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Full text of "A treatise of Episcopacy; confuting by scripture, reason, and the churches testimony, that fort of Diocesan churches, prelacy, and government .."



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TESTIMONY, thatfortof 

j^iotcfan Cljurtl)r0. 

PRELACr, 2ind GO V E R NM E N r. 

Which cafteth out 

The Prhn'itive Church-Species, Epifcopacy, Mimftry aad Difcipline, 

and confoundeth the Chriftian World by Corruption, Ufur- 

pation, Schifm, and Perfecution. 

Meditated in the Year 1640. when the Et catera Oath was impofed. Writ- 
ten 1 67 1, and caftby. Pubiiflied 1680, by the importunity of ourSupc- 
riours, who demand the Reafons of our Nonconformity. 



Printed for Ni-vil Simmtm at the Three Cocks at the Weft end of S. Paul\ 
aad Thomas Simmons 3t the Princes Arms in Ludgate-ftrtet. 168 1. 


■finut 10 


The Hiftory of the ProduSlioJi of this Treatife, mib its De- 
fiqii and Sum j to p event mif-unde^jlandin?. 

BEcaufemany of late, as weJl as Juflice Roger L' Eftrangc,6o 
feem to believe thcmfelves in their accufatioii of me, as 
ch.mging with the Times ; thougli I greatly affecb tlic cliangc 
of a Froficienf, and know not at what age it is that fuch 
men would fix us that we may grow no wifer, nor ever repent of 
former Ignorance or Errour ; yet Iwillhcreconfcfs to them that if 
what I here write againll be good and right, I have been forty 
years unchanged in my Errour. 

My mutability hath been little to my advantage for this world , 
For further than I was for the King, I never was one year on tJiar 
which was called the upper or ftronger prevailing fide, as far as I un- 
derfland it. Nor to the very day that I was turned out of all, did 
my Preferments, or Riches ever ferve me, fo mucli as to have a 
Houfe, or keepa Servant man, (fave in Travail) or Woman (favc 
one aged Woman that provided me neccflaries, in a few top rooms 
of another mans Houfe ;) which I mention for the fake ot the mi- 
iXzkQW French llranger, Mr. Dure/, that tells the World another 

And as to this ^ubjciH:, this is the Breviate of its Hiftory, a^ cri- 
ghte. I was in my Child hood, firfl: bred up under the School.and 
Church teaching.oi eight feveral men, of whom only two preach- 
ed once a month, and the reft were but Readers of the Liturgie, 
and moft of very fcandalous lives. After that I fell into the hands 
of a Teacher, that ftudied for preferment, and reviled Puritanes; 
and after that I fell into the happier acquaintance of three ancient 
Divines, that were called then Conformable Puritanes ; and all 
of them bred in me an Opinion, that Nonconformijls were i/»lear»- 
eff men, a Je/^.ied to hxxmorhus, caufelefs Singularity: For I knew 
but one * who was an honeft plain Preacher but of little learn- •wher? 
ing: And to fettle me, theDivincs that Hollowed, mademe readDr.^iv- 
Bilhop Downame's Defence, Bilhop Andrews, and others for Epifco- {''" "". 
pacy, and Mr. Sprint, Dr. Surges, and others for the Ceremonies : n«t " 
And I verily judged them to be in the right : But as foon as I was ^'«'gb'»'- 
ordained, I removed into a Countrey where were fome Noncon- 
formifts, fome few of them Learned Minifters, and many Lay- 
men; of whom, one in the houfe with me, wasoftdifputing the 
Cafe with me, and I thought ! had ftill the better : And the Non- 
confcrmahle Minijlers there, were men of fo much Holinefs, and 

A z Peace, 


Peace, tliat they would fcarce ever talk of die matters in dif?er- 
ence, but of Holinefs and Heaven, and repreHing the over-much 
heat of the Lay men; And the hmous fV///iam tenner being late- 
ly of the next Parilh.aConformift of learning.yet plain andahedHo- 
nate in preaching,God had blefl hisMiniftry witli fo great fuccefs itt 
the Converfion of many ungodly Perfons; as that the reverence 
of him, kept up the honour of Conformity among the Religi- 
ous people thereabouts- 

Butini640. I was removed to Brignorth, and the Canons 
newly made, impofed on us an Oath, wliich had thefe words, 
[I A. B. do five ar that I do approve of the Dotlr'me, and DifciplinCi 
or Government of the C/^arc/^ <?/" England, as concerning all thinqs 

mcejf^ry to Salvation i^or will lever give wy CONSENT /» 

alter the Governr/ient of this Church, hy Arch-Bifhops, Bijhops, Deans, 
and Arch- Deacons, &c. As it Jlands now efiahlijhed, and as ly right 

it ought to Ji and And all thefe things I do plainly and Jincerely 

acknowledge ani fwear, according to the plain and common fence and 
underfianding of the fame words, without any eq^uivocation^ or men- 
tal evafwtt, or fecret refervation xvhatfoever ; And this I do 
heartily, ivillingly, and truly, upon the Faith tf a Chriflian : So 
help me God in jejus Chrifii] 

Though every Minifler in the Countrey, as well I, was for 
Epifcopacy, yet this Oath fo flartlcd them that they appointed a 
meeting at Brignorth to confult about it. It fell out on my Le- 
cture day, and at the meeting, it fell to my lot to be the Objeder 
or Opponent, zgdxn^lsiT.Chriftopher Cartwright (a good Man in- 
comparably beyond me in Learnmg , theDetender of K. Ch. i. 
againfl the Marquefs of Worcejler, and the Author of tlie Rabbin- 
nical Commentary on Gen. whofe Papers of Juflification,! fince an- 
fvvered) He defended the Oath ; and though my Objedfions were 
Rich as were none of the flrongeft, the Minifters thought he fai- 
led in anfweringthem,and we broke uprrtore dubious than before. 

I had a little before fet my felf to a more ferious Rudy of the 
Cafe of the Ceremonies than before ; and upon the readintr of Dr. 
Ames Frejh futt, and fome others (having before read little on that 
Tide) I came to fee that there was a great difference between the 
determination of fuch Circumflances of OrrtV/- as the Law of Nature 
or Scripture allow and oblige men to determine one way or other[ 
tiie Genus being neceffary, and the making of new vc(y^icz\ fignifi- 
cant teaching Ordinances, and Symbols of ChriRianity (of which 
fee Bilhop 'jer .Taylor cited in my zd. Plea.) And hereupon I had 
fetiedpiy Judgment only againfl the impofed ufe of the Crofs in 


Baptirm, and the abufc of undertaking Godfathers. 

But now I refolved before I took fucli an Oath as this, to Rudy 
overagain the Controverfie of Epifcopacy, (which ehe I think I 
ihould fcarce have done) For Ifaw i. Tliat fuch an Ojtb a»(/Covc» 
nant, fo Univerlally impofed, was made the tcfl: and terms ofCIiurch 
concord, and fo would be an Engine of divifion by Ihutting out all 
that could not take it. The Scotch Oath, and Covci ant was not 
the firll impofed on us: The Bifliops Oath and Covenant to the 
contrary went here before it. 2. 1 faw that the whole frame of the 
prcfent Church-Government, j^as about to be fixed, as by an 
Oath of Allegiance, on the Land, as if it were as necefiary as Mo- 
narchy, and to be woven into the fundamental unchangeable con- 
ftitution, and it were true, A^o /?//?'(?/', no King. 5. I askt, fr/'j/ jujj 
the meaning of the Et actera, and could have no folution, but from 
the following words \_As it jLw^s now ejlahlijhcdl And underflood 
not well how tarLay-clianccllous,0/]icials, Surrogates, Rcgifters, 
Prodors, Advocates, were part of the cflablilhed Government; 
but I faw it certainly included, Arcli bifhops, Deans, and Archdea- 
cons. 4. I askt whether the King and Parliament Iiad not power to 
fet up a Bilhop in every Corporation ? and to take down Deans, 
Arch Deacons, Chanccllours,Oincials,iS»'r. afid i'cw denied it. 5. I 
askt my felf,if theKing andTarliament make fuch a c!iangc,and com* 
mand my Confcnt, wiiccher I mull difobey them.and loreftall my 
obedience by a Covenant and Oath .^ 6. 1 thought that what is im- 
pofed on all the Clergie to day, may be impofed on the Laity next; 
And then all Parliament men will be Sworn and Covenanted ne- 
ver in Parliament fo mrich as to Confcnt to change any of the 
Church Government now enabliihcd. 7. 1 found that I mufl alfo 
(\\xx\-\J hat it owijjtfo tajhurl.'] which could mean no Icfs.thanby a 
Divine Law, wlien Mans Law may not alter it. 8. I found fuch 
Hcartinefs,Willingnefs required in the Swearer, as required very 
full fitisfaition in all this. And that with the terrible re-nimci- 
cationof the //f//) ofGodtnChrifi, ifldonotall that I fwear to. 
(J. And I mufl be deprived of my Office (for Benefice I had none) 
and cart outoftheminillry, ifl refufed totakc this EpifcopaJ Co- 
venant and Oath. 10. And I knew tliat he that made no Confer- 
ence of deliberate Perjury, had little reafon to hope that he had a^ 
nygoodConfciencc, true Grace, or Honelly; and fpecially if he 
concurred to invoh e all the Clergie, or Nation in the guilt. 

Upon thefeConfiderations, I fet my felf to a more fearching rtu- 
dy of the matter: I read Gerjom Bucer, Didoclaue, Jacob, (and af 
ter Parker^ Bains,) and others on one fide, and all that I could get 



f : 

on the Other, (Dww^w again, Bi/fsn, Hooker, Saravia, Andtetos,, 
and many more)And the refult of my feardi was this,I wondered to 
find fo many write for and againjl Epifcopacy, without diflinguifli- 
ing the forts of Epifcopacy : For I found reafon to think one fort 
at leall Tolerable, yea, defirable ; but that which the Oath of 1640. 
would have bound me to, I found great reafon to judge to be but 
what I have defcribed it in this Book : And I here give notice tQ 
the Reader,that whereever he findeth me fpeak,as againfl the Enghfl? 
Dmefane Prelacy % I mean it as defcribed h^Coufi^s, and Dr. Zc-uch ; 
and as relating to that Oath and Gwion, and not in oppofition to 
the Laws of the Land . 
, This Judgment then fetled, I never could fee caufe to change, 
but the more I read of the Ancients, Church Hifl:ory,Counfels,^f. 
And many other Writers for Epifcopacie, (Petav/us, San[la Clara 
Spalatenfis, Dr. Hamettd^vA many morej the more was I confirmed 
in it to this day. When Ufurpation was at the highefl, I wrote 
accordingly in my book, called Dijputations of Church Governmeat, 
When the King came home I accordingly iifed my Endeavours as a 
Reconciler with the Minifters here called Presbyterians, who 
feemed moflly of the fame mind. And how little an alteration of 
the Church Goverment in the I\.ings Declaration of Ecclefiafticai 
Afltairs, did we receive with thanktulnefs, and it would have been 
with a conforming joy, but that we knew the leading Men, that 
"'treated with us, too well to hope that they had any mtention to, 

continue it,but to ufe it they knew to what, till they had 

done their work and got this Aft of Vniformity. 

In 1668. After I had been in the Goal, and yet men called for 
the reafons of my Nonconformity, I drew up fome of my thoughts 
rudely:And in 1671. The call being renewed I wrote this 
gook, as now it is (living a few additional Notes) : But cafl it by 
ji^y Friends and my experience perfw ad ing me, that the Bifliops, 
j^j^d their Parliament adherence could not patiently bear it. 

Many years after fomc Letters paft between Mr. Henry Dod-^ 
iv^'[l (then of Ireland) and me .- And his laft being tedious, and". 
Ixc Teeming not to intend or defirea publication otthem, Igave 
Aim but a Ihort general return, inilead of a voluminous particular 
"'" Anfwer, efpecially becaufe I had this Book written by nie, in 
which I had more than anfwered him, and was not willing or at 
leafureto write over the fame things again; But when I had later., 
ly wrote in my Book of Concorde [ummary confutation of Mr. Dod- 
n^c'/i-fchifmaticalVolumne, in which he'degradeth, unchurcheth, 
if not unchrifleneth, fo many of the Proteftants, as having no 




Sacraments, no Covenant right to S^alvation, but Tinning agaiull 
thfe HoJy-Ghoft; and all for want oia Minillery derived by an unin- 
terrupted fucceiTion of Epilcopal Ordination horn the Apoftles, (and 
could not by importunity prevaile w ith him to anfwer l^oet'im /k 
Jejherata caufa Papatus, or my Dijpute of Ordination, at laft I received 
a Letter from him, flgnifying his purpofe, upon his Friends defire to 
Publiflihis long Letter written to mc owt o\ Ireland : So that I faw a 
neceflity of Publifhing my Treatifc which contained more than an An- 
swer to him : And the rather becaufe fome R. Ile\erend Biihops and 
others had urged me, to give an Account of the Reafons of my Non- 
conformity : bo that I had not leave to fupprefs this book, nor be 
longer filent. And yet I fear that they that lo called for it, Mill not 
eafilybear it. 

The fumnte of Mr. Dodivr/s Letter to me, now in the prefs, is to 

prove the poiTibility of right Difcipline, by our Diocefane Gover- 

ment as it is, i. Becaufe Magiflrates can exercife theirs by as few : 2. 

Becaufe the Ancients rfV/jiVi? did it by fuch : Therefore it may be done. 

To anfwer thefe two is to anfwer his Letter, which one would 
think fliould be fo eafy, that noScholar Ihould have need of help to do it, 

i.Ifany mancanby an harrangue of words be brought to renounce 
his reafon and experience, fo far as to believe that the O/Hce of a Pa- 
rtor may be performed to as many Pariflies, as the Office of a Major or 
Juftice of Peace may, and tliat Pallors have no more to do in 
watching over particular Souls, inftruv^ing, exhorting, convincing, 
comforting, vifiting, worpfliing, Governing, &c, than the works of 
a Juftice of Peace amount to, and that Dr. Stillinglleet (e. g.) Ihall be 
excufed if he do no more for his Parifli, than Juftice Ro^. UEjlrange 
doth, I undertake not to convince that man of any thing. Read over 
the work of a BilTiopas I have heredifcribed it from the Scripture and 
Dr. Hamond And compare it with a Juftices work, and if you can yet 
be deceived by Mr. Dodwel be deceived. 

And yet I think there are in divers Pariflies about us many Juftices for 
one Paftor : I am confident Landon Diocefs hath a great number for one 

And either our Juflkes are bound (befides what now they doe) to la- 
bottr as much to bring fome to Repentance, and fuch other work, as 
the Paftors are bound to do, or not .- If not, it will not follow that as 
large a Circuit may be Governed by one Paftor as by one Juftice : If yea, 
then he doth but condemne the Juftices for unfaithfulrtefs ; which will 
not prove, that a Paftor miill be as bad. 


2.And as to his ajipcal to the difcipline of the Ancients ; I leave the Rea- 
der to the deceit otthis mans arguings, i. I the cannot find it fully pro- 
ved in this Book, that the Churches of the ancient Bifliop? were notfo 
big as our grcatelt Parilbes, as to the number of Souls, much lefs as our 
Dioccrtes. -x. And if in my abftrud of Church-Hijiory oi BJJhops and 
Counfels, I have not Hilly proved, that Difcipline was neglected. corrup- 
ted or overthrou'n dy degrees as Bifliops-Chuiches overlwelled. When 
we read fuch doleiul complaints in Hiftgry, Fathers, Counfels and their 
Canons of the corruption oftheChurches,is thi'. the true ufe to be made of 
all, that ivemuji belike them, and not blame thetn, left we open. the vakeJnefi 
of our Fathers .^ ] . And if men can make themfelves w illingly fo blind, 
as by a flory that the Fathers did fuch things among People and circum- 
ftances w'liich we know not,to renounce comrMn experience that it ■• is 
not now any where done, nor can poflibly be done; Ifrhencan be ifo 
ignorant what our Pariflies and Diocefles are, and what aBifliop and 
Chancellor do and can do. Let fuch err, for I am unable to cure them, 
any more than if they were confident, that my Lord Major can Govern 
all the Families of London as their Mailers, by ftewards, without Fami- 
ly-MaIlers,or that one Phyfitian, or one Tutor, could ferveinlfead of ma- 
ny for the City. 

Indeed they that have as low an efleem of true Difcipline, as Mr. D. in 
his Letter feems to have, may eafily believe that a few men may do it. 
And thofe Papifls that can let the Church be the fink of common un- 
cleanneis, anda Nurfery of Ignorance, Vice, and Prophanenefs ; fo they 
may but keep up their Wealth, and Eafe, and Honour, by crying up 
Order, Government, and Vnity, may accordingly believe, that no more 
knowledge. Piety or Difcipline is a duty, than ferveth the ends of their 
worldly Dominion. 

I muft again give notice to the Reader that whereas the Common 
Objedtions of the greatnefs of Bifliops Churches in the fecondCenturie,are 
fetcht fromtlie inltancesof iiowi?, and Alexandria, I have anfwered even 
thofe two in the beginning ofmyBreviate of C/7«/-<:/>/////or>', to which I 
muft refer you, and not again repeat it here. 

I know that poor ingnorant Perfons muft exped fuch a fiiameful Cant 
of old reproach as this,to cheat them into the hatred of Chrifls Church or- 
der.and Government,into a loveof Clergiebondage,.afcornful fmile ihali 
tell them [Mr. ^d'.v/'e'/- would have as many Bifho^s .as Parijhes, and a 
Pope in every Parijh; ivben men think one in a Diocefs too much : When 
every ignorant or rajh Prie/l Jhall be the Mafter of all the Pari(h, and jou 
have no remedy againfl his Tyranny,.; what a hrave reformation wiU this be e] 
And fuch a deceitful fcorn will ferve to delude the ignorant and ungodly. 

Btit if tliev truly undcrftotxi viae cdfe , (hey vvoiild 
He the ■fli.ime of t],is deriding ohje^rion. i. A Pope 
is a -A/oiwich or Governmiv of the world , and a Dioec- 
CiA of a niultjuide of Parilbc^. Ar.d fufc he ufurpeth not 
io much, who will be hvx the ( ihurcli-guidc of one .<^ A man 
IS abler toa;iiide one SchocM, Cr,lledee, Hofpital, or Famih', 
than a hundred or thoufand, without any true Mailier of a Fa- 
mily, School, CoUedgc, &r. un.-lcr him. 

3. Why is not this fooliih rcomeftfcd againft thcle forcdud 
relations alfo .<? Why fay they, not every iVIalkr makcth him- 
(elfa Pope or Bilhop m his own houlc, and c\cry Schoo!- 
Maflcr to his School, \\T^rcas one Malkr over a thouland 
would do better with barcTeachingUfl\ers, that had noGo- 

?. Let itbercmembred that we would have no PariQi Paftar 
to have any forceing po^ver , by Fines , Muldts, Imprifon- 
mcnt?, dv. Butonlvto prcvailefo firr as his man.igcmcnt of 
Divine authority on mens Confcicnces can prevail: And we 
would not have Magiftrates punilli men mecrly bccau(e they 
ftand excommunicate, or becaule they tell not the Clergy that 
ihcy repent. True excommunication is a heavy punilhment 
fitted toils proper ulc, and not to be corrupted by the force 
of the Sword, but to operate by it fclf ^ And raleat tjiuwin/ft 
vakrc potcji. He that defpifeth it will not fay he is cnllavcd by 
it. But is this all that the Bilhops dcrtre ? 

4. We would have no man become the Pallor of a Church 
without the peoples confctii (if not choice) no more than a 
Phyficiantliould be forced on the fick . And as the Servant 
that conlcnteth to be a Servant, confcntcthto his Mailers Au- 
thority, and hethatconfcnttth to a thylician,con(enteth to be 
ruled by him for his health, and neither take this for a llavcr\' : 
So he tlMt coiilcnicth toai'altor, ccnlentcth to his Pafforal 
condudt : And if he think it to his iniurv, he maychocHl'. 

5. And yet we believe that the Magiilrate mnv coMprein 
Atheifts, intidcls, and fach as r(. file all proi^cr Church Com- 
munion, to hear Gods word Prcacheck and make all the Far- 
itb allow the Teacher his tyt'ics ard maintenance due hv La w • 
B ut he may force no man to Receive tlie threat iiiii: o* the Hcxly 
and Blood of Chrift, or a pardon tlelivered a!id kakd hy 

B Baptiiiw 

Eaptilwi Oi tl-.e Euchnrift, ancl to be a iiicnibof of the Clvurrh -^g 
fach, againfr his will. Far none but dclirouscoiifcntc-rsarg 
capable ot the {>,iH5jo that the lame iVljriiferqiay b e the com- 
mon T(:achcr of all the Pariflf ,;.a^ j'et ,.ti;c Ciiurch-Paftor 
only of fit confcnters. Atid 'when Sacraments at- g i^ ce q't^ 
t]o iVJitlift cr conftraincd to deliver them ap;aini^ his Coaici- 
encc^^ nor any unwilling; man to receive them, who is bv this 
en(layed>- _ 'j;n-.cijt7D '^-^ ■ 

I- 6. And if a Church-Paftor do difplcafe the Ghurch, and 
the main body of them withdraw/ their confent, we woiild 
not have any man continue their Btftorwhile they cohlait 
not, but difclaim him. Though i^afe of nccd*,the EJiaJet^s 
Hjay continue him in his Bcnelicc^as the publick l^reacher'. 
if tliC people bo grolly and obftinatcly ci-ilpable iH^tefufiiitr 
him. _ oq.Li<>»:.rl-i i^cvu^j:-,^..h 

/cio^yAndvve would have that Parifli Partort:b'hai4'nb:"|o(v- 

■^r to hinder any other Afi'niftcr from giving any one^the 5;^- 

■erament ^vhom he denycth it to, or that refufeth it from hioj: 

Though he that for a common caufeis cnftout of our Qiurch 

-"ftiouid- not be received by others, tHlhe repentcth, . vet tlv4t 

toids not in all private caules, between the particul.?r' P^ftor 

andh.ira ^ nor in cafe ot unjuil excommunication: And other 

i^'i^'linifters mull: judge of their own aictons, whom -to receive 5 

'and an injuring Mimfterraaynot hinder any other, nor the 

'-injured pcrfon from communicating elfevvhere. '•:i 

8. And we would have Parith Churches bc'asKirg'e'asper- 
fonal communion doth require or allow, and every Church to 
have divers Alinifters:, and if one be chief or Bilhop, and the 
j-ell: aififtants, and if three or, four fmall Parilhes mak.c'oiiie 
lUch communicating Church, we rcfift not. 

9. And we defire frequent meeting or Synods of neigW^our 
Paftors ^ and that there every finglc. Paftor be reatly to gj\5e 
an account of his MinKfry, and toanfwcrany thing that (hall 
he alledgcd againfthim : And that the vote of the Synodio^^ 
•ligcthi all agamft unncceiiary lingularity, '^' ' 

- 'iq. We rcfiul- not^that one in every fuch Synod bethe^inp- 
'dcfator; and if as of old every City (vaxn ) or Corporati- 
on had a Billiop , fo if but every Corporation or mjjrket 
•l^eWnj'oreyer^'cii-e^iit.thkf hath as nti'hy iCbnimuiiicaji.ts as 


'Tilh Kijow one aiTotrierby n<;ignb.mitnood irtKd fbmc comcr- 

nitidh. and fbmetime.s Hllcmbiino-Y like a creat Paritli wiith 

'mafly'ChappclsJ had but fomuch ptTV'.-ef,, %is ^l-lcn^ialtoa 

,'tni'd pafticiilar Pafforand Church-^ yea .^it but, ihepqxvcr that 

^ free Tutor, PhilolbplKT or Phyliciaahaih, to maiiU^e his 

office by his skill, and not asaii ApoihcCiiry or mecr executor 

bf a flrangcrs dictate?, w-elliould quietly fubmit. 

II. And as wc refufc not luch Bilhops (even dur.wte vita c^- 
[^^}^acHaic) in enciy Church or City th.at is Corporation 5 lb if 
■itplca(e either the King, or the Churches by his pcrraiiUori 
to' give one grave and able man a general care of many 
Churches, (as even the Scots fuperintendcnts had at their re- 
formation , as Spotjirood of Lothian , ^c. ) not by \iolen:c 
tofilencc, and opprels, but by mcerPaltoral power, and only 
fuchasthe Apoflks themfclvcs ufcd to inftruft junior Paftors, 
to' reprove, admonilli, &c. we refift not: A\id fo if fiodly 
Dioce(ans will become Arch-biQiops only of diis fort, and 
promote our work inftcad of hindering it ^ we fliall fubmit, 
t'lidiigh wc cannot Swear approbation, it Ixing a thing that 
Chrjftian iVIiniflers may dcnibt of, and no Article of our 

"-"'^ibr Knd'ifthc King do cumulate wealth and honour on 
tlicm, and give them their place in Parliaments, to keep the 
Clergy from contempt, yea, or truftan}- of them under him 
«)S Magiftrates with the Sword, whether we like it or not, 
WC fliall pe.accabiy lubniit, and obey tl]cm ,as Magilbtites. 
", /l^.'AiiJ '^fer order lake thefe Diocelijnst fhouJd have a 
Itcgative voice ('unkfs in cafes of forfeiture or netX'lUty) in 
theordinationof Nfmifters to the Church vmivcrfd, not tak- 
ing away the power of particular Chardies to dK»<e, or at 
leafl freely confent or dilient, as tothq fixing qi Paftot's o- 
. vqt 'thenifcly<;s vve vi'ouJd fubj3ijtroi^Jt})ii/forcpgif)ion peace. 
Sfl(l:v'iaIIy jf dje ^Ia^l(i^J^te only choofc^nipivto Deficficusand 
IVfaglrtraclct,' and'no:K-'had the Pjftoral po\i'er iji" tftc Kjcyeir, 
but by the Eleftion of the Clergy and' the- peGplc=; cond-nt, 
which was the '.udc-mcnt and pras;dcc of t,he uiirvx'i;falCUvii'eh, 
be ^ 

li 2 others 

oth'cM^M^ An'd^jtfio^^^ he may not t^kc die" work of ovir jprt>|>ef 
catimg^ov«( of pur 'h^inds no more ' tHan the Phyficiarl*, yet' '\ih^ 
i7uy%fp^^ j^u'rtice a^ di(v:i-ction ) pum(h us for male-ad miui^^' 
iVranon, anJ 'drive us to our duty, thoiii^h not hinder us &©rtl' 
it 5 And weconftnt to do all under his Governraeht-i'Jud^e' 
i-l^w^wbctherwefet up Popes or Tyrants. ,^ ! .-• ) 

By all this it is apparent that it is. none of the del^ex>f 
this Trcatifcto overthrow or weaken- the Church of Ef^g- 
Uhd I, but to Itrengthcn and fccure it againft all its /liotorU 
oQs. dangers, i. By rcfomiing thofe thia^s , \vH'ch ■ elft'* 
undoubtedly will caufe a faccelFion of diflcnters' in all ^e-^> 
nciations , though all we the prefcnt Noiiconlorniifts ' are 
quickly like to be paft troubling them, or being troubled by 
them, even of themfelves many will turnc'upon the fame 
rcafons which have convinced us. 2. By uniting all Pro- 
tcftants , and turning their odious wrath and contentions, 
into a reverence, of their Paftors. and into mutual Love and 
help. . . , . ! 

This Treatife being haftened in three prefTes fince Mti 
Dodrvcl lent me his Letter that required it, I have not time 
to gather the Printers Errata, but muft Icavethem to the 
difcretion of the Reader. Only for [ Ef'gifp Prelacy "] be- 
fore the fir ft Chapter and in many other places flipuld te 
[The defer ihed PrclacjTj. ^''' . ■ ■\-^-^ "^ ,. '/ ".'. ■■ • ' . -r-< 
I will end with the two following Teftimonies, Of/e adrem^ 
the other ad homhiem. 

The Lord pity his Ship that is endangered by the Pi- 

Oltoher 14. i686j 

Richard Baxter. 



i-^J^ipn M^riyfs ApoJog, ^^^e^ hp^^rathct; die tor the co^- 
fcllioQC^ one Faith, then either lie or (i^cceive them that ex- 
amii^c us : Ocherivife we might /evidily ufe that Common 
frying, my Tongue is fvvora , my mind is uafworn (vid.Rob.' 

ry« ' 4 * * • ' '-' "^ ■£ ' \ _. *' V....' 

, 77w7,'£//^c of forbearance of Penalties. It is to no purpofe 
to_ talk of reformation in the Church unto regular Govern- 
ment, without rcftoring the Liberty of choofing Billiops,*" 
and the Priviledge of Injoying them, to the Synods, Clergy 
and people of each Diocefs. So evident is the right of Sy- 
nods, Clergy and people in the making of this of whom they 
conlift, and by whom they are to be governed, that I need 
make no other realbn of the neglett of F.pifcopaqy. tJaan the . 
n^<?i3;ofit. m^^' ij ^ 


.jiif. :..:..' 

:jmiJ J'. 

yrfj o'< 

3ri r 




•^Xtk& "tit- 

^T H E ^^^^ 


-. i .; li.i .,1. > I 

Part. I. 

— ^.lO 



■chap. 1. )>* JH""^ He Keafonf of this TVut'ing. 

Chap. i. T/;e E«g///& Vhctfane Prelacy and Church Go- 
vernment truly delcribd that it m.iy be l'r,cii:nrvhat it 
is rvhich ivc dijfait from. 
Chap 3. Our judgement if the Hijiory of the ancient Church Government^ and 

nf the rije of the T>iocejane Prelacy. 
Chap. 4. 1hejied(rcment of thofeNon ConformiHsnetv fdenced,rvLvȴ6o ad^, 
drejfed themfelves to King Charles 11. for the matter in CburS^K.r- ;rn^ 
ment ; IVhat they then offered^ and ivhat thofe of the Antb:rs. rrfftif^ f^:^ 
bold^ as to theKight of trhat is before but HijloricaJly related^ „^ ^\,^^';j-\^.^ 
■Chap. 5. Concerning the feveraliFriters on this Controverftc, rvberetn there are' ■ 
fttfficicHt anim.tdi'erfanf on /^*»^ a»d fn^kient CoifulMiaas of the Cbeif^ 
rvho have ivritten for the Prelacy rvhich ive diffint from. As i.\ i,itp,ifr. 
2.Faravia. 3. Bilfon. 4.Hooker. 5. B//?^');'Downa[r.s D./e//--p, 6,RijJ)op 
Hall. 7.Petaviiis.8.B//fc. Andrews, p Bilh.UihciiufomepaJfi^.es. loOf 
the Vijpute at the IJIe of W ight. 1 1 , John Forbes. 1 2. Ihetivo Books of ibs 
Bohemian Difcij>linc con fcnted to. 1^. GiOtlus appla.tdLd. 14.J.D, i5.M, 
A. de Doin. Spalatenfis conftdcrcd, and much of him approved, 16. DaUor 
H4rtiifipnd anfrvered., v'lz.his Annotatioiu^^s Dijfertat. againji Elondcj, 
^c.wbobave written againji Prelacy. ■"^. . , 

Chap.4. ItisiiQtpkaftngto God^th^ , Cities cnlyjfjutld bjve Btlhops^a/f^i.i 

Cburcbci Kith the Jerritor.ies.: ■■ , ,y, ..i.,.....:* >.■,, ',',■).« ti ,,.t .1 ■ V'ti 
Chap. 7. The Definition and Reafons of a J)iocefah Chitrii^^.^ijf^^.^A.^^pd'^^^ 
confuted. u.-,; .,- ■■, xn.>v...,v;cv) >\:/',w\j ^ .stv,*? :/!vt.-,'..\v.^b'U j, .ncrl ■ 

Ciiap. S. !nethertbeInfdet-Smimkf-imi^^l^Mm<i^,\<ifi ^M^fi^^ 
^ Church 'i V, -..jV^O vh > m-.^V:-,'.- 'isV y.-- it^--;» Vt.;*i iiv^ws-.K .li q, -;;■.: 
Chap.^. JVhithercotiv&ting ;(iT}ioccff give right fo their Ccnyer^rf,a'ke.{t^.c^ 
Bifhop and Ruler. \,. ;> .,;^,_,,-j. 

•Chap. 10. 7hai apirticidivCl^urcbof \thtfirjl.gr Icrvijl 9rdtf^,rnt^/ confiji tjf r\i 
neig}}boKr Chrijiians^ ajfociatedfar perfonai Cofrmmnion in local prefence in 


holy tvcfjJjtp and Converfation, afklnoi ef Sir anger j fu nnulf^ as h.vje wy'v* 

an internal heart Communion, or an external Comnuituon by the Mtdiatioii of' 

Cliap. 1 '• '^•'■'' ^ K#o/' or PsHor' sf a Fariiculaf Church o/tljfjirj} ra)Jl^jfn)-e. 

eli-fcribed, mitjl govern it fijtedly as pr^Jent, by himfelf, and nit .ihjcnt hy 

others. T£t '^' T"* T 

Chap, iif.' the]^} npfjihu^d Mtmfiandimof the^c nit^rc of the P.itli . 

rtl Offic!^ andChtirch'Gozrrmnentj ivoula-end thefe Controttrfi^s abmt Prc- 

Gliap. 13. Ihjttkrc is no HeedafJucJr as our DioceCsnes prtbc Unity-, errhc 

Cmernmcnt of the particular Mtm/fers, nor for tlv fiUncing of thcunwon'i ). 
Chap. 14- T^hetrueorit^inal of thettarrantahlc fort of Epifcnpacy in particn- 

hrChifrchcs,n\is tl.v notorious drfpanty »/ abilities in the Valines. And 
' iljo 0, i(r/nal of that tyrannical Pnlary into whith it dii dt^eneratc, was the 

yrorldly f^pirit inihe Fajhrr and people^ rt4}ich tvithths IForld camebypro, 

fpcrity into tlx Church, Quxrc, Iflvthcr tf>e thmgceafcHot iritn the Kea- 

Jo(i of it ceafeth, 

■ i r^uVnv " ; \ ;^' ,.»■ . !V !i. '■• ^.■^'Kl.^l ' ■^. T-: ' m, — . — 

Part. II. 

Gliap. I . "W'lie clrjri^ nftUf State oftl.v ^ueflion. 

A. t hap. 2. Ibefi'f Ara^itmcnt j^ainli the afircJi'fcnhed Diocffinef 

ttfit ihir ftrni ( cjimnnim in fc J d:lfi-oyeth i'>ie pjrtig.tlar Church'fhrm 

ofG(>dsinthtutin}t,!tndffttethup ahttmAne form in its {icad. 
Chap. 3 . 7»' '' the rrimitive Kpifof'l Churches <ff ilv Hsi'y.Chptis Tnjiitmion, 

tvtre Imt J'nch Cffngtrg4tm)T ,rjr '/ hefbre defrribed. Piw;Vu ^v Sorrpftfre. 
Ch-ip.^.. Ihi f.irne jH'^'cdh) the CoKefrms office mcji learned J^efenders 6f 

frelacy. " ■ 

Ch^.^*. *thefi>Hcftwedf>y t/V fttnteiiTmony of Aniiqttity. 
VMif.'S^ ThvftiJte fiirthr cnnfityMcd hythe AncitiHs. 
Chap. 7. Mare proof of the aforefiid Ancmn Chitrch limits., fram the Ancirrt 

Cirjioins , 
Cl)ap. 8. Jhat thr Viocefmcs c.iufc t!-': Erri^rnf the Sep ir.itiftfy rrhi rroid oier 

Churches as f.ilfe in their Conjlitution^ and rvould ni fable nt to canfitie them. 
Chap. p. \[he fecond Ar(r:tment front the depyfition cf the Primitive fpecies of 

Bijfjopstandthe trcding of a hitnune tncjnji^eiit-f^ifS'itt their lltsd, Affi^ 
c/prk^fjifei-encc proved. ■•.a„\>.»;\ V,.u. •At\^^s^\.<^ -"v .: . ]v,i! - 

i hap. I o. UnHiher any form ofChweh Cevernment be injlituted hy Gad at «»* 

ceffa,-\\or all be left to hwnant prudence and choice, , ■ 

Cliap, 1 1, Argrtmenl third from the dijieuUicn of the Order of Pfis!>)icy<t i>f 

divi/ichiihtAftiim, and the invention ofjnarOrder ofhatfSiib-presbyttnt\itt 

thcirjiud. • '^ 

Chap.* i>iy ifb^GaiihjfiMtdftich rrcih\Jerf is hlid the fdrefaid pSn-er oFiiyi- 

K:)vs iv.(f"^l>ie, %yeirflii^^m3 i'i0pU»i , vkl no tiher ^.ca hy the Scrip/ kH' 

Chap. 13. Ihcfsmc co)ififmcdh\ihe AwhiHs, 

chap. 14^ And by the Coiiffjons of the greateji and leamedifl Prehtijtr. 

Chap. 15. UlKthu- this G<nitrnmci'.t bcioi)(TingtoiTs:-Frcsbyters be in foroEc- 

ckliallicoexteriore, or p?/.j(in foroConfcientix, vcl inrcriorc. 

Chap. 1 6. 'that the EugJifl; Dioccjaiie Ctr^xr/imeiit dvtly change this Office of a 

Trcsbytcr of God's /^?ti/r «■/?('«,■ quantiini in fc, into another of hAmMieinvcn- 

'iion. 7ht difference tfencd. In-cnty inftances of taking an-ay the Presbytcrt 

poircrfrom them. 
Chap. 17. "fhat the grejl change of Government hitherto defcribed (thnaking 

of a newjpecies ofChrtrches^'BiJhops and Fresbyters, anddej/ufvig the old) rvJf 

finfirlly done^ and not accerding to the intent of the Apojlks. 
Chap. 18. Argument fourth from the impojjibiliiy of tJxir performnr.ce of the 

Epifcopal Office in a Diocefane Church : And the certain exclufmi and dijhrt- 

aion of the'perticular Church Government, while one man only rvill ttndertak^ a 

■nvrk^t 00 great for many hundreds^) when their iporl^ is further opened in per- 

^Chap 1 9. Ihefame impofibility proved by experience, i . Of the ancient Church 

2 . Of the Foreign Churches. 3 .Of the Church of England. 4. Of our feher. 
Chap. 20. Ohjedions agaittjl Tarijh difcipline anfivered. I'he need of it proved. 
Chap. 2 1 , Ihe Magijlrates fn-ord. i . Is neither thejhength of Church dijcipline. 

2 . Nor rvill ferve inflead of it. 3 . Nor jhould be too much ufed to fecond and 

tnforct it. Ihe mifchtifs of enforcing men to Sacramental Communion, open- 

.ed in trventy injiances. 
Chap. 22. An Anfreerto theObieUions, i.NoBiJhop,noKing. i.OftheRc 

hellions and Seditions of them that have been againji Bilhops. 
Chah. 23. Certain brief confeSaries, 
.Chap. 24. Some Jeftimonies of Trelatijls themfelves ef the late fiate of the 

Church of England, its Biffjops and Clergy, left n>e be thou^t to wrong 

them, in our defcription ef them, and their fruits. 
Chap. 2 5. Ihe Ordination lately exercifed by the Presbyters in England, wbeK 

theBifhops were put down by the Parliament, ij valid, and Re ordination not 

to be required jiixe divino, asfnppofing it null. 


O F 


Confining, by 


And the 


That (brt of Dioccfan Churches, Prelacy and Government, 
which cafteth out the Primitive Church-fpecies , Epifco- 
pacy,Miniftry and DircipHnc,and confoundeth the Chriftian 
vvorldby Corruption,Ururpation,Schifmcs , and Pcrdcution. 

Meditated 1640 when the ov. Oath was impofed : Written. 
1 67 1 andcaftby: Pubhllied 1 680 by the Call of Mr. H. 
DodiYcl^ and the Importunity of our Superiors, who de- 
mand theRcafonsofour Nonconformity. 

Tlic dcfigne of this book is not to weaken the Church o( EngLind, it* 
GovcrniBcnt, Riches, Honour or llnitv: But to lUengthcn and fc* 
cure it, i. By the concord of all true Proteflants who can never u- 
nite in tlie prefent Impofitions : 2. And by tlie nccclTary reformati- 
on of Parilli -Churches, and ihofe abufcsjwhichclfe will in all ages keep 
up a fucctllionof Nonconformifts. 

As an Account why we dare not Corcflj;;/ by Oath or Subfcription /.-tTrr 
tocndeaiwir any (amending) altn-.tthn of the ChHrch Gnva-Knicnt (by 
lawful meanes, as Subjcds) nnrmakc our fclves the jullifying vouch- 
ers for all the unknoivn ptrfon^iin the Kingdom, who vowed and 
fvvoreit, tiiat none ot them are obliged to fuch CiawfulJ endeavour, 
by their vow. 

By RICHARD BAXTER, a Catholick Chriliun, for love, con 
cord afld peace ot all true Chrifiians, and obedience to all lawful com- 
mands of Rulers '-, but made. Called and uied as, aNonconformilt. 

Ltndm. Printed for Kexil Shr.mms at the three Coc(\rac the NVcft end of SaiiK Pjul;^ 
and r/»«.« .S'/'wwin; at the Ftincti Armcsiii LaJgate-ttrcecy MDCLXXXI. 


Tbeje Books folloveing are printed for ^ and fgld ^^ Nevil Sim- 
mons at the three Golden Cocks at the vpeji end of St. Pauls. 

I A Chri/iian Dire&orj, or fura of praftical Theology, and 

jt\. cafes of Confcience, direfting Chriftians how to ule 
their Knowledge and Faith, how to improve all helps and i 
meancs,andto performeall duties how to overcome temp-'' 
rations, and to e(cape ormortitic every fin, in four parrs, 
I. Chrijiian Ez/j/V-^-f, or private Duties. 2. Chrjfihn Occoko- 
Mukj , or Family Duties. 3. Chrifli.in Ecclcfiujlicks ^ or 
Church Duties, 4. ChrJflian Politickj ^ or Duties to Our 
felves and Neighbours, in Folio. 

Catholick^Thcology : Plain, Pure, Peaceable, for Pacification in 
three Books, i. Pacifying Principles, &c. 2. Pacifying 
Praxis, dv. 3, Pacifying Difputations, C'r. 'mFol;o. 

The Life of Faith in three Parts: The fir ft S.n-mon preached 
before his Majefty, &■(. Thx; Second, Inftruftions for confir- 
ming believers in the Chriftian faith. The third direftion> 
how to live by f\ith, or how to cxercife it in all o:calion> 
in ^luarto. 

I^al^dVopcry-i or the naked Faldiood of a book called the 
Catholick^vahsd ^ritth^ or the Puritan convert toApoftolt- 
cal Chriftianity, written by W. H. opening their fmda- 
mental erroursof vinwritten tradition, and tlicir unjuft dc- 
fcription of the Puritan, the Prelatical Proteftant and the 
Papift, and their differences , 8cc. To which is added an 
examination of Roman Tradition, as it is urged as infal- 
lible, &c. Inanfwcr to a book called A rational d;fioiirjc of 
Tranfiibjlantiatiou, in ^^arto. 

A Key for Cathclicks^ to open thcjugling ofthe jcfuits, and fi* 
tisfie all that are buttnacly willing to underftand, vvhcrhcr 
the caule of the Ronun^ or reformed Churcl)Cs be of God 5 
and to leave the reader utterly unexcufible, that will after 
this be a Papift. ?« O&azv. 

A Treatife of Juftifying RighteoufneC in two books, in ■ 


TThcre are lately piihlijlxel of iijis Authors thefc tveo Books fillorvwgy 
and fold hy Thomas Simmons ^j? tke Princes Armes m Ludgate- 

CHurch-HiJrcrj of the Govm-nwrnt ofB/fiops and their Couf^ 
cilsy Abbreviated. Including the chief part of the O'o 
vcrnment of ChriiftVan Princes and Popes, and a true ac- 
count of the moft troubling Controverfics and Herejies till the 
Refbr/mtioN. Written for the ufe efpecially of them, I. Who 
arc ignorant or mifinformcd of the Rate of the Aatient 
Churches. 1 1. Who cannot read, many and great J^olur/ies. 
III. Who thmk that the Umzmfal Church mud have one 
Vifible Soveraign^ Perfonal or Cclleftivc, Pope or General 
■ Councils. IV. Who would know whether Patriarchs^ Di- 
. ocefans^ and their Couvcils^ have been, or mufl be the cure ■ 
of Herejies and Sckifm^s. V. vVho would know the truth 
about the great Hercfics which have divided the Chrifliatt 
World, efpecially the Donutijls^Novatiaf.'s^ArridKs, Macedo- 
nians^ Nejioriam^ Eiitychians , Monothelites, &c. By Richard 
B^A^T, a Hater of FalfeHiftory. 
A Moral Pragnojiication, I. What (hall befal the Churches ori 
Earth till their Concord, by the Reftitution of their Prinii- 
tize Purity, Simplicity and Charity. 1 1. How that Refti- 
tution is like to be made, Cif everjand what (hall befd them' 
thenceforth unto the End in that Golden Age of L VE. 
Written by Richard Baxter^ when by the Kings Commiffion, 
we(invaia) treated for Concord, 1 66 1. And now publifii- 
ed not to inftruft the Proud, that fcorn to learn 5 nor to 
"make them Wife, who will not be made Wife : Buttoln- 
ftruftthe Sons of Lo^e and Pcace^ in their Duties ^ndi Ex- 
pevlations. And to tell Pojieritj^ That the Things u hich be- 
fall them, were Fore-told : And that the Evil might have 
been prevented, and BlefTed Peace on Earth attained, if 
Men had been but willing 5 and had not Chut their Eyes, 
and hardened their Hearts , ngainft the Beams of Light 
,and Love. 

( ' ) 

v I I: .. Ki it 


Englifh Diocelan 



T R Y E D, &c. 


The Reafons of this Writing. 

I Am not ignorant how difpleafing it will be to the Prelates, that I 
piiblifh thefe Reafons of my Nonconformity to the Subfcriptions 
and Oaths by which they would have me become an obliged Ap- 
prover of their Fundlion. Nor am I ignorant what Power, Wit 
and Will they have to exprefs and exercife their difpleafure : And conle- 
quently, how probable it is that 1 fhall fufFer by them for this work. And I 
well know that peaceable fubjet^s (hould not unneceflarily fay any thing 
againft that which is required by their Rulers Laws, nor cherifli the Peo- 
ples difcontents, but do all that is lawful for the common Peace; And I 
am not of fo pugnacious or fclf-hating a difpofition, as to be willing of 
mens difpleafure, efpeciallymy Supcriours, or to be ruined in this World, 
and all that I may but vent my Opinion, in a cafe wherein I have publifh- 
ed already fo much that is ftill uaanfwered, as in my Difputations of 
Ghurch-Government is to befeen. 

B And 

( 2-y 

Andupoii fuCh Reafons f-but above all, that I might notcal! away 
luy opportunity for ibme more ufeful writings, nor put an end to my 
own labours before God put an end to themj I have been filent in this 
Caufe finceour publick debates in 1661, above ten years. 1 have lived 
peaceably •, I have endeavoured to preferve the due reputation of the pub- 
lick Miniftry, and to perfwade all others to due fubjeftion , love and 
quietnefs: 1 have by Word and Writing oppofed the Principles of fuch 
as are exafperated by their fufferings into the Dividing and Separating 
extream •, Though I knew, that by fo doing, I was like to incur thedif- 
pleafurc and bitter ceirfare of the Separatifts, as m«ch as I had before of 
the Prelates, (tlTbugh not to fuffer fo much by them.) And I thought that 
the Prelates themfclves who would not underftand the true (bate of the 
People, nor the tendency of their way, by our informations, and evident 
Reafons, might yet come in time to know all by experience, and fo to a- 
mcnd what they have done amifs- 

But now 1 dare be no longer filent for the Reafons given ^pol.ch. i. 
which I will flay the Reader bri^y to fum up. i. I find that experience 
it felf doth not Teach fome men, but Harden them. 

a.. I perceive thatthofe that are now convinced by experience, and 
wifh they had taken another courfe, and rather have united the Miniftry, 
than filenced them, are not able to undo what they have done, nor to 
amend what is done amifs, much lefs to retrieve all the doleful confe- 
quents •, but the matter is gone out of their hands and beyond their power. , 
"■ 3. I fee that while we wait, the Devil's work goeth on, by the filence 
and by the Divifions of the Minifters •• Popery greatly iucreafeth ; Qua- 
kers multiply •, Atheifm and Infidelity go bare'-faccd among thofe that 
are accounted men of reputation : Malice, and bitter hatred of each o- - 
ther, with common backbitings, cenfurings and flanders, infVead of fweet 
Love and Concord, do notonoufly encreafe. Thoufands are every day 
committing thefefins, to the increafe of their guilt, and the haltening of 
Gods judgments on the Land.- The fufierers call the Prelates perfecuters, 
and wolves io Ihecps cloathings, who are known by their fruits, their 
teeth and claws. The Prelatifts ftill fay that the Nc»conformifl:s are un- 
reafonable, difcontented, peevifh, factious, unpeaceable, unruly fchiC- 
maticks •, that will rather fee all confounded than they will yield to 
things indifferent. And fhall we ftill Hand by, and filently fee this work 

4. And to love and defend Truth, Honefty and Innocency is to be 
like to God. It is pity that thofe that Chrift hath done fo much to 
juftifie, and will fo glorioafly juftifie atthelaft, fhould have nothing faid 
01 their behalf by men- But we are much more obliged to juftifie a 
righteous caufe, than righteous men j For all men have fomewhat that is 
unjuftifiable, but fo hath not the truth of God- 

5. And he that in his Baptifmal Covenant is engaged againft the Fle/h, 
t\\s World and the Devil, Oiould be loath to fee all their wofk go on 


■^ 3 ) 

and notoppofeiti and to fee, that whichl-etak^thto be no better than 
deliberate Lying, or Juftifying fin, and Perjury it lelf, and covenant.'ng 
never to obey God in lawful and necellary Church-rcforniation, to be all 
called ; Things indifterent. 

6. Nature and Scripture teach us to have a due and moderate regnrd of 
our own reputation as men ^ but much more as Miniltersof ( hrift ^" feeing 
the doftrine of Chrift which we preach or write, is ufually diQionoured 
in the Miniftersdilhonour, and the edification of the fouls of them that 
hear us or read our writings, is greatly hindered by it; 

7. While Noblemen, Knights, Gentlemen, conformable Clergy-men, 
and many others of all Ranks, are poifefled with thefe thoughts of us,that 
we are perfons who hypocritically pretend toGodlinefs, while indeed we 
are fo humourfome, that we will forbear our Miniftry, and our Mainte- 
nance, and fuffer any thing, and divide the Church, rather than yield to 
indi&rent things •» this is a fcandal, a grievous fcandal, either given or 
taken, and tendeth to wrong their fouls that are fcandalizcd : And if 
wcgive them this fcandal, it is our heiaousfin: But if they take it by 
mifinformation, we are obliged to do our part to heal it: Souls are pre- 
cious i and fcandal doth endanger them, even to diftafl: ReUgion it felf, 
for the fakes of fuch as they take us to be: And w« muftnot Hand by 
and fee raea perifh, if we can do any thing to fave them. 

8. The fufferings of many of the Min iftcrsare very greats that have 
not br ead for thetrcFildren, nor cloaths to c over them, and are a fha- 
med to make known their want^ AndnF^itli^I this, we fuffer the 
burd en of unre prpved calumn y to lie oiT th em, andlceep th emn ottoth e. 
neceflary comfort which confclencc Ihould find in fuffering^ with Jnnb - 
ccncy. we fh all be guilty of nncharita T>IeneTs o u r felves . 

9. It is part of our Honouring the King and Parliament and other 
Magiftrates, not to defpife or flight their cenfures : And the judgment 
which they have publickly pafledonus, inan Aft of Confinement, which 
impofcth the Oath for Prelacy, is fo hard and grievous, that if we are 
guilty, it is fit we (hould be made the common reproach of men ^ And 
if we are not, fas Non-conformiftsj it is our duty to rcdifie the judg- 
ment of our fuperiours where they are mifinformed. And as jiugnflint 
faith, that no good Chriftian (hould be patient under an imputation of 
Herefie ; fo I may fay that no good Subjcft fliould be fenflcfly patient 
under an imputation of difloyalty and fedition : That better befeemeth 
the anarchical and truly difloyal and feditious , who take it for no 

19. And we know how pleafantly the Papifts infult to hear us ftig- 
matized for Villains and feditious Perfons by our brethren, and what 
ufe they will make of it at prefcnt and in future Hiftory to the Ser- 
vice of their malice, and injury to the truth : which we ought not filent- 
ly Ibill to fuffer ■, white we fee how hereby they do already multi- 

B % !!• And 


Ti. And how unlikely foever it be, it is not irnpoirible, that oui Su- 
periours, that at once depofed and filenced about 1800 Minifters of 
Ghrift, when they fee what Reafons we have for our Non-conformity, 
may be moved to reftore thofe that yet furvive : And then how many 
thoufand fouls would have the joy and benefit ? 

12. Laftly, Truth and the jutt information of Pofterity, is a thing 
exceedingly defirable to ingenuous minds: It is a great trouble to 
think that the Ages to come, fhould be injured by falfe Hiftory. 
Therefore we muft do our beft , that they may but truly know our 
Gafe-, and then let them judge of the Perfons and Aftions of this 
our Age, as they (hall find Caufe, when Trutlvis opened to them. 

Upon all thefe Reafons, though to my own great labour, and to the 
greater contradidion of my natural love of filent quietnefs , and to 
the probable incurring of mens difpleafure, I take it to be my duty 
to give my Superiours^ Neighbours and Pofierityy a true Account of the 
Reafons which have moved my felf and others of my mind, to re- 
fufe to Subfcribe and Swear to the prefent Engli^ Diocefan Prelacy? 
Committing my Life and Liberty to the pleafure of God, in obedience 
to whom I have both refafed to Conforn], and written thefe Reafona 
of my Non-conformity. 

( s) 

C H A p. ir. I 

The Englifh Diocefan Prelacy, ani Church-G ovenwiiint^ 
truly c/c{oibe(f j that it may be {non-u irhat it is which 
we ilifomt^ 

IT being not Epifcopacyin General, but (the Popifliand) the En^^lt(1j 
Species of Prelacy, which our Judgments cannot approve , 'and 
which we cannot fvvear to as approvers, it is neceirary that we 
tell ftrangers, what this Prelacy is, that the fubjed of our Con- 
troverfie be not unknown, or mifundcrftood. But the fubjed is fo large, 
that the very naming of the parts of our Ecckfiaftical Government, in 
Tables by Dr. Ri.Cofws, makcth up a Volume in i6 Tables, and many 
hundred branches. Which being written in Latm I muft refer the 
Foreign Reader toit^ Not at all tor theundcrftanding of our Pradicc, 
but only of our Rule, or Laws with our Church-Conflitution: feeing 
it would take up a confidcrable Volume to open but one half of his 
Scheme. All that 1 fliall now do is to give you this brief Intima- 

That in Enj^Un^ there are 26 or 27 BiHiopricks : of which two arc 
Archbilhops : In all thefc f.t together there was when Spte^ numbred 
them, nine thoufand fevcn hundred twenty five Paridi Churches, but 
now many more. IntheDioccfsthat 1 live in( L«V;co/« jthere is above a 1000 
or 1100. In very many of thefe Paridies, bclides the Parifli-Churches, 
there are Chapels, that have Curates, in feme Parifhcs one Chapel, in 
fometwo, in fome three, if not more. In thefe Parifhes the number of 
Inhabitants is various, as they are greater or leder: The greateft about 
London, fuch as Steftiy^ Giles-Cnpple^te^ Scpulchrti , Martins, &c. have 
fome about 50000 perfons, (fome fay much more) fome about joooo, 
fome about 20000, &c. But ordinarily in Cities and Market-Towns 
through the Country, the number is about 2000, or 3000, or 4000, or 
5000 attheraoft, except Flimouth, and fome few great Parilhes that have 
far more. And in Villages, in fome 2000, in fome 1000, in fome fmall 
ones 500, or 300, or in fome very fmall ones fewer. There are in 
England 6^\ Market-Towns (faith Speed) which are of the greater fort 
of Parifhes, and fuch as in old times were called Cities, though now^. 
fcvy have got that title ", at leaft a great number of them are equal, and 
fome much greater and richer than fome that now are named Cities. 
The Diocefs that I live in is about fix-fcore Miles in length. By all this 
you may conjefture how many hundred thoufand fouls are in fome Dia- 
ccfleai and at what a diltance from each other . and what perfona! Com- 



munion it is that they are capable of: I ray felf who have travelled o- 
ver moft of England never faw the face or heard the name of one Perfon 
('I thinkjofmanythoufands intheDiocefsthatllivein : Nor have we any 
other Communion with the reft of the Diocefs (even v;ith above a thoufand 
Parifhes in it) than we have with the People of any other Church or Dio- 
cefs in the land about us, fave that One Bifhop and his Chancellor and o- 
ther Officers, are over us all. 

The Magiftrates Civil Governmeut of the Church I (hall not meddle 
with, as having no exceptions againft it. The Sacerdotal or Spiritual 
Power, called the Power of the Keys, detcrmineth who fhall be Members 
of the Church, and partake of its Communion, and exercifeth other adls 
of Spiritual Difciplinc, of which more anon. This power isfaidtobe 
in Archbifhops and Biihops in foro ecclejia publico vel txteriore^ though 
alio in the Governed Presbyters , in foro privato interiore, as they may 
privately comfort a penitent perfon, and declare God's promife of the 
iCtjIns pardon of his fin- M The Archbifhops have it in eminency: As alfo the 
Tab. J. powerof confirming the Election of the Bilhops of their Provinces; and 
the power of Confecrating Bilhops with two others : and the power of 
Convocating Provincial Synods upon the Kings Prefcript ; and of mode- 
rating in them. The power of receiving Appeals, and of Vifiting the 
whole Provinces : yea to receive Appeals from the lower Judges, omit- 
ing the middle ones 5 and tocxercife Ecclefialbcal Jurifdiftion in any 
hccjins vacant Diocefs under them. They have M power of Difpenfation in 
Tab. 4. all Caufes (not judged contrary to Gods word^ wherever the Pope had 
powers and where. the Pope had not power, if the King or Council per- 
mit it them. They maydifpenfe with the Eating of flefh on Fafting-days, 
with Marrying without previous publication i with divers irregularities, 
and fometime may abo\\!h JtmomacHm i^fnhitum. They may grant Comraen- 
dams, and Difpence with Non-refidence, and with thel<eeping of divers 
Churches called Benefices, in fcveral Cafes, and with a Sons lucceeding 
his Father, and with Lay-mens poITelling the Church-maintenance, called 
The Bifhops (who take place in Parliament of other Barons, as the 
e cofint Archbifhops do of Dukesj [c^ are all chofen really by the King, who 
Tab. J. nominateth in a Writ to the Dean and Chapter the man whom they mult 
chufe; who pro forma (Jo chufe him, never contradi(^ing the Kings 

Their proper Office confifteth in the powers of Order and of JurifdiBi- 
on, (as they diftinguifh thcmrj Their power of Order is threefold, i. To 
Ordain Priefts and Deacons. 2. To Confecrate Churches and Burying pla- 
ces -, 5. To Confirm Children after Baptifm, when they can fpeak and 
fay the Creed, Lords Prayer and Decalogue, and others that were not 
Confirmed in their Childhood. Befides, that they may be Privy-Coun- 
fellors, Lord-Keepers of the Great Sea], Lord Treafurers, ErabalFadours, 
fifc- Their ordinary Ecclefiaftical Jurifdiftion extendeth, i. tothelnter- 



diftion of Divine Offices, i. topublick Admonitions and Penances, 3. to 
fufpenfion from the Sacrament, and from ingrefs into the Church, and 
4. to Excommunication and Abfolution, and 5. to Anathematifms. And 
as to Minifters, I. They may Sequefter Benefices. 2. They maySufpend 
ab officio & beneficio, and forbid them to Preach or Fray, Or grant Li- 
cenle to fuch as flialJ be tolerated to Preach, j. Tliey may deprive ^ 4. 
And depofe Mimitershy fentence verbal, and drgradatton adualty. 

This Church JurifdK^ion of Bifliops is diltinguiftied into Fduntary and 
Contentioui j C^^j The Voluntary extcndeth to abundance of things grant. 
ed them by Statute, and by Common Lawr, which 1 pafsby : That which dc«/.Tab. 
they claim both by Municipal Law and Ecclefiaftica!, is, I. The probate <?. 
of the Teftaments of the dead i 2. The granting Adminiftrationot Goods 
to the next of Kin, 3. Keeping the bona cadHca where none claimeth the 
Inheritance, 4. To receive Reafons of Adrainiftring, and to be Judges of 
them. 5. To confer Benefices, or Inftitute fuch as others prefent. 6. To 
grant liidu»rtion to the Inftitutcd. 7. To receive the Fruits of vacant Be- 
nefices. 8. To allow the Vicar a fit proportion. 9. To grant Letters Di- 
miffory, or Teftimonial. 10. To Vifit their Dic cefs once in three y ears. 
In which Triennial Vifitation, the y ufua Uy go to one Town in a County, 
([and never fee the face of the people in the many fcore or hundred 
(^hur.ches about them;) and thither they fummonthe Minifters, and the 
(^hurch . Wardcns an d Sides-men; .Where one Min i fler prcachct h,and the n 
the Minifters mult dine with the Bifliop-, anjljn Cou r the (or hi s Officer) 
giyeth a Book of Pr inted Articles, containing a multitude of particulars> 
which the Church-w arden mult fwecr to p j^nt¥y, wherelj ecaule ot EHe 
qHality of the m fome Chur ch-Wardens refufe, and others becau I e ot the 
nu mper r^onv- laying it \i~unlawful to undolneir Minil ters MdjN cTgh- 
"Kou rrSyfuch Pfefentments Cas tor omitting a Cere mony, for preac h- 
ing or keeping a Faft in pnvate,""?cc.; and lome laying ltls Tmpdnbleto 
j ^eep the Oath , and fome faying that if thej^ do it, they ffiall be hated of 
thei r Neighbours: W hereupon thofe that rcTuTe are profe cuted to pnnifli- 
ment •, "And the reft take the Oath and Artick^ ibuinot^onejjf many doth 
prefent accordingly •, though thcCanon enquires af ter the perjured- And 
many that /car jjerjury ^r pcrfccution themfelves , do hire fome poof 
m ag to be Church- W'ardcn in their (tead, that will venture upon all. I 
mult intreat the Reader to perufcfome of their Books of Articles (efpc- 
dally fuch as Bilhop A^untagues and Bifhop Wrens) to fee what was thtn 
enquired after. Dr. Zouchdefud.Ecclef.\). 37. §. 1. Part. j. faith, jid ■ 
jiulicts cjHod attinet (tatnto ordinatum^ ^jMod perform conjugal £ duimaedo Dozens 
Juris Civilis fuerint, cjni ad offiictum Cancdlariiy yicarii Generalis ^ Officiality 
vel Commijfarii a Majeflate Rej^iay ArchiafifcofOy Epifcopo., Artkidiacono Mut 
alio qHocMique poteji-item habente dcpntuti fu>it, omnem jHrifdtUiowm Eccleji- 
4j}icam excrcere^ & quam lihet cenfuram five coercttionem trrogare peffint. \ 

This Jurifdiftion of Bifbops is exercifed either Univerfally by a Vicar 
General, ufually a Layman •, orqarticularly by a Commiffiiry. W And «C»/;Tab. 
when he pleafe the Bilhop may do it himfclf. The ' 


The other part of their Jurifdidion is called Contentious •■, And here tlic 
fo/.Tab. Bifhop may himfclf judge in fome Cafes [/] but in the ordinary courfe 
8- of Jurifdidion, a Civil Lawyer called his Chancellor is the Judge.- This 

Chancellor is and mufl: be a Lay-man, which even Bifhop Goodman of 
Gloiicefier^ \_Myj}- Rel. Epiji. '■ 1 have it and can produce it at this time, 
'under the Kings own Hand and Seal,wherein he forbids that any Church- 
' man or Prieft in Holy Orders be a Chancellor : and this was the occafion 
'of all the.corruptionof the Spiritual Courts: For Chancellors live only 

* on the Fees of the Court : and for them to difmifs a Caufe, it was to lofc 

* fo much blood. See further in him.] a Papift Bifhop of a Proteftant 
Diocefs, complaincth in Print, that he could not get Reformed. This 
Chancellor keepeth an Ordinary Court, in the form of a Civil Court, 

e Co''. Tab where are Advocates for Council, andProdors for pleading : C_f3 Cer- 
1 & Tab. tain men called Apparitors (whofe name is commonly a fcorn among 
«. the people,) do from abroad the Country bring them in Accufations, 

and Sommon the perfons accufed ; befides thofethat by Plaintiffs arcac- 
cufed. Here are judged Caufes about Church Materials , and Caules 
Criminal-, which he that rcadeth the whole Book of Canons and the Vi 
hCo/ibid. fi^-^Eion Articles may fee, they belngtoomany for me to recite. [/;] Be- 
' fides a multitude of Cafes about Marriages (.to-be Goatraded,-dillblved7 
icof. ibid, r&pafation) and Teftament^, and the Goodsof Ixitcftate perfons.- C»3- - 
..- Pcielts, Deacons-and Lay-men are judged in thefe Courts ; -The-final* 
c-onftraining penalty is Excommunication, or before that SufpeBfion,-a-Rd' 
other degrees of Church punifhment before mentioned as belonging to^ 
the Bifliop : The fuppofed offenders are no othervvife dealt with to bring 
them to true Repentance, than as in Civil Courts by other Lay-Judgesr 
They that appear not, and they that pay not the Fees of the Court and 
OfRcers, are Ejfcommunicate, and they that obey not the Orders of the* 
Court- In Excommunications and Abfolutions the Lay-Chancellor is Judg,- 
but he writcth the Decree in the Bifliops name: And ^at leafl fometimes)- 
fro for/na, fome Prieft or other is procured to be prefent fno Bilhop,> 
to utter the Sentence which the Lay Judge Decreeth: This-Sentcncc is- 
fent by the Chancellor to the Minifter of the Parifh where the offender- 
liveth, who muftpublidi it in the Church openly (as the Cryer doth the 
Kings Proclamation^ But if it be the Minifter himfelf that is Excom- 
municated, another Minifter readeth it. The whole proccfs of their 
Judicial Tryals, Sentences and Executions you may fee in Cc/Tu's, l<th. 

y. 10- 

Befides the Chancellor's Courts ('called the Bifhops^ the Archdeacons 
have certain inferiour Courts, where they enquire after faults, and re- 
kcs/Tab. f^-n the great ones to the Billiops Courts. [}J And they Indud or give 
*■ polfenion of Benefices. 

As for thePariltiPricftsor .Mlnifters, ordinary Pariilies have but one 
to each i but Great Par iflies cannot befcrved (as they call it) without a 
Cura'.c •, and each Chap:! hatti a Curace •, but all under One^ that hath the 


fole poflefllon of the Benefice, whethet'he be Parfon or Vicar. Tfiefe 
Priefts are Ordained by the Bilhop (Tomeone, tvpo, or three Presbyters 
if prefent al/b impofing hands:) They are chofen to the Church and 
Benefice by the Patron who prcfcnts them to the Bifliop •, who giveth 
them Inftitution for Title , and lndu(flion for.pplTenion. When he is 
Ordained, Iiiftituted and Indudcd, he mufli rot Preach to his People, 
till he hath got a [/] Licenfe from the Bilhcp of that Dioccfsi no lAflof 
though he were before Licenfcd in another Diocefs : Nor niuft he ^"'f°™' 
Preach or Officiate, or have any Benefice or CInirch, till behave fiib- ti,^, p 
fcribed, and done as is cxprelTld in tie Ad of Uniformity: And he rin'irriefts 
mufl; declare his Ailent and Confcntto ail thing"? contained in and pre- have no 
fcribed by three Books ^the Liturgy, the Book of Ordination, and thepovci". 
Articles.) And lie mud fwcar obedience to his Bilhop. '^ P""'"« 

His Office is (when after Licenfcd ) to Preach, to Read the Scriptures, ^^^y.^'.' 35 
and the Apocrypha, and many Atfls of Parhament, and Homilies,: to aifo tb« 
read the Liturgy or Prayers-, To give notice of Holy-days and Parting- the King 
days: To Baptize all Children, without e.vccption, that are offered him, '"'"^'^<^- 
by Godfathers and Godmothers (the Parents not Covenanting for them, gjp^'jlj^ 
but others-, J To Marry per fons ; To Church Women after Child bear- 
ings To hear Children in Church fay the Catcchifm that is in the 
Liturgy (but many have been forbidden by the Biihops to c.vponnd it, or 
tell the Children the meaning of the words which they fay by rote:)' 
To celebrate and give the Sacrament to the Parifliioners : To vifit the 
Sick, and abfolvc th<*m, if they fay they repent : To bury the Dead, af. 
filming of theni all that God in mercy hath taken their fouls, as our 
dear brethren, to himfelf ^ excepting only, i. Thofe that die unbaptized' 
(though Children of Princes or godly Parents) 2, Thofe that are Excom- 
municate (ufually fuch as durft not Conform to them : J 3. And thofe 
that kill themfelves {'though in a Frenfie: J To ufe the Crofs, Surplice, 
and other Ceremonies of the Church : And to joyn with the Church. War- 
dens (if they pleafe) in prcfenting fuch to the Bifliops Courts, as break 
their Laws ^ And if he deny any notorious offender the Sacrament, he 
mull become his Accufer before the Chanccllour, or Bifhops Court. £»»] "^^">Tab. 
ThisistheOfficeof aPariffiPrieft. ilutsil ^'. '^' 

Where you mufl note i.in^fwf>vi/, that he hath no Judicial Aclmini- 
ftration in the Church: [«^ They ordinarily fay, that he hath no Jmif- "^'Z-TaK 
Mion^ but mccr Prif ft ly Orders'-, As if they knew not that PrieJIfy Order ^'' 
is nothing but the Sacred Off.ce •-, and that that Office is the Power of the 
Keys, or clfentially containeth the Porvn- of Giiidii(^ the FUcl^ in Tc4ch- 
«>!£, Wo»;^.'ip and Difclplinei under Chrift the Chief Prophet, Priefl and 
K-ing. Civil Jurifdietion over the Church is the Kings, and Spiritual is 
part of the Prieflly Office or Order (as to the ful)je(.4 peopk to be go- 

2. Particularly note, i. that the Miuifter hath in £«^'/jWnopovverto 
Judge whom to Baptize, and whom nor, b«t mull Bnpcizc all that are 

C offcrcJ, 

oKtTiiy though the Childiea o£ Jews, Infidels, Turksj A^oftafts. 

2. That he Jkathno power to hinder the admUfion of any lb baptiz€d, 
into the itate of adult Members by the Bifliops Confirnjation. For thoug h 
it be faid C hildren fhall bring his Certificate, that they can fay the C^i. 
techifn?, yet i. thoCe Children may go without it, a nd do ordinarily: 
When I was confirmed my feif, no ne was required, nor d id I ever jge 

v> P A I ^njLS^^*'** ^' ^^^ i f it were, the poor Ghildreg feldonnwderftand any 
.m.ii.Lf thing that they fay, or much. 3. There is not one of multitudes in our 
,, ... Churches that ever fought or minded fuch Confirmation, becaufe of its 
' '; abufe . ' ~" '• 

3. That he hath no power to hinder any confirmed, or adult perfons 
from the Sacraments, on the account of the grofleft ignorance or infide- 

.'-"' •{ a .' lity ; when multitudes among us know not what the Sacrament is, nor 
•'''' " 'know the elTentiaisof the Chrillian Faith. 

4. He hath no power to convent any open offendec before him, to 
call him to repentance: They raaychufetocometo him, or to open their 
doors to him, or fpeakto him, if he come to them. 

5. He hath no power to call them to Repentance openly before the 
Church, or pray by name for their Repentance; or admonifh them. 

6. He hath no power to judge any perfon to be Excommunicate. 

7. Nor to abfolve any that is penitent after Excommunication ■-, But 
only to read tiie Lay-Cbanceilours lentences , fent him in the Bifhops 
name. ' " • 

8. He hath no power to forbear giving the Lords Supper to any one- 
how notorious an offender foever, unlefs he will profecute him at the 
Bifliops Court, nor then, but for once: So that if he pay his Fees and 
be Abfolved there, though the Minifter know him to be ntver fo bad, 
he muft give the Sacrament the next time. And' the pr6(^cution is fo 
odious and fruitlefs. that I never knew any do it, except againlt the 

9. He that feeth never fo great figns of Impcnitency in any man that is 
lick, or will but fay that he is fick, hath no power to deny him private' 
Abfblutlon and the Sacrament, if he do but fay, I Repent. '■■ 

10. He hath no power to forbear pronouncing of alt Traytors, Mur- 
derers, Adulterers, Perjured, Atheilts, &c. that i}ever profeft Repen-. 
tance, at their Burial, that God hath of his tnercy taken to himfelf the foul of 
ims oKr dear brother \ except the unbaptized, &c. aforefaid. 

And note, i. that the ParilhPriefl: hath no power to do thefe things eii. 
ther by himfelf, or in conjundion with the Bilhop, or any other. 

2. And that there is not one Suffragan Bilhop or Chof epilcopus in Eng- 
land under the 26 Bifhops, to do any part of their work in thefe 97<az^, 


(tl ) 


Our Jjidgmhif hf the Hijiory of the Antiejit ilmrch-Go- 
v&fimentf ^nd pf ihe^ r^^ pf the Dioccfan Prelacy. 

I Shall aQQU fhew more fuU^, tliat there are tw-o things efpecia'lly in 
which we think the very Specia of onr Diocefan Prelacy to be al- 
tered from the antient Epifcopacy. One is in the Extent of their 
Office, as to their fubjed Ciiargc, a Bifhop iufmA fpcciei, of the 
lowefl: fpecitsy having then but One Church, and now a Bifliop infim^ fit- 
cici having many hundred Cliurchcs niade into One, or nullified to make 
One. 2. In the Work^ of their Office, which was then purely Spiritual or 
Paftoral, and is now mixt of Magiftratical and Miniftcrial, cxeJrcifed by 
mixed Officers in Courts much like to Civil Judicatures. TheHiftoryof 
their rife I fuppofe is this. 

1. Chrift made a difference among bis Minifters himfclf, while he 
chofe twelve to be Apoftles, and fpecial Witncflcs o this DoLlrinc, Life, 
andRefurredion, and Afcenfion, and to be the Founders of his Church, 
and the Publifhers of his Gofpcl abroad the World. ^ 

2. As thefe Apoftles preached the Gofpcl themfelvcs , and planted 
Churches, fo did many others as their helpers, partly the feventy fent 
by Chrift, and partly called by the Apoftles themfelvcs ■, And all thefe 
exercifed indefinitely a preparing Miniftry, before particular Churches 
were gathered abroad the World, and afterwards went on in gathering 
and calling more. 

J. Befides this preparing unfixed Miniftration, the fame Apoftles alfo Ads 14. 
placed, by the peoples confent, particular fixed Minifters over all the fe- ij. Tit.r, 
veral Churches which they gathered. ^^ 

4. ThcCc fixed Minijlers AS fuch ^ they named indifferently, Bifhops, 
Elders, Paftors and Teachers- Whereas thofe of the fame Office in ge- 
neral yet unfixed, are called either by the General name of C/j/t/J's Mini- 
fters^ or Stewards of his Myfieries\ And in regard of their fpecial works, 
fome were called Apoftles, Ibme Prophets, and fomc Evangelifts. 

^. Thefe Apoftles though unfixed and having an Indefinite charge, yet 
went not all oneway, but as God's Spirit and prudence guided them, they 
difperfed thcmfelves into feveral parts of the World. 

6. But as they did many of them firft ftay long at JerufMlem^ fo af- 
terward in planting and feeling Churches, they fometimes ftayed feveral 
months or years in one place, and then went to another. And fo did the 
Evangelifts or Indefinite Affiltants whom they fent forth on the fame 

C 2 7. While 

( lO 

7. While they ftayed in thefe newly planted Churches they were them- 
felves the chief Guides of the People: And alfo of their fixed BU 
fliops. , , 

8. This abode in fettling the particular Chufches and their particu- 
lar Bilhops of Elders, occaUoned Hiftorians, afterward to call both A- 
poflles and Evangelifts ( fuch as Timothy^ Titns^ SUm^ Silvanus^ Luke, 
Jfollo, o-c.) the Bifliops of thofe Churches", though they were not fuch as 
the fixed Bifliops were, who undertook 4 Special Charge and care of one 
particular Church alone, or above all other Churches. 

9. On this account the fame Apoltle is faid to be the firft Bifliop of 
many Churches^ fas Peter of jimioch^ and Rome-^ Paul of Corinth^ Efhefm 
Philippi, &c.) When indeed the Apoftles were the particular fixed Bi- 
lhops of no Churches, but the Bifliops equally of many, as a fort of un- 
fixed Epifcapacy is iacjnded in Apoftlefliip. 

10. On this account alfo it is that TiwofAy is faid to be Bifhop of £pfc^- 
ftti, becaufe he was left there for a time to fettle that and other Chur- 
ches of jifu near it, as an Afl'ulant of the Apoftles : And fo Titus is cal- 
led the Bi[hop of Crete^ becaufe he ftaid in that Ifland (which was faid to 
have an hundred Cities) on this work, which belonged not to a particu- 
lar Bilhop, but to the more indetiiiite Miniltry. 

,11. How many fuch fixed Bifliops, Elders, Pallors, or Teachers, each 
particular Church muft have, the Apoftles never determined by a La:w : 
But did de facia ftttle them according to the number of fouls, and ftore 
of qualified perfons: In fome Churches it ispoflible there might be but 
one Cwith Deacons :) In others it is evident that there were many, as 
at Jerufalem^ Corinth, oc. 

12. The particular Churches which were the charge of thefe fixed Bi- 
fliops or Elders were Societies of Ghriftians conjoyned for Ferfon^l Com- 
munion in GocCs irorjhip, and niittiul ajftflMice in holy living : And though 
for want of convenient room, or liberty, they did not always meet all 
in the fame place, yet were they ordinarily no more than conldmat in 

, one place when they had liberty : and never more than could hold perfe~ 
rial Comnuriion^ if not at once, yet at feveral times in publick worftiip: 
fAs it is now in thofc places where one part of the Family goeth to 
Church one part of the day, and another on the other parr.) And thole 
by-Meetings which any had that came not conftantly to the publick Aflem- 
blies, were but as our Ho ufe- Meetings, or Chapel-Meetings, but never 
as another Church : Nor were their Churches more numerous than our 
Pariflies, nor near fo great. 

13. At the firft they had no Confecrated nor Separated places for their 
Church Meetings, but Houfes or Fields, as neceflity and opportunity di- 
reiTtedthtm. But as foon as they could, even nature taught them to ob- 
ferve the fame appointed and ftated places for fuch Afl"emblies : Which 
as foon as the Churches had peace and fettlement, they appropriated ta 
thole facred ufcs only, though they had not yet the Ihape or name of 
Temples. ' 14. Thonghi 

( '3) 

; 14. Though thePaflors of the Church were all of one Office^ now call- 
ed pr</rr, being all fubordinate Minifters of Chrilt, in the Prophetical, 
Prieflly and Regal parts of his Office, in the Power and Duty of Teach- 
ing, Worfliiping and Government •, yet was the dilparity of Age, Grace 
andGuifts to beobfervedamong them, and the younger Paftors (as well 
as people j owed a meet reverence and fubmilTion to the Elder, and the 
weaker to the ftronger who had notorioufly more of God's Grace and 
Guifts- So that in a Church where there were many Paftors it was not 
unlawful nor unneccffary, to acknowledge this difparity, and for tlic 
younger and weaker to fubmit much to the judgment of the cider and more 

15. While they kept only to the exercife of the meer Paftoral work 
of Teaching, and Worfhiping, and that Government which belongeth 
hereunto, they had little temptation (comparatively) to Itrive for a pre- 
eminence in Rule, or for a Negative Voice j But aliene or accidental 
Work, did further that as followcth. 

16. The ApoHles did reprove thofc Worldly contentious and unchari- 
table Chriftians, who went to Law lieforc Heathen Judges ; And the thing 
fhcwedfo little of the Chrifiian Spirit of Love, and was alfo of fo ill coi> 
fcqiience, by fcandalsand dillentions, that it was worthy to be rcprovcJ, 
cfpecially in Chriftians that were perfccutcd by thofe Ma^^iltrates. Tiierc- 
fore almort all tiic differences of Chriltians were necellarily decided by 
Arbitration : And none were thought fofit to be the Arbitrators, as the 
Elders or Paftors of tlie Churches. By which it came to pafs, that where 
Churches were great, and the ccafing of perfecution ("which came but as 
ftormsthatpafled away) did rcftorc that peace which cheriihed dilfenti- 
on«, the work of the Elders in theic Arbitrations, was not fmall ; elpe- 
cialiy as added to their greater proper Office-work. 

17. At the fame time many Hertiics arofe, which occadoned Divifi- 
ons in the Churches, and fomctimcs among the Officers themfclves. 

iS. And the Miuiftcrs being, though holy, yet imperfect, as well as 
other Chriftians, the remnants of felfconceitednefs and pride, occa- 
lloned alfothe troubleof the Churches: For v.henthe Apoftlcsthcmlelves 
while Chrift was with them ilrovc who ffiould be the Grentcft, and have 
the highcft place, it is no wondgr if they did fo afterward, who had not 
Ibgrcat a meafurc of Grace as they. 

ig. Befides all this, when the ApoRolical Virtues ceafed, there were 
few Philofophers or I eirncd men that turned CIiTiftian<:, and few that 
had excellent Gifts of Oratory, fit to be Teachers of the Churches', And 
themoft of the Eldrrs were good men but of Lnferiour parts', Like the 
better. fortof ou: unlearned godly Chriftians. By which means it came 
topaf^, that foraeonc of the Clergy in every Churcli, (when there were 
many) having fo much Knowledge, and Oratory as to overtop the reft, 
he was ordinarily more efteemed than the reft. 

20. By ihefe four means coniucd it quickly came to pais, that in every 


( 14) 

CiTDrdi thattiad maTiy Elders, fomconewaschoIetibytTie telt and by the 
people, to be the chief, and to have fome fpecial power of Church anairs: 
And I. In cafes of frequent Arbitration, there feemed a kind of necefli- 
ty, that Ibmc One be Umpire : For if half go one way and half the other, 
there can be no end: i- And incafeof Herefies and different Opinions 
in Religion, if One had not in each Church fome deciding, over ruling 
power, or Negative Voice, it is no wonder if Divifions were the hard- 
lier prevented, and the Churches Unity hardly kept. j. And efpecially 
when fome One was really m^er and ahUr than the reft, it was thought 
but fuitable to Nature, that he rather ruled the juniors and weaker fort, 
than that their Votes (hould rule him, or rule without him. 4. And when 
all men have too much felf-love and Pride, which endineth them to de- 
fire pre-eminence, and maketh them judge too high of thcmfelves, It 
was thought fafer for all the Clergy and People, to judge who among 
them was really the bell andwifeftman, than to leave every man to be 
judgeof himfelf andof the reft: For fo it was too likely that fevery man 
would think himfelf the wifeft. Therefore one was chofen as fuppofed by 
others ('even by the whole Church) as the fitteft man to have a deciding 
and overfeeing power aqong the reft, to avoid contention, which their 
own ftrife'^bout pre-emmence would caufe. 

21. And there was a fifth caufe, which was not much lefs than any of 
the reft: which was, that often through the fcarcityof fit perfons, One 
man was firft fettled over a new-gathered Chureh, before any others 
could be had to joyn with him. And therefore he being there firft alone, 
and that in fole power, it was thought unfit that any that came after 
him, fhould come in without his confent or Ordination, becaufe he was 
the fole Governouri fo that, i. becaufe they came ^/r^r him, 2. and that 
by his IK///, if not Ordination, it muft needs follow that he would ufually 
have the pre-eminence. As it is now among us, where the Redlor of the 
Pariili where there are divers Chapels, chufinghis Curates, who are ufu- 
ally his Juniors, he isconftantly of greater power than they, andruleth 
them accidentally, though his Office be the fame as theirs. 

22. As by thefe means one Paftor got a pre-eminence of eftcem and 
power above the reft, fo in a ftiort time he got the title of Epifccput, 
Bifhop, to be appropriated to himfelf alone, leaving the name of Elders, 
and Paftors, and Priefts unto the reft in common with himfelf: For he 
was now become the prime Overfeer of the whole Church, both people 
and Elders. 

2 J. Our own experience (heweth ushowit cameto pafs, that the peo- 
ple themfelves not only confented to all this, but alfodefired and promo- 
ted it : (efpecially then when the efFedts of Clergy-ambition had not ful- 
ly appeared to the World : ) For even now when a great Parifli can 
get one Learned able Paftor, they fay, we will allow you fo much, but 
your Curates muft take lefs : And they will not endure that the young and 
weak Curates, have either equal maintenance, or equal honour or power 


( '5 ) 

ever them, as the chief Pallor of the Parifh hath; To that the people 
chemfelves arc againft an equality of power, where there is not an equa- 
lity of worth. 

24. Though we cannot prove that this fixed Epifcopacy wa? either fet 
up by the Apoftles, or countenanced by them, nor yet that it was begun 
and in being in their days ; yet it could not be long after their days that 
it begun; And i^Hierome raiftake not, it began ztjiextzndria Come ye3n 
before the death of St. y*hn the Apoftle. 

25. All this while the BiiHop was not fuppofed to be of a diftinft 
Of?.ce, or fpecies of Miniftry, (now cMed ^n Order ) but only an Over- 
feer and chief of perfons in the fame Office with him; being in common 
with the reft, £ptfcopus piebis^ and extraordinarily, EprfcopHs Cln-i vet E- 
fjfcoporum feu Prabytcrorum. As one of the Monks is made Abbot in a 
Monallery, or as one Jullice among many is of the ^crum, or one 
Judge on the Bench is the chief Juftice : Or as the Prefidcntin an Acade- 
mick College. 

26. The chief thing in which afpecial power was given to theDilhops 
above their fellow Presbyters was in Oidtnation^ that none (houfd be Or- 
dained without them-, It being a matter of exceeding great confcquence 
to the Churches, what Miniftcrs were fet over them, and therefore put 
chiefly in the power of thefe chofen men. And the next fart of 
their power was in having the chief difpofal of all Church affairs, as 
our Parifh Pallors have now among their Curates : fo that nothing was 
to be done in the Chutch without and againfl: thei^ confcnt and plea- 

27. This Epifcopacy did fo univerfally obtain, that I remember not 
to have read of any fort of Chriftians, Orthodox or Heretical, Catho- 
lick or Schifmatical, whoever rcfufcd it, or fpakc againfl it, till <i.'£?-»//j's 
time. And even he fpake not againfl it as flatly unlawful, but as unne- 
^refTary, as far as 1 can gather from Epiphaninj. And after him all forts 
and Se(fts of Chriftians ftill owned it: Even the Donatsffs and Novatiantj 
who had their Bifliops as well as others. 

j8. In Scripture, times we read not of any meer fixed Bifhops of par- 
ticular Churches, who Ordained either Bifliops or Presbyters ; but only 
Apoflles and rheir unfixed Afliftants, who had an equal charge of many 
Churches. Not that the Office of the Indefinite nvfixed Miniftrv was not 
the fame with ihe Office of the fixed Bifliops in fprcte : ('For both had pow 
er to do all the Miniflerlal work, as they had a call and opportunity to 
cxercife it.) But becaufe it being the employment, of tliclndcfinitc or 
unfixed Miniflers to Gather and plant Churclie«, before they could be 
Governed, the Ordination of Elders over them, was part of the planting 
of'thcm; and fo fell to their lot, as part of their coiiftituring work. 

29. How it came to pafs that the Itinerant or Indefinite e\-ercifc of 
the Miniftry for planting Churches, fo quickly almoft ceafcd after the A- 
poftlcs days, is a matter worthy to be enquired after : For whereas fome 


( lO 

think, that 4(jiire& ohligationt^ it ceafed with the Apollles, as being their 
proper work, that cannot be true, i. Becaufe many others were employ- 
ed in the fame work in the Apoftles days : 2. Becaufe it is Chrift's own 
defcriptionof thatMiniftry to whom he promifeth his prefence, to. the 
endof the Ageor World, A/^f. 28. 19, 20. j. Becaufe to this day, there 
is ftilllamentablcneceffity of fuch: Five parts in fix of the World being 
yet Infidels. 

30. It is molb probable that this fervicc abated and withered gradually 
by the floth and felfiflinefs of Pallors. And that it was the purpofe of the 
Apollles, that the fixed Bifliops fhould do their part of both thefeworks^ 
that is, Both to preach for the Converting of all the Infidel Countries 
near them, and alfo Govern their particular Churches (yet not but that 
fonie others might be deputed to the Gathering of Churches alone.J 
And then thefe Bilhops finding fomuch work at home, and finding that 
the Itinerant work amo.ng Infidels, was very difficult, by reafon of La- 
bour, Danger, and their want of Apoflolical gifts, hereupon they fpared 
themfelves, and too much negletfted the Itinerant work. Yet I mull 
confefs that fuch Evaogelifts did not yet wholly ceafe. Eufehius Hifl. lib. 
$.cap. p. faith, P ant d:nus is Ca\d to have (hewed fuch a willing mind to- 
wards the publidiing of the Dodrine ofChrift, that he became a Preach- 
er of the Gofpel to the Eajltm Ccnttfes, and was. lent as far as India: 
rtf" For there were , 1 fay there were then, many Evangelifts prepared for 
this purpofe, to promote and plant the Heavenly Word with Godly Zeal, 
after the manner of the Apoftles. _ . 

}i. It was the ordinary cuftome of the Apoflles to preach and plant 
Churches firft in Cities, and not in Country Villages. Becaufe in Ci- 
ties there were, i. thegreateft number of Auditors, and 2,, the greatelt 
number of Converts ^ And fo there only were found a fufficient num- 
ber to conftitute a Church. Not that this was done through any pre- 
eminence of the City, or ignobility of Villages •, but for the competent 
numbers fake. And had there been perfons enow for a Church in Vil- 
lages, they would have pUced Churches and Pallors there alfo (as at 
Cenchrea it feems they did. j 

32. When there was a Church of Chriftians in the City, and a few 
Converts in the Country Villages that joynedwith them, they all made 
up but one full Affembly, or Church, fit for perfonal Communion, for a 
long time after the Apoftles days •, the main body of the people being 
ftill Infidels : fo that the Chriflian Churches flood among the Infidels 
as thin, as the Churches of the Anabaptifls, Separatifls and Independants 
did among us here in EngUnd, in the days when they had greateft Li- 
berty and countenance. 

3 J. Though at firft the Bifhops being men of the fame Office with thp 
other Presbyters, were not to do a work diflinifl: and of any other kind 
than the Presbyters might do, but only Lead them and Prefidc among them 
in the fame work as their Conductcrs^as 1 faid before of 3 chief Juftice,&-c.) 

Yet afterward the Bifliop for the honour of his calling appropria- 
ting certain aftions to himfelf alone, the Presbyters not exercifingchofe 
adts in time, the not e.vercifing them feemed to fignifie a want of Of- 
fice or power to exercife them; and fo fubjccfl Presbyters (who were 
never made by the Apoflles that can be proved, nor by their command) 
were like a diftindt Order or Species of Church-OlHccrs, ^nd grew from 
fyn-Presbyters or afFeflburs of the fame Office in fpecie to be as much fvib- 
jcfts to the Bidiops, as the Deacons were to the Presbyters. 

J4. All this while the Bilhop with his fellow Elders and Deacons 
dwelt together in the fame City, and often in the fame Houfe, and met 
in the fame Church, the Bifliop fitting in the midll on a higher feat, and 
the Presbyters on each hand him in a femi-circle, and the Deacons ftand» 
ingj And the Presbyters Preaching and otherwife oificiating as the Bi- 
fliop appointed, who ruled the aftion. And the Converts of the Villages 
came to this City Church as Members of it, and joyned with the reft. 
In the days of the Author of the Epiftles afcribed to J^natlus^ every 
Church had but One Altar, and One Bifliop with bis Fellow Elders and 
Deacons as the note of its Unity; or Individuation. For fo many peo- 
ple as had perfonal Communion at One Jltar., with the Bijljof cr Elders 
were the conftitutive parts of the Churches. 

35. Thus it continued alfo in the days of Juftin,TcrtHUian and Cypriofr, no 
Bifhop having more than owfCWf^ or >4//<«r, without any other formed /f//- 
commttnicatirj^ Church under him, but only Oratories in City or Country. 

36. The firft that brake this Order yf^c^cAlexandrU^nA Rome, where 
Converts foon multiplyed to a greater number than could meet in one 
place, or Communicate at one Altar : wherefore fub-aflemblics with their 
particular Presbyters, were there firft formed, who Communicated di- 
ftinftly by themfelves. ('Though there is no proof that they Communi- 
cated there in the Sacrament of a long time after that they met for 
Preaching and Prayer.J Yet even mRcme and AlcxAtidrta the only places 
that had more than one ftated Aflcmbly for zoo years or more, there 
were not fo many Chriftiansthen as in theParilhthat I now live in-, See 
more of my Proof in the beginning of my Church Htftory abridged : whofc 
firft and fecond Chapters belong fpccially to this Trcatife, and therefore 
1 muft refer the Reader to them. 

37. Even in Epiphanifn time about 370 years after Chrift, it is noted 
by him as a fingularity in jiUxandriM, that they had diftinct Aflemblies 
befidesthe Bifliops^ whereupon Pf^^ww himfelf largely givethus notice, 
that in thofe days, except in a few very great Cities , there was but 
one Church-affembly in a Bifliops charge. 

}8. After that in Cities, or Country Villages, the Converts multi- 
plyed into more than could meet in one Aflembly, and had allowance to 
Communicate in their fubaffemblies ;, yetwere they appointed on certain 
great and folemn Feftivals, toConimunicate all with the Bifliops at the 
chief City Church, which llieweth that the fub aflemblies then were few 
and fmall. D 39. Thus 

f iS ) 

iy. Thus was the, Apoftles Order by degrees fubverted -, and where- 
as they fettled diltinft Churches with their diftinft Bifhops, no Bilhop 
having two Churches under him, ('that iiad not alio their proper Bilhop) 
now One Church was made of many without many Bifliops-, fub-Presbyters 
firft in the fame Church being introduced, at lalt fob Churches alio were 
fetup. And when theyfhould have done as we do with Bees, let every 
new Swarm have a new Hive, and fhould have mukiplyed. Bilhops and 
Churches, homogeneal, as fufficient numbers of Converts came in, in- 
ftead of this, the City Bidiopskept all under them as if they had been ftiU 
ane Church (yet not as Archbifhops that have Bifliops under themj and 
kept their fub-Presbyters as their Curates to officiate in the feveral 
Churches that had all no Bifliops but One. 

40. The caufes of this were apparently moft of the fame which are 
mentioned before for the making of fub-Presbyters : Efpecialiy, i. The 
felfiflincfs of the Bifliops, who were ioth to let go any of the people 
from under their fuperiority : Becaufe it was more honour to rule many 
than one fingle Congregation •, and he was a greater man that had many 
fub-Presbyters and whole AfTemblies at his command, than he that had 
not: And alfo »J4«y afforded greater maintenance than zfcvc. And 2. the 
fame Reafons that made men at lirft fet up one Presbyter as Bifliop over 
the reft, to avoid Diviilons, and to determine Arbitrations, did now 
feem ftrong to them, for the keqVmg up the Authority of the City Bi- 
fliop over the fub-AOembJies round about them. 3. And Cities only ha- 
ving been poflefled of Bifliops for many Years if not Ages, before there 
were Chriftians enow to make up Country Churches, both the Bifliops 
and the City Inhabitants, Ceafily overlooking the Reafon of itj took 
this for their Prerogative, and did plead Prefcription-, As if 5cW/;be- 
^i</.£g/?. ing planted only in Cities firfl:, the Cities and Schoolmafliers fliould 
"^jmdet'i '^^"'^s Pls^d , that none mufl; be fetled in Country Villages, but what 
defmna 3re rukd by the City School- Mafl:ers. And thus the Cities being far 
poviwia. the ftrongclt, and the Intereil of the Citizens and Bifliops in point of 
/;, j\^frr.. honour being con)un<ft, and none being capable of a Country charge, but 
pi. &c. f^^Yi as the City Biihops at firfl: Ordained to it ( becaufe then there 
p^oEp!'}. '^^'^^ "° other Bifliops,) without ref!fl:ance it came £0 pafs that both 
iietr. /. it. Churches and Presbyters were fubjeded to the City Bifliops. 4. And 
DtMvitti- it greatly advanced this defign that the Churches which were planted 
tj hujHs jQ jf^e Roman Empire, didfcekto participate of all fecular honour that 
'bMcI belonged to the, place of their Refidence : And ("as Dr. Hammond hath 
tmt.Dec;-. largely opened, though not welljufl:ified) did form themfelves according 
p. 1. 17. to the Model of the Civil Government : fo that thofe Cities that had 
who giv- the Prefidents or chief Civil R.ulers and Judicatures in them, did plead 
eth full jj j.jg[^(. Qf [-saving alfo tlie chief Bifliops and Ecclefiafl:ical Judicatures : And 
ot ■T'cmt. ^^'^^ ^'°t only Cmes ruled the Country Vi!lages,but in time the difl:ind pow- 
AiuiUt. ' ers and pre-eminences of Archbifliops,Metropolitans,Primates,Patriarchs, , 
ff/.».4t« andthe/?*/;j4«chiefPatriarchorPopecameup : And the Pagan Common- 


( ^9 ) 

wealth aiKjChriftianOhurcli, withiiuhe Rc>fm Empire, (and thene^igh- 
bouring parts that were influenced by them) had agreatrcren?hl,jnce.. 

41. But that which moft notably let up this exlbrc iypelling mdde- Leg. ritMm 
generate Prelacy, was the miltaken zeal of Confl.%r.'.tne^ togecher with ^«^'»/><»' 
his Policy, and the ambition of Chridians and Billiops that were gra- fi"'"'«^. 
tificd by it. For, i. As Conflantine perceived that it was the Chrifuans ^^'^"^- *• 
that were his fureft ftrengtb, and when the Heathen Soldiers turned a/<i«<;X. 
from one Emperour to another, as tlicy were tempted, he knew that if run. 

he only did own the Chrillians they would unanimoully own him, and 
be conftantto him; fo alfo his Judgment and Zeal for Chriilianity did 
concur with his Interell and Policy: And as all tl'.c Secular and Milita- 
ry Rulers depended on him for honour and power, throughout the Rq- 
man world, he thought it not feemly to give the chief Chrillians who 
were the Uilliops, lefs honour than he did to the Heathens, and to com- 
mon men: Nor did he think meet to deny to the Cliriilir.n. Qiurches 
fuch priviledges, as might fomewhat fa thcni higher tjian his other fub- 
jeds. 2. And the Bifhops and Chrillians coming from under long fcorn 
and contempt, and coming newly from under the cruel Perfecution of 
Dioclejian^ and affrighted anew by Maxentias^ and Licenins, they were 
not only glad to be now honoured and advanced, but greatly lifted up 
with fuch a fudden wonderous change, as to be brought from fcorn and 
cruel torments, to be fct up above all others : As we fhould have been, 
had we been in their cafe, and it's like fliould no more have leared the 
ill confequcnts of too much exaltation than they did. 3. And tlie Chriftian 
people thought that the exaltation of their Bifliops was the honour and 
exaltation of their Religion it felf, as well as of their perfons. 

42. Whereas (as is aforefaid) the Chrillians had commonly Hated 
the power of Arbitrating all their Civil differences in the 6ifliop 
alone (when the Apoftle intimated that any Wife man among them, 
as fuch, was fit for that bufinefs ) it grew prefently to be account- 
ed a heynous crime or fcandal , for any Chrillians to go to Law, be- 
fore the Civil Magillrate, And Conjiantine finding them in poflefllon 
of this cuflom, did by l»is Edi<fl confirm it and enlarge it : decreeing 
that all Bifhops fliould be Judges of all the Chrillians caufes by confent, 
and that no Civil Judge or Magiflrate (hould compel any Chriftian to 

his bar: Infomuch that in Thtodofius his days, when one of yimbrofe his ittvit.^tr» 
Presbyters had a caufe to be tryed, he dcnyed himfelf to be a Chriili- l"'.f- P"" 
an, that he might have it decided by the Civil Magiftrate, that was Chri- '^''"'* 
Ilianalfo. So that even Chriftian Magiftrates might not judge unwilling 
Chriftians but the Bidiops only. Yet hadnotthc Bilhops then the power 
of the Sword, but decided all as Arbitrators, and enforced their Sen- 
tences with rigorous penances and Church-cenfurcs: By which means, 
1. many the more turned Chrillians (without the Faith and Holinefs of 
Chriftiansj that they might both partake of the Chriftians l.onour and 
immunities, and fpccially that they might be free from corporal penal- 

D 2 ties 


ties for their crimes. (And who would not do fo, if it were now our 
cafe.) 2. And by this means the rigorous penalties of the Church by 
penances were the more eafily fubmitted to, as being more eafie than 
corporal pains and muldls. And when thus by the Laws and counte- 
nance of lb great an Emperour, the Bifhops were made the Judges of 
all that were Chriflians at prefent, and all that would turn Chriltians 
that delired it, it is eafie to underfland, i- what a Lordfhip they mult 
needs have as to the kind of power ; 2. How their Office mull dege- 
nerate from purely fpiritual, into fecular ormixt : j- And how nume- 
rous their Flocks, and large their Provinces would foonbe. 

And here you mull note thefe things, i- That the Bilhop-of every 
Church was made Judge of thefe caufes ■■, not alone by himfelf, but with 
hir Presbyters or Clergy, who judged with him. 2. That yet this pow- 
er was not then taken to be any efTential or integral part at all of the 
Paftorai Office ^ but an Accidental work, which Lay-men might do as 
well as Pallors ; and that it was committed to the Bifhop only as the 
befl able for Arbitration ; becaufe of his abilities and interefl, and that 
as a matter of meer convenience •, and alfo for the honour of his place. 
3. That therefore this Judging power for ending Ilrife and differences, 
might be alienated from the Clergy and done by Lay-men, where there 
was caufe. 4. And that the Bifliop had fo much more power tlian the 
Presbyters that he could commit it from them to Lay-men. All this that 
one inllance of Silvanns in Socrates, lib. 7. caf, \-], (and in Hanmtr^ cap, 
36.) whofe words were thus [SiU7in\x%alfo no lefs exprejfed inhis other ails 
and dealings , the good motion of his Godly mind. For when he perceived that 
the Clergy refpeBed nothing hut gain in deciding the Controverfics of their 
Clients, (O wofui Clergy ! ) he thenceforth fufered none of, the Clergy, to be 
judge;, but took, the fupplicaticns, and re^nefts of fuiters., and appointed Ohe#/ 
the Laity, whom for certain he knew to be ajufi and godly man, and.gavehim the 
hearifigof their caufes, andfo endedqiiietly all contentions andcjaurrels.'} (And 
the likclieft way it was.) You fee here, 1. that when Princes will needs 
make the Clergy Magiftrates to honour them, the wife and good men of 
the Clergy will return fuch power to the Laity, as ufually fitter for it. 
2. And that it is no wonder that when Law-bulinefs is call upon the Cler- 
gy, iftheygrowworfe than Lawyers in covetoufnefs and in jullice. j.And 
yet this was not a making Lay-men to be Chancellors that had the power 
of) the Keys! For Sihanns did only appoint Lay-men to do Lay^mens 
work', to arbitrate differences: but not to excommunicate, nor to judge 
men to excommunication, astheydonow. 4. And this was not a making 
of Ecclefiaftical Elders that were not Pallors : and therefore it is no coun- 
lenancefor fuch : but it was a prudent calling back tliat work on the Lai- 
ty, which good Eraperours had in imprudent piety call upon the Clergy, 
that each might do his proper work. 5.^ But this was but one good Bi- 
Jhop that was fo wife a'jd honefl: :*» and therefore it proved no general refor- 
anation... - 


( 21 ) 

This Judicial power went fo far and took up lb much of theClergics 
time, that the Synod Taraconenf. was after this put to Decree, Can. 4. 
that the Clergy fliould not judge Caufes on the Lords day •, and Can. 10. 
that no Bifliop or Clergy-man fliould take rewards or bribes for Judg- 

And the Ca>:o>is fo deterred Chriftians from feeking Juftice from the Ci- 
vil Judicatures, that they had few but Heathens to be Judges of. Yea the 
Chriftians thought fo hardly of the Judges themfelvcs ('forpunifliingmen 
bythe'Sword, when the Bilhops even for murder it felf did punifli them 
but with Penance J that they doubted fometime whether thole Chriftians 
that exercifed Magiftrscy or Civil Judgment after Baptifmc , were not 
therefore to be taken for finuers) as is viliblc in Imwceut i.his Eftfi. to 
Efifi- 5. to Exiiper. TheUfan. cap. 5. mCrab.Tom. I. p. 459. 

And before in Stlvtfler'^% Co»cti Rom. afudCrah rd- ip. 280. Can. 16. it is 
Decreed [_NetnoClcricns vcl DiHccnits tutt Pyeshytcr freptcr caiifam fiiam qu.tin- 
lihet hiirct in cHria^ cjHitm en niscnriu a cruore, dicitur^ C" immolatio fimnla- 
chrorum efl. ^^uod fcjiiisClntcnsin ciniAin i:tyeicrit, anathema fufcipiat,nun- 
ijuam reduns ad man em Ecclcfiam i ACcmwunione autcm non privatnr proffer 
tempHSturbidiim- And ConJ}:vitine is faid to he a Subfcribcr, with 2S4 Bi- 
fhops, 45 Presbyters, and 5 Deacons. And in former Counc. jub Sthej}. 
{^Nullum ClcricMn ante jiidicem ftare licet ~\ 

I know tliat Duareniis !ivA(jrotii4s defcribenot the Billiops power as fo 
large as the Canonills do. Bi'.r D. artmu confcfllih that Tljeodofii-s made a 
Law, ihiit lites omncs (y' contievcrju forenfis adjudicnun Ecclcfx remittcrcn- 
tu>; f alter liter liti^atoriim id poflnla: et. Tliat all flrifcs and controverjits fo- 
renfickjhoitld be reunited to the juil^^inent of the Church, if either of ihe conten- 
ders requiredit : And that Charles the Great renewed and confirmed the 
fame Law : Du.tr. lib. i.p. 8. And Croi ins de Jmpcr.fimpoL p. 2 }6. faith. 
This JiinfdtiHon by confefit the Bijhcps received from Conltantinc , with fo 
^reat power, that it was not lawful further to hai.-ale any bufnefs. which the Si- 
flwps fentence had decided; that is, faith he, rcmot.'i appellaiioae. And he 
there fhevveth that three forts of Jurifdiiftion were by the Empjrours gi- 
ven to the Bifliops : i. Jure ordinario^ and fo they judged of all matters of 
Religion fand which the Canons reached, which went very far in heinous 
crimes.j 2. £.v confenfu parttHm^i when the parlies chofe the Bifnop for 
their Judge (^Vtd.Concil Chalced- c. g.) 3. Ex delegatione: which yet went 
further : And even to the }ews fuch kind of power had been grantid. 

Butofthiswhole matter of the Rife of fuch Prelacy, their Courts and 
power, Fardre Pauliis hath fpokca fo well and truly in his Hiftor- ConcU. 
Trident, pa^. 3 ^o, 35 1, &c. that I would intreatthe Reader to turn to it 
and perule it, as that which plainly fpcaketh our judgment of the Hiftory 
now in que ft ion: Read alfo his Hiftory of Benefices. 

4J. The countenance of theEmperour with thefe honours and immuni- 
ties, having brought the World into the Church, or filled the Churches with 
Catiial tempqrixets, the numbers were now fo gtcar, that cpickly the 


( ") 

great Cities had many Parifh Churches, and the Country Villages about 
had fome •■, ib that now about 400 or 500 Years after Chrift, mofl Biihops 
of great Cities had more Churches than one, even feveralfubAlIemblies, 
and Altars, as dependant on their Mother Church. 

44. Yet were their Diocefles (whchatfirll were called Parifhes^ (bme- 
what bounded, by the Canon and Edifts, which decreed that every City 
where there were Chriftians enow to make a Church, (hould have a Bi- 

• fliop of their own, and that no Bifhop ('except two, who bordered one 
on Scithia a rude unconverted Countrey, and the other on the hTce cafe, 
of which n>ore in due placej 

45. And then every c/)j!i;V/«;» or populous Town, like our Market- Towns 
and Corporations, was called -mAii, a City, and not only a few among ma- 
ny that have that name by priviledge, as it is in En^Lind now. So that 
even at this height of Prelacy, about 500, 600 or 700 Years after Chrift, 
they were but as if every Corporation or Market-Town in Englandhzdz 
Bifliop, who ruled alfo the adjacent Villages. For though when they be- 
gan to fwell, it was once decreed by one Council, that Villages and every 
fmall City fhould not have a Bifhop, lelltheNameof a Bifhop fliou Id grow 
vile or cheap; yet this was but with this addition, Cthofe Villages or imall 
Cities where there was not a fufficient number of Chrfftians: ] f whereas 
Gregory ztNeocefarea thought fcventeen a fufficient number to have a Bi- 
fliop.) And the Canons, that every City fliouldhave a Bifhop, remained 
ftill in force. 

45. Yet was it for about 4 40 Years fo far from thefe great Bifhops to 
ufurp the Sword, or any coercive or coaftive power, on mens Bodies or E- 
ftates, that they unanimoufly held that the Magiftrate himfelf was not to 
punifh mens Bodies for Herefie or a falfe Religion. Till at laft the bloody 
violence of the 0>c«w«///^« Vomtijfs, did cmk At^uftine in this to change 
his mind, and think them meet for the Magiftrates coercion. 
■ 46. When Bifhops grew carnal and ungodly, and more regarded the 
keeping up their Power, Parties and Opinions, than Charity, theybegan- 
todillrufl: the Spiritual Weapons of their warfare; and infteadof true 
vigilancy againfl: errours, and confutation of them, by clear reafon and 
a holy life, they fled to the Rulers to do it by the Sword. But though Itha- 
ctHs and IdactHt with their Synod of Bifhops, exxited Maximus to take this 
i'-of.'^^' comkagainitthe Prffciliamfis-f yet not only St. Aftrtyn did therefore to 
Barm. the death avoid their Synods and Communion, and petitioned the Empe- 
rour, for the Hereticks peace*, b\it even Sr. Ambrofe alfo at MtUn would 
have no Communion with thofe Bifhops, that had done this thing. 

47. About the Year 430, or after, Cyrii2.lJlexandriad\d\tSidthevi2.yy 
and a(n;ually ufed the Sword againft the Lives, Eftatesj^nd Liberties of Of- 
fenders.- An example which others quickly followed: And eafilydidhe 
Hep from the great Judicial Power before defcribed, to a forcing power, 
the preparations being fo great, and the Emperour fo ready to exak them, 
and the people oi Alexandria fo turbulent and inclined by pride and paffion 
tofuchwrays. 48. As 

fit. Am- 

48- As the Prelacy thus fwelled, fo the Churches grew fuddeiily more 
corrupted with all manner of Vice. The Bithops began with forrow to 
coufels unto the Hereticks , that the greater number ia the Churches 
were naught. When they fliould cbufe their Bidiops they could feldom 
agree', but frequently inltead of holy peaceable Votes, did turn to De- 
vililh rage and blood-fhed, and covered ihe Streets and Church-floors with 
the CarkafTes of the llain ; (efpecially in the Cafe of Dam.ifM and others 
at RatHc^ and oft at Alexandria and Conilantincplc.) Frequently they fell 
into fewds, and fought it out, and murdered people by multitudes: E. 
ven the ftrid holy Monks of the E'^yptta/i Defarts, were as forward as o- 
thers to fighting, blood-dicd and ledition: Even in their ignorance, for 
fuch a paultryand fottifli an Opinion, as that of the Anthrofomorfhtta^ 
as that God hath the lliape and parts of a man : fo that they forced that de- 
ceitful treacherous Bifhop Thtofhtlus AUx.tndr. to flatter them, and curfe 
the Books of Or/^w (not for his errours, but for the oppollte truth) and 
to take on him to hold as they did. When God trycd them with a Julian 
('who did pcrfccute tlicm very little,) they reproached him to his face, 
and trycd his patience as well as he did theirs. The Antiochi.vis fcorn- Stcratj.i. 
fully bid him fliave his l^eard r.nd make Halters of it. In a word, when <^'' J- 
Cofiftamirte had brought the World into the Church, the Church grew 
quickly too like the World. 

49. But it was not the people only, but the Pallors, both Prelates and 
Presbyters, that grew licentious, wicked, proud, contentious, turbulent, 
and the fliame of their Order and ProfclGon , and the great difturbers 
and dividers of the Churches: except here and there an Ambrefc, an Au- 
guffine, a Chryfoftome^ a B.xfil^ a Gregory, an Atticiu, a Proclus^ and a few 
luch that fo (hined among a darkened di;gencrate Clergy, as to be fingled 
out for Saints. Abundance got rhefc great and tempting Prelacies by Si- 
mony, and more by making friends to Courtiers : And not a few by Car- 
nal compliances with the people: what abundance of mofl fliarpEpiftlc? 
did Jfidore Pclttfota write to Eiifehiits the Bifliop, and to Soprms, Maytia 
nns^ Eii{}>ithius^ &c. of all their horrible wicked lives, and yet could never 
procure their Rclbrmation ? What abundance of EpiftJcs did he write 
againftthem to other Bifl.ops, and yet could not procure their corrcfti 
on or removal? What a lisd character doth Sulpitim Sevens give of the 
Bifliops that profccured the Pnfciliimtfi.'^ and in particular of their Leader 
hhrxim, of his own knowledge ? What abundance of Prelates arc fliamc 
fully iligmatizcd, hy Sccr.it a, So^Lon-.ca^ Tbeodorct^ Efi^ffriiis, C^c? VA'heil 
a Rebel rofc up againll his Prince, and got but the ftronger party, and 
poflefllon, how quickly d:d they flatter him and own him. I find but one 
Biiliop betides St. /l/.<>a>; inallf,v<»cc ar.d that part of GrrwA'/y, that dif- 
owned AUximus that murdered CrMi.i'i : The reft applaiukd him for 
their own ends: Nor in tiiar p.nt of haly 1 liadnotany bciidcs Ambroje 
and one Uygiiuu that dilcwned him : fNot that I think it my partto con- 
demn all the"" holy Bilhops who profellcd lubje(^ion tollfur)x'rsinponef- 


( h) 

fion : Even holy jimhrofe could write to the odious Tyrant Eug^enim 
\jOU?}]c'ntiJfimo Imfcratori Eu^ento~\ concluding {_Nam cum private Sttiiltrim 
corde intimoy qitomodo non deferrcm Irnperatori.'] When I honoured thee apri- 
"Vate man from the bottom of my heart-, how can I hut henoitr thee being Empe- 
roHY ? 3 And how far have the Roman Bifliops gone in this, even to Phocas 
and fuch as he ? ) 

When good Gregory NazSanz. was chofen and fettled Bifliop of Conflan- 
timpU^ and loved and honoured by a good Emperour, yet was he reje<fted 
(thoughhe eafily yielded) even by the Synod of Bilhops, in thearrogancy 
of their minds, becaufe that he came not in by them. With what pride, 
what fallhood, whatturbulency didTheophilus Alexand. carry on all his 
bufinefs with the Monks, and for the depofing of Chryjo/lome ? And how 
arrogantly and turbulently did £/)/pW.'r/« joyn with him? and even //;>* 
^ rome make himfelf partaker ? And how ealUy did he get a Synod even 
where Chryfoflome lived to fecond them .<' fuch lamentable inflances are 
mere eafie than picafant to be cited. 

And that Epifcopacy which was fetupto prevent Herefieand Divifioas, 

did afford the Heads of mofl: of the Herefies and Divifions that befell the 

Churches. How few of all the Herefies mentioned by Epiphanliu^ after that 

Prelacy was in force, were not Headed and carried on by Prelates? And 

when the Arian Herefie fprung up by a Presbyter, the Prelates fo nume- 

EcclffMH ''0"fly received it, that they feemed to be the far greater parr, ifnot the 

uJi'p.to. "^^in body of the Imperial Church : Witncfs the perverting of many Em- 

.UgVakn- petours", the many Councils at Sirmi/m., Jriminum, £:c. And the many 

tiniani& new Crceds which Socrates and Hilary fo (liamcfully enumerate and de- 

vaientus^ claim againft. So that it was faid that the World groaned to find it felf 

u^tZ/7n turned Arian. 

Theodoreti And their fcwds and inhumane Contentions were fo many and odious, 

Eccl.wft. that it is a (haraeto read them. Multitudes of Cities had Bifliops fet up 

/.4-c-7-e^ againftBifhops, and fome Cities had more than two, orthree: The peo- 

Heflor. p]g reviling and hating each other, and fometime fighting tumultuoufly 

^1 To unto blood, for thoir feveral Prelates. The Chriftian World was made 

&Mepli-^^^ Cockpit, and ChriHian Religion made a fcorn, by the Contentions 

anorumc. of the Bifhops. Conflantines ■wl^&om., confcicnceand interefl, engaged him 

lo.fKTO/?;- to ufe allhisskil, hlskindnefs and hhpowcr, to reconcile them : And if 

Terfreta- j^g j^^j j^^j. ^Q,jg what he did, howunfpeakably wretched would their o- 

^HolkeH U dious contentions have rendered them? And yet he profefieth his heart 

y,f.6s. ' almofl broken by their difTenfions •, and while he chid them bitterly and 

de^ndio. exhorted th£3i kindly, he could not prevail. His Sons that fuccceded him 

laboured to unite the Bifhops, (^though in diflerent ways) and could not 

do it. Jevianns the little time he reigned, declared his hatred of their 

contentions, and hov/ much he loved a peaceable man: but thatdidnot 

cure them, even when they came nev/ from under a 7«/«^w. 1 will look no 

lower, to t^e more degenerate Prelacy, but recite the doleful words of 

,£uftbit*s, even of thofrthat wore not at the worll, and came but newly 


( 2S) 

^Ifrom under the perfccutions of former Ernperours, when they had but 
a little profperity , immediately before Dtochfans perfecution, they are 
thusdefcribed- t.Hew^>e4t and what manner of s^lury andUberty the doQrine Eufeb.lt. 
of Mty due to Ahn'ghty Cod^ preached i» the yVerld hyChnfl^ hath obttanedbe- '^■^■^- 

for ■ " — " - ■ "—^ 


mitt, d the Government of the Gentiles ", And for the r ic at favour they kare to our 
BoElrine^ they gri*nted liberty and fecurity tothc Fnfejfvrs ofChriflianity. What 
(hall I fay of them, that in the very Palace of the Empereurs, and in the prtfenee 
of Princes Hved wojl familiarly "• which efeemed of their Aiiniflers fo highly, that 
they granted them in their f^cfoct freely to deal in matters of Religion^ both by 
word and deed \ together with their wives and children and fervants ? And thus 
one might then have fetn the Bi^iojs of all Churches w great reverence and favour 
among all forts of mcn^ and with aH Magiftratcs. Who can worthily defcrihe 
thofe innHmerabUheapt and fi-'cki'ig multitudes, throHghout all Cities and f4t- 
tnoat Ajfemhlies, frequenting the placet dedicated to prayer : Becaufe of whicte 
cncumflancest they not contented with the old avd ancient bnildings {which could 
not receive them) have throughout all Cities^ biiilded them from the Foundati- 
on wide and ample ClMirches : Tkfr things thus prevailed in procefs of time, and 
daily increafed far andnigh: fo that no malice could intercept^ t>$ fpiteful fitnd 
bewitch, no wight with citnning at all hii'der k, as long as the Divine and heaven- 
fy hand of Cod upheld and vifited his People^ whom as yet he worthily accepted' 
But after that our affairs through too much liberty, eafe and fecurity^ degene- 
rated from the Natural rule ej piety ; and after that one purfued another vfith 
epen contumely andhatred., and when that we impugned our felvcs by no o- 
tncr than our fclves, with the armour of f pit e^ and (harp fpears of apprebrious 
words, fuhat Bifliops againfl Bifiiops^ and People agamfl People, raifedfedition ^ 
lafi of ull^ when th.it curfcd hypccrifte and diffimulation had fwam even to the 
brim of malic e\ The heavy hand of Gods high judgment after his Wonted man- 
ner \whslefi as yet the Ecclefiaflical Societies affembled themfelves neverthelefs) 
began foftly by little and little to vifitus ^ fo that the perfecution that was raif- 
td againfl Ht took^ f.fi his Original., from the Brethren that were under 
Baiwerin the Camp ■ When as we were touched with no jenfe thereof ^ nor went 
about so bad fit God, we heaped fn upon fin, thinking like careless Epicures^ 
that Gea neither cared, nor would vifit our fins •, And they which feemed 
eur Shepherds., ^-^y^ng afdf the rule of piety, pra^lifcd coKtention and fhifm a- 
mong themfelves., and whtlfi they aggravated thefe things, that is, contentious., 
thrcatnings., mutual hatred and enmity , and every one proceeded m Arrrbttion, 
much l:k£ Tyranny it felf, then I fay., then did the Lord make the daughter of 
Zioaobfcure, and ovcrthnw from above the glory of ICt^cI, &c. — c. 2. We 
faw with oivr eyes the Oratories thrown down to the ground ., the foundati- 
ons digged up., the holy Scriptures burned to afireiin the open A'fark£t-pljce.,and 
the Pajiors of the Churches fome fliamefuHy hid themfelvts. — Tet is it j'ot our 
drift to defcnhc the bitter calamities of thefe men., which at length they f^fered, 

E nor 

wrr to record their diJfenJJon and mfoUncy fraUifed Among tbemfehes^ before the 
ferfecHtio?!, O'C,'] 

Note that all this was before v^>/«^ his Herefie, even before D/W/f /?<«>«■ 
cruelties •-, but not before the beginning of Church- Tyranny and ambiti- 
on, as is faid. 

Butafterthis, alas, how much greater were their enormities and diffen- 
tions, when their Tyranny was much cncreafed ■, It would grieve any^ober 
Chriftianto read how the Chriftian World hath been tofTedup and down, 
and the people diftraiTted, and Princes difturbed and dethroned, and 
Herefies fomented, and horrid Perfecutions, and bloodflied caufcd, by the 
pride and contentioufiiefs of Prelates: And moll of all this, in profecu- 
tion of that Controverfie, which Chrift decided fo long ago, viz.. Who 
flwHldhe greatcfl. It was mt Religion, faith Socrates., l-%.c.il. that the tW9 
Arian5fffj o/Mariniis and Agapius iv.^^ abont, but Primacy: They Jlrsve 
rvhich cf them jlionld be the chief: wherefore many Clergy -men under the jn- 
rifdi£tion of thrfe Biflwps, perceiving the ambition, the riUicottr and malice of 
'thefe proud Prelatjts, forfook^thcm., e^c. 

Macedoniiis at Conflantinofle was fo Tyrannical, that as he came in by 
cruelty, fo he caufed more, by prefumptuous removal of the bones ofCw/i 
/<i«#/w, to another Church, that he might pull down that, andthis with- 
out ConJiamiHs the Emperours knov.ledge : where the people in Fadions 
fought it out, till the Church and Streets were full cf Carkallesand llrea'ms 
Socrat.l.z. of blood , faith Sccrates. The fame man fet four Ccmpanies of 
';^5"^ Souldiers on the Novations in Paphlagonia^ till he enraged tHepKdpie with 
Clubs and Bills to kill them all. And he was fo Tyrannicaf in forcing Confor- 
mity,that he not only forced men to the Sacrament, bur gagged their mouths 
and pope it in. ' 

Nor was this only the vice of the Heterodox but the Orthodox, ns'^is 
aforefaid. hni^s the French and Grrma?i Bidiops aforefaid didagainftthe 
Prifcillinaifis^^o for their own intereft againft one another, they flattered 
and reftleily inltigated the Civil power, even Uufurpers to ex'ecute their 
Wills : and favoured that power that moll favoured them. When the fore- 
faid /Wli.v/>;.v« had killed C7r;?rM« and reigned in Fr^wr«, and entered Italy; 
(after that v^w^vo/f had ftopthim a while) Theophilus Akxandr. fendeth 
an Agent Presbyter with two Letters, and a richprefcnt, one to /W^.v/w«j 
and one to Theodofins', ordering himto flay the ifliie oftheFight, and give 
the Prefent with his Letter to him that proved the Conqueror : But a Ser- 
vant flole the Letters from the Priefl, and opened the whole bufmefs, and 
caufed the Priefl to fly and hide himfelf. 

50. Thcfe contentions of the Bifhops and corruption of manners, fodif- 
tafted the more Religious fort of the people, that it pceafioncd the ttmh 
tiplying of feparating Herefies : and greatly encreafed and confirmed 6- 
thers, efpeciallythe J'OT<«f»/?>, and Nov.Tticns ; becaufc" men thought them 
tobe of better lives than the Orthodox. 

51, Yea, by their very abufe of good a.nd holy nren, they drove even 


Id. lb. 



the Orthodox often to feparated Societies, as thinking fo bad Prelates uir- 
fit to be communicated with, As in ConfiantmofU their abule, ejeftion and 
banifhment of Chryfojlomc caufed great numbers of his faithful people to 
forfakethe Church •, and meet only in feparated Conventicles ^ And though 
they differed in no point of Dodrine, Worfliip or Difcipline from the 
reft, all that they could do by tyranny and threats would never bring them 
again to the Church v but they were called Joannites^ and allembled by thera- 
felves-, tilM«iWby wife and honeft means firft began the reconciliati- 
ou, by the publick inferting of Chry^ofiome's name among their honoured 
Bifliops in the daily Liturgy of the Church, and Froclns after wifely perfect- 
ed it, byfetchingthebonesofCitr)/o/?o»« with honour, from the place of 
his banilhment into the Church, bat Theodorct, hiJi.Eccl-l. $.c. j6. afcri- 
beth it to that good Emperour Theodofus Junior : It's like a good Bifhop 
andheconfentcd. For faith Socrates, c. 40. Proclns behaved himfclf fairly ^'"'"'^■^-'^ 
towards all men^ ftrfwading himfelfthat it was farcafurfor him by fatr means ' '*^' 
to allure men tp theChitrch, than by force to compel them to the Faith. 

52. ThemuhitudcsofSchifuiesand horrid enormities in the Church of 
Rome-, thegrand corruption of Religion by them; the Oianieful divifions 
betwesnth^ Greek^znd iVejieru Churches, began fo long ago and continu- 
ed to this day, with much more fuch evidence, do tell the World that is 
willing to fee, what all this tended to as it's perfeiHiion. 

5 J. And having thus (hewed how the Bifliopsofthe Flock came to be 
Bifliops of Bifliops, and how they grew from the Paftoral OfHcc to a pom- 
pous denomination moftly fecular, and how the Bifhops of fingic Chur- 
ches, did grow to be the Bifliops of multitudes of Churches turned into one 
Diocefan Church of another fpecies, we fhall leave it to thofe that arc wife 
and impartial, to judge whether a true Reformation muft retrieve them, 
and what Age and ftate of the Church muft be our pattern, to which we 
Ihould endeavour to returns and in what point it is that it ismcetorpof- 
fible, for Chriftiansunanimoufly to fix between the Apoftolical inftitution 
and the height of Popery ? And what fatisfying proof any man can give 
that in a line of 1500 Years, that it is the right point that he hath chofen. 

E 2 CHAP. 

( 28 ) 


Th Judgement of thofe Nonconformifts {nom ft/enced) 
who 1660. addrelfec! themfelves to King Charles the 
Second for Concord in the matter of Church-Governr 
ment : what they then offerec/y and what thofe of the 
Authors mind now hold, as to the Right of what is be* 
foreHiJiorically related. 


S I have delivered our Judgment about the Hiftory of Prelacy, 
fo (hall I next freely and truly exprefsmy own Jodgment and 
thofe that have concurred with me about the right of Church- 
Government itfelf, Cfuppofing thofe 100 Propof. ad Lud.AfgH^ 
naum which 1 have publifhed about the Nature of Church-power, and the 
extent of the Magiftratcs power in Church-matters.) For Truth hath great 
advantage when itappeareth, i. compaft, and entire, 2. and in the o- 
pen light. Since the writing of this our judgment is more fully publifhed i 
in the Nonconformifts firft and fccond Plea for Peace, 
joh.M»; Pyop' !• Since the Fall of Man, as God hath given a Saviour to the 
Gen.j.ifi World, by whom he hath made a new Covenant with or for. Mankind; 
Joh. 17.1. fo hath he delivered all things into the Redeemer's hands, and given him 
Mat.^ i8. 211 pojver in Heaven and Earth, making him the Adminiftrator General, 
Epb, u and Head over all things to the Church. 

%i,xi. ^ Some thi ngs are under Chri ft as Z^ff «/?//> viz, JnanimAtes and Brnites^ 
fome are under him as meer entmits fubdued, as Devils-^ feme are under 
him as generally Rtdeemid^ and fttbje^s dejnrt, or (jHoad ehligationein^ to be 
Ruled and ufed upon terms of Mercy; And fo are all Mankind in gene- 
ral, till the day of life and grace is paft: fome are under him as ViCble 
Confcnters, and Profeffed lubjefts; fo are the Baptized and vifiblepro-- 
fef^ors of Chriftianity. And fome are under him as fincere Heart Cove- 
nanters, JuftifiedandSandified, and to be Glorified by him. 

J. As Nature it felf is now delivered up to Chrift, and the Z-/m'<?/iV^-- 
turt is now part of his Law, and the biftrmmrt cfhis Goverm>i.'nt^ both 
for the common good znd order of the Redeemed World, and alfo .sf^i:Bified- 
to the fpecial good and order of his Church ', Even fo is the Office of Ma. 
gifiracy now under him, and derived from him, and dependant on him, 
in both thefe forementioned refpeds. ( Notvvithftanding all the vain 
arguments which Mr. Brewi a Scotch Divine, Cont. T'elthufirv. h^ith writ- 
ten to the contrary; which need no confutation to an intelligent Rea^ 
derj^ 44 But:. 

( 29) 

4* But tbe-Office of tlw Sacred Miniftry is much of Cra^e and Injiu 
thUoitt aad lefs of NatHral original than Magiftracy. For though U be 
of Natural obligation, that one man teach another , and that there be 
forae fitter perfons than the multitude to inftrud the people and guide 
them in Gods Worlhip ; Yet that in fptcie there fhould be Preachers •/ 
HieCoJpel, andAdminiftrators of thlsinltituCed worfhip and Church-difci- 
pliiic, thisisitfelfofC^i/?j/«y?»V«f/ow, astiitDdh-m., vorflnp snddtfciplint 
which are their Office-work are of his Inftitution. 

5. And though a great part of a Chriftian Magiftrates work be alfo 
Inftituted, viz.. to promote Chrifts Inftituted C)oiftrinc, Worfhip and 
Bifcipline, yet fo much alfo of his work is natural, as thit he may be 
called a MMgiftratCy though he be not a Chriftian Magiftrate, while lie 
ex-cuteth Gods Laws of Nature, for the common good : But he is Cat 
leafl:) lefs fitly called a Minifter or Prieft of God, who fhall only teach the 
Lawr of Nature, and guide an Aflembly in mecr Natural Worfliip, (^o- 
mitting all that is by Inftitution O Or if any think otherwife, it being 
but demmne, atlcaft this is certain, that the Chriftian or Evangelical Mi- 
niftry is by Inftitution. 

6. Therefore, though fo far as the Mofaical Magiftracy was founded 
m Nature, or in any Revelation expounding the Law of Nature, we may 
under the Gofpel fetch proofs thence for the Chriftian Magift rates Au- 
thority and Obligation-, Yet can we fetch no Model of a Golpel Miniftry, 
nor proof of our Authority or obligation as inftituted, from the Inftituted 
Miniftry of the Mofaical Church : Becaufc the Law o^Mofes is abrogate,an(^ 
indeed did never bind the (??«/(/«, fas 1 have fullier proved in my Treat, 
of the Lords dayO Nor is it fafe to argue from parity of rcafon that we 
mull how be or do as they did, in pointef pure inftitution, whilewelo 
little know the total reafon of God's inftitutions, and when he hirafelf 
hath taken them down and fet up new ones we muft not then plead our 
Reafon againft the alterations which God himfelf hath made. 

7. Therefore though Chrift be now the Head and Fountain of Power, 
both to Magiftratcs and Minifters, yet he did not iufticute a new Office 
of Magiftracy, but add new Laws for them to rule by as part of their 
Rule of Government; Becaufe their Ofiice was fo much founded in Na- 
ture, and fo much of their work lay in ruling mankind according to their 
common Natural Law . But a Miniftry he did inftitute a-new, astothe 
fpecics andgrcat efTcntials of the OfSce. 

8. Chrifl changing both the Inftituted Mofaical Law, and Prieft:- 
hood, did beoin himfelf m his own pcrfon as the Great Prophet, 
High Prieft and King of his Church, to exercile his Office in the Jcmjh 

9- Being not to continue corporally on earth, nor his bodily prcfence 
being ubiquitary, hedefigned thatthc Holy Ghoft fhould be \ii% Agent in- 
ttrtj.ii!y.u^ carry on his work in the World , And he appointed the Sacred 
OSl^c^of the Miniftry, that meet men might be his Agents external- 

i^f-'m the Teaching and Governing of his Redeemed ones in a holy order, 
and in conducting them in holy worlhip, in a Minifterial fubordiliation to 
his Prophetical, Regal and Prieftly Office. • ^ - .; . ., 

lo, As he himfelfdid Officiate among the^^w/,' fo he firft placed thi^~ 
Minifterial Power in twelve ctibfen men, and feventy AlTiftants with ferae 
relation to tlie twelve Tribes and feventy Elders of Ifrael^ to whom he 
lent. them. 

,11. During the time of Chrift's abode among thetn in the flelh, they 
wei*e but as Pupils and Learners while they were Teachers i and their u4- 
hilitiis, Cotnmijftohs, Office and Work_-, and fo their/Kc«/jf were all yctiml 
perfeift : They were not yet authorized openly and commonly fo much as 
todeclareChrlft to be the Mefiiah and Saviour, but only to prepare men 
for that belief: Becaufethofe works were not yet done, which muft be 
the £wi?fffc« of their Do(^rine and the Inftruments of mens Convicftion, 
viz.. Chrift's Death, Refurredion, AfcenCon, and his fending the mira- 
culous gift of theHolyGhoft. ^ '.•i.^|^ : -i! vd n j.-.r 

12. When Chrift was rifen before "his Afcenfion, hie perfeded their 
CommilTion, both as to their Work and Province i but appointed them 
to ftay till the defcent of the Holy Ghoft upon them, (as the fealing and 
full delivery of it, giving them full ability for their workj before they fet 
themfelves about the folemn performance of it. 

1 3. Their Commiffion and Office was, i. to Teach men and make them 
Ghriftians for Chrift's Difciples,) 2. and then to Baptize them into 

^he name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghoft, andfototakethera 
into his Covenant and Church ; and, 3. toTeach them as Covenanted and 
en-Churched perfons, to obierve all his commands -^ The firft part of 
their work was to be exercifed unlimitedly on all the World, as far as they 
were aWe; The fecondpart on the new Converted Believers fand their 
infant feed;) Andthe rhirdpart on the Baptized (that were adult.) And 
he added the promife of his prefence with them to the end. 

14. Ashe now ehlargeid their CommilTion to All the World as the ob- 
jedt of the firft part of their Office^ fo he added one {Paul) by a voice 
from Heaven, unto the number of the Apoftles, who was efpecially made 
arr'Apoftle to the Gentiles, to fliew the reft that they were no more con- 
fined to the twelve Tribes of Jjrad. 

15^ 'Becaufe thefe Apoftles were entrufted not only with a common 
Preaching of the Gofpel, but as Founders of the Churches, to be the eye 
and ear witnefles , of the life, miracles, refurreftion and doftrine of 
Chrift, and to acquaint men certainly with the Laws of Chrift, therefore 
hepromifedthemthcextraordinary gift of the Holy Ghoft, to lead them 
infallibly into all truth, and to bring all things to their remembrance, 
which he had taught and given them in Charge, and fo to enable them 
to perform all their Commiffion, which he gave them accordingly, and 
fomade them the Foundations of his Church, and the infallible deliver- 

■-''..;. ;;ii"i :■■ ■ • ers 

f 3« ) 

crs of his Will to the World, by their preaching and pradice firlt, and 
afterwards by their Writing?. 

i6. Therefore fince their miraculous reception of the Spirit, all their 
Doiftrines Writings and EftabliHimcnts which w^re done in the Execution 
of, their Commiflion, are afcribed to the Holy Ghoft : It was the Holy 
Ghoftthat Indited the Sacred Scriptures; and it ivas the Holy Ghoft that 
fettled the Churches, and that wrought the Miracles, and that bare wit- 
nefs of Chrift, and the Chriftian verity. For the Apol^les fpake not of 
themfelves, but as the Holy Ghoft infpircd them. 

17. Asothersin that time were employed as their affrftants in propa- 
gating the Chriftian Faith, fo had they alfo the faraefpirit, though in 
fevefal meafures, and gifts. And fa far as they had that fpirit, he was 
the fcal of their doftrine .• But bccaufe it was the Apoftles that had the 
promife of Infallibility, we have greater aflurance of the Infalhbility of 
their writings, than of others ", \t bdn^ their apprch,ttion^ which is much 
of our nflurance that the writings of their AftiftaOts were infallible, and 
the teftimony which thcy^ give of-, the perfons that -wrote them (viz.. M^^rk^ 
and Luke.) ' ' ' . 

18. 1 hefe Apoftles with their many Afliftants, (Prophets and Evan- 
gelifts) did by p>r<«c/:7;«^, holimfs and tnir,icles, (tlie cffecfts of Divine W;/- 
domc, Goodnefs and Powcr^ convert multitudes , and baptize them, and 
did not only thus gather them into theC?tholick Church to Chrift, but 
alio fettled dieni In a holy Order in particular Churches , for perlbnal 
communion among thirnifclvcs in holy worihip and holy living: And they 
made fuch'^ie^'ilar Church-'commmiioa a duty to ail that could' ob- 
tain it. ' ^ : ' 

19. By the! authority of Chrift and the Holy Giioft they oi'daincd other's 
to the (acred Offict of the Miniftfy j The fimc olfice with their own as 
to tlic commoji woiks oi PrcMhiiijr and Tc-tchifi^ the Golpcl, Worpifing 
Tind G Hiding the CShurchrs hybol^BiJciplitte:, which are tl>e CofrimoiS ei- 
Icntials of the f^tred Miuiftry. But not the fame in refpetl of their ek- 
traordinary cridow^ments and works before defcribed (as eye and ^ar 
witncflcs, infallibly delivering the will of Chrift.) -i iniyo) 

20. Though in the Nature of the Office all ChriftsMiniftcrs have the 
Power before mctitioiied;''0' ^<^ convert men to the Faith by preaching, 
2. to take them inro t'he' hofy Covenant and Church by Baptifm^ ^. to 
teach, worfhip and rule, in portidljar Churches-, or, 1. to gather Chur- 
ches by preaching and bapti"iing,' 2.- and then to teach and guide them-,;) 
Yet all are not called equally to the exerciftof all thcfe parts-,- But fome 
wefc by the Apoftlc?; and the Holy Ghoft ind*; finitely employed in an unfi.v- 

•Vjd Cinrfe, in converting mW'aha^athijrrtigChlii'chcsi, yc8 oftici'ating alfo in 
gith-efed Churched vvherct^rtcy-came -, Ahd'otl'icrs wcrd;3fi:!ted tTithef1tJ»ted 
relation of,Paftoi-s to. panfjrtifer gathered 'anirches,']k>' 'teach ■and- rule 
them, ands^orlhip among tSe'n-i -, yet fo as alfo to Pt*^aih f6r the ccHivcr- 
fioa of unbelievers, as far as they had ability and opportunity. •'■'■ ■ 

21. The- 

2r. The unfixed Officers were called Mimfters'in General, and Stew- 
ards of God's Myfteries, and Evangclifts : But the fixed Officers, were 
alfo efpecially called Billicps, Paftors, and Elders : Thoiigli fometinie 
rarely the other alfo had luch Titles, becaufe of their doing the l^me 
work tranfiently in the Churches where they came. 

22. They that were unfixed Preachers or Evangelills, had not that fpc- 
cial and particular Charge of all the fouls in particular Churches, and in 
fome one Church above ail the reft, as fixed Bifhops or Paftors have : But 
they had a greater Obligation than thefe Bifhops to preach to Infidels, 
becaufe it was their ordinary chief work. 

23 . The Paftors of particular Churches had fuch a Charge of thcfe par- 
ticular Flocks, above all other Flocks ^materially,) as that they were not 
obliged equally to do the fame for others as they did for them : Though 
yet when they had a particular call, they might tranfiently or occafion- 
ally perform the work of the Paftoral Office, to other Churches. 

24. This relation to their particular Flock, was not fuch as difobliged 
them from their higher regard of the Univerfal Churci; : For our rela- 
tion to that is ftrifter and more indiflbluble than to an y particular Church : 
And we mufb always firjaUy prefer the Church Uni.erfal, .though miite- 
riaily we arc to labour in our particular Churches priiicipally fand fome- 
times only ) becaufe by fuch Ojder the Church Univerfal is belt edi- 

25. The Apoftles ufually (but not only) planted Churches in great Ci- 
ties •, rather than in Country Villages. 

26. This was not that hereby they might oblige others to confine 
Churches to Cities only, nor becaufe they had any fpecial honour for a 
City , but becaufe tbey were the places of greatelt Concourfe , and 
had belt opportunity for AfTemblies, and mofl materials to work up- 

27! Neither the Apoftles nor others for fome Ages after Chrift, did 
divide the Countries about fuch Cities, and allign part of them to be the 
Diocefsof one Bifhop, and the other part to theBifhopof the next ad- 
joyning City: Nor was there any bounding of Parifhes orDiocefs, nor 
any determination, to which Bilhop fuch and fuch ground, or Villages 
of unconverted Infidels did belong. Only as natural prudence guided 
them f and the fpirit of God,) they fo dilperfed themlelves that none 
might hinder another in his work ^ but as molt tended to the propaga- 
tion and orderly governing of the Churches. 

28. Thexefore no City Bifhop had fuch a Particular Charge of the fouls 
of all the individual Infidels, either in his City or the Country round a- 
bout him (which fome feign to have been his Diocefs) as hehadofth* 
fouls of the Church which he was Paflor of. Though he was bound to do 
all that he could to convert aH as he had opportunity, he ftood not ia 
any Paftoral relation to this or that individual Infidel, as hedidtoallthe 
individual Chriftians of his charge, Iin*tins requlreth the Bilhop to 


know all his Flock by narae^ and enquire after them, even the fcrvarts i 
but not fo of all Infidels in his City or Circuit. 

2p. No man was therefore the Pallor of any Chrilliansiaa particular 
Church-relation meerly bccaufe he cooverted them: Nor was there ever any 
Law made by Chrifl: or his Apollles, that all fhould be members of that 
particular Church whofe Overfeer did convert them; much lefs that at a 
diltance they fliould be the members of his Epifcopal charge, though ia 
another Church. 

50. The Apollles fetled in every particular Church, one or more with 
the Pafloral power of the Keys, to teach and govern that Church, and to 
lead them in publick worfliip • And every fuch Body Ihould Hill have one 
or more Pallors with fuch pov.-er . And no Pallor or Bifhop fnould have 
more particular Churches under his Ipccial immediate Clisrt^e, than one, 
unlcfsas an Archbilliopwhohath Billiqps in thofe particular Churches un- 
der him. 

51. A particular Church of Chrifl''s Inflitution by his Apollles, is 
Z-/i fttcrrd Society coffjiftinjr ef one or more Paflors^ and a caj.ihle nnmher of 
Chrijlian Neighbours^ corifociaic by Chrtfis i>.ffcintmein and thdr own coiifetit, 
for perfofial comtnunicn in Cod^sfHllick^worihip andinholylti'irig.'} In this de- 
finition, I. The Genus is {jif.tcrcdSocicty~\ lb called, i.to diflinguilli it 
from a meer community, or unbodied company of Chriflians; 2. and to 
diftinguidi it from Civil and prophane Societies, (For the Gcnns\% fubalter- 
nate, and thefpecicsof a fuperiour Cf««/.) 2. The conflitutive parts are 
Pallor and People. 5. I fay \_PaJlors} as diftinguifhing it from all other 
focieties as headed by other Ofliccrs or Rulers-, As Kingdoms by Kings, 
Colleges by thgrGovernours, Schools by School-mailers, Families by Pa- 
rents, &c. For Societies are fpecificd by their Governours. 4. I fay {one or 
more} becaufe it is the Office in fomc fcrftn that is the conftitutive part, the 
numberbeingindifFercntas to the 5f/>7gj, though not as to the well[htini 
of the Society. 5. The Peofle being the other material part of the Society, 
I call them LC/br>/?;<j«;] thzt'is Baptiz.eti Profeftng Chrifttaiij, to diHinguilh 
them from all Infidels, who are uncapable to be members. 6. I call them 
{Neighbours} becaufc the Proximity mull be fuch as rendereth them ca- 
pable of the Ends of the Society^ For at an uncapable dillance they cannot 
have Church-communion. 7. 1 put in \_acapablennmher'}'bz(:!i.\x(ctoofexvor 
too many may be utterly uncapable of the Ends: One or two are uncapa- 
ble defedively : fuch multitudes as can have no Church communion, are 
uncapable through excefs fof which more after.) 8. The /crw is the ^W*. 
fi'-jf'L'wo" of Pallor and People, in reference to the Ends •, Which 1 mean 
intheword nCo«/#c«<j/r.3 9- The foundation or prime eiTicicnt, i^l^Chrips 
Inflitution.'} lo. Jhc Condition, fine cjuanon, is {il)cir mutual cojf em-} 11. 
Th& end or terminus isthc'w {Communion.} 12. The w^.'/fr Of this Commu- 
nion, is both {God''sfiihlickjivorpip} and a /Wy life ■■,' wliicli dillinguiilicth 
them from fuch as alTociate for civil ends, oranyother bclldci thefe. 15. 
The proper fpecies of this holy Communios is that it be {Perfonal.} By 

F whicii 

( 34 ) 

which I mean ftich as Pallor and People may ordinffrily cxercife in prefence •■, 
to diftinguifhic from that fort of Communion, i. which we have only in 
fpirit^ in faith, jud^^inent and affection, with Chriftiansin all parts of the 
World : And, z. from that external Communion which feveral Churches 
hold together by MclTcngers, Delegates, or Letters. For if that kind of 
dillant Communion would ferve to the being of a particular Church, we 
might be of the fame particular Church with men in the feveral parts of 
Che World. 

3 2 . Deacons are fubordinate Officers, or Minifters to Chrifts Minifters, 
Bot eflential to the Church, but only Integral, as needful to its well being, 
in fuch Churches, where the number and benefit of the People do require 

jj. Theneceflityof thefe Individual or particular Churches, is found- 
ed , in the neceflity of theforefaid publick worfliiping of God, and in the 
ufe of the mutual affiftance of Chriftian Neighbours in the matters of falva- 
tion, and in the need of the perfonal infpedion and condud of the Pa- 
Itors over all the Flock. 

J4. The difference between this perfondl Communion, and the diftant 
Communion by Letters or Delegates, or meerly internal in Faith and Love, 
is fo great and notorious, as mull make thofe Societies fpecifically dillinft, 
which are aflbciated for fuch dillindt Ends. 

55. Yet do we not hold that all true Churches do AfTemble together ia 
one place ; or that they confift of no more than can meet at once: For whole 
Families feldom go all at once to the Aflembly : Therefore if one part go 
to day, and another the next day, they worlhip God publickly in perfonal 
Communion, though not all at the fame time. 2. And many maybe fick, 
and m.my infants, and matiy aged, and the great diftance of fome may 
make a Chapel or fubordinate Meeting often needful. And yet, i, they 
may all come together in one place at feveral times -for Church-communi- 
on. 2. And they may live fo near, that one may be capable of neighbour- 
I'y.converfc with others, and of admonilhing, exhorting and encouraging 
each other, in their Chriftian Courfe. 

56. Where a Church is fo fmall as to need but one Paftor, Chrifldoth 
not require that they have more*, And One can neither be fuperiour or- 
inferiour to himfelf. 

57. But it is m.oft defirable thataChurchbe as numerous or great, as 
will confift with that fort of Communion which is the end of the Society ; 
and confequently that they have many Paftors ; Becaufe this tendeth to 
thtir J} t-ength and kaiity^ anditisa joyful thing to worlhip God in fuUAf- 

j8. The work of a Biiliop or Paftor of a fingle Church is, (to menti- 
on it more particularly) to Teach the Church the meaning of the Scrip- 
tures, efpecially ofall the Arriclasof Faith, and the things to be Defired 
in Prayer, and the matters and order of Obedience to all the commands 
of Chrift. To inftruft th:: Children in the Catecbiftical or Fundamental 


(35 ) 

verities. To Baptize, to Pray in the Aflembly, to praife God, to cele- 
brate the Lords Supper, to vilTt the Sick, and pray for the ra: To vific 
the feveral Families, or perfonally inftrud thof: ignorant ones, that un- 
derftand notpubliclc Preaching, as far as he hath opportunity : To watch 
overthe Converfations of the feveral Members, and to receive informa- 
tions concerning them: Torefoive the doubts of thofe that feck refolu- 
tions, and to offer help to them that are fo fcnflcfsasnotto feck it, when 
their need appeareth: To comfort the fad and affli>.'led: To reprove the 
fcandalous: To admonifhthcobftinate before all : Tocenfure audcaftout 
the impenitent that continue to rcjeft ftich admonition: To abfolve the 
penitent : To take care of the Poor : And to be exemplary in holinefs, 
fobriety, juilicc and charity. I pafs by Mirriage, Burials, and fuch o- 
ther particular OlFices. And I meddle not here with Ordination, or any 
thing that concerneth other Churches i but only with the work of a Billiop 
or Paftor to the People of his proper Flock. 

59. The ableft Man am o ng us, for mind and b ody, may find full and 
needful e m ployment of this fort, among an hundred pcrTons, efpecially 
fuch as our common Chriftians arc : But if he have hve huncfred or a thou- 
fand, he hath fo m u ch to do, as will conftrain him to leave fomcthing un- 
done which beion get h to hi8 Offic;. Therefore our Market-Towns, and 
large Country ParifHes, vyhere there are ordina rily t wo, three, or four 
thoiifand in a Parilh, have need of many paftors, to do that for which 
the Paftoral Office w as ordained : Much more our j^rcatcfl: City andTov^n 
Parilhes tha t have ten thonfand, twenty th oufand, andfome above thir- 
ty, if not forty or fifty thoufa nd in a ParijE 

4C!. The office of a Pallor, containing the Tower of the Keys, as fub- 
ordinatc Minifterially to Chrifl: in his Teaching, Ruling and priellly 
work, is not by man to be divided and part of it to be given to one forr, 
and part to another (though they that have the wMe po\v*r may varioufly 
exemfe it, as there is caufe. j But every Church mud have fuch as have the 
whole power, as far as concerneth the People of that Church. 

41. To divide the eflential parts of the Sacred Office, Cas to give one 
the power of TV^fc/w^ only, another of W'or/Jwpj^jj only, and another of 
Ruling only; or any two of thefe without the third, is to deltroy it, and 
change the _//>fc»'f J, as much as in them lieth that do it J And as nooneisa 
nan without his Animal, Vital and Natural parts-, fono one is a true Pa- 
ftor without the threefold power forementioned, of Teaching, Rule- 
ing that Church by Paftoral means, and Conducing them in publick 
Worlhip. He may be a Paftor that is hindered from theexcrcife of fome 
one of thefe or more :, but not he that hath not the Power iii his Office. 
Dividers therefore make new Church Oftkcs, anddcftroythe old. 

42. Churches headed by fuch a new fort of Officers, fpecifically di- 
ftintfl fromtheoldof Chrift'slnftitution, are Churches fpecifically differ- 
ing from the Churches which Chrift Inftitutcd : Becaufcthe Society isfpe- 
cined by the fptcies of its Head or Governour. 

F 2 4 J. To 


4J. To mnke a new fort of Church-Heads or Rulers, as their Conftitu- 
tivt parts, is to make a new fort of Churches. 

44. The three forfaid Ellential parts of the Paftoral Office are not to be 
exercifed by any Lay-man, nor by any man that hath not that Office ; 
Nor may the Pattors do that work peralios^ or delegate Lay-men, or men 
of another Office to do it as in their ftead. For the Office is nothing but 
juft jinthority and Obligation to do that work : And if they convey fuch Au- 
thority and Obligation to another, they convey the Office to another •, And 
ta he is no longer a Lay-man, or of another Office only- 

45. Therefore though many Paftors of the fame Office may in a great 
Chu: ch diftribute the work among them, yet none of them muft do it only 
as the delegate of another, not having hlmfelf from God the Office which ■ 
containeth the power of doing it. 

46. But the Accidentals of the Paftoral Office maybe committed to a • 
Lay-man, or one that is no Pallor f As to fummon AHemblies, to keep 
Regifters, or the Church Books, Goods, Buildings, with many the llke:^ 
And fofome think that the Apoftlesinftltutlng Deacons was but a com- 
municating the Accidentals of their Office to other men. Therefore if 
Chancellors did only thefe accidental works (or Lay Elder either j and 
meddled not with the facred power of the Keys, we fliould not be fo quar- 
relfome, as to condemn their undertaking, unlefs it were for the a- 

47. We doubt not but in a Church that hath many Paftors, thofe that 
are young and weak fliould much fubmit to the elder and more able, and 
be as far ruled by them, as the difference of age, experience and abilities,, 
without a difference of Office, doth require. 

48. And we doubt not, but where Temples and Church-maintenance are 
at the difpole of Patrons, People or Magiftrates, they may give them to 
fome one Paftor as the prefent poffeffor , fo that no other fliall have part 
but by his conceflion. And this difference there is between the Parfon and 
his Curates in ourParifhes, and an accidental fuperiority and inferiority, 
thereby, without a difference of Office. 

49.Mf Magiftrates, or Councils, or Cuftome, ffiould in each particular. 
Church that hath many Paftors, give one a Governing, that is a negative 
voice among the reft, in the management of the affairs of that Church, 
fo that the reft ffiould not go againft him or without him, as Archbi-. 
fiiops now are over BLQiops, and Archpresbyters were formerly over Pref- 
byters, and Archdeacons over Deacons, and Prefidents over Colleges,- 
and Courts of JuRice, without claiming a diftinift Office^ though the 
fad experience of M«ns Inclination to Church-tyranny, make us doubtful 
whether we ffiould wiffi for fuch an inequality, yet would we not unpeace- 
ably difturb or quarrel with fuch an Order, when it is fettled .• Our Parilh 
Order aforefaid being indeed but fuch. 

50. Whether God himfelf hath appointtdanother fort ofBiffiops who 
Hjaybe better called Archbifliops, as Succeffors of the Apoftles in. the. 


( 37 ) 

Ruling part of their Office-, and whether thefe have not a Power above 
particular Church Pallors in Ordinations, and in the overfight of the Pa- 
llors them felves, and in the Care of many Churches, 1 have long ago cbn- 
fefled, is aCafeof too much difficulty forme to determine. On the one 
fide, though the Apoltles have no SuccefTors in the extraordinary and 
temporary part of their Office, yet Church-government being an ordinary 
and permanent part, as dextrine is, I can hardly think that when we find 
one Form of Church-governmcnt inftituted by Chrill himfelf,. and conti- 
nuing till the end of that Age, that we fliould prefumc to fay that this 
Form then ceafed and another mull fucceed it without good proof. What 
wefindenaftedand fetled mufl Hand, till we can prove it abrogate.. And 
unkfs it were a thing which in the nature of it were temporary,it fecmeth a 
harfli imputation of mutability, to feign Chrill to fet up a Church-govern- . 
ment which fhould be in force but for an hundred years. And on theo- 
ther fide it puzlethme. i. to find it fo hard to prove, that the Apolllcs 
themfclves did indeed exercife any Office power over other Paflors,which 
one may not do towards another, over and above that which accrcwed 
to them from the meer extraordinary advantage of their gifts and Apo- 
ftolical proper work: 2. And to find it fo obfcure, whether they fettled 
any as their Succedbrsinthat fuperiority of power which they had. 

%i. But being in fuch doubt, and being unc er tain whether fuch Arch- 
Bifhops or Apotlolica l Siicceflbrs in t he p oints ofOrdina^n and ovcrfLght 
ofmanyCh':irches, be of Divine right or nor, I reioTve not tocontcna a - 
g-iinll any fuch Order, nor to difobey a ny juft commands o f fuch, norTo 
reproach the CHjhme of the Churches. 

5 2. And though I know that Pallors fliouId not unneccfiarily be divert- 
ed by any alienc works, yet if it plcaie the Magillrate to commit fome of 
his power of Church-government by the Sword, (about things extrinfick, 
tothcPalloral Office) into the hands of fome IMinillers as his Officers, 
and if he call them Biffiopg, and command us to obey them, and if he 
make them Barons, and endow them with Lordlhips and great revenues, 
though I feethegrtat peril to the Church from hence, by reafon of mens 
pride and world lincfs; yet will I not reproach this Order, nor deny any 
jiilt obedience to any fuch Officers of the King. 

5}. Ifany acknowledging the Pallorsof each Church to have the whole 
Paltoral Office, and fewer of the Keys of that Church which heoverfecth, 
fliall yet affi.m that the aforefaid fuperiour Genera! Biffiops Cor Arch- 
Bifhops) have a fiirniony power of the Key s^ and therefore Ihall have the 
decifion of controvcrfies that arife in particular Churches between the 
Pallors and the People and that appeals may be made by the people to 
them, and that they may villtthe particular Chuichcs at their plcafure, 
and have power to cenfure the particular Bilhops (or Pallors j when they 
deferve it, or to Ordain Minillers, remove them, and depole them as 
there is jull caufe, Cby bare fentence, and the peoples confent,; and all 
this jure divtHo, as Succellbrs to the Apollks in th«ir Government, or 


( 38) 

to fuch Artabiihv>pi (oi; General Biflipps) as Ttmthy and TUrs. I fliall 
not contend agaiafl any of t(iis, for the reafons aforefaid, being uncertain 
of ftie thing in quffiiqn. Mut if Imuft be put to fabfcribc, that 1 be- 
lieve 'all this to l)e true, (as if it were an Article of my Faiph) the fame 
uncertainty would forbid rae, 

54. And here I muft i;ake Qccaflon to fay, that! take unnecaTary Sub - 
fc;riptioa?, Declaratica?, pronvifes andb'aths, to be P"e Qf the chi^fe(l: of 
tbebevils Engines,, to divide Chrifl'5 C hurches, andto tiih outthofeM i- 
lyftersi that make cppfcUnceot perjury apdljpg^ ^nd To turn thejp cut p f 

theyor^of iChrift, and '^ole^vgin thole t^t <^ i^o^VTvyBen CoarGiei}ce 
can find but" any fhifting; prete nce:';) Aq3 hoy "t luch are for the Sacred 
Minillry, andwlioie fervants reaUythey are, and h9w the y are like to do 
Chrlll^a work, and what a C^fe the Chutch.es wTtl be in that have fac h , 
apd what the ^fr'efls'jvill be ^ith;t|^e com mon pe5)ple, ajidjiqw the lover s 
of God li ne fs will r^fenit all this, aiid wh ^elfe wi lUoliowTier^uponJ leav e 
to the Reader that hath the brainsoFXmap, or "eveF opened his ey^s tft 
mark what is don e abroad in the W orld, prthafevgr readwith_pb^ 
vatiOD the things that in otbec Age s have bgfallen the Xhurc h es, or tha t 
knowe th what relation li ght bath to darkjiefs, good^ evil^and Chrift to 
Bthal. 1 think that the Articles oFour Faith ^ndiX^nQ matters oFour fror 
Bice are fpto bediltlnguilhed, as that there is a tHcejftty of Believing the 
former, 2nd therefore we may be called to profcfs that we do Belitvt, 
them--, And for the other, (the Agetidn) we mull be called to Do theraj 
("and if they be plain and neceflary duties of our Religion, being to be 
BeHeved to h^Dnties before we do them, we may fometime be put to pro- 
fefs that Belief.) But ^«/»>j of humane impofition, or of doubtful nature, 
may be done as things lawful by thoufands of peaceable men, that can- 
not fay or fwear that they are duties; or may be done as of humane obli- 
gation by thofe that cannot fay they are of Diviae obligation- 

55. Wc hold that the hr ft Churches that did divolveall arbitrations of 
difierences among Chriflians upon the Paftors, did that which brought 
no great prefent inconvenience, when the People were but few and the 
Paftors had fufficient leifure ', but that which prepared for the degenera- 
ting of the Miniftry andthe Churches lamentable corruption ^ And there- 
fore that they Ibould have forefeen this, and done as St. Paul direded 
them, and referred matters to any fit {yvtfe man amon^them.'} And when 
they faw the mifchief, they ftiould have quickly reformed it, as Silvanm . 
Biftiop oiTro/u aforementioned did : And that if there were Lay Elders 
in any of the ancient Churches, (as one paftage in Origen, and one in Antr 
hrofe, and this of Stluamts in Socrates have madefome think) they were 
truly Lay, and appointed only to fuch Arbitrations as thefe, and fuch o- 
therAnimadverfions over the reft, as Lay-menmay do; (A help that 1 
once tryed and found to be very great-) 

56. We hold that when Conftantine gave the Clergy the fole Pow^, of 
Judging theCau&s ('Civil andCriminal) of all-thc Chrifti^ns, helhew- 



ed more ignorant zeal> than true difcretion, and did let in a" peftilence 
into the Church •, and that inftead of that he fhould have only left Arbi- 
trations to mans free choice, and have fet up a Chriflian or Righteous 
Magiftracy, to whom both Bilhops and all other Ghriftians fhould fub- 

57. We hold that when Ghriftians fo niultiplyed, as that they grew 
uncapable of Perfonal Communion, at one Altar ^ it was the duty of them 
and the Bifliops, to have ordered them into new Churches, which (hould 
every one have had its proper Bifliop, or plenary Paftoral Office among 
them j and not to kave kept them all ftill in the name of one particular 
Church (^infimi ordinis ) when they were uncapable of the nature and 

58. We hold that it vizs finfally done, to make a new Office or Order 
offubjeSl Presbyters^ that had not the Governing power of their per- 
ticular Churches, neither alone, nor conjun^H: •, but had only the power to 
Teach and Worlliip, the Government being referved only to the Bifliop 
of another (called a Mother) Church. 

5p. But we believe that this came not in till many handred Years af- 
ter Chrift, and that but by flow degrees, and that after fubordinatc 
Churches and Altars were invented, and fet up, yet the Pallors under 
the name of Presbyters, had much of the Governing power voftheKeys> 
though with and under the Bifhop of the Mother Church. 

60. Thedepofingof all thelirllrankorOrderof Bifliops. which were 
before over each particular Church, the making of a new Office of half 
Presbyters, the making of Churches of a ncvi fpccies^ as being under a 
new fort of Officers, the making Archbilliops, who (hould have many 
Churches and Bifliops under them, to become the Bilhops of the loweft 
rank, having none under them; but above all thcfe, the making of the 
Paftoral work, efpecially difcipline become utterly impoffible, by put- 
ting that into one mans hand, that cannot be done but by many (or ma- 
ny hundred,) thefe and fuch like are the things that wc can neither fWear 
to nor approve. 

61. We hold that though the Magiftrate may {hapc his part of tfie 
Church Government varioully, according totlic latereft of tlie common 
good, yet that the Spiritual or Paftoral part ihoulj not have been mob 
ded into the flupe of the Civil Imperial Government •, And that io doing 
did give the Papacy tliat countenance which is the ground of its ufur- 

62. For we hold that the e(fe>ilial cmfijtution of the Paftoral Office, ^nd 
its work , a nd t he i:ShM[^lcon[htuiiOVi of the Church VmwrfaU and of Z,'^ - 
di-vidnal {0: particulai) Churches, are ail of Divine unakcrable Inftituti - 
on t And that all Laws of Chri ft for fuch Confticutlon, and for Adm in i- 
ftration, are unalterable by man : Though we h old that Circumft ancials 
and Accidentals are alterable, as being n ot f aed by any Divine determi - 
nation' (^ie'g^ how many Miniftcrs Ihallbe in each Church, which of 


( 4» ) 

them QuU be nior^ regarded than tlie reft, as being of greater wifdom, 
hbw oft and v:hcn and whtre they fliali allemble , with ma ny the 
like.; - '■ ■ '■ .■■ 

6 J. We hold that as all ■Qiriftians (ordinarily) fliould have ferfonal 
Comtmimon in particular Churches, fo thofe Churches and tHeir Bifhops 
fliould hold fuch Communion as is needful to their Itrength and concord, 
'and the commion good. • . " ' . . : 

'' 64. This Communion of Churches is to be held internally by Concord 
in the fame f^jV/j and Low and Religion^ and externally by the fame fro. 
'fejfiofi^ znd inflrtmcntally, i. by Melfengers and Letters, and, 2. byDelc- 
.gatesand Synods when there is need i (which as is faid, for Time, Place, 
■Numbers, Provinces, Orders, are left to humane Prudence.) 

65. If any that divide the Country into Provinces, will fettle Synods 
accordingly, and fettle over them Prefidents for the ordering or their 
proceedings, and will give power to one above others, to call fuch Sy- 
nods, and willcallthele Provinces, or Nations, or Empires, bythename 
of Provincial, National;" or Imperial Churches, and the Bifhops fo exalt- 
ed by the name of Metropolitans, Primates, Patriarchs, &c. We con- 
tend not againft this as unlawful in it felf (though we eafily fee the acciden- 
tal danger., being taught it by long and fad experience ; j fo be it, i. that 
none of thele be pretended to be of Divine Inltitution, but of humane de- 
termination •, 2. andthatthey meddle with nothing but fuch accidentals 
as are left to humane prudence ; 3. and that they equal not their humane 
Aflbciation with the Chriftian Worfhiping Churches, which are of Chrift's 
Inftitution, 4. and that much lefs they do not opprefs their brethren, and 
tyrannize, nor deprive the particular Paftors and Churches of their pro- 
per priviledges and work- But alas when were thefe Rules obferved by 
humane Churches ? 

66. The Canons of fuch Synods or Councils of Bifhops, may be made 
Laws indeed by the Civil power, andthey are(if juftj obhgatory to the 
people, by virtueof the Paftoral Authority of the Bifhops : But as to the 
particular Bifhops, they are only J^reements., and no proper Laws (the 
Major Vote of Bifhops being not proper Governours of the reftj and 
bind only by virtue of Chrift's General Laws for Love and Concord. 

67. The Paftoral power is not at all Coaiftive by fecular force, on bo- 
dy or cftate, but only Nunciative and pcrfwafive, commanding in Chrift's 
name as authorized by him, and executed no otherwife than by a Mini- 
fteriaimrd, and by with-holdingourown aftsof Adm'niftration, andde- 
nyingour Communion to offenders : Nor did the Apoftles themfelves pre- 
tend to any other than this power of the Word (for the Keys are exercifed 
but thus) excepting what they did by Miracle. And if Bifhops would go 
no further, they would work on none but Voluntiers, and their ufurpa- 
tions might be the more eafily born. 

67. And indeed weare fully perfwaded, that none but Voluntiers are 
fit for the great priviledge of Church-Communion, and that giving it to 


(4') ' 

'tlie ua?;illlDg that had but rather endure it thanaPrifon, is a great pro^ 
fanation of it, and a cheat to poor fouls, and a horrid corrupting of 
'Chrift's Churches and Ordinances. 

68. If wilful Ciiurch-corruptions have made anyplacesuncapableofa 
prefent conformity to Chrift's Inflitucions, their incapacity mult not be- 
come the meafureand rule of our Reformation v But a true Conformity 
to the Inltitution mull be intended and endeavoured, though all cannot 
come up to it at the fii ft. 

69. VA'e do not hold that every Corruption in Number, or Officers, or 
Order, nuUifieth a Church, ormakcthall Communion with it unlawful, 
as long as the ellential conftitution doth remain. Yea, though my own 
judgment, is,, tha t every Church jn Town or Country Hiould ha ve a Biiliop. 
yet if they would but let up oh; Bilhop w"i tITTiis affiftant Presbyters iq 
every Corporation' and Gr ea t^Town, w ith t he neighbour Villages, ac- 
cording to the antignt pra^Ufc , fr om ,the~mjddle of the third Centur y 
for many fol lowing { l b that true^lcipline mighj but be niadepojlible^to 
t"Eem th at had a heart to pr a^'Ice It, TilibulcT greatly rejoyce in fudfa 
Reformation^ muc h more, ircVery Parifh Pafbor were refto red t o all the 
parVs" 6t his Ulface^THbugTilie "exercifed all tinder the Government of Bi- 

70. Wc hold the Parilh Churches of £/;_f/W, that have true Minifters 
(that are, not utterly uncapablc through Ignorance, Hercfie, Infufficicncy, 
or Wickednefs,J to be true Churches of Chrift ; But that is, becaufe we 
hold the particular Minifters to betrueBifliops ( Eptfcopos Gregii eifi von 
£pifcoporim^)and to have the power of the Keys over all their Flocks : And 
that is, becaufe we hold that it is not in our Billiops power to deprive 
them of it though they would ^ And becaufe w-c hold that when Chrift hath 
inftitutcd and defcribed the Office of a Pallor or Presbyter, and the Or- 
dainers ordain a man to that Offiice, their power (hall be judged of by 
Chrifts inftitution, and not by the Ordainers will, though he miftake or 
would maim and change it by his wrong dcfcription. And that the Or- 
dainer is but a Minifterial Inveftcr, delivering polfeffion according to his 
Mafters will and not his own: And as long as Chrift givcth to Paftors 
the power of the Keys, and they themfelvcs confcnt to receive and ufe 
them, (efpccially if the People alfo confcnt to the cxercilc of tliem) it 
is not the Biffiops wi/l or words that can nullifie this power. And if this 
Anfwer were not good, Iconfcfs, I were not able to Anfwer a ^r^wA;//?, 
who faith, that we have no true Publick Churches of God's Inftitution 
Dioccfan Churches being but Humane, if they had Bifhops in each Church 
under them, and being finful when they have none, and Parochial Chur- 
ches Ijcing Humane or null, as having no Biffiops of their own, nor Pa- 
ftors of Chrift 's Inftitution, but half Paftors •, and therefore bcin<^ but 
p.utof a Dioccfan Church. But all this is fufficiently anfwered by" pur 
forefaidReafons-, which no high Prelatift can fonndly anfwer. 

•7i- I do hold that thofc Parilh Aifemblics, that have no iMinifter s Thut 

r 42 ) 

fuchasatenncapable^ eklier through notorious Ignorance, or Herefie, 
orutter Infufficiency astothe Eflentialsof their Office, or bydifclaiming 
thenifelves any ElFential part of the Paftoral Office^ or by notorious 
Preaching againftGodlinefs, and oppofing the Churches neceflary good,] 
are indeed no true Churches of Chrift, but only are Analogically or Equi- 
vocally fo called •, As you may call a Community of Chriftians that have 
no Paltor or Church , which is no Organized or Political Society. 

72. But yet I think it not fimply unlawful to joyn at any time with fuch 
an Allembly '. For I may joyn with a Chriftian Family^ or occafional Af- 
fembly, though not as with a Church. 

, 7,5' We hold that all the Chriftians in the World (in particular Chur- 
ches or out) do make up one Catholick or Univerfal Church:- which 'is 
Myftical and Invilible^ in that, i. the Faith of Mens minds- is Invifible, 
2. and Chrift is Invifible to us Mortals now he is in Heaven.- But it is alfo 
Vifible, I . In refped of the Members and their outward Baptifm and Pro- 
feflion, i. and becaufe that Chrift the Head was once Vifible on Earth* 
andisftill Vifible in Heaven to the Glorified part fas the King is- to his 
Courtiers, when the reft of the Kingdom feeth him not. J and will Vifi* 
bly appear again to all. 

74. We hold that this Univerfal Church is One in Chrift alone, and 
that it hath no other King or Head \ That he hath Inftituted no Vicari- 
ous Head, either Pope or General Council •, Nor is any mortal man or 
men capable of fuch an Office. 

75. We hold therefore that the Roman Pope ('and General Councils, 
if they claim fuch an Headlhip^ is an Ufurper of part of Chrift's Preroga.^ 
tive ; which having ufurped he hath ufed againft Chrift , and his inte- 
refti againft the Soveraignty of Princes, and againft the true Unity, Con- 
cord, Peace and Holinefs of the Churches. 

76. And we hold that itwas the modelling of the Church to the Policy 
of the Roman Empire, which gave the Pope the advantage for this ufurpa- 
tfon : And that the Roman Catholick Papal Church is a meer Humane Form, 
and an Imperial Church, asrauchastfe Archbi(hopofC^w/frW)i as Supe- 
riour to the reft of England is of Man, and that Body fo united is a Na- 
tional Church : And that the General Councils were never truly Genera!, 
as to all the Churches in the World, but only as to t\\t Roman Imperial 
Church-, None confiderable ever coming to fuch Councils, butthofethac 
were or had been in the Roman Empire, or fonie very few that dofely bor- 
dered on them : Nor had the Roman Eniperour fwho ufually called, or 
gave his Warrant for ilich Councils, or Governed themj any power over 
the Clergy of all the reft of the Chriftian World, (in Ethiopia^ the outer 
Armenia, Perfia^ India, (tc-) Nor did the Imperial Pope then exercife 
any power over them. And we are perfvvaded that the power of the Pa.» 
triarchs of Alexandria.^ Antioch^ yernfaUmy GnfiantinopUy and of tht Mc 
tropolitans, Primates, &c. ftood on the fame foundation with the Prima- 
cy of the Pope, and that one is no more of Divine right than the other; 


wit tliat fhe Papacy Is fne ftr more wicked Ufurpation, as pretending t<k 
more of Chrift's Prerogative. 

77" We hold therefore that the Roman Church, as fuch, that is, as 
pretending to be the Church-Catholick, Headed by an fUfurping) Uni- 
verfal Bifhop, is no true Church of Chrif^, but a Humane and traiterous 
llfurpation and confpiracy, therefore by Proteftants called Antichriflian: 
Though thofe that are true Chriftians among them are Parts of Chrift's 
Cathoiick Churcl^, and thofe that arc true Pallors among thtm, may be 
the Guides of true particular Ciiurchcs. 

78. We hold therefore that no Power on Earth , Popes, Council or 
Prince, hath power to make Univcrfall.aws to bind the whole Church 
of Chrill on Earth, becaufc there isno UniverfalHeador Sovcraignbut 

79. By all this it is evident that we grant nil thefe following difpa- 
rities in the Church: i. The difparity of Age, Handing , and Gifts 
among Minifter* of the fame Order : 2. A kind of paternal priority 
where one was the Teacher, Educatcr, or Ordainer of the other. 3. 
An accidental difparity, when one only by the Patron or Magillrate 
liath the fole poflcinon of the Maintenance and power of the Temple. 
4- We will not unpeaceably contend againfl the guiding power or ne- 
gative Vote of One Bilhop in a particular Church over the red of the 
Paftors of the fame Office ^ Nor do wc take fuch a power to make adi- 
ftinft Office. 5. Wedo notftrive againft the Prefidcncy of one, in Sy- 
nods, as Moderator i No though it were durante vita C which Bilhop 
Hall thought would ferveto healui.) 6. Wc do not deny Obedience to 
any Bifhop, who is Commiflloned by the King, toexercife as a Church- 
Magiftrate, his part of the Church Government. 7. Much lefs do we 
itrive againft the Power of Kings and Lawful Magiftrates Circa Sacra, 
(of which GrottHs hath cxxellently written de Imfer.J But wc take the 
Magiftrate to be the neceffary and only Ruler by the Sword, to keep 
Peace and Order among Church men, as well as among men of all other 
Profeflions. 8. Yea, 1 do not contend againft the Divine Right of Ge- 
neralBifliops, ^or ArchbiOiops) {\ich as Timothy and Titus, nor will de- 
ny Obedience to them, who take care as Villtors of Many Churches, 
which have every one their proper Bilhop, one or more, with true ple- 
nary Paftoral power of the Keys, to guide the people of their charge. 
9. We refufe not to receive Ordin?tion from fuch General Bifliops. 10. 
Nor do we refufe to be refponfible to them, when we are accufcdof any 
male Adminiftration, or to admit of Appeals from us to them. 

80. By all which it appeareth, i. How falfly we are charged to be 
againft all Epifcopacy. 2. And how falfly and deceitfully all thofe Wri- 
ters ftate the Cafe and plead againft us, that only plead for a Congre- 
gational M Parochial Epifcopacy, or any of this which we grant ■■, and 
how they cheat their Readers, who make them believe, that our Contro- 
verlje is, whether there fliouldbe aty Epifcopacy, and not what t/W of E- 

G 2 pifcopacy 

dm Mioi- 

vingto the 
Kins^ is to 
be feen iii 
Priat; As 
alfo thsir 
defire of 
B. Ujher's 
Model of 

( 44 ) 

pifcopacy it rtiould be. j. What friends they wHl prove to the Churcf^^ 
that will rather do all that is done againll it, than endure thole that 
grant all this which we do grant them. 

8i. That I am not fingular in all this^ 1 prove in that it was only Arch- 
bifhop V^hrh Redudion of Eplfcopacy to the Primitive Hate, which th? 
Nonconformifts, (malitioufly called Presbyterians) did offer to his Maje- 
fty and the Bifhops, • 1660. as the means of our Concord, and which was 
rejected: Yea, that they * thankfully accepted (though not totally ap- 
proved) that higher Model exprelTed in his Majefties Declaration about 
Ecclefiaflical Affairs. 

And now, 1 fuppofe, I have given Strangers and Pojierity a truer De- 
fcriptionofthe Judgment of the prefent Nonconformifts, than malicious 
turbulent ambitious Perfons ufe to give of them, or than the extreams 
and freaks of a few Se(a:aries would allow men to receive. 


Concerning the Writers of this C Gntr over fie -^ With a Sum' 
viary Anfwer to the Chief that write againfl the Caufe 
which I defend. 



Have not been altogether negligent to read the Controverfies on 
this Subjed, nor I hope partial in Reading them ; If I have , it 
hath been becaufe I had rather have found Conformity to the Pre- 
■* NowiS JL. lacy to be lawful i for then I had not above ''^ nine years been filen- 
years, this ced, and denied not only all Church maintenance, but leave to preach 
jg"'|^^/"^ Chrift's Gofpel, nor had' I beenexpofed as I have been to fo much wrath 
and malice, exprcfled in fo many fcurrilous lying invediv«s and libetls, 
befides other ways. Even when I doubted of the ufe of the tranfient Image 
of the Crofs, I was of opinion that Prelacy was lawful, and fo was like- 
ly to continue, if the Prelates would have given me leave : But in 1640,^ 
they put a New Oath upon us, Never to Confent to the Alteration of the pre- 
fent frame of Prelacy, asunder Archbifhops, Bilhops, Deans, Archdea- 
cons, &c. and that it ought fo tofiand. And I thought it was then time, 
when I was put to fuch a folemn Oath, tofearch more throughly into all 
the matter before I fware. And in fearching, I found in general that 
aimoft all Writers for Eplfcopacy, either confound Diocelan Prelacy,' 
fiich as ours, with the Eplfcopacy of a fingle Church, or at Icaftallthein 
proof extendeth to po.more than I have here granted. When they. 



offer us the definition of a Bifliop (which few of them do) it is fuch as 
neither fuppofeth any more Churches than one to be his Charge, nor any 
Presbyters under him at all ^ but only a Power of Ordaining Presby- 
ters, and ruling them when he hath them, whether in one Church or 

And I find that they are fo far from proving that ever the Apoftlei 
appointed a diftind Office of Presbyters which had not the power of the 
Keys over the People, inforo intenore & extcriore fas they call them) but 
had only power to Teach and Worfhip, under Bilhops as a fuperior Of- 
fice or Order, as that they prove not any fuch to have ever been under the 
Apoftles themfelvcs; and fome of themfelves do plainly deny it: Nor 
do they prove that long after the Presbyters were any more fubjeft to 
the Bilhops, than the Deacons art now to the Archdeacon^ or tlie Bilhops 
tothe Archbifhop, who are of the fame Order. So that whoever c I fe 
theyfpeak. to, they fay nothing tome, and feem not to know where 
Hie Controverfie lyeth, viz.. i. Whether a Bifijp of the lowefl rank_ (T)eing 
m Archbijlop^ or having no Bifhops under him) over many Churches, (ot 
Societies of ChriftiansKated under their proper Pallors, or Presbyters^ 
for ordinary pcrfonal Communion in all God's publickWorfiiip,) bcof 
Divine., or Lawful Humane, Inftitution? z. Whether an Order or Office 
of Presbyters that have not the power of the Keys even in fore txteriorcy 
be of Divine, or Lawful Humane Inftitution ? fwhom for brevity I fhall 
hereaftercall half Presbyters) Sothatthe Qneftion is not, whettier one 
Man was after fometime called peculiarly the Biniop,and in the fame Church 
late over Presbyters of the fame Office, as Archprcsbytcrs, oras Archdea- 
cons over Deacons, or Archbifliops over Bifhops ; Nor yet whether there 
were or lliould be a General fort of Bilhops (or Archbifhops^ over the 
Bidiops of particular Churches ? But whether any Hated Body of Wor- - 
fliiping Chriftians, as afore defcribed (like our Parifh-Churches that have - 
mum Mltare) fliould be without a Bifliop of their own, or without a Paftor 
that hath the threefold power before defcribed, of Leading the People in 
Doiftrine Worfliip and Difcipline, called the power of the Keys ? And 
whether he be a true Presbyter or Minifter of Chrift that wants this pow- 
er ? And wiicther they that depole the Parilh Minifters of this power, do 
not degrade the Presbyters, nullilie the Churches under them, and dcpofe 
the ancient fort of Epifcopacy ejuantim i'l fe ? andfet up another Humane 
fort of Churches called Dioccfan, and of Archbifliops turned into Bi- 
fliops, infimigradwy in their ftead, together with a new Species of half. 
Presbyters ? 

1. How far Whitgifi'% Difputations againft C/trtwri^ht arc guilty of this r^.-^ -f^ 
overlooking the true Qjeftioii, 1 leave to the Reader : Only I muft fay ' ' 
for him, that when his Adverfsrie ftandcth moft upon the denial of all 
fuperior Epifcopacy, it was his part to prove what was denied. And I 
need fay no more than that I r^/r^*;r oft profefleth (as Dr. S titling feet h^th 
coUeded out of him,) that God hath in Scripture prefcribed noonefort 


of Church-Government: And therefore not the Prelatlcal. 
sarA-viit. 2. 1 do not expect that ever this Controverfie (hould be handled by 
two more judicious Adverfaries than Saravia and Bez.ei were- And as 
£f;^4 protefteth againfta Parity, and pleadeth for a Proflafie^ dejireth 
that which he calleth Divine Epifcopacy, tolerating and fubmitting to 
that which he calleth Humane Epifcopacy, and flatly oppofing only that, 
which he calleth Satanical Epifcopacy ; So Saravia profefleth, p. i, 2, d* 
p. Defenf. 4, 5. that the General nature of the Evufigelicd Minifiry, com- 
mon both to Bifhops and Presbyters, containeth thefe three things, i. The 
Preaching of the Gofpel. 2. The Communication of the Sacraments, 
3. The Authority of Church-Government : And only p'eadeth that in 
thislaft, the Power of Bifhops and Presbyters is not equal, but the Bi- 
Ihops power is principal in Government. Which granteth the main 
Qaeftion which we Nonconformifl now contend for. And 1 con festhat 
Saravia % Writin gs were the firft and chie f th a t brought me to fufpeft 
that the Apo llles have Su ccefTors in the point of Go ve r n ment, as being 
hy L ? n ^ordi nar y and d urab le par t of their Office : which Arg u ment he 
hath beUer rnanag e d than any ma n elTe that I have i ] ee n. And f- 12. ib. 
He granteth that the 70 Difciples were not under the Government of the 
12 Apoftles. He granteth that chofenSfwjorj of the Laity may be great 
rid.&^. Aflillants in the Government: Yea, Def. 1. 8. p. 8j. He faith,, that in 
104. & jj^g abfenceof Paul and his AlTiftants, the Churches of G-f^^ were wholly 
no. III. j-yjgjj^ jjji .j-j-j^j Ordained them Pallors, by fuch Elders. {_ji feniorihus 
quos ratio O' natttra in quavis Secietate dat, non Ordinatio : /juales funt natu 
majores^ & qiwtquot aliqua virtute in peptilo excellunt : tjuibus deferre no- 
tHra omnes gentes docu'it : quihus addo eos quos tunc temporis paffim, d»na Sp. 
fan£li venia excitabant^ Je4 nulli loco alligabant.'] And no wonder, for he 
affirmeth, that in times of publick corruption of Doftrine, any manthat 
is learned and able and fit, muft propugne and defend the truth, as he 
hath ability and opportunity i or elfe be judged for hiding his talents as 
the unprofitable fervant, pag-i^. cap. 2. Yet doth he moft improbably 
imagine that Rome and Corinth had no proper Paftors, when Paul wrote 
his Epiftlestothem. When as ?^«/ had dwelt a year and hiiidi Corinth^ 
when it was the praftice of the Apoftles to Ordain Elders in every Church, 
and when among the Corinthians there were fo many Prophets, Inftrud- 
ers. Speakers of Languages , Interpreters, &c. that Paul is fain to re- 
gulate and reftrain them in their Church-meetings, that they might not 
over-do, and hinder one another. And yet were thefe People without any 
proper Pallor ? Without a Prelate ? it's like they were. Yea, when Paul 
dircfteth them to deliver the incelluous man to Satan, and to exercife 
Church-difcipline upon others that wer? fcandalous, doth not this inti- 
mate that they had among them fuch as were impowred to do it? If 
only tranfiently and occafionally, they could WorihipGodpubllcklyand 
deliver Sacraments, and Govern the Church but tranfiently ami rarely. 
How did they fpend the Lords days, when thofe tranfient guides were 

abfenf ? 

no, III 

120, 111 


anient J Did the major part of the people^ who Saravia thinketh were 
to exercife the forefaid Difcipline, alfo Confecrate and Admiaifter the 
Sacrament, or publickly pray and worfhip God without a Paftor ? Were ' ^<«-».*' 
they every Lords day to depofit their CoUedions, and have no Paftors, '' '- 
andfo no Church Allemblies? Had they fo raanySeds and falfe Teach- 
ers to trouble them, and yet no Paftors ? When Clem. Rom. Co fliort- 
Jy after writeth fo much to reconcile the Paftors and People that dif- 
agreed. And wlien-P<i«/ tells the Romans and Corinthians what Officers 
God fetteth in the Church, is it like there was none fixed among 
them ? 

And I mult note how great a charge he layeth on the Bilhops, when, 
J?f/p. ad N.p.io. Art. i2. He faith that [; the Bifliop is aejiti tmo ma^ts 
froprins jingiilarnm EuUfarum fu* Diocefcos Pajjor, illis qui ibi prxfunt 
C^ reftdent , Mpote ad quern cur a pracipua illorHm tocorum fcrtincat : 
The Billiop hath more Charge or Care of all the Paridies in hisDiocefs 
than the prefent Pallors have : ( O dreadful undertaking.) ^d qucmpri- 
ma ($• pracipua Cnra omnium incumbet : ita «r, ipfe fuum apwfcit ^regeint 
c!r fngulis quibus titams imponit, &c. How many hundred thoufand indi- 
viduals then hath the Biihopof London this particular Charge of, whofc 
names he never heard, and whofe laces he never faw ? Oporttt enimEpifcc^ 
fum omrtts qhavtum fieri potefi, qui ipfus cune commijfi funt, tioffe. The Bi- 
(hop mult know all his Flock, if pollible ^ And mult he have a Flock 
then which he cannot pofllbly know, nor never faw one of a hundred or 
thoufand of them, with any particular knowledge at lealt ? 

And Co/It. qu<efi. & Rrfp. Bez.<e^p. loi. He appro\-eth of Z^wfcy's judg- 
ment [that Ceremonies and things indifferent be left free] [and the 
Churches free in them.] 

And Dffiff p. 286. He faith, [_Primum Epifcoporam omniu/n c~ Preibyte- 
rcriini nnitm cffeOrdinem Confiituo.'] I maintain that thnc is one Order cf 
nil Bijhops and Presbyters'] Therefore they cannot diftcr but Cradu ., as 
a Deacon And yirchde.con. And again, ib. p. 28<3. Mmiftcrii antem Evan- 
^elici iwiiAS, prcbatur ab horitm unitate \ C" fit ita h(jnar, identitatc : Ean- 
dem cnimvcritaiis dailrinnn, omncsOrthodoxt decent., eadem Sacramenta M- 
niflr-wtf eandcnt cenfur.im cxcrccnt , ttWtHm ProzinciMnim c/l iiisqtialitM C" 
graduum diver Jit. is, '} [The Unity of the Gofpcl Miniftry is proved from 
the Unity, or as 1 may fay. Identity of thcie : All ('that are Orthodox) 
teach the fame true Do^^rine, Adminillcr the fame Sacrament?, exercife 
the fame Cenfures ; Only thereis anintcjuality ot Provinces, and a diver- 
lity of degrees.] Thus the molt Learned and rational Defender of Pre- 
lacy giveth away their Caufc. 

?. BiQiop fi;//<7«, a nioft Learned ani judicious man alfb, fsich more !'.'.■»:. 
for Epifcopacy than aiy of our late Writers ; and in my jidgmcnt faith 
more againit the Ollice of Ecclefiaftical Elders diflind: from Paftors, 
than can be anfwertd- Bat to our two main Q^elt ions before-mention- 

f 48) 

ed, (of a Bifhop over many Churches without Bifhops tinder hjm« 
and of half-Presbytersj how little he faith the Reader will foon fee 
Cyea how muchonouriide.) 

!koke>- in- 4' ^^ ^^^ Hooker^ till his jrh Book came lately out, we had nothing kz 
lAicred as" him confidcrable of this fubjeft •• And in that Book it felf, fo little to 
farasour the purpcfe, astoour forefaid two Controverfies, asisnext to nothing, 
caufe le- nor worthy a Reply. In his §. i- p. 4. He attempts (that which few 
quireth. Jq) to give us the definition of a Bilhop, which is ^A Bijhop is a Alim- 
Rcmem- ^^*' "f ^"^i ^"f° whom with fermanerit continuance, there is given not only 
\xi alfo power of Adminijlrinjr the Word and Sacraments^ which power other Presbj- 
itM Hock- ter shave ^ httt alfo a further power to Ordain Eccleftafticd perfons, and a power 
tr s third gj- chiift) in Covirnment over Presbyters as well as Lay me?t^ a power to be by 
written to '^'9' "/ 7'*>''fd'^'0" ^ Paflor even to Paflors thcmfelves.^ And then he diftin- 
prove that §uiillfth of ^{//.o;;^ at large or indefinite, and Biflieps with refiraint, and 
no one laith he meaneth the later. And fo you have what muft be expefted 
Foim is from Mr. Hooker for the information of you, what Epifcopacy he pleads 
dedTrf"' ^'~*'- ■ ^h^i^^ ii^ is obvious how fraudulently (through overfight or par- 
Scriptiwe: tiality I l«iow not) hedealeth: For whereas he durft put no more into 
Therefore the definition of Epifcopacy about Jurifdittion but [_a power of Chiefty in 
not the Government over Presbyters aswcUas Lay-mtn.~\ yet would not tell US, wh.e- 
PrcJatical. ther Gcwrwwfw of Lay-men, (under the Bilhop) belong to the Presbyters 
or not : His words feem plainly to imply it.; what ule elfe is there for 
his 'iChiifty'} and [_m well as Lay-men. J And yet twice over he would name 
nothing but. Teaching and Sacraments .which belong to the Paftoj as a Pa- 
ftor in general-, leaving it as a thing which he would neither affirm nor 
deny, whether Paltors Governed their Flocks. Yet all that Decantate 
Book turnetli on the Hinges of this lame Definition ( which hath other 
defeds which I pafsbyO And without this we cannot know what Sub- 
jc6t he difputeth of VVheieas Saravia well noted and acknowledged three 
Eflential parts of the Miniltry in General, Mr. Hooker who leaveth out one 
of tliem, and yet durft not deny it, fhould have told us, whether he in- 
clude it or not •, feeing it is the matter of mofl of our difference ; and 
we take him for no Paftor or Presbyter that is without the power of Go- 
vernment, nor that to be a true Church (w fenfu politico) that hath no 
other Paftor. 

2. And when as one part of his Adverfaries deny not (at leaft) the 
Lawfiilnefs of one Biftiops fuperiority in a (ingle Church, as far as his 
defcription fpeaketh, but only in many Churches-, no, nor one Archbi- 
fliops power over many Churches that have their own Bifhops, but only 
his power to depole all the Bifliops of particular Churches and turn 
them air into one Diocefan Churchy his Definition vifibly reacheth tono 
other fort of Bifhops, but fuch as we oppofe not -, and fo he faith no- 
thing at ailagainftus, to any purpofe through all his Book: For where 
after he confidently tells us that the extent of his Jurifdidion alters nqt 


( ^9) 

the SjecitSi it is but barely faid, and by his leave 1 fliall fully prove the 
contrary anon. And fa^. 4. /. 7. He confefleth that de fa£lo \iMany things 
are in the fiate of Bijftops, which the times have chmgtd ; Many a Pxrfonage 
At this day is larger than fame undent Bijliopricks were.'} It's wellconfeft: 
And I fhall try among other things, whether the Name of a Biflioprick 
will make a Parfonagc and a Diocefs to be ejufdem fpcciei^ and whether 
magnitude do not make a fpecifick difference, between the Sea and a Ri- 
vulet or a glafs of water, or between a Ship and aNut-lhel. 

And whereas- p^« 6. He undertaketh to proxe a Coercive Power inBi- 
fhops, either he fpeaketh according to the common ufe of men, or not : 
If nor, he would not be underftood : & ^i >ion viitt intelUgi, debet ne- 
gligi : If he do, then by Coercive he mull mean, by Oiitwdrd force upon 
the body-, which is falfe, and is proper to the Magiftrate, Parents or Ma- 
ftersj and isdifclaimed by all Ibber Protcftant Divines, yea by Papifts, 
as not at all belonging to the Pafloral Olfict. Ijiough we eafily grant 
that Paltorsmay Coerccre by word fand fomay Presbyters fure,) yet no 
otherwife but hyword. For Excemtnunication and Degradation as far as be- 
longs to them, are hwt words ('and an after forbearing of their own ads of 
Communion.) iut this is not the common ufe of the word Coercive as 
applyed to Government by way of diftindion. How much wifclierdoth 
the (mor£ Learned and judicious^ Bifliop Bilfon Ibll diftinguifli by the 
Ftwcr of the Word^ as differing from the Magiftrates Coercive or by the 

Yet note that page 8. §. 5. /. 7. He isbrought to acknowledge [that 
^ Churches by the jifoftles erciled received from them the fame Faith., tie 
fame Sacraments., the fame Formof publick Regiment: The Form of Regiment 
by them ejlahlijhed atfrfi was, that the Laity be fitbjeR to a Collegt of Eccle- 
fiafiical perfons^ which were in every fuch City appointed for that purptfe : 
Thefe in their writings they termfometime Presbyters andfometime BifljcpsTo take 
one Church out of a number for a pattern., what the rejl were, the Presbyters 
o/Ephcfus, as it is in the Hiflory of their departure from the Apofik Paul at 
Miletnm, arc fatd to have wept abundantly all:, which fpeech doth (liew them 
to h.ve been many: Audbythe Afoflles exhortation it may appear., that they 
had not each his fevcral Flock^to feed, but were tn common appeimtd to feed Howlittle 
that one Flocks the CWc/? o/Ephefus, for which caufe the phrafe "f b'-' fpc'ch^'^^^J^?. 
is this Attenditegregi, Look to all that one Flock over which the Holy Ghofi Br. Ham- 
hath made yen Bifliops : Thefe per font Ecclefiajltcal being termed then Presbyters nmi, 
and Sijlmpsboth^ C^c 

And page 9. he faith, l^The outward being of a Cl;urch confifteth in the ha- 
vingof a Bijlwp.} Then the ^rcitw/?^ mud carry it, that our Parifliesare 
no true Churches ( but parts of a Church ) bccaufe they have no Bi- 
Ihop : Only a Dioccfan Church hath a Bifliop : Therefore only a Dio- 
cefan is a true Church , {' which anon fhall be proved to be but Hu- 

H And 

f 50) 

«-g, Aad pjt^e u. He thus expoundeth Hierome, as holding Epifcopacy at- 
And«t terable Q The Church hath power by Vniverfal confent upon nrgeKt caufe t& 
»uft I take it away \ if thereunto Jhe be conjlrained through the fraud tyrannical and 

fwear ne- unreformable dealing of her Bijhop Whercjore lejl Bijiwps forget themfelves^ 

vertocon-^ ^y ^^^^ g^ f^ir/i; had authorky to touch their Jfaiesy let them cotinuaSy 
tiv"ah«a"- ^""' '" "^'"^y '^''' '' *^ rather the force of cuftome than any fuck true hea- 
tion. 1'enly law can he (licwed, by the evidence whereof it may of a truth appear^ 
that the Lord himfelf hath appointed Presbyters for ever to be under the Regi- 
ment of Bijlwps in what fort foever they behave themfelves. Let this conftdera. 
tion he a bridle to them ", Let it teach them net to difdam the advice of their Pref- 
hyters, but to ufe their Authority with fo much the greater humility and modera- 
tion^ as a Sword which the Church hath power to take from thtm.'^ This is 
Mr. Hooker. 

And page 14. He confelTeth that according to the Cuftom of £«^/4»«/, 
and a Council at Carthage, Presbyters may impofe hands in Ordination 
with the Bifliop, though not without him : So that by this they have the 
the power of Ordination to , though he have a Negative Voice in 
it- And indeed if all Ordination muft be done by one of a Superionr 
Order, who fhall Ordain Bifhops, or Archbifhops, or Patriarchsj or the 
Pope f 

And page iS. He faith, [M/l certain truth it is thae Churches Cathedral 
dnd the Bijhops of them are as glajfes, wherein the face and count enaUce of A- 

pofiolical antiquity remaineth even as yet to be feen 3 Which iS it that 

we alfo affirm, every City or Church having a Bilhop and Presbytery of 
their own. 

And whereas page ip- He faith, \_If we prove that Bifhops have lawfully 
gf old ruled over other Miniflers, it is enough^ how ftw focver thofe J^fmijlers 
have been^ how fmattfoever the circuit of place which hath contained them-li^ 
if this be fo, we grant you enough, when we grant Parochial Biflieps. 

But no where doth he more palpably yield our Caufe, than page 2 1, 
22. where to Cartwright''s Objedion, that [_the Bijliop that Cyplha fpeak^ 
eth of is nothing elfe but fuch as we call Pajior^ or as the common name is Par- 
finSy and his Church whereoj he is BiOiop is neither Diocefsnor Province, but 
A Congregation which met together in one place To be taught by one tnan.^ He 
hath no better anfwer to this, than to tell us , that // it were true, it is 
impertinent ■■, and that it is not true, becaufe Cyprian had many Presbyters 
under him, fo as they might have every day change for performance of thelf 
duty :• And he never once attempceth to prove that Cyprian had more Chur- 
ches, yea, or Alfembires thaaOne ; but only that he was over the Pres- 
byters in one Church or Afrembly, and as an Archbilhop was over Bifhops. 
The fame thing which I fubmitto-, but nothing againfl: the things that 
1 aflert againll him- A Parfoii may have divers Curates under him, and 
not divers Churches, much lefs a thoufand that have no other Bi. 


f S' ) 

And whereas p<«/* 35. It is objefted that many things are innovate*! ia 
our Difcipline, as impofing Minifters on the People without their confent, 
Biihops Excommunicating alone, Imprifoning, &c. His anfwer is, that 
thgChurch may. change her cuftomes-. And on that ground alloweth the 
Ordination of Presbyters alone, becaufcthe Church can give them power; 
fgrhegoeth in Church-matters as he doth in pointof Civil Government, 
on his. falfe fuppofition, that all Power is Originally in the whole Body, 
fayin^g, page jy. [The whole Church vifhle beif^ the true Original {nhjcit 
ff all fowery it h^th not ordinarily allowed any othcr^ than Biflwps aUnt fZ 
Ordain. Howhcit as the ordinary xcnrfe is erdinartly in mJI things to 
be ohfervedj fo it may he in fame cafes net nnnicejfary that we decline from the 
ordinary ways.'} fWhat is more contrary than S^r^w** {Trail, de Obedient.') 
and Hooker in their Principles of Government ? ) From hence alfo,f'<i^tf 
38. Heinferreth theno necejfity of continued Succejfmn of BijJiofs in every ef- 
feUual Ordination. And it is very obfervable which he granteth ( for it 
cannot be denied J [The Power of Orders I may lawfully receive without 
the asking confent of any multitude : but the power J cannot exercife upon any 
certain People againfl their wills.'] 

Andi page j8. He cannot deny but the ancient ufe was for the Biihops 
to excommunicate with the College of his AlTiftant Presbyters ; but he 
taunteth Bez.a for thinking that this may not be changed. Thefe are 
the men that build upon Antiquity, and the Cuftom of the Univerfal 

And page 6<). when the Canons for Biihops fpare cour(e of living arc 
objedcd, he faith, that thole Canons were made when Bt(1)ops lived of the 
fame Purfe which ferved as well for a wmher of others as for them., and yet 
aH at their difpofng; Intimating the old Courfe,when every Church 
had its Bifliop and inferiour Clergy. But Innovation is lawful forouc 

And now he that can find any thing in Hooker againft the points 
which 1 defend, or for that Prelacy which I oppofe, any more worth 
the anfwcring than this that I have recited, let him rejoyce in the per- 
fedion of his eye.fight. And if thus much be worthy to be confuted, 
or fuch as this, let them do it that have nothing elfe to do. So ridicu- 
lous is the Challenge of one that gloriethto write a Book with the fame 
Title [of Ecclef. Policy^'] who infultingly provoketh us to write a full 
Confutation of Hooker., who faith fo little to the main point in Contro- 
verlie, our Diocefan Form of Prelacy, and writeth his whole Book in a 
tedious Preaching ftilc, where you may read many leaves for fo much 
Argumentation, as oneS/Uogifm may contain-, that I think I might as 
wifely have challenged liimlclf to coaftue Mr. Fox^s Book of Martyrs, 
or Barenius his Annals, almoft, or at leaft may fay as Dr. Jihn Surges 
doth of Mr. Parker (another fort of Parker) his Book of the Crofs, 
vrhich Dv.jimes faith was never anfwered, that if any will reduce that 
^owdyTreattfe into Argument fit being indeed almoft all made up of the •' •'*^'^*'"'^^ 

H a fruits 

( 50 

fruits of Reading, Hiftory, Sentences, &c. of purpefe to confute them 
that faid the Ndnconformifts were no SchollarsJ he jhtuld qmkiy have an 
Anfwer to it. So if any will reduce all that is in Mr. H(f^ker's 8 Books 
(m tedioBS Difcourfes into Syllogifm, ('which is againlt what Imam- 
tain,) I believe it will not all fill up one half or quarter of a page ; and 
]t (hall, God-wiHing, be foon a af wered. In the mean time the popular 
Principles of his Firlt and Eiftl n h Book, fubverting all true Govern - 
menr, 1 have already confuted elfewhere (^in my cHri^ian Djreilory .) 

_.- . 5. Bifhop I>w«4wf hath faid much more to the main Points, in the de- 

ptwllme fence of his Confecration Sermon, and as much as I can exped to find 
Anfwered. in any. Bur, i. as to the mode he is fo contrary to i/oo^r, that (being a 
very expert Logician) he wafteth fo much of his Book about the Fvrms 
He fell af- of Arguments and Anfwers, that he obfcureth the matter by it, and en- 
ter under fnareththofe Readers, who do not carefully diftinguifh between Matter 
of Biftio"' ^"'^ Words, and between the force of therr<«pw, and the/or« of a Syilo- 
x«K;^hira- g'ffn* '^^ he fo adorneth ( ov defileth ) bis Style with taunts, iiifult- 
felf, his ing fcorns, and contemptuous reproaches, that it is more futable to tbe 
Book of Scold sat Billings-gate than fo learned and godly a Divine, andoccafion- 
^^"^ce^be ethhis-iAdverfaries to fay, You have hereatafte of the PrelaticalSpi- 

mg proni- '■'■^' i 

mg proni- '■'■^' , . " 

bked. 2.'A9 totliewy^^fif?' of his fifflBook, I am of his mind (agamic meet 

ruling Elders) He and Bilfon have evinced what they hold in that. But: 
asto thepoints'jn which we differ he indeed faith much to little purpofe, 
and finallygiveth away his Caufe, orashe merrily telleth ihis Adverlary, 
fag. 62. I. i:c. 47> heufethitas Siv Chrificf her Blunt'' s headivas ufed, after 
his ap^re/ifwi^ frjibealcd^ and then cut off. For, I. in his /j^,, 3. Where he 
fpeaketh of the power of Ordination, henotonly confefFeth ihatit isin 
Presbyters with the Biihops, and that the Bifliops have but a fapeiiori- 
ty of power therein, but is angry with his Adverfary for'fuppofing tlie 
contrary, laying ch. 3. p. 68. \_BHt where good Sir^ do! fay., they mufi have 
the fole power in Ordination, which youhave fo oft ohjeUcd,, and vow again re- 
peat t mdi^ youno conference of pMifnng untruths ( Cannot Bifliops he fnpe- 
riourto other Miniflers in the pAwer of Ordination and JurifdHtion^ which is. 
* Jmhrofe *^^ thing xvhich J maintmt, ttnkfs they haw.the fole ■ pfwer?fo p. C^, &C. 
inE^hA. Therefore he granteth, that extraordinarily in cafe of neeejpty Presbyters 
yiug.qu. in may Ordain f that is without a Bifhop.) page 69. zxiA page 108. he giveth 
vet &N. this reafon for the validity of their Ordination", Becaufe Impofition of 
cfp7l°^' hands in Confirmation of the Baptized and Reconciliation of Penitents, 
r/i7.Co»- wererefervedto Bifhopsaswellas Ordination, and yet in the abfence of 
cii. carth. Bifhops may be done by Presbyters. '*' And that the Papifts themfelves 
Gj-cfc.f.4}. grant that the Pope may licenfe a Presbyter to Ordain Presbyters: C(f 
Cttrth.i.c. therefare (faith he) by the Popes licenfe a Tresbyter may Ordain Presbyttri^ 
ArmRc c ftinch better may a Company of Presbyters, to whom in the want of. a Bifhop the 
ti. ' ' Charge of the. Church if divvlvfd, be a»(boriz.ed thereto by fjccejfity.2.- And if 

f 53) 

all this be fo, no doubt but the Power of Ordination is in Presbyters, 
as fuch, though they are not to exercife it alone, nor without or againft 
-theBilhop (And fo formerly they were not lo Preach, or Baptize, nor 
Congregate the Church without him.) For why cannot a Lr.y-nian Ordaia 
with the Bifhop but becaufe he hath no fuch authority ? 

And Cap. 5. as to the power of 7nriidiUioit he faith the fame, p. no. 
III. C/ de>iy not Presbytirs (which have charge of fouls) to have JurifdiEiion ■, 
both fever ally in their Parijhes^ and jointly in Provincial Synods. And I have 
tonfeffcd before, that Presbyters have with »tid under the Bifiiofs exercifed feme 
jHrifdiElion. I grant that Godly Bifliops.^ before they had the countenance and 
ajfifiance of Chrijiian Magijlracy * and dirciiion of Chrifltan L.-iWS ; itfed in all 'Th; P^. 
matters of moment, to confidt with their Clergy, nn was praHifed by Cyprian latcs pre- 
Ambrofe alfo (in l Tim. 5. l.) teacheth., that there was a time when nothing F^"*^^ ^°y 
was done without the advice of the Presbyters; which therefore by lgoatius<«r<r '"".°*'fV,' 
called thtCouvfellors andCo-Zpffors of the Btflicps : Which conrfe if it were ufcd the'caufe 
fiill, as it would eafe the BiJI)ops burden very much, fo would it nothing detraR is laid on 
from their fuperiority in Governing. Magi- 

And page 115. [^The thing which I was to prove., if it had been needful., ^'"'^ 
was, thM whereas Presbyters did Goverrf each one the People of a Panjlj, and 
that privately, f ^'^ Bijhop Covtrneth the People of the whole Diccefs and that t Doth f 
fublickly- publick 

So that both Ordination and JurifdiLlion belong to thePrcsbyters Of- ^jhorch 
fice^ though in the exercife of it they mufl be governed themfelvrs. Is ['^'in'^K^*^ 
not this the very fum of Archbifhop Vfher''% Model of Primitive Epifco- privately? 
pacy, which we offered his Majefty and the Bifliops at firfl", fot Concord, what mea- 
and the Bifhops would not once take it into their Conlideration, nor ro"fthhcbjr 
much as vouchfafc to talk of it, or bring it under any deliberation? ^'"^ **'''<^*i 
When, alas, we poor undcrtrodden Pcrfciis, not only delircdto belowgood ^ 
our felves, but yielded to fubmit to all their heights, their Lordihips, icnce? a 
Parliament dignities, grandure, and to let them alone with their (real j piivate 
fole Ordination andjurifdidlion over us poor Presbyters, and to have "^"{■".^X 
takenasmuchcareof the People as they would, fo we could but have ob- ^^1^)^"" 
taincd any tolerable degree of Government to be fctled in eachparticu- that fs', by 
iar Church , either in all the Presbyters or in one Bifhop, and not have had Counfelj; 
all the particular Churches deprived of Bifhops and all the Paftoral Ju- /'"^'"»"» 
rifdi<ftion. (hc'offi" 

But our great Controverfie is handled by BifliopDoir/Mwfinhisfecond ccrsjudJ. 
Book, wherein he laboureth to prove that the Bilhops Church, or rather mem. 
Charge, wasnotaP^jr/y/j, but a Dioccfs. And firft, page 4. he giveth us 
a fcheme of the Scripture acception of the word [Chnrcli} as preparato- 
ry to his defign: In which there are m:inv T.exts cited, not only without 
any Ihew of pjoof, that they fpcak of what he afTirmeth them to fpeak, 
but contrary to the plain fcope of the places- And he tells us that the 
word [_Chitrch~\ is ufedin Scripture for the Church ,^:litant Congregated in an 

Vniverfd or OecMimnical Synod-: And ofFcieth us not one Text for inftance, 


r 54) 

which he doth though injuriouny, for aU the reft : Nor is there any that 
fo fpeaketh. 

He tells us that the word is ufed particularly to Jlgmfle the Church tf a Na^ 
lion in the fn^nUr number ^ but could name no fuch place as to any Church 
fmceChrift, but only the Jewiih Church, j1£is 7. 38. 

And he faith, it is ufed to fignifie, forticularly and definitely the Church 
of a Nation in the plural number. And is not this a ftrange kind of Allegati- 
on ? The Scripture fpeaketh of [_the Churches in a Nation.^ Therefore it 
ufeth the word for the Church "of a Nation, in the plural number. Is one 
Church and many all one with him : Would he have applauded that man 
that would have faid, that fuch an Author ufeth the word [Colle^e^ (for 
the College of an Univerfity in the plural number,) becaufe he named the 
College in an Univerfity ? and this to prove that an Univerfity is one Col- 
lege? Had it not been better faid. The New Teftament never ufeth the 
word Church for all the Churches in one Nation (fmce Chrift) definitely, 
but ever calleth them plurally Churches : Therefore to call them all One 
(National) Church is not to imitate thcScripture. 

Hisfirft Inftance is, Rem. 6.4, Jtl the Churches of the Gentiles. A fad 
proof of a National Church ! What Nation is it that the word [Gentiles'} 
fignifieth? No doubt the Gentile Churches were in Gentile Nations: But 
that doth not prove that the Chriflians in any Nation are ever called in 
Scripture (fince the Jews Nation) One Cmrchhnt Churches. 

His next inftance is, i Cor. 16. 1. The Churches of Galatia'. And the 
reft are all fuch, v. 19 2 Cor. 8. i. Gal. 1.2. 22. The Churches of AjJa., 
Macedonia, Judaa: But I hope he intended no more than to tell you that 
the Chriftians of feveral Nations, are never called a Churchy but Chur- 
ches., as having any fort of Union than National. 

Hegiveth many inftances when the word Lchurch} is ufed definitely to 
fignifie the Church of a City and Country adjoyning : But to prove it 
ufed to figniHQ feveral Churches in City and Country adjoyning, but sne 

Two Texts he alledgeth to prove that the word [Churchjis ufed definitely 
to fignifie thefe Churches Congregate into a Synod or Confiftory : But I be- 
lieve his word of neither place. Oneh Afat. 18. 17. Tell the Church, crc. 
If I fay that {jell the Churcli} fignifieth [tell the Society containing Faflors and 
Chrijlians~\ though it is the Paftors that you muft immediately fpeak to 
and the offender muft hear, 1 give as good proof of my expofition as he 
doth of his. If 1 fpeak to a man, and hear a man, though it be only his 
ears that hear me, and his ttngue that fpeaketh to me, yet by the word 
[man'} 1 mean not only ears and tongue. If the King fend a Command to 
a Corporation to expel a feditious member, though the Mayor or Aldermen 
only do it Authoritatively , and the People but executively, yet the 
word [Corporation} doth not therefore fignifie the Officers only. The other 
Text is, J^. 15.22. But I will not believe him that [the whole Church} 
fignifieth the Synod only : For though they only decreed it, I think the reft 


Css ) 

confented and approved it, and are meant in the word t'he veholt 

I grant him thzx.\Rom. i6. i.) the word fignifieth the Church of a Vil- 
lage or Town i But he will never prove that it is not meant of a Church 
of the fame Species as City Churches were. And as to the Houfe or Fami- 
ly Churches which he mentioneth, Rom. \6. '^. iCer. 16. 19. Gl. 4.1$. Phil. 
2. Dr. Hammend expoundcth, Col. 4 15. of the Church that did meet in 
his houfe., and fo fomc do all the reft : But that we ftand net for, nor doth 
it concern us. 

But when he addeth a multitude of Texts, as ufing the word Church 
indefinitely, not defining the place. Society of a Nation or City, quantity^ 
&€■ molt of the inftances ijrought are of Churches definite, as to place., 
and of the fame Species as the Apoftles Inftituted ^ though when the 
Church of fuch a place is faid to do a thing, it's no determination what 
mimberof the members did it. Hisfirlt iiiRance is A7^ 4. ji. and next 
yfff/ I J. 3,9, &c. The Churches hadrejl thrctt^h all Judxa, and Gallile., and 
Samaria: y?rt/ 15.3. Speaks of the Church oi Antioch, which v. 27. it's 
faid they gathered together: -j. 4. mcntioneih the Church at Jertifalem^ 
V. II. mcntioncth the Churches of S)t/4 and CtUcia. Jils 18. 22. Speak- 
cth of the Church at Cafarca. Rem. i6- i<^. Speaks of the Churches where 
Paul lately travelled, v- 1 j. Gains was the Hojl of a definite whole Church, 
At Corinth. And when iCor. 4. 17. he fpeakcth of his teaching in every 
Church, it is an Univerfal enunciation, but of Churches of a certain or de- 
finite /pedes., and fo of the reft. 

Then p. 5. he telleth us what is truly and properly a Church o» Earth \ 
3nd faith, Every company of men profeffuig the true faith of Chrtfi is both tru- 
ly a Church and a true Church, yinf. Yes, ^sCanls calefiis is truly a Dogf 
and a true D»j[ : but not properly, but equivocally : A Church in itsmoft 
famous fignification is a Society conftituted of the Paflor and Flock , as 
a School of the Schoolmafter and Schollars: And an accidental meeting 
of Chriftians in a Market or Ship, is no more properly called a Church, 
than School-boys meeting in fuch places are a School : No nor occafional- 
ly praying together neither. 

So p. 5. He concludcth that the Chriftian People of one City, and Coun- 
try adjoyning, whether Province or Diocefs arc one Church ', yea of any 
Nation or part of the World, not becaufc under one Spiritual Govern- 
ment or Pricft-hood, but becaufe one People or Commonwealth ruled by 
the fame Laws, proftflingthe fame Rcligioi). All this is de nomme only. 
But are we not likely todifpute well, whenwc never agree of the Sub- 
jed, or terms of rhe QiielHon ? We have no mind to contend about 
Names: Let hincall the Woi Id, or a Corporation, or Kingdom, or £c- 
cleflam Malijru.i.itmm by the nap'-; of a Church if he will, lb that we firft a- 
gree wlut Church we dil'pu^o of. We talk not of any accidental meeting 
or Commuiiicy, butaSoti.t/ befor: drfinod, conjlttuted of the pars guher- 
iMHS an ' pars fuhdita. And of tiiis fort >ve know of Divine Inftitution, 



an Vnivetfal Church Headed by Chrifi, and particuUr Churches headed under 
him by their Bifhopsor Paftors : A Church without a Head^ fin Fair, Ship, 
or Temple) we talk not of : Nor yet of a Church that hath but an Acciden- 
lal, Extrinfick, and not an EfTential Conftitutive Head, to them, as they 
are Churches of Chrift'slnftitution; Whether it be the Emperour of Ger- 
fumy, ot oi CoKJiantinepU^ Mahvmetan, Chr\{\.\zn , Papift, or Proteftanr, 
we believe that every Soveraign is fothe Head, that is the Ruler of the 
Church, that is, of the Chriftians in his Dominions. We denominate i 
forma : Bifhop Downame may denominate whence he pleafe, a materia or 
nb accidetite, (^c and fay. They arc one Church that are under one Prince, 
Law, of one 8.eligion. Do with your Equivocals what you will ; But for- 
get not that it is a PaFloral f articular Church of the Holy Ghoft's Inftituti- 
on that we Difpute about. Olherwife I deny not Diocefan, or Patriai^ 
chal Churches, nor deny that the Papal Kingdom is a Church of a certain 
/^fn'f J right or wrong. 

And forget not his Concefiion p. 6. and we need no more, \_Indeed at the 
very firfi converfon of Cities^ thi whole number of the Ptofle converted (being 
fometimes not niuch greater than the number of the Presbyters fUad among ihcm) 
were able to make but a fmall Congregation. But thojc Chtfrchu were in- Conjli- 
tuting, they were not fuHy Conjlitiitcd^ till theirnHinbcrbetngyscriafed thiy had 
their Bifliop or PaJIor, their Presbyters and Deacons^ without whtchy Ignatius 
faith, there was no Church, &c.'} Of which after. ■': 

He next, Cap.i. laboureth much to prove, that thew/ords £cc/e/F(», Pa- 
r£cia, and Diocafls, of old were of the fame ilgnification; About words 
we have no mind to ftrive : But all the proofs that he brings of the ex- 
tent of a Church to more than one Congregation or Altar, arefetcht 
from later times, when indeed Churches were transformed into Societies 
much different from thofe before them 

Heciteth Concil- Carth. i. c. ^. & 5.42,43, ($•€. that places that -had 
no Bifliops before fhould not receive Biihops without theccafentofthe 
Bifhop whom they were before under. Indeed by thefe Canons we fee 
much of the ftateof the Church in thole times, and partly how the Cafe 
wasaltered. Every Church had a Bifhop of its own: Thofe Churches were 
almoft all firlt planted in Cities : The multitudes were Heathens : but the 
City Chriftians with thofe in the Country near them, were enow to make 
a Church or Congregation. In time fo many were Converted in the Coun- 
try Villages, that they were allowed Affemblies like our Chappels at home : 
And fbme of them had Country Bifhopsfet over them; And in many pla- 
ces greater Towns (which they then called Cities^ were anew convert- 
ed. The Presbyters that were abroad among thefe new Converts or 
fcatered Chriftians, made them know that every Church fhould have a 
Bifliop, and that they might choofe one of their own: And few Presby- 
ters being then Learned able men in Comparifon of the Bifhops, by this 
advantage of prefence among them, many raw and fchifmatical Presby- 
ters crept into the Peoples "affeftions , and perfwaded them to choofe 



them for their Bifhops : when they were chofen and ordaiaed, they en^ 
croached on the reft of the old Bifhops Diocefs, and alio refufed to come 
to the Synods, left their failings fliould be known, pretending that they 
muft ftay with their own People. Now the Bifliops that complained ot" 
this, did not alledge, i. That no Bilhop Ihould be made but in a City, 
2. Nor that when Chriftians multiplyed, they muft not multiply Blftiops 
accordingly, but all be under their firft Biiliop only, j. Nor that a new 
Congregation had not as good right to have and chiifc a Bifliop of their 
own, as the firft City Congregation had. But only to keep ignotant Schif- 
matical Presbyters from deceiving tlic People for thtirown cxaltation,and 
from hindering Synodical Concord, they Decreed that none in their Dio- 
cefles fliould have Bilhops, without the firft Bifliops confcnt ; Ard that be- 
ing fo Cpnfecrated they fliould ft-eqncnt Synods, and fliould be Bifliops on- 
ly of that People that firft chofethem, and not eucroach on the reft of 
theliibcefs'.' And whereas he hence gathereth thattha Cou-itry Churches 
teverfrom the htgvimng hcUn^ed to the City BiJIwps.'^ There were no fuch things 
«■ Appendant 'Counti7 Clnirches from the beginning of the City Chur- 
ches: But it's true, that from the beginning of the Country Peoples Con- 
vcrfion, when they were not enow to make Churches thcnifelves, they be- 
longed to the City Churches as Members (Even as now the Anabapcifts 
and Independent Churches confift of the People of Market-Towns, and 
the adjoyning Country AJlbciated into one Aflcmbly.) After that the 
Country Meetings were but as Oratories or Chappcls : And when they 
came to be enow to make dinftinft Churches of, fome good Bifliops had 
the Wit and Grace to help them to 0jorepifcopi ^ Bifliops of their own^ 
butmoftdid choofe rather to enlarge their own Polfcinons or Powers, 
and fet Subject Presbyters only over the People. 

And that thefc new Billiopricks muft be by the old Bifliops confent, is ap- 
parently a point ofOrder to avoid inconveniences (if notofUfurpation:^ 
For what power had the old Bifliop to keep any Church of Chrift with- 
out a Bifliop of their own, when it was for there good? 

That he hath feme tountenance from Leo, for the New Church Form 
(without Bifliops) I wonder not, when Leo was one of the hotteft that 
betimes maintained the Roman Primacy, if not Univerfal Soveraignty. 

And as the Care againft placing Bifliops in fmaJl places, ;;« viUfcat no- 
}nen Epifcopi^ came in late, fo i. Itintimateth that it wasotherwifedone, 
at leaft by fome before, z. And it is but the Prelaticalgrandure which 
Conjlantine had putTt up, which is then alledgcd as the Realon of tliis Re- 

His Argument is, {^That which was juJ^ed unUwful by the Canons of ap. 
proved Councils^ and Decrees of Codiy BiJJyops, was never LnvfuSy^ rei^ttlarly aiui 
ordinarily pra^ifed: Biit^ drc. 1 deny the Major. Kneeling at Prayer or 
Sacrament on the Lords day, the Marriage of Priefts, thcRcadmg of ths 
Heathens Writings, and abundance fuch-like, were forbidden by fuch ap- 
proved Councils j efpecially a multitude of things dep^niin^ on the new 

1 Tmpf- 


Imperialfhapeof the Churches, which are now lawful, and were lawful, 
and ordinarily praftifed before : Faul Kneeled and Prayed on the Lord's 
day, ji£is 20. &c. Therefore the placing of Bifhops in Country Parifties 
was not unlawfiil before, becaufe the Councils of Biihops afterward forbad 
it, nor was it ever unlawful by Gods Law. Methinks a Bifhop that fubftri- 
beth to the J 9 Articles of the Church of £»^/<»«</, which mentioneth Ge- 
neral Councils erring, even in matters of Faith, (hould never have alTert- 
ed that they cannot erre in matter of Government, nor retradtand alter 
that which was well pradifed before them. 

His next Argument is this. If there were any Parilh Biihops then, they 
were the Chorefifcopi , But the Chorepifcopi were not fuch. 

u4nf. I. I deny the Major: There were then many City Bifhops that were 
but Parifh Bifhops, or had but one Church, as ihall be further proved. 
2. Yet as to a great number it is granted that their Dioccfles had many 
Churches, attheiime of Coned. Either. Sardie.&c. which he mentioneth. 
But it followethnot that therefore it was fo with any in the time of J^»*. 
UHSf or with many in Cy^nVjw's time. 3. Ifit wereallgranted </f /jffo, it 
will not follow, xhix.de jurty it was well done, and that the old Form was 
not finfully changed. 4- The Chorefifcopi themfolves might have many 
Congregations under them, like our Chapels, and yetbe Parifh Bifhops i 
And it*s molt probable that at firft they had no more than one of our Coun- 
try Parifhes, though afterwards they had many Churches under them, as 
City Biihops had. 

His next Argument is, \lChurches endued with Power Ecclejiafiical, fuffici- 
tnt for the Government of themfelveiy having alfo a 'Bijliop and Presbytery.^ had 
the power of Ordination : But Country Parijlm had not the Power of Ordination : 
Ergo., drc- 

Anf I. Government is Inferiour or Superiour: They might have fufii- 
cientlnferiour power of Government, though they had none of the Supe- 
riour power, filch as belongeth to Archbifhops, to whom Appeals were 
made : As a Corporation that hath a Mayor and Afhltants hath fufHcienc 
Inferiour power, but not Regal, nor fuch as Judges, Lord Lieutenants,, 
&c. have. And if it were proved, ("asfomeholdj that only General, or 
anfixed Minifters, like the Apollles, and Evangelifts, or Archbifhops that 
were over many Churches, had the power of Ordination, and not the In- 
feriour Bifhops of fiiigle Churches, it would not follow that thefe Inferiour 
Bifhops had not the power of Governing their own Churches with aflift- 
ing Presbyters •■ And if he will prove for ns, that every fixed Bifhop hath 
the power of Ordination, who hath but the Inferiour power of Govern- 
ing his fiogle Church, by Admonitions, Excommunications, andAbfolu- 
tions, he will but do our work for us. 

2. I deny his Minor Propof. If by ^Country Parifhesj he mean [the 
Bifhops of Country Pariflies] they had the /'oH'^r of Ordination : And all 
that he faith againft ic, is only to prove, that de fado, they had not the 
E.xtrcifeoi \tin the times he mentioneth, and that ^c ;V* hmnano, it was 


(S9 ) 

not allowed them by Canons, But, j. We grant fo much of the Conclu- 
fioD, asthstdefA&a^ few Country Paridies had a Bidiop and Presbytery . • 
Becaufe there were but few Country Pariflies in the World, till the third 
Century, that were really Chriftian Churches, or fixed Societies of Chri- 
Ilians that had ordinary Church communion together in the Sacrament, or 
had an Altar. But our Cafe is, Abtut fmgle Churches ^ now called Parifti 
Churches, and not about ^Country Chitrches.'Z For they might be but fw- 
gle Parifli Churches, though they were in Cities only, and the Country 
Members joyned with them ia the Cities. 

And his own Confefllon is, ^age jj. that befides^owr and jiUx- 
Andria^ihzx. had many Churches in the City, there it not the Lthe evidtttce for 
tmltitude of Taripes in other Cities , imediately *fttr the A^ofiles times."} 
I fuppofe by his Citations, he mcaneth till the third Century. And if 
this be granted us of all the great Cities of the World, that they cannot 
be proved to have many Churches, we have no great reafon to lookiai 
many in the Country Villages. 

His next Argument is, [^Churches containing within their Circuity not only 
Cities with their Suhnrbs, but alfo whole Countries fubjeB to ihem^ were Dioceffts. 
But the Churches, fubjc^ to the ancient Bijlieps in the Primitive Church ^contMin' 
td, &c. Therefore they were Diocejfes: 

^«/. EithcrthisishisDefcriptionofaDioccfs, or we have none from 
him that I can find : And let who will Difpute about the Names of Dio- 
ccfs and Parifli, fori will not. And Ifby aD/oce/jrhemeaneth a Church 
confifting of all the Cfcr»/?«<iwi in City and Country afTociated for Perfonal 
holy Communion, having One Altar and One Bifliop, this is that which 
we call zfmgle Churchy or fome a Parifh-Church, and if he call itaDio- 
cefs he may pleafe himfelf 

But if he mean that in thefe Cities and whole Countries were fevcral 
fuch Churches, that had each an Altar, and were fixed Societies for pcrib- 
nal holy Communion, not having any proper Bifliop of their own , but 
one Bifliop in Common, with whofe Cathedral Church, they did not, and 
could not Communicate, (through Number or diflance J I deny his Minor 
propofcd in this fenfe, as to the two firll Centuries •■, though not as to the 
following Ages. But if by {Cities^ Suburbs., and whole Countries fuhjeH^ 
he mean all the unconverted Infidels of that ff>ace (for doubtlefs he calls 
not the foil or place, the Church) I deny the very fubje(fti There were no 
fuch Churches : Infidels and Heathens make not Churches, (Though Here- 
ticks made fomewhat like them, /icut vcffafaciunt favos^ as Tertulltan fpcak- 
eth.) If the Diocefan Churches Difputed for, be Churches of Pagans and 
Infidels, we know no fuch things. 

But if he mean that all the Heathens in that Circuit are the Bifliops 
Charge in order to Converfion, lanfwer, i. Thatmakcth them no parts 
of the Church : Therefore the Church is of never the larger extent for the 
foil or Infidel Inhabitants. 2. The Apofliles, and other General Preachers 
(_like the Jefuits in the Indies) may divide their Labourers by Provinces 

I 2 for 

for the Peoples Converfion, before there be any Churches at all. 3. This 
dillribution is a meer prudential Ordering of an accident or circumftance j 
and therefore not the Pivine Inftitution of a Church Form or Species. 
4. Neither Scripture nor prudence fo diftributeth Circuits or Provinces to 
Preachers, in order to converfion of Infidels, as that other Preachers may 
not come and Preach there, as freely as on^that claimeth it as his Pro- 
vince. For, I. Chriftfentouthis Apoftles bytwoandtwoatfirft. 2. Paul 
had fiarnahas or feme ochcrEvangelift or General Preacher ufually with 
hfhi. And Ptter and Pmtl are both faid to be at Rome, at Antioch, and o- 
thcr places : And many Apoftles were long together at Jemptlem^ even 
many years after Chrill's Rcfurreftion. Chrift that bid them go into all 
the World,never commanded that one fhould not come where another was, 
not have power to Preach to Infidels in that Dioccfs. 

And wliat is the Epifcopal power over Infidels, which is claimed ? Itis 
not apowertoOr<^<w'«, or to EKcommmicate them. It can be no other than 
a power to Preach to them, and Baptize them when converted. And this 
is confelled to belong to Presbyters. If the Bifhops would divide the World 
into Diocefles, and be the only Preachers in thofe DiocefTes, it would be 
no wonder if the World be unconvertedc It is not Bifliops that are fent by 
ihePapifts themfelves to coavertthe Wmw. 

But perhaps yeu may fay that the BifhopS rule thofe Presbyters that do it. 
lanfwer, 1. It's an impcrfed kind of Government,which a Bilhop in En£~ 
/«»^ can exercife over Presbyters that daily Preach, as Mr- £/»4r his hel- 
pers to the Natives in a Wildernefs many thoufand Miles from them. 1. But 
if they do rule the Preachers, that maketh not the Soil nor the Heathens 
$0 be any parts of their Church, but the Preachers only. Therefore a Dio- 
ccfs with them, anda Church, mult be different things. 

His firft Rcafon therefore, pa^e 36. from the Circuit is vain. His fe- 
tond, page 37- that the City Bifhops had a right from the beginning over 
manyChWches, (that had no other Bifhops) and did not after ufurp it, 
he provethnotat all : For the words of Men three or four hundred years 
after Chrift, alledging ancient cufieme are no proof: When the 25 Can. 
7V«i?. cited by himfelf, maketh thirty years pofTefCon enough againft all 
that vrouldqueftion their Title. And abundance of things hadCuftome 
and Antiquity alledged for them fo long after, that were known Innova- 

His third Reafon is from the Cherepifcopi^ as the Bifhops fuffragan, which 
iheweth no more, butihat the City Bifhops ('whether juflly or byufurpa- 
tion) were at laft really Archbifhops, or Rulers of Bifhops : But of this 

•His fourth Reafon, from SuccffEon will be good, when he thataffirm- 
cth that no Church was governed by the Parilh Difcipline, hath proved 
that all, many, ^esr, or any Bifhops from the Apoftles days, had many 
Churche« under tiiem that ind no BiJhops gf th^r own. Till then he faith 


( £i ) 

Astohisinftance of the Scythiof/s having but one Bifhop, the ReafoB 
was, becaufe it was but little of.their Country atfirft that were made €hri- 
ftians, or that were at all in the Roman Empire .- So that the Bifhop was fet- 
IcdatTomisf in tlie borders of the Empire (in the Maritine part of the 
Euxine Sea,) that thence he might hav^ an influence on the reft ofthe5c)i- 
thiam over whom the Romans had no power, and where there were many 
Cities indeed, but few Chriftians : as maybe feen in Thecderct^ Tnpart. 
Nicephor. and many others. Of his other three or four inftances, 1 Ihall 
after fpeak. 

Chap. 3 . Uh. 2. He pretends to prove that the feven y4/ian Churehes were 
Diocelan, and not Parochial, and never defineth a Diocefs and Parifli , 
which is loft labour. 

Hisfirft Argument is, {Churches^ n-hofe Circuit contained Cities and Ctun- 
tries adjainingy were Dioctffcs. But, C'c 

This is before anfwered: Our Qaeftion is, Whether they were as our 
Diocefan Churches, fuch as had in thefe Cities and Countries many Altars 
and Churches without Bilbops under them : Tree.'!, and Houfes, and Fields, 
and Heathen People, make not Glnirches, nor yet fcactered Chriftians, 
that were Members only of the City Church- 

His proofofthe Minor is, i. Thefe Churches comprized all the Chur- 
ches of j^Jia. 

Ar:f. If hclncan that aH the reft of the Churches of Afa had no Bifbops.. 
but Parifh Presbyters under thcfe feven Biihops he Ihould prove it, (and 
confute Dr. UAmmondxhit is fo contrary to him, (had he then lived:) Tilt 
then we take it as a contemptible incredible allbrtion, that Jfi.t had but 
feven Bifhops, and yet a multitude of Churches ; If he mean only that 
thefe feven were Archbifliops, his imp rcinency is-too palbablc. 

Particularly, he faith, ThfCimch «/ Ephefus, Smyrna, &c. Contained. 
a great City, and the Country hchngirg to it, &c. 

Anf. We talk of Churches und'cr Churches, and he talkcth only of Cues 
zud Count rits; Again, I fay. Let him lake his Diocefs of Inhdels, Houfes 
and Ground, we know no fuch Churches. 

Fajie 46. He faith [Cenchrea wasjuhjeFi to the Church of Corinth, and 
never bad a Bijhop of their evrn'} But not 3 fy liable of proof : ?t is not a 
Family Chnrch, which we fpeak of, thtrcfurc he need not here have mentio- 
ned that :But a Church alTociated for ordinary Conununion in Go^'s publick 
worlliip, which cannot be celebrated without a Paftor. Let him prove 
that Cenchrea was fuch a Church and yet had no Bilhop. 

In §. 6. p. 49. He would prove that the Ciraut pf a Church was in 
the Intention of the ApoftUs, or firji Founders, the fame from the beginning, before 
the divifon of Churches as after : Which 1 (hall in due place difprovc- His 
reafons are, 1 . Becaufe the whole Chnrch fince the AptflUs days hath fo under- 
flood the intention of the Apoflles. 

Anf 1. This is not proved. 2. I ftiall anone prove the contrary ^ that 
the Apoftlcs had no intci^^on that Churches ihould be d^Acd by (he linms 



6f th3 plac^ and Country ;" nor did they themfelves ever appoint any fuch 
bouncls to any one Church, and fay fi far it Jhall extend: Nor did they 
cvcrtakeanybutChriftians in any Circuits for Members of the Church. 
Andl fhall prove that all Churches were but fuch as I defcribed, fingle 
Churches with their Bifhops at the firft, and that fome Villages had Bifliops 
four or five hundred years after .• And his own Reafon that Churches fol- 
lowed the Civil Form, proveth the mutability of their bounds^ feeing the 
Civil Forms were mutable. 

His next Reafon is becaule {jhat divijion of Churches which vtas joo or 
400 Tears after Chrift^ with their Limits and Circuits^ were ordinarily the 
fame which had been from the heginningi as divers Councils teftifie. 

Anf Thole Councils mean no more, than that it had been an old or (et- 
led Cuftome, ("as many Learned men have proved.) And if they could be 
proved to mean that from the Apoftolical plantations the bounds of all 
the Diocefs were fet, I marvel that any man could believe them. But they 
fay no fuch thing, as were it not tedious to the Reader, an examination of 
each particular would fhew. Elfe no new Churches and Bifhops muft be fet- 
led in the World, but thofe that the Apoftles converted in any Cities be- 
tween or near them •, For the unconverted Cities in the inter-fpaces, were 
as much thofe Bifhops DiocelTesas the Villages of equal diftance.- And then 
the making of new Cities vvould have made one a Bifhop of many Cities, 
contrary to the Canons. 

His third Reafon is, that the Diftribution of the Churches ufually followed 
the divifion of the Common wealth. 

u4nf. I. If fo (as is faid^ they muft be various and mutable. All the 
World was not divided juft as the Roman Empire v?as; And the Imperial 
divifions had great changes. 2. I think it loft labour todifpute with hitn 
that holdeth this alTimilating the Church to the Civil Form, was of Divine 
Apoftolical Inftitution. If any can think fo, let him give us his proof that 
the Church Conftitution muft vary as Monarchical, Ariftocratical and De- 
mocratical States do \ As Empires and free Cities do : And that from the 
KingtotheConftable, v^emuft have a correfpondent Officer: And that 
the Papacy as Capital in the iJo»»4« Empire, was of Gods Inftitution: And 
that an Emperour, King, or popular State may change the Form of the 
Churches, as oft as they may the Form of their fubordinate Governments. 
Are not thefe fmall Reafons to prove, that when the Apoftles planted Bi. 
fhops in all fingle Churches, they intended that thofe Bilhops fhould be the 
fole Bilhops of many hundred Churches, when they fhould be raifed in the 
Circuit of ground, which now is called their DiocefTes. But more of this in 
due place. 

But next heappealeth to wfwww/w'fwf/. Whether it be not unlikely that 
there was but one Congregation belonging to thefe famous Cities towards the end of 
the Apoflles days. Of which more afterward. 

In Chap. 4.^.69. Heargueth, {The Presbyteries ordained by the Apoftles.^ 
were appointed far Digcejfes, and not to Panjlies ; Therefore the Churches effdued 



i^lthfhe fewer tf^(^,tf.a^icd Government mre ntt Parifites but Lioctjfts. 

jinf. Our Qaeftion is, Whether they were fingle Churches as before de- 
fined, or only One Diocefan Church made up of many fuch fingle Chur- 
ches: I. Khy Presbyteries be meant many Presbyters, a College, orGw- 
fejfusf I deny the Confequence ^ becaufe every Church that had Govern- 
ment had not fuch a Presbytery •, But one Bifhop or Pallor did ferve for 
fome of the lefler Churches, and yet that one kau Governing power. 2. 1 
deny the Major : It was fingle Churches that had then many Elders fet over 
them. 3. Reader, itfeeraethtomeDofmalldifparagementto the Dioce- 
fan Caufe, that the grand Patrons of it fo extreamly differ among thcm- 
felvcs. Dr. Hammond holdcth that in all the Scripture times, no one 
Church had any Presbyters at all, fave only one fingle Bifhop. This Bi- 
(hop Dorvname feepeth to hold, that every Governed Church had a Presbyte- 
ry. And \jioone'} and [jevery one"} extreamly differ: Yet either of them 
would have cenfurcd him that had gain fayed them. 

His proof of the Antecedent is this. [They who were appointed to whole G- 
ties and Countries to lahoHr fo far as they vtcre able the converfion of all tijat be' 
lonj^edtoGod, were appointed to Dioceffes, not to Parijhes : But^ (^c- 

jinf Is not here fruftration inftead of edification to the Reader, for 
want of defining a Diocefs and a Paridi. I thought we had talkt of a Dio- 
cefan Church ^ and here is a Diocefs defcribed which may be 7i fingle Churchy 
or no Church at all as the Bifhop pleafcth. Here is not fo much as any 
Chriftians, much lefs Congregations of them mentioned as the Bifliops 
Flock: But many an Apoftle, Evajigelilt, and Converting Preacher, hath 
been fet over Cities and Countries to labour mens Convcrfion, as far as they 
were able, before they had converted any, or at lead enow to make a 
Church i and after that, before they had converted more than one Alfcm- 
bly. Thejefuits in the /«^»fjthus laboured in feveral Provinces, before 
they were Bifhops of thofe Provinces, or called them Provincial Churches. 
But now we perceive what he meancth by a Diocefs, even a>fpace of 
Ground containing Inhabitants to be converted if we can. 

I will fhorten my Anfwcr to the reft of his Reafonings for fuch Diocefan 

1 will put a few Qucftions, more pertinent than his Queues p- .<>7' about 
the ftate of fuch Diocefan Churches. 'i o>'i! .-r 5n7-,vcrlf!:>'^ -^r- 

Q^ I. Whether the Apoftles were not," hy this defcriptfon , Bifhop? 
of allthe World as their Diocelfes? A i,d whether therefore it follow that 
there were no Bifhops under them in particular Churches ? 

Q^ 2. Whether Apoftles and Evangclills did not go from City to City, 
fometime ftaying fome Months or Years atone, and then palling to ano- 
ther? And whether this made all the interjacent Countries th.?irDioceires, 
changing their Bifliops as ofcas ihcy thus changed tlicir Haintations ? 

C>^ J. Whether more than one fuch Apoltie or Evaog^lift' vrere not 
both at once, and fuccellively in the famep'ace, to labour the convcrfion 
of all they could ? And whether thcf >;fore there were many Bifliops to a 
Diocefs ? Qi4- 

( ^4 ) 

Q;_ 4. Where we (hall find theproof that the Apoftles 6r EvangelHtsfeC 
the bounds of Diocefl'es? And whether this defcription of his owa^o 
malieDiocefles bounded by circuit or Jpace of Ground, or by the Abilities 
o£ the Bifhop to endeavour converfion f 

■ Q. J. When the Apoftles forbad any other to labour mens converfion 
in their Cities or Countries where they or others had been before them > 
And did not;one plant and another water, (and ufually more than one at 

once ?) V; AA ■p'.:rL U^th b'.:l iBUZytUiiiV: .; . '■ . i!.- . . • :; : -lO^f-M C. ,i •iivb 

- 1^ 6. Whether (J/«it2^ii^,ilcr^ Difripling or Preathag-to'cofi- 
vertmeniand then baptizing them, benotthe way of gathering Churches, 
and therefore proveth that before converfion they are no Churches? and 
«re not Chriftians only members of the Church?- And are thofc Dioceftn 
Churches that are no Churches ?> .; ■ i'- f . -in- - ci -: i:r!CJi a 

Q. 7. [fone befetlediria fingleiConjgregation in the City, with a pur- 
pofeto endeavour the converfionof the Countryj is not a Diooefan Chiitch 
tl^ce the fame as a fingle Congregation, though the Diocefs be larger ? 

-0^8. If when Congregations multiplycd, Bifhops were not multiplyed, 
but one would keep many Churches under himfelf alone, doth it prove 
that this was well done becaufe it was done? and thatGodconfentedto 
this change? ,. 

His next Reafonis, hecaufe Churches- xv^rs net then diivideri into Pdrifljes. 
Which in due place I (hall prove to be a fufficient Reafon againfthim* 
Churches were Societies conllituted of Pallors and theit Chriftian Con- 
gregations, as afore defined: And his inference is vain, that {^Presbyteries 
Vfere not fettled in Parijlies^ becanfe the Churches were not yet divided into Partflies. 
For they were Parilhes, that is, fln^le Churches, without dividing. The 
fpace of Ground called Parifhes was not then marked out ^ Nor was a Dio- 
cefan Church flike ours^ that hath no fubordinateBifliops divided into 
Parifhes ^ for there were no fiich Diocefan Churches to be fo divided. But 
the llniverfal Church and the Apoilolical Provinces were made up (or con- 
llituted j ofParilbes, I mean ot particular Ctwrck/, as greater numbers are 
of unites, and as Villages are of Houfes. But to fay that Churches were not 
divided into Panjlses, in the fence in queftion, is all one as to fay. Churches 
were not divided into Churches. 

Our Controverfie is like this. Whether all the Families in the Town 
(hould have but One common Mafter? And he thataffirmethit, fhouldar- 
guethusi Mafters were not at firit appointed toFamilies but to Villages; 
For Villages were not at firfl: divided into Families, (when there were none 
but (ingle Houfes ereded.J True-, but Families were Families before there 
were Villages to be divided- As Villages were not made before Houfes, 
and then divided into Houfes, nor Cities before Streets, and afterwards 
divided into Streets; nor Kingdoms before Cities and Corporations, and 
then divided into Corporations, (or inferiour Societies) Nor Academies 
before Colleges, and then divided into Colleges ; fo neither were Provin- 
■cial, or Diocefan Churches made before finale Churches ^ and after divided 


into them i but. were made by the coalitioa of many fingJe Chur- 
ches--, which fliould not have been changed for that ufe infpede, by alter- 
ing the fpecies of thek Pallors, and depriving them of their Proper Bi- 

In his ^thCh/ip. He pretendeth to confute the Aflcrtion that for thcfiifl: 
2CO years, the City Churches were but fingle Congregations. Here we 
afetoexxept on]y yilcxandri a and Rome in all the World: And wc con- 
fidently extend the time to' 150 years, and very probably to 2co- and 
moreover fay, that till the fourth Century, mofl; or very many Churches 
were no other, if not long after in many Kingdoms. 

All his talk, p. 80. ^gainit JIjoUow j^iddy Heads^ that fee no further than 
their Ncfcend, becaufe it was denied that Pallors were fct in Tingle Con- 
gregations to convert alfo the Infidels about, I have nothing to do with : 
For I affert that as ail Miniflers are bound to endeavour the converfion of 
fuch, if they have opportunity fnot wanting power, j fo thofc are molt 
bound to it that have bell opportunity, which is the Neighbour BifhopS. 
But till men are converted they are no parts of the Church •, no, nor of 
that particular Church, co fiomine^ becaufe converted by that Bifljop (as 
Ihall be proved J without fome further confent and ground. The reft a- 
bout the largenefs of the Church of Jerufalon^ &c. Ihall beconfidcrcd in 
due place. 

In hisC^<jp. 6. p. 104. I defire it may be noted that he faith, {_! do twt 
eUny but that at the firjl^ aiidnamelyinthetimcoftheJifofileVnw]^ the mofl cf 
the Churches fofoon after their converfion^ didnot each of them exceed the propor- 
tion of a populous Congregation, And p. 114. that Metropolitans he think* 
were intendedhy the yipojllcs^ or atleafl, fnadentenatura & necejfttate flagitante^ 
as Be^a faith : And 1 fuppofe a Diocefan Church will find no better ground 
than a Metropolitan, viz.. Humane Prudence, or (1 think intended.) 

In chap. 7. He pretendeth to prove, that in the Apollles times Pariflies 
began to be diftiniiuiflicd under one only Bifhop, &c. But what's the 
proof? ^«;«f and >4/f.v<j«//r;<iare all thelnftanccs. t Bur, i. hisproof that fin my 
EvariftHs divided Pariflies about .An. loc is worth nothing, as having no Treat, of 
fufiicient evidence, but fabulous reports. 2. He allegeth Enfebius, l.i. 'hetiue 
c. 15. faving of St- Mnk , that he is [aid frfl to have cenflitiited the Chur- ^y°' 
cfcfj o/"Alex3ndria. But this is no proof, i. Becaufe JF/(/fi;/«/'s following ihayc alfo 
words out of Philo do make it moll probable, that by [_the Churches ef A- difprored 
lexandria] he meant {jhe Churches in and about Ale.\'andrin,] which pro- '^e in- 
veth not many in the City it felf. 2. If he had planted many Churches ^^""'°j 
intheCity, it is no proof thathe varied from the pradlice of the other A- ^^^"^^" 
poftles, who Cas Ah. 14. 23.) placed Elders (that is, faith Dr. Hammond.^ ^,-,a. 
Bifhops) in every Church : Or that the Elders of each Church had not the 
true Paftoral or Epifcopal power of Governing the Flock, (which isall 
diatwe plead for.) And if it had been proved thzt M-trl^ had been over 
them : it followeth not that he was not over them as an Archbifliop, but as 
a mecr Biiliop only. •,. Crottus and Dr. Hammond think they prove that 

K Romt 

(66 ) 

Komt and othcf greatCities then had moreBifliops than one,by reafon of the 
peoples diverfity in Languages, &c. As Prrtr of the Circumcifion, andi'4«/ 
of theUncircumcifion. 4. Enfebius mentioneth not this as a certainty, but 
with an [_it''sfaWJi which is the ufual note of his uncertain reports Cof 
which he hath not a few, as is commonly confefled J 5- Di, Hammond ii 
fo far from believing this fttxat many Parilhes were committed fo early to 
Presbyters under one Bilhop j that he thinketh there is no proof that any 
fuch Presbyters were in being in the Scripture times. And though we con- 
fefs that Alexandria and Rome had divers Churches in them long before o- 
ther places, there is no proof or probability that it was fo in the Apoftles 
days. And /. 3. c.4. Eufebins exprelly faithi [But how many and whai Jin- 
cere followers have governed the Cktrches planted by the Apofiles^ it cannot be 
affirmed) but fo far as may be gathered from the words of Paul. And c. Ip, 
he mentioneth in t"he fingular number the Church (not the Churches) of 
Rome, jintiochi and ferttfalem. And /. 4. c. 11. he faith C;W(M (iicceed- 
ed Marks'^ the Church of Alexandria. 

But he faith /. 5. c. y. that Jdiojms was chofen Bilhop over the Churches 
of Alexandria: And c 2.2. Demetrius came in his place. And/. 6. c. i. De- 
metrius took upon him theoverfightofthe Congregations there. And c. J5. 
DionyfiHs received the Bilhoprick of ruling the Churches in or about Alex- 
andria, &c. 

Anf. 1. So long after it is not denied, hv^tiYiZt Alexandria had more Af- 
femblies than one. 2. Yet it is molt likely that by the Churches in and a- 
hoMt Alexandria^ Enfehius meant the Churches under the Archbifliop of 
Alexandria, which had Bilhops of their own. 3. Before they had a Tem- 
ple there might be feveral kifer Meetings in the City, which were but as 
our Chapels, or the Independents Meeting in feveral Houfes at once,when 
yet the Church was but one, becaufethey were aflbciated for Ferfonal Com- 
munion. 4. When the Parilhes were divided to feveral Presbyters, yet 
then each Presbyter had the true Epifcopal Office as to the People, though 
not the Name:, and though they were under a fuperiour Bifhop^ that is, 
they had the whole Office of a Presbyter or Paftor, to Govern the People as 
well as Teach them and vVorJhip with them. And fo there was then no Parifh 
like ours, which is but part of a Diocefan Church, and no Church of it 
felf (as the Biffiops Form it^ becaufe it hath but a half Paftor. 5. And 
is not the cafe of all other Churches in the World, that to this time were 
but fingle Churches, more confiderable than the cafe of Rome and Alexan- 
driay which differed from all the reft. 

Obj. £nt all the reft did the fame^ as foon as they haA Peofle enow te make 
many Churches ? 

Anf 1. 1 have told you Grotius and Dr. Hammond think that there 
were more Bifhops than one in a City for fome time. 2. This multiplica- 
tion was not till long after in the third Century, and with moft in the fourth, 
when it was no wonder that the Church fell into the Imperial form : And 
when they did fo, xh% Roman Primacy arofe with the reft. j. Yet evea 


then the Presbyters were Epifcepi £re£ij, and had the true, full, Palloral 
power as to their Flocks, as aforefaid. So that there were no Bilhops that 
yet depofed the Presbyters as now. 

p4£e 125. He faith, {^Neither was this a thing peculiar to the Bilhops of Pi- 

lexandria, but eommoti to others. Ignatius wm Brjljop >iot only of Anti- 

och, ^«to/Syria: Irenaeus,^^^i5»/fcefc/ Lyons, was Bipopof\the Churches in 
France, &c. 

Anf' I. This openeth the former cafe: Thefe were not Diocefanes, 
depofing all the Epifcopos gregis^ and become fole Bifhops, but Archb}- 
(hops that had under them Bilhops in each particular Church. Yet note, 
that it is the Frfw/; Synod of Bifhops whichE^/i/^. ib- 1- $.c. 2 3. /K»-is laid to 
overfee, asit'sfaid, iJ;id. that Palmas did To among the Bifhops of Pon- 
tus in their Synod, and th^t yiSlor was Prefidcnt in the Bifhops Synod ac 
Rome^ andThetphilus of C/prM, and Narcijfus o[ JcrnfaUm in the Pale- 
ftine Synod : Which is nothing to our cafe. 

It is further faid, that Optatus faith, that in Rome were 40 Churches, 
and that Tbeodoret had 800. 

Jnf I. It is granted, that in Optaths^s days Rome had 40, which is 
nothing to our cafe in hand. 2. Inthofe4o fo late, there were no half 
Presbyters, but as this DoftorconfefTeth, they had not only a joynt pow- 
er in Governing the Flocks, but in Ordination too. 3. I conkkTheoda- 
reis cafe feemeth ft range, and though of late date is fo incredible as con- 
trary to the cafe of other Churches, that I do the rather for that claufe 
believe that Epiftle to Leo to be a f<)rgery, or corrupted at leaft. And 
belldesthisReafon, I have thefe alio for it. i. Becaufe he himfelf faith, 
that Cyruj^ where he was Bifhop, was but two days journey from Antioch, 
Hifl. San^l. Patr. de Juliano. And he that knoweth how great the Dioccfs 
ofAntiocb was, will noteaflly believe that a Town within two days jour- 
ney f to Monks that went on foot) was like to have eight hundred Chur- 
ches in it at that time. 2. And we know out of whole fhop Thcodoreth 
Epifllescome. Nkephorns {aSt\ he read above 500 of his Epiftles. Ba. 
renius faith there is a Book in the rdticane containing 150 of them : Meti- 
Ms tranflated thefe into Latine. But faith Rivet. Crit. Sacr.l. 4. <r. 21. p. 
455. the Reader muft remember that they have been kept all this while 
in the Adverfarics Cabinets, and by them are brought into light and in- 
to Latine, fo that they have no authority, fvirther than other Hiftory con- 
firmeth them, j Efpecially feeing Leontius de 5fif?« faith, as Earoniits 
confefTeth, that Hereticks fained Epiftles in Theodoret''s name -, And Bel- 
larmine de fcrift. Eccl. mentioneth one that hath his name in Concil. Ephrf. 
that neither Theodoret nor any Chriftian is to be charged with. 4. And that 
this one Epiftle to Leo fhould be cull'd out of all the reft to be alone Print- 
ed after Theodoret''s Works, fheweth the defign, and what credit is to be .. 
given to it. 5. And I fhall anon cite much out of Theodoret himfelf, to 
fhcw the improbability that DiocefTes had then fomany Churches. 

K 2 And 

( ^8 ) 

And fo much as a juft confutation ofBi(hop Doxvname, not as referring 
to other men with whom lie dealt, but to the caufe which we have in hand. 
And that I anfwer not the whole Book, is becaufe I know of no more in 
it than what I have culled out, which needeth an anfwer as to the caufe 
which I defend : Of which 1 make the judicious Reader Judge. 

Bifli. Hal!. 6. Bi(hop HalTs Defence of Epifcopacy meddleth fo little with the 
point now in Queftion, that I have no. need to fay any thing fo it, more 
,than is already faid. And he granteth all that I defire. 

Pittniui. . 7. As for Pef^w«/, I need not confute him i for he granteth raemofl, 
as to matter of Faft, that I defire, as 1 (hall after further fhew. His Fun- 
damental Aflertionis, That the two Offices of Biftops and Presbyters, 
were both placed in the fame perfon, inthe Apoftlesdays ; at which SaU 
fimjius juftly laugheth : For what is that bUt to fay, that then there was no 
fuch perfon as a Subjeft Presbyter fmuch lefs as our half-Presbyters.) And 
Salmafms juftly congratulateth his concefTion, [thztfolo confenfa hominum 
& vitandifehifmatis gratia, imus tnumero EptfcoporHm^ eorundemq; Presby- 

tererum , elcBns efl qui praejfet cateris : ^ed nemo did frohihet Nam 

etfi Epifcopalis ordo jure divino introduBus efi, non cedent tamen illo jure de- 
cretum efi-, ut unus in {ingulis civitatibHS & Ecclejiis., ejfet Epifcepus^ fed 
Ecclejia. author it ate conciliorumque fanRionihns. viz. [_It was only by Mans 
confent and for the avoiding of Schifm., that one was chofen out of the number tf 
Siflwps, who alfo were Presbyters^ to be above the refl: This faying none for- 
biddeth. For though the Epifcopal Order was introduced by Divine Right^ yet 
was it not by the fame right decreed.^ that One fhould be a Bifhop in each City 
and Church, but by the authority of the Church and the fanBions of Councils. Of 
this feber Jefuit more anon. 

'&iih.^n- 8. The Learned Bifhop -(4«^rfivj in his Epiftles to Tet. Molintnu, hath 
dretts. faid fome what", but in his Scheme (Printed at Oxford^ 1641. before the 
Treatifes for Epifcopacy^ muchmore. But as to his Defcription of the 
^ewi^i Form, we dare not thence gather that Chriltians may imitate them, 
while we know that the cefTation of the Jewi^i Policy and Law is fo large- 
ly pleaded for by Paul, and that Chrift is the perfccft Lawgiver to his 
Church, and that we mnfl not add or alter on pretence of fuppofcd pa- 
rity of reafon. And as to his Reafons for Diocefanes from the New Te- 
ftament, though the well ordering of them make them very taking, yet 
when examined, they are no other but what we have found and aafwered 
in others- 

'B.vjhi:: 9- The truly Learned, Reverend, and Godly Primate Vjher., in the 

^fame forementioned ColleAion of Treatifes hath one of the Original of 

Bifhops and Metropolitans, and another of the Proconfular ^y?.«. But, i. 

The utmoll which he pleadeth for is no more than we acquiefce in, as 


( ^9) 

that itwashls Model or Reduftion fpublifhed fitice by Dr. Bernard) which 
we humbl7 offered to his Majefty as themcansof our common concord. 
And he hath himfelftold mc his Judgment,thatBiniopsandPresbyters differ 
not as two Orders^ but in Degree ; And that Ordims eji Ordina,e, or that 
he that hath the Order hath intrinfical power to Ordain ^ though he is re- 
gularly to do it under the Bifliops overfight •, And therefore it is not inva- 
lid andnull, but only irregular or fchifmatical, whertic is done difobedi- 
ently againftthe Bifliop (and lb may be difabled in foro extertore\) which 
Dr. Bernard alfo hath publifhed of him ; and Dr. Mafon in the fame Trea- 
tife fuUier proveth. And he took Presbyters to be Govcrnoursof the 
Flocks; and the Synods of Bifliops to be but for Concord, and not to 
have a proper Governing power over the particular Bifliops, as he hath 
himfelf exprelTed to me. Him therefore that is for us, we need not confute. 
And yet 1 muft confefs, that the great Argument which he and Bilhop An- 
drews^ zvA Saravta^ and all others ufe, from the title of yi//^f/ given to the 
Bifliops, ^fy. 2. andj. did never feem of any weight to mc •, nor moved 
my underltanding that way at all : Believing that Tycowns his old Expoliti- 
on mentioned by Aujlin f is liker to be true, and that indeed, it is neither t ^'*. j- «• 
one Prelate nor all the Clergy, but the whole Churches that is meant by the, ?,°' '''f'' 
jitigel of the Churches. fliaii 

For the Prophecy coming by Vifion, the word [^An^eF] is mentioned which /Tw- 
in the Vition phiafe, and oft in tiiat book is by all confefled to fignific col. g'/fime 
kftive Bodies, and more than lingle Individuals : AsVjher (deBabilone) '^efmethto 
himfelf holdeth, that by [_thefalfe Prophet'} in the lingular number, is meant ^^^'^°^'^' 
the ^«/;;4« Clergy. It would be more tedious thanncceflary to recite the 
inftances in that Book. I therefore vvho,bccaufe of its oblcurity, am apt to 
bediftruflful of almolt all Arguments that are fctcht from the dark Pro- 
phecies of Darnel., or: the Revelations, am litrle fatislicd with this from the 
name Afigcl. And who can believe them that fay Timothy was then the 
Bifliop of Ephcfus, and fo excellent a perfon, as that none was Itkemindedy 
as defcribetiby Paul \, and yet that Chrifl had this againft him, that he 
had hfl his firjl love, and muft remember t"rom whence he is fallen and re- 
pent, and do his firli works or be rejeded. Rev. i. 4, 5. And inavvord, 
that the Apoftlcs, who placed holy pcribns in the Miniflry, had fct fuch o- 
vcr thofe eminent Churches, as were neither hot nor cold, and had the rell 
of the faults that arc mentioned bv Chrilt. And the whole ftyle of the 
Text doth eafily prove this Expoiition againft theirs, ^cv. 2. 2,4,7. As 
the praifes and difpraifes there teem to rcferr to the whole Church , fo 
^'. 7. whit can be more cxprefs tlian [^Hear what the Spirit fauhitnto the 
Churches.'} And v. 10. Behold the Devil jlrallcafl fame of you into prifon, that 
ye may be tryed^ and ye jliall have tribulation ten days : be thou faithful^ cj-c. 
And again, v. 1\- He that hath an car, let hint hear what the Spirit faith unto 
the Churches'} which is rop;nrcd and fpokcn to everyone of tiis (even. v. 
14, 15. I: islikcrtobe tlie wliolc Society than the Bifliop that is reproved 
lor having falfe Teachers and Hereucks among them, and arc called quick- 


ly to repent: And v. 20. that fuffered the Woman Jczjchtl to teach : For 
the Bifliops could not hinder falfeTeachcrs,but by Excommunicating them, 
and diflA'ading the People from hearing them: But the People could have 
done more, even refufcd to hear them. 

r. 2?. And all the Churches ^tall knovf"} feemeth to intimate that this 
was written to the Church. 

y. 24. Vnteyou If^y-, andtotherejl itiThyAt'ir^^ as many as have net this 
DoStrine, a>id have not known the depth of Sat An^ &c. Was this fpokento the 
Biiliop only ? 

Chap-i. V. I. Was it the B\n\0'p of Sat dis on]y thu had a name to live and 
X(*> dead, and that wras warned to be watchful and (tren^then the things which 
remain th^t are ready to die, whofe worbj were not ferfcU before God? that 
7Hufl remember how he had received and heard - that had a few Names inSZTdis, 
&c. And fo of the reft. 

Obj. But it IS faid., Chap. i.v. 20. The feven Stars are the Angels of the 
feven Churches i and the feven Candleflicks are the feven Churches. 

Anf. And what can a man gather hence to facisfie himfelf in this point? 
whether the fcnfe be [,Js the heavenly Angels, are the Guardians of the Chur- 
ches, fo thefe Stars are thofe Angels, in whofe Perfon I fpeak^ to the Churches 
themfelves that are fgnified by the Candlejlicks : ^ Or [,As the Angels are the 
Guardians of the Churches^ fa by that title, J fgnifie the whole Aiiniftry that 
guide them^ and by the Candiefticks the Churches, and I write to the whole. For 
as every Meflage begins with [To the Angel.,'] fo it endeth with [_To the 

Obj. The Bijhop was to deliver it to the Churches. 

Anf. This is precarious, i. The Apoftle wrote it, that both Pallors 
and People might immediately read it, and did not intruft it as an unwrit- 
ten tradition to one, to be delivered to the reft. 2. All the Paftorswere 
to defiver or teach it to the People, and not one Bilhop only. This there- 
fore is no cogent Argument. 

TheDif-' '°- As for the Difputers for Epifcopacyat thelfleof ^ight, with King 
pute atthe CW/w, they manage Saravia*s Argument (fetcht from the Continuance 
ifie of of the Ordinary part of the Apoftlcs Office) as he did before them ^and 
ff^'iht. many others) fo well, that for my part 1 cannot confute them, but remain 
in doubti and therefore have nothing to fay againft them. But that's no- 
thing to our Cafe, whether every particular Organized Church fhould 
haveaBifhop or the full Paftoral Office in it. 

Johnhrhts 11. As to Joh. Forbes his Irenic- he maintaineth but fuch an Epifcopa- 
cy as wc offered to his Majefty in BifhopZ.^/Jjfr's Reduftion : He pleadeth 
for fuch a Bifhopas is the Moderator of a Presbytery, p. 242, 243. and 
as muft be fubjeift to cenfure himfelf, /). 145. and that fliall do nothing of 
weight without the Presbyteries confent, p. 145. and as is ftill bound to 
the Work of a Presbyters OfRce, p. 146. And that an Orthodox Church 


(71 ) 

that hath no Bilhop or Moderator hath but a certain Oeconomical defeft, 
but isftilla true Church, and hath the power that other Churches have 
that haveBilhops, p. 158. And thzt jure divino Presbyters have the Power 
of Ordaining as well as of Preaching and Baptizing, though they muft 
ufc it under the Bifliops infpedion in thofe places that have Bilhops, fage 
1(54. And he is more full for the Power of Presbyters Ordaining, and the 
validity of it, than any man that I now remember. 

1 2. The two Books of the Bohemian Government of the Waldenftan 
Churches , Written by Lafcitius and Commenins, contain that very Form 
of Government , which f think the foundeft of any that I have yet 

I?. The Learned and Judicious Crof>«/, (before he turned to Co/Wrr's Gr^/wJ 
and Erasmus's temperament in Religion) in his book dc Imper. fum. fot. 
circa facrAy in almoft all things fpeaketh the fame whicl) I approve and 
plead for •, though he be for fome Epifcopacy. 

I. As to the Paltoral power, it felf in whomfoever, heaffirmeth it to 
be but Nuntiative, Declarative, Suafory, and per confenfum, and not any 
Jmpertnm-y Like the power of a Phyfitian, a Counfellor, and an Embafla- 

Chap. 4. But then by /wpmww hemeaneth that which is co<»fl»i'f by the 
Swora: And he acknowledgech the power of the Miniftry by the Word 
upon Confenters, to be of Divine Inftitution, fo that they fmagainflGod, 
who do rejeft it. And if the Paftors of the Church did meddle with 
no other power, we (hould the fooner be agreed. For my part I take the 
very power of the Keys, to bene other, than a power of applying God's 
Word to the Confciences of the Penitent and Impenitent, and the Church *, 
and a power of judging who is fit or unfit for Church-communion accord- 
ing to God's Word, which judgment we cannootherwife execute but by 
the fame Word, and by forbearing or exerciftng our own Minifterial 
adions to the perfon : (As a Phyfitian may rcfufe to Medicate the un- 

In chiip. 6. He fpeaketh juflly of the Princes power fas in the former.) 

And fo he doth chap. 7. of the ufe and power ol Synods or Councils. 

Chap. 8. He well vindicateth the Magiftrate y and denyeth to the 
Church or Bifhops, the Legillative power, cina facra : and (lieweth that Ca- 
nons are not proper Laws- 

Chap. P.Heihewcthihe Jurifdidion, properly fo called, belongeth to the 
Magillrate, and not to the Pallors as luch, CThoughof old they might be 

He (heweth that the ufe of the Keys is called Jurifdidion, but by the 
fame figure by which Preaching is called Lcgiflation (which is true as to 
the Declaration who is bound or loofe, in fora cxU-., but Pallors more 
properly judge who is to be taks« into Church-coramunion or excluded.) 


Theprefcriptof Penance be faith isno Jurifdidion, hutastheCouncelof 
a Phyfitian, or Lawyer,- qr Philolbpher. That the denying of the Sacra- 
ments is not properly J urifdi(fLioni he thus Ce>>'C€llently)explaineth if.ii^. 
As he that Baptiz.ethj or as the old cufiomt was, puts the Eucharifi into ones 
mouth or hand, doth excrcife an aEi of Mini fry and not of JimfdiEiion \ fo dfj 
he that abftaineth from the fann atls. For the reafon of the vifible f^ns, and of 
the audible is the fame : By what right therefore a Pafior denounceth by-words to 
one that is manifeflly flngtticus^ that he is an utter alien to the Grace of God'-, 
by the fame right alfo he doth,^ot ^apti^e-hipt^ .Ifcatfe it is the. fign of remi/fon 
"ffi" i <"■ */ he he Baptiz.ed ,giveth him >>ot fhe.Eiicharift:, as being the fign of 
Communion with Chriji. For the fign is not to be given to him that the thing Jig- 
nifed doth not agree to \ nor are pearls to be given to fwine : But^ as the Dea~ 
con was wont to cry in the Church [_Holy things are for the Holy'^ Tcu it weye 
not only, againft Truth, but agaivfi charity^ to md-s him partaksr of the Lords 

Supper^ who elifc em eth not the Lords Body, but eateth and drinketh judgment to 

E3* himjelf: Jnthefe things while the Pafior doth mi ly fnfpend his own a£l^ and doth 
^^ '' not exercife any Dominiott over the afls of others, it is apparent that this he- 
Doftlrlt ° ^o^Ji^lh to the vfe of Liberty^ and not to the exercife of Jurifdidion. Such like is 
thitii the *he cafe of a Phyfcian refufmgto give an Hydroptck^watcr when he defireth it. 
Prelates or in a grave ptrfonwho refufeth to falute a profligate fellow, ofid in thofe that 
would avoid the company of the Leprous. fOnlyitmuft beremembred that this avoi- 
*'^y^g""" dance is by a Society governed therein by an -Officer of Divine Inftitu- 

ted us but . •» •' 

liberty. Next he proceeds to the Churches duty, and iheweth, i. That as cy- 

our di- p-ian faith. The Latty that is obedient to God^s commands, ought to feparate 

ftraded themfelves from afinful Pallor or Prelate (that is, t)\2it is gr of y bad.) 2. That 

Churches ^j^^y ought to avoid fa?mUarity with fcandalous Chrijlians : As a SchoUarmay 

have had /<"'P% ** ^'*'^ Teacher, and as an honefi Man may leave the frie>idjliip of the 

Concotdt. flagitious- As for thenamesof i)f/»fl^fw« and Excommunication, he laith. 

That we nnift interpret the name by the thing, and not tut thing by xhtname; 

And that the Church depofeth a Pallor when they forfake him or refufe to 

ufe him, and Excommunicateth a man, when they avoid his communion, ( and 

declare him unmeet for communion.) In all which the Church ufeth her own 

right, but taketh -not away another mans. 

Then for the Canonical Enquiries after faults, and impofitions of Pe- 
nence, or delays of abfolution, he fheweth that both the Canons and Judg- 
ments by them being but prudential Determinations of Modes and Circum- 
ftances, bound none but Confenters, without the Magiflrates Law, except 
as the Law of Nature bound them to avoid offences. THefhouId add, 
Land as obedience in general isdue to Church-guides of Chrift's appoint- 
mentOJ And how the Magiftrate may conftrain the Paftors to their 

Chap. 10. He fheweth th^tth^ltZlt two perpetnalFunBions in the Churchy 
Presbyters and Deacons : I call them Presbyters (faith he^ with all the Ancient 
Church, who feed the Church with the Preaching of the Word, the Sacraments 


(73 ) 

and tkelCiys, which hy Divine Ri^ht are individual (or infeparaWe.) (Note 


And §. 27. He faith, It is doubtful whether T aft or s where m BiJ})opi are^ 
andfo are under none, though over none, are to he numbered with Biilwps 
or meer Presbyters. 

§. J I. His counfel for the choice of Pallors is, that {'as in 7«/?/>»/.jn's 
timej none be forced on the People aj^ainft their wills., and yet a power referv'd 
in the chief Rulers to refcindfiich cleCiions as arc made to the dejhuiHa^ of Church 
or Commonwealth. 

Chap. .11. J. 10. He fheweth th^t Biftwps are not by Divine precept. 

And §. !• That therefore the ditFerent Government of the Churches 
that have Bidiops, or that have none, fliouldbe no hindrance to Unity. 

And §. 10, n. That fome Cities had noBifhops, and fomc more than 
one: And that not only in the Apollles days, but after, one City had fe- 
veral Bifliops, in imitation of the Jews, who to every Synagogue had an 
Archifynagogus. Pa^e 557. He flieweth that there have been at ^owc and 
elfewhere long vacancies of the Bifliops See, in wliich the Presbyters Go- 
verned the Church without a Sijliop i And faith, that all the Ancients do con- 
fefs, th^t there is no aB fo proper te a Bifliopy but a Presbyter may doit, except 
the rii>ht of Ordination. Yet (heweth, p. ^ 5?. that Presbyters ordained with 
Bifhops, and expoundeth the Canon thus, i\\2iX.Prcshyters (IwuldOrd^nnone., 
contenmtHg the BijJjop. 

And p. 559 He flieweth that where there is no BiQiop, Presbyters may 
Ordain, as yilti/iodorcnjis faith among the Schoolmen. And queflioneth 
again whether the Presbyters that have no Bifliops over them be not rather 
Bilhops than meer Presbyters •, citing ^/«&r^/f's words [_ He th.a had no one 
above him, veas a Bijlwp'] (what would he have faid of our City and Cor- 
poration Paftors that have divers Chapels and Curates under them : Or of 
our Prcfidents of Synods : or fuch as the Pallor of the firfl Town that ever 
I was Preacher in {Bridgnorth in Shropfliirc) who had fix Pariihes in an ex- 
empt Jurifdidion^. four or five of them great ones, and kept Court as 
ordinarv like the Bifliops, being under none but the Archbifliop.) 

And §. 12. He flieweth that there was great caufe for many Churches 
to lay by Epifcopacy for a time. 

And p. 566. he faitil [^Certainly Chrift gave the Keys to be cxcrcifcd by 
the fame men, to whom he gave the power of Preaching and Baptizjng. That 
which God hath joyned let no man Separate.'} f But then how fliould Satan have 
ufed the Churches as he hath done ? ) And he flieweth of meer ruling El- 
ders v^as he had done of Bifliops) that they are not necefiary, but are 
lawful; and that it may be proved fromScriptui.; that they are notdif 
pleafing to God •, and that formerly the Laity joyned in Councils. Only 
heputsthefe Cautions (which I confentto) i. That they be not fct up 
as by God's command. 2. That they meddle no otherwiie with the Paflo 
ral Oflice, or Excommunication, than by way of Counfel. 5, That none 
bechoien thatare unfit. 4. That they ufe no coadlivc power, but what 

L is 

(74) . 

{s given them by the Soveraign. 5 ■ That they know their power to be 
imitable, as being not by Gods command, but from man. 

And Chap. 1 1. $.8. He delivereth his opinion of tlie Original of Epif- 
copaqr, that it was not fetcht from the Temple pattern fo much as from the 
Synagogues J where as he faid before, every Synagogue had a chief Ruler.) 

14. As for 7- D- and many other lefler Writers, CSir Thorns JftotJ^ 
" D Sic ^'^•^ who fay but half the fame withthofe foreraentioned, it is not worth 
^' ' your time and labour to read any more A nimadverfions on them. 

1 5. But the great Learned M. Ant. de Dominis Spalatenjis deferveth a 
M. Ant. de more diftinft confideration : who in his very learned Books De Repuh. £c- 
pom. spa- f-iij; dotbcopioully handle all the matter of Church-Government. But 
luttnfs. letusconfider what it is that hcmaintaineth. In his/»^. 5. c 1. he main- 

taineth that \jhe whole proper Ecclejtjijiical Tower is meerly Spiritual. In 
cap- 2. that m Power with true PrefeHnre, JimfdiEiion., CeaBion and Domi- 
nation belongethto the Church. In eg. he fheweth that an improper Jurif- 
didion belongs to it. Where he overthroweth the old Schoolmcns De- 
fcription of Power of JurifdiBim, and fheweth alfo the vanity of the com- 
mon diftinftion of Power of Order and of Jurifdiftion-, and maintaineth, 
N that Power of Jurifdiftion followeth, ab Ordine, as Light from the 
Sun: 2. That all the Power of the Keys which is cxercifed for Internal 
efFeds, although about External Matters, (of Worfhip or Government) 
belongeth diredly to the Potejlas Ordinis .- 5. That the Power of '^urifdiSi- 
en as diftind from Order, and referved to the Bifhops, is but the power a- 
bout the Ordering of External things, which is ufcd Principally and 
DireBly for zn External Effect (that is cX/zrcfc or^^r.) $. 5. p. 55. 4. That 
itis foolifh tofeparate power of Order from any power of Jurifdidion 
whatfoever, that is properly Ecclefiaftica], it being wholly Spiritual. 5. 
The Eprfcopal Jurifdidion (not properly Ecclefiafticalj he makechtocon- 
iift in ordering Rites and Ceremonies and Circumftance?, and Temporals 
about the Church, and about fuch Modal Determinations about particular 
perfons and adions as are matters of humane prudence, (which have on- 
ly a General Rule in Nature or Scripture. 6. By which (though heboid 
Epifcopacy J«*-f -D/w'wo) that it is but fuch tilings that he fuppofeth pro- 
per totheBilhop (which the Magiftratc may determine and make Laws 
for, as Grer/w and others prove at laft, and him ielf after-, and as Sir ^0- 
gerTwifden hatliHiftorically proved to have been uftd by the Kings of 
Enq^land^ Hiflor. Def. Cap. 5. 7. That ^tl Ecckfujiical power whatfoever is 
fully and perftBly conjunct with Order, page 56. 8. That this plenitude of 
power is totally and ccjually i/i all Bif.iops and Presbyters lawfully Ord.tined : and 
that it is a meer 'vaniiy to dijlinguij]) tri fuch power of Order., Plenltudinem pote- 
Jlatis a pane folicitudinis. 9. That this equal po;ver of the Bilhop and 
Presbyter iloweth from Ordination ; and is the Effential Ordinary Minifle- 
rial power. 10. That this vain feparating power of Order and Jurifdidion 


C 7S ) 

is the whole Foundation of Popery. §• ?• p- J<5. d- p^Jfim 37, Sec u. He 
frequently calleth that ^the EJfeKtialpower^ in which Bijliops and Presby- 
ters are equal, andfetakethche relt but for Accidental. 12. He thus 
defcribeth the Bifhops power of Jurifdidion, c. i-p. 39 §. M- £j4hont 
thofe things which xre corijHturcd in the Churchy only hy Humntie Ecclefa/iicil 
E.[^ht^ there is in the Church triis Jiirifdiilion not mcejfarily depending on the Sa- 
credOrder it felf^ if there be any at all feparate from Order. Such as Licenl- 
ing ,?. Billiop to Ordain in anothers Diocel's, &c. For thefc ails are not 
Ail us S.icri necjuefpirituales^ neqite attingimt dire tie qiiicqH.im fitpeviaturale^ 
fed f/wt mere tempor ales ^ C" circa rem externum & temporaUm quit eft mcra ap. 
flicatio^ &c. Thefe are not Sacred nor Spiritual, nor touch any thing direilly that 
is Supernatural, hut are meerly Temporal^ and about an External and Tempo- 
ral matter., Et his folis veriint efi, &c. So that it is molt evident, that as 
God hath left to Humane Prudence the Ordering of fome Modes and Cir- 
cumftances of Worlhip and Difcipline and Church-Order, and by his 
General Laws, fo Spalatenjis thought that all the Billiopi proper Jurifdi- 
ftion Jay in thefe things, which were of Humane Right, and tliat all things 
of divine appointment were equally belonging to the Presbyters. Where 
again I defiie it may be obferved. i . That Magiftratcs may determine of 
fuch things^ and fo make void or needlcfs fuch an Epifcopacy. z. That 
it is moll certain that many things of External Order belong to a Presby. 
tcr to determine, as to one that is the Conduder of the Sacred AflTem- 
blics; As what Text to preach on, what Method to ufe, what Chapter to 
read: where and at what hour the People fhall meet, how long they fliall 
ftay, what Tunc ro ling a Plalm in, and abundance of the like. So that e- 
ven that Jurifdidion which he excepeth to the Birtiop is common to hira 
with the Presbyter ':hat oiHciateth : And all that can be pretended is that it 
belongeth to Him, to determine fuch Circumftances as equally belong to 
many Churches f which yet Synods of Presbyters miy do as effedually for 
Concord. j j. That indeed tliere is no true Ecclcfiaftical aft which tend- 
eth not to Internal Spiritual effcifts : Publick Admonitions and Confeflions 
as well 3': private are for the humbling of the Sinner, and theexcrcife of 
R«.pcntaiice; and Excommunications and Abfolutions in publick are not 
oaly nor chiefly for the external Order of the Church,but for the prefen'ing 
of'; e peoples fouls from na,and for the warning of others, and for the pre- 
11 ng in their minds a duceReem of the holinefs of our Religion, and 
the necefiity of holinefs in U5, and 10 convince thofe withour, that God's 
Laws uid Ways and People are more holy than thofe of the World. This 
isaclearand certain truth : and therefore according to Spalatorfis, PreH. 
bytersBijH in publick aswcllas private Admonitions, and Abfolutions, 
and Exconmunications, have equal power with Bidiops, except as totht 
cvderine, of thcCircuraftaitiais of it- Which though he fomctime fecra 
to r<rfcrve ;"-»r the Bifhop, yet (to do him rightj when he doth fo, he 
farti' rliJr it i-imixt power: As itisthe exercife of theKeys, itisElTen- 
tiai£otheSacr;:dOflicc, common to both ^ but as it is a prudential deter- 

L 2 muiatioa 

f 7«) 

mination of Circumftances according to Humane Right, diredly and prin- 
cipally for outward and not for inrvardeJfeSis, it is the Bifhops Jurifdiiftion. 
So that really he maketh the Bifliop, as fuch, to be butthe Mafter of Order 
and Ceremonies, where the Magiftrate doth not do it himfelf, and where it 
belongethnottothc Officiating Paftor as fuch. 

His cap. 4. is to prove that the power for Internal EfFeds of Grace in 
the Church by External afts, is exercifed only Minifterially, by Minifters 
as fuch, Inftanced capi 5. inBaptifme cap. 6, in the Lords Supper, cap.j. 
in Conftffions and Penance ; and cap. 9. in that Excommunication which 
istheexercifeof the Keys (for he miftaketh in excluding Baptifra from 
the Keys, which indeed is the firfbufe for intromifTion.) Cap. 12. Hea- 
gainpurpofelyfheweth who are the Minifters of each Ordinance. And' 
firft again Vindicateth his Uniting of Order and proper JurifdidioaEccIe- 
fiaftical as before. 

§. 4 pi 465. He confidently faith, that to him it is a tnofi certain things 
that tin power of Order, is of the Word^ Sacrament and Keys., and that it 
is, plena, tola, integra, fully., totally, intirely.in every Sijliopand lawful Prefr 

§.22.^.472. He faith, that Confirmation is neither a true SacrameM, hue 
apart of the Ceremonies of Baptifm :, nor iiit-at all of Divine .^but ef humnTie Ec- 
cUfiaflical InjlitutioH , nor doth itfuppofe any fpecial power given by God to bim 
that admifjijlret hit., for any fpscial fupernaturd ejfeii. But the Church for 
honour referveth this Ceremony to the Bifhop. 

And §. 2+. He faith^ \^And why are Bifijops fe rigid that they will not per' 
mit to their Parif» Miniflsrs the Faculty of Confirming, fpecially when they them- 
t Yea,ne-felvescome very feldome f into thofe Panjljes to vifit. And verily thofe Bifiieps 
verinto which have large Diocejps of Chriftians in the Tutk'ifh Dominions, as 7ny Arch: 
Parifliof ^'fi">p'rickofSpahto., ought (if this Ceremony were of any great account) to give 
ten or their ParijTj Minifters there living free pswer of Confirming : Tea., if the Bi- 
tviemy, ff'ops deny it them, the Parijh A^iniflers may- and ought to exercife this Ceremo-r 
ny by- their own Authority. 
\^ And here 1 will tell Pofterity.that if we could have but got our Prelates, 
&c. to have Confirmed to us but one Word., which the King granted us, 
pro tempore, only inhh Declar. of Ecclef. Affairs^ viz. ihTitCovfirmation 7i% 
a folemn Tranfition from Infant Church-State, into the Adult, fhould be 
but by the Minifters [C O N S E N TU (as knowing his People better than 
the Bifhop that never before faw them, or heard of them, or examined 
them) it had healed one of the greateft of our Breaches : But our Concord 
was not thought worth this little price j Though there is not in. ail th e 
places tha t eve r 1 lived in.^ one Perfon of an hundred (if fiiv e hundred ) 
that lean hear of, that ever was Confirmed , or ever fought it or regard - 
edit. And yet their Kubrick faith, that we muft not give the Lo rds Sup - 
per to aiiv tha t are not Confirmed., or ready for it :"~Ye t have w e no power t Q 
req uire of any' Man a Proof or Certificate o f his Con firmatio n, nor can 
we know whether he be ^onfinncdor^^tj Nor.canwe refu fe any at th e 

■ • " ~" Lords 


( 7? ) 

Lords Table thatrefuf ethto be examined by us, whetlier he be ready to bi 

Aadinthat'12. cr£4p. 5^25, 26, 27. p. 47 J. Spalateft/is again (heweth, that 
the Pomr of the Keys for binding and loofitig^ helongeth to Bifliops and Presby- 
ters as Minifters. And though he referve the Puhlick.ufe of them to the 
Bifhop, he faith, that he may commit it to a Presbyter- For it is Mixt^ and 
hath partly the External JurifdiBion which the Bifljop received by his proper Epif- 
copal Ordination ; and partly^ yea much rather (or more^ the Internal^ by the 
Keys., which they have by virtue of their Presbyterial Ordination, in eejuality 
with the Presbyters, The External, becaiife it is External, may therefore he de- 
legated to anothir^ even a Lay.man : fwhich is it, which the Parhament of 
Scotland have lately declared to be in the King.) And doth not all this ihew 
whatEpifcopacy is? Even a Magiftrates Office, CircaSacra, vindicatedhy 
Grotins and others. But ffaith he) they cannot delegate the inward power 
which is properly of the Keys ^ bccaiife this dependeth of the Sacred Presbyterial 
Order, both \n fieri, incjfey i>iconfervari& opcrari. For the Presbyterial Or- 
der hath always the Keys annexed- For when any is Ordained Presbyter^ 

the Keys are givenhim, a'ldJitrifdiRion., with Orders., by Divine Right. 

And §. 28. p. 474. Seeing the yl^oflles gave the Keys equally to aU BiJJjops 

and Presbyters., No man can by Divine Right, refervi part of the Keys to 

hi/nfcif alone, and leave another part to others. 

Moreover in ///'. 2c. ]- §- 61. p. 2.10. He flieweth that Clement, Linus, 
and Anacletiu, were all Bifhops in Rome at once. 

Lib. 2. c. 9. ^. I. p. 28:. He Ihcweth, ihnBilhops /wj Presbyters arg) 
wholly crjual in all Ejjenttals, which belong to the EccUfiajJical Aiintfirtes to be 
excrcifed towards the People. And that even in Government, the reft of the 
Presbyters ('without excepting any) inevery Church make one College, of which- 
the Bijhop is the Head ^ all Ordained to the fame Ch c and Government of Souls- 
(So this Diocefs hath between a thoufanil and two thouland Minillcrs, li- 
ving fome of them an hundred or fixfcore Miles diftance, to makeaCoI- 
lege to the Bifliopthuis ufuallyat London,) How the Bifhop is bound to 
Govern with them, fee him, §■ 4- 

And §. 5. Tobc plainly underitood, he faith, We Bijljops therefore mujh 
all remember, th.;t ylll the Presbyters are o:tr Brethren, andCoilegHes in the- 
Mmtflry ; not our Servants or Slaves.^ and thjt by Divine Rii^ht they have no lefs 
' poW'r in feeding the people cf God than we have : yindifweexercifeanyExter^ *^3 
nal ampler JunfdiBton over them, not properly Ecclefiajhcal, it is not of oifrown 
power , but delegated from the Magi^rates power, as I fliali prove lib- 6. 
and 10. 

Yet p! .liner, §8,9.^285. Thefe Parifli Presbyters have by Divine Rights 
full Power in the A^inijiry of Chr^ft, and in thefe Partjlies are the Ordinary Mt- 
tnjlers, but under the Bi(l.<ep. For the Btfiyop alone hath a General Ecclefiaftical 

Government to fettle Mintflers in their Diocefs But being applyed to the 

Cevernment cf their Church, they have the ordinary power, but Presbyterial in 
that Church. — ■ — By pofitive Right only BiJIiops are deputed to certain Seats- — 


f 78 ) 

Tet Presbyters ktvefo this Ordinary fowry that they cannot by Humane EccltJiO' 
flkal Right reeiiiee it into Ail, tillapplyedbythe BijJwpin his Diocefs. — 

Aiidc.g. §. 1 1. p. 2S6. 5. 15. p. 287. He (hcweth, that in Vacancies, 
or the Bifhops Abfenco, the Clergy of Presbyters have the whole Epifco- 
pal power of Government. 

And p. 2S8, 289- He labourethto prove, that one Church had many 
Bilhops, and tliat it is bHt Ecclefiafticai Law orCuftome that one Church 
fhould have but one Biihop. 

And §. 15. That if the Canons prohibited not, a Bifhop might make 
all his Parilh Presbyters full Bifhops, as (§. 16.) in the ^nnijlerid Ejfemi- 
als towards the Faithful.^ they are by Divine Right equals, fid, c?" §• 20. fage 

This is enough to fay of Spalatenfis, fave that all that he faith for Bi. 
fhops againft us, is fo little a part of what is faid by the reft, that it can 
require no new Anfwer. And if ttiis great Moderator, Cwho returned to 
Eome^ though for a miferable imprifonment and end) becaufe we are not 
yet near enough to Antiquity, (or rather being flattered into covetous 
and ambitious hopes j be able to prove no greater a difference between Bi- 
fhops and Presbyters , we need not think that any other is ILke to 
do it. 

Dr HaM- ^^' The Lift great. Learned, Sober Defender of Epifcopacy, andthj 
innndzn- laft that I need to mention here, is DoAor Hammond^ who in his Anno- 
fwered. tations, and his Treat, of the Keys, and efpecially his Differtations a- 
gainft Blonde!, and his Defence of ttiem againft the London Minifters, hath 
faid much in this Caufe. But his way is new (fave that he followeth Peta^ 
vtHs in the main fuppolltion : ) He forfaketh almoft ?1I the Fathers, and 
almoft all the Patrons of Epifcopacy of later times (who have written 
for it) intheExpoficion of all the Texts of Scripture which mention the 
Elders and Bifhops of Churches in thofe times, fuppofing that they all 
fpcak of Bifhops only- 

InhisTreat. of theKeys, he maintaineth that the power of them was 
given to the Apoftles onely by Chrift, and to Bifhops as their Succeflbrs 
'by the Apoftles. But I take it for undeniable truth, that the Bifhops and 
Elders fettled in every Church by the Apoftles in their own time^ had this 
po.ver, and I need not expeft a contradiftion in it. And how fitly thofe 
are called the Apoftles Succejfors, whom they fet over the Churches in their 
own time, even from the beginning that they fettled Churches, and with 
whom they continued in the lame Churches many Months or Years (as Pad 
in AJia, 1 leave to others to judge. 

ButtheQneftion is not whether Bifliops have the power of the Keys, 
hntv'hether all Presbyters have k not zKo? And i. Hefheweth that (ac- 
cording to the Canons,) the Presbyters might do nothing in this or in o- 
ther Aftsof Miniftration, without the Bifhop. 2. That our £«^ «/fc Or- 
dainers, though they lay, Receive the Holy Ghoft ^ tvhofe fins yon do re/nit, it 



jlmllbe remitted, &c. Do not give the Presbyters all the fewer of binding and 
loofm^r butfo mtch as the BiJJwps or the Covernours are prefitmid to have theught 
fit to impart to them (yvhlch he fait'n is. i. The-dedaring iu the Church the 
abfolutionof penitents after the ConfefTion. 2. Ti-e abfolving them by 
way ofprayer before the Sacrament, j. And by Baptifmal walhing, and 
4, Upon ConfefTion to the fick, and in private Conference, andConfefii- 
on, &c. Which yet he faith, i_Is by Chrifts Jutho; ity committed to the Fret- 
byt''rs.~'( 3. llQh\th,\^j4ll this will not extend to the abfolving from the bond of ex- 
communidttion^ or proport ionably to fuch power of bindings any further (at 
m"ft,^ th auto confer the firfl power of if-, which if it be then given., doth ycts^e- 
mairr [ as 'he other Power of Pre.iching, and adminiftring the Sacraments )bonnd 
aid refiratned from being exercifed^ till they be further loojed by the donation of a 
SeC'V/'l rower.'2 

y^nf hMti. Either he was not <*/?/<?, or not willing., to tell us whether 
thii. Power be f.'ven the Presbyters or not. For he avoideth it, by faying 
[|rtr ?>,(;,? J and if i*^ be given. '^ If not able, his ability mufl: be plainly defici- 
ent as to fhedVcifion ofour main controverficof the dilferencc between 
Bifhopsand Prrsbyters, which dependcth onit : if unwilling, he was un- 
willi if^to give us any folid fatisfaftory decifion of this Cafe. 

2. Hriiighis Neighbour, 1 wrote in his I-ifc time, a Confutation of 
that Aifcrtion.that the ordained received their Off ce and Power properly 
from theOrdaincr as the necrcftEfficicnt of it,(in myDi ipnt ofOt dination, 
in niyDifput.ofChnrch-Governmcntj.md 1 proved thatthcPower orOffice 
is immediately from Chrifl, and that the Ordainrrs do but dcfign the Per- 
fon that (hall receive it, and Miniftctially deliver him poneflion by an in- 
velting Sign. 

J. Either the Ofllcc of a Presbyter is of Divine Inftitution, or of Himane : 
Either fixed by the Holy GhoiT: in the Apolllcs, immutably •, or made, and 
alterable by the Bifliops? If the Ofticeb: of Divine inRitiition, and fixed 
for the Churches co:i!lantufr, whc;h:r by Chrirt: immediately or by the 
Holy Gholtinth; Apoftles,) than it is not in the Bifliops Power to Altar 
it : And fo whatever the Ordaiaers pkafc to give them, is none of the mea- 
fnrcof their Power : As the Arc!i-Biihopmiy Crown or anoint the King, 
aad yet not give him wh"t Povrcr he pleafe ; Or rather as it is of Divine 
appointment, that the Husb:!nd ihou'd be the Governour of th;; Wife: 
And file that choofcch him, and he that Marrieth them, cannot alter it, 
nor do they give him his mcafure of Power as they plcafe, but fuppofe him 
cndovTcd with that by God, and do only choofc the Pcrlbn tliat ihall re- 
cciveif, andMiniflerially invjft himinthcPofieiriDnof it. And if the 
Pricft that marrieth them fliould byany vvoids Contradic^l, or limit thisin- 
ftitution ofGoJ, it werea Nnllicv, and invalid. If hedobutfay, Irro. 
r.oiinceyoii Hitshar.d arJ IKz/r-Hc therefore pronounccth ih: man to liave that 
Po.ver ofa Hjsband whic 1 God harhgiven him, though he vainly fay af- 
ter, yoj Ihall have butfo m.ich, or fo much of it. Andfoit is in prefent 
Cafe ; If God have made the Minifterial Oflice, he hath made it fmtthing 


( So ) 

conftitutedofitseflential parts •, And if fo what man hath Power to altw 
it. Butifitbefc«w^«f, yea,andmade by theBifliops theni confefs they 
may alter it, or deft::oy it. And ifa Presbyter have what power the Or- 
dainers plealeto give him, every Ordainer may alter the Office and make 
-anew Species of Church Miuifters at his pleafure : Prove that and ourdifpute 
is at an end. But Papifts, Greeks, and Proteftants are agreed againft it. 

4. If Presbyters receive that which he calleth[ffce^r/ fower^ ('which 
he would not deny, though he would not grant) it is all that at prefent I 
am pleading for it : And it isall that in their ordination they receive (as he 
faith^astothePKcr^and S4cmww/-^. Ifthen the Office of a Presbyter con- 
tinue the fame Power of the Keys as to Excommunication, and Abfolution, 
as it doth ofadminiftring the Word and Sacraments, at prefent I reft fa-, 
tisfied with this Hn which Learned Spalaten/is^ and thofe that go with him, 
cannot be confutcd;For this proveth that theirDivinely-inftitutedOffice El- 
fentially containeth this Power of the Keys, though tobe exercifed under 
theinfpedion of a Superiour. 

5. A nd if this Infpection would prove that they have not the Power or 
that their Office, or Order is therefore diftind;, it will alfo prove that Bi- 
fhops have not the Power of the Keys, becaufethey excrcife it under the 
Infpeiftion of Metropolitans, Arch-Bilhops, Primates, or Patriarchs : And 
alfo that they are of a diftinfl; Order from all thefe : And that 
a Phyfition hath no Power to Guide or Govern his voluntary Pati- 
ents inorder to Cure, and that he is ofFa diftind Office from the Colledge 
and Prcfident, becaufeheis under their infpedtion. And are not all Bi- 
fhops under the Government of the King, as well as Phyfitions and other 
Subjects: And have they no Power of the Keys, becaufe he ruleth them. 

And as a Presbyter might do nothing without the Bifhop, fo no one Bi- 
fhop could do any thing without other Bidiops : For he had no Epifcopal 
Power till they ordained him. 

And as to after Government or that which he calleth the grant of a Se- 
cond Power. 

6. Is it any thing but Humane Lkenfe to Exercife the Power of Office of 
Divine inftitution before received? And is not the Magiftrates Licenfe as 
necelTary to the Bifhop and the Presbyter too,asthe Bifliops is to the Pres- 

7. And I take it for undenied among Chrillians, that humane Power of 
Government, extendeth but to the Ordcrings.nA not the Nulling of a Fun(fti- 
on inltituted by God. It is not referred to King or Biffiop, whether there 
fhall be a Preaching or none, Sacraments, or none. Church difcipline and 
exercife of the Keys, or none •, no more than whether there ffiall be a Scri- 
pture, and Divine Law, a Chrift, a Heaven, and whether men ffiall be 
good or bad, faved or damned .- But only by whom, and when, and how, 
this Divine Funftion (hall be fo exercifed, asmaybeft attain the end, as to 
thofe circumftanccsnot determined of byGod ■, and not contradicting Gods 
Inftitutions- Therefore if the Bilhops fay that the Preachers of the Gofpel 


( 8i ) 

fliall be filenced Cp^rhapsby hundreds or thoufands j while the neceftty 
of the Peoples Souls is undeniable, their Authority iu thisniculd hinder 
no man from going to Preach (further than their vicljr.ce hindreth.) 
And fo by his own Rule it niuft be as to Difcipiine, if Dilciplnie be a 
Work belonging to a Presbyter. And as SpaUtevfis faitii of Co/fimuti. 
eHy the Presbyter (hould do it, though the Bifhop forbid him. 

8. The SeconJ Power which the Presbyter mufl: receive from the Prelate 
for Teaching, Worfliipping, and Governing the Flock, is cither, i. For 
theextrcife of it in GcnirAl fo any ft pcrfons, or eife for the limitation of 
him to fuch a particular Flock,. 2. And it is citlier a General Licenfe or 
power at once given to do all his Work, or to do this of Governn^ent 
whenever there is caufc, or clfe it is a particular Licenfe for each parti- 
cular a<ft. 

I. Wedeny not, but that as a Phyfician Licenfedto praiftice, is not 
thereby made the Phyfician of this or thatPerlbn, Hofpital or City, but 
have a particular Call lor fuch an Excrcife or Application of his skill. So 
an Ordained Minifter of Chrift hath no ptcparedObjedon which to Ex- 
crcife a Paftoral Office, but by a particular Call to fuch a Flock. But 
however you Cenfure our limplicity for it, wearcrefolved to believe, till 
you fay more againft it, 1. That the fame may be laid of a Bilhop too ^ 
and therefore by your Argument, when this Bifliop is fixed in a particular 
Flock, he receiveth a /fco«</ powr as you call it, and fo without it hath 
not-thepowt:rof the Keys any more than the Presbyter •, and fomuft be of 
a diftind Order from the Bifliops that give him his fccond power: And 
who giveth them theirs? And if you rile to a Patriarch or Pope, what 
Superiour of another Order giveth them thm ftcond Power ? 2. That In- 
ftitution or fixing a man (before Ordained; to a particular Flock, doth not 
make hm ol another Order or Office, nor is a new Ordination ; nor is he 
as oft Ordained and made of another Office, as he changeth his Flock, or 
receiveth a new Licenlefromthc Bifhopor the King, (from whom I had 
rather have it.) j. That the People as well as the Bilhop (if not much 
morej do give the Minifter this opportunity for theexercife of his Office, 
(as the Patient choofeth his Phyfician.) And yet it is my Opinion that this 
will not prove that the People are hisGovernours, much lefs that they give 
him a new Order or Office. And of old the People chofe their Bifhops 
tbemfelves : It will be as much honour for you Learnedly to prove that 
there were no Kings in the World till Biffiops made them, as to confute 
D. Blondcls Hiltorical proof of the Peoples ancient choice of their Bi- 

2. And as to a General Licenfe, I will thank the King for it, yea, or 
any man that hath power to hinder me, that he will give me leave to Preach 
and Exercifc ray Office : But I do not think that every man that doth not 
hinder rae whenhecan, doth give me power. Andifa Bifhop be fo ex- 
traordinary good as not to filence nor hinder a Minifter from Preaching 
Chriftf 1 do not think chat this traa is an Ufurpcr in Preachingthe Gofpel, 

M for 

(82 ) 

for want of a Llcenfe or fecond Power : Nor yet in exerclfing the reft of 
his Office, where he and the People do confent. Thcfe things feem plain 
to us, and they that (whether by Learning, or the Love of Riches and 
Honour and Domination) are made wifer than we, may fufFer fuch Fools 
gladly, while themfelves are (inre velfpe) Rich, Honourable and wife. 
J. And what is Ordination but a General Inveftiture in the power of 
performing the Minifterial Office? And why may not the General Power 
or Licenfe be given at once as at twice? 1 think LTake thou Authority to 
Preach the Word of Cody andAdmimflerthe Holy Sacrament s^andthe Difciflhie of 
the Church, when then art thereto lawfully called^ (that is, haft opportunity 
and fit Objedsj is a General Licenfe: And a Man may prefently Exercife 
this Office on Confenters : Unlefs the fence be UTakethee power when it 

}. But if it be a Particular Licenfe that is here meant by the grant of 
fecond fewer-, I confefs that there is fomewhat confiderable in it, and that 
in old time the Biffiopand his Clergy living together, and meeting in the 
fame Church, the Presbyters (lilce our Pariffi Curates now) were in all 
the Worfliip of the day, and in their privater Miniftry to the People to be 
ruled by the Bilhop, and to Modifie and Circumftantiate all as he direfted 
them: And fo may it be again. But fure a Minifter is not to travel an 
hundred miles to the Biffiop, to know whether he (hall vifit this fick man, 
or give the Sacrament to the other, and to know what Chapter he ffia 11 
read, and luch like ? If it be not a General Licenfe that is meant, it muft 
needs fuppofe the Bifhops prel'ence. 

p. And feeing the Bifhops may Z/c««/f a Presbyter toufethe Keys, the 
opening of this will help our underftandings about the nature of the Bifhops 
Office. There is no adt of Jurifdidion which they do not Ordinarily com- 
mit to others. Thcfcntence of Excommunication and Abfolution is or- 
dinarily decreed by a Lay-Chanceilor. (And Spalaieafts faith, that Epifco- 
pal'Iurifdiftion may be done by a Lay Delegate, j The fame fentence is 
Pronounced in Court by a Lay-Man, or a meer Presbyter. The fame fentence 
is publiffied in the Church by a Presbyter or Deacon. And a Prince may 
give a Licenfe to exercife the Miniftry to which we were Ordained. 

1 enquire then, i. Whether the granting of this Epilcopal Power, be a 
making that Man a Bifhop that it's granted to ? If fo, a Bifhop, a Pref- 
byter, and a Chancellor are all of one Office, when thus impowred. If 
notfc, then a Lay-man, or one of another Office, may have power to do 
the Woik of the Bifhops Office. And what is the Office Ctell me if you 
tan) befide ^/i/W/ry and Oi?//^<jf»o« to do the Work ? A Lay-man and Pres- 
byter may by the Bilhop be Authorized and Obliged to do the Work of a 
Biffiop, and this ordinarily as an Office : (For fo they do J Er£o, a Chan- 
cellor and a Presbyter may be made really a Bifliop, and yet in their efteem 
cemain a Lay-man and a Presbyter ftill. And is not that a Lay Office 
which a Lay-man may be Commiffioned to do? If a Lay-man were but 
Commiffionedtodo the Work of a Presbyter Cio Teach a Church ordi- 

( 83 ) 

iiarily, to Admlnifter the Sacraments, and to Excommunicate and Ablblve 
inforo imern£ pcemtentialtf^ either it would make the Man a Presbyter, or 
it would beaNunity. And if it be not fo with the Bifhops Office,*, what 
is the Reafon ? Is it not becaufe it is not of Divine Specification and Infti- 
tiition, but Humane, and therefore mutable,or luch as Men may parcel our^ 
and commit to Lay-men by pieces as they pleafe ? So much to Dr. //<</«. 
mofid's Appropriation of the Power of the Keys in that Treatifc. 

As to his Annotations, I fliall have occafion to recite them hereafter ^*' -^nni^ 
among thofe that give up the Diocefan Caufe (as oppofed by us) and there! "'■"""• 
fore fhall here pafs them by. 

HisDifTertationsagainft^/Wf/, have a Premonitioa about ^dination, 
which though moft confident, Ifliallmanifeft, when I come to the point 
of Ordination, to be moft weak •, and indeed have done it before his death 
in my Difput. of Ordin. 

His firft Preliminary Difiertationof Antichrift, oftheMyftery of Ini- 
quity and of Difftrephes, I will not be fo needlelly tedious as to meddle 
with any further then to fay that I will believe Dr. Hammond hzte, and in 
his Annot. on 2 Thef. 2. when 1 am fallen into fo deep a fleep, as to dream, 

1. That the famous Coming of Chrift, and our gathering together to 
him, (which is a great Article of the ChriftianFaith^ is but T;>h* his De- 
ftruiftionof Jerufalem-, and that the reward promifed to all that love his 
appearing, is meant to all that love the laid D^^iCM^lonoi J erufalem-y 

2. Andthatthis Deftruftion wasnottobe called w»^fe, or at /;4«^, which 
fell out fo few Years afcer. ^ And that the GcmtUs of remote Countries 
vverefofhakcn in mind and moved about a Qneftionof a few Years di- 
ftance of the Deftrucftion of the Jews^ more than about Chrift's coming to 
the Common Judgment. 4. And that the Guoflich were indeed fuch terri- 
ble Pcrfecutorsol" the Church, fwho were dilperled Subjeifts^ when their 
Doi^rine was but that tiicy might dilVcmble tocfcape Perfecution thera- 
felves ^ and greater Pcrfecutions were near? and not the Gn«(licki^ nor 
?fiv/, but Nero beheaded Panl\ and the Jews themfelves were banilhed 
Rotne ? 5. And that Simon Mae^iu was indeed fo famous a FelIovv,as to be ta- 
ken for thefupream God, when Church Writers fpeak fo uncertainly of 
his confiitts with Peter as of a doubtful (lory, and the evidence is lb 
obfcure, and the ^ow.twHiltories fay fo little of him ? He might as well 
have thought the Apoflle would have made all that ado s\)0\m J. wies Nay. 
lor, if he had been then alive. 6. Andthatthere were not many other He- 
reticks as well as the Gmjlicb that troubled the Churches, if Epiphunius 
knew how to name them and defcribe them righcly, or henxiu before him 
oTjthn\nRev. 2. and ^ before them. 7. And that Simon Ma^us and his 
Herefie wasa Myftery of iniquity wfr^vM/f^wiicn Paul wrote' the fecond 
Epifile to the Thcffulonians. 8. And that many had not then followed him 
and fallen away to Herelie. 9 Or that by the Jpojla/ie that muft firft come, 
is meant the Apoilles feparation from the ?m/, and Mofes\ Law- As if 

M 2 'he 


hehadfaid, we willfirftfeparate, and that (hall bring perfccution on you ^ 
but till we do [hit, it is with.he'd. lo. Or that the laid reparation was 
not done by degrees, fome before this, and fome after. 1 1. Or that the 
difFerencc between the Jem perfecution of the Chriftians, before the Apo. 
ftles Apoftafie, and after it, was indeed fo great as to be the Crifisof the An- 
tichrifts Revel.ition. 12. And that poor Simon fliould be the Man tliat 
fitteth hi the Temple of God-, and oppoftd and exalted htmjelf above all that is 
caUedCod, when as the Scripture never once namech him after his depre- 
cation of the Apoftles curie or threatning; though Mco/</'r,wj« are na- 
med, and Alexander, Hymenaui and Philetus named, and ottier Advcrfa. 
ries, andjij the terrible things foretold, which Sre here fuppofcd to be 
done by .^M, and his Do<ftrine ? What, were all the Sacred Writers 
afraid to name him when they recited all the Evils that he mult do, and 
are fuppofcd to make it a great part of all the Epiltles, and the Hiftory 
in AEis I 5. and when he had been fofliarply rebuked and hiimbkd before, 
Ail.B. I J. That the « n^riy^v, he that with-holdeth, till he be t^Uen cut of 
the way, isnotmeantof any perfon, fower or fiate, but the aforefaid re- 
paration of the Apolbles. 14- That wr/e 8. that the breath of Chrijl^s 
even moHthi fignifieth St. Peter's words that caft down Simon when he fell 
and hurt him •, and that the brightnefs of his comings or the apf earing of his 
0wn frefence, is nothing but the forefaid Dellrudion of firufalem. 1 5. 
And fo many of the (7»oy?;ci(;f and Hereticks, that troubled all the Chur- 
ches of >(/»<• and other Countries,, were got together into JerufaUm, as 
that they might be faid to be confumed and dellroyed there, who fo long 
after troubled the Churches. 16. And when I tan beiicve that the Reve- 
lation is made up of fuch a fence, and that moft or much of it, was fulfilled 
before it was revealed and written, and all the reft fulfilled long ago (a- 
bout Confiantine\ days^ except one Parenthefis, or a few Verfes in the 2otk 
Chapter. And that the Refurredion and Thculand Years reign of the Mar- 
tyrs, is that 1000 Years from C(5«/?*?rt/je's beginning, in which the Bilhop? 
had Wealth and Honour, and fate on Thrones, and judged thePeopJein 
Courts, as our Lay-Chancellors now do^ and that this Glory, Wealth, 
and Grandure of Prelates, is the Churches RefurretT;ion, G lory and Feli- 
city : And that thefe happy t hou fa nd Years continued 700 Years after the 
rifing of Mahomet •, and included thofc Srfc, pr/*, xoth, and 1 ith Ages^ 
which Erafmits and all learned men (even BetUrmne himfell) fo dolefully 
bewail. And that when Boys, and Whores, and Sorcerers, and Murder- 
ers, and Hereticks, andSchifmaticks ruled the Church, they were haffy 
that had apart inthisfirfl RifurreU:ion to all this Glory, >ea, that thefe arc 
Holy too. Rev. 20. 6. And that the feccnd death fhall have no power oa 
them; thatis while they are drowning the true Churches of Ctirift in the 
FlooJs of all abomination, and bringing in all corruption, and laying the 
grounds of all divifion, fubduing Kings, and murdering Chriftians by 
thoufands, till the Year i joo. BlelTed and holy and happy are they, be- 
caufe though they perfecutc' the Godly, they are free from being perfe- 


( 8s ; 

cutcd themfelvcs, which is the fecoad death : Yea, that tlis Church was 
freed from perfecutica ia the Ages when th; poor U'^/df/.y;v, and yilhi -en 
fes were murdered in greater numbers than ever the Heathens muidciLd 
theChriftians heretofoie. When! can b^iievc abundance of fuch things 
as chtfe, I will believe Dr. Hummerjd'i hrft D.irertatioii. 

HisfecondDiUertation which isto vindicaiethc EpiHles of J^^natiiu, I 
litti. regard, as not concerning me. 1 le^ve it to Di. Pinfiti (,whoth.y 
fiay is about it) to anfwer DalUus his numercus Argumenisasainll h;m 
Twith Dienyfm.) For my part, I wifli Dr. Pmfon may prevail , For there 
is no Wiuicfs among all the Ancients whom 1 inoretiull to (at i»ait adht. 
minem) as a plaai undoubted deltroyer of our Prdacy, than /^«^fj»«, who 
is the confidence ot the Ficlatical Champions. I am pclIUl I'vith admira- 
tion as much at their glorying in lgn*ttHs^ as tic Patron of DiocJans, 
who is fo much aj^ainlt thtm, as 1 am at tiieir glorying in Rtcl). Hooker as 
a Defendci of Monarchy and ihcriclatis Loyalty : Qi IgnatiHs 1 Hiallfay 
tnore anon. 

His third Diflert. about Scripture psfl'^ges mere cor.ccrnethus. 
Cap. I. vvhich tells us of Cl'.nfts Epifcopacy, concerncth not our 

Cup, 2. U liLthcr the ^^iy}<a'i<nj., the Regeneration, be the New Church 
State, and tiie Apoilieslipifcopal liiroiicsbt ilicre in. ant, i.sf tlcdin fcve- 
ral Provinces (which cannot b;- piovcd ever to have been) is little to our 
buliiiefs. Nor yet whether i.e will prove that it is not Prelacy but Se- 
cular Coadive power and gtnndurt tliat is denied to the A[)oUlcs, and 
that it was thofe that grnd^!, .d at the Precedency defired for/wwwand 
7ohn, which Chriil intended to reprehend, becaufe it was not an injuri- 
ous Secular power, but a labour that was to be in the Prcl ites of the 
Church. It fufficeth me that lb much is here confelTcd. And it cannot be 
denied: For that Precedency and Power which Chriil allowethin the Ru- 
lers of the Nations, is it which he denyethto hisDifciples: But it is not 
Tyranny, proud Domination and OpprelTion, but jull Secular Govern- 
ment, which he alloAfeth in the Rulers of the Nations: £rfo, it is this and 
not the former which he denyethto hisDifciples. 

And let all the Prelates here remember, that the Qjeft^on, Whether 
they be Above their Bicthren by Dr. H^s Confeflion, is, Whether thvy 
may take more care and pains for Mens Salvation ? When one o f us poor 
Min ifters were not able night and day toCatechife, inftruLl and ovcrfce 
ajCon^regstion of two or three thonfand Souls, wiLhout much help or 
many lad unavoidable OmilTions, the Q^ieftion Ihall be, whether the Bi- 
I^qpmay not undertake to Teacli^snd overfecmany hundreds or a thou- 
fand P arifhes, and Tatechife, Pray with, and Ex hort a t hou fa nT times 
morethanany PjrijhMiniJJer clgth_or is able to ^o t And to do all this 
without ever co ming into thofe Parifhes , or ever leeing the Faces , or 
hearing the names of one of a multitude oFthe Pe ople :, or ever f peaking 
oge word to them, bu t fuauaoping them by Ap paritors to a Lay. Chanccl- 


( 8«) 

lors Court, to be Excommunicated firft, and after imprifoncd while they 
live, if they do not what the Chancellor bids them. O what is mansun- 
derftanding! when a Carnal interefthath there clothed it felf with a Sa- 
cred name. 

Cap. 3. He telleth us of the Power of the Keys commited to the Apo- 
Jlles, and by them to the Bifhops, as their Succeflbrs. But whether all 
the Bitliops Ordained by them, and living with them, (and forae dying 
before them it's like) were their Succejfors, and whether all true Pallors 
were not fuch Bilhops as had the Power of the Keys ; and whether by 
thofe Keys be meant the Government of the Flocks, or alfo of the Go- 
vernors themfelves, and of what extent the Churches under each Bifbop 
was, and to what end and ufe, are the things inQneflion, which he here 
faith nothing to. 

Cap. 4. Heprovethby ftrong affirmation, that the Apoftles were by 
Chrift'slaftCommiflion, Mat. 28. 19, 20. to be the Bifhops of their feve- 
'ral alfigned certain Provinces. But confidence goeth not for proof with 
us. He tells us of the name of Epifcopacy, Jils 1. 2p. We never queiti- 
oned, whether the Apollles had the Overfight of the Churchy but wehold, 
I. That the World was the firft Objedof their Office, from whence they 
were to gather Churches. 2. That the Place, Courfe, or Circuit of their 
Travels and Miniftry, was not of any Divine Infbitution, but left to their 
prudent choice, by the Common Rules of Nature (doing all things in Or- 
der, and to Edifyingj and fometime direded in their motions by the pre- 
fent infpirationoftheHoly-Ghoft. 3. That more than one A poftle was 
oft in the fame Cities and Countries, none claiming it as his peculiar Pro- 
vince, nor denying the right of others to be there. And where one was 
this Year, another was the next. 4. That when an Apoftle planted a 
Church in any City, and fettled Bifhops over the People, they themfelves 
were called by many of the Ancients, the firft Bifhops of tkofe Cities', in 
which fence, one Man h^d m.any Bifhopricks. 5. That the Apoftles were 
Itinerant unfixed Bifliops, and not fixed Bifhops, fuch as they themfelves 
confiiied to any one limited Church or Province. Nor can it be proved out 
of all Antiquity, thatany oneof allthe Apoftles, was confined to any one 
limited Province, much lefs what that Province was ^ but only that their 
Ability, Opportunity, Time and Prudence limited every Man, and dire- 
ftedhimasthe End required. 6. And that if the Apoftles had fixed them- 
felvesin particular limited Provinces, they had difobeycd their Commifli- 
on, which was, to go Preach the Gofpel to all the World. And no Man 
did ever yet fo dote, as to pretend that they divided the whole World 
into twelve Provinces, and there fixed themfelves : And fuch twelve Pro- 
vinces as they had been capable of overfeeing, would have been but a lit- 
tle of the World: And it was but a little part, comparatively, that they 
Preacht the Gofpel to : Moft Kingdoms of the World they never faw : And 
thofe which thev came into, were fo great and many, that they Preached 
Jtitii to a few of the People. Yet this was not their culpable OmilTion, be- 



caufe they were limited by Natural Impotency, and foby ImpofTibilities of 
doing more : But had it been by a Voluntary fetling themfelvcs in twelve 
Provinces to the negled of all the reft, the Cafe had been other wife. But 
whilft they did their beft for the whole World themfelves, and Ordain- 
ed others to do the reft, they performed their Office. 

There needeth no more to be faid as to thofc Ancients that name the A- 
poitks Bijlwfs : Nor is their Epifcopacy, if proved, any thing to our Cafe, 
as fhall be manifefted. 

Cap. 5. He thought he had proved that Power in the Church is given hy 
the Afoftles to the Bi^iop enly. Whereas (with Spalatenjis, and moU Chri- 
IHans) we hold it given to Chrift's Minifters, as fuch, and therefore to 
them all, though in an Eminency the Apoftles only had it. And , i. 
Whereas hedenyeth the Power of the 70, becaufe they were not Apo- 
ftles, but Difciples: WeAnfwer, 1. That Evangelifts and other Minifters 
that were not Apoftles, had the Power of the Keys. 2. That to deny that 
the 70 were at leaft Temporary Apoftles limited to the ?avs^ and had the 
power of Preachingand working Miracles, would be todeny the letter of 
the Text. And the Apoftles thcmlelves could not Govern Churches, till 
they were gathered. 

2. Andyetif neither they, nor y^/jw Baptift, in Baptizing, didexercife 
any power of the Keys (^which he can never provcj it is nothing to our 

3. When will he prove thatthe Evangelifts and the Itinerant Aftiftants 
of the Apoftles, hadnot the power of the Keys ? When themfelves com- 
monly fay, thatthe higher Orders contain the powers of the lower .'' And 
are the Bifliops higher than the Evangelifts? 

4. Nay, when will he prove, that ever any Presbyter was Ordained by 
the Apoftles, or by any others as they appointed, without the power 
of the Keys ? It would weary one that lovecli not conlulion and loft la- 
labour, to read long Difcourfes of the Power of the Keys or Government, 
wh ch diftinguilh not the Government of the Laity or Flocks, from the 
Government of the Minifters themfelves? and that abufe the Church by 
feigning an Office of Presbyters that are not Presbyters, and proving that 
Church. Governors are not Church-Governors? For what is t;ie Office of 
the Presbyter or Paftor cITentially, but a Stated Power and obligation to 
Teach and Govern the People, and Worfhipas their mouth and guide ? 

Cap- 6. He fcemcth, by denying the Ev.infilijls the power of the Keys, 
andof Church-teachinp, and making them nT-tr Preachers to rht Infidels, 
to favour the Independants Opinion, wl.o think the Laymen fciu forth are 
todo that work. But, i. Mat. z?.. i^.^io. Chrift maketh fuch Officers 
as nnift Preach and Bapnieand gather CnurcHes among the Infidels before 
tliey govern them, to he thrm that he will be with to the end ot the World- 
And the fame men had the Power of teaching th' Churches when they were 
gathered, as is there cxprelfed. 2. Call them by what name you will, 
SiiChJteniranti were ufual in the Apoftles dales, as SiUsy yi^ollo^ and ma- 




ny more. 5. It was not the twelve Apoilks only that Converted the 
World, but fuch other Miniftcrs, that were called thus to labo^ir by them, 
orby the Spirit immediately. Jefefh of yirimathea is faid by many to have 
preached here, and in other Countries. 4- VAhat man vviil dream that 
when thefe went abroad the World to convert men, they were the fixed 
Bilhops of particular Churches firft, which they thus forfook ? 5. Who 
will believe that Joftph, Stlas^ AfoUe, Luke^ Markj, Nathaniel^ Philips 
or any other, whenthey had converted any City, or Countrey, had no 
power after to teach them as a Church, or give thtm the Lords Supper, 
no nor to Baptize them firft, nor to ordain ttiem Bifhops, and lettle them 
in order, but muft either have an Apoftle or a City BiQiop to come thither 
after them to do it ? Such Fancies are obtruded on the Church, becaufe 
theoneMinifterialorPrieftly Office is firft difmembred, and then new 
Officers feigned to be made up of the feveral Limbs. 

Cap. 7. Ashe rob'd the £v4Wff/;y?icf the Power of the Keys, he would 
now rob all the raeer Presbyters of it ^ and all Cwithout fhew of Scripture 
proof) from fuch words of Canons or Ancients as fay the Presbyters (hall 
do nothing without the Bifhops. i- As if the Presbyters were no Rulers 
of the Flocks, becaufethe Bilhops are Rulers of the Presbyters? As if a 
Judgeorajuftice were no Governour,becaure he is under the King? 2. O 
Cruel Bifhops that will undertake to do that for the Souls of many hun- 
dred Parifhesi which many hundred Minifters are too little for, that the 
Souls of men and their own together may be damnM by the Omiflion of it ! 
Ifthepower of the Keys be appointed for mens Salvation, they perfidi- 
oufly betray them that thruft out the many hundreds that ffiould do it, 
pretending that it belongeth to one man among the many hundred that can- 
not do it. But of the Bilhops great undertaking, I muft fay more 

Cap. S. Of the Chonpifcopi there is little that concerneth us, faving that 
lie Cometh near to grant us all that we defire, while that f 1 5 he faith that 
Learncci men believe that in the Church of one Region ^of old there was hut oneyllt/tr, 
fo that Ignatius rightly conjoyneth h Srjaia^^m and «'«■ i-rinoTnv : ytfid ak 
Schifmaticks were [did to fet up Altar againji Altar. As Cypr. de "J nit. Ecele. 
iTf. 40. 72, 7 J 3 This is the lum of all that we plead for. And§.2^.he 
inentioneth the Chorcpifcopis as imn>itating the 70, wherj yet he had de- 
nied the 70, to have the power of the Keys, which he fuppofeth the Cho- 
repifcepi to have under the Biffiops. Of Clemens words in due place. 
Cap. 9. About the fence of a Canon varioufly read. 
AndCip. 10. Whether £/<rycfei«/ Alexandrinus erred in one thing 1 
and therefore were not to be believed in another,arc little pertinent to our 

In his 4th. DiUert-the Cj/>. \.i%\)MI Proem, \i\\t Cap. 2. he telisus thatthc 
Apoflks as Bifhops Governed the Churches which they had planted, veith- 
cut the medi'ttien of i CoUedge of Presbyters Tall ways) and he bringcth 
not a word to prove it, but i Cer. j 6. To» have not many Fathers t» 


( 8? ) 

■Chriji^ J h^e begotten yen by the G off el ^^ c. 4. Ijf, \6. I have plumtd ,and 
C.9> «y, i i« iw'ii come to you^ trtlije th.ir I come with the Rod ? and c- 5- i, 4. 

J as ahfent tn Body hia prefeni i>i Spirit have judged Tliis :s all. 

And will not the impartial Reader wonder at humane liailty, iio.v caHly 
.men believe what they would have to be true, and wiiac, afi cvi- 
xientiVorfcw^' will go for undeny able proof". L.ttheRtadcr Note, 1. That 
;thc queftion is not whether an Apoltle after that he had plantcu a Cluiicti 
remain ftill an Apoltle to them as well as oti'ers, and have Uk- ApolioU- 
cal eminency ot Power, which is greater t;'an any uuci Biihop had. 
2. But firft, Whether the Apoltleshad any fixed Province^.or Cities un- 
dertaken as their Ipecial charj;,c, in which no other ApoIUc iiad Apofto- 
lical Power ? And 2. Whether there were not fixed Biiliops iltled by them 
inallthe Churches which they planted? 3. And whether it was not lb in 
the Church pfConniij' in particular ? Yea, whether they had not more 
Bifliops or Presbyters than one t For by [VniHi} which here he applycth 
to Paul, liemeaneth'L'«/c«j, Paul only, orclfc heabufcthhis Reader and 
liimfelf. And i. He that will follow F^a/ in his Travels, will find that 
he went the fame way that fome other Apoflles went, vtz. fohnand Pctery 
and thercfoie that they mull have the fame DioceOes, or have their Dio- 
cefles notably intermixt : fohn was in ^Jia as well as P<j«/, and no man 
can prove that he was the Second Bifliop ofEphcfus, or y^4, as PauPs fuc- 
cefTor only when he was dead Nor will thc^aw4«ibe willing to grant that 
Pf/erwas Bilhopofnomorcat ^««e but the Jews only (^as this Dr. elfe- 
where intimatethj left that prove not that the Gentile Church of ^o«e was 
founded by Pctcr^ but by Paul alone. 2. What proof hath he that befidcs 
Peter znd John, there were not many other Apoftles pervicei in the fame 
Cities where /'<»/// had been ? And that when they did come thither, they 
had not Apoftolical Power there ? 3. Doth not the Text exprefly fey that 
PW and 5<jr«<»i'rf; long travelled together ? And doth it any where inti- 
mate that P<»«/ was the Governour of 5(arn4^<i;, or the fole Bifliop of the 
Churches planted by them both together ? Sure the people that would have 
worfhipped Barnabas, as Jupiter, and Paul but as Mercury^ did fee no Sign of 
fuch a Prelacy i n Paul. And the Apoftles feem fo to have ordered the mat- 
ter, by going by Couples Cas Chrift fometimcs fcnt two and two before 
him,^ asiftheyhaddone it purpofely to prevent thefe Monarchical con- 
ceits. Peter and John were together at the healing of the Criple, and 
the luccefsful preaching that followed thereupon. Sometime Paul and 
Barnabas are together ^ fometimc Paul and Sil^s, and Barnabas and Markj. 
Paul and Softhenes arc tiic infcribed Names who fend the firft Epiftle to 
the Corinthians, and Paul and Timothy the fecond. And in the Text al- 
Icdged, it is feid, One faith I am of Paul, and another I am 0/ Apollo i 
and c I. 12. Every one of you faith, I am of Paul, and I c/' Apollos, and 
I of Cephas. — And Paul baptized none of them fave Crifpus and Gaiust 
and the houfliold of Stephanus. By which it appeareth that Peter vras 
among them as well as PohI \ and if Peter had been only the Biiliop of 

N the 

f 90 ) 

the JfKi here alfo, A^ohi would not have beea_ brought in as a third in a 
way of equality : And the Controverile would have been otnefWife t.t!i\= 
ded by P-*/*/, by telling the Icvn that Veter was their fole Bifhop, and the 
Gentiles that Panl was theirs, and all of them, that yipoUes was but their Sub- 
ject. But he goeth quite another way to work, preferring none, nor di- 
viding Dioceles, but levelling Minifters, as being but the helpers of their 
Faith. And though they had Apoftolical preeminence above ^p»tfM, yet 
Peter and Paul are not faid to have a proper Epifcopacy over him. 

And now to his Arguments, i . PahI flanttd ^ Paul onely xvm their Fa- 
ther. What then ? Ergo^ Paul onely was their Bifhop. I deny the Gonft- 
quence, and may long wait for a fyllable of proof. Contrarily, Paul one- 
ly was not their Apoftle : Ergo, Paul onely was not their Bifhop. Foe eve- 
ry Apoftle you fay hath Epifcopal Power included in the Apoftolical : and 
none of them ceafed to have Apoftolical Power where-ever they came, 
^though they were many together, as at Jerufakm) Ergo^ None of them 
ceafed to have Epifcopal Power. The conceit of Converfion and Pater, 
nity cntituling to fole Epifcopacy, I ihall confute by it felf anon. 

Z. But Paul judged the incefiuoM perfen, and ffeaketh of coming with the 
rod. And what foUoweth? Ergo^ None but Paul might do the fame in 
thatDiocefs. I deny the Conlequence. Any other Apoftle might do the 
fame. Where is your Proof ? And if all this were granted, it is nothing 
againft the Caufe that we maintain. 

And next let us inquire, whether this Church had no Bifhops or Presby- 
ters but Paul? As here is not a word of proof on their fide, fo I prove the 
contrary : 

1. Becaufe the Apoftles ordained Elders or Bifhops in every ChHrch; 
and City, J^s I4. xj. Tit. i. 5. Therefore the Church of Corinth had 

2. If they had not Presbyteis or Bifhops, they could hold no ordinary 
Chtiftian Church- Alfemblies, for all Gods publick Worfhip-, f.^. They 
could not con^municate in the Lords Supper-, for Lay-men may not be 
the Minifters of it, nor the ordinary Guides and Teachers of a Worfhip- 
ping Church. But they did hold fuch ordinary AfTemblies, communica- 
ting in the Lords Supper. And to fay, that they had onely Paftors that 
were itinerant «« tranftu as they came one after another that way, is to 
ipeak without book, and againft it-, and to make them differ from all 
other Churches, without proof. 

I. I Cor. 14. doth plainly end that Controverfie, with i Cor. n.^when 
they had fo many Prophets, and Teachers, and gifted Perfons in their Af- 
fcmblies, th^ /'*<«/ is put to reftrainand regulate their Publick Exercifes,- 
direftiDgthemto fpeak but one or two, and the reft to judge: and this 
rather by the way of edifying plainriefs, than by Tongues, 0"<r. Andc.ii.- 
they had enow to be the ordinary Minifters of the Sacraments. And ch. 5- 
they had Inftru<3;ions for Church-Difcipiine, both as to the inceftuous man, 
and forallthefcandalousforthetimeto come, and are chidden for not 


C9I ) 

uflng it before. And who but the Separatiftsdo hold, that the power of 
the Keys for the exercife of this Difcipline is in the Peoples hands? 
Therefore moft certainly they had a Clergy. And if all this go not for 
proof againft a bare Affirmation of the contrary, we can prove nothing. 

4. And I Cor. 4- 15- I fcarce think that?4«/ would have had occalioa 
to fay [Though youhave ten thoHfandinJiru^ers~\ if they had not had quali- 
fied Perfons enow to afford them one or two for Presbyters. 

Caf. 2. proving no more of any one Apoftles fixed Epilcopacy , he comcth 
to their fecondary Bifhops or Apofties : And whereas we judge, that Apo- 
ftles, and Evangelifts, andthe Apoftles Affiftants were un6xed Minifters, 
appropriating no Churches or DiocefTesto themfclTesin point of Power, 
but planting, letling, and confirming Churches in an itinerant way, and 
diftributing their Provinces onely arbitrarily and changeably, and as the 
Spirit guided them at the prefent time of their work-, and that Bifhops 
and Elders were fuch Pallors as thefe Church-gatherers fixed in a ftated 
relation to particular Churches •, fo that an Apoftle was a Bifhop tminenter^ 
but not formaliter ', and that a Bifhop, as fuch, was no Apoftle in the emi- 
nent fenfe, but was alfo an itinerant PreAcher limitedly, becaufe while he 
overfaw his Flock he was alfo to endeavour the converfion of others, as far 
as his opportunity allowed him : I fay, this being our judgment, thislear- 
ned Doftor fuppofeth Apoftles, as fuch, to be Biftiops, and the fixed Bi- 
fhops, as fuch, to be fecond Apoftles. And I fo avoid contending about 
Names, even where it is of fome importance to the Matter, that I will not 
wafte my time upon it till it be necefTary. In § i ■ he telleth us, that thefe 
fecond yipojiles were made partakers of the fame Jurifdittiott and Name with the 
firfi, and either planted and ruled Churches, or ruled fuch as others had planted. 
Anjw' I. We doubt not but the Apoftles had indefinite itinerant Affiftants, 
and definite fixed Bilhops placed by them as aforefaid : But the indefinite 
and the definite muft not be confounded. 2. And were not Z,«l^, vW^rl^, 
Timothy, and other itinerant Evangelifts, as fuch, of the Clergy, and fuch 
Affiftants or fecondary Apoftles? Exclude them, and you can prove none 
but the fixed Bilhops : But if they were, why did you before deny Evange- 
lifts, Divert, i-cap. 6. the power of the Keys, and make them meer convert- 
ing Preachers, below Doiftors and Paftors, and the fame with Deacons? 
whereas Paul, Ephef 4. 1 1. doth place them before Paftors and Teachers. 
But avoiding the Controverfie <if wmwf, call them what you will, we be-^ 
lieve that thefe itinerant Affiftants of the Apoftles were of that Onefacrcd 
Office commonly called the Priefthood or Miniftry, though not yet fixed { 
and that the afiigning them to particular Churches did not make them of a 
new Order, but onely give them a new objeft and opportunity to exercife 
the Power which they had before •, and that PWi/) and other Deacons were 
not Evangelifts meerly as Deacons (which term dcnoteth a fixed Office in 
one Church), but by a further Call : And that you never did prove, that 
ever the Scripture knew one Presbyter that had not the power of the Keys, 
as Billiops have •, yea, you confefs your felf the contrary. All therefore 

N 2 that 

( 92 ) 
that followcth in that Chapter, and your Book, of James the )'/</?, and 
Mirk^ and others having Epifcopal power, is nothing againft us : The 
thing that we put you to prove is, that ever the Apoftles ordained fuch an 
Officer as a Presbyter that hath not Epifcopal Power and Obligation too, 
as to his Flock •, that is, the Power of governing that Church according to 
God's Word. 

And I would learn, if I could, whether all the Apoftles which ftaid long 
AtJerufaUm^ while 7<j/«m is fuppofed to be their Bifliop, were not Bifhops 
alfo with him? Whether they ceafed to be Apoftles to the People there? 
Or whether they were Apoftles, and not Bilhops ? And whether they loft 
any of their Power by making fames Bifhop? And whether one Church 
then had not many Bilhops at once ? AncJ if they made James greater 
than themfelves, Whether according to your Premonition they did not 
give a Power or Honour which they had not ('which you tliink unanfwera- 
ble in our Cafe) ? 

Caf. 4. come in the Angels of the- Churches', Rev. I, l,.& 3. of which 
(though the matter be little to our Caufe^ I have fa id enough before, why 
1 prefer the Expofition of Tjconim^ which AngHJiine ftcmeth to favour. 
And I find nothing here to the contrary that needeth a Reply. 

Cap. %. he would prove the Angels to be Archbifhops ^ which if done, 
would not touch our Caufe, who meddle not with Archbifliops, but onely 
prove, that the full Palloral or Epifcopal Office or power of the Keys as 
aver the Flock, fhould be found in every particular Church that hath mum 
Altare. ^ ^ 

To prove Metropolitans (zgzm), lie tells us, how that in Provinces we 
find {Churches'} mentioned in the Plural number, and in Cities onely Zj* 
Church'} fingularly : not perceiving how hereby he overthrows his Caufe, 
when he can never prove that in Scripture many f articular churches are called 
t^C^«>'c/)] Diocefane or Metropolitan, as united in one Bifliop, as our 
Diocefane and Metropolitan Churches now are. Nay indeed, though the 
Society be fpecified by the Government, yet the Name fticketh in their 
. teeth here in England, and they feldom ufe the Title of the Church of Can- 
nrbury andJV^] for the whole Province; and they ufe to fay the. Dioc&fe 
■ of Lincoln^ London., IVinchefier, Wercefter., Coventry and Litchfield, Ct-c, ra- 
ther than l^the Church of Lincoln, London, Coventry and Litchfield, 0"f.] left 
the Hfrarers would fo hardly be feduced from the proper fenie of the word 
iChurcb'} as not to utideriland them. 

His Proofs of the Civil or Jewifh diftindion of Metropolitans, §.'4,- 
%&c. let them mind that think it pertinent : But § 9. we have a great 
word, that f// ?nay be proved by many examples^ that after this Image the 
ApofiUs took, care every where to difpofe of the Churches , and canfiituted a 
fubordiiiution and dependence of the lejfcr on the mors eminent Cities, in all their 
Pl.intations.} Anfw. This is to fome purpofe, if it be made good. Thefirft 
luHanci \s ASs 14.-26. i6.4..and 15.2,5,2,2,23,30- Nota word elieoutof 
Scripture. Andwhat's here ? Why,*' Paul and Barnabas are fent to Jc- 



** "-A/m rrom Amioch, to the Apoftlcs and Elders, about the Qa.flion, 
"and were Diuoght on their way by the Church, and palTed thorow Phe- 
*'«/«and Samaria: Cllufon men are fent to A'ltiech with Paul and Bxr/i'u- 
*^has^ ^udas and S///«, with Letters from the Apoltles, Elders, and Bk- 
**thren, even to the Brethren of the Genttlet xn Ai:uoch, Syria, and Ctlt- 
" cia : And when they came to Antiech they delivered die Letters , and 
*''i'd«/and Timothy as they went thorow the Ciiiesdclivertd.them the De- 
. .** crees to keep, that were ordained by the Apoftlcs and Elders that were at 
'^ fjtriifalcm^ Doth not the Reader wonder wjicre is the Proof? And won- 
"!derheniayforine,unlers thisbeit : The Apqj^ies ^^nd Elders were at Jt- 
^r*/k^fw when they wrote tliisL^cer, and i Irene e fenc it to Amioch, Syria, 
ia'ild CiliciA : £r^»,They cftabliifhccf tlie iJiftop of JerttfJcm to be the Gover- 
Bourand Metropofiian of Antioch, Syri'.x, and Cilicia. The Apoftle Paul 
went from An'iocb to other Cities, and dclivcnd them thefe Decrees: 
Ergo, Arjtsoch is the governing Metropolis of iliofi.- Cities. 1 think the 
major Prppofitionsare/ LEv.ci y (^ijry i'i^m whici) ApolUpi. fsrid tlicir Let- 
ters to otlicr Cities, pnd every City frctin wExItjXi) ApjJUc cm iicth fucll 
Letters or Decrees to ot!icr Cities, \s\>'^ i\\o\'c Apoltlfts made tlv- Govern- 
ing Metropolis of thofe other Cities. 3 What dull H^iadsarethcPiuiiarjs, 
toqueftionfuthaPropofitionas this! But itii not given to all Men to be 
wife: And we ignorant Pcrfbns arc left in dou!)t, ^ i. VVlicthcr the 
llniverfalHcadniip or Papacy of the Bifho,) of Jcnifalimhz not of Apo- 
Ilolical Inftitution? and ihatniore than by one Apoftl;, even by all of 
them that were then at jerMf4U/>i> J^^- Wheth:r the Apoftlcs did not 
this as they did other p.irts of Church-fettlcmcnt, by the Spirit of God ? ' 
and fo, whether it be not jure Divino ? yea, by a more eminent Autiiority 
than the Scriptures, which were written by parts, by feveral Imgle Men, • 
Ibme Apoftles, and fome Evangclifts ? when this is faid to be done by all 
together. ^ 5- Whither Chrift's Life, Death, Refurredion, Afccnfion, 
i^ndfendingthe Apoftlesthence into all the World, (and not into the Ro. 
w^ Empire oncly) do not incomparably more evidently m^kc }crufalem 
theUQiverfal Metropolis of the Earjh, and fo fet it above Rome, which is 
but the Metropolis of one Empire? ^. 4. Whether thVn an Uaiverlal 
Head of the Church or Vicar of Chrift be not jure Vivino? and fo a 
Jeritfalcm Papacy be not eftential to t'uc true Church and Religion ? 
XJ. S- Whether then all the Emperours, Bifhops, and Churches, that did 
fet up Rome, Alexandria , Antioch , and Conjlantincfit above J-erufalem, - 
Were not Traytors againft the Univerfal Sovereign of the Church, and guil- 
ty of Ufurpati on and grofs Schifm? Q^6. To what purpofe this Sove- 
reignty was given to 7^r«/<»ifw, which was never pofTefs'd and exercifcd ? 
•^7. Whether Prff r's being at Rome could alter this ChurchConftitution ? 
and one Apoftle could undo what all together had done ? .^ S. Whether 
the Apoftles carried this Metropolitical Prerogative with them from place 
to place, vvhere-ever they came ? And whether it did belong to the Aitn ox 
the Place ? And whether to the Place whence they firft fet out, or to every 


( H ) 

place where they came ? or to the place where they dyed ? Tude-^ "'"'c is 
the proof of any of tHefe. ^. 9. When they were nattered, which of 
their Seats was the Metropolitan to the red ? or were they all equal ? 
^ 10. If the Power followed the Civil Power of the Metropolitane Ru- 
lers, whether Cafar did not more in conftituting the Church-Order, and 
giving power comparatively to the Metropolitanes, than Chrift and his 
Apoltlcs? J^- n- Whether it was not in Ctfar\ power to unmake all 
the Church Metropolitans and Bifliops at his pleafure, by diflblving tjie 
Priviledges and Charters of Cities ? ^ 12. If itpleafeany King, or be 
the Cuftom of any Kingdom (as it is in many parts of Anxrica) that the 
Kingdom have no Cities or Metropolis,whether it muft have any Churckes, 
Bifhops, or Metropolitane ? i^. 13- Whether when i'4«/ wrote his Letters 
from Corinth to Rome he thereby made the Bi{hop of Corinth the Governour 
of the Bifhop and Diocefs of Rome i And whether little Cenchrea was over 
them alfo, becaufe Phfebe carried the Lfetter ? And did his writing from 
Philifiii to Corinth fubjeft Corinth to the Bifhop of Philifpi ? And did his 
writing from Rome to Galatia^ Ephefus, fhilifpi^ the Colojjlans ; and from 
Athens to the Theptlonians, and from Laodtcea and Rome to Timothy, and 
from Nicopelis to Tttiis, and Johns writing from Patmos to the Afmn Me- 
tropolitanes produce the fame efFeft ? ^ 14. If P<j«/'s carrying the 
Letters from Antmh to other Cities, proved Antioch the Governour of 
the reft ? whether when he returned from the other to Antioch again, he 
made not the other the Governours of Antitch ? 1 am afhamcd to profe- 
cute this Fiftionany further. His following Citations from the Fathers 
1 think unworthy of an Anlwer, till it be proved, i. That thefe Fathers 
took the Metropolitane Order, as fuch, to be of Apoftolical Inftitution, 
and not incompiyance with the/?o»»<j«Gover0ment, by mcer humane, al- 
terable policy. And, 2. That this Opinion rofe as earJy ashepretcnd- 
eth. }• And that thefe ^w»e«fj were not deceived, but our £»g/<]Jj Bi- 
fhops rather {Btlfon, Jewel, &c.) who took Patriarchs and Metropoli- 
tanes, as foch, tor Creatures of Humane Original. 

While Ignatius his being Bifhop of Q<? Church in Syria} fhall prove him 
the Bifhop of all Syria -^ and [.the Church of God dwelling in Syria in An- 
tiochia3 fhall be equivalent with {the Church in Antiochia governing all 
Syria] I fhall not undertake to hinder fuch men from proving any thing 
that they would have believed. ■ ■-'; 

■ His Cap. 6. of the promifcuous ufe of the Names of Bifhop and PtestTy- 
ter, and Cap. 7. that prepareth the ftating of the Controverfle, need no 
anfwer, but to fay, that we deny not but where a fingle Presbyter was, 
he had himfelf the power of Governing that Church ; but where there 
were many, though all had the full Office feverally, they were bound to 
ufe it in Concord. And whether one amongfi: them fhall have a prece- 
dency or guidance of the reft, we think (as Dr. 5f»7/«;7g/?f;f hath proved) 
to be a matter alterable by humane prudence, according to the various 
condition of the Churches : And if any take both fuch Bifhops and Arch- 



( 9S) 

bidiops tohc fare DtvtTjo, viith Dt-ji^wmond, it will be fomewhat to his 
Caufe, but nothing to ours, "^ '''''■'^, . "' '"'*' ' ''^' '^*-''' ''" n 

Cap. 8. he Qpenptl*i his conceit (which in time' I fhall Ihewdotb yield us 
the who'c CaufeJ that every place of Scripture which mentioneth Bi 
fifoft or Prtsbytcrs , mcarjeth Dtocefan fupereminem Bijhops only. And firft 
he proveth it of the Elders Biftops of Ephefui, J^fls io. becaufe the vrffcU 
j^ek^h meant of aU Afia: Fully proved, becaufe Irenes faid ([as he 
thought) that the Bilhops were convocate from Ephefus and the nearcfl: 
Cities. But, 1. Jrenaus faith not C^'/'^pO only, but Biflyops and Preshy- 
ters^ conjoining them as two forts, and not [_Bijhopi or Presbyters'} as the 
Dodtor doth. 2. The neareJlCities,^ad all J/ij, we take not for words 
of the fame importance, j. We take not youf bare word for the validi- 
ty of tha Confequence, that becaufe the Bifhops of feveral Cities were 
there, therefore it is all Afta that is fingularly called ^y ■^ rnii^vw, the 
whole Fiock, and not each tiifhops Flock refpetflivcly •, c/. d. Edch of you 
look^to your feveral Flocki 4- We think if you calculate the time, A^s 
20 and 21. and confidcr PaiWi hailc Ath 20. 16. that few impartial men 
will believe that P4«/'s Melllngers (that were wont to go on foot j did 
fo quickly go all over Afia-, and lb quickly get together all the Bifhops 
oi Afia to Mtletum \ unlcfs they all refidcd at Ephefus^ as our E»^///?j Bi- 
fhops do at London^ and Governed th ir unknown people by a Lay-Chan- 
Cellour. J. And Iretisiis, ibid. p. }I2. fiith [_Et omnia hujufmodt per folum 
Lucam cogmvimiu ., vre h'ovr all fuch things by Luke alone, pretending no 
Other Tradition. And if it be in Luke it is yet to be thence proved. 6. But 
hepleadethourCaufetoo ftrongly, by fuppofing that each City then had 
a Bifhop without any fubjed half Presbyter, and fo that no fuch Ol'fice 
was yet made. 

Cap. 9. Of Tjwof^'s Epifcopacyconcerneth notourCaufe. Though I 
hope that neither he nor his Church were fo bad as the Angel or Church • 
in Rev. i. is defcribcd. And it's eafier to anfwer the ftrength of Dr. Ham- 
mond, than for him to anfwer the Evidence brought by Prin in his Vnbi. 
fkoping Timothy and Titui, to (hew the itinerant life and Miniftry of Ti- 
mothy, contrary to the life of a fixed Bifhop. And if non-refidcncyhave 
fuch Patrons, and Timothy have taught men to leave their Churches year 
after year, and play the Pallor many hundred Miles dillant, it will make 
us dream that non-refidence is a duty. And if all thefe years Timothy's 
Metropolitan Church at Ephefus had no ordained Presbyter fbut PalTen- 
gers that fell in j I blame them not, or wonder not at lead, that they loft 
their firft love ■■, for it's like they feldom had any Church Afl'embliesto Com- 
municate and Worlhip God together. 

Cjip. 10. Cometh to the cskofPhilippi, Phil. i. i, 2. And, i. §?.he faith. 
It is manifeji that Epapliroditus Bifliop of Philippi was at Rome with Paul 
when he wrote this Epijlle fand he fuppofeth that there were yet no Presby- 
ters, but Bifhops J And ib when Paid wrote to all the Saints which are at 
PJlilippi, With the Bijlwos and Deacons y"} he meant tr« thefe. that are not at 

( 96- ) 
Pnilippi xthtre were w^s no Dtji7op, but in other Cities of Afttcedonia that 
had every one a Prelate without ever a Presbyter under him-J With fomc 
this expounding may go for modeft, if not true. ' 

Two probable Arguments 1 objed againft his improbable Expodtions of 
.this Text and that ABs zo- before mentioned : i. Where did he ever fea4 
that all ±e Province of Micf^o«;<» was called Philippi ; and the Saints faid 
to dwell at Philippi that dwelt all over Macedonia ? 2. Where did he ever 
read in Scripture many Epifcopal Churches under one Metropolitan, cal- 
led Oft Church in the lingular Number, as in Afis 20. 28. or One Flock 
either? 3. Will any knowing man deny that he contradiifteth not only 
Hierom and Theodora, but the common Expofition of the Fathers, by this 
his odd Opinion ? And is it not grofs partiality for the fame man that can 
fo eafily cafb off the judgment of almofl: all the Ancients at once, to lay 
fo much of the whole ftrefs of his Diocefan and Metropolitan Caufe up- 
on the Fathers aCfertions, yea doubtful reports -, and to take it for fo im- 
modeft a thing in others, to deny belief to them in fueh uncertain mat- 
ters ? 

But he fetteth Epifhamits his words againft iy£rius againft them all .• 
Even that Epiphanius who ordained in the Bilhop of JerufaUm's Diocefs to 
his difpleafure, and that combined with that Theophilus ylUxand. fof whom 
5ecr«ff J writeth fuch horrid andunchriftianpradices^ to root out C;[)rv/o- 
flom^ and raife a flame in the Church of Conflantinople ^ who liker a mad man 
than a fober Bifhop, came from Cyprus not only into the City, but the 
Church where Chryfoftom ufed to officiate, to inflame his people, and de- 
clame againft, and cenfure their Biflnop, to whom he was an inferiour- 
and that parted with him in a wrathful Prognoftick, and dyed by the way 
home: Andyeteven this one man faith nothing to his advantage, but that 
the Apoftles placed' BiOiops only with Deacons in fome Churches that had 
not; fit men to make Presbyters of: which we not only grant, but doubt 
whether ever they made any but BiQiops, (though in great Cities there were 
many of themj 

And §. 8, 9, 10. when it leeraed to ferve his turn, he yet further grati- 
fieth us, by granting, yea maintaining that one Congregation had not two 
Bifliops, yet [_nothwg hindreth but that in the fame City there might fometimes 
be two diftinEl AJfemblies, converted by two Afoflles, perhaps of dtfiinft dialeEis 
and rites, and thcfe governed by difiinSi Bifliops, with a divided or diflinB Cler- 
gie^'] which is almoft as much as we defire. If any more be ncceffaryhe 
.granteth it us, §. u. where having feigned and not proved that the peo- 
ple of all the Province of Macedonia were faid by Pad to be zt Philippic 
he confeiTcth.that then every City had a Bifliop, and ww ef tbofe. that we 
flow call Presbyters. And it is more this Baftard fort of Presbyters OfSce 
that we deny than the Bifliops: And granting this he grants us all ^ even 
, that then there was no fuch half Officers, nor Bifliops that had the rule of 
any Presbyters: which he further proveth, §. 19, 20, 21. And by the 
.'^?yi §,-16,17. he giveth us two more Obfervations, i. That the 'Br?*7<'«A«*7* 



91 ) 

gave precedency to fome Churches. Where I would Icarn whether the 
Holy Ghoft ftillobferved the order in converting men, to begin at the 
higheft Metropolis, and defcend by order to the lowelt, and lb to the 
Villages ? Or whether our Doctor do not here contradid what he faid 
before, of the Apoftles everywhere difpofing of tlie Churches according 
to the Civil Metropolitical Order ? I doubt his memory iiere failed him. 

2. Philippi and Thtjfahfiica being both in Macedonia^ and thefe EpiftJcs 
being each written to all the I'rovincc, we hence learn tliat the Epillle 
to t\\Q 7 hejfaloni a/1 f, and that to the Phtltfptans^ were written to the fame 
men. Wliether each Epiftlc, Rev.i.& j. to thefeven Churches of ^^ 
was written to all y^y7.«, andJbail the faults ciiargcd on all that are char- 
ged on any one, 1 leave to your arbitrary belief. For none of thefe are 
proved, whatever proof is boafted of. 

Cap. II. he further gratilieth us in expounding \Tim. ■■<,. in the fame 
manner. One Bifliop with Deacons then fcrving for a wliole Diocefs, that 
ij for one Allembly, not having fuch a thing as a half Presbyter iubjeft 
to any Bifliop. 

Cap. 12. he is as liberal in expounding Tit. i. By Elders in every Cty^ is 
meant a fingie Bifliop that had no half Presbyter under him, and whofe 
Diocefs iiad but one Aflimbly. We are not fo uureafonable as to quar- 
rel with this liberality. 

Cap. 1 5. And about Heb. i j. we are as much gratified in the Expofition 
of the word []ii'>«'^'i'«'] of which more afterwards. And Cwp. 14, and 
1 5. he faith the fame of ^mukw and ^iMnajKoi, Paftors and Teachers, that 
they both are meant of none but Bilhops. And that Presbyters now adayt 
are permitted and tyed to tettch the people, and inflru^ them from the Scriptures^ 
this apparently arofe hence, that Bifliops in ordaining Presbyters ga-ve them that 
power, but not to be exercifed till Itcenfed by the Rijhops Letters. ]] Of this 
deteftable Opinion fworfe than the //4/Mw.f in the Council of Tr*wr, that 
vrould have derived the Epifcopal Power from the Pope) I have faid (ome- 
what before, and intend more in due place. The Bifhops do only mini- 
fterially give them poffeflion : Chrift is the only Inllituter of the Office by 
himfelf (, and his Spirit in his Apoftles. j Can the Bilhops any more chufe 
to deliver this polleflion by Ordination, than to preach the Gofpel ? 
Could th?y have made Presbyters that had no power to teach the people ? 
Is the Bifliops liberality the original of the Office ? How much then is 
Chrift beholden to Biffiops, that when a thoufand Pariffiesare in fome 
one of their Diocefles, they will give leave to any Presbyter to teach any 
of the people."* and that when eighteen hundred of us were lllenced in 
one day (.jIu^. 24.. 1662.) that all the reft were not ferved fo too.** 

Cap. 16. he exercifeth the fame naked affirming Authority of the words 
JiMniflcrs of the word2 Luke 1.2. and Stewards'} all are but Biftiops. And 
he asketh whether ever man heard of more Stewards than one in one heufe ? or of- 
feveral bearers of one Key? And he forefaw that we would tell him that 
GodsCatholick Church is one Houfeof God, and that at leaft all the 

O Apoftles 

Apoftles were Stewards and Key-Bearers in that one Church ^ and that by 
his Dodtrinc none but one of them fhould be Steward of Gods Myfteries, 
or have the Keys : And therefore he faith, that \_Thouvh the Jpoftlei 4re 
called Stewards of the Myfleries of God, i Cor. 4. 1. that is to he rtckgntd 
as pertaining to the many divided Families^ that is the many particular Chur' 
chesy dtflin^ parts of thcVniverfal Church, which the ApoJ} Its divided among 
themfelves. Anfw- Unlefs his ttiam liere be a feif-coiitradiding cheat, it 
will hence follow, i. That the Apoftles are not Stewards of Gods Myfte- 
ries ingathering Churches, but only to the Churches gathered. 2. That 
in Baptizing and giving the Holy Ghoft, to fuch as yet entered not into a 
Particular Church, they excercifed not any of their faid Stewardflbip or 
Power. J. That thay have no Power of the Keyes at all, over any that 
are not Members of a Particular Church, (fucli as the Eunuch^ Ail. 8. 
And many Merchants, Embafladors, Travellers, and many thoufands 
that want Paftorsor opportunity, or hearts, yea and all Chriftians in the 
firft Inftant as mcerly Baptized Pcrfons feeing Baptifme entereth them 
only into the Univerfal Church, and not into any particular (as fuch) 
4. And that till the Apoftles gathered particular Churches, and diftributed 
them, they had no Stewardfhip, nor ufe (&t leaft) of the Keyes. And 
what if it can never be provedthat ever the Apoftles diftributed the univer- 
fal Church into Apoftolical Provinces, but only j>ro re nata diftributed 
themfelves in the World, were they never Stewards then nor Key-bearers? 
Verily if 1 believed fuch a diftribution of the World into twelve or 
more Provinces by them, I fhould queftion the power that altered that 
Gonftitution, and fet us up but four or five Patriarch'es. And were the 
fame Apoftles no Stewards or Key-bearers out of their (feigned) fcveral 
Provinces? If we muftbe filenced unlefs we fubfcribe rothe Dictates of 
fuch felf conceited Confident men, who fhall ever Preach tb^t is not bora 
under the fame Planet with them? Cap. 17. he proceedeth ftill to main- 
tain our Caufc, that even in 'fujlin Martyrs writing$,and Others of that Age, 
by the 'B^oi'^m are meant the Bifhops of the fcveral Churches who had 
not one Presbyter under them, but Deacons only, and therefore had but 
fmgle Congregations ■■, but did themfelves alone with the Deacon perform 
all the publick Offices in the Church. And that no equal Presbyter was 
placed with them, ofFendeth us no more than that our Parifli Minifters now 
are prefented and inftitutcd alone, yea and have power to take Curates 
under them as their helpers. 

Cfp- 18. He proveth truly that the Names Sacerdos and Sacerdotium are 
ufually by old Writers fpoken of fole Bifhops and Epifcopacy. By which 
we are the more confirmed in our Opinion, that he thst is not Epifcepns 
gre^is a Bifhop over the Flock, \%\iot Sacerdos, truePaftor, but hath on- 
ly a limb of the IViinifterial Office, being a thing of prefumptuous Prelates 

Cap. 1 9. He further ftrengtheneth us by maintaining that the word Pres- 
hyttr, in theplacts ol the New Teftaraent cited by him, doth mean only 

a Bi- 

_ ( 99 ) 

aB^Ihop, that is a Faflor of one only Congregation, that had no Pres- 
byter under hini) but Deacons: and that no wtntien is m/icieby the Apo, 
Itles of other Prtibyters, § 6. And be gratifieth us with Epiphanius his 
Reafons, § 4. {^hccauje as yet there vroj tot 4 muhttude of Brltc-jtrs Q And 
that the blders that Paul iptaketh to T/wor^^ of ordaining and rebuking, 
and tliole that were worthy ot double honour, were only Bifliops that had 
no fubjcd Presbyters. V\ hcther they were fet over the Churches as Mojes 
was ovtr Ifraet., with a dclign that they iliould make fubordinatc Officers 
under them, I Ihall enquire in due place. 

Cap. 20. He goeth over moft of the other Texts in the New Tefta- 
ment that mention Eiders, fliewing that tliey mean fuch BiOiops ; and that 
even at HumfaUm, the Elders jids 15. were not our new half Priefts, 
but the Bilhops of all the Churches of Judaa ^ and fo of others here 
again repeated by him. But it fticketb with me, that thefe Bifliops ha- 
ving no lubjeit Presbyters, are found fo oft in the Metropolitane City, 
and lb oft in travel, and fo oft many hundred Miles from home, that 1 
doubt it was but a lew Churches in the world that kept the Lords day, 
and alfembled for publick Worfliip, or had any Sacraments frequently, 
but lived as the Atheifts and impious contemners of Church-Communion 
now do^ or elfe that with the Fanaticks we muft hold that Lay men or 
Deacons did play the Priefts in all Church Offices. 

Cap. 21. He vindicateth that one remaining Text, Jam. 5. 14. which 
mcntionexh Presbyters vifiting the fick, as meant only of Bifhops, and not 
of mungrel Priefts : And fo being fecured that thefe were never found in 
the Scripture times, and confequently no Bifhop (except Archbilhops^ 
that had more worlhipping Churches than one, we muft look who prc- 
fumed to inftitute another Office. And here, $ v he perfwadeth us to 
be fo civil to Jgtiattus, as thankfully to acknowledge him the firfb Patron 
of our Office-dignity •, intimating that there is no earlier proof of the in- 
vention of this mungrel Office, than the Epiftlcs of Jgnattus. 

Cap. 22. He tells us that the word Presbyter \% alfo taken for Bifhops by 
rdycarp., Papias^ irtnaus., TeriuJlian, and Clemens ALtxand- fo that our caufe 
will be carried beyond Scripture times. But again finding fo many Bi- 
lhops with Pclycarp, I doubt he maketh Bilhops too unwearied Travellers, 
flnd too great non-Refidents, and Gods Pubbck Worfliip too often inter- 
rupted by their abfence. , . ^„- 
■/ Cap. 23, 24, 25,26. He fpeaketh of Deacons, the word and Office, 
which we liave now no bufinefs with, but to note that cap. 26. § 8. he is 
again at EpiphamHs allowing a fingle Biffiop without Presbyters, but not 
without Deacons, becaufe he cannot be a Bifliop without Deacons, (which 
I believe not, nor do our Prelates") but without fubjeft Presbyters he 
may Tbetter than with themj And § 10. he excellently argueth from 
the Epiftlc to Timothy., that leeing Paul wftruBcth him in aS things belonging 
to the Ctmrch af God, l Tim. ?• 15. and yet never mentioruth thefe Medio- 
xumos Prcsbyteros, mungrel or middle Priefts., it is plain that the reaftn is 

Q 2 kecaiife 

( 100 } 

hecanfe mm fi c'o wo^e infiltuted when the "JpoflU wrote \ To which I add, nor 
afterward by the Apoftles, as far as can be proved, and therefore never 
fhoiild have been. 

Cap. 27. He fpeakech of the TifitrHv-re.^ and Tr^Kr^vTiM Tit.i. and 2.and i 
Tim.^. (hewing that thefe Women were in Orders: Of which I have no 
mind to contend, fo that by the N-ime it be not inferred that they are 
fhe-Bifhops ; and that they argue not as a Preacher did fince we wercfilen- 
ced ( 1 can name the Man and place ) from St. Jchn\ Epiftle [/» the EleEl 
Lady'} to prove that there were Lord-Bifhops in the Apoflles daies, viz... 
an Eledt Lady fuppofeth an Eleft Lord : But there are no Eleift Lords, but 

Ele(ft Lord-Bifhops : Er^o—^ 

We have not yet feen all D:.HA7nmor.d'*i confutation of our Diocefan Pre- 
lacie.- In his fifth DitTertation we have mox^.Cap. 1 . He fpeaketh of Clemens 
Rom. and whereas we think that the confufion among Hiftorians, came 
partly from the little notice that came down from thofe times of fucti parti- 
culars, and partly from the identity of the Office of Lmns, Cletus., and 
Ciemms ^ being all Bifhopsatonceof a great Church (the Half. Presbyters, 
being not yet ordained j hegratifyeth us by proving that hot only at RomCi 
butalfo in Antioch^ EphejHs^Cvrinth, and Jernfalem, there were more Churcii- 
esthan one, with their ieveral Bifhops .- Even on3 of the Jmv and one of 
the Gentiles (how the local Diocefe were then divided is hard to tell and 
where it was that one Apoftle had Power of the Keys, and where not) I 
(hall improve this Conceffion in due place. 

Cap. z Of C/fwwnEpifllehefirfttakes notice of the Infcriptlon [/«> 
the Church of God, dwelling (or fojourning) at Corinth '} The fame Phrale 
s& Philip. 1.1,2. And by this Cfe«rcfe he proveth (by confident affirming) 
thatali the Churches of Jchaia are meant. And that the fame is to beTa'id 
of P^k/'s Epiftle to the G?'-«/r^/<<='J. hennrefiftibly proveth,by fayiYig that 
Smfijuis eas vel leviter degnftaver:t 'tuo fctlicet Q^itJhi)hoc cmnino prcrimciandum 
€jfe nobifcumfiatuct. NixintHr dehac Clctmntis amhigi poterit.'} And fo all 
thatControveriie is ended. Butthough (withoutScriptureproof) imagi- 
nation might handfomeiy feign, that the many Chnrcbcs of >M</;V are 
called fingularly [_the Church of Cvr)nth,'} as one,hecaHfc of the Unity 'of tile 
Metrofglit/ine \ yer, 1. I would havj heard fjmewhat Jike^ rcaCbn for, and 
fomeinftancesof theufeof fucha fpecch, asthis \^h>t.?^naii.'fi&i^{) ntipwka.- 
PalMWt lii iKx.^nnx.'ii diZ Tm-cjuisim KOfiyS a;' "J The Church of God dvccUirig (or {b' 
journing) ^iRome^ to the Church of God dwelUr^g (or j'ojourning) at Cer/^rfe* 
And why and where, and .by what good writers-, all Ach.iia is called Corinth, 
orall Macedonia,- Philippi for all the Ciciesabout it) indeed as the County 
ci IVorce/ler, the County of 7'oyt, o( Warwick^., &c. areufual Titles, fo. 
may the C/;«rt/jof Tork. Worcejltr., Warwick^-, be inthe Diocefans fenfe. 
But whoever faid of all the County or Diocefs [ To the County, Diocefs,dwel- 
iin^atTorkj, Worcefter., Warwicki''} As if ail the Counirey andTownsbe- 
ionging, to that Circuit were calkd.W'/iriv/d^, &c- 
" ' . z. Doth 

. 2. Doth not. bis own proof erictently confute fiim. JCor. 1. 1. To the 

Church of God vchich is At <. orinth, mth ail the Saints which are in all Achaia- 
Are the lalt words Tautological i' doch QivffcJ fignificiio addition at all- 
If by \jhe Church which is at Count\\'} be meant all the Chorcli sandChri- 
ftjans in -r^cfc<i«Vj, what fenfe is there in the addition of {.with aL the S^int: 
which are in Ach^h? "^O what kindof proof will faii'ifie fome Ixarned Men! 
J. Was it all the Churches of jichata that the mccftuous perfon. i Cor.<^. 
dwelt with f and that are chidden for futFcringhim in their Commaiiion? 
andthataredirected when they meet together to caft him our, and not to 
cat with him ? 

4. Would it not be Calumny according to ail rntional Laws, to accufe 
all the Churches of y4c^4t4, of all thofe Crimes which the Church at Co- 
rj«/Aisaccufed of, without a better proof than this? 

5. Was it all the Churches of >^d;.^f<»,. which i Cor. 14. arcfiid tomect, 
all in one place, and to have fo many Prophets ard Interpreters in that one 
AlTembly ? I am not at kifure to fay more of thi;. 

But who denieth that the ftmj Epillic which was dircelcd firft to the 
Corinthiatis. wns. fccondarily directed to th; rclt of A'chia, and to be 
Com.mnnicatd tcth.m.i Aitd yet «dt the Churchisr.bt' yfcfcrt;.* be all. j 
fA\dto be or dvtcli atCeinih- ' ■ '' L 

When Z Cer.J I-IO- P^fpcakethof \the Refior.sof S.(i\i'»?i.'(\v XoiiKhlyiXn) 

he faith that jbcweth that the matter belonged C to the whole Church of 
Achaia- 3 But how long have they all been challenged to name one Ttxc 
of 5cr»;)f;/rf,tliat fpcaketh fingularlycfthe Church of a Province or Conntrey, 
conliftmg.of nun y particular Churciies : Y«iLadd:tli he [.Im re m.mifeflamn 
flurtbiis opts eft-l 

-C'Jf. .i-"'H*: onl/ ra ntioneth the occafion of C7f;«i-«fx Epiftle, where 
wvhouT any Proof he rxtcndcth the Scditionthcn raifcd by th:m, to the 
diPuirbanccoi ihe Civil Government and Peace: And if he had proved as- 
heendcavourcth th-it by 7i"««>i!(/t:'w is meant the Civil Rulers fwhich is ut- 
terly uncertain j ye: the commendation of their Obcd'encc, formerly to 
the Civil Pov;ef, as part of the CharaLlcrof rheir orderlinefsand peace- 
ablenefs, dotli not prove that Rebellion againft them was part of their fol- 

Qp. 4. Is to tell us, I- That Clemens puts Obedience to Rulers, and 
due honouringof Presbyters as a Lawof God Cwhich isnot to he doubted 
■of.) 2. That Bifliops were fent by the Apoflles,as the ApofllesbyChriff, 
but were jovned only with Deacons to attend them. Mark here Reader, 
that he doth not only acknowledge that d/f.dto the Order of Mungrel or 
Half Priells wasnotyet E\"i(lent,butalfo that none fuch were fentby the A- 
poftles, and lonotlnftirntcd, and that C/fmf«fhimfelftakcrh notice of no 
fuch even in his times-But how theDrwill prove that no greatChurchrs(and 
particul uly this of Corinth) had but one Bifhop, you fliall fee with little fa- 
tisfadion.) ?. Hcnoteth thatthcfe Bifhops thus/wf were conflitnted every 
whtrcy Ecclejias notidum nat4s, fed ad partum ( bcms Dei aufp-cjs ) fefiinaru 


( I02 ) 

teSf brachiis -atq't ulnis fuis fufceplum & adminiftratum ', to receive in their Arms 
and Armi the Churches r.ct yetbortif but (by Gods BleflingJ haflmng to the 
Btrth 2 whereas of his own Head he had before laid that the Bijhgps wtrcfent 
by the Apoftles (when Clement faith no fuch thing j but only that they were 
Conftituted (/«Wf>?gbeing the word ufed of Itinerant Preachers gathering 
and vifiting Chuiches, and Cenfittutirii^ with Ordaining the ufual word ot 
BifhopsandPresbyters.whoasfuch arc pxed to particular Churches-,) fo 
now he more boldly feigneth thatBifhops were ('yea every where j to re- 
ceive Churches that were yet no Churches : Where he contradideth both 
Scripture and common ufe ot the word Bifliop, andabufethC/*«)f«f. i.Lec 
any Man that can (hew us thatin the NewTeltament the wordBilhop is ever 
ufed of any Paftor that was not related to a Church, and as fignifying that 
Relation, and that 57//;op4Wf/oci^are not as much Relatives as King and 
Kingdom. 2 Let him fliew that can, that the word was ufed otherwife by 
Chriftians, for many a hundred years after Chrift. Thougfi I grant that 
Minifters in general were (and may be) ordained fine titulo^ to f reach and 
gather Churches, and help others, y et never £//?j<?fj, the word fignifying 
anOver-feer of the Flock or Church to which he is related. 3. If it were 
certain that the/«/«r»7^ of i-f/jfiiw^ mentioned by C/fwfwj had relation to 
the Conftitution of Bilhops, and not to the Apoftles Preaching only, yet 
Ckmens^zixh not that there vrereyet noBelievers or no Churches where they were 
conftituted Bifhops : Wherethere were but a few Believers, the Apoftles 
placed Bifhops and Deacons over thofe few, who fhould receive others in- 
to the fame Society (till it was full and no further J whofliould after believe- 
It isanabufe of C/cwew to fay, it was {jo Churches yet -/wt born'] when he 
hath no fuch word ! As if it could not be fov future Believers^ unlet? at pre- 
fent there were no Believers. And it is an abufc of him to feig« him to af- 
lert that the Apoftles did frf*^!!;^*^^ as foon as they had once Converted 
one Man, prcfently make that new Bapiized Novice a Bifhop before they 
Converted any more, faving perhaps one or two to be his Deacons : Or 
that they u feu to uiake Deacons ('or Bifhops either) to Churches future, 
that were yet no Churches: When as the Scripture telleth the contrary moft 
exprefly, that the Church at Jfrz/p/e/n, was before the Deacons, AEl.-]. 
That they ordained Eiders in evoy Church, Ad. H.ij.andnotin noChurch^ 
asheimplyeth -. And T«m. 5. every City iscquivalent to every Church, for 
it was not in every Infidel City that had no Chriftians : W^hich beyond all 
modeft contradidion is proved by the Rules given to Timothy zu<\ Titus 
for the Ordination of Bifhops and Deacons.- Who were to be approved 
chofcn perfons, that had ruled their own Houfes well, r.ct Novices., apt to 
teach., well rcpo) ted of thofe without (which fuppofelh /»»<« to be wsf^/«)Tim. 
I- 14, 15. Thefe things I write unto thee, that thou mayefi k*iow how to be- 
have thy f elf iuthe Hcufeof God., which is the Church of the Living God., a 
Pillar and Bafis of the truth. ~\ The firftthat were converted did not always 
prove the fitteft to be BiQiops, perhaps they might be Women or weak- 
ly guiftedi To /eigo that the Apoftles did that etery wkrrPy which none 


( m ) , 

can prove that tver they did once(to make aBifliop^nd Deacons of tfte two 
or three firft Novice-converts before there,w6rc any niore Converted, and 
to make Bifhops and Deacons before there A^e'fe any Chriftians to coriftj. 
tute Churches, mecrly for futiite CHurches,) this is not Clemiis aift j whot- 
verelfe will own ir. 

4. Laftly he noteth herethat this was done by the kevcUtion of che .?/);>/>, 
whereby they examined and tryed who was worthy of that Dignity. And, 
1. What ufe for f.v<j;«;'«4f;o« who was worthy, where there was no other to 
ftand in Competition, and where the firfl: Convert ftill was takfeh .' Elec'li- 
on is e multis. And if he be corfipelled ^o grant that there" vVere more Chrt- 
ftians over whom the Bifliop was fet, it i's a Cbntriidiflion to fay that a 5<- 
fjop and his Plocl^^ though fmall, is no Church. 2. It is h:ird to believe that 
themultitudeof ignorant Lads, and wicked Men that are now Cet over 
Churches, are Conftituted by this Apoftolical chores and Ttyal, by the 
HolyGhoft. , 

Cap. 5. §. 5. He now ackhovVledgcth that «fhk6 ttlart^^ v^er6 at Rf^t 
Converted, not always the firft but the fittcfl: w^s cliofen feiniop. Arid 
liovv prove you that he and his Flock wort no Churdi ? Thi faitic He filhih- 
taineth, J. n. And after fromthec/wc^ufually^wjif by /«;f>4^f/ and other 
reafons.well confuteth the former conceit, when Iictobkittobc 5/oM,^f//^ 
but fure he could not believe that they were EcitejJx nondum ti.-»i, or future 
Bditvers that chofc Bifliops by Suffrages ? But having fo fully in this Chap- 
ter confuted his former, as Bleitdefi opinion, t doubt not but Blondcl is in 
this as ealily reconciled to him as he to himfelf, and meant nomorc, but, 
I. That the Apodlesufed (uottomake Bilhopsof the firit Converts (Im- 
ply, but) to choofe them out of the ancient, grown, and proved Chri- 
Itians- 2. And that being lb chofeu (nothe that was firH Bapti/.ed, but) 
he thatwasfirllor^<<;>;f<:/, had the prelidence in the Co^/f/T"^ of their Pres- 
byters: Which the Dr. might ealily have fcen, and fparcd his infulting 
upon the contrary fuppofition. 

But let it here again be noted, that §. 9. heex'prefly and confidently af- 
ferteth all that I now dtfire., viz. That Clemens doth fpeak_of that time of the 
Churches Irea^iwiinj^^vi which there were net yet many Believers^and therefore with- 
out doubt, neither Presbyters inJlitHted. If he means Lno Subje^ Presbyters'} 
or it he means Cnot many in a Church but one BiJJjop'} 1 defire no more : For 
then no Bifliop had more Church Affemblies than one, nor any half Presby- 
ters were ordiined by the Apoftles. For Clemens doth not tell us what the 
Apoftlcs did in the /'f^«'««*Mij of their Preaching only, but giveth us this as 
an account of all their courfe, in fettling Offices in the Churches where 
they came. 

Cap. 6. He confeffeth that Clemens mentioneth but two Orders,Biniops 
and Deacons, (and we would have no more) and $. 4. is ovet angry with 
Blundel for gathering hence, that he did not do as thofe that from the Jew 
ifl) Elders, or Priells, or the 70 gather another order, what is there in this 
CoUeillon that deferveth the (hatp words of that 5. 

Cap. 6. 

( 104 ) 

Cap. 7. Whether C/f>wf»i well cited 7/d«. do. 17. we need not debate. 
But if yet any think that the Dr. hath not fully granted us our Cauie, lee 
him take thei'e additioris -. §.7. He well gathereth from CUmcns that this 
farm of Government y founded in Bi^wfs and Deacons (in each Churi^h) being 
fetled by Min entrnftedbyChriJi, it no' lefs to be afcribedto Gods Cvmniundihan 
if ChriJ} htmfelf had ccnjlititted Bifhops and Deacons in every City. (Let who 
dare then approve of tie alteration by the Intrcduftion of another Order 
ofPriefts.) And §-8. Henoteth alfoout of,C/wf?-.f that thz fore fght of 
the cowf^now that would be about Epifcopacy caufed tiiis eftablilhment of 
Bilhops and Deacons : No doubt God foreknew both; that the popular 
fort would oppofe Government, and that the Monarchical Prelates would 
depofe all the Bifhops of the fame Church fave themfelves, and the Arch- 
Prelates would depofe all the Bifhops of particular Churches^ and fet up 
half Priefts in their ftead. And he doth well not to pafs the follow- 
ing words in Clemens ('though hard, yet plainly fubverting the Dodtors 
opinion) that from this fame forefight the Apoftles conflituted the forefaid 
Bifhops and Deacons (in every Church) 19 in-rv^v t7nvo\diM AJ^Kicaiy, &c. ac 
defcriptas deinceps miniflrorum ofjicicrnmq\ iiices reliqiierunt, ht in defmiEiorum 
locum alii "viri pobati fiiccedere^ CT illornmninnia execjui pojfrrt^ (as Pat. Ju- 
nius tranflateth it.) TJie word {^i-^vidiM 3 can allow no (ucl: doubt as 
fhall make this much of the fenfe to be queftionable, 1. That upon the 
forefight of the Contentions about Epifcopacy the Apofl^Ics made ("by the 
Spirit) an eftablifhed Defcription of the Orders and Offices ivhich fhould 
be in the Church, not only in their times, but afterwards- 2. And that 
the approved men that fhould hereafter be ordained, fhould fucceed in thofe 
fame Orders which the Apoftles had eftabliQied and defcribed, even to 
the fame Work or OfHce, ( tLu) AHTUf^iac dvilw. ) 3. That the Apoftles thus 
fetled or defcribed no rhuhgrel or half Priefts, but only Bifliops and Dea- 
cons, nor any Churches that had hot each a Bifhop and Dtacon. 4. There- 
fore no fuchhalf Priefts [hould be brought in, but only fuch as the Apo- 
ftles inftituted or defcribed. 

I can fcarce fpcak my thoughts plainlier, than by the Dodors next 
words, § 9- [^ It is evident that by the immediate impulfe of the Spirit of God 
Biflwfs were confiitHted iDcacoi:s only joyned to them) in every Church.^ and fo 
<»f Corinth, and the reft of the Cities of Achaia.- j4nd th.-U by the command of 
the fame Divine Trophefie or Revelation^ fuccejfers were ajfigned to them after 
their departure -.fnot a new order invented^C/;r;y? thus confulting and providing 
for the Churches peace, &c.]] And §. 14. he well granteth, 1. That the form 
of Church Government was no where changed by the jipoftles (and fo no middle or- 
der inftituted by them.) 2. That through all their v^^f, ar.d when they were 
confummate in the middle^ under their Difciplej, the Government of every 
Church was in t.^'c power of the Bifhops and Deacons in common. 

Lut whereas §. i j.&che layeth this as the ground of hisCaufe,j.That it 
was not the Church at Ccr/«<fcalone,butof z\]j}chaia thztClemens writeth to 
under this name. 2. And that there were not many Bifhops^ in one Church, 


( i^5 ; 

■butonc to each of thefe particular Churches : I dciire the Reader, i.Totry iiTipar- 
tially whechf r in all the Drs. Book there be one word of cogent Evidence to prove 
what lie laith, yea or to make it credible or liktly. 2. To confider thelcReaibas fol- 
lowing for rhe contrary. 

I. As is faid, whether Scripture cuftom of fpe.ch 7.illriIIow ustocallalUheCluirGh- 
€S of a Region [_J Church'} in the fingular Number : Shew one Text for it if you can. 

2. Whether an\ ancKnt t^'cclefialtical ufe of Ipicch will allow us to lay that 
the Churches oi Achaia dwc 1 at Cehn[h{:\sCUme7/s fpeakcth, p. \-J 

?. Wiietherl vnve not proved from iCor. 14. c^c. that the Church of Corinth 
had more iMiniftcrt, or Clergy men, orPaitors in it thaa oaein P.»«/'stirae ? And 
therefore was not without fo foon after. 

4. Whether ic be credible t'lac when it was but oMt or two Perfons(^.62. j by whom 
or for whole caufe thePrerbyteis were ejeded ^ that it is like either this ene or 
ttfo were members of more paiticular Church<s in Achate than one or nvo? Gr 
that all the Churches of v^c/j-<><« v\ould lb far own one or nvo mutineers in a par- 
ticular Church, as to call out Ri.iny oft'eir Miuillers foriheir lakes? 

5. Yc; \v\\cviClemc»s wliole Roptr iuiiuiateth tiiat this one or two did this be- 
caulc they .■'ipired atrerPower or Preeminence ihemfclves . Could they exped thcra- 
lelves tobe.iiade tlKRnlcisofraore ihan one or two Churches? 

6. And wiiat was the caufe of this one or two like totouch the Bifliops of the o- 
ther Churches ? And what Cogni&ncc was all Achttitt like to have of the caufe of 
one 01 twodiftantperfons, foa? for them to rile up againfl: their own i^ilhops. 

7. If it was not all nor many Palbors that were thus turned out (as C/fwer.j words 
import) why fliould all >4c^4«<i be called feditious, and blamed for it? 

8. Dnth not the common Law of Charity and juftice forbid us to extend thofe 
words of reproof to 1 whole Province, which cannot be proved to extend farther 
than to a liii^lc Church, and principally toucht but one or two. 

9. 1 have before proved that Paul by {^the Saints at CormtU} meaneth but one 
Church : Therefore it's like that Chmens doth fo too. 

10. The Bifhops and Deacons that C/fwf/i/ fpeaketh of, were fet n^ ouAJhKMTi- 
fvf vi( cKKh»(naf TAmtt Cum ctnfcnfu totius Ecclejiity or as the Dr. will needs have it 
\_afflaHdeute aut con^rMHlante totttEccU/ia^iadecdljvith the food tikifj^t Pltafure, Ot 
Approbation of thf whtle Ciurch.'] And Ihall we be perfwaded that all the Cities and 
QouatTty of AchaiM were that whole Church, v/hkh approved, or confentcd to thtCc 
particular Pallors that were put out/* Or that had Cognifance of ihcm or acquain- 
tance with them ? - 

ii. He cxprefly faith, pag. 61. wf/VSiW Uit^nnitv, That the Church ef Co- 
rinth for the fake of one or two^ moved Sedition againfl the Presbyttrs.'} And why doth 
he never fay {jt was the Church of Achaia.] 

12. p. 6j. He fuppofcth the Perfon Emulating to be [a Beltever afpcwer in expUin. 
ing Doitrine, wife in judging of Speeches, &c. And would have the concern'd Perfon 
fay fp. 69.) If the Sedition be for mt^zx\dit\\z Coriction and Schifms, I.w-Jfremove^ IwiU 
begone wither yoHWill, and will do what the People pre-detern>int of (oTCOmmindy) 
only let the Floskjf Chrijl with the Presbyters fet over them live in ptacc^ And is it like 
that the Flock that this Perfon mud fay fo to» was all Aehaia ? 

I i. And p- J I' Ht icqmVtthOhofe that begun the Sedition, to he obediently SuhjeB 

P to 

td the Preshyters (and not to their Bifhop onely.) And is it lilce to be the Bifliops of o- 
ther Churches through all AchaU^ that this ew or wo is required to O^fv and 
be in StibjeElion to. 

I have given my Reafons, to prove that thefe Presbyters were in the One Church 
ciCortnth: Conipare his (if you can find thmj to the contrary, and Judge Fmpar- 
tially as you fee caufe. 

Citj. 8. Hath nothing that concerneth us, but the rccitall of his grand Concef- 
fiOn, Jeft we fhould think that inC/f»»«w days, the great BifhopofCom<<7,or any in 
yichaia^ had any moreChurch.air.mblies than one to whom he could do all the 

Paftoral Offices himfelf, he thus COncludeth, §. 9. \_Ind(edmenlionts found only of 
£i(hops (with Deacons) conjlitnted tn each City^ fometimei under the Title of Bifliops , 
fometimes of Presbyters \ there bein^ no token or foot-fiep at all appearing of fuch-as we 
now call Presbyters^ &c- ] To which I wholly agree i though not that there was but 
OBe Presbyter in Corinth. 

C.'f. 9. He is offended much with S/(7«^f/, for reproaching i/«r»»^^, and yet u- 
fing his Teftimony : As if a Hereticks, or an Infidels Tellimony might not be 
uft'dinpointofHiftory: And, §. 14. he again comethtohis fnppofition of Bifhops 
without Subjed Presbyters, as ifitferved his turn more than our?. 

Cap. ID. About P»«i words, hath nothing that I find the caufe concerned in. 
• Cap.M. Isoflittlemomenttous, both parties have little that is cogent, but ve- 
litations about dubious words. 

Cap. rt. !s but about the fenfe of the word applyed to Irenes, which Dr. H. 
takethhere and by many after to mean a Bifhop, and wonders that Blondel pleadeth 
for a parity of order from a common Name. But it is not fo much without reafon 
ashemakethit : For if Bifhops and Presbyters were in the firft times called by 
oneMame •■, and thehighellPerfoninthe Church then was ordinarily known by 
the name Presbyter,and the appropriating ofiBifljop'^ to one fort, and Presbyter to 
StK)ti*^r,carae afterwards in by fuch infenfible degrees, that no man can tell when it 
was ^ it founds very probable,that it was the true Epifcopal Power,or the fameOffice 
andOr<!er,that was firft commonly poflcficdby them to whom the name wasCommon. 

And lb much of Dr. //<jw»»fl«/s Dilllrtations, wherein 1 mull drfire the Reader 
K>note, I. That 1 meddle not with other mens Caufcs, nor particularly with the 
qaeftion: Whether one man in each Church, had of bid, a guiding fuperiority o- 
ver the reft of the Presbyters? Nor yet, whether the Apollks had fuch fuc- 
•ceiflors in the General care of many Churches, (fuch as Vifiters, or Arch-Bifhops ) 
but only, i. Whetherevery Presbyter wore noc Eflentially a Bifhop, or Gover- 
nour of the Flock, having the power ofReys, as they call it, in fero meriore .& ex.. 
tgribre., both for refolvingConrciences and for Church-order. 2. Whether every 
particular Church , whictiordinarily communicated together in the Lords Sapper, 
■and bzd mum ;^lrare, had not one or more fuch Bilhops. 3. Whether it was not a 
ifinful corrupting change, to bring in anorlier Species of Presbyters ■, and fo to de- 
pofe all the particular Churches and Biihops, and fet up a Diocefant Bifhop, infimi 
wclinis, with half-Churches and half-Pricfts, under him in their ftead. 2. And nore. 
That as it concerned me not to fpeak to all that the Doftor hath laid, 
^o 1 have carefully choien out all that I thought pertinent and of a teeming 
weight, as tothecaufewhichlmannage, and have paft by nothing in the whole 


( 107 ) 

Book, which I thought an underftanding Reader needeth an anHver to. 

There is yet the tame Authors Vindication of his Diirertations tobeconfldcrcd : 
But I find nothing new in them to be anfweredby nic, nor that I am concerned 
for the Caule in hand any further than to give you thcfe few Obfervations. 

I. That again, p. 5. )\z(a.\t\\^{Tiiatby obferving the paucity of Believers ;« >}>a~ 
ny Cities in the firfi Plantations, which made it unneccjfry thM thei e jl:eiild by the A- 
pejlles he ordained any more than a Bipcp and Deacon (one, or more) in each City, and 
that this was accordingly done by them at the fir/if is approved by the mojl undtvyable ancient 

2. That p. 7. he again well averrerh that the Jewifli and Gentile Congregations 
occafioned feveral Churches and Bifhops in the fame Cities. And p. 14- 1 5- That 
Timothy was placed by Paul., Bifliop oftht Gentiles at Efhefiis,and b.Jchn, and ano- 
ther after him, Bifhop of the Jews. Pag. \6. Hethinkcth ttiac Timothy was Bifliop 
of£;>fc<r/w(or Angel, whtn ^(-v. 2. was wrote. f^ij. 17. ?rom Epiphanins he reckon- 
eth above 50 years from the Revelation of fohn., Rev. 2. to the writing of ^H4fi«j's E- 
piftles. by which wc may Talculate the time whentheOfficcof half-Presbyters be- 
gan to be invented, according to his own Computation. Th3lpa£. II. &pajfim, his 
luppofition of the 24 Bifhops of 7«</<t<i, fitting about the Throne ol J. imes tiiihop 0^ 
y^rw/ii/^wtand his other fuppofition of their being fo ordinarily there. And of the 
Bifhopsof Provinces in other Nations, being fo frequently many fcore, if not 
hundred Miles off their people in the /iYffrofo//r<jwf Cities, when the people had 
no other Priefl to Officiate, doth tend to an j4theipcal concdt, that the Or- 
dinary ufe of Sacred AlTemblies and Communion is novcry needful thing, when in 
the beft times by the beft men, in whole Countreys at once, they were fo much for- 

Pa(r.i6. Again you have his full and plain AfTcrtion, iThat there were net in 
the [pace within compafs af which all the Books of the new Tiflament were written^ any 
Presbyters, in our modern Notion of them, created in the Church, ihpuj^h foon after certainly 
in Ignatius time., ( which was above 5O years after the Rev. ^ they wire^- 

Pag. 60. H-" fuppofeth thatwhoeverjhould fettle Ctnirches under a Heathen King a- 
mon^ Heathens , mufl accordinly make the Churches gathered fubo>dinatc to «ne another., as 
the Cities in which they are gathered were (though Hc:ilhcr\) Jubordnute tc one anothefy 
of which more in due place. 

Pag. -6, 77. He faith that \^j4s Congregations y and Tari^jes arc Synonimoiis in their 
Style, fo I yield th.n Believers in great Cities were not at frfl divided into Pa ipies, while 
the number of Chriflians in a City wasfofmall that they mtpht well ■'jfcmble in the fanie 
place, and fo needed no Partitions., orDnlfons.Butwh.t difadv.ir.tage is this to us^ who 
affirm that one Bijh op, not aColUd-^c of Presbyter Sy p, 1 ftdcd in that one Congregation, M;d 
that the Believers in the Regions ani^ f^tllages about did bdor.g to the care of that fngte Bi- 
fliop, or City Church'^ A Btfup and his Deacon wex fuff.ciert at the f-fl (tefcw^ their Plaft- ' 
t.ttions — {_For what is a Diocifs but a Church i>i a City vciih the Suburbs and Territories., or 
Region belongivi^ to it ? And this certat^.ty might be flndrcmaii. under the Gcvernmeit cfa 
ftngle Bijhop. Of any Church fo bounded there may be a Btjliop, and that whole Church fliall 
be his Diecefs, aiidfohe <»Diocefan Bi^lwp., though ^,s yet this Chunh be not fubdivided 
»W(7 worf/^wr^/^^j^f^wt/za ] So thatyou fee now whata Diocefs is. And that you 
may know that we contend not about M.imcs, while ihcy call the BiffiOp of one 

P2 Con 

Co'ngi-citloa,^ DlxefMe, wi fay nothing ag;iinft him : A Diocefan in our fenfe is- 
fac'a a.; wz live uai:r, tint have made one Church of many hundred or a 

Bat R.eidsrbe not abufed by words, when it is vifib'e Coantreys that we talk: 
of. Asevery Mirket-Towii, or Corporation is toa« a City in tiie old fenfe, fo the 
Diocefs o'l Lincaln Cwhicli 1 live in) at this reckoning hath' thrve or fourfcore ■ 
Dioc^OT^sin't, anithsDiocefsofi^Tarw/cfeabout 50 Diocellls la .;, o-c That is 
fi},ch Cicies.wit'i tlie interjacent Villages. 

' P'ig- 73- He fiich [When they add tbefe Awels were Congregational^ not DioCefan,, 
they vfsre evsry of them Angels of. a Cnu ch in a City , having authority over the 
Ri^ions adjacent an d pertaining to that City, and fo as CHURCH and CONGRE-* 
ALL LANGUAGES THEY ARE: Thus were Congregational and Dio- 
cefan <j//o. Wbut follaws of the paucity of Believe,!^ in t-he.greateji Cities ^ and thttr meet- 
ing in one place ^ is wiSi'igly granted by Hs. 

I mu[l d^fire the Reader to remember ajl this, when we come to ufe" it in -due 
plac*. And you may modeltly fmile to obferve how by this and the foregoing 
words, the Dr. forgetfully hathcaft out all the EagUp} Diocefans : While he niak- 
eth it needful that the Cities be Ecclefiaitically fubordinate as they are Civilly, and 
maketh it the very definition of a Diocefau Biihop, to be a Bilbop of a City with the 
Country or Suburbs belonging to it : But in England ao kllbr Cities f ordiuarily 
at leaft) nor Corporation-Towns areat allSubjeft to the great Cities : Nor are 
any Confiderable part of the Coantrey Subjeft to them , nor do the Liberties of Ci- 
ties, or Corporations, reach far frona the Walls, or Towns, So that by this Rule 
the Bifhop of Ldw^ow, York, Norvnch, and ^r/^ow would have indeed large Cides- 
with narrow liberties : But the reft would have DiocelHiS little bigger than we 
could allow to confcionable Faithful Paftors. 

But he yet addeth more, p. 7p. he will do more for our caufe than the Presbyteri- 
ans them (elves, who in their difputes againft the Independents fay that Jerufdem 
•had more Chriftians belonging to the Church tlian could conveniently meet in one 
place i But, faith the Dr. tXhis is contrary to the Evidence of the Text, which faith ■ 
'exprefly , V. 44- that all the Believers were ^ ■" a.vri: meetivg in one and the fame ■ 
flMcc. Thelike muty be faid of the other places^ Adl, 4,4. <J»(^5-^4- For certainly as yet ^ 
ttiongh the nHmbtr oj believers increajed, yet they were twt dijlributed into fever al Con- 

Will yon yet have more ? p. 80, 81. When the London Minillers fay that {*hc ■ 
Believers of one City made but one Church , in the ApvftUs days'] h- anfwereth [This 
abjcrvatio?! T acknowled/e to hive perfe£i truth in it, andnotto be confutable in any part : . 
And therefore inflead ofreje^ing^ipiall imbract it, and from thence tor:cltide that there is no 
ma'incr of incongruity in ^jfgning of one Bijhop to o?ie Church^artd fo one Bijhop vi the Church ■ 
«/J ruralem,&fr4«/f it is a Church^not Chuf^ches^h EING FORECEDTO AC- 
doabr by this whether the Dr. were not againft the E'lgUJh Prelacy .and he and I were 
not of a mindjC-rpecially remembring that he faid nothing againft my difputationsof •. 
Ciiuccli Goverumeat vf r iti^n againft^bimfelf, when 1 lived near hixn. Obferve Rea- • 


( i<^9 ) 
dcr, T- That even now he confefled that a a»«rc/7 and Ci;;/|)-f^4f»o;» is all one. z. And 

}i€rc he confefleth, that vehcre there xvsre more Churches, there^vtere mare Bijhops •, and 
hiS words [.BecMHje it is a Churchy not CjMrche.Q Teem co import ciiat de jure he fup- 
pofethitisno Church without a Bifhop, and that Were fhould be no fewer Bi,hopj' 
than Churches. And then 1 ask, i. Where and when do all tiicChriltiansin this Dio- 
cefsjOfabove an hundred miles long.Cow^yf^.rff, who meet bur in above a thoufand 
leverai Temples,and never know one ot a thciirand of the Diocefs? 2. Doth r.o:- 
this grant to the 5/-cwr«//?/, that the Parilh Churches are no Churches, bat oneiy 
partsofthe Dlocefane Church;' j. And then it it b; proved that the Diocffar.e^ 
Church-form, is but of humane invention, what Clnirch in £w/4;/</ will they leave 
us, that is of divine inftitution ? This is the unhnppincfs oi^verdowT to undo aU ■■, 
andofafpiring toohigh, to fall do.vn into nothing. 

And doth he not fpeak much to the fame purpofc, p. 87. {One City with the Terri- 
tories adjoyni'ig to it, being ruled by one fingle Bijhop, was to he called a fingular Church : 
And therefore tltat which ts faid to he done tn every Church, Adl. 14. 2j. ts /aid to he- 
dtme in every C ity ^ Tit 1.5. T>-e fi*»i of which chfirvttt ion is only this^ that one City 
with the Territories adj/)y>u>ig to it ^ never m.ikes above one Cuurch tn the Scripture Style. 
('And yf the largely proveththc contrary, that there was one Church and Bi- 
ihtij^of/fiW/fe "lirifTians, and oneofGentiksJ whereas a Province., or Couvtrey, or- 
N.Uiom coiififls, cfm^ny Cities., and fo of many Epifcopul Sees or Churches.^ The like he 
hath aiiainp.yo $.5}. 

But whereas p. 88- '^e would Prove that a Province, or Nation, of m.tny ChiAch- 
es^may be c.tUid one Church, hecaufe the Churches in all the World are ft called tn our 
Creed, and in the Scripture : \ anfwcr, That he can never piove'that many 
Churches are ever in Scripture called one, laveonly the 'Z/'n»irr/4/ CWc/;, which 
is hut one., being Headed by «»<■ Wr^^^, evenChrift. The Uiiiverlal Church (^as he 
faid l)Lforo of a CWrfe compared to P^/ot;^ isOw Colieftive body, as a Political 
Society related to Chriltor conftituted ofChriltandallChriRians; And a ^Axuca- 
l^r Church is erte as cenflitHtedof the Asinifltnal Pafion tind People : But lind any 
Textof Scripture that calleththeChurches of a Nation, or Province, one Church, - 
in all the new Teflamenr if you can. 

In pag. 105. he giveth Reafons for hisfingularity in interpreting fomanyTcxts 
of Scripture^ andftieweth thnt as the Fathers differ from cacli other, fas TtriKui 
flicweth) fo we may alfo differ from them, ('and 1 know not of any Expofitor that 
ever wrote that hath more need of this Apology than Grojuu and he.) And I mif- 
like not h^s Reafons. But then how unfavou.'-y is it for the fame perfon to exped: 
that we fhoud in reverence to one expofitory word in Irenaus. and another in Epi- 
fhanius, forfake the common fenfe of the Fathers where they do agree .•* or that we 
raufl bow to every ancient Canon ? 

But I would not have him thought more fingular than he is, left wheal have an- • 
fwered him the Prelatiffs forfake him, and fay that they are (till unanlWered 
therefore I crave the Readers fpecial obfervation of his words, p. 104, 105*. 
[^ J might truly fay th.tt for thofe minute confiderations and conjeEiures wheren this X)«- 
nor diffirt from fome others vcho have written before him, as to the tnanntr of interpret' 
in^ fome few Text '.,he hath the Suffrages of many of the leari:edfi men ef this Chitrch at this ■ 
d^iy^ Andai far as he knovn Q ^ AUL th4t embrace the fame cwfe with /»i/a.J. Of 



which I only fay, that if he do but minutely differ from others, and notatallfrom 
themoft, Ihopemy confutation of him will not be impertinent as to the reft. But 
if he lay the very ftrefsof his caufe upon novel Expofitions of almoft every Text 
which mentionethBifhops,Presbyters,Paftors,and quite crofsthe way of almoft all 
(fave Petavius) that ever went before him ; then think whether that caufe ftand on fo 
firm ground, as fome perfwade, which needcth fuch new foundations or ways of 
fupportatthisAge, in the judgement of fuch learned men as thefe. 

Pag. 119. izo, 121. He proveth that -Dwcf/<»»fB!fhops arc the only Elders of the 
Church which j'4»»(rjadvifeth the fick to fend for .• fuppofing the City Churches fe- 
ven of ?«r«/Wf»»:)tobeyetnobigger than that one Biftiopand a Desconfwho yet was 
notthis Viliterof thefick)mightdoall the Minifterialwork. Where I confefs he 
quite outgoeth me in extenuating the Churches in S. }ama''si\mc. If the Church of 
Jernfalem had feven Deacons, I will notbeiive him (pardon the incivility Jthat they 
bad but one Presbyter. And (pardon me a greater boldnefs in faying) if he had 
tryed but as jnuch as I have done what it is to do si! the Paftoral work for one Parifli 
ofz or3ooo Pcrfonsinpubhckand private, he could not polTibly have been of 
this Opinion. Nor do I think it likely, that when it is a finguUr Per/on that J/imei 
bids fend for the Eidtrs of the Churchy but that it implyeth that the Church 
where he was had more Elders than one. I confefs thar if it had been fpoken ei- 
ther to Perfons, plurally, or of Churches plurally, the phrafe might well have flgni- 
ficd the fingle Elders of the feveral Churches : But to fay to each (ick man fingular- 
ly, Let himfendfor the Elders of the Church fingujarlyj in common ufe of fpeech fig- 
nifieth that there were many Elders for that man to fend for in the Church. And 
whereas he asketh whether a fick man muft fend for the CoUedge of Presbyters ? I 
anfwcr.that a fickman may well fend for thePresbyters orMinifters,eitherorie after 
another, as there is occafion ,or more than one at once if need require for his Refolu- 
tion. Ifwel'aytoa fick man in LWsw, (fend for the Phyfctans of the City, and Ut 
them advife you, &cj itfignifieth that the City hath more Phyficians than one, and 
that he may advife with one, ormore atonce,orpfr-wc(r/ as he findeth Caufe : and 
no man would fpeak fo to him, \^ London had but one Piiyfician, and Norwich ano- 
ther, andro)i(:^<inocher, c-c. And when,p. iir. he fuppofeth th • Objf(f>ion, that 
th'-yhave a mean opinion of vifuing the fck^^ becaufe they lay, it is not the Bifliops work 
('which he.wellmaketh it to be; methinksfhis fhouid fiiit with no Englijlj Ears, who 
wiliquickly -underftand, that they fpeak de facia of our Bifhops, to whom a fick man 
may lend an hundred, or fifty, or twenty Miles, to dcfire him to ccme preferitly, 
and pray with him, ifhisdileaiebeaPhrenfie vvhichdeprivcth him ofhis' VVics, and 
alUbouc himbeasmad: AndtheBifhop with usmay befaid to vilit rhc fick ofhis 
Diocef^, as a man may befaid to weed a Field that pluckcthupa weed or two where 
he gceth ^ or to build a City, becaufe he knockt up a Nail or two in his own 

,Pag.Mo. It is obfervable which he faith \_Indeed, if itw-.re net (the Bifhops 
Voo'ckjo z>ift thefakj-l-mv could it be ly the Btjhcp, when ether pai ts (fhis Office bcc.rme his 
full Efnploynient, lonimitt'dtethe Prahytcr- Per., I. he cch-ld net commit that to others^ if 
hefirj] hjtd it not in htmfelf: j4nd^ 2. This was the only Reafo 1 of ordaining itferior Offi- 
cers in the Chu'^ch; lh.tr p.irtoj'the Bijhops taik^might be firfxrinrdby them. 

A'tf Either he believedt^at the Office of a Subject Prisbytei for Order as they 


( III ) 

callit)wasinftitutcdby God, and fetlcd in the Church as necerfary by his Spirit, 
and Law, crnot : If he do, thcn^. i. Whetherthe work of thefe Presbyters, af- 
ter the inltitution, be not the work of their cw^O^cf, and noi(intlie individual ads) 
the Bifhops? As Eve was ^ Rib of -^^/iw matcriaily,but whenfhe was a woman, Ihe 
was no part of Jdam^ nor her aifts like his afts •, and fo of all woman-kind Thereaf- 
ter. ^H- 2. WhetbertheBifliopartyoiher way commit the work or Office to him, 
than by calling him to an Oflice which Godhimfclf had made or inftitutcd, and Mi- 
nillerially invcftinghim in itasa Servant ('that hath no land ofhis own)may befent 
by his Walter to inveft another in fome Land which he hath given him, by a Legal 
Solemn delix-ery of pofleirion ■, or asa Steward may fend fuch Reapers into his Ma- 
ilers field as his Mafter did before cxacflly dcf».r!bc to him.'' Chrill being the 
only maker of the Office, and pund:u3ldefcribcr of it, and the Li.Iliop, pcople,and 
Magiltrates altogether, doingnomore butchoofcthe Pcifon dcfetibedas fit, and 
deliver him j)olfdrron of the place. , 

But if he thought tliat the Bifliop Itimfelf doth inhke.the Presbyters Office, by 
parting his own, and fo giving l>im as tnuch as he thinkeihfit, 1 (hall Ihamethis 
Opinion i'l due place 

Pa^. 132. (and \n\ns Difert.) he would make us believe that (Po/jc^p'sEpiille, 
and io^ Clemtf!t''s [^to thei hnrcb 7rJi«tK*fav KoiieSri] were 10 be int-erpretcd exten- 
fively as relating to ^f^i*^ ro nieCiuudi inrh ^ ■ParijK that is the Diocefs, of 
Corinth^ Of Provi'nCeof j4ci.,r/i: Ahu fo tocdill'ortetlt'f ftW. i. i. and orhcr places^ 
'but in ail his Citations givethusiiot a word 'of proof, tiiat '^ufciKO) fignitieth to 
dwell in the Circuit or extent of a Uioccis, and not limply to fajfurn or liwelL 
As if 'jritfeMiw were derived ticni'rajtiiitt, arxi as it the litltuotion of •s-tfpoHitt were 
a Diocefs, or a City with its Tcnitcrrcs : KiPutToi-n^ faith on C/<-w/';;f''s Epifl:. 
p. I. [jciim idtm Jit ysi-rometv cjtiod -TdpiKuv tn onin c r/i fiaiiM in t/ntio Itbrt Ruth O" altbi 
afmd 70: which he further provet<hv > yea and by an old Ijiit^iption of^an Alur 
brought from Dr/w, CT'c. fee the place. Arid wc took it to be agreed on that 
<3rrtfo/KKw in its ftndt fenle is but habito ian(jnam ptrrf^rtnus, adz'ena jitm\ and in its 
ufual Ir.rger fenlc, ptxta hnhito^ accoln^ fum pvxiriKs^ vtcinus accola. And •»«fo'xii 
(^ wafo/wW/f but incolatus & vtciniu U' habit^iio froptncjHa \ a place ot Coliaititation, 
or a n<ighbourhood : As we ftiUtake coliabitatton to be a neccllJiry qualification 
or difpofttio W4ffrf(e of a Church-member (^ of the lame particular Church, contrary 
to the Diocelan Itate, where the Members never ieccach other, norhea; of their 
Names.^ And though Tapoma, in proccfs of time (as Bifhops enlarged their Dio- 
cefs or Church j came to lignifie a wholcCpuntry, or Circuit as large as a Diocefs 
did, yet no man can prove that it was fo from the beginning of the Churches ^ or 
fignified any determmed fpace of ground, beyond tl.e habitation of the members 
lofonc Worfhipping Church or rongregation : Eten as -t^afo/Ko <A//ea. 1$ not to 
build in the fameDiocefe, but near or in the famfj Neigiibourhood^ and rTi£fc«(^<y 
is not to fet ones dwelling in the fame Diocels, but vicinity : That -aa^tiK©- alfo 
in its Itridleil lignificatioo is but incjuihnus a fejonrner, and ia its largeft moikQ- 
a cohabitant, but in i)Oth lignifieth a Ntij^hbtmr (Awd not Grangers dv\cihng out of 
the notice of each other through a Diocefs > is fo fully Ihewed out of many Authors 
by the Bajil Lexicon (publilhed by Henr. Petr. i5<^8 ) that I med not add to it. 
And the Authors of that Lexicon fuppofe, ihac the third ^the Church^ ll^nificatioa 



, is primarily but from rra.iciyj,(^ m accoLi^ that \_Par£ci buic dicHmur qxi fanum ali- 
ijHod accoluit (not tnac dwell near a tlioufand or many hundred kveialCha ci^s^ 
u>:dc & rre^ama. curia c;- vicimg. cotiventus (not many hundred Conventions ) acc^f- 
.larum coitio & conff'egatio^ hoc farochiam dicunt abfurde. Much more won id they 
call the newer Notion of a Diocefs-Pariih like ours, abfurd. \a Heb. m. ^ and 
Luk^x^- 18. AEI1.6. 1 Pet. 2. 11. 1 Pet. 1.17. J^.l^.i-j. A^.j.Zg. Eph. z. ip. 
(which are all the places in the new Teftament where thefe words are uied that J 
. know of) the Dr. himfelf in his v4«««;<«f/<»wj doth not once pretend that the word is 
ufed in his Province fenfe: And is not Clemens and Pelycarp [ik^t to ufe the 
word in the Scripture fenfe,than in thisaliene fenfejthat fince came into theChurch ? 
We mult therefore take leave, till better proof of tht contrary, to expound Clemens 
Polycarp., and Ignatius, mtcrly by {^fojo urn injr 4nd cohabiting in fiuh nviciniiy asPcv- 
fonal and Congregational Communion required. 7 > . ■ 

But his only feeming proof is (again } becaufe /?<w/'s,EpiftIe tothcCorinthiansyWis 
to the Province of ^c^/«»4. To which again I anfwer, that PauPs Epiftle to. the 
Corinthiam wnstohc communicated to all Jchaia (and after to all the World • ) 
but that maketh not Co>-»«f/j, and y^cfe^w, nor Qhe Church at Conw/fc,] and [the 
Churches ef all kc\\i\dr\ to be the fame :iNay,P<««/exprerty diltinguilheth them by the 
Conjundion, as aforefaid i elfchis words were Tautological, if by [^ To the Church 
cfCod^ which is at Corinth, with all the Saints which are in all Achaia^ he had meant 
tXo the Church ef God., which is in all Ach^ia, with the Saints that are in all Achaia] 
And 1 had thought all -<4c/;4«<* had been more than a Parifh, even as the word ^iuKU 
was ufed Ecclefiaftically in thofe times, in the opinion of the Diocefane Divines 
therafelves. And fo much of Dr. Hammmd.,and all that have written for our Prelacy. 

The Oppofers of Prelacy. 

Tonamethe Authors that write on the Other fide (or fontie of them) is enough 
viz.. I. Beza, z. Cartwri?ht^ 3. Jacob aga'inO: Downame, 4-. Didoc lane alias Calderweodh 
Altare Dam-Ufcenum, 5 Learned Parker de Polit. Eedefiafi. (not lb florid 3s his Treat, 
of the Crofs, but more nervous) 6. Holy and Learned Paul Batne(Perkin''i Succeflor i 
his D»ocf/'<»«'sTryaI,fhort and nervous, in Syllogifms. -j.Salmajius in 2 Books (^Apparat. 
ad primal. P. &Walo. Mejfalinus,)'^. Before him GerjomBiicer differt.de Guhern.EcckSe 
againft Downame, large and learned. 9, Jer. Burroughs, in 2 or 3 llieets, Argumenta- 
tively. 10. PWwj unbiftioping-of T/wof/jy aadTitnj, ii- Di.BafiwickliFlagellumPon, 
Tificis & Epifcoporiifn I^r/<«i/«»> (oratorical J 12. And fuch are Miltons. i i SmeSymnuuj 
that is, Steph. Mar f ml, Edw- CaLmy., Tho. Toung., Mat. Newcomen, and Will. Spurflow :' 
And a defence of it. i4.The Lond. Minifters J«i Divinum, Presb- & A4in:fi. 1 5. The 
Hie oiWight Papers. 16. Dav. Blo»del(that\Noadtx of the woiid^for Chronology and 
Hiltory.) A few leaves of whole over-large Colledions,Dr.//i«»»wo«^hath Anfwer- 
■ ed,as you have heard,and givfen his reafon for going .to further ,L)ecaufe BUnd-extcnd- 
eth the Minifterial Parity but ;o 140. But to us it is not lo incoiifiderable to fee by 
whatdegres thePrelacy rofe.and to fee it proved lb copiouflv,thaL.even in after Ages 
the fpecies, extent *Bd-of Churches.and iheOrder orSpccies of Presbytersnerc not alter- i 
ed, nocwithitanding accidental alterations. And therefore lihall undertake to bring 'I 
proofenough of what I now'plead for from times much lower than i4o,fuch as 1 think i 
the impartal will reft fatisfied in,though interelland preconceived Idea's are feldom 
iatisfied, or conqueredby a Confutation. C „ 



That it is not of Gods ivjlitHtion., ror is fkajing to him ffiat 
there be no Churches aiid B//hofs hut in Cities i, er that a City 
TPith its territories^ or Country adjacent ^ he the hounds of each 

SOme late moft efiefmcd defenders of Vigcefane^, cfpecially Dr. Ham' 
mond, lay fo great a (trcfs upon the fuppofirion, that the Apoftlcs fet- 
Icd the Churches in the Mctropolitanc and Dioccfane order, and that they 
did partly in imitation ot the ]ewi(h policy, and partly as a thing ncccf- 
ftry by the nature of the thing, that even in Hca»h' n Kingdomts, when 
Churches arc gathered in any Cities, they mui\ hyvc a difference of 
Church power over each other as they find the Cities, 'ohavc a civil fK)vv- 
et (as you heard bcfoi c from Or. H.) that I think it meet hcii- brtilly to 
prove* I. That it was n( t of cheApoflles purpofc tohaveChurtheond 
Bifhops placed only in Cities, and not in Villages. 2. Nor that Church 
power (hould thus folknv thccivih3 Northi.> ( '^y with itr tiriitorics 
(hould be the mcafurc ot the habifation ofeac.'i v .uichcs mcmbrrs. The 
//«^ in fomc cafes Idmy not, but tbCfl/>or.*f/ isti-' qurltion, yea and the 
licet in Other cafts. 1 he two hrli arc proved togctiu by thefc rcafons, 

1. Chrift hitnfclf our ^nnd exemplar did not only preach and con- 
vert Chriftians ii)Ciric=, wrt in Country villages. '.here hr held aflcm- 
blies, and prcacht at d p^yed, yr? in rr.o..ntains 3nd in Ship.s : Ani 
though he plantid r.npartic^lsr Churches with fixed Bilhups there, yet 
that wasUcaulc lic didfo no where. He performed all offices in the 
Countr} V hich he ^^i.l fn the Cities, except that which was appropriated 
xoJcrMjaktn b^ rhc Law and the inlHtuiion of his laltfuppcr, which could 
be done but m (^r.c place. 

2. Thi^u i' noLaw ofGodCdircftorlndiredjwhichmakethitaduty 
to fettle t hiiulKS and tiihops in Cities only, and forbiddeth the fetling 
ihem inCi Lirirv villages ; This is mod evident to hini that will fcaich 
theScripturi., ai.d but try the pretended proofs of the late Prelatillsi tot 
the vanity ol their pretcnlions will eafilv appear', They have r.ot fj 
fair a prettnie in the NtwTeliaincnr for affcrtingfucha L^w. as the Fopi 
hath for his fi-pcrmacy in \JPftn feed my flntf)\ And where there is no 
Law, there is no obli^^ation on us unto duty, and no fin in omillnn. 

It tiicy fay tiiat [_t/)Cy^/>if//cx did ^lini Churches only inLitirs Qf>m^rc- 
hcnding their territories'] 1 anlvvcf, ». 'I hey prove that ihtry planted them 
in Cities s but the filencc of the Scripturts prorcth not the Nrgative, that 


they planted none in Villages. 2. Nor have they a word of preof that 
each Church ^Mtained ill Chiiflians in the Cities, with all the interjacent 
Villages. 3. Much Icfs that they mufl contain all fuch, when all the 
Countries were converted ^ and the Chriltians were enow for many 
Churches. 4. Nor can they ever prove that the Apofiles planting 
Churches only in Cities, was intended as a Law, to reftrainmen from 
planting them anywhere elfes Anymore than their not converting 
the Villages or the generality of the Cities, will prove that they muft not 
be converted by any other : Ox than that their fetting up no Chriftian 
Magifirates, or converting no Princes, will prove that there muftbe no 
fuch thing. Whoever extended the obligation of Apoftolical example 
to fixh Negatives, as to do nothing which they did not ? 5. The rear 
fon is moft apparent why they preached tirft in Cities, becaufc there is 
no fuch fifhing as in the Sea i They had there the frcquentett fulleftaudi- 
tories: And fo they planted their firlt Churches there, becaufe they had 
moft converts there. And it is known thit J itdea Ca barren mountai* 
'nous Coutrey of it felfj had been foharreffed with Wars, that there wa^ 
little fafety and quiet cxpeded in Countrey Villages ; and the Roman 
Empire had been free from the fame plague by fuch (hort intervals, that as 
many people as could.got into the Citiesifforall that know by experience 
what War is,do know tli€ mifery of poor Country people who are at eve* 
ry wicked Soldiers mercy.) It was therefore among poor (cattcrcd la4 
bourers, a hard thing to get a confiderable auditory : which maketh MrU 
E/wtrandhis helpers work go on fo heavily among the fcattered A* 
'roericans, who have no Cities or great Towns, becaufe they can rarely . 
fpeak to any confiderable numbers. Now to gather from hence either 
that Villages muft have no Churches or no Eifhops, is an impiety next 
to a concluding that they muft not be ailembled, taught, or worfhip Godo 
■ ,"'3. The rcalons are vain and null, which are pretended for fuch a mo*, 
delling of Churches to the form of thecivil Government, and thus con-" 
iining them to Cities. For, i. There is no need that oneBifhop be the 
Governour of another at all v 2. And therefore no need that the Birtiop 
of a Metropolis govern theEifliopof alcffer City,or he, theBilhopof a 
Village. I. God hath not given one Eifhop power over another, as mcer 
Eifhops. As Cj/'w<7« faith, in his Carth, Council^ nmetf its areiiJJjops of 
Bipopf, but Colleagues. Dr. Hammond himfdi fnth, that thcBifbops are 
ihcApoftlesSuccefl'ors.and the Apofiles were equal in power and Indepen- 
'dent, Annot.in i T\m.^.c'p.']^2.JifusChrijidifpaiftngthcm(allthepar'-' 
iieiilar Churches of the whole world by himjelf and admiiiijlring them Cnxral- 
ly^ not by any one Oeconomus^ hut by the fever al Bijhops as inferionr heads of unity 
i'j the fiveralbodies fo conjiituted by thefei'cral ApofHes in their plantations each 
(f them having aVTo\ey.U a fiveral dijlin£i cowmifwn from Chriji immediately 
sndjitbordinate to none but thefujireme donor or plenipotentiary.! Indeed if it 
be not Eifhops, but Archbilhops orBifliops of Eifhops which are the Apo. 
liles SacceflorSjin oxdei oyer. tlie Bifhops as they are fuppofed to be over the 


JPf{<;(i-9^:i\xtn Josh art order cf Arch-Biftops is of dhrine riglit » Eutnol 
asMetropolitanes, or for the Cities feke^ but as general Officers to take 
cq,reQf mSny Chuicha;, fucceeding the Apoftles. 

2,^ And that Apbltolical fucce(llon"iS not the ■foundation of the Mctro 
poji wpi fiJ "City power is plain > i . Eccaufe if the Bifhop or Arch-Bifhop 
ljj€ri)e^fr,ecJ*ptc{ilcce/rorsoFth(£.A'portles,thcrdniufl be but juft 15 or 1 4. 
initJie \vhcJk.w©tld:5 if<they fucceed them: fully in tftt accidentals of thcit 
q%j?v i&dtiii' not; than thciK'rdidcncciii Cities, Tvill not prove that 
they ninltfiaccccd them in that accident, any more than in the numbef. 
^. Efcaufe Cas isflicwcd; the Apolllcstyed nbt themfelvcs to Cities onlyi, 
aivd what thfcy did in preferring Cities was oHjfioHal ( asis' faid befort }': 
5,, t^orii^lhcite: tHclea-tt pr6ofi( beyond an oftchtation of vain words and 
cpnij^^nccjufcat bvcnhe- ApdlUcs lOtl^SidGlmrdies According to the ciVil 
fortp ►. and put the Bilhopi of lelictCit'<-3 tinder the Met^OpOHt&nsl Ni* 
inQjreiitbanthat among! themfelvcs -that Aipoftle waS'jRulef ofniic irett^ 
>vho ^ad ,thc Metropolis for his Scat : Ttej PapMh thtmfelves'ntit prci- 
tcijding that Peter was RuTcr of the-rioiV, benute KowW Wjs<H6''S«at,- biii 
that 2\o/{« tml\ have the ruling Univerfal Biihop, bccaufcdt'wft^tiieSt^a* 
fifP^/^f. And if the, Mttrcpolfs made notcnc Apottle kukri^lftlieircJf, 
yVjhy.rtipuld it doi lb by tiicir fucccilursJ'' And 1 never heai>d ^ny attempt 
fppifc^^, that hfallyrti>^.BartbohtAeir.f Lchkt^-, Jemts tht A^6R\c,' Iht' 
ftJaf, Phmpatid eVcry one'of the Apofllcs hadadiOiiiicft rndcpcndcntMc* 
(ropoli* for ills f^pilcfipil Seat. 4. Indeed its but vain words of them 
that pretend that the Apolilcs fixed themfelvcs in any Seat at all i but it 
is certain by their Office and by Hiffory that they oft t^mbvtid- from placi 
to pl«i(CO J. in order tbcall as tnuch of rht world as'^h(5y tv^^'ic&pibl**', 
?ilj-wete 'fchitimts in Metrbfohs and fomctinies irt othe* 'placed; end 
^iiiiawgK' Ihc ancle ntsl .make tJjcm therirft BtfliOpS of Uluicines/thwy fcl6 
not fay that they were Bilhops'of any particular ChiUchcS onlyj <?kdufi' 
vely •to &\\ others . But the lame Apolile that Planted tcn«>rt\\y!tit]r 
Church<*was the lirJlBilliop of them iW fro tempore, fetling fixed Bilhop* 
(p fuccaqfl^ them. 5.. ApcLwhofever dreamed that Af<*»TJ^ whowasni&A- 
poflle, \>as the RUler ofotHcj Apdftleft, Cat leatt that attic ifttb liuWio-* 
vincc jLbccaufe AUxandri.i was tJie fccond Metr6ipblis? .:-'<:,' v » 

4. This pretended forming of the Churches as iforcfaid » Js confrary* 
to the Ends of C/'«rc^.inliitution and CommimioVi : which are tht'publick^ 
vvoifliippingoiGod., and pcrfonal Communion of Paiochians or Cohabi- 
tants in thac worlliip. Sacraments and holy living, in mutual alfilJance. 
Wiicreasina great pi;rt of the world. Country Villages are fo far from^ 
an,yC/«iVj^ that ii they mult travel to them for this publickComrtuinion, 
they mult fpcnd ail tnc Lords day in t-ravailc, and vet mifs tlinirEndei 
and come too late. Nor can Women, Children and aged ones ^oilib'y'- 
do tatall. But if they are to have no fuch pctfv^nal Communion with the 
City ChurcliLS. but iiavcTtdidinarily among thcmlclvts, then Cwhb{ever 
men n,ay fa^thut linve al^out tiic Name Jtluy ate nut of that fmicnUr 

0.2 City 


ei<y Chureh as fach, but arc of another Church at home, which muft 
hare a BiQiop bfcaufe it is a Church, 

5. Their Civil and City or Diocefan frame contrtdidleth the plain 
inftitutionor LawofChriftandofhisSpiiit. For i. Math. 28. 1^. ao, 
it is the very Commiffion of the Apoftlesand their fucceflbrsCwithwhom 
Chrift will be to the end of the world^ to Teach or Difciple all Nations, 
and then to Baptize them, and fo gather them into the Church Univerfal, 
and then Teach them as Difciples all his Laws, which includeth Congre^ 
gating them in perticular Churches where they mufl be fo taught. Now 
as it is all Nations, even the whole Countryes and not the Cities only 
that muft be Difcipkd or convided and Baptized, fo it is the whole Na-^ 
tion«, Villages and allot Baptized perfons that mufl thus be -CMi^regj/fti 
into particular Cbxrehtj and taught. 2. To .which add k€t. i^. ir, 
the pofitivc exemplary and fo obliging ordinary praifticc of the A^ 
poftles- Thty ordained thtm ElJtrs in every Church : (b that i . It'is Gods wiH 
that Kii//dge/ have Churches. 2. And it is Gods will that every Church 
hav«»Bi(hop Cat Icaft; therefore it is Gods will that every Village have 
a fiiOiopwhich have a Churchi or that fbmc Villages have Bifliops.*^ i- ''^ 
And though [ti/try City be mentioned Tit. 1. 5. that onlyAeWctfi 
that (/e /j(39 then and there, Village Churches were rare or none, but 
not de jure they muft not be gathered : nor doth he (iy[*rdain Elders in 
Cities onlyl: much Jefs £give them Rule according to the City power. ] 
And as Ceuchrea hzd 3. Church, which was no City, fo Act. 14. 231 
will prove that they (hould have a Birtiop. For every Church is to have a 
Bifhop. And Ctuchrea was not a family-Church > and fothe name not 
ufed equivocally .' And Bilhop T>$tt>nams affertion that it was a Church 
withamean Presbyter under the Bilhop of Corinth, is a naked unproved 
faying that deferveth no credit •> andis contradidedbyDodlorfl<t«M;»M(/J . 
who (aith there was there no meer Presbyter in being. 

d. Had this form been fetled as they Pretend fin Cities only and 
Dioceffcs )there would have been uncertainty and contentions what pla- 
ces (hould have Bifliops and Churches, and what places fliould have none; 
for it is uncertain and litigious, what place is to be taken for a City and 
what not. For ir»>m fometimes fignifieth any great Town, and fome 
Jimes ftridly Towns incorprate, and fometimes more ftridly eminent 
Corporations now called Cities with us here in England. And how great 
would the difficulty have been to determine when a Town was big 
enough to pa(s for a City, or when it had privileges enow for that title. 
Ifitbefaidjthat the account and name then and thus ufed was thcdi- 
redory. they will then make Gods Church to depend for being upoi> a 
Name with heathen people. If they will call Ceucbrea a City, it (hall have 
a Churchi otherwife itftiall have none. But there was no fuch contro- 
verfie in thofe times. 

7. According to their model Churches (hall be mutable and dillbl- 
T.ible at the will of the MagiArate> yea of every Heathen Ma^' ftrate ; For 
' if 


if he will, but change the privilcdges and tit'c of a Town and nuke it no 
City, it muft have no Church or Bifhop : And if he will remove the pri- 
vileges and title, the Church and Bifliop muft remove ; And if he will 
endow a big Village or Town with City privileges and nanie, aChuich 
and Bifhop muft be then made anew. But who can believe that Chrill 
fhus modled his Churches in hisinftitution? 

8. Yea after their model, an infidel or Chriftian King a "ud sgent , 
that ncTer thinketh on it or intendeth it, (hill change the Churches, and 
deflroy them. If by war a City be turned into no City, or if the King 
for other rca(bnsun-city it, or if change of Government put it ino ano- 
ther Princes power, that fliall for his convenience un city it, the Churcb 
In City and Country is at an end, though there remain people enow to 
conftitute a Church. 

j>. Yea a fire or an Earthquake by this Rule may end a Church, by 
Wood and (ione.though the Country dill have never fo many Chriftians ; 
and when the City is gone, the Church is gone, i o. Yea it will be in the 
power of every king, even of Heathens, whether Chrill thall have any 
Church or Bi(hop in his kingdoms, or not. Becaufe he can un-eity or dis- 
privilcdge all the Cities in>his kingdom at his plcafure, and confequcntly 
unchurch all theChurchcSi 

11. And by their way Chrift hath fctlcd as various Church forms as 
there be forms of Government in the world : For all Dominions are not 
divided into Provinces, under Prifidcnts?^c as the Roman Empire was : 
In many Countries, the Metropolis hath nofuperiority over the other 
City or (he Country, and fo that will be of divine inftitution in one 
Country, tvhich willbea fmin-others. 

12. Yea by this Rule many vaft Countries rtufl have no Eilhopsot 
Churches at all, becaufe they hare no Cities (as is kno^n among the 
Americans^ i and others muft have but one Church and Biihop in a 
whole Country of many hundred Miles. 

13. And by their Rule all the Bifliops of Eng/j«ii/ arc unbifhopcd, and 
their Dioccfan Churches are unchurched. For 1. Some of them ( in 
trjld znd Man) have no Cities row calkd fuch. 2. Others of them 
have many Cities C not only Coventry and Licbjif Id, Bath and Jf 'tils now 
called Cities, biitjabundance of Corporations really Cities. 3. And the 
Cities in England, Scotland and Ireland have no Civil Government o- 
vcrallthe Countries, Corporations, Villages of the Diocefcat all; nor 
are they Scats of Prcfidcnts or Lieutenants that have fuch Rule, fo that 
ourDioccfcsarenotmodcllcdto theformof the Civil Government. What 
fubjcdion doth Hartfordjffirc, Bcdfirdjhire, Bnckjngbamjf.urt , &e owe to 
the Town of Lincolne? 

14. B} their model it is not Eifhops and Metropolitans alone that arc 
of divine right : For if the Church Government nuiil be modelled to the 
Civil!, the Imperial Churches mufl have had Ofhcers to anfwer all the 
Procontuls and Prefcdts , the Lieutenants, the Vicars, the Confular 

0,3 rre6- 


PrcfiJcnts, the Correctors ^c. To\ who can prove tha.tone.foi;^prtwa 
only iTiufl be imitated ahd , not others. - ' , ' '■ 

15. They mul\ by their rule, fct up in England in inconnrtcnf 'or 
felt" deftroying form. For irr ttiany if riot luoirCounties our Lord 
Lieutenants^ Deputy- Licutcinnts, and Shcrifs ,. and moft JuCi<;cs. 
dwell in Ctjniitre)" m^tinors. ahd Village^, ani ,npf m CifieSr, And'To' 
cither Cities muil not be, the ^eatsbf BifKops "and Chur-cJies', or ql(c 
the Seat of Civil Govcrnm?ntnlufl.'not bc^ihe Seat of the Ecc1efia(ji- 
<^al. If they faV that AJfrzes'znA SelTioDs aire kept In the Coiinty Towns 

The obferva'rion is notuniverfally true ; Yea'nO Allizcs qr-,SciTiop5'at 
all are therefore held in any Tcfn bccaufe it is theCqUnty Town, 'liut"' 
bccaiifcit is the convenientcft |ihc'cfbr mcetihgV ^iti'didice of which, 
■is left to the Judges and jufticesi who (o'mctnncs choofe the County-'' 
Town, and futnctimes- another, as- they pleafe CAs BriJpforth in SUrep^" 
fliirc, Akshury (not Buckingham) ordinzn]y iri Buc}<iiigbamjh/re, andfc^of! 
others. 3. And thcfe County To vVVi's ?refew of thdlnei/jicr Citiesof BiQj- ' 
ops Seats: As Buckingham , HarrfdM ^^ Bedford ^' CMibriS^e, Huntington ' 
JFarivkk^^ Darby ^ Nottingham^ Shcrtvibii^y, Ipfivicb , Cokbefler^ Lafi-' 
cjfler, Flint, Denbigh , Montgomery , Meridndh,' Kadnot^ Cardigan^ Car' 
narvon^ Pembroek^^ Carmjirthen, Bwci^ioc^, and divers others- 

id. Tills model of theirs is in molt parts of the world or many, quite • 
contrary to the Intereft of the Church f and thl'reforc forbid^den byGod ', 
in Nature and Scriptiiie, byfhdti'file, Let the end be preferred, afi4i(je' 
means ivhich hejl fcrve it: Let all thlngi be done to ed/f cation -.'Tor in rnolt ' 
of the world the Rulers are enemies to ChriflianitJ', aqd difpofed to 
perfecBte the Paflorsof the Church, therefore they \villlea/} endure !Ec- 
clcfialhcal Courts and Bilhops in their Imperial Cities, and under thqir 
nofcs ^aswefayj 0,b]. The Kofnam did endure it. Anf. For all the' 
ten perlcditions, the Row-j/zj-'gave 6'rdinarfly ttioyt liberty of Religion- 
than niofi of the world doth it this day. Eifl}ops ancf Taftors, are glad ' 
to kecpout of the wjy of Infidel and fieatheM'RLilcrs. .fA'nd I think'^ 
verily our moft Zealous Englilh Prelates would be loa'th', fif they had'' 
their language) to go fet up a Church and Bidiopsfeat at Madrid, Vi- 
eiina, Jngolfled , yea at Florence, Milan, Ravenna, Venice, Lisbone, War- 
fan\ &c. And.ifthcymuft needs beinthofe Councrici^, they woi^ldra- 
ther chofe a more private and refs'offerilivefeat. •''','',.'.' •- ' - 

17. I thfnk'that few Churches or BiQiops iii'the world, except the! 
'^ (^f'^f.id Italian (if they^' are of the opinion now oppofed by trie. ^TheC-re;^' 
1^/^ ^J"^*^/ Church is not : for though for honor fake they retain the name of the 
9«v/««/« ^"citnt Seats, yet they ordinarily dwell in Countrey Villages. And fo 
Antioch doth the Tatriarckjdi Antioch himktf often, or at Ica.'l Antiocb is now no 
"lafcdn City, of whichhc'hath the naiiie. And Socrater, and alter him other 

' , . ■ ■ • - HflTorians 


■Ri/lomns tell us, that of old this pradlife varied as a thing incIifTercnt, Pmr. nm 
infeveral Countries according to their feveral cufiomes, which had no'f"^'" 
Law of God for them, and therefore were not accounted neceirary. •"'*''«^''* 

1 8. Our Englifh Bifhops have been for the moft part of another mind 'ta'VdVit 
till Dr. Hammond and others turned this way of late; Not only Je.rel,Aft,eJiii.%d 
Bilji'fi , and many others have afTertcd that Patrhrkf , Mctrypyli.rtfamrhi- 
tans znd Primiter^ and fuch like are of human right, and mutable, but *'.','' !"•'** 
few ifany were found heretofore to contradi<ft them. And at this day por'a ,i * * 
many Bifhops ordinarily dwell in their Country houfes, fAs th.; Billiop lof. 
of Lincoli.e did 3t Bugden, the Birtiopof Crowtrceand Lichfield, (former- 5>«l'g<'" 
ly) at £cc/r/7;j// Gallic •, thcBifliop ofCAr/fer ("nowj ztJFigjn, and fe ^'f"^";;'^': 
of others^. And I think that is ^he Biihops Scat where ufually hisr,,''j,j, 
dwellingis, and not where a Lay-Chancellor kccpes a Court, or where a 
Dean and Chapter dwell who are no Billiops. 

ip. There have (as Dr. Hammond hath well proved^ been of old 
fcvcral Churches in one City i one of Jarxandonc oiGentiler, with 
their fcvcral Eifliops and Clergy. Therefore one City with its terri- 
tories is not jure Vivino the mcafure or boundaries of one only Church. 

20. If the Church Government mul\ be modelled to the Civil, then 
in every Monarchic or Empire there mull be one Univerfal Pallor to 
rule all the red as there is one King; And in every, Arillocracy, there 
inuflbea Synod of Prelates in Church Supremacy > and in every Dc- 

nmcracy -whoorwhat But then the Papacy will be proved 

rot only lawful, but of Divine inllitution , as the Hcid or Churcli 
Soveraign of the Kom.m Empire (" though not of all the world) (at 
KoD.c firll and ct Conjhiit/nop!e alter 3 And indeed I know r.o word ofrea- 
(on that can be given to diaw an impartial man of Judgment todoubt, 
hut tint MctropoHtjfjj; Primates, Patriarcks, and the Pope as Head of the 
Churches in the Empire, Hood all on the fame ground, and had the 
fame Original i as all Fathers Councclisand Hi.'tory fhew, whicli true- 
ly proveth that fas an llnivcrfal Papacy is a Treafonablc Ufurpation, 
fo) an Imperial Papacy (that is, through the Roff2j;i EmpireJ is but a 
huii/an Creature, and Metropolitans, Patriarchs^ €>-. are the like i anJ 
they that will fcigne the one to be ot Godsinliitution orntccllary, u.ili 
fay tliat the other is Co to. 

But after all this, one confequcnco puts the world in hope that P.w:- 
fans HiSy come in time to be reformed : Fur fueling Kings may mike aiid 
unmake Cities, and confequcntlyEilliop-pricks at their pleafiire, when- 
ever it ihallplcafe his Mi jcliy, or any ot-hcr wife and Holy Prirxc, ro 
declare every Corporation and Market Town to be a City, wc mnit needs 
have a Eilliopin every on^of them (according to the principles of the 
Prelates theiiifeivcs. And then the Dioccfc will not b: fo great, but a di» 
ligcnt Pallor may pcllibly fomecitnes, fee tlic greater number ofiiis flock. 
Obj. But they that do J'.iy that the Apo},les toi\thisco»rft do mi fay ibai 
it is Jo ohligatny but that in cafes of nccrffity »ve Wij do othsririjc. 

Anf. I. 


Anp I. They alledgc the very Law of nature for it, that it muft be 
fo even in Heathen Empires ex natura rci , as Dr. Hammond before 
cited. 2. All meer pofitvesgive places to natural Auues^cxteris paribut : in 
cafes of true ncctflity we may break the reft of the Lords day, we may 
omit the Lords Supper, wemayftay from the Church aflemblies, wc 
may forbear to preach or pray or. meditate or read. So that the excepti- 
on only ot neccfliry will but equal this Vietefan model , toother pof- 
litive ord inances, which arc indeed Divine. 

Ohj. IVhat if rve prove but tbt laprfulmfs ef it^ though not the Duty > 
Anf. If you prove it not o/ Divine Inllitution, Ihave proved it to be 
finful, and (hall do much more, by all the evils which attend it. And 
fo much for thefe City Diocefe and MetropoHtans and modelling the 
Church Government to the ftate. 


The Definition affd reajbtis of a Jjicnfiin Church cor.fi dired ^ 
avd ovcrthroTPK. 

I Have already (hewed, that wedifpufe not about aery notions, nor 
Non-exiftence, but about fuch Diocefes as we fee and have i and 
that by a Diocefc we Non-conformifis mean only a large circuit of 
ground with its inhabitants conteiningmany perticularPariflics: And 
by a Digcefan Church, wc mean all the Chriftians witliin that circuit, 
who have but one Bi(hop over them, though they be of many Parifll 
Churches, yea few Pre/iyto-wH/ take the word fo narrow as this. For 
(Itbinktoo^ many of them do with Rutherford diftinguifli between a 
worfhippin^ Church and a Governed Church fand fadling the horfe for 
Prelacy to mount on) do affirm that many ("about twelve ufualyj of 
thcfe woifbiping Churches (like our Parilhcs^ may make but one Go- 
verned or Presbyterial Church : But a Dioccfe in Engbnd containeth 
many hundred, and fomc above a thoufand ParKhes Casisfaid-) 

But the Vioccfgnj ( Hammtnd md Doanam) define not a Dioccfe fas 
weleeitj as conteining many Churches or holy aflemblies i but only as 
beirgtht Church of one City with its territories. Now the queltion 
h, what it is that is the fpccifying difference by which a t>Jocefan 
Church is diftinguifticd from others, and couflituted. i. Not that it 
is in a City; for an Independent Church, or a Presbyterian Church 
may be in a City : When ihtrtis hut one Chnrch there, or many Inde- 
pendent ones, thcfe are no oihtr than thcfe allow, whom you take for 
»/our chief adverfarics. 

2 . Is it then the circxut of ground ihat is tl.e bour.dary of thefe 


Cm ) 

Churches, either this ground is inhabited, or not ■■, if not, then earth amJ' 
trees make their Churches. If inhabited, it is by Inhdcls, or by ChrilH- 
ans , or both. If by Infidels they are no member! of any C hriftiin 
Church, and therefore not of a Viocefan Church. 11 nlefs they will pro- 
fcfTe tohaveChurhcsof Infidels: 

If they be Chrijiijiis, either they arc no more, nor more diflant than 
as that they may Cat lead the main body of them J comconthc Lords 
daics to the City Church into one afiembly, orclfc they are enow to 
make more or many Church alTcmblics. Ifthc former, than what dif- 
fer they from a Farijh Church, or an Independent Church, which is planted 
in a City ? When each of them are but one congregation, where is the 
difference but in the arbitrary Name ? 

But if the City and territories havcChriftians enow for mjny Churches; 
then either they arc formed into many or not. Ifthcy are, thq* (hould 
f by their own conftihon) have many Bifliops: If not, either Church 
Societies are Gods ordinance or not. If not , the City fhould hive 
none: If they are, where hatli God exempted the Country from the 
privilcdgeorduty any more than the City ? 

But if they (liould fay that a 'Diocefan Chuxch is one Church in a 
City and its tcrritcrics confiding of Chridians enow tomake many, 
of whom the mofi part take up with oratories for Churches, thiswoultl 
fuite our Notion ot a Viocefan Church, but not theirs.. For they fay 
that it is not ncccfljiy that a Viocefan Church have more than one Con- 

Therefore if mufi needs follow that their Viocefan Lhmch mufl dif- 
fer from our Parilh cr Congregational Cluirches only in pjiciitid and 
rot in <Jt7»,or tife earth or Infidels muft be the dillfercncing mattcr.llnlcfs 
theywilMay that the Oj-^ir r;/ Pn/jiTV in it makcth the diflerenee, which 
isthe olhce ofal'afior who isadually Govcrnour butofon: congrega- 
tion, but i^ in potcntiatohcthc Governoiirotmore when he can convert 
them, and then is the Governcur of themall in that territory wlicn 
they are converted. Butif one congregation or wu«v nuke not the dil- 
fcrence, ameer polllbility in the Infidels of becoming .Clirifiians can- 
not make the diircrence, bccanfc the Subj.iitsof that polTibility are no 
membersof iItc Church at all. Therefore the difference mufi be only 
in the office of the Bidiop. And it lb, tiun an Independent C hurch that 
hath a Bilhrp i'= a Viocefan Church ; And fo an Indepen-lant and a Vioce • 
Jan Church may be all one. And then if aBilhop were but fetlcd in a 
I'aridiChJrch in (he City or Countrty, it w:)uld make it a Vi>cefj» 
Church. And tiicn when we liave proved tL.at the Country fliould 
havcChi rches, and r.otmecr Oratories, and that every Church (hould 
have a Billiop, and (o that a Bill-op is not to be appropriated to a City 
and its territories, we have done a'.l. And that fixieiy which IhcuiJ 
have all Gods (!"!u-.rch ordinances, Ihould have a I'aftor r.c.i.ffary for 
ihecxercifir)g of themall. L-.-.t every tr. c Parill; Chuich, fl;ou!d have 

R all 

f 122) 

•aU Gods ordinances Cbelonging to a lingle Church) therefore they 
Ihould have a Pallor (at leaft) t j exercife them. And, a Paltor author- 
ized to exeicife all particular Church ordinances of Chrifts is a true 
Biftiop. But every true particular Church (hould have fucha Paftor. 
Therefore they (hould have a Billiop. Ey ths Cburcb ordinances! mean 
I. Teaching. 2.Miniiierial VVoxfliip, in Prayer, Praife and Sacran-.ents. 
^. Difcipline fecret and publick in that Church. And let them rcmeai- 
bcrthit they that inftead of proof, do but crudely affirme, that Cities 
cnly may btBiQiops Seats, do but beg the qucfiion. 

But bccaufe he that pu's us hardeft to it (Vorvname) doth lay Co much 
onthefe twodifferenccsof a riocf/i;! Church from a Parochial, i. That 
a Diocefe conteineth the City and territories , though at fiiftit have 
hut one Corgrcgation. 2. That converting the reft of the City and 
territories, giveth the Bidiopa right to Govern them all ; I will further 
diftindtly ccnlidcr of both thcfr. " * 

CHAP. V 1 1 L 

Whether the Infidel Territories or Citizevs do via]^ fart of a 
Diocejime Church. 

I. TTT'E, diAinguiih between a Diocefe and a Diocefane Church. 
V V !• The word Diocefe firft was of civil figniHcation, ar.d (b 
we have nothing to do with it. 2. It may fignifie a Country of Infidels 
whom a Minilier of Chrifr endeavoureth to convert ; And fo it is no 
Chirchof itfelf, nor no part of a Church, if a Church be in it: Cas 
is pali all quellion.) And fo we deny not but that, i. Every Minifter 
Ihould convert as many Infidels as he can. 2. That he that isrelidenton 
the place as Paftor of a Cohabiting Church hath better opportunity than 
a ftrangcr ufually toconvert the neighbour infidels i Andthcrefore hath 
more obligation to endeavour it > becaufe men muft divide and order their 
work as their opportunities do invite and guide them. 3. But yet that 
God fet no man his Minilicrial Charge by the meafure of ground : And 
therefore that if flich a City-Bi(hop have a fmaller number of Infi- 
dels in his territories, than will take up his time and labour (befides the 
care of his Church) he ought not to confine his labour to them; nor 
negleft other territories that need his help, but may, mufiand (hould go 
further in his endeavours, as AiigM\hne and other later Bifhops among 
theSaxons^ 'notwithltanding the neighbourhood of thcBrittains i and 
as Wilfrid alias Br,73i/j« among the Germans, e^f. And if any other Mi- 
nilkr come atnong thelnhdcls in the Territories of a City that hath a 
Chujcbj while, they have need of fuchhelp, the Biihop were a beaft if he 

fliQuld : 



ftould forbid him on pretenfe that it is his Diocefs whire another hatfi 
nothing to do. But as unoccupied Countries belong to any occap:nt, fo 
an Inhdel Country belongeth to any preacher that hath opportunity to 
convert them. And ii a Diocefane prohibit fuch preaching, he is to be 
negkded or reprehended, but not obeyed. Yet I deny not, but pru- 
dence may diredl preachers fas it would do occupants in the aforefaid 
cafe)todifiribute their labours fo asone may not hinder but help another; 
But that is not a Law of propriety otherwife than as mutual confcnt ob- 
ligeth. Andit is, butthedeterminationof circum/iances, and that not 
about any part of a Church, and therefore nothing to the confUtution of 
a Church. 

And asisfhewed, as Chriftfent hisDifciplesout by two and two,{f> 
the Apoftlcs oft went two together, oranApoftle and an Evangciilt, 
which (hewed that no one claimed the Diocefs. But ftill, were it othcc- 
wife,Inhdelsarenotof the Church. 

C H A r. I X. 

Whether convert h!g a Dietefi give right to the Converter to l>4 
their Bipop crCovcrmur. 

I; ^TTH. deny not, but that Convcrtsowe a peculiar love and rcfpcd 
YV fo thofe as their fathers in Chrift which did convert tlicmi 
which PdfJ claimethot iWCorintbhns. 2, And we deny not but c^trr// 
tarihus, that man being as ht a man as otiicrs, and his abode being ncar- 
cr,and his Chcrch being not full, but capable of them, this advantage 
fhould cndine his converts , to choofe him rather than another for 
their Pador, 

But yrt converting them as fich givcth him not aright to g.ivern 
them as their Paibr , nor nccclVuatttli them to choofe him : As I 

1 . Eccaufc a Lay man fcs ^rwiientiits and Eiifmt and Origen, &:c.J may 
convert men, whoarcnot i'jllorsto themorany- 

2. EecaufeConverlion and Baptifn as kich is but mens admifHon in- 
to the Z^mWi/j/ Church(as in the Eunuchs cafe,^i'f. 8. ismanifclf) and 
rot into any particular Church; It uniceth them to Chrill , but not^o a • 
ry particular Pallor •• lor they Baptize not into their own name. 

3. Bccaufe whentwoor thrcego togedicrjasF.tfc/and Baniahjt^SHv^ 
Tmio'hy^Ltike.^c. it is to be iuppoftd that one convertetlvnot all, but 
one foine and awthcr fomci and therefore if converting gave rig'ic 
there mull be many BiOicf s and Churches in a place. 

4. Bccaulc when a Church is fettled, a (Grange preache* that con?et.\ 

11 i ^■.■.i,v 


after, yea on; that hath a charge elfewhere, miy convert mmy neigh* 
bouts, that were not Converted, and yet it will not follow that he muft 
come, and ftt up. another Church there for that, nor that they muft re> 
move their dwelling to follow him. 
?r. f 'T, 5' Eecaufe a man may ("and abundance of excellent preachers have 
thtt'an- "done it) convert many fouls in many Countries where they go at great 
iciti'tb m.f-difunces from each other : But he cannot be the Eilhop of fo many peo- 
m catcris p]e or Churches fo far difpcrfed. 
paribus i! 

ji'ujt to b: chfen fir their Pajl/tr : on n-hkb account Greg. Naxianz. n\i; ch^fen tit Conflanti- 
nople , /or the Siiccefs "f bis Miriiftiy ag.iinj} Arianifm : And in my Church-iiiflory , / have 
told you of a Cmncil that decreed, that if a Bijhop negk^ed to turn ary of bis City from here- 
fie., he that converted them fliould, have them for his flocl^: which flxteab that there might on ]uH 
cflufc be t't:en mire Bifi.op! and Churches than one in a City \ and that they were not neccffurily measured 
5> thecom\tfi of ground, but Church;s might b: mixt aoiDng each other as to kabnatim, on fiich occafions. 

6: E.caufc itwould make ituncertain who it is thathath any where 
theEpifcopal power. ForConverilon is, i.afccrct workkno^yn only 
to the pcrfon converted. 2. And it is an obfcure and ufuallya gradual' 
work, not done at once, butbyfuch degrees, that the convert feldome 
knoweth himfelf who It was that converted him : Tlioughhemay know 
that one mans minifrry fo far convinced him, and another fo far, and 
(boav Itwillbe hard tofayjuit when it came to a converlion. And if 
you fay it is he that perfwadcd him to be baptized, that may be a 
Jay man, or long after his Converfion. Princes in fome Countries 
force or perlwadr thouiands to be baptized. If you fay, that it is he that 
Lipiizcdhwa, t\\zn?aul Ihould be Pafior but to few of i\\zConnthUns., 
who thanked God that he baptized none ol them but Stephaiius houfliold, 
Gjius and Crifpus ■■> as b.ing not fent to baptize, but to preach the 

7. Bccaufe clCe many perfons (liould be neceditated to choofe a bad 
or very weak man, if not a hcretick for their Bifhop, when they may 
have far better and abler men. For it hath been known that a bad Mini- 
lkr,and aheretical Miniltcr, much more a very weak^Minifter hath con,- 
vcried men. But God doth not allow fuch converts therefore to cafl their 
.Souls undcr.tht danger and difadvantagc of fuch a ones Miniltry, or o- 
vcrfights when much iutcrmay be had. 

S. Becaufe both nature and Scrip.ture example diredt men to another 
courfc > that is, i. To be members of the Church where they are coha- 
bitants, if there be a worthy Paffor ; 2, And to get the belt they can. 
for cohabitation or proximity or vicinity is necclTary to Church ends, 
both to publick and private communion and mutual help. But the Mi- 
iiiHcr that convcrth them may dwell far of!" that. 

Therefore inc'eed theRcafons why all in a City and vicinity were wont 
to beot tiie faiiieChur:h fif there were room) was not becaufethat 
iMinidcr c?inverted ihcm, bucbecauC; they were fit for fuch Communion 

^.. And, 

p. And wereitotherwife the Eifhop and his Presbyters preaching (o 
the fame people, the Presbyter might convert more and become joint 

lo. And certainly it would unbifliop all the Englifli Bifhopsalmoft 
that I am acquainted with, uho nether converted thfirDiocefes from 
l-nhdelity , nor baptized iheni, nor convert many that ever we hearof 
from a wicked lite, to fcrious hoiincfs : which the Presbyters have 
done by very many, and fo muft there be made the Bilhops (if they 

C H A P. X. 

That d farthulir Cl.unh of the fi'rjl cr loivcji orcla\ miifl cOfi^ 
ftjl of Ncighlfl.v Ckriflijtjs jff^chilcd fur Pcrdinal Commu- 
nion in local prefcncc, in holy nw-pip and covvcrfution --i uful 
7!ot of J}rut;gres fo remote^ as have Ofilj an htcmal Hcart- 
Qonnnunioii^ or an External Qonimunion hy the mediation of o- 

LEt it b: here noted Tthat non: dally with the Name [Chiirchl as an 
equivocal, that, i. I fpeak of no mecr Community of Chriilians, 
rorof any accidcntall a(Tcmb!y, which have no Paftors, or no intent of 
facred ends ■■> Call them what you will: But of a proper Chriitian fo- 
cicty conditutedof the Pjrfgnbn-nans and the Fars gubernatj > thePahor 
and Flock. 2. That I fpcak not of a Family Church, which eonfrlteth of 
the Mailer and the Family. 3. Nor yet of the llniverfal Political Church, 
as vilibleeras myllicall; which conlillcth of ChrilUhc head, and all vi- 
frble or iinccrc believers. 4. Ncr of any Chrijiijn C/wrc/v/ confined by 
Agreement for Concord of Chinches^ being many. 5. Nor of any fuch 
Ciiurch:s accidentaly united in one kingdom, under one king or Civil 
Governor, whether Chrillian or InHdel.* 6. Nor of many Churches 
headed by humane appointment with one MetropoHtanc, Primate or 
Patriack, beingaPa/ior thus exalted by men above the relh y.Noryet 
of many Churches under one Arch-BiHiop or general Apollolital Vilit!>r 
or Pallor, clumingthis general overllght by D;vine right fwlxther right- 
ly or wrongfully I now taki no notice J 8. But the Church which I 
treat of iSj only the political fociety of Chriltians of thehrrt ranck (and 
foofaBiihop of the lowed ranck, or a mecrBilhop that isnoArch-B- 
ihopji. Not of an Oratory, orChapptl ot cafe, where part ofa true 
Church often meet i but ofa true entire Church of the hrli magnitude or 

And I take it for granted i. That fuch Churches tlicrv^ftiould b^ 2-. 

11 \ and 


and that every true Church (hould have its BilTiop, is V>ockoi Hammwd 
and many others grant, taking the Church in this political notion > or 
ir that be not granted I will proovc it further anon. 

. And that thefe loweft true political or Organized Churches, muft be 
/Neighbours unit^-J forPerfonal Communion , as aforefaid,! prove. 

1, Firfl: from all the Scripture inftances: The Churches at Jeritfalem, > 
Antiocb^ "Ephefits ^ Corinth &c. were all fuch as is fuller to be opened 
in the 2d. Part. 

2 , From the inftances of all the Churches of the hrft and fccond 
.age, of which alfo more is after tobefaid. 

■ 3. Fromthedutyesof Church members, which arc as followcth. 

I. To alTcmble together for Gods publick fervice i AS. 4. Hcb. iq. 
25. I. Cor. 14.' ^^c. And how can they do this that arc utterly out of 
reach, and never know or fee each other .'' 

.' 2* To have the fame Paftors that are among them, and over them, 
and preach to them the word oi God, and go before them by the example 
of aa holy life. 1 Ihef. 5. 12, 13. Heb. 13. 7, 17, 24. i Tim. 3, 6, 
"]■,&-•' And how can they hear the Paftors that never Preach to them, 
or beGuidedby thofethat never fee them,or follow their example whom 
they never knew, or come for counfel to them that are out of their reach 
and knowledg ? 

3, To fend to their Paflors when they are fick, to pray with them, 
31. d advife them : which they cannot do to them that are out of their 
reach. Jam. 5. 4. To provoke one another to Love and to good works, 
and toconfider c n; another ( Kdletvivfji^ ) to that end .■ A word ihit figni- 
ficth kiwreledgeand more, even Objervation oi^thit which wefeeorknow. 
In which and f. 25. faith Dr. Hammond [_Let us iveigh and confider all 
advantages ive can have Hpon one another to f revoke and excite one another to 
Charity and all anions of piety .^ fuel} as are joyning in the publick^ fervice. 
And not fuffcr our Jelves to proceed fo far toreards defections as to give over the 
fttblick^ ajftmblies, (the forfahlng ofjvhich is not is not only defining the pub- 
lick^ profejfmn of Chri'J, but aljo of the mcanes of growth in grace) but Jiir up 
one another to the performance of tins'] All which fuppofc propinquity, and 
andconlhl not with the dill^ice of uncapable ftrang:rs. Heb. 3.13. 
7o cxhoi-t one another daily ivhile it is callcdtJ d.iy., lefi any be hardened by tie 
Je(e:tfitlncJsof fin. Which we cannot do by men of another Countrcy, 
with whom we have noconverfe. 

Allisplainly exprcffcd, i T/jf/"5. 1 1. 12, 13. JFberefore comfort your 
felves together^ and cdife one another even as alfo ye do. And ive befeecb you 
■brethren to knotvthem which labour aimngyotf^^aiid are ozeryou in the Lord, and 
■admon/Jh )OHyand to cjhcmth:m very highly in love, for their vpoih^ fake, and to 
he zt peace among your felves. But how can they comfort tlien;fclves to- 
gether that never came together, or fee each other '' There can no peace 
i>Lit Negative be among them, thit are not among eachother, and have 
noccnvfirtc. They cannot cdilie utter flrangcrs. Howcau Iknuvvthe 



Bifhopofthe Dioccfe vvhoneverfawhim, nor ever had opportunity to 
feehim, tholliveabout an hundred miles neerer him ( being at LortJjn) 
than feme parts of his Diocefc are ? I know thofe that Libjur amm^^Ks 
m this Parifh, but the Billiop never laboured among us, nor was hcr^ 
that ever I heard ofv nor do I know one in the Parilh, that ufctli 
not to T'ravaHc, that ever faw him, and few that by hcatfay know his 

Kom. 15.7. I'i- Receive ye one another as Chriji alfo received its^ tjt!:e 
GhryofGnd, 6. That ye may tpith nne mind and »ne mouth glorifie God — •— 
ofwhichfatth Dy. Hammond, [That ye mty joyn unanimoujly Jews <«'!./ 
Gentiles intoone, andjffcmbUngtozcther, worfhip.tnd firve the Lord, wherefore 
in all htimdity of condejcenfwn and kjndnefi, embrace andfitccour one another^ 
help them up tvhen they are fallen, injlead of defpifvig and driving them from 
your communion z*. 1 4. \_Able alj'o to adminipj one another fo Col. 3.15. Teach- 
ing and admonifhing one another in P films, and Hymns dut more of 
this in the 2d. part. 

5. Lalily it is their part to admonifh a brother that offcndeih, and if 
hchearnor, to .rake two or three witncflTts, and if he hear not to 
tell the Church Mjtth. 18. 15. ("of which fee Dr. Hamnonh Annot. and 
ofthe Kcys^. But all this rcquircthperlbnal knowledge and propin- 

Obj . It is not neccjf.iry to the being of Church members, th.it eicry one that 
is a Church member k^onf them : many in London knoiv not their next Neigh- 

Anf I Speak not. i. Cf the A(fV, butof tlie Toirer ox Capacity zn<\^ 
\hcRel.ition with its end. 2. I fpcak not of every member, but of fo 
great a part as denominatcth the Church. 

I. As a Pallor who by licknefs or other impediment prcachcth not of 
a longtime, niay yet be i Pallor, becaufc he hatii. i. The Power. 2. 
And a Relation whofe end is the Inllrudting of the Flocit. 5'. And he 
intcndcththc exercifeas foon as the impediment is removed (or iflijy- 
ncfs or any.culpable neglcd be the caufc, that altereth not the natuit 
oftheoriicc, but provcth him faulty^: So a member that is. 1. Cap- 
able. 2. Related to the end, may be a member , though ncglcttt or im- 
pedimentskeep them from the cxcrcifc of much of that which they o- 
therwifcmay do. He that dwtileth in the Neighborhood maydoall 
theft Offices to another, if he- wil!,whcn opportunity callcth for it i atid 
therefore may be fo obliged to it : But fo cannot he that dwclleth our of 
reach. Citizcn^or members of Corporations arc in'a capaci.'v. 'or offices 
belonging to the focety, though fome may ncgleft thcm.and others want 
opportunity to do tlrcito but one out of reach is uncapablc ot the duty and 
therefore uncapableci the Relation, which is made vpoUyUgaiion ro th; t 
duty when there iscaufc. The Relation is cffentially a Poivcr SlXxS obligation 
to the Duty : And the Vijpofjtio matcriitis ncceffary to the reception of the 
fjrtne. He therefore that is not in a capable means.by co/v/'/^.?t/i7;/, is not 



Hjjtma difpofita,:xT\d can neither have Potver nor cMigation to the diityes of 
a Church member tovyaras the reft, and fo cannot have the Relative 
lorm, or be indeed a men:bcr. And therefore all that write judiciouf- 
ly of the dehnitionof a particular Church, do maiie Propinquity or 
Cohabitation, to be the Difpfitio miterix fine qiu uon-, From which 
rhey are called P.:r/Jhioncrs. They are> not a Chnrch bccaiife a P^rz/^j 
but tlieyaie ihcrefore the materia diffofita zs to this partot the capacity 
extrinllck ( Chriliianity bting it that maketh them intrinfecally lit ma- 
terials J. 

.2. And Idfnynot but feme fe\v members may be feveral waies un- 
capable naturally of the ordinary offices of members : Some by infancy, 
feme by diftradtion, fome by iickncfs, fome by the rellraint of Parents 
Maiicrs or Husbands, andfome by aretireddifpoiltion, &c. And lome 
Churches may be fo iinfully over-great, as that the nrmber hindereth 
many of the members from a capacity of the ordinary duty of the re^ 
lation i which is the cafe of fome great Pariflies in London: But either 
thi.) is the cafe of the greater part and main body of the Society, or bL,t 
cf a few. If but of a few, it may prove it a difordcn-d Chr.rch, but it 
cannot prove it no Church ■, no more than a few Heretic'ks can denomi- 
nate the Church Heretical^ or a few mad , or leprous pcrfors, can de- 
nominate it mad or leprous, cr than the family of 2V/7j/j, Vjvid^ Chrijl^ 
•was denominated from a C/7.2/K, an Jbfolom^ z Judas. Eurifit be the 
main body ( though in intrinlickqualihcations, the Church may be de- 
nominated from the better 'pzn fom,etimes and not from the greater, yet^ 
in sxtrinfick qualifications, it is now to be denominated a Church only 
from the Paftor and that number who are capable of the relation fas 
being the two conllitutive parts ) and all the relt are none of the 
Church; And if there be no fuchWj) united to the Pallor for true 
Church ends, and capable of them, it is no Church. 

Obj. But it is enough to ma\e one Church, if they he all united in one Bijli- 
■0/) or Gevernour ^though their dijhince make them uneatable of kno:vuig one ano- 
ther, and doing tvhat you have defcribed . 

Anf. It is enough indeed to make a Church of zxioxhcx fpcciis^ fuch as I 
before named, either the Catholick Church through oat the world, or a 
Chi:rch compofed of many particular Churches (if it maybecalkda 
■Church ) : Bccaufe their Communion is not to be Lo.-al or prefint^ nor 
to the ends of a particular Church i but only intrindeal inhaithahd 
Love, and cxtrinfical by Delegates or Mediators, hut tliis is not enough 
-to the bei/:g ot a Church of the fiill order which now we fp^ak of, vvliich 
■fhould have a Bilhopof thtir own, and is not compcfcd of many united 
Churches. lorelfe the Church of a Patriarkor a Primate, or an Arch - 
Bifliop or Mttrcpolitane, fhould be a Church gt the lirfl order, and have 
no church or Bifliop under it. For fuch a Church is tniited in one Go- - 
vtrncur. (To fay nothing of the Papa! Church, which yet pretend- 
.edir.ot to depofcallBifliops.j Therefore the unity of the Govcrnoux 



will notfufficcofit fcirtomakc one Primary Church i though it may 
make one Compounded or General Church conteining many Churches 
and Bifhops. 2. .\nd the nature of the thing telleth us, that as the 
Teffple, have their Vutici and Trivilidgts as well as the Paftors, fo the 
people mufi be united among themfelves, by fomc common Relation, 
conteining Pmxr ofand(?W/^jf/o« to that duty, and capacity of thatpri- 
viledge : Which ispaftall li/urtttamong knowing men. Therefore an 
uncapable body cannot be made one Primary Church, by the unity of 
a Prelate. 3. But as we diHinguifli of a Church fnigle and compounded of 
many, particular and GentraL Primary and Seco'id try, (all whicii termcs f 
ufe to be clearly underllood^, fo do we alfo ot Bifliops or Pallors : which 
are particnlar Eiftiops of one Church , or General Bilhops o( mmy 
Churches. Of the Hdlfort we confefs all that isfaid pofitively, that is, 
that one fuch Bifhop mzVcxh one Chttrch. Bccaufc the very nature of his 
oflicc, as (hall be after fhewcd, doth luppofc a capable focicty. It being 
his office in prcfencc perfonally to condud them \ which a General dill- 
ant Bilhop cannot do, fo that indeed, one Prefcnt Palhr for more) of 
iflock^ by ChrijtiaNity and Vicinity cipMe, and by confent united with him 
and one amther for prefential Communion in pHhtickjPOijJjip and holy converfa^ 
tian, are the con/titutive paits by which a Primary Church iselTcntiatcd 
and muH be defined. 

Obj. Eut (ven the Preshyterimf fay that mar.y rvirfhiping congrtJitioni 
miy mj.ke up one Governed Church, though each congregation have ordinary 
Communion in the Sacrament, &c. amvig themfelves dijiinU from the reji-, 
becaufe ihiy m.ty he all united in the Government of one Preslytcry. And 
our ordinary Panfljes have Chappels in them, and yet are one Church. 

Anf. I. Wemult be excufcd tiom fubmitting now to the opinions 
of Pra^yiiT/j/i/oranyother party, while we are giving an account of our 
own judgment in the cafe. 

2. The Prf/t)ffr/<n/are not all ofa mind in that point, whether each 
of thole Parilhcs be not atrue political Church, and have not its own 
plenary Pallor or Eifliop, and iuch a Government as bclongcth to a par- 
ticular Church, though (as they all think) fubordinatc to a Prc/^m-)- 
of many Churches conjundf i, or as fume call it) of one Church denomi- 
nated fofiom the higher Governnicnc. 

3. And as to our Chappcls ordinarily they arc but places for the Af- 
.femblingot fitch as by age or foul weather or wca-kncis cannot travailc 
tothe Parilh Cluirchcs, and they are for didance and number in thofc 
Parilhcs that have them, no more or other, than may conLft ret only 
with the pcrfonal acquaintance n1 theiiKmbersot the Par:(b Church, but 
alfo with the frequent Communion of them all , by turnes in the fame 
Parith Chi:rch, it the y pteafc to travailc to it, as they may. So that 
thcfe Chappcls of eafe,3<i they arc commonly called, arc not inconiillenf. 
with ail the fove-dtfcnbed cr.ds and dutyesot Church' iticmbcrs: And 
even the Indc^cndants do contcfs. that agc,diUanve . pcrfecutioo,c^c» 

• ' -S ma*' 

may allow one of their Churches to meet at once in fcveral houfes or 
places, where fcveral Pafiors may pro /fw/arc officiate : and yet, thiscon^ 
iilreth with all the foremen tioncd ends of the relation. 

4. And indeed difordcrs and cpnfuHons in Churches, muft not be our 
rr-caftre, to judge of their Nature andconilitution by, though one in a 
.S\voonctTiay be hardly difccrned from a dead man, yet ittP is neverthclefs 
clTi:ntial to a man.. The Principalities in Gcrmmy may be fo curtalcd. 
and intangkd, that itfhallbe haidsfor Lawyers to judge wiiethcr the 
Princes be proper Sovcra ins and Mpnarcbs or not. And yet what dorh 
cpnftitute Monarchy and Soveraig^nity b known. A Ship may be made 
f« little, and a Eargc fo big, as that it may be iiard to diiiinguifh them by 
name; and yet a Ship and Barge are diveis. If in one great houfc, there 
Jje (ii-veral men with their Wives Children and Servants, in f:veral rooms 
or parts, and one have (one fupcriority over tlie rcii, they being free 
purny-mcn or labourers under him, the degree ot the Povvcj ofthechief 
Mafter here may be in feveral cafes fo various, as that it Ihall be hard (or. 
any aian to fay, whether this be one Fjmily only or ma.>iy. But muft we 
therefore remove all diilindion of Families, orforfake the old and ufual 
definition. The fame I fay of Trimary perticttlar Churches. Stepney Parifh 
ox GiliT Criplegjtc, or Martins in the fields may be fo great, as to make 
a doubt of it, v/hethcr they are (Ingle Churches i and fo may fomeLa>ics. 
lihirt Parifhes, that have very diftant and large Chapelries. But (hall the 
djfeafc or extaordinary cafe, or dic(Eulty of fuch a Parifh, make us change 
the old and true definition of a Church? 

And thus fome Presbyterians have argued from the Mul titude of Con- 
verts at ymz/i/ew; and Ephcfuf, that they could not be one particular 
Church, fo as to meet all in oneplaccfwhich is the common and ilrongcll 
objedion againli us J. But i, undoubtedly there were many Grangers, 
there, that were ready to pafs away to other places. 2, And the' Spirit 
Itnew tliat the Church was quickly by pcrfecution to be (cattercd. 2 . 
And on a fuddain there was not time to fettle them in exa(fl order,as after- 
ward they did in all the Churches. AUs, i^. 23. But many Apodlcs being 
there they might tranhently have divers meetings at once, 4. And the 
rumber anddiiiance ot them all was no greater then might con()/t with 
the (brcmentioned Church Ends and definition. They that meet one 
day with one Apolilc, might meet the next day with another, and might 
have fcrfoul Comniiinion and Coiaerfation. And 5. The text faith 
that they did meet all in one place: and asDofflor fhrnmond aiorecked 
faith, they deny the plain text that do deny it : they were not diftri- 
buted into divers aHcmbles i and ^hcl_All'] that meet togetber^matt mean 
the greater pjrt. oh he Church members at oncc. And I my (elf have Preache d - 
toa Con^regation/uppofcd by underftandingpcr fons in it,tQ be (ix thou - 
sand, and all to have h eard ; and as many more might have heard the 
next day : and io twenty thoufand might make a Church, when vicinity 
m^ke<h thcmptherv.ife capable j at^d in Jitdie^ we, (irid that men fpeaking 

( '3» ) 

to Armies, yea the Enemies Armies, (hew that far trorc could hear dt 
once then can do with us Cwhethcr voices or aire did make the difference 
I Know not) and if the fore-named Parifhes that have but one ordinary 
meeting place, have 30000 or 40000 or 50000 fouls in them, we may 
conjedture at the cafe ot JerufaUm hereby i For though among thofc new 
Converts, there were not fo many ncgkdcrs of the Afl'emblics, yet the 
pafling Grangers might be many. 

To make the cafe plain,! would butdefire thcdiffentcrs to confider. 4, 
whether that Gods publick worlhip be not a duty ? Even the Com- 
munion of ChriAians in Dodrrine, Prayer and Sacrament? 

2. whether there mull notbefome prefcnt Paflors to officiate before 
the Church in all thefe? 

3. Whether this Congregation muHnotbe Chrirtians, and perfons 
qualiHed for Communion? and whether the Churches have not aln-aies 
( by the holy Spirits appointment) differenced between ChrijlijNS 
and Inhdels, and between Heretical or flagitious pcrfons, and the 
•orderly and obedient ? and admitted thcHrn (ortonly to Communion ? 

4. Whether he that is prefent land delivtreth the Sacrament, fhould 
not know what he doth, and to whom he givsth it, and fhould not in 
the adminiftting make a difference, and keep away the Inhdcis, Hcri- 
ticks and openly flagitious, and fliould not know the people whom he 

5. And whether he can do all or any of this , to a tranficni multr- 
tude, that as the waters of a river arc paifingaway, whenhc flill fccth 
llrange faces cnly, and thofc arc his Auditors, and Commuicants, whom, 
lie never faw before, or knowcth : how can he know whether they arc 
iBaptizedChrillians, or unb.ipti?ed, Jews or other Infidels ? 

6. Therefore is not an ordinary Cohabitatior,"or vicinity, ofnectfTity 
to a fixed Church and Pallor, that he may know them, and they may 
know each other ? Thcfc things 1 fuppofe arc paftdifputc, 

7. And then Task whtthcr fucha ft)ciety as thisbe not a true Church? 
and fuch as is dcfcribed in fcripture ? and fuch as fhould ordinarily be 
continued in the world .<' whether it be rart of a more compounded 
general Chin-ch, ard under the general ovsrlight of Apolfolical Bilhops, 
is none of my qnellion now i hut whether this be not an ordinary polith" 
cal Church, of the hrll order ? 

8. And if fo, whether every fuch Church by /^^s. 14. 23, fliould 
■rot have fuch Elders as are there mentioned, which Dodtor HimiKonS 

mai.'itaincth to be Eilh^ps ? or Ihould net have fuch Epifcni^ot gregis over- 
iecrs of this flock, as are impowtrtd to do all the fbrefaid works otthefc 
proper G/Hce ? of which next. 

« 4 <C M A l\ 


C H A P. X I. 


Thati a Bijljnp or P^JJor ofa particultr Church of the firji- rank^afore^ 
dcjiribecl, Ktujl G&v^r}: it jiatcdl)',. as prcjcut hy himfdf and net 
as ift abfence by atJOther.. 

mi ehry- TVJO'hing hjth more deceived men fnext to Infidelity and Carnality) 
lottom de J.^ in this controverfie, than want of experience : Judging by a noife of 
ficerdotio vvords.otTuch matters as they never faithfuly tryed. Had m:n well tryei 
^■^^'/nabrnt^^^^ years what it is to do the Office ofa Pa(]or,they would eafily know 
''ofmallA to whom it bclongeth. But when either Univerfity fiudeots, or No * 
part of a minal Pallors do Ibnd by and look on, or read and hear only: of the nam e 
SiJJiops^ or^. of Church-Power and Governm ent,and ne ver did more themfclves, thag 
^hM-ee'as- fo preach and fay the fervice of the Church, or nowa nd the n villt aiick 
llxcaie of man, or dine or talk on thety with a neighbour, qrat mojj hearChil - 
virgins j en fay, their Catechilm, iFls-no wonder it they talk at randqmCj^^and 
faith. B«f '/think that a manjnay. be the only Biftiop of many hundred Churches, 
tlMt'tbere'ii and Govem them per alios, or at twenty, or fourty, or an hundred mile s 
m need of o diftance, by mecr villting or meeting the Clergy, and dining with them . 
Bifhap to Qixce in three Years . 

wjthfuchthiags asthefe; Let him l(now thatupinUm will fall all the cares of \'vc%\x& duty, and foaH 
tii^ iKcufations n-hicb jhall becafton Virgins.- And therefore it is much better if he adminijhing the bufi- 
nefs himfelf he P}all be void of thofecaufes, rvbich hemufi fufleine brothers offences; thus leaving that 
adminijiration M live in fear of giving account or being )udged for the fins rvhich others do commit. Adde 
alfo,, that he that performeth this office by himfelf, tranfalteth alt with great facility. But he that is ne- 
ce^uatedto do it by the vicarious labour of others., bcfides that it is a great bujinefs to him to perfwade all 
trjens minds well to perfirme the work_'-) certainly he himfelf hath not fomuch remiffion of his labour by ab- 
Jiaining from that 'iffice , as he mufi fufiaine b.ifmefs and troubles from them t'lat rejijl, andjhive againjl 
bis judgment and opinion.'] And if fogreat a Biffiop as the Patriavksof Conftancinople mujlnotdo fi 
fyialla partofhhs worl^^ per altos, alas, what a life do our Diocefans live..' 

I Ihall here therefore prove that the nature.of the Frimary Epip:opjcy( or 
Tmiculur, if the word Frimary be cavilled at J is fuch, as cannot be done 
in abfence, nor per alios hy fubftitutcs, in any of its Proper ^.^rfjt, but only 
by a prefeiit Eijhop or Paflor himfelf. 

Andhcrelir Aremember that I fay [in any-ofits proper parts, as diftinguifl>- 
ingthe proper works ot the facred Minidry, from thofe that are Ptf«»/W7ji . 
t© other merjind.thcfe that are but Accidents or Circum^!|antial. As a Bi- 
fcop may plow his land, or. build his houfe, or faddle his horfc, .by an- 
other, (b I doubt not but he may appoint another to toll the EdJl to Church 
to cover the ho]y Table, to receive CoIIcdiions, to read Proclamations,, 
to keep the Church doors, to repair the building, to bring .relief to the , 
Ppo»} to de. that. abQucfaaed-.tkingSy. which is comraoa to, Lay men , 


withMinifictsi even to read the Pfalm , tocliufeir, to fet the tune, fo 
publifli Marriages, to name to the people the times of meeting, to read 
the Scriptures, to be mcfTcngcrs to fummon accufcd offenders, to tell 
the Church, to fummon witnefTcs, to hear witnciTes and conftiTions > All 
thcfe he may appoint a fervant or another to do, bccaufe they are but 
accidental to his Office, and no part of his proper work > but that his 
proper rrorl^ muft be done by himfclf^ and tiiat as prefent ordinarily with the 
people whom he Governcth, the enumerations of the particular will 

1. The work of fuch a Ei(hop is Publick in the facred Aflemblies. 

2. Or out of the Aflcmbiics by way of applicatioon to particular 
Tctfonsand ca(es. 

1. In the Afllmblics, i. It is the Eithopsoffice tobc the c/iA/ Ttjci.- 
f '■of the Church i to preach, inlkudf, exhort and comfort them ufually 
himfelf i And when he doth if not himfclf to appoint another, and- 
judge of his performance. CUhall rcferve the proof to the 2d. part, 
where all. this is to be reviewed to a further ufc.^ And this is the work 
cfoncthatis prcfcnt. 

2. He is to be the mouth or Interccfibr of the' people, as a PrieH un- 
der Chrid the Great high Priell and Interccffor : To pray in the Af- 
fcmbly, to be their mouth in the common confcirion of fins : Topraife 
God and give thanks with and for thcin s to whom they are to joyn in 
confcHt with their Amenjfat lea/Lj And this is the work oii pre/cat Per- 

3. He is to Baptize and admit per fons into the vifible Church i Or 
to tr) andjudgwho is ht tobc Baptiycd, and to admit them by (bme 
otherMiniflerof'Chritl vbut hecan neither Baptize, nor try and judge 
particularly who is to be baptized fat Icalt of the Adult J unlcfs he he 
prefent and know the pcifons, and hear his confetlion and receive his 

4. He is to Celebrate the Supper of the Lord , to confecrate the 
Bread and Wine, to be the Mcflcngcrof Chrifl in his name to deliver 
them as his body and blood, and the Seals of his Love, and of Remif- 
lionof fms unto the people, and ib to commemorate his death till he 
come, and as his Steward to give his lioufelhold meat in feafoni but this 
is all the work of a Prcfcnt znd not an abfcnt ?erfin. 

5. Fie is to be the judge of theclaimc and titleof the pcrfons that 
come to the Churches Communion', to fee that Intidels and incapable 
pcrfons be not there, which isncK well done by one that is not ordinari-- 
ly prefent, even inthe Adminifkation tofee to whom it is admini- 

6. He is to be the chief publick reprover, andadmoniOier of Scan- 
dalous, pcrfons by name, who are fo to be openly reproved and admo- 
nilhcd in the Church, which hc cannot well do if he be not in the Church- 

S"3_. ; __. 7' He 


' * y. He is to be the chief publick Excommiinicator of the obflinatcly 
wicked, todcclare before all that fuch a pcrfon is uncapable ofcom- 

iTiunion with the Church : which is not well done by one that is not 

there to do it i as fhall anon be further opened. 

8. The fame is to be faid of publick Ablolution, when the Penitent 

is piiblikelv taken into the Church, or judged and declared to be 


/.^rtcVthe P- And the blcding of the people- in the name of the Lord, at the 
(huw'}, .dilmidionofthe AfTtmbly hathof old been referved to the Bifhop as his 
rrcancrh part which is to be done by one that is there prefent. 
*''"/'r/.r"' ^ ^- ^'^'^ ^^ ^^^ ^^°^^ ^'^^ ^^ Application to perfons and cafes which arc 
^cmblyor ^°^^ done out of the AlTembly, i. To be at hand for the peophto 
inulntkdi, repair to in their greater doubts for refokition, and grcateft difKcul- 
rt;ia'"5fo)i/y ties for dircdion (asa Phyfician arnongthe lick) is not the lead part 
|°^'''p-'^^'*_'ofthetrue Eifhops work. And this rcquireth his ufual prefence and 
fan Bi(}iop fome acquaintance ufually with the perfons life; No man will expedt that 
fwhcn per- all fuch doubting people travaile to a ftrange Bifliop many fcore mifcs 
h.ips om diftant, or out of their reach. 

'""'6^' 7« ^' To hearthcconfetrions and cafes of burdened penitent fouls and 
mcUh'im), fo dired thein in the true way to peace and comfort, i's a fpecial part of 
fee Grotius the Bifhops work befidcs his refolution of Docffrinal doubts which rc- 
himfeijin quireth piefence, and acquaintance (ufually) with the pcrfbn. 

hisAnmr. .j^ is part of the Bifhops work to watch over the peoples converft- 

cntbe lext . ■' i^, ii- • ^ \ r /-ii 

imdh'is f'on, and to Ice that they live not in mortal Imsor Icandalous courfcsi 

p-oojoutof and to rf prove them that do, anddraw them to repentance. And all 
Tcrrullian this is a prefent ptrfoHS work^ 

"sei'dt"' '^- ^^^^ ^^^ Bifliops work to fee tliat the families of the flock be or- 
ErJ'mus t^e=rcd in the fear of God, and that Parents and Mafkrs do their duties, 
m the pl.ice. 2nd indulge not wicktdnefs in their houfes, which isalfoa prefent per- 

And many [q^S work. 

"he7/me ^' '^ '^ the Eilhops work to vifit the fick and to "pray ^ith and for 
'though /ciOTcfbem, vvhich requireth prefence.. 

the Church to be only the Bifliop, w m others the Pi esbytery. Rutlierfords contrary reafin is but a full.icy, 
1'/^. [Toe [.•-.me Church ihit tm<(i be heard mull be told, but it is not the Cm^rcgatiw but the Elders that 
mull be heard. Ergo Sec, Anf. T.e Church confij^ing of the Paftor and people inufi be told, and they have 
all ears that without confufn can hear at once, hat they camnt without conUtfion afl fpeal^ at oncc^ there- 
fore one mufl fpeal^for all. For this argument would c^'jually prive that it is not any Frcsbitery or Cmrt, or 
mam Mniflers that (Inuld he told, if it be but etie that is to fpealf^ to the' (inner : And it it 
not iiecejjary that they all fpeal^ to him. As the chief Judge fpeakctb fir all the Bench, and 
the PmlocKtor for all the S)nod, and yar the Court ox Synod may b.e cotriflajned to ; fo is it hear: 
Tse fame nan may fee with tivo eyes and hear with two ears, and yet fpeai^ but with one tongue f)et 
this reaj h once deceived me. J 

Seeing then that Chrili, infiitutidi thus much of difciplinc in etch particufar thurcb , h is dear 
•that by his in(iitktian every («rticuLir Church faf\idated for. prcfential Com>pnnionJ f^mdd hofyc^ifg 
srtnore pajhrs aiiibrriXfd jor Jo milcbdijcif line \vkicb is that which we plead for, , *• , ,, 

€. It 


6. It is the Bidiops work to ftir up the people tliat areduU and back- 
ward to their feveral duties, in piiblick and in private, and to provoke 
thcin to love and to good works which is the work e(p:cially of frefmt 
and rotofabfcnt men. 

7. And it ishisduty tohavea fpecialcarcofthepoor, and tofecthat. 
they be relieved > which he will r.evcr do well in abicnce ar.d to the un- 

8. And it is confclTcd to be the Eiiliops work to admonifh the un- 
ruly , to reprove and exliort ungodly perfons , to convince gain- 
faycrs, to hear the accufcd fpcak fur thcmfeivcs, to licar what accufcrs 
and vvitneffcs (ay againii them j which rcquireth prefcnce, as (hall be 
further Ihcwn anon. 

Obj. Other mtii miy exitffiiteivitncjfu and reprove offenders ■> therefore this 
may be committed to another. 

Anf. Other men may doit on another obligation, in another manner, 
to another end: But to do it froin the Paltoral obligation, in a Pa- 
firral manner; to Palioral cnJ>, is proper to the Paltors of the 

Obj. A BiJJjnf) may recehe accufit ions by prepntmenit, or by informatioii^ 
and m.i)i fummon offenders^ examine iriinejjes, and jiid^e at a dijlance of per' 
fans that an to him unl^wtvn. 

Anj. He may do what he can that way, when neceility hindcreth him 
from doing better, but not with any true fatisfa<flion to God, the 
Church or Confcicncc to difcharge the office of a particular Church 
Eifliop. In cafe oi title to lands or goods a civil Judicature may judge 
of perfrns that are unknown : D>.caufe the title depcndcth not on the 
moral qualities of the perfons: And in criminal cafes where the quefti- 
on to be judged or rcfolved i<;,w!icthcr the pcrfon Ihall live or die, or 
fhall be fined, imprifoned, banifhcd or not, the cafe may be judged of 
unknown ptr(ons fccundmn allegata & probata : For outward puniihments 
muft go upon outward proved crimes, and the Judges can poiribly do n<j 
more, bccaufe about twelve murt )udge a who^eKingdomc. And yet c- 
ven there they greatly regard qui ;«<■«/?, with what mind and intent 
the deed was done, and they greatly regard the moral qualilications 
of a Witnefs as to his credibility, as tar as they can hnd it out. 
But in Church cales, it is mens consciences that arc to be wrought up- 
on. The hrft intcr.tion-of the Pallor is tobringthe linncrto repentancci 
ycatiiough he continued in penitent never fo long before, he is not to be 
cxcon.municated till at the prefent alf^ he fhewinipenitency. Th^re. 
fore it is more neceffary to be acquainted with the perfon, and many an 
admonition or exhortation (ordinarily) (hould go before. And wiien it 
Cometh to cxccmmunication,thc principal part of that Ad is to acquaint 
the Congregation that the impenitent pcrfon is unfit for Chi r:h commu- 
nion, and tochargc and exhort them to avoid him. And to do this it is 
)aice,(Iary that the t hurcla be taught to abhor the fin, ai;d todo it in ab- 


liorrencc of the fin, and therefore that they be convinced that the perfon 
isfuch a one indeed. For feeing God commandeth them to Love ad the 
faithful and to live with them ia the excrcifes of that Love in peace, if 
Godly men be unjwffly excommunicated, by a Diotrephcs , who recciveth 
them not and cxcrmmiinicatcth fuch as do receive thtm, the Church muft 
notdifiibey God indbeyingfuch a wicked excommunicater. And though 
its true, that for order fake, they mult oft reft fatisHed in the Pallors 
judgment, when they have no reafon to quefiionit-i Yet it is as tru« 
t'hat it is a thing to be done before the Congregation, that they may not 
only cxcrcife a bare obedience to the Palior in it, but alfo an abhorrence 
o'f theiin, which they cannot do that have no fat isfadory notice of the 
eafc i And alfo that all fuipitions of injuftice and Church tyranny in 
their Paltori may be avoided ; And that the offender may be convinced 
before all, that he may be afhamed : And feeii^ no man is to be excom- 
municated for any ordinary great fin, without impenit-ncy in if, fj 
that the" qucfiion is not then fo much whether the man have 
linn'.d, as whether he be Penitent, what man of any exptrience in 
thefe matters can believe that a Eilhops, or a Chancellors Court among 
Grangers, and alfo when he is in fear of being imprifoncd and utterly 
uncione if he be excommunicated, is fo lit to try a rrians repentance, as 
the face of the Congregation wrhcre he is known, and hath no fuch 
motives to conlirain him fo lie, and ufe hypocriiie. Nay in very truth 
fuch judicatures may as eafiiy know beforehand, thatali thei;npcnitent 
perfons that almoft ever come before them, fwhoarenot confcientious 
perlons that take the fin for a duty) will fay they repent^ and play thedif- 
iemblers, as that a Child will cry for forgivenifs to efcape a whipping. 

Obj. But is it imfo much the better ? T'hc Church mnfl have hypocrites : x^'e 
■cannot change the heart \ th.it he/ongs to Cod: If Jve bring men to prnpj} repent- 
ance it is all thdts our part to dj, 

Anf. Hypocrites that cannot be lawfully deteftcd inuft be in the 
Church .- But we muft not therefore m.lte men hypocrites that they may 
be in it i and confirain them to apparent Iying,and then make lying to be 
the Church Title, and the very conftituting qualification of a vijible 
Chrifliani elfe you may fet men on the rack till they fay they repent and 
then abfolve them and p.onouncethem the pardoned Sons of Godi which 
will be a furer way than an imprifbnment. And in this pradicc this do- 
drine which I leave all Chrifiians to judge of,is included, \_Every Sljfpbe- 
mer. Heretic}^ Adulterer, Vrnnkjrd, &c. who had rather fay that he repentetlx, 
than lie in a Gaol atid be undone , ought to be a commtinkating member of the 
Churchy and to be declared pardoned by absolution. 

Yea if there were no Penalty, the face of ftrangers is no fit trial of 
repentance. If the finner be obfiinate, he will catilicr /land it out before 
iirangers that know him not, than before the Congregation which is ac- 
quainted with his guilt. But ufually he will think, that it is no great 
Xhame to fay, I repent before a few iirangers, who are never like to feje him ■ 


( m ) 

more, and thtrefore this he will cafily yield to , that would not yield to 
confcflion and repentance before the Church that is acquainted with 
them; Experifncc proveth ail this to be true : And I regard not their' 
reafoninps whicii are againll common experience. 

Obj. B«t we fee that many now will rather jland it oHt, and goto p-i- 
fin^ than they will frofefs repentance before a BrJJjop^or st a chancellourt 

Anf. But who be thofe ? Not drunkards or fornicatois or any wick- 
ed livers ; But men that more fear to fin again/t God, who can caft 
both foul and body into Hell, than to lie in prifon: perhaps it is fuch 
Mini/krs as now are lilcnccd for not faying, fubfcribing orfwearing as 
they are bid: or it is lomeCIn;rch- Wardens who fear that they (houJd 
be guilty of Vcrfc-.ution or Perjury fwhich in their opinion arc neither 
of them things indifferent) if they Ihould take the Oaths with the Articles" 
that lometimes are offered them. Or perhaps it isfome one for not re- 
ceiving the Sacrament, cither when a troubled Lonfcicncc maketh them 
fear kit they Ihould cat and drink damnation to thcmftlves, or from 
a Miniller,or with a Church, wiiich they think the Scripture ccmmand- 
eth thtm to avoid : whexhcr {uch be in the right or in the wrong, ro 
wonder if they refufe to repent, though they liitfcr, when they tear a 
greater fullering from God. 

Obj B«/ the Minijicr of the place, though he cxcommunicatcf none, may 
feeJ{ to bring the finncr to repentance, a/.d mjy fjtis^c the Church i>f thcjujinej} 
of the excommunication. 

Anf.i. In the nature of the thing, they go together, and are thework 
of the fame perfons; And therefore 2fr/«///j« allureth us, that in his 
time, Dikipline was cxercifed in the Church-meeting, when they had 
been worlhipping God- 2. Who is either fo ht,or fo obliged to fatishethc 
Church of the Ai^, as he that dotli it, and hath examined all theCaufc ? 
A parilh Miniltcr cannot bring any unwilling perfon to come over to 
fpeak witli him, ( not that we would have him have a forcing power: 
buthccannotdo his own Minillerial part, whichis torttufc to be the 
Paftor uf fuch a man as refuftih to fpeak with him at all, or to take 
him for hisPai]o/,ror totorbcar hiii (elt to give him the Sacrament^: 
fo that he that neither heard the examination oi the Caufe by tixChan- 
cellor,nor perhaps c:.n iiaveany fpeech with^the perfon, or at leall with 
the Accufer, or any of the Witnefles, is very unht tojuliitic another mans 
ad, and to (Jtishe the Church that it is well done ••> niuch lefs to exhort 
theortender to repent, who to him perhaps (\i h.r vouchfafe to fpeak to 
iiimj will ji.ltif.c his ovvncaulc, when he cannot call witnefies to con- 
vince him. And (^to'fpcak to that wliicii is our common cjfc) wc 
liave few perfons excon municaied (" that ever I fiw or knew of in for- 
ty years time) lave only the Cc'tifciemious perlons beforcmchiioncj ; 
And when the parilh Minilier ott lakcth. them lur ihc »;odlieh pcifuns in 
ills Parilh, and thcEilhop 01 Chancellor excoir.municatts them aslmpc- 

T nituc 


nitent fchifmatick), how (Viall fuch a parifh Minifter ial>ilig thaf, and fi- 
tisHe the perfon or people of the juflice oF it, which he himfelF la « 
mcntcth as a hainous lin, which tendeth to the diiripation ot hi s 

But I come nearer to enquire into this off dating per c^'ium by which 
inabfent Bijhop is fuppofcd to do his office in the feveral Parilhes of his 
Diocefe. * 

I. That alias or Official is either a Laymtn^ or a Clergyman. 2. If a 
Clcrgymj/i, he is either one of the fame Order mth the Bilhop or another. 
3. Either it is the mecr accidentals of his facred fundion, which he 
cnmmittcth to another, or the /ro/jcr ^4^/ of it. 4. Either hispra bac 
vice in fonae cafe of neceffity, or it is as by an ordinary ftated OUi- 

' r; If it be a Layman and the work be but Accidental or Extrinfick 
to the facred fundion, I grant that he may do it; But for fuch works 
we need no Bi(hop : For what a Layman may do when he bids him, he 
may do when the King cr his Magiftrates bids him. This is not the 
thing in queftion. But if it be a proper Paftoral A7, this Layman that 
doth it, either receiveth from theBiJhop porver and obligation to do it^or 
not. If not^ he cannot do it as his Official ; If he do, ihen he is a Pa- 
ft or or EiJJ} op himf^lf, and \s Ordained-, and Co no Layman: For I provoke 
any diflTenter living to tell me wherein the facred office Cor any other J 
iicth, but in a Power ("or Authority) and an Obligation to do the proper reork^ 
of that office, fo th^t undeniably here isa contradiftion. 

And if any were of opinion that pro tempore in a cafe of n'^ceffity a 
Layman might do any Minifterial facred a<ft, as Preach, Baptize, Con- 
fecrate the Sacrament of ChriWs body and blood, excommunicate, ab- 
folve,€^c. i.Ianfvver, if that were true, it would but prove that thofe 
Adls are not proper to tht facred fundion in fuch a cafe of neceilityas 
fingleAds, but only as ordinarily and ftatedly d;)ne by one feparated 
to them. 2. And therefore this would not at all concern our cafe, 
which is not about extroardinary Ads in cafes of necelfity, but 
about an ordinary f\ated courfe , by Courts, Chancellors, and Offi- 

2. But if the Agent or Official were not a Lay Chancellor but a 
Clergyman., if he be of the hmzOrder with theBifhop, than I grant all, 
for it granteth me all ■■> even that every Church (liould have an fordi- 
rarily J prefcnt Biffiop. But if he be fuppofcd to be but of an inferi- 
or Order, then I proceed as before v either the Bidiop giveth \\im power 
and obligation to do the proper reoT\ of the Bifhopor not ; If not, he is 
not hereby enabled to do it. If yea, then he' hath thereby made him 
■a-Eilhop : For to be a Bifhop is nothing elfe than to have Authority and 
i>bligation to do thQ proper wor^ of a Bifhop. But if it be but znAcci» 
d!f«t{»i or a co»j»B(7// work, which another may do, it is not that in que- 
iiion, nor do we need the Office of a Biilwp for if* - — _ . , 



Moreover either theBirtiop pro hie & khuc washimMf obliged to do 
ibat ^fif which lie committcth to another, or not he but the d//ay was by 
cffice obliged to do it. It he himftU was obliged to do it,he finned in not 
doirg it. If he werenot,it wasnot truly his adt or part of hiso/^Uce work; 
nor did he do it by another, but that otherdid only his own wcrk i (or 
which not the Bi(hop,but he (ball have the reward. 

Ob). But doth not he tbatfcndcth his fcrvant top.iy a debt, himfelfin Laiv- 
fenfe pay it per alium ? rphat another doth ai his Injlrumeiit, rcputativcly he doti 

Anf I grant it i bccaufc it is none of the debtors proper work, nor 
is he at all obliged to it, to bring the nioney and deliver it hinifcit", but 
to caufe it to be delivered ; Therefore in/in^/z/zg it, he doth all that he 
is obliged to do, and when another is his inltrument, if is fuppofcd 
that he is not obliged him(elftodo that which his instrument doth, but 
only tocaiifc the doing of it, by himfelforanlnlirumcnt, ashcplcafe: fo 
thatftil this is notliing to the cafe of a work that is proper tothcBi- 
fliops Office. 

Obj. But Tve therefore grant tliat it is not proper to the Eijhnps Office to 
£u</ge, ExcomMunicjte, oi Ahfoht, but only to Rule the Adion^hy giving 
another poiver to do it. 

Anf. I. If fo, then nothing but Comniiflioning others, is the proper 
■work of the Epifcopal order: and then any Presbyter may /"/i/oro interna 
vel externa ordinarily cxcrcife the whole power of the Keys upon the 
flocks, he may Excommunicate and abfolvc publikly, as an a<ff- common 
to his CfSce with the Bilhops, if it Pleafc the Bifhop to give him Piwer, 
which he may do without making himaBifliop. And if fo, I enquire 
whether God be not the maker of the Presbyters oflice , and not the 
Bilhop ? and wliether God only C defcribing it ) give not all the power by 
way of Law, Charter or In/Htution, and the Bilhop give it not only by 
way of minilierial fulemnization and invelliture ? and if fo, whether he 
that is duely called to the Paltoral office, which God only made and 
difcribcd , wui^ not ( in fcafon } do the works of that office ? wlieiher 
men couimillion him or not P or whether at Itaft he any more need the 
Bilhops commirti 'n tor Church Government, Excommunication and 
Abfolution- than for Preaching and Celebrating the Lords fupper, fee- 
ing both are now thus confefTed adlscommon to the orderof the Pres- 
byter and the Bilhop/ I think all this is pali contradidion 

And I ask then whether that all giving ofpwer to another be proper to 
the Bilhops ordti? Ityi.a, than a-Minillcr cannotgivc nxi. Clerk power 
to chufc thePfalm, or tune, &c. If not, then may nota li.ihop ifhepleafe 
alfo ^.ive power to the Presbyters to ordainc, and to give other men 
power ? For if it be his proper work only to give poa>er toothers to do all 
the facred ads of cHicc, he may give others power to ordain ; and il fo, 
then Oruinaiion will be like Preaching, Sacraments, and pifcipline, whick 
are none of them proper to the Bilhops order, .o vi^. .,j- 


And is not Church difcipline the exercifeof the power of the keys ? If 
then the power of the keys may be exercifed by the Presbyters , whene- 
ver the Biftiops pleafe, itfecms it is common to them, with him, aswell 
as Sacraments, and chereforebelongethnottoaBifhopasaBifliop, butas 
a Presbyter. 
* Difwf of ^^^ '^ '" '"y difpute of ordination ■* I have fully proved that the 
church Go- P^^^^ of the Minifiry is given by Chrift fo farimmediatly, as that it 
\cr. 2. paflTeth not through the hands of Eledors or Ordainers to the rcceiver,but 
is given by the meer Inllrumentality of the Law or inftitution, and that 
the Elcdlors and Ordainers do no more than determineof the quah'rted 
pcrfon that receives it.and publickly invert him,or minifterially folemnize 
his PofTeffion, (as the BurgefTes chufe, and the Steward or Recorder 
invefteth the Major of a Corparation, whofe power floweth immediatly 
from the Charter granted by the King jthen all this conrroverlie is at an 
end ; and I doubt not but that's fully proved. 

And if commanding another to do an office work be all that is proper 
to the Billiop, I ask rvbether any thing there be poper te him -' and fo whether 
we muft have fuch an office ) For may not the King command the Mi- 
niikr to doall the work which belongeth to his function :^ rnay he not 
appoint Magilkates, and make Law to command it ? may he not punish 
thofe that do it not .'' Is he not cuftos utriufq; tahnLe ? and muir he not 
cored mal-adminifiration in minilkrs, and drive them to do their duty ? 
No doubt hemiy. 

Obj. But he duth not ordaineMinifters^ though hzcommmd them to do their 
dnty Tvhen ordained, <■ . 

Anf. 1. Our prefcntqueftion is not about Ordination, but comrHand- 
ing men to Govern the Church by Difcipline or fully to Rule by the Keys 
the people of a particular Church. It thisfo far belong to the Presbyters 
office that he may do it by theBiftiops Licence, let him that can, tell me 
why he may not do it by the Kings Licence ? and then fas they were 
wont to fay of old) exceptaordinatione^ nothing but ordination only is pro- 
per to the Bifhops office. 

And that this is not proper neither, i. This objedinn it felf doth in- 
timate, feeing the Bilhop may give another Poive-r taordaine: Cand then 
why may not the King? ) 2. Many of the Schoolmen, and the Papifts 
thcmfelvesconfcfs , that the Pope (fay fome ) , or PrelatesCfay otheis ) 
may impower an Abbot or Presbyter to ordaine, of which fee that un- 
anfwerable book of Voetius de.defierata canfa Pjpjtris againfi JjnfeniHS 
lor Presbyters ordination. 5. And our Church of E«g/j«icaufeth Pref- 
byters to impofe hands with the Biniops,and Biffiop Dow^jaw aforecited is 
angry with his anfwerer, for fuppoling that he pleaded for fole power of 
ordination in the Bilhop, when he fpakebut foracheifpower. 

And if nothing but a chcifpomer in ordaining be proper to a Biffiop ■■, 

'why then are the Churches fo confounded, and beggered, and altered, 

by a. contrary practice? And why is anewofficeofiBjlhopsfet up-ihtlrc 

/ - world 


world ? whofe work is to hinder the MinKlersofCnriflfrom their offic- 
work,under pretence of a power of Licenling them to it ? when God liccn- 
ceth them to the work, when he calleth them to that oifi.-e, which effenti* 
a!lY,confilieth in 2 poivenndObligit/pn todoit,wheH theyhave opportunity 

Moreover m/ Lord B.icin in his confiderations hath wcH mar.ifcftcd 
(if impartiall wife men could have bin heard _) that the ofHcc of a Bilhop is 
z'fmciion conlilling in the exercife of pe'-fo/ull skilly or abilities: and 
therefore mull be done by him that hath them, and not committed to an- 
other, as the office of ajudg, or Lawyer, of a Fliilitian, of a Tutor , 
&:c. no man choofeth a Tutor or Philitian mcerly to fend another to 
him for his Tutor or Fhifitian, but 10 do the work himfclf. It is not 
like the place of a King, whofe right dcpendcth not on his parts or skill, 
bccaufe he may Govern by others that are able. 

And Grotius (who one would think by their refped' tt him^ (hould 
have been regarded by thcm^ truly faith i/e /'»/»er/(7 /««. />7/rif. Pag. 2p:i 
[Nam lllud ]^^uodqtiis per ilium facit^fcrfe fjccre videtur] ad ear tjntitn 
pert/net aHiones qujfitm canfa efficiaif proxiitu a jure indefiriit.t eft ) that is | For 
ibis Jjyinf^. That tvhofe a man doth by another. he feemetb to do hy himfelf, be^ 
Inngcth only to thofe jdions^ivbich neerejl efficient caufe is not dCj'ined hv the Ljtv] 
Eutfurc when God made the Palloral ofHcc, he meant that the perfons 
called to if, fhould do the work and not only appoint other men to do if. 

And I would know whether the work of a Presbyter (as to confccrae 
and celebrate the Sacrament &cjmay be done per j//«w, by one that i; 
no Presbyter. If not (as all fay not^ then I ask, whether the Bilhoo'^ 
work or the Presbyters be the more ficrcd? If the Presbyters, then his 
Office is more facred : If the Eiffiops for both alike) then that Bilhops 
work, may no more be done per alium then the Presbyters. 

Moreover I know no Bilhops but would willingly be more FvcfpcCled 
and Honoured than the Prcsbjtcrs, and if they ditire, it Ihould bconly 
by way ot/f.:r,thry neither think or wi(h like Minifiersof Chrili, nor like 
fober men. But it by way oflove,who /^wn-f//) not rvbjt ^dvjntjgc the pre- 
jcnt pallor hath above the abfent, cataris paribus, to get the peop'cs love ? 
and Paul would have it to be fo, iThef. 5. 12, 13. Jt it thfe that 
Labour among thenz and admoniJJi them, whoin they mil} ejiecm highly- in 
jLffi'e, not for their titles and dignities, hutfor their rpork fake. And who 
knowcth not that he rhat Lovcth a man for Preaching the word o( {'i\\\\. 
ticnto himjs likelier to c ome to him, whofe doflrine daily edihctli h'm , 
and ccmforteth him, than to him whom one of a hundred of his Dioccfc 
never heard 3 ^"rmon o r a good word from, in all their lives ' If it be 
■ ior tiK' v\or k luke that they mult or will be Loved, isnothe liker cobe 
niofl Loved whci is Hill withtiicm, arid praycth and praifeth God will) 
them, and comtortcth, and conrirmeth them, an d rcfolvetl i theirdoubrs . 
ai;d quictcth their troubled Conlciences, and vilitcth them inhcknc(> , 
and takcth care of the poor, and viiircth ih: m from houfe to houfc, tha n 
he tliat once or nerer came amosg them, and is uuknnown i * And if the 
• ' T 3 people . 


rpcople be Rcbdlious and wicked, it is the prcfent Pajlor who (hall be moft 
}iati.d and oppofcd (which if it be for Chrill is a good and comfortable 
thing, and hath a fpccial promife A/>2f. 5,10. 11, 12. ) And ihatPaftor 
who is molt beloved of the p^ood people, and mort hated by the bad, is ' 
he that will Jo moll e,ood for n.cns falvation, and will have moll comfort 
ill his Soul, a-nd at I'alt the grcatefl reward from God > and that is c£tcrit 
paribus the prdcnt Pallor . . 

And it were %vorth the noting fif blind men would fee) that this is our 
great reafon of theccmtr.on calamities of the Churches : that when the 
bcft of the people love their /'a/f/;* faithfull Pajlors and the worft /wJe them 
n'.oll,ar.d/«t'e beft the Abfent Bifhops that trouble thtm (as they do the dead 
Saints for whom they keep holy daicsj thcle wicked people fly to the 
Eifhop and feck to make the frefent Pallors ftilpeded, or odious to him, 
as Schiimatlcks, or fuch as are againft the Bifhops mind and honour; 
and becaufe thefe Villains Love the abfent Bifhop better then theprefent 
Pafors, therefore the Bifhop Cthat knoweth them not but by hearfayj 
taketh fuch for the honefteil men in the Parifli, and fo taketh their words 
againlttheMiniilers; andftothe utmoft of my experience I fpeak it>r- 
dinarily, that Minilkr fhall pafs with the Bifhop for a Schifmatick, a 
Puritan, a fcditious Felluw, or a flark knave, let him be more Learned 
than Hicrom, more induflriouS than AMguftin, more holy than Macarius^ 
or at leall as fufpeded of thefe crimes, whom the flattering malignant, 
will fo reprclent to him : efpccially if he be a fenfual Gentleman,that can- 
not endure to have his lulls and licentioufnes reproved, or controlled by 
a Miniller of Chrill. And when thefe lies and flanders have encoura- 
ged the ungodly -accufcrs by their fuccefle, while they engage the Bifhop 
againll the prefent Pallors, and caufe him to turn their troubler, hin- 
derer or perfccutor, then is the Prelate and the Pallor become as enemies, 
whole interefls are grown inconfillent, and then they come tohave their 
feveral Parties, and the debauched take one lide, and the fober and 
religious the other, and what followeth upon this, he is mad in this 
.age who is ignorant after fo great exprrience. 

But 1 fliall add more of this lubjedl in the Chapter following. 

C H A P. X I L 

The jujl ppcfiing af:d trnderjiandiNg of the trite nature of the 
Pajtcral ojfuc and Church Government^ Xfonldend theje (on^ 
iroverftes about Epijiopacj. 

He name oi Church Government fo' far deceiveth undifiinguifiiing 
grofs cr inconiiderate wits, as that they take the controverfie to be 


but whether we fliall have order or anarchic, C!tvjrch Government or 
none. As if neither the MagiftratesGovernreent oftl'c Sword were 
any thing, nor yet the Paftors Government by the word. But I would 
fain knowof thcfe men what more it is that they would have, and what 
is the Church Government which they fo much contend for ? 

T. \%\x. ^x\V nmrfjl Legijl.it ion} It is high and damnable Trcafon a- 
gainrt Chrill for any mortal men to claime it. UnivcrUl Lcgillitioa 
is the prerogative of the Univerfal King. There is noUniverlil King 
but Chril't, wiio elf- isGovernour of all tlic world or all tiic Churches 
in the world!* And Chrill hath in nature and Scripture given the world 
already an Univerfal Law. If he hath doncitwell, take not on you 
to amend it. If you fay he hath done it ill, cither take not on you to 
beChrilHans, or elfe call your fclf the Chrid , tiiatis Anti-Chrill, if 
you will take Chrifls place and take uponyou to amend his work. If 
jou dreain of an Univerfal Pope or General Council as having this 
power, you will but inakc true Anti-Chrillsof them, and foolilhly con- 
found a humane conllitution with a Divine, and the Ko;«w Empire 
with j// thcn-orld. For you are ignorant in Charch Hidory if you fee 
rotplainly that Popes, Patriarks, and Primates (land all on the fame 
foundation-, And that both they and Councils (fallty called, General,) 
were b.it Imperial, or conHned to one Princes Dominion, called or 
ruled ufually by the Emperours, who had no power in other Prince? 
Territories : No Councils conteining any conliderable members, but 
fuch as were in that one Empire, or formerly had been of it, ard fo ki pt 
the cuflomc which then they had received, except that the Rom:ns pli- 
ccd one Bifhop on the borders of .fnf/vj or Tjrt.?ry, and one on the bor- 
ders of Pcrfu, in hope that he might have inliucnce further into the 
Countries, and rarely one or two fuch might beat a Council c,:l!ed 
General, fo that certainly there is noUnivcr'al Law-giver or Judgcb.it 
Chril). This therefore is not the Churcii Government of B.Ihops 
which men contend for. 

2, what is it then, is it an Univerfal Expofition of the Scripture 
orofChrillsLaws ?\vhy antxpotition truly Univerfal is ft r Regulation 
as the Lawit felf: And none ever had fuch power (even in civil Go- 
vcrnment_) b.it the Law-givers thcmfclvcs: Elfc the Expolitor of the 
Lawcs fhould be King, and not the maker, feeing it is his fence that 
the fubjcdmufi be ruled by. But if it be a particular decifrve cxpoliti- 
on which you m cane, fuch as a JuJge in deciding particular controvcr- ■ 
lici, Khali fay more to that anon. . 

^. If it beany Coadtive or Coercive pewcr of Church Government 
that you meant , by inulds or Corporal penalties, no Bilhopsas fuch 
liavcany thing to do with it i not only Bilfon, but the generality of the 
I'rchtifls dilclaime it, and conftfs that it bclongeth only to the King 
and Mag'Orates and that they r&ccivc it licm the King, if ever they ex- 
cicife ;ny fjdi. 



4. U'liat is it then, is it tobethc Kings £cclcfiaftlca} Council, topre- 
pare fuch Caroiisas he fliall cnad ? Ot Canons I (hall fay inore anon. 
But though Paftors may be the httcft to Council Kings, yet that giveth 
them no power, nor doth aptitude make an ofHcc, nor is the King fyed 
to them , but may advifc whiih whom h: plcafc. And experienced 
prcfcnt Paflors, arc ufually fitter to give advice in the matcers of Rch'gi- 
or, than they. And even Civil impartial Noblemen hj,e »fiul!y pro- 
ved, wifcr, fcb.rcr ardrr.orc peaceable and I appy Church Cour.cellours 
thin the intertffcd partial Clergy. 

I am not of Erajfus mind, that all Church Government belongeth 
to th^Magiflratcs. I have lately publifhcdmy judgment ot that mat- 
tcr in certain Propohrions to Ludov. Mdinius. But I j^ranr to him 
znd all fobcr in^rartial Divines do g rant, that all forccing Government 
bv the Sword, brlongethto Magiltrates ( and i^arents; only, and not 
" to any Eifliops as fcch . " . _ ~ 

It tbilovveth therefore that no Bifhops power extcndeth to any other 
cTedl, but only to work on the Confciencesot Volunteers, unlefs as the 
Magiftrates or Parents may conftraine them by penalties to fubmit to it. 
Suppofe therefore a while that the Magillrafes force were withdrawn 
ficm yoLr difciplinc, and left-it toitfelr', you would then know bet- 
ter by experience u herein its fircngth conhilcd. That man would then 
Rule the people mioft, who did molt etfcdtually convince their reafon, 
aud prevaile with Confcicnce : and further nothing would be done , 

Arc not. our Eifhops well aware of this- Do they not thcmfelves 

confefs hovv little their Government would ilgnifie above the Govern- 
n:ent of prefcnt Presbyters, unlefs they could give clear convincing 
Rcafons to the people, which abfcnt firangers are unlike to do ? What do 
jou think your peculiar power would lignihe in one year above a Presby- 
ters, if the Magifirate left all at liberty in their Church obedience to 
their Faflors, would not the prcfent Pallors carry almoft all, with 
the bell ar.d fobercft of tie flocks? F.fpccially where Bilhops make it 
I heir office to forbid tie Paflors to do theirs, and to keep them from 
Preaching the word of life ? Their holding fall thefecidar conjunft 
power, and ufing it fo much doth fhew what they truft to ! they fay 
thcmfelves, what would the Keys fignifie without the Sword ? and the 
Pifhops Government prevail, where none are p-nilTied for defpifing it if 
the Bifhop excommunicate a faithful! Prerchcr, neither he ncr hisfloclc 
will muchregardit, butgoe on in thelcrvicc of the Lord. And perhaps' 
feme will cxcon iiiunicatc the Pilhop and be even wiih hiin. O! thaT 
the Magifirates would a fev\> Years try what the Keys candoln E«^/,j/7^ 
of thcmfelves, and valcant quantum v.jlerepojfiint. Not that I would wilh 
him to leave oHiiisown duty, topunirti iin i but let it not be mix':d with 
Church Offices, fo, as that all that (hall be imputed to the Bifhops Keys, 
which is effcdtcd only by the Magi/trates Sword. I deny not but the 
^Iagi^;ratc may moJcratily drive men to hear Gods word, anJ to do 



tlie immediate dutiesoF their places? But not to profefs t?i.if they arc 
Chridians when they arenot.or that they confent to Clnircli Communio a! 
when they do not; Nor to take thofc Privileges which belong not to 
thern ." N.j nun J^Jth right to Church Communion^ who had rather be cxcnm- 
mtinicated then r.fent of fin : Therefore if Gods word and an cxcommi;- 
nication will not bring him to prcfcfs Repentance, he fhouldnotbc 
cither Rackt or Imprilbned, to force him to faj he doth repent, wlVen it 
is certain that he doth not indeed repent, who ivill not profcis it isy 
eaficr means ." Nor hath rhat man riglit taabfolutiaon and Church Com- 
munion , who only prefereth it before a Goalc. The cff'tds of the 
Church Kcycsare talked of but arc indeed urknown^wlierefccular force 
doth dctcirmcn into lyeing profcfilons of repentance anddrivc un- 
willing pcrfons in to the Communion ot the Church: No nnwiijingpcr- 
fon fhotild have the Seal of pardon put into his handy. 

Obj. But JVC c innot fay they arc wnvilling who confent^ though moved by 
the penally nf the L.civ and S word. 

Anf. Yes i he is to becallcd 7w;iv/7///.'ej, who hath not the willingiiefs 
which ChriA maketh neccflary ; He that i'? not rvilling to have Churc'f 
Cewmunion for it felf, and for Chrifi and hii falvjtion, is not w-illing of it 
at all indeed, nor in Gods account; Tor it is only frecdonie from a Prifon 
that lie is willing of, and of Church Communion as a means to that, 
and not as a means to the end tliat God appointed it; As he that con- 
fcntcth to be Baptized only toiicalthe Kings evil, ortofavc his life, is 
rot to be Baptized nor taken for a ChrilHan, nor is it Bapt ifm indeed, 
but t^vichiiiii only \\ h ich lie condntctli to ; fo is it in this ca(e . 

C)bj. But l\nv know \oh hut thcmm hathrighter ends together nrith thef\ 
pcniJJjmcnt brings many a man to reafon and true ripcntancc. 

Anf. You (uppofe your felves that //vivar^/^jn^/ Keys will not prevail 
witli him of thcmfclvcs i and therefore it is that you dcfirc force » 
your own Confcienccs tell you that it is but to avoid punilhment that 
you (uppofe him t© profcfs repentance : Otherwifc when your threats 
have brought him to repentance, try what is the cau^c by remitting the 
penalty on hisbody>and after freely leaving him t.i himfelf. 

Obj. />.'// fmit art lil\c Children thit will hear reafon rvhen tbeirfiub'jo'nnefs 
is fallen don-n : Therefore it miy alfo have better motives for ought you k^otv. 

Anf, I . Men that are dealt with in the matters of Salvation, are not 
to be thus ufcd as Fools and Children about common tliin^;; ; but as 
men that mu/i live and die asthcy choofe . 2. And God hath left us no 
fiich means to bring men into a right Choice in things of thij niture : 
Otherwife you might ftt Infidels on the Rack till they cffnfenf to be Bap- 
tized, or fi.nd them to Prifon, and then fay, how know you but this, 
ns the Rod dothChildren, hath brought them to thc'r witts. But rhc 
Church ofChrift never took this coujfe, nor never thus undcrflood his 
Yvill. 3. 1 he cafe is plain to men that will underltan.l ; When God 
iiath made mens free eonfent tlie Condition of their Sjli\uicn at^J the Pr.)- 

V fiffKl- 


fefoiJ vf a free confent to be the Condition of Church Commtmion fand 
what wife man would have lower that will mt make the Church a 
fvvine (UcJ ? It followeth that the Paltors muft iiave the a'/Vewa'of fiich 
a Profcfii-n of free and voluntary r.onfent^ or elfe they mud not receive fuch 
pcrlf.ns ; Now fuch a one that hath been long tried by the word, and by 
the penalty of Excomi.nication it rclf,and refiifcth to proflfs Repentance, 
but only pro!cflc-th it when no other means will cfcapea Prifon, doth 
not give the Pallor an evidence in the Court of Reafon acceptable, to 
llgnit.e a voluntary Repentance orconfcntv and therefore whatever 
pcffibly rnay be known to God, he is not to be taken into the Church : 
For we mull: judge by evidence, and that is by fuch free profcllionof 
Repentance, as Chriit hath taught us to exped ; and therefore we can 
only Jur'ge that perfon to be one, that had rather fay he rcpcnteth than 
be impriloncd, but not as one that indeed rcpenteth or uelircth Church 
Ccmmunion as fuch, and for trucends> 

Obj- But if he he in the Church though rvithoiit Jlepenta/ice, he may there be 
brought to Repentance aftenvard. 

.AiiJ. Polbbilities are no Rule for us to go by in fuch cafes, fo you 
jnay fay if one be Baptized, before he profcfs to believe or repent, he may 
be brought to it after by hearing in the Church : But this is but to make 
Lawcs for the Church inffead of Chrifts, when we have caft oat his 
Lavvcs.^and to confound the world and the Church by our foolifh advcrfe 
rcafon. He that is in the Church notorioufiv againll or without his will , 
Hands theie but as a tclfimony of the Bilhnps perhdioufnef s : And he 
that will net come in by any rcafoning or intrcating, without the violence 
of the Sword, is in all procefs of humane Tudgment s to be elleemed 
unwilling; The arcient Churches would inde ed importune me n to Bap - 
tifnn but they never baptized any (at agejthat did not intr eat to be 
baptized, and voluntarily make prorcHion of fa ith and repentance. And 
Papifis and Proteftants comiTionly afKrn, that nonefhould bcconfirained 
to be baptized, or to make profcrtion of Chrillianity. Bit the Papifis 
come after ard xcW us thdt ^'Ci wlun one is l\-rptized, hemay becomptlkd 
iy force to all his duty, and ib may be condraincd to Hay in the Church, 
crto return if he for fake it : Their Pvcafons arc, i.Becaufe now he is 
obliged by his own confent, 2. Becaufe he hath put himfelf under the Go- 
vernment of the Church, and therefore muft be Governed by it. Jnf 
But 1. to confent to be a Chrilfian Ruled by Chriil, and to confent to be 
conflrained by force to continue this confent, are two things. Prove the 
latter if you can to be included in our Baptifm ? Contrarily aswe freely 
and not forcedly confent, it is fuppofed that we are accordingly to con- 
tinue it as we began it. 2. And to put our felves under the Government 
of the Church, is not to put our iLlves under the fword ; the Church 
funilhment reachtth no further thenexcomunication : and where a man 
is fully excom.unicated, he is calf out of the Church again: and when 
hQ is out of it, he is not iindex its Government : Indeed he is under the 




Maglflrjlcs Covcyrmciit: Eiuifthat will prove that he miy be piiniflicj 
fr)r not repenting and returning to the Church when txcomunicarc, it 
will prove too tint he iniglu bepunifhed before Bap; ifm, for not repent, 
•ingand being baptized. For though there be (ome aggravations of iiis 
fm that Apnilatiieth to it, yet that difiereth the cafe but as to f he (/t-^w. 
It is for the quality of tlie crime iifelf, tiiat theMagiilrate is topuniflifas 
^'Iurder,Theft, Adultery .^Elafphcmy &-€.) Whether it be in the unbaptized, 
or baptised, or cxcomunicate: But it // for Impenitcncy only in (bmc 
criir.e that the Church doth excommunicate. And if the Migillraie 
muft imprifon or kill men properly for Impenitcncie, it inu'l b; as it 
aggravatetli the cr/'wf it fclf, and it may be as well the unbaptizcd asthe 
baptized, for he is the Governour ot both: It is therefore ameer hdion 
of Papilis Church" Tyrants, that there is fuch a difference between the 
iinbaptizcd and the excommunicate, as that the firll mud not have 
Church privilcdges till they dillre them, and the later may have thcin 
if they be but commpelled to keep them, or return to them by tlie fword. 

And fo fciiilinaticaly different are they from the Catholick Church 
for many hundcred years after Chrift, as dircdly to contradid tl^m. 
For all the Canons as well as the Hiflory tell us, that all thcantient 
Churches whtn they had excommunicated a linner, would not receive 
Iiim till he had penitently begged readmillion : Yea they ufcJ tocaft down 
thcmftlves on the earthf as even great Theodofms did before Am'jrfc whsa 
but ftifpcndcd), and to beg pardon and readinilVion with tears : nay for 
great faults, this was not received till ii-iany montlis or years continued 
penitence, iliewcd their defires to be lincerc j and now Prelates mult 
have a Blafphemer, or a comn.on Drunkard,conip.lled by the fwoVd to 
fay that he rcpcnteth, that he inay tlic next day have the honour and 
privilcdge of aChriliian ConiHuinicant, whether he will or nor. O 
kind-naturcd- cruel l-t. liurch! 

And when Cyril o( Alcxandrii began to ufe the fwotd, -and when the 
Circumcellian PM.i//i?/ tempted At/g- jihie to chdn£,c his .opinion about 
nHng force in matters of Religion ; yta and when Iihjcins and Ms par- 
takers offended flfjr///;and Amhrofe by fiirring upMia.7««r againft the 
rr/Jcilliiiiift';, noneot all this was to force thef' Hercticks by the iWord, 
to Communicate in the Church b. fore they had (hewed a voluntary re- 
pentance, nor to make tPicm Church members againlf their wills, cecn 
that hhjciuT whom I^nnh^r himfcU rrknowledgcth fo bad, was not Co 
foolifli : But only they would liavetorccd thein from their own waics, 
and punilhed them asfcduccrsof the people, and as dilirrbers of the 
Churches purity and peace. Though yet it is toocvident, that the pride 
and pallionof the Prelates that were orthodox, did q'lickly and hercly 
flame out to the conlbgration of the Churchc«, wlicn tlicy found that 
the Chrillian Lmpcrcnjis were ready to ("ervc their palTions with riu UvotX 

It is then pali deniil, that all the povvcr of Bi!hops or any Pauors 
is but i\K m.rnnjgcmeiit of t!.\- rfrri of Cod, ayii the Confchncts of wi 

V 2 ' th.t 


ihat believe them and voluntarily receive that n-ord : only with this advan* 
tagc, that they do not this as private men^ but as Officers appointed ^o 
to niannage this roord. And therefore he that dilbbcycth the word 
of God truly delivered and applied by them, cornmitteth a double fini 
one as he difobeyetli Gods word as fuch, in the matter in hand, and 
the other as hcdifobeyeth that particular word of God, which com- 
mandcth him to hear and obey his Pallors. But if men will fo fin, 
we have nothing but that rvord of God, which they defpife to cure 
them by. 

For inftance, i.In our admonitions and reproofs, nf the greateft 
finncrs, we can do no more but (hew them Gods Law, which they have 
broken , and which threatncth damnation to them, and to perfwade 
them by Scripture arguments to repent that they mayefcapc. 

2. In excommunication itfclf, welnvenoihing to do but to fnew them 
thefam.e word, and ftiew them how- God hath threatned to punilb them, 
and to (hew theinand the Church that word which commandethus to 
have no Communion with them but to avoid them , and according 
to that word to declare them (' Impcnitency openly Charaftcrizing 
themj to be perfons unmeet for Chriltian Comrnunion, and fuch as 
Ctill they rcpent_) are under the wrath of God, and muft expecl his . 
drcad/ul jud-menti and to command the Church irr Chrilis name to 
withdraw from the Impenitent perfon, and to have no Communion 
with him. And all this is but the application of Gods word to his 
Confcience and tlie Churches. If his feared Confcience deride it all, 
we can do no more. If he will forcibly intrude into the Com- 
munion of the Church againrt their wills, it is like ones breakingia- 
to my houfe j the Magillrate mull reftrain him as a violater of the 
p;ace as well as of the Churches liberties : If the Magiltratc will 
not, the Church m'jft remove from him. If they cannot, they mult 
pronounce him morally abfent, as a forcible intruder and none of 
their CommunioR. If the Church will not obey the Pallors fentence, he 
hath no inltrument but the fame, word to bring them to it. Now 
all this being pall denial, let us come more particularly to enquire ia 
all this, what pirt there is effential to aEilhops office as fuch. 

I. Js it the making of Church La wcs or Canons? About what? r. 
Either thefe Canons are but the Commanding of that which Gods 
Law made a duty b:fore, or of fome^'hat newly made a duty by them- 
fclves; 2. Either they are Lawcs or Commands to the Laity only, or 
to the Presbyters, or to the particular Eilliops, or all. 

I. If they do but urge the performing of fome duty already made 
fuch by God, in Scripture or Nature, whoever doubted, but Pie^byters 
m3y do that even to teach and charge the people from God to obey 
his Laws. 

And note that God daily rriaketh new duties by the Law of nature, 
tyc.n providentially dtering. the Nature of things j And (b he maketh 



this er that to become Decent and Orderly and Co a duty. And niik- 
cth it my duty to fpeak this or that word, to this or that pcrfoiij or to 
do this or that particular good work. Even by varying occallous, acci- 
dents and circumftances of things. 

2. But if thefe Canons mak-e new duties which God hath not mide, 
I. If il be to the Ljity^ the Presbyters may do the Hke i for they arc "•' 
Guides alfo of the Laity, unlefs they arc forbidden by a fuprrior pow- 
er : If it be only to the Presbyters, that will not reach our prefcnt cafe, 
as fliall be further (hewed afterward. 3. If it be to the Bilhops thcm- 
fclres,.thcy cannot be Laws, but meer agreements, becaufc one Bifliop 
is not the proper Governour of another i noi many o[ one '■> nor the pre- • 
fent in Council of the abfcnt as fuch. 

And here by the way it is worthy to be noted how much the Didce- 
fincs contradid theitifelves, in this claim of Government; They .fay - 
that they are of a diftind order and oflice from mecr ^Presbyters, be- 
caufe they have power to Govern chcm. And yet they make, i. A 
Council of Eifliops to have as high a governing power over particular 
Eilhops of the Cime order; 2. And an Arch-Bilhop to be the Cover- 
noiir of Eilhops i 3. And a Primate or Patriarch to be th": Governour 
of Arch'Bifhopsi and yet not to be of a dilVin^tOrder^or office, but 
only of a dUlinft c/f^m- in the accidentals of the fame order. If Go- 
vernment prove a dihindl OrJcr^ or Office in one, it will do fo in the o- 
thcr. And why may not the Magiilrate make all the fame Canons who 
lulcth them all ? 

But let us conllder what theft Canons may be. i. The Eifhops make 
Canons, how often Synods or Councils fhall be held, and when and 
where, and when they (hall be dilToIvcd. But, i.May not the Kii::r 
do the {ame •■ And can that be proper to Eilhops which the King tnay 
do? Yea which all Empcrours have formerly ufcd ? 2. And is not 
this Cannon made to rule B.y/wpx thcmfilves^ who is it but Bilhcpsfor fo' 
much as them J that you think fliould be called unto Councils .'' And 
arc the Bifliops in Council of another order th^n th.emfelvcs out of 
Council ? Need we an office of Bilhops to rule Siihops of the fame ofHce .<* ' 

2. Canons arc made about Temples, Buildings, Tithes, Glebes, Bcll.«, 
Pulpif^, Scars Tables, Cups, Fonts, and other uteniils. And 1. who 
doabtcth but the Mjgillrate may do all this ? yea that it bcloiigcth to 
him to regulate fuch ihingsas thefe i* 2. And who knoweth not that 
even B;(hops are under thcfe Canons alfo, who are of the lame order i" 
3. And tiiat Presbyters (even InEiigljndJ are members of thcfe S) nods, 
and fo make Canons to rule theBilhops^ Ergo, they areofafuperior 
crdtr to Eifhops by your rcafoning. 

3. Canons arc iiiudc (or the j;. g.ilatingof Minifters attn-c jn the Church 
and out, and for officiating gauncnts, as furpHces e^c. And of thcfe 
J fiy the fame as of the former. The King may do tlic fame c:; 
Diflicps may do, and Eifhops th:nif.lvcs aie bound by tlirm , ar.cf 

V 3 Vrcsby-u^i 

Prcsbytcrsmake them, which three things prove chat it is not the proper 
Mork of Rilhops asa cliftindt order from mecr Presbyters. 

4. Canonsare made for worthip Ge lures; in what; gefture to pray, 
to receive the Sacrament, to uk the Creed, &c. And the fame three an- 
luers fcrvc to (his alfo, as to the cafe in hand. 

' 5. Canonsaremade for Holidaics, publick Fafts, and Th3nkfgiving<;, 
and Lcdlure daics. And the fame three conlldctations fall in here. 

6. Canonsaremade for the ordering officers, fees, and fuch like in 
Eiihops Courts. Ard here all the (cime three things fall in, i. The 
Kingmay do,it.i"';'2. It is Birtiops that are ruled, 3. Presbyters alfo make 
the Garidns, therefore it is not jure <//w«o the proper work of a dirtindt 

7. Canons are made for the choice of what IrjnJIjtion of the Bible (hzH 
be uYed in all the Churches, and what Verfionor meetre of the fingin^ 
Pf^lmes. And of this alfo the three former things hold true. ° 

5. Canons arc iiiade to impo{eaLiturgie,in what words Miniflers fliall 
fpeak to God and to the people. And, i. This alfo the King may do 
and doth, 2. And it obligeth Bifhops. 3. And Presbyters make it,- 

p. Canons are made againft Schifmaticks, newDifcipline and conrti- 
tutions, non-fubfcribers, unlicenfed Preachers, for the book of Articles 
of ordination, for Catechizing, Preaching, Marrying, Burying, Chri/i- 
ing, and fuch like: In all which each of the faid three 'anfwcrs 

10. Canons are made to keep Parents from open covenanting to God 
for their Children in Baptifm, that they (hall not be urged to^be pre- 
lV:nt, that God-fathers do that office and not they i Asalfothitnone be 
baptized without the traniicnt Image of a Crj/r, and fuch like : whe- 
ther this be well or ill done , the three former anfwers all hold in 

11. All the Canons that are for the reftraint of fin, as neelcdof 
Church worlhip, prophaning of it, and otlier abufes, have the fame 

12. The circumdantlating Canons, how oft Eifliops flial] confirm 
and whom they (hall ordai-ie , and how off, and how oft the Common 
prayer be read, the Surplice worne, the Sacraments adminillrcd, in 
what place, what Rcgiftcrs to be kept, what order to be obflrvcd in 
reading the Scriptures and the Apocrypha, with abundance the like, have 
all the foiefaid anftvcrs to prove that they are no proper work of a diitindl 

There rcmaineth therefore but the determination of prcfent circum- 

fiances, which are part of the Minillers proper work, or the Lecturer 

<r Clcrkesallealt, As, i. What text to Preach on to day. How to 

expound it, ard apply it; In what method to Preach : Wliat words to 

life: How long to Preach : n. In what method, words and length to 

pray (where free Prayer is allowed ; 3. \^ hat particular Ffafm to 



Sing, and in what fnnc J 4. On what particular Aiic-s.to admin:ft,rthe 
Lords Supper, hd'ides the great dales (Ea(ter, Whiifontidc) .^-.r. At 
xvhat iiour togoto Church, and when to end, 5. What particular fick- 
prfonto villr, and when; And what Tinner to reprove or admonjili 
peifonally. And who is to be taken for a true penitent and zhCohcdhi 
foro pxiiitcntiili 01 pi'watdy (as they difiinguifli,- all thi.fe are cither t!;e 
perfonal work ot him that ofliciatcth) fas chewing his meat of a man 
before he Iwallow it anddcgell it i oraschooHng his medicaments is to 
the Phyfician) and belongcth to his calling, which none Ihould hinder 
him in (of which I make no queftion.) And if fo,itis not the proper 
workofa Eifliop. Or clfe it is tit that this liberty be taken from him, 
and that other ivicnchoofe for him every ilay his Text, his Method, his 
words, his tune, his hour and the rclK And if (0, when thisalfo Qiall 
bemade aCanon, nodoubt but the King and Parliament and Presby- 
ters in convocation, will all have a hand in it > and perhaps the Eilhops 
be under the Canon as vvcU as others. Yet then wc have not found out 
a Bifhops proper work iinlefsit w^rc when heis prefent in the fame af-" 
ftn.blics togovcrnc the work inall thcfe circumlhnccs, in which I do 
not contend sgainll iiim. 

I I. If then it lie not in Lcgilhtioa'or Canon miking, let us confidcr 
whctlicr it lie in judgi/i^ or fxe.-uting. And thismuft be chiefly about 
Excommunication and Ahfolittioit, asit concerncth the Laity. And here, 
1. The bulincfsis not to judgcof thcLiw, but of the Pcrfoti by theLzw. 
It is not to judge in plainc cafes, whether we mul\ avoid an impenitent 
Fornicator, a Drunkard, aBlafphcnicr, an Hcretick, &c. For if the 
Billiopsfav nay, we mull not believe hui\ or obey him. And for diffi- 
cult inllarces, ut they/'tv/i-/ of lins deferving, it is partly the work ot an 
expoliiorofSciipturc, todctcriiiincof them, and partly of the Canons 
and LawsoftheUnd, where Mag'Jirafes and PrCibytcrs are efficient, 
an 1 BiihopstlTenvfclvcs obliged as well as Prcshyter;. 

The bulinefs therefore is to judge whether f[>is pe'rfjn be guilty offuch ^'-'^ ""'"'^ 
zCrit):e, and. 2. Whether he be impenitent therein. And that this ^*.'"?"'!'"^'^'|'^ 
isthe wcrk of a. Parochur, that is, a Cohabiting Pailor, who is ^^pon ^jtj'e^rh: 
the place, and knowcth the- parties, and not of a fuangc Bi'hop ov<ra JKr/^'mw "J 
athoufand or many hundred Churches, I have-partly Ihewed b-forc,'^'''^ "'J' 
and partly fliall Qicw now, and partly hereaftcrr At the prelent 'ctthe ^^|-'^Tf' ^^ 
uncxperienccdconlidcr ot this which at»y Novice that isupckn the -pl«ce ^ ;,^f.f-,-,y>. 

may know. • paeRc^ini 

I. I . fi',. 11:. Col. 2. (''T Gregor. Sa) rus To. z.l.i^.x 7. man. :. 5. ?, cVc. Aid inJced they cvt- 
cIkc/c th.it mt "f tbi c.tfc riffcanJ.il, Magijiriites Ldw;, unjuli inittcrinllu that a, to the Cvmnnn hurt, 
er th.it arc .ignhifi amm-}') ^oiti, bind nut in Coiifiien.e \ uc Id. Fraeofo ib. j). 112. n., 254. s;p. W::-) 
citct: tb: c^njcnt fij Sdvcik. Tabicn. EaUl. Bartoi. Koftknf. & Doftonim Communit'cr.\S'i) 'f/;.jf Mi: 
|ohn Ilumfrcy /j- rit fingultr in his relilution of this Cafe, thy,i;^h I ^.-txc kim man) cautioiu and' 
ii.viutions in the Letter, p.irt efrvtidi he bath printed i« the aul of bJsboi;. 

1. A 


1. A Eifliop Cefpecially armed with penal terrour^ or a Chancellour 9 
Court, isnot like to know of one fcandalous Impenitent perfon of a 
hundred, which the prcfcnt Paftor islikcro know of . tor experience 
tf;ilttii us that fcw.honeft men will accufe their neighbours, ^'herc they 
(hal! but get liatrcd, and forcfccnomorc probalityof procuring the per- 
fens repentance by it : And that Church-Wardens do rot and will not 
do iti Many men that fear perjury, rcfufe the oath, left they (hould 
break it, or iin in keeping it, as it bindeth them to profecute many men 
for Confcientious Nonconformity : And thcfe that take the Cath., be- 
fore they fear an oath, will make no Confcicnce at all cf breaking 
it, So that a matter of notorious fad is paftdiiputc. The land know- 
cth that not one Swearer, Curfer, Fornicator, Adulterer, Railer, Thie^, 
'Deridcr of Scripture and Religion, &-c. of a multitude, is ever accul- 

cd at the Eiftiops Court. Whereas thePrefent Paftor can fcarce choofe 
but know the grcateft part of thefe in his Parifli, by dwelling among 
them, -where he fliall havefrequent noticeof it. Say as long as you will 
that this is long of the Mini'/ler, or Long of the Church-Warden), or of 
the Apparitor, wc know that the thing is Co. 

2. And in Church judgments, where a mans repentance is the caufe 
in queftion, he hath the advantage an hundred fold that is prefent. For 
the tenor of his life before, and after, will be of great fignihcation in 
judging of this: A man that never fell into fuch a iin before, and that 
quickly lamentcth it by free ccnfciTion (known to the Paftor) may 
eafily be believed to be penitent. Eut a man that hath many years con-' 
tinued in a wicked life, and that after all admonition and pcrfwaiions 
to repent, confcflingone dayand finning the next, and perhaps derid- 
ing the Paftor, and making a jeft of his ownconfeflions, is not fo quick- 
ly to be believed. And yet the ftrange Viocefans or Chancellour fhalKnot 
know the difference, nor hear any more at the beft, than [I repent] And 
whereas they fay, it he fin again he is tobeaccufed again"] i. They 
know defacio^ that this is feldome done, except againft fome Confcient i- 
ousNonconformifts.a.And when neighbours fee that the man whom the y 
enraged againft thctn by an accusation, cometh home again, by fayin g 
JKrptv/f, and paying his fees, and doth but watch to ex ecute his malice 
againft the accufcrs , they will meddle in luc li improh table worTTno 
inore, T" 

3. And whereas the Chanccloror Diocefanemuft go upon the witnefT- 
es report. 1. The credit of the witncffes will be unknown to themj 
becaufc it lycth upon the honeffy of thepcrfons, whom they know not 
but by other perfbns i nor thofe other but by others > and they are forced 
to take all our flight reports, ufualy from fome flatterers of thcmfelves, 

'almoft theworftmenin the Parifli, accounted by themthebcft andm.ofi 
credible, becaufc they know not them aright, nor the uft at all. 2. 
And how unfatisfadlory a thing it is to a mans Ccnfcience, to Judge at 
random, or upon the uncertain credit of they fcarce know who, in a cife 


of Excommuriicatfon or Abfolution s whereas the preftnt Pjfror ir.ay 

tore Excormiuinicacionor 

n^.^,^..^.., .--1- o "— • " -5 arid a grcar many word?, 

andthofe chofcn with the grcateft skill, and fet home withthe grcatc/t 
Life, and Light, and Love, that can be manifcHcd by the (pcakcr. 
Many a time 1 have tried if, and could nevtr fatisfic myConrcicnce with- 
oiit more frequent, long and carncft exhortation, and prayer with ir . 
than ever 1 knew Chancelor or Bithop ufc to fourt y delinquents fet (og c~ 
thcr. The prcfent Pallor hath opportunity to do this : But the Chanccior o r 
Piocefane lia< h not . 1 never heard ot any fiich means ufcd in their Courts 
that was of fuch a nature as true Palioral exhoitaticns arc, to melt a 
finners heart into repentance. But of this beture. 

2. Another cafe of pcrticular;>Mgwf/if is, what finncr in hisficknnels 
before death, is fit for Abfolution. Here they cannot make the Eilhop 
Judge, who is many a mile off •, nor can they tell how to deny it to be- 
without (he office ot the Parilh Paflor , and therefore they allow him fa 
be the Abfolver •, and yet, Ictt he be the Judge, they bind him to Ab- 
folve all that require it.and do but fay they repent : which mutt needs be 
a pernicious deed vingcourfc to impenitent fouls., vkhcn it is known that 
nothing is moreordinary with many in fickncfsand in liealth, than to fay I 
rcpentoffomeonegrofsdifgraceful (inland live in others worfe withouta- 
ny profclTlonofrepentance,ard die fbat latl. And muli I abfolve him from 
that iin which he repenttthot without the red > orfrom allbccaufc hcre- 
pentcth ofmic} yca,commonly men have a Confttlion which is like a Pro- 
teflion of llieir fin, and a Repentance which declareth it felt to be Im- 
penitence it felf: fomc ttoutly fome ttupidly faying [1 comfcfs I am a fwea- 
rer and a drunkard, a whoremonger, but jou Precilians arc as bad and 
uorfe, for ^ouare but h)pcciitcs: I repent of my fins daily, and askc 
God mercy, though I commit them dai!y, and I doubt not ottorgivc- 
nefs, fcrailare fnners]and if oneof theft fay alfoon his fickbed, herc- 
pentcth, without any ligns of fcrious contrition or change of heart, wc 
mutl Abfclve him : But yet though we are not free in this, it is no Dio- 
ccfanes proper work, antl tJieretbrc requireth rot theirofHce. 

3. Another Judgir.ent of individuals rxcJhry hn-l.io is to be hjptJzeJ., 
et lejjl cf fcrfcns at aj^c; in Infiddl CountricT^ or fuchascim, irbirt mi'iy 
thwfind /liijpj!/trjif Children 2TC unbapi zed till thc\ come in ace^ Thv: 
queliion isnot what lliall bcthc Law and Rule (whether Scripiurcor 
Canon) but who fliall judge whether the pcrfon be capable aceording 
to the rule. Doib>k(s every ore iiath rot faith: The protellicn that 
cntitlcthto baptilme mult be, 1. Cfthe whole tlTcnce of our part of 
theCovcrant, faith, confer.t and luture cbrdicsce. 2. With tolciablc 
itiuUyftii)dnigo{\\\iiX\.W) l:iy. 3. With Iteming fcrioufncfs. 4, With 
leeming Volurt-uiijCiS and fixed rtfb'ution. Now how can a Dicccfan 
)udgc e)t this, that is not within inany miks of the place, r.or nevtr f..w 

X ti.c 


the pttlcn in his lifer It hath ever been confefTcd to be part of the 
Baptizers work, though under the Government of Magiftrates, and in 
the Church theprefcnt Bifliop is not clcnycd a negative vote or a guiding 
JL,dgrr,cntin the affair. 

4. The very fame throughout is tc be faidof judging what individual 
pcrfbns inaParifh are grown up to a capacity of the Lords Supper i 
fwhithcr i: be done in confirmation or at any other time^ certainly 
they i-nuft renew their baptifmal Covenant, and moreover underftand 
the ferjfe of the Sacrament, &c, But (hall the Viacepnthat never feeth 
one of an hundred of his Diocefc judge of every one ofthefe ?• I will 
flay no longer on fuchinftanccs> I think we need no more. 

II T. If the cafes of Teftaments, Adminiftrations, Licenfes to mar- 
ry, judgement of cafes of divorce, difpenfations andfuch like be pre- 
tended as the proper works of Bifliops, I think I need not ftay to con- 
fute them, while it is known that lo much as is not every Paftors work 
in it, belongethto the Magifirate , and is done among us by his Com- 
nriitr.on, and that uiually by Laymen- 

1 V, We have therefore the Government of the Minifters themfelves 
to fpeak of next, which confi'^eth, i. In ordination, 2, Inilituting 
and induding, 3. Licenfing, 4. Sufpending, ejeding, filencing and 

I. And ordination being that great and notable work, which ancient- 
ly was taken to be allthat was^ra/^ei'tothe Bifliop, by many of the Fa-- 
tlicrs, as well as Hicrome , this above all nuilt be well confidered. 
And I. Let us confider of the Reafons for it i and 2. Qf the different 

I. The reafons given for appropriating ordination to V/ocefans , or 

Eilliops 6se thefe, i, Becau{(;no man can give that which he hath not; 

2, Bccaufe it is an adf of fupcriority : 3. Eccaufe none but Bifliops' 

ever did it in Scripture times, or lince without the Churches condem- 

■ nation. 

I . The firft ofthefe reafons Dr, Hammond Vnmon. DiJJert. is earnefl in 
\irginf. To which I fay, i. It is granted, thzt no man givetb that xvhich 
'.'i hath nit. 'But Fresbycrs have the office of Vresbyters, therefore by your 
Juppoh'tion) they may give it. 

Obj. But (faith I.e.) Presbyter j had never a povcer given by tlx. ordainers 
to ordain. 

Anf, I deny it, and prove the contrary Cvvhatever the ordaincrs mean) 
jj. Thofe whoin their ordination had an Office,Power or Keys of Chriils 
making, conttiningthe power of ordination , delivered to them Mi- 
riflcrially, had the power ot ordinal ion delivered to them Minifterial- 
i\ ; But all true Pafioas or Presbyters ordained in England had an Of- 
• t-ce. Power or Ki yes of Chriils making, contcining the power of ordi- 
:iAtion delivered tothtm Minilierially. E>-g<7 they had the power of or- 
'J4:.w!ipn.(<Ji!cIivct:ed« Nothing^nccds proof but the Minor. And, 1,^. 
;• . '■ " Tla&Lj 


ThatChrift and not the EiOiops made the truePa/ioralOflice,orKeyes> i--' 
paR doubt among fobcr CliiilUans,2. And that it was fheordainers mean- 
ing t© deliver them no new humane office, but that which Chriil f by hi*;' 
Spirit and ApolHcs at leaft) made, inrtitutcd and dcfcribed, I will Ihnd ' 
to the ordaincrs own profciTion, 3. Anditfo, I tliink they will con- 
fefs, that iftlicy didmidake, and think that the oflice conteined nor, 
what it conteincd indeed, their miliake will not difabic the ordained 
Minifleri no more than the Errour of a Recorder or Steward, who 
thinkcth when hegivcth the Mayor his Oath, that his ofSce hath lef- 
Icr power than it hath : But Gods making and not mans meaning mufi 
determine oft he power, 4. Therefore all the quefrion is whether God 
put the power ot ordination into the Faftoral office. Of which now I 
will fay but this, that Dr. //jw»waH(icontefTcth that there was no i'aflor 
ordained in Scripture times that had not the power ot' ordination; 
And I (hall after prove, that no other (hould be introduced fines by ; 
men. \ 

2. And farther the Church of England appointeth Miniflers to im- 
pofe hands with the Pionjan inordmation: Theretore they take not 
ordination, hut on\y a. Superiority in ordination, to be proper to their of- 
lice > As Bifliop "Downame and other of them alfo openly hold and 

2. The, 2d. Rcafun; that ordination is an Adtof Superiority, i. Is 
granted? becaulb the pcrlon to be ordained is yet no Miniver of Chri/J, 
and therefore is Inferior to the Presbyters that ordain him, till he have 
received his office. 2. But that aftcnvard the ordaincr muft be of an 
higher order (as w^ll as greater antiquity in officcj than him that is or- 
dained by him, I deny: For than Bifliops could not ordain Billiopsi 
nor Arch-Bilhops ordain Arch-Bifliops ; and who fhall ordain the I'atri- 
arcks, or (it you be for himj the Pope ? Have they all fupcriours to 
doit ? 

3. The third Rcafon from Hiftory I (lull confute in due place: only 
here retorting it thus: In Scripture time' no hxcd Dioctfan ever did 
ordain, theretore none fnch fliould now oidain. 

2. But next let usdiltinguilh, r. Between ordaining to the Miniflry 
in the llniverfal Church uiihoiit affixing to a.particular Charge, and 
the fixing ofaPaltor in that particular Cliurch. And, 2- Betw>.cr, 
ordaining a Bifliop or Plenary Paitor, and a half Pallor called now a 

I. AsBaptihnasfjchdoth joyn air.an To na particular Ch'Jrch, but 
only to the llniverfal, but yet they that have opportunity (hould kc:m- 
darily by a faitlicr ad of cortfcnt alfo )oyn thcmftlvcsto the partiCuhi 
Church where they live i but it they live where they have no fuch oppor- 
tunity,thcy trull do it alter as foon as fuch opportunity cometh : Itven fo 
ordination to tl.c facicd Miniliry as fuch doth tix a man tonoparticulxc 
Church, but make him a MinilterofChrill to the world tor mens cori- 

X 2 Ytrl;i.i;.", 


verfion, and to the Univerfal Church for Chriftians cdi/ication, as he 
fliill have any particular opportunity tor cxeicife (vvliich tlie Church of 
Ei!(^l./)!dc-Kf'Xi.(l<:ih by the words [jviocii tboit fljslt be thereunto Luivfitliy 
cjlk(f\ rr.caning a c3lI<2Jf.ic«rc/>/«;», lothccxercife ot the office receiv- 
ed ; Eut yet wiicrc there are not Hiiay unchurciicd lolidels to be convert- 
ed, but all protcft Chriltianity, it is nothtfuch Ihall be orrfained fi.te 
tititio, astheyfpeak, Ie(t it occaiion irregularity and poverty in the Cler- 
gy, but be at once afBxed to a particular Church, which fixed Minifiets 
are in Scripture ufually called Bithops, Presbyters and Palioi's , with 
relation to their particular ^c/;^ or CWc/^, belidcs their prim:!ry relation 
fo ihcW^fld and to the ttniverjal Church, from which the cxtraordinaiy 
(Officers were called Apohles and Evangclills, and the ordinary ones 
Muiijlers oi Chriit in general. Though I deny not but even the unhx- 
ed iiiay l>e callcdEilhops, Elders and Pallors, as being virUijlly fuchjand 
in an Office which wanteth nothing but a particular Call to that fixa- 
tion and cxercife. 

Now I. To call a Minifter already made fueh to a particular Church 
andfoto make a Bilhopor Pallor or Presbyter of him, doth not ncce- 
farilyrec^uirea Lyiocefin : For, i. The people that ar-e at liberty may 
doit, and ordinarily have done (is Blondel hith fully proved; And in 
our times if a free people only choofe a man already ordained, and take 
iiimforlheir Pallor, no man taketh this for a nullity, no not the Pre- 
Jatills thcmfelves. i . And a Paftor Magillrate or Prince may do it witfi* 
outaEifhop, asnonedeny. 5. And a Minilkr may frequently on juft 
o:calion be removed from place to place, and needeth not a Eilhop for 
every change, at kail as to the being of his ofHce. 

2. And astothehrft ordination of a Minifler zs fuch, if there muft 
be a Vigcefj/itodoit, this is gathered chhcti'xom the natare of the thing, 
or from Jivifie injlitution. 

1. As to the nature of the things it (heweth no fuch neceflity, but xzi- 
ihcrcontradidethit vfor :■. As to Efficiency, if a Bilhop or Arch-Bi(hop 
or Primate or Patriark may be made without the agency of any one of 
a higher order, then fo may a Presbyter. For the reafon is the fame. 

2, And as to the objeifti i. The firll objcd of the facred Miniftry 
as fuch, is the Inridel world, to whom they are to Preach the Gofpel, 

2; Cor.5.1 c.and OiJer Chria and Salvation, and befeech them in Chrifis fiead to be 

yj//. 26.18. i-fconcilcd to Gcd, to call them from darknels to light , and the power 

Mat.2S.2c.^^ Satan unto God. And to think that none but ApoHles fhould do 

this, and that all tlie world murt be left tothe Devilwhenthe Apoliles 

wcredead, isan unchriffian thought: Tothofe that muft do this, Chrift 

promifedhis. prefcnce to iheend of the world. Now., i. The Infidel 

world is no more under the power of a Viocefan than ofa Presbyffr : If 

it b?, it is either, i. Ashe isaprelate. 2. Or zsn Viocefan. I. Not as. 

a Prelate in general. For if the world be the objed of the Miniftersof- 

iice, it cjn be no more of the Erelites as fuch.. i. Not.as a Diocefan : For. 



t!ie Infidel world, [^f}p, 'firtary, Japm, China, P(rfia, &c. ] is tlo 
part otany Eilliops Uioccl,*. 2. And as to the n'orko\ a Preacher to th(; 
Infidels, it is tlic very famcwhctlur it bedone by a Bi'fhop or a Prcsby- 
iTr : There is r.otliing to do tor them b'Jt preach and baptize, and nei- 
ther of thofc is a work proper to a Bifhop. 

If it be faid that it is not becaufeof the objed or the woi^ are prop- 
er to a Bifhop, but bccaijfe x\\t fending firtb a man for thit work is 
proper to him i I anfwcr, that when 1 have proved paO contradidion 
that hefendethaman to doas high a work as ii: could there duhimfcU, 
and to the very fame, it fhewcth thatrx natkra ret there ncedeth no higher 
order than the Miiiifters to fend him; No more than there ncedeth a 
higher progenitor than a man to beget a man, 

2. And as hiscfficcis related to the Church -Vniverfal^ all the fame 
argumentation will hold good. For the Church-Univcrfal is the objoft 
ot the Miniliersoflicc as well as of tilt Prelates > and no more than his 
own Dioccfe is the (pccial charge of a Vixefjnis fuchv and the work 
to which tiic Miniller is ordained in general to the whole Church can 
no othcrwife be proved lefs than the Prelates, unlcfs by proving a Di- 
vine inliitution (which (hey will grant. Jj 

2. Andasfura Divineinfiitution as to the ordaining power, I will 
fuybut thismuch, (which may take with cordate meaj tilllcometo 
fpcak morclargclyot the point, i. That Dodlor Htmmond (and as far 
ashc knew, all that owned the fame caufc withhimj doth grant that 
the Apofiles (nor any other) in Scripture times did not fo n.uch as 
inliitutetlieof^ceof a Presbyter as difiind from a Eiftiop, mucli lefs c- 
vtr ordain any one to fuch an office: And that in all tlicir Infirudfi- • 
ens to Timothy znAlitus about ordination of Bifhops or ciders and Dea- 
cons, tliey havener a fyllable about any ordination or qualification of 
fuch fubjccfr Presbyters, but only about ordaining Bifhops. Therefore 
if Bifhops be the fucceffors of the Apoliles in ordination, they cannot 
do more than they did i nor ordain- any other Presbyters than Eifli- 

2. That if Eilhops were the Infiitutors of Presbyters, as diffincf^ from 
rticm by a Power of parcelling out their office to others than Bilhops^ 
yethavepowcr to make more forts offacred Miniffers, by fubdivifion 
of their power. They may make one office only to Preach, ahdanothcr 
only tobapti/c, and another only to pray, and another only to admini- 
lier the Lords Supper, and another to Excommunicate, and why not 
another to ordainc i and fo ordination ihall not bcpropcrto a Bilhop- 
And fo a Chancellor that luth the parcel of excominunicating and ati- 
folvcing, ' is as true a Clergy man, and of as high original as a Pref- 

3. But that which Dr. Hammond betakcth himfelf toat lafl (in his 
Anlwer to the Lpndon Miw.lkrs) is as niilLrable a fliift as ever a poor 
caufc was reduced to Cthathad never Hood ii ith.:d not U en more be- 

X. 3 hoJdta* 



'koJdcn to the Sword than (o fuch foundations) he durft not fay tbdt the 
pRsbyterscftice isnotof Divine institution : And yet it was not mfti- 
tutcd in Scripture times: But it wasinftituted in Saint Johns time by 
him a lone after the writing of his Gofpel ("which according to Jerome 
was about a year or two before he dyed J aVid the Revelation (which 
according to Jrenxus li. 5.) was about tour or fiveycars b;;fore he dyed. 
And fo ali the Bilhops power of ordaining fubjed Presbyters depcndeth, 
1. On one Apofilcs Inltitution, 2. Not proved at allby Scripture, 3. 
But only by Chmch-Hifiory, which hath not afyllableof fuch a thing, 
as that Saint jfo/M did inlHtu^e the Presbyters oince > 4.. And this is 
feigned to be done by Saint John many years after Peter and Paul, are 
faid to beBifhopsot Rome 3^nd James ot Jcriifalem, and Pmr of Anthch 
and A/<«ri^of^/a-(Z/jir/./. Yea about thirty two years after Mjr/^^waspuf to 
* Hierome death according to Eufebins ^ fee then what proof the Dodtor giveth 
jahhhe dy- US that even at Kome and Alexandria all that time, there was no Bilhop 
edmtbe over Presbyters, nor any that ever ordained a Presbyter that was not 

%iti^\oi'. 3' Eut luppofe theDivine inftitution be proved of Bifhops ordination 
Scaiigcr. of lubjcd PresbyterSj Icttheie three things more be noted. 
Aimn.m j, xhat at kail we have brought it to the Ancients meafure, thatf;«- 

^ ' ccpta fib ordinatione^ except only ordination,hcic is no work for to make a 
refHtMi'cm, Bilhops office of, but what a Presbyter may do. 

pai-ips-' 2. That in this ordination they themfelves acknowledg that the 

Presbyters may joyn , even in impofing hands, which is the note of 

Superiority fthe kfler being bleiltd by the greater J ', and fo Presbyters 

-alfo ( by Epiphanms^s leave) do generate f aires : And Bifliops have not the 

Jolepoiver of ordination, but the chief. 

3. And whether a chief poiver in invefting men in the Miniflerial office, 
. . do make a diftind order or office de nomine , let them contend that 

pleafe dereh if this wereall, we were agreed : Formy part, I had ra- 
ther that Ei(hops had not only zcliicf poiver as troderators, but even a 
Negative voice in ordination , yea ar.d in Removals and hxing ofMini- 
/iers, than not: For in fo weighty a bulincfstwo Locks and Keyts to 
keep out bad men, are furer than one. And the poor iileiiccd Noncon- 
tormills have yielded to much more than this. 

But yet there rcmaineth one part ot the Viocefins work to be confidcr- 
cd, viz. The judging of Hcrelic and Schi(m , and the filencing , fnf- 
pending and degrading of Minilkrs that dcfcrve it. The Quefiion is, whe- 
ther this benot proper to the Prelates office. 

And here no man can wilh us to fwallow the terms of the qucrti- 
on whole , without difunguiihing, as if they llgnifycd 'but one 

I. As judging is, i. Either frivate by difcerning ones own duty, 
which belongcth to every private man. 2. Or publick for the deciding 
ota CLntiovtiiic i and this is. i. Civil, 2. Or properly Ecclei^aiiicali 



foin fcvcral manners and tofeveral ends, Private men, Magiilrates and 
Paflorsmay judge of UcrcCiC&c. 

2. And zs for fufpending, filenciiig 3nd degrading, either, r. It figniti* 
ethiome Coired ion by the Sn^ord or force > and that undoubtedly belong- 
tthonly to theMigirtrate, and to no private man, nor Clergy man at 
all, asfuch. 

2. A Private man and much more a Congregation, may and muft 
refufc a notorious Intolerable Minilkr , whether Infuffiacnt, Hcrctkal 
or»vc%r/and MaHgnaiit, they muft withdraw trom him, and not take 
Iiim for their guide, and Pallor, nor trull their Souls upon his care and 
■condud. \fCyprrtii iiad never fai J [_P!ebf wtx^imjm habct pttelh'.tcm, vel 
fjccrd-ita dignot eUgarli, vcl indignos rccnfj>idi, the Law of nature faith 
enough i as it doth warrant a man to rcfufc an unskilful or malicious 
murdering Phyfician. And Scripture requireth every man to take 
heed of lalfc Teachers , and deceivers, and from fuch to turnc a> 

3. To /J/f/Kca falfc Teacher by Argument, (by word or writeing) 
bclongcth to every man that is called to contend carncllly for the faith, 
and toanfvver a fool according to his folly. 

4. To perfvvadc himby Argument to give over Preaching, ortore- 
formhis crrours. i, A private man may doit privately i 2. Any Mini- 
flerolChrill may doit both ex ch.tritatc & ex officio & atithritMe, as a 
Minifier ofChrili in his name. For asa Phylician doth medicate an- 
other Phylician, not as another man, biit as a Phylician, and a judge 
doth judge the caufe of another Judge, not as a private man, hut asa 
Judge i ib a MinillerofChrilldoth Preach to a Minilkr. and pcrlwade 
him, not as a private man but as a Minifter, not as his fupcriour, but as 
a Mtflenger of thrill who is his Sovcraigne. 

5. yQi,ro Comnu'id fuch a mm ex .mthoritatc Ntemii vcl Minilhi, by 
Mi'iilhriil ivtfhnrity in the name of Chriji to {orhkc his Hercilc and wick- 
cJncfs, or to forbear the Sjcrcd Minillry, belongeth to Minilkrsof the 
fame office. Forif a Minilter Preach or fpeak to another Minillcr as 
a Minillcr himfelf, and in Chriils name, then no doubt but he may 
roiHWJw^in Chrilis njmc; which is but by Minillcrial office to publilh 
the Commands of Chrilt : No doubt but he may fay to another Mini- 
/kr [I Counfcl, yea Command you in the name of Chrill, byvcrtuc of 
iriy odicc and his word, to forbear Adukerv, Tlu;ft, Blafphemy, Hert^- 
lle, or clfe toforbearthc Sacred Minillry] Yea hemay fay thirs (with 
due reverence) to a Biihop, fo that for a lilencing by FxCafon or foice, or 
by Minillerial authority and command as from Chrill, there is no need of 
the office of a Vi^-efait. 

6. Thequcllion theicforc is whether we muflhavea Eifliop tolilence 
men by ijrc Authority n-ithotit cmvincing effcdiul jrgument fatisfyirg his 
Confcicnce i" or elfc by axliliir.ifl 5'K/»fr/cr Authority^ more powerful than 
the Miniikrs ? 



And. t. Seing the T^iocefanzs fuchhath not the SworJ, it is certain 
that he nicnceth no further than he prevaileth witU the Confciencc ei- 
tkrof the Miniltcr tobc filent, or of the people not to hear him, orof 
the Maz^ijiraies to filcncc him by force- 
Now to do this, cither he tnuft prove to them from the word of God, 
by arguiT-cnt, that each of thefe are thus far obliged by Goi i or elfe 
that God hath made him as Vhccfan the Judge , and they are bound to 
doit, bccnufe he bids thcmdo it. 

Forthefirl}, asisfaid, it bclongeth to every Minifrer, even with of- 
fice-authority to tell both Magiftratcs, Minifterand people their duty, 
in thenamcofChrifi: Thus [God hath commanded Adulterers, Here- 
ticks, &c. Toforfake their lins or forbear the Miniftery , and com- 
manded me topublifhthis in his name, even to particular perfons: But 
thou art an Adulterer, Heretick &c. go &c. Or [God commandeth me 
to tell the people that it is their duty to avoid a Heretick, and the 
Magiflrate that it is his duty to filence him by force.- Therefore I re- 
quire this of you in his name^. 

2. But if the Viocefan claim aSuperiour Nuntiative power, as one 
rrore tobe /f//irea/than thcMinifter, this is. i. But to thedoing of the 
famcwork whicha Minilkrmay do. 2. And he muft prove that Superi- 
our credibility. 3. But Minifterial convidiion is efficacious according 
to the evidence that is brought to do the work. If ihe hearer believe not 
that the Major is Gods word fthat an Heretick e.g. mult give over 
l^reachingi. Or if he deny the Minor [Jmt thon art an Hcretkl^J' it is 
not a Billiops word that will convince him, but a Minillcr that is bstt:r 
at proving it may do more. 

Obj. hut tvervill command him to be fi lent. Anf. And he will deride 
you and command you to be filent again. 

Obj. Ihcn rve will convince the Magiflrate of his duty to filence him by force, 
A/if. I. That was not the way for 300 years after Chrifi: And what 
was Epifcopacy for till then ? 2- What if the MagiOrates believe you not, 
will you convince him t_y 5c'-//)f«i-e or by your Authority ovcv the Magi- 
l!nte?Ifby Scripture a wifer Presbyter can do that better, or as well. 
Itby authority, ofthat anon. 

C^bj. But at leajl rve will convince the people that it is their duty to forfik> 
that Preacher, Anf. Again 1 fay, ifyou will do it by Sciiptar'e , a Mii;i- 
itercando it as well. And thus many Minifters now do filence the 
Viacefansand ConformiHs, that is, they perfwade the people not to hear 
them, or own them. But if hy authority, it inuft come to this at la/t, 
that you arc made by God the Judges , and this mull be believ- 

And rcmertibcr ftill yon fiknceno further thanyou perfwade t':e Confci' 
ence to believe that God hath given youthis authority. And. i. lask whe- 
ther it be ever likely that }0U will filence any Hereticks , falfe Teach- 
er, or Schifmaticli this way by making l>im take you for one authorized 



by God to forbid him to Preach. For it muft be in one of thefc thrct 
cafes or all that youhave this power, i. Either to filencc him as a Here* 
tick thatlsnoHeretick, or not proved fuch. a. Or to lilence him as a 
Heretick that notorioufly and provedly is a Hcrecick. 3. Or to (ilencc 
himas a Heretickin adoubtful cafe to others, but judged HcrcHe &c, 
by you. 

J. In the firft cafe neither the injured perfon, nor any that know that 
you injure him will or rouft obey you. Elfe a malignant Pjrelate might 
iilence all the holied and worthielt Miniftcrs of Chrift, and it would 
be at fuch mens mercy, whether Chrill (hould have Churches, or the 
people (hould be ChrHlians or be faved. I am one of the 1 800 that 
have been filcnccd by better authority than the Prelates alone, and yet 
I think I am bound in Confcicnce to exercife theMlniftry which I receiv" - 
ed, whatever I fuflfcr, to the utmoltofmv opportunity. And if the 
Sword ftreightened my opportunity no more than my Conlcicnce of 
the Diocefaif Prohibition, I fhould be but very little hindered. 

2, In the 2d. cafe (of notorious HerefieJ all good Chriftians arc- 
bound by God to avoid fuch a man, though you never lilenccd him, yea 
though you liccnfcd him. •» yea though you commanded them to licar 
him: AndfoMagillratesarc bound todo their duty in rcliraining him. 
Can you deny this ? Mult the peoples Soals be poyfoned and dam- 
ned, till the Bilhop pleafe to take away the poyfon and tofavc them ? 
muA tlie Magidratc let Hcrcticks alone till it pleafe the V/oce/jn to 
judge them ? ■ 

1. And in this cjfe, no fobcr Chrirtian will deny, that a Prcsbytei 
ought to call upon people and Magilhates to do their duty, as wdl 
as the Vioccfani. Yea, and to command men in Chiills name, <o avoid 
a notorious or proved heretick. 

Obj. But a Presbyter cannot examine the cafe and f» get proof. Anji 
He may examine it as far as Rcafon witti Minilterial authority will per- 
fwade thej^/<//'yor the rvitncjjcs to bo examined. And his care ot the 
Church and the peoples Souls obligcth him fo to do. And a Pre- 
late cannot bring men by force tocxamination or witneiling. 

3. But let his guilt be never fo notorious toothers, is it like that 
the perfon hiinfelf will be j5/f«/ through Confciencc of obedience t» 
a Prelate. 

Coniidt r. i . that if he will not obey a Minilkr that flicweth him the 
word ol God, it is unlikely that he will cb.7 a Prelate that faith Ihave 
authority tcfilLUceyou. 

2. A Hir.t ckduth nor know that he is a Heretick, nor anycrtonc- 
ouspcrfuii ivn(^w chat itis an crrour wiiich he bclievcth : for it isacon- 
tradidtiun to err in )udgTnent, and to know it to be any crrour. And 
then I. Hi no-^ cth that hisoftice is ditrairte vitj^ and that he is bound not 
toc>.akit\'ii.houtcault,2.HckrDWCth that you have no power tolikncc 
Oilhodox iv.acLcrs ai lliicticks , but tiioic tiiat an Hattici<s in- 

Y de;d. 


dtd. 3. Hetaketh himldf for Orthodox and you for the Hcr^etfcft. 
4. And all his followers arc of his- mind. How then will you filctna 
a Htrctick without the Sword ? If you convince him of ills errour you 
fhall not need to lilercehim ; for hewillkave his errour rather thah 
his Miniliry ; But if you convince him not of his errour, you will hardly 
convince him, that bccaufeof that errour, hemullbe filent i f nor con- 
vince his followers that they mufinot hear him^. 

3. All the quertion therefore tl>at rcmaineth, is, whither in nnl^ottfn 
doubtful cafes, yon are tlx fudges of Uerefic, Errour, Scbifm , and of mens 
unrcoTthinefs to Prejch, And here. i. I need not tell you that by this 
way you can never iilence either the ^mj/z/, or any that deny your au- 
thority. Of which fort you know are mof^ that you lilence in this age 
and Nation. No, nora Donatilt, aNovatian, or any one that is for 
the office of Bifhops, but takethyou for no EiQiop as being undue! y cal- 
Itd : Of which fort were abundance of Chriftians towards each othets 
Bilhops in former ages i and fuch are the Papifts now towards you. 
So that neither Papili: nor Proteftant that lever knew filenced t>y youj 
doth forbear upon Confcience of this your pretended authority at all. 
And what a fileneing power is that which fcarce any man would be ever 
lilcnced by ? You cannot choofe but know this to be true. 

2. And really, (hould Magiftrates thcmfelves be fo fervile to you 
ss to filence all Minilkts by the Sword, whom a Prelate judgeth to be 
hlent, while he knoweth not whether it be defervcdly or not i God 
forhid that Protcfiants, like the Popes, (hould make Kings to be their 
Executioners, or hangmen. Ameer Executioner indeed is not bound 
to know or exan ine , whether the fentence was juft or not 
(though inmoftcafestoforbearif it be notorioufly unjuftj but whata 
King or Magilirate doth, he muft do asa publick Judge, and therefore 
muit hear the caufe himfelf, and try whether he be really guilty ©mot, 
and not only whether a Birtiop judged him fo. Elfe Magilkates will ei- 
ther be involved in the bloody lin ef pcrfecution, as oft as a Prelate will 
but command them > and fo mull be damned and help to damn others, 
when Prelates pleafe : Or elfe it is no lin for a Magiftrate to filence all 
the holyeli Miniliers of Chrilt, to the damnation of thoufands of ig- 
norant untaught Souls , fo be it the Prelates do but bid him, and he 
keep himfelf unacquainted with the caufe. And next they mull obey 
the Counfel at Laterane ftib. Itioc. 3. And exterminate all fub;edts 
out^of their Dominions Cthough itbeall that are there J and muft 
burn Holy-Chriflians to allies , bccaufe the Pope or Prelates bid 

3. I need not make alfoa particular application of this cafe to the 
people; when they know nothing but wife and found and holy in the 
Dodlrine or life of their Paftors, and God bids them know fuch as labour 
among them and are over them in the Lord, and highly ejieem them in Love 
for their rvor\fjh^ > they will hardly be fo debauched as to violate this 




command of God, asofrasa Dioceftn wiWbvit fiy \^I l^iorv fame Hmfie or. 
Crime by your T'eacber Tvhich you do not, and therefore he mull Preach no more., 
and yon rrntji no m^re ttfe his miniilryr\ Were I one of thefe people, I would 
be bold to ask the tfiocefan £ Sir what is the. Hercfie or Crime that he is 
guilty of ? If he refufe to tell ine I would flight him as a Tyrant : Gen- 
eral Counfelstold the people of the Herefics for which they did dclpofc 
their Paftors. If he told me what it was, I would try it by Gods word; 
If I were unable, I would feek help. If the Viorefjn filenccd my Teach- 
er, and ten neighbour Eiftops wifcrfhan he, did tell me that it was 
for Truth and Duty, and that the Hercfie was the Bilhops, I would hear 
my Teacher, and believe the other Eithops before him, (without taking 
them to be of a higher order. J 

Thcpbjedtions againfi this, and what is before faid (liall be anfwcr- 
cd in the next Chapter. You fee when it is but opened, how the Dioce- 
fjni power vaniQieth into the air. 


That thcrcisno 7}ced of fich at our Diocclans y3»r tic Unity or 
the Gaverjwmtt of the pM-tiatUr Minijkrs, ttor for the jilcn- 
cing of the tmvperth)'. 

IT ftuck much in the minds of the Ancient Doftors and Chriftians 
that Epijcnpacy was ncccffary to avoid Schifm and difcord among 
the Mini/lcrsandthe peoples arvd that it was introduced for that rea- 
fon. Andl amfoaverfc to fingularity in Religion, that I will not be 
lie that lhallgain(ay it. Atioublc, ycaa treble E/>«/cf/>jfv, thougli [can- 
not /rare inllituted of ChriA, yet will Inotcontiadidt, bccaufconc fort 
I cannot difprove, and the other two I take to be but a prudential humane 
determination oftheCircumdanrcs of one and the fame facrcd Miniftcri*- 
al officc-wOrke. i. That which I cannot difprove as fo a Divine I/ijiitn- 
tion^ is a General Miniliry over many Churches (like the Scots Vifiters 
at their Reformation) who as SucccfTors to the ApoHlcs and Evange- 
lirts in the durable parts of thcirofticc, were by a conjundtion of Scrip- 
ture evidence and Divine authority of office, to pcrfwade Paliors and 
people to tlicir fcveral duties, and to have a chief hand in ordaining and 
removing Minifkrs. 2. That which I will not contradid antiquity in, 
!sa Bifliopinevery particular Church, tobeasthc chief Prcbytcr, like 
thechiefJulHce on the bench or one of the Qnorttm^ as our PariQi Mi- 
uilkrsnow arc in refpcd to all their Curates of the Chappels under 
them. 3. Andl would rot deny but at all Miniltcrisl Synods, one man 
may be Moderator jCithcr/)v tempore, or for continuance, as tlicre is caufc. 

y 2 'ihti« 


Thefctwo I aft are but Prudential circumfianccs, asDodlor Stilingfltit 
hath proved. And in all thefcl like the Difcipline of the Waldtnfts, 
Bahemian and Polonian Churches. 

But no Government of the Presbyters, no concord, no keeping out 
ofHcrcGc, requireth fuch as our T>iocefjiis\ i. Who put down all the 
Bifhops of the particular. Churches , under them, a. And pretending 
Spiritual Power, Govern by the force of the Magiftrates Sword : 5. 
And obtrude thcmfelveson the people and Pallors, without their con- 
fcrt., and againfi their wills, being by multitudes taken for the cne- 
»:ics of the Church. 4r Afid vifibly before the world introducing (b 
iTiany bad Minifters, and filencing fo many faithful ones, as in thisagc 
I'hcy liavedonc. 

Without them we have all thefe means of concord following, i. We 
have a clear defcription of the duty of Minifters and people in Gods 
word. 2. We have Minifters to Preach up all thefe duties by Office. 3. 
The people are taug,ht by Scripture what Miniflers to choofe. 4. We 
iind It natural to the people to be for Learned and godly Minifiers, 
though many of them be bad themfelvcs. And though it be not fb with. 
tlicm all 5yet the fobcr part do ufually perfwade the iel\ : So that inLon - 
don and clfe where, thofe Pa rifhes where the people choofe, had ufual ly 
far worthier Pallors than the refl,~elpecially th an thefein thcE i fhop s, 
prefentation . s. The people are obliged by God to markc thofe Mini- 
flers that caufe divifion and contention and avoid them. 6. The Mini- 
Itcrs arc bound to give notice to the people of falfe teachers and Schif- 
JTiaticks, and to command them to avoid them i And themfelvcs to re- 
nourkce Comtriunion with them after the firll and fecond admonition^ 
7. Thefe Minilicrs may have crrrefpondence by Synods, tokeepiipcon-- 
cord by agreement among themfelvcs. So we have over all a Chrirti- 
an King and Magiftracy, who are the rightful Governours of the Cler- 
gy as well as of all other fubjecflsi and may conftrain the negligent to 
their duty , and rcflrain the Heretical, Schifmatical and wicked from 
ti.eir fin. And may not all this do much to keep up Concord ? ■: 

2, what our Viocefa/is really cffeft in order to concord ororder y 
?h£V doitbythe Magiftrates power, and .not by the Keys > without the ' 
Magifliate they would be fo contemned a fort of men, thatinfte adof fi- 
kncing us by their ksyes, one of us now tiienced coul d^do more to fi - 
lence them, were that according to our ]udgment, I -mean, it were 
€afi.er;to perfwade ten , pe ople fromHe a ringonc of them (f pe cially of late) 
t han for them to perfwade one from hearing us, in many place s. And 
w:hatthe Magiltratedoth^hecandoby others, if he pleafs, as well as 
Kpvv he doth by them. 

5. The Churches that have no Bilhops have incomparably lefJe He- 
j;dle, Schifm ( Wickedncfs, and mar«; concord than we have here. 
TJtc Churchof Scotland is an eminent inliance, which hath knownbut 
liSt.tIc..by experience what Schifm 01 Herefies are. And fo are the J 
' P/oteftant, 

0^5 ; 

ftotefiant Churches of France , of Geneva , of Hehaia , and o:bcr 
places : 

4. Were but the true E/>//cff/>jcy forementioned reflored, we fliould 
yet lefs know any (hew of need for our Diocefane ^ Migifiratc Mini- 
Iters, and they would fjftice, to do what on eartli may be expect- 

Obj. J fere not Bifhjps the mcjnes of the Churches concord in all a.ga ? 
Aiif. True Bilhops fuch as afore defcribed, did their parts, but when 
fuchasour D/oce/i;;/. fprang up, the Church was prefcntly broken in- ' 
to pieces, and by odious contentions and diviilons became a (candal 
and (corne to unbelievers. To read but the Ads of Counfcls and the 
Hirtoryof the Church, and there rind the horrid contentions of Pre- 
lates againd each others, the parties which they made, their running 
up and down the world, to Princes and Rulers, and Synods to bear 
down one another, it will do as much to grieve and ama7e the Soul of 
a Sober Chrillan, almoA as an Hillory in the world that he can per« 

Obj . But they fdenced Heretickj and dipafcd them, and Jt k^pt Do&rine 
found and fife. Anf. Before they had the Sword of the Magillrate to fe* 
cond them, they lilenced none : For hovf could they do it? They only- 
judged themtobecafl out of their Communion, and depofcd , which 
they could no way execute but by avoiding them, and pcrfwadiiig the 
people to difown them and avoid them ; For they neither did nor could 
hinder them froin gathering Churches and Preaching to their follow- 
ers; And there the rejcded ones did rejedf their KejedKrs, and cx- 
coinmunicate their excommunicaters, and in the eyes of their lollow- 
crs were the better men, and only Orthodox: So that -tlicir lilcpcing. 
was but changeing their Congregations. Andfo numerous were rfic 
feds that followed fuch Teachers, that they fometimes-feemcd more, 
than the Orthodox: Epiphaniuf found enow in his time to rill a large 
Volume. Ai!d the Donatills alone were fo numerous in Africj as to 
pretend to be the Catholick Church, and by their numbers and info- 
iency deterred Augujiinc intoa change of hisopinion, and .to call for 
that help from the Princes Sword, which before h^ had denycd. Ne- 
ver had the Church in any place, fo many Seds and Herclies, as fince 
the times that Prelacy grew up, and in thofc Countries, and where it 
wasmofl exercifcd. Andindced the ignorance and pride of Prelates was 
not the lea({ caufe. For fomcofthcin fand no (mail number J be- 
came the Authors of Hercliesthemfclves, fucii as Paulnf, Samyfuenns, 
the Ap.linarii, tlie great Patriarcks, Diofcorits ^ Nejiori.mr ., Macrdjiiius^ 
and alas how great a number more and others of them did by their dorni- 
nering infolency rife up with fo much pride and wrath againit thofc 
that humoured them not, cfpccially if indc(d tiuy erred, as that they 
forced (bme into Schifms, and by iilcneeing tin dillenters, did but drive 
fheiir>r ctuptbr themfelvcs in feparatcd alTciubliesi. And they fo di(- 

Y 5 afftdrd 


•.tjffi'fte'd the jealous people, as drove them awiyfroih the Orthodox 
churches, to theSedsand Hereticks, astheEr.ghlh Prclatesdo at this 
dayifo that multitudes of the moft llrid and temperate CliriHians follow- 
ed the A^n;'^f/(7Hj-,the Vonatifts^ and much worfcr feds. 

And when the Prelates grew up to a fecular terrour, and twifted with 
the Civil power, and were backed by the Sword, i. They made the 
more fober and mortified Chriftians the more diflikc them , as may 
appear by what E/</ci«/j-, Socrates^ and others write of them, and the 
Charadters that are given of Cyril zni "theophiius, Alexander, and fuch 
others: And by Mi^r/rnr feparation from M<»«k/ and /«^i»<:«/j-, and their 
Synods, and by the increafe of the Prikilianifts by their pride and vio- 
Ifncc, mentioned by Snip. Severus, and others. 2. And it was not by tlie 
Keys indeed, but by the Sword which backt them, that they did all 
that they did, be it good or evil, in filencings, and in keeping up their, 
order. 3. And they did but teach the Hereticks to Ihengthen themfclves 
by the lame means t So that the Prrfcilianifts once got countenance, 
from Gratiain Courtiers againft the Bifliops > And Ambrofe was pcr- 
fccutcd or endangered by Valentinian, as AthaaafiHs at laft was by Con* 
ftantinc himfelfjUnd Cbryfofloym dcpofed, and many others by fuch means : 
Yea till at lafi the EiOiopsfotind that evil is more commonly bifriend- 
cd by corrupted nature than good i and that Goodnefs is ufually iow- 
efrwhcrewoalth and honours make men higheft, and that few Princes 
were the beJT of men, and therefore that if one befriended the truth, 
many were liketobeagainfl it, and till the Arriansh"^ t\\t help of Em- 
perours , and Vandal and Gothijh Kings, had almoll: turned all the 
Church into Arrianr, and had got the General Counccis on their fides, 
and had cruelly perfecuted the Orthodox Bilhops, and taught them 
what it was to trull to the Sword, for the clenfing and concord of the 
Churches. And when the controverile of Images came up, one Em- 
pcrour was for them and another againft them: By which means and 
by thecontcnding of the Eafternand Wefiern Patriarcks and Prelates, 
wholhould be the grcateil, the Churches have been torne to pieces, 
and fo continue lamentably to this day fas ip the Hiitory was before 

Andit wasthe Prelatical Tyranny of the Romanifts, tliat fincerai{^ 
ed fo many parties againft them, and then had noway to Curb them, 
but by prolccuting them by the Swo;dand flames, as in the cafe of the 
IFaldenfcs^ Albigenfes, and Profr/fijwf/ appcarcth ; And as the Murders 
of many hundred thoufands in Piedmont, Fra/ice, Germjiiy, Ireland^, 
England, 6cc, Befides their Inquifitions Ihew. Thus SoUttidinem fecf 
rttntj&nnitatem & pacem vccaricni. "When they have hanged, burnt 
and llain the people and Priells, they have quitted and filenceJ them, 
and when they have made a lolitude and depopulation by killing thofe 
thatdiffertdfrom them, they have brought all to concord, and been 
all of a mind. 



And ;le£ none be offended tliat I mention the Papiits in dtCctilyiap 
Prelacy. For I do it not toraifc an Odiiun on .them > but Irehfrtt to 
riiecbnliderationof fober men, i. Whethcrns Ha-lyin-ts give us the 
piduieand titfcription ofherbes, not in theirfpring, but in thciv tuH 
f^rb'-vnnallt, blo/Totn and fruits, and as he that will know the nature ar.J 
difference of fruit?, or animals, muft Ihy till tiiey arc come to their full 
growth and ripentfs, and not take them green and youngs fo trc thar 
will judgeeitherof Schifmat o( Cbircb-tyrjiinyawxl} do. 2. And whe- 
ther the ^j%r/. Ranters, Familijh ^wA Murder- monftirtbt wox. Schijou- 
iickj ripe and at full growth, and therefore a young Schilinatick is not 
10 tell us what Schifin is, but ftiould himfclt fee what he will be whcii 
he is ripe. And fo whether I'o pety be no t the V/occJmc Prelacy fail 
grown and ripc^ and whether tlicy fliould not therefore fee what thcs' 
would come to, if that which witbo'dcth in the fevcral Kinadoms 
were taken out of the way, as'the Pope hath rernovCd it in the Empire . 
If the Viiicepinf, Mctropclitancs, Patriarks, and Pope (as to his Pri- 
macy in the Empire^ did not a>Il Ibnd on the fame humane foLmdati\)n , 
then are they not the things that I am fpcakingof. 

Obj. Bm thclatc and pnfeiU Scbifmts in England /^en? that tt it the S^ 
vcrfiirics of Frclacy that tire tlx canf(s, ' 

Anf. Very true, for Prelacy makcth it felf adverfarits, and fo makcth 
fome of the .Schifmaticks. Tlurc arc two fort of 5c/.'//»»jj;ri^i i fome 
Vrchiills (as the Papifis, the Novjtiani^ the Vm^tiih^ and moll of the 
aid Schifmaticks were) i and fome Anti-ptelatills. And there axe two 
Ibrts of Anti prclatifis ; Some Catholick being for the Primitive Epifco' 
fjcy^ and fome Schifmaticks. And thcfe lall the Pi elates make, and 
then ccmplainofthern. Itis their llatc, arid pradice, hereafter dt f- 
cribed,thatdrjveth men to diAalUhem, and fo precipitaicth the inju- 
dicious into .the Contrary extreme. I t is Prelacy that makcth almoli 
all the Scfts that be ip .Evjr/jwrx'at this day ; When the>- fee ho w the Spi- 
ritual K eys are kcularly ufcdjiy La^mein in thc fr Courts, when they 
ice what Min ifiers and how many hundted of t hcin are tilci ;ad, and 
what Fello ws in many places a rc fet up in tlieir tlcad, they thmkjhey 
can never fly far enough from. fuph PteJates : To tell the worleT. It. js 
Sc hifma ticks that we lilcnce, and they ate c bcditnt and Otthod ox ■|> oi • 
fonsthat we fet up, may figr.jrie fomcthir.t; in another hnd or age . 
but it doth but increafe thedifaff^dion ot thofc that are upon tlit |i!.icr . 
und know what kind ot men the Prelates coiiancndj and who ii\ey 
difconimcnd and filcncc . A very Child when he is eating his . pple, will 
nut cail it away, becaule a Prelate !aii h it is a Crab, nor when he tati- 
cih a Crab, will he eate it, it a Prelate Swear it is a fwcatippK. 
Though he that doth but look on thcitmiy poiiril>iy belitvchim.- 

I believe they that thougiu that Prelacy Was the only cure of onr 
Sdiifuvs, do know by this time by experience, that by that tifr.e the 
lUelateslud again ruLd but itvcn years, there were ft vto and Icvcn 

againft them for one that was fo baforc: And we that dwell among 
them, do take thofethat diflike their courfeand waitfs, tobe the Gen - 
erality ot themoji Keligioos and ibber people of the land ralwaies 
excepting the King and Parliament and thofe that muii beftillex - 

C H A P. XIY. 

T/^e true Original of the warrantable Epifcopacy in particular 
Churches, was the notorious difparjty of abilities in the Paftors : 
And the original of that tyrannical Prelacy into which it did de- 
generate, TPds the worldly Spirit in the Pafiors and people , 
rvhich xvith the world came by projperity intotheChurch. ^^re, 
Wjhether fM thivg, eS4je mt^ ja?here the nafon pf. it ceafith .<? 

c/'^Od doth not carryon his work upon mens Souls , by names and 
vJ empty titles i but by fuch real demonftrating evidences of his Pow- 
er, Wifiome and Goodncfs, as are apt to work on the Reafon ofman. And 
therefore he that would make his Apoftles the Foundations or chief 
Pillars and Inftrumentsin and of his Churches, would accordingly en- 
dow them with proportionable abilities, that in the Mii-tcu'our demon- 
lirations of P<;n?cr, and the convincing demonftrations of /f^z/^wKc; and 
he -amiable holy dcmonftrations of ^w^«e/(-, theymightas far excel o- 
thers as they did in authority. 

And nature it felfteaceth us to difference men in our Hleem and af' 
fectiofi, as they really differ in worth and lovclincfs. And ' this La-v 
of Natirre k the Primary Law of God. And the holy Scriptlires plain- 
ly fecondir, tcllingusoft ofthcdiverCtyof Godsgittsin his Servants, 
which all make for concord,, but not for equality of ellcem v and that 
there are greater and lelTer in the Kingdom ot God, and that Gods gifts 
mailmen mud be honouxed, Mjt!f. 12- iCor.12. Eph.^, H.b.^.io, 
11. 12. & 6. ' ' ■ 

And God that would have his various gifts varioiiHy efleemcd , did 
in all ageshimfelf diverfihe his Servants gitts. All were not Apo/Hes, 
nor all Prophets, nor all Evangelilts : And after their daies all the 
Miniftersor Elders of the Churches were not mcnol Learning, nor 
of fo full acquaintance with the facrcdDodrine, nor fo grave, prudenr, 
flaied, holy, charitable, or peaceable as fome were llfually when mi- 
raculous gifts did ceafe , and very tew Philofophers or men of learn- 
ing turned Chriftians, Any man may know that hid not been told it by 
Church-Hirtory, that their Elders or Paftors were fuch as the better 
/ort of our unlearned Chriliians are i whocan pr.iy well, and worfhip 



God finccreJy, andtcWthe Scripture, andlna plain familiar manner, 
can teach the CatechilUcal points, and perfwadc 6i> duty and reprove 
vice: But as for Sermons in a nuthodical accurate wviy, as r.ow ufcd, 
and defending the tnuh.and oppofing Hercfics, and Hopping the mouths 
of gainfayers, they n\vi\ needs be far below the Learned. But yet here 
and there a rhilofophcr was converted » and ot tiiofc that h^d no fuch 
Learning (then called fccular, and the Learning of the Gentiles) fomc 
few were far better Learned than others in the lacrcd ScriptiTcs, and 
the CLiftcmes and Learning ot the Jmv : And it was long before tlic 
Cl'.riflians had Schools and Academics of their own. 

That tills was fn, appeareih. i. In thereafonof tlic thing. For no 
ciTccft can exceed the total caute. Tiicretorc they that iud not the in- 
fpirations piofbttical, or miraculous guifts, nor Acadcrcjics and Schools 
offccular Learning, nor fo much as Riches and Icilurc, butPovcrty and 
perfccution and worldly troub'c and labour, were not like to have more 
Learning than the holy Scriptures taught them. ' 

2. And this appeareth by the torecitcd Canons of Gounfels, which 
forbad Pallors, ever almolt three hundicd years after Chrill, to read 
the Gcniiks books. By which the former cullome of the Church 
maycalily be perceived. And alfo by abtmdancc of reproaches which 
aie call upon fome Hercticks in the Ancients writings, for being too 
much skilled in Logick and other of ihcGcntiUs Learning. 

3. And it appeareth by the parity ot jvriffivof the fccond and third 

4. And a] fo by th; paucity of famous Divines that arc mentioned ia 
the Hilloriesot thofe titties. 

5. And above all by the plainnefsandfiinpliciiyof thofe that are 
dtteribcd and of ihcirwritings. I fpcak not in any contempt of them 
for this Cperha] s we vali c common learning noiv to;) highly J But only 
totcUyouthe true Hilloryof thofe times. No doubt but many poor 
men among us, Cdivcrs Weavers and fomc Plowmen, of the Church 
which I was rcn-.oved from , for inftance ) are able to pray, and tcacii 
as well as moll of thofe who arc by E«/f/!/«r extolled as the tamous 
Bifliops of the fccond and third age v and to write as Methodical, pious, 
weighty tradatcs, as any that were then written by men that neither 
convcrkd with the Apofilcs, nor had been bred up in Philofophy; 
That I fay rot as C/cwf/;x K(7w.j«a/- himfclt, ot Igiutiit^, ox Iraisnt^ yea 
ox C]prijiis, Epililes are. 'Yea,or as many of the ages following i even 
asholy 3/j(.vr/'.vj-, Ephcrm^ Cyrus , Synifius^ fa Philo(ophcr) Ifidure, PcIh' 
fwta, and many more have written iince. If this be not be'ieved, how 
many Lay-men could I natnc who have written more accurately and ju- 
dicioufly, andasfaras the writings (hew, as pioully as any ot" thelc.? 
And that not only Learned Lay-men, but men that had neither inany 
Languages nor riiilofoph). And itthe books then written were very 
feiv, andoflliofe very few that were writtcnby any butSifliopsor Phi- 

Z lo fop hers-, ^ 


UofoiMier;, ■ and tWefeivfo j>kineas we fee they arc, (the bed of them 
far below the writings of abundance of lat€ Latia and Englifh and 
i icnch writers, th.it were hut I'rcsbytersJ, you may calily judge of 
what parts the reft ot' rhc Presbyters of thofe times vvere, that never 

Ar:d 'from hentc-yo-°.'may gather the reafons, i. Why fo few Volumes 
arclcfr us written in tlrctwo hrft ages.' 2. And why the Churches had 
then (o many Presb'/tcrs. C Whatever Dodor Hammmid i'iy to the 
contrary without any proof.) It was eafy to find fuch Chriliians as aforc- 
dccribcd, v/ho might competently guide the reft by Dail'rine, worlhip, 
dilcipline and example: Though to find Learned men was hard. 3. 
And yon may fee why lu many Hereticks boafted fo much of their high- 
er knowledge, and Platonical &c. fpeculations, as accounting the Or- 
thodox to be ignorant men. 4. And you may fee why I'o tew were 
champions for the truth. 5. And why there were fo many parties and 
diviflons, when the Elders were many and lefs judicious, 6, And yen 
may (cchow the opinion of Eccleilaftick mecr Ruling Elders came 
up-, and how to expound Tauls^ il'iwz. 5,17. Efpecijllytbontlut hboitr 
,intbz Word and Voclr/ne. For it was but here and there a Learned or 
fpccial gifted Chriftian, that was able folemnly and ornately tD Preach, 
decide hard cafes and controverGcs, confute Hereticks, and guide the 
Churches in difficult cafes. And rhe reft did lit about the Bifhop as his 
aUKlants, and Preach and ofliciate at his diiccfion, and overfee the 
people from man to man i being of the fame order and office with the 
Eiiliop, but not of the lame parts, and therefore not equalin the exer- 
cife. _ 

7. And therefore iafily hence you may fee, the reafons of the firft fix- 
ed particular Church Epijcopjcy : Thofe few that were Philofophcrs or 
eminently qualified ("being ((:arce enow to make one for every Churchy 
did by their gifts overtop the reff in thedueeffeem of all the people .* 
who were bcund to clkem liim wifcft that was wifcft, and to yield more 
to his judgment than to others thatlcnew Icfs ; And this inequality of 
gifts uCtially lafted as long as life j and therefore fo did the inequality 
of effeem and reverence. And both the people and the inferiour gifted 
Paflors, obeyed the Law of God in nature, and readily gave honour to 
whom honour vvasdue. And when one was dead rinding another ftil to 
excel the reff, they accordingly prcfcTrcd him before the reft, even as 
an excellent Phytlcian would bs by the patients, and by all the young- 
er and more ignorant Phyiicians, that are notcarrycd away with pride. 
''iAnd this did eafily (asall things elfe ) turnc into formality under pre- 
sence of order, and come tofeem a kind of Office. But when difference 
required it, I know not but that all this was v/cll done, except that they 
•for.faw not the degenerate tyranny that would afterward hence arife. 

This preftnt experience opcncth to us to the day. What did fet up 
'^liHther, and MelM&hoUy and lllyricits, but their eminent parts? What 


c\k%ViZ Zuinilins and Oaofu/iipjdius the ? reddende at Zuikk ? Whatclft 
did fee up Cdviii, and Bex^a at Geneva ? And K^iax and Utn.ierfori in Scotland ? 
And all our Pan flies tluc have Chappeb and Curates iliew it here in Eng- 
l.v'J- Where one man for hi;; worth IS thought meeteft to have the Bemficc 
and chief cure ; but oilicis miy be dyjfen byhi:n and placed under hiin, 
and maintained by hi.n ("oy the BiiTiops allowance; as his curates. 

And indeed it was (o long beRire Academies made a fuliicicnt ftore of 
men of (ufficiencie for every Presbyters place, that for four or five hun- 
dred years, there were few bred up to competent Learning, except tither 
under Heathens, or elfc in a Bifhops honfe, or here and (here as an Auditor 
offomc one rare Teacher. Clemens Alcx.nhirinus , as aDifcipleof Pjn.'i?- 
nusind 0«/^f7;t" of c/c';;;^;;;, and dime few others, came to Learning, a.:^ au- 
ditors in that Alexandri.m iichool : But few o'licr places bclides Akxjn- 
drijhd.A any fuch Jschooi of a long tune, info much as Kjxjjnxen, B.i/i\ 
(^reg. Nijfcn, Chr}fojhme, i3c. were taught at Athens, by Lyhantus ancl 
fucli other Heathens i hnXAmhrtf:, Augujline, and many other?, were in 
a manner cLvlaS'iJ'a.KToi^ felf raughr, (6 that it wasnor polfiblcthcn to have 
m.iny Learned men ordinarily foronc Church (or congregation) And ye' 
many Presbyters certainly they had. Which is the true caufe that one 
Learned man was made an Ovcrfcerand Guide to the reft, who were his 
Curates or A(rift'anfs,pirrcd lil.e our wifer fort of the L.ii y, but of the fame 
Ofticc and order with him ; And thisBiihop wjs the ufual Preacher, and 
the otlier didlcarne of hnn to Preach, and grew up under him as Scho- 
lars; an I he that came to greatflt abilities under him, waschjfen for a 
iBifliop to another Church that wanted, bur not without his own Bilhops 
confcn'", which m.ide the debate in Councels Co frequent, whether a Presby- 
ter might remove to another Church, orbecholcn for aBuliop of another 
Church? And an Afnc.iu Council giveth it as a Reafon why that BiOiop 
that had ab'c Presbyter-, fliouLi not ref;iie to let one go to be a B lliop clfc- 
whcrc, becaufc where there were many fit to be Presbyters, ilicrc were 
but few men ftttobe made Billiops, which implieth that they took it not 
then for a mecr place of order, where one man of equal parts was for 
Unity to rule the relt, but for a nccclfary difference of exerciting the fame 
OHice, bccaufe of the different abilities of the Officers: Wiiich was not 
only to keen an Older by iifparity of places, but toc.lucatethe Presbyters 
to greater abilifie-^jand tomanagc Gods woi k in each .ilTcml)ly more skiilful= 
Jyand guide the ChurJi more prudently, and defend the truth more power- 
fully, than common unlcarnevl Presbyters could do. 

N)w let It oc fir the pi cfent granted that for fuch rcafbns I^f>ifcop.icyin 
■eachChurclvwasjuftlyrctied, and call it an order or a degree as you pleafc ; 
Itwill bendifliCiilt que'Uion, what ftiall be judged of thofc that have the 
fame place and Title, without the fame CLualifications and precedcncie of 
parts? Becaufc the iUafonof his power failcth. If onebcchofi-n Hiiliopto 
keep out Hcteiie, andhcprovc a Heretick, and the Presbyters Orthodox, 
whatis his power to that end ? Ifone bechofen Biiliopto keep out Schifiii, 
and he prove a Schifinacick or Sec^-Maftcr, and the reft concordant, what 
is his power? IfcnebemadeBifliop to teach the people better iliaiuliePres* 
bytres, and to teacli the Pre.^byters themfllve-, and todefcnil truth and 
Oodlinefs, and he prove more ignorant than the Presbyters, andPrcachnot 
to tliethoufatidthoi hundredth part of his Dioccleoncein all his life, nort^i 
any atad pall once in many weeks or months or years, and if he do but fi- 
knce the Miniftcrs that are abler andfarr more pious than himfcif, what 

Z 2 pawcr 



power hath he as a Bifhop ro thofe ends .■> Sure I ara that J/ff'ofnio materWis 
neccfTary as fine (ju.t non, adreceptionem form.i!. If one be made a School- 
malter, that cannot reach the Scholars haiffb much as they know already, 
bur hath need to learneof them, andyctwill neither learne of them, r,or 
fuftcr them to learne without hira^ 1 know not well howfarr he is their 
Schoolmafter indeed. If one be made a Phyfician, thatk.noweth not half fb 
much as I do, Ifliouldbc loth for Order fake to venture my life upon his 
truft. Nor yet to venture my own life ami others in a Ship that had an ig- 
norant 1 ilore, wlienihe Mariners had more skill, butmuft noru/cir. Or- 
tlcrsand OHxc that a^c appoinredfpr tlie work's Hike, cflentially fuppofe 
ability for thu work. And without the necefl'try qualifications, they are 
but the Carkiflcscr images of the office (but of this before;. 

Therefore itis that the Chnftian flocks could never yet be cured, by all 
the art or tyranny that ould bcu.ed, ofthecfteem of real iVifJome and 
Sofih:efst and preferring it before an emf-ij title, or a pompous Jhetv, and from 
fcrringleft by l^iior.:nce3.nA I:np':cty venerably /(.rwf./ and <f--rfyf.y, then bv 
felt evid&acing worth:, nor from valuing a Shepherd that daily feedeth 
them, from a Wolfe in Sheep? cloathing, that hath Fangs and bloody 
■ja'.ves, and flccccth and dcvoureth the flock (with the Shepherds.) 

And hence we may fay that God hi/tif //ufeth to give BiJJ^ops to the Churchy 
whechei men wiil or notj while hegivethrhemfuchas (Jerome) Lutker, 
Melantikorti, Bucer, Calvitif Zunchius, (3c, Who had Epifcopj! abilitji, and 
reallj did that which Bidiops were firft appointed for, while the Bifhops 
would have hindered them and fought their blood Tlicy tjughc the peo- 
ple, they bred up young MlnJfters, they kept out Herefies and Scbifmes, they 
guidedtbe churches by the light of Sacred truth, and by the power of Rer.fbn 
and Love ; And who than was the Biniopi" who is the real Archited he that 
buildeththehoufe, or he that hath the title, and doth nothing unlcfs it be 
hindering the builders .■' 

To this already faidladd but two more intimations, which I defire the 
fober impartial Reader to confider. i. Writing is but a mode of Preaching: 
And of the two it is worfe to have inept Sermons inPublick AfTemblies (and 
i'o Gods worke and worHiip difhonourcd } than to have inept bookes 
in private. And no doubt, the Paftors overfighr extends to publick and pri- 
vate. Nowwhilethemeer worth of bookes without any Authority, com - 
mendcth them to the world, though fometimes with fbme few, giddy Pam - 
phlets arcacceptcd. yet thatis but for a fit ; an d ordinarily the Book-fcllci-s 
fjificicntly reflrain all that are notofwortTi, Becaule they cannot fell them, 
But if a Eifhop muft impofe on all the people what bookes they muft read, jr >' 
many Kingdoms it will be for the Pope and MalTe^ in others for Exorcifin 
andCorfubftgntioii, G c 

2. Is not order for the the thing ordered ? Epifcopjcy is for the Churches 
benefit by the Bifhops eminent gifts and parts. But if the Birtiop be of Jow- 
crparts, than the Paftors (and an Envious Malignant hinderer of their 
work), Querc, Whether the order fbeing humane) ceafe not, uhl ceffat [ub- 
\Tiii difpofitio dS relatio adfinem; when the end and the pefbns capacity ceafe. 

1 1. But how the world by the countenance of Emperours was invited to 
coraeint the Church? How worldly wealth, power and honour did indue 
them? How Biiliopricks were made baites for the proud and tyrannical 
and Covetous ? How fuch then fought them and fo the worldly Spirit had 
the rule, and altered Epifcop.uj, I iTiewedijitheHiftory before. 





Second Part. 

Having in the fbrmcF Part laid down thofe Grounds on 
which the Applicatory Part is to be built, and fub- 
verted the foundations of that Diocefane frame which 
we judge unlawful, I (hall now proceed to give you 
the Application, in the particular Reafons of our 
judgment, from the Evils which we fuppofethis frame 
to be guilty of. 


The cleawjg of the ft ate of the Quefiion* 

TH E occafion of our difpute, or ratlier Apology, is known in 
England, i . Every man that is ordained Deacon or Presbyter 
(or licenfed a Schoolmalkr) muft fubfcribc to the Books of Ar- 
ticles, Liturgy and Ordination, ^^ Ex ammo that there is nothing 
in them contrary to the Jf^ord of Cod. And by the late'^dt of Uni- 
formity [that he doth ajfcnt and conjlnt to all things contcined in-, and prefcribed hy 
■ the faid book/ as fince altered (we think for the worfcO 

A 2. Ill 

2. In the year 1^40 the Convocation formed, printed and impofed a new 
Oath in thefe words Cafter others) [ Nor ivill I ever give my confent to alter the Gt-, 
zrrmnent nf thU Churchy' by /Irch-BiJJmps-, BiJhops^Veans^ Arch-Vt aeons.) &c. as it 
jiaiids notv ejiahlifhed., and vs by right it ought to fiand."^ 

3. After this the ParHament in the Wars impofed a Vow and Covenant on 
the Minifters and People contrary to this called the Et c£trca Oath ; which 
Vow contained a claufe to endeavour the extirpation of this Prelacy. In the 
Wejlminjier Afiembly before it parted, many Learned Divines declared that they 
would not take it as againft Prelacy unexplained, left it (hould feem to be a- 
gainlt all Epifcppacy, wllich was not their judg^ment,they being for the primi- 
tive Epifcopacy. To fatisfie thefe men (that elfe had protefted againft it, and 
the Affembly been divided, the Scots and fome others being againft all) the ad- 
ditional Titles of Deans, Chapters, &c. were put in as a defcription of the 
peculiar Englifh frame of Prelacy which they all agreed againft.Since His Maje- 
fty's Reftoration, there are many Ads made againft the belief of an obligation 
by this Vow. One is made for a change in Corporations, requiring a Decla- 
ration by all in any place of Truft, ([ that there it no obligation on f?ie or any othsr 
prfin from the. [aid. Oath., Voix> or Covenant] even abfolntely no obligation at all 
rvithoHt exception of the claufes.that are for the Protejiant Religion., for Reptntance nf 
our fins., agai/iji Popery^ Herefie, Scbifm, Prophmcnefi., &c. The Aft of Unifor- 
mity impofeth it on all Minifters, &c. to declare or fubfcribe that there is no 
obligation from that; Vow on me or any other pcrfon to endeavour at any time 
any alteration of Government in the Church. ] The V^^^f Y A<3: Impofeth the 
like on all Veftry men •, and fo of others, c ^ ■ 

4. All Minifters fwear to obey the Billiops in HcitTS,&hiMJiis^ which is called 
the Oath of Canonical Obedience. 

5. And laft of all an hOc paft at Oxford by which we are to be banilhed five 
miles from all Cities and Corporations, and all places where we have preached, 
and imprifoned fix months in the Common Jail, if we come nearer any of 
them, except on the Road, till we have taken an Oath \_that rvervill not at 
any time endeavour an alteration of the Government of the Church.f] ("which plainly 
importeth as much objectively as the Ef cxtera Oath of 1640 i Though not en- 
deavouring be fomewhat lefs than not confenting.J And fo black a Charafter is 
put upon the Non-conformifts, with a [_fome of them) in the beginning 
of the faid Aft, that all Reafon,Religion and Humanity obligcth us for the fa- 
tisfaftion of our Rulers, for the vindication of our felves, and for the juft in- 
formation of pofterity, plainly and truly to lay open our Cafe, even thofe rea- 
fons for which we forbear that Conformity i and by fo doing, incurr all this, 
belides the greater lofs of our Minifterial Liberty, to labour for thefaving of the 
peoples fouls, and the edifying of the Church of God. 

What is faid in the beginning may fufficiently inform the Reader, i. That 
it is not every man's Caufe that is called a Non-conformift, no nor a Presbyte- 
rian, or Independant that I here maintain. 2. That I am not writir.g a Jufti- 
fication of the Covenant, i. As to the Aft of Impoling. 2, Or of taking it. 
3. Nor as to the obligation of it to any thing unlawful. Leaving fuch matters 



as alien to my work, 3. And that I am not fo radi as to affert fliat it obfi- 
geth any man, to cndenvom (in his place and calling") any change of our Church 
Government, no not of a Lay-Chancellor's ufe of the Keys, whatever I think, 
Becaufc it is made a matter of fo grievous peniUy by an Ad. All that I have 
to do i?, to enquire whether the Diocefane Prelacy as now ftated, be fo law ful 
that vve may take all thefe Oatlis and Subfcriptions to it, and fo necciiary tHat 
the King and Parliament have no power to change it, or make m alteratiou 
if they pleate, and we endeavonr it by obeying them if they (hould com - 
mand us.~ 

' AnTi go upon fuch Principles as Dodor Burges., Mafter Gatakp-^ and many 
others in the Aflembly, that were ready to proteft that they were not againlt 
the Primitive Epifcopaey, no nor a moderate one that did not in all things 
reach it. 

I will rather be guilty of Repetition than of leaving the ra(h or hecdlefs un- 
der a pretext for their miftake or calumny. 

My own judgment is as tolloweth. i. That every particular Churchy (confift- 
in(^ of iff full a nifinl^cr iK can ajf>cijte for true pcrfinal Comnmnim in JFmJhip and 
holy living) (hould be guided by as many Pallors or Elders ( cf the fame Of- 
fice ) as the number of fouls, and the work requireth. 

2. That it is lawful, ( if not ufually laudable and fit ) if thefe Presbyters 
confent that one among them wlio is wifcr and titter than the reft, be ftatcd- 
ly their Guide, Diredor, or Moderator, in the matters of Dodrine, Wor- 
(hip and Difcipline in that Churcli, for order and concord, and for the peoples 
(akes and their own : And efpecially tliat in Ordinations they do nothing 
without him. 

3. That thefe particular Churches witR their Ei(hop and Presbytery are In- 
dependant, fo far that no other Bifhop or Cliurch hath a Divine Right to Go- 
vern them, faving what is anon to be faid of General Pallors Oi Vihitcrs, and 
the power of each Minifter in the llniverfal Church, as he is called. 

4. That as to tlic Communion of feveral Cliurches among thcmfelves, 
theie particular Churches are not Independent, but muft hold Concord 
and Correfpondency by Letters, MeiTcngers or Synods as there (hall bz 

5. That in tliefe Synods it is lawful and orderly oftentimes to make fomc 
one the Moderator or Guide of their debates. And that either Pro tempore^ or 
(jitamdiie fit maxime idoneitf^ or durante vita, as true Prudence mail difcern it 
to be moft conducible to the end. 

6. That where the Churdies Good and the calling of the Inindel World re- 
quireth it, there lliould be itinerant Minillcrs, like the old Evangelills, Silar, 
Apollo^ Timothy^ Tituf, &c. to preach the Gofpel, and gather Churches, and 
help their Pallors. And if fuch be not necelTary in any place, yet tiie fixed 
Pallors (hould wlien there is caufe be itinerant, and help to convert the Infidels 
and Hereticks, and do both the general and particular work. 

7. That the judgment of Antiquity moving me much, but more the Argu- 
ment from the necelFity, [ that the fame form of Government be continued in 

A 2 its 


its ordinary parts, which Chrift at firft fetled in the Apoftles, and is not pro^ 

ved repealed ] do move me to incline to think that the Apoftles muft have 
fiich Succeflbrs, as general Planters and Overfcers of many Churches. And 
who Qioiild ( before all particular Bilhops ) have a chief liand in the ordain- 
ing of particular Bithops and Paftors, and removing them as the Churches 
good requiretlrCAs the Seniors have in the Bohemian IValdenfcs GovernmentO 
And -tliough lam yet in doubt my felf, whether fuch general Minifters, or 
ATch--bi(hops be-j;/>-e divino^ of Chrifts inftitution, I do not deny it;, or contend 
againft it -. And though I would not affert or fwear to their rightj 1 would o- 
bcy them. 

8. That all this Church-power is to be exercifed only by Gods word, mana- 
ged by convincing Reafon, Love and good Example, and that no Bifhops or 
Arch-bifhops have any power of Corporal Coadion ■■, Nor fhould give Church 
Communion to any but Voluntary Confenters \ nor (hould mix and corrupt 
the exercife of the Keys, with unfeafonable interpolltions of the Sword even in 
the Magiftrates own hand. 

p. But yet that the King and Magiftratcs are the Rulers by the Sword over 
all Paftors and their Flocksj to fee that all rnen do their duties, and to regu- 
late them by Laws about holy things, fubferviently to the Kingdom and Laws 
of Chrift, and in coniiftence with the prefervation of the Office of the Miniftry 
and real liberties of the Flocks. 

lo. And therefore, though we think Churchmen ufually very unfit for any 
Magiftratical Power, yet we ftrall obey as his Minifters any whomfoever the 
King ftiall commit any part of his power about Qhurch matters to j and pro- 
mife them due obedience as fuch. 

And fo you fee what U not the QjCTlion now to be debated. 

But the Queftion is [J't^hcther the prefent Church Government in Englandfas di- 
fiindl from the Kings and Magiftrates partj he fo good or lawful., that rve (hould 
fncear or Juhfcribe our approbation of it, our obedience to it, or thatvpemUtiever(iH our 
place and calling) endeavour an alteration of it (no though the King command us) 
and that every man in the three Kingdoms that vowed to endeavour fuch alteration, 
is fo clearly and utterly difobliged, as that aU ftr angers that never k^iew him may 
fubfcribe or declare that he M difobltgedy or not obliged to it by that Von'. 




The firfl Argument agaivft the Englijh Diocefans 3 
That their form ( quantum in fe ) deftroyeth the par- 
ticnlar Church For 771 of God's hiflit7itio?i-i a7id fetteth 
up a Hu7?ia7ie For77i in its fleacf. 


WE cannot fubfcvibc or fwcar to tliat form of Cliurch Government as 
good or lawful, which in its nature excludeth or deftroyeth the ve- 
ry fpccificd nature of the particular Churches which were injiitutcd by fix Holy 
Ghnfi., and fetled in the primitive times, and ii it fclf a Jmmane form ftt up in. 
their ftcad. 

Bittfuch rre tak^ the prefcnt "Diocefane form to he : Ergo, 

The Major will be denied by very few that we have now to do with. And 
thofe few tliat will deny it, niuft do it on this fuppofition, i. That the Holy 
Ghoft did inftitute that particular Church Fcvm which is deftroyed but pro 
tempore. And Secondly, That he allowed men fincc to fet up one or more 
of their own in its ftead. But the difproof of this fuppofition will fall in more 
fitly, when 1 have (hewed what Church Form was firftfctlc'd. 

The Minor I thus prove. 

7he Species of a particular Church which the Floly Chnfh did injlitutt, wai \_ont 
Society, of Chrijliaiis united under one or more Bijhops, for perfonal Communion in 
puhlick^ jvorftup and holy living . ~\ 

The Diocefane Enghjlj frame is (de\}rudive of or) inconfjknt with thii fpccies of 
a particular Church* 

Ergo, Ihe Viocefane Englijf} frame ii inconfijhnt with C or deJiruBive of ) the- 
Species cf the Kcly Chofls injiitution. 

In the Major, i. By [ Bi hops ]] I mean. Sacred Minifters authoriycd by 
Divine appointment, to be the Hated Guides cf the Church, by Doftrinc, 
Worlbip and Difcipline, under Chrift the Teacher, Prieft and Ruler of the 
Churcii. Whether he have a fuperior Arch-Bifhop I determine not ■•, NornoW' 
whether he may ordain Paftors for other Churches. 

What In can by [^fcrfonal Communion^ and whether it be confi/knt with^ 
divers Aflaiiblits, I have fully (hewed betore. I mean, that the faid Churches 
were no more numerous than our Englifh Parilhes, nor iiad more Afl'cmblicsv 
Or no more than could have the fame perfonal Communion, and that thcic 
were never any Churches mpvix vet prime, fpecieij which confifted of man;^ 
iiidi Ibted Affen-iblics. Hhall 

I {hall therefore now prove, i. That, the Churches of the Holy Ghofts in- 
ftitution were no more numerous, or were fuch fmgle Congregations. And 
that they had each fuch Bifhops and Paltors will be proved partly herewith, 
and partly afterward. 

2 . And that fuch Churches do tntifpecie differ from the Diocefane Churches, 
and from our prefent Pariih Churches as they define them, and are inconfi- 
ftent with them. And the firftKhall prove, i. From the Holy Scriptures. 
2. From theConfeflionsofthc Dtocefaiies. 3. From the teftimony of Anti- 
quity. All proving fully that the ancient Epifcopal Churches were but fuch 
lingle Societies or Congregations as I havedefcribed, and fuch as our Diocefles 
of many hundred Churches are different from, and inconfiflent with. 


That the primitive Epifcopal Churches of the Holy Ghofts 
hiftitution-, were but fuch Congregatioiis as afore de- 

THefe following particulars fet together, I think will by the Impartial be 
taken for full proof. 

J. In all the New Teftamcnt, where ever there were moreftated focieties 
than one, for publick worfhip as afore defcribed, they are called \_Churches~\ 
in the Plural Number, and never once \_a Chwch^ in the Singular Number i 
except when the Vniverfal Church is mentioned which containeth them all. 
This is vifible in ^fl.p.3i.jand 14.41.and i(5.5.K(»M.id.4, and 16. i Cor.-j.i'J. 
and II. 16, and 14.33,34. (unlefs that mean the feveral meetings of the 
fame Affembly at feveral timesj and 16. ii ip. 2 Cor. 8. i, 18, ip, 23, 24. 
and II. 8,28. Gal. 1. 22. i "theff. 2. 14. 2 'theff. 1.4. Kev. i. 4, 11,20. and 
2. 7, II, 17, 2p. and 3.d, 13,22,23. and 22. 16. 

If any fay, how prove you that all thele were but fingle Congregations, I 
anfwer, i. It is granted me by all that thefe plural terms [ Churches'] included 
many fingle Congregations, 2. I (hall prove anon that the molt of the par- 
ticular Churches named in Scripture were but fuch Congregations. 3. And 
no man can give me any proof that a Society confining of divers fuch Congre- 
■gations is any where called \_a Church"] lingularly ; And therefore we are not 
to believe that the plural term meanetn many fuch fingulars, as are no where 
fingularly named. 

2. Particular Churches are defcribed fo in Scripture as fully proveth my a- 
forefaid limitation and defcription. As i Cor. 11. 1^518,30,22. When ye 



ame together m the Church I hear that there he divifions among you. A Church 
confined of fuch as came together. 

tVhenye come together into one place, thU U not to eat the Lords Supper. And it 
is the Jffemblies that arc called Churches, when he (kith [ ff^e have no fetch cw 
Jiom, nor the Churches of Cod. 3 

So I Cor. 1 4. 4. He that prophcfectb edijieth tJx Church "| that is, the Affem- 
bly that heareth him, and not many hundred fuch Affemblies that are out of 

Verf. 5. Except he interpret that the Church may receive edifying. 

Verf 1 2. Seekjbat ye mo)' excel to the edifying of the Church. 

Objed:. May not the whole Church be edified per partes J* Anf. Yes, but it mufl: 
be pcrplurcs vel divcrfu vicibuf. Not at once by the fame man, if the far great- 
cil part of the Church be abfent. 

Obj. But U not the rebnle man edified (natura]ly or morally J by the edification of 
a part ? Anfxv. Yes, if it be a iwble part : Becaufe tiie whole man being na- 
turally Onc^ by the unity of the foul or form, there is a natural Communion 
and Communication from part to part : But one Corporation in a Kingdom, 
may be editied or enriched without the wealth or cdirication of the red;. And 
this Text plainly fpeaketh of Immediate Edification of that Church that hcarethy 
and this at once, and by one fpeakcr. 

So Verf. I p. In the Church I had rather fpeak^ one rvord rvith my undcrjlanding, 
that I may teach others. Here the Church is plainly taken for the AJfembly. 

Verf 23. Jf therefore the rvhok Church be come together in one place, and Jf>eal{ 
rvith tongues,"] what can be more exprcfly fpoken to Ihew tliat it is not only a 
part of the Churcli, but the rvhok which coinetb together into one place. 

So Verf. 2 4. If there be no Interpreter let him^cp filencc in the Church. ] 

So Verf 54. For Cod m not the Author of Confufton, but of Peace, as.in all the 
Cbmxhes of the Saints. 

So Verf. 1 4. