII. We come now to the great General Council at Nice 
xd , called by the Tapifls the 7th, ( that is, the 7th which pleafc-d 
them. ) 

I have before noted that Irene, the \\'idow of Leo, now Ruled , her Son 
Confiantine being Titular Emperor, a Child, under her Government. One 
Staurattus a Senator mod (waycd her, or ruled her. Taitraftus the Patriarch 
joined with her for Images. They call a Council at Confl amino fie. A Gene- 
ral Council and three Emperors ( Leo, Conft. o~ Leb ) had lately condemned ^ 
Images, and taken them down. The Pope and many Italians had refiftcd by 
force. This violence made the Emperor u(e (evcrity againft the Rtfilkrs. 
At Ravenna they killed Taulus the 1 4t!i Exarchate. In Rome they rook Te- 
r«r a Duke, and put out his eyes. In Campania they beheaded £.v/i;7ff<»f.'« 
the Duke, and his Son Adnan,w\\o took the Emperor's part. How the Em- 
peror hereby loft Italy,is before fhcwed. But this Woman J»i»e will do as 
the Pope would have her : She is as much for Pidures as the Pope himfclf. 
She calling this Council at Cw7?rf«;/V;e^.V, the old Soldiers bred up under 
the former Emperors being againft Images, ( ha:re/rn meduhnus tr.hibcranr, 
(aith Rinnius, p. 396.) Would not endure them in Cofiflantimple, but rout- •Qj 

cd them. At which the Emprcfs being troubled, diftiilled the Bifhops till 
they had purged the Army ol- thole old Soldiers, and then flie called the Bi- 
(hops to Nice ; and there ( they knowing their errand betoie-hand) damned 

G c: them- 

2i6 Chwch-Hiftory of 'Bijl^ops and 

themfelves and their Brethren tliat had held the former univerlal Synod, and 
lit up Images again. 

§ 5 5'. By the way, I appeal from Pride and Ignorance, to Chriftian So- 
briety and Reafonjhow the taking down of Images can fin the Roman icnCc) 
a5- be called an Hercfic, unlefs it be an Article of Faith, that Images muft or may 
be u(ed. And can any Man that ever read and beUeved the Scriptirres, and 
the Writings of the firft four hundred years, believe that having or wor- 
fhiping of Imagts,or Saints by Images, is an Article of Faith, or neceffary to 
Salvation ? The beft of them that any Man can plead with Modefty is, that 
they are indifferent, or lawful, znd ulcfijl to (bme Perfbns. The Vafijls tell 
us now that they would not compel us to bow toward Images,but leave it to 
our liberty. Mull it be Herefie, and the Cliriftian world call into diftra£H- 
ons about it, when yet this Image-worihip is Idolatry in the fenfe of one part 
of Chrlftians, and but Indifierent and convenient to the ignorant ( that have 
other helps enow ) in the (enle of others? O what a Plague hath it been to 
the world, to have a worldly Clergy invade the Churches i 

§ 5" 6. At the meeting of this Council we have firft the Call and Title, in 

I . The Emperor and his Mother are called the Governors of the whole 
world, ( Orhts Terrarum. ) And yet our Fapifis ( zsW. Johnfon in his ^o- 
'veltj repreflf &c. ) would make Men believe that if they find but fuch a fay- 
ing of a Council, or of the Church, It muft needs fignifie more tlian the Em- 
pire, even all the Earth indeed. 

a. h'i exprcfly (aid over and over, that this Council was called by the 
Emperor, and by their Decree and Command. 

Iharajiiis bcginneth with telling them the need of Reformation (for Ima- 
ges, ) and reporting how they were aflaulted at Cofifiantimple, when they 
met there, (and fb removed to Nke,^ &c. 

§5-7. Next the Letters of the Emprefs and her Son are read, in which 
they are before made know what they muft do. They are told what Paul 
Cotjfi. on his Death-bed laid for Images, and that Tarafius would not take 
the Patriarchate till he had promift of a Council to reftore them, and fbme 
hopes of it. 

The Emperor here (aith, that [ he called and Congregated the Synod, and 
that ex imi'verfo terrarum orhe,otit of the whole earthly world J and yet it was 
only out of the 7? owit?; Empire, 

§5-8. When the Bilhops bufinefi was fb well made known by the Woman 
that called them, firft thrte Bifliops that had been lately forward fpeakers 
againft Images in the former General Council under Covjlantine, did humbly 
confcfs their fin to the Council, and asked forgivenefi ; that is, Bajil. Ancyray 
Theodoru-s Aiyron, and Theodofitts Amorii. And firft BaJll Bifhop of Ancyra 
gave them his Creed, in which he profefled to " believe in the Trinity, and 
" to embrace the ijstercelfwn of the Aiother of God, and of the hea'venly Tower Sy 
" and of all the Sai?its, and with all honjur to rccei've and embrace their holy 
" Reliques, firmly believing that be may be made Partaker of their holmefs : 


their Councils abridged. 127 


" Alfo that he embracetb the t'enerable Images, which * the Otcmontj of our » -j-he 
" Lord Jefus Chrifl, &c. and of the hrvio/ate Virgin oifr Lady the Mother of Verb is 
"Go^, and of the holy A^ojiles, Prophets, Martyrs, and all Saints ; and greet h Iffc out. 
" them due hotiour : Rejeiting and cttrfing with all his mind that called the 

" jth Synod ( *), that was gathered by a depraved mind arid madnefs a 1 ' 2, 

"falj'e Council, as alien to all Piety and Religion , impioufly barking agamfi Jarcly a 
*^ Ecclefajlical Legiflation — reproaching venerable Images, and co}nma}idingthcm LeaJcr. 
" to be taken out of the Churches, 6cc. 

And to flicw his zeal, and lead others the way, he deliyercth in nine Cur- 
fts or Anathemas. One againfl thofe that demolilli Images. Another againft 
thofe that expound tlic Scripture words againft Idols and Gentile Images , as 
againft Chrlftians Images. Next he execrateth all that embrace not Images, 
fo it is now become neceflary unto (alvation. ) Another Curfc is againft 
thoft that favour them that are againft Images, c^c. ( Was not the Cluircli 
ill uled by her Bifhops, when they arc Pure to be curled by them ; one year 
curfing all that be For Images, and another curling all that be not for them? 
Was it (uch a curfing Clergy, to make a curled Cliurch, that Chrift ordain- 
ed ? ) And that the Council might not fufpeit that this Bifhop was a Tem- 
porizer, and changed his Opinion with the Times, Hrft he profclTcth to de- 
clare all this, [JVtth his whole Soul, Heart and Mind ; ] and next he wiflieth, 
(? "That f ever by any means he revolt again from Images, he may be alienated 
from God the Father, Son and HolyGhofl,and theCatholick Church^ And thus 
lie renounceth Repentance, curfing himfelf if ever he repent. 

§ 59. Tharafius and his Synod glorifie God for this excellent Confelllon : 
And next cometh72?eo</ere Bifhop of Myros, and he doth the like, and is joy- 
fully received : And next cometh Theodofius Bifhop of Jmo"rum,a.nd he more 
dolefully lamenteth, that \_ being a friner, and [educed, he had blattered cut 
many evils untruly againfl venerable Images ; and therefore ccnfejfing his fault, 
be condemneth and curfeth ( or detcfteth ) himfelf, refolving hereafter to do the 
fame thing which he had curfed ( or fpokcn ill of ) and to teacJj it to the world, 
and begging to be received among Chrifiians though unworthy. Next he ofTcr- 
eth his Libel, viz. " Firfi I approve, receive, Jalute and venerate before all 
*' things, the intemerate Image of our Lord frfus Chrijl our true God, and the 
" blejjed Mother Virgins, who brought him forth without feed *; v.'hoje help, pre- * How 
" tetlion and intercej/lon I pray for night and day, that (l)e may help me aftnner, ^^'^"^ '^'j. 
".«j- having that power from him whom flte brought into the world, Chrifi cur \rf^^uh- 
" God. And I receive and venerate the Images of Saints, Afcjlles, Prophets, ftancc. 
" Martyrs, Fathers, Eremites, not as Gods, Sec. And with all my mind I be- 
^'' feech them to intercede with God forme, that I may fivd mercy in the day of 
^'■judgment. On the fame account I venerate the Reliques of Satnu, 

" &'c, 

So he proccedeth alfb to hisCurfcs, and ^'frfhe amthematiz^tb all that 
" venerate not Images : Then he cwfetb thofe that reproach them : And next, 
" thatjpeak evil cf them : And next he curfeth thofe that do not from their 

G g 1 '■'■hearts 

2 1 8 Church-Hijlory of fBi^ops and 

" hearts teach Chrifltan People the 'veneration of holy and hmonrahle Images of 
" all Saints, ■which Jrom the beginning f leafed God. 

£^f, I. Where fiiall we have Painters enow? 

a. Where (hall wc have Money to pay them ? ' 

3. Where fhall we find room to hold them ? 

4. Is not here a new Article of Faith , and a new Q)mmandment 

neceflary to Salvation ? 
5". Was not jheir Church Univer(al,as it flood before all or moft here 
curfed ? 
8^ 6. \Vas it not a hard matter to be faved, or be a Conformift on the(e 

terms, when a Man that did but doubt of Images, yea.,that dtd 
vot teach thm to tbePeDple,and that from his heart , muft be 
curled ? 
7; Was notfiicha curfing (brt of Bifhops a great Curie, Shame and 
Calamity to the Church ? Did they not tempt Infidels ta curfc 
or deride them all, while tlicy thus curfed one. another , even 
their Councils ,? 

TJjarafius ioyfijlly received all this, and Conftantine Bifhop of Confiance In 
Cyprus fi.id,7hat tUs Libel of Theodofius drew many tears from him^ (I fup- 
pofe of joy ; ) And now they all fuw the way. 

§ 60. But now Cometh a Crowd more to do their Pennance ; Hypatius 
Bifhop of NicCj Leo Rhodt, Gregory of Tifuha, Gregory of TeJJinunt , Leo of 
Iconium, Nicolas of Hierapolis,Leo of Carpathium. And now Taraftis was 
fiire of them, he groweth more upon them, and will know of them, JVheme 
it "was that in the laji Council they did what they did againjl Images ? whether 
iy it was tkrotgh meer Ig7torance,or by any reafon that drew them to it:If through 
Ignorance, he bids them give a Reiijo7t how they came to be fo ignorant : If up- 
on any Reajo?}, to tell what that Reafon ovas, that it tnight be refuted. 

Leo, Bifhop of Rhode, anfwered, ." [ /-f e have finned before God, and btfore 
'■^ the Church, and before this holj Synod; Ignorance made us- fall from the 
" Truth, and we have nothing to fay in cur own defence. ]] 

Tkarafms would know what Reafon now moveth and changeth them; fbme 
fay, bccaufe it is the Doilrine or Faith of the ApofHes and Fathers. Another 
alledgeth a faying as of the ^ntioch Council, and another as of Ifidi re Ve- 
laf.yA-\\ch the learned Reader examining , may fee what proof it was that 
Images were brought into Churches by; it's worth the noting. But another 
alLedgeth the Apoiilcs and Prophets Tradition : But what's the proof ? And 
did not the Council at Confiant. nor the Bifhops in the Reign of the three 
former Emperors knov/ what Tradition was? Was it unknown till now? 
«^ flow came it now known then? Or who told it this Council, when the laft' 
kjiewit not ? Or if the laft were falfe Knaves, how fhall we be fiire that 
thcfc were honefl Men ? Or that the fiime Men were fuddcnly become wile 

Tbarafius . 

tJ?eif Councils abridged. 119 

Thara/ius asketh one of the Bifliops ( Leo J HowSt came to pafs that he 
that had been ten or eight years a BJlTiop, never knew the Apoltolical Tra- 
dition for Images till juft now ? He anfwercd, Becaiife through many y^ge.', 
( or Times ) Malice endured^ and fo wicked Doifrine mdurtd ; and -uthen this 
ferfevered for our fins, it compelled us to go out of the way cf Truth ; hut there ' 
ts hope with God of our fal'vatton. But Confiantine Cypr. anfweicch liim, You 
that are Bijltops, and Teachers of others, jlwuld not have had need to be taught 
your fel'ves. Leo replied, If there were no expre[/io» of fin m- the Lav, tUre 
would he no need of Grace. Another ( Hypatius ) replied with tht; rcll-, JFe 
recei'ved til DoElrine from ill Aiafitrs. Yea, but (aith Tarafius , The Church 
ought not to receive Vriejlsfrom til Teachers. Hypatius , Bifhop ot Nice, re* 
pheth, [[ Ctiflom hath fo obtained. ~] 

§■61. Hereupon the Synod defired to be informed on what terms Here-* 
ticks were to be received, when they returned : (b the Canons were brought 
and read. And though many Canons and Fathers have laid, tliat no Repen- 
tance for (bme Crimes muftreftore a Man to the Pricllhood, thoiigli it muft 
to the Church ; and there is an Epiftle of Tarafius put by Crabie before 
this Council, in which he dctcrmincth that aSimoniack may be received up- 
on Repentance to Communion, but not to his Office ; yet Tnfius here be- 
ing dchrous of their return, ( knowing that rhcfe Penitents that renounced 
the erron of their Education, and former praAicc, would draw otliers to coi:-- 
formity with them ) did refolutely anfwer all that was objciStcd againft their 

§ 6x. Here ( in Cr^^. ^. 471. ja queftion fell in (upon their reading the- 
Prools, that repenting Hercticks were by the Church to be reltored to iheir' 
Bifhoprlcks and Priefthood,)/-^^'<7/ Heretich thifewcre ? And it was anfwer- 
ed, that tlicy were Ncvatuins, Encratifis, and Arrians, and M.inichces, Mi?; — 
eionifis, and Eutychiatis. And then one askctli. Whether this Here fie ( agaivfi 
Images ) w.js greater or kfs than all thofe ? And Thara/ius anlwcreth, ( like 
a Stoick ) " [Ex'/Z is ahvays the fame and e^uaJ, efpecially in matters Ecch- 
"■ fiaft teal, in the Decrees of which hcth great and fmall, to trr is the fame 
" thing ; for in both God^s Law is violated. J ( O Learned Patriarch , wor-- 
thy to be the letter up of Church-Images ! ) A venerable Monk that was 
Vicar of the Oriental Patriarch, anrwcrcth,[" Tliat this Here fie is worfe tha?p 
" all Herefia, and the vcrfi cf all Evils, as that which fubverteth the Quo- 
" nomy of our Saviour. 3 

Note, Reader, how the Patriarchal Thrones did govern the Chiirch an>h 
tliis Council, and by what reafbns Images and Saints intercefilons were let up.' 
Arri.jntjm, Manichcilm, Marcionifm, no Hercfic that denied the cficntials of' 
Chriftianity, no evil was lb bad with them as to deny Church-Imat^cs, ^o 
And lb the late General Council, and Blfhops, for three Enipci-ors Reigns, . 
had been under tlie worft of Heretics and Evils, v/crle \.\ym ArriantttP 




1^0 Church- Hijlory of ^iJl)ops ::nj 


§ 65. But here Conjlant'me the Notary of the Confi. Patriarchate, happily 
brought in fo pertinent a Teftimony, as much made for the pardon of the 
penitent Biihops : He read out of the Council of Cakeacn, how t\\t Or ttntal 
and other Bilhops that had lately fet up Eutyches and Diofcorus in the ad 

CJ" Ephcfuin Council, cryed at Calcedon, [_We have all fmneti, -wt all ask for- 
givefiejs. ] And how Tfialafius, Etifebiits and Euflathius cryed, [IVe have nil 
erred, we all ask forgivenefs. ] And after them 'Jwvenal, and after him the 
Illyric.ifi Bidiops crycu, [ TVe ha've all lapfed, we all ask vardcn. ~\ And (b 
the Prclident was undeniable and eftc6fual. Thclc were not the hrfl: Bifhops 
thit went one way in one Council under one Prince, and cryed feccavimus 
for it,a5 Hercho,in the next. 

§ 64. But Sab.js the Monk ftarts yet a greater doubt than this, and that 
is, whether they had true Or<{iiiatic»,-ind fo were true Bipiops. For fleing 
they were bred in the times of Herefie, which had prevailed under lb many 
Emperors, and had Heretical Teachers, it's like they had Heretick Ordain- 
crs, feeing the late Council ihewed what the Bifhops then were. And the 
Facf was confeft, that they were Ordained by Bilhops that were Hert-ticks, 
( that is, againft Church-hnages, and praying to Saints for their intercefTion, 
and ufing Reliques. ) The Bifliop of Rome's Vicars pleaded hard againft 
their Ordination ; but Tarafius knew what a breach it would make in the 
Church if a General Council, and all the Bilhops that were at it, and all the 
relf tliat conlcnted to it, and were bred up in that Opinion, fhould be degra- 
ded, and the new Conformity receive fb great a ftop ; and what confijlion it 
would make among the People, ( as they had fccn in many former inlfances) 
and therefore he is againft their depofition. And firft there are two paflages 
read in their fiivour out of Ruffinus and Socrates , and (bmewhat of yitha- 
nnfius. And then when Veter Vic. Rom. alledged the inftance of Meletius 
againft it, Tarafuis brought a notable expeditious Argument , 'vix^ The Fa- 

€3" thcrs agree among themlelves, and do not contradiil one another : ergo the 
reft content to thefe that have been cited. Methinks I could make great ufe 
of this Argumentation to (ave time, labour and difficulty in dilputing. E. G. 
Nazianz^en wiftit there were no difterence of Bilhops Seats ( one above an- 
other ) and (aid that he never law Councils that did not more haiTn than 
good. The Fathers differed not among themlelves j ergo the reft of the 
Fathers were of Gregorfs mind. 

In concluhon, they oflered their Confellions, and were ablblved. 
§ 65-. In the id A6fion, the Rulers fend in thcBIfhop of Neo-Cafarea to 
do his Pennance ; and he alfo crycth for mercy, and confefleth that his errors 
and fins were infinite, but now he believed as the Synod doth. Tharajius ask- 
eth him whether he be not afhamed to have been ignorant (b long , and 
quedioneth the (incerity of his Repentance, which he earneftly profefleth, 
condemning his Sin, and promifing Conformity. 

Next a long Epiftle of Adrians to the Emperor and Emprcfi, and another 
to Tljarafiiis for Images are read : For Popes ufe not to travel to General 
Councils, but to lend their Letters and Legates, left in their prefent Difputes 


their CowicHs abridged. i ^ i 

they be found no wifer than other Men, and their Infallibility be proved lefi 
at hand, than at a diftance, where they hear no: the Debates. Here yJArun 
to the Emprefi relateth the forcfaid Vifion of Covflantine Mag. to be healed of 
his Leprolie, a Fable fit to introduce Image-worfhip ; and for an Infallible 
Pope to ufe, fully confuted ( as aforeftid ) by Hemy Fmiiis ( after many 
others ) of Popiih Treafons. 

§ 66. Tbarafius profefleth his confent to Adrims Letters, yet profcfleth, 
Q That he giveth the Wotpip called Latria to God alone, and flaceth his belief Crab. p. 
m htm alone. ] Contrary to Atjumas and his Followers, ana other (ijch Ro- 48/. 
man Dodlors. And the whole Council ecchoed their confent, and voted for 
Images j fo much can one Woman do in Power. 

§ 67. In the 3d Action, Gregory Bifhop of Nec-Cafarea is to receive his 
Ablblution fully, and Tliarajius puts in an Obje&ion, that it's faid that Ibnie 
Bilhops in the late Persecution did fcouvge diflenting Bilhops, and luch were 
not to be received : But Gregory protefted that he (courged none. But he 
is acculed by others, to have been a Leader of the lad Council againft Ima- 
ges, and Co he is deferred. And the Eplftle of Jharajtus to the Eaftern Pa- 
triarchs is read, ( and their Anfwers ; } in which it is to be noted, that yet 
Image-worfhip was not owned : For he profeflTeth in his Creed to them, that 
[^ IVe admit Figures for no other uje, hut that they may the more ferfeHly be 
exhibited to the fight and eyes ; as the Lamb of God that taketb away the fins 
rf the World, &c. } 

And the 4th A6lion containing all their Proofs from Scripture and Fa- 
thers, plead but for the memorative and inl^ructing ufe of Images, by which 
they are to the eye, what words are to the ear : But they fhould have con- 
fidered the danger of abufc, and foreften how much furtlicr they were like 
to be carried, as with the Papifis they are. . 

And in the fifth Aftion they proceed in reading more, ro the ftme purpo(e, 
for commemorative Images ; till one read the Itinerary of the ApofiUs^which "fn 

they voted to be a curfed Book, and laid it was that Book that the Synod 
againft Images made ufe of: whereupon Greg.Nco-Ciefd}'Theodof.Amorii,are 
asked whether that Book was read in the falie Synod , and th<y fuMie by 
God, that it was not, but only fbme recited words as out of it. Fretoriui 
a Nobleman faid, {_ But they did all by the Royal Procuration. ] And they 
proceed to refell the Teftimonies that were brought againfi: Image>. Cofmar 
Cubiculariiis brought out an Old Tcfbment with Scholia blotted out, where 
was yet legible on the (econd Commandment, " [ If we make the Ima/re of 
" Cbrift, truly we do not for the fimilttude a.'hre tr, but that the mind min-ht 
" he raifed upward by what is feen. ] The Expun6Kon was laid by Tara- 
fitts to be done by his PredcccfToi-s, Anaflafius, Confiantine, ViBor, all Here- 
ticks. And here they curfed Concealers and Canccllen of Writings. ( Wo 
then to Rome ! ) Other rafed Books were read, and Curfcs added againfi: the 
Adverlaries of Images, and thofe that communicite with them. 

§ 68. In the 6th A6lion,the words of the 7th Council againft Images are 
brought forth in a Book with a Confutation of them,which the Reader that 



2 ^ z Chtirch-Hijiory of 'BiJ]?ops and 

halh Iciliirc mey compare. Gre^.Neo-defar. read the Councils words, yoan. 
Cancellartus read the Confutation. It fell out well that this Confutation was 
undertaken, or elle we had lofl the Decrees of this Council , as the Afts, for 
ought I know, arc buried. 

in general evciy fober Reader naay perceive a great deal of difference be- 
tween the ftyle of the Council of ConfiantinopU; and the Anfwcr. The Coun- 
cil (peaks with as much temper and gravity, as moft of the befl: Councils 
liave done. The Anlwer aboundeth with (uch railings and reviling words, 
as are mcerer for a common Scold, than for Divines. The common language 
of it, is to call the Bifhops of the Council, Blinded, Ignorant, Fools,Wicked, 
Deceivers, Blafphcmers, and iiich like. And it all the Bifhops on earth be 
prefcnt, or reprcfentcd in a General Council , what a Cale then was the 
Church in ? And how ilia II we know what Council is to be believed, unleft 
the Pope make all the diflcrence ? 
• At Co7i- § 69. The number of the Bifhops were * 338. They firll fhcwhowSa- 
Jl.inttnop,i tmi hath brought in Idolatry. One of their chief Arguments againft Ima- 
ges of Chrift, is, that they favor of Neflorianifm, reprelcnting Chrift by his 
nieer Manhood, when they cannot paint his Godhead •, calling that Pi6f ure 
Chriff, and overthrowing the Occonomy and Union of his Perlbn. I meddle 
not with the weight of their rcafbn, but only recite it. 

%Jo. It's again worth the noting, that the Anfwer to them faith, (Tor 
their charging Images, as drawing down the mind to Creature-worfhip ; 
Latria ) C O infankn em lingtiam, cjuam hiflar machara acuta (^ 'veneno 
imbutiC folfidcut , &c. O mad tongue, which they Po£cfs like a jharp fivord, 
imbued ii'tth poyjon, &c. For no Chrifiian ever ga-ve Latriam to the Image of 
uhofe that are tinder Heaven ; for this ts the Fable of the Gentiles, and Devils 
invention^ and the aggrejfion of Sat/tnical ^Bicn.'] — [^Our Latria is in Spirit 
and Truth. ] Other paflages forbid us to think that they juggle here, and 
denying Latriam only to Creatures under Heaven, intend to give it to Crea- 
tures in Heaven ; for they appropriate it elfewherc to God : by which they 
greatly differ from Acjuimu and (iich Papifis. 

§71. Note alio that ( whether well or ill ) both thefe adverfe Councils 
curie Pope Honorins as anHeretick ; (ee Crab. p. 5'6o,&c. 

§ 71. Another Argument which the firff 7th Council ( ztConfi.) ufcth 
againft Images in Qiurches, is, that Chrift himlelf hath chofen and inftituted 
liich an Image as he would be reprcfented by,and that is the Bread and fVine 
in the Sacrament, and therefore we muft not prelume to make another, as if 
he had not done it well. This fheweth that tlus General Council and the 
Church then held that the Bi-ead was not nullified , nor become Chrift's E(- 
fince, but was the Image or Reprefen ration of his broken Body, and fb cal- 
led , The Body of Christ , as we fay of £. G. Cajars Image , This is 

But the adverfe Council, or the Anfwer, raileth at this as an abominable 
Speech, (Crab. p. ^6j.) as if the Sacrament might not be called, 77je /w<7]^e 
of Chrifl, ( though tie re they feem not at all to differ ) faith the Ccnjlantme 



their Caoicils abridnd. 2 : ^ 

Council, [ Imagmem tot am elecfam, viz. fubfiantiam paws manJavit tjppofii, 
ne fcHicet, hiimana effigte jigurata, idolohitria induceretur. J A Deo traa.ia 
Imago Carnis ejus panis fcilicet D'timus impktus cfi Spiritu Sanclo, cum pcculo 
quoque jangiiinis lateris tlliiis 'vivijicantis. H^c igititr "jera incarndta atlpetf 
fationisChrifii Deinoftrilmago fecut pradiHiim ejt, qitam ipfe nobis vcy-^ ■•'a- 
tura z'lvidus Creator proprid -voce tradidtt. 

§ 7 J. Note alfo {Crab. p.^6S.) that the Ccnfiantin. Council plead, 
" Jhat this life of Images began neither by the Tradition of Chrifi, nor of the TD 
" Jpofles, nor of the Fathers : And that the AnfviTr faith, that " i Tlje I'cnc- 
" ration of Imiiges was deli'veied with many other things without Scripture^ 
^'■from the Apojtks time. Sec. 

Here note i . How thole Vapifls ( In particular which I have clfewhcre 
anfwcred ) are confuted, who lay that [Tradition is univcrfal,fure, knou-n, 
conftant, and no Churches pleaded Traditions againfi each other, at Icafl in necej- 
fary things or Faith ; but if we have not the right now, it mujl be becaufe the 
Councils went all to Bed in cne mind, and roje in another. ] You fee here 
that the zd Nieeiie Council took the DoArine of the former to be Anathe- 
matized Hereficj and that 358 Bilhops In one of the Gjuntils, ( and the 
moll under many Emperors) and 3 5^0 Bilhops in the other Council,pleaded 
Tradition againft each other. But (lire any Nlan that hath read the Fathers 
of the Hrft 3 00 or 400 years, will caGly fee which of them was in the right, 
excepting the lign of the Crofs. 

a. Note alio that it is here confcffed, that there is no Scriptural Tradition 
. of this ule of Images. 


§ 74. In the Definitions of the Confiantine Council it Is to be noted, 

1. That they are not fb much againft the interceflion of the Virgin Ma- 
ry, or Saints, as the trote/t.'mts mollly are, nor as the Tapifis make them : For 
( Crab. p.')'i'.). ) they fay Dtfin. 15'. \^If any confefs not holy Mary ever a 
Virgin, properly and truly the Parent of God, and fuperior to every Creature 
vifble and invi/ible { * ), and doth not with a fincere Faith crave her Inter- /♦^\^/•h3r / 
cejJions,as having this liberty with him that is bom of her, God , let htm be fuperior 
Anathema. toChriffs 

And Defin. ij. \^If any confefs not that all who from the beginning to this Humaiii- 
day, before the Law, and under the Lav, and m the Grace given rf God, being Xovc vou 
Saints are venerable in the prefence of God in foul and body ( ** ),and doth that ih'cis 
not Jeek their intercejjions, as having liberty with God to intercede for the world fuperior 
according to Ecclefaftital Tradition, let him be Anathema. 3 Were not thefe \° J 5 
Men high enough in Creature-worlhip , to efcape the Curfc of Here- ^\'npcls > 
ticks? (") Are 

1. I noted before how they do Df/;;. 7. conclude, that Chrill's Body glo- thebodics 

rified is not proper F'lelh, and yet not incorporeal, but his true Body. *' . 

f. _ ri-,' f /• / 1 • /^ '-1 c • J • 1 Saints 

S 75- 1 hat you may !ce iliat this Council were or one mind, m the con- ajrca^ly 

clulion they all lay, Omnes fc creditrus ; Omnes idem fpiTKUs ; Omnes ap- r f.n .' 

H h ■ ■ prcbando 

2 34 Church- Hifiory of (Btjhops and 

frohando ziolentes fubfcrip/imus, &c. We all thus helime, (againft Images; ) 
He are all of otie minJ; IVe all fubjcrihe ■willtngly^as approving, &c. Only 
Germanus, George, a.nd A'Janzur us, ( (uppofed to be Dama[c€ne) are found 
among the Anathematized Diflenten, Crab. p. 591. 

§76. The 7 th AiStlon of the Nicene Synod, contalneth their Definition, 
in which they deny indeed Latria to Images, but yet (ay ( more than be- 
fore ) "£ That they that fee the Piclnrej, may come to the memory and dejire 
" of the Prototypes ; as hy the f^t of theCrofs, and by the holy Gojpels, and 
" holy Oblations. — For the honour of the Image refulteth to the Prototype, and he 
*' that adoreth the Image, in it adoreth the defcribed Argument. "} So that they 
that began lower, in the conclufion came up to Adoration. 

They all profefs full confent, and curfe all that bring Scripture againft 
Images, and that call them Idols, dfc. They curfe the laft Council, as Rih 
gtens Conciliabulum ; and three diflcnting Bifhops,and three former Patriarchs 
of Confl. two more Bifhops they add. They curfe all that receive not 
Images, and all that falute them not in the Name of the Lord and his Samts, 
and that care not for tin-written Tradition of the Church. 

Next they write an Epiftle to the Emprefs, ( and her Child ) applauding 

them, and adding, that " [ Denying Latria to them , they judge them to he 

"adored and fainted, and pronounced every one Anathematiz,ed that is fa 

" minded, as to ftick at and doubt of the Adoration of Images , and this as 

Craby p. " empowred by God's Spirit fo to curfe them ; which Anathema ( (ay they ) 

°5' " is nothing elfe but feparating them from Chrijh. 

Judge now what the ufe ot fuch Councils was, [ To curfe Men, andfepa- 
rate them from Chrifl, ] and that if they do but doubt of adoring Images. 
Reader, if thou believe that in the(e Heretications, Separations and Damna- 
tions of fuch, they were of Chrift's mind, and did his work, and fervcd not 
his Enemy againit him and Iris Church, lam not of thy mind, nor am ever 
hke to be. 

Another Epiftle they wrote to the People, and- one Tharafius (cnt to 


§ 77. Some Canons of theirs are added, of which this is the third. 
" [ Every EleBion of aBifhop,Priefl, or Deacon, which is made hy Magi- 
^ firates, fliall remain void, by the Canon which faith. If any BiJJiop ufe the 
Alas! " S^*^"^^'' Magifirates, to obtain hy them a Church, let him- he depojed and fepa- 
Muft all " rated, and all that communicate with him *. 

be Scp.v The 4th Canon is , " [^ P<7«/ (alth, I have defired no Mam fiver or gold, 
ratilu u ^ jf fherefore any one exailing money, cr any other things or for any of 
Bi'fliops in "f'^'"" rf k" own, p.ill be found to drive from his Mtniftry, or to fegregate 
Engldiid, " <i^y one of his Clergy, or to fiiitt the venerable Temple, forbidding in it the 
Fr.i>!cc, " Divine Alinijleriesffhewing his madnefs even on that which hath no fenfe •*, 
^A ^ h " J"^^ ^" "^^ " ^^"^^ /''"Jl^'^y and fhalt be obnoxious to the Lex Talionis, and his 
Iiiccrdiiiis " Vfi'rk f^all fall jipDn his own head, as being a tranfgrcfjor cf Goers Law: For 

" tb6. 

their Councils abridged. 


*' the chief Afofile Peter commavded. Feed the Flock of God, overfeeing it, not 
" by force i but freely and voluntarily, according to God; not for filthy lucre fake, 
" but readily and chearfully; not as having a dcmimon over theClergj;bta as 
" being exatnpla to the Flock. 

The ijrth Canon forbids one Man to have two Churches. 

The ^ id Canon forbids Canting, and Minftre'.s, and Ribald Songs at 
meat : But the 7th (avors of their Supcrftition, forbidding any Temple to be 
Confecrated without Reliques, and ordering Temples that have no Reliqucs to 
be put down. 

§ 7 8. In the Letter to Adrian,Tharafius tells him, that he had a year be- 
fore attempted the like at Confl. but was hindered a whole year by vio- 
lent Men ; which further (hewcth how far the oppolition to Images had ob- 
tained, when Irene began to fet them up. 

§ 79. So much of the xd Nicene Council, in which by the power of one 
Woman, and Statrratius a. Senator that ruled her, the judgment of the Uni- 
verfal Church ( if the Council, or mod of the BIfliops in the Empire (ignific 
it) was fiiddenly changed from what it had been during the Reign of the 
three laftEmperoYs,and made that Church-u(e of Images; which (bme thought 
finfiil, and no judicious Chriftian could judge ncccflary, but indiffcrent,and of 
ufe to fome) to be henceforth (b neceflary, that the Dcnyers are fentenced for 
curftd Herctlcks, yea the Doubters cut off from Chrill. 

§ 80. CCXXXIII. B/w««j next addeth a Council at F(7r(7/M/;«w,y^«.79T. 
held by TauUnus Bifhop of Aqutleta : in which is a Speech of his to the BI- 
fliops, and an excellent Creed, and 14. Canons, written as byhimfelf; all in a 
far more underftanding, (bbcr, pious manner, than is ufual among the Patri- 
archs at Gener.il Councils. The i jth Canon Is an excellent Precept for the 
holy obfervation of the Lord's-day, wholly in Holinefs, and in Hymns of 
Praife to the Holy Ghoft, that blefled it by his admirable Advent, calling it 
God^s Sabbath of delight, beginning the 7th day evening, not for the honour 
of the 7 th day, but of this Sabbath, dfc. 

§ 81. Yet rafli and unskilful words fet the Bifliops into more divifions. 
Falix Urgelitanus, and from him Elipandus Bifhop of Toletiim , taught that 
Chrijl as the eternal Mird vas God's Natural Son, but that as Man he vas 
his Adopted Son. Hence his Adverfaries gathered that he was a Nejfor/an, 
and held two Sons. A Council y?». 791. -^t Ratisbcn7}e was called to condemn 
this Hercfie. Yea, Jonju Bifhop of Orleance faith. That it infeBed Spain/cr 
a great part, ( and he knew their Followers to be certain Antichrifis, by their 
faces and ha!).:!. ) But wife Mm think that the Controverfic was not de re, 
but de nomine , And that if one Chiiit be laid to be one Son of God in two 

H h z natureSf 



2 5 6 Cmrch-Hiflory of 'Bijhcps and 

natures, by a twoMA ftmJamentum of the Relation of a Son, and that the 
founJatio}} of the eternal Relation was the eteinal Generation, and the foun- 
dation of the temporal Relation in the Humanity, was the temporal Genera- 
tion and Union with the Deity, yet this provcth not two Sons: yea, or if it 
had been (aid that two Generations being the fiiiidamei\ta , two Rdations of 
SoJijhip refult from thcfn. If this be unskilfully and illogically fpoken,it will 
not follow that the Speakers held two Terfons^or made any more divifion of 
Chrifls natures than their Ad^'erHirics did ; but only might think that a double 
filiation from a double i\ix\AzmcnXx\m,7n'tght he found in one Perfon. Let this 
Opinion be wrong, I (ee not how the Hcreticators could make it a damnable 
Hcrcfie. But it's pity that Falix had not taken warning by the Churches long 
and fad experience, to avoid fuch wordy occafions of Contention,and not to 
fet again on .work either the Heretical, or the Hcreticating Evil 

0^ § 8i. C/^«^/«; Trt«n«e»//;, a great and worthy Bifliop at this time , did 

fet in againft theWorfhip and Church-ufeof Images, againft whom yonat 
Aurelianenfis wrote, whole Writings are In the Biblioth. Fatrum by Marg. de 
la Eigne ; Read them, and judge as you (ee caufe. . 

§ 83. About the time of the Frankford ConncAyCzmt out a Book againft 
Images, which is publifhed as written by Carolus Magnus himfclf A great 
Controverfie it is, Who is the Author ? No fmall number fay, it was Charles 
his own indeed. Others, that it was written at his Will and Command. 
S/n./j.iSS But Binnius and (bme others deny it, and (ay it was written by Serenus Maf- 
d Im^' f^'^^fi' ^^ Iecnoclasl,a.nd his Difciples. How we flial] know tlie Truth infiich 
Uh. 1. Cafes, I cannot tell : But it is confeffcd that Spain and France were then 
much infe£fed with the Do-£lrine which is agamft Church-Images. It is cer- 
tain that Pope Adrian faith, that Carolus Mag. (ent him fuch a Book by En- 
gilbert an Abbot, and his Epiftle againft it is extant. 

§ 84. CCXXXIV. We come now to a great Council at Franhford, called 

by Charles Mag. prefent, and by Adrian. And as late as it is, all the Hi- 

ftorians cannot tell us whether it was XJni'verfal^ox what they did. Some (ay 

it was a GcnrraJ Council, becaufe Charles (ummon'd it as fuch , and 300 Bi- 

.. fhops were there. Others fiiy No, it was but Provincial, becaufe none of 

fuch a '^'^^ Bifhops of the Eafl were there, ( a fiifficient reafon ; and the like may 

Wcflern be brouglit to prove, that there never was a General Council in the World, 

(■;cncr.il fo called horn the whck TVorld, but only from the whole Emfire.) That they 

Gouncil Jp^Ij. ,_yj^]., ^|^(, Q^r^ ^p j^lip^-^Jt^j Bifhop of Toktum,and Faiix Urgcl.is agi-eed 

IVifk wns ^^ •> but what they did about Images is not agreed on. Ado, Rhegino, Aimo- 

ij^^stgnc nius U'iJJ>tiyg. and many Hiftci-jans fay , They ccndttnned the Nicene Council 

'■:'^'^'^^/^'that w.is for Images. Even Barcnius is of the fame mind, thinking the Li- 

V ; v.<-^;.»^^^ Carclmifs deceived thcra. He proveth this to be the. common judgment 

r '■■ . of 

their Councils abridzed. 2 ^ 7 

of Hiftorlans, and ancient Writers. Bellarmine * ( his Brotliei- j is of the »^,/, j^ 
ftme judgment. And is not their Concelllon more than twenty later Mens Tm.:in. 
denial? i'ca Gencbr.trd concurreth ; yet Binnius leaveth his Mailer /><irc- <"■■■/'. 14. 
w/wi,and gireth his Realbns againft them. And he doth well prove, that it J^^'^" 
could not be by ignorance and furprizc, that the Frankford Council fliould ^^^''"^j ^^[ 
condemn the Kicenc ; and he is loth to tliink that they were wilful Here- tcr ill 
ticks, elpccially when they profcls to follow Tradition : But he knew that die laich. In 
■jth Conflantin. Coimcil againft Imager, frofeft to fcUowTraditicv. And [{ "'"'d} Sj- 
French Men will make usHercticks for fpeaking £?7g///73, it is no wonder if we prank- 
make them Hercticks for fpeaking French. If Men will Hcreticate others ford, i!:e 
for Images, or Ceremonies, or Words, others will meafure the like to them. "'/? Gcw- 
This kind of Hcreticating is circular, and hath no end. '■'/ Cwn- 

Suarezw'Ai have cither the Hiftorians to have erred, or their Books to be '.„'^j^j /,„'' 
corrupted ; with what meafure you mete,it fliall be mcafiired to you. You iTiall d-e Bi/hops 
then give us leave to fiiipe>ft your Books, where there is far greater caufe. that woe 

§ §5". But the Synod , or Vaulimts At^utleienfis, a learned worthy Bifhop 'SP'"""'" 
in the Synod, ( whom the reft follow ) copioully wiite a Confutation of Eh- '^^Jf^' ^j'' 
fandiis and Faltx. And the charges of Herelie are, r94.'Hift. 

I . That they call Chrilt as to his Humanity, God^s Adapted Son, (and his 1. 8. c. 7. 
eternal Perfbn his Natural Son. ) "tB 

a. Bccaufc they (l\y he was Adopted by Grace. 

5. Becauft they f.\v he was a Servant. 

Alas for the Clun-ch, that niuft thus by Bifhops be diftraSed for want of 
skill In words ! Is there no remedy ? Binmtis confeffeth that (bme Papifis 
think that they meant right, as Dwr^w^/w did, and that thcdifterence was- but 
in words. _ 

The Council fuppofcth Ehpandrrs and Faltx to ulc the word [ Adoptim '] 
cxcluliveiy, as to ChrifPs Filiation by Gew£r<»f«w, as conceived by the Holy 
Ghoft : whereas it is far likelier that they took both Conjunft to be the fun- 
damenti(f» fHiaticnii. God adopting, that is, of his good Will freely crea- 
ting Chrili's Humane Nature, and uniting it to the Divine ; called Adoption, 
becaufe it was God's tree a£l of Love, and not a communication of his EG 
fence, as the eternal Xjcneration is. The Humanity is not God's Eflcncc. 
And I hope the name of f T/je Son of Man ] ufed fo oft by Chrift of him- 
(clf, is no Hercfic. And there appcareth no reafbn to cenliire them as deny- 
ing either the eternal or temporal Generation of Chrift. 

But they argue againft them, 

1. That he is (aid to be Adopted, that is, not Generated. 

1. And that he merited it not, but was adopted of meer Grace,but fo was . 
not Chrift. 

Anfw.i. Thefe ObjesSbions ftcm to confels that the difference was but de 
nomine ; and is the unapt u(e of (uch a word, anHerefie? How many Here- 
fies then have raoftCoimcils, and Fathers, and all Authors ? 

x.Muft we needs underftand Goo's Adoptiotwuft in the meafure as mans ? 

3. We are Regenerate, and yet Adopted. Why thea is it a Herefic, to 
fay that Chrift was G<;wfr<jrf</,and yet ^^o^rfi? , /^.Grace 

1^8 Church- Hijlory of l^iJl?ops cvid 

4. Grate is either that which is aga'mt't the merit of evil, or only "without 
the merit of gooii. It's doubtleli lint the Hr'.t was not b}- them imputed to 
Clirift : And it's undoubted to mc, that it is confcquentially Blafphcmy , to 
lay that Chrift's Humane Naturc,or any Angel had not the later. For the very 
being, and therewith all tb.c good ii\ the conftitution and antecedent benefits 
of a Creature muft go before his merits. Merit is too low a word for the 
Divine Nature as fuch before the Incarnation. And the Humane Nature did 
not merit to be before it was, e. ^. to be conceived by the Holy Ghoft, 
&c. As free Benefits are called Grace, Chrift's Humane Nature had 

But they objcft, that the two Bifhops did not diftlngulfh between Chriffs 
Adoftiov, and ours. 

ylftf. I . We have not their Writings to fee that. 

t. If they did not, it's like it was, becauft they thought it needlefi, being 
underftood by all. They believed the Creed, That Chrift ivas conceived by 
the Holy Ghoft, ^nd bom of the Virgin Mary ; and that the Godhead affu- 
med the Humanity Into perfbnal Union. They knew that none dreamed that 
it was fb with us. 

The Council (aith. That it^s Herejie to ufe the name Adoption of Chrift.'Thc 
two Bifhops (eemed to think. That God's free ajfuming of the Humanity into 
perianal Unity -with theWord eternally generated by the Father, might be called 
Adoption. If the improper u(e of the word be Herejie,\ leave it to the Rea- 
der to judge which were the Hereticks : But I think neither. 

j^ But another part of the Herefie was, to fay that Chrtft was a Servant as 

Man. And they think he was no Servant, becaufe a Son. Some will think 
confidently that the Council were here Hereticks , but I think they did but 
ftrlve about words. By [ Servant ] the Council feemeth to mean exclufive- 
ly, [ One that is no Son. J But the other meant inclufively, [^ A Son and 
Servant. 3 

They take him for a Servant,? /&^f oweth Service and Obedience. And Chrlft 
as Man owed Obedience to his Father on two accounts ; 

I . As a reafbnable Creature to his Maker. 

1. As one that had by voluntary Sponfion undertaken it. I might 

g. As the fpecial Law of Mediation was Impofed on him , or given him, 
as Man, by which it was made his fpecial duty to die for Man, e^c. He faith 
when he cometh into the world, Kvre I am to do thy If til, O God; yea , thy 
Law ts in my heart.D'id he not take upon him the form of a fervantlVhil.'L.j. 
which was not a fliew of that which is not, but of that which is. Is he not 
called God's righteous Servant jufttfying many, Ifa. j-g. 11. Doth not God oft 
call \i\m,My Servant, Ifa. 49. 6. & jx. i 3. Zech. 3. 8. 


their Comcils abridged. 2 ^ 

The Council feemed to think that the Bifhops thought that Chrlft was 
born a Servant, and not a Son, and was adopted a Son 

only after for his merits : But there is no fhew of rea- Bin. p. 418. [E.v ^naJ.tm 
fen to impute this to them that profeffed to believe ?''^^"i?' ""M'""^ J"-^ '«»'''- 
riic Creeds and Scnpture,and laid no fuch words. They ^^^ /,/,^<, ^ B„ato ££f Haerio 
ftemed to intend nothing but to diftlnguifli the natu- con/r.j Elipandumycr;;ifo ; <»»;/»/• 
ral eternal Generation of the fecond Perfon in the "onnulli Fxliccm GJ tlipandmn 
Trinity, from the temporal Generation of the Ahn "'" '" '"}prtoInc^rnan,>i„,ja 
Cytji Jefus , Vihich was an Aft of free Benefa- ,„f}arDvirzndi, aberrate; Idctn. 
Cence, ^iie conjenuris affirmant ijlti, 

quod nihil ecrum </«.c Ncftorio 

But they concluded that they were Nefiortani, be- "^J'^" /"r""' "' c^nc Ephef. 
^, •'. . J „ lr-t_i contra Elipandiim attulerent , 

caule they mt:mated two Sons, by laying that he was ^^_ jj-,,^, ^i^^. ^^f^ 

eternally begottcn,and yet adopted a Son. 

