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Full text of "An end of doctrinal controversies which have lately troubled the churches by reconciling explication, without much disputing"








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J An END of 

I ©ottttttal 


| Which have Lately 

If j Troubled the Churches 


Reconciling Explication, 



Written J>y 

Richard Baxter, 

Pfal. 1206,7. My Soul hath long dwelt with him that h*t:th 
Pea\e~: 7 am for Peace ; but when ifpeaki they are for War. 

Luk. 9. 46, 49, 50, 54, $ 5. There arofe a reafoning among them, 
which of them fiwld begreatej},&c. 

LONDON, Printedfor goftn fealugbucg at the 

Rtfing SUXinCornhH, MLDC.XCI. 



WARS dre mofi dreaded and 
bated by the Country where 
they are; but not fo much 
• h thtSouldkrSy who by them 

feek their Prey and Glory, as by the fuffer- 
tng Inhabitants that loft thereby their Pro- 
fperity and Peace, who yet are forced, or drawn 
to be fiders, left they fuffer for Neutrality. 

Religious (irreligious} Wars areefnolefs 
dtfmal Confequence i being about God himfelfl 
hts Will, and Word, and that which more 
nearly toucheth our Souls and ever la/ling ft ate, 
than our Houfes and worldly Welfare does : 
And yet becaufe Men are more fenftble of their 
corporal than their fpiritual Concerns, theft 
Dogmatical Wars are far lefs feared, and too 
commonly made the Study, and Delight, not 
only of the Military Clergy, but alfo of the 
J educed and fequacious Laity : Though thofe 
that have the Wifdom from above, which i& 

A s fure 

The Preface. 
pure and peaceable, condole the Churches I 
lamity her thy ; knowing that Envy and Strife , 
the earthly fenfual and devilifh Wifdom, can- 
feth Confufwn y and every evil Work: And 
it is a heinous Aggravation, that the Militants, 
being Men confecrated to Love and Peace y pro* 
fanely father their Mischiefs upon God, and do 
all as for Religion and Church. 

Having theft four and forty Tears at leafi, 
been 'deeply fenfble of this Sin, Danger, and 
Mifery of Chrifiians> I have preacfcd, much, 
and mitten more againfl it : To confute thofe 
Exireams which caufe Divifions, and to recon- 
cile thofe that think they differ where they do 
not ; fometime alfo ufmg importunate Petitions 
md Pleas for Peace y to thofe that have power 
to give it, or promote it, and that ufe either 
Word or Sword againfl it* And with the Sonf 
of Peace it hath not been in vain : But with 
thofe that are engaged in Faction and malici- 
ous JFriftj I am proclaimed to be the militant 
Enemy of Concord, for per f wading them to Con* 
cord, and writing many Books for Peace and 
Love, is taken for writing them againjl thefe. 
Controverftes I have written of but only to 
end them, and not to make them : And who 
can reconcile them that never mentioneth 
them? or arbitrate in a Caufe unheard and not 
opened f 


The Preface. 

But] Redder s, \mnfi tell you, that my title 
I An End of Do&rinal Controverfies} is 
nof intended as prognofiick , but as ded&ftical 
And directive. I am far from expelling an end 
of Qontr over fie s, while confecrated Ignorance is 
by worldly Inter eft, Fd6lion^ and Mdice, mix- 
ed with Pride fublimdted to an envious Zial 
( Jam. 3. 15, 16. ) and hath fet up a Trade 
of jlandjering allthofe that are true Peace-ma- 
ker s^ and concur not with them to deftroy it 7 on 
pretence of defending it, by their imfoffible per- 
vicious terms. He that will now be taken for 
4 Peace-maker, muff bt content to be fo called by 
a few , even by the SeB that he chufeth to 
pleafe y and be contrarily judged of by all the reft. 
And this fatisfeth fome y becaufe their Faff ion 
feemeth better than others, be they never fo ftw ; 
and others, becaufe their Faction is gretf, or 
rich, or uppermost, how noxious and unpeaceable 
fotver: For vefp& habent favos, faith Ter- 
tullian, & Marcionitae Ecclefias: We could 
wi(h the Bees feldom ufed their (tings, for it is 
their Death ; but thofe of Wafps and Hornets, 
that make no Honey, are lefs fujferable. 

It is partly for unprejudiced Students that I 
write, and partly for the times to come, when 
the Fruits of malignant FaHion and Wars, 
have difgraced thtm, and made the world amea- 
r l°f thtm. 


J am 

too near I 

The Preface. 

lam blamed h Diffenters, as conting too \ 
by Conciliatory Explications , to fbme things 
which they call dangerous Points of Popery, Ar- 
minianifm and Prelacy ; hut whether it be by 
HTruth or by Error, I leave to trial: Sure jour 
jEnglifh Vniverfities andCanonifis are not like 
to receive any hurt by it, who will not read a 
Book that they fee my Name to, though the Do- 
Brine would never fo much gr at ifie them. And 
others {at home and* Foreigners ) are fat is fed 
by Knowledge and Prepojfeffton } again ft fuch feem- 
ing Danger. 

The great blemijb of this, and other of my 
Writings is, That I fay oft the fame thing which 
I have f aid before. Much of this Book is in my 
Catholick Theology, and my Meth. Theol. and 
my Treatife of Jufiifying Righteoufnefs. But, 
I. Forgetfulnefs in Old Men that have written 
fo much, is no wonder. 2. But it fbeweth that 
J have not forgotten the Matter, nor take it up 
fuddenly and fuperf daily, which I fo oft re- 
feat. 3. Andthert may be great ufe for fuch 
Repetitions, when it is for clearer Method, or 
for epitomizing larger Writings , which many 
cannot j or will not read; but tho/e that can, may 
have the benefit of more Explicatory Copioufnefs. 
If it profit the Reader, I am not follicitons for 
the Refutation of the Writer. 

Tou will find here one Chapter anfwering Ex- 
ceptions about Futurity ; concerning which you 


The Preface. 

mufi know, that my Catholick Theology wds 
fo bold and large an attempt to recbn^Uf ^he 
Calvinift, and Lutheran or Arminian, ^ 
the Dominican WJefait , &c. that Ilooktto 
have been jharply ajfaultedfor it by many : But 
after many Tears expectation I have heard of no* 
thing written orfpoken againft it, fave one MS. 
paper of Objections about the Caufe of Futu- 
rity, WPhyfical Predetermination to fin, 
by yJ/r. Polhill ^t Councellor 7 a Man of extraordi- 
nary Kjtowledge, and Godlinefs, (now enjoying 
the Fruit of it with Chrijt ; O Blejjed En- 
gland, if its Rulers, Senators and Lawyers , 
yea, orBijhop andTeachers, were all fuch men) 
having many Tears pajt fent him my Anfwer y 
{and having no Reply ) as to the quejtion, Ire- 
fufedto anfwer the fecond, having faidfornuch 
to it in my Methodus Theol. and left the quali- 
ty of the Subject Jhould make my Reply feem 
{harp to fo good a man : And I thought h meet 
to publish this, becaufe it is an unufual Difpute ; 
and as no one elfe hath called me to it, fo I 
know not where the Reader that differ eth from 
me, will find fo much for him ; nor whither to 
refer him for an Anfwer. I publijh not Mr, 
Polhill 9 s Paper, becaufe I recite fo much of it 
as may tell the Reader what it was ; and I mu ft 
not fwell the Book too much.f 

The Glorious Light will foon end all our 
Controversies , and reconcile thof< that by un- 

me rreiace. 

feigned F«fth and Love are united in the Prince 
cf Teace , our Head } by love dwelling in 
God, and God in them : But falfehearted, ma- 
lignant, carnal Worldlings that live in the 
fire of wrath and fir if e, will find (fo dying) 
the woful maturity of their Enmity to holy V- 
Wty, Love j and Peace ; and the caufelefs Jhut- 
ting the true Servants of Cbrift out of their 
Churches, which Jhould be the Porch of Hea- 
ven, is the way to be {hut out themfelves of the 
heavenly Jerufalem. 

If thofe that have longreproached me as unfit 
to be in their Church (and f aid, ex uno difce 
©mnes> with their Leader ) find any unfound 
cr unprofitable DoSfrine here, I /hall take it for 
a great favour te be confuted, even for the good 
of others excluded with me 7 when I am dead. 

I^n- **• Richard Baxter* 





Chap, i . TT O W to conceive ofGOD. Pag. I 

Chap. 2 . XX How to conceive of the Trinity 

in Vnity. p. vii. 

Chap. 3. How to conceive of the Hypoftatical Vnim 

and Incarnation. p. xxiii 

Chap. 4. How to conceive of the Diver fity of God's 

Tranfient Operations. p. xxx. 

Chap. 5 . Whether any point of Faith be above or 

contrary to Reafon. p. xxxii. 

Chap. I. Prefatory. Who mufi be the Judge of Con* 
trover fie ■/. The true Caufes of the Dwifions of 
Chriftians about Religion. p. 1 . 

Chap. 2. The Doctrines enumerated about which 
they chiefly difafree. p. 22 

Chap. III. Of God's Will and Decrees in general. The 
Terms and fever al Cafes opened. p. 2 4 

Chap. IV. Of God's Knowledge , and the Differences 
about it. p. 41 

Chap. V. Of Election ? and the Order of Intention 
and Execution. p. 3 6 

Chap. VI. Of Reprobation^ or tHe Decree of Dam- 
nation ' y the Objects and theit Order. p. 40 

An Anfwer to Mr. Polhill offuturition. p. 46 

Chap. VII. Of God's Providence and predetermining 
fremomn : C^DurandusV^. p. 70 


■ The CONTENTS. ' 

Chap- V1IL Of the Caufe of Sin : What G Q d doth 
and doth not About it. p. 82 

Chap. IX. Of Natural Power and Free-will. p. 89 

Chap* X. Of Original Sin , at from Adam and nea- 
rer Parents. p. 94 

Chap. XI. Of our R&demftim by Chrifi, what it 
doth j how neceffary. p. 89 

Chap. XII. Of the fever al Laws and Covenants of 
God* p. 99 

Sett* 1. Of the Law or Covenant of Jnftocency made 
to Adam : Divers Cafes. p. 113 

Sett. 2., Of the Law of Mediation or Covenant with 
Chrifi : When and what it was. p.. 12 1 

Sett. 3 . Of the Law or Covenant of Grace in the 
firft edition : What it was* p. 1 26 

Sett. 4. Of the fame Law with Abraham'* Covenant 
of Pecultarity y and the Mofaical Jewijh Law of 
Works. p. 132 

Sett. 5. Of the L^w or Covenant of Grace in the 
laft edition ; the G off el : Divers Cafes about it 
opened. p. 138 

Chap. XIII. Of the miverfality and Efficiency of 
Grace. What Grace is : How far univerfal and 
Efficient, p. 154 

Chap. XIV, Of Marfs Power and Freewill fince 
the Fall. Adrian'* Sayings That an unjufiified 
man may love or chitfe GodPs Being before his own. 
What to afcribeto Grace, and what to Free-will in 
good. • p-173 

Chap. XV. Of Ejfettual Grace } and how God gi- 
vet hit. Doubts re folved. p. 181 

Chap.XVI. Of the Bate of Heathens, and fab others 
as have not the Gofhtl; IVfjat Law the Heathen 



World is tindery and to be judged by : Whether any 
of them are juftifi:d or fxved : The Heathens were 
the Corrupters of the old Religion , and the Jews of 
the Reformed Church, Mai. i. 14, 15. and Sodom 7 * 
Cafei&cconfidcred. p. 188 

3hap. XVII. Of the ncceffuy of Holinefs and of 
Moral Virtue. p. 203 

:hap. XVIII. Of the neceffny ofFMth in ChriSt, 
-where the G off el is made known. p. 2 1 2 

Chap. XIX. Of the &ate of Infants as to Salvation 
and Churcb-memberf'dp. p. 2 \6 

Chap. XX. Of the nature of Saving-Faith ; its 
Vefcription and Caufes. p. 226 

Chap. XXI. Of jnftifying Right eoufnefs^ Jufiification 
and Pardon. The fever al fences of the rvords^ and 
fever al forts of them : Our common Agreement 
about them. p. 238 

Chap. XXII. Of the Imputation of Right eeufntfs. 
Ctrifts right eoufnefs, in what fence ours and impu- 
ted } and in what fence not. p. 255 

Chap. XXII I. How Faith jujiifieth, and how it is 
imputed for Right eoufnefs. Several quefiions about: 
it J Repent ance, &c. refolved. p. 267 

Chap. XXIV. Of Affurance of our Jufiificaticn^ and 
of Hope. What Affurance is defirable : What at- 
tainable : What Affurance we aUually have : Wh? 
have it : The nature and grounds of it : Whc 
it be Divine Faith. p. 2 79 

Chap. XXV. Of Good workj dttd Merit : And whe- 
ther we may trufi to any thing of our own. j. What 
are Good Works : Z .Whether they axe neceffary to 
our J unification or Salvation: 3. Whether they are 
rewardable or meritoHota : 4, What is their pUce^ 


nfe and neceffity : 5. Whether to be trufted t 

p. 282 

Chap. XXVI. Of Confirmation, Per fever ance, and 
danger of falling away. 1. Whether all Grace Jj- 
ven by Chrift be fuch a* is never loft. 2. Whether 
that degree be ever loft which Qo Infants or Adult) 
giveth but the pofle credere. 3. whether any loft 
allual juft if ying Faith. 4. Or the Habit of Di- 
vine Love and Holinefs. 5. Whether fome degree of 
this may be loft. 6- If Holinefs be not aUually loft^ 
is the lofs poffible ? 7. Whether there be a jtate of 
Confirmation above the loweft Holinefs^ which fecu- 
reth Perfeverance. 8. Or doth Perfeverance depend 
only on Election and God 1 s Will. 9, Whether ally 
moft or many Chriftians are themfelves certain of 
their Perfeverance* 10. Is finch Certainty fit for all 
the juftified f II. Is it unfit for all f and doubting 
a more fafe condition ? 12. Doth the Comfort of 
mo (l Chrift ians reft upon the Dottrine of Certainty 
to per fever e? 13. Doth the DoEbrine of eventual 
Apoftafie inf err Mutability in God? 14. Why God 
hath left the point fo dark? 15. What was the 
Judgment of the. ancient Churches herein. 16. Is 
it of finch weight as to be neceffary to our Chtirch- 
Communion^ Love and Concord. p. 300 

Chap. XXVII. Of Repentance j late Repentance - 7 
the time of Grace 7 and the unpardonable fin. p. 3 14 


O O K S Printed for and Sold by John 
Salisbury at the Rifwg Sun in Cornhil. 

A Rational Defence of Nonconformity, where- 
in the f Waft 'ice of Nonconform^ s is vin- 
dicated from promoting Popery, and ruining the 
Churcb y imputed to them by Dr. Stillingflcct 
Bijhop 0/Worcefter, in his Unreafonabienefs 
of Separation. Alfo hi$ Arguments from the 
Principles and Way of the Reformers and firfi 
Dijfenters are fnfwered : And the cafe of the 
prefent Separation truly ftatzd ; and the blame 
of it laid where it ought to be ; and the way to 
Vnion among Protectants is pointed at. By 
Gilbert Rule, D.D. 

The Chrijfian haver : Being two Sermons on 
John 13. 8. openingthe nature of Participation 
with y anddemonftrating the neceffity of Purifica- 
tion by Chrift. By T. Crufo. 

Six Sermons on various cccafions. ■ By 
T. Crufb, in 40. 

The Confor mi/Is Sayixgs ; or, the Opinion and 
Arguments of Kjngs, Biffiops, and fever al Di- 
vines, ajfcmb/ed in Convocation. 

Anew Survey of the Book of Common-Prayer. 



l-JS' 3ffiw i 

An END of 

Doftrinal Gontroveriies, &c. 

CHAP. i. 

How m mty tnci m»(i conceive of GO D. 

§. i. j^ True Knowledge of God is necefla- 
ry to the Being of Religion, and 
to Holinefs and Glory, No man 
can love, obey, truft, or hope be- 
yond his knowledge : Nothing is lb certainly 
known as God, and yet nothing fo defectively 
known : Like our Knowledge of the Sun, of which 
no man doubteth, Whether it be a glorious igne- 
ous Subftance, endowed with the Power of Motion, 
Light and Heats : And yet what is lefs comprehen- 
ded ? And no man hath an adequate knowledge of 
it, or of the leaft part of it. 

§. 2. There*are three things that muft concur r 
to our Conceivings of God : i . Our General Con- 
ceptions* 2. Our Metaphorical Conceptions by 
way of Similitude, 3 , Our Negative Conceptions \ 
what Cod k not. 

§.3. 1 


§. 3. I have opened this as diftin&ly as I am 
able in my Methodm Theology Cap. 4. in the Ta- 
ble called Onxolcm, the beginning to which Imuft 
refer r the Reader that would be accurate and clear. 
I. We muft conceive of God as a Subftance, left 
we think him to be nothing : And as a fpirituaf 
tranfeendent Subftance, not univocally the fame 
with created Subftance, nor fuch as Man can reach 
to any feafible, or immediate or formal Concepti- 
on of : But by the Similitude of created Subftance 
our Conceptions may get fome help. 

This we call the Fundamental Conception \ but 
it is but a Conception partial and inadequate ; 
yet neccflary, fetcht from the Similitude of the 
Creature, whofe Matter or Subftance is the firft 
conftitutive Conception. - 

§.4. II. We muft conceive of God as the 
prime EflentialLI FE : And though God be not 
compounded of Subftance and Form, yet from Si- 
militude of Creatures, we muft as inadequate Con- 
ceptions, think of his being LIFE, as the form 
of his Snbftaj>ce, not divilible or Compounding, 
but as a diftinguiihing Conception. And forma dat 
ejft & ncrnm 1 ;. 

§• 5. III. Though in God's Eflence there be 
no Parts, Degrees or Accidents , yet to anfwer the 
Similitude of Parts, Degrees or Accidents in Man, 
we muft put in general Tranfeendent Perfection: 
And this indudeth abundance of hisPerfe&ive At- 
tributes \ ;as that He is One , infinite, eternal, necef- 
fary, independent, uncompounded^unchangeable, 
and all the reft that are contained in Abfolute Per- 



IV. When we fay, That God is the 
prime effential LIFE, we mean a Life of Emi- 
nency above all that is created : But yet fuch as 
mull be known by Crefiture-fimilitmde : And 
therefore from the Similitude of Man ,- we mult 
think of the forma I Divize LIFE by a threefold 
Conception, i. As VltdTomr in Act, 2. As Emi- 
nent lntettett and Will, called Omwpotcxcy in Aft, 
wifdom and Gtodnefs^ or Love. Whether thefe be 
the FATHER, SON and HOLY GHOST, is after 
to be opened : But as FATHER, SON and HOLY 
GHOST, the Scripture teacheth us to conceive of 
God •, As Three in One God , and One God and 
Subftancs in thefe Three. 

;od is to be conceived of in relation 
to the Creation in general, as OF HIM^ and 
THROUGH HIM, and TO HIM are all things : 
As He is* the Divine Efficient, the more than Con- 
ftitutive, and the final Caufeof all 

§. 8. VI. He is efpecially to be conceived of in, 
his Relations to the Reafoiiabk Creatures* as their 
abfolute Ovm$r^fiipr ems Ruler and cliief Btncfackor 
and amiable attraftive Good and End. 

§. 9. VII. He is efpecially to be conceived of 
as related to Man -y As our Creator and Confer- 
ver, as the God of Nature. 2. As our Redeemer: 
by Chrifl and the God of Grace. 3. And as our 
Perfedter by his Spirit, and the God of Glory t 
And as relaced to hisKingdom of Nature,Grace and 

§. ic. VIII. He being without Paifivity. a pure 
Aft, mud be conceived of, as, i.lnvirifttt fc*p~ 
t rid Attiva. 2. In his Afts objectively immanent, 
1* Self-livingr 2. Stlf-knowng^ ^.SzlfAoving. 3. IlJ 

(a) ' " hi* 

[IV ] 

his tranfient Ads or Works, confldered both e* 
e a^emu^ and as the Effefts. 

§. ii. IX. He is negatively to be known, 
by the denial of all that rioteth Imperfedlion. 

§. 12. X. When I fay, that God is to be known 
by similitudes, I mean, that though nothing be 
fuSly like to God, yet fom^what in which he may 
be panly known, appeareth on the whole frame 
of Nature } but efpecialiy on the Soul of Man> 
which is his Image. Therefore he that would 
know how to conceive of God, muft firft know 
himfelf, and what his own Soul is : The true Con- 
ceptions of your Souls muft be the prime Helps to 
conceive of God by fimilitude. 

And here you firft find IntelleStive, Volitive^ and 
Executive Acts. 2. And by thefe you know that, 
you have the Power fo to aft ; for no one doth 
that which he cannot do. 3. And hereby you know 
that your Souls are Subftance : For all Power is 
the Power of feme Subftance 2 Nothing can do no- 
thing. 4, And by this you know that an intel- 
lectual Spirit is a Subftance fo impowered : And 
that ethers are fuch as well as you : And knowing 
what a Spirit is, you know what God the Father 
is tranfeendentjy and eminently. - And though all 
God's Works noufie him, you have thus the moft 
intelligible Similitude within you. 

§. j 3, Therefore I know not how you can bet* 
ter conceive of God, than as MORE THAN A 
SOUL TO ALL THE WORLD, but efpecialiy 
to Saincs. 

I fay, Mors than a Soul : For a Soul is but a Part 
and CcnUiiKwe^ but God can be no P*rt y and is 
more tlaan CittftiMtie : The World is finite, 


God is infinite, therefore he is more than a 
Soul of the World : Gajftndm calleth the World 
Indefinite, but feemeth to' mean Infinite, snd fc to 
raake God but the Soul of the World : But that 
cannot be proved : Not but that there be created 
Souls'under God : But while God is more than a 
Soul to all thofe Souls, he is more than a Soul to 
all the World. 

§. 14. It is lawful andufefulto think of God, 
by fuch flmilitudes as he hath ufed of himfelf in his 
Word, how low foever. Even by his particular 

Three Names he afiumeth -, Life, Light, and 
Love : He is the Living God > He is Light, and 
with Him is no Darknefe : God is Love; faith 
the beloved Apoftle. G O D is faid to cloath him- 
felf with L I G H T as with a Garment : And a 
man will fay, I have feen the K I N G to day, who 
faw him but in his Garments : And if he faw the 
Skin of his Face, how little of the King did he 
fee ? In Scripture, they that have feca Angels 
are faid to have feen God, and heard his Voice by 

When we fee the Glory of the Sun, that difFu- 
fech its Beams to all the furface of the Earth, 
and uniteth it lelfwith every Eye, even of the 
fmalleft Worms, and quickeneth every thing that 
liveth •, this giveth us by fimilitude fome low re- 
semblance of the Divine Life and Light and Glory. 
When he is called Our FA THE R, and he is faid 
to love us as a FA T H E R his Children, this is 
fome help to our Conceptions of him: When we 
read of ail thofe Vifions which John had in the Re- 
velations, of Chrift's glorious Appearance (as be- 
fore on the Mount) and of God oa the Throne* 



with the Tour Beafts and feven Spirits, and the 
thoufand thoufands of glorious Attendants, and of 
the metaphorical Defeription of the Heavenly 
Jtrufatim : It is not unlawful nor unufeful to us to 
make ufe of fuch Spectacles of Similitudes in our 
Thoughts of God, while we exclude all the Imper- 
fections of fuch Similitudes. 

§. 15. But after all, till the Love of God be fhed 
abroad on our Hearts by the Holy Ghoft , and s 
Qod as LOVE look on us with his attracting awd 
exhilarating Afpeft or Communication, all thefe 
notions will be dulLand barren, and will leave the 
Seal under fears and defpondency : It is Love by 
vital Influence warming the Affeft ions, that muft 
give us a fweet tafte of what we know* and over- 
come the fear of Death and Wrath, and give us 
comfortable Boldncfs and Courage in all the Dan- 
gers that we-muft go through. 

And feeing Chrift telleth Philip, If thon hafi 
fce?i er kr>mn mt, thou hafi kgewn the Father ' we 
muft by Faith fee the Father in the Son incarnate, 
who came into our Nature, to be a Mediator of our 
Thoughts and Conceptions of God, and efpecially 
as he is LIFE and LIGHT and LOVE : and I think 
in his GLORY will in Heaven be the Mediator of 
Come Lord Jefus, Amtn. 



C v" 3 

CHAP. 2. 
Of Trinity in 'Vmty. 

§. i. T IX THenI wrote the foregoing Treatif$ ? 
V V I found the generality of Chriftians 
( Proteftants and Papifts) agreed about the Trini- 
ty ; but Herefle and Debauchery encreafing toge- 
ther, the Cafe feemeth partly altered ; And the 
ambitious, rich and worldly fort being from their 
Childhood bred up in flcfhly pleafure,and in igno- 
rance and contempt of ferious Chriftianity, having 
really no true' Religion, but a Name and Image of it, 
at laft by their Tongues declare what is in their 
Hearts j and living m a Land where Atheifts and 
Sadducees are in fplendid Dwellings, whilft fear of 
finning maketh Confifcations, Jails and Ruine the 
Lot of multitudes who are zealous Proteftants, 
they t^ke the advantage, decrying what they never 
• had : But before they difown all true Religion, 
and declare themfelves Sadducees or Brutes, they 
begin as Dilputers, at the points where they think 
Difficulty will excufe them } and efpccially at the 
Trinity, and the Godhead of Chrift, and Secinian 

§. 2. I have perhaps ovcr-tedio'ufly and pro- 
lixly handled the Dodtrine of the facred Trinity in 
my Latin Mahodtu Theohgi*, opening the various 
Opinions about it, reciting the words ofjhe Fa- 
thers, School-Dolors, and Proteftants who han- 
dle it : And through the whole Book I have 

(a) 3 lhewed t 


fhewed, That the Image of Trinity in Vnity is 
imprinted by God, on the whole known fraipe of 
Nature and Government, or Morality , and that 
Doftrine of the Trinity, which to the ignorant is a .' 
Stumbling-block, greatly helpeth to confirm my 
Belief of the truth of the Gofpel and Chriftianity, 
while I find it fo congruous, to the fprefaid Im- 
prefs, and attefted fo much by all God's Works ^ 
efpecially on Man. 

$. 3. It is a truth unqueftionable, that without 
fome knowledge of God there can be no true Re- 
ligion, no Love to God, no Truft, no Hope, no 
Obedience, no true Worfhip of him, Prayer or 

§. 4. And it is as certain that no man can have 
an adequate knowledge of God ; that is adequate 
which c6mprehendeth the whole Objett, knowing 
It perfectly, and leaving nothing of it unknown. 
And with fuch an adequate Knowledge we know 
nothing, not a pile of Grafs, nor a Worm or a Hair : 
Mucli lefs God : With fuch a proper Knowledge 
nihil fcitur is true, and yet diqaid rernm is /known 
of all. 

§. £ Yea, it is certain, that of God, who is in- 
comprehenfible, we have here no partial Con- 
ception that reacheth fo high as to be ftri&iy 
FORMAL, but only fuch a s are called analogical, 
^equivocal, metaphorical, or by iimilitude. Nei- 
ther Subftantid, Vita, Pcrfittio , Potently A&hs, 
'inttU&ftvu, Voluntas, Lovs, Truth, Goodnefs y Mer- 
cy, &c. are formally and univosally the fame in 
Gcd and in the Creature •/ Scot us excepteth only 
ENS. Which is true,' as ENS is only a Logical 
term, fignifying no more than £ S T or jQnoddity, 
and not jQV ID eft } or Quiddity. 

§.6. Yet 


§. 6. Yet this Knowledge by fimilitude is not 
null or vain •, but the grcateft advancement of 
Man*s Under/landing : All that which is formally 
excellent in the Creature, is EMINENTLY and 
tranfcendently in God, Though he have not that 
which we call Kmvtle ige, Will, Love, &c. he.hath 
that which is infinitely more excellent, which 
thefe in-Man have iome likenefs t?, whereby we 
know him. 

§. 7. Mans Knowledge beginneth atcurlely^s 
and not at God : We do not firfl: know God : 
But firfl: we perceive our own Souls Aits, and 
'thereby we know our Power, and our Subftame, 
and thereby we know what all is that is fuch as 
we ; ^nd io what a Sprit is, and fo what GOD is* 
As by feeiiig, hearing, feeling we perceive that we 
fee , hear, feel, &c. every Senfe having eflentially a 
felf perception : So by thinking, knowing, willing, 
nilling, loving, joying, we perceive that we do it 
eflentially ; yet though the famvfnu figmfcatHm be 
our own kit as to formality and priority^ it is God s 
as to Emwency and Perfection. 

§. 8. It is certain, that as all God's Works 
bear fome notifying Imprefs of his own Perfecti- 
on, fo Man is especially rhsdc in his Image ; and 
therefore our Knowledge of God raufl there begin 
feeing we have no immediate and formal know- 
ledge of him. 

§♦ 9. As God is the God of Nature-* Grace, and 
Glory, fo he hath made on Man the Image of thefe 
three : 1. The natural Faculties of his Soul, are 
his natural Image on Man as Man : For which it is 
faid, Gen. 9* that blood Jhali be ptmtfnd with blood, 
becaufe Man is made in the Image of .God. 2. His 
moral gracious Image is Holinefs, of Intellect, Will 

( a ) 4 and 


and executive Power. 3. The Image of his Ma- 
jefty, Glory and Greatnefs, is, 1 . in all meiuhe 
Dominion over the lower Creatures : 2. And in 
Governours a Power over Subjefts or Inferi- 

§. 10. To begin where our Perception be- 
ginneth, 1 . It is certain, that the mental Nature 
in Man hath three diftintl F Acuities in one undi- 
vided Shhftwce -, That is, 1 . Fit at Active Power •, 
JnttfaQ, and Will : ( The Vital Power being consi- 
derable, firft as exciting Intell'ettw and Willy and 
after &s Executive). The fame Eflence or Sub- 
ftance is this vital A&ivity, Intellect and Will : 
But the Attire Power is not the In{elle<ft, nor the 
Intellect the Will, nor the Will the InteMl, &c. 
And as MeUmhton told his Hearers, 
VidL nt.Gtorg. (to the admiration of George Prince 
AS? fc • J*?' o{ Anhdt, and the Duke of StxonyX 
Adam. That the Concrete and Abftraft 

were here differently to be ufed, 
we may fay, that the Intellect may be faid to be 
willing, but not to be tht Will 7 the Will to be Intel- 
le&H*l 9 but % not to be the hnelktt, &c. 

§. 1 1. I have fully proved in Methodo Theol. 
farte t . in a peculiar Deputation, that thefe three 
Faculties are not Accidents of the Soul, but its ef- 
fential form in a triple,inadequate Conception, and 
fully confuted all that Znbaul faith to the con- 
trary, who epitomizeth all the Tbomtfts Argu- 
ments, and vindicated Scotiu, and added many 
Arguments of my own, and therefore muft thi- 
ther refcrr the doubtful. 

§. 12. Not that Man's Soul is there by three 
forms ; for all are but one form ; But Man's nar- 
row Mind cannot conceive of them but by three 



Conceptions ^ which yet are not Fi&iem, but as 
Sc9tus calls them, F O R M A L I T A T E S, and as 
CampkneBa, Primalities or Eflfcntialities , or as the 
Nominals extrinfeck Denominations , and Rela- 
tive by connotation of the Objects and EfFecTts : He 
that hath a Wit fubtile enough to conceive of Sco- 
t*s his FORMALITIES,, as noting only a 
fundamemum cbjtolivHmdiftingHendt, will not won- 
der that a Soul made in God's Image, fhould be of 
difficult Conception. 

§.13. II. The fame Soul of Man hath three more 
general Faculties, thai is, mentals fenfitive, and ve- 
getative ( cr igneous ) : Thefe are diitindt, but net 
divided, yet are not three Souls, but one •, though 
the inferiour Operations (at leaft) may be al- 
terable according to Organs and Objeftsj and 
fome ufes of Senfes and Vegetation ceafe. 

§. 14. III. The fenutive Soul in Brutes hath 
the Faculties, i Vitally a£tive ; 2. Senfibly appre- 
henfive, j. Senfibly appetitive ; one of thefe Far 
culties is not the other, yen all are but one fenfitivs 

§. 15. IV. The igneous Nature in Plants cal- 
led Vegetative, hath three faculties, Motive, Dif- 
crecive (differencing its proper^ Nutriment from 
other things ) end Attraftivc ( which is aflimila* 
tive) yet all are but one fubftance. 

§. \6. V. The Sun and all igneous fubfhnces, 
have their formal Powers, that is, Motive , Illumi- 
n/ttke find Calefactive : The motion ( in power or 
aft ) is not formally the Light, nor is the Light 
the Heat, nor is the Heat the Light or Motion : 
Nor are theft three Suns or Subftances> but one 
Subftance is in all three, whofe form we neceiTari- 
ly conceive of by this triple inadequate Conce- 


ption. And thus it is in all the Creatures of Active 
Nature, which the Receptivity of the Paffive alfo 
anfwerj and as I have proved elfewhere through 
all Morality alfo. 

MeUnlkhon, Loc.Com.per Maulium,^^^ men- 
tioned many fuch inftances in the Sun, in Aitrono- 
my, in Mufick, in Geometry^ in Grammar, in A- 
rithmetick} to which Logick and Politicks might 
be added, All Effe&s have only three Caufes> which 
in the general of Caufality are cne -, that is, the 
Canfe efficient, Con ft native, and Find. For Mat- 
tery Rcceftivc-difpfiticn ( called Privation ) and 
Form, are but the three parts of the Conftitmivc 
Caufe. My Aieth. Theol. inftanceth in many more. 

§.17, It is certain that the three grand Attri- 
butes, Principles, Primalities, Eflentialities, or For- 
malities ( as men di verily call them ) of which the 
three Faculties of the Soul are an Image, are in God, 
not univocally the fame as in Man, but eminent- 
ly and tranfcendently. And his other Attributes 
( of Truth, Mercy, Juftiee, &c. ) are thefe va- 
rioufly exercifed and related} that is^ital-afi, In- 
teHe&^nd Will, called as Perfeft, Omnipotent Atti~ 
vity, Omnifcience ( or Wifdom ) and Gcodncfs or 
Love. And I have proved ( ubi fupra ) that thefe 
are not Accidents in God, but his Eilencc, in* a 
threefold formd Conception, truly diftinguiflhable , 
ibme fay Ratione ration at a ; fome fay formalitcr, 
and fbme, ex connotationc & relatione adobjcEla, and 
perhaps ail little differ in Sence. 

§. 18. All Theolugues agree, That GOD muft 
be faid to be effentid Life, Self-kpovriedge and Self- 
love, to be effentially fin-vita, fc-fcire, dr fe-amare ; 
and that thefe are bell expreft by Subfismivts ah- 
ftraftiyy and not only in the (Concrete by Adjectives 


or Verbs, fui-viiAyfui-ftientMyfui'tmor* Thus far 
there is no doubtfulnefs. 

§, 1 9- As in man we mull conceive inadequate- 
ly of the three prime Faculties diftin&ly ( not 
feparatingly ) i. As in virtnte vd fotentia. 2. As' 
in aclpi immanent e ad fe. 3. In tttit tranfennte ad 
alia, fomuft we inadequately conceive ot them as 
eminently in Gcd. 

§. 20. It is undeniable, that GOD is CREATOR. 
Nature, Gratt, and Glory: Vii&, Medmni, SaIh- 
tis. And though Father, Son and Holy 6 ho si are all 
thefe, yet nfually in Scripture, Creation is faid to 
be the Work of the Father ( by the Son and Spi- 
rit, and Redemption the Work of the Son ( lent 
by the Father ) and Perfection or Sanftificdtion the 
Work of the Holy Ghoft ( as fent by the Father 
aad the Son- ) Therefore Ba£ tifm, -which is our 
Chriftetting, bindeth us in Covenant to God, as in 
thefe three delations (which I hope may be ealilier 
underftood , than all the Schoolmens Difputcs 
of the Trinity.) And no doubt, but our Baptiim is 
a pra&ical Covenant. 

Thus the Trinity of Principles in Unity, is con- 
fiderable ( as is aforefaid ) 1. Radically in virtate 
Effenti* 2. In the immanent afts of felf-living, 
felf-knowing and felf-loving. 3. And txemtcr 
tranfiently in Cnattin^ Redemption and SanttificatioTt* 
considered not as Effe&s, but ex t>*rte ag9nti4, as 
adting them. 

$.21. The word PERSON, by the cuftom 
of the Church, having been ib commonly ufed, is 
not to be difufed while it is well expounded, left 
we feern by changing the word to change the Do- 
drinc. , But the Church had the fame Faith before 


[ xvi ] 

proper Aft of an Intelleft, and not of a Will, or 
txetui'wc Power, as fitch I jQ^ 3. Self-perceptton in- 
deed is a firft and eflential Aft of every fenfible 
Agent: But doth not that among men only prove 
fenfible Life, which is in many Faculties, and is as 
numerous as the Afts, and not prove many per- 
sons, feeing he muft be firft a Perfcn who fhall 
thus aft? By feeing, I perceive that I fee, and 
by hearing, that J hesr, and by tailing, fmelling, 
touching, that I tafte, froell, and touch : I know 
thefeby Intellection, but I perceive them firft by 
eflential Senfation^ and fo by underftanding, I 
immediately perceive that 1 underftand and think: 
And by willing I immediately ( not knovv, tat ) by 
a fort of eminent Senfation perceive that 1 will : And 
by vital Aftion I perceive that I aft. Yet thefc 
are not diftinft Perfons, but the afts of one Per- 
fon. Perception is eflential to Vitality or Senfe, 
but not conftitutive of Perfonality. 

JQ^ 4. Is it knowing ones {elf, or knotting another, 
oz arrttkirH knowing me, that conftituteth Perfo- 
nality ? 1 know not my felf to be what I am in pri- 
mo inffami 5 I firft perceive my afts, and by the 
Afts I know that I have an aftive Power, and by 
that Iknowthat.I am a Subftance, ere. Which 
of thefe maketh mz.&Perfw? 2. God knoweth 
the Afts of every Creature better than each know- 
eth his own -, yet that is not God's Perfonality, as 
diftinft from his Life : And that the Creature doth 
not equally know God, can be no privation of 
Perfonality to God., whatever it be to the Crea- 
ture: And God's Perfonality was before there was 
any Creature. 

Q 5. To 

i[ xvii ] 
^ 5. ^o fay, That they are three Minds, or 
ipirits, or Sub(taxccs that do invkem'confc'ire, is to 
ay, Th?t they are three Gods : And becaufe every 
mental Subftance hath its Own aftive Power, In- 
tellect and Will, it fuppoferh three Trinities in- 
Head of one. 

Q^ Though God be f&d to be puriu Attn:, it is 
jiftus entitativw including fhtenfidrn fen virtmtm 
agendi-, and id* or Subftantiality, is a necefTary 
/wr. fundamental Conception; for it doth // 
rare captum hunuwum to conceive of an Aft that 
is notaiicufa tttx*. He that eauleth all fubftan- 
tiality and exiftence, is eminently exiftent Sub- 
fiance. Many have made it a Difpute, Whether 
die C: eature have any Entity, or be a Shadow • but 
none whether GWbe fo. 

Obj. To he fclf-cofifcitttii proveth PerfonMity, 
and to be cenfemw of the aft of another, proveth 
cne the fame Perfn with the other. 

jfnf. To be felf-perceptive, is a good procf of a 
VitklAtt -, and to be felf-confcious, is a proof of 
an Intellect : Indeed in G O D the Subftance and 
Aft, and fo the Perfonality and Self- percept ion are 
not two things, but the fame: But yet inadequate 
Conceptions muft be orderly, and fo the aft con- 
ceived as the aft of a Power and of a Per [on : And 
as is faid, every aft or faculty that hath felf-per- 
ception, is not a Perfon. 

2. And God's confeioufnefs of the aftsof Jndat % 
Herod, Nero-, proveth him not to be the fame per- 
fon with each of them ( though he be infinitely 

§. 26. GOD being effential Life in 
pure jitt, without any paffive Power, meant 
by the word P ER S ON by the Orthodox, may 


[ xviii] 

be better fpoken cf his EfTentiai^h (the arfivc . 
Virtue included ) than of Mans. If it be the Ff 
fence, why may not the proved Trinity Qf obje- 
ctive Conceptions, as formal, be called Perfons or 
JFfypoftafes? (Though many wife Men wi(h that a 
Name lefs liable to miitake, had been ufld. ) 

§. 27. But though I ampaft doubt, that in God 
is this Trinity cf cflential, formal, inadequate 
Conceptions or Primalities, and that the imprefs 
of them is on the Soul of Man,- which is his image,, 
and on the whole frame cf Nature and Grace '$ 
yet far be it from. pie to fay, That nothing clfe is 
meant by the Trinity of Per forts ; thus much we are 
fure of: There may be more to conftitute. that 
personality, than is to us comprehenfible •, and I 
doubt not but there is more, becaufe thus much 
is lb intelligible J feeing the Divine Nature is fo 
infinitely far above the Comprehenfion of us poor 
Worms:' But what we know not, we cannot de- 
fcribe, or notifie to others. 

§. 28. There are of late fome of great Wit 
and Learning, who have td ventured upon another 
fort of Defcription of the Trinity; Men whole 
parts I greatly value ; ( Perer Sterry, Dr. H. Merc, 
Mr. John Turmr of St. Thomas Holpital ; and be- 
fore them fome in Germany went fome fnch way : ) 
They fay, that from the prime Being emaneth, fay 
fome, or is created, fay-others , the fa which is 
the fecond HyfoSiafis or perfon, and Matter which 
is the third •, and this caufed Life- and Matter (the 
Son and Holy Ghoft) are one indi vifible, (though <#-• 
JiingHtJhablc) Being*, there being no Spirit (faith 
Dr. M. ) faveGod, that is not a Soul to fbnae Bo- 
dy. Some of them telL us not whether this fir ft 
produced L 1 FE' and MATTER, be the Vm*j 


*eerfal Matter of the World, animated by an *w- 
verfal Soul •, or whether they mean only fome 
prime Soul and M*u er r that was made or caufed 
before the reft : But others let us know, that it is 
the univtrfd that they mean : And if fo, they mull 
needs hold the World, as to all its Spirit and Mat- 
ter, to be eternal* ( though in Particles alterable) 
and to be God himfelf : The prime Entity, the 
Lift and the Matter, being the father, Son and 
Spirit : But they that hold not this wfaerfd Lift 
and Matter] do think .that God by amoft eminent 
Life and Spirit that was eternal, did create all the 
reft, as inferiour to them. 

Dr. Mort\ Book of Tramfubftantiation ( and 
Mr. The. Beverley's) drew me to write fome Ani- 
madverfions on this Do&rine, as moderating be- 
tween Extrcanas •, but on further consideration, 
I am rcry loth to be fo venturous in a Cafe of fuch 
tremendous Myftery, as to meddle for or againft 
them, left ettam vera dicer c de Deo fi ineerta* fit 
pericnlofutn. Though I doubt not But their expo* 
fitionof 7*6. 6. is unfound, while they make tht 
Flefi and Blotd of Chrift, which is Tranfubftafi- 
tiated, and eaten and drunk, to be the eternal 
Flefh and Blood of Chrift, a Man from Eternity. 

§. 29. The difficulty of the Controverlie which 
this leadeth to, Whether the World be an eter- 
nal Effett of an eternal Caufe, or God from all 
Eternity, till the forming of this lower World 
and Adam , had no Being but Himfelf ? Doth 
d terr me from meddling with it, left I be blin« 
ded by prefuming too nearly to gaze on the Light 
that fliould guide me , and God, that is Loyc, 
fiiould for my boldnefs be to me a Confuming Fire i 
Things revealed only as for our fearch. 

(b) S,JQc 

[xx 3 

§. 30. But the Conclufion which all this pre- 
parcth for, is this ^ That whatever clfe befides the 
Trinity of Primaiities before defcribed, doth con- 
ftitutc the Trinity of Perfons, it is rendred alto- 
gether credible to an implicit Faith, by the full 
Evidence and Certainty of the aforefaid Trinity of 
Faculties or Primalides, which are God's Image on 
Man's Soul, and the like imprinted on the whole 
Creation -, which certainly is not done in vain. 

§. 31. I pafs by. the reft, becaufe I have fo 
largely handled it in Method. The olog. And a- 
mong the numerous Authors there cited, I defire 
the Reader efpecially toperufe the words of Chit- 
mnndw ( A. 5.) Avcrfanu-$i Edmund. Cantnarkn- 
fis^ Richtrdi nd Bernard^ fothonis Trumznfis^ with 
whofe words I will conclude f cited pag. 103.) 
lC There are three invifibles of God , Power, 
u Wifclom and Benignity, of which all tilings pro- 
iC ceed, in which all things fubfift, by which all 
cc things are ruled. The Father is Power, the 
u Son is Wifdom, the Holy Ghoft is Benignity. 
11 Power createth, Wifdom governetb, Fenignity 
u canfe*veth. Power by Benignity wifely crea- 
t( * teth, Wifdom by Power benignly governeth. 
cc Benignity by Wifdom powerfully conferveth •, 
iC As the Image is feen in the Glafs, fo in the ftate 
cc of the Soul by Humane Nature, &c. To this 
c< Similitude of God againft Man approacheth 
c; nearly,, to whom God's Power giveth Power to 
ic Good, and his Wifdom to Know, and his Be- 
c - c nignity giveth to Will. . This is t?:e threefold 
" Force of the Rational Sou!, pojfe, fcire, r<?.''e,to 
" be abk, to k»w, to will , which co-operate to 
M FaitbytJof*, and Lw* for Charity). 

L-xxi J 

§. 32. Among all, the Attempts that are pub- 
lifhcd for our Conceptions of the Deity and Trini- 
ty, I knew of none that give us their Notions 
with greater Confidence and Pretence of Revelati- 
on, than j. P. M. D. CDr. Pordage*} and his 
Leader Jtcob B eh men. Many other of the German 
Prophets, going ne^r the fame way - 7 as C. 

man defer ibeth them. J •?. his Myftica Theole- 
gia pretencteth to far greater difcovery of the 
Deity and Trinity, and the World, than ever 
Chriff, Prophets or Apoftles gave us. Firft, In 
his Globe of Eternity, or the Divine Effential World 
pi&ur I. An Eye (the Father), 2. A Heart 

fthe Sort) ; 3. And the Effluvia or breathed Beams 
(the Holy Gkojt) with the innumerable Progeny of 
fbch Eyes flowing from that pregnant Eflcnce, dif- 
fering from it only as leffer from greater*, each an 
Ifidividual,yec making no Competition ( but Unity) 
in the D^ 

Secondly, In his Ahffd Nothing f or World of Ft* 
rdly, In his Ettrml Nature, and the feptenary 

did Worlds, &c. 

But, 1. I eonfefs there are many things in him 
(and in Peter Sterry} which Reafon left to its 
conjectures. Would think plaufible ; but fhort of 
fiotle and Plato. 
And he is fo high in his Defcription and 
Defence of Trine-Vnity* that even where I confent 
not, I dare not call him therein unfound. 
3. But many PafTages in his Defcription of 
d Nature are apparently the effefts of Ig 

\ ' . m , [ XKli ] 

4 And he goeth further in bis making this Na- 
ture eternal, and a World, that is the Bcdy of Cod, 
than I dare dp. 

<j. And though' I would rot be too forward, to 
contemn men that pretend to know fuch Myfte- 
ries by Vifion and Revelation, yet 1 refolve to take 
Chrift for my fufficient and infallible Treacher ; 
and to pretend to know no more of the Deity and 
unfeen World,than he hath thought meet to reveal: 
For no man bath feen the Fatter at any time, but 
the only begotten Son ; nor doth any elfe know 
him but he, and thofe to whom he revealeth him : 
And what Chrift hath not revealed of God, I think 
it is becaufe it is fittefl: for us to be yet ignorant 
of it, as a necefTary difference between our prefent 
and our future ftate. To fearch for more will but 
confound and lofe us - 7 and refting practically in 
what Chrift hath revealed, and for the reft, trad- 
ing our felves fully in his Knowing for us, his 
Love to us, and hisPromife for us, may fafely 
and fuffieiently quiet the Mind that can be well 
quieted no other way. 

C H A P. j. 

Of the Inc at nation an A Hyfoflaticd Vnion. 

§. i. V TO wonder that it feemcth hardteMan, 
IN to underftand how the Divine Na- 
ture affumeth the Humane into Union, when it is 
fo far beyond cur reach to conceive how Gcd 
is near to all his Works , and how he opera- 
ted on every roan. Chrift hath told us , That 

[ xxiii ] 

we know not how a man is born of the Spirit, 
no more than we know whence the Windcomcth 
and whither itgoeth: And can wceafilitr know 
how God became Man ? 

§.2. It is certain, that God being infinite, 
is as near to us as is poffible } our Souls can be 
no nearer to our Bodies, nor perhaps to them- 
(Hves. And though- Philosophers difpute, Whe- 
ther Spirits be in loco , and whether God be in 
us, or we in him, arjd whether he be quafi kctu 
& Sfatiiim to the World •, yet it is paftqueftl- 
on, that he is omniprefent, and intimately proxi- 
mns to all things m . 

§. 3. It is not therefore hismeer Prefencc or 
Proximity of being that is this Hypoftatical Uni- 
on i elfe it would extend to all the World. It 
is harder therefore to prove, that God is not as 
nearly united to all, than to prove, that he is not 
fo united to* the Humane Nature of Chrifh 
Which caufed Peter. Sterry and fuch others, to 
hold, That Chrift hath three Natures •, that is t 
That the Divine Nature firft produced the prime, 
fupcrangdical , emanant Nature, ( by which he 
feemeth to mean an univerfal Soul to the Mat- 
ter of the World ) and that this fuperangclical 
Nature did unite it felf to all, but eminently to 
the humane Nature of Chrjft, which he calleth 
One top- Branch in the Tree of Beings. Some fay 
the fuperaugelical Nature being Chrift's only Soul 
afluming bun a Body - 7 others, that it afTumed a 
Body and SohL 

§. 4. The grand difficulty about God's Unity 
with the World, and the World with God, is 
how to folve the difficulty that hath flailed the 
School- Doftors j That if the Creature have no 

0)3 Entity 

[ xxiv ] 

Entity diftinft from God's, it is either part of 
God, or nothing : But it is not nothing, or no. 
Subftance (though fome call it ajWw.) Audit 
is not a part of Gcd ; for to be pars, is to be im- 
perfect, and fo to be no God. And if it have a 
real Entity diftinft from God's Entity, then there 
would be more Entity in God and the Creature^ 
than in GOD alone i For two is numerally more 
than one -, and two Emia have more Entity than 
one, , how fmall foever the lefTer be* And then 
God fliould be but ;part of Univerfal Entity, 
which is Imperfection. To fay that the Crea- 
ture hath part of Created Entity, but not of 
Dirine Entity, feemeth to yield, that God is but 
part of Univerfal Entity. To avoid which, many 
Philofophers take up the Opinion, that the whole 
being of all Worlds is GOD, the material Part 
being his Body , and the eternal Spirit the Soul. 

What fhall we fay to this ? To filence it 
will not filence the Objeftcrs. And fure we miaft 
sot grant them. That the World is God •, or that 
it is part of God ^ or that Gcd is but a part of 
Real Subftance or Entity •, or that to be fo 
Is no Imperfection. Is there no # other founder 
way ? 

Though Divines fay, that Dei mn fun! acci- 
Jentia, and it's true, That God is all Ejfence and 
per ejfemiam operator , yet I dread to affert, but 
humbly ask,, Whether rather than fall into any 
of the former Opinions, it be not lefs dangerous 
to fay, That as God hath made his Works in 
his likerxfs, and no Subftance is without all Ac- 
cidents, fo the World be not qnafi accidens Del 
And iffo, it is no Part of Him, ejfentialov> inte- 
gral : And as its Subftance is not unirocally fuch 



as God's, fofuchas it is, it is fo totally- caufed 
by and dependent on God's continual Creating- 
will and Emanation, that its Subttancc and Being 
is more G O £> 9 s (though not S D} than its 
own, and fo is no Addition of Being to God's Be- 
ing, but contained in fiim, and flowing from him:- 
A man's actual thought, words or fenfation is no 
Addition to a man's fubftance as fuch i and yet 
they are not nothing. A man's Hair and Nails 
that have no life, but vegetative, are fubftantial 
Accidents, and yet no part of the man : And yet 
are fo wholly his own, caufed by his Soul, as 
heat and moifture, that we ufe not to call them 
any addition to the man's being. 

§. 5. ^ But wherein then licth the Hypo- 
ftatical Union , if God be equally near to all 
things ? AnJ. He doth not equally operate on 
all : As the God of Nature, he fuftaineth aad 
operated 1 on all his Creatures : As the God* of 
Grace, he worketh Hcihufs on Believer* Souls: 
As the God of Glory, he is prefent demonftra- 
tively and glorioufly to the Bleffed: But he work- 
eth on none as he did on the humane nature of 
• Chrift : Thefe three differences 1 conceive make 
this proper fort of Union. 1. Some Works God 
doth, though by eflential Proximity? yet not with- 
out the ufe and operation of fecond Caufes : 
But ChriiVs aiTuming the humane nature by the 
divine, was by Conception by the Holy Gholt, 
as the immediate Efficient, without the Caufali- 
ty of Manor Angel, the Mother affording Matter 
and Aliment to the fetu 

2. Divine Operations being various, the Divine 
Nature did that on the Humane Nature of Chrift^ 
which it did not on any other Creature : He ha- 

( bj 4 ving 

L xxvi J 

ving fuch Work to do, as no otker Creature was 
to do, the divine nature fitted the humane for 
its part. No Angel was to be Mediator between 
God and Man, and to work Miracles as he did, 
and in our nature to fulfill all Righteoufnefs, and 
be a Sacrifice for Sin, and to rife from the Dead, 
and to fend down the Spirit, and afcend to Glo- 
ry, and there to reign and to judge the World : 
jThcrefore he was qualified for all this work. 

3. And fo there is alfo a relative difference, in 
that the Divine Nature, by a fixed Decree and 
Will^ united it felf for this work, to this one 
humane nature, even for all futurity. It mayta 
fome that are wifer can better tell wherein the 
Hypoftatical Union confifteth . 

$. 6. As to the Queftion, Whether the di- 
vine and humane nature l?e two or one , it is to 
ask, Whether the nature of God and his 
Creatures be two or one ? They may be called 
ont as we arc one with Chrift^ as conjunct, rela- 
ted and contenting : But not one and the fame 
cflential nature. 

§. 7. But the great difficulty is, whether the 
two natures conftitutc one Perfon, or two. Ne- 
ftorm is accufed ( Berodon faith falfly, citing his 
own plain words) to have held, That Chrift was 
two Perfons 7 divine and humane. But what is to be 
held, the School-Do&ors make a difficult queftion •, 
that is, whether the humane nature be either a 
Terfon^ or any part of the Perfon of Chrift. 
1. They fay, that Chrift was a divine Perfon from 
Eternity, and therefore began not to be fuch at 
his Incarnation. 2. That the divine nature 
cannot be fars ferfona, for that would be to be 
imperfeft and not divine .* Therefore that the hu- 

[ xxvii ] 

mane nature is no part, but am adjundl to the 
Perfon of Chrift. (And if the humane nature be an 
Accident to the divine in Chrift, why mult we 
deny Creatures to be Accidents of God ? ) But 
moft plain Chriftians would be ftartkd to hear 
a Preacher fay, that the Humanity is no pari of 
the Perfon of Chrift. 

§. 8. I have no anfwer to the difficulty, unlcfs 
I may diftinguifh of the fence of the Word P E R- 
S O N, and fay, that in the fence as it fignifieth a 
Perfon in the Eflence of God, 
the humane nature is no part such a urifi do the 
of it. feut as to a Rilativc BiBma *f Church-Fa- 
PerfoMlity, (as a King, a -ffi««"k^Nefto- 
Pneft, a Prophet, &c. as a not hei;tes>^w*/// 
Husband, a Father, &c. are not permit us n pafsty 
Perfons ) fo there is one thefe prints. 
Mcdutor between GOD 
and Man, the Man Chrift Jefus : And the humane is 
not here excluded. 

But is the Divine a part of the Perfon of a Me- 
diator ? I handle fuch things with fear j Ths 
Lord pardon our weaknefs : But we are called 
to handle them by men's Preemptions. 

i . As Gcd is not a part of the WqyU , or uni- 
verfal Subftance, and yet is tminenttr more than a 
part, what if it be fo anfwered here ? 

2, But if, as greac Do&ors now maintain, Rela- 
tions may be afcribed to God, wkhouc any Com- 
petition, becaufe they have no proper reality, but 
a meer objective comparability, why may not the 
divine nature have a relative part in the Relati- 
on of Mediator, as affuming and advancing the hu- 
mane, and operating in it, without compofition t 
And as according to this ambiguity, Chrift may 


[ xxviii ] 

have two perfons (not uni vocally) divine and me- 
diatorial, fo the divine and humane may make one 
Mediator : And in the one Perfon of a Mediator are 
contained many Relative Perfons of Chnft,as King, 
Prieit,r Prophet, Son of Mzry, &c. The Lord 
pardon what is amifs in thefe Conceptions, and 
redlifie my Judgment, and give me that practical 
Faith and Knowledge of Him, which conftituieth 
Chriflianity, accordiug totheBaptifmal Covenant, 
and which is it that He calieth Eternal Life. Amtn. 

CHAP. 4. 

How to conceive of the Diverfty of God's 
Operations , feeing he is immutable^ and in- 
timately near to every Patient. 

§, 1. T T is certain, That no Change wrought 
* by God, fignifiethany Change in God ; 
and that no diversity of Effedts fignifieth any real 
Multiplicity or Diverfity in God : But all Di- 
ver (Ity floweth from Unity, and Change from 

§. 2. It is certain, That God is intimately 
prefent in EflTence with every Creature, and e- 
very EfFedt, and fo all his Effedts are im?nc£ia- 
tioHtfroximitAtis immediately from God, he being 
as near the Effeft, when he ufeth fecond Cau- 


[ xxix ] 

fes , and having as mlich Caufality in producing 
what is done, as when he ufeth none. 

§. 3. Yet it is certain, That God ufeth f.cond 
Caufcs, and therefore that all Effefts are^ct fo 
immediately from him, as to be fine medMi And 
the highefl ufuaily work on the lower. 

§. 4. Therefore it feeraeth plain, that Energy, 
or utmoft tranfient Operations go not as far as 
his EfTential Prefence ; nor are equal to his Om- 
nipotence/ : He dorh non all that in prima in5t*mi % 
he can do •, but fufpendeth freely fuch Adte. 

§. 5. Therefore God may fb far fufpend fomc 
Operations on inferior Patients , as to confine 
thenrto the Capacity or Aptitude of the fupe- 
rior created Caufes, as he doth in the ordinary 
Courfe of Nature: He fhineth not by the Moon 
fo much as by the Sun ; nor in a cloudy day fo 
much cis in a clear ; nor in the night as in the day ; 
and' nouriflieth us not by every fort of Food a- 
like, nor cureth alike by all Medicines. 

§. 6. As God dot in Naturals, fo may 

he do in Morals, or IplriOinl Changes : As he is 
the God of Kingdoms and People, he may ufe 
his Mercies and Judgments by Kings and Magi- 
ftrates, and according to their good or bad Dif- 
>, as he did in the Death of Chrift. He 
doth not uic to gover 3 as happily by wick- 

s, as by the good and 

more unhappy under 

ulusy 6cc. than 

v, Antonlntj Alcxan- 

u* : And ".mpire was delivered by 

the fall of feven Tyrams, by a Conftarrtine. 

§. 7. So God ufuaily profpereth or affii&eth 
rches and particular Souls, working his Grace 


I XXX ] 
according to the qualifications of the Paftorsand 
Teachers ; and fitting them to be meet Inftru- 
ments of the intended Good, though he do not 
, always Co confine his Operations. This is evident 
in thcjdifFerent fucceffes of Minifters that are skil- 
ful or unskilful, wife or ignorant, good or bad*, 
concordant, or fchifmatical : And it is notorious 
in the fuccefs of the Education of Youthen Schools, 
Uniyerfities, and Families. 

§.8. According to this Method , wc may 
judge alfo of God's working according to varie- 
ty of Company-helps, Temptations, and Hin- 
derances, and how much of God^s Work of Grace 
is thus fapientially and mediately exercifed } though 
as to the internal manner of the Agency of his 
Spirit,we are told by Chriit, That every one that 
is born of the Spirit, is as the Wind bloweth 
where it liftet'h, and we hear the found , but 
know not whence it cometh , and whither it goeth. 
It is much herein to know a little. 

§.9. It greatly darkeneth us in judging of God's 
Providences on Earth, as to the Welfare orMife* 
ry of Nations and SjuIs, Believers and Infidels, 
Peace and War, &c. that we know not how much 
God doth here by Spirits good and bad :, and how 
far fuch Spirits are left to their Free-w r ill, as A- 
dxm was, in their Miniitration and Executions 
here ' below. God gave Satan power over Job, 
and power on the S*beanst\\zt robbed him, 2nd 
power on the Fire that fell from Heaven on his 
Eftate. Chrift faid, This is their Day, and of thz 
Tower of DarVntfi. What Laws the fuperipur 
Worlds are under, as to us, and one another, is 
much unknown to us , yea, what power for our 
fins Satan may have againft ( not only the wick- 

[ xxxi ] 

id, but) even thofe that fear God, both on their 
Bodies by Difejrfes, and on their Grinds by trou- 
bling and feducing Temptaticns Sad experience 
tclleth us, that yielding to former Temptations, 
giveth him advantage for eafier accefs to otir ima- 
ginations, and to more dangerous frelh AfTaults. 

§. io. But yet we maybe fure, thst all God's 
Promifes fhall be fulfilled, and that he will never 
give Satan power to break them, nor fufpend 
his Operations fo much on any fecond Ca-jfes, as 
to violate any word of fafety, 2nd hope that he 
hath given us to truft £0j which AfTurance may 
ferve to keep us in Faith, and Hope; and Com- 

CHAP. 5. 

h any pint of Faith above Reafon } or con- 
trary to it ? 

§. 1. I Have anfvvered £his at large in Method. 
1 Theol. It is a confufed and ill-worded 

Diftinguifh, 1. between Faith taken objectively, 
and Faith fubjettively as an Aft, or Quality. 

2. Between that which is required of all men to 
be believed, and that which is required but offome. 

3. Between Reafon in Faulty, and Reafon in Aft 
and Habit. 

4. Between Reafon advanced by improvement, 
and Reafon unimproved and buried in Igno- 

5. Between Reafon that hath only the Revela- 


[ XXXii ] 

tion of common Nature, and Reafon that hath fa- 

rernatural Revelation. ..«..,- V i, -w ;* 

1 c 2 [. it being only objective Faith that ^ is 

meant 'in the Queftion • that is no Objeft of Faith 
which for want of Revelation , a man is not 
bound to believe. There are Millions of Things 
above our Reafon, which are no Objects of our 
Fakh And more may be the Objeft of one 
Man's Faith, than ofanothers that had it noway 

revealed to him. . . . 

c , H. A J molt all the matter of Faith is *• 
faw the Reafon of ignorant Sots that never im- 
proved their Reafon, or ftudied the Evidences of 
Truth: It is above their Reafon, as ^pjBrw 
and «&«, though not above the poffibiliw ot 
their Faculties being better cultivated and dilpoiea 
h ere a 4 ter 'lf! ^ Do ft r i ne of Faith is not only 
above' 'but fntrtry to the falfe reafovmg of igno- 
rtnt deceived Fools > for fo is the very Being of 
God, and fuch are many that boaft ot Kea- 

l0n s < IV. The Gofpel of Chrifi: , and many 
obits' of Faith are above his Reafon that hath 
only fuch natural Light as the Creation can give 
him, without any Gofpel fupernaturai Revela- 
tion Who can know in India that never heard 
of Chrift , that he was incarnate, and role trora 
the dead, and afcended, &c.t 

§ 6. V. Nothing that God commanded us to 
believe, is either contrary to, or above Reafon (that 
is the reafoning Intellect) i°fo™=^i5™.f£ 
Hod Revelation or Notice, and honeftly and 
foundly qualified to judge otherwise, as Law, 
Phylick, Aftronomy.fo Divinity is above the Rea- 
fon of the unqualified. 

g. 7. This is apparent, 1. B:c3ufe we have 
no Faith in us, bun what is an ad of Reafon and 
rational Will \ and therefore that cannot be Lid 
to be above Reafon, which is it felf eflentially 
an Ad of Reafon. By 'what Faculty do we be^ 
lieve, but by the rational Intellect and Will? 
And this Intellect hath but two fores of Ads, 

1 . Immediate Self-perceptions, which fome call />.- 
tuitions, and fome , E nd Senfation. 

2. Abftrative Knowledge by Reafoning. And 
the firft way we perceive nothing bun cur owti 
Ads : Therefore it mufl be thelatter,or not at all. 

§. 8. 2. We have reafon to know that God 
cannot lye ; and reafen to know by certain Proof 
that Scripture is his Word - and reafon to kno 
what that Word expreffeth. Therefore we have 
reafon to b.lieve that it is true, and confequently 
to truft it. 

5. p. 3. If we tell Infidels than we have no 
Reafon our felves for our Faith, nor any Reafon 
to give them why they fhond believe Chrifl mc 
than Mabo^eti and the Scripture more than the 
Alcoran, this preaching is not the way to con- 
vince the World, nor did fuch Preaching gather 
the Churches. 

§. 10. When the Apoftles added Miracles to 
their Teftimony of (Thrift's Refurredion, what 
was it for, bu: to convince Mens Reafon, that 
what God fo attefteth by unimitable Works, mufl: 
needs be true : It is by reafon ( abufed ) that Men 
talk againft reafon. 

§. 11. Thofe knowing Divines that tell the 
SocimMSy That the Matters of Faith are above 
Reafon, can reafonablv mean no more, but that 
meer Reafon by natural Light, could net have 


[ xxxiv] 

known them without Gofpel fupcrtfatural R£ve- 

§. i 2. This Reafon is unanfwerable. 

That is certainly true which God obligeth all 
men of Reafon, to whom it is revealed? to be- 

But God obligeth all Men of Reafon, to whom 
it is revealed, to believe the Life to come, and 
that Chrift is the Son of God, and his Word 

Therefore it is true. 

The Major is proved by the very Being and 
PerfeftionofGod; to fay that God bindeth the 
World to believe a Lye, and fo is the great 
Lyer and "Deceiver, is to defcribe him like Sa- 
tan, and to deny him to be God. 

The Minor is proved •, God bindeth us to be* 
lieve that which being of greateit everlafting 
Confeqnence, is attefted by the former Prophe- 
cies, the Eflenrial Impreflions of God, the mul- 
titude of uncontrolled Miracles, and the conti- 
nued fuccefs of fan&ifying Souls, and making the 
greatcft amendment of the world, when we have 
no DMproof of it } and to truft our Souls and 
Hopes on this, when we have fuch fealed Promifes, 
and no other fufficient Hopes. 

But fuch is the Gofpel of Chrift, and the Life 
to come — Ergo wc are Sound as regfonable, by 
God to believe it. 

In this Belief and Hope I am writing this, un- 
der the fentence of Death, in expectation of my 
approaching Change. 

CS* Thef 2 five preceding -Chapters were, <m Emergent Occaftons y 
written about T&enty years after the re J} of the Be ok (fave one 
Chapter, Chip, y.) 


C i 3 

CHAP. I. Prefatory. 

Who jbdl be Judge of Controversies^ and of the 
Sence of Scripture ; whether all the People, or 
who elfe. 

ScVv. I. "Y""""^ XperienceafTurir-g all Men, that we 
are born without a&ual Know- 
ledge and yet with Faculties made 
to Know, obliged to Learn, defi- 
ning Knowledg, needing it, and delighting in it, 
no wonder if Men be inquili:ive after the fureffc 
and eafieft way to attain it ; and if they be unwil- 
ling to be deceived, no wonder they love Truth as 
Truth, and hate Lyes as Lyes , though, being de- 
ceived, they hate that which is Truth, and love 
that which is a Lye. 

* §. 2. Therefore the firft Apprehenfionsofthe 
mind do greatly tend to the introduction of thofethat 
follow, to make them fuch as (hall agree with thefe : 
And here, \. Senfe, and 2. Education have the great 
advantage. 1. We exercife Senfe before Reafon 7 ~ 
and therefore, atfirit, without the government of 
our own Reafon, and this neceffarily, ftrongly, and 
conftantly, as the Bruites do. 2. And being there- 
fore governed by the Reafon of our Parents, we 

# learn Knowledg of them,and from fenfible Obje&s, 
but drop by drop, by flow degrees ; and Senfe be- 

ng ftrong, iaclineth Children ftrongly to defire 

B that 

t 2 ] 

that fort of Knowledge which will maft ferve the 
pleafure of Sence and Flcfhly Appetite : Ard lo 
they eafily learn how to fport, and after how to 
feek Provifion (by Labour and Trades, and Flat- 
tery, &c.) to fatisfie the Deiires of the Flefh. But 
the knowledg of things fpiritual' and everlafting, 
vrhich are beyond the reach of Sight and all the 
Senfes, cometh not in fo foon, nor till Parents or 
other Teachers tell them of fuch, or Reafon grow 
up to maturity, by Experience and ferious Exer- 
cife, and withal, the Grace of God to blefs fuch 
Helps, and overcome the contrary flefhly inclina- 
tions, which original Pravity and cuitomary Sen- 
fuality, raife up againft the Defires of> Endeavours 
for, and Obedience to a fpiritual and more excel- 
lent Knowledge Where God giveth, i. A Body 
moderately tcmperated as to Senfuality and Inge- 
nuity ^ 2. And Parents, or firft-Teachers, wile and 
faithful, to teach Children that fpiritual Know- 
ledg which they have learnt themfelves ; and, 
3. by His Grace excitetlvChildrens Minds to love, 
learn, and obey the Truth, there enter the begin- 
nings of troeft Wifdom : But where thefe are wan- 
ting, they grow up, inftead of faving Wifdom, to 
the crafcinefs of a Fox, to get, keep, and devour 
his Prey, and to the valour and felicity of the 
Maftiffe, to be Mailer of the little Dogs ; and at 
laft, to the fubtilty of Devils, to oppole and de- 
itroy as a hated thing the Holy Wifdom and Pra- 
ctice that fhould have faved them. 

§. 3. As Knowledg cometh in by flow degrees, 
fo there areas many degrees or differences of it, in , 
the World, as there are Men; it being not proba- 
ble that any two men on Earth have juft the fame 
apprehenfions arid degrees of Knowledg j but that 


C ?3 

all mens mental Complexions differ far more than 
their Vifages do. So that if the fame degree were 
the meafure of neceflary Church-Concord , and 
Salvation, there fhould but one in the World be 
the Church or be faved. The queftion then is not, 
What meafure is definable, but what is nccejfary to 
Church-Vnity and Commnnim, and to Salvation. 
And what God will do with thofe that have not 
the Gofpel,- and are not of the Chriftian Churchy 
but only believe that God *f, and that he is the Re- 
warder of them that diligent ty feek^him, and that in 
every Nation difcar GW^and vporkjr ighteoHfnefs\ be- 
longeth net to our prefent queftion } but only 
what is neceflary to the Chriftian State and Hye. 

§.4. And here it is firft to be decided, Whether 
Cod hith by any fixed Law or Revelation determined fo 
oftkcMeafiireofLhriftian Knowledg and Fait h 7 as 
that thtreby men may know who are to be taken as Chri- 
fiians and of the Church? To which I fay, I. We 
ifluft diftinguiih of Faith as objective and as ji&ivt^ 
or as to the matter believed, and as to the Aft of 
believing or knowing. 2. Between tre Inward Sin~ 
verity and the Outward Profejfion : And remember 
that though God judge of Men according r. to in- 
ward Sincerity, and 2. expeft that decree of Know- 
ledg and Faith in Ad and Habit fuitable to means 
enjoyed, without which the man and his Faith are 
not indeed fincere - 7 yet the Church (and all Men) 
can judge of others, but 1 . By outward Profeffwn, 
2. extended to that degree of Objective Faith, which 
God hath made commonly neceflary to Ghriitiani- 
ty or to the acceptance of the Church 

It is therefore here a d ceiving Confufion, to 
confound the two cafes, what is neceflary to Go&s 
acceptance into Heaven^ and what is neceflary to a 

B z Man's 

L 4 1 

Man's acceptance into the Church. And thence Ibme 
conclude that no man can tell juft what is neceflary 
to Individuals. 

§. %. That Chrift hath ftated the EfTentials of 
Chriftianity, taken obje&ively fliould be fo farpaft 
queftion, as our Chriftianity it felf is, at leaft. 
For if he have not, then he is not the Author and 
Finifher of our Faith: And ifhe be not who is? 
The Apoftles delivered it as received* from him. 
If it were not then made and determined by Chrift, 
then there was then no Chriftianity* and fo no 
Christians* And if it was made ficce then,who was 
the Maker of Objective Chriftianity ? No Man or 
Company of Men dare or do pretend to it. If they 
fhould, whence had they that Power ? And did it 
die with them ? Or may others after them make 
alio a new Chriftianity ? Paul pronounceth Angel 
or Man accurfed that fhould bring another Gofpel 
than that which he had received and preached, 
Gal. 1.7,$. 1 CV. 15.3,4.^(7. 

2. And if the EfTentials of Chriftianity and 
Church-relation and Communion were not deter- 
mined of by Chrift, and notified in the Holy Scrip- 
tures, then there could be then no Chriftian 
Church, for want of Church-Eflentials. And then 
when began that Church, and who made it. 

3. But the Gofpel hath put the matter out of 
doubt, telling us that Chrift hath actually declared 
and determined the EfTentials of Objeftive Chri- 
ftianity and the Church : even in his Inftitution of 
Baptifm, which is our Chriftening, which in his 
preaching he expounded, and fo did his Apoftles. 
2. And as his Baptized Difciples were called 
Christians ^ fo he commanded them to Love one 
another and live in Concord and Commurion as 



Chriftians: and could any obey this Command, 
if Chriftianity was then either unmade or a thing 
that could not be known ? 

§. 6. And if it was then made by Chrift, it was 
furely unchangeable : elfe men might be llill ma- 
king a new Chriftianity, from Age to Age, and 
when fhould we have an end ? And who hath 
power or skill to make a better than Chrift made 
Mahomet that attempted it, thereby is an accurfed 
Antichrift . p 

§. 7. And now we come next to enquire, 

I. What are the Chnrch-C ontroverfies to bz decided. 

II. And who are the Dijfenters that differ herein. 

III. And then we (hall eafily find who it is that mult 
be the Judge of them. 

§. 8. And 1. it is fuppofed that it is no one effen- 
tialpart ofObjecirce Chriftianity that is in Controier- 
fie. 2. And that it is not among Chriftians that 
any fuch point is controverted. For he that de- 
nyeth any eflential part, denyeth Chriftianity and 
the Church - and therefore is no Chriftian (what- 
ever he may be called by himfelf or others.) And 
though Confounders make a great Con troy erfie of 
it, whether a Heretick be a Chriftian and a part of 
the Church, it's eafily refolved - if we dally not 
with an ambiguous word : If by aHeretick be meant 
one that profefTeth not, or deny'd any eflential part 
of Chriftianity or the Church, he is no Chriftian 
nor part of that Church which he denyed : But if 
by a Heretick be meant one that profefTeth not, or 
denyeth only fomething that is of the melius effe 
of Chriftianity and the Church, he is a Jtfember 
though a faulty one. 

