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Full text of "Against the revolt to a foreign jurisdiction : which would be to England its perjury, church ruine and slavery .."

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Againft the Revolt to / j ?~~~,? 

A Foreign Turifaiction, 

Which would be to England ' its TFRJz/RL 

In Two Parts. 

I. The Hiftory of Mens Endeavors to introduce m 

II. The Confutation of all Pretences for it. 

Fully Hating the Controverfie , and Proving , That there is no 

Soveraign Power of LegifUtion, Judgment and Execution over 

the whole Church on Earth, Ariftocratical or Monarchical, biir 

only Chrifts : Efpeciaiiy againft the Ariftocratifts who place it 

^ in a Council or College, j 

By RICHARD ^BAXTER, an Earneft Defirer of [ 

the Churches Concord , and therefore an Enemy to all filfe J 
Terms, and Dividing Engines , and Self-exalting Se&s ; and 
a Defender of ChriiYs own aflfigned Terms, whicn take in aJl 
the true Chriftians in the World , afid are Injurious or Cruel 
to none. ,, ..■■-■-»- 

To be offered to the next Convocation , befeeching them to own 
the Doftrine of Foreign Communion , but to note with Re- 
nunciation the Dcftrincof foreign J urifdidion, and to Vindi- 
cate the Reformed Church of England, from the Guilt and 
Sufpition which the French and Innovators injurioufly feek to 
faften on the m. ^_ 

Luk. 22. 24, 2 5, 26. And tbtre wo* a-Jirife among them rri ich of tarn 
(hould be accounted the Greateji : Ana he [aid to them , The Kings of 
the Gentiles exercife Lordfhip over them, and they that exercifs Autho- 
rity upon them are called Benefaclors : But ye (hall not befo ', but he 
that is greatefl among you, lit him be as the Toungtr, and ht that a 
. chief as he that doth ferve. 

1 Theff. 5. 1 2. We bejeecb you Brethren to know them which lahcur among 
you, and au over yon in the Lord, and admonifhyou . 13. And tc eftam 
them very highly in love for their worl^ fa f(ej and be at Peace amcng 
your ft Ives. 

Ltndon, Printed for lho> Paitywfl at the Bible and fhit Crowns, 
at the lower end of <%eav[iit. near Mercers Chapel. \6o\. 



I — la — fc4 

To the Reverend and defervedly Honoured 


Dean of Sc. Tad's Church - 
Reverend Sir y 

TH E Meffage on which this 
Epiftle cometh to you is, to 
in treat you to Prefent this 
Treatife to the next Convocation,and 
to endeavour their publick renuncia- 
tion of Foreign Jurifdiftion, and their 
cenfurc of the Books that are written 
here for it. The Reafons of my re- 
quest are, 

I. The Canons condemn them, 
that deny the Convocation to be the 
Church of England Reprefentative : 
And they that have written for and 
promoted this Dodlrine and Defign, 
A 3 have 

%he Epiftle Dedicatory. 

hwc net only been Chief Men in the 
Church, but have laboured to fatten 
their Doctrine on the Church, which 
yet before the time of Bifhop Laud, 
the Church difclaimed and openly 
condemned; and took FqreignBifhops 
and Councils, for Brethren and a lau- 
dable means of Communion, while 
they did their proper work, but not 
by Jurifdidtion to be the Governpurs 
of us, and all Chriftian Kings and 
Kingdoms as their Subjects. And 
who can be Ignorant, that when at 
the prefent the Papift Bifhops are 
very Many to One Protectant Bi- 
fhop, they will accordingly carry 
k by their Votes in Councils : And 
it the Major Vote be the Collegium 
Pafto/um, that have the Chief Go- 
vernment in the Interval of Coun- 
cils, we arc now Subjects to the Bi- 
fhops and Church of Rome : And if 
»'•:.• i-(>is?an Petrm Primus mud call 


/be Efifiie Dedicatory. 

the next Council, (or there mufl be 
none till all Chriftian Kings agree 
to call ic ) the prefent College is 
like to be long the Univerfal Ari- 

The Reprefentative Church of 
England is fo nearly concerned in 
this great Matter, both for the mo- 
ment of it , and the imputation of 
this Defign unto it, that we cannot 
think they will lightly pafs it by 
without their cehfure. 

Which will be ; the more expe- 
cted becaufc of the Owning of 
Dr. Beveridges Sermon to them, 
which, I have here examined. 

Dr. Whitby s Reconciler of Prote- 
ftants efcaped not the Oxford cen- 
fure 5 and we hope the Reprefen- 
tative Church of England, will not 
be more favourable to Suh]euiion y 
which is more than Reconciling to 
the foreign Papi/is : Left they che- 

A 4 rifli 

/ m aptjue veciicatory, 

srifli the Sufpicion that the defire of 
{o much Concord with France in 
(Church Conftitution and Govern- 
ment, will intimate a preparation to 
another Relation to them, which 
England cannot bear with eafe. 

4nd we are loth to be difabled 
to confute the Separatifts, that will 
never be reconciled to the Church of 
England; if they can fay that it is 
revolted to a Subjeftion to the Pa- 

But why ihould we doubt whe- 
ther the Convocation will renounce 
that which both themfelves and all 
the Church and Kingdom are Sworn 
agamft 5 even all Ecclefiaftical Foreign 

JL The Reafons why I prefume 
p defire you to be the Man that 
ihall prefent this Book and Motion 
to them, Are i. Bccaufe it is faid 
dm Cuilom maketh the Dean of 

The Efiftle Dedicatory. 

Pauls ufually to be chofen the Pro- 
locutor to the Lower Houfe. I fpeak 
but by hearfay , having never been 
one of them : ( For the Clergy of 
London choofing Mr. Calamy and Me 
for their Clerks, of that Convocation 
that made the Materials of the late 
differencing Impo fit ions, Bifhop Sfo/- 
don by Prerogative excluded us to 
our great Eafe : and fo the City of 
London confenccd not by their Clcrh 
to any of thofe Adts.) 

2. And you are the Man that 
Published that Excellent Book of 
Dr. Jfaac Barrow , which unanfwera- 
bly (againft Mr. Thomdike and fuch 
others) confuted the Pretences to a 
Foreign Jurifdidtion. 

3. And you are known to be fo 
firm a Friend to Love, Concord and 
Peace, (like your Father in Law Bi- 
fbop Witkjns, who once by appoint* 
ment treated, and agrccv| with us in 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

a Uniting Form of Concord ) that j 
pay confidently expedt your beft 

If any fhould be fo adverfe to 
this NecefTary Work as to turn it 
off by diverting to Accufation a- 
gainft me , or the Nonconformifts, 
I pray tell them how impertinent 
that is to the prefent Bufinefs : And 
if it be needful, -.(hew them my 
Treatife for National Churches , and 
that of hpijeopacy $ and my Englifh 
Nonconfomiity fiated and argued: And 
whereas I am faid to have refufed a 
Bifhoprick becaufe I was againft Epif- 
copacy, be it known that in \66i 9 
the Pacificators never offered any 
thing lower than Archbifhop Vfhers 
Model of the Primitive Epifcopacy : 
And when the King's Declaration 
granted us lefs , we Publifhed a 
Thankful Acceptance. And I gave 
in Writing the Reafons of my Re- 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

fufal to the Lord Chancellor Hyde, t 
That If that Declaration were Confirmed 
hy a Law, I would be no Bijhop, becaufe 
2 would not di fable my felf to perfxpade 
as many 06 I could to Conformity, hy 
drawing them to fay that I did it for my 
own Ends. Which Anfwer fatisfied 
the Lord Chancellor. I think every 
Biihoprick in England hath Buried 
many of its Bilhops fince my refufal 5 
who am now near Dying in the 
76th Year of a Painful Life 3 and in- 
treat you though I be Dead to 
do this Office, for the Endangered 
Church of England \ and for your 
truly honouring Brother, 

JRi. Baxter, 




THis Book^ being Written at fever al 
times, mo ft of it many Tears ago, 
and fome lately, and anfwering 
many Perfons who ufe the fame Argu- 
ments, it hath one blemijh which I am 
a foamed of in the review : that is, The 
too oft repeating the fame things $ efpe- 
cially in my four Letters to Bijbop Gurr 
ing , occafioned by our oft repeating 
them in Conference. The thing is ufual 
in long Deputations, (as in the School' 
men , in Dr. Twiffe Find. Grat. and 
fuch others , the Advcrfary making it 
needful '5 ) But I am far from jufUfyin? 
it : Had I intended it as one orderly 
T>eatife at fir ft , and not mitten the 


To the Reader. 

Tarts on fever al Occafions, or had I yet 
Time and Strength to have caft it into 
a more regular fhape it might have been 
parjly amended : But I had rather it 
came out thus than not at all : Whoever 
is difpleafed at it, by guilt or different 
judgment, I will pleafe my Confcience, 
vphofe Peace I find poffible and quiet- 
ting, while fuch Mens hath been neither 
hitherto to me. 

1 know that Age and Natural Weak; 
nefs, hath been part of the Caufe of my 
forgetting oft that I had written the 
fame before. But while I confefs this 
Infirmity, I will tell the Reader two Sto- 
ries for his ufe of it. 

I read in a great Man that eft re- 
peating in the Pulpit the fame thing, 
was a fign to the Hearers, that their 
Teacher fpa/^e not crudely and rajhly 
that he had never digefted or well flu- 
diedjior light things that he valued not: 
but that which he thought neceffary and 
had long confidered. I 

To the Reader. 

7 heard of a Preacher that would 
Heeds have his Servant tell him what 
Men [aid of his Preaching: And bei?ig 
urged {hit loth)- -he f aid $ They fay, 
Sir, that you very often repeat the 
fame things $ And to tell you the 
truth, I think it is too true : For the 
Iaft Day you repeated that which you 
had (aid divers Days before : Saith 
his Mafter, Tell me what it was ? He 
Paufed awhile, and f aid, I remember 
not the words now : Saith his Mafter y 
Didft thou fo understand them as to 
tell me the Matter and meaning of 
them ? But he could tell neither : Nay 
then, faith his Mafler , I will repeat: 
them yet again for thy fake, and fuch 
as thou art : Till they are underftood 
and remembred I have not faid them 
oft enough, God be merciful to m 
Sinner s t 




Of the Firft Part. 

i A N Hiftorical Preface'. 

•IJL Chap. I. The Proteftant Church of England 
is againft all Humane Vniverfai Soveraignty , 'Mq* 
. narchical and Ariftocratical , and againft alt fo- 
reign JurifdiEhion. 

Chap. II. This whole Kingdom and Church is J worn 
againft all Foreign Jurifdic~tion y and again ft all En- 
deavours to alter the Government ; andmuft not he 

Chap* III. What Endeavours were ufed by Papifts to 
bring England under a Foreign Jurifdiclion in 
'King James s time. The Bifhop of Ambrun and 
others wrong him. 

Chap. IV. Of the Papifts Endeavours in K. Charks 
time, and the great Injury they did him efpecially 
the Jrifli. Maimburgh Declaration of the But- 
chefs of York. 

Chap. V* The Foreign Leaders of the £ngli(ij Conci- 
liators who are for a Foreign*} urifdiclion. Ger for* 
for the fuffciency of Chrift's Law to rule the 

Chap. VI. Grotius'j Judgment in his own words. 

Chap. VI L The fever al forts of Peace- maimers about 
Jt opiflj Contro vsrfics. 

Chap. VIII. 

The Contents. 

Chap. VIIL The -pterin of ArchbiJhop^xovs^L 

defending GrotillS. 
Chap. IX. The Judgment ofArchbiJhop Laud, as de+ 

livercd, I. By Br. Hey 1 in. 2. By himfelf 
Chap. X. Dr. Peter Heylin'/ own Judgment. 
Chap. XL The Judgment of Mr. Herbert Thorn- 

Chap. XII. The Judgment of Br. Sparrow Bijhop of 

Norwich, and divers others. 
Chap. XIII. Bifiop Sam. Parker'* Judgment. 
Chap. XIV. Br. SzywdYs Arguments for a Foreign 

JurifdiBion confldered. 
Chap. XV, XVI, XVII, XVIIL Four Letters to 

Bifiop Guning about a Foreign Jurifditlwn* 
Chap XIX. Mr. H. DodwellV Leviathan again 

Anatomized % and his Second V art confidere dialled 

A Difcourfefor One Altar and One Priefthood. 
Chap. XX. Of Bean Th. Pierce ( and Dr. Ham* 

mond cited by him.) 

Chap. XXI. That this fort of Prelatifis who have 
been for a Coalition with, the French or Roman 
Church., have been the great Agents of all the Bi* 
aiding , Silencing , Persecuting Laws , which have 
brought and kept us thefe 27 Tears in our lacerate 

Chap. XXII. How they have been ftopt , and what 
Banger there is yet of them. 

Chap. XXIII. Foftfcript againfi Dr. Beveridge'* 

Convocation Sermon, 


L i 1 

An Hiftorical Prologue, as a Key to u?i- 
derfland our Englifh Differ ences. 

\ I. ^T is a dreadful Inftance of the fcttifh de- 
ceivablenefs of Mankind, that one of the 
JL moft happy Kingdoms on Earth, fhould 
be almoft confumed by their own hands, 
in Divifions infamous through the World, and 
that to this very day thtCanfe and 'Matter'-of them, 
is not known (except by the contrivers, among 
our (elves) by fuch who madly continue the Di- 
vifions. Nor is it known who is in the fault, but 
they ftrive on, accuiing one another. And it's one 
of the faddeft notices in this World, that ftudi- 
ous Learned Paftors that are grown old in Studies, 
and profefs all to be devoted to Truth and Love, 
are fo far from having skill and will to heal us,rhat 
they are the men that caufe the wound, and keep 
it open, and are greater hinderers of our Concord 
.and Peace, than Princes, Lords, or any Seculars : 
'And what one judgeth the certain Caufe of the 
Worlds Diviiions, another as confidently judgeth 
the only way to heal them : And both fides con- 
fefs while theyiay it en each other, that it is the 
Clergy that are thedeadlieft Enemies of Peace. 

§ If, It is not the noife of Drums and Ti urn- 
pets, which tells an Army the caufes of the War ) 
The Matters of the War can chufe their own 
Trumpeters, and talk loudeft of that which they 
Would have divert men from the true caufe Epl£ 

B V eopacyi 


copaey, and Liturgy, and Ceremonies, and Con. 
fortuity, are the things that make the greateft^ 
noife. But Jewel, BUf on , Hooker, &c. differed not 
about thefe, nor Sir Edwin Sandys, the Author of! , 
Enropa Speculum : Nor the Engliih Clergy and Par- |l 
1 iaments in Bifhop Abbots days, who were of their ^ 
mind, when the Differences began to rife and 
threaten us. 

§ III. It's certain that the fundamental, univer- 
fal Quarrel through the World, is between the 
followers of Cain and Abel, the Serpents and the 
Womans Seed, or the Servants of Satan and of 
Chrift : For the carnal mind is enmity to God, 
and neither is nor can be fubjed to his Law. Selfifh* 
nejs is the furn of wickednefs ; and Holinefs "of 
Moral good. Uniting in one God is poffible and 
fafe : But to the felpfij there are as many Religions 
and Ways, as fandy ielf- intereft requireth. Good 
men will'dogood, and bad men will do evil,under 
every Form of Government: Becaufe Great- 
Good men are fo rare, to keep Bad men from do- 
ing hurt, is not the fmalleft ufe of Laws. Good 
men of different Opinions can live in Love and 
Peace. I never knew any called Puritanes, who 
did not love and honour fuch Conformifls, as 

^ jU<£Bifhop Jewel, A- Bifhop Grindal, A. Bifhop Abbot, 
J* 1 a s*tlA' -'Bifliop^;/kr, Bifhop Davenam, and many fuch 5 

and fuch as Mr. Bolton, Dr. Sibbs, Dr. Prefton, 
Mr. Whateley, and all fuch other ; yea while they 
wrote againft fome of them (as Bifhop Morton y 
Hall, Downame, &c.) But what are the particular 
Quarrels ? 
§ IV. Departing from the only Center and 
til of Univerfal Concord, and devifins zxiVni- 
vzrjal Humans Sower aignty 7 hath fet the World in* 



[ j 3 

to mortal Difcord, on pretence of beift the only 
f way to Concord. Chriftonlyis the Head, the 
King, and Law-giver, and Judge of the whole 
: World: The Law of Nature, and facred infpired 
Apoflolical Scriptures, are his only Universal 
Law. Paftors by the Word, and Princes by the 
Sword (conjdyned where it may be) rule under 
him only in their feveral Provinces. God made 
the largenefs of the Roman Empire a Receptive 
Means of the happy propagation of Chriftianity. 
Mans nature is prone to felfifhnefs and ambition : 
By degrees thofe humours, and the Wifdom of 
'the World, conformed the Epifcopal Government 
to the Civil, and made thofe Biihops higheft, who 
dwelt in the Cities where the Secular Rulers were 
higheft. The Churches had before ufed to ferve 
God in Concord, and to Aflemble for Ccnfulti- 
tion when Concord required it, The Emperors 
'therefore exalted the great Bifnops, not to Go- 
vern alone, but to prefide in thefe Aflemblies, 
The firft General Council had been called as a ra- 
tional means to cure the fhameful threatning Dif- 
cords of the Churches, without the formality of 
any Prefident, fave the Emperor and a temporary 
Moderator : But three Patriarchs were foon fee 
up, and after made five, and other Biiliops in dif- 
ferent degrees of grandeur : The great and fha- 
king dangers bred by Religious Fa&ions, were 
ordered to be decided by Aflemblies of Bifhops* 
when changes were made in the Cities of the 
Empire, the Rule of conforming the Church to 
lithe Civil Government bred a competition be- 4 
It ween Rome and Conftantwopk, becaufe of the ;.; * 
jronflating of the Imperial Seat, They grew* 
higher and higher*? and whenever any Emperor 

?2 f ot ^\ 


of Conftthtinople fell out with his own Patriarch, 
he either put him out, or favoured the prehemi- 
nence of the Biftiop of Rome to curb him : But 
ufually his own Bifhop being at his command, he 
favoured his Incereft againft the Roman : And if 
being the Law of their Councils called General, 
that the five Patriarchs mud be there, by them- 
felves,or their Delegates,and the Emperors calling 
the Councils (upon great occafions) they called 
them in fome Eaftern City for the moft part, 
and the main Body of the Councils were the 
Greek Bifhops, very few of the Weftern being 
/^fr/ikn-jherej nor the Pope himfelf, nor at C. P. Cone, i. 
fo much as any Legate. 

When the Patriarch of Alexandria, who was 
the third, fell out with him of Conftantwople, be 
would extol the Roman Preheminence to ftreng- 
then himfelf: And when the Eaft had Arian per- 
fecuting Emperors and Bifnops, the Orthodox 
would fly for countenance to the Orthodox Em- 
peror and Bifhop in the Weft : But ufually the 
other four Patriarchs in Councils concurred, and 
the Roman Clergy were a (mall part of their 

But thefe 'Councils dolefully difagreeing, be- 
came a Church Militant, and on pretence of agree- 
ing, the Churches tore them all to pieces, and all 
upon two occafions t t. WHO SHOULD BE 
GREATEST, or pleafe the greateft for worldly 
ORTHODOX, when after the Arian and Mace- 
donian Herefies, much of the ftrife was about am- 
biguous words : Till at laft the Divifion of the 
Churches, the Degeneracy of the Clergy, the 
Bac'nefs of Emperors, and the Rebellion of Gene- 

C 5 3 

rals, and Mutinies of Souldiers, delivered up the 
Empire to the Infidels. And the Biftop of Rome 
became the Chief Rebel, and fet up the French in 
the Weftern Empire, againft his Lawful Prince, 
and furthered the Divifion of the Empire to its 
Ruine. But this Divifion occafioned an Univer- 
fal Claim. 

§ V. In all the old Contefts it never came in- 
to the mind of the Emperors or the Councils, to 
fet up a Government over all the World, but on- 
ly in the Empire : They never Summoned the 
BLliops of all the World but only of the Empire 
( and not moft of them. ; As I have oft faid, 
The Subfcriptions yet tell us that it was the Bimops 
of the Roman Provinces. But the Empire being 
large, they ufed fometime the fvvelling phrafe of 
totim Orbis , meaning Orb is Romani : And the 
Greek Patriarchs never dreamed of a Jus Divi- 
num, or Eftabli(hment.by Chrift, orhis Apoftles, 
much lefs of an Univerfal Power : For they all 
knew that Constantinople had no fuch pretence, 
being anew Ere&ed Seat $ And they were not fo 
impudent as to profefs to fet a Humane Law a- 
gainft a Divine .* And the Roman Bifhop long 
went no higher, nor ever ufed that Argument a- 
-gainft Conftantinople £ My Power is of God and yours 
but of Men ] which had been moft obvious and un- 
refiftible, and therefore would have been ufed, 
had it been true and then believed. 

Butatlaft, from the Name of Saint Peters Sue- 
ceffor., the Pope began a doubte new Claim. 
Chriftians at lead. ) And the breaking of the 
Empire neceffitated him to this pretence which 
B ? his 


his ambition had obfcurely before begun. For 
elfe, i. His old power had died, when he was 
no Member of the Empire, and fo from under 
the ancient Government and Laws : And all mud 
have been built on a new uncertain Foundation. 
2. And . when all the old Eaftern Empire was 
gone, his Power and Primacy would have been 
confinedto a narrow compafs. Wherefore he 
ferved his prefent interefh i« By fetting up the 
French Empire, and 2. By pretending to a right 
of Univerfal Soveraignty over the V Vorld as the 

Succeflbr of St. Peter. 

For a General hath no ftrength without his Ar- 
my, who muft have their Part in the Fight, the 
Victory, and the Prey: Popes always ruled but 
in and by thefe Councils : Thefe therefore muft, 
ss Church Parliaments have their Power in the 
Univerfal Soveraignty, and the Pope as Univerfal 
Monarch muft Rule not abfolutely \ but in and 
by thefe Law-makers and their Laws. 

How this Land was brought to Popery by de- 
grees, and how much the moft Religious Men 
did towards it, I muft not tell Hiftorically left I 
be too long. He that readeth but Beda y and 
Malmesbury, and Huntington, and Hoveden, and 

Matthew Varis, may fee how the Roman Grandeur 
drew on the change, and how good people took 
the advancement of the Bifhops in Wealth and 
Power, and the Number and Endowments of 
Monafteries to be the chief ftrength of the Chri- 
ftian Church,, while Princes were hardly reftrain- 
ed from Rapacity, Sacriledge, and from the 
Crimes that commonly breed in worldly Power, 
Wealth and Pleafure. The wickednefs of fome 
Princes made the Power of the Prelates feem ne- 


ceffary to bridle them : And then better Princes 
took it for their Chief Piety to advance them, 
who were all taken (or fared Perfons, Men of God: 
And after the Saxons overthrow of the Brittaws^ 
the Countrey being Heathens, and long in Con- 
verting, it muft needs be that ignorance muft be 
predominant for a long time: And the Cure of ic 
was greatly.hindered by the continual Wars of 
the Saxon Kings among themfelves, and after by 
the Damjh Wars and Conqueft. 

And under the Normans the Bifhops were 
grown fo ftrong by their dependance on the Pope, 
who was then grown to the heighth of his Ufur- 
pation, as that they were almoft in continual Con- 
tefts with their Kings. The Ignorance of the En- 
glifli Clergy was fo great that the Kings were put 
to fetch their chief Bifliops from other Lands, 
where they had got more learning than was found 
athome,and fohad been trained up in the heighth 
of Popery : And even thofe that were the moft: 
Famous for Learning and fuch Piety as then pre- 
vailed, were yet moft Zealcufly addidted to the 
Pope, and learnt of Rome to ftrive for Gran- 

Wilfrid of Torkjwho IS magnified by Malmesbury 

and others after Beda, was fo zealous to be the 
fole Bifhop in that large Northern Countrey, 
when the King and the A. Bifhop of Canterbury 
faid there was work enough for four, and decreed 
a divifion, that in refiftance of the King and the 
A. Bifhop he appealed to the Pope, and went di- 
vers times himfelf to Rome^ and once at Seventy 
years of age, rather than have his vaft Bifhoprick 

B 4 And 


And when by his better skill in Computation 
he prevailed againft the Holy. Scots for the Roman 
timeof£*/w, the Merit of that, and that he was 
the firft that brought in finging by'Antiphons, and 
the Benedictine Monkery were good works which 
he pleaded againft diminifoiag his Biihoprick: 

IV. Mahr.esbury y p. I J I. 

The mod Learned were placed at Canterbury, 
ffiz,, Odo, Dunfiane, fpecially Lanfranlte, Anfelme, 
cfc. whofe Miracles by the Monks are magnified 
beyond belief, which tended much to advance 
their Intereft. But what the generality of the 
Biihops were long, judge by thefe words ofMalmef- 
bury de geft. Font. li. i. p. 1X6. [Tpeaking how Sti- 
gandm gotboth the Bifhopricks of Winchefter and 
Canterbury, and how Sacrilegious and Wicked a^ 
Life he lived, felling Bifhopricks and Abbies, of 
unbounded Ambition and Covetoufnefs, adds, 
£ Scd ego cqnjich ilium non jndiciofed error e peccarc, 
quod homo illiterate ( jicuti pleriq \ & pene omnes tunc 
tewporis Anglia Epifcopi ) nefciret quantum deliquerit, 
rem Ecckfiafiicorum ne got tor urn ficut publicorum atli- 
tari exiftimans, "] that is, C ^ Ht ^ con j entire that he i 
finned not knowingly but by error $ That being an Illi- 
terate Mf.n y ( aj mofi and almoft all the BiJJjops of 
England then were ) he knew not how much he tranf- 
frcffcd \ thinking that Church matters were to be ma- 
naged .like Public!^ matters, 3 ( that is fecular. ) 
And this was in good K. Edwards Reign, and at 
the Cpnqueft. And is it any wonder if iuch Bi- 
ihops brought in Popery. And though the Con- 
queror ftrove not till he was fetled, he and his 
Son after him were fain to be refolute in defend- 
ing themfelves againft their own Prelates and the 
Pope: And though Hen, i. wifely ordered them, 


tbe Blfhops that had Sworn to be true to the Em- 
prefs his Daughter, broke their Oath, and after 
lwore to K. Stephen againft her, and brake thac 
Oath, and fware to her again, and brake thac 
Oath, and again turned to Stephen, and his own 
Brother the Bifhop of Wwchefter led the way : 
And no wonder when they were great enough to 
Build fuddenly the many great Caftles, {Sherburne, 
Salisbury, Devifes y Malmesbury, &c. which he fur- 
prized. ) And when Hen. 2. fucceeded Stephen 
after long bloody Wars, with the greatefc ad- 
vantage of a Powerful Government, yet was he 
not able to mafter his own Bifliops ftrengthened 
by the Pope^ Who feared not openly to ted 

him as Thomas of Canterbury did, [_ Cert urn ejfe Re- 
ges poteftatem [nam ab Ecclefia accipere, & non ipfam 
ab Mis fed a Chrifto , &c. Hoveden, Hen. 2. 
p. 285O 

§ VI. But the General and; his Army, the Uni- 
verfal Church- Monarch and his Church- Parlia- 
ment could not well agree. Many hundred years 
the Roman Church-Monarch having the Prefer- 
ments in his power, got Councillors to his mind, 
who were as ready to be militant againft Princes, 
; and Peace^ as he to command it : Till at laft the 
Monarch by a packt bribed Clergy having got 
poffeffion of a -fower like to abfolute, difgraced it 
with a fucceffion of fuch Moniters ofwickedneft, 
as the molt flattering of their Hiftorians declare 
to be unworthy to be named in the Catalogue. 
And they had fo often two Popes at once, filling 
the World with blood,- while by the Sword they 
tryed their Caufe, and at laft three Popes ("and faith 
Werner ks in Fafc. Temp once fix at once chat were 
then, and had been Popes) fame Kingdoms being 


[ 10] 

for one, and fome for another, that the Chriftian 
World could no longer bear the mifchievous ef- 
fe£ky>Fra?we having one Pope, and Italy andO- 
fnany another, expofe' the Nations to blood, and 
the Chriftian Religion to decay and fcorn- Till 
iffceceffity forced the Emperor of Germany and 
v other Princes, firft by the Council of Constance, 
and after by that at BafU, to overtop, depofe and 
corre<S the Popes. 

§ VII. But when the Councils were ended, 
though a Decennial Council was decreed, and all 
means ufed to prevent relapfe, the chief Executive 
Power in the intervals being in the Monarch f the 
Pope) and it being the Pope, and not the Coun- 
cils that gave Preferments, all the Councils De- 
crees againft Abfolutenefs, and for Decennial 
Councils proved but empty words. The worldly 
Bifhops clave to the Pope. Eagenim 4. condemned 
and Depofed as an Heretick, Simoniack, &c. con- 
tinued in defpight of his depofers, and their fuc- 
ceflion is from him to this day. The Greeks by 
ncceffity were forced a while to countenance a 
debauched Council at Florence, to undo what the 
other Councils had done, ( who are there pro- 
nounced Rebellious Church-Parliaments, who 
would have changed the Univerfal Monarchy 5) 
But being cheated, they went home, and had fo 
fad entertainment by the Greek Church, as made 
them repent, and wifih they had hearkened to 
.their Marcus Ephefm. 

§ VIII. Things returning to the old channel of 
Tyranny and Corruption, and their Clergy not re- 
forming, Reformers got a double advantage, r. By 
xhefenfe of the need of Reformation, which the 
two Church Parliaments, Confiance and Bafd (after 


C "I 

Tifa) had left upon the Peoples minds, with the 
general murmur at their fruftration. i. The hor- 
rid Corruption of the Clergy by grofs Ignorance, 
palpable Errours, Pride, Covetoufnefs, and almoft 
all iniquity, which made even nature loath them : 
Whereupon the old Bohemian complaints were re- 
afTumed, and Tec elm % Indulgences provoking L& 
ther, he awakened the Univerfity of Wittenburg, 
and they the Princes and Learned men of Germany. 

§ IX. At their firft awakening, they coming 
newly out of darknefs, were fenfible of little but 
the grofs fort of corruptions, which men of com- 
mon fenfe and morality might perceive : And 
few had ftudied the cafe of a Pretended Univerfal 
Jurifdi&ion, being bred up in the Reverence of 
that Church Unity for which it was pretended : 
But one Truth lee in another till the cafe became 
very commonly underftood. 

Accordingly men fell into three Parties, i- The 
worldly Clergy was againft Church-Parliaments, 
unlefs fuch as would obey the Pope, and againft 
Reformation, faying, The Pope was fitted to do 
what was to be done, for Councils and Popular 
Humours would never know where to flop, but 
would break down afl the Churches ftrength and 
i glory. 2. Luther s Party (after their riper thoughts) 
were for fuch a Reformation as confided in a nul- 
lifying of the Papal Church and Separation from 
it, as no True Church, but the Seat of Antichrift. 
3. A moderate fort of Papifts were for reforming 
of many things in the Roman Church, but not for 
nullifying it. They were for reconciling the two 
Parties, and for fubmiffive Conformity, but not 
for Separation. Such were J dim Tflag^ SUonim, 
and Agricola, who drew up the Interim^ and alfo 


C «*1 

Erafnus^CaJJander, Ar. Baldwin , Wicelius,&c. And 
in France the great Chancellor Michael Hofpit alias, 
Tk* w##;,and many of their moft excellent Lawyers 
and Parliament- men, and fome Bifhops and Di- 

Thefe men being offended at the Separating 
p:rt of the Reformation, were taken with the no- 
tion of Unity and Government, but underftood 
not the true ftate of the Controverfie, and were of 
two minds among themfelves. i. Some had long 
had an untryed notion by Tradition that the 
Church throughout the World was One Body Po- 
litick under one Humane Government. 2. Others 
never thought of that, but having feen a fubmif- 
fion of all the Weftern Churches to the Pope, 
thought a Separation unlawful- 

§ X. Eut the cafe of the Separation, which they - 
underftood not who blamed it, was this 

The Reformers took the Univerfal Church in 
all the Earth to have no Head, King, or Soveraign 
Governour butChrift, none elfe having the lead 
fhew of true capacity or right 3 and therefore 
that none had an Univerfal Legiflative, Judicial 
or Executive Power: And a Church-Soveraignty 
was a more irrational conceit than a Civil Sove- 
raignty over all the Earth : And an Ariftocracy of 
Biihops more irrational than a Papal Monarchy. 
Therefore they profeffed not to feparate from Pa- 
pifts as Chriftians, or from any of their Societies 
as parts of Chrift's Church 5 but to renounce, de- 
ny, and feparate from their new Vfurptd Church- 
Species or. Form, as it is feigned to be an Vmvcrfal 

Humane Soveraign with his Subjects. Had they ne- 
ver corrupted other Doctrine or Worihip this 
Church- Species of Univerfal Sovereignty, is to be 
feparated from. i.And 

2. And with all, the Reformers found, that 
though they could have fubmitted to Patriarchs 
as a Humane Power fet up by Princes, had they 
Governed according to the Laws of Chrift, yet 
i. It being but a Humane Power, 2. And one 
Prince having no right to kt up a Patriarch over 
another Princes Subjeds, 3. And the Roman iu- 
triarch claiming alfo the Univerfal -overaignry or 
part of it in Councils ; 4. And having corrupted 
Do&rine, Worfhip and Difcipline, they took it 
to be their duty to renounce alio the Pope's Pa- 
triarchal Government ; and for all Chrlftians to 
obey Chrift's Univerfal Laws alone, and the Lo- 
cal Laws circafacra left to man's Legiflation, of 
the particular Princes and Stares where they live. 
And not to place Univerfar Unity or Concord in 
any Ufurping Humane Soveraien, or their Laws, 
or mutable circumftances : And, had thofe ex^ 
cellent moderate Papifts before- named, well fhi- 
died this point of Univerfal Soveraignty, it's like 
they had forfaken Rome. 

§ XI. When the Pope thought to fatisfie the 
World, and confound the Reformation by the 
Council of Trent, the Cardinal of Lorain, and the 
French confented not to much that they there dids 
butftuck to the Councils of Con fame and Bkfil, 
left they (hould lofe the Liberties of the Galilean 
Church : So that it was long e're that Nation 
feemed to own the Council of Trent, and never 
did it heartily and univerfally ; but continued at 
fome further diftance from the Abfolutenes of 
the Pope than Italy ^ or Spain. And to this cay they 
continue to maintain, 1. That the Pope hah no 
Power over the King in Temporals : 2. That he 
hath no Power to Depofe Kings; 3. That Gene- 

C 14] 

ral Councils are fo far above him as to reform him 
and his diforders 4. That he is not Infallible 
alone, but in conjun&ion with the Church or 
Councils. And though fome have fpoken and 
•written againft the firft and fecond, Barclay and 
many others have confuted them, and the Parlia- 
ments have burnt their Books. And this is the Mo-' 
derate Popery of France. 

Well may I call them Papifts ftill $ for, i.They 
renounce not a Humane Univerfal Church Sove- 
raignty. 2.. They allow the Pope to call Coun* 
cils, and Prefide, and to be the principimi Vnitatu, 
and Patriarch of the Weft. 3. They know that when 
no Church-Parliaments are in being, the Univerfal 
Executive Power muft be continued, or the Uni- 
verfal Policy be diflblved : Therefore they allow 
the Pope a Right of Univerfal Government ac- 
cording to the Canons, but not Arbitrary 3 and 
therefore not above Councils : So that if thofe 
that are for the King Ruling by Law, and making 
Laws only in and by Parliaments, be yet for Mo- 
narchy then Condi. Conftan. Eafil, and the French 
are yet for Popery. 

As to our Reformation it is fo fully recorded by 
many and newly by that excellent and moderate 
Hiftorian Dr. Burnet, that for the time he writes 
Ifliall only tranfcribe a few Notes out of his A- 

Page 87. The Oaths which the Biftops fwore 
to the Pope and the King were found fo incon- 
fiftenr, as it appeared both could not be kept •? 
which caufed the Popes to bedifmift. 

Page 113. An Atl was made for Ele&ion and 
Confecrationof Bilhops; infhort, The King to 
name one, and the Dean and Chapter in twelve 


days tareturn an Ele&ion of the perfon named by 

| the King 

Page 138. Cranmtr, Ton Ft all, CUrl^and Good- 

rtk. Bifhops being called to give their Opinion 

of the Emperors Power to call Councils faid, 

That though ancient Councils were called by the 

i Roman Emperors, yet that was done by reafon o£ 

the extent of their Monarchy that was now ceat 

1 ed : But fince other Princes had an entire Monar- 

1 chy within their Dominions : Yetif one or more 

1 of thofe Princes fhould agree to call a Council to 

; a good intent, and defire the concurrence of the 

; reft, they were bound by the rule of CHARITY 

; to agree to it. 

Page 139. Cranmer faid that this Authority 

of General Councils flowed not from the Num- 
ber of Bifhops, but from the Matter of their de- 
cifions s which were received with an Univerfal 
Confent^ for there were many more Bifhops at 
, Arimini *— than at Nice or Constantinople , &c a 
Chrift had named no Head of the whole Church, 

as God had named no Head of the World 

Ifi Queen Elizabeth's Reign 1559. the Divines 

appointed to difpute againft the Papift Bifhops in 

their fecond paper maintain, That every Church 

■ had power to reform it [elf : This they founded on the 

Epiftles of Paul to the particular Churches, and 

St. John to the Angels of the Seven Churches 1 

In the firft three Ages there were no General 

Councils, but every Bifhop in his Diocefs, or fucb 

few Bifhops as could aflemble together, condem- 

ned Herefies, determined Matters that were con- 

i tefted ; fo did alfo the Orthodox after Arriantfmc 

! had fo overfpread the World that even the See of 

! Rome was defiled with it. 


[ i6 ] 

Page 358. A Bill that came to nothing was for 
empowering thirty two Perfons to revife the Ec- 
cleliaftical Laws : But as this lalt was then let fall, 
foto the great prejudice of this Church, it hath 
flept ever iince. 

For before this p. 129, 130. 1. 2. In King 
Edward's Reign Buceri Opinion was asked about 
the review of the Common Prayer Book : He 
wilhed there might not be only a denunciation a- 
gainft fcandalous Perfons that came to the Sacra- 
ment, but a Difcipline to exclude them : That 

the Habits might be laid afide, &c. At the 

lame time he underftood that the King expedted 
a New Years Gift from him, of a Book written 
particularly for his own ufe : So he made a Book 
for him concerning the Kingdom of Chrift : He 
preft much the letting up a itridr, Difcipline, the 
Santiification of the Lords day, the appointing 
many days of Falling, and that Pluralities and 
Non-re(idence might be effedually condemned -, 
that Children might be Catechized, that the re- 
verence due to Churches might be preferved, 
that the Paftoral FundHon might be reftored to . 
what it ought to be, that Biihops might throw 
off Secular Affairs, and take care of their Dio- 
cefTes, and Govern them by the advice of their 
Presbyters ; that there might be Rural Biihops 
over twenty or thirty Pari(hes, and that Provin- 
cial Councils might meet twice a year 5 that \ 
Church Lands be reftored, and a fourth part af- I 1 

■ figned to the poor 5 that care be taken for 

Education of Youth and for repreifmg Luxury, 
that the Law be reformed, and no Office fold \ 
but given to the mcft deferving, that none be 

put in Prifon upon {light offences The young 



King was much pleafed vvich thefe advices : And 
upon that began himfelf to form a Scheme for 
amending many things, &c — It appears by ic 
that he intended to fet up a Church Difcipline, 

and fettle a Method for breeding Youth- 

Page 361, 362, li.4. To return to Qjieen 2> 
iizabeth, the Changes are recited, and he addeth, 
[ The liberty given to explain in what fence the Oath 
)f Supremacy was taken, gave a great evidence of the 
Moderation of the Queens Government ; that (he 
would not lay fnares for her people , which is always a 
(ign of a Wicked and Tyrannical Prince. But the 
Queen reckoned that if fuch comprehenfive Methods 
could be found out as would once bring her people under 
any Vnion, though perhaps there might remain a great 
diver fity of Opinion , that 'would wear off with the pre- 
Cent Age, and in the next Generation all would be of 
me mind. 

Page 363. The Empowering Laymen to deprive 
Church-men, or Excommunicate, could not be eafdy 
excufed ; but was as jufiifiable as the Commiffions to 
I Lay -Chancellors for thofe things were. There are 
\ 9400 Bene fees in England, but of all thefe the Num- 
ber of thofe ( viz. Papifts) who chofe to refign rather 
than take the Oath was very inconfiderabU. Fourteen 
Bifjops, Six Abbots, Twelve Deans, Twelve Jlrch- 
deacons, Fifteen Heads of Colledges, Fifty Prebenda- 
ries, and Eighty Reel or s was the whole number of thofe 
■ that were turned out : But it was believed that the 
j great eft part complied again ft their Con feiences, and 
\would have been ready for another turn, if the Queen 
\had died while that Race of Incumbents lived, and the 
\r?ext Succeffor had been of another Religion* 

Read what he faith of Mr. Parkers great un- 

'willingnefs to be A. Bilhop, and the threat- 

C ning 

[ i8] 

ning elfe to Imprifon him. p. 363, 364, &c} 
_ I conclude with that honed Note, p. 369. 
£ There was one thing yet wanting to compleat the Re- 
formation of this Church, which was the reftoring a 
Primitive Jfifcipline againft fcandalous Ferfons, the 
ftabliflxing the Government of the Church in Ecclefiaf- 
tical hands, and taking it out of Lay hands who have 

fo long frofaned it S<? that the dreadfulleft of, 

all Cenfures is now become moft fcorned and defpifed 
See the reft. 

The Papifts in Queen Elizabeth's days fome- 
time ftrove by Treafons the recovery of their 
Power; and fecretly ftrove by Policy to divide 
the Proteftants, and to root out thofe that were 
moft againft them. The Minifters unhappily fell 
into thefe Parties. 1. Some were for the Gran- 
deur of the Bifhops, and forftri<ft obfervance oi 
Liturgy and Ceremonies, and againft Parochial 
Difcipline ; and thefe prevailed with the Q^een. 
2. Some were againft Diocefan Biflhops and Ce- 
remonies, and fome things in the Liturgy, anc 
were for Parilh Difcipline : And thefe were cal- 
led Nonconformifts and Puritans. 3. Melanttho?. 
and Biicer had prevailed with fome others, whc 
were indifferent as to Bifhops, and moft of the 
Ctoni*^ Ceremonies and Forms, but Zealous for Parifh 
"jfitx t<£ -Difcipline and a godly Life, and for ufing things 
indifferent only indifferently, to Edification, and 
not to the hinderance of the Miniftry of refufers 
And B veers Serif ta Anglicana written for K- Ed* 
ward> which urged this Parifti Difcipline with 
great Zeal and Judgment, prevailed with a grea: 
part of the Queens Council, and of the Proteftam 
Nobility and Gentry - 7 but moft of the Clergy 
were of the two firfc mentioned Opinions, called 
Extreams by others. $4 

t *9ll 

§ 4. All the Parliaments that were called irt 
Queen Elizabeth's time were ftill fufpicious rhar 
Popery would keep too much ftrength by the 
peoples Ignorance and Impiety, for want of good 
Preaching and godly Living in the Miniftry : And 
therefore were ufually complaining of the Bifhops 
( efpecially Whit grift ) for filencing fo many 
Nonconforming Preachers, and keeping up Co ma- 
ny Pluralifts, and fo many meer Readers : And 
they were oft attempting a Reformation of this, 
and to have reftored the Nonconformifts, and 
united the godly Proteftants : But by the Bifhops 
Counfel the Queen ftill retrained them, and 
charged them not to meddle with Fxclefiaftical 
Matters , as belonging to her ; In Sir Simond 
Dewes Journals you may fee the many attempts 
andherconftant prohibition and reftraint : And 
Parliaments were loth to offend her, or make any 
breach, remembering how great a deliverance 
they had by her from Qiieen Marys Perfections- 
Though they grudged at the Imprifonment of 
Mr. Strickland and others that had fpoke earneftly 
for Reformation, of Bifhops Affairs, and the Mini- 
ftry, yet they bore it patiently becaufe of whac 
they did enjoy. One of their ftrongeft attempts 
you may read in their Petition of Sixteen Articles 
in Sir Sim. Dewes, An. J 584, and 1 587. page's? 7. 
which is well worth the reading : But it was not 

But (he long endured the Popiili tfi/hops in their 
Seats, though in Parliament the A £i(hop of rork 9 
the Bifhop of London, the Bifhops of Worcefter, 
Landaff, Coventree, Oxford, Chefter, the AbbDC of 
Weftminster were againft the Bill for the Supre* 
mScy and abolifhing Popery, See Sir 5. Dewes 

C * p, *8; 


p. 28. and p. 23. a! lb the Bifhops of Winchester, 
Carlile, Exceter. Which patience of hers men- 
tioned put Sir S. D. theHiftorian on the recital 
of fo large a Catalogue of Records for the Kings 
Power againft the Pope and Ufurping Bifhops as 
is worth the reading, page 24. 

§ 5. Alfo for many years the Papifts came to 
our Temples, till the Pope forbad them : But the 
Parliament men much differed about this: Some 
would have all men forced to the Sacrament : 
Others would have them forced to hear fome al- 
lowed Teachers, but not to be compelled to the 
Sacrament, becaufe it is the inverting of men in 
the Pardon of fin and right to Salvation, which no 
unwilling Perfon is capable of. Of this fee in the 
forefaid Author, p. 177. the Excellent Speech 
of Mr. AgUonke, and cf others. 

I mention this becaufe the late Reconcilers have 
made the mixture of Papifts and Proteftants in 
Communion the firft ten years of the Queen to 
be the defireable ftate to which they would have 
had us reduced. Of which more anon. 

But the Queen here alfo reftrained them, and 
would have all left to her and the Bilhops. 

Mr. Yelverton told them how perillous a Prefi- 
dent it might prove for worfer times for the Par- 
liament to be fo reitrained ? Where ( faith he ) 
there was fuch fulnefs of Power, as even the right of 
the Crown was to be determined, and by warrant 
whereof we hadforefolved, that to fay the Parliament 
had no Power to determine of the Crown was High 
Treafon. Ibid, page I j6. 

§ 6. The Invalion 1588, and many Treafons, 
and the Popes Excommunications, increafed the 
Parliaments Zeal againft Popery, and the Cler- 

[ »l 1 

giesalfc And when the Cafe of the Queen of 
Scots was referred to the Council of the Parlia- 
ment, they earneftly urged the Queen by many 
Reafons, to execute the Sentence of Death which 
was part upon her ; feeing while the Papifts hoped 
for her Reign, neither the Life of the Queen nor 
the Kingdom could be fafe. See Sir 5. D' Ewes, 
page 400, &c 

Thefe were their apprehenfions then of Po- 

§ 7. In K. James's time the horrid Powder 
Plot to have blown up King and Parliament, and 
the Murder ofT.wo Kings in France fucceflively, 
H. 3. and H. 4. and other Inhumanities, in- 
creafed this Kingdoms Zeal againft Popery. As 
the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy were made 
For their difcovery, fo multitudes of Learned 
Men were employed in confuting their pretended 
Sovereignty and manifold Errors. And the com- 
mon Preachers had ordinarily in their Sermons 
One Vfe, as they called it, for the Confutation of the 
Papifts. Befides that the Homilies and Jewels wri- 
tings againft them were to be in every Church.' 
And as many of the Bifhops in Qyeen Elizabeth's 
firft time were fuch as had been Exiles and Suf- 
fered by the Papifts, (o many both in her days 
andK. James% were Learned and* Godly Men,, 
who remembred former times, and were greatly 
defirous of the Extirpation of Popery, and of the 
increafe of able Preachers, and of the Concord of 
Proteftants to that End. And the Books of Mar- 
tyrs written by John Fox being common in all 
parts of the Land, increafed the peoples hatred of 
Religious cruelty. But fome few Bifhops ( fpeci- 
ally A. Bilhop Whit grift and Bancroft ) exceeded 
C 3 the 

[ 11 J 

the reft in their profecution of the Nonconfor- 
rniits; And though before by conniyance they 
bad enjoyed more quietnefs, yet when once the 
Canon was made and Executed for Subfcribing 
that £ there is nothing contrary to the Word of God 
in the Liturgy, &c. ] and the Excommunicating 
Canons, five, fix, feven, &c the reconciliation 
of the Protectants feemed hopelefs. 

Yet even the hotted profecuting Bifhops were 
firm Adverferies to Popery^yea Whitguift thought 
Arminianifm came fo near it, as made him con- 
tent to the ill- framed Lambeth Articles. And that 
unhappy Controveriie called Arminian ( which I 
bave largely proved to be over-aggravated on 
both fides for want of a diftind: way of Examina- 
tion, in my Cath. Theol. ) increafed the Divifion 
much. The Jefuits being moft hated by the Pro- 
teftants, the Arminians were taken to incline to 
Popery, though the Dominicans who had been 
oft the contrary f)dt^ had been the Bloody Ma- 
ilers of the Inquifition. And when our Englifh 
Arminians were accufed of approaching Popery, 
It inclined fomeof them to think more favoura- 
bly of a Reconciliation with thofe whom they 
were likened to. And the Papifts never ceafed 
their diligence, fecret or open, for the reftorati- 
on of their Forreign Jurifdi&ion and their Er- 
rours. 1 

§ XII. The Councils at the Later -anc, Lyons^nd 
others having fo fet up the Pope above Kings, as 
that thofe whom he Excommunicates may bede- 
pofed, and are then no Kings : And their Moft 
Learned Dc&ors writing this, the Pope came to 
lay much of his ftrength upon King-killing ; and 
it hath proved too fuccefsful : Had it been only 


C *? ] 

againft Rebellion, Kings had their defence : But 
what can one do againft a Defperado, who is pro- 
jmifed Preferment if he efcape, and taught, if he 
fo die for the fervice of the Church, to look for 
as much greater a Reward than Martyrs, as his 
fervice is more voluntary, and of more publick 
benefit than theirs? When Henry the Third was 
fo murdered in France, Henry the Fourth turned 
Papift, it's like much for fear. And when the firft 
Knife had but ftruck out his Teeth, the next difc 
patcht him. King James here was not a fearlefi 
man : He had known of the many Treafons which 
Queen Elizabeth efcaped. The Powder-PJot 
thundred to him, though it took not fire. King 
Henrys Stabs did yet fpeak louder. He was told, 
Thisfliallbe your End; think^not to efcape, Inflruments 
will be found who prefer the Church before their Lives, 
if you repent not. What a ftrait now is a King in, 
whofc Life is thus at the mercy of a thoufand de- 
luded defperate Slaves of the Pope ! That which 
kindleth revenging anger in a Kingdom or Seriate, 
may rationally caufe fear in a fingle man : For ic 
is eafier to kill a King, than a Kingdom or a mul- 

§ XIII. The unhappy Differences about the five 
Articles in Belgio (in which I am paft doubt both 
Parties there were much to be blamed) involved 
the Learned Hugo Grotm in fufferings : The Con- 
tra-Remonftrants were too violent, and trufted 
to the Sword of the Prince of Orange $ and Grottos 
being condemned to Imprifonment, and by his 
Wife got out in a Trunk, on pretence of carrying 
away his Books, becoming the Queen of Swedens 
Refident Embafiador in France, no doubt exafpe- 
rated, and falling into intimate acquaintance with 

C 4 the 

C 24] 

the French Jefiiits, efpecially Petatrius, grew to 
that approbation of the Moderate French Popery, 
which I have here after proved, and to that de- 
fire of reducing the Proteftants to them, which 
not only Valefim Or at. in Obit. Fetavii, but his own 
Writings fully teftifie. And his defign was to 
bring Rome as the Miftrefs Church, to Rule, not 
arbitrarily, but by the Canons of Councils, fecu- 
ring the Right of Kings and Bifhops, and carting 
afide the Schoolmens iubtil vain Difputes, and re- 
forming the bad Jives of the Clergy, and fome 
fmall mutable things; and in this to draw in 
the Church of France, and England to agree, and 
the Queen of Sweden, and if poffible the Lutherans, 
and to crufh the tdvinifis as unreconcileable : 
And he tells us how many in England favoured 
what he did, though thofe whom hemifcalleth 
JfroTxhtift? were againft it. 

§ IV. The Church of England and the Parlia- 
ment being before difcontented at the Marriage- 
Articles as to Toleration, and at the Popes Agents 
and Nuncio's here in London, were much more of- 
fended at the changes fuddenly made by Bifhop 
Land. The blotting out the name of the Pope 
and Antichrift, and the Zeal for Altars and Bow- 
ings, and the report of a Treaty for Union with 
Rome, Printed by fome with the particulars, and 
their conceit that Armmianifm lookt towards Po- 
pery, and the carting out many Conformable Mi- 
nirters, and many fuch things, efpecially when they 
thought the Liberty of their Perfons, and their 
Properties had been Invaded, and that A. Bifhop 
Laud, and the new Clergy Men, ( Sibthorp, Main- 
waring, Heylin, &c. ) were the Caufe of all s I 
fay, Theie things railing in men a dread of Popery 


[ <y] 

our greater diftances were here begun; And 
though in A. Bifhbp abbot's days the Church of 
£tf£/*W was againft the Syncretifm, and few-went 
with Bi(hop Z, W at firft, lie afterwards got many 
to adhere to him. He that would fee all the Cafe 
in an unfufpecled Author, let him read Dr. Hey- 
tins Life of A. B.Laud, where he (hall findjnuch 
of the proceedings, and the Articles and Reafons 
of the Treaty with the Papifts. And if he add 
Land's Tryal, and Fujhworth's Collections, he may 
fee more. Heylin tells us that the Defign was but 
to bring the Papifts in to us, by removing that 
which kept them out : They that feared a Tole- 
ration of Papifts did much more fear a Cowprehcn- 
fen or Coalition, though their Converfion they de- 
iired : For they knew that they muft ftill be Mem- 
bers of the falfe Univerfal Papal Kingdom, and 
that we muft in the greateft points come to them, 
who without changing their Religion could not 
come to us: And if we could hardly now keep 
out thePope,what lhould we do when he had got 
ibmuch more advantage of us ? Befides all other 
Changes we muft change our very church- [pedes, 
or elfe we (hould not be of the fame Church, 
though we fate in the fame Se2ts : For a Chxreh 

which is but a [ubjetl part of a Sovereign greater 

Church, is no more of the fame [pedes toith one that 
isfubjeclto no other ( but Chrift ) than our Cities 
are of the [ame [pedes with a Kingdom. 

§ XVI. Thefe diftances between the old 
Church-men and the Laudians having increafed 
to that which they came toini64i. foddenly on 
Otlob. 23. the Irifh Rebellion Murdering two 
hundred thoufand, and Fame threatening their 
coming into England, cad the Nation into fo 


great fear of the Papifts,and next of Bidiop Lauds 
new Clergy who were fuppofed to be for a Coali- 
tion, as was the Caufe (where-ever I came) of 

Mens conceit of the neceffity of defenfive Arms*, 
and this was increafed by two or three Opinions 
which many were then guilty of, who had not 
Learning enough to know which fide was right 
according to the Law. 

One of their Opinions was, That the Law of 
Nature is the Law of God, Another was that no men 
have Authority to abrogate it. Another was that the 
Law of Nature inclineth men to Love their Lives , 
sind to private Self-defence* Another was that every 
Kingdom or Nation hath by the Law of God in Na- 
ture, a right of publicly Self-defence againft profejfed 
Enemies and apparent danger of its deftrutlion. And 
another was, that They whofe prof eft Religion oblige th 
them on pain of Damnation to do their heft to extermi- 
nate or dcftroy the Body of the Kingdom ( are to be 
taken for its prof eft Enemies, if they renounce not that 
obligation : Efpecially if they or their Confederates 
Murder two hundred thoufand Fellow-Subjetts, and 
apparently ftrive for power over the reft. Thefe Opi- 
nions being then received, and by many ill-ap- 
plyed, things then ran to what wefaw. 

§ XVII. When the old Churchmen and Par- 
liament on one fide, (and we know who on the 
other fide) began the War, neceffity caufed them 
to call in the Scots as Auxiliaries, who brought 
in the Covenant and attempted Illegally the 
Change of the Church Government j and all af- 
ter falling into the' nands of Cromwell gnd his Army, 
the King ceftroyed, the Parliament pulled down, 
and other unthought of Changes which we faw, 
Difcord and War grew odious to the Nation. 


C 27 ] 

And we longed to be reconciled to thofe that we 
had differed from efpecially in matters of Reli- 

Among others more considerable, I attempted 
in Worcefhrflnre a Reconciliation with them. I 
cryed firft with my Neighbours : The Gentry 
that I (pake with of the Royal Party, profefled 
willingnefs, and that theydefired but the Security 
of the EiTentials of Epiicopacy. Dr. Good and 
Dr. Warmftrie with others of them Subfcribed 
their approbation to our Agreement : When I 
tryed with others diftant, Bifhop Vjher eafily con- 
sented, Bifliop Brownrig on fomewhat harder 
terms, but fuch as would have healed us 5 Dr. 
Hammond on harder yet, but yet fuch as we could 
have born fave that he left all to the uncertain de- 
termination of a Convocation. Buc fliortly Dr. 
Warmftrie withdrew his Ccnfent, and as the rea- 
fon of it fent me a Writing againft our Agree- 
ment, faying, It was a confederacy with Schifm, 
and labouring to prove that they were no Mini- 
ftersor Churches which had not Epifcopal Ordi- 
nation, and much more to that effedt. I wrote a 
full anfwer tt) it, which fatisfied ail that I /hewed 
it to, but did not publifh it* The writinganfwer- 
ed was Dr. Teter Qmitttgs> now Bifhop of EIL 
Prefently I found this opinion, That they mn no 
true Minijters or Churches that had 'riot an tminter~ 
rupted Sacceffwn of Diocefane Ordination from the 
^pottles, but that they were true Minifters and 
Churches that had Roman Ordination, became the 
ftopto our defired Agreement, and I few that it 
proclaimed an utter renunciation of the Reform- 
ed Churches which have no fuch Succeffion, and 
yet a Coalition with the Roman Clergy, though 



the Bimops of Rome have had the mofc notorious 
intercifions. And having read Grotuu his Dif- 
cujfo Jpologetki Rivetiani in which he more plain- 
ly pleads for Canonical Popery, than he had done 
in his rotuwy or Confnltatio, &c. I thought I was 
bound in Confcienceto give notice to the Royal- 
ifts of the Grotian Party and Defign, and after 
printed a (mall Colle&ion out dtGrotiiu his own 
words : Thefe Dr. Pierce wrote againft,and others 
were offended at. But in the Second Part of my 
Key for Catholicks, I (hewed the utter iir.poffibi- 
lityof this Conceit of Sovereign Government by 
General Councils. 

& XVIII. When God was pleafed by the re- 
£ oration of the King to raife Mens hopes of Pro- 
teitant Agreement , I need not repeat what was 
done towards it 5 among many worthier Perfons 
by my Self, the Earl of Manchester and the Earl 
of Orery firft making from us the motion to His 
Majefty, w r ho readily confented, and granted us 
the healing Terms expreft in His gracious Decla- 
ration of Ecclefiaftical Affairs 1661 5 for which 
the London Minifters fubfcribed a Thankfgiving, 
and the Houfe of Commons gave him their Pub- 
lick Thanks, as making for the Publick Concord. 
But when the King under the Broad Seal granted 
a Commiffion to many on both Sides, to treat and 
agree of fuch Alterations of the Liturgy as were 
neceflary to tender Confciences, and the Bilhops 
and their Drs. yielded not to the leafi, but to the 
hft maintained that none were necejfary for them ; I 
faw in the Manner and the Iffne with whom it was 
that we had to do , and confequently what Eng- 
Und muft exped:. I eafiiy perceived that much 
niore would be impofed. For I faw what fome 


[ *9 : 

intended, and I could conje&ure what muft be 
the Means : But others went further than they. 
If I my felf had been of the opinion that a Syn- 
cretifm or Coalition with the Church of Frame 
on Grotims terms had been the way of Church 
Concord mod pleafing to God, and that all were 
intolerable Schifmaticks that united not oh thefe 
terms , as Members of one Univerfal Church, 
under one humane Soveraignty. It's like I fhould 
have done my beft to accompliih thefe things 
following, at leaft, if I were alfo of the temper 
of thofe of that Mind which I have known. 

t I fhould have laboured to render all thofe 
as odious and contemptible as I could , that had 
been againfi the Coalition. 

II. It's like I lhould have done what I could to 
Silence all thofe Minifters that were likelt to hin- 
der my Defign. 

III. It's like I fhould have defired if lefs would 
not do this, that more might be impofed on them, 
that it might be efie&ually done. 

IV. It's like I lhould have done all that I could 
to Banifh them far enough from the Ears and 
Prefence and Acquaintance of Rulers , that we 
might reprefent them at our pleafure^ and they 
might not anfwer for themfelves. . 

V- If all this would not do, were I fufficiently 
hardened , It's like I fhould endeavour to break 
all thofe that will not bend , and to ruine them 
utterly, and lay them in Jailes with Rogues , and 
make men believe that they are intolerable Per- 
fons deferving worfe, and that all this is Mercy 
to them. 

VI. It's like that were I of that mind and 
temper, I lhould make it my chief deiigu to make 


C 30 ] 

a tender Confcience a Scorn, and to drive it out 
of Efteem and Power, and then there would be 
little in the reft to hinder my defires ; I might ex- 
pe&that they would all take my Pills whom I 
could firft get to (wallow as big a thing. 

VIL I would make the great noife about Epif- 
copacy, Liturgy and Conformity , and not fay a 
word till all were ready of a Coalition with the 
French Papifts or Roman Church. 

VIII. I would (as Dr. Heylin) call this a Draw- 
ing in the Papifts to us, when we had opened the 
Door wide enough for their Univerfal Sove- 
raignty, and I would not call it a going over to 

IX. It's like I fhould learn oiGrotim, to call none 
Papifts but only thofe that count all good and 
lawful that the Popes do, or as Dr. Saywell, dif- 
own none but the Jefuked Party, and then I would 
d^ted and rant againft Papifts as hotly as any of 
them all. 1 

X- I would not put any Oath or Profeffionof 
Popery, or of an Univerfal foreign Jurifdi&ion 
on any of the Lay Communicants , nor on the 
Inferior Clergy till they were ripe for it: It's 
gently faid of Dr. Say well, What Btjhop puts yon to 
own the Power of General Councils before he will give 
yon the Sacrament ? If the Bifiops will but own 
and be fubjebl to a foreign Jurifdittion , and the 
Clergy only to the Bijhops at firft, and the Laity to 
that Ckrgy and Bifljop-, the Chain is ftrong enough 
at prefent, we need no more. 

XI. I will Prognofticate no further conditio- 
nally of my felf, but whoever is engaged in fuch 
work, above all cannot fpare the Engine of Hifto- 
ncaivmrmhs. Againft tlwfe that may not be 


heard fpeak for themfelves , nor be acquainted 
with them that hear the report, this muft do die 
greateft part of the work --, it cannot be probably 
done without it : Perjury is a thing that I will not 
meddle with. 

XII. They muft make the Differences of Pro- 
teftants as odious as they can, and make men bc- 
liev^that they are running mad for want of Ca- 
tholick Government and Unity , and as a late 
Book called AnAddrefs&c. tell them that lately 

there were an Hundred and forty fever al Setts, (and 

ifit be denied, it is but proving (o many Com- 

XIII. Above all, they muft fay nothing for the 
Pope bimfelfy but only for General Councils y advan- 
cing their Honour by making odious all that they 
Condemned, ahd by the Reverence that Prate- 
Rants have expreft to the beft as means of Con- 
cord : And they muft be fure to confound Concord 
and Government, Commnnion and Subjeclion. 

XIV. And they muft be fure to keep theMini- 
ftry* partly in hope of Preferment, and partly 
in fervile Dependance , and fpecially to Corrupt 
the Vniverfities , that part may be Ignorant and 
Vicious,and part ambitious Militants 3 And when 
once all thefe have got into Church Livings, let 
the Diflikers get them out if they can- 

XV. Some have ever found it of great ufe to 
Altering- defigns, to reprefent all that are againft 
it as Rebellious , and make Rulers believe that 
they are their Enemies. And when our King 
here hath done fo much by the A<5t of Oblivion, 
and advancing the late Duke of Mbmmrk , and 
acknowledging the Service of him and his Army, 
and many others who formerly fought againit 


[ i* 3 

him, I cannot but fufpeft fome Altering defign 
in them that would {till rub the old Sores , and 
fetch thence Materials for all their Purpofes. (If 
I may mix ridiculous things with- terrible ,) that as 
the drunken Man eafing his Bladder by a running 
Conduit, (tood half the day there in a mingent 
pofture, complaining to Paflengers that his Water 
would not Hop, becauie he {till heard thq£on- 
duit run 3 fo if they can but make the Nation 
Drunk or Melancholick, the noife of nothing but 
War , and Rebellion ^ and Bloody will make them 
think that their Blood is {till running. 

XVI. And beyond Sea, the Papifts have found 
it the greateft Expedient to their Succeffes, to 
keep Great Men from Study ,■ and Learning, yea, 
and from Confcience and Sobriety,and train them 
up with Sport, and Wine and Women , and De- 
bauchery, and ranting Jollity, and fcorns at, Con- 
fcience and Precifene{s, that they may not difcern 
their own intereft, nor have underftanding enough 
to fee the Snare, but may tamely put their foot in 
theStocks & under pretenceof Univerfal Concord 
and Government , make themfeives the Subje&s 
of a foreign Ufurpation. And if the Pope may 
but govern till the next General Council, it will 
be like a Leafe of many Hundred Years s as good 
as a Fee-Ample 5 And may he but Rule all as Pa- 
triarch and Principium V nit at is by the Canons al- 
ready made, it will be as good as the Guardianfhip 
of Infants, that will never call the Guardian to 

§. XIX. I muft fay after all this , that I love 
the French Church much better than the Italian, 
and if we muft all be Papifts, had rather we were 
French Papifts, of che two. And yet that I more 


C JJ ] 

•fear the French Papifis than the Italians. For 
che Italian Party are at fo vifible a diftance, that 
they can defign no way for their advantage but a 
j Toleration ( unlefs they could get the Govern- 
ment) And their Toleration would a while but 
make the Nation better know them , and more 
I jiflike them : But the French Party cry down 
Toler^ion, and truft wholly to a Coalition and 
:o force : They hope to do their work before its 
mown what they are doing : They will cry 
town Popery, meaning only the Pope's abfolute 
.-tower above Councils : It is but abating the La- 
:ine Service, Tranfubftantiation, Priefts Marri- 
ige, granting the Cup to the Laity, and two or 
hree more luch thing?, and crying up nothing 
)Ut the Name of the Church of England ( though 
rhanged by Subje&ion to a Forreign Jurifdi&ion ) 
:nd then crying up Obedience and Conformity to it 9 
nd crying down Schifm as an intolerable thing, 
nd the Papifts fliall feem to turn to us, and not 
ve to them, and then no DifTenter (hall be fuffer- 
•d. Mr. Thomdikes Book of forbearance of Pe- 
•alties, tells us of no other hope of fufferance, 
liHitonfuppofition that we all agree in fubje&ion 
O the thing called. The Vniverfal Political Church. 
I:\nd a Learned Tribe by Interefl and Opinion en- 
gaged in the Caufe may be ready by confident tri- 
umphant Writings and Difputes to make good 
11 this, and fcorn and tread down Gainfayers as 
chifmaticks. And the Coalition will take in the 
|>artsand labours of thofe that now are called Pa- 
i>ifts, who are trained up in Militant Arts. 

XX. But as long as God and the King are a- 
i;ainftthem, we need not much fear the Succels 
>f their Endeavours : Such a Care hath the King 
tad to fecure the Land againft all fufpicion of Po- 

D pery, 

[ 34 3 . 

pery in himfelf, that a fevere penalty is to be in- 
flated on any that ftiall fo defame him : Yea hejf 
bath paffed Ads for the Clergy, Corporations 
Veftries, the Militia, Nonconformifts, in whichl 
they are all obliged by Promife or Oath never tcl 
Endeavour any Alteration of the Government of 
Church and State : And again I fay, what fobeii 
Man can be fo fottifhas to think that to fubjeflr 
the King, Clergy, and whole Kingdom tome For-' 
reign Jurifdiftion of a pretended Univerfal Sove- 1 
reignty ( Monirchical, Ariftocratical or Mixt \ 
is no alteration of the Government of the Church 
yea of the Church- fpecifying Form. 

XXL This is a great fecondary reafon why we 
cannot be for fuch a change becaufe we canno 
Content that Church, Veftries, Corporations 
Militia, &c fhould be all perfidious or perjured 
Yea all the Land that have taken the Oath of Su 
premacy againft all Forreign Jurifdi&ion. W^ 
accufe not others but excufe our felves : Ye t J 
what Crime is it againft King and Kingdom, tc 
make them the Subjedis of a Forreign Power, 
leave to other men to enquire. 

XXII. God feemeth purpofely to have con 
founded them in their Defign, by leaving then 
no Materials for their Fabrick. I can imagine nc 
pretences of poflibility but in fome of thefe fol 
lowing ways. I. That it is the Colledgc of Bijfwp 
diffufed over the Earth that muft exercife Legifla 
tion and Judgment by Confent, or by Majority o 
Votes: And I (hall never fear the prevalency c 
this Opinion, till an Epidemical Madnefs turned! 

US into a Bedlam. : 

2. That it muft be a true General Council that 
muft Govern us : And this i$ no more to be ex 


<pe<5ied than that all the World fall under one 
Monarch, or that all Chriftians fave one King- 
dom Apoftatize 5 which God prevent. 

3. That Patriarchs with fuch Metropolitans as 

hey will call, be taken for the Governing Re- 

>refenters of all the Bifhops and Churches on 

izrth. But there is no poifibility left us of this 

vay: *F or it muft be either by the five old Patri- 

rchs or by new ones. 1. If the old ones, Gods 

judgments have made that way unpra&icable. 

. The Cities of Antiech and Alexandria are de- 

froyed, where two of the Patriarch! fhould be 

Jifliops. 2. The Turk is Lord of four of the old 

Patriarchal Seats 3 and none can be chofen, rule, 

r come to Councils without his Confent- And 

L ecan getalmoft whom he will Chofen, and fo 

; le Turk fhould be our Chief Church Governour. 

I ^nd the Places are bought with Money, and the 

ofleffors anfwerable. Ludolphns tells us that the 

atriarch of Alexandria is fome unlearned igno- 

mt Perfon that fcarce knoweth Letters, and 

lat Men are made Clergy-men there againft their 

ills, all Men ihunning the Office becaufe of the 

ufferings from the Turk which they muft under- 

d. They have no juft Qualification, Ele&ion 

r Power : There are three nominal Patriarchs of 

)\mioch chofen by three feveral Parties, befides 

jie Popes. They are utterly uncertain which of 

peaiis right, or rather certain that none of them 

re or can be fuch. All the four Nominal Patri- 

■Ichs zxt againft the Romans^ and feveral againft 

ich other : And many of the chief Chriftian 

lurches own none of them as their Governours, 

id none own them all as fuch. 

And muft our Kings and Kiogdoms be Subjeds 

D 2 of 

[ ?6 : 

of ignorant Subje&s of the Turk, becaufe once 
Men were advanced to high Titles over Towns 
now deftroyed, in one Chriftian Empire now dif- 
folved or turned Mahometans. 

4. There is therefore but one way left, which 
is for the Pope and his Privy Council of Cardinals 
tobetheftandingGovernour, by Judgment^ and 
Execution, and to call when Princes forcc^him to 
it, ftch European Councils as he can, and (as he 
doth ) to make four Nominal Patriarchs ( of 
Con ft. Alex, Antioch and Jernfalem) as Men make 
Kings, Queens, and Bifhops on a Chefs-board, 
and to call thefe General Councils, as he did that 
at Trent, and to keep the people ignorant enougl 
to believe it. 

As for the making of a fort of new Patriarch? 
there muft go fo much to agree who they (hall b 
among all Chriftian Princes and Nations, and ther 
to prove that they are the true Reprefenters of al 
others, and that the Reprefenters or reprefentec 
have any Univerfal Legiflative Power, that I an 
in no Expectations of any fuch Sovereignty. 
have proved againft Mr. Hooker that the Body o 
the people zsfuch are not the Givers of the Powe 
of their Govern ours, nd therefore cannot giv< 
power to an Univerfal Supream. 

XXIII. When I had feen al! Mr. Tbomdikc 
Books, and Dr. Heylins, and fome other fuel 
and A. Biftiop Bramhall's Book againft me, with 
long and vehement reproving Preface, I purpofe 
to have again dete&ed the defign, and have ar 
fwered that Bock. But my Bookfeller Nevi 
Simons told me that Mr. Roger Leftrange then C 
verfeer of the Prefs, came to him and vehement 
ly protefted that he would ruine him if he printe 

[ J7] 

my Anfwer to it : And when it might not be 
i Printed I forbore to Write it. 

Since then among others Mr. Bodwell hath ap- 
peared with moft Voluminous confidence, whom 
I have anfwered ; who I doubt not will want nei- 
ther Ink, Paper, Words or Face for a reply. 

My Conference with Bifhop Gming I thought 
( it againfl: the Rules of Converfe to publifh. But 
his Chaplain Dr. Saywe/l, Mafterof aColledge in 
Cambridge, whom I take for his Mouth, being 
himfelf prefent, hath publifhed what he would 
have the World to believe of our Difcourfe, in a 
Book againft me , for Univerfal Jurifdidion : 
And therefore he hath put (bmeneceffity on me to 
publish the Truth, which I am confident will not 
be to the Readers lofs of time, who will perufe it- 
When I had fent him my Book of Concord, he fenc 
me Dr. Saywell's firft, by Dr. Crowther, of which I 
wrote to him my fence. On this he defitfqcKme 
ko come fpeak with him, which having don^^ee 
several days, I thought it meet at Night to'Retol- 
Jed our Difcourfe and fend him the Sum of all in 
Letters, that neither he might forget it, or any 
Man mifreprefent it. Thefe four Letters I have 
therefore here annexed, and with them an an- 
fwer to Dr. SaywePs Reafons for a Forreign Jurif 
XXIV. I am fo far from charging the Church 
l 'of England with the guilt of this Do6trine or De- 
H'fign, that I prove that the Church of England is 
^utterly againft it. But then by that Church I do 
Wrioc mean any Men that can get* height h and conf- 
idence enough to call themfelves the Church of Eng^ 
^land ^ but thofe that adhere to the Articles of 
'^Religion, the Do&rine, Worftiip and Govern- 
mm by Law Eftablifhed, D 3 XXV* 

C ?8 3 

XXV. And I am fo far from uncharitable Cen- 
fures of the Men whom 1 thus confute, that I pro- 
fefs that I believe Mr. Thorndike, Bifihop Guning^ 
Mr. Dodwell, &c to be Men that do what they 
do in an Erroneous Zeal for Unity and Govern- 
ment, and are Men of great Labour, Learning, 
and Temperance, and Religious in their way : 
And 1 have the fame Charity and Honour for ma- 
ny French Papifts, yea fcr fuch Papal Flatterers 
as Barotitis who joyned with Philip Nerius in his 
firft Oratcrian Exercifes and Conventicles: Yea 
I cannot think that they that burn and torment 
Men for Religion, could live in quietneis, if they 
did not confidently think that it is an acceptable 
Service to God. And I fear not flill to profefs 
that were it in my power, I would have no hurt 
done to any Papift which is not neceflary to our 
own defence. 

But I mult fay that I much more honour fuch 

ZSGrnfon, Ferns, Efpwc*H6,Monlucins,Eraf/mtf,Vives y 
Cajfander.Hofpit alius, Thuams, &c. who among Pa- 

pifts drew nearer the Reformers, than fuch among 
us as having better Company and Helps draw 
fromward them , and nearer to the Defor- 

XVI. And as to ypu, Reverend Brethren Con- 
formifts, who are true to the True Church of 
England-, I humbly crave of you but three things. 
I. That you will by hard ftudy and Minifterial di- 
ligence and holineis of life, keep up to your power 
the common Intereft of Chriftianity, of Faith 
and ferious Piety and Charity. II. That you will 
heartily promote the Concord of all godly Prote- 
ffants, and therein follow fuch mealures as Chrift 
himfelf hath given us, and as you would have 


C ?9l 
Others ufe towards you. III. That you will open- 
y and faithfully difown the dangerous Err our of 
Jniverfal Legiflative and Judicial Soveraignty, 
md bringing the King, and Church, and Kingdom 
inder any Forreign Jurifdi&ion, Monarchical,Ari- 
locratical or Mixt ; and never ftigiratize the 
Church of England and your facred Order with 
the odious brand of PerfUioufnefs, after fo many 
r mpofed and Received Subfcriptions, Profeffions 
Uld Oaths, againft all Endeavours to alter the Go- 
vernment of Church or State, 

XVII. And as to the Nations fears of future 
Popfth Soveraignty, for my part I meddle no fur-' 
;:herthan i. To do the work of my own Office 
md Day, 2. And to pray hard for the Nations 
Prefervation, 3. And to truftGod, and hope that 
ie will perfed; his wonders in fuch a deliverance, 
is (hall confirm our belief of his fpecial care and 
providence for his Church. 
I But I muft tell you that fuch Reafons as Biihop 
Gnnings Chaplains , /hould nor be thought ftrong 
enough to make you fo fecure, as to abate the fer- 
vour of your prayers. His words are thefe ('more 
jcongrucfUs far to him than to you and me) 
page 282, 283. C U The only means that it left to pre- 
"' ferve our Nation from deftruclion> and to ft cure us 
" from the danger of Popery , is to fupprefs all Con- 
" venticles, &c. — • Being by this method provided 
t again (t having our People feduced by the Papifts, 

i cc which as yet they are in great danger of the next 

u thing is to confder how to prevent violence, that thofe 
cc be not murdered and undone that cannot be per- 
u fwaded to fubmit. Now to fecure this, H'isMajtfies 
^gracious pronnfes to confirm any Bills that were 
" thought necejfary to prcferve the J£ft<ablijhed Reli- 
D 4 " pot* 

[40 ] 

<c gion, that did not intrench on the Succeffion of the 
C£ Crown, do make the way very eafie '-, if our People 
<c were united among themfelves, and in the Religion 
" of the Church of England. For matters may be fo 
11 ordered, that all Officers Ecclcfiaftical, Civil and 
u Military, and all that are employed in Power and 
? Authority, of any kind, be perfons both of known 
" Loyalty to the Crown, and yet faithful Sons of the 
cc Church, and firm to the Eftablijhed Religion: And 
" the Laws that they abl by may be fo explained, in 
"favour ofthofethat Conform to the PublickJ v orfhip, 
<c and the difcouragement of all Diffenters,that we muft 
tc reafonably be fee are from any violence that the Pa- 
<c pijts can offer to force our fubmiffion : For when All 
> our Bifliops and Clergy are under ftrifb Obligations 
<c and Oaths , and the People are guided by them 5 and 
" all Officers, Civil and Military, are firm to the fame 
cc Inter eft, and under [ever e penalties, if they all any 
c thing to the contrary : Then what probable danger 
iC can there be of any violence or difturbance, to force 
ic us out of our Religion, when all things are thm fe- 
cc cured, and the Power of External Execution is-ge- 
" ncrally in the hands of men of our own Perfwafion, 
" Nay moreover, the Prince him f elf will by his Coro- 
" nation Oath be obliged to maintain the Laws and 
u Liberties of the Kingdom fo Eslablijhed.'] 

I am not of a Calling fit to debate the Reafons 
of thefe Reverend Fathers ; fome will read them 
v\ ith a Plaudite 5 fome with a Ridetc, fome with 
a Cavete. and I with an Orate : And he that will 
abate the fervour of his prayers by fuch fecuring 
words, is one whofe Prayers England is not much 
beholden to. The words with all their defigns 
are edifying, as Diagnoftick and Prognoflick,, I 
only fay, V Seeing we receive a Kingdom which cannot 


I 4' 1 

be moved, let us have grace whereby we may ferve God 
acceptably with reverence and godly fear • for our Cod 
i? a confirming fire, Heb. 12. 18, 29."] 

March 28. 1682. 

Chap. I. The Yrotejtant Church t/* England is 
againjl a/1 Humane Vniverfal Sovereignty, 
Monarchical or Ariflocratical ; andfo again/} 
all For reign Church Junfdift ion. 

I Prove this, I. From the Oath of Supremacy, 
which faith thus : 

" I do utterly teftifie and declare in my Con- 
" fcience, That the King's Highnefs is the only 
" Supream Governour of this Realm, and of all 
" other His Highnefs Dominions and Countreys, 
" as well in all Spiritual or Ecclefiaftical Things 
" or Caufes as Temporal. And that No Forreign 
" Prince, Perfon, Prelate, State or Potentate, hath, 
"or ought to have ANY JURISDICTION, 
" Power, Superiority, Preheminence or Authority 
" Ecclefiaftical or Spiritual within this Realm. 
" And therefore I do utterly renounce and forfake 
" all Forreign Jurifdi&ion, Priviledges, Prehemi- 
" nence and Authorities granted or belonging to 
i 4< the Kings Highnefs, his Heirs and Succeflbrs, or 
" united or annexed to the Imperial Crown of 
"this Realm. 

Here all the Kingdom fwears, That none have, 
I or ought to have any Jurifdi&ion here, who is 
Forreign. Yet fome Papifts have been encouraged 
i to take this Oath, by this Evafion. 



Obj. No Jurifdiiiion is here difclaimed ofFor- 
reigners,but what belongs to the King : But Spiri- 
tual Jurifdidion, called the Power of the Keys, 
belongs not to the King : Ergo. 

Anf. For fecuring the King's Jurifdiftion, All 
Forreign Jurifdi<ftion is renounced 5 fignifying 
that there is no fuch thing as a Jurifdi&ion over 
this Realm, but the King's and his Officers. The 
Power of the Keys, or Spiritual Power, is not 
properly a Jurifdi&ion, as that w T ord includeth Le- 
gislation, but only a Preaching of Chrift's Laws, 
and adminiftring his Sacraments, and judging of 
mens capacity for Communion according to thofe 
Laws of Chrift : And this under the Coercive 
Government of the King. Much like that of a 
Tutor in a Colledge, or a Phyfician in his Hofpi- 
tal. What can be more exprefly faid than this 
here, that [ kC No Forreign Prince, Perfon, Pre- 
V late, State or Potentate, have, or ought to have 
"any Jarifdidiion, Power, Superiority, Prehemi- 
"nence or Authority Ecclefiaftical or Spiri- 
" tual within this Realm J Is that of Pope or 
"Councils neither Ecclefiaftical nor Spiritual? 
Is not the word [Prelate] purpofely put in to ex- 
clude that Power hence which Prelates claim ? 
Though the King claim not the Power of the 
Keys, he knew that by the claim of that Power 
the Pope and Councils of Foreigners had been 
the did urbers of his Government : And therefore 
all theirs here is excluded as a neceflary means to 
iecure his own. 

1. Popes and Councils have claimed a Legifla- 
tiv e Power over us and all the Church : But the 
Laws of this Land know no fuch but in Chrift 
overall, and in King and Parliament under him 



over this Land : And therefore the Oath exclud- 
?th the Power claimed by Popes and Councils- 

2. As to Judicial Power, thefe Fcrreigners 
:laim a Power of Judging who in England (hall be 
:aken for a true Bifhop and Minifter 5 who (hall 
lave Tythes, Church-Lands and Temples 3 whe- 
her the .Kings, Lords, and all Subjects, (hall be 
udged capable of Church-Communion ? or be Ex- 
:ommunicate : And our Laws declaring that all 
his Forreicn Claim is Ufurpation, fully proveth 
hat it was the fenfe of the Oath to exclude them. 

They claim alfo a Power of Judging who fliaJl 
?afs here for Orthodox, and who for Hereticks : 
And in their Laws the confequence is, who fhall 
3e burned for a Heretick, or be exterminated, or 
l/ter Excommunication depofed from their Do- 
minions, and their Subjects abfolved from their 
Allegiance ? But certainly the Oath excludeth 
:hem from all this. 

The moft of the Papifts claim no Power direct- 
ly due to their Pope, but that which they call Ec- 
defiaftical or Spiritual (the red is but by confe- 
quence, and in or dine ad Spirit italia: ) But if this be 
aot excluded in the Oath, then they intended not 
ito exclude the Papacy : And then what was the 
Oath made for, or what fenfe hath fc or what ufe? 
And who can believe this ? 

If the meaning of the Oath be not to exclude 
(the Pope's Ecclefiaftical Power, then they that 
take it may. yet hold that the Pope is Head of all 
,'the Churches on Earth, and hath the Authority 
to call, and difTolve, and approve, or reprobate 
General Councils, and may Ordain Biihops for 
•England, and his Ordinations and his Mifllonaries 
be here received, and Appeals made to him, and 


C44 3 

Obedience fworn to him, his Excommunications, 
Indulgences, impofed Penances, Silencings, Abso- 
lutions, Prohibitions here received : All which 
our Statutes, Articles, Canons,^, (hew notori- 
oufly to be falfe. It is evident therefore that this 
Oath renounceth all Forreign Ecclefiaftical Juris- 

II. The fecond proof is from many A& of Par- 
liament : Thofe which prohibit all that receive 
Orders beyond Sea from the Pope, or any Papifts, 
to come into England, on pain of death : Thofe 
that forbid the Do&rine, Worfhip and Difcipline 
both of Popes and Councils : The words of 
25 H. 8. c 21. are thefe. 

" Whereas this Realm recognizing no Superiour 
" under God but the King, hath been, and is free 
" from Subjection to ^ any man's Laws, but only 
cC fuch as have been cevifed, made and ordained 
" within this Realm for the wealth thereof, or to 
" fuch other as the People of this Realm, have ta- 
" ken at their free liberty by their own confent 
" to be ufed among them, and have bound them- 
"felves by long ufe and cuftom to the obfervance 
" of the fame 3 not to the obfervance of the Laws 
tC of any Forreign Prince, Potentate or Prelate 5 
u but as to the accuftomed and antient Laws of 
" this Realm, originally Eftablifhed as Laws of 
" the fame, by the faid fufferance, confent and cu- 
4C ftom, and none other wife : It ftandeth there - 
" fore with natural equity and good reafon, &c 
u that they may abrogate them, tfr. 

Moreover the Laws of England determine, that 
no Canons are here obligatory, or are Laws, un- 
lefs made (uch by King and Parliament. And if 
it be true which Heytyn, and iome others fay, that 


[45 ] 
. the Pope's Canon-Laws are all here in force flill, 
r except thofe that are contrary to fomeLaws of 
-the Realm, that is but as the Roman Civil Law is 
in force ; not as a Law of the Pope or old Ro- 
mans, buras made Laws to us by King and Par- 
liament. The Roman Senate and Emperor give 
us the Matter of the Civil Law, and the Pope 
and Councils of the Canon-Law 5 but the Sove- 
reign Power here giveth them the Form of a 
I Law ; as the King coineth Forreign Silver. 

III. The Articles of Religion prove the fame. 
1 . The twenty firft Article faith, 

" General Councils may not be gathered toge- 
ther without the Commandment and Will of 
cc Princes : And when they be gathered together 
" ( forafmuch as they be an Affembly of Men, 
" whereof all be not governed by the Spirit and 
;c Word of God ) they may err and fometime 
. "have erred, even in things pertaining to God: 
j " Wherefore things ordained by them, asneceffa- 
" ry to Salvation, have neither ftrength nor Au- 
* thority unlefs it may be declared that they are 
j* taken out of the Holy Scriptures. 

Here note, l ii That General Councils (fo cal- 
led) in the Empire, had no power to meet, much 
lefs to Rule, without the Commandment of 
Princes. And fo thofe called by the Emperor 
had no power over the Subjefts of other Princes, 

2. And true Univerfal Councils will never be 
Lawfully called, till either all the Earth have 
One Humane Monarch, or all the Heathen, In- 
fidel, Mahometan, Papift, Heretical and Prote- 
ftant Princes agree to call them : For one hath not 
Power over the Dominions of all the refl. And fo 
the Ariftocratical Party put the whole Church un- 

[ 4*1 

der an impofTible and non-exiftent unifying and 
governing Power. 

3. That which may be proved a Duty out of 
God's Word, was fuch before any Pope or Coun- 
cil made Laws for it So that if their Commands 
herein are any more than declarative, and fubfer- 
vientto God's Laws (as the Crying of a Procla- 
mation, or as a Juftices Warrant^ God hath fore- 
ftalled them by his Laws, and theirs come too 

And if all the Power that Councils or Biflio ps 
have as to Legiflation, be to make Laws unnece f- 
fary to Salvation, it were to be wiihed they had 
never made thofe that are hinderances to Salva- 
tion, andfer the Churches together by the Ears, 
and have divided them thefe 1200 Years and 
more. Surely our Englifh Canons 5,6, 7, 8, 
which Excommunicate ib many faithful Chri- 
fHans, do much hinder Salvation, if they be not 
neceflary to it. 

But it's apparent that they take their Laws to 
be neceflary to Salvation , 1. Who fay AH are 
Schifmaticks that obey them not 5 and that fuch 
Schifmaticks are Mortal Sinners in a date of Dani- 
nation.They that make th eir Canonical Obedience 
neceflary to avoid Schifm , and that neceflary to 
Salvation, make the faid Canonical Obedience 
neceflary to Salvation. But, &c, 

2. And one would think that they that tor- 
ment, and burn Men , and filence Ministers for 
not obeying their Canons, made them neceflary 
to Salvation. 

. The 34th Article faith, That [_" every Vdr'ticw 
^lar or National Church hath Authority to Or- 
."dainj Change, or Abolifa Ceremonies or Rites 


C 47 ] 

" of the Church, ordained only by Man's Autho- 
" rity, fo that all things be done to edifying.] 

And if fo, they that may aboliili the Rites or- 
dained by General Councils , or Popes , are not 
their Subje&s : nor is this Power of making and 
abolishing Rites referved to them , nor can they 
deprive any National or Particular Church of this 
: their own Power- 

The 36th Article faith, That [" The Book of 
" Confecration of Arch-Bifhops, Bifhops, and Or- 
<c daining of Priefts, &c. doth [Contain all things 
" neceffary thereto.^ 

But nothing in that Book doth make it necefla- 
ry that Englilh Bifhops cr Priefts receive their 
Power or Office from any Foreigners , Pope , 
Council or Bifhops* which yet muit be neceffary 
if they be their Subjects. 

The 37th Article faith, That [" Though the 
>c Queen hath not the Power of adminiftring the 
,c Word and Sacraments, yet [he is not, nor ought not 
" to befttbjeft to any foreign jurifdiclion ; And that 
<c the Bifiop of Rome hath no Jurifditlion in this 
" Realm of England.] And if fo, then he hath no 
Patriarchal Jurifdi&ion here 3 nor have foreign 
j Councils any. 

IV. King Edw. 6. Injunctions fay, That [" No 
! "manner of Obedience or Subjection is due to the 

" Biihop of Rome within this Realm] Therefore 
I not as to a Patriarch, Prefident or PrincipiurnVm^ 

: tatis. 

V. Queen Elizabeth's Injunctions fay, [ c No 
" manner of Obedience or Subjection is due to 

' <c any fuch foreign Power And Admonit. [No 

cc other foreign Power fhall or ought to have any 
" Authority over them.] 

VI. The 

[48 1 

VI. The Reformatio Legnm Ecclefiaft. c. 9, 10, 
11. 14, 15. are full proof: There the Reformers 
profeifing reverence to the 4 firft General Coun- 
cils as holding found Do&rine , add [" Qmbns 
\ tamen non aliter fidem noftram obit gan dam effe cen- 
u fernus, nifi quatenm ex S. Script uris confirmari pof- 

pnt : Nam concilia nonnulla inter dam erraffe, & 
" contraria inter fe definivtjfe , partim in aclionibus 
<c juris, partim etiam in fide manifeflum efi. Itaq; 
tC legantur Concilia quidem, cum honore & Chri/iiana 

reverentia , fed interim ad Scripturarum piam, cer- 

tam, rettamq-, regulam examinentur. 

C. 15. <4 Orthodoxorum Patrum etiam author it a- 
<c tern niinime cenfemus effe contemnendam ; funt enim 
<c per mult a abillis pradare & utiliter ditla : ut ta« 
<c men ex eorum Sententia de Sacris Liter is judicetur, 
" non admittimus : Debent enim facra? liter <t, nobis 
<c omnis DoVvrimc Chriftiana & regit 1 a effe & judices, 
tC Quin & ipfi Vatres tantum honoris fibi deferri re- 
" cufarunt, fepins admonentes let! or em ut tantifper 
" Juas admittat fententias & interpret at iones , quoad 
<c cumfacris Uteris confentire eas animadvert erit. 

Et de Ha?ref. C- I. <c Illorum intolerabilts efi er- 
" ror qui totius Chrifiiani or bis univerfam Ecclefiam 
€l folim Epifcopi Romani principatu contineri volunt. 
c * Nos enim earn qut cerni potefi Ecclefiam fie defini- 
,c mns-i ut omnium coetm (it fideTutm hominum, in quo 
a S. Scriptura fine ere docetur •, & Sacrament a (fal- 
QC tern his eorumpartibm qua ncceffaria funt ) juxta 
fC Chrifti prafcriptum adminifirnetur. 

Et de Judic Q>nt. Ha*ref c. 1. " Appdlatio 

t% reo conceditur ab Epifcopo ad Archhpifcopnm, & ab 
" Jlrchi epifcopo ad Regiam perfon.im ( but no fur- 

" ther ) Fid. de Ecclef. o 10. de Epifc. Pote- 
" flate. 


[ 49 3 t 

' Et pag. Ipo. " Rex tarn in Archkpifcopos y Epif- 
copos, Clericos, & alias Mmftros qnd m in Lako's 
intra fit a regna & dominia pleniffimam jurifdiftio- 
nem tarn civilem qudm Ecclefiafticam habet , S> 
exeuere pot eft : Cum omnis JarifdiEtto turn Eccle- 
fiaftica tumfecularis ab eo tanquam ex uno & eodem 
fonte derivantur. 

Et de Appell c 1 1. " There's no Appeal to any 
above or beyond the King, judging by a Provin- 
al Council, or Sele&BifhopsO 
Though the King died before thefe were 
ade Laws, they tell us the Church of England's 

VII. To faye tranfcribing, I defire the Reader 
perufe that notable Letter of King Henry the 
h to the.Archbifhop of Tork^: It is the firft Ik 
e fecond Part of the Caballa of Letters ; well 
urth the reading, to our purpofe. 
VIIL The Liturgy for Nov. 1. called the Pope 
ntichrift, And the Homilies to the fame fince: 
ad the Convocation in Ireland, Art. 8. 1615-; 
1 doth the Parliament of England, in the Ad 
? the Subfidy 3 Jacobi , of the Clergy. And 
•e they that took him for Antichrift , thought 
lot that as Pope or Patriarch he had any* ruling 
vver here. 

IX. The Apology of the Church of England 
\ Jewel's Works, f ordered to be kept in all the 
rifli Churches) faith, Pag. 708. 
["Of a truth even thofe greatefi: Councils, and 
vhere mod Affemblies of People ever were, 
.whereof thefe Men ufe to make fuch exceed- 
ing reckoning ) compare them with all the 
-hurches which throughout the World acknow- 
ledge and profefs the Name of Chrift, and what 


" elfe I pray you can they feem to be but certaii 
u Private Councils of Bifliops , and Provincia 
" Synods ? For admit peradventure Italy, Franct 

Spain, England , Germany , Denmark^, Scotland 
K met together - 7 If there want A fa, Greece, A\ 
cc menia, Perfa, Media, Mefopotamia, Egypt, Et bit 
Cl pia, India, Mauritania , in all which Plac< 
" there be both many Chriftians, and many Bi 
" (hops, how can any Man , being in his rigl 
" Mind, think fuch a Council to be a Genen 

Pag. 629. " It's proved that Councils have bee 
" fo fa&ious and tyrannical, that good Men hav 
" juftly refufed to come at them. 

Pag. 593. "But the Gofpel hath been carrie 
tC on without and againft Councils ; and Counci 
" been againft the Truth. 

And Jewel J Pag. 486. flieweth that [" Counci 
" have been againft Councils, and the Arrian H 
" reticks had more Councils than the Chriftians 
and flieweth' their uncertainty. 

Pag. 19. As to the Authority of Councils, A 
gnsline faith, £" Ipfa plenaria Concilia f<cpe Prior a 
" pofterioribtts emandantur. 

And of the Succeflion and Ordination of £ 
fhops, he faith, Pag. 131. [''If there were m 
"one of them ("that turned from Popery) or * 
" us left alive, yet would not therefore the who 
" Church of England fly to Lovaine. Tertutli, 
" faith, Nonne & Laid facer dotes fumm. — Ubi E 
" clefiaftici Ordinis non eft Confeffm , & offert 
u tin git facer dos qui eft folm. Sed & ubi tres fm y 
" Ecclefia esl, licet Laid. And frequently he faitf 
"The Church is found among few, as well 
" among many.] And he was for Lay Mens Bat 
tizirig, X. Tl 

X. The firft Canon commanded! Preachers 
our times a Year to declare [ u That All ufurped 
& foreign Powerf forafmuch as the fame hath no 
Eftablifhment nor Ground by the Law of God) 
is for moft juft Caufcs taken away and aboliflied. 
And that therefore, No manner of Obedience 
or Subje&ion within His "Majefties Realms and 
Dominions is due to any fuch foreign Power. 

The 1 2th Canon Excommunicate:h ipfo fa&o 

,iy that (hall affirm, " That it is lawful for any 

fort of Minifters to joyn together and make 

Rules, Orders or Conftitutions, in Caufes Eccle- 

'fiaftical, without the King's Authority, andfhall 

fubmit themfelves to be ruled and governed by 

:hem.] Therefore none may go beyond Sea to 

ouncils without his Authority. And the Canons 

Foreigners are not to be made a Rule without 

5 Authority. And is not other Princes Autho- 

:y as neceflary in their Dominions? 

The Canon which bids Prayer 55 th defcribeth 

c Chriffs holy Catholick Church to be the whole 

•Congregation of Chriftian People difperfed 

hroughout the whole World.] But fuch-a 

lurch hath no Legiflative or Judicial Power, 

XI. The Controverfie is about an Article of 

ith, [I beUeve the holy Catholick Church.] The 

bmanifts fay, It is an univerfal Political Society, 

bverned by one humane Supream ? (Monarch, 

riftocracy or mixtj under Chrift. Proteftants 

', It hath no univerfal fupream Ruler but Chrift. 

I ow the Generality of Proteftant Englilh and 

;f »nfmarine,who write on the Creed,expound this 

•tide accordingly in the Proteftant fence ; as he 

it will perufe their Books may find ; which 

\iyvdth what is the fence of the Church oiiingUnd. 

E 1 Xtt Though 


XII. Thoqgh King Edw. VI. was but a Youth 
when he wrote his fharp Book againft Popery, 
( lately printed. ) It fheweth what his Tutors 
and the Clergy of his time, who were called the 
Church, then thought of thefe Matters. 

XIII. If the Parliaments of England all the 
days of Queen Elizabeth, King Jama, and King 
Charles I. and II. knew r what was the Doctrine oi 
the Church of England about a Forreign Jurif 
diction, it is eafie to gather it in their Votes, anc 
Ads. Let him that would know whether they 
w^re for a Coalition with the French on fuel 
terms, read Sir Simon Dewes Journals, Rufiwortk 
Col left ions, or Frins Introduction ad annum 1621 
or any other true Hiftorian, and he will fee hov 
far they were from owning any Forreign Ecclefi 
aftial Jurifdiition. But the contrary minde 
would make the World believe that all thefe Par 
liaments were of fome Sedt differing from th 
Church of England. But what call they th 
Church of England but that part of the Clergy wh 
conform to the Laws : And did not the Lau 
makers underftand the Laws ? 

Or if they more regard the fence of the CJerg: 
let them read A. Biflnop Abbot's very plain an 
bold Letter to the King, in Prins Introdudt pa 
39, 40. and Dr. Hachrvcll\ &c. and they m 
know what was then the fence of the Clergy 
With whom concurred the Bifhops of Irelana 
Infomuch that Bifliop Downame expreffing 1 
fenfe of the Papifts there, and his contrary d 
fires, prefumed to add, [And let all the people / 
Amen 5 ] at which the Church rang with tl 
Amen. And though he was queftioned in En 
Und for it, he came fafe off His Neighbour I 


[ 5? ] 

:iops alfo declaring Popery to be Idolatry, and 
lie Pope Antichrift. 

: XIV. The Bifhops and chief Writers of Eng- 
: Whave taken the Pope to be the Antichrift ; 
\ranmer, Whitgmft, Parker, GrindaU, Abbot, all 
1. Bilhops of Canterbury ; Vjher, Downame, Jew- 
i'. r , Andrews , Bilfon , Latimer, Hooper, Farrar, 
Ridley, Robert Abbot, flail, Allig, and abundance 
nore Bifhops: The Martyrs, Smclijfe, Fulke, 
i harp, Wbittaker, Willet, Crakenthorp, and mod of 

jur Writers againft Popery. Sure then they were 
;br none of his JurifdiSion here. 
: XV. The Prayers have been and are to this day 
idded in the end both to our Bibles and Common 
grayer Books,which (hew how far the Church of 
England was from deliring a Coalition with the 
?apifts by fubmitting to any Forreign Jurifdi&i- 
3n : They fay to God, [ " Confound Satan and 

I Antichrift, with all Hirelings, whom thou haft 
:c already caft offinto a reprobate fenfe, that they 

II may not by Seds, Schiims, Herefies* and Er- 
" rors, difquiet thy little Flock. And becaufe, 
c O Lord, we be fallen into the latter days and 
" dangerous times, wherein Ignorance hath got 
" the upper hand, and Satan by his Miniftersfeek- 
" eth by all means to quench the light of thy Gof- 
* pel, we befeech thee to maintain thy Caufe a- 
"gainft thofe ravening Wolves, and ftrengthen all 
" thy Servants whom they keep in Prifonand Bon- 
" dage. Let not thy long-fuffering be an occafion 
" either to increafe their tyranny, or to difcou- 
" rage thy Children, &c ] 

Though A. Bifhop Laud put out all thefe Pray- 
ers from the Scots new Liturgy, we had never 
had them ftill bound with ours to this day if the 
E s Church 

C ft 1 • 

Church q{ England had not at firft approved 

There isalfo a Confeflion of Faith found with 
them, defcribing the Catholick Church as we do. 

XVI. The Oath called Et c*tera of 1640. 
faith that [" The Do&rine and Difcipline of the 
"Church of England cox\iamet\\ all things necefla- 
c< i;y to Salvation. ] Therefore Obedience to a- 
ny Forreign, Jurifdi&ion is notneceffary to Salva- 
tion : And therefore not neceflary to the avoid- 
ing ofSchifm, or any Damning Sin. 

XVII. The Church of England holdeth that no 
Forreigners ( Pope or Prelates ) have Judicial 
Fewer to pronounce the King of England a Here- 1 
tick. Or Excommunicate, (though as Bifnop 
Andrews faith in Tortura Toni even a Deacon may 
refufe to deliver him the Sacrament if uncapable, 
much more that Paftor whom ,he chufeth to de- 
liver it him- ) For it's known by fad experience 
how difmal the Confequences are 3 expofingthe 
lives of the Excommunicate to danger among 
them that believe the Pope and his Councils, and 
rendering them difhonoured and contemned by 
their Subjeds : We know how many Emperors 
have been depofed as Excommunicate, and what 
Qyeen Elizabeth's Excommunication tended to j 
And if our Laws make it Treafon to publiih fuch 
an Excommunication, fure the Law-makers be- 
lieved not that either Pope or Prelates had a Judi- 
cial Power to doit- In Prin's Introduft. p. 121. 
the Papiiis that were unwilling to be the Execu- 
tioners, had no better plea, than [That no Coun- 
cil had yet judged the King to be a Heretick. 2 
But Protectants deny that any Council hatha Judi- 
cial Power [q to judge him, though all Men have 

a Dif- 

c w r 

i Difcerning Power to judge with whom they 
hould hold Communion. 

But if our Defenders of a Forreign Power fay 
;rue, then the Univerfal Judge ( Pope or Pre- 
atesj may Judge and Excommunicate Kings who 
:hey think deferve it. And if fo, not only Juf- 
:ice, but Humanity requireth that fuch Kings be 
irft heard fpeak for themfelves, and anfwer their 
Accufers Face to Face. And this can feldom be 
well done by proxy, as the Prelates will not Ex- 
communicate the Proxies or Advocates only. 
And muft all Emperors and Kings travel no Man 
kflows- whither or how far to anfwer every fuch 
accufation, and that at the Bar of a Prieft, that's 
Subjedt to another Prince, ( perhaps his Enemy ;) 
And if it be at an Univerfal Council, the King of 
EnglandttWJ be Summoned to America or Conftan- 

tinopk, at neareft, if they muft be indifferently 
•called together. 

XVIII. The Church of England is not for Po- 
pery, butagainftk: But the Dcftrine of an Uni- 
verfal Church Soveraign under Chrift, is Popery; 
by the Confeffion of Proteftants and Papifts. 
I. Proteftants ordinarily rank the Papifts into 
thefe forts, differing from each other, i. Thofe 
that place the Univerfal Supream Power in the 
Pope alone, ( which are moft of the Italians that 
dwell near him. ) 2. Thofe that place it in a 
Pope and General Council agreeing, (which are 
the greateft number.) 3. Thofe that place it in 
a General Council as above the Pope, efpecially if 
they difagree. 4. Thofe that place it in the Uni- 
verfal Church real or diffufive. See Dr. Challoner 
in his Crede Ecclefiam Catholic am, defcribing thefe 
four forts of Papifts. 

E 4 II. And 

L $o J 

• II. And the Papifts themfelves number all thj 
fame differences, as you may fee in Bellarminc a 

Of the firft Opinion is V dentin in Thorn. To- jj 
Bifp. i. p. 7. §45. and divers others both Jefu 
its, Friars and Seculars. And Albert. Tighim hart 
written an unanfwerable Book againft the Supre 1 
macy of Councils- But Bellarmwe himfelf faith 
of this way, f "Vf<l\ a ^ ^ anc diemquaftio fitperefi 
a .e 'Ham inter Catholicos. Lib- 2. deConciL c. 1 3. 

And they that have different Soveraigns have dif- 
ferent Churches. 

Of the fecond Opinion are the greateft number 
of their Do&ors- 

Of the third Opinion ( for a Councils Suprema* 
cy above and againft the Pope in cafe of difagree- 
ment ) were the Councils of Con fiance and Bafll^ 
And faith Be liar mine, Job. Gerfon, Petr. de Alliaco< 
Card. Camcracenfis, 'Jacob™ Almanim, Card. JVj-- 
col. Cufanm, Card. Florentine, Tanormitamts, To- 
flatus Abulenfis, and multitudes more ; with Ovie^ 
do, Okam, &c. and the Parifians and French 
Church : Ani the Pope and Jefuits will not fay 
that all thefe are Proteftancs, or none of the .Ro- 
man Church : >4nd the Chuixh of England never 
took them for any other than Papifts. 

XIX. The/mall Book called Bern & Rex,, 
which is approved by the Church of England t tmy 
give the Reader fatisfa&ion herein. 

XX. The common ftrain of the mod approved 
Poitors of the Church in their Licenfed Books 
againft the Papifts, difclaimeth all Forreign Jurif- 
diclion of Pope or Prelates. 
? 1. Eifiiop %wei I before cited. 

2. Bifhop Bilfon is too large to be recited. 



[ 57 1 
ChriftianSubj. p. 229. Ci [To Councils (faith he) 
,c fuch as the Church of Chrift was wont by the 
u help of her Religious Princes to call, we owe 
J" Communion and brotherly Concord, fo long 
- a as they make no breach in Faith and Chriftian 
''Charity -, Subjettion and Servitude we owe 
■: :c them none.] See more p.270,271,272, 27 3, eh-, 
of the Errours and Contradictions of General 
Councils, and how the major Vote obligeth us 
not to follow them. 

Andpag. 233. [The Title and Authority of 

A.Bifhops and Patriarchs was not ordained by the 

Commandment of Chrift or his Apoftles, but the 

Biftiops long after, when the Church began to be 

rroubled with Diffentions, were contented to link 

chemfelves together in every Province to fuffer 

3ne— to affemble the reft. "Pag. 261. The 

Bifhops fpeaking the Word of God, Princes as 

well as others muft yield Obedience : But if 

c Biftiops pafs their Commifiion, and fpeak be- 

f fide the Word of God,what they lift,both Prince 

: ' and People may defpife them. 

^3. Dr. Fulkf on Eph. 1. § 5. fheweth that the 

Church hath no Head but Chrift, and no man can 

:be fo much as a Minifterial Head. 

4. Dr. Reynolds againft Han proveth, that none 
t>uc Chrift can be the Head of Government any 
I more than the Head of Influence. 

5. Dr. Whita\er againft Stapleton de facra Script, 
pag. 128. " He fheweth his Ignorance as worthy 

£ * 

1 10 fit among the Catechumens, that inftead of 
?c Believing that there is a Catholick Church, 
c puts [believing what the Catholick^ faith and be- 
,c lievetb [fie tn y ut novum tnum fidem defendas nc- 
" vos artkhlos condjs, etiam non harefis fed perfidia 

" Magifier 

L J8 ] 
" Magifter aS] I believe that there is a holy Ca- 
" tholick Church, but that I tnuft believe all thatft 
*' it believeth and teacheth, I believe not. An 
a gitjiine appealed from the Nkene Council to the 
" Scripture. We receive not the Baptifm of In- 
4; fants from the Authority of the Church, but 
" from the Scripture. And pag. 103. he flieweth 
r that [Councils have erred, and corrected one 
f\ another, and are more uncertain than the Scrip- 
" ture. And pag. 50 [The Peace of the Churchf 
" is better fecured by referring all to the Scrip 
" ture than to the Church. 

"Pag. 501. The Catholick Church in the 
" Qeed is invifible, and known only by Faith. 

6. See Biihop Hall\ No Peace with Rome, and 
his Letter to Lund. It is tedious to cite all in 
Wtllet, Slater, Trideaux, Abbot, Marton,Crakenthorp, 
Chattoner, White, and the reft to this purpofe. 

It is mod notorious, that the Church of England 
was againft all Forreign Jurifdidtion of Pope or 
Prelates as over this Land. 

To cite a multitude of fuch Teftimonies, would fr 
but needlefly fwell the Book, and weary the 

Chap. II. The whole Kingdom and Church is 
/worn again fl all Forreign Jurifdittion, and 
all alteration of Government in Church and 
State: And ought not to be Jligmatized with 

§ 1 VpHat the whole Churchy and Kingdom i$ 
A under fuch Oaths is vilible. 

I. The 


C 5T9 3 

I. The Oath of Supremacy before cited againft 

II Forreign Jurifdidtion is put upon all the Land. 

II. The Oath called Et catera 1640. is againft 
change of Government, and was taken by many. 

III. The ASt of Uniformity obligeth the whole 
liniftry to fubfcribe againft all endeavours to al- 
r the Government. 

IV. The Oxford AGt of Confinement fweareth 
1 Nonconformifts ( and more ) never to endea- 
>ur any Alteration of Government in Church 
' State. 

V. The Veftry Ad fweareth all the Paridi 
cftries to the fame. 

VI.The Corporation AQ. fweareth all the Cities 
, d Corporations of England to the fame •, that is, 

III in Power and Truft as to Government. 

i VII. The Militia Aft fweareth all the Souldiers 
the Land to the fame. 
So that it is undeniable that all the King- 

i>m is fworn never to endeavour any Alteration 
Government in Church or State, and alfo ex- 

;efly againft all Forreign Jurifdidiion. 

§ 2. That it is not only an Alteration, but even 

Alteration of the very Species or Conftitution 

Church and State Government, to bring the 

md under the Forreign Jurifdi&ion either of 

ppe, Prince or Prelates, I have proved by it 
If j and to any man of underftanding, it needs 

g) proof. 

; § 5. That Church and State, and the whole Land 
ight not be wilfully perjured, is clear. 1. It is (0 
•inous a fin againft God, as is like to bring down 
ftrudive vengeance : He that threatneth it even 
I the Tables of Stone : The Lord will not bold him 
iltkfs that taketh his Name in vain: And Perjury 


c 60 : 

is the chief taking his Name in vain, to confirrri a 
Lie. And if this threatning reach to every indi 
vidual, what will become of perjured Church and 
Kingdom? The Lord is the avenger of all fuel 
crimes : And it's a fearful thing to fall into the 
hands of this God, who is a consuming fire. 

II. " Perjury is a direft diflblution of Societies 
" Mutual Truft is their concernment : Utter Di 
" flruft is a Virtual death or war. King andPeopI 
t: are tied to each other by Oaths : Majors am 
cc chief Officers, and Judges are tied to fidelit] 
" by Oaths. The Bifhops fwear their Clergy tc 
* them, (though old Canons condemned it:) Loofi 
4C this Bond, and what are Societies? Who car 
c; truft him that maketh no confeience of tin 
" Obligation of Oaths, any more than an Enemy 

III. It depriveth the King of a neceflary mean 
of fecurity for [lis life. If all confeience of th 
Oaths of Allegiance were gone, it is fuppofed tha 
the confeience of Loyalty would be gone. Am 
many a Traytor would ftudy how to kill King 
fecretly without danger to themfelves, or to mak 
it good by ftrength and numbers. 

IV. Itdeprivethall the Subjefls of neceffar 
Security for Eftate, Name or Life. If Churci 
and State fhould openly be perjured, who can ex 
pe<3 that all Individuals fhould ftick at it ? But n 
ther that every Man that hath an Enemy, or hat 
either Wealth or Place which another defiret!' 
fhould prefently be Sworn to the Gallows or th 
Block? It were far better dwell among Toad; 
Snakes, and Adders, or Wolves and Beais i 
gainft whom a Man hath fome defence : Homo h 
mini Lnpn/ 7 would be turned into Homo homi 


[ 6i ] 

| V- It would make us uncapable of Truft, Traf- 
jfick, and Friendship with any Forreign Land : 
[Open National Perjury is fo odious againft the 
Light and Law of Nature, that Englishmen 
would be to other Lands, as Man-eating Canibals 
ire to us. None could treat with us or truft 

VI. This would be a mod heinous wrong to 
fkhe King, to have the Hiflory of his Reign fo odi- 
)>oufly blotted to all Pofterity, as that under him 
) the Land Should be turned toDiabolifm, and made 
5 the hatred and fcorn of all the Earth ; when God 
; had honoured it with fo many Bleflings above 
'ifloft others. 

VIL It would render Popery it felf more odi- 
ous than it is, as if it lived by the moft horrid 
crimes, and muft revive by National Perjury : 
j And would confirm thofe felf conceited YVhim- 
ji fical Expofitors of Rev. 13. that think the mark 
. in the Forehead impofed upon all that muft buy 
Sand fell, and be Freemen is PER jury with 
' PERfecution ; and that dream that the Letters of 
i the Name of the Beaft, are not to be underftood 
meerly Numerally, but Materially and Nominally, 
and that x I <r **, *i, figma-tau are our Ch. and Sr. 
conjoyned by a Serpentine [X] or [W] to fig- 
nifie that our Swearing and Forfwearing was for 
[ Church and State. ] Yea and the more odious 
fancy of another Name in them will become their 

VIII. . It would make the Nonconformifts fay 
that never Men on Earth were dealt with fo inhu- 
manely, and Challenge the World to give any 
fuchinftancein any Hiftory, Chriftian, Mahome- 
tan or Pagan, if the fatne men that have reviled 


them as Rebellious, and endeavoured their In> 
prifonment and utter Rume for not Swearing ne- 1 1 
ver to endeavour any alteration of Government, 
fliould all this while be defigning the alteration of 
it, and firft to make all men abjure it, and after 
to bring them to it- The Diflenters fcruple not ■ 
Swearing never to Endeavour the Altering of the 
State, Government, nor of the Church as in the 
Hands of fuch Paftors as Chrift or his Apoftles 
inftituted 3 nor any Reformation by Sedition or 
unlawful Means : But they durft not abfolutely 
abjure all Lawful Endeavour, to take the Church 
Keys out of Lay-mens Hands, and to have mere 
Bifhops than one to many /core or hundred 
Churches, &c. And if we muft lye in Jails as 
Rogues for refufing this for fear of Perjury, and 
yet the Reverend or other Profecuters ihould Co 
far alter all the Government of Church and State 
as to bring all the Land under a Forreign Juris- 
diction, Legiflative, Judicial and Executive, and 
to make King, Parliament, Clergy and People 
the Subjedtsof the Pope, or which is more bafe, 
of a Court or Colledge of Prelates who are al- 
mort all Subjeds to Forreign Papifts, Mahome- 
tans and Heathens, of whom few dare difobey 
their Lords and Princes, this would be fuch a 
thing as Humane Language hath no words fignifi- 
cant enough todefcribe. 

§ 4. Obj. Sinful Oaths bind none, and muft be 

Anf. 1. Sinful Oaths involve Men in the dread- 
ful guilt of Perjury. 

2. Oaths finfully impofed and taken, yet bind 
to Lawful Matter. 

3. If 

E 6j ] 

3. If thefe Oaths be finful, why were they im- 
pofed ? Shall the fame Men urge all to take them, 
■and then fay, You may break them as being 
[infill ? 

4. It is not finful to Swear Loyalty and Self- 
-defence againft foreign Enemies or Ufurpers. 

Obj. 2. Luther and your other Reformers broke 
their Vow of Chaftity and Obedience to the Pope, 
.and defended it. 

Anfw. 1. You think they did ill, and will that 
juftifie you ? 

2. To obey a Pope , that is by Ufurpation a 
^Vice-Chrift, or King of all the World, is a great 
[Sin, and they that Swear it, are no more bound 
"to it, than they that Swear Murder or Treafon. 
! And the Vow of Chaftity becomes unlawful to 
thofe that have not the Power of Continence. 
oBut for thofe that .had , let them juftifie them 

from Perjury that can : I cannot. 

3. The Perjury of a few Individuals, and of a 
:■ Kingdom, vaftly differ. 

4. They took that Oath in ignorance, think- 
j ing they had done well. But thofe that I now 

; fpeak to, at once reviled them that took it not, 
1 and did their beft to lay it on all the Land, and 
j yet were then for a Foreign Jurifdiction, and de- 
; ligned or defired that all that took it might after 
break it. 

But thefe Objectors (hew us that there is no Sin 
fo odious and inhumane, which Learned and Re- 
verend Men may not plead for , under a Name 
and Mask of Virtue, Loyalty , Piety , and the 
Churches Good and Service. 
Obj. The Laws may repeal thefe Oaths. 


r 6 4 r 

jinfw. That will but free new Men from taking h 
/them ; but not thofe that have already Sworn \\ 
from keeping them in all the lawful parts. 

Chap. III. What Endeavours have been ufed 
by the wore Moderate Papifls to bring Eng- ' j 
land under a Foreign Jurifdiclion in King 
James'j time. 

§. i. T Will not meddle now with their violent 
A Attempts abroad and at home , nor fo 
much as name them. (Commonly Known) It is 
not my defign to fpeak or act offenfively, but de- 
fenfively: Their ways of Wit and Deceit have 
been many, and among others pretended Motions 
for a Coalition hath not been the leaft : ^nd their 
injurious Pretences that our Rulers have been in- 
clined to them, as knowing how much that may 
do with the ignorant fequacious Multitude. 

§.2. I. In Queen Elizabeths days, they much 
perfwaded her that to go as far from the Church 
of Rome as the Ami- Papifls defired , would crofs 
her Intereft, and make the reduction of the King- 
dom impolfible , who were all Papifls but as ic 
were the other day. 

II. In King James's time, they would fain have 
conquered him by the fear of Murder , when he 
heard of the Murder of two King's of France, 
H. 3. and //. 4. that had greater defenfive Pow- 
ers than he : ^nd the Powder Plot was yet more 
frightful : >4nd continued threatnings more. 

^nd he (hewed his peaceable Difpofition in 
promoting the Spaniih and French Matches for 


[ 6* ] 

i$ Son : and efpecially if it be true that FajfamB 

iid other Hifiorians fay , that lie, and h>s Son, 

id his Council took their Oaths for a 2 blerationj 

the words recorded by them. 

§. 3. ^nd to make People believe that he was 

the heart a Papift, the Bit: op of Ambrnn boaft- 

h of his fuccefs in a Conference with him, 

blidbed in French in Mr. Pageant % printed a: 

•enoble 1668. where in Pag. 173, 174* 175, 176, 

7, 178. he tells this Story. (It's like the Arch- 

jhop told it to ingratiate himfelf with Cardinal 

MicHj to whom he fent it, and would not fcru- 

* aggravation.) ' Afterwards there was a good 

mderftanding between the two Crowns : The 

ling of England at the requeft of die K 01 France, 

[id often remit the ordinary feverities ufed a- 

ainft the Catholicks in England .« He was even 

/ell-pleafed with the Propofals that were fe- 

retly made to him by the King of France, in 

rder to the reducing of him into the boibm of 

ie Church. Infomuch, that after feveral Con- 

?rencfs held for that Effedi, by the confent of 

isMajeily, without communicating any thing 

if that matter to his Council, for 1 fear that the 

ufinefs being known fliould have been pbftru- 

:ed-, The Archbirhop of AmhrknyanzA inro 

\ngland^ as if it had been wirhout Defigrv, id 

iie Habit and under the Name of a Counfellor 

f the Parliament of Grenoble, whofe curiofity 

ad incited him to fee England. He had no fooner 

anded at Dover, but the Duke of Buckingham 

ime to meet him, and having fatuted him thus 
hifpered in his Ear [Sir , who call your [elf a 
ounfellor of Grenoble , but are the Archbifiop of 
anbrun, yon are welcom mo thtfe Kingdoms. Ton 

F ''need 



need not change your Name nor your Quality , foi 
here you (Jjall receive nothing but Honour , and espe- 
cially from the King my Mafter , who hath a mol 
high Efleem of yout\ Indeed the King of Englam 
ufed him moft Kindly, and granted him man] 
Favours on behalf of the Catholicks, and evei 
permitted him in the French Embaflador': 
Lodgings where was a great Affembly to admi 
nifter the Sacrament of Confirmation to th, 
Catholicks, the Doors being open, There werj 
near Eighteen thoufand Perfons who receive 
that Sacrament, and yet no man faid any thin 
to them as they went in at the Gate, nor i* 
where elfe. Although there were many of th 
Englifh always /landing in the Street beholdin 
the Ceremony. During his abode, he had mai^ 
Conferences with that King, who having com 
to agreement in all the controverted Points, 
wrote a long Letter to the Pope by a Catholic 
Gentleman, his Subject, whom he fent fecretl 
of purpofe, by which Letter he acknowledg 
him to be the Vicar General of Jefus Chrift, 

Earth, the Univerfal Father of Chriftians , ai? 
the Head of all the Catholicks * alluring hi 

that after he had made fufficient provifion wii J 
refpeft to the things agreed on, he would ope , 
ly declare himfelf: In the mean time, hepr.? 
mifed him not to fuffer any more to mal j 
fearch in his Kingdom for the Priefts whir, 
were fent over by his Holineft, and themci" 
Chriftian King, .provided they were no Jefuitdp 
whom he faid he could not truft for many Rer 1 
fons, chiefly becauie he counted them to hay 
been the Authors of the Powder Plot, I J 3 
which they had designed to have blown him 1^ 

[6 7 1 

in his Parliament. In his Letter among other 
things, he intreated the Pope to grant that the 
Church Lands which had become part of the 
Patrimony of the principal Houfes in England 
might noc be taken from them % that on the 
contrary ,' they might be permitted to poiTefs 
them ; becaufe if it fliould be othervvife, there 
night arife trouble on that account. He faid 
ilfo, that nothing hindred him from declaring 
himfelfprefently, but that he defired to bring 
he King of Denmark^ his Brother- in- Law with 
rim -j whom he had in order to that end , but 
inder another pretence, prayed to comeover in- 
o England, where he hoped to Convert him 
with himfelf That in fo doing he fliould lecure 
he Peace of his Kingdoms, which otherwife he 
:ould hardly keep in Peace , and that they two 
oyned in the fame Defign, would draw with 
hem almoft all the North. The Duke of Buck- 
ingham and the Gentleman , whom he fent to 
\kome, were the only Per fens of his Subje&s to 
vhom he had made known this defign. But the 
Death of King James, which put a flop to this 
Negotiation, put a flop to the Effect of it, which 
vas a matter of great Grief to his Holinefs, and 
^ht King oi Frame.'] Thus far Deageant : At the 
; ;id of his Book is a Narrative of the Archbifhop 
'^Ambrm of his Voyage into England^ written 
rlli J Cardinal Richlien. In which he fpeaks much 
the like purpofe, as done 1624. adding, f That 
he King told him with great freedom the affe- 
ni ftion he had for the Catholick Faith, and was fo 
particular as not to omit any thing, infomuch 
hat he told me, that from his Childhood his 
Rafters perceiving his inclinations thereto , he 
¥z 'had 

[68 3 

1 had run great hazards of being aflaflinated 
The reft is , fc That the King relblved to fettle 
' Liberty of Coofidecce by calling an Affemblj 
' of Trudy Eri&liiH and Foreign Divines at Dovei 
1 or QMgve. 

I have recited this to fliew that as they are noi 
wanting in Art and Indutiry , fo they abufe the 
Name of Princes to promote their Caufe. Wh 
can tell but much of this is Lies? And if Kin£ 
James to prevent Eutchery, gave them a few fail 
words, it's like they added more cf their own 
And if he ufed the Papifts kindly, as being againf 
Cruelty, they were the more unexcufable tha 
would have deftroyed him., and could not bekep 
in Peace 

§. 4. Yet do the Papifts make people beyond 
Sea believe that they live here under conftam 
Martyrdom ! Sure if Hifcory be to be believed 
the Articles of King James and his Son, our late 
King, about the Spanifh and French Matches, do 
acquit both Kings from any juft Accufation ol 
Cruelty againft the Papifts. Rufrworth aftermen< 
tioned thus reciteth the private Articles of the firfi 
Match, Pag. 86, 87, 88. 

1 . ' Particular Laws made againfc Roman Ca< 
c tholicks,under which other Vaflals of our Realw 
1 are not comprehended, and general Laws undei 
' which all are equally comprized , if repugnant 
' to the Romiih Religion, fhall not any time here' 
4 after by any means or chance whatever, dire&l} 
'or indirectly, be commanded to be put ir 
€ Execution againft the faid Roman Catholicks 
' And we will caufe that our Council (hall take; 
1 the fame Oath, as far as it pertains to them, anc 
1 belongs to the Execution which by them anc| 
* their Minifters is to be exercifed 2 . * That 

[6 9 3 

1 2. c That no other Laws (hall hereafter be 
made anew againft the (aid Roman ^Catholicks ; 

, but that there (hall be a perpetual Toleration of 

Ithe Roman Catholick Religion within Private 
Houfes throughout all Our Realms and Dorni- 

i'nions 5 vvhich We will have to be underftood as 

1 well of Our Kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland, 
as in England \ which (hall be Granted to them 
in manner and form as is Capitulated, Decreed, 
and Granted in the Articles of the Treaty con- 
cerning the Marriage. 

1 3. i That neither by Us, nor by any other inter- 
pofed Perfon whatfoever, direft-ly orindiredly, 

■fprivately orpublickly, will We Treat or At- 
tempt any thing with the moft renowned- Lady 3 
infanta Donna Maria , which (hall be repugnant 
to the Roman Catholick Religion : Neither will. 

I We by any means perfwade her that (lie iliould 

' ever renounce or relinquifh the fame, in Sub-, 
ftance or Form, or that ihe iliould do any thing 
repugnant or contrary to thofe things vvhich are 
contained in the Treaty of Marriage. 
4. ' That We and the Prince of Wales will 
interpofe Our Authority, and will do as much 
in Us fliall lye * that the Parliament (hall ap- 
rove, confirm and ratifie all and lingular Arti- 
cles, in favour of the Roman Catholicks, capi- 
tulated between the moft renowned Kings, by 

Jffreafon of this Marriage : And that the faid 
Parliament (hall Revoke and Abrogate particular 

'fLaws made againft the faid Roman Catholicks y 
.0 whofe obfervance alfo the reft of Our Sub- 
je6ls and Vaflals are not obliged; as hkewife 

wjthe general Laws under which all are equally 

^comprehended, to wit, as to the Roman Catho- 

F 3 'licks, 



Micks ft' they be fuch as is aforefaid, which are 
' repugnant to the Roman Catholick Religion. 
" And that hereafter we willnot confent that the 
^ {aid Parliament fhall ever at anytime enact or 
c write any other, or new Laws againfi Roman 
9 Catholicks. 

' ' Moreover,I Charles Prince of Wales engage my 
r felf ( and promife, that the mod Iiiuilrious 
4 King of Great Britain my mod honoured Lord 

* and Father (hall do the fame both by word and 
i writing ) that all thofe things which are contain- 
ed in the* foregoing Articles, and concern as 
' well the Sufpenfion as the Abrogation of the 5 
' Laws made againft the Rowan Catholicks fliall 

* within three years infallibly take effedt, and 
c fooner if it be poffible, which we will have to 
1 lye upon our Conference and Royal Honour; 
f that I wuYinterceed with the mod Iiiuilrious 

* King of Great Britain my Father, that the ten 
' years of the Education of the Children which 
'(hall be Bern of this Marriage with the mod II- 

* luflrious Lady Infanta their Mother, accorded 
f in the Twenty third Article ( which term the 
c Pope otRowe defires to have prorogued to twelve 

* years ) may be lengthened to the faid term. 
■ And I Promife freely of my own accord and 

* Swear that if it fo happen that the entire power 

* of difpofing of this matter be devolved to me, I 

* will alio grant and approve the (aid term. 

4 Further, I Prince oiWaks oblige my felf upon 
c my Faith to the Catholick King, that as often 
c as the Illuftrious Lady Infanta fliall require that I 
Should give ear to Divines or others whom her 
4 Highnefs fliall be pleafed to implo; i:: matter of 
I the Roman Religion, I will hearken to them 

J willingly 

1 71 1 

; willingly without all difficulty, and laying afide 

"all excufe. And for further caution in point of 

free exercife of the Catholick Religion and 

"Sufpenfion of the Laws above-named, I Charles 

Prince o&Waks Promife and take upon me, in 

the word of a King, that the things above-pro- 

( mifed and treated concerning thofe matters fhall 

; take efleft and be put in execution as well in the 

^Kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland, as of Eng- 


The Privy Councillors Oath, faith the fame 
"\uthor, was this. 

' I A. B. do Swear that I will truely and fully 
: obferve as much as belongeth to me all and eve- 
j ry the Articles which are contained in the treaty 
of Marriage between the mod Gracious Charles 
Prince of Wdes and the moft Gracious Lady 
; Donna Maria Infanta of Spain: Likewifel Swear 
| that I will neither commit to Execution nor 
I Caufe to be Executed by my felf or any inferior 
I Officer ferving me, any Laws againitany Ro- 
man Cacholicks whatfoever, nor will execute a- 
' ny puni(htnent inflifted by thofe Laws, but in all 
things which belong to me will faithfully ob- 
■ ferve, his Majefties word given on that be- 
: half] 

I have recited this to (hew that the Papifts de- 
ceive Foreigners, when they tell them that they 
lived here under cruel Perfection. And yet lee 
none think that the King turned Papift: For all 
this was on condition of the Spanifli Match which 
was broken: And the King well knew that the 
Parliament would never confent to it. 

But his own words may fatisfie us in this : For, 

faith RuJJworth, [' The King called a Parliament 

F4 '1611. 

[7* ] 

f 1623. ( when the Match was broken ) and faith 

' & to them, [ It hath been talked of my remifnefs 

6 in maintenance of Religion, and fufpicion of a 

Toleration : But as God fhall judge me, I never 

• thought nor meant, nor ever in word exprefled 
c any thing that favoured of it. ] But the flinging 
Petition againft thePapifts ( as the King called it) 
which this Parliament offered him (hewed ftill 
what they were againft. 

If the Papifts fay thefe Articles fruftrate prove 
no forbearance of Severities againft us ; Rufh- 
ww^anfwers them faying, pag. 156. of the French 
Match, [ fc fn Novemb, the Articles were Sworn 
c to by King James, Prince Charles, and the French 
e King. The Articles concerning Religion were 

* not much fliort of thofe for the Spanifh March.] 
And pag. 175. ['That the Englifli Catholicks 
ffhould'be no more fearched after, nor molefted 
4 for their Religion. ] 

§ 5. And they have the lefs reafon to accufe the 
King of Cruelty, or yet to report that he was in 
Heart a Papifly when he rather endured their dif- 
pleafure than he would turn to them, and yet en- 
dured thedifguftbothof the Church-men and Par- 
liament than he would lay by his Clemency to- 
ward them. ' The Commons, faith Ruflmonh 
*pag. 213. An. 1625. cenfured Mr. Rt. Montague 
1 for endeavouring to reconcile England and Rome 
c and to alienate the Kings Affections from his 
■ well-affe&ed Subjefe. 

And the A. Bi/hop Abbot wrote. this Letter to 
the Kins. 


[ n 3 


1 May it pleafeyour Majefty, 

i ' I have been too long filent, and am afraid by 
my filence I have negleded the Duty of the place 
It hath pleafed God to call me to, and your Ma- 
' efty to place me in. But now I humbly crave 
eave I may difcharge my Confcience toward 
3od, and my Duty to your Majefty : And there- 
fore I befeech you freely to give me leave to de- 
liver my felf, and then let your Majefty do with 
line what you pleafe. Your Majefty hath pro- 
pounded a Toleration of Religion. I befeech 
"ou take into confideration what your Ad: is, 
j/hat the confequence may be. By your Ad you 
abour to fetup the moft and Hereti- 

al Dodrine of the Church of Rem, the Whore 
bf Babylon : How hateful it will be to God, and 
rievous to your good Subjeds the Profeffors of 
aheGofpel, that your Majefty who hath often 
Oifputed and Learnedly Written againft thofe 
Jereticks, fliould now (hew your felf a Patron 
!>f thofe wicked Doctrines, which your Pen 
■path told the World, and your Confcience tells 
jour felf, are Superftitioqs, Idolatrous, and De- 
sftable. And hereunto I add, what you have 
]!one in fending the Prince into $p&», without 
jhecofifent of your Council, and Privity and Ap- 
probation of your People : And though you have 
| Charge and Intereft in the Prince as Son of 
'our Flefh, yet have th e people a greater as Son 
if the Kingdom, upon whom next after your 
jlajefty are their Eyes fixed and their welfare 
iepends- And fo tenderly is his going appre- 
hended, as ( believe it ) however his return 

c may 

t 74 3 
1 may be fafe, yet the Drawers of him into th 

* A&ion, fo dangerous to himfelf, fo defperai, 
c to the Kingdom, will not pafs away unqueftioj 
' ed, unpunifhed. Befides this Toleration whk 
' you endeavour to fet up by your Proclamatio 
< cannot be done without a Parliament, unk 
f your Majefty will let your Subjects fee that yc 

* will take to your felf ability to throw down ti 

* Laws of your Land at your pleafure: Wh 
c dreadful confequents thefe things may draw 2 
'terward, I befeech your Majefty to confidei 
' And above all, left by this Toleration difcou, 

* tenancing the true Profeffion of the Gofps 

* wherewith God hath blefled us, and this Kinj, 

* dom hath fo long flouri/hed under it, your M 
■ jefty do not draw upon this Kingdom in Gener; 
c and your felf in particular Gods heavy wra 

* and indignation. Thufin difcharge of my Dui 

* towards God, and your Majefty, and the pla<! 
' of my Calling, I have taken humble leave to dj 
J liver my Confidence- Now Sir do what yCj 

* pleafe with me. 

Thus you fee what difficulties the King weij 
through to avoid all (hew of Cruelty to the R< 
man Sect $ when at the fame time the Canons &{ 
communicated Proteftants that affirmed any thiif 
to be unlawful in the Liturgy, Ceremonies, 
Church Government, and the Laws were 
force againft them. 




iap, IV. Of the P'apifs Endeavours in the 
h; time of King Charles the Firft^ and the great 
i wrong they did him. 

\ i.*T^HEfame method they ftill continued, 
A I. In vain they fubtilly laboured to 
,hve perverted the King, ti And then pretend- 
e 1 their great fufferings to procure Indulgence. 
H And fecretly gave out that the King was for 
? l: iem, to draw on others that they thought would 
V? ftill of the Kings Religion. 
;;■ § 2. When he was in Spain the Biftop of Cou- 
: ^en a Trained Veterane, and Head of the Inqui- 
tion waschofento take the charge of labouring 
ns Converfion, and Carolus Boverim wrote to him 
Sat Book for Church Monarchy, which is now 
c ktabt : And the Pope wrote to him an infinua- 
^ng Letter 5 to which this anfwer as returned by 
ic Prince is recorded by Prm as out t)f Mr. De 
befnetheKing of France his Geographer, and by 
; le CabalU of Letters, and by Ettfhworth, who 
\ ich the Latine Copy was preferved by fome then 
% Spain at the Treaty, and this following in the 
%baUa is but an ill Tranflation of it. 

Adoft Holy Father, 
I * I received the difpacch from your Holinefs 
with great contenr, and with that refpect which 
the Piety and Care wherewith your Holinefs 
writes doth require. It was an unfpeakable 
pleafure to me to read the generous Exploits of 
the Kings my Predeceflors, in whofe Memory 

[ Pofterity 


Pofterity hath not given thofe Praifes and Elo- 
gies of Honour as were due to them. I believe 
that your Holinefs hath fet their Examples be- 
fore my Eyes to the end I might imitate them in 
all my Actions : For in truth they have ofter 
expofed their Eftates and Lives for the Exalta- 
tion of the Holy Chair, ^nd the Courage 
wherewith they have aflaulted the Enemies ol 
the Crofs of Jefus Chrift, hath not been led 
than the Care and Thought which I have to the I 
End that the Peace and Intelligence which hath 
hitherto been wanting in Christendom might be 
bound with a true and ftrong Concord. For as 
the common Enemy of Peace ftill watcheth to 
put hatred and diflention among Chriftian Prin 
ces fo I believe that the Glory of God requires 
(hit we fhould endeavour to unite them, -^nd^ 1 
1 do not efteem it a greater honour to be de^ l < 
fcended from fo great Princes, than to imitate 
them in the Zeal of their Piety. In which ic 
helps me very much to have known the mine 
and will of our thrice honoured Lord and Fa- 
ther, and the Holy Intentions of his Catholick 
Majefty,to give a happy concurrence to fo lauda-j^ 
ble a Deiign. For it grieveth him exceedingly^ 
to fee the great evils that grow from the Divi- ' 
lions of Chriftian Princes, which the Wifdom of 
your Holinefs forefaw, when it judged the Mar- 
riage which you pleafed to defign between the 
Infanta of Spain and my felf to be neceflary to 
procure Co great a good. For it is very certain 
I (hall never be fo extreamly affectionate to any 
thing in the World, as to endeavour alliance 
with a Prince that hath the fame apprehension 
of the true Religion with my felf Therefore I 

1 intreat 


[ 77 D 
intreat your Holinefs to believe that I have been 
Iways very far from Novelties, or to be a par- 
jizan ofanyFaftion, againft theCatholick Apo- 
ftolick Roman Religion. But on the contrary 
[ have fought all occafions to take away the fuf- 
)icion that might reft upon me. And that I will 
mploy my felffor the time to come to have 
>ut one Religion and one Faith •, feeing we all 
>elieve in one Jefus Chrift : Having refolved in 
ny felf, to fpare nothing that I have in the 
A^orld, and tofufferall manner of difcommo- 
Jities, even to the hazarding of my Eftate and 
.ife for a thing fo well pleafing to God : It 
efts only that I thank your Holinefs for the per- 
niflion you have pleafed to afford me. And I 
ray God to give you a B lefled Health, and his 
, jlory after fo much pains which your Holinefs 
akes in his Chprch. Signed, 

Charles Steward. 

y§ 3. Read Rnfoworttis Copy p. 82,83. whether 
moft current I know not, but this much ihevvs 
at the Papifts complaint of cruel ufage here is 
ijuft. And left any believe them that (ay King 
paries was at the Heart a Papift, let them note, 
;i How many and ftrong temptations he fruftrated. 
j That when he wrote this he was in their 
^)wer. 3. That here is no promife to fubjeft 
rjmfelftoa Foreign Jurifaidticn, but to endea- 
pur Peace and Concord 5 which may better be 
-y drawing the Papifts to us, than by coming do 
jjem. Thetrueft Adverfaries to Popery are the 
seated Lovers of true Concord and Peace. 
i § 4* All the lenity that was (hewed them af- 

/ C/8] 

terhere, and the agency of Panzani, Con. 6c. 
pafs by, left my recital be mifunderftood. Th 
Reader may fee enough if not too much in Ruflj 
worth, and in iV/Vs Introduction, &c Ionlyadc 
that this King who was fo Zealous for Concord 
and that overcame fo many Temptations to Po 
pery diftant and in his Bofom, and was fo firm &j 
not to fear to grant them the audience promifed 
yet was fo much againft all cruelty to them, tha 
he fuffered very much for his Lenity and Clemen 
cy to them, both from themfelves and from th( 
Proteftants. But the moft odious injury that evei 
they did him> was by pretending his Commiflior 
for that moft inhumane War and Maflacre in Ire 
land-, when in time of peace they fuddenly Mur 
dered two hundred thoufand, and told Men tha 
they had the Kings Commiflion to rife as for hin 
that was wronged by his Parliament; the verj 
fame of this horrid Murder, and the words of the 
many Fugitives that efcaped in Beggery into Eng 
land ( alfifted by the Charity of the Dutchefs © 
Ormond and others ) and the Englifti Papifts goint; 
in to the King was the main caufe that filled th< 
Parliaments Armies : I well remember it cafi 
people into iucii a fear that England lhouk 
be ufed like Ireland, that all over the Countreys 
the people oft fate up, and durft not go to Bed 
for fear left the Papifts fhould rife and Murdeit 
them. And this is all that the Papifts have ye* 
got by their Bloody Cruelty, 10 neceflitate peo 
pie in fear to take them for their Mortal Foe? 
BMhop Morky faith in his Letter to the Dutchei 
of Tork p. 6, 7. ' That by raffing and fpreading ma 
1 iicious and fcandalous reports againft the King tha 
I he was a Papift and intended to bring in Popery, o.-Il 

\ tha } 

C 79 3 

that account only they raifed many thoufands againft 
:him, without whofe ajfiftance they could never have o- 
ver powered him,and opprejfed him as they did: And the 
r uccefsthey had thereby againft the F 'ather ^encouraged 
them to make ufe ef the fame Engine again ji his Son, 
by giving it out that the King by living fo long abroad 
fin Popifo Countreys was fo corrupted in his Religion, 
^ that if he were fuftred to return, he would bring in 
E Popery along with him. So that with this groundlefs 
fear I found many con fider able and very pinch in- 
terefted Perfons pojftft when I was fent into England, 
i about two Months before the Kings return 5 mo ft of 
which time I fpent in undeceiving all 1 met with, es- 
pecially the Heads and Leaders of the Presbyterian 
and Independant Parties, ( who feemed to be moft 
afraid offuch a Change ) by ajjuring them that thofe 
mifreports they had heard of the King and his Bro- 
' thers were nothing elfe but the malicious Inventions 
1 of thofe that were in fall or con fent the Murderers of 

his Father For to my certain knowledge (faid 

' I ) who was almoft always an Eye-wttnefs of their 
\ aflions, the King and both his Brothers, &c. 3 
I And he was confident that this was the cafe of 
heDutchefs of Torkfind that thePapifts falfly gave 
;t out that (he was theirs to draw people to them. 
j And what then could have been more injurious 
o King Charles the Firft, than this boaft and re- 
>orc of the Irifti Murderers. By which they 
vould make him to have fo dreadfully begun 5 
or the rebellion was Oclob. 23. 1641. and "Edge- 
nil Fight the fame day 1642. And hereby they 
lave given the Scots occafion to publifh to pofte- 
ity thefe Scandalous words in their Books againft 
he Cromwellians called, Truth its Mamfeft, prin- 
ed 1645. P3g. I7> *?• V The King feeing he was 


[ So] 

flopped by the Sects fir ft in their own Countrey, n:xt\ 
in England, to carry on hU great defign takes //;,<[ 
Irifij Papijhs by the hand rather than be alway dif 
appointed, and they willingly undertake to levy Arms 
for his Service, that is, for the RomifJj Caufe, the 
Kings defign being fubjervient to the Reman Caufe, 
though he abuftd thinks otherwije, and believes that 
KoiTiQfervethto his purpofe : But to begin the work 
they mftfi make fttre of all the Proteftants, if they 
cannot other wife by Murdering and Mafjacrin* 

them p. 19. The next recourse was to the l\ 

ri(l) Papists, his good Friends, to whom from Scot- 
land a Commiffion is difpatched under the Great Seat 
( which Seal was at that instant time in the Kings 
own Custody ) of that Kingdom to hasten according 
to former agreement, the raifing of the Irifh in Arm% 
who no fooner recthe this new Order but they break 
out, &c D And I am not willing to believe this, 
A report fo dhhonourable to the King, his Life; 
his Arms, his Death, and to all that fought for 
him, that theFifth Commandment forbids us to 
believe it, though the Scots fhould fay, They 
faw the Sealed CommifTions : Yea though I had 
feen them my felf; feeing it is poflible for thd 
Irilh to Counterfeit the Scots Broad Seal. f 

But by this it appeareth what wrong the King 
had by the Irifh boafting of his Commiffion, and 
the Papifts pretending to more countenance than 
he gave them. 

§ 4. And as the faid R. Biibop of Winchester was 
confident they flandered the Dutchefs ofTor'^h her 
Life,fo he conje&ureth that the Jefuit MaimbroHm 
hath done (ince her death, and that fome of them 
devifed the Confeflion which he printefh as hers, 
which he profeffeth to be falfe as to the acctffation 
of himfelf. The words of Maimbrongh tranflated 
are thefe. A 

[ Si ] 

Declaration of the Dutchefs of York, tranf- 
ated out of Maimbourg's Hiftoire dti Cal- 

V getfon (Emicatca in the Cftttrcl) of England, 
I anD as much inttrutfeb in her SDcrtrtne (ac^ 
* covins to the Opinion of the molt able mU 
ftg of her ^attv) as bet Condition ant) Capacity 
;:n afcmit , ought to erpect to be the £Dbjctf of 
lick cenfute, tal)enfl)e quits I;er ^Religion to 
! jace that of the Church of Rome. SnD a? 31 
Ip confefi t^at 3 babe been one of bet greateft 
tohfeg, if not in effect at leatt in toill , 3 babe 
tg!)t it reasonable, that foj the Satisfaction of 
jftienDS, 31 fljcttla tscclate the SgotibesanD Kea* 
H of mp Conbetfion, ant) of the fo funnain anD 
rpertefc change of nty IReligtou , pet Without 
•iging mp felf in the <DuetttonjJ anD Objections 
•clj might he mate en this £Dccaft-sm* 
" l^oteft in the p^efence of atmigbtp <Bod, that 
z mp return into England, no perfon fotyatfo* 
-!, hath trirectlp oj inbirectlp 9 perftnaset) me to 
:jace the Catljoltcfe Religion : It ii a fa* 
r tohtch 31 otoe to rtje^lone spercp of (Eofe ; 
We not cbcu tljiufc fflatt tiie papers tohirh 31 
e mane him eberp tap fince mp return from 
nee ant) Flanders, to beg of htm to titfrGber to 
W&e ^Trttth babe obtained foi me* 
|!t ts berp true , that babing feeu tlje jferbout 
t. e SDebotion of the Catbolicfe of tljcfe Conn* 
» 3 ant) feeling that 31 hat) none of it, n berp 
tie, 31 habe neber cc aftD fince that time to asfc 
|5oD the <£#ce , that if 31 tote not of tfje true 
Ugion, 31 mig^t be fo before 31 trtcfc 

G gtiM* 

f 82 ] 

jpeberflelefg % baD not tbe lead Doubt but tljl] 
fle belief of tljc Cburcb of England toa* tbe trtF 
anD 3 neber baD any fcruple oj trouble of Cc 
fciencc on flte ^Deration until November la 
flat 3 began to teat) 2Dr* Heylin'ja; ^itto# of i 
Reformation/ tobicbitf much efteemeD} anD VdTjc 
of tbe reaDtng in the Opinion of all fle ale $ 
of tbe iHingnom, i# fuftuient to free fle Confcid 
from all fecrupta anD JDoubtg tobicb mi$ 
arife about JReltgiom JBut for mp part fat frj 
finning in tbat l^tttorp toljat toag fait) of it J 
fonnD to fle contrary flat bp reaDing of it J 
onlp maDe me fee tbe mofl Jojuble feactileDges tj 
toete ebet beatD fpofcen of t anD flat it teas jj 
fafftctent to fatisfie an indifferent unDetttanDiK 
t\oi to perftuafce it flat toe baD fle leaft fottnbatj 
or appearance of reafon for flanging fle ancii 
iface of fle Cburcb, anD tcnouncing fleCaflol 

3 noteD in flat ^iflojp firtt 9 flat Henry i 
Cigbfl quitteD not fle Communion of tbe Cljtn 
of Rome, noj oppofeD fle ^ufloritp of fle ^oj 
but becattfe be VooulD not let bint put atoav i 
flQueen bi$ SK&tfe > to Scarry anofler* 2* <2T ( 
ilung Edward fle &iffl being yet aCIjilD,] 
<Bncle tobo goberneD l^tm aluifing fle Eopal 2 [ 
floritp, Xtifyitl) \t baD in bis $anD , enrubeD W !i 
felf bp appropriating to Ijimfclf anD bte Jfanr 
fle aLan&g anD (Boods of tbe Cburcb. 3. #| 
^Duecn Elizabeth not being tbe lawful ©eit of i l 
Croton, cottlD notfcees fle mtiuft poffeffton Voir n 
fl)e baD taken but bp renmmetog tbe true Cljttr 111 
becaufe fle ^urifr; anD HcttintDe of bet 2Doctrf^ 
toag not cc be (Usurpation of i fl 

atngnom of Great: Britain. f 

j cottlunot conceibc, mud; lefts beltcbe, ttjat tfte 

p Spirit tobicb goberns the true Church, fljoulD 

the jattttjoj of the ®b?ee joints that 3 note 

cd, toljicb babe been the only jfounDatton of the 

tbberfion of the ancient Religion, to favour the 

rcntioufnefe of Henry the (Eighth, the Uttferpte 

ji of :©ucen Elizabeth, and tl;e Ambition mireD 

ty the ejtream 3batice of the (Llncle of Edward 

Sijti)* ^either coulD 3 unDerftanti bofr? the 

Ijapg, tobo boatt that the? ban no ot^er fccfig'n 

Separating tbemfrtfcca from t\)t Communion of 

Church of Rome, hut to cnbeabour the feeftt* 

Ijing of tlje Doctrine 9 SDifcipllne of t\t ^imU 

s Church 5 babe not thought of this pretenses 

fo^matton ? httt tohile Henry the (feigbtb attempt* 

1 Reparation from the Roman Cburcl;, that he 

tht fati^fie W guilt? peafurc^ 

Hi thefe Reflections babing buucD mp $$itti 

x the rcatnng of that l^iftc^, 3 enncabourefc to 

ruct mp felf in the joints controbertea betvmeu 

.ant) the Catbolicks : 3 eramineD them the mod 

fflp that 3 coulD by the Scripture it felf , anD 

tgh 3! tljougljt not mp felf Efficient fo? unties 

jtoijig it toell, 3 fount) neberthelefe fome tfnnga 

ict» appeareo to me fo clear , fo eafie to be un* 

jlcot), that 3 *)abc a thottfanD timeg toonmeB 

t 3 babe been fo long toitljout reflecting on 


J teas particularly ant) flronglp conbincet) of the 
I defence of 3cfu0 C^ift in the i^olp Sacra^ 
jit of the altar , of x\z infallibility of the 
;xrch 5 Confeffion, aufc pjaper foj tl;e ©cat). 3 
ji Vtrilling to confer of thefe spattetu b? toap of 
:courfe toith tye ttoo mofl able ffitfijopjs that \ot 
I in England, anD both confeffea to me imiw* 
G a ^ euflg 


mtflp, that there arc mattp things tn the Chut,, 
of Rome tohicb it teas to be toifljcti that tit' 
Church of England had (till obferbctsas donfeffic 
tohich it coulD not he benieb hut that (Bob h 
rommanbeb it, anti draper for the ©eat), tobich i 
one of the moft atttbentick ant) ancient Prartin 
of the Cbriftian ^Religion ; t5ut as to themftlte 
tbep mabe ufc thereof in vitiate, Voithottt malcitj 
pttblick profeffion thereof 

3$ 3 preffeb one of thefe Wffiops upon the 
ther joints of Controbcrftc , ant) pzincipallp i| ; 
the teal Prefencc of 3efus Cbritt in the l£olp & 
crament of the 01tar, he anfeoereb me ftcelp, €$ 
toerc he a Catholick, he '(OOttiD not change IReligtc 
hut t4;at gating been cbttcateb in a Church in telji 
he beliebeb there teas all that toa?J neccflarp J 
^albation, ant) there habing receibeb his XBaptif; 
he thought he coulD not quit it totfyout grr 

311 this SDifcottrfe fcrbet) but to incrcafc the a 
tient befirc tohicb 31 l;at» to become a Catholic 
ant) 3 felt intoarb pains ant) horrible bifquir 
after the Conberfation 31 hab toitl; thefe ttoo 313 

#eberthelcfs that 31 might not precipitate in 
Affair of this Importance, ant) tohcremp &alb 
lion teas concerned , 3 cntieabottret) to fatisfic n 
felf entirely 3 prapeb (Bob toith all mp heart 
calm mp troublco Si)inb ^ making me to kno 
the 'Ertttb, the fearch. of tohich I;at> cauCcD mp trotff 
hie* liBring in this Conbition, 3 tocnt at Chril 
ma» to the icings Chapel to rcceibc the &acramcn ll 
toWcb put mp ^ottlinto ncto troubles, tolricli co r 
tinueo till 3 bifcobercb mp fratc of^inb to a C j 
tljolicfcj tol;o to procure me tlje rcpofe ana trauqttf tt! 



[ 85 ] 

h tabid) 31 toiflicti, caufet) a grot) $jiett to romc 
jmc, ant) be toag tljic firtl Gfrclefiatticfe., toitb 
^()om 3 conferred of mp IntoatD ambition ann tbc 
."airs of mp &ouU <£lje mojc 3 Cpofce toitlj Ijlm, 
e mo?e 3! fount) mp felf intoatfclp pcrftpascD ann 
engtljencb bp tlje (Bjace of tl;c l^olp Spirit to 
ange Religion. 

0S 31 cotttS not Doubt cf t\)t trtttl) of tf?e toojW 
3efu$ (D^itt , toljtcp affutejsf -usi tbat tbc %iolp 
acramcnt contains bis jflcfli ana l;te HBltou 5 3 
ittu not eafilp belicte tljat fje toljo w tvutl; it felf, 
jd permitted ttyat.tlje Communion unset one "fcino 
n been intro&uced into tjljsf Ctjurcfy, in tofjic!) anb 
itijj tobicb l;e batlj.p^omifcD to atoell to tbc etiD 
tijje Moiti)> it it rufftcetfjj notfo* tl;e fealbattou 
ttbem tolp communicate unfcer oue.feinD only, 
itto concltiDc 5 3 am net able to enter into 3>f= 
utetottf) anp ontljefc great ^rutte, ano ftougb 
( itoerc ? 3 tooula not engage mp felf further tljan 
j; a SDifcourfc of a fcto todtftf', md teitljottt ccn= 
pting to crpjcfe (imply t!;e Sgotibcs anti Rcafons 

:3 call (Bon to toitnefe , tofco Snoto.s tl;c fecret of 

'ens Ijearta, tl;at 3 baD ncber tbottgljt of changing 

jeligion if 3 fan bclicbeu 3 migljt obtain &al* 

: tion bp continuing in ti;e flate 3 toas bp mp 

trtb anb (Enttcation, am? 3 tiling it Is not neccfc 

cp tljat 3 b^rc Declare tljat it toas not gnterefh, 

k pjofpettof l^ono^, bpqf anp facing and perii!> 

le ^ofitjs totycb Ijabe pcrftoadet) me. thereunto, 

nng tljat on tlje ccntrarp ))v changing Religion, 

JexpofcD mp felf to tl;e tja^rti of loftng botl; mp 

<ricnt>0 amf mpCrctiit; anDfreelp to confefa tl;e 

litl;, 3 coufitjeret) ano cramirtcD often, tobetljcrit 

30 not moje ejrpc&ient toi me to Icepmp jfrientig, 

G 3 m? 


my Wank, ant) mp CrttJit in tl;c Court, bp contii 1 
mting in the (Ejetcife of tljelReligion cf i\)t dDbttrcl 
of England, tban quit all tljefe tfcingg in a bid 
ant) Ijope f tlje goto things of tlje life to come ;[ 
but tfweugl) tf)e tymy of dSot), toljicli rnlfgljtcnfl 
tfjofe tljat feefe it , 3 ftlfr tio pain oj, Difficult? tj 
making tl;e choice 3 l)afce* 3 ©all only fap tfy 
all mp fear batl) been , left tbe pcoj Cartolicfe 
tl;ig Counttep fljoulo fuffer mttct) on tlje occaSoi 
of mp Confcictuon , ant) tfjat (Eou ffjouto nor gii 
me tije dftace to fuffee patitntip VoitI) tljem tl 
EHfgraceg and afflictions of tyi$ iLifc to merit tl 
(Eternal* At St. James the 8th oiJnguft, 1670. 


BUt fince the firft writing of this, the Public 
Matter of Fa6t hath taught the World how 1 
little Caufe thofe that he calleth the Heads of the 
Presbyterians and Independants, or any others,had 
to believe Bifhop Morleys confident Teftimo- 
ny, of one or other , Or honeft Mr. G ache's Let- K 
ter to me, t or the reft of the French Letters I 
published with it by Lauderdale. I cannot forgej ! 
Dr. Morleys words to my felf in Jan. 1659. bej I 
fore King Charles II. came in , that moft on thi: ll 
fide the Mpes would joyn with the Church G 
England, were it not for the blocks jb&tCaM I 
had laid in the way - And this he knew by hi< li 
converfe with them. But this Coalition was not lt 
to be our becoming Papifts , (quoad nomen) buof 
France forfooth , if not ? landers tOO, Would turiff! 
Proteftants (as they have done.) 
^ I knew not when I writ this Book, 1. Of KindB 
7<M0f/s Paper pubiuhed as found in King charie\ 


C 87] 

Second's Pocket, and the TefHmonies that he 
i aPapift, nor what was witnefled of his En- 
ement for them. 2. I knew not of what King 
nes the Second would after be and do. 3. I 
|iw not of Archbifhop Bramhak's Letter, Printed 
Dr. Parre in Archbiihop VJhers Life j confi- 
tly afluring Archbifliop VJher, that on his cer- 
1 Information , the Papifts in 1647. got into 
mwelfs Army , and confederated with the Pa- 
s at Oxford in the King's Army to have the King 
I to Death : And whether they fent beyond Sea 
Approbation, and obtained it. 

a p. V. The foreign Leaders of the Evglijh 
Conciliaters , moo are for introducing a fo- 
reign fur'ifhttion. 

p. HpHe horrid Confufions in the Roman 

A Church by two and three Popes at 

;:e (fome Kingdoms cleaving to one, and fome 

another J conitrained the Emperor and divers 

inces to call a Council called General, for re- 

?dy. The Popes being by this Council con- 

mned and depofed , it could not be expeded 

it they fhould approve them and confent : fo 

it the Council was neceffitated (though crofs to 

e Cuftorfl) to declare their Power to be above 

fc Popes, fo far as to judge and depofe him if 

deferve it : This way went the Councils of 

\ r a y Confhince, and Bafil. But the Pope's Up- 

"lders (till ftucktohim, and faid, Parliaments 

,iyaswell depofe Kings. The Body cannot cut 

J the Head. " And Eugenins 4th , thoughfcon- 

G 4 demned 


detnned by the Council and depofed as a Herq|ii 
tick, Simonift , Blafphemer, &c. kept Pofleflioij 
and their Church fucGeedeth him to this day. 

§. 2. This opinion for the Church Diffufive r^ 
prefented in a Council being above the Pope, wj 
kept alive in Bohemia, France and other Countriej 
and in Luther s time did much further his Refoi 
rnation-, by encouraging Princes and People 
difobey the Pope. And Luther at the firft feeme 
to go but little further : But afterward quite ca 
off the Pope, and denied all his Claim of unive: 
fal or foreign Jurifdi&ion. 

§. 3. Some that joyned with Luther in refoi 
ming many Abufes, thought that the whol 
World for Church) muft have one Humane Hea 
or Governor in Religion , and that we muft nc 
feparate from fubje&ion to the Pope , but onl 
keep him to govern by Church Canons, and n 
Arbitrarily, as being fingulis major , but umverji 
minor. And fo the Controverfie came to be tl^ 
fame as between Monarchs that will be abovel 
Law , and thofe that are limited by the Law^ 
The Italians and fome others are for the firft •, bu 
the French and fome others are only for his limit 
ed Power. Of thefe in Luther's time were Eraj 
mu-SiJuluu Tfiug.^ Sidonim, Agricola, the Author 
of the Interim, and Wicelim, Cajfander, Haffmei 
fter , and after Fr. Baldwin , and divers others 
And in France fome excellent Lawyers, yet mon 
moderate 5 as the Chancellor Mich. Hofpit alius y Thn 
tmu, and a great Party with them. 

§. 4- J oh. Gerfon Chancellor, and a Member 
the Council of Con fiance before thefe, was fc 
moderate (though he was for burning Has anc 
Jerome of Prague) that in the great Point of the 


[S 9 1 

ificiency of God's own Laws , he condemneth 
en molt of thefe Moderators. I will inferc his 
ords iff Sermonein die Circumcifioms Domini ha- 
?q Trafcona coram Papa ( in the Pope's own 
taring J 

Q c Schifmatis prafentis fedationem invenire nonfuf- 

kient leges human*, jam condita , nifi fuperior Lex 

Oivina viva & architecloqica confulatur, -Quod 

Yorte non Jatis atlum efi ufq\ in prafens : Oblige t 

mod ait Dorninm in Ifaia, Tim iter unt me mandato 

yominum, & dottrinis 5 ideo ecce ego addam ui 

tdmirationcm faciam populo huic miractfio grardi & 

Ifupendo ; Peribit enim fapiemia A Japiemibus ejus, 

& intelleclns prudentinm ejus abfcondetur : Ex quo 

loco [nmp fit J efts Hind improperium contra Vharifaos 

quod irritum fuciebant man^atnm Dei propter fuas 

traditiones. Audirent utinam ifta auribm fnis hi 

qui legem Evangelic am, legem Divinam cum profejjo- 

\ribus fuis deferent cs, humanis tradhionibiu incum- 

]bam totiy adeo ut ad fuperiorem legem illam oculos 

attollere vel non valeant ex ritditate , vet nolint ex 

\iniquitate, vel negligant ex inerti fegnitie , cum ta- 

men rebus leges hitmananon fujfeiunt \ proitt in fchif 

mate prafente compertitm videtur 3 & ad Legit divi- 

\na radicem & interpret at ion em Conftltatio refer atnr y 

i& fecundum earn confeientia formetiir necejfe es~t y 

\jQuid autcm mail, quid periculi, quid Confufwnis 

\attulerit contempt its facra Script lira ^ utiq\ SVFEI- 

\CIENTIS PRO REG/MINE ecckfta Alioquin 

\Chriftm fitiffet Legifator imperfefbm: Jmerwgetur 

: experientia , confideretur clerm , cui defponjari' de- 

I buerat Sapient ia qua de fur fume *h p'-mfca &pndica^ 

an ipfe forme atm eft cum adidtera ilia meretricula, 

fapientia terrena , animali , diabolic a : Status in- 

' fuper ecclefa nonne faclus eft tot us brutalis& mon*. 

L profits f 



ftrofm ? ubi caelum deorfum, hoc eft , id quod fpirih? 
tuale eft , & terra furjum, fpiritus ferviens & carl 
dominans : Principal acceftbrium , & acceftbrium 
principally ufq? ad hoc ut quidam delirare non dubiA 
tent quod per inventiones humanas etiam melius ,q nam 
per legem divinam & Evangelic am regeretur : Muafi 
minus fit anima quant Corpus , & jpiritualis quark 
cam alis frutlus : Hac affertio per me am fidem blaf- 
phema eft y nedum falfa. Evangelic a quippe dottrin* 
per fuos profeftbres dilatavit Ecclefiam ufq\ in Ca 
lum^ quam filii Agur exquirentes faplentiam qu& d\ 
terra eft dctruferunt ufq- in cxnum : Et quod ex tot 
non corruerit eft ex gratia Dei & falvatoris noflril 
H<zc ego loquor eo liberius quia mihi Confcius fumy 
non ex qu£ftu y non ambitu, non ad laudem propriaml 
me a profejfionis, fedjro after tione veritatis Cr utili^ 
tate public a h&c die ere. 

O happy England , if Proteftants had been asj 
much in this againft Popery and Error. 

§. 5. And here the Roman Deceivers and fomej 
peaceable Men of them , have joyned to draw us j 
to them on Pretences of Peace and Reconcilia-j 
tion. Some honeft peaceable Men have been 
deftroyed by the reft for their Moderation. The 
Learned!! Moderator that we have had , was 
M. Ant, de dominis Archbifliop of Spalato , whofe 
Books de EepubL Ecclef. are full of both Learning 
and Judgment, and fo moderate that I cannot call 
him a Papift : Though being enticed to Rome 
again by flattery, he perifhed by their Cruelty. 

What Leander was, I am not fully acquainted. 
Fr. de Sanlta Clara alias Davenport , was a real 
Papift, and defigned on the pretence of Reconci- 
liation to draw us over to them 1 And hath (hew- 
ed more acquaintance with Scotus and other 


C 91 ] 

loolmen , than with the Proteftants in his 
empt to reconcile our Articles to their Do- 

Or. Morley Bifhop of Winchester tells us , That 
his Conference with the Jefuit F- Darcy, he 
>uld have drawn him to them , by perfwading 
|n that they are not unreconcileable but can 
fee US many things 5 P. 5« [.Fhe Father replied, 
oat perhaps we fiould not find than fo ftijf in all 
Joints : for in things of ¥0 fit we and Ecclefiaftical 
onftitution only, the Church might in order to Chri- 
Yian Peace alter fomething which fie had before 
\ftablified ; and he doubted not but fie would : 
ind his Jnftances were^ the Latine Service, the Sa- 
rament Under one Species , and the Calibate of 
riefts ; But as for Matters of Faith, they could not 
titer or abate any thing, inftancing in the Point of 
he Churches Infallibility. 

And this is their ordinary Opinion , and yet 
ky would not grant the Cup to the Bohemians, 
id to this day the Churches Peace hath not 
wailed with them for fuch Alterations as they 
v are in their Power. 

What of this Kind they offered in the Treaty 
ith Archbifhop Laud we (ball- fee after. 
The Book called The Catholick Moderator, goeth 
lis way. 

But no man hath attempted ic with fo much 
>ility of Judgment and Succefs of late as Hugo, 
rotins 5 in his Votnm Pro Pace , Lonfultatid and 
fotes on Cafjander, his Annotations on the Reve- 
tions, and De Antichrifto,zxA his Writings againft 
fatt. The Dutch dealt hardly with him as an 
j-minian , and Judged him to perpetual Impri- 
inment, (when they had not fuch another Man 


C 9* 3 

among them ) from which his Wife delivercf 
him, getting him carried out in a Trunk, 
pretence of carrying from him his Armini 
Books. And being efcaped into France he w 
intimate with the Learned Jefuits , efpecially 
taviusi and made the Queen of Sweden's Emba 
dor , wlio fliortly after turned Papift, and is y 
living at Rome : And it is no cenforioufnefs 
fufpedi that his great exafperation might ha' 
influence on his judgment. 

And becaufe he is the Man whom our Engl 
Defenders of a foreign Jurifdi&ion own , I wi 
next tell you what his late judgment was in h 
own words. 

I confefs I have a far greater honour for tho 
Men that were bred in Popery and are Moder, 
tors, than for thofe being bred Proteftants revol 
from Reformation to a Coalition. I doubt no 
but Gcrfon, was a very holy Man : Caffander feem 
eth to have been an excellent Pious learned Ivtan 
And I doubt whether mod of our nominal ProteJ 
ftants that are for a foreign Jurifdiction be near fc 
moderate as he. He oft ( as de Officio VH Vin 
p. 788, 789, &c ) maketh the Church of Rome to 
be but a part of the Univerfal Church : He main 
taineth (-' that fome called Schifmaticks , are not 
c indeed departed from the Church for departing 
c from Rortie#s long as they depart not from Chrift 
' the Head of the Church : and that only dtk- 
c ction of Love, and not ditferfity of Rites and 
c Opinions cues Men off from Chrift ! And that 
c as long as they are joyned to Chrift the Head by 
* found belief of him, and by the Bond of Cha- 
c rity and Peace , they are joyned to the Church, 
c and are not to be taken for Schifmaticks and 

; Aliens 




I 91 1 

Uiens from the Church, though they be rejected 

id feem feparated from their Society and Q>m- 

lunion, by another more powerful part of the 

hurch, which doth obtain the Government, 

ow much more moderate and found is Caffan- 

• , than fuch as Mr. Dodwell.) And Pag. 791. 

faith the fame of the Oriental Churches, and 

2 Ethiopians that are not under the Pope. And 

{till fpeakethfo cauteloufly, that it isnoteafie 

underftand how far he took the Papacy to be 

;ceflary. Yet forr.etime he only excufeth. the 

'.willing departers from Rome., and aifertetb, 

mjilt. de Pont. Rom: p 931. ' That it is not alien 

roin the confent of the ancient Church , that 

)bedience to our Chief or Supream Re&or the 

!>ucceffbr of St. Peter in Governing and Feeding 

he Church, is required to the Unity of this 

external Church : And it is not only Primacy of 

Drder, but Obedience to one Chief Ruler that 

1 Pleads for. And in his Epiftle to Lindane, 

id frequently he flill profefleth only to delire 

une Reformation in the Roman Church, but 

?ver to depart from it, nor own thofe that 'do, . 

hap. VI. GrotiusV Judgment in his own 

1 1 . HpO give you Grotius's Judgment to the full, 
J X would be to transcribe many Books ; 
] (hall choofe feme plain PaiTages. 
', Di'cuflione Apologet. Rivet, p. 255. c Thofe that 
j knew Grotini, knew that he always wiihed for 
vthereftitution of Chriftians into one and the fame 

c Body, 


(t) So they are: even of ' Body, (a) But he fame 
due one Boay of which « time thought even aftq 
Chrm.sHead. , he ^ j*^ ^ £ 

c mod excellent Voatm, that it might be beguii 
1 by a Conjunction of the Proteftants among theni 
c felves : Afterwards he faw that this was alto§e( 

* ther unfeafible ; becaufe, befides that theGeniu 

' of alrrioft all the Calvinifts is moft alien fron 

1 all Peace, the Proteftants are not joyned amonj 

. . c themfelves bv any com E 
(b) Thty are united m i Government of thj 

all tn; 7 terms ct Unity < /->i i / / \ 1 • L 

required, Ef ».«. ♦,,,/. Church, rW which an 

They defire not co be of the Caules that the Par 

any Univerfal Body but ' ties made cannot be ga 

Chriffs, no more than im- « , hered int0 one Body * 

der one Monarch of the < p roteftantS) yea and [ ha j 

1 more and more Partiei 

* are ready to rife out of them. Wherefore Gro\ 

* tm now abfolutely judgeth, and many with him J 
' that the Proteflants cannot be joyned among! 
c themfelves unlefs at once they be joyned to them] 
' that cohere to the See of jtow% without which 

. , c there can be no common 
% JXl N °L in nn Kin ^ ' Government hoped for 

neither under one iMan or <. . >M , , J^, 
Senate ; But they have a t M the church. (0 There- 
better Union, fore he wiiheth that the 

c Divifion which fell out, 
c and theCaufes of that Divifion were taken away. 
1 The Prirracy of the Biihop of Rome according to 
c the Car; is none of thefe, &c. 

lb. l\ 185 Gronm profeffeth that he will fo 
c interpret Sc ipture,God favouring bim, and Pious 
c Men being confulted, that he crofs not the Rule 
1 delivered by himfelf, and by the Council of 

* Trent , &G 

P. 13d 

C 9? 3 

c P. 239. The Auguftane Confeffion commodi- 
>ufly explained hath fcarce any thing which may 
lot be reconciled with thofe Opinions which are 
eceivedwith the Catholicks by Authority of 
Antiquity and of Synods as may be known out of 
Zajfander and Hoffmeiftcr. And there are .among 
he Jefuits alfo that think not otherwife. 
'^71. ( The Churches that join with Rome 
[ iave not only the Scriptures, but the Opinions 
explained in the Councils, and the Popes decree 
igainft Pelagins, &c. They have alfo received 
ihe egregious Conftitutions of Councils and Fa- 
thers, in which there is abundantly enough for 
L :he Corre&ion of Vices : But all ufe them not 
l as they ought : And this is it that all the Lovers 
of Piety and Peace would have corre&ed (as 

Borromam did.) 

; Page 18. Speaking of falfe Do&rine, [ c Thefe 
'are the things which, thanks be to God, the 
Catholicks do not thus believe, though many 
that call themfelves Catholicks fo live as if they 
did believe them. But Proteftants (fo live) 
"C by force of their Opinions, and Catholicks by 
the decay of Difcipline. 

Page 95. * What was long ago the judgment of 
[the Church of Rome, the Miftrefs of others, we 
imay beft know by the Epiftles of the Roman 
•Biihopstothe Africans and French, to which 
^Grotittt will fubfcribe with a willing mind. 

Page 7. 4 They accufe the Bull of Tim Qmntnf^ 
'that it hath Articles befides thoft of the Creed 5 
(but the Synod of Bon hath more! ■ — - — But 
ithefe in the Bull are New as Dr. Rivet will have 
it. But very %nany Learned Men think other- 
wife, that they are not new, if they be rightly 

1 under- 



'underftood, and that this appeareth by the plac* 
c both of Holy Scripture, and of fiich as hav 
c ever been of great Authority in the Churcl 
' which are cited in the Margin of the Canons ( 

' Trent, 

Page 3?. c And this is it which the Synod ( 
c Trent faith, That in that Sacrament Jefus Chri 
c true God and truely Man, is really and uroftatt 
6 daily contained under the form of thofe fenfibli 
'things: Yet not according to the Natural ma 
' ner ofexifting, but Sacramentally, and by thai 
4 way of exifting, which though we cannot exl 
' prefs in words, yet may we by Cogitation illui 
c fixated by Faith be certain that to God it is poC 
c fible. (The Councils expreflions are, thai 
c f There is made a change of the whole fnbftance ol 
c the Bread into the Body, and of the whole fubft am \ 
1 of Wine into the Blood $ Which Converfion the Ca 
* tholkk calleth Tranfubftantiation. 

Page 79. ' When the Synod of Trent faith! 
c That the Sacrament is to be adored with Di*}§ 
c vine Worfbip it , intends no more, but tha 
1 the Son of God himfelf is to be adored. 

Page 14. t Omm diftinguifteth between th 
c Opinions of School men, which oblige no Man^ 
■ ( for faith Melchior Cams our Church allowed 
c us great liberty ) and therefore could give no 
c juft caufe of departing (' as the Protectants did ) 
c and between thofe things that are defined by Jo; 
c Councils. 

' Even by that of Trent : The Ads of which if 
c any Man read with a mind propenfe to peace, he 
c will find that they may be explained fitly and a- 
' greeably to the places of Holy Scripture and of] 
4 the ancient Doctors that are put in the Margin. 




[97 1 

d if befides this by the care of Bifliops and 
figs thofe things be taken away which contra- 
f: that holy Doctrine, and were brought in by 
\ . Manners, and not by Authority of Councils 
i Jd Tradition, then Grotms and many mere 
!h him will have that with which they may 
'content. 3 

1 */. pro pace, That which he blameth is, i.Th£ 
bol-mens liberty of difputing, and Opinions 
^agreeable to Councils. 2. And the Pride, 
'etoufnefs, and ill Lives of the Prelates and 
fers ( which all fober Jefuits and Papifts 
ne. ) 

ge 16. That the labours of Gr otitis for the 
:e of the Church were not difpleafing to ma- 
qual Men, many know at Paris, and many in 

France, many in Poland, and Germany, and 

a few in England, that are placid, and Lovr 
of peace: For as for the now- raging Brown- 
ind others like them, with whom Dr. Rivet 
:er agreeth than with the Bifhops of England, 
! can defire to pleafe them that is not touch- 
ivith their Venom ?] 

id whereas you may find Grotms and his Ad- 
its yet difclaiming Popery, and faying, ' They 
J10 Papifts, he tells you his meaning, lb. p.iy. 
Ithat Epiftle Grotins by Papifts meant thofe 

without any difference do approve of all the 
!igs and doings of the Pope, for Honour and 

this defcription I fuppofe that many Popes 
of late were no Papifts, fuch as condemned 
}cts and Perfoiis of their Predeceilbrs, and 
is cenfured Liberia* and Honoriusj nor Adrian 
xth, that faith a Pope may be a Heretick 5 
H mi 

f 93] 

nor BaromuSj Blnn'ms, Genebrard, that excli 
againft many of them : Nor Bellarmfae, nor Qdl F 
Mary, nor Mere or Fiflier, nor Bonner, nor g\ ' 
»er, nor any that ever I met with. 

But others more moderately call only thofel 
pifts that are for the Popes Power above Coun< 
And fo the French are none ; nor the Counci 
Con fiance and Baft were none: Grotins a 
p. 45. that ' By Papifts he doth not mean tl 

* that faving the Rights of Kings and Biihopsft 

* give to the Pope or Biihop of Rome that Pri 
' which ancient Cuftoms and Canons, and th 
1 diets of ancient Emperors and Kings aflign th 
c which Primacy is not fo much the Bifihops, a: 
c Roman Churches preferred before all other 
c common confent. So Liberia* the Btfhop bflto, 
' fo lapfed that he was dead to the Church, 
c Church of Rome retained its right and defenj 

c the Caufe of die Univerfa! Church- ] 

Anf. If it be a Primacy of Name and Hon 
only without any Governing PowerPC's nothinj 
our cafe. But feeing it's a Governing Priir 
that he means, 1. It's againft the right ofK 
and Kingdoms, that Foreigners claim Jurifdic 
over them. 2. Emperors never gave Pope 
Councils power over other Princes Domini 
nor could give any fuch. 3. Nor did anc 
Councils, nor could do. Who gave it th 
And who knows to what Councils he will ] 
this power? Councils thefe thoufand years 
been for much of Popery. 4. If Common Coi 
give this power, it binds not the Diflenters. 
The Judgment of others concerning Grotins, 
1. ifwcem'ws wrote a Book called Grow* 

2. Cl\ 


eland. Saravius an Eminent Parliament- marl 
parish his Epiftles, p. 5*> ?3- «d Gron. faithj 

Wen invifi Legatum De ejus libro Or libello 

r tremis interrogate refpondet plane Mileterio con- 
ia: F oman am fidem ejfe veram & fine tram, fo- 
~q'j clericorum mores degeneres fchifmati dediffe lo- 
n. Adferebatq^ plura inhanc fententiam. Quid 
:am ? Merito quod falfo olim Paulo, F eft us 5 
tf ikkka <n y&yjuij* 'ii$ pdviciv, & c . ] Sed hac ii- 
folf. Infenfijfimus eft Riveto. Eft fane in fr#- 
iti in quo din ft are non licet, Deploro veris lacry- 
[s t ant am jafluram : Deumq? ex animo fupplex 
neror ut illi fpiritum fuum mentemq\ meliorem 

tod in another Epiftleto Salmafius p. 196. he 
i being ask'd his Judgment of his laft Books, 
Vantum abeft ut omnia probem, ut vix aliquid in eo 
eriocui fine conditione calcnlum apponam meunu 
rijfime dixit ille. qui dixit Grotium papiz^are. Vix 
men in ifto fcripto aliquid legi quod mirarer, quodve 
'p€oSiwn\<>v occurreret. Nunquid enim omnes iftiuf- 
di author is lucubr at tones erga Vapiftarum error e 5 
■petuam wwdCamv & ;-;pt4,v et g a Jefuitas amp* 
, erganosplufquam vatinianum odium produnt & 
^mant. In voto quod ejus nornen praferebat an ve* 
]hs eft hac ™<?*<ruzpw p ro ji ter i ? 
knd how far he was familiar with Crotius he 

US p« 248. c -dd Vincent. Fabrit. [Cum ed 
\ipe Communicaveram iel fulebam mea fere om» 

iind what Salmafius thought of him thefe words 
■aravius ad Salmaf intimate- 
ly x quo a vera orbit a in religionis tie got io deflexitj 
\ptaftioccaftonem toto biennio anteqtiam fata) 
nr j eum illudendi, certe irritandi, 

H i I hat* 

I have formerly faid that worthy Mr. EreM* 
yet living, (iince dead) told me that 1'etavW 
told him that Gronm was refolved to have d 
clared himfelf for the Church of Rome, and jo 
ed with them if he had returned fafe from 
Journey he died in. 

Henr. Falefms in his Funeral Oration on Pet* 
faith, p. 684. Batefti Colled:. [ ' Qmd non pr aft it it 
clariffimum Vimm Hugonem Grotium ad Catholici 
Communionem adduceret ? Erat ilk qmdem minim\ 
nobis aliems, & poene nofter, quippe qui doEbrit\ 
Tridentini Concilii in omnibus fefe ampleEli p£\ I 
propter etitr. Id mum fupererat, ut Ecclefia Sac 
Ham ingrejfus Communionem noftram Sociaret \ 
Quod ilk mfcioquas ob cattfas dum ad Catbolicafi 
unitatemplnrimos fecum fpcrat adducere Confulto c 

But I make no other mens, but his own wo: 
the Index of his Faith. 

Chap VII. Of the fever al forts of Conciliate 
or ¥e ace-makers about our Cont rover fie 5 voi 
the Tapijls. 

§ 1. TF any fhall think that I who have fpent 
X much time and labour for the Churcl 

1 X 


peace, am now againft it, or would raife difhl 
nourable fufpicions, on any juft endeavours to t 
end, they will utterly miftake rise. 

There are divers forts of Endeavours for pea 
with the Papiils, by real Protectants. 

§ 2. I. The old Conformifts that, prevail 
againft the Diflfenters in Queen Elizabeth's da; 


* fre for going no further from the Papiffs than 
[Ley needs muft, left they gave them occafion of 

"II. Since then many Men have taken notice 
tl t many of our Do6l:rinal Controverfies confift 
irre in ambiguous words, and mifunderftanding 
tach other than moft on either fide imagine : 
d they have endeavoured the lettering of fuch 
ntroverfies by better Explications and ftating 
he Cafe : In this kind Spdatenfis and Bifhop 
, Forbes have done very Learnedly, but in fome 
igs yielded a great deal too far. Camero y Ami- 
ius, Capellnsy Tefiardtts, the Thefes Sahmrienfes 
I Sedjnenfes have done much : But no Man fo 
chas Lude Le Blanks in his Thefes, which he 
t me his defire here to publirti. To thefe I 
Din my felf, as ( among many other Writings) 
my Catholick Theology and Method™ Theolo- 
I have openly and largely ihewed the World, 
d no Cenfures have deterred me from this ho- 
t and neceflary way of pacification. 
II. But there are others that would on pre- 
te of Peace take in many of their Errors in 
ftrine, Government and Worfhip^ But yet 
for no Foreign Jurifdi&ion. 
V. But thofe that I now write againfl: go fur- 
jr, and fome under the Name of a Prince, Pa- 

trch , and the Principium Vnitatis Catholifa 

tald come under the Pope, fome by pretence 
the power of General Councils, or an Univer- 
Col ledge of all Bifhops, and fome by thefe 
! Patriarchs conjunct, would bring us under a 
*eign Jurifdidtion, and contrive an Union on 
le French terms. And would to this end let in 
indance of corruptions in Difcipline and Wor- 
H 3 fliip 

[ 102 ] 

fliip on pretence of Obedience to the Canons 
Councils. Yea fome condemn thofe as Schifm 
ticks, yea as in a ftate of Damnation who are 
in thefe matters of their mind. It is thefe thai 
am againft. 

§ 3- While I oppofe thefe, I (till own my foi 
faid reconciling Books, and no reproach of the 
that run into a contrary extream fhall ever dri 
me from the true terms of Peace, npr to defirei 
ny cruelty againft them, or any of their Suff 
ings but what neceflary defence ( of Soul a 
Body) require: And though my Expofition 
the Revelation have offended many, upon 
clofer ftudy of itfince, I am not lefs but mc 
perfwaded that Pagan Rome was Babylon, and t 
John Fox ( MartyroL Vol.\. p. III. who took 1 
Oath of a Divine Revelation to him, whi 
brought him to take the Pagan Empire for t 
Beaft with Seven Heads and Ten Horns, and 
expound the Times and Thoufand years accor 
ingly) is much to be regarded.- But if I be u 
certain of fuch points, I will rather fufpend i 
Judgment, than in uncertainty venture on a 
thing that is againft Chriftian Love and Peace. 
hold Communion with the Romans in Chriftiail 
ty, though not in Popery : I take all true Chrifl 
ans among them for Part of the Catholick Chun 
of Chrift, though I take their pretended Cathi 
lick Church as Headed by the Pope, for t 
Church of Chrift at all, nor as Headed by an 
Ilfurping Humane Head whatfoever. 


C ioj] 

;p. VIII. The Doctrine of Archbijhop Brom- 
i.ijj [jn defence 0/Grotius i« /j/j" Book called, 
lis Vindication of himfelf and the Epifco- 
ul Clergy from the Presbyterian Charge 
if Popery, as managed by Mr. Baxter in 
^is Treatife of the Grotian Religion, { 
Jercely Prefaced by a Dignitary of the 
bhurch. (Parker.) 

I mean to give you his own words, and 
pafs by his miftakes againft my felf. 
y faying, That it was not fairly done to affirm 
i 1 numbered him with the Papifts v or thofe 
t defigned to bring in Popery, when I had no 
b words, yea and praifing him, excepted him 
I in that number, only diUenting from his too 
r approach : But whether he except himfelf^ 
words will beft fhew. 

i 2,. Page 20, 21. he faith, [ C I will endea- 
)ur to give fome light what was the Religion 
'Cronus : He was in affe&ion a Friend and in 
jfire a true Son of the Church of England: 
nd on his Death bed recomended that Church 
jjicwas Legally Eftablifhed to his Wife, and 
jch other of his Family as were then about him, 
pliging them by his Au- 
Jority to adhere firm- 60 They that Record his 

' to it fo far as they had f** {z \ that h £ ? ltd m 

/ \ J Rofiofi in his too halty paf- 

pportumty. (a) . lage fr0fn Sweden cowards - 

7 iie then abfentj Quiftorplm Paftoi of Roftok being with him: 
tins Biihop knew Gtotiia : Who faith true I know not. 

H 4 Page 

(b) How much that is 
fee in their Patriarch Je- 
remiM, and in the Council 
at Florence. 

(c) The very worft of 
Popery was brought in by 
IHildebrandlong before four 
hundred years laft t And 
he that can receive all that 
rheir Councils brought in 
till 1256. need not ftick at 
any ©f the reft faveTran- 
fubftantiation : We cannot 
obey the Pope as Patriarch 
and Univerfal Primate , 
though he would quit the 
laft four hundred years 
additions: Nor think this 
a quilting Popery. 

[ i° 4 ] 

Page 81. [ c I know, 
c Member of the GH 
4 Church that give tB, 
* (the Popes) either nf 
i or lefs than I do. 

Page 82. c To w 
c their laft four hum 
c years determinations! 
Q impliciteiy to renoii 
c all the neceflary Cat 
c of this great Schif 
4 And to reft fatisfied \i 
c their old Patriar 
c Power and Dignity, 
c Primacy of Order (whj 

"is another part of i 
1 Propofition , is to d 
c the Modern Papacy bq 
• Name and Thing, {c 

Page 84. 'In the firft place if the &i (hop 

* Rome were reduced from his Univerfality of S 
c vereign Jurifdi&ion Jure DivinojLo his Prwciph 
c Vnhatis^ and his Court regulated by the Cano 
1 of the Fathers, which was the fence of the Coui 
: cils of Coyftance and Bafil 9 and is defired by m 
f ny Roman Catholicks as well as we. 2. 

f the Creed or neceflary Points of Faith were tj 
c duced to what they were in the time of the foil 
c firft Oecumenical Councils according to the D^ 
/a\ tv j \L y ju- j i c cree of the third Generi 

fr&fflS?*'**"' < Council, M admit*! 

no additional Articles bu 
fonly neceflary Explications, and thofe to bj 

• made by the Authority of a General Council 

' c 

*fr one fo General as can be Convocated. 

be) And laftly , Suppo- 

' ing that fome things from . W ™« was h we!1 r put 

t i rc u u i in. But by whom Con- 

Whence offence hath been vocatc d? 
richer given or taken-— 

\ fay in cafe thefe three things were accorded — 
vhether Chriftians might not live in an Holy 
£ommunion,and come in the fame publick Wor- 
ship of God, free from ali Schifmatical Separa- 
tion of themfclves one from another, &t. 
f We have no Controverfie with the Church of 
Rome about a Primacy of Order, but a Supre--* 
inacy of Power, (f) I 
hall declare my fence in ( f ) Over councils. 
bur Conclufions. i.Thac 

|>t. Peterhad a fixed Chair at Am'mch, and afrer 
it Pome is a truth which no Man who giveth any 
:reditto the Ancient Fathers and Councils can 
Either deny or well doubt of. 
2. c That St. Peter had a Primacy of Order a- 
joiong the Apoftles is the unanimous voice, &c. 
3.' Some Fathers and School-men who were no 
iworn ValTals to the Roman Bifhops affirm that 
[his PrLnacy of Order is affixed to the Chair of 
St. Peters SuccefTors for ever, &t. 
J Page 107. ' They who made the Bifhop of Pom 
I Patriarch were the Primitive Fathers, not ex- 
cluding the Apoftles and Chriftian Emperors 
And Oecumenical Councils : What Laws they 
(hnade in this cafe we are bound to obey for 
Confciencefake(till they 

pe repealed lawfully ) by 60 Did thrift make the 
virtue of the Law of Subfeas^heRpmanEm- 
^-.1 -n / x perors perpetual Law-ma- 

Wiriit. ygj kers to other Princes and 

i the World ? Or to that Empire when it's diilblvee ? 


C 106 ] 

Page 104. ( c To ray Objection that all Prote ¥| 
ftants mnft thenpafs for Schifmaticks that takil 
not the Pope for Trincipium Vnitatis and Patril 
arch, &c heanfwereth Cftill weaker and wealil 

er : Muft a Man quit his juft right becaull 

fome diflike it ? Their diflike is fcandal taken! I 
but die quitting of that which is right for thei 
fatisfa&ion iliould be the fcandal given : Whe 
theris theworfe? 1. How are they forced t( 
fall under the reproach of Schifmaticks ? If the 
be forced any way, it is by their own wilfu 
Humours or erroneous Confcience : Others fore 
them not. 2. I would have him confider whic 
is worfe and the more dangerous condition, fo 
Christians to fall under the reproach of Schif 

maticks or to fall into Schifm it felf Who 

foever fhall oppofe the juft Power of a Lawfu 
Patriarch lawfully proceeding is a material Schif 
inatick. J 

Reader, I forbear confuting thefe things by th( 
way, being now but on the Historical relation 
their Judgments. You fee how great neceffitj 
( to avoid Schifm ) they place in our fubje&ior 
to a Forreign Jurifdidtion. The Confutation yoi; 
fhall have of all together. 

Chap. IX. The Judgment of Arcbbijhop Laud, 
as delivered by Dr. Heylin, and hy him/elf. 

§. 1. TN the Life of Archbifnop Land, Pag.414, 
1 415,416,412. [' Touching the Defign 
c of working a Reconciliation betwixt us and 
c Rome, I find it charged on him by another Wri- 

C 107 ] < 

(Fuller Ch. Hid. lib. 11. p. 217.) who holds 
Ss unlawful to be undertaken^ it was impofli- 

2 to be effected An[w. If it be a Crime its 

ovum Crimen of a New fiamp, never coined he- 
re. As to the Impoflibility , many Men of 

ninencefor Parts and Piety have thought other- 

fe» (SpaUtenfis and Santt-a Clara 1 are named 

Reconcilers. J And if without prejudice to 
le Truth, the Controverfies might have beeti 
!>mpofed, it is moft probable that other Prote- 
ct Churches wouldhave fued by their Agents 
be included in the Peace. If not, the Church 
Englandhad loft nothing by it, as being hated 
the Calvinifts , and not loved by the Lu- 

Admitting then that fuch a Reconciliation was 
ideavoured betwixt the Agents of both Chur- 
les, Let us next fee what our great Scates- 
"ien have difcourfed upon that particular, on 
hat terms the Agreement was to have been 
riade, and how far they proceeded in it. And 
■irft, the Book entituled, The Pope's Nuntio , af- 
rmed to have been written by the Venetian 
-mbaflador at his being in England doth dif- 
fcurfe thus: As to a Reconciliation , faith he, 
between the Churches of England and Rome y 
here were made feme general Proportions and 
Overtures by the Archbifhop's Agents, they affu- 
ing that his Grace was very much difpofed 
;nereto : and that if it was not accomplifhed in 
[is Life-time 5 it would prove a work of more 
difficulty after his Death •, that in very truth for 
[ihe laft three Years the Archbilliop had intro- 
duced fome Innovations, approaching nearer the 
^ites and Forms of Rome ; That the Bifhop of 


C 108 ] 

c ckichefter, a great Confident of his Grace, 
c Lord Treafurer, and Eight other Bifhops of 
c Grace's Party, did moft paflionately denre a 
1 conciliation with the Church of Rome. 
1 they did day by day recede from their ancii 
' Tenets to accommodate with the Church 
'Rome. That therefore the Pope on his p' 
c ought to make fome Steps to meet them , | 
' che Court of Rome remit fomething of itsrigl 

* in Do&rine , or otherwife no accord wot 

* be. The Competition on both Sides in fogoj! 
c a forwardnefs before Pauz.ani left the Kingdoi 
c that the Archbilhop and the Bifhop of Chichej 
c had often faid that there were but two forts 
e People like to hinder the Reconciliation , tj 
c Puritans among the Proteftants, and the Jeful| 

* among the Catholicks. 

6 Let us fee the Judgment and Relation of ani 
4 ther Author in a Glofs or Comment on tlj 
Q former, entituled, The Englifl) Pope , Printed 
c London the fame-Year 1643. And he will tel 
6 us that after Con had undertook the managirJ 
Q of Affairs, the Matter began to grow toward] 
c fome Agreement. The King required, faith hs 
c fuch a Difpenfotion from the Pope, as his Catho) 
c lick Subjects might refort to the Proteftanj 
j Church, and take the Oaths of Supremacy and 
c Fidelity •, and that the Pope's JurifdidHon fhouli 
c be declared to be but of Human Right. And 
c fo far had the Pope confented , that whatfoeveq 
' did concern the King, mould have been really! 
c performed fo far as other Catholick Princes doj 
c dually enjoy and expe&as their due : and fo fail 
6 as the Biiliops were to be Independent both] 

* from King and Pope. There was no fear ofl 

' breach 

[ io 9 ] 

•each on the Pope's part : So that upon the 

Dint the Pope was to content himfelf with us 
i England, with a Priority inftead of a Superior 

ty over other Biftiops, and with a Primacy in- 
,=ad of a Supremacy in thefe parts of Chriften- 

3m : which I conceive no man of Learning and 

.')briety would have grudged to grant him: In 

[ as alfo condefcended to in the Name of the 

%pe 3 that Marriage might be permitted to 

'riefls, that the Communion might beadmini- 

red fub utraq^ fpecie , and the Liturgy be offi- 
ciated in the English Tongue •, And though the 
luthor adds not long after that it was to be 
ilpe&ed that fo far as the inferior Clergy and 
ae People were concerned , the after-perfor- 
lance was to be left to the Pope's difcretion, 
st this was but his own fufpicion without any 
jround at all. And to obtain a Reconciliation 
*fn thefe Advantages, the Archbifhep had all 
" he reafon in the world to do as he did, in or- 
jering the Lord's Table to be fet where the 
Utar flood, and making the accuftomed reve- 
ence in all approaches towards it and. accefles 
o it, and in beautifying and adorning Churches^ 
J nd celebrating Divine Service wich all due 
Solemnities : in taking Care that all offenfive 
|nd exafperating Paflages fhould be expunged 
nit of allfuch Books as were brought to, the 
^refs *, and for reducing the extravagancy of 
jpme Opinions to an evener temper. His Maje- 
uy had the like reafon alfo for tolerating law- 
ful Recreations on the Sundays and Holidays, 
the rigorous reftraint whereof had made fome 
Papifh think (thofe moil efpecially of the vul- 
gar fort whom it moft concerned,) that all ho- 



c neft Paftimes were incompatible with our Reli- 
c gion. And if he approved auricular Confeflion 
' and ilievved himfelf willing to introduce it 
c into the ufe of the Church, as both our Authors 
c fay he did, it is no more than what the Liturgy 
c commends to the care of the Penitent ( though 
c we find not the word Auricular in it) and what 
c the Canons have provided for in the point of fe- 
c curity for fuch as fhall be willing to Confefs 
c themfelves. But whereas we are told by one of 

* our Authors that the King fhould fay, he would 
c ufe force to make it be received, were it not for . 
c fear of Sedition among the People 5 yet it is but 
c in one of our Authors neither , who hath no 
c other Author for it , but a namelefs Doctor. 
c And in the way to fo happy an Agreement 

* (though they all (tend accufed for it by The Eng- 
'lifljPope, p. 15.) Sparrow may be excufed for 

* Pleading for Auricular Confefhon, and Watts for 
c Pennance , Heylin for Adoration towards the 
c Altar, and Mofmtame for fuch a qualified Pray- 
c ing to Saints as lis Book maintaineth againft 
6 the Papifts. 

Q If you would know how far they had pro- 
c ceeded towards this happy Reconciliation, the 

* Pope's Nuntio will aflure us thus : That the Uni- 
*verfities, Biihops and Divines of this Realm, did 
Q daily embrace Catholick Opinions, though they 

5 profefled not fo much with Pen or Mouth for 
c fear of the Puritans. For Example, they.Beld 
c that the Church of Rome is a true Church , that 
c the Pope is Superior to all Bifhops •-, that to .him 

6 it pertaineth to call General Councils 3 that it's 
'lawful to Pray for the Souls of the Departed 5 

* that Altars ought to be erected of Stone * In 


c in : 

furivthat they believed all that is taught by 
the Church , but not by the Court of Rome. 
\ Another of their Authors tells us , that thofe 
among us of greateft Worth, Learning and Au- 
thority began to love Temper and Moderation, 
| that their Doclrines began to be altered in many 
: things, for which their Progenitors forfook the 
vifible Church of Chrift : As for example, The 
Pope not Antichrift, Prayers for the Dead, 
Limbus Patrnm^ Pictures, that the Church hath 
Authority in determining Controverfies of Faith, 
j 6 and to interpret Scripture ; About Free Will, 
r Predeftination , Univerfal Grace , that all our 
Q Works are not Sins ; Merit of good Works , 
6 inherent Juftice, that Faith alone doth not jufti- 

* fie j Charity to be preferred before knowledge ; 
c the authority of Traditions •, Commandments 
c poflible to be kept 5 that in Expofition of Scrip- 
c ture they are by Canon bound to follow the 

* Fathers ; And that the once fearful Names of 
c Priefts and Altars are u(ed willingly in their 
c Talk and Writings J In which Compliances, fo 
c far forth as they fpeak the truth ( for in fome 

* Points, through Ignorance of the one, and Ma- 
c lice of the other, they are much miltakenj there 
' is fcarce any thing which may not weli confift 

4 with the eftabiifhed (though for a time difcon- 
c tinued ) Do^rine of the Church of EngUnd^ 
'the Articles whereof, as the fame Jefuit hath 
! obferved, feem patient or ambitious rather of 
c fome fence, wherein they may feem Catholick. 
c And fuch a fence is put upon them by him that 

5 calls himfelf Francifcus a SanEla CUra, as before 

■ c was faid. And if upon fuch Compliances as thofe 
f before, on the part of the Englifh, the Condi- 
£ tions offered by the Pope might have been Con- 


[ 112 ] 

c firmed, who feeth not that the greateft "benefit 
c of the Reconciliation mult have redounded td 
6 this Church, to the King and People. His Ma- 
c jefty's Security provided for by the Oaths of 
Q Supremacy and Allegiance, fo far as it con- 
, f \ V . ■" s, 1 ' cerned his Temporal 

(K ) And Men taught c p (h) Jh m 

to be Perjured, by taKing c r r , 1 % T Y 

m Foreign Eccleiiaitical c <>* England to be Inde- 
Power. pendent on the Pope of 

( i ) And yet Obey his \ f 0m ' W T ^ Clergy to 

Councils Canons. &e permitted the ufe of 

c Marriage, the People to 
c receive the Communion in both Kinds, and all 
c Divine Offices officiated in the Engliih Tongue 5 
c no Innovation made in Do&rine , but only in 
c qualifying fom£Expreffions,and difcharging fome 
c Outiandilh Glofles that were put upon them : 
c And feeing this, what Man could be fo void of 
c Charity, lo uacompa'fionate of the Miferies and 
c Diltra&ions of Chriftendom , as not to wifti 
c from the very bottom of his Soul that the Re- 
c conciliation had proceeded on fo good terms 3 
c as not to magnifie the Men to fucceeding Ages, 
c who were the Inftrument Authors of fo great 
h , ._ L 'aBlefling. (O So far 

WChnft hath given us a c D h H wh w t | 
fufficient Law tor the Go- c A , r< ,-, ? , T . 
vernment of the Church ; * " Archbifliop S Intimate 
elfe, faith Gerfon, he were and Agent, 
not a perfect Lawgiver : 

Muft we be beholden to t^e Pope for leaving us a little of that 
which Chi id gave us? Who gave him Power to take any of 
it from us ? Would our Conciliators have magnified the Men 
that for the Peace of EngUni would have agreed with Crcm- 
rvell to allow the King the I fie of Wight, or Whs ? Or to 
have made a Law that every Highway-Robber mail recuni one 
half to the Owner > And with what Conscience could the Sub- 
jetts of Chrift have obeyed all the reft of the Uiurpers finful 
Canons ? 

jfrchbijhop Laud'j own words as laid down in hi 
Book defended by Dr. Stillingfleet. 

§ i. The Archbifhop difclaimeth the Divine 
Inftitution and the Infallibility of General Coun- 
cils •• But he thinks we muft allow them [ c exter- 
nal Obedience-, and that honour and priviledge 
< which all other GREAT COURTS have ; thac 
'there be a Declaration of the invalidity of their 
c Decrees, as well as of the LAWS of other 
4 Courts, before private Men can take Liberty to 

* refufe Obedience. Part. 3. c. 2. 

And page 540. ' It doth not follow becaufe the 
c Church may erre, that therefore fhe may not 
c govern. For the Church hath not only a Pa- 

* floral Power to Teach and Dired, but a Pra?to- 
6 rian Power to controul and cenfure too, where 
c .Errors and Crimes are againft fundamental Points, 

* or of great Confequence. 3 Thus the Arch- 
c bifhop. 

-It is the Univerfal Church and Councils that 
he fpeaks of. But, 1, There is no fuch thing on 
Earth as he calls the Church, that is, One Univer- 
fal Ariftocracy that hath Power of Governing al! 
the Chriftian World in one Council or other wife, 
as oneSupream. 

2. General Councils of divers Kingdoms o're 
all the World, are no more a Court than the 
Aflembly at Nimeguen was. 

3. No Obedience is due to them, but only 
confent for Concord , fo far as their Canons, 
tend to true Concord , and that by virtue of. 
Chrift's Law , for Peace and Concord. Obe- 
dience hath no formal Objefl: but Amhorita- 

I triti 

I "4 J 

tmperamu 3 Cut Aflemblies fur Concord have 
no lrt.peri&m, 

4« No Clergyman as fuch hath any but Paftoral 
and Teaching Power, and as a Tutor to order his 
"own School. The Power of the Keys is noother. 
u 5. Mens holding and renouncing of Commu- 
nion with other Perkins or Churches may be 
Without Governing Power. I am not Governor of 
all that I hold or renounce Communion with. No 
Eifliops have power Judicially to determine of In- 
dividuals, who (hall have Communion with every 
Pariih Church on Earth : If they have, they mult 
hear them all fpeak for themfelves before they 
judge them (in or out.) They are not Governors 
of foreign Kings and Kingdoms, though in their 
Government of their particular Churches thev 
muft all agree to obferveone Rule : that is, Chrifts 

6. There never was an Univerfal Council of 
all the Churches , but only of one Empire (a 
part of that) nor ever will be ? till the Church be 
to deftroyed as to be brought into a narrow fpace 
( which God forbid). 

As to Dr. Stittingtieeis Defence of all this, I 
take him not to approve of all that he blameth 
not : And if he did , I believe on fecond 
thoughts he will more retra& this than he did 
his Irenicott. 

Chap. X. 2>. Peter Hey Wri sown Judgment. 

Ecaufe we come newly from repeating 
Dr. Heylms words of Archbifliop£**4 




C 1151 ] 

though they fully (hew his own Judgment, I will 
here annex force more. 

1. There is a Book written by a Papift, called 
Hiflorical Collections of the Reformation , gathered 
mod out of Dr. Heylws own words (and fome 
out of others) defcribing the Reformers and Re- 
formation fo odioufly , as greatly ferveth the 
Priefts to turn Proteftants to their Church : And 
as the Jefuit Maymbourgh maketh Dr. Heylws 
Writings to have Converted the late Dutchefs 
of Tork.* it's like it was this Colletlion out of 

2. In his Book on the Creed, fpeaking of the 
Catholick Church, he faith, 

Pag. 407. c Such is the Ambition of the Pope 
Q of Rome, that unlefs he maybe taken for the 
c Catholick Church , he paffeth not for being 
c reckoned a Church at all : And yet this is 
of the two the Lovelier Error. Better the 
Church be all Head, than no Head at all : And 
c fuch a Church that is all Body and no Head at all 

* have fome of our Reformers modelled in their 
c late Platforms.]. 

Anfw. Is Chrilt no Head at all ? Or is any other 
Perfon or Court capable of Governing all Chri- 
ftians on Earth / ^ AH Proteftants hold that the 
whole Church hath no Head but Chrift. 

Pag. 408. c Speaking ftill of the Catholick 
c Church he faith [The Government of the Church 
c not being Monarchical , as our Matters of the 
Q Church of Rome would have it , nor Democra- 

* tical as the Fathers of the Presbytery, and Bre- 
y» c thren of the Independency have given it out, 

c both in their Pradiice and their Platform, it mutt 
' be Arittocracicah 

I 2 Anfat 


[ "6 3 
f '*f»/ip. This is a grofs Slander of the Presbyte- 
rians and Independents. Did ever the Presbyte- 
rians or Independents fay, that All Chriftians on 
Earth muft Govern the whole Church in one 
Meeting, or by Delegates? where be the Laws 
that any of them pretend all Chriftians made ?Or 
the Judgments they pail on any Perfons after ex- 
ploration ? The Presbyterians are for an Arifto- 
cratical Government of National Churches , and 
fome few Independents are for popular Govern- 
ment in fingle Congregations ; but no further. 

2. Is the Church now Governed by One Ari- 
ftocracy,that is, per Optimates that are One Perfona 
Tolitica by Vote ruling all the Chriftian World ? 
Where is their Meeting ? What be their Laws? 
Whom do they fo try and judge ? An Universal. 
Governing Ariftocracy is more impoflible and ir- 
rational than an Univerfal Monarchy Civil or 
Ecclefiaftical. Every Bifhop and Presbytery Go- 
verning his own Church, and thefe keeping Con- 
cord by juft Correfpondency, is no liker an Uni- 
verfal Ariftocracy, than an Aflembly of Princes 
for Concordant Government of their Dominions, 
or than all the Mayors and Juftices ruling their 
feveral Corporations and Provinces make the Go- 
vernment of England Ariftocratical. 

Pag.400. Saith he, [ c Every Bi(hop,where-ever 
c he be fixt and refident , hath like St. Paul an 
4 univerfal Care over all the Churches, which 

* fince they could not exercife by perfonal Confe- 

* rences, they did it in the Primitive times, be- 

* fore they had the benefit of General Councils. 

c by Letters,McfIengers, and Agents for the Com- Ti 
c municating of their Counfel, and imparting their [ 

* Advice one to another as the emergent Oc- 


c cafions of the Church did require the fame; 
c Thefe Letters they called Lit eras format as & 
* Communicatorias. 

Anfvo. Thus Bifhop Gunning and others. Bur, 
i. St. Paul's Apoftolick Power enabled him to do 
the Work of an Apoftle ( which is , to plane 
Churches in as much of the World as they could, 
and deliver them Chrift's Do&rine and Laws in- 
fallibly as receiving them by fight and hearing or 
miraculous revelation.; And this Power each , 
Apoftle could exercife fingly, and not only by 
Voting as part of a College y the Spirit of Chrift 
teaching them all the fame Do&rine. But Biihops 
have no fuch Office or Power. 

2. There are feveral ways of expreffing a Care 
of all the Churches. Every Chriftian mud do ic 
by private Endeavours. Every Official Preacher by 
Preaching where he is called. Every Paftor by 
guiding his Flock in Concord with all true Cbri- 
ftians, in the things which Chrift hath made ne- 
ceflary to their Concord: And if Archbifhopshave 
right to a larger Province,they muft do it in their 
proper Province,/^ partes ,8c not asoneAriftocracy. 

3. It is granted, that as all Chriftians andBi- 
Iliops muft have a Love to all the Churches, and 
a Care to do them good in their feveral Places, 
fo Concord in things neceffary is a great means 
of that good , and the ancient Paftors endeavou- 
red it by Meflages , Letters and Synods •, andfo 
muft we. But what Univerfal Laws were made 
by Lit era format a ? What formal Judgments 
were paft by them? Where did the Writers 
meet firft to hear the Accufed and examine Wir- 
neffes? Or muft all believe the report of every 
(ingle Paftor ? And was it all the Bifhops on Earth, 

I 3 °r 

C us ] 

or a' major part, that wrote thefe Legiflative and 
Judicial Letters? What (Irange things can fome 
Men gather from meer Communion and Con- 
cord ? Biihops had then a Neceflity of getting the 
common confent of as many of their Order as 
they could, to make their Government of force 
to the People, that were all Volunteers, and not 
contained by any Magiftrate ? And ifsufeful ftill 
to the fame end. 

4. And we grant them that every Bifhop and 
Presbyter, that giveth counfel to other Churches 
doth not do it as a meer private Man, but as a 
Bifhop : that is, One that by Office is authorized 
to give fuch Paftoral advice to fuch as he is 
called to give it to 3 But not as one that hath the 
charge of Governing other Mens Flocks, or is 
a Member of an Ariitocratical, Supream Senate, 
Parliament, Court, or Voting States. Suppofe 
each Hofpital have its allowed Phyiitian , who 
in doubtful Caies confulteth with many others 5 
Their counfel is the counfel of Phyfitians 3 that 
is, of Men licenied for that Work and Care: 
But it proveth them not to have any proper Go- 
verning Power over his Hofpital or Patients. 

5. If every Bifhop be a Governor not only U % 
but of the whole World or Church , it is either 
Singly* or Colicttively as part of a Governing Com- 
pany. If fingly, it's a monflrous Body 'that hath 
io many thoufand Univerfal Heads. If colle- 
ctively, then no one is a Supream Governor, but 
a part of that Body which is fuch. And no one 
on Earth can act as fuch a part of One Arifto- 
cracy , without prefence with the red , hearing 
what they fay, and what A<2ors and Witncfles 
fay, and gathering Votes. 

Pag. 41 1 c 

C »* ] 

Tag. 411. ^Hccortfefleth out of Socrates about 
* the Emperors Power in Church Matters, tha c 
C [from the time in which Fmperors received the Faiths 
c Ecclefta mgotia ex eorum nut it fender e vifa [m:t 
' Socr. 1. 5. Proem. 

And if (b, why is Mr. Morice angry with me 
for faying^ That Bifhops u(ed in Councils much 
to follow the Emperors minds. 2. And then ic 
will be but an oddUniveifal Legislative and Ju- 
dicial Soveraign Power over all the World, which 
dependeth on the content of fo many Princes, Pro- 
teftants, Papifts, Mahometans, Heathens, Jaco- 
bites, Neftorians, &c as a General Council mud 
be called by or depend on. And it will be an end- 
lefs Controverfie, what Princes have or have-not 
a Power to confent or diflent, that their Subjects 
lhall go to iuch Councils. But alfo Confutation, 
is not Government. 

Chap. XL The Judgment of Mr. Herbert 
Thorndikc, a late Eminent 'Divine of the 
Church ^/England. 

§ 1. \ K R. Thomdike hath written fo much on 
1VJL this Subject that I need no more than 
refer the Reader to his Books, for the difcovery 
of his mind. The fum of his late Writings ( thefe 
thirty years part ) is to call us all into one vifible 
Cacholick Church which is unified by one IIu* 
mane Government of all, out of which nothing 
willexcufeus from Schifrn, or make our failing 
tolerable. I lis arguments for an Univerfal Ari- 
flocracv anfwered by Dr. Iza^Barrow in the end 

I 4 of 

[ 120 ] 

of his Treatife of Supremacy, I will not here re- 
cite, becaufe they are there fo fully and learnedly 

§ 2. In his C Jufl Weights and Meafures'] he 
tells us that the Church of Rome being a true 

Church, Reformation ly- 

(*) confufion. i. The e th in Reftoration, and 
£&f£ noc in Separation, (a) 

feparate from is a pretended Soyeraignty over all Ch'nftians. 
This is no true Church of Chriit z. But we feparate not from 
then in point of Chriftianity. But i. From their Ufur- 
pation. 2. And other 5ins. 

Page <r. he faith, [ c Who will take upon him 
c to (hew us that the Worfhip of the Holt in the 
'Papifts is Idolatry. 

Page 6, 7. c They chat feparate from the Church 
c of Rome as Idolaters are thereby Schifmaticks be- 
( fore God. 

4 For in plain terms we make our felves Schif- 
! maticks by grounding our Reformation on this 
i pretence. 

' Should this Church declare that the Change 
'which we call Reformation is grounded on this 
' fuppofition, I muft then acknowledge that we 
' are Schifmaticks. 

Ch. 2. c Is to difprove them that make the 
1 Pope Antichrift, and Papifts Idolaters, and fliew 
• that the fuppofition of one Catholick Vifible 
c Church, is the ground of all Communion and 
'fuppofed to Reformation. AndQi. 3. Nothing 
c to be changed but on that Ground of fuch Vifible 
< Unity. 

Ch. 5. 'IfourLordtruft his Difciples and their 
' Succeflbrs with the Rule of his Church , he 
J trufteth them alfo to make Laws for the Ruling 


[ 1*1 ] 

of it J — Thefe Laws are as Vifible as the 
Laws of any Kingdom er Common-wealth that 

is or ever was are Vifible I maintain the 

Popes Canon Law ( and the fame is to be faid 
of the Canon Law, by which the Patriarch of 
Conftaminople now Governs the Eaftern Church ) 
to be derived from thofe Rules whereby the 
Difciples of our Lord and their SuccefTors go- 

' verned the Primitive Church in Unity. — The 
power of Giving Laws to the Church 3 the 
power of Difpenfing the Exchequer which Gcd 
hath provided for the Church, are in the Go- 
vernors of the Church ; and the power of ad- 
mitting into and excluding out- It's a Vifible 
Society founded by God under the Name of the 
Catholick Churchy on the command of holding 
Communion with it. 
Page 41. c The Church in the form which I 
ftate it is a (landing Synod, able by the confent of 
the Chief Churches, containing the confent of 
their reforts to conclude the whole. 
Page 48. ' The Church of Rome hath and ought 
to have when it (hall pleafe to hear reafon, a 
Regular pre-eminence, over the reft of Chriften- 
dom in thefe Weftern parts. And he that is able 
to judge and willing to confider (hall find chat 
Pre eminence the Only Reafonable means to^ pre- 
fer ve fo great a Body in Unity. And therefore 
I am not my felf tyed to juftifie Henry the 

' Eighth indifclaiming all fuch pre-eminence. 

Page 48. c That the difference may be. vifible 
' between the Infinite and the Regular Power of the 
c Pope. 

Page 91. c The perpetual Rule of the Church 

c make s 

C i£* ] 

' makes them Hereticks to 

(V) And having before « t h e Church that Com- 

madethe church ot Eng- <■ mun i cate with Hereticks 

Und Schifmaticks ne makes c c lt • i i 

all Schifmaticks that Com- ■ and ^chiimaticks that 

municate with it. Communicate with Schif- 

c maticks. (b) 

Page 94. 'TheFlefh and Blood of Chrift by 
c Incarnation, the Elements by Confecration be- 
1 ing united to the Spirit, that is, the Godhead of 
'Chrift, become both One Sacramentally, bybe- 
' ing both One with the Spirit or Godhead, to 
'the conveying of GoJs Spirit to a Chriftian. 

Page 125. c The worfljipping the Hoft in the 
c Papacy is not Idolatry. 

Page 152. 'He faith that the OathofSupre- 
c macy is but to exclude the Popes Temporal 
c power : But becaufe the words feem to exclude 

* the power of General Councils, of which the 

* Pope is and ought to be the chief Member, of 
? neceiTity the Law gives great offence : And that 
'offence is the fin of the Kingdom, and calls for 
' Gods Vengeance on it ; which though all are in- 
; volved in, the account in the other World will 

* lye on them, which may change it and will 

c not. 

Page 134. 'But the authority of thofe Divines 
c of this Church who have declared^ the fence of 
c the Oath of Supremacy with publick allowance 
£ are now alledged by the Papifls themfelves to 

* infer that the matter of it is lawful (as exclu- 
' ding only the Popes Civil Power. ) 

Page 141. i We receive the Body and Blood 
c o£ Chrift, and by confequence his Spirit Hypo- 
1 ftatically united to the fame, to inable us to per- 

• form. 


Page T4p- 'The Church of Rome cannot be 
charged with Idolatry. The Pope cannot be 

Ch. 12. ' The Reformation pretended is abo* 
minafileand Apoftafie, and rhe ufual Preaching 
a hinderance to Salvation $ and new* Homilies 
to be formed to reftrain Preaching. 

Page 146. 'I confefs I can hope for no good 
end of any difpute without fuppof ing the ience 
ofthe Articles of One Catholick Church, which 
hath carried us through this diicourfe, for the 
Principle on which all matter in debate is to be 

4 P. 214. And oft he profeffeth that Presbyters 
not ordained by Biihops, baptize and give the 
Eucharift,void of the Eflfeft of a Sacrament, and 
only by Sacriledge— fpeaketh againft killing and 
and banifhing — (_But this will require the like 
Moderation to be extended to the Recufants of 
the Church of £owe,(p.234.)The Recufants being 
for the molt part or the Good Families ofthe 
Nation, will take it for a part of their Nobility 
freely to profefs themlelves in their Religion • if 
they underftand themfelves : Whereas the Se- 
ctaries, being people of mean quality for themofi 
part, cannot be prefumed to ftand on their repu- 
tation fo much. 

c In his Book called The Forbearance of Penalties, 
c. 3. p. 12,13. he makes the foundation of all 
Union to be the Government and Laws of the 
Church as vifibly Catholick, which Laws mud 
be cue and the fame, the violating whereof is 
the forfeiture ofthe fame ( Communion.) And 
here I crave leave to call All Canons, All Cu- 
stoms of the Church, whether concerning the 

' Rites 

c Rites of God's Service, or other Obfervations, 
< by one and the fame name of Lam of the 
c Church. 

\ P. 23. As for the Canons of the Church, it was 
c never neceffary to the maintenance of Gommii- 
- munion that the fame Cuftoms fhould be held in 
4 all parts of the Church. It was only neceflary the 
4 feveral Cuftoms fhould be held by the fame Au- 

* thority. That the fame Authority inftituted fe- 
c veral Cuftoms ; for fo they might be changed by 
1 the fame Authority* and yet Unity remain. 

' Whereas queftioning the Authority by que- 
c ftioning whether the ads of it be agreeable to 
c a God's Law or not,how fhould Unity be main- 
c tained ? It is manifeft that they ( the Fathers ) 

* could not have agreed in the Laws of the 

* Church, if any had excepted againft any thing 
' ufed in any part of the Church, as if God's Law 
' had been infringed by it. — It followeth of 

c neceffity , that nothing 
(O Here is 1. Aniiniver- c can be difowned by this 
ialLegitoive Power over 'church as contrary to 

£11 the Church on Earth. c r j t 1 - 1 1 * 1 j 

2. This Power is in Coun- . G p d S Law, Which hOld- 

cils, of which the Pope is eth by the Primitive 

the chief Member 5 and the l Church. ( c.) 
only reafonable means of 

the Union of lb great a Body, is his Regular Power as dimncT: 
from Infinite Power. 5. All the Canons Rites and Cuftoms, 
are thefe Laws of the Church. 4. All Kings and Kingdoms are 
bound to obey them. 5-. No man mult queftion whether thefe 
Lausor Cuftoms, or any of them are contrary to God's Law. 
6. The men that muft have thisAbfolute Tower over all the 
Kings and Kingdoms on Earth, that will be Chriftian,are them- 
selves the Subjects of the Turks, the Moore, the Emperor of 
Abaffia, the Peril .m, the Emperor of Iniaftan, called the Mogul, 
thzYlxms of Poland, Hungary, Spain, France, England, Denmark 
Sweden^ the Emperor of Germany, and abundince more ; when 
it s known that few Bifhops are cholen in any of theft Coun- 


treys Mahometans or Papifts, but fuch as the Princes like, and 
that they dare not go againft their wills in any great matter. 
7. Their minds are known already, and contcquently what 
they would do in Councils, if all thefe Princes would agree to 
call an Univerfal Council. The Major Vote, if it were called 
in Mefopotamia, or that way would be fuch as Rome calieth He- 
reticks.- If called in Greece it would be Greeks : Ifinlta//, or 
Germany, or France, they would be Papifts 5 no where Pro- 
teftants. Few would travel above a thoufand miles to the 
Council. 8. Tho' one would think that this platform 
of Governing the whole Earth, could be believed by no man 
in his wits, yet you fee Learned men are fo far deceived : And 
it is by judging of the World by the Old Roman Empire. There 
indeed Councils were Nationally General : They were Courts : 
They had Legiflative Power and Pretorian Command : None 
might appeal from them for Relief in Foro Humano. Emperors 
gave them this Power. It was but rational, over their own 
Subjects : What Power had they over others? The Convoca- 
tion in England, or the General Aflembly in Scotland may be 
made and called a Court by the King: But France or Spain 
were never Governed by them , nor took them to b* over 
them unqueftionable Legiflators .Yea, I believe King and Par- 
liament at home are not fo fubjecT: to their Laws. 

Page 27. He faith (as Mr. Bodwe'U) c It is 
1 agreed on by the whole Church, thac Baptifm in 

< Herefie or Schifm (that is, when a man gives 
c up himfelf to the Communion of Hereticks or 
« Schifmaticks by receiving Baptifm from them) 

< though it may be true Baptifm, and not to be 
' repeated, yet it is not 

'.available to Salvation, W And are not thefe nn- 
1 making him accefTory to ™ttn?£t ft *S£ 

(rj r r 1 t l • men take up with a damn- 

Hereteor Schifm that is ing Eaptlfm7 and will no , 

fo Baptized, (d) rebaptize them that they 

may have a faving Bap- 
tifm, which yet they hold neceifary to Salvation ? They fear 
Anabaptifm it i'eerrts more than mens Damnation. 

Pag. 28. c The proroifc of Baptifm is not avail- 

4 able, 

C 126 ] 

c able, unlefs k be depoilced with the true Church, 
»• , . ' nor to him that continu- 

( e ) The true Church that c h j h mieChurch 
is an lliurped Power 01 ( * ~ . 

UniverUi UgiflatioD , is . WJ may exatf: the pro- 

here made by him and mile depollted with it.(e) 
Mr. Dc dwell as neceflary to 

Salvation as Chrift, and more than the holy Scriptures. But 
what u ill now become of all the Papiftsthat (by difpenfation) 
come in to Proteftant Churches ? They alfo are all damned as 
Schifmacicks for communicating with them ; unlefs he forgot 
to except them thac the Pope difpenfeth with. 

p age 33- • [' It is out of love to the Reforma- 
c tion that I inlift on fuch a Principle as may ferve 
c to reunite us with the Church of Rome 5 being 
c well allured that we can never be well reunited 
' with our felves otherwife. Yet not only the Re- 
c formation, but the common Chriftianity muft 

' needs be loft in the di- 
(/jHowmuchwiferare c yj ^ ^y 

thele men than Cniiit and c , > , . 

St. Pa U L who made k the c ver have an end other- 
duty of all that were bap- wile. (/) 
tized Chrimans, to live as 

one Body ofChriftin Love? Him that is weak in ^ e faith re- 
ceive, but not to doubtful difputations, Rom. 14. 1. The king- 
dom of God is not meat and drinl^ but rigbkettifnefs, and peace % 
and joy in the Holy Gboft. He tb.it in thefe things ferveth Chrijl t is 
acceptable to God y and approved of men. 

Pa#.ni. ['If it befaid that it is not vifible 
c where thofe Usurpations took place, I fhall al- 
' low all the time which the Code of the Canons 

( contains, which Pope A- 

(O Thisyetisfomemer- l drian fent to Charles the 

cy to us : But is it as your < G ea t pag> T 2 g. which l 

grant i 1. How will this c u 1 1 • ^l 1 

ftand with all that you have would have this ChUTCll 

written for thee ' tO OWn, \g ) 
ed Umvcriiu .ive 


C i*7 3 

Church ? Did it ceafc at Charles the Great's time ? and yet 
are all damned that are not fubjeel to it ? 2. How fhall we 
l>e lure that the Canons bind us till Adrians rime, and not 
fince ? 3 . But Sir, we take him for a Papift that is for all che 
Canons and Cuftoms till Charles the Great : And there are 
many things before that which we cannot Conform to with- 
out renouncing the Laws and lufficierit Government of Chrift, 
which we cannot do upon fuch pitiful reafonings as yours. 

In Mr. ThowMkp's large folio Book, there is yec 
much more for his Univerfal Legiflative Aristo- 
cracy mixt with Regular Papacy. The fum of all 
is, The Pope Governing at leaft in the Weft by 
the Canons in the intervals of General Councils 
(that is, alwaies,) and as the chief Member with 
Councils making Laws for all the World. Thus 
the French and Italian Papifts differ whether the 
Pope fhall Govern the World as the King of Po- 
land doth his Land 5 or, fay fome, as the Duke of 
Venice, or rather as the King of France. But Pro- 
teftants know no fuch thing as an Univerfal Le- 
giilative Church, nor owns any Univerfal Laws 

but Gods 3 unlefs you mean Nationally/Vniverfal, 

as in the Empire Councils and Laws were called 
I refer you again to Dr. Barrows Confutation of 
the reft of Mr. Thomdikes. 

Chap'. XII. The Judgment of "SD/\ Sparrow Bi- 
Jhop of 'Norwich, and divers others. 

1 T^^ 10 P s P" rr ov> Pref. to Col left. C ^ s ™y Fa - 

JD ' therfent me^ fo [end I yon. Here COmmit- 
1 ting the Government of the Church to his Apo- 
c files, our Lord Commiffions them with the fame 

! Power 

[ nS ] 

1 Power that was committed to him, for that pur- 
'pofe when he was on Earth 5 with the fame ne- 
' cefiary Handing Power that he had exercifed as 
, N , n ,. ' Man for the good of the 

J&u^T^lZn c Church, (a) Lefs cannot 

or the Head or sovcraign, c . r , , , 

and that of Official Mini- c }" reafon be thought tO 

ftcrs much differ. be granted, than all Pow- 

c er neceflary for the well 
c and peaceable Government of the Church. 
\ And fuch a power is this of Making Laws. 
, tS :,, ' '■■'".-■;- ' (b) This is a Commiffion 

fin^ch^SpS [jn general for making 
publiflied his Univerfal Laws: Then mparticu- 
Laws, is but that all Mini- -Mar for making Articles 

iters m their feveral Chur- < an d Decifions of Do- 
ches guide the Flocks by c <q. r : nPQ mntrnvprtpA flip 

thefe Laws of chnft, and c ctnnes controverted tne 

teach them the people, and POWer IS more expllClte 

determine of incidental ' andexprefs, Mat. 28. Aft 

Circumftances pro loco &> c power is given me: Go there- 

tempore 5 and not to make < f on an £ teach ali Nat%ons> 

new Urnverlal Laws. c . fc . . , , . 

that is,with authority and 
1 by virtue of the power given me. And what is 
' it to teach the Truth with authority, but to com-" 
c mand and oblige all people to receive the Truth 
, V u- ' .- n y ' fo taught ? OJ And this 
J&^-S&S co ; Power ms not given to 

teach the Churches what the ^potties perions on- 

hehad commanded them, c ly *, for Chrift then pro° 

and promifeth to give them c mi fed to be with them 

the Spirit to bring all to c in hac Qff j , end 

their remembrance, and , r , ^ r 1, t . . 

lead them to all Truth of the vVor d 5 that IS, 

to them and their Sue- 
c ceiTors in the Paftoral Office : To the Apoftles 
or Bifliops that fhould fucceed them to the end of 


[ J2 9 ] 

J the World, (d) To this 
One holy Church our 
Lord committed in truft 
the moft holy Faith, &c 
commanding under pe- 
nalties and cenfures all 
her Children to receive 
that fence, and to pro- 
fefs it in fuch expreflive 
words and forms as may 
dire&ly determine ^ the 
doubt. Thus (he did in 
the great Nicew Coun- 
: cil — This authority in 
determining Doubts and 
; Controverfies the Church 
: hath pra&ifed in ALL 
: AGES, and herconftant 
: practice is the beftlnter- 
'preterofher right. (*) 

WWhen the King fends 
out Judges and Jufnces he 
doth not make tnem Kings 
or LegiOators. The Apo- 
ftles had the Spirit for pro- 
mulgating and recording 
Chrifts Laws : Others have 
it only to preferve and 
teach them, and rule by 
them, and not to make 
more fuch, as if they were 
inefficient, and Chrifhan 
Religion were /till to be 
changed by new additions, 
and were half Divine and 
half Humane : Gods Word 
and the Bimops in medley. 

(e) The three firft Ages 
had no General Councils s 
The three next had Natio- 
nal or Imperial General 
Councils. The thoufsnd 
years laft paft (which you 
include in {M Ages'} had 
fuch Councils and practices as prove not her right. Elfe why 
do not you now pracTife accordingly ? — Bifhop Guningown- 
tth but fix General Councils, which were all but in three A- 
ges. And others but four, and none that I know of but 
eight, who do not openly prOfefs Popery. 

Hath Chrift given any new commands firice thofe which he 
lent the Apoftles to cjeliver ? Have you any more of his com- 
mands to give us than the Apoftles delivered in their times ? 
I [If you may make new ones, you hare more than Apoftolick 
I 'power, which was to teach whatever Chrift commanded 
them. He is with them to the end of the World, i. In 
ibleffing the Word delivered and recorded by them. 2. In 
blefling thofe that teach it. But not thofe that add to it the 
fupplement of their own Univerfal Laws. 

And which is the Church that in all Ages ( thef- thoufand 

years) have had this power? Three parts, of the Chriftian 

World fay, It is not the Roman. The Roman Church fay,- 

K. IS 

It is not the Greeks. Both fay. It is not they in Abaflia, Egypt, 
Mefopotamia, Armenia, Georgia, Sec. The Protectants confeis 
it is not they. And is obedience to an unknowable Powe: 
neceflary to Concord and Salvation ? 

_ I (hall not tire the Reader with the needlefs re- 
citation of many more late Divines that lived fince 
J 630 enough are known. Thofe that have de- 
fended Grotim cf late I pafs no judgment on ; you 
may read their own Pecks and judge as you fee 

caufej viz.. Dr. Thomas fierce now Dean of Salif- 
hfiry, and the famous Preface to Archbifliop 2?ra»- 
hail's Book againft me, &c I fear all this Hi- 
ftory is neediefs. Men now laugh at me for prov- 
ing by Mens writings their endeavours to fubjecfl 
the King and Kingdom to a Foreign Jurifdiftion, 
when they fay it is more fenfibly and dreadfully 
proving it felf. 

Chap. XIII. 7)r. Parker V Judgment {fince 
BiJIjop of Oxford. ) 

THE laft mentioned Author Dr. Sam. Parker, 
befides what he hath faid againft me in his 
large Preface before Archbilliop Bromhalfs Book, 
hath fince gone fo far beyond all his Fellows, that 
finding himfelf unable to anfwer this Argument 
otherwife, [The World muft not have one Uni- 
versal Humane Civil Governor ( King or Arifto- 
cracy ) ergo. It muft not have one Humane Prieft 
or Church Governor] defperately denieth the 
Antecedent , and faith, that though de fatto the 
Kings of the Earth have not one Sovereign over 


:hem all ( that is meer ManJ they ought to have. 
x Andite Reges. I cannot conjecture who he mean- 
eth unlefsit be the Pope, and he be of Cardinal 
Bertrams mind, that God had not been wife -if 
lehad not made one Man a Vice-God, or his De- 
puty to Rule all the World: For fure he never 
•dreamed that all Kings and States on Earth would 
meet or voluntarily agree to chufe one Univerfal 
King over them. 

j I met newly with an extraordinary Wit, who 
faith that after the Conflagration, in the Millen- 
nium of the New Heaven and Earth, Chrift or 
his Vkz-Roy will triumphantly Rule, &c. But 
;r. I never read before of a Vice- Roy after the 
Conflagration, which he faith will firft confume 
Antichrift. 2. I know not how much of the 
New World heafligns to this Vice-Roys Govern 
ment ; for if Gog and Magog after cover the 
Earth, and the New Generation be numerous, 
i(which he thinks the Earth will bring forth like 
lower Animals, ) it may be the New jemfakm 
may be fo fmall that one Vice-Roy may Rule ir. 
3. But fure that holy Generation will make Go- 
vernment and Obedience far eafier things than 
now they are. 

(Chap. 'XIV. 2>. Saywell'j Arguments for a 
Foreign Jurifdiftion confidered. 

;§ 1. *nPHis Dr. (who I may well fuppofe 

1 fpeakethhis Lord and Matters fence ) 

Jsfo open as to let us know, 1. That "it is the 

Topes Power above General Cotimils, which they call 

1. K 2 Popery. 

Popery. 2. And that they join with the concilia,' 
Party in point of Church Government , and fo take 
not them for Papifts, who hold not that Sove- 
raignty of the Pope, but only his Primacy. 3 That 
it is but the Jefuited Party of the Church of Rome^ 
which they renounce. 4. That they alfo renounce 
all Nonconforming Proteftants as a Jefuited Par- 
ty. So that he WQuld tempt us to believe what 
fome affirm that their delign hath long been to 
fubdue the Jefiuits and Reformed Churches ( or ra- 
ther deftroy thefe J and to ftrikeupa Union with 
the French, and maintain that they are no Papifts 
as to Government. But though the Power of 
old Proteftants in England were never fo much 
fubdued to them, methinks the Jefuits Intereft in 
France fhould refift them, unlefs the Jefuits them- 
felves be ( as fome vainly think ) fain out with 
the Pope, and then it will be the Jefuited Party 
which thefe Men will own. 

§. 2. But to his Arguments, [ Page 542. Mr.£. 
faith, i J have earneftly de fired and fe arched to know 
^ the proof of fuch a Legiflative Vniverfal Power, and 
c I cannot find it. Bnttfi Mr.U. would ferioufly con- 
' fider thefe Texts y he might find that obedience is due 

c tothe churchy Mat. 1 8. If he negleft to hear the 
c Church let him be to thee as an Heathen Man 

* and a Publican. Now as one private Man may 
1 negletl to hear the Epificopal Church to which he be- 

* longs, fo the Epificopal, Provincial and National 
' Church may alfio prove Heretical^ and negletl to hear 
'she CatholickChurch , but the Vniverfial Church can 

* never fail, for the Gates of Hell fliall never prevail 
c again ft it. And if more Perfions , or particular 
1 Churches give offence by Herefie, Schifim, &c- the 

* Church Vniverfial^ or the reft of the Bifiops may re- 

1 prove 

prove them for it, and then there is no reafon why 
1 one Man fiould be cen fared and many go free ; and 
i confequently our Saviour hath eftablifhed the Autho- 
1 rity of his Church over all Chrifiians, as well parti- 
1 cnlar Churches as private Men. 

Anf i. Let us try this Argument by the like. 
( God hath commanded obedience to Kings, and 
faid, He that will not hear the King and Judge, fliafl 
be put to death. But Kings and their Kingdoms 
may be Criminal : And if private men muftobey^ 
Authority, or be put to death, fomuft Kings and 
Kingdoms? Why fhould they efcape? Therefore 
all Kings and Kingdoms muft obey One Univer- 
fal Humane King or Kingdom under Chrift.] Do 
you think this is true ? No ; There is no fuch 
Univerfal Humane Empire, Monarchical or Ari- 
fiocratical. No Mortal Men are capable of it, 
any more than of Ruling the World in the Moon, 
or the Ftfh in the Sea, ( but of a part only. ) So 
there is no fuch Univerfal Church Power 3 but 
particular there is. 

As to your reafon, I anfwer, God is the Uni- 
I verfal King, and he only is the punifher of all So- 
veraign Powers, whether Monarchs, Ariftocra- 
cies or Mixt. ( which I have ever aflerted, though 
the Lying Spirit hath feigned the contrary. ) God 
hath feveral ways. to Rule and Judge them here, 
and his final Judgment is at hand. And the cafe 
is like with National Churches, fave that their own 
Princes may punifh offending Clergy-men. 

2. One Perfon or Nation may renounce Com- 
munion with another as Heretical, without any 
Ruling Power over them : And the other may 
do the fame by them (deferving it) Am I a 
Governor or Legifla tor over every one that I may 
K 3 refute 


If he fay, They fince Ruled by the old Laws, 


refufe to eat or pray with as a Brother. 

3. That there is no Humane Univerfal Church 
which hath power to Govern a National Church, 
as the Bifhopsmay their Flocks, is proved. 1. They 
cannot have the Authority who have not fo much 
as a Natural Capacity : But none have a Natural 
Capacity to Govern all the Chriftian World : Ergo 
none have fuch Authority. 

2. They have not the Authority who have not 
the Obligation to ufe it in fuch Government. ( For 
an Office COntaineth Authority and Obligation^) But 
none are obliged to Govern all the Chrifiian World: 
Ergo j &c. 

For the Minor, 1. None are obliged to Impof- 
fibilities : But, &c 

2. None are obliged without fome obliging 
Law : But there is no Law obliging any to Go- 
vern all the Chriftian World : Ergo. 

3. If they are obliged, they are condemned if 
they do it not : But none do Rule all the Chriftian 
World : He confeffeth none have done it fince 
the fixth General Council, that is, thefe thoufand 
years (and more by one.) And doth he nop 
Damn the Bifliopsof all the World then for neg- 
lecting their great Duty a thoufand years toge- 

If he fay, that Others made Canons enough be- 
fore, I anfwer, 1. If they have had no fuch work 
to do thefe thoufand years, then there was no Of- 
fice, or Obligation or Power to do it. 

2. It was then only thofe that made the Laws 
that had that Soveraignty. The Dead are no Ru- 
lers } and fo the Church hath had no Soveraign 

i anfwer, i. That was not by Legiflation, but 
Execution. 2. They never Ruled the Univerfal 
Church as one Soveraign Power by the old Laws, 
'•mt only per partes in their feveral Provinces, as 
uftices and Mayors Rule the Kingdom, without 

Arg. 3- That which never was claimed till the 
^apal Ufurpation, was not inftituted by God : 
But a Soveraign Government of the Univerfal 
Church on Earth was never claimed till the Papal 
Usurpation : Ergo. 

That Councils were only General as to one Em- 
pire, and called only in one Empire, and pretend- 
ed to Govern thatEmpire,and not all the World, 
[ have fully proved againft Johnfon. 

Arg. 4. Thofe that muft Rule all the Chriftian 
World, muft teach them. ( For the Pailoral Go- 
vernment is by the Word. ) But no one ( Per- 
: fon or Ariftocracy ) are the Teachers of all the 
World. Who have pretended to it but the Pa- 
pacy ? 

Arg. 5. If any Soveraign may Rule England 
and all other Churches as a Bifhop ruleth his Flock, 
then that Soveraign Power, may when they judge 
it deferved Excommunicate the King and all the 
Kingdom, and filence all the Bifhops and Mini- 
fters,and forbid all Church Communion (as Popes 
land their Councils have done.) But theconfequence 
lis falfe — Ergo — 

Arg. 6. If any have fuch power, they muft be 
| fuch as people may have accefs to, to decide their 
.Caufes, and may hear their Accufations, De- 
fences, Witnefles : But fo cannot the Univerfal 
"Church of Bifhops : They confcfs thefe tboufand 
years they met not in Council ; and whither elfe 
K 4 Should 

[ «6 ] 

fhould we carry our Witnefles ? and where elfe 
ihould we expeft their fentence ? Paul's charge 
was, I Thef 5. 12,13. Know them that labour among 
youi and are over you in the- Lord, and admonifl you y > t 
and e flee m them very highly in Love for their worl^ ( 

fake — - But we cannot know all the Bifhops over ' 1 
the Earth, that never were among us. 

An unknown Judge cannot be obeyed : That is, }| 
One whom we cannot know to be indeed our 
Judge : But it's impofiible for us now to know 
what number of Bifhops, and who, muft be cal- 
led the Univerfal Judge. 

And an unknown fentence cannot be obeyed ; 
but it'simjpoffible for us to know the fentence of 
the Majority of the Bifhops on Earth, about any 
cafe to be judged by themthefe thoufand years. 

But enough is faid of this already : And Dr. 
Barrow hath utterly confounded your pleas for 
Foreign Jurifdidion- 

Paftors and Churches may Reprove one another, 
who Govern not one another- 

And do you think we are fo fottifh as not to 

fee, that your Colledge and Council muft have 

fome to call them together, or to gather Votes, 

and prefide, and approve ? And that the queftk 

on will be only of the Degree of the Popes power, 

and whether the French fort of Popery be beft ? 

§ i. Dr. S. addeth, p. 343. C ' So the Scripture 

\Aa : nly tells us elfewhere that Churches of Kingdoms. 

and Nations have a Soveraignty over them, to which 

they muft yield Obedience, Ifa. 60 12. where the 

Prophet fpeakjng of the Chriftian Church faith, The 

Nation and Kingdom that will not ferve thee fliall 

pefijh, yea thofe Nations flail be utterly wafted. If 

Nations and Kingdoms muft ferve the Churchy then 


[ »fr] 

f Jfo Wil? Authority to Command their Obedience t» 
things that belong to Peace and Holinefi ] 
Anf. I confefs Campanella de Regno Dei doth 
.thus make the Papacy the Fifth Monarchy, and 
confidently brings many fuch Texts for their Cler- 
gies Univerfal power. But, i. Is it the King of 
the Ch'jrch or the People that muft be obeyed ? 
The people have no Ruling Power. And if it be 
the Soveraign the queftion is, Who that is ? Pro- 
teftants fay, It is only Chrift : And the Text 
plainly meaneth, [_ The Nation that will not ferve 
Chrift the Head of the Church for the good of his Body, 
Jhall perijh. ] But the Italians fay, h is the Pope and 
Council, and the French, That it is the Council 

and Pope (as Prefident and Prime Patriarch) that 
is here meant. 

2. This may be difcerned by confidering, Who 
j it is that is to deftroy fuch Nations : It is Chrift as 

the fecond Pfalm fheweth; If it were the Pope 
and Council you threaten all Nations as terribly as 
', Be liar mine doth. 

3. And what is the periling and wafting here 
; meant? No doubt, their Souls that rebel againft 
I Chrift fhall perifh, and he will alfo punifh Bodies 
i and Kingdoms as fuch. But doth any of all this 
I belong to the Biihops? None of it. 1. Excom- 
! municating is their deftroying work : But the 
! Heathen and Infidel Nation?, are not to be Excom- 
i municated? What have you to do to judge them 

that are without ? Will you caft them out that 
never were in? *. And deftru&ion by the Sword 
is no Bifbop's Work- 

4. And when is it that all NSlons that obey not 
fliall utterly periili? We fee that 19 parts in 30, 
ftith Brierwood) of the World are Heathens and 


C i?8 3 

Mahometans,and yet profpenEver Cmce^brahams 
days till now the Church is a fmall pare of the 
World. And it is not by any Power of the. 
Church Governours that the Souls of Infidels 
perijhy but by themfelves. And their Kingdoms 
are unlikely to be deftroyed till Chrift's fecond 
coming. And if it be his deftroying them at his 
Judgment thatas meant , that proveth no Power 
in the Church againft them. 

But I confefs you tell us what to fear : and 
whence it is that the French Protectants fuffer. 
Thev muft utterly periih that obey not a Govern- 
ing Univerfal Sovereignty ? Nay, not only French 
Subjects by their Lawful King , but Proteftants 
States and Kingdoms that thought they had no 
Sovereign but their own proper one and Chrift 
Bat this is in Ordine ad Spiritualia. Yet, O you' 
intend no Cruelty. 

§•3- Pa g- 344- He tells US of the Churches 
Tower to decide Controversies , and of the Council, 

Ad. 15. 

Anfw. A multitude of Proteftant Writers have 
long ago anfwered all this. 1 • The word [church'] 
is ambiguous. JVVhen Chrift and his twelve Apo- 
files were on barth, they were the church (as to 
Rule.) And then the Vmverfal church met in a 
Houfe together, celebrated the Sacrament toge- 
ther,^. Muft they do fo now ? It was no General 
Council that met 7 A<$. 1 5. unlefs you will fay that 
there dwelt a General Council at Jerufakm as 
Jong as the Apoftles dwelt there. None of the 
Bifhops of the Churches planted by Paul, Barna- 
bas and others about the World are faid to be 
there, nor any at all but the Inhabitants of Jeru- 
falem, fave Paul and Barnabas who were fent as 


C *39 1 
Meflengers, and were not the Men fcnt to. And 
you now fay, that none but Biftops have decifive 

2. And there are more ways of deciding Contra 
verfes than one. We doubt not but every Pallor 
may decide them by Evidence of Scripture and 
Reafon. And many aflembled may contribute 
their Reafons and be helpful to each other, and 
may fee more than one, if they be meet Men. 
And Paftors thus by Teaching Evidence do that 
as Authorised Officers ( as Tutors and School- 
maftersj which Private Men do but as Private 
Men , and not as Officers : fo that even their 
Teaching Decifion is an aft of Authority as well 
as of Skill. And fo far as Humane authority muft 
go, the concurrent Judgment of a multitude of 
Divines, as of Phyfitians, Lawyers, e^. Ceteris 
paribus deferveth more reverence than a lingular 
opinion. But for all that , i. An Aflembly of 
Lay Men have no Authority but from their Evi- 
dence and Parts. 2. An AfTembly of Bifhops 
have no deciding Authority but by an office by 
which they areentrufted as fallible Men to teach 
others what they know themfelves, by the fame 
(Evidence which convinced them 5 and to guide 
their particular Congregations in mutable Cir- 
cumftances. 3. But an Aflfembly of Apoftles had 
Power to fay, It fee met h good to the Holy Ghoft. 

Obj. I. There were the Brethren alfo. 2. Single 
Apoftles had the Holy Ghofi , yet they did it in an 

An fw. 1. The Infpiration or extraordinary gifts 
of the Holy Ghoft were then common to mod 
Chriftians at leaft , as you may fee by comparing 
Gal. 3. 2, 3. I Cor. 12, Ail. 8. Rom. 8. 9, &c. 

2. There 

£ «4° 3 

2. There were but two Meffengers more than 
thofe that dwelt together, and met ordinarily, 
j^nd, i. The Apoftles themfelves had not fuch 
prefent command of the Spirit, as excluded the 
need of confultation. 2. And no doubt but the 
doubtful Chriftians abroad did more reverence 
the confent of all, than one alone. What there- 
fore they did as confenting infpired infallible per- 
fons, will not prove a (overaignty in all the Bi- 
fhops of the World in a Council, to decide Con- 
troverfies by Sentence and Command. No doubt 
but the Anembly at Nimeguen, Munfter, Franc 
fort 9 &c. may decide Controverfies between Prin* 
ces, but not by foveraignty over each other, but 
by confent. To their Subjects it's reverenced as 
a confent of Princes , but to each others it's the 
confent of Equals. I have faid that Archbifhop 
Vfar faid to me , That Councils were but for 
Concord, and not for Government 5 the Major 
Vote of Bifhops being no rulers of the Minor, 
nor of the abfent. 

Obj. But all Pafiors are related to the Vniverfal 

Anfw. As a Licenfed Phyfitian is related to all 
the Kingdom , that is , he may be Phyfitian to 
any that defire him : How ftri&ly do the Canons 
forbid Ufurpation in other Mens Diocefes ? The 
Englifli Ordainers fay, Take thou Authority to 

Preach the Word of God and Adminijler the holy 
Sacran.ents where thou (halt thereto be lawfully called. 
A general Ordination maketh none a Governor 
of other Mens Flocks. 

§. 4. Dr- S. Q' The Apoftles to give Example 

c how Controverfies fiould be ended in future Agcs y 
c did not decide it by their infallible Spirit only, but 

x proceed 

^proceed in an ordinary Method,plainly countenancing 
\the Authority of Councils , and intimating to m y 
that all Chriftian Feople ought to fubmit to their 
\ Decrees. 

: jlnfw. i. They did decide it by their Infallible 
spirit *, elfe they had not fathered all on the Holy 
Ghoft : But not [only] by that Spirit : for it was 
tlfo by their Vnderfiandings and their Tongues. 
Even fo they did not write the Cofpel only by the 
Spirit, but alfo by their Reafon and their Pens. 
But they decided it not without that Spiritual in- 
fallible Inflation , which your Councils have 

You may as well fay when AH. 6. 2. the twelve 
called the Multitude, &c. that there was a General 
Council, that fpake not only by the Spirit : And 
■jill. 11. 2. Peter pleadeth his Caufe before the 
Apoftles and Brethren, who were fatisfied by his 
Reafons : This was fuch another General Council 
But who doubteth but the Apoftles had Reafon as 
well as the Spirit, and ufed the gift of the Spirit 
in the ufe of Reafon, and not only in Extafies : And 
therefore Confultation and the Spirits infallible 
Infpiration may go together. 

2. We deny not the ufe of Confultation and 
the Confent of many as a help to incline mens 
Minds to Satisfaction : But only infallible Men 
can by infallible Authority decide Controverfie 
j fententially. And if Pope or Councils have fuch 
1 Infallibility, they have done ill that they would 
'■ ufe it no better than the Multitude of their 
1 Contradi&icns manifefteth. And if they were In- - 
fallible, the Peoples atlual Faith is never the more 
. infallible unlefs they themfelves were infallible alfo. 
! Are all the believers of Popes and Councils them- 

felves infallible, or not ? If yea, then are all 
herein equal to the Pope and Councils. If not, then 
the Laity know not but they may be deceived in 
thinking the Pope and Councils infallible. 

3 . I have truely recited the doleful decifion 
of Controverfies which they have made: They 
have raifed abundance of Controverfies which 
have torn the Church into pieces, as I have fully 
proved, whether Mr. Maurice will or not. 

4 It would have been a Service to the World 
indeed if Pope or Councils would to this day, af- 
ter 1500 vears Controverfie, vouchfafe to end 
them, and not tell us that they are appointed to 
end them, and yet will not? Why are there ftill 
Cart-loads of Fooks of Controverfies among Pa- 
pills, and r roteftants, and all ; and yet no Coun- 
cil doth decide them ? Even the Catalogues of He- 
refies given US by Ephinanius, Philaftrim, Auguf- 
tine, &c. are few of them medled with in your fix 
Councils. It is the Controverfies about the fence 
of Scripture which is moft talkt of, which Coun- 
cils muft decide : And of the many hundred or 
thoufand Controverted Texts , how few have 
Councils ever Expounded to us? How great is 
their guilt if they are bound to do it, and will 
not ? 

5. But you do but fpeak darkmfs, and nofatis- 
faction to us, to tell us that [aH Christian people 
ought to fubmit to their Decrees ,] till you tell US, 
Whether it be to All their Decrees, or but to fome, and 
to which, and how known. 

The Cafe may be, I About points abfolutely 
neceflary to Salvation, or points not fo necef- 
fary. II. About points plainly exprelt in Scrip- 
ture, or points tiiere darkly expreft. 

L As 

L i4J 3 

1. As for points abfolutely neceflary fbber Pa- 
jpifts themfelves confefs that they are all plainly 
^expreft in Scripture: Elfeitwere no perfect Do- 
ctrine or Law of God : If a Council contradict a- 
iny Article of the Creed, mull we receive its De- 
crees ? Sure Councils have no power t# judge that 
there is no God, noChriit, no Scripture, no Hea- 
ven ! Nor muft we believe them if they fhould 
fodo : ^nd if they have power only to tell us. 
that, There is a God, a Chrisl, a Heaven, Scripture 
hath told us this already ; and we need not that a 
Council tell it us. If we believe it as of God it is 
a Divine Faiths if as of Man, it is but a Humane 

2. But if it be only points not Neceflary, a 
Council cannot make that neceflary which God 
made not (o ? And it's a great wrong to the World, 
to increafe the difficulty of Faith and Salvation, 
by making more neceilary to it than God hath 

II. And whether they are neceflary or not, if 
they are plainly expreft in Scripture what need we 
a Council to fay the fame again ? Is not Gods 
plain words intelligible, as well as theirs? And 
; muft we not believe Gods plain words till a Coun- 
| cil repeat them ? How many things then muft we 
jrefufe to believe, which are plainly expreft in 
iScripture ? 

But if they be things not plainly expreft in 
'Scripture, it's like they are not NecefTary to Sal- 
vation. If they be, they are fuch deductions from 
' plain Scripture as are obvious to a found under- 
standing, or not: If yea, then every found under- 
standing may know them. Or if Men be igno- 
rant; either Councils or fingle Paftors may teach 

them : 

C M4 3 

them : But that is by opening the evidence of 
truth and not by commanding Men to believe it ? 
Teaching and not Magilterial determining beget- 
eth rational belief. 

But if they are not fuch obvious dedu6tions, we 
cannot be fore that Councils rightly collect them : 
But we are fure they have no power to com- 
mand us believe without giving us convincing 
.proof of the truth. 

For inftance, The firft General ( National) 
Council, determineth that Chrift is [God of God, 
Light of Light. Very God of Very God, ] I believe 
they meant the truth : But thefe words are fo far 
from making me a new Article of Faith, or mak- 
ing the point plainer than Scripture made it, that 
they are to me much darker than many Scripture 
words. That Chrift is God, even One God with the 
Father, and that he is the Eternal Word, and Son< 
the only begotten of the Father, the Scripture plainly 
tells us. And that the Perfon of the Son is of the 
Father: For the Perfons being three it is meet to 
fay that one is of the other- But God of God , and 
Very God of Very God, is of harder underftanding, 
and hath tempted miftakers to fay it is [ God- 
head of Godhead] as if the Eflence as well as 
Perfons were many. Creeds muft be fuppofed 
to fpeak properly. And denominations formal 
are rnblt proper : The Tritheites take advantage 
of this, and lay, [ It is not faid that the Perfon of 
the Son is of God the Father ; bat the Godhead as 
fuch : God of God being twice faid, fay they, fignifi- 
eth two Gods : They miiinterpret it ; But the Scrip- 
ture fpeaketh plainlier. The fame I fay of [Light 
of Light ~\ a Metaphor in a Creed. And they 
that put [fabftare accidentibwf] into the definition 



f Ifubfiance. ] and when they have done, fki 
<)at God hath no accidents, do not by the Word 
■fnbjtance'} add any plainnefs to the Scripture 

And how little the Council ztConjtamjnople and 

^oalcedon did to end the Controyerfies of Prelates, 

id unite the Church, by letting Constantinople 

id Rome in mutual Jealoufies and Competition* 

e World knows. 

And what the Councils at Ephefm and chacedon 
d to end the Controverfies about the Neftoriam 
id Eutychian points, or that at C. P. againft the 
tonothelites, or that under Justinian dentins ca- 
nlis> Mr. Morice and you cannot keep the World 
om knowing \ nor yet what all the Councils a- 
)ut Images, fome for them, and fome againft 
em, have done. 

Are they the only means of ending Controvert 
?s, I. Who do end none ? 2. Who have mofc 
creafed them ? 3. Who are the greateft Con- 
overfie themfelves ? The World will never be 
ireed which are to be taken for General jCoun- 
js Authoritative and which not 5 nt>r can you 
ve us any thing that hath the fhadow of reafon 
j fatisfie any impartial. Man: And no wonder 
jhen indeed there never was an Univerfal Counc- 
il in the World. 

All true Chriftians are agreed in ali that con- 
ituteth Chriftianity : And it is not the Autho- 
ty of Councils that made them Chriftians, and 
\ agreed them. And to dream of ending all 
bntroverfies about lefler matters, as long as meri 
:e fo ignorant and imperfeft, as all are in this 
r Vorld, is the part of no Man in his Wits. 
% 5- Page 345. Dr. S. [ c Accordingly the C bri- 
ll ! m 

f '4* ] 

ftian Church has challenged fetch an Authority, and 
has held fuch rfjjcmblies at occafion did require ; and 

fix fuch have been approved and received generally in 

. the Church, and no more. ] 

Anf In all this matter of fa& I think there is 
not one true word. 

r. The Chriftian Church did never challenge 
fuch an Authority, (unlefs you mean the Papal 
Church ) as in Council to have a Legiflative and] 
Judicial Soveraignty over the whole Chriftian 

£. Never fuch an Affembly was call'd or held/ 
as I have fully proved. 

3. The fix you mean we honour, and are of the 
fame Faith as they were, but how far all the 
Chriftian World hath been from .receiving them 
ill, I have elfewhere (hewn ( and fo hath Luther 
de Conciliis and many Proteftants. ) 

4. That there were no more approved and re- 
ceived as thefe were, is unproved. 

§ 6. Dr. S. Q As for Mr. B's exception, why we 
do not own tkefecond of Eph. and fecondof Nice for 
General Councils alfo f I anfwer, becaufe they were 
fit the time they were fir ft held and ?nany years after 
accounted no General Councils, and not received for 

fuch by the Church* And page 346. £ Mr. B 

demandeth how (liall any Mans Confidence be fiatisped 
that ju ft thefe fix had a fiupream, &C Anf. By the 
public^ Alls of the Church as we are fiatisfied of our 
A els of Parliament : For there are no more generally 
received, and thefe are. 

Anf 1 . I will not ftand here on many previous 
cjueftions : How we fliall know that a Council not 
General binds us not as much as a General, if 
they have as wife Men and as ftrong Evidence 


t '47 3 
And whether any Council be General which car- 
•ieth it but by a Major Vote, where a few turn 
he Scales,and the rtft diflent. But, 

2. If there be in this decifion of this great point 
)ne word that fhould fatisfie any Mans Conference 
vhich will not be fatisfied with meer noife, or 
he Writers Authority , I confefs I cannot find 

i. Either the Decrees of the faid Councils are 
obligatory by their Soveraignty before the dif&fed 
Zhurch 'receiveth them, or riot. If yea, then 
hat obligation muft be firft known •, yea and it 
s known and the Council known by thofe that 
reneareft, before all the Church or Earth can 
mow it. 

If not, then it is not the Council but the Re- 

eiving-Church which hath the obliging Soveraign 

K)wer : And this is indeed to make Soveraign 

nd Subje&s to be the fame. This is. like Mr. 

Hookers Principles ( and many Politicians ) that 

!he Legiflative Power is really in the people by 

Natural right, and it's no Law which hath not 

ommon confent. And If fo, no Man can tell 

pw to date your Church Laws : They did not 

i>egin to be Laws when the Council made them * 

■lot when all the Church on Earth cenfented i 

put we have need of the Decree of a General 

pouncil, ( for no Dr. is fufficient ) to tell us when 

11 the Chriftian World confenteth, for if eve- 

y Chriftian muft travel all over the World to 

blow, it will be a vagrant Church : And if he 

feuft fend, he cannot be fure that his MefTengei* 

pith true : ^nd a thoufand Meffengers may all 

jjffer i An& who can bear their Charges ? ^nd 

fa Council tell us when the World confenteth 

L 2 to 

[ :»■?* 1 

to former Decrees, we muft know alfo the worlds 
cbnfent to that Decree before we can be fure it's 

And 2. Whether the Church diffufive give 
authority to the Decrees, or only be the Promul- 
gators, whole reception muft be our notice, it is 
a contradiction to lay, [ I know it firft becaufe 
ail the World of Cnriftians receive it. ] For 

that's all One as to fry, [_Lvay fingle Cbriftian 
Inovoeth it becaufe all Chriftians ktiorv it firft. ] That 
is, All know it before they know it ; The parts 
are in the whole. 

3. Hath God laid the Salvation of all the Mil- 
lions of Men and Women, Learned and Unlearn- 
ed upon fuch acquaintance with Cofmography 
and Hiftory as to know what Councils (pa(t 
1000. years) all the Chriftian World receiveth? 
Or whether the greater part be for them or againft 
them ? Is there one of a hundred thoufand that 

It's like you will fay, They mnfi take their 
Teachers, or Bifliops words. Anf. If (o, thofc in 
Italy y Spain , Portugal, Poland, Germany, and ail 
the Papifts are bound to believe that you and all 
of your mind are Liars, for faying, There are but 
fix fuch approved Councils 3 for their Bifhops tell 
them of very many more. And then the Eaftern 
Chriftians are bound to take you for Liars,whofe 
Biihops tell them there were not fo many. And 
the Proteftants are bound to difIent,who generally 
hold that there never was one fuch General Coun- 
cil as had a Univerfal Jurifdi&ion over the Chri- | 
ftian World- How then (hall the people know 
what Councils as fuch are fo received ? 

4. Yea it is a thing that neither you nor the 


L 149 J 

moft Learned Man can know. Were you ever 

;; in Ethiopia, Syria , Armenia , Georgia s Circaffia , 
MtngreHa, and in all the Greek Churches ? If it be 
I Travellers that you trufi to, they give you no cre- 
dible notice of any fuch thing: And you Jay our 
Salvation on the avoiding of Schifm, and this up- 
on our obedience to the Univerfal Jurifdidiion, 
and fo you lay all our Salvation on the Testimo- 
ny of Travellers, who of all Men are moft fut 
fpe&edof a liberty to Lie. 

5. But the plain truth is, that notice which we 
have by Travellers and Hiftorians of the mind of 
moft of the Chriftian World, aflureth us that a 
very great pare of it receiveth neither your fix 

{ Councils, nor your firft four, and the reft receive 
many more \ If you have read Hrocardm and Ja- 
c obits de Vttriaco^ who dwelt both at Jerafalem, and 
Ha'uho and others in the Novits OrbU that defcribe 
Tart or y and Armenia ^ and Leo Afer, and Paulas 
Venetm, and BoterttSj and Godignm^ and Ludolphns 
of Abaffia, &c. you may perceive how great a 
number of Chriftians there be who own not fo 
much as your four firft Councils, fome abhorring 
that at Ephtfus y and fome that at Chalcedon. Ana 
you know that both Greeks and Papifts receive 
more than fix. 

6. And I crave your anfwer to the Queftion 
which I put to your Biihop and you, How could 
Chriftians know which were the true Soveraign 
Councils, when the far greateft part of the Bi- 
fhops diiowned them ? I will not cenfure you to 
be fo ignorant of Hiftory as not to know that the 
far greateft part cf the Church renounced the 
Council of Chalcedon in the Reign of divers Em- 
perors ? And the Council of Nice in the Reig ; i cf 

L 3 Conftantim 

L *5° J 
Conslant'm and Vakns. How then could they 
be known by your Rule ? 

But you fay, [ We may know it by the publicly A Eli 
of the Church as we know the Alls of our Parlia- 
ments. ] 

Anf. I defire no better proof ; how we know 
them I have oft mentioned. But here you leave 
us utterly in the dark : What mean you here by 
[_the Church ] and what by [_ its publick^Atts ? ] 

1. If by the Church you mean, i. All Chrifti- 
ans of this Age, we are fure they agree not of 

2. If you mean the Greater number ■, we are un- 
capable of gathering the Votes or knowing it : 
But I have fhewed you that we have reafon to 
conjedure.that moft are againii you : Vaft num- 
bers reje&ing fome, and the reft receiving more, 
and the Proteftants ( nor any but the Papifis that 
I know of ) receive not any as Univerial Sove- 
raign : And the Papifis alfo are divided about it, 
as Pighim and many more will jjhew you. 

j. Ifyoumeanit ofthemoftin former Ages, 
Iftill fay, one Age hath had moft for the Coun- 
cil of Nice, Chalcedon 7 Confiamwople fecond and 
third, and another Age moft againft them. 

4. If you go the only way that's left you, and 
with the Papifts call only thofe the Church who 
are of your mind, unchurching the moft of tli£ 
Church on Earth, then I confeis you may fay that 
the Chorchreceiveth them and only them. But 
few wife Men will reverence a Church fo de- 

^ II. And what the Ads of the Church are which 
give us fuch aflurance as you mention, I cannot 
imagine : As to our Statutes I have proved a Phy- 


L *fi J 

ical Evidence of the certainty of their being what 
:hey pretend 5 even fuch a confent of Men of 
:rofsIntereftsand Difpofitionsin thecompafs of a 
Land where the fad: may be known, as cannot be 
counterfeited or falfe. But abcut Councils the 
cafe is quite otherwife. I. The moft of the 
Church do not fo much as think that there are 
any fuch Councils, or at leaft never did hold it 
till the Papal Ufurpation, that they had a Sove- 
reignty overall the Earth. 

II. They are utterly difageerd how many and 
which are to be received. 

III. They are difagreed which be their Canons ? 
Even of the firft at Nicfpow long did three Popes 
contend about it with the African Bifliops? And 
fince Pifanus and Turrian bring us forth %o Canons 
inftead of 20, which the unlearned Africans re- 

IV. They are not agreed which of their Canons 
ft ill bind, and which not : nor which are de fide, 
and which not : Many fas the 20th at Nice) are 
laid by without any Councils repeal. 

IV. And the World is fo much bigger than 
Britain j that it is not fo eafie to be fure of the 
fence of all Ghriftians about the Matter. And 
bow (hould it when it was never agreed on from 
the firft? 

If by the Church jitls you fliould mean the 
Decrees of later Councils , that is to prove igno- 
tumper ignot'm. How know we which Councils 
to believe when fo many condemned one another ? 
And if the Sixth was the laft,therecame none after 
to notifie the reception of it. ' 

And whereas you fay that thofe of Eph. 2. and 
Ntce 2d, |Kri when they were held , and many Tears 

L 4 after 

[ T~ 1 

after accounted no General Councils , nor received as 
fuch by the Church, 

^nfvo. The Myftery lyeth in feme Se&arian 
Notion of the Church that you have : you mean 
fome Party 3 but it's hard knowing what. For, 
i. Bellarmine himfelf faith, that the fecond Ephef. 
Council wanted, nothing to make it as true a Ge- 
neral Council as the reft, but the Approbation of! 
the Pope's Legates. It was called by the Empe- 
ror, the Number greater than many others : the 
Confent fo great , that he faith that they de- 
creeing Herefie, fola navicula Petri evafit. 2. It \ 
had not only the Confent of the prefent Bifhops j 
as much as other Councils, but was as commonly [ 
received by the prevailing majority,while the Em- 
peror feemed to be for that way. 
' 2. And the fecond Council at Nice, was taken 
for as confenting a General Council during the 
Reign of Irene, and after under the Emperors that ; 
were for Images -? yea, and by the Pope himfelf, 
and all his Party in the Weft : But it's true that 
when the Emperors were againft Images it was 
abhorred : And fo one Council was for Images, 
and another againft them - 7 fas one for fhotim^ and 
another againft himj by turns, for too long a time, 
as the Emperors wereaffedled : But for the time, 
they were all called General, as that at Nice is by 
the Romans yet. 

2. But if this had been true (as it is not) which 
you fay, How fliall all Chriftians know it to be 
true ? When fuch as I with all our fearching can- 
not know it? yea are part doubt that it is falfe ? 
It's like you'll fay, It is our obftinacy : And fo all 
/hall be Schifmaticks and condemned with you, 
• vhom you are pleated to call obftinace,for cfcaping 


[ »«.] 

lat Ignorance which would better ferve your 


) §. 7. Dr. S. [" But Mr. B. objetfeth, That the 

1 Neftorians, Jacobites, Abailines, &c renounce 

fome of the fix Councils (yes, three of the fix) They 
had a perfonal Feneration for the Perfons of Ne- 
fioriuSrfW Diofcorus, and did believe' them when 
they faid that the Councils were miftaken in Matter 
of Pall, and Condemned them for Opinions, which 
they did not own , and thereupon did reject thofe 
Councils : But they did not then, nor do not at this 
day rejett the Catholick Faith , and the Rules of 
t Chriflian Unity, which are contained in the fix Ge- 
[ neral Councils. So that in effccl they own them > 
f For the principal thing required is to profefs the true 
' Faith, and hold the Unity of the Spirit in the bond 
' of Peace and Right eoufwfs, which thofe Churches 
' do , in that they own the Nicene , and C. P. 
: c Councils, and deny not the Doctrine of the other 
: four. 

Anfiw. Do you think that none of your Readers 
vill fee how much you here overthrow or give 
jp your Caufe? 1. If holding the Unity of the 
>pirit in the bond of Peace and Righteoufnefs will 
ferve, while they renounce the Councils as erro- 
neous and tyrannical, and holding the fame Faith 
ind Doctrine will ferve, what have you been 
Pleading for ? we are for all this as well as you ? 
2. And if the Council may erre in Matter of Fa<ft, 
which may be knowji by common fence and rea- 
fon, how much more may they erre in matter of 
right and fupernatural Revelation, as the Articles 
of the Church of England fay they have done. 

3. You confefs here that Men may rejed three 
i^r four of your fix Councils, and yet be no Schif- 



L i*4 J 

maticks, but hold Faith, Unity and Peace. Andl^ 
are the other two more neceflary than all the reft ?[ 
You fay, They bold the two fir ft. ^nfw. They hold] 
not the Infallibility of Councils , nor that the] 
may not be rejected when they erre, nor that w< 
may not be difcerning Judges when they erre 
For all this is renounced in their renouncing all 
fave two or three. 

4. You fay, They rejetl not the Rules ofChrjftiat 
Vnity. Anfw. Therefore they judged not the 
Decrees of Councils to be that neceflary Rule :\ 
Elfe the Decrees of thofe renounced by them I 
would be as neceflary as the reft. 

5. It's apparent by this that they held the fame 
with thofe Councils, not becaufe of the Authority 
of thofe Councils, but on other Grounds : For it 
is not poffible that they who renounced the Coun- 
cils, fhould believe the Chrjftian Faith, on their 
Authority. They believed it as a Divine Revela- 
tion fide Divina, and fo do we. 

6. And dare you fay that a Man thatbelieveth 
the fame things becaufe they are revealed by God 
in his Word, (hall be damned unlefs he believe 
them fide humana , becaufe a General Council de- 
creed them. 

7. Did your other Councils add any Decrees to 
the firft ? If not, what need of believing any thing 
as theirs ? If yea, then receiving the Decrees of 
the two firft is not a receiving the Decrees of the 

: 8. And oh whofe Authority did Chriftians be- 
lieve the firft 300 years before there was any Ge- 
neral Council ? / 

§. 8. Dr. S. P. 346. [" Obj. Did the Cathohtk 

. Church die or ceafe after the fixth General Council ? 

" Anfw. 


c in ] 

Anfw. The 'E fence of the Catholic!^ Church doth 
yot conffi in the being of a Council. — Their meeting 
s but an external means for better declaring the Ca~ 
Uck^Faith^ and holding mutual Correfpondence 
vetween the fever al Churches. 
■Anf. i. Still you are conftrained todeftroy your 
m Qufe. You confefs then that Councils are no 
nftitutive Governing part of the Church as a Go- 
rned Society. And if fo,it hath fome other Hu- 
ane conftitutive Regent part, or none. If »ow, 
e are fo far agreed : This is it that we contend 
If any other, you muft come to your Lords 
illege of the difFufed Paftors s who never made 
law, never heard a Caufe, or judged out of Coun- 
[J, to this day, nor poflibly can do. 

2. What is this that you call an external means 
Correfpondence ? Is it a neceffary Supream Legifla- 

\ve and Judicial Power f or not f If it be, it muft 
e a conftitutive Effential part of the Church as 
olitical. For every Politick Society is informed 

Krfuch. And you argued before that Nations 
uft be under fuch as well asDiocefes under Dio- 
efans. If not, habetur qu&fitum. 

3. And becaufe your former words aflert an 
Jniverfal Soveraignty, I wonder how any of com- 
mon reafon can think this neceflary to the whole 
fhriftian World, during the few Years that thofe 
wo or fix firft Councils fate,and never before nor 

Ifter? Are dead Men our Governors? Will a 
? ower of Governing never exercifed ferve for a 
fho^and Years la ft, and 300 before, and not for 
he other 300? Or hath the Church had one 
:?orm of Government for 200 or 300 Years, and 
mother for all the other 130c*? And when you 
:ell us that Kingdoms muft be judged as well as 


C 156 1 

iingle Perfons, did thofe firft Councils judge a| 
the finning Kingdoms fince. If you own no Coub 
cils fince the firft Six , all Kingdoms that hav! 
finned thefe 1000 Years had no fuch Judges. An 
what Councils or other Church Power fave thl 
Popes, judged the many Southern and Eafterj 
Countries that revolted ? Or the Weftern Nationt 
in their various Changes and Crimes ? Muft w 
have fuch an Uuniverfal Judge now, who nevej 
judged any thefe 1000 Years. ■ 

4. Your Lord faith at laft that they are Mm A 
bk Laws whiclvCouncils make. If fo, why mufll 
we needs obey the 'fix Councils that were 100c 
Years ago, under another Prince? May not iooq 
Years time , and another King's Government 
make a Change in the Matter and Reafon of the 
Law ? If you fay , it ftands till another General 
Council change it ; I anfwer , 1. What Council 
abrogated the 20th Nkenc Canon againft Kneeling 
on the Lord's Day in adoration ? and many fuch 
other. 2. Then if ever there was a General 
Council it's Decrees are immutable (and fo you 
contradict your felves ) For it's certain there never 
will be a General Council to abrogate what is 
done, till all the World be under one Chriftian 

5. The Laws of England bind us not now as 
the Laws of the Kings and Parliaments that are 
dead 5 that is, not by Virtue of their Authority 
(though made by them) But as the Laws of the 
prefent Legislative Powers who own theiiv and 
rule by them, and can abrogate them when they 
will. And when the Canon-makers are dead 1000 
Years ago, where ^ow is the Ruling Power whole 
Laws thofe are ? There is no General Council to 

• own 

[ M7 3 

m them, nor ever will be ! A thoufand Years 
re is time enough to prove the death of a Power 
ever fince exercifed : were there aSeminslVir- 
le of Univerfal Regiment in the diftufed Church, 
Thoufand Years Sleep in reafon muft pafs for 

6. Yea , the diflfufive Church hath fince dif- 

wned the Univerfal Obligation of thofe fame 

buncils, and doth difown them to this day. For 

: is not near half the Chriftian World that own 

hem ? yea, none but Papifts that I could ever be 

ertified of do receive any fuch Councils at all, as 

legiflators and Judges to all the Chriftian World 5 

>ut only as Reverenced Rules of Concord made by 

Contract And if Con fi amine frheodofipts, Martian fine. 

;alled their Subjects to Councils 1000 Years ago, 

why is our King and Kingdom now any more fub- 

je& to the Subjects of thofe Emperors than to 


But if you were content to endure us to unite 
•inChrift,and take his Laws for our Rule and bond 
,of Peace, and ftay till the next General Council,be 
againftus, we defire no more. 

§. 9. P. 347. Mr, B. faith, [" It is a doleful thing 

u tot hink^on what account all thefe Men expetl that 

u all Chrifiians Confciences can be fatisfcd, &c] 

D. S. anfwereth , [" It is a doleful thing indeed to 

" think how they fhould be fat is fed that fet up a Pope 

in every Congregation, and follow him in oppofition 

to the Catholick Church and General Councils. — 

Mr. B. knows he does this, and deludes the po$r 

" People, &C. 

Anfw. 1. If I know it, methinks I fhould know 
that I know it. Which if I do, it's I that am the 
Impudent Liar \ If not— Somebody ismiftaken. 


C 158 ] 

Qu. Whether a Council of fuch Bifhops be inj 
fallible, or can make us a better Rule than thd 1 

2. Readers, here you fee that it is no wonder] 
that thefe Reverend Fathers renounce Popery* 
You fee what a Pope is in their account : It is a 
Minifter of a {ingle Church, who taketh not their] 
Lordfliips or Councils to be Law-givers and Judge 
over all the Earth. We poor Proteftants took 1 
him for a Pope that claimed fuch an Univerfal 
Rule alone, or as the Prefident of Councils : But 
thefe Men take him for a Pope that deniethPopery, 
and pretendeth to no Government beyond his Pa- 
ri(h. Yea, not only fo, but in our Parishes we 
oblige none to take up any of their Religion (Faith j 
or Duty to God) on our commanding Authority, 
but to learn by the Evidence which cauted our 
own Faith, to believe by a Faith Divine. 

3. I have oft faid that the Catholick Church is 
fuch by Faith and Subjection to Chrift , which I 
own and daily Preach : But that there never was a 
General Council of the Chriftian World, nor is 
there any fuch thing as a Catholick Church in the 
Popifh fence , that is , having one Political hu- 
mane Soveraignty. And how did the Man make 
himfelf believe that I knowingly oppofed that 
which my whole Writing labours to prove never 
had a being. Reader , Lament the Cafe of the 
Church on Earth , when the moft ftudious Lea- 
ders are fo dark and rafh and bad , as either I, or 
thefe Reverend Fathers are, fetting the World 
into ruinating Divifions by words of fuch a Dia- 
led as is harfli to name. 

§. 10. P. 348. Dr. s. pretendeth to fome Scrip- 
ture Proofs vfc\ I Cor. 14. 32, 33, The Spirit of 


t| K Prophets are fubjeEl to the Prophets. For God is 
ot the Author ofConfufion, hut of Peace, as in all the 
hurches of the Saints^] 
I Anfvp. Reader, Do you think this proveth that 

• ne whole Church on Earth is under one humane So- 

eraignty that hath a Legtfative and Judging Power. 
. This Text fpeaketh only of the avoiding Dif- 
rder in particular Aflemblies by the means which 
hey had prefent there among them. To keep 
hem from fpeaking two at once, and fuch like 
Diforders : As the Archi-Synagogoi were ufed to 
io in the Jews Synagogue. And muft a Council 
from all the Earth be gathered to that Aflembly 
to rebuke fuch Diforder ? If it ^ muft be but to 
make a General Law to forbid it, that's done al- 
ready in Scripture and in Nature : And muft the 
World meet to do it again ? 

2. Their Dr. Hamond faith, that this Text fpeak- 
I eth of the Spirit in each Prophet being fubjed: to 
[hlmfelf, that is, to his own reafon, and that the 
'Spirit moveth them not to fpeak irregularly and 

confufedly : And what's this to the Power of 
Councils ? 

3. If it were fpoken of the other prefent Pro 

! phets, what's this to Men that are no Prophets^ 
! and that are dead 1000 Years ago ? Are not pre- 
fent Paftors fitter Moderators of their Aflembly r 
than a General Council of dead Men ? 

§. n. Next he that fo condemneth me as an 
Oppofite, citeth my words as granting his Caufe 5 
yet this reconcileth him not : I am not fo idle as 
to write him a Commentary of my own words 1 
for, I candevife no plainer. Only I may tell him 
that he too cjuickly forgot that God is not the Au- 
thor of Confujion : and therefore icisnot lovely: 



[ j6o ] 

A Lam iliould not be confounded with a Contract 
or amicable Agreement ; nor a Soyeraign Govern- 
ment with a Peacc : making Affembly of Equals ; nor K 
Zpoffible Council of thofe &/*/?** rerfc/7 with an im-€ 
pojjible Council out of all the World. Neither the! 

King of France or of England were Subje&s to the ■ 
Aflembly at Nimguen. 

§. 12. P; 35*1. He faith, he could give number- 
lef Quotations of P rot eft ants , Melanchthon, Sneer. 
Calvin , Bifhop Andrews , K. James , Spalatenfi. 
Cafaubon, Bifhop White, BifllOp Mountague, Arch- 
bifhop Dr. Hamond, Bailee, &C. 

Anftv. I cannot anfwer what you can do , but 
what you do. l3ut the Reader may know how far 
to believe you, that will butfearch thefefew. 
1. Read what I have cited out of Melanchthon to 
Bifhop Giwing , or rather his own Epiftle of the 
Conference at Ratisbonc, and that to King Henry 
the 8th. 

2. Read Sneer de Regno Dei^ and the reft of his 
Opera Angl. and judge as you fee caufe. 

3. I am afhamed to cite any words ot Calvin, to 
confute our Drs. intimation. 

4. Whether Spalatenfis was a Proteftant I di- 
fpute not, but read his own words cited by me in 
my Treatife of Epifcopacy, and then read him of 
Councils, and judge. 

% Bifhop V flier, as Ihave oftfaid, cold me 
himfelf , That [_ Councils are not for Government 
of the abfent or the particular Bifljops , but for Con- 

What Mind Dr. Hamondwas of I determine 
not: But of the reft you may judge by thefe. 

The Matter is, All Protectants hold that we 
muft Serve God in as much Concord as we can i 




\ M that the Meeting of Paftors is a tfieans of 

jj.icord : And that it was the true Chriftiaft 

iJ;h which theCouncils which he namech owned; 

r( tf we are of the fame Faith : and therefore they 

3 Jf brence thefe Councils : And they hold that 

Concord being much of the Strength and 

uty of the Churches, when there is any fpecial 

on for it , ( as feveral Princes affefnble by 

mfelves or MefTengers at Manfter, Rarisbonei 

[mtocforty Nimegnen) fo Paftors even of feveral 

igdoms, not toodiftant, may. for mutual help 

Concord meet in Councils : And none fhould 

xllefly break their jiift Agreements, becaufe 

he general Command of Concord: But i. They 

d that thefe Councils be no reprefenters of all 

Chriftian World \ 2. Nor have any Univer- 

Jurifdi&ion. 3. Nor any true Governing 

wer at all over the abfent or diflenters, but aa 

freeing Power. 4. And if they pretend any 

:h Power, they turn Ufurpers. 5. And iforl 

?tence of Concord they make Snares, or Decree 

ngs that are againft the Churches Edification, 

ace or Order , of againft the Word of God, 

neare bound to ftand to fuch Agreements. 

Thefe being the Judgment of Proteftants, what 

\ thefe Men but abufe their words of Reverence 

; Councils, and Submiffion to their Contrads, 

if they were for their Univerfal Soveraign Ju- 


§. 13. And next he faith, [' c Whereas Mr. B. 
doth HJher in his Difcoutfe with an intimation that 
this was only a Dotlrine of the Gallic an Churchy he 
cannot but know that this was the fence of the 
Church of England in the beginning of Queen Eli- 

M flHfm 

[ i62] 

<4*f» : i. I honour theGallican Papifts abed 
the Italian \ but I am fatisfied that both do erre. 

2. There is a double untruth in Matter of Fftu 
in your words : i. That I cannot but know t\ 
which I cannot know or believe. 2. That yours w 12 
the fence of the Church of England : which I ha: I 
difproved. But what is your proof? i\ 

c D. S. [For the 20th Article faith, [" The Chm i 
u hath Power to Decree Rites and Ceremonies and A % 

thority in Controverfies of Faith , and the n0 ft 
" Article doth foppofe this Authority in Gemk M 


Anfvo. The Church of England^ fuppofeth 
Kingdoms fliould be Chriftian , and the Ma 
ftrates and Paftors Power fo twifted as that th 
Conjunction may beft make Religion national, 
it was with the Jews,) But it never owned a 
reign Jurtfdi&ion,or the Governing Power oft 
Subje&s of one Kingdom over the Princes ai 
People of another. It followeth not that becau 
the Church in England may Decree fome Ru 
here, that therefore foreign Churches may co 
mand us to ufe their Rites. Our own Chur» 
Teachers no doubt have Authority in Controvell 1 
lies of Faith 5 that i% to teach us what is the trut! In 
and to kfcep Peace among Difputers , but not t la 
bind us to believe any thing againft God's Won 
and therefore not meerly becaufe it's their D^ It 
cree : Therefore the Article cauteloufly calls th I 
Church only \* Witnefs and Keeper of holy Writ r 
which we deny not. And that [befides Scriptm \ 
they ought not to enforce any thing to be believed fo I 
Neceffity to Sahation7\ But you would have Uj * 
believe the Soveraign Univerfal Jurifdidion oi 
Councils, yea and the lawfulnefs of all your Oaths 




[ i6j ] 

i Impofitions , as neceflary to efcape damri- 
[ Schifm 3 and is not that as neceflary to Sal- 

And one would think there needed no more 

in the next Articles to confute you, which you 

e as for you. They knew chat there had been 

perial General Councils, which being gathered 

j authorized by the Emperors, had the fame 

wer in the Empire that National Councils have 

th us, or in other Nations. But there's not a 

.lable of any Jurifdidion that they have out of 

s Empire : Yea, contrary it's faid, i. That they 

iy not be gathered together without the Command- 

\m and Will of Princes : And therefore cannot 

3vern them without their Will, nor have any 

anciliar Power , being no Council : And one 

ng cannot command the Subjects of another. 

ideed if Princes will make themfelves Subje&s to 

Council or Pope,who can hinder them? 2. They 

te here declared to be Men not all governed by the 

irit and Word of God y and fitch as may erre and 

we erred in things pertaining to God. Therefore 

eir meer Contracts and Advice are no furdier 

1 be^obeyed than they are governed by the Spirit 

}d Word of God -? which we are difcerning 

idges of. And it is concluded that [things or- 

rined by them as necejfary to Salvation^ have neither 
trength nor Authority ; unlefit may be declared that 
ley be taken out of the Holy Scripture^ So that 
ven their Expofitions of the Articles of Fahhywhlch 
ou make their chief Work , hath no further Au- 
yority than it's declared to be takgn out of the Scrip-, 
ure it felf nor yet their decifion of the fence of 
)ontroverted Texts. And fuch proof muft be re^ 
teivcd from a (ingle Man. 

Ma § v 14.1 

[ i6 4 3 

§. 14. Such another proof he fetcheth from dJf 

Statute I EliZ; c. I. 4< For bidding, to judge any thina\ 
" Herefie but what hath been fo judged by AnthoAv. 
" rity of Canonical Scripture , or the firfi four G JF 
'' //era/ Councils, or any of them, or any other Generd ? 
" Councils.'] 

Anfw. As if forbidding private Hereticatio *J 
were the fame with the Univerfal Soveraignty c '. 
Councils*, we are of the fame Religion with a ff 
true Chriftians in the World , and we are for 1 ? 
much Concord with all as we can attain : But i '' 
Concord and Subjection all one , or Contrail an r 
Government. t { 

^ §. 15. The like Inference he raifethfrom [{ 
Canon 1571. forbidding any new Do<3rine -m 
agreeable to the Scripture , and fuch as the Ancien 
Fathers and Bijhops thence gathered. 

Anfw. And what's this to an Univerfal Churc 
Soveraignty ? 

§. 16. 1 he Church of En glands, Sence is bettej 
expounded 3 Reform. Leg. Ecclef. c. 15. " Orth 
"doxorum Patrum etiam authoritatem minim 
" cenfemus efle contemnendam : funt enim pe 
" multa ab illis pra?clare & utiliter dicta : Ut ri 
" men ex eorum fententia de facris Uteris judi 
" cetur, non admittimus. Debent enim facrse 
" terse nobis omnis Chriftians do&rina?, & Rel 
" gute efle,& Judices. Quin & ipfi Patres tantunf f! 

fibi deferri recufarunt, fepius admonentes Le-f 1 , 
" iftorem, ut tantifper fuas admittat fcntentias &a " 
a interpretationes , quoad cum facris Uteris con- 
%i fentire eas animadverterit. 

$. 17. D. S. P. 358. [ Mr. B. faith, The doubt 

is whom you will takg for good Chriftians into yout 
Communion, But this can be no doubt, — when I ex^ 




ft only the Jefnited part of the Roman and other 

AnfxQ. So you take in the Church of Rome^ 
nch you cannot do without taking in the pre- 
lded Soveraignty Efiencial to it. Was not that 
lurch Papal before there were any Jefuites ? 
it hold, Dr. It's trance that you are firft Uni- 
g with : and they fay , that the Jefuites are 
[pre the Predominant part. And are you againft 
*m there? 

§. 1 8. P. 360. He takes it ill that I fuppofe 
k to feparate from the Church of England, I 
ve fully given him here my proof. The Church 
■ England took not it felf for a part of an Uni- 
|rfal humane Political Church. But his Church 
th, and is thereby of another Political Species, 
a City differeth from a Kingdom. 
JI will not tire the Reader with following him 
y further. Vain Contenders neceflitate us to 
I over tedious. 

:§. 19. I am loth here to anfwer the reft of his 
■>ok againft our Nonconformity --, 1. Becaufel 
ould not follow them that decoy , and divert 
lenfrom theftateofour chief Controverfie, to 
de their Defign. 2. Becaufe it feemeth to me 
be of no ufe : He that will not read impar- 
jilly what we fay as well as they, will never be 
(red of his Errours by any thing that we can 
(rite. And he that will impartially read but 
jy firft Plea for Peace, Apology, and Treatife of 
;pifcopacy, and take this Book to be a Satisfa- 
lory anfwer, (hall never be troubled by my 
eplyes, no more than the diftraftd. 
§. 20. This much I ihall preiume to fay, left he 
tpeft fome account of his Succefs upon my felf: 
M 3 I. That 

[ 1663 

I. That when he tells the Reader at laft of m# 
Conceptions, as if I fcarce differed from therr^ ^ 
fave by not giving over Preaching when forbid- 
den, they do but ihew how charitable and hum-i 
ble they are in their Domination, who yet cal|* 
hardly fuffer fuch Men alive out of Jail, mucf 
lefs to preach, who come fo near them. 

II. That when he tells us that the Presbyteria 
Caufeisgivenup, and yet their Party make th 
name of Presbyterian ( odious to them but not t 
us ) the Engine of their reproachful malice, thi 
feemeth not to me to come from the Spirit 

III. That when this whole Book pretendeth t< 
confute us, and fcarce once that I find in all tto 
Book, truely ftateth the cafe of our difference 
but ftill filenceth or falfly reprefenteth the point; 
which we judge fin, yea heinous fin ; fuch a De 
ceiving Volume feemeth not to me to befeem 
Bifhop, orhisAmanuenfis, or Chaplain. 

IV. That when he tells us what pitiful proofl 
he hath for the juftification of their Silencing and! 
Ruining ways, and yet how extream confident he] 
is, it maketh me wifh Chriftians to pray yet har- 
der that Chrift would fave his Church from fuch 

I will now ftay but to inftance in that which 
they fay the Bifhop hath fome peculiarity in, wa 
Our Aflem to the Rubrick about the Salvation of 
dying Baptized Infants. Reader, I have reafon 
to believe that it is the Bifliop as well as Dr. Say- 
mil that fpeaketh to me. And 1. He dealeth 
more ingenuoufly than they that on pretence of 
[ Mwting to the ufe ] fay that we are not to 
AJJent to the Truth of this as a Do&rine of Reli- 
gion i 

Ci6 7 ] 

In ,h: Heprofefleth the contrary, and that Aflent 
k this is required as well as to the Catechifm. 
U He feeketh not their Evafion that make not 
p phrafe Vuiverfal, but Indefinite : For he knew, 
[ That in re necejfarU ( which he takes this to 
) an Indefinite is equal to an Univerfal : And 
That a quatenm ad omne valet confequentia : 
id the aflertion is of Infants qua Baptized. 
3. It is a certainty mentioned by Tautology 
it muft be by every Minifcer profefled, £'h is 
tain by the Word of God that they are undoubtedly 
d. ] Here we ask them two things* or three. 
Whether none mould be a Minifter of ChrJfc 
ho cannot truely profefs this undoubted Cer- 
tify. 2. VVhether almoft all the Learned 
Vriters and Minifters of the Reformed Churches 
ou Id be Silenced that hold the contrary. 3. But 
jecially what be the words of God here meant which 
<prefs this undoubted certainty ? They confefs 
lat God faith, Deut. 12. 32. Thou jhalt not add 
\oeretOy nor tak$ ought there- from ; and COncludeth 
16 Bible with, C If any Man add to thefe things^ 

ijod jhall add to him the Plagues that are written in 
fa Book;'] We tell them we dare not venture on 
|ich a dreadful Curfe : This cannot be one of 
(heir things indifferent: Therefore before we 
jrofefs our Affcnt that this is undoubtedly certain, by 
\he Word of God, they will (hew usfo much com- 
^aflion as to tell us, Where to find that Word of 
vjod ? And after all our intreaty (even my own 
:othe Bifhop ) he giveth us by his Chaplain but 
:hisone Text of Scripture, Gal. 3. 27. Asmany of 
you as have been baptized into Chrift^ have put on 

Zhrift. ] Reader, is here one word of the cer- 
:ain undoubted Salvation of dying baptized Infants 
witho" r exception ? M 4 1. Here 

[J68 ] 

i. Here is no mention of baptising Infants A A 
and it's ufual with this fort of Men to fay, Thai G 
we cannot prove Infant Baptifm by Scriptural S 
but only by Tradition or the authority of thai i 
Church. u J 

2. This Text mod certainly fpeaketh of the 
Adult : And will not thefe Drs. believe St. ?eter 
himfelf who told Simon when he was Baptized, 
Xhoi* haft no part nor lot in this matter : For thy\ 
heart y not right in the fight of God 3 Thou art yet i ' 
the gall of bit t erne fs and bond of iniquity ? If the 
fay that Simon had been faved if he had died as 
foon as he was Baptized, and that he fell to that 
falfe Heart, and gall of bitternefs. after, who will 
take fuch Drs words in defpight of the evident] 
tradi ? His Friend Grotius^ more modeftly ex- J 
poundeth Gal. 3. 27. Sicut a baptifmo veftes fumun-X 
tur y it a vos Fromififtis vos induturos Chrift urn, id eft 
vibluros fecundum Chrifti regulam. Do thefe Men 

believe that all Infidels and Hypocrites fhall be 
faved if they die as foon as they are Baptized ? 
Or do they think that none fuch may be and are, 
Baptized? The very words before the Text are, 
Tc are all the Children of God by Faith in Chrift Je- 
ffs : And Chrift faith, He that believeth and is 
Baptised fliall be faved, and he that believeth not f) all 
he damned. And yet they bring us no Text for 
their new. Article of Faith, but one which will 
as much prove the Salvation of all dying baptized 
Hypocrites and Unbeliever s> as of all dying Infants. 
As if none came in without the Wedding Garment, 

or fuch were in a ftate of Life. 

I muft profefs that I cannot fee fhould I fub- 
fcribe this, how I could efcape the guilt of Here- 
fie, being liable to the forefaid Curie and Plagues 


[ i6 9 ] 

; of adding to the Word of God, by faying that 
Gods Word fpeaketh this certain and undoubted 
Salvation of dying Baptized Infants as fuch with- 
out Exception. Yet if we would all conform to 
all their Oaths, Covenants and Impofitions be- 
fides, we mud all be caft out and forbid to preach 
the Gofpel, if we durft not Affent to this one Ar- 
ticle. Such is the mercy of thefe Men I And all 
is juftified as for found Do&rine, which we are 
ignorant of, and thefe Matters are the Judges 
whom we muft believe. 

Yet note that though when he got the Church 
of England to pafs this Article, he put not in the 
leaft Exception, and the Canon forbids the re- 
futing Baptifm to any Child that is offered to it, yet 
HOW he limits it to all C hildren ferionjly offered by any 
that have power to educate them in that profeffion. 
And as it is not the Parent that muft be the Pro- 
mifer •, nor is fuffered to be fo much as one of the 
Godfathers or Sureties for his Child, fo by this 
little limitation, what a dreadful brand of perfidi- 
ous Covenanting with God, doth he fix on our 
common Englifh Baptifm ? For fure it is not the 
confident talk of fuch Writers that makes any En- 
glifh Man ignorant, i. That our Godfathers 
commonly are not once defired by the Parents to 

Educate their Children in that Profeffion. 2. Nor 
ever give them the leaft reafon to exped it. 3. 
Nor ever perform it. 4. Nor have any power 
fo to Educate them, becaufe the Parents never 
purpofed fo far to commit their Children to them, 
nor they themfelves never dream of any fuch 
power or undertaking 5 except only fuch as adopt 
a Child, or take an Orphan or Grand- child as 
their own. I have lived almoft fixty feven years, 


[ 170 ] 

(now near feventy four) and never knew one 
Godfather Educate the Child, ( fave the Parent 
that is forbidden to be Godfather J or that it was 
ever expe&ed from him by the Parents. It feems 
the Poor never came to Bifhop Guning as they 
have done to me, to beg Money to pay the Cu- 
rate and Clerk, and to hire fome poor Man to be 
Godfather, or elfe their Children cannot be Bap- 
tized : So that he that can get but Twelve pence 
a day by hard labour, may get on the Sunday 
Twelve pence for ftanding an hour at the Font 
as Godfather, and perhaps half a Crown; and fo 
it's become a Trade, of fuchas never mean to fee 
the Child again. Though none but the poor thus 
hire Promifers, yet the Nation commonly never 
give them power to Educate their Children. And 
thus while the Bifhop firft muft force us to profefs 
the certain undoubted Salvation of dying Baptized 
Infants without exception he comes himfelf with 
an exception which fhuts out all that ever I knew 
conformably Baptized in all my Life h and mak- 
eth the commofl Baptifm of the Land to be perfi- 
dioufnefs : The Anabaptifts will not be convert- 
ed by fuch Dodtors. 

And it's known how much thefe Men are for 
tying US to deliver no Doctrine from any Text but 
what the Fathers have thence gathered: And Au- 
gustine de Baptif Com. Donat. li. 1. c. II, 12. at 
Targe expoundeth this fingle Text of the Dr. by 
Simons cafe, and fuppofing the Donatifts to fay 
that Simon was pardoned in Baptifm and loft it 
by his next fin, he faith, e. 12. [ Quid fi ad ipfum 
baptif mum fifttu acceffit ? Dimiffa funt ei peccata y an 

nonfunt dimiffa ? Eligant quod volunt ft dimiffa 

dixerint, quomodo ergo fpirit us fan tins difciplina ejfu- 


C »7« ] 

gerit fitlum f Si in iftofitlo remiffionem operants ejt 

peccatorum f fateantur vero b apt if mo Chrifti 

baptizati pojfe hominem, & tamen cor ejus in malitia 
vel Sacrilegio per fever an s pec cat or urn abohtionem non 
finer e fieri. Atq-j it a intelligant in commnnionibus ab 
Ecclejia feparatis poffe homines baptizari, nbi Chrifti 
baftifmus eadem Sacraments celebratione datur & fu- 
mitur, qui tamen tunc profit ad remijfwnem peccatorum 
cnm quis reconciliatus unitati, facrilegio dijfenflonis 
exuitur quo ejus peccata tenebantur, & dimitti non 
finebantar. Sicut entm initio qui fitfus accejferit, fit 
Ht non denuo baptiz.etur y fed ipfa pia correclione & ve~ 
raci confejfwne purgetur, quod non pofjet fine b apt if mo y 
ut quod ante datum eft, tunc valere mcipiat ad fain- 
tem, cum ilia ficiio veraci confeffione recefferit ■ 

Thus Gods Word muft by ten thouiand Mini- 
fters be (aid to affirm that certainly and undoubt- 
edly, which he brings but one Text for grofly a- 
buied, contrary to the Doftrine even of Auguf- 
tine who laid too much on Baptifm, and contrary 
to the very Law of Chrift, which faith, He that 
believeth not foall be damned, not excepting the 
Baptized, Mark 16.16. 

Obj. But yet aU Baptized Infants may be faved i 
Anf. The queftion now is, Whether that Text 
Gal. 3.27. prove it, or any Word of God. 

He muft be fuppofed to know that there are 
many Opinions among the moft Learned Divines 
about the Cafe of Baptized Infants Salvation/ten I 
have elfewhere named.) And muft every Minifter 
in England determine which of all thefe is right,ber 
caufe it's Dr. tunings Opinion ? 

Many Nonconformists hold that the Covenant 
of Grace, doth certainly put all true Chriftians In- 
fants into aftate of Pardon and Salvation, (calling 


them Holy) which is to be openly done by Bap- ji 
tifmal Inveftiture. But that the Children of all 
die Atheiffs, Infidels, Idolaters, or wicked men \ I , 
on Earth are infucha ftate, and certainly favedfo 
dying, if any Chriftianwill but ftand as in Eng- 
/*W as Godfather, and if a Band of Soldiers can 
but take up thoufands of them, and fo Baptize 
them, and that the Salvation of them is undoubt- 
edly certain by Gods Word, to every one that 
muft be tolerated to be aMinifter s this is our pre- 
fent way of Church Concord, but not Chrifts 

And if all the Infants on Earth have right to 
Salvation if they can but be Baptized, why ihould 
they not have it Unbaptized, when it is none of 
their fault it being not in their power ? It is his 
own argument when we queftion the undoubted 

certainty affirmed, p. 1 62. Q To fay the unworthinefs 
or the fin of the Godfather or Father can deprive the 
Baptised Child of the benefit of Gods Ordinance, is a 
monftrous Opinion. ] And whofe fin is it but the 
Fathers that depriveth all Infidels Children of 
Baptifm, and fo of the benefit of it ? Will all 
England believe that God layeth the Saving or 
Damning of Millions upon the bare aft of out- 
ward Baptifm, while the Children have equal an- 
tecedent right ? 

The Bifhop and his Chaplain Dr. refer me to 
Mr. Dodwell for part of my anfwer : And Mr. ZW- 
n><?//isfo much of the Biihops mind, that I may 
fuppofe the Bifhop to be much of Mr. f>'s mind. I 
will urge him therefore ad hominem with one ar- 
gument from Mr- D. againft Conformity ; let 
him anfwer it without condemning Mr- D. if 
he can. 


In Sacramental Invefcitures no Man receiveth 
more right than what the Inverter intendech to 
*give him, or at leaft not that which he declareth 
chat he doth not give him. But multitudes of 
Baptizing Minifters in England and all the Re- 
formed Churches declare that they intend not to 
give by Baptifmal Inveftiture a prefent right to 
Salvation to all Baptized Infants, ( if they fo die. ) 
Ergo all Baptized Infants receive not by Baptifm 
a prefent right to Salvation. 

The Major is Mr. D's about Ordination- The 
Minor is notorious in the known Writings and 
Dodrines of fuch Minifters 3 fome holding that 
only the Children of true Chriftians are by Bap- 
tifm ftated in a certain right to Salvation; fome 
holding it only of the EIe<3 ; fome holding it on- 
ly of profefled Chriftians Children 5 and almofi: 
all denying it of the Children of Atheifts and In- 
fidels. When Dr. Cornelias B urges did but write 
that all the Eleft, though they lived wickedly af- 
ter till Converfion, received a Seed of Regene- 
ration in their Infant Baptifm, what abundance of 
Diflenters, yea how few Confenters did he find 
in England? When yet he affirmed this of none 
but fuch as are after faved. ' 

And if for want of the Baptfzers Intention, 
thoufands in England have no right to Salvation 
prefently on their Baptifm, then it is not lawful 
to fay that the contrary is undoubtedly certain by 
the Word of God. 

But Iconfefs Mr- Z>'s Propoficion is falfe, as I 
have formerly proved to him- And perhaps ne- 
ceflity will force himfelf to deny it as to Baptifm, 
though it overthrow his affertion about Ordina- 
tion. Specially if he be for Laymen and Wo- 


: '74 3 

mens Baptizing as the Papifts are in cafe of dan- 

Bnt the Name of the Church will warrant fuch 
Lords to prove all fuch Declarations, Subscrip- 
tions, Oaths, not only finlefs, but neceflary to 
Order, Peace, Obedience, Miniftry, and I think 
to Salvation: For they make Schifm Damning, 
and fuch Obedience neceflary toefcape Schifm. 

But he hath one cleanly (hift, Though the Cor- 
poration Declaration, be, that [ there is no Obli- 
gation from theCovenant on me or any other per/on, ] 
and a Man think that fome are obliged by it a- 
gainft Schifm, Popery and Prophanenefs, and to re- 
pent of Sin. ] He faith no Man is forced to take 
thefe Declarations, Veftry Oaths, &c. For he 
may chufe, and none conftraineth him to be in 
Corporation truft, or a Veftry-man, and fo a 
Minifter, fo the A6t was to appropriate this 
fweet Morfel of fo Swearing declaring, &c to 
themfelves : And to themfelves let it be appro- 
priated for me. And yet when all the Corpora- 
tions , Veftries and Miniftry are conftituted as 
they are, — ■ — this is the neceflary Unity 

But Obedience to the Church folveth all I 
once askt a Convocation man, what were the 
Words of God by which this Article was proved 
and pad in the- Convocation, and he could not 
name me any Text that perfwaded the Convoca- 
tion to pafs it ; but told me Dr. P. Guning urged it 
fo hard) that'they yielded to him without much contra- 
diction: I was not willing to believe that the 
Church of England would pafs an Article of Faith 
againft their Judgments to avoid flriving with one 
man,^ when in impofing it they muft ftrive againft 
and filence thoufinds, and condemn moft of the 


L '75 J 

Reformed Churches 5 but rather that really they 
contradi&ed him not, becaufe they thought as 
he : And yet I was loth to think them fo unchari- 
table as to put all Minifters to declare fuch a 
thing to be in the Word of God, and never tell 
them where to find it. Between both what to 
think I know not : Eut if really -Dr. G. was the 
Church, the reverence of his Name [Church"] 
fhall never make me add to the Word of God, 
or corrupt his Ordinance 3 nor fubfcribe to his 
Book, or to a Foreign Jurifdi&ion, if he Father 
it on the Church. 

The main ftrength of all his condemnations of 
us, and juftifications of himfelf is, that, They arc 
the Church, and our lawful Rulers , and we muft 
obey, and be Sworn never to endeavour any alteration 
of Church Government^ ( not excepting Church de- 
population by large Diocefes, nor the ufe of the 
Keys by Lay Chancellors. And if you ask for 
the proof of all this, and that they are not Vfur- 
pers nor Church de fir oyer 5) nor Subverters of Epifcc- 
pacy it felf, nor grand Schifmaticks, you muft be 
content with, I. Ipfe dixit, and 2. Epifcopacy & 
ancient. 3. And the people have neither an Eletling 

omecejfary CcnfemingVote-j and yet when not on- 
ly Mr. Ckrhfon and I, but alfo Dr. Burnet have 
fully proved that for twelve hundred or thirteen 
hundred years the peoples Confent was requifite, 
thefe great dependents on Antiquity and the 
Church , can wafh all off with a torrent of 

If the Letters in the Caballa and other Hi- 
ftory be credible, how great a hand had G. 
Duke of Buckingham in making the Church of Eng- 
land in his days ? Read but whdX Heylin faith of 


[ i 7 6] 

Bifhopl^'s preferment, and the Letters of fome 
Bifhops to Buckingham in the Caballa, and judgd 
what made the Church of England : How bafely 
do they fneak and beg of him for Preferments 
e. g> Theophilm Bifhop of ' Landajfe, isamoft mife- 
rable Man if his Grace help him not to a better 

Bifhoprick : Mountaguts place at Norwich was of 
little worth fince Henry the Eighth ftolt the Sheep, 
and [caret for God's [ake gave the trotters^ as he faith 

in his Letter to Laud. And this was the way. 
So the Church of England is Jure Divino made by 
the Civil Powers : But yet a few words can prove 
( jufl as he proveth all the reft ) that the Dean 
and Chapiter chufe the Bifhops and not the King. 
As Heathens made Images of the Gods and 
thought the Gods did adtuatethem, fo men make 
the Images of Bifhops and Councils, and fome Spi- 
rits a&uate them, whatever they be , whether 
thofe Noble Lords, Knights and Gentlemen that 
at their death lamented that they lived Atheifts 
and Infidels, repented that as Patrons they chofe 
JParifh Church men I know not. But while thefe 
Drs know that many Great Councils have de- 
creed the nullity of thofe Bifhops that got in by 
Secular help and favour, and Damned the Seekers 
and Accepters of it 5 and yet would perfwade 
the Church that all Gods Word is inefficient for 
Univerfal Laws without the addition of Sove- 
raign Councils, I will regard them as they de- 
ferve, and not as they expeft. Why anfwer they 
not my late Book of Englifh Nonconformity ? 

Tht True Sum. 
Popery is, I. -The turning a National Univer- 
glity or Catholicifm of Councils, Church, Power, 


o a Terreftrial Univerfality* II. Turning Con- 
ieracy and Communion into Political Reeency. 
.. Deponing Kings and States from their Sa- 
?d office of Supream Government ( and fole 
xible Government) of the Church or Perfons 
d things Ecclefiaftical, f the Clergy having only 
* Power of the Keys , Word and Sacraments 
work on Confcience without corporal face.) 

lap. XV. The firfl Letter to Eijbop Peter 
Guning upon hu fending me Hr. Say well *s 

My Lord, 

Thankfully received from you by Dr. Crowthcr 

Dr. Saywelfs Book, and a motion for Confe- 

nce with him, which I yet more thankfully ac- 

pt j I read over the Book prefendy , and think 

meet to give you this account of the Succefs i 

I. i. I perceive that it doth not concern me, 

or many, if any, that I converfe with ; For it is 

resbyterians , Separatists , Quakers and Fana- 

£ks that he accufeth , and I am converfant with 

fW fuch. 

|| 2. And yet the ftrein of his Book is fuch , as 
'ill make Readers undoubtedly think , that by 
'resbyterians and Nonconformists , or Convemi- 
lers, he meaneth the fame Perfons, and fpeaketh 
f the common Cafe of the prefent ejected filen- 
ed Minifters : Of whom I muft again and again 
ay, i. That I have had opportunity by Acquain- 
ance and Report of knowing a great part of the 
ilenced Minifters of England, and I know but of 

f 178] 

few of them that are Presbyterians; andjudg 
moft of them to be Epifcopal 3 Lawyers and Gca] 
tlemen indeed incline to place all the Government 
in the King and Magiftrates. 2. That in i66n| 
when we were Commiffioned to endeavour 
cord with you, not only thofe named in theCo ; 
miffion, but all the Minifters of London were i 
vited by Mr. Calamy >and Dr. Remolds, and Mr. A A 
and Dr. Wa8is,8cc. to come to us in Confultatioii 
and let us know their Sence : and many came 
And I remember not one Man that difTented front 
what we offered you firft, which was Archbiflioj 
Vfier's Primitive Form , which took not dowi 
Archbiihops, Bifhops , or a farthing of their E 
ftates, or any of their Lordfhips or Parliamentary 
Power or Honour, funiefs the Advice of thei; 
Presbyters, and the taking the Church Keys oui 
of the hands of Lay Chancellors caft you down.; 
3. That when the King's Declaration about Eci 
clefiaftical Affairs 1660. granted yet much lcfl 
Power to Presbyters, and left it almoft alone in 
the Bifhops, we did not only acquiefce in this, but 
all the London Minifters were invited to meet to 
give the King our joyful Thanks for it : And oi 
all that met , I remember but two ( now both 
dead) who refuted to fubfcribe the Common 
Thankfgiving (which with many Hands isyettd: 
be feen in Print). And thofe two expreft theis; 
Thankfulness but only faid [That becaufe fome 
things agreed not to their Judgments^ they durfi; 
not fo fubfcribe, left it fignified Approbation ; buc 
they fhould thankfully accept that Frame, and 
peaceably fubmit to it.] 

All this being fo, I appeal (with fome fenfeoij 
the Cafe of England) to your felf and common 



C 179 3 

afon, whether it be juft and befeeming a Pair a 1 
K Chriftian,or a Man to make the Nation believe, 
That we are Presbyterians, 2. And againft Bi- 
ops) 3. And therefore that we are Schifmaticks* 
And therefore that we muft be Imprifoned or 
".miflied, as thofe that would deftroy the Church 
'id Land. Would a Turk own fuch dealing with 
l s Neighbour? Is this the way of Peace? Will 
s iis bring us to Conformity ? Was it Anti-Epif- 
)palPresbytery which the KingsDeclaration 1660 
stermined of ? Nothing will Serve God, and 
rie Churches Peace , but Truth and Honefty, 
t at lead that which hath fome appearance 

II. I find that almoft all the Strength of his 
[•00k as againft Presbyterians (who are his Fana- 
cks) is his bare word, faying that they are Schif- 
tatick/j and that they forfake the Judgment and 
^raftice of the Univerfal Church by forfaking 
Spifcopacy. And will this convince me, who 
m certain, that I am for that Epifcopacy- which 

r gnatius, TertullUn, Cyprian, &C. were for, and am 
teft doubt that the Epifcopacy which I am againft 
s contrary to the Pra&ice of the whole Church 

•[for 200 Years, and of all fave two Cities (Alex- 
vidria and Rome ) for a much longer times If X 

/prove this true (which I undertake) muft I then 
take his turn, and defire the Banifhment of the 
Contrary-minded Bifhops, as dangerous Schif- 

1 maticks for forfaking the Pra&ice of the 

■Church ? 

Ill- I underftand not in his Platform of the 
Rule which denominated] Diflenters Schifmaticks, 
Pa £- 353- what he meanethby the very highest 
Twer, moft neceflfary to be undCrftood in thefe 

[So ] 

Words [The LawsVFnd Orders of the Church Vni- 
ver[af\ to which every Provincial Church mufl fnb< 

?m7\ What the Scots mean by [a General AfTem- 
blyD I know, and what the old Emperors ancj 
Councils meant by [ m Vmverfal council ] Viz* 
Ohjverfal as to that one Empire. But I know noi 

Vmvcrfil Law-givers CO the whole Church Oil 
Earth, but Jefus Chrift ; neither Pope nor Coun- 
cil- If I am millaken in this, I fhould be glad toi 
be convinced : for it is of great moment : And 
is the hinge of our Controverfie with Rome. 

IV. He doth (to me) after all give up thej 
whole Caufe , and abfolve me and all that Ij 
plead for from the guilt of Schifm, and lay itonj 
your Lordfliip , and fuch as you, if I can under- 
fiand him when he faith, Pag. 363. [" It is clear 
" that in the Church olEngUnd, there is no finful 
" Condition of Communion required, nor nothing 
" impofed but what is according to the Order 
" and. Practice of the Catholick Church, there 
"can be no pretence for any Toleration,^.] 

And* Pag. 360. [>* There is no Queftion to be 
, made but where there is an interruption in the 
" Churches Communion, there is caufed a Schifm : 
u and it muft be charged on them that make the 
c * breach which will lye at their Doors, who by 
" making their Communion unlawful, dounjuft- 
lC ly drive away good Chrifiians from it ; neither 
" doth fuch a Perfon that is driven away at prefent 
cC from the external Communion , ceafe to be a 
<c Member of that Church , but is a much truer 
" Member thereof than that Paftor that doth un- 
" juftly drive him from his Communion. This- 
"fully fatisfieth me $ and if you will read my late 
.foall Book, called, The Nomonformsls Plea for 

. ' Peace, 


\Veace, you' will fee what it is that I think unlaw- 
ful in the Impofitions ; And if you will read a 
■new fmallBook of your old troubled Neighbour 
Mr. Jo. Corbet, called, The Kingdom of Cod among 
Men, I have fo great an Opinion , that by it you 
will better underiland us , and become more 
moderate and charitable towards us, that I will 
take your reading it for a very obliging Kind- 
nefs to 

Tour Servant 
December if. i4f$. 

Ri. Baxter. 

<4dd.V. His terms of Communion are not right, 
as I have proved. 

VI. He fpeaketh agaiafi Toleration Co gene- 
rally without diftin&ion, as if no one that diflen- 
ted but in a word were tolerable, which is into- 
lerable DocSrine in a pretended Peace-maker. 

VII. He inferreth Toleration while he denieth 
it, in that he is againft putting us to Death: How 
then will he hinder Toleration ? Mul&s will not 
do it, as you fee by the Law that impofeth 4c /. 
la Sermon : For when Men devoted to the Sacred 
Miniftry have no Money , they will Preach and 
Beg : Imprifonment muft be perpetual oruneffe- 
ciual : for when they come out they will Preach 
again. And it contradi&eth himfelf; for it will 
kill many Students being moflly weak) as it kili'd 
(by bringing mortal Sicknefs on them J thofe 
Learned , Holy Peaceable and Excellent Men, 

Mr. J of. Allen of Taunton, Mr. Hughes of ' Plmcwh, 
and fome have died in Prifon : And he that kil- 
leth them by Imprifonment, killeth them, as well 

N 3 as 

as he that burneth them or hangeth them. And 
the Prifons will be fo full, as will render the: 
Caufersof it odious to many, and make fuch as 
St. Martin was feparate from the Bifhops ; the 
lame I fay of Banifhment. 

Dr. Saywelfs Principles infer as followeth ; 

I. Schifmaticks are not to be Tolerated. They 
that are for the fort of Diocefane Prelacy , which 

we difown are Schifmaticks : Ergo not to be 


The Major is Dr. S's. The Minor is provedji 

They that are againft that Epifcopacy which;; 
the Primitive Univerfal Church was for and ufedj 
are Schifmaticks : The forefaid Diocefane Partyl 
are againft that Epifcopacy which the Primitive! 
Univerfal Church was for and ufed — Ergo they, 
are Schifmaticks. 

The Major is Dr. S'j.The Minor is thus proved* 
I. They that are for the depofing of the Bifhop^ 
that were over every fingle Church that had ond 
Altar , and thofe that were over every City 
Church, and inftead of them fetting up only one 
Biiliop over aDiocefs which hath a Thoufand, or 
many Hundred Altars^and many Cities 5 are againft 
the Epifcopacy which the Primitive Univerfal 
Church was for : But fuch are the Diocefane 
Party now mentioned — Ergo— The Major is 
proved, not only from Ignatius who maketh one 
Altar and one Bifhop with his Presbyters and Dea- 
cons, the note of Individuation to every Church, 
but a multitude of other proofs which I under- 
take to give : And from the Councils that deter- 
mined that every City of Chriftians have a Church 
(till afterward they began to except fmall Cities) 


L i*3 J 
fhe Minor is notorious Matter of Faft , every 
■'arifli with us hath an Altar, and many hundred 
^ave but one Bifhop ; - Ergo they are no Churches 
According to the Saying* Vbi Epifcopm, ibi Ecclefia y 
r Ecclefia efi plebs Epifcopo adunata. And U'oms 
hen fignified every great Town, like our Corpo- 
ations and Market-Towns : And Titus was to 
et Elders in every fuch City. 

II. They that render Bjfhops Odious, endea- 
vour to Extirpate Epifcopacy. But fo do (I need 
lot name them) — Ergo—The Major is granted, 
rhe Minor is proved, i. They that ufe Epifco- 
)acy to the Silencing of faithful MiniftersofC'hrift, 
near Two thoufand at once, than whom no Na- 
ion under Heaven out of Britain hath fo many 
jetter) and to render them and all that adhere to 
hem odious and ruined, do that which will ren- 
ler Bi(hops odious — But — Ergo — 

2. From Experience, when we treated with 
fou 1661. the People would have gladly received 
Epifcopacy as we offered it to you, and as the King 
granted it in his Declaration : But when they faw 
lear Two thoufand Silenced , and that Bifhops 
:hought all fuch as I, and the many better Mini- 
lers of the Countrey where I lived, to be mole- 
-able, it hath done an hundred times more to alie- 
late the People , from Epifcopacy , than all the 
Books and Sermons of the Oppofers of Epifcopacy 
*ver did : e. g. The People that I was over would 
-everentiy have received Pious Bifhops : But 
:hough I never faw^ them, nor wrote to them one 
Letter againft Epifcopacy thefe 19 years, but 
tiave largely written, to draw them to Commu- 
nion in the Pari(h Church , and much prevailed, 
pec they will now rather for fake me as a compiler 
N 4 with 

[ iS 4 ] 

with Perfecuters (as Martin did the Bifhops) than j 
they would own our Diocefane Prelacy , fince 
they faw me, and (o many better Men of their 
Countrey Silenced , and caft out , and many of 
themfelves laid in Jails with Rogues , and ruined 
for repeating a Sermon together, as they were al- 
ways wont to do. He that will teach Men to 
love Prelacy by Prifons, Undoing them, and Si- 
lencing and ruining the Teachers whom they, 
have found to be moft edifying and faithful to! 
them, will do more to extirpate Prelacy by ma- 
king it odious, than all its Enemies could do 3 
The reafon of the thing feconded by full ex- 
perience are undeniable proofs : No Men that I 
know of have done more againft Epifcopacy than 
Bidiops : and ( Pardon my free inviting you to 
Repentance^ none that I know alive , either Se- 
ctaries or Bifhops, more than you two, who I uu- 
feignedly wiili may have the honour before you 
die , of righting the Church and repairing the 
honour of true Epifcopacy. It is a dreadful thing 
to us Nonconformifts to think of appearing be- 
fore God , under the Guilt of Silencing Two 
Thoufand of our felves , if it prove cur doing ; 
If not , let them think of it that believe they 
fhall be judged , Prov. 26. 27. Whofo diggeth a Tip 
(Jjallfall therein, and he that rolleth a Stone it fliall 
return upon him. 


[ i8j 1 

j Chap. XVI. The Second "Letter to BfiopGim- 
ing, after our fir ft Conference, 

My Lord, 

T Much defire fome further help for my Satisfa- 
[l X dion in the Three things, which we laft Dif- 
I courfed of. i. Whether I mif- recited or mif- 
i applied the Cafe of St. Martins Separation? 
: ^. Whether by % %voiawe£Qv, in Ignatius be not 
j meant One material Altar or Place of ordinary 
I Communion of one Church? 3. What are the 
true terms of Univerfal Chriftian Concord ? But 
the laft is to me of fo much greater Importance 
than the reft, that I will now forbear them, left 
by diverfion from this, my expectation fliould be 
fruftrate. And feeing I profefs in this to write to 
you with an unfeigned defire to learn , and alfo 
to take the Matter to be fuch as my very Religion 
and Church relation lyeth on 3 I befeech you ei- 
ther by your felf, or fome other whom you direfi 
to fpeak your fenfe, to endeavour my better in- 

The only terms or way of Vniverfal Chriflian Con- 
cord yon fay is, Obedience to the Vniverfal Church : 
and the Paflors are the Church : And he u not a 
true Member of the Church that doth not obey it : 
And this Church to be obeyed is not only a General 

Council, but alfo a Collegium Paftorum who rule per 
' literas formatas, being SucceJJors to the Apoftles, who 
had this Power from Chrift. 

This is the Subftance of what I underftood 
from you. Here I (hall firft tell you what I 


t 186] 

hitherto held, and next tell you wherein I defire 

I. I have hitherto thought, i. That only Chrift 
was a Conftitutive Head of the Church Univer- 
fal, and had appointed no Vicarious Head or Sove- 
reign, either Perfonal or Collective, Monarchical, 
Ariftocratical , or Democratical. 2. Therefore 
none but Chrift had now an Univerfal Legislative 
Power ? nor yet an Univerfal Judicial and Exe- 
cutive. 3. And that this is the firft and funda- 
mental difference between us and the Church of 
Rome. 4. But I doubt not but that all the Paftors 
in the World may be intellectually thought on 
in an Univerfal Notion , and we may fay with 

Cyprian, Epifcopatm e& unus, &C. as all the Judges 

and Juftices and other Officers are Univerfally 
All the Governing Power of the Kingdom under 
the King -? and as all the Individuals are the whole 
People as Subjefe. 5. And I doubt not but each 
Paftor is in his place to be obeyed in all things 
which he is authorized to Command. 6. And 
thefe Paftors muft endeavour to maintain Concord 
as extenfive as is poffible; to which end Councils 
aid Communicatory Letters are to be ufed : And 
rhat the individual Paftors and People are obliged 
by the General Law of endeavouring to maintain 
Love and Concord, to obferve the Agreements of 
of fuch Concordant Councils in all things Lawful 
belonging to their Determination. 7. And I doubt 
not but while there were but twelve Apoftles, 
thofe twelve had under Chrift , the Guidance of 
;he whole Chriftian Church on Earth (which for 
a while might all hear them in one place ;) and 
Were to do their work in Concord : and had 
the Unity of the Spirit thereto, by which they in- 

[ i8 7 ] 

fallibly agreed in that which was proper to them, 
( and they had no Succeflbrs in ) even , though 
J they were never fo diflant, as well as when they 
were together, ^#.15. though in other things 
Peter ancfaw , and Paul and Barnabas difagreed. 
And as in the recording of Chrift's Works and 
Doctrine, in infallible Scriptures , fo alfo they 
agreed in their Preaching it, and in the Practice 
of all that was neceflary either to Salvation, or 
to the forming or Communion of the Churches. 
8. But I fuppofed that none but thofe who were 
called to it immediately by Chrift , or endued 
with the gift of Infallibility therein, were to be 
as his Mouth and Hand, in fo delivering the Gof- 
pel, and writing the Holy Scriptures, as (hould be 
his Word, or Law to all the Chriftian World, and 
to all future Generations. 9. But as Prophets of 
old were the bringers of all new Revelations, and 
the Priefts were but the Prefervers, Expounders 
and Appliers of the Word which the Prophets had 
brought ; So the Spirit in the Apoftles, Evange- 
liftsand Prophets infallibly delivered that Word 
and Law, which all fucceeding Paflors muft 
Preach, Pra&ife, and Rule by ; as the only Uni- 
verfal Law. 

This being hitherto my Judgment, if you are 
not miftaken, I am no Member of the Univerfal 
Church , and fo no Chriftian , and therefore am 
uncapable of Communion, and have not Cbrift's 
Spirit , nor title to Salvation , and therefore it 
concerneth me fpeedily to try, and receive Inftru- 
dions : However we are of two Religions and 
Churches if you are in the right. 

II. That which I have hitherto denied herein, 
isj, 1. That there is any Vicarious, Constitutive or 


C 188 ] 

Governing Head of the Church Univerfai , or 
Soveraign Power, Perfonal or Collective, having 
Supream,Univerfal,Legiflative, Judicial and Exe- 
cutive Power under Chrift , which all Chriftians 
are bound to be Subje&s of, and to obey. 

2. That Obedience tofuch an Univerfai Church- 
Soveraign or Power is not the neceflary means or 
terms of Univerfai Concord or Communion : 

i. Becaufe there is no fuch Power. 

2. If there be, it cannot be Univerfally known 
by Chriftians, i. That it is, 2. What it is, 3. And 
in whom it is* 

3. Nor can the Meafure of Obedience to fuch 
Power neceflary to Concord and Communion of 
all , be Univerfally known. 4. And de facto, 
there is no fuch Concord or Communion Univer- 
fai in the World, nor ever was, at leaft fince the 
Apoftles days. Of thefe in order. 

I. If there be any Vicarious Univerfai Supream 
Power that all muft obey that will be Members of 
the Church, the Inftitution of it is to be found in 
Scripture, or in fome other Divine Record : But 
no fuch thing is found in either, we have no other 
Divine Record that notifyeth this : and Scripture 
doth not. It is the Apoftles Power that is the 
thing hence alledged. But, 1. While they were 
near the whole Church in its Infancy or fmall 
Number, Men could have fent to them for their 
judgment : But lb they could not, had they lived 
to fee the Church in its prefent extent : If the 
twelve Apoftles were now at Jirkfalem, and we 
doubred of the Neftorian, Eutychian, Monothe- 
lite Controverfies, and the reft in Epiphamtu and 
Philaftriu* Catalogue. Could all the Chriftiahs in 
America, Ayrka, Afia and Europe know that the 


[ »8 9 3 

jmajor Vote of the Apoftles met at Jerufatem had 
[thus or thus decided ? How few would live long 
enough for that Satisfa&ion. 2. The Apoftles 
ifingly by an infallible Uniting Spirit were the 
Mouth of .Chrift to deliver obligatorily his Laws 
and Do&rine , without meeting to Confult and 
Vote it. Paul profefleth Gal. 1. that he received 
not his Gofpel from the Apoftles>but from Chrift : 
And his Epiftles need not a proof of their Au- 
thority from the Votes or Confent of the reft; 
:but were otherwife received: And fo of other 
parts of Scripture. 3. The Apoftles were to be 
jidifperfed about the World, and not to ftay long 
|i together to Govern the World as a College : And 
while they flayed at Jerufalem, we read not of 
their doing any thing in a College and Conciliar 
way, fave that Ml. 15. & 11. which was, 1. No 
I General Council from all the Churches : 2. Nor 
done by Apoftles only, but the Elders and Bre- 
J thren alfo of the Church at Jemfalem. 3. And 
was not laid on the Authority of a major Vote, 
1 but on the Apoftolical Spirit of Infallibility and 
their fpecial knowledge of Chrift's mind>in which 
they all concurred. 

2. Therefore their Authority of Teaching the 
World all Chrift's Commands M- 18- 20. being 
proper to them by thefe two advantages (being 
chofen Ear-witnefles, and having the Spirit to 
guide them into all truth ) in this they have no 
Succeflbrs though they have in the continued parts 
of their Work. They were Chrifts Instruments 
in Univerfal Legiflation, and the Scripture writ- 
ten by them is his Word and Law, and they were 
accordingly enabled to Seal it by Miracles, and 
giving the Holy Ghoft by lmpofition of their 

Hands \ 

r 1 

[ 19° 1 
Hands: This Law of drift all Chriftians own : 
But if in this they have Succefibrs, i. The Church 
hath a larger Law than we have thought on, and 
Gods Word is a greater Volume. 2. And Mira- 
cles are as neceflary to Seal the new Word as to 
Seal the old. 

II. The Scripture denieth a Vicarious fummam \ 
poteftatem, or Soveraignty over the Univerfal 
Church having a Legiflative Power- 1. In that 
it faith that There is One Law-giver, Jam. 4.12. 
that is, But One. 2. In calling Chrift only the 
Head, Lord and King, and calling Apoftles but 
Members, 1 Cor. 12. 27. and Stewards and Mi- 
nifters by whom we believe. 3. Baptizing us 
only into the Name of Chrift, and not of the A- 
poftles $ and Baptifm is Chriftening, and flieweth 
all that is neceflary to make us Members of the 
Church and Body which Chrift is the Saviour of. 
4. Pad decryeth it as Carnality and Schifm to 
think of Men above what is written, as if they 
had been Baptized into the Names of Men. 
j. The Apoftles did not Convert Men by preach- 
ing up themfelves as Soveraign, but Chrift, only 
profeffing themfelves Witneflesand Meflengers of 
his Words and Deeds : The Eunuch Jltts 8. was 
Baptized by Philip upon his bare believing in 
Chrift, without hearing the Vote of aColledgeof 
Apoftles. Nor did the Preachers that Converted 
Men do it by the Argument of the Authority of 
fuch a Colledge. As Dr. Hammond faith on 1 Tim. 
3. [" And fuch are all particular Churches of the 
" whole World confidered together, under the 
iC Supream Head Chrift Jefus, difpenfing them all 
" by himfelf, and adminiftring them feverally not 
" by any one Oeconotms^ but by the feveral Bi- 

" (hops 

C 19" 3 

" fhops as Inferior Heads of Unity to the feveral 
:c Bodies, fo conftituted by the feveral Apoftles 
" in their Plantations, each of them having an 
"*v1qvo(m*, a feveral diftind: Commiflion from 
" Chrift Immediately and Subordinate to none but 
" the Supream Donor or Plenipotentiary. ] 

( Neither to a Perfonal nor Colle&ive Sove- 
raign Power- ; 

The Judges of England have a Power which Ji- 
mitedly in their feveral Courts and Circuits re- 
fpe&eth all the Kingdom. But, i. They have 
no Legiflative Power. 2. Nor are they Confti- 
tutive Eflential parts of the Kingdom : It would 
be the fame Kingdom were their Power changed* 
3. Therefore the Conftitutive Oaths or Bond is 
only between King and Subjefts, and we are not 
to Swear Allegiance to any other than the King. 
1 4. Nor are they Judges out of their feveral Courts 
and Circuits. 5. Much lefs in other Kingdoms. 
6. Nor is any a Judge to all the World, fo is ic 
in the Cafe in queftion, yet were they Apoftles to 
the Univerfal Church, that which none are fince 
their time. 

III. If there be fuch a Vicarious Governing So- 
veraignty over the Univerfal Church, it is either 
the Pope, or a General Council, or fome Col- 
ledge of Paftors : But it is none of thefe. 
,1. As to the Pope you fay that he is fo far from 
being Head of the Church that he is not a Mem- 
ber r So that I need not fay more of this to 

2. That General Councils are no fuch Soveraign 
Power which all muft obey that will be Chrifti- 
ans or in a Church, feemeth to me part doubt for 
thefe Reafons. 

I. Be- 

[ I 9 2 ] 

i. Becaufe there is no fuch thing in the Creed, 
though the Catholick Church and Communion 
of Saints be there. But it would be there were it 
of fuch neceffity to Chriftianity. 

2. Becaufe there is no fuch thing faid in all the 
Scripture, which would not omit fo neceflary a 
point. What is faid from dtts 15. is anfwered be- 
forejit was no General Council : A General Coun- 
cil was not then the neceflary means of Concord 
or Communion* 

3. There never was one General Council re- 
prefenting the Univerfal Church in the World. 
I have fully proved in my fecond Book againft 
John/on, that the Councils called General were fo 
only as to the Roman Empire, ( and few if any 
fo General, ) and that the Emperor called all the 
Chief Councils who had no Power without his Em- 
pire, nor called any that were without. 

^ 4. I have oft proved the unlawfulnefs of calling 
General Councils now, as the Church is difperfed 
at fuch diftances over the Earth, and under Prin- 
ces of fo contrary Interefts and Minds. 
, 5\ I have ok proved the Impoflibility of fuch a 
Councils meeting to attain the ends of Govern- 
ment in queition 5 being to pafs by Sea and Land 
from all quarters of the World, by the Confent 
of Enemies that rule them, and through Enemies 
Countreys, and Men of Age, that muft have fo 
long time going, and fitting 2nd returning, and of 
divers Languages uncapable ofunderftandingone 
another, and a number uncapable of prefent Con- 
verfe, with other fuch infuperable difficulties- 

6. If fuch Councils be neceflary to the Being 
of Chriftianity, Church or Concord, at Jeaft the 
Church hath feldom had a Being, or Concord ; it 



I ldom having had fitch a Council in your owrt 
Heem : And you cannot fay that it ever will 
five any. 

; 7. If General Councils have Supream Govern- 
ment ( vifible ) it is, i. Legiflative. 2. Judi- 
al. 3. Executive. 

But L If Legiflative, then 1. Their Laws 
■e either Gods Infallible Word, or not : If nor, 
1 Men muft difobey them when they err : If 
2a, Gods Word is not the fame one Age as ano- 
ler, and is Crefcent ftill j and we know not 
>henit will beperfed. 

2. Their Laws will be fo many that no Chrifti- 
is can know them, obey them, and have Con- 
Drd on fuch terms. 

3. If they could agree who fhould call them, 
ijnd whither *, yet the Prince whofe Countrey 

!iey meet in would be Mafter of the whole Chri- 
! :ian World, and fo of other Chriftian Countreys 
jy Mattering them. 

I 4. Princes would be Subje&s, 1. To Foreign 
'owers. 2. Yea to the Subjects of other Princes. 
Yea of their Enemies. 4. And to fuch Pre- 
ktes as they are uncapable to know whether they 
fre truely called to their Office. 5.. Or whether 
hey are erroneous or found in Faith. 
j 5. And then the Ecclefiaftical Laws of all Na- 
ional Churches and Kings might be deftroyed by 
^uch Councils as Superior Powers. 

6. And no Princes or Synods could make valid 
Laws about Religion, till they knew that no Law 
^f any fuch Council were againft them. 

7. The Laws . of Chrift recorded, in Scripture 
would by all this be argued of great infufficiency : 
!f more were Univerfally neceffafy, he that made 

O th€ 

f J 94 1 

the reft would have made them, whofe Authoriil 
is to the Church unqueftionable. 

8. The Chrifcian World is divided fo much ifce 
Opinion, that except in what Chrifts own worlwe 
containeth plainly, they are in no probability clfoi 
agreeing. So much of Legiflation. 

II. As to Judgment, i. To judge the fence c|, 
a Law (Scripture or Canon) for the commoi 
Obligation of the Church, is part of the Legifis 
tive Power , and belongs to the Law-makeri 
2. To judge the Cafe o( Perfons, e. g. whethq! 
*Johri) Peter j Nefidrius, Luther , Calvin^ &C. belly 
Hererick, an Adulterer, a Simonift, &c requi| 
reth that the Accufer and Acculed, and Witnefle 
of both be prefent and heard fpeak: But he th 
would have all Hereticks, Criminals, Accufer* 
Witnefles, travel for a Tryal to Jerusalem, Nic\ 

Confiantinople^ Rome^ even from America^ Eth'ii 

fia^ &c. will not need any Confutation. 

III. The fame I fay of Executive Silencing^ Ejefl. 
ingj Excommunicating, &c 

II. A Soveraign Power that cannot be knowii 
is not neceflary to Chriftianity, or the Conftitu 
tion Communion or Concord of the Church. Bu 
General Councils fo impowered cannot bi 

I. I have (hewed that it cannot be known b 
ordinary Chriftians that there are any fuch Au 
thorized by Chrift. I know it Hot, nor any that 
ever I was familiar with: The main Body oftU 
Reformed Churches know it not 5 for they ordi 
narily deny it as the prime point of Popery. The^i 
cannot prove it, who affirm it : Therefore they 
know it not, as others may judge. Millions ars 
Baptized Chriftians that never kne\V it. 


I '95 1 

\ II. It is not to this day known which were true 

I eneral Councils that are part : Some fay thofe 

rere Latrocinia and Conventicles that others fay 

ere Lawful Councils. Some are for but four; 

>me for fix-, fome for eight ; fome for all fo cal- 

:d ; there is no agreement which are true and 

bligatory. Gyquhs is for Trent and all $ which 

thers abhor. 

2. It is not known who hath Power to call 
: iem> and whofe call is valid. 
: g. Nor what Individuals or Particular Churches 
-re capable offending and chufing, and obliged to 
r. Almoft all the Chriftian World is judged un- 
apable by the moft of Chriftians. The Papiftsare 
3 judged by the Greeks, Proteftants, &c. The 
iaftern and Ethiopian Chriftians, are excluded by 
the Papifts, Greeks, &c. as Jacobites, Neftori- 
ns, Schifmaticks, &c. The Greeks are excluded 
>y the Papifts and others as Schifmaticks and Er- 
roneous. The Proteftants are judged Herericks 
ind Schifmaticks by the Papifts and many Greeks, 
f'c How Lutherans and Calvinifts, Diocefans 
ind Presbyterians, &c. judge of one another, I 
ieed not tell. And can all or any of them know 
which of thefe muft make up a Legiflative Coun^ 
cil of the whole Church on Earth ? 

4- It is not known how many muft Constitute 
fuch a Council, nor in what proportions. If there 
be innumerable Eiihops under Philippics for the 
Monothelites out of the Eaft ( as Binnuu faith ) 
and few out of the Weft, was that a true Gene- 
ral Council ? If at Nice, Ipbefus, Conftxnwwple, 
Chalcedony there be not one out of the Weft to 
twenty or forty, or a hundred others, is it a true 
reprefentacive of the whole Church? If there be 
- O a two 

[ i<?6 3 

two hundred at Trent ,or a thoufand at Bafil out o{ 
the Weft, or fome few parts of it, and few froraj 
the Eaft, and none from Ethiopia, Armenia, A me* 
rka, and many other Churches-, are thefe a true 
Univerfal Council ? And can we all be here re?j 
folved ? 

The Countrey where the Council meeteth, and 
the Prince who is for them, will have~*nore BW 
ihops there, than any, if not all the reft ; whet 
remote parts, and the Churches under Enemies!; 
or dilTenting Princes will have fe^w. 

5. The fame Councils that had moft for therdj 
under one Prince, have had moft Bifhops againft| 
them under the next, and fo off and on for many! 
Succeffions: We know that the Council of Nici\ 
was moftly for the truth, becaufe we try it by the 
Word of God : Elfe how fhculd it be known af- 
ter 5 when under Conftamius and Valens moft of 
the Bilhops by far, in Councils and out, were 
Arrians. ? The World groaned ro find it felf] 
grown Arrian. The Council of Con/tantinople, in| 
the beginning fet up Greg. Naz.ianz.en, and in the 
end wasagainfthim? Which part was the Uni- 
verfal Governor? The firft Council at Ephefus 
was againft Ne florins till J oh. Antiochemts came ; 
and then it divided into two, which condemned 
each other ; and after by the Emperors threaten- 
ing was united: The Chalcedon Council carried 
moft while Martian Reigned; and after moft con- 
demned and curfed it 5 and then again moft were 
fork, and under other Emperors moft curfed it 
again ; and under Zeno the moft were for Neutra- 
lity or Silencing the difference. The Eutychians 
had far molt at Ephef. 2. and a while after under 
Theodof>2. and Anafififius, &c. And under others 


and mofc Princes ) mofc were againft them, and 
lied Eph. 2. Latrocinium. And yec mofc of 
e Eafc have been for Diofcorns ever fince, faving 
e Greeks. The Monothelkeshad far mofc (in- 
imerable Bifhops out of the Eafc, faith Binnius ut 
ira) under thilippicus in a Council, yea, faith 
mnitts, the Council at Trillin in Conftant. were 
onothelites, and yet the fame Men that were at 
e foregoing approved fifth General Council at 
»»/?. And over and over molt Bifhops were 
r one fide, and mofc for the other, as Princes 
anged atew;.ird. Under Jujtinian mofc feem- 

! for the Pbantafiafta againft the CorrupticoU : 
Vhich yet are fince ( with Juftiman ) accounted 
rfecuting Hereticks. The approved Council at 
>»#. de tribas Capitulis had fome time mofc Bi- 
opsforit, and fometime mofc againft it : In(o- 
uch that it occafioned much of Italy it felf to re- 
>unce the Popes- headfhip and fet up the Patri- 
tixoi Aqulkia as their Chief. The Council at 
ice 2. and others for Images, and fo others a- 
inft them, have been fo ok and notorioufly un- 
:r one Emperor owned by moft, and under ano- 
er condemned by moft,yea bv the fame Bifhops 
vned and after difowned, that no Man can tell 
hichof them to take for the Univerfal Legifla- 
rs or Rulers of the Church by the number of the 
ifhops, but only we mufc know which of them 
ere found by the Word of God. And fince 
em, what Council ever was there that could 
; fo known by numbers^ to be of Authority ? 
wfiance and BafU that had the greatefc numbers 
e condemned by Florence^ and by the mofc of 
<e Roman Church. No Man can tell us of all 
tat are paft, what Councils are of obliging Au- 
O s thority 

C 198 3 

thorky and muft be obeyed by any outwardil 
Note, but only by trying them by the Wore 
of God. 

6. And what wonder, when there is no other 
certain Note by which an obliging Council canl< 
be known from others ? ( And he that knowethif 
what God faith without the Council needs it not. 
The Papifts have no Note of difference but the 
Popes Approbation. And Proteftants know that 
this is no proof of their Authority. At Eph. 2J 
BeUarmine and Binnins tell us that the confent was! 
fo general, that only St. Peter's Ship efcaped drown- ! 
ing. At Con ft. i. they confefs that the Pope had not 
fo much as a Legate: By what Note (ball wej 
know the true and Authorized Councils from the! 
reje&ed, when part of the Chriftian World is[ 
for one and againft another, and the other part j 
contrary ? 

III. And there is no Agreement in what the 1 
Power of'fuch Councils materially doth, confift, 
and what it is that they may command us, and \ 
what not. 

IV. Nor is there any Agreement which and \ 
how many are their true Obligatory Laws, when ; 
we have liich huge Volumes of Decrees and Ca- 
nons •, woe to us if all thefe muft necefiarily be 
obeyed to our Concord or Salvation. And if not 
all, how fhail we know which ? 

V. Nor do we know how we muft be fure that 
all thefe Canons indeed were Currant and had the 
Major Vote 5 or many be Counterfeit 5 when the 
Africans had then fuch a ftir with the Pope about 
the Nicene or Sardican Canon 5 and when to this 
day the Canons of theLaterane Council.//^ /ww^. 

• a*e juiiiiiedby moftand denied by many. 

VI If 

L '99 J 
: VI. If this could be known to a few Learned 
len, it is certain that to moil Chriftians, yea 
linifters it cannot ; To me it is not And it's 
certain that all Chriftians, nor all Miniftersare not 
obliged to fo great a task as to fearch all the Court* 
lils, till they know which they be, and which the 
^aws which they muft obey. 

III. And as the Power and Laws cannot be 
mown, fo it is certain that Obedience tb thefe is 
not the neceflary means of Chriliianity, Concord 
or Communion, becaufe the neceflary meature of 
fuch Obedience cannot be known to ftjch a ufe 5 
-hrift in his Institution of Bapafm and other 
ivays, hath told what he hath made neceflary to 
ibe a Member of the Univerfal Church, and how 
all fuch muft live in Love and Peace, in obeying 
the reft of his Word fo far as they can know it. 
But you that make Obedience to a viiible Power 
;iover the Church Univerfal,neceflary to our Mem- 
:berfhip, can never tell us which is the neceflary 
(Degree J If it be all the Canons and Mandates that 
imuft be fo obeyed , no Man can be faved : much 
ilefscanthe Churches all have -oncord on fuch 
terms! yea, every Uiriftian : If it be not all, who 
can tell us which be the neceflary Canons , and 
A6ts of Obedience , and diftinguiih Eflenmls 
from Integrals,unlefs you will return to the Word 
of God, and fay that The Covenant of Grace is 
Eflential , which we may know without thefe 
Councils Laws. The Miniftry of Councils teaching 
us how to know God's Word and Laws is one 
thing, and their own pretended univerfally oblig- 
ing Legislation is another. 

Of all this 1 have faid much in the fecond Part 
of my Key for Catholicks, and in my forefaidRe^ 
joinder to W. Johnfon. II. But 

[ 2.00 ] 

II. But you tell me of another Church Power 
which all muft obey that will have Communionl! 
and Concord, which you call Collegium Faftorum. 

If none be Church Members or Chriftians that* 
underftand not what this is (much lefs do obey \t) \ 
I doubt the Church is ftill a little Flock indeed :} 
For I underftand it not, nor know one Man that I 
think doth. 

i. Is this College of Paftors to Rule while Ge- 
neral Councils fit , or but in the intervals ? If ye- 
deme Concilio, which of them is Supream ? If only 
between Councils ; have they a Legijlative Power, or 
only the Judicial and Executive ? If the former , 
where are their Laws to be found ? that all the 
Church may know them ? And I ask all the Que- 
stions before askt of the Laws of Councils : How 
fhall we know which be Current ? and neceflary ? 
and which are not ? 

If not, then they are no Supream Rulers that 
have no Legiflative Power ? 

2. Who be thefe Men that make this College ? 
we cannot obey them till we know them •, Are 
they all the Biftops in the World , or but part ? 
If but part, which part, and who, and where (hall 
we find them ? I know you will not fay they are 
theopfiart College of Cardinals, nor the Roman 
Clergy only: And I never heard of any others be- 
fides Councils that pretended to it : w. To be 
Univerfal Governours. 

If it be All the Bifhops of the World 5 1. Do 
they meet to Confent, or do they not ? If they do 
and muft, when , where , how ? was there ever 
fuch a meeting which was no Council ? No, you 
fay, It is per lit eras for mat at \ 

2. Arq 

L 201 j 

2. Are thefe Liter* format & , Legijlative, Judi- 
cial or Executive ? If none of thefe, they are no 
Ads of Government. And I asked, where ihall 
we find them if they are our Laws? If they be 
Judicial and Executive, whither is it that the Ac- 
cufers, Accufed and Witnefles muft come to be 
heard fpeak before the Sentence was pafledper 

litera* format as : e. g. Theodoret , and the reft de 
tribiu Capitals, when it muft be judged, i. Whe- 
ther they wrote fuch words ? 2. What the fence 
was ? 3. Whether they were Heretical ? 4. Whe- 
ther they repented , and muft we go to all the 
Bifhops in the World one by one for tryal ? or 
be judged without being ever heard? 

3. I cannot imagine what can be here faid, un- 
lets it be that fome Bifhops firft do the thing, and 
then others do per Liters confent. But, 1. Do 
fome Bifhops firft make Laws for all the World, 
and then the reft confent, or only for their own 
Churches ? By what Authority do they the firft f 

2. Or do fome Bifhops try and judge a Man, 
e. g. in this or that Country and Parifh, and then 
all the reft in the World confent, that never hear 
them, or hear of them ? Every Man (nor any) 
is not Excommunicated per Liter as format ai^ by all 
the Bifhops in the World, or moft. 3. But it is 
not the Executive or Judicial Acts that our Que- 
ftion is concerned in, but the Rule of Obedience, 
which is a Law. As it was never known that 
Men muft not be taken in by Baptifm, or caft out 
by Excommunication, till all the Biihopson Earth 
agree to it 3 fo no Univerfal Laws are extant that 
were made by fuch Letters. 

4. And how can this be the Rule, and Teft of 
Chriftianity, or Church- memberfhip or Concord, 

, when 

when no Chriftians, much lefs all, can poffibly 
know that all or moft Bifhops have per Liters, 
confented to fuch obliging Laws ? i. How can 
we prove that ever any went over all the World 
to them ? (Drake or Candifh did it not.) 2. And 
that they opened the Caie aright to them ? 5. And 
that thefe Laws had the Major Vote ? 4. And 
that they are not forged or corrupted fince? 
5. And that thefe were true Bifhops themfelves 
that did it in America, Ethiopia, Armenia, Greece, 
&c otit of our reach? 