Anf 1 . It is not unlike that Nefiorms himfelf for want of more skill in 
(peaking, was ufed as they were. 

t. Why fliould that be imputed to them which they deny ? Thfy arc 
told that as Nefiorius crt^tily dtnud two Perfons, and yet mferred tvo, fo do 
they. But is not tliis a \'indication of Nefiorius by a Council ? ( \Vho 
knoweth what a man holdeth, better than himfelf? ) 

Obj. But by conjequevce Herc/ie will follow. 

Anf. If all are Hereticks that hold any E: ror which (lich a greater Error 
woula follow from as is called Hcrcfic, I doubt not but every Council and 
Bifliop, andChriftian were HevcrJcks jthc laying of fome great Divines being 
true, That Truths of Faith and Alomliry are fo connext,that he that holdeth the 
leafi Error therein, doth by confcifi: n. - ■ - ' ,- fotmdaiicn. You may fay 
that every man that tells a lyc, or . . any known fm, is an Athclll, 

and that if he believed that there is l ,oO, he would know that he muft not 
fiin againft him ; he that fins before his Face.dcnieth hisOmnilcience,and Co 
denicth God, (JT-c. At this rate all arc Alln.iils and Hereticks. 

J. But may not one that faith, [ Chrifl as the fecond Perfin in Trinity was 
the Eternal Son of God ; and as Alan, was by Generation in tinie made the Sen 
of God and Man : 2 truly mean that it is but one Pcrfbn that in one refpe£k 
is the Eternal Son, and in another refpofi the Temporal Son ? May he not 
hold that the perfbnal Unity maketh it unmeet to fay, 7/jf?e ar-t two Sons, 
becaufe that would imply two Perfons, whkh they and Ntfix/fias denied? But, 
again I fay, what if they had faid that there might be two Filiations, or filial 
Relations in one Pcrfcn, rellilting from two foundations, Eternal and Tem- 
poral Generation, and if this had been an unapt fpcccb, ( to fay ex duo- 
bus fundamentis dua oriimtur reUtioncs ) yc: how comes it to be 
Hercfic ? 

§ 86. I write not this, and fnch like, to juftiiic the accufed ; for I thii-.k 
the Council faid well, ( Bin. p. 418.) i. Cur nobis non fuffcient iju^ in 
SanUorumPatrup diUis inveniuntur, & univerfali Cathdide fanditnis rw 



Chunh-Hijkry of Bipops and 

jiiftudim tefifrmant ur. TL..^flre general iotiem Filti Dei 'vel atemam de Tif 
rrCi^i-el Je})7pora!em de Mntre t^mjanam hommutn aiideat Vfjejiigare , dtcente 
■SaipturJ^-uhioui n ne tpiaficrisi Owell laid ! Happy Cliurcli,it the Biftops 
load held ro this : But here you fee tliat they held a double Gencration,EternaI 
and Temporal, and yet but one Filiation. I write this, becaufe the Herctica- 
ting Spirit yet reigncth, and by theft old Weapons hghteth againll Love and 
the Churches Unity, on pretence of Orthodoxncls j and to this day the Fa~ 
ptj}s rcjcS: a great part o} Chriffs Church as Hereticks,by the countenance of 
tormcr Councils ccnforioulhel?, calling Chrift's Members Iconcclajis, Aionothe- 
lites, Neflorians, Eiitycbians-, and many (iich names, (bme fctcht ^rom indifier- 
ent things, ( or duties ) and fbme from quarrels about hard words. 

§ 87. Note here that E'tnnius exprefly laith, that Adbuc nmdu7n cjl cer- 
tum qyr.Us in particulari fuerit ha^rejis FaliclmM : It is rwt yet certain -what 
this FccUcian Herc/ie was. And if (b, I hope I fhall not be cenfured for the 
(ame, notwithftanding you may (ay, the Council knew it. 
^ §S8. It's worth the noting as to the credit of Council Records , which 

Binnitts there faith, (p. 4x7. ) \^Tf this Council as it now is txtant , may 
•iVithout temerity be rejeBed, all Councils by the fame reajon may be rcjeilcd 
ivhich Surius hath gathered from the Catholick Libraries.'} iie confefleth 
that the reft are no furer than this, and yet that Baronius, Bellarmine, by the 
generality or number of Hiftorians confent, do confefi that there was by this 
Council a rejciSiion of the Cone, id lsicene,vf)\ic\\ is no'.v here to be found 
in it. 

§ 89. The Council at Fr^wX/tr^ determined that Chrifi v.'.is not a Servant^ 
Vid. Not. Servitute po;na!i Deo (ubjcftus, [ubjeB to God by penal Ser'vitude. The pre- 
Bin.p.4i8 fent agreement of Chriftians, taketh this for Socinianifin and Hercfie : C^rift 
fuffered for our fins ; his (ubjeclion to Poverty, Reproach, the Crols , and 
many works, ( as Fafting, being carried about by Satan, and tempted. Mat. 
4. 1 . waftiing his Diftiplcs feet, travelling on foot, being fubjeft to his Mo- 
ther, and to Princes, paying Tribute, c^c.) we fuppofe were part of his Hu- 
miliation. The Holinefs and Obedience was good, and no Penalty : But the 
matter of that Obedience was the Crofs and Sufierine,which is Malum Na- 
■ tura. And if this was no punilliment ( voluntarily accepted by his Spon- 
fion ) how was Chrift our Surety, bearing our Tranfgreffions ? how (uftered 
he for our fins ? Is not fuftering for fin, even of others, penal ? Is not the de- 
nial of Chrift's penal Service and Suffering, a denial of his SatisfaiStion and 
f ojr Redemption ? You (ce how eafie it is to find Herelic and Infidelity itfelf 

in unskilful words; and yet it's like the Speakers meant better than they 

§ 90. Note that Pope Adrian firft made himftlf Judge, and Anathemati- 
zed Elipmdiis as an Heretick, and (b the Council was byaflcd (with the Em- 
peror J } and how great Adrians power was ( having made Charles Empe- 
ror, and Charles made him a Prince, ) it is eafie to conjefture. 

§91. Bimiins laith, p. 429. that Falix, befides his other Herefie , im- 
pugned Image.', and that this is ftid by the Concil. Smonenj.in Decret.fid.c.i^ 


their Councils ahridged. 241 

Tlatina in Adrian. SabeUtc. Enead. 8. /;. 8. Alfh. de Cajlro -verh. Image. 
And that Claud. Tattrin. being his Difciple, and an Iconomach, he mufl: nttds 
be (b himfelf : From whence I argue, that it is mod probable that the Hifto- 
rians fay true, that fiy Charles and the Council of Frankford were againft the 
Nicene Qiuncil and Images. For el(e how could it come to pafi , that they 
iky not one word againft Falix and Eltpandus for denying Images, when •ta 
their Party was grown 16 great in Spain and France ? 

§ 91. Voipe Adrian dying, Lm the ^d (licccedcd. His Piety was (b great, 
that Anaftafius writes, as it were,a Volumn, in naming the good works which 
he did, that is, the Silks, Vails, Cloathing, Silver, Gold, and innumerable gifts 
which he bcftowed upon Pods, Pillars, Altars, Walls, Floors, UtcnfilL^ it would 
tire one to read them, and the hard names of them ; yea, he (aid (even Maflcs 
a day. Yet fome Kinfiiicn of Pope Adrian i^VaJchal Pnmuerius, c^ Canipul- 
lus SaceUarius, (^ Maurtis Nepefinas, laid Crimes to his charge; and ailaultcd 
him, and twice put out his Eyes, and cut out his Tongue, and put him in a 
Monaftery ; yet ( faith the Story ) his Eyes and Tongue were perfetflly re- "^ 

ftored, and he fled to his Protestor Charles into Germany ; and Charles came 
to Rome, and judged his Accufcrs toBanifhment,and rcllored him ; and he 
crowned Charles then Emperor of the Weft, and perfected the Donation to 
him of all that had been the Emperor's. Charles ga\c him great Prcfents 4 
and with his own Revenues and that, he laid out (b much Silver and Trea- 
(ure at Rome, and did (b many new things in the Churches, that if you read 
but Adrians life, and this Leo's, you will be ad-iamcd to difgracc the Church 
of Rome with any Titles or Pretences of the ancient primitive lfate,bur muft 
Hiy, Old things are past away, behold all ss become new. Charles the Great, 
made the Pope Great. 

§93. Some Hiftorians (ay, that the killing of tiie Pope's Foot , was "CD 

brought in thus by this Pope Leo: A handlbm \\'oman kill: his Hand, which 
(b inflamed his Heart with Lull, that he cut oft the Hand that the ^Voman 
kift,and ordained that ever after the Pope's Foot ihould be kift inftcad of his 
Hand: But I raihcr believe with Bwwrvj-, that this is but a Fikilion, becaulc 
I . There is mention before this of killing the Pope's Foot. 1. And I do 
not think that fuch a Heart would (b eafily part with a Hand. 

§ 94. To look back to the Eaft ; when Irene had kept up Images awhile, 
lier Son Cmtjlantine grown up, is weary of her Government and Stauratius, 
and dcpolcth her ; and when he ruled, the Bilhops moftly were conformable 
to him : But in his youthful Folly and Rage, he put out the Eyes of his 
Uncle Niccphorus, and Ahwiiis a Captain ; he put away ALiry his Wife, and 
took one Theodeta,thnt better pleafed him, in Nlarriage ; one [fofepJj that mar- 
ried them, was preferred for it. Tijrajins connived, and durll not gain-lay. "if^,''"T''o* 
Theodore Studlta (jr Tlato therefore renounce the communion of Tarajius. ^ i' 
At laft, y4w. 797. his Mother 7vfw, and Staarjtins, ioum^ means to appre- 
hend him, and murder him, that is, put out his Eyes, of which he dyed,which 
(bme celebrate as a pious Acf ; it was done by her that (ct up Images. But 

I i within 


241 Ll:u)-ch-HiJh)y of 'Bijhps and 


withui one year, l^icefharus dq^fcd and banifhcd ha* into Lesbos^ U-hcfe (he 
dyed, and he took the Empire to himfelf. 

§95". Sfww/.', p. 445". faith,. " []T£ii7/ the Empn-or bani^^ed Theodore 
** Stud ira ,/r;r r^pnvifi^ bis A4arri/!^, and when he added crime to crime, 
" Mcriiu jiillii Muuis cjuam impcrio exuent, zelo julliiix non rcgni, oculis, 
" Imperii, & vita orbatus eft. By the cOmTHdnd of his Mother in her zeal 
''''for jujhce, he luas de'ier-vedlj depri'ved of his E?»pire, Eyes and Life. ~\ \\'hat 
is not iuft w!th P.ich Hiftorians, that maketh for their Intereft ? And how con- 
temptible is their Cenfurc of good or evil Men, which hath no better Mea- 
fures ? 

% f)6. He tells 135 alfo, ( p. 444. ) that the Spanijh and French Bifhops 
at thele times, of their own hcada,withoat the Pope, added [^Filio'^iie'] to the 
Creed, which hath to this day made (b great a ftir. It feems they thought 
that the Pope's Authority was not neceflary to it. 

§ 97. He adds, that Charles the Great being dead, the People grew bold, 
and ro(e up again againft the Pope ; which occafioned Rapines, Flames, and 
Murders, that Lttdo'uicus the new Emperor was fain to take his Fathers Of- 
fice, and come to Rome to five the Pope, and fiipprefs the Rebels. 

§ 9 8. The Venetian Duke killing a Patriarch, Johan. Gradtnfis, Paulus Pa- 
triarch of A^imleia called a Synod to crave aid of Charles. 

^ § 99. CCXXXV. y^w. 806. AGjuncil washeld atCow/<7«r.w/)/f,In the 

Caufe of the forefiiid "Jofeph that had married the Emperor to his fecond wife, 
who had been ejefted by Tarafius from his Biilioprick, and the Emperor cal- 
ling a Council, they reflored him ; wherefore Jheodorus Studita called them a 
Council of Hereticks and Adulterants,becau(e they reflrorcd the Caufer of the 
Emperor's Adultery. But how few Emperors have not found Councils of 
Bifliops ready to do their Will ? 

§ 100. Charles the Great m^lCmg his Will, divided his Empire between 
his three Sons, giving them Laws of Communion and Succefllon, (that if 
one dyed without Children, his Kingdom be divided between the other two; 
^ hut if he have fuch Sons as the Teople will choofe, they fucceed their Father : ) 
Commanding all three that they be the Defenders of the Bifhop of Roj»e, 
as he and his Father and Grandfather had been ( to their com- 
modity. ) 

§ 1 01. CCXXXVI. y4n. 809. Was another Council at Conftantinopky 
f^ which was gathered to condemn honcft Jheodorus Studita, d^ Vlato, and mch 
'•This 's ^^ '^'^"^ ^^^" againft the reftoringof Jofeph,oi which (iiith £/«»/'«/, '■'■[_ N'lien 
not the ^^ the B/pops there Congregate had brought the mofi holj Vhio in Chains to 
fiiil time " /■<? judged, and had pajj'ed the Sentence of Anathema on the Univerfal Cathc^ 
th.uCoiin- " li;k Church * that n'as againft their Error, they made a moH wicked Dc- 
^"'^P YV^ " "^^' '^^^^ the Aiarriage of Conftantine with Theodota, (his IPTfe yet living, 
Catholick " ^^''"ft into a Mvnsftery ) jlwuld be fa id to be lawful by difpenfation. They 
Chuich. ^^ added for the Emperor^ s fake this ivtcked and pamelefs Sentence , That the 

" Laws 

their Councils ahridned. 24:; 

" Laws of God * can do nothing agawft Kings j and that >f arty tmit are Chry- • yhcv 
" fol\om,and Pied his Blood fur Truth and Jujiice, he is not to be called a Mar- mean \r\: 
" tyr : That BijJjops have power to difpenfe VHth all the Canons. ] Remember t''^' <- >- 
that Vapijis confels all this to be wicked. We have not the Adsand Speeches "f'^'^,, 
of thefe Councils preferved. Church. 

§ loi. CCXXXVH. Jn.%o<). A Council was held at -^^«/,i^)<r»<7, about 
the Proceirion of the Holy Gho(l,and the word [^Ftlioque'] in the Creed *. * A new 
Of which they (cnt fome Meflengers to the Pope, who approved the thing, ^^Irl^' 
but diffuaded them from adding it to be fung in the Creed j and ahcr inlcri- 
bed the Creed without Filiot^ue in Latin and Greek in two Silver Tables, to 
{hew that it (hould not be changed ; which ytt after it was by the Pope's 

The Frf«c/j Annals (ay, that in this Council they treated of the fiate of the 
Church, and converfation of the Clerg); but detcrtmncd nothing for the great- 
nejfes of the matter. 

§ 103. CCXXXVIII.y^M. 113. {Y ex. \M\Acv Chafles the Great) a Coun- 
cil was held ( by his Command ) at Aries, where many very good Canons 
were made for the Reformation ot the Bifliops and Priclls. 

§ I 04. CCXXXIX. The ftme year the fame Charles had a Council at 
Tours , which made y i as honcil Articles, as if Martin liimftlf had been 
amongfl: them ; even againft all kind of fin, and for all godly living. Among 
others, the 37th Canon tells us, that the cuftom of not kneeling in Prayer 
on any Loras-day, ( no not at the Sacrament ) nor on any Week-day be- 
tween Eilfter and JVhitJtaitide, was yet in force ; on other days they required 
humble kneeling. 

§ 1 05'. CCXL. Yet another Council did Charles call the (ame year at Cha- 
lons ( CabiUonenfe ) in which he ordered Schools for the reftoring of Learn- 
ing, ( our Alcutn being his Ferfijader greatly efteemed by him ) Learning 
then being almoft worn away, ( and Ignorance taking place ) till he greatly 
revived it: nQ-.lcG than 67 Canons were here made, moft very good ones; 
but praying for the Souls of the FaithRil departed,and anointing the Sick, are 
there enjoined. 

§ 1 06. Among many good Canons, the i jth is againft the Oath of Obe- 
dience to the Btjhop, and to the Church. The words Tranflated are thcfc : 
" [ Jf if reported of fome Brethren ( Bifliops ) that they force them, that they 
" ai-e about to ordain, to fivear, that the) are tvorthy, and will not do contrary 
" to the Canons, and -will be obedient to the Bijhp that ordaifieth them , and to 
" the Church in which they are ordained ; which Oath, becaufe tt is -eery davgc- 
" rous,we all ordain fliall be fmbiddcn.'] 

§ 107. The 1 5th Canon faith, "[If k faid that m fome places the Arch- 
" deacons exercife a certain domination ever the Fartjl>-Prcsbyters,and take Fees 
^* of them; which u a matter of Tyranny, rather tium of order of Retlitude: 

1 i -i. "-For 




i.-^.j. Chunh-Htjkyy oj 'Bijl^cps and 

" 'For if the Bifrtips miift not Lord it in^ht Ctergj , but be Examples to tht, 
* Flocks, ntHch leji w/iy theje do it, 

§ I 08. The z-5'ili Canon complaining how the old Excommnnicatirtg and 
Reconciling was e;rown out of ule *, they dclired tlic Emperor's help how 
• CouBcil- tijgy n^ould be reftorcd. 

OiJnicas' § ^ °9' ^'"'- 33-' "^^'^y %' '"^■"''' ^"^/'.S^ fo God and Man are both 
tJiiivh^'i ^i^ood; bitt that Ccmfejftcn made to Gcd, tiirgethjin ; and that which tr made 
^' to the Triefl^teacheth how-their jins may be f urged. 

§110. The 45'th Canon is againft them, that by going to holy places, 
/?»we, or Tcurs, think to havetheir fins forgiven. 

% III. CCXLI. Yet another Council the ftme year 813, was held un- 
der Ch(.r'.es M. at MtntZj in Germany to the like purpofe, many godly Canons 
being made. 

§ 1 1 2.CCXLII- Yet another under Charles at RhemeSfkr Iriftruftingand 
Catcchlling, and many good things, like the former. 

§ iij. CGXLIII. But we have not done with Images yet,yi«. 81 4.There 
was a Council tailed at^'ow/?«»f/«c^/e, which damned the Council of Nice x. 
Irene having (et up Images, and murdered the Emperor her own Son, (as is 
aforthild ) was depolcd by Nicefhorus, who Reigned near ten years , with 
Stauratius his Son j he was no Friend to the Clergies powcr,and was killed in 
Fight by ihc Bulgarians, and his ^VDunded Son Reigned a few months. Mi- 
chael Curofalates iiiccetded,,o.N[An of great Piety and Peace, but unfit for 
War,who being overcome by tlie B«/^rtri<77»/, h'e conftnted to give up the 
Empire to Leo Armenus, a better and profperous Soldier. This Leo the fth, 
was of the mind of the former Leo^s againft Images , and his mind being 
known, the Biihops conformed prefently, infomuch that in his id year this 
Council called by hlm^ Anathematized the Blfhops that would not renounce 
the Nicene zd Council ; and when they lay proilrate on the earth, it's ia'id^ 
Ibme trod on- fome of them,and they turned them at a Back-door out of the 
Council : For the Patriarch Nicef horns, that was for Iinages,\vas depo(cd,and 
TheodorusMeliJJentis that was aga,inft them put in his place, and led the reft! 
Thus did Council againft Council thunder Anathema's, and curie each other 
by (eparating them from Chrlft, till few were left uncurfed. The Rulers of 
the Monafteaes alfo were called In » and thofe that would not conftnt 
againft Images, were rejected. Nicetof ^ TTieodorus Studita were tke Ch.im- 
pions for Images, and were both baniftied and imprllbned. Theodore wrote 
to the Council for Images, and tiells them that " {_ To takeaway the 'venerabk 
Binr.470 if' Adoratim of the Images of Chrift, and of the Mother of God, and of all 
'l^'^od *^ the Saints, was to overthrew theOeconomy of Chrifi.'} And he continued 
in Prifon to preach and write for Images.- 

Thofe Councils that pleafed not the Faftfis, we have not the Afts of, as 
we have of (iich as Nic. x. that pleiiled them. Had we all the Speeches and, 
Argumcais ufcd in this and. other Councils, againft Images, as- largely as 


their Cotmciis SricheJ. 2 4.> 

:kofc that were for them, we might better (ee wlilch had the better manage^ 

§ 1 14. CCXLFV'. The Clergy had for many hundred years abrogated 
God's Law, \_ He that ^)eddeth Mans Blood, hjAfanjbaU bis Blood be jhed; ] 
and had put Pennance for the punifhmcnt inftcad of Dcatli : But now at 
laft the murdering of one yobn a Bifhop ( mhonefle d^ mauditi m(.yd, Uatus, 
as they then (pake } they were put to find (bme harder Penalty to fiive the 
Qcrgics Lives : And fo they (et great Fines of Money on the Murderers ; 
and more than (b, He that •wilfully murdered a BijIkJ) mufi eat nofiefli,nor drmk 
any IFine as long as he lived. If Murder now had no greater a punifhment, 
Biftops would fcarce be ftfe any more than others. This was at a Council 
at a Village called TJjeorius, or Dtettnhofen. jj 

§ 1 1 f. Next fucceedeth Pope Stephen at Rcwe ; Tlattna faith Stephen the ' 

4th, Anajlafius and Binnius fay Stephen the ^th. Platma and others fay that 
he Reigned but feven months ; yinajlafius and others fiiy (even years , and 
(even months. Platma (aith he was the Son of Julius z Roman; j4najiafius 
faith he was the Son of Marinui*. ' It's like 

Charles dying, the Empire came to his Son Z,«(/ox'/f«/ called Tius, his Bro- 7"/"«W<»- 
ihers dying alfb. TheBifhopsof Italy ( hith Vlatina and others) ftir'd up '''"'"', ^* 
BernMd to rebel againit him j but he was conquered, and put to death : as fajch, was 
al(b were the Saxon Rebels. Pafchal Jirft fiiccfcding, Stephen is made Pope his name 
without the Emperor's knowledge; for which he exculed himfelf, as forced 
by the People thatcho(e him :Thc Emperor pardon'd it, but demanded obe- 
dience as to their Elections tor the time to come. Platma m '^t. Va',chal.L i. 
who (aith that Pafchal was (iifpeiflcd of the Rebellion of Jtaly^ni difclaim-' 
ed it ; and tliat the Emperor re-aflTumed many Cities to the Empire, to pre- 
vent new Rebellions. 

.Some (ay that Bernard was but blinded : Among others banifhed for 
Trea(bn, were -/4»/f //» Bilhop of ;l/;/4«,and T'/!)«//«//^e Bilhop of Aurelia, 
( Orleance ) (b that Italj and France joined in the Treafbn. See Petav. Hifi. 
M,md. It. 8. c. 8. 

§ 1 1 6. CCXLV. Liidovicus Pint was (b careful to reform the Bifhops 
and Clergy, that he raifed their ill will againft him, being too pious for them 
that (hould have been the Teachers of Piety ; yca,(b flothful did they grow, 
that though his Father and he had done extraordinary works for the promo- 
ting of Learning and GodhncG, yet Learning in his days grew to fuch de- 
cay, that Learned Men became the common contempt, and few of them 
were to be found ; but JVealth and JurisdiBim were, the ftudy, care,and in- 
tereft of the Bifhops. 

Yet ;:i his time at Aqutfgrane, there was a Council that wrote, inftead of 
Canons,thc moft excellent Treatlfe for the Teaching and Government of the 
Teachers and Governors of the Church, (belidcs the regulation of Monaftc- 
rics ) that ever any Council did before them : Not in their own words, but 
iaxhefeyeral Sermons, and paflages of the chief F4thas, (I/idore, Hiaom, 




246 Church Hifrcry of Bijhops a)hi 

• "~^ ~ ' ■ ■ . ' — ~^ 

^^ Gregory^ Augufiine nnd Fro^'er, ) ijaat ' liad written to the Clergy heretofore, 
which they collected into 1 +5: Cloarrcrs and Canons. 

But you mufi: know that the excellency oF the Canons of Provincial Coun- 
cils in France and Sptii», in thele Ages , did not flicw the e>:ccllency of the 
Bilhops, (b much as tlicir Pra^'ity and Ncceiliiy, as the Medicine doth the 
Dilcalc. For fuch Canons were ordinarily drawn up by the will of the King, 
by Ibme one or few choice Men, ( luch as Fanlinns Ae^iukienjis in his time, ) 

• Saith towhora the reft conlented, becaulc they knew the King would have it (b*. 
Vn.i Lu- 

dovici in Bin. p. j'Zj. Ccjtgrc^.'itis Rfifcopis, &c. fc:st componi ordinariqite liOrum Cano- 
riicx vttiC 7ior»U)n gcjiantem,in quo totiu>'il:iiis ordinis pcrfcttto contindur. In quo tnjeri 
jiijfit ci'ji fctiijqiie £? cmntiim ncceff.irt'^ri.vi fi.mmani, Q^cin li'jruT7i per omves Civitttcs 
(S Mo>iaJ!eria Canouici ordinis fui impcrn m-fi; per mtt> m mifj'orutn frudet.tmm. Scc the 
reft J lb that it was the Emperor's Book, and not the Council's Work. 

§ 1 1 7. In thefe Chapters of tliis Council, they cite Iftdore and Hterom at 
large, proving that it was Presbyters that were called Bifhops in FauTs EpI- 
ftles, and ^ffj xo. and that in thoft times the Church was ruled by the 
Common-Council of Presbyters , till Schifoi (hewed a neceflity that one 
fhould rule among the reft. 

They cite IJidore% words, that [_ Cateri Apofioli cttm Petro far confcrtium 
hmorts acceperunt ~] Et {_ Non efje Epifcopum cjut pr^eejje Mexcrit, ncn pro- 
dejje. ] And HitroniS on Titus maintaining the forelaid Identity, and hi» 
[_Sciat Epifcopus ^ Freshyter ftbi Fopdum confervum ejje non fer'vum :~\ And 
his excellent Epiftle ad Nepottanum : Many Sermons oi Augufi mis defcribing 
his Collegiate Community of the Clergy. IJidore's words, [_ Tknque Sacer- 
dotesftiic magis utiUtatis causa quam gregis praejje dejidcrant : llec ut projiuty 
frajtths fieri cupiunt, fed magis ut di-vites fiant d^ honorentur : fujcipmnt fuh- 
limit at is culmen, non pro Faftorali regimine, fed pro totius regiminis vel honoris 
ambitione, atque abjeBo opere dignitatis, folam nominii appetunt dignitatem. 
Dum mall Sacerdotes Deo ignorante tion fiant, tamenignorantur a Deo—fed hie 
nefcire Dei, reprobare e/?.J If IJidore (ay true, remember that I wrong not the 
Bi(hops in (aying the (ameof tiicm. And if this was the ca(e of the mofi, as 
he a(firmeth, what better than we find could be expelled from Gtneral 
Councils, where it is carried by the major vote. 

They cite Gregory's words, [_ Nemo amplius nocet in Ecckjia, ejuam <jui per' 
verse agens nomen z/el ordinem janBitatis habet : Delmqutntem namejue hunc 
redarguere nuUits prafumit,fed m exemplum culpa vehemeuter extendititr,quan- 
do pro re'vercntia or dims peccator honor at tir. — Melius profeBo fuerat ut hunc ad 
mortem fub exteriori habitu terrena aBa confiringeievt , qtiam facra officta in 
culpa cateris imitabikm demcnfirarent. Much more fuch againft ungodly 
Biinops they recite. 

Cap. 46. They tell us that the Canons againft Kneeling on the Lord's 
days were yet in force, \_^oniam funt quidam in Die Dominico genu- 
fleitentes, O- in diebus Fentecoftes; ut omnia in univerfis kcis confoncmter objer- 
"jtntur,flacun Janilo CoT,cilio, Jlantes Domino ijcta dtgnijfima perfolvere. 


their Councils ahridzcd. 



In Hierom'i Epiftle to Nepotitm which they cite, tliere arc mofl: pungent 
warnings to Prielb to take heed of famih'arity or abode with Women ; yea, 
even when they arc lick. Scio ( (aith he ) fjiifJttm convaltirjle corport, d^ 
animo xgrotare ca^iffe ; Tericulofe tibi mmjhat, cujus vultum frecjuentcr at- 
tendis. He requireth C!ergy-mcn to avoid Hne Cloaths,curIous Hair,plcafing 
the Appetite, and Riches. He faith of himfclf, [ Ntfui in faufere domo, & 
m tugHrio ritfltcano , e^ui 'vix wHIto d^ cibar:o ptne ritgientrrn fatiare 'ventrem 
foteram^nimc fimiliim & mcllaf^^itlio. He laith, the Mouth, Mind , and 
Hand of Pricils muft agree: Even a Thief may fpcak againft Ccvctoulhefs .-- 
Multo melius efi e duobus impcrfetlis rujlicitatem habi re janBatn,<^uam elcejucn- 
tiam feccatriccm : Mitlti adificartt ^artetes <jf columftas EccUjia: fubfiiuunt : 
marmora nitent, auro ^lendent laquearia , gemmis Altare dtfimguitm- ; ij^ 
Minifirorum Chrifli ntilla clcffio ejf: Portcmris Cniccm Chrijfi, ^ dix-iti.u lu- 
tum putabtmui. — Facile contemnitur Clcriius ijnijitpus vocatui ad prandiiim ire 
tion recnfat. And his Epiftle ad Oceamm, hath yet more agamft convcrfe 
witii W^omen. Trim.i icntamentaChricorun: [iint Fieminarum frerj'nntes ac 
ceffiis — Jatiua Diaboli, I'ia iniquitatts, Sccrpionis percuj/io, nociz-utH/^tie genus tjt 
Famma. Cum proximat fiipida, incendit ignem. — Alibi crede non trtej} torn 
torde habitare c//m Domino, ftti Famrnarum accejjibus ccpulatitr. W ith much 
more tlie h'kc. 

It appcartth by Cap. iir. a Sermon of Angnflines, that it was the aiftom 
then for the Preacher to fit, and the Hearer to ftand , [ / iviU not bold ycu 
long, ( (aith he ) becaufe n'hile I fit, yen are -weary by fan ding. [) 

Augujline fliewcth there how little he regarded the Appeals of his dcpodd 
Pricfts to /Jrwf, [or Councils 3 Interpcllet centra me mille Concilia, vaviget 
tontr* me ^tio t'oluerit. Jit certe ubi potuerit; adjitz'abit me Dominus, ut ttbi ego 
Epijcopiis film, tHic Clericus ejfe non pojjit. 

§ 1 18. Yet I wonder that the Chap, iii of this Council intimatcth /b 
ftpAnge a proportion of Meat and Drink to be the daily Commons of the 'fj\ 
Canonical Monks, I had thought they had lived in greater Abftinence. The 
proportion of Alms or Commons allowed them was, [ E'very day four pound 
ef Bread,'] (enough for me for near 4 weeks; ) and five potmds cf Wine, 
( more than I drunk,! think, in xo year?, in Wine;) or elfc where J I me was 
fcarce, they had three pounds cfi JVine, and three cf Beer ; or tn great Jcarcity, 
mi pound of Jf'me, and five cf Beer. I think our ordinary Miniftcrs drink 
not (b much Wine in a year, as thcfe did in a day ; I mean (uch as live in 
the Coun trey, and were of my Acquaintance. I wonder how any Plow- 
man's Belly can h.old four pound of Bread one day, and live, without a pre- 
feat Vomit or Purge. I have tryed long Ccmario's and Leffiui'z diet ( 1 1 or 
14 ounces of Ftwada, and as much Beer only in a day, without rafling any 
other Meat, ) ;ind found no incommodity as to Health or Plealiire ; but 
fhouldl eat fo ;r pound of Bread in two days, I do not think I fhou^.d ever 
cat more without a Vomit. And how can any Man drink five pound of any 
ordinary Wine, and not be drunk, or dead? yea, or three Pints cither, \^'hat 

^^an's■ : 

148 Church'HiJhry of Bijhops and 

^ --^ Man's Belly will hold ftx pounds of Wine and Water every day , unlefi it 
pals as Tunhrulge Waters, without prcfcnt Suffocation, or a Droplie. I would 
hope that I undenland not this Chapter in the Council, hut that thefe Ca- 
nons had Ibme Beggars that were to partake with them , but that I find no 
encouragement for my charity in the Text or Hiftory : But verily if it were • 
as it is written, I wonder how theft abftcmious Monks did elcape death by 
their Gluttony and Drunkenncfs one week or day v/ithout Phydckj-notwith- 
n ftandlng that the Council giveth you notice, c<»^. 1 Zi. Im.ult. tliat a pound 

|j " hath but I X ouncej. 


$ 119. We mud not unthankfully omit what kindnefs Anaflafms ((aith 

Pope Vafchal ) fhewed to the Engltfl] : By negligence their Hou(e at Rome 

was burnt, and the Pope ran out bare-foot,' and where he ftood, the Fire 

* G^'j? fi ftopt * ; therefore he flood bare-foot there tHl morning, that the Fire miglit 

" ■" J""'> be fully quenched. But tliis he did for the love of St. Peter, whofe Church 

!?,"? him- ^'-"^^ '" '^^"^^'' ^y '^'^ ^'^^ 

C^.j£_ § ixo. The Papifis here bring forth aConftitution out of their own Li- 

brary, by which Ludcvicus conHrmerh to the Popes all that ever his An- 
ceftorsgave them, andaddeth (b much, that he was then made ( if this be 
true j ( as the Geographia Nubienfis calls him ) the King of Rome indeed. 
And they mecrly feign that Charles and Ludovicus Pius made none of theft 
Laws of^ themftlves, but by the Pope's advice , againft plain evidence of 

§ I X I . A Convention of Abbots at y^quifgrane, and another of BIfliops, 
and a Synod at Evgelbeim follow, and one at Attiniac, in which they fty the 
Emperor penitently lamented his ft verity againft his Nephew Bernard, and 
others, with open Confelfion and Penitence. And indeed his great endeavors 
to promote Piety, and to reform the Clergy ; his frequent Councils,(in which 
it was he,by the advice of a few chief choftn Mcn,thatdid their bufinefi,and 
governed all ) wjtli the reft of his Life delcribed by the Writer of it, and 
other Hiftorians, do fhew that he was juftly called Pius, though Wars will 
cauft manya£fions to be repented of. 

§iax. F/jf;«(j: (aith, that ^«/?^rt/7i!« (aith, that Ludovicus givePafckal 
the power of freely chujing Bi^wps, v/jich before was not done wit bout the Em- 
perors. ( The Peoples conlcnt ftill (iippoftd. ) 

§ 113. The Pope being dead, two are cholen [ which was the ilth 
5chi(in ) but Eugenius the ad carried it, the Emperor lending his Son Lotha' 
rius to ftttlc the Peace of the City, jamdudum Pncjidutn quorundam perver- 
fitate dcpravatam, fnith the Author of the Life of Ludovicus ; where Mur- 
ders of the chief Men had been committed in the Schilin, and Mens Goods 
taken away, and much confufion made. 

§ 1 X4. In the Eaft-the Party ,that were againft Images , prevailed ever 
fince Irene xhz Woman that ftt them up was dcpoled and dyed ; her Son 
Conflantine, whom (he murdered, being not for tlum before, nor Nicephorus 
tliat depoled her after j But Leo ^ Armcnus that fuccecded A'lichad Curop. 


thc'w Councils abridge J. 249 

earaell againft them, and, as they called it, perfecuted the Worfhippers of 
Images. A Prince confelled to be very prohtable to the Empire ; Michael 
Balbui that is (iippofed the chief of them that murdered him, reigneth in hfs 
ftead : he fet himfelf earncftiy to have healed the Church-divifions of tlie E^ft 
about Images. To that end he (ent Ambafladors to LmiIovuus Pius fnto 
France for his courJel, in the profefling his great deGre of Peace. LudcvKus 
called together fbme that he moft efteemcd for Learning at Paris, ( which 
fbme call a Council, but were like to be more learned than the Majority in 
Councils ) to debate and confider the bufinels. The Paris Divines in this 
Debate drew up a Writing, in which they greatly finned, luith Beliarmive, m 
that tney took on them to reprehend the Pope, and a General Council ; (But 
do not they themfclves condemn many General Councils ? ) 7« wbich , (aith 
Bellarmine,//'ey far exceeded the yittthor, -who in the vame of Carolus Mag. o«r 
forth a Book agaivft the worjhipiyig of Iptages. For he ( which alfo the Fa- <gj 

thers of the Frankford Council did) difallonrd (or reje£tcd ) the a^Kicene 
Sjngd, becaufe they thought it had been celebrated without the Pope's conftnt *: * An iin- 
But thefe Counfellors of the Emperor ljc\v\s,confcfs the Council of Nice xd for h'ktly 
the vo>jJ)iping of Images to be called and approved bj Pope Adrian, and yet ^"'"S* 
they did not fear to examine, judge, and reprehend both the Synod itfrlf, and the 
Epifile of Adrian to Conifantineyor the -uwrjlup of Images, yea, and the defenise 
of that Synod [ent by Adrian to Charles ^I. laying , [ Indifaete nofcttur fc- 
ciffe in eo ijuod fuperfiitios^ eas adorart jujjit. "] So ( laith Bellarmine ) they 
were not ajliamed to judge the fudge of themfelves , and of the vhole 
world, to feed the Pafior of all Cbriji's Sheep, and to teach the Teacher cf all 
men ; than which temerity, no greater can be imagined. Thus fix Bel- 

% 11^. Here I defne the Reader to take notice, 

I. That even then when the Pope was advanced to his Kingly grcamcG, 
yet as the Eaftcin Empire was far from obeying him, (b even that one Prince 
that ftt him up, and defended him, with his Doctors and Councilors , were 
hir from thinking i.im InJ:illible, but reproved him, and judged Ixim as (uper- "^ 

iHriousfor Image-wordiip , and were not herein ruled by him. 

1. And judge whether moft Biiliops would not have iudgcd accordingly, 
if they had had but tl:e lame countenance from Princes, as the Biiliops in the 
Ea!f and thele nov/ had ? 

g. And iudge witli what Face the Militant Doiflors of Rome do pretend, 
that all the world was then fubjoS to the judgment ot the Pope, and bid us . 
name anyChurchc; that rejeiflcd it,whenEuft and \\"cft lb far rcjcftcd it as 
is here confeffcd, even when they were grown lb high, yea and Councils as 
well as Popes ? 

§ ii6. Hereupon a Book was printed ^n. ifg^J. called. Tie Council of 
Vm'is about Images, cont^ilnhg, 

K k 1. The 

5-0, Chmxh-Hijhry of [Btpjo^s <.md 

1. The Empcfor.A/«-/j<»ei's Epiftle, ( by which, (aith BellarmInc,owf t^owW 
juJge htm me of ihebeli Princes that ex'er wijf. ) 

X. The Fijrts Doftors Colle>Stion of Tcftimonies, proving, ( in the middle 
way ) that Images ^wtdd not be broken ccntcmpuoujly, as jorrie would have 
them ; nor be worjhipped as the General Niccnc Coimcd, and the Pope weidd 
have them. 

5. An EpIftlc in the Pope's name, written, (faith Bellarmine,hy the Frensb 
Dodlors ) to Michael the Emperor, (hewing, that Images are neither to be 
■mronged dtfgracejuUy, nor adored. 

4. An Epiftle of the Y.m^^xox hudwicns to the Popc , defirin^iim to 
write to Michael to further this Peace of the Churches. 

•). An Epiftle of Lndovicm to the two Biihops whom he lent to Rome,\j 
direct them how to carry themfelves wijely, to get the Pope's conjenr^ \\'^hethcr 
this at Paris was a Council, or only a lele£t Convention of Men chofen by the 
Emperor, is a Controvcrfie of no great moment. I take the latter to b« the 
more honourable fort of Aflembly, as the world then went; and fhould reve- 
rence more the judgment of io or la Men, fek<2:ed by fiich an extraordi- 
nary Prince, than of the majority of thcBifliopsof -AXEwope: As I prefer 
the judgment of thofoMen that by King 7.-;w« were appointed to Tranflatc 
the Bible, betoi-e the judgment of ths major part of the whole Englifli Cler- 
gy, of whom perhaps one in ten had a fhiattering in the Hebrtw T«nguc, , 
and one of an hundred underftood it, ( at the moft.) 

§ lij. Our modern cheated Englijli Papijls , that are- taught here in; 
England to fiiy that they worfliip not Images, might here fee the Fraud of 
their Clergy, that fit them a Faith to their interefts and occaiions. We con- 
fefs that it is but three forts of Images that yiquinas fiiith we fhould worfliip . 
with Latria ( Divine W'orfhip : ) But yet the reft arc to be worjhipped, iay . 
their Doctor-;. Why elfe do they lb commonly condemn ■ this Book and 
Council pf Ltidcvicr/s Pins, that forbiddeth both the breaking and the wor- 
fhiping of them? Why doth ^cV/<^rw/we purpolcly revile, and particularly con- - 
fute this Book ? ^Vhy doth Einnirts recite all Bellarmines Anfwer in his Can- ■ 
ctl.Tom. ■^. p. fipj&CG? 

§ I^8. Bellarmine is very loth that the Epiftle here fcid to be written by- 
Pope Etigenists the id, fhould be taken to be his,and fuppofeth that it was but 
fcnt to him to be fubfcribed : By whom? If by the Emperor Ludovisus 
Piifs, and his Council of Divines, you may fee of what reputation the Pope 
was then in the Church. One great Argument agalnft it is, That the Pope 
wmdd not fo impudently flatter the Emperor, as to fay, " O venerable Prm- ■ 
" ces of tie world,_ feeing by God^s dijpofal you govern all the Chtirch,8cc. And 
*'' fcr tmtting the Chwch which by God's Ordination you govern : JVhat filthier 
^'■Flattery ( faith Bellarmine ) could there be ? Klicliael Balbus a Murde- ■. 
" rer. Sec. . :s. Jaul by thefo^e- to govtm thei^hnrch by Go.fs difpofatg.. JVhat ■. 
'•'■then r.reBipKps fr'^ 


their 'Councils •dh'id'reil. :i5'i 

jinf. And i. Did not even Gregory/ AfagMsvauch. flatter a worfe Man and 
Kluvderer,P/ioa?/ ? and his Succellors hirli and many niorc? 

1. Did not many, if not moft of the 'Emperors, Heathen and Qiriftian, 
come in by Murder, or Invafion, and Llfiirpatibn ? And were Men therefore 
difobligcd from obeying them, when they were letkd,by (ubmilfive imphcite 
confent ? 

5. But tlie venom of the Cardinal Jefuitc's anfwer is,that he takcth it to 
be bafe Flattery, to lay that Princes are by God's difpole the Governors of the id 
Church : For then what are the Bifhops tor ? And muft the world be ridden 
and abuled by fuch Men, that would tui-n Princes out of all Government of 
the Church, and undcrfland not that the Government of the lame Church, 
may belong to the Magillratc and the Paftors rcfpcfbively, ( as the Govern- 
ment of an Holpital to the King, and to the Phyiician? ) May not one rule 
A-nd punifh by the Sword, and another by the \^''ord, by Tcacliing, and the 
Church Keys? Is it not one tiling to Fine, and Beat, and Banifh, and Kill a 
Man, and another to fcntence him unmeet for Church-Communion? Mar- 
vellous, that God pcrmittcth the world to be deluded by (iich a blinded or 
blinding Clergy, though as learned as BcUarmme , that would make thefc 
things (cem inconliltent, and icparatc what God hath conjoined.' 

See here to what the Roman Clergy would reduce Kings, they muflbe no 
Governors of the Church. And it all the Kingdom be C.hriftians, are they 
not all the Church ? And fb the Chriftcning of the Subjects dcpoftth the 
King, and makcth the chief Pric^ King that Chriiteneth them. 

It he had faid that Kings govern Churches, but not as Churches , but as 
parts of the Kingdom, he had fiid fallly : For they govern them if Churches, 
tliough not by the lame fort of Government as the Pallors do ; as they go- 
vern not Holpitals by the lame fort of Government, as the Phyficians. 

§ 1 19. In EugenuKS Epillk it is honeftly and truly faid, that "[_If there 
" had never been a fainted or a forged Image, neither Faith, Hope nor LovCy 
" by -which Alen come to the Eternal Kingdom, wculd have pcrijlied. ] I am 
of Bellarmine's mind now, that this was none of the Pope's Epiftlc, (but the 
honeft Emperor's, and his Clergy Councils : ) He thought it too bad for a 
Pope, and I think it too good for a Pope. He tliinks that the Pope mull be 
mad, if he would huve fb condemned his Prcdeceflor Adrian i Acts, as this 
Epiltle doth ; and I doubt he was not (0 honeft as to do it. But did not Bcl- 
larmine know how much more fharp and virulent Accufatlons Popes ha\"e 
laid on one another ? 

§130. CCXLVI. So powerful was Ludo^vicus Tius^s Attempts to reform 
the Clergy, that it drove Pope Eugenius the id for (liame to call a Council at 
Rome, ( not from the Antifodes,hMZ ) of 63 Bifhops, (^«. 816.) who 
repeated fome old Canons, and, among other things, forbad (uch Fcafts and 
Plays as our W^akes are on any Holy-days to be ufcd. 

§131. Valentine was next chofcn Pope , ( ColltEtis in ununt Venerah. 
Epfcopu df Gloriojis Romofiorum Troceribus , cmntciut timtlii: tivbis Fcpulo in 

K k X Tal 

2^1 Lhurch-Hijlory of (BiO^cps and 

Pal. Later, fiitli ^tiajlajiits ) but he lived but 3 o ov 40 day?, ( Hiflorians 
agree not of it.) 

§131. Gregory the 4th fucceeded, who, (aith Platina, would not under- 
take the Papal Omce,till LuJcvia/s the Emperor had confidered of the choice, 
" and conHrmed it : [_irhich,( iikh Flatwa) Ludovicus did not out of Pride, 
* Mark "^//f left he fljould lefe the Rights of the EffJpire*, being by nature gentle and 
rlie Rights ''^^"fi humane, and had e'ver upheld the Rights of the Church. He fetUd 
of the " Benefices on every Priefl,that 1' overt y wight not hinder them.~^ You ftc 
limpire. here that the great Friend of the Cliurch yet took that for the right of the 
Empire, that none fhouldbe Pope againfl: his confcnt. 

§ I 3 3. Platina, adding how he rcfoiined the Clergy , forbidding them 
gay Attire, Ornaments, Sumptuoufnefs and Vanities, (aith thereupon, '■'■Would 
" thou hadsi lived in cur times, O Ludovicus! For the Church vjanteth thy 
" holy hijfitutions, and Cenfure, fo much hath the Ecclefiaftical Order poured out 
" it/elf to all Luxury and Lufi. '] So defcribing their abominable Pride and 

§ I 34. Pope Gregory added Co much to the good works of hisPredece(^ 
fbrs, by mending, building, adorning fo many Temples, Pillars and Ports, 
with Stones, Veltments, Silver, d^c. and removing the Bones of Saints, (if he 
miftook not ) that it is no wonder if Rome grew into greater pomp and 
(plendor than ever before. 

