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Full text of "Aphorismes of justification : with their explication annexed. Wherein also is opened the nature of the covenants, satisfaction, righteousnesse, faith, works, &c. Published especially for the use of the Church of Kederminster in Worcestershire .."














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With their Explication 


Wherein alto is opened the 

nature of the Covenants, Satif- 

fa&ion, Righteoufneffc, 


Published efpecially for the 

ufc of the Chbrchof Keder- 
minfla in irme(lerfbire. 

By their tiptiotthy Teacher, 
R i. Baxter. 

Heir. 9«if. 
And for this caufe he is the Mediator of 
the New Tcftament, that bymeanesof 
dcatH for the Redemption of the tranf- 
greffions undcf the firft Teftamsrt, they 
which arc caUed might receive the pro* 
mife of eternal] inhcritarce. 

Printed for Francis Tjton y at the! 
Three Daggers in Fleetfttee^neerthe 
Innq.TempIc Gstc> t6-w< ' 


To the Learned, zea- 
lous, Faithfull Minifhrs 
of Jefus Chrift, Mr. Richard 

PV**/, Matter ct Pembroke- Hall in 
Cambridge^ Mr, 'intheny Bttrgts, 
Pallor of Sutton- Coldfie I d\n way- 
wictfhirt, Members of ihc Reverend 
Alfcmbiy of Divines, my very 

much valued !-iicndsand Brethren 

in the wot k and Patience 



Never well under- 
flood iheir mean- 
ing, who crave 
Patronage to their 
Writings from 
the meere great ones of the 
times. If they need or defirc 
a borrowed honour, methinks 
A 2 they 

The Efiftle Dedicator j. 

they quite miftake their way, 
land go for water to the top of 
| Teneriffe, wh ich they flaould 
| feek v in the valleys or ftill 
| Sowing Springs.To give them 
jour Writings to ioftro& 
i them 3 is agreeable co our Of- 
! fice and duty: but to fubmit 
jthera to their cenfures, or 
; crave the proteftion of their 
i Greatnefie$ 5 and prefix: their 
names as the Signatures of 
| Worth, as if Truth did ever j 
i the more dwell withia, where 
I this gilded fign is hang'd with- 
out : this feemeth to nie, to 
be as needlefle, as abfufr'd. The 
felf- idolizing fin of Pride is 
fo naturall to all m$n s cfpeci- 
ally when furthered by digni- 
ties and worldly pomp, that 
they are apt enough without 
% tempter, to take themfelves 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

for the fummumgehus in every 
Predicament as well as their 
ownc. A little help wil mount 
them above their Teachers , 
and a little more above Ordi- 
nances ; but the top of the 
ambition is to be above God ; 
that on them as the AlfbatW 
may depend, and to them as 
the Omega z\\ may afcribe. I 
think it a more needfull work 
(not for our honour, but their j 
ownfafety)tomakeihem un-i 
derftand, that Princes and 
Parliaments are Schollers in 
that Schoole where Chrift is 
theMafter,an$ we his Uihers: 
and that (atkaft) in refpeft 
of our Nuncupative 5 Dcchra- 
j tive power^e are their Rulers 
(in fpiricuals, whom they arc! 
bound toob;y, ^^•13.7.1*7-! 
and that a!! Minifters arc feiJ 
A 3 ih 

The Epifite DedtcAtory. 

(hops or Ovcrfeers in the lan- 
guage of the holy Ghoft, Aft. 
20.28. *W/.i.i.&c.andnot 
the fervants or pleafers of 
mzn>Gal. 1 1. 10. 

They leave as the bare name 
of their Teachers, fo that we 
will teach them nothing but 
what they have taught us fir ft, 
and leave out the hard fayings 
wh ich they cannot beare. For 
my part, though I have found 
as much refpe& from fuch as 
matt) yet have I kno*n very 
few of the moft Religious 
great ones, but if I would deal 
but half as plainly as my com- 
miflion and patterns doe re- 
quire, I (hould quickly turne 
their refpe& into iad igniti- 
on. If the old round dealing 
Prophets and Apoftlcs were 
among us, I doubt feme pious 
\ Gen- 

The EpiftU 'Dedicatory. 

Gentlemen would cake them 
for fawcy, proud, pragmatical 
fellowes 5 and would think 
their tongues ( though not 
their revenues) did need a re- 
formation. All this is no 
bleroirti to Magiftracie , the 
Ordinance of God, but to hu- 
mane qature,that for the mod 
part can as ill beare a high e- 
ftate, as a mans brains can en- 
dure to ftand on the pinade 
ofa fteeple. Nor is this to 
blame any due honor to fuch, 
but to excufe my felfe, that I 
employ not my breath to fill 
any empty bladder. For you 
who are lo;v, and full, I ftp* 
pole the acknowledgement of 
your worth is leflc dangerous. 
As I am more beholden to 
Reafon and Religion, then to 
Greatneflc/o doe 1 feel them 

com- \ 

I The Epifile Dedicdtorj* 

command my efteem and af- 
fe&ions mod powerfully. 
Your names therefore have I 
chofen to prefix to this pa- 
per, i. As acknowledging 
you indeed fie cenfors of my 
Do&rines having alwayes va- 
lued the judgement of Ari- 
ftotle in Philofophy before A- 
lexanders^ and thinking your 
approbation more confidera- 
ble then al the Lords or Com- 
manders in the Land. If you 
approve, I fhallbe the more 
confirmed ( and fo will my 
people for whom 1 write it, 
who know and hdfognw you.) 

I If you difallow, (for I cannot 

(conceit that there is nothing 
tobedifaiiowed) I (hill fat i 

jpe<9:,and fearch againe. 

j 2.1 defire alfo hereby to ; 

acquaint the world with the j 


Tke Spifiie 'Bedicatory. 

reverend efteem I have of you, 
and to (hew the contemners of j 
the Miniftry fome examples ! 
for their confutation : That 
they irho think that Enghnd 
hath not as learned, holy, ex- j 
perimentall, judicious, hum- 1 
Me, heart- piering Preachers, 
as any other Nation whatfoe- 
ver,may look upon you and 
confeffe their errour : That 
for all the diffentioas that 
have fo wafted borh Church 
and State, it may appcare in 
you, wee had lome that were 
I lovers of peace * and if all had 
been fo minded, our wounds 
had bin heald.That our igno- 
rant yonglings that ru(h upon 
the Miniftry ( who may fee j 
thetnfelves in that glaffe, i I 
Hw&.fO may confider their ! 
diftancefrom fuchasyou,and 

be I 

Thetyifi e Dedicatory, 

be humbled. That thofe who 
wonder at the fpreading of er- 
rors in our people, may fee in 
youj we had fome that taught 
them better 5 And Alexander 
did unjuftly hang Epheftions 
Phyficion becaufe hee dyed. 
And that out Authors or de- 
fenders of Itroboms worfhip, 
whofe fingers itch to be do- 
ing with the Prophets that 
gainfay them , may ice what 
manner of men they have 
todeale with, whofe worth is 
fufficient to difgrace the 
proudeftperfecutqnrs,and make 
their names hatefuil to all ge- 
nerations : To whom I com- 
mend Six waiter Ravleighs tme 
obfervation (Hift. of the world 
par.iJ,4.c.$.§.6.) [If Anti- 
pater upon his conqqeft had 
carried all other a&ions never 


TheEpifil DtdicAWy. 

fo mildly, yet fot killing De-\ 
rnoftbenes^ all that read his clo- >] 
qucnt Orations, doe condemn 
him for a bloody Tyrant to 
this day : Such grace and re- 
putation doe the learned Arts 
finde in all civill Nation*, that 
the evill done to a man famous 
inoneofthem, is abletoble- 
miib any a&ion how good fo- 
cver otherwife it be or hono- 
rably carrycd.] Tofuchends 
as thefe have I here prefixed 
your names ; and not to in- 
terefle you in the difhonour 
of the imperfe&ions of this 
(lender Tra&ate. 
\\ Farewell, Reverend Bre- 
tben, and go on to be exem- 
plary in all fpirituall excellen- 
cies: And that the Lord of 
the Haiveft would fend forth 


The EfiftU Dedicatory. 

more facb, and lengthen and 
(bcceed your laboors to his 
ChHrcb, is ebe hearty pray- 
er of 

Tour unworthy feBow- 


1649- Ri. Baxter. 

To the Reader. 






Heflow progreft 
of knowledge, 
and the {mall 
addition that 
each age doth 
make to the 
foregoing^botb in common Sci- 
ences and Divinity, dotbfeema 
wonder to many. Among many 
others, tbefefoure are no fmatl 
impediments to this deferable in- 

I. Every ignorant \ empty 

kraine ( wbuh usually hath me 

bigbefi efleem ofitjeife)hA:h the 

a liberty 

To the Reader. 

liberty of the Prejje , whereby 
(through the common itch that 
pride exciteth in men, to feeme 
(ornehodyin the wofid) the num- 
ber of bookes is grown fo great, 
that they begin with many to grow 
contemptible i and a man may 
beftow a great many yeares to find 
out the Authors weak nejjfe^ and 
that his books have nothing in 
them but common ; and Jo many 
mufi be tojjedover before we find 
out thofe few that Are cleareand 
folid^ that much of our livef 4rt\ 
fpentin the difcovery : And yet 
he is thought to fcape well that 
onely lofeth his time and labour 
and gets no more hurt by them.) 
Some think the truth Ml not 
thrive among tk . till every mam 
have leave to fott> both in Prejje 
and Pulpit *H$ pteafe • God for- 
bid that » we fixould ever feet ha t 
% day I 


| day I If ten mens Joyces be loud-] 
i er thenotHy then would thenoyfe 
\ of Err our drown the voyce of 
Truth ; Ignorance is ufually c!a- ! 
mwous and load, but Truth is\ 
modeft, though zealow:Ove Or j 
tbodox faithjull Teacher, would\ 
fcarcebefeen or fade room for^ 
the. crowd of feduccts: For the 
godly ^compared with tht ungod- 
ly^, tm not neer fo few as the men 
of. deer understanding, in com- 
parifon of the ignorant : And 
ihiy are woft forward to fpeake, 

2. Others then are of much 
like under standing and ends m 
the former^ who yet tafythe con- 
trary veanes to obtain? thofe 
-end*. They bpow nofuch way to 
\ be the onely men, as magt fer tally 
tohlcnctall conttadiBors : If it 
were one ly for apparent and\ 
1 « * eighty \ 

To the Reader. 

mighty truths r> I fhuld com., 
mend their ztak: But, the mi fa 
chiefe is ± that, the) will he 
Creed. maker sthemfelvi^or put 
their Commentaries into the 
Text 9 or fa conjoyne them^ as. 
the Rhempi that the Text may 
notwd*\ in the day- light alone; 
And fa the Creed of mmy* wfio 
have a quicke and ea fie faith is 
fuelled as big almoji \xs. Aqui- 
x&sSummes± 4/ one of the' Fri 
mitive CMartyn were aliv 
among us , and frofeged but 
what wxs in his ancient Creed % 
hee would fear ce be taken by ma- 
ty f or * Christian. I am not 
all fa narrow in my Creed \ as 
Doll or Taylor urgetb: but I 
have obfarved more *f this, fart 
of men contemne his Arguments y 
then are able to anfwer themi 
The fa men therftfalves believe 

£ V fol 

-' - —~ ; : — —i r -; *■ ' 


nuck( fiJe hqrjnna ) that 
I they liriow but little * And yet 
they would have no body know 
more then they , or no body 
fpeake that filth not as they. 
1 T$e) would have nothing (aid 
but w) at is fa Id tlrealy ; and 
tJi&it is better ( ii print) fa? 
?* jibing, jhey think it a re, 
p reach to change our opinions % 
or hoN them with referves: Pu- 
dethrcopprobrU nobis, &c. 
. But O that tbefe men could tell 
us how. to remsdy it I To cry 
down that ignorance which dweU 
let^m m*. is more to the credit 
of Knowledge then of me. But 
the fe men are like many fuperfi* 
clall Scholia/*, who when they 
have /pent many yeans in the 
yniverjitics , have ho way to 
prove themselves proficients, but 

to ex toll Learning jtndcn down 
a 3 the 



the unlkmed, tbdtfrtkey'm, 

caft the fufpitionfrpni thel 

Je/ves upon others : Eyenfo do^ 

theft in crying dmn enows. / 

I know this fm all TraB mil net 

, rellifb mil with thzfe mens pal- 

lats • neither & h ambitious of 

i their favour, or yet fo quarrel. 

\fome as puyopfy to ^VMe 

I them ; though feme words nixy 

; zrot £*y#J tfj£<tf to their conceit* # 

' M f abkorre the prcjfB of l^ 

; !ian ro <aty?™y. rfc? Chrj^t^ 

\ Faith, fy giving all Setts a 11 

\berty of contending ; fo a-w J 

\ loath thut any fucb , mo after 

Ifhouldbe produced by nature who 

j fhouN be a profejjed enemy, to. the 

! advancement of Reafon.' \ or 

Jboutd prefume to boundtftai fed 

of Knowledge which Gad hath 

' promifed fha'l cover the eafttfi 

and to fay, hither to jpd h thou 

To the Reader. 

*«. and no further: For my part, 
IrnuftfaM Butgerfdicius in 
prsfat. ad fecundamcdit.Lo- 
uic jWipw wrrlStt w'«p<"> 
Vis enttti humana? mentis ira 
circumfcripta eft , uc omnia 
nonvideatomni tempore ; & 
quxantcaprobavit, poftac- 
curatius examen itcium ltn- 
pVobet.tejiciatoue. Hocadca 
reipfa compeTio tepws tn 
audits meditationibuiqae me- 
W tit qux olim mihi vifa font 
Certimmi & qmfi ex tripode 
bronunciata , ea roehonbus 
rationibus mows deprehen- 
dam, admodum efle a ventate 
Men*. A*dfure Divinity hath 

m »reat depths as vhtlofopby^ 
efveciaBy where it it interwoven 
with it. And to them that wiH 
certifie me in my miflakes, Imuji 
fay as Ariftotlefofc* tffl*W> \ 

To the Reader. 

he preferred him the me&nes of 
his cure ( refcrente ^liano , 
lib.?, devar, Hift.) Ne,in- 
quit, me cures vchic bubul- 
' cum, velut foflarem,fed prius 
caufam ediflere, ficenitn fi- 
cili pcrfuafionc me morige- 
rum reddideris. Crudelilft* 
ma cnim eft (inqmc Rkfche!) 
\Sc infaniflima tyrannis , cam 
jqais alios; uc a fed i& is attar* 
ganr, cogcre vulr, nulla di&> 
! 5, But the grestejh enemy to 
knowledge of aS y is mensftudy- 
ing onety names and words 5 in 
fiead of 'things . Both in Scien- 
ces find Divinity this hath de~ 
bafed mens under fiandings. 
Men get all the termes of Art* 
and theologicdl definitions^ /.< 
ilinRions \ Axiomes , &c. *t K 
tfmr fingers end- but to fiu*ly 



the wKureoftbe things them. 

felilef^hey are. utterly carehfje. 

V?heir having Ijitb rnoretn 

'their mmon ,' ih * n m th ,t :r 
redon and judgement : Iherg 
you' may f»de perhaps a large 

j Mnkxfkure , or a- Farrago 
N-.tionumfccun.darum, fed, 

fcrV fine primis. Tbtj b*ye\ 

fame mrds which their Turns 
Ud Authors have put mo 
tieirmoutb-es ilftputUemM 
of their &eaten.road,and they are 
' ataftand: ibeft mtnmqmtb 
\ indufay makegoodLinguip oY 

muffer an Army mtbout their 
Soles :■ gut for Philosophy and 
■Divinity, they have Utile, more 
then tie' Careers bo'fe nht.n be 
hltt a Library on his back': AS 

— rtm-rS ; 

in Dialog, demufcdcv^^o 
Do6tomrt dusd TikXtafle*, 
Alii cniai eruditi (tint cjaafi 
raemorid tenus dolfti \ alii 
veritat am penfitatores . Du6 
itaque ad authoritateni pctun- 
mr, Lir & artis perkUS fiV, & 
exeorum nutflero perieVq^os 
depoficum eft fcientice -tfibti- 
nal. What I would fay te thefe 
men^ they may read (if they will 
m<& tbi hhour) in Ritf- 
chell's Preface to his late 
Contemplationcs "Mctaphy. 

Anif( [which is the kitting 
effeFt of 'this venome ) ihefe 
preachers ufiullf teach their 
fsopk a Chripanity' fuitabh 
\to their own* Tbeohgie, which 
conjifetb in repeating ceria<>tie x 
words } and formes , a nd ufmg cer- 
tain ceremonious anions , 'ant 


To the Reader. 

then they are a* good Christians 
they themfetves are Di« 

4, And yet were there no 
\mifcarriage t* our fludm 5 
; Knowledge could not make that 
happy progreffe which feme ex- 
feB : For it is not inftudies as \ 
it ii fn HmufaBureSy that one \ 
man may begin where another] 
left ; but every man must fetch ! 
it from the very principles him. J 
felfe ; Neither can we take the 
words ofthofe that have jludied 
it before m 5 for that is neither 
a founds nor fatisfaBory know, 
iedge : whence it comes to pajje, 
(faith Ppmble Vind. Grat.p. 
168.) that while wee are bujie 
ia examining our forefathers 
i&uentions^ and posterity im 
placed in trying our examina- 
ttons } neither we nor they have x 

™* h ' 

i— - ■ " ■ ■'■■ ■ » ■■ » » „ ■ ■■ - ■ . 1 - 

To rthcftcttfer. 

much time to adde any thing 
for the increase of Learned 
Knowledge : whence you may 
guejje at one ca&je , why many 
Sciences y for fame thoufands *f 
yeares have kept one pitchy and 
not grown* above that dwarfifh 
feature that they had in thefr 
infant invention ; and alf* 
what the reafon is that many 
that read mop , prove not the 
deepetl Schollersyfor no great*? 
impediment to exaft Learning 
then, to make ufe of other mens 
understandings , and negleft 
o#r owne* 

1 [peak not this , as if I had 
overcome the fe impediments, any 
more tbe» others • tut becaufe 
I have perhaps more keeie hin~ 
dred by them , and fo take my 
felfe bound to wame thee of the 
pit that 1 havefalne in* 4n4 


- - ■ - 

To the Reader. 

with all to let thee know , that 
if godly men themfelves while 
they lye in thtfe fnares r fbaltop- 
ptfeany truthin this Tra8> it is 
no winder > but a thing to be ex* 

Togivethee tfoHiftory ofthf 
contption and nativity of tbefe 
A phonfmes,** i the reafon why 
I trouble ihe world with more 
Boo Lies, which 1 blame in others \ 
underfland, that this is but a* 
Appendix to another Treatife 
going to the PreJJe on a mate 
excellent Subjetl : Al\o, that ha* 
ving occafion therein to touch 
upon, Match. 25.55/ I was 
deftred to explain* in what, fence* 
it is i that Cbrift giveth the rea- 
fon of hisfentence in judgement 
from mem works : /« anfwer 
hereto (andtpcleare (ome other 
incident 'doubts of the lil^e n*\ 


To. tht Reader. 

ture) I wrote thefe Pofitions or 
*ipborifme$ s \ which when feme- \ 
had got, they complained of e& ! 
| /cure brevity ^ and de fired fome j 
\fuUer explication < which when ! 
/ had done , that which before \ 
wat but mo or three leaves, an 
nexedus an Appendix to the\ 
fore mentioned Treatife , did \ 
[well to this bignefle, that I was \ 
faint to let it gee alone. Could 
I have got Copies enow for my ; 
owne friends^ whom I ambmind 
to injlruB , other men had not 
betne like to b&Vdbeen trouUed 
with it • If thm pleife , rforas 
mayst let it pajj'e without tkim^ 
obfervx\ion : If otherwife, it is 
fo (mill, that it will t ah a? but 
little of thy time to read it, nor 
adds mu?tr t6 the commn bur* 
den; Somt few paffage there are 
which I am not fo clean and 


To rbt Reader, 

confident in my felfe ; J$ the 
nature of the Death threamld 
itithe firfl CdWntoti The.ne- 
cefiitftftht-funttaall p<?rjS«c 
mance or execution' of all threat- 
rings • the inter eft tf CbriHs 
ABive Obedience te thofe Lam 
tfbSch did bind* man in inno- 
cency^ in thtwork of fatisfo- 
ttton , as conjoined with bis 
Fajfitit Oieiience to make up 
the fame frke. But as the fe art 
'but fetp^fo lamr.ot utterly Vi 
a hfft vtonceming them , 4u4 
feme to difcerne a flro&g pro- 
babi lit y ofirhat I have i»ritttn> 

A For you^ my- Friends , , tvhom 
Ohri W hath committed t$ my 
Teaching and O ver fight y as to 
an unworthy Vjher. under him 
in- hh Schook \ axcLsteward m 
hisBoufe^and ofkis Myfxeries^ 
. JpuL 



1 .fttblijb this for-your fdJvt and 
ufe; i.{ ' 

that points controverted *r4 : i& r )\ 
ter written thtin f reached^ andi 
read than beard • efpecJally^ 
where the greateft part of tie \ 
Auditory is unc^pable of u**t 
derflpnding them. 

2. Tet is tkisD-o&rine offo ) 
great concernment y andfo nser ! 
the FQundati^ that 4>f \dltyf 
controverfies agitated i#> $k#[ 
Church y there s few that , doe 
better defer ve pur ftudy, and 
few, lhaX l&P.fa loath yourftiould 
be ignorant of It is myjxttf* 
ding.joy\ thatGfid hath kept- 
you w, ihis.difirafted age, fron 
doting about que Hons that en*\ 
gender frife y and hatK : ^ive^} i 
you . to xlealx fe» the mojlfusfej \ 
mentally undoubted^and ptaUi-\ 


— — 

To the Reader. 

call Truths, and to {f end your 
time in praTice, and peace ^apd 
promoting th$ falyation cf the 
ignorant about you ^ when others 
| are taken up in cenfuriug their 
brethren ^renting the Churchy 
\ oppo flag the truth, or wrangling 
| altoutleff'^r things which are 
\ quite above thsir understand- 
ings* Hold on ibis wiy ; and 
if you have not in it mort Com 
mnnion with Cbrift , more: 
growth in Grace y and oh your 
heath beds a more comfort able 
review of your lives , and at 
l^l a [better reckoning made 
thereof, then the other % then 
j I have deceived you . Vet , 
.;> I wzuld have you negleB no 
truth , fo especially what time 
>i7* can [pare for controverfie 5 
l*t it*biefdy be [pent upon thefe 
that are fo weighty. Be afhameet 
_ that 

To the Reader. 

that men fhould heart you difpu» 
ting about Circumft ant tails of 
Difcipline ,. Bapttfme , Sup- 
per 3 &c % before you know bov 
to bee justified before GO D y 
Or underftand the DoBrine of 
the Covenants , Redemption^ 
Faith, Obedience &c. 

3. The Bookes that are mit- 
ten? ofjujlifcation are many, and 
fome great y which 1 " fyiew you 
had not time to read • and if)oh 
did, perhaps would lofe much of 
your labour , as I have done : 
Therefore I de fired to fet the 
mofl neceJJ'ary part before you in 
a narrower compare. I never 
intended the full handling of 
the DoHriae of justification • 
thefe Aphorifmes being but for 
the Anfwering of a particular 

#om '"' containing as much at \ 
tke iMtttf Yolitmes. '• Jtf'/ow* 
»£»*«"/ have omilteil the proof e 
'of mi ARertions, partly became 

[toxins i farth for brevity ,\ 
and partlrbecauje it if for your 
■fa to Womlatn (.jeij at- 
\uk to chare *hat you. doubt 
\jF. < A MM\ Ihope, doeun-, 
mmaf&l to take upon; 

\yMnnot)et reach to ; fee in, 


Uird'andrnore necejjary than 

fh%jpimgi^ -*«**»y 


knomng\ .that X^muft fhonly 
put off this Tabernacle] andffi 
fallen from you y [ thought 
good to ufe this 'endeavour , 
that you msj bee able after 
my departure , to t have tbefe 
things in % your runcler stand- 
ings and remembrance ( 2 P^\ 
r. 14, 1 J..-) And while' [ 
am in this jleli , I (ball not 

ceafe to x^dm^iiM «. **i 
pray on your behalfe , that you 
may beware Itf yee alfo faing 
led amy with the errot^r if the' 
wiclgcf, fall from yo.ur r: Q?ne 
(ledftftnsjfe • but miy grov in 
Grace r - and in the Knowledge 
of our LORD and S A "K l- 


Nor (hi J l I difirt any grex!- 

er Honour or .Advancement 

on this Etrth, than with A- 

» ... * 


bilitU^ Sincerities and Sue- 

cejje D to be 


in tfee work of your 

\ t y Salvation, 

Ri. Baxter. 

Novemh.i 7 . 







With their Explication 

Wherein alfo is opened 
the Nature of the Cove- 

ncfle, Faith, Works, &c. 

Thefis I. 

O d hathfirfl a Will of pur* 
pofe 5 whereby he determi- 
mh of Events : what fball he y 
tnd what fball not be 7 de fa- 
£o: Secondly, And a Legifla- 
ive y or Preceptive trill, for the 
\overnment of the Rational! 
B Creature • 

7 he Nature of the 

Creature : whereby he determi- 
netbwhatfhallfo, and what (b all 
not le, de jure, or in pint of du- 
ty ; and in order thereto, conclu* 
deth of Rewards and F unify- 


T^HisDiftinaion of the Will of 
A God into his Will of Purpofc, 
and his Will of Precept \ is very 
commonly ufed by Divines, and ex • 
plained by feme, efpteially, Do&orj 
Trvtfe frequently, and Doctor Ed j 
ward Reignolds , in his Sermons onj 
the Humiliation day es, onHof. 14. 
Yet 1$ not the exceeding ncceffity 
and ufcfulnefTe of it difeerned by ma- 
ny j nor is it improved accordingly 
by any that I have read.- Itisncan 
of kin to the common diftin& ion 
o£ Voluntas fgni>& BcnepUcit*, but 
not the fame : The Tearm [jig**] 
being more comprehend ve , yet (in 


Covenants opened*, 

my judgement ) leffe proper and 
convenient then this [ Legiflative 
VSf ill, or voluntas Tnecepti i) As the 
o\Avzife(hzw$,Pf*cipit ac prohibit t 
permnityconffility implet. Two of 
i thefe A6ts, to wit, Permiflion and 
Operation, fall under the Will of 
Purpoie ,as they are the effe&sand 
revelarion of it ; but not under the 
Legiflative Will : And indeed the 
Schoolmen by their Voluntas figni % 
do intend no other Will, but the 
fame which they call BentfUciti t 
whofeObjeft is event, as it is un- 
certainly feprefented to us by thofc 
five fignes : And beeaufe they are 
fuch uncertain Agnes (the contrary 
to what they feem to import , be- 
ing frequently certain;) therefore 
they tell us that this isbutmetapho- 
rieally cailed the Will of God ,v;z,. 
by a fpeech borrowed from the man- 
ner of men, whofignirle their Will 
by fuch kinde of Action*; fee Acjuin, 
futA,ia:i*.Que/l.\9. Art.\\,\i. 
And Schibler, Metaph. of this. 
But that which 1 call the Legifla. 
B 2 live 

The nature of the 

tive or Preceptive will, hath ano- 
ther object , viz,, not event but 
duty ; and is Metonymically rather 
then Metaphorically called Gcds 
Will, it being the effect and revela- 
tion of his reall unfeigned Will. 
For God doth not feeme to Will 
that this or that (hall be our daty, 
and fo fpeake after, the manner of 
men (according to the fcnfe of their 
Voluntas ftgni ) but hcc willcth it 

Neither is this DiftinSion the 
fame with that which difFerepceth 
Gods revealed Will from his fecret. 
For his revealed Will containeth 
alio part of the Will of his purpofe, 
and all the will of precept : The 
meere proprieties, and alio the pro - 
mifesand threatnings.fo farasthey 
point out future event, are the Re- 
vealed part of the Will of Gods 
purpole. Ttlevus himfclfe in his 
conference with Ow™ (eemes to 
approve of this Diiincuon ; where 
he diftingui(beth of Gods Will ac- 
cording toits Obje&,zri&. vet quod. 


Covenant! opened* 

ipfe vult facere t vel quod a nobis 
vult^eri : If in this laii branch he 
fpe:.kenct de officio an J of this pre- 
ceptive will , rather then de events 
and of the will of purpofe, then he 
canmeane it onely ofa conditional! 

As we ufe to diftinguifh betwUc 
the legall will of the Kingpubliqiy 
manifeftingour c'ury in the Laws, j 
and his perfbnail private will ; fo f 
murt we do here. 

The necefluyof this diftincYion 
is fo exceeding great, that but little 
of the doflrinall part of Scripture 
can be weN underftood without it. 
The verity of it is alfo unqueftion- 
able : for none but the grolely igno- 
rant will deny 5 that Evenc and 
Duty, Purpofe and Law, are truly 
diftinft, or that both thefe laft are 
called in Scripture and common 
cuRome of fpeech _ The Will of 

And therefore it is a fenceleiTc 

Objection , that wee hereby make 

two wills in God ,". and thole con* 

B 3 tndiftory. 

The Nature of the 

f radi&ory s For firft, we only make 
them tw© diftin& A<5h of one and 
the fame will : whereof that of 
purpofe is lefle revealed , and doth 
Icfle concern us, yet is moil properly 
called his will, as being fuch as in 
man we call the EHrite A& of it : 
but that of precept is all revealed 
and doth more concerne us ; yet as 
it is in his Law it nenely Metony- 
mcally called his Will as being only 
the difcovery of his \ 7 Vil\ i properly 
fo called. 

And ily Contradiction there is 
none; for they are not de eodsm; 
they have to do with feverall Ob ■ 
jeds ; To Will that it (hall be 
Abrahams duty pro hoc tempore to 
facriflee his fon ; and yet that de 
event* it (hall not be executed , are 
far from eontradi3ory. To Will 
that it (hall be the Jews duty , not 
tokillChriit, and yet that eventu- 
ally chey fhall kill him , is no con- 
tradition. To will that it fnall.be 
'Pharaohs duty to. let Ifrael go ; 
and yet that in poynt of event hee 


Covenants opened. 

(hall not let them go, is no contra- 
diction. Indeed, if God had wil- 
led, that he ("hall let them go, and 
he fhall not eventually , or that it 
fhall be his duty, and it fhail not ; 
either of thefe had been a contra- 
diction undoubted. 

But I havelargely explained,and 
more fully improved this Diftio- 
dion under the Difpute about Uni- 
verfall Redemption, and therefore 
fhall fay no more ofit now. 

Thcfis IT. 
F/V/?, Prsdeftination, EltBi- 
on, Reprobation, or Pretention. 
Secondly^ the Covenant betvixt 
the Father and the Son. Thirdly 
the ab[olute Pr&mifes of Regene- 
ration andyerfeverance.FoHrtb- 
1% the fulfilling of thofe Promi- 
ses by differencing Grace, are all 
in the feries under the will of 
God$purpofe m 

B 4 Ex 9 

The Nature of -the 


IJ «of very great ufe rounder- 
ftand which of tbefe Wills every 
one of Gods particular words or 
works do fall under, 

i. That Predeftination, Eleai. 
on, and Reprobation, are under this 
Will of Purpofeonly, is undoubted. 
2< Divines ufe to mention a Co . 
venanting between the Father and 
the Son about the work of Rederop - 
tion : It is called a Covenant but 
improperly/peaking afcer the man- 
ner of mem Properly it is but the 
Decree of God concerning Chrifts 
Incarnation, his work, and hisfuf- 
fermgs, and the fuceeiTc of thefe, and 
what (Sod will further do thereup- 
on. This therefore falls under this 
Genius, and fo doth theFathers gi- 
ving the Ele& to Chrjit, which* is 
but part of this, 

3s Thofe promifes of taking the 
hard heart out of ui t and giving 
hearts of flefli, one heart, a new 
heart, and of putting his fear in us, 

Covenants opened* 

that wee fliall not depart frem 
him a &c. sre generally taken to be 
Abfclure prcmiies ( for here is no 
Condition exprtiled or intimated) 
madetoa!ltheEkc"t and only them, 
as not yet regenerate ; and To not to 
any cither named or qualified pcr- 
fons. Thefe are not there To re fulfil- 
led upon condition of our Faith, or 
made ours by beleev : ng, as other 
prcmifes are: For Faith is part of 
the thing promifed, and the perfbns 
are unregeneratf, and confequently 
unbclec vers when thefe prcmifes are 
fulflllfd to them. Therefore thefe | 
Ab/b'ute promifes are but meere 
gradous prcdiclicns what God will 
do fcr his Elc&, the comfort where- 
of can be received by no rr an till the 
benefit be received, and they be to 
him fulfilled : Therefore as all meer 
predi(5tions,fo alfo thefe promifes do 
fall under the Will of Purp?ie, and 
not of Precept. 

4. So alfo doth the fulfilling 'of 

thefeto particular peifcns: the aclu- 

allchufing or calling of fome while 

B 5 others 

I o The Nat fire of t be 

others are paft by : The bedewing 
of that faith which is the condition 
of the Covenant : The giving of 
perfeverance : And all the pafiages 
of fpeciall, erfe&uall, differencing 
Grace. The knowledge of this is of 
great ufe in expediting the Armini- 
an Controversies as you (hall per- 
ceive after : Some parts of Scripture 
do in feverall refpe&s belong to both 
thefe Wills ; fuch are fome promifes 
and threatnings conditional!, which 
as they are predictions of what {hall 
come to pafle, do belong to the wiH 
Purpofe , but as they are purpofely 
delivered and annexed to the com - 
mands and prohibitions for incite 
ment to Duty, and rerlraint from 
Sin, (which was indeed the great end 
of God in them) lo they belong to 
the Wi'l of Precept : For the pro 
mife of Reward, and the threatning 
o£Punifhment, are reall parts of the 
Law or Covenant, fo of Hiltory 
All this is only a preparative tathe 
opening more fully the nature o "the 
Legillative. WilUnd what tails under 


Qoventntt eptnrd. 1 1 

it : For the Will of Purpoie, aid 
wRat is undent, ♦ have no intention 
any further to handle* 

Theils HI, 

Fir ft, The mil of God concern- 
ing duty is exprejfed wbolj tn bis 
written Lam. Secondly, ivbub 
Laws are promulgate and e^a^li- 
fhed by way of Covenant , wherein 
the Lord engageth himfelfe to re- 
ward thofe that perjorme its con- 
ditions^ andtbieateneththt fe. 
nalty to the violaters thereof. 

Explication* . 

l;XTOt but that much of Gods 
xN Will is alfo contained in the 
Law of Nature; or may by the meere 
uleof Reafon be learned from Crea- 
tures, and Providence* : But yet this 


12 The Nature of the 

is nothing againft the Scriptures 
fuffieicney and perfection : For t5e- 
fides all the fuperadded PofitiveSj 
the Scripture alfoeomajnes all that 
which we call the Law of Nature; 
and it is there to be found more 
legible and difcernable than in the 
beft of our obfeurc, deceit! ulh cor- 
rupted hearts. 

a. All perfect compulfive Laws 
have their penalty annexed, (orelfe 
they are butmeerly directive) but 
notufually any reward propounded 
to tbeobeyers : Iris fufficient that 
the Subject know his Soveraignes 
pleafure, which he is bound to ob- 
ferve without ary reward. Meere 
Laws are enacted by Soveraignty? 
Meere Covenants are entred by 
equalls, or perfbns dif-engaged to 
each other in refpeft of the contents 
of the Covenants, and therefore 
they require mutualleonfent.Thefe 
therefore made by God, are of a 
mixt ratu e; neither meere Laws, 
nor meere Covenants, but both. 
He hath enacted his Laws as our So- 

Covenants opened. ij 

veraigne Lord, without waiting for 
the Creatures confenr, and will pu- 
ni& the breakers , whether they 
confenu>rno: But as it isa Cove- 
nant^ there muft be a rettipulation 
from the Creature 5 and God will 
not performe his conditions there 
expreffed, wiihout the Covenan- 
ters eonfent, engagement, and per- 
formance of theirs. 

Yet is it called frequently in 
Scripture [a Covenant,! as it is of- 
fered by God, before it be accepted 
and entered into by the Creature : 
beeaufe the condefcention is only 
on Gods part • ai:d in reafon there 
fhouid be no queftion of the Crea - 
tures confent, k being fo wholly 
and only to his advantage. Gen. 9. 
11,17. Sxoh 34.28'. % Dcut. 30«I. 
2 Kings 23,2..&c. 
^There arc fome generall obfeure 
Threatnings annexed to the prohi- 
bitions in the La^y of Nature j that 
is, Nature may difcernc that God 
willpunifh the breakers of his Law, 
but how, or with what degree of 

14 The Nature of the 

puniflhment it cannot difcern : Alfo 
it may collect that God will be 
favourable and gratious to the Obe- 
dient : but it neither knows truly 
the conditions , nor the nature or 
greatneffe of the Reward,nor Gods 
engagement thereto. Therefore 
as it is in Nature ^ it is ameer Law* 
and noc properly a Covenant. Yea 
to *Adam in his perfection , the 
forme of the Covenant was known 
byfuperadded Revelation, and not 
written naturally in his heart* 

Whether the threatning and pu • 
nifhment do belong to it only as it 
is a Law , or alfo as it is a Cove- 
nant , is of no great moment; 
feeing it is really mixtof both. It 
is called in Scripture alfo, the curfc 
of the Covenant : 2) cut. 29.20* 

Thefts. 4. 

Thefirft Covenant m&de with 


Covenants opened* 1 5 

Adam did promt 'fe life upon con- 
dition of perfeB obedience, and 
threaten death upon the leap 


THe promife of li'e is not ex- 
preffed, but plainly imply cd in 
the threading of death. That this 
We promi fed was oncly the continu- 
ance of that ttate that Adam was 
then in in Paradice,u the judgment 
of raoit Divines ; But what death 
it was that is there threatened , is a 
Queltion of very great dilrlcu ty, 
and fome moment. The iam^ dam» 
nation chat followcth the breach of 
the New Covenant , it could not 
be: no moretfeen the life then en. 
joyed is the i^me with chat which 
the New Covenant promifeth. And 
I cannot yet aflent to their judge- 
ment, who think it wasoneiy that 
dea.h which confuicth in a meerlfe- 

16 The Natttreofthe 

pa ration of ibule and bodyjoralfo 
in the annihilation of both, sstdams 
feparaced foule muft have enjoyed 
happinefle, or endured mifery ; For 
that our foulcs when feparated are 
in one of theie conditions, and not 
annihilated orinfenfible , I have 
proved by twenty Arguments from 
Scripture in another booke. As 
Adamshfe in Paradife was,no doubt 
incomparably beyond ours in happi- 
ceffe ; ib the death threatened in 
that Covenant was a more terrible 
death then our temporall death. For 
though his lcfTeby a terr.pora'l deach 
would have bin greater then ours 
now; yec hee would not have bin a 
Subject capable ofprivation, if an- 
nihilated ; nor however capable of 
the fenfe of his Iofle. A great lofle 
troubleth a dead man no more then 
the fmalleft. Therefore as the joy 
of Paradife would have bin aperpe- 
tualljoy/o theforrowandpiinit it 
like would have bin perpetuall , and 
wee perpetuated capable Subjects, 
See barlow exercit\nt7Hmmelttu Jit 


Covenants opened. 17 

miferum ejfc quam non ejfe f I do 
not thinke that all the deliverance 
that Chrifts Death procured, was 
onely from a temporall death or 
annihilations that thedeaih which 
hee fuffered was ^equivalent to no 

The/Is 5; 

This Covenant being foon by 
man violatedjhe threat ning mufl 
bee /unfilled andfo the penalty 


\7T7Hether there were any 
V V flat neceffity of mans dif- 
fering after the fall , is doubted by 
many,and denyed by Socmus.Whem 
ther this neceffity arifeth from Gods 
naturall Jurtiee, or his Ordinate, 
viz. his Decree, and the verity of 


1 8 The Nature of the 

the threatning , is aifo with many 
of our own Divines a great difpute: 
whether God might have pardoned 
finne, if he had not faid, the fmntr 
flail die, may be doubted of(though 
I believe the affirmative, yet I judge 
it a frivolous prefumptuous quefti- 
on. But the word ofhis threatning 
being once paft, me thinks, it mould 
bee paft queftion that hee cannot 
abfolutely pardon , without the 
apparent violation ofhis Truth, or 
Wifdome. Some think that it pro- 
ceeded! from his Wifdome rather 
then his Juftice.that man muft fuf* 
fer: ((zzyixlJo.Cjoodwm of juftif. 
part&.pag.^ ) but why mould we 
feparate what God hath eonjoyned? 
However, whether Wifdome , or 
juftiee, or Truth (or rather all thefe) 
were the ground of it , yet certaine 
jit is, that a ncceffity there was that 
| the penalty mould be inflicted :or 
(elfe the Son of God mould not 
have made fatisfa&ion, nor finners 
bear fomuch themfelves. 

Thefts 6. 

Covenants of encd. ig 

Ihdls 6. 

This penalty the Render htm 
felfe could not hear without his 
everlafitptg undoing; 


THat is, not the fall penalty: 
forparcofitheedidbeare, and 
theEanh for hij lake : and f as I 
think) all mankind doth beare pare 
of it to this day. Buethefullpe- 
nalty would have bin a greater and 

Thcfis 7. 

( : ) Tefus Chi It at ihe will of 
his Father y (2) and upon his 
own ivillidykingferfeBl) fur. 


20 The TStyttire ofjhe 

nifioedforfhisWorke^ (4) with 
& Divine powerfajandperfonaU 
Righteoufnefje* (6) firfl under- 
took* 5(7) &nd afterward dif. 
charged this debt h ( 8 ) byfuf 
fering what the Law didthrea* 
ten j and the offender himfelfe 
wm unable to bear e. 


(r)nPHe Love of God to the 
-L World was the firft womb 
where the worke of Redemption 
was conceived, loh. 3.16. ( as it is 
taken conjunct with his own glory.) 
The Etcrnall Wifdome and Love 
found out and refolvcd on this way 
of recovery , when ic never entered 
into the thoughts of man to con- 
trive or defire it. 

(2) The Will of the Farher 
and the Son are one : The Son was 
a voluntary u idsrtakcr of this task : 


Covenants opened* 21 

it was cot impofed upon him by 
:onftraint : when he is faid to come 
to do his Fathers Will ( Heh.xo. 
7,9* ) it doth alfo include his own 
Will. And where he is laid to do 
it in obedience to the Father, as Jit 
isfpoken of a voluntary obedience, 
fo is it fpoken of the execution of 
our Redemption 3 and in regard to 
the humane nature efpeeially ; and 
not of the undertaking by the divine 
Nature alone. Not only the eon fen t 
of Chrift did make it lawfull that 
he (hould be punifhed being inno- 
cent , but alfo that fpeciall power 
which as he was God he had over 
his own life.more then any creature 
hath:^. io. 18. I havepower 
: (\^ffUv) faith Chrift, to lay down 
. my Life. 

(3).Nomeere creature was qua- 
lify ed for this worke : even the 
Angels that are righteous do but 
their duty ,and therefore cannot fu« 
pererrogateor merit for us.Nciihcr 
were they ab.'e to bcare and over- 
come the penalty. 


^^ The Nature of the 

(4 ). It mull therefore be God 
tharmuftfatisfyGod; bothforthe' 
perfe&ion of the Obedience , for 
dignifying of the duty and" fuffeu 
ing, for to be capable ©f meriting, 
for the bearing of thecurfe,andfor 
the overcommingof it , and doing 
the reft ofthe workes of the Medi- 
atofftvip, which were to be done, 
after the Refurreclion. Yet meere 
God it muft not be f bur manalfo. 
or elfe it would have been forgive* 
nefle without fatisfacYion, feeing 
God cannot be fa d to make fatis- 
fadlion to himfelfe. Many other 
reafon* arc frequently given by 
Divines to prove the neeeflity of 
Chrills Incarnation, e/^#. 20, 28. 

/&£.*. 1,2, 3. 

(%.) Had not Chrift been per- 
fectly righteous himfelfe he had not 
been capabfeof fatisfy ing for others: 
Yet is knot neceflary that he mud 
be inallrefpe^sa fu 1 filler of Righ« 
teoufneflc before he begin the work 
offatisfa&ion,or that his rightebuf- 
neffe and fatisfa&i'on be fodiftinft, 


Covenants opened, a 3 

as that the fame may not be both 
righteoufneffe andfatisfa&ory. 

Though many great Divines do 
fo diftinguifh between luftiiUm 
perfix<e,& IuftitUm meriti 3 2S that 
the former is only a preparatory to 
the latter ; yet I cannot fee any 
realbn but the fame obedience of 
Chrift to the whole Law may be 
both perfonall and meritorious, (of I 
i the righteoufneffe of the Divine 
nature, or the babituall righteouf- 
nefTe of the humane natural do not 
nowdifpute.) Therefore I do not 
mean that all Chrifts perfonall righ. 
tcoufneffe was only preparatory to 
his fatisfaclion and merit, when I 
fpeakofhis being furniflied with a 
perfonall RighteoufnefTe, though I 
eonfetTe I was long of that judge- 
ment. See more after at pag.45. 

( 6, ) The undertaking of the 
Sob of God tofatisfie,wascrfe&u- 
all before his a&uall farisfying : As 
a man that makes a purchafe, may 
take poffefsion and enjoy the thing 
purcnafed upon the metre bargaine 


1 24 The 2fjtureofthe 

made, or earnes paid, before he have 
fully paid the fum. To this purpofe 
rnoftunderftand that in Rev, 13.8. 
whofe names were not written in 
the boo^ of life, of the lambe flaine 
From the foundation of the World: 
But I doubt noc but Weemfe his 
inrjvpretation is the plaine truth ; 
I thSTthe words [ from the founda- 
j tion of the World ] have reference 
J to the writing of thefc names in the 
book of Life, and not to the flaying 
Of the Lambe, as being thus to be 
read, whofe names were not written 
in the boo 1 of life of the flaw Lambe, 
from the foundation of the Werld. 
It hath the fame fence with Rev.iy. 

18. which doth expound this in 
leaving out the mention of the 
flaying of the lambe. 

(7). I know mans guilt andob- 
ligation to fuffer, is but Metapho* 
rieally called his debt. Therefore 
when we would fearch into the na- 
ture of thefe things exactly , wee 
muft rather conceive o' God as the 
Lawgiver and Governour of the 


C*ven*nts opened. 25 

World, then as a eredicor, left the 
Metaphor (hould miflead ut« Yet 
beeaufe it is a common and a Scrip- 
ture phrafe , and conveniently ex- 
prcfleth our Obligation to beare 
thepcnalty of the violated Law, I 
ufc it in that fenfe. 

Bnt here we are caft nponmany 
and weighty and very difficult 
Queftions. Whether Chrift did 
diicharge this debt byway of folu- 
tion or by way of fatisfa&ion ? 

2, whether in his fuffering and our 
efcape the threatniog of the Law 
was executed or difpenfed with? 

3, And if difpenfed with , how it 
can Rand with the truth and jufticc 
of God? j\. And whether finners 
may the-oce be encouraged to con - 
ceive feme hope of a relaxation of 
the threatnings in the Gofpell ? 
5. And whether the faithfullmay 
not ieare left God may relaxe a 
promife as well as a threatning ? 
c. Andlaiily whether if the Law 

C be 

2 6 The Nat are of the 

berelaxable , God might not have 
relealedhis Son from the fufFering, 
rather then have put him tologreat 
torment, and fo nave freely par- 
doned the oftendoors ? I (hail briefly 

i Quefl. M eere and proper fofu- 
tionor payment is, when the very 
fame thing is paid which was in the 
obligation , o r furfered which was 
threatened. Tnrs payment the cre- 
ditor cannot refufe; nor theRu?cr 
refu r e this (ufTering , nor to acquit 
the perfon that hath To payed or 

Satisfaction is the paying of 
fomewhat that was not directly in 
the Obligation s but is given to fa* 
ti fye the creditor in Head of the 
debt , which payment the Creditor 
may chule to accept; antfifheedo 
not cenfent to accept it, though it 
were paid, yet thedebtourfhouid 
not be acqui t. So alio in regard of 

Here we take paym-nr and farrj- 
faction in the iitid ;egall fence, 

Covenants opened* tj 

and not in the large fence wherein 
they are confounded. Andnow the 
Qneftionis \ whether Ghrifts fuf- 
fenng were the payment of the 
very debt, or of fcmewhatelfe in its 
ftead? The rcfolvingof this depends 
upon the revolving of two other 
qud&ons both great and diftrcuk. 

t. What it was which the Law 
did threaten 2. what it was that 
Chrift didfuffer? 

1 1 Various are the jmteemtnts of 
Divines about the former ,• and ex- 
ceed ng difficult it is to determine, 
becaufe it hath pleated the Holy 
Ghotito fpeake of it (o Sparingly: 
and who can here underlined any 
morethemiswrrnen? 1. Whether 
9>£ds9ns\cxx\z and bedy mould irr»- 
mcdiatly have binannihiJated,or de- 
stroyed fo as to become in, enfible? 

2. Or whether his foufe fhould 
have bib immed iat ly iepmced from 
his body as.oursaneat death, and fo 
be the only lurfcrerof thepaine? 

3. Or if fo , whether there fhould 
have bin any Refurre&ion of the 
C 2 body 

28 The nature of the 

body after any certaine (pace of 
time, that fo it might fuffer as well 
as the foule ? 4 . Or whether foule 
and body without reparation flionld 
hare gone downe quick together 
into Hell I Or into any plaeeor 
ftate of torment fhort of Hell ? 5 . 
Or whether both (hould have lived 
a curfed life on Earth through ever- 
lafting, in exclufion from Paradife, 
reparation from Gods favour and 
gratious prefence,lofle 01 his image, 
&c ? 6 . Or whether hee (hould 
have lived fuch a miferable life for a 
feafon, and then be annihilated, or 
deftroyed ? 7 • And if (b, whether 
hismiferyon Earth (hould have bin 
more then men doe now endure ? 
And the more importance are theie 
Queftions of, becaufe of fomc other 
that depend upon them. As 1. 
what dearh it was that Chrift re- 
deemed us from? 2. And what 
death it is that perifhing in'ants die, 
or that cur guilt in the firtt tranf- 
greilion doth procure ? For it being 
afmnc againft the fir It Covenant 



Covenant t opened. *9 1 

onefy, will be puniflhed with no o- 
thcr death then that which is threat- 
ned in that Covenant. 

Much is faid againft each of thefe 
expofitions of that dill threatning. 

i. Againtt the firftl have faid 
fomewhat before; And that in i 
Thef. i. :o- feernj to be much a- 
giinft it : Jefnt that delivered us 
from the w/atb to come : This 
wrath was either the execution of 
the threatning of the Covenant of 
works, or of the Covenant of grace : 
not thelatter,for Chrift faveth none 
whodeferveit, from that: there- 
fore it mui* needs be the wrath of 
thefirft Covenanted confequenc- 
ly that Covenant did threaten a 
future wrath to all tinners, which,if 
the world or ^idam himfeife had 
been deftroyed, or annihilated im- 
mediately upon his fall, we had not 
been capable of. 

2. Againtt the fecond fence, ic 
feemech. unlikely that the foule 
mould furTer alone, and the body lie 
quietly in the dull, becaufe the bo- 
_____ C 3 dy 

The Nature of the 

dy did 6nne as wcU as the foulr, 
and the fenles. were the fouies> inti- 
cers 2nd betrayers. 

2. Againft the third there is no 
intimation of a Refi>rre&ion in the 
Scrip urea* p3rt of the penalty of 
the Covenant of works or as a pre- 
parative to it. That %Adam fhould 
have ri/en againe to be condemned 

; or executed ifCbrift had not come, 

| no Scripture fpeakes j but rather 

] on the contrary , R^furreclion is 
afcrbed to Chrift alote, i for. 1.5 . 
12. 21, 22. 

4. A gainft the fourth it feemeth 

(evident by the executim, that the 
reparation of fcule and body was, at 
kali i part of the death that was 
threatned j or elfe how comes it to 
be inflated ? And the Apoftle faith 
plainly, that in zAd*m alldye,.v/'*. 

j this natmall death,! Cor.i 5.22. 
y » Againft the fift the fame Ar- 

1 gument will favc< 

6. Concerning chefixth and (e- 

. venth they lye ©pen to the fame 
objection as the (econd. 

! h 

Covenants opened. 31 

It i$ hard to conclude perempto- 
rily in fo obfeure a cafe. If wee 
knew certainly what lite was the 
reward of that Covenant, we might 
the better underftand what death 
was the penalty. Calvin and many 
more Interpreters think that if A- 
dam had not fallen, he mould after 
a feafon have been tranflated into 
Heaven without dea.h, as Enoch 
and Elias. But I know no Scrip- 
ture that tells us lb much. Whe . 
therin ParadifeterreHiiall or ede- 
fliall. I certainly know not; but that 
lAdam mould have lived in happi- 
nefte,and not have dyed, is certain ; 
feeing therefore that Scripture tells 
us on the one hand, that death is 
the wages of finne ; andon the o» 
therfaand, that Iefus delivered us 
from the wrath to come ; the 
a, 6, and 7. Expofitions doc 
as yet feem to me the mo:i fafe. as 
containing that punimment where- 
by ho h it e;e Scripture s are fulfilled : 
Befide that they much correfpond 
, to the execution , viz.. that man 
G 4 fhould 

3 2 T he Nature of the 

fliould live here for a fcafon a dying 
life, fcparated from God, devoid of 
his Image, fub;e& to bodily curfes 
and calamities, dead in Law, and at 
laft his foule and body be feparatcd; 
his body turning to duft from 
from whence it came, and his foule 
enduring everlafting forrowes, yet 
nothing fo great as thofe that are 
threatned in the new Covenant. 

The Objedion that lyeth againft 
this fenie,is eaficr then thofe which 
are againft the other. For though 
the body fliould not rife to torment, 
yet its defoliation is a very great 
punifhment : And the foule being 
of a more excellent and durable na- 
ture, is likely to have had the grea- 
ter and more durable fufFering : 
And though the body had a chiefe 
hand in the fin, yet the foule had 
the farre greater guilt , becaufe it 
(houldhave commanded and gover- 
ned the body ; as the fault of a 
man is far greater then the fame in a 

Yet I do not pofkively conclude, 


Covenants opened* 33 

thar the body (hould not have rifen 
againe 5 but I finde no intimation 
of it revealed in the Scripture ; but 
that the fentence (hould have been 
immediately executed to the full, 
or that any fuch thing is concluded 
in the words of the threat [In the 
daj the* eatefi thou [hale Me the 
death I I doe not thinke ; for that 
would have prevented both the be- 
ing, the fin, and che furTering of his 
polterity ; and consequently Chrift 
did not lave any one in the world 
from finne or furTering but Adam 
and Eve, which fecms to me a hard 
faying (though I know much may 
be laid for it.) 

Thus we tre in part the firtf Qne- 
ftion refolvcd , what death ir was 
that the Law did threaten? Now 
tet us fee , whether this were the 
fame that Chriftdid lutfer ? And if 
we take the threatning in its full 
extent, as it exprefleth not only the 
penalty, but alb its proper fubje& 
and hs cireumftanees , then' it 
is- undenyable that Chriit did not 
C 5 futfee 

34 T be Nature of t be 

fuffer the fame that was threatned 
For the Law threatned tHe death of 
the offender, but Chriftwa* not the 
offender 3 u4dam fhould have fuf- 
feredfor ever.but fo did not Chrift ; 
^f^«? did dye ipirltuaily, by being 
forfaken cf God, in regard of holu 
neffeas well as in regard of com fort, 
and fo deprived at leart of the 
chiefepart of his Image; fo was not 

Yet it is difputable whether thc-fe 
twolaft were directly contained mj 
the threatning, or not? whether 
the threatning were not fully exe- 
cuted in Adams death ! And the 
ecemity ofit were not accidentally 
even a neceiTary confequem of A- 
dams difabilicy to overcome ceath 
and deliver himfelf,.whieh God was 
not bound to doe . ? And whether 
the lode of Gods Image were part 
of the death threatned , or rather 
theeffcclof our finnconely, exe. 
euted by our telves , and not by 
God f Many Divines fay, that God 
did not take away his Image, but 


Covc***ts opened. g ? 

man tbxull it away ; So Capsll of 
Temptations, pzg*%.'8zc. Though 
molt judge otherwife, becaufe the 
fame power cfmft annihilate that 
mull create. 

] conclude then, that in rega/d of 
the pre per penalty, Chriftdi'd&fftr 
a paineandmi-cry ofthe fame Tort, 
and of equall we'ght with that 
ihrcatned ; but yet becaufe it was 
not in all refpe&s the Jaroe, it was 
ratbeF fat is faction then the. pay- ; 
ment ofthe proper debt, being . 
a payment as Godrnight havecho- ; 
fen to accept. 

The 2. Queftionw-as, Whether' 
the threat nirg was executed, one- 
iaxed and diipenied with .* 

lAnfw* The Anfvver to this is 
! plaine in the anfwer to .the for- 

In regard ofthe meer weight oc 
J punifbrnentiCon^deredasaLttxa^tecf 
I from pcrfon and duration, it .vras 
| executed and ieiaxed; y^c taking 
! the 

3 6 The Nature of the 

thethreamingintircly a* it was gi- 
ven out,aiadwemuftfayitwasdif- 
♦penfed with ; fcr mankinde doth 
not fuffer all that is there threat- 

Yet fome, who think that the 
death threatned did confift in our 
prefentmiferies and temporal death 
onely, do alfo think that thethreat- 
ning is fully executed upon the tin- 
ners, and that Chrili hath onely de- 
livered usfrcm the accidentall dura* 
tionof it, but not prevented the ex- 

If I could think that the threat - 

ning intended no puni foment to 

I thefoule further, after it is fepara- 

j ted from the body, then I fhouJd 

think as they. 

The^QoefiioniSjHow it can 
ftand with the Truth and luftice of 
Godtodtfpenfewith his Threats? 
Concerning his Iutfice the quetfion 
is not difficult, and I (hall fay no- 
thing to .that ; all the queftron is, 


Covenants opened* 37 

how to reconcile this difpenfation 
with Gods truth. Here you rnuft 
dirtingmfh, 1. Betwixt the letter 
of the Law and the fenfe. 2. Be- 
tween the Law andche end of the 
Law* 3. Between a Threat with 
exception either exprefled or refer - 
ved, and that which hath no excep- 
tion. 4. Between a chreatning 
which onely expieflfeth the defcrt of 
the fi r.ne, and what puniflimeat if 
due, and fo falleth only under the 
will of precept, and that which alfb 
intendeth thecertaine prediction of 
event, and lbfallech under the will 
of purpofe aifo. And now 1 answer: 

1. The end of the Law is the 
Law, and that end being the mani. 
fcftatjonof Gods Iuitice and ha- 
tred of nnne,&c. was fulfilled, and 
therefore the Law was fulfilled. 

2. Moft think that the Threat- 
ning had this reierved exception, 
[Thou fhalt dye, i. e. by thy felfe, 
or thy furety.J And though it be 
finfull in man to fpeak with men- 
tall refeivations when he pretends 

2 g The Ka t ure of the 

to reveale his mind, yet not in God, 
because as he is fubject to no Law, 
iohe is net bound to reveale to us 
all hismnde, nor doth he indeed 
pretend any fich thing. 

3. So that the fenie of the Law 
is fuelled. 

4. Butthefpeciailanfwer that I 
give.isihis, When Threat nings are 
tncerly parts cf tl e Law, and not 
alio predictions ofevent and diico- 
yeaes or Gods parpofe thereabouts, 
then they rmy be djipenfed with 
without any breach of Truth : For 
as when God faith, [ Though not 
eateofchs Tret &c 9 \ ihcmcaniog 
is cnely [It is thy duty not to eare] 
and not trui eventually he fhould 
not cate : So when he iaith [Thou 
jhjtltdietktdeathi The meaning is, 
L Death fhall be the due reward of 
, thy finne, and 10 may be infli.&ed 

for k at my pleafure] and not that 
he fhould certainly fuflfer it in the 
event. And I judge, that except 
there be fomc note added whereby 
it is apoaieBt, that God intended 


Cwtntnts of tned. 5 g 

alfo the predi&ion of eveEt , no 
rxifcr Threatnirig 15 to be under- 
stood pthcrvvife but as it is a part of 
the Law, and lb fpeaks of the duc- 
ne(Ve of pun.fhmenc onely, as the 
Precept fpeaks of the dueneffe of 

If this be grdtitts his meaning, I 
aflenc, that Omvesmh* qmbus »<?« 
adeft irreveeabtlttatis lignum juttl- 
ligendafunt exfiapte vatura do jure 
J commtKAniis *d rtluxundum nihil 
\*9m'mrit4*iZ.i) (b farreas they 
• are no predictions of even ; other • 
: wile Gods bare pr di&jcn is a note 
! of irrevocability ; And his two 
J notes, vU. An Oath, and a Pro- 
, mife, are nflc rhc oneJy fencs of 
irrevocability: God. Word is as 
as true « a Promiie, and when £ 
fett* unoer^/^f^ fnrfkwM as 
%eJy be fidflled. See Cm,*, ^ 

urn ejus defenfinm. 


The Ntttreeftbe 

The 4* Queftion is, whether fin * 

nersmaynot hence be encouraged 

to conceive fome hope of a relaxati. 

on of the Threatnings in the New 

Covenant ? To this lanfwer : 

I i. No ; For God hath fully dif- 

covered, that it is his purpofe and 

refoiution to execute thofe Threats, 

and not to relax or reverfe them ; / 

that he willcome in Aiming fire to 

render vengeance on them that 

know not God, and obey not the 

Gomel otour Lord Iefus Chntt,&€. 

%Tb$f. 1.7X That there is no 

mere facrifiiccfor fin, 1M. !**•#' 

27 . And hath revealed the manner 

how they (hail be condemned , 

a. If there w*re any hope of thw, 
yet were it unexpretfable m.dnefle 
to venter ones everiatlug itate on 
that,when we fee that God did not 
remit the penalty of the firft *ve- 
nant wholly , but would have his 
jnftice&tisficd.ihoughby the W- 
I feting of bis Sonne thrift : And 

Covenant t opened, 4 1 

yet that it alio coft the offecdors fa 
dcare themfelvcs. 

The 5 . Queflion is, May we not 
feare left God may difpenfe with hi* 
Promifes as well as his Threats ? 
I anfwer : 

1. He did not di/penfe with his 
Threatning , but upon a valuable 

2. No; for though the Promife 
as well as the Threat doe belong 
to the Law, and lb difcover what 
is due, rather then what (hall come 
topaffe, yet the thing promifed be- 
ing once our due, cannot be taken 
from us without ourconfent: and 
(o $ z\(jrotiHS faith, Expromifsione 
jut atijuod acqmritur ei cm fatla eft 
promt jfio ; lu'iice bindeth to give 
all to another that is his due, but 
not alwayes and abfolutely to in- 
fl:cl: upon an offender as much pu. 
nifhmentas he deferveth. 

-• Befide, God hath revealed it 
to be the will of his purpofe alfo to 


41 The Nature of the 

con r er the things prom tied in the 
Gofpd upon all Beleevers. 

Thetf.andlaftQneflion was, If 
the Law be relaxabk, whether God 
tnight not have freely remitted the 
offence, and have fpared his Son his 
fatisfa&ory fufferings ? I anfwer. 

i . It yet remaines under di fpute 
whether the Threat fpeak not de 
\even$H> as tothefinne, though but 
de jure, as to the finner ? Andthen 
the Truth of God would forbid a 
difpenfaticn asto-the finne. 

2, Though the Threatning doe 
not flatly determine of the executi- 
| on de eventn ; yet it intimates a 
j flrong probability of it, and feemes 
I to teil the world, that ordinarily the 
!Law giver will proceed according 
jthereco,and gives the iinner flrong 
grcundsto expect as much. There- 
fore if God QioulJ relax his Law, 
much more if he fhould wholly dif- 
pencewithit byrerni&on,t.he Law 
1 weald feern to lofe much ofits au- 

Covenants cfcned. 43 

thorhy, and the Law. giver be 
cfteemcd mutable. 

5. Befides, as no good Lawes 
are lightly to be reverfed To, much 
I leiTefuch as are Co agreeable to or- 
der, and the nature of God, and io 
folemn.y enacted as this wat. 

4. Though GOD did difpenfe 
with his Law as to ourimpunity,be 
caufe elfe mankind would have ut- 
terly periled, and became he is a- 
bundam in mercy and compaflion 
(£%*.$4. 7. P>/.io>.8. &iiz. 
4*f. & 14?. 8. Jfirff.-f. Ier. 31. 
! 20. Lnk 6i6> Row. 2.4.) yet he 
i is alfoho'y and jufi, and a hater of 
/inne; and how wouJd thofe his 
Attributes have been manifeftcd or 
glorified, if he had let lb many and 
great finms g oe wholly unpun fried, 

rfip.li. 2. Rom. !.i8.J 

5. It wculd have encouraged 
™cn to fin and concemne the Law, 
ifthe very hrti beachand all other 
ihould be nvcr.'y remitted ; but 
whet* men fee that God hath puni- 

44 The tyttttre of the 

died his Son when he was our fare - 
ty, they may eafily gather that he 
will not fparethem, it* they conti- 
nue rebdls. 

6. The very end ©f the Law elfe 
would have been fru ft raced 3 which 
now is fulfilled by Chrifts fatisfa- 
&ion : For Proximo [ant idem & 

7. Bdijes the exceeding love of 
God that is muutelitd in this furfe- 
ringof his Son, a ad the great en- 
gagements that are laid upon the 

They that will avoid all the fup- 
pofed inconveaiencies of this Do* 
drineof Godsdifpencing with his 
Threacnin^s ; malt needs affirms, 
that the offenders do fuffer as much, 
and trie lam: which was threatned. 

(8.) Whether we are juftified 
onely by Chrifts Paflive Righteouf- 
netfe, or alio by his AcYive, is a veryj 


Covenants opened. 4 5 

great dilute among Divines. p y 
hjsPaffive Righ teoufnefle is meant 
notonelyhis death, but the whole 
courfe of his humiliation, from the 
Aflumption of the humane nature 
to hisRefurrcaion; Yea, even his 
Obediential! Anions fo far as there 
was any fufferingin them, and as 
they are confidered under the no- 
tion of Suffering, and net of Duty 
orObedienee. ByhisAdiveRigh. 
teoufnefle is meant the Righteouf- 
nefie of his Anions, as they were a 
perfea obedience to the Law. The 
chiefe point of difference and diffi- 
culty Jyeih higher, How the Rich, 
teoufnefle of Chrifl is made ours? 
Moft of our ordinary Divines fay, 
thatChriftdidas properly obey m 
ourroomeandflcad, as he did iuffer 
in our Head ; and that in Gods 
I etfecm and in point of Law wee 
were in Chrifts obeying and fuffe- 
nng, and !o in him wee did both 
P«*<% fulfill the Ccmmands of 
the Law by Obedience , and the 
threatnings of it by bearing the 

Penalty ,• I 

* _ 1 

4 <S ~ The Nature of the 

penalty ; atkUhus (fay thtyl is 
Chritfs RighfeOufaefle imputed to 
us/£//<.hisPafFiveRighteou&es for 
the pardon of our fitt^and delivering 
us from the penalty ; his A6tive 
Rfghteoufnefle for the making of 
unrighteous, and giving us titleto 
the kingdom: And iome fay,the ha- 
bitual! Righteoufnes of his humane 
nature iniiead of our own habituall 
Righteoufnefle ; yea fome sddc the 
righteoufnes of thedivin naturealfb. 
This opinion (in my judgement) 
containeth a great many of mis- 

i. It' uppofeth us to have been 
in Chrift , at leaft in legal! title, 
before we did beleeve>or\*ere born; 
and that not onely in a genera) land 
conditional! fenfe as all men, but in 
a ipcctall as the juftified ; indeed 
we are elected in < hi ill before the 
foundation £i the world ; but that 
is a teime of diminut ion,and theie- 
fore doth not prove that we were 
then in him ? Neither Gods De- 
cree or foreknowledge give us any 
legal! title. 2. It 

Covenants opened. An 

2. Ic teacheth imputation of 
Cbritts Righteoufnefleih (o ft rift a 
fcnfc,a$ will neither ftand with rea- 
fon.northeDo&rineof Scripture 
much Icffe with thephrafe of Scrip- 
ture which mentioneth no imputa- 
tion of Ghritt or his RighteoufnefTe 
to us at all; and hath given great 
advantage to the Papifts a «aicft 
us in this Doctrine of Juftifica^ 

iy Itfecmeth toafcribe to God 
a milhking jixlgeihent,asto effetm 
us to have been in Chrift when wee 
v ere not, and to have dene and fuf. 
feredinhim,what we did not. 

4- Itm 3 keth Chrift to have paid 
the Idem, and not the Tantftndem - 

the fame th 2t was due, and not the 
value; and iotojuftifieus by pay- 
ment of the proper dcbt,andnotby 
ftnft fctisfaction. And indeed this 
lstheverycoeofthemiihke, to 
think that we have by delegation 
paidiheproperdcbtof0^ fwr ro 
the whole Law. or that in ChrirV 
w^haveperfecllyobeved; whereas 
__ i.Tt 

48 The 2{aturc of the 

I. it can neither be faid, that wedid 
it; 2. And that which Chrift did, 
was to (atisfie for our non-payment 
and diibbedience. 

«; , So it maketh Chrift to have 
fulfilled the preceptive part of the 
Law in our ftead and roome in as 
ftri&a fenfe, a$hedidinourroom 
beare the punifhment, which will 
'not hold good(though for our fakes 
he did both J 

6. It fuppofeth the Law to re- 
quire both obedience and fuffering 
in refped of the lame time and 
actions, which it doth nor. And 
whereas they fay, that the Law re- 
quired fufTtring for what is paft, 
and Obedience for the future 5 this 
is to deny that Chrift hath fatisfied 
for future finnes • The time is neere 
when thofe future fins will be paft 
alio; what doth the Law require, 
then ? Ifwe doe not obey for thei 
future, then we fin; ifwe fin, the! 
Law requires nothing but fuffering 
for cxpiacion* m I 

7. This opinion maketh Chrills 


Covenants opened* 49 

filterings (by coniequence) t© be m 
vain , both to have been fuffered 
needlefly by him, and to be neediefc 
al(o now to us : For if we did per- 
fectly obey the Law in Chrift, (or 
Chrift for us, according to that ftrift 
imputation,) then there is no ufe for 
fuflferin* for difobedience. 

8. Itfondlyfuppofetha medium 
betwixt one that is juft, and one that 
is guilty ; and a difference betwixt 
one that is juft,and one that is no (in- 
ner; one that hath his fin or guilt 
taken away, and one that hath his 
unrighteoufnefs taken away. It is 
true,in bruits and infen(ibles,that are 
not fubjefts capable of juftice, there 
is a medium betwixt juft andunjuft, 
and innocency and juftice are not the 
fame. There is a negative injuftice 
which denominateth the fubjeel 
non-jMjltfmjouz not in\u$ttm) where 
Righteoufnefs is not due: But where 
there is the debit urn hafondi, where 
Righteoufnefs ought to be, and is 
not, there is no negative unrighte- 
oufnefs, but primitive : As there is 
C no 

i 50 The Nature of tb? 

I . 

J no middle betwixt ftrait and crook- 
| ed, fo neither between Conformity 
•to the Law, ( which is Righteouf- 
| nefs, /and Deviation from ir,f which 
\ is unuighteoufnefs.) 

9. It maketh our Righteoufnefs 
• to eonfift of two parts, viz* The 

putting away of our guik 3 and the 
Imputation, of Righteoufnefs, /. e. 
1 r. 'Removing the crookednefs; 2.Ma- 
king them ftreight. 

10. It afcribeth thefe two fup- 
pofed parts to two diftincl fuppofed 
caufes:; the one to Chrifts fulfilling 
the Precept by his acTual Righteouf- 
nefs, the latter to his fulfilling the 

i threatening by his paiTive Righte- 
iQufaefs: As if there muft be one 
caufeof introducing light, and ano- 
ther of expelling darknefs; or one 
: caufe to take away the crookednefs 
of a. line, and another to make it 

1.1. The like vain diflincTion it 
iraaketh between delivering from 
fd€ath,and giving title to life; or free- 
ing tis from the penalty, and giving 


Covenants 9pencd. 5 1 

us .the re ward: For as when all fin 
of omifllon and commiflion is ab- 
fent, there is no unrighteoulnefs ; fo 
when all the penalty is taken away, 
both rfrat ©Ppain, and that of lofs, 
the party is reftored to his former 
happinefs. - Indeed there is a greater 
uiperadded decree of life and glory 
procured by Chrift more .then .we 
loft .in Adam : But as that life is not 
oppofed to the deat-h or penalty of 
the firft Covenant 3 but to that of the 
fecond ; fo is it the erTed of Chrifts 
pafllve, as well as of his active Righ- 

So you fee the miftakes contained 
in this firft Opinion, .about the Im- 
putation of Chfifrs Righteoufnefs 
to us. 

The rmintainers gf it(be(ide fome < 
fewable men)arethe vulvar- fort of 
unftudyed Divines, who having not 
ability or diligence to fearch deep in- 
to fo profound a Con trover fie, do 
ftdlhold:thae opinion which ismofi 
common fcnd in credit. 

If you would fee wh^t is faida- 
D 2 gainft 

5 1 The Nature of the 

gainft it, read \AxWvtton i T*reiu f 
PifcJtorM* Bradfbxtvffa Gataker, 
and Mr '} 9: Goodwin. 

1 fie other Opinion about our Par- 
ticipation of Chrifts RighteouTnefs is 
j this, That God the Father doth ac- 
J cept the fuffef in'gs and merits of his 
I Son as a full fatisfaclion to his vio- , 
! latedLaw,and as a valuable consider- i 
ationnpon which he will wholy for- 1 
give and acquit the offendors thern- 
j (elves, and receive them again into i 
j hisfavy, and give them the addition ] 
j of a more excellent happinefs alfo 3 fo 
j they will but receive his Son upon 
i the terms expreffed in the Gofpel. 
! This Opinion as it is more hmple j 
j and plain, fo it avoydeth all the fore- i 
i mentioned inconveniences which d6 j 
I accompany the former. But yet this 
I difference is betwixt the maintainers j 
j of if.Moftofthem think,that Chrifts | 
j Paffive Righteoufnefs (in the iati- j 
j tude before expreffed,) is the whole ? 
I of this Stt&fiftidn made by Chrift, I 

which I 

Covenants opened. ?3 I 

which they therefore call Jnjlitia 
i Merit • , and that his A3ual Righte- 
• oufnefs is but Juftitia Perfona, cjua- 
; lifying him to be a fit Mediator. Of 
■ this judgment are many learned and 
' godly Divines, of (ingular efteem in 
the Church of God, ( the more to 
blame fome of the ignorant fort of 
their adverfarics, who fo reproach 
themasHercticks: I have oft won- 
dered when I have read fome of 
them, ( asM. fFaiker, &cj to fee 
how ftrongly they revile, and hoW 
weakly they difpute.j Sure if thofe 
two famous men Partus and Pifia- 
tor, btfide OlevUn y Sctilittm t Ca.r- 
gint, learned Cape tins, and many ci- 
ther beyond Sea, be Hereticks, I 
know not who will (hortly be repu- 
ted Orthodox • and if they be not 
miftaken all antiquity is on their 
| Cxfatbeftdc Ca(vi*>Vrfine,W&Kio& 
other modern Divines that writ be- 
fore this Controverfie was agitated ; 
andfure they are neither unlearned 
nor ungodly that have in our own 
Country maintained that opinion ; 
D 3 wit- 

54- The Nature of the 

witnefs Mr Anthony JVotton , M r 
Gataker, Mr John Goodwin, and (as 
I am informed ) that excellent Dif- 
putantand holy, learned, judicious 
Divine Mr John. Bait y Vf\th many o~ 
ther excellent men that I know now 

Someothers(thoughfew)do thinii; 

that' though Chrifts Hightebufnefs 

be not imputed to us in that ftricl: 

fenfe as the firft Opinion expreffeth, 

but is ours under the fore-explained 

-notion of Satisfaction only, yet the 

A<fUve Righteoufnefs considered as 

fuch is part of this Satisfaction alfo, 

as well as his Pallive, and JufHtU 

Meriti^ well zsfuftitia ?erfon<z ; 

} and though the Law do not require 

| both obeying and fuUering,yetChrift 

! paying not the Idem, but the>Tan- 

| tandem, not the ftricl: debt it felf, 

f but a valuable Satisfaction , might 

j well put the merit of his works into 

J the payment. 

i The -chief Divines that I know 
I ! for 

Covenant* opt 5-5 

for this Opinion (as it is diftinguiili- 
ed from the two former J are judici- 
ous and holy Mr Bradfb*w$x& Qro- 
tiut, (if I may call a Lawyer a Di- 

And for my own pare I think ft 
is the truth, though I confefs I have | 
been ten years ot another mind for 
the fole Pafiive Righteoufnefs, be- 
eaufe of the weaknefs of thofe 
grounds which are ufuaily hid to 
fupport the opinion for the Active 
and Paflive; till difcerning more 
clearly the nature of Satisfaction , I 
perceived, that though the fufYerings 
ofChrift have the. .chief place there- 
in,yet his obedience as fuch may aifo 
be meritorious and fatisfaclory. The 
true grounds and proof whereof .you \ 
may read in Gr otitis de Satis faff. ] 
cap. 6. and Bmd/baw of Juftifka- 
tion in Pre&ce,and cap.\$. 

The chief Objections againft it are 
thefe ; 

i.Objea. Chrifts Paffive Righte- 
oufnefs being as much as the Law re- 
quired on our behalf, as fatisf action 
D 4 for 

%6 The Nature of the 

for its violation, therefore the Adive ; 
is needlefs, except to qualifie him to : 
be a fit Mediator. I anfwer, Thi$ | 
objection is grounded upon the fore- 
mentioned Error, That Chrift paid 
the Idem, an J not the Tantmdem : 
whereas it being not a proper pay- 
ment of the debt, but fatisfaclion, 
therefore even his meritorious works 
might fatisfie. Many an offender a- 
gainft Prince or State hath been par- 
doned their offence, and efcaped pu- 
ni(hment,for fome deferving accept- 
able fervice that they have done, or 
that fome of their predeceflbrs have 
done before them. And fo Rom. 5. 
10. 'By the obedience of otte 7 many 
are made right eons, 

2. Jtisobjefted, That Chrfft be- 
ing once fubjed to the Law, could 
do no more but his duty, which if 
he had not done, hemuft have fuf- 
fered for himfetf ; and tliercfore how 
could his obedience be fatisfa&ory 
and meritorious for us ? I anfwer, 
1* You mult not here in your con- I 
ceivings abftracl the Humane Na- 

Covenants opened* 57 

ture, which W3S created, from the 
Divine ; but confider them as* com-; 
pofingoneperfon : 2. Nor muft youj 
look upon the Works of Ghrift, asj 
receiving their valuation and deno- 1 
mmation from the Humane Nature j 
alone or principally. 3. Nor muft; 
you fepirate m your thoughts the I 
time of Chrifts fervitude and fub- 
jeftion, from the time of his free- 
dom before his incarnation and fub- 
je&ion. And fo take thefe Anfwers. 
r. Chrift Jefasdid perform feveral 
works which he was not obliged to 
perform, as a meer Subject : Such 
are all the works that are proper to 
his office of Mediator, his arraming 
the Humane Nature, his making 
Laws to his Church, his eftablifhing 
and fealtng the Covenant, his work- 
ing Miracles, his=fending his Difci- 
ples to convert and 1 fave the world, 
enduing them "with the Spirit, his 
overcoming Death and 1 rifing a- 
gain,&e. Whac Law bindeth us to 
Such works as thefe > And what 
Law (to fpeak properly,} did brnde 
D 5 him 

5 8 The Nature, of the 

■enfcPrXet wer,e- the works 
In them/elves fQ£xcelient>and agree- 
able tohis Fathers Will, /which hq 
was well Acquainted with) that they 
were trruly , meritorious and fatil- 

2, Some."Wpr|is-;he : ferfonTie;d 
which were our duty indeed, but he 
was not bound to perform thsm in I 
regard of himfelf: Such as are all 
the c$(ervances oftbe Ceremonial 
Law,' his Circurncijion, Offering, 
and .foiiis Baptifni.ScC ■L^inn, 
2j> GxLq.q. Ifa.^a^ Jok.j.i.ic. 
Mat. 26. 17^1 8,19,2c. & 3.13,10. 
TJliefe. were the proper. duties offln- 
n^^ich he was nor. Thefo two 
are admitted by MrGataktr,': anSd 
moil: others. | 

3 . Even his obedience £0 the Mo* 
ral Law was not his duty, till he vo- 
luntarily undertook. 11;; It being 
therefore upon 1 -his content -and 
ch'oyce,,andnot due before confent, 
mult needs .be meritorious. And 
though when he wason<;e aftrvant 
he is bound to do the work of a fer- 


Covenants opened. 59 

vane, yet when he Voluntarily 
himlelf in the fktJof a fcx\ 
under the Law, not for his own 
fake, bun for ours, his work k 
ver the lets meritorious. Siippofe 
when a SotiMier hath deferyej 
; death, his Captain fhould offer him-, 
I felf to the General to do . the 'duty 
of the private Souldieri, and to' per- 
form fome rare exploit agaihft the 
Enemy , though he lofe his life In the 
Service, and all this to faftfom 
Soddier : when he hath underta" 
the ta&k, it becomes due, but yet is 
never rhe lefs fatisfaclory. As he 
(faith Bradjhaw) who to fatisfie for 
another, becomes a (lave to men • 
ebtirinand by all thofe dels, which 
the Laws binde a flave unto, make 
fatisraclion- yea, though they be'fuch 
a&s,as he,becoming a (lave, is bound 
apon-pain of death to undergo : fo 
driftj&c. and the greater was' the 
bond that he did undergo for the 
doing of them, the greater was the 
merit. 7/*. 42.1. & 53.11. Phli. 
2.7. Luk. 2.20. If a. 5 3.9, 10. Gal, 

The Nature of the 

I4.4. 2 Corinth. 5.IL. Htb.7.26. 
I Pet.2.22 } 2^ <#• 3. ig, ifoh.^. 
4. Even feme works that are due 
may yet befo excellent for matter 
jand manner, and fo exceeding plea- 
jfing to him that commands them, 
ithat they may give him faiisra&ion 
For former injuries;, and he may 
think it his part to encourage the 
Actor with fome reward. So Jona- 
ffc*#.rdelivering IfracI by that rare 
exploit did fave him from death: 
Abntrs bringing in the Kingdom to 
David woulii have . covered his 
former ftrvice agajnft him : Many 
,of- foabsiauhs were long covered 
!by his good fervice : Such were the 
Wtions or David in bringingjn the 
Ifore-skiris of ' ihsfhiliftinsi .and ot 
'his Worthies, in fetching him of the 
waters of $ethlebtm* \ Sam. 14. 
44,45 . 2 Sam, 2.3 . „ 1 Sam.,v% 2d, 
27. 2 Sam. 23.16. It was notonely 
the furTeringor hazard in thefe afti- 
j onsthat was meritorious, but alfo 
I the excellency, of the actions, them- 

t. The 

Covenants open e J.. 6\ 

5. The intereft of the Divine Na* 
cure, in all the works of Chrift, ma- 
keth them to be infinitely meritori- 
ous, and fo fatbfa&ory. 

Tlicfis S. 

j(i> VTJBerefore the lather 
' VV hath delivered*!} things 

\into the -hands of the Son ; and gi- 

\ven him all power in heaven and' 
earthed made him Lord both of the 
Jead'obd living. J ok 13. 3. Mat. 

,28. 18. J oh. 5. 21, 22, 23^27.- Rom. 


j(i) pp0r v Explication of thfc-there 
JT are feveral Queftions-'to be 

1. Whether the extolling of 
Chrift Che Mediator, or the reftore- 
ing and fov^of tteoffcndors, were" 


6* The Nature of the 

Gods more remote end, and princi- 
pal indention ? 

i. Whether this Authority and 
Dignity of Chrift, be by Original 
Natural Right? or by Donation? 
or by Purchafe ? 

3. Whether Chrifts LordLhip o- 
ver all,do imply or prove his redeem- 
ing of all ? or of all alike ? 

4. Whether God hath delivered 
things cut cf his own power in any 
jdnde, by delivering them into the 
power oh his Son ? or whether it be. 
only the fubitituting -him to be .Vice- 
gerent to the Father ? 

To the firft, I anfwer : That the 
faving of finners was the end both 
of the Father and the Son, is plain 
through the Gofpel : and that the 
exalting of Chrift to his Dominion 
was another end, is plain in Rom. 1 4 
9. But which of thefe was the 
principal eixlj think is an unwarran- 
table queftion for man to propound: 
I dare not undertake to aflerc a natu- 
ral priority or posteriority in any of 
Gods Decrees, de mefoU ad finem 


Covenants opened. 6% 

fittinwni', mucoids 'to determine 
which "hath th6n>ft placed wfcrch 
tfcefecond, PMtZr.91 
■ To the ftcond queftion I anfwcr : 
1. The D vine Nature of Chrift be- 
rr*» one with cite' Godhead of the 
Father, had an abfolute fov^raignty 
over all things from their firft being : 
and fo derivately had the humane 
nature as Toon as afTumed by* venue. 
' of the Hypoftatical Union. 

2. But there is further a power 
^iven him as Mediator to difpofe of 
all it his pleafure, t6 make new laws 
{o the world, and to deal with them 
according to the tenor of thofe laws: 
This power ispaitly purcjhafect, aol 
panry given (bur not g**ti.<) *«ffiat 
is, Though God might have refufeel 
tht tendered fatisfa&ion, arid have j 
made the (inner bear she punifbaient 
yet he willingly accepted the MM 
of &S4S00 as a fait ranfom, and deli- 
vered up all to the Purchafer as' his 
own : And fo well was he pleafed j" 
with the work of Redemption, that j 
he alfo gave a further power to his 


The Nature of the 

Son, to judg his Enemies, and fave 
his people with, a far greater Judg- 
ment & Salvation.So that thupow? 
er may be faid to be Cgiven] Chfift, 
as it was«he free a<fl of God, with- 
out coriftraint: and yet to be [ pur- 
chafed^ becaufe it was given upon 
a valuable consideration. 

To the third Qucftion, I anfwer. 
This Authority of Chriit implieth 
the piuckafingipf. all things under 
his power or dominion,as- is -explain- 
ed in the kit: But what redempti- 
on or benefit is procured to the par- 
ty, I fhall(hew you*more, when I 
come to treat of uniyerfal Redemp- 
tion by it k\L 

To the fourth Queftion, I anfwer. 
This is more then a fubftituting of 
drift to be the Fathers Vicegerent. 
It is alfo a power of prescribing new 
terms of Life and Death, and judg- 
ing men according thereto , as is 
faid before. Yet is nothing properly 
given out of the Fathers power or 
poffeflion : but a power to fufpend 
or difpence with the ftri A Covenant 


Cotenants opened. 6$ 

of Works is given to the Son ; and 
fo God having ported with that ad- 
vantage which his Juftice had a- 
gainft the (inning world., and having 
relaxed chat Law 1 , whereby he might 
have judged us, is therefore faid to 
judgno man, but to give all judg- ; 
ment to the Son. Joh.jM, ij. 

i > i 

Thcfis p. 

( I ) T T woe not the intent either of 
1 the Father or Son, that by 

this fatisfaft ion the ofendors Jhould 
be immediately delivered from the 
\ whole curfe of the Law, and freed 
from the evrl which they had 
J brought upon themfelves, but fome 
part mufi be executed on foul and 
body, and the creatures themj elves ; 
ar.d remain upon them at the plea* 
fure of Chrift. Rev. I. 18* l Cor. 


66 The Nature of the 


TV He Queftions that are here to 
I be handled for the Explication 
of this Pofltion are thefe. 

i Sjtesi. Whether the redeem- 
ed are immediately upon the price 
paydj delivered from any of the 
curfe of the Law ? if riot from all ? : 
2 gueft* Whether the fufTerings 
of the Elect before conversion are 
in execution of any part of the curfe 
of the Law ? 

3. Whether the fufferings of Be- 
leevers are from the curfe of the 
Law ? or only afrli&ions of Love, 
the curfe being taken off by 

4. Whether it be not a wrong to 
she Redeemer , that the people 
whom he hath ranfomed are not 
immediately delivered ? 

5. Whether it beany wrong to 
the redeemed themfeives ? 

6. How long will it be till all the 
curie be taken off the Beleevers, and 


CpvmtoU ofcTitd. 6) 

Redemption have attained its full 

To the firft Queftion I anfwer : 
In this 'cafe the undertaking of 
fatisfa<flion had the fame immediate 
efTed upon /4dam,zs the fatisraclion 
it felf upon us, or for us.- To de- 
termine what thefe ate ,* were an 
excellent work ; it being one of the 
greateft and'nobkft queftions in our 
controverted Divinity , What a& 
the immediate effetts of Chrifis 
De*th I He that can rightly anfwe* 
this, is a Divine indeed; and by the 
fceip of this, may expedite moft o- 
ther controverfies about Redemp- 
tion and Justification.. In a woro, 
j The effects of Redemption under- 
j taken, could not be upon a fub/e& 
I not yet exfcftent, and fonofubjeel:, 
| though it might be for them : None 
j but Adam and Eve were then ex- 
| iftcnt. Yet as foon as we do exift, 
I we receive benefit from it. The 
fufpending of the rigorous execution 
of the/tprerjce of the- -Law,- is the 
moft obfetvable immediate tfecl: of 


68 The Nature of the 

Chrtfk death ; which fufpenfion is 
fomc kinde of deliverance from it. 
Of the other effects elfewhere. 

To the fecond Qutftion. The 
Elect before converfion do (land iii 
the fame relation to the Law and 
Curfe as other men , though they 
be differenced in Gods Decree, 

To tie third QueHion. I confefs 
we have here a knotty Queftion* 
The common judgment is , That 
Chrifthath taken away the whole 
curfe (though not the filtering) by 
bearing it himfelf ; and now they 
are only affections of Love, and not 
Punifhments. I do not contradict 
this doctrine through affectation of 
froguhrity, the Lord knoweth ; but 
through conftraint of Judgment ; 
And that upon thefe grounds fol- 

i. It is undenyable, thatChrifts 
taking the curfe upon himfelf did not 
wholly prevent the execution upon 
the offendor, in £^3. 7,8*10,15, 

2. It 

Covenants opened* 69 

— ■ ■ ■ ' * ■ 

2. Ic is evident from the event, 
feeing we feel part of the curfe ful- 
filled on us: We eat in labour and 
fweat ; the earth doth bring forth 
thorns and bryars; women bring 
forth their children in forrow ; our 
native pravity is the curfe upon our 
fouls; we are lick, and weary, and 
full of fears, and forrows,and flhame, 
and at laft we dye and turn to duft. 

3. The Scripture tells us plainly, 
that we all dye in Adam, (even that 
death from which we muft at the 
Refurreclion be raifed by Chrift,) 
1 Qor. 15.21,22. And that death is 
the wages of fin,#<w.6.23. And that 
the ficknefs,and weaknefs,and death 
of the godly is caufed by their fins, 
1 Cor. 11.30,31. And if fo, then 
doubtlefs they are in execution of 
the threatening of the Law, though 
not in full rigor. 

4. It is manifeft, that our fuflfer- 
ings are in their own nature evils to 
us, and the fan&ifyihg of them to us j 
taketh not away their natural evil, 
but only produceth by ir, as by an 


, j 70 The Na tti-re of the 

occafion,a greater good : Doubtkfs 
j fo far as it is the effect of fin, it is e- 
j vil, and the effect a! fo. of the Law. 
j • 5. They are afcribed to Gods %qf[ 
| gcr, as the moderating of triem is- 
i afcribed to his love/P/rf/^o.^and a 
j thoufand places more. 

6. They are called punifhments in ! 
j Scripture, and therefore vye may call I 
\ themfo, Lev.%6.<\! £-$. Lar&.i.ty 
I (^4.6,22; li^r^-p. 13. Hofeaq.9. \ 

. 7. Theverymtuceofaffitdionis 
tobealovingpuniflirrient, a natural j 
evil fandtified, and. fo to be mixt of j 
evil and good, as it proceedeth from 
I mixt caufes: Therefore to fay that j 
! Chrift hath taken away the curfe and | 
j evil, but not the fuffering, is a con- 
tradiction, becaufe fofar as it is a 
! fuffering it is to us evil, and the exe- 
i cution of the curfe. . What reafon 
\ can be given, why God (hould, not 
; do us all that good without our fuf- 
ferings,whichnowhe doth by them,, 
if tfiere were not fin, and \yrath, and 
L&whnriem? Sure he could better 


Covenants opened* 71 

us by eafier means. 

8. All thole Scriptures and Rea- 
fons that are brought to the contrary 
do prove no more but this, That our 
afflictions-are not the rigorous exe- 
cution of the threatning of the Law, 
that they are not wholly or chiefly 
in wrath ; but as the common Love 
9/ God to the wicked is mixt with 
hatred in their fufferings, and the. 
hatred prevaileth above the love, fo 
the fufferings of the godly proceed 
from a mixture of love and anger, 
and fo have in them a mixture of- 
good and evil ; but the Love over- 
coming the Anger , therefore the 
good is greater thai the evil, and fo 
death hath loft its fling, 1 Or.15. 
55,56. There is no unpardoned (in 
in it , which fhall procure further 
jndgment,.and fo no hatred, though 
there be anger. 

p. The Scripture faith plainly ,That 
death is one of the enemies that is 
not yet overcome, but (hall be lafl: 
conquered,! Cora 5.26. and of our 
corruption the cafe is plain. 

10. rhe 

Ji The Nature of the 

10. The whole ftream of Scripture 
maketh Chrift to have now the fole 
difpofing of us and our furTerings, ;o 
have prevented the full execution of 
the curfe, and to manage that which 
lyeth on us for our advantage and 
good ; but no where doth it affirm 
that he fuddenly delivereth us. 

To the fourth Queftion : It caj^ 
be no wrong to Chrift, that we are 
not perfectly freed from all the curfe 
and evil as loon as he had fatisfled : 

• i. Bfcaufe it was not the Covenant 
betwixt him and the Father. 2. It 

; is not his own will, & volenti no* 
fit injur U. 5. It is his own doing 
now to keep us under it, tiU he fee • 
the fitted time to releafe us. 4. Our ; 
foflferings are his means and ad van- \ 
tages to bring us to his Will Man- J 
kind having forfeited his life, is call: \ 
into prifon till the time of full 
execution : Chrift fteppeth in, and 
buyeth the prifoners,\vith a full pur- 
\ pofe , that none of them yet (hall 
j (cape but thofe that take him for 

• their Lord. To this purpofe he muft 


Covenants opened, 73 

treat with them, to know whether 
they will be his fubjects, and yield 
themfclves to him,and his terms. Is 
it not then a likelier way to procure 
their confent, to treat with them in 
prifon,then to let them out, and then 
treat ? and to leave fome of the curfe 
upon them, to force them to yield, 
that they may know what they 
mutt expect elfe when the whole 
ftiall be executed. 

To the fifth Queftion: It is no 
wrong to the (inner to be thus dealt 
with; 1. Becaufe he is but in 
the mifery which he brought up- 
on himfelf. 2. No man can lay claim 
to the Satisfa&ion and Redemption 
upon the meer payment , till they 
have a word of promife for it. 
3. Their furTerings, ir they will be 
ruled, ("hall turn to their advantage. 

To the fixth Queftion : The lad 
enemy to be overcome is death, 1 
Cor. 1 5.26. This enemy will be o- 
vercome perfectly at the Refurrecli- 
on ; then alfo ftiall we be perfectly 
acquit from the charge of the 
E Law, 

74 The Nature of the 

Law,& acciafation of SataruTherfore 
not till the day of Rcfurredion and 
Iudgment, will all the ErTe&sof Sin 
and'Law,and Wrath be perfectly re- 
moved. I Cor, 15. 24. 

Thcfis 10. 

(ij \& An having not only bro" 
jLV-L ken this firfi Covenant , 
but ii fabled himfelf to perform its 
Conditions for the future, andfo be- 
ing out of all hope of attaining Righ- 
teoufnejs and Life thereby, (2) It 
I pleafed the Father and the Media- 
I tor to prefcribe unto him a nety 
i £*w.y (3^ and tender him a new 
I Covenant 1 (4) the Conditions 
! whereof Jhould be more eafie to the 
Sinner , and jet more aba fng, (5 J 
and Jhould mere clcerly manifeft, 
and more highly honour the uncon- 
ceiveable Love of the Father and 
Redeemer* * 


Covenants opened, 7$ 


(i)\ J\ 7Hcther Man were on- 

V V ly the meritorious 

Caufe of this his difability, oralfo 

the Efficient, is a great difpute, but 

of no great moment ; as long as we 

are agreed that Man is the only faul- 

! ty caufe.Whether he caft awayGods 

j image ? or whether God took it 

! from him for lift"? whether God 

• only could annihilate it>Or whether 

l Man may annihilate a^uality,though 

not a Subftance > I will not meddle 

with, f ut too fure it is, that we 

are naturally deprived of it, and fo 

difabled to fulfil the Law. If Chrift 

therefore ftiould have pardoned all 

that was pafi, and renewed the firft 

violated Covenant again; and fet 

I Man in the fame eftate that he fell 

i from,in poynt of guilt, yet would he 

have fallen as defperately the next 

j temptation: yea though he had re- 

j ftored to him his primative ftrength 

t and holinelTe, yet experience hath 

E 2 (hew- 

j 6 'The N attire of the 

(hewed on how flippery and uncer- 
tain a ground his happinefs would 
have flood, and how foon he was 
likely to play the Prodigal again with 
his itock. 

(2) God the Father and Chrift 
the Mediator, who have one will, 
did therefore refolve upon a more 
fuitable way ofhappines. 

(3) This way, as the former, is by 
both a Law and Covenant. As it is 
a Law, it is by Chrift preicribed, and 
flatly enjoyned;and either obedi- 
ence, or the penalty lhallbe exacted. 
As it is a Covenant, k is only tender* 
ed & notenforced.lt is called aCove- 
nant as it is in Scripture written and 
offered (as is (aid befc:e;improperiy, 
becaufeit containeth the matter or' 
the Covenant, though yet it want the 
form : Even as a Bond or Obligation 
before the fcaiing or agreement is cal- 
led a Bond : Or as a form of prayer as 
it is written in a book, is caTd a pray- 
er, becaufe it containeth the matter 
that we fhould pray for : though to 
fpeak itri&iy,it is no prayer, till it be 


Covenants opened. 77 

fent up to GocMrom a defiring Soul. 

(4)Though without Grace we can 
no more beleeve, then perfectly o- 
| bey, f as a dead man can no more re- 
move a lira w then a mountain ) yet 
the conditions of the Gofpel confi- 
deredin themfelves, or in reference 
to the ftrength which God will be- 
llow, are far more facile then the old 
conditions. Mat. 11. 20. 30. ljoh. 
5. 3. And moreabafing they are to 
the (inner, in that he hath far leffe to 
doe in the work of his Salvation. 
And alfo in that they contain the ac- 
knowledgement of his loft eftate, 
through his own former fdf- de- 
stroying folly. . 

(5)Such incomprehenfible amazing 
Love.of God the Farher,& of Chrift, 
is manifefted in this New Covenant, 
that the glorifying thereof doth feem 
to be the main end in this defign. Oh 
fweet and bleiTed End .' (hould not 
then the fearching into it be our 
main ftudy ? and the contemplating 
of it, and admiring it, be our main 
employment? Rem. 5. 8. Tit. 3. 4. 
E ; I loh. 


1 let :. 18. i£. Irb, 

So wocdcr therefore tiaz God »' 
did noc prtrent die fail of mm, I 

make ic an occaiioaal prepatathreco \ 
tadklaqff anfe 

aotf A^r^j .- km* bt [up 

this as the emlj pjfibUws] tfLsfr. 

The ftnmr fill C9*ti*ncth t§ 

x*mmsmk\ friiUte^ frf*f*i "ti 
| tbreJter.So tc*t I I en cftht 

jmfiifci *re JHM hrcdekts *f thdt 

L*v.dxAxrc tbrt*t9<ddfi. 



AdoDwktedoi: j 

Covenants opened. 79 

many places of Scripture are ufually 
produced which feem to contradict 
it. I know alfo that it the judge- 
ment of learned and godly men, that 
the Law, as it a Covenant of works, 
is quite null and repealed in regard of 
the Sins of btleevers : yea, many do 
beleeve, that the Covenant of works 
is repealed to all the world, and on- 
ly the Covenant of Grace in force. 

Againft both thefe I maintain this 
Alter tion, by the Arguments which 
you flnde under the following Pofiti- 
on 1 3. And I hope, notwithstanding 
that I extol free Grace as much, and 
preach the Law as little, in a forbid- 
den fence, as though I held the con 
trary opinion. 




Henfore Wr mtift not plead the i 
_ the referi of the Law for enir 
Justification j but mttft refer it to 
oar Surety , who by the value and 

__ ' cffcacjl 

80 The Nature of the 

efficacy of his once offering and me- 
rits doth continually fatisfie. 


T Shall he re explain to you, in what 
fence, and how far the Law is 
in force, and how far not ; and then 
prove it in and under the next head. 
You muft here diftinguiih betwixt, 
i . The repealing of the Law, and 
the relaxing of it. 2. Between a 
difpenfation abfolute and refpective. 
3. Between the alteration of the 
Law, and the alteration of the Sub- 
jects relation to it. 4. Between a 
Difcharge conditional, with a fuf- 
penfion of execution, and a Dif- 
charge abfolute. And fo I refolve 
the queftion thus ; 

1. The Law of Works is not ab- 
rogate, or repealed, but difpenfed 
with, or relaxed. A Difpenfation is 
(as Grotius defineth it,) an act of a 
Superior, whereby the obligation 


Covenants opened. 8 1 

of a Law in force is taken away, as 
to certain perfons and things. 

2. This Difpenfation therefore is 
not total or ablohue, but refpeclive. 
For, i. though it difpence with 
the rigorous execution^ yet not with 
every degree of execution. ^.Though 
the Lawbe difpenced with as it con- 
tained the proper fubjecls of the 
penalty, viz,, the parties offending, 
and alio the circumftances of durati- 
on,^. Yet in regard of the meer 
puniflm?ent abftractedfrom perfon 
and circum[tances,it is not difpenced 
with: for-to Chrifl.it was not dif- 
penced with : His fatisfacTion was 
by paying the full value. 

3. Though by this Difpenfatioa 
our Freedom may be as full as upon a 
Repeal , yet the Alteration is not 
made fa the Law, but in our eftate 
and relation to the Law, 

4. So far is the Law difpenced 
with to all, as to fufpend the rigor-. 
011s execution for a time • and a Li- 1 
Deration or Difcharge conditional 
procured and granted them. But an 

E 5 ab- 

I gi The Nature of the. 

abfolute Difcharge is granted to 
none in this life. For even when we 
do perform the Condition, yet ftffl. 
the Difcharge remains conditional, 
till we have quite finished our per- 
formance. For it is not one inftan- 
taneous .Act of beleeving which 
ftiall quite difcharge us $ but a con- 
tinued Faith. No longer are we dif- 
charged, then we are Bdeevers. And 
where the condition is not perform- 
ed, the Law is (HI in force, and fhall 
be executed upon the offcndor him- 
• felf. 

I fpeak nothing in all this of the 
J directive ufeof the Moral Law to 
j Beleevers : Btit how far the Law is 
yet in force, even as k is a Covenant 
of Works ; becaufe an utter Repeal 
of it in this fence is fo commonly, 
but inconfiderately aiTerted. That it 
is no further overthrown, no not to 
Beleevers, then is here explained, I 
now come to prove. 


Covenants opened. 83 

Thefis 13 

rF this Were not fo,but that Ckrift 
had abrogated the fir ft Covenant*, 
then it w ould follow , I. That no fin 
but that of Adam, and final Unbe- 
lief, is [0 much as threatened with 
death, or that death is explicit ely 
(that is, by any Law) due to it or 
deferved by it. For, What the Law 
in force doth not threaten, that is 
not explicit ely deferved, or due by 
LaW. .2. It Would follow , That 
Chrifi dyed not to prevent or re- 
move the wrath and curfefo deferr- 
ed or due to us for any butAdzmsfin, 
nor to pardon our fins at all : but on- 
ly to prevent our defer t of Wrath & 
curfe, and consequently to prevent 
our need of pardon, 3 . // won Id follow* 
That againfi eternal wrath at the 
day of Judgment, we mufi not plead 
the pardon of any fin, but the first, 
but our own non-defertof tbatwrath, 
becaufe of the repeal of that LaW be- 
fore the Jin was committed, All 


84 The Nature of the 

which conferences f&em to me tin- 
faff er able, -which cannot be aveyded 
if the Law be repealed* 


WHcn God the abfolutc So- 
vereign of the World foall 
but command, though he exprefly 
threaten ho punifhment to the dif- 
obedfent, yet implicitely it may be 
laid to be due ; that is, the offence 
in irfelfcon(klered,deferveth fome 
punifhment in the general } for the 
Law of Nature containeth fome ge- 
neral Threatenings, as well as Pre- 
cepts, (as I (he wed before ; ) ' Whe- 
ther this Duenefs of punifhment, 
which I call implicite, do a rife from 
the nature of the offence only, or 
alfo becaufe of this general threat 
in the Law of Nature, I will not 
difpute. But Gc^d dealeth with his 
Creature by way of legal govern- 
ment 5 andkeepetfvnot their defer- 


Covenants efened. 85 

ved'puniftiment from their know- 
ledg no more then their ditty ; it be- 
ing almoft as neceflary to be known 
for our incitement, as the Precept 
for our dikdtion. Gods laws are 
perfect laws, fitted to the attain- 
ment of ail their ends : And by thefe 
laws doth he rule _ the world ; and 
according to them doth, he difpofe 
of his rewards- and punimments: 
So that we need not fear that which 
is not threatened : And in this fence 
it is that I fay, That what no law hi 
force doth threaten, that-fin doth not 
explicitly deferve: Not fo deferve as 
that we need to fear the fuffering 
of it. And upon this ground 
the . three fore-mentioned confe- 
rences muft needs follow. For 
the new Covenant threateneth not 
Death to any fin but final unbe- 
lief, or, at leaft; to no fin with- 
out final unbelief : And there- 
fore if the old Covenant be ab- 
rogated, then no law threateneth 
it : And confequently , 1. Our 
Sin doth not deferve it ( in 


86 The Nature of the 

the fence exprefledj. Nor Chrift 
prevent the wrath deferved , but 
only the defert of wrath. 3. And 
therefore not properly doth he par- 
don any fuch fin, fas you will fee 
after when I come to open the na- 
ture of pardon). 4. We may plead 
our non- defer ving of death for our 
difcharge at judgment. 5. And 
further, then Chrift in fatisfying did 
not bear the punifhment due to any 
fin but Adams firft : For that which 
is not threatened to us, was not ex- 
ecuted on him. This is a clear, 
but an intolerable confequencc. 
6. Scripture plainly teacheth, That 
all men (even the Elec*t)-are under 
the Law till they beleeve and enter 
into the Covenant of the Gofpel. 
Therefore it is faid 3 Iok 3. 18. He 
that faleeieth not y is condemned al- 
ready : And the yvrdth oj Cod abi~ 
dethoubim^vev. 36. And we are 
fa id to beleeve for Remiflion of fins. 
Ads i. 38. Marl^i.q. Z/^24.47 
^#.10.43.07-3.79. Which (hew, 
•that fin is not before remitted, and 


Covenants opened. 87 

confequently the Law not repealed, 
but fufpended, and left to the dif- 
pofe of the Redeemer.Eife howcould 
the Redeemed be by nature the chil- 
dren of wrath ? Eph* 2. 3. The cir- 
cumcifed are debtors to the whole 
I&w 9 Gdlȣ 3 ,4. andChrift is become 
of none effect to them. But they thar 
are led by the Spirit are not under the 
law,and againft fuch there is no law. 
Gal. 5. 1 8, 2 3. The Sctipture hath con- 
cluded all under Sin (and fo far under 
the h\ vv no doubt ) that the promife, 
by faith inJefusChriIt,mightbe given 
to them that beleeve. GaL 3.22. We 
are under the Law when Chrift doth 
redeem us. GaL/\. 5. See alfo lam. 2. 
9. id. iTim. 18. 1 Qor. 15. jtf. 
Gal. 3 19,2021. Therefore our de- 
liverance is conditionally from the 
curfe of- the Law j viz. if we will ' 
obey the Gofpel. And this delive- 
rance, together with the abrogati- 
on of the Ceremonial Law, is it 
which isfo oft mentioned as a pri- 
viledge; of beleevers, and an effect 
; of the blood of Ghrift: which deli- 

, verance 

88 The Nature of the y 

verance from the curfe, is yet more 
full when we perform the Conditi- 
ons Qf our freedom: And then we are 
faid to be dead to the Law. Rom.y.4. 
And the Obligation to punifhment 
dead as to us, ver. 6. But not the 
Law void or dead in it (elf. , 

7. Laftly, All the Scriptures and 
Arguments^fg.60.61. which prove, 
That afflictions are puniflhments, do 
prove aifo, that the Law is not re- 
pealed : For jio man can fuflfer for 
breaking a repealed Law, nor by the 
threats of a repealed Law ; yet I 
know that this Covenant of Works 
continueth not to the fame ends and 
ufes as before , nor is it fo to be 
preached or ufed. We muft neither 
take that Covenant as a way to life, 
as if now we muft get falvation by 
our fulfilling its condition ; nor muft 
we look on its curfe as lying on us 


Covenants opened, 89 

Thcfis 14. 

(i) "Tp He Tenor of the new Co- 

JL venant is this. That Chrifi 
having madefujficientfatufattion to 
the Law, Whofoever Will repent and 
believe in him to the end,Jhallbeju- 
fiified through that SatisfaEliofrom 
all that the Law did charge upon 
them, and be moreover advanced to 
far greater Priv Hedges and Glory 
then they fell from : But whofoever 
fulfilleth not thefe conditions , {hall 
(2) have no more benefit from the 
blood of Chrifi > then what the] here 
received and abufed, but must an- 
fwer the charge of the Law thtm- 
felves\andfor their negletl of Chrifi 
mu/i alfo fuffer a far greater cow 
demnation* Or briefly, Whofoever 
believeth in Chrifi jh all not perijh, 
but have everlafiing life y but he 
that believeth not /hall not fee life y 
but the Vcrath of God abideth on 
him. Mark, 1 6. 1 6. John 3.15,16, 
17,18,36. & 5. 24. (> 6.35,40,47. 


90 The Nature of the 

&!•!%. & 1 1. 2-5, 16. &12.46. 
Atls 10.43. Rom.i,*i6*& 4.5. d- 5. 
1. Cr ic. 4,io. 1 John 1 ). iQ.Marl^ 
1.15.(^-6.12. Z*^ 13.3.5. 0^24. 
47.e^EF.r 5.31. #• 11.18. & 20.21. 
<#• 2.38. c^ 3.19. C^ 8.22. # 26.20. 
Rev,2.$ > i6.Heb 6.1. 2 Pet.3.9. 


(i)/^Hrifts Satisfaction to the 
V_/ Law goes before the new 
Covenant, though not in regard of 
its payment, (which was in the ful- 
nefs of timej yet in regard of the 
undertaking,acceptanceand efficacy^ 
There could be no treating on new 
terms, till the old obligation were 
fatisfied and fufpended. 

I account them not worth the con- 
futing,who tell us, That Ghrift is the 
only party conditioned with, and 
that the new Covenant,as tous,hath 
no conditions ; (fo Saltmarjhfaz^) 
The place they alledg for this afTer- 


Covtnants opened. 91 

tionistbat, Jer.^ 1.31,31,33. cited 
\nHeb. 8.8,9,10. which place con- 
tained not the Full Tenor of the 
whole new Covenant: But either 
it is called the new Covenant, be- 
caufe it expreffeth the nature of the 
benefits ofthe new Covenant as they 
are offered on Gods part, without 
mentioning mans conditions, (that 
being not pertinent to the bnfinefs 
the Prophet had in hand ; ) or elfe it 
fpeaketh only of what God will do 
for his deft in giving them the firft 
Grace,and enabling them to perform 
the conditions of the new Covenant, 
and in that fence may be ailed a 
new Covenant alfo,as I have (hewed 
before, /><*£-7.8. Though properly 
it be a prediction, and belong only 
to Gods Will of Purpofe, and not 
tohislegiflative Will. 

But thofe men erroneously think, 
that nothing is a condition.but what 
is to be performed by our own 
ftrength. But if they will believe 
Scripture, the places before alledged 
will prove, that the new Covenant 


92 The Nat fire of the 

hath conditions on our part, as well 
as the old. 

(i) Some benefit from Chrift the 
condemned did here receive, as the 
delay of their condemnation , and 
many more mercies , though they 
turn them all into greater judg- 
ments : But of this more when we 
treat of general Redemption. 

Thcfis i j. 

T Bough Chrift hathfu$iiently 
fatisfied the Law, yet is it not 
his Will, or the Will ef the Father, 
that any man Jhould be jufiified or 
faved thereby, who hath not fome 
ground in himfelf of perfonal and 
particular right and claim thereto; 
nor that any jhould be ju fit Bed by the 
blood only as [he dor offered, except 
it be a/Jo received and apply ed; fo 
that no man by the meer Satisfacti- 
on made, is freed from the Law or 
curfe of the firfl violated Covenant 
abfelutely, but con iit tonally miy* .. 


Covenants opened. 93 


I Have (hewed before,/?. 57.58. &c. 
That Chrift intended not to re- 
move all our mifery as foon as he dy- 
ed, nor as foon as we believed. I am 
now to (hew, That he doth not ju- 
ftifie by the (hedding of his blood 
immediately, without fomewhat of 
man intervening, to give him a legal 
title thereto. All the Scriptures al- 
ledged fag. 79. prove this : We are 
therefore faid to be juftified byTaith. 
Let all the Antinomians flhew but 
one Scripture which fpeaks of Jufti- 
fication from eternity. I know God 
hath decreed to juftifie his people 
from eternity, and fo he hath to fan- 
ctifie them too,but both of them are 
done in time: Juftification being 
no more an imminent act in God 
then San&ification, as I ft^ll fhew 

The Blood of Chrift then isfur- 
ficient mftiogenereyhwt not in cmni 
genere ; fufficient for its own woik, 


94 The Nature of the 

but not for every work. There are 

feveral other neceflaries to juftifie 

and fave, quibus pofitu, which being 

fuppofed, the Blood of Chrift will 

be effectual : Not that it receives 

its efficacy from thtfe, nor that thefe 

do add any thing at all to its worth 

or value ; no more then the Cabinet 

to the Jewel, or the applying hand 

to the medicine, or the orrendors 

acceptation to the pardon of his 

Prince; yet without this acceptation 

and application this blood will not 

be erfe&ualto juftifieus. For (as 

Grotius) Cum unufquifque aftui ex 

fka voluntate pendenti legem pojfit 

imponere,ficut id quod pure debetur 

novaripoteftfub condition^ it a eti- 

ampojfunt, is qui folvit pro alio, et 

& qui rei alterim pro altera f olutio- 

nemtdmittit^p&cifci, utautftatim 

fequatur remijfio, ant indiejn, item 

aut pure, aut fub conditions Fuit 

j autem et Chrifii fatisfacientk & 

\ clei fatisfatlionem admittentis hie 

\ animus ac voluntas y hoc denique 

\ patlum etf&dusy non ut dent flat im 


Covenants opened* 95 

ipfo perpejfionis Chrifti tempore pa- 
no* remitteret, fed ut turn dtmum 
idfieret y cum homo vera inChriftum 
fide ad deum converfus, fupplex ve- 
niam precaretur , accedente etiam 
Chrifti apud deum advoc At lone five 
interccffione. Nan obftat hie erg$ 
fatisfaliio quo minus f equip offit re- 
miffio fatisfaliio enim non jamfu- 
ftulerat debitum^fed hoc egerat, ut 
propter ipfum debitum aliquando 
t oiler etttr. Cjrot. de fat if cap, 6* 
So that, as Auflin, he that made us 
without us,will not fave us without 
us. He never maketh a relative 
change, where he doth not alfo make 
a real. Gods Decree gives no man a 
legal title to the benefit decreed him, 
feeing purpofe and promife are fo 
different : A legal title we mull have, 
before we can be juftified ; and there 
muft be fomewhat in our felves to 
prove that title,or elfe all men fhoujd 
have equal right. 

Thefis i 


96 The Nature of the 

Thcfis 1 6. 

T'He obeying of a Law, and per- 
forming the conditions of a Co- 
venant, or fatisffwg for difobedi- 
ence , or non-performance , is our 
Righteeufnefs, in reference to that 
Law and Covenant 


IF we underftand not what Righ- 
teoufnefs is, we may dispute long 
enough about Juftification to little 
purpofe : You mufl: know therefore 
thatRighteoufnefsis no proper real 
Being, but a Modus Bntis\ the Mo- 
dification of a Being. The fubjecfl of 
it is, i. An Action, 2.0raPerfon; 
An A&ion is the primary fubjeft, 
and fo the Difpofition ; and the Per- 
fon fecondary , as being therefore 
righteous,becaufehis difpofition and 
anions are fo. 


Covenants opened. 97 

Righteoufnefs is the conformity 
of Difpofitions and Actions , and 
confequently the perfon to the Rule 

It is not a being diftinct therefore 
from the faid Difoofitions and Acti- 
ons, but their juft and well being. 

This Definition is only of the 
Creatures Righteoufnefs. . 

God is the Prlmnm 'fujlutn, and 
fo the Rule of Righteoufnefs to the 
Creature,and hath no Rule but him- 
felf, for the meafuring of his Acti- 

Yet his EfTence is too far above us, 
remote and unknown to be this 
Rule to the Creature; therefore 
hath he given us his Laws, which 
flow from his perfection, and they 
are the immediate Rule of our Dif- 
pofitions and Actions, and fo of our 

Here carefully obferve, That this 
Law hath two parts; 1. The Pre- 
cept and Prohibition prefcribing and 
requiring Duty : 2. The Promife 
and Commination determining of 
F the i 

$8 The Nature of the 

the reward of Obedience ,and penal- 
ty of Difobedience. As the Precept j 
is the principal part, and the Penalty j 
annexed but for the Precepts fake ; 
fothe primary intent of the Law- = 
giver is the obeying of his Precepts, 
and our fuf&ring of the Penalty is 
but a fecondary, for the attaining of I 
the former. 

So is there accordingly a two- fold : 
Righteoufnefs or fulfilling of this j 
Law, (which is the thing I would i 
have obferved:)the primary ,moft ex- ! 
cellent & mod proper Righteoufnefs , 
lyethin the conformity of ouracTi- • 
ons to the precept : The fecondary, - 
lefs excellent Righteoufnefs) yet fitly | 
enough fo called ) ( fee Pemhle of 
ftsftificat.pag. 2. ) is, when though 
we have broke the precepts, yet we 
have fatisfied for our breach, either 
by our own furTering , or fome o- i 
ther way. 

The firft hath reference to the 
Commands when none can accufe 1 
us to have broak the Law : The fe- 
cond hath reference to the Penalty; 


Covenants opened. op 

when thoughwe have broke the law, 
yet it hath nothing againftus forfo 
doing, becaufe it is fatisfyed. Thefe 
two kinds of Rightcoufneffe cannot 
ftand together in the fame perfon, 
in regard of the fame Law and Acti- 
ons ; he that hath one, hath not the 
other: he that hath the Firft,need not 
the Second ; There muft be a fault, 
or no fatisfadrion ; this fault muft be 
confefTedj and fo the firftkind of 
Righteoufneffe difclaimed , before 
Satisfaction can be pleaded : and Sa- 
tisfaction muft be pleaded, before a 
Delinquent can be juftified. This 
welunderftood T would givea clearer 
infight into the nature of ourRighte- 
oufnefs, and Juftifkation,then many 
have yet attained. The great Quefti- 
on is, of which fort is our Righte« 
oufnefs whereby we are juftified ? 
I anfwer, of the fecond fort, which 
yet is no derogation from it : for 
though it be not a Rightoufnefs fo 
honouring our felves, yet is it as ex- 
cellent in Chrift, and honorable to 
him. And thisfirftkindeofRighte- 
F 2 oufnefs 

ioo The Nature of the 

oufnefs as it is in Chrift, cannot re- 
taining its own form, be made ours. 
And to that the Papifts arguments 
will hold good. The Law command- 
ed our own perfonal obedience, and 
not anothers for us ; We did not fo 
perfonaily obey, we did not really 
obey in Chrift : and God doth not 
'judge us to do, what we did not ; If 
we had, yet it would not have made- 
us juft: for one fin will make us un- 
juft, though we were never fo obe- 
dient before and after; Therefore 
if we had obeyed in Chrift, and yet 
finned in our (elves, we are breakers 
of the Law ftill. And fo our Righte- 
oufnefs cannot beo£ the firffc fort. 
This Breach therefore muft be fatis- 
fied for, & confequendy, our Righ- 
teoufnefs muft be of the fecond 
fort : feeing both cannot ftand in 
one perfon as beforefaid. Chrift in- ! 
d^d had both thefe kinds of righte- 
oufnefs, viz. the righteoufnefs of 
perfect Obedience; and the righte- 
oufnefs of Satisfaction, for Difobe- , 
dience .But the former only was his 

own I 

Covenants opened. 101 

own perfonal Righteoufnefs ., not 
communicable to anotherunder that 
notion, and in that form of [a Righ- 
tcoufnefs by obeying Q The latter, 
was his Righteoufnefs, as he Rood in 
our room, and was by imputation a 
(inner : and fo is alfo our Righteouf- 
nefs in and through him. Yet the 
former ( as I have proved Pag. 49. 
&cj. is ours too, and our Righte- 
oufnefs too ( though many Divines 
think otherwife: ; but how ? Not as 
retaining its form, in the former 
fence : but as it is alfo in a further- 
confederation, apart of the Righte- 
oufnefs by Satisfaction : feeing that 
Chrifts veryperfonal obediential righ- 
.teoufnes was: alfo in a further repecl: 
fatisfadtory. I intreat thee Reader, 
doe not pafs over this diitincT: repre- 
sentation of Righteoufnefs , as curi- 
ous, or neediefs ; for thou canft not 
tell how thou art righteous or jufti- 
fyed without it. Nor do thou 
through prejudice re/eft it asun- 
found, till thou have firft well ftudi- 
ed the Natureof Righteoufnes in ge- 
F3 nera 

102 The Nature of the 

neral,and of Chriftian Righteoufnefs 
in fpecial. 

Thcfis 17. 

THerefore as there are two 
Covenants, With their diftintl 
Conditions: fo is there a twofold 
Righteoufnefs , and both of them, 
dbjblutely neceffary to Salvation. 



AS Sin is defined to be av^a 
a Tranfgreflion of the Law. 
\Ioh. 3.4. So Righteoufncfs is a 
Conformity to the Law. Therefore: 
as there is a twofold Law or Cove- 
nant • fomuft there be accordingly a 
two-fold Righteoufnels ; whether' 
both thefe be to us neceffary is all 
the doubt. If the firft Covenant be 
totally repealed, then indeed we 
need not care for the righteoufnes of 


Covenants o pened. 103 ! 

that Covenant, inrefpeft of any of 
our perfonal anions : but only in re- 
fpea of Aims firlt,and ours in him, 
But I have proved before that it is 
not repealed ; other wife the righte- 
nefs-of Ckift itnputed to us, would 
be of a very narrow extent; if it 
"were a Covering only to our fir ft 
tranfgreffion. I take it for grant- 
ed therefore, that he muft have a 
two-fold Righteoufnes anfwerable 
to the two Covenants, that expeft- 
cth to be juftifyed. Andtheufual 
confounding of thefe two diftincT 
RighteoufnefTes, doth much darken 
the controverts ^aboujt Juftificati- 1 


Thefis 18. 

C\Vr Legal Righto fsfnes t $r righ- 
/ teuofnefs ofthefirfi Covenany 
is not perfonal , or confiftethnot tn 
any qualifications of our own per- 
fons, or aftions performed by >#4 
{For We never fulfilled^ nor $erfon\ 

E4 «fr- 

1 04 The N *t are of the 

ally fat is fie d the Law: ) but it is 
wholly without us in Chrift. And in 
this fence it is that the Apoftle (and, 
every Chriftian,) difclaimeth his 
otyn Right e€Hfnefs y or his own 
Worlds, as being no true legal Righ- 
teoufnefs. Phil. 3. 7,8. 


1 J^vOth Hot the Apoftle fay, 
L/ that as touching the 
Righteoufnefs which is in the Law, 
he was bhmelefs ? Phil, 3. 6. Anf. 
That is, He fo exaclly obferved the 
Ceremonial Law, and the external 
part of the Moral Law, that no man 
could blame him for the breach of 
them But this is nothing to fuch a 
keeping of the whole Covenant, as 
might render him blamelefs in the 
fight of God : otherwife he would 
not have efteemed it fo lightly. 

2. There are degrees of Sin. He' 
that is not yet a (inner in the higheft 
- degree 

Covenants opened* 105 

degree, is he not fo far righteous by 
a perfonal Righteoufnefs t Chrift, 
fatisfied only for our fin; fo far. as 
our Actions are not (inful , fo far 
they need no pardon nor fatisfaction. 
And confequently , Chrifts righte- 
oufnefs and our own works, doe 
concur to the. compofing of our per- 
fect Righteoufnefs. Anf\ Though 
this Objection doetfvpuzle foine, as 
if there were no efcaping this Fopifh 
.fclf-exaling Confequence ; yet by 
the help of the fore-going .grounds-, 
the vanity ofitmaybe eafily difcon 
vered. And that thus. . 

1. An Action is; not righteous,' 
which is not ; conformable to the! 
Law ; if in force refpects it be con- 
formable, and in fome not, it cannot 
be culled a conformable or righteous 
-Action. So that we having no acti- 
ons, perfectly conformed to the 
Law, have therefore no one righ- 
teous action. 2. If we had; Yet 
many righteous Actions, if but one 
were. unrighteous, will not ferve 
to denominate the. perfon. 
F5 Righte- 

to6 The Nature rf the 

Righteous, according to the Law 
of Works. And that theic joyned 
with Chrifts Righteoufnefs, doe not 
makeup one Righteoufnefs for us, 
is plain thus; The Righteoufnefs 
which we have in Chrift, is not or 
the fame fort with this pretended 1 
partial Righteoufnefs : For this pre- 
tendeth to be a Righteoufnefs ( in 
part ) of the firft kinde mentioned 
Pag. %6 % 87. viz,, Obediential con- 
futing in conformity to the Precept. 
NoWjChrHtsRighteoufnefs imputed 
to us, being.only that of the fecond 
fort ( vU* By fatisia&ion for hob-; 
conformity , or for our. difobedi- 
ence,) cannot therefore poffibie be 
joyned with our imperfect Obedi- 
ence, to make up one Righteoufnefi 
for us. I acknowiedge, that fome 
aelions of ours, may in (bme re- 
fpe&s be good, tbough chat refpeel: 
cannot denominate it fftricliy in the 
fence of the old Covenant ) a good 
Work. I acknowledge alfo, that fo far 
it is pleating to God : yet the Acti- 
on cannot be faid to pleafe him 


Ca ventmts of meld* 107 ; 

(much lefs the peribn, ) but only 
-that refpe&ive Goodnefs. nAICo that 
Chrift dyed only tofatisHe for our 
anions fo far as they were (inful, and' 
not in thofe refpe&s wherein they; 
are good and lawful. Yet that thefe 
good works ( To commonly called ) 
Can be no part of oar Rigkeoufnefc, 
I think is fully proved by thefcre- 
-going Argument. Though I much 
queftion, whether they chat ftand 
: fottfche imputation of Chriib rnoral 
Righteoufnefein the rigid reje&fcci 
fence, (as if in him we had pakltfae 
primary proper debt of perfeft obe- 
d fence ) can fo well rid their hands 

Thefis 19. 

THe'Righteoftfnefs of the New 
Covenant , is the only Conditi- 
on of our inter eft *#, 4*ci enjoyment I 
of the Right evxfitefs of the I 
old. Or thus : Thofe only frail [ 
have fart in Chrifts fatisfattion^ ' 
md fo in him be legally righteous > 


1 08 The Nature of the 

Veho dobeleive, and obejthe Gofpel, 
and fo are in themj elves Evangeli- 
cally Rigloteous*.. 

Thcfis 20. 

OVr. Ev angelic all* Right eoufnefs 
U: not without us in Chrifi, as 
our legal Right eoufnefs is : but con- 
Jtfteth in our oVen anions of Faith 
and CjofpeL Obedience. Or thus : 
Thongh C hrift per formedthe condi- 
tions of the LaVv, and fat is fed for 
our nonperformance • jet it is our 
f elves thas mufi perform the condi- 
tions oftheGofpeL 


*~y" He Contents of thefe twoPo- 
8 fitions being of fo.neer nature, 
I fhall explain them here together i 
though they feem to me, Co plain and 
clear that they .need notmuch ex- 


Covenants opened, iop 

plication, and lefs confirmation : yet 
becaufe fome Antinomians doe 
down-right oppofe them, and fome 
that are no Antinomians have ftart- 
led at the expreflions, as if they had 
contained fome felf-exalting horrid 
doctrine; I fhal fay fomthing hereto. 
Though for ,my part, I doe fo much 
wonder that any able Divines (hould 
deny thera-.yet methinks they Qiould 
be Articles of our Greed, and a part 
of Childrens Catechifms, and under- 
ftood and believed by: every man 
that is a Chriflian : I m&m the mat- 
ter of them,. if not the Phrafe; 
though I think it to be agreeable to 
-the matter alfo. 

That there may be no contention 
about words, you muft take my 
phrafe of [Legal and Evangelical 
-Rigbteoftfnefs'] in the fence before 
•explained, viza as they take their 
name from that Covenant whichis 
their rule, and I know not how any 
righteoufnefs fhould be called [^Le- 
gal or Evangelical] is a fence more 
fki&&. proper ,nor whence the.de- 


I ox The Nature <f the 

nomination can be better taken then 
from the formal reafon of the thing: 
Yet I know, that the obfervance of 
the Law of Ceremonies,and tbefeek- 
ing of life by the works of the Law, 
are both commonly called Legal 
Righteoufnefs, but in a very impro- 
per fence in comparifon of this. I 
know alfo, that Chrifts Legal Righ- 
teoufnefsjimputed to us,is common- 
ly called [_ Evangelical Righteoaf- 
nefs,] bat that is from a moreaJiene 
extrirVecal rerpccl ; to wit,;beeaijfe 
the Gofpel declarech and offerech 
this Righteoufhefs, and becaui'e it is 
a way to Juftifkation, wfcich only 
the Gofpel revealeth. I do not quar- 
rel with any ot thefe fanms of 
fpeech, only explain my cnwwhkh 
I knew not how to exprefs naoue 
properly, that I be not mif-under- 
ftood.The Righteoufnefs of the mw 
Covenant ihen being, the perform- 
ance of its conditions, and ltSfomdi- 
tions being our obeying theGdpel 
or beleeving, it mult needs be pkin, 
That on no other tenns do wc par- 

Covenants evened. m 

take of the Legal Rightcoufnefs of 
Chrift. To affirm therefore that ©ur 
Evangelical or new Co v t riant- Righ- 
teoufnefs#in Chrift, and not in our 
felves, or performed by Chrift, and 
not by our felvcsjs fucha monftrous 
piece of Antinomian dodrrine, that 
no man who knows the nature and 
difference of the Covenant, canpof- 
fibly entertain, and which every 
Chriftian fhould abhor as unfuffer- 

For i. It implyeth blafphemya- 
gainft Chrift, as it" he had fin to repent 
of,or pardon to accept, and a Lord 
that redeemed him to receive and 
fdbmit to ; for thefe are the condi- 
tions of the new Covenant. 
l.It implyetr^thatjewvnd Pagans, 
and every man (hall be faved.Do not 
fay that I odioufly wring out thefe 
confequences ; they are as plain as 
can be expected : For if any be dam- 
ned, itmuft be either for breaking 
the firft Covenant or the fecpnd : If 
the former be charged upon him, he 
may efcape by pleading the fecond 


1 1 2 The Nature of the 

fulfilled: If the latter, the fame plea 
will ferve - 3 fo that if Chrift have ful- 
filled both Covenants for all men, 
then none can peri Hi. If they fay, 
that he hath performed the new Co- 
venant conditions only for the elecl: ; 
Then third, this followeth how- 
foever, That they are righteous, and 
•juftified before they beleeve, (which 
what Scripture doth fpeak ? ). 

4. And that beleeving is needlefs, 
not only as to our Justification, but 
to any other ufe : For what need 
one thing be fo twice done ? If 
Chrift have fulfilled the new Cove- 
nant for us,as well as the old, , what 
need we do it again ? Shall we come 
after him to do the work he hath 
perfected ? Except we would think 
with the Socinians, and as Siri<> 
nelm Digbj, That Chrift was but 
our pattern to follow, and but fet us 
a copy in obeying according, to rigfit 

5. That the faved and the damned 
are alike in themfelves, but the dif- 
ference is only in Election , and 


113 ' Covenants opened* 

Chrifts- intention : For the faved 
have broke the old Covenants well 
as the damned; and if it be not they, 
but Chrift, that fulfil their conditi- 
ons of the new, then the difference 
is all without them. 

6. It confoundeth Law and Gof- 
peljt bverthroweth all the Lawsand 
Precepts of Chrift,by removing their 
end, it contradideth the whole 
fcopeof the Scripture, which telieth 
us, That Chrift was made under the 
Law, (and not under the Gofpel,) 
fulfilled the Law,(but not theGofpel 
Covenant)bore the curfe of theLaw, 
( but not of the Gofpel J and which 
irapofeth a neceflity of fulfilling the 
conditions of the Gofpel themfelves 
upon all that will be juftified and 
faved. To quote the Scriptures that 
affert this, would be to transcribe 
almoft all the doctrinal part of the 
New Teftament. What unfavory 
ftuff then is that of Mr Salt mar Jh,ofc ] 
free Grace, pag. 83.84. Who direft- 
eth thofe that doubt of their Gofpel 
fincemytofeeit in Chrift, becaufe 


Covenants opened* 1 1 4 

Chrift hath beleeved perfe&ly , j* e 
hathforrowed for fin perfectly, *% 
hath repented perfectly , he hath 
obeyed perfectly , he hath mor- 
tified fin perfectly ,and all is ours,&c. 
If this be meant of Gofpei-belee- 
ving, repenting, forrowing, obeying 
and mortifying , then it is no un- 
charitable language to fay, It isblaf- 
phemy in its clear confequence .; as 
if Chrift had a Saviour tobeleevdn 
for pardon and life, or fin to repent 
of^and forrow for,and mortifie : JBtit 
if he meant it of legal beleeving in 
God, or repenting, forrowing for, 
mortifying of fin inns, and not in 
hirnfelf; then is it no more to the 
bufinefs he hath in hand, then a Harp 
to a Harrow, as they fay. It is not 
legal beleeving, whichis the evidence 
doubted of, or enquired after; and 
(ureGhrifts repenting and forrow- 
ing for our fin, is no clearing to us, 
that werepent of our own, nor any 
acquitting of us for not doing it : 
And tor his- mortifying fin in us, that 
isithe doubt, Whether k be done in 


Covenants opened* 115 

the doubting foul or not. ? If he 
mean it of deftroying the guilt of 
fin mcritorioufly on the Crofs, that 
is but a ftrange evidence of the 
death of it in a particular foul : Ex- 
cept he think ( as divers that I met 
With in Glocefter-Jhire, and VPilt- 
Jbire,) That Chrift took our natural 
pravity and corruption together 
with our fltfli. But I let go this fort 
of men, as being fitter firft to learn 
the grounds of Religion in a Cate- 
chifm, then to manage thofe Dif- 
putes wherewith they trouble the 

Thcfis 21. 

NOt that we can perform theft 
Conditions without grace: 
(for without Chrifl we nan do no- 
thing : ) But that he enableth us 
to perform them our felves; and 
doth not himfelf repent , beleeve y 
love Christ, obey the Gofycl for tu, 
as he didfatisfie the Law for hs. 