6. Yea, What poffibility is there of any fuch 
known Agreement, when its known that almofl 
all the Chriftisn World is divided into Parties, 
which difagree and cenfure one another? The 
Englifh Diocefans and Church differeth from the 
Roman, and the moft, or many of the Reformed. 
The Lutherans from the Calvinifts ; The Papifts 
from us all, and from the Greek, and the Greek 
from them and us ; and all from the Abaflines, 
Copties, Syrians, called Jacobites, Neitorians, &c. 
and from the Armenians, Georgians, Circaffians, 
Mengrelians, Ruffians, &c. How (hall I, and all 
the Minifters on Earth, yea, and all Chriftians, 
know r that all thefe havener Liter as for mat as, made 
Laws which all rauft neceflarily obey ? 

But if it be only the Sound Part that hath this 
Univerfal Government, how can I, and all Men 
know which, and who that is? Hearfay of Ad- 
verfaries report will not tell us 3 and almofl: all on 
Earth are condemned or accufed by the reft, or 
moft, or many. And we muft hear them (that 
dwell at the Antipodes or Jerufalem, &c) before 
we judge them, fo far as to exclude them from 
the Sacred Power. 


L "j J 

If it be faid, That it is not the making of New 
Laws, that is done by this Collegium Paftorum all 
over the world>but theirConfent to thofe thatCoun- 
cils made : I anfwer, i. Are they not Valid upon 
the Councils making them ? Then Councils have 
not Legiflative Power. 2. If it be left impoffible 
to moft to know which were true Councils, and 
which are their Valid Laws, when the prefent At 
femblies have beft opportunity to fignitie Confent, 
how impoffible will it be to know which Councils 
and which Laws (and in what fenfe) are approved 
by all the Bifhops in the World, or by moil: ? And 
that the Votes were faithfully gathered ? And by 
whom ? And that the Major part are the Rulers of 
the Minors. 

Will Johnfon faith, That it is a General Judicial 
Sentence, De Specielmf, and not Be Individnis, that 
Councils ufe-, E. g. [}Ve Anathematize all that hold 
or do this or that."] But, i. It's known that they 
Anathematized many Individuals. 2. No Man 
can be bound by it, till it fall upon Individuals. 
Condemning Arrians^ proveth no Man to be an 
Arrian : Forbidding us to hear Hereticks, obli- 
geth none not to hear him that is not proved a He- 
retick : Judgment muft be of Individuals before it 
can be executed. 

He that muft obey the Univerfal Church, muft 
be commanded by the Univerfal Church, and 
muft know T that they command him, and what they 
command him 3 which is to me, and to moft im- 

4. William Johnfons and his Parties laft Anfwer 
is, That the People muft Believe their own indi- 
vidual Paftors, telling them what the Univerfal 
Church commandeth : And indeed there is no o- 


C "4 ] 

ther way practicable *, But then, i. This is but a 
trick to make every Paftor the Lord of our Faith 
and Souls 3 on pretence of obeying the Univerfal 
Church. And if this be ypur fenfe it will amount 
to this [No man is a Chnfiian that believe th not his 
faflor telling, him what the Vniverfal Church com- 

2. But I find mod Teachers are as ignorant as I 
am, who know not fuch Univerfal Authority or 

3. Archbifliop VJher , and many other Bifliops, 
thought that General Councils were not for Regi- 
ment, but Concord : And he that believeth no 
fuch Governing Power, cannot declare it to his 
Flock, nor obey it. 

4. By this way, moft Chriftians fhall be bound 
on pain of Damnation to believe Untruths, and 
things contrary to what others muft believe, e.g. 
In Abaffia , Egypt, Syria, &C. they will be bound 
to believe one thing , and at Conftantinople ano- 
ther, &c. Thofe called now Neftorians , are by 
Travellers faid to own none of that Herefie , bun 
to Condemn the Council olchakedon and Eph. 1. 
for wronging Neftorim , as Innocent did them that 
condemned chryfottome : Thofe called Jacobites 
and Eutychians are faid to have no more of the 
Herefie, but to condemn the faid Chalcedon Coun- 
cil for wronging Diofcorm, and to own thefecond 
Ephefine Council : fome will be bound to be for 
Images in Churches, and fome againft them 3 fome 
for Conflantinople, and fome for Rome's Supremacy, 
(and all in their Countries to be PapiftsJ for their 
Paftors tell them that the Catholick Church is on 
their fide : yea, in the fame Country (as in Eng- 
land) fome mud be for Arminianifm ( as it is 


i called) and fomeagainft it $ fome for the imputa- 
tion of Chrift's righteoufnefs , and fome againft 
it; fome for free Prayer in the Pulpit, and fome 
"againft it, &c For on both fides their differing 
Paftors plead the Authority of the Church : Few 
Chriftians can thus agree in any thing but Chad's 
plain Laws , which I fhewed are the terms of 

Ifwemuft appeal from particular Paftors , to 
whom is it ? If to Councils , to whom mull we 
appeal from difagreeing Councils ? If to the whole 
Church on Earth, how ihall we hear from them 
and know their mind ? I never faw, nor knew any 
Man that faw any tit eras formats fubfcribed by all 
Bifhops fcattered through the Earth. 

5. You that are Zealous againft Popery, I pre- 
fume would not have me be a Papift : But I cannot 
avoid it if I receive your Doftrine (that there is 
a Church- Power in a Council or College of Paftors, 
to Govern the Univerfal Church : and that none 
are in the Church, nor have the Spirit that obey 
net this Univerfal Church of Paftors, and that to 
obey them is the only means, or terms of Con- 

For, 1. I then yield them the fundamental dif- 
ference, That there is one Umverfal fiimma Pote- 
ftas, or Vifible Head (Colle&ive) under Chrift. 
2. And if fo, I cannot deny it to be the Pop.e as 
the Trincipium Vmtatis, and the Chief Executor of 
the Laws, and the firft Bifhop in Councils. For 
Councils are rare , and the Church is a Church 
when there are no Councils : And the Pope is a 
known Perfon, and Rome a known Place, and ac- 
ceflible, and no other pretendeth to this Power 
that I know of; And the Executive Power muft 


C *°6 3 

be Conftant : And any other Supream acceffible 
College is unknown to me and all that I can fpeak 
with, and I can no more obey them, than a Col- 
lege of Angels unknown to me- If the Church 
have a vifible Vicarious Supream, the Pope is 
likeft to be he , as to the conftant Executive 
Power, and the Prefident of Councils. I fuppofe 
you take the Councils of Con flame and Bafil , and 
the French for Papifts ; though they fet a Council 
above the Pope. 

6. The World hath no Univerfal Civil Govern- 
ment under God -, neither a Monarch, nor a Col- 
lege or Council of Kings. All the World is Go- 
verned by Men per partes in their feveral Domi- 
nions, as all England is under the King, by all the 
Mayors, Bailiffs and Juftices : But there is no 
Council of Juftices that are One Vniverfal Cover- 
mar ColkElive : Nor is the Dyet of Princes, or any 
Council of Kings one Supream Government of the 
Earth. A Logical univerfality there is, as all 
Rulers confidered notionally rule all the World by 
Parts, but no Political Head or Univerfal Gover- 
nour over the whole, whom all the Parts muft 

I. If now I am in the right, and you miftaken, 
then, you wrongfully deny the Spirit, Church- 
Memberfhip, and coniequently Salvation as w 7 ell 
as Concord, to all Protectants that ever I knew 
or read , who deny a vifible Univerfal Church 
Head,Perfonal or Colle&ive -, And I think to moft 
in the World. And what Schifm that is, I need 
not fay. 

n. If I am in the wrong, I am no Chriftian,nor 
Church Member, nor can be faved (For you fay, 
[This Body fo governed only hath the Spirit]: 


[ 207 ] 

And I cannot help it 5 not knowing poflibly how 
to know, J. Who this College is? 2. What 
Councils. 3- °r which be the Laws which I 
mud obey , 4. Nor with what degree of Obe- 
dience. 5. Nor that they have fuch Power. 
How great need have I then earned! y to beg 
your fpeedy help for my Information : Which 
will oblige 

Tonr Servant 

Decemb. 27. 1679. 

Ri. Baxter. 

Chap. XVII. The Third "Letter to Btfiop 

To the Right Reverend the Lord Bijhop of Ely. 

My Lord, 

T Hough in Conference I told you the Senfe 
which I had of your words , yec judging ic 
my duty to think of them over and over again, 
I alfo judge it my duty in Writing to leave with 
you the fum of fuch a Judgment as I am able to 
pals on them , on my beft Confideration , leaving 
it now to your felf whether you will by word or 
. writing return any further Anfwer , my hopes of 
Satisfaction thereby being very low. 

The fum of your Speech which I am concerned 
in, is as followeth : 

I. tC That certainly a Supream Vicarious Govern- 
" ing Tower there is in the Bifljops by Chrift's Jnfti- 
u tHtion, i.Becanfe it is Prophefied 3 Ifai. 60. 12. 
" That the Nation and fCingdom that will not ferve 


[ 208 ] 

the Church Jhali perijh 5 And the -word Church is 
never put for Chrifl. 2* And the Apoftles- only 
were admitted by Chrifl to his last Supper, and fo 
the Power of Adminiftring that Sacrament till 
<c Chrifl come, is given only to them, and fuch as they 
Jh all give that Tower to. g. And it was not Paul 
and Barnabas that had the infallible judgment of 
" that Cafe decided, A&. 15. but the College of the 
" Apoftles. 

II. " That this Sufream Vicarious Governing Tower 

" over the whole Church on Earth is, I. In all the 

" Chriftian Bijhops of the World, 2. And the Major 

ct part goethfor the whole , 3. And General Councils 

li are their Reprefentatives , and fo have this Powers 

4. And that to fuch Councils it is enough that all 

^ be called, though all be not there. 5. And it is 

their reception by the Church Vniverfal, which muft 

c prove their Vniverfal Power, and the Obligation of 

1 their Laws. 6. And though the Vniverfality of 

Bijlwps be not always in fuch a Council, they have 

" always that Power which in Councils is to be ufed : 

" as the Judges out of Term time. J* And that if 

ci 1, or any will pub lijh a Here fie, Wefliall know where 

" that Church is by their Cenfure, 8. But as Pro- 

" mulgation is neceffary to the Obligation of Laws, fo 

" many that never can or do hear of the forefaid Vni- 

61 verfal Church-Governing Power or what their Laws 

" are, or what is the fence of them , may be faved 

c without them, by the reading of the Word ; ds many 

" that have not the Scriptures may be faved without 


" And this you fay anfwers three parts of my last 
c ' Papers. 9 Of thefe General Councils it is only fix that 
''you ownas fuch, Nicei. Confli. Eph.i. Chalced 
" Confh 2. (de tribus Capitulis) & Conft. 3- *g*infi 
" the Monothelites. III. " Yon 

[209 ] 

III. " Ton fay that Thefe fix things are the Govern- 
'gAftsofthis Chief Power. 
i . To judge which are the true Books of Script ure$ 
i and the true Copies and Readings. 

2. "To judge what is the fence of the Fundamen- 
:. tals, Baptifm, Creed , whofe words mifunderfiood 
: will not fave any. 

\ 3. " To judge and declare' what is the true Church 
Government inftituted by Chrisl and his Aposlles, 
> or delivered by them. 

4. " To judge and declare what are the inftituted 
• Ordinances e g. Confirmation as it is a giving of the 
: Holy Ghosl by Imposition of Hands, and not only 

an owning of onr Baftifmal Covenant, which we do in 
every Sacrament : and fo of other Ordinances. 

5. "A Judicial Power, not of all individual Cafes I 
but that tltofe e. g. that hold or do this or that be 

6. " A Legislative Power, to make alterable Cd- 
J nons or Orders of the Church Vniverfal. This is 

he fum of all your Explicatory Difcourfes : To 
Which I anfvver. 

§. I. To your proofs that fuch a Univerfal Go- 
verning Church there is inftituted. 1. ToIfaL6o.i2* 

fay, 1. It is aot fafe ftretching dark Prophetical 
Texts, farther than we can prove they are intend- 
:d. The New Teftament plainlier tells us the 
Church State and Power than the Old. 

2. The Univerfal Church hath not expounded 
he Text , whether it fpeak of the fiate of the 
fews after the Captivity, or of the State of the 
^atholick Church now 5 or of the more Blefled 
State of it at the laft, when it is more perfected, 
Therefore how are you fure that you have the 
hue fence of it without th<* Churches Expofition > 

P Jj The 

f 2.IO ] 

\ 3- The words indeed are nothing for a Vica- 
rious Soveraign Power. Every Political Body is 
eflentiated by rhe Mats imperans, and the Pars fub- 
dita; Chrift is the only eifentiating Pars imperans 

inSupream Power : Chrift then is the Prime part 
of the Church : The word [Church] then is not 
put for [Chrift] alone, but for the Society con- 
lifting of King and Subjects , and fometimes for 
the Subjeds alone. It's oft fa id that many Na- 
tions ferved the Ifraelites : we fay, many Coun- 
treys were fubjeft to the Romans , the Medes, 
Perfians , Greeks , Turks : and we do not meat* 
that either the Turkiih , Roman , Perfian, &c 
Common Subjeds did govern all thefe Nations, 
nor that their Bafhaws, Judges, Magiftrates, &c. 

as one Perfona Politic a in fumma \>otcttate ruled 
them by a Major Vote : If the King will fay that 
all the Corporations in MicLdlefex (hall be under 
London, or obey or ferve it :■ Who would feign 
fuch a fenfeof it, as to fay that there muft be 
therefore fome Power to rule them by a Vica- 
rious Supremacy befide the ordinary Government, 
or that all the City muft Govern by a Major 
Vote. The fenfe is plain. As we all i. Obey the 
King as the Univerfal Constitutive Mead, 2. And 
the Judges, Juftices, Mayors, as ruling under him 
per panes , in their feveral Places. 3. And we 
ferve all die Kingdom , as we ferve its common 
good, which is the finis regjtminis \ So other Coun- 
tries ferved the Romaps,(jreeks, Turks, &c- And 
fo all Kingdoms ftipuld ferve the Church or King- 
dom of Chrift; that is , 1. Chrift as the only 
Head and Univerfal Governour : 2. All his Offi- 
cers as particular Governours in their feveral Li- 
mits and Places (but none as Rulers of the whole) 

3. And 

[211 3 

3. And the bonum Commune, or all the Church 3S 
the End of Government And how can we feign 
another fence ? 

§.2. To your fecond Proof I anfwer , i. The 
70 Difciples were Chrift's conftant Attendants 
as his Family , with whom he was to Eat the 

2. We all grant that none have Power to Ce- 
lebrate the Eucharift. or Govern the Church but 
the Apoftles, and thofe to whom the Spirit of 
Chrift in them did Communicate it. But we fay 
that they Communicated it to the Order of Pres- 
byters, as I thought all had Confefled (as fome 
Councils do.) 3. The Apoftles were not appointed 
as one Supream ruling College to give the Sa- 
crament by their Votes to all the World, but 
each one had Power to do it in his place : Nor 
did they OrJUin only as a College by fuch Vote (as 
Vn a per [on a Politic a) but each one had Power to 
do it alone : Nor did they write the Scriptures as 
one Co/kclhe Perfon by Vote, but each one lad 
the Spirit and Power to do it , (as Paul did, &c.) 
nor did they fit on one Throne, or had the promife 
ib to do, to Judge the Tribes of IJrael> as one 
College by Vote, but to fit on twelve Thrones 
Judging the twelve Tribes , as under Chrift the 
only Univerfal Head and Governour. 

§.3. To your third I anfwer, 1. Ianfw r ered to 
that^4#. 15. in my laftto you. 2> Paul and Bar- 
nabas had the fame Infallible Spirit, and had be- 
fore faid the fame againft the keeping of Mofes 
Law: But 1. Rccipitur acl modum recipient is : No 
wonder if among thofe that quarrelled with Paul^ 
the Confent of thofe that had received Chrift's 
Mind from his own Mouth and Spirit, did better 

P 2 fedsfie 

[ ili j 

fatisfie the doubtful, than one Man s word alonei 
** And Chrift's Work was to be done in Unity. 

§. 4. II. As to the Seat of this Power I anfwer, 
1. All the true Bifhops of the World Govern the 
particular Churches as Kings Govern all the King- 
doms of the World, under God, one Universal 
Monarch : But there is neither one Univerfal 
Monarchical, Ariftocratical or Democratical So- 
veraign, Civil or Ecclefiaftical under Chrift : But 
each hath his own part. 

§. 5. 2. I have (hewed the impoflftbility of our 
judging of the Major Votes at our diftances in 
mod controverted Cafes. 

§. 6. 3. And I have, where I told you, proved 
that there never were, muft or will be true Uni- 
verfal Councils, much lefs are fuch the (landing 
Governours of the Church. But in Cafes of need, 
fuch as can well do it, (hould come to help each 
other by Council and Concord,without pretending 
to Univerfal Governing Power. 

§. 7. 4. 1. Who called them to Nice, Ephefw, 
Ckalcedon, Conftantinople , &c out of the Extra- 
Imperial Countries ? 

2. Who (hall call them now out of the Empire 
of the Turk, j*baflia, the Mogul, Tanary, and 
the reft? 

3. If calling Men make the Council Univerfal 
though they come not,is it a Council if none come? 
or how many muft it be to afcertain us that it is 
Univerfal ? Hath the Pope the Calling Power ?. 
or who is it, and how proved, that they that obey 
it not may be unexcufeable ? 

§. 3. 5. I have told you how unable I am to 
know what the Major part of all Chriftians or 
Bilhops in the World receive , fave only by un- 

certain fame, faving that while I know other wife 
what is neceflary truth, I know that they are not 
the Church that receive it not, whoever they be. 
I am a Stranger to Abajfia, Armenia, Georgia, In- 
| dia, Mafia , Mexico, &C. And what if I never 
knew that there are fuch Countries in the World? 

2. lean eafily prove what I told you , how oft 
the Major Part hath changed , yea, the fame Bi- 
fhops upon the change of Princes, and cried, Omnes 
Teccavimiu. And who knoweth by Majority of 
Votes, which Years they were in the right? 

3. Either the Canons of Councils were obliga- 
tory upon the Promulgation before the abfent 
Bifhops in all Countries received them, or not ; 
If yea, then it is not Univerfal Reception that 
made them fo : If not , then the abfent are not 
bound to receive them- 

4. How many Years will it be after a Council be- 
fore we can know whether all or mqft of the 
Chriftian World receive it ? By all that I can 
read in Hiftory, I cannot tell, e. g. whether more 
Bifhops were for the Council of Chalcedony or 
againft it, for the time of feven or eight Emperors 
Reign -, Nor whether more now be for or againft: 
the fecond Nkene Council (which the Lutherans 
fo much favour) and fo of many more. And 
every one cannot know it, nor fetch his Faith, or 
Religion from a Catalogue of all die Chriftian 
Bifhops in the World, or a Calculation of their 
numbred Votes. 

§. 9. 6. Fraflra eft Votentia qu<z non reducitar, 
nee rcdacenda eft in aft urn. 1. Indeed as the Pope 
is naturally uncapable of Governing all the Chri- 
ftian World, All Bifhops on Earth are much more 
uncapable as one Collective Voting Power ,but only 

P 2 per 

C **4 3 

per partes in their feveral Limits. 2. How can I 
obey a Power that adeth not ? 

§. ic. 7. Alas what abundance of Herefies have 
been Published fince the Six Councils which you 
own? yea, by Ranters, Quakers, Families, &c. in 
our times, befides Beckmans Catalogue of German 
Fanaticks. And yet what Universal Council, or 
Liter* formata of all the World, have given us 
fufficient notice of theif Evil ? How foolifhly 
have the Papifts done about Janfenianifms, the 
Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, &c. 
to feek the Pope's Determination, if thefenfe of 
all the BiLhops of the World can be known to 
decide the Cafe . ? How many Herefies have been 
Condemned in Councils fince the Sixth Council, 
of which the whole Church hath no otherwife no- 
tified their fence (as in the Cafe of Philoponm of 
Images, of Ehpandus, and Falix, of Abbot Joa- 
chims Abeilard^i Gilbert Porretane, of Wecilo 5 of 
Berengarim, Wicklijfe, Hujfe} whether it was He- 
refie or not ? You fay , If I broach a Herefie^ the 
*Vniverfal Church will foon tell me where they are by 
Condemning it ; When Multitudes have been 
broached thefe lad Thou(and Years , of which 
thdfe in Abaffia, Syria, Egypt, Armenia, and moft 
of the Chriftian World, have never told us that 
ever they were Judged , or {o much as heard ? 
Shall no Bifihops or Provincial Council condemn 
new Herefies, but leave e.g. Swenkfeldiw , David 
George, Servetm, Pomponatim, Vaninws, 2nd a hun- 
dred fuch to pals for good Chriftians , till they 
hear from all the Bifhops of the World ? And 
what need General Councils be gathered to Con- 
demn fuch, if we can know the fence of all with- 
out them ? 

§. 11- 

§. ii. 8. If one that cannot know the fence of 
all the Bjfhops on Earth, may ordinarily be a good 
Chriftian, and faved by the Scripture only , then 
iwhy mould they be fent to enquire of all the Bi- 
fhops on Earth , when a fure and nearer way is at 

2. And then fuch maybe of the Church and 
have Chrift's Spirit^that obey not fuch a Vicarious 
Church Head. 

3. And if want at Promulgation nullifie the Obit* 
gation, that is no Governing Vicarious Soveraigu 
to all the Chriftian World , which cannot Promul- 
gate his Laws to all. Neither I, nor any that ever 
1 knew, can tell how to know the Minds of all 
the Bi(hops on Earth, or gather their Votes, fo as 
to rule our Obedience ; If the Scripture could 
not be commonly made Known , it could be no 
common Rule ; as it is not to them that have ic 
only in unknown Tongues. 

i §.12. 9 What (hall fatisfie any Man that the 
Six Councils owned by you are the Ads of a Su- 
pream Vicarious Univerfal Church Power, and 

no Other? butthofe, I. If the Pars imperans in 
Supremacy be ( as Politicks fay ) a Ccnftitutive 
Eflential part of the Society, then fince the fixth 
Council, the Church hath been no Church for 
want of an Effential part, if Councils were that 
part : But if it be all the difperfed Bifhops, the 
Head hath been in mtdd P&tntU, una&ive thefe 
Thoufand Years, as theSocinians fay thefeparated 
Soul is till the Refurre&ion, or as one in an Apo- 

2. This favoureth the Seekers, who fay that the 
Church this Thoufand Years hath been loft in the 
Wildernefs, or aileep. 

Pi "3. The. 

[ «6 ] 

3. The fame Councils have done and undone * 
That at Conft. 1. in the beginning fet up Greg. 
Naz.. and in the end forced him to refign going 
about to depofe him-, which part was obligatory ? 
That at Ephef firft, was firft one, and after two, 
and Nefiorim, Cyril and Memnon^ were all Con- 
demned, and after two of them reftored, and 
Joh. Anthch : and Cyril by Theodofim threats were 
brought to confefs that they had differed but in 
Words, and did not know it : Which part was 
Obligatory ? That at chalcedon confided of many, 
yea moft that had gone contrary in Ephef 2. and 
cried, Omnespeccavimm^ and fo did many others, 
and moft Bifhops were oft and long againft it after. 
That at Conft. de Tribus Capitul$s 9 is noted com- 
monly as a meer Cheat and abufe put on Juftinian 
by an Eutychian, and condemned three dead Mens 
Words before at Chalcedon abfolved,fet the World 
(even Italy) into a greater Schifm. If you are fure 
all thefe are Univerfally Obligatory, prove it, 
and prove that no other are as much fo. Divers 
others were as numerous, and called by as good 
Authority. If you fay, as of Ephef. 2. they were 
Latrocinia and forced 5 I anfwer, No more than 
many others. At Conft. i. Naz.ianz.en tells you 
they raged like Mad Men : At Ephef 1. they fought 
it out even before the Emperors Commiffioners. 
Iheodofim 2d. ufed his over-ruling Power at both 
Eph. 1. & 2. What force was ufed in that under 
jPhilippkrti, and many others that erred and were 
more numerous than fuch as you receive. _ Sola 
navicula Fetri , faith Binius , fcaped Drowning at 
Eph. 2. fo Concordant were they all 5 What have 
you againft even Conftance and Bafil on your 
Grounds ? If you fay they erred, I grant it : and 


[ "7 1 
how fhall we know that none of the Six didfo ? 
It was not their Number nor Confem that proved 
them in the right. Tell us how to know the 
Councils that we muft obey from all the reft ? Is 
it by other Councils Teftimony ? that is, to run 
in a Vain Circle : How know we that the later is 
right other way than of the former ? Is it by 
Scripture or by Reafon. Tell us how , without 
fubverting your own Foundation, the Soveraignty 
of Councils. 

4. Do you hold all the Six Councils ftill obliga- 
tory as the Rule of our Obedience and Commu- 
nion £.g. 1. That at i\fae 1. and the Qwni Sex- 
tum at Trull forbid Adoring by genuflexion on any 
Lords Day, &c. And no General Council hath re- 
voked it, but above a Thoufand Years after it 
wore out by degrees in mod Churches : And yet 
Thoufands of Chriftians are here to be denied 
Sacramental Communion, if they keep thefe Ca- 
nons even in the reception of the Eucharift : and 
Hundreds, yea Thoufands of Chrift's Minifters 
Ihall be filenced, ejeded, and ruined if they will 
not Aflent and Confent fo to ufe them. How ma- 
ny Canons in the Six Councils can I name which 
do not now bind us? 

§. 13. As to the work of Councils and Bilhops 
named by you 5 L As to our receiving the true 
Scripture from an Unrverfal Church-Governing 
Authority. 1. Pad's Epiftles were received other- 
wife. Yea, there is no mention of any part of the 
New Teftament that was not received till fuch 
Universal Government required it. 

2. If I muft firft know the faid Church Autho- 
rity before I receive the Scripture , how (hall I 
know it ? Not by the Scriptures h for that is fup- 


pofed yet not received : If by the Afiertors Au- 
thority, that is to know they have it, becaufe they 
have it, which is the Queftion. If by fome fore- 
known Chara&er of Infallibility, what is it? un- 
lefs with Knot you come to the Miracles of the 
prefent Church, I know not what can be faid. 

3. But is not the common Proteftant way (which 
you call Chill'wgwort Us) much furer ? 1. We 
firft receive the Matter of Fa6t Hiftorically, 
(that fuch Perfons^ were, and wrote fuch Books, 
and did fuch Deeds) from the Concurrent Tefti- 
inony of all CredibleLyVitnefTes. fome Enemies, 
fome Hereticks, the generality of Lay-Chriftians, 
Presbyters that in all Churches received and ufed 
them, and Bifhops alfo as credible entrufted Keep- 
ers of thefe Records : As we know the Laws of 
the Land, by Judges, Lawyers, People, and all 
that make up a full Hiftorical Certainty, and not 
from fome fore-known Univerfai- Governing Bi- 
fliops Judicial Sentence. 2. And the Matter of 
Fad being known by certain Hiftorical Evidence, 
I have fo largely lhevved how the reft is known 
in my Reafons of Christian Religion^nd Life of F^aith, 
<&c. that I will not repeat ic : Do you think th3t 
mod for any) Chriftians before they received the 
Scriptures, did firft otherwife know that all the 
Bifhops on Earth are by God authorized to be a 
Supreme Colledive Sovereign to the Church, and 
to judge infallibly which are the true Scriptures for 
all the People,and that they are now moft of them 
true Bifhops ? &c Which way are all thefe things 
to be known ? 

We deny not that Minifters are by Oifice en- 
trufted to keep , expound and preach the S. Scri- 
ptures : But we ufeagainft the Papifts herein, to 


C 219 ] 

difKnguifh the Authority of a Teacher or Embaf- 
fador, from the Authority of a Judge •, and the 
Authority of an Official limited Judge, in propria 
foro^ from that of an Univerfal Judge to all the 
World. Indeed it is commonly granted, that it 
is proper to the Law-makers to judge of the fenfe 
of their own Law, fo as Universally to oblige the 
Subje&s : For it is part of Legiflation it felf, the 
fenfe of the Law being the very Law : Elfe Judges 
might make us what Law they pleafe, by ex- 
pounding the Words as they pleafe. But the 
Power of Judicatures is limitedly to expound and 
apply the Law only to the decifion of particular 
Cafes that come before them. 

If the Queftion be, Whether our Statutes were 
really made by thofe Kings and Parliaments whofe 
Names they bear ? And are not altered or cor- 
rupted fince ? How (hall we be fure ? By a Natu- 
ral Certainty from fuch Concurrent Teftimonies as 
cannot be falfe 3 ***; i. The Judges have ftill 
judged by them --, and, 2. The Councellors plead 
them s 3- Juftices and all Officers execute them ; 
4. All the People hold their Eftates and Lives by 
them, and ftand to the Determination made ac- 
cording to them 3 5. The Records atteft them* 
And it is not poflible were they forged or cor- 
rupt, but that the Interefts of Multitudes would 
have led them to plead that, and appeal from the 
Corruption : And yet none of thefe named are Su- 
preme Governours of all the Kingdom, who thus 
Hiftorically allure us. 

4. It may be queftioned, What is the Law of 
Nature ? And it is known much by the Agree- 
ment of all Mankind, and that is known Hiftori- 
cally : But neither of them is known by any Hu- 

mane Soveraign-Authority appointed to Govern 
all the World. And fo it is in the prefent Cafe. 

The Agreement of all Chriftians, Mipifters and 
People, Friends and Adverfaries, of contrary O- 
pinions and Interefts 5 contending againft each 
other about the Rule of their Expositions, is a 
full Hiftorical Evidence of Fa<ft, when no confi- 
dence Contradi&ion, even of Jews or Heathens, 
is made againft it. 

5. It is notorious, 1. That regularly our firft 
Reception both of Creed and Scripture, is by Gods 
appointment to be by Children from their Parents, 
before ever they hear a Preacher, Dent. 6. and 11. 

ThouJJialt teach them thy Children flying down and ri- 
fmg up y &c. And God will blels his appointed 
Means. Timothy learned the Scripture when he 
Was a Child. If you fay, Parents received it firft 
from the Church : Ianfwer, Our Parents regular- 
ly were to receive it as we did, even fromNtheir 
Parents, and they from theirs, and fo on to thofe 
that had it from the Apoftles, or firft Preachers. 
And all Parents are not a Colledge of Sovereign 
Rulers of all the World. 

2. And private Chriftians by Conference con- 
vert many. 3. And thofe that have not their 
Faith either of thefe ways, ufually have it by the 
teaching of particular Presbyters where they 
dwell. And yet none of thefe are the Colleftive- 
Soveraign to all the Chriftian World; any more 
than Tutors in Law, Phyfick, or Theology are. 
Three and twenty Years ago I read moft that you 

fay in a Tari* Dodor H. Holden's Analys. 5. fid. who 

yet (though mixt with injurious pafiages againft 
the S. Scripture) acknowledged!, that it is by 
fach an Univcr/M Confent of all Chriftians, Lay and 



[ 2.2.1 ] 

Clergy, that we receive the Scriptures, that it is a 

Natural Hiftorical Evidence that the Matter of 
Fad is refolded into, and not of Supernatural In- 
fallibility by Authority. 4. And when Fine* Li- 
rinenfis turneth US to quod ab omnibus ubique & [em- 
per receptum est, and the Papifts that go with Hol- 
den lay moft on the Confent of all Chriftians, they 
never thought that the Laity through all theChri- 
flian World are one Univerfal Collective Sove- 
raign. Nor do you think fo of all the Confenting 
Priefls, while you appropriate this Colkttive-Sove- 
raignty to the Bifhops. 

6. I would know, whether it be only the Scrip- 
ture, or alfo our Chriftianity and Creed, which muft 
be received as from a Soveraign Church- Power ? 
If you fay it's only Scripture, why may we not re- 
ceive the Scripture otherwife, if we may other- 
wife receive our Chriftianity, Creed and Baptifm ? 
But I doubt not but you will fay, It is both. If fo, 
then a Child (or Man) muft know and believe 
that Chrift hath authorized a Vicarious Soveraign 
Prelacy, before he can believe that there is a Chrift 
that had any Authority himfelf. 2. And he muft 
be fo good a Cafuift as to know what maketh a 
true Bifliop. 3. And fo well acquainted with all 
the World, as to know what parts of the Earth 
have true Biftops, and what they hold. And is 
this the way of making Chriftians ? 

Perhaps you will fay, That Parents, Tutors and 
Priefts tell them what all the Bifhops of the 
World hold as a Soveraign Judicature. I anfwer, 
1. If they did, Holden confefleth that the Cer- 
tainty of Faith can be no greater than our Cer- 
tainty of the Medium And the Child,orHearer.thac 
knoweiJi not tfc&hh Parent and Teacher, therein 


C 222, ] 

faith true, can no mere know that the Creed or 
Scripture is true, on that account. 

2. The generality of Protectants believe not an 
Univerfal-Governing Soveraign under Chrift, but 
deny it -, Therefore they never Preach any fuch 
Medium of Faith : And can you prove that thofe 
that are brought to Chfiftianiiy by Proteftant Pa- 
rents, Tutors or Preachers, are all yet Unchri- 
flened, or have no true Faith ? 7. Why fhould 
we make Impoflibilities neceffary , while furer 
and eafier Means are obvious ? It is impoffible to 
Children, to the Vulgar, to almoft all the Priefts 
themfelves, to know certainly what the Major 
Vote of Bifhops in the whole World, now think 
of this or that Text or Article, (fave only confe- 
cjuently when we firft believe the Articles of 
Faith, we next know that he is no true Bifhop 
that denieth them. And it is impoffible to know 
that Chrift hath authorized a Soveraign Colledge, 
before we believe Chrifts own Authority and 
Word. But the Proteftant Method is obvious : 
viz.. To hear Parents, Tutors and Preachers, as 
humble Learners : To believe them Fide humand 
firft, while they teach us to know the Divine Evi- 
dence of Certain Credibility in the Creed and Scri- 
ptures ; and when they have taught us that, to be- 
lieve Fide Divind, by the Light of that Divine Evi- 
dence which they have taught us: What that is, I 
have opened as afore cited^nd alio in a final 1 Trea- 
tife againft the Papifts, railed, [The Certainty of 

Chrifiianity without Popery {] in which alfb I have 

confuted your way : Behdes what I have faid in 
the Second Part of The Saints Rc&J and my 
\JMore Reafons for the Chriftian Religion^} 

8. I cannot by all your Words underftand how 


you cm have any Faith, on your Grounds, i. You 
that renounce Popery, I fuppofe take not the Po- 
pifli Prelates for any part of the Soveraign Col- 
ledge. 2. I perceive that you take not the Sou- 
thern and Eaftern Chriftians for a part, who are 
called Ntftorians, Etttychians or Jacobites. 3. I 
find that you take not the Proteftant Churches 
that have no Bifhops for any part, (for the Sove- 
raignty is only in Bifhops.) 4. 1 find that you take 
not the Lutheran churches, or any other, for a 
part, whofe Bifhops Succeflion from the Apoftles 
hath not a Continuance uninterrupted, (which 
Rome hath not.) 5- And me thinks you fhould 
not think better of the Greeks than of fuch Pro- 
tects, on many accounts, which I pafs by. 
Where then is that Univerfal Colledge on whofe 
Judging- Authority you are a Chriftian ? Sure 
you take not our little Ifland for the Univerfal 
Church. I would I knew which you take for the 
Univerfal Church, and how you prove the Inclu- 
fion and Exclufion. 

9. I find not that the Univerfal Church hath 
fo agreed as you fuppofe of the Canon of Scrip- 
ture, and the Readings, Tranflations, &c. Four 
or five Books were long queftioned by msny 3 Ge- 
neral Councils have not agreed of the Canon : 
Bifliop Confms hath given us the beft account of 
the Reception of the true Canon : Provincial 
Councils have faid moft of this. Even the fulleft 
at Laodkea hath left out the Revelations : The Ro- 
manics take in the Apocrypha .• Many Churches 
have lefs or more than others : What Groinu him- 
felf thought of Job and the Canticles, I need not 
tell you : Nor how Auguftine and moft others 
ftrove for the Septttagm againft Jerome: And if 


[ 224 ] 

the Univerfal Judicature have decided the many 
Hundred Doubts about the Various Le&ions, I 
would you would tell us where to find it 3 for I 
know not. :. 

§. II. Your fecond Ufe of the Soveraign Power, 
is to judge of the Senfe of Fundamental Articles of 
Faith % becaufe the Words may be taken in a falfe 

i. This is very cauteloufly fpoken : Is it only 
Fundamentals that they are to expound by Sove- 
raign Judgment ? How then (hall we know the 
Senfe of all the reft of the S. Scriptures ? And 
how will this end a Thoufand Controversies ? 
2. And why may not the fame Means fatisfie us 
about Fundamentals, which fatisfieth us about the 
Integrals of Religion ? Yea, we have here far 
better help. The firit Chriftians Catechized and 
taught the Senfe of Baptifm before they were Bap- 
tized : They and their Tutors and Preachers 
taught the fame to their Children, and fo on : 
Baptifm and the Fundamentals have been conftant- 
]y repeated in all the Churches of the World- 
There are as many Witnefles or Teachers of thefe, 
as there are Underftanding Chriftians. And yet 
muft all needs hear from the Antipodes^ or know 
the Senfe of a Humane Soveraign of the World, 
before they receive them ? 

3. Can this Supreme Colledge fpeak the -Fun- 
damentals plainlier than God hath done, and than 
the Parifli Prieft can do ? Are they neceflary to 
tell us that Chrift died, rofe, afcended* becaufe 
Scripture fpeaketh it not plain enough > We know 
that no Words of Creed or Scripture, falfly un- 
derftood, make a true Believer. But is not that 
as true of a Councils Words, as of the Creed > 



And are there any Words that Men cannot mif- 
underftand? Why hath [Filioque] continued 
fuch a Diftra&ion in the Churches, and Councils 
yet end it not ? To fay nothing of ©eom®-, anc { 
other fuch : Have we a neceflky of a Soveraigri 
Judicature, to be to all Men in flead of a School- 
mallet-, to tell them what is the meaning of Greek 
and Hebrew Words ? And could not oneOrigen 
or Jerom tell that better than a General Council of 
Men that underftand not thofe Tongues ? I muft 
confefs that what underftanding of the Words of 
Creed or Scripture , I have received , was more 
from Parents, Tutors, Teachers and Books, than 
from Soveraign Councils, or Colledge of Biihops, 
(though Dr. Holden fay he is no true Believer and 
Catholick that believeth an Article of Faith, be- 
caufe his Reafon findeth it in Scripture, and noc 
rather becaufe all the Chriftian World believeth 
jitj Ifhere is more skill in Cofmography, Arith- 
metic^ and Hiftory neceflary to fuch a Faith, than 
jl have attained, or can attain. I can tell E. g. by 
[Lexicons and other Books what *Jv* fignifieth io 
the Creed, better than how all the Biihops in the 
World interpret it by an Authoritative Sen- 

§. III. Your third Work of this Soveraign 
Power is, [Authoritatively to declare what Govern- 
ment of the Church was delivered by the Apoflles. ] 
i. As I faid of Scripture, we know fuch Matter of 
Fa<ft better byllniverfalConfentof allChriftiatis, 
and true Hiftory , than by fuch a Judicature of 
all the Bifhops'of the World. 2. But Proteftants 
do fo ftrongly prove that the S. Scripture is the 
entire Regulating Word of God, without defed: 
orfupplemenc by Unwritten Tradition, as that 

Q. no- 

f 226 ] 

nothing is left out of it which is of Divine Obli- 
gation to all the Ckriftian World in all Ages : 
And therefore that all that the Spirit inftituted as 
Univerfally Neceflary in Church-Government, is 

?. If it were not fo, this Gap of Unwritten Ne- 
ceflary Supplemental Tradition, will let in, no 
Man knoweth what, befides Church-Power, on 
the like Pretences, 4 Tradition hath been oft 
pretended by General Councils againft each other, 
(as .1 undertake to prove.) 5. All that is not in 
Sc^pture of Church-Offices and Government,have 
been £o far new, or changed up and down, aspro- 
veth that the Church never took them as Univer- 
fal Neceffary Inftitutions of Chrift delivered by 
the Apoftles. I need not inftance in Patriarcks, 
and fuch like, nor fuch difference of Seats as Na- 
zianzLsn and Ifidore Pelufioia wifh levelled •, when if 
General Councils themfelves had been this Ne- 
ceflary Church-Government, the Church had not 
been Three Hundred Years without them, (yea, 
and to this Day indeed J 

6. As the King by his Laws, and by his Offi- 
cers, Judges and Juftices, Lawyers, tfr. without 
another Vicarious Soveraign or Vice-King, doth 
tell the Subjects what is the Conftituted Govern- 
ment of the Kingdom, and all Official Powers, 
which they muft obey, fo doth Chrift by hist 
Written Law, and by his Minifters teaching us in] 
their feveral places, tell us what is his Church-* 
Government, without an Univerfal Vicarious So- 1 

7* When Leo the Firft called himfelf Caput tc* 
clejia Vniverfalis, and Boniface was called Vnivcr- 

f*l JSifhop, (much more loi>g after for many Hun* 


[ «7 3 
dred Years) fo great a part of the Empire judged 
the Roman Bifhop to be the prime in the Empire, 
and in Councils , and Prwciftum Vmtati*, as Ar- 
chbifhop Bromhal fpeaketh , as that it feemech 
then to have been the Major part of the Bifhops of 
the whole World, the Empire being then thfe far 
greateft part of the Univerfal Church: And even 
Salmafins (liberally) granteth that the Pope was 
not a meer Patriarch, but the Heads of the Patri- 
archs and Church Univerfal (in the Empire} de 
Ecclef. Snburbicar. prope fin. And I underftand 
not how he is Frincipium Vnitatis in a Governed 
Society asfiich, who is not Principitim Regens. But 
it followeth not that it was fo from the Apoftles, 
nor that it muft continue fo when the Empire is 
overthrown, or the Emperor will change it. If 
mod of the Church be in one Empire, and the 
• Prince think he (hould form the Government to 
j that of the State, ( as the Chalcedon Council that 
. magnified Leo yet vvitneffeth) doth this make one 
j of his Subjetls Ruler of all other Chriftian Kings, or 
fubjed: the World to Foreigners ? Yea, and thac 
I when the Empire and its Laws are overthrown, 
j and moft of the Church is without the Empire, 
(enlarged more over other Lands. Muft we turn 
Papifts, if they can but prove thac once a General 
, Council, or the Major part of Bifhops was for 
them by Corruption , or Secular Advantage ? 
What Changes have the Majority oft made ? 

§. IV. Your fourth Work of Univerfal Su- 
premacy, is [To declare what Ordinances vrere re- 
ceived from the Apofiles^ as Imposition of Hands to 
give the Holy Ghoft^ and fuch others* 

i. I acknowledge that Baptifm and the Eucha- 
rift were known by pradHce before the New Te- 

0. 2 fta; 

{ 228 3 

ftament was written, and the continued pra&ice 
hath been as fure a Tradition of the (ubftance of 
them, as the Scripture it felf hath had : But it is 
all Chriftians, Lay and Clergy, that affaire us of 
this, yea Hereticks and Enemies with them, by 
Univerfal Hiftorical Concord, and not the Autho- 
rity of a Supreme Univerfal Judicature : And yet 
it was all recorded in the Scripture, that without 
thofefure fufficient Records, the Tradition might 
not, as Oral or pra&ical only, be continued. So 
that all that is Univerfally Neceffiry is now in 
Gods written Law. And, if it had not been fo, 
the Papifts changes of the Eucharift, (which yet 
Holden with others pleadeth Current Tradition 
for) tell us how little fecurity we fliould have had 
of them. If there be more Sacraments than two 
in the Scripture, we will receive them : Or if 
more could be proved inftituted by Chrift, and 
delivered from the Apoftles, than the Scripture 
mentioneth, we fliould not refufe them: But we 
are periwaded there is no fuch proof. The Pa- 
pifts plead Scripture for all their (even Sacraments; 
and we quarrel not at the Name, but expecS bet- 
ter proof of all that is Obligatory to the whole 
Church on Earth, than an unproved Univerfal Ju- 

What Confirmation is, I now pafs by. 

■§. V. Your fifth Work for the Soveraign 
Tower is, Judicial Sentencing (not Individuals or- 
dinarily, but) by Dcfcription fitch as arc to be catt 
cut by Excommumc ation^X *• This is not part of 
Judicial Government, but Legiflative : To fay, 
\_He that is impenitent in Drunkcnnefs or Her t 'fie , 
fba/l l?e caft out^] is the Penal part of the Law. 
And Gods Law hath already told us who (hall be 


cafe out ; There are Sins enough enumerated to 
this ufe. 

2. If all the Neceflary Do&rine and Practice 
be exprefled in Scripture, then fo is the Neceflary 
Caufe of Excommunication : For that Cauie is 
^bringing other Do&rine , or Impenitence in 
breaking Gods Law. But the Antecedent is 
true : Ergo. 

3. How happy had it been for the Church, if 
there had been no Hereticating or Anathemati- 
zing but for violating Scripture, Dodtrine and Law 
impenitently ? Alas, what Work have Hereti- 
cators and Anathematizers made in the Church ? 

4. How know we what Curfes are valid, when 
General Councils have curfed per rices almoft all 
the Chriftian World ? And the fame Biihops in 
one Council curfed one party, and in the next the 

1 contrary ; and curfed their own Councils. 

5- As there needeth no Vicarious Monarch of 
the whole World, (no nor of one Kingdom under 
the King ) to tell who ihall be Fined or Hanged, 
but the Kings Law as the Rule, and the judges 
and Juftices in their feveral Limits to pafs Sentence 
in particular Cafes ; fo there needs no Church- 
Vicarious-Judicature of all the Earth, to judge 
who fhall be curfed and caft out : Chrifts Laws, 
land the Paftors refpe&ively m the feveral Chur- 
ches, are enough; And in doubtful Cafes, and for 
iConcord, Neighbor-Bifhops in Synods muft Con- 

§. VI. Your fixth Ufe of an Univerfal Sqpre- 

|macy> is to make mutable Chnrcb-Larvs. 

\ i. God is the only Lawgiver to all the World : 
Chrift to all the Church. We deny any fuch 
Church on Earth as hath an Univerfal Soveraign 

Q 3 under 

C *1° 1 

under Chrift, and can make Laws for all the Chri- 
ftian World. 

2. How is Gods Law fufficient in [ho Geneve, if 
it leave out that which is to be commanded to all 
the World of Chriftians > How is Mans Uni- 
yerfal Legiflative Power proved, (any more than 
an Univerial Civil Soveraignty ?) Or how dif- 
fered it from Gods? 

3. Mutable Things are not of Univerfal Need 
pr Ufe : Thefe By-Laws (like thole of Corpora- 
tions) are only the Work of particular Churches 
or Countries. £. g. One Tranflation of Scripture, 
pne Metre or Tune of Pfalms, &c. will not fit all 
the World that have feveral Languages, &c. 

Upon the whole, I am more confirmed by 
longer Confederations, 1. That to aflfert a Sove- 
raign Vicarious Church-Power over all the Chri- 
ftian World, is to make a Church which Chrift 
never made. 

2. And Treafonably to fet up an Ufurpation of 
his Prerogative. 

3. And to plead for that which de fatto never 
was in being. 

4. And to lay the Ground of heinous Schifm 
and Perfecution, by profecuting impoflible Terms 
of Concord and Communion. 

5. And to make this the neceflary Medium of 
our believing in Chrift, or knowing his Word 
and Will, is to fubvert the Chriftian Faith and 

6. And as one Pope cannot poflfibly, through 
Natural Incapacity, Govern all the Earth in Re- 
ligion, one Colle&ive and Ariftocratical Sove- j 
r.iign of ail the Bifhops on Earth, is fo incompa- 
rably rr.ore uncapable, that I wonder that any 


Confiderate Man can believe it. Tighhu well tells 
us of the Novelty and Vanity of Heading all the 
Churches by General Councils. 

7. And if the French, and the Councils of Con- 
fiance, and Bafd, and Cajfander, and Grotim, and 
iuch Papifts as fet Councils over the Pope, had 
not taken in the Pope as the ordinary Governing, 
Executive Head, to Rule by the Councils Laws, 
they had been far more grofs and incredible thaa 
the Italian Papifts, who prefer the Pope. 

8. And that Civil Government may fo much 
eafier be exercifed by Officials than the Spiritual, 
that a Civil Monarch of all the Earth is far more 
congruous and poffible, than a Humane Vifible 
Church-Head under Chrift, Perfonal or Collective. 

9. That if this was the Principle from which 
youdifputed at the Savoy, and in the Convocation, 
and from which our late Changes, and the filen- 
cing of Two Thoufand Minifters have been made, 
it's no wonder that the Effeds were fuch : But if 
ever we be healed, it muft be by other Terms and 

JR. B. 

Jan. 12. 1679. 

This Feb. 1 3 . Peing with the Bifhop again, he 
difclaimeth the Names of Supreme, Summa To- 
teftas Vicaria, as Invidious, and chufeth the Name 

of \_a Ruling Cdliegium Taftorum Minifterialium^ who 

are the Church, which is the Mother which all 
muft receive their Faith from and obey, and fo 
muft know their Confent. 

Q.4 CHAP. 

L ^ 3 

Chap. XVIII. The Fourth Letter to Brjhop 

To the "LordBijhop of Ely. (T)r. Guning.) 

My Lord, 

T Hough I intended to trouble you no more by 
Writing, yet obferving how apt you are to 
miftake me, and becaufe time (heightened our 
Difcourfe 5 Left I be miftaken, and confequently 
mif-reported, I thus fend you the fum of what I 
faid to your laft, as far as it concerned me. 

I. Whereas you are offended at my Applica- 
tory Conclufion, I muft ftill fay it , that [_ & if 
tbefe were the Principles upon which our Changes were 
made by your Endeavour 166 1 and 1662. it is no 
wonder that Two th'oufand Minifters were Silenced 
andCaft out.J And is it more offence to you 
to hear what you did towards it , than to them 
and their Flocks to fuffer it ? Is this impartia- 
lity ? 

II. My naming Holden as faying what you fay, 
was hot invidioufly to intimate that you differ 
not from him in any thing elfe ; but to tell you 
that thefe thoughts are not new to me , and that 
even a Papift pleading rather Hiftorical-Natural- 
Evidence in Vniverfal Tradition , than judicial <dn- 
thorhy, in this is further from the common Pa- 
pifts than you- 

III. You are offended at my comparing Bijhops 
to Kings only in this refpeft, that they both go- 
• vern only their proper Provinces, and neither are 

' Rulers 


[ ^3 ] 

1 Rulers of all the World : And your reafonis, 
'becaufe it intimateth that Bifhops rule like 
c Kings. 

'Who can Difpute on thefe terms ? Did I not 
in the dating of our Queftion agree, "that it is not 
the Power of the Sword , but only Ecclefiaftical 
Power of the Word and Keys, that we Difpute 
of? Did I not (till profefs to you to fpeak only 
of this ? And doth comparing Princes Coa&ive 
Government with it/ only in the extent , neither 
of them being over all the World , contradict this, 
or wrong you by unjuft intimations ? 

IV. You take the words [ " Ariflocratical- 
<c Sup-ream Vicarious, under Chrifi , Legijlative~] to 
"be invidious, and you difown them $ 1. Be- 
" caufe they intimate a forcing Power like Princes, 
" 2. Eecaufe Chrift only is Supream. 

But 1. It is not de nomine that we difpute, but 
de re \ and I underftand all this while that we had 
no other queftion to debate. 

2. I dehred (till nothing more than that you 
would (tate your aflertion in your own words, 
that I might ufe no other : You tell me your own 
words are [Collegium Pafiorum] I tell you again, 
that nameth only the fubjedt Matter of the Power, 
where our queftion is de forma, what is their Power 
which we muft obey. 

You next tell me [" It is a College of Pafiors 
" having a Minifterial, Ruling, Judicial Power over 
c< the Vniverfal Church"] I take up with your own 

words : Only remember that before you aflerted a 
Legislative Power (of mutable Laws) and now it is 
but judicial ! If fo,then we owe UOObedience to their 
Laws, but to their Sentence according to Chrift's 
Law : How then is obeying them the only way of 
Concord ? But 

C 2J4 ] 

But fay yoil , It is but mutable. Laws that they 
make f Anfw. And are mutable Laws no Laws. 

And is he no Legijlator that maketh but mutable 
Laws ? Neither King nor Parliament will believe 

But you fay, Canons are not Laws. I thank you 
for that Conceflion. So faith Grotius de Imp. fum. 
Potcft. If fo, then they are but either Counfels or 
Agreements, (Contra6fcs.) It is not de nomine that 
we contend. A Law , faith Grotius , is ReguU 
atlionum Moralium : More fully, A Law is the fig- 
nification of a Ruler s Will making the Subjetls Duty.] 

If a Canon be none, then Litera formats are none : 
And where there is no Law , there is no Tranf- 
greflion. Then no Obedience is due to the Laws 
of the College of Bifhops. And then obeying 
them is not the only way of Concord. Authori- 
tas imperantis eft objettum for male Obedientia : you 
difown alfo the word (V ar simper an s) I take your 
own [Pars Re gens'] which to me is of the lame 
Signification as to Ecclefiaftical Power. Ju& re- 
gendi is that which I mean by Authority, and Dcbi- 
tum Obediendi, by Subje&ion. But I think that 
indeed authorized Paftorsmay make proper Laws, 
e . g. At what Places and Hours to meet : what 
Tranflations, Verfion, Metre, and fuch Orders to 
life ; but only to their proper Subjects, and not to 
all the Christian World. 

V. " You Copioufiy blame us for denying that 
cz Obedience to the IMverfal Church, which we 
" give to every fingle Paftor ; and thought that I 
u owned no Power but Parochial.] 

I tell you (till, i. I maintain that there were in 
the firft Age (and perhaps except two Churches, 
for the fecond Age and more) no Biihops diftind 


C *35 ] 

from Archbifhops but Parochial , and I defcribed 
them at large. 

2. But though Cyprian and the Carthage Coun- 
cil (aid, iVewo noftrtim fe dicit Epifcopum Epifcopo- 
mm ; yet I deny not fuch as may be called drch- 

bijhops. Would you but reftore Farijh Churches, or 

at leaft make true Difcipline a pra&icable thing, 
1 fhould never quarrel againft your Government. 

3. I ftill tell you that I am for Councils, and 
that as large when requifite as they can^ well be 
made. And Paftors there agreeing, oblige us to 
obey their true Authority far before a fingle Pa- 
ftor's : For it is Author it as Dotlom ? and it is 
DifiiptiU Obedientia that is due : And a Teacher's 
Authority is founded in his Credibility , and that 
on his Skill -, Oportet dtfcentem credere : And a thou- 
fand Hiftorians, Philofophers, Phyfitians agreeing, 
oblige me to greater belief than a fingle one. 
And a Diflenters Angularity obligeth me to fufpi- 
tion and fufpeofion of my belief Befides, that 
God bindeth us to do his work in as much Love 
and Concord as we can : And the Canons or 
Agreements of Councils when Jufc do determine 
the Matter of that Concord. 

4. But that which I ftill repeat to you, is, that 
7 deny the being of any fuch Church as you tell me I 
muft necefTarily obey ; That is , one Ruling Mini- 
fterial College of Paftors over the whole Chri- 
ftian World. I remember no Proteftants that 
own fuch a thing but you, and fome fuch of late. 
Mr. Thomdike and Mr. Dodwell do imply it , buc 
they (peak not fully out. What an' unedifying 
way of Difcourfe is it for you fo Copioufly to 
call out for our Obedience, when we only defire 
you to prove that there is any fuch Governing 


C 236] 

College to obey? I deny the fubjed of your 
Queftion, and you largely prove the Predicate. 
If you would fpend many hours to tell me, 1 inuft 
obey Gabriel the Angel as the Ruler of this King- 
dom, / only beg of you to prove that he is fuch 
a Ruler, and then to tell me how / (hall know his 
Mind 5 will your Exhortation to Obedience pro- 
fit me ? 

VI. Your Copious inftances of difficult Texts of 
Scripture that need a fure Expofition , are no 
Proof to me, that Ergo There is a College of all 
the Bifliops on Earth that muft be the Expofitor. 
I told you the Eunuch , Aft. 8. was not fo re- 
folved of the fence of Ifal 53. It was not the 
Ancient way. A fingle Teacher may refolve a 
Doubter by Expofitory Evidence. An agreeing Pro- 
vincial or National Council may do more without 
knowing the Mind of all the World 5 And many 
Texts will be difficult when all the World have 
done their beft. 

VII. But you urge that no Scripture is of private 

A. 1. All is not Private Interpretation , which 
is made by Perfons , Paftors or Councils , which 
arenot a College authorized to Rule all the Chri- 
ftian World (or Church.) If it be, 1. I confefs 
I never received one Article of my Faith, or Ex- 
pofition of one Text of Scripture aright : For I 
never believed one of them upon [the Authori- 
tative-Ruling-Judiaal-Vniverfal Power of all Bifliops 
on Earth as an authorized College^} 2. And I know 

not^ one Man living then that expounded) not 
Scripture by Private Interpretation 5 3. And I 
know not that any one thefe Fifteen hundred 
Years have not done the fame. 

2. And 

[ 2 *73 

2. And it is certain that there is no Commen- 
tary on the Scripture yet written by the Univerfal 
; College of Bifhops ; And it's harder to deliver it 
down by Memory than by Writing. 

Therefore all Scripture is in this fence of Pri- 
vate Interpretation ? yea , fuch Councils as are 
called General, have expounded little more than 
the Articles of the Creed (with fad diflention as 
to their Votes.) 

But I confidently think that you follow a wrong 
ExpofitionoftheText, and that it fpeaketh not 
of \jm Efficient Interpretation] but \jin Objetlive, a 
Pa five j and not an ABive] Q^d. you muft not * 
interpret Scripture Prophecies narrowly and pri- 
vately, as if they fpake but of fuch or fuch a pri- 
vate Perfon, that was but a prefent typical objecS 
of them : For holy Men fpake as moved by the 
Spirit, which looked farther , and meant Chrift 
to come] e. £. you know how many Prophecies 
are meant of David and Solomon proximately, and 
of Chrift ultimately. And you know what Gro- 
tins thinks of the proximate fence of \LA Virgin 
jha/i bring forth a Son.] And of If a. 53, &c. which 

yet ultimately by the Holy Ghoit is meant of 
Chrift ; and whether the Prophet himfelf knew it 
always, many doubt : Jofias or Jeremy may be 
meant as types , and yet Chrift Principal as typi- 
fied : when David faith , My God , why haft thou 
forfaken me ? They pierced my hands and my feet : 
They divided my garments among th'em 7 and cajt lots 
for myvefture, &c) and fo many Texts cited 
St. Matt hew , thefe are to have no Private Inter pj 
tation as of the private Perfons, only the m 
Objeds; for the Holy Ghoft intended them to be 
Prophecies of Chrifts] when you bring me any 

C *38 ] 

Liter a format* from all the Bifhops on Earth for 
another fence, the reverence of their Concord will 
do much to make me forfake this. 

Juft fo the Papifts, and too many others diftort 
that i Tim. 3. 15. (which I wonder that I heard 
not from you J when the Text plainly calleth the 
Church, The Houfe of the living . God, and telleth 
Timothy how to behave himfelf in it, as a Pillar and 
Bafis of the Truth 3 it is but putting [The Pillar] 
for [a Pillar] and then faying, that it is not the 
title of Timothy, but of the Church, and fo it be- 
cometh ufeful to fome mens Opinions. 

Therefore ftill that which I am more confirmed 
in by your failing to prove your Affirmative, is 
C* c That there never was inftituted, and never was 
<c exiflent, and is not now exiflent in the World any 
<c one Ecclefiaflkal .£/*/;#£ Perfona Colle&iva Civilis 
" or Governour authorized by Chrifi to Rule under 
" him all the Lhriftian World j( that is, all the Church) 
cc by Legi flat ion and judgment, or either of them, and 
u to Conftitute the Vniverfal Church vifible, as one by 
" relation to that One Governour ; Efpecially that all 
the Biihops on Earth Governing per lit eras forma- 
tas never were, nor are fuch a Power, nor yet as 
Congregate in an Univerfal Council- ] If fuch a 
College of all Biftiops on Earth , ruling all the 
Chriftians on Earth by Content , be the Church 
which you mean that all muft obey that will have 
Ce ord, I fay, There is no fuch Church on 
£; 1, ncr ever will be before the Day of Judg- 

liter ail his fure you cannot miftake the Que- 

n , 7 . it is only of an Ecclefiaftical Power by 

ind Keys. 2. It is not whether all Bi- 

.ng by Parts in their feveral Provinces, 


L 2 ?9 J 
and keeping Concord in convenient Meetings or 
Councils may be faid to Govern all the Church 
(as all the Magiftrates in England Govern all 'Eng- 
land in Subordination to the King.) But it is of 
One Verfona Ecckfiaftica in whom the Church is 
relatively called One, as Venice is one Common- 
wealth with relation to one Supream Senate,which 
ruleth the whole. 

i. Shew me any Liter as format as of all Bifhops 
in the World before the Council of Nice, yea, or 
ever fince to this day ? 

2. What need the Council meet, if all Bifhops 
could know each others Mind and Confent with- 
out it, e. g. Did they all agree about Eafter-Day 
before ? Or about the extent of Patriarchs Jurif- 
didions. 3. There was never a General Council in 
the World --, It was called General only as to one 
Empire : The Emperors that called them, had no 
Power elfewhere : The Subfcriptions flhew you 
that none other came •, yea, and but a part of the 
Empire. Few out of the Weft were at any great 

4. Heticks have had as great Councils as ever 
had the Orthodox, and as much Confenting. And 
the difallowed have been as great as the approved 5 
Sola navicda Petri, as I faid OUt of Binnhis efcaped 
Drowning at Eph. 2. 

5. There never muft nor will be an Univerfal 
Council of all the Church hereafter , as I have 
elfewhere proved , And is the Univerfal Regent 
Minifterial Church extinft thefe Thoufand Years ? 
How can we obey a Power that is not ? 

6. But you fay, I confefs that the Roman Empire 

was [even Parts of the Church : Anfw. Your hafte 

overlooked my exception of the Empire of Maf- 


[ 240 3 

ft* , which Brierwood faith , is now as great as 
Italy, Germany, France and Spain : and was in- 
comparably greater heretofore ; And you may 

gather from Damianns a Goes , Alvarez , and 
efpecially Godlgnum de rebm Abafliwrum , that , 
they had ChrilHanity from the Eunuch men- 
tioned Aft. 8. And it's certain that their cafe was 
much unknown to Rome it felf, till the Portngals 
and Oviedos late accefs. And though now they 
give fome Preeminence to the Patriarch of Alex- 
andria, that is but iince the Banifhment of Ne flo- 
rins and Dkfcorm , who thereupon carried the 
Intereft of their Parties without the Empire into 
other Lands. Of Abaffia fee more in Ludolphus 
fince come out. 

7. Either this Vnnm Collegium Omn'utmEpifcoporum 
muft rule the Church Univerfal by a Major Vote, 
or by Confent of all Bifhops in the World. If the 
former, where (hall they meet to Vote ? who ihall ' 
gather them ? how many Years or Ages will it be 
doing ? How (hall all Chriftians know that they 
are truly gathered ? Shall we, till we know the 
Major Vote of all Biihops on Earth, fufpend our 
Obedience ? and have no Faith, no Concord till 
then ? If all muft Confent, or almoft all, the cafe 
will be ftill harder, how to procure, and how to 
know it : May the Heretick keep his Herefie till 
all the Bifhops on Earth condemn him per literas 
format o6 ,ov otherwife ? When e.g- the Neftorians 
or Eutychians or Monothelices have the greater 
number of Biihops one Year or Age, and the leffer 
the next •, Is Bifhops Confent the determining ru- 
ling Power ? 

\$. Either this One ruling Church is neceffary 
in all Ages ; or only in fome, or ac leaft theexer- 


[2 4 I] 

c ife of their Power : If in all, the Church is ex- 
'tinft or ungoverned /either thefe 1500 Years, 
except during your Six Councils , or all the time 
that we have had no Univerfal Government by 
them : If but in fome Ages, why not in the relt 
as well ? And is not the Church dill the fame 
thing in fpecie, and for the fame ufe and ends. 

VIII. You fay all Herefies are Condemned al- 
-eady. ^nfw. 1. Yes, Virtually by God's Word, 
Rett urn eft index fui & Obliqui. 2. But if you fay 
A finally in their form, How great is your Miftake I 
The Devil could invent a Thoufand more yet. 
My long Catalogue of Errors to be forbidden in 
ny Book of the Churches Concord will tell you of 
:now that are too poffible. 

2. If the ufe of your Ruling Church ended fo 
ong ago , why doth not the Church end ? or 
low are we to be Governed by it, when it doth 
iot Govern ? I never heard from it fince I was 
>orn by any Liter* format*. To fay, Imuftobey 
he old Canons , is to fay I mud obey a Govern- 
nent that was, and not one that now is and Go- 
lerneth. The Pope I could poffibly fend to : Old 
Councils I can read : But how to hear from a 
pollege of all the Bifhops on Earth, that never 
pg or hear of one another or me , and that are 
>roken into fo many Sefts, I know not. I have 
ay felf, with fome Wile and Able Divines , 
beaded the Caufe that you Plead for , to try 
vhat they could fay to me : And they anfwer me 
vich Laughter, as if I were Diftra&ed for talking 
♦fall being Governed by all the Bifhops on Earth, 
S one ruling College by Confent or Vote. 

IX. You lay much ftrefs on the Church, being 
Our Mother,). And Solomon faying, [Obey tU L**> 

R tf 

f 241 ] 

of thy Mother} ~An[xo. 1. You may poffibly believe 
that Solomon by [Mother] meant an universally 
Governing College of Bifhops] but when will you 
prove it? 2. You cannot name one Text that I 
know of that calleth the Church [our Mother] ex- 
cept^/. 4. 26. And there 1. You fuppofe that 
by [ Hierufalem which is above ] is meant the 
Church which is on Earth : which I know many 
others think : But it is uncertain. 2. And when 
will you prove that by Hiernfalem, is meant your 
Ruling College. 3. Or that it fpeaketh of any 
one Univerfal Government. The word [Mother] 
is a Metaphor : And Similitudes prove nothing 
but the Point of Aflimilation. The Text exprefly 
faith that It is called our Mother, becaufefhe 
hath many Children. But thefe Children are not 
begotten by All the Bifhops in One Voting Col- 
lege, as Univerfal Rulers, but by particular Pa- 
ftours. And fo that one Church of Chrift hath 
many begotten and ruled per partes. 

X. You ftill lay much on [The Nation that will 
not ferve thee i (liall PerijJj] And you bring three 
or four Fathers to prove that fpoken of the Chri- 
fiian Church. And you fay ftill the Church is no 
where taken for Chrift. 

I anfwer , 1 . As the Kingdom includeth the 
King and M. grates as the only Governours, fo 
doth the Church include Chrift and his Minifters; 
2.. I believe that it is meant of the Univerfal 
Church : But three Fathers Interpretation or 
threefcore is a Private one compared to your 
College. 3. All Power is given to Chrift: Princes 
are his Minifters. Infidels that are Converted 
to ferve the Church, muft ferve Chriftian Magi- 
ftrates as well as Bifhops. And it's as likely to 


I 141 ] 

be fpecially meant of Magiftrates : For Biftops 
deftroy not the Difobedient, nor fo much as Ex- 
communicate the Infidel World : What have w£ 
to do to Judge them that are without ? But Princes 
conquer and deftroy refiftingEnemies. So that this 
Text will no more prove One ruling College of 
Bifhops over all , than one Monarch or College 
of Kings to rule all the World 5 nor fo pro- 

4. The Nations ferve the Church , 1. Wh&i 
they Obey the King of all the Church , 2. and his 
Univerfal Laws. 3. And his Officers ruling per 
partes in their feveral Provinces by Word and 
Sword. 4. And ferve the good of the whole, 
as the end of Government : Stretch the words on 
any Rack that is not againft reafon , and befides 
thefe four, you can never prove one Univerfal 
ruling College. 

XL You fay, Cod is not the vifible Head of the 
World , and Men have accefs to Kings , but not to 
J Anf-w. God is the King or Supream Governor 
j of all the World 3 and you have no more vifibld 
1 accefs to the Father than to the Son : And parti- 
cular Paftors are as acceflible as Kings \ And 
Church Government, which like a Phyfitian 9 or 
Tutor, depends on perfonal Skill, may much lefs 
be performed by abfent Men 1 at the Antipodes* 
than Civil Government. 

XII. But it's faid, XJt $ the whole Churches recep- 
tion of Canons, though Councils be not properly Vni- 
\ verfaly that maketh the Obligation VniverfaL 
I Anfw. If they bind not by the Impofef s Powers 
they were not received as binding Univerfally • 
If Reception be the Obligatory h& 3 Subjection 

[ M4 1 

is Government, and Lay Men and Women go- 
vern by receiving. And I have proved how mu- 
table and how uncertain Reception is : They fay 
all the Church was againft Adoration by genu- 
1 flexion on the Lord's Day , and for Milk and 
Honey ? and the white Garment in Baptifm : And 
yet particular Churches laid them down before 
any Univerfal Judicature allowed it. 

XIII. Qu. Jf yon know that all the Bijhopsof the 
World receive any DoEtrine or Tratlice as needful or 
good, will not yon dofotoo? and do you not fo receive 
the Creed and Bible ? 

stnfw. i. I receive the Laws of the Land only 
^s authorized by the Law-givers : But I know 
them to be the fame Laws that the King and Par- 
liament made , by the concurrent Teftimony and 
life of all Judges , Lawyers and People of the 
Land, (and Proclamation by the ProclaimersJBut 
I know them not by my obeying all thefe Judges, 
Ju dices and People as one authorized College, 
that is under the King to Govern the whole Land : 
So here , I know the Writings of Homer, Virgil, 
Cicero, to be theirs the more confidently by Uni- 
verfal Tradition : But not becaufe I believe that 
all the Witnefies in the World that have fo re- 
ceived them , are Commiffioned to be Rulers or a 
Judicature to the World \ I receive Divine Truths 
as Delivered in the Creed and Scriptures, as from 
Chrift and his Apoftles, efpecially Commiffioned 
and qualified to teach all Men whatever he com- 
manded them , and this by the hand of my Pa- 
rents and Paftors ; and fince I underftood Hiftory 
common confent puts me the more out of doubt 
of the Matter of Fa& , that thefe are their true 
.Writings and Do&rines : But not from the Bi- 


ihops ] as one College Commiflioned to rule ail 
the World or Church on Earth. And alas, how 
few are fo well verft in Hiftory as to know much 
of this. 

To know what is received now ab omnibm ubiq; 
is too hard : But to know the femper is much 
harder efpecially when the Filioqy and the ©aW®-, 
and many fuch like, have had more for them in 
one Prince's Reign, and more againfl: them in ano- 
ther, and fo off and on ; and to knowwhich had 
moft was impoffible, to moft Chriftians: How 
few know at this day whether the [Filioq^] have 
more for it, or againft it? Not 1 3 nor any Tra- 
veller that I have fpoke with. 

XIV. u But you would not for a World, be guilty of 
u faying what I have written of Councils ; 1, As // 
" they were to be abhorred for their Faults, 2. You 
; cC iay, How great Matters the Articles of two Natures 
u and Wills and of one Perfon are , and no fmall nor 
4 e ill" wordy difference. 

ifld'Ij Anfw.i. I can mention Mens Faults without 
i)|!abhorring them, I honour them for their good, 
'and am for the ufe of needful modeft Councils of 
good Men. 

2. I doubt not but the Matters determined 

rioraljwere weighty : But how far Perfons wronged and 

rm^lmifunderftood one another, and ftrove about 

words when they meant the fame thing, I have 

not nakedly faid, but proved to you. When Theo- 

iofim forced by threatning Cyril and Johannes An- 

\ioch. zndTheodoret to agree, did they not confefe 

that they had wrongfully anathematized each other, 

ind were of one Mind, and did not know it? Have 

icirfffl? r not proved to you that Ne/lorius denied two 

#&- terfons ? a;nd that Cyril oft afierteth but one Na- 

W\ ; R 3 - cure 

\e com' 
mv Par 


Cm6 3 

ture after the Union ? Do you indeed think that 
[One] and [Two] are words that have but one 
fignification ? Have I not proved the Ambiguity, 
and the Mifunderftanding of each other in too 
many ? But O how hard it is to be Impartial and 
to Repent, when Contentious Bifhops in Councils 
have notorioufly torn the Churches,drawn ftreams 
of Blood, Curfed and Reproached one another, 
and Curfed that Curfing it felfand their Party the 
next change, and have overthrown the Empire, 
and fet up the Pope by ftriving about Jurifdiftion 
and hard words, who iliall be greateft and wifeft, 
muft not this which cannot be hid be lamented ? 
If Cyril were but half as bad as Job. Antioch. Tkeo- 
daret, Ifidore^ Pelufiota^ Socrates and Socmen, &c. 
make him, bow partial were his Admirers ? But 
I fee it is as hard for Bifliops to repent as other 
Men,when their Self-efteem and Dignity feemeth 
to themfelves to entitle them to the reputation of 
San&ity and Innocency : And if they divide the 
Chriftian World as wofully as the Weft and Eaft, 
and the Abaflines, Copties, Jacobites, Neftorians, 
Armenians , Proteftants, &c. are divided at this 
day, orfhouldthey Silence Thoufands of Faithful 
Minifters of Chrift for not Sinning,or for Nothing, 
and bring thereby Confufion and Schifms , among 
ferious Chriftians to the hardening of the Prophane 
and Hereticks, it will feem to fome a more hei- 
npus Sin to name their Sin,and call them to Repen- 
tance, than in them to commit it. And yet one 
may name the Sins of a Thief or Drunkard , and 
call him to Repentance without blame. But have 
I feid half fo ill by them, as they faid by one ano- 
ther ? They anathematized each other, but fo do 
no: I by them s What fay I worfe of the firft and* 


CM7 1 
beft of your Six Councils than Eufebius and Con- 
ft amine {aid of them, when he burnt their accufing 
Libels againft each other ? 

2. What fay I worfe of the firft Council at Con- 
stantinople than Greg, Naz.ianz.cn faith ? I do but 
recite his words and the Hiftory ? Did they not kt 
him up in the beginning, and pull him down at the 
end? (and for what)? 

3. What fay I of the firft £/>k/~. Council but 
what the recorded Ads do tell us ? How they di- 
vided into two Parts, and each Excommunicated 
the Leaders of the other , and the Orthodox Part 
fought with the other notwithftanding the Endea- 
vours of the Emperor's Lieutenant to have kept 
the Peace 3 and yet when they had done, found 
that they had been of one Mind, and knew it 
not , (except Neftoripu. ) And how much hand 
a Woman had in it againft him, the Hiftory 
tells us- 

4- Have I faid fo much againft that at chalcedon 

Ss the many Councils that anathematized them 
id ? or more than they faid of themielves when 
they cried Omnes Peccazimw for Voting with Dio* 
Teams and the Eutychians at Council Epb. 2. I 
would fain know, when as the greater Part of the 
jEmpire and Church was againft this Council, in 
the days of Zeno , Bafilifcus , and AnaftafiM , by 
vvhat means every Chriftian fhould then have 
Known the fence of the Univerfal Church. Ac 
Jerufalem the Orthodox rebellioufly refifted the 
Emperor's Lieutenants , and put them to flight in 
defence of this Council ("following a Monk that 
compared the four Councils to the four Evange- 
lifts) and fent the Emperor word that they would 
Ipend their Blood for it : And yet even there, be- 
ll 4 fere 

C 148 ] 

fore, the prevailing Part had condemned it. Ac 
Amiocb the Bifcop and Monks fought it out to 
fo much Blood, that the Monks Carcafles could 
have no Grave but the River Dromes : At Con- 
stantinople and Alexandria the Matter oft was little 
better. Are thefe things indifferent or jefting 
Matters of fmall Infirmity? 

5. And the 5rh General Council Con ft. 2. was 
thought long by a great Part of the Church to have 
contradi&ed the 4th de tribu* Capitals, and was fo 
much difowned, that even remce^LignriaJftriaficc* 
renounced the Pope and Roman Primacy for 
Owning it, and chofe a Patriarch at Aqulleia to 
be the Primate inftead of Rome ; which long con- 
tinued, till Sergim reconciled them. 

6. And that Condi. TrulUnum called Qmno- 
Sextum which you own as the fame with the 
Fifth, is difowned by the Roman Party to this 
day, and accufed by them to have been Mono- 
thelites. (Vid. Binnium) And yet faid to be the 
fame Men who were the Second Const. Council : 
And fo they make that Second alfo to have been 

6. And the next, Con ft. Third were condemned 
by the Seventh General at Nice , as heinous Sin- 
ners for condemning Church Images , and even 
Helviav, with other Lutherans, call it Synodam 
Iconomachicam quam Oecumenicam dici voluerunt. 
And I think that the Church of Rome difovvneth 
the Dodxine both of it and the Second of Nice, 
which hath agreed that Chrift's Body is not fle(h 
in Heaven. 

. Now I would know while thefe Councils thus 

anathematized each other, or lamented their own 

ibrmer Errors, as Voting by Fear or Miftake, 

■ ■ . and 

L M9 J 
and while moft of the Bifliops declared againft 
any of them as they oft did, and when Heradius, 
Vhilippictis or other Emperors were Monothelites, 
and the Major part of the Bifhops followed them, 
how common Chriftians fhould know whom to 

XV. I remember that you alfo pleaded Chrift's 
words, Hear the church] But he faith alfo, [Tell 
the Church'] even the fame Church which we muft 
Hear. And verily here I am utterly at a lofs. 
Chrift I know and Paul I know fhould be heard, 
but who are this one Univerfally ruling College 
for me to to hear ? yea, the Pope may.be told 
and heard 5 but how to tell or hear a College 
that dwell all over the Earth, I know not, I 
cannot hope to live long enough to fend to , or 

hear from Abaffia , Armenia , Syria , Mengrelia , 

Georgia, Ctrcaffia, and all the Greek Churches, and 
to Mexico, and perhaps the Antipodes 5 nor do I 
think our Salvation lyeth fo much on our Skill in 
Geography, that we muft know that there are 
any fuch Countries in the World, nor a Rome or 
nConftaminople, &c. And I cannot think that 
moft of the World, will ever hear that there 
is fuch a Man as I in being ; nor that one of a 
thoufand of the Bifhops ever hear the Names, 
or know the Opinions of all the reft , or of 
the one half of them : And if I were rich 
enough to hire a Meflenger to go all over 
the Earth , and were fo foolifh as to hope 
to live till he returned , I muft take their 
Votes on the Credit of the Meflengers Word, 
which is a fandy Ground for Church-Communion 
and Salvation. Nay 5 I cannot hope to live to fee 
2 General Council, much lefs to fee the end of it, 


C 250 ] 

and to be certain of their Votes and Sentence : 
And if I knew that I had all the Bifhops on Earth 
for one Opinion, I am not certain whether moft 
of the Presbyters (being an hundred to one; be 
not againft them ; and in England the Presbyters 
are part of the Convocation, which is the Repre- 
fentative Church. Had I lived on Earth when the 
Council of Nice was contradided at Sirmmm, Ari- 
minuwy Tyre, Milan, and the World groaned to 
find it felf turned ArHan : Or when they were A- 
nathematizing each other, and fighting at the firft 
.Epfc. CouncihOr when the 2d Nkene were condem- 
ning the fecond Con ft-. Or when Vigilhts was drag- 
ged by a Rope at Con ft. by Juftmans Command, 
and the Patriarch of Aqdleia fet up againft Rome ; 
or when the TVW/.Canons were made by Men now 
called Monothelites ; or when innumerable Mono- 
thelite Bifhops met under Philippic™, &c. I could 
not poflibly have told how to know the Govern- 
ing Judgment of the College of Bifhops that live 
all over the Earth. Nay, when you own no Coun- 
cil fince the Sixth, why will no Importunity in- 
treat you to tell me, whether for thefe Thouland 
Years laft the Univerfal Church was Governed by 
one College, and what Governing A<3 this Col- 
ledge hath fo long exercifed over all the Chrifti- 
an World ? Ana how it was known ? And whe- 
ther their Liter* formats are to be found written ? 
And where? Or are only tranfmitted to all the 
World by Memory ? and by whofe Memory ? 
and of whom we may all enquire of them with 
certain Satisfaction ? Or whether the Church hath 
been this Thoufand Years no Church, or Ungo- 

You fay the Cornell at Frankford condemned that 

C Z5TI ] 

at Nice : How (hall I know which the College 
owned at the time of the fitting of each Council ? 
How few Councils were ever fo great as that at 
BafiU Can you tell me how to be fure whether 
the College be more for it or againft it at this 

Bear with me for telling you, that if I had not 
found that you are a Man oifirong V affirm* & full of 

your felfy and of undonbting Confidence in your Appre- 
benfionsj I (hould wonder how fo Studious, Learn- 
ed and Sober a Man could poffibly take either U- 
nion, Communion, or Salvation, to lie upon Mens 
Belief of, and Obedience to fuch a College as all 
the Bi/hops on Earth : And if you take the Creed 
to mean this as the Holy Catholick Church, I fhall 
not wonder if you take me, [and almoft all the 
Proteftants that ever I knew or read,] for Here- 
ticks 5 and having twice admonifhed me, and not 
convinced me, if you avoid me, and fhould not 
only Seventeen Years filence me, but banifh or 
burn me, if you are for fuch execution upon He- 
reticks; or at lead take me, and all fuch as I, to 
be intolerable, and ufe us accordingly. 

XVI. I will fum up the Difference between 
you and me in a Similitude. All Power in Hea- 
ven and Earth.and all Judgment is given toChrift. 
The Creator's Government by Civil Rulers he 
changeth not, but is now their Soveraign King. 
His Church he Governeth as a Saviour and a 
Teacher, and their Heavenly High Prieft : It is 
his School, and we are his Difciples ; I fuppofe 
that God the Father andChrift is the only Right- 
ful, Univerfal, Civil and Church-Monarch , and 
none elfe can give Laws , or exercife Judgment 
over the whole Earth ; but that Magiftrates and 


C # ] 

Paftors are Commiflioned by God to their feveral 
Provinces, Governing the whole only per panes 
between them ; and God, as the Monarch, ma- 
keth them fuch Univerfal Laws as they muft Rule 
and be Ruled by. And that there is no more 
proof of one Ecclefiaftick Humane Judicature to 
Rule all the World, than of one Civil one, and 
lefs probability : But that Princes and Paftors 
muft do all by the beft Advantages of Unity,Love 
and Concord , and keep fuch Synods and Corre- 
fpondencies as are neceflary to that end ; I fup- 
pofe that every Kingdom hath its own King and 
Inferiour Magiftrates Ruling by their feveral 
Courts and Circuits, and by the Kings Laws •> but 
not Ruling all the Kingdom as one College of a 
Voting Synod of Judges, Jufticesand Majors. If 
Senates have any where a Supremacy, it is from 
the peculiar Conftitution of that Commonwealths 
and there is no Inftitution of a College of Kings 
for one Monarch) to Rule all the Earth : But 
their Unity is centred in God that is one. 

I fuppofe that the King hath ordained that all 
Free-Schools in England, Scotland and Ireland, fhall 
have each their proper Schoolmafters, one to a 
fmall School , and to a great one a Chief Mafter, 
with under Schoolmafters ; and he hath made 
an Order that therv fhall teach E.g. Lillys Gram- 
mar, and faithfully perform their Truft, or be put 
out by them that have the Power : And if any 
School-Diffiam \ occur they may do well to con- 
fult for their Mutual Help. 

But you feem to add, g. d. as if, i. All the 
World is one Humane School, though under fe- 
veral Ki gs 2. None is a Member of this School 
that is not under the College of Schoolmafters 


that dwell all over the World, and never know 
one another, and that doth not live in Obedience 
to that College. 3. All thefe Schoolmafters of 
the whole World muft meet by themfelves or De- 
legates in General Councils. 4. All Schools muft 
receive Canons from thefe Councils, and be judg- 
ed by them, and bring their Accufation (at leaft 
Appeals) to them, from all Nations of the Earth. 
£. All the Schoolmafters of the feveral Kingdoms 
muft hold National Aflemblies in thofe Kingdoms 
[or Provinces] as a College of Governors to the 
whole Land. 6. AThoufand, or many Hundred 
or Scores Local particular Schools muft be Schools 
but equivocally fo called, and have all but one pro- 
per Schoolmafter, who alone muft have the Keys 
of them, and judge of each Scholar that is, 1. ad- 
mitted, 2. corre&ed, 3. or put out. 7. All thefe 
Schools under this Diocefan Schoolmafter (hall 
have his Ufhers, (and no proper Schoolmafters) 
who fhall have Power to teach thofe that will 
learn, and to tell the proper Schoolmafter, (per- 
paps One Hundred, Eighty or Twenty Miles off) 
bf every Boy that deferveth to be corre&ed or 
put out. But none of thefe Ufhers fhall have Pow- 
?r, 1. To judge whom to take or refufe, or what 
(toys to correct, nor to corred them till com- 
nanded by the Diocefan Mafter : 3. Nor to put 
)Ut any till he bids him : 4. Nor to forbear cor- 
e&ing or calling out any when commanded, 
hough he know them to be the beft. 
I think this, 1. Depofeth all the Inferiour 
chools, and robs them of proper Schoolmafters, 
'hich are their due. 2 . And depofeth the Ufhers, 
iat fhould be moftly Schoolmafters. 2. And 
laketh School-Government an inipoflible thing, 


while one only in a Diocefs is to ufe that which he 
cannot do. 4. And thereby overchroweth Learn- 
ing , and introduceth Barbaroufnefs. 5-. And 
bringeth in a new fort of Diocefan Schoolmafters* 
who will undo the Scholars and themfelves by un- 
dertaking Impoffibilities. 

But I difallow not, 1. A Chief Schoolmafter 
in each School. 2. Nor needful Overfeers or Vi- 
firors to fee that all Schoolmafters do their Duty. 
3. Nor that the King and Jtfftices keep them all 
to their Duty , and make Laws that they truly 
teach the Sacred Scriptures , and corred: thofe 
Schoolmafters who by their Inefficiency, or Un- 
faithfulnefs deferve it. 

Again, I tell you, 1. Make us no Univerfal 
Governor but Chrift. 2. And reftore the Power 
of necefiary Difcipline to the Pariftv Churches, or 
at leaft make Chrifts Church-Difcipline a poflible 
practicable thing, and you will reconcile many 
Nonconforifiifts to you. But to fay only one 
Schoolmafter* with meer Teaching-UQiers, fliall 
Govern many Hundred Schools , or one Bifhop 
many Hundred Churches, or rather Oratories and 
Chappels that are made but parts of one true 
Church infim* fpeciei 5 this is in Englifh to fay,j| 
that there (hall be no confiderable Government off 
fuch Schools or Churches at all, and to put iti 
down on pretence of having the Power to do fei 
And yet by the Charity and Juftice of many thad 
now Write and Preach againft us, we are all un-j 
ruly, intolerable 9 rebellious Schifmaticks, ant 
againft Bifhops, for defiringmoreBifliops, at leal 
one to every n*fc, or Corporation, that Difct, 
pline might be a poflible thing, I have in mmi 
Tears (of Liberty) tryed without Rigour fcjmucli 

as all Church-Canons agree to be neceffary, in a 
Congregation that had n6t Three Thoufand Souls, 
and was unable for it with the afliftance of Three 
Presbyters, when one Parifli about London hath 
Thirty Thoufand, and Forty Thoufand, if not Six- 
ty Thoufand Souls, and moft, or many, far left 

XVII. The Effentials of the Sacred Office are, 
i. Power or Right 5 2.. Obligation to 3 3. The 
Work. 1. The Work, you fay, is to Rule thq 
Church Univerfal on all the Earth, not only fe- 
paratelyper partes, but ZsVnum Collegium, which 
is Vna Perfona Politica. 2. The Power is Jus Re- 
lendi. 3. The Obligation maketh it their Duty. 

The Apoftles were fent firft to Preach the Go- 
fpel to every Creature, or all Mankind, and make 
i:hem Chriftians* and after to Teach them all 
Chrifts Do&rine and Law, and to Rule them by 
Paftoral Guidance thereby. 
> 2 . If the College of Bifh ops be their SuccefTors, 
kre they bound to that Work in uno Colkgio, which 
the Apoftles did each one apart ? That is, deliver 
thrifts Commands,and guide the Churches. If,yea, 
ire they not bound in uno Colkgio, to Preach to all 
Ihe Heathen World ? And then, are they not 
guilty of the Damnation of moft of the World for 
Jiot fo Preaching to them ? 

3. If you fay that it is only a Regiment that they 
jtnuft do in uno Collegio, or per Liter as format as, do 
you not make the whole Paftoral Church guilty of 
perfidious Negligence, (as a Paftor would be, that 
jbever guided his Flock) for not at all performing 
jany fuch Government ? What one A& of Go- 
vernment hath the College performed in our Age ? 
qv in the Age foregoing ? or in any Age accor- 

C*5* 1 

ding to your felf fince Confiant. Pogonatus his fixth 
(or feventhj Council? And was it only the Church 
of thofe Ages that was bound to Govern ? Then 
it was they only that were Authorized, or had the 
Office and Power : For Obligation to the Work 
(though not ad hie & nunc) is Eflential to the 
Office as well as Authority ■ Or will the Perfor- 
mance of the Bifhops of the Fourth and Fifth Cen- 
turies excufe all that fucceed them to the end of 
the World from any Performance ? Why then 
not from all Paftoral Guidance? And are they not 
then degraded ? 

XVIII. We are againft Singularity in Matters 
of Faith : We believe that all Chrifts Church (hall 
never err from anyone Eflential of Chriftianity or 
Communion ; elfe it would thereby ceafe to be a 
Church : But we believe General Councils (fuch 
as the Empire had) have erred fo far as to con- 
demn each other of Herefie. We perfwade all 
Men to believe as the Church believeth 3 that is, 
to receive that from the Apoftles, quod ab omnibus 
ubique & femper receptum fuit, which the Church 
received and delivered as from them with known 
common Confent, and to fufpeft odd Opinions, 
Novelties and Singularities. 

But Proteftants againft Papifts commonly ufe 
thefe Diftin&ions : I. Authority of a Governor by 
Le-gi/lation, and Judgment, or either, is one thing. 
2. Dottoral Authority ( like a Fhilofopher in a 
School of Confenters; is another. 3. The Autho- 
rity of Witnejfes (which is their Obliging Credibili- 
ty) is another. 4. The Authority of a Steward, 
or Keeper of Records, is another. 5. The Autho- 
rity of a Herald, or Cryer, or Mejfenger, (to pub- 

lifli Laws) is another. 6. And the Authority of 



ntratim in Mutual Self-Obligation , is anc£ 


Accordingly they hold, i . That there is no one . 

IUVerfal,/&^i Governour, or Summa Potefta* Ec- 

tfaftjca , to Rule the whole by Legifiation or' 

tdgmnt, Vtrfonal or CoII&live, but Cknsf. 

a. That there is no one Perfon, Natural or Po : 
ical, that is bound or authorized to be the. 
lube* of the whole World or Church ; but that 
I Paftors mult Teach and Guide in their feveral 

3. That the larger and more Uhcontroiiled the 
sftimony is, the greater is the Credibility and 
jthority of -the Witneffes : And therefore if all 
e Churches in the World, as far as we can learn, 7 
:ee, de fafto, that thefe t are the Books, Do- 
jines, anjj pra&ifed Ordinances which they re- 
: .ve<J > and efpecially when Hereticks or Infil- 
ls, and Enemies that would gainfay it, cannot 
jth any probability , we thus receive the faid 
ioks and Practices, (as Baptifm, &c) ex Antho- 
jtf/e Teflinm y and not ex Authoritate Judicis Re- 
tt is ; or elfe Lay-Men, (fuch as Orlgen^ when 

I was a more credible Witnefs of the Text than 
1 Hundred unlearned Bifhops, and fuch as Hkrom % 
at was no Biftiop, of vvhom I fay the fame) yea, 
d Women, yea Hereticks and Infidels, (fuch as 
iny, &c.) would be Church- Rulers. 

4. All Paftors being by Office to Preach Chrift V 
/ord , and Minifterially Officiate accordingly, 
e thereby efpecially intruded with the keeping 

• thefe Sacred Records, as Lawyers while they, 
lily life- them, are with the Laws, and thetlni- 
;rfal Teftimony of fuch Officers is the mod cre- 
ble p;irt of the Witneffes Work 7 of if not U- 
S niyerfali 

[ 2 5 8 ] 

niverfal, the more the betten 5. Every Paflor i'sfc 
as a Cryer to proclaim Chrift 's Latos. 6. And in 
Circumftances left to Mutable Humane Determij 

nation, the more common Confent (Ceteris parii 
km) the better. And this is the ufe of Councils j 
this is enough : But the Proteftants that I have 
known and read, do make it our firft Controverfidj 
with the Papifts, Whether Chrift ever Inftitutecj 
any one Head or Ruling Power over all the Church 
under 'hhnfelf? And, 2. Whether Pope or Coun 
cil be fuch ? Both which they deny. 

XIX. If you have not read it, I intreat yo 
read in the Cabal-SuppiementKing Henry the VHtf 
Letter to the Archbifhop and Clergy of the Pro- 
vince of York, where you will find, «$■ 1. Your 
cited feeming Contradictions of Scripture, anfwer 
ed by ufe of Speech and Reafon, without any U- 
niverfal Judicature. 2. That Die Ecclefm cannot 
be meant of the Church Univerfal. \ 3. That the 
Univerfa! Church hath no Head or Governor but 
Chrift, but the Clergy fubferve him, as Minifters 
by whom he giveth Spiritual Grace, and qua Spi- 
rits a^untur libera fum, & nulla Lege aslrwguntur 5 
and if the Teachers do their Office with fcandal, 
Magiftrates muft punifh them,and that it is the Ec- 

clefia qua, non Constat ex bonis & malis, which the 
King is not the Head of: But that in Spirituals, as 
the word fignifieth Spiritual Perfons and their Goods 
and Works, and the enforcing the Obfervances of 
Gods Laws, the King is Head : And the reafon of 
the word \Jiea(£\ notably vindicated, with much 

XX. I crave your Pardon both for the Prolixity 
and Boldnefs, while I add this Qyeftion, (not as 
accufing you of Popery, Perjury or Difloyalty?) 


[ *?9 3 

low can I be cleared from the guilt of Perjury," 
nd Difloyalty, if having taken thfc & Oath of 
.upj-emacy, and fubferibed according to the Ca- 
ons, &c. I (hall plead for the fubje&ing of the 
Cing and all Subjects to a Foreign Power in Spirt- 
nals? when the Oath difclaimeth it> and the 
'*ff.I.faith,That[># Vfurped and Foreign Power hath 

Efiabli(hment or Ground by the Law of God, and 

1 for moft juft- Caufes tahgn away and abolifl)ed y and 
berefore no manner of Obedience or Subjection with- 
t His Majefties Realms and Dominions is due to 
4NY SVCH Foreign Power. 

And all Minifters fubferibe Can. %6. againft all 
breign Power, as well in all Spiritual or Ecclefi* 
ftical Things or Caufes, as Temporal. 

And ArticL 21. General Councils may not be ga- t 
bered together without the Commandment and Will of 
Winces: (And when will all Princes, Orthodox, 
ieretical, Mahometan , Heathen, Enemies in 
/Var, &c, agree to gather them out of all the 
/ Vorld ? ) And when they be gathered together v 
for at much as they be an Affembly of Men whereof 
ill be not Governed with the Spirit and Word of Cod) 
hey may err, and fomet'ime have erred even in things 
pertaining to God 5 wherefore things ordained by then* 
ts neceffary to Salvation, have no Strength nor Autho- 
rity, unlefs it may be declared that they be taken out 
f the Holy Scriptures. (And doth Church- Unity^ 
-oncord, and Salvation, lie on things not necef- 
r ary to Salvation ?) If you fay, that none of this 
[peaketh againft Foreign Ecclefiaftical Powef,fuch 
istheApoftles had 5 I anfwer, 1. Not againft a 
Foreigners Preaching and Baptizjng^ and Celebra- 
ting the Lord's Supper, if he be where we are r (an A 
fare he is no Foreigner :) But againft ill Foreigners 
*S 2 propea? 

[ 2#0 ] 

proper Government of Men as th£ir Subjefts. Thd 5 
Apoftles Commiflion in that was extraordinary, 
and yet they Ruled Do&orally norie but Volun- 
tary Confenters. 2. The Law, Oath, Canon andl 
Articles difclaim fuch Power as the Pope claimethl 
here : But the Pope claimeth proper Ecclefiaftical 
Government, and mofl: Englifh and French Pa- 
pifts (and half the reft I think) claim for him on- 
ly the power of the Word and Keys, and not any 
forcing Power by the Sword. 

* XXI. As hence, I wonder not that Mr. Thorn- 
dike tbreateneth England, unlefs we right the Pa- 
piftsby altering the Oath of Supremacy * fo I con- 
clude with another Requeft, That feeing Dr. Hey* 
tin, and many others of you, honour Melanchthon, 
you will read his Epiftle to King Henry the VIII. 
EpislSlarum V'oUl* per Fencer. Edit. Anno 1 5 JO. 
pag. 59 60. &c. But efpecially Ep* de Ratisb. all. 
p. 188. &c. & de Worm At. CoUoq.p. zoi.&c. where* 

he fpeaketh againft Eccius and other Papifts over- 
valuing Councils, and making them Legiflators 
and Judges to us, and tying the Church to the or- 
dinary iuccefliori of Biftops , and Obedience to 
their Laws, and imagining the Church to be like 
Civil Polities, Tag.igi* £ 1. Humano more Con- 
Frit uit in Ecclepa Poteftatem interpretations, prope- 
tnodum Pit de pratoria poteftate interpret andar urn Le- 
£Hm Jurifconfulti Loquuntur. 2. Addit amplim non 
liter e privatis , non paucioribm reprehendere judicia 
Major is par lis fen dijfentire a fujfragiis plurimorum. 
3. Major um Synodorum fententiis & decretu paren- 
dttm ejfe y &c. — In Ecclepa longe alia res cfi. — ~ In 
hoc casta non potefias aliigata eft cert is per fonts ant cer- 
ta mnltitudiniy fed donum eft aliquorttm piorum : Jd 
eft, Inmen 4ivimm 3 quo intelligHnt fapientiam in Evan- 


: geho tr adit am, qu& e[t fnpra rationls human a jttdicu 

fm Fofita. Fag. 1 95. addit Vinculum dilettiom d> 
^aulo Pocari Obedientiam Vraftandam Epifcopis Or di- 
nar ta fucceffione regnantibm & eorumlegibm, — Yet 

Synods and Difcipline he was for, by prefent faith- 
ful Paftors. 

And Luther, Lib. de Concilia, fpeaketh.(as 
his way) more iharply of Councils, telling us what 
their Work is, and is not 3 and that one Augu- 
stine hath taught the Church more than all the 
Councils that ever were, yea one Catechifm : And 
that before the Council of Nice, Arianifm was but 
a Jeft in Comparifon of what it gxtwto afterward, 
(though doubtlefs the Council .<MTA|1 in con- 
demning it) and he juftifieth Navfmmtfs Words 
of Councils: And except the uncferaBTe Evidence 
of David Derodon, he faith more than I have feen 
in any to vindicate Neftoriiu, as certainly holding 
one Perfon and found Do&rine in fenfe, but for 
want of Learning , taking it for an improper 
Speech to fay that God was begotten of Mary, 
killed, rifen 3 &c. And that the Cqntroverfie of 
the Ephef. Council and him was but about Words. 
And I think he that readeth but Derodons Citati- 
ons of the Words of CyriL will think me rather ' 
charitable than injurious. Tor faying that though 
his Words were Eutychian, he meant alio better 
than he fpake, 

Hi, Baxter] 

S 3 Reader, 


REader, The Bifhop's repetition in Conference 
(before and with Dr. Beveridge and Dr Say] 
well) occafioned my over-tedious Repetitions' 
But you may perceive they have not been vholljl 
in vain, while at the laft the Bifhop was forced! 
I. To deny Canons to be Laws : And then whai] 
is their Churches Legiflative Power ? and how cm 
we obey a Law that is no Law ? And why arfl 
we called to Swear Canonical Obedience? 01 
why are we called Schifmaticks for not obeying}] 
?hem ? And if they might be called Laws to theU| 
proper Sufye&s, can Ufurping Foreigners there- 
fore ma&yjt Laws ? 

II. He iyput to difown the Names of Vniverfab 
Soveraignty, and Summa Potefia* y but only as Invi- 
dious, that is, as opening that which they would] 
hide by other Names fitted to deceive : And yet 
maintained the thing, and calls them Rettors and 
Vniverfal Governors ; As if Jus regendi in Supream ! 
Reftors were not the fame thing, and that which! 
he knew we were to difpute. 

Ill When he hath oft pleaded for Obedience I 
to the Vniverfal church and its Laws , and made ; 
Law-making, its wonk , he is fain at laft to re- 1 
duce it almoft to Sentence and Execution. And 
in bis many inftances of fuch Judging Powers to 
name not one that requireth an Univerfal Human 

IV. He was angry at the Argument fetcht from 
the incapacity of an Univerfal King or Civil Se- 
nate ; But why ? Only, as invidious ? that is, As 
detecting their Error ; And faith , that it intima- 
ted} that they claim a Jungly forcing Power , 


£263 ] 

hefeas he knew that I profeft the contrary of 

em, and only brought a comparing Argument* 
ftfiiit if they had claimed no forcing -Power, or 

ade Princes believe that they were bound to 

? their Hangmen or Executioners , the World 
tojid fuflfered lefs,and they know that their Curfes 

ould have been defpifed as brutafdmina , and 
fOteftantS WOUld have faid Procdd Jove Proculd 


V. He could never be got to give up the leaft 
lew of a Satisfa&ory account, where his Colle- 
inm Paftornm out of Councils was to be found, 
r whom it confided of? They dare not go to 
atriarchs whatever they think, as knowing how 
krr, and where they long have been, and mod 
gainft them. 

VI.Nor could he begot to anfwer my inftances 
){ the incapacity of Councils ; nor my proof that 
hey were not of terreftrialy but only of National 
.Imperial) Univerfality. 

VII. Nor would he anfwer my proof of the 
ltter incapacity , either of one Man , or one 
College ; for Univerfal Government of all the 
: World. 

VIII. Nor to anfwer' my proof that his Uni- 
verfal Soveraignjy is the moft effential Point of 
ithat which Prote(tants call Popery. 

IX. Nor my Reafons that a Popes Headfhip is 
j not fo impoffible as this fame, tho' both are irr- 


X. Nor the plain Evidence, that this way mud 
needs bring us under the Government of the Pope 
himfelf, and every King and Kingdctm under the 
Government of foreign Subje&s, and of thofe 
princes whofe Subjeft-Bifhops make the greateft 
Number in Councils. S 4 XL 

[ **4 1 
5 XL And we cannot be informed how theft 
Form of Government differeth from the French, 
and that the French are no Papifts. And that 
they that fince Land's 3ime have ftudied a Coa- 
lition, would not receive them to our coft. 

XII. Nor yet -how the Nation and Clergy (hall 
be laved from Perjury that are all Sworn againft 
all Foreign Jurifdi&ion- 

For it is a vain Argument that faith, The Oath 
of Supremacy renounced! no Jurifdidtion but 
what the King owneth : But the King difowneth 
Ecclefiaftical Spiritual Jurifdi&iom 
- For, i. Ecclefiaftical and Spiritual Jurifdidion 
are exprefly named. 2. The Oath renounceth it 
as Foreign, becaufe it is againft the King to be un- 
der the Power of Foreigners. The King choofeth 
his own Paftors, and Ruleth them by the Swoxd, 
(as he doth his Phyfitians) though he profefs not 
to be a Paftor himfelf, nor to Adminifter the 
.Word* Sacraments or Keys. 

And the new Oath , called the Teft, exprefly 
sbjureth the Foreign Jurifdidion. of any Prince, 
Prelate, &c. Spiritual and Ecclefiaftical. 
m It's ludicrous jeiting with Oaths for any to 
&?> by [Prelate] is not excluded [Many Prelates 
m a College or Council, but fome one] : If One, much 
more many 5, as Prince and Potentate excludeth 
many. And all our prefent Clergy that are in the 
Parliament and Convocation , have tak£n this 
Oath orTeft:and they call themfelves theChurch- 
feprefentative : And if after this they ihould be 
for a Foreign Jurifdi&ion (and fpecially Univer- 
£\\) in a College , or a Council , or a Pope, or a 
Council and College under the Pope as Prefident, 
their Subfcriptioa to our Article^ and their ufage 

of Oaths, would be no invitation to Diffenters to 
imitate them, or Conform. 

Chap. X13{. Mr. Henry Dodwell; Leviathan 
further Anatomized. 

§. i. T Have already elfewhere.(in two Books) 
JL dete&ed the Schifmatical and Tyrannical 
Doctrine of Mr. Dodwell in his tedious voluminous 
Accufation of the Reformed Churches as dam- 
nable Schifmaticks , that Sin againft the Holy 
Ghoft, and have No right to Salvation by Chrift. 
I recite now a few Paffages that fhew the Con- 
ftitution of the Church he Pleads for. 

Pa £- 73 • " The Eflential work of the Miniftry 
cc according to my Principles, is to tranfa<ft be- 
" tween God and Man 5 to Seal Covenants on be- 
"half of God, and to accept of thofe which are 
" made by Men, and to oblige them to perform 
" theirjja'rt of the Covenant by otherwife au- 
c< thontatively excluding x ' , r . , , 
I them fromYod'spart.( r ) f J&™ffi %*£ 
' Hence refults the whole \ hs Gofpeiof chrift, Mat. 28. 

' Power of Ecclefiaftical And Paul to Timothy tell us 
<C Government. And for of other parts as Eflential : 

* this, No great Gifts and J h £ «° J n ^ d ±l 1*1 

tt alt •' rrr • i elude none but thole that 

Abilities are Eflential. include and exclude them- 

All the Skill that is re- felves, which fhallbeeffe- 

" quifite efletltially,is only #ual whatever the Prieft 

"in general to know the %°/ r tl^^fc 
« Benefits to be performed -g %£ * 
? on God's part , and the 
"Duties to be performed on Mans, and the Na- 

" ture 

C 266] 


ture and Obligation of Covenants in general I 
" and the particular Solemnities of Ecclefiaftkal 
"Covenants; And of this how any Man can be 
• r . " uncapable, who is but 
fc$ STA^SSS :;capableofunderftanding 
as opw»i« Bilhop of c?e- • the common Dealings of 

ikv(( was, illiterate: and the World — (b) 
one may be taken from 

any Shop or Cart that underftands the Dealings of the World. 
But how much more requireth Paul to Timothy, and Chryfo- 
ftom,6cc. 2. And yet I, and all of my Degree, yea, all the 
Minifters or the Reformed Churches that difown his Leviathan, 
are uncapable of Miniftry or Chriman Communion by our 
ignorance. 3. But is the Nature of the Covenant- Benefits, 
Duties, &c. lb eafily known as he talks? Andyetmuft we 
PeriQi for not knowing them. 

Tag. 72. " He (heweth that Immoralities of 
" Life are not fufficient to deprive them of this 
" High Power. 

And of the Power it felf he faith, Pag. 80, 8 r: 
" It is not dated in Scripture, but to be meafured 
" by the Intention of the Ordainers, and that the 
" Hypothefis (of God's fetling in Scripture) is ir- 
" reconcileable with Government in this Life, by 
" permitting Men to appeal to Writings againft all 

" the vifible Authority of 
(i this Life, (c) On the 
contrary (faith he) " Our 
" Hypothefis obliging in- 
c 'feriour Governours to 
" prove their Title to d v 
"office , and the ex 
"of it from the inter.. 
" of their Superiour Go 
" vernours, doth oblige all 
"to a ftrift dependance 

(c) Note here, that tho* 
his Priefthood have the 
Power of faving or damn- 
ing Men 5 yet he confe/Teth 
the very office in Specie is 
not of God's making. For 
if it be not Hated in Scrip- 
ture, it is not in the mecr 
Law of Nature j And our 
Church- Changers are no 
Prophets: And if God made 
not the office,then thearro- 
gated Power is not his Gift. 


Ci6 7 ] 

? on the Supreme vifible Power, fo as to leave no 

c place for Appeals concerning the Practice of 

' fuch Government (which as it lafls only for this 

' life, fo it ought not to admit of Difputes more 

: c lading than its PradticeJ from them, and than 

c upon rational and confciencious Principles: for 

u how fallible foeverthey may be conceived to be 

" in expounding Scripture , yet none can deny 

" them to be the moft certain as well as the moft 

<c competent Judges of their own Intentions: As 

\r certainly therefore as ,. T , , _ f 

"God made his Church ^S^SS£& 

P ( d) a viiible Society, and fingular Num ber, and not 

" ConflitUted a Vifible Go- of nationalChurches which 
cc vernment in it, (e) fo are many. 

" certain their Hypothefis (0 He hath confuted 

* c is falfe a Species of vifible Gover- 

n o ct t t c u nor s over the feveral Parts, 

P. 83. HOW can bub- but no one ( Per f nal or 

" je&s preferve (their due o>lleaive)over the whole. 
u Subordination to their 
" Superiours) if they pra&ice differently ? They 
" may polfibly do it notwithstanding Pra&ices of 
" Hamane Infirmity , and difavowed by them- 
Ci felves 5 But how can they do it while they de- 
" fend their Practices, and pretend Divine Autho- 
<c rity for it ? Yea, and pretend to Authority and 
" Offices unaccountable to them 5 which -muft ju- 
" ftifiea whole courfe of different Pra&ices. 

P. 84. " If their Authority *be immediately re- 
<£ ceived from God,and the Rule of their ^radices 
"betaken from the Scriptures, asunderftood by 
"themfelves whatreafon 
tl can there be of fubje- (D & ic no f obedience 
Mion to any humane S u - %*£*J%fi£ 

• u periOUrS. (fj Man ? Muft not his Law be 

undorftood? Chap. 

C i«8 3 


Muft intreat the Reader that he will not call 
_ any of thefe men Papifts till they are willing 
to be fo called : You are not their Godfathers: 
Do not then make Names for them. But I muft 
confefs that once I thought the ftablifhed French 
Religion had been Popery, and I fee no reafon to 
recant it : But if Brierwood's hpiftles mif-defcribe 
them not , Mr. Dodwell is not fo much of their 
Mind, for the Supremacy of a General Council, as 

I thought he had been : Will you know my 
Evidence ? It (hall be only in his own words. 

I. Separation of Churches, &c. Pag. 102. I" The 

li Church with whom this Covenant is made, is a Body 

Politicly as formerly , though not a Civil one~] and 

cc God hath defigned all Perfons to enter into this So- 


Pag- 98. u Faith and Repentance the mf elves , on 
c which they fo much in[ift^ are not available to Sal- 
vation^ at leafi not pleadable in a Legal way, with- 
K out our being of the Church : And the Church of 
<c which we are obliged to be, is an external Body Poli- 
" tick : (So that it's clear it is the Univerfal Church, 
Ck and a vifwle Humane Politie which he meaneth.) 
Pag.-I07. [_ u The defign of Cod in ereiling the 
Church a Body Politick^ thus to oblige men to enter 
into it, and to fubmit to its Rules of Difcipline 

II however the fecular State jhould ft and ajfecled — ., 
It is more eafe for tbe vulgar Capacity whatfoever y 

" to prove their inter* ft in a vifible Churchy than in 


[ z6 9 2 

u in an inviflble one > confining only of elett Ter* 


In thefe, and many places of both his Books, 
he teUs us. that the Catholick Church is One Body 
f Politick, and hath on Earth a Supreme humane Go- 
vernment, which I have noted in his words in my 
Aufwer to him. 

II. Pag 488. tc Only the Supreme' Toner is that 
" which can never be prefumed to have been confined. 
(Of which more in his wt)rds which I have con- 

III. That the Intention of the Ordainers is the 
true meafure of the Power of the Ordained, he 
copioufly urgeth (and proveth as much as the 
Ringing a Bell will prove it 4 , by loudnefs and 
length J Tag. 542. £" Therefore the Tower actually 
\ received by them, jnuft not be me af tared by the true 
" fence of the Script are ,but that wherein the Ordainers 
under flood themJ} Now the Ordainers of the firft 
Proteftants never intended them Power to abro- 
gate the Mafs,or Latin Service, or Image- worftup, 
or to renounce the Pope, or gave them any Power 
but what was in Subordination to the tope, but 
bound them to him and his Canons, and to the 
jMafs, and the other parts of Popery. To prove 
I this, he faith, LPag. 489. " It is very notoriom that 
<c at least a little before the Reformation, Aerius and 

" the Waldenfes^ Marfilius of Padua W Wick- 
cc lift were Condemned for Hereticks, for afferting the 
;" Parity of Bipjops and Presbyters : And it is as note- 
u rious that every Bifliop was then obliged to Condemn 
all Herefies, that ts, all thofe DoBrines which were 
tc then cenfured for Heretical by that Church , by 

" which they were Ordained to be Bifiops Our Tro- 

" i eft ants themfelves do not pretend to any Sncceffion 

" in 

L *7° 3 

cc in thefe Wefiern Tarts 3 where themfelves received 
cc their Orders, but what was conveyed to them even 
" by fuck Bijhops as thefe were. 

And Pag. 484, 4855 486. he flieweth at large* 
" CThat All the Authority which can be pretended in 
" any Communion at the prefent, mufl be derived from 
" the Epifcopal ; efpecially of that Age wherein the fe- 
Cl veral Parties began. — Within lefs than Two Hm~ 
" dred Tears fince y there was no Church in the World 
cc wherein a VifMe Succejfwn was maintained from the 
" Apofiles, which was not Epifcopally Governed* And 
11 the frft Inventus of the fever al Setts were at firfi 

" Members of thefe Epifco- 

* Or Papal, fay others. " pal Churches # , and re- 

M ceived both their Baptifm 
u in them, and all the Orders they received* — There 
" was then no other Communion that could give this 
"Authority.—- Our Adverfaries will not deny,— 
u but that their Orders were received by them, were 
" atlually received by their Forefathers in the Epif- 

cc copal Commtfnion*. — They 

* And the Papal. " have atlually received no 

<c more Power fromGod, than 
<c they have received from their Ordainers; — For 
" their Ordainers,are they, and they alone,who have re-* 

fc< prefented Gods Terfon in 

* Reprefenting his Per- " dealing with them *. — 
fonisahigh word But he cc Jh b % ^ 
never enabled them to < c -in 1 • c • 
charge his Laws,or Church- u cemd f rom t the " Sli P m ~ 
offices-, but only as Ser- ors nothing but what their 
vants, to deliver that fame iQ Superiors did atlually in- 
Power by way of Invefti- 

ture, which he had inftituted and defcribed in his Law, and was 
in their Commiflion : As the Londoners may not change the 
Lord Mayor's Office, but put him in that which the Charter 


L *7i 1 

(intend to give them. One 00 Yes: If the Bifliops 

j " would think this Should be ^ bcen ™™s of the 

H <c , /^ Office, and Donors with 

very clear (aj. abiblute Power, and not 

?. | only Servants entrufted to deliver their Matters Gifts and Of- 

n fices. 

To the Objection, that [They ought to have gi- 
ven more Power ^] he anfwers, "That only prove th 
" that we have no more, if they wronged us7\ Where 
j now is all the Reformers Power ? Did the Pope 
J or his Bifhops intend them any againft himfelf ? 
IV. But yet he perceived that fome might fey, 

Particular Ordainers might have fingular Intentions. 

(And I cannot tell him that as Richardus Armacha- 
nns, and abundance more thought Bifliops and Pref- 
byters to be ejufdem Or dims, fo did Jacobus Arma- 
channs of late, and Bifhop Bowname and many 
other Bifhops, and declared that Presbyters had 
Power of Ordination, but for Order fake itfhould 
not be without the Bifhop, fave in cafes of necef- 
fity.) To this he faith, [ " That the Ordainers 
" mutt be prefumed to do according to the com- 
" mon fenfe of the Church and Canons.] But 
what if they declare the contrary ? As Bifhop Edw. 
Refolds openly declared that he Ordained Pref- 
byters into the fame Order with Bifliops, who 
were but the prime Presbyters; and that he was 
of Dr. Sttfingfleet's Judgment , that no Form of 
Government was Jure Divino ncceffario. 

Saith he, [fag- 487. " The Law is alway chart- 
" table to prefume that every Man intends as becomes 
" him to intend : (Very good) But it's prudent to 
" prefume his aUual Intention not from what others do 
<c thinVjoiU become him, no nor from what will really 
" become him in the Judgment of Cod,— Therefore 

" tbey 

C 27* 3 

"they muft not judge of the Intention of the Bifliop by 

* I am wholly of your " the real Will of Cod *. 
Mind, (penally as to the 

Pope and hisBiftiops: But I'll judge of their Potter by the 
Will of God. 

SuppofingUS to be [Proud of the Suffrages of th e 
Schoolmen, pag. 492.493. He fufpefteth, " It was 
"rather Fie que than Conference th.>t brought them to 

"it* (Alas] Were not the Schoolmen Prelatical 
enough ? Many of them were Biihops, and one 
was a Pope at leaft.) 

And the Council at Bafil that allowed Presby- 
ters deciding Votes, and St. Jerome, and the Re- 
formers, all fall under his Cenfure for the like 5 
«fc, That Neceffity put them on it as a Shift, or 
elfe the Pope by the Vote of Biflhops would have 
carried it ; and he juftifieth not the Necefllties 
choice, but concludeth, Fag. 496, 497. " If it be' 
" fufpicious whether the Men who then followed thefe 
" Principles did embrace them out of a fmcere fenfc of 
"their Truth, then they cannot be pre fumed to have 
" been Principles of Conference. Which if they were 
"not, this is fufficknt to fhew that they are not fit 
" Meafures of the Power that was ablually given by 
" the Bijhops of that Age.] I confefs, I had thought 
that the Papift Bimops Intention had not been the 
Meafure of the Power of Bimops or Presbyters ; 
And that Mr.Dodwc/l had not been fo much againft 
the Council of Bafil as unjuft Confpirators by ill 
means to overtop the Pope. 
, He faith truly, P^g.5 05. [" Mofi certainly they 
" who were* of this Ofinion, (the Papifta) could not 
" intend to follow the Doctrine of f&e-Mficklefifts and 
" Waldenfes, who had been laiely cenfure a for main* 
" tawing the Equality ofBifoops and Presbyters] No 


rtor the Dodrine of Luther, Cranmer, Of fuch as th^ 
Church of England hath held . 
V. Yet being forced to confute himfelf, h& 

faith, p. 52. C" I* is Efficient for my purpofe that Ec- 
" clefiafiical t'ower be no otherwife from God, than 
" that is of every Supreme Civil Mugiftrate. It is r>ot 
" ufualfor Kings to beinvtfled in their Offices by 01 her 
" Kings, bat by their Subjects.. Tet when they are in- 
" veftedy that doth not in the leafi prejudice the Abfo- 
" Intenefs of their Monarchy^ where the fundamental 
" Conflitutions of the refpeltive places allow to them.'] 
(And hath not God's fundamental Law as much 

Power }) nmch lefs doth it give any Power over them 

to theperfonsby whom they are invefied. 

" // the Vower of Epifcopacy be Divine, and all 
•" that men can do in the cafe be only to determine the 
iQ Perfon y not to confine his Power ', &C. (what kept: 
the man from feeing how great a part of his Book 
he here confuteth ?; Doth he not confefs now 
thart God's Law may give the Power, which men 
imay not alter,but only determine of the Perfon to 
receive it ? In the cafe of the Presbyters Office 
he will have it otherwife, becaufe theBifliops are* 
forfoothj not only the Inverters, but the Donors, 
who give juft what they pleafe •, and he proveth it 
fully, by faying it confidently and copioufly : Be- 
caufe Godgivetiq it not immediately : Yes, he imme- 
diately by his Spirit in the Apoftles, inftituted 
thefpecies, though he do not immediately chufe 
the Receiver. But who giveth the Bifhops their' 
Power ? The Council is above them : Do they 
give them their Power ? Who giveth them theirs? 
And who giveth the Pope his Power? If his may 
be given by Divine Charter without a Humane 
Donor, but a racer Invefter,why may not a Prefc 
byters? T VL Bus; 

f *74] 

VI. But it is the free deity that is his grdftfoU'-! 
dation. Pag. 543. faith he, £" $oris there any m 
u for? for them to oppofe Cod and the Church as they «| 

" on this arid other occaj 
The Church is the Bi- « * f jr the churches Ai 
ihops and Council, the ,, . . J , . , r 

Pope being Prefident. thortty be received fro t 

u God) then what is done 1 
Her, is to be prefaced to come from him,thefame Wi 
as what is done by any man's Proxy is prefumed to 
his own all : And as what is done by an Inferk 
Magi fir ate by virtue of his Office, is prefnmed n 
_' come from the Supreme, T] 

This is in Anfwer to an Objedtion, That [_ thi 
Powers united by God are infeparable by any Humant 
Authority : But the Power of Ordination is by God\ 
finite d to the other Rights of Scripture Presbyters,8cc.jl 
He atlfwers [_ If our Adverfaries mean, that thofe\ 
Presbyters who had both thofe Powers united in them\ 
by God, could not be deprived of the one without the 
other, nor of any by any Humane Authority ; this, if it 
jhould prove true is a cafe wherein our prefent Ordina- 
tions are not concerned, which were not received in thofe 
times, wherein our Adverfaries pretend to prove that 

thefe two Powers were infe- 
*7hztxs,inScripturetimes. VaYah iy united*. They may 
J>r. Hammond confefjetb the , t , , r n. ; i 

lime : And yet we are all no be feparated de faCtO, tho 
Miniflers, and have no Sa- they who feparate them be to 
cramms, nor right to Salva- blame for fo doing.— If they 
tion, if xce have not miner- wm fhm , ^^ y God y^ 
ruptvd ucceilive Epilcopal r , j / 

Ordination from tbof "times, ""fi 'fy ™re united by 

the men who reprefented God, 
why are they not difunited by God now -when men 
alike empowered by him have difhvited.tbem ? Why 
(hould they not oblige God in one caf& as well as the 
other ? 


[ *75 ] 

h Readers, you fee here the Core of the Churched 
,ifeafe, ana chief of our differences: i. By the 
.Church they mean not the People, but the Pre- 
,ates and Councils headed by their great Prefi- 
t ent- 2 . They fuppofe thcfe to be God's Proxies^ 
ad that God doth what they do, and they fo ob- 
ge God to ftand to it,and men to take it as God's 
ijL 3. They fuppofe thefe Prelates and thetr Pre- 
dent alike impowered by God^ as the Jlpoftles were ; 
id therefore God by his Proxies now may undo 
hat he did by his Proxies then. Do you now 
ponder if Pope and Council by Canons have 
fower from God to make new Canonical Scrip- 
fires, and new Univerfal Laws for the Church 5 
?a and for the World ? And if thefe may undo 
le Scripture Laws and Inftitutions, and make 
her Sacraments and Worihip in their ftead ? 
j But Proteftants have long ago proved, 1. That 
tere is no Vice-God, an^l that God hath no 
roxies or proper Reprefentatives with whom he 
ith entrufted his Power fo, as that their word 
juft lead, and he will follow: Buc only Embaf- 
dors, whofe Meflage is prefcribed them by God, 
td they are to fpeak and do only what he bids 
iem, and he will own it, and not that which they 
ild of their own, or which they do againft his 

2. That the prefent Paftors have not the fame 
>wer as the Apoftles had -, who were commif- 
)ned to deliver Chrift's Commands to theWoi Id, 
id enabled for it by the Spirit of Infallibility and 
liracles: Even as the Jewilh Priefts had not the 
Dwer o(M fes, nor could change a tittle of the 
aw, but only keep it, teach it, and apply it. 

yil. That he and his followers are for a Su- 
T 2 preme 

freme Governing Vifible Humane Power over 
the Univerfal Church, is a thing that I need not 
cite their words further to prove. Mr. Thomaike, 

Bifhop Bromhall, Bifliop Gunning, Bilhop Sparrow , 

Dr. Sayvrell, and the reft of that mind, are not 
a (Lamed of it And it is a General Council that by 
fome of them is fuppofed ro be this Supreme 
Power : And when I have proved againft Johnfon 
that there never was a General Council of the 
Chriftian World, but of the Empire, I can get 
none of them to anfwer me ( fave that when the 
Empire was broken 5 fome of the pieces came toge- 
ther for a Job at Florence fire.) But it is the Pope's 
right, faith Bifhop Bromhall y to be Prefident and 
Patriarch of the Weft , ( which Thomdtke and 
others largelier infift on as the neceffary Prwci- 
pi nm VnitatiS) which turned poor Grotim to them 
for Unity. But I confefs I thought Mr. Dodwl\ 
had been more for a Councils Power than I fine 
he is. 

The Froteftants believe no Supreme Governof 
of the whole Church but Chrift. Dr. Jz..Barrow 
the Unity of the Church , hath fully overthrow; 
the fi&ion of a human Supreme Ariftocracy 
well as of a Monarchy i But an Union of all th| 
parts in one Head Chrift, we all believe, andxoifl 
fequently a Communion among themfelves. 

VIII. But what Mr. Dodwelh Judgment is dfl 
the Power of the Council, and whether the Supr< 
roacy be in it, or in the Prefident, I w 7 ill tell yaj 
only in his own words ; fuppofing the Reader 4 
know that the Papifts fo far differ among then| 
felves, that i. Some are for the Pope's Suprema<i| 
alone, the Council being but his Counfellors, , 
fome are for the Kings, the Parliament being bj 

1 his Counfellors. 2. Some are for the Councils Su- 
periority over the Pope, as fome fay Parliaments 
are greater than the King, and urge his old Oath 
co pafs fuch Laws qua* Vulgm elegern ; fo fay they, 
the Pope muft own thofe that the Council paffeth 5 
yea, that they may depofe him if he deferve it. 
?. Some fay that Universal Legiflation belongs on- 
ly to the Pope and Council agreeing, the Pope be- 
ing to Call and Approve them : And this is the 
prevailing Opinion among them $ fo that the Con- 
rroverlie is much like that which men have rai- 
ded about Kings and Parliaments. Now, faith 
;vtr. Dodwell, 

f Ch. 24. Pag. 509, &c. Even by the Principles 
,y Ariftocratical Government , no Power can be given 
yalidly, but to perfons who are are at leafi in conjun- 
'lion with thofe from whom they receive their Power — 
subordinate Authority muft be derived from the Supreme. 
No at? can be prefumed to be the ad: of the whole Body 9 
hut what has pajfed them in their Publick^Ajfemblies y 
Jin which Body is the Right of Government) — fo it 
[?ave the prevailing Vote : Nay> though that prevailing 
J ^bte be not the greater part of the Society , fo it be the 
\r eater part prefent at fuch _ . - , 

.AJftmblies*, God Umfelf 22 %$&■ &!*£?* 

f M , r r 1 1 riatn the "ope, tnat can g:t 

.annot be Juppofed to have f ony Italians together at 

made a Government, even Trent, feven years before he 

if his own Inftitution, pra- can fend to, and they coma 

Useable, nil he have fetled from MiX i c \ Ab ^ A £ 
' 1 r t> , r a 1 • r ■ w-:h.m, and all the World. 
Mtf Rules of Admtmitrtng Ther0 13 an ArC in all 

|f f. As nothing but the So- things, and men live by 

:iety it felf can in juftice tncir WIZS - 

-make a valid Conveyance of , + Slr > , G °i *f[ n ° c lea ™ 
'- d- / r ■ ■ otyou:3ut God hath mads 

its Right, fo n is not concet- no fuch Qovenment at all, 

yable hov the Society it felf Monarchy or Ariftocracy. 

: can do it by any thing but its own aft. If 

If this befo, 1. Mark that this man difclairc 
eth any other Divine Inftitution than by the So 
ciety. 2. The People that have no Power, beinj 
the greater part of the Society or Church, giv 
the Bifhop and Pope, and Council their Power 
3. If the Clergy were all the Church, the PrefJ 
byters give that Power to the Bifhops and. Pope 
which they had not themfelves. 4. All runs o: 
the falfe Antimonarchical and Anarchical Prin 
ciple, which I have confuted in Hooker, that the] 
Body makes Power by giving up their own Right 
$* Then the General Councils and Pope have no 
Power : For the Body of the Univerfal Church 
never gave it them, but the Emperors, (fave as 
to Teaching and Arbitrations J 6. Then in thofe 
Countries where the Body of Clergy and People 
put dowto Bifhops, there Bifhops are put down by 
fuch as had Power to do it. For 1. If man 
may fet up Diocefans, Popes and Councils, man 
may take them down. 

Yet the Proteus changeth his face, and prefently 
fuppofeth £ that the whole Right of thefe Affemblies 
could not have proceeded from the hare confent of the 
Society, but from the allual Eftablifliment of God: — • 
No Affemblvs can difpofe of the Rights of fuch Sock' 
ties, but fuch as are lawful ones according to the 
Conftitutions of that Society. — As out of AJfemblies 
they have no power to all who might all in them, how 
many foever of the Suffrages, and how freely fever 
they had been gotten ; fo all thofe Meetings, how nu- 
merous fpever? for alls of Government, if they be not 
Legal, they add nothing of advantage to the power of 
particulars fingly confidered. They are not in the 
Eye of the Law* Afjcmblies, but Routs, and their con- 
'■arrence, not Confent, but Confederacy; And as it 


C 279 ] 

tyere Rebellion in particular ferfons to attempt any thing 
if that nature concerning the Government without the 
lonfent of their prefent Eftabliflied Govcrnours ^ — fo is 
here nothing in fuch a Meeting that can give them 
iny Power as united more than they had as fingly 
onfideredi that may excufe 
hem from Rebellion * Nay * A General Council 

rather, by the Principles of m f ee K tu ]f wl J^4^ra? 
L - \ f , ,1,1 • of the Pope their Eftabhlh- 
m Societies, that -which had ed Governour, are Rebels. 
lot been Rebellion, if done 

fingly, is counted fo, if it be done in unlawful Affem- 
Mies, And fur e none can thinkjt reafonable to ratifie 
\he acts of Rebells. — And if the Society be not repre- 
sented by unlawful Affemblies^ how can it in jufiice be 
^obliged by them f How can any of its Rights be difpofed 
[of by them who are no* 

its Legal Rewefentatives *. x « " ath the King no 

~ s l J power but as a Reprefen- 

t-R 5 13. The moft natural tative ? If yea? why noc 

Mway is by abrogating the others? "2. Who made Pope 

VMi of fuch Affemblies. or Prelates the Reprefen- 

' Therefore the JmifdiEthn of stives ol chofe that never 

; iff 1 1 1 1 t> r confented to them? 
[the Afjembly by the Prefi- 

< dent, u a right confequent of the Office of a Prefident, 
' as a Pre ft dent, and a circumfiance requifte to make 
! the Affembly it f elf lawful — fpecially where no certain 

places or periods of times are agreed on for the keeping 

of any *. There muft be fome 

who have the power of Af 3 No f T k ™ w u what 
r iv 1 11 Councils have Authority : 

femblwg them, when they 0nly thofe appointe a hy 

judge it convenient for the the Prefident. 

publkk^, and who may be 

allowed for competent Judges of that convenience. — 

Every one is not permitted to judge of the oecafton. — 

But there is none concerning whom this Tower can fo 

probably be prefumed — None to whom all undifpofed 

T 4 Power, 

[ i8o ] 

Tower, ioes by the common Rules of all Soeietks , f\\ 
naturally Ef cheat, as the Pre (idem of the Affemblies^ 
Even in the Affemblies a Feneration is due to him, foA 
his Office above all other Members, but much more fo\ 
out of the Affemblies, where none is in a likely way ti 
be able to cppofe him. He who calls an Affembly mufi\ 
have fome advantage over all the Members called kf 
him, that he may oblige them to convene , and it is 
neceffary to the Publicist hat they be obliged to meet when 
they are fo called, that is, when the JVDGE ofCir- 
cpmfiances thinks it neceffary , &c. But there is none 
who can pretend, to this advantage, I do not fay, of 
J ur if diet ion , bat even of Authority and Reverence, 
#bove his fellow Members, be fides the Trefident. 

Be fides, the Power of fuch Affemblies expires with 
the Affemblies themfelves : fo that in the intervals of 
Affemblies there remains no more of that Power, &c. 
But the Convening of Jffemblies is an aci of Authority, 
in that very interval, and therefore cannot agree to any. 
hut the Prefident , whofe Authority alone.can be ante- 
cedent to the meeting of the Jffemblies ; fo that if it be 
the right of any it mufi be 'his, because none be fides 
him is capable of it. 

■ Anfw. l . Did Hofius of Cor dub a, or Eufiathius 
Antiochenus, or Cyril Alexandr. Anatolius Consl.&C. 
call the Councils of Nice, Ephefw,fkc or had an 
Antecedent right to it ? 3 Hath no King or 
Parliament a right to call a Convocation in Eng 

land ( 3 . Have not K. James f Jewel, Crakenthorpe y 
'Buckeridge, Bilfon, Carlton, Abbot, E&ld, Andrews, 
and other Englith Bifhops and Divines, and Char 
mer, Sadeel, Chttnnifim, and the reft abroad, fully 
proved that the Emperors called the General 
Councils, as did the Spaniih and French Kings, 
tind the Erppejor Provincial ones* 4. Doth no{ 


[i8i ] 

yery Conformift Subfcribe to the Articles of Re- 
gion, which (ay, that General Councils may not 
e called but by the Will of Princes ? Though 
■ r [ ^r. Dodwell have the plain Honefty not to be 
') )rdained or Subfcribe thefe Englifh Articles, 
>'■'■ i/lr. Thorndike , Bifhop Bromhall , bifhop Guning , 
[i)r. Saywell, Dr. Parser, &C. I fuppofe did ; But 
st us hear him further. 
i r " And this is more certainly true of him who has 
i If a right to pre fide in Affemblies when they are con- 
» vened by Virtue of his General Right to pre fide over 
| the whole Society , as well when Affemblies are not 
J < Convened as when they are , than of him who is 
', chofen by the particular Affemblies for their parti- 
1 cular Occafions. And he who has hi* Precedency 
\ i not by virtue of any particular Elettion, but for 
i, {c term of Life , muff have fuch a Prefidency as I am 
" /pealqngQf. Not only the Affemblies convened by 
u him arc in this regard lawful 3 but alfo ne Af}em- 
u blies are lawful but what are called by him , be- 
u caufe there is no other way of making them law- 
U fitly but the lawfuln&fs of their Call ; nor any 
u Power to Gall them diftintt from that of fuch a? 
? President. 

Do you wonder that this Man Conformeth 
not ? Or do you not wonder that thofe Subfcribe 
and are called Proteftants that are of his Mind? 
If they can anfwer the Articles, the King and Par- 
liament, that fay the King hath Power to call 
Synodr, what do they make of their Readers that 
obtrude fuch Baronian fictions on us, without 
once attempting to anfwer Proteftants, who with. 
all credible Hiftorians , prove it part all inodeft 
Contradiftioa that Emperors were the ordinary 
Callers of the General Councils, and not the Pre- 
sidents or Pope. ' Tag. 

C 282 ] 

• Pag. 516,517. Hegoeth on averting Afiem 

blies Called without the Prefident to be unlawf$l y 
futilities , and by the higheft common intereft to be 
pHwJJied (fo far muft we think the Councils ofj 
Nice, Ephcf?is y &tc. to be from binding us) and 
faith, Q u Indeed the Bifliops could not renounce this 
cc Power without diffolving the Society by making the 

Exercife of Government unprablicable , or without 
" changing the whole frame of Government 5 For — • 

who muft have it I If none had had it, how could the 
<c Society be fecured , that Affemblies fhould meet if 
u none had Power to oblige particular Members to be 
a prefent at them when called . ? If at any time no 
- meeting were afcertained , the Government would be 
" difjolved ? 

Anf 1. Did this reading Man never hear of the 
Claim of Princes to call Councils in their Domi 
nions ? Did he not know where he lived? Dicf 
he never read the late Ad of Parliament in Scot- 
land y that aflerts all Church-Power in Exteriors 
to be in the King ? Nor any of the Proteftants 
Confeflions or Divines? Should I think he had 
quite forgotten all this ? or that he had the craftf 
to take no notice of it, as that which was too hot 
to handle? 

2. And was it not a piece of Wit to take it 
for granted that fuch Aflemblies fas he calleth 
the Councils) are fo Eflential to the Church, that 
the Government and Society is diflblved without 
them , or without a Ruling Prefidents Power to 
call them ? And the Pope muft have a Power to 
oblige all particulars to come when he calleth 
them ? And no wonder when (unlefs Men be 

Cheaters) the whole Power Efcheateth into the Pre- 
fident s hands when the Council is diffolved 5 which is 


C i8j ] 

cvhen ever his Holinefs pleafe : And long enough 
may you Petition him for thefe Church Parlia- 
ments, when to call them, is to furrender part of 
ois Power. 

Anfw. 3. But what if all thefe Church Councils 
is fuch have no Governing Power at all over any 
>f the particular Bifhops, any more than a Synod 
)f School matters have over each others Perfons 
nd Schools,but meet only by Chrift's general Ob- 
jigation to do all their work with greateft Pru- 
dence for Mutual Help and Concord ? He hath 
>een told on both Ears oft enough that this is not 
only his Adverfaries Judgment , but fuch great 
Sifhops as I have oft named : yea, and of GrotiJts 
lis Friend , when he wrote de Imp. fum. Potefi. 
tod where do you find this Difputant once at- 
empt in all this begging prefuming Volume to 
prove any Regent Power in fuch Councils (but 
vhat the Magistrate giveth them.) 
! Monfira mihi 7 in quit Huron, quifnam Imperatorum 
\elebrari id Concilium jujferit f faith Grotius, (lb. 
r. 168.) Non ideo convocari Synodum quod in ea pars 
ft Imperii , J at is jam demon ftratum arbitror : Finis 
\rgo y ut EpifcopHs Wintonienfis recle not at , hie eft, ut 
id I'critatis & Pietatis amplification em Confilium Prin- 
\ipi prabeam ; hoc eft ^Pr meant ipfi judicio direBivo—- 
V* ut per Synodum ft abiliri teftataq; fieri poffit Con- 
fynfio Ecclefia. — Omnium aut em horum finium nullm 
'Sir neceffarim fimp licit er. Neq--, Synodtu /implicit er ad 

ilos fines neceffaria. This he goeth on to prove, 
>nd more than fo,that Synods are oft hurtftil (as 
veil as unneceflary ,< Cum potius, faith Auguft. 

*ariffimtc inveniantur harefes propter quas damnandas 
lecejjitas talis ex ft iter it.) I will not repeat , faith 
jrotiuS;, the Complaint of almoft all Ages , that the 


C ^4 3 

rfc/ef Difeafes were brought into the Church a Sa- 
cerdotibus : citing NazJianzjen , he addeth, iVe^ 
*g*V d§ Arianis duntaxat Synodis v fed de omni- 
bus fuoriim temporum,pr<ecipue quibus ipfe interfuit 
(Mr. Morrke might eafily know this; Nee 

pauca referri poffunt fi opus fit infoeliciorum conci- 
liorum exempla , quale fuit fub Conft amino Antio- 
chenum , Cafarienfe & Tyrium , cujus conventas 
Epl/copis fcribens Conft antinus , nihil ait ab Wis fieri, 
nifi quod ad odia & diffenfiones ferendas, ad perni- 

ciem deniq; humani generis faciat. Zanchy's way 

cited by him, is oft better than Councils, that the 
Magiftr ate command Minifters in Controversies, I .Vti 
fion fuis fed Script ur& vocibm, 2. Et a pub lied damn a- 
tione abftinere. 

And Pag. 2Cp. faith Grotius, The Church hath no 
Legiflative Power by Divine Right — What was written 
in Synods before Chriftian Emperors for Order and 
Ornament, are not called Laws but Canons, and have 
either only the force of advice , as in things which ra- 
ther belong to fingular perfons than to all ; or they ob- 
lige by way of Agreement, &c. But fome Legiflative 
Tower may be given by humane Laws — 

But perhaps fome will fay that Mr. Bodwell 
fpeaketh only of National, or Provincial, or Dio- 
cefane Councils, and not of General ones , and 
therefore by the fixed Prefident, meaneth not the 

Anfw. i. I would he were willing and able to 
tell what he meaneth. But he felt what a fine 
advantage he had under the Name of Bifiops Prefi- 
dency to pleafe a Party, and fay more than every 
one of them fliall at firfl: perceive. But he ex- 
prefly maintained! that the Univerfal Church is 
one Political Society, and hath a vifible Supreme hu- 


mane Government that is Abfolute , and from which 
there is no appeal ; And that this Society hath Le- 
giflative Power, and is bound hit by the Laws made 
in its own Affemblies : And that thefe Jffcmbliet are 
I Rebels, and punijliabk if not called by the Vrefident : 
And though Mr. D. had the Prudence to ufe the 
word Prefident rather than Pope, if ever he (peak 
intelligibly it's here. And Mr. Thorndike (whom 
he valueth as a found Proteftant) Archbiftiop 
Bromhall, and the reft of the Tribe , do openly 
aflert the due Prefidence of the Pope , as Principium 
V nit at is and fir ft Patriarch. 

Saith Mr- Dodwell further, P^. 522, 523. [Sup- 
pofing thofe Fresbyters thm chofe the Vrefident had 
invejted him in his Office by Prayer and Impofition of 
hands, and no Bijhops had any more to do in his Confe- 
cration, than Kings have in the Inauguration of our 
ordinary Kings — it will not follow that thofe Presbyters 
who chofe and confecrated him, muft have any more 
Power over him — Nor is it only true that this way 
may be fo — but indeed it muft be fo ; whenever the 
Perfon fo invefted isfuppofed to be invefted in the Su- 
preme Power, and whenever the Society over which he 
is placed is alfo Independent on other Societies £As 
the Univerfal Church is] Such a Perfon can never 
be placed in his Power, if not by them who muft after 
be his Subjetts, unlefs by his Predeceffor, which no 
Society can fafely depend on for a con ft ant rule of 
Succejfwn. ( And doth any but the Pope pre- 
tend to this Soveraign place) ? In his own Society 
he can have none of his own Order that can perform 
the Ceremony to him , becaufe we fuppofe Him to be 
Supreme ; and there cannot be twofuch in one Society. 
(True: And you make it your fundamental thac 
the Catholick Church is one fuch Society j and (b 

rauft have fuch a SupremeA And 

[ 286 q 

And it's worth the noting which he adds C"^¥ 
cc therefore /, for my part, am fo little folicitons jit. . 
" any confequence that may be hence inferred to thr\ 
"prejudice of my Caufe, as that J am apt to think | 
cc that this muft have been the way at firfi in the \ 
iC making of Bifljops, how Abfolutt foever I conceive j 
c ' them to have been when they were once made. — 

Anf. Are we not beholden to the Univerfal 
Prefidentfhip for this conceflion ? I forced John- 
fon, alias Terret to the fame : And yet both thefe 
men cry down a Power refulting from God's Law 
or Charter to the perfon duly receptive, when 
yet the Inftance of the Papacy conftraineth them ] 
to make it their foundation. Why then muft 
Presbyterian Ordination be Nullity, if Inferiors 
only chufe and Confecrate the Pope, and Presby- 
ters only at firft chofe and Confecrated Bifliops ? 

Obj. The difference is, that fuch Inferiors are but 
Electors and Invefting Minifters, and not Donors of 
the Tower, but Topes and V relates are Donors. 

Anf i. Then no Prelate could be fuch but by 
the Popes or Councils donation. 2. Doth not 
Mr. D. oft fay, that the Body is the feat of Power, 
and fo giveth it ? 3. But why fhouM he think 
that we muft take his word for this di 'Thence and 
the Prelatical Donation inftead of MidS^y ? Do 
not the Papifts themfelves more commonly hold 
that the Presbyters ( or Priefts) Office is of fixed 
Divine luftitution, and more unalterable, than 
that the Bifhops is ? The latter is difputed ; the 
former undifputable. ( It may be Mr. D. will 
thus prove that he is no Papift : But I had rather 
he be one than worfe.) 

Nay, what will ygu fay jf after all he be half 
an Independent ? 


t P. 523. faith he, L" Thiffeems be ft to agree with 
Ithc Abfolutcnefs of Particular Churchc*, before they 
.had by compaB; united them f elves under Metropo- 
nes and Exarchs into Provincial and Diocefan 
'Churches.-*-* And this feems to have been fated for 
the frequent Perfecutions of thofe earlier Ages, when 
every Church was able tofecure its own Succcffion by 
its own power withoue depending on the certain oppor- 
tunities of the meeting of the Bifiops of the whole 
Province, And the alteration of this praElice, the 
giving the Bi/Jjops of the Province an inter eft in the 
Choice of every particular Colleague, ferns not to 
have beenfo nmchfor want of power in the particu- 
lar Churches to do it^ as for the fccurity of Com- 
pacts, that they might be certain of fuch a Col- 
league as would obferve them. — 1 And he thinks 
[it probable that it was in imitation of the 
Philofophers Succeffions, that thefe Ecclefiaftical 
Succeftions were framed. — And when the Philofo- 
phers failed to nominate their own Succeffors, then 
the Eletlion was in the Schools f\ 
Anf What could be (aid more gently by fuch 
man? 1. Then the firft Churches were like 
tiilofophers Schools j very good ; not many fcore 
r hundred Schools as the firft and leafl: Order. 
. The Government of Churches was much like 
latof Philofophers in their Schools. 3. Biihops 
ind much more Presbyters) might be made then 
ithout Bifhops, by the Eledion and Confecr*- 
on of Presbyters. 4. This was the old way in 
me of P£rfecution. 5- This alteration was not 
>r want of Power in the Particular Churches, &c. 
But it was made to fecure Obfervance in the 
Colleagues. 7. And Church Succeftions framed in 
nicatioo of Philofophers. 


[ 283 ] 

Wfe (hall in due time enquire whether we are 
all bound to ftand to thefe changes, on pain of all 
the fcorn and fufferings that the followers of them 
will lay upon us. 

Will you know more of this Self-confutation a 
In his Preface he faith, [P. 4. " Ifuppofe all Churches 
" Originally equal, and that they have fence fubmiu 
tt ted to prudential Compacts, 

But are not all we ( poor nothings then) obliged 
on pain of damnation to ftand to all that our Fore> 
fathers did ? And muft we not take the Imperial 
Subje&s oiAfia, Africa and Europe^ we know not 
whoj for our Fore-fathers in Brittain ? and be of 
that Heathens mind that drew back from Bap- 
tifm, when he heard his Fore- fathers were in 
Hell, and faid, that he would be where they were?! 
No, this moderate man tells you, Q" Though they] 

" may oblige them as long as the reafon of thefe Com- 
" patls lafts, and as far as the equity ofthofe Com- 
" palls may hold, as to the true defegn of thofe that 
cc made them, and as far as thoje Compacls have 
cc meddled with the alienable Rights of Particular 
" Churches 5 yet where any of thefe Conditions fail^ 
<c there the Particular Churches are at liberty to re- 
"fume their Ant tent Rights. 

obj. Yea, but who ihall judge when any of 
of thefe Conditions fail ? 

He anf.vers next \_And I juppofe the power of 
judging when, thefe Conditions fail to be an unalienable 
Right of Particular Churches, and not only to judge 
with the judgment of private difcretion^ but fitch a 
Judgment as may be an authentic^ meafure of her 
own practice. 

We thank you Sir, that you give us fo fair 
quarter : J3uc if you had not, had we known 



1 [289] m : . 

Ihere, we (hould have commenced a Suit for our* 

1 itiveand Chriftian Birch-right, and pun you to 

■rave quo jure John, Thomas, Peter, &c. meeting a 

Dufand years ago we know not why, nor when, 

Mr by what Authority, did give away the Birth- 

t\it and the Souls of an hundred millions not 

' n in being, that never confented or heard of 

:ir names, nor were bound to know that there 

h fuch a City as Rome, Nice, &c. or fuch men 

'Leo, Tharafites,&c t in the World. And if you 

I anfwered us according to the Roman genius 

jth Gaols j or Fire and Faggot, we would have ap- 

Med to God whether you and all fuch will or 

: 3 and when God judgeth, do your worfc. 

3ut would you think what a ftrefs this Humane 

tholick layethon innovating Prelates Compa&s? 

• adds after all this, 

■?. 6. Whoever they were that nominated the perfons^ 
>ther the People, the Clergy, or the Prince, or the 
w 5 yet ftill they were the Bijhops that performed 
"'Office of Confecration } which was that which was 
y thought immediately to confer the Power, 
rlnf. You were not then in being, and there- 
e did not then think it. — And you know mens 
lights fo long before you were born no better 
n others 5 Oportet fuiffe memorem. Had you not 
mory enough to make your Freface meet with 
lr Book, where you fay that Presbyters did 
nfecrate Bifhops, and yet did not give them the 
wer ? and fay that as to the Supreme Vrejident, 
he know his name ) it muft ftill be otherwife. 
Y«c this fundamental Humanift concludeth, 
[ I. [ They muft be guilty of dif obedience to the Di- 
e Government, — — Guilty of giving or abetting a 
vine Authority in Men to whom God has never gi~ 

r *9° i 

ven fitch Authority, nay in oppofuion to all the Autho- 
rity, he hus really efiabtifiied among men. They muft 
be guilty of forging Covenants in Gods Name, and 
counterfeit in gthe great Seals of Heaven in ratification 
of them. And what can he more Treafonable by all the 
Principles of Government ? What is more provoking 
and more difficultly pardonable — They muft be 
guilty of finning a gain ft the Holy Ghost, and unto 
Death, and of the (ins defcribed in the pajfages of the 
Epiftle to the Hebrews, with which none do terrifie the 
Confcicnces of ignorant unskilful perfons more than 
they do- They muft be guilty offuch fins which as they 
need pardon more than others 5 fo do they in the na- 
ture of the things themfelves more effetlually cut off 
the offender from all hopes of pardon in an ordinary 
re ay. By being dif united from the Church, he lofes 
his Union with Chrifi, and all the Myftical benefits 
confequent to that Vnion. He has therefore no Title 
to the Sufferings, or Merits, or Jnterceffion of Chrifi, 
or any of thofe other bleffmgs which were purchafed by 
thofe Merits, or which may be expelled from thofe 
Jnterceffwns. He has no Title to pardon of fin, to the 
gifts and affiftants of the bleffed Spirit, or to any Pro- 
tnifes of future Rewards, though he Jhould perform 
this of uniting him f elf again to Chrifi' s Myfiical 
Body in a VISIBLE C0MMVN10N : Till then, 
there are no promifes of acceptance of any Prayers 
which either he may offer for himfelf, or others may 
offer for him. And how difconfolate muft the condi- 
tion offuch a perfon be ! 

And pag. 20. Suppofe I were mifiaken~why (hoidd 
they take it ill to be warned of a danger ? — 

Anf 10. What harm was it for thofe,Acl. 15. 
to fiy, Except ye be circHmcifed and keep the Law of 


t *9 J 3 

Mofes, ye cannot be faved f And yet did Tad 
rail whenhefaid, Beware of evil-workers, beware of 
Dogs, beware of the Concifion? What Sett cannot 
eafily without a Do&ors degree thus difpute ? 
Ton are all damned that be not of our mind or Sett. 

But the Devil hurts thofe moft whom he leaft af- 

Avf. 2. What if we put this to wife men to 
tell us, i. How he can prove that all the Chri- 
ftian World agreed to the Compa&s that bring us 
under thefe hellifli confequences. I provoke him 
again to anfwer my proof againft Terret, that they 
were the Compacts but of one Empire ? 

i. How proveth he that we Brittains are under 
fuch Compafis, when our Anceftors ( and the 
Scots) renounced Communion with the Romanifts ? 

3. If our Anceftors after turned to Popery or 
Church-Tyranny, how proveth he that we are 
my more bound to fin as they did, than if they 
qad turned to Arianifm or Turcifm ? when Etek. 

8. & 33- fpeak for the clean contrary. 

4. What if we prove that Chrift hath himfelf 
■i*iven the Church in the Scriptures, an account of 
lis own Inftitution of Church-Form and Go- 
vernment, as much as is neceflary to its Eflence, 
Unity and Salvation, and that all altering Cotli- 
ba&s contrary to this are diabolical : Will Chrifc 
damn us for not breaking his Laws, and ferving 
:he Devil ? Is it the fin againft the Holy Ghoft, 
md unpardonable, not to defpife Chrift's Laws, 
md not to obey the Devil ? 

5. What if we prove to him that the very 
Species of his Prelacy, and fpecially of a Supreme 
Catholick Jurifdi&ion is condemned by Chrift, 
md Treafon againft him ? Are we Traytors for 
Jot being Traytors ? U * 6. What 

[ 2 9* 3 

6. What if we prove to him, that according 
to his very Canons, the Pope and Bifhops that he 
damns us for not owning, are noBiihops, having 
no true Call and Title to that which they pre- 
tend to ? 

Will you have yet another of his Self-conau- 
di&ions ? P. 7. [ / cannot butlook^on it as an Argu- 
ment that God never intended to oblige Particular ; 
Churches to as great a dependence on other Churches 
as that is wherein he has obliged Subjects to depend on 
their own Churches, becaufe by his contrivance of 
things it does not follow, that Separating Churches muft 
be left as destitute of the ordinary means of Salvation 
on their feparation from other Churches, as particular 
Subjects are on their feparation from their own 
Churches* — Abating what obligations they have 
brought on themfelves by their own Compacts, God has 
made them equal. — -There is no way of judging who is 
in the right , but by the intrinfick merit of theCaufe. 
J really believe that the true original defign of thofe 
Compa&s whereby particular Churches have voluntas 
rilyfubmitted to reftritlions of their original Power, 
was ONLY that every particular Church might have 
her Ccnfures confirmed in all other Churches in reference 
to thofe who were originally her own Subjetls ^ not to 
gain a Power over any other Subjetls but her own?, 
nor to fubmit to any other Vower, &c. Alas! And U 
have Compacts by we know not who brought us | 
all into the fnare of the unpardonable fin?Though 
Chrift died for the World, he faveth none but 
Confenters: And can Men in Afia, in Towns 
whofe Names we poor Countreymen never heard 
of, make Laws to Damn all to the Worlds end, 
that obey them not j and this without our own 
Confent ? 


To conclude, this Gentleman hath yet an eafie 
remedy againft all this : He doth indeed frequent- 
ly prove (if you will believe him) that though 
you have Faith that works by Love, and do all ether 
duty, ( that is in Love to God and Man ) you 
cannot be faved without external Communion, 
that is, fubje&ion to this humanly compared Ca- 
tholick Church -, fo faid Pope Nicholas long ago, 
yea and ^.neas Sylvius when Pins 2d, that all o- 
ther Graces and Duties will not fave a Man that 
is not fubje<3 to theBilhopof Rome : But faith this 
Man, p- 13. They may eafily avoid the danger only 
by returning to the CatholickfUnity. Mark Catholic £ 
Vnity. National Unity will not ferve : We grant 
it. But what Catholick Vnity is, and whether Ca- 
tholick Councils with a Catholick Prefident that 
hath an Antecedent Power to call and oblige 
rhem, without which they are null, rebellious 
and punifhable, and to whom all Power efcheat- 
£th in the Intervals of Councils, whether I fay, 
chis beneceflary to Catholick Unity, or to Anti- 
jrhriftian Church Tyranny is the doubt. 

I will conclude this with Dr. /*.. Barrow's The- 
fop. 255. 

1 . Patriarchs are an Humane Inftitution, 

2. -^s they were erecled by the Power and Pru- 
dence of Men . fo they may be diffolved by the fame. 

3. They were erecled by the leave and confirmation 
rf Princes, and by the fame they may be dejected, if 
yjeat reafon do appear. 

14. The Patriarchate of the Pope beyond his own 
Province or Diocefsdoth not fnbfift upon any Canon of 
U general Synod. 

5. He can therefore claim no fiich Power other wife 
than upon his Invafion or slffumption. 

U 3 6. The 

C *94 3 

6. The Primates and Metropolitans of the Weftern 
Church cannot befuppofed otherwife than by force or out 
of fear to have fubmit ted to fitch an Authority as he 
doth Vfurp. 

7. h is not really a Patriarchal Power, ( like that 
granted by the Canons and Princes ) but another fort 
of Power whtch the Pope doth Exercife- 

8. The moft rightful Patriarch holding falfe Do* 
Urine, or impofmg unjuft Laws, or Tyrannically abu~ 
fing his Power may and ought to be rejected from Com- 

9. Such a Patriarch is to be judged by a free Synod 
if it may be had. 

io. If fuch a Synod cannot be had by confent of 
Princes , each Church may free it felf from the 
wifchiefs induced by his perverfe Doctrine and Pro- 

11. No Ecclejiaftical Power can interpofe in the 
management of any Affairs within the Territory of any 
Prince without his Conceffion. 

1 2. By the Laws of God^ and according to ancient 
PraBice princes may model the Bounds of Ecclejiafti- 
cal J ur if diblion, ercbJ Bijhopricks, enlarge, diminifhor 
transfer them as they pleafe. 

13. Wherefore each Prince having Supream Power 
in his own Dominion and equal to the Emperors in his, 
-may exclude any Foreign Prelate from Jurifdiclion in 
his Territories. 

14. his expedient for the public]^ peace and good 
that he Jhould do thus. 

15. Such prelate according to the Rules of Chrifti- 
<mity, ought to be content with his doing fo. 

1 6. Any Prelate Exercifmg Power in the Dominion 
of any Prince, is eatenus his Subjett ; as the Popes and 
allBiffjops were to the Roman Emperor, 

17. Thofi 

C*9J ] 

1 7. Thofe Joints of Ecclefi Apical Difcipline Esla- 

1 blifljed in the Roman Empire by the Confirmation of 
■■ Emperors y were (as to necejfary continuance ) diffolv- 
edbj the dijfolution of the Roman Empire. 

1 8. The Power of the Pope in the Territories of any 
Prince didfubfift by his Authority and Favour. 

ig. By the fame Power asPrinces have curbed the 
Exorbitancy of Papal Tower infome Cafes, (of enter- 
taining Legates, making Appeals, difpofing of Bene- 
fices > &C. ) by the fame they might exclude it. 

20. The prallice of Chriftianity doth not depend on 
the fubfiftence offuch a form inftitnted by man. 

As to Mr. Dodwelfs fundamental Opinion (that 
the Minifter can have no Power which the Or- 
dainer intended not to give him) He over- 
rhroweth by it all the Reformation and all the 
|Engli(h reforming Miniftry , as derived from the 
Roman Ordination : For it's certain that the Ro- 
man Biihops intended not to give them Power to 
reform, or to Worfliip God as they have done. 
1 And the Proteftants areagainft him: Saith Dr. 
JC ha/loner ( in his Credo Ecclef Cath. p. 95.) How- 
ever the Priefi at the Baptizing, or the Bifhop at the 
Ordination, had another meaning, yet the words 
wherewith they Baptized and Ordained being the 
words of Chrifi, are to be taken in Chrifts meaning; 
\in as much as he which receiveth from another, is to 
receive it according to the intention of the Principal 
Giver, and not the Inftrumental Giver, He which 
confers Baptifm and Orders as the Principal Donor is 
Chrift ; the Bifhop or PasJor confers them only as his 
\Jnfiruments. ~] So others. 
! As all Power is of God and mud be obeyed, 
to Ufurpation is of Satan, and the higher the 
worfe; and the word -dmchrift is fuppofed by 
U 4 many 

[ *<?6 1 
many to fignifie one that iszVfurpingCbrisl, that 
is, a Ufurper of Vniverfal Sovereignty which none 
-but Chrift is capable of. 

Mr. Jof.Glanviks Chara&er of Devils or Evil 

Spirits in his Sadduceifmus Triumphatm is COnfide- 
rable, p. 33. and 42. Edit. 2. [ wC The meaneft and 

" bafeft in the Kingdom of darknefs bavin gnone 

** to Rale and Tyrannize over wit bin the Circle of 
^ their own Nature and Government ; they affeel a 
" proud Empire over us, the defire of Dominion and 
<fi Authority being largely fpread through the whole 
iC circumference of degenerated Nature, efpecially a* 
* c mong thofe whofe Pride was their Original Tranf-. 

greffion : Every one of thefe defireth to get him Vaf- 
.. fals t opay him Homage. 

» ■ The good Angels have no fuch ends to profecute, 
"as the gaining any Vaffals toferve them, they being 
1 Miniftring Spirits for cur good, and nofelf-defigners 
[ c for aproudandinfolent Dominion overm. 

But I think no Devil but Beelzebub the Prince 
afpireth fo high as to be Ruler of all the World 
or Church : And when Cardinal Benrand told 
Vhilip King of France that God had not been Wife 
if he had not fet up ofte as his Vicegerent vifibly . 
to Rule all the World, I do not find that he fet 
up that Vice-god fo far above God himfelf as to 
forbid obeying him before his Viceroy, or to de- 
ny Gods Univerfal Laws to be above Mans, and 
to deny all Appeals to God and his Word, or to 
fay that the Prefident of Counfels mud be obeyed 
without excepting, 

If Gods Laws and his be inconfiftent. 

Since the Writing of all foregoing, Mr. Dodwell 
Lull Published ihe Second Part of his Leviathan, 


[ *97 1 
called, A Difcourfe of one Altar and one Priefl- 
hood, as againft us whom he callethSchifmaticks, 
and me in particular.lt is much of the Complexion 
of the Firft Part, ( His Schifmatical Book ) being 
a Chain of many linked Propofitions , of which 
many are falfe,and many falfly fhaped and applied : 
But put off with a confident Affirmation that he 
hath proved them true ; And his former Method 
,ts defended by as confident an Affirmation, that 
Bill that is faid againft them invalidates not his 
1 proof. The fhorteft way, I confefs, of defending 
himfelf , and anfwering others , and faveth the 
labour of much Writing and Reading : And I 
think if the tedious Difcourfes of his two Volumes 
had been juft fo abbreviated, it had been a Kind- 
neis to his Readers. 

§ 2. Whether he referve his Anfwer to my laft 

, Book againft him to another Treatife, or mean to 

overpais it by faying it is contemptible, I know 

not, nor much defire to know. I find him here 

in his Preface doing that which may ferve his 

turn much better than an anfwer, viz* i. Many 

| angry Charges that I (lander him 5 2. An attempt 

|to prove it agreeable to his Method. 3. Confi- 

j dent Affirmation that I write not accurately, nor 

, anfwer his Proofs. And to thofe that read his 

'Books and not mine, this is enough. 

§ 3. His Proof of my Slander is moftly by way 
J of queftion 5 Where did J fay this or that ? Where, 
1. Thofe things that I fpake of others, he feigneth 
I me to fay of him : Joyning divers late Writers 
J together , I mention what is faid among them, 
Jfome one part, and fome another, and he takes all 
Ito himfelf. 2. When I mention the clear Confe- 
rences of his Doctrine* 3. And when in my 


C *98 ] 
Letters I recite his Verbal Difiourfe with me , he 

asks, Where have 1 [aid it. 

Did I not find him a defigned Hider^ I woald not 
fufped: defigned Fraud , but fhould be very glad 
that he fo much as intimateth in his Queftions a 
denial of fo many Errors % But who can choofe 
but fufpe<5t his Sincerity in fuch fieming Denials - 9 
who findeth fome of them unfincere. E. g. He 
asketh (Pref.) Where did I once call Thomas Aqui- 
nas a Saint f This ftartleth me : Many times have 
ray Ears heard him call him [Saint Thomas'} and 
never once heard him call him othervvife. And 
doth he now feem to deny it ? I never faid that 
he fo wrote, but fo called him. Had I not reafon 
to believe that when he oft calls (the church of 
Chris! in the Angular Number -, One Political Body 
under One humane Government which all mujl obey, 
and not queftion, whether it's Laws be agreeable 
to the Law of God] that he meant the Church 
Catholick , and not a Diocefi i There are Thou- 
fands of Diocefles 5 but the Church that he fpake 
of is but One. Had I any reafon to believe that 
when hetalkt of the file right of the Trefident to 
call Councils or ^jfemblies to make Church Canons, 

that he meant only Diocefans ? When as a Dioce- 
iaBt hath no Bifhops under him to Convocate ? 
And whether it be not Convocate Bifhops to 
whom he appropriated! this Legiflation , let the 
Reader judge as he feeth caufe. 

§ 4- But I abhor making any Man thought to 
qwn what he difowneth. And I gladly receive his 
intimated Oenyals in thefe Queftions ; and tender 
them to the Confideration of all that are for a 
foreign Jurifdiciion. 

1. Mr. 

C *99 1 
i. Mr. Dodwell denieth (by intimation) all hu- 
mane Vniverfal Church Supremacy, and Confequently 
all humane Tower of Legislation or Judgment over the 
whole Church. He denieth the Government of 
the Catholick^Church Collectively ought to be ei- 
ther Monarchical or Ariftocratical , in Pope or 

2. He denieth the Pope to have any Primacy or 
Prefidentjlitp in General Councilor that it belongs 
to him to call them. It was but a Diocefans 
Power to Convocate his Presbyters that he 

3. He taketh the French Church for Papifts, 
while they own the Popifh Communion (though 
many are not fo in their Principles : But it is Mens 
Principles that I fpake of, and not their Com- 

4. He denieth Communion with any part of 
the Roman Church (Doth Dr. Saywell do fo i) 

5. He taketh the Councils of Conjfance and Bafd 
for Papifts, ( and hath no Communion with thofe 
that own them as being Papifts. J 

6. He proveth the French Church guilty of the 
Hildebrandine Do&rine of depofing Princes (and 

Aquinas tOO.) 

7. He difowneth the terms of Cajjander and 
Grotim as not fufficient to a lafting Peace. 

8. He (odly) dreamed that when I deny a Go- 
verning College of Bifhops , I thought the Lord 
Biihop of Ely had meant fuch as our Univerfity 
Colleges, cohabiting, (this is no Slander in him ) 
yet he declareth that by fuch a College, he means 
but Bifhops ejnfdem Speciei, governing the Church 
by parts , and not any One Numerical Soveraign 

(Company : But that they (hould hold all due Com- 

* [ 3^o ] 

munion (which he nay fee I flill grantj And he 
falfly fancies that I am againft Cyprians naming of 
Colleagues or his fence. 

§ s. But if Mr. Ocdwcll be fincere, he makes 
himfelf one of the greater Separates in the 
World : Cor.fider how narrow his Communion is, 
and the Church which heoivneth : 

i- He hath no Communion with the rigid 
Italian Papifts. 

2. Nor with the moderate Papifts that are for 
the Councils ofConftance and Bafu For he takes 
them for Papifts with whom he hath no Com- 

3. Nor with the Church of France, becaufe 
they have Communion with Papifts : Though 
many of them are no Papifts in their Principles. 

4. He hath no Communion with any Proteftant 
Churches rhat have not Bilhops. 

5. Nor with any'Proteftants that have Bifhops 
not Ordained by Canonical uninterrupted Suc- 
cellion from the Apoftles fat left preemptively^. 

6. With none of the Greek Church that have 
Communion with the Church of Rome , or with 
any Schifmaticks, or that want fuch Succeffion, or 
refute the Laws of the Church (which is all.) 

7. With none of the remote Nations, called 
Jacobites, Neftorians,c^r. Becaufe they are judged 
Hereticks or Schifmaticks, or Communicate with 
fuch, or have a notorious interruption of Suc- 

8. Not with the Maronites , or any Se£t that 
Communicate with Papifts. 

9. Not with the Nonconforming of the Church 
of England , whom he endeavoureth to prove 
Damnable xhifmaticks- 

10. Not 

1 501 ] 

10. Not with the true and old Church of En'ft- 
\iand, who profeffed to hold Communion with 
thofe Foreign Proteftants whom he callerh Sehif- 
maticks : Nor with any of the prefenc Bifhopsand 
Conformifts, w ho profefs the (ame Communion : 
For his Rule is 7 that they are 'Schifmaticks who 
Communicate with Scbiimaticks. 

Who then hath he Communion with ? Ttfeems 
rone but thofe fe.v new Men in England of his 
own Mind, who perhaps may call themillves the 

Church of England. 

11. Nay, not with thofe among them who 
profefs Communion with the Church of-Rifcteifix- 
ceptwith the Jefui ted part. 

ii. And with thofe of them who are for one 
,Supreme Univerfal Ariftocracy , or Legiflative 
College, Council and Judicature over the Uni- 
verfal Church. 

And now can you tell which is the Church that 
he is of: Or is there a more notorious Separatist 
or Schifmatick than he ? 

§ 6. And now can any Man tell which is that 
'Church which he fpeaketh fuch wonderful things 
k)f ? as the One Body Politick of Chrift ) with one 
vifible human Government ? Which be the Bi- 
(hops and Church that have all that Leviathan- 
like Power of Heaven and Hell, which he defcri- 
beth and atferreth ? Is it only the uncertain reli&s 

§ 7. Mr. D. hopeth fjuftlyJ that none, or few 
of jiis friendly Readers will read what I write 
againft him 3 and therefore w hen I deteft his 
Fraud and putid Errors, he puts it off with faying, 
CI do but put many new Queftions , and anfwer 
nothing accurately.] But , for thp fake of them 


t *?* 1 

that will read, I will ask him, I. Whether his 
little invifible Church be a Body meet for the 
Glorious Elogies which he giveth the Church of 
Chrift 3 1 profefs I know not one Bifhop that is 
of his profefTed Principles- Archbifhop Laud was 
not, that took a General Council to be a Court 
of Pretorian Pow r er to be externally obeyed by 
all the Church. Bifhop Qming is not, as the fore- 
faid Evidence fheweth. 

2. And I would ask him whether his Church 
have all the Power of Heaven and Hell which he 
defcribeth,over thofe that are without the Church, 
or only over thofe within ? Vaul faith, What have 
we to do to judge them that are without ? And if 
fo, how narrow is the Power of his magnified lit- 
tle Church ? Let their own Subjects efcape their 
Damning Power how they can ; it feems none of 
all the people on Earth whom he cqunteth Schif- 
maticks or Hereticks are within their reach : For 
thefe with him are all without. If it be faid, 
They were within when they were Baptized, I 
anfwer, i. What they were, and what they are, 
is not all one. 2. But he faith that the Sacraments 
are but Sacrilegious Afe and Nullities that are 
done by fuch. And if fo, they were never Bap- 
tized, and fo never in the Church. 

§ 8. But let us come to his new Book and Me- 
thod. And firft I will tell him once more what 
our different Church Principles are, that he may 
notaccufe he knows not what. 

1. Chri.ftis the only Head, Prophet, Prieft and 
King to the whole Church on Earth ; both of In- 
fluence and Government* ConfUtutive, Specify- 

ing and Unifying ; and hath no Deputy or Vicar 
mnderhim, Ariftocratical or Monarchical that 
hath any fuch Capacity, Power or Obligation. 

2. Therefore the Church though Compagina- 
ted in all its parts, is only one Politick Body of 
Chrift, and not of Man, and hath no other Sove- 

3. Therefore neither Pope, Council or Col- 
lege of Bifhops have any Legiflative or Judicial 
Power over the whole Church Colle&ive ; but 
only the feveral Paftors are fuch to their feveral 

4- Yet are they obliged to keep the Unity of 
the Spirit in the Bond of Peace and Love, and to 
do all in Concordant Obfervation of Chrifts Laws- 
•And all Churches and Chriftians to helpothersto 
their Power. 

5. And when they afford fuch Counfel, or help 
: for Concord to other Churches, they do it not as 
Lay- men, but as Paftors, in the Univerfal Chu^h, 
though not as Paftors to other Mens Flocks. As 
Phyficians of feveral Hofpitals, and Judges of fe- 
veral Courts, or Mayors of feveral Corporations, 
or Kings of feveral Kingdoms may advife for Con- 
cord, without Ufurping each others Govern- 

I 6. As God only by Mofes made the Jewilli 
I Law, and the Priefts were not to make more, but 
! only to Rule by it, it being a Prophetical and Me- 
diatorial Work : So Chrift only by himfelf and 
I lis Spirit (of Infallibility and Miracles ) in the 
Apoftles, made the Chriftian Univerfal Law, 
and no Men are to make more fuch, but to Rule 
i by that fo made. 

7. As W^truely told thePope ; Chriftsown 


[ 3°4 3 
Law is fuflficiettt for the Government of the 
Church ( Univerfal ) elfe Chrift had not been a 
perfed: Law-giver: And they that pretend by 
Supplements or Emendations to add or do better, 
are not his Minifters but Accufers. 

8. Therefore thofe Popes and Councils that 
have prefumed to make Laws for the whole 
Church have Ufurped Chrifts Prerogative, and 
are falfe Prophets or Traytors againft Chrift. 

p. Therefore none (hould own them as fuch, 
nor is it Schifm, but Duty fo far to difown them. 

io. Nor (hould any own thefe Bifhops as fuch, 
who own this their Ufurpation- As no Soldiers 
of the Kings Army (hould follow thofe Captains 
who fubjeft themfelves to and take Commiffions 
from an Enemy, Ufurper or Foreign Princes. 

ir. The Power of Bifhops under Chrift as to 
Laws is only to keep and teach Chrifts Laws, and 
Rule by them, and determine themfelves of un- 
determined circumftances or accidents, which 
vary as time and emergent occafions vary, and are 
unfit for Univerfal Obligation ; and this Power 
they have only over their (ingle Flocks, though by 
contrad they may join in fuch things with others 
for Concords fake. 

12. When the cafe of many Churches is alike, 
and their common good requireth Concord in any 
fuch accidents, all are bound to obferve fuch Con- 
cordant Agreements, by virtue of Chrifts com- 
mand for Concord. 

13. But if on this pretence Paftors will turn 
Agreements for Concord into Laws, and make 
that feem needful to Qnity which is againft it, 
and hurtful to the Churches, no Chriftians ihould 
encourage their Ufurpation by Obedience , ; it 


being contrary to Chrifts general Laws. 

14. Whatever maketh true Chriftians maketh 

Men Members of Chrift and his Church? And 

only the Efientials of Chriftians go to make true 

Chriftians, and the Integrals to make compleat 


15. The Canons of Bifhops are not Effential to 
Chriftianity , nor the underftanding the many 
Controverfies about Diocefans, Patriarchs, Coun- 
cils, Ordinations, SuccefTions, nor to know which 
is the true Bilhop. 

16. Baptifm is our Chriftening, and he that is 
:ruely Baptized is a Chriftian, and a Member of 
thrift, and hath the pardon of Sin and right to 
heaven before he be a Member of a particular 
Church, or Paftor ; as the Eunuch Afts 8. and 
nany converted without Bifhops : As the Indians 

ny Edefim and Frumentins, and the Iberians by a 
! laid, c^c 

! 17. Whofoever truely repentethand believeth 
hd loveth God as God, and is of a Heavenly 
' lind and Life, is pardoned before God, before 
! aptifm, and B2ptifm doth but Invert him in ir* 
i id make him a Chriftian more fully by Covenant 
J id before the Church, and the want of it with- 
in contempt will not keep him from Salva- 

1 18. No one (hall be faved by being joyned io 
iright Bifhop, or receiving the Eucharift, who 
jith not true Repentance, Faithj Love, and the 
>irit of Holinels : No Sacrament faveth theun- 

19* Thoufands-live in ignorance and wicked- 

fs, in Atheiftn, Sadduceifnij Carnality, Adul- 

ry, Drunkennefs, &c. that conform to Bifhops 

X and 

fje6] ' J *V-% 

and receive the Eucharift. And to tell fuch they 
are in a ftate of Salvation is opposition to Chrift, 
and Damnable deceit of Souls. 

20. The Levites and Inferior Priefts received 
not their Office from the High-priefr, but by 
-Cods Law had it by Inheritance to which God 
chofe the Tribe of Levi : Nor hgd the High Priefts 
power to add to, or alter the Laws and Office on 
the Inferior Priefts or their own. 

ii.Nor was there a neceffity of an uninterrupt- 
ed regular Succeffion - 7 much was of man's making; 
Chrift owned them that were in pofleflion \ 
though Ufurpers, not of Aarons Line, but fuch 
as bought the place of the Romans. 

22. Seeing the High Prieft was a Type ob 
Chrift, and the Scripture faith fo much of thd 
change of the Law and Priefthood, and Chrift aj 
hath made fufficient Laws for Church Offices, icj 
is prefumption to Judaize, and pretend to anjfllf 
other imitation of the High Priefts than Chri 
hath ordained. 

23. No one of the Apoftles was an High Prie 
over the reft, but had equal Apoftolical Power. 

24. Chrift rebuked them for feeking wh 
ftiould be greateft, and exprefly forbad that which 
they fought. 

25. Every Paftor or Church-Presbyter hat[jfc fi 
an Office fubordinate to the Teaching, Prieftl J 
and Ruling Office of Chrift. 

i<5. Every ones Paftoral Office is instituted and in 
defcribed by Chrift (by his Spirit in the Apoftles) 
and this fpecification is Divine, which none maj 
alter, nor make any other fuch. J 

vj. Therefore (as Papifts confefs of the Pope^ ( 
all that men have to do is (not to be makers 01 % 







r nst^r } 

5*W^ [jo 7 ] 7'"^" 

lonors of the Office, but) to. determine of the 
)erfons that fhall receive it from Chrift's dona- 
ive Inftrument, his Law, and ministerially to in- 
sert them ( as men Chriften, Marry, Crown 
tings, &c) 

28. No Minifter or Prieft reprefenteth Qirift 
trnpliciter, but fecundum quid^ as Embafladors or 
uftices do the King. 

29. Chrift's Laws are above mans, and ho 
nan's to be obeyed againft them. To obey marl 
gainfc God is Idolatry. 

30. The Priefts or Bifhops are under Chrift's 
-aws as well as others, and by them all their true 
'ower is given and limited : And therefore if 
hey go againft Chrift's Laws, they reprefent him 
ot therein, nor are to be obeyed, as ufurping an 
njuft Power. 

1 J 1 . Therefore every Chriftian hath a Judgment 
f difcerning whether Bifhops Laws agree with 
thrift's, and muft be governed as reafonable crea- 
tes, and no* as Infants, Idiots or Brutes. 
I 32. They that deny this, and require abfolute 
bediencein all things, fet man above God, and 
iake it the duty of Subje&s to be Atheifts, Infi- 
lls, Idolaters, Mahometans, Murderers, Adul- 
ters, Hereticks, where Kings, or Popes, or Pre- 
tes will command it. 

| 33. Multitudes of Church-Canons have been 
intrary to Chrifc's Laws, as I have ( with grief) 
rfoved in my Hiftory of Councils. 

34. Bifhops that depofed Emperors and Kings 
tere not to be obeyed therein. 

jjr . Almoft all the Chriftian World fince the 

fe of General Councils are difegreed who are the 

ue Bifhops, one Party fetting up one, whom 

X 2 others 

C ?o8 3 T - 

others reject and condemn 5 fo that if it were ne- 
ceflary to Salvation to know who is the true 
Bifhop of the feve*-al Churches, few Chriftians 
could befaved. 

36. Many Canons nullifie the Office and Power 
of thefe Bilhops who come in by the Magiftrate, 
without the choice or confent of the Clergy and 
People : And I think Mr. Dodwcll profeffeth Com- 
munion with few but fuch, and fo is by Canons 

37. There is no Law ofChrift, or unchangeable 
Law of man for appropriating a certain fpaceof 
ground to one Bilhops Jurifdicfcion. Grotlm and 
Dr. Hammond thought that at firft moft great Ci- 
ties had two Bifliops and Churches, one of Jews, 
and one of Gentiles. And the Apoftles never fo 
appropriated any places to themfelves, but oft di- 
vers in one City were their Teachers. 

38. Occupation of a fpace of ground for Prieft- 
Jy Power is no juft Title, and may be altered i 
And if it were, the Primitive Occupation was 
contrary to Mr. Dodwells Model. 

39. If each City was to have a Bifhop, each of 
our Corporations fhould have one, being all Ci- 
ties in that antient fenfe. 

40. It is not neceflary to all to be of any fixed If 
particular Church, as I have proved elfewhere ) 
(of Travellers, fome Embafladors, Merchants,Va 

. grants, &c ) while they are of the Univerfa p 
Church, and own Chrift, and obey his Law. 

41. The Ele&ors do more to the making of % 
Bifhops than the Ordainers : Oft-times Bifho 
havs ordained contrary Competitors, fome one|()j 
and fome another ; and are oft forc'c to ordai 
whom Princes and Patrons chufe. 

■••'- 42. tjprim 


[?°9 3 

42. Cyprian and his Carthage Council, prove in 
the Cafe of Martial and Bafdides , that it is the 
Peoples Duty toforfake thofe Bifhops who are not 
qualified according to Chrift's Law, though Cano- 
nically ordained and approved. And Martin fepa- 
rated from fuch $ and Gildas faith he is not eximhu 
Chrifiianm, that owned the Brittifh Bifhops. 

43. Chrift hath left fufficieat Directions, -for 
the continuation or reftoration of the Priettly 
Office, without Canonical fucceflive Ordination 
uninterrupted •■> As well as God hath done for 

I 44. Seeing Mr. D. faith, A Preemptive title may 
ferve, he thereby confefleth that it is not real 
Canonical Succeflion , but the Opinion of it that 
he makes neceflary. 

45. TheQueftion is, Who muft be the Prefen- 
ters ? When they fo greatly differ ? Gratia* pre* 
fumed that the Chief Minifter of a City or a 
-hurch was really a Bi(hop,though not fo called. 

46. The Reformed can prove a more probable 
•Succeflion than the Roman , whofe frequent in- 
erruptions hath been oft proved. 

47. If we muft imitate the Jewifi) High Prieft- 
iood, not every City muft have one , but every 
Nation (and fo England hath none) or elfe all the 

48. judea being a fmall Country , all the Peo- 
ple at their great Anniverfaries might go up to 
hrufakm 3 which in great Kingdoms and Empires . 
£ impoflible. 

49- It is falfe that we are united to Chrift only 
t>y the Sacrifice of the Eucharift. Baptifm which 
i no Sacrifice, firft uniteth us to him publickly, as 
?aith and the Spirit do before fecretly. 

X 3 So. Ic 

yo. It is a frivolous thing of Mr. D. to write a 
Book for one chief Altar and Bifhop , when the 
Queftion is of what Church that one muft be : I 
have proved that Ignat'm appropriated them to 
Churches no bigger than our Parifhes , and 
Mr. Clerkfcn hath proved more 5 and the Man con- 
futed! none of this proof. 

Si. Seeing he dilowneth one Univcrfal High 
Prieft , and would have one in every City , or 
Nation at moft, who knoweth not that the City 
Bifhops of the World are now ( and have been 
1200 Years) in fo great diflention difowning each 
Others Communion, that it's hard to know Ca- 
tholicifm by his way of Communion. 

52. And who (hall Govern thefe feveral Bi- 
fhops, if each one be a Supreme ? Have they not 
as much need of Government as Presbyters > 

53. The Eucharift is no otherwife a Sacrifice, 
than as it is an inftituted Symbolical Commemora- 
lion of Chrift's Sacrifice. 

54. The validity of the Sacrament depends not 
pn the uninterrupted Succeflion of the Prieft, nor 
his Subjection to the Bifhop. 

55. There are many Cafes in which it is a Duty 
to be ordained, and officiate without the Bifhops 
confent i As in all the Popifli Countries where 
they will admit none without confent to Sin. 

56. To make Bifhops and all their Curates the 
abfolute difpofers of Heaven and Hell, is to fetup 
the higheft Papal Tyranny over Kings and King* 
doms, by vile Prefumption. 

77- His words that the People can better judge 
of their vifible Union with the High Prieft and 
Chrift, than of any invifible one , is a pernicious 
intimation, that this vifible Church Union will 


c?» ] 

j fave them that have not the invifible Grace of 
> found Faith, Repentance, and the Spirit of 
i Love and Holinefs. 

I intended to have proceeded to a diftinft An- 
fwer to Mr. DodwelCs whole Book, becaufe I take 
him to be the mod injurious and grofs Adverfary 
to the true Unity of the Church , on pretence of 
Pleading for Unity , of any that calls himfelf a 
Proteftant ; and find him not only extreamly felf- 
conceited, loquacious and magisterial (in a lowly 
Garb) but grofly unfincere, intimating his denial 
of that in Print, which he often owned to me in 
Private Conference, vm, for the Nullity of thfe 
Proteftant Churches, that have not his falfe Cha- 
racter, for the verity of die French Church, and 
for the uninterrupted Succeflion of the Papal Seat ; 
when I undertook to prove it, he told me, It was 
not for the intereft of Chriftianity to fay fo; And 
yet it is for the intereft of Chriftianity for him to 
] Unchurch more Churches,I think than the Papifts 
j ordinarily do. 

But when I had gone thus far , I was ftopt by 
the Perfecutions of his Church-Rulers, and then 
by Sicknefs, and after by near two Years Impri> 
fonment for my Paraphrafe on the New Tefta- 
ment by a Judicature , as admirably agreeing to 
his Principles , as if he had been his Difciple 
(Chancellor Jeffreys lately DeadOand fuch others. 

Therefore not to tire the Reader with more 
-words to fo wordy a Man , I again and again 
(though I fuppofe in vain) provoke him and his 
dividing Brethren,to anfwer my Treatife of Epif- 
copacy, my firft Plea for Peace , my Sacrilegious 
defertion of the Miniftry rebuked , my Apology 

X 4 for 

[ 3i* ] 

for the Konconformifts Preaching, my Englili 
Nonconformity, and Mr. David CUrksonsV •oithu- 
mousBook for the Primitive Epifcopacy, againft 
his Fi&ion of the prefent Djocefane Epifcopacy, as 
having no Bifbops under them. But fraudulent 
Difputers will difiemble, andfilently pafsby that 
which they cannot anfwer : But will that be Peace 
to Confcience in the End ? 

Having faid as much as I think needful to fatis- 
fie intelligent impartial Readers, againft his Schif- 
matical Writings,in my Book of Church-Concord ; 
and here before, I take my felf difcharged from 
any Obligation , further to detect or confute his 
Fallacies- The rather becaufe he can fay and un- 
fay, as he finds his Intereft lead him : And his Le- 
viathan Church-r/ff^o^/ , which he feigns to be 
Cad's Proxy to us , from whom there is no ap- 
peal to Scripture or to God, will to Men that be- 
lieve in Chrift, I think by his own Defer iption, 
appear as frightful as Hobh his Leviathan. 

(Some of this I wrote long after the molt of 
the Book J 

Chap. XX. Dr. Thomas Pierce now Tiecn of 
Salisbury \* Judgment (and 2)r.Hzmonds.) 

§• i. T Think Dean Tierce is the only Man furvi- 
1 ving/vvhow r asCommiffionedbyKingC/7.2. 
to Treat with us for Concord , as being of the 
Eidops part , in 1661 : And who hath lived 'to 
fee by near ^oye^rs Experience whether his Zeal 
againft the terms of Concord which we as hum- 
ble Suppliers offered , hath done more Good, 


[ m i 

and prevented more Evil, than a Concord on 
thofe offered terms would have done. What it 
hath done on him I know not,but with others Ex- 
perience hath had as little Succefs as Reafon and 
Petitioning had. 

§. 2. He hath written againft me more Book's 
than one, which no Man hath excelled in infult- 
iogand in command of words: His work is to 
prove Grotim to have been no Papift. Few Men 
living think highlier of Grotim than I as to what 
ie wrote before his change : Efpecially his Book 
Pe Satufaclione Chrifti , and that De Imperio Sum. 
Pot. & de Jure Belli, and his Annot. on the Evan- 
*elifts. Valepw and Petavim took him to be of 
their Religion and Church, as did Vincentiw, and 
Saravins. But I. It is not the Name [Papift] that 
l regard, but the Thing. 2. Therefore the doubt 
between Dr. Pierce and me is, What is Popery f 
;He thinks that it is not a proof that he is a Papift 
to be for an Univerfal Church Jurifdi&ion, the 
Church of Rome being taken for the Miftris of all 
Churches, and the Pope as Primate, and Patriarch * 
of the Weft, governing according to the Canons 
of Councils, and not Arbitrarily ; And taking the 
Articles of Pope fins* (his Creed and Oath added 
at Trent, which contain the Body of that which 
Proceftants call Popery , to be fuch as may be 
Sworn and bear a fair fenfe. (Though Dr. P. him- 
felf cannot fubfcribe them.) This with all the reft 
cited by me out of Grottos he taketh to be no 
proof of a Papift. Let him call it how hepleafe, 
The French Church Government , or the Prote- 
ftant or the Catholick, it is the Thing (a Foreign 
Jurifdi&ion , and fpecially an Univerfal that I 

§3, And 

§ 3. And this he himfelf owneth, for the proof' 
of which I refer the Reader to his Books 5 parti- 
cularly his New Difcoverer? Append. P. 2o5, 207, 
208 : where he is for one Government of the 
whole Church : Not in fpecie only, (for fo we'are 
as well as he, each Governing per panes in his 
own Province,as Kings in their feveral Kingdoms); 
but numerically, by one Ariftocracy , the Pope] 
being PrincipiumVmtatis? And Ariftocracy is a 
Government formed and unified in um Perfond 
Politic^ confifting ex pluribm Perfonis naturalibus 5 
Elfe it would not make one Soveraignty, nor one 
Political Church or Society. Therefore his fay- 
ing P. 206. that the Pope's Primacy as (Univer- 
fal) and his Weftern Patriarchate, is no Monarchy, 
but exatlly reconcile able with an j4riftocrath\Go-\ 
vcrnment of the Church'] reconcileth not me at allll 

to his Model, who am paft doubt that) 1. Onej 
Ariftocratical College is far more uncapable of 
Univerfal Government of the Chriltian World, 
than a Pope. [\i inter impoffibilia- daretur Magis & 

M\nm] 2. And that a College oftheSubje&s 

of Foreign Kings (e. g. France? Spain , Portugal 
Armenians? Abajfines? Turks, Mofcovites? &CC.) ar 
unfitter for Foreign Jurifdidtion, and particularly 
to Govern Britain than a Pope is. 

The Confutation of Dr. Pierce is fufficiently 
done before and after : I now only recite his 
Opinion : And am forry that ( he is fure that 
iV.Hammond was of the fame Religion with Grotius ? j 
and for fuch a Jurifdiftion. Buc if any be for thej 
French Church form of Government , call diem! 
Papifts or Proteftants , as they fhall themfelves 
de(ire ? It is the Thing, and not the Name that 
oppofe. The French know by feeling what th 
is j God grant we feel it not. Cha 




C jiy] 

hap. XXI. That this New fort of Trelatifls 
who were for a Coalition with the French or 
Roman Church , have been the great Agents 
of all the ^Dividing, Silencing, Terfecuting 
Laws, which have brought and kept its thefe 
Twenty feven Tears in our dangerous lacera- 
ted State. 

\ i. HP Hat the Church of England before the 
A days of Buckingham and Lmd were quite 
bf another Mind,I have before fully proved : And 
no reafonable Man can doubt of it,* who hath read 
the Apology of the Church of England^nd Jewel's 
Defence of it, and the Writings oiWhitak^r,Fnlk, 
Humphrey , Field, Willet, Airy, Bernard , Craken- 
thorpe, Suthffe, G. Abbot, Rob. Abbot, J. Reignolds, 
Morton, VJher, Downame , John White , Birkbeck., 
Cook,, Perkins, Bilfon, Andrews , Hall, Davenant, 

and many fuch Bifliops, Dignitaries, and other 
Conformifts $ befides , Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer, 
Hooker, Farrar, Bradford , Philpot , and the reft 
of the Martyrs. Befides the Nonconformifts- 

§. 2. And that the true Church of England even 
in Laud's time and fince, have never confented to 
this Coalition, is evident, i. In that Heylin con- 
fefleth that Laud prevailed but with four or five 
more Bifhops to be fo much as Arminians, viz. 
Neale, How f on, Corbet, Backgridge, and Mount ague : 
And he that readeth Buck&ridge his Book for Kings, 
and Moumagueh Works, will think that even 
they were again!]; this Coalition- 

2. And 

C ?i6 3 

2. And he confefleth that Laud durft not put 
hisCaufe to a Convocation , becaufe fo fmall a 
Number there were for him. 

3. And to this day the Church or Parliament: 
have not revoked the Homilies, Articles, Liturgy, 
Apology, or any of the Writings of the Bifhops 
and Doftors aforefaid , who have written againft 
Popery. . 

4. And excellent Writings have all along to 
this day been Published by the Church Dodtors 
againft all fuch Confederacies with Papifts ; fuch 
as Dr. Stillw^fleet, (who though to pleate his Su- 
periors he defended Laud, yet defended not all 
that he faid or did ) Dr. More , Dr. Tillotfon, 
Dr. Tenmfon , Bifhop Th. Barlow, Mr. Wakf, yea, 
even Henry Fowlis , and many more * But above 
all, Dr. Jfaac Barrow of the Supremacy, unanfwe- 
rably, though S. Parker had Confidence enough to 
pretend a Confutation. 

§ 3. The Endeavours for a Coalition that were 
publickly attempted in Scotland, Ireland and Eng- 
land, by Laud and his Agents, have been fo volu- 
minoufly written of, Accufed and Condemned in 
Parliaments , and his own Death, and the long 
Wars and all the Fra&ures that have followed, 
were fo much of the Consequents , that to fay 
more of this is Vain. Dr. Pet. Heylins Life of 
Laud doth acknowledge and juftiiie all. And" 
Trins Hiftory of Laud's Tryal largely openeth it. 

§ 4. When the Parliaments and Scots Oppofi- 
tion, and the enfuing Civil War had broken this 
Defign, and the Bloody Ma fiacre in Ireland had 
rendred Popery more odious and dreadful than 
all Arguments could do (before our War here) 
the Parliament that had before the War, begun to 


c 517] 

Purge the Church Miniftry, of Drunkards, Scan- 
dalous, and ignorant incompetent Men, proceeded 
:oo far on Civil Accounts, and ejefted fome for 
adhering to the King , and being againft them in 
:he War ( though fome of us did waded them 
from all fuch feverity.) Cromwell ftrft rebelled 
jgainft the Parliament, and ufurped the Govern- 
ment, and fhortly died, and his diftra&ed inco- 
herent Army ftriving againft the Democratical 
Reli&sof the Parliament, diflfolved their ufurped 
Government, which Diflblution brought in King 
.Charles II, (by MonkmA the Presbyterians, as the 
iDiflolution of the Parliament had brought in 
Cromwell. And with the King return many of 
.the ejefted exafperated Clergy, full of the Defires 
of Revenge, and of preventing all Danger to their 
Dignities and Promotions for the time to come $ 
rBut at iirft they were diffident of their prefenc 
•Strength, and thought they mull execute their 
Revenge and Mutation by degrees : The Lords, 
Knights and Gentlemen that had fuffered for 
Fighting againft the Parliament for the King,Pub- 
lifted many Proteftatio/is to draw in the Presby- 
terians to reftore the King, that they would be for 
iLove and Concord,and feekno revenge : Dr.^/or- 
\ley was fent before the King to Cajole theMini- 
fters to believe that the King was a Proteftant, 
and inclined to Moderation •, And thereupon a 
moderate Party of Epifcopal Men, met with fome 
called Presbyterians, and declared their defires 
of Concord on fober terms, (viz.. Dr. Bermrd, 
Dr. Gulfion , Dr. JiUtn , and others fuch ). But 
Dr. Morley ufed them to his Ends, and (Lifted off 
all difcovery of his Defigns , (till quieting them 
by general pretences of Moderation, and Trea- 

I ?i8 3 

ties. He had the Chief Power over Chancellor I 
Hyde, who ruled the Land , And Sheldon was! 
next him , and Hwchman the third : But under 
them truckled many of the fame Mind. 

The King publifhed a Declaration of Liberty 
for tender Confciences (at Breda) , f expounded 
fince by 27 Years barbarous Perfecution , laying 
all on the Proteftant Prelatifts that would not 
make a Law for it-) 

I was pad doubt in 166 o. that the King was 
as he Died , or had engaged himfelf to promote 
it here, firft by giving them Liberty of their Re- 
ligion, and afterwards the Power of the Land, in 
Magiftracy, Militia, and the Church. Knowing 
Menfaid that M or ley 7 Sheldon, Gnning, and the 
other Chief Agitators , knew this , and thought 
they had no other way to oblige him to keep up 
the Engliih Prelacy ,but to engage,that they would 
be firmer to his Abfolute Power , and iole Le- 
gislation , and for Paflive Obedience, and for the 
Extirpation of Puritans and Parliament Power, 
than the Jefuites were ; and therefore that he 
ihould be more for them than for the Jefuites. 
And withal that they would begin where Land 
was interrupted, and would attempt a Coalition •, 
or if that failed, would yield to Liberty for the 
Popi(h Religion, ( which joined with their power 
would foon prevail J 

§ 5. At that time Mr. Calamy and I motioned a 
Treaty with the Prelatifts for Union and Con- 
cord, with which the Earl of Manchefler and the 
Lord Orery acquainted the King : which he pre- 
fently accepted as an Opportunity to quiet Men 
till his Abfolutertefs was fettled. He promifed us 
that the Church Bifhops ihould meet us in the 


C 319] 

ntd-way, if we would come as far as we could 
witliout Sin. 

: The Drs. that were for the nearer approach to 
Rome, and the defenders of Grotiw his delign , 
were the chief Agents Commiflioned by the King 

to Treat with US, viz,. Dr. Sheldon, Dr. Guying, 
Dr. Peter Con fins, Dr. Sparrow, Dr. Heylin, Mr. 
Thorndike, Dr. Tho. Pierce, Dr. Hinchman£)\\ La- 
ny, Dr. Stern, and fuch other ; but by their Pow- 
er with the Lord Chancellor Hyde, Dr. Morlcy, 
Dr. Sheldon, and Dr. Guning over-ruled all the 
Work. When we told them how great a num- 
ber of the moft Godly and Loyal people of the 
Land would be undone for nothing by the Jmpo- 
fitions which they feemed to refolve for, and how 
unavoidable a Divifion it would caufe throughout 
the Nation, and what Encouragement Prophane- 
nefs and Popery would thence take, and' what 
mifchievousEffe&s among the Clergy and Peo- 
ple would unavoidably follow, and how eafily all 
this might be by them prevented, and the Love 
and Honour of their Perfons and Order hereby 
won, Dr. Guning and others told us plainly that 
they had a greater party than we are to confider, 
that muft not be^ alienated to pleafe us : And 
when Dr. Bates (aid that abundance more of the 
Popifh Ceremonies might be introduced by the 
fame Reafons as were pleaded for thofe impofed, 
Dr. Guning anfwered, They mull have more and 
not fewer. And Dr. Morley told me, That he 
had good reafon to believe that moft of the Ro- 
man Church on this fide the Alpes ( that is , 
France ) would have joined with us, were it not 
for the ftumbling Blocks that Calvin had laid in 
the way. They charged us with Sedition for tell- 


ingthem how many would diflent and fuffer, and 
what a weakening fuch a Divifion, and the Pe- 
nalties that ixiuft enforce it, would be to the Pro- 
teftant Intereft and to the Land : And they all 
agreed ffave Dv.Ganden) that they would not 
abate one Ceremony to prevent all this : Yea left 
they fhould not caft out enough of the Minifters, 
they put in more and harder Impofitions, and, 
made the Terms of Concord and Miniftry fuch 
as they knew would turn out more; Sheldon and 
others of them faying, They were afraid too ma- 
ny would Conform, and if this much would not j 
turn them out, there fliould be more ^ for Ene- 
mies in the Church were more dangerous than j 

§ 6. It is likely that the Drs. and Bifhops that 
had been with him beyond Sea, knew the King's 
Religion and Defigns, and to keep up their world- 
ly Greatnefs, Dominion and Wealth, refolved to 
pleafe him that he might pleafe them : What Re- 
ligion King Charles the Second was of at his Death, 
his Brother hath told us : And what he was be- 
fore his Return, I marvel not that Huddle fton tells 
us fo obfcurely t But I had rather believe his own 
words and deeds, than the reports or conjectures 
of others. 

It was the Opinion of the wifefl: Papifts that 
Liberty for all Religions, with the Power of Dif 
pofing of all Offices of Government and Prefer- 
ments, would be enough to bring in Popery, and 
that there was no other way : And that till the 
King could fafely declare himfelf for Popery, his 
way was to do all as a Proteftant that might ad- 
vantage them : Efpecially to divide and break the 
ProteftantSj and root out; thofe of them,who were 


troft unreconcileable to Rome , arid to engage tK& 
tther to perfecute and deftroy thenyhat it might 
lot be doneas by the Papifts,but they might feem 
heir Fellovv-DifTenters , and might come when- 
•ver the Necefltty of others mould open the 

The King had the Choice of the Bifhops, and 
>eans and other Church Preferments, and of the 
flafters of Colleges, and of the Judges, and other 
ivil Powers and Honours : Accordingly he made 
iofe Bifhops, Deans> Mailers of Colleges,^, who 
'ere known to be the moft obedient to his Will, 
id the greateft Enemies to thofe called Puritans, 
Id thofe that Pkilanax the Papift called Proteftams 
f Sincerity. And by the help of the Lord Chan- 
Jlor, Morky, Sheldon, and the reft, got the ma- 
eryof all the Dependent Clergy , when it was 
en that all their preferments came much by their 
/ills. And that thofe called Puritans, and Pres- 
/terians might end with that Generation they 
boured to place all the Students in the linger- 
ies, under fuch as would poflefs them with the 
eateft contempt and hatred of thofe men , and 
1 perfwade them that all that Conformed not to 
[their Oaths, Covenants and Impofitions, were 
it a pack of Fanaticks, Schifmaticks and Rebels, 
nd by their great Induftry the Univerfities , 
ignities and Clergy in moft Power, were much 
us conftituted. And the Nonconformifts being 
°n who were noted for more ferioufiiefsin Reli- 
3n than the common fort of men, and accor- 
ngly for a more ferious way of Praying, Preach- 
*, Difcourfing and Living than the Multitude 
| Hypocrites , that are Religious but as far as 
iafcth their {tellies, their Purfes, and their Ma- 
Y ftersj 

fters, it unhappily fell out that the doors of Pre- 
ferment being open to thofe that had no Scruple 
of Confcience againft any of the impofed Cove- 
nants or Pra&ices , the main Body of thofe that | 
had truly no Religion , became an engaged Party 
againft the Nonconformifts, and took the power 
ful Bithops for their Captains, and fo Prelacy an 
Hypocrifie , and Prophanenels united their Inte 
refts, and became the ftrength of one another 
And this is become the fatal Odium of Prelai 
among the moft Religious of the Land, and I fea 
will either finally root it out , or a Worldly Pre 
lacy confederating firft with the Prophane, anj 
after with the Papifts , will root out from th 
Publick Churches true ferious Religion. 

S 7- F rom firft to laft King Charles (hewed hi 
own Judgment , L In his Declaration for Tole 
ration at Breda : II. When he granted us his De 
claration about Ecclefiaftical Affairs ; which wal 
to try whether we would confent to a commonei 
Toleration : In the Conclufion of the Day , thd 
diftafle fell on me. ^ The Lord Chancellor dre\« 
out another Paper, defiring a Liberty of Religioi 
for all others that lived peaceably: And faid, Hi 
knew not what to think of it himfelf, but defirei 
the Company to fpeak their Minds : Neithe a 
Lords or Bifliops, or any of their Drs. laid a won i 
to it : After twice or thrice asking , no one anj « 
fwered : Dr. Wallis (landing next me, faid, \JprA \ 
thee fay nothing, It is an odious Bufinefs~\ I forbore! e( 

till I perceived that they would take our Silenc^ 
for Confent, and then I faid [May it Pleafe 7*1 jj 
Majefty, This reverend Dr. (GuningJ jvfl now ac\ e 
cufed us, as if we would let in Socinians and Papifts I jj 
Wefuppofe that this is not intended , as our deed. hi 


fhe King anfwered, {There be many Laws again ft 
he Papifts] I reply ed , \We under ft and this to be 
or a dtfpenfation with thofe Laws.] There was no 

lore (aid , and that was the Conclufion of the 

HI. In 1662. came out a Declaration for Liber- 
ia of Religion, naming the Papifts to have their 
art in it, but not a Toleration- I was defired to 
et the City Minifters to Subfcribe a Thankfgiv- 
ig for it : I tpld them , that it was the King's 
vork, and not to be done by us •, But I knew it 
ras the Bifhops defign to caft the Odium of a To- 
ration of Popery on the Nonconformifts, while 
ley would gratifie the King , by forcing us to 
onfeut ; But they fhould never do it : They 
ould do it themfelves, or it fhould not be done, 
nd it prefently died. 

!IV. The Lord Bridgman called Dr. WUkins^znd 

;s Chaplain Dr. Hez.. Burton^ and Dr. Mantonzad 

p, and Dr. Bates (after) as by the King's Order, 

; attempt an Agreement, for a Comprehenfion 

j the Presbyterians, and a Toleration for the In- 

jpendents. We agreed of the Comprehenfion 

her minis , and Judge Hale drew it up into the 

frm of an Aft : But when we came to the other 

)irt, the form propofed was for a Toleration of all, 

k excepting the Papifts. I told the Lord Keeper, 

at we could not meddle in meafuring out all 

her mens Liberty , but only to declare what we 

fired our felves : Others muft be confulted a- 

m their own concerns , we were not for feve- 

y againft any : But it was the King s Work, and 

I unmeet to be his Counfellors in it. And fo all 

is caft off by the Parliament by that means, and 

5 A& forbidden to be offered. 

Y 2 § 8. Ac 

[ 3*4 1 , 

§ 8. At laft the King himfelf broke the Ice, 
2nd Published a Declaration for Licenfing a Tole- 
ration : The Cruelty of the Profecution of the 
Nonconformists, being ftill the feeming Neceflity 
for all : But the Parliament broke it , and it did 
the Papifts much more harm than good ; for the 
Nonconformifts continued to Preach though Per^ 

§ p. The Clergy now would lay all the Sevi 
rities on the Parliament y and wafh their ow 
hands as guiltlefs of all. But i. It was theygved. 
their chief Bijhops and Drs. that when the Kity 
Commiflioned them [to Agree on fuch Altera, 
tions as were necejfary to tender Conferences'] aftei 
all importunity , concluded that no Alteram 
was fo necejfary.] 

2. And it was the Bijhops and Convocation tha 

altered the Book for the worfe 5 and put in new 
matter harder than before. 

3. And the Biftops in Parliament were th( 
Chief Agents in all the Laws by which we an 

4- And it is known that it was the Intereft o 
the Bifhops and their Church way that engagec 
the Long Parliament in all their "terrible Ad: 
againft us --, Viz.. The Aft of Uniformity , th< 
A<5is for Banifhment, the Five mile A&, the Cor 
poration Aft , the Militia t\d , the Veftry Ad 
and others. 

j. And who know eth not that it Is they anc 
their Difciples that make the great ftir, againfljj 
our Healing in jealoufie of their Interefts, whichJj 
nothing but their own over-doing is like to over|| 

6, Andj 

6. And when did they ever once Petition any 
Parliament to reverie the dividing wicked Laws? 
3v to reftore the Silenced Ministers ? or to free 
them from dying with Rogues in Jails, or to pre- 
fer the Minifters of Jefus , before Bar Mm I or 
to requeft that the Eminent Minifters of Chrift 
might have no greater Punifhment for Preaching 
Chrift , than debaucht Whoremongers , Drun- 
kards, Swearers and Blafphemers ufually have in 


7. Yea, if a Godly Conformift do but write 
againft their Cruelty to the Nonconformifts 
{fuch as are Mr. Pierce, Mr. Jones, Mr. Bold,*) they 
,have for it Perfecuted him as if he were a Non- 
;onformift himfelf. And that you may know 
:hat it is not the old Church-men, nor yet a few 
ingle Per fons, when Dr. Whitby Prebend o(Sa- 
Mury who had wrote againft Popery , did write 
in excellent Treatife for Peace and Reconcilia- 
tion, the Oxford Univerfity Decreed the Publick 
burning of it (together with my Holy Common- 
wealth : The Lord Convert and Pardon them, 
that they prove not the burned fewel, when Re- 

onciliation and a Holy Common- wealth are pro- 
r ]perous.H drr. God (hall judge at laft. 
J § 10. All this time ( from Laud till now J, it is 
k hard Controveriie which of the two Parties is 
to be called. The Church of England f Both Parties 
pretend to it , and fome call both of them , the 
fame Church. But the Infamous Roger VEftrange 
fet the Name of Trimmers on the old and recon- 
ciling Party, pretending that the other were, the 
^Genuine Members of the Church 3 -And was im- 
ployed by his Genius,and the Court>and thePapifts, 
and the New Clergy-men , to do a work fo truly 
Y 3 Diabo- 

L 3*6] 

Diabolical, as I never read of the like in Hiftory ^ 
even for many Years together to Write and Pub- 
lish twice a Week a Dialogue called Obferva- 
tions, mainly levelled againft Love , Peace and 
Piety, to perfwade all men to hate their Brethren, 
and to provoke men to deftroy them whom he 
Nick-named Whigs, and to render odious all lave j 
the Wolves ( whom he called Tories , as if he 
owned the Irifli Robbers^ 5 fo that a Trimmer 
with him was the fame as a Peace- maker, Bleffed 
by Chrift, and Curfed by VEftrange. 

§ 11. But whether the New Clergy or the Old 
be the Church of England, and whether both be 
of one Chnrch, remaineth (till doubtful : But who- 
ever hath the Name, that one Name is equivocal 
when applied to Parties contrary and inconfiftent. 
1. That Church which owneth a Foreign Govern- 
ment and Jurifdi&ion, cannot be one and the fame 
with that Church which renounceth and abhor- 
reth it, and owneth only Chrift's Univerfal Go- 
vernment, and a Foreign Concord and Commu- j 
nion. But this is the difference between the Old 
Reformed Church of England, and the New that 
call themfelves the Church. Two Kings make 
two Kingdoms : For the Form denominated j 
And the Relative Vnion of the pars Imperans, and 
Subdha, is the Form. 

That Church which hath a Human Head above 
National , muft have a Form and Name above 
National: that is, Above a Church of England: 
which makes them all talk fo much of \The Uni- 
verfalchttrch~] in this falfe humane Form, An 
Univerfal Church hath an Univerfal Soveraign 
Powers which is only Chrift. If the Pope be 
Antichrift, it is his claim of this that maketh 


tim fo, becaufe it is Chrift's Prerogative, which 
no mortal Man or Council or College is capable 
)t And if fo, is it not a Papal or Antichriltian 
Church that thefe Foreign Subje&s own and are 
)f ? whether it be of the French Or Italian Form, 
f one be Antichriftian , both are fo, when the 
Claim of Univerfal Jurifdidtion is the Caufe. 

I have voluminoufly dete&ed the miftake of 
:hefe deceived Men,who are deluded by the Name 
Oecumenical, Catholick and Univerfal , which 
hey find in the Councils and Fathers ; and fully 
)roved to them, that ic fignified no Councils a- 
:>ove the Imperial or National 5 But diftinguifhed 
hofe that were Univerfal in that one Empire, 
^Tom the Provincial. 

2. The Reformed Church of England taketh 
he Parifh Communicants to be true Churches, 

tod the Paftors to have as much of the Overfighc 
is is neceflary to the Conftitution of a true Poli- 
rical Church. (Though their Canons finfully fetter 
rthem in the Exercife.) But the Foreigners hold 
the Diocefles to be the leaft or loweft Churches, 
and the Parillies to be no true Churches for want of 
iifhops in them, but only Parts of a Church, that 
lath a Bi(hop over them all. 

3. The Old Church of England owned the Fo- 
reign Proteftant Churches as true Churches, and 
Itheir Minifters as true Paftors, and own Commu- 
inion with them. But the Innovators fay, that they 
have no true Bifhops, becaufe they have not Dio- 
<cefans, and are no true Paftors if they have not 
an uninterrupted Succeflion gf Diocefane Ordina- 
tion from the Apoftles ; whereas forfome Hun- 
dred Years after the Apoftles , there was no fuch 
'Biihops known in the World, as were not either 

Y 4 Congre- 

[ «2« J 

Congregational (Parochial) Bifhops, or ApoftP- 
lick Overfeers of fuch : and no Diocefans over 
many Hundred or Score Parifh Churches, that had 
no Bilhops under them. 

§ 1 2. When you confider what Power the New 
Foreigners had at Court, and with the Parliament 
that made the Aft of Uniformity , and required 
Re-ordination, and that made all the other perfe- 
cting x^ds ; and with the Juftices that executed 
them : And when we fee how they promoted the 
Roman Intereft ; and when we fee how potently 
2nd obftinately they fruftrated all attempts of the 
Proteftant Union here, and read how they reviled 
the old Reforming Biiliops (from Parker to ab- 
bots) and the Parliaments as going too far from 
Rome ; And when we confider that we have not 
one Bifhop but who was chofen by K. Charles II. 
and K. James, and what Men they may be fuppo- 
fed to choofe ; we Contradid not thefe Men « 
when they call themfelves [the Church of England] \ 
But when we confider that the old Homilies, 
Apology , Articles, Liturgy, Canons, &c. were 
never yet repealed, and that they are all Sworn 
to Endeavour no Alteration of Government of 
Church or State, we have caufe to think that the 
old Party have more right to be called The Church, 
jhe altering Endeavours having not changed its 

By this much the Reader may Expound whom 
1 fpeak of in my Treatife of Epifcopacy . 

§ 13. The Church is nothing, but the Men that 
conftitute the Church ; If 1. It be denominated 
by their Numbers , no man can tell which Party 
bath the greater Number till they are further put 
upon the tryc»L 2. If they are denominated by 


[ 3*9 1 

fuaws, the better part are rather to be called the 
ibmb , becaufe the Old Laws againft Popery are 
ot yet Repealed •, Though yet fome late Laws 
re to the Old, as poyfon to a living Man : So if 
hey be Denominated by Power, the Innovators 
:ave been the Church at leaft thefe 3 1 Years. For 
hat Party Ruled , and had the Countenance of 
he Kings , who chofe them. And indeed in the 
:>>ays of the differing Emperors ( Con ft amine, Con- 

;;,ant\nus J^alens^Theodojim, Arcadius, Mar clan, Leo y 

rleno, and the reft) that ufually went for the 
^hurch or Orthodox party, which the Emperor 
■wned : The uppermoft will have the Name. 

§ 14. Though the French and Englifli ( afore- 
lid ) defigned a Coalition, the long pofleffion of 
ieir different ways, unavoidably hindered them 
*om an immediate Union 5 But they were forced 
3 approach by leifurely Degrees : England would 
lot fuddenly turn the Liturgy to a Mafs-Book , 
|or France fuddenly turn the Mafs-Book Corrected 
pto French : But what fair Approaches were 
iade, and what further intended, Grotius his 
founfel Magnified by both Churches, and the pre- 
Btt pradices of the French declare. 
1 The Council of Grotins was to bring down the 
jope to Moderation ; that he might Rule but by 
be Canons , and not be above Councils, nor de- 
rive Kings nor Bifhops of their Rights, and that 
he Lives of the Clergy be Reformed, and School 
Niceties left indifferent, and the LmheraneszsRe- 
pncileable Courted to a Concord, and the un- 
econcileabie Cahinifls brought down by force : 
■Jut the Lmhtranes are not fo Reconcileable as 
hey imagined ; Princes that are once free, are loth 
d become Subjects to a Foreign Priefthood. 


C Jjo] 

§ 15. And how much the French meant to bring 
down the Pope , their late Tranfadtions (hew a 
little, but their Do&rines much more : Mr. Ju- 
Wenhimfelf in his Pofteral Letters ( Engl. p. 216. 
2.17. ) thus Defcribeth them. 

1. That the Church of Rome is no more than a 
Particular Church, as other Churches are. 1. That 
St. Peter had nothing but a Primacy of Order, 
and Prefidence above the Apoftles- 3. That St. 
Peter could give ( to hisSucceflfbr ) over other Bi- 
fhops, no more but that Primacy which he had 
over the Apoftles. 4. That the Bifhop of Rome 
Originally, and by Divine Right , had no Power 
over the Univerfal Church- 5. That he did not 
receive Appeals in the firft Age of the Church 
6. That he had no Right to Aflemble Gene 
ral Councils. 7. That he could take Cog- 
nizance of the Affairs of no other Provinces but 
his own ; no not by Appeals. 8. That he had no 
Right to take Knowledge of Matters of Faith, to 
make Decifions therein ; which fhould oblige the 
whole Church. 9. That before the Council o 
Nice, and after, he had no infpe&ion over other 
Churches,but thofe which were in the Neighbour- 
hood of Rome. 10. That he could not Excommu 
nicate other Bifhops , otherwife than the other 
Bifhops could Excommunicate him. 11. That 
Man might feparate himfelf from the Bifhop of 
Rome, without being a Schifmatick, and out o 
the Church. 12. That the Pope had no Right 
over other Bifhops. 13. That the Council of Sar> 
dtcA is the Fountain of that Right of receiving 
Appeals which the Pope claimeth. 14. That the 
Rights which the Pope hath at this Day, except- 
ing his Primacy, are by Human Laws, and be 



C JJi] 

aufe he hath affumed them to himfelf , and be- 
aiife they have bin conceded to him. 15. To 
hich they add, he is not Infallible, nor Superior 
p Councils, nor Mafter to the Temporalities of 
lings. ] This is the French Religion , and who 
/ould think that this is Popery : No wonder if 
le Pope be more hearty for other Friends, than 

>r France. 

§ 15. Lay all this together, and it's Notorious 
iiat ( though Whetgift and fome other Calvinifts 
:'ere too much guilty of the Perfections , to 
,,eep up the Dominion and Preferments which 
ney were jealous of ) yet it was the French 

econcilers that have fet,and to this Day kept on 
<x>t our prefent increafed Divifions and Dangers : 
ince Le Strange new-named them,the old Church 
proteftants are called Trimmer s^ and are Men that 
ove not Divifion or Perfecution , and would fain 
ee a Coalition of Proteftants ; though they have 
pX zeal enough ( fave too few ) to put it on open- 
i 4 left they provoke the oppofites. But the Lau- 
ians called Tories , are ftill as much againft the 
Removal of the Dividing, Perfecuting, Snares, 
)nd againft the Coalition of Engliih Proteftants, 
in any poffible healing Terms, as ever, and as 
freely feek the Continuance of our Slavery and 

I; Chap. 

C 55* 3 

Chap. XXII. How they have been ft opt, and 
what 'Danger we are yet of thoje that art 
for a For reign Jurifd:clion. 

. § i.'HpHe continual Endeavours of Parliament 

JL to Supprefs all the Reli&s and Advanta 

I es of Popery in Queen Elizabeths and King Jam, 

Days , long kept this Papal inclination from ap 

pearing : And when Land raifed it up, and Kinj 

James and Buckingham Countenanced it , to pro 

mote firft the Spattifh , and after the French Marri 

age, the Articles of Liberty for Popery, Con 

fented to by King James, and after Ratified b; 

King Charles, greatly Diftafted the Nobility an 

Gentry, and the People much more 5 fo that th 

Kings and Parliaments were never after eafy t< 

each other, till King Charles II. got a Parliamen 

fitted to his turn 

§ 2. The new raifed Impofitions of King Charles 
I. and Land firft Exafperated the old conformable 
Clergy, by ufpending and vexing them, for not 
reading the Book for Sports on the Lords 
Days , and for Preaching twice a Day , and 
by Altars and Bowing, and other Innovations: 
And the Seventies zga\ViRBurton,Prin andBaftwick^ 
made a murmuring noife *, And the driving many 
hundred Families of Godly Men out of the Land, 
much more. And the newly Altered and Impo- 
fed Liturgy, Exafperated the Scots, who were En- 
couraged by the Englifb Difcontents: Yet all this 
had done the lefs , had not the fame Church- 
Innovaters beenagainftParliaments,and kept them 
out, becaufe Parliaments were againft them ; And 


-iad they not Preached for, and promoted the 
Kings power to Raife Taxes without a Parliament. 
But this leavened the Nation with an Averfenefs 
to the Frenchified Reconcilers. And the Scots 
knowing all this, began Refiftancc, which pro- 
reeded to a Mutual diffidence of King and People, 
.vhich brought forth after a Civil- War. 

§ 3. While the King and Parliament were La- 
bouring under the Mortal Difeafe of mutual di- 
[Sruft , the Irijh by an Infurredion , Murdered 
imoft Barbaroufly two hundred thoufand Frote- 
sflants , ( juft the day Twelmonth before Edghil 
fight, Dublin efcaped : ) And this Horrid Cruelty 
itbafiened the War in England , and made Popery 
ftnore odious than ever it was before 3 and render- 
ed the French Conciliators more diftafted. 
1 §4. The Conciliators having the chief Ecclefi- 
aftical Power under King Charles I. and having 
too much Modelled the Churches and Universi- 
ties to their Minds, the Parliament began a Re- 
formation before the War, and carryed it on after, 
sand caft out many Hundred for Inefficiency 
through grofs ignorance , and for Drunkennefs, 
.jand Vicious Lives : And fome for being againft 
ilthe Parliament •, and prospering till Cromwell cad 
ithem out , and Cromwell going much further a- 
Sgainft Prelatical Tyranny, and an ignorant Vicl- 
*1ous Miniftry than they, thirteen or fourteen or 
ififteen years time , not only ftopt the French de- 
jfigo of Coalition , but alfo wore out the chief de- 
rfigners and promoters of it : To which the Death 
?of Laud, with all the Accufations againft him, 
flruck deep : ( of which fee Prim Introductions, 
and his Canterburies TryaU And many old Con-, 
formifts-f which was all the IVefiminfter Aflembly 


C 3?4 3 

of Divines faving eight ) were the Men that chofe 
rather to put down the Englifh Prelacy , than to 
run the hazard of the change of Civil Govern- 
ment and Introduction of Popery. So that both 
Popery, and the favorers of it , feemed quite caft 
out in England. But Cromwell and his Armies SI 
Ufurpation and Treafons foExafperatedthetwof 
Kingdoms, both Epifcopal and Presbyterians, that 
after his Death ( his Army having caft themfelves 
and the Land into Confufion ) they brought in 
King CW/ej II. who by his Declaration from Bre- 
da, and his Treaty in 61 with the Nonconfor- 
mifts , and his Declaration 1662. ( called Briflols) 
and by his Treaty with us by the Lord Keeper 
Bridgman , and by his Declaration for Tolerati- 
on, ftill laboured fo Strenuoufly to give Popery 
a Toleration , that difcerning Men were fatisfied 
that he was then of theReligion that he dyed in,(if 
he had any J or at leaft had engaged himfelfto 
introduce it : To which ends. 1. The dividing of 
the Proteftants, 2. The Ejecting, Silencing,Ruin- 
ing , Imprifoning orBaniihing thofeof them that 
were molt unreconcileable to Popery; 3. The 
keeping fuch out by new Impofitions of Oaths, 
Subfcriptions,Profellions and Pra£tices,were found 
to be the fitteft means: 4. To which was added, 
the Exafperating the long Parliament ( of Men be- 
foreExafperated)againft them.5r.And theDeclaring 
and Swearing the People againft the Lawfulnefsof 
any Military Defence of i-arliament or Kingdom 
againft any Commiflioned by the King. 6. And to 
bring all thofe that fcrupled fuch Oaths, under 
the odious Name of Nonconforming Rebels, 
(Though they were all againft Defenfive War by 
any private Mea or Fa&ionjor for any Caijfe left 


than the faving of the Kingdom from apparent 
Huine, Subverfion or Alienation). 7. To which 
? vas added , the taking away of all Legiflative 
iPower from Parliaments, and appropriating ic 
pnly to the King (the ftrenuous Endeavour of Bi- 
shop Morlty\ laft Book againft me, and of many 
others. 8. Which were all thought an unrefifti- 
)le force while the King, (of whatever Religion) 
lad the choice of all the Biftops, Deans and Dig- 
nitaries, and confequently of that called The Church 
jf England ; 9. And alfo the choice of Judges, 
r^nd the making of Lords. 10. And the changing 
lof Corporation Charters. 

§ 5. To thefe ufes (that we may not accufe the 
innocent) it was comparatively but a few men 
that were the vifible prime Inftruments , befides 
fn'e non-appearing Jefuits or other Papifts) : That 
s , Chancellor Hide , Dr. Sheldon , Dr. Morky > 
Dr. Guning , whom not only Dr. Hinchman , 
pr. Confins , Dr. Lany , Dr. Sterne , and feveral 
bthers followed ex *nimo$ but alfo moft of the 
jyorldly fequacious part of the Clergy and Laity, 
: or Intereft and Preferment fake, when they faw 
:hat the Intereft of Sheldon and Morky with the 
Chancellor, was a great and neceflary means of 
bbtaining their defires. 

§ 6. But the bringing us to French Popery by 
fhe Grotian way , proved fo flow by many ftops, 
that it hath by God's Mercy been hitherto much 
fruftrate and prevented. For the King muft not 
make profefled Papifts to be Bifhops, Deans and 
Convocation Men, left the notoriety of the De- 
fign fhould raife unconquerable Offence and Op- 
j?ofition : The Name of Popery was to be renoun- 
ced, even by thofe that were for a Foreign Juris- 

diftion : And a Government like that of the 
French Church, mult be faid to be no Popery, but 
only that which made the Pope Arbitrary ,or Super- 
eminent aboveCouncils: And the very retaining of 
the Name of Popery in their Renunciation,fpoil'd 
their Game : And fpecially being neceflitated to ! 
avoid Sufpicion, to make divers firm Protectants* 
Bifhops, Deans and Judges. Yet the flow way of 
K. Ch. II. was like to have been the fureft, could 
their Patience have held out. 

§ 7. But God ufed K. James II. as the great In- 
strument of fruftrating all the Plot (till now); by 
his and his Inftigaters Impatience of this delay, and| 
confidence of a more fpeedy way of Succefs : So 1 
that he refolved to put it to a fpeedy upfhot, and j 
would have all or none : which brought the J 
Changes which we have fince feen. 

§ 8. But is the Church of England yet delivered 
from all the Inclination to a Foreign Jurifdi&ion, 
and the French Government ? The Oath of Su- 
premacy made it feem hard to perjure the whole 
Land, that had renounced all foreign Jurifdidion. 
But many devifed an Expofitory Evafion ( that 
only a Civil Jurifdi&ion was meant 5 though the 
Ecclefiaftick alfo was named). Should there be 
but anew attempt by fuch as the former Rulers 
probably made , is it not like that Men of the 
French or Grotian Principles will promote it 5 yea, 
and be glad of French afliftance ? 

I doubt they that would Perjure the Kingdom 
by a foreign Jurisdiction , will debate this odd 

Qu. Whether all that Trofefs or Swear that it ir 
Vnlawful on any Pretence whatever to refifi the King 7 
or any Commijfioned by him in the Execution of that 


,y ommijjioti> may refift a French Army if they Invafa 
he Land by K. ]'s Commtffion ? ( Or will they turn 

4onconformifts ? ) 

hap. XXIII. Fojifcript to the Reverend 73 r. 



i. HP Hough you wereBifhop Gw/sWlt^ 
A nefs (with Dr. SayweU his Chaplain) 

Bhen he conferred with me, I was not willing to 
*Iieve that you were of his mind for a Foreign 
irifdi&ion, either Ariftocratical or Democrat^ 
.1, or Monarchical, but to my grief am now con- 
need of it, by yoqr publi/hed Convocation Ser- 
on : Having too copioufly here and elfewhere 
>nfuted it ( fpecially in my two Books againft 
Httutm Johnfon alias Terret the Papift ) I fhall go 
\ the fuppohtion that you will there take notice 
[ it: E fpecially of thefe two Reafons againftit* 
1 1. That the Kingdom and fthurch is. fworn a- 
inft it. 

2. That a pretended Univerfal Humane Sove- 
jgnty or Legillative and Judicial Power over the 
jiole Church on Earth, is the Grand Ufurpation 
iiChrifts Prerogative 5 which no Mortal Men 
^capable of: And if this be not Popery, there 
no fuch thing as Popery : And if the Pope be 
Hy called Antkhrift y or at lead a Trayterous 
furperagainft the Right of Chrift and Kings* it 
by thi$ : And if fuch a Power be really given to 
y, the Pope cannot be excluded, at lead from the 
;niverfal Primacy. 

§ 2. I doubt not but the Love of Unity and thg 
lfe of the woful cafe of the Church by Se<3s> 

Z and 

r ??8 1 

and fad Diffentions, engaged Biihop Guning and 
you in the Opinions you took up : And no doubt 
but the Confciencious part of the Learned and Re- 
ligious Papifts are fixed by the fame Motives in 
their way : I may fay [ fixed and very confident;, 
or elfe they durft not carry it on as they have done 
in JV^reand all other Popifh Countreys. And j 
can fay that I have not fixed on the denial of a Hu-j 
mane Univerfal Jurifdi&ion, without thinking fd 
rioufly Forty years of what I could find faid for it 
as well as againfi: it 5 nor out of an inclination tqjl 
any contrary extreme : Could I have fqund bul 
any Humane capacity in One or Many for fuch j 
Sovereignty, Legiflative and Judicial, and but 3 
poifibility of fuch a thing, and any probability] 
that it was of Chrifts Inftitution, the Love of uS 
nity, and Hatred of Unrulinefs and Divifions,anf 
their Effefts had long ago made me a hot defende 
of it. But the contrary Truth , had contrar 

§ 3. That you yiay not think that I differ fro: 
you more than I do, I here premife, I. That 
doubt not but that the Univerfal Church vifible 
One Body or Society of profeffed Chriftians : 
tlje Univerfal Church as Regenerate and Spirit 
is One Body of fincere Chriftians. 

II. That the Unity and Concord of it as Pn 
feflors, and as fincere, muft be maintained to th 
utmoft of our power by all due lawful means. 

III. That a wife Correfpondency between al 
thofe Churches, which by neaftiefs are capable q 
Acquaintance and Communication is a due mean! 
topreferve their Love and Concord. 

IV. That feafonablq and duly chofen Synods 0; 
many conjunct that live within the reach of fuc 1 


C m 1 

Acquaintance and Communication may in cafe of 
true need be a fit means of fuch Concord. 

V. That where fuch Synods cannot be had with 
due equality, Letters and Meflengers from the 
feveral Nations or Provinces, , or Churches may hi 
ufed to chat end. 

VI. That the General Law of Chrift command- 
ing Love, Concord and Edification, maketh it a 
fin for any to affeft cauflefs Angularity, and to 
:hufe any way which tendeth to Divifion : And 
Aat where there is an Equality, and no Regent: 
power 5 yet juft Contrails for Concord ought to 
oe obferved. 

VII. That if in National Churches ( that is, 
jjhriftian Kingdoms or Commonwealths ) the 
jiovefaign Power give one Seat or Bifhop a Pri- 
vacy or peculiar Priviledge, in the Circa, Sacra, 
|he Circumftantials of Sacred Offices, which are 
vithin the Magiftrates Power, it ought to be 

j VIII. If I had lived in the Chriftian Empire, 
; ^hen it fomerime gave the Bifhop of Rome, and 
ipmetime the Bifhop of Conftaminople this prehe- 
jiinenee of degree, and the other Patriarchs (of 
Alexandria, Antioch and Jemfalem ) their feveral 
jiriviledges and Powers, not contrary to the Word 
f God, I would have obeyed that which the Em- 
teror by his Law preferred. 
| IX. The Roman Empire was fo great a part of 
he known Civilized World, and fo Potent, that 
^quarrel not with the Titles of [ Orbis Komanm 3 
id Z Ecclefia Vniverfalis ~\ given to that Domi- 

bn and Church which i|as meerly National or 
nperial ? fo be it, we ■Herftand the true mean- 

Zi XHad 

C ?4° 3 

X. Had the Empire continued one Polity, and 
had made the Bifoop of Rom the Primate as to his 
Seat in Councils, and the faid Bjfhop had been a 
capable Perfon, and had not Challenged the Go- 
\ 7 ernment or Primacy in order of Regiment over 
the whole Chriftian World but in the Empire 
only, as the Archbifhop of Canterbury doth in 
England, I would havebeen none of his oppofers 
All this I grant you. 

§ 4. But ( premifing for the Explication 
Terms , that we take the words £ Regiment 
Laws, Authority, &c. in the proper political fenfe 
and not equivocally for meer advice or confent 
I add as followeth. 

I. That as the Univerfal Church on Earth,hati 
but one Soveraign Jefus Chrift, foit is one Bod 

JoJJtick, in relation to no one Vnifymg Head but 
Chrift, and hath no one Subftixute Vicarious Chrift 
or Subftitute Soveraign Government, Monarchical 
Ariftocratical, Democraticalor Mixt. 

II. The Soveraignty of one Chriftian King, 
Emperor or Senate, ( in Ariftocracy ) over an U 
nited or Confederate Chriftian Clergy and Lait 
as Subje&s ( each* keeping to their own Place an 
Work ) is the Unifying Headfhip of a Nation^ 
Church, which is nothing but fuch a Chriftia 
Kingdom or Republick : And that Chrift hat 
owned fuch National Church Power, and had 
inftituted and owned no Power of Humane Go 
vernment over it on Earth : And therefore a 
pretending to Univerfal Jurifdi&ion is Treafon 
gainft Chrift, fo the claim of Foreign Jurifdi&io 
is Hoftility againft King^and States. 

III. That Foreign^Pouncils of Bifhops an 
Dyets of Soveraign Princes are Authorized fori 



Communion for mutual Counfel and Concord by 
Contrad and Agreement, and have no jufc Jurif- 
di&ion or Political Regiment over particular Sove- 
raigns or their (ubjed Congregations : Though in 
Councils they retain their proper Power at 
: home. 

IV. The Foreign Councils agreeing on things 
profitable to the common benefit of all, Gods 
own Law of Love, Unity , Concord, Edification 
and publick Regard and Peace, forbiddeth the 
particular Biihopsand Churches cauflefly to diflent 

1 and affeft Angularity : But if they agree on things 

i hurtful and dangerous to any of the particulars, 
they are not to be obeyed, nor y^t if they claim 
Jurifdi&ion inftead of Communion and Contract : 

■ But every Prince and Paftor muft Rule their own.. 

\ As Kings will not own a Foreign King or Council 
of Kings, who (hall Ufurp a Sovereignty over 

\ them, much more if over all. 

V. That all Forcing Power that the Clergy can 
! claim by Canons or Mandates in Chriftian King- 
I doms, is only from the Prince ( or State ) as 
! they are authorized by him as his Officers, who 
! only hath the power of the Sword ; and not at all 
! any part of their Paftoral Office. And therefore 
j ( as Grotw in that excellent Book de Imperio fnm. 
\ Potefl. circa Sacra hath fhewed ) Clergy-Canons 
! are no Laws, but directing Agreements. . 

VI. The Canons of theGreateft Councils called 
i General^ were Laws to none without the Empire, 

unlefs Foreign Princes or Paftors made them fo : 
! Nor to any within the Empire, but by the Sove- 
| raigns A6t as they are forcing, and the particular 

Paftors as Dire&ing. 

VII. Before the Divifion and Ruine of the Em- 

Tsi . pire, 

pire, the Name of a General Council figriified but 
an Imperial or National Council. They being 
called by the Emperors who had no further pow- 
er, and only out of the Imperial Provinces, unlefs 
any odd Perfon came voluntarily in for help and 
advantage 3 which/was rare- This I have at large 
proved in my two Books againft W. johnfon alias 
Tenet. ) And, Ecclefia Vniverfalis ufualiy figni- 

fied no more than Vniverfal, National or imperial 
Leo meant no more when he called himteli Caput 

JEcclefia Vniverfalis, nor Phocas when he gave Bo- 

piface the Title of Univerfal Bifliop : And when 
the Empire was divided it was the Treasonable 
Eredion of Popery to feign that Orbis Romania 
Was Orbis Universalis, and that Concilia Generalia, 
and Ecclefia Vniverfalis, meant extra Imperial and 
Vniverfal Over-foreigners , and all the World: 
And this is ftillas the Foundation of Popery, fo 
the common Cheat that pleadeth for Foreign Ju- 

VIII. Though Rome was a meet Seat for Impe- 
rial Church Primacy while Emperors would have 
it fo 5 as it hath no juft pretence to the Govern- 
ment of Foreigners, fo it is of all others moft un- 
fit for a Primacy or Prefidentfhip in the Councils 
of Foreign Confederate Princes and Churches ; 
becaufe it claimeth fo much more, even Foreign 
and Univerfal Regiment : Nor are Councils of 
fuch Bifhops or Princes to be trufced with Gene- 
ral Contrads, who claim fuch Jurifdidion. 

A Primacy in Lawful Councils of Confede- 
rates would ftrengthen their claim of an Univer- 
fal Jurifdidion till they openly renounce it. 

And fo vfould the ufe of a Senate or Council 
that precendeth to the like power. 

IX. Patriarchy 

£343 1 

IX. Patriarchs and Metropolitans, and Provin- 
cials or Diocefans in one Empire or Kingdom, can 
for Number, Seat or Precedency, juftly claim no 
bower of Governing Foreigners 5 nor fubjed Bi- 
hops of that Nation, but from the Soveraign. 

X. Legiflation is the firft Effential power of 
iegiment : Therefore none can be an Univerfal 
Legiflator that is not an Univerfal Reftor. 

XL As an Univerfal Monarch ( Ecclefiaftical 
Dr Civil) is the abfurd claim of an Impoffible 
iring, and open Hoftility to all Chriftian Kings 
tnd Churches fo an Univerfal Ariftocracy in 
Councils or Patriarchs, and Bifhops, is yet more 
tbfurd, as claiming a more notorious Impoffibi- 
ity than the Pope doth. 

XIL An Univerfal power of Expounding or 
fudging ofChrifts Laws by Regent Authority, or 
of being fuch Keepers of unwritten Laws, feem- 
*th the moft Eminent part of Legiflation ; it being 
inore to be Judge what is Law, and to make or 
determine of the fence, than to make the bare 
Ivords : And fo the Bifhops fhould have a higher 
Regency than Chrift: Official Judges Expound 
:he Laws only in their limited Provinces, and for 
:he deciding of particular Cafes ; but not to be 
the Univerfal Determiners of the fence to all 0- 
chers : None but the Law- makers can make an 
Univerfally obliging Expofition- 

XIII. The inftance of the Apoftles power will 
not prove anlnfticution of aftated Univerfal Le- 
giflative Ariftocracy, or Monarchy. For, 1. It 
is evident that Chrift firft chofe and inftituted 
them, as his National Minifters, by the number 
of Twelve related to the Twelve Tribes 5 and by 
the keeping up juft that number after the coming 
Z 4 down 

[ 344 ] 
Sown of the Holy Ghoft : And by his fpecial 
Million of Paul, Barnabas and others to the Gen- 
tiles, diftinguiflhing their Apoftlefliip from Feters 
and the reft to the Jews. 

2. When Perfection and the fall of the Jewifh 
ftate, made the Apoftles Office more Extenfive, 
it was rather Indefinite than Univerfal: They 
were to go as far as they were fent, and were 

'3-TheChurch was then in fo narrow Bounds as 
made that Extent eafie, when now an Univerfal 
Humane Regiment is of Natural Impoffibility y andi 
fo paft rational Controverfie. 

4. Their power was not any further Legifla- 
tive, than as they were Promulgators of Chrift* 
taws, and Determiners of mutable undetermined 
Circumftances or Accidents. 

5. They have no Succeflbrs in thofe extraor- 
dinary parts of their Office, which looketh like a- 
jiy part of Legiflative power. Which parts are, j 
j. Being Eye and Ear-witneffes of what Chrift! 
didandfaid committed to their Teftifying and i 
Predicating Trufr. 2. Having a fpecial Commif- 
fion to teach all Nations his Laws, or what he 
commanded as the prime Promulgators. 3. As 
having the promife of the Spirit to Teach them 
all things, and bring all to their remembrance. 
4. And having the Miraculous Gifts of the Holy 
Ghoft to atteft their Witnefs : As Mofts had 
Succeflors in Executive Regency, but not as a 
Mediatorial Deliverer of Gods Law, which Aa- 
ron ^ Samuel^ David and Solomon muft obey and 
rule by, but had no power to alter words or 
fence, nor add any thing but undetermined Cir- 



[ ?4f I 

; Yet as the Laws ofChrift promulgate by the 
Apoftles bind all Nations to whom they are re- 
vealed 5 fo we grant that the fame Laws ofChrift 
ieclared by Councils, or Preached by any fingle 
vtinifter, bind all to whom they come : And that 
?very Minifter ( and Chrifcian ) being a Mem- 
ber of the Church Univerfal, hisDo&rine tendeth 
No Univerfal Benefit which yet giveth him no 
Jniverfal Regent Jurifdiftion. 

As I remember I have faid all this before in my 
ietters to Biftop Guning when you were his Se- 
cond or Witnefs of our Conference : But the In- 
I Station of your Difcourfe, which I (hall now give 
ou my thoughts of, maketh me think that this 
repetition is not unneceffary. If you will read 
vlr. Th> Beverley s whole Dnty of Nat ions ', you may 
ee more of my Judgment* 

Suppofing your Book to be in the hands of the 
Reader, I (hall forbear tranfcribing, and only tell 
>ou what I diffent from, and the pages where it 

I. I diflent from your Opinion of a Humane So- 
vereignty as over the Univerfal Church on Earth, 
[ whether you feign it to be Monarchical, Arifto- 
;ratical, Democratical or Mixt, I matter not. ) 

IL Confequently I deny your Do&rine of fuch 
in Univerfal Legislative power in Man, ^nd of 
*ny Humane Univerfal Laws. 

III. And I deny all Foreign Ecclefiaftical Jurif- 
3i<3ion, th^t is, That the Clergy of any pne or 


C 346 ] 

many Foreign Kingdoms have a Legiflative Regenl 
power over any other King and Nation whidj 
give them not that power by a voluntary Sub) 

All thefe denied Do&rines you own, pag. 2< 
/•7,8, &c p. 24,25, 26,21,23,19, 13,14, 15, 

My Reafons againft the firft are fo many befor^ 
repeated, that I muft not again do that which id 
fo oft done. Prove you a Univerfal Humane Po<i 
lity ( by Kings or Clergy ) and I will eafily provd 
that Ariftocratical is worfe than Monarchical, ancf 
lefs practicable .* And if you think Popery an unfitf 
Name for it, I will prove it Antkhriftian, as thef 
Treafonable claim of Chrifts Prerogative may be 
fo called. 

The Second Error falls with the firft : For Le4 
giflation is the moft EflTential part of Sovereign 

Your Third denied Opinion I hope all Prote4 
ftant Kings and Kingdoms will continue to reJ 
nounce. And feeing you know that this whole 
Kingdom .is Sworn againft it, ( even all Foreign; 

Spiritual and Ecclefiaftkal Jurifdittions as well as 
Civil, ) in the Oath ot Supremacy, ( befides the ma- 
ny Oaths againft alteration of Church and State 
Government ) I hope yon would not have the Na- 
tion ftigmatized with the brand of PERJURY. 
If the Law for taking the Oath of Supremacy be 
repealed, the Law of God againft Perjury is not 

And whether it be Treafon in it felf againft 
King and Kingdom, to fet up the claim of a Fo- 
reign power over them, without their confent, 
the Judges know better than I. But I know that 
there be fome wife men that cannot yet prove K. 


C ?47 1 

ymeshiS Self-depofwg, if this will not prove it, 
it he openly endeavoured to fettle the King- 
m under a Foreign Jurifdidion againft the Laws 
r d againft their Wills, and (6 to alienate the 
I ,ime part of SoverSgnty. 
And fhould a Foreign Jurifdidion be aflerted, « 
M fhopld all be confounded by the Impoffibility 
I knowing where to find it,or how to ufe it,if it be 
Dyiftocratical: Where the Pope is may be known : 
It where to find a General Council of all the 
Ijjriftian World, or an Ecclefiaftical Parliament 
it College or the Major Vote ofcall the Chur- 
ls we know not. 

; And feeing Bifhopsare all ( fave one ) the Sub- 
\ Is of other Princes, blame not Kings to be un- 
filing to be their Subjeds, when thereby they 
hll befubjeded to thofePrinces that Rule them, 
[^can fway them by Preferments, 

IV. And I believe not your Doctrine that the 
Aajorpart muft go for this Governing Church. 
jFor, i. It will never be agreed who be the 
ations or Perfons that are to be accounted Parts-? 
] will claim a Right that are called Chriftians. 
jd cm all Chriftians or Minifters judge of their 
£tenfions ? 

2. It is certain that the Greater part have often 
red in Counfels, and out of them : The Cafe of 
|e Arrians proveth it : And the Greater fart of 
e Bifhops have been fometime on one fide, and 
onetimes of another, and have turned and re- 
ined in the fame Age 5 as is notorious in the 
,*fes of the Neftorians, Eutychians, Monothe- 
;es, the Council oiChalcedon, owned anddifown- 
;, the Tm Capital*, the Cafe of Images, and o- . 
ers. ' 3. It 

3. It is' known that mofl: of the Chrifti 
World at this day have no fmall number of I 
rors; the Greeks, Mofcovites, Armenians, j 
baffins, Coptis, Syrians, Jacobites, Neftoriai 
Maronites, Georgians, &*.+ 

4. It is to be expe&ed that the Countries nea 
eft the Councils, and that have moft nunnery 
Biihopricks will have the Major Vote, when tha 
far off, and that have large and few Biihopricl 
will have few Votes. 

5. It is known that three of the five old Patr 
.archates haver many Errors, yea, four of th 
differ from all the, Weftern Churches, Papi 
and Protefrants. 

5. And it's certain thatas we cannot be fuit] 
of the Major Vote all over the World, fo G 
never gave the Major part the Soveraignty. 

■ m V. And your Foundation for all this in Pol 
ticks is intolerably falfe, viz.. [ pag. 13. Jn omi 
bm ioHjufmodi Societatibpu pars omnis totifuo congru\ 
Cfr pars minor majori confentanea ejfe debet. 
. ratio fuadet : Hoc jus naturale edicit : Hoc Com> 
nis homirmm Confenfm necejfarium ejfe fiatuit* Ad\ 
ut Ji quid a major i y multo magi* quod a maxima c\ 
jufvis Societatis parte conftituitur eodem pars reliqk 
con fir in gat ur^ illudq^ obfervare necejfe babeat, 
mcmbrum m'anere & privi legits illim Societatis gander 
velit, ^litod cum in omnibus cujufcunque generis 'St 
cietatibus valet , multo magis in Ecclefia valere debtt 
quam omnium ornatijfimam ejfe decet7\ 

I am loth to Engliib it , 1. I confefs I find thj 
like in ArchbilTiop Laud^ and R. Hooker : So Nor 
conformable ro each other is the Conforming 
Clergy. But it's downright Popularity or De« 



locracy of the word fort 5 Andean fucli men 

try down Republicans ? yea, and raife a fufpicion 

>f Nonconformifts as Republicans ? O vyhac a va- 

■ricious fort of men do fometime appropriate the 

WameoftheCWc/? / 

l i. It is true of no fort of Political Society in 
r he World , but only of ungoverned Communi- 
ties or Confederacies , except thofe by Contraft 
:urned a meer Community into the worfc fort of 
popular Politie : And in Ariftocracies it is not the 
Major Vote of the whole Society that Ruleth,but 
Sf thofe few who make up One Political Peffon or 
'ower. And yet could you appeal to Reafon, 
Mature, and common Confent? 

3. It isagainft theEflenceof the Government 
If this Kingdom ? Shall Kings, Parliament and 
vtagiftrates be bound to obey the Major part of 
he Kingdom ? No, nor King and Lords to obey 
jhe Major part of the Houfe of Commons ? Nor 
jvtayors and Bailiffs be bound to obey the Major 
tart of the Cities and Corporations ? 
I 4. It is contrary to God's Law of Nature and 
pcripture. God hath anticipated humane popular 
pretences of being either naturally Rulers, or the 
(Fountain of Governing Power: For God hath in- 
flituted in Nature, the Genus of this Power, and 
fo much of the Species as is to execute God's 
Laws : He hath made the Fifth Commandment ; 
and as he alloweth not the Major part of the 
Children to govern Father and Mother , or of 
Scholars to rule their Matters, fo neither of Sub- 
jects to rule the Soveraign or the ^lincr part. 

5. It is contrary to Oaths that are taken by the 
Subje&s of this Land. 

6. It 

t &> 3 

6. It is contrary to the fubfcribed 39 Article 
that tell us of the Errors and Fallibility of Cod 

7. It is contrary to the Canons, efpecially tholl 
of 1640. that determined Kingly Power to be ell 
God's Inftitution. 

8. It is contrary to all the Writers and Fight* 
that were againft Parliaments refitting the King] 
Michael Hudfon hath moil ftrongly wrote againi] 
it. Dr. Hammond againft John Goodwin hath proij 
ved that the People have neither ruling Authorifl 
ty to Vfe nor to Give. How far then were Bi| 
Ihop Morky and fuch others from your Mind,whcj] 
write that the Parliament themfelves have nal 
EfTential part in Legiflation, but only to prepare! 
Matter which the King only maketh to be a Law 8| 
All the Clergy have fubfcribed to the King's un-l] 
refiftible Power, and a Law made to that purpofe 
by the Parliament that fetled your Conformit 
and Church. 

9- Do you take the Major part of your Con- 
gregation to be your Governours ? Or the Major 
part of the Diocefs to Rule the Diocefane ? Or 
are theft no Societies ? 

10. Is it not contrary to the Oath of Canonical 
Obedience ? 

n. Are our Univerfities of this Mind ; when 
Oxford burnt my Political Aphorifms , and 
Dx. Whitby es Book , and Mr. J. Humfreys, as de- 
rogating from the Regal Power , when yet I ab- 
hord fuch a derogation as your Majority of the 

12. Inawo/d, it is deftruclive of all Govern- 
raent : For the truth is, that Democracy in a large 
Kingdom is an Impoflibility t The People cannot 


til meet to try who hath the Major Vote : They 
;an but choofe their Governours, though called 
leprefentatives : And that is an Ariftocracy : For 
'iko choofe Governours is not to Govern. Even 
jome was not a true Democracy : For the People 
; iad but a Negative part in Legiflation, S.P.Q.R. 
;onjun<ft having the Supremacy. : And what were 
he People of one City to the whole Empire,which 
Was the Politick Body ? 

But how (hall we know who conftitute this Vo- 
ting Society which you call the Church i I know 
j:hat the Papifts appropriate that title to the Cler- 
gy ? But when it cometh to Pra&ice (in Councils 
pr out) how fmall a part have any but the Bifliops ? 
Our Canons condemn thofe who deny the Con- 
vocation to be the Representative Church I Who 
are the real church which they reprefent? Do 
they reprefent the Laity ? Or are they none of the 
^Church ? How can they reprefent thofe that ne- 
jver choofe them? Patrons choofe the Incumbents; 
i land the People choofe neither Bifliops, Deans, 
i ^Arch-deacons or Pro&ors. Is it the King and 
[{Parliament th2t they reprefent? I confels the 
[King that choofeth Bifliops may moft plaufibly be 
^pretended to be reprefented by them. But are 
they indeed his Rulers and Lawgivers 5 and he their 
Subjedt ? Was Mofes fo to Aaron , of Solomon to 
\Abiathar? The King choofeth Juftices, and Con- 
flables (mediately) but not to be his Governours 
but his Minifters. Or is the King and Parliament 
no Part of the Church of England? Say fo then, 
that we may underftand you. 

But if indeed you confefs the Laity to be of 
this Voting Church (whofe Major part by Nature, 
Reafon, and the Content of all the World muft 


Govern us) I befeech you help us at laft ("after a 
our loft importunity.) to know which of theLait 
it is. Is it all that are in the Parifhes? I doub 
then that the Atheifts, Papifts, Sadduces, Deift: 
Hobbifts, Ignorant, Irreligious Debauchees an 
Lads, will be our Rulers. 

Is it only Communicants ? Then the Pari/]! 
Prieft of one place will have a Church of oni 
fort , and another of another fort ? And how 
knoweth he in great Pari(hes who are his Commu 
nicants, when he knoweth not who or what thejj 
are ? or whence they come , nor whether even 
they came before?The Law is the likeft teft,whidi 
obli^eth all to Communicate that will have a Li- 
cence to fell Ale or Wine, or, that will not lie 
in Jail s a place that few Love , and many would! 
avoid at fo cheap a rate as eating a bit of Bread* 
and drinking a little Wine. And fhall the Majo- 
rity of thefe be Rulers of Kings , Bifhops and 
Paftors ? 

But what if you mean but the Major Vote of 
Bifhops ? (which it feems our Lower Houfe of 
Convocation mean not). Verily, Sir, you muft 
not tooftiarply blame the King of En gland,Sweden, 
Denmark^, &c. if they be loth to be Subjects in fo 
great a Matter as their Religion to the Clergy of 

Italy, France i Spain, Poland, Germany, Mofcovy, 
Constantinople , and Afia , Africa, &C. while we 
know what Power their own Princes have over 
them? - 

And do not we know that there is no one com- 
mon Language which they can ufe to underftand 
one another as a College? Even of our great 
Learned Schoolmen few underftood Greek: And 
few of the Greeks underftand Latin ( or true 


c m\ 

i^Greek either) And few Abaffines , Armenians I 
;i>yrians, Mofcovites, &c. underftand either. If 
L-hrift hath been fo defe&ive a Legiflator as to 
leave us to a neceflity of Univerfal Humane Le- 
.;£iflation,0 let us not have them made by fuch Ba- 
wl Builders. Let us have thofe that can meet to- 
gether in lefs than an Age (whether their Princes 
pvill or noj and can learn in an Age to fpeak to 
i )ne another. 

i; Or if you firft prove that Mortal Men are capa- 
ble of fuch an Univerfal Government, try it firft 
1 9 )n Kings, and fettle one King, or Senate of Kings 
: o Rule all the World by Legiflation and Judg- 
ment: For verily more of Sword-Government 
\my be done per alios— ihm of Prieftly Govern- 
ment (elfe you may appoint Presbyters to Or- 
rlain , and Lay-men to celebrate the Sacraments.) 
ij\nd if we muft have a Vice-Chrift, let him be a 
svlonarch that we may know where to find him, 
' nd not a Chimera called a Colle'&ive Verfon , or 
jpollege of Bifliops : Or at leaft if it muft be Pa- 
Iriarchs, let us know who fliall make thern^ and 
^here they are, and what we (hall now do, when 
|>f five fo called Four are called Scbifmaticks and 
re under the Turk i Chrift hath inftituted Natio- 
nal Church Politie : Prove more if you can. 

u VI. And I fhould rejoyce if you could prove 
vhat you affirm,that the Major part of the Church, 
:ven in Rites and Difcipline, is guided by the 
Spirit of God. i . It was not fo in neceffary Do- 
Purine in the Arians reign. 2. If it be fo at this 
lay, England is Schifmatical. 3. If it be not al- 
ways fo in General Councils (as the Articles of our 
Church fay) how much lefs in the diffufiyf* ^ody 

As of 

r 3^4 3 

of People or Clergy ? 4. It is not fo in any one] 
Kingdom or National Church yet known in the 
Wo;ld,no not the World ; And what is the whole] 
but the Parts Conjund ? Dr. Dillingham in a late 
Book againft Popery concludeth , that there wasi 
never yet any Kingdom known where the tenth 
part were truly Godly : And I think you take the; 
Church of England to be the belt in the World I 
And how many Thoufands would rejoyce if you! 
could prove that the Major part even of their 
Teachers were guided by the Spirit of God ? And! 
is it better with the Papifts, or Greeks, or Mofco- 
vites, that cannot Preach at all I O how happy a 
Church do you Dream of? 

VII. And it is yet more incredible that this po- 
pular Majority fhould be fo right in fuch fmall 
Matters as Rites and Ceremonies and Difcipline, 
as that their Pra&ice fhould be a Law to all the 
reft of the Chriftian World : And that the Unity 
or Concord of the Univerfal Church muft be built 
on fuch Sand as cannot fo much as be gathered in- 
to one Heap ? And all muft be Schifmaticks, 
and fo far feparate from the Church that obey 
them not : I remember when Dr. Hammond pro- 
ceeded Dr. I heard Dr. Tridtaux in the Chair argue! 
againft the Churches Infallibility, that John, and 
Thomas, and fo every Individual was fallible : Ergo a 
company of fallibles were not infallible. Efpecially 
in fuch Matters as a Ceremony. Thofe that Pant 
wrote to Rom. 14 & 15. were not taken for infal- 
lible or Legislators by him. 

VIII. And you no where prove that Tad mean- 
eth by Qhe Churches have no fuel) Qiftoms] that 



i me in the World had any other, nor muft have 
iy other \ but only that what Garb and Habit 
e Cuftom of all thofe Countries had placed De- 
ncyin, the general Rule of Decency would ob- 
;e all to in the folemn Afiemblies, as it obligeth 
to be uncovered. You muft needs know that 
f your Expofition and. Inference you Condemn 
ur own Church that hath the contrary Cu- 
>m. Especially your noble Patrons that wear 

IX. And how impoffible a work do you fet us 

as a Law , to know what thefe Ceremonies 

* without which we feparate as Schifmaticks. 

Muft all good Chriftians be fo great Hiftorians 

to kaow what Ceremonies have been ufed in all 

>es by the Major part ? 2. Muft they be fo Skill'd 

Cofmography,as to know what Countries make 

Major part? 3. Muft they have fo good intel- 

ence of former Affairs , as to know who have 

w the greater Vote in Councils and out of them ? 

But you fay, It muft be of fuch Rites as abom- 

Wj ubiq\ & Jemper have been ufed : we like 

ncemim Lins rule well as to things neceffary, 

it may aliunde be fo proved. But how (hall any 

£n know that ab omnibus & u\nq\ without more 

lowledge of the World than Drahf or Candijh 

d, or any Traveller? Except Negatively, that 

b muft not affeft caufelefs Singularity from the 

oft of the Godly, as far as we can know them. 

ad how (hall we underftand the femper ? Muft 

refped all time to come ? Then , none cart 

low his Duty till the End of the World ? If it 

\ only as to time paft, then how knew they that 

f ed in the firft Age, how long their Cuftoms 

Aa 2 would 

[ 3?* 3 

would continue ? And then all the after Changes | 
(which were many) were Schifmatical. 

X. Do you not too hardly cenfdre the Church 
of England as Schifmatical ? You know Epiphanius, 
hath a peculiar Treajffe to tell us, what then were 
the Cuftoms and Ceremonies of the Univerfal 
Church ? And how many of thefe are forfaken by 
us, yea, and by almoft all the Churches ? Do yoi^ 
I10W clothe the Baptised anew in White f Do yoi* 
dip them over head in Water ? Do you anoint. 
them as they did, and crofs them with the Oinu 
went ? Do you give them to tafte Mit&nd Honey I 
Do you exorcife them ? Do your Bijhops only make- 
that Chryfme f Do all here and in other Churches 
wor/hiponly verfa Orientem i Do you all forbear J 
and forbid Adoration Kneeling^on any Lordfs Day] 
or any Week Day between Eafier and Whitfmday h 
What! when you caft out of the Church thofe thatl 
will not Kneel at the Sacrament ? You know thai 
the Council of Nice , and that at Trull , and thd 
Fathers commonly make this a Rite of the Unil 
verfal Church : And Dr. Hejlin faith , chat Romm 
it felf kept it for a Thouland Years, and it wal 
never reverfed by any other General Council! 
Do you keep the Memorial of Martyrs at theirl 
Graves as then they did ? Do youufe their Bones 
and reli&s as they did ? Twenty more you mayl 
fee in Epiphanmznd others. 

O condemn not the Church of England^ fepa4 
rated from the Univerfal Church. (And our Ke-I 
formers too .) 

XI. What a cafe would you bring this Church! 
'and Kingdom to , by your law cf the Cyftom of 


^he Major part ? Mufc we have all the Opinions; 
Elites or Ceremonies which the Greeks, Mofco- 
Wtcs, Armenians and Papifts have many Hundred 
# ears in their Ignorance and Superftition agreed 
n as to the Major part ? Muft we be able to con~ 
iite their pretentions of Antiquity and Cuftom as 
p all thefe ? He that readeth the Defcription of 
■heir Cuftoms,methinks, ihould be loth that we 
xrnld be fuch. 

] XII- And your Do&rine of Traditions as cer- 
^inly received from the Apoftles, when the Ma- 
[)rity ufe them, is fo much againft the Church of 
^gland's Judgment, and fo copioufly confuted by 
; ie whole ftream of Protectant Bifhops and Drs. 
(id foreign Divines , that I will not flay now to 
repeat that work : were all the Traditions fore- 
mentioned fince laid by, received from the Apo- 
j^les ? (About Genuflexions , Milk and Honey 9 
jhryfme, the white Garment ?) 

You inftance in Synods meeting and making 
jaws. Tp meet for worlhip or neceflary confulta- 
s pn and Concord , is no unwritten ceremonial 
iradition , but the obeying of Chrift's written 
aw,which requireth fuch mutual help,and that we 
b all to Edification , Concord and Peace. But 
pmmumon of many Nations is one thing , and a 
overnment over all is another thing. It was the 
mperor's Commiffion and Power that made Ca- 
s >ns to be Laws. 

And do you not here write againft the King's 
!ommiffion by which you fit , which declared! 
torn that Ad: of //. 8. that your Canons are no 
jaws , till King and Parliament make them fo? 
>sk the Lawyers- Were not the Canons of 
A a 3 1640* 

[ 3j8] 

1640. caft out even by your own long Parlia- 
ment ? 

XIH- But the worftis, that while you fet us a 
new Univerfal Church Legiflative and Judicia 
Soveraignty, you deny the fufficiency of Scripture, 
if not the Soveraignty of Chrift himfelf, while you 
feign unwritten Univerfal Laws, as' part of Chrift's 
Law,& a (upplement to theScripture,& giveChrift'si 
Prerogative to a Ufurping Soveraignty , utterly! 
incapable of that Office ? Scripture we know! 
where to find ; but where to find your Univerfal 
Additional Law$, and your Church Senate or Col- 
lege, they muft know more than I that know 
But fo much is written againft the Papifts (as 
aforefaid) for Scripture fufficiency, that I refer] 
you thither, and to the Articles, Homilies and Or-j 
ciination Books which this Church fubfcribeth to.' 
Alas Sir , is not the whole Bible big enough to 
make us a Religion ? 

XIV. As to your definition of the Church,/*. 1 2.] 
It is tolerable if you make no Head but Chrift 
and fet up no Vicarious Head Monarchical or An- 
ilocratical , and inftead of Provincial parts, pui 
National and Congregational 3 or confefs that y< 
defcribe but the Imperial-National Church,which| 
Was made up of Roman Provinces. And gratifienot 
the Fanaticks by making the Holy Ghoft to be the! 
authorifer of the Majority for Government : For] 
they will think that they have more of the Holy 
Ghoft than you, and therefore muft Govern you* 
I would all Rulers had the Holy Ghoft 3 but it's 
fomewhat elfe that muft give'them Authority. 

XV. Your 

. XV. Yourinftance of the £*/^rControverfie is 
*ainft you- The difference undecided for 300 
'ears, and Apoftolical Tradition urged on both 
; des, tells us that it was no Apoftolick Law ; And 
ocrates and Sozjomen tell us, that in that and many 
ich like things, the Churches had freely differed 
1 Peace. And you feem to intimate contrary to 
iem and to Jnn&us, that the Afians were Schif- 
: iaticks till they Conformed. 
j And why name you Afi* alone? Were our Brit- 
<|(h Churches, and the Scottifh no Churches > Ox 
\o you alfo Condemn them as Schifmaticks for 
bout 3 00 Years after the Nicem Council ? What 
ould the Papifts lay more againft them ? 

] XVI. How impoflible a thing do you ma^e 
{fhurch Union to be ? while the Eflentials or great 
integrals of Religion are made inefficient to it, and 

many Ceremonies and Church Laws are feigned 
eceflary, which no man ever comes to the true 
knowledge ofirhat he hath the right ones and all ? 

1 XVII. If the Patriarchs muft be the Soveraign 
ivollege , I befeech you give us fome proof fin a 

fafe fo weighty ) 1. How many there muft be ? 
Where feated ? 3. Who mufc choofe and make 
liem? 4. And quo jure ? <f. And whether we have 
ow fiich a College i or is there no Church ? 

XVIII. What Place will you give the Pope in 
[he College ? I fuppofe with your Brethren you will 
itall him 1 . Prwcipium V nit at is . ? But that's a Name 
'j>f Comparative Order ? what js his work asfuch 
: Princip'mm ?' How is he the Prwcipium % if he have 
10 more Power than the reft ? Muft not be call 

A a 4 the 

C ?6o3 

the Councils ? fThough our Articles fay General I 
Councils may not be gathered without the Will : 
of Princes). Shall he not choofe the Place and 
Time ? Tell us then who (hall ? Muft he not be 
Prefident ? Muft he not be Patriarch of the Weft? 
And fo Govern England as our Patriarch, and Prin- 
cip'mm unit at is Vniver falls alfo ? 

XIX. I pray tell us whether the French be Pa- 
pifts? And how their Church-Government (as 
Defcribed from themfelves by Mr. Juricu ) dif- 
fereth from that which you are for ? Tell me not 
of their Mafs , and other Corruptions ? It is Go- 
vernment that is the Form of Popery. And they 
will abate you many other things : And muft we 
be Frenchified ? If the French reftore thole that! 
we called Papifts, will difowning the Name, and 
calling t them the Church of England ( chofen 
by Papift Princes ) make us found and fefe ? And 
when we find Arch-Bifhop L&ud ^ Arch-Bifhop; 
Bromhall , Biflicp Guning , Bifliop Sparrow , Dr. 
Saywctt , Dr. Heyltn , Mr. Thorndike , Bifhop S. 

Farker^ and many more were for a Foreign Ju- 
rifdi&ion , can we think if the French bring in 
the late Governours, that fuch Churchmen would 
not embrace the French Church Government, and 
call it the Church of England , when fince Lands 
days, they have endeavoured a Coalition? If they 
be Defeated , we may thank King Jams , who 
could not bear delays, and would bave all or none, 
when Crotins way would have been a furer 

XX. You tell us of Penalties made by Church 
Laws ? Depofing Minifters » and Anathematizing 


le Laity ? But while the Clergy hath no power 
< the Sword,who will feel fuch Penalties ? When 
.we Excommunicates the Greeks, the Greeks 

' ill Excommunicate them again : What Penalty 

it to Proteftants to be Excommunicated by the 

; 3pe or his Council ? How commonly did they 

at were for , and againft the Chalcedon Council , 

p xcommunicate each other : And thofe that were 

::*ir and againft Images? And for Pbotius, and for 

I nanus ? Cheat not Magiftrates to be your Li- 

I :ors , and Curfing will go round as Scolding at 

[ iliingfgate ? Who is hurt by a caufelefs curfe,but 

i,ie Curfer ? I confefsthat Dr. Saywell fayeth well 5 

it fingle perfons muft be punifhed , fhall not Na- 

ons alfo ? Yes: But by whom? By God the 

i.lniverfal King , and not by an Qniverfal Human 

r-overaign h whether a King or Pope, or a Senate 

<>f Foreign Subjects; 

i XXI. We are promifed by a trifling Pamphle- 
teer ( thatfome of you are anfwering Mr.cW- 
~ons two Books about the Primitive Epifcopacy and 
Liturgies : I pray you procure them alfo to anfwer 
my Treatife of Epifcopacy , ( and my Englifl) Non- 
conformity ) and not with the Impudent Railing 
Lyars, to fay it is anfwered already , while we 
can hear of no fuch thing. And fee that they 
prove that all thefe things following, are Traditions 
of the Vniverfal Church, received from the Apo- 
ftles , and ufed, ab ommbm ', ubiaue & femper. 

1. That moft particular Churches for two Hun- 
dred or three Hundred years and fo down, con- 
fitted of many Congregations that had no perfo- 
nal prefential Communion. 

2. That Churches infimi or dims were Diocefan, 
1 having 

having many Hundred or Score Pariflies under 

3. That thefe Diocefans , undertook the fole 
Paitoral Care of all thefe Pariflies , as to Confir- 
2Dation,Cenfure, Abfolution,and the reft. 

4. That all thefe Pariihes were no true Church- 
es y as having no Biftiops, but the Diocefans, and 
were but Chappels, or parts of a Church. 

5. That the Incumbents were no true Paftorsor 
Bifhops, but one Bifhops Curates: And that there 
were not then befidesDioceian Arch-Bifhops in each 
fingle Church , Epifcopi Gregis and Epifcopi pro- 

6. That Bifliops Names were ufed by Lay-men 
that had the Decretive Power of Excommunica- 
tion and Abfolution. 

7. That fuch Secular Judicatories, far from 
the Pari(hes,rather than the particular PaftorsTry- 
ed and Judged the unknown people. 

8. That Pariili Minifters Swear Obedience to 
the Diocefans , and they to Metropolitans. 

g. That all People that would have Licenfes to 
keep Ale-houfes or Taverns, or that would not 
lye in Jail, were Commanded to receive the Sa- 
crament as a Sealed Pardon of their Sins. 

10. That from the beginning,all Churches were 
forced to ufe the fame form of Liturgy , and 
not every Church or Biihop to choofe as he (aw 

11. That Kings chofe Bifliops and Deans with- 
out the Confent of the Clergy and People. 

12. That all Minifters were to .beEje&ed, and 
forbidden to Preach the Gofpel , that durfl not 
Subfcribe that there is nothing contrary to Gods 
Word in fuch as our three impofed Books. 

13. That 

[ j6jl 

tfij, That all Lords, Magiflrates, Priefts and 
ople that affirm the contrary, be ipfo fatto Ex- 

: 14. That Lay-Patrons that are but Rich enough 
buy an Advowfon ( how Vicious foever ) did 
oofe all the Incumbent Minifters , to whom 
e People muft commit the Minifterial Care of 
eir Souls. 

1 5. That they that dare not truft fuch Paftors 
are chofen by Kings ( though Papifts ) and fuch 
itrons, and dare not Conform to every impofi- 
on like ours , muft live like Atheifts, in for- 
?arance of all publick Worfbip and Church 

i<5. That all may Swear that an Oath or Vow 
Lawful and Neceffary things , bindethnotour 
Ives or any others, if it be but unlawfully impo- 
•d and taken , and had any unlawful part of the 

17. That the Church ever held it unlawful for 
wholeKingdom to defend it felf againft a Prince 
iat would deliver up half the Government to a 
; preiner,andforce them to a Religion which requi- 
*th them to be Damned ( or to Dye : ) When 
le Clergy and Church at Jerufakm 3 Alexandria, 
kmioch, Rome, &c. did fooft by force and Blood, 
^fift evenChriftian Emperors,fuch as Thtodofim II. 

eno , Anaftafius and many others. 

18. That all the Churches held it lawful to 
wear and Covenant , never to endeavour any 
\mendment or Alteration of any fuch as the fore- 
hen tioned Church Government. 

If all thefe things be contrary to the conftant 
udgment orpra&iceof the Church, J^erewhe- 
her Dr. Bweridge and his Approvers > pronounce 


C 364] 

not the Church of England Schifmatical, as fo far 1 
(eparated from the Church Univerfal ? 

But again I conclude, O! What, muft the 
Chriftian World fuffer even by teafned, and I 
hope pious Dolors? 

I. Becaufe they will not diftinguifh National or 
Imperial Vniverfalitv of Church and Councils , frtfttr 
thofe of the whole World, 

II. Nor Communion from Regiment , nor Con-\ 
trails from Laws ; nor a Regent Excommunication^ 
from a Renunciation of Communion by Equals. 

III. Nor Divine Obligations to Concord,and hu- 
man demands of obeying Ufurpers, or the hurtful ; 
Agreements of an injuriousMajoricy of equal Votes. 

IV. And by their Depofing Chriftian Kings and 
Magiftratesfrom their Sacred Power over Bifhopsl 
in Church-Government * and for Mens Souls 5 as 
if they were made only for the bafe things of the 
World and Flefh , and Priefts only were trufted 
with Religion and Souls : And Kings were not 
Heads of National Churches. 

V. And their fhamelefs calling them Adverfo- 
ries to Epifcopacy, that would have one Hundred 
Bifihops for one , and are for the old three forts, 

Epifcopi Gregu , Epifcopi pro, fides , and Arch-Bifh" 
ops ; and calling thofe the£pi/b/Wpart,that put dowii 
all the Bifhops in a Diocefs fave one 5 As for 
your felf , I profefs to be fo far from Cenfuring 
any thing of you , fave thefe Miftakes , that as I 
have long, fo I do ftil 1 , Love and Honour you 
as a Man fearing God, ind of a good and blame-* 
lefs Conversion, as far as ever I Credibly heard 
And I thought the like of BifhopGuning, though 
( as it is with many Pveligious Papifts ) his Opini* 


C &1 

is more prevailed againft his Charity , for that 
jfchievous hurtfulnefs , in which he ferved the 
ibtilty of Sheldon , and the fiercenefs of Morky^ 
A the Defigns of Papal Courtiers : But I hear 
at ypur Piety and Charity prevaileth againft the 
-'il tendency of your miftaken Do&rine : Though 
x. Thomdihe threaten England , unlefs they Re- 
I rm the Oath of Supremacy , I confefs I wifh it 
'ftored , and am Difpleafed with thok Scots that 
ive caufelefly quarrelled with it} and fo helpt to 
)en a Door to a Foreign Jurifdi&ion, which 
e Kingdom is Sworn againft. 

Since the writing of all beforegoing , I firft 
ad your two great Volumes of Canons , and 
)Ur Anfwer to DalUm.ln the "Prolegomena of the 

•ft , to my Grief I find you more exprefs for an 
IniverfalLegiflativePower andForeigd Jurifdiiti- 
l than in yourSermon : And yet not at all telling 
; , where to have accefs to this Univerfal Sove- 
ignty for Judicature , out of the times of Ge- 
bral Councils , nor how to know but by believ- 
g your bare word , what Councils are cur Uni- 
*rfal obliging Laws , when you confefs the vaft 
fference of the Eaftem and w 'eft em numbers, 
■br how to know what our Religion is , while 
Jeknow not what be our Laws : Nor how to 
fiow whether the Church be extindt, when 
jhath no human Head , by the Ceflation of fuch 
Councils-, nor who muft call them , nor whence, 
: or what is their Conftitutive Matter ■, only you 
y,they muft be called out of all the Chriftian 
v orld ; But need not all be tliere ? And will a 
iallmakea General Council, if the Men come 
i)t ? And can they conie from all the Dominions 
F .the rffalfwet, Armwwut) T«rkh Per pans ^ Mtf- 

[ i66 1 

covites , &c. And who hath right to call them ? 
hath the Pope ? Or our Emperors or Kings ? what 
power hath he over all other Princes Subje&s ? 
Youconfefs they were called out of the Imperial 
Provinces ? And how few ( if any) other Names 
are Subfcribed ? But lam forry that you ftill.fo 
contrary to all Evidence , take National or Im- 
perial Univerfality for Terreftrial Univerfality of 
Church and Councils : I befeech you ,if we muft 
be Papifts , let us be of the more reafonable fort, 
that know where to find a Papal Monarch,or Vice- 
Chrift ; and not fent to feek a Church-Parliament 
Univerfal , or Univerfal Ariftocratical College , 
that is nowhere extant in the World, nor can be, 
especially now the five Patriarchs are what and 
where they are. How much more Rational to be 
Governed by the Pope as Patriarch of the Weft 
only , till we can find out the Ariftocratical Head. 
Butfince the Empire was turned into many 
Kingdoms , who can prove that thofe many muft 
have all one Human Head. 

But I am yet more forry that you joyn mthHUde- 
brand , in making Princes to be but for the Body 
and Civil Peace , and BifliopsandPriefts to be the 
Church, and for the Soul: Which ( God willing,) 
as I have oft done, I (hall fullier Confute, in a 
Treatife for true National Churches , proving 
that Chrift hath made no Higher Vifible Humane 
Church Power or Form : And that Chriftian 
Kings are as Sacred Perfons, and Minifters of 
Chrift as Bifliops ; and Superior Heads of Nati- 
onal Churches , though the Pow r er of the Keys 
belong only to the Clergy $ And that a true 
National Church , is but a Chriftian Kingdom, as 
fuch, the King being the Head , and Confederate 
Paftors and Churches jhc Subject Body. 


The Second Part. 

rhe Stating of the Contro- 
verfie, and full Confuta- 
tion of the Pretences for 
a Foreign Jurifdiclion. 


CHap. I. The clear flat ing of the Controvsrfie.and Confutation of, 
the Pretenders. In 60 Prop opt ions 5 proving it a perjurious 
alteration of Government, &c. 
Ch. II. Why Parliaments and the Church of England before Bijhop 
Laud were fo much againft fuch a Coalition with the Papal Church, 
Ch. III. The [aid Coalition is not the way to Catholic^ Union, 
Ch. IV. The Deceits that are pleaded for an Univerjal Humane So- 

Ch. V. A Foreign furifdifiion by College or Counsels unmask?. 
Ch. VI. The Grand Conjequential Cafe : Whether it be lawful for\ 
Presbyters to Swear cr Profefs Obedience to thofe Bifhopswhc t 
profefs Subjection to a Foreign furif diction ? or for the people to \ 
ewn them. 
Ch. VII. Of the fecondpart of the defign to bring the Papifts to our 

Churches as in the beginning of Queen ElizabethV days, 
Ch. VIII. Why it will notjervefor a Coalition for the Papifts to a- 
bate their la ft 400 years corruptions as Arcbbijhop Bromhali 
Ch. IX. Whether the inftance of 'the Apo flies Church Governments 

prove an Univerfal Soveraigmy in man, 
Ch. X. Many Queftions about Councils to be refolved before we can j 

ta\e them for an Univerfal Arifto:racy, 
Ch. XI. A Breviate of both the Atiftocratjcal and Monarchical 

Ch. XII. A humble Exportation to the Zealom Antipapifts, Con. 
formifts and Nonconformifts whether they have been innocent as to 
promoting Popery ? 
Ch. XIII. What is the Duty of all other Chriftians towards the Pa- 
pifts, in order to thedifcharge of the Fundamental Duties of Love, 
Concord andPeace^and the promoting the common Intereft ofCbri- 
fiianity : Written to \\eep Prohttants from pnfid Extreams , and 
while we cannot come (0 near them as Callander 5 Erafmus, Gro- 
t'ms,and thofe that are for a Foreign $urifdiclion,we may keep and 
vfe a Christian Zeal for the better way of Concord of Chritts pre- 
ferring, avoiding allinjury to Papifts, and all others. 
NB, To prevent mifunderftanding Citations,note,That both 
fome Epifcopal Drs and fome Presbyterians fay , That the Go- 
vernment of the Church is Ariftocratical,meaningonly, 1. Per 
partes, as England is Governed by Juftices, and, 2. Meeting in 
fuch Councils as they can for Concord •• But not as the fumma 
poteftcu of the Univerfal Church, which is una perfona politica in 
pluribm naturalibus unifying the Body and fo Ruling it. They 
fpeak not properly in the Language of Politicks. 



Chap. I. The true State and juft Re- 
folutions of the Controverfies about a 
Foreign JurifdiEtion, in Sixty EvL 
dent or Proved Propo fit ions. 

' r ' T-T^^ £ reac ^vantage Satan maketh of 
i. JL the deceivablenefs of ignorant men.and 
\t the deceit fulnefs of the Crafty, and of the apci- 
jade of ambiguous, orfaffe, or artifidally-cqntri- 
ed Names and Words to deceive, the fad Expe- 
dience of the deceived World, and corrupted and 
ivided Churches openly declare ; and yet, alas, 
ow fewobferveit andefcape the fnare? 

§ 2. If ail Men were judicious and ftabliflied 
^hriftians, when ferious Faith and Godlinefs is 
lade a fcorn, by the falfe names of Hereticks, 

hifmaticks, Puritans, Fanaticks, Se&aries, oi- 
ly fenflefs jears, it would no more turn them 
pm the holy performance ^ of their Baptifmal 
ow, and Obedience to Chrift, than the raving 
: a Drunkard or a Bedlam, or the crying of a 
Ihild. But ignorant unrefolved Perfons, that 
^ver yet know what the bearing of the Crofs 
^s, nor have learned felfdenial^ are ftopt in their 
jnvidtions, good purpofes, and hopeful difpofid- 
is, when they hear ferious Piety made a com- 
ron fcorn, and that by thofe that were themfelves 
'ptized, and profefs Chriftianity. Some of them 
Ink, lure all this reproach is not laid on them 
f nothing, and others that think it but the ftink- 
B b ing 

f ?7° 1 

Jng breath of ulcerated malignant minds, yet can- 
noc bear it, but draw back and (brink : Therefore 
Chrift prcncunceth a dreadful Sentence againfl 
thofe that offend ( that is, by fuch (tumbling- 
blocks turn back and difcourage ) even the leafl 
of tbele childifli beginners ^ It were better for thai 
man that a Milftone were hanged about his Neckj ana 
he were caft into the Sea, 

§ 3. But no fcandal or fnare is fo dangerous at 
thofe which are made by Rulers or Great Men 
or by Paftors and Teachers on the pretences oj 
Religion, and Divine Authority, abufing the ho< 
Jy Name of Chrift. 

§ 4. And the fame Artifice that Satan ufeth a 
gainft Godlinefs in general he ufeth againft parti 
cular Truths, Duties and ^erfons. And one of th( 
mod dangerous that I now perceive the Prote 
ftant Religion affaulted with, is putting the Nam 
of Nonconjormifts^ and Puritans, and Schifmatich^ 

on Proteftants as Proteftants, and the Name 
Catholick, the Church, the Church of England 
the Clergy, yea of the Preformed Church, ando 
Proteftants on the Papal Roman Se&. The Churc 
of England, King, Parliament, Archbiihops, Bi 
fhops, and the reft were fixty years ago and leij 
againft that as Popery, which now is obtruded oflj 
us as the fenfe of the Church of England agmti^ 
'\ jpery : Such Wonders can bare Names do witf 
the ignorant : And they go on without any gre< 

§ 5. Whereas there are great differences 
mong the Papifts about the degree of the perfona} 
Power of the I ope, the Cheat is this; To confin^ 
the Name of Paputs to the one party, and to o* n 
the Opinions of the other Party, and to call theni 


E 37' 3 

Presbyterians or Nonconformifts that are againft 
both, and will be no Papifts. i. The Italians are 
for the Popes Sole Supremacy, and Councils being 
but his Counfellors. 2. The French Lawyers 
are for the Councils Supremacy above the Pope, 
as ro Legislation, and Judgment when they fir* 
3. The middle greater part are for the Supremacy 
in Pope and Council agreeing, and the Popes Exe- 
cutive power in the intervals, notabfolute, but ac- 
cording to the Church Laws or Canons. But all 
for a vifible Univerfal Supremacy, and for the Pa- 
pal Presidency in General Councils, and his prime 
Patriarchfhip in the Weft. If in England fome be 
For the Kings Sole Legislative Power and Abfo- 
lutenefs, and Parliaments being but his Counfel- 
, ors 5 and others for the Conjunction of King and 
parliament in Legiflation, and the limiting of the 
Kings Executive Power by the Laws, doth it fol- 
iowthat only the firfc fort are the Kings Subjeds ? 
fhe Controverfie is the fame. Yet the fame men 
that are for Abfolute Civil Monarchy, take on 
hem to be for Ecclefiaftical Ariftocracy. 
; § 6. Men love not to be tired with tedious Vo- 
ames •, nor can I find time to write more fuch, 
Therefore I fhall here lay down what the Reader 
mft neceffarily know in fome Thefes or Apho- 
|fms, with fo fhort but found a proof as is necef 
|ry to capable willing Readers, inftead of put- 
ig them into diftintt Chapters with numerous 
:oofsto urge the unwilling. 

1 1. The World is the Kingdom of God 3 who is 
•minently the King, and all Reafonable Creatures 
is Subjects under Moral Government, as all na- 
! ;ral Agents are under Natural Potential Govern- 
ed* J3b a No 


[ ml 

No man will deny this but the A thrift, whom I 
leave to be difputed with by Sun, and Moon, and 
Stars, Heaven and Earth, and common Rea- 


II. God only is the Unifying as well as Specify- 
ing Governor of this UnivetTal Kingdom: and tho' 
all men be of one Nature, Species,Mould,Intereft, 
&c yet it is only by their Relation to one God 
that they are one Kingdom. 

III. God hath made no Univerfal Supreme 
Monarch or Ariitocracy under him in the World: 
But only appointed to each Soveraign his particu- 
lar Province or Republick. For, . i. No Man or 
Senate is naturally capable of it : They do not fo 
much as know the Terra incognita, nor can fend to 
the Antipodes and all the Earth as Regiment re- 
quired) : He would be thought as mad that fhould 
attempt it as he that claimed a Kingdom in the 
Moon. 2. No Man or Senate had ever yet the 
madnefs to claim '^ 

IV. He that fhould Claim an Univerfal Supre- 
macy, muft thereby make all Kings and States, 
and all the World to be his Sub jeds. # 

V. He that doth fo proclaimed himlelt to be 
pMictu hoftis, the pMick Enemy of all Kings and! 
States,whilehe will make them his Subjects againjl? 
their wills. And therefore all Kings and States are 
allowed to refill and ufe him as their common 

Enemy. , t - i • i r t r> 

VI. The whole World is now the rightful Do- 
minion ofChrift our Redeemer: For this end he 
both died, rofe and revived, that he might be the Lord 
of the dead and of the living, Rom- 14. 9» 10. M\ 
power is given him in Heaven and Earth, Mat. 28.; 1 
I p. All things are delivered to him of the Father, and\ 


I fill 

given into his hands, John 1 3. 3. and lj\ 2. /& // 
/»**& jf/e^ over all things to the Church, Eph. I. 23. 
The Father judgeth no man, but hath commuted all 
judgment to the Son, John 5. 22. 

VII. Princes are therefore now the Minifters of 
Chrift by Duty, and are bound to ftudy his Inte- 
reft and Laws, and to obey him. 

VIII. Subje&s by Obligation are not always 
Subjefts by Confent, nor Subje&s by Profefled 
Confent, always Subjeds by Heart-Confent. 

IX. All the World is the Kingdom as of God 
the Creator, fo of Chrift the Redeemer as to Ob- 
ligation : And the Wicked as Rebels. 

X. All the truely Baptized are thereby made 
the Kingdom of Chrift the Redeemer by Profe/t 
Confent. And this is the Church vifible. 

XI. All the true Believers and San&ified are 
the Kingdom of Chrift by Heart-Confent 5 and 
thefe are the Church Regenerate and MyftkaL 

XII. Therefore the Kingdom of Chrift is larger 

Shan the Church of Chrift : And the Church is an 
lied: peculiar people, Vifible as to Means, and 
Jvlyftical as to Salvation. Even as the Ifraelites 
had the Covenant of peculiarity, while the Law 
of Grace in the fir ft Edition made to Adam and 
Noah was ftill in force to all the World : And 
Abraham thought that even Sodom had had Fifty 
Elighteou^Perions in it. 

I XIII The Church of Chrift is an Eminent 
Politick Society , of which Chrift is the Specifying 
and Vnifying Head , and all Chriftians are Mem- 
pers : All the Baptized Vifible Members , and all 
: :he fincere confenters myftical Members. 
J XIV. Chrift is the Maker of his own Body , 
Church or Kingdom: Hemadehimfelf the Head: 

B b 3 He 

C 374 3 
He made the fpecifying Inftitution or Law 5 the 
Terms of Union and Communion •, He giveth 
Men the Grace by which they Believe, Repent , 
Confent and are made Members. 

If Chrift made not his own Church , as to the 
Formal Head , the Species, the Unifying Terms 
and Graces , it would be as a Wooden Leg to a 
living Body, a Human Creature impofed on him, 
Savouring of the Errours and Naughtinefs of 
thofe that made it , and Mutable at their Mutable jj 
Wills. Every active Form, makes it's own ma- 1 
terial Domicilium. Who is he , or who are they 
that had power to make Chrift a Body or Church 
in [peck , before he made it himfelf : Chrifts Bo- 
dy is not made by Man ? If it were, who were 
they ? Were they his Body or Church firft them- 
felves, or not ? If yea , who made them fuch , 
and who them, and who them in infinitum: If 
not , how came Infidels and the Members of the 
Devil to have power to make a Body or Church 
for Chrift? 

XV. Chrift hath defpecie Inftituted who (hall 
be Members of this Church : And by his Laws, 
Terms and Defcription taught us certainly to 
know the Members as Vifible. 

Elfe we could never know whom to take for 
Chriftians , nor whom, to love as fuch 5 Nor 
to whom to give the Seals of his Grace , and 
Communion with his Members. 

XVI. Baptifmis the Symbol or Badge of Chri- 
ftians, and Baptizing is our Chriftening ; and who- 
ever believeth and is Baptized , (hall be Saved: 
Therefore till they Revolt, all truly Baptized 
perfons are Vifible Chriftians, and make up the 
Vifible Church : Which is the Society of all 


C 37J 1 
jChriftians, Headed by their Foveraign Chri/K 
i XVII. All Chriftians entered in Infancy , are 
not capable of the Duty , Bleflings and Commu- 
nion of the Adult. fc Adult Members and Com- 
munion muft be diftinguifhed from Infant. 
; XVIII Therefore all that will have Adult 
•Communion, though they muft not be Baptized 
f again, muft as fully own their Baptifmal Cove- 
nant , Devoting themfelves by their own Vnder- 
funding Confem and Vow to God the Father, Son 
-and Holy Ghoft , Renouncing the World , the 
Flefli and the Devil , as if they were now to be 

\ The negleft of this , or turning it into a dead 
simage and Ceremony , by dead Images of Bi- 
yfliops , on pretence of Confirmation , confound- 
eth the Church, and would make it a dead 
Umage, and really but the World. 

XIX. Thellniverfal Church of Chrift in his 
irdays on Earth , was but an Embrio 3 and his few 
rApoftles and Difciples , who were fuited in num- 
ber to the Jewifh Nation , where their Miniftry 
iwas to begin, were but like the Organical parts of 
(the Body , the Heart , Head , Eyes , Liver, &c. 
when Nature hath firft made them , that by them 
jit may make the reft. But when Chrift was Ri- 
ifcn , and the Holy Ghoft fent down in Eminency, 
fand the Gentiles called , and the Church began 

to be Catholick , this Kingdom of the Holy 
iGhoft is that which is called fpecially , the King- 
dom of God and Heaven, which the Gofpel then 
proclaimed,and John Baptifl told Men was at hand. 

XX. The Church of Chrift on Earth is partly 
iVifible and partly Invifible, and yet but one 

B b 4 As 

[ 37^ ] 

As Man is vifible as to his Body, and invifible 
as to his Soul, and yet but one Man. It is vifi- 
ble , i. In that the Subjects per ions are Vifible : 
2. Their profefiion is Vifible : 3. Chrift was Vi- 
fible on Earth : 4. He is Vifible now in his Court 
of Heaven : 5. He will in vifible Glory come and 
Judge them. 6. They (hall fee his Glory for 
ever : y.HisLaws areVifible : 8.His Officers are Vi- 
fible. 9- Many of his Judgments and Executions are 
Vifible here : 10. The red iliall be io quickly,and 
for ever. 

^ His Church is Invifible, 1. In that Chrift as 
God was never feen : 2. His Soul never feen: 
3* His Office as to Truth y Right and Authority 
Invifible , and to be believed. 4. 'Hie SouJs of 
the Subjects Invifible ; 5. Their Sincerity Invifible. 
6. And Chrift now not feen on Earth. 7. Nor Hea- 
ven and Heli feen , where is his great Execution 
and Retribution. 

XXI. Chrift only is the Specifying and Unifying 
Form of the Church,as United to the Matter: ^nd 
all Chriftiansj Paftors and People, are but the 

They have a fort of Unity in themfeives : They 
are of one Human kind , of one Intereft, of one 
Profeffion ( and Faith and Love if fincerejand 
joyn in one fort of Worihip, and Afe of Obe- 
dience to Chrift', But they are One Chrift tan 
Church , or Body of thrift, only by their Vniomeitb 
Chrift ^ -arx ? Relation to him their Head and Cen- 
ter. As $re Kingdom Q$ England hath one fort 
of Men in our Land , of one Language, &c. Eup 
only their Relation to one King, makes (hem one 

XXII. The Church or Body of Chrift when 

■ ' fully 

[ 377 1 

fully made , hath diflimilar parts; fome are No- 
ble Organkd parts , firft made to be inftruments 
in making and preferving all the reft 5 and the 
Church cannot be a Formed Church without them 5 
fome are fuch Integrals, as the Church may live 
.without.but not be Whole without. 

Even as Ariftotle defineth the Soul to be Ente- 
lechuiy or the Entitative All and Form of a Thyfi- 
cal organised Body , capable of being Animated by 
it. And as in Generation the Heart is firft made, 
and then fome Rudiments of the Veflels for Di- 
itribution , and then the Head and Eyes, and then 
the Liver , &c. So Chrifts Humane Nature with 
his Spirit , is as Heart and Head to the Church : 
And then Teaching by himfelf firft , was as the 
xArteries for Diflribution; And the Apoftles were 
ffrft made the moft Noble Organic al parts, to De- 
liver and Record his Univerfal Commands, and 
)y his Spirit , make up the Inferior part^ , aqd 
:he ordinary Paftors to be as the Stomach and Li- 
yer, &c> for the Nutrition cf the whole. None 
>f thefe parts are the Soul or forma hominis 3 but 
;he Nobleft parts are neceflary in that Contex- 
ure , which is forma Corporis , to makeit materia- 
iifpofita , receptive of the Soul , which is the 
?orm , as to its full Operation^ though the Semen 

make an Embrio before received it. Much like 
$ kin our prefent Cafe. 

1 XXIII. Our Controverfie then is not , whether 
It be neceflary to the being of the Church in 
\aclo effe , that it have Apoftles and Paftors and 
Teachers, to make it the Organised Body of 
thrift, for this we all acknowledge. Nor yen 
'vhether thefe ihould be all Chriftiansof one Bo- 
♦Y? ^Pixic^ Faith 1 B apt if m^ Hope ^united to one Head 

' and 

andcWin him * Nor whether the Unity of the 
Spirit ( for that's the Unity ) fhould be kept in 
the Bond of Peace , no more than whether the 
diflimilar parts of the Body fhould all be of one 
Matter, and live by one nutriment* united to 
the fame Head and Heart,, Contiguous, and made 
for the Good of the whole , actuated by the fame 
Spirits , and Animated by the fame Soul 

XXIV. But our Controverfie with the Papifts is , 
Whether the Church on Earth have any One lawful 

Supream Power under Chrifi , Monarchical , Arifto- 
cratical or Democratic al , authorized to Govern the 
whole by Legislation and Judgment: That is , One 
Minifterid Soveraign , or Vice-Chrift $ a Conftitu* 
rive, fpecifying and Vnifying Supream ver all, being 
one P( iitical perfon, whether in o>.>e , or many natu- 
ral Perfons i Th's :■' rot eft ants deny. 

XXV. It is but our fecond Quefdon with the 
Pa pi its, Whether the Popx be this Head or Supreme 
Rettor : but our firft and fundament! Controverfie 
is, Whether there be any fuch at all but Christ. 

Did we believe there were any fuch at all , we 
fhould readily be Papifts, either of thofe that give 
moft to the Pope as Abfolute, or of thoie that 
make him the Prefident of C ouncils, and in their 
Intervals, the Prime Church Governor according 
to the Laws. Of which more anon. 

That the Proteftants commonly deny all Uni- 
verfal Soveratenty but Gink's, I fhould tire the 
Reader needlelly to prove by numerous Citations. 
He may foon know that will read, 1. Ail die 
Churches Coafellions in the Corpus Confe(fiori»jm 
2. Guv Oa.hs for renouncing all foreign Jurifdi- 
dions. 9. Our DifpUtantS* Luther, (deConciliis) 
Zimglim D Oecola.wpadm 3 Melatwhthon , Brent'ins, 


C 579 ] 

Calvin, Bnllinger, Zanchy, 1/lirigpts, Pe^elhu, Muf- 
culus, Aretins, Chamier, Molin&us, Blonde I, BalUvu, 
.Rivet, Partus, Sohnius, Pifcator^ Bena, Sadeel, Da- 
\naus, Gryn&us, Spanhemius, Ar mini us, Epifcopius, &G 
.Jewel, Whitaker, Reignolds , Crakenthorpe , Abbot, 
\C ha/loner, Willet, Vjher, White, Chillingworth, Dave- 
nam, Morton, Carlton, Bernard, Barrow,&CC. Their 
Difputes were not Who is this Summa Poteftas 
Mnijhrial to Govern all the ChrijHan World , but 
whether there be anyfach .* 

XXVI. No Protefcants ever yet denied the 
rCouncils of Pifa, Conftance and Bafd , and the 
French allowed Clergy to be Papifts becaufe they 
were not of the Italian ftrain,nor for the abfolute 
unlimited Power of the Pope. Nor did any call 
[them Proteftants. 

XXVII. That the Pope hath no right to an Uni- 
erfal Supremacy,Headfhip orGovernment,I have 

[proved at large in the Firft and Second Part of my 
Key for Catholicks : And Dr. Barrow hath bet- 
ter and more largely proved after many other. 

i. No Man is naturally capable of Governing 
ill the World. Only God and our Redeemer is 
{capable ; Man cannot know, hear, fend, execute 

Sver all the Earth per fe & per alios , it's a kind of 
ladnefs to imagine it. 

2. The Chriftian Churches are moftly under 
ithe Power of various Princes, Abaffines, Turks, 
Perfians , theMogol, Mofcovites, Tartarians, 
Swedes, Danes, Englilh, &c that will not receive 
the Pope : How then can he govern the Subje&s 
•pnder them ? 

3. HadfuchaHead been of Chrift's making, 
he would have plainly made us underftand it by 



[ s 8o] 

his word : Of fo great importance would it be to 
the Churches Unity and our Salvation. 

4. When Hertzes and Sects andControverfies' 
arofe and troub le Church, the Apoftles would? 
furehave told them this neceffarv means of ending! 
all, and living ia Unity and Concord. 

5. Paul would never have chidden the Conten- 
ders for faying, I am of Cephas, if centering in him 
had been the only uniting means- 

6. Peter never exercifed any Power over the 
reft of the Apoftles,nor over the Univerfal Church 
any more than the reft. 

7. If he, had, it had been no more to the Biibop 
of Rome , than to the Bi(k>p of dm'mh , and 

8: None can (hew any Commiffion of Cbrift 
for fuch a Headlhip : And none other can autho- 
rize them. 

9. The Council otChakedon faith exprefly, that 
it's being the Imperial Seat, caufed Rome to have the 
Frirhacy by the Father's Gift. 

10. The whole Greek Church never believed 
that Chrift made any Univerfal Soveraign : For, 
1. Elfe they would never have contended for the 
Primacy ac C nftantwopk{nov for the fecond place): 
For they knew that was no Apoftolical Seat , nor 
did they claim it as byChrift s inftitution : and they 
were not (b impudent as to fee up a Huaian Right 
before a Divine. 2. And even they never claimed 
a Soveraignty over the Extra -Imperial Chriftian 
World, but only over the Churches of the Empire, 
and tho/e that had been the Emperor's Subje&s. 

11. The Fathers and Primitive Church , and 
Tradition are all againft the Pope's Univerfal 
Government without the Empire (as I have elfe- 
where proved). 12. The 


L ?»i J 

12. TheCatholick Church isnovvagainft fuch 
!a Soveraign , even the far greateft part of Chri- 
ftians : And it never acknowledged him or united 
in him in any Age. 

13. There is lefs reafon for one Church Mo- 
narch overall the World than for one Civil Mo- 
narch (as fliali be further proved) which yet no 
Man hath the face to plead for. 

14. This Papal Claim hath no juft pretence-, 
There is no work or ule for any fuch Power (of 
which more anon J. Let not Magiftrates or Paftors 
be robbed of their right, and there will no Go- 
verning Work be left for the Pope. 

15. It is an unfufferable Usurpation of the 
; Po\ver of all Chriftian Princes, who are entrufied 
,with the Exteriors and Accidentals of the Church; 
and a wrong to them, and their Kingdoms to iub- 
Wb$t them to Foreigners. The Pope of old was a 
Subject to one Prince 5 And for one Princes Sub- 
ject to Rule all other Princes of the Earth, is in 
effect to make that Prince the Ruler of them all. 

\6. A humane Ufurping Head maketh an hu- 
man adulterous Catholick Church 5 and makes 
ithat the Body of the Pope, which fhould be buE 
the BodyofChrift. 

17. It is a certain means of Schifm, while there- 
by they feparate that humane Society of the Ufur- 
per from all the Church that will own no Head 
but Chriih 

18. This Idol Head or Vice-Chrifc in plain Pride 
fetting up himfelfas theGovernour of the World, 
jand fetting the World together by the Ears about 
his Title,by Ufurping the Government ever them, 
muft needs make it a hard queftion at leaft to 
iChriflians, whether this Idol be not the Anri- 


C 582 1 

chrift, that is, the Pro-Chrift, while he makes! 
himfelf the Vice-Chrift. And efpecially when it's 
confidered what men abundance of the Popes 
have been, and how much they have done againft 
the Do&rine, Worlhip, Difcipline, and faithful 
Servants of Chrift. 

m 19. They have noway to give the World any 
fatisfa&ory certainty who is Pope, and who not : 
How then can the World be ruled by him? 
1. They cannot tell whether the Electors or Con- 
fecrators be they that neceflarily give him his 
Power, or make him Pope. 2. If it be the Ele- 
ttors, they cannot tell us who thofe muft be. If 
any will ferve , the Turk may make a Pope ! 
And then ten fort of Ele&ors may make ten 
Popes : If it be tied to any one fort of Men, 
the Papacy hath long been extinft 5 for in 
fome Ages the People of Rome chofe with the 
City Clergy : In fome Ages the Neighbour Bi- 
fliops and People chofe : In fome the Empe- 
rors : In fome Cardinals ; And fometimes Ge- 
neral Councils: If God had appointed ontVmfy'wg 
Head to his Church , he would have determined 
who fhould choofe him, and told us how to know 

If ic be Confecration that maketh him Pope, 
God would have authorized fome to Confecrate 
him. If any will ferve , fome may Confecrate 
one, and fome another, and fome a third : Every 
one may have three Bifhops. If it muft be both 
a juft Ele&ion and Confecration the uncertainty 
will be the greater , when neither of them is 

And none can give Power but they that have ic 
to give. But Eledors and Confecraters being In- 
feriors have none to give. If 

C j8j 3 

If they fay that God only givech the Power, and 
the E!e<Sorsdo but choofe the Receiver, and the 
>Confecrators invert him: I anfwer, It is fo in- 
deed in the true Collation of Church-offices, and 
{Power (Whether Mr- Dodwell and (uch others 
will or not \ But that's here all one as to our un- 
certainty Who is the Man. 

2. And this is no feigned cafe: when in fuch a 
multitude of Schifms 5 tbere have been two or three 
Popes at once fand once fix alive at once that 
iwere or had been Popes J : And thefe made Bi- 
fliopsand Cardinals,and thqfe Biihopsmade Priefts, 
and no man yet knows which of them ("if either) 
had the right. 

3. And is it the Name of a Roman Bifhop, or 
ithe Thing that is neceflary to the being of an Uni- 
verfal Pafcor ? If the Name, a Hundred may be fo 
icalled-, And bare Names give not fo great Power: 
If the Thing, how were thofe Bifnops of Romejhzt 
divers Score Years did dwell in France, and never 
did any Bifhop's Work at Rome , nor had Rome s 
Confent ? Might not one in Armenia have been as 
truly called the Bifliop of Rome ? 

But if it be Pojfejfwn that gives validity to the 
,claim 3 then the ftrongeft bath the belt title. And 
Ithey that have by turns driven out each other 
|were all true Popes : And who was PofTeflbr, 
pwhen one was at Rome, and another (that carried 
it at laft ) at Avignlon or in Germany f 

20. Tying an Unifying Head of all the Church 
on Earth to Rome , doth leave it in the Power of 
any Infidel , or Arian that can get Rome to fet a 
Head of the Chriftian Religion on the Church ; 
that is, To un-church it, deftroy it or corrupt it. 
For all that know the World, know how ordina- 

[ ^4] 

rily the Prefent Powers can prevail with their 
Subjects to Eledt whom they pleafe ; As Theodori- 
cm and other Arians at Rome have done. And if 
the Turk fliould conquer Rome , how eafily could 
he keep them from having any Bifliop^t all, and 
fo the Church were dead as headlefs. 

21. Yea Rome hath long been without any true 
Biihop : And the Church is no Church witfiouc 
it's Conftitutive Head. In divers times of Wars, 
Defolations, and Perfections, yea , long by the ] 
Difagreement of the Electors, and many ages by 
the nullity of uncapable Popes , fome fet up by 
Whores, and Tyrants, and fome depofed by Ge- 
neral Councils as Hereticks , and yet continuing 
fas Eugen. 4. ) And long much of Italy it felf 
depofed the Roman Biihop, and fet up a Patriarch 
at 4quileia y and took him for their Head. 

22. Yea, it is certain by their Do&ritie of ne- 
ceflary uninterrupted Succeffion, that there is now 
no Pope nor ever can be. For when fo many 
falfe Elections, Incapacities by Simony 5 Herefie, 
Schiim, Infidelity, Councils Depofitions, have 
interrupted the Succeffion, it can never (by their 
way) bereftored. 

23. By all the Canons every City fliould choofe 
their own Biihop : And fo Rome (ok a Neft of 
Wickednefs) would be made the Miftrifs or Head 
of all the World*, when as Cofmography is not fo 
neceflary toChriflianity,that all the World fliould 
be bound ever to know that there is fuch a place 
as Rome in the World : And k were a ftrange 
thing that God fliould make it neceflary to Sal- 
vation for them at the Antipodes and all the 
Earth, to obey one City, and him that they ele<ft. 
Was it ignorance or craft in Pope Zacbary to Ex- 


Communicate one for faying there were Anti- 
podes. If he knew of no Men on the other fide 
of the Earth, he was unlike to Govern them. If 
le perfwaded Men that one half of the Earth was 
jninhabited,that he might not be known to bend 
Governor of them , it was vain Craft. But it's 
iker it was Ignorance. 
He that would have more Proof, may find 

nough in Dr. Barrow. 

^ XXVIII. The Pope by this Claim of Univerfal 
jovernment claitneth fo much Power unjuftly 
rom and over all Princes on Earth , as obligeth 
hem all to take him for a Publick Enemy, as one 
rould do that ftiould claim an Univerfal Monar- 
chy, and tell them on pain of Depofition they 
iutt be all his Subje&s: as the Pope doth on pain 
f Excommunication^Depofitiort and Damnation. 
None ever had the madnefs to dream of an 
Iniverfal Schoolmafter , or Phyficion. Gregory 
>ng ago made the claim of Univerfal Bifhop to 
e a mark of Antichrift. 

s XXIX. Chrift bindeth all Chriftians to live in 
Communion as Saints , as making up one Body 
olitick (of a tranfcendent Species) of which 
hrift is the Supreme Governor or Head. 
: This therefore is none of the Controverfie be- 
yeen us : All Chriftians are agreed that as many 
Members ofdifferent(hape,ufeand honour make 
pone Natural Body, fo do Chriftians that differ 
\ Gifts, Office and Grace make up one Body of 
hrift. And as every _ Member contributed to 
ie good of the whole Body, fo muft every Chri- 
ian to the good of the Univerfal Church : And 
> it is not only Bifhops that have every one a 
harge in his Place to promote the Univertai 

[ ?S6] 

welfare, but every Presbyter, and every Chriftian 
in his Place. Therefore that Bifhops are related 
to the whole Church, no more proveth that they 
have as a Senate zfumma poteftas or any Univerfal 
Government over it, as one College , than it will 
prove it in all other Chriftians , who are all rela- 
ted to the whole ; Nor no more than the Mem- 
bers of the Body do make one natural Governing 
Part by Confent. 

XXX. This Communion of Chriftians in the 
Church as Catholick ; is efTentiated by the Eflen- 
tials of Chriftianity and Miniftry 5 for Chriftians 
as Chriftians with Chrift the Head do conftitute 
the Catholick Church, inks firft being as in fieri. 
And chrifiians as Chriftian Minifters of Chrift, 
and private Difciples, do conftitute the organized 
Body which with Chrift the Head make an orga- 
nized Catholick Church. 
t XXXI. The Integrals of Chriftianity & Commu- 
nion are not neceflary to theEflence of theChurch^ 
but to the Integrity : Much lefs the Accidents. 
1 XXXII. The Chriftian Churches through the 
World have Communion in all thefe things fol- 
lowing at this day. 1. They are all Baptized with 
the fame Baptifm inEflence 3 and fo are all Chri- 
ftians. Particularly they all profefs to believe in 
God the Father, one Jefus Chrift our Redeemer, 
and one Holy Ghoft, one in Effence with the Fa- 
ther and the Son. They all profefs the fame 
Creed called the Apoftles, yea and the Nicene: 
and the Lord's Prayer as the Rule of our Defires, 
and the Decalogue as a fummary Rule of Pra&ice 
They all believe the fame holy Canonical Scrip- 
ture, as to as many Books at leaft as are neceflary 
10 thebeing of Chriftianity and Salvation/They all 


c 3873 

agree in the Effentials of the Sacred Miniftry, that 
iuch muft teach the Infidels of the World, and 
make them Difciples of Chrift baptizing them; 
and then muft teach them drift's Commands: 
That they are under Chrift's Teaching , Pneftly 
and Kingly office, to be to the C lurches the Peo- 
ples Teachers, their Guides in Pnblick Worfhip, 
and the Rulers of their Communion by the Power 
of the Keys. They agree in the Efientials of the 
Lord's Supper,fave that the Papifts have corrupted 
it by Tranfubttantiatio^ and other foul Abufes- 
The Proteftants, Greeks, Armenians, Abaflines 
and all or near all the Parties of Chriftiaos in the 
World are agreed in all this and much more, ex- 
cepting the laid Corruptions of Popery, i. Their 
Religion teacheth them all to Love one another, 
as the Members cf the fame Body of Chrift 5 
to do good to all , efpecially to the Houihold 
of Faith 5 and to Pray for one another , and 
and relieve each other in want, and to do to all as 
jthey would have others do to them. In a word 
io Love God as God, and Saints as Saints, and 
Vlen as Men, and all to feek one Heavenly King- 
Horn, and all fight againft the fame Enemies, the 
VVorld, the Ffefh , and the Devil. And this is 
^atholick Communion. 

XXXIII. The greater Communion they have 
n all the Integral parts of Chriftian Faith, Wor- 
Jhip^and Government, the more ftrong and amia- 
ble the feveral" Churches are, and io is the whole 
>y fuch Communion ; But it is not neceflary to 
|he Eflence. 

! It is not the Papifts trick of challenging us to 
lame Fundamentals that will cheat men of under- 
tending to confound Eflentials and Integrals : That 
C e z which 

[ ?S8 3 

ivhich hath no Eflence is nothing : that whofe 
Eflentials are unknown is not knowablc, nor can 
be defined. Christianity was once known by Bap- 
tifm : and it was once knowable who were to be 
Baptized, and who to be received as Christians in- 
to Communion. There are multitudes of Divine 
Truths revealed in Scripture, and therefore to be 
believed, which are not eflential to a Chriftian or 
a Church : And fo there are Integral Parts of 
Worfhip and Difcipline. He that needs more 
proof of this, is not one of thofe that I write for. 

XXXIV. The Accidents of Chriftianity and 
Churches are of two forts : ibme fuch as it is de- 
finable that all Churches fhould agree in, though 
it be neceflary neither to their Eflence or Integri- 
ty. And fome fuch in which an Univerfal Agree- 
ment is neither poffiblenor defireable. 

As it is defireable to comelinefs that all men 
have Hair and Nails, &c but not that they all 
wear Cloaths of the fame Stuff, Shape, or Price 5 
or all dwell in Houfes of the fame materials, form 
orbignefs, nor all ufe the fame Trade of Life, nor 
be of one Age or Rank, &c. It is defireable that 
all the World fpake one Language, and were of I 
one Judgment in all things of colnmon concern- j 
ment : But it's hopelefs , And he would play thef 
hypocritical Devil , that on pretence of feekingj 
Unity, would deftroy or ruin all that agree not 
in thefe things •, fo is it as to Church Communion : 
It is defireable that all Chriftians underftood and 
fpake one Language ; and that we had but one 
perfedt fort of Copy of the Bible without various 
readings-, or where Tranflations are neceflary that 
they were all perfect and agreeable , but it's hope- 
lefs : As the cafe is, it is not defireable, much lefs 



; neceflary, that we all Worfliip God in one Lan- 
i guage when all underftand ic not , or that we all 
ufe the fame Tranflacions , Liturgy, or words of 
Prayer or Preaching, or all wear the fame fort of 
Garments, and an hundred fuch like : And to fi- 
lence all that do not, or reject them from Catho* 
lick Communion is the like hypocritical Diabo- 
' lifm -■> and in that way,the Devil and the Pope are 
the greateft Vniters, that is , Dividers and De- 
ftroyers in the World. 

XXXV. The Vniverfal Church conta'meth many 
particular Churches throughoui the World, 

This none denieth. As a Kingdom hath many, 
j Cities and Corporations. 

XXXVJ. Thefe particular Churches Parts of 
the Univerfal, have a diftind conftitutive Form : 
That is, Chrift only is Soveraign of the Univer- 
fal, but his Officers are the particular conftitutive 
ruling part of the particular , though under Chrift. 

King and Subjects only are Effential to a King- 
dom : But a Mayor, Bailiff,or other chief Officer, 
and the common Citizens are Effential to a City. 
And to call a man Chief or Head of a Family or 
City, that is no King, is no Treafon, but to claim 
p the Royalty is. 

XXXVII. Therefore there is more neceflary to 
Communion in a particular Church as a Member; 
of ir, than to Catholick Communion, riz.. 

He mud confent to his Relation and Submiflion 
jto the particular Paftors of that Church •, and to 
'meet at the fame time and place, and joyn in 
jail the neceflary Parts of Publick Worfhip with 
tjthem; Elfe local Communion will be impomble. 

Therefore it is injurious ignorance which main- 
kaineth of late, that he that feparateth from or is 

C c 3 juflly 

C J9<> 3 

juftly cafl: out of one Church, feparateth from, or 
Is caft out of all For he that will not own the 
Pador of that Church, cannot have Communion 
with it as a Member of that Church ; who can 
come to School to a Schoolmaller that he confents 
not to ? And yet he may own moft or all other 
Paftors of the Catholick Church as fuch. He that 
thinks the Subfcriptions, Forms or Ceremonies of 
the Greek, Roman or Englifh Church unlawful, 
doth not therefore think Chridianity or Catholick 
Communion unlawful. 

XXXVIII. All Chriftiaas are not bound to be 
fixed Members of particular Churches fubordinate 
to National 3 but rhofe that can enjoy it ought. 

The Negative I have fo fully proved againft 
Dr. Srillingflm , that for Dr. Sherhckjo go on to 
harp on the fame firing, and give no anfwer to it, 
doth but tell us with what Men we have to do. I 
will not repeat the Proofs I gave, that fome Am- 
baffadors, fome Merchants, fome wandering Beg- 
gars or Tradefmen, fome Travellers , and fome 
where no Churches yet are gathered, fome Sol- 
diers, and fome in times of Confuiion , are not 
obliged to be fixed Members of any particular 
Church ; but only to be Chrift ians in Communion 
with the Church Catholick, and to hold tranfient 
Communion with the Churches where they come. 
He that yet will deny this, words will not make 
him fee it. 

XXXIX; Many of thefe Churches in one King- 
dom, have fo great advantage by the Unity of 
5overaignty,civil Intereft and Laws, to be flreng- 
thening helpers tQ one another, that they fhould 
accordingly aflbciate, and live in as much concord 
r various conditions , Auditors and Imper- 
fections will allow. And 

C?9* 3 

And accordingly as Neighbours owe fomemore 
Charity to each other than to Strangers, fo Chri- 
flians under the fame Prince united by Civil Go- 
vernment,^ Laws and Intereft , fhould be ib far 
from periecuting and destroying each other, for. 
that which in various Kingdoms is allowable in 
Religion,that they fhould exercife more love,com- 
paffion and forbearance of one another. 

XL. Chriftian Princes are true Parts of the King- 
dom of Chrift, and eminent Integral Parts of the 
Univerfal Church", as well as Paftors- . And are 
^ound by Chrift to do their beft to make all their 
Kingdoms,the Kingdoms of Chrift; that is,to bring 
ill their Subje&s to confent to be Chriftians, and 
to live in concordant Obedience to the Laws of 

And fo all Nations fhould be difcipled as far as 
hey can procure it : And fuch National Churches, 
:hat is, Chriftian Kingdoms,wemuftall defire. 

XLI. Supreme Chriftian Princes or States are 
authorized and obliged to drive on, by juft means, 
:11 Paftors and People to the Duties of their feve- 

1 Places, and correct them for their Crimes. 

XLII. Chriftian Princes and States being Mem- 
>ers of the llniverfal Church , are bound to con- 
ribute their beft endeavours to its welfare : And 
Iierefore fo far to Unite and Agree as is neceflary 
b their mutual lengthening for the Qniverfal 

XLIII. Therefore fo far as Civil Councils , or 
pyets of many Princes or their Delegates or Am- 
!>afladors are neceflary to this Concord for the 
common good, they are bound by God to keep 
fuch. And where Meetings cannot be kept,to ufe 
,11 meet correfpondency by Ambafladors and Let- 
ters for the fame End. ' Cc4 So 

[ 39 1 1 

So that this is no duty proper toBHhops, but 
common to Chriftian Princes : And if their fin- 
ful omiflion make it ftrange, it is neverthelefs 
iheir duty, as God will make them know- 

XLIV. Thy Synods of Paftorsduly ordered are 
of great ufe for their mutual advice, ftrength and « 
concord, in order to the univerfal good. 

So far are we from- being againft them, that we 
think the right ufe of them of great importance. 
That they may keep a right underftanding of the 
Faith which they agree in, and bear down Here- 
fies the better by their joynt oppofition ; and may 
keep up Chriftian Love, and work out the difaf- 1 
fedions which ftrangers and the calumnies of I 
backbiters are apt to breed. And even in Inte- 
grals and meet Accidents may do as much in 
Concord as they can. 

XLV. The Obligation which lieth on Particu- 
lar Paftors to obferve the Agreements of fuch 
Synods, is from the general command of Love 
and Concord, and the means thereto. And he 
that ftands not to fuch Agreements as make for 
the Strength and Concord of the Churches, vio- 
lateth this Common Law. But fuch Agreements 
of Synods as make not for this common end 5 but 
are againft it, no man is obliged to obferve. 

For it is no means that is not for the End, but 
againft it. Therefore every Canon which enjoyn- 
erh fin, or is not to the Churches good but hurt, 
xnjift not be kept. 

XLVL It is not true that the Diocefan is by 
Office the Reprefenter of the whole Church in 
Synods^ and Presbyters have no place or deciiive 

Protectants have at large confuted this in their 


[ ml 

Confutations of Popery ; and fohave many French 
} apifts, and fome others. The Convocation in 
ingUnd hath a lower Houfe of Presbyters : Elfe 
1 Abaffia one Bilhop wereinftead of all the Cler- 
y of the Empire : And two or three were a 
National Synod, in a Nation that hath na more 
)iocefles. They can (hew no Commiffion for 
ich a Reprefentative Power 3 therefore they 
ave none fuch. 

-XLVII. Much lefs have five Patriarchs, and a 
2w Metropolitans, or fuch near them as they 
/ill call Authority topafsfor the Reprefentatives 
fall the Chriftian World, and to conftitute a 
General Council. 
XLVIII. No Paftors or Churches can give 
ower to any to reprefent them abfolutely 3 but 
>nly limitedly to lawful things,for common good : 
^rid to oblige them no further or longer to ftand 
o what they do, than the common good requi- 
eth it- 

What a man may not do himfelf, he may not 
uthorize another to do for him : And no man 
nay himfelf oppofe Truth or Duty, or crofs the 
ommon good, or aflert any falfhood, or confenc 
Jo any fin. And that which accidentally maketh 
pr the common good in one Age or Countrey, 
may be againft it in the next : And then we are 
obliged againft it, whatever our Delegates, An- 
jeftors or i elves did for it before. 

XLIX. There w r as never in the World a Ge- 
aeral Council of all the Bilhops on Earth, nor of 
:he Reprefentatives of all the Churches : Evea 
ihe fix or eight, or more old Councils now mod 
lonoured, were General but as ro One Empire, 
E yea far from th^t, ) and not as to all the Chri- 
stian World, This 

This I have fully proved in my fecond Book! ! 
againft Johnfon; i. From the Subfcripcions tol nc 
the faid Councils 5 2. From the Authority of thefc 
Emperors that called them -, 3. From the reft ofi 
theHiftory and Adte? 4- And from the Tefti^lc 
mony of the Hiftorians of thofe Times. Yetjfc 
A. Bifhop Bromhall, with the Papift Prieit JohnU 
fan maincaineth the contrary, pag. no. faying, k 

£ Z7?tf Exception was made in the dark, &c. and \ 
iaith, if abounds with Errours, and that the Abnna 
of Ethiopia fab mitteth to the Patriarch of Alexan- 
dria, and they all acknowledge the Pope /fce y»r/? 
Patriarchy &c. 

An[. 1. If (uch a cant as this go with any man 
for a fatisfactory anfwer to the full proof afore- 
faid which I have given, and my Confutation of 
ten times more of Johnfons, I have done wjth 
that man. 

Anf 2. Our Quefiion is, Whether any, or 
all the -£.vfrrf-Imperial Churches had Bifhops in 
thofe Councils, or were there reprelented, yea or 
ever calted ? Doth he prove a word of this ? 
Not one word 5 but faith, The Ethiopians now 
fubmit to them. 

Anf. 3. The Queftion is not, what they do 
now ? but what they did then. Chriftian Reader, 
admire the gracious Providence of God. The 
Cuftom then was for the Major Vote of the 
Bifliops in Council, when they anathematized any 
as Hereticks, to get them baniLhed. Many of 
thefe banilhed men enlarged the Church, and en-' 
creafed the numbers of Chriftians where they 
came \ but they propagated a Condemnation of 
the Councils that condemned them. Ncftorius, 
but fpecially Dkfe&rtA and Jacobus Syrm, and ma- 


7 of the Eutychians turned multitudes in the Eaft 
id South, and fome in Tartary to their minds 
?rein. Among others the Abyjfwes were taken 
ith the Reverence and Authority of Diofcorm, 
^ndemning the Council at Cbalcedon,znd the reft 
at were againft him. And all the £*m*-Impe- 
il Churcheshonoured thofe of the Empire above 
I emfelves, living under Infidels (except Abaffla) 
[A rejoyced in the Power of the Chriftian Em- 
re ; but never joyned in their Councils, nor 
ceived them as their Laws, but rejoyced as 
Dnfenters to all that they thought good. He 
nnot prove that before Biofcorm Banifhment 
re Abajfines obeyed Alexandria : And to this 
y, their Abnna is chofen by the Monks at Je- 
falem, fay fome, but fay others, chofen and 
•nfirmed by the titular Patriarch of Alexandria, 
d ruleth Abaffia himfelf •, and they all condemn 
e forefaid Councils, and the Pope. Godignns 
[lis you and Ludolphw more fully,, what refpeft 
ey have for the Pope and our Councils. 
[Anf. 4. The truth is, all that ever I heard yet 
at can be faid for the Subje&ion of the Abaf- 
'es , or other Exterior Churches to the Council 
;en of Nice, or the Patriarchs before , is but a 
/ord in the Canons lately Divulged by "Pifamis^ 
pfch are novel , of no Authority , nor to be 
jredited by any that Credit not the Roman For- 
ties : And it's contrary to the true Nicene Ca- 
)n, that faith Egypt only is Subject to Alexandria , 
hen this Forgery addeth Ethiopia : And yet it's 
Id of Trajan 5 that he went far into Ethiopia to 
fclarge the Roman Power : So if the Romans had 
' y skirt there , as they had oft in Verfia and 
ythia , that's nothing to the Abaffmes , nor pro- 



C J9<5 3 

veth any Exteriors , much kfs all reprefented 
the General Councils of old. 

Anf. 5. Many Countries and Parties did f} 
Concord, and fome Advantages , put themfel 
under particular Patriarchs , and alio profefs the 
voluntary confent to the Nicene, and fomeoth 
Councils, Canons or Creed, who yet never t0( 
a General Council for the Rightful Soveraig 
of the Chriftian Churches,through the World % 
this day one Sedl obeyeth only the Patriarch 
Constantinople , and reje&eth all the reft 5 aii 
another the Patriarch of Alexandria, and threi 
others , the three pretending Patriarchs of AM 
och , reje&ing the relt : and they reject as aforcl, 
faid fome of the four firft Councils , and a. 
that followed : By which it appeareth, that the 
take not the four or five Patriarchs EfTential v I 
Catholick Unity , nor General Councils to havif 
a fupream Regiment over all. Moft Proteftant] 
receive the four firft General Councils ( favinj" 
fome mutable accidentals : ) And yet they hold no* 
their Univerfal Sovereignty. 

L. It is neither lawful nor pojfible to call a Vni 
verfal Council to Exercife Vniverfal Soveraigmy, mi 
ever like to be. 

I have fully proved this in the Second part d 
my Key for Catholicks : Confider , 1. It mul 
be Grave Experienced Men , who are fit to bl 
trufted in fo great a Matter : And fuch &re Age| 
and ufually weak. 

2. From Abasia , Mexico, Armenia , &c. the] 
muft be a year or near in receiving the Summons, 
and as long in preparing and coming to Europe, ii| 
this be the place. 

3. They muft it's like, be fome years abfentj 
at the Council. 4, They! 



4. They cannot ( if they are fufficient Repre- 
ntatives ) come all into one Room to hear De- 

5. They cannot moft of them underftand one 
lothers Language. 

6. They will hardly live to bring back the De- 

7. There is no Perfon or Senate in the World, 
iat hath an obliging Authority to call them. 

8. It is not like that they will ever agree Vo- 
jntarily to meet in one place , without fuch Au- 
lOrity : The Aba (fines , Armenians , Syrian s> &c, 

|iil think we fhould come to them, and we 
'tall think they iliould come to us. 

9. If poflibly they fhonld agree , a Mans Age 
V little enough to go all over the World to Sol- 
cite and bring them to fuch Agreement. 

J y 10. Who j and how many will undertake that 


< 11. How few can bear the Charges of all 


12. It were finful Cruelty to Separate the Wi- 
jeft Men fo long from their Charges , to the Peo- 
ples lots , as well as by the Voyages and Journeys 
p kill them. 

15. It is certain , that moft of the Princes on 

rth ; under whofe power the Biihops live, would 
jiot give leave to go out of their Dominions to 
uch Synods ; moft being Infidels , many Hetero~ 
fax , and many in Wars or Enmity with each 
pther, and almoftall in Jealoufies j and without 
their leave, they cannot come. 

14. The great Numbers of the nearer Biftiops, 
^nd the paucity of the moft remote, would make 
It no true Reprefentative , as to Votes. 

15. There 


C 39«3 

15. There is no one on Earth Antecedently- 
Authorized to be their Prefident (what eveir 
the Papifts pretend: ) And to choofe a Prefi 1 
(ident , it's like fo many fuch would hardly 

16. It's already known , that they account!' 
one another Hereticks, or Schifmaticks, or Ufuf 
ping Tyrants before hand : Some are called Ne 
torian Hereticks, fome Eutychian or Jacobite He 
reticks , fome Melchites , fome one thing , an 
fome another, and moft take the Papifts for TA\ 
rants , and Hereticks both. And will all thefei t 
ever meet in Council ? 

17. Men are naturally fo much for their own 
eafe , and fo much againft Works of fo vaft dift 
ficulty, charge and hazard, that a competent! 
number of fit Men would never undertake ic j 
it being almoft equal to a Martyrdom, whicf' 
even the bed Men will not undergo , till the 
are betier Convinced of the Duty and Neceflit 
than any Man can truly be of fuch Univerfa 

18. It's known that all the Proteftants, if no 
allmoft all other Chriftians, fave Papifts , do be 
lieve no fuch Councils to be neceffary, no , nor 
lawful , but to be ufurping Tyranny , as challen 
ging the Univerfal Church-Government as a Se- 

So that as there never was , fo there never 
will be , muft be, or can be fuch a Council ; uo- 
lefs ( which God forbid ) all the Church ihould 
be again Reduced to a narrow Room. 

LI. They that would make fuch Councils, 
poffible by pretending that a few Patriarchs and 
fuch Bifhops as they will bring with them , are 


L 399 J 
le Sufficient and Authorized Reprefenters of 
Jl the reft, do but more grofsly deceive and abufe 
he Chriftian World. 

. For, i. They never proved , nor can prove 
hat ever Chrift Authorized fuch Patriarchs, much 
;(s to fuch a Power. 

, 2. And whereas Arch-Bifliop Bromhal faith, 
hat God doth it by the Law of Nature 5 enabling 
\£(n to do it , and to deny this is to overthrow all 
Government: I anfwer, i. We know of no fuch 
■-aw of Nature-, nor that he is a Credible Expo- 
,'tor of it : We take the Law of Nature (on the 
Leafons before and after mentioned ) to be plain- 
7 againft the very being of fuch Councils , and 
fpecially againft fuch trufting our Religion with 
lem , and fuppofing them to be the Governors 
f all the Chriftian Princes and People on Earth. 
J, What Men be they that have given thefe Pa- 
triarchs this Power? If Men dead 1300. years 
.go , they have no Authority now : Dead Men 
jjave no ruling Power. The Laws of the Land 
ind us not now by any power , that the Dead 
lings and Parliaments have over us : But ( though 
hade by them ) they bind us now only as the 
^awsof our prefent Governours. By theConftitu- 
pn , the Succeflu r e Kings are ftillby confentto 
pake them Their Laws, till by content of King 
pd Parliament, they are Diffolved : Unlefs fome 
jrefent power over us make them Their Laws , no 
Jld Church Canons can bind us. 3. If they fay 
pt God binds us to ftand to what our Anceftors 
'id , I want the proof of that : If we will have 
he benefit of our Anceftors Contrad, wemuft 
cand to them , elfe we may choofe : A Father 
annot bind his Child to his hurt , but only to 


C 400 3 

his Benefit. Let them prove the Obligation., 

4. But we deny that any made thofe Patriarchs, 
who would have had any power over us, had we 
been then alive. The . Subjects of one Prince 
made them in his Empire, and he Confirmed them. 
But neither that Prince nor his Subjects were our 
Rulers here , what if the King or Convocation] 
make Canterbury and Tork Metropolitans : Doth; 
it follow that they have Church-power over otherl 

5. Thefe Patriarchs had never the Government! 
of any given them by the old Councils, but with-1 
in the Empire: And after of fome Volunteers! 
that for Advantage chole it. 

6. Who be thefe Patriarchs they talk of? Are| 
they not all turned into Names and Shadows, 
Condemning one another ? and mud thefe five 
fighting Shadows Reprefent and Rule the Chri- 
ftian World? 

7. To return to the twelve Apoftles is Imper- 
tinent : The Apoftles were prime Minifters, and 
more Reprefented Chrift than the Church. The 
Church chofe them not : Chrift made them 
Foundations , Bafes and Pillars in his Church, but 
not Reprefentatives of it. And if he had, 
they chofe none to Succeed them as Apoftles 5 
But as ordinary Minifters , all Minifters Succeed 
them , and as Superior Minifters, fome fay Bi- 
fhops. Belltrmine confefTeth and proveth, that the 
Apoftles as fuch have no Succeflbrs , and that 
the Pope Succeedeth not Peter as an Apoftle, but 
f as he Dreams ) as an ordinary Supream Paftor. 
Had the Apoftles fetled twelve or thirteen Suc- 
ceffors , or appointed any Churches to he Rulers 
of the reft, we mult have obeyed thefe Rulers: 



[ 4 oi] 

ut who have called them a General Council ? 
lone but Rome^ Antmh and Alexandria claimed 
Ucceffion from the Apoftles ^and all thefeclaim- 
\\ it but from one Apoftle Peter ■, Rome and A n - 
hcb as his pretended Seats, and Alexandria that he 
|t St. Mark, over them, fure the Apoftles rofe 
)t from the dead to make Conftaminople and Je- 
Calem Patriarchates : And if they had, four of 
e five Patriarchs are all now Subjects to the 
jrk: And experience telling us what Power 
inces Jiave in the Choice and Ruling of the 
^lergy: All this doth but fay, that the Turk is 
2 Chief Governour of the Religion and Con- 
ences of all the Chriftian World. 
If they plead for new Power to make Patriarchs, 
\ them prove who hath that Power over all the 
forldi and how they came by it, and how they 
'W ufe it. Will all the Chriftian World who 
:r the guilt of obeying Ufurpers,and difbbeying 
ariftians, ever unite jn the obedience of Pa- 
irchs, who cannot be known by the wifeft, 
ich Jefs by all to have any Authority to com- 
nd them ? 

LIL The Pope hath done much of his mifchiefs 
the Church and World by the Councils of 

l |They have been his Army, and he their Gene- 
t: Without them he could have done little or 
thigg: By them the moft of Church Corrup- 
ts have been made Laws : By them Emperors 
Ve been depofed, Rebellions maintained, the 
j?e enabled to give away their Kingdoms, ab- 
Ve Subje&s from their Oaths, to make it a 
r ;refie (called Henrician) to be Loyal, to dig 
td Biiliops out of their graves as Hereticks, 

1 40* ] 

that were for Loyalty : Yea the Councils of Bh 
flops without, if not againft the Pope, depofed 
the good Ludovkus Vms, and have done much tc 
the corruption and confufion of the Churches ; a? 
I have elfewhere proved. 

LIIL General Councils are not the authorized 
or lawful Supreme Government of the Univerf|j 
Church, nor have an Univerfal Legiflative or J|i 
diciary Power. 

This many Proteftants, and after all Dr. Barm 
have unanfwerably proved. 

Arg. 1. If there never was, nor muftbe, n 
can be a true Univerfal Council, then fuch 
Council is not the Churches Supreme Go 
nour. But the antecedent I have before proved. 

Arg. 2. That Government which the ChurlJ 
was without for three hundred years, is not tm 
juft Supreme Government of the Univeril 
Church : ( For the Church is not the Churl 
without its Supreme Government. ) But 
Church was without a General Council at 1 
for three hundred years. 

Arg. 3. That Government which rarely e 
eth, and hath not exifted near an hundred ye 
or, as fome of our Adversaries fay, a thoufand, 
not the Supreme Government of the Chur 
( For then the Church would be dead, and 
Church in all that time of vacancy 5 for theS#i 
cies depends on the Supreme Government :) M 
the Church hath fo rarely had that which ofi 
prefent Adverfaries themfelves take for a trfcs 
General Council. If the Council of Tnnt werr, 
any, they have had none fince. Yea Bifliop^i 
ning owneth but the fix firft Councils called Gc c 
neral: And if there were none fince, then tb|| 


[ 4°? 3 
lurch hath had no Supreme Council juft a thou- 
nd years : And was it this thoufand years no 
lurch? or of another Species > Or can the 
lurch be a thoufand years without its Supreme 
overnment ? 

*>4rp. 4. If General Councils be the Supreme 
?giflative Power, then the Church hath had no 
:h Councils- Laws for all the forefaid vacancies 
00 years fir ft, and fince 601, a thoufand years 
:er.) But the Adverfaries will not allow the 
nfequent ; (that all the Canons of General Coun- 
ts were no Laws fo long:) But the antecedent 
proved from the definition of Laws, which are 
; fignification ef the Soveraigns Will to be the Rule 
the Subjects Right (a&ions and dues.) There is 
Law which is not the Rulers Law ; and if the 
tier be dead, the Law is dead : For a dead 
in hath neither Authority nor Will- 
Ob j. Oar Laws die not with the King, nor at the 
Glutton of Parliaments. 

\Anf. 1. The Law faith, Rex non moritptr. As 

)n as he is dead, the next Heir is King, and the 

w is his Law, he being by theConftitution (by 

ntraft) obliged to own it, and Govern by it. 

And Parliaments have their part in the Legifla- 

ki as Reprefentatives or Truftees of the People, 

ft therefore the Laws are called thofe qua* vnU 

^ elegerh. But -the People die not at the difc 

ving of a Parliament. 3. At leaft it's of ap- 

*ent neceflity that the Supreme Executive Power 

mrfati or elfe the Laws die : For whofe Laws 

\ they,if we had no King or Soveraign ? Whom 

we obey or difobey ih obeying or difobeying 

hLaws? But our oppofers fay, that even the 

preme Executive as well as Legiflative Power 

Dd * is 

[ 404 3 

is in General Councils. If (o~, their Laws aij 
dead a thoufand years --, and we cannot difobeyc 
obey dead men: Therefore why do you pre: 
us to obey their Law s ? 

Arg. s, If God would have had fuch CouncL 
to be the Univerfal Soveraigns,he would have 
tiffed this plainly in his Word, or in Nature 
being fuppofed the Conftitutive Form of tl 
Church, or at leafl: neceilarily .to be known 
the common Daty and Concord of Chriffians 
Our oppofers fay, t There is no Concord nor avo'u 
ing damnable Schifin, but by obeying, the VniverJ 
Governing Church?] But God hath notified no fuc 
thing in Nature or Scripture. 

Arg % 6. If God would have his Church Ur 
verfal to have had fuch a Soveraign, he woul 
have empowered fome one or more to call fuc 
a Council, and told us who hath the power d 
call them, that we may know which have Aaj| 
thority and are to be obeyed : For there has 
been many falfe and heretical General Counci 
( fo called v). and they have curfed and condemi 
ed one another* But God hAh given us no notic 
of any empowered to call fuch a Council, nor ar 
means how to know which of them, is true, ar. 
which falfe, which to obey, and which not ; wha( 
ever the Pope pretendeth. 

Arg. 7. All the Inferior Officers derive thei 
Power from the Supreme: But all the particuk 
Bifhops and Presbyters do not derive their Powerl 
from General Councils 5 ergo they are not Siw 

The Major is undoubted with all Politick WrWj 
ters : It is one of the Jura Majefiatis to be thejt 
Fountain of Inferior Power. 


The Minor is notorious defatlo in the common 

tfiftory of the Church : By the National Orders 

If the Roman Empire, Councils had a chief 

ovver in cafe of difference to determine of the 

*ve Patriarchs ; but n6t neceffarily to chufe.them, 

or did they contecrate them $ nor was this with- 

m the Empire 3 nor did thefe Patriarchs make 

|'ie other Bithops. The Papifts dare not deter- 

ine whether Eleftion or Confecration necef- 

irily make a Biihop, or whether ir muft be both : 

3r which ever be neceflary fciiftinguifhed from 

valid ads) their Popes and Bifhops are nulled 5 

uch more if both. But neither of them was 

propriate to General Councils. 

Arg. 8. The Soveraign Government of the 

niverfal Church, is fuppofed neceflary to its 

nity, and to avoiding of Schifm, and deciding 

wtroverfies, and therefore its Laws are necef- 

y to be Preached to all the Flocks. But none 

S this is true as to the Soveraignty of a Council : 

tr the Church had Unity moftly without it, and 

ofifls without it at this day ; and few Subje&s 

pw its Laws, and few Preachers preach them, 

'People think they are bound to learn them. 

ytrg. 9. Chrift hath appropriated the Sove- 

■jgnty and Universal Legiflation and Judgment 

nimfelf alone : Therefore iris not committed 

r a Council/ 

The Antecedent is proved fully by 1 Cor. 11.3. 

tar, 12. 2%&c Col. 1. 18. & 2. 10, I7,Ip Eph 4 
^22,23. Eph. 4. 3, 4, 5>6- to 16. I Cor. 6. 16,17. 
/. 3. 28. I Cor, 3. 3,4, 5. & 4, 6. 1 Cor.io.i6,Ij. 
*tth. 22. 25,-26. Luke 22. 26. 
Mrg. 10. They that will claim fo great a 
wer as to be the Soveraigns of the Chriftian 
Dd 3 World, 

C 406 3 

World, mqfl: (hew a clear Commiffion for it I 
But Univerfal Councils can (hew no Tuch Conv 

Arg. 11. If an Univerfal Council of Bifhop: 
be the Supreme Governours of the Univerfy 
Church, they that call them not, or they thai 
come not together, live in moll damnable fin | 
fer all Office confifteth in Obligation to do t 
duty, as well as Power to do it. And to negli 
fo many hundred years a work of fuch unfpea 
able need, muft be more damnable than to n 
led a particular Flock j fo that this cafts eith 
all the Bifhops of the World into damnation, 
moft perfidious men, or the Pope for not calli 

Arg. 12. The neceflityof fuch an Univeri 
Supreme Senate is feigned and falfe 5 therefor^ 
none fuch is of God. 

i." The great pretended neceffity is of Univer 
fal Legislation : But that is not neceflary. F 
Chrift hath already given his Church as m 
Laws as are univer&lly neceflary : No man 
prove the neceffity of one more. 

2. Nor is their Univerfal Judging Office net 
ceflary : For, 

Arg. 13. A General Council is not capable 4 
Univerfal Supreme Government : Therefore the} 
were never by God appointed to it. 

L They are not capable of Univev/al Legifl^ 

1. Becaufe Chrift hath made perfect Univerfa 
Laws, and forbidden all addition to them •, that ij 
at leaft all of the fame kind. To fay that Chrifl 
hath left out any of univerfal neceffity, is to fayj 
that he hath done his work by the halves, am 


C 4°7 ] 
^en muft mend it; efpecialfy if it be in neceflary 
hings. If it be but undetermined Circumftan- 
es or Accidents, then i. None can know which 
f them agree with all Countries on Earth.2.Thofe 
^iat agree this year may cot be agreeable the 
sxt. 3. Nor is an Agreement in more than Chrift 
ith determined neceflary at all. So that here is 
p work for them to do. 

2. And* what is the Judiciary Power that they 

:inufe ? No man can tell what. 1. They cannot 

jidge of particular Perfonsto be Baptized whether 

iey are tit. All the Biihops of the World muft 

ot meet to try a Catechumen. 2. Nor^ yet of 

'erfons that^are to be Confirmed and admitted to 

dult Communion : 3. Nor of Perfons accufed of 

Jerefie or Scandal : No one is fo mad as to fay 

: iac an Univerfal Council ;mift be gathered out 

fall the Earth to judge whether 4* do juftly ac- 

jiife B. of thefe Crimes , and to hear all men 

jjpeak for themfelve?, and to Examine the Wit- 

jeffes, &c 

I And whole Cities , and Kingdoms are not fit 
3r Church Cenfures , becaufe they are mixt of 
jighteousand unrighteous, and noxa Caput feqai- 
ur : Every man muft anfwer for his own Sin, and 
a'ery one gnuft have his own Repentance. And 
jf whole Countries are to be Judged, whole Coun- 
ries of Witneffes muft be heard. And (hall the 
founcil come to them,or they all go to the Coun- 
cil ? and whither ? and when ? 
\ If it be Caufes and not Perfons that they muft 
udge, what are they if they be no V erfons Caufes / 
{f only Cafes of Dodrine and Confcience in gene- 
pl, as the Expounding hard Texts of Scripture, 
or Points of Divinity $ This is not pipperly a Judi- 
D d 4 cjary 

[ 4 o8 ] 

ciary Executive Power, which is ever fubfequent | 
to the Subjeds a&ions ; but it is a part of the an- 1 
tecedent Power 5 If it be but Intruding it is the 
act of a Teacher ; If generally obliging it is the | 
ad of the Legiflator % : For it is his Prerogative 
to be the univerfally obliging Expositor of the 
Law, who is the Maker of it : And it's more to 
Give the fence, than to endite the bare words. So i 
that here is no Univerfal Legiflation ot Jurifdi- i 
dion left for a Soveraigri Council • Nor any that J 
they are capable of. 

LV. Much lefs can all the Bifiops out of Council 
living all over the Earth , as one College , Senate or 
Arijlocracy, be the Supreme Governing Tower of all 
the Churches and Chriftians on Earth, having n 
poffible Capacity thereof. 

If our new Church .Bifhops and Drs. had n 
fixed on this as the IMverfal- Supremacy, I ftjould 
have expe&ed a iliarpcenfure forjudging any fo — 
as to own it. The fair.e Arguments forementioned 
confute it? • 

Arg. 1. The diffufed College of Biihops out of 
Council never did make Laws for the Church 
Univerfal : Therefore they are not its l aw-makers 
Or Supreme Legiflative Rulers. 

Arg. 2. They have never ( much lqfs always ) s 
exercifed an Vniverfal decifive Judiciary Power : 
Therefore they w T ere never appointed to exercife 
It. The Church could not obey that Power that 
was never ufed by fuch as Judges. 

Arg. 3: If God had given them this Power, he 
would fome where have plainly told us of it, and | 
dire6ted them and us how to ufe it : But this he ' 
hath not done. 

Arg. 4. 

[ 4 0C ) 1 

Ar&. 4. The Aflertors of this while they would 
xtoll the Clergy, cruelly Judge them by Confe- 
uence to Damnation , for never performing fo 
ireat a Duty as Univerfal Legiflation and Jurifdi- 
tion, if God did oblige them to it. 

Arg. 5. For the diffufive Clergy or Bifhops of 
11. the Earth out of Council to Govern all Chi- 
lians on Earth as one College or Senate, which 
11 muft obey, is a thing of fuch notorious natural 
:mpoflibility, that I once thought I (hould never 
iave heard a Man, much lefs a Chriftian, yea a Dr. 
nd Bifliop, yea, many maintain. 

i. For muft they all agree that their a<5b may 
>e valid in Legiflation or Decifive Judgment, or 
nuft if be a Major Vote ? No doubt they'l fay 
he latter. And who (hall propofe and draw up 
he Laws ? 

\ 2. Who (hall carry them all over the World to 
Procure Votes ? 

3. Who (hall gather the Votes, and Judge of 
he Majority ? 

■ 4. Shall they Vote and Judge without ever con- 
sulting each other , and hearing what be (aid on 
every fiite ? 

5. How many Meflengers muft there be to go 
;nto all the World ? And who (hall bear their 

harges ? 

6. How (hall we be fure when they come home 
hat they have truly taken the Votes ? Will not all 
air Faith be refolved into the Credit of thefe 

7. Muft accufed Perfons and Witnefles travel 
all over the World to be Judged? 'or muft all the 
fti(hopson Earth come to them ? 

' 8. How many Millions of Criminals will a Bi- 
fliop have to hear at once^or Judge ? The 

C 4 IQ 1 

The Cafe is fo grofs that I am afraid you will | 
fey, I feign Reverend Men to be Mad. That 

which they fay is, That there is no Concord to be 
had, nor avoiaing of Schifm but by obeying the Urn- 
verfal Governing Church , which is the College of all 
the Pafiors and Bifhopj On Earth, who have as fuch a 
Supreme Power under Chrift of Legijlation and Judg- 
ment, which they exercife per literas formatas. 

There is no way to excufe this — but by feign- 
ing that this College of £i(hops is to do thefe great 
works not by themfelves, but by a College of De- 
legates or Reprefentatives , viz* Either Cardinals 
or Patriarchs : or elfe by reducing the whole 
Church on Earth to the narrow compafs of fome 
little Sett, and condemning moil: of the Chtfftian 
World, that they may not (eem to ne.ed them, for 
Legiflation or Judgment. And thefe I have fuffi- 
ciently confuted before. 

LVL The Univerfal Supreme Government ei- 
ther of Council or the College of the diffiifed 
Clergy, is more impoffible and unpra&icable, and 
much worfe than the Soveraignty of the Pope- 

For, i. The Pope is a known Perfon, and it's 
poffible to find him , to fend to him ,«to hear 
from him. 

2.- He is One , and it's poffible to know his 
Mind without gathering Votes or Literas formatas 
all over the Earth. 

3. Mofi may fend to him and hear his decifion 
at ieaft in an Age. 

4. What he cannot do by liimfelf he can d^ 
puce others to do. 

5. He is almoft always in being, and the Church 
need not be fo many Hundred Years headlefs or 
without it's Soveraign Power. 

6. He 

C 4W ] 

6. He hath fome Cob- web fliadow of right, in 
the Ttt efPetrtts, and Tibi dabo slaves , and Pafce 
wcs : But as to the (aid College and Council, all 
this and more is contrary. 
y So that I do deliberately profefs , that if I did 
believe thatthere were any Qniverfal Supreme 
Re&ororMinifterial fpecifying Vnifyfag, Conftu 
mtoi Head or Governor under Chrift, I ihould 
foon refolve that it is the Pope , there being no 
Competitor fo little uncapable as he. 

And all the Papifts fave a few Flatterers ac- 
knowledge that the Popes Power is hot abfolute 
tend unlimited, and that he hath need of Councils 
ras the King hath of Parliaments, not for conftant 
Government , but partly for Legiflation , which 
belongs not to the Pope alone, and partly for Me- 
dicinal reparation and execution-, when the Church 
is difeafed. So that they that are for the Pope as 
the ftated Supreme, are for Councils alfo, and 
would ufe Councils better than the Ariftocra- 
ftical, that give them the Supreme Government, 
would ufe them. All men know that they are 
rarely in being. Even Bi(hop Gumng faith he re- 
ceived* but the firft Six General Councils : To 
fay, the Church hath been headlefs, or without it's 
Supreme Government juft a Thoufand Years, and 

• is fo ftill , is to make it invifible in an Eflential 

Is there now a vifible Catholick Church, or is % 

• there none? If none, why would they filenceand 
\ damn us all for not obeying that which is not ? If 

there be, where and what is the Pa*sregens , the 
conftitutive vifible Supremacy? If in a' Council 
there is none . If in the College of diffufed Bi- 
(hops all over the World, they are no Governors, 


C 41* 1 

they never fo made Laws , they Govern not as 
fuch, and fo are no fuch Governors. They only 
Govern per partes , in their feveral Precincts, as 
all the Englifh Juftices of the Peace, Mayors, Bai- 
liffs and Judges do,and nofras an Ariftocracy. But 
if it be a Church now becaufe there is a Pope , fay 
fo, and hide not your opinion. We fay It is a 
Church becaufe there is a Chrift and Chriftians? 
and we know no other Matter and Form. 

LVII. They that aflert a Supremacy in a Coun- 
cil or College of Bifliops , do unavoidably intro- 
duce a Pope. 

If they will call none a Pope but him that is ab- 
folute and unlimited (and no Man a King, but an 
abfolute unlimited Monarch) we will fpeak accor- 
ding to .common ufe , and- let them fpeak as their 
Intereft dictates to them, but remember that the 
Controverfie is but about the Name, and not the 
Thing. We take the French Church for Papifts, If 
they will call them Proteftants, they are free. But 
if we are agreed .what a Pope is, the cafe is plain, 
■as followeth. 

I. Mr. 'DodmeJl (their moft Learned defender, if 
number of words or greateft felf-conceic be the 
chief ftrength; tells you that if the Council be 
not lawfully called,it obligeth you rather to bring 
them to Punifhment as a Rout or Rebels, than to 
obey them : And that none but the Prefidenthath 
JPower to call them. (And remember yet that this 
good Man is no Papift.) And indeed who elfe but 
the Pope fhould call Univerfal Councils ? The 
King hi Scotland may call a Scotch General Aflem- 
bly,a nd in England a Convocation and Parliament ; 
And, 1. The Emperor of Rome or Cpnftantinople 
might call fuch Councils in the Empire as were 


[413 3 

then called General 5 and did fo. But who now 

(hall call one OUt of France, Spain , TortugaU Italy, 
Germany, Britain, Denmark^ Sweden, PoUnd, Mof- 
vovie, the Turkiih Empire, Armenia, Georgia,Men- 
grelia, Tartary, Abaffia, Mexico, Pern, China, &C. 
We are awake , and therefore cannot Dream of 
jPrinces doing it by Agreement. We are yet out 
ofBedlam,znd cannot conclude that all the Bifhops 
in the World will come together by common 
content, or as the Atomifts lay tUfe World was 
made, by a fortuitous concourfe of Atomes. 

2. How (hall lawful Councils be known from 
unlawful, if none have^Authority to call, approve, 
and difference them? If only ex fall-is , by their 
good or bad Deeds , half the World will Judge 
fas they have done and doj one Council to be 
fpurious which another obeyeth. 

3. What order (hall be kept among them, if 
none have Authority to appoint the Place, the 
Time, to Prefide and Moderate, and tadiflblve 
them ? and who pretends to this but the Pope ? 

4. When Councils Contradift , Condemn and 
Curfe each ether, who fliall tell us which of them 
to receive, believe, and obey ? 

II. And if we muft have a vifible Supreme 
Power, we muft have one that fucceffively exift- 
eth, that the Church be not diflblved. And none 
pretendeth to this but the Pope. 

III. And if all National & Patriarchal Churches 
be but Parts of a vifible Catholick Church with a 
Humane Supremacy , then there muft be fome 
Power ftill exiftent to give Patriarchs and Metro- 
politans their Power: Mr. Dodweft faith it over- 
throws^ Government to appeal to Scripture as 
a Charter or Law of Chrifc ; None hath more 


L 414 3 

than the Giver intended him : None can give that I 
which he hath not to give. The Inferior hath not 
Power to give to the Superior : Who then but a 
Pope can give Patriarchs and Metropolitans their 
Power ? If for want of Authoritative Collation of 
Power, all the Presbyterian Ordinations , Sacra- 
ments, and Covenant-hopes of Salvation are Nul- 
lities and Sinsagainft the Holy Ghoft, as Mr Dod- 
well and his Tribe fay 5 what better are all the Bi- 
fhops and Arubbifhops for want of a Superior con- 
ferring Power ? which none pretendeth to but 
the Pope. 

IV. And who elfe fliaU judge Patriarchs, Me- 
tropolitans , and Natiorft Churches, when they 
prove Hereticks or Schifmaticks ? Their Herefie 
and Schifm is far more heinous and dangerous 
thanfingle Perfons or Congregations. And Coun- 
cils are not extant : And we cannot fend all over 
the Earth to gather BiQiops Votes againft them 
unheard. It muft be a Pope or no body on Earth, 
that muft by Governing Authority Judge them. 

V. And who elfe (ball be the ftated Judge of 
new ftarted Controverfies ? You fay, fuch there 
muft be ? (hall they be undecided till the World 
have a true general Council? 

VI. And who fhall an injured Perfon appeal to 
from a Tyrannical Metropolitan or National 
Church, but to the Pope ? 

Many more clear Neceflities there will be of a 
Pope on their Principles I blamed the Author 
of 'the Divine Hierarchy, for naming fuch without 
an Antidote, left it fliould make menPapifts: But 
I underfland he is a worthy Proteftant : But verily 
there is no avoiding a Pope, by any that Ifiert an 
Vnivtrjal humane Church Snpr&nacy* 


C 4*f 3 

VII. And indeed I muft not fuppofe them (b 
timmodeft as to deny it. For it is but the Pope's 
Abfolute Power above the Councils and their 
Laws, and not Simple Papery , or the Pope's li- 
mited Power that they deny. i. They confe(s 
that they hold Rome for the Miftrifs Church , as 
Grotini calls it 5 2. And that the Pope is Patriarch 
of the^ Weft, and the prime Patriarch : 3. And 
that he is PrincipwmVmpatu to all the Church on 
Earth : And if fo, they are out of the Church whic^i 
is One, that deny this. 4. That he is authorized 
to call General Councils : 5. And to be their Pre- 
sident, 6. And to be the chief Governor when 
I .there are no General Councils, (and that is indeed 
always.) 7. And that they are all Schifmaticks that 
do not thus far fubmit to him. And how much 
• more JVlr. Dodwell giveth the Prefideat , I have 
•^fliewed you in his own words. 
i VI II. As Mr. TbomMke threatened England 
,i with God's Judgments, if they do not amend the 
Oath of Supremacy, by making it acceptable to 
the Papifts that renounce not a foreign Ecclefia- 
ftical Jurifdi&ion, fo others labour to prove that 
I the meaning of it is only to renounce the Pope's 
Jurifdiciion here in Temporals which belongs to 
the King,and not a Papal and Foreign Jurifdi&ion, 
properly Ecclefiaftical by the Keys : As you may 
fee partly in Mr. Hutchwfons alias Berry s Book, 
who on that Supposition took the Oath, (as many 
do) and publickly profeft himfelf of the Church 

I of England. 

IX. In the Defcription of the Reconciliation 
with the Pope, endeavoured by Archbi(hop Land 
in Htylws Hiftory of his Life, Pf*g. 414, 4*5, &*• 
All that the Pope was to abate was, 1. That the 


Oaths of Supremacy and Fidelity may be taken 
(I told .you in what fenfe.) 2. And that the 
Popes Jurifdi&iop here ( but no where elfe ) be 
declared to be of Humane Right (that is, fay ours, 
by the Fathers in General Councils not without the 
^dpoftles, by whofe Church-Laws we are all bound.) 
3. That all fliould be really t performed to the 
King, fo far as other Catholick Princes ufually 
enjoy and expeit as their due, and fo far as thef 
Biihops were to be independent both from King 
and Pope ( but not from fubje&ion to either J 
This (faith he) no man of Learning and Sobriety 
would have grudged to grant him. 4. Marriage 
permitted to Priefts. 5. The Communion in 
both kinds. 6. The Liturgy in Engli/h. 

I ask any fober man now, 

Mi. 1. • Whether the Pope did himfelf think 
that by this bargain he ceafed to be Pope, and all 
Papifts to be Papifts ? 

2. Whether if the King had been thus far 
equalled with other Catholick Princes, the Pope 
would 'not have fuppofed him,and his Bifhops and 
Church to be of the fame Roman Catholick 
Church as they ? 

3. Whether in all this here be any renunciati- 
on of the Popes Ecclefiaftical Jurifdi&ion in Eng- 
land, but only of the Divine Right of it ? 

4. Whether here be any renunciation of his 
claimed Univerfal Jurifdi&ionover all the Church 
on Earth ? 

?. Whether fuch an Univerfal Church Mo- 
narch ( by Humane Right with fome and Divine 
with others ) be confident with the Proteftant 
Doctrine, and that of the Former Church of Eng- 
land r 

6. Whe- 


6. Whether fuch a Bargain be the way to fave 
s from Popery . ? 

7. What to call or think of thoffe Archbiftops, 
hops, and Drs that are for fuch a Bargain, and 

)r Silencing two Thou'fand fuch Minifcers as 
ere Silenced, and Ruining thofe that forfake 
lem hot, and yet cry down.Popery, and accufe 
tofe whom they Silence, and Ruine as befrienci- 
g it ? Readers, Did you think till Experience 
2d yoii that England had had fuch Clergy men ? 
nd do you not yet underftand them ? 
( LVIU. The whole Chriftian World for all 
k Earth ) is lefs capable of one Ecclefiaftical 
floriarch or Supreme Ariftocracy, than of one 
ivil Monarch. 

Thisiseafily proved to any that will underftand • 
: hat Church Government is. 
u. Church Government confifteth in judging of 
e ftate of Mens Souls whether they are capable 
j Baptifm, and the Communion of Saints, and 
e Remiflion of Sin , and whether their Profeffi- 
s be fo found in matter and underftood by, 
em, and their pra&ices fuch as (hew themcapa- 
e or not ? And an outward matter of foGt with 
circumftances,. which Magistrates judge, is fai- 
fier judged of than all this in the understanding* 
ill and practice. 

2. It is about matters of fupernatural Reveia- 
m and heavenly Myftery, which is not fo eafil/ 
town as Natural and Civil things. 
[|. It is a work of perfonal ability and perfor- 
rmance, like a School-matters, or Phyficions," 
d can lefs be done by delegation. 
4. There is no rule, or warrant in Scripture for 
sh delegation, which Magifiraces may ufe. Nor 
£ a for 

f 418] 

for Church-Rulers making new forts of Officer- 
under them to do their Journey-work, whicl; 
Princes may undoubtedly make. 

5. All that are under fuch a Supreme, muf 
have far greater fufficiency for their Ecclefiaftica 
work, than every Civil or Military Officer need! 
for his, as the different work? require. 

6 Such an Univerfal Monarch or Senate woulij 
be fuppofed ftill in being, and fo the MundaM 
Empire not dilTolved ; which here cannot be fu#l 

7. Such a Monarch or Senate would be in fonj 
known place of the World where men might he; 
of them and find them. But it's not fo here, fp( 
dally as ro the .Sovereign College of Bifhops < 

8. Such a Monarch or Civil Senate would t 
fuppofed to be Lords of all the World, an 
therefore to have Wealth enough to pay Shi] 
ping, Travelling, Meffengers, Officers, and di 
charge all Publick Expences : But fo hath n< 
the Imaginary College or Council, no nor tl 
Pope and Conclave. 

9. Such a Monarch or Senate commanding a 
the World, would not have moft of the Kinj 
domsoftheEaxth the Enemies of them, and hii 
derers of their work; whereas the Birfiops hav 
not the leave of one Prince of many to affemb 
and govern. 

10. Such a Monarch or Senate would ha\ 
no Superior on earth but God, to forbid and hii 
der them. Whereas our imaginary diffafed Co* 
lege and Council, arethemfelves the Subje&s cr 
abundance of Princes, Orthodox, Heterodox, Iii 
fidels. Heathens, who are their Commanders, anl 


[ 4*9 3 

iy hinder them : So that our Univerfalifls 
?ad that on neceility to the Concord and Being 
Chrift's Church, all the Chriftian World mud 
under the Supreme Government of thoufands 
:he Subjects of various Princes, moft of them 
: emies : When all Church- Hiftory. and Expe- 
ice have told the World, how much Princes 
do on their fubje<3 Clergy. 
LIX. To make the Church of England a fub- 
je& part of the Church Univerfal as Govern- 
by a Foreign Supreme Power, (Pope, Council 
Col lege j is to make it totdfpecie, quite another 
-lg from what the Protectant Church of England, 
the other Proteftant Churches are. 
*roved ; where the Supreme Government Is aU 
d or divers ) the Species of the Society is alter- 
3r divers. No man that knows what Co- 
mment is, will deny this. But here the Su- 
it Government would be altered or divers. For 
l Proteftant Churches own no Supreme Uni- 
fal Governour but Chrift. And that the 
Urch of England owneth' no fuch, I will prove 

A Kingdom, and a part of a Kingdom \ i 
apleat Political Body, and the meer Part of 
\\ a Body ( as a Corporation ) are not of the 
•je Species: But the Proteftant Church of Eng- 

is a compleat Society in it felf, and the 
rch of England as a meer part of a greater 
iety is not fo. As Chrift's Kingdom and the 
&s differ, fo we maintain that the Kingdom of 
tand, as fuch, and as a meer part of Chrift's 
bdom, are of different Species : And it would 

1|b as to a Humane Univerfal Kingdom^ were 
q any fuch; 
Ee * ii A 

[ 4 io ] 

;. A Kingdom or Church under -no Lawsbwji 
Gods and their own, are not of the fame Specie! 
with a Kingdom or Church under Foreign Law| 
above their own. And fo it's here fuppofed. 

a. A Kingdom and Church whofe Juftices 
Judges, Captains and all Officers receive theii 
Power and Commiffion from a Foreign Soveraigr 
Power, is fpecifically divers from that which dotf 
not : And fo it is here. 

<>. A Kingdom and Church which may be pn 
nifhed by a Supreme Foreign Power, and muft & 
judged by them, is not of the fame Species witf 
that which may not. But, &c. 

6. A Kingdom and Church whofe Subjefc 
may appeal from their own King or Church-G| 
vernours to a Foreign Power, are not of tUjjj 
fame Species with that which may not : But tl 
two Churches in queftion fo differ: Therefor* 
they are not of the fame Species : And therefore 
Mr. Tborndike and fuch, truly acknowledge this t 
their foundation, that without owning One Vy 
zerfal Governing Church, there is no Union, DOJ; 
true Confidence in the particulars. 

The Confequence is evident, That the Churcty 
which according to Dr. Heylw, A. Bifhop Lm 
would have had, and which A. Bifhop BromhM 
and his Defender Dr. Parker , and Grotim; and hi 
Defender Dr. Fierce, and Bifhop Gmtng and raj 
Chaplain Dr- Saywell, and Mr- Thorndike, Mr. Dojj 
well, Bifhop Sparrow, and all of that mind are for; 
is not the Proteftant Church of England, nor at all 
a true Proteftant Church : But as far as I can unj 
derftand their words, it is the fame Vifiple 
Church-Form,, (and Government) which the 
Councils of Confiance and BafU were for, anc 



hich the Papifts French Church is for 5 (unlefs 
lere be any worfe in the French Church-form 
lan yet I know of) 

LX. We are further from denying or violaring 
le Churches Unity, than they are that feign an 
.niverfal Humane Soveraignty : Nor doth our 
)pofition to Popery exclude our refolution as 
uch as in us lieth, to live peaceably with Papifts, 
A with all men. 

I. We hold ( as aforefaid ) that all Chriftians 
ie united in One God, one Chrift the Soveraign, 
le Body of Chrift, one Faith, one Baptifmal- 
ovenant with Chrift, one Spirit, one Hope of 
tace and Glory ; and muft keep the Unity of 
e Spirit in the Bond of Peace : And that all 
ibje&s muft obey their Rulers and Paftors in all 
,vful things belonging to their Office to com- 
and and teach, And that as Particular Churches 

'Uft be held for the Perfonal Communion of Saints* 
all thefe Churches muft by MefTengers, Letters 
d Synods hold fuch corre(pondency,as the coiti- 
on good of the Univerfal Church and their 
: r n ftrength and edification by the means of mu- 
fti COVNSEL and CONCORD do require. 

II. Accordingly we make not Regent Senates 
,; Courts of fuch Councils, to make Laws for 
b Chriftian World : But they are like the Af- 
inblies of pious Chriftian Princes, who ftudy 
t Peace of the whole Chriftian World. Princes 
jp bound fo to do as well as Paftors : That they 
W, proveth not that they ought not: Their 

ngdoms are but parts of the Kingdom of 
krift. If they fhould hold an Aflembty in E«- 
\e for the iuppreffing of fuch a Herefie as 
reatasth the whole, or fuch a Tyrant as the 
E e 3 Pope, 

C 4" 1 

Pope, or fuch an Enemy as the Turk, it weri 
well done, and had the lame reafons and powe 
,as a Council of Biihops. Bifhops may not under 
take Jurifdi&ion in other mens BiQiopricks, no) 
Kings in other mens Kingdoms. Bifliops are bounc 
to prefer the univerfal good, and fo are Kings. 

III. And therefore the meafure of fuch Com 
munion by Confutation, by Meffengers, Letter 
or Councils, is, I., The publick good 3 2. 
the capacity of the Communicants. 

We have Communion with all Chriftians 
'Abaffia, Armenia, and all the Earth, in Fait r 
Hope, Love,and all the Eflentialsof Chriflianity-s 
Butif JoJwor Joan here commit Adultery, and 
be excommunicated as impenitent, we are najj 
bound to fend Meffengers to the Antipodes, oil 
all the World, to tell them of if, no nor ifl 
Bifhop or his Chaplain turn Heretick ; Nor ard 
they bound to fend hither to enquire or examini 
it. And if the Excommunicate come to ArwA 
via, and defire Communion, they are juftifiablj 
for receiving him, and being ignorant of our ExJ 
communication. But Neighbour Chriftians and 
Churches live fo near, that they are capable oj 
converfe : And therefore Synods and Commul 
hicatory Letters are there of great ufe : And f<| 
far as an Excommunicate man is like to intru^J 
into the Communion of other Churches, it is 
meet that his Excommunication be publifhed, anq 
that other Churches receive him pot without jufj 
fatisfacftion. And fo Councils are ufe'ful as fai; 
as propinquity rnaketh men' capable of vifiblq 
Commnnion ': Especially to Paftors and Churches 
in one Kingdom, where the Unity of the Civil 
c givetti them more capacity and necef- 

:•-.., ■ ■ . \ fay 

ity of fuch Correfpondency,than with Foreigners. 
\nd therefore the Councils in the fame Roman 
Empire had great reafon for their Decrees to avoid 
:hofe Excommunicate by each other. 

And yet many Councils, even under the Papa- 
:y decreed that he that is unjuftly Excommuni- 
cate by one Bifhop may be received by another : 
tat that fuppofeth his tryal and proof of the 

Therefore we come not fo near the Univerfal 
overaignty of Councils as Dr. Stillingfleet in the 
defence of A- Biftop Land, tells us Laud whom 
e defended doth* Who will have the old Coun- 
ils confctikd truly General , notwithftanding the 
bfence of the Extra-Imperial Bilhops, 2. And 
/ill have fuch Councils to have been received 
the Four firft) by all the Cbriflian World , when 
::'s known how many rejected that at Chalcedon. 
L And will have fuch Councils to be externally 
beyed by patient fubmijfion when they notoriously err y 
oy all chriftians till another Council as General and 
?ree reverfe their Decrees. 4. And will have them 
ave fuch Obedience as all other Courts. For meer 
ouncils of Bifyops of fever al Kingdoms are noCourtS, 
nd have no proper Jurifdi&ion. 

:hap. II. Why Tarltaments and Archbifhop 
Abbot and the Church ^/England Antecedent 
to A. B/JJwp Laud, were agahjl the Defign 
of Coalition with Rome. 


T was not becaufe they were Enemies to 

Chriftian Concord, or did not defire it on 

Ee 4 lawful 

. C 4*4 1 

lawful poffible terms withf Papife and all others-, 
Nor was it becaufe they were malicioufly bent tQ 
oe cruel to the Papifts, by denying them the com- 
mon Lpve which is due to Mankind, or any Bene- 
fits or Peace which was confiftent with the Na- 
tions Peace and Safety. But it was on fuch Rea- 
sons as thefe following. 

J ' § 2. I. They took the defign to be a real redo- 
ring of Popery under the Name of Reconciliation 
and Peace; And they had an excufeable Opinion 
that if Popery were fet up , it was not laying by 
the Name , and calling it Reformation , or the 
Church of England, that would deliver us from the j 
Sin or Suffering. T hey were not of the new Opi- 1 
nion, that norle are Papifts but thofe that would | 
have the Pope Abfolute above General Councils, I 
and Govern Arbitrarily again'ft the Canons : They I 
took the foundation of Popery to be theHerefie-j 

that the whole Church on Earth rauft have one Sove- \ 
it aim oySupream Government, with Unherfal Legifla- I 
five and Judicial and Executive Tower under ChriB, \ 
In which it muft he United or made One Churchy This j 
they toofc to be Antichfiftian , the intolerable! 
Treafonable Ufurpation of an Impoffible thing,! 
tending to the Confufion of Mankind. But whe- 
ther this TraiterousSo\\°raignty fhould be Monar- 1 
chical or Ariftocratical 3 in Pope or Councils feign- 1 
kd to be General, or in both Conjunct, arid wheal 
Conjunct whether the Pope {hould be above the 
Council, or the Council above the Pope, or each 
have a Negative Voice, or he have but the Calling : 
and Prefiding Powers They took thefe to be but 
feveral forts of Popery, or differences among the ' 
papifts themfdves- And' they took it for a ridi- 
culous ab&rd'icy 'that a Council of men dead an 
u^ija • . ■ .. Hundred 

hundred or a Thoufand Years ago (and that only 
: menof one Empire called by their own Prince} 
ould be taken for the Vnifying Confiitutive Sove- 
'ign Power of the Univerfal Church which now 
afteth,and that the Body can live many Hundred 
ears after the Head is dead, and yet be a Church 
: the fame Species. 

; And for them that fay the Bifhops of all the 
:arth have a Jus Convenient and are a Virtual 
mncily It is but to fay (could they prove it ) that 
•ey are a Virtual Headend not an A<5hial,and fo 
ijat we have no Adtual Univerfal Church, but a 

And as for the new Dream that they are A<5tu- 
ly the Supreme Unifying Power , and Adually 
overn the whole Chriftian World per liter as for- 
was, it's a fad cafe with Chriftians when fuch 
pliration needs a confutation, and fadderif fuch 
Land or Clergy as ours muft remedilefly Perilh 
i believing or following fuch a Dream. Shall 
<1 the Bifhops of Afia, Africa, Europe and Ante- 
ta, out of the Dominions of the Turks y Per fans, 
wrtarians, Indians fapifts, Protefiants,AbaJfmes,Sco 
jeet in defpite of their involuntary forbidding 
rinces? How, and by whofe Call, andw^reand 
■hen i in how long time ; and who fhall bear 
ieir Charges from next to the Antipodes, or from 
pajfia, Mexico, &c. Muft they be ol<J Men fit 
r Council , or Boys fit for Travel, when the 
;e of a Man will fcarce ferve for their coming 
gether, their bufinefs, and their return, and exe- 
tion ? And what's all this to do ? Is it to make 
w Univerfal Laws ? Hath not Chrift in Nature 
id Scripture given us enow for the Practice of 
hriftulnity, without all this ado of Congrega- 


C4^ ] 

ting Bifliops for Legiflation ail over the Worlds 
Oh that thefe Law-makers would keep Ch^fFs 
Laws? And if it be for mutable Circumftances, 
as not every Church or Countrey fufficient fotf 
fuch variable Determinations ? Mud men come 
from the Antipodes, Ethiopia or Turky, to tell me' 
here what Cloaths I muft wear , or what place or 
time I (hall Preach in , or what Tune to Sing 
in, &c. 

But if they muft not meet , what Meflengen 
muft be fent to them all over the World to ga- 
ther their Votes? How ftiall we be fure that they, 
truly ftate all the Cafes to them ? And that they 
cruly bring us back their Judgments ? And that 
thofe Judgments were truly pad without hearing 
what could be faid againft them ? And is every* 
iingle Bifhop infallible-, or the Majority only ? andj 
how (hall it be known what the Majority faid 1 
And whither (hall all their collected Votes be car- 
ried, and to whom ? Is it to every Chriftian, or, 
to every Bifliop? And hew many Ages will this | 
require ? 

And if it be not for Legiflation but Judgment, 1 
if the Queftion be whether A. B. be a HeretickJ 
or C. D. be a Fornicator, &c who fliall bear the 
Meflengers Charges that muft go through the 
World to all the Bifliops to decide it ? And fliall 
she Caufe be tryed without witneffes, or hearing 
the defence of the accufed? And muft the accu- 
fed and witnefles go through all the World ? 
Header, is it not a (hame to confute fuch Dreams ? 
Had not I tryed in with the Leading Men I fliould 
have taken him for a Slanderer that had (aid that 
•any Engliih Dr. and Bifliop fliould maintain that 
die* Collegium Paftorum through the Worlds is 

C 4*7 ] 

it fumma Roteftas under Chrift , which hath the 
Chief Government of the Vniverfal Church in Vnity, 
Der literas formatas, arid that our Concord lyeth only 
n obeying this Power, and it's Schifm not to unite in 
Itch Obedience. 

§ 3. II. Moreover the former Church of Eng- 
land and Parliaments thought that the Oath of Su- 
premacy which excluded a Foreign Jurifdi&ion, 
did mean as well the Foreign Jurifdi&ion of the 
ope as Prefident of a Council, and that Council 
vith him, and of the Pope as Patriarch and >' rin- 

ipiumVnitatis, and of the Biihopsof Italy y Spain, 
f ranee, Poland, Mexico, Tvrky, &C as of a Pope 
tbove Councils. And they were not willing a- 
;ain to Subjedt the King and Kingdom to Foreign 
•'riefts, nor to be cheated into Slavery by the bare 
i>Jame of [the Catholick^Chnrch~] and the {.Ecclefia- 
lical Government^ 

§ 4. III. And they indeed took the Po£e to be 
he Antichrift, (fpecially for his Ufurping an Uni- 
erfal Kingdom or Governing Power proper to 
thrift ) And therefore were angryS with Arch- 
>ifhop Laud and his Chaplains, for leaving out all 
hch words from the Liturgy to aroid the Pope's 
ifpleafure ? of which Dr. He$lw (nbifip.) giv- 
:;th you an account. See but BiihovDowname's large 
Ratine Book to prove the Pope Antichrift, who 
et hath written the ftronglieft for Diocefan Bi- 
hops of any man ( in my Judgment ) that ever 
I read. 

§5. IV. And they thought that the Do&rinal 
ifferences were very many and very great (and 
1 divers Points I believe they thought them 
greater than they are) fee the huge Catalogue 
athered by Biihop Downame in the End of the 


C 4*8 "3 

forefaid Book ; Morton, White, Wkitaker, Abbot ^ 
Field, Sutliffe, Chaloner, Bernard, Crakenthorpe, and; 
abundance more chief Drs. of the old Church of 
England have opened them at large. But how fmall 
the new Drs. made them to be Dn Heylin fully 
tells you. And Archbifhop BromhaH faith (ubifitp. 
p. 72, 73. wheri all thefe empty Names and Titles 
of Controversies are wiped out of the Roll, the 
true Controverfies between us, may be quickly 
Muftered, &c. (See the re(U 

§ 6. V. But none doubted but the Differences 
about Worfliip were unreconcileable till one Par- 
ty much changed their. Forms of Worfliip t Their 
great Mafs of fuperftitious Inventions (if not Ido- 
latry , as the Church of England thought, ( and | 
Dr. Stillwafteet even of late hath charged on them) 
Proteftants could never be reconciled to. But of I 
ABilhop Land's reconciling attempts in Worfliip, 
See Heylin Vbifupra in his Life. And Archbifhop I 
Bromkall faith , P. 141 Speaking againft Chilling- \ 
worth's true way of Concord , {That Form which 
the Proteftants would allow, the Romanijls cry out on 
as defective in Necejfary Duties , and particularly 
wanting five of their Sacraments. Nay certainly to 
call the whole frame of the Liturgy 
* The Mafs Book. * into Difpute , offers too large a 
Field for Contention-, and is nothing 
fo likely a way for Peace, as either for us to accent of 
their. Form *, abating fame fuch Parts of it as are Con- 
feffed to have been added fince the Primitive times, 
and are acknowledged not to be /imply necejfary but 
fuch as charitable Chriftians ought to give up and 
Sacrifice to an Vniverfal Peace, and would do it rea~ 
dily enough, if it were not for mutual Animofities of 
both fames, and particular hterefs of fome Per- 
fons7\ § 7, 

C 4*9 1 

§ 7. VL And they thought it as unlawful* to 
obey the Pope as Patriarch of the Weft, or as Pre- 
sident with his Council , if he impofed on us the 
Mafs, or the Worfliip of Angels, Dead Men, or 
Images,or any new Sacraments or unlawful things, 
as if he did it as above General Councils. 
1 § 8. VII. And they made no doubt but if the 
Pope and his Foreign Councils (and all his atten- 
dant Trumpery) were.once received as Trintipum 
% Vmtatii Vniverfalis and the Prefident of Councils, 
j:he would foon come in, in the fame Capacity that 
3 other Popifh Countries do receive him. 
B § 9. VIII. For they knew that it is that fame 
j Man that is more abfoluce in Popifli Kingdoms* 
iwho would fubmit to fome reftraint in this : And 
■that by PoilefTion, Agents, and that foreign help, 
J he would eafilier reduce this to the Cafe of 
jothers, than the Cafe of any others to this. 
§ 10. IX. They had not loft the Remembrance 

E>f the Spanifh Invafion, the Gunpowder Plot, and 
he many Treafons of late by fuch committed 5 
and it made them fear both the Power and the 
(Company of fuch a fort of men. 
)\ § 11. X. They remembred the heavy Taxes* 
Oppreffions and the Rebellions and Wars that had 
i>een in the times of Popery in England* And they 
shad felt the eafe and fvveetnefs of Deliverance, and 
Were loth to return to that Captivity again. 

12. XL They had not forgotcen Queen M^ 
rks Days , Fox's Book of Martyrs was in the 
hands of many : Nor had they forgot the French 
I'MaflTacre, or the greater Murders formerly com- 
mitted by Wolves in Sheepskins , who were 
jknown by their bloody Fangs and Jaws. 
§ 13- XII. They faw that the lame Clergymen 


C 43° 1 
who were for this Union with Rome, were the 
chief Defenders of the King's abfolute Power of 
railing Money without Parliaments (as the known 
Hiftory of Abbots Deje&ion, and Laud\Sibthorp\ 
ffnd Maixwarings Cafes fhew.). And this made 
them the lotherto draw nearer Popery. 

§ 14. XIII. They found the Power of the Cler- 
gy in the High Commiffion, and their Courts and 
Councils fo uneafie to them , that they greatly 
feared fo great an increafe of it as the Coalition* 
with- Rome would caufe- 

§ 15. XIV. They found that the Papifts and 
reconciling Prelates were the greateft Enemies to 
them whom they accounted the moft Godly fe- 
rious Chriftians, Miniftersand Lay-men, not only 
Nonconformifts, but fuch as they devifed to call 
conformable Puritans. And they were not .for 
Uniting their flrength againft ferious practical 

§ 16, XV. They found that the pfophane Drun- 
kards and ignorant Rabble greatly rejoyced in the 
Bifhops proiecuting fuch Puritans; And were loth 
to fee them much more fo animated , by the Coa- 
lition with Rome. 

§17. XVI. They found fo great a number of 
the Clergy that were for the Coalition and Ene- 
mies to the Puritans, to gape fo greedily after Pre- 
ferment,and live fuch indifferent lives, and Preach 
£0 unprofitably, and do fo little to cure the igno- 
rance of the People , .as made them fear , much 
vvorfe, if we came nearer the Roman Clergy, who 
are fo much for blind obedience, and cherilhing 
ignorance that they may Rule. 

§ 18. XVII. They did not perceive that the 
Cafe of any Popifh Country, Italy, 5>*/>, Portugal, 

C 43' J 

luftria, Bavaria, "Poland, no, nor France , was (o 
mch better than ours as might tempt us to be 
" er to them than we are. Yea, that the beft of 
m both in Civil and Religious Refpeds are fo 
ch worfe , as may well deter us from fucb 

§ i p. XVIH. And it's not to be doubted but 
ley made fome Confcience of their Obligations 
d the King, and were loth he fhould be tempted 
,o give away half the Government of his King- 
om, yea, of himfelf to Foreigners , under the 
s T ame of Ecclefiaftical Government, fby fucb 
Courts as theirs.) 

^ 20. XIX. And no doubt they remembred 
^hat Do&rine againft Kings and States are fub- 
5<5t to the Church and Pope, their Councils and 
Ors. doafTert, and what they have done to their 
ifturbance and deftrudion. And therefore were 
oth to give any more ftrength and advantage to 
•nen of fuch Principles and Pretenfions. If the 
:>ope will give a Proteftant King fair quarter, ^nd 
iromife him freedom from his Tyranny, while 
he fame man ( according to his Canons) layetfo 
;laim to more , and exercifeth Tyranny in other 
Lands, he may foon break his Promife here. 

§ 21. XX. And no doubt but they faw how 
oth other Princes and States were to return nearer 
Rome, that had onceefcaped* and to fubjed them- 
elves to fuch a Ufurper : And they thought ir un- 

ife and unfafe for England to ftand alone in a fia- 

ularodd condition, neither Papifts, nor fuch Re- 
formers as any of the reft,and fo to be ftrengthened 
:>y a Concord and hearty Friendfhip with neither. 

§22. XXI. And it is not to be doubted but the 
Lords and Gentlemen cf England, were unwilling 


C 43* 1 
to give up all their Abby Lands, as long as they! 
thought a fufficient Miniftry competently pro-' 
vided for: And unwilling to take the Pope or 
Clergies promifes for fecurity for the continuance 
of their Pofleffions,yea and to fave them from be- 
ing burnt as Hereticks. 

§ 23. XXIL And no doubt but common rea- 
fon told them how great a part of England ( not 
the unwifeft nor the word) would refufe confent 
to the Coalition with Rome, and the nearer ap- 
proaches when impofed, and therefore what & 
doleful encreafe it^ would make of our Divifions : 
If we are (o fadly divided already by a few Oaths < 
and Promifes, and New Covenants and Formali- 
ties, and Church Judicatures, how many hundred I 
thoufand more would diflent, if all were impofed 
which the new Church-men judge necefiary to<| 
the Union with Rome? 

§ 24. And thefe would unavoidably draw orl 
a grievous Perfection : For when all this ftifl 
lofs, coft and hazard had been made to bring on j, : 
fu<?h a general Concord, Diffenters would notr 
have been endured by the Clergy, when yet they \ 
would be multiplied. 

§ 25. And how much fuch a Divifion and Per- 
fecution would weaken the Kingdom, they that! 
did not believe Chrift ( that a Kingdom divided] 
^gainft it felf cannot ftand ) might eafily know byj 


reafon and the Worlds experience, 

§ 26. On fuch accounts as thefe the two fort 
of Epifcopal Conformifts differed^ and the old j 
Tribe called then the church of England, refilled I 
the endeavours made by Bifhop Land and fuch as j 
A. Bifhop BromhaU, and the reft that were- for*; 
Coalition with Rome. Till the latter got into? ; 


Uh 1 

the chiefeft Chalrs,and then they called their fide 

The Church : And thus Church and Church here bd» 
gan our ftrife. And the difference twitted with 
Fbe Civil differences between King and Parlia- 
ment, widened and utterly exafperatcd by War 
the A. Bifhop of Canterbury beheaded, and the 
A. Bifhop of Tork, being in Arms for the Parlia- 
ment) each Party claimeth the name of the church 
f England : And the Party that is uppermoft doth 
t with advantage 5 while fober men know thac 
denominating * Forrxd as exiflent in Materia ca- 
■acifeudifpofitd, the Church of England is nothing 
out z.Troteftant Soveraiign, and a fi-oteflant King- 
lorn of Subjects guided by Proteftant Minifters 
tf the Word, Sacraments, and Keys. 
> So that in the Reign of King James, and of any 
J 'apift King, there was, and can be no Proteftann 
kingdom or National Church, deficiente form& 
\ewminante, in the Judgment of thofe RoyalifU 
; iat think Parliaments have no part in the Le- 
gation and Soveraignty ; And according to therti 
hat think otherwife, it is but a National Church 
ktindum quid, in refped: co the Power of Parlia- 
lents and Laws. 

' But Particular Churches, Patochid, and Confe-' 
fcrate, and Diocefan may yet continue rheir Con- 
; itutive caufes continuing .* But not an informed 
Rational Church- 


tt Cba 


f 434 3 

Chap. III. They are deceived who are for the 

fore/aid Papal or Counczl-Jurifdifliott , as if 
it were the way of Vnity or Catholicifm. 

§ i.T Doubft not tut the defireablenefs of Uni- 
X verfal Concord is it which draweth many 
honeft well-meaning men into the efteem of tbd 
Papal or Conciliar-JurifduSion. All things have* 
a tendency to Aggregation or Unity as Perfe&ion T 
and nothing more than Chrifiian Love. This held 
fuchgood men. of old as Bernard, Cerfin^&c. from 
favouring the Reformers, thinking that the PapacJ 
was neceflary to Unity : This kept fuch as Erapl 
nms and Cajfander from forlaking them ; And this f 
turned IVicelms, Grotm and others to them : And! 
no doubt but this inclineth many in England toji 
the French kind of Church-Government, and t<fl 
approve.and follow Grot'ms. But they quite crofij 
their own defires. 

§ 2. Catholicifm or Vniverfal Concord confifl- 
eth in that which all the Chriftian Church is con 
itituted by, and in which all true Chriftians have 
ftill agreed *, Quod ab omnibus ubiq, &femper recep 
turn fdt , as Vincent Lennenfis fpeaketh. The 
Baptifmal Profeflion and Covenant expounded iij 
the Creed, the Lord's Prayer as the Rule of ou 
Defires, and Hope, the Decalogue as the Turn o\ 
Duty, with the Hiftory of Chrift's Incarnation 
Life, Death, Refurredion and Do<5trine in th 
Gofpel-writers, the pra&ice of Baptifm, and the 
Lord's Supper , with Church-Aflemblies 5> fbtjjf 
Teaching and Learning, Praying, and Praifing " 
God, and this under Elders called thus to Guidq 
their Flocks, with the belief of all the reft of thefl 



acred Scriptures which are brought to our 
nowledge : This hath been ab omnibus r ubiq\ & 
mper receptum : All Chriftians agree herein : And 
the obfervationof the Lord's day as a feparated 
ne for Sacred Aflemblies. And fome Cere- 
onies and other little things moft of them agreed 
, but not as neceffary to their Unity, or Corn- 
union, but fuch as fome differed about without 
olation of Chriftian Love and Peace, as So-, 
*tes and Sozomen (hew in divers Inftances, and 
' divers Countreys. 

.; At this day All the Churches agree in thefe I 
md this much conftituteth men true Chriftians : 
ndChrift hath commanded all Chriftians to Love 
e another, and Live in Peace j and the ftrong to 
::eive the weak, and not offend the leaft Se- 
vers, nor to pleafe themfelves, but others to' 
sir edification. The Kingdom of God (which 
.his Church ) is not meat and drink, but Righter 
fnefs, Peace and Joy in the Holy Ghoft ; and 
j that in thefe things ferveth Chrift, pleafeth 
iod, and is (or fhould be) approved of men. 
I have proved all this fo fully in my Book, 

Jed The true and only Way of the Concord of alt 
• churches, that I here difmifs it. 
§ 3. But when this pretended Universal Hu- 
me Jurisdiction was fet up, it quickly divided; 
jp Catholick Church, by making new Laws and 
tmftirutions, as if ChriiVs Laws had pot beeit 
[ficient for Univerfal Concord i and as if he 
t made Minifters the Teachers and Expounders 
his own Laws, had given them his Prerogative 
Univerfal Legitlation and Judgment. And 
r (ince then the . Church hath' been tern in-, 
:thofe fractions which continue c6r (ha me and". 

[4?6 ] 

grief to this day. Thofe that were ready to re-' 
ceive any Law fromChrift by his Apoftles,woulc 
never all agree in Humane pretended Univeha) 
jurifdi&ion, ncr in the Laws which fuch pre- 
tenders make : Mutable, Local and Temporary 
determinations of ufeful Qrcumftances, by theii 
feveral Guides, fuited to the time and place foi 
Edification, they fubmit to. But Univerfal Law- 
makers they will never all acknowledge and 
own, And their Canons are fwell'd to (o great 
a bulk, and are fo confounded with contra- 
dictions and uncertainties, that they are Racks and 
Engines to tear the Church (but utterly uncapabl^ 
of being the Rule of Unity and Univerfal Co* 

§ 4. The thing which Paul feared hath 
our Ruine. The Serpent which beguiled Eve ( 
pretence of advancement and greater knowledge" 
hath turned us from the Simplicity that is 
Chrift ; The primitive Unity is overthrown 
departing from the primitive Purity ^ Simplicity 
and Love of all. And they that will ever hope fai 
Univerfal Concord * muft endeavour the reftora- 
tion of the Univerfal Terms and Temper. Noj 
thing next to fleflily and worldly lufls, hath dond 
fo much to cut the Church into all the Sefts . whicfj 
now remain as in a Religious War, as this fairtf 
pretended Univerfal Jurifdiftion, which our newi, 
Church-men miftake for the only cure : Which I 
have fully proved in my Breviate cf the Hiftoryj 
of Biflhops and Councils, and in the Vindication of 
it againflthe Accufations of Mr. Morrke. 

§ 5. ohj. The Scripture giveth but general 
Rules, (that all be done to edification, decently and in 

inter) but there muft be Laws of Difcipline td 



determine in Specie what is for edification,decency 
and order. 

Anf. There are three forts of thefe determina- 
tions : i. Of things neceflary or meet for all 
the Chriftian World to be obliged to: 2. Things 
meet for fome Countreys to be obHged to : 
?. Things variable, which Congregations may 
ife varioufly, and alfo change as occafion chang- 
?th. It grieveth us to read how fome Learned 
nen that write on this Subject , abufe the World 
>y confounding thefe. 

The firft Chriit hath determined fufliciently in 
he Scripture, and no mortal men have any power 
o make Laws Ecclefiaftical or Civil to bind all 
y he World. 

The fecond of thefe the King may determine 
y the Counfel of fit men who underftand the 
afe, e.g. what Tranflation of the Bible in the 
ingliih Tongue is fitteft to be commonly tifed in 
le Publick Churches. And if the King deter- 
mine it not, the Pallors in Synods may do it by 
r ay of voluntary confent, but not as having as a 
„lajor Vote the Regiment of the Minor, and of 
^abfent or diffenters. 

„ The third belongeth to every Pafior over his 
wn Flock, and may be altered as there is qcca- 

)n ; viz,. At what hour to meet, how long to 

ay and Preach, in what words, and variable 
jjethods 5 what perfon to admit to Bapcifm as fit, 

d to Church-Communion, and what individual 
Reprove, Exhort, Catechize, Excommuni- 

te, ore. A General^ or Provincial Council need 

t be called for any fuch thing as thefe. 

§ 6. Saith Dr. Hevendy, Froleg. Th# which 

Ight Realon gathers from Scripture is of God, for 
ighc Reaibnis of God. Ff 3 AnJ* 


jAj/I True : But to gather it as Governors 
of all the World, or of other mens charges ( asi 
if the Right Reafon of the King of France would! 
give Laws to the King of JE/^/*^,) is one thing; 
and to gather it by a difcerning judgement to 
teach our Flocks as Expofitors, or to guide our 
own Practice, is another thing. 

§ y- The Inftance which he addeth of the 
Tnna Immerfio inBaptifrn, ihevveththat fuch things! 
were never made Laws for the Universal Church* 
for the Church never ufed them univerfally, no: 
continued them, but quickly changed them. 

§ 8. Ibid. Saith Dr. Beveridge, General Coum 
are thcfe to which all the Bijliops of the whole Wor< 
were called: It's not nee effary that they be all there 
but that all be called, and may come y if they wi 
But the five Patriarchs tnuft be there, or fend thei: 
JLeuers. There was no General Lopmcil which wa 
nOt called by the Emperors command. 

jlnf. i. All the Bifhops of the World were ne 
yer called to any Council, nor near all 2. Wha 
Authority had the Roman Emperors to call Bifhop $ 
put of other Princes Dominions? 3. There is no 
Hiftorical proof that ever they did any fuch 
thing. 4: The Subfcriptions of the Councils (hew, 
that the Bifliops w r ere only out of the Roman Pn> 
yinces (except fome odd perfen , as Joannes Vtr^ 
fidiszt Nice, which no man can give account of.) 
5. Half the Bifhops of the Empire were not ac 
the Councils. <5. If calling them make a Council;!; 
General, though they come not, then calling a, \ 
Congregation, though they come not, makedij 
it a Congregation : What if none come ? What : 
if few c^me? Who knoweth how many limit , 
come to make it a General Council? 

- ; ' ■■"■• • §<? 

£459 3 

§ g\ Againft what I have proved againft John* 
[on alias Term, that Councils were General, but 
i as to the Orbls Romaunsfas National) I never heard 
but one Obje&ion regardable, and that is, out of 
Turrians or Pifanu* Arabick Canons of .the Coun- 
cil of iVfo,which place Ethiopia Under Alexandria: 
But, i. Dr. Beveridge&nd many others have told us 
how little credit is to be given to thofe Canons, 
lately vended by ignorant unlearned Men. And 
s it credible that all the Eailern and Weftern 
hurches fhouldbe ignorant of them ? 
2. LudolphM in his new ■Ethiopick Hiftory la- 
bours to prove that, the hrft planting of Religion 
Nn Habafjia was by Frumentim and Edeflm , and 
:hat the old Writers miftook Habajfia for India : 
And if fo, Habaffia could have no Bifliop at Nice 
and certainly had none there, nor any to be fub- 
eft to Alexandria , fave Frumentim whom Atha- 
afius ordained, and fo by a voluntary Submiffion 
depended on him, as a Child on his Father. 
But whereas Ludolphns thinks Chriftianity was 
ot in Habaffia till Frumentim days, becaufe they 
ad no Bifhops or Paftors before; I anfwer, i. His 
>0njedure that it was Habafjia that Frumentitu 
vent to, and is called India, is uncertain. 2. He 
jonfefleth the Ethiopick Tradition is that; Chri- 
iianity was there before. 3. And it is not impro- 
|able that both agree,™*.. That the Eunuch, //#.8. 
jroughc Chriftianity thither, but being a Lay man 
! rdained no Paftors, and fo they had none before 
^ritmentim. 4. But whoever well conliders the 
/hole Hiftory of the Southern and Eaftern Chur- 
hes, may eafily difcern that Habaffut was never 
iibjed before ro the Imperial Alexandria, but 
egan their fubje&ion voluntarily to Diofcortts, 
F f 4 who 



E 440 ] 

who had been Patriarch of Alexandria , after hq 
was Banifhed- 

§ 10. It is a dreadful Judgment of God that the 
llnderftandings of Learned men (hould be fo far 
forfaken, as to make the Major pan of the Chri- 
ilian World not, only the Pattern , but the Law- 
givers to the reft, renouncing hereby the common 
Experience of Mankind : It is God's great Mercy j 
that all Chriftians' agree in the Effentials of Chri- f 
flianity : elfe they were not Chriftians, Jn Chri- 1 i 
jlianity we are united to them all. But, 1. Even 
smong the Heathens few were Philofophers 5 And 
ajnohg the Philofophers few found, and few of one 
Mind 5 And others, as well as Seneca faid 5 Awife 
rnan nttifl be content with few Approvers ': The Multi- 
tude will ?wf under fi and. 1. Even Nature maketh Ifim 
but few Men of ftrong Wits. 3. Education giv- 
c:h few Men the advantage of found teaching,and 
£reat helps and lei'fure. 4. Few Men have patience 
to hold on in hard Studies till they digeft the 
truth. 5". Few Men efcape the-fnares of Temp- 
tations to byafs them- to fome corrupt opinions or H 
way. 6: Few Men efcape the fle(hly worldly in- ji 
dination, which ever'followeth worldly intereft. 
7. He would be thought no Wife Man himfelf, 
who would refer a Controverfie about the Tranf- | 
Mion'of a Hebrew or Greek Text, or a difficulty 
in Divinity, P-hilofophy, Aftron'omy^CriticiftTi^r. Il 
to the Major Vote of the Univerfity or Minifters | 
ci England, ( or Drs. eirher ;) K. James- had more 
vvit than to mike the Majority of the Clergy the 
lodges of his Translation' of the Bible. 8. We lie 
(ee'among Godly Pe'rfons : what various degrees of | 
Knowledge and Virtue, and consequently diffe 

1 ■Opinions 'twere be,- '4. It's actually known I 
' ,J ' r; ■• • that ' 


[ 44* J 

it moft of the Churches and Clergy* in the 
orld are very ignorant and erroneous : The 

'affwes 9 Copthies, Syrians, Armenians, Georgians, 
■cajfiahs, Mengrelians, Greeks, Mofcovites, gene- 
ly unlearned Ignorant men : The multitude of 
) Parifh Priefts among the Papifts are fo : And 
) many among the Prpteftants. If King James 
i not chofen Six extraordinary men for the. 
nod of Bon, there had been worfe work there 
in was.. 

And mart we condemn God's Law of Infuffi- 

ncy to be the Univerfal Law, that we may 

ne under the Univerfal Legiflation of fuch 

n as thefe ? Should we not rather pity and 

ly for the Ignorant erroneous Majority of 

torches, and ftudy how the few that are wifer, 

iy help them into a clearer light ? 

And how lhould it be other wife ? who choo- 

h the Clergy ? In a great Part of the Churches 

e Turk who is their Enemy choofeth them, or 

bad : He receiveth into the Patriarchates of 

pftantinople y Alexandria, Antioch and Jerufalern, 

learned Fellows that give moft Money, and 

ey dare not difpleafe him : And all the Biftiops 

his Dominions in the entrance and exercifeof 

sir Office accordingly are liable to corruption 

| fervile dependance on the Infidels. In Mofcovy 

a other Countries ignorant and barbarous or 

rannical Rulers choofe them. Among Papifts 

d Proteftants, the Pope and Princes choofe the 

(hops," and Lay- Patrons choofe the Priefts, for 

p moft part- 

§ ii. To Unite in Sin (as the neceflfiry terms 
Univerfal Concord) is foolifh and finful. But 4 
: Unite in all that is held by the greater part 


C 44* 1 
of Chriftians is to Unite in much Sin— Ergo^ 

§ 12. It is only Vniverfal Laws which are the Ruti 01 
of necejfary Vniverfal Concord : But it is only Chriftii 01 
own Laws {Proclaimed and Recorded by the Spirit in )C 
his A 'po files and Evangelists) which are Vniverfah 
Laws, Ergo it is only Chrisls own Laws which are thM, 
Rule of necejfary Vniverfal Concord. 

I challenge all the Church Ufurpers in thef 
World to anfwer this Argument, better than byiL 
deceiving words. 

The Major is grounded on the natural Notice 
of Mankind. It is Dutymly which we fpeak of.|[ 
Duty is made Duty by a Law, or Command oil 1 
Authority : Univerfal Duty muft be madefuchjf 
by an Univerfal Law. I 

The Minor is thus proved. No Vniverfal Laiffl 
can be made but by a rightful Vniverfal Law-maker}! 
But there is no rightful Vniverfal Law-maker butm 
Chris! : Ergo no Vniverfal Law can be made but byW 
Chrift: , B 

The Major is undeniable. The Minor is thusjfci 

i. None can be a rightful Univerfal Law-make <t 

but fuch as hath a rightful Vniverfal Tower of GoM 
vernment , and that in Soveraignty : (For Legifla-j 
tion is the firft and chief part of Soveraignty. M 
But none but Chrift hath a rightful Univerfalflff 
Power of Government or Soveraignty. Ergo-^ 
Minor, None can be a rightful Univerfal Gover-J 
nor or Law-maker , to whom God never gave,;] 
fuch Power : But God never gave fuch Power to 
any but Chrift : Ergo, &c. 

None can be a rightful Univerfal Law-giver 
and Governor who is naturally uncapable of it : : | 
, But all on Earth are naturally uncapable of it. 

Ergo, &C. If 


C 443 I 

If there be any rightful Univerfal Governor 
n Earth, it is either a Pope, or fome Patriarchs, 
ra General Council, or the Paftors of all the 
Church on Earth diffufed : But it's none of thefe 
our (as I have oft proved , and am a(hamed to 

1 ; 

hap. 4. The "Deceits that are T leaded for an 
Ziniverfal Humane Soveraignty. 

;i. '""pHE great means by which thePopiffi 
X Clergy have been themfelves deceived, 
id then deceived much of the Chriftian World, 
•e efpecially thefe following. 
I. By a falfe Notion of the Vmty of the Catho- 
kk Church : As if it were Unified by One Humane 
olitkal Soveraignty Monarchical or Ariftocratical 
3 ope or Univerfal Council) which hath Power 
f Governing all Christians on Earth, byUniver- 
.1 Legiflation and Judicature 3 and not only by 
thrift, who indeed is its only Univerfal Gover- 

; II. By extolling Monarchy as the beft means of 
Jnity \ and fo inferring the Papal Monardiy \ fo 

Id Carolm Boverim to OUI* late King Charles in 

V-iin : As if Princes were fo weak as not to di- 
ijinguiih a National and a Vniverfal Monarchy ? 
let them try this Argument with any Papift King 
)X\ Earth [Monarchy k the beft Government. ErgO 
tere (hould be One Monarch of all the Earth , vohofe 
%tbicB you and all other Kings muft be~\ and fee 
Aether they will be To fooled int9 Subje&ion. 
III. By dreaming of fuch a difference between 

' Civil 

C 444 ] 

Civil Government and Church Government \ th^ 
though no man in his wits pleads for one Humane! 
King (or Senate) to Govern the whole Earth bj 
the Sword ; yet it is our Religion to be forbid j 
under One Soveraign Church Governour (Pope oS 
Senate) of all the Earth: whereas he is unfit tc 
Govern one Church, who knoweth not that It is 
more impoffible for the whole Earth to be Go- 
verned by One Church Soveraign ( Pope or 
CounciU than by one King or Parliament bythd 

IV. By confounding the Univerfal Roman Empire J 
and Church, and the VniverfalWorld^ and dreaming 
that what is faid of the firft was faid of the laft 
and when the Church is called Catholick or Un 
verfal, and Councils General, only as to the Roman 
Empire, they would perfwade men that it's meant 
of all the World. 

V. By pleading that Pofleffion which Pope and 
Patriarchs, and Councils had in the Empire , as if 1 
it obliged the fame Countries to them when they! 
are fallen under other Princes. And by pleading 1 
to the fame Ends all the Pofleffion which Popes, j 
or Patriarch?, or Councils have got by deceiving 
any Nations of the World. 

VI. By miftaking the Nature and Extent of the 
Paftoral Office ; becaufe as every Chriftian,(b eve- 
ry Paftor is related to the Univerfal Church,there- 
fore they gather that there is one College or Coun- 
cil confining of all Bifliops in the World (the j 
Pope being Prefident) who as an Ariftocracy muft I 
foveraignly Govern all the Chhftian World , byj 
Legiflation and Judgment: As if becaufe Phyfi- i 
cions are Licenfed to Practice any where in the j 
I-and, as they are called 5 therefore , they might j 

gather ! 

t 44? 1 
gather into a General Council and Comriiand all 
ihe Land to obey them as Law givers, in all Mat- 
ers of Health and Phyfick ? and might invade the 
; 4ofpitalsat their pleafure? And fo all the Churches 
md Church Affairs on Earth muft be governed by 
°riefts of Foreign Lands. 

VII. By firft miftaking,and then falfty claiming 

\poftolical Power : Becaufe Chrift chofe a few 

vhom he firft perfonally raught bis Will , and 

hen endowed with the Gift of Infallibility , by 

lis Spirit, to Preach firft and Record after, his 

3o<2rine and Laws , to oblige all the World 5 

therefore they pretend that ordinary Bifhops who 

]ad no fuch Spirit , Office or Commiflion, may 

tlfo make Laws to bind all the World And 

vhen every fingle Apoftle had this Office, Power 

ind Spirit, but they yet a while lived together at 

Ttmfakm, till their difperfion , they pretend that 

u Jernfalem they were a General Council,and that 

Ml Bifhops therefore may Govern as a General 

Council : whereas the Apoftles Million was Inde- 

inite, and not Univerfal, felfe they had finned in 

;iot going into all.the World.) And it was eafie 

:o Guide the Univerfal Church , while it was al- 

noft all at Jtrnfykm or near them. And their 

■Office as to Legiflation differeth from common 

Paftors, as Mopes the Legiflator's did from the 

priefts, who were but to govern by his Laws, and 

pot to make more. 

] VIII. By pretending a neceffity of Judging and 
Ending Controyerfies , and therefore oi having 
'One deciding Judge or Judicature for all theWorld, 
As if any would be fo mad as ever to expedt that 
ill Controversies about the My fteries of Superna- 
tural Revelation and the unfeen World Ikculd be 


C 44* 1 

ended in this Life : As if Ignorance would be'ji 
without Errour. And is he a Man that knoweth \ in! 
not how little it is that the wifeft know ? and vh 
how much Ignorance all Mankind is guilty of ? 
Have thefe Pretenders yet ended Controverfies? 
Are there not many Horfe- Loads of Volumes of | 
Controverfies among themfelves f Have they yet 
written any Infallible or Determining Commenta- 
ry on the Bible ? Did not St. Paul write, Rom. 14. 
& i5,ehr. for bearing with tolerable Differences. 
Is it not the Great VVifdom and Mercy of God to 
lay mens Salvation upon a few plain things>though 
a multitude befides remain as Controverfies. Chrift 
will decide them all at the Great approaching 
Judgment: And is there any on Earth that can 
decide them all ? that hath either fo great Know- 
ledge, or fo Univerfal a decifive Power ? Why is 
the Chriftian World thefe Thoufand or Twelve 
hundred Years divided into Greeks, Armenians, 
Neftorians, Jacobites, Papifts, Proteftants, &c. if M 
there be a Humane Judicature to End all Contro- H 
verfies ? And are fuch Popes as reigned from a jp 
Thoufand to Fifteen hundred, and fuch Bifhops as 

made up their Councils, ( Men of Ignorance and « 
Vice) fit to end all Controverfies on Earth. 

IX. In order to thefe Ends they make a great 
cry of the Se#s andDivifions which are among 
Proteftants, to draw men that love Unity to come 
for it to the Church of Rome. 

And firft they impudently falfifie the Hiftory of 
the Matter of Faft , and perfwade Men that the 
Differences among Proteftants are ten times grea- 
ter than they are. They have thus pleaded it to 
my face when I had a Paftoral Charge at Kidder- 
mwfter: where we were all of one Religion and 


C 447 3 

Ived in love and Peace , and had not one fepara- 
ig Affembly in a great Town and Parifh 5 And 
f here to this day they live in Piety, Love and 
tace, and I hear not of one perfon that for any 
jfference, breaketh this bond of brotherly love, 
id liveth in any oppofition to the reft. Yet Stran- 
rs are told, that we are mad in religious Seds 
d Strife. Indeed zealous people that account all 
e Matters of the World, but trifles in Compari- 
n of things everlaft ing, do make a greater Mat- 
r of them^than men of no Religion do. If among 
em one or two turn to any dangerous Se& or 
3urfe ? it ftirs up much cenfure and oppofition, 
hen in undifciplined Churches corrupted like 
e common World, multitudes in a Parifh may 
>ftain from Sacraments, and in Coffee- Houfes or 
r Vifits familiarly talk againft die Immortality of 
e Soul, and againft the Scripture and all ferious 
sligion, and it maketh no great noife. An Aft 
'Fornication once in many Years among chaft 
iligious perfons, is a Scandal fcarce ever to be 
opiated ; when among, known Stews it's little 
Jkt of. Weeds are notfuffered in a Garden: But 
I the Commons who pulls them up ? And what 
onder if they ftrivemoft about Religion who va- 
le it moft ? Dogs will fight for Bones and Carrion, 
id Swine for Draff: But Men will fooner fight 
Ir.Gold and Pearls , while Dogs and Swine like 
?aceable Creatures pafs them by, or tread them 
is the Dirt. 

'a All true Chriftians are agreed in all that Ccd • 
ith made neceifory to Chriftianity and Salvation : 
i nd no men on Earth were ever fo wife, as to be 
;' ? reed of the meaning of every word befides in the 
Ible* Much lefs in all that Ulurping Llniverfal 
fegiflators will obtrude. What 

[ 443 J 

What a difinal noife and dangerous rupmrd ^ 
doth the Controverfie make now about Confor-j ?e 
mity in BHttam t And what is our difference l ]| 
We are all agreed, i. That there is only ond^ 
God, the Governour of all the World, and of his e 
Attributes. 2. That Man's Soul is immortaUi 
that he hath another life after this to live, andk 
Heaven or Hell muft be his end. 3. That Jefus 
Chrift God and Man, is the only Saviour, andfl: 
Lord of all. 4. That the Law of God is t! 
chief indifpenfible Rule of our Faith and Life, byifc 
which we muft be judged. 5. That we muft livefc 
foberly, righteouily and godly, loving God abovek 
all, and our neighbours as our felves, and doing as; n 
we would be done by, fuperiours Ruling for God > i)ifc 
and inferiours obeying them under God, but non% 
having power above hin) or againft him. 6. Thatj 
God only is the final Infallible Uriiverfal Judge). 
of Controverfies: That Magiftrates are Judgesjfci 
who fliall be punifhed or protected by theSworc^j 
And Pallors are Judges who is fit for Communion; 
in the Churches under their over- fight : 'And eve-jl 
ry man a difcerning rational Judge of his ownj[ 
duty. 7. That without holinefs, righteoufnefs) 
and -temperance, (or mortifying the lufts of th 
flefli by the Spirit) no man can be faved. 8. T 
no man ftiould fin wilfully for any price, or : 
avoid any danger even of death, p. That th 
Soul (hould be more cared for than the BodyJ w 
10. That no man can love God and Holinefs to&Jd 
much, nor obey him too faithfully. 1 1. That w^ 
fhould delight in the Law of the Lord ( and hi> 
Gofpel)and meditate in it day and night. 12. That . 
ferious, fervent and faithful prayer is our daily L 
ordinary duty, 13, That we (hould live as we 


1 C449 1 

Duld be judged, and daily prepare for death, tha: 

k may be found ready. 14. That we (hould ufe 

worldly temporal things for fpirkual cverlaff- 

I-; ends, knowing that clfe they are but vanity, 

Ixation and dangerous fnares. 15. That we 
ould fetch our joy 'from the hopes of Heaven 
>re than from all the pofleffions, pleafures and 
I pes on Earth. 

Thefe, and abundance more, we are commonly 

to Profeffion agreed on : And though this in 

cerity will ferve for our acceptance with God 

d our Salvation, it will not ferve for our ac- 

I stance or toleration with fome men, nor to 

[bid the cry of fcandalous , intolerable Schifm* 

I fobedience,Obftinacy, and what men mind to 

arge upon us : Yea, though we are agreed that 

ilers in their feveral places muft be obeyed in 

things that are not againft the Law of God in- 

iture or Scripture. 

! But what now is the difference, I will add thac 
every Conformift and Nonconformist in Eng~ 
)d were of fo ( unattainable ) perfeft know- > 
Ige as to be agreed of the fence of every Sylla- 
1 in the Bible, it would not ferve to end our 
jfferences, nor keep us from Prifons, Silencing* 
id the prefent heavy Accufations^ 
.Wonder not at it : It's an evident Truth Out* 
ifferenceis, 1. About the meaning of fome 
iths, Declarations, and fabfcribed ProfefTions 
■d Promifes impofed by Ads of Parliament- 
I About the meaning of feveral Rubricks and 
her Words in the Liturgy and Book of Ordinal 
|n. 3. About the meaning and practice of fe* 
ral Canons. 

Gods Law hach agreed us all that Lying delibe- 
G g rarely 

f 450 ] 

rarely is a fin, andfo is Perjury ,efpecially of thou 
lands, and fo is the wilful depraving of Baptifrri 
and other Ordinances of God, and fo is theunjuli 
Excommunicating of the Faithful, and denying 
diem Baptifm and the Lords Supper, and fo is Sa 
criledge, and Renouncing the Sacred Miniftrj 
when we are Vowed to it ; and fo is Schifmatica' 1 
Dividing Chrifts Church by needlefs and unlavvfu 
Snares and Engines. All thefe we are agreed are 
heinous fins, not to be done for any 'Price. Bui 
we are utterly difagreed whether to Conforiric; 
would make us guilty of thefe fins. ^ But what 
Are Learned men fuch miferable Cafuifts as not 
know what Lying, Perjury, Sacriledge, Profi 
Baptifm, Sinful Excommunicating, &c are? 
We differ about the feme of the Words Impofed, andfi 
of the Law and Canons: And then how fhould wojit 
know who is the Sinner ? 

But Qu. Who is h that wrefteth them fronft 
their ufual fignification? And who is it that dare ji 
not do it? v 

But the Sacred part of the Impofers cry up the (I 
neceflity of a Judge of Controveriies, (yea an Unij 
verial Judge, fome of them, ) to Expound thfiL 
Scriptures when men differ about the fence ; and« 
will not they procure you an Exrofition of a fell 
controverted ientences in the Laws, or endeaju 
vourit, if that beneceflary tounderftand or enqn 
your Differences ? Anf No-, whatever cometh oil \ 
it, to Bodies or Souls, to Church or Kingdom]!! 
thefe Expofitors of Scripture and Enders of Coin}' 
troveriies will not fo much as Petition the Lavvi 
ifiakers to explain their words. Yea though t 
Confonnifts are much difagreed about it amo: 
therafelves. judges will decide particular Cauf 


C 4*< 3 

by the Law \ But to know the fence of the Law 
antecedently as our Ru'e, which is 'required iri 
Dne that Sweareth and Subfcribeth to it, ten bd 
oy no ones Expofition but the makers of the Law. 
Elfe the Judges were the only Law-makers: For 
: he fence is the Law t And he maketh the Law 
hat maketh the fence, and not they that make' 
he words alone, which other men muft put the 

I And if Popes, or Councils, Prelates or Priefts, 
;ould on pretence of a Judicial Expofitory Au- 
hority be Judges to all the Earth in what fence 
i:very word of Scripture muft be understood, h 
s they and not God that make the Law 2 For 
God made but the words* if this be true, and the 
&ftiops make the fence by pretence of judging of 
t. To give an Univerfal Antecedent Obligato- 
y Expofition, is an A61 ofLegiflation, and none 
>ut the Law-maker himfelf can do it. But to 
bdgeby this Law who (hall be received, and 
vho fhutout of their feveral Churches, the Pa- 
tors muft do that. 

X. Another great deceit is,by confounding Com* 
wnion and Concord^ with Government and Subjects 
* : And arguing that becaufe all Chriftians muft 
lave Concord and Communion, therefore they 
flult be under one Supreme Humane Govern- 
ment : As if Chriftian Princes were not as much 
iound to Concord as any men on Earth ? Or as if 
:hat Concord muft be kept by one Supreme Uni- 
erfal Senate or Monarch, and mutual Confnltati* 
^n and voluntary Agreement would not ferve. 

Ob j. Bat if God bind m to do all things in Concord. 
nd General Councils and Patriarchs determine the 
natter of our Concord, it comes all to one, in Point of 
Obligation ? Gg 2 Arf. 

[ h* 1 

dnf. i. If k come ail to one in the effeft, why 
do you contend for fo much more in the Caufe ? 

2. God bindeth Princes and States as much to 
Concord ] and yet their voluntary Treaties and 
Dyecs, and a Supreme Government over them, 
do not come all to one. 

• 3. God- doth not bind all Churches or Chrifti- 
ans to agree in more than he himfelf hath com- 
manded them. And therefore hath given power I 
ro none on Earth, to determine what more all 
fliall agree in. 

4. The Greater the Councils are ceteris paribus \ 
tbe more all Proteflants reverence them, becaufe 
they fignifie the Concord of many : But, 1. We 
know that -there are none of them Univerfal as to 
the World, nor ever are like to be. 2. We 
know;, that the Greater part are ufually the worftj' 
and that at. this day the far greater number of 
Chriftkns- on Earth (Papifts, Greeks, Armenians, 
Nefiorians, Jacobites, &*. ) are lamentably de- 
generate, ignorant and corrupt. 3. And we know 
rhat as God hath not made the greater number the 
Governors of the lefler, To neither doth he bind 
or allow the lefs to cohfenr to them to their hurt.' 
4. And when Councils for meer Agreement, 
will degenerate, and Ufurp a Regiment overDif- 
ienters, they change their Species, and bind us., 
not to obey them, but oppoie them as Ufur- 

XL The laft deceit that I fliall here name is, 
-Their pretence of the mifchief of letting Sinful or, 
Heretical Kingdoms go unpuniihed, when lingu- 
lar Retfous mud not eicape: Therefore there muft 
be a Supreme Power on Earth to correal or punifh 
National C'iiurchesor Kingdoms. 


UJ3 3 

You may find the Argument in Dr. S*wtU y 

( Biibop Gumngi Chaplain, and Matter of a Col- 
lege in Cambridge ) and many others. 

This is fo plain dealing that one would think all 
Kings and Kingdoms Ihould eafily underftand 

But I anfwer it. n Why will this pretended 
neceflity of correfting Kings and Kingdoms infer 
One Univcrfal Church Soveraign any more than 
;>ne King or Senate over all the Earth ? 

Perhaps youle fay, The Church is one, but 
Kingdoms are many. I anfwer, The whole World 
on Earth is One Kingdom of Cod, but particular 
-hurches are many. • 

2. Kings and whole Kingdoms fhall be punifh- 
H as well as Angular Perfons : But only by God 
:he Univerfal King 5 or by permitted Enemies, 
put not by any Humane Superior Governor* 
Kings are under the Laws of God and they ihall 
;>e judged by thofe Laws : If you lived in the due 
,'xpedation of Death and Judgment, you would 
not think them infignificant words, that the Juft 
Univerfal Judge is as at the Door, who only can 
iudge Kings. 

: 3. The Minifters ofChrift who know them, 
ind live under them, have fufficient Authority 
jo admonifh Kings and Kingdoms, and exercife 
■faftoral Care of their Souls, by Preaching and 
Applying the Word of God 5 as their own Phyfi- 
(ians are fitted to take care of their Health, with- 
out fending to Rome, or over all the Earth for a 
Council of Pfayficians. What work thefe Uni- 
ferfal Rulers have made by Excommunicating 
Cings and Interdiding Kingdoms, Hiftory ac- 
taalnteth us : Ic hath not been fuch as fhould 
Gg ] make 

E 4*4 1 

make any Man long for an Univerfal Church Go 
vernoar of Kings and Kingdom?. 

4. Thofe Foreigners that think Kings and King- 
doms Heretical, and prove ir, may renounce 
Communion with them without pretending to be 
their Governors. 

I have thought meet here briefly to repeat our 
Controverfie, with the Reaibns and Deceits of 
the Uiurpers 5 our own Judgment is for true Ca- 
thoiicifm, even one Catholick Head, JefusChrift, 
one Catholick Church having no other Head or 
Soveraign, One Spirit, One Faith, One Baptifm, 
One Hope of Glory, and One God and Father of 
all : And that all Christians fhould live in Love 
to others. as themfelves, and in their feveral 
Churches under the juft conduct of their feveral 
Pafiors, keip the Unity- of the Spirit in the bond of 
peace, Eph.4-3. That they {hodd all know t ho fe that 
labour among them^and are over them in the Lord, and 
highly efteem them in love for their work^fakc, and 
he at peace among themfelves, I Thef 5. 12, 13. 
That the Kingdom of God is not Meat and, 
Drink i but Righteoufnefs and Peace , and Joy in 
the Holy Ghojt: And he that in thefe things 
fervcth Christ, is accept abk to Cod and approved of 
men, ( who judge as God would have them judge.) 
Rom. 14- 17- But if God be forfaking the Weft 
as far as he hath done the Eaft, and dementation 
prdgnofticate perdition, the Kingdom abo^e fhali 
iiever be forfake;j. And we look^for a new Heaven 
and a new Earth, wherein dwelleth Righteoufnefs, 
And feeing all thefe things (liall be dijfolved, what man- 
ver of Per fans ought we to be in all holy Converfation 
and Godlinefs, looking for and hafiing to the Coming 
of the day of God! 1 Pet. 3. 1 1 3 I^ e 



"hap. V. What a Foreign ^urijdichon by CeuH* 
cits or the College of E/Jbops h > the Mask be- 
ing taken off. 

A T Ethinks Princes and States, and Churches, 
LVjL fhouldnot be cheated imoa (fate of Suh- 
?<3ion without ever confidering or examining 
v\m it is : And methinks no honeft Biihops 
bould be unwilling that it be truely understood. 

I. Conlider what an Univerfal Legiflative 
Wer includeth. h plainly implyeth the^ iniuffi- 
iency of Gods Words and Laws to thofe Ends 
or which this power is pretended. Whereas 
his is the very point of the Proteftant Caufe as 

i lifferenced from Popery, thar God being the 
mly Ruler of the whole World none elfe can 
nake Laws for the whole, but only fuch By Laws 
.'or their particular Provinces ( as Corporations 
lo under the King ) for undetermined Grcum- 
iances, in which Kingdoms and Churches may 
Greely differ- 

II. By this the Peace of the Chriftian World 
jtfiH be laid on thefe variable Circumftances : As 
if all the World were bound to wear iiich Gar- 

-jl'ientS as France or Englahdwtzx^ &c. 

III. By this the Legiflative Power of every- 
Kingdom is taken away in all matters of Religion 
v which are our greateft things : ) For it is the 
'hnmapotejhts only that hath the Legiflative Pow- 
Bf : At leaft no Inferior hath any but from and un- 
der the Supreme; nor may contradict them. 
Whereas even the Decrees of our National 

G g 4 Clergy 

t 4;6 ] 

"Ciergy are no Laws with us, till the King (hall 
fi)2te them Laws. 

JV. By this no Man can tell what degree of, 
P ower thefe Foreigners will aflume : As the Popes 
Ecclefiaflical Power is now extended to Tefta- 
ments, Matrimony, Adulteries, Church Lands, 
&c Among Christians to whom all things are 
iandtiiied, they may challenge almoft all. And 
when it becomes a Controverfie who fhall judge? 
Certainly the Supreme Power is the Supreme 
Judge of their own Rights. 

V. I think it will oblige Kings, Lords and all, 
when Summoned to Travel out of their own 
Kingdoms as MalefacSors to anfwer what accufa- 
tionsare brought againft them. For certainly a 
Supreme Judicature muft have its Forum , where 
men muft be heard before they are Judged, and 
where all that are Summoned muft anfwer. Or 
eife Kings and Kingdoms muft become poor Sub- 
jects to any Fellow that the Foreign Soveraign 
will make his Chancellor or Legate. 

VI. VVhokno&veth not how much the Go- 
vernment and Peace of the State will depend on 
the Government of fuch an Univerfal Church Go* 
•vernor ? VVhen they have Excommunicated the 
King, will not the Subje&s the more difhonour 
him, if they take the Excornmunicators Power to 
be Supreme ? What work hath the Pope made 
by Excommunications ? Kingdoms have been en- 
gaged in War by it againft each other? Yea Sub- 
jects againft their Kings? YqaSons have depofed 
r heir Fathers, as the Emperor Henrys Cafe ac- 
quaints us. Yea when the Pope hath not medled, 
Lilhfcps Councils have bafely depofed the belt of 
Jungs, as Lkciov. Tm Cafe tells us, and the En> 


[ 457 1 . 
refs Maud's in En$\andp*c In ad or dine Spirituals 
11 will fall into the Foreign Soveraigns handsi 
liey muft be the Soul, and Kings but the Bo- 

! VII. It will unavoidably follow that Kings and 
kingdoms muft be fubjefted to Foreign Princes 
y this pretence of a Foreign Church Jurifdi&ion. 
or he knoweth little of the World that knoweth 
ot that to be true which Dr. Peter Heylw ( on 
le Creed', oftheCath. Church ) citeth out of 
j %rates y that fince Emperors were Chriftians all 
livings depended on their beck or will : Will not 
ley chufe Bifhops or Rule in the choice ? Will 
ot they over-rule the choice of fuch as are to be 
?nt to General Councils ; as King James chofe 
le Six that went hence to Don ? Is it not known 
hat it is the Excellency and Merit of our Clergy 
fp be obedient to the Kings Will ? And is it not 
) in the reft of the World? Therefore thofe 
rinces that can command the greateft number of 
ifbops, will be Governors of all the reft of the 
{Vorld, both over their Souls and Bodies. 
I VIII I defireit maybe well confidered whe- 
oer the Government of all Kings, for Soul and 
:lody, will not fall into the hands of Mahometans 
pd Infidels, or at leaft the conteft prove hard be- 
iveen them and the Papifts. For it is no (mall 
pmber of Bifhops that are in the Mahometans 
fominions? Turks, Moors> Perfians, Indians, &c 
*nd if they know once the advantage of numbers 
hey can make more when they will : Even one 
p every Chriflian Congregation. And as LudoU 
bm tells us of the Patriarch of Alexandria, that 
ay ignorant forry Fellow gets the place, that 
m -purchafe it by Favour and Money of the 





C 458 ] 

Turks,fo it is at Constantinople as to the over-ruling 
of the Choice. 

But that's not the worft : But by our Subje&ers | 
Principles the five Patriarchs have fuch a Power 
in Councils, that it's no Council without them, or 
the greater part of them. And four of the five 
Patriarchs are Subjects of the Turk, and the Pope | 
is the fifth or firft). And will not the Turk then |[ 
choofe them,and fo be Mafter of our Religion,and ^ 
of all the Chriftian World ? Or if the Pope get \\ 
the greater Number of Bilhops the Matter will L 
not be well amended 5 as the Trent Council hath || 
allured us. 

And when the Empire was over the Weft, the 
Emperor had a chief hand in chooiing Popes : i 
And who knows how foon it may be fo again, and % 
the new way of Cardinals be caft by ? And lb we! 
lhall be the Emperor's Subje&s. ;Jj 

IX. We know already that the far greateft part | \ 
of the Bifliops of the World are lamentably Igno- 
rant and Erroneous Men, and keep up Error and 
Diviiions in their feveral Countries,™*., m Greece^ 
Mofcovie, Armenia, Syria, Abajfia,8cc. and ill Italy, 
Spain, Poland, Hungary, Germany^ &C. And are 

we bound to obey them becaufe they are the 
greater number ? In Council or out of Council 
they are the lame men. What Nation under Hea- 
ven hath Biibops juft of the Mind of thefe with 
us in England * or fo found and judicious as ours 
have been, and feme yet are > And muft our Eng- 
liih Bifhops give up their Judgments to an erro- 
neous Majority abroad ? Is that our thankfulnefe 
to God ? 

X. How little difference is it to us , whether 
e. g. Image- worihip , Tnmfabftantiaticn or any 


C 4?9 I 
a be commanded us by a Council , or by the 
)pe ? or by him as Abfolute or as Patriarch of 
; e Weft, and Primipium Vnitatis f 
XI- What can a Prtncipium Vnitatis fignifie in 
e Univerfal Church,but fome Governing Power 
d Unifying Prerogative ? Who buc the King 
i be Prtncipium Vnitatis in the Kingdom ? The 
•jeftion will not be whether the Pope (ball be 
je Univerfal Monarch, but only whether this 
I onarch's Power be Abfolute and Total , or U- 
[ ited and Partial with his Council. And Church- 
onarchs that have thefe Thoufand Years conque- 
i Church-Parliaments already may do fo ftill. 

XII. If the Pope have not the Univerfal Su- 
eme Government in the Intervals of Councils 
: ere will be none. And if there have been none 
efe Thoufand Years (which muft follow their 
pinion that end it as the Sixth Council] why 
jpuld it be new made now ? 

XIII. We know already that Grot ins and his 
>>rty are for the Popes Government in chief in 
e Intervals of Councils • but not Arbitrarily, 
it by the Canons. And I have after named yoa 
•jiukitude of Canons already , which we cannot 
wfully obey. 

'[XIV. It will make an endlefs Conrroverfie in 
ie World, what Councils fliall be approved and 
beyed, and which not- 

'XV. If the Pope muft prefide, he will have it 
lar him : He will not Travel to Syria or Armt- 
Ui &c. but they muft come to him : And where- 
ver the Council is caIled,thenearettBifhops will 

rry it by numbers againft the remote, who will 

! few. 

XVL None can expeft th?t the Pope as Pa- 


C 4^0] 

triarch and Principmm Vnitatis , will do his parj 
for nothing : And the riches of this Kingdom fe| 
little enough for the King, Clergy, and People! 
We cannot fpare that which Foreigners will ex^ 
pedt fand have done in this Land). 

XVIL While the fame Man that is here ownedL 
as Patriarch and Principwrn Vnitatu y is owned aso|[ 
greater Power in Italy y Spain, Germany, and other! 
Lands, he will be {lengthened to bring us to Con-L 
formity with the reft ; and in time to obtain all| 
his claim. 

XVIII. Are Strangers like to be fitter Ju Jges o£ w 

the Matters oiEngUnd,Armenia.Habaffiafec, thamjo 
the Rulers & Clergy of the feveral Kingdoms^vhoi 
know the Perfons they muft Judge, and cm heajt 
both fides fpeak, and examine Witneffes? &c 

XIX. The old and famous General Councils 
were not called to Govern Foreigners and all the||n 
World, but only the Empire that called them : 
And why fhould the Church Government now 
be any other, than Collateral with the Civil. 

XX I again and again fay , that we are Swori> 
by the Oath of Supremacy againft all Foreign Ju* 
rifdidiion. And by the Corporation Adt , tha 
VeftryAdt, the Ad of Uniformity, the Militiaft 
Adt, and the Oxford Oa:h, the Church andKing-1/ 
dom is moft folemnly bound, never to endeavour] | 
any Alteration of Government in Church o| 
State : And if fubjedting King , Kingdom , and]; 
Church to a Foreign Juriididtion , of fuch as pre-j 
tend to an Univerfal Supreme Lcgiflative and Ju- 
dicial Power, be not an Alteration of the Govern- 
ment of Church and State, I know not what is:j; 
Nor what is National Perjury if the National 
Endeavour or Confent to fuch Subj.ediion be notli 
inch. Add 


• [4*0 
Add tcr^all this the unavoidable effeds of this 
oinionof the Univerfal Soveraignty,™*.. i.It en- 
geth the Owners of it to condemn all the Prote- 
nt Churches,becaufe they own no Univerfal So- 
raign,nor the Pope as Patriarch or ?rincipium Uri- 
els : yea, and to difown almoft all the Churches 
the World befides the Papifts, as Schifmatical. 

2. They muft Condemn all the Proteftant Mar- 
ts who rejeded the Pope abfolutely , as dying 
r Rebellion. 

3. They muft needs cenfure their own Princes 
d States as Rebels, who fubjed not themfelves 
this Ufurped Sovereignty. 

4. They will pervert all the Scriptures for Uni- 
, and Peace, and Obedience , and interpret it, 
meaning this Ufurpation. 

5. They will think it their Duty to ufe their 
?ft Endeavour to fubjed all Men to theUfurpers. 
' 6. They will lofe their due Charity to all that 
onfent not to this Subjedion , taking them for 
nemies to the Churches Unity and Peace.and Re- 
els againft this Soveraign Power. 

7. No wonder if fuch become grievous Perfe- 
itors, and ftir up Princes and Rulers againft fuch 
hriftians as Schifmacicks and Enemies of Peace 5 
ind as Dr Saymll and Biftiop Gimng tell the 
world, that the meeting of fuch in worshipping 
itod are the Conventicles of Schifmaticks,and the 
Caufe of all our Plots and Divisions- .And if Obe- 
dience to this Vniverfal Sovereignty be (as they fay) 
6e only Cure of Schifm , they mud hold all our 
^arifh Affembliestoo to be Schifmatical Conven- 
iens, whofe Paflors own not the Ufurpation. 
2 8. Thus as the Pope hath been the grand Dp- 
idcr of theChriltian World,by fetcing up a falfe 



[ 462 3 

Head of Union , fo will thefe Men deftroy al 
Unity quantum in fe by fetting up a UfurpedSove 
raignty , and a falfe Principium Vnitatis ; and wil 
be the erand Schifmaticks to cure Schifm. 

9. They will by a falfe uncertain Univerfai 
Law-making, not only make ChrhTs Laws iih 
futficient, but make Chriftianity a mutable, grown 
ing, uncertain thing \ when no man fliall be able no 
to know which are the Church Laws ; and wheqj 5 
the Volumes of them will be perfe&ed , and no ; 
more added. 

10. When the Churches are thus Divided andlC 
Perfecuted , and found Preachers Silenced > the 
Perlecutors will be hardened in impenitency , fa-ilfi 
thering all their Mifchiefs on Chrift which they doity 
againft him, and making Chriftian Fidelity odiousj 
as Rebellion and Schifm. 

And they will never be able in their way , fo| 
much as to fatisfie impartial men,how true Bifhops! 
may be kno wn,and who ad ejfe muft be the Choofers 
of them 3 much lefs prove their Univerfal Sove- 

Chap. VI. the Grand Confequential Cafe, Wke* 
ther it be lawful for the Presbyters tofwear 
Obedience to thoje Bifhops, who profefs Sub- 
jection to the Foreign Jurifditlion of a Vni- 
verfal Sovfraigntyl or for the Teople to live 
in Obedience and Communion with the Presby- 
ters that do fo ? 


Wifli this Cafe about fuch Subje&ion 2nd 
Communion may never make the fecond 

breach 1 

C 46; 3 

>reach between Conform ifts and Nonconform^ 
ouch wider than the firft is made, 

I. Suppofe the French Biihops will abate Ido- 
atry, Owning Tranfubftantiation , Adoration of 
he Hod, and of Saints and Images, Latin Service, 
vill allow the Cup in the Sacrament, PrieftsMar- 
iage, leave indifferent all other things that are 
lot above Four hundred Years old, £»• Whether 
s it lawful for the Proteftant Miniftersand all the 
eft to Swear Obedience to thefe Biihops, and to 
he Proteftant Laity and all others to joyn in their 
Communion ? 

1 II. Suppofe Archbifhop Bromhall profefs fubje- 
fton to General Councils called and moderated 
*y the Pope as Prefident, and to the Pope as Prin- 
>ipium unkatis Vniverfalis and Patriarch of the 
Weft ; Or the Biihop of EM profefs fubje&ion to 

Foreign Univerfal Jurifdidion, Is it lawful for 
£he Biihops to Swear Obedience to that Arch- 
fbiihop, or the Presbyters to fuch a Bi(hop,and for 
the People to be fubjedt to fuch Presbyters in 

III. Suppofe fuch Biihops would abate the Pref- 
byters (a while till they are ftrengthenedjthe Oath 
or Promife of Obedience, is it lawful to receive 
jOrdination from fuch Bifhops , and live in fubje- 
|dion to them and Communion ? 

§ 2. The Cafe is of great moment, and very 
tenderly and warily to be handled. 

L On one fide, If no Promife or Oath be re- 
quired, nor any pra&ice in it felf unlawful, many 
will think it hard that they mult feparate from a 
whole Nation or. Diocefs for another man's Sin, 
which they con fen t not to? fpecially if it will 
caft them out of their Miniftry and Maintenance. 



• [ 464 ] 

They will think, his guilt Iyeth only on himfelf. , 
Elfeonemanmay over- turn the Liberties of 2 i 
whole Diocefs or Land by his own properdin. 

II. Yea if the Oath or Promife be put on them 
for Obedience but in Ileitis & honefiu^ they will 
think the cafe doth little differ •, as long as they 
confent' not to a Forreiga Jurifdi&ion. 

§ 3- On the other fide, If all men muftormay j 
obey them that profefs Obedience to a Foreign I 
Univerfal Jurifdidtion, may not one or two, or a 
tew Biftiops fubjeft the Kingdom to Foreigners at 
their plealure ? And that the more dangeroufly^ j 
becaufe without any noife or notable alteration, ! 
and fo without refinance? It is but the Primate or 
Archbifhops, or Biftiops, profefTing fubje&ion to ! 
the Pope or Foreign Soveraign, and the thing is f 
done. The Biftiops being fubjed to the Pope, or j| 
other Ufurpers, and the Priefts to the Bifhops, 
and the People to the Priefts, are they not all 
then fubjed to the Foreign Ufurper ? 

If the Kings Army in the days of//. 5. or Ed. 3. 
in France , were to be hired over to the King of 
France, what need he more than that the Gene- 
ral or Field Officers Swear fidelity to him ? And 
that the Captains be fubjeft to the Colonels, and 
the common Soldiers to them ? 

When the Kingdom was in continual War 
between King Stephen and Maud the Emprefs, and 
between the Houfes of Tork. and Lancaster ■, the 
people were not ufually Sworn on either fide : 
But the Biftiops and the Barons did Swear and 
Unfwear, and Forfwear, and Change fides as 
their Interefts led them, and this was the mifery 
of the Land. 

§ 4. And yet the Cafe would be much cafier if 


D \y the King c g. of Frame fhould fubjeft him- 

to Foreigners, and forbid all co preach and 

Sickly Wo'rfhip God that will not Swear Al- 

iance to him, and obey him as their King. 

> 5. In thefe dreadful cafes, we muft diitin- 

1. Between fuch a Bifhop as is a Member 

1 Proteftant Nation, and who turneth againft 

tl • Law of the Land and the Confent of other 

lurches, and fuch as would draw the whole 

nd with him, or is but one in a common Re- 


i. Between a Minifter who was Ordained and 
>je& to the Bifhop before he revolted, and one 
;t is Ordained and fubje&ed to him after. 
?. Between a Bifhop whofe revolt is profefled* 
i one that denieth it, or keeps it fecret. 
$. Between living peaceably, and owning the 
ht of the Bifhops Authority. 
. Between obeying him as a Magiftrate and 
a Church Paftor. 

5. Betvyeen 'obeying him as ameer Bifhop, and 
jfhe Subject of a Foreign Power. 

7. Between obeying fuch a one when the 
lurch accepteth him, or -when he is but an in- 
sider againft their confent. 

8. Between fubjedlionin neceflary cafes vfhere 
j better can be had, and in cafes unneceffary 
Jiere we may have better. 

<§ 6. And I iball fpeak my thoughts as in i 
eadfirl cafe in thefe Conclulions 

I. IftheBiihops revolt to a Foreign JurifdidH- 
1 be unknown, it maketh not thai: Obedience 

him unlawful which was his due. 

II. If a few Bifhops revolt to a Foreign Ufur- 
fejir's eafie to fee that no one- (hould follow thenr 

H h againft' 

[ 4 66] 

againft the contrary judgment of all the reft in the 
Nation, and fo forfake the National Concord. 

III. If one or more Bifhopsbe known to revolt 
to a Foreign Soveraign, a Minifter is not bound 
therefore to renounce Communion with all the 
Chriftians or Churches in his Diocefs, who are! 
innocent : No nor with all that renounce not Con* 
munion with him: For we know not whether 
they know his cafe, and have had means to un- 
derfknd and do their Duty. 

IV. SofarasaBiiliopexercifeththe Power of 
the Sword as an Officer of the King, we muft 
obey him though he be a PapifU in all things 
which he hath true power to command. 

V. Oc£ that was Ordained by him before his 
revolt, may go on with his work and live peace- 
ably, and not openly renounce the revolting 6 
ihop , till he have a particular Call , for the 
Churches fafety or the prefervation of his ow 

VI. If a man be neceffitated to live where no if 
other Miniftry or Chriftian Communion can J)* 
had.; one that renounceth the Bifhops Subje&ion 
toawllniverfalUfurper, may yet be fubjeft tdt 
him, and receive Baptifmfrom him, or admini-j 1 
iter it and other Ordinances of God in his Dio-j 
cefs, and acknowledge his Office fo far as it is de-f 
fcribedby Chrift, and conveyed by juft means! 
and hath the confent of the Church. 

A mau may have two Commiflions to one Of« 
fice, of which one is currant and the other null II 
If one that hath Chrifts Commiflion, fhall alfJ] 
take one from a Forreign Ufurper, the latter if] 
void, and the taking of it is his heinous fin ; bull 
it doth not nullifie all his Administrations to thejl 



r 467 a 

arch 5 becaufe his better Comrniffion may (0 
(land good, as that his Baptizing, Ordination, 
other Adminiftration.of Gods own Ordi- 
:esfliallnot be null. And therefore we ufe 
to Rebaptize fuch as Papifts Baptise, nor Re- 
iin all that they ordain to the Miniftry in ge- 
■ il. 

r IL But it is rather a Duty to forbear alf 
irch Affemblies where no other can be had, 
I to profefs confent to a Foreign Ufurpation, 
j retended Univerfal Soveraignty. For no fin 
t be done on pretence of neceffity, nothing 
g indeed neceflary which nttift be got by fin- 

III. If a Nation (a* France) be fubjedt to 
iLlfurpers of an Univerfal Soveraignty, or if a; 
.on (hew themfelves to be defigning fuch a 
action, or if one Bifhop or more declare 
hfelvesfor it, It is the Duty of Minifters o- 
y to difownand oppofe fuch attempts, and or- 

Eily to difown the proper Church Govern- 
, Ordinations and Communion of fuch Bi- 
s: And it is the peoples Duty to difown the 
•i>ralConduct of fuch Minifters as openly fol- 

d>r, i. The defign of this Univerfal Ufurpa- 
jis Treafon againft Chrift, by fet ting. up men 
pffefs his Prerogative, and pretend to be his 
:jrs or Chief Subftitutes without his CornmiiG- 
j And it is a defign to divide all the Churches 
ilfe means of Union •, and fo to cafe them all 

that miferable War which the Romanifcs 
) Thoufand years have done*. And confe- 
itly to introduce an inrolerabfe corruption of 

p!ine and'Worlhip, Doctrine and Life And 
Hh 2 


no man may lawfully join in fo wicked a defigm 
nor be fo much as neutral : If with fingle For] 
nicators, Railers 5 Drunkards, &c. we may not 
eat in familiarity, much lefs with fuch Subverted 
of the Chriftian World. N 

2. And no Chriftian is aftually a Church-memj 
ber under any one as his Paftor, without mutua ! 
Confent : And it is not lawful to confent to take \ ' 
Traytor againft Chrift and the Church for ok * 
Paftor : He that is no Paftor fhould not be take? ° 
for a Paftor : But if he either want any Ejfemim 

Qualification ( as to be Chrifts Minifter for m} 

churches good, ) or the Confent of the Flock he if' 1 
no Paftor to them. 

3. Therefolutionof die Cafe againft Martiir 

and Bafilides by the Carthage Council with CypnJuP. 
fully decideth the Cafe 5 proving by Scriptu# 
and Reafon if the people forfakenot an uncapabliF 
Bifhop, though other Bifhops are for them, the! ou 
greatly fin againft God : And thofe that were b# [ 
Libellatick, came far (hortof the guilt of the Uf 
niverfal Ufurpation- 

4. And it is not the danger of fuffering .tha , iin 
will juftifie Subjection to fuch Defigners: Fc^ 
buffering mu ft not feem intolerable to Believers 
None are true Chritlians but difpofitive Masf |j 
ryrs. M[ 

5*. Many old Canons were made againft Prejjf 
byters Swearing' or Promifing Obedience to Bi 
ihops, as a thing dangerous to the Church 5 raucj 
more is it finful to do it to fuch Church En^ 

6. And Magiftrates commands will not exctii 
it, becaufe it is a thing, forbidden of God, an 
which no Man hath right to command. 




IX. The reftri&ion of C in Ileitis & how ft is j 
aketh ir not lawful to Swear or Promife Obedi- 
t ce to fuch. i. Pecaufe even to iubjett our 
Ives to Usurpers is not licit um ant horn ft urn tho' 
ey command nothing eife but good. 2. A 
awful Ruler muft be obeyed only [ m Ileitis &- 
wftis ] And a Ufurper muft not be as much 
vned as a Lawful Ruler. 

If an Ufurper fhould kt up ih EngLnd, and 
ou Id falfly pretend the Kings Commiflion, and 
vould JbJlicite theKings Army to take Commiffi- 
,)s from him, a Loyal Subject might be deceiv- 
'by him, believing that he had the Kings Com- 
liffion when he had none: And might at once 

true to the King in Heart, and do the things 
at Tray tors do. But if he know that he hath 

neof the Kings Commiffuan, but raifeth Arms 
^ainft his Will and Law to ftrengthen himfelf, 
^ery Subje& ought to renounce him, and to re- 
f )unce the Commanders that follow him, and 
either to Swear Obedience to them in Ileitis & 
fefiis y nor yet to bear Arms under them. And 
lis is as true of a Parliament or any Senate as of 
;ringle Ufurper, (hould they falfly pretend that 
je King or Law doth make them th&Go- 
?rnors of the Kingdom, and fo Ufurp the 
dngs proper Power ? And fpecially if the Total 
pgillative and Judicial Supreme Power be abfo- 
itely in the King alone, as it is in God and Jefus 
jhrilt ; which I add becaufe fome think they 
&ay lawfully be fubjeci to thofe Bilhops that are 
^bje&ed only to Univerfal Councils or Church 
arliaments io they do but diiclaim the Roman 

X. Though fome may think that fubjection to 

Hh 3 . a pre- 

L 4/ u J 

a pretended Univerfal Council may ftand wit, 
Loyalty to Chrift, becaufe fuch a Council is !l 
Chimera, or Non Ens, and never will be in thl 
World, and fo can do no harm, ( as one may bij 
true to the King, who yet Sweareth Obediencfl 
to an ' Aflembly of Mortal Angels, ) yet the cafilu 
is otherwife. For, r. Thefe Men that profeflL 
Subjection to Councils, cannot be fuppofed tt-L, 
take fuch Councils for Chimeras or things impoffijj 
ble, without being taken for mad Men. There-] 1 
fore it is not a true General Council, but fome^i 
thing poflible that they mean : And they ufe t< 
fay themfelves, \Lor as General as can be well had. J] 
So that fuch a one as that at Trent, or as they wiljL 
call General ( as they do the old Imperial CouMJ 
tils ) will ferve their turn. E 

2. And let thean difclaim Popery never {K 
loudly, they mean ftill that the Pope muft be the 
ordinary Caller and President of thefe Councils!/ 
and the Chief Patriarch and Frincipium VnitatM^ 
Vnivcrfalis : And fo all will come but to a limiteK 
Popeinftead of an AbfoluteOne ? And is he noK 
a'Monarch though he muft Rule by Law ? FoK 
they intend not that there be no Catholick ChuitlH 
all the time that there are no Councils 5 and thereB 
fore they intend fome Unifying, ConttitutiveB 
Executive Supreme. 

' XL Obj. But if we may not own a. Bijhop tham 
fuhjetleth himfelf to the t'opc or other Foreign VfarpcM 
of Vniverfal Government $ then if the King be a Pom 
pi ft it will fellow that we rtmfi not be f/ihjecT to himX 
■Which all Frotefiants conftfs to be falft ■: Ergo, fo M 
the Antecedent a.* ofBiJhops. 

jinf I deny the Confequence, fpeaking only 1 
of fuel a Kings Re ] igion. Nero Was a Heathen, j 
J . *..-.... anc J j 

C47i 3 

,nd kwas lawful for Christians to be fubjecc to 
iim, for Confcience fake : But it was not lawful 
o fubject themfelves to Heathen Bilhops ( a con- 
radiction.J A Heathen may be Gods Minifter 
o preferve the common Peace, and Execute the 
.avvsof God in Nature, and rhejuft Subordinate 
jiws: But theOfficeofaBiihopconftiiech in a- 
other matter, viz* In teaching the true Doc- 
rine and Laws of Ohrift * and. guiding the 
"hurchby them, and keeping out all that is a- 
ainft them. And therefore no other man can be 
Bifhop that doth not this as to the EfTentials. 
f the King command us to be Papifts we muft 
'ifobeyhim: But if he command us to do things 
ood and lawful, we muft obey : True Chriftia- 
ity isEffential to a Bifhops Office, but not to a 
Cings, as King. 

i But if any puc the Queftion, C Whether a Ruler 
fa Proteflant Kingdom, who taketh himfelf bound 
!y the Laterane or other Council on pain of Damna- 
''•on to deftroy all his Kingdom that will not for fake 
heir Religion, be Publicus Hoftis ? And whether by 
be Law of Nature every Nation have a right of felf- 
defence againfl open Enemies i I meddle with no 

lich Cafes as thefe. 

XII. To conclude, I advife all Chriftians to 
ive peaceably in their places, but to take care 
vhom they trufl with the Paftoral Conduct of 
heir Souls; and not to be feduced to enter into 

Confederacy, againft Chrifts Prerogative by a- 
\y pretences of Humane Authority, or Catholic!^ 
Umty, which really are againft Divine Authority, 
ind the true Unity of the Church in Chrift : For 
J thoufand years experience ( even by our Bi- 
lhops confdlion who own but the Six firft Coun- 
Hh4 cils) 



S 47 2 3 
jcils) have told us by the fad confufions of thci 
Chrift ian World, that fueh Pretenders to Unity, 
in a Humane Univerfal Soveraignty have but} 

■£c m fed divifions and offences contrary to the -dpofio+\ fll 
ileal Dottrine, not ferving Chrift, but their own bellies^ 
and by good words and fair fpeeches deceived the 
hearts of the fimple. 

Our Unity confifteth in One Head lefus Chrift, 
One God, one Body or Church of Chrift, one! 
Faith, one Baptifm, one 'Hope, one Gofpel and; 
Univerfal Law of Chrift •, and that we live infl 
Love, and Peace, and Order, in Learning and ia 
Worshipping God in feveral Congregations unde 
their refpe&ive Guides, as confenting Volume 
2nd that the conjun&ion of fuch under Chriftia 
Kings, makes Chrjftian Kingdoms ; where by th 
Counfels of Paftors in their own Dominions,the 
may keep that Church-Peace and external Order 
which is left to the truft of their determination jjj 
and that in cafes of need, the Counfel and Help oi 
Foreign Churches be defired ; and that Comma! 
niori in Chriftianity be profefted with all the true} 
Chrift ian World; and that we wait for perfect I 
Unity in Heaven. But that Princes and Kingdoms j 
be not brought under a Foreign Jurifdi&ion, (Tpel 
dally if pretended Univerfal; inftead of Foreign i 
Counfel, Communion, Peace and Aid. 

Chap. VII. Of thefecond Fart of the Defign % to bring 
the Papifis into our Communion, as they were in the] 
beginning of Queen Elizabeths Reign. 

f J "TV- Heylin faith, That this was much ofij 
JLy A. BifhopXWs ckfign, and that it was : 


[ 473 ] 
order to this that he made the Changes which 
i made. And Dr. Burnet faith, That even Queen 
'izabetb thought that if fhe. could fome how 
■ing all her Sub jefts into one Communion, tho' 
• different Opinions, in one Age they would 
)me to be of one mind : Ana therefore (he was 
firous to have kept up Imrges and other fuch 
.lings in the Churches, till the realons and impor- 
mityof fome Divines prevailed with her- 
$ 2. If this be done, it muft be either by the 
apifts turning Proteftants, or the Proa. rants 
irning Papifts, or by meeting -in fome third 
: tate of Religion between both, or by continuing 
l the fame Church-Communion without change 
f their Religion. 

§ 3. I. Ifthe.Papifts come into our Churches 

:>y Converfion, it is not then Papifts but Prote- 

ants that come in. There is no true Proteftant 

lat is not earneftly defirous of this. But bare 

coming in to our Churches and Communion, is 

ftpt a renunciation of Popery. 

/ . § 4. II. That the Proteftants fliould turn Pa- 

iifls for,Union, is not openly pleaded for by them 

ifhat we have to do with : The name of Papifts 

ht j y earneftly difown. 

§ 5. III. Ifitmuftbe by meeting in fome 
'middle way, it muft be by a change in the Papifts, 
or by a change in the Proteftants, or both. 

1. If the Papifts change any thing of theirs, it 
imuft be either' the Effbmials of Popery, or alfo the 
igrofler errours and fins which are its moft corrupt 
Integral part, or only fome mutable Accidents or 
lefler faults and errours. • 

1. If the Papifts hold full that there ought to 
be one liniverfal Sovereign Power of Legillation 


C 474 1 

and Judgment under Chrift on Earth , and tru; 
either the Pope himfelf, with a General CouncI 
or a Council where the Pope is Prefident a 
Prwcipium Vmtatis , is this Soveraign , this is tb 
Eflence of Popery continued. 

2. If the Papifts ihould quit this UniverGj 
Soveraignty, and yet hold their other groffef 
Errours (as Tranfubftantiation , Image- Worfliip 
Praying in an unknown Tongue , forbidding x\ 
read the .Scripture tranflated, and fuch like) Th 
would be ftill Hereticks, though not Papifts. 

3. But if they only retain iome tolerable Er 
rours, we fhould be willing to receive all fuch tc 
our Cofnmunion. 

2. If the change muft be in the ProteftantSj 
tvhat is it that they muft change ? If it be anjj 
Truth or Duty which they foriake, or any Sia 
which they muft commit, they cannot honeitly fd 

But if it be any Errours cr Sins' that we muflj 
forfake, that is a very defirable Change. Some| 
men do ignorantly charge fome Errours on thei 
Papifts which they are not guilty of; or lay the! 
Errours of fome few upon the mod : Some make 
Errours which are bnt de nomine to feem to be dere I 
and leffer Errours feem great : Some take diversj 1 
Truths to be Errour : And fome are ready to call! 
Tome lawful Cuftoms of the Papifts, by the namel 
of Popery, and Antichriftian : Some would deny! 
Papifts the common Civilities and Liberties whichi 
are their due. Axil fuch things as thefe we would 
have changed. And if altering any indifferent 
Practice of ours, would win them from their Er- 
rour to the Truth, we fnould fo become all things 
to all men, to lave fome. 1 


C 47? ] 

§6. IV. But ifPapiftsmuft come to our Chur- 
ches whilft Panifts without any other Profeflion of 
i Change, I. If ic be but to hear Sermons, which 
-leathens may do, and if they voluntarily do it, 
; know few that will be againft it. 2. But if ir 
3e to our Sacramental Communion , I have thefe 
[teafons following againft it. 

§ 7. I. Local Prelence v ill make us really no 
■nore of one Church if different Religions make 
is uncapable, than if we met at feveral places : 
furks and Hereticks are not of oar Church , if 
jhey (hould receive the Sacrament with us, if they 
•enounce not t^ieir Infidelity and Herefie, if it be 

j II. The Bidiops fay now that the Confor- 
ming whofe hearts are againft Conformity , are 
' ( Tiore hurtful and dangerous to the Church than 
:he Nonconforming, as ufing the publick Encou- 
•agements againft them. How much more will 
•Papifts be more dangerous among us, than without 
our Churches ? 

j III. It wili be a Prophanation of God's Ordi- 
nance to give that Sacrament to an uncapable per- 
■!x)n : And if they be forced againft their will to 
Communicate, the Prophanation will be the grea- 
ter : The Sacrament deiivereth to the due Recei- 
ver a Sealed Pardon of all Sin,and a gift of Chrift, 
'and right to Salvation ; And unwilling Perfons 
^re utterly uncapable of thefe -, willing confent 
even to the fcrfaking of all for it, being the con- 

] IV. It muft be grofs hypocrifie and diflembling 
■jin the Papiils to come ro our Communion. They 
pke Proteftants for Hereticks, and Proteftants 
;take them for Hereticks ; And their Do&rine is 


L 47& ] 
againA admitting Hereticks to Communion. Thcj 
muft hear with us their own Do&rines and Pra 
difes condemned --, and they muft hear ours aflert 
ed, which they abhor. And what Peace will thi 
hypocrifie keep ? 

V. It will tempt the Preachers to give ovei 
Preaching againft any of their Popifh Errours 
when they know how offenfive it will prove tc 
the Auditors : And fo the Proteflants alfo will be 
wronged ? 

VI. It will overthrow all ferious true Church 
Difciplinerwhen ourChurch Communion is croud- 
cd with men that hold the fame Principles which 
Proteflants take to be Heretical, fnd Treasonable 
againft Chrift^and pra&ife what they call Idolatry,; 
and are indeed of another Church , and under aj 
Foreign Jurifii&ion. How can our Church Go-i 
vernours cenfure, and caft out any others that b^ 
not greater Sinners than thefe men whom they] 
would draw in ? And what a Church will that bd 
that taketh in all Sinners not wcrfe than thefe ? 

VII. How will it look in the Eyes of God, and] 
all juft Men, that our Church fhould ipfofatto Ex-j 
communicate all thole Proteflants , how Learned, j 
Pious and Peaceable foever, that do but fay that 
any thing in the Church Government , Liturgy, 
and Ceremonies is gnlawful,according' to the Can. 
,5,6,7,8. and filence Proteflants for fcrupling Sub- 
fcription or a Ceremony, at the fame time offer 
Communion to all the Papiiis that will accept 
it and come in? 

VIII. It will unavoidably caufe a far greater 
Schifm in the Church of England than hath yet 
been made : For it will drive out the beft, if not 
the greateft part from its Communion ; c * n they 


L 477J 

hink that fuch men will Communicate with the 
spirts, meerly becaufe they come into our Chur- 
hes, who have charged them with Antichriftia- 
lity, and fuch a Mafs of Herefies and Errours as 
ave done Bifhop Downame, Archbifhop VJlxr, Bi- 
hop Morton, Bifhop Hall, Bifhop Jewell , Bifhop 
arlton. Dr. Whitakgr^ Dr. Wilkt, and a multitude 
:)f fuch ? Will they joyn with them that have 
:harged them with Idolatry , as Dr. Reignolds, 
Dr. Stillingjleet, &c. have done? What though 
hey commit not Idolatry in our Churches , will 
that expiate the guilt of all the reft ? 

IX. Will this do more to Convert the Papifts, 
or to Confirm them when they hold us to be no 
Church, they will not take themfelves to be Con- 
ftitutive Parts of the Church they come in. To 

: tell; them that all their Errours and Sins are no 
greater than are confident with our Communion, 
and when we (hall tell them that their Roman 
Church is a true Church, and we come fo much 
over or nearer to them, fure they will rather look 
we fhquld come one ftep further , than that they 
fhould come to us. 

X. If we think it hard to keep out Popery 
now, how much harder will it be when they are 
one Body with us, and have the mod familiar 
Converfation with us , and ftand on equal terms. 
When masked and Church- Papifts have ferved 
them moft eifeftually. 

For my part I fear no mans Cenfure, for my 
open profeffion, that I hate all Cruelty to Papifts 
or by Papifts 5 and that_ I would have nothing 
done to their hurt, unlefs our own neceflary de- 
fence againft their hurting us, will hurt them. And 
I am fo far from defiring that they may be forced 



£ 473 3 

to our Communion , either by the Writ de Exl 
commumcato Capiendo , or any other way , that | 
would noc give them the Sacrament if they vo- 
luntarily came to it, without profefllon of a 
change of their Understandings, Hearts,and Lives. 
. « the two Parts of the Defign Conjunct ( i .<ub- 
jeUing the Church and Kingdom to a Foreign Ju- 
nidiftion, 2. And opening our own Church Doors 
wide enough for the Papifls, to come in, and be 
unbodied in our Communion) be the way to v." ure 
or keep out Popery, Iconfefsl am miftakenitf 

Chap. V/II. Why the Papifls abating their In- 
novations of the 14 Four hundre/fears , or 
keeping them to themfehes , will not make a 
Coalition lawful, as Archlifhop Bromhall 


it A S to their keeping them to themfehes and 
mi m m ' l"^°f'% the >» °» «*, it leaveth them 
ftil as guilty of Rebellious , Heretical and Schif- 
maticaipaarineas before: and as Antichriftian 
SW'ft™ 61 Soveraignty, orLegifla- 
tive and Judicial Power i And therefore uncapable 

t^Unfn™ '» r° re than - an ^Penitent Mur- 
derer is of Church Communion. 

§ 2. And there are not a few nor fmall Matters 

Protedants w.ll never Unite with And though 
Hrft 8?ve us fo much quarter as to fay, 
that It u the Authority that n,»jt nleff.rtly be owned 
«nd not the Canons if thac Authority will change 


C 479 ] 

| em, I. It is the ufurped Authority that we moft 
fibwn. 2. And we have no affurance what Ca- 
ms that Authority will change ; And Mr. Thorn- 
ke% Mr. DodwelL\ and fuch Mens great rule of 

nity is, that none of us muft queftion whether 
iy of the Canons of that Authority are contrary 

God's Word, nor appeal to God and Scripture 
4 ;ainft them. (Multitudes of Papifts themfelves 
Enounce fuch DocirineJ 

"§ 3. I. And firft, All this is built on the Sand : 
Jiave largely proved long ago in feveral Books, 
at it is impoffible for them to certifie us who 
we this Authority ?. Who it is that we muft hear 

the Catbolick Church , and take Universal 
iws from, when there is no General Council ? 
r what Councils we may be fure are General or 
hat not ? (Befides none were General .but of 
ne Empire.) When they condemn each other : 
id when each call the other Heretical or Schifma- 
cal ? and when as Great a Number were at one 

at the other 5 and the fame Authority chofe and 
tiled both forts ? How (hall we know which We 
mft obey ? Is it by Scripture, Reafon or Autho- 
ty of Councils themfelves, that we muft Judge ? 
hey cannot tell us. 

§ 4- II. (The Caufe which I am pleading a- 
ainft is expreft by their Champion the Lord Pri- 
vate of /r£/W,Archbilliop Bromhall, in the words 
)recited, viz., C" To wave their lafi Four hundred 
j years Determinations is implicit ely to renounce all the 
\ neceffary Caufes of this great Schifm : And to refi 
\fatisfied with their Old Patriarchal Power and Dig" 
! nity, and Primacy of Order (which is another part 

of my Proportion) is to quit tke Modern Papacy , 
i both Name and Thing^\ 

[ 48o] 

By this we fee what the Proteftant Charch of 
England muft be ? or elfe be Schifmaticks in the! 
Judgment of thefe Learned Men. 

I will here tell you why this will never Unite 
us, and why the old Church of Englifti Prote- 
ftants could not clofe with Rome on thefe mens 

§5. I. Salmafim de Ecclejiis Suburhic arils circa 
fnem granteth them that by their Imperial Confti- 
tutions the Biftiop of Rome was not a meer Pa- 
triarch, but more than a Patriarch, zCaputEcA 
clefia : This was not Chrift's Inftitution , but the* 
Emperoursand their Clergies in one Empire. But; 
call it Patriarchal or what you will , it containec 
fuch Power as (Chrift having not given and Dead j 
men of another Kingdom being none of our Ru-vi 
lers) we are not obliged to obey 5 nor indeed law-i 
fully can do. 

1. A Patriarch and Primate hath fome degree 1 
of Governing Power , or elfe wherein doth hisi 
Primacy confift ? He calleth Councils , Prece- 
deth,^r. And if he cannot command Archbifhops,* 
how can they command Bifhops? And if they are? 
not Commanders of Biihops, why do our Englifhl 
Bifhops in their Confecration Profefs, Vromife and\ 
Swear all due Obedience to the Archbijhops I And] 
i. We cannot yield to bring England under thd 
guilt and brand of Perjury, by fubmitting to the] 
Foreign Jurifdiction of a Roman Primate or Pa-j 
triarch,contrary to the Oath of Supremacy. 2.We] 
know already how many falfe Doctrines and Pra-j 
dices the Roman Church and Patriarch have] 
efpoufed : And we can no more receive all thefe] 
JJrrours from a Patriarch than from a Pope. 

§ 6. II. But we will freely confefs to you that] 

r 4 si ] 

ii neither are nor can be fuch a fore of Prote : 
as the Regnant Church of France is, which' 
> fecutech the Proteftants, nor asthefeMencal- 
t the Church of England in fuch Propofals would 
i * us be. 

\ will give you a Catalogue of fome Determi- 
i ions of above Four hundred Years old , whicjh? 

Church of England before BifllOP Laud could 


i 7. I. Mr. Thorndikf alfo confenteth to reft in 
5 Canons fent by Pope Adrian to Carol. M.abouc 
.773. And C. 23. ex Clem, is ^ That Arch- 
•ijhopy Presbyter or Deacon taken in Fornication^ 
{erjury or Theft , &e depofed , to #o£ Excommu- 
^cate7\ , 

j I. Can. 28. is [7W ^ Bijhop who obtaineth & 
trch by Secular Power be depofed.'] And yet we 

called Schifmaticks for not obeying ( alas, I 
$ not name the things) the Bifhops that- have 
py Score or Hundred Churches by Secular 
ver. And muft we Unite in this ? 
II. Can. II. is [Condemned Clerks {hall never be 
ored, if they go to the Emperour.~] And tliuft we 
nfederate againft fuch Bifhops in England ? 
V. C. Laodic. there recited } 3. is that \_Nom 
\y with Htreticks or Schifmaticks} : When we 
pwing how the Roman Party'are counted (afc 
r'beftj Schifmaticks by GreekapSyriarisand Pro- 
jants, and all thefe counted Schifmaticks. by 
pi it will be but Sthiim, to feparate from al- 
jft all Chrift's Church on Earth as Schifma- 

So , . . . • 

Ex Can. Sard. 2. [That a Bifiop that by Am* 
on, changcth his Seat, pall not have fo much as 
y Coi^mun?cn 5 no riot at the end, . 

r i yi.& 


f 4 8z] 

VI. Ex c. Afrk. c. 15. That there be no Re 
ordaining or Tranflation of Bifliops. 

VII. No man mud receive the witnefs of a Lay 
man againfl: a Clergy- man- 

VIII. The Second General Council at Nice fat| 
teth up the Adoration of Images, curfing all froi 
Chrifi with Anathema that are ag^inft ic,or doi 
of it. 

IX. Even the contrary Council at Conftaminop\ 
of 338 Bifhops anathematizeth all that donci 
with 'a fincere Faith crave the Interceffion of th 
Virgin Mary as the Parent of God and Superio 
to every Creature vifible and invifible. And 1 
that confefs not that all who from the beginnim 
to this day, before the Law and under the Law 
and in the Grace given of God, being Saints, ar 
venerable in the Prefence of God in Soul al 
BODY, and feek not their Interceptions. 

Yet they conclude with the Cone Nice 2. Tlij 
Chriff' *s Body Glorified is not proper Flefh, Def . 7. jd 

X. The faid Second Council at Nice faith [£ty 
ry Election of a Bifljop, Prieft or Deacon which is m$ 
by Magi fir ate sjha/l remain voidjoy the Canon whicj; 
faith Uf any Bifijop ufe the Secular Magi fir ate to o< 
tain by them a Church, let him be depofedandfepari 
ted, and all that C ommnnic ate with him7\ 

Thus our Englifh Bifhops and Parifh Minifld 
are depofed , agd all their Communicants to if 
Excommunicated. ^ 

XI. Ibid. Can. 4. Thofe that for Gain or A$ 
dion of their own (hut out any Minifters, or f 
the Ternples, forbidding the Divine Miniflry, 
fliarply condemned ( which would fall on Silc 
cing Bifhops). 

XII. Can. 15. Forbiddeth one man to have ti 


C 4»J 3 

Churches, which would break cur Clergy , spe- 
cially the Biiliops that have" Hundreds. 

XIII. Can. 7. Forbiddeth any Temple to he 
-onfecrated without Relids, and ordered] Tem- 
ples that have no Relids to be put down. 

XIV. A Council of Bifliops in France depofe 
:he beft of Kings, Ludov. Pins. 

XVi Another Council at Jquifgrane depofeth 


XVI. Theodoras Council at Conftantinople is a- 
;ain for Images. 

5 XVII. They fo far deceived Kings, that Carohu 
laivns in a Council at Tullum faith, That no man 
nay depofe him without the hearing and judgment 
$f the I$ifl]Ops,who are called the Throne of God, 
»y whom God decreet!] Judgment, and to wKoiii 
;e fubje&eth himfelf. 

k XVIIL An. 868. In a Council at Rome under 
Uadrian 2d. to detect the Thieves in Monaite- 
les they are to be made receiveChriff s Body and 
Ilood.. . . . 

< XIX. An. 869. The Constantinople Council cal- 
led by the Papiits the 4th, and the 8th General 
ne, C. 3. Curfeth thofe that think Images are 
ot to be Worfliipped with the fame honour 
sthe Gofpel, as teaching by colours what the 
icripture doth by words J faying, [They (hall not 
?e ChrifFs face at his fecond coining that adore 
ot his Image. 
Yet C. 8. They depofe Bifhops that made med 
wear to be true to them. (And fo our Bifhops 
huft be depofed for the Oath, of Obedience :6 

1 XX. The C. 11. is that [All Biiliops bearing 

ft Earth the Perfoo and Form of the Celeftiaf 

I i 2 H*& 

[ 48 4 3 

Hierarchy (hall with all Veneration be worshipped j 
by all Princes and Subjeds ; And fhall not go far j 
from Church to meet any Commanders or Nobles* j 
Nor fhall light from their Horfes like Supplicants ' 
or Abjeds that feared them; nor fall down and | 
Petition them: Elfe the Bifhop fhall be feparated! 
a Yean from the Sacrament, and the Princes,! 
Dukes or Captains two YeafsG Is this like the' 
Law of Chrift ? Are all Princes under it ? 

XXI. C 12. Princes as -Prophane may not be- 
Spectators of that, which Holy Perfons do: and; 
therefore Councils are held without them. 

(Who would think that our Bifhopsor Priefl^ 
could fubfcribe to thefe, and to the 39 Articles^ 
and theOath of Supremacy- alio ?) 

XX1L Can. 14. faith, [ That a Lay-man (fill 
have no Power to Difpute by any reafon ofEc* 

clefiaftical Sanations, For though a Lay-maq. 

excel in the praife of Piety and Wifdom, yet he 
is a Lay-man and a Sheep,and not a Paftor : But| 
Bifhop, though it be Manifeft that he is deflitutl 
a Paftor as long as he exercifeth the office of a! 
Bifhop: and the Sheep muft not refift the Shepj 
herd J Princes and Parliaments muft note this. J 

XXIII. An.%76. A Concilium Tit in. maketl 
Charles Emperor againft Lttdovkm, the Popes exl 
prefly claiming the Power of electing, approving 
and making Emperours as his right. And Stephm 
5 alias 6- with Bifhops and Lords depofe the Eni 
perour (Carolm trajfm) after, as too dull. An| 
the Pope telleth the Emperour Bafd , that th 
Sacerdotal Dignity is not fubjed to Kings , an 
that Kings are authorized to meddle only wit 
worldly Matters, and Popes and Priefts with Sp: 


US) 3 . . ' 

ritual •, Therefore their Place is more excellent 

:han Emperours. as Heaven is above Earth. And 

:he Dilcibte is not above his Lord. 

m XXIV". #». 888. A Council at Men& faith, 

[That a King ruling impioufly and unjuftly, is a 

tyrant and not a King.J ^e] 

^ XXV. ibid. Whereas Clergyni i were accu- 

ed forgetting their own Sifters vnth Child, it 

vas decreed, that no Presbyter accufe a Bifhop, 

or any Deacon a Presbyter • And that no Prelate 

•e Condemned but under Seventy two Witneffes, 

nd that the chief Prelate be Judged of no Man ; 

\nd a Cardinal Presbyter under Forty two Wit- 

fcffes, and a Cardinal Deacon under Twenty fix, 

id Sub-deacons, Acoluthes, Exorcifts, Readers;, 

)oor-keepers ,. not under Seven Witneffes, and 

il thefe without Infamy having Wives and Chil- 

ren- (Ofecure Wickednefs!) 

i.XXVI. Ibid. The Puniihment of one Murder- 

Jg even a Prieft is , To forbear Flefh and Wine, 

y not to be carried in a Coach, and not to come 

* Church in Five years, nor to the Sacrament 

i Twelve. 

\ XXVII. M.%95- In Concil. Tribur. IftheBi- 

jop command the people to meet in one place, 

"id the Magiftrate in another , they muft obey 

e Biihop, and not the Magiftrate : He and all 

s Company (hall obey the Biihop. 

|C. 10. No Bifhop {hall be depofed but by 

jjwelve Bifhops , nor no Presbyter but by Six 


XXVIII. An. 912. A Council at Confluence de- 
lee that none Marry within the Seventh degree. 

XXIX. An. IC49. Leo 9th and his Council of 
{fhops iit at Rhtmes 5 though the K;ng forbad 

1 i 3 them. 

C 4*6 1 

them. But they, decree that no man be promo? 
ted to Church Government without the election 
of the Clerks and the People. 

XXX. -^.1050. T\yo Councils condemn fle- 
rwgarm apd Jo. Scotus's Doctrine of the Sacra? 
inent. AsF r ^hers after did it Row* and forced 
him to raal\ and profefs Tranfubttantiation ia 
fenfe. * 

XXXL The Pope and Bifliops -^.jqf'y. Inter 
did the vvhole^ Kingdom of Caftile^ unlefs King 
Ferdinand fubmit to theEmperour Henry, where! 
they require him. 

The choke of Popes by Cardinals introduced. 

No man is to hear Mafs of a Priefi: that he 
knoweth to have a Concubine (a Wife). 

Pope Alexander declareth King Harold a Ufur-i 
per, and fet up William the Conquerour as ia 

He brings in the Payment of Peter Fence to the 

XXXII. Grer>, 7. Claimeth Presentations and 
Inveftitures i Excommunicateth and depofeth the 
Emperourina Roman Council, and Exco'mmiJ 
nicateth all Bifliops that were for him : Abfolveihi 
his Subjeds from their Oaths of Allegiance: Say 
ing, Q/t is ?neet that he be deprived of Dignity^ wi d 
endeavour eth to dimnijh the Majesly of the Chufch\\ 

tommandeth that no King dare to refift his Le 
gates: Calls the King of Frame a ravening Wolf i 
Declares in Council their Power to put down! 
Kings : Challengeth Spain as St. Peters Patrimony*-! 
Threatens the mine of the Prince of Calaru if hej 
make not his Biihops fliave their Beards : Ghal-jj 
lengeth Vefer Fence of France. 
1 1 would {ranftribe out of Binnim die Pope's i~f\ 
" • Didtatesi 

U*7 } 

Viftates or Determinations containing all the Pa- 
al Usurpations or moft , but that it is tedious, 
idycumay cfoerefee them, or in my Summary 
f the Bilhops Councils, pag. 356 tranflated. 

XXXIII. An. 1074. .In a Council at Rome , 
Hefts are not only forbidden Marriage, but com- 
landed toput away their Wives. 

XXXIV. An. 1078. A Roman Council pro- 
Dunceth all Ordinations null , not made by the 
rmrnon Confent of Clergy and People]. (And 
mft we agree to nullifie almoft all the C^hurch of 


XXXV. An. 1079. A Council forced Bmn- 
trirn to Recant. 

And An. 1080. another Excommunicateth and 
epofeth the Emperour. 

XXXVI. An. 1085. A Council at Qu\ntticn* 
trg maketh the Emperour's Claim of Inveftitures, 
id not obeying the Pope to be Herefie, and calls 

: by the Name of the Hemcian Herefie $ that is" 
vyalty, or not being againft Kings at the Pope's 
ommand. And this Herefie is after oft Con- 

XXXVII. naors Council, An. 1687. declareth 
nat Simoniacks are Hereticks and Infidels, (and 
IlLay Patrons are Simoniacks with them that 
laim Prefentations and Invefiitures ) and not to 
€ communicated with 5 and that it's better 
(Ommunicate with God only in fecret than with 

\ XXXVIII. An. 1090. A Council at MelJU de- 
cree that no Lay- man hath Right or Authority 
)ver a Clergy-man, or may invert any. 

XXXIX. An. 1094. A Council at Conftance 
lecree againft Married Priefts. 

li 4 XL 

XL. An. 1095. A Council at- Clermont com-, 
mand that no Bimop f make any Promifej 

of Allegiance to a King or any Lay-man : And] 
that every Lay labourer abate or pay the Tenth j 
of his Wages to the Clergy. 

XLL About 1 100. a Council decreed that all; 
Bifliops of the Henrician Herefie ( for Loyalty)! 
bedepofed; and if dead, dig'd qp and burnt. 

X;,U. An. 1 108. 'A Council at Benevem de- 
cree, that if any take a Benefice from a Lay-man's 
Prefentation , the Giver and Taker fliall be Ex- 

XLIII. An. 1 180. A General Council fas 
they call it) at Later ane under Alexander the 3d,, 
called the Eleventh General Council , condemning 
thofe whom they call Catharoi, Puritans , abfolve. 
Inferiours from all Duty and Fidelity to them 5 
and promife Indulgence to thofe that fight againft 

XLIV. An. 1215. was the great Fourth L*i/\ 
<rane General Council , under Pope Innocent 3d. 
which obligeth Princes to exterminate all that are 
againft Tranfubftantiation, &c* and elfe depofeth, 
exxorrimunicateth and damneth them. 
? : Thus you fee what muft be the Proteftant Re- 
ligion, when our prefent Church of England is 
United with the Roman. ' 
' Obj. Some of thefe were but Provincial Coun- 

Anf. And are you not in England for obeying 
Provincial Councils ? Tie then omit tranferibing 



•hap. IX. Whether the Ihflcmcc of the Apoftles 
Church Government prove an Vniverfal So* 
zeraignty in the Bijhips, further confide red. 

i/TpH E pretence of all the Blfhops in the 

A World to the Government of all the 

hurch on Earth, as on? Ariftocratical Senate, 

bllege or Court, is fo monftrous a fi&ion, than 

r ere it not for that fhadow of an Argument 

/l;ich they fetch from the inrtance of the Apoftles 

ad their pretended Succeffton, I fhould think it 

I /ould expoie the pretenders to be taken for 

uftradedmen: And therefore whether this in- 

i :ance will prove them in their wLs, let us fur- 

her try. 

§ 2. The Apoftles Commiffion is contained in 

matth. 28. 18, I<?>20. All power U given to me in 
(leaven and in Earth : Go ye therefore and teach all 
\flatilns, baptizing them in the Name of the Fat her y 
\>.nd of the Son, and of the Holy Ghofi : Teaching 
hem to obferve all things whatfoever J have command- 
dyoH\ and loe I am with yon alwaies even unto the 
■nd of the World. 

j Here, 1. Chrift's proper Univerfal Power is 
joth the caufe of their Commiflibn, and the mat- 
ter which they muft Preach. 2. Their appointed 
.vork is, 1. To make Nations Chrift's Difciples, 
r. By Teaching: 2. By Baptizing them. 2. To 
reach them when they are Difciples. That which 
h^y muft teach them when they are Difciples is, 
ro-obferve all Chrift's Commands. Thefe Laws 
)i Commands are but what Chrifc himfeif com- 


C 4°)° I 

manded thefe Difciples. To the performance 
this Commiflton he promifed them to give theirj 
the Holy Spirit to bring all things to their re-i 
membrance, and to lead chem into all Truth, an 
to be with them even to the end. The Spiridf 
thus eminently given for this fpecial work, wasj 
Chriffs promifed Subftitute, or as TmuilUn call?! 
him \x&V'acarim and Agent ^ fo that what the Spi- 
rit fo commanded Chrift commanded : Ghriifs L 
CommifTion to them contained much proper to 
themfelves viz. By this extraordinary help of the 
Spirit to Remember what Chrift had commanded 
them, and what they hadfeenhim do, and to de- 
liver it with fpecial Power, andfeSlit with fpe- 
cial Gifts and Miracles, and to Record it Suffi- 
ciently and Infallibly as his Hiftory, Do&rineand 
Law, for the ufe of the whole World unto the 
end. And fo he was with them to the end of their 
Age, and is with their recorded Word to the end 
of the World. And his Commiflion contained 
much common to others, that is, To Preach the 
fame Chrift, and gather Difciples , and Baptize 
them, and to teach the Difciples all thoff Com-1 
mands which Chrift had delivered to his Apoftles 
by his Mouth or Spirit 5 And with thefe alfo Sin 
this Work Chrift will be to the end of the 

§ 3. Here we muft firft confider what was 
the Apoftles Power and Work.. 2. And then 
whether all Bifhops have the fame. 3. And what 
the extent of their Work was, -when they are fent 
to all Nations, or all the World. 

§ 4. 1. It is plain that \_All Powe^ is not theirs 
but Chrifts : They are but his Minifters. 
*-• 2. They are not Authorized to be Legislators ij 

them- j 

C 49 1 J 

emfelves, foas to make any Univerfal Law as 
eir own ; But only to be Teachers of the Laws 
Chrift, even fuch only as they received from 

Accordingly they never made any Univerfal 
iw as their own ? But only told the World what 
drift Commanded by his Word and Spirit. 
3. They were not made an Ariftocratical Col- 
*e to do this by the authority of a Major Vote : 
>r as the fame Spirit of Truth was given to eve- 
one of them fingly, fofingly they were herein 
Infallible as altogether. 

4- Accordingly they Preached abroad the 
/or Id the fameGofpel by the fame Infallible Spi- 
t. JW did not fo much as fpeak or confuk 
°ith any Apoftles before he Preached, as receiv- 
g hisGofpel not from Man but from God, Gal. 
and 2. 

5. The Univerfal Laws Promulgate by them, 
-e the matter of the feveral Books of the New 
'eftament: And there is not one of all thefe, 
rritteto in the Name of the College-cr Senate of 
he Apoftles, but every one of them by that fingle 
jerfon whole name they bear, or imply. If Chriits 
J aw had been to have been made or delivered by 
; he authority of a College as fuch, fome one of the 
iofpels or Epi fries would have been fo written. 
I 6. Yet while they abode together at Jerufalem 
fo doubt they lived in Concord, and held the 
Jnity ofthe Spirit in the Bond of Peace, and be- 
ieved and (pake the fame things -, And fo they 
jjlid when they were difperfed abroad the World. 
Hnd no doubt but their confenc was more ufeful 
;o convince others that they fpake Truth, than 
themfelves who otherwise knew it. 

7. In 

C 4^ 2 3 

7. In cafes not revealed by the Spirit, they ha] 
the fame ufe for confuting and reafoning the ca| I 
and learning of others, as all other men: In th| 
cafe reafoning was to help them to know : Buclj 
cafe of Infpiration Reafoning did but exprefs anj 
exercife their Knowledg. 

8. As that dtl. 15. was no more a General 
Council, than the other Sacred Converfe of tht' 
Apoftles till they difperfed themfelves, foin theit 
determinaton they lay it upon the Holy Ghofr 
And Paulmd Barnabas had before by the fame 
Spirit accordingly determined : But becaufe tha 
were not of the men that had received their know- 
ledge from Chrifts own works and mouth in conJ 
verfe with him on Earth, no wonder if the JevvJ 
ifh Chriftiansdehred fuller fatisfa&ion. 

§ 5. II. From hence it is apparent, 1. Thafl 
ordinary Paftors or Biihops who have not the final 
Commijfwn jnor the fame Infpiration or promife ofirj 
nor the fame gift of Tongues and Miracles to con-*: 
firm their Do<ftrine,have none of the extraordina| 
ry Apoftolical work to do.The Command whteil 
Chriftgave his Apoftles to teach the World, are 
already told us and recorded by the Apoftles} 
They left not part of that work undone for others 
after them to do. If they had, how could the 
Bifhops have known but from the Apoftles them- 
felves what Chrift Commanded ? And what means 
have they to know it but what all other men have? 
The Scripture now (added to the Law of Nature) 
contained! all that can pretend to be an Univerfal 
Laws For no Law but of k Univerfal Lawgiver, 
can be Univerfal. And if all Biihops pretend to 
Apoftolick Inipiration, they rnuft prove it by Mi- 
racles or pais for Fanaticks : And methinks thofel 

among I 

C 493 3 
jong us, who deride even the pretence of Pray : 
i by the Spirit, when it meaneth no Enthufiafm, 
t the illuminating, quickning and fandifying 
lux of the Spirit, ihould hardly believe that all 
mofc of the ignorant and erroneous Bifhops of 
e World have Apofcolick Infpiration. If they 
ve, are not their Decrees and Writings God's 
ford, and equal to the Scriptures ? 
God's Law is not fo imperfeft a thing, nor 
hrift fo imperfect a Law- giver, as that more 
<d more muft be added to it, and no man can tell 
1 whom, nor when it will be perfeft. Nothing 
ineceffiry is fit for an Univef fal Law $ And all 
at is Univerfally neceftary Chrift hath done al- 
?ady. An Univerfal Law-giver is a Chrift : If 
falfe pretender, he is a falfe Chrift. 
. But all Paftors are Succeflbrs to the Apoftles as 
Ordinary Minifters, in that ordinary part of their 
'ork 5 viz. To Preach Chrift, and make and bap- 
ize Difciples, and teach them to obferve all that 
thrift commanded the Apoftles, as Official Guides 
f their feveral Flocks : And to do this in order, 
Recently, and to edification : And being the 
Church-Guides, it is their Office to judge oftheir 
wn ads, that is, when, where, in what words to 
^reach and Pray, and whom to Baptize, and to 
yhom to deliver the Sacraments of Commu- 
lion, &c 

§ 6. III. But the next doubt is of the extent of 
he Apoftles Office, and next of the Bifhops and 
>rdinary Paftors. 

And, i. It is evident that what the Apoftles 
lid in delivering Chrift's Commands in writing 
in the Scriptures) though at firft and moft imme- 
diately it was for the ufe of particular Perfons 


L 494 J I 

and Churches, yet was intended for all the ChilPte 
ftian World, as being the Word of the Univerflfc 
Bifhop and King. r 

2. But their Perfonal Vocal Preaching w|0; 
"cc;;^ined by natural neceflity. Their Mandate mp 
t-ornmiflion was but indefinite, or limitedly unl 
ferial. Chrift never bound them to go to eveiMtaL 
Nation or Perfon in the World 3 elfehow greati^ 
had they finned ? They went not into the fourt|f ' 
part of the Earth : And in thofe parts, not to onli 
perfon of many hundred or thousands: Yet theilft 
Commiffion had no pofitive prohibition reftrairlnc 
ing them from any one place or perfon : ButN;| f) 
tural Incapacity reftrained them. They were t 
go as far as they could, and fpeak to as many ii 
the World as they could. And this Mandate wi 
given to. each one; nor do we read that eve 
they went abroad all twelve together, nor eve 
met when difperfed to confult 5 nor ever judgec 
any caufe or perfons as a College, after. 

It was eafie for them* to meet when they dweli 
together 5 and eafie to govern all Chriftians wheq 
they were all before them or at hand : And eafifi 
to record Chrift 5 Laws and Dodrine by which all 
muft be governed to the end, being thereunto in< 
fpired by his Spirit. But as the Church grew greai 
ter> they increafed the number of Paftors , butj 
gave them no Univerfal Soveraignty. 

§ 7. And now what pretence can ordinary MU 
niftersor Bifhops have for Univerfality of Sove«j 
raignty, Legiflation and Judgment in an AriftoJ 
cratical Senate or Council? If they were Apoftles 
they muft but teach men to obferve all Chrift' s! 
Commands. They may do their proper work aa 
far as they have capacity and ability ; If they can 


C 497 ] 

'reach at the Antipodes we (hall pray for their 
uccefs : But fure they will not do it as a Senate ; 
tr Churcb Parliament : Tcf leave them no excufe 
thrift hath left no Univerfal Legiflation or Judg- 
ment to do. 
The continuance of the Queflion fb oft anfwer- 

)d [_Hoxv Jljall C ontr over fie s be ended ? And who (hall 
.fudge ? When they never attempt to confute our 
infwer, flieweth that they are fo full of them- 
! elves, that they have not room for the plalneft 
Truth that comes from others. Judgment of Con- 
:roverfies is Private or Public^ that is, either 
Private Mens Bifcerning "Judgment^ or Governors 
deciding J ud^r.em : The Private is either that of 
sachfingle perfon for himfelf, and this is every 
mans as he is a Rational, Moral Agent, who can- 
not do his Duty undifcerned, or it is for the gui- 
dance of Charity t<j others : Ajjd that is either 
the Judgment of an- Arbitrator, or of a private 
Inftru&er or Reprover : Hitherto there is no diffi- 
culty who (hall Judge. 

Publick Judgment fuppofeth a forum, Tribunal, 
sand a Ruling Judge : And every one is Judge in 
propno foro, in his own Court : The Magnates in 
fcheir feveraL Degrees are Judges in their feveral 
Courts, who (hall fuffer or be Protected by them. 
And the Paftors in their feveral Churches, who 
fhallbe Baptized, and ufed as of their Communi- 
on ; and who not. Eut there is no Vniverjtl fo- 
rum or Court to judge all the World, but Chrifls : 
None out of this Kingdom, are publick Judges 
of King or Subjeds. Other Princes and Prelates 
jj all over the World, have a judicium privatum whe- 
ther they will take our King and Kingdom for 
j Chriiliansj and Communicate with them, cr not 5 


t 49*1 
2nd iuch a judgment have we towards any ' othei 
Nation : But a Ruling Publick Judgment nond 
hath out of the Kingdom Civil or Ecdefiaftick, 
AH Controverfies lhall be ended by Chrift at lafl 
It's Madnefs to think of ending all till then $ foji 
that there is no Judgment but Chrift's, that is. 
Vniverjd and Final for the ending of Controvert 
fies or deciding any Caufe by Government. 

And were there nothing but a double incapa 
city. i. NATURAL, and 2. POLITICAL or] 
Accidental by thereftraint of the Princes of the 
Earth, I have oft (hewed here, that a Dream oi 
anllniverfal Sovereign Council or Senate, yea of! 
Pope, is utterly irrational, 

§ 8. But if the Apoftolick Succeflfion prove 
not fuch a Soveraignty, will not the Antient Ge4 
neral Councils do it ? No I have oft enough prov^i 
ed that General Qouncils were but General in the 
Empire : While they kept fober and humble they 
never claimed more ; Nor was there any on Earth 
that had power to call them out of all the WorId:j 
And when they claimed more, they broke the 
Church, and by Ufurpation brought on Defolatir 
on. There is neither Scripture, nor reafon, no? 
obliging example, for extending the Ecelefiafticfl 
juri(di6tion beyond the Civil, but much of all 
thefeagainft it. 

§ p. And what man can think that 2 claim isjj 

the proof of a title in thole Councils which beganj 

'to tranfgrefs the. bounds of Civil jurifdi&ion ? 

The many Councils which have been for Arians, 

JEutychianssNtftorians^ Mor.othelites, Adoration of 

Images,- Papal tyranny , &c* and the many that 
have contradicted and- condemned them, tell us 
that the Right of Councils' muff have % bettei 


1 497 3 

f oof than their own affirmation: And the far 
eater number of Chriftians that have approved 
received the Erroneous, tell us that they need 
setter proof than the reception of the greater 
rt. How great a part received Greg. 7th. 
ifates, and the Councils that Hereticated Roy- 
fls as Henricians ? But that proved not thac 
sfe things were juft. Pope Vrbans Letter to 
.ng Lewis 13th of France 1629. (in the 2d. fcarc 
the Cab. p. 213. J faith [ u Tour Anceflors 
ve ever bom as much refpetl to the exhortations of 
pe/j as to the Commandment of God."] But dd 
;?fe words prove that, this is true? No morei 
th it that Leo the firft was Caput. Ecclcfa Vni-. 
t-falis becaufe he fo called himfelf. The Grand 
^niocr (in his Defiance of Maximilian the Em- 
ror ibid. p. 12.) calls himfelf [God in Earthy 
mat and High Emperor of all the World, the Great 
hlper of God % King of Kings, the only Villoriotd 
\'d Triumphant Lord of the World* and of all Circuits 
\A Provinces thereof 1 Arid more Perfons arc 
Mahometans than Chriftrians ( and more Heathens 
[in either, or both ) and yet none of this proveth 
\uth and Right. 

§ 10. I have marvelled that Carol. Boverit^ 
[ )uld think it a fit Argument to move our late* 
I ng Charles xd. in Spain to turn Papift, that 
Monarchy is the beft Government in the State, 
I:g0, the Papal Monarchy in the Church : Did he 
t ink the King fo dull, that he could not diftin- 
\ ilh Particular Kingdoms and Moriafchs,. frojri 
fyiverfal? How. would the King have taken it,- 
i he had faid £ Sir an Vniverfal Monarchy is the 
\(l humane Government : therefore j/ou mufi fubjefh 
t/r felf and Kingdom to one Vniverfal Monarchy 

t498 f 

But the pretence of an Univerfal Democracy 
Ariftocracy, or Church-Parliament is more abfurc 
and worfe, as I have proved. 

§ ii. Do our Changers of Government thinl 
that it is a fmall matter, of which King and Peri 
pie will take no notice, but be decoyed into bi 
degrees in the dark, to make King, Lords, Bi 
{hops and all the Kingdom the Subje&s of a if 
reigner, and of a Parliament of Prelates who ar 
themfelves the Subjeds of a Multitude of jj 
reign Princes, ( Mahometans, Heathens, Greek! 
Papifts, &c .) As the Child faid [ My Mother rn 
ieth my Father, and I rule my Mother, and my Fatht 
ruleth the City: Therefore I rule the City, 2 So W 
may then fay the King ruleth England 3 and 
Council of Foreign Prelates rule the King 5 
He&hen , Mahometan , Mofcovian, Armeni 
Papift,#r. Princes rule moft of the Bi/hops 
Council t Ergo thefe Princes rule the King. 

Do they know what it is for Pope cr Prelji 
abroad to be made Judges Ecclefiaftical of all pej? t 
fons and caufes here ; and to have Power to Ej| 
communicate King, and Lords, and depofe fi 
fhops, and filence Minifters, and Hereticate Dljft 
Fenters, and Interdid the Kingdom ? &c Agaij 
and again I fay, that I wonder ifthofe men ttaj , 
have promoted fo many Oaths, and Promifes ( 1 
the Acts of Corporations, Uniformity, Veftrill 
Confinement, Conventicles, Militia, ( never to , 
dcavour any alteration of Government in Church 
State \ can poffibly blind the Nation to think 
no alteration to Subjetl King, Church and Kingdi 
to a Foreign ( pretended Llniverfal ) Ecclefiafti 
Jurifdiction ? Whether it be Perjury or Treafc 
is no debate forme 5 but I am fure that in orl 


flpiritualia great temporal power will follow, 

3 Excommunicating and Anathematizing Kings 

People, hath not hitherto been a TootbleTs 

Ig. But qnoi perdere vult Jupter hos dement at. 

12. And what if they had found Ancient 
mcils Excommunicate (ome men without the 
pire? Whatpitty is it that anywhere Lords; 

Bifhops and Clergy men fhould be bred 

n fuch Ignorance as to think that all Excom- 

licating is an act of Government ? I (aid before. 

Neighbour Prince, Nation or People, any 

iber of Bifhops, when they hear another Na- 

1 turned notorious Hereticks may renounce 

nmunion with them, and declare the reafon 

becaufe they have made themfelves unca- 

le : Governing Excommunication per judicium 

icum, id eft, per perfonam public am feu Rettorem is 

) thing i and a declared renunciation and refufal 

Communion, per judicium privatum, that is, by 

fcqual or private perfon is another thing* I am 

oound to (lay till Turk or Pope is Excommu- 

ued by their Governours, before I renounce 

iflian Communion with them. Vauh charge,* 

[or. 5. With fuch a one no not to eat, and fit. 

:0. A Man that is an Here tick after the fir ft and 

nd admonition avoid ' 7 and' Sr. John's Bid hint 

good fpeed, &c may bind equals that have but 

"mum privatum difcretionis, when no Superior 

ler Excommunicateth the Sinned 

K k » fihtft 

[ yco ] 

Chap. X. Some Slueftions about General Councils^ 
be refolved before all the World can fubjecl Kin, 
Kingdoms, Souls and Scripture to their Governmt 
or Decrees, and take them for the Unifying Ruth 
Tower over the Vniverfal Church, 

NOching can be more neceflary to all Chi 
ftians, Learned and Unlearned, than to" 
lure of the truth of that which muft be the fou 
dation of all our obedience and our hopes : m 
therefore if it be the General Councils Aduali| 
Virtual (in the chief Patriarchs and Metropolit 
or ftppofed College of Bifliops ) which is 
Unifying or Conltitutive Regent part of 
Llniverfal Church, and on whofe credit we 
take the Scripture to be God's Word, andfr 
whofe Judgment we muft not appeal to Script 

or to God 5 it's the primum neceffarium that 

fureof the Authority and Infallibility or Cr 
fuch Councils. 

And firft, we are to confider the matter of 
Determining Power- i. There are Thin 
2. Words •, 3. The fignification of words to t 
judged of. 

2. There are Truths of Natural and of Super A 
turd Revelation to be judged of. 

3. There are the Eflentials of Chriftianity, df 
Integrals and the Accidents to be judged of. J 

4. And the Judgment is, 1. # Witneflii] 
2. Teaching, 3. Or judicially Deciding. 

We mult firlt know who are the Judges.2.WI| 
is their work. 3. How certain- they are. 


Is 01 ] 

Qu. i. Did not Apoftles and other Preachers 
A gly convert men (even thoufandsJ before there 

(is any General Council? and that by fuch evi- 
nce as the fingle Preacher brought ? Or was it 
the Argument of UniverfalConfenc that eve- 
one then was converted ? e.g. the Eunuch, 
?. 8. The Jailor and Lydia, AB.16. Cornelius 
i his houfe, Aft. 10. .JThe three thoufand, 
"?. 2.37,&c. 
4^2. Did none that St. ftotf wrote his Epiftles 
believe them till they were told that all the 
achersand Bimops of the Churches gave them 
•ir Authority? Were the Gofpels written by 
atthewj Markj, Luke and John received only by 
S Argument of the Councils or Colleges Au- 
3rity ? 

^ 3. Did not Chrift that fent out his 
aciiers by two and two,and bid them (hake off 
duft of their feet as a Witnefs againft: thofe 
it did not receive them,expe<ft that they (hould 
received and believed without the Authority 
1 a Council? 
. -^4. Did Chrift or his Apoftles ever infli- 
tea General Council, or Unifying College of 
I. hops to be the (tending Arifrocratical Govern- 
l?nt of all the Univerfa! Church as one ? 
■ •££_?• Would not this have been plainly done, 
:he certainty of Script are and Salvation, and the 
lurches Unity had been founded on it f 
^_6. lfthoufands were then made Chriftians 
thout the knowledge of Councils or College, 
ay they not be fo now ? 
Q. 7. Was the Church no Church, or ungo« 
rned for the firft 300 years when there vvasno 
sneral Council ? Kk 3 £-8. 

[ 5 Q1 1 

J£, 8. And were not Chriftians all that vvhi 
fure that the Scripture was true? And were the; 
not of the fame Faith as now ? 

£U 9. Was it not Conft amine that called the firf 
General Council at Nice } and had he any Au 
ithority to call any but his Subjects > 

Q 10. Do not the Subfcriptions of the Antien* 
Councils (hew that they were General only as tc 
the Roman Empire, aild not to all the World ? 

^_ 1 1. Hqw (hall we be fure that the CouncI 
(6f cne Nation or Empire is Ruler of all the othet : 
Kingdoms of the World ? 

4^12. When Councils of equal number, and 
called by equal Authority of Empcrors,condemn- 
ed one another (in the days of Conftamius y rahM 

Valcritinura^ Gratian, Arcadim and Honor ins y TheM 
dofitis fenior and junior , Martian y Ze.no, Bafilifctm 
Leo, P hilippictXjAnaj} afim y Jujliman y &c . how were 

all men and women lure which was of Conciliaii 
Power, and which no: > As to their faulty car* 
riage each accuied other. 

4L i J. Seeing fo many then erred, and are cal- 
led Hereticks at this day,(as the Councils of Tyri 

£phef. 2. Arimin, Sirmium, Milane y Conftantinopk^ 
Alexandria^ Antioch, Jerufalem, Rome y &C.) how 
{hall we now be fure which err not? 

O^ 14. If we muft believe Scripture on thd 
credit of Councils,muft we not alfo believe whidj 
Councils are true upon the credit of Councils I 
And if fo, is it on the Authority of that [ami 
Cotincii^ ox another f If of the fame, then muft eve- 
ry Council, even the Heretical,be fo believed, oH 
which, and how'known? If of another, muft the 1 
Church fuipend it^ belief of one Council till ano-j 
Ihkt is called ro at tcit it ? And on what account 


Cf°3 3 

that other to be believed ? And what if the 

ter condemn the former, and the next condemn 
iat (;/> Figrcnce and Pi fa, Con fiance and ##/// fj 

Q 15. Jsit all the Council agreeing, or the 
jgfor Vote agaial the reft that hath the credit 
•authority afbrelsid? 

j£l i 6. How ihall we be fure that the miner 
trtarenot in the right? 

^17- How ihall all the diftant World be fure 
ie Votes were truly taken? 

JQ^ 1 8. Why was the major Vote counted in- 
ilid if the Patriarchs were againft it ? And are 
lofe Patriarchs of Diyine Authority & ir fillible ? 
i •-?. 19. What if one or two Votes turn the 
ales for a majority ? and what if afterward more 
)me in on the other fide and turn it back the 
:hcr way (as^ the ConjUnwiopoL Council did in 
Iauanz.ens cak) are both the fides infallible or 
jthoritative ? So at Eph> 1. 

Q^ 20. Who niuft call a valid Council ? Wnat 

the Pope call one, and the Patriarch otAkxan- 

na another, and the Emperor another ? which is 

(alid ? 
Q^ 21. Is the Church no Church in the long 
itervals of Councils ? 
Q± 22. If it be, where is the Vifible Conftitu- 
ive Supremacy or Power \ If in the Patriarchs 
nd Metropolitans they are divided, and account 
#ch other fometime Hereticks, and fometime 
jchifmaticks ? 

: Q^ 23. Who hath Authority to make Pa- 
riarchs now or Metropolitans for all the Chriftian 
iVorld ? 

, Q. 24. Mufl we now obey the major part of 
he old Patriarchal Seats ? 

Kk4 £^S- 

E 5©4 3 

j?. 25:- If it be in all the Bifliops of the Eartl 
1 . Who (hall go to them all over the World \\\( 
*!1 our Church cafes? 2. Who (hall judge whic 
of them are Hereticks while they hereticate eaq 
other? 3. Who (hall aflure us that their Von 
are truly gathered ? 4. Who (hall brpg the! 
from all over the Earth to the perfon to be jucl 
ed ? 5 Can they judge truly without hearing m 
accuied and their witneffes ? 6. Where at thj 
day may we find their Decrees by which the?. 
Rule, except in Councils? 

Q^iO. Muft a General Council (or this Of 
lege; ccnfift of all the Bifhopsof the World, <j| 
but of part? 

ij£ 27. If of all, is fuch a Council pcflible, il 

X>. 28. If of part, who fhall chufe them? An|| 
feeing undoubted experience tells us that mod q( 
the Clergy everywhere in fuch cafes obey trfl 
Power that hath the Sword, whether the choice 
that is made in the Turks Empire will not rl 
made by the Turk, and in other Kingdoms <j 
Heathens, Infidels, Papifts, Hereticks, by thtiri 
feveral Kings and Magiftrates? And can we bej 
fere fuch are infallible? 

0^,19. If the Empire of Abaffia have but on| 
Biihop (the Abma) (hall that Empire have bul 
one Vote in Council?, and be ruled by the reft I 
And is it not certain that thofe next the Antipodes! 
and remoteft Kingdoms, can fend but few? an^ 
muft they therefore be ruled by thofe near thjj 
place who will be many? 

i?_3o Yea, is it not wickednefsor madnefsi 
to attempt to' call aged Bilhops (or any 1 from 
Ml the Chriltian World, to diipleafe prohibiting 


C Joy ] 

Princes, to hazard their lives in travel many years, 
to forfake their Flocks fo long , and by differing 
Languages not able to underftand each other 5 nor 
like to live long enough to bring home the De- 
crees, when perhaps they muft fit fo many years 
in Council as they did at Trent (wearing out the 
lives of many Popes) (And what is the neceffity 
©fall this?) 

^3 1. If thofe few that are fent do that which 
the reft at home diffent from , is it valid ? e. g. 
King James chofe Six to go to the Synod at Dort 9 
2nd mod then confented, and moft now diffent 7 
The Parliament chofe a Synod of one Mind, and 
the King by his Clergy one of another.) And 
how fhall we know that the Churches own the 
Ac^s of their Delegates, and diffent not (as the 
Greeks did after the Council of Florence? Can all 
Men and Women reft on things no better known 
to them } 

i^j2. Seeing that it is notorious that the Bi- 
fhops of almoft all the Chriftian World, except 
\avzoi 'Europe, are very unlearned ignorant Men, 
{Armenians, Georgians, Iberians, Mengrclians, moft 
of the Grecks,Mofcoiires,znd the numerous Eaflerns 
called JSJeftvri^ins, and Jacobites, and Coptics, &c. 
;and abundance of the Papifts alfo in Europe) How 
Brail we be lure that fo many Ignorant Men (and 
;too vicious) will do the work of Wife or Infalli- 
ble Judges of the Chriftian World, if they do but 
meet together in Council '? (much lefs as fcattered 
and called a College.) Muft not this be by an un- 
deniable Miracle ? And hath God promifed to 
^Govern his Church by conftant Miracles •, yea, 
as many Miracles as there be ignorant and wicked 
Biftops, an f d that through ail Generations ? 

Qj3* Doth it not require great Knowledge of 
Hiftory to be fure what Councils there have been, 
and which were Orthodox and which Heretical, 
which valid and which invalid , and what they 
did ? and which fide had the Major Vote ? And 
is all this Hiftorical Knowledge neceffary to Sal- 
vation, in Learned and Unlearned ? 

-£^34. Yea, Is there one Priefi of many that 
hath iuch certainty of fuch Hiftory of Councils J 
when Writers fo much difagree ? 

c^i 35. Seeing Hiftorians are but like other! 
men, and all men are lyars or untrufty, and it's j 
notorious thaj Ignorance, Fa&ion, Temerity and 
Partiality, if not Malignity, hath filled the World 
with fo much falfe Hiftory , that except in Mat-| 
ters of Publick uncontradicted Evidence, no man 
well knoweth what to believe , How fhall all 
Christians lay their Salvation on fo great know- 
ledge of Hiftory as is neceflary to certainty here- 
in ? 

£^36. If the belief of Councils for the Col- 
lege of Biihops as wide as the World) be funda- 
mentally neceilary to Duty, Unity, or Salvation, 
Is it not neceffary that all know what are their 
Decrees and Laws ? And how can they know this 
when Councils and. Decrees are fo Voluminous; 
and few Priefts know them? and when the World 
is yet difagreed, what Canons or Laws are obli- 
gatory, and what not ? But they contradict and 
condemn each others Laws ? 

4^37. If a Lay-man (houldknow but one pan 
of the Councils Decrees about Faith or Obedi- 
ence, will fuch a defective half Faith and Obedi- 
ence fave him ? or muft he know all ? 

5-J& If you fay £hat all this HiftoricalKnow- 


[ 507 1 

ledge is not neceflfary to the Laity, but tbey muft 
believe herein the Priefts or Biihop that is over 
them. i. How is this then a belief of Councils? 
2. What (hall the poor People do , that one of 
many hundred of them never fee their Bifhop, 
much lefs ever fpake with him. 3. And are their 
Priefts infallible herein or not ? 

4^39. Doth not this by the deceitful noifeof 
the Catholick Church and Councils, and a Col- 
lege of Biibops, make every Parifh Prieft's word 
the very Foundation into which all mens Faith 
muft be refolved ? And he that faith [I believe 
the Scripture, becaufe the Church and Councils 
propofe it or atteft it , and I believe that the 
^Church and Council fay it, becaufe the Prieft faith 
it j Doth he not fay as much as [I believe the 
Scripture,Church and Councils upon the bare word 
of the Prieft ?] 

-£^40. Is it not bird for the People that know 
their Priefts to be lottilh, ignorant, prophane, 
drunken , malicious men , to lay all their Salva- 
tion on a fuppofed certainty that thefe "Priefts fay 
true ? 

0^4* - If the Parifliioners know alfothat their 
Priefts never read the Councils , and confefs 
that he is ignorant of them, and know him alfo to 
be a common lyar, Can they certainly believe 
.jthe Scripture and the Councils, and the Matters 
lof Faith, and duty contained in both , upon the 
word of fuch a Prieft ? 

-^42. Can they that are unlearned and never 
fee a bifhop,tell whether the Pariih Prieft and the. 
Biihop fay the fame ? Or whether their Biihop be 
of the fame Mind with the other Biihops ? and 
whether the Bifhops e.$. of Cgel*fd be of the 


C 5:08 ] 

fame Mind with the Bifliops of France, Spai*,haly t 

Germany* Denmark^* Sweden, &C and they of the 
fame Mind with the Greeks, &c. 

^,43. Is it a Divine Faith that is refolved thus 
into the meer belief of Man ; yea, of an Ignorant 
Prieft or Prelate ? or but a Humane ? 

^44. If we and all men had no other certainty 
of the Scripture but the word of fuch a Prieft, or 
the Decree of a Council^ would it be more or 
lefs certain to us than now it is? 

Mi 45. Have none of all thole Chriftians a true 
Divine Faith, who are converted by Proteftanc 
Preachers, who teach them to believe the Scrip- 
ture upon other Evidence than a Councils word ? 

-^ 46. By what Evidence doth a Council know 
the Scripture to be God's Word ? Is it only by the 
Teftrnony of a former Council? If fo , How did 
tvat former Council know it ? and fo the fir ft Coun- 
cil that had none before to teftifie it ? And what 
life is there for the affertion of the later Council 9 
when it's done already by a former ? 

^47. Why doth not one Council determine of 
all that is neceflary to Salvation, but leave it frill 
endone ? But if it be doie, muft new ones be called 
to the end of the World , to (ay the fame thing 
over again, and do that which others had done 
before them i 

4L 48. Is not the Law the Rule of Duty and 
Judgment? andfnuftall Chriftians be Judged at 
la ft by the Biihops Canon Law I And (eeing Sin 
k a Tranfgreffion of the Law, and it's harder to 
obey a Thoufand Laws than a few 3 Are not they 
the mod Mortal Enemies 10 Chriftians who make 
rhem fo many Laws, and make Salvation fo hard 
a work ? 


L 509 1 

Q 49- Seeing Chrift was above three Years 
teaching his Apoftles before he died , and after 
his Refurre&ion \_was feen of them four ty days, and 
freaking of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of 
God) and being ajfembled together with them , com- 
manded them not to depart from Jernfalem, but wait 
for the Fromife of the Father, even the Spirit to lead 
them into all truth , and bring aU things to their re- 
membrance, and their Commiflion was to teach all 
Chriftians to obferve whatever Chrift comman- 
ded {l/tft. 1.3,4. Math. 28. 19, 20. ) is it to be 
believed that yet Chrift by himfelf and his Spirit 
in thefe Apoftles did not make all the Laws that 
are Divine, and enow for the Univerfal Church 
to obfervt as neceflary to Salvation and Univer- 
fal Concord ? 

^50. Is it not enough to Salvation and Church 
Concord for all the Pallors of the Churches to 
agree, 1 • In preferving thefe Laws and Do&rines 
of Chrift ? 2. And to teach the People to know 
and obey them? 5. And to defend them againft 
Adverfaries ? and 4. To make them the rule of 
their Communion by the exercife of the Keys ? 
5. And by their own Authority to determine of 
variable Circumftances of Worfliip (fuch as the 
Place of meeting, the time , the tranflation , the 
(ubject for the day, &c.) Is there belides all this 
a neceffity of Univerfal Laws for the Salvation 
and Concord of Believers, and of a ftanding So- 
veraign Power in Priefts, Prelates or Patriarchs or 
Pope to make fach Laws ? 

JSkfi, Have we not better afforance that the 
forefaid Apoftles taught by Chrift, ahd infpired 
by the Holy Ghoft, had Authority and Infallibi- 
lity for this work, than we can have that Pope, 
patriarchs, Prelates or Priefts Have it ? Q 

Q. 52* When fome Englifh Prelates and Priefis 
tell us that he is a Schifmatick that obeyeth noc 
the Univerfal Church, and that Schifm is a damn- 
ing Sin, do they not Preach meer defperation to 
all that have not more knowledge than I have* 
who cannot poffibly find out a Governing Uni- 
verfal Church, nor its Laws, though I would wil- 
lingly find it and obey it ? 

%•?$. Do they noc Preach common defpera- 
tion who fay that Schifm is a damnable Sin, and 
he is in that guilt who fuffers himfelf to be Ex- 
communicated by Prelates for not obeying them 
in any unfmful condition of Communion ? (as H. 
Dodxvell fpeaketh.) Do not fuch C ami fees anima- 
rum make it neceffary to Salvation, to know all 
the unfmful things in the World which a Prelate 
may impofe to be unfinfd ? And is any man on 
Earth (o Skilful ? How many indifferent things 
are there which the wifeft man may doubt whether 
they be indifferent : Of old it was thought enough 
to know the few things which God made necejfa* 
fy : and now thefe Tormenting Uniters make it 
neceffary to know the multitude of things indijfp 
rent to be fuch ? 

-£^54. Muft we needs know what fenfepercet- 
veth , by the credit of a General Council or all 
the Bifhopsof the World ? As whether I fee the 
Light or Colours ? What tafte my Meat hzx\\&c? 
If nor* why may I not take Bread to be Bread, and 
Wine to be Wine , on the credit of my fenfes, 
though the Bifbops or Council fay the contrary ? 

Q-J5. Muft I have the Authority of a Council 
or College of Bifhops to believe that there is a 
God, and that he is mod Great and Wife and 
Good, moftHoly, Merciful, True and Juft? ot 

[ 5ii 3 

Co know that there is a Life to come, and the Soul 
Immortal? or that men muft not hate the Good, 
and love the Evil as fuch , nor live in Murther, 
Theft, Adultery, Perjury, &c Doth not the Law 
of Nature bind men without a Council of Prelates ? 
And can they null that Law by their pretended 

^56. Muft every man have the Sentence of a 
General Council (or College as wide as theChri- 
ftian World) to fatisfie him of the truth of Chri- 
ftianity before he is Baptized, and made a Chri- 
ftian ? 

^57. Muft we know what the Council or 

S' acious College faith , before we believe the 
reed. Lord's Prayer, and Ten Commandments ? 
or did the ancient Chriftians receive them only 
on fuch Authority ? Did not every Baptizer expeft 
a Profeflion of the Creed ? 

& 58. Was not the Bible received before there 
was a General Council ? 

O^ 59. Have not Councils differed about the 
Canonical Books of Scripture ? See Bifhop Confms 
of the Canon , Compared w r ith the Council of 


Q^ 60. Muft we have new Councils to deliver 
us again the fame Creed and Bible? 

4. 61. Is it not a reproaching of Chriftianity, to 
tell the World that after 1691 Years it is not yet. 
fully known what it is , but we muft have new 
I Councils to tell it us, and to make it up ? 

Q^6i. Did Councils only receive the old Apo- 
flles Creed, when they made fo many new ones, 
I or added fo many Articles ? 

Q6$: Was the Primitive Church of the fame 
I Species with the prefenc Romiill 4&d Imposing 




L 512 J 

Church, when he was then a Chriftian who profeft- 
belief of the Creed as the Chriftian Symbol , and 
to defire according to the Lord's Prayer, and Pra- 
dife according to Chrift's Commands ? And now 
fo many other things are made neceflary hereto. 
^ 4^64. Do not thofe men deal falfely who fub- 
fcribe the 39 Articles of the fufficiency of the 
Scripture as to all things neceflary to Salvation, 
and yet fay that it's neceflary to Salvation to obey 
the Bifhopof the place in all unfirfnl things, and 
confequently to Believe them all to be unfinfd ? 

^6j. Is it by the Divine Authority of a 
Council or Mundane College of Prelates, that we 
hn r.v which are the true Writings oflgnatiwjre- 

v&M) Clemens R. & Alex. TertullianjCyprian^Hkromj 
Auguftin^ &c ? Or do their Critical Writers fend 
us to the College or Council to know? If not, 
why may not the Canon of Scripture be known 
("yea much better J by meer Hiftorical Tradition 
and inherent Evidence ? 

J1U66. Is it not by Hiftory and not Church 
Power that we know what Popes have been a! 
Rome, what Councils have been called, and what 
they decreed ? And may not the fame way fecure 
us of the Matter of Fad about the Scripture ? 

<£L67. Hath any Council or College yet De- 
creed which are the true and current Copies of the 
Original of the Scripture ? and which of the va- 
rious Leclions are true? If they had agreed but 
of the vulgar Latin, would Sixtns 5th and Clemens 
8th, have Published Editions fo vaftly different? 
If they never did it yet, when will they do it ? 

J& 6$. Did ever Council or College determine 
which is the trueft Tranflation ? 

^ 69. Did ever Council or College give the' 
Church a CoiDmeotary on th? |5ible ? M* 


& 70; Did they ever write a Decifion of the 
mltitudesofControverfies about the meaning of-" 
>veral Texts, and the multitudes of Do&rincs 
'hich are yet controverted among Papifts theiri- 
?lves and all the World ? 

«^7*- Is it a Satisfadion,or a grofs Cheat to 
'llusofaneceffary Church Power, to Expound 
cripfure, and Judge of Controverfies , who yet 
all not do it, but leave all unexpounded and un- 
ecided ? 

<^72. Was Gregory Nazianzcn a Fool , that 
wke fo much of the. hurt that Councils do, 
rid refolved never to go to more ? 

^,73- Can I know that Pope or Council have 
luthority given them by Ghrift, before I believe 
oat Chrift isChrift,and had Authority himfelf ? 

-Q. 74. Can I know that drift's Promife to 
ope, Council or Prelate is true, before I .know 
hat the Promife of Juftification , Adoption and 
alvation are true : that is, Before lama Chri- 
^ian ? 

Q>7$. Can I believe the Promife of Pardon 
nd Salvation, or the Promife made to General 
-ouncils or Prelates, without knowing the mean- 
ng of thqfe Promifes ? > And can I believe the 
Churches Power from God , without believing 
he Promife of it ? And if I can underftand all 
hefe Promifes without a Council, why may I not 
mderftand more ? And how then do I receive all 
icripture from a Council ? 
1 4\ 76. Do thofe that Preach to convert Infidels, 

|n Congo, China^ Jap*n> Mexico, among Turks, Gfa 
breach firft the Authority of General Councils (Or 

I Mundane College ) as the Vrimum credendum, 

jpon whofe credit Chriftianity is tQ be recei-* 

JL 1 ved 1 

[5i4 3 

ved ? Hath this been the way to Convert tW 
World ? 

4>. 77. KPokI curfe an Angel from Heaven i 
he bring another Gofpel, and Paul charge Ttmth\ 
to fee that men Preach no other or new Do&rine 
muft there be Councils or a College to make eithej 
a new Gofpel, or a new Dodtrine, Or Univerfa 1 

^78. If men were faved without believing 
the Canons and Decrees of Councils before the? 
were made, even by fimple Chriftianity, is i 
not neceflary Mercy to let men be fo faved ftill? 

X£±J9* If it be not a new Gofpel) but mutabl 
Occidents which the Church Laws do determin 
of, what need there an Univerfal Power or So 
veraignty, or . an Univerfal Law for fuch, whei 
divers Churches and Countries may have diver; [j 
fuch Accidentals , and the fame Churches ma], ^ 
change them as they fee caufe ? 

iSL So. If it be not Legislation but Judicature ^ 
that we muft have an Univerfal Judge or Powej y 
for, what are the Cafes that they muft Judge ; 
Sure it is not whether John or Thom*s ihallb* 
judged capable of Bapti fin? or of the Lord's Sup 
per ? or whether he be an Adulterer, a Drunkard 
and impenitent therein , and fo to be Excommu|^ 
nicate ? Muft all the World come before all thi 
World ? Shall Millions of Sinners be unjtidgedflj 
till all the Bifhops of the World Judge them? | 
it be Perfons accufed of Herefte , Schifm or anj 
Sin that muft be judged, muft they not be hearq 
and their witnefs heard before they can be judgec, 
juftly ? But if they Judge not of Perfons but o| 
Doctrines, whether they beHerefieornot, thih( 
will make no Alteration or information, till * 






16 i 








b judged whatperfons are guijty of fuch Errors 
: He*efies- 7 And if particular Paftors on the 
p ce muft judge all fuch perfons, is not the Scrip- 
t e the Rule of Faith a fufficient Rule to judge of 
I refie by ? 

Q^Si* If it be whole Churches that are to be 
jrlged, will not a brotherly power of difowning 
t:ir Communion ferve, without a Governing 
1 wer ? Had every one a Governing Power to 
t win the Apoftles commanded with fuch not to 
■{, not bid them good fpeedl May not Princes re- 
X unce Communion with Neighbour Princes and 
1 itions without being their Governour ? 

I ^82. In conclufion doth it not remain that 
lis pretended Univerfal Soveraignty TMonar- 

II ical or Ariftocratical)is tjie device of the Prince 
I Pride, a Treafonable Ufurpation over all 
iinces, difobediencetoChrift, Luke 22. and An- 
il :hf iftian Ufurpation of his Prerogative, and a 
lie Captivating of the Souls and Reafon of Man- 
8 nd, to a pretended Power which common fenfe, 
fafonand experience, fully proveth to be a natu- 
I I impoflibility, or that which in praftice na 
Mortal Man of College is capable of. 

^hap. XL A Brtviate of the Papifis Faith and 
Church Dotlrine^ both the Monarchical and Arifto~ 
j sratical fort. 

I.X7T7E muft believe that Chfift hath a 
V V Church bfefore we believe than he 
>Chrin\ the Redeemer. 

* 24 VYe muft believe thai this Church is In- 
t LI* fallible 

[ S i6 ] 

fallible or our Governour before we can believi 
that Jefus is Chrift, and our Governour. £ 

§ 3.* We muft believe that Chrift PromiTed In] ^ 
fallibility or Governing Authority to this Churcli 
before we can believe that he is Chrift. 

§ 4. We muft believe that this Promife is true 
and (hall be fulfilled, before we believe the Go{ 
pel Promife of Pardon and Salvation, that is, be 
fore we are Chriftians, or believe the Scripture £ 
§ 5. We muft believe that the Pope is Chrift': ^ 
Vicegerent or Vicar General, (or General Com* jjn 
cils at leaft) before we can believe that Chrift i; $ 

§ 6. We muft believe that the Words of th(j KQ 
Apoftles were Intelligible (elfe whj did thejiQ 
fpeak ) but their Writings are mot, till a Gene- 
ral Council make them £o by an Expofition. 

§ 7. We muft believe that it is intelligibly 
which be true Bifhops and Councils, and what i 
the meaning of their Voluminous Decrees 5 ba^ 
it is not intelligible what is the fenfe of the Scripj| 
ture till Councils tell us. 

§ S. We muft believe that God is the greasl 
Deceiver of the World, by fenfe and things fenf 
ilible : e. p. by fenfe, which takes Bread to Wl 
Bread, and Wine to be Wine. 

§ 9. We muft believe thar all men are Here! 
ticks who deny not their fenfes^*, and all that be( 
lieve fenfe ( even of all the found men in thd 
World ) (hall be Damned. That is, All that be] 
lieve God fpeaking by things fenfible. 

§ 10. We muft believe that God who is thj 
great Deceiver of the World, even to 2nd by tin 
ienfes, yet hath given a Spirit of Infallibility td 
tbofe Popes and Prelates (in Council ) who livd 
in vvorldlinefs and widke^§t § *« 





§ it. We muft believe that an unlearned Pope 
d Prelates, who never underftood rhe Original 
:>hguc, but are ignorant men, are by Miracle 
Council infpired with the gift of right ex- 
landing the Scriptures which they never iiudied 
< underftood before. 

§ *rx. Wemuft believe that every Prieft how 
iaorant or wicked foever, doth by pronouncing 
i e bare words of Confecration, work many Mi- 
itles, turning Bread into no Bread, Wine into no 
' fine, making quantity and other Accidents to 
[5ft without Subftance, &c. And that he can 
' ork fuch Miracles every hour of the day ; and if 
<? can but get intft a Bakers Shop or Vintners 
:el!erto fayMafs, may in malice undo the poor 
en when he will, by turning all their Bread and 
fine into none. 

§ 13. We mud believe that the Roman Em- 
ire was all the Chriftian World, or that a Coun- 
1 1 General as to that Empire, was Genera! as to 
1 1 the World. And that the Roman Emperor 
It the PopecaMedthe Bifhopsofall the VVorld 
pgether .- And that the humane Primate of one 
j mpire, was Governotir of all the VVorld. 
h§ 14. We muft believe that now that Erppire 
; diflblveJ, the Laws then. made bind all the 
rrinces and Churches on Earth, viz,* that 2 de- 
isncl power ftill ruleth even thofe that never 
! wed them obedience. 

$ 15. We mult believe that we ift England are 
/ightfuliy under' a. Foreign Church Jurifdi&ion, 
;ontrary to the Oath of Supremacy. 

§• 16. We muft believe that all Temporal 

fiords mafi: befwornto extirpate all Proteftantsr, 

and to perforautifable, on pain of Excommuni- 

L 1 3 cation, 

[ yi8 ] 

c ation, Depofiticn and Damnation j And that iff) 
c hey do not the Pope may execute this penalty r 
Excommunicating and Depoling them, and givim 
their Dominion toothers, and may Abfolve thei 
Subjects from their Oaths of Allegiance. Concil.\ 
Later, f ah. Innoc, 3. Can, I, 2,3. 

§ .17. We muft Swear never to expound the) 
Scripture but according to the Concordant fenfe i 
of the Ancient Fathers, who never expounded'! 
much at all 5 much lefs ever agreed in any Expo- 1 J 
fitionofthem all. 

§ 1 3. We muft believe that God hath given 
the Church, ( that is, the Pope and Councils) 
a Power to Expound hard Scriptures, and to end ; 
Controversies, and that this is a great BleiTing tq 
ms ; When yet neither Pope nor Councils will 
give us a Commentary on the Bible, orexpofition 
of hard Texts; nor will determine moft of the 
' Controvert ies that now trouble us. 

§ 19. We muft believe that the Governing 
part of the Church is to be obeyed, and Gods 
VVord received but by their Propofal, when yet 
ft is not known who is the Governing parr, Pope 
or Council, nor which Councils be true and 
which but falfe Conventions 5 nor can they allure 
as how we may pver come to know r it. 

§ 20 VVe muft Believethofe Councils to be 
true and credible, which contradict and condemn 
each other : and! that both are ip the right. 

§ 21: We muft believe both that all Gods 
VVord in the Sacred Scripture is true, and that 
Councils and Popes fay Truth when they contra- 

dift it- 

22. We muft believe that thofe Popes were 
P6pfs :sii continued the valid fucceffion, and 



/ersGovernours of all Chriftian Souls, whom 
• General and Provincial Councils condemned as Si- 
tnonifts, Hereticks, Infidels, Atheifts, or Devils 
, ncarnate : and yet that Councils are to be believ- 
. d asthePropofers of our Faith. 

§ 2g. We muft believe that General Coun- 
ilshave'Univerfal Jurifdiciion, when there are 
1 lone fuch, nor ever can be, nor ever were. 
I § 24. VVe.muftftay for the ending -of ourcon- 
■ roverfies, till we know that which cannot be 
Known, viz, what the Major Vote of all the Bi- 
shops on Earth Judge of them : or till fuch Coun- 
j ;ils end them as caufed them & their continuance; 
I § 2 5. When, we have fuch Infallible Proof of the 
[ Scripture Hiftory as we have of the former Kings 
jand Laws of the Land, by evidence of Natural 
certainty, we muft exchange it for the uncertain 
.determination of Popes and Councils, depending 
on their Authority, Knowledge and Honefty 5 
lAnd the Infallibility ofthefe who in all their lives 
I elfe do (hew- much fallibility : And were either 
Pope or Council Infallible no man that is Rot In- 
; fallible himfelf in judging of their Infallibility, 
;and alfo in knowing what it is that they propofe as 
lib fide, is ever the nearer an Infallible Faith. 

$ 26-They muft make it neceflary to us to know 
that the Greeks, the ^ Armenians, and all o her 
Chriftianswhoare twice as many as the Papifts, 
have fome way forfeited their Authority and Cre- 
dit: or elfe how (hall we know that they being 
the Majority, are not to be believed before the 
Pope and his VVeftern Councils. 

§ 27. They make more Cofmography and Hi- 
ftory neceflary to Salvation than God made, or 
Vulgar-Heads are capable of. The name of Rome 
L 1 4 is 

is not in the Greed: It is not necetTary to SaU 
vation to knpw that there is fuch a place as RomiW 
in the World: Much lefs to know all Countreysi 
pn Earth where Chriftians dwell, and which ofl 
them are of this. Opinion or that* and which P 
part hath the* majpr Vote of Bifbops, and is to be 1 ■ 
believed. If you fay, They are Neftorians, Ja- h 
cobites, Greeks, &c. the People be not bound to || 
know what any of thefe names fignifie. 

Chap. XII. A humhle Expoflulation to the 
zealous Antipapifis, Conform'ifls and Non- 
conform ifls 9 whether they are innocent as to 
promoting ^Pojperj > 

TH I S is not written to caft on you any con- 
tempt or reproach : I acknowledge that I 
take you for the beft Miniftry, that any Nation 
on earth enjoyeth : But it is to try if it may be 
to promote our common Repentance, and to Re- 
form the Npminal miftaken Reformation^ thofe 
that have finned by extreams^ which by the af- 
fumed name of Reformation, have wronged God 
and Truth, and mens Souls, with the greater ad- 
vantage and fuccefs: But e^ecially, if it may be 
yet to flop fuch from a finful progrefs 3 that they 
may not ignorantly fet up Popery , by crying 
down the name, and perfons. 

§ I. We have not fufficiently confidered, how 
the Popes came to the Greatnefs that they have 
attained, and how and by whom it is kept up : # I 
ipean, how much the zealous Godly Chriftiansdid* 
and do contribute thereto. : 

I. It 

C 5*i J 

z. It was the great fhame of other Churches 
y multitudes of Herefies, Sedts and Contentions, 
lat mate Rome feem as a Port for thofe to hold 
>y, that had by turning round become fo giddy, 
hat they could not ftand. 

2. When the beft Paftors were perfecuted, by 

roud Courtiers, erroneous Councils , fa&ious 

Jilliops, and Arrian Hereticks, becaufe Rome had 

■ nore Concord, Quietnefs and Power, they.ufed 

o feek help from the Bifhop of Rome in their 

.. leceffity, and he was ready to take the advantage 

i yy helping them, to get the reputation of Supre- 

i nacy : So did he by Athanafim, and Chryfofiom, 

md the Eaftern Bifhops under Salens and < on ft an- 

im, though Bafil complaineth of the Weftern 

Biihops. for minding them no more : The Popes 

l 3wning of Ahguftwe and Profper, was a great help 

to him againft I'eUgins. 

3'. When the Biihops under the Pagans had en- 
fdured Martyrdom, flnd Torments, and Baniih- 
tments for thritf, theiir godly Flocks, when Chri- 
I ftianity had conquered, thought none fo fie for ho- 
nour and power to govern and protect them, as 
the tryed furvivers : And who could then be fQ 
fit ? And fo it was firft the rfioft pious Chriftians 
that advanced the Bifhops, and over-advanced 
them : And fpecially the Roman Bifhops, becaufe 
'very many of their Predeceflbrs had been Martyrs 
andConfeflbrs. Tho* we had many able Lay-Ma- 
! giftrates here, which Conftantine had not quickly, 
I yet thofe that put down Bifhops were glad that 
! the Power of Inftitution and Induction , and of 
: Universities and Church Maintenance, fhould be 
• in the hands of Dr. John Owen, Dr. T. Goodwin, 
| Mr. P. Nye, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Sydrach Sympjon, and 


I p« ] 

fuch other. And if the difpofing of fuch advan- 
tages for Religion were now committed to Diilen- 
ters, whom would they fooner chufe for Power 
therein than their moft efteemed Paftoi s > 

3. When Emperors^ Kings and Lords did pill 
and opprefs the poor Commons, (as in England in 
the Reign of William the Conqueror W.Rnfttsj&c) 
the Bifhops were the only men that by the Power 
of the Pope were able to controul them, and for 
the honour of their Office, oft attempted it : And 
therefore the innocent opprefled People were glad 
of the Pope's help and theirs, to eafe their yoke. 

4. It was the Godly People to promote Chri- 
stianity, and honour the memory of the Martyrs 
and Saints, that bring in the Praying at their 
Graves, and building Altars firft, and Churches 
after to retain the honour of their names 5 and that 
carried and kept their bones and cloaths as ho- 
nourable Relicts, and recited their names in their 
Service, and kept and honoured their Pi<Sures,and 
after prayed to them. Much of that Superftition 
that is now moft decried by us, was brought by 
the moft religious fort. 

5. Almoft all the Societies of Fryers and Nuns, 
Benedictines, Francifcans, "Dominicans, Carthu- 
fians, Jefuits, Oratorians,crc. have been fet up fey 
the moft zealoufly Religious, when any fancied a 
peculiar way of ftri<5Vneis,the Bifliops being againfc 
it, they made friends to the Pope to give them 
his Licence to ferve God in their own devifed 
way, and to have Government in their own So- 
ciety without the Bif hops controul : And the Pope 
craftily granted it, that they might all be his own. 
and maintain hisPower which they were neceifita- 
ted to depend on.So pfr&tidwiti and Dr. Owen told 


[ **? 7 
j King Charles 2. that they defired of him but what 
the Religious Orders had of the Pope. To ferve 
God according to their judgment, and hold their 
Liberty from the King, and not to be under* the 
Biihops or Presby tery.More fuch inftances I might 
produce to fhew you by what fort of men much 
of Popery came in, (but Pride and Worldlinefs 

§ II. I humbly defire it may be thought on, 
whether fome have not ignorantly given up the 
whole Caufeto a Foreign jurifdidtion, by their 
Prophetical Expofition of Chrift's Epiftles to the 
fevpn Afian Churches, Rev, 2. & 3. while they 
take them to mean feven Ages and States of the 
Catholicfe Church, and two of them to mean the 
blefied Thoufand years State. For whether by the 
Angel be meant, theBifhop alone, or the Bilhop 
with his Elders, or the Presbyters as a College, it 
is plain one Governing Power over each Church 
(whether Monarch or AriftocracyJ is there men- 
tioned by the word Angel. And if the Univerfal 
Church have fuch in all Ages, and thatbyChrifFs 
Inftitution, fhould we be again(iit? Even that 
which the Thoufand years (hall have ? 

§ III. It is a very ordinary Dc&rine with us, 
that the Jewifh Church was the Univerfal then in 
Infancy, or at leaft a Type of it : And if fo, that 
Church had one fonwj a Pot efl&, both in Magistracy 
and Miniftry,facredly Civil and EcclefiafticalrAnd^ 
Cririft plainly offered to gather them under him, 
and continue their Polity ( tho' not their Laws, ) 
and fet up' twelve and feventy over them accord- 
ingly. You 1 fay* Though one Jar on was their 
Head, yet Chrift is now the only High Prieft, ft 
followeth not that the Univerfal Church muft 
have one Humane Pripft or King,.. I 

C yi4 1 

I anfwer^ By your way it will follow, that it 
muft have one Uniting Specifying Humane Sotie- 
raignty Civil and Ecclefiaftical. If y^aron^be down, 
fois'not the Sanedrim, Civil or Priefdy. Chrift 
plainly offered to continue them in one Vifible 
Body, by his choice of twelve and feventy. And 
it is an Ariftocratical Univerfal Jurifdi&ion that 
is as bad as the Monarchical. 2. Chrift was not 
a Prieft according to the Order of Aaron, but of 
Melchizjedeck. 3. Chrift is Univerfal King as 
well as Prieft 5 and hath National Kings under 
him fupreme : Therefore his being King or Prieft 
in Jfrael, would not exclude the necelfity of a 
fupreme King or Prieft under him. And if ifrael 
was the Catholick Church in Type or Infancy, 
it would follow that it'alfo muft have one fuch 

I § IV, Too few Proteftants have fufficiently an- 
fvvered the Papifts Argument fetcht from the in- 
fiance of the Apoftles, viz. " The College of A- 
V poftles ( Peter called Priwtis) weret>ne Arifto- 
" cratical Governing Power over the Univerfal 
"Church,: Ergo, fuch a Policy was inftituted by 
<c Chrift. And Chrift never revoked this inftitu- 
<c tion. Government as well as Word and Sacra- 
<c ments, is an ordinary work to be continued. 
" And not as Miracles, Writing Scripture, Wit- 
" neffingwhat they few and heard, the extraordi- 
nary part of the Apoftles Work. Ergo in this 
"they have Succeftbrs. 

This is the plaufibleft of all Arguments for an 
Univerfal Jurifdidtion. I haveihevved you how 
it prevailed with Bilhop Gumn^ztid other New 
Church-men {I am not willing to lay, The new 
Church. ) 


c m 3 

How it is to be anfwered I have before fliewed, 

and more folly in my Treatife of National Churches. 

§ V. Have not the old and many later Noncon-' 
formifts.advantaged Popery by decrying all Epif- 
copacy or Imparity of Minifters ? When it is fo 
plain that Chrift did fee Twelve above Seventy, 
and kept up the number by Matthias? and gave 
power to Apoftles, and they to other to be 
exercifed over ether Churches and Paftors ? And 
when it is apparent that all the Churches for many 
hundred years, had Epifcopal Government,(though 
not fuch as Popery and Tyranny hath fince brought 
in : ) Thofe called Here ticks and Schifmaticks 
were for it ; The Novatians and Donatifts over 
2ealous for it, Neftorians, Eutychians, Monothe- 
lites, Macedonians, Acacians , and all the Se&s 
in the time of Heathen Perfection: I find not 
that Amm ( alone excepted ) did ever call it un- 
lawful,, or fay that it was better for tfre Churches 
to be without them. But that the Biihops andPres- 
byters Officers were equal. 

And will it not greatly confirm tbeJapiftS to 
find fuch Proteftants reject the judgment and 
pra&ice of all the ancient Churches, and differ 
from the reft of the Chriftian World. 

§ VI. But it advantaged them much more than 
cur opinion •, when the Scots Covenant was im- 
pofed as the neceffary terms of Miniftry and Ma- 
giftracy : Thereby weakening die Proteftants by 
a doleful Divifion, that by opinions were divided 
too much before. When f o great a part of the 
Kingdom, Clergy, Gentry and Vulgar were for the 
renounced Prelacy ,to (hut all thefe, and all of their 
mind that ever fliould come after, from Miniftry 
and Magistracy, fuch men as vficr, Beadle •, Dow- 


[ &1 

name j Davenant, Brownrig, Ward, Tridemx, Field, 
&c. Oh how many and how great ! was this to 
unite the Proteftants, and to ftrengthen them 
againft the United Papifts ? 

§ VII. And alas how greatly have thofe Zea- 
lous Proteftants confirmed the Papifts, and difho- 
nOured the Church and Chrift their King, that 
maintain that the Church became Antichriftian 
in Anno 300 or 400, or at leaft 606, if not as 
ibon as Chrift by Confianmt took poffeflion of 
the Imperial Vifible Government- I will not 
aggravate this as it deferveth : But I wonder not 
if it make thoufands of Papifts. 

§ VIII. And Proteftants too many have great- 
ly hardened Papifts, by too bold and forced Ex- 
pofitions of the Apocalyps 5 and laying too much 
of the ftrefs of their Caufe on it ( as that Pagan 
Rome is not the Babylon there meant, nor that 
Rome as the Mother or Nurfe of Pagan Ido- 
latry the Whore; nor the Pagan Empire the 
Beaft with feven Heads and ten Horns, nor the 
Pontifical , Oracular, Foretelling, and Literate 
Tribe, the Beaft with two Horns, nor the Jew 
and Gentile Miracle-working perfecuted Chri- 
ftians ( radically Epitomized in Peter and Pdnl ) 
" the two Witneffes ; and that Antichrifc is 
"fpokenofin the Revelations $ and that Chrifc 
• c intended it as a Prophecy of all the great Af- 
" fairs and Changes of the Church to the end of 
"the World.] I fay, laying the ftrefs of our 
" Caule on thefe, is next to giving it away* 
"When a'Papiftfhall call for the proof of this, 
" and ask whether John and the feven Churches 
" underftood it •, and what one man on Earth (o 
" expounded it of a Thoufand years , or a 

J! Thott&ad 

"Thoufand four hundred after Chrift? and why 

" Mr. Medc faith, That the Waldenfes were the fir ft 

* of all Mortals that tooh^ the To\>e to be Amkhrift. 

a And whether the Book was written for none 
" but a few men that agree not of the fence of it, 
c< fo near the End of theWorld ?] It will puzzle 
the Hearers before all thefe, and many fueh Que- 
flions are wellAnfvvered. When we have fo much 
plain Evidence againft Popery in the whole Bible, 
to lay it mainly on thefe Expofitionsof the Reve- 
lation , (where I find not three men in thirty that 
differ not in great Material Points 5 is almoft to 
betray it : when fuch a man as John Fox, P.m. 
Vol. i. Sweareth that he had a Revelation con- 
trary to much of this, which he repeateth in his 
Comment on Revelations. 

Specially thefe^that venture to foretel thence 
the Year of AntichriiVs fall, and other particulars, 
which time confutetb, do expofe us to the Scorn 
of Confirmed Papifts. 

§ IX. Proteftants have too often advantaged 
Popery, by ill anfwering the Queftion, Where was 
yottr church before Luther? Pleading the Catholick 
Churches invifibility. When non apparere and non 
ejfe are oft equal in Argumentation : Greatly dif* 
honouring Chrift, as iffo near the end of the 
World, the Migenfes and Waldenfcs, (and fome 
Papifts that found fault with the Papal Mifcarria- 
ges, had been all the known Church for Eleven 
hundred Years : To tell the Mahometans that the 
Kingdom of Jefus after fo long endeavours, was 
fcarce bigger than Wales, is not the way to honour 
Proteftants, or Chrift. 

And then they think to repair the d?fhcjnour 
by their Prophecy of the Millennial Kingdorfi, 
which tied] the knot harder than before. § X. 

C 5^- 1 

§ X* Running from them into Errours on ths 
other extream,and fpotting the Reformation with! 
many fuch Errours, hath greatly hardened and in- 
creafed Papifts. Especially thofe Antinomian or 
Libertine Opinions, that overthrow both Chri- 
ftianity and Morality 5 and that which inferreth 
thefe which too many have promoted : fuch are 
the wrong Opinions about Reprobation, and the 
Caufeof Sin, and the extent of Redemption, and 
the falfe fence of the Imputation of Chrift's Righ- 
teoufnefs, and of Juftifying Faith,and of the mean- 
ing of Works that juftifie not , and that to Believe 
we are juftified and elected, is to believe God's 
Word, or is Fides Divina - ? and that the Covenant 
of Grace hath no Condition , and is made only 
with Chrift, and that he both obeyed and fuffered 
in our Perfon in Law fence,fo diat we did in Law 
fence fuffer in and by him, and yqt fulfil all righte- 
oufnefs by him, and were reputatively finlefs from 
firft to laft •, that therefore we are juijified by the 
Law of Innocency or Works that condemneth us, 
having perfectly kept it by Chrift, that our works 
being not meritorious are not rewardable ; Too 
many fuch Doflrines are Published here and a- 
broad, by fuch as Maccovm % Clnto , Cocceim and 
fome before them. And when Papifts find one 
grofs falthood , they think all our Religion H 

.', § XI. It greatly confirmeth Papifts when they 
find our Writers falfly to accufe them , of any 
Do&rine .which they hold not : which is very or- 
dinarily done by thofe that never read them, on 
the meer credit of fome Reverend Minifters thac 
foacaviied them before ; For inftance.of the Point 
orlvTerit 3 when men read their Books of Self 


nbnegAth?7,AnnihilationJiclf-abafaj! i jL\\& ISfotfyngtefti 
renouncing Merit, eVen in diftributive Juftice, &a 
Some have wondered and faid,How much further 
are the Papifts from trailing to or boaiHng oftheii* 
Merits, Works and Holinefs than we are ? 

§ XII. But Proteftants have no way promoted 
Popery more than by their manifold Divifions and 
'Sedte, and their mutual enmity and mifcarriages. 
I need not name them. God hath made Unity 
md Concord fo neceflary and amiable to Man^ 
that Nature and Grace abhor the contrary. Satan 
[;is the Divider of Chrift's Kingdom : and a King- 
dom divided. cannot (land. Multitudes turn and 
continue Papifts , not knowing where among fa 
many Se&s to fix their choice,efpecially when they 
: fee and hear us Revile, Cenfure, Silence, Irnprifon 
and Perfecute one another as intolerable', they 
think they may do fo by us all, and judge of us 
as we do by one another. And to vilifie us, is to 
; value themfelves. Which Seft, fay they, would 
ypu have me turn to, if I turn ? 

§ XIII. Specially if we fall into odious Scan- 
dals as well as Sedfcs, the Crimes of Men feem the 
fault of our Religion, When they have recited the 
Mifcarriages here from 1642, till 1660. they think 
they have decided all the Controversies : And alfo 
whenth£y can recite the ^w7/?er Madneft ; and 
others fueh. 

§ XIV. Hath the Silencing of Two thoufand 
fuch Minifters, and fhutting the Church Doors 
againft defired Unity and Concord, and keeping 
out Candidates, and giving advantage to Paprft 
Rulers to give full liberty for Popery ,3one nothing- 
to its increafe? What hath, done more to ad~ 
tame-age Popery, by difablingProteftancs, arid dif- 
M nx pacing 

[ no 3 

gracing their Miniflers of each Party, and keeping 
up the hopes of Foreign and Domeftick Enemies, 
than caffing the Nation into a kind of Inteftine 
Hoflii-//, and keeping it fo by the Dividing Laws 
and r ,on5? which though it was principally the 
effeft of fecret Popifh Projects, yet had no Anti- 
Pay its by falfe Prejudice, Malice, Revenge and 
worldly Intereft, had a hand in the effe&ing, and 
ice in defending it, they had been more inno- 
;en:. And I would the Provocation had not driven 
many Nonconformifts into harder thoughts of Bi- 
fhops and Liturgy than they deferve, or than they 
had before the experience of their ufage. But it's 
hard when for Innocency and Duty men muft lye 
Cand many die] in common Jails,and have all they 
have taken from them , and be left to Beggary or 
Charity, to keep up as great an efteemof the Au- 
thors or Abettors of fuch Hoftility,as if they were 
men of Love and Peace. When they fee men 
Hangd for taking away a fmall part by Stealth or 
Robbery, it muft be more than ordinary Patience 
and Love, that fliill caufe men to think and fay 
no harm,even by honourable and Right Reverend 
men, that even by Law and Judgment faid to be 
juft, (hall take away all, and much more than all. 
We had not procured hatred by our importunity 
in 1660 and 1661. in Pleadingand Petitioning to 
prevent all this, if the certain forefight of it in its 
Caufes, had not feemed very dreadful to us : And 
yet we do not fee the End : The Hoftility conti- 
nued^ if not increaleth, even while the Blood and 
Flames of Germany, Hungary, Tranfrivania, Savoy, 
Flanders, and Ireland and partly Scotland, loudly 
cry to us, Fh-e^ Tm\ and inftead of avoiding the 
like, we are as bufie as ever to bring more fewel, 


and increafe the flame. And O dreadful odious 
Cafe 1 All is as for God , and Religion and the 
Church, that is thus done againft God, Religion* 
the Church.and the whole Land & our Pofterity. 

§ XV. And by our feveral ways of Unjuft and 
Caufelefs Impofitions, we have hardened the Tii- 
pifts in defending their more numerous. Snares. 
They fay, If an Independent Church may bind its 
Members, to take their Covenants, to iubmit to 
their popular Examinations and Difcipline ? to avoid 
Communion with the Parifh Churches, and not ta 
forfake their Church but by tryed Reafon or Q>n~ 
fent i And if a Convocation may impofe what is 
done in England on terms fo iharp - why.may not: 
the Paftors and Councils that have greater Charge 
and Power, do as much and more ? 

$ XVI. The Se&arian weak-headed part of Pro- 
teftants have greatly advantaged Popery , by their* 
ignorant calling every Ceremony, and Form, and 
Opinion that they diftafte, by the Name of Ami* 
chriftian : and faying* O this is Popifh * or taker* 
out of the Mafs-Book-, -when fomeof them know 
not what Anttchnftianlty is , faving as every Sin 
againft Chrift is Amkbriftian^ nor know they 
what the Mafs-Book is, nor what Popery is 5 And 
its well if fomeknew better what Cbriftiamty is. 

When men hear that a Bifhop $ a Surplice , £ 
fumptuous Church Edifice, a Ceremony* the Li- 
turgies, a Holy-day (and it's well if not the ufe of 
the Creed and Loird's Prayer) be Amkhriftian^ 
they are tempted to think that Popery called Ami- 
chriftianity is no worfe a thing than thefe ; and fo 
honour Popery, and deride its AccUfers. 

I would thefe named were all tjie wrongs that, 

t^oteftanfs have done to the Proteftafit Caufe of 

M m 2 Reformat 

I 53* J 

Reformation, and all that they have ignorantiy 
done for Popery. But we hope our great Inter- 
ceifor will procure forgivenefs for them that kpow 

not what they -do. . But muft the Church (till fufler 
(omuch by its zealous Friends ? 

Chap. XIII. What is the t>uty of all other 
Chriftians towards the *Paf>iJt$ in order to 
the ^Promoting of the Common Interefi of 
Chrtfiianity ? 

T Hough I have diftin&ly anfwered this Que- 
ll ion in the Secqpd Part of my Key for Ca- 
thollcks , I will here anfvver it again > left I be 
thought to run into Extreams , or encourage the 
Extreams of others 5 by all that I have here and 
ilfewhere faid. And as to the chat of Ignorant 
FaAion,- that will fay I contradict my felf, I will 
an-fiver it with Contempt and Pity. 

§ I. Firft, we muft lay -deep in our Minds, and 
inculcate on our Hearers the common Fundamen- 
tal Truths and Duty : That Love is the Second 
great Commandment, like to the Firft : That it is 
the fulfilling of the Law : That he that dwells in 
Love dwells in God, and God in him : That he 
that loveth not his Brother whom he hath feen, 
joveth not God whom he never faw : That fome 
love belongs to Enemies, and much more to Bre- 
thren : That as much as in us lyeth we muft live 
peaceably with all Men : Yea, and follow Peace 
with all men.] And that thefe are Duties that 
nothing can cUfpenfe with. 


tm ] 

§ II. We muft acknowledge and commend all 
that is good among them 5 and muft truly under- 
Hand in what we are agreed : That is, They ac- 
knowledge all the fame Books of Scripture to be 
the true Word of God which we acknowledge. 
They own all the Articles of the Creed which we 
own : and of the Nkene and Conjtantinopolitan 

Creed. They own all the Lord's Prayer , and all 
the Ten Commandments , faving that they take 
the Second to be but part of the Firft, and divide 
the Tenth into two. They teach in their Cate- 
chifms, all the Beatitudes, Math. ,j. and the Moral 
Virtues , and the Graces of Faith , Hope and 
Love, &c And he that pradtically and fincerely 
doth all this hath many Promifes of Salvation id 
the Scripture. 

§ III. We muft not untruly faften on diem any 
Errour which they hbld nor, nor put a falfe fence 
on their words, though we may find many Prote- 
ftants that fo charge theft); nor may we charge 
that on the Party which is held but by fome 
whom others contradict. How far many Prote- 
ctants herein miftake and raihly wrong them ( In 
the Doctrine of Predeltination, Free-will, Grace, 
Merits , Juftification , Redemption ^ Perfeve- 
rance, &c.) I have freely (hewed in my Catholick 
Theology and End of Dotlrind Controverts, 5 
And Ludovkm k Blanks after others hath excel- 
lently opened. 

§ IV. We muft not take all the Laity to own 
fill that the difputing Clergy write for ^ when 
they neither understand it nor confent to it. 
^ § V- As we mu£ diftinguilh between the Ef- 
fentials of Popery , and their Integrals or other 
Corruptions^ fo we muft not charge any with the 
Mm 1 firft 

c m 1 

fir ft meerly for being guilty of many of the 
other : Elfe we muft call all the Greeks, Mo[- 

covites, Aba/fines, Armenians, &c. Vapifts. 

5 VI. We muft (till diftinguifh between Chrifis 
Catholick, Church, unifyed by his own Headfhip 
only 5 and the Papal Church , unifyed by a pre- 
tended Univerfal Humane Head, Monarchical or 
Ariftocratical. And fo we muft diftinguiih be- 
rween a chriftian as fitch, and a Papift as fuch. 
And we muft hold Communion with Papifts in 
Chriftianity, though not in Popery 5 And muft 
grant that thofe. that hold Chrifts Headfhip and 
Chriftianity more firmly and practically than the 
Pope's Headihip and Popery, and feeing not the 
Contradidion, would renounce the Papacy if they 
faw it, may be faved. 

$ VII. To profefs utter averfenefs to all Recon- 
ciliation with them, and to declare them no Chri- 
ffians but Antichriftians, that muft be the Objedts 
only of our Hoftility, ft to be Adverfaries to the 
firft mentioned Fundamentals,and to the common 
intereft of Peace and Chriftianity. 
* § VIII. We muft difclaim their opinion that 
fay that the Church became Antichriitian in 300, 
or 4CQ, or 6oo> or any time before the Popes 
claimed Univerfal Jurifdi&ion over the Chriftian 
World 3 as well as in the Roman Empire. And 
fhen the Papal revolt did not reach one half the 

§ IX. We muft not impute the Papal or Pa- 
triarchal Vices and Pride , to the generality of 
the inferior Bifliops, though in Councils too m^ny 
were very Fa&ious : For even a Heathen Amm. 
MWfetlinm tells us the great difference , by Papal 
f f\Mi *$! kjVWrF ^^hopsHumility and Virtue. 

§ X. We muft not take the Queftion, whether 
the Pope be t Antichrift as . more necefl'ary than 
it is 3 Nor make the Decifion an Article of Faith, 
•nor lay more of the ftrefs of our difference on -it 
than we ought : . For we have many far clearer 
Arguments againft them from plainer Scriptures. 

§ XL Therefore we muft not force the vulgar 
to Difputes with' Papifts, without caufe, on 
forced Expositions and Suppofirions that turn the 
Revelations againft Rome Papal a* the Babylon and 
Antichrift there meant , when io much may be 
iaid, and is by fome Proteftants to make it likely 
that it is but Rome Pagan that is there meant- We 
muft not give their Difputers the advantage of 
Challenging us before the Vulgar , to name one 
Man for a Thoufand Years and more after Chri ft, 
that expounded the Revelation as we do, or that 
took the Pope to be Antichrift. * 

§ XII. We muft not imitate the great Novel 
Expolitors of the Revelation', that make the 
feven Churches to be feven States and Ages of 
the Univerfil Church , and two of them to be in 
the World to come after the Conflagration 5 and 
confequently, that if by the Angel o&eaih Church 
be meant the Biihop (either alone or with his El- 
ders, as moft think old and new Expolitors) then 
an Universal Humane Head is of Gods lnftitution. 
And if that be true, then Papery will be right in 
its Eflentials, and we in the wrong- We mute 
take heed therefore of the ignorant fa&ious'Zeal 
of over-doers, that make men Papifts by falfe 
oppofing them. 

§ XIII. We muft take heed left we make any 
one fallhood a part of the Prot'eftant Religion 
and Reformation" (much lefs many plain faKhoods 

M m 4 as 

as too many do). For when Papifcs find any fuch 
Untruths, they will judge of our Religion in the 
main by thofe. 

* XIV. We muft fee that in the Form of our 
(Government and Worfhip , we own not Princi- 
ples of Confufion, and fee not up ourfelves, our 
iievifed terms of Church Admittance and Commu- 
nion, and thereby feem to juffifie fuch Additions 
among Papifts and others. 

§ XV. We muft live in Love and Peace and 
Concord among our felves , that our Fra&ions, 
Se£i$jSnd Errours and envious Oppofitions,make us 
pot a (command make not Papifts think that we are 
mad, and r hat there is no way to Unity and Peace 
but in Popery, uniting under one Humane Head- 

§ XVI. We muft own Chriftian Communion In- 
definite and as IMverfal as Capacity alloweth , 
while we difown Univerfal Humane Jurifdittion.. 
But wempft underftand well the difference. 

We are ex Authority Tmperantis bound to obey 
Jurifdidion : But to hold Agreements nothing 
binds us but God's general Commands for Peace 
and Concord, and our own Contract and the com- 
mon good. So that if Councils agree on any thing 
contrary to thefe ]Epds , no Church is bound by 
fuch their Canons, ' nor to confent. Juft as a Diet 
of ICings and States are frep to confent or diflenc 
to a'Major Vote , as thereafon of the thing re- 
girireth (and no further) for the common advan- 
tage of Chriftianity. But have no one King Uni- 
verftl to whom thpy are all Subje&s. 

§ XVII. Yet if any King and People will be fo 
flavifh as ro fobjed themfelyes to a foreign King 
pr Jurjfciidtionjtheir oct confent may oblige them 
as far as belt 1 enuavipg may dp. 

C5j 7 ] 

§ XVIII. We muft not deny what good ufe 
God hath made of Rome's Grandure, Unity and 
Concord : It's like elfe Chriftianity had not kept 
up fuch advantages of ftrength,wealth and concord 
againft the great Power of the Mahometan and 
Heathen Enemies. 

§ XIX. We muft not by the Scandals of fome 
Pexfons or Fraternities , be drawn to think the 
-reiiare like them , nor to deny but fuch men as 
Bernard, Gerfon , and abundance of Fryars , and 
Nuns, though zealous for the Roman Concord, 
were godly excellent Perfons : Even in the dark 
(Ages of their. Church , what abundance of moft 
learned School Dodors had they, in which much 
Piety alfo appeared (as in Bonaventnre y Aquinas , 
Hemic hs ab Haflia , and many fuch- As alfo in 
many of their Biftiops, as Bororn&w, Sales^&cc* 
And in the Oratorians , and many rroft Learned 
Jefuits. All this we muft candidly confefs and 

§ XX. The common Intereft of Humanity , 
Chriftianity and God's forefaid fundamental Pre- 
cepts , oblige Proteftant and Papift Princes to 
Confederate how to live peaceably among them- 
felves^ind to unite againft the Common Enemies, 
while they cannot yet agree in the Points of Diffe- 
rence- That fo far as they are agreed, they may 
walk by the fame rule. 

§ XXI. I think we fliould hurt no Papift in 
Body or Goods, any further than is neceftary to 
our own Defence, and the Defence of the Truth, 
and Souls of Men, and the Kingdoms fafety. Buc 
win them by Love. 

§ XXII Becaufe a factious Solicitation of the ig- 
norant to iubmic to their foreign Jurifdiftion, is 


C 53S 3 

enmity to Kings,and States,and Churches,asagainft 
their Eflential Rights, the unpeaceable managing 
of Difputes and Endeavours to fuch Treafon and 
Slavery, may be as much reftrained by Law, as 
Men may be reftrained from teaching that Wives 
muft for fake ih?ir Husbands & lie with otherMen, 
and Children forfake their Parents, and Soldiers 
their Kings and Captains , and all obey the Pope 
againft them. 

§ XXIII. Yet becaufe they will fay that we 
dare not hear the truth , I think it not amifs , if 
they be allowed fome time,when the Rulers think 
lit (not to challenge weak Minifters at pleafure 
to DifputeJ but in a fit Affembly to fay what they 
can, fo'be it they will withal there hear what can 
be (aid againft them, by fome able Divine choiea 
by the King., Biftjop or Minifters ? who alfo fhould 
choofe the time and place. 

Thefe terms are better than the unreconcileable 
Hoftility kept up by the terms of Antlchrift and 

Here tick. 

XXIV. And (though the unlearned have fafer 
and better Books enough to read) I think it will 
do much to re&ifie mens Judgments that are in- 
clined to extreams , and to mellow and jjpeeten 
their hearts into Chriftian Love, if the Learned 
would read the Devotional Pious Writings of Pa- 
pifls j fuch as Bernaud, Gerfon, Gtrbdrdm Zatpha- 
riienfis, Sales, Kempis, Thauleros, Benediclm dc Bene- 
dtilis Regiila Vit&\ Barb an fori, Fer in, t\\eQY2XOX\H\Si 
2nd in Engliih , The Interior Chrijiian, Parfons of 

Refolution , Baker , the Life of Nerius , and of 
Mr. de Rem;, and other fuch. 

They would find there (o much of God as would 
win their affections to a Brotherly Kindnefs,while 


[ 559 1 

they find fo much of that which is in themfelves. 
rloly breathings after God, are favory to thofe 
that have the like. I know tfiofe that have read 
>r heard fuch books asthefe, that have faid, How 

have we mi [under flood the Papifts f If an efteemed 
Minifter ihould Preach part of The Interior chriftian. 
or, fuch another book, and not tell his bearers 
whofe it was, I doubt not but many godly people, 
would cry it up for a moll: excellent Sermon: 
-When as if they before knew that it was a Papifts 
they wotrld run away. 

I "do not by any of this encourage any raw un- 
F grounded Proteftants to caft themfelves on the 
Temptation of Popifli Company or Books: But 
that you may fee that I write not this rafhly and 
without jafr caufe, I will infiance in one Book 
called Bunnys Rejolution : It was written by Par- 
fons, one accounted a moft traiterous Jefuite, and 
Edmund Bunny Corrected and Publifhed it ; {'and 
J'arfons Reprinted it with more -Popery, reviling 
Bunny for being fo bold with his Book, as to 
fpunge out the Popifli Errours. I have met with 
feveral eminent Chriftians that magnified the 
good they had received by that Book. 

When I was 21 years of Age, the Bifliops fe- 
verity againft Private Meeting caufed many excel- 
lent Chriftians in Shrewsbury to meet fecretly for 
mutual Edification : At one of thefe where was 
of Minifters Mr. Cradock> Mr. Rich- Simonds, and 
Mr. Fawler ( caft out at Bridewell Church fince ) 
Mr. Simonds faid, that there were fome godly 
women in great doubt of the fincerity of their 
Converfion, becaufe they knew not the Time, 
Means and Manner of it, and defired all that were 
filling to. open the cafe of their own, to fatisfie 


fuch. I remember but one that could tell jufc the! 
Time, Mtans and Manner, but with moft it be-i, 
gaa early, and was brought on by flow degrees ij 
but fo as fome One Time and Means made a morel i 
©bfervable change than any other: Among thefej 
three fpake their own cafe, that after many Con- 
victions, and a love to Piety, the firft lively mo< 
tion that awakened their Souls to a ferious re- 
folded care of their Salvation, was the reading of 
JBwmys Book of Refolution : Thefe three were 
Mr. Fawhr, Mr. Michael Old ( for Zeal known 
through much of England) and my felf. And ha- 
ving fince heard of the fame fuccefs with others, 
(when yet now there be many Books that I had 
rather read ) I have reafon to think that God noti- 
fied his will, that we fhould ( inftead of rafh ha- 
tred ^profit by each other, and love his Word 
whoever writeth it. 

§ XXV. And we are the more obliged ro be- 
have our felves with all due tendernefs to Papifts 
and all other exafperated parties, in the Confciouf- 
nefs of t;he aforefaid guilt that we have fallen un- 
der, to their hardening and hurt. Weakning the 
Proteftants is ftrengthening the Papifts. Repen- 
tance is fo hard a work, that it feldom goeth well 
down with any party to hear of their fins, efpecial- 
ly the mod heinous, becaufe they are moft fright- 
ful and odious. But yet it is fo necefiary a work 
to Repent, necefiary to the finners, and necefiary 
to this Land, that a Dying Minifter of Chrift 
( who daily lamenteth his own fin ) (hould not 
for fear of the anger or reviling of the impenitent, 
omit fo necefiary a work, while Danger and yet 
Hope feem to tell us that thk p$ the time. 

laying oft done it to the difpleafing of many, 

will, though it yet difpleafe, add this brief warn- 

f If the remembrance of the years 1643 to i66o 9 
Of all that was done in England, Wales and Scot- 
'atsd, againft Order, Peace, Government, Miniftry, 
found Do$rine and Difcipline, by the Sectarian 
Army and the Antinomian, Anabaptift and Sepa- 
rating Minifters and People that encouraged them, 
and the fatal end they came to without any blood- 
fhed to overcome them, and the coqfequent chan- 
ges : I fay if all this convince not the Separating 
Se&arian fort of profeffors, that they have been 
heinoufly injurious to the Proteftant intereft, and 
have ignorantly kept up the life of Popifh hopes, 
I know not what means can convince fuch men. 

II. And if after all theMiferies of former di- 
vifions and uncharitable violence, before and in 
the Wars, thofe. that have added the greater bur- 
dens, and revengefully done what I love not fo oft 
to mention, by Laws, execution and additional 
reproach, upon Corporations, Churches, Uni- 
verfities, Minifters, and brought and yet keep the 
Land by refolved obftinacy, in its divided dange- 
' rous finful ftate, and lock up their Church door 
againft defired Unity and Concord,, and all this for 
nothing, but to juflify the revengeful changers 
and their own complying acts, I lay again, and 
again, if all this after the laft thirty years expe- 
rience added to all before, feem to the gurky no 
wrong to the Proteftant intereft, nor to the Na- 
tions Peace and Hopes, nor any advantage to Po- 
pery, nor any fin againft Chrift in his Servants, 
the Lord take fome extraordinary effedual way, 
to convince, heal and fave fo blind and obdurate a 
people : for I fee no hope of ordinary means, 


The God of Peace have mercy upon an Ignorant Vn- 
pe ace able World, and prepare why Faith, Hope and 
Love for the World of Love and Peace. Amen . 


% i.T Perc6rt T e fome cannot digeft it, that a 
A Chriftian Soveraign lhould be the Head, 
that is, the Forma informans, fpecifica & unifica of a 
National Church, and that it is not faid to be a 
National Sacerdotal Head, either Monarchical in 
one primate or Ariftocratical in feveral Metropo- 
litanes or Diocefanes, as one College & Ferfona 
political Or as Mr. Hooker, Dr. Beveridge, and the 
Republicane Politicians, and moft fanaticks think, 
in the Major part of the Body, ruling by their Re- 
prefentatives and chofen Proxies, which is called 
a Democracy 5 or mixt of thefe by natural right* 
§ 2. And if any thing with thefe men were 
ftrange, it would feem ftrange, that the fame men 
that fubfcribe to or approve the Canons of 1640 
for the Divine making or inftittttion of Kings and 
that fill Pulpits and Books with Invectives againft 
Rebels Fanaticks and the Parliaments Wars, and 
many Writers of Politicks, for holding that the 
King is fin gnl is Major & univerjh Minor , and that 
the Power of the Head is from the Majority of the 
Body, and that the Legifbtive Supremacy is in 
them radically as in the Majeftas Realts derived to 
the King as the Majeftas pcrfonalu, fhould come 
themielves to build their Church Power on fa 
rotten a foundation 5 And chat the poof Koncon- 


L ><M J 

formifts long called Rebellious, mufi now become 
againft fuch Churchmen the defenders of the So* 
veraigns Power. But fuch is the cafe of this blind, 
giddy, fa&ious World. 

§ 3. According to my ufual ( defpifed J method, 
I will diltinguifh the Controverfie de re, from that 
de nomim : And I may fay. 

That de re all men are agreed of all thefe fol- 
lowing things. 

1. That Civil Power ingenere is of Godsinftitu- 
tion : and his Laws made their fupreme Law, and 
his Will and Glory their ultimate end. 

2. That as all are thus bound, fo Chriftian So- 
vereigns are both bound and qualified as from God, 
and for God, and therefore are facred perfons. 

3. That the forcing power of the Sword is on- 
ly committed to Magiftrates;to be exercifed FOR 
and UNDER GOD,and by Chriftians for & under 
Jefus Chrift ; And therefore fuch Chriftian Prin- 
ces are not to be called Civil, as exclufive of Re- 
ligious or Spiritual work, but as exercifing their 
power pro civibttS) for the good of their Kingdoms, 
even religious. 

4. That God is the Author or inftitutor alfo of 
the Sacerdotal Office ; and hath fpecify'd it in his 
Word : And that the Magiftrate or the facred 
Miniftry, can neither of them put down each o- 
ther, nor alter any part of either Office which God 
hath inftituted. 

?. That'it belongeth to the Sacerdotal Office 
( or Clergy ) to be the official Preachers of the 
Goipel, and to judge by the Power of the Keys, 
who is fir, oruniir, for church entrance by Bap- 
tifm, and for Church Communion, find to Bap- 
tizr, and adminiibr the Lords Supper 3 admonijh, 


C 544 3 

fufpend and excommunicate from their comment 
on, fuch as deferve it, and to abfolve the Peni- 

6. That the Priefthood ( or Paftors ) have na 
power to ufe the Sword, by force, ( on Body or 
Eftate, by Stripes or Mul&s ) nor yet to force or 
require the Magiftrate to do Execution by the 
nicer Sentence of the Clergy, without trying and 
judging the Caufe himfelf. 

7. The Paftors that the Magiftrate chufeth for 
the care of his Soul, may declare him unfit for 
Communion if by impenitency in grofs fcandal he 
deferve it •, but may not difable him from Go- 
vernment, by a publick diilionouring Excommu- 
nication 5 much lefs fend fuch a reproach abroad 
in the Land or World. 

8. The Bifhops, and all the National Clergy 
areSubje&sto the Soveraign, as Phyficions and 
Philofophers &c are. And he is Governour over 
them in matters of Religion which belong to the 
determination of National Laws, as well as in 
worldly things. The Paftor as the Phyficion is 
judge judicio privato perfonali how to ufe his own 
Art and Work, and when, and on whom: But 
the King is Judge judicio publico of all that is to be 
the common Rule : As that Phyficions ufe no Poy- 
fonous Drugs, take not too great Fees, what 
Hofpital he (ball be over, &c. And fo fs* the 
Miniftry, that they preach notHerefie, or Schiftn, 
and Strife, that they neglect not their Work, 
that they ufe aiitTranfktion of the Bible, that 
they have due Maintenance, Place, &c 

9. The Soveraign is Judge whether hisCbrr 
ftian Kingdom (ball be divided into Provinces* 
Di^cefles> znd of what extent they fhall be, or 


C W 3 
(hall have one Primate, or all particular Churches 
ihall be equal ; or fome Tolerated and Privileg- 
ed from the Diocefans. 

10. The King may make publick Laws for Fa- 
mily Religion, that all Children be taught to read* 
and learn Catechifms, and Scripture, and ufe the 
Lords day in pious Exercifes, and fubmit to theit* 
Teachers, and forbear profane contempt or abufe 
of Perfons or Things. 

I think the whole Matter is decided in thefe 
ten Particulars. 

§ 4. II. Now de nomw the queftion is what is 
to be called the FORM, and what but the MAT- 
TER of the Church as National. For of a 
Church as Congregational, or ZSDiocefan, or 3. Pro- 
vincial we have ao controverfie : No more than of 
a City or School. 

And feeing every Politick Society confifteth of 

the Pars hnperans and Pars Snbdita, all grant thaC 
the Pars Imperans as related to the Pars Snbdita, is; 
the Specifying or Unifying Form and Head 5 it is 
then clear that all she Clergy being but the Pars 
Subdita under the Government of the fumma po~ 
teftas (whether Kings alone, or King and Parlia- 
ment, or an Ariftocracy ) they can be but the 
Matter of the Church as National, and not the 
Formal Head : For a Body Politick of one Species 
can have but one Head of that Species* So thac 
to make a Primate , or two Metropolitans, or a Sy- 
nod of Diocefans, or a Convocation reprefenting all 
the Clergy, to be more than the Matter of a 
Church as National, is to make them the fumm* 
pot eft as ovSoveraign i and to depofe King and Par- 

§ J. Obj. But the Regiment being of two Species^ 
N n (4 

[ 546] 

fo is the Policy , Society and Supremacy: Each is Sn*- 
pt cm in fua ipecie. 

jinf i. So then you would have two Nat ion ap 
churches and Soveraigns : If you'll extend the Con- 
troverfie but to the Name, it may be the better 
born : But then acknowledge the Equivocation, 
and give US the definition of each Church, and 
ufe not the Name of the Church of England for 
your own Form only. 

2, Eut a Sitbjetl Policy is not the Supreme and de- 
nominating Policy : Its private and fubordinate 
as to National. The Phyficions, the Soldier?, 
the Marriners, &c. though they are in hoc fit to 
over-rule the King and Parliament, are not there- 
fore the Soveraign Power of the National Body Po- 

§ 6. Obj. But theirs are matters of [mall moment^ 
but the Clergy are Rulers in matters of Salvation. 

■Anf. Unhappy dividing Rulers they have been 
here and in moft of the Churches. But, i. I 
have proved that Kings are Rulers alio in matters 
of Salvation as great as theirs, and over them : 

2. Was not Mofesy and David, and Solomon, and 
Jchofhaphat, and Hezekiah, and Jofjah, &c. the 
Soveraign Rulers of Church and Priefts, though 
an V^zJiah might not offer Sacrifice or Incenfe ? 

3. The proper Governing power ofBifhopsis but 
ever their own Flocks, and they may not Rule in 
other Mens Dioceifes, much lefs over King, Par- 
liament and Kingdom, further than the Soveraign 
giveth' them Political Power. 

§ 7' Obj. They may command Kings and King- 
doms in Chrifls Name to obey God and forbear Sin. 

Anf. True; fo did every Prophet ; fo may any 
one Minifter : Yea a Foreigner, aSalvian, a £** 


C ?47 3 

I ther, &c\ But this is Gods Government Nanciative y 
and not Political : And fo if the Metropolitans, 
' Diocefans, Convocation or a General Council 
command as in Chrifls Name, and prove rheir 
Commiifion as Meffengers from him, we will obey 
Chrift in them ; But if one Man bring better 
proof from Scripture that he fpeaketh from Chrift, 
he is to be obeyed before a Council that proveth 
no fuch thing. This fort of Divine Authority ]y- 
eth in Evidence ( which mod: Bimops on Earth 
now have not ) of the truth of their Meflage, and 
is but Nunciative, and worketh only on voluntary 
Believers and C on/enters. 

And if the Controverfie de nomine be. whether a 
Chriftian Kingdom as fuch may be called A 
CHURCH what pretence have the deniers ? Not 
a notatione nominis : The Church in the Wildcrnefi is 
a Scripture Name : And fure the Jews Church 
was not denominated from the Priefts only : Mo- 
fis is ofter named as its Head than Aaron. 

§ 8 Obj. But are not Judges and Bijhops apart 
of the Pars Imperans as well as the Soveraign. 

Anf Only fubordinate in rheir Provinces : They 
are but as the Kings Hands and Tongue* They are 
Subjects themfelves , and have no Political Power 
but what Be giveth them. 

2. If you might fo far diftinguifh of them as 
Imverant under the King and asSubjedts, as to fay 
that Judges and Bifhopsareas the Wife in the Fa- 
mily that hath a Governing power over Children 
and Servants, that maketh her not the denomina- 
ting Head of the Family, but a Subjetl of the high- 

e(l Ran!^ 

§ 9- Qu What if a Chriftian Kingdom had no 
Tajlors f 

N 11 2 Anf 


'Jnf. Then they were but an Embrio. or half 

Chriftian, and not materia difpofna for a full forma- 
tion. The Matter and Privation ( that is, Difpofitio 
rectptiva ) zrz.Effential to the £o^ though they 
be not the For^. 

10. Qu. But what if under an Infidel King, a 
Chriftian Nation be confederate under SiJJjops. 

Anf They are no Chriftian Kingdoms, but a 
Chnfiian Nation, and are many confederate Churches^ 
and may be called One Church equivocally dXidftcun* 
dum quid as confederate Kingdoms may be o#e /0'»g- 
^o/w : But they are but materia difpoflta fine forma 

as to a National Church properly io called, and as 

§ IT. Qu. An thofe of the Church of England 
that are not Conformifts f 

Yes, if they conform to Chriftianity, and are 

Subjedts of the fame King. 

§ j 2. There is an odd Writer that hath lately 
publifhed a book to prove that the Adf of Tolera- 
tion freeth not Nonconformists from the guilt of 
Schifm. Doleful is the cafe of fuch a Church and 
Land, where the Lesrned men after near thirty 
years filencing, imprifoning, and ruining multi- 
tudes,knpw not to this day what they are, or what 
they hold, and who it is that they do all this a- 
gainft, How can fuch wink fo hard as not to 
Jcnow that we took it for no Schifm to aflemble 
for Gods Worlhip before the Aft of Toleration, 
while they have done all this againft us for fo do- 
Jrv.; ? Could they think us fo mad as {Q futfer Jails 
3 id Ruine and Scorn ($nd Death to many,) 'or 
\10von Schifm} And if we took it for a duty before, 
h nv can we pfce.fta &§ of Toleration to be it 
|!)t( muft jqfiifie us } 


C 549 I 

But fuch men England fuffers by, that cannot 
diftinguifh between Forum JJivinum and Hn»<*- 
num-.We believe that Gods Command juftifierh us 
■inforo Divinoj for obeying it : But the Law jufti- 
fieth us inforo hptmwo; Gods Law and Judgment 
will keep us from Hell, and at laft filence our fi- 
lencers : But the Kings Laws bring us and keep 
us out of Jails, and from the Jaws of them that en- 
vy our Liberty and Lives. 

§ 13. It's a queft ion ^ confidence, whether 
EngUndbz a Proteftant Church or not, if it have 
2 Papift King? To which I fay, we muft diftin- 
guifh between a profeft Papift and a concealed one. 

2. And between a King that hath the total Sove- 
raignty and Legislative Power, and one that hath 
but part of it, and the Parliament another part. 

3. And one vvhofe Laws are for Popery ( or his 
power above Laws ufed by Commifficn ) and one 
who ruleth by Proteftant Laws. And (6 

i- A Kingdom under a total Popiih Sovereignty, 
ruling by Popifli Laws or Mandates above Law, 
is no Political Proteftant National Church, tho 
all the Clergy were Proteftants : The form that 
denominated! is Papal : And yet it is not a Papal 
Church or Kingdom : Becaufe the matter is eflfen- 
tial, and its difpoptkn without which non recipitH? 
forma. It is a Chrifiian Church, neither Protectant 
( fave equivocally ) nor Papift, bin mixt, 
; But if Biihop Morky and thofe Conformifls that 
give the total Legiflation and Sovereignty to the 
King alone be not in the right, nor they that make 
it traiterous to fuppofe that the Kings Authority 
fpeaking by Law, may be fet againft his Perfonal 
Will, Word and Commiflion, then the Parlia- 
ment and Lgws remaining Proteftant, the King- 

dom and Church may yet be Co called, though no r 
in the fulleft fence. For then the Laws being the , 
Kings publick voice, and the effeft of a Power 
above his own alone, by them tho' he be a Papift 
he Ruleth as a Proteftant. But it is otherwife if 
his Commiffions (e. g. to the French or Irifh to 
Invade the Land) be above Law, and may not be 
refitted on any pretence whatfoever : So great a 
ftrefs lieth on this point of Conformity. 

§ 14. But I will leave another cafe to the con- 
fideration of others. If Mecropolitans,or Primates, 
if Diocefans or Convocations, be the fitmma Fo- 
t eft as, Ecclefiajlica, and a Church be truly Society 
Politic a 9 or governed; Qn* Then what Religion 
was the Diocefan Church of Gloucefter, while 
Godfrey Goodman was Bifhop ? Or the Diocefan 
Churches of Eli, of Norwich, of Oxford, &c while 
Dr. Guning, Dr. Sparrow, Dr. Parker, &c. were 
Bilhops ? Or the Church of England and Ireland, 
while Dr. Land, Dr. Neale were here the Metro- 
politans, and Dr. Bromhall Primate of Ireland. 

§ 15*. As to the Learned Dr. ( now Bifliop ) 
Stillingfteet, that make:!) the Church of England to 
have no vifible Informing Conftitutive Head or 
Sovereign, but to be Governed by ineer Corifent 
of men Agreeing in a Convocation repreienting 
the whole body, I am forry I have {aid heretofore 
jfo muchagainft it 5 as if the Confent of all Wri- 
ters of Politicks regardable, had not beenanfwer 
enough, who agree that all Politick bodies are 

eflentiated by the Pars hvptrans, QX fnmma Poteftasy 
and the Pars fnbdita 9 zs the Materia difpofita: And I 
to much honour the National Church oiEngland,zs 
thatlfhall not yet granc(till it is further deformed) 
That It is no Political Body, but a meer Confederal 
. 4 ting 

C tfO 

tine Community , like a Confederacy of Kingdoms. 

But if ever it come to that, you may fay, that 
when the fame Land hath many forts of Confede- 
rate Clergies, it hath as many Churches -, and 
which is the beft, I think is not known in France, 
or Spain, or Italy, or here by the Major Vote -, nor 
hath Nature put a Ruling Authority in Major 
Votes of Lay or Clergy, as born with them,before 
'Contract give it them by Political Conftitution. 

All's well in Heaven ; The Lord fit us for it. 

March 30. l6$l. 

Since the writing of all this I have read Bimop 
Stitlingflcct's excellent Charge to his Clergy 3 
which would give me hope not only of the conti- 
nuance of the Proteftant Reformation here, bun 
alio of fucha further Reformation as may procure 
our Concord, or at la ft move the Law-makers, (o 
far to amend the Act of Uniformity as may pro-> 
cure it 5 were it not that the deluge of the wick- 
ednefs in City and Countrey, and the paucity of 
Men qualified for his defcribed Work, and the 
Power and Number of the Enemies of it, maketh 
me fear that it will die as unpra&icable Angularity. 

But I humbly recommend to the Clergy the re- 
gard especially of thefe pallages in it. I. Pag. 12. 
- Thofe that have the fmalleft Cures are called 

* PASTORS, and Linwood notes that Parochialts 
1 Sacerdos dicitnr Vaflor, and that not only by way 
c of Allufion, but in refped to the Cure of Souls 5 

* but we need not go fo far back : What are they 
c admitted to ? Is it not ad Cnram Animarum fj 
Ask Dr. Fuller Dean of Lincoln, then, Whether it 
be Mimft trial Truth to ptbUjjh that Parochus was ne- 

4 ri*^£ [J52] ~ fP& re- 

vere ailed Pafior^ till the deliration of this a?7d the for- 
mer Age. ] 

II. Pag. 15. [ " I hope they are now convin- 
<c ced chat the Perfection which they complain- 
ed lately To much of, was carried on by other 
" Men, and for other defigns, than they would 
" then feem to believe. ] 

I am glad that you are convinced of it. You 
are miftaken in us \ we believed it ever fince 

1660. But we know that it was Sheldon, Morley, 

Guning, Hmchman, Sparrow, and many morefuch 
that were the great Agents of it, in Court, Con- 
vocation, and Parliament. I thank you for dis- 
owning ic* 

III. I rejoice to find it proved, Pag. 37. that 
The Bijhop is judge of the fitnefs of any Clerk^prefent- 
edto a 'Benefice,"] which as it puts us in fome (faint) 
hopes for the future, fo for the timepalt it tells 
the Bilhops whofe the guilt is of the Inftitution of 
all the uncapable Clergy. 

IV. Pag. 40. He proveth that Vacations 
ihould be Parochial. 

9 V. He comfortably purpofeth to reduce Con- 
firmation to its true ufe : And tells Minifters their 
Duty of Certifying the Receivers fitnefs. 

VI. In a word, I intreat the Reader to com- 
pare this Charge, with the Vifitation Articles of 
Bifhop Wren , Pkrce, and fuch others, and the 
Charge againft them in Parliament, and obferve 
the difference, and be thankful for fo much. 

F I N I &