§. 9. But it will be faid, thst more than tkeEjfen- 
tials of Chriftianity is necejjaryto Church-Communion : 

B 3 Jfc 

tlfe we mufi receive Drunkards, Fornicators, Extortion 
vers, Railers^ with whom, faith St. Paul, we muft 
net eat. 

Anf. I would thole that will not endure tolerable 
men for a different opinion or circumftance, could 
as little endure Drunkards, Fornicators, Extor- 
tioners, and Railers, and Covetous, &c. But the 
Objeftors muft under ftand, That as I faid, The 
Saptifmal Covenanting Profejfion of Christianity is 
our Church-title to its Communion. And that 
Chriftianity is more than a bare Opinion or Notional 
Affent : it is a folemn giving up our j r elves by Vow and 
Covenant to God the Father i Son and Holy Ghofi, as 
ettr God and Saviour and Sanclifier* to be Taught and 
Ruled by Chrifi^ as well as pardoned, adopted, and 
glorified ; which effentially coiitaimth Repentance and 
the Renunciation of the Dominion of the Flefh, the 
World, and the Devil* which are contrary to the 
Government o^Chrift. 

And it mull be remembred that a Verbal Pro- 
feffion proved counterfeit and falfe by inconhftent 
contradiction in word or deed, is indeed not valid, 
and is no Profe[fwn. And he that would fay, I 
Will be Ruled by Chrift, but I will be a Drunkard, 
a Fornicator, an Extortioner, &c. would thus nul- 
lifiehis Profeffion by a grofs Contradiction : And 
to live impenitentlyin thefeftns, is as fure a proof of 
falfhood of a man's Prof ejfion, as contrary words 
would be. And if a man once and again commit 
fuch Sins till he Repent of them, he choofeth them 
and liveth in them : And while he choofeth and 
liveth ii> them, he Repenteth not indeed, what- 
ever he fay : For Repentance is a change of Mind 
and Life. 


C 7 3 

Therefore we here diilinguifli of Mens Right to 
Church-Communion as i . unqueftioned, 2. as loft 
or null* 3. as doubtful and under tryal. u A 
Baptifmal Profeflion of all the Eflence of Chriftia- 
nicy, and not difproved,is a Title not to be queftio- 
ned. 2. Apoftafie, or the denyai by word or deed 
of any eflential part of Chriftianity, juftly proved, 
nullifieth Chriftianity and Church-Right. 3, But 
if a man fpeak or hold fome bad opinion by a re- 
mote unfeen confequence, contrary to fomewhat 
eflential to Chriftianity, or if he commit fome Sin 
that is inconfiftent if he Repent not, here the 
Church rouft try whether the faid Error be indeed 
fo held, as that the contradicted truth is really 
not held, or only be held on a miftake of confiftea- 
cy,theperfon profefling to renounce it, if incon- 
fiftent : And whether the faid Sinner live impeni- 
tently in that Sin, as that which he choofeth and 
will not forfake : And while the man is under this 
doubtful Trjal^ his Title is doubtful, and to bs 
fufpended as to aftual Exercife. 

And therefore the Church hath ever ufed Sufpen- 
fion as a thing different from a full or proper Ex- 
communication ; Suffcnfion and fome difciflirutry 
reftraints, have been called Excommunicato minor, 
which doth not cut off a man from the Church; 
When the proper Excommunication called major, 
is but an Authoritative Declaring that a: man hath 
cut off himfelf, by Afojiafie at Jcaft from fome 
cffentUlfart of Chriftian Faith or Duty: without 
which felf-abfcifion, other mens hath no place % 
and is but a Slander of the innocent. God hath 
not given others Power to unchriftcn, cat off or 
dama the guiltlcfs. 

B 4. §. 10. It's 


§. io. It's one thing to be cut off from the 
Church or Chrift, 2. and another to be under try- 
al and fufpenfe o aftual Communion, till Repen- 
tance prove mens Right 3. And it^s another to 
be at prefent only denyed Communion (not with 
the Church wholly, but J in fome comfortable Or- 
dinances, till the removing of a Scandal have made 
the perfon capable, by fatisfying the fcandalized. 
4. And its another thing to be caft down from a 
higher to a lower ftatioi*, and denyed Dignities, 
Preferments, and fpecial Honour. Confound not 

§. 11. And by this time you may fee how to an- 
fwerthe ill-ftated queftion, Who is the judge of 
Controverfies in Religion : and of the Sence of the 
Scripture : and whether every ignorant Man or \¥o- 
man^ or Child muft be Judges of it for themfelves ? 

And firft you muft underftand the forefaid J>/- 
ftinttions neeeflfary to the Sofat ion •, Ambiguities and 
Generalities are the inftruments of Deceit* And 
fecondly I fhall apply them to the cafe. 

§. 12. 1. We muft diftinguifh Controverted 
Iffemials of Chtiftianity, from controverted In- 
tegrals, and Accidents. 

1. Diftinguifh Controverfies between Chriftians 
and no- Chriftians, from Controverfies among 

3. Diftinguifh material Objective Chriftianity 
( Faith and Duty ) from internal Subjective. 

4. Diftinguifh external valid Profefion of Actnal. 
Faith not dilproved, from internal Sincerity. 

5. Diftinguifh between what is neceflary to 
God's accepting a man to Juftification and Salva- 
tion , and what's neceflary to the Church's accep- 
ting a man to Communion, 


C 93 

6. Diftinguifh what is neceflary to that dated 
Union and Communion which is our real Church- 
Memberfhip and Chriftianity, from that which is 
neceflary to the prefent adtual exercife of fuch 
Right in fome local Priviledges and Ads i and from 
than which only fitteth men for Dignity or Office. 

7. Diftinguifh between the Cafe de tjft^ or real 
Trutb^ and the Cafe defare, or judging of it. 

8. Diftinguifh between Judging what others 
fhall Believe about things controverted, and go- 
verning their Pra&ice, how they fhall behave 

9. Diftinguifh a private Judgment, difcerning 
what is or is not our own Duty, and a fuhlick^ 
Judgment in Government of others. 

10. Diftinguifh the Judgment of feveral Gover- 
nours according to their divers Offices, and Ends. 

1 1 . Diftinguifh a limitted Power to Judge only 
pne way from a power of judging obligatively in 
fart em utram libet^ this way or that. 

12. Diftinguifh the real incomplexe Matter or 
Objects of Faith> from the literal complexe words 
which fignifie them. And fo thefe conclufions will 
be clear paft doubt. 

CokcL 1. All Chriftians are agreed in the EfTen- 
tials of Chriftianity : Therefore thefe are no 
Church-controverfies for any to be the Juclges of- 
It's only. Infidels and Men without our Church that 
differ from us in thefe. And Infidels are not to be 
converted by the Authority of a humane Judge 
(nor ever were) but by Teachers fhewing the Evi- 
dences of Truth. 

C'JI. All Chriftians,as fuch being bound by Chrift 
to love one another, and live in Communion as 


C 10 3 

Members of one Body, notwithftanding IeHer dif- 
ferences, it followeth that Chriftian Unity, Love, 
and Communion depend not oil the queftion, 
Who jh*tt be Judge ef Centroverfies \. as being pre- 
fuppofed to it. 

C\ Hi. But the Baptizing Paftors of the Churches 
are by office the judges, whether it be indeed the 
Effentials of Chriftianity which are profeit by the 

C. IV. And therein it is the Real incomplexe 
Objefts that are propter fc eflential (God, Chrift, 
Grace, &c. ) And the fignai words are only necef- 
fary to notifie to the Church what men believe : 
And no lingular words only are necefiary : Elfe^ 
only men of One Language could be Chriftians : 
But any words will ferve which fignifie the fame 
Matter : few will ferve for fome : and others mull 
ufe more. The words of Baptifm fufSce where 
they are underftood : But the Creed, Lord's Pray- 
er, and Decalogue, as the fim of the Crcdenda, Pe- 
tenda, Agenda, haveby the Church been judged a 
fufficient explication, for the Baptized : And in 
thefe we all agree. 

C. V. 1'hough real fincerity of aftive Faith and 
Confent be neceflary to Salvation, God judging the 
Heart-, yet Profeffion not difproved, muftfatisfie 
the Church : Who therefore are not put to judge 
whether mens Know ledg reach the degree of their 
Helps \ 

C. VI. The Baptizing one into the Union of the 
Church-llniverfal, obligeth him to exercife ChrifPs 
inftituted Worfhip in particular Churches \ and 
therefore to know what that is : which is The 
Paftor's Teaching the Flocks ChriJPs Gofpel; officia- 
ting in the adminifiration of the Lord's Stppcr, Prayer 


C ii ] 

and Trtife^ and Difciplwary Government by tlic nfe of 
the Church-Keys : Of Mens fitnefs for thefe, the Pa- 
llors are the Judges, and the Flock, muft cbey. 

C. VII. Chrift hath in Scripture iDftiuucd all 
that is of neceflky to this Communion. 

C. VIII. Every Governour hath a governing 
Judgment (called FnhUcW) fuitable to his Office. 
The Paftours are Judges who is capable of Baptifm 
and Church-Communion, as far as muft be execu- 
ted by the Keys. 

The Magiftrate is Judge who is by him to be 
countenanced, tolerated, or punilhedby force. 

The Parents are Judges in cafes about their 
Wives and Children, proper to Family-Govern- 

But every reafonable Creature being a Gover- 
nour of himfelf, is neceflarily the Difcerner of his 
own Duty. And God being the Highcft Ruler,and 
there being no Power but of Him, and none againft 
Him, no Man muft obey any againft him : and all 
rauft-ufe their Reafon to judge whether Mens Laws 
be againft Gcd or not : If this were net fo, i. Men 
were governed as meer Bruites : 2. And muft curfe 
God or Chrift) or murder, or do any Evil that Ru- 
lers bid them. 3. And then God fhould for this 
punifh none but Soveraigns. 4. And thea all Na- 
tions muft be of the King's Religion. 5. And then 
men muft not judge whether it be the Juft Prince 
or the Ufurper that they muft obey. In fhort,this 
overthroweth all Religion and Humanity. 

C* IX, No men have Power to Judge in partem 
utramlibet? or againft any Article or Fakh or Divine 
Obedience ; the Thing is True or Falfe before they 
judge of it: and if they judge againft TrutMheir 
Judgment is void : God binds us not to believe 


£ 12] 

their Lie : They have no Power to judge that 
there is no God, no Chrift, no Holy Ghoft, that the 
Gofpel is falfe, that Men may commit Idolatry .> 
Perjury, Murder, Adultery, &c. The contrary all 
may and muft judge; but fooie as Rulers, and 
fome as Subje&s. But in ca r es before indifferent, 
(where Man's Authority may make Dmy^ or not, 
there they may judge it Dnty or not accordingly. 

C. X. In doubtful cafes no mens bare judg- 
ment can bind or make others to Believe things 
Divine with a Divine Faith : man is not God. 
But i. Teachers that are credible muft be believed 
with a human Faith according to the degree of 
their credibility, which is preparatory to Divine 
Faith. 2. And Rulers may Govirn Subje&s in the 
manner of expreffing and ufing their controverted 
Opinions, and reftrain them from doing hurt. 

C* XI While true Union and Love are fecured 
by common concord in thiogseflential and necef- 
fary, a Judge of other Controverfies is not need- 
ful to theft: ends before fecured : Chriftians muft 
live in Love that tmderiland not many hundred 
Texts or Controverfies. 

€. XII. It is worfe than Madaefs to think that 
all Controverfies will on Earth be ended, or that 
any Men can do it. But they that fay it do moft 
deeply damn fiich pretended Judges, that fo many 
Volumes being written of Controverfies , and con> 
trary textual Expofitions among themfelves> will 
not decide them to this day. Who {hail decide all 
the Controverfies between General Councils, and 
all the prefent Patriarchs and Churches in the 

Thus much to anfwer the queftion^ Whojhallbe 
Judge of Coxt rover fits and Scripture Sence i 

§< 5- If 

C 13 3 

§. 5. If Men did but difference points ntctffary 
to Salvation zxAckrinyimty^ from thole that are 
only needful to a higher Stature in the Church, 
and from thofe that are utterly uncertain and 
mnecejfury \ and, 2. if they did but know their 
own ignorance and liablenejs to Error , and, 3, If 
they confidered how utterly impoffible it is to 
make the multitude of ignorant People, yea or Mi- 
nifies, to be all of a mind, in the numerous 
hard ^ontroverfles, Opinions, and dubious or 
indifferent things, that are ftriven about in the 
World ; certainly inftead of damning, or defpi- 
fing, or deftroying> or hateing each other for 
fuch things, they would magnitie the Wifdom 
and Mercy of Chrift, who hath laid the Love, 
Unity and Peace of his Church on a few plain, 
fure and needful things, £ c Even the Covenant of 
c Chrifttanity, with the Creed, Lor as Prayer and Be- 
L ca/dgue, and f* much of Chrifi's own Precepts, as 
c the univtrfal Church hath ever bin agreed in'~\ And 
they would rather honour and obey St- Paul, 
Rom. 14. 1 Cor. 12. Epkef.4., i,to id. than count 
his Doiflrin to be unpracticable or loofe. 

§. 6. If God will take all into Heaven that 
practically btli'eve the Creed, and obey what is plainly 
written in the Scripture, why may not fuch liv*e in 
Love and Peace on Earth, and the Key-bearers 
of the Church C which is the Seminary of Hea- 
ven ) receive fuch, as Chrsft rcceiveth us to the 
Glory cf God the Father, Rom. 15. 16. What if 
Men confefs that they know no more (when mil- 
lions called Chriftians know not fo much) will 
they deftroy them for not knowing more than 
in knew? Or is it any Virtue or Duty 


[ H J 
to lye, and fay that they know or believe what 
they are utterly ignorant of ? What if thofe 
that with Jerome miQiked the word Hypftafis, 
and thofe that preferred it before Perfona , had 
forborn cenfuring one another ? What if the 
queftions, Whether Mary Jhould be called the Mother 
efGod, or rather of Him who is God? Or whether 
thrift's Will and Operations jhould be [aid to be One 
or Two ? had been managed with mutual forbea- 
rance, without Zend's Henotioon , or AnaftafinsH 
forcible Amurfty ? What if- fuch forbearance 
had fparedall the rage and bloodfhed ztAntioch^ 
Alexandria and other parts ? What ifCbryfoftom 
and others had bin permitted to filence their 
Thoughts of Origine ? What if men had not 
bin put to declare whether the tria capitula of 
Theodoret, Ibas and Theodore Mopfne^ were found 
or unfound, and faid, What is it to as ? Might not 
the Church have lived with fuch in Peace ? 
What if when the World was in a flame about 
Images, they had left them only to thofe that 
defired them? Might not they yet have lived in 
Love, that agreed in all the EfTcntials of Chri- 
ftianiry? What if yet one man fay that ChrifPs 
Body is locally prefent in the Eucharift •, and 
another fay that, Becaufe he knoweth not how far 
his ipiritual Glorified Body is invilible, therefore 
he no more knoweth whether it be there than 
whether an Angel be there, but believeth that the 
Sacrament is truly his crucified Body reprefen- 
tative ; why might not both thefe live in peace? 
What if one think that Venial Sin mult be pu- 
nched with Purgatory Fire, or as an Englifli Dr. 
that fome men muft pafs a new Life of Trial, in 
their Aireal Vehicle, before they are capable of an 


iEthcreal Vehicle, why may not fuch bear with 
one that faith he knoweth no fuch thing? What 
if one man think that he may pray to his Angel 
Guardian ; and another faith only that he oweth An- 
gels Love, Reverence and Gratitude, and would 
pray to them if he knew when they heard him, 
and knew it were God's will, what hurt mil it 
do to the other man to bear with this ? If we 
agree of all points that put men into that Hate 
in which Chrift commanded to Love one another 
as his Difciples; if others differ from me about 
the meaning of five hundred Texts of Scripture, 
why may notl be contented with myKnowledg and 
Opinion, and leave them to theirs ? Why might 
not Naz^ianz^ene and the Council of Conft*ntino- 
fle^ Hieromt and Rnffimts, Cbryfeflom and Theofhi- 
Im and EpfphaTtptt, Proffer and Cafliar.us and km- 
centiusj ^ to pafs by Auguftine and Ccleftinc and 
Julianas^ and Hierorr.e and Vigilantwszxidijovimari) 
have compofed their differences with lefs noife 
and ftrife,- and lived in love and peace together. 
( To pafs by alfb the doleful Contentions about 
the Councils olEyhefus and Calcedov and Conft. 5, 
& 6. and Nice 2. and between Ignatius and Photins, 
and many more worfe ftrifes fince then ) Why 
might not the Jefuites and J mfenifts have diffe- 
red without troubling she Popes and the Church, 
by mutual forbearance and gentle aifputes, x as 
many of the Schoolmen did before them ? 1 quar- 
rel not with Erafmns^ Faber ,and abundance fuch, 
for chiding the Schoolmen as Caufers of Conten- 
tion, byraifingfo many frivolous queftions for 
Difpute ; But verily, as they were in my opinion 
the bell Philofophers that ever the World had, 
(acd no wonder whea they ftudied little elfe) fo 


C 16 ] 

they managed their Difputes with more Scholar- 
like candour and peaceable moderation than moft 
that went before them, or that have followed 
them. How many huge Volumes of fubtile Dif- 
putes do they write, with very few railing words :. 
patiently bearing each others copious Confuta- 
tions and Contradi&ions, as a thing to be expect- 
ed , and no whit wondring at the Differences of 
Judgment among the worthielt men ? How many 
Volumes, or loads of Volumes are there written, 
of the different Opinions of the Thomifts^ Scctifis, 
Nominals , Dhrandifts 7 and yet till the late times 
put Virulency into the Writings of Jefuites, Do- 
minicans and Javfemjls^&c there was little revi- 
ling to be found in all thefe long Difputes. 

And why might not Luther and CaroloftadinSy 
Zuinglius and Oecolampadws \ and many Lutherans 
and Calvinifts have lived in as much Love and 
Peace as Melancthon dnd Erafmus and fuch others, 
if they had but had their forbearing Charity and 
Candour ? How fweet are the Pacificatory Wri- 
tings, yea and how judicious, of Junius^ Ludov. 
Croxws^ Matth. Mj-rtinms^ Georg* CalixtUl^ Conrad. 
BergiWy Johannes Bergxm, Bar&us, Amyr&edw, Hot- 
xonuiy TeftardiVy Camera^ Lud. Capetlm, Plac<etM y 
and (above all) Vine, le Blankj yea and of mode- 
rate Papifts, Efpenc&My Ferus^ Gerfon^ Cajfander, 
and efpecially Erafmus : And how harfh to the 
Lovers of Love and Peace, are fuch Writings as 
fpit Fire and Brimftone, Reproach and bitter 
Cenfures, againft thofe that be not juft of their 
Opinions ? it puts the wifeft Divines hard to it, 
how far they may pronounce Damnation on all 
thofe Heathens, that live in Sincerity (though not 
in Perfection ) according to that meafure of the 

notifica- ( 

[ i7] 

notification of God's Will which they are un* 
der, that come to God in the belief that God is, and 
that (it is the Revtarder of them th*t diligently fcel^ 
him, and that in every Nation they that fear God and 
workRighteoHfnefs ,and are no worfc than fuch Righte- 
ous men, as Abraham thought even wicked Sodom 
had had fifty of, are accepted of him. And 
fhall Chriftians damn, cune and kill all that tin* 
derftand not a thoufand Controversies , which 
perhaps the deftroyers as little underftar.d -, and 
that know not an hundred things to be indiffe- 
rent or lawful, which the deftroyersdo but lay 
are fuch? 

§; 7. It hath oft grieved me to read in 
Dr. Heylin** Life of Archbifhop Laud how great 
a hand the Controverfies then called Armwian, 
or of the Five Articles, had in the Divifions of 
the Church of England, between thofe that he 
maketh Archbilhop Abbot in England and Archbi^ 
{hop V flier in Ireland' to Head on ene part \ and 
the few that at firil (and many after) that fol- 
lowed Archbifhop Laud in England, and Archbi- 
fhop Bramhall in Ireland on the other part. And 
to find what a ftrefs the many Parliaments that 
feared Popery did lay on the thing that they cal- 
led Arminianifm : And being carried down by the 
ftream of many good mens Opinions and Fears, 
I was my felf fome years confident that Armi- 
nianifm was a character of an Enemy to the Sound- 
nefs and Safety of the Church. But when I had 
fet my felf throughly and impartially to ftudy 
it, I found that which fo amazed me , that I 
durlt fcarce believe what I could not deny 9 
even thai from the beginning of the Qjiarrcl be- 
tween Avgitftine and ¥el*gw, all the Voluminous 

C Con-* 

[ i8 3 

Contentions of the Thomlfts or Dominicans^ and 
the fefmtcs, and Francifcans, and between the 
Lutherans, and Zuinglians ( herein ) and the Sy- 
mdifts and Arminians, have been moflly about ei* 
ther unfearchable things, which neither fide under- 
ftood, or about ambiguous words, which one Party 
taketh in one fence, and the other in another ; 
or about the meet methodising and ordering of 
the notions which both fides are agreed in ; and 
that indeed the moft reach not the very point of 
the difficulty and controverlie, but talk before 
they underftand as their Leaders have taught them : 
And that when the matter is diftin&ly opened, it 
is found that multitudes that write, rail and plot 
againft one another, are really of one Opinion De 
rebus,, and did not know it ; And that the few re- 
maining Controverfies that arer**/,- and not only 
verbal, are but of fuch fmall or dubious things, as 
fhould break no Love nor Communion among Chri- 
ftians, but all fhonld with forbearance km each 
other in that liberty of judging which they cannot 

The man that could cure all mens Errours 
(and his own) and will not, is much to blame: 
And he that wwW but cannot, is little better, if 
he will kiU ail that he cannot cure -, and no doubt 
hath greater than any of theirs uncured in him- 
felf. And what ! Do I in all this take part with 
Ignorance, Error, Herefie or any Sin ? No ! he 
that can cure it, let him : But is he a fit perfon to 
cure it, that hath the Errours of Ungodlinefs,. 
Malice, Lying, and Bloodthirfhnefs in himfelf? 
Or will killing men cure them ? The Charity of 
thefe men faith, C Burn, hang or kill them left they 
mfett others Q Ergo } fay others, Kill thefe that fay 

C 19] 

foy becaufe their Err ours are the mo ft pernicious, left 
they infeot others with the Afps and Dragons kitting 
Foyfon. Nature teacheth Man to hate and kill 
Wolves, Kites, Adders, and all that live on the 
Blood of harmiefs Creatures, and to proteft Sheep, 
Doves, and fuch other Creatures as cannot proteft 
therafelves. My nature grudgeth to live on the 
Flefh of thefe harmiefs Creatures, though God hath 
given them to us, but 1 little pity a Toad, a 
Snake, a Spider, or a devouring Fox : But regnant e 
Dubolo, where the Devil ruleth, he will have his 
Butchers and Shambles \ and 'as Brutes are killed 
for Men, honeft men fha.ll be killed by theie as 
for God ; And becaufe God himfelf will not allow 
the murder of the Innocent andjuft and Pious, it 
is but calling them, Rogues and Knaves, and as 
Chrift, an Enemy to Cafar, and as to Paul, A 
Ring-leader of a Se&,and Mover ofSedition among 
the People , ( real crimes where there is real 
Guilt J and then they may fay of them and do to 
them what they will, and by cheating Hiftory t e- 
prefent Saints as Villains to ignorant Pofterity. 
But O blefled be the final, Juft, deciding Judge 9 
who is as at the door. The Leech's Religion, 
that cannot live without Blood, is againft the re- 
liques of Humanity in Mankind, io much, that even 
they that for worldly interefts comply with it, 
do fecretly fufpett it to be indeed Diabcf- 

§. 8. But Satan told Chrift that the Kingdoms 
of the World and the glory of them is delivered to him, 
and their Power is his Gift which hzgheth tovchom- 
foever he mil ? and that ihall be to thofe that 
obey and worflrip him, Luh^ 4'. 5, 6* Though he be 
a Lyer, too much of this is proved by theefFe&i 

C 2 And 

[ 20 ] 

And doubtlefs where he reigns, his work doth de-* 
note his Power and Government ; that is, i. Blind 
Ignoransc, Error ^ hying and Deceit. 2. Malignant 
Hatred of good things mid per fins. 3. Bloodthirjiy 
and detractive wohifh ways. And when he tranf- 
formeth himfelfinto an Angel of Light, and his 
Minifters as into Minifters of Righteoufnefs, all 
this is done moft fuccefsfully as for God, and as by 
( pretended ) Commiffion from Chrift, to kill the 
moft confcionable and faithful Chriftians, as 
odious Villains, and that as for the Church and 
Chrift, and for Unity, Order and Holy ends; yea 
to kill them in meer Charity, ( though they love 
not fuch charity to themfelves. ) Such is the 
Catnites and Cannibal Religion, that will dye if it 
be not fed with Blood. And yet is fo impatient 
of its own name, and to hear the recital of its own 
Excrcife which hath maintained it a thoufand 
years 5 that it is a mortal crime to tell men that they 
dothat which they openly do & glory ia. Wonder- 
ful ! that it /hould be a necefTary Virtue to do it,and 
a capital Crime to fay they do it : To know 
what fuch do , goeth for worfe than doing it. 
Jnfcins Acl eon , &c. 

§. 9. The effects of thefe Controverfies have 
been and ftill are fo difmal, among Papifts and 
Proteflants, that fure no man fhould be angry 
with a Reconciler that is not in love with Ha- 
tred and ■ Deftruftion. I confefs they are very 
learned men of the Church of Rome that have ma* 
waged them againft each other- And fo are fome 
of the Church of England^ and of foreign Pro- 
teflants : But I mult teftifie that the mofl: that I 
hear or read inveighing reproachfully againft 
others about them, are men that tell me they talk 


C 21 ] 

after their Leaders, of things that they never un- 
derload. I am afhamed to hear of \ in the Pulpits : 
one Party rendringthe Do&rineof Predcftination 
as odious Blafphemy, and another Party crying 
down Univerfal Redemption and Free-will and 
Arminianifm, as an Enemy to God's Grace •, and 
neither of them know what they fpeak againft. 
One Davcnant, or Ctmero, or Le BUn^ fheweth 
more infight into the Controverfies which they 
reconcile, than forty of thefe zealous Raiiers 

§. io. I meddle not in this Book with the Con- 
troverfies about Church-Governtncnt or Worjlnp ' 
A fettled worldly Intereft and the various mental 
difpofitions of the Contenders, convince me, that 
I can there do little for reconciliation : God muft 
do it, if he have not forfaken this world. But 
meer Doctrinal Controverfies ( though of great 
moment ) methinks fhould not be fo linked to a 
worldly Intereft, but that men fhould be willing 
to know the Truth or to endure others to know 
it. That which I have attempted is, by meer and 
clear explication, without much argumentation, 
to end fuch Controverfies : And to make men un- 
derftand one another , and the things which they 
difpute about ; and by abbreviating my Catholic^ 
Theotyy, to make the Conciliation fitter for all 
Students : And the Succefs of that Book giveth me 
m great encouragement , which hath been unanfwe- 
red to this day, when I looked that it fhould 
have brought the Contentious of both fides about 
my ears. And I rejoice in the Succefs of Le BUnl£$ 
Thgfes which I publifh'd (hefent them to me to 
ptiblifh, and I gave them to my Bookfeller to print, 
and he fold his Copy to another,) For all the 

C 3 dif- 

[22 ] 

difmaleffe&s that theHiftory of the low Coun- 
tries, and Dr. Heylin in Archbilhop Land's Life 
mention of thefe Controverfies, I rejoice that thefe 
many years laft paft> they have .made in England 
lefs noife than ever, and are talked of with more 
peace and moderation. And that I have a fpecial 
fhare in the Comfort of this effect And what 
Names foever Peace-haters and Man-haters and 
Saint-haters call men by, Chrift faith, Bleffed are 
the Peacemakers j for they Jha/lbe called the Children 
of God. 


J he Doctrines about which they chiefly di [agree, 

enumerated, f 

§. i. -fin H E forementioned caufes of Diviiions 
M in general, do operate among Chrifti- 
ans, i. About Church-Government ; 2. About 
God's Worfhip, and 3. About Chriftian Dodtrine 
in particular : All which are turned into the mat- 
ters of our Difcord. The two firft I intend not to 
meddle with in this Difcourfe : And as to the 
third, the Controverfies about Do&rine which 
raoft trouble the Churches, are, 1 . About God's 
Decrees and His Will in general. 2. About his 
Foreknowledge. 3. About £le&ion in particular. 
4. About Reprobation. 5. About his Providence 
and Predetermination of all attions in general.. 
6. About his caufingor notcaufitig Sin. 7. About 


C ** ] 

Natural Power and Freewill, 8. About original 
Sin. 9. About Redemption by Chrift. io. Ab at 
the Laws and Covenants of Ini}ocency, Works 
and Grace. 1 1 . About Universality and Sufficien- 
cy of Gr^ce. 12. About Man's Power and Free- 
will fince the Fall, to obey the Gofpel. 1 3 . About 
efFeftual Grace, and how Gcd giveth it- 14. A- 
bouc the ftate of Heathens that have not the Go- 
fpel. 1%. About the neceflity of Holinefs, and the 
ftate of moral Virtue. 16. About the neceffity of 
Faith in Chrift where the Gofpel is made known. 

17. About the ftate of Infants as to Salvatioa. 

18. About the nature of Saving Faith. 19. About 
the nature of Pardon and Juftification. 20. About 
the Imputation of Chrift's Righteoufnefs to Belie- 
vers. 21. About the manner how Faith juftifieth 
us, and how Faith is imputed to us for Righteouf- 
nefs. 22. Of AfTurance of Juftification and Salva- 
tion, and of Hope. 23. Of Good works and Me- 
rits, and how far we may truft to any thing in our 
felves. 24. Of Confirmation, Perfcverance, and of 
danger and falling away. 25. Of Repentance, 
late Repentance and the Day of Grace, and the 
unpardonable Sin, 26. Qf our Communion with 
Chrift's Glorified Humanity, and with Angels and 
glorified Souls. 27. Of the. 'ftate of feparated 
Souls. 28. Of the Refufreftian and Everlafting 

Of each of thefe I fhall fhew the pacifick Truth 
which muft unite us, and fhew how far all the Re- 
formed Churches are therein agreed ^ and whe- 
ther the Papifts are or will be agreed with us, 
1 (hall referr to their own confideration. 


[24 3 

» -■ » ■■■ ' — *—*• 

Of Gods Will and Decrees in general. 

§. i. ~p HE Witt of God'] fignifieth either, LHis 
Mi own Eflence, and that, i . under the no- 
tion of a Power or Virtue analogically to the Facul- 
ty in Man ; or 2. under the notion of an Att, as it 
is confidered only ** fane agentti without the ef- 
fect II. Or the faid Eflence as related to the £/- 
fetts or Objttts^ and thence denominated. III. Or 
the Extrinfick Objects and Effects themfelves, called 
his Witt becaufe willed by him. 

§. 2, Thefe later are, LHis Works of eminent 
Power ( with Wifdom and Goodnefs J viz. Crea- 
tion, Prefervation and Natural Motion, by God as 
fens nature. II. His Works of Eminent Wifdom 
(with Power and Goodnefs) v&. ORDER, 
and fpecially Moral Government ; the parts of 
which are, 1 . Legiflation, Antecedent to man's 
aftions •, 2. Retribution, by Judgment and Execu- 
tion, confequent to them : efpecially by the Re- 
deemer in the way of Grace. III. His Works of 
Eminent Love or Goodnefs ( with Power and 
Wifdom ) cfpecially GUry begun and perfected. 

§. 3 . By C Gods Decrees ] is meant his Volitions 
of what ftiall be } which are but his IViffconfidc- 
red as in fuch afts : Now concerning all thefe fen* 
ces of God^s Will. 

§. 4. I. God's Will in itftlf confidered is hi* 
Etfence> and not any Accident in God. 


C 25 ] 

§. $. II. Yctetfe&rellezrcnot Conceptions of 
the fame fence or importance ; but arc diftinft />- 
adequate Conceptions of the fame God : And fo is 
alfo Intelkgere. 

§. 6. III. As PoJJe & Agere are not really two 
things in God, fo his Will as a Power , Faculty or 
Virtue, and his Will as an y/# or Volition in him- 
felf, are not ruw things ; but n*?0 inadequate Con- 
ceptions of ihzt which is fimple Unity in God ; for 
Man's narrow mind can no otherwife know 

§. 7. IV* God doth operate or ejfeSt immediate* 
ly by his Ejjence ; and not by any Attion of his, 
which is between his Ejjence and the EffeSt • Whe- 
ther you call it his Agere, Intelhgere or Velk, or 
all conjunct by which he cffe&eth, it is nothing 
befides his Ejfence which is fo called: For there 
is nothing in rerum natura, but God and the Crea- 
ture, and the Creature** Anions : And Aureolas, 
that ftiffly argueth that God's Creating Aftion is 
neither God nor the Creature, but a middle thing, 
"doth latisfie no mans Underftanding, and is com- 
monly rejected : and he can mean with fence no- 
thing but Cod as Agent, <vel in hoc modo \ as a Crea- 
ture m motion difFereth mcd-illy from the fame quie- 
fant : But God hath no Modus which is not Him- 
felf, though not an adequate Conception of himfelf. 
You muft not conceive of God as of a Creature, 
which firft by felf-motion altereth it felf (or is 
moved by another) and then moveth another 
thing : But God dwerfificth things without diver fity % 
and changeth things being himfelf unchanged. 

§.8. V. As to the Controverfie, Whether God 
make and move things only Volendo ( as Bradwar- 
dine and many others fay ) or alfo £xccHtivcagen~ 

C 26] 

do by excited Power ? Qnoad rem both are true , 
becaufe Power and Will in God are reaily the fame : 
But as to pur Conception and Expreffion, it is a ful- 
ler expreffion to fay that he doth it by Will 2nd 
Power j becaufe oar Conception of meer Volition is as 
of quid immanens which doth not efficiently go 
forth of it felf, hut command in Man the executive 
Faculties , and fo conceiving of God after the 
manner of men, Volition is not an adequate concepti- 
on of his caufing Efflux^ without Allive Power : 
But they that conceive of Volition as tranfient and 
potently efficient y do mean the fame thing, and real- 
ly differ not from others. 

§. 9. VI. God's Will as it is his E fence hath 
really no parts, no divifiw, no chwge y no priority 
or pofteriority^bxit perfeft Simplicity and Eternity. 

§. xo. VII. GedYwill as it ishimfelf hath no 
Caiife but is the C ait [9 of every Creature: And to 
ask a Caufe of the fir ft Caufe is fcbfiird. 

§. 11. VIII. All tht'ffctts ofGoAs Will ad ex- 
tray have their divers natures , orders and feafons, 
priority, posteriority or fimuhaneity, which we may 
fobefly enquire after. 

§. 11. IX. God's willy though but ore, as rela- 
ted to the objects and efitts, may by us be diverfty 
denominated: And fo we diftinguilh of hh Crea- 
ting wiU 9 and his Redeeming will, his will to Save, 
and his will to Damn, his -will to fave Peter, and 
his will to f*ve John y and fo of all the reft of the 
Objedls. In all which we mean not a Diverfity of 
Efences or Faculties in God } QT Atls ex parte agent is, 
really differing ; but only one and the fame Will 
diverfly; conceived of and denominated by reafon 
of the diverfity ofolrjtfrs or efftfts to which it is 


C 27] 

'related, and fo by Connotation the Will it feJf is 
thus diftinguifhed 

§.13. X. This diftinEtion and denomination of 
God's will hath extrinfic^Reafons, which fome call 
Canfts, from the various termini', as the fartfe 
Light fliining into feveral Rooms ; the diverfity 
being real only tx parte recipientis. And fo God's 
Will may be faid in this Sence to begin and to 
end) to have diverfity, priority and pofieriority of 
Adls ^ which are all to be judged of by the Order 
of the Objects. 

§.14. XL The great queftion which the School- 
wits trouble themfelves with, and Fafqne^, with 
abundance more, pronounce mfe arch able and paft 
our reach, is, What is the Canfe that God?s WtU u 
terminated thus or thus, on this Object rather than en 
that ? To which I take the boldnefs to anfwer 
for the ending of that Difpute. 

By {the Reafon of Termination^ you muft mean 
either, 1 . The Reafon of the Being of that Ob* 
jeft or 1 er minus rather than another : or 2. The 
reafon of the Relation of God y s Will to that termi- 
nus rather than another, and* fo of the denomina- 
tion: or 3. The reafon of the being of that Act of 
God fo terminated. 

1 . For the firft, the caufe of all the ojfe&s of 
God's Will, is his Will itfclf: And fo of all the di- 
verfities effe&ed. 

2. The reafon of the Relation of God's Will to 
tkofe effects, and fo of the connotation and denomina- 
tion^ is the Will and the Efeft as from which the 
relation doth refult. 

3. And 

C 28 3 

j* And the Being or A& of the Will thus termi- 
nated, is God's e {fence, which hath no Caufe, And 
what would you have more ? 

"§. 15. But this fatisfieth not Men that ftill 
think of God as of themfelves, but they go on 
ftill and ask, What u the Caufe thit God's Will was 
to m*kj this World $r Creature rather than another ? 
or to give the fir (t grace rather to one than to another ? 
that his Will is terminated rather on Peter than Ju- 
das in election ? &c. But I muft but call you back 
to consider again diftin&ly of what was anfwe- 
red before. 1. The Caufe of all the effetts of 
Creation, &c. is GotfsWill: 2. The caufe why 
his \Sfi\\i$ related to that effect apotteriore is the 
fofition of the effett with God's Will- 3. The caufe 
why God hath fuch a Will is not to be asked, 
for God's Will hath no Caufe. And if you add, 
But what is the caufe that, a priore, his Will is 
thus related and denominated as decreeing this or 
that f I fay, ~A priore , there is nothing in God's 
Will but it felf, which hath no Caufe : we dream 
of priorities and pofteriorities and vnrieius in hirn, 
when we think of the following effctts ; But when 
there was nothing "but God really to terminate his 
will, there was no ground for any real relation and 
relative difference ; And to talk of Relatives ratio- 
ns in God himfelf as to non-?xiftent Creatures, 
and ask the caufe of them, is rafh preftimpuon ; 
while we know that there was nothing in God 
but God, who hath no Caufe. And the queftion 
refpe&ing nothing but what was eternally in 
God himfelf, whatever you will call hjjs Effen- 
tial Will fore-related to the future Creature, you 
mull needs fay, that it had no Caufe. 

§. 1 6. But 

f 29] 

§. 1 6. But if the queftion go further, IVhyGod 
vpi/ictb not ether Creatures, or other effetts^ and fo his 
mil is not effectively terminated on fuch - 7 it is after 
to be fullier anfwered ; and now it is enough to 
fay, that Nothing hath no Canfe. 

§. 17. And when wc fay, that God's will may 
be denominated as divers, prior and pofierior, and 
changeable as related to Objects that are fuch, this 
is to be underftood only ofthofe acts which are 
to be denominated by Connotation of what is divers 
and mutable, ex parte termini, ftill remembring 
that ex parte Dei there is really no diverfity or 
mutation. And therefore fuch denominations are 
given of God's will chiefly as related to cxiftent 
Objc&s, which are his Afts called Love and Ha- 
tred, or Complacency and Difylacency : e. g. we 
may fay that [ Cod is difplea/ed with Paul or Ma- 
nafleth unconverted 3 and \,he is pie a fed mth them 
when converted 3 the "change being only in them. 
Yet the fame denomination may be ufed alfb of 
God's pnrpofing Will. As, e.g. we may fay, that 
[^before ChriJPs ^Incarnation, God had this Decree * 7 
J will fend my Son to be incarnate, and die for 
Marts redemption. 3 But now it is not fit to fay 
that God hath yet fuch a Decree , when the thing 
decreed is paft : nor a Decree that He mil create 
Adam and the reft of the World, which is 

§. 18. But whoever liketh or dilliketh any of 
thefe modes of Speech, muft ftill remember that 
Controverfies about them, are not about any real 
change in God, (which all deny) but only about 
the connotative and refpeCttve denomination of his 

Will from the changeable Creature. And while 


that is confeffed, fober men will not be forward 
to fall out about it. 

§. 19. Suffer not the Qaserift to confound the 
three foremen tioned Sences of C the Will of God, ~] 
and you may refolve almoft all the ordinary 
queftions about it, as is before intimated, without 
any more ado. As, e.g. Qu. Is GocPs Will refifti- 
ble 7 Anf. 1 . God's Will, as it is his Ejfence, can- 
not come into the Queftion, as not being p^/1 
five, and fo not properly refiftible. 2. As God's 
Willis taken for the objetts and effetts of his will, 
many of them are refiftible : As his Commands 
when they are violated are refilled morally - fo 
one effect of God's will , or one Creature moved 
by him naturally, may refift another. 3. If the 
queftion be only whether the refpeftive Termi- 
nation of God's will, and the 'Denomination of it 
as thus or thus terminated, can be rejifted? 
I anfwer, 1. Not by any refiftance upon the 
Eflential will of God fo terminated. 2. Not by 
making God to be willing and not willing of the 
fame thing in the fame refpeft at the fame time j 
for that is a contradi&ion j and were to make the 
fame Objeft to be and not to be at the fame time, 
Contra neceptatem exifientia. J. Not by preven- 
ting or deftroying any Objeft or EfFcdt which 
God's will fo produceth, as that no Creature 
hath power to hinder. 4. But when he will 
caufe one fort of motion , and himfelf caule a 
greater contrary motion^ or enable a free Agent fo 
to do j this contrary motion refilling the other mo - 
tion^ which was the effeft of Gods will, his will 
is denominated as refilled refpc&ivdy. The fame 
may be faid of Paffive Reft&amu 

§ 20« So 

C Si 1 

§• 20. Sa if the Queftion be C Whether Gcd 
fytve any Conditional Will ?] j4n[. I. There is 
no place for the Queftion about Goa^s Effential 
Will in it felf. 2. Many Objetts of God's will 
and ejftfts are antecedently conditional. 1. Quoad 
formam^ as his conditional Promifes. 2. Qttpad 
eventum^ as when he fufpendeth any Right , or 
Benefit on a condition to be done by a free 
Agent 9 as, e. g . £ Adam jW/ /if* */ &e //» not y 
and die, if he fin. 3 Bat here Conditionally im- 
plieth no mart amy as to Goa's Knowledge. 
3. Therefore if the Queftion be only , whether 
ab ohjefto any Will of God may be relatively or 
connoutively called Conditional, 1. Remember that 
the Queftion is but de nomine. 2. The fame will 
of God may be called Conditional, as qnid con- 
ditionsde is the Objett of it ; and alfo Certain and 
Abfolute, as the fame thing is to him certainly 
jutHre, which yet was ia the Order of Canfing, 
conditionnSy future. But this fuppofeth the cert* 
futnrum, to be quid volitnm ; and not Sin, which is 
certo fat arum and nonvolit am. 

Of GOD" % Knowledge. 

5. 1. A.S we mull not think of God's WW as 

Jl\ having various and mutable internal 

afts as Man's hath ; bat as One Effential A& % only 

\arioufly denominated from the relation of ex- 


[ 12 ] 

trinfick Objefts \ even fo muft: we think alfo of his 

§. 2. God knowcth not by Reception of any 
L%ght or Species or Idea from the Objecfl without 
him, but as befeemeth the perfection of the In- 
finite Intdktt and firfi caufe } even partly by; a 
productive act of Intelle&ion, and partly by termi- 
nation on the Objetts known. ( N. B.) I am fain 
all along to ufe the name of C Extrinfick^Objetts ] 
to ilgnifie that the Creature is not God : though 
it is improper; to fay that any thing is extra Denm : 
but we want better words. 

§. 3. Many of the Church-troubling Difputes 
about God's Knowledge are raifed from that pro- j 
"phane fuppofition, That God knoweth cogitando^ 
by many diftinft Cogitations, as Man doth, and by 
Idea's or received Species of the Creatures. And on 
the falfe Suppofltion that Man can comprehend 
God's way of Knowing, or at leaft hath formal 
conceptions of it, and muft fpeak accordingly. 
From whence there are fuch rafli Difputes which 
AEt is firft) and which cometh after. 

§. 4. Moft of thefe Controverfies are ended by 
the right applying the forcfaid diftinftions to Cod 7 * 
Vnderfiandir.g, which I before applied to his Will. 
As, e.g. Qiu Hath Gods Knorvledg *ny Caufe} 
Anf. 1. Not as it is his Ejfence. 2. The Objefts 
of it have their Caufcs. 3. The denomination of 
his Knowlcdg at fuch, from the Objefts refpeftive- 
ly, hath its cm ft , fuch as a Terminus may be 
called. And as in Man the Objedtis r.eally the 
qnafi materule and conftitarive caufe of the AEt^ 
r.on as an Act t but as this Aft in fpecie <iet indivi- 
dno thus terminated ; fo as to the nicer wmota- 


tion and relation ana denomination^ tnougn not as to 
any real reception > we may fpeak ofGcd. 

§.5. So if thequeftion b?,Whether God's Knowledge 
have many Atls ? and whether one he before or after 
others ? Anf. 1. God's Effentid Knowledge is fim- 
ply one. 2 . The ObjeCis of it are many. 3 .There- 
fore as denominated ab extra, from refpeft to the 
Objetts, we may diftinguifh his fimple Knowledge, 
and mention priority and pofierionty^ but fuch only 
as refulteth from the Order of Objetts : And thefe 
being but Conception's and Denominations neceflka- 
ted by our weaknefs, without any real diverfity 
in God, we mult fear and abhorr prefumptuous 
boldnefs, and contentioufnefs hereabout. 

§. 6. Sq if the queftion be, Whether Gocts Know^ 
ledge be mutable i Anf. 1 . His Knowledge effentiai it 
felfisnot. 2. The Objects are. 3. And there- 
fore the Denominations of his Knowledge *b extra 
oft are : As we may fay, That God knew from Eter- 
nity that* the World would be created, and Chrift in- 
carnate, as future. But now he knoweth that they 
were fo, ut prater it a. God doth not npw know, 
that Chrifi will be born, that Chrifi juft now is cruci- 
fied, that Paul is preaching on Earth : but once he 
knew all thefe. Yet here all the Change is in the 
cbjett, and none in God's Knowledge, as there is 
on mans. 

§• 7- If the queftion be, How God knoweth future 
contingents ? Anf. 1 . God's Effence is Knowledge* 
and h Infinite, and therefore extendethto all that 
is intelligible : And if they be not objeBs intelti* 
gible, it belongeth riot to a perfect Intellect to 
know them. But if they are , it is rafhnefs to ask 
any other reafon ofGod'sknovvingthem, befides 
his Perfection and their Intelligibility : But all Cm- 

p tingwts 


C 34 3 

tingents that are future, are Certainties to God as 
well as Contingencies in feveral refpe&s, and ac- 
cordingly known : But the (hallow Brain of Worms 
doth little know what Futurity ilgnifieth in Eterni- 
ty to God. 2. But we know what future. Contin- 
gents are to us. 3. And thence we know that 
God's Intellect may be denominated by imperfect 
Man, as in its perfeftion comprehending our Futu- 
rities and Contingencies and human Meafures, tho* 
not as Meafures to God. 

§ r 8. If the queftionbCjWhether God know things 
as future y becaufe he willeth them to h future \ or be- 
caufe they are future from the free Agents Will? 
jinf. 1. God's Knowledge, ex parte fui, is his 
Eflence, and hath no Caufe, for it is«no Effect. 
God's Understanding, Will and Power are eflen- 
tially One, but as various, inadequate concepti- 
, ons, they only make up perfedt Unity, and are 
not Caufes and Effe&s to one another } much lefs 
caufed by any Creature. 2. But Futurity is cau- 
led by that which caufeth the thing future : And 
therefore the futurity of Sin is caufed by Man that 
caufeth Sin, fofar as it is capable of a Caufe ; of 
which more in due place : But as Futurity is not 
Fxiflence, fo it needeth not an exiftent, but fome- 
times only a future caufe. 3. And God's Intellect 
is terminated on things as Intelligible , and that is 
as they are : And fo on things that are future 
by his own rvill y zs fuchj and on things fiiturd by 
Marts Will y as ftch } as far as Futurity is an ob- 
ject of an eternal mind. 

§♦ 9. The many Difputes de fcientia \fimf litis m 
telligentU } purx vificnis & medu^ I think beft abbre- 
viated according to the forementioned Principles;. 
God's ejjentid 'Vnderttandinz is but One; Things 

C Hi 

intelligible are many ; God's Jimple Intellect may be 
varioufly denominated as related to and termina- 
ted on various intelligible Objedts, and fb accor* 
ding to their Order : But this fignifieth no real 
diverfity at all in God, but in the things known : 
Nor muft we dream, that Scientia fimflicis imelli~ 
genti&, is like marts, a knowledge of certain Logi- 
cal Notions or Fropofitions by way of Thinking, as 
to know that C This i* pojfible, and the other is pofi* 
fible, and that is convenient^} as if God needed ftch 
fecond notions to know by , but it is infinitely a- 
bove Man's mode of knowing : His Knowledge is 
firfl: effective and then intuitive , and this without 
diveriity or change in God. 

§.• 10. It is a great aggravation of the Preemp- 
tion and Prophanenefs of many voluminous School- 
Dilputes, about the unfearchable nature of divine 
IntelleAian, that the certain Knowledge of our 
own great ignorance (even about every filly Crea- 
ture) sfhd of Gobi's incomprehenfiblenefs and in- 
finite diftance, do not prevail to reprefs fuch au- 
dacioufnefs, and bring men to more Modefty and 
Reverence of God : And how ^psh more learned- 
ly and wifely doth he anfirer abundance of their 
Chieftions, who faith C* know net} than they 
that by prefumptuous coitlufions take on them to 
know what they do not, aor ever will do, in this 
World ? 

D z (Mm 


i *J L E C T I O 
XL Bificth Gc<Ps aftnal r6*4&g or r4?*jf 
31 ainocg others to himfdf , 

cl::-:- :"' - ' :'; :: .:'. ~ ~ 21: ;": ■ \-:t : ■ 

Jfec^ as D*7zd was chofcn from anong his Jre* 

ITiJ cr Decree £> to cfaoofe, call or finfiifie 

^a g a determinate time : asin£/i. 1.2nd 

§. 2. Gcd will cenrert, jaflifie, ad: 
fbee men, by Iris Grace, # 

§. 5- Therefore it is certain dot God from 
Eceraitj did »s J or Jrorr fo to do : For the tvezt 
ix time* 7Z2£Z~hi&f^ 

wiM: Ttcrafa there wt* nothing before the Crea- 
:.:; rti : : V: = . .;.: .": ::/.-: ::. ; y = r. 
was-octfceObjctrofkisWm : and Man m c'jfc 
csgnxj, was codling bit God himfeif, there beiiig 
-\\:'i : ": :":_ _ = - .; t:-::t;: 1: £:■: :..:;; 
cofcth ilt'f h iflMcj 

S- 4. IntbeCuaeaaaBeras God bringcth men 
Soke and Glory, be wileth or decreet* to do 

difcrafrombBEUbicei bat it is his fimple ef- 
ftacal will deaosunartd from the r^w relate 
it- Tbasbn cfc Oug Uv i tii u | stai KkfliM 

[ 37 ] 

are refolvcd into thofe about the giving of Grace 
and Salvation j and there will be clearlier ojfc^ 

§. 5. Glorification, Perfeverance, Adoption^ 
Juftification, San&ification, Faith and Repentance 
(or Vocation ) preparatory common Grace, and 
the Gofpel, and other means of Converfion, arc 
fcveral Gifts of God's Grace through Ghrift : 
Therefore God's Decrees to give them may be 
diverfly denominated from relation to the eflfeft. 
The Decree to glorifie may be diftinguifhed from 
the Decree to convert , to juftifie, &c. And yet 
where all thefe are really conjoined, and are 
but ( as the parts of one Engine ) the feveral 
gifts which make up One Salvation, as the objeft 
or effed is in that fence One, fo may God's De- 
cree be called One , as related to it. So that they 
that fay God's Decrees about our Salvation are 
many, and they that fay They are one, do both 
(peak Truth, and difagree not. 

§ 6. They that will denominate God's Voliti- 
ons or Decrees according to the Order of Intents* 
on, mull not mean that Ex forte Volenti* , God 
hath really many thoughts, Volitions or Decrees^ 
and that the firft is de fine, a»d the next de medii*. 
But «mly thap in the order of red Caufation, one 
of God's Gifts or Effe&s is made to be a 
Caufe or Means to the production or attainment 
of another •, and fo the latter is to be Mans End 
intended in the ufe of the former -, and fo Man 
is firft to intend the End before he ufeth the 
Means : But no Gift, Work or Creature is to be 
called GotPs End, except when we fpeak Vulgarly 
after the manner of Men, that which we will not 
defend as proper Speech. 

Dj S.7.T& 

£ # 3 

€ 7. Yet God may be faid to will and th*^ 
Ol?e thing to produce or Caufe Mother ; which 
importeth only that it is a fecond Efficient Caufe 
of that Other, and the other an intended Effect ; 
and alfo that the other is to man to have ramnent 
finis, and fo may be called finis operis, & operantis 

§. 8. God is not an Efficient Caufe of Himfelf, 
or any thing in Himfelf, and therefore not pro- 
perly an End to Himfdf, becaufe there is nothing 
in Him Caufed. But if any will fpeak otherwife, 
as if there were in God himielf Eternal Canfation 
Efficient and final, and Eternal Effetts , and there- 
by explain the Do&rine of the Trinity, let them re- 
member that they venture on fingular Expreflions, 
and fuch as favor of Imperfe&ion j but we hope 
that they differ from the Commoner way, but 
in a Logical Notion, rather than in a real Con- 

§. 9. If we may not fay that God is his own 
End ( for every End hath a Means, and there is 
HO Means to God's Beings or Perfections ) then he 
is not properly faid to have any End. For no- 
thing but Himfelf can properly be his End. 

§. 10. Yet when by an £/^ we mean but im- 
properly the ultimate Effcft, and not any thing 
which to God is Canfa agendi ; and fb declare that 
we take the words End and Intention equivocally as 
to God and Man, the phrafe may be ufed : And 
in that fence we mnfl fay that Godh mil as Effi- 
cient being the Beginning of all things,, God?s villas 
fulfilled and pleafed is the End of all\ which yet 
iignifieth not any diver fity or change in God} for 
his Witt is always fulfilled, though not always by 
• . the 

^^^ C 39 3 

fwt fame mans i And the fulfilling of his :r?'£muf!: 
' be 

cdkncy o£CV 
iwk is his aira /z*wg* or C/vry ftuning in 

id the P«f 
ly c C hry, c may f 

it GWs - to £wf, is 

found in the ftrfeQion cf .of which 

the Clarified Church is an eminest pa -:. 

§. that call th 

of Gad's Mtrcy :n gy ^d of fctf 

Bamni dalltha: re- 

to th? Gtfc me a tomx, c arc ~a£ 

the higbeft ) as the £.*: For the Glory rcy 

and (Jo^s created or caufed 

Glory .d especially as it isonrte cm 
dividual: Bi '.TJetlionofCbrif^AngebjSm 

Heaven, Earthy and ai things^ is th 
may be :riaIljGo<Ps End> as being his 

ferfifti %\ as the j or ftj 

ing of his rail 7 herein is the moft fern. 

3od*s Glory appeareth in every Cr 
tare and every providential change, in its propor- 
tion ; and if any will call that God's End, we 
mull not make z ftrifc of words if we mean the 

ilributiag of God's Decrees jxxts 
or dtner: , will make no considerable Con- 1 

~ - :;o:i of tl ***' 

l i And it be; - t ,. 

of God's fimple efis, it 

is fromthe Effe&s ft s ... .- 

D4 §,14, 

the 0£- 

C4o 3 

§ 14^ As to the controverfies about 
je&s of God's Decrees, meaning the Perfonal or 
fnbjeBive Object as diftinft from the efFedts of the 
Volition ( or the prefuppofed State of him that 
God Decreeth the gift to. ) If we will diftribute 
God's Decrees or Volitions as the parts or gifts 
decreed are diftributed, then the queftion is all 
one, as, What it ate a man is fnppofed to be in when 
Cod gives him fuch or fitch a Gift ; ' which is a thing 
that we are not much difagreed about. 

§• *$• **£• The Recipient of the Gift of Glory is 
a fer fevering faithful Saint. The Receiver of the 
Gift of P erf ever ance is a true Believing Saint : The 
Gift of Juftification, Adoption, and the Spirit of 
further Salification, is given to a penitent Belie- 
ver : Faith and Repentance are given ufually to per- 
fons prepared by a more common Grace, having the 
means of Grace, and for ought we know fome- 
times fuddenly without fuch Preparation. And 
fo onto the beginning. 


0/ Reprobation , or the Decree of Dam* 


% il TTHough dfoKtw in Scripture lignifieth one 
3- whofe exiftent Pravity rendereth him 
difapprovedj Igathed and rejetted of God, yet we 
here continue the word Reprobation as ordinarily 
ufcd, for the Decree of rejetting men for ever, 


J^^ C 41 ] 

that we may be underflood ; not refufing any 
itter name. 

§. 2. God's ejfential Will as fuch is not called 
Reprobation nor a Decree of Damnation, as di- 
[tindt from other Volitions : Therefore the diftin- 
^uifhing denomination muft be fetcht from the ef- 
fects or objects which it hath relation to. 

§. 3* Therefore where there is no effeft or 
3bje<5t of God's Will, there is no fuch will to be 
named and aflerted : But fo much as God effefteth 
in or towards Mans damnation, fo much he muft 
be faid to will. 

§. 4. God effe&eth no mans Sin, and there- 
fore he willed not or decreed not to effect it. 

§.5. He efFc&eth it not either for itfe!f,or 
as a means to fomething better : Therefore he 
decreed not to do either. 

§. 6. God effe&eth much withqpt which Sin 
could not be, ( as the Life and Poorer of the Sin- 
ners, his abufed Mercies, Obje&s, &c. ) Therefore 
all this he decreed to do, even as his own Works, 
which Sinners make the occafions of their Sin. 

§. 7. If it be faid that God permitteth Sin ; there- 
fore he decreed to permit it : Thefe things mull be 
anfwered. 1 . Permijfion is an ambiguous word : 
Striftly it fignifieth in Phyficks nothing at all 
but a meer Negation, which is non irnptdire^nct to 
hinder : But in Politick^ it oft fignifieth a pofitive 
Licence ox voluntary Conceflion of Leave ioxz man 
to do or pofTefs fomething : And many Divines by 
Permiffwn mean not bare non-impedition, but alfo 
fome a&ion that tendeth to the procuring of the 
event. In the firft and propcr'fence, it folio weth 
not that God decreed to permit 5/*, becaufe he 
fermituth it : For permitting here is but a bare 


C 42 ] 

verb, and ilgnifieth nothing : Not-to-hhdtr is mcer 
ly nothing : And nothing is no terminm to denomi 
nate Gods decree or Will. But as permitting fig 
nifieth any pofitivc aft, which men make an ace* 
fion of Sin, it is improperly called Fermiffion, and 
it was fpoken of before : And though God's gene- 
ral Influx be prefttppofed y that is not Fcrmifiion^ 
nor part of Permijjion. 

And as Permiffion fignifieth Leave to Sin, God 
permitteth none ; for it is not Sin if ft permit- 

2. And if it would hold that God Decreeth his] 
Fermiffion of Sin 7 it followeth not that he decreeth 
the Sin permitted j for that is not a capable objett 
of his Volition. 

§. 8. God effe&eth puniflment^ even in Hell (at 
leaft, part of it, of which in due place) therefore 
he decreeth or willeth fo to effect it. 

§• 9. God damneth none but Sinners : There 
fore he decreed to damn none but Sinners 
Therefore a Man only as a Sinner is the objeft of 
the Decree of Damnation or Punifhment, feeing 
the Decree is denominated from the effedt 

§. 1 o. It is not a Sinner meerly as a Sinner that 
God will damn : elfe all Sinners fhould be damned. 
But it is only a certain fort of Sinner s 9 whopm;*- 
lently and finally reject remedying ??;ea?2S and mercy* 
Therefore it is only fuch that are the Obje&s oi 
the particular Decree of Damnation. 

§. 1 1. In the firfl: inftant we are Men-, in the fe- 
cond innocent, in the third guilty of Sin againit the 
meer Law of Jnnocency ; in the fourth we are 
brought under the-Law of Grace upon the Promifc 
of a Redeemer i and in the fifth we have the Com- 
mon Mercies of that Lato and Redemption given Us. 


[4* ] 

sis means to our performance of the Duty which 
jthat L2W requireth and obtaining further Mercy. 
In none of thefe inftants is a man the objett of 
the Decree ef Damnation : God damneth not any 
man meerly as a Man? or as Innocent, or as a Sin- 
ner againft the meer Law of Innocency, nor as redeem- 
ed and under the Law of Grace, nor as receiving . 
the common means and mercies of that Covenant -, 
Nay, nor as in the fixth Inftant he is guilty of 
finning againft fuch Mercies \ ( for elfe all that do 
fo fhould perifh.) But only as in the feventh in- 
ftant he is found a prevalent, final rejecter ofthefpe- 
cul Grace , and abufer of the common Mercies of that 
Covenant. And therefore the Decree is t© be ac- 
cordingly denominated ; though God's ejfentialtvill 
have no Caufe, nor Dependance upon any Crea- 

§. 12. But there are other Ads of God's ju- 
ftice which are comprized in Reprobation or Re- 
jection as the word is commonly underftood : 
As, i Cutting off a (inner untimely in his Impe- 
nitency. 2. Denying him fome inward helps of 
Grace which once he had, or was fair for ( fo 
far as that is quid pofitivam ) and depriving him 
pofitively of fome Means of Grace - y for his \m- 
ful jrefufal or abufe, or for abufe of other Means 
and Mercies. And all thefe punifliments God fo far 
decreeth as he Execmeth ; which is upon none but 
fuch as by fin againft the Law of Grace deferve them. 

§.13. But where Negations are no V moments 
nor Privations, they fall not under the notion of 
fofitive EjftEts or Objects, and fo are not fit to 
denominate a Pofitive Decree or Will. Therefore 
when it is not a Punifhmcnt, ( Not to give Faith, 
Repentance, Preaching, &c. ) is no aft of Repro- 

C 44 ] 

bation : As not to give that Faith, Repentanc 
and Pardon which he needed not to Adam in \i 
nccency -, not to give thertf in aft to Infants, etc. 

§. 1 4. Yea, when a Ft nal Privation is only t 
confequent of God's not Afting, and not of ai 
Pofittve Act*, there the Ratio Tuen& is of God, anc 
is quid pofitivam, ana God caufeth it by that Law 
which did make the debitum pan*: But yet th< 
Negation or I'nvation in which it confifteth i: 
, Nothing, or nothing of God's caufing, and there- 
for: not fit to denominate a dlftincl Decree: e. g 
Not to give Jptcial Grace, Pardon, Jftfiiftcati-onl 
Glory, to Jud& 9 is nothing, and fo as nothing noi 
the obje<ft of a pofitire Decree : But both the po 
fitivc aft 5 by which any Mercy is withdrawn, anc 
alfo the relation of Punifliment which is in thefi 
Nothings or Privations is can fed by God, anc 
therefore Decreed by him. As if God fay, 7 hi 
fhall be bis yunifoment that will not Eat, that h 
Jhall die of Famine : Here not eating is nothing 
but the penal reaj r on which is in Famine, which 
tut the privation of Meats, refuketh from the Lav\ 
of Nature and will of God. 

§. 15. By all this it appeareth that EkClio) 
and Reprobation go not panpafftt, or are not equal 
ly afcribed to God. For in Eietiion God is th< 
Caufe of the means of Salvation by his Grace, anc 
of afl that truly tendeth to procure it : But 01 
the other fide, God is no caufe of any fin whicl 
is the means and merit of Damnation-, nor th 
Caufe of Damnation, but on the fuppofition o 
Man's fin : So that fin is forefeen in the Perfo 
Decreed to Damnation, ( brt not Can fed') feeing 
the Decree muft be denominated from the EffeH. 
and Objeft : But in Ele&ion God decreeth to giv< 


C 413 

S Grace, and be the chief Canfc of all our 
olinefs, and doth not eledt us to Salvation on 
forefight, that we will do his Will or be Sancti- 
fied by our felves without him. Therefore yte- 
giiftin, Proffer and Falgefttifu, ftill make this dif- 
ference) That the decree of Damnation goeth on 
forefight of fin, but the Decree of Salvation 
containeth a Decree to give that Grace that ihaB 
certainly Save us. 


[ 4*3 


T O 

Mr. Polehilf j Exceptions about futmition. 


I Am much chidden already for writing man 
Books, and Anfwering fb many that objedl 
and am told,That if the Cafe well Stated will no 
fatisfie men, no Anfwer will do it, bceaufe it i 
for want of their Receptive Capacity , whic 
long and right Studies muft help them to, an< 
not a meer Anfwer to their Objeftions. I ver 
highly value the vrorfhy Gentleman whofe Pa 
pers you fent me, hearing of few, ifany, amonf 
us more commended for Knowledge and Piety 
The queftion is but whether it be he or I tha 
by half confufed conceptions of the matters ii 
queftion fpeaketh in the D^rk, or which of u 
hath the more ripe digefted and ordered thought j 
hereof. And muft others be troubled with fuel 
Cafes ? It is thofe that he pleadeth for that hav<! 
made the edge of the Razor fo thin that they oi 
I do Cut our Fingers with it, and have fpui 
fuch fubtile Notions, which if their wits whei 
they have done be not fubtile enough to man. 
age; they will oft flip through or be as Spider* 
Webs. As to the firft Controverfie of FHturit^ 
or Poffibility, this Gentleman's method will dc 
me no good, being no whit fitted to that whicl 
I expert. I Ihould expert from hira that he had 


C 47 ] 

;n notice of my Diftin&ions and Explications 
Futurity, and that he had dire&ly pleaded 
only for that fort or fence which I deny, and had 
AnfwerM the Rcafons which both in the Firft and 
Second Part I bring againft it. But it is not fo : 
And to Difpute at fuch rates is but to try who 
fhall live longeft to have the laft word, ( it being 
eafie at this rate ft) talk againft one another as 
long as we live) which I ^annot expeft, and 
therefore fhall give any man herein the beft. 
All that he hath faid againft me is materially 
Anfwered in the Book already, and if he perceive 
it not , how can I help that ? More Books are 
not like to do it, nor have I kifure for fuch 
tasks : Yet briefly I return, 

I. As to my fence of the words ( Future ) and 

(Poffible)*, i. As they are predicated of the 

thing future or pojfible, they are termini diminuentes 

quod realitatem exiftentem, and futurity as. it is ret 

iffiusfuturitio is nothing. 2. Whether Time be 

any thing'diftinft a re durante or Nothing, is a 

Controvetfie, which I conjecture Mr. P — 'sPen 

and mine arc never like to decide. It is enough 

for me how to fay, that I take it for nothing Bi- 

ftintt. 3. Yet fhaliow man that feeth not uno 

intuitu the Univerfe, as God doth, nor hath his 

eflential Eternity, is in motion, where there is 

mmfura motut, and muft think of things by par- 

1 tial Conceptions, and mufl; make pafi, fnfm % 

j and future^ his differing Notions in Duration. 

y 4- The internal Concerns in man of a thing 

as future (that it will be> is quid rede? for in 

is an aft^of the mind and a Verbum mmis^ and 

an aft de nihih : A mental Negation is a r»l aft : 


C 48 ] 

To think and fay in the mind ( the World 
was not from Eternity: Darknefs, Death, &c 
are nothing) are real thoughts. 5. The verkun 
prolatum ore vel fcripto ( fin will be, &c. the Sur 
will rife y &c?) is quid rede : It is a Word, 2 
Propofition 6. The fundament urn or premifes, 
from which fuch a Conclufion may be fetch'd, is 
quid reale : e. jr. God's WiIl # or Knowledge, 01 
any neceffitating Cjufe. 7. God that knowett 
man, knoweth all his mental Conceptions and 
his Propofitions de fouro, without Imperfedtion 
knowing our Imperfeftion } and fo knoweth whe- 
ther they are true or falfe. 8. God's willing and 
knowing that things were, are or will be, an 
all one ex fane Dei, being nothing but his Am- 
ple, perfect Eflence thus knowing and willing . 
But ex parte ret cognita ant volita, there is diffe- 
rence i And thence by Relation, Connotation, 01 
extrinfick denomination, God's internal Arts 
are varioully named, as de praterito^ de prafenti. 
defuturo. 9. God's Will and Knowledge frorr 
Eternity, that there fhall be Time, fiucceflions, 
Man, Propofitions, and tjiat things (Hall be in 
fuch an Order, are a foundation of the verity oi 
fuch a verbnm mentis vel oris ( thefe will be ) iJ 
there had been any fuch eternal Words or Pro- 
pofitions. 10. Though formaliter there was no 
fuch thing in God (& forma denominat ) } yet emu 
nenter that perfect intuition of God, which is 
the knowledge of all Intelligibles, comprehendeth 
all of man's Knowledge, which is any part of 
Perfection : And we mult bear with the naming 
of God's perfeft Afts by the fame names that 
fignifie our imperfeft Afts \ fo be it we have due 
care not to afcribc to him the Imperfection ; 


C 49 3 

from names which connote Imperfection in 
fn primo, to infer falfe Do&rinal Conclufions 
of God. ii. An if fnm tiibilum may receive in 
man's partial Conception , a name, and accor- 
dingly many and divers names fetch'd from fome 
reafons of his Conceptions. 1 2. A \ccordingly we 
call a thing that is really nothing, but as in the 
Cogitation to be fojJible 7 or future^ or part, as if 
thefe were rernm y tales *jftttiones y or fome what 
now Real: Whereas the Epithets are but tho 
modes of our own Notions or Thoughts, andrai- 
fed from our knowledge of other things. And 
the proper Language is but this, (God can do* 
this : God will do this ) which fuppofe it not 
done. As (God can make the world; would have 
been a true word from Eternity, had there been 
any fuch word to be true. And therice we fay 
( The World was poflible.) And Gcd*s perfed: 
s Knowledge being emincmcr fomewhat infinitely 
i» more perfeft than fuch Thoughts, Words, and 
n Proportions, sfter the manner of weak man, we 
I) fpeak of God and of Nothing as related to his 
Will that they fhall be, or to his Knowledge, 
and fo call them pofflblc and future. 

IL Now I expedt the Confutation of the Rea- 
fons, which I gave C As that there was nothing 
Eternal but God, therefore Eternal pojfibiljty and 
four it ion can be nothing but Conception of God 
himfelf •, and fo of the reft. ) 

III. His Exceptions have all their ftrength from 
the meer ambiguicy of the word {futurity) , con- 
tinuing the Confufion after all my Explication. 
I have not time to Tranfcribe all his. words, and 
therefore rauft fuppofe you to have his Writing 
by you, which I fbm briefly Aafwer in Order. 

~ E M u 

Ad i. \As nothing they differ not, but man' 
various Conceptions of them differ, as do the 
Rcafbns of thofe Conceptions and Denominati- 
ons : San and Moon^ Angels and Men, were equal- 
ly nothing from Eternity : And yet God's fimple 
Will to make all tfaefe, might have had various 
relative or extrinfick Denominations, had there 
been then a Created Intellect fo to name it, and 
thefe nothings called Future, Angels, Men, &c. ac- 

A4 2. Nothing as nothing hath no Parts or 
Diftinftions , but nothing may be varioufly na- 
med j or to fpeak more aptly, Before Things are 
Any-things a purpofing and fore-feeing Agent 
may make Names and Notions for them before, 
the things. Greg. Ariminea copioufly difputeth 
that (that which is not, may be related to that 
which is, and that which is, to that which is 
not, or nothing ) : his Reafons are fubtile. Rela 
tion is remm referebilitas or ComfaribUitat. If an 
Angel Exifted before the Light or Sun, and knew 
that God would make the Light or Sun, why 
might not the Angels Intellect refer Go:/s Will to 
the Light or Sun, which he would make, while it 
was nothing ? Which is no more than to know 
(that God will make fach a thing which 
yet nothing* ) But I fay thefe nothings relate not 
to God) but God's Power, Knowledge and Will 
may by an Intelligent Creature be confiderec 
(while they are not) as that which will mak( 
them, doth forefee them, &c. which is to here 
ferred to tl em. It's true that nothing is no effect 
and vvillbe-nothing without God ( which is tha 
I faid ). It's true that the Divine Power doth no* 
make meer Poflibility to be any thing, for it i 


1 51 1 

nothing : Eut it being true that God can make 
that which he yet hath not made, for this proper 
Speech (God can make it; man's broken thoughts 
put a Name or Epithete en that which u not., 
and call it fojfible for Difcourfe fake, and for the 
ordering of our thoughts about nothings^ or things 
that yet are not ( yea never will be) : For we fay 
that Millions of Millions of nonfutura are poffible. 
And is Poffibilrty then any thing extra mcr.tem Di- 
vin.im & humxnam ? Why he fpake of things be- 
ing pojfiblc without the Divine Power I know not. 
I take PofTibiiity as real to be but part of that 
Ens ntioni* or mental Conception which by Rea- 
foning we take up of Non-extftents, becaufe God 
can make them that yet are not made. The fame 
I lay of his words (if futures be futures without 
the Divine will, what horrible Fate muft be up- 
on God ? ) Futures are nothing, and no good will 
ever be but by God's Will. And becaufe he 
willeth it, we have the juft ground of a Con- 
clufion that it will be ( if we know it ) . And this 
thought or word is therefore true, and had we 
been from Eternity, and had fuch a thought, it 
would have been true. And while there was no 
Sun or Earth, we fhould have faid, They are fu+ 
tares, that is, they will be ; that is, God will 
make them : And muft futurity therefore be a 
Thing or Being ? Whence then came the fuppo- 
iition of Fate, impofing on the fummum Ens> of 
what meaneth it? 

•Ad 5. Nothing indeed hath no Verity : Fu- 
tures are not true } but Conctftus or Proporti- 
ons, that fuch things will be, are true. How God's 
perfect Knowledge is cxtrinfecally denominated 
the Knowledge that fuch things will be (which we 

E a call 

[ 52 3 

call Fuwitiori) 1 opened in the Bo6k at large.* 
You know, I fuppofe, how commonly it is faid, 
That Nothings and Impojfibles andNon-futurittes are 
all known to God : Muft therefore Nothing, I m - 
poffibility, and Non-futurity be Beings, left Gcd can- 
not know them ? God cannot know things robe 
future you fay, unlcfs they are fuch : The words 
( are fuch) found to the ignorant, as if they fig- 
nified Entity. God cannot know Nothings to be 
Nothing, ImpcflibilitieS) Non-futurities, untefs they 
are fuch } that is, unlefs it be true that they are 
fuch : And it is true. But what is it that's true ? 
The verbum mentis vel oris, that they are no- 
thing,^. Muft they therefore needs be fomething, 
and fo God be miftaken ? But he faith {If there 
i?e no eternal Futures, what bee o met h of Divine Pre* 
fcience . ? ) Good mens Thoughts may wrong God, 
while they think they honour him . Augufiine tells 
you, That Prefcience difFereth not in God from 
Science of prefent things. You may fay alfo, If 
there be no eternal Nothings, Non-futures, how 
can God know them ? But muft Futurity, oxNon- 
futwity,ov Nothing,^ therefore any thing ? God's 
knowing that it will he and yet is not, proveth that 
the thing future is nothing ; a*nd therefore Futurity, 
no modus rei 7 but a Name put by us on Nothing 
from God's Will to make it. ( Suppofing it be 
not Sin, which God will not make, but hath ano- 
ther Caufe.) I had thought you had known, how 
commonly the School-men prove, That things that 
are not may be certainly known by God -, yea, 
how the Nominals prove his Knowledge of future 
Contingents from his meer Perfection •, fo that 
Socimu is not unanfwered in thofe things, and yet 
fmmts and Futurity are no beings. At leaft, you 


C 55 3 

may fee Anfwer enough in StYongitu and Le Blank. 
( two Authors well worth your reading. ) Thofc 
things are certo futura, which God will certainly 
make, or certainly knoweth will be done *, and 
yet Futurity be nihil re ale. I would you had told 
me, whether you take the Reality of Futurity to be 
in tfft rei zxtyinfecA, or in ejfe objettivo intrinfeco / 
The former you are not able ( confiderately ) to 
believe \ ( that nothing can have any real mode t 
accident, or affedion}) if none ofthefe, what is 
it then ? You muft needs hold to the latter ^ and 
then in man, the futurity of things is nothing real, 
but the mode of his Cogitation or Conception ? 
as 1 have afore faid, we may have real thoughts* 
that here is not fuch or fuch a thing, but will 
be-, in which we frame a real Idea of that which 
will be (and is not) in our minds ( from the helps 
of llmilitudes or words ^ and fo fay, Such a thing 
(thought on and named, but not in being) will be. 
But in God there is nothing but God j the Crea- 
ture is of him, and is in him dependency as their 
Canfe and Comprehender, but not as conftituent 
of his immanent ads. • 

Why you add ( Suppofe nothing to have fome Ve- 
Wry), is above my reach: I think Nothing hath 
no Verity : Bur, i . God's Knowledge thaut will 
bs, hath Verity. 2. The Propofition (This will be) 
may have Verity. 3 . But the thing future hath not 
Verity rd. Futurity as in r: hath no more Entity 
than Poffiblity: Bat to will or know that .quid 
nomination can be, and that it will be, are two real 
ads in Man, and two extrinfeck Denominations 
of the Divine Will and In celled. When you 
have anfwered what I faid of Div Twiffe, I may 
review it. 

E 3 Ad 4- Y 

C 54 3 

r Ai 4- You fay ( Future is nothing ; ergo, No- 
thing is future.} 1 am glad that the Creed and 
Bible are not thus worded : Future in your firft 
Proportion fignifieth the Affeftion or fomewhat 
real of the thing future, and fo it is nothing -, if 
you take future fo in the fecond> it is futile but 
true, being but a grofs expreflion of ( Nothing 
hath real Futurity-, which is aiiquid ret.') But ac- 
cording to common ufe, your fecond Propofition 
will be taken for a denial of the Saying ( Some- 
what will be ) and this is a real truth. You fay the 
Propofition is identical, as ( Nothing is Nothing. ) 
We fpeak not of the Being or truth of Propoil- 
tions or Conceptions, but of futurity it felf as in- 
complex urn. You after confefs I told you fo„ 
May you not equally fay (Negations, Nen-exiftents, 
Non-futurity are nothing ; ergo Nothing is a Nega- 
tion^ Nonexistent, Non-future ? ) Anfwer one and 
you anfwer the other. Negations in mente are 
Thoughts, and in the Mouth they are Words, but 
in re negata they are nothing : So I fay of Non- 
futurity and Non-exigence. Frail Man dreameth 
that the mundm naturalis is the fame with the 
inundut fantafiicus & notionalis in his Brain } and 
Oh ! how commonly do Words and Thoughts 
go in Difputes for Extrinfeck Realities ? 

Ai 5. Becaufe God decreeth to do any thing, 
you and I, when we know it, may truly fa/ ( This 
will be •,) and ( will be ) is no being, but Gods will 
and our knowledg and our words are. Alas, that 
fo much skill is neceffary not to be deceived by 
ambiguity of words. God's Knowledg and your 
Knowledge and your Words, may be all true > and 
yet Futurity ex parte reifutura 7 hathno proper Ve- 
rity, metaphyseal, phyilcal or moral, being no 


[ Hi 

fubjeO: capable of any fach. You fay [Did mt 
the Futurity of the World refult from a Decree ?~] It's 
wearifome a: every Sentence to repeat Diftindtion 
and ©pen Confuilon. The futurity of the World 
is nothing, Extra mentem Divinam & bHman&m^& 
extra prftfitionem dtfxtxrkimt. Why talk you of 
oar deligning another Origin , when we are pro- 
igjthatitYftOthing, and needs no Caufe ? And 
why anfwer you not what I ,vrote againit Dv.Twijfe, 
before yoa c ill for an Anfwer to him ? Or at leaft, 
whraniwer you not Stiraxgw^ but impertinently 
: of the Serpent Socinm f If Sociiuu had no more 
wk than to take the Futurity of Sin for a Being, 
(Suhfta ce, cedent or Mode) no wonder if he 
knew not how to deny that God is the Caufe of it. 
A :d why do you not attempt to anfwer me, who 
tell yon, That if you take k to be a real Being and 
eternal, you muft take it to be God himfelf } for 
nothing elfe is eternal. Bat I pray you fay not 
( like your former arguing about nothing) [The 
tttrrui Futurity of Sin is God himfelf •, ergo, God is 
the eemd Futurity of SinS] The Subject and Pre- 
dicate are not fo conrertible as you feem to make 
them. You fay, if we fay, Futurity is nothing, 
then it is a wonder, an independent on God and 
his Will, felf-origbaiedand unprevenrable, &c. 
You write no wonders to me, this rate of Difl 
courfe being common in the World, and hath been 
in moll Ages. Is Nothing a wonder ? Is it a won- 
der for nothing to be independent? but yet that 
which hath no dependent B-kg, may fo far as a 
Nothing beat God's will, that he continue nothing 
or make fomeching (the firft non agendo, the fe- 
cond agendo) as he pleafes, that is, t>y willing or 
not willing. And it were a wonder indeed for 

E 4 Nothing 

c 5<n 

Nothing to be felf-originated, or that Nothing 
fhould Jpring from any thing as an efficient Caufe : 
But reduftively fome Nothings may be afcribed 
to God's Non-agency, as Beings gocd are to his 
aft ion. As God is improperly called the Caufe of 
Dar^nefs, becaufe he there maketh not Light, lb 
improperly he may be faid to be the Caufe of No- 
things, becaufe he made not the contrary Some- 
things. You fay (then there is fatum Stoicijfimum 
on God ) and all his Works, and this Futurity 
binds the Almighty, that he canpjot do as he plea- 
feth in Heaven and Earth This is a wonder in- 
deed that Nothing fhould be ftrongerthan God, 
and rule him and the World. If Dr. Twtfjc hold 
Sin to be nothing, doth it follow, that it binds 
God, becaufe if s nothing ? Doth Death bind 
God, becaufe it is but the privation of Life ^ or 
vacuity (Ji detur vacuum} becaufe it is nothing ? 
Or when there was nothing but God,did Nothing- 
jiefs bind God ? Is that God bound or conquered 
that can turn Nothing into Something at his 
pleafiire ? Non-futurity is nothing : therefore it 
hath no Caufe. Is this Nothing the Ruler of God 
and All things, becaufe he caufeth not that which 
isnotcaufable/* Alas, that good men fliould keep 
up dividing Controversies at this rate of reafon- 
ing : You Jay, If it have no Caufe, it can have 
no Impediment, . and fo there is Fatum StoicijfimunL 
We all talk at the rate that we underftand/ The 
\yprld was nothing before it was made,and fo had 
then no Caufe in the ejfe cauf*> as "being no efFedt 
("Relations in ejfe being fimultaneous): Doth it fol- 
low that God wasfubjeft to Fate ? There was no 
Impediment indeed to Nothingnefs \ it is not ne- 
reffary that Nothing be hindred, leflt it become 


C 57 3 

omething. God can make fomewhat where there 

I nothing, at his pleafure, and can make a future 
Jothing to become an exiftent Something. And 
/hat fhould be the medium I wonder that tempted 
ou to think otherwife : Did the nothingnefs of 
Lflgels before their Creation hinder God from 
laking them I Or can nothing have a ruling 
ower ? 

ted 6, Again you flick not at the repeating of 
he contradiction of a felf-originated future Cor 
lothing) and think God's Decrees endangered by 
othing, becaufe it hath no Caufe. What a dread- 

II thing is this Nothing ! To be felf-originated 
; to be Somerhingof it felf. And if Futurity be 
othing, then it is fomething of it feif. And you 
fFer not a Syllable to prove thefe Contradictions- 
ou add ( To what ptrpofe JlwU Decrees be f ) 
inf. To produce the thing decreed in its pro- 
er time and place, and not to make them fome- 
ling before they are any thing, nor to make an 
ns Rationu to be a real extrinfeck Entity. You 
rangely fay ( To daree fitch a Futurity is a nullity, 
rr it cm mvtr come to pafs .) What can never 
3me to pafs ? Futurity ? 5ay alfo (To dec csNon- 
iiurity^or that there fh*ll he to tu but one Sun, but 
le Saziour, is a nullity, becaufe Nothing can never 
nm to psfs.) What is it for Nothing to come to 
afs? It is come to pafs without a Caufe that 
lere is but one Sun to us, but one Saviour, and 
Cher Nothings. The Decree or Will of what 
all come to pafs is no nullity : for it (hall all 
^me to pafs :, and yet the Decree made not the 
ord ( Jhallbe ) to fignifie a real Entity, diitindt 
>rm or model of the thing that fhall be. The 
ecree that there fhall be a World, was fulfilled, 


C 58 ] 

and yet (fliallbe) was not a being before the 
World, unlefs it was God's EfTence. Your Phrafe 
importeth as if Futurity muft come to pafs as a 
thing Decfeed, and queftion whether there was a 
futurity of that futurity ,and fo in infinitum. For the 
word (Coming to pafs ) importeth futurity of futu- 
rity, and not eternity. You fay Q To decree in com- 
pliance with tt^ is below God over Ail for it will: 

come to pafs whether God decree it or no.'] Alas, 
that 5peaking fhould be fo hard an Art ! What is 
it to decree in compliance with nothing ? Hath it 
any fence ? How is it that Nothing will come to 
pafs? It's true, that Nothing will be Nothing! 
without a Caufe, and therefore without a Decree. 
And therefore let the reverence of God mnke you 
confider, whether it be meet for us in the dark to 
afcribe to God fuch Decrees of nothing, and to 
number Nothings., and make as many Decrees 
Such a dance and game of notions we may more 
boldly ufe about our felves than about God, till 
we know him better. You add (God in decreeing 
doth not decree the thing into being in the injrantof 
decreeing^ but He decreeth the Futurity ofit, and ij 
that be nothings he decreeth nothing.') Arf Wrong \ 
thoughts will have wrong words All that- yon 
fhould have inferred, is, [That His Decree effe- 
ftcth nothing till the time come ] which is true 
For He decreed only to effeft it at fuch a time 
But doth it follow , that God decreeth nothing bu 
Futurity, becaufe the thing decreed is not prefen 
ly done ? Thus you muft fay, That God decreecpli 
not the World, nor G H R I S T, nor Salvation,bu 1 
Futurity only. The Decree or Wi:l of God was fti 
That the World, G H R I S T, Refurre&ion, &i k 
fhall beat fuch a time: (fullbf) is no being }an n 


u id 

C 59 ] 

ret it is a £«>£ when exiflent, which God de- 
Teed, but his Decree maketh it noc a foiag till 
t exift. Dr. Tmjfe will over and oyer cell y6u, 
hat God^s immanent afts do ^bi/ ps;:^ in objecio. 
\nd I have oft told you truly, that you or I little 
mow what we fay when we divide Gcd's Eternity 
nto pares, and affign him his prtttnut n cr fi - - 
urn. And it would put you hard to it to tell me 
lerrly and furely what God's Eternal Decree is be- 
ore the effcd exift ! our prefent common-received 
ichool-Divinity will call us BLfphemers, if we fay, 
hat before the Creation there was any thing buc 
jod, and anything in God but God, and that 
5od had any real accidents : And therefore it 
aith, that he doth operarj per ejfimUm^ and not 
er accident**. And therefore that God's Decree 
>efore the efFedt was nothing but his Eflence. Bun 
t is his Eflence denominated C not as fuch, but) 
s related .to the things decreed, though yet they 
»e not. If you will forfake this common Theo- 
ry, and place aftsin God, which ex parte agkruif^ 
re but Accidents and not his Eflence, and fay" This 
\ confiftent with his Simplicity ard Perfe<fticn,you 
rill let in a Body of new Divinity, and we frail 
lot know when we have all God s Accidectei nor 
ow to order them. His freeft Acts are his Eficn- 
ial Will freely afting } but thofe free ads them- 
Jves before the effeftare nothing bur God him- 
df. We rauft not place in God a number of 
thoughts, Images, Notions, Accidents, as we do 
i Man. But your Phrafe favoureth of other 

Ad 7. Here you are for yea and nay : you 
rill fuppofe no Propofitions inGod,ani yet you ar- 
jne that thciijwhat will remain of a Decree- I fold, 

[ 60 ] 

But that God knoweth not by Propofitions, but 
yet that he knoweth Proportions. If you hold, 
Tint God knoweth by Proportions and Argumen- 
tations, fay fo, that I may know what to fpeak 
to. If you hold, Ttttt He hath no Decrees, what 
is it that you plead for? But to anfwer your 
Queftion, God's Decree is not a forming of Pro- 
pofitions in his mind, or any change in himfelf, 
or addition to his Being : But it is His Iimple will 
that fuch and'fuch things (ball be, emanative, com- 
municative, productive of them in their feafon. 
There are fome that think, that as Time-Divifi- 
ons are the mcafures of imperfect Creatures, 
and God's Eternity hath none fuch j fo that it is 
an afcribing Imperfection to God, to fay, That he 
hath Decrees defuturti diftinCt from a productive 
Volition, which in the molt proper fence fhould 
be denominated from the produced Exiftentas fuch. 
But in this I interefs not my feif, as knowing that 
we muft fpeak improperly of God or not at all. 
You fay that (It flail be,i* a F murky. ) An[. What's 
that ? A (JLtf hi\ is (a 1 7 ut wit )ftand (a futurity) 
is a (jhall he,) Ergo a fhaU he and a futurity is a be r 
trig. Would I knew what., But to hope for that 
from you is too great Prefumption. You add (A 
futurity, a nothing, and to decree nothing is not to de- 
cree.) Anf Say you fo ? I am glad you fay no 
worfe : Then if thofe be in the right fas raoft) 
that: think Sin is nothing (no more than Death or 
DarknefsJ you will grant that God decreed it not. 
And if I prove that Fururity ex parte ret, is nothing, 
you will grant that it ncedeth no Decree as fuch. 
But feeing you are fomuch on my fide, 1 crave 
your help to confute thofe, that otherwife you 
defend, who make innumerable Nothings the OM 


Its of God's Decrees. But yet 1 would not follow 
)U tco far : ( Not to give brace to nn Infidel ) is 
falling. (Not to give the Gofp.l, not to end the 
fold till the time, nst f uk& &W*y Grate, Gofpd, 
ife ? ec) You Tay here ( in your general ) that 
>ne of thef- can be decreed. But then prepare an 
nfwer to your Friends that will take this ill of 
:u. 1 have fully opened my fence of it elfe- 
here. You fay ( Abftrztt futurity from the Deo ee 
id it mil be nothing.) Anf. If you abftraft not 
uturity as a re^l Entity from the Decree, you 
ill abufeGodby prefumptuous falfe Conceits: 
lit if ycu abftraft the word Jhall be) from the 
amaneCo7;ceptw of it, it vail not differ from a 
onceftus de pr&ftntc. And though 1 more reves ence 
ou, I may fay of fome other Objedters that quib- 
le with arbitrary notions, that if you except Pa- 
rity and Futility, from what they fay for the en- 
ty of Futurity, ic is all nothing. You add ( That 
: in time only the thing aCtttally exift by virtue of the 
Iceree, the Decree is fomethkg %n time, bat eternally 
I wo* nothing. That is ( God's will to effect any 
hing is nothing till it do effift it.) Yes, 't;s God's 
Vjll fo to do, and is that nothing ? It is nothing 
ut God 7 s effential w ill denominated from the res 
fficienda'i'hiK that is not nothing : if God be no- 
hing, there is Nothing. There is nothing indeed 
ut God from Eternity. If you think otherwife, 
dl us what it is. Aureolas indeed pleadeth, That 
4&H6 Dei creantis is neither Creator nor Creature, 
tut quid medium, but few fecond him, and many 
onfute him. It feems you think of Futurity as our 
ficxreaitsfind our new Infidels do of matter, That 
: is an eternal effedt of God as an eternal Caufe. 
will give you many thanks if you willperufe and 


C 62 1 

anfwer Raymundus Lnllims Arguments againft tin 
Eternity of any Creature, where he argueth 
That whatfoever hath the perfection of Eternity, 
muft needs have other f itable Perfe&ions, and fc 
be God. Is Futurity a more excellent Being thar 
Spii it, Matter and Motion, to be capable of thi< 
Divine Attribute ? I pray what is the Veritj 
that you fay refulteth eternally ? Can you forgive 
me for not loving Conf ilion ? Js it, 1 . TI12 verit A 
reiftitura ? 2. Or the Veritas conceptus Divini d\ 
remm futmuionk ? 3. Or the Verity of a Pro- 
portion ? Are thefe all one with you ? The firfl 
being a Metaphyfical Verity, is Ajfectio entts, a: 
unum and bonUm are : And qucd non eft, -non efi 
union, verum aut bonum. 2. As to the third, 
it a divine Propofition, or a humane ? If a di 
vine, prove that God had either concept as vel pro* 
lata/,, eternal Proportions ; if he had and yoi 
prove it, I never denied the truth of fuch propo- 
sitions. If humane, when there was no man, then 
was no humane propofitions. All that you caj 
fay is but what I oft faid, That God's Volition: 
were a ground that would have made fuch propo- 
fitions (Thefe things mil be) certainly true, if then 
had been any fuch eternal proportions. And a 
to the fecond, it is not denied as before explai 
ned. God's Will and Knowledge were certain 
but they were but himfelf, who gave no Beinjj 
to eternal Futurition out of himfelf. You asl 
(How are the Pronvfe^being Propofitions ^true fign, 
cf the Divine Will, where there are ??one ? ) An\ 
How is the World and figta nxtztrdia the iigns o 
God's Will, and how are Writings and Voice 
figns of it, if there be no World , Writings o; 
Voices ia God ? God wilUth that which is no 


C 63 ] 

n himfelf eternally.- Gcd willeth Creatures and 
3od willeth Propofitions. And thefe are the 
produdts of his Veracity, when he fendeth them 
3y Revelation : and true, becaufe they come from 
lim. When his Will is to give the world an 
ncarnate Saviour, may not the promife of this 
rruly figuifie his will, though he have no Pro- 
portion in his mind, but only a will to give him, 
md an intuitive Knowledge ? But 1 fay sgain, 
f you can prove, that God thinketh, reafoneth, 
)r talke:h eternally, and knoweth ^terminosfnn- 
ilicesj Proportions and Syliogifms, I will eafily 
ronfefs that all thefe are true, and yet not grant 
:hat ex parte reh Futurition or Non-futurition, 
Pcffibility or Impoffibility are any Beings. 

Ad 8. You meet with a diftinftioii of [Futu- 
rity as nothing, and a Proportion de fmmo as 
fomething 3 with an Qhowfo? It fignifieth only 
f Hturity^ and that is jufl nothing-.] Anf. You 
hould pardon a man in my condition, if he be 
!oth to write new Books to anfwer all Ohjeft- 
srs that know not that a Propofition de mhib is 
fomething. If Atheiiis lay, There is no God, 
They fhall know that they fay fomething : If I 
ray that there are no other true Gods> I fay fome- 
thing. They that fay Datur vacuum lay fome- 
thing. You fay ( But was it not true before : ) 
what is your ( it ) ? The proportion was not 
true before it was a Propofition, Ccnccpta vel 
prolata : Futurity had not the Metaphyfical or 
Phy ileal verity of an Entity; for it was nothing. 
The res four* had no fuch truth ; for it was not 
res dam futura tantum. What mean you then by 
C it ? ) I fay ftill if you can prove that there 
was an Eternal Propofition de futxro in Gcd, it 


[ <$4] 
was true and wss God's EfTence \ which is no- 
thing to our queffcion. You add [Not true before, 
nor know-able as true.] Anf. You feem by this 
to intimate that God cannot know what will be 
by his production, without making Mental or 
Oral Propofitions, and knowing them to be true. 
Muft God's Prefcience be deplorate, if he know 
not by your Mcins and Meafures? You may next 
fay, It muft be by Senfe, Fantafie and Species, 
as our Souls work in thefe muddy Brains, God's 
Knowledge receiveth not a constitutive Objeft 
from without as ours doth. It firft: concurreth 
with his Will and Power in making ail things 
what they are ( All flowing from *>, and k recei- 
ving from none : ) And in fowdo inftanti ^ it dif- 
cerneth all things to be what they are. And when 
he hath made Propofitions, he dilcerneth them Jj 
to be true. You keep your way and fay f When ft 
God declares things to come, he declareth fomething, l 
becaufe there tS a Propgfition : But xchen he fore- 
knoiveth them, heforeknoxveth nothing, which is not 
to fcre-kztowf} Anf. i . When God declareth by 
Proportions things to come, the Propofitions 
are the Declaration it felf and are fomething \ but 
the things declared are nothing, till they are. C 
Why would you confound thefe ? and When he 
foreknoweth what will be, he knoweth that it 
is not: Ergoitis not. 3, How prove you, That 
to fore-know from Eternity that there would be 
no World till the Creation, or no Deluge, Refur- 
re&iofl) &c. till the time, is no fore-knowledge? 
I do not Difpute it with you, but crave your 
proof, having faid fomewhat my felf elfewherc 
upon that Queftion. You talk of C * things be- 
ginning tq be F hi nrt before it\s pnt intQ * Propofiti~ 





w, &c. 3 As if you {till begg'd the Queflion,and 
:ook Futurity extra mentem & ^gna^ to be fome- 
:hing ex parte rei. That which is not, is not true. 
A ne?atione eft fecundi jddjetti ad negationem Eft 
ertii valet confequentia^ faith Dr. Twijfe often. 
iTou ask C I* lt trus becavfe formed into a Propofi* 
ion? Then all Propofitions are tnte.2 Anf. Is what 
:rue ? That there is a Fntnrum ? Is not that a 
>ropofition? What is it antecedent to the Pro- 
X)fition that you call true ? Is it the res fntura ? 
rhat's falfe. Is it the Realitas fnturitionis ex parte 
ei ? That is it I deny. F antrum, faith Dr. Twiffe y 
T fojfibik) are termini diminuentes, fignifying that 
he thing is not. Is it the Conceftut Divimts ? If 
hat be by a mental Proportion, it is not antece- 
dent to it fclf i if not, doubtlefs God's Know- 
edge is true (efficiently, it will make the thing 
rue ) and true perfe&ively and denominative^ 
knowing things but as they are, and therefore 
ot knowing Futurity Pei to be a Being. If it 
s human Conceptions, they are mental Propofi- 
ions, not eternal nor antecedent to themfelves. 
.11 Propofitions that God maketh are true : Be- 
aufe true Propofitions are true, mult all be true ? 
ccaufe it is a word or Propofition or Syllogifm^ 
r hich is the Subjeft of Logical truth, doth it 
>llow that all Words, Propofitions or Syllo* 
ifms are true ? 

Ad 9. Poffiblc is a notion relative from God's 
ower-, FutHrity from his Will, or any certain 
aufe. Neither is a real Entity in re. 

In the Conclufion I was about to wilh that 
du would have done fomewhat that tended to my 
dification, and when you had all this while talkM 
>r the Entity of fat wity that you would have deign- 

F ed 

C 66 ] 

edto tell me what it is; if ifc be any thing, why- 
would you not fay, wh?t ? Is it a Subftance or an 
Accident? What Accident (or mode) or of what 
Subftance ? Could you forget that this would be 
expeded from you ? And whether Futurity be an- 
nihilated or turned into fomewhat elfe when the 
thing exifteth. But I find that you have made a 
kind of attempt, faying £ Things have an elfe inten- 
tionale in God's mU, though not an efle Reale in 
themfdves. ] And is this all that w r e fhall have in- 
Head of the Definition, that fhould have gone 
bpfore, and initead of regarding and Anfwering 
what I had faid of the Point ? i . Here then you 
intimate that Futurity hath no ejfe reale in it felf 5] 
and it is .the ejfe reale that I denied : Why loft you 
fp much Labour. 2. Can you Englifh to any I 
man that takes words for means of underftand- j 
ing things, what it is for £ Things to have an elfe 
intentionale in God? 2 *• Sure the commmon 
Dodtrine of ejfe intentionale in man, needs an 
Oedipus. 2. But alas how fhall I know what ejfe 
intentionale is in God ? 3. Much lefs how milli- 
ons of millions of Nothings have their ejfe inten- 
tionale in God. Qh. i. Is' that ejfe intentionale 1 
any thing real befides God himfelf ? 2. Arc 
fuch ejfe's as many in God as the things will be 1 
in themfelves ? Hath God Accidents, and fo many 
millions of millions of Accidents, and yet moft 
fimplc and immutable? 3. What are all thefej 
things in God from eternity in proper language 
are they his Volitions or IntelUttionsI And ar 
thefe fo numerous ? Or are they Creatures i: 
ejfe intentionalO. Do not you confefs that th 
ejfe is nw-etfe as to any Creature ? If you mea 
flat-wick^ Idea's, &rc not Ideas and Species, as t 

L 6 7 3 

are called, in man, the notes of his Imperfecti- 
on, while his Soul knoweth, ut forma, in a Body, 
as diftinft from perfeft intuition? I refer you 
to what I have faid of Divine Jdea\ and pray 
you to feign nothing in God without proof- But 
if you do prove fuch, forget not the next time, 
that I denied not the truth of any Divine Jde* 
or Knowledge. 

Your concluding line I pardon, and it needs no 
more. All that is faid in this Paper on this 
point is materially fully anfwered in my Book ; 
and I even now asked a Friend what I ihould fay to 
all that objeft againft a Book which containeth 
fufficient matter of anfvver to their Obje&ipns : 
And he anfwered, Not write for every man a new 
one, but wifh them to read the former better. 

Pardon my oft repeating to you my fence of 
Futurity, with which I conclude. To man, Time 
in various inftants, and the narrow nefs of our 
underftandings, that mult have various Concepti- 
ons and Organical Notions, make it needful to 
us to ufe names, even for things that are not 
( or nothings ) . When God (or any certain Caufe) 
tells what will* be hereafter, we frame an image of 
that thing that is not by the help of Words and 
the fimilitude of Things that are or have been. 
Then we put a name on that imagined thing, as 
if it were : Then we make ufe in our difcourfes 
of that name, and turning a Verb into a Noun-, 
z% C * r W# be ] into H Future } , and then an Ad*- 
jettive Or Participle into a Substantive, Q Future j 
into [Futurity*} our poor Fancies run on with it v 
as if we had -by the name made or mentioned 
fcrae Subitaace or real Being, When alj is no- 

F2 thing 

C 6* 1 

thing but a Relative notion or Ens ration^ 
The knowledge that a thing will be may be a 
real knowledge ; And inftcad of denominatirg the 
Att we denominate the Objedt, (which is internally 
an Image ; externally Nothing real ) and call 
it Future^ and thence name Fnturition : As 
I nutrition fignifieth improperly the relation of 
the mental a£t to the thing fore-known, it is a 
real mental ad's relation : As the Subjed; is the 
thing future^ fo it is nothing real but a feigned 
organical Notion, by which we difcourfe inftead 
of Verbs. The JRelatio ConcepHS vel nominis , is 
the relation of a real adt But the relation of the 
thing future as future is fecundum diet, but feign- 
ed inftead of a Verb. And of God's knowledge, I 
fhall here fay no more. • 

In a word, If you take futuritio rei to be the 
Namp of any immanent eternal Aft of God, what- 
ever we think of the aptitude of your Phrafe, 
I fuppofe we differ not about the thing inten- 
ded, as long as you hold no eternal Accidents 
or Competition in God, and that nothing is 
eternal but himfelf } which I mull think you do 
in Charity. If you take futuritio rei for the modus ■ 
or relation of a humane Conception or Aflerti- « 
on defuturis, I fuppofo we fhall not differ de re % 
nor will you fay that it is eternal. 3. If you 
fpeak but fuppofitively , that Af there had been 
fuch a concept us or AfTertiorf from Eternity, it 
would have been true, we differ not. 4. If you 
take Futurition extra mentem, to be any thing 
(Subftance, Mode, Accident or any Reality or di- 
<j*id rei ) and that from Eternity, I deny it,' and | 
fay, That they that make an univerfal Spirit, and 
they that make Matter end Motion to be eter- 

I £69] 

nal with God, arc more cxculablc, than they that 
nftce a thing called FntHrity diftinft from God j 
yea, the Futurity of Sin to be eternal, and God 
the eternal Caufe of that eternal Effett. 

I purpofed at the firft glance to have anfwe- 
:1 the fecond Paper alfo about Gcd's decreeing 
Sin *, but when I had read it I was unwilling, 1. Be- 
caufeit is but too largely anfwered materially in 
my Book already, and more fully in old Papers 
that lie by me, which I cannot tranfcribe. 2. Be- 
caufe I hear fo much Good of the worthy Author, 
that I am not willing to be drawn to difputc a 
Cafe, which cannot be handled juftly, without 
opening fo much Evil in that which 1 muft op- 
pofe, as will found harlh towards one that I fb 
much honour. Men are fo apt to feel that as 
touching themfelves which is fpoken to their 
Caufe. If Hobhes ( who wrote the Treatife of 
Neceffity againft Bifliop Bramhall) had fent me 
that Paper, I fhould readily have anfwerM it : But 
here I fear it. ^ 

Only 1 tell tne Author, that I have been as 
ftrongly tempted that way as moil others ; and 
do acknowledge that it is the grcateft difficulty 
in all thefe Controverfies, to conceive, how free 
will can aft otherwife than God doth predeter- 
mine it ; But I am fatisfled in the Solution •, and 
fully fatisfied , that the Predeterminant Opi- 
nion which I oppofe doth certainly inferr 
the Religion of Holies ^ the denial of Chri- 
ftianity 1 , and leaves us no Religion } but that^Good 
and Evil, Happinefs and Mifery are Differences all 
made by God himfelf, as Light and Darknefs, 
Angels and Serpents are made to differ by ^ im : 

F 3 And 

C 70 3 

And I am not willing to let go Chriftianity for 
fuch Objections as thefc : And it had been rfitit 
that he had anfwered what I have faid to Alvare^ 
Mn Stc .■y ) &c on this Subjeft, and taken notice 
of my Anfwers to the raoft of his. 

His talk of Cafualty is his furn •, by which if 
he mean that which had not a predetermined 
Caufe, Sin is cafual, till the Sinner determine his 
own will. But if he-mean, that which is unknown 
to, God, it is not cafual : And the Aflertion, That 
fuch things are not knowable to God, I have con- 
futed at large, which he here taketh no notice of. 

If I fhall find that Neceffity make it my duty 
to give any fuch Paper a particular Anfwcr, if 
I have time, I may do it. But I think enough 
is faid of that already, and my leifure from bet- 
ter work is finall. 

Rl. B A XTER, 



Of God 7 s Provide/ice, arid predetermining Pre- 
motion and Miracles. 

§. 1. HP H E word (Providence ) is varioufly 
A ufed by Writers: Sometimes as com- 
prehending God* s fore-kpwlcdge and decrees them- 
felvcs : Sometimes as comprehending ak his Work*: 




C 71] 

Sometimes as comprehending all his works which 
follow the Creation : And fbmetimes as fignifying 
only his effective difpefzl of Perfons and Things 
in Motions, and Mttratiens, as di&inft from Le- 
giflation, which only maketh Duty and Right. 

§.2. In CREATION God Glorified his Three 
Eflential Principles or Attributes : 1 His Omni- 
potency eminently in giving BEING to all things. 

His Wtfdom eminently in the ORDER and 
Compofure of all. 3. His Love or Goodnefs emi- 
nently, in the GOODNESS and Wellfare of all : 
For he made them 6W,and then Re fled: Yet 
fo as that all thefe Attributes were glorified in 
each part of the Effeft. 

§. 3. From hence a pofteriore he is in the one 
Relation of CREATOR Related triply to the 
World, and Tpecially to the Rational part: 
That is, 1. As the MAKER of things, (which 
is Creator in the narrow fence). 2. As ORDI* 
NATOR. 3- As BENEFACTOR. And thus 
he is the Author of NATURE. 

§. 4. From this fundamental Relation of CRE- 
ATOR, and the nature of the Creature made 
(and continued by Confervation , which is a 
continued Creation or Efficiency ) there refulteth 
a threefold Right and further Relation to God. 
1. A Jus Dominii, or Right of PROPRIETY, 
and fo he is our OWNER, and may do with all 
things what he will, and muft be the difpofer 
of Events. 2. His Jus Imperii (including Do* 
ferine ) or Right of Government ; which to 
things meerly Natural is Natural Government , 
and to Moral jdgents it is Moral Government, by 
Dothine^ Laws and Executions: And fo he is eur 
KING or RULER. 3. His Jus Amoris nt finis ; 

F 4 or 

'at to-] 


or Right to be thcend of all, and by the Ratio- 
rial Creature to be chiefly Loved, and abfelntely 
for Himfeifi as the Be ft and moft Amiable, and 
fo he is our ultimate END: Where LOVE is 
confidered not only as an aft of Obedience to a 
JRe# 0r as all other duties are j but eminently as 
it is the final perfettive AEl of man, doling with 
the final Objecly&nd fo above the common nature of 
xneer Obedience. 

§• 5. All God's after-nwiyand all our Duties to 
him muft beobferved as refpe&ing all thefe Re- 
lations of God to us, and our anfwerable Rela- 
tions to him : For therein is the Nature, Order, 
and Harmony of them difcerned to be Glorious : 
And unskillful confounding them is a fpoiling 
and propkaning or dilhonouring of them. And 
l|*us the various ads of Providence muft be fet 
each in its proper place. 

§. 6. God being the font nature and having 
fettled the frame of Nature (or created Beings and 
fe(cond Caufes) in a fixed ftate and order, in 
which one thing is united to another, and ada- 
pted to its proper work in concurrence with 
the whole, we muft not expeft that God do or- 
dinarily violate this his eftablifhed Courfe : For 
his Works fhall fliew fomewhat of his Conjtancy, 
and Experience telleth us, that really th«s He 

§. 7. But we jmuft not dream that God is ph 
voluntarily : tied to his own Work, or hindered 
by fecond Caufes, or the courfe of Nature, from 
doing what He would -, but His free-will deligh 
teth it felf in this Conftancy and ordered Cokr f 
of Nature, and ufe of fecond Caufes, which hav 

c n 3 

ftill all their being, force and order continued by 

§. 8. And the number and operations of fecond 
Caufes are fo unknown to us, that when things 
feem Miracles to #/, it is hard for us to fay, that 
God ufeth m fecond Carfe in effecting them. 
But it is enough to the ufe of Miracles to know 
that their extraordinary production hath an an- 
fwerable extraordiaary ufe and fignification of 
God's Will. 

§.9. And no doubt but Nature and all its parts 
are abfoluttly in the Power and Government of 
God's Will : And He can and doth turn things 
up and down as He pleafeth, without making 
any breach in his eftablifhed Order : If the Hus- 
bandman can turn the courfe of Rivers to water 
his Grounds, by meer Impediments and Recepti- 
vities, without any alteration of the natural 
motion of the Water ^ .how much more muft we 
afcribe to God, in ufing Nature without over- 
throwing it ? 

§. 10. It is Atheiftical or abfurd to fet God 
and Nature in oppofuion^ competition or feparation \ 
and to fay as fome Philofophers", \This or That 
natural Caufes can do without calling in God as the 
Determiner.'] Whereas natural Canfes are nothing, 
and do nothing but by God : And there is no 
lefs of God in the effeds of Nature, than if He 
did the fame himfelf . alone : In Him we Live 
and Move, and Are. 

§. 1 1 . And it is no better in them that fay f 
that God doth not operate proximately and imme- 
diately where Nature or fecond Caufes work, but 
only remotely. As [immediately 2 fignificth \jpitb- 
m any mdinm ox fecond Gtnft 3 fo God doth not 


C 74 ] 

then work immediately : But as it fignifieth pr§~ 
xim<ttely-> He doth : For an infinite being cannot be 
ejjentially ciiftant from any Creature or Effett : 
Nor is it poffible that the fecond Caufe can be 
nearer to the Effett than God \ who is as near as 
if he ufcd no fuch Catife. 

§. 1 2. And the Difpute, Whether God do fro- 
ximxtely effeft immcdiatione fuppofiti, or only vir- 
tutis^ feemeth to have a falfe fuppofition, viz.. 
That God's Virtue is not his fuppo fit um^ and that the 
virtus diving may be where the fuppofitwn is not. 
If by fuppofitum they mean God's 'Eflence as £/"- 
fence extfiing, and by virtu* they mean his Ejfence 
under the formal notion of Power , Wifdom and Love^ 
then they are but two inadequate Conceptions of 
the fame limple Being, and therefore God thus 
ever operateth immediatione efientU & virtutis 
effentidu. But if they mean, that God hath a 
virtus which is neither h|s Eflence nor a Creature, 
we believe them not. 

§. 13. The Controverfie between Burmdus 
and his Followers, and the Jefuites and Domini- 
cans, about the neceffity of a moving Conccurfey 
befides the fapport of Nature, feemeth to me thus 

1. God as he is fens natur*^ is the Living God, 
the prime Active Vrinciple r who by conftant vital 
A&ivity is the Spring of all the Aftion in the 
World} and is not to be dreamt of as one that 
had made the World, and then left it to it felf, 
and withdrew his hand and is fallen aileep. 

2. But the Living God moveth not all things 
alike, but every thing according to its nature and 
place j for his Influx is received ad mdum reci- 

3. The 

[ 75 ] 
g. The Nature of fome Creatures is eflcntially 
Attivc, and fo inclined to art that they mil aft if 
:heir Nature be not by others , or want of con- 
urrent Neceifaries, hindered. Such is every Soul 
)r living Principle, and Fire. And other Crea- 
:ures are naturally Faffwe only exfe(or atleaffc 
principally^). So that for God to continue Fire 
>r So/z/forany naturatty-^&ivc Frinctfle y is to con- 
;inue a nature effentially inclined to move or aft. 

4. It i$ fuppofed that thefe Natures are not fo- 
itary, but parts of the nnivtrfe^ and are conti- 
lued with all neceflary circurnftant Beings and 
^bje&s^and that the whole frame of Nature andco- 
>pcrating Caufes are continued : e.g. That the 
tan doth rot ftand ftill, while the Life of a Plant 
w Brute is continued. 

5. All this being fuppofed by Dwandus, jia- 
toliu, a Dola, and all fober men, the Queftion dev- 
iated is, Whether there be further neceflary another 
mmediate Divine Motion or Conccurfe to every met ten 
f a Creature natural or free, befldes all this afore* 
kid ? 

And, 1 . Let it be confider'd, that God's Ejfcnct 
etng but one, his Aft, which ex parte agtmit > is 
is E (fence , is not diftinguifhable, laving ex 
onmtationc effects : And if this be all that is meant, 

hat as ipfe mot us dijHngmtur a cattfts, fo God's 
PHI, Power and Agency may be diftinftly denomi- 
ated, 1. As from the jecond Caufes \ and 2. alfo 
r om the Motion it felf, as more than the Caufes ; 
lis none can deny, nor is it a Controverfie. But 
7 the queftion be of the neceflity of another diftinR 
ay of Divine Caufttion of ihe motns % befides that 

y fecond Caufes before mentioned, they can prove 
ofoch neceffity. 



For is it 'mediate or immediate Caufation or Effi§ 
ciency which they mean ? (we {peak not of m 
mediate as it fignifieth proximate, which is granted, 
but as fignifying fine caufis fecundisJ) If it be me- 
diate by fecond Caufes that God muft further con- 
cur^ thofe are natural Caufes or fome other : if 
natural, ifs a contradi&ion to fay, that Befides 
God^r moving by natural Caufes (which is granted^ 
he muft alfo move by natural Caufes ; as if Idem 
were not Idem : Unlefs they will fay jf muft be 
by fome other natural Caufes, which they do not, 
nor can affign - 7 nor yet any other that are not 

But if they mean, that to every motion there 
muft be an immediate operation of God to it -without 
that'whiohhedothby/erW Caufes, even by God 
alone without any fecond Caufe, I then ask, Voth 
^ God move any thing in the World by any fecond Caufe 
or not ? If not) then not by the Sun ; not the 
Coach by the Horfcs, the Arrow by the Bow, the 
Stone by the Hand, the Pen by the Writer, &c 
If yea, then is it the whole or part only of that 
motion which is made by fecond Caufes and God 
by them ? If the whole, hdbetur quafitmn : If party 
how prove you that God cannot make the whole 
motion himfelf by fecond Caufes, as well as part 7 
but muft needs leave the other part of the fiime 
motion to be done without fecond Caufes. 

And it would follow that no fecond Caufe , no: 
rot the nobleft in the Wotld (as the Sun^ and 
God as atting by it, hath and exercifeth a vis ade~ 
cjuata to the fmalleft motion even of a Leaf : 
Whereas God in Nature maketh natural Porrer,< 
with his own, as he is fons nature, adequate to 
its A&ions. 


[ 77 3 

And let unbyafled Reafon judge, Whether if a 

ock fhould be held up in the Air, if God con- 

Jnue the natural Gravity of it, with all the reft 

If the frame of Nature, could not that Rock fail, 

without another motion of God which is without 

my fecond Caufe, to thruft it down ? If He con- 

pue the nature of Fire, was it no: a greater 

liracle, that it burnt not the three WitnelTes, 

van. 3. than to have burnt them, or than its or- 

tnary Action ? Why elfe fhould there need ten 

houfand fold more natural Power to hold up the 

aid Rock, or to quench a City on fire, or to flop 

River, or the Winds •, than to move them fup- 
jofing natural Caufes, if there need an Infinite 

oxter moreover to the att\ and none to the cef- 
ation ? And by this Rule it would follow, that 
II Motion in the World is fupernatural : For if 
jod caufe it ut fons riutur&, he caufeth it in the 
latural courfe : if he do not, k's all fupernatu- 
al and miraculous. 

Moreover, if all this fatisSe not Difputes, if it 
3C worth the Coft, they may try the Cafe thus : 
uppofing that God hath told no man his Secrets, 
vhen he will immediately move any thing without 
tcond Caufes, and that no fecond Caufes, nor his 
)wn Operation by them can move any thing with- 
out another immediate Motion, Let them cut down 
he Pillars, or undermine their Houfes, and fay 
hat by meer natural Caufes the Houfe cannot 
all : Let them fet fire on their Houfes )% and fay 
hat by meer natural Caufes they cannot be 
burnt : Let them drink Poifon> and fay, By meer 
natural Caufes it cannot hurt us : Or let titan 
cut their Flefh, &s* For God ne?er told them, 


C 78 ] 

that he will immediately comnrr, and then there 
no danger. 

Perhaps they will 'fay, That Experience telleth ' 
Us that God doth ufually concurr with them : 1 1 
anfwer, And is not that becaufe he worketh hy 
them? What Experience or Reafon have you, ., 
that Gcd fhould jHH work immediately with thewA 
and yet xot by them ? We can prove that He] 
worketh as the fir ft C<mfe. But if you will prove) 
that He do:h ic not as the first Caufe moving the \ 
fecond Can/es^ but by immediate concomitancy y let us j 
hear your proofs. 

* Laftly, let it be noted, that when they that af- 
firm all Motion to-be by immediate concomitant 
Concourfe or Predetermination, do pretend that 
they do it left God's Gaufality fhould be denied or 
extenuatedjit is a meer deceit : For all are agreed, 
that there is no lefs of God in the Operations done 
by ftco'nd Caufes or Nature, than in immediate Ope- 
rations without fecond Caufes ( fnch asGodexer- 
cifeth on the firft created Motor , and how elfe he 
p!eafe)God is as much in one as in the other. 

§. 14. For the underftanding of the nature and 1 
ufe of miraculous afts of Providence, it rauft be 
coni:dered, 1. That God that made the World 
of Natural Agents, and things Paflive, moved 
by the A&ive, is not to be feigned without good 
proofs, to alter any of the Works which he hath 
made, which we fee he continueth in the courfe 
that he. made them without any mutation of their 

§• 1 $* God can change, and crofs, and ufe as; 
he pleafeth the A&ions of Natural Agents with- 
out changing their natures and inclinations. One 


C 79 3 

atural Agent or moved Paflive, may be reli- 
ed and turned back or overcome by another -, 
ind yet there may be nothing but natural moti- 
on in them all: A fhonger Stream may drive 
ack a weaker. A Canon may crofs the ordi- 
nary motion of the Air : As a great Dog may 
aafter a little one, or a Woolf devour a Lamb, 
_nd a Bird a Worm or Fly } and yet there be 
none but natural anff fenfitive motion. So God 
can dry up or flop the Red Sea or Jordan ; and 
by Winds carry Caterpillars to and from 
ts£yypt 5 and fnch like , and by one natural 
motion overcoming another. It's hard for us 
in mod Miracles to fay that God doth more 
than this. 

§. 16. Put it is certain that God hath a rank 
of free Agents that act arbitrarily, and that 
thefe have a great meafure of power over na- 
tural and neceflary Motions: As man is a free 
Agent and drivech his Sheep to what Pafture he 
pleafeth, and guiderh his Horfes and Oxen in 
their way and furrow to do his will by their 
natural and fenfitive neceflkated motion, and as 
a MiUer can make the natural courfe of the 
Wood and Water and Mill-ftones, and Horfe, 
all to ferve his intention, without changing the 
nature of any one of them, fo much more can 
God and free Agents under God, attain their 
freely chofen ends, by Ordering and not Changing 
Natural and Scnfitive Movers. 

§. 17, We fo little know what Arbitral 
Free Agents that are invifible Spirits Gcd hath 
fct over this Paflive World, and what power he 
hath given them to ufe Natural Agents as they 
themftlves freely will? thac it greatly difableth 


C 80 } ^ I 

us to refold all the Difficulties of the Caufe of 
Sin and Mifery, and about the nature of Mira- 
cles. But it is a clear truth that it is by fuch 
Free Arbitrary Agents primarily that natural 
Agency is croft and overcome in Miracles, tho 
one Natural Agent be employed to refift another/ 
fas to quench the heat of Fire, to ftop the 
courfe ot Winds and Water/ &c.) Yet it isfomc 
voluntary free Agent that thu^ufeth natural Agents 
againft each other. Scripture tells us, that God 
ufeth Angels as Rulers and Protectors of lower 
Agents : And that there is a kind of a war 
between thele and Devils : And how far the pre- 
valent Wills of good and bad Angels or volun- 
tary Agents may be the Caufe of Evil, or be the 
Aftors of Miracles, by fetting one moved Agent 
againft another, and yet all but Natural motion 
that is canfed by thele free Agents, Mortals do not 
know } and therefore Jhould not be peremptory 
in judging. 

§. 1 8* Kut though we know not that in Mira- 
cles God ufeth not fecond Caufes, fome natural 
and fome free in waies unfearchable to us, yet 
may we be aflured by Miracles of his will and - 
atteltation : when we find that things are done 
quite out of the way of his ordinary Providence 
in the uncontrouled confirmation of fome pro- 
phetical Revelation : For God is the Governour 
of the rational World ; and his moral Govern- 
ment muft be by the intelligible fignification of 
his will dt dtbit 0, what fo all be due from us , and 
to us : And if Miracles be nfed to deceive us, they 
cannot be done without, him, whatever fecond 
Caufe there be: And if he fhould ufe them (tho* 
by fecond Caufes) to deceive us, we are utterly 


[ 81 ] 

rernedilefs, and therefore guiltlefs- And Gcd that 
hath neither impotency, ignorance nor badnefs, 
cannot need a Lye to govern Man, when he hath 
made it part of his Image, on Man, and needful to 
Mens Juftice to each other to hate Lying. 
- §. 19- A Miracle controuled by contrary Evi- 
dence, is no notification of God's Atteftttion : 
It may be permitted for feveralgocd ends: For 
God by controlling it giveth us iufficient reme- 
dy agairift Deceit. And there are two waies by 
which a Miracle may be controuled : Firft, by 
greater conquering Miracles ufed for fomc contra- 
ry Doftrine or Caufej fo the t^gyftian Magi- 
cian's Miracles were controuled by Mofes. Se- 
condly, when it is fome unqueftionable Truth 01 
Duty or Word, that is already better proved 
which that Miracle pretendeth to contradid;. A< 
if a Miracle were done by a Deceiver, to prove 
that there is no God, no Life-to-come, or againfl 
Mercy or Juftice, or to difprove Chriftianity 
the greater Miracles which have confirmed th< 
Gofpel, and the evident Light of Nature, whicl 
proveth the Deity and Life- x to-come, acd the Du 
ty of Love and Juftice, do ccntroul fuch deceivinj 
Miracles. ( Therefore a Servant of Chriffc ma] 
molt comfortably fuffer Martyrdome for his tefti 
mony to the Deity, Chriftianity, the Life-to-come 
or Charity and Juftice againfl Malice aad Perfect 
tion and Cruelty, which even a Miracle would no 
juftifie } more than for a difputable Opinion.) 

§. 20. It's a great Queftion, How a true Pre 

phet might be known antecedently, before hi 

Prophecy was fulfilled. And it's of great momen 

toconlider, the difference between a Legiflativ 

. Prophet, and a tnecr particular Meflage. Meft 

G an 

ned their ' 

[ 82 ] 

and ClHtliT, the LcgiQators, confirmed 
Laws and Word by multitudes of uncontrouled 
Miracles: For Life and Death lay upon mens 
Obedience or Difobedience to them : And if a Pro- 
phet did reprove any Sin againft that Law, the 
Miracles that confirmed the Law did juftifie them. 
But if it were but a Prophecy about fome other 
temporal Event (as Jeremfs of the Captivity) it 
needed no Miracle j for it was but a temporal 
Suffering that followed the not believing them. 

The Law of God, which ftiould 
pardon the dif order here be handled, I fhall fpeak of 

*f not handling the a f CQrwar a. 

Law before Sin : 
It is for young Rea- 
ders fake, who would have all Coi?s Laws opened together, tt 
give Light to each tther. 


Of God's caufing or not caufing Sin. 

%. i . TtOw certainly the Doftrine of the necef- 
XJl fity of immediate,efficient,phyfical,pre- 
detcrmining Premotion, doth make God the prin- 
cipal Caufe of all Sin, I have fo oft fhewed, and 
fo fully proved, that f (hall here be very fhort 
upon that Subject. 

§. 2. To fay, that God is the principal deter- 
mining Caufe of every (Infill aft with all its Ob- 
jects and Circumftances(called the material* peccatty 
and alfo the Caufe of the Law that forbiddeth it, 
and the Porfon that committeth it, is to make himt 


C 83] 

■ the chief Caufe of Sin, as for as it is capable of a 

► Caufe, even of the formal Caufe. 

§. 3. To fay, That fuch a Caufe is the Caufe on- 

[ ly of the Aft, but not of the Obli<j*ity, is ablurd ^ 
becaufe the obliquity is a Relation neceffariiy rcful- 
ting from the Law and Aft with all its modes and 
circtimftances : And the obliquity can have no other 

§. 4, To fay, That God willeth and loveth and 
caufeth Sin, not as Sin, but for good ends and uft$ 9 
is, to fay no more for God than may be laid for 
wicked men, if not for Devils 5 fave only that God's 
Ends are better than theirs. 

§♦ 5. To fay, That God willeth not Sin, but the 
Exifiencc and Futnrity of Sin, is but as aforefaid, 
to lay, that He wiUs not Sin as Sin, or fnb rati§ne 
m4i, but that it exift for better ends ; or clfe it 
is a contradiction : For to will or cm ft Sin is no- 
thing elie but to will and caufe the exifience of 

§. 6. They that fay, That God willeth the 
Exifitnce of Sin, as it is fumme ^tnducibile^ to the 
Glory of his Juftice and Mercy, (yea, and that 
per ft, and not only p*r accident) do wrong the 
Glory of God's Holinefs and Wifdom. \ Phyfi- 
cian can love his own skill, and compaflion, and 
the honour that cometh to him by curing a Di- 
feafe, without loving or willing the Difeafe it felf, 
but only fuppofing it as an Evil which he can turn 
to Good. 

§. 7. They that fay, That God is the Caufe in- 
deed of cur Sin, but is no Sinner himfclf, becaufe 
he is under no Law, fay nothing in the latter but 
wh# all grant, and nothing in the former but what 

G a God's 

[ »4 3 



-God's Church doth commonly abhorr, exceptk 
fomc few Angular pr efumers. 

§. 3. They that hold, That God doth by im- j 
mediate phyfical efficient predetermining Prcmo- ] 
tion principally and unrefiftibly caufe every finful I 
aft, with all its modes and circumftances, do cer- 1 
tainly deny all certainty of Faith, and fo fubvertl 
all Chriftianity : For the formal Objeft of all Di- \ 
Vine Faith, is Gcd*s Veracity , (that God cannot 
lye) if God could lye, our Belief could hatfe no 
certainty: Now God fpcaketh to us, but by iv fa- 
red mm, and not by an ejfential voice of his own : 
And if God caufe, as aforefaid, all the Lyes that I 
ever were fpoken by Men or Devils in the World> ; 
then no man can be fure that he doth not Jo by 
Prophets and Apofltles> or that ever they fay true : \ 
And God^s Veracity then is gone. 

§. 9. They that think to evade this Evidence ] 
by the difference of Predetermination and Infpira- 
tion, and fay God infpireth no Lyes though he pre- t 
determine all by phyfed Premotion, do labour in j 
vain: Fori r. No man can ever prove that any , 
Infpiration doth intereft God more k the Aft or 
Lye, than phyfical Predetermination doth : For 
how can God be more the Author of any Aft 
than by effeftual premoving the Creature to aft 
it, and that^by immediate phyfical Predetermina- 
tion ? What doth Infpiration do, but fo move 
the Mind, Will and Tongue of a Prophet ? No man 
can name more that Man is capable of. 2. But 
if there were a difference, wc are not capable of 
underftanding that difference fo well, as to prove 
that God can caufe all the Lyes in the World by 
\rediter mining Premotion, and yet can caufe none 



r Infpiration; (hall none believe him that know 

>t this difference ? 3. And were it intelligible, 
would be only to infpred men themfelves. So 

lat I am paft doubt that we mult part with all 
Certainty of Christianity \ and of all Divine Beliefs if 
re receive this Doctrine of Predetermination, be- 

ifethe objiffnmformalifidei is then gone. 

§. 10. They that fay, that if we make not 
God the Predeterminer to every aft infpecie morali, 
and in every comparative refpett; and mode, we fhail 
make Man a God, by making him a Can/a prima, do 
thereby as much conclude God to be the firft and 
principal predetermining efficient Caufe of every 
wicked Habit ( as of Malignity , or Hatred of 
Cod, &c.) becaufe a Habit hath as much Entity as 
an Aft : Therefore if it deifie Man, to make him 
the firft Caufe, e.g. of a Lye ox Murder ^ in fpecie, 
then fo # it will do to make him the firft Caufe of 
the Habit. 

§. 11. If it be as impofllble for Kfan to do 
any thing but what he doth, or not to do all 
that he doth without God's forefaid predetermi- 
ning Premotlon, as it is to be Gods, or to overcome 
God, or make a World, then if Men are counted . 
Sinners, and condemned, it is for not doing fuch 
impoflibilities, for not doing what God alone can 
do, or for not overcoming Almighty premoving 

§. 12. *t cannot rationally be expefted, that 
they that believe that God is the chief Caufe and 
Wilier of all Sin, fhould think it very bad, or them- 
felves bs.d for it i or that when God hath unre- 
fiftibly made all men. to fin, he yet hateth it, . 
and fent his Son into the World to teftifie his 1 
Hatred by dying for it 5 and that he is ferious in 

G 3 aft 

: nor that 

C 86] 

all that he faith againft it in his word : 
fuch men fhould hate it, and rather die than fin. 

§• 13. Therefore as the Church of God hath 
ever abhorred to make God the Caufe of Sin, and 
kept up the fence of the Evil of Sin, (for our ha- 
tred of it, and departing from it, and our Humi- 
liation) as a neceflary part of our Jleligion, fo 
muft we refoluteiy do ftill } or elfe we fhall be 
worfe than the Light of Nature tcacheth Hea- 
thens themfelves to be. 

§. 14. God hath many waies to caufe the£/- 
felis of Sin, without caufing the Sin it [elf; as by 
impediments to other waies, By altering Recipi- 
ents, Objetts, Concaufes, and many others, which 
I have elfewhere enumerated : He can will and 
procure, that Chrift fhall die by the finful malice 
and a&ion of the Jem, without willing or cau- 
iing their malice, will or adtion as bad : A^he can 
procure a man to be in the way where a Murde- 
rer cometh with a difpofition to murder, and can 
direft the Bullet, &c. 

§.15. When one and the fame word doth fig- 
nifie both the Sin and the Efett of the Sin,itoc- 
cafioneth the error of men that cannot diftinguifh : 
Andfo if the Scripture fhould fay, That God is the 
Caufe of it? they think it includeththe Sin with 
the EfFeft. So Murder fignifieth both the will and 
*&ion of the Murderer, and the death of the man 
murdered as the eftft : Abfolom's Conftuprations 
fignifieth both his finfnl will and aftion, and the 
ef eel of both : The revolt of the Israelites from Je- 
roboam - 7 the giving up of Kingdoms to the Beaft, 
and many fuch-like, in Scripture are afcribed to 
God as the Caufe, not as the words Jlgnifie the 
frfstl wilt and aftion of the Malefaftor, but only j 


C 87 ] 

: produced if el} of both (faving when God's per" 
iiffion only is underftood.) 

§. 16. They that deride it as abfurd, that 
God fhould decree, will and caufe the EfFed, and 
not the Wills forbidden Aft, are too bold with 
Gcd, in meafuring his Counfels and A&ions by 
the rule of their vain Imaginations : Yet many 
give us, inftead of Scripture and Reafon, but fuch 
a confident deriflon, and fay, C How *bfnrd is it to 
fay that God willed^ decreed and canted that Chrift 
jlwuld he murdered^ and yet willed^ decreed or caufed 
not that any fhould murder him ? That Cod fhzuld 
-will and caufe David' J Concubines to be dtfiled y and 
not will or caufe that Abfoloill fhould defile them ? 
That He fhould will and caufe the Kingdom to be 
rent from Rehoboam, and yet not caufe any one to 
will or do it f &€.~] But is all falfe that is not 
agreeable to their imagination ? Or is this a con- 
vincing way of reafoning ? It is not from imper- 
fection but perfection that God doth not will or caufe 
mens Sin : But it is from his perfection that he cau- 
feth the ffifty as being the Lord and Ruler of the 
World. Sin is not a capable Objctt of God's Voli- 
tion, or an effect which he can caufe : But the efftSt 
is, God cannot lore or caufe J u dot's will or act 
( infpecie ) of betraying Chrift, nor the Jews will 
or adt in murdering him : But God can will and 
1 caufe r that Chrift fhall be betrayed and killed, by 
fuch individual perfons as he foreknew were by 
their wickednefs difpofed thereunto. 

§. 17. All good men have fo deep a hatred of 
Sin, and zeal for God's Holinefs, and confefs* 
that Sin is of the Devil, and it is his fpecial cha- 
racter to be the Author of it, that when zeal 
againft an Adverfary in Dilputation can yet make 

G 4 many 

C 88 ]] 

many put that character on God ( yea, as 
prime Efficient, which is more than a Tempter^ 
and this as a part of the Honour of his Providence', 
and think they ferve God and his Truth, by bit- 
ter reviling the contrary-minded,, it is a dreadful 
inftance how far Fadtion and Contentious Zeal 
may carry men. And yet when we fee how care- 
fully many avoid Sin when they have thus honour 
red it as God's work, it is a notable inftance how 
far good men may err in notions, and yet pratti<- 
cally hold the contrary truth, and what great no- 
tional Errors mult be pardoned to each other, as 
they are pardoned of God. 

§. 1 8. God pwijheth Sin with Sin, without tau- 
fing that Sin at all } that is, i.Hcjuftly denieth his 
Grace to the reje&crs of it, and their Sin h the 
confequentof that Privatien, as a drunken man's 
wandering is to ones denying to lead him : 2. God 
maketh it a funifhment when man hath firft made it 
* Sin. [] q. d. Jf thoh wilt c$mn:it fitch a Sin, it fliall 
have this ferial nature and effriir^ As if in the Law 
of Nature God decreed, that excefs of Dnnk^ or 
Meat fliould breed Sicknefs, that taking a fweet 
Poifbn Jhould torment you , that Venery fliould 
bring the Pox, that Prodigality (hall impoverifh 
men, &c. Here Man firft maketh it a Sin, ar^dthen 
God maketh it a Punifhment : And Sjn it felf being 
the deformity and mifery of the Soul, hath two 
relations at once ( in time }} the firit in order of 
Nature is the fwfulnefs^ caufed by Man - and the 
fecond the penal relat ion czw&d by God \ whofe A& 
indeed was antecedent in his Law (of Nature), ma- 
king Nature fuch, that it fhould foJnffer if it will fo 
&>Ji and yet the ' £ffeft is confequent to mans 

Aft. .♦ 



C 8 9 3 

Of 'Natural Power ami Frte-rvill. 

§.1. "THE Glory of God on his Works is their 
1 expreffion of his Perfections, by the Ira- 
preflion of them which he hath made. And He 
hath communicated Being and Subftantiality as the 
. fubffoawm, and therein the Virtues of Vital Power ^ 
wifdom and Goodvef (cr Love) : and thefe are his 
Image upon Man. 

§♦ 2. The more Power therefore a Creature 
hath, the more he glorifieth the Power of Cod : 
And the moft: powerful Creatures (as the Sun) do 
more ftiew forth his grettnefs ttan the moft unpo- 
ttnt. Therefore to deny cr extenuate any Power 
given of God, is to difhonour him in his works : 
So abfurd is it to think that the Po:r r bribed 
to Man, is dishonourable to God j as if you took 
from the Workman all the Praife that you give 
to his Works. 

§. 3. All M#?s Power is pafflvc from COD and 
fuyrimr Caufts, but it is naturally attive as to 
things inferiour, and in it felf. 

§. 4. Gcd endued man at firft with a threefold 
Power, \. Natural, i.Mord^ i>Politicd, which is 
a Ruling Power over Inferiours, 

§. %. Man*s Power was p9rtly effetitUl cr inft± 
parable, and partly accidental or feparable. 1. To 
have the three Powers or Faculties of Vital Atti- 
yitfa Intettettm and Will, is eJf:r?tiAl> and Man can- 


not be a Man without them : But to have thefe in 
promptitude and Strength, is but as health oxftrength 
to the Body:, a feparable thing. 2. To have 
fomc moral Power to how and defire and praElife 
fame moral Good, it fcemeth is infeparable from 
Man in via ; for all men naturally have fome wti- 
ti a communes, and differencing fenfe of moral Good 
and Evil: Elfe men fhould be as bad as Devils: 
But to be truly Holy was feparable (as Health) and 
£b was loft. 3. To have fome fuperiority over 
Brutes, and Parents over their Children, it fecms 
js infeparable, or is not fcparated j for it conti- 
nued in Nature : But the true Majfjiy of this fu- 
periority was loft by Sin. 

§. 6. No Creature hath any Power but what is 
totally derived from God and dependent on him, 
and ftill upheld by him and ufed under him. 

§. 7. Though fome would have more Power 
afcribed to Nature, and others appropriate more 
to Gr*ce, yet in this it is no Controverfie, How 
much is to be afcribed to God : For both Nature 
and Grace, and the Powers of both are totally from 
God: But allthequeftion is, Which way God gi- 
rcth it to man. 

§. 8. In general we fhould be moft cautious, 
1. That we difparage not any Power or Endow- 
ment which is Gods own fVork^, whether natural 
or gracious. 2. That we give not too much to 
any Work that is proper to Man. 

§- 9. Natural Power, of Vital Attion, Intellection, 
and Volition, is fjppofed by God as Lawgiver in 
his Subjects *, that is, that we are Men. 

§. ic. Every aft of Knowledge, Faith, Re- 
pentance, Love and Obedience is dor.e by ont natu- 
ral lumrs or Faculties, and none withput them. 

§. 1 1. The 

C 91 ] 

§. M. The word ^ Moral? over ~\ fignifieth, 

1. Sometimes a Poixer to /wra/ aftions y (and fo »*- 
"r ;;r*i /Wer in Man is alfo moral in fome degree. ) 

2. Sometimes a /fr/y Diffofitio» y elpecially in the 
Willy to fuch holy moral a&ions ; which is the Rc<fti- 
tude of our natural Powers, or the Health of them 
ifl a faving degree or fort, and is the Gift of Grace, 
fince Sin departed. 3. Moft frequently I ufe the 
words for fuch a degree of God's helping or hea- 
ling Influx or Grace, as is fhort of a Habit for 
promptitude and facility, but yet puts the foul in 
fuch a difpofltion, by which Man can do the Acft, 
(and it may come to pafs without more Grace 
whether it do or not) which the Dominicans call 
Sufficient Grace , and I rather call Neceffary 
Grace. 4. Sometimes it is meant (as caufa morale) 
for that which is Power Reputatively. 

§. 12. Power hath feveral degrees : fome can aft 
eafdy % yea, is hardly reftrained : fome can aft with 
difficulty, yet constantly : fome difficultly and very 
rarely ' fome can acl y but the Impediments are {b 
great, and its weaknefs fuch, as that it never will 
do what it can : And thefe we call a moral Imponn- 
cy ^ as being nputative impotency^ in thefe three lafl 

§. 13. Sin hath debilitated Man's very rutural 
Fivacity and jffiivity to things fpiritual, and alfo 
darkened and undifpofed his Vnder {landing to them \ 
but efpecially dif ffiettcdhim, and perverted his will, 
with an indifpofttion, averfenefs and enmity toGcd. 
And none of thefe are cured, but by the Grace of 
Chrift i quickening (or fir engthening and awakening") 
illuminating and converting the Soul. ( Of which 

more after in due placed 

§. 14. Adam 

C 92 ] 

§. 1 4. Adam had Power to have ftood when 
he fell : God took no power from him > nor let 
out fuch a Temptation as he could not refill: : * 
But Sin entered at hisWiU^ and corrupted it be- 
fore he loft his Power. 

§. 15. There is therefore in r er um rratnra, fuch 
a thing as a true Power, to do more good and lefs evil 
than we do. 

§. 1 6. And thqre was fuch a Power in Adam% 
Will, by which he could have billed what he did 
not willy and by which he could have rejected 
the Temptation : And this without any other 
Grace, than that which he then had , and ufed 

§. 17. Othervvife all the fin of Adam and the 
World would be refblved into the neceflitating 
Will and Work of God, and fo all Faith would be 

§. 18. Therefore Mar?s WiR was fuch a Facul- 
ty as COllld be a caufa prima, of the moral modifi- 
cation or fpecification of its own Afts : ( Not a 
eaufa prima fimpliciter, but thus, fecundum quid.} 
For elfe God muft be the cauf* prima of Sin, 
which is the ill modification of that Aft. 

§. 19. I know that to Nature the Reafonings 
of our late- Infidels, to prove, That every Aft 
of the Will is as truly neteflitated as the motions 
of a Clock, do feem plaufible and hard to an- 
fwer ; becaufe it feemeth ftrange , that in any 
mode of A3 ton Man fhould be a firfi Caufe of it, 
and that a Creatures Aft fhould have no fuperiour 
Caufe in any mode : But on the other fide the Evi- 
dence is cogent, 1. That God u able to make a 
f elf •determining Power , that can thus do : For it is 
no cottradiftion. 2. That it is congrnow^ that be- 

[93 ] 

-low the happy Race of confirmed Spirits, there 
ftiould be a Race of fuch undetermined free Agents? 
left much to their own felf-determining Power. 
3. And Expetunce perfvvadeth us defatto 7 that fo 
it is. 4. Ana they that deny it, mull unavoid- 
ably make God the prime Canfe of all Sin? in a 
higher degree than it is or can be afcribed to 
Satan : And is all this with the rejection of 
Chriftianity more eligible, than the Conceffion 
that God tan and doth make a Creature with fuch 
fclf-detefmimng Free-will? as 

Can , as a fir ft Caufe of Of the divers forts <f 

its modified aft? fin without freedom *f Will, and 

God's Predetermination? And ^^Jffn^ 
, ,. , , 11 r i <-• J fe *9 Methodus Theo- 

by his help could forbear Sin logis^Qth.Theol. 
when he doth not. The Con- 
teft is, Whether G O D or Mag (hall be couhted 
the can/a prima of Sin ? wc fay, Man is the firft 
Canfe? and G O D is none at all : Some fay, God 
muft be the taufa prima of all that can have a 
Caufe in it : and rather than deny him the Ho- 
nour which is given to Satan? they will deny 
Chriftianity, and deny him to be holy a! d to be 

§. 20. GOD made this natural Free-will thai 
Man might be a governable Creature, fit to be 
morally ruled by Laws and rational Motives, and 
as part of God's Image on Man. 


t 94 3 

C H A P. X, 


Of Original Sin. 

§. i. T> Y one man Sin cntrcd into the World, 
O and Death by Sin, and fo Death paffed 
upon all in that all have finned. 

§. 2. We were not in Adam diftinft Perfons 
really \ for our Perfons then cxifted not - 7 and 
therefore did not inexift. 

§. 3. God doth not repute us to have been what 
we were not ; for he judgeth truly, and is not mis- 
taken : Therefore he judged not Peter and John to 
have been thofe Perfons in Adam then, nor AdanPs 
perfon the fame with theirs. 

§. 4. Therefore we were not then when he fin- 
ned perfons guilty in Adam ; for Non extfientu non 
fmt accidentia. 

%.% .We were Seminary or Virtually in Adam when 
he finned : Which is but that he had that Vinm 
generative, from which we naturally fprang in time j 
But to be Virtually in him, is Not to be perfonally in 
him^ but Potentially^ it being as to Exifience termi- 
nus diminuens. 

%. 6. As foon as we were Perfon s, we were Per- 
fons derived by Generation from Adam : Therefore 
with our Perfons we derived Guilt and Pravity : 
For he could beget no better than himfelf. 

§. 7. When Adam finned his whole Perfon was 
guilty and no part innocent: Therefore his very Se- 
men frolificnm had its part in the guilt according 
to its Capacity - 7 And though it was not a guilty 

Perfon 7 

[ 95 3 

, it was a part of a guilty Perfon ; and a 
art that was the Semen per/on* •, fo that when thpr, 
lemen became aptrfon (c*in) it became a guilty 
*rf»n, the guile, following the fubjeft according 
to its Capacity : And fo downward by Propaga- 
tion to this day. 

§. 8. God doth not impute Aian?* -i>.TwiSe/«>. 
Sin to us becaufe he vill do it, with- s^Tf' * 

. ... Z p€7i€th this. 

out any real participation or ours *, z 
no nor beyond our true natural parti- 
cipation , but according to it : Otherwife God 
fhould have made us fmners , meerly becaufe he 
TFcald do foj and not Adam. 

§. 9. We receive our Original Guilt and Pra- 
vity immediately from our next Parents, and but 
remotely from Adam: It cou'd never have come 
to us but through them from whom we receive our 
Nature, from them we receive the guilt and pra- 
vity of our Nature. 

§. io. Therefore thus far at Jeafl our next Pa- 
rents communicate Guilt and Pravity to us, and 
not Adam only : In which we fee that God's Im- 
putation goeth along with real Natural Participa- 

.§. 11. It feemeth to me a ftrange overfight in 
too many Divines who deny ( or obferve not ) 
our Guilt of all the reft of our Parents 
* Sins, while we were in their Loins, * of this 1 
as well as of Adams : feein? 1. there bwefMjb- 
is that fame reafon of both, fare what '*,* D '3S 
the change of the Covenant maketh p - 9Ve th it. 
( of which after. ) And, 2. Scripture 
is fo full and exprefs about it. 

§. 12. ill, If I have a guilty and depraved Soul 
from my Parents, it is becaufe I was once in them, 


[9* J ; 1 

Virtually or Scminally as truly and naturally as M 
was in Adam : And had not the Guilt been theirs I 
it had never been mine : And if it be mine becaafe 
it was theirs, why not one part of theirs as well k 
as another ? 

§. 13. It will be faid , Becaufe God fo Co- 
venanted with Adam that he fhould ftand or fall 
for himfelf and his Pofterity : I Anfwcr, That 
there was any fuch Covenant that if he flood his 
Pofterity fhould all ftand, or be Confirmed and 
Saved, is more than ever 1 found in Scripture or 
can prove, or do believe : But that it would have 
been to the benefit of his Pofterity I doubt not. 
And that his fall was to the Guilt and Corruption 
of his Pofterity I doubt not ; but ( as I faid ) not 
without and beyond their natural Intereft in him, 
and Derivation from him as the reafon of it : And 
we were as much naturally in our next Parents : 
And the Covenant of Innocency and the Cove- 
nant of Grace do not fo far differ as to exempt us 
from the Guilt of our next Parents fins : For the 
difference lieth not in this,That the firft only made 
Death the due reward of all Sin, nor that the firft 
did intereft Children in the Guilt of their Pa- 
rents fin : But in this, that the firft made us Guil- 
ty without a Remedy - 7 But the fecond giveth us 
a Remedy prefently for Pardon and Recovery, 
and fo our Guilt is not fo full, becaufe it is but a 
half Obligation having the Pardon annexed. The 
firft Law fai J, {J f thou fin thonfimlt be filius mortis, 
andfojhdBthofe that are Propagated of thee.'} The 
fecond Covenant faith, ^For thy Original and Actual 
Sin death is thy dne, but I give thee a Pardon and Re- 
medying Grace procured by theRightcoufnefs ofChriflr\ 
But note, That this Covenant pardoneth our Ori- 

r*5 3 

Sin as from Adam •, And yet it followeth not that 
we had none becaufe It is pardoned : Even fo it; 
pardonethcur guilt of our next Parents iins, and'^ 
therefore we had it to be pardoned : Both are par- 
donable to us i therefore we had both. 

§. 14 .2. And the Scripture is more copious,and 
as plain in making purufhment due to Children for 
their next Parents fins , as for sidwPs, though 
A4an?i only was the Original of all Sin and Mile - 
ry. I have el few here proved it at large : The 
Cafe of Cains Pofterity, and CWs, and IJhrnael'%, 
and Efen% and Achats Family, and Ahab's-, and 
many more do fully prove it : And more fully the 
Secorfd Commandment, and God's declaration of 
-his Name to Mofes, Excd. 34. and many-a Threat- 
riing to the Seed of the Wicked, and Chrift's ex- 
prefs Words in Matth.25. 36. fo that Scripture 
puts us out ot doubt. 