The Nature of the 116 



His prevention of an Objection 
I add, becaufe fome think it is a 
felf-afcribing, and derogating from 
Chrift , to affirm our felves to be 
but the Actors of thefe duties; 
though we profefs to do it only by 
the/trengthof Grace. But that it 
is Chrift that repenteth and beleev- 
eth, and not we, is language fome- 
what ftrange to thofe ears that have 
been ufed to the language of Scrip- 
ture or Reafon. Though I know 
there is a fort of fublime Phtonick, 
Plotinian Divines, of hte fprung up 
among us, who think all things be 
but one ; and thofe branches or 
beams of Gods EfTence, which had 
their Being in him before their Crea- 
tion, and fhall at their diflfolution 
return into God again ; and fo the 
fouls of men are but fo many par- 
cels of God given out into fo many 
bodies; or at leaft but beams dream- 
ing from him by a f ancyed Emana- 

Covenants opened* 117 

tion. Thefe men will fay, not only 
that it is Chrift in ns that doth be- 
lceve, but the meer Godhead in ef r/ 
fence confidered. But it fufficeth 
fober men to beleeve that Chrift 
d welleth in us ; J. By his graces or 
fpiritual workings: 2. Byourcon- 
ftant love to him, and thinking of 
him : as the perfon or thing that we 
are ftill affectionately thinking on, is 
faid to dwell in our minies or hearts 
(becaufe their idea is ftill there,) or 
our mindes and hearts to dwell upon 
them. But in regard of the Divine 
Etfence, which is every where, as it 
dwells no otherwifc ( for ought I 
know or have feen proved) in the 
Saints,then in the wicked and devils; 
fo I think (as Sir Kenelm ~Digby 
thinks of the Soul ; That the Body 
is more properly faid to be in the 
Soul, then the Soul in the Body, \ fo 
we are more properly faid to live, 
and move & have our Being in God, 
then God to live, and move, and 
have his Being in us. 
I will not digrefs from my intend- 

118 The Nature of the 

ed fubjecT: fo far, as to enter here 
into a difquifition after the nature or 
workings of that Grace which doth 
enable us to perform thefe Conditi- 
ons. I refer you to Parkers Thefes 
de Traduclione Peccatorts advit> 

Thefis 22. 

IN this fore-explained fence it is 
that men in Scripture arefaid to 
be perfonally righteous : And in this 
fence it is ^ bat the Faith and duties 
of Beleevcrs are f aid to pleafe God> 
viz. as they are related to the Cove* 
nant of Grace, and not as they are 
meafured by the Covenant of I 
; Works. 


THofe that will not acknowledg 
that the godly are called righ*- 
teous in the Scripture, by reafon of 

1 1 9 The Natnre of the 

| aperfonal Right eonfnefs, confifting 

! in the re&itude of their own difpofi- 

: tions and a<£tk>ns, as well as in re^- 

gard of their imputed righteoufnefs, 

; may be convinced from thefe Scrip- 

! tures, if they will beleeve them. 

Gen. y. U & 18. 23, 24. Job 17. 9. 

Pfoii.$ % 6. & 37.17, a ,&c Bed. 

9.1,2. Bzekz 18.20, 24. & 33; 12, 

15,18. ^^.9.13.^13.43.(^25 

37,46. Lukji.6. H^.11.4. 1 Pep. 

4.18* 2?^. 2.8. 1 fob* 3.7,12. 

ito/. 22.ii* y^Mo.41. Rom^sj. 

So their ways are called Righteouf- 

nefs. Pfa/.i^.i. (£-23.3. c^ 45. 

7, &c.^/^.5.2o. #-21,32. X^ 1. 

75. ^#.10.35. Rom.6> 1 3,16, 18, 

I9> 20. 1 Or. 1 j. 34. 1 y<?^. 2. 29. 

(£•3.10. £^.4.24i&c. 

That men are fometime called 
righteous, in reference to the Laws 
and Judgments of men, I acknow- 
ledg : Alfo in regard of fome of 
their particular a&ions, which are 
for the fubftance good : And per- 
haps fometimes in a comparative 
fenfe, as they, are compared with the 


1 20 The Nature pf the 

ungodly: As a line lefc-crooked 
fhould be called (height in compa- 
rifon of one more crooked: But how 
improper an expreflion chat is, you 
may eafily perceive. The ordinary 
phrafeof Scripture hath more truth 
and aptitude then fo. Therefore it 
muft needs be that men are called 
Righteous in reference to the new 
Covenant only; Which is plain thus: 
Righteoufnefs is but the denomina- 
tion of, our adions or perfons, as 
they relate to fome rule. This rule 
when it is the Law of man, and our 
a&ions fuit thereto, we are then 
righteous before men. When this 
Rule is Gods Law, it is either that 
of Works, or that of Grace : In 
relation to the former, there is none 
righteous, no not one : for all have 
finnedj and come fhort of the glory 
of God. Only in Chrift, who hath 
obeyed and fatisfied, we are righte- 
ous. But if you confider our actions 
and perfons in relation to the rule of 
the new Covenant, fo all the Re- 
generate are perfonaliy righteous, 


Covenants opened* 121 

becaufe they all perform the conditi- 
ons of thisCovenant,and are proper- 
lyponounced righteous thereby.Nd- 
ther can it be conceived how the 
works of Beleevers, fhould either 
pleafe God, or be called righteouf- 
nefs, as they relate to that old Rule, 
which doth pronounce them unrigh- 
teous, hateful, and accurfed. 

Two forts among us therefore 
do di (cover intolerable Ignorance in 
this point, u Thofe that common- 
ly ufe and underftand the words 
L Righteous, and Righteoufnefs] as 
they relate to the old Rule : as if the 
Godly were called righteous ( be- 
sides their imputed -RighteoufnefsJ 
only becaufe their Sanclification 
and good Works havefome imper- 
fect agreement to the Law of 
Works : As if it were a ftreight line 
which is in one place ftreight and an- 
other crooked ; much lefs that which 
is in every part crooked in fome de- 
gree. I have bin forry to hear many 
learned Teachers fpeak thus ; moft 
they fay to maintain it, is in this fim- 

Uu*. 9 P le 

122 The Nature- of the 

I pic objeclion. If we are called holy, 

I becaufe; of an imperfect Holinefs : 
riiert .w hy not< righteous, becaufe of 
an imperkdvifrghteoufnefs ? Anf. 

\ Holinefs ftgnifieth no more but a 
Dedication to God, either by fepa- 
ration only > o£ by qaalifying the 
ftftyecT;fitft,'-With an aptitude to its 
Divine imploytmnty and then fepa- 
rating or devoting it : as in our San- 
dification. Now a perfon imper- 

; fe$ty fo qualified , is yet truly and 
r&illy fo- qualified ; and therefore 

t may truly be called holy fo far. But 

' ifrghteoufncfs fignifying-a Confor- 
mity to the itale ; and a Conformity 
with' a quatenHiSi bran imperfect 
^etflitude, being not a true Cofor- 
mtty or iteclkude at all ^becaufe 
the denomination is of the whole 
AdVion or Perfon, and not ofr a cer- 

I t$n part or refpeel:, J therefore im- 
perfect Sighteedfiiefs is not /tfghte 1 - 
ouftids, but Unrighteoufaefs ; ft is a 
contradiction madjettp. 6>%#.Buf, 
is our perfonai/ttghteoufne&perfecl 
as it is meafured by the New itole ? 

- , „• A gL 

..i .. .. >' — — ■ 

— *. 

Covenants op&keid. 123 

^//|jcstaslj(hftll6pentoyo« by 

I could her^ t fce_ap: ur^a ^a.uUtudfe 
Qf.tohedox W^^rs, that do call 
ohrpesSanal ;^ghr_eOufnefs by the 
^dteof^E^gifiw^l^ ■ figuring 

Name. ' <•> 

TWfncond fort that* AeW their 
grofs jgnoranod, g of the nature of 
R»ighteoufnef$,are the Antinomians, 
ttey ftvfitojtefk) rWfaii thty doe 
bujt iaea^a man calk of a i?ightouf- 
nefs in hifl&felf ; or in any thing he 
can do, 'or -making his own duty ei- 
ther ; iiaf/?i§h$tQuf9ef$j or- condaci- 
bk thereto \, they ; ftartjer at iuch 
'Dpc%ine^-rjnd'ev^r|^afla-tke teeth,; 
astf we preached flat-Papery, yea as 
i£wtfcryed.downChrift,and fetup 
our fclves : : The ignorant-wretches 
not i undijrftafjcj jng f » ;h§ , difference 
between fh<^twp|#t*©£ £ighfe- 
oufnefs; thacof.^e old Covenant, 
which is all out of us in Chrift ; and 
that of the New Covenant, which is 
G 1 all 

1 24 The Nature of the 

all out of ChrifNn our (elves : 
( though wrought by the power of 
the Spirit of Chrift.) 

gtteft. But how then is A hah 
and Niff eve's humiliation accepted, 
and fuch other works of thofethat 
are not in Chrift, feeing they are yet 

Anf. 1 . No man is now under the 
Law as Adam was before the new 
Covenant was made ; that is, not fo 
under the Law alone, as to have no- 
thing to do with the Gofpel; or 
fo under the bid Covenant, as to 
have no benefit by the new.- 2. So 
that wicked men may now find that 
tender & merciful dealing fromGod, 
that even thofe works which are 
Iefsunjuft and finfol, and draw necr- 
eftto the cectitude required by the 
Gofpel, (hall be fo far accepted, as 
that,for their further encouragement, 
fome kind of reward or fiitpenfion 
] of wrath (ball be annexed to thena, 
andGoi will countenance in them 
that which k good, though it be not 
fo much as may denominate it a | 
1 good]' 

Covenants opened. 125 

good work. 3 . But yet the bcft of 
an unregmerate mans works have 
more mater in them to rjrovokeGod 
then to pleafe him , and he never ac- 
cej>teth therrtas Evangelically Righ- 
teous f for they thatarim the flefa, 
and are without faith, cannot poifi- 
bly fo pleafe God, RomA.S.Heb.11. 
6. As their righteoufnefc is but a 
lefs degree of unrighteoufaefs, and 
tHerefore^isinoft:imprbpedy called 
riehtebufncfsj fo rJieitLpleailng God 
iyfeut a^lower ^degree of difpleafing 
him, arid therefore but improperly 
called pleafing him. 


Thtfis dt, 


IN. this fence alfo,it is fo far from 
being an error to affirm, that 
[faith it f elf is our Right coufnefs,~] 
that k is* truth neceffaryfor every 
Chriflmn to kjoW ; that is ^ Faith is 
our Evangelical Right eoufnefs* {in 
the fence before explained*) as 
Chrifi is our Legal Righteoufnefs. 
G 3 Ex- 

1 16 The Natursofifa 


v 1 

THis AfTertionjToacjdiQuis tolhofe 
thatundcrflarid not its grounds, 
is yet facleaafrom iwihatiis/faiid be- 
fore, that Iiieed sto add- jleuowefir 
prove it. Jrarii.Jlhave ciriared.be- 
fore, chat there: jmuft tea perfoeal 
Right€QufnefS)|)dSd[e& that imputed, . 
in aiP that aqe juiftifie<j. : cAod that 
2. Thef^Iliiii^ofthe r»nditioasjo£ 
'each Covenant is: xte Rii»hceaalT 
nefs t in reference to that Covfenani :« 
But Faith is the fulfilling of the con- 
ditions of the new Covenant, there- 
fore it is outRighfapttfiefsin rela- 
tion to that (Covenant. I do not here 
take Taith for anyone fingfc Aft,- hug 
as I fhalLafter ward explain it. i 

Jgue & In what 4er>ee then is] 
Faith faid to baiaa^Bed to us for 
Righteoufnefs, if it be our Righte- 
oufnefs it felf? 

An fa. Plainly thus ; Man is be- 
come unrighteous by breaking the 


Covenants opened. 127 

Law of Righteoufnefs that was 
given him ; Chrift fully iatisfieth for 
this tranfgreflfion , and buycth the 
prifoners into his own hands, and 
maketh with them a new Covenant, 
That whofoever will accept of him, 
andbeleevein him, who hath thus 
fatisfied, it (hall be as efre&ual for 
their Justification, as if they had ful- 
filled the Law of Works themfelves. 
A Tenant forfeited! his Leafe to his 
Landlord, by not paying his rent ; i 
he runs deep in debt to hfm, and is 
efrfabled to pay him any more rent 
for the future, whereupon fie ispu^ 
out of his houfe, knd caft into -pri ("on j 
tili he pay the debt ; his Landlords 
fon payeth it for him, taketh him cut 
of prifon , and putteth him in hi$ 
houfe again, 2s his Tenant, having 
purchafed houfe and all to himfelf * 
he maketh him a new Leafe in this 
Tenor, that paying but a pepper 
corn yearly to him, he fhallbe acquit 
both from his debt, and fr6m all o- 
ther rent for the future, which by -his 
old Leafe was to be paid ; yet doth 
C4 he 

128 The Nature of the 

he not cancel the old Leafe,but keep- 
eth it in his hands to put in fuite a- 
gainft the Tenant, if he ftiould be fo 
FooliQi as to deny the payment of the 
pepper cornJn this cafe the payment 
of the grain of pepper k imputed to 
the Tenant, as if he had payed the 
rent of the old Leafe: Yet this im- 
putation doth not extol the pepper 
corn, nor vilifie ;he benefit of his Be- 
neftclor, who redeemed him ; Nor 
canitbefaid, that the purchafedid 
only ferve to advance the value and 
efficacy of that grain of pepper, Bat 
thus ; A perfonal rent muft be paid 
for the teftification of his homage ; 
he was never redeemed to be inde- 
pendent, and his own Landlord and 
Matter : the old rent he cannot pay ^ 
his new Landlords clemency is fuch, 
that he hath refolved this grain (hail 
ferve the turn. 

Do I need to apply this to the pre- 
fent cafe ? or cannot every man ap- 
ply it ? Even fo is our Evangelical 
Righteoufnefs, or Faith, imputed to 
us for as real Righteoufnefs, asper- 


Covenants opened* 129 

fed Obtdience.Two things are con- 
fiderable in this debt of Righteouf- 
nefs; The value, and the perfonal 
performance or intereft : The value 
of C&rifts Satisfaction «• imputed to 
us, inftead of the value of a perfect 
Obedience of our own performing, 
and the value of our Faith isnotfo 
imputed : But becaufe there imift be 
fome perfonal performance of honv 
age, therefore the perfonal perfbrm- 
ance of Faith fhall be imputed to us 
for a fufficient perfonal payment, as 
if w« had paid the full rent, becaufe 
Ghrift, whom we believe in, hath 
! paid it, and he will take this 
for fatisfa&ory homage ; foit is in 
point of perfonal performance, and 
not of value thatFaith is imputed. 

Thcfis r4> 

THis perfhnal Go If el Righteofif- 
nefs is in its kind a perfett 
Righteoufvefs ; and fo far we may 
admit the dottrinc of perfonal Per- 
I ieUion % G 5 Bx- , 

130 Tht Nttttrc of the 



. . . 

\>J fidered, cither in regard of the 
matter and the ads denominated 
righteous, orelfe in refped of- the 
form which gives them that! deno- 
mination; Alio our Faculties and 
Adions are confiderabie, either in 
regard of their Being, or hi their 

~i. The perfedion o£xhe feeing 
of our Faculties or Ads is nothing 
to our pre Cent purpofe, as falling un- 
der a phyfical coniideration only. 

2. In regard of tHerr Quality they : 
maybe called perfed or impetfM 
in feveral fences. _. 

1. As Perfection is taken for the 
tranfcendentaLperfedion of Being, 
fo they are per fed. 

2. And as it is taken for the 
compLat number of all parts, it is 

3 . But as it is taken for that which 

Covenants ofeftccL 131 


isyetikft^-fjic tenter or Tartkifdi- 
ter, that is,il*r-a work that is finifh- 
edby the Author, fo our holinels is 

4. And ask is taken for accidental 
perfection, ( fo called in Metaphy- 
ficks, ^whea-it wants nothing which 
beyond the Efl*ence,;fe;tflfe v ree]i}ifite 
to the integrity, ornament and welU 
being of it,; foour holine'fs is here 

5. As perfection is taken, pro fa- 
nitate,iot foundnefs, fo our hoknefe ' 
is imperfect 

6. And as it is taken, pro maturi 
t ate fox ripened, -fo it is imperfect. 

7. In refpecl; «if the admixture of 
contrary .qualities, our holinefs is im- 

8. But whether -all thiy imper*. 
feeTion be privative and (inful, or 
mecrly negative ; and only our mi- 
fery, whether it be 3 privation, phy-. 
fical or moral, is a queftion that will 
be cleared, when I come to (hew the 
extent of the Commands or Rule. 

Bat not anyoPxhefe kinds.of per- 

1^2 Tht Nkture of the 

fe&ion is that which I mean in the 
Pofition : Holinefs is a quality,, and 
may be intended and remitted, in- 
creafed and decreafed - y but it is the 
relative confideration of thefe quali- 
ties of our faculties and a&s, as they 
are compared with the 'Rule of the 
new Covenant; andfoit is not the 
perfection- of our holinefs that we 
enquire aftet, but of our righteouf- 
nefs ; which righteoufnefs is not a 
quality as holinefs is, but the modifi- 
cation of our afts as to the Rule, 
which is not varyed, fccHn&umm*' 
jis ctmhnu: See SehibL.Aftt/tph. 
/;'. 2. c. 9. Tit. 7. eArt. 2. There- 
fore our Divines ufually fay, That 
our J unification isperfed, though 
our Sanclification be not ; and then 
I am fur%eur iftghtcoufnefs muft be 

A two-fold'perfecl^on is here im- 
plyed. 1. A Mecaphyfical Peife&i- 
on of Being. 2. A Perfection of 
Sufficiency in order to its end. 

1 . The being of our Righteoufnefs 
formally confifting. ia our relative 


Covenants efened. 13:3 

conformity to the rule, either it rrmft 
be perfe<5t,or not at all. He that is not 
perfectly innocent in the very point 
thathc is accufed,is not innocent tru- 
ly, but guilty. Sincerity is ufually faid 
to be our Gofpel Pet feftion : not as 
it is accepted in flead of perfe&ion* 
but as it is truly fo ; for fincerc Faith 
is our conformity to the Rule of 
Perfection, viz,, the new Covenant 
as it is a Covenant; yet as it is fin- 
cere Faith, it is only materially our 
Righreoufnefs and Perfection , but 
formally as it is relatively our confor- 
mity to the faid Rule. 
j 2. OurRigkeoufnefsisperfc&as 
in its Being, fo alfo in order to its 
end. The end is, to be the condition 
of our j unification, &c. This end it 
feallperfe&ly attain. The Tenor of 
new Covenant is not, Believe in the 
higheft degree,and you {hall be jufti- 
fied; But Wieve (incerely, and you 
fliallbejuftified; foshat ourRigh- 
teoufnefs-, 1. formally confidered, in 
rcktioato the condition of the new 
Covenants pcrfeft or none> 2. But 

134 The Nature. oj the 

confidered materially as it is holinefs, 
either in reference to the degree it 
fhould attain, or the degree which 
it (hall attain, or in reference to the 
excellent object which it is exerciied 
about, or in reference to the old Co- 
venant, or the directive, (and in 
fome fence J the preceptive part of 
the new Covenant ; in all thefe re- 
fpecls it is imperfect. 

I fpeak not all this while of that 
perfection in Cbrifts Satisfaction, 
which is alfo onr perfect Rjghteouf- 
nefs, becaufe few will queftion the 
perfection of that. 


YEt isipan. improper fpeech of 
feme Divines ,7 'hat Chrift fir ft 
juftificth our perJcftSy and then our 
duties and altions : And except by 
Zjffttfjw&y^eji mcanjjis efteeming 
thtm to be. a fulfilling of the Gofpel 
Gondii ions \ and Jo juft, it U unfetmd 
and danger on /, as xsdi 'as. improper. 

Covenant s. apertfd. 1 35 


1 . T T is improper in the belt fence : 
1- 1. Becaufe it is contrary to the 
Sc'riptureufe of theword £ fuftify- 
i*ig]'"- which is the acquitting of us 
from the charge of breaking the 
Law , and -not from the charge of 
violating the new Covenant. 2. It 
is v againft the nature of the 
thing ; feeing Juftification (as you 
fh^ll fee anon) Implyeth Accusati- 
on ; but the efteeming of a righte- 
ous .action to be as it is, doth not 
I imply arty aceufation. 3 .This fpeech, 
joyning Juftification of Perform and 
Actions together , doth feem to in- 
timate the fame kindeof Juftificati- 
on of both, and fo doth tend to fe- 
duce ; the hearers to a dangerous 
error. 2. Forifitbe underftood in 
the worft. fence, it will overthrow 
the Righteoufnefs of Chrift impu- 
ted , and the whole fcope of the 
Gofpel, and will fet up the doctrine j 


13.6 The Nature of the 

of Juftification by Works. For if 
God do juftifie our Works from 
any legal Accufation, (as he doth 
our perfons,) then it will follow, 
Tha: our Works are juft, and con- 
sequently we are to be juftified by 
them. There is no room ror Scrip- 
ture-juftirkation where our own 
Works are not firft acknowledged 
anjuftifiablerbecaufe there is no place 
for Satisfaction and Juftification 
thereby from another , where we 
plead the Juftification ofour own 
Works in refpeCt of the fame Law. 
Juftification of Works is a fufficient 
ground for Juftification by Works v 
feeing the juftnefsor his difpofitions- 
and adions is the ground of deno- 
minating the perfon juft; and that 
according to the primary and moft 
proper kinde of Righteouiaefs ; as 
is exprcfied in the diftin&ien of it, i 


Covenants opened. 137 

Thcfis 16. 

(1) |W T Either can our performance 
Jl\ of the conditio s oftheCjofrel 
in the moft proper and ftri^tfence^be 
[aid to merit the rewardifeeing there 
is nothing in the value of it, or any 
benefit that God receivetb by it, 
which may fo entitle it meritorious^ 
neither is there any proportion be- 
twixt it and the reward. (2) But in 
a larger fence y as Promift is an Ob- 
ligation, and the thing promifed is 
called Debt ; fo the performers of 
the Condition are called Worthy ', 
and their performance Merit. 
Though properly it is all of Grace, 
and not of Debt, (t ) Rom. 4. 4,16. 
& 5. 15,16,17* H^.14.4. Mat. 
I0.8. Rom.3.24* & 8.32. 1 Cor.2. 
12. Rev.21.6. & 22.18. Rom. iu 
6. G4/.5.4. Eph.z.ifoZ* Gen. 32* 
10. (2) Mat. 10.11,12,1 3 ,37. & 
22.8.Z«£.2C35. <£■ 21.36. zThef 
1 . J.I 1. Rev.^.^&c. 

138 The Nattm.fifthe 


TN the fttifteft fence he isfaid to 
1 Merit, who performeth fome- 
what of chat worth in it felf to an- 
other, which bindeth that other in 
ftrid juftice to requite him. This 
ivorkmuftnot be doe, and fo the 
performer not under the abfolute 
loveraigncy of another ; foreWe he 
k not in a capacity of thus Meriting. 
It is natural Juftice which here btnd- 
eth to Reward. All that we can 
merit at the hands of Gods natural 
Juftice is but thefe ; tWo things. 
l. The efcape of panifhment in that 
refped or confide rat ion wherein our 
actions are not finful : or the not pu- 
nning of -us in a greater degree then 
fin dtferves:: (Though indeed am 
queitionable wticther weare capable 
of fuffering more.) a. Oar ani- 
ons thus defer ve the honor of ac- 
knowledgment of that good which 
, is in them ; yea, though the evil be 


Covenants ofiept& i%9 

more tfecn the good. As a raercif&l 
Thief that gives a. poor man half 
his raooy again, when he hath 
robbed him, as he deferyeth a lefs 
degree ©f puni&roent,. fo that good 
which was j® his aftjon deferveth 
an afnfwerable afckriDwkdgi^edtand 
praife, though he dye i or the faA 
. JSut this is « poor kinde of merit- 
ing , 'and liKk to the honor or 
benefit of the party rfc And is 
BODreproperly called a Jeffrde/ert of 
r^iflbnent, ^then a defeat re- 

2.Tk fecond kkid of Merit,is tlutt 
vrtcrebya Governor, for the pro- 
moting -of the ends ofGover nmentois 
obliged to ^ewajfd the Obedience of 
the Governed : That when Dif- 
obedience is grown common, the 
Obedience may be encouraged, and 
a difference tftede; Among men c- 
ven Jut)icebindeth to fuch reward ; 
at kaft to afford the obedient the 
benefit of protection tind freedom, 
though he do no more then his duty: 
Buxthat:%!hecaufen6 man hath an 


:*: TkfXji:**.' ■-'■■: 

J dbfotae fo YOtigKT if jmre orcr fas 

fcbjecfe, 2S God barb , bo: k ic - 

:•: •: :..r 1: ;:.: ::■?: r:e vrer; 

Wfc n raped c^ the Liw of 

:^5,-rct al the Obligation ^Jcrt 

wooW fie span God to levvutf of 

'*tv. bdbtr :.-:- ::-: :>:e.'i : f:r- 

basing tc poomh as, snd acKEiow- 

W g i* g oar obedierxr > wooli be 

bat fair ovmw&&XB~ zsbe difccnj- 

etb focb i Rewi: : 

rJ*wdl^c*«mear tl* Wcdfc 

working nxwiy'whh robacay 

t§eaa aereeiMe'to their 

£237, wc ire i^tk.»: Stable fararKs 

_<fatx. TbefeJarr tks Obb- 
giDQD to itu l: z *:cs; the Vsiizoz! 
of God, is it is in his own brtft 
known to bimfyf alone, fo is it 

iri"?.T. rrrrr. r.jr. :_* i - ; r.c! pnoer- 
^botbe worth of oar Works, 
■■ i^ere? ; ne t r . ; : ~ r • : z rr.v ct-.- 

Covenants opened* 141 

fufficiendy explained in the Positi- 
on : where the Obligation to re- 
ward, is Gods ordinate Juftice, and 
the truth of his Promife ; and the 
worthinefe licth in oar performance 
of the Conditions on our part. This 
is improperly called Merit: This 
kinde of Meriting is no diminution 
to the grcatnefs or freenefs of the 
«ft or reward : becaufe it was a 
free and gracious A& of God to 
make our performance capable of 
that title • and to engage himfelf in 
the forefaid promife to us $ and not 
for any gain that he expe&ed by us, 
or that our performance can bring 

Thcfis 27. 

(0 A SJtwaspoJpbleforAdim 
. ±\_ to have fulfilled the Law 
offVorly by that power Vohichhe re- 
ceived by nature ; . (2) So is it pof- 
fiblefor ms to perform the Conati- 
ons of the neft Qovenant by the 
(3) Power which we receive from 
the Grace of Ghrift. Ex- 

*4a The Nature af the 

i \ 


ens •yy- ,- i xnmozl + . ■ 

1 (^) !f Tr ; Hat? may be poffible whidi 
A 1: is not future. A tiling is 

I ftiflmed poffible wheritfchgrels no* 
tkiag' in the- nature of thfe t&i&gnjtf 
Mfi, which may fc hm#errit£^rd^ 
duclion as to neoeffi^e-'itS non* 
futurity : Though from extri»fdcstJ 
Reafonsi the fame non-futurity Wtfy> 
b6 certain, and in feme refp^^ tte~ 
dsGkdfM And ali^hings::c6i^re4 : 
the futurity of it may be tetW&inv 
poffible 1 ; -and yet the thing ^itffdP 
be poffible. So it was poffible. <b^ 
v&Jw*»~ to- have- -fteeeK----Andh~fb- 

| if you (houkUafes the' Word Q Pof- 
fible 1 absolutely, and abftracled 
frdtti' the connderation of tHe> 
ftterig&hof the a&or^ even the 
Gotamaadstsf thetow^te yer^ftf^ 
fibl6,t64)efelfilka.< But* fttdv fc«fe> 
of t% word ft fe^im^ropefi : it 
ba&gvbrdinatiiy fpoken with relati- 
on to the ftrength of the' Agerttv 

C&vtnantt opened* 1 4 J 

(2) But in; the relative fence the 
Conditions of: the. new Covenant 
arepoflible to them that have' the 
afliftance of grace. I intend not here 
to enter opon an Explication of the 
nature of thatGracrwhich is neceflfa- 
ry to this performance ; my pur- 
pofe being chiefly to open thofe 
things wherein the relative change 
«r our cftates doth confift , rather 
then the real. Whethet theri this 
Grace be Phyfical or Moral ? Whe- 
ther t here be * Mor al Suafion of the 
Spirit, diftincl: from the Suafion of 
the Word , and other outward 
means? Whethen. ihkt* which is 
commonly called the work of Con- 
fciencejbe alfo from fubh an internal 
fuafory work-of the S^iric^ How 
far. this Grace is refiftible? Orwhei. 
ther all have fufficient/Grace tc* be*- 
leeve, either-given, or internally of- 
fered? with multitudes of fach 
queftionss, Iihail here pafs by ; Re* 
ferring you to thofe many^ Volumes 
that have already handled them. All 
that I (hall fay of this fhall be when 

H4 The Nature of th* 

I come to open the Nature of Faith. 
See Parlors Thefes before menci- 

Thefis 28. 

THe Precepts of the Covenants, 
as meer Precepts, mufi be di- 
fiinguijhed from tho fame Precepts 
considered as Conditions, upon per- 
formance whereof Vr em* ft lux, cr 
the for nonperformance . 

Thefis 29. 

AS all Precepts are deliz r 
npen Covenant-terms, or as 
belonging to one of the Covenants^ 
and net independently ; So have the 
fame Precepts various ends ami 
ufes, ace or ding to the tenor and ends 
of the diftinci Covenants to which 
thej do belong. 

Ex plica- 

Covenants opened. 1 4 j 



THereforeitispnething to ask, 
.whether the. .Covenant of 
Work's be. abol ifn eel ? anil ano trier- 
thing, whether the Moral Law be 
aboliilied ?- Yet that no orie Precept 
of eitherMoral or Ceremonial Law 
was delivered without reference to 
one of the Covenants, is very evi- 
dent. For if the breach", or] that 
Command be a fin,and to be punch- 
ed, then either according to the ri- 
gorous threatening of the old Cove- 
mnt, or according t;othe,way and 
fuftice of the ne'w. For ihe Law, as 
it was delivered by Mofes, maybe 
reduced, in feveral fefpech to , each 
of thefe Covenants, and cannot con- 
ftitute .-a third Covenant, whply di- 
ftinct frqm both thefe ; and there- 
fore tamer ojioth more fitly call ic 
a fubfervient- Covenant, then a 
third Covenant. For either God 
intended in that Covenant to prc- 
H ceed 

1 46 The Nature of the 

I ceed with finners in ftricl rigor of 1 
, Juftice, for every fin ; and then it is { 
' reducible to the firft Cbvenant : Or 
elfe to pardon fin upon certain con- 
ditions, and to difpence with the 
rigor of that firft ! Covenant : And 
then it rpnft pply fatisfiuftion for 
thofefins; and fo be reducible to 
the fecond Covenant : (For I can- 
not yet digeft the Doctrine of Gro- 
und and Vojfiui) concerning fatif- 
fa&ion by facrifice for temporal 
puniQiment, without uabordrnati- 
on to the fatisfadtion by Chrift : ) 
Or if it feem in feveral phrafes to 
favor of the language of the feveral 
Covenants , ( a,s indeed it doth ; ) 
that is became they are yet both in 
force ; and in feveral refpeds it is 
reducible to both. So that wnen 
we demand, whether the Moral 
Law dq 1 yet binde, the queftion i$ 
ambiguous, from the ambiguity of j 
the term £ Binde]. For it it one 
thing to ask, whether it bindc upon j 
the old Covenant terms? another, 
wht thcr upon new Covenant terms? I 

Covenants opened. i^j 

and a third, whether as a meer Pre- 
cept ? Here a queftion or two muft 
be anfwered. 

i Qge ft. How could the Precepts 
delivered by Mofes (when the ,old 
Covenant was violated, and the new 
eftablifhed) belong to that old Co- 
venant > 

2 &neft. In what fence doth the 
Decalogue belong to the new Cove- 
nant ? 

3 Qneft. Whether the Precepts 
of the Gofpel do belong to the De- 
calogue ? 

4 <2f* e fi» Whether the Precepts 
of the Gofpel belong alfo to the 
old Covenant? 

But all thefe will be cleared un- 
der the following Petitions, where 
they fhallbe diftindly anfwered. 

THefis 30; 

THcre is no fin prohibited I in the 
Golf (I which is not a bre.Acb.cj: 
feme Precept in the Pecdogue ; 
H 2 and 

148 . The Nature of the 

and which is not threatened by ihe 
Covenant of Works , as offending 
again (t p and fo falling tinder the 
I Juftice thereof. For the threatening 
I of that Covenant extendeth to all 
j fin that then was, or after (hottld 
\ be forbidden. God ftillrefcrved the \ 
prerogative, of adding to his Lotos, j 
without alteringtheCovenant terms; j 
elfe every new Precept would imply \ 
a ne\X> Covenant : And fo there ■ 
fhould be a 'multitude of Cove- j 


1. "Though the Decalogue doth 
not mention each particular 
duty in the Gofpei, yet doth it com- 
mand obedience to all that are 
or (hall befatfsned % -and expreiTeth 
thegenus oi every particular duty. 
And though it were not a duty from 
the general precept, till it was fpe- 
cifled in the Gofpel , yet when 

it I 

Covenants opened. 149 

it once is a duty, the. neglect ©f it 
is a (in againft the Decalogue. 
For inftance ; The Law faith. 
Thou (halt take the Lord for thy 
God j and confequently beleeve 
all that he faith to be true ; and 
obey him in all that he (hall parti- 
cularly command you : The Gofpel' 
revealeth what it is that is to be be- 
leeved, and faith, This is the Vvork^ 
ofGody that j e beleeve in him Vvhom 
the Father hath ftnt , ^.6.28, 
29. The. affirmative part of the fe- 
cond Commandment is, Thou fhak 
worfhip God according to his own 
inftitution: The Gofpel fpecifieth 
fome of this inftituted Worihip; 
•w-s.Sacraments^&c. So that the neg- 
lect of Sacraments is a breach of the 
fecond Commandment : And Un- 
belief is a breach of the firft. This 
may help you to anfwer that qae- 
ftion, Whether the Law with- 
out the Gofpel be a futficient 
Rule of Life? Anfw. As the 
Lords Prayer is a futficient Rule 
of Prayer : It is fufficienj: in 
H 3 its 

I > o The Nature of the 

its own kinde, or to its own pur- 
pofes : It is a fufficient general Rule 
tor duty ; but it doth not enumer- 
ate all the particular inftituted fpe- 
cies. Yet here, the Gofpel reveal- 
ing thefe kiftitutions, is not only the 
new Covenant it felf ; but the 
doctrine of Chrift, which is an ad- 
junct: of that Covenant alfo. 
2. That every fin againft the precepts 
of theGofpel &decalogue,are alfofins 
againft the Covenant of Works, and 
condemned by it, will appear thus. 
i. -The threatening of that Cove- 
nant is againft all (in, as well as one, 
(though none but eating the forbid- 
den fruit be named : ) But thefe are 
fins; and therefore threatened by 
that Covenant. The major appears 
by the recital afterwards ; Curfed 
is he that doth not all things written. 
2. I have proved before, that the 
old Covenant is not repealed, but 
oneiy relaxed to Beleevers upon 
Chrifts fatisfaction : And then it 
muft needs be in force againft every 
fin. 3. The penalty in that Cove- 

Covenants opened. 151 

nant is (till executed againft fuch 
fins. So that every fin againft the 
GofpelJs a breach of the Conditi- 
ons of the Law of Works : Bu* e- 
very fin againft that Law, is not a 
breach of the Condition^^ the 
Gofpel. And it hinders TO tfiis? 
That the Moral law byMofes, and 
the Gofpel by Chrift, were deliver- 
ed fince the Covenant with Adam. 
For though that Covenant did not 
fpecifk ^each duty . and fin ; yet it 
doth condemn ths fin when it i$ fo 
{ Specified. But the . great Objection 
is this : How can Unbelief be a 
breach of the Covenant of Works, 
when the very duty of beleevmg 
for-pardon is inconfiftenJt with the 
Tenor of that Covenant, which 
knoweth no pardon > Anf. 1. Par- 
don of fin is not fo contradictory 
to the troth of that Covenant, but 
that they may confift upon fatisfadti- 
onmade. Though it is true, that 
the Covenant it fejf doth give no 
hopes of it ; yet it doth not make 
it impoflible. 2. Unbelief, in rc- 
H 4 fpecl 

152 The Nature of the 

fpc& of pardon and recovery., is 
a Sin •againft the €ovenant cf 
Works, not forfnditer^^ but emi- 
nent er. 5. Not al r o as it is the 
negleft of a duty, with fuch and 
Juchjfcs and ufes, but as it is the 
ne^e^of duty in .the general con- 
fidered; and'loasit is a fin in ge- 
neral, and not as it is a fin confin- 
ing in fuch or fuch an ad or omifli- 
on. The form of the fin lieth. in its 
pravity or deviation, from .the 
Rule: So far Unbefcef is. .con- 
demned by the Law : Thefubftrate 
act is but the matter, (improperly 
fo called.; 

The review of the comparifon 
before layd down will . explain this 
to you: A Prince btftoweth a 
Lordihip upon a Slave, and maketh 
him a Leafe of it, the tenor where ot 
is t That he (hall perform exact obe- 
dience to all that is commanded 
I him ;• and when he fa?ls of this., he 
I (hall forfeit his Leafe : The Tenant 
difobeyeth, and maketh th« forfei- 
ture; The Son of this Prince in- 


Covenants opened* 153 

terpofeth, and buyeth the Lordfhip, 
and fatisfieth for all the damage that 
came by the Tenants difobedience : 
Whereupon the Land and Tenant 
and Leafe are all delivered up to 
him , and he becomes Landlord. 
He findeth the Tenant ( upon his 
forfeiture ) difpoflfefTed of the 
choyceft rooms of the houfe , and 
chief benefits of the Land, and con- 
fined to a ruinous corner; and 
was to have been deprived of all, 
had not he thus interpofed. Where- 
upon he maketh him a new Leafe 
in this Tenor , That if in ac- 
knowledgment of the favor of 
his Redemption, he will but pay 
a pepper corn , he (hall be refto- 
red to his former pofleflion , and 
much more. 

In this cafe now the non-pay- 
ment of the pepper corn , is a 
breach of both Leafes : Of the 
old, becaufe though he had forfeit- I 
ed histitle to the benefits of it, ( 
yet he could not difanul the duty 
of it, which was obedience during 
H5 his 

154 The Nature of the 

his life .* efpecially when the penalty 
was not fully executed on him, but 
he was permitted ftill to enjoy {ome 
of the benefits. So that as it is an 
acl: of difobedience in general, his 
non-payment is a further forfeiture 
of his old Leafe : But as it is the 
non-payment of a pepper corn re- 
quired of him in ftead of his former 
Rent, foit is a breach of his new 
Leafe only. Even fo is Unbelief a 
violation of both Covenants. 

Thcfis 31. 

THe G 'off el doth eUMifh y and 
not repeal the Moral Law> and 
fo is perfetl obedience commanded^ 
t and every fin forbidden, novp^ as ex- 
attlj 04 under the [Covenant of 
Wor\s : But this is but an adjuntt 
of the new Covenant, and not a pro- 
per fart of it : Neither is it on the 
fame terms ^or to the fame ends y as in . 
thefrfl Covenant*. 


Covenants opened, 155 


THat the Moral law is yet in 
force, I will not ftand to prove, 
becaufe fo many have written of it 
already. See Mr Anthony Surge fes 
Lectures : But to what ends, and in 
what fence the Gofpei continueth 
that Law, and commandeth perfect 
obedience thereto, is a Queftion not 
very eafie. 

1. Whether Chrift did firft repeal 
that Law, and then re-eftabltfh it to 
other ends I So fome think. 

2. Or whether he hath at all made 
the Moral Law to be the preceptive 
part of the new Covenant ? And fo 
whether the new Covenant do at all 
command us perfect obedience? or 

3. Or whether ?the Moral Law be 
continued only as the precepts of the , 
old Covenant, and fo ufed by the I 
new Covenant,mesrly for a directive 


156 TLe Ndtureofthe 

To the hrft I anfwer ; i. That it 
is not repealed at all I have proved 
already, even concerning the Cove- 
nan; of Works it feif ; and others e- 
nough have proved at large of the 
Moral Law. cu Yet that Chrift 
ufeth it to other ends, and for the ad- 
vantage ofhis Kingdom, I grant. 

To the other iecond Queilion, I 
anfwer • i . That the Moral Law, 
as it is the preceptive part of the Co- 
venant cf Works, is-but defatted o- 
ver into the hands or Chrift, a 

!' continued in the fence before ex- 
ed, fetms plain to me. 
:. That the iame Ifenl Law 
therefore fo continue to command 
even believers, and that the perfect 
obeying ci it is therefore their civ 
and the not obeying their fin, 
Lead threatened m - 

5. That JcfusChnfi hart 
rnaj. i me Moral Law. for 

Dels, whereby 
~:1. That 
Ufhcqeas car UDCt 

Covenants opened. \^n 

obedience to Chriff, is part of the 
condition of the new Covenant; that 
we may know what his Will is , i 
which we mull endeavor to obey, | 
and what Rule our actions mufl be \ 
fincerely fitted to, and guided by, he 
hath therefore kfc us this Moral Law 
as part of this dfredion, having ad- 
ded a more particular enumeration 
of fome duties in his Gofpel. That 
as when the old Covenant faid,Thou 
{halt obey perfeel ly ; the Moral Law 
did partly tell them, wherein they 
fhould obey : So when the new Co- 
venant -faith, Thou (Lalt obey fin- 
cerely ; the Moral Law doth perfect 
ly tell us, wherein, or what we muft 
endeavor to do. 

4. But that the Moral Law, with- 
out refpedt to either Covenant, 
fhould command us perfeel obedi- 
ence ; - or- that Chrift,as the Mediator 
of the new Covenant, fhould com- 
mand us not only fincere, but alfo 
perfect obedience to the Moral Law, 
and fo hath made it a proper part of 
his Gofpel, not only as a- Dkedtory 


158 The Nature of the 

and Inftrudion, buc alfo as a Com- 
mand : I am not yet convinced , 
(though I will not contend with any 
that think otfoerwife,) my Reafon 
is, becaufe I know not to what end 
Chrift fhould command us that obe- 
dience which he never doth enable 
any man in thisiife to perform. If it 
were to convince us of our difabiiity 
and fin, that is the work of the Law, 
and the continuing of it upon the 
old terms, as is before explained, is 
fufficient to that. 

ButljudgthisQ^eftion to be of 
greater difficulty then moment. 

Thefis 31. 

IF there be Any f articular fins a* 
gainfi the new Covenant , Which 
are not alfo again fi the old ; or ifl 
any fins be confiderable in any of 
their reffietts , as againft theCjoffel 
§nly y then Chrifis death Was not to 
fat is fie for any fuch fins fo confidered: 
For where no death is threatened, 

there , 

Covenants opened, 159 

there none is explicit ely due , nor 
Jbould be executed ; and where it is 
not fo due to the [inner, nor fbould 
have been executed on him, there it 
could not be required of Christ, nor 
executed on him : But the Go/pel 
threat eneth not death to any fin, but 
final unbelief and rebellion , (and 
for that Chrift never dyed, as I (hall 
Jbew anon,) therefore Chrift dyed 
not for any fin as againft the Gofpel, 
norfujfered that Which is no Where 


A Sin may be faid to be againft 
the Gofpel, 1. As Chrift and 
his Gofpel are the objed of it y 2.0r j 
as it breaketh the conditions of the 
Gofpel: In the latter fence only I 
here take it. To prove the point in 
hand, there needs no more then the 
Argument mentioned: For to all 
that unbelief, and other fins of the 


1 60 The Nature of the 

godly,which are forgiven, the Gof- 
pel doth no where threaten death; 
J and thertfoie Chrift could not bear 
! ir 3 as to fatisile the Gofpel-threaten- 
; ing. Though I confefs I have been 
long in this point of another judg- 
ment, while I coniidcred not the Te- 
nor of the Covenants diftin&Iy 5 
fome further proof you fhall have 
in the next conclurion. Read Heb. 



AS the Active Obedience of 
Chrift ivas not the Right eouf- 
nefs of the fecond Covenant i or the 
performing of its Conditions^ but of 
the fir ft , pr&perly called a. Legal 
Right esufnefs ; jo a/fa his Pa (five 
Obedience and Merit was only to I 
fatisfu for the violation of the Co- 
venant of Works, but not at all for 
the violation of the Covenant of 
Cjrace ; for that there is no fat if - 
faWionmade, and there rcmaineth 
nofatrifice. Ex- 

Covenants opened* \6l 


THat Chrift'dkl not fulfil the con- 
ditions of thenew Covenant 
for us 3 1 have proved already : That 
he hath not fatisfied for its violation, 
I think to the confederate will need 
no proof: If you think otherwife, 
coniider, i . Chrift is faid to be made 
under the Law, and to have born the 
curfe ofthe Law, and to have freed 
us from the curfe of it, but no where 
is thisaffirmed of him in refpecT of 
theGofpel. i. There be terms by 
him propounded, upon which men 
muft partake of the benefits of his 
Satisfaction; but thefe terms are 
only.che conditions of the new Co- 
venant, therefore he never fatisfied 
for the non- performance of thofe 
conditions. 3. Ifhedid.upohwhat 
conditions is that SatisfacTion enjoy- 
ed by us ? 4.But the Queftion is out 
of doubt,btcdufe that every man that 
performech not the GofpeL conditi- 

l6i The Nature of the 

ons, doth bear the puniftiment him- 
felfjin eternal fire, and therefore 
Chrift did not bear it; So that as it 
was not fo grievous a death which 
was threatened in the firft Covenant, 
as that is which is threatened in the 
fecond; fo it was not fo grievous a 
kind of death which Chrift did bear, 
as that is which final unbelievers fhal 
bear, (except as the accumulation of 
(ins of fo many might increafe it ; ) 
Therefore when we fay, That Chrift 
fuffered in his Soul the pains of hell, 
or that which is equal; wemuftnot 
wan, the pains which is threatened 
m the Gofpel, and the damned un- 
believers muft endure- but only of 
that death which the Law of Works 
did threaten. Wo therefore to the 
rebellious unbelieving world , that 
muft bear this fecond death them- 
felves : For of how much foever 
puniftiment (hall they be thought 
worthy, who tread underfoot the 
blood of the Covenant? Hekio.*?. 


Covenants opened. 1 6$ 

Thefis 54. 

THe Covenant of Grace is not 
properly f aid to be violated^ or 
its conditions broken^ exceft they be 
finally broken: For the vitiation 
confifteth in non-performance of the 
conditions y and if they are performed 
at lafiy they are truly performed \ 
and ifperfermedythen the Qovenant 
is not Jo violate d,as that the offender 
Jhottld fall under the threatening 



J Deny not but the new Covenant 
may be faid to be neglecled, and 
finned againft, and the Command of 
Chrift broken by our long (landing 
out in unbelief , though we come 
home at laft. But the Covenant con- 
ditions are not broken, when ever 
the precept of the Gofpel is tranf- 


1 64 The Nat ftre of the 

grefTed, or the Covenant neglected, 
except it be final. The Condition is, 
Whoever btlieveth (hall befaved, 
not limiting it to a particular fea- 
fon. Though both the precept of 
Chriit, and common Reafon re- 
quireth that we be fpeedy in the per- 
formance, becaufe we have no pro- 
mife that the day of Grace (ball con- 
tinue, and becaufe our neglect will 
incrcafe our difability, and our fre- 
quent refitting will grieve the Spi- 
rit : So that the new Covenant doth 
not threaten death to every particu- 
lar ad: of difobedience or unbelief, 
ner to any but what is finail, 
though the precept require that 
we believe immediately , and eve- 
ry degree ot unbelief be forbid- 
den. " 

Thcfis 35, 

YEt the fins of Beleevers a- 
gkinjk the Gofpci Precepts 

Covenants opened, 165 

have need of pardon, and are proper- 
ly [aid to ie pardoned, in reference 
to their deferved punifiment 5 
1. 'Both becaufe the puni[hment y 
-which naturally an A implicit ely is 
due to them , is not fo much as 
threatened in this gentle Covenant, 
audfo becomes not explicit ely due, 
or in point of Law. 2. But fpe- 
cially becaufe the old Covenant 
condemning all fin, is yet unre- 
pealed, "which rvould be executed 
on us , even for our fins againfi 
CjRACE , did not the efficacy of 
CHRISTS Satisfaction daylj 
■interpofc, Which makes tu therefore 
have continual need of that Satif- 
- ■■ 


THis is layd down to prevent the 

Objection which might arife 

from the fore- going Do&rine : For 

many are ready to ask , If Chrifl 


i 66 The Nature of the 

dyed not for fin as it is againft the 
Gofpel-Covenanc , then how are 
fuch (ins pardoned to Bdeevers? I 
anfwer, in the fore-exprefled way : 
For certainly the Gofpel cannot be 
(aid to remit the punifhment which 
it never threatened, (further then 
as it is only implicitery due;) And 
that which it doth ^threaten it doth 
never remit. 

Thefis 36. 

c 7 He far cloning of fin ii a gracious 
aft ofGody dif charging the Of- 
fender by the GoSfeUpromife , or 
grant from the Obligation,, to pu- 
nijhment, upon confederation of the 
fatisfaftio® made by Chrifl , ac- 
cepted by the fimer , and pleaded 
with God* 


Covenants opened. \6j 


T'He true definition of Pardon, and 
A of Juftification, doth much con- 
duce to tKe underftending of this 
whole myfterious Dodrnne, The 
former. I have here Iayd down as 
neer as can. I (hall briefly explain 
the whole Definition. 

i . I call it an £A Q of God, 2 for 
fo the Scripture ordinarily doth. 
Mat % 6.l2.i4)i5. Adar.u.2$ y 26, 
Z04.23.34. Efh.\. 32. Some may 
objecl ; IF all things be delivered 
into the hands of Chrifi the Re- 
deemer, and all Judgment commit- 
ted to the Son, as is (hewed before, 
then the Son (hould forgive rather 
then the Father > I anfwer, 1 . So 
the Son-is fakj to forgive alfo, Mkr. 
2.7, 10. L*%. 5. 24* 2. 1 (hewed 
you before^That the Father giveth 
not away any power from himfelf 
by giving it to the Son; but onely 

doth manage it in another ^y n pon 


1 6 8 The Nature of the 

other terms. 5. 'As the Mediator 
is a middle perfon, interpoling be- 
tween God and the world for their 
reconciliation , fo the Acceptance, 
Pardon, and Kingdom of the Media- 
tor,-, is, as it were, a Mean or ftep to- 
wards the Pardon, Acceptance, «an$ 
Kingdom of God. Firil Chrift doth 
cieanfe men by- his Spirit and Blood, 
and thcnoffereth them blamelefsand 
undefiled, without rpotor, wrinkle 
toQod,. who fo aqcep^ them at his 
hands, and even the -Kingdom ^alfo 
will he deliver up : to thq- Father , 
Ephef. ^27. Col. .1.22,28. $ude 24. 
1 Cor. 15.24. Therefore the Sons, 
pardoning, and accepting being firft 
in orJer A of-Nature,ancl fo but-a mean 
to Gods "pardoning and accepting, 
where the wholerwork iscompleatly 

ferfefted, ; ( when the finner is fully 
t roughthome by Chrift, p G©d> 
'from f whprn ne'firft. - fell,}- L thf act of . 
pardoning is therefore ;mo£ ufuaUy | 
and fitly ifcribed to the Father ,( that j 
icing .the ultimate perfecting par- 
donjand.we are foid Co .ask it of him 
throu gh Chr ift . d 2. J[_ 

Covenants opened, 169 

2. I call this Pardon [a graciow 
Aft ; j For if it were not in fome 
fbrt gratuitous, or free, ic were no 
Pardon. Let chofe think of this, 
who fay, We have perfectly obeyed 
the Law in Chrift, and are therefore 
righteous. If the proper debt -ei- 
ther of obedience or fuffering be 
payd, either by our felves, or by an- 
other , then there is no place left 
for Pardon : For when the Debt is 
payd, we owe nothing (except obe- 
dience de novo • ) and therefore 
can have nothing forgiven us* For 
the Creditor cannot retufe the proper 
D:bt, nor deny an Acquittance up- 
on receit thereof. Bat Chrift having 
payd the Tantundem and not the 
Idem, the Value and not the ftrict. 
Debt , this fatisfadion the Father 
might have cfeofen to accept, or to 
have discharged us upon Chriits Of- 
ferings : which yet becaufe he free- 
ly doth, therefore is his gracious 
Ad properly called Pardon. 

The ignorant Antinomians think, 

it cannot be a Free Ad of Grace, if 

I there 

i 170 The Nttitreef the 

I - ' 

i there be any Condition on our part 
i for enjoying it. As if in the fore- ; 
' mentioned comparifon , pag. 153. 
the Tenants redemption were the 
lefsfree,becaufe his new Leafe re- 
quires the Rent of a pepper corn in 
token of homage i As if when a par- 
don is procured for a condemned 
Malefaclor, upon condition that he 
fhall not rejed it when it is offered 
him, bat (hall take him that pro- 
cured it for his Lord, that this were 
therefore no free pardon ! Indeed if 
we payd but a mite in part of the 
dcbtitfdf, fo far our pardon were 
the lefsfree. But I will not further 
trouble the Reader with thefe fence- 
lefs conceits, the confutation where- 
of is fo eafie and obvious. 

5. I call this Act [> Dij charging} 
i as being the proper term in Law to 
I exprets it by.We were before charg- 
ed by the Law : we are by this A& 
4. I call it a difcharge of [jhe 

Coven4n ts opened. 171 

-j&f[endtr]i For an offender is r-he 
only capable object or recipient of 
it. There can be no pardon where 
there is n© offender. " 5f k j 

l s\ jl.T call it a difcharging \_from 
the Obligation to Ftimjhment. ] 
For, 1 . Yob muft look at this whole 
procefs as legal, and not as referring 
chiefly to Gods fecrec judgment or 
thoughts. Therefore when it is call- 
ed a freeing man from the wrath of 
God, you mult underftand it onely 
of the wraththtcatened in the Co- 
venant, and fo from [[the Obligation 
to Punifhment]. Ygu muft not con- 
ceive of the change in God, but in 
the finners relation, and confequent- 
ly in the fence and fentence of the 
Law, as to him. 2. The common 
word by which this terminus a qno % 
or rather the evil which this pardon 
doth direclly free m& from, is expreff- 
cd, is Guilt. But becaufe the word 
Guilt h varioufiy ufed, fometimes 
referring onely to the FacT, fome- 
times to the defert of Punifhmenr, 
andlbmetimetothe duenefsof Pu- 
I 2 nifliment 

1 7 2 The Nature of the 


I nifriment, or the Laws obliging the 
OfTcndor to bear it ; I have therefore 
here taken it in this laft expreflion, 
| becaufe I think that Guilt is caken a- 
I way only in this laft fence, as I fhafl 
\ farther open anon. Therefore many 
j define Guilt only in this laft fence, 
: RcAta* ej} Obligatio ad Pctnam.This 
! Obligation though expreffed only in 
the Covenant, yet arifeth alfo from 
theFadt : For if the Covenant had 
not been broken, it had not obliged 
to fufeiing; but (till to duty 

6. I call it a DifcHarging \_bj the 

Gofpel-promife or grant : J (It is 

I called a Promife in reference to the 

■ benefit as future, but more properly 

a Grant in reference to the benefit 

I as prefent or part ; either in the eon- 

; ferringj or already conferred. ) This 

I do for thefe Reafong. i. To clear 

, the nature of this Ad. 2. To divert 

i your thoughts from Gods fecret ' 

judgment, where moll fuppofe this 

A<ft performed ; and to turn them 

right , and free God from the I 

impu- j 

Covenants opened. 173 

imputation of change. 

A great qucftion it is, Whether 
Remifiion and Juftification be im- 
manent or tranfient Acls of God ? 
Themiftakeof this one point was it 
that led thofe two moft excellent, 
famous, Divines, Dr Twifft and 
Mr Piwble to that error and pillar 
of Antinomianifm, wi. Juftificati- 
on from Eternity. For ( faith Dr 
Tmfft often) All Acls immanent in 
God, are from Eternity : but Jufti- 
fication and Remiflion of fin are 
immanent Acls: therefore, &c. by 
[immanent in God] they mult 
needs mean Negatively, not Pofi- 
tively. For Acls have not the refpeel 
of an Adjunct to its fubjeel, but 
of an efted to its caufe. Now whe- 
ther all fuch immanent Acls are any 
mpre eternal then tranfient Acls, is 
much queftioned : As for God to 
know that the world doth now ex- 
ift ; That fuch a man is fandified, or 
juft, dec Gods fore-knowledg is 
not a knowing that fuch a thing is, 
which is not; but that fuch a thing 
I 2 will 

Ttx Ndtftrfaf ihe 

\ch is not. Yet doth 

this make no change in God ; no ! 

:hm the Sun is changed by tbi | 

:r cf Creatures which it ebd* 

enlighten and warm • or the Gafs 

by the variety c* feces which it re- 

i prefents : or the eve by the variety 

■ ' £ 1 U L ' \-/ J lit 

V 5 

tfca: every varfacioo of the object 
thareal change in the eye, ot 
that the behoving of ten diftrocl: 
colours at one view, dotkciake ten 
diftinclaxftscf the fight, or alterati- 
ons on it : Much lefs do the objects 
of Gods kncfieledg make fucbalte- 
nitrons. ^ Bat grant that all C 

t Acls are Ererna!;(whkh I 

is cult? beyond our underfiatv 

:: moftDivines wvi 

deny the Minor; and tell you ; that 

Remifli i : :rhcation sre • 

- Acls; Which is trap J Boc a 
Trut." er had the happi- 
tofeeor hear well cleared by 
For to prove it a tranhenr ■: 
us no more, but 
" doth j 

Covenants cpned. 17 J 

I doth tranfire inf*b]ettum extranc- 
i urn, by making a moral change on 
J our Relation, though not a real up- 
! on our perfons,asSandification doth. 
I But this is only to affirm and not 
to prove; and that in general only; 
not telling us what A& it is that 
maketh this change. Relations are 
not capable of being the Patients 
or Subjeds of any Aft : feeing they 
are but meer Entia Rationu y and 
no real Beings. Neither are they 
the immediate producl or effed of 
any Ad : but in order of Nature are 
confequential to the direcT effect. 
The proper cffcft of the Ad is- to 
lay the Foundation from whence 
the Relation doth arife. And the 
fame Acl which layeth the Founda- 
tion doth caufe the Relation, wkh- 
' out the intervention of any other. 
Suppofe but the fitbjetttwty fenda- 
mcntum&tcrmivwy and the Re- 
lation will unavoydably follow, 
by a meer refultancy. The direct 
tffcft- therefore of Gods Adivc 
Juftification muft be a real effect, 
I 4 though] 

1 76 The Nature of the 

though not upon the (inner, yet up- 
on fomething elfe for him ; and 
thence will his PafTive J unification 
follow. Now what tranfknt Aft 
this is ? and what its immediate 
real Effect? who hath unfolded? 
I dare no-t be too confident in fo 
dark a point : but it fcemeth to me 5 
that this juftifying tranfient Ac\ is 
the enacting or promulgation of the 
new Covenant, wherein Juftrficati- 
on is conferred upon every Beleeyer. 
Here, 1 . The pa/Ting and enading 
this Grant is a tranfient Act 2. So 
may the continuance of it ( as I 
think. J 3. This Law or Grant 
hath a moral improper Action, 
whereby it may be faid-to pardon 
or juftifie ; which properly is but 
virtual juftifying. 4. By this Gran: 
God doth, 1 . Give us the Righte- 
oafnefsof Chrift, to be ours w 
we beleeve: 2. And difabieth the 
Law to oblige us to punifhmenr, or 
to condemn us: ;. Which real 
Foundation being thus hyd, our Re- 
lations off Juftified and Pardoned in 


Covenants opened. 1 77 

tide of Law] do neceiTarily re-i 

fult. - • . ! 

Ob'ptt. Bar this Aft or God, m 
granting Pardon -to Beleevers, was; 
performed long ago: Butourjufti-i 
iication is not till we bekeve? ; 
! Attfw. Thougfuhetffeftsof Caufeij 
I as Phyiicai do follow them immedi- 
\ ately, yet as Moral they do not fo ; 
I but & what diftance the Agent 
pkmfes fepneti.rses. A man makes his ! 
Ton a Deed of Gift of certain Lands, ' 
to be his at fuch an age, or upon 
the performance of fome eminent j 
Action. Here the Deed of gift is the ' 
fathers inftrumenc by which he 
giveth thtfe Lands : The paffing this ! 
Deed is the proper Aft and time or 
Donation: Yet the fon hath no 
potfefllon titt the time prefixed, or 
till the "Condition be performed ; 
At which time , the conditional 
Grant becoming abfoluce, and giv- 
ing him right toprcfent poffeflion, 
it is not unfitly faid, that his father 
doth even then beftow the Lands ; 
though by no new intervening aft at 
I 5 **! 

17 8 The Nature tfxke 

all, but only the continuation of the 
former Deed of gift in force. So 
here; The conditional grant of Par- 
don and Juftification doth thro ab- 
folutdy pardon and juftifie us, when 
we perform the Condition. Hence 
is the phrafe in Scripture of being 
[_Ju£lififd by the Law ]: which 
doth not only fignifie £ by the Law 
as the Rule to which men did fit 
their a&ions] j but alfo {"by the 
Law, as not condemning, but jufti- 
fying the perfon whofe actions arc 
fo fitted ] : In which fence the Law 
did juftihe Chrift : or elfe the Law 
(hould not juftifie as a Law or Co- 
venant , but only as a Dire&ion : 
which properly is not Justifying, 
but only a means to difcover that 
we are Justifiable. As the Word of 
Gkift ftiali judg men at the laft 
day, fok.n.2%. So doth it virtually 
now. And if it judg, then doth it 
condemn and juftifle. So Rom.i. 1 1* 
fam.2.12* We fliall be judged by 
the Law of Liberty. Gal 5 . 3 , 4, 2 3 . 
In xhe fame fence, as the Law is faid 


Covenants opened. 179 

] to convince and curfe ( lam. 2. 9. 
J Gal. 3.13./ it may be faid that the 
Gofpei or new Law doth acquit, 
jufttfie and Weft. Rom. 8. 2. The 
Law of the Spirit of Life in Chrifi 
fefwyhath made m? free from th* 
Law of Sin and Death. As the Law 
worketh Wrath, and where is no 
Law, there is no Tranfgreflion, 
(Rom.<\.if>) And as fin is not im- 
puted where there is no h\v, (Rom. 
5.13.) and the ftrength of fin is the 
law, ( 1 Cor. 15. 56*) So the new 
Kw is the ftrcngch of Righteoufnefs, 
and worketh Deliverance from 
Wrath ; and were there no fuch new 
Covenant, there would be no Righ- 
teoufnefs inherent or imputed : 

So that I conclude. That this 
tranflent Aft of Cod , pardoning 
and juftifying (conttittttive) is his 
Grant in the new Covenant ; by 
which, as a Moral Inftrument , our 
Juftification and Pardon are in time/ 
produced, even when we beleeve : 
the Obligation of the law being then 


1 8p Tfo>N*tur*,oftlx 

by it made voyd to us. 

And this is the prefent appre 
hcnfionl have of the nature of Re 
million and J unification: Si quid 
.ncvifti rttiins , &c. ( yet I {hall 
have occafion afterwards to tell 
ycu , That all this is but Remhsi- 
on and Juflification in Law and 
Tide , which muft be diitinguifb- 
ed from that which is in Judg- 
ment or Sentence ; the former be- 
ing Virtual in refped to the Acluali- 
t ty d the later.) 

2. The fecond kinde of Gods 
A&s, which may be called Juftify 
ing , is indeed Immanent ; <vU. 
His knowing the (inner to be par- 
doned and juflt in Law ; his Willing 
and Approving hereof as True and 
Good: Thefeare Aels in Heaven, 
yea in God himfelf ; but the former 
fort are on earth alfo. I would 
not have thofe Acts of God fepa- 
rated which he doth conjoyn; as 
he ever doth thefe laft with the 
former : But I verily think that it. is 
especially the former tranfient legal 



Covenants opentd. i$* 

Ads which the Scripture ufmlry 
means^ when it {peaks of Pardon- 
ing and ( constitutive ) Jufti-fy- 
ing : and not thefe- Immanent 
Acls : though thefe muft be 
looked on as concurrent witk 
the former. Yet molt Divines 
that I meet with, feem to look at 
Pardon and Justification as being, 
done in heaven only, and confuting, 
only in thefe later Immanent 
A&s: And yet they deny Juftifka- 
tion to be an Imminent A<ft too: 
But how they wiil ever rrantfefld 
that thefe celeftial Acb of God, 
(vU. his Willing i\\t Sinners Par- 
don, and to forgiving him in his 
own breft • or his accepting him 
as juftj are Tranfient Acls, I am 
yet unable to underftand. And If 
they be Immanent Afts,. mbft 
will grant that they are from E- 
ternity : and then fair falj the An* 
tinomians. Indeed if God have 
a Bat in Heaven befoce his 
Angels , where thefe things 
axe., for the prefent tranfa&ed> 


1 8a The Nature tf the 

as Tome think ; and that we are faid 
to be juftified only at the bar now \ 
then J confefs that is a tranfient Ad 
indeed. But of that more here* 
after. ^l 

» __ _____ __ 

7. I add in the definition. That all 
this is done [7a confide rat ion of the 
Satisfaction , I. made by fkrift, 
2. Accepted^ 3. and pleaded with 
GW/) The fatisfaction made is the 
proper meritorious and impulfive 
caufe: 2. So the Satisfaction as 
pleaded by Chrift the interceflbr, is 
alfoanimpuKive caufe. 3. The Sa- 
tisfactions Acceptance by the Sinner 
(that is Faith, J and the pleading of 
it with Cod by the (inner (that if 
praying for pardon, ) are but the 
Conditions, or Cattfdfine quo non. 

But all thefe will be fulfier opened 


Covenants opened. 183 

Thcfis 17. 

JVftificath* is either 1 . in Title 
andthe Sence of the LaW> ; 2. Or 
i* Sentence of Judgment. The fir Jl 
may be called Conftitutive ; The 
fecond Declarative : The fir (I Vir- 
tual, thifecond AttttaL 


I Will not ftand to mention all 
thofe other Biftinftions of Jufti- 
fication which are common in o- 
thers, and not fo neceffary or perti- 
nent to my purpofed (cope. You 
may fiade them in Mr TZradfiarr, 
Mr John Goodwin , and Alsledtn* ! 
Djft melons and Definitions; &c. 

The difference between Juftifica- 
tion in Tkle of Law, and in Sen- 
tence of judgment, is apparent at 
the firft view: Therefore I need not 
explain it. It is common, when a 



I #4 The Nature of the 

! man hath a good caufe, and the Law: 
on his tide, to fay, The Law jiilMill'li 
j him, or he is juit in Law, or he is 
I acquit by the Law ; aod yet he is 
: more fultyand compleatly acquit by 
| the fentence of the Judg afterward; 
j In the former fence we are now jite 
I itirled by fai:h, as focn as ever we I 
bclrtve: In the latter fence we are. 
juftified at the iaft J udgraent. Jis6\ 
tide off Declarative] is too narrow j 
I for this laft : For the fentence of ju- 
j dicial abfoiution doth more then 
I barely to declare us juftificd. I aA 
' the former Q Virtual] not as it is in 
it felf conficicred, but as it ftanderh 
in relation to the latter. 

All thofe Scriptures, .which fpeak 
of Jufbbcation as done in this life, I 
underftand of Juftification in Title 
of Law : SoP^cm^i.Be'mgjuftified 
by faith, Uv have peace with God. 
Rom.q.i. Mom.5.9. Being now jufii- 
fed bykii.bload, &c. lames 2. 21, 

But Juftification in Judgment, as 
it is. the compleating -Aft, ib 1% k 


Covenants opened. \ 85 

moll fitly called Justification ; and 
I think the word in Scripture hath 
moft commonly reference to the 
Judgment day ; and that Justifica- 
tion in Title is called Quftification] 
moft efpecialiy, because of its rela- 
tion to the Juftification at Judg- 
ment \ becaufe as men are now in 
point of Law , fo ftiall they moft 
certainly be Sentenced in Judg- 

Therefore is it fpoken of many 
times as a future thing, and not yet 
ctone : Rom.^o.Mat. 1 2.37. Rom. 
2.1 2. . Both thefe may be called Qu- 
itification by Faith J for by Faith 
we are juftified, both in Law Title, 
and at judgment. 