§ 135:. This godly Emperor having three Sons by his firft Wife, and 
marrying a fecond, having two Sons by her; the Sons of the firft Wife ha- 
ted the fecond Wife, thinking her Son Charles had too much favor. One Son 
( Pepin ) apprehended his Father, and the eldeft ( Lotharim ) came in and 
"^ approved it, and the 3d joined with them, and wickedly depofed him fi'om 
his Kingdom : of which anon. 

§ 136. Ltidovicm called Councils at P<zr«', A/fwf 2:., Zjow/, and 77jo/o«<,'f, for 
Reformation : fome (ay upon the warning of a Maid that being poflcfTed 
of the Devil, and (peaking Latine,{aid that this Devil executed Judgments on 
the Land for their Sins, Injuftice, &€. CCXLVII. The Council at Paris 
wrote a large Book for Reformation, An.%i.<). with the reft of this Empe- 
ror's Conftitutions, worthy to be Tranflated for the common good, that all 
might fee the difference between Reformers and turbulent Heretlcks and He- 
reticators, and proud afpiring Prelate?, The Book is a Treati(e of pious Di- 
re£lions. The yoth Chapter,reproving the breach of the Lord's day,(aith, 
15" that '■'■\_By Jight and by certain relation they have notice, that many "H'orking 
" on that day have been killed with TTounderbolts , fome pujiijl^ed by fuddm 
'* Convuljhns, fome by vijible Fire, their Flejli and Bones being in a moment 
" confumed and tinned into a^^es, and many other fuch terrible judgments. 
Tbcrefore they require that as the yeti's keep their Sabbath, all Men much 
more do (piritually obfcrve this day of the Lord. 

The fecond Book doth notably (hew the diity of Kings and Magi- - 


their Councils abridged. 15^ 

The laft Chapter requireth thoft that are far from the Church , to meet 
for Prayer in other places, as being acceptable to God. 

In the 8th Ctf»;f«/. (fiw.p. 569. } the Bifliops (ay, [_Beati Petri 'vicem 
indimi gerimus.'] So that the Pope is not Pe ff r's onely Succeflbr; others re- 
prefent him, if this Council did not miftake. 

§ I 3 7. CCXLVIII. We come now to a Council which fheweth you, 
that the good Canons made by the Emperor for Church-Reformation, were ■; 
far from reforming the generality of the Bifhops. It is the Council at Com- 
pendium,which too compendioufly depofed the godly Emperor,f of whom the 
world was not worthy. ) 

Calumniators pretended that one BemJjarJz Courtier lay with Judith the 
Emperor's (econd Wife : The Sons of his firft Wife hating her^ Pefm,Vf\\ova. 
his Father had made King of Italy , on this pretence Traytcroufly raifeth 
Arms againft his Father. Lotharias, the eldeft Son, too much confentingjpcr- 
fiiaded his Father to let a meeting without Arms , at Neomagus , prevent a 
War. At that meeting the Nobles, Parentis Iwperium legttimi prorogahant, 
(aith Binniusip. fjf, and Pepin took up Arms a^ain. The Father conquer- 
eth his Son, and taketh him Pri(bner, and might )uftly have taken away his 
life, but he was ftol'n out of Prilbn in the night. Ludovicus dcpriveth him 
of his Kingdom of 7f<j/>', and dividcth it between his two Sons by the fccond 
Wife,Charles and Rodolphus. Hereupon Lotharius the eldeft rebelling,kntw 
not how to -conquer his godly and pro(perous Father but by the Bifliops: 
Them he draweth into his Confpiracy, that as Binmus himfclt faith, " [ Ut 
" e^uem filii armis imperio deponere non pcjfevt , hcrurK [ahem nundinariorum 
" yintifiitum fuffragio (jf jadicio, kmore ac poteflate trupertali privaretur : fuc- "Cli 
" ctffit impiis conatus tmpdjjintus. ] The lait means of Trcafon was a Coun- 
cil of the bafe mercenary Bifliops ; a wicked Attempt that lerved thcfe wick- 
ed Men, and did the Feat. Ehho the Avchbifliop oF Rheme> , ( of a bafe 
original ) and enow more fuch Prelates were not wanting. The Emperor 
had before voluntarily lamented his putting out the eyes of his Kinfman Ber- 
nard a Rebel, (' of which he dyed ) as too cruel, ( when now no Prince 
fcrupleth Hanging, or Beheading open Rebels. 1 The Church had QtisfmStion 
by his voluntary Penance, for that which few Men will think a Fault. And 
what do thefe BiJIiops nou;hut become their Sovereign s yudges,yci, and that 
when he wof abfetjt, and condemn him unheard, for this former Fault. Note . 
the Cafe. 

I . They condemn their King to be depofed, who were Subjects. 

z. Yea,Clergy-men, that had leaft to do with State Affairs. 

5. Yea, and that for a Fault, which perhaps was but Juftlce , and no 

4- Or if it were aFault,was before judged and remitted. And did godly r.iii'l})! 
Lewtr cherifli Chriftian Bifhopfb ^icaloufly, for this u(e, (b balely and tray- ' '" 
tcroufly. to debofc him? 
-'^' f-Yev. 

1^4 Churclj-Hiflcry of BijJ)ops and 

•y. Yea, an;.! to join in ihe horrid Rebellion of uiuiatural Sonsj to accom- 
plilTi their dclign?. 

6. And to ttnipt Princes to hate Religion, when »» Nomine Domini, the 
pretence o\ Religion Ihall do greater wlckedncls by Prelates, than the Rebels 
Arms was able to perform. 

Saith the Author of the Life of Lttdcvicus Pius, [[ This judgment fame 

few gaifi-fnyeJ^more conjentid to it : the greateft fart, as it ujcth to he in fach 

(a) O, cafes ( a ), co?i(ented by vord, for fear of ojfmdivg their Leaders (_ h ). TIjey 

i',*" j- judged him, abjc7it and unheard, neither confejfnig nor co7i-<viil, before the Bodies 

Bifliops ! ^f ''"'• Mcdard Conftjjlr, and St. Sebaftian Martyr, to lay down hts Arms (c), 

(b)\\lhom and forced him to lay thetn hefre the Altar ; and clcathmg him in a black 

should garment, under a find Guard, they thrust him tnto Prifon. By this tefiimcny, 

th>.y lavc \}a^ix\-^'^\^^i{^^-i^^it is ecrtaifjly pofued that the whole btifnefs was done by force 

ni'orcth.'.n and fear, and coloured with the falfe figment of Religion. Thus was the 

God and bell of Princes, alter all his fcrviccs for the Prelates, andkindncfs to his Sons, 

their dcpoled, and balcly ulcd by both, againft: Nature and Religion. 

yil^^f^ . ■ His rirll Rcilauration, when he had been before depoftd, was by the G«^ 

the ufc of *'''^"-' •' How he was rcllored tl le (ccond time, I find not certainly j (ome 

Rcliqucs? would give Pope G'AV^ojy the honour of it. It is likeliell thiat the interell 

wln'ch his goodnefs had got in the People, with the odiouliicis of his Sons and 

Bilhops Acis, did it : But hilly rclforcd, after all this, he was. And being 

(bmewhat backward to Irorgive Lothariiis, he hllcd France with new Wars,till 

the Emperor for Peace did pardon all. Bur Ebbo, Archbifliop of Rhemesy 

and Agobard, Blfhop of Lyons, were depofcd, as Leaders of the Treafon; and 

Ebbo banifhcd, and rcftored by Lcf/'^);/« when his Father dyed j yea, and 

{cat as a Ht M.in to con\crt the Normans by Pope PafchaVs miflion , being 

made Bilhop of Hildcfieim in Saxony, by Ludovic King of Germany, fee 

Petavius Hiil. I. 8. c. 8. 

Shordy after, -<:/;». 840. the Emperor ( (bllicited yet to more Wars by his 
own Sons, about dividing the Kingdoms } dyed, a direful Eclipfe of the Sun 
foregoing his death, the day before Ajomjioti-daj. 

§ 13S. That you may fee the bafe Hypocrilie of thele Trayterous Bii- 
fhops, 1 will recite theii- words in the Council that condemned the bell of 
^n, 853, Emperors • but his Imprilbnmcnt they leave out. 

§ I 39. The Bifhops condemnation of the Emperor Ludovicus Pias, An. 
8^5. after a Preface of the Duty of Bifliops without Favor or Fciu" to judge 
Sinners, and the need of putting their Sentence in writing, to avoid the cen- 
* Here is ^^^"^ °^ ^^'^ Men, they fiy— 
a High 

Court of ^IVe hold it neceffary to mtifie to all the Sens of the Churchy both frefent 
Prelatical t ^„^i -future, how we BiJ}iops,fet over the Empire * of our Lord and mofi 
againft a ' glorious Emperor Lotharius, y^w. 833. the fir fl year of the [aid Prince in 
good Em- 'Odobcr, did generally meet at the Palace <?f Compendium, (G)ropeigne) 
peror. ' and 

their Councils abridged. 255 

' and htimhly heard the [aid Prince * ; And we rook care, according to the ». , 

' Minijlry enjoined ?//, to manifeft to him or ha Nobles , the generality of all accufine"* 

' the Veo^Uywhat is the Vigor, and Tovjer,orTrieftly A£n:ftry, and with v-hat hisFathcr 

' Sentence of Damnation he deferveth to be damned-pvho will not obey the warn' 

' mgs of the Triefts (a.). (4 ) No 

' And next both to the faid Prince, ( Lotharius ) and to all the Peop!e,U'e ^°"''t ^^^ 
*fii(died to denounce, that they fiwuld fiudy mofi devoutly to pleaje God, and ji^jj 
*■ jlmdd not delay to appeafi him in whateiier they had offended him : For m.i- known 
'• nj thingi were examined, ( h ), which by negligence bapned in this Empire, "^ f-J'- 
^ which manifeftly tended to the fcandal of the Church, and the rtiine of the ^ , 'f 
' People, or the defiriulion of the Kingdom ; which mnsl nccejjariiy be Quickly thoritv? 
^ corrected, and by all means for the jut iire prevented ( c ). (c) wj-q 

' Among other things we mentioned, and remembred all Men, how by God "laclc you 
' that Kingdom, by the adminijlration of the most excellent Empercr Charles c/^^ ^^" 
' good memory, and the Valor of his PredeceJJors, was peaceable, and tmited,and ^f [[,„ 
'* nobly enlarged, and committed to the Lord Emperor Lewis by God in great Empire 
'peace to be governed ; and by God's protection remain d (o prejerved,as lon^ as ^. J^'dgcs 
' that Prince fiudied Cod, and ufed his Father s example, and was careful to ''"■^ 

* aci^uiefce m the coun(els of good JVIerj : And how in prf-grtjs of time, as is ^f(; o». 
'■manifeft to all, by his improvidence, or negligence, it fell into fo great ignominy bcllimis 

* and bafenefs, that it. became not only the grief of Friends, but the dtrifion if ot 6'ons, 
' Enemies. |Jc Fa- 

' But becaufe the faid Prince hath negligently managcA tlje Minijlry comniu- fjuj^p 

* ted to him, and dij both do and compel ethers to do many things dtfplcafng 

' to God and Man, cr permitted others to do it (d}, and provoked God ini^) M.A '' 
*■ many wicked couriJels,and (candalized theChurch ; and^that we may omit \'^c /^'"R 
' innumerable other things') at loft drew all his Subjtcis to a common dijhuQi- hCawixI ' f 

* on, and by God'tjujl judgment, fuddtnly his Imperial Poiiun w.rr jjkin ficm Bir^ors , 
*him {e^. But we remembring the Commands of Gud, and our Mmifry, and ^^^ the 

' his Benefits, thought him worthy, that b^ the leave of the faid Puree Lotha- P^'"^ f'^"" ' 
' rius, we (liould (end a Mejjage to him by the Authority of this Sacred Af- nwxcil^ 
' femhly,to admcnijh him of his Giiilts, that he might take jure advice for hu the Br*- 
^ fafety ( or jalvation. ) TImU he miglit in his. extremity fudy with all Lis lTii''ps ami 
^ might, that being deprived of his ewtUy Power, acxording toGcd's Council, ''";'^ °' 
'and the Churches Authority, he might not aljo lofe his Sud. To the ciunjtls jj^^^ ^^ 
' of which Mejjtngers, and their mcjl wholfim warnings he willingly conf*nud, i^f) Lctb.t' 
'■he took lime, and fet a day in which he would give an atijwer to their whol~ '"'^ ^'A 
'fom Admonitions ( f ). tTVl*.'* , 

'And when the day was at hand,thi.fime.ni!y Ajjesrihly unanimcudyvtnt in^'i,,''* 
' to the venerable Man, arid took care to admonijli him of ail that he had of- ( f\ Q 
'fended Cod in, and (candaliz,ed tlx Church , and troubled the People com- humblg 
' mitted to him, and to bring all to his remembrance. And he wHl.-figlf cm-.^'"'^^' 
' bracing their wholfom Admcniticn, and their worthy and congruars Agnra- jcro s^' 
''iia.ti.onsjpromifed in all things to acquiejce in their, whclj'cm ccunjtl, andtvun- PrtUits ! 

' dago 


Church-Hiftory of ^ijlm^s and 

{g)hs\r.\.y <■ der^o their remedying judgniint (g). And being glad of fo -wholfom an 
l"j ^i"^. ' Admonition (h ), jhait we mrreated hts beloved 5o»,Lotharius Auguftus, 
terTudcc's ' ''" ^^jp^^'^'h J""^]^^} ^^"^ without delay ^ with his Nobles he might come, that 
(h)\ii]\\ic^ there might be a mutual reecnciltatton hefu^en them according to Chrifiian 
he look: ' Dccirme, that tf there were any blemijlies or dtfcords in their heart s,a pure and 
for better t jj^^i^l^ begging of Pardon ( i ) might expiate ther/i, and thereupon before all 
^f ) Of ^a ' ^^^^ ^»"lt'i"'^^i b^ might receive the judgment of the Priejibood as Penitents do, 
ir.iytc- ' which Joon after was done. 

rous S.in ' Therefore the Lord Ludovicus coming into the Church of Holy lAxxyfiod's 

and Sub- <■ j\ff)f/jey^TijJjere refi the Bodies of Saints, that is, of Med^vd, a Cot^'effor of 

tk. )' Was ' Chrtjf and Bifimp, and of Sebaftian a most excellent Martyr{the Prii.fs,Dea- 

this keep- ' co7is, and no jmall multitude of the Clerks /landing by, and his Sots the fore- ' 

iiig the ^ J'aid Lothxv'iUi being prefent with his Nobles , and the generality of all the 

htthCom- ( l>cop!e,e'ven as many as the Church could hold)and bemg profirate on the earth 

menr'"snd ' "/""* Hair-cloth ( k ) before the Holy Altar, he coffcJJ'cd before all,that be too 

Honoiii- '■ unworthily lifed the AUniftry committed to him, and in it many wayes of- 

ing the '■fended God, and fcandalized the Church of Chrift, and many ways troubled 

"" w 1 ' '^^^ People by his negligence : And therefore for the Publick and Ecclejiaflick 

Son Slid ' Expiation of fo great Guilts, he faid he would defre Penance, that God being 

wicked ' merciful by their Minifiry and Help, he might pmjheroujly deferve (or obtain) 

Prelates! ^ Abfolution of fo great Crimes, God having given them the power of Binding 

' and Lonfng • whom alfo the Bi^jops, as Jpiritual Phyfcians , did whclfomTf 

' admont[li, telling him that true remijfion of Sin followeth pure and ftmple 

' Confejfwn ; that he Jliould openly confefs hts Errors, in which he profejfed that 

* he MoH offended God, left hejijould bide any thing withih,or do any thing de- 
' ceitftiUy before God, as it is known to all that he did heretofore in the Palace 
' at Compcigne, ^i-if?/ he was by another Holy Ajfemblj reproved before all the 

* Church : And that he come not to God now, as he did thett, by dtjfcmblin^ 
' and craft, with a double heart, and provoke him to anger, rather than to for- 

(/) O in- '■give his fn ( 1 )i for it iswritten,The dtjfemblers and crafty provoke the 

fulling ' wrath of God. And after this Admonition he profeJJ'cd that he bad chiefly 

Traytors. <■ Jl^j-^^d in all thofe things, wherei^pon he had been familiarly reproved by the 

*■ forefaid Pricfs, by word or writings ; that being by due rebuke reproved of the 

wrote ' things they gave him a writing ( m ) of, containing the fum of his Guilts, of 

him his ' which they had Jpecially reproved him ; which he had in his hands, viz. 

Lcirpn, & *■ \. As in the fame Paper is fuUier co?itained, incurring the guilt of Sacri- 

contcUed ' Jedge and Murder, in that be kept not, according to his fromife , the fatherly 

for him ' Almonition and terrible Conteftation made to him with Divine Invocat ion bc- 

'■ fore the Holy Altar inprefencc of the Pricfs,and thegreatefi multitude of the 

' I'enple ; in that he had done violence to his Brethren and Kindred , and had 

(u) A ' permitted his Nephew to be killed ( n ), whom be might have delivered ; 

Irrfytor ' and that being wimin.lful of his Vow, he after commanded the Sign of Holy 

in o['cn <■ J^dig^ion to be made for the hvcnge of his own indignation. 

11. That being the Anther of Scandal, a?idTroiibler of the Peace, and Fic- 

* later 


theii- Councils abridged. 257 

' later cf the Sacramen's,hy unlawful Power he corrupreti the Covenam jfhuh 
' woi made between his Sons for the peace and unanimity of the Empire, ana 

* tranquility of the Church, by commm Coujicil, and ccnjtnt of all the faithful 

* Feople, and confirmed by the Sacrament : and in that he compelled bis faithful 
'■People m contrariety to the jttid frit Covenant and Oath,to jvear another Sn- 

' crament ( o ) , and fo fell into the gmlt of Perjury, by the "Violation of the (f" ) O: 

* former Oaths. yi?>d how much thu dijpleafed Gbd,u plain, in that the People '^•''^• 

* fitbjeit to him had afterward no peace, but were all led into p!rturbatio»,bea}- 

* ing the puni^iment cf their fins, and by God's just judgment. 

* 1 1 1. That againfi Chrijiian Religion, againit bts f'ow, without any pub- 
' lick profit or certain necejfity ( p j, deluded by evil counfel, be commanded a (p)\gimix. 
''general Expedition to be made m Lent, and in the extreme parts of his Em- ■'l'" Arrr.s 

* pire appointed a general Meeting (or Council) at the time of the Lord^s Sup- ^ ^ 

' per, when the Pajchal Sacraments were to be celebrated of all Chrtftians (c\). ^ ^)R'cbcis 
' In which Expedition, as much as in him lay,}x drew the People into great muft not 
' murm)iring,and againfi right put the Prtefis cf the Lord fi-om their Ojficesyand bcrcfiftcd 

* brou/bt great opprejfion on the Poor. V^ J^^ 

' ^V. That he brought violence on fome of bis faithful People, that for hts Ejjler. 

* arfd his Sons fidelity and fafety, and the recovery of the fljaking Kingdom, 

* hiimbly went to htm, and made known to him the fnares prepared for htm by 
' lis Enemies ; And that againB all Law Divine and Humane, he deprived 

* them of their Eftates, and commanded them to be bantjhed ( t ) , ana made g {l ^ 

* them when abfent judged to Death, and doubtlefs induced the fudges to falje that Joch 

* judgment. And agamft Divine and Canonical Authority, raijed prejudice but differ 

* agamfi the Lord's Priefts, ( or Bi^wps ) and Alonks, and condemned them ^^°^\ ^^^ 
' abfent. And in this tncmrmg the guilt of Murder, he was a violater of the ^^ ^^'"j 

' Laws of God and Alan. niu^ be 

' V. Of divers Sacraments (Oaths ) contrary to each other, oft made tm- baniflicd. 
'.reafotiably by bis Sons or People, he commanding and compelling them ; where- 
' by he brought no fmall blot of fin on the People committed to Inm. He hereby 
' incurred the guilt of Perjury, becaufe thefe are rightly charged on him as Au- 

* thor, by whom they were compelled. But in the purging cf Women, m unjuit 
' fi'dgments, in fal/e IVitnefies and Perjuries, which have been committed in his 
' prejence by his permijfion, bffii> much he hath offended God he himjelf know- 
' eth. 

'V I. Of divers Expeditions "which be bath made in the Kingdom commit- 

* ted to htm, not only unprofitably, but alfo hurtfully without counfel and profit , 
' in which many and innumerable hcinox Crimes were committed m the Chri' 
*■ fiian People, m Murders and Pcrjuries,in Sacriltdge and Adulteries, in Ra- 
'^pines, in Burnings, either in the Churches of God,or divers other places,in Finn- 
' derings and opprejfing of the Poor, by mijerable ufage , and almoft unheard of 
' among Chrtfiians ; which all, as is aforesaid, rfiett on the Author. 

'VII. In the divifions of the Empire rafidy made by him, agamft the com- 
' man peace, and the fafety of the whole Empire, for his own will ; and the 
\ Oath which compelled all the people to [wear, that they would aU «gitnH his 

L 1 '■Sons 


Chmxh-tiifiory of 'BiJ]70^->s md 

"Here is a 
new lorr 
of. Com- 
of the 
handsj to 
dcpole a 
King fo 
as never 
ro be re- 
Itored : 
But !t 



' Sms as Enemies, when he might have facifieil them hy Fatherly Authority^and 
' the cotmjel of his faithful People. 

'VIII. That Jo ma7iy Alijchiefs and Crimes committed in the Kingdom 
' committed to him, by his negligence and impro'vidcnce were not enough, which 
^ yet catmct be numbred, hj which the Kingdom w.u evidently difgraced and 
' endangered: bin moreover to add to the heap of miferies,he lafily drop nil the 
' People of his powa- to their common defirtiHion, when he ought to have been 
' to his People the Captain of fafety and of peace, when the Divine Piety had 
' decreed to have mercy of his People by an unheard of and invifible manner, 
' and by preaching in our ages. 

' For thefe things therefore, and in all thefe things which are before recited, 
' confelfmg himjelf guilty before the Priejls, ( or BijiJops ) or all the People, with 
' tears, and protefimg that in all thefe things he finned, he defred publick Pen- 
' nance, that fo he might fatisfie the Church by repenting, which he had fcanda- 
' lized by fmning ; and as he was a fcandal by neglcittng many things, fo he 
' profejfed he would he an example by undergoing due Pennance. 

' And after this Confeffwn he delivered to the Bijhops the Paper of his Guilts 
' and Confejfwn for future memorial , and they laid it on the Altar ; and then 
' he put off his military Girdle and laid it on the Altar, andfiripping htmfelf of 
' bis fecular Habit, he took the Habit of a Penitent put on him by the hands of 
' the Bifliops, that after fo great and fuch Pennance*, 7to Man after may return 
*to a fecular Militia. 

' Thefe things thus done, it pleafed them that every Bijliop fliould write in his 
' oyvn Papers how the matter was done, and Jliould Jlrengthen it by his cwnfub- 

* fcription,and offer it to Prince Lotharlus, thr/sfirengthned in memory of the 
' Fact. To conclude, it feemed good to us all that were prefent , to put the fum 
' of all the Papers, and of fo great a bufinefs into one Breviatc, and to roborate 
*-if by the fubfcription of us all tinth our hands , as is hereafter demonjlra- 
«■«/ — 

The Author of the Life of Ludovicus addeth, ' [_ Pulldque induttim veffe, 

* adhthitd magna cuflodtd fub tetlum qtioddam retriulitnt. "] 

Here you lee the Tryal of the godly Efnperor,the Articles exhibited againfl 
him in the High Court of Epi(copa| Juftice, and the u(e of Penance, and of 
laying on of the BiOiops hands, in inverting him in the Gai'b of perpetual 
Penance. What wonder if the Pope afcended to (iich power, when ordina- 
ry Bifhops in the beft governed and inftrufted Countrey then in the world^ 
obtained filch power ; even by the name and abufeof the P O \VE R OF 
THE KEYS ? Saith Binnius, \_ 77)^^«ww therefore juftly for this caufe de- 
claimeth againft Ebbo, Bilhop of Rhemes, the Leader, as impttdicum (^ cru- 
delifimuM Fpifcopum ! 3 And wbit were they that would thus follow him? 

§ 140. CCXLIX. But the next Council was forced to do better, (for 
.ufualiy the BiOiops followed the ftronger fide ; ) in Theodorus Villa they cau- 
ftd Ebbo to depole himftlf from his Bifhoprick, and the reft excufed them- 
felvesthat they did it hy neceUIty and fear, and were all forgiven, Bin.p.^j^f. 
And yet ^will the Bifhops fey, that this Emperor was not humble and mer- 
liful? § 141. 

their Councils abridged. i^c;) 

§ 141. CCL. After his Reflauration, An. S-^6.L»doz'KUs caii'.ed a Coun- 
cil at Aquifgram, to renew the Laws for tlie Retormation of the Clergy and 
Abbots, with the Inftru6iIons and Rules for Kijigs themlelves at large laid 
down. And here they determined, that all Bilhops hereafter tlut were Rebels 
andTraytors, fhould be depofcd, and Lay-men anathematized. But they 
Efficiently minded the Power and Dignity of theBiiliops to be upheld. 

§ 141. There is a Treatife in 5/«w/«j, p. j'S j. in which the Statutes of 
the Synods of Aquifgrane are opened and conhrmed by Scripture. 

§ 14J. CCLI. An. 8j5. Btnntus tclbus, that in the depofing of the Em- 
peror, Agohertusy Bifhop of Lyonsy and Beniayd, Bilhop of Vtemu , having 
been Leaders with Ehbo, at the Council at Jheoti.rtlla, fled, and die Emperor 
and all his Sons, (ave Lotharius, being here prefent at a Council at Lyons, they 
being (ummoncd, appeared not, and Sentence was put oft, becaule tUey were 

§ 144. Ah. 839. rf^;» the Emperor's Son dying, he pafled by his di(b- 
bedient Nephew Fepin,ind divided that Kingdom ot Acjuitam only between 
his Sons Lotharius and Charles ; whereupon his Son LnJoz'icirs was oftended, 
and with them of Aejiiitain railed Rebellion again, and by a Convention at 
Cahilone, and after it, reconciliation was made. 

§ 145". The Emperor Ludovtcus Ttus dying An. 840. aged 64, his Sons 
fell together in Wars for liis Kingdoms. 

Lotharius the el deft, that had ufed his Father fb trayteroufly and unnatu- 
rally, fought too great a part for liimfelf, and came to a War with Ludovk 
and Charles, who conquered him, and put him to a fliameful flight, yi«. 841. 
in wliich Fight, fay Hiftorians, a greater flaughter was made of the French^ 
than was ever known in the memory of man. This was the man that de- 
pofed his Father for the flaughter of the Subje£h by his Wars againft him. 
The next year tiiey fought again, and he was again overcome. 

§ 146. CCLII. It's eafie then to conjeiSture wliich way the next Council 
( which was at Aquifgrane ) would go : The conquering Princes made the 
Bifliops their Counlellors, when they had made Lotharius flie out of the Coun- 
trey, what they fliould do with his Kingdom ; and, (aith Bmnius, they recei- 
ved the aniwer which Nithardus li. 1 . dclcribetli in thele words , [ ' The 
' Bfjliofs confidenng the deeds of Lotharius fiom the hegimting , how he had 
' driven his Father out of his Kingdom ; how he had made the Chrifiian Veofle 
' ferjured by his Covetoufnefs j hoiv oft he had fruftrated the Oath he made to 
' his Fathers, and his Brethren ; how oft,/tnce his Fathers death, he had at- 
' tempted to dtjinherit his Brethren ; how many Murders, Adulteries,Burnings, 
' and all kind of heinous deeds the Universal Church fuffcred by his mo ft wick- 
' ed Ccvetoufnefs : And that he neither had any knowledge of govei'ntng the 
' Commonwealth, nor could men find any foctfieps of goodnefs of will tn go- 

* veming. For which caujes defervedly, and by the ju ft judgment of God A!- 
' mighty, they [aid he fled firil in Battel, and then fom his Kingdom : There' 
*fore all ( the Bishops) unammoujly agree and confent, that for his wickednefs 

* God bath cast him out, and hath delivered his Kingdom to his Brothers that 

L, \ 1 ^ are 


i6o Chunh-Hijlory of ^ij]?cps and 

' art better than he. But the Bijhops Jid not give them this liberty , tiR they 
' openly asked them, whether they would govern it as their ejeiled Brother did, 
' or ,-cccrdmg to the li/iU of God. They anfwered, that as far as God ^wuld 
' enable them, they -would govern themfelves and theirs according to God's wiB. 
* Br God's Aichority (fay they ) ve warn, exhnrt and command, that you xm- 
' dcrtake it, and rule it according to the will of God. ~\ So for Nithard. 

§ 147. You (cc here that it is no wonder that the Pope took upon him to 
let up and take down, to make and unmake Kings, when the fubjeft Blfhops 
did it by their greateft Sovereigns. And you fee here God's juft judgment 
on a rebellious Son, and the flhameRil mutability of a temporizing Clergy. 
And how prefiimptuous Bifhopshave abufed Religion,the u(e of the Keys and 
the Name of God, to the conrufions and calamities of the world. But Lo- 
thariiis after this Depofition reigned. 

§ 148. All thefe times Images were caft out in theEaftern Empire, even 

all the Reign of Leo the 5 th, and of Michael Balbus, ( however he recalled 

Iheodorus Studita from Prifon ) and of Theophilus that (ucceeded him ; Pe- 

tavius It. 8. c. 9. (aith, that Theophilus followed his Father in perfecuring the 

Worfhipers of Images, but yet was a moft drift requirer of Juftice, and 

ii France reigning i x years and three months, died An. 84 1 . the next year after the 

Taurinen- '^'^th of Ludovicus Fsus. He left his Son Michael, a Child, Emperor,under 

Jji fct the Rule of his Mother Theodora. 

againft § 149. And now come up Images again by a Woman, which ever fince a 

'""^fh Womans Reign almoft had been call out ; (he ruled 1 4 years , juft as 7r«rf 
gj,^^ „Q,' ' did, and fped as fhe J for when her Son came to age, -he depofed her. In 
ro i^wje, this time Methodius firft, and Ignatius after, were made Patriarchs of Cmftan- 
&c. And tinople. And Bar das ( made Cafar ) depoftd Ignatius, becaufe he would not 
jo/na /f«- excommunicate Theodora when fhe was depofed, and fct up the learned Pho- 
jgjh ttus in his place, that came in as Ne&arius had done from the Laity, by fudden 

againft Ordination : one honoured even by the Papifts for his great learning, but re- 
him, €■- viled for being againft them. 

of^lm""^ § lyo. CCLIII. An. ^x. This Woman had prefently fo much power 
Sentences ^'^ ^^^ mutable Bifhops, as in a Council at Conflant. to turn them to be again 
( too for Images, and TisTbeophanes faith, [ Suddenly changing their judgment , they 

ftrong for cur(ed thofe that oppofed Images^ and (b after i r o years rejeftion they were 
the An- reftored, and the N/ffws la Council owned without any great difficulty: 
but in his ^'^ ^^""^ ^^' ^'^^^ were for Images accounted it Godlmefs,zni called them Un- 
Prefacc godlf that were againft it, and this Woman Theodora is ftiled for it a very 
profcfleih godly ^Voman, ( though the other called it Idolatry ; ) and fb while one fide 
that he ^jj5 cryed down as Vrofane, and the other as Idolatrous ; the poor Church felt 
read or '° ''' forrow, that Images were not taken for things indifferent. 
hw his Jhecphanes railing at Yo/jw the Patriarch of Conflant. ftith, that [_ Seeing 

Book : fo fudden and imexpdled a change, he that ruled impicujly was ftruck-Tvith fuch 
Was not ^ fliipor and blindmfs of mind, that he was ready to have killed himfelf; and 
excellent ^^^^g ^^^ ^^'^'^ rf ^11 the wickednefs, of an ungodly judgment, that had led the 
Coiifutcr.^ Emperors by. lyes, arid thritft them into the hell of impiety yhe was with igno- 


their Counals abrid'-cd. 1 6 i 

miny caft our, and good Methodius fut in.~\ I recite the words, to (hew you 
what various Charafters the intercft of Images gave to men, and what God- 
lineG and Ungodiinefi, Good men and Bad men, are in the lenft of many 

§ 1 5" I . The Pope dying, yohan. Diaccnus (eizeth on the place by force ; 
but Sergius is chofcn aguinft him, and prevaileth : In whole beginning Lv- 
tharius lent his Son Litdovicus with an Army to Rcwe *, Stg'ihtrt la'th to be » f kj^u. 
the Confirmcr of the Pope, and claim that rJglit j others Uy, to be crowned, ing they 
To Lotharius they fware obedience, but not to his Son. Some great debate would 
Anafiafms tells us that a great company of Billiops had againil the Pope and JlJ,^^, ^'^' 
his Party, but he tells us not what it was, but that the Pope was too hard for j,';^ -pj^g 
them, and glad when the French were gone. Ponc fub- 

§ 15' 2. It's before fild, that after tlie Bllhop's depoling hIm,jLof/^i«W«i was mirtcd 
rcftored, the three Brothers agi-eeing, that Ludovtcus flioutd have Germany, himfelf to 
and part of France,inA Charles have France, and Luthanui Narbunznd Italy ^^^^ddi- 
as Roman Emperor. red of a 

CCLIV.The Archblllioprlc oiRhemes had been ten years witlwut aBilTiop Subjc<ft, 
upon Ebboa removal or flight , and two Presbyters fuccefiively Fulke and ^'" ^'"^'^ 
Hotho had been the Governors of it, ( fome will queftlon the validity of their ' . 
afts.) And a Council at BelloTjacum makes Htncmsrus Bifliop. 

§ I fj. Under Careluj Calvus the Church-Lands were much alienated, eP 
pecially Abbots Lands, to Nobles and other Lay-men. Whereupon CCLV. 
a Council at Aidda ( Meaulx ) did by Anfegtjus and Bernardus Lcvita draw 
up a Book of (even Parts, lamenting the fuis of Chriftians, and the Sacrilcdge 
of the Laity ,and oftcrcd it to tht King, who refuted it, the Nobles being 
agalnft it : For which ( fay the bold Expofitors of God's Providences ) the 
Normans by In\-arion troubled the Land. 

§ 1 5:4. Leo the 4th became Pope ; they durll not confccrate aim without 
the Emperor's authority, Anafiaf. m Bin. p. 6 1 8. This Pope wrought great 
Miracles, (ay they, i . He conquered a Bafilisk that killed men by his looks, 
( as St. George conquered the Dragon. ) x. By the Cro(s he (lopt a fire in the 
City : But his good works contain a Volumn in Avaftafius, "viz,. the many 
Churches that he adorned, enriched, repaired^ the filver Veflels and Orna- 
ments that he gave, the Polls and Pillars, and Altars that he beautlfied,and the 
glory that he added to the Roman City and Churches, £^'c. yea,when the Sa- - 
racens came and fpoIkdSt. Pr/cr's Church in the Suburbs of Rome, hecaulcd 
the (aid Suburbs to be walled and fortiticd, as a new City, calling It Lecnina 
fi'om liis name : And he made two or three Prayers of lix or feven lines long, 
to defire God's proteAIon of it, by the iritercdiion of St. Veter. And he wri- 
tcth a notable Homily, in which he comprizeth much of the Canonsteaching 
them all the Arts, Gtfturcs, and Ceremonies of canting the Mafs ; and pre- 
ciiely ordcreth, that every Prleft do karn his Leflon ; and that if any of them 
be illiterate, ( that cannot read ) he fliall be fulpcnded till he amend, ("learn 
to read ; ) (b learned was the Clergy in that Age. 

§ 1 5'5'. By the way, the oft mention here oi fmgmg the Mafsjdoih remcm> 


i6i Chvnh-Hijloyy of (BiJIpo^s and 


bcr me to note that which is much over-looked ; 'viz. How Liturgies im- 
poftd firft came up, or wcrcmollly propagated without any exception or op- 
polition : It was chiefly bccaufc they did Jmg them, and had fitted them ac- 
cordingly to their y7;;_g;w^ JVcrr/, like our Cathedral finging of our reading 
Pfalnis and Prayers : And we all know that the People or Miniftcr cannot 
make Pfelms ex tempore, but we muft and do uft forms in fmgmg ; but 
the Prayers that were not Jung, but faid, were longer left free to the Speakers 
prcfcnt skill. 

§ 156. CCLV'I. A71. 847. in a Council at Varis, Lotbarius ca.u&A the 
caufe of Ebbo to be reviewed j but after Summons, he would never appear 
to his death. 

§ 15:7. CCLVII. a Council at Aiewfz., ^». 847. repeated many Eccle- 
fiaftical Canons : Among others. Murderers fllU, inftead of death , are but 
put upon long removal from the Communion, no, though they murder 

In this Council a Woman called Thiota, was judged to be whipt , becaule 
fhe had profeiled to have Revelations foretelling the day of judgment that 
year, putting the People in fear, and even many Priefts followed her as a 
Prophetelsj flie confeilcd that a certain Priefl: perfiiaded her to do it for 


their Councils abridged. 26: 


Of the Councils ahout Ignatius ii>id Vhotius , and fottje others, 

§ I. 4 iV; 848. A Synod at Man z under Rahanm condemned Co- 
CCLVII.jlJl Aefcalats a Presbyter, and Monk of Rhancs, as a Prcdeftina- 
rJan Herctick. Hincmants Ep. adF. Niccl. reciteth hisHerelles to be, 

I. ^'[^Tbat asGod hath fredefiinated fame tolife eterval, fo others to death '£D 

• eternal : That he would not have all Men favedy but only thofe that are Ja- 
' ved, elfi he fiiould have his li'illfiujlrate, a?id not beOm?tipotent. 

^. ^ That Chri ft dyed not for all, but only for the Ele^, who are the world 
' that he redeemed; others he redeemeth by Baptifm^hut not by dying for them. 
5. ' That no one ^mII per/jJi that ChriH dyed for. 
4. He addcth, ( how truly I know not, ) ' Tliat he ajfertetb a threefold 

* Deity in the Trinity of Perfons. '] They laid him in Prifbn, and Hincmartis 
wrote to the Pope to know what to do with liim, faying, '■TImt he tnu'si 

* employ a very able Man to keep him, for he wraps People , even the meanly 
' learned, into admiration of him, reciting Scripture and Fathers dtfiorttd whole 
' days together. Some BiHiops took his part. 

§ 1.. They lay a Synod at Tours wrote an Admonition to one Nomenoi/is 
the King's Lieutenant in Britany, for Tyranny and Oppre/Iion, and carting 
out the jufl BiQiops, and putting in Mercenaries, Thieves and Robbers; Bin. 
p. 638. and for defpidng the warnings of the Pope and Bifhops. 

§3. C/«o//7/.'j tells us of a Co»;c///«w Rp^wf/d^/M?;?, regulating Bilhop? , and 
Cap. 6. ordaining that the Avch-Prcsbyter examine every Mailer of a Fami- 
ly perfonally, and take account of their Families and Lives,and receive their 
ContcfTions : And Cap. 7. that a Presbyter in the abfence of the Bifliop,may 
reconcile a Penitent by his command. Cap. 1 3. That in the Villages Arcli^ 
Presbyters be fet over the Lower-Prcsbytcrs. C. 1 1. That none that arc de- 
nied Communion, may have any Military or Civil Office ; and ib every Bi- 
ftiop is Maftcr of the Magiftrates. 

^4. CCLVIII. The ^ijrrfCfWi in 5^j;« perfecuting the Chrlftians, forced 
the Bifhops to meet in Council at Corduha, and decree againft Martyrdom, 
and the Memorial of Martyrs, faiih Binnitts, p. ^43. ' [] Holding a Saianical 
^ Meeting, forbad Martyrdom, and took away the Honour of Martyrs, faying, 
' That they that were not violently drawn to deny the Faith, but offered thern- 
''fclves to danger of their own accord, are not to be numbred with the Mar' 
' tyrs, not working Mtracks as, the Alartyrs did,nBr their Bodies remaining un- 

• corrupt. 

§ 5-. A Synodal Mentz, An. Sji. did we know not what. But 83 3. 
CCLIX. one at Soifons was approved by Pope Benedict, and reprobated by 
Pope Nicolas (Bin. p. 648. ) ( yet both infallible. ) And it is no wonder, 
for It is about a hard Point, and in which the Papacy is much concerned. 
When Ebl^o was depofed and banifhed, Lotharitis rellorcd him for a wh.ile, 

and . 


2 04 C'rurd'HiJiory of Bijhops and 

aaci he iutrudcJagAin,.md orJainei many Piicfts. Hincmarru (iicceedlng in 
Lis lire-tlim, rqeacth all rhole that he thus ordained. A Council is called to 
j'.idge whether their Ordination was valid or null. The Council decreed, that 
' ^ <> hatever in EccUjiafi'ical OrJinatitms the JaiJ Ebbo /«</ (fone after hit 
oO" • damnation, accordtng to the Tradittom cf the yifofiulick Seat, as u read, in the 
' Deeds (ij the Fofes, except Sacred Baptifin, ivhtch ts perfected m the vame of 
' the Trimty, jliall he ali vcid and null, and thoje ordained by him in whate-ver 

* part uf tie world they jh^ll he Fugitives or "ivavder, becaufe they cannot flie 
' frcm Goo's judgtrtint, let tlem he held deprived of all Ecclejiafttcal Degrees 
*■ by the judgr/imt of the Holy Chofl. ] And yet thele Men had (hewed Let- 
ters from the King and divers Bifhop";, for their reception as Presbyters, but 
the Synod (aid ihey were counterfeit. 

Another Cale was thi.>;, one Haldnmm had been made Deacon by E^^c,and 
Con(ecrated Presbyter and Abbot by Lupus BiOiop of Catalonia. The Prel- 
byter was ordained out of his own Jurildiftion to the Church of Rhemes : 
This being queftioned, an Archdeacon (hewed the King's Letters, command- 
ing the Ordination of Halduinus. Lupus ordained liim, in obedience to the 
King, without examining, ( there being then no Billiop at ii/6ewej.) Where- 
upon the Synod decreed, according to the Canons, (fay they j ' That they that 
' are made Presbyters without examination by ignorance,or by dtffimulation of the 
^OrdatnerSfWhen they are known, jiiall be depojed; becaufe the CatholickChurch 

* defendeth (but ) that which ts irreprchenjible. And it was (hewed in Con- 
oil. Sardic. c. 9. and other Councils and Decrees, ' That the faid Bipop touch- 

* ed nothing of his Ordination, but that he that leaped to the Vriefihood without 
» Becaufe * ^^^ degree of Deacon*, he ought to retire ( refilire } to due degradation. 

he was § 6- Here you (ee the Nullification even of the Ordinations of an ejc£tcd 

made Archbifhop, yea, and of a lawful Bilhop, when he makes a Presbyter of one 

i^*"*?!" ^^^ ^^^ ^y ^" eje£l:ed Bi{hop made Deacon, and when he ordalneth un- 

Ebbo. worthily without due examination. And If this hold , what interruptions 

have there been in the Succeirion of BIfhops,efpecially in the Roman Seat .' 

§ 7. y^w«7?«y?'«i a Cardinal, Presbyter of Rome, betook hi mfelf to theEm- 
peror,folliclting him to depo(e Pope Leo the 4th,and to place him in his (lead. 
The Pope hearing it, calleth him home to his charge, from whence he had 
been abfent five years : but he would not return,nor appear, wherefore CCLX 
the Pope called a Council at Rome, which dcpo(ed him. 

§8. CCLXI. ^»rtf/>w the Patriarch of Cow/?i7wf;>;«^/<?, called a Council to 
depofe Gregory BKhop of Syracufa ; They dcfired Pope Leo's confirmation : 
He delaying it, dyeth. Gregory in the mean time prevaileth agalnft Igna- 
tius, who is caft out, and Vhotnis put In, and a grievous Schi(m begun. 

§ 9. CCLXII. An. Sfy. under Lotharius Remigius Lugdun.znd li other 
BKhops, are called a Council at Faience, v/ho made 13 Canons or Decrees, 
with great Judgment and Piety, and (hewed how much more venerable a 
Council of a few wife BKhops are, than greater Councils, where the mod arc 
weak. Their firft work was againft: thofe that they called the Fredefiinatia' 
«o;, where Cap.i.ihcy determine,' [New ipfos males Deum tdeo perire -velle ejuia 

^ bcm 


their Coiaicils abridged. l6<\ ^ 



' Ironi ejfe ncn fctuermt, fed quia boni tffe mluermt. Cap. j. Vradeflinatic- 
'■nem ekctorum ad'vitam,& fnedefiinatiotiem imfwrum ad mortanfidtntcrfa- 

* timur : In eleSliene tamen jalvandorum mijericordiam Dei pracedere merit »m 
' bonum^n damtiatione atitan perituroriim mcritum malum pracedae jufliim 
'^ Dei judicium : Tradefiinaticne autem Deum eatanttimfiatuiJJ'e qua: tpje "jel 
^ gratuitd mifericordid 'vel juflo judicio faiiurus erat. — hi malts vero tpforum 
' malittam prafctjfe, quia ex ipjis eft ; mn prtedefiindjfe, quia ex tUo non eft. 
' Vcenam fane malum meritum eorum jequentem, uti Deum,qui omnia prefpicit 
'prafcivij/e df pradejlinajfe, qtftajuftus eft : apud quern eft, i4t S. Auguitinus 

' ait, de omnibus omnino rebus, tamfixa fententta,quam certa prafcientid : 

' Verum aliquos ad malum pnedejttnatos ejfe divina poteftate, '•cttklicet ut quaji 
' aliud ejfe non poffent, non jolum non credtmus, fed ettam fi funt, qui tantum 

* malum credere i-ehnt, cum omni detejlatume, ficut yiraujica Synodus,ilHs Ana- 
^ thema dtctmus. The fum ij, God's mercy goetli before Man's merit, but 
his Predeftination topunifhment is only on the forefight of their lin, which 
he decreeth not, becau(e he caufeth not. 

Cap. J. ^ About SChriji's death they like not thofe that fay be dyed for 

* all that from the days of Adam till then had been damned; but would have 
'•all take up -with this fimple DoHrinc, that God fo loved the world , that he 
*gave his onely begotten Son, that whoever believeth m htm flwuld not perifl), 
' but have everlajling life. 

Cap. 4. ' Tloey conclude that aU true Believers regenerate by water and the 

* Spirit, have their jtns wajl)ed by the blood of Cbriji : And they cotd J not have 

' true Regeneration, if they had not true Redemption. But of the multitude of -^ 
^ the fai{hful and redeemed, fome are eternally Javed , becauje they perfevcre ; 
' others art toil, becaufe they perfevere not in the Jalvation of faith which they 
' had received, and fo make void the grace of redemption. 

Cap. 6. ' About Grace and infirmed Free-will reflured and healed by 
' Chrift, they exhort AJcn to fli<k to the Scriptures, and the Councils of ATrica 
' and Orange, and not to follow the Aniles pcnJ; Fabulas Scotorum, (I fiippolc 
they mean the Followers of [fohan. Scotus Ertgnena , who was murdered by 
his Scholars 8 ^ ^, whom Godefcalcus followed j ' left they flwuld be corrupted 
'■from the fimpUcity tltat u in Chrift : Remembring Chrijtians that while they 
' are vexed with the prevalciicy of the wicked in the world, they flwuld not vex 
' the fad Congregations with fucb fupcrfluo.'rs things. 

Cap. 7. ' Thty advife, that becaufe Bif^cps wire fet over the Cities that were 
' untrycd and almoft ignorant of Letters *, and unlike the Apnftolick Vrefcript, * What a 
' by which means the Ecchfiaftical vigor is loft, that they would petition the . "'j^ 
'Prince, that when a Bifiicp was wanting, the Canonical Eleilionby the Clergy, [Jicfe 
' and the Vcople, might be permitted, ("becaufe the King was u(cd to thruft makcl* 
his Favorites on the People, ) ' that Men of tryed knowledge and life, and net 'ts 
*■ illiterate Men, blinded- by covetou^nefs , might be fet as Bifhops over the 

§ 10. CCLXIII. -An. 8^5'. A Council was held at Papia in Italy hv the 
Order of the Emperor Ludi'viais, for th.e Reformation of the corrupt Clcr- 

M m gy ; 

2 66 Church -Hijh)y of 'Bijho^s and 

gy ; where they ordered that the Clergy and Peoph chufc the Bifliops, and yet 
that the Laity on pretence of their Eletfting Power,rrample not on the Arch- 
Prcsbytcr ; and that gre-at Mens Chappcls empty not the Churches : ( with 
otlier old Canons rccited.J 

§ I T . Lotharirts., that (b mifcliievouny fought for the Empire agalnll his 
Father and Brethren, grew weary of what he had, and divided his 3d part, 
( which was the Empire of Italy, with Burgundy and Lorrain, ) into three 
parts, and gave his Son Lewis the Empire in Italy; and his Son Lotharius, Lor- 
rainyind his Son Cbarles,Bnrgundy ; and entered himfelf into aMonaftery: 
But Charles dy ing, the other two Brethren divided his Dominion, and Lyons, 
Belattfon and Vienna fell to Lotharim. 

§ 1 1. We come now to the Reign of Pope yoane, according to a great 
number of their own Hiftorians ; but David Blondel hath recited the Tefti- 
monies of multitudes on both fides, and after all impartially paft his con- 
je£hjre,that the Story was not true ; whofe judgment I rcTcrence, and think 
moft probable. 

Whether at that time there was a John the 8th or none till him that fomc 
call John the 9th after Adrian the ad, is uncertain. 

§ 13. Leo dying, fif there was no Jolm or Joane heWveen ) a Schiffn 
was made ; the People moft chufing BenediB, and the Agents of the Empe- 
ror, with part of the People and Billiops, chufing one Anaftajius a Cardinal 
Presbyter, that had been Excommunicate by a former Pope. Anaftafiris 
thought his choice fb fure,that entering Lconma, ( the Roman Suburbs ) he 
went into St. Peters own Church, and broke down and burnt the Images,and 
with a Matlock caft down to the gi-ound even the Image of Chrift, and the 
Virgin Aiary. They went on and imprlfoned BenediSl, ( quern omnis Roma- 
na Pkhs eligerat, faith Ana^. in Bin. p. 65' 9.) But while the great Men and 
Officers of the Emperor did their utmolt to conftrain the People to confent 
to AnaJla/iM, they could not prevail, and Co they were fain to yield to the 
multitude to end the Tumult and Confufion, and BenediB had the place. 

§ 1 4. By this Story it appeareth, 1 . That this Anafiafms was againft Ima- 
ges, and that was like enough to be part of the caufe why he had live years 
left his Church in Rome before, and refufed to appear before Pope or Coun- 
cil. 2.. That when the Emperor and his Officers were (b violent for his 
choice, even after he had broken down the Images in St. Peters Church, it is 
apparent that the Party even about RotKe,and in the Weft,which was againft 
Images, was not fhiall, though they made no frir. 

§ 1 5:. This Pope BenediB was he that confirmed H'mcmartts's Council, . 
which nulliHcd 'Ehhus Ordinations aforelaid, as is to be (een in liis firft Epift. 
Bw.p. 662, S-x. 

§ if>. An. S^fi. Charles Calvtis , by a Synods concurrence at Carijfiac, 
fent Orders againft Church-Robbers very ftrii5f. 

And 8 5 7, a Council MMentx, was held CCLXIV, where Gunthar, Bifhop 
of Cckn, lent a Letter, diat ' [ A terrible TempeB aroje, in which the Peofle 
''for fear all ran into St. Petcr'i Church : And the Church-beams cracking , as 

' they 


their Councils abric}<^ed. • 267 


' they fell a fraying to God for mercy, fudderly a tnt(l}apen TlmitAerbok, like a 
' fiery Dragon, perced and tore the Church , and at o?te Jhoke killed thre men 
' among ail the multitude, ( though thofe three flood in federal places ) that is, 
'one Fries} that flood at St. Peter'/ Jltar, one Deacon that flood at St.Dcn'is's 
' Altar, and one Lay-man at St. Mary's Altar : And fix others were flruck al- 
' mofl dead, hut recovered. At Trevtrs al(b were many Prodigies. 

§ 1 7. Pope NicoUs I . is chofen by the Emperor Ludo-vicrts confent, and 
all the People. He greatly advanceth the Roman Seat by his activity , and 
much by doing juftice to the People that were opprefled by Tyrannical Pre- 
lates. He had a great confliil with yolm Bifliop of Ravenna, who long de- 
fpKed him, and denied him his fubjc£lJon : But the Emperor took the Pope's 
part, and ib poor John was fain to fubmit, and cry mifcremmi mei, peto mii'e- 
reri mei, Anafl. tn Bin. p. 66 j. and to take an Oath of fubjeition to the 

§ 18. The great Schifin now rofe at C<;»/?^«/i»e^/(r, whether Ignatius or 
Thotim fhould be Patriarch ; Michael the Emperor depofmg Ignatius by the 
counfel of his Uncle Bard.is, and putting in Phottus. The Pope kept up his 
power by interpofing, uncalled,into all (iich matters. He (ent (bmc Bifliops 
as Leg.ites to counlel them by a Synod to decide the difference : When thcfe 
Bifliops came thither, they contented to Thoti:ts againft Ignatius. The Pope 
faid they were bribed, and fal(e to their truft, and depofcd them, ( though he 
thought he chofe the bed he had ; ) of which more anon. 

§ 1 9. Yet we have not done with worldly Prelates. King Lothanm was 
weary of his Wife, and loved a Whore ( JFaldrada. ) He openeth liis cafe 
to the Bifliops. They call a Council, and approve of his Divorce , and his 
Marriage with Waldrada. The two great Archbifliops of Colen and Trtert, 
are the Leaders. The Pope is againft it, and accufeth the Bifliops of own- 
ing Adultery ; They appear at /?owf,and he condemneth them of Impuden- 
cy, while ( with Ibmc immodeft words ) they undertake to juftifie the thing, 
( of which more anon. ) He chargeth the Bifliops of heinous VUlany , and * 
they defpifed him. He condemneth the Concilium Metenje *, in which the ^^ Mh". 
Adultery was allowed. 

§ 1 o. This Pope falls out with Hincmarus Bifliop of Rhemes , juftifying 
againft him the caufe of Rot haldus, whom he had depofcd. 

He (ends Meflengers to^ the King of Bulgaria converted in his days, whom 
the Emperor's Officers flop and abufc. The AdverCiries of Images were ftill 
ftrong at Conflantinople. Anafl. (^ Bin. p. 6jo, &c. 

Epi}f. z. He uleth a notable Argument for Images, viz. God is known on- 
ly in the Image of his Works : Why then may we not make Images of the 
Saints ? ( But why muft M^^n be compelled to do it, or elfc be Hereticks ? 
and why muft they be worfliipped ? ) 

Epifl. 5". He is pitifully put to it, to juftifie the Eleftion of NeBarius and 
Amurofe, and yet to condemn that of Photius for being a Lay-man. And 
Ep. 6. the (ariie again in the inftance alfb of Taraflus. 

§ z I. The 8th Epiftle of this Pope Nicolas to the Emperor /T4i(c^(re/,doth 

M m X fliew 


2 6S Church-Hiftory of 'BiJlKps and 

{hew that he had now fliaken off the Imperial Power ; and therefore charg- 
Oj- eth his Letters as full of Blafpheniy, Injury, Madnefi, c^c partly for being lb 
fawcy as to bid the Pope, Q Sen J fame to htm. ] which he faith was far from 
the godly Emperors. Partly for blaming the deeds oh the Prelates, when he 
ftith. Their -words muH be regm-rled, and their authority., and not their deeds. 
Partly for calling the Latine Tongue barbarous and Scythian, in comparllbn 
of the Greek, which he (iiiih is to reproach God that made it. Partly 
for laying, that the Council that dcpofed Ignatius, and fet upPhotius, was of 
the fame number of Bifhops as the hrft Council of Nice ; where this high 
Pope's anfwer is worth the notice of our Papifts , Biw. p.68c). \J The [mall 
o5" ' number hiirteth not, where Piety aboundeth : Nor doth Multitude profit, -where 
' Imfiety reigneth. Tea, by hotv much the more numerous is the Congregation of 
^ the malignant, by fo much the jl^nger are they to do ?nifchtef: Nor muB men 
''glory in numbers, "when they fight not againH the Rulers of the darknefs (f 
'•this -world, and Jfiritual tvickednefs. — Glory not therefore in multitude, becatife 
* it is not the multitude but the cauje, that jufiifieth or damneth. — Fear not little 
' Flocks,8ic. ] This Doifrine was then fittelf for the Pope in his Minority : 
But the Letter is a Book pleading for the Roman Grandure, and ftriving to 
bring the Emperor with others under his power. 

§ 1%. In his Anfwer and Laws to the Bulgarians,\\e difliketh their Severi- 
ties againft one that had pretended to be a Prieft, when he was not , and had 
03^ baptized many, concluding that he had laved many, and that they were not 
to be re-baptized, £/». p. 77 T. No,not -though he were no Chriftian that 
baptized them, as after Conful. Cap. 1 04. p. 7 8x. 

To the Cafe : Who are Patriarchs? he (aith properly they only that have 

Succeeded Apoftles, which were only three, Rome, Alexandria and yjntioch, 

'^ but improperly only Confiantinople and ferufalem. ( But why then are not 

Ephefus, Corinth, Philippi, &cc. Patriarchates ? ) And why had the reft of the 

Apoftles no Succeflbrs ? Had they no Churches ? 

§ a 3. This Pope having Weftern ftcurity , threatned Excommunication 
to the Emperor of the Eaft, unlefs he would dcpoft Phot ins, and reftore Igna- 
tius ; and threatned Lotharius, for the caufe of his rejected Wife , and the 
Marriage of another, as aforefaid ; and fwaggered againft Hincmarus Rhe- 
menfis,iox his depofing Rothaldus-x Bifliop,and forced him to yield, and con- 
demned his Synod at MetZ/, and would have proved that Pope Bened/H had 
not confirmed it. He and other Popes did make the Contentions of Biftops 
as well as of Princes a great means of their rifuig,takingthe part of him that 
appealed to Romei^s injured, ( and very oft of the truly injured. ) By which 
means rhey had one Party ftill for them,and all injured perlbns were ready to 
fiie to them for help. 

He Excommunicated the Bilhops of Colen and Triers. The poorBifliops 
that would fain be on the ftronger fide, began now to be at a lols^ to know 
whether the Emperor or the Pope was the flrongeft . They followed the 
Emperor, and relifted the Pope awhile. The King and Hincmarus forbad 
Rothaldus go'in^ to Rome, and impriforied him : But tlje Pope wearied them 


their Cowicih ahridred. 269 

out, by reafbn of the divifions of the Empire and Kingdom into fo many 
hands of the French Line,that being in continual flifpicion of each other,thcy 
needed the Pope's help. 

Em. p. 790. He ordereth Pennance ( inftead of juft death ) for one Cu- 
tnarui that had murdered three of his own Sons, vtz. That for three years he "ta 

pi-ay at the Churcli-door, and that for feven years he abdain from W^ine 
three days in a week, and for three years to go without fhoes , allowing him 
to cat Milk and Cheefe, but not Flt/h, and to enjoy his Pofleffion, but not 
have the Sacrament for (even years. 

§ 24. His Decretals begin, '■That the Emperor's Judgments and Lavs are 

• Mow the Cancns, and cannot dijfol've them or prejudice them. 

Tit. 4. I . He (aith, ' [_ All Patriarchal Dignity, all Metropolitical Frima- 
' cj, all Bipops Chairs,and the dignity of Churches of n'hat Order foefcr were 

• inflittited by the Church of Rome : But it's he only did found ffy and ereii it "vO 

• on the Rock of Faith now beginning, who to St. Vncv^tbe Key-hearer of eter- 

• nal life, did commit the Rights both of the Jmtne and the Cekjfial Em- 
' pire. 

Reader, Had not the abufe of Humane Patriarchal Power, and of Exxom- 
munications got up very high,whcn this bold Pope made this Decree ? What ! 
All Churches in the World made only by Rome ? W^as not Jerufalem , yln* 
tioch,and many another made before it? Did Chrift (Tiy any thing of /low?? 
Did not other Apoftles build Churches by the fiime Apcklolick Commillion li 
Peter had? Is not the Church built on the foundationof Prophets and A- 
poftles , Chrift being the Head-corner Stone ? Did nor others build the 
Church of Rowc before Pcffr did it ? Did not Peter build other Churches 
before Rome ? Where and when did Chrift give Peter the Imj^erial Power of 
Earth and Heaven ? Did he not decide the Controverlle who (hould be thtf 
chief or greateft,with a prohibition of all Imperial Power, (IVitbyou it pall 
vot be Jo ? } 

§ zf.But the next Dectec caftcth Rome as low,as this over-railed it. ' If any 
' one hy Money, or Humane Fai'or, or by Popular or Aitlitary Tumult, be intbrc- "^ 

' ned in the Apojldick Seats,Without the Concordant and Canonical Eletiion of 

• the Cardinals of that Church, and then of the followmg Religious Clerks, lit 
' him not be accounted a Pope, or Apcjtolical, but Apoftaticai.'] By which Rome 
hath had fo icw Popes indeed, and (b many Apoftutes, that it hath no fhew 
of an uninteiTupted Succeflion to boiift of 

§ 16. Tit. 4. c. 7. He claimeth Authority to abfolve Men from Oaths, 
and all Obligations made by the violence and conftraint of bad Men, and (b 
ablblveth the Archbifhop of Triers. ( A wicked Decree for Perjury : ) (As 
if in materia licit a, a Man that ftvcareth for Fear, were not bound ? And as 
if Man had not Free-will, when he is under Fear ?} 

§ 17. C. 6. ci^ 8. He decreeth that none can judge the Pope, nor retrafb 
his Judgments, nor judge of them, ( contrary to many General Councils. ) 

He curfeth from Chrift ill that contemn tbe Pope's OplnionSjMaiidates, Im 
terdich, Sanctions, Decrees, i^c. c. y. 


170 Church Hijiory of Siprnps and 

Yet he (alth that the Church of Rome may change, and mend its own 
Miftakes and Decrees, w. i o. 

'Tit. f. C. I. No Ciifiont may occafwn the removal of any thmg efiablijji' 
' eJ by full Papal Authority. C. 1. Othej- mms works approved or reprobate 
' by thePope's Decrees,muH accord tTtgly be jndged,accepted or rejeHed. C.^.TJcy 
Ubnt have not the Decries are to be reproved, 6cc. 

§ 2 8. Tir. 6. He brings down Emperoi-s and Kings fufficiently below the 
Priefts, confining them to temporal things, and not to judge of Priefts. 

Tit. 7. He rebuketli the King for letting none be Bifhops but thofe that 
he liked, charging him to admit none at Colen or Triers , till the Pope had 
notice. And before he told Emperors, that they muft take no care what 
kind of Lords the Priefts be, but what they fay of the Lord ; nor to note 
what Popes be, but what they do for correction of the Churches ; For they 
are by Confiantine called Gods, and God muft not be judged of men. Tit. 3. 
c. 3. He queftions whether Lotharius was to be called a King, becaufe he was 
an Adulterer. 

§19. Tit. 8. C.I. He decreeth that no Bifliops be ordained, but by the 
eleiSion or confent of the Clergy and People. 
25- C. J. That Primates and Patriarchs have no Privlledges above other 

Bilhops, but fb much at; the Canons give, and ancient cuftom hath con- 
tS" § 3 °' ■^'^- ^ I • *■• ^ • ^^ *^his, ' [ Niilh/s mijfam Presbyter t audiat, quern fcit 

' concubinam habere aiit fubmtrodiiBam mulierem. 2 That Is, Let ?to one hear 
* the Aiafs of that Presbyter, whom he knoweth undoubtedly to have a Concu- 
' bine, or a Woman fnbintroduced. 

C. z. If Priefts fall into the fnare of Fornication, and the aEl of the crime 
' be manifeft or [hewed, they cannot have the honour of Priefthood , according 
' to the authority of Canonical Inftitution. 

( Yet our Canons will condemn him that refuleth to take fiich an one for 
the Guide of his Soul, or to hear hi m.) 

Yet Can. 5". he feith, Tliat we muft receive the Sacrament from any Prleft 
how polluted (bever, and by the judgment of how many Bifhops foever he 
be Reprobated, becaufe bad men adminiftring good things , hurt none but 
themfelves ; and all things are purged by faith in Chrift. 
83" Tit. 1 4. Lay-men muft not judge of the lives of Priefts, nor fo much as 

learch into them. 

§ 31. CCLXIV. yin. S^S. A Council atConftantmople placed Pi&or/Vw in 
the place of Ignatius, ( of which before, and more anon ; ) Ignatiris is ba- 
nifhed; we have not theHiftory and Reafbns of the Council. 

§ 31. CCLXV. An. 869. A Council was called atT^Uum of the Bifhops 
of twelve Provinces by King Charles, where, befides other Clcrgy-mens mif^ 
carriages, Wemlo Archbifhop of Sens, was accufed of Treafbnable Defeition 
by the King. In which it's pity that Bifhops below the Pope fliould have 
or pretend to the Power which the King doth intimate in theie words, Bin, 

p. 798. 


their Councils ahridzcd. 


p. 798. [^ ' From which my conjccration or [ublimity of KingdoK, I ought 
' not to be ffipplanted or cafi down by any one,without the hearing and judg- 
' ment of the Bijhops, by vphofe Admiflry I was confccrated King, arui nvjo "^ 

* are called the Throne of Godwin which God fitteth, and by whom he decrecth 

* hii judgments, to whojc fatherly Corrcptions, aud caftigatory 'judgments, I 

* VfAS ready to fuhjeii my f elf, and at prefent am fubjeit. ] 

You fee here to what power over Kings the common Bi(liops(as well 
as the Pope ) were got, by pretence of reprefenring Clirift, and of the 
Power of the Keys. 

§ 33. CCLXVI. u4n. 859. A Council at Conflantir.ople condemned Ig- 
«<if;/«,and again confirmed I'hotiw, who with the Emperor A-ficbacl fcnc . 
to the Pope to fatisrte him of all,and profcfs enmity to Image-breakers. 

§ 34. CCLXVII. ^n. 860. In a Council at Confluence the five pre- 
fent Kings of the French Line came to an agreement. 

§ 35-. CCLXVIir. A General Council was he]d at Conftantmoplc, An. 
861. where 3 18 Bifhops (the fame number that was at the firftA^jc^w^ 
Council ) depoftd Ignatius, and fctled Phointf,to which the Pope's Le- 
gates alfb fubfcribed, (the Papifts fay through fear ;)ro that it was 
Papally confirmed. And yet here was much done for Images. 

§ 36. CCLXIX. The Pope having condemned fohn Archbidiop of 
Ravenna who defpiftd him, till the Emperor forfook him, in a Council at 
Home he fubmitted himftlf to the Pope, and was reconciled. 

§ 37. CCLXX. ^u. 862. In another Council at Rome, Pope Nicolas 
condemned the Herefie of the Tbcopafchtta, that ( they faid, made the 
Godhead to futfcr ) it's like it was Cyril and the Futychians old verbal 
Error by communication of Titles. 

§ 38. CCLXXI. An. 862. ACouncilisheld ztAejuifgranc, in which 
King Lotharius defireth counfel about his Wife 77;f«f^frgf $ the Biftiops 
pronounce it his duty to put her away, fhe having confelTed Inccft with 
her own Brother, and allow him to marry Waldrade, he profcfling him- 
felf unable to contain. The Pope condemneth the aftion and them; 
The Papifts fay this was but a forged pretence. I only note i. If they 
would deliberately forge fo heinous a thing on a Queen, what Heathens 
could be worfe than fuch Bifhops ? 2. Did the Bifhops of that age ihink 
that they were bound to obey the judgment of the Pope, who tbusop- 
pofed him ? 

§ 39. CCLXXII. An. 862, In another Council in France ( in Ttlla . 
ad fublonarias) the three Kings again met for agreement. 

§40. CCLXXIII. Lotharius appealing, defireth a Council in France 
by the Pope's confent: AH the Bifhops of France and Germany meet at 
Afetx.,d{)d the Pope's Legates with them : They and the Legates alio 
fubfcrib-" to the King's Divorce, and to more, which the Pof e had be- 
fore dec: ; d againft : ( Did Bifhops then think the Pope Infallible, or 
not to be ^ivo^cd ? ) The Papifts (ay that the Pope's Legates were 


2 72 Church-J-Jijlory of 'Bijhops and 

§41. CCLXXl\\ yfn, 863. The Pope calleth his own Council at 
'^-'" Rume, and excommunicareth or curfeth them all from Chrift, anddepo- 
feth them qudnttim in fe. But yet oftereth forgivenefs to all, fave two, 
if they will fubjed themfelves to him. The Bifliops ftand to it, that 
he curff-d them unjuhiy : Muft all the Kingdoms be thus ruled and con- 
founded by one Prieft, till matters between a King and his Wife be ma- 
naged to his will and fatisfadtion ? 

§42. CCLXXV. In another Council at Rome, An. 863. the Pope cur- 
feth his Legates ac Conjtantsnople with Photius and Gregory Syracufantu, 
bccauft they all croired his will, which mult everywhere bear rule. 

§ 43. CCLXXVI. In a Council at iVw//.--, Hincmarm Rbemenfts got 
Rhotaldm Pifhop of Snjjons depofed,and tbruft into a Monaftery,and an- 
other put in his place, notwithftanding the Pope's oppofition, An. 

§44. CCLXXVII. Hereupon the Pope , in a Council at ^owf, con- 
dcmneth this Council at Stnlis, and decreeth,That unlefs Hmcmuriu and 
the other BKhops do within 30 days reftore RhotaldM^thcy fliall be for- 
bidden their Miniftery, and uled as they ufed Rhotaldus : But they did 
not obey him, but put it to the venture. 

And whereas the King had forbidden Rhotaldus to goto Rome,znd the 
French Bifhops pleaded this as a juft reftrainr, the Pope anfwered. That 
55. no Imperial Laws muft take place againft Ecclefiaftical. And fo it came 
to the queftion. Whether the King or the Pope was King of France , 
or had more power over the bodies of the Subje<fts ? Thus did the Pa- 
pacy afcend. 

§ 45. CCLXXVIII. A Council of Bifhops and Lords together at 
Pijfisj made Orders for Repentance, and reftraint of Rapine and Plunder, 
6^e. y4n. 863. 

§ 46. CCLXXIX u4>]. 864. In a Council at Rome the Pope depofed 
and excommunicated Rodo,ildus Portnenfts his Legate, with Joh, Hicoden^ 
Jis._ for joining with the Synod at A<fctz. againft his Orders. 

§ 47. CCLXXX. In another Council at Rome, An. 865. the Pope re- 
ftoreth Rhotaldus : For Hincmarus at laft let him out of Prifon, and let 
him go to Rcme , but would neither go nor fend thither any Legates 
himfelf, as the Pope required, for his own and the Synod's de- 

§ 4S. CCLXXXI. u4k. 866. A Synod at Soijfons wrote to the Pope 
about Hirxmarus, and againft encouraging falfe Ordinations, unlefs after 
privately confirmed, crc. 

§ 49. CCLXXXII. The Pope was fo bufie and troublefora with the 
French Bifhops, making himfelf Judge in matters that he knew not^and 
reftoring thole that they depofed, that An.%(>-i. a Synod at Trecm wrote 
to inform him of all that had pafled for 33 yearsj how .£^^0 and bis 
Synod of Bifhops had llandered and depofed the Emperor Ludovicus 
Fit:>-, and how he did it to pleafe Loth.raus ; and when Liido'vicus was 




their Councils ahridged. 275 

reftored how he fledj and when Z-Wa'^'/c;^ was dead how Lotharim , 

with the baft temporizing Bifhops reftored him, and after he had been 
condemned and refigned bis place, returned to the excrcift of it and 
ordained divers; and how upon the prevailing o^ Charles againft Loth.i- 
ritis he was caft out again : and how after Loth.triiu got the Pope to 
appoint the hearing of all again when he was condemned, and how after 
this he was made a Bifhop in Germany, and Rhemes was ten years ruled 
by two Presbyters, and how the Pope Pafchal chofe this Traytor to 
preach to the Heathens near him, and how Hincns.tnu was chofen, 5:c. 
as aforefaid. Such trouble did a Vfurper put the Churches to. 

§ ^o.Platina faith that fome fay that after the death of Pope Nicolas L^^"^'' 
the place was void eight years, feven months and ninedayes: ^^^ x.ol'ls'L 
others fay that it was void but feven dayes: fo uncertain is the Papal Bin. p. 
Hif^ory offuccefTion. The next that we find inthroned is Hadrian id. 876. Ad 

§5-1. Michael it ConftamtnopU having been long ruled much by ^'"'^" ** 
Bardas (who was for Photim) at laft giving up himfelf to drunkennefs inecijutc 
and other fins, by the perfwafion of Ba/ilim he killed Bardas, and vciiAe M,chack 
Baftlitis C<Tfar : And after a while his vice gave BafiUm the opportunity mterfeclus 
to kill the Emperor when he was drunk. See D;o/;. Peravim V{]i^. li.V^- 
I. chap. 12. Yet this 5<</«//V« wafhed his hands and made many Pro- 
teftations that he had no hand in his blood. This made for the Popes 
advantage: Women and Rebels and Traytors and difcordant Princes did 
much in raifing him. This Regicide Emperor , as a fecond Phccas 
finds it uftful to quiet his party by a change countenanced by t-he Bifhop 
of Rome: And fo he fets himfelf againft P/j«/«a and fets up /^'/.j'/jw a- 
gain ; and fearching Photiw's fervants, finds a book written of the Aifts 
of the late great Council at Confiautinople, which was for him and a- 
gainft /^/;<jf.';«,and a defence of that Council againft the Bifhop ofRcmc, 
in which he dealt feverely with the Pope. This Book the new Em- 
peror fends to the Pope , and there it is read , ftampt upon, fiab'd 
with a knife, and openly burnt (and a miracle is faid to be at the burn- 
ing of it , fome drops of rain that fell, not quenching the fire , but in- 
creafing it. ) But their calling P/W.-w* a knave and burning his book', 
and condemning the council that was for him , will hardiv keep the 
readers of his yet- preferved learned writings from fufpe(fting that the 
Popes caufe was not unqueftiondble,or at Ieaft,that ihePope was not ta- 
ken for theuniverfal Vice-Chrift whcvPf^otim and his council didfo little 
regard him. No wonder then if the Aifts of a great council when they 
were againft the Pope are called [_Ncfand:Jfimi Ccr.ciliabuU prophtntata 
Volarnma, cjHtbaf f.inHiJJintHni Papafft Nicolaum jnfur) a f.iuce latraverat."} 
Yet our new Papilts would make men believe that none but a few He- 
reticks rtfufcd fiibjeftion to the Pope before Luthtr. Were thcfe 
Councils Here ticks? 

§ 52. Here the Emperor Bafilim was put to a hard firait abcur his 
B;rtio|)s: He wrote to the Pope (vid. Bin. p. Sly. 826.^ that almoft 

N n all 


2 74 Church- Hiftory of 'BiJl)o{)s and 

all his Bifh(5^8 had inifcarried , both thofe ordained by FhotiM and 

tho.e O.diincd by fgKMim: they had turned with the times not 

knowing how the times would turn, and incurred fuch guilt that he 

defired the Pope to pardon them, left he fliould want Bifhops: fi- 

gy. lencing one party would not (erve turn, while all had been fo far guilty. 

[| Turn a j.WLttJftmo Patriarcha Ignatio conftcrati fcCMndnm fcrtptura fuA 

confjfianem in vcritate non perm.inferunt j n:c non et de hi} fttmmis Saccr- 

dotibtu at(^ucAbbMibn^ c^m diverfimode fcripferunt, quorum ttlii vi vtl tj- 

rannide, alii vcro fimplicitnte atit levitate, (juidamvoo fedn^ione et ver- 

futiis , (juidam vcio mutter ibus et honor ibus diverfimode decepti funt — Jmo 

vero dicenduin efi cjuodpcne omnes facrati, tarn prisres (juam pofieriores qui 

fub nobis funt, 'inate^ct ut non opportcbat,tra[latifitnt- — .^atenM non Eccle- 

fm noftrti fitrumts Sacerdotibns et Sacerdottbfts,qui fub omni regtmiee nofiro 

funt, comvnmc occitrrat naafragifim, propemodum tiniverfts illis de falfis et 

impotabilibtti gufiantibus iniquitatis Rheumatibus.Si4per bis itaqtte fojtula- 

TKM compatientilfimum Sacerdotium tuum, ut manum porrigat humanita- 

tis et eorum difpenfet ftliitem, &c. faith Baftliw ibid. 

§ 53. Here alfo another difficulty arofe (as there ever doth in ravel- 
led works.) The Pope had been againft i//«<r?»4>-«j and his Council 
for depofing the Bifhops ordained by Ebbo. And yet to fubdue the 
Greeks he was for the depofing of thofe ordained by Vhotim. This 
made him feem contrary to himfclf: Anaftafim Bibhothecaritu (who 
then lived and was employed at Confiantinopk in this matter) to recon- 
cile thecontradi(flion,fdith that Ebbo was a true Bifhop, but Photius was 
nor, bccaufe he was a Lay-man before his confecration; and therefore 
his ordinations are nullities. This nullifying of ordinations maketh 
great dilhirbances in the Church. The prefent Bifhops of Et.glandre- 
quire thofe that were heretofore ordained by/rfroWj;W Paftors to be re- 
ordained, and on this and fuch other accounts about 2000 werefilenced 
atone day (^/c^. 24. 1662.) The filenccd Nonconformilts do fome of 
them fay that the Bifhops have much lefs than Photim to fhew for their 
authority to ordain. He had learning, he had the Emperors authority 
for him : He had lawfull Bifhops to ordain him j He had a great Coun- 
cil or two to approve him and confirm him : And though he was a lay- 
man before , fb fs every one when he cometh to his firft ordination. 
And though he was made Bifhop per fait r^m, fo was Ne[lariw, Thala- 
fius, Ambrofe, &c. And every Uncanonical irregularity nullifieth not 
rhe ordination. It hath been ordinary for Deacons to be made Popes: 
And is not that per filti.m ? why doth not that interrupt and nullifie the 
Pap.icit'i Bur, fiy they , on this account i. /?c»»« fucccffion is long 
agoe interrupted : There having been far greater incaiiacities in Simo- 
nifty, common Adulterers, Perjured, Rtbels, Heretick.% Infidels, (as 
Councils have judged.) 2. And (they fay) that fo the Englifh Prelates 
are no Bifhops, being chofcn b^ the King, and wanting that choice of 
the Clergy and people, which the Canons have over and over again 


their Councils abridzcd. 



made neceffary to the validity of ordinations, are more null than thole 
of Phot iia. And therefore we owe them ( as fuch ) no obedience nor 
communion.] Thus our nullifyings and condemr.ings proceed till moft 
men have degraded if not unchriftened one another. And he that is on 
the ftronger fide carrieth it, till death or fome other change confute his 
claim , and then the other fide gets up and condemneth him as he con- 
demned them. And thus hath the Church long fuffcred by damning 
Divines, and domineering or ccnforious Judges. 

§ 54. By the reftoring ofJgnatitu, the Pope got to himfelf the repu- 
tation of fome Supremacy, and obliged a party tohimj which however 
it was not the greateft at the firft, would be greatcft uhen Ignatms his 
fiipremacy had advanced it : And with them he got the reputation of 
being juft, indeed Phottus Teeming to polFefs the feat of one that was 
injurioully dcpoled by the meet will of the Prince, without fufficienc 

§ S)- Pope Hadrian 1. (Epift. 4. ad Ign.1t. Confi.) direcHieth 7^- 
natius to forgive many others, but none of ihofe that lubfcribed toPho- 
tius his great Council iX. ConflantmopU , becaufe they reproached the 
Pope of.^owfjwhere you may fee i.How dangerous it was then to be ia 
a General Council, when,if they pleafe not the Itrongeft, they are ruined: 
And if they do, it's like enough the next age will damn them for it. 2. 
How much more dangerous is it for a Council to be againft the Pope, 
than to be guilty of many other crimes; and how unpardonable it is. 

§ y6. CCLXXXIII. An. 868. Befides the Popes Roman Synod that 
damned Phot ins and his Book and Confi- Council, there was a 
Council at \Vorm>, which repealed many old Canons, of which the 14th. 
"is, that if Bijhops J^^all excommunicate an) vcrongfullj or jor light caufe 
*'and not refiotc them, the neighbour B'JJ^'ops fl.'ail tal^ fucbto their com- 
"munion till the next Sjnod. 

The ly. Canon is , that becaufe in Mon.ifieries there are Thieves that 
" cannot be found, when the fufpe^led purge themf elves, tbeyjhall recetve 
" the facrament ofChrifl^s bcdy and blcod, thereby tojlxw that they are in- 
" nocent.2 But this Canon the Fapifts are afhamed of. 

" The 72. Canon alloweth Prffbyters (^jea a/i Chrifiians) to anoint the 
"fick,,becauje tl.cBiJhops hiy,a<.rcd nith liber buljnefs cannct ^o to all thejic^."] 
This intimateih that even then the Diocelles were not fo great as ours 
that have one or many Counties, clfe other reafon would have been gi- 
ven why the BiOiup couM not vifit all the fick, than his hindering bu- 
fineffes: Would the Bifliop, e. g. of Lincoln fay, 1 would vifit all the 
flck in LincolnJJ.ire , Ncrth.:i:*ptotifhire , Lcicef}:rJ!:ire , JlifnUngtonJJ.nre, 
Rutlandp.-ire , HariforJJl.nre , Bedf(rrdjl:ire , BuckinghamfoiTe, which are 
in my Diocefs, but that I cm hindered by other bufinefs? who would 
take thi« Hit the words ola lober man.'' 

§ 57. CCLXXXIV. u4n. 869, wis that ConfiantincpoUtan Council 
which the Papirts (damning fome others) call the 4th. and the Sih. 

N n 2 General 




2,76 Church- Hijlory of 'Bi^wps and 

General Council ended -^m. 879. in which bur 102 Bifhops condemned 
Photius and fctled Ignatius, by the means of the Emperor BapUm and 
^' the Pope, nho had before rcftorcd him. Here in Ad. 2. The Bifhops 
that had followed Photius, took the old courfe, and when they faw 
all turned ctyed peccavimns and craved pardon, and thcmfelves called 
Photnis , fach It villain as there hnd never been the liks. {.^i'l- p. 882,) 
They faid ihcy fmned through fear and fo were forgiven. Act. 3. Some 
Bifhops that had turned, who were ordained by Methodius, were re- 
quired to f'ubfcribe to a form propofed; But they told them that the 
late times had fo vexed men with heinous fubfcriptions, that they had 
made a Covenant or Vow to make no more lubfcriptions but what they 
^'^ had done already, and the profeflion of their faith ( like Nonconform- 
)[\s) and defired to be received on fuch terms without their new fub- 
fcription. Ad. 4, The Bifhops of P/jofw's party ordained by him were 
examined. And Ad. 5. Photius himfelf, who would not enter till con- 
ftrained, and then profelFed as in imitation of Chrilt to give them no 
anfwer to what they asked him; and is in vain exhorted to repentance. 
Ad. 6. Many of the Photi.tn Bifhops repented and were pardoned : 
Others pretended that they had fubfcribed and fworn to Photius, where 
Zachar. Calcedon. fhewed that the Canons were above the Patriarchs. 
Here BafiUus the Emperor made a notable fpeech to exhort the Bifhops 
to repentance, offering himfelf to lay by his honour and to lie on the 
earth, and let them tread on him confefTing his fin, and asking mercy. 
Ad. 7. Photitfs is again brought in, (and his ftaff that he leaned on ta- 
ken from him) and he denyed to defend himfelf and to repent, but bid 
them repent. The Bifhops of Heraclea, 8fc. receded the Legates , 
and pronounced them anathematized that fhould anathematize Phottus, 
and appealed to the Canons. Ad. 8. They cenfured a Bifhop that was 
againft Images. Ad. 9. They examined fome great men that had 
fworn againlt Jgn.<itius, who confeft they had fworn falfely for fear of 
the Princes ; but Leo would not damn or curfe Photius, becaufe he 
thought the Orthodox were not to be curfed. The loth. Ad. Con- 
taineth the Cunons which they made 3 of which the Copies greatly 

§ 58. The 3d. Canon faith that \_thej ordain that the Image of Chrifi 
"he worfciped with the fame honour as the Go/pels ; as teaching that by 
^'Colours, which the Cofpel doth by words: faying, \_whoever adores not the 
"Image of our Saviour Jhall not fe his face at his fecond coming: adding 
*'[^by the fame reafon we venerate and adore the Image of the Bleffed F'ir- 
"gin and the Holy ^ngelt, as the fcriptiire defcribeth them, nnd of all the 
*• Saints. Tbey that thinly otherwife, let them be curfed from Chrifl."} 

" Can. 6. They anathcmatiz.e Photius becaufe he did excommunicate and 
" anathematiz.c the Pope, and all that communicated With him. 
,,Can. 7. No excommunicate men are allowed to make Images. 
I' Can.S.Is too good for the Devil to let the Church enjoy viz. [Xhat 


t}?eir Councils abridged. 


" whereas it is reported that not only the heretical and tifinpers , bat fame "ts, 
"Orthodox Patriarchs alfo for their own fecurity, have made men fuiknbe 
" (jo be true to them ) the Synod judgcth that it Jl^all be [a no more , (ave 
" only that men when they are ntade BiJJ:ops be recjuircd as ufiial to de- 
"clare the foundnefs of their faith : He that violateth this Santlion let him 
^' be deprived ofhts honour. 

"The loth Can. Condemncth them that hold. That Man hath two ^^ 
"Souls (which they fay Photins favoured) and curfcd them from Chnfh. 

The nth. Can. Tells us what men thefe BiOiops were, and what 
they fought. It is [7' That all that are made Bipops bearing on earth .^ 
"the perfon and form of the Celcfiial Hierarchy^ JJ:all with all veneration 
«' be worshiped by ail Princes and Subject : and wc- will not have them to go 
"far from the Church to meet any commanders of the Army or any Nobles 
" nor to light from their horfes like fupplicants or abjcHs that feared them 
*' nor to fall down or petition them ; If any Bijhop hereafter Jloall negleU: his 
"due honour, or break,this Canon,or permit it to be done,he fl.iall be feperat- 
*'ed for a year from the Sacrament ; and that Prmce , Duke, or Captain 
"two years. 

"The iz.dn.Pnnccs as prophane men be not fpeH^ators ofih.it which ho- 
" ly perfonsdo, and therefore Councils be held without them. Either I 
underftand them not, or it is in defpite of truth that they fay ['•u'«- '^ 
" de nee alias repenmus Oecumenicis Conciliis Hnquam mterfttiffc : Ntaue 
"enimfas eft ut propbani Pnncipes, rcrum quit facris hommibus gerunds 
"fnnt,gernntnrve,fpcLtatoresfiant.] B intu us note tb [_e.x pr<tjcnp:o ncmps 
Canonum'] turning an allertion de jach into one de ptre, and an univer- 
fal into a particular, by which licence of expounding what lye or blaf- 
phemy may not be juftified! And why then have (o many thoufand 
been curfcd fromChrift by Councils for unskilfulncfsin words ? 

§ 59. The 14th. Can. fecureth the BiHiops admirably in def[)ite of 
the old reforming honeft Canons decreeing that \_" A Lay-nuvt {not e.\- 
"cepttng Kings or Parliamcnts)Jl:all h.-ive no power to dijpt.te by any rc- 
"fon of Eccliftajlical SanCiioas, or to cppcfe the univerfal Charch or any ee~ 
" neral Synod ; for tb: difficulty of thefe things, ar.U agitaiingthcm on both 
"fides, IS the office of Patriarchs, Priefts and DoHors, to whom only Cod 
•' hath given power of binding and loafing. For though a L.iy-man e.vcel in 
" the praife of piety and wifd-jm, ytt he is a Lay-man and a Sheep and not a 
" Paftor, But a BISHOP though it be manifeft that he is dejtttute of 
" ALL FIRTVE of Religion, yet he is a Paftor as long as ke e.xtrcifcth -^ 
"the office of a Bijhop , and the fiecp muft not rcfift tue Shepherd,'} O 
brave doclrine for the Roman Kingdom ! A Heathen, or Infide! or 
Mahometan, or Ariian BiP.iop mult not be c'lpoltu: He mat is .^o 
Chriltian may be a Bifhop. How much to be blamed were thr Gene- 
ral Councils that dc[)ofed Popes (or Infidclitv, Diabolilni, Hercl-c, 
Simony, Perjury, Bla!j;!iemv, Sodomie, Fainicatioii, Murders, &c. 
when a Pope that hath all thcie, ar:d no virtue ofReligiou is not lo be 
judged by Lay mcnjOr oppolcd, 

278 C}?urch'HiJto)y of ^ijhops and 

0^ I. May a Prince Qvc his crown from fuch? 2. May a man fave 
his Wife from fuch, or a woman refufe their copulation, or defend her 
Chaftity againft them? 3. What if fiich are drunk in the Pulpir, are 
the People bound to be filcntly (tibmifTive? 4. Why did Pope Ntchc- 
las decree that none fhould hear Mafs from a Prieft that liveth in forni- 
cation? 5. Are Priefts above Kings, or are they lawlefs? 

Yet this very Synod ofBifhops in theirEpiflle to Pope Hadrian dyes 
\C»i co>:fidiC Synod'), qui turn impaitabivn, Michael et Bajililts ncjter ^ 
frsjidcb.m,'] And Bafilim and IUmcs were now among them. And ma- 
ny Prince?, efpecialiy in France and Spain have made ftricft Laws to a- 
mend the liifhops. 

§ 60. One of the decrees of this Council was that Pooti!isJ}:onld 
net be called a Chrifiian. Bin. p. 899. Col. 2. Yet the Apoftle faith 
of the rejeftedj account him not as an cnemy^ but admonijh htm as a Bro- 
ther. 2 Thcf. 3, 

§ 61. \n Bin. p. 899. is an epiftleof Pope Srf/?/jf»; to the Emperor 
Baftlnis which containeth the radical do(ftrine of all the Bifhops rebellion 
and pride, viz. that Princes are only appointed for the things of the 
Body or this life, and prelates and Priefts for the matters of the Soul 
and life eternal, and therefare that the Prelates Em|)ire is more excel- 
lent than the Princes, as heaven is above earth. [_" ^ando^uidem ver- 
" bis f^HiA ad ufum "Vittt, id efi, rerum prdfcntiMm pertinent, Imperium a 
" Deo tr adit nm cj} , ita nobis per Trinctpcm y^pofiolorum Petrum, rerum 
" divinarum procuratio efi commijfa: jiccipe ejuttfo in optimam partem aux 
C.I '^fubjicie * —-Hac fant capita ciiracj!4e Principis imperii vcfiri. I^oflrivero 
pray you "cura gregis tanto pr^fiantior efi, quanta alt ior efi terra qudm cwlum.^udi 
\^\vt up " Dominxm—Tu esPetrns — de vefiro imperio vera quid dicit— Nolite ti- 
" mere eos qui corpus occidunt—Obtefior igitur tuamPict.ttcm ut Princi- 
'' pum .^poflolorum infiituta fequarc,magna veneratione profeqttare. Omni- 
" um enim inorbe terrarum, omnis ordo et Pontificatus Ecclefiarum,a princi- 
" pc u^pofiolorum Petrooriginem et autboritatcm acceperunt. (O horrid 
fdlfhood, as before confuted:) 

§ 62. Yet this Council in ^rffMj-. in .5/». p. 905'. determine of the 
Pope, that being but one Patriarch, he cannot ablblve one that is con- 
demned by the other many Patriarchs. 

§ 63. Laying all together I cannot ferceive by hiftorical notice, but 
that both Ignatius ii-Vii Photius were both better Bifhops thanmoit were 
to be found; the firftbeinga very pious man, and the other alfoa man 
of great learning and diligence. But the old contention WHO SHOULD 
BE CHIEF or greateft, made them both the great calamity of the 

1 think it not in vain here to tranfcribe part of the fumm of the life of 
Ignatius as written by Nicetas, D.ivjd, Paphlago who was devoted to 
him, though fomewhat faid already be repeated. Ignatiw (being of 
the blood Royal) was in quiet poirefl!ion_, when denying entrance or 


1. 1 


their Councils ahruhed. 