§. 15. The common Objedion is, that their 
£ Uuilt would be greater on vu towards the End of the 
World j than en them at the Beginnings becaufe all our 
Anctftonrs Guilt wouldbc ours : But I anfwer, 1. If 
it were fo,, it would be but many Obligations to the 
famePxmJhment, when it amounteth to that which 
God feeth our Nature capable of . For a Finite 
Worm is not capable bf more Suffering than is 
proportioned to his Nature, 2. And th?s Obje- 
ftion vainly fuppofeth, that none of our Ance- 
ftours Sins were pardoned : Whereas all are par- 
doned to the Faithful and their Seed, and much 
Temporal Punifhment is pardoned to many of the 
Unfan&ified : And God himfelf by limitiog it to 
the third and fourth Generation, feemeth to fet 
bounds to his own Juftice. 3. And the Guilt of 
our Parents Sins being of a more Diminute Nature 

H thast 

t 86 3 

than that of our own j4clnalSin ( Costcris pa?ibtt< ) 
it falleth not fo fully on us, as it did on the Com- 
mitters themfelves, nor as our own do. 4, And 
God *jfercth us the full pardon of our own and all 
together : And as long as the Law which tells us 
of our defert of puniihmeut, doth alfo give us a 
free pardon, we have no Caufe to complain. 

§. 16/ That we have all Original Sin is proved, 
in that clfe Infants fliould be faved without a par- 
doning Saviour, of a ckanfing Sanitifier •, which 
cannot be. 

§. 17. He that feeth the nniverfal inclination 
of Mankind to Evil even in their Childhood, and 
their backwardnefs to Good, even than Evil and 
that Good which Nature it felf affureth us are 
fuch, muft needs believe Original Pravity, or eife 
think hardly of God's Work. 

§. 18. He that feeth ftill that Drunkenncfs, 
Gluttony, Luft, &c. do vitiate both the Soul and 
Bodily Temperament of the Sinner , and how 
frequently a difeafed, diftempered Body , incli- 
ning Men to particular Vices, and an extraordi- 
narily vitiated Soul, is in dieir Children the plain 
fruit of the Parents Sin, may the eafilicr believe 
that wc drew down Pravity from Afam alfo, 
when we derive ^o much from neareft Parents. 

§. 19. And they that confider, that Mans Soul 
being* made Holy, for God, this unholinefs is not 
only a Negation but a Vrivmon^ not of Senfnive 
and Natural only, but of Moral Rcditude, will 
not deny but that the name of Sin or Moral Pravity 
belongeth to it. 

§. 20. And they that confider, that Parents 
Caufe not Children as an Artificer maketh an En- 
gine, but by Generation^ which is a Communica- 

tion of their own Eflence, and what Natural In- 
termit Parents and Children have in each other, 
and that it is in that is in both, and that 

the Moral Pnvatibn in its Nature , containeth 
much of Mans mifery, will eafily grant that it is 
both a Sin and Punishment, and a Moral Caufe 
of further puniftiment, properly enough fo called. 

§. 2r. They that Jay that Rea- 
fon of their denying Original Sin, Mr. w. Fenner 
upon the -difficulty of underftand- t" this opfnunfir 

. t i r i*. r^ tae Traduction or 

ins: whether Souls are new Crea- ~. . . ,. * 

5 . r . 6*«/r, into hi; C/r- 

ted or Derived from Parents, do tech/fines: But the 
too little fufpcft their frail under- PubUfber left that 
landings, and their own "dedu- out > 
ftions, and too eafily fiifpeft the 
Word of God. And I think that I have else- 
where proved that Generative Traduction of Souls, 
and yet Cod's yrcfent ? yea,, immediate Canfai&n 
of their Efftnce ('which may be called Creation} 
are here Con-fiftcnt : Which here I mull not now 
repeat : Vid. Muh. Theol. and Reafons of Cbrijtitn 



Of onr Redemption by Qhrifi: 

§. i . O I N having made Man guilty and depra d , 
O unfit for duty and felicity, ediens to the melt 
Holy Righteous God, and lyablc to his Juftice, the 
eternal Wifdom and Word of God did interpofe 
and by Mercy did fave Man from the deferved 
rigour of Juftice, proniiling Actual Redemption 

H z 

I 88 ] 

in the fulnefs of time, and on that fuppofition gi- 
ving fallen Man a pardoning and fcving Law ( or 
Covenant of Grace ) with anfwcrable help of his 
Spirit and Means, and outward Mercies fitted to 
Ills Recovery and Salvation. 

§. 2. But God would not have this Recovery 
and Salvation to he perfect at the fit ft \ but gave. 
Man a certain proportion of Common Delive- 
rance and Mercy , binding him to a Courfe of 
Diuy, in the performance of which he fhould re- 
ceive more by degrees till he were perfected. ( As 
Phificians cure their Patients. ) 

§. 3. Therefore God did enter into Judgment 
with fallen Man, and did fentence him abfolutely 
to fome degree of Punifhment, even to Labour, 
Pain, the penalty of the Curfed Earth, and fi- 
nally to Death 5 which Temporal Punifhment 
God would not remit, nor give him a Saviour to 
procure the pardon of it \ but* only to the Faith- 
ful, to turn all this unto their Benefit, and to de- 
liver them from the greater cverlaftirtg Suffer- 

§. 4. And their own fnjul pravity ai;d privati- 
on of Holme fs, and communion withGod-, wiich al- 
io was their great efi pmifhrnent by Confequence, 
God would not at once, nor in this Life perfeft- 
ly faye them from ; and therefore accordingly 
pardoned them their punifhment, but by the 
forementioned degrees. For he is not perfedly 
pardoned or -laved, who is yet left under fo much 

§.5. Some thinking it hard ,t hat for 4000 Years 
the World fhould have no Exiftent. Mediator > and 
that an Exigent F*ith in the future Mediator , 
Should be more neceflary than an Exifiem Mediator 


[$9 3 

and his Worl^ and thinking withal that it would 
folve many Textual Difficulties obje&ed by the 
Jbriansy and explain the Appearances of Chrift 
to the Patriarchs, have conceived that Chrilfc 
h^th a threefold Nature'^ viz. The Divine Nature^ 
2. crcarcd Snytr- Angelical Nature to which the Di- 
vine Nature was united before the Incarnation, 
and the Humane Nature afTumed at the Incarnati- 
on i and that fo we had an Exigent Mediator from 
the time of the FalL But whatever conveniences 
this Opinion may feem to have, I find no fatif- 
fattory proof of it in Scripture, nor that the 
Chriftian Church did ever hold it. And it is 
overmuch boldnefs to take up fo great a Doftrine 
as a third Nature in Chrift, which the Church of 
Chrift was never acquainted with. And the Texts 
that feem to be for it, are capable of the common 

§. 6. If any think that this was the Judgment 
of abundance , yea , the moft of the Antient 
Writers, before the da^s of Arias, becaufe they 
have fuch unhappy exprelTions of Chrift, which 
the Reader may find truly Collefted to his hand 
by Pet twins de Trwitate, and that it is fitter to 
Expound them as fpeaking only of Chrifi's fecond 
Nature, than to account them all Anans, or to 
honour the JtrUns by making themo/z their fide^ 
I anfwer, I leave every Man to his pwn judg- 
ment upon perufal of the Fathers words, allow- 
ing all Charity that hath fufficient ground : But 
I cannot perceive, that thefe Writers talk of any 
more Natures in Chrift than two, and pious ends 
muft be ferved by no Fiftions and Untruths : I 
think that we mull rather gather with Petavins there 
that the Votes in the Nicen* Council tell us, that 

H 3 then 

C 9° 3 

tlien the greater fart of the Church were "againlt 

Arm, and therefore th.ey were fo before, be- 
caufe they held ( in fo great a point) the Faith 
which they had received from their Fathers : 
And that the greater part of Writers, might differ 
from the greater part of the Church. And with- 
al, thefe Writers having more than other men 
to do with/the Heathen Philofophers and Ora- 
tors, who were prejudiced againft the Do&tine 
of the Trinity, did fhun their Offence by too 
much ftretching their fpeeches to that which they 
thought they could eafilier digeft, which gave A- 
rtm his advantages. The Conclufions either way 
are harfh and fad j but I leave ethers better to 
avoid them. 

. §. 7. The Deity it felf may not unfitly be cal- 
led our REDEEMER before the Incarnation, 
though notfo fitly a MEDIATOR, and though 
Redemption by Chrift's Death and Merits in the 
Flefh was not then wrought : Becaufe the word 
Redeeming is oft taken for a merciful Dtlivering^ 
though without a price \ and alfo becaufe the 
Trice was promifed from the beginning. But thus 
the word REDEEMER is equivocal, fignifying 
cither the Deity as a fromifing^ undertaking Sa- 
viour, or the Mediator who was promifed, and 
tf hr> performed the undertaken means. 

§. 8. The MEDIATOR himfelf being purely 
the Gift of the Divine Love and Mercy, it was 
no inconvenience, that God then had all the Glo- 
ry, and that Faith then acknowledged no other 
cxiftent Saviour, but God himfejtf the Infinite 

§.9. It 

C 9'i ] 

§. 9. It troublcth men much to open, how 
Chrift was any true Caufe of our Pardon and 
'Salvation as a Mediator, before his Incarnation? 
And what his merits , facnfice and interceffion 
could do, before they did exift ? And the common 
Anfwer is, That Moral (though not Fbyfical*) 
Caufes may canf* b:forc they exift, and fo ope- 
rate as forefeen, foiedecreed or willed. Butthefe 
Logical notions mult not be ufed to put off the 
Queflicn, inftead of fatisfa&orily anfwering it. 
This tells us not whether by a Moral Caufe they 
mean a True C?*fe of fome moral Being, or fome- 
thing mortify called a Caufe which indeed is not fo, 
but qtufi caufe : Nor yet whether they mean a 
Caufe emci&tt j final or conftitntive : Nor yet whe* 
ther they mean a Caufe of any thing in God, or 
only of fome following effedt. 

1 o. It muft be concluded that Chrifl's merits^ 
ficrifice/gnd Interceffion make no real Change in God, 
his Vndtrfkandpig or Will, and therefore have no 
fuch CaufaRty. 

§. 1 1. But God's Vrorrrfefirft, and CbrijFs Me- 
rits and Sacrifice next make a Change in the ftate 
of things, laying that Ground- work or neceffary 
Antecedent and Condition'^ -upon which it becometn 
mtet^ ri-ht and juft for God to give the reft of his 
mercy which this is the Condition of, and the true 
meritorious Caufe :^ And fo the Change was neither 
on GO D 7 ner immediately on Man, but /or - 
on tHe St Ate of things which God and man were 
both concerned in: It is a caufa ordinis J while 
that is done firft, which is prerequifitc to what is 
to follow : And it is a tanfa rei ( beneficii ) while 
it not only rempveth moral Impediments of our 
Pardon and Salvation, but alfofetteth matters in 

H 4 ftch 

C-92 3 

filch a ftate, in which it becometh congruous^ meet, 
right and jujt for God to pardon and fave us j 
which is a remote difpofing the falPn finner to 
be a due Recipient of God's following promifed 
Grace. And thus it is in both fenfes a moral Caufe, ' 
as it is a Caufe of our Right, and of Congmity, and 
as it is, though not indeed, yet morally, rewtativc- 
tyi or Quafi caufa fhyfica realis, of our Tardon,6race 
and Salvation, by making them become juft, right 
and due. And being thus far a Caufe of the eflfe&s 
ad extra, fer extrinfecam denominationem ex conno- 
tatione C* relatione ad objectum, it may be called 
(with cautclous fobriety) a Caufe of Go <Ps own Jn- 
t elections andVoli ions : For though in themfclves 
they are God's Eflence, yet for God \to know us to 
he redeemed and to will our prefent Pardon and Sal- 
vation as K edeemed ones,] are words that fpeak 
more than God's Effence as in it fclf, and include 
the termination of his Afts on thefe Objefts as fuch i 
and fo denominate God's Eflence diftin&ly from 
the Obje&s , which elfe would never be diftin- 
guifhed, nor have but one .name ; being really but 

§. 12. Yet all tfeefe diverfifying, diilinguifting, 
denominating Caufes of God's Intellections, Voli- 
tions and Operations, muft not (even denomina- 
tively or relatively) be counted or called Efficient 
Caufes of God's A&s, nor ftriftly final but objective. 
And therefore here it muft be confidered what Caufe 
An Object u J which Philofbphers are not well agreed 
in. But I think I may fafely fay, That as to mo- 
ral afts, the Objeft is to be reduced to fuch a caufa 
Tnattrialis or conftitutiva as they are capable of, 
not of the Aft as an Aft, but as this aft, in fpccie, 
tfcBominated from the receptive terminating mat- 

I 91 1 

ter or objeft. And though to Man, to know this 
or that, and to mil this or that dd extra, feem fomc- 
what really different (or modally at lcaft) from 
knowing and -willing onr [elves or fome ether ObjeEl, 
yet in God it is not to be called ex parte fa, z 
real or modal difference- at all. 

§. 13. Yet I aflert not that the Ratio prima of 
all thele Diver fties of the Divine A<fts is ex ter- 
mini* fen recifientibui : For the fir ft Reafon is in and 
of Gcd himfelf : For it is God that makcth all <//- 
verjhies of Effe&s and Changes j and fo it is from 
thofe divers Effcfls of his own Will, that his Witth 
relatively ex connot at ione termini diverfly denomi- 
nated- Eat that in God which is the Ratio prima 
diver ft mi is , is not divers^ but his onefimple efj'ential 
Will ; fo that it is the diver fty of Objetts which is 
the immediate Reafon of diftinguiihing God's a&s, 
(of which before), 

§. 14. Thefe things premifed, I come nearer 
to the Queftion , if that which exifteth not do tru- 
ly caufe, it muft be either efficiently, confritutively, 
or finally. The two firft are denied by the com- 
mon Reafon of Mankind. That which is not, 
cannot effect : Nothing can do nothing. And 
to fay it u not, is to fay, it conftitutctb nor. And 
as it is certain, that canfafinalis non efficit, yea, is 
but cauf* metaphor ice operant, fo it is certain, that 
no Creature caufeth any thing in God , no not 

§.15. Thofe that fay, That Chrift and his death 
and merits did not caxfe before Exigence, in ejfe 
exiflemi, but in effe cogmto, as conftituting the 
Divine Idea's, 1. Muft remember that the ctfecog- 
nitu?7i, as they call it, is no ejfe r$i cognita at all \ 
Therefore if only the effe cegnitum do canft, then 


[ 94 3 

it was not Chrift .and his Merits that caufcd. 
2. In Man for an tfft ctgmtum, to caufe his further 
a£ts, is but for oneThought to caufe another Then 
ox* Volition or Nolitien. . And thefc Thoughts and 
Y^lv'fons afertfcHy divers, and conftituted by re- 
ception of intromited Obje&s : Rut God is no 
Recipient , nor knoweth any Objcft as we do by 
intrimijfien •, Nor hath he any fuch Thmghn or 
Mr*'s of Creatures as are really divers ex parte 
£>ei y bui' only by -extrinfick denomination. 

§. rtf. If it be faid, That then Gcd fhould know 
nothing till it u, becaufc a denomination muft be 
fromfomething, and nothing can be no Object or 
terminus j and fo of his Will. I Anf i . God dorh 
not know any thing as exijiem now, which doth 
r?9t exift now. But our N*w is in his Eternity, and 
his Eternity without partition comprehendeth all 
our Times \ pr<e and poft, ab and ^are Prepositions 
of no fignification in and of Eternity , but only 
C^3- And therefore as Aaguftm faiih, his Pre- 
fcience is but his Science fo denominated from the 
Order of Qbje&s, but neteth not any difference in 
him, who hath neither pre nor pofl. How this is 
to be underftoed without making the Creature 
eternally exift, I have elfewhere fuily opened. 

§. 17. That plain truth therefore which muft 
here fatisfie us is, That God, who is the firft 
efficient and ultimate final Caufe of all rhirigs,and 
caufed by none, did of his free abundant Mercy 
undertake the faving of finful Man , and not- 
withftanding his Threatning and Man's Defeft, re- 
volving to make advantage of our Sin and Mifc- 
ry, for the Glory of his Wifdom, Love, Mercy 
and Juftice, he promifed that the Eternal Word 
fhould in due time atfume Man's nature, and there- 

E 95 ] 

in do and fufFer that which fhould glorifie him 
inore th~n Man's Perdition Would have done, and 
I make it juft znd rr.ce: for him to 
ivelyat the prefent 
under the Pfomifc ( for 4000 years) and afterward 
more fully at Chrift's Incarnation^ and finally to 
perfeft min Glory. 

So that of k of our Salvation is one entire 

frame, compofed by Divine Wifdom and Love; 
v e part is the Reafon of another, though 

none be the Cauie of any thing in God : And 
Ch'rift's Mediation, though coming after 4000 
7 zt was then to do that which fhoold make 
it .: eet and right and juft for God to pardon Sin 
before : Even as in a Building the feveral parts 
may be the reafon of each other, becaufe they 
muft be all compaginated and fitted to their rela- 
tive places and ufes : And though the Foundation 
make not the Superftru&ure, in upholdeth it : 
And as AqvinM briefly faith, Veas vra propter hoc 
; . fed vult hec ejfe propter hoc •, nothing is the 

Caufe of God's Will, but it is God's Will that one 
thing frail be for another : And when all his 
Work muft be one Frame, the part laft made may 
be a reafon of the former. And Co Chrift^s me- 
rits and facrihee, though after 4000 years, per- 
form that for which it became juft and meet be- 
fore fo«jod to pardon Sinners. For thosgh it 
fras net then exiftcnt, yet ( befides the Decree J 
Lhe Promife, Prediction and Publication made 
it ufcfu! to its ends , in reined to G O D and 

^ : i3. So then, though the Caufe be not truly 
* Cmh[c till it exift, and though all the Pardon 
ifidSalvation given for 4000 years, was before the 


exiftence of the merits and facrifice of Chrift, y« 
the Promife and Notification of the Mediator an* 
his merits and facrifice, as the reafon of this Par- 
don, did then exift, and was the caufe of that 
Pardon, which Chrift was afterward to merit. 

§•19. It is therefore no* ahfurdity, that the 
exiflence of Marts Faith and Repentance jhouid be 
neceffary^ when the Mediator s Existence and his 
Merits was not necejfary : For it was not then an 
exifient Mediator ( and Sacrifice, drc. ) that was 
the Ohjeft- of Faith, but only a Promifed Me- 

§. 20. And whereas it is a doubt, feeing the 
Head is ejjenrial to the churchy .and the Divine 
Nature only was Head of the Church before the 
Incarnation, and the Divine and Mumam united 
was afterward the Head, whether it follow not 
the Church before the incarnation and after (and 
£0 Faith and Religion* were divers mfpecie^ and 
not the fame? I anfwer, Thar while we agree 
all de re, that fo much difference there is, it is 
not worth our trouble to ftrive about the Name 
or Logical Notion of C Samenefs of Species.~} 

§.21. When God hatn cholen to fave Mar) 
by way of a Mediator, and by his Sacrifice and 
Merits, as that way in which his Wiftlom, Love, 
Holinefs, Mercy and Juftice are eminently glo- 
rified, it feemeth to me too bold Preemption to 
difpute, Whether he could not have fave d us other wife , 
and pardoned Sin without a Sariour ? as it would 
be to difpute, Whether he conld not illuminate the 
Earth without the Sun ? He wanteth not Power 
to d) whatfoever is meet for God to do } but all 
the queftion is, Whether it be meet^ fuppofin^ Mans 
Nature and Sin to be what they are f 

§. J2. Go 


C 97 ] • 

§. 22* God did illuminate the World without 
the Sun ? till the Sun was nifcde : But it was the 
wnperfett World ', and before the perfecting of his 
Work : And fo God did fave Man without an 
\Exiftent Mediator, ( unlefs God may be called a 
Mediator between h;mfelf and rs, which is a harfh 
Phrafe). But it was before the Work of our Sal- 
vation was brought to maturity *, for the Cure of 
Man is perfe&eft at lafh 

§» 23. Wc muft take great heed, that in confi- 
dering of the parts of our Redemption byChrifr, 
we look not allat^e snd over-look the reft, nor 
fet not thofe Works of Chrift in oppofition which 
muft be taken in conjunfticn : But his Incarnati- 
on, Obedience, Contempt of the World, Viftory 
over S2tan, Suffering, Refurrettion, AfcenGon, 
Glory, Interceffion, Reign, Railing the Dead, 
Judgment, glorifying his Church , mull be all 
conjoined, though not confounded. 

§. 24 The Benefits of Redemption, or recove- 
ring Mercies, are not all given in the fame way t 
We muft carefully diftiaguifti of thofe that God 
giveth abfolmdy and antecedently, that is, before 
any Condition or Dmy on Man's part, and thofe 
that he giveth confequently upon AianH Dmy per- 
formed as the means of Reception. ■ 

§. 25. Antecedent IVercies arefome common to 
all men, and fome proper to fome Countries, Ages 
and Perfons,as the free Benefactor pleafeth. 

§. 25. Of the former fort is the Sujientationof 
Nature, reprival from defcrved miferies, the Law 
of Grace, as to the tenor, and fome degree of pro- 
mulgation, with all the common Mercies, Means, 
Duties, which tend to Recovery. Of the laser lore 
are the greater Wffrmoffuch mercies and means, 


. c 

which God freely .givcth to fume more tha 

§. 27. Therefore we mult not C*y that Infidels 
or wicked men have no Mercies, or no Right to 
what they do pofTefs as from God, as being no 
Confenters to the Covenant or Performers of it : 
Becaufe there are Antecedent Mercies given before 
jixh Confent or Performance •, not as to Covenanters 
but as* to miferable men, invited to enter Covenant 
with God in Chriit. Though thefe are fo forfei- 
ted .by their refafal, that they have no aflurance 
of their continuance, but God may foon take them 
all away. 

§. 28. The confequent Mercies are PardoVyJufri- 
fication, Adoption, the Spirit, a fecured filial Right to 
all outward Mercies that are good and iliitab!e to 
us, and final Clo f y y and whatever God hath pro- 
mifed on Conditions by us to be performed. 

§. 29. The quellion of miverfd Redemption, 
and fpecUly 1 fhall pretermit till I fpeak of univer* 
fal o race. 

§. 30. Seeing Life, Health, Food, Hope, and all 
that is truly good, were forfeited by Sin, and none 
of them can be due to us by the Law of bwocency, 
it followeth, that wherever they are given, it is 
upon other terms, which can be no other than 
thofe of the Law of Grace, as fruits of our Re- 
deemer's Mercy Antecedently or confeqimndy^) And 
where the Fmtis are apparent, we may know the 

§.31. The Fruits of Redemption are one -entire 
frame confining of various and unequal parts, to 
divers perfons (yet mutually related :) And there- 
fore it will not follow, that nothing but what cer- 
tainly inferreth theperfon's Sdvation is any fucli 
effeft of Man's Redemption, CH AlV 

Of tht fever al'Laivs or Covenants of God. 

§. i. TTHough the order of the matter require, 
* that I fhould have fpokcn of the Law of 
Innocency bjforc I had fpoken of Sin and Redem- 
ption, yet thinking that the fort of Readers for 
whom I now efpecially write, will beft underftand 
things, if I treat of all God's Lam together, I will 
at this time fetch my method from their intended 

§. 2. The nature of a Law in general ^ and of 
God's L.ixvsin fpecial, I haveelfewhere fo oft and 
largely fpoken of (pretending fomewhatto clear 
up rhnt Dc&rinefromfeveral miftakes) that I malt 
here pretermic it. 

§. 3. Though the word [Law"] do principal- 
ly lignifie the regulating Impofition of our Duty^ 
and the word Covenant doth principally ugnifie, a 
mutual Contract , yet it is the fame Divine InftwH* 
menty which is meant oft and ufually in Scripture, 
by both thefe Names : ("Of which fee Grotm at 
large in his Preface to his Annotations in N&v.Tefta- 
mvnunu) It is called a Law in one refpett, and a 
Covenant in another, but the thing is the fame. 

As a Z^ip, the parrs of it are, 1 . The Precept 
C and Prohibition ) conflicting our Dtuy. 2. The 
Retribution^ Premunt and Penal conftituting the 
Dnenefs of Rewards and Phmf>mKnts.^ as the duty 
is performed or negle&ed. 


f 100 ] 

As it is a Covenant itcontaineth, I. The Benefit 
( which is the Reward) freely given, yet on con- 
dition of a due and fuitablc Reception and uft of 
prefer ibed Means : 2. The Condition defcribed, and 
Meam prefcribed y in the fa id Preceptive, part. 
3. And. the Tkrcatning in cafe of Ingratitude, 
Refufal and Difobedicnce. Which are the fame 
things as in the Law of Grace, coniidering the 
Covenant but as Inftinttcd and 
Offered: For «P/*9»;«i fignifieth 
ufually but the Re folved declared 
terms of Life and Death, or the 
Divine Ordination by which he 
will Rule and Judge us. And fo 
it is ott called a C&venant before 
Confent by Man, which maketh' 
it to be vwhm a Mutual Contrad, 
And even a Law as Received by a 
voluntary fubjeft is Confented to y 
andbecometha ContraEl. If any 
think that I give not the true dif- 
ference of God's Laws and Cove* 
nmts y let him tell me more, and 
I fuppofe we fhall agree de re, though not de rati- 
one nominis : And lee it now fuffice to tell you how 
I would be underftood my felf : Though the word 
Law be fome time taken more narrowly , and the 
Word Covenant oft for Mutual Contract ( which 
is but a Law confented to) yet being to fpeak of 
each term as fignifying that Regulating Frame by 
which God Ruleth us and will Judge us, and by 
which he giveth us his Gifts arid Rewards, I mean 
the fame thing, in feveral refpedts called by the 
fcveral names \ The absolute Antecedent Gifts of 
our Great BenefdUr being fuppofed incluflvely in 
both. §. 1. Of 

And when JW 
&fiui is taken for 
a Teftament y the 
Parts and Atis are 
the fame with the 
Relation of it to 
the Death of the 
Teftator y who as his 
laft mil , giveth 
fitch gifts on fuch 
Terms. AndGhrift 
did put his Com- 
mands unto- his 
Tefiament , John 
*4>& 15, & 16. 


Of the Law or Covenant of Jnnocency wade to Adapi- 

§«. i . T Shall in this order Treat brief!/ of the 
i Divine Laws. I. Of the Law of Inno- 
cency to Adam. 1 1. Of the Law of Media- 
tvon to Chrift. III. Of the Law of Grace to 
fallen Man. And there, i. As in the firft Edition 
to Adam and Noah: 2. As in the fame Edition 
joined with the Jewifh Law of Peculiarly to Abra- t 
ham., and of Works by Mofes to Abraham's Seed. 
3, Of the Law of Graces as in the fecond Edition 
by Chrift: 

§.2. 1 . The Law of Innocency contained a Pre- 
cept and Prohibition? and a Retributive pzrt to which 
Adam was bound to be a Voluntary Subject, and 
therefore to Confent (which will allow it the 
name t)f a Covenant. ) But here the brief Narra- 
tive in the Scripture calleth to us to diftinguifh of 
things certain, and things uncertain ( whoever af- 
fert themO 

§.3. 1. The Preceptive part was revealed by 
Nature, or Sufer naturally (by Voice , or Inffira- 
tion^ or Vifon, &c. ) The former being Lex na- 
ture integra y the Law of Jntire Nature, though 
the Chief is leaft fpoken of in Gen. becaufe it is 
fuppofed legible in Nature it felf. 

§. 4. The Law ef Nature, properly lb called, is 
in effe Objettivo, that fignif cation of God's Will con- 
cerning M*ns Duty, which was difcernible in the 
Vmierfa rerum Natura in all God's Works ; but 
principally in Mans own Nature, as related to God 
and all Per fans, and Things about him. 

I §. s- But 

C"4] ? 

§. %. But Improperly or Metonymically fo called, 
the Law of H^turc is in effe fubjettivo the Com- 
munes notitU , which Man had and was to' have 
from the faid Objective Law of Nature. But pro- 
perly this is rather the Knowledge of the Law, 
than the Law it felf, being not perfect in Adam 
himfelf at fir ft, but was to be perfected as he came 
to know mere and more of the Works of God, and 
varying much now in feveral Perfons. Yet may it 
well be called CoJPs Law written in the Heart, when 
we have the Knowledge and Love of his primary 
proper Law. 

§. 6. This Law of Nature bound Adam to per- 
fect Devotednefs to God as his Owner, and perfeft 
gratitude to God as his Antecedent Benefactor^ and 
to perfedt Obedience to God as his RuUr^ and to 
perfect Love te Ged as his ultimate moft amiable 
End. And this perfeft Obedience was to be per- 

§. 7. It was Adam perfonally that the Law bound 
to this perfect perpetual Obedience, and not ano- 
ther for him, cr thathefhould obey byzReprefenta- 
tive, or a Velegate, a Servant, or by any other. 

§.8. Nature, even in its depraved ftate, new 
telleth us, that *B Sin againil God deferveth Pu- 
nijhment - 5 Therefore the Law of Nature had a 
Penal part. 

§. 9. It is a great doubt with many Divines 
whether the Law of Nature had any premiant part 
or promfe, and fo was a Covenant j becaufe, fay 
they, Duty obligeth not God to reward h*. But it 
feemeth to me as far paft doubt as the peml part. 
For the queftion is not> what our Duty performed 
obligloeth God to, much lefs in point of C*m\ 
rive Jnftice^ where no Creature can Merit of God, 


[ *M3 

7^35-6>7>8. If thou be Righteous , what givefi 
thou him, &c. But it is prcfuppofed that God firfi 
became Man's Benefactor and his Ruler, and his 
Laxfr is the Inftrum6nt of his Government ; and 
his Vromift is but the fignification of hisWtll, what 
he will give, and on what Terms : And God in Na- 
ture figrified his Will to blefs the Obedient, and love 
thofe that love him , For as a Ruler he is J/*/ ; 
and if he differenced not the Righteous from the 
Sinner, what were his Juftice? Were there no 
other Reward, but the Continuance of the Parzdi fe- 
lt lejfing freely given him ( which Sin would for- 
feit) it would have been a great Reward : And if 
God equally take away his Gifts from Good and 
Bad, it is not Governing Juftice, though as the Aft 
of a Proprietor it be neither Jufi nor Vnjuft? fo 
that the very eflence of "Undertaken Government, 
containeth a difcovery of God's Rewarding Will ; 
which is the promt fory or premiant part of the Law 
of Nature. 

§. 10. The Degree and Kind of the Natural 
Reward, muft be gathered, i. From the ftate that 
Man was in. 2. From the nature of his Duty. 
3. From the ftate of Perfeftion which his Nature 
was made inclined to delire and feek. 

§. 11. 1. Man being freely placed in the ftate 
of Innocency and God s Favour in the Earthly 
Pleasures of Eden , as a Sandtified ftate of Com- 
munion with God, feeing Sin was to be punifhed 
with the privation of thefe, we may gather, that 
the Innocent fliould not have been deprived of 

§. 12. 2. Man's great Dutyhzing to Lave God 
perfectly ( according to his prefent Ability ) and 
to pkafe hjra, and delight herein, we maygathei> 

I 2 that 


that the Jnnoccm fiicnild have the felicity which is 
herein contained, even in the Delights of loving 
and pleafivg, God. 

§.13. 3. Man's Naturfe being not made in its ut- 
moft ferfcSliov^ but in via, with a defire of knowing 
God, loving him, pleafing him, and delighting in 
him yet more, according to his Capacity, we may 
gather, That obedient Man fliould have attained 
tlfAt Perfection : For God mafcethnot the capacities, 
difpofitions anddefires of Nature in vain. 

§. 14. But whether all this fhould havebeefi gi- 
ven on Earth or in Heaven % is not fo clear in Na- 
ture or Scripture: But, 1. The Tranflation of 
Henoch and Eli as maketh it probable^ that fo Man 
fhould have been tranflated. 2. And fo doth the 
Glory purcbafed by the Redeemer* 3. And the 
matter is the lefs, becaufe wherc-ever the place be, 
the fameftate of Enjoyment would make it a Hea- 
ven to fuch a perfon. 

§. IS- Neither doth Nature now tell us, How 
long Manmufi have obeyed, before he had merited the 
fuU Reward of his Perfection. But only that he mull 
conquer all the Temptations that God would try 
him with, and muft perfevere till God fhould pleafe 
to tranOate him, not appointing him any deter- 
minate time. Nature and Scripture favour this. 

§. 16. There are lome who confidently con- 
clude (without either natural or Scripture-proof) 
That had Adam performed but one Aft of Obedi- 
ence t0 God, before his Sin, he had been confirmed 
as the Angels, as his Reward : And what a Sin- 
ner & they make Adam before he finned, if he 
performed not one Ad of Love and Obedience 
to his Maker ? This Farcy I difmifs. 

§. 17. Others 


§. 17- Others fay, That if he had overcome 
one Temptation he fhould have been confirmed i 
but I find no Promife or Proof of it in Nature, 
nor in Scripture ; and I fuppofe they feign not a 
fecret conditional Will of God. 

§. 18. Though it be agreed on by moft Prote- 
ftants, That Adam\\z& been an Heir of Dtath and 
Hell if he committed the leaft Sin, even an idle 
thought or word, though he had not eaten the for- 
bidden Fruit, and fo that the Law of Nature made 
HcU the due punifhment of the leaft Sin, and doth fo 
ftill if it be not pardoned, yet the Law of Nature 
in our lap fed Hate is herein fomewhat dark^, and the 
Scripture not fo clear for it as fome imagine : 
But thus much methinks Nature it felf ftill fpea- 

§. 19. 1. That the leaft fin defcrveth €omtde r 
gree of Punifhment 2. T*hat God hath various 
degrees of Punifhment, fuiced to the degrees of Sin. 
3. That the leaft Sin hath a tendency to more, 
and that ftill to more, till Man be utterly mife- 
rable. And that both in its own Nature, and in 
the forfeiture of fome meafure of GoJ?s Grace or 
Help. 4. Tlfot if you fuppofe that vain thought 
or word to con fill ftill with true Love to God, God 
could not immediately hate and damn that Soul 
that fo loved him. But if that Perfon perifh, it 
muft be by that idle thought or •word produciflg 
worfe, till it had turned his love from God to the 
Creature. 5. That antecedently to Gods underta- 
king to be the totter of Man, no doubt but as an 
abfolute Owner, he might have taken away all that 
he gave him, even his Life and Being, without any 
fault in Man : for he may do as he lift with hi* 
own: And therefore he might have done the 

I 3 fame 


fame for the fmalleft/Wr, which he might hare done 
without it. And therefore he might have infli&ed 
any Pain, which to Man is not worft than Anni- 
hilation, for ever. But whether his three fore- 
mentioned Adts; i. Antecedently jUcing Man as 
he did. 2. Making him fuck Duty as he made 
him. 3. And fuch Inclination to better , do not 
imply that God would not punifh him unlefs he fm- 
ncd, and then but according to the degree of his 
Sin, I leave to Confideration. 

§. 20. But whether God muft, and whether he 
might, punifli the It aft Sin with Hell, are different 
queftioils : Whether by the Law of Nature he mufv 
do it or be mjufi, and fo a vain thought was not 
pardonable by or under that Law, and fo Adam 
was an Heir of Hell when his thought firfl failed, 
before he did eat or ctnfent to eat the forbidden 
Fruit, are queftions which I cannot refolve from 
Nature, and arc to me more difficult in Scripture 
than to wifer men. 

§.21. The fuper natural part of the Law is known 
to us only by Scriptnre, but perhaps the Fathers 
before the Flood might know more qf it by Tradi- 
tion, than God hath thought meet to write for our 

§. 22. The preceptive ptrt was the not eating the 
forbidden Fruit, and confequently the overcoming 
all Temptations thereto : The Law of Matrimony 
and the Sabbath alfo, arc partly fupcr natural (called 

§.23. The Penalty is called Death, which fig- 
nifieth Vndeing and Mifery : But whether it was 
QBly temporal Death or alfo Hell, Divines are not 
agreed* They that are for the former, feero chiefly 
drawn to it, by comparing the Law with the 


Judgment and Execution, thinking it i&dccent to 
fay, that God fulfilled not his Threatning, but dif- 
penfcd with it : And therefore feeing Temporal 
Death only is in the Sentence and Execution^ they 
think that no more was meant : And confequently 
that Chrift did not by Redemption,prew»r thzfen- 
tence and execution of that Death, but only when it 
was fulfilled, deliver us from continuance under it 
by a Refurre&ion. 

§. 24. But I would have fuch remember, 1 . That 
the Soul was made naturally immortal ', that is, not 
tending to Annihilation, unkfe God fhould againft 
Nature or fettled Courfe annihilate it. And if it 
were not annihilated, it mult be in fome ffate^W 
or had. If it was to be penally annihilated, Chrift 
prevented that : And fuch an annihilation is as little 
defirable as a tolerable degree of Pain. 2. And 
that God's Law determining diredtly but de debito 
poena, what fhould be Mans due, and not absolutely 
and peremptorily then de eventu, God referred to 
himfelf a pardoning Power, fo it were done upon 
valuable Confederations, more fully glorifying him 
and his Government and Law, than Man's Deftra- 
ftion would have done. And thus to difpenle with 
his Law is no diftionour to God. 

§. 25. It is the Wrath to come that Chrift delive- 
red us from , and Hell and the Power of Satan that 
he redeemed us from : Therefore it feemeth that 
ic was no lefs that our Sin deferred. And fpiritual 
death is contained in Sin and sJpoftacy it felf. 

§. 26. What thefonw73fwastobe,befideswhat 
I faid before from Nature, it is not eafie to gather 
out of Scripture, nor to find there any plainer a 
Promifc of Life j but in both I think it is certain- 
ly implied. 

I 4 S-J7-K 

[ 120 3 

§. 2j. It is ordinary to fay, That the Condition 
of Adam's Cenfirmation was* That hefhonldhave ea- 
ten fir ft of the Tree of Life : But to find that among 
the Command^ much lefs the Condition with a Pro- 
wife of Confirmation } Ytquivcih more decerning than 
I have y notwithftanding the words C Left he. eat 
and Uve y &c3 from which they gather it. 

§. 28. How far this Law is yet in force, is alfo 
difficultly difputed. In brief, 1. The general Com- 
mand of f erf eti Love and Obedience for the future, 
and the Commands of the unalterable Duties of Na- 
ture, are ftill fo far in force as to oblige us. 2. But 
whether y^fr poena mortis is the doubt? Punifhment 
is due either abfolutely and ftateAly, and fo it mar- 
keth it due only to the Impenitent and Unbelie- 
vers. Or only in primo inftanti, inceptivtly, with an 
annexed Remedy : And fo every Sinmaketh Punifh- 
jnentfo far due to the Faithful, as that they have 
need of the Grace rf Chrift, and the new Covenant 
to pardon it* 3. But the premiant part of the Law 
of Innoccncy, from whence it is named a Covenant, 
is now truly null Which maketh our Divines fay, 
That the Law of Nature ( which they call moral ) 
bindethas a Rule cf Duty, but the Covenant cea~ 

§. 2p. This was not done by G O D but Man, 
Who ceafed to be a capable Subject of that Covenant , 
Tromife or Reward : And fo the CenditionQImocen- 
cyovferfttt Obedience) being become naturally im- 
fcfftble, we muft not feign God to fay to Sinners 
£ On condition you be no Sinners you Jhall live^. But 
Ceffanto capacitate fubditi cejfatpromiftio conditionally 
& tranfit infententiam. 

But of the CefTatioH of the Law and Covenant 
©flnnocency, fee more after Sett. 5, §.3^ & c - 

§.30. They 


§ 6 30. They pervert this Covenant by their un- 
proved Fidions, who fay> that the fence of it was 
[Thou, or one for thee, fhall obey, and if thou Sin, 
thou or Chrifi flail fnfcr.2 And fo that we are jufti- 
ficd by this fame Covenant which condemneth us, 
as having been innocent and perfedtly righteous 
(habitually and adtually ) in and by Chrift. 


Of the Law of Mediation cr Covenant v?i$h 

§. 1. A S the Mediator in Per fin and Office, dif- 
J\. fercd from all other Creatures, fo he 
was under a J.aw and Covenant, proper to him- 
felf. • 

§. 2. This Law and Covenant was made t§ 
2nd rcith Christ incarnate : For fo he was a Skbjefl: 
under Law. It is too bold, improper and ofFenfive 
a Fhrafe to call God's eternal Decree of Redemption 
by the Name of a Law, yea, or a Covenant of God 
with Himfelf, that is, of the Father with the Son. 

§. 3. Therefore all the Defcriptions of it in the 
Old Teffamcnty are but Prophecies and Promifes 
containing the terms of the /attire Covenant ; (as 
we call a form of Pray :r, a Prayer, though it be but 
matter fitted to be a Prayer when it hath the for- 
mal aft. ) But Chnft had truly a Law and 

§. 4. The Preceptive or impofed part was., in 
general, that he do the Office of a Mediator : par- 
ticularly, 1 . That habitually and adlually he fer- 
ft&ly fulfill all the Law of Nature, which he was ca- 

C 122] 

pable ef. 2. That he fulfill alfo the Law of Mo [es. 
3. That he alfo do thofe things proper to the Me* 
diator, in his Miracles , Sacrifice, Refurretkion, Inter - 
ceffiony Teaming, Government , &c. which he under*- 

§. 5. Chrifttook the Nature of Man, but not 
ftri&ly the Real or Reput at ive Perfon of any wan, 
but himfelf, much lefs of every Man or every Belie- 
ver: I mean, that his Perfon was not the natural 
Perfon of any other, fior efteemed of God fo to be ; 
nor yet was he the fall and proper Reprefentative 
or Civil Perfon of any man, much lefs of a'l men ; 
that is, One that the Law allowed us to do and fuffer 
by, fo that in Law-fence his doing and Offering 
fhould be reputed ours ; as a man payeth a Debt 
by his Servant or Substitute ; which is morally or 
reputatively his Adt and Deed, or |^cepted in the 
fame fort and to all the fame efFe&s and purpofes, 
as if he had paid it with his own hands. The 
perfon of the Mediator was not in Law-fence, nor 
God's account, nor Chrift's undertaking the perfon 
of the Sinner himfelf 

§. 6. Elfe Chrift fhould have been in God's nc- 
count a Sinner, and the greateft Sinner in the 
World, and hated as filch by God above any other 
Sinner *, which whoever fhall affirm, fhall fpeak 
prefumptuoufly and blafphemoudy. 

§ 7. Yea, elfe Chrilt fhould have been man* 
millions of per fon s in Law-fence, and many millions ol 
Sinners ^ which is not agreeable to God's Word. 

§. 8. Chrift neither was a Sinner ; nor reputed 
Sinner by God : And his being made fin for us, fig-, 
nificth, 1. That he was made a Sacrifice for Sin, anc 
was taken and ufed by God as one that undertool 
to fifferfir our fins, in our Head, though not 11 



our perfon. 2. And that he was really acceunted 
a Sinner by thofe that crucified him, and ufed as 

§. p. Firft, Chrift did not fulfill the Law of In- 
nccency in our feveral perfons •, He did not all thofe 
things materially that Adzm was obliged to do ; 
nor which moft of us are obliged to do. We did 
not reputatively fulfill that Law by him, fo as 
that his Perfeftion is taken as onrs, in Habit and 
in Aft. 

§. ic. Secondly, Chrift did not fulfill the Law 
of Mofes in the per/on of all them that were ne- 
ver bound themfelves to fulfill it ; fo as that they 
are reputed Fulfillers of it in and by Chrift : For 
fince his Afcenfion it is abrogated even to the Jews 
themfelves, and now bindeth none in the World 
(3s Mo/sicaQ 

§. 11- Thirdly, Chrift did not work Miracles, 
rife, afcend, 'intercede, reign, teach, give Laws, 
and Minifters, and Grace, in the Perfon of every or 
<*ny other, but only in his own Perfon as the great 
Mediator and Saviour of Man. 

§.12. If any will ufe the word [ PERSON 3 
in a private, narrow and improper fence, and (ay, 
That £ He who nndertoik^in the perfon of a Med" 
to obey and merit for our J unification, and to fuffer 
in our fteadto fave us from deferved fuffering,may 
therefore be called The Perfon of every one th.r 
merited and fnjfered for, though I will not (6 prc- 
fiime to thruft Phrafes on the Church which Scri- 
pture never ufed, when their obvious fence is perm- 
riot**, yet if that man will by Explication of tbe 
notifietb the World,that he taketh it in a found 



fena % I will not quarrel about an unfit word, whi!< 
Pvdigion is fafc. 
*Jf>hn 12.32. §• t3- * Chrift undertook not on- 
John 7- 39- & ly to wmr and faffer for Man, but 
£ 6o > 6i*6* 9 alfo to ^a? all men to him, and tc 
*3,S4. JoM. f end f orth hi$ Spirit and Miniftry. 

joh 23 io 2 t?^ and t0 g ather together the Eleft oi 

4,7,8, 11, 14) God that arc fcattered through the 

15, to*. & 2. World, and to intercede for them, 

16, &c Heb- and ro gi ve t h em eternal life, having 
13. 20. joh. 6. raifed them at the laft da 

33>34>35>4 8 > '* 

51,53,63. & 

8.12,13. & 10.10. & 11. 25. & 14. 6,7. & 20. 31. Rom. j- 
i7> 18, 19, 20. & 8. 1,2,3- Col.^. 3, 4. 2 Tim. 1. 1, 
Tit. 1. 2; 2 Pet. 1. 3. Joh. 12. 2$, & 17.2,3. Tit. 3. 5, 7. 
ijoh. 1. 2. &2. 25. & 5. 11, 12, 13, 20. 1 Tim. 1. 16*. 
Joh. 4. 14. Gal. 6. 8. 

§• 14. The premiant pan of the Law of Media 
tion, or the Promife of God in this Covenant to 
Chrift, was, That All fewer fionld be 
f Mat. 28. 19, £tt/?;? him in f Heaven and Earth, and 
Joh. 17. 1,2, 3. hefhotfild be Lord both of the Vestd and 
eXi 4 *? 1 * ' °f the Livitig, ZXI& He*d ever all 
Phil. 2. 7° 9* " things to the Church, and that he 
Joh. 5 22. fhould be glorified at God's right hand, 

Col. 1. Joh. 3. andhanjeaName above every Name^ 
I?' 3g ' at which every knee fiiould bow, and 

Eph 4 7 'z&e that Principalities and Powers Jhon/d be 
Rom 8. 9. ' fab jed to him. That he be authori- 
2 Tim. 1. 7. zed to gtvc Laws to the World, (all 
Rom. 8. 1, to Judgment being committed to him) 
28,34_Heb.7. and tQ raake w ; th Men a Covc- 

•j. 3 £ om - 8 - nant of Grace and Life, and fend 
forth Mnifiers to proclaim it, and 


It Spirit to iff \tt the gathering of his Churchy that 
is Interceffion for them (hall be accepted, and that 
5 fhall Judge all the World, and jufiifie and glorifie 
is Chofen according to the tenor of his Covenant 
f Grace : Which is all accordingly performed. 

§. 15, Though if Ghrift as a Creature had fin- 
ed, he had deferved Punifhnient, yetthefuppo- 
tion being of a thing impoffible, by reafon of the 
Inion of the Divine Nature, it is improper to 
ilk of any penal part of the Law that was given 
im : For penal Laws are for thofe that have need 
>y fear to be reftrained from Sin, or conftraincd 
o Duty i which Chrift needed not. 

§, 16. Chriffc's entire Ri*hieo*[nefs (as before his 
ixaltation) habitant, active, paffivs, elevated by 
inion with the Divine Perfection, was his pcrfor- 
nance of the Condition cfhis Covenant with the Father : 
tod his performance of that Condition was his me- 
'itoriom Title to God's promifed Effefts : And that 
is it was one entire Righteoufvefs or Condition per- 
formed : And our Jollification and Salvation are 
part of thofe promifed Effefts : Therefore it is 
abufive fubtilty to divide Chrifi*s Performance into 
little Parcels, and then fay, This Parcel is imputed 
to me for this ufe, and that for that ufe^ and by one he 
merited this, and by the other that, when (though 
each part of his Condition ©r Duty had its proper 
reafon, yet ) it was only the entire performance that 
was the Condition of the Benefits, and fo of our Jujti* 
fi cation and Salvation. 

§. 17. But I fay, £ before his Exaltation'} bc- 
caufc the Benefits being of feveral forts, fome of 
them were given upon Chrift's merit prefently, and 
fome apon Marts believing, and fome not till long 
after by application ; But to all thefe. what Chriffc 



did only as under the Law of Mediation, was proper- 
ly his merit, by which they were procured: But 
his [undertaking^ what he after did, (in gathering his 
Church and interceding and ruling) may be num- 
bered with the parts of his forefaid merit • and 
////, as a Creature, he is under his jCreat oPs Law* 
even the Law of per fell uniting Love, and fo doth 
eminently ment. 

§. 1 8. It was neither the Covenant nor Will 
of the Father and Son, that we fhould either have 
fttll foffeffion, deliverance, or right thereto > imme- 
diately upon Chrift's Merit and Sacrifice fas we 
fhould if we had done all by him as our Perfbn) : 
But that we and all things being delivered to 
ChrilFs Power and Will, he fhould convey the 
Benefits of his Death and Merits , upon terms, 
and in an Order fuitable to the intereft of his 
Wifdom,Love, Mercy, and Juftice, even by a 
Law of Grace, and a Miniftry and Means adap- 
ted to the end, and in the time and degrees which 
his Wifdom (hould make choice of : Which accor- 
dingly is done. This Covenant which giveth 
Right and Reward to Chrift, is not it that giveth 
any Right or Reward to us. 


Of the Law or Covenant of Grace in the firft 


§. i. AS God delivered the Law of Innocency 

l\ partly by natural and real, and partly 

by fetpernatural and verbal iignifications of his will, 

fo hath he done the Law qJ Grace } which is the 


[127 3 

signification of his Will concerning Pardon and 
Life granted to guilty Sinners , and the terms 

§. 2. The Promife, Gen. 3. 15. The feed cf the 
Woman Jh all break the Serf ems head, &c. Was a Bre- 
viate of the fupewatural fignification ; but it is not 
unlikely, that God did more fully acquaint them 
with his Law of Grace and Redemption, than 
thofe words alone could make us underftand : Bc- 
caufe we find in their facrificing, fome fuch inti- 
mation ; (and in other figns.) • 

§. 3, God's actual Continuance of forfeited Life, 
Liberty, Health, and other comforts, and his actual 
ColUt ion of many great Mercies by the courfe of 
Nature^ to fuch as by Sin have deferved prefent 
Damnation, is a degree of fignification of his /?^r- 
demng will and mercy by thefe natural figns : (which 
they were not before fin and forfeiture.} 

§. 4. Man being after guilt of death, thus re- 
prieved and enriched with manifold Mercies ,and his 
life and faculties continued with many inftru&ing 
providential helps and means, the very Law of 
Nature now obligeth him to love and thankful™ fs to 
God that flieweth him fo great kindnefs. 

§. 5. And the fame Law of Nature obligeth hum 
to take that GodfHU for a God of Love and Mer- 
cy, and to believe, that what Mercy he hath alrea- 
dy fhewed the World and us, is on terms which 
he knovveth to be very well confident with his 
Holinefs, Truth and Juftice : And it oblige ch us 
therefore to feek to him for Mercy, and to 
all poffible means for farther hope and pardon and 
recovery, and not to fit down in def^ i 

§. 6. The common fence of ail Mankim t\ 
Adam to this day ? acquainterh us by that expe- 

[ 1 28 J 

rience, That thefe Hopes and Duties arc found in 
the Law of Up fed Name : For all the World that 
never heard the Gofpel, do yet take God to be a 
merciful, forgiving Ged y and take themfelves to be 
under forae duty for the obtaining of further mer- 
cy, recovery and felicity. 

§. 7. Though want of the fenfe of Sin, and its 
defert, and Man's mifery may be thought by lbme 
to be the only caufe of this, and fo. that it is but 
finful prefumption , and no part of Nature's obli* 
gation } yet* this upon trial will prove falft. 
( Though what they alledge be one pan of 
the Caufe). For, 1. Thefe men do acknow- 
ledge themfelves Sinners, and to deferve punifh- 
ment from God. 2. They find fome mifery and 
fear more. 3. It is not preemption to judge God 
to be merciful, when they and all the World do 
find him fo. 4. It is not preemption to judge, 
that he can and mil pardon Sin, when full Expe- 
rience aflureth us, that he hath already pardoned 
much. To remit the Sin, is (as we now lpeak of 
it ) to remit the deferved punifhment. And He 
that giveth Man forfeited life, health, time, and 
all the abundant Mercies which the World is full 
of, doth thereby fo far aftually forgive Sin : 
Saith Chrift, Whether is it eafier to fay thy fins 
be forgiven thee, or to fay arife, take up thy Bed and 
wal^ that is, Executively 10 forgive them , which 
is the fall forgiven, fs, by taking away the punifh- 
ment. 5. It is no prefumption to believe fuch 
Duty to be incumbent on us, as the remaining 
Law of Nature doth oblige us to. 6. Nor yet to 
take God's own Encouragements to feek our own 
recovery and felicity. 

§,8. The 

Ci29 3 

§. 8. The Light and Law of lapfed Nature doth 
convince men of the duty of repenting and retur- 
ning to Gcd, and oblige them to it. So that as 
Perfect Obedience was the duty of entire Nature, fb 
Repentance is the duty of Upfed Nature : And I 
think few will fay that all mea are flot hereby 
obliged to repent, and that in hope of mercy. 

§. 9. Hence it is that it is found among the 
Communes noittU, and all the World as well as 
Ghriftians acknowledge it and plead for it. 

§. to. They tnat by God^s Patience and Mercy 
are invited to Repentance, which is a return from 
fin to God, and are by Nature obliged to it, ought 
to believe that it is not made their Duty in vain^ 
nor fhall they lofe by itif they perform it ; for that 
were to accufe God of making Pvfans Duty in vain, 
or to his lofs, which is not to be fufpe&ed. 

§. n . Therefore they are bound not to defpair 
of Pa don and Salvation } for an obligation to ufe 
means as tending to recovery, is inconfiftent with an 
obligation to defpair. Therefore hope of Mercy. 
and ufe of ibme means Mankind is obliged .to b) ' 
the Law of lap fed Nature. 

§. 12. This is not the obligation of the Law or 
Covenant of Innocency -, for that Law t)ound us 
only Zslnneccnt to keep our Innocency ai\p perfe&4 
ly therein obey ; But it giveth no p*rd>>^is&x 
pointeth Man any Duty in order' to pardon am 
recovery : Whatever doth this, is a Law of 

§.13. The fum' of that Duty which the Law of 
Nature now obligeth Man to, is, To conftder efall 
the Mercies which God vouchfafeth Sinners, and 
thankfully to improve them ', to repent of fin, and 
turn to this Cod, who fheweth himfelf a merciful 

K far* 

T&rdoning Cod -, To rcfgn themfelves to him as 
Vatir Owner *> to obey him as their Ruler, and to love 
and /ert him as their ultimate End ; and to believe 
that his Mercy will not let us be lofers info doing, 
nor to do it in vSin. 

§. 14. But the Supernatural Revelation telleth us 
much more than all this, Of the promifd Seed, the 
means of our Solvation, and of our Duty in belie- 
ving them, and of the Certainty 2nd Nature of the 
Pardon, Deliverance, and Blcifedncfs which we 

§• J 5.. The Preceptive part at firffc was notte 
Believe as much of Chrift , as is neceflary fince 
his Jfcenfion; but to Believe what God prom/fed 
and revealed of him to the Church at that time. 

§. 1 6; Even under the Old Teftament, God in- 
xreafed his Revelation of the Afejfiahjirs dually : The 
Prophets fpake plainlier of him, than -any thing 
ten before. Therefore a more extenfive and 
dijhnu belief, was needful in one Age than in a 

i£. Yet, even the Apo files were in a ftate of 
4pion, before they under fiood and believed, that 
Chriic mult jD/> /or S/#, r*/i *g- ^ Afcend &nd 
Intercede :r. He.wen for his Eled. 

k. 18. lps£ all this was partly revealed before 

yby the Prophets, and plainly foretold them by 

Chrifi himfeif : Tiisrefoie it was not of abfolute 

fteeeffity to Salvation then, to believe all of Chrift 

wi ich had b:cn before Revealed, though it was 

jty to them that knew it. 

§. 19. Therefore under the Covenant of Grace, 

n ef our right, is narrower than the 

hich we arc commanded to perform. 

The From! fed Benefits ( prefuppofing the 


[ I?I ] 

Common Antecedent Mercies) were Summarily 
Ch-ift and Life in him : That is, that for the fake 
of Chri/t's future Merits we fhould have Pardon, 
Juftification, Reconciliation with God, Adoption, 
Sanftification and Glory, and all neceffary Helps 
and Means thereunto. 

§. 20. The Penalty was, i.The John^-is,^. 
■Privafbn of Recovery ; 2. and a Matth. 28,20. 
far fortr pimfimext for In/ratvude £*\ 10 " 20> 
and contempt ofChrifi and Mtrcy7 

§. 21. This Law or Covenant 
in this firfi Edition was made with Adam as the 
Father of v all Mankind; and fo with <*// Mankind in 
him, as truly and as much as the Covenant of In- 
nocency was : For', 1 . God's Word maketh no 
difference. 2. Adam was as much after the Com- 
mon Father of Mankind, and all we as much in 
him, as before the Fall. And he that will fay that 
God arbitrarily Judgeth otherwife of us , muft 
prove it if he can. 3 . The exprefs Word of God 
in many places nroveth it, joyning Children with 
their ParentTin foch BlefTings, and therefore inclu- 
ding the Children of Adam. 

§. iz. The fame Covenant wifh fome pofitive 
Additions, it pleated Gcd to renew to and with 
Noah, bc:au(e he was as a fecond Head and Fa- 
ther to the generality of all Mankind, all coming 
from his Loins as they did from Adams. 

§• 23. As all Mankind was made the Subjects of 
God under this Law of Grace, fo by it they were 
all to be Governed and Judged, allowing a diver- 
lit y of Degrees, in the Promulgation, Mercies and 
Penalties thereof. 



Of th$ fame Law rrirh Abraham^ Covenant of 
Peculiarity , and the Mofaicd Jcwifh Law of 

§. i. A jBrakimbeing a fubjeft to this fame Law 
jf\, of Grace) did fo faithfully Believe and 
Obey it, that it pkafed God to reward him extraor- 
dinarily, by, i. Renewing the Covenant by fpeclal 
application to him, and by the promfes of Peculiar 
Privileges to him and his feed. 

§. 2. Net that his Infant feed was the fir fi that 
was tdken into Covenant, for the Covenant 
of Grace had from the beginning been made with 
the Faithful and their Seed, as well as the Cove- 
nant of Innocency was. 

§. 3. The Peculiarities of this Covenant werje 
Initially promulgate to Abraham , Ifaac and Jacob \ 
and more fully to the Jews as a Politicl^Body^ by 
Mofes in the Law - 7 with fome particular Sub-addi- 
tions by David and the Prophets. 

§. 4. ilt. The Vromife to Abraham was, befides 
the Common 'Covenant of Grace, renewed. 1. A 
promife of peculiar Favour to his Seedincreafed to 
k politipal Society in Canaan^ and differenced by 
fpecial Mercies from all the People of the Earth, 
2. A promife that the Mrffiah fhould be of his Seed. - 

§.5. This Covenant did not DiJ 'covenant the 
r?ft that the World, nor put them into any worfe 
Condition than they were before. 

§. 6. The peculiar Precept of that Covenant 
was, That by Circumcifion as a Seal and Symbol r 
and by peculiar Gratitude anc| Obedience, and re- 


linquifliing the Sins of the Degenerate World 
about them, they fhould difference thenjfelvesfrom 
others, as God's peculiar People. 

§. 7. As the Covenant of Peculiarity was not a 
[titrated fate, bat an additional Privilege and 
Reward to Abraham as faiihful to the Common 
Covenant of Grace ; fo Circumcifion was the Sym- 
bol neither of Abraham as under the Law of 
Grace alone, nor as under the Covenant of Peculi- 
arity alone (for that was never alone) but as of 
One under both y even under the Utter as a Reward 
for his fpecial Fidelity in the former. And fo it 
was a Seal of the Right coufaefs of the Faith in the 
Common Covenant of Grace, which he had being yet 
Vncircumcifed, though a Symbol alfo of his after 
Peculiarities, Rom. 4. 1,2, &c. 

§. 8. Infants intereft in the very Covenant of 
Peculiarity j and Jewifh Church-pate, was not in£- 
parable from Circumcifion. As Infants were ever 
Members in the Common Church and Covenant of 
Grace with their Parents before Circumciilon, fo 
they were alfo without it Members of the jevrifi 
Church y when as all the Females were Members, 
and all the Males in the Wildemcfs, who for Forty 
Years w^re Uncircumcifed : Yeris it called, The 
Church in the Wilder nefs , when except very few 
at laft it was an Uncircumcifed Church , Acts 

§. 9. Much lefs did Gcd lay fuch a neceffity on 
the outward Sacramental Aft, as to de amn 

to the Uncircumcifed aforefaid,as fome would have 
us think that even under the Gofpel he doth by Sa- 
craments,The Covenant was ftill ncceffery as confent- 
ei to by the Adult for themfeives and their Infant 

K 3 feed 

[*34 ] 

feedjovfc net alway the onward facrament or fymbolc. 

§. 10. The gathering of Ifrael into a Policy 
by Mofes y as a Theocracy, and their receiving a 
Law from God himfelf as a Political Body, was 
but the full Eftablifhment of the Covenant of Fuu- 
liarity, in performance of what God had promi- 
fed to Abraham, and in Circumcifion had begun. 

§. 1 1. This Law of Mo fis therefore rauft be 
Confidered as an Affix or Appendix to the Com- 
mon Law of Grace, and fo either as related to it, 
or as confidered limply and diftin&ly in it felf 
without that relation. And as it was a Divine 
Political Law, for the Government of a R^pub- 
lick as fuch. 

§. 12. The Common Covenant of Grace was 
the Soul as it were of this Political Jewiih Law j 
and therefore was really exprelfed in it, in the 
Qecalogue and other parts : As it was the Seul of 
their ftate of Peculiarity, which was the Reward 
of Abraham's Faithfulneis in the Common Cove- 
nant : And their peculiar Promife to Abraham's 
Seed as the Nations Bleffing, with their Types and 
Prophecies all led them to Chrift more plainly than 
, he was revealed to others. 

§. 13. The Lav/as fuch anjfpptndix, contained 
Preceptively the DecaUgue as the Summary and 
ftam'wa, and the particular Determinations under it, 
as belonging to the Firfl: and Second Table; For 
all thofe ( not accurately diftinguifhed as Moral? 
Political and Ceremonial, ) are but the particular 
Determinations of the things only Generally ex- 
prelTld in the Decalogue, according to which they 
are fitlier diftributed, 

§. 14. It pleafed God td make the particular 
Treccpts ( about Worlhip and Political Converfe ) 




10. Gal. 

<:. i. 


Rom. 7. 



. Git 3. 

& 4 . 


5. Heb. 



Rom. 3. 

& Ogk 


fo many, and the Sacrifices fo Coft!y,and the Penal- 
ties fo Severe, as that it became a 
very operous Employment to do 
the External Ads of it } which the 
PcopLe made a Snare of to them- 
felves: For, 1. Thereby they 
were fo taken up with the outward 
Work, that they negledted the in- 5- 
ward fpiritual exereifes of the 
Soui,without which all the reft are dead and carnal 
things. 2. And they hereby grew into fo high 
a conceit with the Letter of the LAw it felf, and 
theft^ External Duties, as that they thought the 
very doing of them was enough to make them 
jult and acceptable to God, and forgot the true 
Doftrine of the Promifed Meffiah , and Righte- 
oufnefs by him. 3. And hereby they grew Proud 
as if they had for thefe Externals, b:en fo much 
better than all other People, that all the World 
was Abominable fave they. 4. And they w r ere 
fo intent on the prefent Political Punifhments to 
be efcaped or fuffered, and Rewards to be won or 
loft, that they much overlooked the everlafting 
Punifhments and Rewards : And this Corruption 
increafed till Chrift came to Cure it } who found 
the Sadnctis not believing a Life to come, and the 
Pbarifees deceived by their External Legal Works 
2nd Righteoufnefs, and moft of the People too, 
ignorant of the true Spiritual Rightcoufnefs re- 
quired by the Law it felf. 

§♦ is- It may feem to fome a difficult Qucfti- 
on whether God by fuch a Law made them H*p~ 
pier or Worfe than the reft of the World ? And 
whether Chrift's Abrogation of it was not a re- 
turning them to the common , eafisr and better Condi- 

K 4 tion 


fcion of Mankind ? Anf. i . You muft know, that 
though God made a common Covenant of Grace 
with Mankind, the reft of the Nations about them 
were fallen into Ignorance and Idolatry ; and the 
Jewifli Law much tended to cure both, and to make 
them better know God and the meaning of the Co- 
venant of Grace, and to return to him from Idols, 
and worfhip him aright. So that the Jews were 
happier than other Nations. 2. The abufe of 
their Law was through their fault and folly, and 
the Law by the faithful among them was better 
underftood and ufed. 3. Chriit, after fetting up 
a better Covenant in its ftead, did bring the Church 
into a better ftate than the Jews were: But the 
Unbelievers and idolatrous World, that had not 
Chrift's better Covenant, were ftill left in a worfe 
Hate than the Jews were before Chrift's Incar- 

§. 16". And God by this of crow Law would hum- 
ble the Jews, that by their peculiarity were apt 
to be puffed up with Pride : And. as all his works 
grow to Perfe&ion by degrees, even the Works 
of Grace in particular Souls, fo did his Means 
of Grace, and the welfare of his Church -, which 
was to begin at their Rudiments, and grow up to 
better means and knowledge : -yet fo that all were 
to be judged according to the Law that fliey were 

§. 1 7. It is this oferopts Law efMofes which Paul 
meaneth ufiially by the £ Law of Worh, and the 
old or formr Covenant'] and neither the Law or 
Covenant of Innocency made to Adam, nor yet as 
if this Law of Mofes were of the fame Tenor or 
Conditions, and fo called a Covenant of Works, 
as making Innocmy its Condition : But this Law 



which was an Appendix to the Law of Grace, 
and was a peculiar Law of Grace it felf 7 is died, 
The Law of Works, bccaufe of the great and hur- 
denfome and coftly Externals before mentioned, 
2nd bccaufe as a political Law in fo much inlifteth 
comparatively on thofe Externals, 2nd the Do 
ftrine of Grace is comparatively more obfcurcin 
k than in theGofpel; and bccaufe the Jews had 
by their abufive Interpretation overvalued the 
Externals and operous Ceremonies and Sacrifices 
of it. 

§. 18. The mifhke of PauPs meaning in this 
Phraf^C^r Law of Works, or old Covenant] hath 
led fome men to a new frame of Theology in a 
treat part, and engaged others in Errors, and 
fruitkfs Contentions. 

§. i£. By the words [He that doth the fs things 
Qiall live by them'] as diftinguifhed from btlievir^ 
Paul meant not that the Condition of the Jewifh 
Covenant of Peculiarity or Law, was the fame 
urfttt Imocency as was required in the firftLaw 
)f Adam ^ for when Man was adually guilty, it 
vas impoffible that he fhould ever become one 
hat had not finned : And w r e mud not pucfuch v 
1 fcorn on the infinitely wife and righteous Go- 
ernour of the World, as to fuppofe him to have 
iich a Law or Covenant as this [// 'you that are 
Inxcrs are not (inntrs yon Jfiall be faved~], much 
*fs to make this a Covenant of peculiar favour. 

§. 20. Nor doth Paul mean, That the Laws 
Condition was [If you will never [in more, I wtll 
wden allthat*s fafil* For God r.ever made fiich a 
aw with man -, not to fin being morally impofTi- 
lc to them, and Pardon never offered on fuch 

§•21. To 

1 138 1 

§. 21. To put all out of doubt, 1. God be- 
fore-hand proclaimed the Name ofthat God from 
whom they received their Law, Exod. 34. <5, 7. 
The Lord the Lord God > merciful and gracious^ lon<* 
f«fftring and abundant in goodnefs and truth, keeping 
Aiercyfor thwfands, forgiving iniquity ', tranfgrejfion 
and jiVy though he wM by no means clear the guilty. 
• ( That is, He wilt not judge a Sinner to be no Sin- 
ner, nor the Wicked to be Godly, nor pardon 
and fave any contrary to theeflabliflied terms of 
his Covenant.,) 2. And the Law it felf hath ma- 
ny exprefs means of fcrgivenefs of Sin appointed, 
as facrificing, confefling, &c. which fheyvetlj that 
it was a Law of Grace. 

§.22. By the Law , Paul ufually meaneth the 
rpritten Law of Mofes, as contained in the very words 
now in car Bibles: As by the Word of God we ufual- 
ly mean the Scripture. Therefore though it con- 
tain much of the Law 0/ Nature, yet as a written 
Law j and part of a Law of 'Peculiarity and Policy 
of that Nation) even the Decalogue maybefaidto 
be done away, though as the Law of Nature and of 
Christ it ftili rcmaifl. 

§. 23. By the Works of the Law then, which 
Paul moftly difputeth of, and by [_ He that doth 
thefe things Jhall live in them ] is meant, That this 
Law, befides the fweet and eafe Precepts of faith 
and Love, did as part of the Matter of the Jews 
Obedience, require abundance of bardenfome Ex- 
ternals, and he that would not do all thofe muft die 
( for Obedience even to thofe commanded Task* 
was then made neceflary by God) : And as to tern-? 
poral dcarh, it was not by -that Law to be efca-. 
ped, but oa the ftrift terms thereby required : So 
that doing thefe things^ was necefTary to life tempo- 

0F, (and to eternal in iincerity) : And the driving 
>n the People by temporal punifhments to^ thefe 
internals, was that Body cf the Law which the 
niftaking Jews had feparated from the Soul 
)f it. ^# 

§.24. And he faith, None could he juftifitd by 
he Works cf lbs ''Law, becaufe this written political 
Law and its externals, were in this Diipute put in 
>ppo(ition to Chrifi, and the Law taun lor the 
neer Body of MdfsPs Law, feparated from the 
Law of Grace, which was its&wrf; and no doubt, 
:. It is Faith in tie Redeemer and Covenant b£ 
jracc, which is the Condition of 'constituting Men 
hi ft, (which they muft have before any Obedience 
o their particular Laws could be fcicere and ac- 
cptable :) and the faithful keeping cf the Lmv of 
^racc, which is made the Condition of falvaiiw. 
. And to dream that legal Stri&nefs, Ceremonies, 
Sacrifices , or other legal Works , would juftifie 
hem without Chrift and Faith in him, or any 
>therwife than as A As of Obedience to their Re- 
ieemer, b/ which their fidelity to the Covenant 
>f Grace was to be exprefied while that Law was 
n force, was contrary to the true meaning of their 

§. 25. The reft of tte World were not in the 
Covenant, nor under the Law of Peculiarity or 
ewifh Policy. And as fuck' (*s is faid^ it is 
low all abrogated, even the Decalogue it felf, 
hough its Matter be ftill in force, as aforefaid. 


1 140 ] 


Of the Law or Covenant of Grace in the laft Edi' 
tion , or the Go f pel. 

§. i.X 7T THether the Covenant of Grace in 
V V the firft edition to Adam, and this 
of the fecond edition by Chrift, fhall be called 
One or Two, the fame or divers, and the old 
Church and the Gofpel- Church the fame or not 
the fame w fpecie, are but needlefs queftions about 
the bare Name of Onenefs, as long as we agree 
wherein they differ > and wherein they differ not. 
In fome refpe&s they may be called the fame, 
and in fome not the fame. 

§. 2. The Parties in the firft Covenant of Grace 
were really but two: GOD and Man fiinlefs you 
could prove that Chrift had then fuch ajitper ange- 
lical Nature in which he mediated, as fome before 
mentioned hold). But the Parties in the new Cove- 
nant of Grace are really Three, viz.. G O D as the 
abfoluiely Supreme, who gave us 2. Mediator \ 
and Chrift the Mediator, as tho fupreme Subad- 
miniftratorto whom all Power is given, and Man 
the Subjeft to both. 

§. 3. The Benefits of the firft Edition, refpefted 
a fkture'SavioHr and his future Right eon fine fs ,S*cri- 
fiec, and Mints: But the Benefits of the fecond 
Edition refpeft an exiftem Mediator and his merits 
and facr'tficc already performed, and accepted of 

§. 4. The revelation of life eternal and Man's 
fpiritual felicity nnd duty, is far clearer in the 
fecond Edition than in thp firft. 

§•*• As 

[ Mi 3 

§. 5- As there is more done for us, ib there are 
ore full and excellent means provided for Man's 
iformation, converfion , fan&ification and ialva- 
on, in Apoftles, Scriptures, Miracles, fpiritual 
ordinances? than under the firit. 
§. 6. As the means excel, fo the Spirit is given 
i a greater me a fur e, anfwerable to the greater Re- 
flation and tr.eans : And is fpeciaHy Cbri/PsWit- 
fs and Agent in the World, and the mark, of h : s 
cculiar ones. 

§. 7. And as mere is done for us, fo more is 
ow to be believed by us : Many r.eceflary Articles 
*e added to our Faith : That this Jefiu is the flfef* 
*h, that he was conceived by the Ho!y Ghoft 7 
3rn cfthe Virgin Mary, fufFered under P. tilatt^ 
as crucified , dead and buried , defcended to 
f ades> role- again the third day, alcended to Hea- 
:n, is there glorified in our Nature, Head of 
1, &c. are all new Articles of our Faith, which 
kfore were not required, becaufe not revealed, or 
ie matter extant. 

§. 8. This fecond Edition is both the Covenant 
Cf,_a:;d a Covenant of Peculiarity, far excel- 
ig the Jewifl] Covenant cf Peculiarity : Believers 
e a holy Nation, a royal Priefthood, a peculiar 
*ople, &c. 

§. 9- This Covenant fuppofeth the antecedent 
fts of a Saviour to be incarnate, and do his wr- 
torious and facrifieing part, and all fuch Prepara- 
>ries, and of Life, Gofpel and Opportunities gi- 
*n to the Sinner. 

§. 10. The parts of the Covenant are, 1. The 
mditional Gifts or Bent fits. 2. The Condition cr 
:ms of Right. 3% The Rule of Duty. 4. The 



Penalty for violation or negleft of the Cov 

§. j r. i. The Gifts are, Cod the Father, S 
*nd Holy Ghoft in their Covi nam -Relation to its, a\ 
i he love of the Fat her , the Grace of the Son, andt 
Communion of the Holy fpint. x Or as it is briei 
exprefied in I f oh. 5. 10, 11. Chrifl and life 
him, that is, Pardon, J unification, the Spirit, A& 
ptionzxA Glory, at fir ft in right, and after in p 
' feffion -, and all means and mercies which God fee) 
meet to bring us to it. 

§.12. 2. The Condition of cur firft Right i 
1. That of -natural necclfity, viz.. Repentance ar 
Return to God ; 2. Of natural and inftituted necc 
fity, Belief and Confidence in C hrifl, and Cov 

§. 13. The Condition of our continued and co\ 
fummate Right and full PoflefTion, is the form< 
Faith and Confent continued, Repentance renew 
ed when we knowingly fin, and iincere Obcdicnc 

§.14. 3. Seeing fincerc Ohcdience fuppofeth 
Law, we muft know chat more is in the Precej 
than in the Condition : Therefore we diftinguifli < 
neceffita* prtceptr & medii. The Precept rcqu 
reth perfect Obedience as rlne ; But Sincerity 
the Condition , and will fave without Perfi 

§ 14. The Precepts or Lavoof Chrifl now cot 
tain , !♦ TheLaw of Nature ( for all Things an 
Judgment are given up to him. ) 2. The new f 
culiar Laws of Grace, containing our fpscid Fai\ 
in Chafe, and his facial Inflitmims of Churcl 
Order, Miniftcry, Worftip, &c. 

§. 1$. Ti 

C HI ] 

§. 15. The Tevalty of the Law of Grace in this 
Jit ion, as as in the fir ft, 1, kPrhmion of its 

fits to Nor:con[enttrs or h.-fdels, with a greyer 
gree of psqufoment for Ingratitude. 2. And wkb- 
rawing* of the Spirits help for our quenching 
[id relifting it, and abufing Mercy. 3. And tern- 
oral caftigatory Punifhments to Believers for 
leir faults. 

§. 16. The Sum of all efiential to this Covenant, 
1 in Baptifm,and the Lords Supper , which are there- 
>re Sacraments and Symbols .of it} and Baftiftt 
as appointed by Chrift himfelf to be the foiemn 
fikiation, Badge, and Character of his Diiciples 
id Church-Members. 

§. 17. The Hiftoryof Chrifh's Life and Suffer- 
igs, and of his Apofrles Life and Preaching, and 
I the reft of holy Scripture, is God's Word, and 
is Doftrire belonging to the Gofpei-Covenant. 
Ut it is thsCovenant it felf, or Lav of Gr/rce, 
hich all that are under it, muft be riiled and 
dged by v and conftituteth the Elfentials of Chri- 

§. 1$. This Covenant did conftitute Chriftiani- 
r many years ( fuppofed eight ) before any part 
: the New Teftament was written, as now extant, 
id near feventy years before it was all wric- 

§. 19. As Man hath an httt&&, a 9F& $ 2nd an 
xtcMive power, and the Gofpel is to work on alU 
the Creed is the Summary of our Belief, the 
ords Prayer, of our Defire * 7 and the ChrifiUn De- 
legate and Inftitntions^ of our pra&ice, as expountl- 
g whan Baptifoi generally expreffeth. 
§. 20. Though to the Jews that were bred up 
^der the ufe of the Old Teltament, and that ex- 

[ 144 3 

;cd the Mefiiah, theApoflies ftaid not long in 
itrudting them, before they baptized them, whei 
they profeffed Repentance and Faith in Chrift 
ye: it cannot be conceived, but that with tfr 
ignorant Gentile Chriftians, all Teachers took pain 
10 make them underftand, firft what they were t< 
profefsand promife •, for ignorant doing they knov 
not what, pleafeth not Gcd. And therefore tha 
the Faith contained in the three Baptifmal An\cle\ 
was certainly explained in more words, and accord 
ingly prcfeflbd ; which muft be in fubftance tha 
called the Apoftks Creed, which the Churches pre 
fervation and ufe, with the Cuftom of long inftru 
ftingCatecumens, giveth us notice of, as well as th< 
reafon of the thing, 

§. 21. When we find Chrift commanding hi 
Apoftles to difciple the Nations, and baptize them ii 
the Name of the Father, Sor? and Holy Ghojt, anc 
t each than all his Commandments ; and when W r e dai- 
ly fee, afcer people have learned to fay, Tkey belief 
tn the Father, Son, and Holy GhoSi\ how long it i 
ere they' underftand the meaning of thofe three Ar- 
ticles ; and when we know that it is not bare words, 
without the fence, that conftituteth the Chriftiar 
Faith ; no fober Man will doubt, whether the per- 
fonsto be baptized were taught the fence as well a! 
the words j which muft be dope by more words. And 
it is certain that thofe Words were not to alt & 
Chrift' s Baptifmal Covenant, nor the Nature and 
Terms of Chriftianity, hut to expound them; And 
it is certain, that multitudes were fo weak, thai 
had thofe Words been very long and many , they 
would rather have burdened them, than become 
their own profeffion,as underftood and remembred 
And it is certain, that the changing of words doth 



eafily turn to a change of the fenfc j and that even 
then Herefies quickly multiplied ; which made it 
ncceiTary to the Church to be careful to preferve 
found Do&rine. From all which it clearly follow- 
ed^ that a Creed ( that is, a Summary Profeffion 
of Belief explaining the Baptifmal Articles) was 
in common ufe in all the Churches many years be- 
fore the writing of the New Teftament. And it 
is not likely that in the Apoftles days the Churches 
did receive it from any but themfelves. 

§. 22. Yet it is not probable that they compo- 
fed exactly fuch a Form of Words as might not at 
all be altered, and ufcd ftill the very fame terms 
for the Creeds rec-ited by her.&iu, TertulUan, Mar- 
cellw in EfiphaniM*, and others, do all differ in fome 
words from one another, and fome Articles have 
been added fince the reft ( of which fee Vjhcr' and 
foffitu de Symbol**. ) But ( except thofe few Ad- 
ditions ) they all agree in Sence j which may per- 
fwade us that the ancient Churches kept ftill to 
Word* which figniSedthe fame matter of the Arti- 
cles of our common Creed, and admitted no vari- 
ation of the Words, but fuch as was fmafl, and 
endangered not the Doftrine. 

§. 23. Though Eaptifm explained by the Sym- 
bol of Faith, Lords Prayer, and Decalogue, contain' 
at haft the Constitutive Ejftntials of Chriftianity, 
yet the Integrals are much larger, and all that 
Chrift commanded was to be taught the Church. 
And though this was done by Voice many years by 
the Apoftles before they wrote any part of the 
New Teftament, yet the Memory of men from Ge- 
neration to Generation, would have been a very 
unfafe and treacherous Prelerver of fo many things, 
iad they been committed to Memory alone s 
* L There- 


Therefore it pleafed the Wifdom and Love of God, 
to infpire the Apoftles prophetically and infalli- 
bly to commit the Sum of the Hiftory of Chrift's 
Life, Sufferings, and Death, &c. with all the Inte- 
grals of his Word, to thofe durable and facred 
Records which we call the Holy Scriptures, for the 
caller and fullerPropagationandPrefervation of the 
Chriftian Faith, and -all its Integrals, efpecially his 
Example and facred Precepts •, yea, and the ne- 
ceflary Accidentals, or Appurtenances. 

§.24. Becaufe the Scriptures contam both in 
Words and Ser;ce y much more than the Lflentials of 
Chriftianity, and fo more than isofabfolutenecef- 
fity to Salvation •> many a million may be faved, 
that underftand not all that is in the Scriptures ; 
nay, no man on Earth underftandeth it perfe&ly: 
And he that underftandeth and receiveth the £/"- 
fentids, (hall be faved, though he were ignorant 
of athoufand particular Texts. 

§. 25. Therefore it is that the Church hath 
ever feledted the great and molt neceffary Truth?, 
and taught Children and Catechifed Perfcns thefe 
before the reft, by way of Catechifm - 7 of which 
the forefaid Creed, Lords Prayer, and Decalogue 
are the Sum, and the Sacramental Covenant is that 
Sum yet more contracted. And it hath not been" 
the Churches way to teach Children or Converts 
the Bible over in order indifferently, without fe- 
lefting firft the Marrow out of the whole, which 
the Ignorant cannot do for themfelves. 

§. 26. Befides the Method or Order of the 
Scripture books, there is fpecially to be ftudied 
bythofc that will be more perfedt than the ruder 
fort , the trnt Method of the Body of Doftrwe, 
contained in al] the Scriptures : For ail the parts 



of that Doftririe have that Place, Order, and Re« 
fpect each to other, as maketh up the Beauty and 
Harmony which is in the whole. And even in 
the Covenants, the Creed, Lords Prayer, and Deca- 
logue, there is a rooft excellent Order and Method, 
above all that is found in Ariftorte, or any humane 
Writers, though, alas ! too few perceive it. 

§. 27. Therefore they that gather true Syftems 
of Thcohgy 7 do not add to the Scripture, nor 
feign it to have a Method which it hath not ( no 
more thaa Cstechifms do ) but only gather out 
that Doftrine which is there, and deliver it in the 
true Scripture-niethod ; rot as it lieth in the or* 
dcr of Words^ but in the order of Relation that ■" 
one Truth hath to another. And to defpife this 
leal Method, becaufe every dull and flothful Wit 
doth not fee it in the Scriptures, is indeed to 
defpife the Matter and Defign of the Scripture , 
and to defpife all true and clear Knowledge of 
things Divine : For to fee Truths placed in their 
proper Order, doth differ from a knowing of 
fome csnfufed parcels , as knowing the parts of 
a Man, a Pidure, a Clock, a Houfe, a Ship, &c. 
duty compaginated, and feeing all the parts caffc 
confufedly on a heap. But to draw up a true Me- 
thod is the Work of a skilful hand*, andmiftaken 
ones fo feduce, that one Error in the Order leads 
to many. 

§. 28. Yet even Catechumens and young Chri- 
flians fhould learn what they learn in method : 
And that is firft the faid Bapifmal Covenant, and 
our Relation to the Trinity thereby } and all that 
is added to their Knowledge daily ( be it never 
fo little ) fhonld be methodically added : For a 
weak head may perceive the true method of the 

L 2 few 

I M* J 
few Eflentials (being great and phin), though the 
ftrongeft cannot follow the due Diftribution of in- 
numerable Integrals and Confequent Truths : As 
the firft partitions of the Tree into its greater 
Boughs, are eafily perceived, though not the in- 
numerable fprigs thence arifing. 

§. 29. Accordingly a wife Teacher will pro- 
ceed with Infidels tn proving the Chrifiian Religion^ 
( yea, and » with himfelf ) 5, and will firft prove the 
Truth of the hffentials (which are delivered us bath 
in Scripture, and other infallible Tradition) be- 
fore he undertake to prove all the Scriptures to 
be the Word of God : For he that will begin here, 
1. Muft Ihevr the Book whxh he will fo prove ^ 
and when he cannot vindicate it from variety of 
Lections 1 and the Errors of Scribes and Printers (to 
fay nothing of the greater of Tranjlators ) it will 
ftophini in his Defigns. 2. And when he hath fa 
many thoufand Words to prove to be Divine, and 
fo many Integrals and Accidentals to make good, 
he makcth his Work difficultly allowing his Scho- 
lar to doubt as much of the Eflentials of Religi- 
on, as he fhall doubt of the Truth of any particu- 
lar Book or Text, Hiftory, Genealogy, arc. in 
the whole Scripture. A blind Z«al for Scripture 
bach led fome to this dangerous w ay ^ but the an- 
cient Churches did otherwife, and ft will all that 
well underftand what they do. And really on 
fuppolition it could be proved C as it cannot ) that 
any Penman of the Scripture erred in a Ckation, 
a Genealogy, the Circumftance of a bye- Hiftory, 
&c. it would not follow >that we muft be therefore un- 
certain of all our Religion, even the Eflentials ; 
and they ignorantly betray their Faith, that fay, 
If wchld fo follow. 

§• 3°' 

§. ao. So far is it from being true, that the 
Scripture is too narrow? as to the matter of Di- 
vine Faith and Duty, without the additional mat- 
ter cf Tradition , that indeed, as the complcat 
Body of a Man hath more than his Efentials? yea, 
or Integrals, even Hair and Nails, as Accidents, fo 
hath the Holy Scripture, as to the matter of Di- 
vine F *i 'th and Duty. There 13 more than is ab- 
solutely neceflary to Salvation, but not lefs. 

§.31. They that in peevifh oppofition to 

others, tell us, That Chrift made no Law , and 

that the Co/pel is not a Law, if they ftrive not a- 

bout equivocal Words, but mean that Chrift is not 

a Legislator , nor hath a Law and Covenant by 

\hich he will govern and judge the World, do deny 

ill our Chrifthnity at once : For Chrift is not Chrift, 

f he be not the King of the Church ? nor is he 

^ing, if he be not a Lawgiver? nor doth he RhU 

aid Judge, if he have no Law ? which is fo far 

rom Truth, that there is now?** Law of God that 

e are under, but what is truly the Law ofCbri&: 

or he is Lord of all, and Head over all things to 

i* Church ? and all fower in Hea- 

en and Earth is given to him 5 and J olm - 1 7- 2 - & l V 

ie Father (alone , or mcerly as £ Matr - lS - '* 

re.tor, by the Law of Innocency j f om 22 H E 9 p ft 

'Hgeth no man? hut hath committed 23. 

judgment to the Son? as Redee- 
er and Univerfal Adminiftrator. The lapfed 
~orld, and the Law which they are under, asra- 
*al Creatures, are now delivered up to the Re- 
enter, whofe Law ( as is aforefaid ) hath two 
rtsj 1. The Law of lapfed Nature, i common- 
called the Moral Law. ) 2. The Remedying 
iwof Faith ? of which before. 

§. 32. But it is not to be fuppoled, that th< 
very preceptive part of the Law oilnnocency is nov 
in Force to us, as it was to Adam\ For itboun< 
him to be perfectly innocent in Acb and Difpofniom 
But to a Man that hath hfi his Innoctncy, and i 
already in Aft and Habit finful, it is not to b 
fuppoled, that the Law faith, Thou fhalt be innocent 
For that were to command not only a Moral, bu 
a Phyfical abfolute impoffibility, as faying, Thou Jbal 
not have finned. 

§.33. Ob). God changeth not his Law when ma) 
changeth his capacity : Therefore the Law maybe th 
fame 04 in Innecencyj both as to the Precept, Threat' 
King, andVromife : God may [till fay, 1. Sin not, 01 
be innocent : 2. And if thou be per fell, thou Jhali 
live : 3 . Elfe thou [halt die. And tf man will fnaki 
himfelf uncapable, it^s his own change. 

§.34. Anfw. I lpake to this before, and now 
further add ^ God's Law is not to be taken for ; 
meer fcript of Words confidered as Handing in <\ 
JBoek^ not obliterated, or as written on flone, and no.'i 
broken, or cafl avpay: The fignum materially maji| 
Hand, and the Law be changed, and the fignifca^ 
tion ccafe : As a repealed Statute may be ftill in tfrj 
Ttook^vxA Records: God's Law isfiwumvoluntam 
divina, dtbitum conftituentis : Therefore if it figli 
nific not God^s Will as conftituting what fhall be dtX 
from us, and tow, it is no haw. And that it mal 
fofignifie his Will, and conftitute Duenefs (Debit m\ 
or Jus ) (or as they ufe to fay, oblige and givel 
the Subject muft be in a natural capacity : Fcj 
where there is no S-ubjeH to be obliged, there T 
no Law. And where natural capacity ceafcth (>:! 
in a dead corps ) there is no Subjeft to be govefl J 
ed: And the Law is InfhHmmitm ngiminis. ! 

that if you do not only fay, This was God's L*#, 
but This is God's Law? you muft mean? Thus he 
now obligeth man, and This he threatneth now, and 
This he conditionally giveth him. So that if it be an 
unchanged Law to us, juft as it was in lnnocency? 
you muft make this the fence of precept , threat? and 
tromfc. i . f Prefcrve thine Innocency, and fin not 
in *l~l or habit) hut be thou a pe feci Obcyer of my 
J^rpj;] and this to one that hath finned already, 
and is habitually inclined to more: q.d. ULetnot 
th.it be which is, or quod fiittum eft tnfe&Hm fiat. 
2. If thou fin, thou fiialt be an Heir If Death. ] 
When we are Sinners, and Heirs of Death alrea- 
dy: 3. £ If thou be, and continue jinle fs and per* 
r ecf, thoH fi^lt not die but live. ] When we are Sin- 
ners and dead before. In which Cafe, all Law and 
deafen faith, That the Law doth tranfire in jen- 
er.tiam, vel rem ju die at am. 

§♦35- So that, as was before-faid, the Cover 
$dnt of IVorkj is ceajed \ yea, the Law or Precept 
rindeth not now, as it is a Law cf Innocency made 
innecer.t Nature for its prejervatiox, for Nature 
s not innocent : But the Law of Nature is now the 
^w cj lapfied redeemed Nature, and not of inno- 
' Nature. And it obligeth us for the future to 
as much perfettion of Duty, as we are naturally ca- 
pable of per forming at that time, though vicioufly 
indifpofed, it being only natural ctijabiiity, and not 
moral zicioHs unwilling* efs that hindercth Obliga- 
ion : But though ( not to do all that we can) be pec* 
jjrr, yet it is not to fin mto Death or Damnation, 
if he perform fo much as is made by Chrift the 
Condition of life. In fliort 7 1 - Before mans fin, 
'be was under the proper Law and Covenant of 
I Innocency, which made perfett perfonal Innocen- 

L 4 cy 

cy the Condition of life. 2 . Immediately after fin- 
ning, before the Promife, man was not under any 
Promife oi life on condition of Innocency, nor yet 
under the Command of being innocent, nor of 
feeking and hoping for life on that Condition ; For 
upon the Imp ;ffibility thefe ceafed, without a Re- 
peal, ctjfantc capacitate fuhditi : But man was then 
Hnder no Covenant or premiant Law : But under, 
1. The Command of perfect Obedience for the 
future. 2. The Obligation to Punifhment, not 
peremptory, but due for every fin, unlefs it fhould 
be pardoned on due fatisfadion: Thefe two Obli- 
gations man was under between the Fall and the 

3. But next, fin/itl condemned man^ with his faid 
Obligation, was delivered into the hands of thp 
Redeemer, who now continueth the faid Law of 
lapfed Nature ( making peffeft Obedience de fn< 
turo due, or Death for fin in frimo wftanti \ } but 
adding the Remedying Law of Grace , giving 
Chrift, Pardon and Life to penitent Believers. 

§. 36. The Queftion, What Punifhment is due 
to Venial fin^ muft be refolved from the fence of 
the Law that obligeth us : And the Queftion is not 
what Punifhmerkt would have been due to thefmal-j 
left fin, if the Covenant of Jnnocency had conti- 
nued ^ but what u due to it by the Law of Redeem* \ 
td Nature and of Grace, which is in force. 

§. 37. There is a three-fold Duemfs (or Defert} j 
here confiderable (without diftinguifhing of which, , 
jnany fuchQiieftionstannot be anfwercdo i.A Due- j 
Tiefs of natural Congrnity , without any Remedy 
which the Law gave, or took notice of : So Death 
was due for every fip by the Law of Innocency ( as 
1 think J). 

2. A 


2. A Dueytefs of natural Congruity with an *$x~ 
qj **' Remedy, which hindereth the guilt from being 

compleat and fixed. And fuch is the Duenefs of 
fwnfhmcnt to the leaft real fin, by the Law of Re- 
deemed Nature, to which the Law of Grace is an- 
nexed, giving a Conditional Vat den to all the World 
for the Merits cf the Redeemer. As if God faid, 
t Thy fin in flriSl Jiftice is worthy cf death, but i 
mil forgive the:, if thou repent and believe inChriftr\ 
Here is fo much Dueuefs as needtth pay don ; but it 
is virtually, conditionally pardoned as foon as com- 
mitted } andioitisnot a plenary Obligation to 

3. A Remedilefs Duenefs ( or Guilt ) by natural 
Gongruity and }e, emptory determination of the Law- 
giver : And fuch was the Guilt of temporal death 
for finagainft the Law of Innocency v (at leaft 
the eating of the forbidden Fruit ) ( for fb far it is 
net forgiven ) } and the Guilt of perpetual mifcry 
to impenitent Unbelievers and ungodly Ones, that 
fo die. 

§. 38. By this itappeareth, that fins of meer 
Infirmity, confident with fncere Faith, Repentance, 
and Hoiihtfs, in the fecond fence deferye punifhment 
( not all alike, but ) according to the degree of the 
Offence : But not in the firfi fence, or the lafi. 

§. 39- Accordingly a great Question muft be de- 
termined , Whether the fins of the Faithful de- 
lerve any more than a temporal Chajiifement ? And 
whether they may pray for pardon of perpetual pu- 
pjjhmenu or need any fuch pardon ? Anf The fins 
of the Godly defcrve evcrlafting punifhment in the 
fetend Stnce, or Degree of Defert or Duenefs; 
which is fb far as to need a Saviour and Pardon, and 
To as they muft pray for , and receive that par- 
don .• 


don '• But not in the fir ft or third Sence. : 
§. 40. It is the Law ofChrift^ or of Grace, which 
is norma officii & jitdicii^ and by which we mud . 
be judged at the laft day. 

§.41. it is of grtat importance in the Ccntro- 
verfiesofjuftincation, to know whether, or how 
far we {hail be judged by the Law of Inmcency, or 
whether only by the Law of Grace. 

He that is judged by theL*w of Inmcexcy? mull 
be j unified by perfonal, pcrfttt^ perpetual Obedience 
(not by ami hers) or be condemned : But he that 
is judged by the Lav? of Grace, muft be juftified 
by Chrift's Merits and Sacrifice ( or Righteouf- 
nefs ) as purchafing his Grant of a Pardon and life, 
or Right to Impunity and Glory, given by the 
Covenant of Grace conditionally, with his own per- 
formance of that Condition. 


Of the Vniverfality and Sufficiency of Grace. 

§. i.IT was not only the Nature of the Elect , but 
A of all Mankind, that Chrift aiFumed in his 

§. 2. It wis not to Adam only, as the Father 
of the Elctl , but as the common Father of Mankind 
(lapfed) that God made the Promife,or conditional 
Law, or Covenant of Grace, Gr;/. 3. 15. And fo re- 
newed it with Noah. 

§. 3 . It was not the fin of the EUtt only, but 
of all Mankind that were the occafion of Chrift'} 



\kferittgs, ( called by fome, An affamed mtriterioM 
7/ufe, becaufe by his confent they were Leo Can- 
't- ) 
4. it is not to the Ele&wly, but for *// the 
World ( as to the Tenor of it ) that Chrift hath 
Ipurchafed, and given a conditional Pardon of fin, 
land a conditional Venation of Life eternal in the 
[Covenant of Grace, both of the firft and fecond 
[Edition: Thai is, the conditional Grar,t is Uni- 
iverfal} Whoever believeth Jhall be faved: Though 
I the Promulgation of it may have many Hops. 

§.5. It is not to the EUVv only, but to All, that 
Chrift hath commanded his Miniftersto proclaim 
this Law or Covenant, and offer the Benefits, and 
require their Confent, as far as the faid Minifters 
are able. 

§. <5. It is not only to the Elect, but to all Man- 
kird, that many Mercies procured by pardoning 
and reconciling Grace are a&ually given, which 
were forfeited (or not due) by reafon of fin a- 
gainft the Lav/ of Innocency. 

§. 7. Thefe Mercies given to all Mankind after 
fin, and contrary to defert, are not given by Gods 
Mercy ahne, without refpeftto the Blood And Me- 
rits of Chrift : But his Blosd and Merits arc the 
Caufc of them, as truly as of the greater Mer- 
cies of the Elctt. And they that fay, That God 
doth give all thefe Mercies without a Saviour's 
Merits, astheCaufe, prepare the way for Infidels 
to inferr, That then he might have done fo by the 
Mercies of the Eledt. 

§. 8. All thefe actual Mercies given to mankind^ 
contrary to Merit, are a degree of Promulgation of 
>the Law of 'Grace ■, telling all the World, That God 
doth not now rule and judge them raeerly by the 



s ? 


Law of Innocency, but upon Terms of Mercy ( a: 
is aforefaid ) 

§. 9. Hereby it is fignificd to all the World^ 
that God is as he proclaimed his Name to Mofes y 
Exod. 34. 5, 6, 7. The Lord, the Lord God, mem 
cifal And gracious, Iwg'faffering^ and abnndant in 
goodnefs and truth , keeping mercy for thoufands, for- 
giving iniquity, and tranfgreffion, and fin, and that 
-will by no means clear the guilty ( by falfe judging : )| * 
and that the World have no caufe to defpair of 
'Though this be forgivenefs, as if they were * un~ 
faid before, a new der the remedilefs ( or unreme- 
cafe here caufeth died*) Sentence of Damnati 

me to repeat it. q^ * 

§. 10. There are no People on Earth that are 
not obliged to the ufe of jome mesas appointed 
them to be ufed for their full Pardon and Salvati- 
on, elfe Beffiir would be their Duty, and they 
(hould not be judged Sinners for negle&ing any 
fuch means. And were they not bound to do any 
thing for their own Salvation, their Sin and Mi- 
fery that ncgledt fo to do, would be far lefs than 
it is. 

J. ik Therefore all People have fome fuch 
Means, that have a tendency to Recovery and Sal- 
vation afforded them by God. 

§. 12. They that fay, That all the Mercies of 
the Non-ele&, are no Merc es, becaufe through 
mens Sin, they end in their Mifery, do perverfe- 
ly extenuate Gods Mercies and Man's Sin,and teach 
Sinners falfely to plead in Judgment, That they 
never abufed, or finned againft Mercy, which 
God and their own Confciences will cafily con- 



;. 13. In the Controverfie, Whether Chrifi died 
the Elttiordy, *r for all Mar.kirJ, itfeemethto 
, thai we little differ about the matter, but 
y ftrivc about ambiguous Words 1 , even about 
e Syllable . [_for. 3 If to die L for J fignifie C for 
ir fins, ] under the reafon of a Caufe of Ghriit's 
rath, fo ( as P*r**s doth ) we muft all grant, 
t Chrift died [/or] all. 

2. If (for*) fignifie [ m eorumloc§'] in their fieady 
the Phrafe hath yet great Ambiguity, and will 
juire a great deal of diftinguifhing for its due 
plication: The various kinds and degrees of 
efits to which the Intention islimitted, do leave 
word liable to various Serxes. Chrift died fo 
in thefieadefjll Mankind, ^% to fufFer Death 
y his voluntary fponfion ) as a punifliment de- 
ed to themfelves by fin, to free them all from 
n condition of their fuitable acceptance of his 
cc. But if by {_ fa 1 be meant ( in the civil 
fen of all men, a* rcpre'unting them ) the Word 
"ill among Lawyers and all Writers, ambigu- 
In a large fence 1 e may be faid to ( perfc- 
e or rtfrefent ) another who doth it but fecttn- 
quid, and not ftmpltciter y in pane aliqua, <vtl 
txtum & ad hoc , and not in omsi, vel td omre. 
if any will fo far ftretch the Phrafe, and 
aufe Chrift fuffered in the common Nature of 
will fay that he fuffered in every man s Fer- 
or becanfe he had a fpecial purpofe of faving 
left, will thence fay, He died in the per [on of 
r, John^ and every elect • S inner m 7 I will not 
e againft mens Phrafes, if they will explain 
foundly : But in ftrict Sence, as Reprcfcnt- 
aman, or doing it in his Per fin, fignificth, 
Chrift fo died ( and merited ) in feveral 


mens Tcrfinsjs that the Law or Lawgiver doth t 
it to have been in fenfu civtli, their own fufferin 
and doing, and meriting, or to all intents, puri 
fes, and tifes j all one to them, as if they had 
died and merited themfelves : ] thus Chrift neith 
died, nor obeyed for any man ( as {hall be here-' 
after proved. ) 

But if by [for ] is meant Zf or mcns bint fit A 
good ] fo it is yet ambiguous, and liable to I 
threefold fence, viz.. i. Intentionally, 2. yipiitm 
dinaUy, 3. Eventually, for their good. Aim 
1. Intentionally, the Controver fie either fpeaketh J 
Chrift's Divine Nature and Will, or of the Hnmarm 
Concerning the former, the Queftion is the fat* 
with that about Election, or Gods Decrees, whiff 
is before fpoken to, w,. How far God decrelj 
good to all men by ( brill's Death. As to Chrifm 
Humane Nature end Will, it will prove but an all 
rogant unprofitable Queftion, Whether ChriftlJ 
Man, knew the Names of every individual peri* 
in the World, or of every one of the Eleft, aj 
had a diftinft Intent tofave every one of thofe 
Name that are faved : It's better let fuch Quel 
ons alone. 2. And { m j1ftitHdinally } m } there is 
queftion but there is that in Chrift's Sufferings 
Obedience, Sacrifice and Merit, which is in its 
ral Nature adapted to the Good and Salvatio, 
all, and hath that fufficiency thereto, which w< 
accomplish it, if it were duly accepted and 

3. And as to the Event, we are agreed, 
That feme, and not all are faved by CbrijVs D< 
and Merits ; but that all have great Mercies, w' 
ere the fiuits ofthele, though many wilfully 
them to their Sin and Mifery. 



§. 14. By all this it appeareth, that it is a mcft 
nfavoury thing for men called Divines to difputc 
>tly, That Chri$ did or did 'not die and merit f.r 
/, and bitterly revile their Adverfaries in the 
ontroverfie, without ever explaining that one 
nbiguous f) liable C F O R 3, or telling men what 
iey mean. And when it is well explained, we 
arce know how to differ. 

§.15. For few will deny but that Chrift fnpred y 

I ~yt immediately bcaufe Man finned (as if Suffering 
ere due to him meerly becaufe we finr.ed) but 
xaufe he underto^kjo to do, and was obliged fo 
\ do by the Law of Mediation : But remedy he 
ffered, not only becaufe the Elect had finned, bu: 
xaufe aff Mankind had finned. Thst is, The Con- 
tion.tl Pardon and Mercies given to all Mankind, 
e fuch as Chrift's Sacrifice aid Merits muft hi 
mgruoufly the Caufes of, as well as the a&uai 
irdon of Believers. 

§. \6. But if the ftrefs of the Controverfle be 
:d on Chrift's per fonattng oz reft fenthg tb* man 
fbzt, by that time this ( humane, invented, am- 
guous, unfcriptural ) Phrafe is explained, either 
cfhall be found to be all of a mind, or elfe fome 
ill run into an intolerable errour about C thrift's 
ing and meriting in oar civ.i ptrfen, and our dying 
id meriting by kti natural per [on ] •, or elfe they 
ill difpute themfelves into a Wood of Uncer- 
inties, and be loft about the fence of a word that 
nnot be fufficiently explained. 
§• 17- And they that will lay the ftrefs of the 
ontroverfie on the Aptitude or the Event , mutt 
men of fome fingularConceits, and not of the 
mmon judgment of the Feformed Churches^ the 
tberanj, the Jefuites^ or the Dominicans, if the v 


[ i6o ] s 

will difagrec \ for here we are commonly agreed. 

§. 18, Bat as far as I can difcern, moft Conten- 
ders lay the Controverfie upon the point of JD*- 
vine Intention, Vnrpofe or Decree : viz.. Whether 
Chrift as God did pitrpofe to jaftifie ardfave all men by 
his death t or elfe, Whether hepurpofed to do good to 
all men by his death ? Which Purpofe is nothing but 
God's eternal Will or Decree. And why then do they 
make two Controverfies of Election and Redem- 
■ptfafc when they mean the fame in both ? And 
here methinks there cannot eaflly be a difference. 
For (in a few plain words'* whatever good Chrift 
giveth to any, that he from Eternity decreed to give 
them: But we are agreed that he giveth not Salva- 
tion to all men, and yet that he doth give many 
and great Mercies to all men } ancfefpecially, that 
he hath given to the World (and not only to the 
Eieft) an exprefs conditional Pardon of Sin, and con- 
ditional J unification, Reconciliation* Adoption and 
Right to Glory : And fober Divines had rather fay 
that this univerfai conditional Deed of Gift r is the 
effect of ChrijFs Sacrifice and Sufferings, than that 
Gad giveth it to one part of Men for Chrift's death, 
and to the other part not fir his death, but as with- 
out it. And we are agreed, that Chrift doth give 
to fomefuch fpecial Grace, as /hall and doth infalli- 
bly prevail with them to repent and believe, and^ 
alfo acftual Pardon, Juftification, Adoption and 

§. 19. Therefore in this fence Chrift died for all, 
but not for all ahk* or equally ; that is, He intended 
good to all, but not an equal good with an cquil intent 
tion. Whatever Chrift giveth men in time as the 
fruit of his death, that he decreed from Eternity 
to give them. And whatever Jie never * giveth I 


[ i6i 3 

them, he never decreed to give them. What he 
giveth them abfolutely, he decreed to give them 
abfolutely. And what he giveth them but condi- 
tionally, he decreed to give them btit conditio- 
nally. Therefore being agreed of the ftft and 
event , we muft be agreed of the Intention or De- 
cree 9 and what needs there more ? 

And bv this time you may anfwer their Objecti- 
on that fay, Why not a common and conditional Ele- 
ulion^zs well as a common and conditional Redem- 
ption ? Anf. Neither of them are conditional as 
to the Ad of God and Chrifl : There is no ad of 
ours the Condition of God's decreeing ex parte Dei^ 
but only of the thing decreed ^ nor of ChrifFs 
Death or Intent^ but only of the benefit: That a 
conditional Aft of Grace, or Deed of Gift of Chrifl: 
and Life to all Mankind in common (in the tenor 
of it) fhould be made, was both decreed by God 
and purchafed by Chrifl:. But, i. This is not the 
whole of God's Decree or Chrift's Purchafe and 
Intent. 2. And this is not to be called ElcCticn y as 
it fignifieth a chooling of fome from among the 
reft : Common Redemption and the Decree of 
Common Grace, both antecede that which is pro- 
perly called Eleftion, inorder of Nature in cjfe ob- 
jettwo i that is, God decreeth to give Faith and 
Salvation efFeftively to fome of them that had com- 
mon Grace. 

§. 20. The old Solution which Schoolmen and 
Proteffcnts have acquiefced in, is, That Chrift died 
for All, m to the /efficiency of his dea*h, but not as to 
the efficiency of their falvat ion: Which is true, but 
muft be thus explained: Chrift's Death and Obedi- 
ence were not only Sufficient but effects- as to their 
fiyfi effects , that is, They effected that which is 

M com- 

{ 162 ] 

commonly called , Satufrfbim and Merit < 7 and 
hence and from the Covenant of God they were 
alfo efte&ual to procure the Covenant of Grace as 
of miverfal tenor, and therein a free far don of Sm 
and gift of Right to life-eternal to all, on condition of 
due acceptance : This conditional Gift of Chrift and 
Life is effected : And this efficacy of the antecedent 
Mercies, muft either be called part oitht fnfficierxy 
of Redemption, as to the confequent Mercies (vit. 
A&ual Pardon and Salvation) orelfc an efficiency 
beyond the fufficiency, antecedent to the faid fpe- 
cial efficiency. That Chrift's Death hath effectu- 
ally procured the Aft of Oblivion or conditional 
Gift of Life to all Mankind ; but it doth not effeft 
the a&ual falvationofall : To xhzuniverfal Grace 
it is both fnfficient and efficient *, but to the fecial 
Grace and actual Salvation it is fufficient to All (as 
after fhall be opened) but not efficient, (which is 
by the Refufer's fault and forfeiture.,) 

§. 21. When we fay, that either Chrift's-De^ 
or Grace is fufficient to more than it effefteth, the 
meaning is, that it hath all things on its fart which 
habfolntely necefary to the eflfeft, but that fome- 
what elfe is fuppofed neceflary to it, which is wan- 

§. 22. As there is a common Grace a&ually ex- 
tended to Mankind, ( that is, common 
Cf Sufficient Mercies contrary to their merit) fb thei e 
grace. is fuch a thing as Efficient Grace in fitct 

gaiere, which is not effectual. So that 
though it be difputable in what cafes this is found, 
and what not, yet that there is fitch a thing is pail 

§. 23. By fufficient Grace here I mean fuch 
without which M^nsWiU cannot, and with which 

it i 

it c.V^ perform the commanded Act toward which it is 
mov$d y wktn yet it doth not perform it • and this nith± 
ont any other degree cf help than that which pracureth 
not the ati. So that \t is not all that is ufeful to the 
tffeEb, nor all that is necefTary to eafie or prompt 
performance* or to the infallible sfcertaining of the 
a#, nor to the melius effe only that we fpeak of; 
but fo ntoch atf is necellary ad effe, and efficient of 
the true poffe : When you can properly fay that a 
Man can do this, you fay that he hath all that is of 
neceffitytothedoingof it. 

§. 24. Janfenipts him felf is fo far from denying 
this Grace called Sufficient, that he afTerteth that 
by this, improved by free-will, (without fuch 
fpeciai Grace, as of it fclf, giveth the ACt as well 
as the Power) the^W Angels flood when the bad 
ones fell, and Adam ftood till the time of his Fall : 
And fo that fuch a thing there hath been. 

§. 25. And feeing God is tti/l the fame, and man's 
will the fine in its natural faculties, andGodfeem- 
eth to us to delight in Conftancy, it is very impro- 
bably imagined, that God did for fo fhort a time 
Rule Angels and Men by fuch a Grace, as he would 
never after make ufe of in the World , and that 
Mart s free-will did for fo fhort a time do its Duty 
by that Sufficient Grace, and never after do any ene 
ad by the like Grace, in any one to the World's 

§. 26. It's true, that fuch Grace will not ferrc 
our turn to do that now in our lapfed ftate, which 
Adam could have done in Innocency ( no, nor will 
all our effectual Grace yet reach it) that is, to have 
continued finlefs : But it is incredible , that no 
common Grace of Gcd now is as fuffdr.it to the per- 
formance of the leafigood a& (which is good but 

M 2 fee 

fecundum quid) as Adarn\ was to the fulfilling of 
all God's Law -, and that the beft unregenerate 
man is not able to do any better than he doth, or for* 
hear feme Evil that he doth, as well as Adam to 
have forborn all. 

§. 27. Atkaft, to the Regenerate fuch a Grace 
muft be acknowledged : For though of the reft 
Janfenm will fay, They do no good, becaufe they 
love not Gcd and good nefs (and on the like reafons 
others will fay, That the Regenerate do no good, be- 
caufe all hath finful mixture or imperfe&ionj; yet 
he will not fay fo of the godly t And mull we be- 
lieve that no godly man can do any more good 
than he doth? andfo, That he hath no meerly- 
lufficient Grace to any one ad in all his life ? 

§ 28. The Gontroverfie about /efficient Grace is 
the fame in the true meaning of it with that of the 
Tower of Man s Free-will : For when by [uffiaer.t 
Grace we mean nothing but the enabling a Man to 
the aft, or giving him Power to do it, the ftrefs 
of the Queftionis, Whether Man hath truly any 
Fower to do more than he doth ? For if he have 
fiicha Power, Grace hath given it him, if it be for a 
Work that Grace is needful to. So that indeed 
were it not for Cuflom and Expectation, this 
Queftion fhould be handled under that of the /o- 
wcr and Liberty oiMatPs Will. 

§. 29. No man hath at the prefent Grace fuffi- 
cient for his Salvation, if he have longer time to 
Jive : Becaufe the Grace or help of the prefent 
hour is not fuffieient for the next, but there muft 
be continual Supplies from God ; fuppofing that 
nt diftinguifh of Grace by the diftindt numerical 
^3/ and hours fcr and in which we need it : But if 
you diftinguifh of Grace by the [fecks of Acts for 


which it is needful, and not by the numerical afts* 
then it may be truly faid, that the fame Grace (Jn 
facie) which a Believer hath to day, may be fuffi- 
cient to his Salvation, or to his life's end. 

§.30. Butifyoufpeak degrade, that Grace may 
be iliiicient; to one things which is not Efficient to 
another: And fo, 1. An Infidel may have Grace 
fufficient to forbear fome Sin, or avoid fome Tew- 
ftation, or ufe fome mt*ns that tendethto Faith and 
Repentance, who hath not Grace fufficient to bt- 
Ueve and repent unto Salvation. 2. A man may 
have Grace fufficient to enable him to believe and 
j^/wr untojuftification, and yet not have at that 
inftant Grace fufficient to enable him to love God 
above all as God, with a fixed habitual Love, and to 
live an holy life ( for the Spirit and Sanciification are 
promifed on condition of Faith and Repentance'). 
3. kfanttified man that is yet but weak, may have 
Grace fufficient to live to God a holy life at pre- 
fers, and yet not have Grace fufficient for greater 
trials of Duty and Temptation : And therefore 
jiugnftine and all his Followers ftill fay, That the 
Grace cf Perfererance is a Gift over and above the 
Grace of meer Sancfrification in the weakeft degree. 

§. 31. By all this it is evident, that he that 
difputeih of the fnfiiciency of Grace, mull firft di- 
ftinftly tell us, 

1. Whether he mean extrinfeck Grace 5 or in* 
tr in feck* 

2. If extrinfeckj) Whether he mean it compre- 
I henfively of all extrinfeck^Grace together, or only 
j of fome particular part or fort. 

I 3. If the Utter, Whether he fpeak of the fufficien- 

| cy of ChriJPs Death and Rightewfne[s y Sacrifice, Me- 

, nt^Intercefiion, &c. or of the/ Efficiency of the GofpeU 

M 3 Co* 


Covenant or Pr&mife :, or of the fufficiency of Preach- 
ing, Praying, and other means ; or of the Scri- 
pture-Records, &c. 

4. Ifhefpeak of intrinfeck,Grace, Whether the 
Queftion be of Sufficiency ex parte Dei agen- 
tis, (which none muft queftion) ; or ex parte 

5. If the latter, What is the effect whofe fufficien- 
cy he queftioneth ? 1. Is it a Grace or Power to 
do fome more common good, ufe fome means, forbear 
fome evil, as the Unregenerate may do? 2. Or 
is it a Power truly to repent and believe ? 3 . Or to 
love God habitually , and live holily ? 4. Or to over- 
come greater Temptations, and per fever e ? 

6. And he muft tell you whether he fpeak, i.De 
fpecie, whether the Grace or Power iufficicnt to 
this fort of Ads 01 Duty be fufficient to another, or 
to all. 2. Or de gradu, Whether this degree be 
JuffiGient againft a greater degree or fort of Tempta- 
tion. 3 . Or as men ufe to diftinguifh Grace and 
Help by numerical Ads and Hours , Whether the 
Grace of this Hour and Aft be fufficient for the 
next, or for alQ The fence of all thefe Queftions 

7. But his laft and greatcft difficulty will be, to 
tell you truly and plainly what is that Grace which 
is the fubjeft of his Queftion, of its fufficiency in the 
general nature of it, and as related to the thing 
which it is called fufficient to. 

§. 32. For, by Grace he meaneth, 1. Either 
fomewhat ex parte Dei agentis, 2. Or ex parte effecti, 
or, 3 . Quid medium • 1 . Grace, as it is in God the 
Agent ;2. Or as it is in Man the Recipient •, 3. Or 
as it is fomewhat between both. 

[1*7 3 

§. 33- I- ^<*^, as it is in God, is nothing but 
his Effence, not as Efftnce, but as an tffential Power , 
Intellelt *nd Will denominated by Connotation from the 
effect: This is commonly agreed on : God doth 
operate per effentUm, and not by Accidents. 

§. 34. II. If they mean any mediate thing be- 
tween God and the EfFedt,. either they fpeak of 
the fiyft effk£t or zfecond, and foon : If they lpeak 
but of fecondary efFefts, and the meaning be on- 
ly whether one efFedl be a fufficient Cuufe for ano- 
ther, they mean either an onward or an inward 
Grace or Effect. If an outward, then the fence 
of the Queftion is, Whether fome other Work 
of Gcd be fufficient to move the Will of Man ? 
And then it muft be told what other Work you 
mean : Whether an Angel, or the Planets, or the 
Word or Preacher, or an outward Mercy or 
Affli&ion, or vyhac it is ? But if you fpeak of 
the very firlfc efFe& , then the fancy is almoft 
proper to Aureolm among the Schoolmen , to 
think that there is fomething from God antece- 
dent to the Cr e*mre and Motion, which may be 
called A&ion or Energy, or Efflux, which is neither 
the Creato: nor a Creature, neither Cauf* fubftan- 
tial nor Effect, but Caufmion : As if fome Beam of 
Virtue or Force went from God to produce every 
Creature and Motion, which is neither (UoB, nor the 
Creature, or Motion. But this is commonly and 
jjuitly rejefted, as feigning a third fort of Entity 
between #o& and the Creature, which it pafTcrh 
the wit of Man to conceive of what it Humid 

& And if God do immediately per effentUm, 
catjfe that middle Entity, cr Actien^or Force, which 

M 4 he 


I\e faith is no Creature, why may he not as well 
immediately per effentiam, caufe the Creature and 
motion it f:lf ? This therefore cannot be the 
thing meant by Grace in this Queftion. 

To queftion the fufficiency of God's EiTence is 
intolerable : To queftion the fufficiency of a me- 
diate divine Efflux or Attion, which is between God 
and the Creature and Effed, is to difpute in your 
Dream of a Chimera fin unproved, and a difproved, 
and commonly-denied Entity. . To difpuceof the 
fufficiency of Angels, Scripture, Sermons , &c. to 
work Grace, is not the thing commonly intended 
in this Controverfie of Grace : Each federal fort 
of means may htfufficient in its own kind and to 
its own ufe ; but no one of them is fuffieient to the 
effed. But if you will put the Queftion as of All 
together, it muft be fo explained. 

§.35. III. The Grace therefore meant in this 
Queftion can be no other than either fome effett on 
the Soul, as tending to a farther effect, or the afore- 
faid comprehenfion ofnecejjary extrinfeck^mcans. If 
the former be meant fas it is by almoft all School- 
men and Difputcrs of this Cafe) then, t. It mull 
be enquired, Whether fuch a thing be ? and, 2. What 
it is if it be i 

§. 35. 1 . Bradwardine, and fome that go his 
Way, do deny the being of any fich thing as we 
now difpute of} and fay, That God's effmid will, 
£S a v(iL is the immediate Efficient, and the Ad of 
Man is the Effect, ( c, f. Faith,) and becaufe God 
willeth that Ad, it doth immediately exift, as the 
World did, by his creating will : And fo here is 
noplace for the Difpute of Sufficient Grace : For 
Gcd y sWiH is certainly f efficient to caufe what he 
will caufe : And Man's Ad; either is exiftcnt or not i 


[i6 9 ] 

And there is no Grace antecedent to it, to be called 
inefficient, unlcfs you will vainly fay, that God* 
elTential Will is fufficient to nothing but what 
he produced), which is a Difpuie unfit for fober 

§. 37. 2. Butbecaufb the contrary Opinion is 
far more common, that there is an inward Grace 
.to believe or cenfent ) antecedent to cur Aft, 
tyhofe fkjficuncy is queftioned, itpofeth the Wits 
of all the Schoolmen f much more is it shove many 
Contenders that never fo much as ftudied it) to fay, 
what it it. The Notions of Alvarez. ( who calls 
it mottu ) 2nd of Fxfdjuezy and others I have 
elfewhere confidered, and here pafs by : And I have 
mewed , that 1 take it to be fo far paft man's 
reach, as to be unfit for hot Contention. Bnt fo 
far as we may conceive of it, it muft be in this two- 
fold notion : 1. As it is fome Divine Im^refs on 
the Soul, which is Anaiogus to the Vis infpreffd 
received from the Mover in the Patient in cor- 
poral Motion. 2. That this Imprefflon received, 
doth m frimd inft^'^ put the Faculty intofuch an 
immediate Ability to the A& y or fuch a ftate of 
Diffofednefs to the Aft, as may be called a Mitral 
Po&er ( the natural Facultyibeing fuppoied ) and 
puis the Will in fuch a ftate as to the aft of 
Confent, as that it can do it, but is not necefli- 
tated to it, nor aftually determined, but can for- 
bear. And this is called fufiicient Grace. 3. And 
in the next inftant when the Wt 11 doth confent , God 
and Man are both Canfes or Agents^' and the 
Grace is efftttnal by both Caufes, God the firft, 
and Man the fecond. 

§. 38. 2. The Pelagians and fome others iecm 
to think that God doth not operate immediately on 


C 170 3 

imns Soul? as to proximity of Caufation , but im- 
mediately on fuferieftr Caufes and Means ( a$ An- 
gel^ Word, Objects, &c. ) and that when all means 
arc duly ordeiecj, man maybe ftid to Ik able in 
his racer natural powers for the Aft, becaufethofe 
wear^ are now 6'rai:* Juff.cient to e*fzre *>. And 
that when^w Means of an hundred is wanting, it 
is inefficient Grace. 

§. 39. We all confefs, that God worketh •by 
means, and we cannot name an Aft on us, which 
he always or ordinarily doth without; any mans, or 
fecond Caufe. And we acknowledge that there are 
gracious means, and (hat ordinarily th.efe mull have 
a fufficjency in their kind : But withal we muft 
fay, that God worketh immediately as to proximi- 
ty of Caufation, when he worketh not fo imme- 
diately as without fecond Caufes : And that whe- 
ther by means, or without means (as he pleafeth ) 
there mull be fuch a Dilfofiticn communicated to 
a depraved, undifpofed Soul, as fhall be amoral 
-poner, and put it into an immediate capacity to 
confent (,oraft): And todifpute the fufficieijcy 
of the means, is one thing, and to difpujte thefuf- 
fcieney of this inward Diffofition or Power, is an- 
other. And this muft be the quefticn. 

§* 40. The common difputedqueflionis,Whe- 
ther all men have Grace /itfficient to believe ? which 
muft be negatively anfwered; They have not. 
Thofe that never heard the Gofpel, have not. 

g.41 . But, 2. have all that he*r the Gofpel fuf- 
ficient Grace to believe ? An[ m No : many of them 
are hardened by former finning, fo as to be fet at 
a greater diftance and enmity , than many Hea- 


[17* 3 

§. 42. But, ily. All the World hath Grace C or 
merciful Help ) fufficient to enable them to do lefs 
evil, a..d more good than they do, and to ufe fomt 
mews better than they do, which tend to further 
Grace. And they that do not this, are juftly de- 
nied further Help. 

§.43. 4. But the flicking difficulty is, Whether 
any rr.tn in the World have Grace fufficient to recent 
and believe fii>i*i%ly, who do not} To which I an- 
fwer, 1 . The Qjieftion is of lefs moment than 
it's commonly made to be ; feeing thofe are unci- 
cufable who ufe not that Grace which was fuffici- 
ent to their forcfaida/f of means, and lefs refifiar.ee 
to God's Grace: 2. But cenain'y to anfwer the 
queilion negatively cr affirmatively, I cannot \ 
as not knowing any more of Gods working on mens 
Souls, than he himfdf hath told us of. 3. But if 
we may conjecture upon Probabilities, it feemeth 
to me mofl likely , that there is fab a fufficient 
Grace or Power to repent and believe favingly in fome 
that ufe it not, but perifh. For, 1. if Angels had, 
andufxd fuch * fort of Grace : 2. And if AUm 
had fuch a fort of Grace, and u r ed it a while; 
3. And if unregenerate men have fu:h a gracs for 
lower Afts, wWch tend to FsLith : 4. And if the 
Faithful have/w:^ a grace to do more good, and 
lefs evil th it; they do: 5. It feemerh very impro- 
bable, that only to the fifth Inftance ( to repent and 
believe) none in the World fhould have fuch a fuf- 
ficient grace. 

§. 44. And though Janferitv feem very lingu- 
lar in denying that there is now any fuch fufficient 
grace of Chrijt in the World, which is not effeftu- 
al either to believe, or to do any other good ; that 
is, That Chrift's grace cnablcth no man to do any more 


L 172] 

good thm he doth ; yet indeed it is molt in two a?n- 
b'lguom Words, that Jnnfenim differeth from others, 
( though many unskilful Difputants fuppofe it to 
be much more material a difference) viz.. 1. In 
one Syllable [GOOD.] For he will call no- 
thing good in man's A&ions, but Holy Love and its 
Effttts -j and fo faith, That no unfan&ified Man 
doth c oid } and therefore hath not Grace fufficieat 
to do it. But moral C Good 2 is taken in three 
Sences (or Degrees) 1. Good, ft* 
See of this my cnndnm quid, in a decree not predomi* 
f a . th °> Sa ~ ,w: And fo Infidels and ungodly 
ing ^ • Chriftians have fome good. i.Good, 

ftCHndum quid, ve l imp er feci hw, bat in a degree -pre- 
dominant. And fo the Godly do good, though mixt 
with evil. 3. Good in perfection and unmixt with 
evil : and fo none do good till they are perfe&ed 
in Glory. ( To fay nothing of f ejfemisi fimple 
Good per fe, and indcpcndant -,2 for fo none is good 
but Gcd only. ) And all this is the EfFeft of Grace. 
§.45. 2. Bnt,{zkhjanfcmm, there is fome^yvc* 
which is not grmx Chrifii, the^n*^ ofChrifi ; and 
fach is all that cometh from meer fe*r without 
Love, which is a kind of providential preparatory 
grace, but not-the^r^re of Chrifi... jlnf m It is not 
that eminent and fpechl grace ol *Chnfi: But to 
think that it befalleeh men without CfrifPs procure- 
m:n:, and is noc a commoner fort of Christ's grace, 
whzn all Power in Heaven and Earth is put into 
bis Hand, and he is made Head •over all things to 
Church, is below a Chriftian Divine to ima- 
gine^ and too injurious to Chrift. But by all this 
it appeareth, that even Jaufemiu differeth from 
others more about the Names of £ Good ] and 
[ Ckrtfi's Graces'] than about the Matter. 



Of M&ns Power and Free-mil fince the Fall. 

§. i. CO much is faid, Chap. 9. of Mans natural 
i3 Power and Free-rvilly and fo much now , 
Chap. 13. ofgrace, and the Power given by it, as 
may allow me to be (hort in what is here to be ad- 

§. 2. All that natural Power and Liberty which 
wasefTentialtothe Will, remained] in it lincethe 
Fall : Fcr Man is of the fame Species. 

§.3. The Wit is flill a [elf -fitter mining Prin- 
ciple, fuppofing, 1 . God's necefiary influx, as he is 
the firft Gaufe of Nature, 2. And the Being and 
convenient Petition of Gbjefts, 3. And the Per- 
ception of the Intellect, 4. And the concourfecf 
necefTary concomitant fecond Caufes. 

§. 4. The three Faculties cf mans Soul are all 
vitiated by fin* 1 . The vital active Power is fo far 
dead to God and Holinefs, as to need the cure of 
quickening, and firen^thcmng y and exciting Grace* 
2. The Intellect is fo far blinded, as to need the 
cure of illuminating grace. 3. And the Willis fofar 
turned by Enmity from God, to the inordinate 
k Love of carnal felf-interefi and Creatures, as to 
need the cure of converting, fm&ifying Grace. 

§. 5 . Grace healeth the Will of this Enmity and 
yitious perverfenefs, fo far as it prevailed j which 
is, i. common Grace enableth it to common good, 
and prepareth it for better^. 2, Special Grace 
caulethitadtually and habitually to will and love 



fpecial Good ^ that is, God as God, and the Crea- 
ture for God, and Holinefs as his Image. 3. Per- 
fetter Grace bringethup the Will to perfeder ho- 
ly Afts and Habit-. 

§. 6. Nature it lelf is not in lapfed man, di- 
verted of all mortd or Divine Principles, Abilities, 
and Inclinations : In the Intellect there are com- 
mon Notices of a Deity - that is, That there is 
cne God who is infinitely powerful, wife, and good: 
And in the Will there arefomc Inclinations ftill to 
good as good, and therefore to GWas far as he is 
truly conceived of at good -, and fo far as that con- 
ception is not conquered by a crofs Conception of 
fome Enmity : And fo of other Good. 

§. 7. Nature and common Grace may caufe a 
man to go as far in Love and Religion, as thofe 
whom we call the kiphe ft Hypocrites , or almtfl-Chri- 
ftians may do ( which our practical Preachers do 
frequently tell the People at large in Books and 

§ . 8. Such may have a common fort of Faith 
in Chriil ( even formerly to the working of Mi- 
racles ), and of Repentance, and Reformation, and 
of go:d Defires, and love to gocdnefs and good Men j 
yea, to God himfelf. 

§. 9. For men are not fo corrupt by Nature 
C much lefs under the Effects of common grace ) 
as to hate allgoodnefs, or to hate all that is in God : 
They m^y love God as he is the Almightv Creator, 
Preferver, and Natural-Orderer of the World ,and 
the Caufe of its Being, Motion, Eeauty, Harmony, 
and all natural Good : And they may love him as 
he is the Giver of life* and all natural Bleffingsto 
themfelves, ardashe is the Prefcrverof them 3 and 
their only Security and Help in Danger, and not 



only as his Bleffings gratifie their Senfe*, but as all 
their Hope ofeverlafting Happinefs is in his Power 
and Love : They may love him as hedcth this good 
to others alfo, and is the common Ben.fadtor to 
the World, without whom it could not fubfift a 
moment. And they may love him as he maketh 
fuch Laws as preferve their lives, and Properties, 
and Rights, from Fraud and Violence, and by ma- 
king other Men confcionable, juft, and charitable 
to all, do both gratine themfelves, and tend to the 
common Order, Peace, and Welfare of Societies, 
and of Mankind. 

§. 10. J am not able to confute or deny what 
Adrian ( afterwards Pope ) hath written ( in his 
jQuodUbets} That an unfandtified Man (noc in a 
ftate of Salvation ) may fo far love God, even above 
himfdfy as to conftnt rather to die, and be annihi- 
/~r^, than (wereitpoffib'e) God fhould be anni- 
hilated, or net be God. For a Heathen might con- 
fent to die for his Country : And he is a B.aft and 
no Man, that would not rather be annihilated, than 
all the ffirW, yea, or all the Kingdom, er all the 
City fhould be annihilated, or than the Sun fhouid 
ceafe to be, or to fhine. And he that knoweth that 
if there were no God^ there could be no World, no 
Being, Motion, Knowledge, Goodnefs, or Felici- 
ty in the World ^ befides, that which is worfe, the 
Ccflacion of the Infinite Good himfelf ; mull be 
yet more unmanly, if he would not raiherbe an- 
nihilated alone {if per impojfibtie , you fuppofe he 
could live alone ) than all this greater Evil fhould 
cometopafs. He that tells men, that they fhall 
befaved, if they woald rather be annih:lated,than 
that there fhould be no God, doth make them a 
proraife which God hath not made. 

§. ii. 

[ i7* ] 

§. n. But (as the fame Author oJ>ferveth ) 
that which the unholy cannot do, is, to lave God 
M~God, as the ultimate ObjeEl > and mo ft amiable 
Good to be known, a^:dby Love and Holinefs enjoyed, 
and pleafed by a holy SqhI\ and this above all ten- 
fual terrene Delights, and to love him as the holy 
Ruler of the World t who forbiddeth all finful 
fenfuality, and all mens inordinate Conceits, De- 
fires, Delights, and Practices, and requireth holi- 
nefs and purity of Mind, and Life, and Sobriety, 
and Temperance, and Self-denial in all that will 
be faved. And as he is a juft Judge who will exe- 
cute all thefe Laws, and condemn the ungodly to 
endlefsMifery. They love not God, as he is the 
haty Governour, and r'whtews Judge of men^ that 
would reflrain them from their ilnfnl Wills and 
Pleafures, and damn them if they will not be ho- 
ly. And confequently they love not his Laws, and 
other means by which this is to be done : Becaufe 
loving the pleafiire of their Lufls, and being averfe 
to things fpirltnal, high and holy, they love not 
that holinefs and re&kude in themfelves, which 
God comimndeth, Rom. 8. 5, 6, 7, 8, &c 

§. 12. Though God, as the Fountain of Na- 
ture, continue the natural power and liberty of the 
Will, yet its twral Impotency, Pravity, or iWDif- 
poftion, by which it is averfe to Holinefs, and 
prone to Senfuality, muft be cured by Grace •, 
where common Grace and /fecial, caufe common and 
Special Ejfefts in the Cure, 

§. 13. The moral Power given by Grace, con- 
filling in the right Diffrofition of the Will, is not 
of the fame kind with the Natural Power or Fa- 
culty : And the Words C^iV] and iCjiNNOTj 
tifed of both forts, have not the fame flgniiication, 



but arc equivocal } otherwife Sin and Grace fhould 
change mans Spicies. Thofe Difputants there- 
fore that confound them far the founds fakg, de* 
ceive the Auditors. 

§. 14. Vs/e muft fay then, Thzt^cjuoad vires , 
vel potentiam naturalem, every man can believe, who 
hath the fife of Reafen, Objetts revealed, and ex* 
trinfeck neceffary Caufesj that is, He wanteth 
not the natural Faculty or Power, nor needeth an- 
other natural F 'acuity ', but only the Excitation, If* 
lamination x and right Diffrtfition of that which he 
hath : Bat 2s to the faid right Disfofniw, or moral 
Power, no one can truly repent and believe without 
that Grace which muft fo ditfofe him : Common 
Grace muft difpofe him to a common Faith, and 
fpecial Grace to a faving Faith. 

§•15. It is more proper to fay, That an Un- 
believer, and unholy Sinner will not repent and 
believe, than that he cannot •, though that alfo may 
be truly faid, if well explained. But the meaning 
is not, that he cannot , though he fncerely would : 
Nor yet that he cannot be willing, for ivant of the 
natural Power of willing : But, 1. That he hath a 
Logical, and, 2. A moral Impotency^ that is, an In- 
difpofnion; he wanteth both ViIfoJition 7 Habit 7 
and Aft, but not the Faculty. 

§. 16. It is an abufive mifcarriage of thofe Dis- 
putants, who in the Words [CjiNJ and 
C CANNOT 2 ufe to confound not only, as afore - 
faid, natural and moral Power, but even Logical 
alio, which is neither , and fignifieth no more but 
that in ordine probandi ; fuch Premifes being put, 
the Conclusion Can or Cannot follow : For% it nsay 
be truly faid, That no man can do, yft^ 7 or thinks 
any other than he dvtb 7 and nothing can ever com? 

N r# 

°te pafs, but what doth come to pafs ; even from 
Gods forc-knowkdge this will follow : For feeing 
nothing ever mil be otberwife than God forehnoweth 
it will be, a Difputant will fay, It can be no other- 
mfc\ but he muft only mean that pofita prtfciemi* 
divina^ the Conclufion cannot be true, that the 
Event trill be ctherrvife: when yet as to the nature 
of Caufaion, we rauft fay, fen fa phyfeo & morali, 
that it Can be otherwije oft-times, though it will not 
be otherwife. 

§. 17. Thefe things centered, it appeareth 
that we are commonly agreed as followeth : i • That 
all Men have natural Powers and Free-mil to good^ 
even spiritual good ; that is, Whenever fo<k good 
is chejen or willed, it is done by the natural Power 
or Faculty i and when it is not willed, it is not for 
want of a natural Faytlty , but its due Difpo- 

§. 18. 2ly. 'That as to Civil cr Law-power 
and Liberty, all men have much more than Li- 
berty granted them by God to repent and believe. 
For Helps and a . Command are more than Leave 
or Liberty: But Liberty from the Penalty for fin, 
belongeth only to the pardoned. 

§• 1 9- 3ly- That asto Ethical Power and\L*- 
btny, which lieth in a right Dilfofuion of mans 
Faculties, every man hath it fo far as Grace hath 
prevailed, and wrought it in him, and none any 

§. 20. Or as Liberty is denominated from the 
Evil which weare free from, 1. All mens wills are 
free from being cenftrained to fin, 1 By natural in- 
cfinati4fc of the faculties themfelvcs } 2. Or by the 
ftnfes •, 3. Or by ObjeSts r 4. Or by Mtn\ 5, Or 
by pfr%\s\ 6. Or by God: Eegaufe.the v& canny 


c 179] 

and God will not ; no, not phyfically prcmoveand 
predetermine it thereto. 

§.21. 2. The wills of all men are free from 
any Commands to Sin : that is, God cannot command 
it (for elfe it were no Sin) and if men command 
it, their Commands are null, and lay no obligation on 
the will to obey thenfc 

§.22. 3. We arairce from finful VI f^o fit ions fo 
far as Grace freeth us, and no further : Therefore 
by common Gi ace men have common Liberty, and 
by fpecial Grace faving Liberty } but none perfeft 
Liberty here ; and no unfanftified man hath faving 
Liberty of Will : that is, fuch by which heis duly 
difpofed to fuch ads as have a flat Promife of Sal- 
vation : And where now doth our difference re- 

§.23. Obj. The difference is, Whether a bad 
man can change his own mil ? Anf. Your [ m eart m ] t 
meaneththe natural Power, or the du. difpofition : 
As to the firlt, he can, that is, he hath thofe facul- 
ties which want not natural Power to aft better: 
But as to the latter, he cannot without Grace, that 
is, through indifpolition he will not. 

§• 2 4* ^ % Ht ts not Grace the only canfe of the 
Change ? Anf. Grace only caufeth the firffc Im- 
prefs on the Soul, which moveth it to aft , but 
the Soul for will ) it felf is a Caufc of the Aft, elfe 
in were not Man but GOD that doth repent, be- 
lieve, obey, &c. 

§. 25. Q. But is it Grace or Free-will that is the 
chief Caafe ? Anf. Grace no doubt : Which is 
commonly acknowledged by the feveral Parties. 

§. 26. The very marrow then of all the questi- 
on about the Power and Liberty of the Will, is 
that fo often before mentioned, Whether Man's 

N 2 W& 


mS be made of G O D fuch a felf- determining 
Power, as can truly do any more good than it doth, or 
forbear more evil, without any more Grace from God y 
than that which it hath while it doth no more : And 
whether ever the Will can and do make a various 
ufe of the fame degree of Divine Affiftance; And 
this as is faid, is confefTed of the Angel's Cafe and 
Adam% : For if Adam had not Tower to haveftood 
when he fell, by the fame Grace that was given 
him, but fell becaufe God withdrew or with-held 
fuch necefTary Grace without which he could do 
no other than he did, we may then lay by theft 
Controverfies, and think how to anfwer Infi- 

§. 27. Thofe perfons that make others odious 
by their revilirigs, for holding Free-will, or denying 
Free-will % without telling men what Freedom it is 
that they mean ( natural, ethical, legal or logical 
Freedom from CeaUion, nee e filiating f r emotion y na- 
tural Inclination, or virions Difpofition, &c") fhould 
be rebuked by the Lovers of Truth and Peace, as 
the Peace-breakers of the Church and World, that 
prefume in their proud ignorance to reproach 
others for that which they underftand not. 

§. 28. They that fay, That the Liberty of the 
Will 2s natural is not violated, but by Coachcn, and 
that (^oattion^ is nothing but making a man will 
againft his Wit in the fame refpeft and a&, and fo 
that to will and to mil freely is all one, and that 
to will by Cozftion is a contradiction, vizu* to wit 
and nil the fame, and that God predetermined 
all mens wills to all iinfui habits and afts in 
fpecie as circumftantiated, by immediate, neceffita- 
ting or unreliable premotion, and yettakethnot 
away their Liberty, becaufe he raaketh them w*# 



and not «/7the fin* Thcfe do but play witk the 
name of Free-wiU^ and are confuted as afoiefaid 
from the inftance of Adam, and from the fcope of 
Scripture, and do fubvert the Foundations of Chri- 
ftianity. To will is the proper ad of my wiM- 7 
and if he that moveth me by prime phyfical effi- 
ciency to will thecircumftantiated ad of Sin, de- 
prive me npt of my Liberty, becaufe it is willing 
that he maketh me do, then if Men or Devils had 
Power to make me mil Sin, as I caufe my Pen to 
write, or the Fire to burn this or that, it would 
be nolofs of Liberty. But of this more largely 
elfe where. 

OfEfetfval GrAC* y and how Godgiveth it. 

§. i . A S I faid before about Sufficient Grace, 
/JL fo here about EfftVtnal ; the firfl: thing 
to be done by Difputers, is, to agree what 
that is which they here call £ Grace'} as the Sub- 
ject of the Queftion. And as I there (hewed, i. It 
cannet or muft not be Go<Ps tffential WiU or Power, 
for that is fimple and immutable, and not in it 
felf ( fave relatively ) diftingui(hablcintoyi#c/V^ 
and effectual. 2. An Efflux or w, which is neither 
God nor the Effeft, there is ww } or none prove- 
able. 3. It is not Faith it felf that i$ meant here 
by Grace, for it is the Grace that efft&etb Faith ; 
ajid it were abfurd to ask what Faith is effeftual 
to make or caufe it felf : This is true both of the 
A& and Habit. The meaning is not, what Habit 

N 3 J of 


of Faith is effe&ual to the Aft, nor what A& to 
the Habit or it felf, but what Grace of God is effe- 
ctual to canfe both Aft and Habit. 4. Therefore 
there is nothing left to be meant by Grace, but 
the two things before mentioned, viz.. i. The 
gracious Means or fecond Caufts appointed by God 
to cauft our Faith. 2. The firft moving Imprefs 
on the Soul, as it is antecedent to 
¥ Somgfay, that Ad and Habit, ( fuppofing that fuck 

God's meerwitt there fc * though fome rf fha 

caujeth^ man s . . ' r , °, . N J 

«*?, « wining tnere 1S an y fuch th,n s-) 

it, without any 

ether Influx or Imprefs on Mans Will, fave our Ati it J "elf efetled: 
But though it be only God's effential will, which is the firft Caufe, 
yet the thing received by us from Godfeemeth to be a certain Imprefs, 
Impulfe,or vis, or Difpoftion to acl in order of Nature, before the aft 
it felf, which Imprefs fometirne is made uneffetJual by a prevalent 
Indifpofition or Refinance of the Witt. 

§.2. And for the firft, all means will be uneffe- 
dual without God's inward Operation by his Spi- 
rit: He muft work on the Speaker and on the 
Hearer, to make means effectual, as is agreed on. 
But whether as God worketh in NatntaU accor- 
ding to the aptitude of natural fecond Canfes^ibht 
Work Faith and other Graces by a fettled propor- 
tion cfConcourfe, agreeable to the Aptitude of gra- 
cious fecond Caufes (or Means of Grace) is a Quefti- 
on too hard to be boldly and peremptorily deter- 
mined by us that are jn fo much darknefs. 

§. 30 But it fecmcth to us, that God would not 
have rcade it fo great a part of his Government 
to eftablifh a Courfe of Means , if he did not in- 
tend to work ordinarily by them, and according to 
their fitnefs. Chrift is the chief Meant, andinfti- 
tutcth the reft j Scripture, Minijters y Example, good 





Company, merciful Providences, AffiiUions, Mcditd* 
tion, Books \ Prayer, Sacraments, &c. are all appoin- 
ted for fuch effects : And if God would ordinarily 
work immediately without medti*\ what need all 
thefe ? This teacheth Infidels to fay, that hemay 
do it without Chrifi. The Spirit firft indited the 
Word (as we cut a Seal to be the inftrument of 
ImpreflionJ and then by that: word doth work 
on Souls. 

§. 4. But if God did tie himfelf net only ordi- 
narily ■, but dvoz'us to apt means , no mortal 
could &y what means is Efficient , and what is 
inefficient, and what is more than fufficienty even ni- 
ce Jfarily efficacious : For the means, 1 . arc very many 
and more than we can take notice of ; and if one 
be wanting, ft: may render the reft inefficient or 
uneffedualj how excellent foever in themfelyes. 
2. And that mears is fitted to one Hearer that is 
not fitted to another : All have not the fame tem- 
ptations, hindrances, prejudices, objections, weak- 
ness, nor obftinacy : And God only knoweth 
when means are adequately fitted to the defired 
effeft upon mens Soul •. 

§. 5. And though many cf the means operate 
ex parte fm, neceJfurUy, yet fo do not all : For 
Preachers and Inihnilcrs are free Agents, and fo it 
muft be other effetlnzl means that muft firft move 
them to do their Dnty for a Sinner's good : Which 
who can judge of ? 

§. 6. But God is the Arbitrary Ab folate Lord 
of all means, and therefore he can change and dif- 
pofe of them as he pleafes, and yet work by them. 
So that the EfFett is neverthelefs from God's free 
or arbitrary Volition, though he never went be- 
yond the aptitude of means : When even a filly 

N 4 man 

[i8 4 ] 

man can turn the natural courfe of Water and 
Wind to move his Mill or Sails at his pleafure, 
without any alteration of their natures : A Fifher 
can ufe his Bait as may fervc his end ^ and a Phy- 
fician can vary his Medicines to cure the Difeafc 
without changing their nature, or curing without 

§. 7. But there is no queftion but God can 
work without means, and Intellectual SohIs being fo 
near to the fir fi Gauft, it is utterly uncertain to us, 
whether in Works of Grace God have not a dou- 
ble operation on the Soul, one by. his appointed 
f Though before ™ean;, an( * another by immediate In- 
flux * j and if it be fo, how thefe 
coruwr to one and the fame effeft, 
and alfo how God doth immediately 
move Souls, are all paft Man's reach, 
andfhould be acknowledged above 
our Difputes. 
§. 8. 1 1. God hath more inward operations 
on Man's Soul than on£ or two ( whether with 
means or without) to bring us to Faith and Re- 
pentance : The mind mult be enlightened, the dull 
faculties mull be excited, efpecially Confcieme and 
Will 7 and the Will muft be touched with the guft 
of Divine Love to breed a holy Complacency in 
good, and many Impediments muft be removed, 
fome by outward a£ts of Providence, and fome 
by inward Grace. And where Impediments arc 
not removed, no doubt but there needeth more 
of the other Atts of Grace, to bring fuch a Soul to 
Faith and Repentance, than in one where there is 

JT Jherved that 
this feemed not 
Tiecejfary to all 
atfs of Man,& 
ixntt not over- 

§.S>. An4 

§. 9. And feeing that Ricipititr ad tnodum nci- 
ficntts, and the difpofition of the Recipient hsithfo 
great a hajhd as common Experience telleth us in ' 
almoft all the Changes in the World, (what won- 
derful variety of Effe&s doth the fame Adion of 
the Sun produce throughout the World, by thedi- 
verfity of receptive dtfpofitions ) ? Therefore no 
mortal man can fay vphen the efficacy or fuccefi of 
Divine Grace is more to be afcribed to the Prepa- 
ratory Difpofition of the Recipient by a former aft 
of Grace, and when more to the prefent moving 
Influx ? nor what proportion thefe alwaies bear as 
comparable. And what man dare fay that he can 
fearch out the waies of God ? 

§. 10. When we know fo little of the fecret 
Energies of natural Principles^ nor how God pro- 
duceth Jnunals in the Womb, nor how lie caufeth 
our Fcx)d to nourifh us, nor how any of our Scn- 
fes do their Office, nor how our Souls do ufe the 
Corporeal Spirits, &c. And when Chrift hath told 
US, T hat the Wind bloweth uhere it lifleth^nd we hi*r 
the found of it^ but know not whence it cornetb, and 
whither it goeth \ and fo is he that is born of the Spi- 
rit^ Joh. 3. 8. Should not this, with the expe- 
rience and confeioufnefs of our Ignorance, fuffice 
to keep us from bitter Contendings about that 
which is certainly beyond our reach, and from 
prefuraptuous boldnefc with the unfearchable 
things of God? 

§. ii. Whether you will with BrAdwardinc 
and many others fay, That it is God's mecr Vo- 
lition that effefteth all things ad extra , or whe- 
ther you will fay with the moft, That it is not 
Jus Will alone , but his Will as operating by his 
■ txtcnmt Fewer, the meaning feeraeth to be the 


[ i86] 

fame, and the difference to be but notional, as is 
aforefaid : For they that fpeak in the fir ft man- 
ner, mean, That it is not Gcd^s Will as in itfelf 
immanemly confidered,but his will as going forth 
to pt rdnce an effeft •, which emanation or exertion 
is, from the efFeft, called by thofe that fpeak in 
the fecond manner, God?s Executive Porer. 

g. 12. The prime Reafon of the EfFeft, is God's 
Wifdom, Will, and Power as the Caufe : And fo the 
prime reafon why Means and Grace become effe- 
ctual whenever they are effectual, muft be from 
God the prime Caufe. 

§.13. The firft Jmprefi on the Sonl moving it 
toward the Aft (e.g. Frith) is the firft Grace in- 
ternal (fob rat tone rffecti): And this Gcd him- 
felf worketh on man as on a mecr Patient - 7 tho* 
not antecedently to all former afts of Man, or 
all preparative difpofitions, ^ ufually ) yet ante- 
cedent to that Aft of Man to which it moveth : 
So that as to this, i. Man is paflive> 2. and the 
Divine Operation for the powerful Will *f God) is 
not only fufficent hut effectual j for that Imprcfs 
or Motu* is effefted. 

g. 14. Though God being a Spirit moveth not 
by fuch Contaft as Bodies do en each other, yet 
muft we conceive of his motion, and the motion of 
all Spirit* en Bodies, as analegom to corporeal Con- 
taft, and as a motion by Efflux and eminent Con- 
taft of Virtue and Eflence, according to the more 
excellent na:ure an& operation of Spirits *, or elfc 
we cannot conceive positively of them. 

§. 75. It is already proved, that God ufeth 
variotu degrees of Imprefs or Motion on Souls } of 
which fome da by their proper power or degree fo 
afcertain the efFeftj that the Argument is aiwaies • 


[i8 7 ] 

good as a citifa, Cwhere-ever God doth fo move, 
there the Effeft (that is the Aft, e. g. Faith or 
Con fern) follcweth : And this Grace is effeftual ex 
propria vi vel virtute : But that Gcdibmetimeope- 
h by a lefs Imprefs or Motion, which doth not 
from its own force inftrr the effeft, but fo far 
difpofeth the Mind or Will to the Ad, that the 
man can do it without any more grace } which is it 
that is called Sufficient Grace, as aforefaid. 

§. \6. It is a thing not to be believed, that 
this latter decree of Diime motion is never eventual- 
ly ffiftwl to the Aft: Seeing, i. it is granted, 
that there is fuck a Power in Man's Will as c.nzOi 
in fome cafes by that degree of Grace called Suffici- 
ent: And frnftra fit pot entia qua nunquam reducitur 
in a&nnu 2. And it's granted, that the Angels 
and Adam did aft by luch help. Therefore as 
to afts preparatory tefoft fpecial Fuith, few do af- 
firm that they are all done by fuch Grace as is 
neceffarily effeftual ex propria vi alone, but that 
Efficient Grace leaveth them often to Man's 

§. 17. Therefore all that reraaineth, is to re- 
folve what is the reafon of the certain effeft when 
we believe ? To which I fay, 1. It is ever an 
effeft of two Caufcs (at feaftj God's met -on arid 
man's faculty *> and fo both muft be faidtobethe 
Je of the effeft. 2. Bat nuns m/l is no Caufe ■ 
( fave a Hcipicnt Canfe) of God's Part or Imprefs. 
3. God fometimes, at leaft, maketh fo powerful an 
Imprefs y as doth ncceffarily determine mans mU % 
hy a Nccefficy confident with his Liberty. 4. It 
cannot be proved by any man, that no manke- 
Heveth by that fnfficient Alotion, which doth not 
ncctfarily determine his will *, feeing many prepa- 

ratory *&s are done by fuch a motion. And it f s 
probable that it is ore fo. %. But the certainty 
of this, or when and how oft it is fo, no man can 

§. 18. But by which degree of Grace foever 
the efteft be produced, Hill God's Will is the chief 
caxfe of it *, which can procure the efFeft infallibly , 
when it doth not neceffuate .' Yea, and his premo- 
tion or imprefs called Sufficient , is incomparably 
more the caufe than Man's Concourfe is ^ though 
God leave fome part of the Caufation to man's 

§, 19. But when the Effect doth not follow, 
that is, when men believe not, it is mats will 
by omiffion and refinance, that is the chief caufe, 
and culpable, and not God's omiffion or non-de- 

§. 20. The lame degree of divine Imprefs or 
Motion, which prevaileth with a Soul predifpo- 
fed by common Grace, is not enough to prevail 
with fome others that are ill or indilpofed : 
Though God's Abfolute Will and jlnjmrablc 
Operation would prevail with any ? how bad fo- 


Of the State of Heathens and others, that 
have not the Gofpel. 

§. i.TTHE opening of the feveraltXaws or 

A Covenants of God before , hath taken 

up mofl: that is neceflary'to be laid about this 

point : 

[i8 9 ] 

point : The queftion, Whether any but Chrifiians 
are fave^ is agitated on both fides by fo much 
the fharper Cenfures, by how much the nearer it 
feemeth to concern the Fundamentals of Reli- 

§. 2. On one fide fome fay, That nothing is 
more fundamental than Goa?s Nature, and Go- 
«jernme?rt^ and Beneficence, and the Attributes which 
belong to him in refpeft to each : And they fay, 
That for God to be the Ruler and Be- 
ntf actor of the World, and to bealfo Exod. 34. 5, 
gracious and Merciful and Love it fdf, 6 > r - 
and a Re warder of them that diligently " 

feek him , are our Furdamentals \ 
which are not confident with this, That 2II tr.e 
World fince Adam , except a few Believers or 
Jews and Chriftians, that were born from Adam, 
under as abhlme a necejfity of being remedileHy dam- 
ned, as of dying. 

§. 3. Here they ufefirft to confiderof the«/*/d*r, 
viz.. 1 . That it is not pall the fixth part of the 
World that are called Chriftians. 2. That the 
far inaieft part of thefe (perhaps twenty to one) 
have not competent mtam to underftand what 
that Chriflianity is which glveth them their name, 
and which, as to the name, they profefs. The O- 
caflians, Mengrdians, and Other Georgians , the Ar- 
menians, the Mufcwites, the Cojjacks, the moft of 
the Greeks and Abaffwes, yea, and Papifis, befides 
the Coptics, Syrians, Neftaruns-, Jacobites, Maro- 
nites, Chriftians of St. Thomas, &c. and too ma ; 
Protefttnts are bred up in fo great ignorance, that 
multitudes of them never are fufficiently taught to 
underftand the EffentiaU of the Chriftian Religion 
which they (nominally) profefs -, and therefore 


are really much in the cafe of common Heathens- 

§. 4. 2. They confider their imfoffibility of bwg 
flavcd . For it is not only morally ( by Vice ) bun 
naturally impojfible to believe that which was never 
heard, read or nnder flood : So that their Damnation 
feemeth unavoidable, efpecially to fuch as live in 
the vaft: Countries of America, and much of Africa 
and Afia, that are quite out of the reach of any 
Inftruftions for the Chriftian Faith. 

§..5. 3. And laftly, they confider the goodnefs 
and mercifulnefs of God, declared in his Wcrd, 
and in his great and manifold mercies to all the 
World, and that he would have a righteous man 
to be merciful even to his Beafl, much more to the 
Bodies of Men, and moft of all to their SqhU, and 
that our Rule and Motive is, Be merciful as your 
Heavenly Father is merciful, 

§. 6. And they think that the contrary-min- 
ded, by over-doing, are the greatefl Hindcrers of 
the Cbrifiian Faith, and Promoters of hfldelity, 
while they make it feem fo contrary to GWVown 
Attributes, and to humane Intereft, and to be aDo- 
ftrine not of glad but of fitddejt tydings to Man- 
kind, viz.. That none fhall be laved that hear 
not the Gofpel, when it is few comparatively that 
ever heard in or can hear it. 

§. 7. On the other fide it is thought a dange- 
rous undermining of Chrifl unity , to fay that it is 
Aft. 13. 48. not abfolutely neceffary to Salvation , 
Mark 16. 16. and that any beiides Chrijtiansmvf 
Joh. 3. 30". befaved : And it feemeth to them to 
Job. 14. & be contrary to Gh rift's words,that//e 

Ro.10.10.Ov. J 

Mat. 11.27. Luk. 10. 22. Mat. 16. 17. Rom. 1. i6> 17. 

1 cor. 2. io,e$v. 2 Cor.4. 3, Rom. 8. 1,9, 13. Luk. 19* IO - 



that beltvetbnot, fiullhe damned; and that He is the 
way-, the truth, and the life, and no man comet h to the 
Father, but by him. And howJh^U they call on him 
on whom they have not believed, &c. ? No man 
tyewetb the Father, bnt the Son, and he to whom the 
Son will reveal bim,1kc. And it feemeth to con- 
found the Church and the World, , to fay, That any 
are fayed cm of the Church. 

§. 8 In this great Conrroverfie , that which 
mull: fatisfie us, is to agree in fo muck a* is certain, 
aisd to leave that which is uncertain and unk^mn, 
undetermined : For we (hall know it never the more 
for a confident pretending that we know it, when 
we do not. 

§. 9. And here the firft thing to be enquired af- 
ter, is, What Law of God the World that hearer h 
mt of Chr:ft, is new under, as the Rule of Duty 
and ofJudgn:ei:t.And then, 2. to enquire, Whether 
they fo keep that Law, as to be fared by it? 
We can fav nothing to the fecond, without the 

§. 10. And we have here nothing to doubt of, 
but 5 1 • # hether they are under any Law cr none ? 
2. // any, Whether it be the Law of Innocency as 
made to'Ad^m, or the Law of Grace? 3. And if 
the Law of Grace, whether of the firft or fecond Edi- 
tion ? It muft be one of thefe. 

§. 11. And, ill. It is certain, That they are 
under a Law (and not only under a Phyfical Go- 
vernment, as a Ship at Sea, or Brutes* are ) : For 
elfe God were not their Ruler, and they his Sufc 
jells, fo much as by Right and Obligation •, and 
then they were bound to no Duty, nor in hope of 
any Seward, nor in B*n£er-Q£any Punijhment for 


l-fi 11 

C 192 ] 

Difobedience : For where there is no £,aw, there is 
no Trayffrtffion. 

§. 1 2. It is certain, That they are not under the 
Rule of the Covenant of Innocency made to Adam, or 
the Lzto of Innocenvy, as containing the Precept , prc- 
miant and penal parts, which is the fame with the 
Covenant as offered. This I proved before : 
(Though I was long ignorant how far that Cove- 
nant was repealedjtil] Mr-Lavr/on's Papers (which I 
laboured to confute ) did begin to enlighten me. ) 
God now faith to no man C I £* ve *bee life on 
condition thou be per finally innocent, and perfectly 
obedient 1"} Nor doth he fay £/ command thee to be 
perfectly innocent , fmltfs, and obedient, that thou 
may ft live : ] For no man is a Subject capable of 
fuch a Command or Promife, being already a Sin* 

§. 13- Ifanyfhould think that they are under 
the bare preceptive part cf the hav* of Innocemy, 
with the penal part, without any Promt fe, or prc- 
miant p?.rt, or hope of life, this is certainly a mi- 

Becaufe, r. God hath no fuch Law, nor never 
had, which hath no Premife % or prewiant p.;rt ; and 
is not in a Covenant-form, what he doth by the 
Devils^ belongeth not to our Qudtion -, but as to 
Men, the/ muft be under a Covenant of Works, 
or of Grace. And it were a hard Conceit to think, 
that the fargreateft part of Mankind had never 
any means to ule for their Salvation, nor any thing 
to do for it, but were under a meer Sentence of Dc- 
fpair and Damnation, as the Devils are, without any 
offer of Help or Hope ; and confequently that none 
of them all are gwlty of rcfufin? any fuch Mercy^ 
or neglecting any fuch Mtam and Duty. 

2. The 


2. The very nature of Ltwand Government tell 
us , That if God command any Duty, it is that 
the Subje& may be the better for it ; and he never 
faith to any £ 0% w ptrfettly, and then pidt be 
never the better for it. ] 

§. 14. • Befides, the very Precept is not in force 
in that fence as it flood in the Law of Innocen- 
cy, for fo it bound only innocent Man to keep his 
Innocency : But God faith not) Keep that which 
thou haft loft. 

§. 15. Obj. God u not bound to change his LaWj 
if man fin. 

Anf. I anfwered this before, That God is not 
the Changer : But the Law will not continue tobe 
zLaw, but by continuing to fignifieGod'/^wmz- 
ing mlli And it cannot fb fignifie his governing 
Will, when there is no Subject to be a capable ter- 
minus : So that it ceafed, ccjfantc capaeitate fubdi- 
ti y vd ce flame termmo. To fay, That the Law ftill 
fignifieth what God would have had man do while 
he was capable, is true j but that faith no more 
but that C I? Kas oriCe a Law^ and now is none : ] 
For fo it may do by the dead, yea, were they 
annihilated, even tell others what God weuld have 
had them do, but this is not a ruling Ad \ but 
Lex t fit in fententiam. *And to fay, That at 
leafi the Larv bindeth a Sinner to perfect Obedience 
for the time to come y is to fay, That it binds not as 
- the Law of Innocency, but as fome other Law, of 
which we are enquiring. 

§. 1 6. And it is a clear Truth (before pro- 
ved ) That God brought all Mankind in Adam un- 
der a Law and Covenant of Grace, founded in "the 
Promt fe of the Viciory of the Woman s Seed : And his 
dealing with all men ever fince, doth fully confirm 
O is. 


it. And this Law made to Mankind in Adam and 
Noah*, was never repealed to the World, but per- 
fected by a perfe&er Edition to thofe that have 
the Gofpel. Therefore we have two Queftions 
here to confider. I . What Law the World was un- 
der before Chriji^s Incarnation : And^ 2. whether 
Ckrift refuted it to them ? 

§. 17. ift. And it is proved, That on God's 
part the faid Law of Grace continued : And man>$ 
jbifibedience could not here mtllific the Law, as 
it did that of Innocency : Becaufe it was a Law 
that allowed Repentance till the time of Death : 
So that wkci they finned never fo much, they 
were fliH obliged by it to repent^ that they might 
be faved. Their Rebellion deprived them of the 
Benefit, but did not end the Law, nor rendered 
them uncapable of its Obligation. God made A- 
dam, and after him the Heads of Families his 
Priefts : He had then publick Worfhip natural, and 
inftitmed facrificing, and the diftin&ion of clean 
and unclean Beafts, Sabbath and Marriage, as well 
as calling on the Name of the Lord, are exprefTed: 
As the Covenant to Neah was the fame with that 
to Adam, with fome. fmaU Addition, fo no doubt 
were the Precepts of Noah. As the Canaanites 
iacrificed, fo their marrying in the prohibited 
Degrees, is called one of their Abominations .■ 
It's very probab!e> that not only the Decalogue in 
fence* but alfo all, or moft of the particular Mo- 
faical Precepts, which are but the Inftances, Ex- 
plications,and Applications of thofe Generals ? werc 
given before the Flood \ and fome more, which 
evrti the Nations Traditions kept fome remem- 
brance of, though aot named particularly in the 


[195 3 

§*i8. And it was not God y s Covenant of P#- 
:uliarity with Abraham and the Tews, that ended 
it to the reft of the World ( as I before pro- 
fed. ) 

§. 19. So that though there be difficulty in. 
opening the Terms of the Law of Grace, as it 
flood to all Mankind befides the Jews, there is no 
difficulty to prove, that it did indeed fo con- 

§.20. And that Chrift hath not repealed or 
mBified that Law of Grace to the World that ne- 
ver hare theGofpel, which they were under be- 
fore his coming, is evident. 1. Becaufe he came 
for the Benefit , and not the Deftrftttion of the 
World, to make their Condition better, and not 
worfe: But had he nullified that Law of Grace to 
all the World, and given them no better in its 
ftead, fave to a few, he had come direftly by 
himfelf to take away their Mercies, andmakethem 
rniferable.For it is certain,that though the Apoftles 
Commiffion was to preach the Go/pel to all Nati* 
ens, and every Creature, yet it is comparatively 
but a fmall part of the World that ever heard 
it, or had the.means to know and believe in Chrift. 
And all the reft were under a Law of Grace before, 
arid therefore are fo fiill. 2. And if Chrift re- 
pealed thatLaW) by which Act did he do it? Not 
by making a better Edition, for that could not have 
jpny fuch Effeft to th«m that never did, or could 
know of that Edition: And there is no other Re- 
peal to be found in Scripture. 3. And if the Law 
of Grace be nullified to all the World that hear 
not the Gofpel, are they fince under any Lam of 
God,or none *, if none,they are either no Men or dam* 
nedMtn ; for they are no governed Subject ; If they 

O 2 

C *9<$1 

are under *ny, what uit? The Law of Innocency I 
have proved it is not : And the G O S P E L ( or 
fecond Edition of the Law of Grace) it is Hot.' 
For that cannot oblige where it never is promul- 
gate : It being 2. fuper natural Revelation, can ex- 
tend to none to whom it is not ( direttly or in- 
dire&ly ) fent ? Therefore it is evident , that. 
Chrift leaveth fuch under that Law which he found 
them under. 

§# 21. What this Law to the World contain- 
ed, having before opened, chap. 12. §.3. I 
ftiall not repeat it, but only here add, 1 . It is cer- 
tain, that though this Law make perfiEt Obedience 
for the future to h^ a Duty (to them and us) yet 
not to be the Condition of Salvation ; but that it 
doth hereto accept fincerity. 2. That it maketh 
not the particular Articles of our prefent Creed 
about ChriiPs perfon , Birth, Life, Death, Re- 
furredtion, heavenly Interceffion in our Nature, 
necejfary to their Salvation : For before Chrift's 
Coming, nojewilh Believers could believe, That 
this Jtfu$) in his demonftrable Perfon, is the Chrift^ 
but that Chrift Ihould come : And after he had 
long taught them, and pronounced them blefled, 
the Difciples knew not that he muft die, rife, a- 
fcendj intercede in Heaven, come again, &C 3. It 
is certain, that all that the Prophets had any way 
foretold of Chrift to the Jews, was 
Luke 14. not of abfolute neceffity to Salva- 

tion to the Jews themfelves to be 
tnderfiocd, much lefs to the World that never 
heard it : For Chrift proved out of the Prophets, | 
That he was to die? and rife, and fo to be glorified , 1 
when yet the Apofiles had not underftood it till 
that time* And the Tewifli Believers had very dark I 


[i97 3 
( if not erroneous ) Notions of the perfon of the 
Mefliah to come. And to believe that he fhould be 
of Abraham"** Seed, 25 it was part of Abraham 7 s 
Covenant of Peculiarity^ fo it feemeth to be necef- 
fary only to fuch as were under, or knew that 
Covenant, and not to all. 

§. 22. And it is certain, that when the Meffiah 
w at come, they were not bound to believe that he 
was yet to come(though they knew not of his coining) 
becaufe it was then an Untruth. 

§. 23. The proclaimed Name of God, Exod. 
24. with Pfal. 19. Prov. 1. Aft. 10. and 14. and 17. 
Rom. 1 . and 2. Heb. 6. 1 1 . do feem to be the Expo- 
fitions of the true Sence and Tenour of that Law 
of Grace, Gen. 3. 15, which the World before 
Chrift's coming, was under, and yet is, where 
the Gofpel cannot be had. 

§. 24. The Texts that fay, He that believeth not 
foalt be damned, plainly refer to fuch as hear the 
Word to be believed, and fpeak of the Unbelief 
of what is revealed, and not of what is unre- 

§. 25. Rom. 1 o. faith no more, but that no man 
can believe in Chrifi without the Revelation of him 
by f reaching or declaring ; and that no man that 
heareth, can be faved without believing in him f 
nor no man faved at all without that Faith, which 
the Law that he is under, maketh necefTary to Sal- 
' vation. But if all were damned that believed not 
that this Jcfas is ferfonatly the Chrift, all before his 
' Incarnation mufl be damned : But if not all before, 
then the fame thing was never made necefTary after 
to all that could not poffibly hear of it. 

§. z6. The fame I fay of Joh. 1 4. 6. No man 
cometh t* thtfather 7 fat by me. 1. No man is rt* 

O X CMC*-* 

C i9» 3 

ivticiled to God, zndpardoncdy and hath right to hfc 
(in all Ages of the World) but for the fake of the 
pieritmoHs Sacrifice and Righteoufnefs of Chrift, as 
promifed, Gen. 3. 1. before, and performed after : 
But this was the part of God and our Redeemer, 
which he promifed in his part of the Covenant, 
and performed : For God wai in Chrift reconciling 
the world to himfelf , not imputing to them their 
fin}<> ( fo far forgiving them, as to make an Adt of 
Grace and Pardon , which he committed to his 
Minifters to proclaim, ) 2 Cwv 5. 1 9. But, 2. on 
wans fart it is not the knowledge and belief of this 
!jefus incarnate ferfonally, that was made necefiary, 
to all before his coming, and therefore not to all 
after. No man ever came to the Father, but by 
the Son's Merit and Spirit y nor without a confent- 
ing Belief and Affiance in God's redeeming or re- 
covering, pardoning, faving Mercy, and true Re- 
pentance, and a fandtified Soul, which is in love 
with God and goodnefs: And whatever wasab- 
folutely neceflary in the terms of the firft Edition 
of thg Covenant of Grace, even to all the World 
before Chrift's Incarnation. But Chrift never 
meant, that no mtn'bef ore his Incarnation (or fince, 
that heard not of him ) did come to the Fa- 
ther without believing that which the Apoftles 
themfelves long believed not, after they followed 

§. 27. The reft of the World neve not bound to 
know (b much of the Meffiah as the Jem, as having 
not the fame Revelation. 

§0 28. 1. Having proved that it is a Law o\ 
Grace that all the World is to be rnkdzxA judge* 
by, it remaiheth to be enquired, Whether any oj 
Shea th*$ b*n mt the Go{pcl> d* ks'ftht ConditUnA 

C ml 

of this Lm % and fo are justified by it, and fa 2 
ved ? 

To which I anfWer, i. That being, a matter of 
/*#, it is not of fo great Importance for us to 
be certain of it, as fome imagine : And who can 
be certain of the Affirmative, unlefs the Scrip- 
ture affirm it \ when if we knew all the World, 
one man cannot be certain of anothers Sinceri- 
ty ? And much lefs can any be certain of the 
Negative, without Scripture Negation , feeing 
no man can know every man in the World, and 
every Heart. 

§. 29. 2. But it is exceeding probable y at leaft, 
That God would never govern many hundred 
parts of the World (compared to the Jews) 
before Chrift's Incarnation, and five fixth parts 
fince his Incarnation, by a Law of Grace, which 
yet no perfon fhould ever have effe&ual Grace 
to keep as far as was neceflary to his Salva- 
tion. Every Law *f God is a Means , and ap- 
pointed the Subje&s the ufe of much Means for 
their own Salvation : Theft means they arc 
bound to ufe, and fhall be condemned, if tbey 
ufe them not \ and that none fliould ever ufe 
them favingly, is an Aflertion fo unlikely, that 
he that hath the boldnefs to affirm it, fhould bring 
certain Proof of it, which the Scripture, I think f 
doth not afford him. 

§. 30. But what numbers do perform the Con- 
dition and are faved, no mortal man can tell : 
But in general we know, that God ufually work- 
eth in Congruity to hu appointed weans, and conle- 
quently that far fewer are faved where lefs weans 
is vouchfafed, than among Christians who have 
herein the unvaluable vre-emimnce above others. 

■0 4 S-3». 

[ 200 ] 

§. 3i. For a$ the Jews had both the common 
Covenant of Grace, and alfo the Covenant of Pecu* 
liarity, fettjng them above all others } fo the Chri- 
stian Church hath both the common Covenant of 
Grace, and by the fecond edition of it a Covenant 
of Peculiarity •, both iealed by Baptifm and the 
Lord's Suffer, as the Jews Covenant was by Cir- 
cumcifion and the Paflbver : Yea, our Covenant- 
Privileges fet us above the World, incomparably 
higher than the Jews were. 

§. 32. Yet ftiould we take warning by the 
example of the Jews Pride, who were fo confi- 
dent that none were faved or beloved but them- 
felves> that thejf defpifed the reft of the World, 
and provoked God to cut them off, and call the 
Gentiles into higher privileges : So fome Chri- 
stians fo truft to their Gofpel-Pcculiarities, (as the 
Jews did to their Law) tfcat they defpife all the 
World befides themfelves, and can eafilier believe 
that God will damn a thoufand millions that never 
heard the Gofpel than one of them, who have no 
more real Holinefs, than many of thofe whom 
they defpife. But it is our Duty to be thankful 
both for our excellent Peculiarities, and alfo for 
the commoner Mercies unto others. 

And I wifh the impartial Reader to ftudy, 
'Mai 1. 10, 11. whether even this be not the 
fence, t Nor will I accept an Offering at your handy 
for from the rifing df the Sun to the going down of the 
fame, my mame is great among the Gentiles, and in 
every plate Jncenfe offered to my name, and a pure 
Offering : For my name is great among the Heathen \ 
faith the Lord of hojts ', vui ye have polluted it. j 
Our Tranflators have, as Expofitors, thrice ( at 
theleaft) added the future Xtxik [jhaU bel But 


[201 ] 

all the old Tranflations, Syriacl^, Caldee Paraph. 
Greek, Latin, &c. put it in the prefent Tenfc 
[ is great, is offered. ] I do but defire the Reader 
to ftudy it. It's ftrange , that all the ancient 
Churches fhould mifunderftand it/ It fcems more 
probable by the Context that the Hebrew Text un- 
derftccd the frefent Tenje ( none being cxpref- 

§.33. If we might imitate our Father Abraham 
(who yet faw Christ's day and rejoiced} we fhould 
fuppofc the number of the faved through the world, 
to be very confiderable: For as I faid elfewbere, 
though God had told him, that Sodom was fo 
mhc}) worfe than the reft of the World, that God 
would deftroy it , yet Abraham thought there 
might be fifty righteous ferfons there. It's like he 
thought not worfe of the reft of the World, 

§. 34. • Obj. Ton fern to make the reft of the 
World ha f per than the Jews ; for they had a Law 
that WQidd juftifie them, and fo had not the Jews. 

Anf. The fecond aflertion is falfe : The Jews 
were under the Law of Grace, which /Wcalleth 
the Promife, and might be juftified by it, and had 
greater helps to know and keep it than the reft 
of the World had. But when they f ooli/hl y fK 
parated their MofaicA Law from the Promift or 
common Law of Grace, /W tells them, by the Deeds 
of that Law no flefh could be juftified. 

§. 35. Obj. VoyoM not thus confound the World 
and the Church t Arf. No : I ask you, Did he 
confound them before (Thrift's Incarnation, who 
thought that more than the Jews were laved? 
Certainly no : No more do I now. 

§. 3$. The word [Church] is foretime taken 
fo properly and ftrittly, as to fignifie only thofe 


[ 202 ] 

that are under the Covenant of Peculiarity : And fo 
the Jews before Chrift's Birth, and Chriftians 
fince, makeup the Church, (and foirtc few per- 
haps before the Jews Covenant.') But fometimes 
it is taken mote largely , for the Kingdom of 
God : For all that are in a Bate of Salvation^ 
under the feveral editions of the Law of Grace. 
And fo Job and his Friends, and Melchizedcck^ and 
many others, before, and all now that love God 
and Holinefs fincercly, are of the Church. Accor- 
dingly by the [World] is meant,. either, i. All 
Men as under the Redeemer's Law of Grace, antece- 
dently to their Confent ; and fo all the World be- 
long to Cod's Kingdom, as fubditiobli^ati. 2. Re- 
bels that refufe Confent : And fo they are of the^ 
Kingdom by obligation,, but condemnable for Re- 
bellion : And thefe are the [World] in the worit 
fence. 3. Confenting Sub jells under the Common 
Lave of Grace, who yet were not Jews, nor are not 
in the Covenant of Peculiarity : And fuch are in a 
fiat e of Salvation, though not in the Church of the 
, pcnlUr fas the Subjefts of Melchizedeck., Sem y &c.) 
and fo are both in the Church and in the Werld,m 
feveral fences 

§. 37. Having delivered that in this great Que- 
stion which feemeth to me agreeable to God's 
Word, I advile thofc that ufe. to aflault fuch 
things with reproach, which they find reproached 
by their Party, to remember, that God is Lore, 
and Chrift is the Saviour of the World, and the 
Pharifaical Appropriators of Mercy and Salvation, 
do feldom know what fpirit they are of. 


[203 ] 

C H A*P ; XVII. 

Of the Necefjity of Holintfs , and of Moral 

§. \.TJL L I N E S S is our pedication^ Septra- 
JLJL tion^ or Devotcdnefs to God, and alie- 
nation from all that ftancjs in compe- Zec ^ f 
tition or contrariety to God. 2 , 2 j££ 

i. p. HcK 
3. 1. 1 Pet. t.if, 16. &2. 5,9. 2 Pet. 3. 11; - ExoJ. 19. 6. 
Deut. 7. 6. & 26. 19. &28. 9. Ifa. 62. 12. Rom. 11. 16. 

§. 2. It is our Separation to God as the Creator 
of our Nature, and our Redeemer 7 and the Author 
of Grace i and owe Felicity, and the Caufe of Glory : 
As the /?*/? Efficient , faprcme Dirigent y and «/ri- 
mutely final Caufz. 

§. 3. It is our feparamn to God as our Oavw 
by Refignaxton, as our £#fer by Obedience, and as 
our Benefactor and ultimate End by Thankfulnefs and 
£<n/* , in the acknowledgment of his infinite ^n*^ 
wifdom undgoodnefs, as cjfenrial to himfelf, and re- 
lated to his works. 

§. 4. Holinefs is our iifpofitive^ actual^ and rr/*- 
r#w reparation to God ; 1. When our Souls are 
habitnaSy inclined to God and to his Will. 2. When 
we a& natty give up our f elves to God and to his will $ 
by Confent firft, and Obedience and Lore after: 
3* It fignifieth the relation of the Perfon as thus 



habitually and a&ually fcparatcd. ( A holy Prieft- 
hood, i Pet. z. 5,9, ii.) 

§. 5. Holiwfs is the Habit and Aft of all the 
three Faculties of the rational Soul ; 

iThef. $. 23. viz.. I*%0fthe vital Active Power by 
Eph, 1.18,19. Quickening %x\& Strength. 2. Of the 
A Co 6 ' *?' ******& $y~!llumnation. 3. Of the 
ley. \x y %2 Will by Converfion, Love or Compla- 

§. 6. The Soul as fenfitive^zni the body it f 'elf \ 
arc faid to be fanitified, fo far- as they are dif- 
pofitivelyand a&ually fubjeft and fubfervient to a 
holy Soul in HoUnefs^ and related accordingly as fe* 

§. 7. Oni Holinefs is no alienation from the 
Creature 04 a Creature^ in its due place and fubor- 
dination to the Creator, but contrarily containeth 
our Honour of, and Love to, all Gcd's Creatures 
for his/tf^? and impref^ and a devoting of all that 
is ours to his ufe : But it containeth 
Lulc 14* 26, a renunciation of that which is 2- 
*7>3 r > 33- gainft his Honour and Government 
and Love, as fuch. 

§.8. As God communicateth Holinefs really and 
relatively to Man , fo /^/)> ftrfons communicate 
fuch Holinefs to Creatures below them, as conlift- 
eth in the ufe and relation of things feparated to 
Gdd,hy a due ft partition of them by their dedica- 
tion and holy ufe : and that in various de- 

§. 9. True Kolinefs is the Health,the Rectitude, 
„, "j- the Honefty, the Tuftice of man's 

Keb. 12.14. Col. r. r , ./ *. ** r tr . 

a*. Eph.1.4. & 5. Soul -i and therefore necefjary^ 
*7. 1 Pet- 1. 16. as his £#/# by God's Law, even 


[ 205] 

of Nature , and to. his Happinefs both in the 
very nature of the things and by the determination 
of God's Law. It is a contradiction to be kappy 
and unholy, Rev. ao-6". 

§. 10. Holimfs is the etid or perfedtion of our 
Nat art 7 and GodTs chief Intereft in man, and is be- 
gan by Grace and perfected in Glory. Epb. 5. 27. 
& 4. 1 <S, & c 

§• 1 1 . The Ff*r of God and his Jndgpients^ and 
a Care of 0*r 01*77 ^xWj, and a Sorrow for $*>, 
and a dedre of Happinefs, nay be not only Prepa- 
ratives, but lower parts of Holintfs 5 but the true 
formal fpecifying nam e or it confifteth in a love *f 
Gods infinite goo/fatfa and a Will addicted to obey bis 
Will % or a Pieafedncfs in pleafvg 
Htm * : This is Holinefs. % * ££*• IO - 

» 1 Theff 2. 4. 
1 John 3. 22. Heb. 13. 21. Col. 3. 20. Heb. ir. 5. 

§. 12. Eecaufe a man is denominated accordiflg 
to the predominant bent of his Will (or Soul) he 
is not to be called Holy who hath £>me flight in- 
clination to fkafe God y and'morc to pleafe his own 
carnal Appetite and Will j or greater love to the 
Creature than to God. 

§.13. Chrift himfelf came into the World to 
recover linful Man by Holinefs ^ Luk , y# 
+ to God, and difclained not to be Eph. 4. 24. * 
a means of Man's San&ification, and 1 Their 4. 7. 
to make this the notable operation of **eb. * 2 • IO - 
his Holy Spirit on us. Rom * 8 * J > 9 . . 

§. 14. Whatfoever Law Men are under, before 
Ghrift or.fince, Jew or Gentile, Works or Grace, 
no man can be faved and happy without Holi- 
nefs i that is , unlefs they be devoted in Obe- 

[ 206 ] 

dicncc and Love to G O D and Goodnefs. 

§. 15. No man can be damned that is boly 7 
while fuch i nor can God haee and make miiera- 
ble thofe that truly love him and his governing 

§. 16. Yet a perfon that is holy may deferve 
Damnation^ deferving to be dented that help of the 
Holy Spirit by which his Holinefs mufl be continu- 
ed : And as to be ftved is to be perfe&Iy fanttified y 
fo to deferve Hell, is to deferve to he forfaken, to 
the total lofs of Holinefs. And fo though it be hard 
for us to know whethqr Adams firft lofs of Inno- 
cency was a total lofs of Holinefs, yet if it were 
not, it was a forfeiture or divine help, and fo a 
mediate lofs of it. And fo a man that loveth 
God fincerely,,may by great Sin deferve to be de- 
prived of the Spirit, and therefore wemuftpray 
for the pardon ot fuch defert for the fake of Chrift, 
though we canaot be damned or miferable while 

§. 17. Obj. But how doth God love a holy Soul 
if he forfafy him, and with-hold his Spirit ? And if he 
be not loved of God, he is miferable ? If he be loved, 
he will not be forfaken. 

Anf. Anfwer this your felf as to the Cafe of 
the Angels and Adam. God loved them, and yet 
not fo as to fecure them from the lofs of Grace : 
But he fo far loved them efficiently, as to give 
them that grace by which they conld perfevere ; 
but not that by which they necttizxily fionld per- 
ftvere -, and he loved them complacentially, ac- 
cording to the goodnefs which was in tfyem> and 
yet they loft it # 

§. 18. Obj. Thtr is beca*fe they mre left to 
their Free will, and had but Efficient Graff, ami 


[ 2o 7 3 

not efficacious determining Grace : But it is novp other- 
rvifc with alt trut Believers. 

Anf. True Believers have not determining 
efficacious Grace,to prevent allfn^ nor all fuch fin as 
Noah, Lot, David, Peter did commit : And that 
fin delerveth an anfwerable defertion of God, it 
being a defer ting him firft fo far : And though 
God pardon it, yet the defcrt is prefuppofed to 
the pardon \ for i( is defert of pumfhment that is 

§• IP- Queft. If a man were holy, (that is, an 
obedient Lover of God and Goodnefs*) without Faith 
in Chrifty would that fave him ? 

Anfw. i. The Covenant of Grace requireth 
various degrees of Faith, according to its feveral 
editions and promulgations : It is nat the fame 
degree of Faith, as to the Objcfts extenfively, 
which was required of Jewifh Believers before 
Chrifl's Incarnation , as is now of us , nor the 
fame^degrec that was required of all the reft of the 
World as of the Jews. 2. But fuch a Faith ia 
God our Redeemer as that Law which men are un- 
der maketh neceflary to Salvation, is neceflary to 
Holinefs: And to ask what God will do with a 
man that is holy without Faith, is to talk of a noiv- 
cxiftent Subjeft : There is no fuch man \ for 
without Faith it is impoffibie to pleafe God : for he 
that comet h to G*d tnuft believe that God is, and 
that he is the Rewarder of them that diligently feck, 
him, notwithflanding original and adtual Sin, and 
the Law of InnQcency condemning us , and there* 
fore that he is under a pardoning and rewarding 
Law of Grace, Heb. 11. 6. No man can be fan- 
ftified without the Merit, Doftrine and Spirit of 
Shrift, nor without that degree of Faith which 


[ 2oS ] 

the Covenant which he is under requireth. 

§. 20. Queft. What if 'a man thxtWM fanfti- 
fied by believing, jhoald retain his Holinefs, or Love 
and Obedience, and fafe his Faith in Chrifi ? 

Anfv. It is a thing that never was nor will 
be -, and not to be difputed of. 

§.21. Moral Virtue in the proper fence of the 
word, is the fame thing as Holinefs taken com- 
prehenfively, as containing our Love and Duty to 
God, and to man for God's fake : But as Holinefs 
is taken narrowly for our Love and Duty to GW, 
as diftindt from our Love and Duty to Man, fo 
Moral Virtue is the genu*, and Holmtfs the chief 
/pedes of it. And thus we take Moral Virtue and 
Moral Atiion, and fo all Morality, as contradi- 
ftinft from Phyficks or things mecrly natural, not 
falling under the genu* moris : And fo Virtue and 
Vice (or Sin) are 111 that is Moral, that is, Moral 
Good and Moral Evd: And this is the firft and 
moft notable fence of the word. 

But fome of late have ufed Moral as contra- 
diftincft from Holinefs or Grace, or from infufed 
Habits, or from Faith and Chriftianity ; and fome 
tell us confidently but faldy, That this is the moft 
fit and famous fence, and the word fo to be taken 
when not otherwife explained. It's the fad cafe 
of Mankind, that we have no words but what are 
liable to ambiguity : And it's the unhappinefs of 
the' Church that hath fo many Teachers that will 
difpute, write, and wrangle about words unex- 
plained, and in the end fhew , that under di- 
vers terms they mean the fame matter in which 
they are agreed and know not their Agree- 


§. 22. As 


§•22. As Holinefs is fometimes taken fo large- 
ly, as to comprehend all that God commanded^ 
and fometimes for the natural part of our Duty 
( Love and Obedience) as diftindt from Faith in 
Cbrift-, which is tftc mediate Grace, and of fuper- 
natural revelation ; fo is Morality or moralVirtuc 
diftinguifhed. # 

§. 23. They that take moralVirtne phil.4. 2. 
fo narrowly and improperly, as to lPeti. 3^. 
mean no other mural Vtrtne than pro - I2 - 4-3 r « 
Heathens had, or than is taught in & 3 1 - 2 ^ 
ArifiotWs Ethicks, (hould firft tell us, 
That this is their fence *, gnd then they may 
boldly declaim againft thofe Preachers that take 
this for fufficicnt } or that preach no other : 
For Scripture and Chriftianity were to little pur- 
pofe if they taught us no more than the Wri- 
tings of Philofophers do. 

§. 24. And no" doubt but it is a pitiful fign 
and an odious Crime in a Minifter of Chrift, to 
fay little to?the People of the Myfteries of Man's 
Redemption, the Perfon, and Offices, and Works 
of Chrift, the Covenant of Grace, and the Impe- 
rial Bleffings given by it, our Union with Chrift> 
J unification, Adoption, and the fpecial Works of 
the Spirit on Mens Souls, and all the Duties and 
Pleafures of a Heavenly Converfation, in the love 
of the Father, the Grace of the Son, and the 
Communion of the Holy Spirit, and all this un- 
der pretence of magnifying and preaching up the 
•Love of cht Brethren , and Charity to the Poor y 
and Jnfiice , and Te?nf trance •, as if M*n were 
our GW, and to wrong man were the only Sin y and 
to wrong God were none) or God could be no other- 
waies wronged. 

P §,2 5. But 


§. 2$. But Covetoufnefs and Pride contradideth 
their own Doftrine : For among their good works 
thofe of Piety are firft extolled -, and thofe are the 
enriching of the Church, ^nd that is themfelves 7 
and why them more than the poorer People about 
us ? Becaufc they are fare d perpms, and belong to 
Cod, and fcrve at his Altars ? Very good. And 
is Piety to a [acred ferfon ( and fuch as they) fo 
great a Duty , and yet our Piety as immediately to 
God him f elf, an indifferent thing, in comparifon of 
our Duty to M*n ? Yea 7 fome ufually make that 
partofrk/V Piety which confifteth in theobfer- 
yance of their own Traditions and unnecefjary In- 
junctions, to ieem of great weight, while the 
holy obfervance of God's own Laws is perhaps ac- 
cufed as too much precifenefs or hypocrijie ; when in- 
deed the Hypocrite is he, that inftead of the life and 
ferious praftre of true Chriftian-Holinefs, fers up' 
and refteth in the Image of Holinefs, and certain 
formalitiel, that are lifelefs, to deceive himfclf and 
others. f 

§. 26*. Where there is no Faith and bwe to God, 
nor Duty done in obedience to God, there is no true 
tnoral Virtue, but fomewhat equivocally fo called, 
whatever good fuch may do to the Commonwealth 
or to their Neighbors ; for it wanteth the principle, 
e#dJand object that fhould inform it. 

§. 27. An Hypocrite may bz faidto have moral 

1 Virtue, as he may be faid to have Holinefs, that is, 

only fecundum quid, yea. but analogically -, yea, but 

tquivocalfy, in that he hath no other fort of Faith 

and Love and Obedi-ncc. 

§. 28. An In fdeP i moral Virt He , and all unfan- 
ftified Heathens or other perfons, is of the fame 
fort only with this defcribed of the Hypocrite: 


[ 2"'] 

And they err not that fay, They have no true moral 
Virtue, but analogical. 

§. 29. Yet Nature and common Grace do give men 
that which is f r#(y ^ood (and not only /»*##* malum} 
and may do much good to others, 2nd fometof^w- 
/e/W, and is truly laudable and amiable, confidered 
without the mixture fimply in it felf : But becaufe 
the contrary evil is ftill the predominant part in 
all the iinfanftified,>*t will not properly denominate 
them ^eodmen, nor the whole attira a goed attion^ 
faVc equivocally, analogically or feemdum quid j 
becaufe the form denominateth , which is here 

§. 30. But if any one think otherwife, that the 
name of moral Virtue, yea, or Holintfs, is due to the 
be ft actions or habits of Heathens , Hypocrites, or any 
nnfani&ifted men, it is but a Controverfie de nomine? 
a d no otherwife to be regarded, while we agree of 
the things fignified by that name. 

§. 31. It is certain, that now there is no moral 
good, in any man on Earth, that is not 4he efFeft 
of form Grace of God, common or fpecial ; for even 
Nature now as reprieved, and maintained is an effeft 
of common Grace -, much more farther gifts : But it is 
perverfenefs in fome School-meft, who make com* 
men Grace and fecial (at Icaft as to Faith) to be 
differenced only in the CaHf*tien,one being not i$u 
fufed and the other infufed, but the fame in aft, and 
fo that no man can know whether he have infufed * 
or acquired Faith (which fome call but a M$rM 

P % CHAP, 



Of the neceffity of Faith in Chrifi y where the 
Gofftlti m*de known. 

§. *; TNfidels take fcandal from Chrift's making 
J| Faith inhimfdf to be fo neceflary to .our 
Salvation, as if it tended enly to his Honour, and 
were in its own Nature of noneceffity to our hap- 
pinefs, but arbitrarily made fo. 

§.2. And their reafon alfoag^inft thisnecef- 
fity, is, becaufe believing is an aft of the Intellect ^ 
and InttlUttion is not free, and in its felf is no mo- 
ral Aft. A man cannot know or believe what he 
would, no, though he molt earneftly defired it ; 
And will God condemn men for that which they 
fain would do, and cannot ? Efpecially when mens 
intellectual Capacities do fo greatly differ, that 
fome feem to differ but little from the Brutes. 

§. 3. This Scandal arifeth from their not well 
underftanding the Nature and Reafons of our Faith 
fit Chrift. 1. They falfely fuppofe it to be only 
an Aft of the Intellect ( where many Divines have 
given them the Scandal.) 2. They falfely fup- 
pofe, That the Intellect herein is necejfitated to un- 
belief. 3. And they confider not the Ends and 
Vfes of our Faith. 

§.4. 1. The true nature of our Faith , is our 
Trnftwg in Chrifiy as onr Saviour ^voho hath reconciled 
U4 to God, by h* Sacrifice nnd Aferit^ that he may 
bring m to God 7 by 7 unification, Adoption, Santlifica- 
tion , and Glory. It Containtth Jijfent^ Con/tnt, 


snd Affiance, though through penury of Words* 
we are fain to call it by fome oneofthefe names 
oft-times, as the occafion requireth : But indeed 
the very fence of *w, fides, and Tmft, incladeth 
ail. And when the Aft of the Intelleft only is 
named, it is as including, or informing both the 
other. • 

§• ?. 2. Though the'Intellett be not free of it 
felf, it is free by participation, being quoad excr- 
citkm, under the Empire of the Will that is free. 
And the Will by commanding it to aft, fcarch, 
thinks, of the Evidences of Verity, may do fo much 
towards the fpecifying of the hd, as that the ineer 
weaknefs of Vnderftanding without the fault of a 
victim Will, {hall keep no man in damnable Un- 

§♦ 6. For Chriffc hath many ways provided a- 
gainft meer Weaknefs of our Vnder ft ending : I. By 
the ferwefs and plamnefs of ncccflary Articles of 
Faith: 2. By the fulnefs of Evidence of Credt bili- 
ty: 3 . By great Means and Helps for our Faith, 
which he appointeth : 4. And by the powerful 
Helps of his Spirit, which is ready to illuminate us 
by thefe means. 

§. 7. No man was ever yet known, that could 
fay Q / have- done my heft to have obtained Faith > 
and did mt obtain it.'} Though many can fay, / 
came fly de fired to bdieve, and could not : Becaufe 
thofe may defire it, that yet ufenot the means a- 
right and faithfully, and that indulge their own 
Prejudices, or carnal Lufts, which hinder it. 

§. 8. 3: In the faving of Sinners, there is consi- 
derable : T. The great Benefits already given in 
the Purchase, Merits and Covenant : 2. The grea- 
ter Benefits offered, and to be received hereafter : 
P 3 3. Th« 


3 . The Means to be fifed on our part for obtaining 
them. 4. The danger and lofs, if wc mifs of them. 
5. The ultimate End of him that giveth them. 

§. 9. And, 1. will not any reafonable Infidel 
confefs, That Thankfnlnefs is naturally dye for 
great and ineftimable Benefits ? And how cafi a 
man be thankful for that which Be believeth not was 
ever done for him, or given him ? Or qpn he be 
thankful to he knoweth not vehorn ? 

§; 10. 2. Do not great Benefits freely offered ', 
require Acceptance '■? And how can a man accept of 
that which he believeth not was ever purchafed , 
procured, or offered him ? Will you accept ajha- 
ttow ? 

§. ir. 3.Chrifl: never meant to carry Slug- 
gards afleep to Heaven, but to favc them in the 
nfe of his appointed means. 1. They mufl learn and 
obey his Dotlrme , and can they obey it that beLeve 
It not? 2. They muft take Heaven procured by a 
Redeemer for their Hope and Portion, and love, de- 
fire, and feek it above all : And who will do this, 
that believethit not, and the Word that promifeth 
it ? 3. They muft take Chrifi for their Ottide, and 
Mediator, and Inter ctffor, to bring them thither \ 
and they muft forfake all here that (lands in com- 
petition, that they may obtain it : And can you 
do this, and nolbelieve and trufi him that muft fave 
you ? Will you venture your life in the Hands 
of a Phyfician, and take his Medicines, if you be- 
lieve not that he hath Skill and Will to cure you ? 
Will you leave your Country* and follow one o- 
verSeas, that promifeth you a Kingdom, if you 
trnft him not? 


§. 1 2. 4« And who will avoid Sin, Temptati- 
ons, and Hell, that believeth not him that tells 
them of the evil, and of the danger that is before 
him ? 

§.13. ^. And God can have no lower End mlti- 
mutely than Him J 'elf \ and the Glory of ovxRtdec* 
mcr Is more excellent than mine or years. And 
therefore if We have the Salvation, it is meet and 
neceflary that G*d and our Redeemer have the Levg 
and Thanks, the tnife and Glory of it. 

§. 14. Yet hath not God arbitrarily made Faith 
more necelfary than it is in the true Reafon 2nd 
Aptitude of it to its Ends. He hath not made to 
all zFaitbTo ncceflary of Chnji, and his Inter cef- 
fan ^ and therefore though Infants and Ideots can- 
not a<ftua!]y believe, they may be faved by Chrift: 
And though thofe before Chrift believed not all 
that we muft now believe, nor the Gentiles before, 
fo much as the jervs, yet neither of thgm were 
thereby excluded from Salvation. 

§. 15. Queft. Huh not Chrift made the Cafe of 
Christians harder than it wot before his Incarnation^ to 
Believers, by making fo many more Articles of our 
Faith, and thofe of necejfity to our Salvatim ? 

Anf No, no more than it is our Mifery to accent 
of more Mercies and Benefits than were offered to 
others. Oar Belief is not of numerous unneceflary 
difficulties, but it is of fuch things as we muft receive* 
and be Partakers of; it is the means of our uft and 
frnition: Who would take it for a Mifery to be* 
lieve that the King will give him a Lcrdfhip, or 
that a rich Man wiil give him fo much Money, if 
he will come and thankfully accept it ? Every aft 
of belief is but a means to fome Benefit to be re- 

P 4 §• t6. 

[216 J 
§. 1 6. As Chrift is the way to the Father , and 
the Mediator is to bring us unto God, fo Faith in 
Chrift is the Mediate, or healing Gr^cc to help us 
to Holi efsy or the Leve of God, which being its 
End, h is much more noble than Faith in Chrift: 
And Faith kindling Love to Gcd 7 and Goodnefs, and 
Men } and Love kindled by Faith , is the Sum of 
the Chriftian Religion. And it is no Difparage- 
tntnt to Chrift and Faith in him, to be taken for a 
Means ; or to ttuft him, as one that wiilfave tp the 
uttermoft all that come to God by him. 

cCHAP. XIX. * 
Of the State of Infants as to Salvation. 


Have faid fo much of this in two Books a r 
gainffc the j4naba}>tifts y and in my Chriftian 
Diref&ory , that I fhall therefore here be brief. 
What meafure of Glory, and holy intellectual ope- 
rations In;ants v fhall have after Death, we know 
not j but we have reafon to judge, that they fhall 
not be like Brutes, nor fo unintelligent as in the 
Body, norfleep in anuna&ive Potentiality 5 but 
be intclle&ual Agents. 

§. 2. The Conceits of a middle ftate of thofe 
unbaptized, as having yoenam damni, and not />*- 
warn fenfusj we know not what to make of, untefs 
they fuppofe them to be not a finally, but only fo- 
ttntUUy intelligent : For one that is deprived of true 
felicity, muft by kpovi>iv& it, have the fenfe of his 
Privation. Nor do we find in Scripture any Proof 



>f their middle State, however Reafon may think 
t congruous. 

§. 3. The/ that think all Infants faved, go 
mthefe different grounds : 1. Some think that 
hey have no Jin : But if Pelagians could prove that, 
t would be no Proof that they fhall have Heaven 
)v Happinefs. 2. Others think that Chnft bath 
wdoxedthem all that fin which was derived from 
Adam : But either they mean , that his Sacrifice 
tnd Merit immediately pardoned it ; or that he 
larh pardoned them all by the Covenant, or Law 
)f Grace. But, 1. Chrift's Sacrifice and Merits 
ire given to God for Man , and pardon no man 
mmediately, but only Merit a pardoning Covenant. 
1. And that Covenant doth indeed in tantnm^ 
)ardon all men as far as common Mercy amounteth 
o (for the remitting any part of the puniftiment, 
sfo far to remit the fin. ) But the faving- pardon 
n queftion, it giveth to no man fittu+Uy before the 

ondition be performed; f}r it is but a coiiditio- 
lal Pardon : Therefore as no one at age, fo no 
nfant hath any Pardon given him by that Cove- 
iant, that I can find, but only conditionally. 

§. 4. All grant, That the Covenant pardoneth 
he Adult only conditionally 5 and if it fhould par- 
Ion all Infants thfolntely, their Condition would 
>e O much more happy than that of the Adult, 
is is not confident with what Scripture, Reafon, 
md Experience fpeaketh. And there is no fuch 
hing faid of them in the Word of God, and there- 
ore not to be believed. 

§. 5. Thofe that think not all Infants ( fb dy- 
ng ) to be faved and glorified, are alfo of fe- 
deral minds. 1 . Some think that none are glorified, 
is being uncapable Subjc&s ( whom I will not be- 



ftow the labour to confute, nor to open the ill 
Consequents of it. ) 2. Some think, that fome arc 
glorified) but none are fe/itfvely (wnrjhed with the 
fir** /V/#*. Thefe feem to me lefs rational than 
the former : For either Intents will have aftual In- 
telleftion, and anf/verable Joys aid Sorrows, or 
not: If not, the former, who reduce them all to 
meer Potentiality) or the flate of Bruces, are in 
the right ( of whom fome will have them to be VU- 
tires after Death in vdncido acrco^ and fome are for 
their Tranfmigration, and return to Earth. J If 
yea, then as one part will have rational Joys, the 
other muft have rational Sorrows, unlefs fome re- 
turn to Earth, or fome middle ftatc y be bet ter pro- 
ved than I have yet iken. 

§.6. 3. Some think, that all that art baptized, 
are faved, and no other, ( th ugh the reft have no 
Pain. ) But, 1. this is not fuitable to the Nature 
of God, as a Spirit, and as moft wife and mprci- 
f*l\ nor yet to the Tenor of his Word, to lay 
mens Salvation and Rejection upon a mecr outward 
Ceremony, or Aft of Baptizing. The Seed of Be- 
lievers may want it in many Cafes of Impedition j 
and the Children of Cannibals and Infidels, might 
by Souldiers be taken away by thoufands and bap. 
tized againft the Parents Wills, and then turned to 
them again to be educated : And who can believe 
that barbarous Souldiers that muft themfelves ic 
damned, can thus fave thoufands at their plea- 
fores ? There are many Infants that have no right: 
to Baptifm ; and why then fhould it fave 
them t 

§. 7. 4. Some think, that all that are baptized 
b the Parents Con few, are laved : But what if a 
Heathen, or Infidel, or Athcift fay, I believe not 



En God or Chrift my felf, but for worldly Ends, 
I defire my Child may he baptized ( whether 
he fay, I will, or I will not educate him ur.to 
Chriftianity. ) There is no (hew of Reafon, much 
lefs of Scriptitre, that this fhould fave the Chil- 
dren that are no better offered to Gcd. 

§. 8. 5. Sojne fay, That all that any ChriJH<- 
an (Siw.er or Hypocrite) offereth to God, and 
is fo baptized, (hall be faved ; thatis, That hath 
Chrifiian -Godfather or Godmother. But if fo, then 
what if^hriftians take Heathens Children againft 
their VWrs,and baptize them, and then turn them 
home again? Are they faved by the Ceremony, or 
by Confer* to the Covenant ? Not by the meer Ce- 
remony, as is, and (hall be (hewed : Not by Con- 
lent of any fuch Chriftian that hath no right to 
them, ncr power to reprefent them; elfe ail the 
Children on Earth fhould be faved : For Chriftian* 
would fit at home and confent for them, and dedi* 
czte them to God unfetni And fure God would not 
refufe to fave tftem, becaufe of diftance, nor bc- 
caufe unfcen ( for the Godfather may be blind ) ; 
;nor becaufe unbaptized, when it cannot be had, and 
the Child hindereth it not. 

§. 9. 6. Some fay. That it is the Churches Fai hj 
and dedicating them to God in Baptifm that is the 
Condition of their Solvation : But this is not in- 
telligible. If by the Church they mean all the 
Chtiftian World, or all a National Church, or all 
a Diocefan Church, yea, or all a Parifh-Church, 
they ufe not to be all Godfathers, nor to offer other 
folks Children to be baptized •, nor did I ever 
know one that had fo common a Vote, or was fo 
offered .- If they mean that the Churches Faith feiv 
veth whoever be the Covenanter or Offerer, then- 

x [220] 

all the Pagan World may have their Children fa* 
vtd by the Churches Faith, or all that can be catcht 
up and baptized ( and fo the Ceremony doth it.) 
But if they mean by that Church the Bijbops or 
Presbyters, whether it mult be all the Bifhops of the 
World, or of the Nation, or ane Bijhop, or the Pre- 
fbyter that baptizeth, every one may fpeak accord- 
ing to his own Invention and Fancy, but with no 
Proof from the Word of God or Reafon ( as the 
aforefiid Difproofsdo manifeft.) 

§. 10. 7. Some fay, That any one baptized 
by a Godfather s offer, wh* undertakith for his thri- 
fiian Education^ ftiall be iaved, and no other. But, 
1. The Godfather may have no Propriety in the 
Child, but Ileal him, fhall that lave him ? 2. The 
Godfather may be ah Hypocrite, and mean no 
thing that he promifeth ; aird fhall the Child be 
faved by his -Lye that damneth the Lyer himfelf ? 

3. Why fhould a Promfe of future Education fave 
a Child that muft die tomorrow ~ or ere long? 

4. But if it be the meer opm operatum of Baptising 
that muft fave, that may be a £*of*n*thn when 
unduly 'applied; and the Prieft's fin that damneth 
himfelf, cannot fave others. 

§. 11. 8. Some lay the hope upon Jnceflcrs 
Faith, and fay, That if the Great Grandfathers, 
or others before them were faithful, the Infants 
fhall be fived : But then are all Men faved for 
Ncah J s Faith ? Or how far mull our Confidence 
afcend ? 

§. 12. 9. Mod of the Anabaptifis with us, 
hold, That there is no Proraife, nor Affurance of 
the laving of any particular Infants in the World, 
cither Chriftians or Heathens ; but only that God 
cletteth fomc, whom he will fanctifie and fave, and 



freprobateth ethers ? whom he will damn ; 
withou:any notice given to the World who they 
be, or how nany, or how few. So that we can- 
not fay, that he will fave Ten, or that he will 
damn Ten of all the World ; nor have the Faithful 
anymore promife than Heathens of the Salvation 
of their Infants, and fo are not to baptize 

§. 13. jo. The coramonefl Opinion among the 
Englifli Cahinifts, is, That God hath made no cer- 
tain Promife of the Salvation of any partkxLr In- 
fant, butby hisgeneral Promife of mercy to the Seed 
cf the Faithjnl, hath given us caufe to hope that 
more of them than of others, {hall be faved} and 
therefore that they are by Bapiifm to be enrred 
into the vifible ch*rch, as we baptize the Adult, 
while we are not certain but they may be Hypo- 
crites. f 

§. 1 4. But I think this would not warrant their 
Baptifm, nor give us any certain hope of any ones 
Salvation. Gcd hath but one Covenant of Grace, 
which giveth us Chrift and Life \ snd God hath or- 
dained no Baptifm, but what is for the Rcmijfim of 
Sin, and making w JMc.nkcrs of Chrift, if we have 
the Conditions of Right to Baptifm. The Adult 
profefs faith and Repentance ', if they have them 
in fincerity, and confent with the Heart zs well 
as the Tongue , they are certainly pardoned : 
If they are Hypocrites, and confent only nith the 
I*ips,they have r otorioufly the Qualification which 
the Church muft require, and fo are received to 
wutvpard Communion, but ROt that which God re- 
quired) to Remiffon and Salvation. But if an Infant 
be the Child of a trj^c Believer, he hath ail :i. 
God and the Church require;. And therefore if he 



be to be baptized, he is certainly put into a ftate 
of Life, becaufe no Condition is wanting on his 

$. if. i.i. Others fay, That the Children of 
*U Ckrijiians (SinnQrs, or HyfbCti-es ) if baptiz.ed^ 
are in a ftat^ of P W don and%dvation\ and that 
God will not ptinifh the Child for the Hypocrite or 
prophane Paients Sin. But by that rule Heathens 
Children fhould be in as fafe a cafe, becaufe. God 
will not pumfh them for their Parents fin. Either 
femtthing on the Parents part is a Condition of the 
Child's Right, or nothing. If nothing, Heathens 
a?id Chriftians Children are equal: If fomething, 
it muft be true Faith (as to God's acceptancej : 
For whatever the Church muft do, (thatknoweth 
not the Heart) it is incredible that God fhould 
have fuch a Covenant £ Thy Child Ihall be faved 
if t|iou wilt, ("though lyingly) offer him to me, tho* 
thou {halt be damned fcr that Lye.] 

§. j 6. 12. That which I acquiefce in is this : 

That Gcd who vifited j4dam' s Sin on allhisPofte- 

rity, hath in the Covenant of Grace 

he the full alfo fo joined Infants to the Parents, 
froof in my that till they have a Will to chufe for 
two Dzfput. of themfelves, their Parents may chufe 

Original S:n. fa ^^ gnd difpofe of them for 

their gocd, and God taketh them as 
Members of the Parents fo far : And ib he hath 
made many exprefs Ptomifes of mercy to the Faith- 
ful and their Seed, (and Thrcatningsto the Wic- 
ked and their Seed ): And that this Mercy can- 
not be confident with their Damnation } for it is 
to be their God) and to love find blefs thtni, which 
cannot ftand with damning them. And God ha- 
ving but antCwemnt^ feeing they are in the fame 


[22j ] 

Covenant with their Parents, and not ancther> if 
it give Pardon to the Parents, it doth fo alio to 
the Child) of whom no Condition is required, but 
that he be offered by a believing Parent to Gcd \ 
whofe Acceptance is Salvaiion. 

§. 17. Therefore I think that the Synod of 
Dort truly conclude, Aft.i. 17. That fa:thpd Pa- 
rents need not doubt of the Election and Salvation of 
their Children dying in infancy : The Covenant cer- 
tainly pardoneth and faveth them. 

§. 1 8. But this is not only becaufe t^cy are Urn 
of their Bodies, nor yet is theit faith the efficient, 
Cuuft of it -, but there are two things go to qr.a- 
lifie the Receiver as ttfe difpoftive Condition, that 
is, 1 . That he be the Child of a faithful Parent, 
who' devoteth himfelf fmcerely to God. 2. And that 
he be by the Parent devot&d to Gcd, by Confent, th.it 
he be in the mutual Covenant : Which virtually 
all the Faithful do that have Infants, becaufc 
they devote them/elves and theirs to God to the 
utmolt of their Capacity. And the Recipient Sub- 
ject being thus qualified, God'j Covenant pardoneth 
him, as the efficient Instrument, by fignifying God's 

§.19. Though the Promife here be not fo plain, 
I deny not, that all true Proprietors, whoie own the 
Child is 3 here be as Parents. 

§. 20. Gcd having not made the Cafe of Infants 
fo plain to us as our own, that are Adult, there 
are difficult Objeftions againfl; this way , bu: 2s 
it fcems to me , much more againft all the 

§. 21. The grand Objeftion is, That then fome 
Infants lofe a ftate of Salvation when they come 
to age. Jnf This will follow - 7 but far harder 


C 224 2 

things from all the reft : But, 1 . This was thought 
no Abfurdity for a Thoufand years after the Apo- 
ftles, when I cannot prove, that any one man 
thought that none of the Adult .the.nfelves fall 
away from true Sanftification 2nd right to Life : 
When even Augufiine the famous Defender of 
Election and Grace againft Felagius, thought that 
all the E!ed only perfevered, and that more were 
juftified and fan&ified than were Eleft,and that 
the reft all fell away. 2. D*vcn*nt anfwereth this, 
That Infant-grace may be loft, and yet not the 
Grace of the Adult : Becaufe it is but a Relative 
Regeneration-) and an Extrinfeek^Remiffion of Sin, 
that giveth them Right t£ Impunity and Life, 
or if they are faid to have the Spirit, it is not 
in a fixed Habit of Grace. If you fay , They 
cannot be faved without real Holinefs, I an- 
fwer ; 

§. 22. 3. Diftinguifh of Holintfs, and of the 
Seafon of it. 1 . Infants have not a&ual Faith, nor 
ncceflarily a proper Habit, which is a difpofnion 
to facile a<fting that fame ail : But a feme??, a Seed, 
(as AmefiHs rather calleth it than a Habit at firft 
even in the Adult : ) And Calvin faith , That fome 
men, femen fidei qHaUcimque ferdwit. % Adam had 
fuch a Holinefs as might be loft : And why may we 
not fiy, that Infants firfi Grace is of fuch a fort 
or degree ? 2 . And yet . that none are faved 
without more - y but that upon this firft degree 
they have a right to Salvation, and that their fur- 
ther Holinefs (hall be given them whom Gcd will, 
as part of their Salvation, to which they have 
fight: At furtheft, at death, in the fame time 
and manner as perfect Holinefs and Mortificati- 
on of Sin is given to Believers that are till death 



inlperfedt A lofeable degree oiHolinefs like Adami, 
may be the way to mere in all that fodie. 

§. 23. Divines ufe to mention three degrees of 
Grace in order to Faith it felf. 1. So much Grace 
as maketh a man Me to believe^ ( which they call 
Sufficient Grace.') 2. So much more as efficiently 
deterwineth him to the Aft of Believing : This they 
call tffitttud fecial Gract y and Proteftants call it 
our location efeftnaL 3 . So much more as givcth 
him a fixed habit of Fait h 1 Love, and all Holinefs to- 
/ether. This Papifts call Jnftification 7 and Prote- 
ftants SancHficatiou. Vtd. Amefii Medall. de voc. 
&fantt.Koll9c. devocat. Bifhop Downame againft 
Temble Append, to his Treatife of Perfevc- 
ranee, &c. 

§.24. Now fome hold all thefe lofeable: fomc 
hold only the laft not lofeable , and almoft all hold 
the firft lofeable. Now, 1 . What if we think that 
Infant's firft Holinefs, befides relative (Pardon* 
and jus ad imfunitatem & rcgnnni} is but of the 
firft degree ? 1 hough a mcer moral Power to be- 
Ueve be not enough to the Adult, becaufe 
the A?t is necefTary to them, yet fay Pro- ^3 . 
teftants, The Hubit is not necefTary to 
their firft Covenant-Right, but is given by the Spi- 
rit in fanihification a* a Covenant-Benefit. And why 
may not Infants be in a pardoned ftate, that at 
firft have but that Grace which giveth a moral 
Power to believe when they come to age ? Con- 
sider of the matter. 

§.25. I have fo fully elfewhere } 
proved, That Infants Churth-memberfinf Twtifes 

fir Ivfmts 
Church-memberfhip ; and in my Rtviev of lKf*nt+B*itif*K 

Q. was 

[ 226 ] ! 

was inftituted both in the Covenant of Innocence 
in the firft edition of the Covenant of Grace •, in the 
Covenant of Peculiarity with Abraham, and in the 
lafi edition of the Covenant of Grace by Chrift^and 
alfo that God never had a Church on Earth , of 
which Infants wert not Members, if the adult 
Members had Infants, that I will now fuperfede 
that Work. 


Of the Nature of Saving-Faith. 

§. i. QO much of this came in before on the by, 
iD as will excufe my brevity here. I have 
before fhewed, That the Faith now in queftion 
is not mterly our general Belief and Truftin God, 
as a part of our Holinefs, but the mediate Belief 'and 
Truft in odour Redeemer and our Savieur, which 
is made the Condition of the Covenant ,& the means 
of ourfandification : Andalfo that as the editions of 
the Covenant vary, and promulgation of it, fo 
it is not the fame degree or alts of Faith , as to 
the particular ere den d* or Articles to be believed, 
that was and is neceflary to all pcrfons in all times. 
§. 2. Though the word [ Belief ~\ in Engliflj, 
and jijfent in Latin, fignifie ftri&ly only the aft 
of the VnderJUndingjZnd Saving Faith is oft na* 
med from one dt, yet really that Faith which in 
Scripture is made the Condition of Pardon and 
Salvatien, doth eflentially contain the Afts of 
$vcryFacHltyi'eYtn Jjfcnt } Confent, and Affiance ^ 


[ 220 : 

and «« and jm^ ^ properly fignific Trufi, even 
a confenting or voluntary Truft upon believing ; 
as is afore faid. 

§. 3. We do very aptly call both the Aft and 
Obje&by the fame name fides in Latin, (and Faith 
in Englilh, oft-times) : For Faith is a trnfiing on 
another s Faith, Fidelity pr Trnfiinefs ; and fo the 
/Mm afferent is feu f remittent u y & fides credent u 7 arc 

§. 4. The Faith that hath the promifc of our 
Juftification, is not to be called one only Phyfical 
aft in Ifecie (much lefs in numefo) : ( That were 
but prophanely to jeft with holy things) ; but it 
is a moral a£t or work of the Soul, containing many 
phyfical atts. Otherwife we fhould be all con- 
founded, not knowing how to diftinguifh of all our 
phyfical a<fts of faith feenndum ffectcm, and then to 
know which of them is the right : And it would 
be but fome very little of the trueOhje&s of Faith, 
that juftifying Faith mull be conftituted by : In 
a word, the Abfurdities are fo numerous that would 
follow, that I will not be fo tedious as to name 

§. 5. Saving Faith isfuch a moral work as we 
ufc to exprefs by the names, Believing, Trufring y 
Consenting, Takings Accepting, Receivings in Con- 
tracts ptrfonal with men. If we fay Q Ton jhalt 
Trufi fuch a Phyfician, or tal^fnch a man for your 
Thyfician 3 all men understand us, and none is fb 
logically mad,as to think that by Taking or Trnftinjr 
we mean only fome one phyfical ait of the fmalleft 
idiftribution. If we fay [ / take this man for my 
King y my Mafter, my Commander or Captain^ or 
thio woman to be my Wife, &c. ] every one knoweth 

fcerc what T^ki^g meaneth : «fc- our Content to 

Q l that 

226 ] 

that Relation, according to crra nature and ends 
of it. 

§. 6. Therefore though we ufc divers names 
for this Faith, andalfo onfeveral oecafions, give 
feveral half-defcriptiens of it, we mean ftill the 
fame thing, and fuppofe what we omit to make the 
defcription entire. 

§♦ 7. When we call Faith [a Believing] or 
[ jijfent] we mean fnch an Ajfentzs prevailed! wich 
the Will-, to accept Christ with his Grace as offered 
in theGofpel, and con [em to the Baptifmal Cove- 
nant j and this indeed as a fruit of the ajfeming aft, 
bu€ as ejfential to jttftifying Faith. 

§. 8. When we call it [ Confent] or Acceptance* 
or [Receiving Chrift ] we mean, that as Man's Soul 
hath an Intellect and Will, and a true actus hnma- 
nm vel morality is the adt of both, but of the Intel- 
lect as directive, and of the Will as more perfe- 
ctive, or as the Faculty, primarily moral } fo the 
fame Faith which is initially in the inteHiEPs Jffent % 
is pcrfeftlier in the wiSPs Cenfent : And it is the 
Receiving of a Saviour believed, or the Confcnt 
to a believed Covenant : Wc fuppofe AJfem when 
we name it Confent. 

§. 9. And when we name it Affiance or Trtttt 7 
we include both the former, and mean a refol- 
ved practical 7V#J?, and dedition of our f elves ac- 
cordingly to one that covenanteth to bring us 
from Sin and Mifery to G O D and Glory 7 
where Belief and Confent to that Covenant are 

§. 10. And the Terminm a quo , and the renun- 
ciation of Competitors and Oppofitcs* is connoted, if 
not cflcutially included in Saving Faith : And 



[ 229 1 

therefore Chrifl: doth fo often tell us f of forfa* 
king aft, if x?e will be his Difeiples. 

§. if . I ufc to exprefs it by this fimilitudc : 
A Prince redeemeth a Slave, and alfo promifeth 
him great Pofleffions and Honours in « Kingdom 
in the E*ft Indies, or at the Anti^oda^ if he will 
leave his Servitude and his Country, and all that 
he hath there, and go with him in his Ship, and 
patiently endure the Sea-trials till he come thi- 
ther. Here he muft, i. believe that thf Prince 
hath paid his ranfome : 2. That he is a wife 
man, and knoweth what he promifed, and skilful 
to conduft him fafcly through all the perils of the 
Seas : 3. That he is an honeft man, and intendeth 
not to deceive him : 4. That he is fufficient or 
able to perform his word : 5. And if upon this 
belief he trnfi him* he will let go all ^nd venture 
in his Ship, and follow him. And here one tells 
him that the Ship is unfound ; another tells him 
that the Prince is a Deceiver, unable to perform 
his Word, or unskilful, or difhoneft, and fome 
way untrufty } and another tells him that fmall 
matters in his own Country, are better than grea- 
ter with fo much hazard ; and fets out the dangers 
and terriblenefs of the Reas : Now if the man be 
ask'd [ Do yon believe, or -will yon trnft me, ormU 
y§u, not ? ] here every one by believing and trufiing 
knoweth, that a practical Trufl is meant, which 
lieth in fuch a confidence zsforfakgth *#,and taktth 
the frorr.ifei Kingdom for all his hope. Such is cur 
Saving Faith. 

§.12. As many A&s and many Obje&s go to 
conftitute Saving Faith, fo if you will logiadly 
anatomize it, all thefe following muft be taken in. 

Q.3 S^ 

t «?0 ] 

§. if. u The principal Efficient Canfe is God, 
the Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft refpe&ively, ac- 
cording to their feveral operations. 

§. 14. 2. The Inftrumcntd Caufe is the Word 
of God, and the Preaching and Preachers of it, or 
Parents, I riends, or feme that reveal the Word 
unto us. 

§.15. 3. Subordinate auxiliary means arc 
I evidential Alterations, by fome awaking Judg- 
ments, r inviting Mercies, or convincing Exam- 
ples, &c. 

§. 1 <5\ 4. The Scul of Man in all its three 
Faculties, JTi i ;-attive,JxteEecitve, and Volitive, is, 
j. the Red lent of the Divine Influx, and then, 
2. the immediate Efficient or Agent of the A<fts of 

§. 17. % . Preparatory Grace and Duty is ordina- 
rily Man's Difpofition^ as he is the Recipient ©f 
God's Grace, and the Agent of believing. But 
God is free , and can work on the unprepared ? but 
it is not to be taken for his ordinary way. 

§. 18. 6. The formal Objett of the affenting 
*JiZZ of Faith , is veracitas Dei revclantis ,the Veracity 
or Tmfe of God revealing his Will. 

§. 19. 7. The formal Object of the accepting 
and receiving Aft, is the Goodnefs of the Benefits 
offered us by the Covenant, as offered. 

$. 20. 8. The formal Objett of our Truft or 
Affiance is God's Ju/e*, Fidelity , becaufe of his afore- 
faid Veracity in promiling, and his Power, Wifdom 
and Benevolence as a Performer ; and this full 
A£t comprehendeth all the reft : It is God's 

§. 21. 9. The material Objctts of the affenting 
A& ingenercj are all God's AiTertions or Revela- 

tiois : 

[2*1 3 

tions : More efpecially the Gofpel, or the Chriftian 
<U faith objeftive^ according to the Edition of the 
--Covenant which we are under. 

§.22. The Ejfentials of our objettive Chrifiian 
i\ Faith conftitute the E {fence of our aftive Saving 
' faith ', and the Integrals of it conftitute the In- 

§. 23. And it is of great importance to diftin- 
guifh here (as to the Word and Obje&s) between 
j , the jigna or words, 2. the fignification or fence, 
3. the things, matter or incomflex objstts, as diitinft 
from words and fence, viz* God, Cbri?, Grave, 
Heaven, G oodm f* Jttfiice, Men, &c. And 
to hold, 1. That the words are notne- C3 
.ceflary for thernfelres, but for the fence ; 
and therefore Tranflations, or any words which 
give us the fame fence, mayferve to the foing of 
Swing Faith. 2. That the fence it j 'elf is not ne- 
ceffary for it felf ultimately, as if Holinefs lay in 
notions, but for the things which that fence re- 
vealeth, viz. God to be loved and obeyed, Christ 
to be received, the Holy Ghofi to be received and 
obeyed, Holinefs and all Grace to be received, lo- 
ved, ufed, encreafed} our Brethren to^ be loved, 
Heaven to be defired, &c. All fence will not 
bring us to the reception cf the things *, for ail is 
not apt} but any that -doth this (which muft be 
divine and apt ) will conftitute us true Belie- 

§. 24. i. The material Objects of our acceptance 
and conftnt, are the Word of God commanding, 
offering, and promifwg, aad the good of Duty and 
Benefit commanded, offered and promifed j that 
is, All that it given its in the baptifmal Covenant, 
God the F*th$r and hi* Love, the Son and his Grace, 

Q.4 and 

£nd the Holy Ghoft a»d his Communion : The Fa~ 
thtr as reconciled and adopting us> the Son as having 
redeemed at, to teach, rule? jn/tifie wAfavc #* *, the 
Jioly Spirit tofanCtifie^ comfort, and perfett m. 

§.25. 1 1 . The material Object of our TV/*/? or 
Affiance is God himfelf, the prime Truth, Power 
and Good, and Cknji as his Mcflenger and our 
Saviour, and the HolyGbeft as the Author of the 
Word, and the WW as being the Word of God t 
Yon muft pardon us as neceffitated to call (jod 
a material ObjeR^ analogically, for want of 

§. 26. 11. The ultimate or final Objefts of 
Saving Faith are, 1 . God himfelf, the ultimate hI- 
iimum \ that is, the perfedt Complacency of his will 
in his Glory eternally ftiining forth in our Glory 
and the Glory of Chrift with all tte Church tri- 
umphant. 2. Next to that, This Glory it felf 
( which is a created thing ) and the Perfe&ion 
of theUniverfe, and of Chrift's Church and our 
felves, in which it confifteth. And therein our 
own Perfe&ion, and our perfeft light, love and 
praife of our glorious God, and our Redeemer. 
3. And next under that, the firft fruits of all 
this in this World, in the forcfaid love of the 
Father and Grace of the Son, and Communion of 
the Holy Spirit and the Church. 

§. 27 • If therefore we were put to give a full 
dtfeription of Saving Faith, we muft be as lar go 
as this following, or luch-like in fence, viz* 

£ < c The Faith which the Adult muft profefs in 
4C Baptifm, as having the Promifc of Juftificati- 
Ci on and Salvation, is a finccre fiducial pra&ical 
ci AfTent to Divine Revelations, and efpecially 
" to the Gofpcl, revealing and offering us God 

44 him- 

u himfelf to be our God and reconciled Father, 
Cc Chrift to be our Saviour, viz.. by his Incarni* 
Cc tion, meritorious Rightcoufnefs and Sacrifice, 
Cc Refurreftion, Do&rine, Example, Government, 
cc IntercefTion and final Judgment } and the Holy 
<c Ghoft to quicken, illuminate and fan&ifie us, 
cc that fo we may live in the Love of the Father, 
" the Grace of the Sen, and the Communion of 
cc the Holy Spirit, and of the Chriflian Church, 
" being faved from our Enemies, Sin and Mifery 
u initially in this Life, and perfe&ly in eternal 
" perfect Glory : With a fiducial acceptance of 
* c the Gifts of the Covenant according to their 
" nature, and a fincere federal Gonfent ; and 
u with a fincere devoting ' and giving up our 
u felves to God the Father, Son and Holy Ghoft j 
" and renouncing of all that is inconfiftent with 
cc this Covenant : Which j4fcnt y Confer and 
iC Trufiare the efFe&s of the Gofpel and Spirit of 
u Chrift, and are founded on Goa*s Fidelity, 
ic that is, on the Veracity, Love and Sufficiency of 
<c Gcd Almighty, molt wife and good, and on 
" Chrift the Father's great Apoftle^and on ChrifPs 
" fub- Apoftles \ and on the Gofpel and efpecially 
iL the Covenant of Grace,as onGod's revealing and 
" donative lnftrument} and on the manifold ob- 
" fignant operations of the Holy Ghoft (miracu- 
c< - lous and fanftifying) as God's infallible Atte- 
" ftation to the Gofpel- Verity. ] 

§. 28. Hiftorical Tradition of the Words, 
Books, and Matters of Faft, arc fubordinate nccef- 
fary means of tranfmitting the Objefts to our fenfe 
of Hearing, who live at fuch a diftancc from the 
Time, Place and Fads. 

§. 29. But 

I §. 29. But though all thefe things aforefaid are 
iii true Faith, yet a diftinft Perception or De- 
Icription of them all is not neceflary in him that 
hath them. But a more general Conception of 
it, which will but confift with the true Reception 
of the Ti/a^jfignified by the Words (God, Ghrift, 
Grace & c. ) may be certainly faving to -a plain 
and fimple-hearted Chriftian ^ when one that can 
defcribe it accurately, may be gracelefs : For it is 
Believing, and not Defining Faith, which God hath 
made necefiary to Salvation. 

§. 30. Therefore we do ordinarily well ufe 
fhorter Descriptions to the People, and fomctirae 
we fay, That F4th in Chrift, is our Chriftwnity ; 
that is, our Aflent and Confent to the Baptifmal 
Covenant, and our Self-dedition to God there- 
in. Tor in Scripture it is all one to be a Believtr, 
a Difcifle of Chrift, and a Chiftian. 

§.31. Sometimes we faj , That faving Faith is 
tfidncUl-pratticxl jiffcnt to the Truth of the Gojpel, 
and Confent to the Covenant of Grace } or an Acce- 
nting of aM the Benefits of the Covenant, as they are, 
and on the terms offered -, or an Accepting of Chrtft 
dnd Life in, and with him there offer edus. 

§. 32. Sometimes we fay, It is a practical Af- 
fiance, or tr lifting on Chrift as our only Saviour for Sal- 
vation) or to bring ua to God And glory : And in all 
thefe and the like we fpeik truly,, and mean the 
fame thing -, fome terms being ufed on occafion, 
while the reft arc implyed , and ro be wnder- 

§. 3 ? . Thofe that will needs call no aft by the 
name of F*ith, but Affent, and confine it to the 
Intellect, do yet feem to differ with U9 but de nomine, 
about a Word, and not the Matter : For they con- 


[235 1 
fefs, if there concur not a Confent of the Will, it 
is not fating^ but as fome call it fides informU ^ and 
fo that AJfcnt and Con [cm make up our neceflary 
Condition^ or means of our Union with Chrift, or 
Intereft in the Covenant-Rights or Gifts. And then 
feeing we are agreed fo far of the matter, it's not 
worth much Arriving, whether one only, or both 
A&s lhall be called Faith. 

§• 34- When the firfl Reformers had to do 
with men that commended uncertainty of our Sin- 
ceri:y and Salvation, and kept People under a Spi- 
rit of Bondage, and tempted them ( contrary to 
the Nature of Faith ) to love this World better 
than the next, and to be afraid of dying, by be- 
ing doubtful wherhet 1 they ihould be faved ', in the 
heatof oppofition, fome of them called F*ith 9 jif- 
furance, or certain or fall Perfaafion of our own 
ferfonal Elcftioti, Tar don, and Salvation. But thofe 
that came after them, and thofe that converted 
praftically with Men of troubled Confciences, and 
obferved the ftate of the greateft part of good 
Chriftians, followed not this Example, but-fpake 
more cauteloufly and foundly, anddefcribed Faith 
as I before have told you. For they found that 
not one of a multitude of godly Chriftians could 
fay they were certain of their EkEtion^ Sincerity , ox 
Salvation : And fome that were forwardeft to fay 
fo, were none of tiiebeft, and had not what they 
faid they had. 

§.35. But whatever the tranfmarine Divines 
fay, 1 can witnefs, that except ignorant Aminomi- 
*ns, or fuch Sectaries, rejected by the Orthodox, 
I remember not that I have met thefe forty years 
With one Divine that taketh faving-Faith to be fuch 
jiflUrtncc of onr ferfinal Election Juftification or 


Salvation, efpsciaily the firfi aft, which is not to 
believe thac we are juftified, but that we may he 

§.36. indeed you would think thofe few muft hold 
.this, who fay, That Juftification is an immanent 
eternal Act of Gcd. Bat, !• this is but a diffe- 
rence about the word [ Juflification ] : All con- 
fsfs,that God's eflemial Volition of our Juftifica- 
tion is eternal, as being himfelf; but fome think 
that his Will may be denominated an Eternal Jufli- 
fication-, and others better fay, Not; Butallcon- 
fefs that the Law of Grace doth jaftifie I10 man till 
he believe, much lcfs ihc Sentence of Chrift as 
Judge. And though fome call our Perfwafion that 
we are juftified, by the name of Faith, yet they 
deny not another ad of Faith antecedent to this, 
that maketh us true Chriftians. 

§. 37. And indeed, befides Mr. Femble and Dr. 
Twijfe ( both excellent Men ) it's rare to meet 
with any Englifh Divine that talks for Eternal Jit- 
fttfication : And Mr. Temble , who let fall fome 
fuch things in his VmdicU Gratia, did fet ail right 
again in his Treatife of Juftification (being very 
young when he wrote even the laft : ) And Dr. 
Twijfe, who in his Vindic. Gratia, hath fome fuch 
words, fpeaketh elfewhere foundly, as Mr. Jtffop 
his Scholar hath fhewed in a Treatife purpofely 
written to prove ir, when I had takert exceptions 
againft his word*. 

§. 38* It is therefore fhamelefs Calumny of 
thole who perfwadc their Followers, That the 
Reformed Churches take Faith for fuch an Affu- 
rame or Belief, that we arc juftified or elected, 
and fhall be faved -, only becaufe they find fome' 
fuch word in fome former difputing Dottors of 

ours •, 

[ 2373 

tmrs i when as all, or near all have fo long re- 
nounced that Opinion, that he would be a Wonder 
among us in Er.gland^ Scotland^ or Ireland ( and I 
think abroad )lhacftiouldhold Id 

§. 39. Yet we ftill fay,- That faring Faith is 
not only a believing that God^s Word is true, but 
a believing it with perianal Application to my 

§. 4.0. But that Application is fuch as follow- 
eth. 1. I believe that Xhnft hath died for my 
fins as well as for the reft of the World. 2. I be- 
lieve that the Gctfpel offerech Pardon and Salvaci- 
onto me as well as to others. 3. I believe that 
God will have mercy on me, and Chrift and Life 
fhall be mine, if I (hall truly believe and repent -, 
and Glory>if I perfevere. 4- Hereupon 1 accept the 
Offer and Confent to the Covenant of Grace, 
which giveth me right to thefe Benefits, if I con- 
fent. 5 And fo far as I can fay that I am finccre in 
my repenting and believing, fo far my Faith help- 
eth me to conclude that I am juftified. 

§.41. But this laft is a mixt aft, and a ratio- 
nal Conclulion helped b^Grace, w hereof the ma- 
jor only is de fide f He that believeth is juftified ] 
but not the Minor C I believe. ] Therefore we u- 
fually call it a fruit of Fs.icb. 

§. 42. Some incautelous Divines in the heat of 
Difpute do indeed fay, That it is de fide diving 
or a Divine Word, that £ I am a true BtUever, ] 
And Chamier too unhappily goeth about to prove 
it by faying, That it is the Word of the Spirit in 
*«, which is the £ Word of God : ] As if the Spine 
fpake in US new Articles of Faith? or a- new Word 
to be believed^ whofc work in thofe that are not in~ 
fpired Prophet s 7 is but, 1 . to caufe us to believe that 



Word already given : 2. To be a -vitucjfmg Evi- 
dence that we are God's Children, by making us 
holy as he is holy, as fimilitude witnefleth a Child 
to be his Faihers-. 3 . And to help us to difcern that 
Holinefs or Evidence, and to excrcife it, and to 
gather Comfort from fuch difecrningit, and ex- 

§. 43. We now commonly difown all fuch Af- 
fertions^ I meet with no fober Divine that own- 
eihthcm, becaufe we grant, that € ondufio femfer 
feqmnr fan em debiliorem : But yet we find that 
thofe few that call it de fide, do moft of them 
mean no more, but that it's partly ds fide^ becaufe 
the Major Propofition is fo } and fo they differ but 
about a Logical Notion. 

§. 44. Some have faid indeed ( beyond-Sea ) 
Titft a man cannot believe, and not know it ; 
but we know thoufands may believe, and yet doubt 
whether it be a fincere and faving fort of Faith. 

But I have written fo many Books of thefe mat- 
ters, that I here add no more. 


Of the nature of Righteoufnefs, Jufiifcati0n > 

find Pardon. 

§.i.THE Controverts about Juftification have 
A made a great noife ^ but I think' that thofe 
de re are few, in comparifon of thofe de nomine^ e- 
ven among all forts of Chriftians; and the con* 
founding them by uasfulful Heads, who have made 

- s the 


the ignorant believe, that thofe which are but dt 
* nomine , are de re, hath kindled foolifh Wrath, 
and quenched ChiiftianLove, and taken up poor 
Souls wich a deceitful Zeal, who have theught that 
they were contending for great and neceflary 
Truths, when ie was but for Logical Notions, 
Names > and Modes of Expreffion, over-commended 
to them by their feveral Teachers. 

§. 2, The Words Jufiice ( Righteoufnefs ) and 
Justification are very ambiguous ufed in many fen- 
ces in the Scriptures, and in the Writings of Di- 
vines, and in the common ufe of men, which I 
have opened info many Books, and fa largely, as 
(hall here excufe my brevity : The Scnces which 
we are now moft concerned to take notice of, are 
thefe following. 

§. 3. Righieoufnefs isconfidered materiaSy^ or 
formally : Materially it -is", 1. immediately ^ 1. A 
righteous A&kn : 2. A righteous Difpofuion or Habit ; 
2. And thence a richuotx P erf on. 

§• 4. Righteoufnefs materially is, 1. in fome or 
other particular Action, : 2. Or, in the main bent of 
Heart s.nd Life : 3. Or, in Perfection. The firft de- 
nominated the Perfon Rigbtcow <in hoc, ox fecm- 
dam Cjuid\ The fecond denominateth him a fincere- 
ly Righteous Man : The third, a perfedtly Righit- 
ous Man. 

§. 5. In the notion of the material Caufe^ is 
included alfo the Comparative or Relative State and 
Proportion of A&ions : When the Adtion is duly 
qualified and modified in its phvlical Nature and 
Circumftances, it is materially juft. 

§. 6. The form enquired of, is Q*id morale ? 
And it is the Relation of the Aftion, and Habit, 
and Perfon? as congruous to the jufiitiA menfirars, 


[ 240 ] 

or the Rule of Righteoufnefs. The Rule or Law I 
firft maketh;^ vel debit urn, and faith, This (hall 
be your Duty , and your Neighbours Due (and de- 
clared God's Due : ) And the;** being conftituted 
by the Law (natural or pofitive) that which agreeth 
to it, is jpfturrt. So that Righteoufnefs formally 
.is a moral Relation refulting from the phyfictl mode 
And relation of A&ions and Habits, as compared 
with the Law or Rule. A moral Relation founded 
in a phyfical Congruity. 

§. 7. Righteoufnefs is both materially and for- 
mally diftinguifhable as towards God or Mm : Ma- 
terially, as it is God or Man that we deal jufily or 
tnjurioiijly by : Formally, as it is God himfelf, or 
Men mUng under him, who give us Laws, and 
make the debit urn vel jpu % or difpofe of Proprie- 

§. 8. Righteoufnefs towards God being Relative 
to his Laws, is to be diftinguifhed according to the 
fever al Law s that men are under, and according to 
the feveral farts of the Law, which give the word 
divers Sences. 

§.9. 1 . Righteoufnefs as related to the Precept 
as fuch, is nothing but Obedience, whether parti- 
al, finccrc, or perfect: He that doth right eenfnefs is 

§. 10. 2. Righteoufnefs related to ameer Con- 
dition ( of Pardon or Salvation, &c. ) is the per- 
fir nana of that Condition, which may be the Caufa 

§. 11. 3. Righteoufnefs, as related to the prc- 
mutnt or donative part of the Law or Promife, is 
our im ad fr^minm^ our Right to that Reward or 

§• i*« 

4- Righteoufnefs, as relative to the pe- 
nal part,' ifPonr ]m ad imftmtatem, or when pu- 
mentisnot due to us according to that Law. 
§.13. 1 . . ufnefs, as related to the Pre- 

cept of the Law of Innoceccy, is materially p erj 'eft 9 
finned Obedience to war Creator, 
§. 14. 2. Righteoufrifefs/as related to the C*n~ 
ditto, of hat Law, iitht'fame - 5 becaufe nothing 
but the faid perfect Obedience is there imde the 
Condition of Life. 

§.15. 3 . Righteoufnefs related to the reward- 
ing part of that Law is right to that Life which is 
there prom i fed , that is. to God's Love and Feli- 

1 5. . ou fnc fs related to the Penalty 

of that Law, is a Right to Impunity, as to the 
tfhich it threatneth to Sinners. 

1. Righteoufnefs, as related to the meet 

: part of the Law of Grace, is alfo pr- 

the future ( not Innocency, as 

he til c paft ) for even Chrift make'th ferftttO- 

bedience our D-uy^ though he parden fin. 

: 18. 2 . Righteoufnefs/as' related to the Cw- 
: \%on of the Law of Grate, is fincere Faith and Re- 
finance, ss the Condition of our fir ft Right to the 
prefent Gifts cf the Covenant, and alfo fincere 
Love and Obedience to the end, as the Condition of 
CUT final Jnftification andGhry, 

§. 10, 3. Righteoufnefs, as related to thefa- 
vedrd of the Law of Grace, is our Right-to our Re- 
lation to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, and all 
the Gifts of the Covenant, Chrift, Grace, and 

§. .20. 4. Righteoufnefs, as related to the pe- 
nal part of the Law of Grace, is our Right to 

R Irnjn^ 


Impunity, as to the Punifhment fhreatned fpecially 
by that Law. 

§. 2 1 . The meritorious Caufe of both thefe 
laft ( our Right to Impunity, and to Life ) is the 
Righteoufntfs of Chrift ; for the fake of f which the 
Condonation and Donations of the Covenant of 
Grace are given us. 

§. 22. This Righteoufnefs of Chrift is his //*/- 
fillmg the Conditions of his own proper Law or Co- 
venant of Mediation: which is materially, i. His 
habitual, 2. and aftual Perfection in Refignation, 
Obedience and Love j 3. and therein his Humilia- 
tion and offering himfclf a Sacrifice for fin : 
4. And all this exalted to acceptable Dignity by the 
Conjun&ion of the Divine Perfc&ion. 

§. 23. The Donative Covenant of Grace to 
Man being but a raeer Inffcrumeat of Donation and 
Condonation, that which procured %t\ is the p row 
ring Caufe of Pardon and Life ' 7 that is, Chrift's 
meritorious Right eon fnefs. 

§, 24. Though this Covenant pardon and ju 
ftifie no man till he perform the Condition, and be 
a capable Subje& by that moral Difpofnion, yet when 
that Condition is performed, its performance ma- 
keth us but meet Recipients, and it is ftill the meri- 
torious Righteoufnefs of Chrift, for which we have 
the free gift of Pardon and Life} for the perfor- 
xnance of the Conditian doth but remove the re 
ceptive Incapacity of the Patient, and the fujpenfon 
of the Donation. 

§. 25. jHflif cation fignifieth, 1. making turigh- 
t e*M and judicially juftifiable. 2. Judicial Juftifi 
cation (1. By Plea, 2. By Evidence and Wit 
rds, 3. By Sentence. ) 3. Vfingusus Righteous 
by Execution : Cr, x. Conjlitntive^ 2 .Judicial* and 
% .EtctMtivc jHJUficatw* §• 26 

i6. No man of common Underftanding will 
deny the real difference of thefe 
three : And if the N*me only be Gen. 6.9. Hof^. 
queftioned,nomanwill reafonably £ Heb - IO - 3*- 
deny, That in humane ufe the name f "' ^ L ^ 
is accoreungly applicable to each : & 14. 14. & 1 ti\ 
And dA ufe of it is eafily proved Matth. 10. 41! 
alfo in the Scripture \ 1 Cer. 6.11. 2 Pet.2.8. 1 Tim. 
Tit. 3 . 7 .Rev.zz. 11. &c Andthe J/- Rom - 5-7- 
word *#f tow* and Rtghteonfmfs, is ™ i\J£ /J* 
fo frequently ufed in Scripture for & 4. 18.Heb.r1." 
that called Inherent ^ or Self-perform- 4- Mat. 13. 43. 
f^ Eighteen fnefs ( incomparably & aj. 37. 46. 
oftcr than in any other Sence) as ™- "^J' 
will help to inform us what Con~ j h 16^ j^ 10. & 
SUtative jHftificf.tion is: And if $. '17,21. iun.2. 
any diflike the AW/r, let them call *&. A£t 10. 3?. 
it [ Miking w righteous] if that Luk - '• 75- Ma <* 
will pleafe them better than the 5 *^ 2 °- 
word juftifywg. Ht 

§. 27. Conftitutive J unification is ever firft : 
God never judged a maij righteous, that was not 

§.28. No man on earth is righteous by the 
Condition, or by the rewarding Pott of the Law of 
Jnnocemy. Not by the Condition as performed, for 
that Condition is perfttt , perpetual, perfonal Inno* 
cency, which no man hath } iil* is any righteous in 
conformity to the Precept, unlefs [ecnndnm qnid,^ 
a damnable Sinner's lefs unrighteonfnefs may be 
called Righteoufnefs : Nor is any one juftified by 
the Retrilputivg or Tromijfory part of that Law, be- 
caufe perfect Innoccncy is its Condition. 

§. 29. Though that Law perfe&ly juftifie Chritf, 
Who perfectly fulfilled it, we are not therefore 

R 2 righte* 

I>44] - ^ 

righteous in the fencz of that Law, or juflifiecJ 
it, beclmfe Chrifl: fulfilled it ( of which mor 
non: ) ; Becaufe the fence of the Law was not {Thou 
jhalt obey, or another for th?e.~] (^t pever mention- 
irious Obedience:} But [ hy felf jhalt 

-illy obey- 2 
30. We are juflified from, or araivft th$ atrfe 
of that firft Law, by deliverance or grace •, tut it 
is by a Redeemer , and not by that Law. 

§. 31. The Caufes* of our rrhote J unification 
(whofe parts were before-mentioned) are thefe: 
t . The conftitutive Canfes ( called Material and 
Formal ) are before opened, being divers in their 
divers parts : In brief, our Righteoufnefs now is 
£ our Inter eft in the meritorious Righteoufnefs of Chrjft^ 
and our own performing of the Conditions of th*t 
fntereft) or of the New Covenant hy his Grace y and 
thereupon our Right to Impunity and Life (or to 
Salvation from deftruttive PHmJhment^ and to Glory * 
2. The efficient Gaufes are, 1. Prigcipal, Got 
2. Mediatcryand meritorious, Chnfi mAmMigh- 
z ton fiefs : 3. Inftrumcntal (as to cur jus ad impH- 
nitatem & gloriam ) the Condonative and Donative 
Covenant. 4. The material Difpofuio recepiiva of 
this Right, is our Faith and Repent ance y or perfor- 
mance of the Covenant's Condition hereof. 5. The 
principal Caufe of this Faith or Btfpoftion, is the 
Holy Ghoft. 6. The ihftrutnental, is the Word, 

The mediate Agent is Man. 

§. 3 2. That Juitification which confjfteth in our 
jtu inipmitatis quoad poenam damni & fen fa, our 
right to y ( as to Lofs and Strife ) is the 

fame thing with Pardcn of fm y whether you take 
both aStfvely i \vely* 


the Law of Innocency at s Co* 
vend n cetfcd up on Adam'/ Fall^ nomtn but he and 
Eve X9M rvtr undtr it : And iffo % they deferved net 
Dam*«tionfr tr.y Sin but final Vnbtlief and Imptni- 
tency , actor drg to the Law of Grace ; And , ' , > . ■ 
fucb deftrt is for riven them by Chrift. 

§. 3+. An/. The Law of Grace taketh in the 
Law of Nature (natur* Upfit), though not on the 
Terms of the firlt Covenant, as it was nature % 
gr* far preferva:ion of Innocency : And ftill all 
that God ctmmtndeth U our Duty\ and all thaE he 
forbiddetb^ is Sin \ ard every fin deferveth dc.it b 
in the nature of it ( for it cannot be Sin and 
not deferve Pmijhmext): but the difference is, That 
under the Law of Intocency it was Deftrt unreme- 
died \ but now it is Vtftrt with prefent Remedy, or 
an affixed Pardon to every penitent Believer. So 
much of the U/fr of Nature remaineth.as maketh 
Punithment due in primo infianti nature conjunft 

r i a Pardon which maketh Impunity due in fe- 
cund* ihFianti : As if the King fliould grant a fu- 
ture Pardon by a Ltw to every man that will 
lift himfelt in his Wars under his Son, left inpri- 
moinst*m$i their faults deferve punifhment, while 
theyatp daily pardoned. 

§. $$.11. PubLck judicial Jufiification (for private 
I paO by) is virtually in the Law, or coilftitutive 
JuftiS ation K efore defaribed : For when a ©an is 
righteous, the Law juftificth him virtually : And 
this is the fence that we are faid to be justified by 
Jraith in, primarily in Scriptures A Believer is 
made indeed, and fo is justifiable in Judgment^ 
that is, justified virtually by-ike Law : As we life to 
&y>rkf Law doth jujtifie fitch a man.) 

fib 3 §. 36. 

§. $6 . 2 . But s&Hdl judicial Justification is pr q 
cipally by our Judge and fubordinately by Chrift as 
our Advocate, by Plea •, and by fividence and Wit- 
nefs y which is chif fly by the Righteoufmfs of the 
Cauft laid open to all the World. 

§. 37. It is by the Law of Grace f the edition 
which men lived under) that Chrift will judge the 
World : Therefore we muft accordingly judge of 
his Juftification. 

§•38. Seeing the thing to be judged of is the 
meritum caufa, the Merits of a mm*s Caufe j there- 
fore the lame may be the meritorious Caufe and the 
material of this judicial Juftification - 7 and they err 
that take this for an Abfurdity. 

§. 39. Though the great end of God's Judgment 
of Man wilt be to glorific his* own Jufiicef Mercy 
zrAWifdom, and to glorific CbrifPs Right&ufafs, 
yet the Caufe of the day, which is to be decicled, is 
not whether Chrift be righteoui, but We : Nor 
whether he fulfilled his mediatorial Law^ which 

§. 40. Juftification being related to {real or 
foffible) Accufation y fo many things as the Accufa- 
tion may extend to, the juftification muft extend 
to if perfeft. 

§. 41; But no man is perfectly and abfolutely 
jufi or juftifiable : Foriiftance, 1. If we beaccufed 
to have finned, we cannot be juftified dire&ly 
againft this Accufation, but muft plead guilty by 
Gonfeffion. For fa&um non fotejl fieri infe&nm, 
and that Faft will for ever be culpable : C Adam 
did fin"} will for ever be a true aflTertion.^^fhc 
Guilt of faii or fault is never done away in it ft If - 7 
£ that it was really a fault ] and [ that we real- 

Iy did it, 3 will be an everlafting Truth : Of 
which more afterward. 

§.41'. 2.I f the Accufation be, That £ in Adam 
we ciefervi \ it muft be confefled : Yea, 

temporal Death and corredting Punifhments arc 
not only deferved but infli&cd, and not pardoned^ 
nor wowiftifjable herein. 

§. mr 3. If the Accufation be, that we dtfcr- 
*o%ave Abatements of Grace, With-boldings of 
the Spirit^ and abatement of what Glory we might 
elfe have had, all this muft be confefTcd. 

§.43. 4. Yea,if itbefaid, That our Sin prima 
inftanti defervsd Hell, it muft be confefled, and 
againft all this there is no diredt Juftification. 

§. 44. But againft rhefe Accufations we muft 
be juftificd : 1 . If it be faid, that we arc of Right 
t9 be damned, or have ye Right f Heaven but to 
Hill, this muft be denied : And we muft be jufti- 
ficd by thefe fevcral Caules: r. Becaufe God's 

:xe and the Ends of the violated Law are fat it- 
fifd by Chrift , and by his Right toufnefs, a free 
Gifc of Pardon and- Life are merited for us : 
2. And this free donation is the Law that we arc 
to be judged by, which giveth us Chrift to be our 
Head, and P/irdtn and Life with him. 

§. 45. 2. If it be faid, That we arcVnbdie~ 
vers, impenitent or mk*ly, and did not fulfill the 
Conditions of the Covenant of Grace, we muft de- 
ny it,*and be juftified againft this by our Faith, 
Repentance and Holme fs it felf } or elfe we muft be 
condemned and perifh } for nothing elfe will 
do it. 

§. 46. And feeing it will be the work of the 
day, to judge men as performers or non-perfor- 
mers of the faid Conditions of the Law of Grace, 

R 4 there-; 


therefore it is that the Scripture fpcaketh fo much 
cf inherent or performed Righteoufnefs, and 
(Thrift's judging men according to their works, 
that is, their works which are the performance of 
that Condition. 

§. 47. To bt judged according to our Works , is 
to btjupiped or condemned according to ont^Works : 
For. to be judged is the genus 1 and to beffa piped 
or condemned are the fpecies. Judging is j notifying 
pr condemning. 

§. 48. While all are agreed, that all men pall be 
justified ox condemned according to their Work^, it is 
unreafonablc to quarrel at that height that many- 
do, about the fyllable [BY 2 {whether men be 
Nullified and condemned by their works ) as if 
£ according to them"} and [by them'} had a diffe- 
rent fence •, when as to judicial juftificatiori 
the fence is the very fame, though as to the ma- 
ting of men jutt^ the fence may differ. 

§. 49. We are commonly agreed, that no man 
Ss juftified by Works in any of thefe following 

i i. No man is juftified either conftitutively @r 
judicUrily by his Works done according to the Law 
tf Innoeency, that is, by perfed vtrfond Obedience 
and Love, (becaufe we have it not) 

2. No man is juftified conftitutively or judicia- 
rily, by his Works done according to the Mofai- 
aal Jcwijh Law as fuch. 

3. Much lefs by any Works of his own or other 
mens invention, which he accounteth good and are 
not fo. 

4. No man is juftified by any Works fet in oppo - 
fition to or competition or co-ordination with 
Chrift, but only in /nbordinmon to him and hi? 


Rightcoufncfs by which wc arc redeemed, and for 
which wc are all firft conditionally pardoned and 
1 le Law of Grace. 
could be juftified by his Gofpel-Obe- 
qience, or ith, if he were to be judged by the 

Law of Innocency,as net redeemed. 

man's Faith or Obedience will juftifie him 
in Jud^tncnc againft this accufation, Z'ikon *rr * 
Sinner ] or this [ Thy fin deferved De^th. ] Nor 
as one that hath fulfilled all the frtcftivc fun of 

7. No Works do juftifie us, as meriting Life of 
God in proper commutative Juftice. 

8. No man is juftified by Task* of worhpyr, as 
contradiftintt from believing and trufting on Free 
Grace : or by external works, without Chrift's 
Spirit and fpirkual Evangelical Duties. 

9. No good Work or A£ of Man was a Condi- 
tion of God's giving us a Redeemer, or giving us a 
conditional juftifying Law of Grace. 

1 o. Man's true Faith 2nd Repentance is not be- 
fore the Grace which worketh it, and therefore is 
no Condition of that Grace. 

1 1 . Man's antecedent common Works, while he 
is impenitent, merit not properly the fpecial Grace 
which caufeth Faith and Repentance. 

1 2. We have no Works that are acceptable to 
God, but what are the fruits of his Spirit and 

§. 50. And on the other fide we are agreed, 
1. That we are juftified by the Workf of Christ, as 
the Meritorious Caufe of our Justification. 

2. That the Juftification purchafed and given us 
by Chrift, is given us by a Law or Covenant of 
Grace , which giveth (as God's Instrument) Right 


C 250] 

to lmfmky and to Life to all true penitent Belie- 
vers: And therefore he that is juftified according 
to this Law of Grace, from the charge of Impeni- 
tence and Vnbelicf, muft be juftified by his Repentance 
and Faith materially, as being the Righteoufncfs in 
queftion, as is aforefaid. 

3. That voithoHt Holinrfs none jWi fee Gq^: And 
if any be accufed as unholy (and on that account no 
Member of Chrift or Child of God, or Heir of 
Heaven) his Hdinefs muft be the matter of his 

4. That though our Faith, Repentance and Ho- 
linefs be no miverfal abfolute Righteoufnefs, yet 
they are that on which the judiciary Scrutiny muft 
pafs, and which will be the qucftion of the great 
day, on which our Life or Death will depend as 
on the Condition or moral Qualification of the Re- 

%. That in this fence all men ftiall be judged, by 
Juftification or Condemnation according to thiir 
Works, or what they have done j that is, as they 
have performed or not performed the Conditions 
of that Law of Grace which they were under ( as 

6. That therefore they that will be juftified at 
laft, muft trufi in Chrift that redeemed them, and 
be careful to perform the Conditions of his Law 
of Grace, and both muft concurr. 

7. That that which is the Righteoufnefs which 
muft juftifie us in Judgment, is the fame that mult 
now ccn&itHte us j*&. 

8. That when our Right to Salvation is the thing 
in queftion to be judged, that which juftifieth our 
Right to Salvation, juftifieth the Perfon as to that 
Right j and fo far the fame thing is the Condition 

of our Riftht to Salvation and to our Juftifica- 

9. And if any with AugnHm will mean by 

\jH$li$CAtion] God's making tu fuch a* th$ Judge 
mRjuftifie by Sentence And Execution^ then omCor;- 
1 i n is part of that Justification. 

10. That Scripture fometiinestakcth Juftificati- 
on in that fence, and moft frequently by [ Rights 
wfnefs] meaneth that which confifteth in our A#s 
and Habits: In all this there is noplace for Con- 
troverfie or Difagrcement. 

§.51. They that fay, That we muft have inhe- 
rent and performed Righteoufnefs, but that no 
man is at all juftified by it y muft take justifying \n 
fome particular limit* ed fact , (which therefore they 
fliould **p/4;>z by diftin&ion) or clfe they fpeak 
grofs contradi&ion: For it is no Righteoufnefs if it 
conftitute not the owner righteous^ fo far,or in that 
point , nor yet if the owner may not be juftified 
by it in Judgment ^againQ: theaccufa^ionof being 
in that point or fofar untight cow. If he that doth 
Righteoufnefs is righteous, that Righteoufnefs will 
materially juftifie him againft the falfe accufation 
of the contrary. 

§. 52. Yea, while they make Fait^, Repentance 
and Holincfs but Signs and Evidences of our right 
to Life-ctcrnal, they thereby allow it forae place 
in Juftification : For Evidence hath its place in 
Judgment: And they are moral Evidknces^ and not 
fbyfical only, 

§, 53, If nfcen understood how atheological and 
perilous it is to conceit, that either Faith or any 
thing of ours, fno though we were innocent,) is 
any proper efficient Caufe of God's own internal 
a£ts in our Juftification, and would underftand that 



all can be no more than diffofith receptiva r whkk 
Dr. Tvriffe calls taufa, diffofittva^ a meer receptive 
Aptitude, which is but the Qualification taufa m<*~ 
terialis^ that is, of the Subjedi to be juftified, it 
would presently lead them out of their vain Con- 
tention about Faith and Gotfiel-QbcdUnce herein, 
and fhew them bow each in feveral refpe&s and 
inftances qualifie Man for the beginning or continu- 
ance of JuftifcCation, or for Right to Glory. 

§. 5*4. It feemeth ftrange to fome, to find the 
whole Old Teftament, and all Chrill's Sermons, 
and all the other Apoftles ; inculcating inherent 
and pe rforme d Righteoufhefs, as that which Men 
mult be judged about, to Life or Death, and yet 
to find Paul 4b oft pleading againft Juftification 
by Works. But if we will take the Scripture to- 
gether, and rot by incoherent fcraps, the recon- 
ciliation is evident. 

c< Man is now finful , and condemned by the 
u firit Law, and is now under a Law of Grace, 
cc that freely giveth Pardon and Life through a 
cc Redeemer, to thofe that believingly accept the 
a Gift according to us nature, and confem. by Re- 
a pemance t? turn to God, and live a holy life in 
u jmceruy : Now God doth through all the Scri- 
cc pturetell us, That no one ^Bpafs with God for 
iC * j u fi t^an, or be feved 7 that vcill not do this y 
cc but (hail be condemned further for re fuilng it: 
4< And thus he that doth Righteoufnefs is righ- 
cl teous, and all lhall be judged according to their 
ct works, thus required by the Law of Grace. To 
deny this, is to deny the Icoper of the whole Scri- 
pture, and the Government or God. 

" But P&zi difputcd againfl thofe that taught 
" that the Gentiles mult be profelyted, and keep 
u the Law of Mofcs % or elle they could nor be 


anted jufl: men, nor be faved : And he pro- 
ved^ that the Gentiles being under the Law 
of Grace, may pafs with Gcd for pit men 
and be faved, if they C Bcliruingly accept the 
Gift of Grace according to its nature, tndconfent 
by Repentance to turn to Gcd, and live a hcly life 
in finceriy ] though they keep not the Jtwiih 
Law: Yea, further, that thcugh the Jewifh 
u Fathers were obliged to keep that Law, it was 
" as it belonged to the Covenant of Grace and 
of Faith, 2nd that before that Law was given 
" Abraham and others, were jufl: ard fayed by 
cc Faith, according to the univerfal Law of 
<c Grare j and that the Task of Works, accor- 
*' ding to the Mtfazc ll.of it felf make 

" no man jufl or favable, and confcquentiy no 
u other Task of Works, which would make the 
4t Reward to be not of Grace but: of Debt, and 
4C is oppofed to, or fep3ratcd from Redemption 
4 * and the free condonation and donation cfthe 
4i Covenant of Grace.] This is the plain drift 
of P. 

§. 5<;. Works of Evangelical gratitude, love, 
and obedie-ce, according to the Law of Grace, 
fubordina* e to, and fuppefing Redemption and the 
free gift of Pardon and Life to penitent believing 
Accepters, are thofe that Chrift and James and all 
the Scripture make neceflary to Salvation ; and 
our Confent and Covenant fo to obey is neceflary 
to our firfl: or initial JaJtificaricn } and our aHunt 
Obedience to the Continaance and Confirmation of it. 
But a Task of Works either ofMofes's Law cr 
any other fet againft Redemption and free Grace, 
or not as aforefaid, duly fubordinate to them, is 
difclaimed by Paul and all Christians, ss that which 


can conftitutc no man juft in God's account , nor 
fuch a one as hath right to Salvation. 

§. 55. I verily think, that were tkeir verbal 
and notional differences difcufled, and men undcr- 
ftood themielvcs and oae another, it will prove, 
that this aforefaid is the true meaning of almoft 
all Chriftrans, and that they agree in this fence, 
while they mifchievoufly contend about ill or un- 
explained words. 

-§.57- What I havefaid of J.uftification,is moftly 
true of Pardon of. Sin : Pardon is threefold, 
1. Constitutive, which is God's gmng us a Right to 
Immunity : This is God's aft by the pardoning Co- 
venant or Law of Grace. 2. By Sentence, judging 
us fo pardoned. 3. Executive,, taking off, or not 
inflicting Puniflimcnt deferved. 

§. 58. God's nonpunire, and nolle pHnire, not- 
fumpiing and his will not to punifh > arc true 
pardon when the Sinner, and Sin and Guilt are pre* 
existent.: But they are no pardon before j be- 
caufe not capable of fuch a relation 2x1Adenomin.it ion 
for want of a real wrminm. Therefore God's eter- 
nal -will to pardon, or his net punijhing man from 
Eternity before Man was Man y or pnftU, muft have 
no fuch name^ which after wxrd it m&y.havc with- 
out any change in God, but in man only. 

§. 59. Some worthy men fay, that Pardon is not 
J uft ideation, nor to be pardoned is to be righteous } 
and that Righteoufnefs is never taken in Scripture 
for Pardon, out many fcore or hundred times for 
our performance of our Duty according to the Law 
of Grace : Therefore they would have Righteouf- 
nefs and Pardon ftill diftinguifhed. 

§. 60. But I 'have plainly before proved, that 
Righteoufnefs hath mafly fms % and the word many 



y\ fences, and though Pardon bt not that Righteouf- 
nefs which confifteth in a Conformity to the Pre- 
cept, (and fo is not our unherfal Rigkteoufn*fs)yzi 
Pardon is (paffive) that Rightwufhtfs which confift- 
eth in our right to Immunity both as to thepunilh- 
ment of Lofs and Stmt ■: And far don with Adoption 
or the Gift of Life, is that Righteoufnefs which 
confifteth in our right to Lift eternal. 

§. 6 1. x. All mens fins are pardoned potentiaiy 
and conditionally in the Law of Grace. 2. No mens 
liijs are pardoned a&uaUy (as to a right of ImfunityJ 
till they are penitent B.licvers, or confenf to the 
Covenant of Grace (if at age.) 3. Thefe peni- 
tent Believers fins zx*f*rd;ned virtually before they 
are committed, fuppofing them but Sins of Infir- 
mity, but th ; s is properly no Pa dm, nor fo to be 
called, becaufe it is but the pofition of thofe things 
which will caufe Pardon hcreafcer. To be only 
virtual, is not to exift, but to be in caufis. 

But it is toogroQy inferred hence by fome,Th±t 
it is not God then that actually juftifieth 7 but Man 
that performeth the Condition : as if the Condi- 
tion which is but a fufpenfion cf the Donation, 
( and the performance a removal of the fufpending 
Caufe ) were the donative Efficient j and fo the 
Receiver were the Giver. As if he that opened the 
window were the Sun or efficient Caufe oftht Light ; 
or he that lets cfFa Crcfbow by removing the Stop, 
were the spring that tfiecUth the motion of thzArrovr. 

§. 62, Neither Pardon nor Juftification are per- 
fect before death : For there are fbrae corre'dw? Pu- 
mjhmems to be .yet born, fome Sins not fully de- 
ftroyed, fome Grace yet wanting, more Sins to be 
forgiven, more Conditions thereof to be perfor- 
med. The final and executive Pardon and JyiHfi- 
cation are only ptrfeft. CHAP- 

[ *5 6 

Of the Imputation of Righteoufnefs. 

§• i. TTH E great Contentions that have bcena- 
* bout this Point, tell us how needfull it is 
to diftinguifh between real and verbal Control 
verfics : The opening of the Doflrine of Redem- 
ption before, Chap. XL hath done moft that is need- 
ful to the folution of this Cafe, we are commonly 
agreed in thefe following Points. 

§. 2. i. That no man hath aRighteoufnefs of 
his own performance, by which he could be jufti- 
fied, were he to be judged by the Law of Inno- 
cencyj thatis, alt are Sinners, and deferve ever- 
lailing Death. 

§.3. 2. That Jefus the Mediator undertook to 
fulfil all the Law which God the Father gave 
him, even the Law of Nature, the Law of Mofts, * 
and that which was proper tehimfelf,*that there- 
by God's Wifdom, Goodnefs, Truth, Juftice, and 
Mercy, might be glorified, and the ends of God's 
Government be better attained, than by the De- 
ftru&ion of the (inful World - and all this, he per- 
formed in our Nature, and fiiffered for m in our 
fteady and wasthefecond Adam, or Root toBe- 

§. 4. 3. That for this, ZSthe meritorious Caufe^ 
God hath given him fewer ever all Flcjh, that he 
might give eternal Life to as many a* are drawn to him 
by the Father , «nd givsn him y Joh. 17. 2. He is 


[257 3 

Lord of all r and aU power in Heaven and Earth is 
eiven him^Mztth. 28. 19. 2nd he is made Head over 
all things to thi Church, Eph. 1.22, 23. Rom. 14. 9. 
And for thtfc his Merits^ a Covenant* or Law of 
Grace is made tofinful Man r by which all his fins 
arc freely pardoned, and Right to Impunity and 
Life is freely given him, if he will accept it* and 
penitently tmn to God. 

§. 5. 4, Whenever a man is ptftdoned and jftfii- 
fed ( or bath Right to Life J this Law of Grace 
doth it, as God's donative lnftrument : And whoever 
isfo pardoned and juftified, it is for and bythefe 
Merits of C knfv s Right cGiifnefs . 

§. 6. 5. ButChrift doth initially pardon and 
jufti^e none by this Covenant but penitent Believers^ 
and therefore hath made it our Duty to repent and 
believe, that we may be forgiven, and have right 
to life j as the Condition, without which his do- 
native and condonative Aft (hall be fufpended. 

§. 7. 6. God never judgeth falfely, but know-* 
eth all things to be what they are : And therefore 
he rcpnteth Chrift's meritorious F^ight eoufnefs and 
Sacrifice, to be the meritorious Caufe of all men* 
Judication, who are juftified (and of xhz condi- 
tional Far don of all the World, 2 Cor. 5. 18, 19, 
20. ) and as J efficient and effectual to the affigned 
ends, as our own perfonal right eon fnefs or fajfering 
would have teen, and more (though it be not io 
ours , as that of our own performance would 
have been, nor fo immediately give us our Right 
to Impunity and Life, but mediately by the Cove- 

§.8- 7. And as God reputeth Chrift's Righte- 
oufnefs to be the prime meritorious Canfe for which 
we are juftified by the Law of Grace, as aftre-faid, 

S fo 

fo he truly rcputeth our own Faith and Repentance 
< or Covenant- con fent ) to be our moral Qualification 
for the gift, and our Holinefs and Perfeverance to 
be our moral Qualification for ^?W /«// if cation and 
tilery 5 which Qualification being the matter of the 
Command of the Law of Grace, and the Condition 
of its Prmifc, isfofar our right eoufhefs indce* '^and 
oft fo called in the Scripture , as is afore- 

§. 9. 8. Therefore God may in this Sence be 
truly faid, both to impute rightcoufnefs to us, and 
to impute ChriJFs right ewfnefs to us, and to impute 
Mr Favth for ri£hteoufnefs to us in feveral re- 

§. 10. Thus much being commonly agreed on, 
ihould quiet the Minds of Divines that are not 
wife and righteous overmuch :, and it befeemeth us 
not to make our arbitrary Words and Notions a- 
bout the Do&rineofour Peace with God, to be 
Engines to break the Church"^ Peace, feeing Angels 
preached to us this great Truth i "I hat Chrift came 
into the World for GLORY to God. %n the higheft, 
and for PEACE on Earth, and for GOOD-WILL 
or LOVE from God to Man ( or mutual cowpU- 
tency^ ) and his Servants fhould not turn his Go- 
Ipelinto matter of ftri'e. 

§••■11. That which #e are yet difagreed about, 
is the Names ard Nouns following.* As, i.What 
is meant by thePhr-afeof \Jmpm wg°] n feveral 
Texts of Scripture •, as Rom. 4. 1 1 . Q I hat nghte- 
sufnefs might be imputed (or reckon d) to them 
alfff.^ Anf. The words feem to me to have no 
difficulty, but what men by wrangling put into 
them. To have righteonfoef tmpu td to them, is 
to be reputed, judged, or accounted as righteous 


C*59 1 

Men, and fo nfed ( the caufc being not in the Phrafc 
it Jilfj but fore-defcribed. ) 

§* 12. So what is meant, Rom. 4, 6. by imfut% r g 
right ceufnefs without works? Anf. Plainly, repu- 
ting,or judging a man righteous without the works 
which Paul there meaneth. 

§. j 3 . So what is meant by Net iw fating fin y 
Pfal. 32.2. 2 Cor. 5. 19. Rom. $. 13. Lev. 7. 18. 
1 Sam. 22. 15. 2<Sam. 19. 19. Rom. 4. 8 ? Anf 
Not- judging a man as a Sinner guilty ©f punife- 
ment, not charging his fin upon him in Judgment j 
which is as 2 Sam. 19. 19. &c becaufe he is not 
truly guilty ; or as Rom. 4, 8. &c. becaufe he is 

§.14. 2. What is meant by ^imfuting our 
Faith to m for right eoufnefs f ] But of that more 
purpofely anon. 

§. 15. 3. Whether imputing Chrift's righuouf- 
nefs to us, be a Scripture -phrafe ? Anf. Not that 
I can find. 

§. 16. 4. Whether it be a fit or lawful Phrafe, 
and whether in io great matters, departing from 
Scripture-phrafe, snd pretending it neceflfary fo 
to do, be not adding to God's Word, or the caufe 
of Corruptions and Divilions in the Church, and 
an intimation that we can fpeak better than the 
Holy Ghoft ? Arrf. God hath not tied us to ufe 
only Scripture-wds or Pht*fes\ and ufe may make 
them convenient and needful for frme times and 
places, which elfe are lefs fignificant or congruous. 
And in this cafe I fee not, but that the Phrafe is 
lawful well explained. But if any will pretend 
their own Phrafes to be more neceffary than they 
are, and will calumniate thofe as not Orthodox, 
who will not ufe them, or fubferibe to them, I 

S 2 can- 

[ s6o] 

cannot juftific fuch from the guilt of Preemption* 
and Injury to the Church, the Truth and Chrift? 
and the Love of Brethren. 

§. 17. 5. Whether they that affirm, That 
Chrifl's Righteoufkefs is imputed to us, or thofe 
that deny it are to be accounted Orthodox? 
Anf. Perhaps both, if they both hold the fame 
found Doftrine under various Phrafes : And per- 
haps neither, if by their various Phrafes, each mean 
fomething that is unfound. 

§. 18. They heinoully err, who deny Chrift's 
Righteoufnefs to be fo far imputed to us, as to be 
reputed the meritorious Caufe of our Pardon and 
Right to Life ( or our Justification ) performed 
by our Mediator, as the Sponfor of the New Cove- 
xMnt,(ior our Jakes, and his Sufferings in onrjtctd) 
as is afore-exprefTed. 

§. 19. And they heinoufly err, and fubvert the 
Gofpel, who fay, that Chrift's Rjghteoufnefs is 
fo imputed to us, as that God reputeth, or judg- 
eth Chrift to have been perfectly holy and righteous 
(or obedient) and to have fufiered, though not 
in the Natural, yet in the Legal or Civil Perfon 
of the Sinner or Believer, as their ftriSt and fro- 
per Repref enter-, and reputeth us to have been 
perfectly holy, righteous^ or obedient in Chrift, ai our 
Reprefenter, and fo to have our felves fulfilled all 
righteoufnefs in and by him, and in him to have fa- 
tisfied Juftice, and merited Eternal Life , and 
Chrift's Righteoufnefs to be ours in the fame fence 
of Propriety, as it was his own : For his Divine 
•Righteoufnefs is the Eflence of God, and his Hu- 
mane his H*k'us, A3s, and Relations, which are 
the Accidents of his own Perfon only as the Sub- 
and cannot be in another (as is after fhewed.) 

§. 20. 


§. 20. Though moft of us new leave this Do- 
ctrine to the AntmomUm or Libertines^ yet fo 
many Proteftants Formerly have feemed to own it 
by their unmeet Phrafes, in extreme oppofition 
to the Papifts, or at leaft to come too near it, as 
hath greatly fcandalized and hardened their Adver- 
faries, and injured the Reformed Churches. ( 

§. 21. The Perfon of our Mediator was neither 
in the Sence of the Law, or in God's account, 
properly the perfon of the Sinner j Chrift and 
we are diftinft pcrfons. 

§. 22. Had we been perfettly holy, innocent, and 
obedient in Cbnft, it would follow, i. That we 
arc juftified by the Law of Innocency, as having 
perfectly done all that it commanded us, which is 
not true : It is by the pardoning Law of Grace 
that we are juftified. 

§. 23 . 2. That we have no need of Pardon, nor 
of Chrift's Sufferings for our Pardon, nor of 
Prayer for Pardon, nor any means for it \ for he 
needeth no pardon that is perfectly innocent. 

§. 24. 3. Therefore 5 they aflert Contradictions 
when they fay, that we both perfe&ly obeyed by, 
and in Ghrift, and yet fufFered or fatisficd in, or 
by him for our Difobedience. 

§.25. 4. It would follow, that all penalties 
(even corre&ive ) laid en us by God, are in- 
juries, or no penalties, becaufe we are inno- 

§. itf: s- And that God's denying us any helps 
of his Spirit, and permitting the remnant of our 
Sin yet unhealed, and the weaknefs of our Graces, 
are an injurious denying us our Right. 

§. 27. 6. It would follow, that we have prefent 
Right to the prefent pofTcfliou of the whole Rc- 

S 3 ward. 

tfard, both Grace and Glory, and that our delay 
is our wrong ; becaufe he that is fuppofed to have 
done all that the Law maketh his Duty from his 
Birth till his Death, hath right to the Reward by 
the Law or Covenant. 

§• 28. 7. And it would follow, That no Duty 
could be required of us as a Condition of any Be- 
nefit . purchafed by Chrift, nor any fin charged 
onusfo far as to be indeed our fin, becaufe we 
are reputed perfectly holy and innocent. 

§. 29. Many other fuch Confequents I pafs by, 
and ether Arguments againft this Opinion, and 
the Confutation of the contrary, becaufe I have 
done it all elfewhere, efpecially in a peculiar Di- 
fcourfe on this * Subjeft, and 
* jtgainji Dr. Tul- in my Difputations of Juftifica- 

Iy\r Jccufatious. tion. 

§• 30. Chrift's own Righteoufnefs habitual or 
a&ual, is not ours, as it is his, in ftridt fence in 
it felf, as if we were the Proprietors, theSubje&s 
of his Habits, or the Agents of his Atts : For it 
is impoffible that the Accidents of fcveral Subje&s 

e §.31- And the form of Chrift's Righteoufnefs 
is therefore no more ours, than the Matter: For 
Righteoufnefs in Chrift, and Righteoufnefs in each 
Believer, are diftinfl; Rightcoufnefles. 

§. 32. Many Divines have pleaded, That Chrift's 
Righteoufnefs is the form of ours > and others, 
that it is the Matter ; and others, that it is the w- 
ritorittu C*ufc\ and have too much troubled the 
Church with Logical Notions. The meritorious 
Caufc it is undoubtedly j and they that fay, That 
ft cannot then be the mmml G*»fa muft con- 



fid«r, that we mean, that it is the Matter of the 
merit mens Caufc : And had we been innecent our 
felves<> would not our Irwecency have been both thfc 
Mater of our right eiHifmfs ( or Merit ) and the 
fneritoriousCfiufe of our rioht to Life. 

§.33. But this fuppofeth that the Matter of th^ 
Gofpel fubordinace righteoufhefs which confifteth 
in that Repentance, Faith, and Holincfs, which is 
required in us to our right to life, is to be found 
in our {elves, and not in Chrift for us. 

§♦ 34. But the form of Chrift's righteonfneft 
cannot be the form of ours, as is aforefaid ; but it 
is the form of that which is the meritorious Caufe 
of ours : But what need have we of theic Di« 
fputcs ? 

§. 35. The Not imfHtingoffin, is called alfb 
byfon^e, the Form of Juftifkatitn , and by others, 
that, and the Imitation of right eonfrtcfs conjun&j 
and by others, that, and God's accepting t# as righ- 
ted ; others call thefe the Matter of JnJUficatUn ; 
and thus mens Logxk, ill-managed, troubleth the 
Hearers, which 1 would not mention, had it not 
been neceflfary to difintangle them. 

§. 36. They that will difpute what is the form 
of JnftificAtion, muft firft confefs the Ambiguity of 
the Word, and tell us in which Scnce they take it : 
There are fo many things that are truly the form 
of J nfiific.it ion taken in many Sences, that with- 
out fuchdiftinguilhing to difpute of the form of 
Jttslificaciw, is worfe than to fay nothing ; JnftU 
fication taken a&ively, as the Act of the Jnfiifyer^ 
hath *ne form : Jufttficstion patfwely taks* for the 
ftate of thejujHfied, hath another form .- And each 
of thefe are fubdivided into many Ads, and many 
£feUs 7 which have each their form, The Aft of 
S 4 fwdon- 


f at Awing fin, is one thing, and therefore hath one 
form: The Aft • of making us inherently righte- 
ous, or performers of the Condition of the Co- 
venant of Grace hath another form : The Aft of 
tfieeming us righteous, hath another : The Aft of 
our Advocate defending our righteoufnefs, another. 
The Aft of Juftifying-evidence and Witnefs, an- 
other : The Aft of fentencing us righteous, an- 
other : And the Aft of executive Juftification, or 
rewarding and faving us, as righteous, another. 
And accordingly Juftificmon pajfwely taken, hath, 
as many forms %s> it fignifieth various Effefts. 
To be in a ftate of conditional Juftification, to be 
Performers of the Condition of the Law of Grace > to 
have j$u impunitatis, right to Impunity ( that is, to 
be pardoned ) and to have jus JDoni & Pramii reg- 
it* coeleftis, a right to Glory, as zgift, and as a rer- 
tPdtd (infevcralrefpcfts) are all Effefts of Gcd's 
forefaid Afts, and every one hath its proper Being 
and Form : And all this as given us •, for the Merits 
of Chrift's righteoufnefs, concur to make up our 
whole Justification as confiitutive and virtual in Law ', 
and each part hath its proper form : And then A- 
pologetick, Judiciary (or Sentential) and Execu- 
tive Jollification, are alfo various Species, which 
have their Forms. 

^. 36. Obj. Vniu* rei mica e& forma : Jufti- 
fication is me thing, and therefore hath but one form. 
jinf. 1 . One Justification is but one thing ' 9 but thef e 
arc divers things fo called, even in Scripture. When 
Chrift faith, By thy words thou jhalt be juftified, 
Mat. 1 2. and Paul faith, that we are juftified by 
the Spirit of God /i Cor.6. 10. and John faith, He 
that it juB, let him be justified ft ill, Rev. 22. they 
Kiave not all the fame Scnce, 2. Qn$ thing may 


have one firm, and yet its many farts have many 
forms: Our right eoafnefs taken for the wfe*/* of 
it, is one whole, whofe form is fignified by that 
general Name of our total right eoufnefs ; and yet 
its farts are all thofe before-mentioned , which 
yet each federally arc commonly called nghteonf- 
nefs. But of thefe things before. 

§. 37. Either then let us meddle as little as 
may be, with arbitrary Logical Notions in Theo- 
logy, or let us handle them exaftly, or elfe un- 
skilful ufing them in weighty matters, becomes a 
vain entangling of poor Sculs, and a childifh way 
of troubling the Church of God. The truth is, 
the forms of fuch A&s are belt known by their 
bare Names, if they be rightly named-, and by the 
Name many underftand what they are, where nei- 
ther they nor their Teachers can find other words 
by which to give you a fair Definition of them, 
which maketh me think of fome of our 
ower-mfe, and over-righteous Catechiners of the ig- 
norant, who ufe to turn plain, honed perfons 
from the Sacrament of Communion, if they can- 
not tell them what God is , what Holinefs u 9 
what Faith, Repentance, Salification , Jttfltjica- 
tion, Adoption is, by fome congruous Defcripti- 
on , when yet a wife Examination might fhew f 
that by the Name they understand the Matter 
it felf, though not by diftinft Notions ; and 
when the Catechizer too often would be found 
fhamefully to fcek, if he were put to anfwer 
his own Queftions by a true Definition ( as I 
have tried. ) 

§. 3S. To conclude, there are many (harp 
Volumes written pf late, which reproach Imputed 

Ri £ h- 

[ 266:1 

Righnoufnefs^ to which they fccm induced by fome 
mens nufexplication of it ; and by fuch unwarran- 
table words as fome Independents ufe of it, in 
their Savoy-ConfefTion : And they dresm that we 
4eny all peceffity of Perfonal fulfilling the Con- 
ditions of the Law of Grace, as a means of our 
Juftification and Salvation : But they utterly 
wrong the generality of Divines of my acquain- 
tance and notice : And I rnuft tell them, for the 
Independents, that they did not fubferibe or vote 
that Confeifion, as fome prefent affure me, but on- 
ly a very few men brought it in and read it, 
and none fpake againft it : And fome worthy per- 
sons of that Aflembly, upon conference, allure 
roe, That how ill fcevcr it be worded, they them- 
fclves did mean it as I and other Proteftsnts do, 
and did difclaim the obvious ill fence. 

And I add, Had thefe Contenders but taken up 
with the diftin&ion of Imputation which Mr. Brad* 
Jhaw giveth in the Pre ace to his reconciling Trattate 
*f ' jupificaticn^ it might have quieted them* by in- 
forming them, in what fence Chrift's Righteouf- 
nefs is imputed to us, and in whatnot : And they 
would have feen that which is not ours, as Pro- 
letaries of the thing ic felf in />, may be called 
Q'Arsy becaufe the EfcUs are ours, and it was gi- 
ven to Cody for the meriting of thofe Effefts 




How fsith juftifieth ; aud how it it imputed 
to tufor Righteoufmfs. 

§. i . A Bout thk a ^° tkttt are many needlefs 
±\ notional Controveriies among men that 
are agreed in the matter itfelf: As whether Faith 
juftifie as it receiveth Chrift in alt his mediatorial 
Office, as Prophet, Prieft and King ? Or only as in 
his Priefily Office ? And whether, as it receiveth 
him in all the parts cfthtt Office, or which f Or as 
it receiveth his Rtghteonfnefs only ? Whether 
Faith juftifie us as an Inurnment only ? Or as * 
Condition? Or as merit mom * Whether it juftifie 
us by being it felf imputed to us for Righteonf- 
nefs, or it be Chrift" s rightevufnefs only that is f© 
imputed ? Whether Faith alone juftifie us, or al- 
fo Repentance, Defire, Hope, or any other a£s 
of the Soul towards Chrift? Whether only Faith 
in Chrift juftifie, and not Faith in God the Father, 
or belief of the Promife, or of Heaven ? &c. Of 
all which briefly. 

§, 2. I. The word £ Receiving ] (Chrift, 
Grace, &c. ) hath two different fences neceffarily 
to be diftinguifhed : i. Phyfical Receiving is the 
ftrift fence, as pati and recipere are all one : Which 
is, x. To receive the meer A& of the Agent ter* 
min*rively j or, 2. To receive zfnrther effeft of that 

[ 268] 

2. Moral receiving is nothing but accepting of 
an offered thing by confent of Will : Acd fo to 
receive fuppofeth an offer, and is nothing but Con- 
fent to it. 

§. 3. TcJ receive Grace in the ftri<ft phyfical fence, 
is to be made graciow, or to be the Patients of 
the Operation of Grace if it be real: But to re- 
ceive relative Grace phyfically, is nothing but to be 
made fo reUted : So to receive Smilification is to 
be fanftified, and to receive JuftiScation or Par- 
don 7 is nothing but to be justified or pardo- 

§. 4. But how is. Chrift himfelf phyfically re- 
ceived ? That were eafily known, if you knew 
how he is phyfically given. But for a Gift oiChrift's 
■perfon by phyfical attingency, .we can fay nothing of 
it by Scripture-warrant, that I know of : It is no 
matter for our Difputes. But in two fences Chrift 
is faid to be given to us : 1. In Relation, as a King 
to his Subjects, or a Husband to his Wife : And fo 
we phyfically receive thofe Relations, as aforcfaid : 
That is, we are made related to him. 2. In the real 
Communication of the Spirit of Chrift to us : And 
{j we phyfically receive the Spirit in its operations -, 
ilnt is, He worketh them on us : This is the fir ft 
fence of Receiving. 

§. 4. But morally to receive Grace, cr Chrift, is 
but to confent that Grace and Chrift be ours : As 
a Sabjett, a Servant, a Wife % confent to their Relati- 
on i and this is our Faith, and not the former. 

§. %. Where note, That moral Receiving {ox Con- 
fent) is but a Means of phyfical Receiving (or Ha- 
ving) and a means which maketh not the thing 
ours any otherwife, than as the Wit of the Giver 
doth appoint, and give it its Power thereunto. 


L *°9J 

This moral receiving or accepting is but Mfpoftio 
recipient is ,2S to having or phyfical reception -, as there 
mull be in all things difpofitio materia ad formam 
recipwidam : He that will not accept the Gift, is 
accounted by the Giver moraUy unfit for it. 

§. 6. But this is not fpoken of every Gift ; but 
of fuch as are offered by the Giver on the Con- 
dition of thankful acceptance. For God giveth many 
things abfolntely ; as Chrift was given to be Man's 
Redeemer, and Chrift gave his Cwtnant, Goffd, 
and Jpoftles, and fendeth the word to many that 
before have it not, and giveth the firft Grace; 
which caufeth mens acceptance of the other, and 
all this not on the Condition of their acceptance : 
But the Gifts beftowed by the Baptifmal Covenant 
of Grace, are all given on Condition of our moral 
receiving or acceptance. 

§. 7. This receflary diitin&ion of receiving be- 
ing premifed, 1 anfwer the queftion as followcth : 
1 . To be juftified, is to be the phyfical Receiver of 
Goa?s jxfttfying *&, and nothing elfe in proper 

§.8. 2. No man phyikally receiveth Chrift '$ 
Perfon (as far as we can prove or underftand ) 
nor ChrifPs own Rijhteoufnefs in it felf; but we 
phyficaily receive our relation to Chrifi, and the Spirits 
operations, and our Right to Impunity and Life. 

§.9. 3. We at once fenf* phyfico, receive our 
relation to Chrift as our Head, that is, our redeeming 
Owner, Ruler and Saviour, or Prophet, as Pried and 
King ; and not to one firft, and to another 

§. 10. 4. Inthefame inftant of time that we 
receive our relation to Chrift, .as aforcf aid, we re- 
ceive with him, as his Grace, by the fame dmative 


C 2703 

act of the Covenant, our Right to Immunity and 
JLtfe, even to the compiacential fpecial Love of 
the Father, and the Communion of the Holy Ghoft, 
and fo are juftified. 

§•11. 5. Our moral receiving ofChrift himfelf 
as our Saviour, is the antecedent Condition of our 
forefsid phyfical reception or participation, being 
appointed by God to that ule or office. 

§. 12. 6. This moral receiving is that Faith 
which I before at large defcribed, and is fometime 
called Believing, and fometime Trailing, becaufe it " 
is in whole a believing fiducial Confent. 

§.13. 7. This Belief and Content or Acce- 
ptance, hath eflentially for its object nil that is 
ejfential to Christ, as our Saviour *, his Natures, 
Pcrfon, his Humiliation, Obedience, his Sacrifice 
and Refurrertion, his Interceffion, Dominion, 
Judgment, together with his Do&rinc, Promifes, 
and Grace \ befides God himfelf and the Heaven- 
ly Glory : And it is not true Faith that hath not 
all this, at leaft confufedly and in fome de- 

§. 14. 8. They that fay, Frith jufiifycth as it 
rcccivethChrifPs Righteoufnefs, and not as it recei- 
Tpth Ckritt himfelf in relation, or at leaft not as 
Treacher, Lord, fntercejjor, &c. do draw men into 
deceit by a Phrafe which intimateth a falfefup- 
pofition, or two, viz.. 1. It is falfc that Faith jh- 
Siifieth us, if they mean efficiently ; as (hall be 
(hewed anon. But it is true, (though fome de- 
ny it) that Faith jaftifyeth constitutive ly y fo far as 
it is it folf OUf ptrfonal inherent Righteoufnefs, (of 
which after ) : But this they mean not : Nor is 
Faith in Chrifi's righttoufnefs any more our inhe- 
rent Rigbteoufnefs than Faitfi in his Promifes, 


[ 271 ] 

his Intereeflion or his Government, or in God the 
Father. 2. It is falfe, that Faith u Frith doth 
juftifie ^ either as it is Faith in this or that or 
the other part of the Office of (Thrift ; for then 
we fliould be juftified , as they call it, by that 
r* credere ^ and then if God had not made Faith 
the Condition of Juftification, yet qua talis it would 
have juftified. 

$. 15. 9. But the Cafe is very plain : There is 
con fidcrable in Faith, u&s Nature, and ttat is 
only its mater id Aptitude to its Office : 2. The 
Office it felfi and that is to be the Cendit ion z^oin- 
ted by God the Doner, of our Imereft in his 
Gifts (and foof Juftification). Now it juftifieth 
not efficiently at all fuslefs you take Juflincation for 
making us Holy). But it is ths Condition of Jufti- 
fication, and fo we are faid to be juftified by it 
as by a Condition , but it is not a Condition, qua, 
fides, or as it receiveth Chrift's Righ teonfnefs, but 
as it is made by Gcd a Condition in his Covenant. 
But ¥ stithy as Faith in Chnft, is the Matter -of this 
Condition : Or its Aptitude to its Office is in Faith 
qua talis ; And no other had been fo fit : But 
then it is not orly our belief or acceptance of 
Chrift's Righteoufnefs rhat is this Aptitude : No- 
thing but entire F,:vh in its efltntids is this matter 
and azt'vnde, 2nd the formal reafon of its place or 
office ab&ut our Juftincat' n, is its being the Con- 
dition appointed thereto in the IiHruraent of Do- 

§. 16. 10. Were the Queftion about fhyfical 
Receiving, it were true* that a man is juftified qua- 
tenuis z%\\treteiveth purification., and adopted as 
he receiveth Adoption, and finftified as he receiveth 
S^oftificatioa, and glorified as he receiveth Glorifi- 

[ 272 ] 

cation, and net fomething elfe j as he is rich as ht 
receiveth Riches, and honourable as he receiveth 
Honour, &c . But moral acceptance of one thing is 
oft made the Condition of our having another thing ; 
and here our acceptance of -whole Chrifi is oxix undi- 
vided Condition-title to him 2nd his Gifts. We are 
do more juftified for or t>y confenting to be jufli-* 
fied, than for or by confenting to be fandified,and 
to learn of Chrifi, and obey him. 

§. 17. Yea more i men ufe to put that into the 
Condition of fomething which the Perfon fain 
would have? which he is more backward to, and 
would not elfe do or have. A Phyfician ufeth 
not to fay, Thou pah he cured if thou cenfent to be 
cured } but if thou confent to take my Aledicines and 
follow my Prefcript. A Father will not lay to the 
Child, I will give thee this Apple if thou wilt 
have it :, but if 'thou wilt thank me for it, and 
do thy Duty : So if we might make a difference 
'in the rcafon of the thing, we fhould fay,^That 
God faith not oilly, Thou {halt have Chrifi* s righ~ 
tcoufnefsy or j unification by it, if thou nilt h*ve it \ 
no more than C Thou (halt be faved from Hell if 
thou wilt ] (and who would not be forgiven ?) 
But f thou pah have Chrifi and Lifc Pardon, Grace 
and Glory*, if thou wilt thankfully take them together 
as they are, or wilt be taught and ruled by Chrifi;,- 
and renounce the World, the Flefh, and the Devil, 
and take God and Glory for thy all. 3 

g. 18. ChrifPs own righteoufnefs being not effen- 
thUy given to us in it f elf \ but given for us \ and to 
us in the £jfcffs 7 to fay, That the receiving of that 
which is not given, is the only justifying att of Faith y 
is to fay, That we are not juftified by Faith at all. 
But if they meant the Efftfts ofChriffs Right eon fa fa 


then it is but to fay, Wcarcjuftified by no a£t of 
Faith y but by con [rating to be juftified by Chrift's Me~ 
tits : Which is not true. 

§. i p. They contradict themfelves that make 
Chrift's Prieftly Office the only ObjeB of Juftifying 
Faith, and yet make his whole Righteoufnefs and 
Merit that Objett : For whoknoweth not, that all 
Chrift's Righteoufnefs was not performed by him 
only as Pneft. 

§. 20. And Chrift's Priefthood hath many other 
aftions belonging to it, befides his Merits offered 
for us : Even his prefent Intercejfion : Which muffc 
be excluded, if Chrift's Righteoufnefs here, as un- 
der the Law, were the only Objeft of this Faith. 

, §. 21. II. The fecond Queftion I had never 
troubled the World about fo much as 1 have done, 
had I not found too many Proteftants fcandalize 
the Papifts, by laying too much on the Nation 
QilnfhrHmtntality, ill explained. But the judicious 
arc here all in fence of the fame mind- 
s' 22. For by an Inftrnment they mean not, 
i . an inftrumcntal efficient Caufe of Juftification : 
2. Nor of making Chrift's Righteoufnefs ours : 
For ive giye it not to our felves. 3. But they 
take the word Inurnment mechanically or lefs ac- 
curately, and tell us, that they mean 
a receiving Instruments a Boy * catch- * # Dr. KendaL 
eth a Ball in his Hat : But fo as that it 
is a moral Instrument, that is, both materially a mo- 
ral act, and the Instrument of a moral not fhyfU 
cal reception. 

§. 23 . But when they have all done, they do but 
entangle and trouble themfelves and others with 
an unapt Logical notion : For (as it is fo eafie to 

T coifuw 

[274 3 
confute the grofs Conceit, That Faith is an inftru- 
tnental efficient Cm[z ( either God's or Man's ) of 
our J uftification > ( which I have done fo oft, that 
I will here pretermit it, fo ) this Notion of a 
Fujfive Infirument is unapt, becaufe, i. The Aft 
of Jffent is cflential to this juftifying Faith, as 
well as Acceptance^ and fo is TruSt, which yet 
are no more Inftrumentd in reception, than many 
other Arts, even Love, Dcfire, Hope.- 2. Becaufe 
cuxCmfent to other things, as well as to bejufti- 
fed, and our Faith in God the Father , arc as 
truly the Condition of our Justification, as our 
Cwfent to be jnftifted. 3 .And becaufe this Meta- 
phorical ufe of the Word Instrument, leader h peo- 
ple to dream of proper Inftrumentality, and mif- 
leadeth them from the apter Notions : ' The Cc- 
v^nant-Donation is the juftifying Inftrument. 

§♦ 24. I conclude therefore fummarily, 1. Faith,, 
as Faith in the Father, Son, and Holy Ghefi, in the 
Senee of the Bafti final Covenant, is the aft Mat- 
ter to be the Condition of our Justification by the 
Gift of that Covenant. 

2. If JuftiHcation be taken for making us ju& 
Ftrfermers of the Conditions of the Covenant of 
Grace \ fo Faith juftifLth us , 1 . Conflitutively ini- 
tially, as it is the beginning of that Righteoufnefs 
it felf. 2. And by a moral efficiency, asitisacaufe 
of Love and Obedience. 

3. If Juftification be taken for the Gift, or right 
t* Impunity and Life in and with Chrifi, fb Faith 
ii k the Condition of it, and no ether wife juftifi- 

: 4. But if any will call this by the name of a 
Subment, with the Ancisats, meaning but that it 
mariteth jufti&sgicm, as a Child meriteth apiece 


[275 3 

of Gold from his Father, by patting off his Hat, 
and faying, I thank you, and humbly taking it, 
Inftead of fcornful or negledtful refilling it, I 
will not quarrel with any fuch. 

§.25. But remember, that as wife men feldoni 
make any thing a Condition of a gift* which hath 
no worth in it to pleafi them \ fo God f$w y and 
put fuch a worth or aptitude in Faith, cr elf© he 
had not fo much as commanded it. 

§• 26. But yet a Condition fimply as fuch, fig- 
nifieth neither Merit nor Caufaluy at all } but on- 
ly the terms on which the gift Jhall be fufpended^ till 
they be performed: And fo the performance of a 
Condition as fitch, is no efficient of the gift\ but a 
removing of the fufpending impediment. 

§. 27. Therefore Dr. Twtffe oft calleth Faith 
Caufivn difyofitivam juftificationis, which belongeth 
not to the efficient, hnt material or recipient Gaufc j 
and the true £,***/ Notion of its next Intercft in 
our Juftification, is its being £ Conditio praftita^ 
and the true Logical Notion is to be C Vifpofitio 
vrrnlis materia, five fubjecli recipient it ] call it Cau- 
fan vel Conditionem di[pofitiva,n , as you pleafe : 
And 1 think this Queftioif needs no more. 

§. 28. III. As to the third Queftion, the truth 
is obvious, That Chrifvs righteonfmfs is imputed^ 
and yet Faith is imputed to us for right eon fntfs in 
feveral Sences ; that is, each is reputed to be to 
us what indeed it is. Two things make up the 
Sence of F*ittis being imputed to hs for right eoufnef? : 
1 . Faith is really the Condition of the Covenant of 
Grace, which whofo performeth, he is righteons 
again ft the Charge of Non-performance of that Con- 
dition j and it is reputed our fuborditutt, Ei 

T a id 

[a 7 f] 

tal,ferfonal,Yighteohfnefs : 2. And fuppofing Chrift's 
Merits and our Redemption by him, this Goipel- 
righteoufnefs is all that is required of us on onr 
farts, inftead of all that pcrfedt Obedience which 
the Law of Innoeency required. So that our Faith 
( taken in the Scripture-fence ) is our real rights 
cttfnefs related to the Condition of the New Co- 
venant, and inftead of a more perfect right eoufnefs 
of Innoeency -, forafmuch as after Chrift's Redem- 
ption , is required to be performed by our 

§• 29. This, no Chriftians that are fober, can 
deny, as to the thing; And as to the Name, it is 
plain to the impartial that willfee that Paul,Kom. 
4. 22, 23, 24. and Jam. 2. 23. by Frith means 
Faith it felf indeed, and not only Chriftxhe Ob- 
ject of Faith, as fome affirm, with too great Scan- 
dal: read over the Texts, and try what Sence it 
will be, if you put [Christ] inftead of [Faith.] 

§. 30. Obj. But it is not Faith in, and of it 
felf that's meant, but as connoting the Object. Anf 
The latter claufe is true : it is Faith, as connoting 
the Object j Chrift: But the former is a contradi- 
ction. For Faith it felf effemially connoteth the 
ObjiSt : If you fpeak not of Faith in genert ( for 
it is not any kind of Faith that is our righteouf- 
nefs ) but of the ChrtSiian, or New Covenant Faith 
in fpecie, who knoweth not that the Objed 
fpecifieth it ? And therefore if it be Christian 
faith, as connoting the Objeft, it is Christian faith 
as Chriftian faith. 

§. 31. But will any fober Chriftian deny, that 
Cltrift is our righteonfnefs in one fence, and Faith 
fubordinateiy in another, and that both are accord- 
ingly imputed to^s ? How fain would fome men 


differ, if they could, or feera to do it, when they 
do not ? 

§.32. IV. As to the fourth Queftion, I an- 
fwer, 1. We are ail agreed, That God will not 
pardon, juftifie>or fave any,without both Faith and 
Repentance, and Defire, as neceflary moral Qualifi- 
cations of theReceiver : And this fhall ferve turn, 
if any like not the term £ Condition ] and be wil- 
ling to be quiet. 

§.33, 2* Faith in a narrow Sence, as figni- 
fying meer Ajfent , is diftinft from Repentance, 
but Faith in that fence as is meant in Bap- 
tifm, and hath the Promife of Juftification and 
Life, is more the fame with Repentance than ma- 
ny perceive. For Repentance is the change of the 
mind from evil to good ? And the Good necefltry 
to our Salvation, is a fiducial practical Confent to 
the Covenant of Grace, or a practical Faith in God 
the Father j Son, and Holy GhoB : And to turn to 
this, is to repent and be converted -, even to turn 
from the contrary Ads and Obje&s to this fidu- 
cial confenting Belief in God the Father, Son , 
and Spirit *, and what clfe is repenting, but thi* 
Change ? 

§• 34- 3- It was never Panics meaning, under 
the name of Works, to exclude Repentance, and 
all A&s of Faith, fave one, and Thankfulnefs, and 
Defire, and Hope, and Prayer, &c. while they 
keep their place in fubordination to Chrift: They 
do but confound facred Do&rines and mens minds, ' 
that fo imagine. 

§. 35- And the fame Spirit that faith, He that 

kdieveth, /hall be f*ytd 7 faith alfo, He tb*t eafcth 

T 3 * in 

[2 7 n 

on the Name of the Lord, Jhall hefaved, Rom. io* 
13- And n?# are faved by Hope , Horn. 
A& 12. a i. 8. 24. and we arc faved by the wafh- 
ing $f regeneration, and renewing of the 
Holy Ghoft, Tit. 3. 5,6. and by believing the Ar- 
ticles of the Creed, 1 Cor. 15.2. and bleffed are 
they that keep his Commandment s that. they may have 
right to the Tree of Life ( that right is our righ- 
teoafnefs ) and may entering &c. Rev. 22. 14. By 
taking heed to himfelf and to Doctrine, Timothy was 
to fave himfelf and his Hearers, 1 Tim. 4. 16. Ma- 
Sly fuch Texts I have elfewhere cited, which are 
all true. 

§• 36. V. As to the fifth Queftion, it is an- 
fwercd before in the Defcription of Faith: As the 
father, Son, and Holy Spivit,2x^one God, fo Faith 
in them is, one Faith-, and no man can truly be- 
lieve in Chrift, that believeth not in the Father ; 
our belief in God, as God, and Love to him, is 
that Salvation to which Chrift is to bring us : 
And the Confent to ufe the remedy, includeth the 
content to have Health or to be faved : And our Be- 
lief in God, as our Redeemer, even Chrift, is the 
chief part of our mediate Faith : In a word ; all 
that Belief which is neceflary to the Baptized, is 
neceflary to our Jnfiification : But that is our Be- 
lief in Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft ( in the mea- 
fure that they arc revealed. ) 




Of JffurAMe of our Justification, and 
of Hope. 

§. x. A Sfcrance of Perfeverancc and SAlvation-, 
jljL is not hereto befpoken of, but only of 
our prefent Juftificntion: And they are diftinft 
Queftions. r. What AfTtirance is de fir able. 2. What 
AfTu ranee is attainable. 3. What Aflurance we 
actually have, and who have it. 4. What is the 
nature m& grounds of this Aflurance. 

§.2. I. Some pleaded fo much for the ufeful- 
nefs of Uncertainty and Doubting, as if it were the 
fafeft condition to keep us humble and watchful, 
as excited Luther and o:her Reformers to take them 
for utter Enemies to Chriftian Comfort. And cer- 
tainly AffUrancc is a moft deferable thing j it kindleth 
in us the love of God ^ it maketh Duty facet; it 
maketh Sufferings eafie, and Death lefs terrible, and 
Heaven more defired, and confequently careth an 
earthly Mind, and leadeth man to z heavenly Con* 
vcrfxtion, and putteth Life into all his Endeavours : 
Whereas a man that is ftill utterly in dzubt of his 
ftate of Salvation, and right to Life, will be loath 
to. die, and therefore love this prefent World, and 
have lefs thankful and loving Thoughts of God 
and his Redeemer, and fo all fin will have advan- 
tage, and Holinefi a great impediment. An In- 
fidel will confefs, that fuch Ajfuranve is exceeding 

T 4 . S. 3. 

$. 3 c II. And no doubt but a Gomfor table de- 
gree of Aflurance is attainable , or clfc ©od would 
never have (o fully differenced the Righteous and 
the Wicked, and commanded all to examine and 
try themfelvcs, and to make fure : ' But this I have 
often elfe where proved- 

§. 4. III. But all true Believers have not Af- 
furance of their Juftification, becaufe they are not 
certain that their Faith is fuch as hath the promife 
of Justification : He that believeth perceiveth that 
he believeth, but yet may be uncertain that his 
faith is fo finccre, as no unjuftified man can 

§. 5. Their Juftification is real, or true, or 
certain in it felf ; but the Evidence of it may be 
dark, and their perception .of the Evidence defe- 
ctive ; from whence it is to them uncertain ; that 
is, not known with that full fatisfaftion of mind, 
*vhich we call Aflurance. 

§.5. Yea, Experience telleth us, That it is 
Jbut a fmatt part of the moft religion* ChrifHans^ 
"who will fay themfelves. That they are certain of 
their Juftification ^ andofthofe few that are for- 
warded to fayfo^ all have it not* 

§. 7. Therefore justifying Faith is not jiff ur once 
that we an juftified \ other wife all fhould havcaf- 
furance that have Faith ; and juftifying Faith in 
order of Nature, goeth before JuftificAtion^ but 
jdjfurance that we are juftified, followeth it ; we 
cannot be ajptred that we are juftified, but by be- 
ing affuredthat we believe: But it 7 s abfurd to fay, 
{lamafluredl am juftified, becaufe I am aflared 
that I am juftified.] But this is only: againft the 

§. 8. 


§. 8. No man hath perfect Affurancc , that is 
the higheft degree in this Life: For if all our Graces 
be imperfett, our AlTurance muft needs be imper- 

§. 9. IV. This JJfuranee then is. not properly 
Divific Faith^ or a Belief of Goa>s Word } but it is 
a clear and fatisfying perception of our ownjufti- 
fication, becaufe we are clearly fatisned, that 
GodPs Promtfes are trne 9 and that we are trnt Be- 

§. 10. This Certainty is not by an immediate 
Word or K eveUtion of the Spirit in us } but yet the 
Spirit is all thefe ways the caufe of it in the Faith- 
ful. 1. The Spirit working us to God's Image 
and Will, is our affuring-Evtdencc^ or the Minor in 
that Argument, whofe Conclufion we are allured 
of (as the Spirit in the Word is the Major.*) 2. The 
Spirit in Believers helpeth them to perceive his 
own Works in them, and know their Evidence: 
3. And alfo^to rejoyce in that perception. This*is 
the Witnefsofthe Spirit which we mean, and not 
immediate Revelation. 

$.11. Though Hope be fometimes about things 
certain, yet it is often alfo about that which we 
are not certain of: And more have true Hopes of 
Salvation^ than have Ajfurance of it, or of their 
Title to it : For Hope may be exercifed upon pro- 
babilities, and moft ufually it is fo. 

§.12. Strong Probability^ with little reafon of 
donbting, may caufe fuch ftrong Hopes as may caufe 
us to live and die with comfort: If donbting be 
fmall^ and Hope be great \ the Peace and Joy will be 
greater than the fear and trouble. 

§• 13- 

. [282] 

§. 13- BeHarmin y s Moral Certainty is more than 
molt Chriftians attain to, and his, and other 
mens Conceflion thereof tell us, That in this Point 
our difference is lefs than thofe have thought, who 
have faid it was fufficient Canfe of onr Separation 
from Rome; / 

§.14. While we arc certain that this World \% 
fading Fanity^ and that there is no hope cf Feliciy on 
Eartb y and that therefore Gcdiinefs can coft us 
the lofs of nothing but Vanity^ a Faith jhort of 
Certainty., and mixt with doubting^ about the very 
Truth of the Promt fe it fclf y and Life Eternal ^may- 
engage a man iavingly in a holy Life , and the 
forfaking of all for the hopes of Glory : Andfuch 
doubting, even of the Life to come, or of the Go- 
fpel, as keepeth not men from tmfting to it for 
their Felicity, and feeking it above all, and for- 
faking all for it, will keep no man from Salvati- 
on, though it be his fin, and the caufe of other 

* Much more may this be done when men doubt 
not of God's Word, or the State of Glory, but 
only of their own Sincerity, Justification and Sal- 


Of good Works and Merit, *nd trvjting to &nf 
thing of our awn. 

§. i:TYEre are feveral Controverfies that 
jLJL trouble our Peace, but few of them 

that are {0 great as they are commonly imagined: t 


As, i.What are good Works {which indeed is 
' of great weight, aad the chief in which we really 
differ about Works. ) 2. Whether they are ne- 
cefiaryto Juflincation or Salvation. 3. Whether 
they are merkorious or rewardable. 4. What 
place they have, and what is their ufe and necef- 
fity. 5. Whether we may trail to them. 

§. 2. I. It is one of the Devil's chief Policies 
in the World, to call out Chrifc's fnterefl by i:s 
Counterfeits : To expugn true Wifdoin by counter- 
feit Wifdom, and true Faith «by counterfeit Faith, 
and true Zeal and Piety by counterfeit Zeal and 
Piety, and true Unity, and Concord, and Peace, 
by their Counterfeits, and true Worfhip, Miniflry , 
Difcipline, by their Counterfeits ; and true Com- 
fort by counterfeit Comfort ? and fo alio it is by 
counterfeit good Works, that good Works are oft caff: 

§. 3. The meafure of all created Goodnefs, is 
the Will of the Creator, who is the prime, eflen- 
tial Good ; and no Work of Man is morally good, 
but what is made fo by the Hill of God ; that is, 
1. Efficiently, by his operative Will : 2. DireZtive- 
ly, by his commanding Willi And, $. Finally and 
Objectively, by his fie a fed, or fulfiBed WiU. Man's 
Wit, Will, cr bittreFl cannot- ferve to make any 
a&ion morally good. 

L §. 4. He that intendcth God's Honour, and the 
f leafing of his Will, and the good of his own or o- 

•thers Souls, or the fafety of Religion , or the 

1 Churchy or State, and ujeth means hereto, not com- 
manded, or any way appointed him of God (much 

vonore if direttly forbidden ) doth not a Work that 
is truly good; but only fecundum quid. 



§. 5. Gould we be fure that fuch a Work would 1 
fave SohIs, or fave Chnrch, or State , or our Neigh- 
bours lives, it would not make it morally a good 
Work? but only make the EffeB to be phy fa ally good 
to others that are benefited by it. 

§. 6. Therefore to bmld Chur ches, or Hofpitals, 
to feed and cloath the Poor, to fave Mens Live*, 
to preach the Gofpel r are all fuch as finally do a 
phyfical good, and they are the matter of moral good - 7 
but forma denominat : Thofe Actions are- not mo- 
rally good, unlefs, 1. done in obedience to God-s 
commanding, or %#Ung Will: 2. And finally to 
pit of e his Will. 

§, 7. Thofe Prieits therefore that fet carnal, 
ungodly Sinners (Fornicators, Murderers, Glut- 
tons, Drunkards, Lyers, Perjured, &c ) on ex- 
piating their Sins by good Works, without teach- 
ing and perfwading them to that internal repentance, 
and Converfion of their Wills, and holy devotednefs t& 
God, by which their Works muft have a right Prin- 
ciple, End, and Form, do but delude men, and 
cheat them by flattery into perdition. 

§• 8. Much more pernicious is it, to take Sin, 
Folly, and Snperftition, for good Works, and look to 
be faved by that which deferveth Damnation, and 
to expiate fin by fin j fuch are the Works of 
Perfccutors that think they ferve God by unjuft kil- 
ling, or imprifoning his Servants, or caufelcfs fi- 
lencing his faithful Minifters ; fuch were the Wars 
of the CroifadSj againft the Waldenfes and Albi- 
genfes -, and fuch are the Works of the Inquifition, 
and their perfecuting Executioners j fuch are Re- f 
bellions that have fair Pretences 1 , as were thofe a- 
gainfl the German Emperors, Frederick*) Jtienry, 
&c. and of many of fuch Agents oft againft the 


Kings of England; fuch hath been the Zealous 
killing of Kings, and burning of honeft definable 
Diflentersj and fuch is the alienating Mens EFlAtes 
from better Vfes , to maintain a fupernumerous 
finful, vicious, idle Monaftery, or their prelatical 
needlefs Pomp and Pride 5 or to buy Pardons or 
Mafles for departed Sonls \ or to build ufclefs Strx- 
ttures to the Honour of fome Saint or Angel ^ or to 
fet up ufelcfsFormalities and Shadows,as Candle^by 
day-light, and abundance fuch : And fuch are long 
Pilgrimages to the Shrines of fuch as the Pope hath 
Canonized, andtoviflt Relicks, and the carrying 
about of Relicks, with an ungrounded carnal con- 
fidence in them •, with many fuch like. 

§. 9. So wofully hath the Papal Party, and not 
they only, but in too great a meafure, tht Greeks r 
Mofcevites, Armenians y Syrians, Coptics^ Abaf- 
finesj and moft of the Churches corrupted the Chri- 
ftian Religion by their ufelefs or feducing Fop- 
peries called good Works, that they have among 
them defiled its Purity, rejedted its Primitive Sim- 
plicity, obfeured and diflionourcd its Glory, and 
made it feem > contemptible to Mahometans and 
Heathens, and madeitiefs fit to deftroy fin, and 
* fruftrate Satan, and to pleafe God, and to fanfti- 
fie and fave mens Souls. 

§. 10. II. Were all Setts and Parties of Chri- 
ftians, well agreed what Works are truly goed^ ic 
• would beafhameto us, fhould vte not agree in 
the main how fur they are neceffary, when the Cafe 
is fo plain throughout the Scripture ; I think we 
arc commonly agreed as followeth. 


«. 11. 


§. if. i. Perfect Obedience is not of abfolute 
neceffity to Salvation^becaufc we are under a Co- 
venant that hath eafier terms. 

§. 12. 2. The Works of the Mofaical Jevvifli 
Law, are neither neceflary necejjitate pracepti vel 
mean, that Law not binding us as fuch. 

§.13. 3. Obedience to Mans Laws is not ne- 
ceflary, when the matter is forbidden us by God's 
Laws , or when they are Laws without pow- 
er ;, that is , fuch as men have no Authority to 
make. * 

§. 14., 4. No Works of fpecial Grace are ante- 
cedently neceflary to our reception of that Grace, 
or of its neceflary means. 

§. 15. 5. No external zfts of fincere Obedience, 
diftinft from internal Faith, and Repentance, and 
Confent, are neceflary before to our firft Juftifi- 
cation \ that is, to our right to Impunity and life 
in Chrifl. 

§• i<5. 6. Even internal Obedience to Chrifi as 
Chrifi, diftin A from our Obedience to God as God, 
and our Subjection to Chrifl, (or Confent to be 
his Subjects, and obey him ) is not before neceflary 
to our part in Chrift> cr our Union, orjuftifica- 
tion, as in its firft ftate or beginning. 

§.17. 7. Therefore if we (hould fuppofe 
that a Man fhould die immediately upon his firft 
internal Faith and Confent to the Covenant, before 
he had time to do one ACt internal or external 
of formal Obedience to Chrifi , as Chrifl , that 
Man would be faved. But the Suppofition is fo 
utterly improbable, that it is not to be put as a 
matter of Difpute : The Thief on the Crofs per- 
formed fomc Obedience, 

§ 1*. 

08 7 3 

§. 1 8. 8. No Works of Man's are neccflary 
to profit God, or can add to his Perfc&ion or 
[Felicity : He needeth not us nor any of our 

§.19. 9. No Works of oars are ik cellar y to 
make up any defe&sia thfc Merits of Chrift,or 
to any ufe which is proper to Chrift or his Me- 
rits or efficacious Grace- 

§. 20. 10. No frefaraury Werkj of Man's 
(I think) are ab feint ely before necefiary to God's 
effe&ual converting of him, (unlefs you will call 
>the A&s of Nature, by which he is fit to hear 
and think, preparatory Works unfitly): For God 
can grJt his Grace to unprepared Souls. 

§. 21. On the affirmative alfo we are agreed, 
1. That all Mankind are under God's Government 
by fome Law, and owe Him Gbtdicnce to that 

§.22. 2. That it is only Difobediencc that 
God puniflieth according to the Penal part of 
that Law which men live under. 

§.23. 3. That it is only Obedience which 
God rewardeth, according to the rewarding or 
promiflbry part of the Law. that men arc un- 

§.24. 4. That the Law of Grace (and not 
only that of Innocency ) hath its Commands of 
Obedience, and Promifes of Reward. 

§.25. 5. That men muft believe that there 

is a Gcd before they can believe that Chrift is 

the Anointed of God and the Mediator between 

; God and man ; and therefore muft firft believe 

God's Soveraign Government. 

§. 26. 

[ 288 J 

§. 26 '. 6. God commandeth men to believe ia j 
thrift, (and fo makcth it their Duty) and to 
take him for their Lord and Saviour by Faith. 

§. 27. 7. Men ought thus to believe in Chrift 
and accept him, in obedience to this Command of 
Cody believing that it is his wilt. 

§. 28. 8. Therefore there is fame fort ofi?<r- \ 
lief in God, and Obedience to God, which is in order 
before our Faith in Chrift : And Faith in Christ as 
it is voluntary and free, is an Ad of fuCh Obedi- 
ence to God. 

§. 29. 9. Yet is it the antecedent Teaching of 
Chrift ( by Nature, by the Word, or Spirit, or all) 
by which we now come to know God to be God, 
and that he is to be believed and obeyed. There- 
fore Chrift is mens Teacher, and thereby bringeth 
them to believe firft in God, before he is known to be 
their Teacher, and believed on himfclf. As the Sun- 
beams before its riling -give fome Light to the* 

§. 30, ift God hath commanded men that 
hear not of Chrift, the ufeof fome means, which 
Mercy hath (through Chrift) afforded them, which 
have a tendency to their Salvation, and fhould be 
ufed to that end. And his bare Command to ufe 
fuch means ( much more as feconded with a- 
bundance of Mercies) tell us, that he bids not men 
ufe them in vain, or without any hope of good 
fuccefs c of which before ). 

§.31. 1 1 . He that hearetb of Chrift and falie- 
vcth not, or believeth nneffe£tttafly, and is not a con- 
verted found Believer, is under God's Command 
to ufe certain means allowed him, to procure 
Faith and true Converfion, and that not without all 
hope of good fuccefs. 


[s*9 3 . 

32. 12. It is God's ordinary way to givS 
his firft pJecUl converting Crace y to prediffofcd St*b- 
jt£ts f prepared by his commoner Grsce; in which 
"Preparation fome Adts of Man have their part : 
And the unprepared and undifpofed cannot equal- 
ly expert it. 

§.33. 13. Faith and Repentance are Ads of 
Man, and pre- require to Juftification : Therefore 
2% jilts and Work* are words of the fame fence, fo 
WVi^even Wcrki of Special Grtceaic pre-requiiite 
to Juftification. 

Obj. Bnt not as jifis, but for the Objeft, 
jfafvi. That's a comradittion. Chrift is Chrift 
wheiher we believe in him or not j and it's one 
fting to fay Chrift is vecetfary, and another thing 
to fay, Believing in him U necejfary : It is not Recef' 
fary mccrly as an AEt in gene-re, but as this AQt 
in Ifecie • and it is fpecified (as is aforefaid) by its^ 
Objeft. Not only Chrift believed in, but Belitvinji 
in Chrift is pre- requi lite as a moral diff option to 
Juftification : And in that fence a Work or Art of 

§.34 14. It is before fhewed,- that this Faiih 
is a moral Work, containing (not one only, but) 
many phyftcd *&s : He that beluveth in drift, bc- 
licveth in him as fent of Gcd, to reconcile us to 
God, to bring us to Gl<#ry, to fave us from Jk- 
ftic?, Sin, and Enemies, to fan&ific us by his Word: 
and Spirit, with many fuch afts that make up 
the Eflence of Saving- Faith: This is the Work, of 
Cod, that ye believe en him whom the Father * 
Joh. 0. 28, 29. 

§•35- 15. The Faith that hath the Promife of 
Juftification, is efTentially a fitbjetting ottr fclves to 
Chrift \ that is, a taking him for our Lord and 


r *$6 ] 

Saviour by Confent: Which is a Content to obey* 
him for the future. 

§. 36. \6. Though this attnal Obedience to 
Chrift ( befides Snbjt&iori) be not pre-requifite to 
our firft being juftified, it is requifite to the Con- 
tinuance of our Juftification : For we confentcd 
to obey, that we might indeed obey , and are per- 
fidious if we do not* 

§. 37. 17. The Wer Wand Ccr:fcier>ct will judge 
us much according to our Works. 

§. 38. 18. The fame Law of Grace being the 
Rule of Duty and 0$ Judgment, God wi'd judge all 
men according to their Works, required by that Law, 
by juftifying or condemning them. m 

§. 39. 19. Final juftification and glorification 
are the Rewards of Evangelical Obedience ; and 
the reafon rendered of Chrift's juftifying Sentence, 
Matth. 25. ( & fajfim) is from fuih a&s of 
Man, as qualifying them for the free Gift of 

§. 40. io, There is a moral goodntft in thefe 
Works of Min, by which through Chrift, they 
att $>le4fing to Gcd, which is their aptitude to this 
acceptance and reward. 

In all this I think all fober Chriftians muft needs 
confefs that they agree* 

§. 4U III. And as to the Cafe of Merit, a 
few words with underftanding men may difpatch 
it. We are agreed on the negative; 1. That no 
Man or Angel can merit of God in proper Com- 
mutative Juftice, giving him fomewhat for his 
Benefits that ftiall profic him, or to which he had 
not abfolute right. 

2. No 

C 291 3 

2. No man can merit any thing of God, upon 
the terms of the Law of Innoeency, (but Pu« 
nifhment ) 

3. Mo man can merit any thing of God, un- 
lefs it be fuppofed firft to be a free Gift and merited 
by Chrifi. 

§. 42. And affirmatively we are (I thinks a- 
greed } 1 . That God governcth us by a Law of 
JGrace, which hath a Promife or Premiant part, 
which givcth ( not the Antecedent but many confer 
qnent benefits) by way of Reward : To deny the 
rewarding act, is to deny God's Law, and the man- 
ner of his Government. 

§.43. 2. That God calieth it his Jnftice to 

reward men according to his Law, and give them 

what it gave them right to. Infomuch, that it is 

made the fecond Article of our Faith, Heb. 11.6. 

to believe that God u the rewarder of them that df- 

ligently fe\him m And he givcth itrff * righteous 

l»dge, 2 Tim. 4. 8. 

§. 44. 3. That this fuppofcth that fuch Works 

♦of Man have a moral Altitude for that Reward? 

which confifteth in thefe things : 1. That they are 

efficiently from God's Spirit. 2. They are in their 

meafure agreeable to God's governing Will. 

3. They are done in Love, to his glory, and to 

pleafe him. 4. They are done by a Member of 

. Chrifi. 5 . They are profitable to Men, our felves 

\ and others. 6. The Habits and Afts are God's 

iown Imtge. 7. They have the Promife of his Re- 

f ward. 8. They are wafhed in the Blood of Chrifi., 

I that is , Their faaltinefs is pardoned through his 

Merits. 9. They areprefented to God by Chriji y s 

Intcrcejfion. 10. And laftly, they are Man 7 s -^p- 

„titHdc for the Reward in their very nature 7 yea, 

11 2 fart 


part of it thcmfclvcs as they are of God -, Hetmfs 
being tht beginning of Happiwefs^ox of that love of 
God which in its Perfection is Heaven it felf : Such 
an Jptitnde, as that a holy perfon cannot btmifcra- 
hit, nor can God hate and damn a holy Soul that 
truly lovethan&obcyeth him. 

§• 45. 4. This moral Aptitude for the Reward 
is amiable and pleafing to God y and therefore he 
calleth the Reward in the Gofpcl ufually £fr£o^ 
which properly fignifieth Wages, which men give 
by Commutative Jttftke : But that is only metapho- 
rically , becaufe God that cannot be profited by 
man, is yet pleafed in that which profit eth our f elves 
and one another, and ghrifieth him by declaring his 
Perfections : And as if this were profiting him, he 
calleth it Wages, for fome fimilitude, but not in 
proper fence. 

§. 4<J. 5. This moral Jptitudc, for the Reward 
is called oft in Scripture Wortkine Is, d^U, which 
is of the fame lignification with Alerit : To be 
worthy and to defcrvc, are here all one :. So thatfo 
far Merit ( Worthinefs ) is a Scripture Phrafe. 

§. 47. 6. This Worthmefs or Merit is only in 
point of Paternal Governing-Jujlke, according to 
the Law of Grace, ordering that which in it felf 
tea free Gift merited by Chr iff. 

§. 48. For no Man or Angel can have any 
thing of God, but by free Gift : What have we 
which we receive not, when our being is of God ? 
Therefore it mull be of governing ordering Jufiice 
only : The thing is a Gift ; butGcd will give this 
Gift to his Children fo wifely as to the Order ofit> 
as fbaU.be fitteft to attain his ends. Therefore 
it is not by Governing Juftice after the Law of 
Injiocency ix Works, but according to the Law of 


Gract. So that the fum of the Solution is', That 
t. the Good received in its value, as Good is of 
God as a Benefactor and a /ra <?>/>. 2. But in 
Or£&r */ Collation, it is of God as a #//*? and rifif*- 
##* Govemonr, even a governing Father, and fo on- 
ly it is a Reward, and fo it is merited. 

§. 49. This is eafily underftood by Parent;, 
who intend to give their Children freely, out of 
meer love, their Inheritance, and what elfe they 
want : And yet they will give them Gold or 
Clothes or Food, in fo wife a manner, as fhall 
engage them to their Duty, and will fay^ Fat off 
your Hat and thinks ?ne, or Do t\>ii or that (which 
is for their own good) and I wW give yon this. 
Here it is a Gift as to the Goodnefh and a Rewsrd 
as to the order of living it. 

§. 50. 7. The ancient Chriftians (as the Wri- 
tings of all the Ancients commonly fhewj did ufe 
the word Merit without any fcruple ; and I re- 
member not that any Chriftians did ever gainfay it 
,or take the ufe of it for a fault : Yet did they 
l contrajii<ft mens carnal erroneous Conceits of 
M^n s Merit, as well as we : Yet now ouroppo- 
fition to Popery hath brought the word into fo 
great diftaflewnh many good Proteftants, as that 
they take it to fignifie fome dangerous fclf-arro- 
gating Doctrine : So great is the power of Preju- 
f dicelmd Contefh 

§.51. It is true, That when Hereticks have put 
an ill fence upon a good word, we mull ufe it more 
canteloufly than at other times and places : But if 
thence we abfMutcly rejeil and accufe it, we fhall 
harden our Adversaries, and ftrengthen the Error 
which we oppofe, by running into the contrary 
cxtrcam, which will'foon difgrace it felf. 

U t %.%zAt 

[ 294] 

$. f£ It is a great advantage to the Papifts, 
that many Proteftants wholly difclaira the »4 
and limply deny the Merit of GoIfeUobectteme : 
For hereupon the Teachers (hew their Scholars, 
that all the Fathers fpenk^ for Merit , and fo tell 
them, that the Proteftants Dottrine is new and 
heretical, as being contrary to all the ancient Do- 
ctors : And when their Scholars fee it with their 
Eyes, ao wonder if they believe it, to our difho- 

§. 53. All Orthodox Chriftians hold the fore- 
defcribed Dottrineof Merit m fence, though not 
In words : For they that deny Merit 7 confefs the 
t.XewtrdMenefs'} of our Obedience, and confefs 
that the Scripture ufeth the term C Worthy ] and 
that €%i& and«'£i« may be tranflated Afmri*/ and 
Mtrit % as well as Worthy and Wor thine fs ; and we 
think it fitter to ex found fuch Scripurc-WQrds than 
to itttufe andrejett them: And they all confefs, that 
nuftis Duty hath God's Promt fe of Reward,, and that 
Molinefs in its nature is fuitable to the End or 
Reward, as difpofing us to enjoy it, and S plea- 
ling unto God and glorifieth him : And this is all 
the fame thing in other words^ which the ancient: 
Chriftians meant by Merit. And to hear many 
godly perfons at the fame time, moft earneftly ex- 
tol Holinefs, and defire that Preachers ftiouid con- 
vince the People that the Righteous is more excellent 
th*H hit Neifhfokr, and yet denying all Merit, 
and reviling all that allert it j this doth butlhew, 
that they underftand not the wor<J •, and think 
others alfo mifundcrftand it : And fo we are re- 
proaching one another, where w« are agreed and 
know it not : Like the Woman that turned away 
her Servant upon the Controverfie, Whether the 


C *95 3 

Houfe fhould be fwcpt with a twin or with a Be- 
fom •, or the Phyficians that let the Patient die, 
becaufe they could not agree whether he fhould 
tske a Potion or a Draught, a bit or a morfel, 
or take Ambar, or Elettrum or Skccinum or C*- 

54. And the partial Teachers are the Caufe 
of all this, while inftead of opening the Do&rine 
truly to the People, in what fence we have or kave 
not any Worthvufs or Merit, they without diftin- 
&ion cry-down Merit, and reproach thofe that do 
otherwife : And if they do but fay, C S*cb * Mm 
or fitch a Book^ ffeaketb for Merit and Free-will Q 
they have fufficiently rendered him odious or much 
fufpe:ted with their followers i when yet all fo- 
ber Chriftians in all Ages have been for Merit and 
Fret-mil in a found fence : And is not this to be 
Incendiaries and Adverfaries to Truth, and Love, 
and Peace ? 

§.55. I have formerly thought, that though 
we agree in the thing, it is bell omit the nam?, 

ecaufe the Papifts have abufed it : And I think 
fo ftill, as in fiich Companies and Cafes where the 
ufe of it not underftood will fcandalize men, and 
do more harm than good : ( For why fhould I ufe 
words againft mens edification ? ) But in other 
cafes I now think it better to keep the word, 
1. left we feern to the ignorant to be of another 
Religion than all the ancient Churches were. 
Left we harden Papifts, Greeks and others, by 
Jenying found Do&rinc in terms, which they win 

hink we deny in fence. 3. Becaufe our Penury 
of Words is fuch as for my parti remember no 
other word fo St to fubftitute inftead of ^Aicrit 3 
or Q Defect 2 oz C Wmhincfs. 2 The wofi £ R»- 

U 4, wardablel 

C 296 3 

WAYdahlc 3 is long and .oft harlh : And what 
other have we ? And it is nothing elfethatwc 

§. 55. Some Papifts are againft the very word 
C Merit ] alfo. Some own the word, bun differ 
not from the Proteftants about the Doflrine , 
Foxne of them ignorantly drive the poor People 
by ill preaching into carnal Conceits of their 
own Works, "and to truft an hundred Fopperies 
for Salvation : But he that rcadeth moft ot their 
School-Do&ors, muft either confefs, that they dif- 
fer from us about the meritmoufnefs cf true Go- 
fpel- obedience, rather in words than in deed-, and 
that we really mean the fame thing, or elfe he muft 
fee with better or worfer Eyes than I do (J fpeak not 
this of them all. ) 

§. 57. And Rom<ztU) who prateth cf Merit in 
point of commutative Jnftice, difclaimed by the reft 
( and feme fuch other ignorant Scriblers ) are not 
to be taken for the Index of their Doftrine, nor yet 
their fuperftitious, abufive Application ; no more 
than our Denier s of all Merit are the Index of onrsy- 
nor the prophane onesabufeof it, who are rea- 
dy, when we perfwade them to a holy Life, to tell 
us, That God faveth not Men for their Holincfs or 
Wer\$, and that ours deferve no more than theirs, 
but he will have mercy on whom he. will have mercy ; 
and it is not of him that mile tb or runneth. 

§. 58, Not only Waldcnfis, Conttremu^Arimi- 
w*/w,and many others exprefly fay as much againft 
Merits as we : But Medina, and many of the Tkv- 
mifis fay the fame in Sence,and the Scttifts and many 
others fay, That Merit arifeth but ex pafte, from 
God's Fromife - 7 and. to be meritmtw, is no more 


than to be alVork^ which Cod hath primifed a Fc- 
rvarJ to : And do any of us deny this ? 

§. 59. Objeft. But others fay, That Merit is 
ex dignitate operum^ from the worthinefs of our Works. 
Anf. Is it the^Name [ Worthinefs^ or the meaning 
that difpleafeth you ? If the Ntmc, read Lake 20. 
35.and21.3tf. jifts 5.41. 2 Thejf. 1. 5, 11. Rtv. 
3. 4. Matth. ?♦ 10, 1 i, 13 ? 37, 38. and 22. 8. 1CV. 
li. 27, 29. £pfc. 4. i.Ccl.1.10. 1 Thejf. 2. 12. and 
fee whether God ufe not the fame Phrafe. And as 
to the Seme, one Writer underftands what he faith 
better, and another worfe, and feveral men may 
have feveral Sences ; but they moftly feem to mean, 
That holy Obedience is in the 'very nature cf it fo 
fleajrrig to the raojl holy God y as render eth it apt to 
be the matter of that Condition on which his Covenant 
promiftth to reward us, the Imperfection being par* 
doned, and we and our Works accepted, upon the Re- 
demption wrought by the Merits of Chrift, and upon 
his hvercefion, and prefnting them to God. And is 
this to be denied by any Chriftian ? Doubtlefs there 
is fomething in the very Nature of Divine F A ith^ 
Love? and Obedicnct^ which maketh it fitter to be 
accepted and rewarded, than Infidelity, Hatred of 
Gcd,and Sin, or Rebellion. Speak Chriftians, is it 
rot fo ? A nd yet it is from God's Promife and mecr 
Bounty only, that our Right to the Reward refult- 
eth, though the material Aptitude be in the quali- 
fication to which that promife is made : All this is 
plain and fure. 

§. 60. Obj. But fome talk, of a Proportion be- 
tween the Work, and the Reward. 

Arf We commonly hold degrees of Glory ac- 
cording to the degrees of Holimfs ; and if any a- 
bufive Doctor mean any more, that's nothing to 


C 298 3 

the r*fh And it's pity that Men that are agreed, 
fhould hate or revile each other as differing. 

§. 61. Fafquez* the Jefuit is one that is fuppofed 
to fay moil for Merit, who faith fo much againft it, 
as I dare not fay : For he tells us, That God doth 
not reward us at all as an ACt of Juftice, either Com- 
mutative, or Diftributive : Commutative Juftice he 
calily d fapproveth, and in that we all agree : But 
the generality of Chriftians, Papifts, Proteftants, 
Orecksy &c hold, That God rewardeth us in go- 
verningrp*ternal-diftributive Juftice , as a Father 
giveth Benefits to a thankful Child that humbly taktth 
them, and not to the contemptuous gr rebellious that 
$it in his Face. BwtVafquex. faith, That God hath 
not fo much as Diftributive Juftice in our Rewards. 
And yet, I think,hediffereth but in words, and real- 
ly meaneth as we all do. And he that dare for 
Words, revile Confenters, is bolder than I would 
have any good Man be : And yet I doubt not but / 
and thi* Writing fnall be fo reviled by many th?t 
differ not from me, when they think they do , 
(through Fadion and Prejudice ) when I am dead, 
e\fen for thefe words. 

§. 62. IV. The fourth Point is fo far difpatched 
in the fecond,that I need here but to fay ^ 1. That 
our Obedience to God is a Duty refulting from our 
very natural Being, and cannot but be fo while 
we are Men : 1 . As it is God's due. 2. As it is part 
of the right Order of the Univerfe, and condu- 
cible to common Good. 3. As it is our own Or- 
der, Reftitude and Health. 

2. ThatChrift is the Saviour and Phyflcian to 
give us this Health, which is the end of his medici- 
nal Grace* 

3. That 

[299 ] 

3. That the Soul cannot be complacefitially a- 
miableto God, nor fit for Communion with him 
here or in Heaven without it. Relignation to God 
our Owner , Obedience to God our Ruler, and 
Love and Praife to God our Father, and the infinite 
Good, make up that Holinefs which is our Salva- 
tion it felf, and the Image and Glory of God upon 

§. 63. V. About the next Queftion I may yet be 
ftiorter, Hoto far any Works of ours rrtiy he trufied 

I think all agree, 1. That nothing of ours ( or 
any Creature ) fhould be trufted to for any thing 
proper to God, or proper to Christy or any thing that 
belongeth not truly to it felf. He that afcribeth 
any thing to our Faith, Love, or Obedience, which 
is proper to ChrifPs Merits^ or GqJ?s Mercy, and 
fo trufteth them, doth greatly iln, and he that truft- 
eth them for more than God hath affigned to them 
to do. 

§. 54. 2. That we mutt take heed of /c*/fc£t- 
em Language j and therefore muft not talk oftrnft- 
ing on any aft of our own, when it is like to be 
underftood,as put in Competition wkhGod or with 
Chrifl's Merits ', as if the Queftion were, Whether 
we mult trufi God, or our felves, Chris's Rightt- 
oufnefs or onr own ? For our own is not in the 
leaft meafure to be trnfied for that which belong- 
eth only to CbriJPs Rigbtcoufnefs to be-, or do. 

§. 55. 3. Tha: yet it is a great Duty to truft 
every means of Salvation appointed by God, in its 
own place, and for its own part alone, even to preach* 
ing y Sacraments, j4ffli&iom,&c. And accordingly to 
truft our own Faith , Love , Prayer, Obedience, fo 
far as they are Means, ana hare God's Promife, 


L joo] 

and no further ; which is no more than to trutt in 
God', that he will blefs fuch means. He that truft- 
eth his Sword, doth not truft it to fight of it felf, 
without his Hand. When God hath promifed 
Mercy upon Prayer, and to the Obedient ox Penitent, 
for a man to think that God will yet do no more 
for us, it we repent, pray, and obey, than if we 
do not, is to be Vnbelnvers, and fay rebellioufly, 
It u in vain to ferve the Lord. He is fo far to 
trull to Faith, Repentance, praying hearing, medi- 
tating, diligence, as to truft that God will blefs 
them, and reward them, and lock for more from 
him when we uie means, than when we do not.. 

Of Confirmation, P erf ever ance , and Danger 

of falling away. 

§. r. 1 Shall reduce all that needs to be faid on 
JL this point to thefe following controverted 
Queftions : c i. Whether *// Grace procured and 
c given by Chrift, befah as is never loft ? 2. Whe- 
1 ther that degree of Grace be ever loft, which 
* giveth the />q//* credere without the aft of Faith 
c ( commonly called fufficient Grace ) in Adult or 
c Infants? 3. Whether any lofe aftual true jufti- 
c fying Faith ? 4. Whether any lofe true Holinefs, 
1 or love of God in the Habit ? 5. Whether any 
1 degree of this be ever loft? or all fpecial Grace 
c have fuch Confirmation as the Afigels have ? 
c 5. Whether, if Holinefs be never loft, it be pef- 
1 fibU to lofe it, and be io danger? 7. Whether 

1 there 

[ joi] 

c there be a ftate of confirmed Perfons befides the 
c meerly fan&ified, that from the degree or kind 
4 of their grace, never fall away f 8. Or whether 
c Perfeverance depend on meer Election and God's 
1 Will, which fecureth only fomc of the juftified ? 
4 p. Whether all, or molt, or many Christians are 
'chemfclves fure to perfevere ? i o.WhetherCertain- 
c ty of perfeverance be fit for all the juihfied I 
1 1 1 • Whether it be unfit for all, and a more unfafe 
L Condition than doubting ? 12. Whether the 
'Comfort of molt Chriltians lie upon the Doftrine 
4 of fach Certainty f 13. Whether the Dodtrinc 
'of Eventual Apoftacy infer any mutability in God? 
4 1 4. Why God hath left this pdintfodark? 15. 
1 What was the Judgment of the ancient Chur- 
ches after the Apofties.? 16. Whether it be an 
4 Article of fuch evidence and weight, as to be put 
1 into our Church-Confeilions, and weihouldforc* 
t men to fubferibe to it, or make it neceffkry to Mi- 
4 niltration, Communion, or Chriftian Love and 
4 Concord ? • 

§.2. Q_. I. Whether all CkriJPj Grace given ns, he 
fneb M is never loft? Anf. No: except Janfcniu* 
and his Followers, I know of no Chriltians that e- 
ver affirm it *, and he doth it on this falfe fuppofi- 
tion, That the common Grace which worke:h only 
preparatorily by fear , is not the Grace of Chrift J)Ut a 
grace of other PrGvidcnct^znd only Love is the^r^e of 
Chrift. But it is injurious to Chrift,who is the Lord, 
and Light, 2nd Saviour of the World, and Gcd's Ad- 
miniftrator-general, into whofe Hands all Things 
and Power is given, to fay, That fince the Fall 
there is any Grace in the World that is not Lis Grace \ 

and that our preparatory grace, and all that's com- 

C 302 ] * 

xnon, is aliunde, fome other way . He that readeth 
Joh. 15. Matth. 13. Heb. tf, and 10. may fee the 

§.3. Q^ II. Whether fuffi'Mnt grace to believe, 
which giveth the mecr power of believing to Infants or 
Adult, be ever loft ? Anf. Thefe Queftions fup- 
pofe that there are thefe feveral forts of Graces 
difputed of by Divines ; 1. Common grace : 2. Vow- 
er to believe and repent : 3. Actual Faith and Repen- .. 
tame given by that called /fecial location: 4. The 
Habit of love and all grace 7 called Sanllification : ( to 
^afsby Relative grace&sjuilification, &c.) 5. Confir- 
mation of thefe Habits. And we now fpeak only of 
the fecond: And the very Being of that Grace is con- 
troverted, Whether God ever give (befides the 
natural Pourer} amoral Power to believe, to any that ■ 
never do believe ? And, 1. it is certain by Adam's 
inftance, that he gave him a power to have per- 
fectly obeyed, when he did not: 2. And 
oftbUmtrt therefore no man can prove, that now 
before- he giveth no man a moral Power to be- 

lieve, that doth nor. 3. But it feemeth 
molt probable that he doth, becaufe bis Govern- 
?nent and Man's Nature are not, tota fpecie, chang- 
ed- 4. And it is certain that ftill all men have 
power to do more good than they do. 5. And even the 
Dominicans grant this Sufficiency of grace. 6. But 
yet for my part, I am not certain of it. 

§. 4. But if there be fuch a power given, which 
never a&eth Faith ( whichl think moft probable ) 
it is either in the Adult or Infants : if in the A- 
d*lt, no doubt it's loft i for they that will not believe 
(tothelaft)rctaia^yri^^^ moral power in their 

§• 5- 

c 303 ] 

§. 5. But in the Cafe *f Infants, I think thofe 
of them that die before the ufe of rtafn , lofe it 
not, nor any of the £/e#that live 
to foil Age : But as to others, after »» /*r /«/*»* 
long doubt, //on? far Infnt-Grs.ee <**"* /*M>. 
** loft able , this feemeth now the moft probable fo- 
lution to me. 

§. 6. /^*l. There is a Grace that reacheth but 
to a /7Jor^/ P$mr to repent and believe, before 
men have the Att or proper Habit : Such Grace to 
perfevcre, did put Adam in a prefnt ft ate <f Life, 
or acceptation with Gcd , this Grace Adam loft : 
Accordingly fuch grace thst containeth but 
s this mural poner in an Infant** Difpofiticn CD 
( with relative grace of Pardon ) is fufficient 
to prove his right to Salvation, if he fo die ; becauft 
he is not bound to the Aol, nor capable ef it-, and 
even the Adnlt upon the Act, have right to Ac- 
ceptance and to the Spirit to cacfe the H^bit, in or- 
der of Nature, beforeahey have the Habit : There- 
fore Infants may be in a ftate cf fuch Right and 
Life before the Habit, though they fhall not pof 
fefs Glory without it : And yet the Adult are not 
in a fttte of fucb right by the meet Power, before 
the A3, becaufe the Act it fdf is made necefTary 
to their justification, butfo is it not to Infants : 
So that Infants and Adult may receive a mce r pow~ 
tr to repent and believe, and lofe it after (at age) 
by attual fin, though this be a lofs of a ftate of 
Jufvif cation to the one fort ( their fins of Nature 
being pardoned ), but notto the other ( who are 
not pardoned without the A& : ) And yet it fol- 
lowed! not hence, that the grace of habitual Santtt- 
f catm is loft in any. " k 



[ ?o4 ] 

§. 7. If this folution pleafe not, let them that 
can, give us one that is lefs inconvenient, and we 
ihall thankfully accept it ; but it muft be none that 
yet I have heard of \ not ihe Aiabaptifts, nor thofe 
of their Adverfaries, who leave us no certainty of 
the Salvation of any particular Infants, but only fay, 
God will fve them that fire Elect , but no one 
knoweth who they are, nor how few or many, nor 
can tell us of any promife made to any upon any 
antecedent Charader or Condition, nor give Be- 
lievers any more aflurance of their own Childrens 
Salvation, than of any Heathens. 

Nor theirs that fay, Baptized Infants are'faved 
by relative Grace alone, without any internal real* 

Nor theirs that fay, They have the Spirit, but tell 
us not in what operation •, or fay> iris only rijht to 
the Spirit hereafter. 

Nor theirs that fay, That all Baptized Infants 
(atleaflof godly Parents ) have habitual Holmffk 
(Faith, Love, &c. ) fuch as the Adult in Santtifi- 
cation have, and that fome at Age do loft it: I 
think this iefs inconvenient than any one of 

§. 8. Q. III. Whether any lofe tr ae attud faith 
and Justification ? 

Anf. That a common hnejfttlual Faith may be loll, 
is no doubt : But concerning the other, there are 
three Opinions. 1 . Some fay, No ', it cannot be 
loft, becaufe that Faith hath the Promife of the 
San&ificatian of the Spirit, as well as of Pardon and 
right to Life. Therefore feeing habitual Holinefs 
is not loft, that which hath the frmife of it, is not 

2. Others 4 



2. Others fay, Thzt actual Faith 2t fir ft is like 
Adam's bfeable Grace , and that it giveth us actu- 
al Pardon 'and right to Life, if we Jo dU^ and right 
to the Spirit ( in relation) to fandtifie us in time^ 
and by degrees : But that every one that hath the 
Spirit, hath not the Habits of Love and Holinefs, 
but he lometimes is caufing many Atfts before he 
produce a Habit ( ad modnm zcquiflterum. ) 

3 . Ochcrs fay, That both Faith and habitual Ho- 
linefs are oft loft. I delay the folution till the reft 

§• 9. Q_- IV. Whether habitual Love, Or Holinefs 
(or the Spirit ) be ever loft? 

Jinf. That there is a confirmed ftate or degree of 
Holinefs that is never W*, 1 do hold i and that this 
is attainable^ and in that ftate men may be certain 
ef Salvation: But whether the Z^./r degrees of ha- 
bitual gracebe utterly lofeable, which prove a pre- 
fect right to life, till they are loft, I mult plainly 
profefs I do not know \ much may be laid on both 
ides : And if my Ignorance offend any, itoffend- 
th me more : but how (hall I help it, I think it is 
lot for want of tindy^ nor of impartial willing- 
lefs to know the Truth: And Ignorance of the 
two is fafer than £rr#r, by which we trouble and 
feduce thofe about us. And in this cafe fo many 
great and excellent Men have erred ( either Aug** 
ifti*c 9 with the generality of the ancient Churches, 
or Calvin^ Zarxhy^ and moft of the Reformed) 
that my Ignorance is pardonable where their Error 
it [elf is gardened. But let thofe that are wiler 
re Joyce in the greater meafure of their Wifdom : 
Put yet think not, that taking up either Opinion 
rpon the truft of their Party, is fuch. 

§. io. Q. . V. To the next, fome have faid; 
That had Adam done but one aft of Love or 
Obedience, he had been confirmed zs the Angels in 
a ftate of Impeccability : And that fo are all that 
Once truly believe in Chrift. But Experience ut- 
terly confuteth that : For all men fin after be- 
lieving. . 

§. u. Others fay only, That men may fin, 
and may lofe acquired Grace ^ but no degree of that 
which is infafed ? But we have fmail reafon^to 
think that our ericreafed degrees are not as much in- 
fnfed as the fir ft degree was : And yet Experience 
proveth, that inch added degrees may be loft. 

§. 12. Others fay, AS, added degrees may be 
bfti but none of that which was firfi mfufed i 
Indeed could we prove, that God alwaies at firft 
infufcth only the leaft degree confiftcnt with Sal- 
va&on, then this muft be held by all that deny 
that any fall from Juftification : But for ought 
we know God may the firft minute give one man 
more Grace than to another in long time, and 
that firfi degree may be lefiened by his fin. 

§. 13. Q. VI. Whether it be fojfibh to lofe that 
Hdinefs which never rviU be loft ? 

Anf* The word C VoffibU j refpedeth either a 
Confequence in Arguing, and is a Logical Poffibi- 
lit) - 7 or it refpc&eth the natural power of Caufes, 
and is called, Phyfical PeffibUity. In the firft fence 
it is impoifible that any thing Qiould come to pafs 
that doth not; becaufe God tyoweth it wiU not: 
And it is a good confequence, God krtoweth that 
this mil not cme ti pafs ; therefore it will not : And 
it is imfeffihie that this Confequence fhould be 

But as to the natural foffibility^ no doubt but 



C 3073 

of our felvcs we cm fin - 7 nay, it Is not an aft 6 
Poirer, but cf Imfotency, cr from a defeat of P0- 
iper : And the Habit given us is not a fufficient 
Power to afcertain our Per fiver ance of it felf 
But if you fpeak with refpeft to the Pevper of 
God, by which we are preferved , we muft thus 
anfwer : That it is imfoffibk for us cr any Crea- 
ture to overcome God's Power or Will : And if 
it be firft proved, that God will caufe us to per- 
fevere by the way of Phy/ic-J irrefifcblc determi- 
nation by Porter, then it muft be called Iwyoffiblc 
to fall away, or commit any Sin which he fo fa- 
vethusfrom. But if he keep any as a free Agent 
by the Japi:ntial drfiefil of his Free-mil, and fb 
procure the event of a contingent aftion, then it 
muft be faid, that this and many things are pofi 
fible which never come to pafs, That God only 
decreeth, 'that rvcfljall not fall away, and not, that 
it jhai be imptfjible : Thus Dr. Tmfft and the Do- 

nicans themfelves ufeto fpeak : But for my part 
~ take God's manner of working on and for us, 
to be fo Hnfearchtiblc) and this notion of foffibffity 

JmpojfibiHty, of fo little moment when we are 
agreed what mil be the event , that I think the Con- 
trovert not worth the handling, but made among 
other fnares of Satan, to trouble the Church, 
and draw us to vain Janglings about words that 
edifie not, from the Simplicity that is in Chrifh 

§. 14. Q. VII. Whether there be a Slate of Con~ 
ir mat ion here t 

Anf 1 . Undoubtedly there are fome Chriftians 

: that are ftrong, rooted, fit tied, efiMifred-, aadfome 

that are weak, and like Children tofsM up and 

down, Rom. 4. 2©. & 15. 1. Heb. 5. 12, 14. 

Joh. 2, 14. 1 Or. 16. 13. £fh. 6. 10. 2 Tim. 

X 2 2.1. 

[ ?o8 ] 

2« I. I Cor. 15* 58. 1 Pet. <$. p. Col. 2. 5. 

Epk 3. 16, 17. CW. 2. 7. There is a need of 
Strengthening Grace, 1 Pet. 5. 10. Luk. 22. 32. 
^w. 3. 2. >#?. 9. 22. Col. 1. 11. 2 Tim. 4. 17. 

J/*/. 138.3- ^WZ.4- *3- 

§.15. 2. It is agreeaMe to Scripture, Reafon 
and Experience to judge, that ftrengthmed Chri- 
ftians ftand fafter than the vvea^ and that it is in 
it fclf more mlikgly that they (hould befeduced and 
forfake Chrift. 

§. \6. Seeing it is fo doubtful, whether any 
that are fincere fall away, we have great reafon 
to think that it will hardlier be proved of the 
Confirmed: I know that Strength hath feveral de- 
grees, and it's hard to determine juft what this 
Confirmation is, but I am perfwaded, that abundance 
of confirmed ChrifiUns there are, who have taken 
hold of Chrift by Faith and Love, and have clear 
light and great experience, and fo much Grace, as 
that from that Confirmation it may be inferred, that , 
they never fall away and perijh : and confequently 
that Certainty of Salvation , and not only of pre- 
fent Juftification, is attainable in this Life. And, 
fome of the Papifts themfelves are of this mind, 
though others of them fay, That even a ftatc of 
Confirmatien may be loft. 

•-.&■ 17- Qj VIII. Whether Per fever ance depend 
on mecr EUfticn f 

An[. It was uiugHJliTieH Judgment (and his 
Followers) That EUttion is the afcertaining Caufe 
cf Perfeverance, giving the fpecial Grace of Per fe- 
ver ance ; but what that Grace was befides Divine 
Volition and Prefervation ( whether any fpecial 
confirming degree or kind ) it is not' eafie to gather 
out of him: And I think it paft doubt, That God 


Ho 9 ] 

-doth tleSi font to Terfcverancc, and all perftvtft 
whom heft cle&tth, and btcanfe be elttteth them and 
no tthtr : But whether many alfo are truly fantti- 
fed and jnfiified that are not eleSt, and fo do trot per- 
Jevere y as jiajiin held, I laid before, I do not 

§. 1 8. Q. IX. Art aU or moft Chrifri/ins certain 
that they jkaJl per fever e ? 

A if. No: For, i. ,w/? Chriftians in the World 
hold, that Perfeverance is uncertain to the godly ; 
and how can they be certain of it to them- 
felves ? 

2. Moll that hold otherwife, hold it but as #*- 
certain, and are not themfelves certain that it is 
true, though they call it certain : I am uncertain ; 
And I find not by other figns that the moft have 
more knowledge than my felf : And he that is not 
certain of the Fremifes 7 is not by them certain of 
the Conclufion. 

3. Moft Chriftians are uncertain that they are 
(irxere and jufttfied : And fuch cannot be certain to 

nfevere in that which they are not certain tint 
;hey have* 

§« 19. Q.. X. Certainty of their prtftnt ftate tf 
Jufiification is not fit for thofe that fin *s mucky 
and art as bad as ever will ftand with fincerity 
( tiilthey repent :) Therefore certainty gf Ptrfeve- 
rance muft needs be unfit for them. And. therefore 
God never giveth it to fuch. 

§.20. Q_. XI. Certainty of Grace, Jnfiification 
ind Perfevtranct and Salvation , is a moft excellent 
le arable thing , above all the Treafures of 
the World, and to be earneftly foughn by all : and 

ideth not of it felf to carnal fecurity. but to fill 

' Soul with holy Love and Thankfulncfs and 

X 3 Joy, 

Joy, and make our Lives likcft to Heaven on 
Earth : O blefled are they that do attain it ; 
And #oe to them that difpraife it and perfwade 
men to caufelefs doubting. It is the heigkt of 
our attainment here in it ielf, and the improve- 
ment, and maketh us live a Heavenly Life, and 
long to be with Chrift : But we cannot therefore 
fay that thole have it that have it not : But all 
fhould promote and fcek it. 

§.' 21. Q. XII. They that are certain that all 
true Believers perfeverei have one great help to- 
wards their own Confolation .% But if they be un- 
certain^ that they tbemfelves are true Believers^ this 
will not comfort them. As they that are per- 
iwaded only that all Confirmed Chriftians pcrfe- 
• vere, muftknow that they tare confirmed before 
this can give them the comfort of Aflurance. 

§. 22. But I have elfe where fully proved, 
\w. Th?t moft Chriftians have not the comfort of 
their own certain Perfeverance, for want of the 
Certainty of their Sincerity, if not of the Dodtrine 
itfelf. 2. And that thoufa^ds and millions ofj 
Chriftians live and die in Peace and Comfort, 
tkat have not a proper Certainty of Salvation. 
3. Much more may fuch live in Joy that are fure 
of their prefem fiate of Grace, though not of their 

§. 23. £or Experience telleth us, that though 
moft of the Chriftian World are againft the Do- 
Urine of Certain Perfeverance of all true Belie J 
v«rs, yet many of them live and die in Com- 1 

§. 24. And Church-Hiftory and the Ancients 
Writings tell us, That though for many hundred 
years the Chriftian. Do&o'rs commonly held, That 


bjpc lofe true juftifying Faith, and perifh, yet 
multitudes lived and died in Joy, and went with 
boklnefs through the flames; 

§. 25. And we fee in 2II things that men are af- 
fected according to what is predominant \ and he 
that hath far more Hope than fear and doubt* 
will have more joy than ferrow, though he be not 
certain, but fomc doubting do remain. 

§. 26. It is certain in it [elf, that God*s Promi- 
fes in the Gofpel are all true : But every one that 
truly believcth it, is not properly certain of it, 
paft all doubt : And he that hath the leaft doubt 
of the truth of the Gofpel, muft needs doubt as 
much of that Salvation which is expected on the 
Gofpel-PrDmife : And yet fuch Believers may have 
Peace and Joy according to the meaftire of their 
Faith and Hope. 

§. 27. We fee among men no Wife is certain 
one day or night that her Husband will not forfake 
cr murder her *, no Child is certain that his Father 
will not kill him •, nor any one of his deareil 
Friend : And yet we can have Love, Peace and 
Comfort in our Relations, without fuch certainty : 
For it's melarxholy folly to live in fears of things 
utterly unlikely, and to call away the Comforts of 
great probability. 

§. 28. Yea, no godly man is certain that he 
fhall not fall into fuch haimu* Sin as Noah, Lot, 
David, Peter did ; or that he fhall not kill his 
deareil Friend, or himfclf : And yet when.a man is 
confeious that his Nature, his Reafon, his Expe- 
rience, and his Rcfolution, do all make him hate 
fuch a wicked a£t, and that there is no probable 
caufe to move him to it, and when we know God 

ready with his Grace to help us, how few lofe 
X 4 the 

fche Comfort of their Lives, by fear of fuch impro- 
bable things ? certainty therefore is very defira- 
bU^ but a hope of great probability may give us joyful 
thankful Heart s> or tlfe few Chriftians would have 

§. 29; And the Do&rine of Ptrfevcramc hath 
its difficulties too as to mens comfort : Forhethac 
holdeth, Thac no man falleth from a ftate of Grace, 
and iecth many, that to all poflible humane judg- 
ment, were once excellent perfons, fail quite a- 
way, can himfelf have no aflurance that he is fo 
much as juftificd at the prefent, unlefs- he be fare 
that ta is better than the bell of all thofe perfons 
ever were, which doubt the other fide are not call 

§•30. Qj XIII. Whether the D$&rine of Apt* 
ftacy infer any mutability in God ? 

Anf No: there's no (hew of it, unlefs you hold, 
that his abfolutdy Ele ft fall away. It was no change 
In God when he gave us grace, and juftified us j and I 
it would be no more if he ceaft 7 thm it was to begin. 
It was no change in God when I was born, and it 
tvill be no more when I die : The Change is only in *■ 
M*n^ and his ra*/>m'e Difpofitim. Even the Law 
of the Land, without any Diveriity or Changejdoth 
virtually condemn a thoufand Malcfa&ors, and 
juftific the Juft i and willceafeto juftifie them, and 
begin to condemn them, if they ccafe to be juft, and 
begin to be Offenders. Th- Changes that God him- 
felf maketh in all the World, are made without 
any Change in him : Therefore what man doth, 
or undoth, cannot change him. 

§.31- Q* XIV. Why did God leave thit Cafefo 

Mf. It is not fit for us to call for any reafon 


; his doing, but what he hath given us : But while 
he hath made it fure to us, that he will caufe all his 
Eleft to perfevere, and will deny his Grace to 
none that faithfully ftek it, and will fave all that 
donot wilfully and finally rejeft it, a::d giveth us 
no caufe to diftruft his Mercy, his holy Ends are 
by this attained in his Peoples Uprightnefs and 
Peace : And he feemeth by leaving the reft fo ob- 
fcure, to tell us, that ic is not a matter of fo great 
ufe to us> as fome imagine, and that it is not a 
point fit for to be the meafure of our Communion 
or Teace. 

§. 52. XV. What WA4 the judgment ef the an- 
tlem Churches of this Peint ? 

Anf. Vo$w in Iiis Pelagian Hiftory, hath truly 
told you, and copioufly proved it in the main. 
Before Anguftine'% time it was taken commonly as 
granted, 1 hat men might fail away from a ftate of 
Grace, aad that many did •, but the Cafe was not 
urioudy diicufled : But fome thought that con- 
rmed Chriftians never fell : Rut upon Pdagpu his 
"ifpntes, A*g*$Hne defending the honour of Grace, 
id all upon Ele&ton , and maintained, That 
ough the Non-ele& did fall away from the Love 
of God and Jollification, and a (late in which they 
had been faved, had they d'.cd \ yet none of the E- 
lcft did fall foa; to perifh, bun that the prcfer- 
vation of Grace in perfeverance, was the fruit of 
le&icn. Thus Pro/per, and Fulgtmim after him \ 
,nd fome PafTages in him and M&c*riu*, and fome 
thers, Ultimate that they thought there was a 
onfirmed degree of Grace, which was never loft ; 
>ut they all took it for granted, thztjomefell from 
ftate of Jufeificat ion zndpevittied: And Iieraem- 
not one Writer that I have read and noted f 


Oh 1 

to be of the contrary mind for a thoufand years a 
ter the writing of the Scriptures, nor any mention 
of any Chriftian that was fo; unlefs Hurome be to be 
believed of JovinUn^ who faith, that he held, That 
the godly could not fin ; which Report is much to be 
fufpeded on many accounts. 

$. 33« What .life is to be made of this, Heave 
to others ; but it befeeraeth no good Man to de- 
prave or deny the Truth of fiich Hiftbry : And 
iomc great Divines are to be blamed for reproach- 
ing Voftius for a true Historical Report , when they 
neither can confute him, nor attempt it. Two or 
three Sentences out of Au&in are cited by fome, 
but meerly nliftakcn, as if they fpake that of all the 
Juflincd, which he fpeaketh only of the Ele<ft. 

§. 54. Q: X VI. By all that is faid, it is paft de- 
nial, that Certainty of perleverance fhould be moft 
earncilly fought, and that ftate of Confirmation 
which is likeftto obtain it; buD that few have it 
even of the truly godly, and that it is not the com- 
mon ground of ChrifHans Peace 2nd Comfort , but! 
Hopes upon great Probability, do fuftain the moft j! 
and that the difficulty of the point is fuch, asthaffl 
it fhould in all Churches be left free, and neither I 
fide made necefiary to our Chriftian Love, Peace^ 
Concord, Communiorr, or Miniftery. 

Of Repentance \ Utt Repentance ; the time 
Grace, and of the unpardonable Sin. 

% 1 . T5 Efcnttmccy as a Pain y and involuntary , is] 
XV part of the Punifliment of fin by the Lavvj 

of Works j but Repentance as a retHrning to Goe 1 


and a recovery of the Soul, is a Grace and Duty 

proper to the Subjects of the Redeemer under the 
Law of Grace. 

§. 2. Yea, it is a great and excellent part of 
I the Law of Grace to give Repentance unto life, and 
to admit of Repentance after fin, which the Lav/ 
of Innocency did not admit of. 

§. 3. Therefore John and Chrift himfelf did 
preach the Gofpel or Law of Grace, when they 
preached Repentance ; which was a great part, 
evsn of Chriil's own preaching. 

§. 4 , Therefore the Antinoman Libertines know 
not what they talk of, when they call it Legal 
Preaching, and fet Repentance as in oppofiticnto 
Faith, as if Faith were all that the Gofpel did 
command, or Repentance did not belong to 

' Faith. 

§. 5. Yet itmuftbeconfefled, that of lafce times 
many have l^d more upon the forrowing, weep- 
ing, and feeing part of Repentance, tham was 
:eet, and faid too little of the turning of the Soul 
•om worldly and -flefhly fmfui Pleafures, to the 
delightful Love and Praifes of God, and willing 
Obedience and Conformity to his Will, which is 
the principal part of true Repentance. And J think 
God permitted xhzAntinomitns to rife upland cry up 
Free-Grace, and call the Miniflers Lega!lip y to re- 
buke our Error in this point, and^to call us to 
preach up his Grace more plentifully, and to coa- 
iider better that Gofpel-obedicncedoth chiefly con- 
lift in Thankfulnefs, Love and Joy, and in the words 
of Praife, and Works of Love. I am fure this ufe 
we fhould make of their Abufes. 

§. 6. Repentance is either generator particular, 
eneral (orllniverfal) Repentance is a turning of 



the Vnderftanding, Will, and FraBice ( with repent^ 
ing Sorrow ) from the inordinate Eflimation, Love, 
and fscijxjr cf temporal Things for the Plcafnre and 
Profpervy of tkeFleJh ( ox fen fa al powers J to Cody 
kit Will, and Service, and the Hopes of ever la ftirfg glory, 
through Faith. 

§.7, This Repentance is the fane thing wiih Con- 
vcrfion, and as I laid before, FMth it [elf includah 
Repentance in its ciffence, as denominated from the 
terminus a quo, it being a Turning from Vnbelirf 
to God by brfeving in him as God, and to Chrift: 
by believing in him, as our Saviour, snd to tf e 
Holy Ghoft by believing in him, as the Agent and 
Witmfs of Chrift and our Sanftifier. 

§.8. Particular Repentance is our turning with 
Sorrow from h particular Sin, 1 our contrary obedi~ 
ence to God. 

§. 9 Without that univerfal feepentance or 
ConverfRo, which turneth the MiraL Will, and 
Life to God, from created Vanity a* this World, 
no Man can be faved j becaufe he continueth an I* 
dolateraud Rebel, aad doth not indeed take Gcd ; 
for his God, nor Chrift for his Saviour, nor the 
Holy Spirit for his Sanftifier •, but is an ungodly 
Man, and a ForfakcrofGod and his own Felici- 

§.. 10. Repent ance , as towards God> is fometime 
diftinguiflied from Faith in Chrift : And then Re- 
pentance is cur turning to God> as GW, by Faith 
( Truft ) Love, and Obedience, refigning our felves , 
to him as ourOnwr, fubjclt.ng our J r eives to him ! 
as our Ruler, and loving him as our Benefaftor, and 
chiefly as the Infinite Good in himfelf, our alttmate 
objective End. And this is the greater Duty refpcJ 
ding God, at our End^ even the fame with Love to I 


L 5 1 


Bed ., for the proem ing of which Chrift came into 
z World, and Faith is given us : And then Faith 
in Chrift is the mediate grace and duty by which 
w£ are brought to this Repentance. 

§. 11. Not that any man can truly take Chrift 
for his Saviour 7 before he taketh God for^ his God, 
( for the Love and Intention of the £«*i, is before 
our Choke and t>/e of the Means : ) But Chrift be- 
- ing our Teacher fir ft bringeth us to ajfent to the 
7 ruthof Ged's Perfections and Relations to us, and 
then to the Truth of his own Go/pel, and by this 
jijjcnt bringeth us ( firft to a common ^ and then ) to 
afpecial (onftnt at once^ that God be our God, and 
Chrtft our Saviour but fo that we defire Ged as 
End y and Christ as MUiaior, as the Means. 
§. 12. Vnivtrfal Repentance (or Converfio* ) 
doth virtually contain all panicnUr future Repen~ 
Mwe^but not actually. Therefore where this is, that 
Soul may be laved without actual Repentance for/owe 
articular fms ( or fores of fin ) : As, e* g . if we are 
norant that fuch or fuchathing is fin, for want 
: neceflary lnftru&ion, or if in a crowd of bufi- 
;cfs fome finful Thought, Paffion, or Word pafs 
nobferved , or if we do our faithful endeavour 
find out a fin, and cannot, remember it ( as 
ho can remember at Converfion one of many 
lat he has committed in Unregcneracy, and after 
any are forgotten : J And every Man dieih in 
>me fin, which he hath no time hereto repent of 9 
/*.. infome finful imperfeftion of all grace a: d du- 
r, and omiffion of due degrees of Love, and other 
As : For all which virtual repentance will be ac- 

1 3 . Btit great and heinous fins mutt needs have 
}**l repentance becaufe it will not confifl with the 

Truth i 

Truth of Holfnefs to be fb indifferent or eaf 
wards them, as not to obierve them, and remem- 
ber them; And if they be known and rtmtmbred, 
they mill kt repented of, when the Soul hath op- 
portunity toconfider what it hath done. For ha- 
bitual repentance is neceffary to Salvation •, and Ha* 
bits will *& when they are not extraordinarily 
hindred, having notable Objects and Opportu- 

§. 14. Yet fome fins that are freat mxUM*&y in 
their nature, may be lelienedmoch to fomeperfons 
by unavoidable ignorance, and lb may not have 
an actual repentance : As, e. g. in times 6f War, to 
kgM men in a wrong Caufe, h one of the greatelt fins 
in the World \ and yet when by the darknefs of 
State-safes, the Queflion who u in the right, is fo 
difficult, that very few can decide it 5 and after 
their utmoft fearch, each Party thinks that Gcd 
bindeth them to fight for their King or Country, 
fiich perfons cannot have a particular repent 
while they are not able to fee that they were deJj 

§. 25. It is therefore a Cafe of exceeding diffi-^ 
Ollty, what fins may ftand with JnBtiication., not par~\ 
zicuhrly repented cf\ and what rot 3 or as fome ' 
fpeak, which are mortal, and which venial fins, or 
fins of Infirmity. 

§. 16. But he thst hath a cafe of his Salvation, 
muft hate all fin in the general as fin, and keep upl 
his watch, and be willing to know ail the worft in ? 
hirafelf, and diligently uie the means to know it T j 
and refblve to f orfake it to his power, when he 
knoweth it, that fo he may not be wilfully imped- 
hm. And he that will fin as far as he think? will] 


mil grace, either hath no true 'grace, or 
dl net know that he bath ir. 


nmz cf refentanc* or mercy, may 
be laid in two Sencesto be pad ; i. Wherr a man 
(hall not be accepted and pardoncd,though he fhouid 
pent: And fo the Day of grace is never pall ia 
this Life ( and the Damned do not truly repent in 
| our prefent Sence ; ) fo that for a penitent perfon 
fear that the Day of grace is paft, or his RepenSE 
tance too late ( if true) is to contradidt the Scope 
oftheGofpel, which giveth pardon to every one 
that truly repenteth. 2. When a man that beforil 
had fome motions and fxlps to repent, and obftinate- 
ly refilled them, fhall be given up to his bbftina* 
cy, and never have fuch motions more. Thus the 
Day of grace may be psft with many : And fuch - 
perfons turn from God to Wickednefs, and 
hardened in the love of fin, and ufually blinded to 
defend it, and hate a holy Life : But thofe that do 
epent, or fain would repent, or yet feel God mo-; 
ng them to repent, hare no caufeto think t 
od hath thus forfaken them. For it is only oti 
inate and continued forfaking God, tha£ is the 
gn ©f one forfaken by him. 
§. 18. And this alio is no proof to us, that fuch 
Ferfon is finally forfakpn. For many that have re- 
ded grace many years, are afterward converted 
y that grace : So that all that we can fay, is, That 
h as God hath forfaken, do continue to the end 
rejetf his Mercy,and prefer their Lufts \ but thaw 
will fo .continue to the end, no man himfelf 
ell before the end. 
§•19. About the HKfurdonablc fin there are two 
troverfies: 1. Wb*t it is. 2. Whether it h. 
Itttily mpard^nabk. 


(V %l 

i J Ui 

Mr. Hales of 
* ageinfl: dia 

■forth. 12. 



doubted : But the fin in queflion is 
called , The Blafphetny again ft the 
Holy Ghott •, of which having writ- 
ten a fpecial Tra&ate, I now only 
fay, That it is the Sin of fitch as 
keheving not Chri ft to be the Son of 
GvdjMt a Deceiver ^andyet bang con* 
mbnctcl of hUj and his Dif rifles Miracles , do in their 
Wkdff merits thinker and blafphemoufy fay and maintain^ 
mbar they re ere done by the power of the Devil to de« 
Wive men. Thefe men rejecting the laft convincing 
means of Fakh, arc left b$ themfelves remedi- 

~> 20. But, 2. thcPapifls and many Ancients 

That by [><?r forgiven 3 is meant only [very 

ardrartly - 3 but moft Proteftants expound 

ordsabfoiutely, as they run:, which theRea- 

zx will think moft probable, I leave to hisconii- 


§. ill Some think that the Novatians der 
ill pardon to fuch as committed any great fin after 
aptifai} but Albttfpin&us^ PetaviM) and others; 
|ave truly proved that it was not fo, but onjy that 
icy denied lower in thc / Church to pardon fuch 
feckftiders •, which yet, no doubt, was their Error,y 
feeing as God on his part pardoneth men as oft 
L "ley truly repent ; fo the Church muft pardon as 
ir as belongs to them, fuch as y^** truly to re- 
*nt : But frequent grofs finning doth fo much dis- 
prove me: s verbal repenting, that fuch mens 
lit being forfeit, :her words are not to be taken 
ill they amend their lives, 

THE £ fit D,