IVftification, in Title of Law y is 
a gracious AEl ofGod y bjf the Pro- 
mife or Grant of the new Covenant, 
acquitting the Offendor from the 
Accufation and Condemnation- of 


1 26 TheNatxrtoftkt 

the c :.<nt,fipey> co^idtr.itum 

of the Sm m Tftade ij Cbrift, 

And accented by thefinoer. 



H Ere you may fee :. That par- 
n cf fin,and this Jiubficariao 
in Law, are not pnnctuaily and pre- 
ctfejyalione: 2. And yet 'the infer- 
ence is very fmaii The chrrfdifitr- 
; encelyethm this, That xteTtrm> 
I *«/af#*of Remifiion, ijtheobii- 
f g^non to pen-foment ; but the 7*r- J 
minus of Juftirlcation, ( or the evil \ 
that it formally and directiy doth ' 
fee as from,) is the Laws Accufari- 
on and Condcrnnacion:Xc w chowglf 
the difference between chefe two be 
very narrow, and rather re^edive 
then real, yet a plain difference there 
w • For thc'jgh k be one an I 
kn* nation of the Law, by 

which men are both obliged to pi- 
nrfhmcnt/accufed as guilty, and con- 


CovenA7its opned* 1 87 ' 

deemed for that guiic, yet thefeare 
ndtaUone, though it is alfo true, 
that they ail ftand or fall together. 

That pardon is moft properly the 
removing of the Obligation , and 
that Juftification is. the removing of 
the Accufation and Condemnation 
in the Law, will be evident to thofe 
that have read what Divines have 
written at large concerning the fig- 
nification of the words, efpecially 
fuch that have skill in Law, which is 
a great advantage in this doctrine of 
Juftification : Therefore as Mr Wot- 
ten, and Mr Goodwin do a little mi- 
ftake in making pardon of fin to be 
the formal caufe of Juftification, 
(though they are far neerer the mark 
then their oppofers.) So Mr Brad- 
Jfcawdotba little too much ftraiten 
the form of it, making it to lye only 
in Apology or Plea. It confifteth in 
both thele Ads ; 1 . Apology ,in op- 
pofition to Accufation ; thus Chrift 
our Advocate doth principally jufti- 
fie us: 3. In Sentence, (virtual or 
actual,) and fo it is oppofed both to 


3 88 The Nature of the 

Accufation and Condemnation ; fo 
Chrift the Mediator as Judg, and the 
Father as one with him, and as the 
fupream Judg, doth ju&ifie : But 
this latter is the chief Aft. The reft 
of the Definition is furHciently open- 
ed under the foregoing Definition of 
Pardon.and will be more after. 



JVftification in Sentence ef Judg- 
ment is \a gracious Ab~i of God by 
Chrift, according totheGofpel, by 
Sentence at his publique Bar, ac- 
quitting the finner from the Accu- 
fation and Condemnation of the 
LaVe, pleaded again fi him by Satan^ 
| upon confederation of the Satisfacti- 
on made by Chrift, accepted by the 
finner , and pleaded for him. 


Covenants opened* 1 89 


TT Here is alfo a two-fold Pardon, 
I as well as a two- fold Juft ifica- 
tion : One in Law, the other in Sen- 
tence of Judgment. So ABs 3. i& 
Repent > that your fins may be blotted 
out , When the time of refreflnng 
comes, &c. But pardon of fin is 
ufually mentioned in refpeft to this 
life prefent, as being beftowed here ; 
becaufe a man may more fitly be faid 
to be fully quit from the Obligation 
to punifoment, commonly called the 
guilt in this life, then from the Accu- 
fation of that guilt which will be 
managed againtt him by Satan here- 
after, or- from the Condemnation, 
which he muft thenmoft efpccially 
be delivered from. 

The difference betwixt this Jufti- 
fication and the former,may eafily be 
difcerned by the Definition without 
any further Explication. 


i^o The Nature of the 


Thcfis 40, 

*rb ; 
Hen Scripture jpeaketh of 
Jufiification by Faith, it is 
to be underfiood primarily and di- 
retlly ofJuBificaticn in Law title, 
and at the bar of Cjods publique 
Judgment ; and butfecondarily and 
consequentially of fufttfcation at 
the bar of Cjods fecret judgment, or 
at the bar of Confcknce, or of the 




1 . ^T^Hac Juftification by Faith is 
JL inforodei, and not in fore 
cwfcientU primarily ; fee Dr Dorp- 
name's Appendix to Corenant of 
Grace againft Mr Pemble. Confci- 
ence is but an inferior, petty, imprd- 
per Judg : The work muft be cranf- 
acted chiefly at a higher Tribunal. 
View all the Scriptures that mention 


€wena*ts.ope*id. 191 

Juftification by Faith, and you fliali 
findc by the Text and Context that 
they relate to the bar of God, but 
not one diredly to the bar of Ccn- 
fcience.lt is one thing to be juftiried, 
and another thingtohaveit niani- 
fefted to our Confcienccs that we 
2. That it is not directly at the 
r of the World, all will acknow- 

3. That it is not directly at the bar 
of Gods fecret Judgment ,in his own 
breft, may appear thus: 1. That it is 
not a bar at which God dealeth with 
finnersjfor Juitification or Condem- 
nation in any known or vifible way; 
No Scripture intimateth it. 2. We 
could not then judg of our Juftifica- 
tion. a^They are immanent Ads ; 
but Juftification is a tranflent Ad: 
Therefore Dr Dor* name in the place 
before mentioned hath proved a- 
gimfclAxPcmble, that Juftification 
is not from Eternity. And (as I judg 
by his following Trad of Juftifica- 
tion) WPemhle himfelf came after- 

191 The Nature of the 

wards to a founder Judgment in the 
nature of J unification. 4. God 
dealeth with man in an open way of 
Law, and upon Covenant cerms,and 
fo will try him at a publique Judg- 
ment according to the Tenor of his 
Covenants. The fecretsof his breft 
are too high for us. By the word 
W*llhe judg us: That muft juftifie 
or condemn us. Therefore when 
you hear talk of the Bar of God,yoa 
muft not underftand it of the imma- 
nent Acts of Gods Knowledg or 
Will,but of his Bar of publique Judg- 
ment, and in the fence of the Word. 
Some think that Juftification by 
Faith is properly and directly none 
of all thefe yet, but that it is a pub- 
lique Ad: of God in heaven before 
his Angels. I think this opinion bet- 
j ter then any of the three former 1 
which would have it at the Bar of 
Godsfecret Judgment, or of Con- 
feience>or of the World; and I know 
no very ill confequence that follow- 
ethit; But that God doth condemn 
or juftifie at any fuch Bar, I find 


Covenants opened. lp£ 

no Scripture fully to fatisfie or per 
fwade me. Thofe places,/?***. 2. 1 3. 
Htb.9.14* Luke 12.8,9. & 15.10. 
which arealiedged to thatpurpofe, 
fcem not to conclude a.iy fuch thing, 
as that to be the Bar where Fatch 
doth moft properly juftifie : Yet I 
acknowledg that in a more remote 
fence, we may be faid to be juftified 
by Faith at ail the four other Bars, 
vi/en Gods Immanent Judgment , 
and before the Angels, and before 
Coafcience , and the World : For 
God and Angels do judg according 
to Truth, and take thoie to be juft, 
who are k> in Law and in deed : and 
fo do our Confciences , and Men 
when they judg rightly ; and when 
they do not, we cannot well be faid 
to be juftified at their Bar. Therefore 
I think they miflake , who would 
have Works, rather then Faich, to 
juftifie m at the Bar of the World, as 
I &aH'Qvewafcerward,whenIcorae 
to open the conditions of Juftifica- 

K lh& 

1 9A The- Nature of .the 

Thefis 41. 

I nTHaV faying of our Divines 
\ JL [That f unification is perfecl- 
\ edatfirft, ana admits of no degrees^ 
\ musl be understood thus, That each 
' of thofe Alls Which we call fortifi- 
cation, are in- their ownkjnd perfeCl 
I at once -f and that our Right eoufitefs 
is perfect, and admits not of degrees. 
But yet as the former A els, called 
justification, do not fully, and in all 
refpefts , procure our freedom , fo 
they may be faid u be imperfect , 
and but degrees toward our full and 
perfe it Justification at the Uft judg- 


Thefis 42. 

THere are many fuch fttrps to- 
ward our final and full fuftifi- 
cation; As 1. Gods eternahLowe' 
and Decree of justifying us.^Chrifts 
undertaking for Satisfying and jufti- 

Covenants opened. 195 j 

_ , 1 

fying. 3» Hti atlual fatisfyingb'\ 
faying the price. 4. Hi s own fujhfi - 
cation y as the publique Perfon^at his 
Reftbrreclion. 5. That change Which 
is made in our Relation upon $ur 
Regeneration, or receiving the vital 
feed of Grace, where, among others ; 
that is contained, which is called the 
habit of Faith ; this infants are ca- 
pable of 6* The change of our Rela- 
tion upon our actual Faith. 7. The 
pacifying our own hearts by the evi- 
dence of Fait h % anda(jurance there- 
upon, andwitnefsofConfcience 9 and 
Teftimony, and Seal of the Spirit* 
8. The Angels judging us righteous, 
and rejojcing therein, p. Our fxfti- 
fication before Men. 10. And our 
final luftifcyLtimat the great Judg- 
ment. ' 

But it is only the fixth and tenth 
of the fe which is diretlly and proper- 
ly the lufiijication by Faith^ as is be- 
fore expr eft. 

K 1 Thefis 

j 1 96 The Nature of the 



THe fufiification which we have J 
in Chrtfis own J u ft t fie at ion is \ 
but conditional as to the particular 
offenders j andnone can lay claim to j 
ityt ill he have performed the condi- 
tions ; nor {hall any be perfenally ! 
juflified till then: Even the eletl \ 
remain p erj on ally nn)u ft and nnjn- j 
ftified, for all their conditional ftt r 
slification in Chrift, till they do be- 

T His needs not Explication, and 
for Confirmation there is e- 
noughfaid under the 15, x8, ip,ao, 
Pofitions before. 

Thcfis 44. 

M En that are but thus conditi- 
onally pardoned andjujlified, 
may be unpardoned and Hnjuftified 


Covenants opened. i$j 

again for their non-ptrfornianee of 
the conditions, and all the debt fo for- 
given be required at their hands • 
and all tins without any change in 
(jod,orinhis Laws. SeeBiWofthe 
Covenant, fag. 240. 


THfs is all piain; only for fo much 
of it as feems to intimate an 
univerfal conditional Juftification , 
and consequently univerfal Redemp- 
tion, I mtrcat the Reader to fufpend 
j his Judgment , till I come to the 
point of Univerfal Redemption, 
where I (hall fully and purpofely ex- 
plain my meaning. 

And for that which intimates in 
the following PoGtion, the falling a- 
way of the justified, undcrftand,that 
I fpeak only upon fuppofition, and 
of a poflibiiity in- the thing, and of 
the Tenor of the Gofpel: But in re- 
gard of Gods Will of Purpofe,which 
determined! eventually , whether 
they (hall fall quite away or not , 
I do beleeye, that the juftified by 
K 3 Fakh 

I ?8 . The Nature of the 

Faith never do, or fhali fall a- 

Thefis 45, 

YEajn cafe the juflifitd by Faith 
Jhould ceafe beleeving , the 
Scripture Would pronounce them 
unjufi again, and yet without any 
change in God, or Scripture y but on- 
ly in tbtmf elves* Bec&nfe their fu~ 
ftification dpth- continue conditional 
as long as they live her e\ the Scrip* 
ture doth juftifie no man by name, 
but all beleevers as fuch $» therefore 
if they Jhould ceafe to be beleevers 9 
they would ceafe to bejuftified. 


Thefis 46. 

Vfiifi 'cation imply eth Aecufation > 
either Virtual or Attual. 


Coven ants . opened. 1 99 


AS there i$ ajuftifjcation in Law 
or in Sentence, fo is there the 
AccufationoftheLaWj, as it (lands 
in force, which may be called a vir- 
tual Accnfation, in reference to that 
at Judgment,, wftcj} wiH-be A&ual 
from Satans .'pteaiiing ti)e violated 
Law againft us, Mr Bradjbfw doth 
fully (hew you the reafon of thi$ Po- 


Thefis 47. 

I""* He sew Covenant accufethno 
J_ w/w, as deferring its penalty y 
but eniythofe that perform not its 
conditiwt ; that />, the finally unbe- 
lieving and impenitent rebels a- 
gainft Chrifi , and their rightful 
Lord* . 

K 4 Ex~ 

aoo The Nature of the 


THat the Gofpd doth not con- 
condemn men,or threaten them 
with damnaaion for any fins but un- 
belief, I dare not fpeak or think. But 
chat the Gofptl threateneth no man 
with damnation but unbeieevers, is 
out of aflcjueftion: And confequem- 
ly the proper fin threatened in the 
new Covenant as fuch, is unbelief; 
the reft are but left and fetled on the 
(inner by this. 

Thefis 48. 

WHtre the Gofpd' Covenant 
doth thut ac cafe, or where 
any one is truly thus charged^ there 
& no Jufiificationfor that perfat. 


Faith opened. 20$ } 

: _i 


I Mean/ not where anyman iaae- 
cufcd of a temporary negled, or 
delay of performing thefe conditions: 
For the Gofpel threatened not death 
to fuchj if at laft they do perform 
them-: But where there is a final non- 
performance which is the proper vi- 1 
oiation, there is no hope ofj uitifica- 
tion. See for this the 32^33,34,35 
Pofitions . 


ITheingthe Laws Accnfativnand 
Condemnation only ,& not the (]o- 
fpels y which we are ittflifted againfi ; 
therefore the Right eoufnefs which 
mnsl be pleaded for our luslif cation 
direUly mns~l be a legal Righteouf- 
nefs y Which is only Ckrifts*Satisfa- 

_ K 5 Thefis 

so* Thi Nature of 

Thcfis 50. 

OVr Faith therefore cannot be 
the leaf fart- of that Righte- 
oufttefs fo to Ire f leaded, it being not 
the Right eoufnefs of that Covenant 
iff hie h doth accufe us ;fa that though 
vre are jufiified by Faith y yet is it 
\ not any of the Righteoufnefs to be 
\ pleaded againft the accnfer% 

Thcfis 51. 

YBt if Satan , or any other 9 
Should faljly accufe us of not 
performing the conditions of the new 
Covenant y and fo having no part in 
Chriftf Satis.fatlion t here we tnuft 
be jufiified only by our Faith> or per- 1 
fonul (Jofpel- Righteoufnefs, and not 
by any thing that Chrifi hath done . 
orjufftred : For in all falfe accufe 
tions we mufl defend our imecency, 
*and plead Jiot guilty^ 


Faith ofcned* 203 

l ExpHcdtion. 

BUt becaufe there i$ no danger tc 
usfrotnfalfeaccu(ation before 
the all-knowing Gody. therefore 
Scripture fakh nothing of any fuch 
Juftification , Yet at the bar of men 
it is frequently ufeml, where falfe ac- 
cusations may be heard j and there- 
fore David, Ioh> efrvdo plead their 
Innocency again ft their accufers. Al- 
fo at the bar of our own erroneous 
Gonfcienccs this kind of Juftification 
is frequently ufeful; for xhere Satan 
hath more hope that his falfe accufa- 
tions may take place, then at the Bar 
of God ; Wherefore he more ufuaily 
accufethChriftians-to themfelves of 
being gracelefs, and unbeleevers,and 
1 impenitent, and of having no part in 
Chrift, then of breaking the Law by 
their fins; And in fuch cafes, when 
the accufation is falfe, we have no 
way to anfwer it, but by pleading 
not guilty, and calling back the accu- 

■204 The Nature of 

fation as a lying (lander, and produ- 
cing our. Faith and Gofpel- Obedi- 
ence, or what ever grace we are ac- 
cufed to want : And fo it is that 
our own graces and duties maybe 
properly our comfort : It will be but 
a fencelefs flaift in fuch an accufation 
to (hew Chrifts Legal Righteonfnefs 
inftead of > our own Evangelical 
Righteoufnefs. To tell Satan, that 
Ghrifthath fulfilled the Law for us, 
when he is accufing us of not fulfil- 
ling the Gofpel; filly women are 
madebeleeve by AntinomianTeach- 
| crsy that this is a folid way of com- 
forting : « But Satan is a better Logi- 
: tian then to take quid pro quojind to 
be baffled with fuch arguing. And 
asfilly, and more falfe a flnift it "wilt 
be, to tell him, that Chrift hath be- 
keved , repented and. fulfilled the 
Gofpel; Conditions for us, as I have 
(hewed before. The bed is, . thefe 
Teacherscdo but fpoyl the comforts' 
of beleevcTS^ and not their fafety; 
for in the cafe in hand, we fuppofe 
the accufation to be falfe ; But yer 


Faith of wed. io$ 

by fuch grounds they may very ea- 
fily overthrow the May alfo ot un- 
beleevers, while they teach them 
how to comfort themfdves without 
Faiths or toiook at all out of them- 
felves in Chrift, and fo to filence the 
accufetion of both Covenants , by 
producing only the Righteoufnefe 
of one. 

Thefis 52. 

WE tuuft net plead for our 
luslifcation, thatChrifi 
bath made us free from the very 
fa ft; nor, fecund, from thefinfulnejs 
of ike. fail- nor, third, from its.dkfert 
tf punifbment • If Chrift.had done 
any of thu for #/, he mufi verify 
Contradictories. But W* mu\t flead, 
that the penalty it not due to our 
perfons nettyithjtanding thefaU,and 
its. finfulmfs and demerit , becaufe 
Chrift hash fat H tied for aU.thu* 


a©6 The Nature of 


SO Mr Anthony Bnrgefs in his 
. book of Juftif. pag.19. affirmeth 
as much, though fome take it fat hai^ 
nous dodrine. i.That the fad (hould 
be done, and not done, is a con tra- 
dition. 2. So is it, That the fad: 
fhould be finful,and not finful. 3 .Or 
that it fhould defer ve death, and not 
defcrve it: Or that it fhould be a 
fin againft that threatening Law, and 
yet not deferve the penalty threaten- 
ed. Befides, if any of thefc three 
could have been taken off, what 
need Chrift- have dyed ? But that 
which Remiffion and Juftification 
freeth us from, is the duenefs of pu- 
niflhment to our perfons, notwith- 
standing the duenefs of it to the fin;, 
becaufe what is due to the fin, is in- 
Aided on the perfdn of another al- 
ready ,even Chrift. So that you fee in 
what fence Chrift taketh away fin 8c 
guilt, which you muftobferve, left 


Faith ofetted. 207 

you run into the Antinomian conceit, 
That God feeth not fin in his juftifi- 
cd ones. When we fay therefore that 
God looketh on our fins as if they 
had never been committed,ihe mean- 
ing is, that,in regard to punifhmenr,- 
they (hall have no more power to 
condemn us, then if they had never 
been committed. 

The; IS 5};- 

THe offending of Go&, and the j 
defer t and procuring offunifh- 
ment, are not ffyo diflintt effetls of 
fin, as fome make them; nor ts the 
removal of the curfe and punijb- 
men$ y and the obtaining of Gods fa- 
vour, two diftiittt parts of our Iufti- 





ao8 The Nature of 


T His is plain, becaufe Gods dif- 
pleafure againft our perfons 
(fcrhis drflike of the fin is never ta- 
ken off) is a chief part of our punish- 
ment, and therefore not to be diftin- 
gui&ed from it, but as. the Species 
from its Cjenw* And fo when all the 
punifhment is removed, then Cods 
difpleafure, or the lofs of his favour, 
muft jieeds- be removed ; Therefore 
that J unification in this differs from 
Remiffion of fin, I cannot yet think, 
(as that godly and learned Servant ©f 
Chriftj whom I honor and reverence, 
Mr Bnrgefs of Ittftificar* pag.25?. 
doth,) That Juftification,bc(jcie$'the 
pardon of fin, doth connote a Itate 
that the fubje& is put into, viz.. a 
ftate of favour jbeing reconciled with 
God. Becaufe even Remiffion it felf 
doth connote that ftate of favour; 
For if the lofs of Gods favour be 
part of che puni&menr, and all the 


Faith oftned. 109 \ 

punifhmcnt be remitted , then the 
favour which we loft muft needs be 
thereby reftored. Indeed there is 
a two* fold Favour of God, 1 . That 
which we loft in the fell ; 2. More 
{uper-adde* by Chrift, befides the I 
former reftored : Of thefe m the 
following Pofition. 

Thtfis" 53. 

REmijfo»,l»fifc«tio» and Re- 
conctttation do but report the 
offender into the fame flute of free- 
demand favour that he fell from - r 
But Adoption and Marriage-Vnim 
with Chrift do 1 advance, bin* far 


THe three for merare all concent 
rant confequentsof one andthev 
'fame Ad of God by his GofpehThe 


2TO ThfiNatnreof 

freedom from obligation topunifh- 
ment is called Reraifsion : the free- 
dom from Accufation and Condem- 
nation is called Juftificatiort » and 
the freedom from enmity and dif- 
; pleafure is called Reconciliation , 
; which arc all at once, and doallde- 
| note but our Reftauration to our 
former ftate. Adoption and Marri- 
age-Union do add the reft. 

Some may blame me for putting 
Union among the relative Graces, 
and not rather among thofe that 
make a real phy fical change upon us, 
as. Sanftificatioa and Glorification. 
But I do herein /according t© my 
judgment, whereof to give the full 
reafons here would be too large a 
digreffion. I know that Cafpar 
Strefe, and divers others, do place it 
in ah unconceiveable, unexprefTable 
medium between thefe two, which 
yet mud be called a Real Union , 
more then a Relative, though not 
Phyfical : I will not now ftand on 
this. I acknowledg a Real Founda- 
tion of a Relative Union, and a Re- 

Faith opened. 21 1 

al Communion following thereup- 
on: But am very fearful of coming 
fo near, as to make Chrift and finners- 
one real Perfon, (as the late elevated 
Sea among us do,)left blafphemout- 
ly I ffiould deifie man, and debate 
Chrift to be actually a finner. Ana 
if we are not one real Perfon with 
Chrift, then one what? Itfufficeth 
me to know as abovelaid, and that 
we arc one. with Chrift in asiftrifta 
bond of relation as the wife with the 
husband, and far drifter; and that 
we are his body myftical, but not 
natural. That we (hall be one with 
him, as he is one with the Father, is 
true : But that [af\ doth not extend 
thcfimilitudetoall refpeas, but to 
a truth in foroe. 

Thcfis 55, 

BEforc it be committed it is n§ 
fw y and Where there is nofinjhe 
penalty is not due; and where it is 
not due, it cannot properly be for- 

2T2 ThcNatnreof 

giveny therefore fin is not forgiven 
before it be committed^ though the 
grounds of certain Remiffion be laid 



FOr proof of this I refer you to 
Maftcr Burgefs of Jufiificatr. 
LeB. 28. 

Thcfis 5<£j 

BY what hath beenfaid r 'it is dp- 
parent, That Ittfiification in 
Title may be afcribed to feveral 
Cattfes. 1. The principal effici- 
ent Caufe is God. 2. The Infiru- 
mental is the Promife or Grant of 
of the neW Covenant. 3. The Pro- 
catarclickjCattfe, (fofar as God may 
be J aid to be moved by any thing out 
ofhimfelf, /peaking after the man- 
ner of men, ) is four-fold* I. *And 

Faith opened. 213 

chiefly the Satisfaction of Chrifi. 
2. The Intercefiion of Chrifi, and 
[application of tht finner. 3. The 
neceffity of the fwner. 4. The op- 
portunity and advantage for the glo~ 
rifying his lufiice ani Mercy. The 
firft of thtfe is the Meritorious 
Caufe ; the fecond the moral per- 
/wading Caufe ; the third is the Ob- 
jeftive, and the fourth is the Occafi- 
on. 2. Material Caufe properly it 
hath none : If you will improperly 
call Chrifls SAtisfailion the remote 
matter, I contend not. 3 T 'he formal 
Caufe is. the acquitting of the /inner 
from Accufation and Condemnati- 
on of the Law, or the di/abling the 
Law to accufe or condemn him. 
4r The final foufe is -the Glory of 
God, and of the Mediator, and the 
deliverance of the finner* 5* The 
CauGifine quanon, is both Chrifi s 
Satisfaction , and the Faith of the 




214 TheN*t*rc*f 


Hike* will be expe&ed, that I 
anfwer to thefe C^ueftions. 
i. Why I call the Gofpel the Inirru- 
mencal'Cauie? iAYwIcallChrifts 
Satisfaction the meritorious Caaie, I 
and the Caufafi*cq*A no* < 9. Why 
I make not Chritts Righteoufoefe 
the material Canfe? -. V.ylmake 
not the Imputation of it the formal 
Can I make not Faith 

the InfmimentalCaiife? 6. 
I make it only the C**f* ! lKe *!** 

To the firft QpeiHon : AsaLeatc 
or Deed of Gift is properly a mans 
Infrrnmrnt , in conrt)ing the 
thing leafed or given ; and as the 
Kings Pardon under his Hand and 
Seal is h* proper Instrument of par- 
doning and jultify ing the Kialeficr- 
or, fo s the new Covenant Gods 
Iriftrument in this cafe,or,as it were, 
hisMcu:h,by which he ?:cr.:^c;zn 

Faith opened* 21$ 

a'beleever juftified. 

Tothefecond.Qujeftion: Chrifls 
Satisfa&ion liath feveral ways/pf 
caufing our Juftifieation. 1. Tliat it 
is the Meritorious Caufe, I know 
few but Socinians that will deny, 
2. That it is befldes properly a CaujA 
[inequation, cantiot.be denyed by 
any that confider, that it removeth 
thofe great Impediments that hin- 
dered our Justification. And what if 
a manftiould fay,that becaufe impul- 
(ive and procatarclical Caufes have 
properly no place with God, that 
therefore the greateft pare of the 
work ©f Chrifts Satisfaction is to be 
the CAtifa fine qua non principalis f 
But becaufe my afsigning no more to 
Chrifts Satisfaction but" merit, and 
this improper caufality, doth feem to 
fome to be very injurious thereto ; 
I defirethem fo long to lay by their 
prejudice and pafcion while they 
corifictet of this one thing, That we 
are not in this ( bufinefs conGderiflg 
which caufe hath the preeminence, 
in regard of phyfical production, but 


2 1 6 The Nature of 

which in moral tefpect deferveth the 
higheft condemnation. Inpoinc of 
Morality the 'greateft praifc is fd- 
dom doc to the greateft natural 
ftrength, or to the ftrongcft natural 
cau Cation. InPhyficks the: efficient 
hath the greateft part of the glory ; 
but in Morals the Meritorious Caufe 
hath a (ingular (hare : AsDiogeaes 
faid, Outre me kgh Uudas qui dig-. 
nnsfum ut accipUm f pi us entm eft 
mervijfe qtiam dedljfe benefycium* 
The like may be faid of fome Caufes 
fine qua non : That they defervc far 
greater praifc in moral refped, then 
fome that have a proper caufality do. 
It is agreed, that rcmovens impedi- 
mtntum e\uk talis , is Caufa fine 
yak uon : And doth not the greateft 
part of a Phyfitians skill lye there ? 
That which taketh away the offend- 
ing humor, and denfeth out the cor- 
ruption, and removeth all hinderan- 
ces, fhall have the greateft {hare in 
theglory of the cure, of any artificial 
caufe. Suppofe a man be condemn- 
ed by Law fotTreafon, onepayeth 


Faith opened. 217 

one thoufand pound for bis Pardon, 
and thereby procured it under the 
broad Sealc; hereby he fufpendeth, 
and afterward difableth the Law, as 
to the offender ; This man is the ef- 
ficient of thofe happy erfed's, from 
which the justification of the Tray- 
tor will follow : Butastohisjufti- 
fication it felf, he is but the Caufa 
removens impediment*, taking a- 
way the force of the Law, and the 
offence of Majefty, and Whatsoever 
els did hinder the juftification of the 
offendor. And yet I think he defer- 
veth more thanks then either the 
Laywerthat juftifieth him by Plea, 
or the Judge that juftifies him by 
Sentence. So here; If you had ra- 
ther, you may call it a neceilary An- 
tecedent. Or, if any man think fitter 
to call thefe Caufes by another name, 
I much care not, fo we agree con* 
ceming the nature of the thing. 
To the third queftion.ChriftsRigh- 
teoufnefs cannot be the materiall 
:aufe, of an A# which hath no mat- 
cer.If any will call Chrifts Righteouf- 
m L ndi| 

21 8 TheNatmeof 

nefs, t&e matter of our Righteoaf- 
nefs, though yet they fpeak impro- 
perly , yet farre neerer the truth, 
thentoiiattifthe Matter of our Ju 
ftification. 9 isqoiq 

To the fourth Queft, That Impu- 
tion is not she Form, is undenyabie, 
The Form gives the name s efpecial- 
ly to Anions, that have no #»Uf©r , 
Imputation and Juftification dettotc 
diftind Ads : And how then can 
Imputing b*e the Forme of Juflifying. 
Though I mention not Imputation 
in the Definition, nor among the 
Caufes here, yet it is implyed in the 
mention of Satisfaction, which mull 
be made ours, or elfe we cannot be 
Juftifyedby it. Though therefore, 
the Scripture do not fpeak of impu>- 
ting Chrifts Righteoufnefle or Satif- 
fa&ion to us ; yet if by Imputing, 
they mean no more but, QBeftowing 
it on us, fo that we (hall have the 
Juftice, and other benefits of it, as 
truely as if we had fatisfied our 
felves,] in this fenfe I acknowledge 
Imputation of Chrifts fatisfaftory 
Righte -i 

\Fatih opened* 219 

Rightpqfuefe But I bdeeve that 
.(his Imputing, doth in , order of na- 
ture, go before Juftifying ; And that 
the Righteoufnefs fp Imputed,is the 
proper ground whence we are de- 
nominated Legally righteous, and 
confequenrly why the Law cannot 
condemn us. It is a vaine thing to 
quarrell about the Logkall names of 
the Caufes of Juftihcation, if we 
agree in the matter. . 

To the fifth Queftion. Perhaps I 
(hall be blamed, as Angular from all 
men, in denying Faith to the Inftru- 
ment of our Juttification : But affe- 
ctation of fingularity leades mc not 
to it. ,1. If Faith bean Inftrument, 
it is the Inftmment of Qod or man : 
Motor man : For man.' is not the 
principall efficient ; he doth not ju- 
ffifidhimfdf. a. Notof God : For 
1. It is not God that belie veth; 
though itstrue^he is the firft Caufe 
of all A&ions. 2. Man is the C tu- 
fa fecunda, between God and the 
Action : and fo ftill man (hould be 
(aid to juftifiehimfelfe. 3* For (as 

_ L 2 Aqui- 


220 The Nature of 

Aqmnm)l\\t K0c\onoH\\Q princi- 
paU Caufe 'and of, the Ibftrurnent 
is one Action : and who dare; fa/, 
that Faith % fo Gods Inftromenc? 
4. Thelnfttudnentmuft have ihflu* 
to the producing of the effecl: of tfii 
Principall caufe by a proper Caufalt- 
tie. And who dare fay, that Faith 
hath fuch an influx into our Juftifi- 
cation > 

ObyeH, But fome would evade 
thus : It is ( fay they J a Paflive In- 
ftrument, not an Active. 

To which I Anfwer. 1. Even 
Paflive Internments are fald to help 
the Action of the principall Agent, 
(Keckgrm. Logick^ pag. 1 f. 1 . ) He 
that faith,Faith doth fo,in my judge- 
ment, gives too much to it. 2. It is 
paft my capacity to conceive of a 
Paflive Morall Inftrument. 3 . How 
can the Acl: of Believing ( which 
hath no other being, but to bean 
Ad) be poflibly a Paflive Inftru- 
ment ? Doth this Ad efled by fuf- 
fering ? Or cap wife men have a 
grotter conceit of this. 4. I be- 

Faith o pentch 22 1 

mf$ with $chibi<r r . that Acre is no 
(Sell- thing at*Il as a; pajTiv.e Inftru- 
ment. The f xamples that lome 
produce (as Burger/dim his Cultor 
1 &q)^iM) belong to Aftive Inftru- 
ment. And the Examples than o- 
thers bring, (isfackermdns Jurus 
InftrHmentum fekricsifienis, menfa 
&fcarnr.itm accuh\tiu y terra am- 
btiUtimu) are^aluftruments ; ex- 
ceptyoa twillcall every Patient or 
Orjjed, the Inftrument of the A- 
gent ': The InftruDpWyY an-Effici- 
cntCaufe. Alitfficiencie is bya&i- 
on ; and that which doth not Ac!:, 
doth not effect. Indeed, as fome ex- 
tend the ufe of the word internment, 
ym may ealUlmoft^ny thing an In- 
driiment,' which if any way eondu- 
clbie to the produ&ion of the Ef- 
fe&under the chief Caufe ; Andfo 
you' may call Faith an Inftrument. 

'guefl. But thoughTaith be not 
the Inftrument of Juftification ; may 
it not be called the Inftrument of re- 
ceiving Chrift who J uftifieth us ? 

AnCw* I do not io much ftick at 
L 3 this 

222 The Nature of 

this fpeech as atthe former : yet is 
it no proper 6r fit expreflion neither. 
For i. The A&of Faith, (which 
is it that juftifleth) is our Aftuali re- 
ceiving of Chrift, and therefore can- 
not be the Inftrumentof Receiving. 
To fay, our Receiving is the'Infim- 
ment of our Receiving, is a hitfd fay- 
ing. 2. And the fe^d or habite of 
Faith cannot fitly be called in Infeti- 
ment.For, i .The fanftified fcurfty It 
fclf cannot be the fouls Inftrnment • 
it being the foul it (elf, and nor any 
thing really diftincTfrom the f6uT: 
( nor really diftinft from each other, 
as Scotus, D'Orbellus Scaliger^&c. 
Dr. fackson, Mr. Pemble y think: 
and Mr. Ball queftions.) 2. The 
holineffe of the Faculties is not their 
Inftrumentu ' For, 1. It is nothing 
but themfeives rectified: and not a 
Being fo diftinft as may be called 
their Initrument. 2. Who ever cal- 
led Habits,or Difpofitions, the fouls 
Inftruments ? The aptitude of a 
Caufe to produce its effe<5t,cannpt be 
called the Inftrment of it : you may 


Faith opened. 223 

as well call a mans Life his Instru- 
ment of Acting, or the (harpnerte of 
a knife, the knives Instrument ; as to 
call our holinefsjor habituall faitb,the 
Inftrument or receiving Chrift. 

To the (krh and laft QtieiUon. 1 1 
Anfw. Faith is plainly, and unde-' 
niably the condition of our Jollifica- 
tion. The whole Tenour of the Gof- 
peli (hews (hat. And a Condition i$\ 
but a GuHfafine qnk nw\ ; or * int- \ 
*#*»*, or a neceiTary Antecedent. 
Hereby the way take notice, that- 
the fame men that blime the. advan- 
cing of Faith fo high , as to be our i 
true Cofpel Rightioufnefk. Pejit, ! 
17.20. and to be imputed m a pro- ; 
per fence, Poftt.i$. do yet, whdfo' 
it comes to the triall,afcribe far more 
to Faith, tlien thofe they blame -.ma- 
king itGods Inftrument in juftifying, j 
1. And fo to have part of the ho-' 
nour of Gods own AcT ; 2. And , 
that from a realon intrinfecall to 
faith it fclf j 3. And from a Reafon 
that well make other Graces to be. 
Inftrumems as well as Faith. For 
L 4 Love 

224 The Nature of 

Love doth truly receive Chrift alfo. 
4. And worft of all, from a Reafon 
that will make man to be the Caufa 
proxinta of his own Jufttficatiqn. 
For man is the Cdufa proximo, of 
believing and receiving Chrift \ and 
therefore not God but man is faid tb 
beleeve. And yet thefe very men do 
fend a Hue and Crie after the Th 
crtdere y for robbing Chrift of th* 
glory of Juftification, when we 
make it but a poorc improper Cm- 
fa, fine qua mn. ( And yet I fay as 
before, that in Morality, yea, and 
in Naturality, fame Cauf a fine qua 

In9n y do deferve much of the honour^ 
but that Faitlv doth not fo, I have 
fliewedinthe 23. Pofition.J Some 
think that Faith may be fome fmall 
bw Impulfive Caufe ; but I will 
not give it fo much : though if it be 
made a Procatarc'tick Objective 
Qufe, I (hall not contend. 


Faith opened* 225 

Thefis 57. 

fTis the tA& of Faith Vehich ju- 
ftifieth men at age, and not tbe> 
habit : jet not as it u a good work^, \ 
or as it hath in it / elf any excellency 
in it above other Graces : But 
I. *}» the ne ere ft fence idirettly and 
properly as it is, [The fulfilling of 
the Condition of the New Cove- 
nant :"} 2. In the remote and more 
improper fence > as it is [The recei- 
ving of Cbrift and his Jatisfaffory 


1. TTHat the habit of Faith doth 
_L not directly and properly 
/uftifie, appeares from the tenour of 
the Covenantuvhich is not £He that 
is difpofed to beleeve (hall befavedj 
Bat £ he that belie veth. ] 

2. That Faith doth, not properly 
L 5 juftifie 

226 The Nature of 

juftifie through any excellency that 
it hath above other Graces, or any 
more ufefull property, may appeare 
thus: i. 1 hen the praife would be 
due to Faith. 2. Then Love would 
contend for a (hare, if not a prio- 
rity. 3. Then Faith would jufti- 
fie, though it had not been made 
the Condition of the Covenant. 

Let thofe therefore take heed, that 
make Faith to juftifie, meerdy be- 
caufe it apprehendcth Chrift ; which 
is its naturall, cfTential propercy. 

3. That it is Faith in a proper 
fence that it is faid to juftifie, and 
not Chrifts Righteoufnefle onely 
which it receiveth,may appeare thus. 
1 . From the necefsity of a two-fold 
righteoufnefs which I have before 
proved, in reference to the two-fold 
Covenant. 2. From the plaineand 
conftant Ph afe of Scripture, which 
faith, He that beleeveth fhall be ;ur 
ftified: and that we are juftified by. 
faith: and that faith is imputed for 
. r igh te- 

faith of end. 327 

righteoufoejSV. It had been as eafie 
ft>r the Holy Choft co have faid,that 
Chrift onely is imputed, or his righ- 
teoufne0e ondy, or Chrilt onely ju- 
fftjfierh, &c. it he had Co meant. He 
15 the moil excufable in an error, that I 
is lead into it by the conftant, ex- J 
preffe phrafe of Scripture. 3. From 
the nature of the thing : For the 
i^fecl is afcribed to the feverall 
~C*ufes ( though not alike ; and in 
feme fort to the Conditions. Efpe- 
cialiy, me-thinks they that would 
have Faith to be the Inftrumenc of. 
Justification, fhould not deny that 
we are properly juftified by Faith as 
by an Inflrument : For it is as pro- 
per a fpeech to fay [our hands or 
our. teeth feed us,] as to fay, Qour 
meet feedeth us.] 

nohc} •■■:*. '- " 

4. That Faith doth molt direct- 
ly and properly juftifie £ as its 
the fulfilling el the Condition of 
the New Covenant ] appea- 1 
reth thus. 1. The New Covenant * 
ondy doth put the (lamp of Gods 


22.8 TkuNtUtreof 

Authority upon it % in making k the 
Condition. A two-told ftamp is 
necedary to make i recurrent medi- 
sm cf our Jufti£cark>n. i . Cob> 
mar.d. 2, Promife. Jkcaufe Qod 
hathjiei the r commanded any o&er 
meanes, 3. Nor promrfed Juinfica- 
tion to any other, therefore it is,that 
this is the orely condition; an, 
ooiy<ruK Juilmeth.When I read this 
to be the tcnour of the New Cove* 
cant [Whofoever belie veth GiaJlbe 
Juftirled : ] doth it not tell me d&h> 
ly why Faith Juftmeth ? eveo be- 
came it pleakd the Lawgiver and 
Covenant-maker co put Fa :h into 
the Covenant, as its condition. 2. 
.ve elfe to fbew at Gods 
ba:r for our Juilification, bu: 
N.w Covenant ? The Authority 
and Legality of it muftbeare us out. 
It i^ upon point of Law that we are 
condemned ; and it muft be by Law, I 
that we muft be J ufttfied. There-, 
fere we were condemned, becauk 
the Law which we break did threa- 
ten death to our fm : If ftf 

Faith oftneA. 219 

committed the fame A&, and not 
unckra- Law that had threatned it 
with death, we might not haye dy- 
ed. So therefore are we Juftified, 
becaufethe New law doth promife 
Justification to our faith. H we had 
performed the fame Ac! under the 
firft Covenant, it would not have 
Juftified. As the formall Reafon, 
why fin condemneth is, becaufe the 
Law hath concluded it in its threat- 
ning : fo the formall Reafon why 
Faith juftifieth, is, becaufethe New 
Law or Covenant, hath concluded it 
10 its Promife. And as where there : 
is no LaW> there is no Tranfgrefiion 
nor Condemnation : becaufe fin is 
formally a tranfgrefsion ot the Law, 
and Condemnation is but the execu- 
tion of its Threatning : fo where 
there is no fulfilling the new Law, 
there is no Righteoufncflfe nor Justi- 
fication : becaufe RighteoufnefTe is 
formally a conformity to the Law of 
RighteoufnefTe, and Justification is 
but the performing of part of its 

5. That 

I" — 

230 Thi$txturb*f\ 


5. That Faith's receiving Chrill 
and his righteoufneflfe, is the remote 
orfecondary, and not theformail 
Reafon, why it doth Juitifie, appea- 
reth thviS. 1 . I would ask any dif- 
-{enter this Qucftion. Suppofe that 
ChriiY had done all that he did for 
ftnners, and they had btlieved in him 
thereupon, without any Covenant 
promifing Jufti flea t ion to this faith : 
Wouid this faith have juftified 
them ? By what Law r» Or whence 
will they plead their Juftiflcation at 
the barr of God ? Well : but fup- 
pofe that Chrift having done what 
he did for us, that he fhould in fram- 
ing the New Covenant have put in 
any other Condition ; and fatd | 
£whofoever loveth God iTiall by 
by vertue of my fatisia&ion be Ju- 1 
ftifled.] Would not this love have* 
Juftified ? No doubt of it. I conclude' 
then thus : The receiving of Chrift, 
is as the filver of this coine : the Go- 
fpel-promife is as the Kings ftamp 
which maketh it currant for juftif)— 

Faith opened. 231 

ing. If God had feen meet to have 
ftamped any thing elfe , it would 
have patted currently. Yet take this. 
Ffrkh is, even to our own apprehen- 
tion,the moft apt & fuitable conditr- 
on that God could hive chofen: 
(for as far as we can reach to know;) 
There cannot be a more Rationall 
and apt condition of delivering a re* 
deemed Malefactor from Torment, 
then that he thankfully accept the 
pardon, and favour of redemption, 
and hereafter take his Redeemer for 
his Lord. 

So that if you aske me [what is 
the formail Reafon, why Faith Jufti- 
fieth ? ] 

I Anfwer. Becaufe Chrift hath 
made it the : condition of the New 
Covenant, and promifed Juftificati- 
on upon ehat Condition. 

Bat/2.l£ you aske me further, Why 
did Chrift chufe this rather then any 
thing elfe for the Condition > 

I Anfwer. 1. To aske a Reafon 

of Chrifts choice and commands is 

• not alway wife or iafe. 2. But here 


a ji The Nature of 

the rcafon is fo apparent, that a pa- 
fleriore, we may lafely adventure to 
fay : That this is the moft felf-deny- 
ing, and drift advancing work: 
Nothing could be more proportio- 
nable to our poverty, who have no- 
thing to buy with, then thus freely 
to receive : Nothing could be more 
reafonable, then to acknowledge 
him who hath redeemed us, and to ! 
take him for our Redeemer and 
Lord : many more fuch Reafons 
might be given. In a word, then 
Faith Juitificth primarily and pro- 
perly, as it is the Condition of the 
New Covenant , ( that is the for- 
mallreafon.) And fecondarily, re- 
motely, as it is the receiving of Chrift 
and his righteoufnefle : (that is the 
aptitude of it to this ufe to which it 
hath pleafed God to deftinate it.) 

Ifland the more on this, becaufe 
it is the foundation of that which 

Faith opened* 233 

Thefis 58. 

THegronnAof this is ; becaufe 
Chrifts Bsghteoufne$e doth net 
Jufiifie usfr^erty and formerly Je- 
caufe we Beleeve or receive it ; but 
beewfcitis ours in Law, by Divine 
Donatio*, or Imputation. 

Hfc is plain in it felf, and in that 
which is faid before. 


Thefis 59. 

IVfiificatpon is not a moment am- 
ohs 40 9 -begunand ended imme~. 
diately upon our Believing : tut 4 
continued A&\ which though it be 
in its kind comple ate from thefirtt, 
yn is it fiill in doing, till the finally 
fufiification at the Judgment 


, : . 

134 TbtNatttre.of 



T His is evident From the nntare 
of the Ad : it being as I fhe w- 
ed before, an Ad of God by his 
Gofpel : Now I. God ftill con- 
tinueth that Gofpel- Covenant in 
force. 2. That Covenant ftiU con- 
tinueth J uftifying Believers. 3. God 
himfelf doth confimie toefteeTft them 
accordingly, and to Will their Abfo- 
liKKHV- 1 . This flieweth you there- 
fore with what limitation to receive 
the Atferfion of our Divines , that 
RemifSon and Justification are, fi- 
mnl& feme I, performed, 2. And 
that the Juftirled and pardoned may 
pray for the continuance of their par- 
don and Juftihcation. 3. That 
Chrifts fatifadion and our Faith are 
of continual afe,and not to be laid by, 
when we are once Juftified, as if the 
work were done. See Dr. A>»v- 
*amc of ffislific. of this point. 


Faith opened. 225 

Thfcfis 60. 

TPHip bare Att of bclecving is 

I not the onely Condition of the 

New Covenant \ but ft tier all other 

duties ' aifo are farts of -that Condi* 

ribn. ■ 



rDefirenomoreofthofe that de- 
ny this, but that Scripture may be 
Judge t and that they will put by no 
one Text to that end produced, till 
they can give fome : otWer commodi- 
ous, and not forced Interpretation. 
1. Then that pardon of fin and 
falvation are pfdmifed upon condi- 
tion of Repenting, as weH as Be- 
leeving,' is undenyably arterted from 
thefe Scriptures. Prov. 1. 23. & 
28. 13. Man i. 15. C7-6; 12. L#kj 
13 .3, 5. AB.2^%. & 3. 19. & 
8.23.^17.30. or 26". 20. (^5.31 

%l6 The Nature of 

& it. 1 8. Luk± 24, 47. H<?£. 6. 1. 
; 2 /Vf. 3. p. .E*,^ 18. 27, 28. & 
133.12. Hofe. 14.2. foci 2. 14, 15. 
Zk#/-.4.3o. e£* 30.1c. 

2, That praying for Pardcp* a|d 
forgiving others, are Conditions |)f 
Pardon, is plain, 1 King. 8. 30, 39. 
Aint.6.1 2,14,1 5. (^ 18.35. v^ar 
11. 25, 2d. Luke 6. 3 7. d*n.4. 
lfob.i& fam.5A5.fe. 14.13,14 

3 .ThatLove 3 & finccre Obedience, 
and Works of Love, are alfopartrof 
the Condition, appeareth in thefe 
Scriptures , Luk* 7. 47* ( though I 
know in Pinks Interpretation of 
thatj Aiifaft 44. Lukf 6.27. 35, 
Ioh. 15. 12. 17. 1 Cor. 2. 9,/tow. 8. 
2%.Ephef<6.2^. I Cor* 16. 22* lam. 
I* -.|2» & 2. 5; Iob.iq. 21. Tm-'* 
8.17. ,2 1 . M. 1 6. 27^ -Mtf . 1 0.37. 
Z/^ 13.24. P kit. 2.i2.Rom.2. j.io. 
I Corinth, 9. 24. 2 77?#. 2. 5. 12. 
I 77w. 6. 18.19. ikt/.22.-l4.X*ib 
11.28. yT/<«*. 25.41,42. Jam. 2. 


Ffibfrofened. 237 

Thtfis 6u 

rHerefore though the nonper- 
formance of anj one ofthefe be 
threatned^ith 'Certain death ; jet 
there muft be a Concurrence of 
them alt'; to make *tp the Conditi- 
ons which have the fromife of 


THerefore we ofcner read, death 
threatned to thofe that Repent 
not , then Life promifed to them 
that Repent : And when you do read 
of r life promifed to any one of thefe, 
you muft underftand it cateris pari- 
bvu^ or in fenfu compofito, as it 
flands conjunct with the reft,and not 
as it is divided. Though I think that 
in regard of their exiftence, they 
never are divided ( for where 


a *S ThtMdtnre of 

God givethone, hegivethallj yet 
in cafe they were {eparatcd, the Go- 
fpel would not (b own them as -its 
intire Conditions. 


Thefts 6i. 

| X/"jE*- Faith may bt ca&ed the 
1 finely C audit ion of the new Go- 

. venant ; I . Becaufe it is the princ'p- 
pal Condition, and the other bat the 
lefs principal : And fo as a tffioTe 
Country hath oft its name from the 
chief City ; fo may the Conditions 
of this Covenant from Faith : 
i. Becaufe all the reft are, reducible 
to it ; either being prejttfpofed y as 
Tteceffary Antecedents or means. • or 
containedin.it a* its parts, proper* 

I ties, or modifications; or elfe im+ 
plied as its immediate produ3 y or 

I necejfary fu Servient means or con* 

\ftquents* . k . ' 


faith efmed* 239 



SybferYient Anions are in com- 
mon fpeech fikntly implyed in 
the principal. If the befieged be 
bound by Articles to furrender a 
Town to the beftegers at fuch a 
time; it need not be exprcffed in 
the Articles, that they (hall with- 
draw their Guards , and ceafe re- 
fiftance,aDd open the gates,and yeeld 
up this houfe, or that ftreet, &c. All 
this i&miplyed clearly in the Article 
of furrender. 

If a redeemed gaily -flave be freed, 
upon . condition that he take him for 
his Redeemer and Mafter that did 
deliver him; it need not be ex- 
preffed, that he &all leave the gal- 
lies, and his company, and employ- 
ment there, and go with him that 
bought him, and do what he bids 
him do : All this is plainly implyed 
in the forefaid words, of his Condi- 


*4° The Nature of 

So here, the great condition of 
Beleeving doth include or imply all 
the reft. 

I confefs it is a work of fome 
worth and difficulty, to (hew how 
each other part of the Condition is 
reducible to Beleeving ; and in what 
refpeft they ftand towards it. I dare 
not determine too peremptorily 
here , but I think they ftand thus, 
i. Hearing the Word, confideration, 
conviction, godly forrow, repent- 
ance from dead works, are implyed 
as neceffary means and antecedents. 
2. Knovviedg of Chrift and Aflent 
to the Truth of the Gofpel, are at 
laft integral parts of flat neceflity, if 
not eflfential parts of Faith. 3. Sub- 
jection, Acceptance, Confent, cor- 
dial covenanting, felf- resigning, are 
the very proper effential , formal 
AcT:s of Faith. 

4. Efteeming Chrift abovff all, in 
Judgment, preferring him before all 
in the Will, loving him above all; I 
fay this preferring of Chrift above all 
in Judgment, Will, and Affection, is 


Faith opened, 241 

fin my Judgment ) the very Diffe- 
rentia fijlci maxinie propria qttt de 
e.a ejfentialiter pr/dicatur, & fie 
pars ejus ejfeyttialfs; the very eflen- 
tial property of true Faith differen- 
cing it from all falfe Faith, and fo an 
eflential part of it. I know this is 
like to feem flrange ; but Iftiall give 
my reafons of it anon. 

5. Sincerity and per fever a nee arc 
the necefTary Modifications of Faith: 
and not any thing really diftincT: 
from its Being. 

6. Affiance and ilncere obedience, 
and works of Love,are the neceffary 
immediate, infeparable products of 
Faith ; as heat and light are of fire ; 
or rather as Reafoning is the pro- 
duct, of Reafon: or yet rather as 
actions moil properly conjugall, are 
the effects $f Conjugall contract. 
And as Faith is in ibme fort more 
excellent tben- Affiance and Obedi- 
ence, as the caufeis better then the 
effed ; fo in fo.mc fort they maybe 
more excellent then Faith ; as the 
effect may be preferred before its 

M Caufe : 

2^1 The Nature of 

Caufe ; the Ad: before the habit ; as 
being that which is the end of the 
habit, for whofe fake it is ; and to 
which it tendeth as to its perfe- 

7. The praying for forgiveneffe, 
the forgiving of others, the pleading 
of Chrifts fatisfaclion , are both 
parts of this obedience, and necefla- 
ry confequents of Faith, and Acls 
fubfervient to it for the attaining of 
its Ends. 

8. The denying and humbling of 
theflefli, theferious, painfull, con- 
ftant ufe of Gods Ordinances, Hea- 
ring, Praying, Meditating, &c. are 
both parts of the forefaid obedience, 
and alio the neceffary meanes of con- 
tinuing and exerctfing our Faith. 

9. Strength of Grace; Aflfurance 
of Pardon and Salvation. Perfvvafi- 
of Gods favour ; filled peace of 
Confcience ; Joy in this Afllirance 
and Peace ; the underftanding or 

| Truths not fundamental!, or neceffa- 
ry in practice ; All thefe are no pro- 
perties of the Condition of the Co- 
venant ; 

Faith opened, 243 

venant ; but feparable adjuncts of 
Faith ; tending to the Well-being 
of it ; but neither tending to, nor ne- 
ceffary, proof es cf the Being of it ; 
which aBtl l vet fhould have,but may 
poftibly Wint. 

I (hall give you Tome reafons of 
feverall of thefe Aflfctdons, when I > 
have firft made way by the Definiti- 
on of Faith. 

So then , as when you invite a 
man to your Houfe, it is not necef- 
fary that you bid him come in at 
the doore, or bring his head, or his 
tegs, or armes, or his clothes with 
him; (though thefe are neceffary) 
becaufeall thefe are neceffariiy im- 
plyed : even fo when we are faid 
to be juftiried by Faith onely ; or 
when it is promifed, that he that be- 
leeveth dial! be faved, all thofe fore- 
mentioned duties, are implyed or 

M i Thefis 

244 The Nature of 

Thefis 6^. 

AS it is Gods excellent method 
in giving the Moral Law, 

frfl to require the acknowledgment 
of his Joveraign authority, and to 
bring men to take him only for their 
God, (which is therefore called the 
firjr and great Commandment,) and 
then to prefer ibe the particular fub- 
fequent duties L- fo is it. the excel- 
lent method of Chrisl in the Gpfpel, 
firft to eftablijh With men his Office 
and Authority, and require an ac- 
knowledgment of them, and confent 
and fubjetlion to them ; and then to 
prefcribc to them their particular 
duties infubordinaticn. 

Thefis 64. 

FAith therefore is the fummary 
andchiefofthe conditions of the 
Cjofpel, and not formally and fir icily 
the Whole : But *$ Love is the fuf~ 
fM»g I 

Faith opened. 245 

filling of the LaW y fo Faith Is the 
fulfilling of the neW Law ; or as ta- 
king the Lord for our only God, is 
the fitm of the Decalogue, implying 
or inferring all the rest, andfo is the 
great Commandment • fo taking 
Chrisl for our only Redeemer ana 
Lord t is the fnmof the conditions of 
the new Covenant, includingfmpl]- 
ing or inferring all other farts of its 
conditions , and fo is the great Cam- 
wand of the G off el. 

■ ■ "U 


THe Obfervation in the 6% Pofi- 
tion, is commended to you by 
Mr white of Dorchefter in his Di- 
rections for reading Scripture ? f\307. 
The full fubjecrion to the Audio* 
rity commanding, doth imply and 
infer fubje&ion to the particular 
Commands: therefore God doth 
ftill make this the fum of the condi- 
tions of the Law, that theytake him 
M .3 only 

1^6 Tbt Natttre of 

only for their God,or that they have 
no other Gods but him : And when 
he contractedi his Covenant into an 
Epitome* it runs thus, / will he thj 
Gtd, and thou Jbalt be my people. 
Exod.io.y. & 23.13. Bent, 7.4. & 
8.i£. & 13.2,3,0^. fof % 24. 2,id. 
&c. Jtidg. 2.12,17,15?. (£- 10.13. 
I JViw.8.8. 2 Kings 5.17. & 17.7. 
fer.22.9. & 7.23. §• \\.\*& 30.22. 
£*^. 36.28. £>****. 26.16,17,^. 
And as Gods promife of taking us 
for his people, doth imply his oc- 
ftowing upon us all the privfledges 
and bleflings of his people, and Co is 
the fum of all the conditions of the 
Covenant on his part. Even fo our 
taking the Lord for our God, and 
Chrift for our Redeemer and Lord, 
doth imply our fincere obedience to 
him ; and is the fumme of the Con- 
ditions on our part. And fo as Ido- 
latry is that violation of the Law of 
Nature,whkh doth eminenter, cpn- 
taine all the reft in it ; So is Unbe- 
liefe in refpefl: of the Law of Grace. 
And as the formall Nature of Idola- 

Faith opened. 247 

try lyeth in difclayming God, from 
being God, or from being our God, 
or from being our alone God : E- 
ven fo the formail nature of Unbe- 
liefe lyeth in difcaiming Chrift, ei- 
ther from being a Redeemer and 
Lord, or from being Our Redeemer 
and Lord, or from being Our onely I 
Redeemer and Lord. This being; 
well confidered^ill direcT you truly 
and punctually , where to find the 
very formail being and nature oF 
Faith? Notinbeleeving the pardon 
* of fin, or the favour of God, or onr j 
falvation ; nor in Affiance or recum- 
bency, (though that be a rnoft im- 
mediate product of it, ) Nor in AC- 
forance, ("as Divines were wont to 
teach So, yearesagoc.) Nor in O* 
bedience, or following of Chrift as a f 
guide to Heaven, or as a Gaptaioe,; 
or mcerc Patterne and Law-giver- 
fas the wretched Socinians teach.)- 
But in the three Acts above mentio- 
ned.. 1 . Taking Chrift for a Redee-j 
mer and Lord ; which is by Aflent.? 
2* Taking him for our Redeemer, : 
M 4 Saviour, 

248 The N*t#r* of 

Saviour and Lord ; which is by con- 
fers. 3. Taking him for our ondy 
Redeemcr,Saviour and Lord; which 
is the Morall fincericy of the former: 
And the eflential differencing proper- 
ty of it : Not whereby Faith is dif- 
ferenced from Love or joy, &c. But 
whereby that faith in Chrift, which 
istheGofpd condition, \s differen- 
ced from all other Faith :n Chrift. 
So that as Corpus & Anim?., & 
Rationale, doe fpeake the whole ef- 
fence of man : Even fa this Affent, 
Confent, and Preference of Chrift 
before all others j do fpeak the whole 
Edence of Faith. 

For the common opinion, that 
juftifying Faith, as juftifying, doth 
confift in any one (ingle A&, is a 
wretched miftake, as I (hall ftiew 
you further anon. 


Faith opened, %fy? 

Thc^s 65. 

SCrlptnre doth not take, the wor4 
[_Faith~^ as ftritlly as- a Thilo^. 
fophtr Veoptld doe^ for any oneftngH 
Ad of the foul ; nor jet for va- 
rious Acls of one ontty Faculty^ 
But for a compleat entire Motim 
of the whole Softie, to Chrifi its 1 

TheGs 66. 

NFither is Chrifi, in resell of. 
any one part or worl^ of his 
Office alone, the Objetl of Juftify- 
ing Faith, as fuch : Tint Christ 
in his entire office confidered, is this 
Object : viz. as he is Redeemer ^Lord 
and Saviour* 

Ms Ticfol 

A$o The Nature of 

The/is 67 ', 

MVch It fear cany Prcmlfesor 
benefits of Chris! y the. proper 
Objettofjufiifj/ing Faith, as mmy 
JQiviMS do mijtakingly conceive < 

■ b 2, 

Theils 6%. 

' ^[OrisCbrifttftrfoncfxfidered 

LX as fuch^orfont /</f fa 9 y. 
jell of this Faith : But i^ s fcrjon 
; ofChrift as c'oatbed wtth Us Office 
[and Authority is this Ofyfa 


rPut all thefc together, as ayming 
at one fcope : and I (hall now ex- 
plain them diftinftly. 

(To the 6?.) Firft, T hat Faith 
isnot taken for any one (ingle Aft, I 


Faith eftned* 2?1 

prove thus. i. If it were but one 
fingle Aft (I mean Specifically, not 
numerically) then it could not(accor- 
ding to the common opinion of 1-hi- 
-■hfopkers) be the- Aft of the whole 
Soul ; Bur Faith muft be the Acl of 
the whole Soule ; or eife part of 
the Soulc? would receive Chrift, and 
part would not ; and part of it 
would entertain him, and part not. 
Some think the foul is as the body,j 
which hath a hand to receive things-. 
in the name, and for the ufe of the ! 
whole. But it is not fo, Chrift is not 1 
onely taken into the hand : But asl 
the blood and fpirits, which are re-- 
ceived into every living part. 
(Though I intend not the compari-. 
fan fhould reach to the manner of 
receiving.) Neither is the foul foi 
divHible into parts, as the body is ; 
and therefore hath not feverall parts 
for feverall offices. 2. The moft 
of our accurate ftudious Divines of 
late, doe take Faith to be feated in 
both faculties, Undemanding and 
Will : Butiffo 5 according to the 

common I 

25* The Nature of 

common Philofophie, it cannot be 
any one tingle Aft. 

Neither Secondly, is it in various 
Ads of one fingle faculty : For, 
I, It will (in my judgement) never 
be proved, that the foul hath facul- 
ties which are really diftincl from it 
felf, or from each other. Thefe Fa- 
culties are but the foul it ft If, able to 
doe thus and thus from its naturall 
being. Vide Scallger Exercit. I oj. 
Sett. 3 . Underftanding and Willing 
are its immediate Acts : And per- 
haps thofe very Ads, are more di- 
versified or diftincl: in tkir objects, 
then in themftlves. The fouls appre- 
hension of an objecT as true, we call 
Underftanding ; in regard of its 
MctaphificailTru^Iv it is a (impie 
apprehension ; as we receive this 
Truth upon the word of another, 
it is Ment and Beliefe ; as this Ob- 
jecl isconfideredas Good, our mo- 
tion toward ir, is called Willing ; if 
abftnt, Dtliring, Hoping ; if pre- 
fers, Comphcency, Joying \ when 
.we Will a thing as Good, any thing 


Faith opened* 2^3 

ftrongly t and apprehend its Good- 
neflfe any thing cleerely, this we call 
Love,&c. But whether all thefe be 
really diftind kinds of A&s of the 
Soal,is verify doubtfull : Much more, 
whether they proceed from diftind 
Faculties. As I am not of my Lord 
Brooki* minde concerning the Uni 
ty of all things : So neither would 
1 unneceffarily admit of anydivifi- 
011 : especially in fo fpirituall and 
perfect a piece as the Soul ; know- 
ing how much of Perfection lyeth 
in Unity ; and remembring the Vy- 
tkigorean curfe of the Num 
ber Two, becaufe itwas the firft 
that durft depart from Unity : & 
fruttrtfit per pinra Crc* 2. But if 
it were proved that the Souls Facul- 
ties are really diftinft ; yet both 
thefe Faculties are capable of recei- 
ving Chrift ; and Chrifl is an fib- 
jecl fuited to both : ani then what 
doubt- is it whether Faith be in 
both ? 

i . For the WilLno man will que- 
ftionit, that it is capable cf recei- 

2?4 The Nature *f 

\ ving Chrift $ and Chrift a (uttabfc 
Object for it. 

2. And for the Underftandingj 
it doth as much incline to Truth, as 
| the Witt to Goodne% ; and as true- 
ly receive its Object under the no- 
tion of True, as the Will dotfi re- 
ceive its Object as Good. If you 
would fee it proved fully, That Af- 
fent is an Eflential! part of /ultrfying 
Faith, read Dr. Boixmmedi fu&i- 
cation, on that SubjecY: and his Af- 
pendix to the Cave Hani v of Grace , \ 
in Anfvver to Mr. l>tmble : Where j 
I though his Argument will not reach 
their intended fcope, to prove that 
AfTenc is tiieonely proper A&of j'u- 
ftirying Faith, yet they do conclude, 
that it is a reail part. And he well 
conruteth his oppofer, though he do 
not well confirm that his own opi- 

3. Confider further, that Chrift 
doth not treat of Faith , ** fmfn 
Pbjfito fed moraJi & 'Politico, not 
as a Naturall Philofopher, but as a 
law-#va to his Church, Now in 


Faith opened. 45 5 

Politicks, we doe not take the names 
of A&ions in fo narrow and ftrift a 
afenfc, as in Tbyfak* and Logicke. 
If a Town doe agree to take or re- 
ceive fuch a man for their Mayor;'! 
or a Kingdom* take or receive fuch 
i a one as their King ; The words 
[Take, or JUctivc J here doe not 
note sny one (ingle Adt of foule 
or body alone; but a compound, as 
it were, of .Adions ; which yet do 
all cake their name from the Princi- 
pal!, which is [Confc*t.~], 

To the 66* That.Chrift as a Sa- 
viour onely, or in refpecY of his 
Prieftly Omce onely, is not the Ob- 
jecl of justifying Faith ; but that 
Faith do;h as really and immediatry 
I Receive him as King - y and in fo do- 
ing, ] uftifie : this I prove thus. 1 

1. ThcGofpel doth not revcale 
Chtifts Offices as fcparated.- But as 
they are revealed, fo tbey imift be 

2, Neither dothitOflferChrift 


2 5^ The Nature of 

in his Prieftly Office onely, as ft pa- 
rated from his Kingly : though it 
may fometime prtfle our Accep- 
tance of him in one refpect, and 
fometime in another : But as he is 
offered, fomuft he be received. 

$; Scripture no where tyethju- 
ftiflcation to the receipt of him as 
out Prieft onely, therefore we muft 
not doe fo. 

4. How commonly doth Scrip* 
ture joyn his Offices together, cal- 
ling him ufually, Our Lord and Sa- 
viour J ejus C fori ft f 

5. If we receive him not as King, 
we receive him not as an entire Sa- 
viour : For he iaveth us, not onely 
by dying for us, but alfo by reducing 
us really into communion withGod, 
and guiding us by his Laws, and pro- 
tecting and perfecting us by his Go- 
vernment , and lubduing our ene- 

6. His Kingly Office is a true part 
of his entire Office of Mediator-' 
(hip : Now the fincerity of Ads in. 
Morall refpeds, lyeth in their true 


Faith ofcned* 257 

fuitablenefs to the nature of their 
Ob je&s : As God is not truer/ lo- 
ved, except he be loved entirely : fo 
neither is Chrift truely received, if 
you receive him not entirely. It is 
a lame, partial! Faith, and no true 
Faith, that taketh Chrift onely in the 
potion oPa deliverer from guilt and 
punifhment, witfeout any accepting 
of him, as our Lord and Governoitr. 
Though I beleeve that the hope of 
being pardoned and faved is the flrft 
thing that moveth men to receive 
Chrift, yet do they, being fo moved, 
receive him as their Lord alfo, or elfe 
they doe not receive him (incerely. 
7. The exalting of his Kingly 
Office, is as principal! an end of his 
dying, and of his becomming Me- 
diatour, as is the faving of us, and 
the exalting of his Prieftly Office. 
See the feccnd TfaL and &W.14.9. 
To this end he both dyed, rofe and 
revived, that he might be Lord both 
of the dead, and the living. And 
therefore the receiving of him as 
Prieft alone, is not like to be the 


258 The Nature of 

Condition of our Juftiftcation. So 
that if Chrift put both into the Con- 
dition, wemuftnot feparatewhat 
he hath joynecL But the main ground 
of their Error,wh© think otherwife, 
is this : They think Acceptance of 
the mercy offered, doth make it ours 
immediately in a naturall way, as the 
accepting of a thing from men ; And 
fo as if he that accepted pardon, 
fliould have it, and he that accepted 
fanftitie ftiould have it 3 &c But 
Chrift (as I have (hewed ) eftabli- 
fheth his Offices and Authority, be- 
fore ihe beftow his mercies ; and 
though Accepting be the proper 
condition, yet doth it not confcrre 
the title to us, as it is an accepting 
primarily, but as it is the Covenants 
Condition : If we ftiould take pof- 
feflion when we have no tide m 
Law, God would quickly challenge 
us for our bold ufurpation, and dtaie 
with us, as with him that intruded 
without the Wedding garment : 
There is more adoe then come ify 
and fie down, and take what \ve 


Forth opened* 2$g 

have a mind to : God hath put all his 
Sons Offices into the Condition, to 
be received and fubmitted to : either 
all or none, muft be accepted : And 
if All be in the Condition, then the 
receiving of all muft needs Juftihe 
upon the grounds that I have laid 
down before* 

To the 67. That the promifes or 
benefits arc not the immediate 
proper objed of Juftifying Faith, is 
evident from the grounds already 
layd down : As alfo from the con- 
ftant language of the Gofpel, which 
maketh Faith to lie in receiving, be- 
leeving in him, and in his name, &c. 
ftill making Chrift himfelf the im- 
mediate objed. Therefore if Mr 
Cotton fay as the Lord Brool^ repre- 
fents him, That Faith can be nothing 
but a laying hold of that promife 
which God hath made; (in his 
Traft.ofTrnth and, Vnh fag. 1 5 2.) 
it is a foul error in fo weighty a 
point ; as is alfo his other, of Faith 


26o The Nature of 

joftifying and faving only declara- 
tively. Indeed that firft lefs principal 
Ad: of Faith, which we all Aflfent, 
hath the truth of the Gofptl revda- 
la'tion for its neereft and moft imme- 
diate object • but ^1 think, by the 
leave of thofe who contradict) not 
its onely nor chief objed : The 
truth of the proposition is but a 
means to the apprehending of the 
truth of the thing propofed; nor 
the truth of the hiftoryj but a giafs 
to (Wr us the truth of the Ads 
which it relateth. So that > even the 
Underftanding it felf doth appre- 
hend the perfon and offices of Chrift 
in their Metaphifical Verity , by 
means of its apprehenfion of the 
Logical and Moral verity of the Re- 
lation: and though the truth of the 
Word be the neereft object of Af~ 
fern, yet the truth of Chrifts perfon, 
nature and offices is the more prin- 
cipal; Or if about thefe, it may not 
have the name of Affent, yet (hall 
it have the fame nature ftill. 


Faith opened. 261 

To the 62. I think none will con- 
tradict it, and therefore there need 
nothing be faid. 

Thefis 69. 

IVftifjing Faith is -the hearty ac- 
cepting of Chrifl for our only 
Lori and Saviour* 


IN this brief definition, you have 
nothing but what is effential 
to it. 

t. The genus I need notmention; 
when it is the A<5t of Faith which I 
define, you know the genus al* 
ready. ' ^ 

2. The Underftandings apprehen- 
fion of Chrift as a true Redeemer 
and Saviour, which in feveral re- 
fpecls is called Knowledg or Belief, 

'■ I » ■!■■■■ — — MM^^— — 

_ . - 

262 The Nature of 

I do imply this, and not exprefs it ; 
becaufe though I take it for a real 
part of Faith, yet not the moft prin- 
cipal and formal part. And as we 
ufe to imply Corpus ,and not exprefs 
it when we define man to be Ani- 
mal rationale ; becaufe the form, 
or principal eflential partgiveth the 
name : So here ( though I know 
Affent is not properly a material 
caufej yet being the lefs principal 
Ad, it giveth not the denomina- 

3. That drift, as Lord and Savi- 
our is the proper objed, I have pro- 
ved before. His Prophetical Office 
whereby he is the Teacher of his 
Church, I imply in both thefe, be- 
caufe it may in feveral refpeds be re- 
duced to thefc : For he teachcth by 
his Laws and Commandments, and 
his fpirits teaching and governing are 
fcarce diflinguifhable, and he faveth 
by teaching. Alfo his Office of Huf- 
band,and Head,are in thefc implycd; 

Faith ofenedi 26} 

theyfigntfying more the future bene- 
fits and priviledgcs 'or* a beleever , 
which he (ball receive from Chrift 
beleeved in, then the primary offices 
which he is to ackoowledg in be- 

4. The proper formal act of jufti- 
fying Faith, which is moft principal- 
lyerfential toit or all other ts [accept- 
ing : 3 If I traft needs place it in one 
oniy,it fhould be this. 

My Reafons are, 1. Becaufethe 
Scripture maketh unbelief, and not 
receiving Chrift, all one, John i.u. 
and beleeving and receding Chrlft, 
all one, f ohn 1 . 1 2 . So it proclaims 
this as the great work of the Gofptl, 
toTake,Eat 3 Drink,&c. 

2.The Gofpel is the Offer of Chrift 
("and his benefits to them that firft 
' accept himfelf; ) Therefore Puithmuft 
be the accepting of the thing offred. 
Both thefe are plain in. Rtv. 21.17. 
Whofoever W*7/, let him take of the 
trattr of life freely : There is the 


264 The Nature of 

free offer, apon condition of coming 
and taking,or accepting. 

3. The Will is the commanding 
faculty of the foul,therefore its ad is 
the principal ad, and that is accept- 

4. Chriftis prefenced to us in the 
Gofpel as a Suitor, befeeching us by 
hisSpirit and Embaffadors,and woo- 
ing us to himfelf , and the enjoying of 
him, which this driveth at, is called 
our Marriage to him , and we his 
Spoufe, aad he our Husband : Now 
you know that whichtyeth the knot 
of Marriage is Acceptance or Con- 

5. Yea the very nature of a Cove- 
nant,requireth this. Confent makcth 
it a compleate Covenant. Therefore 
I (aid before pag. 219. That Accep- 
tance, Confent, He art- Covenan- 
ting, and Se/f-rejigning , are the 
proper effentiall Acts of this Faith. 
For all thefe are the Wills ads to 
this their fob jed, which arc of flat 
neceflity to the very tying of the 
Covenant or Marriage knot. Rm* 

Faith opened. %C% 

io. 10. With the he art man belee- 
veth unto Right eon fnejfe. 


And- her6 let me minde you of 
one ufefuH obfervation more. 

The Covenanting on our part, is 
, a principall part of the Conditions 
or the Covenant. Though this may 
feem ftrange, that a Covenanting 
and performing Conditions, fliould 
be almoft all one. But that is the 
free nature of the Grace of the Co- 
venant. As if you marry a poore 
woman that hath nothing, you will 
give her yourfelf, and all yon have, 
mcerly upon Condition that (he will 
Cpnfent to have you : And that 
Confent is all the Condition on her 
part, for obtaining prefect poffeffi- 
on (I fayj Acceptance, Confent , 
Covenanting , m&Self-refigningi 
which are in a manner all one thing:,) 
Butbecaufe the end of marriage is 
the faithfuH performance of Marri- 
age duties, though rneer Confent 
were the onely Condition of her firft 
__ N pof- 

2 64 TkeNtturtof 

poffeflion* and the, contiauaflce . 
her Confer* is the chi$f Condition 
of continuing her pofleffion ; yet 
the performance ofthofe Marriage 
duties, and not goingin to others, is 
part of the Condition alfo of that 
continuance ; So it is in the prefent 
cafe of Juftificatiorv 

5, Letmeherealfo tell you, that 
ItakelovetoChrift as our Saviour 
and Lord, to be etlentiall to this Ac- 
ceptance : and fo fome degree of 
Love to be part of Juftifying Fakh, 
and not properly a fruit of it, as it 
is commonly taken. My reafbns 

i» The Wills ferious apprehenfion 
of a thing Good, which we xall 
an earneft Willing it, and Accepting 
k^ is (in my judgement) the fame 
thing as Love, in an other name. 
Love is nothing but fuch an earned 
Willing, choofmgand Accepting it 
as it is Good. 
It is generally acknowledged, that 


Faith oftned* i6j 

the Affections are but the Motions 
or Afts of the Will. And if Love be 
anA&of the fame Will, and have 
the fame Objeft with Confent, E- 
leclion, Acceptance, &c Why 
ftioulditnot then be the fame Aft? 
Ondy Acceptance confidereth its 
Objed as offered ; Ele&ion confi- 
dereth it, as propounded with fome 
other competitor ; Confent confi- 
derethit,as we are perfwaded and 
invited to it : But allthefe areex- 
trinfecall confiderations : They all 
confider their Objed as Good, and 
fo dorh Love. 

You may object, i. Then De- 
fire and Hope may be effentiall to 
Faith ? 

I Anfw. That Love which they 
imply in them is : but defire and 
hope, as fuch, do properly confider 
thdr object as abfent, which this 
Juftifying Faith doth not» 

2. Objeft. Scripture oft Diftin- 
gHifheth Faith and Love. 

Anfw. i. Sometime Faith is ta- 
ken for Hiftoricall faith, or Faith of 
N 2 Mira- 

„-™_ — ___ 

Z62 The Nature of 

Miracles, and thai it may be diftin- 
guiflied. z. Sometime true Faith 
is taken in the ftri&eft fence, and 
(ometime Iarglier, as I fhall fliew 
anon. 3. Butefpecially ; fodoldi- 
ftinguifti of Love, as it is confidered 
by it felf, and as it is an effentiall 
part of this Acceptance. Love, re- 
fpecleth its ObjccT: meerly as Good, 
in itfelf and to the Lover. But Con- 
fent and Acceptance have fcverail 
other refpefts,-as is exprefied : And 
yet there may be Love in all fuch Ac- 
ceptance ; though not properly Ac- 
ceptance in all Love. 

Objett. 3. Then Love Juftirleth 
as well as Faith. 

I Anfw. When it is thus confi- 
dered in Faiths Acceptance, it is not 
calledby the name of Love, but io- 
feth its name, as a letter River that 
felletti into a greater ; therefore it 
is not faid that Love Juftifieth ; but 
Faith that worketh (even in its ef- 
fentiall work of Accepting; by 

Objett. But Love is the greater 


Faith opened. 169 | 

Grace, and (hall out-live Faith, and 
Faith ftould rather then be fwal- 
lowed up in Love. 

Anfw. Love considering its ob« 
je&onely as -Geod, fhall continue | 
for ever, becaufe the Coodnefs of 
its object (ball fo continue : But 
Acceptance, Content, &c. have o- 
thcr additional! considerations in 
their Objects which will vanifli. 
But which is the chiefeft Grace in it 
felf, is not the queftion, but which 
I is the chiefeft in the prefent work.. 
I Now feeing Confent, Acceptance,; 
&c. are the chief as to Juftification, « 
that Love which is eflentially if* 
them may well lofe its name here: 
feeing in the bufineffe of Juftifying 
it is considered but as an effentiali . 
part of the main duty. 

My next Reafon is, becaufe Chrift 
doth propound it intheGofpel, as 
of the fame neceflkie, with the fame 
promifes annexed to it, foh* 1 6* 27. 
For the Father himfelfloveth yotf, 
becaufe jee have lovedme^ andbG- 
teeved r &c< J oh. 14* 21. He that 
JV 3 loveth 

170 The Ndt*re of 

hvethme, fhall be loved of my Fa~ 
and I mil love him, and foew mj 
felftobim. jam.i. 1 2. £2.5. The 
Crown and Kingdom is prepared for 
them that love him, 1 Cor. 16*22* 
If any man love not the Lord Jefm 
Chrift, let him be Anathema Ma- 
ranatha , Ephef. 6. 24. In a word, 
Faith is a comprehenfwe duty, con- 
taining divers Adrs , whereof this 
feemeth to me to be part : Neither 
can I yet conceive, how there can 
beacordiall Acceptance of Chrift, 
as our only Saviour, and Love not be 
an etfentiali part of that Acceptances 
But if a finer wit can apprehend the 
difference better ; yet (as I faid) 
Faith being confidered herein Mo- 
ral! and Pbliticke refpe&s, and not 
in ksftri&naturaH quiddity, rnay ef- 
fentially be an Affe&ienate Accep- 
tance, for all that. 

If any think fitter to make a wi- 
der difference between the nature of 
faith and Love to Chrift, I will not 
contend^ for the matter is not great: 
thai both are neceffary to Juftific*- 

Jmtk'tfmti. *7* 

tion, is tafcdefcotil&fhtc they are 
concurrent M apprehending Chrift : 
And that Love it a part of the Con- 
dition of the Covenant; is *16> 4Jtv 
(feubted^ fcpd thhteforeJwHl haw 
feme hand in the bufinefs of Jiiffifi- 
cation, aslftiali farther clear. 

6. I pucin the word O f #3 in ' 
the Definition 5 becaufef atis faiibe- > J 
fontyjrake *he prefming of t Chrift 
before all others, and taffin^ him for* 
oerObelyLord and Saviour, to be, 
the effcntiali difference of true Faith- ! 
There is a tWofoidiVenty ror Since- \ 
my in our duties recpifrte. 1. Ttie 1 
verity of their, natorail Being, which 1 
is catted their MetaphyficaU Truth. 
2. The verity or fincetity of thconas 
Duties or-Graces, which is fihrir 
Mbrall Sincerity fcThisla&confifteth 
inthfcaiiefairingtfshe A& to its 
Gbjed. For example, one man- 
pretendeth to love his \vife,and do*; 
1 nof..:< There is lieirii^'HattiraJlnof 
Mbrall Troths 'Atiothft dotiv love 
' N 4 he* 

272 ThtN*t*reof 

her,but not half fo well as other wo- 
men : There is the Metaphyficall 
Truth, but not the Morall A third 
loyeth her as 2 wife above others : 
Tfeefe is both Metaphyficall Truth 
and Morall. 

So it is in oar Love to God : To 
Love him as the chief Good, is to 
Love him as he is : And he that lo- 
veth him "never fo much, and yet 
kridth anything: effe, as siachor 
mote ; though his Love have a Me- 
ta^hyfieaH Truth of Being, yet k 
hath no Morall fincerity at all j So 
that the Preferring God before all, 
or taking him for our Onefy God, 
is the very point of Sincerity of 
Love. Why^j'uftfoit is about oar 
Faith : The taking him unfeignedly 
for our onely Lord and Saviour, is 
the very point of the. fincerity of our 
Faith in Chrift* As Adultery is thd 
moft proper violation of the Mar- 
riage Covenant, except a<fVualL re- 
nouncing and deferring : So the ta- 
king of any other e Lord or Saviour 
befoesChriftjOr conjunct tfith hirtrj 


Faith opened. 273',! 

is the mod apparent violation of the 
bond of our Covenant., and moft 
contradi&ory to the nature and Ef- 
fence of J unifying Faith ; except 
onely the Actual! recounckig. Chriit, 
and the Covenant it felf, by full A- 
poftacy; which is an unpardonable 
fin, Hebr. 6. 4, 5, 6. & 10, 3<5. Yet 
in-fubordination to Chrift, wernay 
have other Lords and Saviours, but 
not in -competition and co-ordinati- 
on.' Some of his> Government he 
[ exercifeth by Minifters^- and fome 
j by Magiftrates under him ( for I 
j cannot con'fent to them that fay, the 
Magift ate is onely the Officer of 
God as Creator, and not of Chrift 
the Mediator ; becaufe all things 
are delivered into his hands/ and he 
is made head over all.) Some-alfo of 
his Caving works, heperformeth by 
inftrurnents and means : And what 
they fo perform under him, may be 
acknowledged without any decoga- 
cionfromhiraatalL • 

N 5' Bar 

. , ... ,.,... I 

374 The Nature ef 

But perhaps fome may think that 
the Scripture Phrafe feemeth rather 
to intimate, that Faith is an Aflent, 
and not fuch an Acceptance and 
Confem,as is before mentioned ; be- 
caufe it eft times rcqairerh but this, 
To believe that Jefus is the Chrilt, 
the Sonne of God .; he that fhould 
come into the world, &c. 
ro To -which I Anfwer, i. This 
proveth onely, that this Knowledg 
or Aflfent is pmof faith ; but not 
that it is the whole. 2. Itistheufe 
of Scripture to drive at that duty 
which is molt unknown, negle&ed, 
or refitted ; and to fpeak little of o- 
thers , where there was then lcffe 
need to fpeak, though perhaps thel 
duty be in it felf more weighty : 
Therefore Chritt and the Apoftlcs 
did Ipend moft of their pains to per- 
fwade the Jewes to this A(Tent:That 
the Meffias £bould come, be their 
deliverer , they ail knew ; Even the 
poor Woman of Samaria could tell 
that, foL^ij. And fo ready were 


F*itik\*f{kfic4* 27$ 

they to Receive him, if they 
had known hmi ; that it was 
the gcneraiiTexpeAa'tida and define 
of the "pedpfce, MaI.^\ % But to 
sperfwade therfl that Jefus was the 
Chrift, here lay the difficulty. There- 
fore (asDtf. times Med*tl*c4p. 3. 
§♦ 20.) thoagh fometime Affent to 
the Truth Concerning God and. 
Chrift, J ok 1.50. be taken for true j 
Faith ; yet the fpeciall Election or 
Apprehenfion (for that he meanes 
by FidticU §. 1 \, ) is itill inclu- ■ 
ded ; and thote > words doe but de- 
termine and apply that FidttcU to 
Chrift, which is prefuppofed to be 
already towaffd theMefluh. 

And let me conclude this with' 
one more pra&icaliy ufefol obferva-i 
tion; From this definition of faith, | 
now men may lee what to enquire 1 
after in the fearching of their eftaces. 
As Faith, being the GofpelrOonditi- 
on, is the main thing to be looked 
for ; So hereyou fee what that faitK 
is. The ignorance of this deceiveth! 


iy6 The Nature of 

and troubled) multitudes*} Some 
think itlieth.in MUrauceuSorne^ 
in a quieting their/heartb m r.cpn&3 
jcjence on Qirift; S'pmc' think, as 
!Mr SAltmfirJh ,: That it is nothing 
•elfe but a perfwafion more.or lefs oft 
Gods love : And then .when poor 
j troubled fouls do feel neither aflu- 
rance, confidence^ nor perfwafion of 
that love, they conclude that they 
have no Faith. And how will 
thefe miftaken Teachers help them 
to comfort ? Why, as Mr Salt* arjh 
doth : fometime to tell them, ■Chr ill: 
hath beleeved for them ; and fome- 
time to cell them plainly, that he can 
but commend them to tieLord,who 
is the author and finifher of Faith : 
and fometime to tell them, that they 
fhould not qneftion their faith, any 
I more then Chrift himfclfi Thus 
their ftrft way of comfort is to tell 
them,, they do ill to qneftion their 
faith : If that would ferve,. all the 
world might have comfort, and 
there needs no more; If that will 
not do, then Chnft hath beleeved. 

. • ■ — - " 


nitfropneL a 7 7 

fbi them - Yet if that will' fejrve y 
there is as much comfort for one as* 
another. Bat what if they fay ft ill, 
Icannot beleeve, ("that is, as you ex-; 
pound Belief-.; why, then he con- 
rcfleth plainly, he is at a lofs ; he an 
drive on the work of comforting no 
further ; he can do no more but 
pny for them. p*g. 31. Is ic not a 
wonder that 1 his lamentable Com-, 
fbrter fhould be fo valued by the 
troubled fpirits ? T was many years 
my felf under perplexing doubts*. If 
I had heard fuch comforting words 
3* rhefe , they would foonet have 
driven me to defpair then to com- 
fort. Hcthat hath not fo much wit 
asco : difcern fo grofs fallacies, may 
as foon be comforted by a falfe and 
impertinent argument, as by a found 
one. £>ne. But how would you<om- 
fort fuch a-one, that faith he cannot 
belt eve ? Anj. Why, I would firft 
make him know, That the very ef- 1 
fential form of faith lieth in- the \ 
Wills acceptance of an offered 
<2hrift: Then would I know of 

,., -hi ■« 

27» Tht Nature of 

him, whether he be witling thus to 
baveChrift bottt for lord and Savi- 
our, or not ? If he fay* He 13 will- 
ing: I (hall anfwer, That then he 
dothbeJeevc; and then he is /ufti- 
fied : For his Willingnefs is his very 
Confent or Acceptance; and that 
Gonfcnt is true Faith : Chrift ex- 
pe&eth no more to make up the 
match. If the march bn ak, it rauft 
be either btcaufe Chrift is unwill- 
ing, or becaufe he is unwilling : net 
Chrift j for he is the Suitor,, and In- 
treaccr,andOrIerer : Not himfelf ; 
for he confeffeth that he is willing. 
If he fay , I am not willing : I 
ftouldask; Why then do you look 
after it, or regard it } Do men en- 
quire after that, and lament the 
want of it, which they are not willing 
to have ? either temptation or mel- 
lancholly maketh you not know 
your own minde ; or elfe you do but 
diflemble in pretending trouble and 
fad complaints. If you be indeed 
unwilling, I have no comfort for 
you, tiliyou are willing; but muft 


Pdhk+ptfud, rj$ 

turn to pcrfwafions to make yott 
wiling* If they yet reply; I am 
not throughly willing: I (hould 
anfwer, The Condition of the Co- 
venant is not the Perfe&ion j bat 
the fincerity of Faith or Confent ; I 
which way goes the prevailing bent 
orchoyce of your Wifl I If Chrift 
I were before you , would you ac- 
! cept him, or rejecl: him ? If you 
would heartily accept htm for your 
only Lord and Saviour, I dare fay, 
you are a true Bdeever. 

Thus you fee the comfortable ufe 
of right under ftanding, what jufti- 
fy ing faith is ; and the great danger 
and inconvenience that followeth 
the common miftakes in this point. 

Thcfis 70, 

FAith in the large ft fence, as it 
comprthendeth all the Conditio* 
<sf the new C$venant y may be thus 
define i ; It M y when a [inner by the 
fVord and Spirit of Chrift being 


■2-8o The Nature 'of 

thrsughlyronvinted of the Rights 
oufnefs- of the LaVr, the truth of its 
threatening the evil of his own fin y 
and the- great nefs of his mifery here- 
upohyO&d ^ithall of the Nature and 
Offices y Sufficiency and Excellency 
of fefus Chrift, the Satisfaction he 
hath made , his vptllingnefs to fave x 
and his free, offer to all that mil ac- 
cept him for their Lord and Savior * 
deth- hereupon believe the truth of 
this (jofpel, and accept of Chrifi a* 
his only Lord and Saviour^ to bring 
thtmao God their chief eft good, and 
to prefent them pardoned and jufi 
befere him y und l to 'bcftoVe upon them 
[a more glorious inheritance^ and do 
accordingly reft on him as ^keir Sa- 
viour, aniftncerely (though imper- 
fetlly) obey him as their Lor d^ for- 
giving others Jovin^ his people ^bear- 
ing what J ujftr in gs are impojedy di- 
ligently u ft %g. his means and Ordi- 
nances r and cortf effing and bewailing 
their fins againsl him, and praying 
for pardon ; and all this fwcerely, 
dnltothe end. 


Faith opened* 281 


"T~ His is the Condition of the new 
1 Covenant at large, That all this 
is fometime called Faith, as taking 
its name from the primary, princi- 
pal,vitalpart, is plain hence. 

i. In that Faith is oft called £the 
obeying of the CbfpeQ btit the Go- 
spel commandeth all this, Rom.ic. 
16. iPet.i.n. d- 4.1.7. iThef.t* 
8v GaJ.3. i. & 5.7, Heb. 5.9. 

2. The fulfilling©^ the Conditi- 
ons of the new Covenant is oft cak 
led by the name of Faith, & fo oppo- 
fed "to the fulfilling the Conditions of 
the old CovenantjCalled Works; But 
thefe forementioned are parts of the 
Condition of the new Covenanted: 
therefore implyed or included^ in 
Faith,&f £3*1 2,23 ,25 .Not that Faith 
i$ properly taken for its fruits,or con- 
founded with them, but (as I told 
I you before) it is named in the-ftead 
of the whole Condition, . all the. reft 


*8i The Nature of 

being implyed as reducible to it, in 
fome of the refjpe&s mentioned un- 
der the 6i Pofition. 

It may be here demanded, i .Why 
I do mafc affiance or recombency an 
immediate product of Faith, when it 
is commonly taken to be the very 
justifying Act > 

I anfwer : i. I have proved al- 
ready, that Confent or Acceptance is 
the principal Aft, anAAffiance doth 
neceffarfly follow ttafcnjttfjfeartl^ 
mofi of my Reafons,.tha^Affitncc is 
a following AcT*, aad not the princi- 
pal, they are the fame with thok of 
QzQwtame againft Mr "PmUe.t 
and in his Treatife of Juftiftc*ck% 
whither therefor I refer you for Sar 

a gjttjt. Why do I make fincerfc 
ty andperfeverance to be fo nearrkiri 
to Faith, as to be; in feme fence, the 
fame,and not rather diftmft Graces? 

Anfi*. It is apparent, that they 
are no real diftincl things, but the 
Modi of Faith, i . Sincerity is the 
verity of it , which is . convertible 


Faith opened* a $5 

with its Being, as it is Metaphyfical 
Verity , and with its Vcrtuous or 
Gracious Being , as it is Moral or 
Theological Sincerity. 2. Perfcve- 
rancc or Duration of a Being, is no- 
thing really diflincl: from tie Being 
i t fd( 1 Suarez thinks, not fo touch 
as a Modus % 

Thefis y\. 

(i)TpH* fincere Performanct of 
JL the fummary, great Com- 
mand Htf the Law £To have the 
Lord only for our God^ndfo to iove 9 
obey, believe and truft him above 
all ] isftill naturally imply ed in tha 
Conditions eft hi Gofltel, as of abf*~ 
lute indifyenfible necejfity 9 fa) and 
in order if nature, and of excellency 
before Faith it /elf: (3) 'But it is 
not commanded in the fence, and up- 
on the terms , as under the firfi £o~ 


284 The Nature of 



{v) T^ His Command need not 
J. be expreffed in the Go- 
fpel Conditions, it is fa naturally x\z- 
cetfary, and implied in all : As the 
ultimate End need not be expreffed 
in directions and precepts fo as the 
meanes, becaufeit is ftill fuppofed ; 
& confultatio eft tantum de me- 

( i) Love to God, and taking 
hinaforour God and chiefe Good, 
is both in excellency and order of 
nature, before Faith in Chrift the 
Mediator • 1 . Becaufe the End is 
thus before the meanes in excellency 
and intention : But God is the ul- 
timate End 5 and Chrift as Mediator 
is but the mesfnes, foh.iq. 6. Cftrift 
is the way by which men muft come 
to the Father.2 J*he Son as God-man 
or.Mediator, is leffe then the Father; 
and therefore the duties that refpeft 
him. as their Gbjed, muft needs be 


Faith opened. 285 ' 

thelefle excellent duties, Joh.T4.13. 

The glory of the Son, is but a means 

for the glory of the Father, Joh.14. 

28. My Father is greater then I\ 

therefore the Love of the Father is 

greater then the Love to the Son, 

&c So alfo in point of neceffity it 

hath the naturall precedency: as the 

End hath before the meanes : for the 

denying of the End, doth immedi- 

.. ately cafhiere and evacuate all means, 

\ as iuch. He that maketh not God 

his chief Good, can never defire or 

Accept of Chrift, as the way and 

I meanes to recover that chief Good. 

; The Apoftle therefore knew more 

I reafon, then meerely for its perpe- 

| tuity , why the chiefeft Grace is 

I Love, 1 Cor. 12. 13. Though yet 

J the work of J unification is laid 

\ chiefely upon faith* 

( 3 J That this Love of God, Is 
] not commanded in the fence, and on 
\ the teraies as under the Law, is evi- 
dent. Fof, 1. The voldCovenant 
would have condemned us, for the 
very imperfeftion of the due degree 


x%6 The Nature of 

of Love : ButtheGofpel accepteth 
of Sincerity, which lyeth in loving 
God above aU ; or as the chiefe 
Good. 2* The old Covenant would 
have deftreyed us, for one omifliofr 
of a due A&of Love ; But the Co- 
venant of Grace accepteth of it, if 
a man that never knew God all his 
life time, doecomeinatlaft. 

Yet the fincere performance of k 
is as necefiary now as then* 

Thehs 72. 

AS the Accepting of Qhrifl for 
Lord) ( which is the hearts 
fub)eUion ) is as Effential a part of 
fuftifying Faith, as the Accepting 
of him for our Saviour : Sa con- 
fequently, fincere obedience , tyhich 
is the efeU. of the former^) hath as 
rmsch to doe in juftifjwg us before 
GW, as AffaHce r (rrhich is the fruit 
of the later.) • 


!.,■■ ... I I I L II L I.- " ' " 

frith ofemd 287 

rKnow this will hardly down 
with many. But I know nothing 
canbefaidagainftit, but by deny- 
ing the Antecedent, viz. That Faith 
as it Accepteth Chrift for Lord and 
King doth. Juftifie. But that I have 
proved before. If it be one Faith, 
and have the Objed: entirely pro- 
pounded as one y and be one entire 
principal! part of the Covenants 
Condition ; then fare it cannot be 
divided in the work of Juftifying. 
This may be eafily apprehended, if 
men will but underftand thefe three 
things. 1. That Faith is noPhyrl- 
cail or naturaU proper Receiving of 
Chrlit at all : But meerly a morall 
{Receiving^ though performed by a 
Phyficall Ad of [_Accefting Q For 
thy Will doth not naturally touch 
and take in the perfon of Chrift ; 
That is an impofiible thing, whatfo- 
ever the Tranfubftantiation men 

___ m »y 

188 TheNatttrtof 

may fay : ( Though the Eflence of 
the Godhead is every where. ) 
2. That this Accepting which is a 
Morall Receiving doth not, nor pqf- 
fibly can, makeChrift burs immedi- 
ately and properly, as it is a Recei- 
ving; But mediately and improper- 
ly onely : The for mall cauTe of our 
intereft, being Gods Donation by 
the Gofpel Covenant. 3 . That this 
Covenant maketh a whole entire 
Faith its Condition : A Receiving 
of whole Chrift with the - whole 
foul : It \$ y as Amefiw^ ABlo to- 
nus hominis : And if the Covenant 
doe make Chrift as King, the objecl: 
of that Faith which is its Conditi- 
on, as well as Chrift,as a Deliverer or 
Ptieft ; Then may it be as fit -a Me- 
dium for our j uftification, as the 

That Obedience is as neere a fruit 
of Faith , as Affiance , is evident ; 
if you take it for the Obedience of 
the Soul, in Afts that are no more 
remote from the fecart then Affiance 
is '. And fe is the Obedience of out 


Works operiell. 18? 

A&ions external in its formal re- 
fpecl: (as Obedience; : though not 
in its material, becaufe the imperate 
A&s ate not all fo neer the fountain 
as the Elicite. I take it here for 
granted, that Dr Bownames argu- 
ments in the place fore-cited, have 
proved Affiance to be but a fruit of 
the principal juftifying Acl of Faith. 

Thcfis 7J. 

F Rom what hath been faid, it ap- 
peareth in what fence Faith on- 
ly jufiifieth 1 and in what fence 
Works aljo jufiifie : viz. I . Faith 
onh juftificth as it impheth and in- 
cludttb ait other parts of tie conditi- 
on cf the neV? Covenant ; and is fo 
put in oppofition to the Works of the 
Law, or the pcrfonal Right eon fnefs 
of the old Covenant. 2. Faith orij 
jufiifieth as the great principal ma. 
fltr dm j cfthe Gospel, or chief part 
of its Condition, to which all the 
refi arefome way reducible. 3. Faith 
O only 

%£po 'The Nature of 

onely doth not juftifie in apportion to 
' the PVorkj ofthe'Gosfsl ; hit thofe 
Work* do alfojvflifie, as the fee on- 
dary, lefs principal parts of therotr- 
dition of the Covenant* 

Thefis 74. 

-QO that they both jv-ftifie in the 
C5 fame ki n 4 e °f caufatity^ viz. as 
Caufe fine quite non, or mediate 
and. improper Caufes ; or as Dr 
Twiffe) Caufe difpoiitivse: but 
with this diference : Faith as the 
principal part ; Obedience as the 
lefs principal. The like may be fai-d 
of Love 1 Which at leafi is a fee on- 
dary part of the Condition : and of 
others in the firhe*fkation. 


Know this is the do&rine that 
will have the loudeft out-cries 


Werks efkned* a? I 

raifed againfl: it-: and will make 
fome cay out, Herefie, ^operj, So- 
cinianifm ! and what not ? For my 
own part the Searcher of hearts 
knowcth, that not Angularity, af- 
fecTation of novelty, nor any good 
will to Popery, provoketh me to en- 
tertain it ; But that I. have earneftly 
fought the Lords direction upon my 
knees, before I durft adventure on 
it : And that I refilled the. light of 
this Conclufion as long as I was 
able. But a man cannot force his 
own underftanding, if the evidence 
of truth force it not; though he 
may force his pen, or tongue, to fi- 
lence or diffembling. 

That which I (hall do further, is, 
to give you fome proofs of what I. 
fay, and to aniwer fome Objections. ] 
Though, if the foregoing grounds j 
do ftand, there needs no more proof j 
j of thefe aflertions. 

i . If Faith juftifie as it is the ful- \ 

\ filling of the Condition of the new j 

i Covenant , and Obedience be alfo \ 

j part of that Condition, then obidi- j 

O 2 ence 

292 The Nature of 

• ■ I . I* I LI , . . . L . - 

encemuft juftifie in the fame way, 
as Faith : But both parts of the An- 
tecedent are before proved. 

The other proofs follow in the 
enfuing Petitions, and their Explica- 
tions and Confirmations. 

Thcfis 7j. 

THe plain exprejfions of Saint 
James fhould terrifie us from 
an interpretation contraHUory to 
the Text ; and except apparent 
violence he fifed, with his Chap. 2. 
2l.24,25jCrc. it cannot be doubted } 
bat that a wan, isjuftified by JVorkj, 
and not by Faith only. 

Thefis 76. 

N Either is there the Ieasl ap- 
pearance of a contradiction 
bef&ixt this and Paul's dotlrine , 
Rom. 3.28. If men did not through 
prejudice, negligence, or wilfnlnejs 


JVorks opened. 191 

overlookjhis ; That in that and all 
other the like places , the Afoftl* 
doth prof effedly exclude the Workj 
of the Law only from juftificaiiony 
but never at all the Works of the 
Gosjelas tbejare.the Condition of 
theneVe Covnast, 

— * 


M T 

IN opening this I (hall thus pro- 
ceed: i. I will (hew the clear- 
nefs of that in fames fat the point 
in queftion. 3. Tfcat Pa* I is to be 
underftood in the fence exprefled. 
3. How this dirTereth from the Pa- 
pifts Expofition of thefe places ; and 
fro;n their do&rine of Juftification 
by Works. 4. And how from the 
Socinian doftrine. 

w J 

1. The ordinary Expeficions of 
St. fames are thefe two: 1. Tiiat 
he fpeaks of ) uflifkatioa before 
Oj ^ men, 

294 fke Nature of 

men, and not before God. 2. That 
he fpeaks of Works, as juftifying our 
Faith, and not as juftifying oar per- 
fons : or ^as Mr. ^TtmbUs phrafe is) 
the Apoftle when he faith Works 
juftifie,muft be undeftood by a Me- 
tonimj, that a working Faith jnftiri- 
eth. That the former Expofition is 
falfe may appeare thus. 

1. The Worlds Judication 
freeth us but from the Worlds Ac- 
cufation, to which it is oppofed : 
And therefore it is but either a Jufti- 
fying from the Accufation of hfr 
mane Lawes; Or elfe a particular 
Juftification of us, in refpecl: of fome 
particular fa<fte ; or elfe an ufurped 
Judgement and Juftification: For 
they are not conftituted our J udges 
by God : And therefore we may fay 
with 'Paul, It ua fmall thing with 
me to be judge 1 oj : you , or of mans 
Judgement : And fo a (mall thing 
to be Juftified by men from the Ac- 
cufations of the Law of God. 

But the Juftification in fames, is 
of greater moment : as appeares in 


** r 

Works, opened. 295- 

the Text. For, .1. Ic- isfuchasfal- 
Yation dependech on; v<J$ J4* j 
2. It is men as followeth oncly a It* j 
ving Faith i but the world may as j 
well Juftifieuswkn we halre no ; 
Faith at ail. 

1 therefor* affirms, x. The! 
World is no lawfull Judge cf our 
Rigrrteoufitefe before God, or in re- 
ference to rite Law of Cod* i. Nei- 
tboc aw tJjfcy.coiD|KKnt or capabk 

f 1 Bnyn c«itak»>t»» .frnwria of oui 

j Righteoulhefs or unrighteoufneflfe. 

I 3. ' If they could j yet Works are So 

j certain medium, or evideoccAV here- 

! by -the ..world can know ur to be 

Righteous : For there Is no outward' 

work which an Hypocrite may not 

perform : and inward works they 

, cannot difcern « nor yet the princi- 

ijples from which, not the ends to 

i;whkh our work* proceed and are 

'intended. There is as much need of 

a divine heart- fearching -knowledge, 

to. difceru the fincerity of Works, as 

j of Faith it felf. Stf that if it be not 

1 O 4 certain 

Tht r Natxre of 

certain, that the Text fpeaks of Ju- 
ftificatton before God, I fcarce 
know what to be certain of. 

Once more: i. Was Abraham 
juftified before men lor a fecret Acti- 
on ? 2. Or for fuch an Adion as 
the killing of his onely Son would 
have been ? 3. Was not he the 
juftifier here, who was the imputer 
of Righteoufnefs ? But God was the 
impntcr of Righteoufaefc, v*rf.z$. 
therefore God was the Juftifier. So 
I leave that interpretation to fleep. 

2. That it is the Perfon and not 
his Faith onely, which is here faid 
to be juftified by Works, is as plain 
in the Text almoft as can be fpoken, 
Verf. 21. Abraham (not his faith) 
is faid faid. to be juftified by Works. 
Verf. 24. By Works [a man] is ju- 
ftified : If by [a man] were meant, 
\jt mans Faith] then it would run 
thus fenccleffely : By Works a mans 
Faith is juftified, and not by Faith 
onely, fo'Ferf. 25* 

3. For 

Works opened. 297 

3. For Mr. Fembhs interpreta- 
tion, That by [Works J is meant \a 
Working Faith. "3 ■ 

I Anfwer ? I dare not teach the ho- 
ly Ghoft to fpeak ; nor force the 
Scripture ; nor raife an exposition fo 
far from the plain importance of the 
words, without apparent necefliry : 
But here is not the leaft necdfitie : 
There being not the leaft inconveni- 
ence,that 1 know of,in affirming Ju- 
stification by Works, in the fore-ex- 
plained fence. Men fektem are bold 
with Scripture,in forcing it;But they 
are firft bol J with Conference in for- 
cing it.If it were but fome onePhrafe 
diflbnant from the ordinary language 
of Scripture, I (houldnot doubt but- 
it muft be reduced to ;the reft. But 
when it is the very fcope of a Chap- 
ter,in plain and frequent expreflions, j 
no whit diflbnant from any other 
Scripture ; I think he that may ft> 
wreftit, as to make it unfay what 
it faith, may as well make him a 
Creed of his own, let the Scripture 
fay what k will to the contrary : 
O 5 what j 

298 The Nature of 

what is this but with the Papifts to 
make the Scripture a Nofe of Wax . ? 
If Saint James {peak it To oft over 
and over ; that Juftification is by 
works, and not by Faith onely, I 
will fee more caufe before I deny it ; 
or fay, he meanes a Working Faith, 

If he fo under ftand \_a Working 
FaitH] as that it juftifcth principally 
as Faith,and lefle principally as Wor- 
: king, then I fhculd not differ from 
him, only I ftiould think the Scripture ! 
| Phrafe is more fafe and more proper^; 
! But he underftandeth it according to 
: that common alTertion & expofition, 
that Fides folum juftifaat, non ah- 
tcm fides fola : Faith alone juftifieth, 
but not that faith which is alone.The 
queftion therfore is,Whether Works 
do concur with Faith (as part of. the 
Condition) in the very bufinttfe of 
J unifying ? or whether, they are 
onely Concomitants to that Faith 
which efTecTreth the bufinefs without 
their afliftance ? The ground of the 
miftakclyeth here : They fir ft afcribe 
too much to Faith i and then becaufe 



Works opened* 29$ 

that niminm which they give to' 
Faith, is not found agreeable to 
W6rks,therefore they conclude, that 
we are not juftifiect by works at ail. 
They think that Faith is an 'Infiru-i 
mentall efficient caufe of Justificati- 
on ( which that properly it is not, I 
have proved before :) when if they 
underftood that it juftifleth but 2.$ a 
Cattfa fine qua non, or condition, 
they would eafily yeeld, that Works 
do fo too. I will not fay thetfore that 
Works do effectually produce our 
Juft'ificatiori $ For faith doth not fo: 
Nor that they juftifie astqiiall parts 
of the condition : For faith is the 
principall. But that they juftifie as 
the fecondary iefle-pf incipall part of 
the Condition, fnot onely proving 
our 1 aich to be found, but them- 
felves being in the Obligation as wel 
as Faith, *id juftifying in the fame 
kind of caufaHty or procurement as 
Faithjthpughnot in equality with it J 
I prove thus : 1. When it is faid 
that we are ffuftified bj fP'pr^sj 
the word [^D im^yeth more then 

300 The Nature of 

an Idle concomitancy : If they only 
ftood by,whileFaithdoth all,it could 
not be faid, that we are Juftified by 

2. When the Apoftle faith [Bj 
Works, and not Bj Faith one If} he 
plainly makes them concomitant in 
procurement, or in that kind of cau- 
fahty which they have : Efpecially, 
feeing he faith not, as he is common- 
ly interpreted, [not By Faith which 
is alone^} but [not, by Faith^n/y^}, 

3 . Therefore he fairh,that [Faith 
is dead being alone ,] Becaute it is 
dead as to the ufe and puipofe of Ju- 
ftifying : for in k ftir it hath a life 
according to ks quality ftilL This 
appeares from his comparifon in the 
former verfe, i <5. that this is the 
deathhefpeaksof. And fo Works 
make Faith alive, as to the attakv 
ment of its end of Juftification. 

4. The Analyfis which "Fifcator 
and Pemblegive, contradi&eth not 
this Affertioa. If in ftead of [a 
Working Faith"} they will but keep 


I.- ' I ,*, U. . M I II ■ II . . II—.— 

Works opened. 30 1 

the Apoftles own words, I (hall a- 
gree to moft of their Analyfis. 
(Though conclufious drawn from, 
the Analyfis are often weak, it is fo j 
eafie for every man to feigne an A- I 
nalyfis fuited to his ends, ) onefy' 
the explication of the 22. verf. they ! 
f€em to fatle in. For when the Apo- ( 
file faith,that Faith did, evvizyu to// j 
%ty@- avn, work in and with his 
works, it clearly aimeth at Tuch a 
working in, and with, as maketh 
them conjunct in the work ofjuftify- 
ing .• And when he faith that f Faith 
was made per feEl by Works ,' J it iS 
not (as they and others inrerpreOon- 
lyamanifefting to be perfect. But 
as the habit is perfected in its Ads, 
becaufc they are the end to which it 
tendethjAnd as Marriage is perfected 
per congrefytm & froereaticnem: or 
anyGovenant when its conditions are 1 
performed. Faith alone is not the en- .1 
tire perfect Condition of the New \ 
Covenant : but Faith with Repent- 
ance and fincereObedience,is; A con- 
demned Gally-flave being Redeem- 


$02r The Nature of 

ed, is to have bis deliverance upon' 
condition than he take his Redeemer 
for his Mafter : This' doth fo direct- 
ly imply, that he mull: obey him, that 
his conditions are not perfectly ful- 
filled, except he do obey him as his 
Mafter : And fo taking him for his 
Redeemer and Mafter, and obeying 
him as -his Mafter, do in the fame 
kind procure his continued freedom. 
Indeed his meer promife and confent 
doth procure his firft deliverance,but 
not the continuance of it. So I ac- 
knowledg, that the very firft point 
of Justification is by Faith alone, 
without either the concomitancy or 
co-operation of Works; for they 
canuot be performed in an inftant: 
But the continuance and accomplish- 
ment of Juftihcarion is not without 
the joynt procurement of obedience. 
Asa woman is made a mans wife, 
and inflated in all that he hath, upon 
meet acceptance, confent, and. corf- 
traces * becaufe conjugal ad ions, aF- 
fcdions;the forfaking of others, &c. 
are iroplyed in the Covenant, and 


g-jVorks opened* 303 5 

expreflfed as neceffary for the future ; 
therefore if there be no conjugal 
actions, afFe<fhons,or fidelity follow, 
the Covenant is not performed, nor 
(hall the woman enjoy the benefits 
expected. It is To here, efpecially fee- 
ing Chrift may di£eftate the viola- 
ters of his Covenant at pleafure. 

This (heweth us how to aufwer 
the Objections of fome : r. Say 
they, Abrahams With was perfect 
long before. Anf. Not as it is a ful- 
filling of the Covenants Condition, 
which alfo requireth its acting by 

2 . Abraham (fay they J was jufti- 
fied long before Ifaac was offered, 
therefore that could be but a mant- 
feftingofit. Anfw. Juftification is 
a continued Act. God is ftill juftn 
fying, and the Gofpel ft ill justifying. 
Abrahams Justification was not 
ended before. J 

3. Mr Pemble thinks, that* as- a I 
man cannot be faid [to live by Kea- 
| fon J though he may be faid [[to live 
j by a reafonable ioul,3 anc * as a plant 


304" The 'Nature iff 

livethnot^er augment ationem, & 
Jt per animam attttricem : So we 
may be faid to be justified by #»j 
working Faith, but not by Works. 
I Anfw. Both Speeches are pre* 
per. And his Simile doth not fquare 
or fuit with the Cafe in hand : For 
Juftifying is an extrinfecaU cenfe- 
quentj or product of Faith, and no 
proper t Med at all : Much leffe an 
effect flowing from its own formal 
effence,as the life of a man doth from 
a Reafonable fouk, and the life of a 
Plant from a Vegetative. I hope it 
may be faid properly enough, that a 
Servant doth his w r ork, and pleafeth 
his Mailer, by Reafon, as well as by 
a reafonable foul : And that a Plant 
dothpleafe the Gardiner by aug- 
mentation, as well as per anlmam 
auttriccm. So that a man pleafeth 
God, and is juftifiedby fincere Obe- 
dience , as well as by a> working 

$. How this difTereth from the 
PapiteDodrineJriecdnot ctli any 


Works opentd* 305 

Scholarwho hath read their writing?* 
1 . They take Juftifying for San- 
ctifying : fa doe not I. 2. They 
quite overthrow and deny themoft 
reall difference bet wixt the Old Co- 
venant and the New : and make 
them in a manner all one : But I 
build this Exposition and Doctrine, 
chiefely upon the cleare differencing 
and opening of the Covenants. 
3. When they fay, We arc Juftify- 
ed by Works of theGofpef* they 
mean only, that we are fan&ified 
by Works that follow Faith , and 
are bellowed by Grace, they meri- 
ting or* inherent jufticc at Gods 
hands. In a word, there is fcarce any 
one Doclrin, wherin even their molt 
learned Schoolmen are more fottifh- 
ly ignorant then in this of Juftificati- 
on : fo that when you have read 
them with profit and delight on 
fome other fubjeds ; when they 
come to this, you would pitty them, 
and admire their ignorance. 

They take our Works to be part 
of our Legall Righteoufnefs : I take • 

them < 

3 ©6 The. Nature of 

i them not to be the {maHeft/portion 
| of it.' Bttf onelya£ar£ofaurE.van- 
j geiicall Righteoufnefs $ or of the 
! Condition upon which Chrifts Righ* 
\ teotifnefs (hall be ours. 


5« Bus whsc difference is ttee. 
betwhtf it indthtlStcmia* Dodrin 
cf Justification ? ^»/w. In foine 
;iu$nsttipuchs/^c*>w«(/^- is but $ 

thc^wafeitte headofiny -jta that: 
faith not afcthey* Mr. trottoHis*' 
Smman, !and Mr. Bradfoaw:, and; 
■■Mr*X?Vtftf^van<J Mr. Goodwin 3 ond 
why not Pifcaton, Rawitt r i&c*. if 
fame zealous Divines know what 
Swiwia*ifme> is. But . I had rather 
ftudy what is Scripture* truth, then, 
what is Socimamjma : I doe not 
thinke that Fmftw was .fo Infau* 
'fttu$a&xo hcl4 nothing true : That 
which he held according tro Scripture 
is not Socintanifme . For my parr, I 
have read little of their writings ; 
but that little gave ma enougfy and 


JVorks opened* $07 

made me caflr them away with ab- 
horrence. In a word ;. The So- 
cinians acknowledge not that 
Chrift had fatisfied the Law for us; 
and conftqnently is none of our- Le- 
gallRighceoufnefe: but oneiy hatfr 
fet us a copy to write after, and- is 
become our patteme, and that we 
arejuftiried oy following him as a- 
Qpeaine and guide to heaven ** And 
fo alt our proper Rightebttftaeft is in 
this obedience. MoftsKCurfedDo- 
cTrine ! So ferre am I from this, 
that I fay, The Righteoufnefs which 
we muft plead againft the Lawes ac- 
cusations, is not one grain of it in 
our Faith or Works : but all out of. 
us in Chrifts fatisfaclion. Onely our 
Faith, Repentance, and fincere Obe- 
dience, are the Conditions upoai 
which which we muft partake of the 
former. And yet fuch Conditions' 
as Chrift worketh in us freely by his 
Spirit. . 

6. Laftly, let us fee whether St. 


jo8 The Nature of 

Paui } ot any other Scripture do con- 
tract this. And, for my part,I know 
not one word in the Bible that hath 
any ftrong appearance of Contradi- 
ction to it. The ufuall places quoted 
are thefe, Rom. 3. 28.^ 4. 2. 3.14. 
15.16. GaL 2. 16. & 3. 21. 22, 
Ephef. 2. 8. 9. 'Phil. 3. 8. p. In all 
which, and all other the like places, 
you fliali eafily perceive, r. That 
the Apoftles difpute is upon this que- 
ftion, What is the Righteoufncfs 
which we muft plead againft the Ac- 
cufation of the Law ? or by which 
we are juftified as the proper Righ- 
teoufneffe of that Law ? And this he 
well concludeth, is neither Works 
nor Faith. But the Righteoufnefle 
which is by Faith; that is, Chrifts 

But now St. fames his queftion is, 
What is the Condition of our Jufti- 
fication by this Righteonfnefs of 
Chrift ? Whether Faith onely? or 
Works alfo ? 

2. tpaul doth either in expreffe 
words, or in the fence and fcope of 


Work* ofened. 509 

his fpeech, excise onely the works 
of the Law,that is,the fulfilling of the 
Conditions of thetaw our felve&But 
never the fulfilling of the Gofpel- 
Conditions that we may have part 
in Chrift. Indeed, if a man fhonld 
obey the Commands of the Gofpel, 
with a Legal intent, that it might be 
a Righteoufnefle conformi to the 
Law of Works; this Obedience is 
not Evangelical, but Lcgall obedi- 
ence : For the forme giveth the 

3. Paul doth by the word 
£ Faith 3 efpecialiy direct your 
thoughts to Chrift beleeved in ; For 
to be juftified by Chrift ; and to be 
juftified by receiving Chrift, is with 
him all one, 

4, And when he doth mention 
Faith as the Condition, he alwaics 
implyeth obedience to Chrift. There- 
fore ^BcUeving^ and \j>ht)ing the 
Gojpel, 3 are put for the .two Sum- 
maries of the whole Conditions. The 
next will cleare this. 



310 The Nature of 

The f is 77, 

THatVte arejufiified by fine ere 
obedience to Chrift, as the fe- 
j c'ondary part of the Condition of our 
j fftfilfia r ion' 3 is evident alfo from 
I tfj^/e? following Scriptures. Match. 
; 12. '37. Mar. it. 2$. 26. Luk. 6. 
I 37. Mat 6. 12.14. 15, ijoh.1.9. 
A& 8.22. Aft. 3. 19. & 22. 16. 
I 1 Pet. 4. 18. Rom. 6. 16. 1 Pet.i. 
L2. 22. ." 

Thefis 78. 

OVr fuR Juftifkdtion, and our 
everlafting Salvation have 
\ the fame Conditions on our part, 
But fincere Obedience is without 
nil doubt j .a Condition of our Sal- 
\ vatidn ; therefore alfo of our fu- 
\ftifi 'cation* 


TVorks opened. 511 


THe Antecedent is manifefr, in 
that' Scripture maketh Faith a 
Condition of -'both Juftification and 
Salvation : andfo it doth Obedience 
alio-, asis before expla ined. There- 
fore we are juftified, that we may be 
faved. It would be as derogatory 
to Chrifts Righteoufnefs,if webe fa- 
ved by wofks, as if we be juftified 
by them. Neither is there any way 
to the former but -by the latter. That 
which a man is 'juftifled by, he is la- 
ved by. Thdugh Cloriflcation be an 
adding of a grenter happinefle'»then 
we loft ; and fo juftification is not 
enough thereto : Yet on our part, 
they have the fame Conditions. 

Yet here I fay ftill, [pur full Jts- 

j}ificatien r \beczufe i as I have fhew- 

\ ed, ourfirft pofteflion of it is upon \ 

! our meer Faich or Contract with j 

Chrift. But I think our Glorificati- I 

on will be acknowledged to have I 

the \ 


3i» The Nature of 

the fame Conditions with our finall 
Juftification at the batre or Chrift. 
And why not to our entire continu- 
ed juftification on earth ? You may 
Object. Perfeverance is a condition 
of our Glorification ; but not of 
our juftification here. I Anfwer, 
i. Perfeverance is nothing but the 
fame Conditions pcrfevering. 2. As 
the fincerity of Faith is requifite to 
our firft pofleflion of Juftification ; 
fo the perfeverance of Fai h is the 
Condition of perfevering ] uftificatt- 
on. See Hebr, 3. 14, 

2. That Obedience is a Conditi- 
on of our Salvation is undoubted, 
He fa. 5. 9. Chrift is tfee Author of 
eternall Salvation to all them that 
obey him ; fo fully, Rom* 2. 7. 8. 9. 
10. Revel. 22.14. Biejfed are they 
that doe his commandements, that 
the y may have Right to the tree of 
Life, and may enter in by the Gates 
into the Qit^\ And hath that no hand 
in their juftification , which giveth 
them right to the tree of Life ? Jam. 
1. 22. 23. 24. 25. Mat. 5. from 


Works opened. 313 

, : 1 — . , 

the i. to the 13. efpecially the 19. 
20. Mat, 7. 13. 21. 23. 24. with 
a multitude the like. Befides ail thofc 
under Pofiu 22. which prove a per- 
fonali Righteoufneffe, fo called from 
the conformity to the Gofpel. See 
£«*(.£, 4. 1 3. 
___ — i ' 1 

Thefis 79. 

T His Doctrine is no whit dero- 
gatory to £hrifi and his Rtgh- 
teoufneffe : For -he %hat afcrtisth 
to Faith or Obedience no part of that 
\X>ark^ which belongeth to Chrifts 
fatisfaBory Right eonfnejfe, doth not 
derogate ,i n that^ from that Right e- 
oufnejfe. But he that maketh Faith 
and. Obdience to Chrifi, to be onely 
the. fulfilling of the Conditions of 
the New: Covenant y and fo to be 
enelj Conditions of jufiification by 
him 9 doth give them no part of the 
w&\of ht6 Right eoufnejfe • Sce- 
ing he came not to fulfil the G off tl % 
but the Law. 

T Ixpli- 

I i2|. The N-dt.*ntwf 



(Have proved "this before, Vtfiu 
10. I fhall here onely Anfwer 
fome objections. Ob'pcl. ,i. Chrift 
was baptized becaufe he mail: fulfill 
all Righteoafnefs : Put that was no 
part of theTpsgail Righteoufnefs. 
Anfw. The Priefts were to be wafli- 
ed when they ehtred upon their of- 
fice : There were many Ceremoni- 
ous walkings then in force : Either 
Chrifts Biptifme Avas legall ; or 
elfe by ^fulfilling Right em fneffe ] 
muft needs be meant, The fulfilling 
all the works of his own office ; 
whereof one was;, the inftitutingx>f 
Church Ordinances : land he thought 
meet to inftitute this by Example as 
Well as Do&rine. He that will af- 
feme , that Chiift hath fulfilled E- 
vangdicaHlVighfe^fheffe for us, as 
well as D^gall , -<hall overthrow the 
office of Chrift, and the nature of 
Chriftianity. Objett. 2. Hv*£rad- 


Works opened. 315 

Jhawe, and moft others fay, That he 
received the Sacrament, of his Sup- 
per. An fa. Wholly without book; 
I beleeve not that ever he did it : for 
the Scripture no where fpeaks it : 
And many abfurd conlequenas 
would hardly be avoided ; All the 
probability for it, is in thofe words, 
/ toi/I drink, no more of the fruit 
tf &c. Anfw* 1. That may be a 
Reafon why he would not drink 
now ; and doth not neceffarily im- 
ply that he did. 2. But clearlv,£*^ 
who fpeaketh difti&ly of the two 
Cups ( which the other do not J doth 
apply, and fubjoyn thefe words to 
the fir ft Cup, which was before the 

2. If it were granted, that Chrift 
did receive the Sacrament; yet he ne- 
ver did it as an obediential Acl: to his 
own Gofpel precepts ? Did he obey 
a Law not yet made / or his own 
Law, and fo obey himfelf ? Much 
lefTe did heperformeit as a part of 
the New Covenant Condition on 
our part. But as a Lawgiver, and 
P 2 not 

gi6 The Nature of 

not an Obeyer thereof: It was a 
Law-making Adion, ( if any fuch 
had been. ) 

ObjeEl. If fincere obedience be a 
pirt of the Condition, then what 
' perplexities will it caft us into to 
finde out, when our obedience is fin- 
cere? Anjw. i. This difficulty a- 
rifeth alfo, if we make it but the 
Condition of our Salvation : and 
yet few (but Antinomians) will de- 
ny that. 2. Why is ft not as hard to 
difcern the fincerity of faith as of o- 
bedience? 3. Obedience is then 
fincere, when Chrift is cordially 
taken for our onely Lord ; and when 
his Word is our Law, and the main 
defire and endeavor is to pleafe him ; 
and though through prevalency of 
the fiefti we (lip into fin , yet the 
prevailing part of our will is againft 
it, and we would not change our 
Lord for all the world. 

Mr Saltmarfb thinketh, that be- 
caufe we have fo much Sin with 


jVorks opened. 317 \ 

our Obedience, all Beleevers have 
caufe to fufpecT: it ; and fo cannot 
conclude J unification from it. As if 
fincerity might not (land with infir- 
mity ! Or could not be difcerned 
where there is any remaining imper- 
fection ! Might not Taul conclude 
of the fincerity of his Wiliingnefs 
to obey Chrift, becaufe he did the 
evil which he would not? And might 
he not conclude his Justification 
from that Wiliingnefs to obey? 
Read Ball of the Covenant, 
chip. 11. 


rO conclude : It is moft clear 
in the Scripture, and bejond 
all difpute, that our Atlual, mofi 
proper, compleat ' Jujfification , at 
the great Judgment, will be accord- 
ing to our Works, and to Vihat we 
have doneinfiefi, whether CJood or 
Evil: which can be nd others ife 
then as it was the Condition, of that 

P 3 jHfti 

31 8 TheNatnreof 

faftification. Andfo Chrijl^at that 
great Afli&e, Will not give his bare 
Will of Pffrpofe y as the Reafon of h^ 
proceedings : but as he governed by 
a Law ;Jo he Will judg by a Law : 
and will then give the Reafon of his 
Publiqtte Sentence from mens keep- 
ing or breaking the Conditions of his 
Covenant ; that fo the mouths of all 
may be flopped^ and the equity of his 
Judgment may be manifefi to aH\and 
that he may there {hew forth his ha- 
tred to the fins, and not onely to the 
per font of the Condemned • and his 
Love to the Obedience and not onely 
to the perfons of the Jufiified. 


HEre I have thefe things to 
prove: i. That the Juftify- 
ing Sentence fliallpafs according to 
Works, as well as Faith* 2. That 
the Reafon is, becaufe they are parts 
of the Condition. 


Worh^ opened. gig 

For the flrft, fee Mt*<z£* 21 ,23 

Well done , good And faithful fer~ 
vant ! TboH haft been faithful over 
a few things ; / will makg thee fH» 
ler aver many things : Enter th*H 
into" the joy of thy Lord. And m©ft 
plain is that From the mouth of the j 
Judg him&lf, defenbittg the orckr 
of theproceft at that day, Matty. 
54,55, Come ye Bit fed ! inherit the 
Kivgdoin\y ore. [_Fsr} I was hm~ \ 
py&eJ$o W.ii.uiyJVkowitSmt\ 
rtfpeti. of perfons judetb according to 
every mans ttw^So 2 Cor.^aoWc 
mnft all appear before the Judgment 
feat of Chrift, that every one may 
receive the things done in his body? 
according to that he hath done, whe- 
ther good or bad. So i^. 20.12,13. 
They ftere judged everg man accor* 
ding to his Works. Heb.l^.lj»Thil. 
4. 1 7. Mat. 12. 36. &c.- But this 
is evident already. 

2. As iris beyond doubt that 
Chrift will then juftine men accord- 
P 4 in g 1 

3 io ' The Naiptre of 

! ng to their Works : So that this is 
not onely to difcover the Gncerity of 
their Faith, is as evident] but that 
it is alfo, as they are parts of that E- 
vangeiical Righteoufnefs which is 
the Condition of their Justification. 
i. The very phrafes of the Text im- 
port as much, Adat.2$.2i,2i. Well 
done good and faithful ferv ant y &e* 
Mat -.25. 34, 35. [_for2 I Was hun- 
gry, &c. And in the reft [Accord- 
ing] to their Work*. Can any more 
be faid of Faith, then that we are 
jnftified or judged to Life, both 
[Tor] it, and (^according to] it? 

2. If Works be not then confider- 
ed as part of the Condition ; how 
then? t. Not as the Righteoufnefs 
which the Law requireth : For fo 
fliall no man Jiving be juftified in the 
fight of God* Row. 3.20. P/rf.143.2. 
2. Not a&ameer fign whereby God 
doth difcern mens faith : For he 
feeth it immediately and needeth no 
fign. 3. Not as a meer fign to fatif- 
fie the juftified perfon himielf : For 
1. There is no fuch intimation in 


iVorks opened. 321 

the Text. 2. Then itfhould be no 
further ufeful then men remain 
doubtful of their fincerity. 3. The 
godly then know the fincerity of 
their Faith. 4. Neither is the. bufi- 
nefs of that Day, to fatisrie the doubr 
ting about the fincerity of their; 
Faith, by Arguments drawn from' 
their former works : But to judg ; 
and juftitie them, and fo put therrir 
out of doubt by the Sentence, and; 
by their Glory. 

4. But the common opinion is\ 
That it is to fatisrie the condemned ; 
World of the fincerity of the Faith 
of the godly. But this cannot ftand 
with the Truth : For 1 . It is clearly 
exprefled a ground or reafon of the 
Sentence. 2. And to the Confola- 1 
tion and Juftificatbn of the jtiftified: I 
and not to the fatisfa&ion or convi- 
ction of others bnely or chiefly. 

3. The poor world will have 
fomewhat ~tlfe to take up their 
thoughts, as the Text fli^weth; to 
wit,the excufing of the (in for which 
they are condemned themfelves , 
4^.25.44. P 5 4. It 

322 The Nature of 

4. It feemeth that drift doth in 
the Text call them \_Righteom~\ in 
reference to this perfonS Evangeli- 
cal Righteoufnefs mentioned in their 
Jultifying Sentence, verf.46. [The 
Righteous into life Eternal J] 

5. If Gods Juftice engage him, 
not to forget their work and labor 
of Love, H(b. 6. 10,1 1,12. If the 
dead in Chrift are bklled, becaufe 
their Works follow them, Rev. 14. 
t 3 » If in every Nation, he that fear- 
eth God and worketh Righteouihes 
be Accepted of him, ^#.10.3$. If 
men fhalireap the fruit of well-doing 
in due time x GaI.6.j } 8,9. If Mini- 
Ilersfave thanfelves in taking tieed 
to themklves and to doc1:rine,i Tim, 
4.16. If he that doth Righteoufnefs 
isrighteous, 1 Job. 3.7. Ifwhatfoe- 
vcr good thing any man doth> the 
fame he fhall receive of the Lord, 
JEpkef.6.%. If hearing and doing be 
building on a Rock, Mat. j. 24. If 
the doers of Gods Will be the mo- 

j triers* fillers, and brothers of Chrift, 
i Mat, iz.^o^c. Then the mention 


* ■ — ___ — 

Works opened. 323 

of thefe works at judgements more 
then to fignifie their fincerity to the 
condemned world. 

6. If Chrift mention thefe Works 
ro convince the world, r. Either 
itmuftbebyhis own Teftimonyof 
thefe works, that they are fincere 
evidences of a fincere Faith. 2. Or 
elfe by the difcovery -which the 
works doe make themfelvcs. But 
I . Chrift may teftifie of their faith 
immediatly as well. 2. Works are 
no certain fignes of Faith to any 
ftander-by, who knoweth not whe- 
the Works themfelvcs are fincere, or 
not. See more under the 76. Po- 


If any fay, that it is to filence the 
Accufation of Satan, that thefe 
works arc mentioned at judgement ; 
The fame Anwer will ferve, as to 
the laft. Bolides, Scripture giveth 
us no intimation of any fuch accufa- 
tion; but onely the managing the 
Laws Accufation. But if he fhould 
Accufe us falfely of Hypocrifie, as 
he did Job \ It muft be onely Gods 
^i — -- heart- 

'324 The Nature of 

heart- fearching knowledg of our fin- 
cerity that can clearc us. 

Yet do I not deny in all this, but 
that Works are effeds of Faith, 2nd 
to the perfon himfelf, who kno weth 
their fincerity, they may be fome Ar- 
gument of the fincerity of Faith, and 
God will vindicate his peoples Righ- 

l teoufnefs before all, and be admtred 
iq them. But his JuftirTcation pri- 
marily refpecleth the Law, and his 
own Juftice, and the Righteoufnefs 
and Salvation- of the Juftified, . and 

t but remotely' the beholders. 

I __ .. 

Let me conclude with two or three 
cautionary Qna*res concerning the' 
inconvenience of the contrary do- 

1 Qu. Doth it not needk fly con- 
ftrainmen towreft moft plain and 
frequent expreffions of Scripture ? 

2 £}m. Doth it not uphold that 
dangerous pillar of ihe Antinomian 
Do&rine, . That wemuft not work 
or perform our duties for Life and 


tVorkj opened* 325 

Salvation ; but only from Life and 
Salvation : That we muft -not make 
the attaining of J unification or Sal- 
vation an end of our Endeavors, but 
obey in thankfuinefs only, becaufe 
we are faved and juftifie-d? A do&rine 
which I have elfewhere confuted ; 
and if it were reduced to prafttfeby 
all that hold it, (as I hope it is not,; 
would undoubtedly damn them: For 
he that feeksnot, and thatftriveth 
not to entcr,fhall never enter. Now 
if good Works, or fincere Obedience 
to Chrift our Lord, be no part of the 
Condition of our full Juftification 
and Salvation, Who will ufe them to 
that end ? For how it can procure 
J unification as a Means, and not by 
way of Conditional cannot conceive. 
3 «2^. Whether this doctrine 
doth not 'tend to drive Obedience 
out of the world ? For if men do 
once beleeve, that it is not fo much 
asa part of the Condition of their 
Judication, will it not much tend 
to relax their diligence ? I know 
meer love and thankfuinefs fhould be 


326 The Nature of 

enough : And fo it will, when all 
our ends are attained in our Ultimate 
End ; then we fhall aft for thefe 
ends no more : we (hall have nothing 
to do but to love, and joy, and praife, 
and be thankful ; but that it is not 
yet. Sure, as God hath given us the 
affections of Fear, and Dcfire, and 
Hope, and fo Care, fo he would have 
us life them for the attainment of our 
great Ends. Therefore he that taketh 
down but one of all our Motives to 
Obedience, he helps to deftroy Obe- 
dience it ft If, feeing we have need of 
every Motive that Cod hath left 

4 Qu. Doth it not much confirm 
the world in their foul-cozening 
Faith f Sure that Faith which is by 
many thought to juftifie, is it that 
our people do al molt eafily embrace, 
that is, the receiving of Chriit for 
their Saviour, and expecting Pardon 
and Salvation by him, but not with- 
all receiving him for their Lord and 
King, nor delivering up themfelvcs 
to be ruled by him. I meet not with - 


Works opened. %ij 

one, but is refolved in fuch a Faith, 
till it be overthrown by teaching 
them better. They would all truft 
Chrift for the faving of their fouls, 
and that without diflembling , for 
ought any man can difcern : Are all 
thefe men juftifled ? You will fay, 
They do it not fincerely. Anf. There 
is evident a (incerity oppollte todif- 
fimulation : But a Moral or Theolo- 
gical fmcerity there is not ; Why is 
that ? but becaufc they take but half 
of Chrift, Let any Minifter but try 
his ungodly people, whether they 
will not all be perfwaded very eafily 
to beleeve that Chrift will pardon 
them and fave them, arid to expecl 
Juftifkation from him alone? But 
whether it be not the hardeft thing 
in the worjd, to perfwade them re- 
ally to take him for their Lord, and 
his Word for their Law, and to en- 
deavor faithful obedience according- 
ly ? Surely the eafinefs of the former, 
and the difficulty of the latter, feem- 
eth to tell us that it is a fpiritual, ex- 
cellent, neceflary part of juftifying 


3*8 The Nature of 

Faith,to accept unfeignedly of Chrift j 
for our . Governor , and that part 
which the world among us will mod 
hardly yeeld to, and therefore hath 
more need to be preached then the 
other. (Though Come think thac no- 
thing is preaching Chrift,but preach- 
ing htm as a pardoning, juftifying Sa- 
vior. ) Indeed among theTurks or In- 
dians,that entertain not theGofpdjt 
is as neceflary to preach hispardoning 
Office, yea and the verity of his Na- 
tures and CommiiTion: Therefore the 
Apoftles when they preached to J ews 
orPagans,did firft&chitfly teach then; 
the Perfon and Offices of Chrift, and 
the great benefits which they might 
receive by him-.but when they preach 
(as fames) to ProfeiTors of the Chri- 
ftian Faith, they chiefly urge them, 
to itrive to enter, to fight, that they 
may conquer, fo to run that they 
may obtain to lay violent hands up- 
on the Kingdom,and take it by force, 
and to be unwearyed in laborious o- 
bedience to Chrift their Lord ; to 
be ftedfaft, immoveable, always a- 


mrks opened.' 339 

bounding in the Work of the Lord, 
forafmuch as they know their labour 
is not in vain in the Lord. 

5. Laftly, Is not this excluding of 
(ince.re Obtdiencefromjuftification, 
the great ft umbhng block of Papifts? 
and that which hath had a great hand 
in turning many learned men from 
the Proteftant Religion to Popery? 
When they fee the language of Scrip- 
ture in the forecked places fo plain 
to the contrary : When JllyricHt , 
6 latins, AmfderfuSy&c.Qx&X account 
it a herefie in George Major, to fay, 
That good Works are necefTary to 
Salvation : And when (if Melchior 
Adam pis fay true) eo dementia & 
impietatis vtntnm erat, ut non du- 
bitartnt quidam h<ec axiomata pro- 
fugnare ; Bona of era noafunt ne- 
etjJArja dd faltttem: Bona opera_ 
ojjiciunt falnti ; Nova cbedientia 
non eft necejfaria. When even Me- 
Unfthons credit is blafted, for being 
too great a friend to good Works, 
though he afcribe not to them the 
kail part of the Work or Office of 

Chrift I 

5^0 The Nature iff 

Chrift : And wheri to Ms day many 
Antinomian Teachers, who are mag- 
nified as the only Preachers of 
Free Grace , do aflfert and pro- 
claim , That there is no more re- 
quired to the perfect irrevocable 
joftification of the vikft Murderer 
or Whoremafter, but to beleeve that 
he is juftified, or to be perfwadfd 
that God loveth him. And when 
fuchs Edokasthat, MtdthtMar- 
rfi»of Moderne Divinity, can Have 
fo many applauding Epiftles of fuch 
Divines ; when the Doctrine of it 
is, That we muft not Acl: for jufti- 
fication or falvation ; but onely in 
thankfulnefs for it : contrary to the 
main drift of the Scripture, which 
fopreflethmen to pray for pardon, 
and to pardon others, that they 
may receive pardon themfelves : and 
to ftrive to enter, and run that they 
may obtain, and doe Chrifts Corn- 
dements that they may have right to 
the Tree of life, and enter in by the 

'gate into the City, Revel. 22. 14. 

I Doe thefe men thinke that we are 


Work* opened. 33 1 

perfectly juftifyed arid faved already? 
before the abfolving fentence at the 
great TribunaU ,• or the poffeflion of 
the Kingdome, for which we wait 
in Hope ? Indeed when we have 
that perfect fakation, we {hall not 
need to feek it, or labour to attain 
it ; but mult everlaftingly be thank- 
full to him that hath ourchafed it, 
and to him that hath oeftowed it., 
But in the mean time, he that feek- 
ethnec, (hall riot find, and he that 
runnesnoc (hall not obtaia : No, 
nor all that feek and run neither , 
Luk. 1 j. 24. Lttks 12. 31. z Tim, 

This Do&rine was one that helped 
to turn off Grotitu to Caffandrian 
Popery ; See Grotii votum, Pag.ii. 
22.23. 115. And was offenfive to 
MelanEhhen, Bucer, and other Mo- 
derateDivinesof our own.And al ari- 
feth hence.That men underftand not 
the difference betwixt Chrifts part 
of the work, which he performeth 
himfelf, and that which he requireth 
& enableth us to perform:nor know 

the y| 

53* The Nature of 

! they, that true juftifying Faith doth 
at once receive Chrift, both as Lord 
and Saviour ; and that (incere Obc 
dience to Chrift, is part of the Con- 
dition ot the New Covenant. Works 
(or a purpofe to walke with God J 
(faith Mr. Ball on the Covenant 
pag.73.) doejuftifieas the Paflive 
qualification qf the fubjecT: capa- 
ble of Juftification. See Calvin on 
Luke 1.6. The common affertion 
t)\m[That goodfVorks do follow Jh- 
fttfication^ but not go before it ] 
muftbe underftood, or it is felfe, 
viz,. Adtuall obedience goeth not 
before the firft moment of Justifica- 
tion, But yet it is as true, 1. That 
the taking of Chrift for our Lord, 
and fo delivering up our {elves to his 
Government (which is the fubjec^i- 
on of the heart, and refolution for 
further obedience, and indeed an ef- 
fentiall part of Faith,) doth in order 
of nature goe before our firft juftifi- 
; fixation. 3. That Acluafl Obedi- 
I encefas part of the Condition) doth 
in order of Nature eoe before our 


Works opened, jjj 

juftificacion as continued and confor- 
med. For chough our Marriagtcon- 
traft with Chrift doe give us tfye firft 
pollefllon,yet it is theMarriage faith* 
fuiiie.s and duties, which muft conti- 
nue that pofTcflion. 3. That perfeve- 
ranee in faithful obedience doth both 
in nature and time go before our full, 
compleatandfinalljuftification; and 
that as part of the Condition of ob- 
taining it. If we walkjn the light , as 
he is in the light ^ we h^ve fellonvjhif 
one With another ,and the blood offe- 
fits ChriB his Son cLcanfeth us from 
• all fin, 1 Joh,l.7..So'7/^. 1.16. 17. 
; I %.\9.fV4fb jouymake jou clt An*pHt 
I away the evil of your doings- y ceafe to 
do evil; learne to doe well^crG.Come 
\ now^rc. though your (ins fa a£.fe*r r 
i let ,t hey fhal be as White asfnow^ and 
1 though they be red like crirnfoflythey 
fhal be like wool£o E^ekt 3 ? . 1 4. 1 5, 
i <5. #• 1 8. 2 1 . 2 2. Neither kt any 
objecl 3 that this is the Law of works: 
For certainly that hath no promifes 
of forgivenefle : And though the 


jj4 The Nature of 

difcbveries of the way of Jufitfica- 
on be delivered in the old Tefta- 
rbeht, in a more dark and Legal lan- 
guage then in the New; yet not in 
termes contradictory to the truth in 
the New Teftament. Thus you may 
fee, in what fence it is that Chrtft 
will judge men according to their 
Works : and will fay, Come ye blef- 
feA of my Father, inherit the king- 
dome, &c.For I "toas hungry, and ye 
fed me, &c. Well done, good and 
faithfull Servant, thou haft been 
faithful! in few things ; I Will 
make thee Ruler over many things : 
Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord, 
Matth. 25. 

For being made ferfetl, he be- 
became the Author of Eternal! 
falvation to all them that obey him, 
Hebr.5. 9. Of- whom it (hall be 
♦(aid, when they are glorified with 
him : Theje are : they that come 
out of great, tribulation,: and have 
iy toa(hed their robes in the blood of 
the Lamb e, ad made them white: 
Therefore are they before the 


Works opened. 335 

throne of god, and ferve him day 
and night in hi* temple ; and he 
that fttteth on the throne Jhall 
dwell among them, Revel. 7.14. 15. 
To whom be Glory for ever, 

REader, becaufe an ex- 
ad: Index would con- 
tain a great part of the 
Book,! (hall omit it : and 
inftead of it, I here lay 
thee down lome of the 
chief Diftin&ions, upon 
which this Difcourfe de- 
peildcth. defirirtgthecto 
underftand them, and 
keep them in memory. 

Youmuft diftinguift, 

i; T> Btmxt Gods Decretive or 

LJPtfrpoftng mil : And his 

Legiflative or ^Preceptive Will. 

The i, is his Determining of E- 

J2^ vents. 

vents. The a. of 'Dntj and Re- 

2. Betwixt 1. the Covenant or 
Law of fVdr\s, Which faith, Obey 
perfedly, and Live ; or fin,and Dye. 
2. And the Covenant or Law of 
Grave, which faith, Eeleeve, and be 
faved 5 &c 

3. Betwixt the two parts of each 
Covenant ; viz. 1. The primary, 
Sf covering the djtty in Precepts, 

I and prohibiting the Sin. 2. The fe- 
ainJary, difcovering the Rewards 
and Penalties, in Promifes and 
Thref.tnings. . 

4. Betwixt a two-fold Right eoufnes 
. of one and the fame Covenant. 1. Of 
perfeCi Obedience, or performance of 
the Condition. 2. Of Offering, or 
fatisf allien for difobedience, or non- 
performance ,Which maketh the' Law 
to have nothing againfi hs, though 
WedifobeyeL See-Vtmhk. of- Jufti- 
fcation,^^.!. Our Legal Right e- 
oufnes is ofthttUfcfort^uoi of the 
firft. 'Both thefe forts of Righteouf* 
nefs are not poffible to be found in a- \ 


nj one perfon^except Chrifl, who had 
the former Righteoufnefs as his own, 
(incommunicable to us in that form} 
The 2. he had for ns> m he was by 
imputation a firmer: And Jo we have 
it in i or by him. Mark this. 

5. Betwixt two kinds of Righteouf- 
nefs, fuitable to the two Covenants 
and their Conditions. 1. Legall 
Righteoufnefs, Which k onr Confor- 
mity, or fatis fall ion to the Law. 
a. And Evangelical Righteoufnefs, 
which is our Conformity to the new 
Covenant, Note, that 1. Every 
Chriftian muft have both thefe. 
2. That Qur Legal righteoufnefs is 
onefy that of Sat if all ton : but our 
Evangelical is only that of Obedi- 
ence, or performance of the Conditi- 
on, 3. That our Legal Righteouf- 
nefs it all Without us in Chrifi, the 
other in ourfelves, 

6. Betwixt Evangelicall Righte- 
oufnefs, improprrly fo called ,viz. be- 
becaufe the Gojpel doth reveale and 
offer it. This u our Legal righte- 
oufnefs in Chrift. 2. And Bvangc- 


lical right etxfaefs properly fo culled 
viz. Becaufe the ne^ Covenant is 
the Rule to which it is conformed. 
This is our performance of the new 
Covenants Conditions* 

7. Betwixt the Life or Reward 
in the firfi Covenant : viz. Adams 
paradije vsippinefs. 2. And the Life 
ofthefecond Covenant - y Which //, £- 
tcrnal glory in heaven. 

8. Betwixt the death or curfe of 
the old Covenant, which U oppofite to 
its reward: This one ly Was laid 01$ 
Chrift 3 and is due to Infants by na- 
ttire. 2. And the death of the J econd 
Covenant , oppofite to its life , called 
thefecond death t & far forer puniib- 
ment.This finaU nnbeleevers ftffer. 

9. Betwixt fins againft the firft 
Covenant : For thefe Chrift died. 
2. And fins againfi the fecond Co- 
venant ; For thefe he dyed not. 

I o. Betwixt finning againfi Chrift 
andtheGofpel, as the objetl of our fin 
only: So Chrift died for them. 2. And 
finning again ft the new Covenant as 
fitch, or as a threatning Law : So 
Chrift dyed not for them. 11. | 

1 1 . Beftoixt delaying to perform 
the conditions of the new Covenant. 
This is not threatned with death, 
2. And final non-performance. This 
is proper violation of the Covenant, 
and a fin that leaveth no hope of re- 

1 2; Betwixt paying the proper 
debt of obedience (at Chrijl did him- 
felfy) or off offering (as the damned 
do.) 2. Andfatisfying for non-pay- 
ment ; as Chrift did for us. 

13. Betwixt repealing the Law 
or Covenant (Which is not done) 
2. And relaxing it or dijpenjing With 
it (Which is done.) 

14. Betwixt relaxation or difpen- 
fation in the proper fttbjett and cir- 
enmflances of the 'Penalty. This is 
done in removing it from us to 
Chrifl. 2. And difyencing with the 
Penalty it f elf This is mt done ;for 
Chrifl did bear it. 

I5# Betwixt the change of the 
LaW : 2. And of the finners reten- 
tion to the LaW. 

16. BetWixt the Law es forbidding 
Q 5 and 

and condemning the fin ' (fo it doth 
fiill.) a. And its condemning the 
finner : (So it doth not to the jufii- 
fied, hecaufe Chrifi hath born the 
enrfe, ) 

17. Betwixt the Precepts as ab- 
firatledfrom the Covenant termes t 
(Which really they are -not at all) 

| 2.. And at belonging to the fever all 

1 8. Betwixt perfection of Holi- 
neffe (Which is a quality.)' This is 

" not in this life, 2. And Perfection 
of Right eoufnefs, (which is a Relati- 
on:) This isperfett 7 or none all. 

I p. Betwixt recalling the Faft y 
or the evil of the Fail, or its defer t 
ofpuniJhment.Thefe are never done, 
n$r are pajfible. 2. And removing 
th£ duenefs of ppmifhmentfrom the. 
Offendor.This is done. 

2Q. *BetWixt Pardon and fufiifi- 
cation Conditional, Which is an im- 
mediate effetl of Chrifi s Dejtth,and 
Refurfeltion, or rat her of thema- 

Iking of the new QovenanU 2. And 
pardon and Jufiif cation Abjofate, 


when we have performed all the Con- 

2r» BetVeixt Conditional Tar don 
and J vilification, Which is only Po- 
tential. (Such is that which imme- 
diately follow tth the enabling of the 
new Covenant to men before Faith, 
or before they have finned. ) i.jdnd 
Conditional J unification, which is 
aftual, and of which the p erf on hath 
true pojfefflon, fitch is our JufHfica- 
tion after Faith, till the lasl Judg- 
ment y whkh is ours aelually, but jet 
upon condition of perfeverance in 
Faith andfincere Obedience. 

22. BetWixt "Fur don andfufti- 
fication, as they are Immanent Atls 
in Qed, (improperly, and without 
Scripture,cafted Pardon orjufiifica- 
tion)i. An^arJon &J unification, 
as, they are- Tranfient Alls perform- 
ed by the Go/peJ Promije as Gods In- 
ftrument. This is- the true Scripture 

23. Betwixt J unification in Ti- 
tle and Sence of Law, ( which is in 
this Life.) 2. And /unification in 

„ _-_ fen 

fentence of the Judg/ which u at the 

laft Iudgment) 

24* Betwixt juftifyittg us againft 

a true Accufation, (as of breaking 

the Law.)Thus Chrift juftifieth us; 
I and here it is that we muft plead hi* 

Satisfaction* 2. Andiuftifying us a- 

gainflafalfe Accufation, (as of not 
\ performing the Conditions of the 
: Gofpel,) Here we mufi plead not 

guilty ^nd not plead the Sat is f allien 


25. Betwixt the Accufation ef 
the Law, (from Vthich Chrift doth 
juftifie believers. ) i.And the Aecu- 
fation of the Go/ pel or *e& Cove- 

I nan*) f or **t performing its Condi- 
■ tions at all ,{ from which no man can 
be juslified,andfor Which there is no 

26. Betftixt thofe AUs which re- 
cover us to the ftate of Relation* 
which we fell from*, that is, Pardon, 
Reconciliation ani luftif cation, 
2. And thofe which advance us to a 
far higher ftate, that is, Adoption 
and Vnion with Chrift, 

27. Be- 

27* Betwixt eurfirft Pojfefpon of 
Ixftification/ which is upon our con- 
trail: with Chrift or meer Faith.) 
2. And the Confirmation^ Continua- 
tion and Accoptpli/bment of it, 
(Whofe Condition is all 9 fine ere O- 
b edit nee and Perfeverance.) 

28. Betwixt the great fummary 
duty of the Gosf>el to Which the reft 
are reducible: which is Faith. 
I .And the Condition fully exprejfed 
in all its farts \ whereof Faith is the 

2p. Betwixt the word £ Faith]] 
as it is taken PhyficaHy.andforfome 
one Jingle Atl : 2. And as it is taken 
Morally , Politically and Theologi- 
cally here ; for the receiving of 
Chrift With the whole font. 

30. BetWixt the Accepting of 
Chrift as a Saviour only 7 ( which is 
no true Faith , nor can juftifie. ) 
2. And Accepting him for Lordalfo 
(which is true ^ftifjing Faith*) 

31. Betwixt the fore} r aid Receiv- 
ing of Chrift himfelf in his Offices 
( Which is the AH that Juftifeth:) 

2. And 

*. And Receiving his Promifes and 
Benefits, (a confecjuent of the for- 
mer : ) Or betwixt accepting him 
forjuftification; 2. Andbeleeving 
that we are juftified, 

32. BetVrixt the Metaphyseal 
Truth of enr Faith : 2. And the 
Moral Truth. 

33. Betwixt the Nature of the 
Atl of Faith, which juftifieth, or its 
Aptitude for its office (which it, it* 
receiving Chrift :) 2. And the pro* 
per formal Reafon of its fuftify'wg 
power, (which is, becaufe it is the 
Condition upon which God will give 
hs Chrift s Right cottfnefs.) 

34. BetWixt Works of the LaW 
(which is perfetl Obedience:) 2. Ani 
Works of the CjoFhel Covenant 
(which is Faith and fine ere Obedi- 
ence to Chrift that bought w.) 

3 5. Betwixt Works of the Cjoftel 
j ufeAas Works of the Goffel, f. e. in 
I fubordination toChrift,a*Cenditions. 
' of our full fuftif cation and Salvati- 
on bj hint. 2. And Workj command- 
I ed in the Qejpel *fcd as Works of the 

Laft, or to legal ends, viz. to make 
up in Whole or in part our proper le- 
gal Right eoufnefs ; andfo in oppoji- 
tion to Chrifis Righteoufnefs, or in 
co-ordination with it. In the fir fl 
fence, they are necejfary to Salvati- 
on : In thefecondy Damnable* 

36. Betwixt receiving (fhrift 
and loving him as Redeemer {which 
is the Condition it felf: ) 2. And 
taking the Lord for our God and 
chief Goody and loving him accord- 
ingly 3 Which >ii -ft ill imply ed in the 
Covenant as its End and T.erfeCli- 
on; Andfoas more excellent then 
the f roper Condition? of the Cove- 

(jlory to (jod in the 
higheft, and on Earth 
Teace ; Cfood+mll to- 
wards we^Luk-i. 14 



WHereas there is in this Book 
an intimation of fomething 
whicMhave written of Vmverfal 
Redemption, Underftand, that I am 
writing indeed a few pages on that 
fubjecl onely by way of Explication, 
as an Ettay for the Reconciling of the 
great differences in the Church there- 
abouts: But being hindered by conti- 
nual ficknefs,and alfo obferving how 
many lately are fet a work on the 
fame fub jed,(as fVbitfield,Stalbaw> 
Howe, Oveeyty and fome men of note 
that I hear are now upon it,) I (hall 
a while forbear, to fee if fomething 
may come forth which may make 
my endeavor in this kinde nfelefs,and 
fo fave me the labor : Which if it 
come not to pafs, you (hall (hortly 
have it, if God will enable me. 




to the fore-going 



An Anfwer to the 

Objections of a Friend 

concerning fome Points 
therein contained. 

And at his own Defire annexed for 

the fake of other* chac may have the 
fame thoughts. 

Zanchim in Philip. 5. 1 5. 
trhai can be more pernicious to a Student. yea. 
to a Teacher, i>icit to think that he tyiow- 
eth all things, avd no l{nurvhdg can be 
wanting in him ; For being once puft up 
with this falfe op'n ion , he^rviU profit no 
more. The fame is much truer in Christi- 
an Religion y and in the fyowUdg of 

Rom. j. 2 j . 
whom God hath fct forth to be a propitiation, 
through Faith in his blood, for Remiflign 
ofjmsthatarepaft, through the forbear- 
ance of God, 


The diforder of 
the Interrogati- 
ons and ObjeHions y 
which extorted from 
me this wholeTraBat? 
by pieces one after an- 
other, hath caufed me 
(an unfeigned lover of 
method) to give thee 
fuch a diforderly, im- 
methodical Mifcella^ 
ny % Alfoihe quality of 
thefe Obje&ions hath 
occafioned me to an- 
fwer many things tri- 
vial y while fl I know 

A a 2 wore 

more difficult ana 
weighty pointy are o~ 
verloo^ea: thefe tbingi 
need no excije-but this 
infer mat ion * o That I 
was to follow & not to 
I ad : and that I write 
only for thofe who know 
left than my felf» if 
thou kriow more thank 
God, and joy n with me 
for the Anflruclion of 
the 'w nor ant i whofe in- 

I r ° • r J • 

formation, reformation 

• - 


by(jods glory is the top 
of my ambition, R.B. 



to fome 

Obje&ions 8c Qucftions 


One that perufed this fmall 

Tractate before it went to 

the Prefs* 

The f tint of the Objections is as 

T feemeth ftrange to 

me, that you make 

the death which the 

firft Covenant did 

threaten to be only 

in the everkfting differing of foul fe- 

parated from the body, and that the 

body (hould be turned to earth, and 

A a 3 fufttr 


differ no more but the pains of death; 
and confequently not whole man , 
but only part of him (hould be 

2. Though you feem to take_ in 
th^AcTiveRighteoufnefs of Chrift 
with the Pafilve into the work of 
Juftification , yet it is on fuch 
grounds, as that you do in the main 
agree with them who are for the 
Paflive Righteoufnefs alone, againft 
the ftreara of Orthodox Divines ? 
3.I pray you clear to me a little more 
fully in what fence you mean, that 
no (in but final unbelief is a breach or 
violation of the new Covenant, and 
how you can make it good, that tem- 
porary unbelief, and grofsfin is no 

! violation of it, feeing we Covenant 

I againft thefe ? 

4. Whether it will not follow 

I from this doctrine of yours, that the 
new Covenant is never violated by 
any ; for the regenerate do never 
finally and totally renounce Chrift, 
and fo they violate it not ; and the 
unregenerate were never truly in 


Covenant, and therefore cannot be 
faj4 to violate the Covenant which 
they never made? 

5. How you will make it appear, 
that the new Covenant is. not made 
with Chrift only ? 

6. How make yon Faith and Re- 
pentance to be conditions of the Co- 
venant on oar part, feeing the. be- 
llowing of them is ; part of the con- 
dition on Gods part : Can they be 
our conditions and Cods too > 

7. Seeing God hath promifed;US 
thefe which you call conditions, is 
not the Covenant therefore rather 
abfolutei and more properly a pro- 

8. In making a general Covenant 
to all, you bring wicked men under 
prprpife, whereas all the promifes are 
Yea and Amen in Chrift, and fo be- 
long only to thofe in Chrift : I find 
no promife in Scripture made to a 

9. May you not elfe as well give 
the feals to wicked men as the Co- 
venant^ Except you will 'evade as 

A a 4 Mr 

8 Appendix. 

Mr Blake, and fay the Sacrament 
fealbut conditionally; and then let 
all come that will. 

10. How can you make it appear, 
that [_Do this And live~] is not the 
proper voyce of the Covenant of 
Works ? Or that according to the 
new Covenant we muft aft for life*, 
and not only from life; or that a man 
may make his attaining of life the 
end of his work,and not rather obey 
only out of thankfulnefs and love ? 

ii. Why do you (ingle out the 
boek called, The marrow of modern 
Divinity to oppofe in this point ? 

12. Seeing you make faith and 
covenanting with Chrift to be the 
fame thing ; do you not make him 
to be no real Chriftian that never fo 

j covenanted ? and confequently him 
1 to be no vifible Chriftian who never 
profeffed fuch a Covenant ? and fo 
you bring in a greater neceflity of 
publique covenanting, then thofe 
who are for Church- making Cove- 
nants ? 

13. Do you not go againft the 


ftream of all Divines, in denying the 
proper aft of Faith, as it juftifieth, to 
be either Recumbency, Affiance, Per- 
-fwafion, orAflfurance? but placing 
it in Confent or Acceptance ? 

14. Dtfyc*a not go againft the 
ftream of all Divines, in making the 
Acceptance of Chrift for Lord, to be 
as properly 3 juftifying aclt as the ac- 
cepting him for Saviour, and all that 
you may lay a ground work for Ju- 
(tifkation by Gofpel Obedience or 
Works ; fo do you alfo in making 
the Acceptance of Chrifts Perfon and 
Offices to be the justifying acl, and 
not the receiving of his Righteouf- 
neis and of pardon?- * 

t f. How can you reconcile your 
Juftirlcation by Works with that of 
£0*0.3.24. <£• 4.4,5,6? 

16. Idefire fome fa tisf action in 
that which Maccov w,and Mr Ow- 
en oppofe in the places which I men- 

A a $ The 

io ayfppeadix. 

The Jnfwer. 

TO the firfl Objection about the 
death threatened in the firft Co- 
venant, I anfwer : i. I told you I 
was not peremptory in my opinion, 
but inclined to it for want of a bet- 
ter. 2. I told you, that the Ob- 
jections feem more ftrong which are 
againft all the reft, and therefore I 
was conftrained to make choice of 
this , to avoid greater abfurdities , 
then that which you -object. For, 
*. If you fay that tsfdam . fhould 
have gone quick to Hell, you contra- 
dict many Scriptures, which make 
our temporal death to be the wages 
of fin. 2. If you fay that He fhould 
have dyed,and rofe again to torment: 
i . What Scripture faith fo ? 2. When 
fhouldHehaverifen? 3. You con- 
tradict many Scriptures,which make 
Chrift the Mediator, the only pro- 
curer of the Refurrection. 3. If you 

1 ...tmiU ii i. ii u, 1 . i n -" J -" ' " »■ " ■■■ ».or > • 

asfppe'/idix. 1 1 

fay , He (hould have lived in perpetual 
miferyon earth, then you dafh on 
the fame Rock with the firft opini- 
on. 4. If you fay. He (hould have 
dyed only a temporal death, and his 
foulbeannihilated,then i.you make 
Chrift tohave redeemed us onlyfrom 
the grave, and not from hell, contra- 
ry to I Thef. 1 . 1 o,who hath de I iv er- 
ect hs from the wrath to come. 2.You 
make not hell, but only temporal 
death, to be due too, or deferved by 
the fins of believers, feeing the Go- 
fpel only (according to this opinion) 
fbould threaten eternal death, and 
not the Law ; but the Cofpel threa- 
tened it to none but unbelievers. 
You might eafily have fpared me 
this labour, and gathered all this An- 
fwer from the place in the book 
where I handled it ; but becaufe o- 
ther Readers may need as many 
words asyou, I grudg not my pains. 


O your fecond Objection about 

Chrifts active and paflive Righ- 


1 2 ^Appendix. 

teoufnefs : You (hould have over- 
thrown my grounds, and not only 
urge my going againft thcftreamor 
Divines : As I take it for no honor 
to be the firft in venting a new opi- 
nion in Religion,!© neither to be the 
lait in embracing the truth : I never 
thought that my faith muft follow 
the major vote ; I value Divines al- 
fo by weight, and not by number ; 
perhaps! may think that one Pare- 
nt, Pifcator, Scvltetus, Alfred w, 
Cufellnsy Gdtaker .or UradfbaW) is 
of more authority then many Writers 
and Readers : View their Writings, 
and anfwer their Arguments, and 
then judg. 

TO your third, about the viola- 
tion of the Covenant, I (hall 
willingly clear my meaning to you 
as well as I can, though I thought 
what is fa id had cleared it. The 34 
Aphorifm ( which is it you object a- 
gainft)doththus far explain it, 1. That 
I fpeak o£ Gods Covenant of Grace 


Jppendix. 1 3 

only,or hisnew Law, containing the 
terms on \v ch men live or dye.2.That- 
by [[violation] I mean the breaking 
or non-performance of its condi- 
tions, or fuch a violation as bringeth 
the otfendor under the threatning of 
it, and fomaketh the penalty of that 
Covenant breaking due to him. 3. I 
there tell yoiuhat the new Covenant 
may be neglected long, and finned a- 
againft objectively ,and Chriits Com- 
mands may be broken, when yet the 
Covenant is not fo violated. The 
Tenor of the Covenant metbinks 
(hould put you quite out of doubt 
of all this, which is [He that belie- 
vethjhall be faved, and be that be- 
lieveth not /ha/I be damned.'] The 
unbelief and rebellion sgainft Chrifl:, 
which the godly were guilty of be- 
fore believing, is a neglect or refufal 
of the Covenant ; and I acknowledg 
that all that, while they were in a 
damnable ftate , that is, in a ftate 
wherein they fhould have been dam- 
ned, if they had fodyed ; for then 
their unbelief had been final. 


14 Appendix* 

But your doubt may be, whether 
they did not deferve damnation 
t while they were in their unbelief for 
refilling Grace ? 

I anfwer you as before : I . I look 
upon no punifhment as deferved, m 
fenfuforenfijn the fenfe of the Law, 
but what is threatened by that Law: 
Now you may eafily refolve the 
Queftion your felf, Whether the new 
Covenant do threaten damnation to 
that their unbelief? If they believe 
not at all before death,itpronounceth 
them condemned , otherwife not. 
2. Yet might they in this following 
fenfe be faid to deferve the great 
condemnation before they obeyed 
theCpfpel, viz* as their unbelief is 
that fin for which the Cofpel con- 
demned men, wanting nothing but 
the circumftance of finality or conti- 
nuance to have made them the pro- 
per Tub jeds of the curfe ; and if was 
no thanks to them that it proved not 
final ; for God did make them no 
promife of one hour of time and pa- 
tience, and therefore it was meerly 


Affendix* 1 5 

his mercy in not cutting them off, 
which made their unbelief not to be 
final and damning: Many a man 
that lived not half fo long in rebelli- 
on, did yet prove a final condemned 
rebel ; fo that they did deferve, that 
God in the time of their infidelity 
fhould have cut off their lives, and 
fohave let their infidelity be their 
destruction. But fuppofing that God 
would not fo cut them off, and fo 
their unbelief fhould not be final, 
(which is the cafe,) and fo they are 
condemned or threatened by none 
but the firft Law or Covenant which 
Chrift did fatisfie : But as for the fe- 
cond Law or Covenant it condemn- 
ed them notj fo that Chrift need not 
bear the condemnation of that Co- 
venant f©r them; for He doth not 
fetch any man from under the con- 
demning fentence of it, but only in 
rich mercy to hischofenHe doth pre- 
vent their running into that con- 
demnation, partly by bearing with 
them in patience, and continuing 
their lives, (for into the hands of the 


1 6 Appendix. 

purchafer are they wholly commit- 
ted,) and partly by prevailing with 
them to come in to him by the effi- 
cacy of his Word and Spirit ; fo that 
confidering them as unbelievers who 
were to be converted, and fa they 
were neither the proper fbbjects of 
thePromife cf the new Covenant, 
nor of the threatening and condemn- 
ation of it: Promife tfoey had none, 
but conditional, fuch as they had not 
received, and fo were never the bet- 
ter for; and fo they were without the 
covenant, & withouthope,and with- 
out God,and ftrangers to all the pri- 
viledges of the Saints : But yet not 
thofe to whomtheLaw orCovenant 
faith, You flialfurely dytf, except they 
had been fuch as fliould never have 
believed : And for that wrath (Efb. 
*.3.)whtch they were children of by 
nature, it muft needs be only the 
wrath or curfe of the firft violated 
Covenant ,and not thewrath or curfe 
of the fecond ; for no man is by 
nature a child of that. 
But I perceive you think it a 


Appendix, 1 7 

ftrange faying , that a man by the 
greateft, groffcft a&ual fin may not 
be (aid to violate this Covenant, fo 
as to incur its cur fe,. but only for 
final unbelief : Do not the godly 
fometimes break Covenant with 
Chrift ? 

Anfw. I have two things to fay 
to the helping of your right under- 
ftanding in this, «te; a two-fold 
diftin&ion to minde you of, which 
you feem to forget. 1. Either the 
grofs fins, which you fpeak of, are 
fuch as may ftand with fincerity of 
heart, or fuch as cannot: If they 
be fins of really godly men, then 
certainly they violate not the Cove- 
nant, fo as to make them the fub- 
jec*rs of its curfe : For the Covenant 
faith not, He that finneth (hall be 
damned ; nor he that committeth 
this, or that great fin, (hall be damn- 
ed : But, he that belecvethnot (hall 
be damned. 

ObjeEi. But is not this Antinomt- 
aniftru which you fo deteft? Is it 
not faid, that no whoremonger, or 


1 8 Appendix. 

unclean perfon, or covetous per-* 
fon,&c. (tall enter into the King- 
dom of Chriftj or of God? Rev.n. 
8. & 22.15. & £/>/?. 5. 5. that for 
thrfe things fake cometh the wrath 
of Cod upon the children of dif- 

Anfw. I pray you remember that 
I have already proved, that Faith is 
the confenting to Chrilts Dominion 
and Government over us ; or the 
accepting of him for our Lord, that 
we may obey him, as well as for our 
Saviour, that we may have affiance 
in him : And confequently UnbdicP 
(in this large fence in which- the Go- 
fpel ufeth it in opposition to that 
faith which is the condition of the 
Covenant ) con taineth in it all Rebel- 
lion againft drifts Government : I 
could prove this to you out of many 
pUio Sctiptaares, but theplainnefsor: 
H naay fpare me that labor : Even in 
the Text objected, the word ttanf-, 
lated \ChiUren of oUfobedience~] 
' doth fignifie both Vnbeliefznd Dif-,: 
obedience ; or obifeate,iinper£wade- 



Appendix. ip 

able men, that will not be perfwaded 
tobeleeve and obey: 2Thejf* 1.8. 
Chrift {hall come in flaming fire to 
render vengeance to them that obey 
not his Gofpel : Certainly thofe are 
unbeleevers. Or if you will have it 
plainly in drifts own words, what 
is the damning fin oppofed to Faith, 
fee it in Luk. 1 9.27. But thofe mine 
enemies , which Vwuld not that I 
(boald reign ever them, bring them 
hither ,av A Jlay tb&m. bef ere me. It 
is not then for every ad: of thofe 
fore-mentioned fins that the ever- 
lafting wrath of God doth come 
upon men ; for then what {hould 
become of Davnl,Noah, Lot, Mary 
Magdalen, and all of us ? But it is 
for fuch fins as do prove and proceed 
from a confederate wilful refufal of 
Chriits Government, or an unwill- 
ingnefs that he {hould reign over us.: 
and that not every degree of unwill- 
ingnefs,but a prevailing degree,rrom 
whence a man may be (aid to be one 
that would not have Chrift reign, &c. 
Becaufe this is real unbelief it felf, as 


20 Appendix. 

oppofite to that Faith which is the 
condition of Life, which is the re- 
ceiving of ChriftforLordas well as 

Yet it is true, that temporal judg- 
ments may befall us for particular 
fins ; as alfo, that each particular fin 
doth deferve the eternal wrath 
which the firft Covenant doth de- 
nounce; but not ( in a Law- fence) 
that which is denounced in thefe- 
cond Covenant. Every great fault 
which a Subject committeth againft- 
his Prince, is not capital , or high 
Treafon. Every fault or difobedient 
act: of a Wife againft her Husban i 
doth not break the Marriage Cove- 
nant, nor loofe the bond : but only 
the fin of Adultery ( which is the 
taking of another to the marriage 
bed, or the choofing of another huf- 
bandj and actual forfaking the Huf- 
band, or renouncing him. 
. And you need not to fear left this 
doctrine be guilty of Antinomia. 
nifm ; For their Error (which many 
of; their adverfaries alfo are guilty 


Afpendix, 2 1 

of J lieth here ; That not underftand- 
ing, that receiving Chrift as Lord is 
an effential ad of jollifying Faith, 
nor that the refufal of his Govern- 
ment is an etfential part of damning 
unbelief; they do thereupon ac- 
knowledg na condition of Life, but 
bare Belief in the narrowest fence ; 
that is, either Belief of Pardon, and 
J unification, and Reconciliation, or 
Affiance in Chrift for it : fo alfo 
they acknowledg no proper damn- 
ing fin , but unbelief in that ftridl 
fence as is oppofit to this faithjthat is 
the not beleeving in Chrift as a Savi- 

And upon the common grounds 
who can choofe but fay as they, that 
neioher drunkennefs , nor murther, 
nor any fin, but cnat unbelief doth 
damn men, except he will fay that 
every fin doth ; and fo fet up the 
Covenant of Works , and deny his 
very Chriftianity, by making Chrift 
to dye in vain: fo. great are the in- 
conveniences that follow the igno- 
rance of this one point, That jufti- 


22 Appendix. ' 

tying faith is the accepting of Chrift 
for Lord and Saviour ; and that fin- 
cere obedience to him that bought 
us, is part of the condition of the 
new Covenant. 

I have been forry to hear fome 
able Divines, in their confeflions of 
fin , acknowledging their frequent 
violation of this Covenant; yea, 
that in every finful thought, word 
or deed they break the Covenant 
which they made in Baptifm. Did 
ever any fober man make fuch a Co- 
venant with Chrift, as to promife 
him never to fin againft him ? Or 
doth Chrift call us to fuch a Cove- 
nant? Doth his Law threaten, or 
did we in our Covenant confent, 
that we fhould be condemned if e- 
ver we committed a grofs fin ? I 
conclude therefore, that thofe fins 
which do confift with true faith, can 
be no breaches of the Covenant of 
Grace; For elfe (Faith being the 
condition; we*fhould both keep it, 
and break it, at the fame time. 

2. But all the doubt is about the 
. fins 

Appendix. 23 

fins which sire inconfiftent with 
Faith. Thofe are cither, 1. Difobe- 
dience to tke Law of Works ; ( but 
that cannot violate the Covenant of 
Grace as fuch.) 2. Or elfe Refufal 
ofChriftby Rebellion and Unbelief 
privative, ( for of negative unbelief 
I will not fpeak : 3 And that Refofal 
is either, 1. Temporary, (of that I 
havefpfcken already: ) Or, 2. Final 
( and that I acknowledg is the vio- 
lation of the Covenant.) 

Perhaps you will object, That the 
fin againft the Hfcly Ghoft alfo is a 
damning fin, and fo a breach of the 
Covenant. To which I anfwer, Fi- 
nal Unbelief is the Gemu, and hath 
under it thefe three forts. 1. Ordi- 
nary final Unbelief, viz. againft Or- 
dinary mean's. 2. The fin againft the 
Holy Ghoft. 3. Total Apoftacy : 
All thefe are unpardonable fins. 

I have in another Treatife adven- 
tured to tell you my judgment con- 
cerning the fin againft the Holy 
Ghoft, viz. That it is when a man 
will not beleeve in Chrift notwith- 
{landing ^ 

24 Appendix, 

ftanding all the teftimonial miracles 
of the Holy Ghoft, which he is con- 
vinced de fafto were wrought, but 
yet denyeth the validity of their 
Teftimony. This is the unpardonable 
unbelief, becaufe uncureable: for 
it is the laft or greateft Teftimony 
which Chrift will afford to convince 
the unbeleeving world ; and there- 
fore he that deliberately refufeth 
this, and will not be convinced by 
it , is left by God as a hopelefs 
Wretch. So that the fin againft the 
Holy Ghoft is but a fort of final un- 
belief. Lay by your prejudice againft 
the (ingularity of tnis interpretation, 
and exactly confider what the occa- 
fion of Chrifts mentioning this (in 
was, and what was the fin which 
thofe Pharifees did commit,and then 

Laftly, For the fin of total Apo- 
ftacy, I confefs it is the moft proper 
violation of the Covenant, not only 
as it is a Law and Covenant offered, 
butalfoasit is a Covenant entered 
and accepted. But it is unbelief 


Appendix. 25 

which Apoftates do fall to ; for it is 
only an explicate or implicite re- 
nouncing of Chrift either as Lord or 
Saviour,or both, which is the unpar- 
donable fin of Apoftacy, which is 
called [falling away~] (that is,f rom 
Chriftand the Covenant,) and cru- 
cifying the Son of God afrejh y and 
putting him to open fhame, Heb«6.6. 
And which is called Heb+ 10. 16,19, 
\_ finning wilfully J (that is,confider- 
ate, refolved rejecting Chrift, or re- 
futing his Governmentjand fo called 
[treading underfoot the Son of god, 
and counting the b(ood of the Cove- 
nant, wherewith they were fanblifi- 
ed y an unholy thing, and doing de~ 
fpight to the Spirit of Grace.'J As 
the nature of this Apoftacy lyeth in 
returning to infidelity, fo being To- 
tal it is always sdfo Final ; God 
having in his juft Judgment refolved 
to withhold from all fuch the grace 
that (hould recover them ; and fo 
this is a fort of final unbelief. 

A fecond diftinclion,which I muft 

here mind you of, is, betwixt 1. the 

6 b main 

26 esfppetidix. 

main Covenant of Grace: and 2. Par- 
ticular, fubordimte, inferior Cove- 
nants, which may be made between 
God and a believer. The former is 
not violated,, but as I have (hewed 
before : The latter is ordinarily bro^ 
ken by us, If any man make a vow 
like Saul s orfephtha%he may break 
ic pofilbly, and not be damned, but 
recover by repentance. If in your 
ficknefs, or other affliction, or at Sa- 
crament, or on days of Humiliation, 
or Thankfgiving, you fhould Cove- 
nant with God to forfake fuch a fin, 
or to perform fuch a duty, to mend 
your lives, to be-more holy and hea- 
venly, &c. this Covenant you may 
perhaps, break, and yet recover. And 
of fuch Covenants it is that I mean, 
when in confefilon I do bewaii my 
Covenant-breaking with drift, and 
I not of the main Covenant of Grace; 
i for then I fhould confefs my fetf a 
j total irrecoverable Apoftate. The 
Covenant which ought to be made 
with Chrift in Baptifm, and which 
Baptifm is the profeffing fign and I 




feal of, is the main Covenant of 
Grace ; Therefore is there no ufe 
for re-baptizing, becaufe fuchApo- 
ftacy is an uncureable fin. 

So you fee what Covenant it is 
that the godly break , and what 
breach it is that tiiey ufe to confefs. 

To the fourth Obje&ion. 

YOur fourth Objection. £ that 
from this do&rine it will fol- 
low, that the Covenant is never bro- 
ken] iseafilyanfwered. i. I think 
it is true, that the regenerate do ne- 
ver break the Covenant : But yet 
the breach in it felf, and in refped: 
ofourftrength is more thenpoffi- 
ble ; and the controverfie de even- 
ts will hold much difpute. AuHin 
feemeth to me to be ©f thkopinion, 
That there are fome effe&ually cal- 
led that yet may fall away, but the 
elecl cannot ; fo that he difkinguifli- 
eth of calling according to purpofe 
Bb2 or 

28 appendix. 

or ele&ion, (and that he thinketh 
cannot be loft,) and calling not fol- 
lowing election, (which he thinketh 
may be loft,) fo that he placeth not 
the difference in the calling, but in 
the decree. I do not recite this as af- 
fenting to it ; nor yet can I aflfent to 
them, who make the very nature of 
•Grace to be immortal , and from j 
thence do argue the certainty of per- ! 
feverance. I think to be naturally Im- j 
mortal is Gods Prerogative, and pro- j 
perly incommunicable to any crea- i 
.cure.: Even Angels, and foulsof men 
are Immortal only from the will and 
continued fuftentation of God ; and 
if God did withdraw his hand, and 
not continually uphold it, the whole 
Creation would £dl to nothing,miich 
more the quality of holinefs in die j 
foul : To fubfift of himfelf without j 
continual influx from another,is pro- 
per to God, the firft,natural,necefTa- 
ry,abfolute,Independent Being : Yet 
Iacknowledg, that when God will 
perpetuate any Being, he fitteth the 
nature of it accordingly, & maketh it 


Appendix. 19 

J more fimple, pure, fpiritual, aridlefs 
i fub;e<5t to corruption. But yet to 
j fay, that therefore it is of a Nature 
i Immortal , or that cannot dye , I 
think improper : But I know Philo- 
fophers and Divines do think bther- 
wife,and therefore I do d\flent, cj Ha- 
ft co aft as & petit h venia. 2. But 
whether the Regenerate may break 
the Covenant or not, certain I am 
the unregenerate may and do : And 
whereas you objecT: , £ That they 
were never in Covenant, and there-' 
fore cannot be f aid to breaks it : ] I 
muft defire you, befides the former 
diitindions, to remember thefe two 
more. 1 . Betwixt the Covenant as 
promulgate , and only ciiered on 
Gods part. 2. And the Covenant as 
accepted and entered by the (inner. 
The former is moft properly called, 
The Law of Chrift, or new Law, as 
containing the conditions of our fai- 
vationor damnation; yet it is pro- 
perly alfo and frequently in Scripture 
called a Covenant, (though not in fo 
full a knfc as the latter,) becaufe 
Bb^ it 

3 Appendix. 

it containcth the fubftance or matter 
of the Covenant, and exprefleth 
Go&s confent, fo we deny not ours ; 
and alfo becaufe the great prevailing 
part in it is Nfercy and Prormfe, and 
the Duty fo fmail and light in com- 
parifon of the (aid Mercy, that in 
Reafon there fhould be no Queftion 
of our performance : And fo Mercy 
obfcuring or prevailing againft Judg- 
ment, it is mort frequently called a 
Covenant and Gofpel then a Law ; 
yet a Law alfo moft properly it is, 
and oft fo called. Now then that the 
Covenant in this fenfe may be bro- 
ken, is no queftion : God hath faid, 
He that believetk {hdl be fiaved^ 
And he that believeth not ft; all be 
damned. Doth not he that never be- 
! lieveth break this Law or Covenant, 
; and incur the penalty ? So that men 
that never accept the Covenant, do 
thus break it by their refufal, and fo 

i. Youmuft diftinguifo betwixt 
i. The Covenant accepted heartily 
and fincerely, 2. Or not heartily and 


appendix. 3 1 

fincerely : And fo I anfwer you , 
Though unregenerate men did never 
fincerely covenant with Chrift, and 
foare not in Covenant with him as 
the Saints are, yet they do ufually 
Covenant with him, both with their 
mouths, by folemn profcfiion, ac- 
knowledging and owning him as 
their Lord and Saviour, and alfoby 
their external fubmitting to his 
WorQiip and Otdinances } and taking 
the feals of the Covenant, and alfo 
in fome kind they do it from their 
hearts, ( though not in fincefity. ) 
Either they do k 1. Rafhly, and not 
deliberately ; Or 2. they do it out of 
fear, as a man that Is in the hands of 
a conquering enemy, that lriuft yield 
to his will to prevent a worfe incon- 
venience, though heaccountethitan 
evil which he is forced to,and had ra- 
ther be free if he might, and doth 
covenant, but with a forced will, 
partly willing (to avoid greater mi- 
(ery)and partly unwilling. 3. Or dC^ 
they keep fecret refervations in their 
hearts, intending (as a man that as 4- 
B b 4 ferefaid 

3 2 Appendix. 

forefaid covenanted with the con- 
queror J to break away as foon as 
they can, or at lcaft to go no further 
in their obedience then will (land 
with their worldly happinefs or 
hopes , ( though thefe refer vations 
be not expreffed by them in their 
Covenant J 4. Or elfe they mi- 
ftake Chrift, and the nature of his 
Covenant, thinking he is a Matter 
that will let them pleafe the flefb, 
and enjoy the world and fin, and un- 
derstand not what that Faith and 
Holinefe is which his Covenant doth 
require, and fo they are baptized in- 
to they know not what, and fub- 
fcribc to they know not what, and 
give up their names to they know 
not who ; and then when at laft they 
\ find their miftake, they repent of the 
• bargain,and break the Covenant; or 
1 elfe never difcerning their miftake, 
J they break the Covenant while they 
} think that they keep it; or if they 
! keep their own, they break Chrifts. 
J All thefc ways men may enter Co- 
lt venant with Chrift, but not fincere- 

Jffendix. 33 

ly ; for fincerc covenanting mull be 
1: Upon knowledg of the nature, 
ends and conditions of the Cove- 
nant. Though they may poffibly be 
ignorant of feveral Accidentals about 
the Covenant, yet not of thefe Effen- 
fcntials,if they do it fincerely. 2.They 
muft Covenant deliberately, and not 
in a fit of paflion,or rafhly. 3 . They 
muft do it ferioufly, and not diflem- 
blingly or flightly. 4. They muft do 
it freely and heartily , and not through 
meer conftraint and fear* 5. They 
muft do it intirdy, and with refolu- 
tion to perform the Covenant which 
they make, and not with Refervati- 
ons, giving themfelves to Chrift by 
the halves, or referving a purpofe to 
maintain their ftefhly interefts.<5.And 
they muft efpecially take Chrift a- 
lone, and not joyn others in office 
with him, but renounce all happi- 
nefs fave what is by him,and all Go- 
vernment and Salvation from any 
which is not in direct fubordirwtion { 
to him. Thus you fee that there is a 
great difference betwixt covenant- 
Bb5 ing 

34 tsfffcndix. 

ing (incerely, and covenanting in hy- 
pocrifie and formality ; and fo be- 
twixt Faith and Faith. Which I have 
opened to you the more largely, be- 
caufe I forgot to do it when I ex- 
plained the Definition of Faith in 
that Aphorifm, whereto you may 
annex it. 

I conclude then, that multitudes 
oFunregeneratemen are yet in Co- 
venant with Chrift, though not as 
the Saints in fincere Covenanting, 
j which I further prove to you thus : 
Thofe that are in Chrift, are alfo in 
Covenant with Chrift : But the un- 
regenerate are in Chrift ; there- 
fore, &c. That they are in Chrift is 
plain, in Job. i?. 2,£. There are 
branches in Chrift not bearing fruit, 
which are cut off, and call a way.. So 
Heb. 10.29, 30. They are fanctified 
by the blood of the Covenant, and 
therefore they were in Cove- 
nant in fome fort. I fuppofe, it 
would be but loft labour to recite 
all thofe Sciiptures, which exprefty 
mention wicked mens entering into 


— ■■ — .<iwm.jnJiiiwpj.w ■ ■ " ■ ' ■ " 

Jffendix. 35 

Covenant with God, and God with 
them, and their Covenant-breaking 
charged on them : you cannot be 
ignorant of thefe. Wherefore you 
fee, that it is a common (in to violate 
the Gofp.l- Covenant. 

To the fifth 0&je£tio*. 

YOitt fifth is a meCr demand of; 
my proof,That Chrift is not the | 
only perfon with whom God the 
Father entereth Covenant. Which 
Queftion I confefs I am afhamed to 
anfwer : Nor can I tell what to fay 
to you, but [_Read the Scriftftrt} 
Doth not the whole fcope of it men- 
tion Gods Covenants with man? 
Turn over your whole Bible, and fee 
whether it fpeak more of covenant- 
ing with Chrift, or with us ? Nor 
can I imagine what (bould make 
you queftion this, except it be be- 
caufe Mr Saltmarjh (or fome fuch 
other) doth deny it. How could 


$6 appendix, 

Chrift be the Mediator of the Cove- 
nant, if It were to himfelf, and not 
to us, that the Covenant were 
made ? I know Dr Trefton and o- 
ther orthodox Divines do affirm, 
That the Couenant is made primarily 
with drift, and then with us : But 
Iconfefslfcarcerelifh that form of 
fpeech : For it feemeth to fptak of 
one and the fame Covenant ; ani 
then I cannot underftand how it can 
be true. For is this Covenant made 
wkh Chrift ? \_Beleeve in the Lord 
?efw> and thoujbalt befaved ; and 
if thou hie eve not, thou Jhalt be 
damned?^ This is the Covenant 
that is made with us : and who dare 
fay s that this is made with Chrift ? 
Or is this Covenant made to Chrift ? 
[_J W/// take the hard hearts out of 
their bodies, and give them hearts of 
fiejh 3 &c. I will be merciful to their 
tranfgreffions, and their fins and in- 
iquities Will I remember no more . ? ] 
Had Chrift, think you, a hard heart 
to cure ? I know fome think the 
latter ciaufe belongeth to him firft, 


zsfppendix* yj 

and fo • to us j viz* as he was a (in- 
ner by imputation, and fo had our 
tranfgreffions upon him : but very 
ignorantly : For was God merciful; 
to him concerning the debt ? Did he 
not deal with him in rigorous Ju- 
ftice?, and upon the terms of the ; 
firft feverer Covenant ? and make 
him pay the uttcrmoft farthing? 
Sure the Covenant , whofe curfe' 
Chnft did bear, did know ho mercy* 
to tranfgrelTors. 

Again, the Covenant is alfo a Law, 
and thrift himfelf isftiled theXaw^ 
giver; therefore can he not be un- 
der the Law,or under the Covenant : 
He is not King and Subject too. 
Moreover (as I faid before^ he is 
the Mediator, and therefore not he 
to whom the Covenant is made; 
Perhaps you.will.fay, wasnoti^^i 
fes both? To which I anfwerr 
i. Mofes wasbuta Typical impro- 
per Mediator. 2. Mofesw&s in an- 
other refpeft a Subjed: to the Law 
whereof he himfelf was the Media- 
tor; as he was one that had a foul 


3 8' Appendix, 

and body to fave, orlofe, upon the 
fame terms with the reft of the peo- 
ple : But it was not fo with our 
Lord Jefus ; He was only a Media- 
tor, as being a middle Perfon be- 
twixt the offended Majefty, and the 
offending Subjects : But Mofes 
was one of the offending Subjects, 
chofen out to fnpply the place of a 
true Mediator, as his Type. So that 
though Mofes was both Mediator, 
and alfo a Subject to that Law and 
Covenant ; yet it is not fo with 
Chrrft. But the words, and tenor of 
the Covenant it felf, are fo plain an 
Argument , that I need to fay no 

Yet do I acknowledg that there 
are feveral Promifes in the Scriptures 
made only to Chrift : As That he 
Jba(l fee of the travel of his fonl^ ■, 
and be fatisfied : and by his k*o&- 
ledg jt'ftifie manj, Ifai. 53. 10,11. I 
That the Heathen fhall be given 
for his inheritance ', ani the utmofl 
farts of the earth for his pojfejfi- 
o* t £zc. Pfa. 2. But 1. Thefe be 


zsfppendix* ^p 

not the Covenant made with us. 
2. And for my part, I take it not to 
be any part of Gods Legillative 
Wtll, as it refeneth to Chrift, but 
onlyasitbelongethtous, as a pro- 
phefie, what God would do in the 
a ivancing of Chrift and his King- 
dom, and fo of us ; and fo h|th 
partly the nature of a promife to us 
aifo.For that which is commonly cal- 
led the Covenant betwixt the Father 
and the Son, is part of Gods pur- 
pofe or decree, rather then of his 
Law. The Covenant betwixt the 
Father and Son was from Eternity : 
So is not the Law, or Covenant 
written. The Divine Nature, which 
undertook the Mediatorfhip, could 
not be fubjecl to Laws, or proper 
Covenants. Chrift had no need of 
engagements from the Father by 
word or writing for his encourage- 
ment or confirmation. So that all 
the Promifes to Chrift in Scripture, 
are eitlxr meer Proprieties, or do al- 
fo intimate fome Promife to the 
Church ; and fo are written for our 


4$ Affendix* 

fakes, and alfo for the fpreading of 
the Mediators Glory; tut not for 
proper Covenant-ends betwixt the 
Father and him. And this inter- 
pretation Chrift himfelf hath taught 
me, JoJj» 12.28,30. Chrift prayeth 
to the Father to glorifie his Name, 
viz. in the Sons Death and Refur- 
re&ion • He is anfvvered by a voyce 
from Heaven , / have g/orified it, 
and rvi/l glorifie it ; Chrift tetteth 
the people that flood by, That this 
voyce. came not becanfe of him, but 
for their fakes. 

I conclude therefore, That the 
Gofpel-Covenant, properly and u- 
fually fo called , is made betwixt 
God and man by the means taf a 
Mediator, and fo delivered to us in 
the hands of a Mediator ; and may 
alfo fitly be faid te be betwixt Chrift 
and us : But not properly that it is 
betwixt the Father and the Son t 
Much lefs is the Son the only perfon 
covenanted with. God doth indeed 
give up the World to Chrift ; . and 
more efpecially the Heft to be faved 


Appendix. 41 

by him : But thefe arc not the work 
of a written or temporary Cove- 
nant, but of an.etcrnal Decree. 

To the fix th ftndfeventh OhjetHons. 

THe fame Anfwer will ferve to 
your fixth and feventh Quefti- 
ons; viz. How Faith and Repent- 
ance are bothpromifed of God, and 
required of us ? Can they be his 
conditions and ours too ? And then 
whether the new Covenant be not 
abfolute ? 

I told you before that the Scrip- 
ture mentioneth two forts of Cove- 
nants, abfolute and conditional. 
The Abfolute Covenant is found in 
£^.11.17,18. j^r.3 1.31,32,33, 

34.7^.32.37,38,39,40,41,42- and 
mentioned by the Apoftie in Htb$. 
10. Concerning this Covenant you 
muft underftand, that as in the firft 
promife of it here by the Prophets, it 
feemeth to.be made to the particular 


42 Appendix. 

Nation of the Jews, and is joyned 
with the promife of their temporal 
Reftauration ; fo fome do queftion, 
whether it be yet to them fulfilled ? 
or whether it be not a promife of 
fome extrordinary permanent hap- 
pinefs which they fhall receive at 
their laft and great deliverance by the 
Meflias> ( whether by coming per- 
fomily to raign among them, or not, 
InowdifpntenotJ Yet as the A- 
poftle in He b. 8. 8, p. doth extend it 
further then to the Jews,fo muft we; 
but whether the Apoftle mention it 
a5 an abfolute promife , is a great 
doubt ; or whether he only refpe<ft 
the fpirituality of the benefits, and 
fo oppofe the writing of the Law in 
our hearts,(which thenew Covenant 
promifethj to the writing of it in 
ftone , and revealing mercy in the 
dark way of Ceremonies > But yet, 
for my part, I think you may call it 
an abfolute Promife : But then un- 
derstand, that this is not the new 
Law or Covenant made with man- 
kind, revealing to them their duties, 


Appendix. 43 

and the terms on which they mult 
live or dye : This is made to the e- 
led only ; this fpeaketh nothing of 
duty: No man can have any com- 
fort by this Covenant, till it be per- 
formed to him, and till he have recei- 
ved the promifed benefits 5 for too 
man till then can tell whether it be 
made for him, or not : It is made to 
the eled only ; and no ican can 
know himftlf to be elect, till he be 
(andified, and when he is fan&ified 
this promife is fulfilled ; therefore 
the benefits of this promife are not 
to be received by Faith : for faith is 
part of the t promifed Good, as it is , 
contained in a new and a foft heart 
feminally ; and therefore to receive 
this promife by Faith, were to be- 
lieve, that we may receive grace and 
power to believe, then which what 
can be mere abfurd : No man there- 
fore can fay beforehand, that he fhall 
have a new and foft heart, becaufe 
God hath promifed it ; for he can- 
not know that it is promifed to him: 
So that I conclude, that this is moft 


44 Appendix. 

properly but a prophefie what Cod 
will do, de event u, as ft hath refer- 
ence to the parties on whom it fhall 
be fulfilled, and fo is the revealed 
part of Gods Purpofing Will, and 
bclongeth not at ail to his Preceptive 
or Legiflative Will, by which he 
doth govern, and will judg the 
world: But as it is revealed to the 
Church vifible in general, and fo in 
regard of the fubjeft is indefinite, 
intended only to reveal the quality 
and fpiritual excellency of the Mercy 
of the new Covenant procured by 
Chrift, that fo Chrift may be ho- 
nored, and men drawn ro feek 
after, and entertain this precious 
Covenant, and not to flick to the 
old imperfeft Difpenfation ; In 
this fence it belongeth to Gods 
Legiflative Will: And in this fence 
I think it is that the Apoftle to the 
Hebrews doth recite it ; and not in 
the former fence, as it doth refpeft 
the particular perfons that (haU have 
it fulfilled, and fo is an abfolute Co- 
venant to the unknown Eled. 


Appendix. 45 

But now the Covenant which is 
mentioned through the whole Go- 
fpel isof another kinde, £ He that 
beleeveth, Jhall be faved\ and he 
that beleeveth not, Jhall be damn- 
ed>2 This is frequently and plainly 
expreiTed, and not fo darkly as the 
former: This is made to all the 
world, at leaft, who hear the Go- 
fpel : This is the proper new Law 
and Covenant, by which men muQ: 
be judged, to juftification or con- 
demnation. This properly fucceed- 
eth in the place of the fM Covenant, 
which faith £ Do this and live"2 '• 
And this is it which I ilil mean, when 
I fjpeak of the newLaw or Covenant. 

So that now I hope you can hence 
anfwer to both your own demands. 
To the 7. you fee there is a Covenant 
abfolute,and a Covenant conditional; 
but the kft is the proper Gofpel-Co- 
venant. To the 6. you fee,that in the 
abfolute Covenant, ©r Prophefie, he 
promifeth feith & repentance(in pro- 
mifing his Spirit,and anew heart) to 
the eled,who are we know not who. 


146 Appendix. 

And in the conditional properCove- 
nant he requireth the fame Faith and 
! Repentance of us, if we will be 
^uitified and laved. So that they are 
I Gods part which he hath difcovered 
that he will perform in one Cove- 
nant ; and they are made our condi- 
tions in another. 

Neither is there the leafc fhew of j 
a contradiction betwixt thtfc: For 
in the abfolute Covenant he doth 
not promife to make us Beleeve and 
and Repent againftour wills: Much 
left, that He, or Chrift, Hail Repent 
and Beleeve for us; and fo free us 
from the duty ; But that he will §iwe 
ns new and fort hearts, that we may 
doit our feives,and do it readily and 
WiHingly.- which that we may do,he 
commandeth and perfwadeth us to 
it ; m the. conditional Covenant t not 
bidding us do it without his; help • 
but directing us to the Father do. 
draw us to the Son ; and to theSon,, 
as without whom we can do no- 
thing; and to the Spirits the fanfti- 
fier of our hearts, and exciter of our 
Graces. To 

Appendix. ^j 

To the eighth Objtftien. 

IN your eighth Qiieftion I obferve 
feveral miftakes. i. You obferve 
not how ill it agreeth with the two 
former. For if the Covenant were 
only ab folate, then it can be made 
to none but wicked men : and in- 
deed the abfolute Covenant is made 
to none other. Sure thofe that God 
doth promife to beftow new hearts 
upon, and fofc hearts, have yet their 
old and hard hearts : f except it were 
meant of a further degree, and not 
of thefirft faviag Grace.) 2. And 
as the abfolute, fo the great condi- 
tional Promife \_Beleeve and be [a* 
ve<f\ is aifo made to ungodly men. 
Is not this fpokento Unbeleevers? 
Will you fpeakit to none but thofe 
who beleeve already? Were none 
of thofe Jews ungodly, to whom 
Peter faith ^#.2.39. The Promife 
is made tojoptand t9yeur children t\ 
But I have proved a little before, 


48 Appendix. 

that not only as it is a Covenant of- 
fered of God, but alfo as it is a Co- 
venant enteried by them, even wick- 
ed men are within the Covenant. 

2. Yet you fay,that[ you no -where 
find any promife to a wicked manT^ 
Why then you have found but a few 
. of the Scripture promifes. I have 
(hewed you, that the abfolute pro- 
rnife of a new and foft heart is made 
to wicked men, and the great condi- 
tional promife of the Cofpel: Would 
you have particular examples ? In 
Gen. 4. 7* there is to Cain a conditi- 
onal promife of acceptance, and the 
donation of Superiority and Govern- 
ment. Gen.9.1 1,1 2. There is a Cove- 
nant betwixt God and every living 
Creature. Gen. 27.39,40. Jfaac is 
Gods mouth in biefsing Sfau: Were 
all the Israelites godly, to whom the 
Land of Canaan was promifed and 
given ? 1 Sam.\ 0.4,5 ,6,7. There the 
Spirit of God and other favours are 
promifed toSattL 1 Xing. 1 1 . 3 1 , 
32,33,38,39. There are promifes to 
Jeroboam. How many (core places 


^Appendix. 49 

in the PfaJmes and Prophets doe 
mencion promises and Covenants 
of God to ungodly I fraelites ? If I 
fiiouid inftance in all the promifes 
made to Ahd* t{eb*chadnez,x,ar t 
Cyrut^VsriHs^* it would be te« 

ObjtB* But all thefe are rather 
Proprieties then Promifes. e/*»/*r. 
If that which exprcfleth the enga- 
ging of the word and Troth of God 
toj^cftow good upon a man, be not 
a Promife, I would you would tell 
me what if. Otytt. Thefe pre- 
dictions doe onely declare what 
God will doe, but give no title to 
the mercy a» a Promifc doth. 

tsftifw. Did not God give fain 
a title to his Superiority and Go- 
vernment and the Ilraelites Title 
to the Land of Promife ? and lb 
the reft. 

Promifes doc give Title to the 
thing promifed; i. Either full and 
abiolme: a.Or imperfect andeond;. 
tionall. In the firi* fence we have 
title both by an ab.'olute promife, 
Cc * <* 

50 Appendix. 

and by a Conditionall Promifc, 
when we have performed tire con- 
ditioD. In cheJatter ft neejt giveth 
title to men that have not yet per- 
formed che condition. 

Oh)ttt* Bat th<ie things which 
are given to wicked men, are not 
good to them, but eviil ; therefore 
it is not properly a promise. Aafir. 
1 1 is good in it felfe, and would be 
to them, but for their wilfull abufe. 
Shall mans (inncs make Gods pro 
roiies and mercies of leffe value ? 
God promiied that Chrill Chould 
come to his owne, the Jewes, (//*, 
5.3. Mal,%, 1,2,3,) and yet h.s 
owne received him no y /«&. 1. 1 1, 
Shall we fay therefore, that God 
threatned them with aChrifr, ra- 
ther then promiied him ? He pro- 
roiled and gave them both Pro- 
phets and Apotfles; wasitnopro- 
mite or mercy, becaulethey killed 
and pertecuted th<m ? 

To conclude this, the Scripture 
e?prefly contradt&eih your opini- 
on, Rom%}.^ To the iiraelites was 


Jffendix. 5 1 

the Adoption and Glory and Cove- 
nants, and the fcrvice,andthePro- 
mifes : And even to them for whom 
Paul would hare been accufed: 
So Aft a i ?. And Htb. 4. 1 Tak* 
heed ie' apranifebeing made of 
cmrirg into his Reft , any of you 
teem to come (hort of it* ^rov. 
1. 2^24,25. Chrift prom feth the 
foolifh and the fcomers, that he will 
poureout his Spirit to them^fthey 
will tume at his reproofc. Amos 
5,4,6 See^tbe Lord, and jour fiui 
pall live. lfa.^.6 t <?.SeektbtL*rd 
while bo may be found ; Call upon 
btm while bets neer : Let the wicl? 
ed for fake his way, and the unrigh- 
teous man hts thoughts, and let htm 
returne un the Lard and he wiU 
have mercy en him ; and to our God, 
and be wtll abundantly yard**. 

Are not all tbcie promifes to 
wicked men ? 

Ot>)eft. But when they returne 
and repent, they are not wicked. 

Anfw&m u not this conditional! 
promiie made to them before they 
return? Cc 2 Ob 

5» tsfppendix. 


ObyEl. The Promife is onely to 
Beleevers, therefore not to all. 

*Slr.fw. Either you fpeak of the 
makirg. or of the fulfilling of it: Jt 
is fulfilled onely to Bclecvers, but it 
is made and offered to all that heare 
it, onconaition cf Belecving, as is 
proved. OtjeB. Bcleeving is not 
the condition of ihe promife, but 
oncly the qualification of the per- 
fbns to whom it is made, t/infw. 
This Objection hath more fubtilty 
then fence: Is not Belceving (in 
pkincEnglifh; a Duty required in 
the Picmile by the fiee Promiier 
and Law- giver>ofhim to whom the 
Promife is made and fent, and that 
upon thefe termes, that it he per- 
forme ir, the ihing promifed (hall 
be his,otherwife it (hall not ? And 
is not this pioperly a condition re- 
quiredofthe party if he will enjoy 
the thing promifed ? When you 
fay [It is a qual.ficationofthc per- 
fon to whom the Promife is made] 
you r peak in the darknefie of ambi- 
guity : For i, Doe you roeane ic is 
a qua- 

Appendix* 5 3 

a qualification which he hath be- 
fore the Promife is made to him? 
If (b, I have proved the contrary 
already. Oris it his qualification 
afterward ? fo it is indeed : But 
not of all to whom it is made ; but 
of all tow om it (hall be fulfilled. 
Againe,doeyoumcanean habitu- 
ali qualification, or an Actual 1 ? I 
doubt not, but you know it is the 
act of Fai:h which wedifpux of: 
And what is the difference betwixt 
fuch an Active qualification, requi- 
red on the term:* before- menti. 
oned, and a proper condition . ? 

But I perceive that which you 
ftick at, is, that the Promite* are 
all Yea and Amen in Chrift, and 
therefore are made to none but 
thofe in Chrift. 

A#fo. It will be long before you 
will prove the Confequence. They^ 
are made onely on the ground ot 
Chriiis undertaking, and he is the 
Mediator of them,and inhimthey 
are fure. But doth it therefore fol - 
low, that Chrift difpenfeth then to 
Cc ? none 

54 Appendix. 

nose but thofe that are in him I 
Wicked men have benefits by 
Chrift, even thofe that are xjot in 
him fo much as by a vifible profef ~ 
fion : And why then may they 
not have fome promifes ? Yet I 
know that Beleevers are o r t called 
in Scripture , the Children , and 
HeiresofthePromife. Buttoun* 
tfand this, youmu t know, i.Thar 
the Holy Ghoft hath chiefly the re- 
fpe& to the Thing promi&d, and 
of that Beleevers are the onely 
Heires : If yon a'fo e nfider, that 
he fpeakes chit fly of the great Pro- 
miks f Reconciliation, Remiflion, 
SancVificauon, Adoption, glorifica- 
tion. 2. I told you before , that 
the promise before we perfbrme 
the Condition doth give a remote, 
imperfe#, loofable title to the 
goodproroilcd : And fo the wicked 
are children of promife. But the 
Promifewhen we have performed 
the Condition, (a$ alio the abfo- 
krepromiies) doth give an imme- 
diate, proper, certain Title to the 


Appendix. tf 

good promi fed, (b that a man may 
fay, it is mine : And thus bnely 
the faichfull are the heires or the 
Promife: They onelyha*e a pro- 
;,priety in the fpiritnall and ipecial 
j Mercies there promised. But a 
wk4*d Ii^aelife may haveproprie- 
ty in his Inheritance, by vertue of 
Divine Promile and Donation, 
For Chriftha^h led captivity cap. 
live, and received gi«ts fei men , 
even for the Rebellions, ihat the 
Lord might dwell amoBg thctn, 

To fbe o. 0b\*8io*. 

YOur p. Objection is, That if I 
make the Covenant to belong 
to wicked men, I may as well give 
them the iealet. 

To which I anfwer you ; 1 .You 
murt meane onely the main Cove- 
nant of grace* and noc inferiour 
C c 4 promi- 

I $6 %/ffftniix. 

promifcs and Covenants : For the 
Sacraments are onely to fcale to 
the maine Covenant. 2. As you 
muft remember I didingaifhed be- 
twixt the Covenant offered and the 
Covenant entred by mutuall eon- 
fent ; fo mult you diitinguifh ac- 
cordingly betwixt two forts of wic- 
ked men: 1. Open Infidels, w,ho 
never accepted and con fen ted to ihe 
offered Covenant. 2. Thofe who 
haveconfented and entree the Co- 
venant, and- lifted their names in 
therollofChriit : but yet notfin* 
cerely.unrefervedly, entirely, as is 
neceffary to falvation. To the for- 
mer of thefe you may not give the 
feales : For they are not willing of 
them as fueh : And they are not to 
be forced upon any : Neither are 
the feales ufefull till the. accepting 
and entring of the Covenant. 

But to the latter the feales are 
m©ft properly to be given by the 
Minifter, except they doc againe 
renounce Chrift by word or deed, 
otby fome gnoffefindoeeonftrain 


Appendix, $j 

us to fufpend their enjoyment of 
fuch privif edges while they are un- 
der tryall , and till they dHeover 
their repentance. 

Q**Jt*- What doe you rake for 
fueh a renouncing of their Cove- 

Atjfw m i. When they (hall in 
plaine terms renounce it, as Chri- 
stians do that turn Turks. 

2. When they renounce or de- 
ny any fan Jamentall Article of the 

3, When they do (not through 
weakne(fe,but) wilfully and obfti- 
nately refufe to yeeld obedience to 
Chrirt ; for this is a renouncing erf 
their fubjedion to him, whicb i> an 
eflentiall part of their Covenant 
and Faith ; and it is a renouncing of 
hi, kingly Office, and ib a renoun- 
cing of thrift, when they fay, Hee 
(hall not reigne over us. And 
chough fuch may acknowledge him 
in words , yet in worfcs they doe 
deny him, being diibbedienc, and 
to every good worke reprobate , 

Cc ? Tit. 

5< jipftndiw 

Tit.1.16. If therefore you (hall 
deny the feales to any man that is 
thus in Covenant with Chrift, be- 
fore he doe thus difelaime his Co- 
venant, you rouft doc it at your pe- 
rill. Therefore you ro«ft not un- 
dertake to be the Judge of hi* fin- 
cerity in he Covenant, except hee 
plainly difcovcr that he is not feri- 
ous. Dare not you to aflume Gods 
Prerogative of lurching the heart, 
nor to difpenee Gods fea'es upon 
your eonjeduresofthc probability 
or improbability of mens fineerity. 
Neither rouft y < u deny he ieales to 
them , for any fmaller fin then as 
aforefaid : For as every fin is not 
a breach of Covenant, io eveiy fin 
tnulf not deny them the feales. 

Cb)ttt. '' hen w tnnft not deny 
h to them for every grofle fin nei- 
ther ; feeing yea affirme , that 
every gr^fle finne breaketh not 

dnf*\ Yet becaufe hee that li- 
veth in known grofTe finne.cannot 
eonkntio the Kingly office or 

Govern. ' 

Appendix. 59 

Government of Chrift over him, 
therefore we have jutieauic to iuu 
p*nd the giving. of the leases, and 
! alibof felowmip witfrhim, wh le 
we try whether he did it through 
wcakneiVe or wiifulnefie. 

0£.But how (hall we know that? 

A*fiv. Chrift bach lined us out 
the way: Wemuft reprove h?tn, 
and lee whether he will heare and 
re>orme ; if he doe not, we muft 
tell the Church, and Co admomfti 
and fhame him publikely : it hee 
heare not the Church, we are to 
account him as a man without the 
Covenant, and fo unfit for feales or 

Q«fjh But when fhall I take 
him for one that will not heare the 
Church ? 

sinjv* When hee will not be 
psrfwaded to confeiTe and bewaile 
his fiane , nor 10 give over the 
practice of it. 

. So that I doe confiderately 
advife you (after long (iudyof 
this point , and as cauteious 

j JZL . 

a proceeding as moft have uted ) 
I ( for you know my former Iudge- 
1 meet, and that f never adminiftred 
j the Sacramcnc, till within this year* 
! and that 1 was then invited to it by 
j ancmment wonder of providence) 
I lay, I advife you, to beware how 
yon deny to men the fcaks, till yon 
have tryed with them this way pre 
fcribedby Chtift : Chrift is free in 
Sen ertaining, and fo mnft wee ; 
j Chri't putteth away none,but them 
i that put away thetnfelves ; and 
j then doth he call after them as long 
! as there is hope of hearing, as one 
j that is grieved at their de(Uu6tion; 
I ard not delighted in the death o£ 
j finners, but had rather they w£>uld 
I returne and live : And even thus. 
imutiwedo too. Lazincffe is the 
common caui'c offeparafon : when 
we (liould go with words of pitty 
and toves and with teares befeech 
finners to return to their duty, and 
Chew tbem their danger; wcreg- 
left all this, to fave us the labour and 
the fafTering that fometirne follows 


jfpfcndix. 6i\ 

this duty j f wee will plead that they 
are no Church. Members , and fo 
not thcBTerhrco that we are bound 
f to adoaonifli, aid fo lazily feparatc 
from them/ and fay as C*in t Am I 
my Brothers keeper? or as the man 
to Chrlft, who is my Neighbour < 
And thu* when we have made his 
finneourowneby our filence, and 
not reproving him then we excom - 
munieate him fori tone or" our foci- 
ety and from the Ordinances, and 
lb judge our felvcs oat of our own 
mouths. O r we Separate fr^m him 
tor the neglect of fome duty, when 
wee our fclves have neglected b>th 
to him and others, this great and 
excellent duty of faithfull admoni- 
tion. Ic. is more comfortable to 
recover one foule then to cali off 
many by iepara tion* Though I 
know that the avoiding communi- 
on with wilful! offeodours, who by 
this due admonition will not be re- 
claimed, is a moft neceffary andufe* 
full duty too. But do not execute 
a man before he u judged; nor judge 


$ I Appendix. 

him before you have heard biro 
fpr ak # tnd fully proved that obftinacy 
is added to his finne; (except it be 
to fafpend him while he is under 
this legall try all, ) But perhaps you 
will object, t at we have no difci- 
pline ciiabiilfced, and fo no Autho- 
rity to do hus and themcancs a e 
vaine which eannot attaine their 
end. To whieh 1 anfwer : i ♦ You 
have divine Auchoricy : 2, And 
may do as much is I preflfe without 
a Presbytery. Firlt, you may ad- 
monifh privately : Secondly % be- 
fore Witnefle: Thirdly, you may 
bring your Congregation to this, 
that the parties cn\nd.d,niay accufc 
them openly: ( The Piesbyeerians 
deny not to the Congregation the 
audience a-d cognizance , of the 
Fad, out onely the power of judi- 
cial! fentencing. ) And here you 
may admomfh them betbie all : 
Fou thly. it yci they prove obtW* 
nate, you may by your Miniftenall 
Authority: I. Pronounce again!* 
him by name what the Scripture 
pronou c* h 

Appendix. 63 

pronouneerh againft fuch iieners : 
parreularly, that be is uufitto bee 
a Church-Member, as < penly de- 
living obedience Co the kn^wne 
Lawes of Chrift 2. You may 
charge the people from Scripture 
to avoid familiarity .with him. 3. 
You may a Mb acquaint 'he Magi- 
strate with his duty, to thruft him 
out , i; hee violently intrude into 
Commurio >, ordilturbthr Ordi- 
nances. 4. You may foibeare to 
deliver the Sacrament particularly 
to hi* hand*. 5. You may en er 
and publish your diflfent aod diflike, 
it hce intrude, and take it h-mlelfe* 
All his I could molt eafily and be- 
yond doubt prove your duty as you 
are a Chriliun ^nda Minilkr. And 
if ther bee any more that a Claflfis 
may do, ycc do you do this in the 
roeane time : only be fure you try 
all meanes in private ( ir the fault 
be not in publique ) before you 
bring a man in publique : And be 
fure ycu do it in tendernefie and 
love, and rather with wary then 

j 64 9/ffpe*dix. 

paffl onate reproaches. A nd be fare 
, that you do it only in cafe of unde* 
j nyable finnes, and not in donbtfull 
: difputable Cafes * And be lure that 
| the matter of Fa& be undoubtedly 
; proved : And that no man be fuf 
fercd to traduce another pitblickly 
in a wrong way : O r if he do> that 
; he bz brougnt co acknowledgment, 
j The word Excommunication com- 
prizeth ievcrall Aits : Tnofc be r ore 
I mentioned belong to you as a Mi- 
nifter, and are pare of your proper 
Preaching d:daratiVepower,which 
you may pcrforme by your Nunci- 
ative auchority. The power of 
Clafles and Synods ( I chink ) doth 
differ oncly gradually, and not fpe- 
[cifically fromi hat ofe very frlinitfer. 
j I am afhamed that I \\avq contrary 
i to my firft pnrpofe, faid fo much 
of this unpieaiingcontroverfy. But 
when you a e n.xt at lei fare private- 
ly, I ihili under ake to prove all this 
to you from Scripture ; an J that 
the Keyes are pit by Chrift into 
the -hand's of evry Mi after fmgly i 
i and 

appendix. £f 

and that with fobriety and wife- 
dom youmay chus .name the ofren- 
dors publick!y,as all Scripture Mi- 
nifters have been ufed to do. And 
if you que ion whether our ordi- 
nary Congregations are true reall 
Churches, where fuch works may 
be managed, I fliall prove that they 
arc,b) giving you a better definiti- 
on of a Chu'.ch, then that which 
you gave, me; and then trying our 
Churches by it.: In the mean ume 
this is not matter to intermixe 

BUt you cannot, it feemes di- 
gettMr. £/*^j aflertion, that 
the Sacraments do feale but condi- 
tionally. Anfwer,Ihavenot Mr, 
Blakes book by me, and therefore 
how he cxplainech himfelfc I cannot 
rell ; But I remember hee hath 
ofc laid ib in conference wiih me. 
But let me teJl you two or three 
things, i. That I que ftion whe- 
ther you well nnderitand him. 2. 


66 tsfppexdix. 

Or whether you be able to confute 
it at thus to except againft it, 3, 
That Mr. 8l k* is as truly confei- 
entious whom hee admitceth as 

But for the Controversy , you 
mutt consider it a little more di 
ftin&Jy before you are like to un- 
derhand ir rightly. It is in vaine 
to enquire.whethertiic Sacraments 
dofeale abiblutely or, conditionally, 
till you firft know well what it is 
that theyfcale. Ltcan firft there* 
fore refolve thar Qucftion , what 
they feale? and then enquire how 
they feak t You know a Chriftian 
do:h gather the aflarance of his 
Juftificauon and Salvation by way 
of Argumentation, thu 5 ; He tk*t 
beieevetb v jafttfitd, and fhal/befa- 
ved: But, I be Jeeve; therefore lam 
jttftified and jball be faved. Now 
[the Qjertion is which of the parts 
of this Argument the Sacrament 
idothfea'ro? Whether to the Ma- 
jor, the Minor, or the Conclufion ? 
To which I anfwer : 1. That it 


j$pfcndix M 6 J 

fealeth to the Truth of Gods pro. 
mile ( which is the Major Proposi- 
ti n ,) is unqueftionablc. But 
whether to this alone , is all the 
doubt? 2. That it fealeth not to 
the Truth of the Minor Propor- 
tion, (that is, to the truth of our 
Beleevif g ) I take alfo for to bee 
b-yond diipme. For, firft it.£houid 
t\% fcale to that which h nowhere 
writen: For no Scripture faith, 
that I dobrleeVi. a. And then it 
fhould be ufed to flrengthpn my 
Faith in that which is no object of 
Faith: For, [ thai ldo beJeeve j 
is not matter of Faith, or to be be- 
Iceved , but matter of internal! 
fcn r e 9 or to bee knowne by the 
reflex acl of the undemanding. 
5. A<fo God fhould clie let h,s 
feale, to my part or condition of 
the Covenant, as well as his owne, 
and feale to the truth of my word, 
as well as to thetiuth of his own ; 
for a? juftifying and favmg us is 
Gods condition, which he under- 
take^ to performe ; fo bclceving 


68 Appendix* 

or accepting Chrift is ourcondicion, 
which wee there profefle to per- 
forms. So that it is doub Ie(Te, 
that a Sacrament as it is Go Js en- 
gaging figne or feale, doth not feal 
to the trurh of my faith,or (ineerity 
of my heart in Covenanting: it 
were a molt grolfe conceit to ima- 
gine this. 

But withall you muft unJer- 
ftand, that as there is in the Sacra- 
ment rectproc ail action;, G xh gi- 
ving, and our receiving ; fo is the j 
Sacrament accordingly a mutuall 
encasing figne or feale. As it is 
.given t it is Gods feale; fo that as in 
this full Covenant there is a mutual 
engaging; fo is chsre a matuaU 
dealing. G >d faith tous,£ here is 
my Sonne wh) hath bougntthce, 
tak; him for thy Lord and Saviour, 
and I will bee thy reconciled God, 
and pardon ind glorify thee ? ] And 
to this he fets his teale. In e /in- 
ner faith, [ I am willing Lord, I 
here take Chri \ fot my King, and 
Saviour,ani Husband \ and deliver 


up my feffe accordingly to him : ] 
And hereto by receiving the offered 
elements, he ietteth his engaging 
figne or ieale ; (o that the Sacra- 
ment is the ieale of the whole (Co- 

But yet you muft remember, 
chat in the prefent controveriie we 
meodle not with it as it is mans leal, 
but onely as it is Gods. 

So then it iscleare, that as it is 
Gods ieale , it iealeth the major 
propofitionj and as it is curs, to the 

But yet here you muft further 
diftinguim betwixt lealirg up the 
promiie as true in it fclf, and iealing 
it with application as true to me. 
And it is the latter that the Sacra- 
ment doth , the delivery being 
Gods ad of application , and the 
receiving ours ; fo that the Propo» 
fuion which God iealeth ta, runs 
thus [If thou belccve,l doe pardon 
thee, and wili fave thee.] 

3. Hut the great Queftion is, 

Whether the Saciamcnt doc ieale 

l_ to 


to the conclusion alfo, [That I am 
;u ^ified, and fhaU be Gved ? ] To 
which Ianfwer, No, direcl'y and 
properly it doth not ; and that is 
evidnt from the arguments b fore 
Iaiddowne, whereby I proved that 
the Sacraments iValc not to the 

For ?. thisconeluhVn is nowhere 
writcen in Scripture. 

2. And therefore is not properly 
the object of Faith , whereas the 
fealcsare for confirmation of Faith. 
5. Otherwise every man rightly 
receiving the lealcs, muft needs be 
certainly jultificd arrd faved. 

4. And no Miniftereangroun* 
dcdlyadminifter the Sac amemsto 
any man but himfelfe, becauic hee 
can be certaine of no mans juftifi* 
cation and ialvation, being not eer* 
taine of the fmcciity ot their Faith. 
And if he (hould adventure to ad- 
minister it upon probabilities and 
charitable conjecture? j then (hould 
he be guilty 01 prophaning the ordi* 
nance,and every t me tie mataketh, 


Appendix, ji 

he ftiould let (he fcale of God to a 
lye : And who then durf? ever 
adminifter a ^aeramen*, being never 
ccrtabe, but that he fhall thus abnfe 
it ?. I contefle ingcrmoufiy to ycu, 
that it was the ignorance of this 
one point which chiefly can ed mee 
toabftaine from adminiftr ng the 
Lords Supper Co many yeeres .■ I aid 
not under ft and, that it was neither 
the minor, ror conclufion, but only 
the major proposition of the fore- 
faid Argumen , which God thus 
fealeth. And lamforrytoice what 
advamage many of our mott lear- 
ned Divines have given the Pa- 
piiis here. As one errcur drawes 
i onmany,andieadrthaman into a 
labyrinth of abfurdities • fo our 
Divines being rlrft mitfaken in the 
nature of justifying faith, thinking 
that it eonfirteth in [ A Beiicfe of 
the pardon of my owne fmnes , ] 
( which is this conclufion ) have 
therefore thought that this is it 
which the Sacrament fealeth. And 
when the Papiiis aliedge, that it is 


j 7 a appendix* 

no where written [that fueh or fuch 
a man is juftified] we anfwer them 
that it being written Thathethat 
beleevethis juftified] this i$ equi- 
valent : A groffe miftake : As if 
the major proportion a lose were 
equivalent to the eonclufion ; or 
as if the eonclufion rruff, or can be 
meerly Credenda % a proper object 
of Faith, when but one of the pro- 
mifes is matter of faith , ana the 
other of ience or knowledge. The 
truth is, the major [he that beJce- 
veth (ball be faved] is received by 
Faith : The minor [that I doe fin- 
ccrely be'eeve] is kno^ne by in- 
ward fence and felt -reflex ion: And 
the eonclufion [therefore I {hall be 
faved j is neither properly to be be- 
lecved, nor fcit, but known by rea- 
fon, deducing it from the two fir- 
mer ; fo that faith, fenfe.and rca- 
Jon are all neeeflary to the produ- 
cing our atfu ranee. 

So you fee, what it is that is feal- 
ed to, 
2. Now let us confider, how it 
iea eth ? 

Jffendix. 75 

fealeth t Whether abfolutely 01 
conditionally f And 1 anfwer, Ic 
fcalcth abfolutely. For the promife 
of God which it fealeth is not-con - 
ditionally,but abfolutely true. 

So that the fumme of all I have 
iaid is this (which anfwereth the 
feverall queftionsj 

1. The Sacrament fealeth not 
theabfolme Covenant or Promife, 
but the conditional! [Beleeve and 

2. It fealeth not the truth of my- 
Covenant, as kisGodsfole; or ic 
fealeth not to the truth of my faith. 

3. It fealeth not to the certainty 
of my juftifioation and falvauon. 

4. But it fea'cth to Gods pa tof 
theconditiocall Covenant. 

5. And fealeth this conditional! 
promife , not conditionally , but 
abfoluielyyas of undoubted truth. 

6' And not onely as true in it 
elfe, but tru: with application to 

So that by this time you may 
di'ccrne what is their meaning,who 

D_<« [ay ,1 

74 tsffpenAix. 

fay, that the Sacraments doc feale 
but conditionally, that is, as it feal- 
cth to the truth of the major (which 
is the promiie) fo thereby it may be 
faid to feale conditionally to the 
conclufion ; for thecondufionis,as 
it were, therein contained, upon 
condition ©r fuppofition of the mi- 
nor propofition. Hee that faith 
[AH Beletvers (hall be favedj faith 
as much at that [I (hall be teved] it 
being fuppofed that lam a Beleceer: 
And fo you mutt under ft and our 
Divines in this , Yet this fpecch is 
leffe proper; For to fpeak properly, 
it doih not feale to the conclufion 
at all ; yet is it very ufefuli to help 
us in railing that conclufion, and to 
beperfwaded, thatwearejuftified, 
becaufeitio confirmed! our beliefe 
of that promife, which is one of the 
grounds of the Conclufion. 

For your inference in the la& 
words of your objection [then let 
ail come that will ;] If you meane 
LAli that will, though they come 
to mock or abufe the ordinance,] 


t^ppexdix. 75 

then it will no way follow from the 

do&rinewhichl have now opened. 

But if you mesne, L Let all come 

1 that wifc ferioufly (really or appa- 

i rently) enter or renew their Cove- 

j nant with Chrift, ] • I think that to 

! be no dangerous or abfurd confe- 

I quenee. If Chrift when he off* reth 

I himfelfe,and the thing fignified, do 

! fay, [ Let him that is athtrfl i come ; 

i and whoever wil^ let him take the 

witter of hfe freelj , Rev. 22. 17.] 

j Why may not I fay fo of the figne 

! and l'cale , to thofe that ferioufly 

; profefle their thirit. Sure 1 fliall 

ipeake but as Chrift hath taught me, 

and that according to the very fcope ; 

of the Golpel, and the nature of 

the Covenant of free grace. And 

I wonder that thofe men, who cry 

up the nature of free grace fo much, 

fhould yet fo oppofe this free offer 

ofit,andthefea:ing the free Co- 

venant to them that lay da me to it 

upon Chritis invitation. 

Dd2 r# 

76 jSpfcndix* 

To the Hnth atteL cUvtnth 

YOur i cand 1 1 . obje^ions you 
raife upon my exceptions againft 
the book, called, The UWtrrw of 
Mcforn Divinity : And fiill you 
mention the Dodrine, and then the 

i. You think, that [Do this and 
live] is the voyce of the Law of 
works pnely, andnot of the Law 
, or Covenant of Grace, and that we 
i may not make the obtaining of 
| life and falvaiion the end of duty , 
j but mud obey in meer love ? and ! 
j frcm thankfalnelTe for the life we 
! have received. 

To all which I apfwer. j. By 
way of explication; and 2. of pro. 
bation ofmy affertions, 

1. Doe this a»d live, in feverall 
fences, is the language of both Law 
and Gofpel, ,. 1. When the Law 
fpcakethit,the fence is th $ j If thou 
perte&Iy keep the Lawes that I 
have given thee or Ch all give thee 


Appendix. 7*7 

fo long thou /halt continue this 
life in the earihly Par'adife which I 
have given thee : But if once thou 
finne,thou (hair dye. 

a. When the GofpeJ fpeaketh 
it, the (ence is thus : Though thou 
haft incurred the penally of the Law 
£y thy fane, yet Chrift hath made 
fatisfa&ion : Do but accept him lor 
Lord and Saviour, and renouncing 
all other, deliver up thy felfe unre- 
fervedly to him^and love him above 
sfli, andobeytiimhncerely, both in 
doing and fuffering > and overcome 
and perievere herein to the end; 
2nd thou (halt be juftified from all 
that the Law can aceufe of, and re- 
stored to the favour and blefliogi 
which thou lull loft, and to a farre 

Thus the Gofpel faith,?)* this and 
live. That the Gofpel comtnan- 
deth all this, 1 know you will not 
qucftion ; and that this is doing, 
you muft needs acknowledge* But 
all the qucftion is ,whether we may 
doe it that wee may live? I have 


78 trfppexdix* 

folly explained to you in this 

Treatife already in what fence 

our doing i$ required, and to what 

ends, viz,, cot to be any part of a 

legall Righteonfncffe, nor any part 

of fatisfacYion for oar unrighteouf- 

j nefle ; but to be our Gofpel righte- 

oufoefle , or the condition of our 

I participation in Chrift,whois our 

| legal! Righteoufnefle, and fo of all 

i the benefits that come with him. 

In thefe feverall refpeSs and 
jfeofei following the Golpell cctn* 
mandeth us to a& for life. 

I. A wicked man, or nnbelee- 
ver,may, and mnft hear the Word, 
pray, enquire of others, &c xhat 
fo he mayobtainetbe : filtt U& of 
grace and faith. This I now prove, 
//*5 5.^.6,7. letus^ZtQ^o. Pro. 
1.2^,24,25. Awt^Sf)^ A&.i. 
37. If*.}.i6. Mm. 11.15. & 13 
43. £*(,i&i?,3i. /*&.5' 2 f • '4$' 
10.1,2.12.2V R,om ;o. 15.14. 

Yet doe I not affirm, that God 
never prevented mens endeavours; 


Appendix* 79 

be is ibmetime found of them that 
fought him not. Nor doe I fay , 
that God hath promifed the life of 
Grace to the endeavours of nature ; 
But their duty is to feek life; and 
halfe promifes,and many encourage* 
ments God hath given them ; fuch 
as that in loci. 2.12,15,14, who 
knoweth hue Gcd will, &c So 
Zepb.2.%. Exod.$*^o* And that 
in Aft 8.2*. *PrAj therefore if per* 
hdpj the thoughts of thy heart m*y 
be forgiven thee. 

a. That a man may aft for the 
increafeof thisipirituall life when 
he hath it,methinks youfhouldnot 
doubt, if you doe fee, 1 Tet. 2. 1, 2. 
& I. 32. & I Pet.U%fi t -J 9 %. & J. 

18. And the Parable of the Talents 
LMat.2 5.2<5.27.38«?o. 

3. That wee may and muft a£fc 
for the life of Reconciliation, and 
Juftification, and Adoption, is be- 
yond difputc : How oft doth Scrip- 
ture call on men, to Repeat, to Be- 
Ieeve, to Pray, to forgive others, 
and to reforme, that their finnes 
Dd 4 may 

So Appendix. 

may be forgiven them f I have 
quoted the Scriptures before, when 
I opened the conditions of juftiflca- 
tion, /y4,t.i6\i 7 ,i8. 7/455.6,7. 

je^#.g. 22. 7<M0«;.i'5* And we 

J are ft ill faid to be juftified by faith, 

iwhich is anacl of ours. 

I 4 . That we may a& for to ob - 

j taine afiurarscc both of our jultifica- 
tjon and fan3ih*cation. is undeny- 

j able, 2 Ptt.x.io* 2 OM3.5.&C. 

5, That wemaya& foreternall 

life and fal vat ion • me th nkei, he 

thatbearerh thefac^ofa Chriliian, 

fhonld not deny : arid that both for, 

Lit Tide to it, *. A (Tu ranee of our 
enjoying it : and 3» for poffeflion 

j nfelf. I foall but quote the Scrip- 

jtures for brevity fake, defiring you 
to read them, and fzvt me the la 
bour oftrancribingthem, Rtv. 22. 
14. John$. 5 9, 4©, '^ AU MVlS. 

;and7.ig. Lu'^i^i^ Thil. 2,17. 
Rgm. 2,7,10, I ^.9.24. 2. Tim, 
2. 5.12. iT//w. 6.12. 18.19. Phil. 
3.I4. UW4t, 25. i^ir. i5.1aft. 
*C°**\*ll» ands* 10, ii.z Pet. 

1. TO. 

Appendix. gi 

1. 10,11. Luke xi.'2%\ Hb t a. i # 
, Lkktiz*. UW.17. ThefrJaft 
[ place* iKew^tha^ cfje Piping hell, 
I and dammtfoh, is 3 neceiTary end 
ofoura-iVin-^ and dams, as well as 
j theobta'hiag of heaven. 

If when you have read, and weigh* 
cAchef? Scriptures you be not con - 
; vinced, that we rmy aft or do?, for 
' life and-alvauon, (and Toe tHat [Da I 
; tins andltve] is in Tome fence the j 
: language of the Gofpell) I (hall 
! queftion, -whether you make the 
'Scripture the Rule of yourfaith, 
or be not rathe r one 4 of them that 
can force upon thcmfelves a faith of 
their owne or others making. 

Oyjdh But is it not the motf ex- 
cellent and Gospel- like frame of 
fpirit, to doe all cut of meere love 
to God, and from Thankfulneffe 
for life' obtained by Chriit, andgi- 

A* fa I 1. If it come not from 
love to God, it is not fircerev 

•2. Yet doth not if .; : any 

where (et our love ro "G&J/aVHrb 

D d 5 out 

$x . A}}tvfcx % 

\ ourowneioules, in oppofition \ nor 
| tcaeh cs to love God, and cot our 
jfelves: bitcontrarilyjoyneth them 
[both together, and commandeth us 
both. The love of our fcivej, and 
defirc of our prefervation, woqid ne- 
ver have been planted fo deeply in 
our natures by the God of nature, if' 
it had been unlaw full. 

I conclude therefore, that to love 

God, and not our felves, and fo to 

doe all without refpeel to our own 

good, i$ no Gofpell frame $f fpi* 

i ric. 

| a. TbankfulnerTe for what wee 
■ have received ( either in pofieffion, 
title, or promife, muft be a fingular 
fpurtoput m on duty. But I pray 
you tell me, Have you received all 
the life and mercy you do expect ? 
Are you in Heaven already ? Have 
| you all the grace that you need or 
defire in degree ? If nor, why may 
you not labour for that you have 
-not, as well as be thankful! for that 
youhavc . ? Or have you as full a 
cemjpty of it hereafter^* you doe 

d-fire t 

Appendix. 8 } 

defire ? If not, why may you not 
labour for it? 

ANd to fhew you the vanity, 
and intolerable , damnable 
wickednefle of this do&rine, Jet me 
put to you a few more confedera- 

J . Doe yoa think you snay a& 
for your naturaU life , to preierve 
it, or recover and repaire any de- 
caying! in it . ? if not, why will you 
labour, and eate , aod drink, and 
ileep f why will you leek to the 
Phyfician when you are fick? Doe 
you all ihis in meere love, or thank, 
fulnefle, or from obedience which 
hath nofurthcrend ? Orifyoudo, 
why may you not dee as much for 
your foule, as for your body ? Is ic 
leffe worth , or doth not God re- 
quire it, or will he not give you 
leave ? Hath not Chrfti redeemed 
your body alfo ? and is k ^ot his 
purchaie, and cha^gq^Dd merit to 
piovidcfor it ? And yet yuiknow 


84 Apfcndix. 

wtll enough, that this excufeth not 
you from your duty ; and why then 
(hould it excufe you from ufing 
mcanci for your foulc? 

2. Nay, hath not God put you 
upon farre more for your foule, then 
for your body f For this life.he bath 
bid yeu . be careful! for nothing ; 
cai^ aliycur careonhim, for he ea- 
reth for you ; Care nor for romor- 
row: Why are ye cart full, Oyee of 
little fait bt Labour not for the food 
that penjbeth : Lay not h? for your 
fehet a t reaffirm on earth t e^r. But 
hath he faid fo concerning the life 
bfyourfoulesin in-itnorrality, Care 
j not, labour not, lay not up a trea- 
| fure in heaven / Or rather hath he 
j not a mmanded you the clean eon- 
's trary, to care, to ieare> to labour, to 
ftrive, to fight, to lun, and this 
-with all your might and flresgth.? 
And yet do' you think you tnay.not 
aft or work for iifc and falvation ? 

5. I pray you tell me, Doe you 
ever u(c to pray or no ? Doe ycu 
think it neceffary orlawfull. to pr^y 

(pardc n- 

Appendix. 8^ j 

(pardon me for putting iuch groffe 
interrogatories to you ; for the j 
maine queftion which you raife, is\ 
farrc more grofle ?) Ifyou do pray, | 
what doe you pray for ? Is it only 
for your body, or-alfo for your foul? • 
And is not earneft praying for life, 
pardon, andfalvation, fome proper j 
kinJe of doing ? It may be you j 
j will fay, ycu pray onely for <$6d$ 
glory s and for the Church : But 
I hath not God as much care of his 
i Church and his glory, as of your 
foulef Or may you pray for other 
mens foules, and not your ovvne , 
when you are bound to love them 
but as your felfe? Sure, if yon may 
i not make the obtaining of life, the 
ei=d of y oar labour and duty f you 
may not make it the end or your 
Prayers, which areparcofycur la- 
bour and duty. 

And indeed sccoxdirg to the opi- 
nion wh.ch I oppofe, it mult needs 
follow, that Petition is to be laid 
afide,and no part of prayer Jawiull, 
burpraiie and thankfgiving. 

4. Doe 

86 vfpfendix. 

4, Doe you not forget to make 
adifferencebstwixtearth and hea- 
ven? IafTureyou,if you do, itvvill 
prove 2 foule miftake ; if you once 
begin to think you are in Heaven , 
and as you would be , and all the 
work if done, an i you have nothing 
to doe but return thanks, you fliall 
ere long, / warrant you, be convin . 
ecd roundly ofyourcrrour. And / 
pray you, what doe you lefle by this 
opinion, then fay, Soule, take thy 
! reft, I am well, I have enough : 
For if you mutt not labour for life 
and falvation, bat onely in thank- 
fn'nefle obey him that hath faved 
you .- What is this, but the work 
of Heaven ? Indeed there, and only 
there, we fh ill have nothing to do, 
but to love, and ;oy, andpraifc, and 

y. Mechinks,ifyoudobutcon- 
fider what Heaven and Hell, reward 
and the pumlhmmt are, you fh ould 
cafily com: to your fclfe and the 
truth. Heaven ind reward is no- 
thing die but the enjoyment of 
1 God 


jippittdix. 87 

God eternally in perfection : Hell 
or the puni(hment is moft in the 
lofle of this enjoyment , and the 
feif-tormentings that will eternally 
follow the confederation thereof", 
and of the folly that procured ir. 

Now is it fuch a legall fkvifli 
mercenary thing for a Chtiftian to 
feck after the fruition of God ? 
Or to be carefull that he may not 
be everJaftingly deprived of it ? is it 
poffiblc that any ibber confidering 
man can think lb? 

6* Doe you not think that you 
may and muft feek after the enjoy- 
ment of God in thofc beginnings 
and fore-tarts which are here to be 
expe&ed ? May not that be the 
end of yoor dwties, care, feare, la- 
bour, watchfulnefle . ? May you not 
groane after him, and enquire, and 
i urne the ftreame of your endeavors 
this way ? And may you not bee 
jealous, andcarefuil, and watchfull, 
left you fliould iofe what of God 
ydu do enjoy ; and left any jftrange- 
ncfle or difpleaibrc (hcuid arife f I 


I 8g Appendix. 

| dare not qucftion,but that this is 

| the very bulinefle which you tnind, 

and the ufaall frame of your fpiric. 

And is it poflible, that you can 
think it your duty, tofcekthefore- 
talb, and the firtt finks of Heaven, 
and yet think it ualavrfnU to la- 
bour for the full everlarting pofleffi • 
on ? How can thefc hang together . ? 

7. Coniider ferioufly , / pray 
you, to what end God implanted 
fuch affection* and powers in your 
foule. Whydidheereare in yon a 
power and propenfity to intend the 
ultimate end in all your endeavours, 
to value that end, to love it, drfire 
it, ftudy and care how to obtain it ; 
to fears the lorte of it, -and to loath 
all that rfcflftcth yonr fruition , to 
feek and labour after itsenjoym:m< s 
Why is the love of our lei vs. and de- 
fire ot our prefer vation Co natural! ? 
Surely it is la*fn'l for you to care 
and defire, and labour for God In 
Heaven or for nothing.* Arid its 
ourduy to fea re the loifeofthij, or 
w feare no evill at all -5 And I can 


Jpfendix A 8p 

hardly think that God would create 
fiich powers in the fotsle whieh 
fliould be utterly afeleffe. Then let 
us no more cry downe the abnfe of 
our affections and powers, but the 
ufeof them; and lb turne worfe 
then Stoicks : This is fuch a miking 
God the Author of fin, as few men 
durft ever before be guilty of. And 
certainly, if the efeaping of HelJ.and 
the obtaining of Heaven may not 
be the end and work of aJi thefe 
affections, then much lefTemayany 
inferiour thing* 

8. Nay , eonfider whether ^ou 
doe not make thefoule and life of 
man to beufelcfle as to the obtain- 
ing of any futare happinefle : And 
foyou takedown the biefttd order 
which God ha?h efiabliflicd in na- 
ture by Creation, and maintained 
in the conftant courfe ofprovidencej 
and this you uodenyably doe in ta- 
king downe from u? the ultimate 
end : Take downe that, and all in- 
feriour ends are nothing , and all 
meancs doe !©ic their nature, and 


t A 

go Appendix. 

become ufcleflc: Audio the foule 
of the moft gracilis man (hall be 
no fitter to attaine and proiccute 
its end, and do no more thereto , 
| then a bcaft or a Hone ; Thii con- 
fluence isunjenyab'e. 

9. Nay, confider whether you 
doe not make all the graces of the 
Spirit (except love, joy and thank- 
fulnefle) toDea!rnoftvaine 3 andtbe 
blefled Jupernaturall work of the 
fpirit upon us, to be a ufeleffe la- 
bour? Doth not God oncly create 
in nature, but alio new create by 
grace in us fuch things as Defire , 
Care,Feare, Zeale, Courage, Dili- 
gence, WatchfalnefTe,&c. and may 
we not ufe them f Surely , if wee 
may not ufe them for Heaven, then 
for nothing. And I cannoc beleeve 
that God will at fo dear a rate plant 
in us a heavenly nature, and thefe 
heavenly Graces, and then make it 
our (in to ufe them for Heaven, and 
that while we arc here in the way 
where we have fush need of them . 

10. But cfpecially, I would have 


you throughly confidcr to what 
end God did till his word fo with 
Precepts, Prohibitions, Promifes 
conditional and Threats ? Doth 
not almoftall the Scripture for the 
do&rinall part eonfift of thefe ? And 
are not Precepts to put us on to du- 
tic /And hath not every duty its 
end even for our felves ? And can 
it be any other then the obtaining 
of the fruition of God in Heaven ? 
fo what end have the prohibitions 
elfe } And what are the conditional 
promifes for, but to I tirre us up to 
belccveand to performe the condi- 
tions, that fo wee may enjoy the 
promifed good ? And why are the 
Threatnings but with thefeare of 
the evill ihr^atned to deter us from 
xhefinne j and to the duty * What 
think you is the reafon that God 
doth fo commonly Promife Hea- 
(Ven r and threaten Hell, if it be un- 
iawfulifor us to labour for Heaven, 
and toefcape Hell ? Doe you not 
hereby infinuate an accufation of 
vanity at ieaft againft God and his 

Lawes 1 

: 9 i tAppwdix. 

Lawes ? Nay, the very eflenec of 
the Covenants doth conGft in all 
thefc parts conjunct r And will you 
alio overthrow the very cfl'cmiall 
parts of the Law or Covenant, by 
tnaking it un .awful! for us to admit 
their proper ufe > To quote the 
particular places for this.would bee 
needlcfleand endlefife. 

is. Methinks you mould be fo 
farrefrom qneftioning the lawfull- 
neffe of labouring for Hcaven.that 
you mould rather think you have 
almoft nothing elfe to labour for. 
Gods glory and your falvation, not 
disjun^ but conjunct, are all the 
bufinetfc you have to look after : 
What doe you live for * Why 
have you all the mercies of your 
life ? Is it onely that you may 
be thankfull for life and mercy ? 
Or that you might alfo improve 
them to fome further advantage? 
I hope (for all yourqucftion) that 
you make it the greatett labour of 
your lite to feek for afTurance and 
obraiument of your eternall hap- 
pinefle in God. 12. And 

Appendix, q^ 

fcfc And once more let me tn- 

treatyou to con/ider, whether there 

be any hope of that mans falvations, 

who fhall reduce this your doctrine 

into his practice ? I abhorre cenfo- 

riQufaeffe, but I defire it may bee 

confidered, beeaufcitisa matter of 

fuch unfpeakable importance : For 

furely , if this Doctrine pra6tifed 

will not tiand wiih filvatfon, it is 

time for you & all men to abhor it : 

And indeed , this isitihatmaketh 

me fay fo much againft i^becaufe it 

hath a holy pretence , and is very 

plaufible totheinconlidcrate, but 

yet is no better then damnable if it 

be pra£ifed; 1 fay f if praaifed 3 

tecaufc the op nion as toch is not 

fo; for 1 bekevemanyagodJy man 

doth ere as foufely as this. But it 

I is poffiblefora man by readings and 

I argument, tobe drawn to entertain 

: fomt opiniom in bis braine , (not 

oneiy confequemly, but) directly 

contrary toihepra&iceofhis heart 

and iite, and yet himfelf to continue 

that praclice ,• Even as a w eked 


|94 appendix. 

man may entertaine thofe troths 
into his braine in fpecuiation, which 
dire&Jy contradi& his continued 
pra&ice. Now ic being the pra&ice 
here that is of abiblute neceffity to 
fa- vat ion »• and not the opinion, I 
donb: not but fuch thaterre ©nely 
in this opinion , not reducing iti 
into pra&ice.may be faved. 

But ifpra£ifed,I cannot fee but 
it will certainly damne. 

For fearch the Scriptures impatf- - 
tially and confider, whether feeking i 
Heaven be not nccefiary to the ob - 
taining of it ? And whether thofe ' 
that fcek net, and labour not for ic, j 
be no; (hut out ? View over the 
places which I. quoted you before, 
and th?n judge. Mutt nor z\\ that 
will have lire, come to Chriii, that 
they may have it ? Job. 5. 39. ^ . 
And mutt not they drive to enter 
ic at the Itraight gate, and lay vio- 
lent hands on the Kingdomc of 
Heaven ? And by up forthcmfelves 
a treafure in Heaven, and feek the 
Kingdome ot God and bis Righte- 


Jppettdix* 05 

oufnefle id the firft place, A&t. 6. 
3 3. And prcfle on that we may at- 
taine the Refurre&ion, PhiL 3*14. 
And lay up a good foundation a. 
gainft the time to ccm^doing good 
works, and lay hold on etcrnall life, 
1 TiwG.12. 18,19. And workout 
our falvation wkh fearc and trem. 
bling, 'Phil. 2»i 2. And do hiscon> 
mandmems^that we may have right 
to the Tree of Life, and enter in 
by the gates into the City, Rev. 22. 
14. And make friends of the un- 
righteous Mammon, that they may 
receive us into everlafting habita- 
Itions; See aifo Atv.a. 7.10,1 1,13, 
I4>**»i7*ip- *3« 2^27,28,2?. 
&3.M.4»5- 8* 1©*H* 12,12,15, 
1 6,20,21, **. Scealfo^f.iS.8, 
p. M.5.29. ^#.2. 28. iTim. 4. 
8. /«fw.t.i*. 1 frr.9.10. ^w.2.7, 
7/>. 1. 2. iT#w.4.i8« Mat^.i2. 
&6,i, & t?.ai.'£»4to.ift.P£<A 
1.19, 1 y/M.9. Hct.2.i.2Tsm. 
2. 10. i Thftf: 5% $ t9 . ^tf.16.17. 
Yea, weare commanded to feare 
him that is able to dcftroy both foul 
I . . and 

9 6 Appwdix. 

and body in Hell : even under that 
consideration to feare him, Zȣ.ia. 
?. And to feare, left a promife be* 
ing left us of entring into refl, we 
fhould ccme (hort of it > Heb. 4. 1 . 
And what is that but to feare the 
loflTe of Heaven 9 or to feare Hell ? 
Prov.% 5,14. Mar.^.ig. & 16.16. 
Afat.$,r<$, Rom.ii* 21.44. 1 Gr. 
J o. 1 2. Hdr. 12,15,16. /*»#; J 
5. p. 12. 

But Imuft flop ; for if I (hould 
! quote all Scriptures that prove this, 
j 1 (hould tranferibe a great part of 
the Bible. 

Confider then, if even many that 
feck to enter (hall not be able, whe- 
ther they are like 10 enter that ne- 
ver feck ? And if the Righteous be 
fcarccly faved, what fhall become of 
them that thought it unlawfull to 
labour for fal vat ion? 

13. Laltly , how h it that you 
doe. not fee, that by this doctrine 
you condemne not all the Saints, 
but even the Lord hirnfelfe? Did 
aot' P.a*t therefore keep under his 


i4fftn&ix. 97 

body and bring it bio fubje&ion, 
left whea-hcaad preached to others, 
hfmfcl^fliOttWbe a calkaway/i Car. 
9.27* What can bee plainer? Did 
not Air Ahum obeybecaufe helcok- 
*dfora City which had foundat- 
ion* I JJehi l.iQi And LMofes, 
becaufe behad refpect to the recom* j 
pence of Reward? 26. And all that j 
cloud of Witncffes obey and fuflfer, } 
that they might attain abetter Re- \ 
fiirfc&ion? 3 5., & did they not feek 
a better ■Countrey, thac is, anhea- j 
vcnly?- and therefore God is not 
-tfhamed to bee called their God : 
far he hath prepared for them a City y j 
ver.16. Doe not all that confelTe 
therrsiejvef Itrangerson earth,plainly 
declare that they feeke another 
Count rey? ver.13.14* Whofoevcr 
therefore (hall hereafter tell you , 
that you mult not do good to attain 
falvation. or cicape damnation , as 
beifcg too mercenary andflavifli for 
a Son of God ; abhor his Doclrine, 
though he were an Angel from hea- 
ven : And if this fatisfie you not , 
Ejc look 

og jjfpcvdix. \ 

look to Jefus x he Am hour and Hiou 
fhcr of your Faith t who forth* $tty 
that wa* fee before iwmgUwJared 
theCroffe^efpifingthe flkamc, and 
is fetdownat the right band of God; 
Heb. 12, i j. Rem. 14/p. And as 
j4dam fell to bee liker the BcviM 
when he needs would be as <3cd : fo 
take heed whither you are failing 
wberi you will be better then Je- 
fus Chrift. >uh 
And doe I after all this needto 
anfwer the Common Gbj&Sfoite;, 
that it is mercenary and flav fti, to 
labour for falvation . ? Muft 1 be put 
to prove that the Apoftles and 
€hrifth mfelfe were nor mercenary 
flaves ? or that Gods Word hath 
notprefcribedusaflavifhtask? In- 
deed ifwe did all for a reward diftant 
from God, and for that alone, w ith- 
out any conjunction of FiliaU love, 
and expected this 'Reward for the 
worth of our work, then it o^gHt 
beweli called mereenarytandfk*)&. 
Bur who among us plead for fuch a 
working ? 


Affendix. 99 I 

FRomall this yon may gathcrpart 
of the Anfivcr toyour nextQue» 
fttoo : why I except againft the 
book called, The M*rr$waf Afodern 
*J>ivif»itj} Becaufe it is guilty of' 
this hainous Doclrine. Yet further 
let me tell you, that I much value 
the greatcfl part of that Bcok, and 
commend the iuduftry of the Au- 
thour, and judge him a man of god - 
linelTc and Moderation by his wri- 
ting : And had I thought as meanly 
of i^as I do of Coljftr ■, Sprigs , Hsfr*. 
/***>& many fuch abominable Pam- 
phlets that now fly abroad, I fhould 
not have thought it worthy die ta- 
king fo muchnoticc of. But becauie 
it is otherwise ufeiuh, 1 thought 
meet to give you warning, tha: you 
drink n^t in the cv ill with the good. 
And eipcciaily becauie the names 
that to applaud it, may be a prooabie 
fhare to entangie you here in. And: I 
conjecture the Authours ingenuity 
to bee luch, that he will be glad to 
Ee 2 knowt 

too zsfppentlix. 

know his own miihkcs, and to cor 
red them: Ocherwife I am un- 
feignedly tender of depraving or 
carping at any mans laboars. Some 
©fthefe miftaking patTages I will 
ihew yon briefly. As page 174. 
Q*efi* Would yon not have believers 
to efchew cvill and do good for fear 
of HelI,or for hope of Heaven? A*f* 
No indeed, I would not have any 
believer do the one or the other : for 
fo farre as they do fo their obedience 
is but flavifti, &c. To which end he 
aliedgeth, ln\e 1. 74.75. But that 
fpeaks of Fieedome from feare of 
our Enemies, fueh as Chrift forbids 
in L nken. 5. where yet he com 
mandeth the fearing of God: And 
con lequently, even that fear of ene- 
mies is forbidden, as they ftand in 
opposition toGod,and not ashisin- 
rtrumtntsin iwbordination. Orjit 
it be even a feare of God that is 
there meant ; yet it cannot bee all 
fear of him or his difpieaiure : fofar 
. as we are are in danger of En or 
iuffering, we mud feare it : and io 


Appendix, rojT 

farrcas our affu ranee is ft ill imper- 
fect : a jealoufieofour own hearts, 
and a dreadfull reverence of God 
alfo are neceflary . But not the Le- 
gall terrours of our former bondage, 
iueh as arife from the apprehenfion 
of fin unpardoned, and of God as 
being our Enemy. 

In the i So Page, he denieth the 
plain fence of the Text. Mat . 1 0.1S. 
In the 155 page, hec makes this 
the difference between the two Co- 
venants: One faith , [ Do this and 
Live] the other faith, [ Live and do 
this 1 The one faith, [ Do this for 
life] The other faith* I Do this from 

But I have proved fully, that 
theGofpel alfo faith, r Do this for 

So in his fecond part , page;ipo. 
His great note to know the voice of 
the Law by, is this, [ that when in 
Scripture there is any morall work 
commanded to bs done, either for 
the efchuingof punifhmenf, or up- 
on promife of any. reward temporall 
E e 3 or 

101 jippendiw 

i ~ ' — — - 

oreternall j or ehe when any promife 
is made with the condition of any 
work to be done,which is cotnanded 
in the Law ; there is to be under - 
ftocd the voice of the Law.] 
A notorious and dangerons mi- 
i fake, which would make a Imoft all 
j the New Teftament, and the vety 
! Sermons of Chrift himfelfe to bee 
' nothing bar the Law of work s. I 
j have fully proved before ,th at tnorall 
j du- ies as part of our fincerc obedi- 
j ence to Chrift, ire part of the con. 
ditionof our Salvation; andfot it 
to be performed. And even Faith 
is a morall duty. It is pkty that 
anyGbriftianfhould no better know 
the Law from the <&ofpel • efpeci- 
ally om that pretendcth to difcover 
it toothers. 

So in the next page iqt, hee in- 
tolerably abufeth the Scripture, in 
affirming that of 2 Thefi. 12. to be 
thevoiee of the Law, and fo making 
2W a Legall Preacher. 

And as (name fully doth he abufe 
I Cor. 6,$ 9 \o. As if the Apoftle 

when ' 

Appendix. 1 03 

when he biddeth them, not to b^e 
deceived, were deceiving them him- 
felfe in telling them , that no un- 
righteous perfbn, fornicators, adul- 
terers ; &c. [hall inherit the Ktnglom 
of Cod* Is this Law ? Then let me 
be a Preacher of the Law. If TauI 
be a Legalist, I willb* one too. But 
thefe men known it, that the Ape* 
Hie fpeaketh of thofe that die fach ; 
and that thele finues exclude men 
theKingdome, aschcy are Rebelli- 
on againliChrifVtheir Lord, and fo 
a violation of theNew Covenant. 

So in part fir ft page 189. Hee 

mentioneth a Preacher , that faid, 

hee durft not exhort nor perfwade 

tinners to belieyc their finncs were 

pardoned , before he faw their lives 

reformed, for feare they fliould take 

] more liberty to fin. And he cen- 

; fureth that Preacher to be ignorant 

intheMyitery of faith. I epnfelTe 

! I am inch an ignorant Preacher my 

j felfe; and therefore malldcfirc this 

: knowing man torefolve me in a few 

1 doubts. 1. Where he learned, or 

_ E e 4 h ow 

*° 4 **pp**dix. 

| Jwhcccao prove , that JuftiftW 
iFaith W abe]ecving t hatoiirfiin« 
are pardoned? when Scripture ib 
often Klfcthui, that wc areja!lificd 
by Faith: and fore the Objeclmuft 
& wfoft the Ael; and therefore 
that which followed, the A^ is not 
the Object. 

. If we muft believe that we are 
pardoned, that fo we may be pardo- 
ned ; then we mull believe a lye to 
make it a truth. Alio db:h not 
j the Scripture bid us Repm\ heUeve 
j **dkec tapti<ed fir the remiftg* of 
\p*mt\ but not firft to beleeve the j 
jRemiflfionofourfinnes? ! have pro- 
jved already that juftifying Faith is 
I another matter : and this which hee 
jealleth Faith is properly no Faith at 
J4ll ; but the knowledge of a conelu- 
ifion, one of whofc premifes is af- 
forded by Faith, and the other by 
Scnfe. - 

If therefore the Preacher had 
faid, that he would not have men 
accept Chrift, and fo bdeeve for 
Remiflion^before their lives be re- 
'^*zs==a formed. 

Afpen&x. Jo; i 

formed, then I (nculd have iubteri- 
bed to this mars cenfurc of him. 
2. 1 dcinc him to cell me, whether 
he can prove that any mans tinnes 
are pardoned before chey have ae. 
eepted Chritt for their Lord f that 
is, before Faith. If not, 3. Whe. 
thcr this be not the fubjeclion of the 
feule to Ch ift to bee governed by 
hjm ; and (b a heart- reformation ? 
4. Wretrrer the reformation of the 
life doih nor immediately even the 
fame moment follow the hearts re- 
formation ? And if all this bee lb, 
( as I know ic is ) then the ignorant 
Preachers doctrine mull ftand good, 
that Reformation of life muit goe 
before the bdie.'e or knowle, ge of 
pardon, though not before juliifyifjg 

Many other intolerable errcurs 
I could (hew you in that Book: as 
his making the New Covenant to 
threaten nothing but pre tent Af- j 
Hiilions , and loiTe of cur preient ! 
communion with God, page 208. j 
and that we pray for no other kinde ! 
E e 5 of 1 

106 Atiicndix. 

of pardon, page 206,210. contrary 
to Ulfar* 16.16. Heb, io, 26*. %7* 
28.29.30,31. Hfb.2^.Ioh.i^ m i»6* 
& many other places: To his affirming 
that wefinne not againft the Cove- 
nant of works; which /have confu- 
ted in the Aphorifmes. 

So his making the Law of Chrift 
and the Law of Faith to bee two 
Lawes or Covenants : when that 
which he ealleth the Law of Chrift 
is but part of the matter of the New 

But this is not my bufincfle ; on* 
ly becaufc you urged me , / have 
given you a graine of fait whercwich 
to feafon fbme paflages in your rea- 
ding that and fueh like Books. 

And that paffagein lA.Shepbeardt 
Selctt **/*/, page 96. 102. [ that no 
unregenerate man is within the 
eompafle of any conditional! pro- 
mile ] had needof a graine too. 


Appendix. iey 

To the twelfth Ofyettion. 

\f\7 Hat you object concerning 
V V my making a neceffity of 
pubhke covenanting, / wholly ac. 
knowledge: And /heartily wifli, 
that inftead of our large mixtNati- 
onall Covenant ; and inReadofthe 
/ndependants Politicall Church, 
making Covenant , we had the Gof- 
pel or New Covenant conditions 
formally in publike tendered to all 
tbe people of this Land ; and that 
the fame being opened tothem^they 
! might knowingly and ferioufly pro- 
feflc their eonfent, ( and ;f they fub- 
fcribed their names, it would bee 
more folemnly engaging : ) and 
this before they receive the Sacra-. 
tnent of the Lords Supper. 

This, x. would takeoff mofl Ar 
gumencs which are brought for a 
neceflfity of Re-baptizing : 2, And 
would tend tntch to engage men to 


io8 dftet&ix, 

their obedience to Chrirt,when they 
havefo foleronly promifedit under 
their hands. 3. And / think that as 
an unfeigned heart covenanting with 
Ghrift is true f fauh, andoftheEf- 
fcneeofourChriftianity ; foisthis 
publike eovenaniing of our vifible 

Though other mens protnife* on 

ourbehalfemay beof ufe to infants; 

j yet when we come to age, we are 

I bound of abfolute neceffity to a per- 

fbnall Faith and covenanting. 

This alfo would anfwer the ends 
of the ancient cuftom of Confitmati. 
on : And to this end is ic,that the 
\ Church hath Hill ufed to rehearfe 
the Creed, or Articles of Faith, and 
to reqnirethe people to Hand up to 
hgnifie their Affent and Confent : 
which % for my pare, / think not 
onely a laudablecurtome.but for the 
fubftanceofit, amatterofneceflity; 
fo wee do but carefully Keep away 
1 that Cu^omarineffe , ceremoniouf- 
| nefie and formality, which fpoileth 
1 the molt aeceflary and weighty du « 

Append*. i ©9 

I could wi(h therefore that this 
practice were efbblifoedby autho- 
rity. And,formy felfe,I doadtni- 
Dilier the Sacrament to none, that 
do not folemnly profeflfe their aflenc 
to every fuodamentall Article of 
Faith exprefly mentioned to them, 
and their content that Chrift (hall 
be their Lord and Saviour, and that 
they will faithfully andfincerelyo- 
bey his Scripture Lawcs. 

To the thirteenth and fourteenth 


Our 13. and 14. Objections, 
which charge me not with er- 
rour, but only 'with angularity, I 
willanfwer together. And I am the 
leflecareiull to anfwer you in this 
matter, becaufe I refolve to fiand 
or fall to the Iudgement of Scripture 
only. And to tell you the truth, 
vhile I bufily read, what other men 



I io Appendix, 

fay imhefecontroverfies^mymind 

wasfoprepofleiTed withtheirno:i- 

ODS,that Ionrdnorpoflibly fee the 

truth, in its owne nature and naked 

evidence: and when I entered into 

publike deputations e ncerning it, 

though I was truely w illing to know 

the truth, yet my mind was lb fore- 

ftalled wirh borrowed notions, that 

I chiefly fludied ho v to make good 

theopioions which I had received, 

and ran further ft ill from the truth : 

yea when 1 read the truth in Doctor 

Prejlon and other mens writings, I 

did not confider and underhand it : 

and when I heard it from them, 

whom I oppofed in wrangling difpu- 

tatiom, or read it inbookes ofcon^ 

troverfie, Idifccrned it leaft cf all, 

but only was fturpened the more a- 

gainft it : till at laft, being in my 

ficknelTecaft far from home, where 

1 had no booke but my Bible, I itt 

toftudythe truch from thence, and 

from the naure of the things, and 

naked evidence; & fo,by theblerTing 

of God, difcovered more in one 

^ x _ week, 

appendix. III 

weeke, then I had done, before in 
feventcea yea res reading, hearing 
and wrangling. Not that I therefore 
repent of reading other mens wri- 
tings: forwichout that I had not 
been capable of thofc latter ftudiei. 

So that as I fetched not this do- 
ctrine from man, foyoumuft beare 
with me. if I give you the lelTe of 
mantoatteft it. 

Yet that you may fee I am not 
fingular , as you conceive, I will 
(hew you the concurrent judgments 
of one or two. 

. Mr. fVallis (a man of Angular 
worth, I am confident, by his own 
writing, though I know him not) 
in his anfwer to the Lord Brook* ', 
pag.94. faith, That Faith is an ac« 
cepting of Chrift offered , rather 
then a beleeving of a Propofition 

But becaafe I will not fill my pa- 
ges with other mens words, I wiU 
alledge but one more ; and that one 
who is beyond all exception for pi- 
ety, Onhr doxnelfe, and Learning, 
even Di.Ptefloz. iThat 

i. Thai Faith ccnteinethfeve- 
rali a&s. 

2. That it is both in the under* 
Handing and will. 

3. That theprinc'pallafl is ac- 
cepting or eon fenr. 

4. That it i$ the accepting of 
ChriM for Lord as well as Saviour. 

5. That the object is Chrift him- 
fclf, and not his benefits, but in a 
remote fence and fecondarily . 

6. That Faith confiiicth in Co- 
venanting or Marriage contract. 
All thife he is fo plaice and full in, 
that /findehimfpeaking my ovvae 
thoughts in my ovvne words ; and 
begun to think. when /read him, 
that men would think /borrowed 
ail from -D . Preftsn Read -him in his 
Trcatife of Faith, pag.44,45,4^, 
47.48,49* sorfifijjp Alfo Of 
Eftflfiail Fmh t pag, 40, 41, 87. 
hrAlrettife ofFaith,$zg> i^, 15, 
16,20,. 21, 56,57,58. 

7. But efpecially,the chief point 
that I ft and upon, and am like to be 
oppofed raoft in^hehandleth fo fully 
\ and> 

and aflerteth fo frequently , as if it j 
were the choiceft notion which he 
defired to divulge, viz,, That jufti- 
fyirg faith as fuch, if a taking of 
Chrift for Lord as wellas for Savi- 
our. Of fo many placcs,I will tran-» 
fcribe two or three. 

And firft his definition of the 
a&ivepart of faith, is the very fame 
with mine. Of Faith ,pag.^4. [It 
is toBeleeve,notonely that €hrift 
is offered to us, but alfo to take and 
receive him as a Lord and Saviour] 
that is, both to be faved by him, and 
to obey him. Mark it (faith he) I 
put them together, to take him as a 
Lord and Saviour; for yon (hall 
finde, that in the ordinary phrafe of 
Scripture, they are put together, 
Jefus Chrirt our Lord and Saviour ; 
therefore wee mutt take heed of 
disjoyning thofe that God hath 
joyned together .- Wee mult take 
Chrift as well for a Lord as a Savi- 
our; let a man doe this, and he may 
be aflured that his faith is a juftify- 
ing faith ; therefore mark it dili- 
' gently, 

1 14 vJppevdix. 

gently; if a man will takeChrift for 
a Saviour cnely, that will not ierve 

I the turr:e \ Chri \ giveth not him- 
feJie to any upon that condicion on- 

\ Jy to fav<- him 9 but we muft take 
him as a Lord too, to be fabjeSto 
him, and obey him, and to fquarc 
our anions accordingto his wii,&c. 

So of EffcttHiU Faith, pig.o2. 
Now faith is nothing but this: VVe 
come and tell you that Chrift is of- 
fered; if you will be content to kc 
all thefe things go, and to turn your 
hearts to him. then the whole beat 
ofa mansminde is turned the con- 
. tr*ry way, and let upon Chrift; this 
is fudb Faith indeed, &c. Now if 
we were not riiiftiken in it, there 
would be no qudtion of this : We 
think that faith is nothing but a per - 
fwafion that our fins are forgiven, a 
perfwafion that the promhes are 
tru:, and the Scripture true, a per- 
iwalion that Chril* died for my iios; 
And thence it is, that men are apt 
to be deceived in ir. If they took 


Jppendix, 1 1 y 

Faith as it is in its felfe, [a Marri- 
age four feives to Chrilt, with all 
our heart and afre&ions, when hee 
hath given himfeife to us as In Mar- 
riage,andwc are given to him,]iti 
doing this , we fliould never be de- 

So in his Treatife of the New 
£w*»4nf,pag.4;S*you mu % know 
that the Covenant is then diflbJved, 
when that is diflblved that did 
make the Covenant : Look what 
it is thatputs a man into the Cove- 
nant of Grace at the firfi ; when 
that is taken away, then the Cove- 
nant is diiaonulled between God 
and us • but till then the Covenant 
remaines fure. Now what is ic that 
makes the Covenant ? Mark it : 
This is that which makes the Co- 
venant when Jefus Chrift offereth 
himfciftouSjand makes known his 
content, &c when wc again come 
and take him, and give our confent 
to make him our Lord, and we fub» 
je£t our feives to him to be his ; 
whenwc lay to the promiied feed, 


\l6 Appendix* 

He (haH be my God and my Go- 

vemour , and I will be among his 
! people, and be fubjeft to him ; I fay, 
I when the heart gives a full confent 

to this,3cc* now the Covenant and 
I contract is made between them, 
j Now as long as this union con- 
; tinues between Chrift and us, the 
! Covenant is not difannulled ; So 
j that in a word, the Covenant is nc- 
i ver nullified till thou haft ehofen to 
j thy fclfe another husband, till thou 

haft taken to thy felfe another 

Lord J &c.pag.459. 
So that here you fee 8 l /.that every 

infirmitj breaks not the Covenant. 

See alfo TrestiftofLove, pag. 147. 
9. That there is a Gofpel curfc 

followingthe breach of the Gofpel 

Law, and that icis unrepealableand 

more terrible then that of the L*w, 

pag. 19, 20. 

to. What neer conjunftion love 

hath with Faith in jnftifying. See 

Tretttfe of Effc8»*U F.titb^ t t \%. 
ii. That the promife and offer 

of Chrift isgeneralJ, fee Trettifeof 
I Faith % \ 

4ppt»di\\ 117 

F *^,pag p.io. I will tranfcribe 
but one more, Treatife of the New 
Covenant, gag.$i7,ji8. Youmuft 
know theie is a two-fold Cove- 
nam , one of works , another of 
grace &c. The Covenant of grace 
runs in thefe termes [Thou thali be- 1 
leevej thou (halt rake my Sonne j 
for thy Lord and thy Saviour, and 
thou (bait likewifc receive the gift ' 
of HightecufneiTe , wh'eh was 
wrought by him, for an absolution 
for thy fimus , for a reconciliation 
with me, and thereupon thcu&alt 
grow up in love and obedience to- 
wards me, Then I will be thy Gtd t 
*nd thou (halt be my people.] Thins 
tke Covenant ofgrace,&c. 

In tkis.youfeealfo, li-lvThat 
love and fincere obedience are parts 
of the condition of the New Cove- 

Thus yon fee I am not in thefe 
1 2. points lingular ; And in more 
could; I alio prove his context ; 
though in feme things I eonfeffehe 
diircreth ; as in making Faith an 


i iS JpptnMx. 

inftrument in our justification, p. $4. 
Of Faith, Bnt as i take that to be 
^fmall difference ; fo it is apparent 
by the forccited places . that he took 
Faith to juftifie, as the condition of 
J the Covenant j and fa the difference 
, is but veiball ; yet fpeakmg in the 
, common phrafe put him upon that 
I abftirdity.pag.5-6. Treatifeof Faith, 
viz,* to lay , That reconciling 
and juftifyingarea<9s of Faith : If 
he had faid,but that they are effects 
of Faith, it had been more then (in 
proper ftrid* fence taken ) can be 

To the fifteenth Okjt&io*. 

TO yout fifteenth OjecYion I 
aniwer, 1. The Apoftle in 
thole pkcesdealeth with the Iewes, 
who truftedco works without and 
againft Chrift : This is nothing a- 
gai.-irt them that fet not up works 


appendix. v\$ 

m opposition nor go ordination » 
but oncJy in fatofdinaton to 

2. If I affirmed that works, are 
the leaft part of that Rightcouf- 
nefle which the Law reqaircth, and 
which mull* be fo pleaded to onr 
pailirlcaucn, then I ftiould ofrend 
againft the freenefle of grace : But 
wfien I affirme , that all our legall 
Righteoufncfle is onely in Chrift, 
then doe I not make the reward to 
bectf debtor IciTefne, 

3. The Apoftlein the fame verfe 
Rom* 4. j. faith, that his Farth is 
conn ted for Righteoufncfle; and I 

I have proved before that fubjc&ion 
is a part of Faith. 

n 4. The-Apodle plainly fpeaketh 
of that Righteonfneife whereby we 
are formally righteous, and which 
we muft plead that we may be ju- 
ftified torn the aceulation of the 
Law ; and this is neither in Faith 
nor works, but in Chrift : But he 
nowhere Ipeaketh againtt that 
which is only the condition or our 


_ , . — _ 

i*e Affet&x* 

r _ , ■ ■ 

? participation of that, and whereby 
werraiti efcape the coBdcmoatiori 
Of the Gofpel, which is Faith/ as I 
have opened be fore. 

5. If the Apoftle fiiould meanc I 
othciwifc, itwere aj much againft • 

four Dc&rine as trice. Fox is not j 
aufa a work or a6t of ours t But • 
^i wHl lay , That though Faith ^ 
k±usa work do juiliHc, yet not j 
; as a work, bat as an icfirument. I j 

• aniwer. 

i. Tobeaaacluall appfebenti- 
; ODoiCbri.t ^whichycu call its in- 
j ilmmentality) is to bee a. work": j 
! There lore, if it juftifie as ic is fa:h ' 
; anapprcbcjnnoni.it juftifieth as. a 1 

• werk. 

a. Soalfo fay J, ihxt fub;e£tion ; 
j and obedience jufcifie, 1. Not as 
? works fitnply considered; 2. Nor 
I as legail works ; 3. Nor as meri- 
torious -works ; 4, Nor as Good 
noxks .which Gcd is pkifed with; 

tgiit as the conditions to which 
free Law giver hath promifed 
location am file* 


Nay , your Do&rine afcri- 
beth farremore of the work toman 
then mine ; for yo j make juftifi- 
eation an effect of your own Faith; 
and your Faith the inft rumen tali 
cauicofir, and fomake your felfe 
your owne juftifier. And you fay 
your Faith juftifieth , as it appre- 
fcendeth Chritt, which is the mod 
intrinfecall, eiTentiall confederation 
of Faith ; and To Faith hath much 
of the honour. But while / 
affirm that it juftjfieth onely as a 
condition, which is an extrinfecall ( 
confident ion, and aliene from its j 
cflcnccor nature, /give the glory j 
to him that freely giveth me Jile, j 
and that mace fofweet a condition 
to his Covenant, and that ena- 
bleth me to performt the faid con* 

And thus I have according to my 
meafure of under Handing anfwered 
your Objections, as fully as ncceiT^ 
taied brevity would permit, 

Ff And 

122 appendix, 

And for that quetficn which you 
propounded about Relaxation, A» 
brogation, &e. of the Law, which 
you eonfetfe you doe cot well 
underftand ; I refer you to F»ffiu\ 
Defixf. grot it 2c Sattsf cap^s^, 
where (among other things) hee 
telleth you that si 'pud Romano s feu 
ferendaejfet Lex, populus regabatur 
an ferri veUet t feu tolUnda, iog*~ 
batur, an to lit earn placet et ? Htnc 
rogari lex dtcebatur y an* ferrebat»r t 
utdicitVlp.Tif. l.ReguL EidemA 
que de CAttfk abrogari dtccbatur i cam 
antiq**retur\&c % And then he ex- 
plained all thoft; phrafes to you out 
ofVlpian. Lex rogatur t ideft,fcr- 
iur 3 velabrogdtnrjdt/}, prior lex 
toEiiur ; velDerogatur y id eft, pars 
prtm<c tollitur : aut fubrogatur, id 
efi.adjicitur aliquidprima legi i am 
Obrogatur id eft> mutator altqmd 
ex prima lege. And fo eon- 
cludcth, that the firft Law was not 
abrogated , but relaxed, difpenfed 
with, and obrogate. , ^ g ] 

How faire it was cxecu 


Jfpendix. lij 

ted, I have (hewed you in the 

But the Iaft task you fetme, it 

of all the reft moft ungratefulJ;end- 
IciTe, and ( in my judgement) un- 
ntceiTary, viz,. [ To anfwer what 
other men have written againft 
fome doctrines which I have here 

i. It is a work ungrateful! to 
feareh intoothcr mens weakneffe 
and miftakes • 10 handle the truth 
in a way of contention or to fpeak 
in way of derogation of the labours 
of the learned and godly. 

2. And fliould I fall upon a 
confutation ofevery man that hath 
written contrary to any thing in my 
Book, the taik would be endleffe, 
and I might ftuffe a great dealc of 
paper with words againft words, 
and perhaps adde little matter to 
what is already written ; which is 
a work unfit for me to undertake, 
who have fo much better work tor 
'*% Ffa doe J 

124 ^Appendix. 

doe, and am like to have fo flaort a 
time to doe it in. 

g. And it feemcs to me a need- 
lefle task ; partly beeaufe from the 
eleering and confirmation of the 
pofitive truth, you may be enabled 
to anfweroppofcrs your feife. 

2. The A utkors which you men- 
tion doe focafilyand effectually af- 
J fault the doclrines men- joned, that 
J I (liculd think no judicious man 
ean thereby be daggered. 

But at your icqucit I wil briefly 
eontider them particularly. 

The Authors which you refer me 
to, are two, D.LMaccevitts, and 
Mr. Owen. The points which they 
contradict are three. 

I. That our legal RighteoufneiTe 
which we haveinChru%coniifteth 
not formally in obedience to the 
Precept of the fi rid Covenant, bm 
onely in fatisfa&ion for our Diso- 
bedience. ] This Mtccovius op- 
pofeih in Lolleg.TkeeI f par*i. Dtjp. 
10. &par.^Dtfi>.9. 

2. [That Chiift payed not the 

* - 

Appendix. iiy 

fame debt which was in the firft 
obligation, but the value ; and fo 
the Law was not properly and fully 
executed, but relaxed.] This, yt>u 
fay, Mr.0jw*eonfutethin^ntf/fltf, 
in his late Treatife of VntverfM 
Redtmptio*t t \ib.'$.aip.7 ,p,i qo* 

3. [Thar no man is actually and 
abfolutely juilified (no notfo much j 
as in point of Right) either from | 
eternity, or upon the meere pay- 
ment of the debt by Chnft , till 
themfelvesdoe beleeve,] This, you 
fay, is confuted by both of trum, 
t^Uccov.pau 3. Dtfp 1 6* & f ar * 
1. ^^.17. Et Own tibifapra. 

If mens names did not more 
take with you then their Argu- 
ments, you might have fpared tne 
(this labour. But briefly to the firl* 
of thefe I anfwcr« 

i , Moft paflages in Maccovmt 
doe affirm but that ChriH obeyed 
for us, as well as fuffered for us; and 
who denyeth that ? 

2. Oi- thofe paflages which yet 
goe further, there is few of them 
F f 3 . that 


126 appendix. 

— _ . > -- — ; — 

that fay any more then this, that 

Chriils a&ive RighteoufnciTe did 

merit for us that life and glory 

which is given by the New Cove- 

nan^more then we loft by breaking 

theOld: But thisisnothngioour 

Quetfion which isonely about jnil'u 

fication. For 1 have cleared to you 

! before, that Juftification is (proper * 

| ly and ftrt&ly taken) one of thofe 

! a&s whereby we arc recovered from 

j the condemnation of the Law, and 

j fet xnfttttt quo prtHs ; and not one 

I of thofe acts which give us that ad* 

| duionall gloy , whkh is Adoption, 

| U nion* Glorification, 

3. Thofe few Arguments which 
iyetdoedrivc higher then this, are 
lib fully aniwered already by Mr, 
| G*t*kfir againft Lucius, (jomarrus, 
[ &c. and Mr* Cjoadmn (notwuh- 
I Handing Mr. koborongh$ Anfwcr) 
I and divers ©then, that I am refol- 
ded not to lole fo much time and 
f labour* as to doe thai which is be t- 
jter done already, then can beex- 
'; pe&ed (V orn me* 

4. Only 

A-ppendix. 1 27 j 

4, Onely one argument mord 
then ufuall I findein^rr tfDifpttj 
1 cu And which I eonfeffe defcrvc tit 
a fpeciall confideration } And that 
isxhli. [If Chritf onely fufferedfttf 
us,then the fighteoafncrleof Addm\ 
had hee continued in- innocent?* 
would have h$en~ more e*eei!e«: 
then th* right eouuWe of thrift : 
For the law rcouircth obedience 
principally, and furfering butper ac- 
cii#u. But thecoufequence isfalfe, 
becawfe elfe Chrift hath not fet us 
in as good a ftateas wcfellfrom.J 

To this 1 aniwer* r# Thisrightc 
oufneffe may be tertmd excellent in 
fcverall refpecls. x In reference to 
its Rule ; 2 Or in reference to its 
ErxK The 1. denominated! it Good 
in it felf t The fecond denominateth 
it good to u?# Now the Rules to 
mfiafurc it by, are two : 1. Thence* 
reft inferiour Rule; which is the 
Law : 2 The remote fuperiour 
Rule j which is the good plea fure 
and will of the Law-maker. 

2 Theends which may denotni- 
F. f 4 nate 

■ I ■ 1 

— — > . 

aate our righteoufneiTe more ex 
cellent, ate : i The glory of Gods 
jufticeand mercy : a The glory of 
the Mediatours love,and the fctting 
up of his kingdom : 3 And the 
good of the creature : Or rather all 
thefe in one. 

Now thefe things thus (tending, 
I anfwer thus. 1 f acknowledge 
that the Law made for mankinde 
doth primarily require obedience, 
and but fecondarily fufrering , and 
upon fuppofition of diibbedience. 

2 But you muft diftinguifli be- 
twixt what the law requireth ofus, 
and what of the Mcdiatour: the 
law to the creature , and the law to 
thcMediatour,arein feverall things 
different: The will* of his Facher 
which he came to doe, confided in 
many things which were never re- 
quired ofus: fueh are all the works 
proper to the office of Mediatonr- 
ftiip. Now though the Law requi- 
red ofus meer creatures primarily 
Obedience aclive - Yet that which 
W2S principally impofed upon the 


Med»atour>and undertaken byhitn^ 
was to (atisfie for ourdifobedience ♦ 
And To the principal! part of his 
wof k was paffive obedience ; an4 
that in him was as excellent or more 
then aclive obedience ; though in 
us it would not havebeeo fo ; be* 
caufeihe law didnoL require- It of 
i$ in the firlt p!acc , as it did of 

3» Ifyou call that mod excellent 
which is beii pleafing ro God the 
Law-maksr'$ then certainly the fa - 
tisfa&ion ofChritfdid pleaie hirar 
better, then v^aamt perfeverance 
in innocencie would have done. 
This necdethnoproof but thecon* 
fideraticn of the event. 

4. AndfortheendsofrighteouC 
nefle, iec us ccnfider them diftincV 
jy; 2nd lee whether Chrifls facisi 
faclion do not attain them all more 
eminently and fully then Ad*ims 
peifevejacce would have done. 

1. The glory of Gcds juiYice 
would not have been manifetted fo, 
if vid*w hadilood^as kwas. by j 
Ff 5 Cbriflsl 

~r ■ 1 1 1 ■■ 1 1 

13° Jifjetidfx. 

Chrifts fufferings: i Nor the glo, 
ry of his mercy and free grade. 3 
Nor the Mediatours love : 4 Nor 
would the Kingdom of the Media- 
tour have been fetup, nor his ho. 
nour fo advanced. 5 Nor the faints 
advanced to fo high a dignity and 
happinefle , as now they are and 

So that in what rcfpecl is our 
righteaufneffe lefle exceilcnc ? or 
whois the loofer \ Not the Father j 
Not the Mediatour: All theqae- 
Ition is of our felves : But that J*! 
onely in point of our honour : It is I 
acknowledged , that to the cream re' 
it would have been more houour able \ 
to have kept bis innocency,then to 
have his difobedfcnce fatisfied for 
by another. But hereconfiderthefe 
things, 1 Godi honour istobepre- 
ferred to ours, a And the Media- 
tours advancement before our ad* 
vancemenr. % It was the very -de-. 
(ignof Godin the Gofpcl way of 
ourfalvation to take down our ho 
fioui* , that the creature might nor 

: ; 1 fc 

Afpe'tiSiic* 13* 

1 gloty in it ielf, but all might be ac- 
! knowledge^ to free grace r And 
i mall we think it a wrong, if we 
have not a righteoufnefl'e as hono- 
rable to our lelvcs as that which we 
; fofi :? 4 Our happinetfe will be 

f fearer though our honour will be | 
fle : For we (ball have a far great- 
er glory. And that is better then f 
mecr honour. 5 Yea we (hall have.; 
more honour then we loft : Area!! 
honour of being the fonsof God, 
and members of Chrilt, and heirs of 
glory: And this is greater then the; 
honour of our perfeverance would j 
have been. Ortely this b ing all > 
freely given redoundeth to thegi- [ 
ver:Dut ftill fHU rcall honour and I 
hapj ineiTe we enjoy. Therefore is 
it the evcrfarting work of Saints , to 
praifeihe Lamb who hath redeem- 
ed them out of all nations^ 2nd made 
them Kings ard Priefli to God; 
which implyeth an acknowledge*. 
ment of their foimer difebedience 
and ['tnlferyUand fo taking cifho- 
joour 10 thcmfelve*) and yet' the j 


^9 Aftentix, 

greater glory to Cbrift , and happi. 
neffe to them. 

6 Moreover we have now be- 
fides the righteoufaefle of Chrifts 
faiisfa&ion, a perfonall evangelic all 
righteoufnefle , confifting in the 
fulfilling of the condition* of the 
law of grace. 

So that our little lofle of the ho. 
nc>ur of felf- performance you fee is 
inthefe-6. refpecls abundantly re- 

Sothat to our felves a righteouf- 
ntffeof fatisfadlion^s better then a 
righteoufnes ofperfonali obedience. 
Ajndas it is found in Ghrift, it isai- 
fo in it felfmore excellent. . 

Yet further ; that it is not dtro- 
gatory to Chrift,<k>th thus appear, 
i He had in himfelf both forts of 
righceoufnefle ; viz, , Of obedience 
to the Precep: , and of fatisfc&ion 
to the threatning* Though both 
could not be ours retaining th<ir 
forms as fu:h : becaufe the Jaw re- 
quirethbut one (brt of righteoufnes 
ofoncperfonfox himfelf: fo that,we 
I dero^ 

derogate nothing from Chriflsrigb* 
teoufneflc or perfe&ion. 

2. Both thefe forts in Ghrift, 
viz,, his a&ive and paffive (as I con* 
eeive)doeconeurre to make tip that 
one fort ofrighteoufhcfle nccefiary 
for us, viz,. O' fatisfa&ion to the 
thrcatning : and fo both conjunct 
areourrighteoufnefie * though not 
as two forts of righteoufneiTe > but 
as one. Yet I knew that this ift 
fomewhat dark and doubtfull , be- 
caufe Obedience is a thing com- 
manded and not threatened: But 
yet feeing ChrUt pa *ed not the 
Idem /out the Tandftmdew; not the 
very fame debt mentioned in the 
thFea*ning, bur the value; I think 
therefore that his obedience asiucri 
may goe in to his iausfa&icn* 

3« I alfo freely acknowledge^hat 
the additional! happinefle which we 
have by Chiift,more xhen we Joft 
in Adtm, contained in oar Adopti- 
on, Vnion withChrilt and Glori- 
fication, are procured by Chrifts 
adive obedience, #s fuch,a*wclljas 

— — ~ — , -h 

1 34 jtyfi**$k« 

by hisfatisfa&ion in fufrering. 

If yet befrdes all this, any will 
maintain that we fulfilled the pre- j 
cepts of the law in Chrift > or that -j 
his fulfilling of them asfuch , i* our j 
righteoufnefTe, let them fhew me | 
folidly' what ncede we have of j 
Chriftsfurferings, and let t'neiman- 
fw£r what is faid to the contrary by 
the forementioned Authors j and I 
flhall quickly yeeld. 

To conclude, rhat God accepteth 
this righteoufnefTe offatisfaSion as 
being equivalent to that of obedi* 
ence (though obedience be firft in 
the law, and the precept theprinci- 
pall part) and To that he is as well 
pleafed with us as if we had obeyed: 
may appear from the end and nature 
offatisfaclory pumfhment. For the 
penalty of a perfect juft hw is fup- 
pofedto befuch , thatit will make 
a perfect compenfationor fatisfa&i* 
on for" all the wrong we have done, 
to tbe la w- maker or the publique ? 
fo that being paid or fuffered , we 
fcnuft needs io point of mnbeeney be 

Jppindte. 1$<; 

infidttt quo prius. I know fome ob-* 
je&cbus, If a thcefbe burnt in the 
hand and fo the law fatijfied } fti'he 
hath loft his credit , and will not be 
taken or trulled for an honeft man. - 
Anfw. You mutt diftinguifti i. 
betwixt his breach of mans law^and 
his breach of Gods law. 

2. Betwixt his a&uall fault 3 -and 

his babituall pra vity. And then you 

will fee, i that his burning in the 

hand was for the breach of mans 

law ; but die perpetuail infamy is a 

I part of the penalty iDfiictedbyXSod 

| for the breach of his law , by the 

j fame fad. 2 Phat his flittering was 

1 onely for his a&uall fau't .• But ou? 

ditiruft and contempt of hitnisalib 

for the pravity of his heart by that 

fa& liiuovered, of which mans law 

take th not notice. 

But if you inBa-nce in the breach- 
of a meerpenalllaw (as for keeping 
Artillery , tor forbearing to eat flefa. 
inLent 3 &c.) Yon will fee that the 
meer fuffering or paiment, doth put 
ihc offendour in as good a condition 

as 1 

1 ■ ' mi m i 11 w 1 l i 1 1 >» M i' ■ 

1 96 v*tm& x > 

as he was before. 

But the Difputant in Mtcceviui 
thinketh to ftrike ail dead, with this 
cafe. In i Sam. 11,7. the penalty 
for them that would not go out 
with S*xl to battell. was ,that their 
oxen fliould be hewed in pieces ; yet 
(faith he ) they fhonld befides this 
have loft their part in the prey or 
Ipoils. To which I anfwer, 

1 . Then the lode of the fpoil was 
knplyedas part of the penalty. 1 He 
all along runneth upon a falfe fuppo- 
fition j viz. That ddam befides the 
continuance of the happineffe which 
atfirft was freely given hirr^fhould 
moreover by his ob:dienee have 
met iced or procured feme further 
reward.- Now (faith he) this re- 
ward muft be procured us by Chrifts 
I active lightet ufnelTe, though his fa- 
tisfadion put us into the Mate, we 
fell from. 

But all this is a racer fiction. For 
where doth the fcripturc talk of 
Adams meriting any more ? or 
where doth it promife him any 
\ more] 

■wwwy n »» ■' ' ■ < > ■■ mwp ■ »■ ■' !■■ . — ■■ » ■■ 1 ' u " ' ' 

more then the continuance of that 
happineffe which he then had? - 

So I have done with the firft 

Your 2 is [whether Chrift paid 
the fame dtbt which was in the 
firft obligation? ] And here you 
fend me to Mr. Owen. 

An[w. i I had farre rather yon 
had objeaed your felf. For I czmot 
wellunderthndMr.0»*»' minde, 
mjxtg.iSj. He diftinguimech be- 
twixt paying the very thing that is 
in the obligation ; and paying of fo 
much in another kinde. Now this 
is not ourqueftion > nor any thing 
to it ; for we affirme that (Thrifts 
fafferingwasof the fame kinde of 
punifnment/at leaft in the main; ) 
but yet not the very fame in the 

Inp*£. 140. He ftatesthe que- 
flion far otherwife, (and yetfuppo- 
feth it the fame) v tz, , whether 
Chrift paid the Idem, or the T*n± 

tundem I 

.1 -. 

i}8 tApptvdix. 

' " ' * — • i 

tkndeml whfchheinterpreteth thu?? 
[that which is not the fame, nor 
equivalent to it , but onely in the 
gracious acceptation of the Credi- 
tour] Now what he means by [not 
equivalent] I cannot teuY 

it If he mean [not of equal Va- 
lue,] then he fighteth wuh a 0>a 
dow ; he wron$cth 6roti*i > ( for 
ought I can finds in htm ) who 
teacheth no fitch doftrine: How- 
ever , I doe not fo u% to cnglifl* 
tjtfatfo Taxtidem*] But if he mean 
that it is not equivalent in procuring 
its end , ipfi fafto > delivering the 
debtour , without the intervention 
of a new conceffion or contractor 
the creditour , ( as fsimie ejufdem 
doth, ) then I confeffe Grctwt is 
agai&fthim • and foam I. 

So alfo (Gods Gracious, accept^ 
ance] neither his accepting leffe in 
value then was due, and fo remit- 
ting the reft without payment .• 
(this I plead not for , ) or els it is 
his accepting of a refnfeabe pay. 
meat, which though equal in value, 


Afftn&x* 139 

I yet he may ehufc to accept aecor- 
ding to the tcnour of the Obliga- 
tion* This is gracious acceptance, 
which C/Tflf/*' tnaintaineth ; andfo 
doe I ; andfo diftingnifh betwixt 
folntio & fAttijttltt, pay men: and 

Yethere Mr.0w*«entemhthe 
lifts with Grotms\ And 

1. He overlooked his grcateii 

s. He Qigbtly anfwereth onely 

And 3. when he hath done, he 
faith as Grotms doth , and yeekleth 
thewhole eaufe. 

Thefe three things I will make 
appcare in order. 

1. The chicfe Argument of Gr$» 
tins and Vefllw is drawne from the ; 
tenor of the Obligation, and ftom j 
the event : The Obliguionehajgeth 
punifbtnent on the offender -him. 
ielfe. It faith U*thed*ytkoueat*ft> 
tboufhsltdjC] And U'»rfcd is eve- 
ij we that .cwtinutth wot in *U 
thiW>&e.\ Now ifthe famein the 


1 40 Appitiix* 

Obligation be paid, then the Law is 
executed , and not relaxed ; and 
then every (inner muft dye himfeif ; 
for that is the /<&**, and very thing 
thrfatrted : So that here , Dum 
altar folvhyfimul aliudfihitur.Tht 
Law threatned not Chrift, bur us, 
f Befides.that Chrift fufferednot the 
lofle of Gods love, nor his image 
and graces, nor eternity of torment, 
of which 1 have fpoke in the Trea- 
ttCeJ What faith Mr. Owen to any 
of this? 

2. The two Arguments he deal - 
eth with, are tfaefe. 

1. [ The payment of the vety 
debt > doth ipfofaftofiet the debtor] 
To which he anfwcreth,that Chrifts 
death doth actually, or ipfofatto, 
free a*. This Anfwer I fhall ebnfi: 
dcr under your laft qweiVton wherto 
it belongeth. 

To the feeond Argument [thill 

the payment of the fame thing in 

the Obligation, Jeaveth no roome 

for pardon I he anfwereth thus; 

1. Gods pardoning corriprketh 

sW- ^J^ e 

jfppntiiiiUfk* 141 

the whole difpenfation of Grace in 
Chrilt : As j. The laying of oar 
finne on Chri(K 2. The imputa- 
tion of his Righteoufnefle to as ; 
which is no lede of grace and mercy : 
Howevec, Godpardoneth all to us, 
but nothing toChrift: So that the 
frcedome of pardon hath its foun- 

1. In Gods will freely appoint- 
ing this fatisfaclion of Chriii. 

2. In a gracious acceptation of 
that decreed fatisfa&ion in our 

3. In a fiee application of the 
death of Chrift to us, &c] fo farre 
Mr. Owen. 

To which I anfwer.- 1. Pardon im- 
plieth Chrifts death asacaufejbutT 
would he hid (hewed the Scripture, 
that inaketh pardon fo large a thing, 
as to comprize the whole difpenfa* 
tion of Grace \ or that maketh 
Chrifts Death to be part of it , or 
comprized ink. 

2. If fueh a word were in Scrip- 
ture, will he not confefle it to be 

, figurative ! 

142 Appendix. 

figurative, and not proper , and Co 
not fit for this Difpute > 

3. EJfe when hee faith , that 
.Chrifts Death procured our par- 
don, hemeaneth that it procured k 

2. Neither is imputation of 
Rjghteoufnefle any part of pardon, 
but a nceeflary antecedent ; fo that i 
here is no part of pardon yet in all I 

3. The fame may be faid of Gods 

4. Its Application is a large 
phrafe, and may be meant of feverall 
*&$ ; but of which here, I know 

5. How can he call it, [A graci- 
ous Acceptation, a gracious imputa- 
tion, a free Application, ] if it were 
the fame thing which the Law re- 
quired that was paid ? To pay ail 
according to the full exaction ofthe 
Obligation, needeth no favour to 
procure acceptance, imputation, or 
application • Can Judiee refafe to 
accept of fueh a payment ? Or 


Appendix* 143 

can it require any more t 

Objett. But it is ofgracc to ui, 
though not to Chrirt. 

<>A»fir< Doth not that clearely 

intimate , that Chrii was not in 

■ the Obligation f that the Law doth 

J threaten every man perfoBally ; Or 

die it had been no favour to accept 

it from another. 

g. That Mr. Onwgiveth up the 
caule at laft , and faith as Cjmtus 
(having it feemeih not underftood 
Cjrotim his meaning) appcarcth,p # 

J?or 1. he acknowledged that 
the payment is not made by the 
party to whom remiffion is gran- 
ted, (andfo faith every man that is 
a Chriftian J 

2. He faith , Ic was a full valu- 
able compenfation, ( therefore not 
of the fame.) 

3. That byreafon of the Obli- 
gation upon us, we our fclves were 
bound toundergoe the puniflimenr, 
(therefore Ghrifts puniihment was 
not in the Obligation , but on Jy 


1 1 44 Appendix. 

ours, and fo the taw was not fully 
e-xecutedybut relaxed.) 

4. He faith, he meaneth not that 
Chriit bore the fame punishment 
due to us, in all accidents, of dura* 
tion and the like ; but ihe fame in 
weight andprefiure, (therefore not 
the iamc in the Obligation, beeaufir 
not fully the fame : Not the fame 
numerically ; nor perhaps fpecifi- 
ctlly in all refpe<5ts, if the lolTe of 
Gods Love and Image, and incur- 
ring his hatred, the corruption of 
the body, the lolTe of right to, and 
ufe of all the creatures,and the lolTe 
of all comforts corporall or fpiritn- 
all, &c. were any part of the curie.) 
yet that it was in the greateft re- 
fpec-ts of rhe fame kinde, I doubt 

5. He faich, [God had power fo 
farre to relax his owne Law, as to 
have the name of a furety put into 
the Obligation , which before was 
not there ; and then to require the 
whole debtofthat furety,] 

And what faith Gmius more 


tbaTthii Mf the fame thing in the I 
Obligation be paid, then the Law 
is executed; and if executed (pro- 
perty and fully) then not relaxed. 
Hereheeonfefleth that the furetics 
name was not in the Obligation ; 
and that God relaxed the Law to 
put kin. Now themainebuficeffe 
that (jrotius there drives at, is but 
to prove this relaxation of the Law, 
and thenon.cxeeutipn of it on the 
offenders threatned. 

I judge that, Mr. Omn hath no 
better fiicceflc in his next alTaolt of 
Grotws on that queftion [Whether 
God manage this work of relaxing 
the Law, punifhing Chrift for us, 
&c. as a Creditor, or as an abfolute 
Matter, or asa Iudgc under Lawes, 
or as the fupremc Re&or ? j the laft 
of.wbJch§r0*/0/ maintaineth ? He 
that readeth Grotius ard fofswt 
own words , doth need nofurthcr 
defenfative again!* the force of Mr. 

Cut this is nothing to me. 

Onely I would not have any 

G> truth 

_ —2 — —• 

146 appendix. 

truth to fare the worfe for Cjrotius 
his defection. It washimfelfe that 
deferred the difcredir, arid not the 
Truth of God. 

The third and Jaft contradfcfod 
Article is, [That n<3 man is -ftftuaflfy 
and abfoiutely juftificd "uport trie 
meere payment of the debt by 
Chrift, till they become BeW- 

Againft this, you- tend mee to r 
both the ibre-mentionedlAuthor* . ' 
. Anfa. 1. When I fi'rft caft my 
eye upon the two fore-cited Difpu* 
tations in LMaccowtkf, 1 had 
thought he had fpbkeonely of the 
umverfall conditionall Jutflfication 
ofmen, when he faith, [that active 
Justification was at the beginning 
of the firft promiie \ ; ] But my cha- 
ritable thoughts I fooncfaw were 

But I find, as his Doctrine is very 
ftrangc, foarehis proofesas (lender, 
as any mans you could have Tent 
rne to. u I s 

'"iris it not ftrange that A&ive 
juftification (houid bee perfeacd 
50C0. yeares before Pa fsive juftifi- 
cation is in being? I thought Paf- 
iivc juftification had been the im- 
mediate effca of the Aaive; And 
that God bad juftified no man, 
who is not thereby juftified. 

2. And as ft range and abhorred 
to me, is the other par t of his do - 
arme, ws.That Faith onely takcth 
knowledge of juftification former- 
ly wrought, j 

And his Arguments are as weak | 
as the doaiine erroneous. 

1. Thefirft: is[Bec3ufe the Ob- 1 
je6t rauft reeds go before the A#. ] 

tyinfw. But is it -not pity that 
fo excellent a Dockr (fcouli think 
that jurtifieation (and thatnot only 
in offer, but in atf uall being) flic old 
be the objea of juftifying Faith ? 
I am afhamed to confute fo fence- 
leiican afietticn* Sure ic is ChrVft, 
and not aauall juftification that it 
the Objea. When the Scripture 
faith, ihn[?rhofrevcr Meevc$hjh*/l 


148 jipfcndix. 

be ytftifye&l is it a learned Expofi* 
tion which thus interprcteth ic? 
[You that arc eletf, are already ju. 
tiified, and if you will beleeve it, 
you (hall know it :] 

2. He citeth Para**, faying,that 
Faith doth not effect jnitificaticn, 
but accept it.. 

tsinfrv* t. They that fay, Faith 
is the inftrumentall eaufeof justifi- 
cation, muft need* fay, that Faith 
cffc&eth ic. 

2. Faith aecepteth Chrift for 

3. It aecepteth not juftification 
as being actually and abfolutely our 
owne before the acceptance .• But ic 
aecepteth a conditional! juftihea- 
tion offered to me, that by the ac- 
ceptance it may become abfolutely 

His citing of Tojfartus words is 
nothing for h.m : For when hee 
faith, twat[ All theElcdare jultih- 
cdin Chril^inrefpedof the merit 
thereof] it is no more then to lay 
that [ Chritt hath merited their 


Apfenihc. 1 49 

juftificuion : ] which who deny- 

eth? w u 

But the great Argument which 

he and all of his judgement do truft 
to, is this: [Ifche mrety Co under- 
take or difeharge he debt, that the 
creditor reft la isfied with that un- 
dertaking or difeharge; then is the 
deb:or free from the debr. But 
Chrift hath Co undertaken and dif- 
eharged the particular debts of the 
Ele& j therefore the Ele& are 

Anfw. i. Payment is refutable, 
or not refutable : That payment 
which is of the fame thing in the 
Obligation, eitherbyourfelves or. 
our Delegate, is not by the Credi- 
tor refnfable ; ib that if we had paid 
it, or Chrift had been our Delegate, 
appoimedb/ us to pay trie fame that 
was due, then God co-aid not have 
refufedto take that payment: But 
Chrift being appointed to this by 
the Father, and not by us; and alio 
paying not the very fame, bur the 
value, God might have refafed the 
Ipaymcnr, a. Where 

15© t/fppcndi** 

2. Where the payment is Dot 
refufable, there the difeharge of the 
debtor is not refutable , but doth 
follow ijfafaElo : But where the 
payment is refufable, (as here it 
was ) the Creditor may accept it 
upon what termes he pieafes, and 
chufe to give the Dcbcoi an abfo- 
lute difeharge; fo that it being the 
full agreement and pleafurcboth of 
the Creditor and the Surety, the 
father and the fonne, that the Deb- 
tor (hould have no difeharge by the 
payment, but upon a certa ine con- 
dition by him to be performed, no 
doubt he (hall have none till he have 
performed it. 

5. So that Gods accepting the 
payment and being fatisfied with it, 
may be underHood 

i, /n refpe&tothc Surety, and 
the value of his payment ; and fo 
God was well plea fed and fully fa- 
tisfied in Chrifts payment, as being 
thefuil value that hisjurtiee did re- 
quire, and bey ond which be expect - 
d no more at his hands. 

2« Or 


a. Or it may be fpokenin refe- 
rence to the debtor^ the iirner,. and 
theeffe&ingofhisfreedome: And 
fo Go4 was not immediately upon 
Chrifh payment. v fo fathfiedorweU 
pkarerfwuhthe4>*fti.GuJaiQfi«nders4 j 
as to deliver and di charge them j 
without rcquuingany thing atthek ' 

I. For he will £rft have thetn 
performe .the iropofed cooduionof 
iak#g Cbtift who hath -.bought 
tbem> foi theirojpcly Savioui,^*? 
band and Lord. 

Tothefeof 'MdctdviusJ&x.Ow* 
itvthe place againft Grotim) « bieh 
you rcferre mee to, addcth fopi* 
more . 

As [ i . By death he deliver us 
from death :j 

*Anfr. Not immediately nor 
abfolntely. nor by his Death alone ; 
but by that as the price, iuppofmg 
other caufes on his part, and condi- 
tions on ours to eencurre before the 
a&uall deliverance. 

^. He fakb [Tec Eie& ate laid 
Ge a to 

1 5 z- Appendix, 

to dye and rife with him. ] 

Anfn. Not in refpea of rime, 
a* if we dyed and rofe at the fame 
I time, either really or in Gods e- 
fleem : Nor that wee dyed in his 
dying, and rofe in his rifing. • But 
u ii fpokenof the diftant, mediate 
effe&s of his death, and the imme- 
diate effe&s of his Spirit on us, ri- 
fing by regeneration to union and 
Communion with Chrift. 

f. He faith, [Chrift hath redee- 
med us from theeurfe being made 
aeurfeforus &1&3V3,] 

*sinfw< I explained before how 
farre we are freed by Redemption ; 
He hath redeemed us, that is, paid 
the priee ; but with no intent that 
we (hould by that Redemption be 
immediately or abfolutcly freed. 

Yec when we are freed, it is to be 
afenbed tohii d?ach as the merito- 
rious caufe ; but not as the oneiy 

4^ He faith [The hand -writing 
that was againlt us, even the whole 
obligation is taken out of the way 


Appsxitx. 15* 

and nailed to his Crofle. 

Anftv. 1. By the hand -writing 
of Ordinances, is efpeciaily meant 
the Law of Ceremonies. 

a. If it be meant alibofthecurte 
of the Old Covenant, then it can- 
not be (o undcrftood , as if the Co- 
venant it feife were abrosate,for the 
rea'bns I have before given in the 
Treat ife. 

3 . Nor yet that any are abfohite- 
ly difcharged from the curfe , till 
they pcrforme the condition requi- 
red for their difcharge. 

4. But thus farre the Law is tar 
ken down,that our Redeemer hath 
bonghsus from that nectffityofpe- 
riflimg, that lay upon us for cur 
tranfgreffing that Law ; fbthar no 
man is cow condemned forthemeer 
violation of that firft Covenant; 

! and fo he hath taken the Ltw into 
; his owne hands, to charge only up- 
on thofe that break the conditions 
of the New Covenant. 

5. And <bhe bath taken downe 
theconderr n ng power or rhe;Law 

G g ? 

*54 Afftn&ix, 

asitftandethby itfelfe, and notas 
it is und^r the Covenant of grace : 
And hee hath freed us from the 
eurfe conditionally, and the eondi 
tion is eafie and reasonable. 

6. So that cjuoadmeritttmj the 
work is done. Allthefatisfa&ionis 
made, and price paid ; and therefore 
mHcb. i. 3. it is faidto be done. 
Ifa manwere a 1000 1. indebted 
had tryed all meanes , and had no 
hope left to procure his difcha ge: 
And ifa Granger to him goeto the 
Creditor, and buy the Debtor who 
is inp,ifon into his owne hands, by 
paying all the debt , yet refolving* 
that if he refufe his kindncfle, hee 
(hall have no benefit by it, but lye 
and rot there; May it not be fitly 
faid, that the debtor is delivered ? 
becauie the great difficulty which 
hindered , is removed ; and the 
condition of his freedomeis forea 
(enable, that common realbn fup 
pofeth he willnot ft ck at it ; and 
if he doe, it is utterly agaittft rea- 
fonand humanity, for hee may be 
/reed if he will. There- 

^jfypendix . I55 

Therefore it is no unfit ph*fe,to 
fay; thejxgtrii freed a§ iboo as;Kis 
debus payed ; Butyecceisjaatab. 
folutely freed, nor aduaHy neither 
in point of neribnall right, nor ©f 
poffeifion. And tor his humane re- 
.fu & 11. of the kindneffe of his Redee- 
mer, may lye and perifh there, and 
^e never the better, but the worfe 
for all this. 

7. Yet it being the abfolute pur- 
pole both ©f the Father and Media* 
tor, tocaufc all the Bled to perform 
this conditio© of their d^chargd ; 
therefore Redemption is a caufe of 
their certaine future difcharge, and 
a linke in the inviolable chaine of 
the caufes of their falvation: But to 
the rett pi the world it is not fo. 
. Rut I doe not well underhand 
the meaning of the Author you re. 
terre me to : For he kith , [ That 
Chrift did actually and ipfefaBe , 
deliver us from the curie and oblfv 
gat ion ; yet we doe not inftantly 
apprehend and perceive it, nor yete 
pofleileit ; but only we r.avca&n- 


U56 jipfcndtifr, 

aU right to all the fruits of his death : 
At a pnioner in a farre Gountrcy 
who is ranfomed, but knoweth it 
not, nor can enjoy liberty till a 
Warrant be produced, &e . 

But i. Whetheraman may fitly 
be faida&ually, and ipfi fatfo, to be 
delivered and difeharged , who is 
not at all delivered, but onely hath 
right to deliverance, 1 doubt. 

a. Knowledge and pofleflionof 
a deliverance, are farre different 
things: A man may have pofleflion 
and no knowledge in fome cafes ; 
or if he have both, yet the procuring 
of knowledge is a fmall matter, in 
comparifon of pofleffion. 

3. Our knowledge therefore 
doth a© t give us pofleflion; (b that 
the fimilitude failes ; for it is the 
Creditors knowledge and fatisfa- 
clion that is requifitc to delive 
ranee. And our Credi tour was not 
in a farre andftrange countrey, but 
knew immediately >and could either 
have made us quickly know, or tur 
ned m free before wc had knownc 
tjie, caufe. 4.N0X 

Appendix, 157 

4. Nor can it eafily be mider- 
ftood, how God can fo long deny 
n$ the poffeflion of Heaven, if wee 
had fuch abfolute a&uall Right (as 
he fpeakethj fo long ago; whieh 
feemeth to exprefle a jus ad rem & 
in re* 

If it be faid, wee are yet in our 
minority, and no: fit for prefent 

I anfwer, That this fimefle and 
our maturity is part of the delive- 
rance, or benefit (which he faith, de 
fatfo, we had right to :) And fo we 
fhonld have had that alio in prefent 

4. But if he doe meaneonelya 
right to future pofleffion (for fuch 
there is,) yet Iconfefle it is beyond 
my conceiving, how in regard of the 
relative part of oar deliverance, that 
right and the pofleffion fhould ftand 
atfo many yeeres diftance. To 
have right to Gods favour and ac- 
ceptance, and to have 'poffeflion of 
that favour ; to have right to the 
remiflionof finne,and adoption^and 


i$% trfppetdix. 

t^have pofleffion of chqfc, dp fecme 
to me to be of neerer kin. Except 
he mould ,think that poffetfvon of 
favour is nothing but the know- 
ledge orfeelingof it ; and that paf- 
fcflion of pardon is the like ; and 
that Faith juftifieth us but it* fore 
confeienti* ; But I will not eenfure 
fo hardly till 1 know it# 

Indeed there is a juftification by 
'publike declaration at the great 
judgement, which much difrereth 
from ameer Right. Butonr juftifi- 
cation by faith here is but a juftify- 
ingin the fence of the Law, or gi- 
ving us right to that full jurtifica* 
,tion : So that [To have right to 
j it, ] and I to have poflfefsion of ic 
in point of Law or Right i ] is to 
me all one : For what doth Faith 
g>ve u$ polTelTion of in its jufti- 
tying A& t but this legallright? 

5 . And jndeed, it leemcth to me 
a full definition of ail pardon aixfc 
justification which is here to bee 
expe&ed, which he layeth downe ; 
,Hee faith, [Chrilt did deliver ns 
\ from- 

from the curfe, and take away the 
Obligation which was againft us 
ipfo ftfto.'] And I think to be ju« 
ftified, is but to be freed from the 
eurfe or condemnation ; and to be 
pardoned ,is nothing elfe but tobe 
freed from the Obligation to pu- 
nishment. And is remiflion and 
justification the immediate ctfeft 
of Chrifts Death ? 
, ■ 

What ever this Writer thinketh 
in this j is nothing to u^ ; But bc« 
caufe I would not have you lb pal- 
pably and dangerouily erre, let mee 
lay a little moie againft this mif- 
take. You may remember I have 
oft told you, ot how great moment 
it is in Difinity, tobe able foundly 
to diftinguifli betwixt Immediate 
and Mediate Effects of Chrifts 
Death. ( I think J ho. iJWoorc 
meant the Immediate and Medi- 
ate Effe&s.which he calleth [£»</>] 
which hath caufed a great many 
pages about the -Ends of < hrilis 


6o~ Appendix. 

Death, to be written by his Anta- 
gonists to little purpofe. ) Now 1 
would have you know , that this 
a&uall RemifTion and Juliifieation, 
are no Immediate, but Mediate ef- 
fects of Chrifts Death • no, nor a 
pcrfonall right thereto, if there be 
any fuch thing diftincl; from a&uail 

And to this end I pray you 
weigh thefe Arguments 

I . What Right foever God gi- 
vethtomen to things fupernaturall 
(fuch as juftification, remiision, a- 
doption) he giveth by his written 
Lawes. But by thefe Lawes hee 
ha.h given no fuch thing to any Be- 
Jecver. (inch as are theEleft before 
converfion,) therefore, &c. 

The major is evident : Godi 
Decree giveth no man a perfonall 
right to the mercy intended him. 
And for the minor, no man can pro- 
duce any Scripture giving to unbe- 
leevers fuch a right. 

2* If God hate all the works of 
iniquity, and we arc all by nature 

. the 


Jpftniix, \6\ 

the children of wrath, and without 
faith it ii impoflible to pleafe God, 
and he chat Wlecveth not if con- 
demned already : then certainly the 
Ele& while they arennbeleeversare 
not actually ^defatlo, no nor inper- 
fonall Right , delivered from this 
hatred, wrath, difpleafure and con. 
demnation. But the major is the 
rery words of Scripture ; there* 

* 5. If wc are juftified onely by 
Faith, then certainly noc before 
Faith : But we arc juftified onely 
by Faith ; therefore, &c. 

I doe in charity fuppofe that you 
will not anfwer To groflely, at to fay, 
we are juftified inforo € Z)ei y before 
Faich, and onely in foro ewfeientit, 
by Faith , til! you can finde one 
word in Scripture which faith, that 
an nnbeleever is juftified. If I 
thought you were of this opinion, 
I ftiould think it an eafie task to 
j And if you dy that we are jufti- 
fied in (Sods Decree before Fiith : 


1 6z 4?pe*d*x, 

I anfwer, i« It is no jttftific^oafj* 
(hew me the Scripture <*hat ealletfr 
it fo. 

2. Nay,icclearely,implyet(ithc 
contrary. For Decreeing is a term 
of Diminution, as to juttifying. He 
that faith he is purpofed to free you 
fromprifon, &c. implyeth that as 
yet it is not done. To be jutified 
or faved in Decree, b no more but 
that God decreeth to juftifie and 
favc us ; and therefore fore it h yet 

4. If we are exhorted while wee 
are unbcleevers, to be reconciled to 
God, and to beleeve for remiffion 
of finnes 5 then fure we are not yet 
reconciled, nor remitted 5 But the 
former is evident in Scripture ; 
therefore, &c. 

5 . No man dare affirmed that we 
are untried ia ly upon Chrifts death, 
delivered a&ualiy , and tyfo fatte^ 
from the power or prefence of fin, 
nor from affli&ions and deatb,whkh 
are the fruits of it 5 nor yet that we 
are freed from the diftance & fepa^ 


_____ _. ^Ipf* * 1 ** ^ 

ration from God which fmne prceu • 
red. And why then fhouid wee 
think that wee were immediately 
delivered from the guile and con- 
demnation ? 

I know the common anfwer is, 
that /unification is an immanent 
a&, and therefore from eternity; 
but SancYificationisa transient a6t. 
But I have disproved this in the 
Trcatife, and cleared to you, that 
juftiflcation is alfo a trachent ac"t : 
Otherwife SociHtamfme were the 
founded doctrine, that Chrift never 
needed to fatisfie, if we were jufl i. 
fied from eternity. Yet (to con- 
feffe the truth) I was long deceived 
with this Argument my felfc, ta-! 
king it upon iruft from Dr* Tmfe^ 
and Mr. TembU, (whom I valued 
above mott other men;) an dib con- 
tinued of that fame judgement with 
thefc Authors you allc^ge, and re- 
mained long in the borders of AntU 
nomt*nifme % which I very narrowly 
efcaped : And it grieveth mee to 
fee many of our Divines to fight 
. againft 

I<$4 *Apfe*dix. 

againft Jefuites and Arminiant With 
the Aminomian weapons, as if our 
caufe afforded no better 5 and fo 
they run into the farre worfe ex- 

I undertake to manifcft to you, 
that this Do&rine of Chrifts im- 
mediate A&uall delivering us from 
guilt, wrath > and condemnation,! 
is the very pillar and foundation of 
the whole frame and fabrick of 

But theft things which you draw 
out ofme here unfeafonably, I am 
haudlinginafitterplaee,(ina fmall 
Tra& of Vtiverfdll Redimpti** : ) 
But the laft week I have received 
hwrtlcLvs againft Spaohemws ex- 
ereitations, who hath opened my 
very heart , almoft in my owne 
words ; and hath fo fully laid the 
very fame things which I intended, 
for the greater pare, that lam now 
unrefolved whether to hold my 
hand, or to proceed. 

The Lord give you to fearch after 
, the truth in love , with a humble, 
[ untyaffed, 

appendix. 165 

unbyaiTcd, fubmiffive foule ; nei- 
ther lofing it through negligence 
and undervaluing, nor yet diverted 
from it by inferiour controverfie*, 
nor perverted by felkconfidence, 
nor fotcftalled by prejudice , nor 
blinded by pafTton, nor loft in con- 
tentions, nor Tub verted by the now- 
ruling fpirit of giddincfle and levity, 
i nor yet obfeured by the eonfoun. 
ding of things that differ ,• that fo 
by the conduct of the Word and 
Spirit, you may attaine the fight of 
amiabie naked truth, and your un- 
der (landing may be enlighrned,and 
you/ foule beautified by the refle- 
| xion and participation of her light 
and beauty, that your heart being 
raviftied with the fenfe of her good- 
nclTe, and awed by her Authority, 
you may live here in the eonftant 
embracementsofher, and cordiall 
obedience to her, till you arc taken 
up to the prime eternail Truth and 


ji£6 Afpemim. 

Rom. 14. <?• 

Far f *W* on/ Cbrift both 
dyed^nd rofe } and revived y that 
ke might bee Lord both if the 
dead and living. 

Ephef. r. 22. 
And(God) hath put all things 
under his feet , and gave him to 
be the head over all things to 
the Church. 

Hcb. 5. 9. 
And being made yerfeft, hee 
became the Author of eternall 
falvation to all them that obey 

Revel, 20. 14. 
BleJJed are they that doe his 
commandements^that they may 
have right to the Tree of Life, 
and may enter in by the gate in. 
to the Ctty. 



Mymg* of excellent Di- 

vines • a*dtfd to fatisficyou 

who charge mee with 


#r, TwifTe bh ^ifeovtry of Dr. 

fyA? Hat onc ofour Church * n 
J V V maintain, that any one ob- 
Mm a#&all Redemption by Chrift 
withou Faith J efpecially coirfide- 
nrg that Redemption by the Blood 

of Chn^andforgivcneflcorfinnes 
areaIlone,£/*.i.i 7 . f d /., il4# 


Bifbof Hoopzr cited by DoBor 

(Chrifi) oneiy received our in- 
firmities and Original! Difcafe, 


1 68 Afftndix. 

and not the contempt of him and 
his Law* 

Expounded bj/D.TviJfeagtfofl 
DAack$on y ipzg. 584. 

His meaning in my judgement 
isonely this, that Chnft hath 
made fatisfaaion for the imperfe- 
aions of our Faith and holineflc, 
although we continue therein un- 
till death : But he hath not made 
fatisfaaion for the contempt and 
hatredof his Word;&e.in cafe men 
doc eontinue therein unto death. 

Alfitdifts Dittintt. The$l. 

The condition of the Covenant 
of Grace, is partly Faith, and partly 
Evangelicall obedience or holi- 
neffe of life proceeding from Faith J* 

in Chrift. 


Jppendix. \69n 


Id<Mtiid*c*p*a. :nr,rn 

Cfirift isotir Right«eufaefe in a 
iDfafl fcnfe , bnt pot in a fcrmall 


' S**€elsdvtrf.h*m*H, fAtisf<tcl . 

(ShriftsSatisfa&ion is to thern pro- 
fitable to whom it is truly applied. 
The way of application is thk*; that 
the merits of Ch rift be imputed to 
us : This imputation is done when 
the Koly Ghoft begetteth in us a 
true faith, which receiving the be- 
joefit ©fChrift , doth at onee aifa 
produce in us the true fruits of our 

Ramus in 'Difput. de S*. 
God was not bound toaccept the 
fttisfa&ion performed by another,., 
khotigh iuifieitnt -, unleflc (which 
ie could not ) man had Jatiified 
Ha him- 


17© *4fpe*4x. 

■ ' i 

himfeif, and had borne the pudfEh* 
ment due te his finne '••" therefore 
therewasa neceflfity that a Cove- 
nant Should iatercede, and God 
himfclfe propound a Mediator*- 

That there mud aft 4gf#&»snt 
intercede on his part who was fatis. 
6cd, I have proved, without which 
the fatisfaftibn had been in vaine* 
Ibidem % 

Hem. ibid, Thef. 4, $ , eV 
The A6fc which in fatisfaftioa 
God pcrformeth , i* of a. fupreme 
Judge,freely relaxing hkiowa I aw> 
and transferring the penalty on a- 
nother : So that in this relaxation 
Gods fupreme dominion may bee 
obferred: For how eonli God have 
relaxed hii, Law, it he had not been 
the fupreme Rector, or had beene 
under a Law himiclfe ? And by the 
transferring the penalty from the 
(inner, andexa&ing it of the furcty^ 



the relation of a party offended, 
as Inch, 11 itmoved frctn God>#c 

So he proeeedeth to prove , that 
God could anddid reltxhis Law as 
being politive , and fo relaxabie ; 
that it if abrogate, not expounded 
*Wf vmstixaA* And what of it waf 
relaxabie, and what not, &* 

— 7 , 

m.j.) that our opinion is right, if 
we meane, that Ghrifts merits are 
iinputcdus; becanfethey are given 
us, and we may offer them to God 
theFather for our finnes, bceaute 
Chriff underrodk theburden ©f &-> 
tisfyibgfords, anditconolingus to 
Sod. Which #*#* approrcth , 


Hha Dr. 

I? a jffptndix. 

Dr. Twifle Viniic. grat. I. z. 
par. %.crim. 3. $.£. 

I confefle falvation, and To par 
don and adoption, are offered to all 
and lingular men on condition they 
beleeve, &e. And to I deny nor, 
that Redemption is fo farre obtain- 
ed for all and every mau, 

Dr.Twiffe againfi Cotton, 
M£ 74t 

Still you prove that which no 
man denyeth, vi*> That God pur- 
posed lifeto the world sppn condi- 
tion of obedience and repentance 5 
provided that you understand it 
right, viz. that obedience and re- 
pentance is ordained of God, is 
a condition of life , not of Gods 

Dr. Twiffe 

Appendix. 1 75 

Dr. Twiffe CwfUL *f Tilenus Synod 
Dm & JirU$ reduced to 
prae. pag.^i. 
Cjtr.K$Jpmt interpreted* the will 
of God touching the falvation of all 
of a conditionall will, thus ; God 
will have all to be faved, to wit, in 
cafe they beleeve ; which conditio- 
nal! will in this fence,neithcr Anjhn 
did, nor doe we deny. 

Idemptg. 145,144; 

I willingty profeife that Ghrift 
dyed for all in re(pe& of procuring 
tne benefit (of pardon and falvation) 
conditionally t on condition of their 

So alfo r pag. 154,161, 164^6;. 
170,194. And Difcovery of Do ftor 
lacbsons vtnity, p.5 %j* 5 5 1 . 

Innins ParslleU. 3 . Heb. 5,9. 
For the promife of falvation is 
made to obedience, and bequeathed 
H h 3 to 

174 %/fppendix< 

to it in the Teftamcnt 


Tardus in Hebr* y.o. 
To obey Chr ift, is not onely to 
profefie his Name, but to acknow- 
ledge him the onely perfect Redce- 
mer,tocleave to him in true affiance, 
and to live worthy the Gofpel. 
This condition in the whole Gofpel 
is required in thofe that (hall be fa- 
ved. Univerfall SJraee bclongeth 
onely to the obedient* 

Chril* i* not the Author of falva* 
tion to all men , but onely to thofe 
that obey him, that is, whobdeeve 
his Promiies^nd obey his Precepts. 

The benefit of Redemption is u ► 
'i niverfall, and indeed belongs to all 
in gcnerall, fo be it we obey him. 


Afftndtx* 17$ 

- Wcttw^ibexpoufldwbatfoever 
the Scripture fpcaks of the Righte- 
oufnefle ofmen, that it overthrow 
not the forgivenefle of (innes , 
whereon it refteth as a building on 
its foundation* They- who fimply 
expound it, that Zachary and £/*- 
z*bctb were righteous by Faith, 
becaule they were freely accepted 
of Gcd for the Mcdiatours iakej doe 
wrell the word > of Lnh to a ft raifjge 
fence .• Acd as to the matter it felf, 
they fay fomcthing , bat not the 
whole. I confeffe indeed, that the 
rightcoufnefse whkh isafefibed to 
them, ought to be acknowledged 
as received from the Grace of 
Chrift / and not to the merit of 
works ; ytt the Lord, becaufehee 
imputed not to them their (innes, 
doth dignifie their holy life, with 
thetitleofRightcoufnes. The folly 
ofthePapifoiscafily refellcd, who 
oppofe this Righteoufnes to the 
Righteoufnes of Faith - } when as it 
flowes from it, fo it ought to bee 
H h 4 placed 

jj6 Jppendtx 

placed inTubotdinaciofi to^t, that 
(o therebee no difagreemcm, be- 
tween them. ' 9th 

firkins* VeL I. p. 66l.The. 
true Game* 

And left any fliould imagine , 
that the very ad of Faith in appre- 
hending Chriftjjuftifieth, wee are 
tounderftand,that Faith doth not 
apprehend by power from it feife, 
bat by vertue of the Covenant. If 
a man beleeve the Kingdome of 
France to be his, it is not therefore 
his ; yet if he beleeve Chrift and 
the Kingdome of Heaven by Chriti> 
to be his , it is his indeed * Not 
(imply, beeaufe he beleeves, but be- 
cause he beleeves upon command- 
ment and proraife : For in the re- 
nour of the Covenant > God pro. 
mifeth to impute the obedience of 
Chrift to us, jor our righteoufhcffcj 
ifwe beleeve* 

Appendix. 177I 

Perking Vol* I . p. 4 7 6. e n Hab. 1 » 4. 

Juftice mentioned in the word is | 
two fold, thejuftieeoftheLaw,and 
the juftice of the Gofpel : The ju* 
ft ice of the Law hath in it all points 
and parts of juftice, and all the per- 
fection of all parts; and it was ne- 
ver found in any upon earth except 
ddamatid C'knft* The juftice of 
theGofpel hath all the parts of true 
juftice, but it wants the full perfe- 
ction of parts. And this kinde of 
juftice is nothing dfe but the con- 
verCon of a (inner, jwith a purpofc, 
will, and endeavour to plcafeGod, 
according to all the Command- 
ments of the Law. Thus was ^{m/j 
juft, hb y Zachtrjt Elizabeth ; and 
thus muft the juft man be taken in 
thisplace, Hab.2.4^ 

Sop* 649. in The true (jaine. 
God doth as it were keep a double 
Court, one of juftice,. the other of 
H h 5 Mercy. 

i<]% Appendix. 

Mercy. In the Court of jultice hec 
gives judgement by the Law, and 
accufeth every man that continucth 
not in all things, &c. In this Court 
nothing can ihnd but the Patfion 
andRighteoafnefleof Chrift ; and 
for the beft works that we can doe. 
we may not look for any accepta- 
tion or reward , bnt ufe the plea of 
David, Enter not into judgement 
with thy fervAnt,0 Lord, for mflefh 
$k*R be jvflifitdw thy fight. Now in 
the Court of Grace and Mercy <?od 
hathtodcal with hisown children, 
that ftand before him juftified and 
reconciled by Chrift, and the obe- 
dience of fach fie accepteth in this 
Court, and mercifully regardcth, 
though tmperfc&— for Chrirt. 

Perkins, VeL I. p*g. 124. 
On the Creed, 
Chrift as he is fet forth in Word 
and Sacraments, is the obje& of 

Faith. Faith apprehendeth 

whole (ghrifU — — - pag, 125. Firft, 

icapprchendeth the very body and 
blood of Chfift ; and then in the 
feeond place the vertueand benefits. 
— Whereas fome are of an opinion 
that faith Uan affiance or confidence., 
thatfeemestobe othewife; fork 
s a fruit of Faith. 

That Faith is fo large as tocon^ ! 
taine very many acli , iee Zahchj 
on Eph. 1. inloc9Communi dc fide* 

That Word and Sacraments are 
the initruments of juftificaticn on . 
Gods part, Zatchj affirmeson Er 
phef.t. kcocommunide \uft>fiC*tidne> 

That the forme of Righteoufnefle 
is conformity to the Law, he tcaeh- 

That there is a neceffi .y of a twv 
fold Righteoufnefle, one imputed, 
the other inherent. Zanchy ibiii 

Good wrkes ate fequired a« a 
condition in thoie which are to bee 


I So appendix. 

faved, not as a meritorious caufe of 
their falvation. 

The meaning of this fentence [the 
doers pf the LHtirfhtll be jttftified , ] 
is the fame : God will apprwe, j*. 
ft'fit.9 reward them that doe the 
works of the Law, whether lew or 
Gentile : Yet it followeth hot that 
a man is therefore juftified by the 
works ofthe Law; But God appro* 
veth and rewardeth the workers, , 
not the hearers and profeflburs : So 
here the Apoftle rreateth not of 
the. caufe of jutHficat ion, which is 
faith without the works of the la w^ 
But ofthe difference between fuch 
as fball be juftified, and fuch as are 
not*Faixs. They onely which have 
a lively Faith, which worketh and 
k eepeth the Law in part, and fup- 
plyeth the reft which is wanting in 
themfelvesby the perfect obedience 
of Chrift, they (halt be yttfttfied ', 
not thofe wnich onely profeffc 
the Law, and keep it not. The A- 


-^_ , — ^ — ^ „ 1 — * 

Afttndix. \%\ 

poftle then here fbewethvvh© (ball 
be juftificd,not for what: 

By iheic words it is evident that 
Dr. Willct and Faius acknowledge 
ftnecre obedience to be a condition 
of juftifleationjOr of thofe that {ball 
be juftified, though not a caufe, as 
they fay ( I thinke miflakingly) 
Faith is. 

Dr. Davenant ts£*imadv$rJio*s on 
(]ods love to mankind ,p.j8 5 .386. 

The Doftrineof PredeftinatioD 
permiceth no man to peri wade him- 
felfe that his falvation is certaine, 
before he fl nde that he is truljr eon- 
verted, truly faithful], truely fan&L- 

Beeaufe you wilt perhaps heare 
Mr. Owen before Grotins* fee Mr. 

Ballon / ovcnant.$.i$Q* 


i8-& appendix. 

There is a two-fold payment of 
debt, one of the tiling altogether 
the fame whieh was in the Obliga* 
tion ; and this ipfefa&o freeth from 
panilhment, whether it be paid by 
| the debtor himlekc , or by bis 
furcty. Another of a thing not al- 
together the fame which is in %hc 
Obligation, ib that lome adVof the 
Creditor or Governour mu ft come 
unto it, which is called reraiflion ; 
in which eafc deliverance doth not 
follow ipjsfttto upon the fatisfa&i - 
on ; and of th.s kind is the fatisfa&L 

on of Cbrift. Thus this great 

learned, holy Divine as almoft Eng- 
lavdevcr bred, doth go on (even in 
(jrQtitiS his owne words tranflated) 
betwixt whom (had he been living) 
and Mr. Owen would have been but 

impsr congrejfut* 

Ballon Covenant, p.»4 O. 
As thefefalie Teachers % Pct.i.i 
were called into the Covenant ac- 
cepted the condition , bdeeved in 
\ Chrift, 

Appendix. 1% 

Chrift, for a time rejoyced in him, 
and brought forth fome fruit, fo we 
eonfeffe they were bought by the 
blood of Chrift , becaufe all thefc 
were fruits of Chrifts Death , 
whereof they were made parta- 

As in the Parable, Mat. 18.25. 
the Lord is laid to remit to his fer- 
vant a 1 000. talents when he defi- 
red him, viz>. lncho*tely % or upon 
condition, which was not confirmed, 
becaufe he did not forgive hisfeHow* 
fcrvant: Sothefalfe Prophets are 
bought by thebloud of Chrift, in a 
fort , as they beleevecV in Chrift. 
We read of Apoftates who had bin 
enlightncd &c. Heb. e.^&S]. and 
did revolt from the Faith ; To thefc 
men their finnes were remitted in a 
fort in this world t and in a fort they 
were bought with the blood of 
Chrift, but inchoately onely, and as 
they tafted the word of life. Had 
they eaten the word of iife,had they 
foundly and truly bcleeved in C hrift, 
they had received perfect and eon* 


x&4 Apftndix. 

fumrhate rcmiflionof fins, both id 
this world , and in the world to 
come ; they had been perfectly re- 
deemed and reconciled to God; 
Batbecaufe they didnoteite, but 
tafted onely, they received not per- 
fect RcmhTion, they were not per- 
fectly redeemed. 

Idem* pdg. 22 5. 
There is this mutual! refpe& be- 
twixt the promife and ftipulation ; 
that the promiie is as an argument 
which Goduieth, that hee might 
ob*aineof man what he requireth ; 
and the performance of the thing 
required > is * condition , without 
which man cannot obi nine theffomife 
of Cod* 

Idem, pag.tf. 

Of this Covenant be two part*, 

1. a Promife.* 2. a ftipulation* The 

Fromife is , that God will pardon 

the finnes of them that repent mi* 

feignedly, andbelecvein his mercy. 

2. The 
. ~ 

it S 

. 2. The Stipntoidn h, tb*t they 
jbeieeye in him chat juftifietb the 
i^godly, and walk berorc himifiill 

Sec him aiib delivering the moft 
of Amirttdns dextrine, p.344,145. 


Milin&us dc clctt* exfide$. 3 1£. 

We know remiifam is not obtain- 
ed before Prayers (four.) But I fay 
that ic was decreed before Prayew; 
and that it is fought by Prayer5 f al. 
though it be decreed. 

Scarpiusfimphnia. p. 93. 
Thefubftance of the Covenant 
lyeth in the promife of grace made 
in Chrift, and the Reltipu'ation of 
Faith and Gratitude. 

fdrtus *» *7«?e/l < 7 . p. 1 1 3 o # 
The fubiknee of the Covenant 
Jyeth in the promife of free Recon- 
ciliation, Righteonfneffe , and life 
1 eternall, 


t%6 Appendix. 

cternall,byandfachrift frcdy to 
be giveu, andinthereftipulatioii 

of our Moral! O bedience and Gra- 

BuUinger.'Decdd. I .Scrm.6* 

fMg. 44. 

We fay, Faith juftifieth for it fclf, 
Dot as it is a quality in our tninde, 
I or oir owne'work : but as Faith 
; is a gift of Gods grace having the 
J piomife of Rightcouibdlc and life, 
I &c. Therefore Faith juiiifieth for 
Chrirtj and from the grace and Co- 
venant of God. 
; ___ 

LMr.ssfttt. Burgcgioflnftif. 

Scripture roaketh no pardon ©f 
finne to be but where the fubje& 
hath fuch qualifications as thisx>f 
forgiving others. It is not indeed 
put as a cau&, or merit, b-Jt yet it 
is" as a qualification of the fubje& ; 
therefore our Saviour repeatetb, 

Except ye forgive 9tk*rs,&c. So^#. 

10.43. £*».*•*?• So * /# ^ uo ' 
Ifwoconfefc&c. By the&and the 
like Scriptures it 11 plaine,Tir4f rt- 
miffiin offinm ts given us only in the 

tMr.Burga offopf. LiQ.1%* 

Prop. 2. Although the Senpture 
attribute* pardon of finne to many 
qualifications in a man, yet repen- 
tance is themoft expretfe and pro- 
per duty, — — If we fpeak of the 
exprefle fortnall qualification, it is 
repentance of our nnnes, &c. 

Prop. 3. None may bcleeve, or 
conclude that their (innes are pardo- 
ned before they have repen ted, Mat 
3.2. Lukti ?•$• 

Prop. 4. There is a neceffity of 
repentance if we would have pardon, 
both by neceflity of Precept, and of 
meanes. The Spirit of God woik- 
et h this in a man to qualify him for 
this pardon, p. 150* 


188 tApptmdix. 

l You fee then that Faith is not 
the only condition of remiflion, and 
confcqucncly nor ofjuftificatfon. 

Not as an appealc to men, but to 

fill upthe vacant pages, and fatisfy 
you who charge me withfingHlari- 
ty, have I added thefc promifcuous 
Teftimonies, fuppofing you can ap- 
ply tfum to theif intended nfe's.