Church Communion to Bardas Citfir for his reported Adultery, he 
provoked chat indignation in him which depofcd him. Bardas firft per- 
fwaded the Emperor AUchael to aflTume the Government and not leave 
the Empire any longer to his Mother and Sifters. One Ccho then pre- 
tending to be the Son of Queen Theodora, and claiming the Crown, and 
many following him , Ignatius is accufed as being then on Gf^o's iide. 
The Emperor commandeth Ij^natiw to fliear his Mother and Sifters , 
and put them into a Monaftery : He refufeth: The Emperor is angry 
and fufpe<n:ing him, caufeth it to be done by others, and fcndeth Ignw 
tins to the Ifland Tcrehtnth and kiileth Gcba. "Within three dajes foms 
"of the Bijhops who had fubfcri'oed and fworn to Ignatius, even that thej 
" would Jooner deny the juprctim A4aj:flji of the Trinitji , than without <t 
" publick^ damnation they would fuffer their Paflor to be depofed, became 
"agents to draw him to renounce his PLtce. &"C. JIc refufiKg, Fhouus is 
'■'mad': one day a Aionk^, the next day a Leftor , the next a Suhdeacon , 
''the next a Deacon , the next a Presbyter, and on Chrifti birth-day is 
"made Fatriaich; a great and noble Courtier , the Emperors Secretary or 
"privy Cowncellor, famous for skjH in things politick^and civil , f« fiixirif)?^ 
" ing in the skill of Grammar, Poetry, Oratory, Philofcphj, Phyftcl^, and 
"thefludy cf almofl all Liberal uirts and Sciences, as that he was ahfolntc- 
'' ly in them th* Prince of his age, yea, and might ccntend with t he ancient s. 
" For he had a confluence of natural aptitude and furce, offel-cty, riches, 
"by which he got a library ofiillfortsofborkj; iinti being dtfirous ojiJUry 
" and Praife, Jpent whole nights in flceplefs Studies, and after fludicddivi- 
" nity, and Eccleftical fvlumes. Grtgorius Bijl.op c[ Syiicufe (^ a ceKfiir- 
" ed Bip.'Op^ ordained him : Ignatius if cruelly ujca, and its Uid ou Photi- 
" us : lie Jendcih feme Bijlyops to Rome, ai.d by them faith, f/j.^/ Ignatius 
"gitv: ftp ins Pl.ice. It's laid that (bmc held JgK.unis''!' hand , and by 
force -.vrote his mark, and others wrote the relt: but what's thr truth 
IS hard t(i know. A Genf^-il Council is called: The Emperor and all 
his Princes, great ones, and almoft all the City met at l'iiotiu,''s poflt (li- 
on. Baanes and fome of the baferof the /Romans are ff-nt to fumnion /g- 

».(.';/<>' to tile C^)uncil, (Bin. p. S67.J He askcth them in wliut Garbs 
he flu 11 come. "T,}:y tak^ ti;»e and the next day fay, Rhodoaidus and 
"7Lic\vix\iS Legates of OldKomc by us fummon thee without deUy to ap^ 
"^.ar at the holy Otcumsnical Council ui whiii ^'.;bit thou wilt according ti> 
thy own Confcience. He goeth in Patriarchs habit. The Emperor com- 
mands him in the habit ofa Moni^, No left than fevcnty two witnelles 
are brouE;ht ir.to the Synod againft hiin, Nubles and Vulgarj Nictcas 
faith perjured, of whom Leo and Theedot.Hi s two N\.b!e intn were 
chief; and fume Anabaptifts ("that is, fuch uS baptized men agai,;, 
though not at:,ainft Infant Baptifm.) Thele fworc that Ignnti .5,^01 juftly 
ordained, iiad twelve years ago ulbrped the place. And alas .' there 
wanted not a Canon which wouid de[)()(e a grc.:i part ct ihv Bifhops of 
the world, viz.. that called the 30th. Apoit. and oft renewed. 

2 8 o CImrch-Hifiory of 'BiJl?Dps and 

/ " if any BI/}:iop ftfngthe fcctilar power do by them cbtain a Church, 
*' let him be depofed.'] They left 0UX.\_Andt ho[e that CofHrnunicate with 
"him'] For which Nicetas accufcth the Birtiops as falfly faving them- 
ftlves. And alas! muft all the minifters in England be depoftd 
0^ that communicate with any Bifhop that gets a Church by the fecular 
power? What a reparation than muft here be made. And would not 
this Canon depofe /"/^onwalfo? The Popes Legates, Bifhops, Rhodo- 
ccldtis and '^acharias, aliique nefarii homines faith Nicetas, cryed down 
Ignatius as Vnworthy; then they beat and odioudy abufe the good old 
man : And then cometh the forefaid forced fubfcribed confeflton ('or 
forged.) After this its faid that they fent men to kill him; but by old 
ba(e cloaths and two baskets on his back, he paft away unknown, begg- 
ing his bread by the way. Nicetas faith that an Earthquake (hook the 
City fourty dayes together, and frighcned them to fend abroad and 
proclaim (ecurity to Ignatius , who thereupon furrendered himfelf. 
Bardas convinced fendeth himfafe to his own Monaftery,and the Earth- 
quake ccafed ; and the Bulgarians moved by famine and the Emperor's 
girts,laiddown armesand were baptized Chriftians. Pope Nicholas ex- . 
communicateth Photi'i. and the Emperor and all theCourt.;''5y».p.868.) 
A fire befals the Church of Sophia. The young Emperor groweth fo 
drunken and prophane that he gets a pack of wicked ungodly men, and 
maketh them in mockery or play his Bifhops,and confecrateth a Church 
c5" for them , and maketh one Thcophilus a jefter their Patriarch,to turn 
Religion into a Icorn, and then faith [' Thcophilus is mj Patriarch, 
" Photius is Ctefars, and Ignatius is the Cbrifiians.~\ And thus they by 
prophane witt derided the Bifhops and Religion itfelfj to which alas, 
the Bifliops ambition and odious ftrife did tend. 

Photim was filent at all this. Another Earthquake frightned them 
'again, the terribleft for a day and a night that had been there known. 
Upon this one 5<?^/;/.'j a Bifhop of 77:;f/<i/flK/(;(« went boldly to the Em- 
peror and opened the fin of his prophanenefsdifTwadinghim from that 
wickednefs that provoked God. The Emperor enraged l^ruk out his 
Teeth, and caufed him to be fo fcourged that he was like to dye. Pho- 
tias cared for none of this, fet his mind on the fecuring his feat and op- 
prefTing /j5»<?f/»j, magnifying all that tooke his part, and encouraging 
falfe Stories and Calumnies againft the beft that were againft him. 
One of the betraj'ers and accufers of Ignatim was one of his Difci- 
ples, and of his own name, made Arch-Bifliop of HierapoUs, and 
then loft his Confcience and Fidelity. ( B:n. p. 869 .) It was but 
for jirefuming to Confecrate an Altar, caft down by the Ruffians and 
new built, which was^taken after his depofition for a breach of the Law 
and Canons, and two Arch-Bifhops, (ready at all times) were fent. to 
pull down the Altar as Nonconformable, and to carry the flones to the 
Sea, and wafli them, and then to let them up again. O that they would 
have wallit their hearts from Pride and Worldly Ambition .' 



their Councils abriiked. 281 


'Oh, faith 'bi\ctXi!',What ftfiptditjffWbat pravity of a perverfe mind was 
' thii ? What excels oj Envy f What fludy of ambit ioM Dijhonefly ? Did 
' thy daily meditation and night-watches, and innumerable Bockj teach thee 
' thu ? Did thy fretjuent reading and difpatation , and [Iriving for the 
' praife of learning teach it thee ? Did the knowledge of the Old Tefiament 

* and the Next, the ftyings of the Wife, the Decrees of the Holy Father t, 

* teach thee to perfccute a poor man, and to vex and kjll one of a broken 
' heart andfpirit ? Did not thy tyranical ejeilion of him fatiate the im- 
' placable fury of thy mind, &C ? Thus Nicetas. 

As much as to fay, Much learning, and great power and places, are 
too often (eparated from Honefty, Charity and Confcicnce. 

Here he inentioneth a terrible Dream of Bardas, and the murder of 
him by BafiUm's order, and the Emperor's confent ; and how bafely Pho- 
tim cryed him down when he was dead, who was his onely Friend and 
Patron while he lived. 

Next he tells us how the Emperor, by Photiui's perfuafion, called a 
General Council, which depofed Pope Nicolas,zs he had done Phocas*. *Did the 
The other Patriarchs and the Bifhops were allembled, and the Pope Church 
anathematized : And theHiftorian blames it as cauflefs -, but it was then ^^^ ^^^^ 
commonly held , that a Council might judge and depoft any Pa- Popc\vas 
triarch. the Su- 

The Aifls of the Council Photim fent to King Ludov'icus and others in pcmc 
Italj and Prance, that they might depofe the Pope ( by two Bifhops, Rujcrand 
■yiz,. of C^lcedon, and Laodtcea. ) It's faid be fpake evil to the Emperor J" ^"^ 
of BafliuSfiud to Baftlitis of the Emperor. .S/j/»//«j murdercth the 
Emperor, and the next day depofeth Phot ins, and thruffs him into an 
Hofpital,and calls home Ignatius ; and lo gets Ignatius's Party on his 
fide, to which he refolved to add the Pope : Therefore fending to Pho- 
titts for the Patriarchate Writings.and he faying he had left them all be- 
hind him, the Servants of Photins were fecn ftriving about feven Bags 
of fealed Papers ; which being furprized,were found to be the Ads of 
the Council, and the Condemnation of Pope Nicolas. Ignatius was 
odioully accufed and abufcd in them. Many Pi»ftures made of him : 
over one written X)««^ff/«j .• over ^ooihcr Prtncipinm peccati : over an- 
other filius perditionis : over another y^varitiaSimonif Afagi: over an- 
other, C ■^' f' f-'^'tollit fiipra omne id quod dicitur ant colttur Dens : ] 
over the fixth, ^beminatio dcfolationis : and over the feventb, l^nti- ^ 
chriflus. 3 Reader, how fhall a man know what Hiftory to believe that 
charaderizeth Adverfaries ? and how little is the judgment and applaufe 
of man to be regarded, or their condemnation of us to be feared? 

' / would not ( faith Nicctas ) mention thcfe things, but that I fee the 
' .'Authors and their followers own them, and make Photius a holy man. 

The next part of the Book, faith Nicaas, [ ' Syncdicns m NjcoU- 

* um Pontificem Ron).intim tela torcjuebat, omnij<j:ie generis cali.'mnias cr 

* atrocia maledi^l.t, tn illtnsSancii exanilorationem cr damnationcm com- 

O 'pLilc- 

28 z Cbwxh-Hifiory of ^ijhops and 


' plciiebatMr,tmpie M tragico prop: modo concinnitatus, fane quoque ipfms 
' jhgii doUoris m.tgificrie & Photii mimficrio dignus. Gregory ^2>\iho[) of 
S)racitfe, wrote them out, and fent them to the King of France. Who 
wrote truly, and who fallly , how fhould we now know ? But this I 
tSj' I. That contending who fhould be greateft was the fin of the Pre- 

lates, and the plague of the Churches. 

2. And that then it was taken for granted, that the Pope deferving it 
mieht be depofed. 

The new Emperor Srf/;i fent thefe Books to the Pope,who burnt them 
as you have lieard ( Great reafon : but I would we (aw them ! ) Igna- 
tius being reftored, excommunicateth FhotiusfiwA all that were initiated 
by him, and all that communicated with him. ( ' It feems they were 
'much alike in the art of damning men , and fcparating them from 
' Chrift. ) Then is Ignatr.;s''s Council called, where 102 Bifhops damn 
' Fhotius, depofc him, and curfe him from Chrift ; and the Bifliops , to 
'fhew their holinefs and conftancy, would not write his damnation with 

* Ink, but with Chrifl's own blood ; ( that is, the Sacramental Wine. ) 
cS" (And yet ere long they fet up P^of;>« again. ) Ntcetas blameth his 

Condemners, that went not fo far as to prevent his Reftoration. But 
how can Bifhops rule God's Providence, or the mutable minds of Prin- 
ces ! faith he, [ * Nam ^ui per recoKCiUatos erat ejciius , & per hjpocrt- 

* tas damnatHSy is per eofdem quaji familiar es poflliminio recurrens, rttrfus 
' Patriarchu tbroium per vim invajit Cum omnes in fua tefiimonia & 

* Chirogr.ipha psijitros , ut ipfe erat ^ fieri coegiffet,ut extrema primis dete- 
' riora fecijfit, tmninm confeientias inc^uimvit & confpurcavtt, 3 Alas! if 
the Bifliops will be perjured Weathercocks, and,as Hypocrites, cry pec- 
civimus one year, and go contrary again the next, and change as Princes 
do, who can help it .? 

He faith nov/, new Earthquakes and terrible Whirlwinds did again 
afright men. He giveth us alfo many of IgnaHus'% Miracles, efpecially 
when he was dead. He faith I'botius profecuted him with malice when 
he was dead. He next tells us how after the death of Ignatius, Photiiis 
came to be reftored ; even by feigning a Pedegree of BafiUus as from 
the King of >^rw«/^,found by his skill in Antiquities; and by his great 
parts and elegancy winning upon him. He maketh ThcophaKes the in- 
Itrument of the deceit. He won the hearts of all the Courtiers : fo • 
that within three days of Ignatms's, death he was reftored. Hereupon 
the Bifhops turn round,and they that lately called him all that's naught, 
•^ now magnJfie him, (Bin. />. Syj. j But all that Nuetas calleth vere 
Chrifiianos, abhorred him. 

( This maketh me remember the words of Erafmtts in the life ofDr.; 
C'llst tranflated by Thomas Smjth, concerning the Bifhopof London that 
then was _) being an acute Schoolman, {_lhave j^';uiv« , faith he , Jome 
fuch that I would not call Knaves, hut never any that I could call a Chri- 

fiian. 2 

their Councils abridged. 283 

JUati. 2 Sad Prelates that NicetAs ( and Erafmus ) could not call Chri- 

But the ambition of Photius tempted them to their mutability: He 
caft out the Bifhops that were againft him, and prefently forgave and 
reftored them if they would but conform. Yea, he dared to re-ordain 
thofe that /^«4/-/«j had ordained, fuppofing him noBifhop; but abhor- 
ring all that ftopt him in it. But he proceeded to confecrate anew the 
Church Utenfils, and fay over certain Prayers ( //, fi\i]\ Nicet.is, thej 
be not rather to be calie'dCttrfes. ] j^ttd ('faith he ) to make his fin out % 

of me.ifHre Jinffil, when he ordained or preferred a»j,or changed Bijl:'cprickj, ** 

he made them conform by fwearing and fubfcribing to him; thereby bind- 
ing all to him whom by Benefices he obliged*. So much out of Ni. "How oft 

cctas. i^f ^ '■'^^'J 

Oaths and 


§ 64. And now Reader, I leave it to thy iudgment, whether Gregory tions been 

Nat.ianz.cn knew not what he faid, when he wifht there were no \_highcr condemn- 

and lower'] among Bifliopsjapd when he fpJke fo much of their ambi- S,'^ '".. , 

tion, levity and temerity, and of the evil elfeds of their Councils in his ^^,j yg^' 

time. Whether Patriarchal dignity was not a great temptation, when alas! 

to the Son of a Prince on one fide, and to the great and noble Secretary 
of the Emperor on the other fide, it feemed a prize worth the ftriving 
for to the death ? And whether it have not been the calamity of the 
Church, when two fuch extraordinary men,far above the common rank 
of Bifhop?, fliall fet an Empire and almoft all the Chriftian Churches in- 
to Schifm, Contention, mutual Perfecution andConfufion, by fo long 
ftriving Who (hall be greateft ? and drawing fo many hundred Bi- "^B 
(hops into Faiflion, Schifm, Per;ury,and fhameful mutations with them? 
And whether Chrift did not ( forefeeing fuch things ) far otherwife de- 
cide this qupftion, IVhoJka/l be greatest ? in Luke 22. But if Pride turn- 
ed Angels into Devils, it is not much to be wondered, if it turn the 
Angels of the Churches into the Minifters of the Prince of Pride and 
Darkncfs, and turn many Churches into a Theatre of Contention , and a 
Field of War. 

§ 65. Yet here is one thfrg further to be noted, t-/:.. the forefaid 
Contention that ro(e about the Bulgarians. Thefe two great Patriarchs 
of Rome and Confiantinop/c, were neither of them yet great enough,or 
fatisfied with their jurifdiclion, their defircs being more boundlefs than 
^Alexander's for the Empire ; nothing Icfs than a!l the world will fatisfie 
one of them at leaft. Nicetas faith, it was by Famine, and a Treaty, 
and kind words of the Emperor, that the Bulgarians turned Chriftians. 
Some PapjhwQM give the honour to the Pope, without proof, and 
cannot tell us anything how the Pope converted them. But when they 
were converted, they fent to Seme for fome Inftrui-lors : The Pope fcnc 

O 2 them 


Chwch-Hijlory of 'BijUp and 

them two, and ihey received tliem. But they put the cafe themfelves 
to the Cour.cil at Co«/.««f;/;o/'/c, Whether they were to be under the 
Birtiop of Rome, or of CoufiaitinopU ? The matter held a great debate. 
The Pope's Legates pleaded, that they had already received Bifhops 
from Rome,S<c. The Greekj pleaded, that their Countrey was part of 
the Empire, and under the Bitfiop of Confiantimple, till they conquered 
it", and that they found there Greeks Churches and Bifhops, who were 
ftili there, and the Conqucft did.no: tranflate them from the Bifhop of 
Conftant. to Rome, How the Controverfie etfded is hard to know ; 
Some fay that the Council gave them to the Pope, and fome fay other- 
wife. But this is confelTed , fhat this Roman ambition fo greatly dif- 
pleafed the new Emperor 5<r/7/;/<jj that it turned him after againft the 
Pope, and inclined him the more to rcftore /"^of/wj, which he did when 
Ignatius was dead. 

§ 66. Here I would call the Reader to confider, whether the Pope's 
llniverfal Government was«in thofe days believed ? even by that Coun- 
cil which was fuppofed to be partial ( by the Emperor's inducement ) 
on the Pope's fide. What place elfe could there be for fuch a ftrife, 
whether the Bulgarians were under the Government of the Bifhop of 
Rome, or ConJiantinopU ; if all the World were under the Bifhop of 
Rome ? They will fay that it was only queftioned, whofeDiocefs or Pa- 
ct^ triarchate they were under ? ^uiRome never pretended that they were 
of that Diocefs or Patriarchate as anciently divided. But the queftion 
was, W'hofe Government they were now fallen under ? And would any 
difpute whether e. g. Weftminfter were under the Government of the 
King, or of the Lord Mayor of London ? when all the Kingdom is un- 
der the King. This Controverfie clearly fheweth,that the Church then 
took the Pope to have but the firft Seat and Voice in Councils, but not 
ro be the Cov'ernor beyond his circuit. 

§ 6-j. It is here alfo to be noted,that Bafd the Emperor's revolt from 
the Pope was To great, that Hadrian is put to write fharply to him as 
accufing the Bifhops of Aowf, and derogating from them, admonifhing 
him to repent; but we find not that this changed his mind. 

§ 68. Yet one thing more is here to be obferved. In the life of //<i- 
drian the 2d ( Bin. p. 882. _j we find that the Pope taking the advan- 
tage of Biijilh prefent (iate and mind, and the inreref^ o( Ignatius much 
depending on him, firnt a new Libel to be fubfcribed by all the Bif}:ops, 
before they fhould be permitted to fit in Council. The Creek^ Bifhops 
grudged at this, and complained ro the Emperor, [ ' That the Church of 
' Conltantinople hy thefe offered Libels, was brought under the power oj 
' Rome, bjf the douhtfulnefs of Suifcriptions. '] But though flcbtliter con- 

5«»v/«/«/-, they complain with tears, the Emperor was angry with them, 


their Coioicils dbricl^cd. 2 S 5 

and would have it; and fome BiHiops mnjine mugno Uboris periciilv, libel- 
los quidem vtx tandem recipiunr, with much ado were brought to fub- 
fcribe, faying. It was novum & mauditum. The refufers extra Synodum 
inglorii reliilifunt, were (hat out till they conformed: (Ohithat /nglor.i 
was a cutting word, ) 

§69. Tiie Emperor hiding his anger againft the Pope's Legates f for 
the Bulgarian Ufurpation ) gave them great gifts, and fent them home. 
But at Sea they fell into the hands of the ScUvoniam, who ftripped them 
of their Riches, and the Subfcriptions and Copy of the Council, and kept 
them Prifoners, and threatned their Lives: But by the mediation of the 
Emperor and Pope, they were delivcred,and had fome of their Writings 


§ 70. CCLXXXV. ^u. 879. CarolusCalviis King of f»-.««a-,unjuftly 
pofTefTed the Kingdom of Lotha>-ii<s, which by inheritance fell to Ludo- 
vicHs. Ludovicus got the Pope to interpofc, who fent his Legates to 
Charles: But the Bifliops had not yet learned to obey Popes againft 
Kings in power. A Council of Bifhops called at Afetz., give the King- 
dom X.0 Charles, becaufe he was the ftronger. This was called Concilium 
Prad^roriHm,i Council of Robbers and Traytors : AaJ no wonder,whcn 'ts 
Bifhops muft be the Givers of Kingdom?. Was it not enough for the 
Pope, to ufurp fuch power, to be over Kings, and difpofe of Crowns,but 
ordinary Bifhops muft do the like ? 

§71. CCLXXXVLYet another Councilagainft thePo^e.KhgCharUs 
had authorized iVorf/jwjw, a great man, to receive fome Goods that 
were taken to belong to the Church, The Pope commandeth Hinc- 
m.irus, Biihop of Rhcmcs, ind the reft of tl'.e B fhop<; cf Fr.v.ce , to ex- 
communicate Nvrthma-,!. Hmcmarus and the Bilhops refufe to obey -tD 
him, only one //;»<rwj»'w Bifhop of Z,rfo;;, (^Landunurr, ) obeyeth him, 
and publifheth the Excommunication. A Council is called at Weyrtcria, 
where Hmcmarus Rhcm. and the Bifhops (' the King confenting ) con- 
demn Hincmartis LaudunenJis,{oT difobeying his .Metropolitan, in obey- 
ing the Pope. He appeals to Rome • They will not let him go. He 
writeth. Hmcmarus Rhem. writeth largely againft him, ( though his 
Nephevv ) fhewing how he broke the Canons, how bad a man he was j 
how he had neglefted his own Charge, left Children unbaptized , and 
for private quarrels excommunicated his Flock, and had filcnccd and 
fufpended theMin'iftcrs under him tyranically^ &c. 

Reader, Was the Pope's power yet fully received, when a Metro- 
politan was to be obeyed before him, and fiien condemned for obeying 
him ? 


Church- PJiJlory of 'Bijhops and 

' By you. 
" So crcai 
and holy 
a man alio 
ihc Pope. 

* Luther 
was not 
ihc lirft. 

§ 72. CCLXXXVII. Yet more forrow. ^n. hyo. a Council is called 
in Killa ^(tiniaco ( ^ttigny ) I will give you the Scory in the very 
words of BiiintHs tranflaied, [ 'When Hincmarus Bift?op of L^on, for the 
' ca/ifi in the forcfaid Council expreJfed,h.tdgot the Rifcript of Pope Adrian 

• on his behalf, and had notified it to Hincmarus Rhemenfis, and to King 
' Charles ; both of thew,itj hatred to the Bifmp of l^diOn, deer eed,Tijat this 
' Sjnod, called Latrocina'.is *, fljould be called. There prefided in it , Re- 
' migius Lugdiinenfis *, Ardovicus Vefontienfis, Bertulfus Trevirenfis, 
' with their ftfbjccl B'JJ.ops. Herein H'ncmarus Rhemenfi?, with King 

• Charles, was the accufer of his IQephew Hincmarus, whom he had before 
' C(i:fecrated BiJI:op of Laon. The AElion brought againfi him was, That 
'he -h-id bj Coy.mer-writings defended the rigfits oj the Apofiolick^ Sent, 
' which the Archbijhop of Rhemes d:cl endeavor to impugn and overthrow*. 
' And that, contrary to his Oath of Fidelity in \$hich he was bound to the 
' King, he had acctJfed King Charles to the Pope of Kon\C,and had without 
' his licence Jent forth writings againfi him. And when Hincmarus Lau- 
' dunenfis, at the Pope's command, was ready for his journey to Rome, he 
' was taken and fpoiled by his Enemies, and brought into this fitlfe Council. 
' Having heard the forcfaid Complaints againft him, he offered a Libel for 
' his defence; bm it was lejc^ed, and not permitted to be read: of which 
' when he again appealed to the Apoflolick Seat, they did not only not accept 
' of his Appeal, but alfo beingproftrate on the ground^and pleading for leave 
' to defend himfelf, he was not heard, Pajfing Sentence on him, they depo- 
' fed him from his Bifooprick^ : and binding him in hard and iron bands,they 
' cafi him into banijl:mcnt : And at laft, which paffeth all cruelty, his eyes 
'pulled out; they perhaps blinded him that he might have no hope of return- 

• ing to his Bijhopricl^ J So far Bmnius. And is it credible that fuch great 
and holy men as Remigius, and Hincmarus ( even to his own Nephew 
fct up by him ) would do fuch things as thefe for nothing? Orthatthe 
Pope was then as high as fince? 

§73. CCLXXXVIir. A Council at Cohn , An. 870. for Difcip- 

§ 74. CCLXXXIX. An. 871. A Concil Duz.ianfe was called of ten 
Provinces : where Jlincmar. Laudun. fubfcribed a promife of obedi- 
ence to the King and his Metropolitan. But this did not favc him : 
There fore he appealed to the Pope again, who interpoicd for him , but 
all would not do, nor ferve bis turn. 

§ 7y. Here fulls in again the great Controverfie of Pope ?oan a 
Woman, but it is too hard forme to decide. He that will fee what is 
faid on each fide, may road Blondel before cired. foLn the 8th is he 
that now reigncth, whom fome late Writers i re willing to believe fome 
called Pope \oan in fcorn for his failings. But he is zfitv BeucdiB the 3d, 


their Councils ahndnrd. z%7 

Nicolas, and Hadrian the zd j whereas the fere omnes^^mh PJatin^,thc 
many Writers that mention Pope foan place her before them all. And 
they make fohu to be a better man than thefe later do. PUtina cal- 
ling him fobn the yth, faith, that Carols CalviK being dead , Pope fohn 
laboured to have his Son Ludovum fucceed him; but the great men of 
Rome were for Chiles King of Germany, and therefore laid hold on the «tD 
Pope, and put him in Bonds in Prifon ( his Univerfal Sovereignty reach- 
ed not far then. ) But he efcaping by the help of Friends , fled into 
France to the King, whom he unjuftly pleaded for, (JLuiirjiciu Balb-w,) 
and there anointed him. 

§76. Before this the Pope had anointed C<«>o/m.' C^fc/« Emperor , 
unjultiy confirming what the Bifhops had unjurtly done, as r.ow he did 
unjuftly ftand for his Son. This contention among Princes, was the 
means of the Pope's power. Hear what Bhmihu himfclf fuich of him, 
pag. 920. [ ' The Saracens now dcp.pulared almsji all hi\y, and all humane 
'help failed in which the Pop: trhjted to expel tjiem j and he was fain to 
' briyfeace of them by a yearly Tribute : which fecmid to come by the righ' 
' teoui jttdgment ofCod,that he might k^o^v that by the til perfiiafon of c.ir- 
' nal prudence, he had finfuRy chojen, created and crowned Carolus Calvus 
' Emperor, beaaufe he lool^ed for mor: help againji the Saracens from him, 

* than from his Brother Ludovicus j whom, for invading another man's 

* Kingdomjjs Jhould rather by Chmch-cenfitre have e>:agitatcd,as Hadr.zd. 

* did. ] But when Pope lohn had ftay'd a year in France, and the Sara- 
cens mattered Italy without help, he was glad to be Friends with the 
great men that imprifoned him, and to return to Rome, and take Charles 
for Emperor, after all. Yet is it noted as the rare Honour and Felicity 
of this Pope, that he crowned three Emperors, though he did it for two 
of them trayteroully and unjuftly, (the honour of a Pope !) Platv.a 
faith, he crowned Charles the rightful Heir,.4!.'*<' " libcrim m urbe vi- 
vere liccret, that he might live at Rome again (left he (hould lofe 

This Charles ( faith he J alfo fubdued the Nortnans in Fra'ice and 7 or- 
YAin, and forced them to becojne Chriltians, and be baptized : (And yet 
this is afcribed to the Pope's converting them. ) 

§77. This fame Pope /'o/jH the 8th, alfo at the defire of the Empe- 
ror Bafl, and the Patriarch of Jerttjalcm, confcnrcd to the reitormg of 
P/jof/w, contrary, faith .£/»«/«;, to the Decree of his Prcdeceflbrs, and 
of a General Council, and of all their Oaths. 

§ 78. 'But vvhat are Oaths to a difpenfing Pope ? faith Baronius and 

* Bmnius. In his time Liidov. 1 1. the Emperor was compelled bv A'^al- 
' gifus, Duke of Benevent, to fwear that he would never more invade 
; his Condncs, nor revenge his Wrongs; But the Pope ablblved him 

' from 

2 8 8 Church- Hjhry of (B'tJl)Ops and 

' from tliis Oath, bv the authority of God and Sr. Peter, affirming that 
°^ ' which he did to fJvc his life, was no hurt to him, and that it was not 
' to be called an Oaili , which was made againft the good of the Com- 
' monwealch, by how many Curfes foevcr it was pronounced. Sm 
' p. 920. 

§79. There are no lefs than jioEpiftles of this Pope inferted by 

■> ^-f".ft- ^ Bini.itis in his Councils. The 1 2th is to plead with the Emperor,to for- 

i^i-r give and reftore Modtlgcrus a Murderer; and will you hear the motive? 

'..irdcrcr He had fled to Rome, and thereby merited pardon ; ' N.;m pro tanti iti- 

'• iicris labor e durJJ]}mo, cjucm 'vcniendo perpcjjui eft, ficsit credirKus , ali- 

' ^uanttilitm de ptraUo fcelere indulgent i am meriur, ejus uticjue intercef- 

' fiov.ibus adJHtHs chI ditium ejfc'a Domino conftat , Tibi dabo clavep, &c. 

Accordingly £^//?. 15. he writes to the Bifliop to reftore him all his 

Goods and Dignities, though it was contrived Murder, becaufc God in- 

(pired him to go to Rome^ Src. 


§ 80. Many of his Epiftles are to fummon Bifliops to come to Rome, 
and declare or threaten Excommunication againft them if they come 
not ; fuch an abufed thing was Excommunication, by which the Pope 
made men his Subjeds. £/'//?. 76, 77, 78, 79. Heftriveth to draw back 
the King of the Bulgarians from the Griffi^ Church , to the Church of 
A'«wc,and denounceth Excommunication even to old Ignatiiis,iT\d2\\ the 
G'rcf /; Bifhops of the Diocefs of Bulgaria, for ordaining and officiating 
there, unlefs they give up the Bulgarians to Rome. 

Epifl. 174. He writes to the faid King, as if he wrere fallen from 
Chrift, or his faivationioft, by fubmitting to the CJref/^ Patriarch, rather 
, than to him ; as if the Converts of no Apoftles but /^ff^r were faved. 
l^p 1^8 \ ^^^ '^'^' '^'^° Claves, and Anathema's,noiN are the two words that muft 
iSf, 189, JiJtdue the world. The Epifl. ij'y. to the Bulgarian Nobles,and Epifi. 
Qc, 192. 176. are to the fame purpofe. As the Religion of Saints tends all to 
Heaven, fo did thefe Popes to the advancement of their Kingdom. And 
whereas we now rake it juftly for a fufpicious fign of a proud hypocriti- 
cal Preacher, that envieth the auditory and efteem of fuch as are prefer- 
red before him, as if other mens Preaching might net win Souls, as 
well as his; thefe Popes could not endure the croffing of their am- 
bition, when Kingdoms took not them for thfir Lords. 

Epift. 1 88. Is to judifie a man that baptized his own Child in danger 
of death, for which -rt//;/(r/«» Bifhopof Leffjovic. ju6ged him to be fepa- 
ratedfrom his Wife. Were not thefe two Bilhops judicious Cafuilts? 
Was either of them in the right ? 

After many other Epillles,ftriv!ng with and for the Bulgarians,as be- 
longing to his Diocefs, he .Ejp;/. 195'. chideth Methodius Archh]{hop of 
Pannouia, for turning from his Laws, and in fi)ecial for celebrating Di- 
c^ vine Service in the Sclavonian Tongue, which is barbarous,commanding 


their Councils nhyulgcd. 28 


him to do it only in Latme or Grccl^. Voii fee how the Pope would 
cdifie the Barbarians if he be their partor. This is the firft Papal de- 
cree that I remember againft publick prayers in a known tongue. 

Bur, alas! his neighbour /M//rfH Bifhops had not yet fully learnt the 
extent of his authority: fending for many BiOiops on pain of excom- 
munication to wait on him, and to obey him, old Aufperttis Archbifh- «gjj 
op of v?/;/4« was one that difbbeyed him; and being forbidden to clfi- 
ciate by him, conformed not to his filencing and fufpending decree, but 
went on in his office as a Nonconformift. The Pope fent two Bifhops 
as Legates to admonifh him: He kept them at the dore» and fct light 
by their mefTage ; for which the Po[c chideth him, Epifl. 196. 

Epifi. 197. He flattereth King Ludovkus to come to licwc and own 
him, in hope that he maybe Emperor and all Kingdoms fub;e<ft to him. 

Epifi. 199, 200, 201, 202, 203. Heconfenteth to the rcftoringof 
Phot ins, but chargethhim to give up the Bulgarians to bis jurifdiftion. 

Many perfons in many F.[)iftles he exhorteih to break their Cove- 
nants with the /'.i^.iw/, and chideth and threatneth them thatdid it nor. 

Epijb. 247. The inclination of StcNtopu.'cher a Panuonian Lord to the 
Church of Rome, brought down the Popes heart to difpenfc with Afe- 
thodiu*, and changed his judgment to give very fair rcafbn why Mafs '^B 
and Gofpcl and all might be ufed in the ScUvonian and all tongucSj only 
to keep up the honour of the Latinc tongue r and his authority ) he 
commandeth that though the reft be done in the Sclavonian, yet the 
Gofpel be firft read in Latine,and then trarflated and read over again in 
the Sclavonian. 

Epifi. 2yo.2p. Heapproreth OiPhorimh reftitution, 

Epift. 2)6. He is fain to chide yiulpcn Bifhop of y1 /;/*?•; ; that Jn- 
ftead of fearing his fentence , he laid in prifon two Monks fent by the 
Pope, and taken on the high way. But his heart came down at laft, 
and he fjieaks ^tifpertiis fair , and alloweth of his ordination of fojcph 
Epifi. yljlcKJis, though irregular. 

Epif. 260 and commandeth his Arch- Deacon to obey hfm. 

EpijK 261. After this he excommunicateth the Archbifhop of Raven- 
na, and a great ftir there was about that alio. 

Epifi .292. He had made one Optandus Eifhop of Genszw. But Optc- 
rawHs Archbifhop of f^tcnna took it to be an ufurpation on his right, 
and laid the Popes Bifhop in a mifcrable prifon ; fo far was he yet from 
being where he would be. 

Epifi. 294. Having excommunicated ^thanafius Bifhop of Xaplcs 
for not breaking his Covenant with the Saracens^ he ahfolveth him 
on condition that ytt he '.vill break ir. The matter was that the Ita- 
lians not able to refift the Saracens, thofe that lay next them under 
their power fought to fave themfeives bv truce and tribute,by which 
means the S^iraans had leifure to come further near to Rome ; and Co the 
Pope to keep them from himfcif compelled by excommunications the 

P p Lords 

2^ Lhurch-Hijlory cf Bijho^s and 

Lords and Bifliops of other parts to break their league, and ftand up in 
arms to their own deftrudtion. 

That you may know what Bifhops now ruled the Churches. 

Epifi. a9j. The forefaid B;fhop of Cicnna giveth one reafon why 
ov" he rejefted Optar.dus ordained Bifhop of Geneva h-^ the Pope, viz.. 
[" Bccaufe he never rvas either haptiz^ed, made Clerl^, accUmed, or 
" learned'^ To which faith the Pope [ Thiijhould he covered tnjilence , 
" bccan(e [tVf tis fpeak^it with jour charity] your holincfs having nothing 
" of thffe was jet confecrated in the Church of Vienna."] was not here 
good fucceffion, and a holy Church. Bifhops unbaptized that were no 
Scholars and no Chriftians. 

Epifi. 1^6. One Bifhop by an armed band of men carrieth away a- 
nother out of the Church , and the Pope interpoftth. 

Epijf. 297. He again foliciteth Michael King of the Bulgarians 
to become his fubjecft. The poor men that had chofen Chrift, were fb 
perplexed between the Priefts that Itrove who fhould be their Vice- 
Chrift, and King of Kings, that it Teemed as hard to them to refolve 
the doubt, as it before was to be Chriftians. 

Yet Epif}, 307. fheweth, the Bifhop of Ravenna being dead, that 
yet the Roman ufurpation was not grown fo high as to take the choice 
of the Bifliop out of the People and Presbyters hands, except in long 
negledcd vacancies (as Cfw^'Z'^ aforefaid.J 

Had not this Pope bec-n kept under by Gods judgments, fufferingthe 
Saracsns fo to rulne Italy as that he ftill needed the liclp of Princes, he 
had been like to have overthrown Romeh^^ his ufurpations, fettingboth 
Princes and Prelates againft him: But necefTity made him a flatterer cf 
the two Emperors of the Weft, the Emperor of the Eaji-, the King of 
France, the King of ^/^/^^tri^, the Princes of Pannotiia, and all that be 
needed, as ambition made him ftill Itriving by Tibi dabo cUves, and ^- 
nathcmatiung to affright the world to his obedience. I fay not worfe 
of him than Bdronms, Binnitis, &C. who have no other way to deny the 
Hiftories of Pope Joan, than by faying that this mans bafcr compliance 
mnde him called Pope Joan. 

Baronius ad an. 879, ». 5>;.reciteth an Epiftle of this Popes fo greatly 
complying with Photim even againft the [^Filioquen~] that Bmnitts would 
haveus believe that Phot ins forged it. And [_" epijiolam ipfam sterna obli- 
" vienc dignam mini (faith he) hifce adjungi.'j 

§81. CCXC.^«.876. a Concilium Tianenfe maketh C/:'^>/<jEmperor 
when the Pope that had crov/ned Z.«i:^i7t'jc«; before callethC/^^'-Z^x, pr^:- 
Jcttum, prach^um et prmdcjiinatumhttciOy with all honourable Elogies. 

And here comcth in a great controverfie between the Papifts, and 

K^ the Protcftants ; vi:L. Whether Kings fucceed by inheritance or by the 

eledion and making of the Pope. The Pope thought the craft of pur,- 

ting in a big ufurping word, was as good as a Law to prove their own 

power to make Kings and unmake them. Accordingly this Pope when he 

^ ' durft 

their- Councils ribriikCi^'-' 201 

durftftayfrom Romc'm France r\o longer, left l:e loft all, ('being impri- 
foned for rcfufing the right Heir Charles) returneth, and fpeakcth fome 
big words, and turneth forced confent into fupcr-Kingly commands, and 
faith ( Bin. p. icio) cligimns mento et appiobAViTnus'] fclemnite" ad 
Romani Irnperii fceptrtt provcximus) et ^ugufiali ncmir.e d:ccravimits,Scc. 
And to difable the Kingly claim of inheritance he faith, X^Necjue emnifi- 
bi honorew prAfumpttioft a/fhrnpfit, ur Imperator furet, fed tanquam dejt- 
deratus, ct optatus, pofruUtus A NOBIS, tt a Deo vocatus, ct honor :fi- 
catu! ad defendeiidam religicncm et Chrifii xticjuc fervos tuctidos, humiliter 
et OBEDIE^TER acceffit, &:c. Nifi enim talem cognovtjfcmtu ejus tii- 
tentiencm nim(jif.irK animtts nofier fieret rum protKpnis ad ip/im promottonem, 
tv'c. So if the Pope had not liked him, the Emperor's hereditary right 
had never made him Emperor. And the flattering Bifliops fay to the 
Pope (5»;;. p. 1010.) Kt non vcs prius eligcret, fed contra vos eum et 
cligeretts et diligeretisiEt nos O Coangelice Papa, zefligiavefira feci antes et 
faluuria monita rcciptentes,<jucm amatis afM,imfis,(fU;rK cligiffise/ig!mi(s,&'c. 

And now comes in BmntHs with his Comment and faith x)Aix{would cm 
" rcfi aiiory noz'cLills, who with great temerity dare profcfs that the Komiv^ ^ 
" Popes in the crowning of Emperors have no other right tl.en barely 
"mtnijlcrialij' to anoint and crown them, had but known thcfc yifts (^*)Thcy ( ') \vc 
" would from them have /earned that that Pope John (alias Joan) did not "ow 
"only anctnt and crown Charles, but alfo by Cods inflinil did chcofe him ''"'j'^ 
"to govern the Empire, andraifed him to that fteblime dignity honour ino 
"him with the Augafial n.imr^ before he was anointed and crowned by him^ 
and that the Empire was conferred on him, not by hereditary right ofjuc- 
ceffion, but by the will of the Pope who chofe him and granted it to him.'] 
BE WISE therefore OTE KINGS, BE tnflrucled ye that are fudges of 
the earth — Kifs the J'opes foot lefi he be angry and ye perijh in the waj ; 
Ij his wrath be kindled, yea, but a little, &'C. 

§ 82. CCXCI. An, 879. A concilium Pont igonenfe confirmed the choice 
"oj Charles where ith fiid {Bin. p. 1012) ff leg.'t Johannes Arietinus 
"Epifcopus r,nandam fclftduUm ratione et author it ate carcntem: Pojl/jstam 
"legit Odo Belgivacoriim Fpifopus ejuedam Capitula a Legatis Apoficli- 
" CIS, et ab Aniegifo (the Popes Vtcar) et codcm Odoue Jine con/cicntia 
" fynodi diClata, inter Je dijjona, et nu.'Ltm uttlitatem habentia, voiim et 
" raticne et a/fthoritate c.irentia, et lAcohic non habentur fubjuntla.~\ 

§ 85. CCXCI f. An. 877, A council in Neufina (Normandie) under 
Hincmanis Khemen ft s rebuked Hugo bafe Son oi Lotharius for rebellion 
and devaftation of the Country. 

§ 84. CCXCIII. An. 878. a concilium Trecenfe where the Pope 
was prefent excommunicated Formofus{ Portuenfis (one of the former 
Popes preachers to the Bulgariar:s , and one that was after Pope him- 
fclf^ Alfb Hincmanis Lattduntnfs was rcl^ored blind, and ioyned 
with the other that had his Place, ('and fo one Church had two Bilhops 
infpite of his uncle Hmcmarus Rhemcnfs that oppofed it, and had 
both put him in andcaft him our. P p 2 § '^^- 

2 o 2 Church-Hijlory of 'Bijlcps and 


§ 85. CCXCIV, yln. 879. Was a Council of the Popes at Rome for 
his unrighteous making Ludovicus 3. Emperor, the Pope challeng- 
ing the lirft choice : But ^ufpertus Bifhop of /!///.?« came not and re- 
filkd, and though fas you heard) excommunicated by the Pope, did 
help to turn the choice to the right Heir. 

§ 86. CCXCV. Befides fume petty Council at Rome, there was 
an. ^79- a General Council at Confiantimplc of 385^ Bifhops where 
Photius was confirmed, and the former General Council fcalled the 8th 
g;^ alfoj abrogated, and the word [f.lioeju:'] taken out of the Creed: The 
Papifts fay that the Pope confented only to this as for P/iotius's reftituti- 
on, and not for the abrogation of the former Council; and that Photiia 
corrupted his writing, and fo they would make all writings uncertain. 
They fay that Pope foh»''s epiftle is by the wonderful providence of 
God found yet without fome claufes added by Pfjotius, whom they call 
the great architeft of lyes: But the Greckj will no more believe the late 
found Ltitcram or other Roman Copies, than the Romans will believe 
the Grff^ Copies. And how (hall we know which of them to believe? 
( Andhow little doth it concern us ?) 

§ 87. It muft be a controverfie alfo whether this Council muftbe cal- 
UAOccumoiical-.l have oft proved that there was never any truly fuch as 
to all the world. There were 385 Bifhops which is more than the 
firft Council at Nice had, or moil others : The Popes Legates were 
*^ there; Oh but,raith Binnius, It was mt they but Phot ins that did preftdc, 
'• therefore it vras not genera!. Anf. r. Let the world know then what 

maketli a general Council in the Papal lenfe: It doth not reprefent all 
the Church unlefs the Popes Legates prefide. So much doth it import 
to know which Prieftis the greateft. 
1 2. But did liinnius ioxgtt that he himfelf affirmeth that at the firft 

f General Council at ConftantinopU the Pope did not prefide by himfelf or 

^ any Legate. And yet that is one of the 4th. Councils equalled with 

the four Gofpcls ; and the Pope dare not deny it \citiheGreckj further 
liereticate or anathematize him. 
^ But faith Binnius, It was no General Cotincil becaufe there ve.is tnanj 

frands and impojltires. u4nf. By that rule Trent had no General Coun- 
cil, nor Florence, Src. And fo it is left to the judgment of all men to 
nullifie fuch Councils w.hich they can prove to have had frauds and im- 
poflures. And muft we alio nullifie the Papacie of them that have had- 
fuch frauds? 

§ 88. Is it a grand queftion whether Pope fohn confirmed this Coun- 

Icil. The approbation is extant. But the Reprobaters fay 1. that he 
put in fome terms of limitation (fo far as his Legates went right) 2. 
that he after ex umbone condemned Photius, 8fc. 

But 1. Is it not a General Council if the Popes Legates confent till 
lie perfbnally confirm it .'' Were all former Councils null, till the Popes 
pcrfynal confirmation.? wliatare his Leg^es for tben? 2. As his Le- 

their Councils abridged. 295 

gates may miftake, fo may he himfelf: ts it null then till he redlifie his 
Error? 3. By this we fee how impofTibie it is to know the rewGofpIe 
ofthePapiftsj which is Canonical from the Apocryphal. For (as Pope ^ 
Martin's Conciliaritcr 3Uer,Co') here and elfw here the Popes havefo am- 
biguoufly given their confent that no wit of man can tell what is con- 
fcntcd to by them, and what not (as their controverfies confelled, C'c. 

§ 89. At leaft whether the Pope confented or no , feeing in this 
Council the former 8th. General Council was condemned, and the Jili- 
o^«ir expunged the Creed, we fee how ridiculoufly our late Papifts ar- 
gue from the confent of Councils to prove the coflftant Tradition of the 'ta 
Churchy faying. Did the Council go to bed m one mind and rife in another? 
Did thefe 385' Bi/Joops doCo? or did the former whom they condemn- 
ed do fo? Is this the fmooth Current of Tradition? and may we know 
by it what our Fathers held? 

§ 90. When the other Legates conftnted, Jlfarinus, who was after 
Pope, diflenting, he was laid in prifon thirty daycs at CoHft.inttnopk. 

In the firft Aift of the Council, as 5<iro;;;,v; tells us, /'o/;i« Biflicp of 
Heraclca fpake much againft the Church of Rome, which he (aid was 
the original of all the mifchief that had bcfain them; to overthrow and 
and cure which this Council was called. Much alfo againft Pope A'»- 
colas and Hadrian he fj^ake, but for Pope folm as being for them. In 
the 2d. Atl was read an epiftleof the Patriarch of Alexandria, to the 
Emperor for abrogating the former 8th. Synod: And Thomas one oi 
the three Legates of the Eaflcm Patriarchs that confented to the for- 
mer Synod ('the reft being dead) made his penitent recantation. Tiieii 
the epifttes of the Patriarchs offcnifalcm and Antioch for Photms are 
read, &c. In the third Atl, Pope J'ci;/s letters were read, as endea- 
vouring the peace of the £j/?fr;; Church; which the Council took as 
a bufy pretending to more power than he had, and therefore fjid that 
"they had peace before hrf letters came, .tndthat they n-erejuperfluous. And: 
whereas he made it his bufinefs by this complyance, to get the Buha- 
rian Diocefs; They faid this was to controvert the bounds of the 
Empire, and therefore left it to the Emperor. In the 4th A<ft the 
£rf/f>-;; Patriarchs letters were read, difclaiming their Legates at the 
laft Council, a? being not theirs but \.\\e Sriaetns Legates: and con- 
demning that Council. The Papifts think rhotiits forged thefe. Here 
alfo Lords profelTed repentance, faying that the falfc Legates deceived 
them. In the jth. A<ft Aietrophanes Bifhop of Smyrna is accufed of 
Schifm, for being againft P/jor/Aj, Three Canons alfo were made, i, 
That thofe excommunicate by the Bifiiop of Rome fliould not be rcftor- 
cd by the Bifhop ofConfiantinople. Nor thofe that were e>;commnni- 
cated by the Bifliop ofConftantinople be reftored by the Bifhop of Rome: 
fand fo Rome was fliut out from troubling rhem with pretended jtirif- 
didion.) 2. That thofe that forfake their Bifhopricks fliall not return 
to them. 3. Againft Magiftratcs that eniUvc and beat Bifiiops. In 



-94 Chunh-Hijlory cf 'Bijhojjs md 

the 6ih. A<fi: the Creed was recited ivikhoin filio^He. And in the 7th. 
ul! tho(c rlhir Qiould add to it or diininifli are Anathematized. 

§ 91. CCXCVI. A Council of the Popes at ^^wc excommunicated 
^■^iha>i.:fi.:s Biftiop and Prince of N.iples\ for not brealcing his league 
With the Snracciis. 

§ 92. John i)cA. Afarinas is made Po[ie, commanded by his prcdc- 
ctllor, called by VLiiin:i,Mart'tn, who faith that he Came to the Pope- 
dom, malis artibni, and therefore did noihirg and foondyeci. But Bare- 
iiius fjith he lived long enough to do fomething, viz.. 1. He con- 
demned Photlfi! again, and thereby provoked the Emperor Bafd-.us; as. 
}f Rome did ftili (etthe imperial Church in contention, and hinder peace. 
The Emperor affirmed that he was no Bifhop oC Rome, becaule he had 
been ordained Bifliop of another place. 2. He deftroyeth what Pope 
foljH \ud done, who had depofed Formofus preacher to the Buln.iri- 
ans, and Bifhop Pcr/«f«/;i, and had mide him fwear thAt he would nevev 
return to the Epifcopal [eM , but refl content with Laj-CominHmom But 
Pope Marinus recalled him to the City and reftored him to his Bifh- 
oprlck, and ablblved him from his oath, which BAronms zvA BiMiins 
^ .doubt not but he had j)ower to do ; yea , and to difpenfe with the ill 
acfts of the Pope, which he did out of private aifedls and partiality. 

§ 93. In his time alfo the Church of Rome ufed FUio-^ue, in oppofi- 
•cun to Vhotius; Spain and France having ufcd it before. Becaufe, faith 
B.'.rmiius and Binnius, Vhotius hid wrote about it to the Ignorant 
and ^..'/p^.^f/c.j/Archbiriiop of Acjuilela. (There was it feems there i'o 
many of the grcateft Bifliops Impcnti et Schifmntict in the Papal fcn(e, 
w.^ Intimatcth that as the Popes greatnefs rofe in height, it did not grow 
equally in length and breadth.J 

§ 94. Marinns having reigned a year and twenty dayes fa fhorc 
pleallire to fell eternal happinefs for) Hadrian the third fucceeded him, 
and had longer part of the ufurpcd Kingdom, viz.. a year and three 
months and nineteen dayes. He alio damned Vhotius, and was bitterly 
reproached by (he Emperor Bafdms, whofe contumelious letters found 
him dead, and his fnccelfor anfwered them. (Was all the Chrif^ian world 
now (till Ltd! her) \\\h)c(X. to the Pope?) 

Hat ma faith of this Pope, that["//f ir^j of fo great a /pint that in the 
" very beginning of his Vapac^ , he flraitxvay decreed th%t Vopes/lioald be 
" made without expeHing the Emperors authority, and that the fuffr^tges 
"»of the clergy and PEOPLE Ji.'ould be free : which was before by Pope Ni- 
" coias rather attempted than indeed begun. He was I fuppufe encouraged 
" by the opportunity of Charles his departing with his army from Italy /o 
"fiibduethe rebelling'HoTmi'^s,'] Rome wasftill on the rifing hand. 

§ 95. Stephen the jth. alias 6ih. fucceeded him. In his time Ca- 
roll-.: Crajfits the Emperor is by a convention of Lords and Bifbops de- 
pofed from his Empire as too dull and unworthy. (Kings were brought 
tinder as eletflive by the Pope^ and now are at the mercy of their fub- 


their Councils abridged. 

2 0- 

jerts.) -4r»«/jp^«j a baft fbn of Caro/omannus got 3n intereit in the (iib- 
jecfls, and they depofed the Emperor and let him up. B^ror.nn at,d Saiih B.i. 
Bmnitis afcribe it to Gods judgment for Charles Iiis wronging oi Ruhur- ^<"""»and 
dit a pure Virgin, yet repudiated by him. They fay that he was re- jj^""""» 
duced to fuch poverty that he was fain to beg his bread of AfnulphHs, rl c uth. 
and dyed 888 in the 41I1 year of his Umpire. lauh p,.,- 

§ 96. The Letter againft the Pope written by the Emperor Bafliui '.""'> ^'"•'■' 
the Papifts will not let us fte: But this Pope Sthepkcnh anfwer to it '"^'"-'f'''- 
they give us, which runs on the old roundation,trayrcrous to Magiftra- Whatccr- 
cy as fuch. Telling the Emperor that i"The S^cerdotul a)i(i ^poJloU- tainty is 
" cal dignity is not fubjeEl to Kings, and that Kings are authoriz.(d to ''crc- 
"meddle only with worldly matters, and the Pope and Priefls with fpirttual. 
" And therefore his Place isas far more excellent than Emperors, as heaven 
"is above earth^ He tells the Emperor that m reviling the Pope o,''Rome 
"he blattered out blafphemy againfl the God of all the worlU^ anUhis imma- 
-' cttlate Spotife and Priefl and the Af other of all Churches : Aiai that he « 
''deceived that thinketh £that the Difciple ( Princes') is above his mafl- 
"cr (jhe Pricjfs,) and the fcrvant above his Lord. He wondcreth at his 
"taunts and feoffs againji the holy P"pe; and the curfcs or reproaches which 
'' he loaded the Roman Church with, to which he ought with all veneration 
"to be fubjeH:, as King, who made him the judge of Prelates whofc dollrine 
" he mttfi obey, and wLy he faid MdiV\m\$ was no BiJI^cp, 5cc. By this the 
reader may perceive whether yet all tlie Chriltian world obeyed the 
Pop^, or judged him to be their Governor. 

§ 97. How Voyt FortnoJDs (tt up n7,.'» Duke of S/'c/cfo trayteroufly .^ 
as Emperor till he was forced to loyalty, is after to be laid. 

§ 98. CCXCVIT. An. 8S7. A Council at Co/«; under Charles Cr.^f 
fi<s, made Canons ajiainft Sacrilege and Aduhcrv. 

§. 99. CCXGVIU. An. 888. A Council at '^.v;/;^,)while they were 
all in diltrefs by tke depopulations of the Normans ) firtt decreed to 
pray for the King, and then tell him that "Rex dicitnr a Rcgcndo: And 
" if he rule pioufly^ j"^^) and mercifully he is jufily called a Kiiit, but if 
" impioufly, unjujfly, and cruelly he is a Tyrant, 

Can. 10. " IVherc.is former Synods forb.id all 11 omen to dwell in the houfe .^ 
" with Bifhops, or Priejh ,or Deacons, except Alotners or Sijicrs^ thiy now 
"forbid thcfe alfo, hearing oft of the wickedii.fs committed bjtiitm , nnd that 
" BiJ}:ops (o>- Priefts) lay with their own Sijlcrs, and begat Children of them. 

But to ftcure them from all conviction fur any luch crime it is dc "£3 
creed Chjp. the 12. "that no Prcfbyrer accufe anjf Btjloop, nor any Dca- 
" co:-t a Prcflyter, nor any Subdeacon a Deacon, 6cc. ylnd that no Pi elate 
" be condemned but under feventy two witneffes-^ and the chiefPreiate i>e judg- 
" ed of no man. An. I a Cardinal presbytjr not u.idsr feriytwo witncjfs;<;or 
"a Cardinal Deacon under twenty fix: S^bie acois, Aclyties Exercifts, 
" LeB:ors, Doorkeepers, not under f even : and thefe wiihou: ii.famj having 
"Wives and Children ] And indeed that Bifliop thic wou!d lie with his - 

own . 


Church-Hijlory of 'B'tjhops and J 


own Silkr in the prefcnce offeventy two men tbac had wives and Chil- 
dren ck (crvcd to be blamed. 

Clnp. I '>. "Oijcthat wllfnlly murdered a Pricfi, w.is to forbear fiejh 
" un.i wine, and not to b: carried in a Coach. and not come to Church in five 
"jean, ar.d not to receive the SucrnmeKt of twelve years it ft (r. 

§ ICO. Bmni-M here addeth an oblcrvable note,thjc ylrnulphus is call- 
ed onlyKir:;7 at firftand not Emperor, ic being «rp^ unlawful to alTume 
the name orKmperor till it were given by the Pope] O brave Pope ! 

§ 1 01. CCXCIX.A Council at Mctz. under the fame Norman calami- 
tics decreed (iich like things. Ch.7p. 2. They decreed that no Presby- 
ter fhould have more than one Church (unlefs a Chappclj and none 
rake money for burials. Ch^ip. 3. that Mothers or Sifters dwell not 
in the houfe with Bifhops or Prieft?. But ftill capital crimes were 
puniflied but with excommunication and penance. Ch.rp. 7. One that 
forced a widow: Another that killed his kinfman , and married his 
his Wife, and fwore to the Archbifhop to forfake her and did not, was 
excommunicate. And fo were fome that gelded a Prieft for reproving 
their hhhinefs, 

§ 102. CCC. A Council at H'<;r»?fx was called to end a controverfic 
between two Prelates, Bifbops of Co/en and H^imbu/g, ftriving for Bre- 
me-.i (to have greater Diocelics and jurifdivftion. J 

§ 105 .Next Cometh the forementioned Pope Form->ftis, faith Onuphri- 
?.';the firft Pope thatever was mideof one that before had been a Bifh- 
op. For the old Canons oft decreed that no Bifliop remove from his 
firft place : only when one was ordained againft his will, and not confent- 
ing never pofTeft the Place, fometimeshewas accepted to another. Now 
was the fourteenth time that Rome had two Bifliops at once by fchifm. 
Sergius got in to be Pope, but they forced him to reflgn, and banifhcd 
him. Formcfus was well efteemed of for his preaching to the 5«/g<«- 
rtans; but Pope John 8 ffome think for reproving his finj dcpofed him 
{'as afore faid) and made him fwear never to return to be a BiHiop: 
^nt Mar inns abfolved him, and he came in thus perjured j notwith- 
i):anding the faife pretence of Papifts that the Pope can difpenfe with 
fijch oaths; the matter of them being a thing lawful, but not necellary. 
TUtina faith that he was furpe(fted to have a hand in the tumult that 
imprifoned Pope "(ohn , and that he came to the Popedom Largitione 
potius cjf.am virtute, by gifts rather th^n virtue, that is, by Simonie. 

He did (lawfully if you will believe Baronius and Binmus') crc^iXe, a- 
noint, and confecrate Lambert, after his Father n';Wo.EmperorCrhat was 
not Heir:) yet after confecrated ylrmdphus ('its like by conftr^intjj for 
€t fuch things the Ronian Nobles hated him. But he got ■■'.mKlphus to 
Rome-^ who revenged the Pope by beheading many of the Princes that 
were hafting to meet him, which was not like to win mens love. 

§. 104. He wrote an honeft Epiftle to the Englifh Clergie, perfwad- 
jng them to keep up the miniftry, and reproving them for indulging 
Pagan rites. 

atid their (^oiijicils cibrid^cd. 5 i 5 


The Trogrefs of Cowifeh till Leo ^th. efpccially in Italy, Fiance 
mid Germany, ami their ^ehaVionr. 

5f.i.CCCI.(/"\£'oEarI o^ Paris, havir>g Ufurpcd the Kingdom in the Mi- 
V^ nority of Charles the fimpic the right Heir, fw/^^Bifhop 
of Rhc/nes callcth a Synod and dcpofcth him, and fetsupCW/« (Tuch 
Power had Prelatesj. Some fay the French Chofc Odo by yirnuiphus's 
Confent; and fome fay, that he dying, dcfircd that Charles might have 
PofTtfTion. This was ^fino 892. 

JJ. 2 The great Devaftations made by the Normans,hmning Cities,Chur- 
cheSjMonafttrics ; and at laft forcing Confcnt for a Habitation ii\Neiifma, I 
pafs overj and Petavius out of fome Writers of their own will tell you. 
that when Chartrefs was beficgcd by them, the Vfrgin Marys fmock, 
which King Charles Calvus had brought thither from Bcfanfon, being car- 
ried, call them into fo great a Terror, that they fled away all in Confufion. 
Where they had this Smock, and how many Hundred Years after the 
Virgin yl/^rj'/ death it was found, and how they knew it tobehers,and how 
it was fo long kept, and where, and why it did not many Miracles fooner. 
till above 900 Years after Chrift, arc Queftions which I cannot An- 

$.3./r4/yand fr<»»ce were all this while fill'd with Civil Wars. Wido and 
his Son Lambert being dead, Bcrcrgarms got PolTcflion of Italy, whom 
Lewis after overcame, and was made Emperor at Rome^ Crowned by 
the Pope: But three years after, taken by Bererigarins^ was Depofed, 
and had his Eyes put out. Yet after this Berenganus was cut off, and 
Lewis reftorcd and Anointed by Pope John 10, Rodulfhns King of Burgun- 
dy was fet up by fome Italian Nobles againft Berengarius, and overthrow- 
ing his Army, was called King of Italy. Berengarius was kil'd by 
Treachery : Rodulfhns was foon Depofed, and the Italians made Hugo 
Earl of Provence K.\ng. At laft he joyncd his Son Lothanus with him : 
The younger Berengarius prcvaileth againft him, driveth him to Provence; 
and is made King: Intending to marry his Son Adalbertus to yIdaUtdts 
the Widdow of Lothanus; fhe invited Otho Kmg of Germany into Italy 
andmarryedhim, who after is made the firft Germane Emperor: Of all 
which,more after in the particular Order and place. See Peiav. lib. 8. c. 1 3. 

^. ■\. CCCII. Anno.'igi. ftfr.'w/;*; had a Roman Council, toConfuk 
of fome Relief of the Ruined Countries, in vain. For now men Secular 
and Eccleriaftical, Confounded all by ftriving for Rule. 

4- ?. CCCIII. AnnoSg^. A Council at rni?/<r in <j«-/»<i'?v for Church 

S f Rcfor- 


Chunh'Htjlory of 'BiJJ?ops 

Reformation : Many of the Canons arc to fccurc and advance the Clergy. 
The ninth decideth a doubt,if an Earl (or civilRulcr) Command the People 
03" to meet at one place (on Civil accounts) and the Bifhop command them 
to meet at another on the fame day, none fhall obey the Magiltrate (or 
Earls) but he and all his Company (hall obey the Bifhop and come to him. 
Cap. lo No Bifhop (hall be Dcpofed but by twelve Bi(hops, no Presby- 
"^ tcr but by fix Bifhops, no Deacon but by three, Cap. 21. In Controvcr- 
c3" ries,Laymen mud fwear,but Clergy-men muft not be put to fwear,Cii/).22. 
There is allowed Tryal by (ire, Fer tgncm Candcutiferro Caute examinttur. 
p. 6. CCCIV, A Council at iV^ffffi made more difciplinary Canons. 
5^. 7. Who was next Pope is not agreed : Platina and 0/7nphrins fay, 
that liofiiface was rightly Chofen, and Reigned but twenty fix days, faith 
J'laii/ia, or fifteen faith Onuphrius ; others (faith Platina) fay twelve years : 
Barontus (and 5wz'/«) faith, that he was no Popej and that he did but 
invade the Pope- dome, and was /?owo ticfariusy a wicked wah^ twice before 
this Degraded : Fir fi from his DeaconJJiipj and next from his Prcsbyterate, 
Damned in a Romane Synod under John the Ninth : He addeth^ that (both 
of them") Boniface and Stephen got the place by Force, Fear and Tyranny, and 
jo it was but one Intruder ^ that thriifl out another Intruder : (But how then is 
the Succe(rion fecured. W.hy, it's added) Tet Stephen is nu/nbred with 
the Topes by the common Sentence (or Opinion) becaufe to avoid the danger of 
Schifme,thoitgh he was homo fcelefliflimus, a moft wicked man', yet all the Clcr- 
t?" gy approved btm, and the whole Catholik. Church, took.himfor Chrifts ^fcar C?- 
Fetcrs Succejfor. (How prove you that, why, becaufe (^f//% Bifhop of 
Rhemes owned him ! ] A Noble proof that all the Chriftian World did fo ! 
$. 8. Say Barronius, and Binius, he began his Pope-dome with that 
Sacrilcdg, as to tSike the Corps oi Fortfuifits out of his Grave, and cloath- 
mg him in his Pontifical Robes^ (hefet him in a Chair, and faith Plaiina, there 
judged him as no Pope, becaufe he had been firll a Bifhop ; which indeed, 
by the old Canons, nullified his calling; For Formofus, wasthefirft Pope 
that had been before a Bifhop, asisfaid, unlefs the Emporour 5 <»// tru- 
ly charged Jlacrinus with the fame) : Having Expofiulated with the dead 
man, * why he being a Bifhop would take the Pcpe-domc, he int off his 
'' three four Fingers witi'J which he had Anointed^ and cafi them into the River 
i.^c 8. Tyber, andcommanded^ that all that he had Ordained fiould be Ordained 
again : f and fo Conform to him.) 

And they wonder with what face of Reafon Onuphriusreie^keih all this as 
a Fablc,when the Antient Monuments, Synodal A<ns,and Hiflorians tertify 
it. Do you wonder at this .' why it is becaufe he was not willing it fhould 
be believed : a Rcafonthat is not "range tc your felves. 

5^. 4. CCCV. Pope Stephen Cd}\i<ii a Council, in which his ufage of Pope 
Formofus was approved, Bin. ex Baron, p. 1047 ^o ready were the Bifhops 
Anno toy ^^ follow the flrongeft fide, in fuch things as the Papifls mention with ab- 
horrence. And(fay thcy)this portentum attended the Synod,Tifc<«f the Later ane 
Church-, the chief Seat of the Pope, by tht iin{»lfe of an cvill ^ngcl fell down 




md their Councils ohridveA. 2 1 5 

tjmtefrom the Altur to the doors : the WaHs not being able to ftiind, when the 
Chief Cardmal Door was jbakenwith the Earthquake tf fo^reat a F'l/Lv;}. 

§. 10. But here the Authors calling US A'ox'-jforfj (as if fuch Popes were 
of glorious A'itiqiuty') arc hard put to it to Vindicate againft us the Popes 
infallibility! And how do they do it? Why 17?. They fay that nil that 
Stephen did agtn>ift Fortnofus, a man Jineken with Aiadnefs, dtdtt fulplling 
the peyfwajion (fhisboyhvg ^'*f^- ^^t in the lawful up of his Papal Aiithorf 
ty, he defiled nothing /igattijt fatih or good manners: For the Biflwps that 
were for this Caitfe called to the Council, and the Presbyters not unlike to 
Stephen himfilf dtd profecute Formofus with the fame hatred), and there- 
fore pronounced thatSeniei.ce againfi him,which they foreknew would be pleafing 
to a man [mitten wtth Fury : fo that we co/ifcfs violent Tyranny, but no Ei - 
rour in Faith defined or approved by him. Lawfully ujing his Papfl Anthurtty : 
And yet It were no prejudice to the Papal Seat^ if we grant ^ that a falfe Pope, 
not lawfully Chofcn, but invading and obtruded, did err in ajftriig Articles egj 
of Faith. Thus the Author. 

Aif. I. But if you grant this, is not your SucccfTion interrupted ? 2. And 
was your Church a true Church, when an EfTential part was Null? 5.How- 
vcr, was it the F^oly Church when an efTcntial Part was fuch a Villain ? 
4. Will not your Argument as well prove every Biftiop, Pried:, or man 
Infallible? For no one of them all can define fallly againft an Article of 
faith, as long as he lawfully ufeth his Power ; For it is no lawful ufe of 
power that fo dcfincth and belieth God. 5. But is all your foundation of 
Faith come to this ? It is then but faying, when ever your Pope and 
Church Errcth, that they did not ufe their Fewer lawfully : And what re- 
lief is that to the deceived? How fhall we know when your Popes have 
ufed it lawfully, and when not ; and fo what is true among you, and what 
falfc? 6. And were your Roman Council of BiOiops and Pricfts, alias 
bad as this ViUainoos Pope, and ready to plcafe him in their Decrees : And 
was this a Holy Church, and like to be an Infallible Council: And mull 
the World follow them ? 7. And how then fliall we know that it was not 
jufl fo with many other former and following Councils; and that it will 
not be fo with you again ! O mifcrablc fhifts againft plain Truth ! 

S>. 1 1. The fame gi cat Authors after Luitpr.iiidiisJ.\.c.g. fi\,tha.t Stephen 
At Invader of the Papal Seat, by the f*£lion of the Nobles agamfi Adelbert, 
"?r»»«o/Etruria, was thritjl tnto prifon Sn. goo. andafter he had been Pope 
Six Tears, bang flra"gled tn the fame Prifon, ended his Days by Cods (Ven- 
geance tn an infamous Death^ : Yet tUtina faith, that he died ihefrft Tear 
and third month of his Reign j and Onuphrius faith, he fate one year, two 
moncths, and aintcendays. 

<>. 12. It's ftrang that Luitpraudus faith, that Stephen condemned the 
Corps of Formofus for being a Bifhop before, when Flat ma and Onuphrms 
fay, that he himfelf was Epifcopus Anagnnrus, when made Pope. 

§. 13. And PUtina faith, that [This Controverfie (againU: Ferfncfui) was 

S f 2 rr(aC 

-. I 6 OmnhBijiory of 'B'tpops 



£>cat and of ill Examples ; feeing thttt after this, it was almofi ttlveays ksft 
as a Cufiomc, that foUowmg Popes did either I "fringe or wholly iindoe the Atis 
of thofe that went before them:~\ And yet wcre they Infallible? 

5$. 14. The next Pope was called ^&wj»//.(,whofc Life P/ijfjw^ thus Dc- 
fcribeth : Romanusasfoonashtwas Pope, prefently ^brogateth andCondem- 
mth the Decrees and ^cis of Stephen : For thefc Popes thought of nothing, 
bin to Exti/^itifii the Name and Dignity of their 'Prcdecejfors, than which 
nothing can be worfe, or the part of a narrower mind : For they that irnfi 
to fuch y4tls as thefe, having no Virtue themfelves, endeavor to rafe out the 
men of Defert, whom through floth and malice they cannot match. Ton full 
never find any to envy another s Fame, but one that himfclfis Contaminated with 
all difgrace, and defpaircth that his own Name fiouldcver be Famous with 
Pojierity: Thefe are they that by Fraud, Aialice, Craft, and evil [peaking, 
do Bite, Tear, Accufe, and Worry thofe that deferve well of Adankind; lit^e 
cowardiy, or flothjul, and ufelefs Dogs, that dare mtfet upon wild Beafis them- 
fflvesj but Will bite thofe that are tyed, or in their Dens!^ So Plattna. - - - He- 
manus Ruled but three Months. 

5$. 15. Next Succeeded in the Vopedome Theodorns 2. who faith ?/<»- 
tina followed the fieps of the Seditious : For he reflorcd the A^s of Formorus*, 
and preferred his followers : and Reigned but Twenty days. 

Next came John g. (ox 10. as others) faith P/«jf»«<f. \^He refiored the 
Caiife of Pope-Formofus, Many of the People being againfi it : whence <?- 
rofe fucha Sedition, that they hardly [caped a Battle. Baronius faiths that Lii- 
dovicus^. was depofcd and blinded now by Berengarius, whoaffumed the 
Empire ; and this Pope Crowned him, through fear ! Yet after he was 
gone, he called Lambert to Rome, and with a Synod concurring with 
him, declared the Coronations both of Berengarius and Amulph to be 
Null, as being extorted; and fo took Lambert for King and Emperour : 
Did not the Crowns of Princes fit very loofc, when it was but a Popes 
pretending that he Crowned them through Fear, and they were prefent- 
ly Depofed ? Would thefe Popes have been Martyrs, or wcre they 
Chriftiaps or Gno/iickj, that would fin, if they were but put in fear ? And 
would not fear have made them own a Herefy, as well as other fin ? On 
this occafion all was caft into Confufion : the Pope was fain to fly to R4- 
venna for protecftion, to him whom he had Crowned. 

^. 16. CCCVI. This Pope called a Synod at ivewe (that called Orfrf«yJ>. 
I pafs by as of faiall moment^ An. 904. in which he condemned the 
fa<n of Pope Stephen, decreeing that the Dead are not to be judged by 
men. But what became of the Synod of Diiliops, that had joyned herein 
with ?ope Stephen ? Why (fBitf. p. io.[9 ) they turn'd with the times, and 
did as fuch had ufedtodo; They asked forgiven, fs, a>id [aid, they did it for 
Fear ; and fo, he that hath power bv Fear or flopc, can make fuch Bifhops 
and Councils Sin and Repent, and Sin again, and Repent again, as Inte- 
rert: altercth. They were pardoned. V-vx Fortnofis preferment from a 
Bifhoprick to ihc Popedomc was Voted to be againfi' the Canons, ex- 


a}id their (Councils abridged. 


cufable only by neccflity, and not to be imitated but in cafes of ncccfli- 
ty: His Ordained Clergy were Reftorcd, and Re-ordinaiions and Rc- 
baptfzitions, forbidden as unlawful. 

^. 17. CCCVII. Another Synod he called at ^<iw«77^ for the fame ufe, 
when he fled thither from Rome-^ of 74 Bifhops. Barotius h\ih., He was 
another Jercmias fcnt of God, to pluck up and pull down what Vopc-Stepheu 
had done. Platma faith Q/ iht>ik^ihis came to pafj htcaiife Popes were dcp.rted 
from St. Peters fieps ; and chiefly^ becaufe the Chriflian Commori-xyealth had 
tdle flothffd Princes that would have Otters Jlitp thus tcjfcd, lefi t':e Ruhr if 
he look'*bout him, fiould caji the/n out as evil Pilots. Arnulphus wai given "Cb 
te pleafure, and Charles the fimple or rather fooltfl} if France, was little bet- 
ter:, and fo the Hungarians defiroyed and hUcd in Germany and France, 
and the Affricans in Calabria, and had little refijianci '^ Blood and Mife- 
ry being the common Lot, 

He addeth, \That this Peff John dying in the 2d. Year and \^th. day 
of his Reign, left nothif.g worthy of Memory behind him, but that He revived 
feme Seditions that before were almoft cxtinfV. 

And it is a fad quellion, that Hervius Bifhopof Rhemes put to him 
(Bin. p. 1048 ) " what to do with thcfe that are Baptized and Rcbapti- 
"■ z.ed, and yet after "Baptifm live as the Heathens, kill Chrtfltans, yea the 
'■'■ Priefls, facrifce to Idols, eat things vfftred to them? The Pope durfl 'Clt 
" not ufe Difciplinc on thefc, becaufe they were Novices, left he af» 
''fright them from the Church to Heathenifme again; but left them to 
"the Bifhops Difcrction and Experience, to do as he faw bcft. 

5$. 18. This Fopc had a Corrival, which was the 15. Schifme : Ser- 
giits that had been made Pope with Formofus, and was put out and Ba- 
niflied, did now get in again ; but John had the flronger part, and caft 
him out, and Hanifhcd him once again : Onuphr. Chroa. p. 28. But 
had he been but ftrong enough, the fucccflion had come dotv'n from 
him, as right. 

5$. 19. Bcnedin the 4. came next : " Nothing faith Platina, was done 
*' in his time that is much to be praifcd ; becaufe both Princes, Popesy 
and Clergy were grown Debauched; bad Princes making ?>;/?« by Ty- 
ranny : Now the Line of Charles the Great, loil the Eitipire, Lithvi- 
cns the Son of Amtdphiis being flain by Berengarius ; and fo they loft 
both lialy, Germany, ("and after Franci") by their own, and the Clergies 

<^. 20. Leo. 5. Came next, ^nno 907. Who thrufl him in, I find 
not; but when he had Reigned but 40. days, his familiar friend Chri- 
flophcr had lift to be Pope, and call him out, and laid him in Fetters; 
where, it's faid he dyed of Grief: where Platma well notcth, that 
U^' The faying ts certainly true, that Dignities (or places of preferment) 
"receive >nore honour fro^n the Men, than the Men do from the Digni- 
" lies (or places ) ] 

5^. 21. Ch/sJlofJnr thus got in by fuddcn invafion, kept it longer than 

S f -i Lea . 

5 1 8 Qhnnh--HiftQyy of Blfl^ops 

Leo did, even near fcven Months; and then he that had been twice 
Pofc before, did once again try for it, and was too rtrong for Ch>tjh- 
phcr, and put him into a Monajfcry. A Holy place then, no Joubt, 
For faitli PUtina [This was the oily refuge of the CaUmitoiis : For in 
thofe timet hud Clergy Men were thiirfi into Monafterics, by way of Ba- 
nijhmem, as heretofore into Iflands ] 

?. 22. The Man that did this and got the 'Popedom, was Sergins j, 

tO" who had been twice before caft out: faith Baron, and Bin. (p, 1052.^ 
[That wicked Scrgirs (Nefandus) hy MbetKs' jdrmes got in: A Man 
that was the fervant of all Ficcs, and of all Men the mojl wicked ('Faci- 
norofifiimus) invaded the Popedom, and fo was by aU Aden taken for no 
lawful Pope: To his hoi rid Sntnledge, he added the taofl impudent filthy- 
nefs\ and by Marozia {a grcttt nhore) the Daughter of that moft famtiis 
Whore Theodora, he begot his Son John (after Pope.)] For many Hi- 
florians tell us, how thcfe two tamous Whores did rule Rome, and 
make and unmake Popes, 

P. 23. This Pope undid again all that had been done for Formofns, 
and againft Stephen : For both the King of France^ and Sergius, were 
Enemies to Formofns, for fetting up other powers againtl France, and 
becaufe his party was againft Sergins : But I wonder that Platina tells 
us, that both Stephen and Sergius took Formofis out of his Grave, and 
the one cut off his three Fingers, and the other his Head; and both 
caft into Tybcr\ If this be true, he was taken up again the firft time, 
and buried again. But [ fuppofe that it was but his Fingers that were 
caft in the firft time, and the Corps after; or elfe he was found after 
the fird time. PLuina faith. It is reported, but not of any certainty j 
that fame F if ler-men found the Corps, and buried it at St, VeicraChitrch, 
and that while it was doing, the Church Images bowed to it (It's well 
Vncertainty was put into the Story :) and that fomc thought this 
moved Sergius to envy; but that indeed it was, becaufe Formofns 
party were againft his Papacy. It feenis by this that the Fifhcr-men 
found him after the firft cafting into Tybcr ; or clfc his burial by them could 
not be called the occafion of Sergius Ca{\. So little reft had this PopesCar-- 
kafs, being t^ice buried, twice token up. twice judged, and executed 
after death, and twice caft into Tyber. But faith Platina, [Popes now 
feekj'g and getting the Popedome by liberty and ambition, dtfregarding 
(jods Worfiip, excrcifed enmity agamji one another ; no othcrwtfe than do 
^the cruellcjl Tyrants, glutting their own litfis the more feciircly, when there 
are none left to refrain rices. This wicked Man for almoft feven Years 
Cjijoycd the fruits of his iniquity. 

p. 24. Here Baronius and Binius forget fo anrwcr the great difficul- 
ty. I ft. How iheRoman fucceflion efcaped from being'intcrrupted. 2. And 
alfo, where was the Roman Church while fuch Reigned as were no 

•:'r 'Pofes. 3. And alfo, where was its Holinefs and Infallibility, when it 
had the worsi of Mi-n (z-. they- fay themfclvcs) thus fet over them as 


- mui their Councils ahrid^ed 2 \ o 

their Heads : But they are careftif, \lNcqiiis fiifillanimiis f.v hoc faElo 
fcandalHm accipiat, left weak minded pcrfons flTouId be fcandalizcd by 
this: And they teU us as a wonderful providence of God, 1 hat fo 
great ivas the reverence to the Church if Rome, that even when fuch Aim 
tnvadtd the Popedofne imlawfuAy, being even iit the Churches cenfure ra- 
ther yipofeancal than jipojtolical ; yet thofc tf'at did but hear who was Pope 
(efpecialiy the Northern Countries that were far off) cbcy:d them: fo that 
4iny Aian may undirfiar.d by how great a providence God Governcth the 
untverfal Churchy which when il was fet on Fire at the will ef Whores, 
nnd all mifchiefs and fcandals did increafe, and it was feared tt would 
be divided by a great fchtf/ie ; yet Cod defended tt from all hercfy and 
fchifme, all Nations perjijted in one bond of Faith, and Covtnt of Obe- 
dience,'} Indeed Gods providence is wonderful that faveth his true 
Church from fuch wicked ufurpcrs^ and kcepeth a Union of all inChrifl: 
But this is no honour to the wicked ufurpcrs ; when now fifteen fchifmes 
had divided them, and many more afterward ; nor was it any honour 
or blcfTing, to them that gave up their Kingdoms to fuch ufurpcrs. 
If thefe were no Fopcs, but intruding Whore-mongers; was it a blcf- 
fingtothe World to be deceived, and to take tbofc for Pof^/, that indeed 
were none. But had not they then a fceming Church, and indeed r:one, 
when an cnTcntia! part was Null. 

$. 2S. CCCVIII. They fay that ^nno 909. A Council at Soifoiis 
ordered fomc Reformation. 

9. 26. Leo called Philofophus Son to Bafdius Maccdo, thfs while 
was Empcrour in the £d/^ who being formerly fufpcdcd and iinpri- 
foncd by his Father, upon fomc fiiggellion o( Phorius, and Santabacenus 
was revenged on them, when he Reigned, and depored Photius, and 
put him into a Monaflcry. This is the reft, that Ambition procureth. 
Thus Sin is the mifcry of the Sinner. Alexander his Unckle was Gar- 
dian to Co'ifiant.ne Prophyrns Leo'i Son, the Father being Dead : Ni- 
cholas had before been made P.atriark,, and upon offence dcpofed. and 
Euthymtus put in his place. But Alexander dcpofed Enthymins, and 
rcftorcd Nicholas: and having ("pent thirteen Months in Drunkennefs 
andLuft. Bled to Death ; and Cfwy?»i«f/>/f, fcven Years old, with his MO' 
ther Zoe Reigned alone : Conftantine Di:cas rebelling, is fubdued : The 
Bulga.ian, Conquered by Leo PhocasGcT\ctd\-, who thereupon afpiring 
to the down, was flair. Eight Years after, Zoe is removed, and one ^^^^'' 
Eom.wKs Ltcapeijus made Guardian ; and C.-fnr, He advanced three of ^i/ij, j, 
his Sons to the like honor, to ftrengthen himfcif, and made his other c. 15. 
Son TheophtlaU: Patriark, inftcad o\ Stephen, though he was but fixtecn 
Years old. He Married his Daughter to the Riitganan Kingj and 
then began to defpifc the Emperour, and prefer himfcif. God puni- 
fhed this, by permitting his own Son Stephen, to depofc and banifh him 
into an l!\and: At laft Cenflantine awaked, and de^^ofcd them all, ar.d 
ruled himfelf, in Drunkennefs, and Debauchery fifteen Years, and then 



Cht{nJ?-HiJlo)y of !BiJl}ops 

dyed ; or as fomc fay, was killctJ by Rumam-.i^s Sons. 

After him Nicephorns Phocas a fucccsful Warrior, but a bad Man, 
Kulcd ; The Church called him bad for opprcffing them with Taxes: 
His Wife Theoplianon^ and John Trimifces (who fucceedcd) killed him. 
Thus hath the Woild been Governed ; and this is the profit of Am- 

$. 27. The next Pope is j^ncjl^tins the id. who fate two Years, 
£nd two Months. In this time the Eafiem Empcrour Leu publifhcd 
Conflttittions, which Barcr.iiis and Bintiis (p. 1053 ) deride as ridici- 
lous, in imitation of jnjliman, bccaufe he prcfumed to make Church 

^. 28. L.-tndo was the next Pope, Anno 912. and fate 6. Months 
.and 22. Days; fay BAronius and liiniusy {Thii Man At the importu- 
nate injtance., of that n:ofi potent.^ trtoft ncble, and mofi impudent Whore 
Theodora, (who had profiimted one of her Daughters MaroZia to Pope 
Sergius, and the other Theodora to Aldcbert Mar<]mfs of Tufcia, and 
hereby had obtained or k£pt' the A'f anarchy of the City., {}vho was Pope if 
this whore was Aionarch) did create John whom jl)c rnojl pithily doted on, 
A Prcjhyter of Ravina, the Bipop of Bononia, and Peter ylrch-BiJlwp of 
-Ravenna being De^d, he made him there Arch-Bi^iop. And a Itttle af- 
ter fo filthy an all, he Died. Luitpraud. /. 2. c. 1 5. 

i$. 29. Next Cometh thisfameMan, Anno Qizjohn 10 faith Platinaand 

others, the Son of Pope Sergtus (by the Whore Aitaro:i.ia fay fome, 

but its not like, htc^vXc Maroz.ta killed him.) But its more probable, 

as Onnphrius notcth, that it was not this John, but the next that was 

Son to Sergius and Maroz.ia This Pope faith Baron, and Bin. is he 

that the famous Whore Theodora for great comclincfs of perfon doted 

on; and fa. th Luitpraud., got him tnadc Arch-^liJJwp c// Ravenna, and 

*^ after Pope of Rome, that jhe might not lye wtth him fo feldome., as the 

difiance between Rome andKvitnna. would mcejfitate. So £fay they., this 

impudent Man being powerful <«; Rome, by the ftrength of a Whore, is 

made a falfe Pope and wuksd invader of the Seat2 where they (hew 

how this Whore obtained her power. But was this no interruption of 

the fucccfljon neither, nor a nullifying of the Papal Church, while he 

fate 13. or as Onuphrius, 14. Years and more. No faith Baron, (and 

Bin.') He that was an Invader., Theif and Robber, by the after Con- 

fent of the Roman Clergy, became the lawful Pope 0/ Rome. I. Wc 

fee then, what the Romane Clergy were, that would have fuchaFc^e, 

2. But they give no proof of any fuch Confent ; but fay. It is veri- 

fimile. 3. And where was the Church till that Confent, or at lead its 

Holincfs. 4. Can fuch Mens Confent make a Pope of an uncapable 

perfon ? Will no Wickcdnefs incapacitate ? 

$. io. Say the forcfaid Authors, in this Popes time Stfcvandiis B'l- 
Ihop of Compojlclla, finding the great diverfity of the Rotnaji and Ms- 
:^rabid\^ Liturgy, altered his by the Popes confent. 


aud their Qouncils abriiheJ. ■^21 

After Hcrvciis, one Sailphus was Arch-Bifhop of Rhcmes. Hcnhrt 
Eail of y^ijttitarie, confiderJHg that the Bifhop of Rhnnes Anointcth the 
■ King of France^ bargained to have his Son made next Bifliop, thnt 
thereby he might get the Crown. In hart: Seulphus'xs Poyfoncd, bcc:?urc 
they could not (lay till he dyed. Heyticrt's Son, not yet Five Years 
eh!, is made Arch-Bi(bop. {0 fce'win auduum^ hy B/iroKiiiiar\d Einitts.') 
This monjircus Elciticn, f fay they) f'lever before feen or heard cf in the 
Chrifiian World, nor perhapj thoifgbt cf., Pope John did not only not dtfal- 

Icw, but ratrfyci. yindby thts Fat}, the Jrfainyas Pope* gave an Ex- 

Mmple to mjf/y Princes, not only in that, but the fcllowing Ages, ( Alas^ 
for Grief] ) to procure Lads that were their Kindred, to be ihrujl into 
the Chief Sc/its, (or Bijho.rich) to the great A^ifthief cf the Church'} 
^ Work rf-^y they) vdesd, worths fuch a Pope, whom an Jrf, uncus Wo- 
man, by an Irfamons Work, had thri'.Jl into St. Peter's Chair. 

Qji. Were fuch Villaincs as Infallible as others? Did their Love, 
Honcify, and Chaflity fail; and yet, Were they fccured ?gainll the 
Failing of their Faith ? Or, Had they a Sincere Faith, that had no o- 
thcr Grace? And, Could thcfc forgive Sins, and deliver Souls out of 
Purgatory ? 

When he had ftte Fourteen Tears, cr Sixteen, ( faith Baronius and Bi- 
vtus) Marquefs Wido, by the Perfwafion of his Wife Marozia, (Pope 
Scrgius Whore) for the fake cf his Brother Peter, whom they Hated, lafi 
him out of his Seat into a Pnfon; where jlicrtly after, he was Cbcksei 
with a Pillow •■ And fo the Invader, and un\uj} Detrincr of the Apofo- 
lickc^cat, had an End worthy of his Wtckcdnefs. And he, that by the Im- 
pudent Mother, Theodora, had violently fciz.ed en the Holy Seat, by her 
I Impudent Daughter, was by -God's j«/f Judimcnt EyeUed, Imprifoned, 
and Deprived both of it, and of his Lfe. Ex Liittpr. & Frodoaldv, 

0. 51. CCCIX. Annog\z. A Synod at Confluence, decreed as againd: 
Inccli, That none Marry within the feventh Degree of Kindred. Was 
that Divine Law ? 

0. 7,1. Two or Three other SyW; at Trofeium arc mentioned, about 
f.nall Matters ; and One at Duisburge, to Excommunicate fome that put 
out the Bifhops Eyes. 

0. 55. The ncKt Pope, is Leo the Sixth ; and Dyed after Seven (or 
Si;c) Months, and Fifteen Daycs. 1 

$. 34. NcKC, Anno gig. fuccccdcd^/'fp/jfw the Eighth, for Seventh) 
and fatcbut two Years, one Month, and fifteen Dayes. How they were 
fo fall: difpitchcd, I omit. 

$. 55. Next comes the Son of Afaroda, Pope Sergius his Raftard. 
caird John the Eleventh: His Mother, nnd Fathcr-in-Lafiv. Wido, got 
him in Anno (ju. even when he was a Lad under Age. His Prothcr 
Albericus, (faith Earonius) did keep this Pope in Prifon-to his Death. 
Tut the Cafe was this, (vid. Bin. p. 10.55.) \lWi*io being Dead, Ma- 

T c rozia 




Church- Hiflory of 'Bipods 

rozia cffereth the Dcmirton of Rome to his own Brother Hugo, on con- 
duioti he nculd MArry her : He acceptcth the Condition \ andfecrctly cr.- 
CJ' ttring the Caftle •/ St. Angelo, after he had committed Jnceji with her, 
his Brother's IVtduWy he dtfpifcd the Romans. When Lis Son-n.-Law A\- 
bericus, by his Mother Marozia's Comnund, poured out Water to waj!) hts 
Hands, he firok* him en the Face for pouring too much. To Revenge' this 
Wrong., Albcricus ftir'd up the Romans to a DcfetUon ; and having by 
jijfAtilt of the CaflLc, put to Flight his Faiher-in-Larv Hugo, he command- 
ed his Another Marozia, and his Bajlard-Brother, the Counterfeit Popc 
John, Id be kept tn Prsfon ; in which the violent Invader dyed, being vio- 
lently cajl cut, after for jive Tears, and fame Months., he had rather f l- 
thily DefJed, than Ruled the ylpofolickzSeat.~\ S^'iih Eii.ius out of Luit- 
fraiidits and Baronius : Calling him a Monllerj and yet Magnifying 
Home, bccaufe fuch were Obeyed. 

^.36. CCCX. A'lno g^z. hlmiW CounziXit Erford'xnCermany., un- 
der King Henry., decreed, i. That Holy-Day es be kept for an Honou- 
rable Commemoration of the Twelve Apoftles, and Farting on the £- 
vens. 2. That no State-Meetings be kept on the Lord''s-Dayes, or o- 
ther HolyDayes ; nor Chriftians then cited to the Courts of Juilice. 
3. Nor when he is going to Church. 4. That fcandalous Minillcrs be 
tryed. 5. That no private Chridian make, or impofe any Faft onhim- 
felf, with'out the Bifliop, or his Miflionaries Confcnt. (^An unreafona- 
blcUfurpation ! Muft the Bifhop needs know all the Rea'bns that e- 
^ very MiB hath for Farting, and be Judge of them? But fure, the Bi- 
fjop's Diocefs had not then fo many hundred Pariflies, and fo many 
Counties, as they have now : Elfe, by that time, the Birtiop and his Com- 
miflary had heard a Hundred Thoufand, or Fifty Thoufand Perfons, tell 
him, what Reafons they had to Fall bcfides the common Fa/Is, at any time, 
or on any fpecial Occafions, much of his time would be taken up. 
$.57. .Anno 9^^ A Council at /?/7fwn againft Church-Robbers, c}-c. 
§. 38. v^w>o 936. Leo the Seventh was made Pope, after John the 
Eleventh. In that time Hugo., that was got away from Albcricus., had 
got an Army, and Bcfjeged Rome. A Match was made for Albcricus 
to Marry Hugo's Daughter : And fo Maroz.ia''s Husband and Son were 
agreed, by the means of Odo, Abbot of Climiac. 

?, 39. Henry., King of (jermany, the Glory (faith Baronius and Binius) 
of Chriflian Religion, dyed at this time ; . who, after many other Natt- 
^ ens. Converted alfo the King of Denmark to the Chriflian Faith : and 
lift his Son Otho, the Hetr of his Piety and FaUitr. Yet are not o- 
ther Papifls afhamcd to fay, That all thefe Nations were Converted by 
the Pope ; who was the great Scandal, that hindrcd the Converfion of 
the World. 

§. 40. But ( fay the fame Authors) Manartes, Biflwp of Aries, «c» 
troubled the Church : Being an Ambitious Man, not contented with his Seat, 
lny the means of Hugo Kmg of Italy, he alfo invaded the Bipapricks of 


ioid their Coimcils abridged. 212 

Verona, a>iu of Trent, 4«<^ (f Mantua, and of Milan 't filfl ( O now 
the Church profpcr'd!) Sa^m^, That he did it by the E.wmpic cf the "CB 
Prince of the AfoflUs ; who at once pr.Jfi fed Rome, Antioch, <«'.«i Alex- 
andria, j E'X. Liuipraitd. (''And could the pt/^f blame him, that would 
be Bifliopat the yimtfodcs^ and have all thc\VotId?) But its ibargc, 
that Men fliould talk of Bifhops Ambition, as of a ftrange thing, in the 

Year 937. 

5. 41. u^nnoQio. ?ope Stephen the Nincth was chofcn by 0//;c of Co-- 
ffi.iiy, without the Cardmai-Clcr^y, who had neither Power, nor Vir- 
tue enough, to choofc: And the City was under the Power of Albe- 
ricus, who Tyrannized over them: And becaufc he had not the Choice 
he caufed fomc Fellows fo to cut and mangle the Face of the Pope, 
that he would never after be feen abroad, but kept clofc till he dyed ; 
which was after Three Years. This Otho refolved to Revenge on Al- 
bertciis : And alfo, the War between Hj'^o, and Albcncus, broke out 
Dgain. Plaiina faith, That Hugo was about to Keven^e the Pope, but 
then Dyed. 

^. 42. A Synod was at Narbon, to end the Contention of two Bi- 
fhops, about the Extent of their DiocefiTcs, and Jurifdi<flion. 

,(>.43. CCCXl. if yet you perceive not the fad State of the Church, 
by Men's flriving for Church-Dignities; a Council at Soijfons^ Afm9 
940. will tell you more. You heard before, how the Earl of Aqmtanc 
had got his Son to be made Arch-Bifhop of RhcKes .- The Child in 
coats, was but Five Years old : It happened, that he was put out a- 
gain for his Infancy, or Non-Age ; and ylrta/dus, a Jlonk. chofen in 
his (lead. This Council of Bifhops, was to decide the Cafe between 
the two Arch-Bifhops. The Objcflion againft one, was his Infancy, 
and his Father's ill means to bring him in: The Objc(flion againft the 
other, was Ptrjury^ He had fworn, that he would never accept an 
Arch-Bi(hoprick: fAlns! Muft the Church of France be Headed by 
©nc of thcfc; an Infant,^ or a Perjured AU/.lil) The Sytod cart out ^"'""- 
the Perjured Afonk, and judged the Seat to the Infant, as being law- f'^gj^g^j 
fully Chofen ; ( Power made it a Lawful Call. ) And the Bifhops went in cho- 
to Ahemes, and Confccratcd him. nu. 

<f. 44. In the Year 920. the French Nobles, by confent at Soijfons,. 
bad Revolted from King Charles \ becaufe he took Huganon, a Man of 
low Quality, into his Privy-Council, and made him Great : Her- 
vfus, Bifhop of Rhemcs, had partly healed this Breach. But, Amio 
922. it broke out again ; and the Nobles chofe Kobert King, and F/er- 
vcus Confccratcd him: But this Rebellion was their Ruin. Three 
Years after dyeth FJervtus : And the next Year, Robert Fighting a- 
gainft Charles, was flain at Soiffons ; yet his Army conquered the King's. 
Shonly after, Rodolph Duks of Burgundy, is called in by the Nobles, 
and made King ; as if the Kingdom had been void. Charles, on pre- 
tence of a Treaty, is led by Henhert to a Caftle •, and thence carrycd 

T t 2 to 


^24 Church' Htfto)^ oj (Bipoj^s 

to Tcroncy whcrc he dyed. Anno 929. leaving a Son Lejxis xo Fight 
for the Kingdom. And when Charles was in Prifon, Hugo rejc'dcd 
Rodnlfh, and called Ltwis oMioi Englatrd, to be King, AKr.ogi6. But 
Hugo and Her ike- 1 would be his Maflers, and gave him little Quiet. 
Hitihirt dycth mifcrably, and Rcpcntctlr. Hugo Domineering, the 
King cravcth Aid of Otho out of Ccrtrany, againftliim: But (hortly 
dycth himTilf, by a Difeafc got by a Fall in Hunting aWolf. Lctha' 
riiis his Son, fucceedeth him. Tn his Third Year, Hugo the Great 
Duke of Orlcarce, dycth j and Lotharnu the King, Anno ()S6. His^ 
S"on Lndovjcus fucceeded ; who dyed Childlefs, Annog^j. And in him 
ended the Line of Charles the Great: For Charles Duke of Lcraine, 
ttiat w?s next, was by the Treachery of a Bifhop, taken by Hugo C^ 
pit, the Son of the forc-faid Duke Hugo, and iniprironed to Death: 
. And this Hugo got PclTcfTion of the Crown. So much briefly on the 
By of thcfe IVlattcrs; that they after interrupt us not too much: Sec 
Diets, Pttaz, lib. S.c. 16. 

^, 45. Afarimts 2. (alias, Martin 3.) is made Pope, Anno ^^i. and' 
Reigned three Years, and fome Months (the common Time of Po^es 
in.that ^gc. ) In his time, Artaldus rtrove again for the Seat of Rhemes. 

f, ^6. CCCXI!. When Bifliops would needs be Princes, they taoght 
Princes to rcfolve to be Bifhops : And as Henbcrt did at Rhemes^ fo 
did the Empcrcr at Confiantinofle put in a Patriark, Trypho, a Afof/k^r, 
on condition, that he fhculd hold it but till his own Son Thecphylaci- 
came to Age. When the time came, Trypho would not Rcfignc: A 
Council is called; where Bin. ex Curopal. tells you the State of that 
Church alfo, as too like thelVefiem. The Council being met, Tryphon 
makes a Speech to them, and faith ; That his Adverfaries, that had a 
(■• mind to cafl him out, gave the reafon, that he knexv not Letters: But that- 
bS* they might all fee that this was falfe, and that he could Write and Read,' 
he call'd for Pen and Paper; and (having been taught thus much be- 
(i3> fore) wrote his Name thus : [Tryphon, by the Mercy of God, Arch- 
Bi^iop of Conflantinople, Niv^i Rome, and Vmverfal Patria;k-,~\ (for 
that was then the Title. ) The Emperor receiving the Paper, (it feems, 
knowing that he could not Read ) writeth over head [ Knowing yny. 
felf Vrmorthy, I Refigne the Throne to any that vpill.'} And fo fent the 
Paper to the Council; and the Bifliops ('wife and Good Men, you 
muft fuppofc) Dcthron'd Tryphon. The Seat ftaid void five Months, 
till Theophylali came to Age ; who then was chofen. 

^.47. Anno g.\6. Agapetiis thfSscond ii rM6t Pope, rnatime'when 
Wars ( between the Hungarians, and Hettry "Bavaria, Berengarius and 
Otho^ c^c. ) made Miferabie the Countries, and Ignorance and Ambiti-- 
on the Churches. 

5$. 48. CCCXni. A Council at Vtrdun in France, again tryed the 

Caufe between the fore- faid Infant, -and the Perjured Bifhops, Hugozni 

^ Artald'f and they undid what the kift had done, and Depofed Hf^gs-, 


Mid the'tP (juncils abridged. 225 

and gave the Seat to Art aid. Yet we have not clone uith Doing and 
Vhdeniff : For Pope ylgapcte now took Hugo\ P^rt 5 and uiotc 10 the 
Bifhops of France and Getmariy, i)^d^lHi<gu that was in PcfTtlTion, was 
to be kept there. But the PapiHt fay, he niillook by //Afgt's Mif-in- 

j. 49, CCCXIV. Anno 94.8. Another Council at Mcfipie was crl- 
lej for the fame Bufinefs : Hugo would nor come in, but fcnt \.\\c Ptpt's 
Letters; which being not Canonical, but his bare Command, they ro- 
je(ned them, call out, and Exconomunicatcd Hugo, tiU the next Go 

^. 50. CCCXV» Anno 948. A Cencral-Council of France and C(y- 
Many is called at EngcUnhciin^ for the fame Caufc ; almoft all France 
being difquieted about two Mens (hiving, who fhould be the Great 
Arch-Bifhop: The Pope's Legate Martins, proved Hugo's Letters falfe; 
and Hugo was Excommunicated, and Artald feilcd. But the Pretence 
of two Kings, Ludovicks rfnd Oiho, did much thcrc-to. 

The Bifhops thence removed to Triers, ('called another Council) where 
they judged for King LudovicMs, againft Duke Hugo; and Excommu* 
aicatei fome Bifhops Ordained by Bilhop Hit^o, fthat was Ordained in 
his Child-hood. ) 
And another Council at Rome confirmed theCc thing?. 
$. 51. Now comcth the Famous Pope John the Twelfth, the Son of 
Prince Albericus, the Son of the Famous Whore: A Child too. Saith 
BaroKitiS and Binius, ('p. lofo. ) Quar.cjuam l.uic Lcgmma atai a.'ia^^ «ga 
omnia dcejfeftt <]ȣ tnlcgitimo Pontifice ra^utruntur, tamcn acccdcme pcflea 
confer? fu totius (^Icri, vifurn efl huic pottus e/fe Tolerandum qnam Ecclcjlam 
Schifmate alii^uo, (jitod alic^nin exertiim fiiijfit, dnidindam Hc V anted 
Natural and Moral Endowments ; even Ail Things nectjfary to a Legi- 
timate Pope, fay they : And yet, the After- Confent of thcC/fr^j made 
him Tolerable, o~c. Qu. 1. But, Did that Aftcr-confcnt make him a 
true Bidiop? 2. If not, Where is their Succcffion ? 3. Did Co.^ au- 
thorize x.\\c Clergy, to confent to fuch a Man ? Where.!* Prove it. -4. If- 
not. Could their Confent make him a Billiop } Is not all Power of Cod ? 
And, Doth God give it contrary to his Word ? 5. Were not thofc 
Clergy-Men wicked thcmfclvcs, that would do fo .i* 6. Did thofe Do- 
(flors prefume, that their Readers were fuch Fools, as not to know, that' 
Forma non rccipit/ir ntji in rrauriam difpcjiiam? And that Ex (]novis lig- 
no non fit Aiercurtits. An Illiterate Man cannot be a School-Mallcr :; 
He-that is no Chriftian, cannot be a Bifhop j nor hc that hath not the 
Qualifications clTentially necclTary. All the World cannot make a Ihy- 
fician, a Lawyer, a Divine, a true Paftor or Bifhop, of an Ideot, sn 
Infant, or a Man that wanteth EfTential Difpcfitions. To fay, htvtai' 
ted all re^uifne Salifications, and yet that he was a Bifhop, is a Con- 
tradiction : A'faterta Difpofia (Jr Forma, being the ConQitutive Cau- 
fcs. What if they had made a Bilhop of a Tmki an I^fiddy a Corp'^x . 

-,2 6 (^hwch^Hiftory. of 'Bifl)ops 

crc ? Had it not been a Nullity, and prophanc Mockery ? 7. What 
clfc Hgnify ail the Ca ons, that njllify Ordinations for lefs Faults? 
But the lni3';c of a Bifhop, will make but the Image or Carkafs of a 

5$. 52. Eut, fay they. Cum lytnverfa Ecclefa Cathclica fcirct minm 
malum efft caput ciiiantam libet monfirolum prof are ejiiam u»Hm corpus in 
duo ftit;ri, C"" duobiti capitibits informnri, cundcm toto orbe terrarum tan- 
^iiar'i vcruni & It^^iiimum Poittpccm zeticrata fiiit. /'nfw. I. What a 
fhamcicis Dream do you impofc on us, under the Name of, Toms or^ 
bis Tcn.vuM? What had the Ethiopians, the yiruienans^ yea, or the 
CrukjChiirch, to do with Pope Jch>2 ? Or, What was it to them, how 
he was called, or what he was? Did not the 7 ^.tna>\ of Conftan- 
tinople then write himfclf, the VnivcfuL Patriark ? (even Tr)pho;i, that 
they faid, could not write any thirg elfc. ) Where is your Proof of 
this U*!»verfal Conceffion ? Whii-h way did the whole Cathslick-Chnrch 
(or tiic Tenth or Hundredth Part of it) fignify their Confent ? 2. Who 
taught you to feign the State and NcccflTity of fuch a Church, as muft 
have aao'.her Univerfal Head befidcs Chrifi ? You know, that it is the 
Being of fuch a Church or Head, ( be he never fo Good) that we de- 
ny : And you have never proved, nor can prove it. He only is the 
Univerfal Head, who maketh Univerfal Laws, and undertaketh Uni- 
verfal Teaching, and is an Univerfal Judge and Protc(flori none of which 
any Mortal man can perform. The very Fiiflion of fuch a Head and Body, 
ss Monftrou;, and your Capital Error. 3. How fmall a part of the 
Chiriftian World was fubjc<ft to the Pepe, at that time; though within 
his reach, he was almo/l at the Heighth of his Prcfumption? 4. He 
that wantcth what is Eflcntfai to a true Bifhop, is'no true Bifhop : But 
Pope John the Twelfth wanted what was Eflential to a true Bi- 
fhop : Ergo, He was none. The Aimor is proved: He that want- 
cth the ncccfTary Difpojition of the Receptive Aiattcr, and is not Subje- 
5luw Capax, wanteth that which is Eflcntial to a true a Bifhop: (For 
the Matena Difpofta is an Eflcntial Conftitutivc Caufc; a Siib]en:nm 
Capax is ElTentinI to a Relation.) Eut John the Twelfth wanted the 
Neccfljry Difpofuion of the Matter ad t'omiafu Rcctpiendawy or was not 
Sub'yElum Capax: Proved. He that wanted capable Age, and all o^ 
iher ThiJtgs nec((fary to a lawful Pope, was tiot Subji-flum Capax ; but 
)van'ed the nccejjltry Dtfpofition Receptive. But all thefe, you fay "your 
fclves, Pope Joh/i wanted: ErgOt &c. 

5 If then the Univerfal Church had fo erred, as to take him fot a 
Piifhop that was none ; that Error would not make him a Bifhop, no 
more than it would make a dead Man alive, or an illiterate Man lear- 
ned. But this is the RomaK-Cathotick.kind of Proof : You fay your 
fclves. That a Whore, and a wicked Son of that Whore, got Power 
enough to over-top the Citizens of Rome, and the Clergy, (yet too 
■ hke them ) and to thruft a wicked uncapable fellow into the Chair. 


■ ■ ■ - ' - -— — ■ I 11—^^— -,. ... -— , 

aikl thci^ Qtuncils ahrido-cd ? 1 7 

When that is done, it's kno^v^^ all g^ci Men difTent and abhor it. 
But R'hen he hath Pofllnior, th.ey rau't know that he hath PolTefiion : 
And, What can they do to help it ? Wha: Power have the Erhfopia^^s, 
Armenians, Syrians^ or other Nations of the Earth, in chocfing the pove 
of Rome f And if thev have none in Choofinghim, What Power hav€ 
they to examine the Choice, and Depofc hJm ? And if they have no 
Power, Why or how fhould they fignify their Conrcnt or DilTcnt ? If 
they leave your own Matters to your fclvcs, What is that to the' Con- 
[ent cf the Cathalick-Church ? But fomc men 'hjnk, that big Words • 
to the Ignorant may fcrvc for Proof, even of a Right to Govern at the 
Antffodcs, and all the World, 

5$. 5 J. His Father A!bericns, being Govcrnour of the City, defign- 
cd the SuccclTion to his Son O^Uvta/i : To which he added the Ufur- 
ped-Papacy, calling himfclf /«/;/;. The firll (fay Earoniut and Bi'ius) 
that changed his N.ime, ( though others fay Stratus was the firft.) 
Saith Platina ; Fromhu Tenth, he was Contaminated with all odtcus Crimes, 
and Filthincfs : When he had any time to [fare from his LnJ}s, it was 
not [pent in Prayings but in Hunting. Two of the Cardinals, mcved with 
the Shame of fuch a Pope, fend Letters to Germany, to Otho, to in- 
treM him to fave Komc fro/n Bcrcngarius, (that Plundered all the Cciti:- 
try) and from Pope ]ohn the Twe/fih j cr elft Chrillianity vrai loji. 
John haviig notice cf this, c«/c/jfffe f r Cardinals, and cutteth cff the Kofe 
of cne^ and a Hand cf the other. Ot\\0 (ometh into Italy, and took. Be- 
rengarius, and his Son Albcrtus, and 'Banijhcd thtm. Yet Baronius CTld 
Binius, out of Liiitpraudus. fay, That the Pope himfclf fat \or Otho, 
to Help him. However that was, the P<7/if received him as with Honor, 
and Crowned him the Emperor o{ Get fr.any^ fthe Firft) and Hungary. 
The Pope, and all the Great Men of the City, fworc ovc: the Body of 
Si. Peter, that they would never hc\p Bercngarins or Ad..jcrt: and the 
Emperor departed. But the Pcpe quickly biokc his Oath, and ioyncd 
with ^<^<:/^f>r .• Which the Emperor hearing, fjid, He is a Child; per- 
haps Rcpreif and Example, may yet reclaim him. He returned to Rome, 
and Adalbert, and the Pope Ji^d : The Citizens received the Empercry 
and promifed him Fidelity j and took^ at Oath, that they wchld never 
Choofe or Ordain a Pope, without the Conferit a>;d Choice if the Emperor 
Otho, and his Sen Otho. ]ohn fed into a Weed, and lay there like the 
Wild-Eeafls. fSaith PUttr.a.) 

$. 5+. CCCXVf. Otho called a Council at Ro'kc ; where the Bi- 
ftiop's dcpofeJ joh>i, and made Leo Pope : By which we ftill fee, how ^ 
obedient the Bifhops were to the /frongcr Side j or clfc, that really c- 
vcn thofc near Rome, did not confent xojohn; much lefs the whole C*-- 
tholick-Chiirch, as Baronmj immodeiiiy affirmet'.i. 

The Council was called. Anno 965. out of Italy, France, ard Cir- 
tr.any, befidcs Roman Cardinals ar,d Nobles. Trc Emperor firft asked. 
Why Pope John vitu net there f The Roman Bifhops, Cardit als, Fref- 


.^iB Ch!<rch-Hifto)y of 'BiP'Ojjs 

bytirs, and Deacons^ and. all the Pe'cflf a-?ft\'er(d, \Vc wundtr your Hely 
CJ" Frndence jlioiild a,\^ lis this Qacfiion ; f<-i-i^g h: fg cfenly manageth the 

'Works of the Dcvil, that it is not n/\''c\vn to the Babylonians, Iberians, 
or Indians. Tije Emperor required p.iniciilar yiccnf.niotis : Then Pctcr, 
a Cardifial-Presbyter^ p'^i That he faw him Celebrate A'/afs, aid not Com- 
municate. A £ip)op, and a Cardinal-Deacon faid^ That they faw hiui 

.Ordai:i a Deacon in a Stable if Hcrfcs. Bcnccii(fl, aid ma.'/y others f-tid, 
Tl.ai he Ordained Jiifiwps for Aioney\, and Ordauied a Hoy tfTen tears 
old, Bifnep of TudorUnc. Of Sacriledge, there needed no Witnefs but £.ye- 

jight : Of j4dnliiry, they faid, that they faw it Mot ; but they certainly 
k^teiv, that he ahitfcd the Widow cf Ragncrius, aid his Father''} Concu- 
bine., cud Aniic, a Widow, and her Neece -^ ayid made the Haly- Palace 
.a common Bawdy- Hoi fe, and Stews. That he put out the Eyes cf his 
Spiritual Father Bcncdi^, and killed him thereby : That he killed John, 
a Cardinal Sub Deacon, by cnting ojf his Virilia: That he fee Fire en 
FJoiifes, went Armed Aid Harnajfcd as a Souldicr. They all (^both Cler- 
gy and Laity") cryed out,- that he Drunk a Health of VVine to the Dc- 
.vil, (Diaboli in Annorcm.) That he at his Play at Dice, would crave 
the Help cf ]up'ncr^ Vcniii, and other Dcmor,$, O'C. The Emperor faid. 
That Bad Men often accife the Good:, and lift Afalice or Ltver jbould 
fnove them, he adjured them, as before QoA, to jpeak^nothing untruly againft 
rhe Pope, and v.i.huut certain Proof: His Adjurations were rmft fthe- 
fner.t. The Bijliops, Deacons, Clergy, and all the People of Rome, an- 
fwered as one Ai-in., and faid, {_ If both the Things read by Bencdi(rb the 
Dfacon^ and filthier and greater t'iSainies were not committed by Pope 
■John, Let not St. Pctcr Abfohe us from the Bond of our Sins : Let us 
i/e found tyed with the Bonds of Anathema, {or Cnrfed from Chrifl:)j 
ji.nd be fet at Chrlfl's Left- Hand, at the Laft Day., with ihofe that faid 
to God the Lord, Depart from us, we would nut have the JCnowlcdge cf 
thy Waycs. Jfycu bili:ve not Vs. believe your Army that faw him,SiC.2 
The Emperor being fattsf^ed by his Armies Witnefs alfo, the Council mo- 
ved., that Letters of Summons might be fen t to the Popc, to appear and 
tinfwcr for himfc'f. A Leteer was written, as from the Emperor and Bi- 
jliops^ telling him, That the things cba---ged on him were fuch, as it would 
be a Shame to hear of Staf'e- Players; whieh, if all were nuwb'red, the 
X)ay would fail : 1 liat nut a Few, but All, {both Clergy and Laity ^ 
.flcci'.jed him of .Warder, Per'yrry, Sucrilcdge, and if Jnccft with his (,wn 
Ismdred, aid with two ef his own Sifters. '1 hey fay alfo., (Horrid to heir \') 
That yon drunk Wine in Love to the Devil,; ail^t Help of Jupiter, Ve- 
nus, and other Demons, at your Dice, &C. IVc crave you weuld come, 
and anfrer fcr yeitr fif-j and fv ear, nothing (1 all be done to yen be fides 
the Car.ons. 

The rope re^.ding this, fent this Anfwer ; [_We hear, that ycu will make 
another Pope: ^f you do fo, I Exco/nmuitcate ycu from God Almighty, 
that ycu n ny b(.ve no Ltccnft to Ordain any., nor to Celebrate A:afi'.~\ 

/if I er 

and their Quncils ahridged. 229 

JIfter this, more Bijhops came out o/Gerinany ; and they write again to the 
Pcpe, tclh/ig him. That if he will not appear an J anfwer, they Jlia'l dcfpife his 
Excomtnnnicatioiis, and turn it upon himfetf. He would not be f nnd. The 
Emperor feeing he would not appear, told the Council, how treachcroufy he 
had dealt by him, intreating htm to come^ and help him ; avd after broke 
his Oath, and joyned with his Enemies. The whole CUrgy, £i(lhps, and all 
the People, cry cut. An un-heard-cf Wound muji be cured with an un- 
heard-df Cautery ; and declaring the Aiifchief he had done, craveth that 
this Monfter of incurable f^ice, might be caft out 0/ //jf Roman- Church ; 
and another put in his Place, that will go before them with good Example. 
Then they all cryed up Leo the Proto-Sonniariiis', whnh thrice repeating, 
upon Confent, they Oidained him, and fwore Fidelity to him. 

S>. 54. IT now Baronms and Binius fay, That the Clergies Confent 
can make an uncapable Monflcr a true Bidiop, let any one tell us : 
1. Whether this Council did nor prove, that the Church did net con- 
fent xojohii? 2. Or, Whether his utter Incapacity, many cxprefs Ca- 
nons, and the Bifliops and Ccuncils Confent, did not Ejeft him, and 
Authorize Leo ? 

0. 55. But here we come to the Core of all the Papijh Cheats: 
When they tell us themfelves of all this Wickedncfs, they cry out, O 
the happy Church of Rome ! that though .it fail in Manners, yet never 
faileth in Faith, ylr.fw. i. If General Councils are fufficicnt WitnefTes, 
that judged Popes Hcreticks, it hath failed in Faith. 2. Hath that Man 
true Faith, that waitctb all things re^utfite to a Lawful Bif:op, and that 
drinkcth to the Devil, aid' prayeth to Jupiter and Venus; and Li' 
'vcth in all IVickednefs f What a thing is i'opijh Faith? 5. Did Chnjl 
mean to pray only, that St. Peter might have fuch a Faith, as will 
ftand with VVickedncfs and Damnation? What the better is any Man 
of a wicked Heart and Life, for a dead Opinion call'd Faith, that will 
damn him the more deeply for finning againft it ? 4. It is not pofli- 
ble, but that fcrious true Belief of fo great Things, as Cod, and Chrifiy 
and Glory, will bring a Man to fcrious Repentance and Reformati- 

5!. 56. Here Baronlus and Binius become this Monfter's Advocate, 
and fay, Q That there never was a Council of Orthodox Men, that fnned 
tnore agamft the Canons and Traditions, than this falfe Council.'} (How 
falfc is a Devil-worfhipping- Pcff, a Murderer, and common Adulterer, 
and inceftuous Villainies, in comparifon of al! his Neighbor-Bifhops ? ) 
1. They fay. They could not call a Council without him, ylnfw. i. He 
was no Pope. 2. It's a Trayterous Fiftion to fay, That an Emperor 
may not call his Subjefl-Bifhops together, to a Council. 3. What 
if Devilifh Villains will make Murders, and Perjury, and Rebellions, 
to pafs for Duties, and never call Councils; Mud the Devil therefore 
be made Lord of the Catholick- Church, without Remedy ? ^. Who 
gave your Pope that Priviledgc? If Council or Princes, they can take 

U u it 

^ ^ o Chwch'Hijlory of 'BiJJmps 

it from him : If Chnjl, prove it, or Shame be to him that yic'.deth it. 
5. That Man is fo ignorant of Church-Hirtory, or Impudent as not 
to be worthy to be difputcd with, that denyeth, That Princes have cal- 
led Councils, even the Grcatcft, and moft Honored. 

II. They fay. There JI^ohU be Scventy'Two U'tniejfrs i an J there was 
fcarce one, he fides the Aci:uftrs.~\ A'fw. i. The whole Council, and 
People of Rome, and Army, are VVitncfTcs, under the moil direful 
Imprecations. 2. The Pofe may go on fafcly, till Cod take him in Hand, 
if he mufl pafs for Innocent till he will lye with his o«'n Sifters, or 
murder Vfen, and cut off their /'/rj//^, e^c. before Seventy. Two VVit- 
ncflTcs ! O fhamcful Hjly Church, that is thus EtTentiated ! 

HI. They fav He fhould have been thrice cited, uiff. i. What! 
When he would not be found? 2. Is that necefTary to the being of the 

IV. They fay. No delay was granted! Anf. He was not tobefound: 
And to what was delay necefTary, when the Babyloniaas, Iberians, and In- 
dians had notice of his Diabolical Life. 
?S* V". They fay, contrary to all Councils, theEmpcrour Condemncth him, 
who may not Condemn any Clerk j4nf. But you may Condemn Kings 
and Emperours! Is not this Herefy, contrary to Rvm. i^. and the 5. 
Co.mmandement ; How fhill Mens Lives, Wives, and Eftates be fa- 
ved from Ciergy-mcn, if Kings may not judge and punifh them. This 
Dodrine calleth for timely rclhaint. 

VI. They fay, Execution went inftcad of Sentence. Anf. Is not 
a plain Sentence here cxprclTed ? 

VII. The Pope is exempt from all humane judgment: The whole 
Council therefore were impudent or ignorant to Condemn a Pofe, 

TT which none ever did but a Herctick or Schifmatick. Anf. ifl. That is, fuch 

wuMvO- as you are able to call General Councils, Emperours and Kings, Hc- 

W'S did. rcticks and Schifmaticks j if they prefume to judge a Heretick, Schif- 

John ir.d. mjtick, or devillifh Pufe. But your faculty proveth not another cu!- 

''i^^l' P^b'^- 2- Did not Solomon judge Abtathar ? Did not inany Councils 

rents w- Condemn H.nonns, and many other Pofcs. 5. What a cafe is your 

oIm > miferable C^//jc3/;fi^ i?ow(«« Church in then ^ when Popfimay kill, ravifh, 

Lbfphcmc, and deftroy, and no Man can judge them, neither King 

nor Council ? 4. Why faid you, that the whole Church did confent 

to your Pofe, when all this Council, and all the Clergy, ai d People 

at Rome thus begged for another. 5. If all your Bifliops of Italy, Ccr- 

«^ f»a!n\, &c are utterly rwpi/raf «>• ignorant as you call thcle; What an 

honour is this to the Prelacy of your Church? And is it not becaufc 

your Po^es ordained them, and like will generate its like. Such other 

trifling objeftions they '^rame. 

^ 57 But now we have two Pofes, John and Leo : and to this Day 

it is not known, nor agreed among the Roman Dodors, which was 

■ ^ the true Po^e. Moft fay Leo : Baron, ar.d B>n. fay, John j and call 


md their Councils abridged. 551 

Lro aSchifmatick; confefllng yet, that Script ores tit finittnumeri call him 
Leo Sth. and own him. How then (hall we derive their fucccflion? 
John's Kindred got the better, when the Empcrour was gone, and cal- 
led him again, and caft out Leo. Now we have two Heads, and fo 
two Churches; the Church of John, and the Cnurch of Leo. 

$. 58 CCCXVII. ylfMo g6i. A Council at Co>iJi. gave the Emperor 
A^/cf/?^(7j7/^ /'/'Of <«i leave to marry Thcopbavcs, the Widdow oi Ro/rmniis. 

$. 59. CCCXVIII. Ann 964. The monftrousBeall Pope John gotup a- 
gain, call'daSynod of Bifhops : And what will not Bifhops do ? He is 
here ftill called, The mofi Godly and mofl Holy Pope. The Bifhops at his .^ 
motion Condemn LfOjand thofe that Ordained him, and thofc that were Or- 
dained by him. And this Council Binius juflificth, and crycch down Leo 
Sth. as no Pope, But he confefTeth, that by the common confent of 
Writers, Leo was the true Pope ; but Script orm/t error vcritatt nihil praiadi- 
care potejh Anf. i. How then (hall all the world that knew not the Cafe, 
be fure that /;««;//; zn^ Baroni:'.s are to be believed before ail their own 
Writers, whofe common Sentence is againff them, and that Romes 
Succe(fion from John is good ? 2. Remeniber this when you plead for yoQr 
fuppofed Tradition, that infinite Writers prejudice not the Truth. 

0. 60. But faith Platina,Its reportcd^that yiflthcn John nuts punifiied byGeds 
\Hfl judgment, lefl a Schijme fjould have followed. And it is commonly a- 
greed, that being in bed with a mans Wife, the Devil (Iruck him on 
the head and killed him. But fome think it was rather the VVomans 
Husband that did if. 

§. 61. But yet we are never the nearer conceding, ftill there arc two 
Roman Popes and Churches. John being dead one Bencdid is Chofen by 
the parties. 7oM«/c7frt (j?- populi RomanieConfinfn, faith Bin. p. 1067. Yet ^ 
had this Clergy and People fworn before to Otho, to Choofe no Pope 
without his Confent and Choife, and tied themfelvesto Leo. But to 
to be Perjured, and change with the Ruling Power, alas how common 
was it ! 

§. 62. The godly Emperor Of/39 was offended at thefe Villanics, and 
brought an 'rmy again to Rof.ie : Bencditl.s made them (land out 3 
Siege till Famine forced them to yield, and the Emperor fct up Leo^ 
and carried away i?f«(^/(S to Htmbitrgh, where he died, ^nd think you 
but this Pope is therefore by i?/'.';«i and 7;<iye«/;.'i made a Martyr, thatby 
Rebellion and common Perjury was thus fet up. 

<S. 63. While Otho vjoisat Rome j4mio g6.^. He and Lfo 8. called a- 
nother Council of Bifhops, Italian, Roman ; from Loraine, S wny, &c. 
and all the Roman People : Pope Bene iil is brought forth, BcncdiEl 
the Deacon tells him of his Perjury, having broken his Oath to Leo and 
to Otho: Pope 5c»f«^'fl faid. If I h.<ive finned, have mercy on me. The pit- 
tiful Emperour with Tears intreated the Bi(hop to have mercy on the 
man: Whereupon, he fell down at the feet of Leo and the Emperour, 
and confefifed that he had Gnned and invaded the Papacy : and dclive- 

U u 2 red 

^12, ^ '■'"'■' ^■'fi'ftory of 'Bipoi>s 


red the I'l fig''i'i to Leo : (yet our forcfjid Jn,'.ilifi and Hifiorian make 
him and not Lfs^ the true Pope ftill.) The Council Dcpofed and Banifhcd 
hittij but continued him a Deacon as he was before. They removed 
him to Hawt'itr.Jj to prevent new broilcs. 

y. 6.).. Here Baro- ius and Bifiins cry cut on the Hiflory oi Luiliraiidnas 
Forg'd.on Cra>!idiis,c^c. But there is a great rcafcn -^'hy Leo mud not 
be taken for a Pope: It is bccaufe by a Canon of this, his Council they 
gave Otho the fame power for choofing Popes as Charles the great had, 
O how much Intercft prcvailcth with thcfe Hiftorians judgments. 

But alas. Reader, is it not a fad thing to read how faft iSifhops and 
People did thus Swear and Forfwcar. and do ond undo, making Coun- 
cils as weather-cocks that turn with every Wind that is ftrong? Is 
this the honour of Prelacy, and their fiability in governing the 

^. 61. Next comes another hha 13th who was not Chofen till Leo 
dycdj and exprcfly chofen to fuccced bim ; and fo by that Account of 
laroiiiHs and Bii.ii:s the SucccflTion was interrupted, Z,fo being no Pope 
whom he Succeeded. But, alas, had it not been for the great Zeal of 
Otho, that came fo oft with Armies to defend them, and to cafl: out in- 
tolerable Popes, what had become of the Roman Papacy ? This John 
was a Bifhop before, (as Fonnofits was) and fo by the Canons his Elcfti- 
on was Null on that account. Almofl: as foon as he was fetlcd, faith 
Tiiitina^ the Romans having now got a Cuftomc of Expelling their Popes, 
(yet Baron, faith, the Univerfal Church owned them,) did by Seditions 
tire out this alfo. By the hclj. of Jofred Earl of Campany, they brakf in- 
to the Laterane Hoiife^ and tool^ him, and firfi imprifon hiw, and then 
fend hitn Banijhed into Campania : But John Prince oi Campania killed 
Jofred and his only Son -^ and delivered Tope John the Eleventh month af- 
ter his Baniflitncnt : And the Emperour Otho again hringeth an jirtny to 
Rome, Vfith fpced, and cafls the Covernour, the Cof!fals, and the Dearc' 
bones into Setters-^ The Confuls he fendcih into Gcrminy hanijl.cd ', The 
Dearchoues he Hanged: Peter the Pr<tfe£l of the City, fome write {faith 
Platina) that he dclivtre I to the Pope to have his fefli torn off; his Beard 
a:!d Head being Shorn, and he hanged a while at the head of the Conflan- 
tinian-Horfe, he was fet on an Affe naked, with his face bacl{wardj bis 
hands tyed under the taile, and fo wh'pt thrciigh the Streets till he was al- 
rrofi Dead, and then Baniflied into Germany. 'I he Corps of ]o(icd and 
his Son he caiifrd to be taken up, and to le vilely cafl away into divers 
filthy yUces. Thus did the blind Zeal of a good Emperour Revenge and 
defend Ufurping Popes. 

^. 66, A Council at Revcnna, of fmall importance, and one at Fowf, 
to confirm Glajfcnbury- Monafitry 1 pafs by . and all the Engli/h Coun- 
cils which Spclman hath given us by themfclvcs. But it is worth the 
noting, that the famous Dnnflan that banifhcd Priefls Marriage out of 
England, wasthaFavcrurifc of ihefc twoPopcj, 7i)/;«the J2. and iitk. 


aud their Qoiincib abridged. ^ , , 

even much countenanced by the monftrous Pope that Jay with two 
Sifters of his own, and made hisHoufc as a common VVhore-houfc, if 
a Council under folemn Appeals to God, and Execrations, faid true. 

55. 67. The next Pope according to P/attna, is EencdiU: (though Onti. 
phrths and Bi»iiis put Donuj next : /.lith Flat. Cintius a potent Citizen of 
Rome took him a>!d laid him in Jayle, and there firangled him : He wondrcd 
that neither O\.)\o nor any other ever Revenged tt: But 0//)» was now near 
Death, and could not have leafurc to bring an Army out of Gcrna'ty to 
Romcy every time that wicked Citizens and Popes fell out: Did the 
Univerfal Church o>An this manalfo? Bin (fatih Pht.) Bcneditfls Ale- 
rits were fitch as Cintius his reward importeth. But yet it was rtot vctU 
done of Cintius to meddle with the Pope were he never fo bad : But alas 
(faith he) how the World is changed ! For in our -Age^ Popes lay Cittz.ens, faul- 
ty er fHfpc^cd, in the fame Prifn, and t'.en Macerate them, 

^. o3. Dorms 2, was Pope but three months : In his fhort time, the 
Bulgarians had almoll taken Conftant. faith Platina. And u4nno 972. "^ 
a Council was held at Jngelheim in Germany^ to compofc Church mat- 

55, 65. The next Pope f faith PUt.) was Boniface the 7th. who ill got 
the Popcdome, and fo loft it. Onuphnns and Bin. fay, that Cintius 
by his command (irayglcd his PredcceJforSy and that he Succeeded htm. Satih 
Plat, in the beginn >ig of his AI>igtjtracy (for a Magijlracy it thus was) 
by the Confpiraty of the good Citi::ie>ts, being forced to leave the City, ta- 
king away all the pretious things out of S. Peters Church, he fed to Con- 
ftantinople; where he fayed, till felling all that he had facrilegionfy got- 
ten, he got a great niafs of Money, with which he returned to corrupt the 
Citizens by Bnbu. But good men rtfijied him, efpccially ]o\\n a Cardinal- 
Deacon, whom Boniface catcht and pur cut his Eyes : yind the Sedition 
increafiug more and mire, either for fear cr remorfe, he next made away 
(or k>ll d) himfclf: He Was Pope 7 months and 5 days faith Platmus. 
But Onuphrius tahh ('one year, one month and 12 days.) But other Popes 
came in between before he died, and he got in again. 

J. 69. Baroniiis and Binms fay, that Boniface is not to be numbred 
with the Popes ; If fo, i. Why not many fcorc alfo ? 2. Where then is 
their uninterrupted SuccclTion ? And where was their Church then } 

Ji. 70. Binius maketh Benedict 6. next after Domis, and faith, He 
was jmprifoncd and ]^i\VAhy Boniface, who Ufurpcd the place. 

i 71. ^/;. 973. A Council at Mw.ina was to reconcile two Bre- 

^. 72. BcncdiU j.Jn.gT^. drove away Boniface, and was Pope him- 
fclf: And fo here were again two Popes: Now Oiho 2, had a great 
Overthrow by the Grc> ks in CaUhia \ and flying by Sea, was taken Prifo- 
ncr by Pyrats, and Redeemed by the Sicilians, dyed at Rome: And 
Otho the 3. was Chofen in his place by the Germancs. Writers agree 
not of the time of Benedt^s Reign. In his time they feign, thatat aCcun-. 


2 5 4 Clmnh'Hifio)-) of &p)ops 

cil at Wtncheflcr in the midft of their Dirputes, the Image of our Lord 
fpake out for the Monks againft the fccular Clergy, and fo decided all the 

And a Synod was at Rome^ about the Bifhop of A'faadfburg^ accu- 

55. 73. CCCXIX. Anno<)y^. At a Council at Confiantmople, £a/il the 
Partiarch is Accufed as Criminal, and Antomus Sthdita put in his 

f. 74. Pope Johfi 14. (^alias l^.) is next at Romcy Anno 984. Einius 
maketh him fuccced Bontface that had killed Pope BenedtH, and was 
fled toConjlamimfh'y and faiih^ 'hat vrhoi Boniface i^'ifti: that Otho the 
Emperoiir was dead, he returned to Rome, and feiz.ed on the Papacy a- 
gain \ and finding John in it, did not only turn htm out, but cap him in Bonds 
in the Tower of St. Angelo, which was kept by men of h-s own fa6lion j 
and with great Tyranny kspt him there four months, and as a violent and 
facrilegioHs Robber, at lafi Aiurdered him ly Famiie, And left r.ny hope 
fhould be left to the Emperoiirs Party, he expofed the Corps of the dead 
Pope (for all the Citiz.ens to behold") before the doores of the P^ifvn : And 
the People feeing the bare body of the Pope con fumed by Hunger^ buried him 
with Sorrow. In the mean time, the Jnvader of the Sect, and the cruel 
Af/trderer of two Popes, the odious Paricide, and turbulent ihuf Boniface 
the Anti-Pope, fOh Horrible]) by Tyranny Jniaded St. Peters Chair : But 
after four months, by Cods Revenge, he fnddenly dyed (he kj/lid himfelf 
faid Plat. When he was dead, even the factious ptrfons on whom he had 
trufled. Wounded his dead Catkafs, and Drag' d it through the City. Ihis 
Bin. out of Baron, and he exaiiticjitis f^attcan-( odictbus . 

And murt a Governour of all the World be thus Chofc n. 
But riaii/ia faith, that fome fay, that Ferruciits, Bumf aces Father, 3 great 
man, murdered 7c^«; and others fay, he wascaftcutfor Impotcncyand 
Tyranny ; and others [ay, by malevolent Seditious Men, So cohfufed [faith he") 
are the Hiflories of thofe times. 

^. 75. Next coiTics /o/;« 1 5. (alias 16) 5««««i faith, that for fear of the 

Platina ijjje ufage that had befallen bis Prcdeccflbrs.he left Rome & dwelt in Tufca- 

ofUhT"^'^ one C?-f/co?7»/j a great man, having got the Caftleof St. Angelo: till 

id.wA'tfii the Pope fcndiiigto O/^jo 3. afrighted the v?ew«»/, and made them intreat 

hyhimthe him to return. B«t Platina faith,That [^He burned againfi the Clergy with a 

.17th. wondcrfull Hatred, and therefore was defervedly hated by the Cleroy .• 

efpecially, becaiife be beflowed all things Divifle and Humane on his kindred, 

difregarding the honcnr of Cod, and the Dignity of the Romane Sf<?/ jjvW// 

Errour (faith he) he fo Traditioned [or delivered down) that it remaintth 

to this daylThh is Roiiiane Tradition) a Comet then appear'd, Famine, Pefie- 

■ leme. Earthquakes, which were thought to be for the Pride arid rapacity of 

the Pope^ an J his contempt of God and Man.'} So Platina. 

5. ']('. Aalnfiance was given of a Bifhop of the contrary Spirit : Adel- 
i'lrt Bifhop of Prague in Bgbcmia found the People fo contrary to him, 


ami their Councils abridged 75^ 

and bad, that he forfook them, and Travelled firft, and then cntred into 
a Moniftery : And when he had lived there five years, the people defired 
him again, and promifed Obedience. A Council at Rome defired his re- 
turn, vvhicn with grief he did ; But they ftill proved incorrigble, and he 
again foi r. ok them and went to Preach to the //««^4r;4'?j, when he Bap- 
Zed the King Stephen^ and did much good. Bin. p. 1071. 

^.77 CCCXX. ^r«;</f/;«j Aich-Bifhopof ^Af/^f/ fufpc<ftcd of Trea- 
fon, for delivering up the City of Rhemes to Charles : Called a Synod at 
Seulis, to purge himfclf, Excommunicating them that did it. yinnoggo, 

5$. 78. CCCXXI. Hugo Capet having now got the Crown of France, 
and dcfirous to deftroy all the Carolines line, upon the aforefaid fufpi- 
tion got a Synod at Rhcmcs, to caft out Artmlphus a Baftard of that 
Linc^ faying, a Baftard muft not be a Bifhop : On: B'fhop rtfufcd; 
The red for fear of that King confcnted, and cafl him out; Cfo con- 
ftant wero the French Bifhops ) 

<>. 79. CCCXXfl. Six Bifhops, and Nine Presbyters, and Four Dea- 
con; made a Council at- Rom:, to Canonize Vtiulnc Bifhop of Au^ujlay 
Anno 99 ^. upon the reports of his Holiacfs and Miracles. 

Hcic let me at once tell the Reader, that he hath no caufe to think 
the mofl: of thcfe Cinonizitions wholly caufclcfs. But that while Pope 
and Patriarcks. confounded all by wickednefs and contentious pride; 
God had many faithful Bifhops and Presbyters that lived holily in 
quieter and privatcr kind of Life; And the Popes that would not en- 
dure thcmfclves to live a Godly life, thought it their honour to have 
fiich in the Church that did, and to magnify them when dead, and part 
contradnfling them. Jud like the Fhartfees, Mat. 2j. that killed the 
living Servants of God, and honoured the dead, and built them Mo- 
numents, faying If we had lived in thofe d.iys^ we would not have kjlUd 

§. 80, CCCXXIII. A Synod was called at Mcfon, to debate the 
Cafe between Arnulpb and Gerbert fubl^ituted at Rhcmes, who fo plea- 
ded his caufe, that it was put off to another Synod. "Barcn revilcth 
fome Writings afcribed to the f.^rmcr Synod at themes, faying, they 
were this Gcrhcrts, as being Blafphcmous agiinft the Pope : The Ccn- 
turiators of Magdeb, mention them at large. Did Rome then govern 
all the World ? 

^, 81. CCCXXIV. Another Council is called at Rhemcs, and Ger- 
bert (that wrote fo Blafphemoufly againll- the Pope') is dcpofcd by the 
Pupes means, and Amulphiis rellorcd : which Gohcrt obferving, flyeth 
to the Empcrour to GirmaH)\ fccmeth to repent (as Baron, but fur- 
mizcrh) ani gets higher, to be Pcpe himfjif, by the Emperours means, 
as you fh '11 hear anon. 

♦ . 2. Cin any Man think that Po/rf, that theinfclves cam? in by Ty- 
ranny and mcer Force, and lived in Wickednefs, coul ' hive fo great 
a Zeal as is pretended to do Jufticc for all others, unlcfs for their ow n 
ends? 5^.83. 



Church- Hifio)y of 'B'ijl)ol'S 



$. 83. John the \6th. (^alias 17) is pafTcd over by Binius : O/iupbri- 
tii faith, that he Reigned four Months : Platina fciith, he d'ed the tenth 
Year, and fixth Month, and tenth Day (a grrat difierencc) 

5*. 84. Gregory ihc 5?/;. isnex;. made P.fc (faith Plat.) by Oibo ^d 
his Authority for /Affinity: But (faith Plat.') The Romins A-rf/v- Cref- 
centius Coriful with chnfPcwtr-.^ who frrfcntly vude John Btjhof cj Placcntinc 
Pope j who ca?n: to it by the confcnt of the Roman Clergy and People, 
to whom the choice belonged., though fome leave him out : Otho cometb to 
defend his own Pope; Crcfcentius /&rr;^fr/j C/>)' a>id Cajtle agjinjl him : 
The People dare not refijly but opefi the City Cites : Crcfccntius and Pope 
lo\\n fiycth to the Cajlle ; and in hope of Pardon^ yields : Gcfccncius tt 
Killed by the People in his pajfage ; John hath fir/i Lis Eves put out, and 
then his Life; /jv^ Gregory i he Eleventh Adjntb is rejhred : £/////« faith, 
that Johns Hands were cut off., his Ears cut of, and his Eyes pulled out ; 
and after fct on an yifs^ holding the Tail in his Hand., was carried a- 
bout the Streets. 

^. 85. This Pope and Otho the id. agreed to fettle the EIe>flion of 
the Emperour„ as now ic is on the 7. Ele(flors. The caufe of great 
Confufions, and Calamities was, that the Emperours did not dwell at 
Rome ; and fo left Popes then to fight, flrive, and fin^ that clfe would 
have lived fubmiflively under them. Confiantine, Carolus Mag. or U- 
tha, might have done much to prevent or cure all this. 

The Papifis would fain prove this the work of a Roman Synod, f'to 
fettle the Eleftor$) that they may prove that it is they, that mufl make 
and unmake Emperours, But they can fhew us no fuch Council. 

Onuphrius hath written a Trcatife to prove thit this was after done 
by Greg. loth. For which Bmius reprehends him, as believing Aventi- 

But this is a Controverfy handled by fo many, that I (hall refer the 
Reader to them : and whether the feven Eledors only, or all the Feu- 
datories chofe. 

Baronius and Binius maintain, that all came from the Authority of 
the Pope ; that Greg. ^th. Ordained the choice of the Emperour to be 
by all the Feudatories of the Empire; that the Council at Lyons, un- 
der Innocent ^th. fetled it upon Seven, but not all the fame that arc 
now Elcftors; and that the Princes after fetled it on thefe fame Seven, 
they know not who nor when. 

For the right underftanding of many fuch matters ; I only mind the 
Reader of this one thing, that as the contention of Princes, and the 
fuperftitious fear of Anathematizing had made the Papal, and Prela- 
tical Power then very great, in fetting up, and taking down Princes ; 
fo it was ufual for their AfTcmblics, even thofc called Councils, to be 
niixt of Men Secular and Clergy-, Kings and Princes, and Lords being 
prefcnt with the Bifhops, as in our Parliaments ; and ufually the great- 
eft Princes ruled all. Therefore, toafcribe all to ihc Pope and Prelates^ 




their Councils abfuhcJ. 2 7y 

that was done in fuch conventions, and thence to gather their power to 
difjaofe of Empires and Kingdoms, is mecr deceit. 

§ 86. PUnna nexc mmeth fohii ijih. alias i8rh. but (aith h;was 
no true Pope (its impolFible to know who was,) !)Ut that he corrupted 
Crcfcent ius w\th money, and it coft them both their lives : How he ['■Hchid, 
was mangled, fhamed, and killed C though a Bifhop before ) you lairhP/i- 
heard befov. S^ol"" 

§ 87. Next 4«. 999. Cometh that French Bidiop Gfr^ffrf C*j before maiter to 
mentioned, that wrote fo blafphemoufly (as they called \t) againft the Orhu, and 
Pope (as i^ncas StlviHs after did) till he (aw fome hope of being Pope. "^^"^ King . 
himfelf, by the Emperor's favour tirft made Arch-Birtiop of^.it/c;;;;./, and !'*^f"'."" 
then Pope, Formofus's Cafe and the Canons that forbid a Bifliop to be cre-it 
chofen, were now forgotten or difpenled with. He had won the Em- men. 
peror's favour by a rare Clock that he made, being a good Mithema- 
tician : And the People and Clergie were taught that it was the Empe- -P^wi^ 
ror's Will that they (hould choofe him, which to pleafe the Emperor jf'"''^."Iii 
they did ; Hiftorians fay that he fold his Soul to the Devil by Covenant, a icrnbic 
to be made Pope, which accordingly the Devil diftrained and took hih> Itcry of 
away. But Baron, and Bin. fay that Cardinal Bcnr.o was the firit author hisCo\c- 
of this and many fouler accufations of the Popes than 1 have here ir.enti- !'if!"i^^'!'| 
oned J and that he was Schifmatical (as taking the Emperor's part) and and his 
fo not to be believed. And indeed lam not apt to believe any that ac- confcfli- 
culed men of Magick* in that ignoransage of the Roman Church;, when- ^"» ^^'-^ 
zsErufmu-s faith. He that did but undeflfafid Greek or Htbrtw was.['^\!'"'^Q'^" 
fufpefted to be a Magician. ,,lTpl„,>\ 

Otho 3d. that preferred this Pope gave him two Counties, to ills vmdicati- 
Church, Fercellis and St. .Agatha: A herefie GL-iar and B.iroii. mention on from 
in his time, foon extinift. Stcp'jenK'ing oi Hungary it's /aid converted ^^^"^ 'i;"_^- 
the TravfylvMiians (which ycc the Papilts afcribe all -to the Pope-.) An " ^'"' 
hundred lifr^' nine Lpiltles of^ (Jcrdcrt's written before he wa&.Biflipp of 
Rhemes (or Pope) are found with Ntcol. rnhcx. faith Bm. v ' ■j.v:- • . Th\sOtbo 

% 88. CCCXXV. In a Council at Rome, an. 999 Oiejkr Arehbifliop w-,shu:a 
of Ai..iit:. is acculcd for having two Panlhesj but ftruck with a Palfie ^.'^'^*^ °^ 
could not appear, and the matter referred^ to a German Council.. i>-'«,;of",ni^c^'^* 
p. 1079. )[i . -..^;;. , :;. ..'.whenhe 

§ 89. Nexrcometh p<3A« i.6th. as i?l>, 'or^i^tb* •as'/'^rff.-jvhpiyed wsmadc 
the fifth month. But though no good be faid of him, 'Pi(it.- noteth the ^'"l"'^''- 
great happinefs of Italy by the good Government of H^fgo the Empe- 
ror's Lieutenant. 

§ 90. Ne^t \s fohn 17th. as Bi>i. or 20th, as Plat, who fiitli Nd 
diaiu'.m memorid gcf]lt. But what was wanting. in the urihai>{iy Billiops 
God made up in good I'rincejf. Robcrr King of f/rfw^-^ndyA.'?*-; the 
new;Ernprrur. ofGcrmtny {L>thi) being' dead j .being rDefl'<itr^"t^cy:g|•cat• 
piety ajid /ufnce : Holinels was now puffed Emihsfiitlv < • F'*^- 

§ 91. i.;w;;.7j rec'ordcch that Luithirius h(C:.ih\(i:.> 

X X, 

2 5 8 Chunh-Hijhry of Sijhcps and 

begin the Hercfie of Berenganus. It feems then, neither Luther, nor 
^Hinglius, nor Berengarius, nor Bertram (aliaj Ratram) began it. But 
where will the reader find that Trahfubftantiation was yet named, or by 
iny confent received ? ^o that this is but to confefs that yet the do ftrinc 
contrary to Tranfubftantiation did ftill obtain: And the name of herefie 
from Baron, or Bin. fignifies no more againft this Archbi(hop than the 
name of Magick and Diabolifm againft Silvefler 2. from many Hiftorians. 

§ 92. In a Council at Frankford the Emperor Henrj, having a great 
love to Bamberge, would endow it and make it an Archbifhoprick. 
The Bifhop of Wircsburge would not come to the Council unlefs it might 
be joyned to his Bifhoprick. It feem'd a hard controverfy. The good 
Emperor (oft proftrate before them) firft,having no Children,dedicatcth 
iW that he hath to Chrift,and then defireth them to confider, that [/r 
reas not for the Lord, but for ambition, and to get more dignity that this 
Bi/hop did refiji his deftre'] (his agent fpeaking for him,) (Oh that Prin- 
ces had fooner difcerncd the evil of fuch ambition and afpiring! ) At 
laft the Emperor (being prefent) carried ir, andchofean Archbifliop 
who was ordained to Bamberge. 

§ 95. Next Peter Bifhop of ^^^<»«f»is made Pope and called Sergiw 
4th (The Canons are here again violated) Now faith Bin. "vfasagreat 
"prodigie , in a Church at Rome rofe afpriyig ofojl, of which a vejfel full 
" tfas fent to King Henry, no doubt to call him to take the Empire."} 

% 94. CCCXXVI. ^«. 1 01 1. A Council at i^w^fr^f endeavoured to 
end fome quarrels amongBifhops that ftrovcto get more,and accufed one 
another unjuftly to the Popejfor vrhich the King reproved fome of them. 

§ 95. jin. 10 12. Two Popes were chofcnand fetupj which i« the 
19th. fchifm or double- head of the Roman Church. The Emperor'* 
party chofe Benedtii the 8th. The City Party chofe Gregory, The Ci- 
tizens were the ftrongcr at prefent (and fo long their's was the true 
Pope,) The Emperor proved ftrongeft at laft, and therefore Bencdia 
became the true Pope (for Hobbes his Law ruled among them,) {that 
Right is nothing but Power to get and kf^p2 Gregory had no power to keep 
iiis Place : Ergo be had no right to it : Benedtti fled to Germany, and the 
good Emperor Henry amc to Rome with an Army, and made Gregory 
fly, and (ct up BenediEi. Here Henry firft inftituted the Golden Globe 
,5. and Crofs as fit for an Emperor's hand and afped. Bin. out ofGlab. U. 5. 
c. 8. (jaeaketh of the Jews injuring Chrift's Image by a ludicrous cruci- 
fixion, and that after the adoring of the crofs the fame day, a whirl- 
wind caft down the Houfcs [ omnes^ue pene Romanos cccifos ejfe 3 and 
almoft all the Romans were killed (that's fcarce credible,) and that it 
ceafcd not till the Pope had put the jews to death. PUtina faith, that 
this Emperor Henry and his Wife were fo pious that they omitted no- 
thing that might do good. He overthrew the Saracens, and giving bis 
Sifter in marriage to the King of Hungary converted him and his People 
Hb the Faith : And Baron, giverh you the copy of his large grant of Ci- 
ties and Principalities to the Pope, by way of confirmation of former 
grant*. § ^6. 


tJ?eir Councils abridged. 


§ 96. They call it a Council at Legto in Spam, where the King and 
Queen and Nobles with the Bifhops and Abbots, made fomc Laws for 

§ 97. CCC)Q(VII. ^«. 1017. A Council was called at Orkance in 
France', where, by the Zeal of the religious King ^«^frf and the Prelates, 
the burning of Hereticks were fet on foot. Bin. out ofGlahtr thus 
reciteth the matter. One Italian woman revived tke herefie of thcMa- 
nichees, and two Clergie men (yet called Palatu proceres et Regt famtU- 
ares) received and fpread it abroad with confidence- The opinion* are 
thus recited hyGUlrer. i. That the Dodrine of the Trinity delivered in 
fcripture, is a deceit. 2. That Heaven and Earth are from eternity with- 
out a maker. 3. That the crimes of fenfual pleafure fhall have no punifh- 
ment. 3. That there is no reward for any Chriftian works, fave of Piety 
& Juftice.The two leaders Lifoius and HcrihertuSyWd. eleven more were -;t 
burnt to afhcs ; and afterwards as many more as were found guilty of the 
fame errours. Bin. p. 1083. Here confuming zeal began. 

§ 98. CCCXXVIII. yiH. 1022. A Council at Saltgunflad in German) 
made many ceremonious Canons j but decreed c. 16. that none go to 
Rome without the content of the Bifhop. and c. i7.that the Popes par- 
dons (hall not profit them that have not fulfilled the time of their pen- 

They tell us alfo of a Council at Mentz., and (jofz&^r^fs curing a Dc- 
moniack woman. 

§ 99. Benedt^ ^^yi'igj went to purgatory faith Bin. as fome appariti- 
ons proved, but he was delivered out of that pain by St. Odilo's pray- 
Icrs, and bis Brother's Alms. ( you (ee how much better it is to be a 
Saint than a Pope) you need not queftion the credit of their intelligencr 
from purgatory. 

§ 100. This Pope's own Brother, Son to the TnfcitUne Esr^, by hij 
power prefently feizeth on the Papacie. But Bm. ex Baron, would per- 
fwade us that this invadedJPope afterward repented, refignc d, and wa.<! 
new chofen by the Clergy. He was very like to have their votes when 
he had gotten fuch power and advantage .- But where was the Roman 
Church that while? 

*Now dyed the pious Emperor Henry ^ and when he dyed gave up his _.. 
religious wife to the Biftiopsand Abbots, as a Virgin,as he received herj ^ 5|>«! 

who entered a Monaftcry accordingly : Conrade his General fucceedcd 
him, and the Pope Qohmi as Plat. 18 is Bin.') being driven away 
by the People, Conrade reftored him. ( lb far was the Pope obeyed.) 
§ loi. A Council at iLiTwo^f/, an. 1029. gave an Apoftolical title to 
Martial their founder. 
§ 102. An. 1032. Another at P4w^:7o«e was about a Bifhop's fear, 
§ 103. Princes in this age are commended for their piety (elpecially 
1 their zeal for Rome.) Bi»t did the Popes yet amend? The next man that 
Hl Cometh in by the fame power as the former, is BaicdiR the 9th Ne- 
H| X X 2 phew 

^40 Church -Hip ory of (BiJJ)Ops ami 

phew to foirn and Son ro yilucricus ; moft fay he was but ten years old, 
"fome fjy i8.capable,rdith Baron andi Bin. of Impudence and luxuryj by 
" the tyrannv of his Father intruded, ^«.i030. And (Qy they) being given 
'■ over to luft and pleafurejand by humane frailty rufhing into impudence, 
"and IJLving to great fcandal of thefdithfui, he was by the Romans, the 
Conful Ftolcmy favouring it, re;e<fled, or at leaft gave itup by the per- 
(Vvarion of the holy Abbot Bartholomew. Whereupon Silveflcr the 3d. 
" came inifO his place,who had beenBifhop oi Sabine, even by bribery and 
"evil arrsi; and did rend the Church by anew Schifm: But hehadfcarce 
* Sate ttiree months, but £cneditt by the help of the TufcuUnes returned 
'•'and caft him out, as an invader. In the mean time a third man, fohn 
"^rch- Presb)ier oi Rome invading the fame feat, brought yet a greater 
" deformity on the Church: And fo A THREE-HEADED BEAST ARI- 
*'SING FROM THE GATES OF HELL didmiferably infelt the holy 
"Chain of Sr. l'ctcr.~\ Thefe are the words of the Popes grand flatterers. 
"And they tell us that one Gratian a Presbyter pitying this miferable ftate 
"of the Church, went to all the three Popes, and gave them money to 
"hire them all ro relign ; And fo BcnedUl as the moft worthy being fe- 
"cured of the Revenues of England, depofed himfelf; and that he 
"might the more freely execute his lufts betook himfelf to his Fathers 
houfe,when intruded by force and tyranny he had held the Papacy eleven 
years. And when the reft by his example had done the like, each being 
contented with his alTigned portion of the Revenue, the Church ^n. 
1 044. was reftorcd to its ancient union.ipeace and concord, the Schifm be- 
*' ing expelled,and the tyranny by which it was opprefTed taken out of the 
" way.] Thus Ear. and Bm. But how came this Presbyter to be fohoneft 
and fo rich ? you muft know that when he had got out the three Popes 
he was made Pope himfelf, of which more anon. 
, §. 104, But though thefe Authors tell us but of four Popes at once, 
as credible writers of their own tell us there were fix: IVerncrus in Faf- 
(*■) Omi- cicu.'e Temper, fakh [The 14. * Schifm was fcandalousand full of confufi- 
jbr. will f on between Ber.editt the 9th. and five othersj which BenediH: was whoJ- 
bc c 'r " ' 'y v't'ouSjand therefore being damned, he appeared in a monftrous and 
thatic 'horrid fhape, his head and tail were like an Afles, the reft of his body 
was the 'like a Bear, ** faying, I thus appear becaufe I lived like a beaft. In this 
aoth. 'Schifm there were no lefs than fixPopes at once\i.BenedtB was expuKed. 
■"So fay '2.Sihe{hr 3d. got in, but is caft out again, and BenediB reftored, 3. But 
PLunm » being Ci'ft out again Gz-f^or;' the 6th. is put into his place : who becaufe 
and iiiany j,^ y^^^ ignorant of Lf^trj caufed another Pope to be confecrated with 
alVo^'^^ him, to perform C-^OTc/p-OjJfcr/, which was the fourth: which difpleafed 
many, and therefore a third is chofen inftead of thofe two that were fight- 
ing with one another. 6. But Henry the Emperor coming in depofed them 
'all ix\A chok Clement ihc 2d.3 thefixth that were alive at once. There is 
great difference between iVerneruj, Onuphnus, Flatina, Baronius, but all 
confefs that there were three or four at once. And the three were fecu- 


their Councils abrichcJ. 


red of the revenues before they refigned to the fourth ; no doubt lea- 
ving him his part: This it is for Bifhops to be great and rich, which will 
afcertain wicked men to (eek them. But if uVre^r^/ fay true that this 
foktn. GratiaH/is,mide Gregorj 6th, was i!literate,he was a in^nge Kcm^a 
Arch-Pre«byter before, and a ftrange Pope after, but greatly to be 
commended that would ordain a fellow Pope that could read. 

§ loj. This horrid monftrous villain calkd Bcf:edt8 the 9th. Cano- 
nized Simeon an Anchorite at T'revirs, Do you think he was nor a good 
judge and lover of Saints? He crowned Conrade the Emperor who came 
into Italy to mafter the Bifhop of Milan that rebelled, fay Laron, and 
Bin. and many other great things he did. 

§ 106. Even in thefe times there were Councils held. 1. One at Ly- 
moges, to judge Sf. Martial to be an Apoftle, and to agree to excom- 
municate the fouldiers that robbed and plundered, and to curfe theip 
horfes and arms, and deny Chriftian burial to all the Countrys where 
they prevailed, lave the Clergy and poor, &:. Another at Beauvou on 
the fame occafion. And another at Tnbtir, unknown for what. 

§ 107, This Pope Gregory 6th. ( who was John Gratian the Roman 
Arch-Presbyter, that ^Vemer faith was illiterate ard made hirn a fellow 
Pope) is very varioudy defcribed : Bjron. and Bin, and fome others 
make him an honeft man that ended the Schifm. Cardinal Benno maketh 
him Simoniacal that hired them out to get the Papacie: Baron, and Bin. 
for this revile him as a malicious lyar. They fay that Gregory^ for pun- 
ifhing facrilegious villains by the fword that cared noi for Anatbema's,was 
acculed by the Romans that now lived by theft and rapine, as a Simo- 
nift and a murderer. Conrade being dead and Henry his Son made Em^ 
peror, he being in Italy held a Synod at Sntna near Rome where all the 
four Popes caufes were examined : And the three former were depof- 
ed, that is, deprived of the revenue whjch was parted among them , 
and this Gregory 6. (fay moft authors, and even Hermannus that wrote 
in thofe very times) was depofed, (but faith Baron, he bone(\ly refign- 
ed.) And the Roman Clergy being found fo bad, that none were fit for 
the place, the Emperor chole (Gy moft, or caHJed to be chofcn faith 
Bin.') the Bifhop of Bambcrge in Germany called Clement the 2d. 

§ 108. The Emperor fetling the Bifhop of ^.iw-Z-aj^f, Clem. 2. in the 
chair, returned and took thelaft Pope Gregory with him to avoid conten- 
tion j and Clement went after with Hildcbrand and dyed by the way the 
9th. month after his Creation. Benedict hearing this invadeth the Papa- 
cy again, the third time, even that villain that was firft of the four, and 
held it eight months after this, fo yet we have divers Popes. 

§ 109. An. 1067, A Council is held at liome by Clem. 2. againft 

§ no. Foppo Bifhop of Brixia is made Pope, by the Emperor and 
the common (uffrage, fay Bar. and Bin. (an. Ic^^.) But fuith Plat ma 
"and others, it is reported that he made the poyfon with which the 



Chiirch-Hijtory of 'Bijhops and 

♦'Citizens poyfoncd his predeceflbr Clem. 2. And that he fcized on the 
"place by violence without any confcnt of Clergy or People, it being 
"now the cuftomXor any ambitious man, that could, to ftize on the 
" Popedom; but God, faith Plat, as a juft revenger refifted him, for 
"he dyed the twenty third day of his Papacie. Yet the Romans had 
"again taken an oath in CUm.xd^s. time to choofe no Pope without the 
"Emperor's licence. For the Romans were become fo wicked and 
fa<£l:ious that they were not to be trufted in fuch a thing. 

§ 1 1 r. Upon thcfe horrid villanies and fchifms Baron, and Bin', again 
cry out on the Novatores, for calling theft things in the teeth of 
the RcfHdn Church, as impudent men. And they fay ftill, i. That it 
" was not the Church that chofe thefe Popes (as Benedi^ 9.)but Tyranti 
"obtruded them. 2. "That yet fo great was the power of the Roman 
^'Church that even falfe Popes were obeyed by all the Chriftian world.] 

u4nf. I. When yet they tell us themfelves that even the City of Rome 
was fo far from obeying them, that they imprifoned, depoftd, killed 
them. And the whole Gretk^O\\xxch excommunicated them fince Photi- 
tis's dayes} only the horrid contentions between the Sons and off-fpring 
of Charlmaln and the Germane Princes, gave them advantage to Lord 
it by Anathema^ s in France, Germany^ and Italy, and fuch nearer parts, 
whileft the contenders would make ufe of them, and they of the con- 
tender*. .\nd horrid ignorance had invaded the clergy, and confe- 
quently the Laity, and fub;e(fled them in darknefs to this Ruler that 
maketh To great ufe of darknefs. 

2. And if theft men uncalled were true Popes, why might not the 
T/o-^be one, or any man that can get the place or Title? Why were 
not all the 4 or j or 6 at once true Popes.' if not. Where was the 
Catholick Church this while, if a Pope was a conftitutive head or 
part.' and what is become of your Succeffion ? will any pofTefTiony^re vel 
injuria fcrve for a Succeffion? If fo, Why tell yon the Protcftants that 
they want it.? If nor. What pretence have you for it.' I think the Pro- 
teftants can prove a far better fucceffion. 

§ 112. BcrengariMs rofe in theft horrid daye«; and it is no wonder 
if fuch a monfter as Pope BeneMfi, and his companions condemned him, 
and fet up the raonftrous doftrine of Tranfubftantiation. As Tenuliian 
faith it was an honour to ^ Chriftians to be firft perfecuted by fuch a 
one as Nero, fo was it to the doftrine of the Sacrament to be condemn- 
ed by fuch a one as BenediH: 9. and in the time (as Baron, and Bin. 
fpeakj ef the three- headed monjhotis bcaft. 

§ I r J. Rome was now fo wife as to be confcious a little of their bad- 
nefs and unfitnefs to choofe themfelves a Pope, and therefore fent to the 
Emperor Henry to chooft them one. He chofe them Bruno a good Bifh- 
op oiTullum; who in his way, at the Abby of Cluny, met with Hilde- 
brand that went from Rome thithetj who told him that the Emperor 
being a Lay-man had no power to make or choofe a Pope (*) but the 




f iiougb a 

their Councils abridged, 2^^ 

Clergy and peoplcj but if he would follow bis advife, be fliould in • ber- King nuy 
ter way attain his end : fo HUdehrand went with him and pertVraded "1°^ °^' 
him to put off hi« purple, and to go in a common habit, and confefs B^ftop- 
that he is not their Birfiop till they choofe him, and that he taketh not Qudtiou 
the feat as given by the Emperor but by them; whereby he won the whether 
Romans hearts, and they readily chofe him. And he being called Leo ^'^ '"^V 
the 9th, after fo many monftcrs, went for a very excellent Pope. But In'^r°l.fin- 
yet he commanded an army himfelf againll the Normans, and proved cd Biliiop 
no good or happy Captain, his Army beiflg wholly routed, and himfelf from one 
taken Prifoner : whom the Normans in reverence rdeafcd and returned Church ro 
fafe. Pet. Damianusind others lament his Souldicry as his great fin, but the 'peg' 
Baron.ind Bin. excufe him,and fay,all the world now alloweth it: You fee pic only 
what arguments ferve at Rome: where it was but lately that the firft ar- accepting 
tide that a Roman Council before O:iio Afag. brought in againft Pope r"" ^^ 
fohn was that he went fometimes in Arms : And to be formerly a Bifhop fcn^^'^"" 
was heretofore an incapacity by the Canons : Yet Rome covereth her in- 
novations by pretending antiquity ,and calling others Ntvatores. 

§ 114. But how militant a defender of the Roman grandure this Lto 
was, may be (cen in bis EpiAles in Bm. p. 1096. &c. In the firrt long one 
to the Patriarch of Confiantinople and another £7r«i^Bifhop, he reprovcth 
them for bold damning of the Church of Rome, and tells them that they 
were members of Antichrift,and forerunners of him that is King over all 
the Children of pride; and faith, who can tell how many Antichrifts had 
have been al ready ?He^telis them how many herctickBifhops they have had 
at Conjl. and of above ninety herefics in theEaft; and how by force they 
raged againft the Josmiites (theNonconformifts that followed St. Chry- -ts 
fofi»mei)vfhit a heretick their Bifhop Eut^chiui was.that faid.the body at 
refurre(ilion will be impalpable.and more fubtil than the wind and air (He 
believed Paul that faid it ftiould be a /primal body (though not a Spirit,^ ■^ 
And how hisBooks were burned. He reprehendet h their title of Oecumeni- > np,„, 
calPatriarchjand faith that no ^ow/^wBifhop to that day had ever accepted bcj ihat. 
or ufcd that Title (*) Yet he reciteth the forged grant of Conftamme, 
faying, that as far as Kings are above Judges, fo all the world muft take 
the Pope for their Head; and that he gave the Palace and all Rome, &c. 
to Silvefler, and faid it was unmeet that they fhould be fubjed to any 
earthly Prince that were by God made Governors of Heaven. At large 
he thus pleadeth for the Roman Kingdom ofPriefts, chiding them that 
had put down all the Latine Churches and monafteries in the Eaft.] (yet 
Baron, and Btn. tell you all the Church on earth obeyed the Pope.) 

In his 4th. Epiftle he laments that in .Africa there was "205-. Bifli- 
"ops at a Council, now there were fcarce five in all; and he fhewcth 
"that all Bifhops were of one order, but ditFerenced as the Cities were 
•'for primacie, by the Civil Laws or the Fathers reverence. That 
"where the Pagans Arch-Flamins were, there were inftituted Arch- 
" Bifhops to be over the Provinces; where a Metropolis was, Metro- 



344 Church- Hijlo)-) of l^tpolisand 

"pD^uns Of ArcliBifhops were pLiced; and Bifhops in leflTcr Cities 
".wljere had beenFIamins and Counts. But \n^fica they were diverfilyed 
"only by die times of rlieir ordination j the Bilhjp of Cartbaje being 
" the chief.] 

In bis lipiltlc J. he hath a good confeflion of faith, where among 
other things he well faith, [ " nat God preJ^fiinated only thinn 
"good, hut jorek>t€\v l/oth good and evil ; and that Cr.ice fo preventeth and 
" follow cth man, th^t jet m.ins free will ts not to be denied: that the Soul 
" IS mt p.irt oj God, but created of nothing. He anathematizeth every He- 
" refie, and every one that receiveth or vencrateth any Scriptures but 
^- what are received by the Catholick Church, c~c. 

In the 6th. again he chides the Patriarchs ofConjrantinopU for the title 
Vhivcrjut; faying that Peter himftrlf was never called the Vmverfal ^po- 
y^/f, nor did any of his Succtficrs take i'o [prodigious a title. For he is 
no friend to the bridegroom that would beloved in hisftead, but a Bawd 
of yiutichriji,^C. 

His Svh.Epiftle is to the Greeks Emperor to flatter him,to help him with 

Henry againft the KormMs ; In which ('to prove the Romans fuccetrtonj 

c^ "he (aith [.The holy Church and Apoftolick Stat hath been too long ufur- 

"ped by Mercenaries that were no Paftors, that fought their own, and 

'• nor the things of Chrift.] 

"TiiisPope and Muhael Patriarch of Conftantinople, w^rt fo unreconci- 
<'Iiib!e that they continued mutual condemnations. <W*(;^?e/ is condem- 
ned with his (Jz-ff^./. I. For rebaptizing the Papifts. z. For faying that; 
they bad no true Sacrifice or Bjptifm. 3. For .holding Priefts marriage, 
for rejeding the Filioque,8cc. Bin. p. 1116. 

§. 114. CCCXXIX. -^«. io49.ARomati Council was fain upon pen- 
nance to pardon Simoniacal Bifhops and Priefts, becaule the Cry was, that 
" elfe almol't all the Churches would be deftitute, and the Church fer- 
" vice omitted to the liibverfion of the Chriftian Religion, and the def- 
"peration ofall the faithful. (Where was the holy Church of Rome now, 
and its Succcfiion, if the Canons for nullifying Simoniacal ordinations 
1.0 :d good? J 

§ iiy. CCCX'XX. The Pope refolved to go to France, and Prefidc 
in a CounciljWhich he did,at Rhemes: But many Nobles and Bifhops told 
the King that it was an ufurpation and a Novelty and would enllave his 
Kingdom : The King forbad him, yet the Pope came whether the King 
would or not ; And the King went away about his military affairs, and 
fome Biniops with hiai, and others ftayed. 

The ArchBifliop of Rhemes, and others were accufcd of heinous 
Crimes : The Bifliop of L Ingres was charged with {_e»tring h Simoniacal 
" herefies, felling orders, bearing Armes, Murder, Adultery, Tyranny to 
" his Clergy,and Sodomy: Many witnclTes teftihed all this: OneCIergy- 
" man wltnelfcdjthat while he was vet a Lay-man th'is Bifhop violently 
"took his Wife from him,and when he had committed adultery with her, 



their Councils abrichcJ. i - < 

'' [le made her a Nun.] A Presbyter witnelTcd that this Bifhop took 
''him and delivered him to his followers, who tormenting him by ma- 
^'ny torments, which is more wicked, did with fharp nails pierce his 
"genetals, and by fuch violence forced him to give them ten pounds 
"of denaries : The Bifliop hearing thefe accufations defired time and 
"Council, and going to the Arch Bifliops of Befar.z.on, ^r^A Lyons, o- 
"peneth his fecrets to them and defireth them to plead his caufe. But 
''the man involved in the guilt of fuch villanies (who but the day be- 
"fore had been the accufer of a faulty Brother, and feeing the mote in 
"anothers eye, had not feen the beam in his o\Tn , but moved for 
*'the other mans damnation being himlelfdelervedly to be condemned,) 
"was not only unable to excufe himfelf from the objecHred crimes, but 
"alfo the tongue of his advocate (the Arch Bi(hop^ was by God fo fi- 
"lenced that he was not able to (peak a word for his defence. For 
"the Arch-Bifhop oi Befaiiz.cn vihcrc he prepared himfelf to plead for 
"him and excufe his crimes, fuddenly found himfelf difabled in his voice 
"by God. And when the Arch-Bifhop of Befanz.on found himfelf fo dif- 
" abled by miracles, he gave figns to the Arch-Bifliop of Lyons to fpeak 
"for this his Brother in his ftead; who rifing up faid that the accufed 
"Bifhop doth confefs that he (old Orders, and that he extorted the mo- 
"ney from the faid Prieft, but that he did not do the tormenting adi- 
"ons mentioned by him; other things he denyed, but before the next 
"day he fled from the Council. And another Bifhop fof A'cvcrs) con- 
"feflTed that his Parents bought his Place, and depofed himfelf: and 
" fome other Bifhops confclled Simoniacal entrance. The Pope excom- 
"municated many that fled from the Council. He renewed fome old 
"negledled Canons, as i. That no man l>c p-omoted to Church-Govern- -fa 
"ment wtthoHt the ELECTION of the CLERKS and the PEOPLE, &'c. 

Y y CHAP. 

^^.6 Church- Hifiory of 'BiJJ?c^s and 

, C H A P. 12. 

The continuation of the hiftory of Councils and their Bifhops till 
the Conucil at ConflantiMOple. 

§ I. CCCXXXr. Uflder Leo 9. an. 1049, a Synod at Mentz^^^omc ac- 
culed Bifhops were qucftioned and other little matters done. 

§ 2. CGCXXXII. In a Council at 1090. Berengariui his Letters tO 
Laifiancus were read , and he condemned fin a blind age.) 

§ 3. GCCXXXIII. ^n. lOj-Q. A Synod at rercclh condemned p- 
hannes Scotns and Berengariits and fome that defended them. 

§ 4. CCCXXXIV. yln. 1050. A Council at Cojaca contained the 
King FerdinMidus of Cafiik , and his Queen, Bifhops and Nobles (Tike 
our Parliaments, and fo were many Councils then:) It is faid to be for 
•5" reftoring Chriftianity (Co low was it grown in the height of Popery and 
ignorancej having feveral orders for reformation. The 3d Title faith, 
that wine, ir.ner and the Ijofi in the eucharift fignifie the Trinity. The 
jth. faith, that Priefts muft fo eat at the fealts of the dead, as to do 
fome good for their fouls, 6'c. 

§ J. CCCXXXV. ^». 1051. A Roman Council excommunicated 
Gregory B\ihop oi TercclU for Adultery with a widow efpowfed to his 
Uncle, and for perjuries : But he was after reftored to his office on 
promife of fati; faction: Alfo all the whores of Priefts were decreed to 
be made feivants at Laterane. Pet. Damian. et Bin. p. 1 124. 

§ 6. CCCXXXVI. In another Roman Synod the Pope Canonized a 
Biniop Gerhard, and decided a quarrel between two Bifhops for extent 
oftheir DiocefTcs, 

§ 7. nthr the id. is next Pope an. 1055. Leo Hofiienfis faith that 
no man at Rome was found worthy. Vlat. faith that they feared offend- 
ing the Emperor: However the Romans fciit to the Emperor to choofe 
one for them, and fome fay dcfired this might be the man. 

§ 8. CCCXXXVII. Platina faith that in a Council at Florence he de- 
pofed many Bifhops for Simony and Fornication. 

§ 9. CCCXXXVIII. In a Council at Lyons, Baronius (after other5)(aith 
a miracle was done, viz., faith he ["The herefie of Simonie having feiz- 
"ed on all Italy and Burgundie, the Popefent Htldibrandi fub- Deacon 
"to call a Council^ where an Arch Bifhop accufed of Simony bribed all 
€r "his accufers the next day into filence: Hildebrand hid him fay [Glory 
" be to the Father^ Son and Holy Ghofl'~\ He faid the refV, but was not 
"able to name the Holy Ghof\: Whereupon he confefl his crimes, and 
"befides feven and twenty other Prelates of the Churches, forty five 
"Bifhops confeft themfclvcs Simoniacks and renounced their places. 3 


their Councils alvuhcd. 



What a cafe was the Church in when Popery grew ripe? Per. D^mian. 
mentioneth fix Bifliops depofcd by HiUcbrandiox divers crimes. 

§ lo. By the way it is worthy enquiry whether //;/(ii'air,4«i^ being 
neither Bifliop, Prieft, nor Deacon, but a fub-Deacon only, was any of 
the Clergy or Church-Paftors to whom Chrift gave the power of the -fB 
Keys ('Yea, if he had been a Deacon.J And therefore whether he had 
any power froin Chrift to prefide before Arch Biftiops and Bifhops in 
In Councils, and to depofe and excommunicate Bifhops. If it be faid that 
he did it by the Pope's commifTion, the queftion recurreth, whetiier 
God ever gave Pope or Prelate power to make new Church -officers 
whom he never initituted cie fpicie, that fhould have the power of the 
Keys, yea,and be above the Bifhops of the Church? And whether Popes 
or Prelates may commit preaching or Sacraments to Lay-men.'' if not, 
how can they commit the Keys of Church-Government to them, or to 
any as little authorized by Chrift ? Indeed baptizing is but uling the Key 
of Church-entrancej And therei'bre be that may fo let men into the 
Church may baptize them ('which Papilis unhappily allow the Laity, j 
And if perfc or per alium will falve all, whether Priefts may not preach, 
pray, and give Sacraments by Lay-men: And fo Lay-men at laft put down 
both Prelates and Prieftsas ncedlef'.'' 

§ II. CCCXXXIX. ^n. lojj. They fay that this great Subdeacon 
Hildcbrand ('the grand advancer of the Roman Kingdom) didcall a Coun- 
cil arTowr/, which cited poor Bcren^arius ini forced him to recant ('whe- 
ther it be true I know not.) 

§ 12. To this Council the Emperor Henry fent his Agents to com- 
plain that f<:r(^*'«4«^ the great. King ofC.?/?//t', rcfufed fubiciftion to the 
Emperor, and claimed fomefuch title to him((:lf,ard (now ignorance, fu- 
perhition, and interefl having made the Clergy the Rulers of Kings and 
KingdomsJ the Emperor defireth that King ffr,-iV;;<r.(i may be excom- 
municate unlefs he will fubmit and furceale, and all the Kingdom of 
Spain be interdiifted (or forbidden Gods worfhip.) The Prelates perceiv- 
ed how they were fct up by this motion, and made Kings of Kings, and 
they thought the Emperor's motion reafonable, and without hearing 
King Ferdinand made themfelves judges and fent him word that he mult 
fubmit and obey or be excommunicated and bear the interdid. The King 
took time to anfwcr, and calling his own Bifhops together found them 
of the fame mind and fpirir, and Co was forced to promile fubmilTion. 
Jl\\s Baronius, an. 1055. wnics ex fo. Jlf-iriano ; and Binnius p. 1126. 

§ 13. CCCXL. They fay that the Emperor dying, left his Son //a-- 
ry but five years old, and knew no better way to (ecure his fuccelfun 
than todefire Pope riHor to take the care of it: who therefore called 
a Council :it CoUn to qu'\et^B.iU\vi'i and Godfrey Earls of FLnJers that 
elfe would have refilled him.Thus Bifhops in Councils now were as Par- 
liaments to the Kingdoms of deluded men. 

§ 14. CCCXLI, At TooUufe, ai}. 10,-6. A Council of i8 Bifhops ar- 

Y y 2 tempted 




• 748 Church- Hijiory of ''Bifl)0^s and 

tempted reformation, forbidding (alas ! how oftj Bifhops to fell orders, 
and other ads of Simony, and Priefts ufing their wives, and the Adul- 
tery, Inceft and perjury of Bifhops and Priefts ; bidding them that are 
fuch, repent, and forbidding communion with men called hereticks. 

§ 15. CCCXLII. Though Adultery, Inceft, Perjury and Simony of 
Bifhops was fo hardly reftrained, it feems they would pay for it by fu- 
c5" perftitionj for a Council at Compofiella decreed (faith Baron, ad an. 
1056.^ that r. All Bifhops and Priefts fhould fay Mafs every day. 2; 
That at fafts and Litanies (which were perambulations in penitence) they 
Ihould be cloathed in fackcloth. 

§ 16. Stephen the 9th. alias loth. is next made Pope: In his time 
faith Platina the Church of Milan was reconciled to iiomi, that had 
withdrawn itfelf from it two hundred years. Was ail the world then 
fobjed to the Pope when his Italian neighbours were not ? 

§ 17. This Pope lived after his entrance but 6 or 7 months, and 
they fay made them promife him to choofe none in his place till jkUde- 
brand came home to counfel them : (A great Subdeacon that RomemuA 
be ruled by.) But in the mean time the new Emperor being but five or 
fix years old,the great men of Italjr turned to the old game and brought 
in one by ftrength ('yJ/;«c//«j whom they called Benedict the loih. ali- 
as 9th. a Bifhopj he reigned 9 months, 20 dayes. But when HUdebrand 
came home be got him caft our. This was the twenty firfl: fchifm in the 

§ 18. Hildebrand's crafty counfel was to fend to the Emperor to 
.ftt).ioj9. confentto Gerard Bifhop of Florence whom they chofe in Italy and call- 
ed Nicholas the 2d. Left Bencdi^ fhould get the Emperor on his fide; 
and fo NichoLts made BsnsdiEl renounce and banifhed him : But how fhall 
we be fure which was the true Pope? 

§ 19. This Pope's firft epiftle is to the Arch-Bifhop of Rhemes to zd- 
vi/e him to admonifh the King of France for refifting the Pope. 

§ 20, CCCXLIII. The Pope's Council at 5«tn««» depofed 5f«ff<;//ff. 
§ 21. CCCXLIV. ^n. 105-9. A Council of 113 Bifhof>s at Rome, 
they fay, made Bcrengarim recant, but not repent} but as '^oon as he 
came home he wrote againft them and their Dodrine. 

§ 22. In this Counciljfaith P/^f;«4, the Pope niadea decree very profi-- 
table to the Church of Rome. Bin. faith thefe were the words Ctranflated) 
{"p. 1666. Firfifiodbeingthe InfpeEior it is decreed that the cle£liov of the 
" Roman Bi(J:op be in the power of the Cardinal Bijloops: fo that if anj one be 
" inthroncd in the ^pofiolicl^feat, without the foregoing concordant and Ca- 
" non:cal eleRion of them, and after the confent of the Jellowing religions Or- 
C) But o- "'^^'■•f. Cleikj and Laitj, (*) he be not accounted ^pofiolical but u^pofla- 
thers fay, tical.'] 

zJieEmpe- Here it is much to be noted, i. That this is a new foundation of the 
fert"if" Papacy (by Hildebrand's Council) without which it was falling to utter 
waspu° confufion, How then doth. the Roman fed cry down Innovation and 
IB. boaft 

their Councils abridged. , -yAg 

boaft of Antiquity? 2. Either the Bifliop of ^ow^ is to be chofenas 
the Bifhop of that particular Church, and then the members of that par- 
ticular Church fliould choofe him, or elfe as the Bifhop of the univerfal iu 
Church (pretendedly) and then the univerfal Church fhould choofe hyn. 
But the Cardinal Bifhops of other particular Churches are neither the 
particular Roman Church, nor the univerfal, nor their delegates : and 
fo have no juft pretence of power. 

3. Either this decree was new, or old and in force before: If new, 
their Church foundation is new and mutable, as is faid : If old, all the 
Popes that wereotherwife chofen were no Popes. 

4. And if it be butnecefTary for the future, ail that after were other- 
wife chofen were no Popes, 

f. If feveral wayes and parties or powers making Popes may all make 
them true Popes, then who knoweth which and how many of thofe 
there are and which is the true Pope if ten were made at once ten ftvc- 
ral wayes? 

6. This confeffeth that Chrift hath appointed no way for choofing 
Popes, nor given any fort of men power to choofe them: elfe what 
need Pope NichoLis begin it now anew? And if fo, it feemeth that Chrift 
never inftituted the Papacy: For can we fuppofe him fo Laxe a Legifla- 
tor, as to fay, a Pope fhall be made, and never tell us who fhall have 
power to do it. Then Er.gLindmiy choofe one, and France another, and 
Spain another,C^c.the Bifhops one,the Priefts another, the Prince another, 
and the Citizens another. But ifChrift have fetled a Pope- making power in 
any,it is either the fame as Pope Nicholas did,in Cardinal Bifhops, or nor* 
If not, the Pope changeth Chrift's inftitution : If yea, then all thofe 
were no Popes that were otherwife chofen, and ^6 where is the Ronaan 
Church and its fucceffion. 

7. What power hath Pope Nicholas to bind his fucceflors? Have not 
they as much power as he? and fo to undo it all again? If the King 
fhould decree that his Kingdom hereafter fhall not be hereditary but e- 
ledive, and that the Bifhops fhould be the choofers of the King, were 
this obligatory againft the right of his heirs? 

8. By this decree, if the Laity and Clerks confent not after, he is 
ftill no Pope. 

§ 23. In this fame Council (faith 5;ff. ibid.) it was decreed [_" that 

no one hear the Mafs of a Preshjter^ whom he t^non'eth undoTdtedly to have 

a Concubine, or S»bi!:troduccd,Woman.'\ ^.tr. Whether ihey that make *" 

' him a Schifinatick that goeth from a fcandalou?, wicked, malignant, or 

utterly infufficicnt Pricft, and dare not commit the care of his foul to 

K fuch a one, be not loofer than Pope Nicholas and this Roman Council 

H. vvas.i* 

V § 24. A Council at Malpkia and another at Paris for Crowning King 

W Philtp, And or,e at faccaln Spain, of fmall moment, 

ft § 25. ^n, 1061. Was the zzd. Schifin or two Popes of Rome, for 

^ five 

^ ^- o Chunh-Hifiory of ]^iJJ>ops and 

five years continuance. The Cardinal Bifliops, for fear of the Emperor, 
cho(e one thjc wjs ftreat with him, yli.film Billiop of Luca .- but the 
ItaliAn Princes perCwadcd the Emperor that it was a wrong ro them and 
him, and cholc CjUoIhs Palavicinw Bifliop of Parma, Cjikd JJo>wri>4i 
ey the 2 J. The Sword was to determin Jte who was the true I'opc : Cu4oIm 
came with an Army to Ronte;tht Romanj , came out againft liim, and in 
the Field'jCalled A'ero's; .t orcat l>^tih-Qdk[i Plat ma) was fought, in which 
many of both fides fell, but Cad Ins was driven away> He fliorilj' returned 
«ith a great Army being called by a part of the Romans, that were 
men of pleafure, and by force feized on the Suburbs and St. Peter^s 
Church: But the Souldiers of6'o///*Y^ put his Souldiers to fight; and he 
himfclt" narrowly fcaped, the Prelecl: of Romc^s Sun with him breaking 
through the Romans got poflcffion of the Tower, where they befiegcd 
him till they ("breed him to yield, and buy his liberty of the befiegers for 
300 pound of Silver. Then the Bifhop of Col-.n having the education of 
the young Em])eror came to Rome to rehuke Alexander as an Ufurper, 
but bv Hildebrand was fo overcome (that the choice belonged not to 
the Emperor) that he called a Council which confirmed yllexander and 
depofed Honorhts. The Emperor confented on condition that Cadolushe 
pardoned, and Gtbert (his promoter, Chancellor of Parma') made Arch- 
Bifhop of /v.zw««.^, which the Pope confented to and did. Thus then 
were Popes and Bifhops made. 

^ How fhall we be fure,for Cadolfts''s five year5,who was thePopei'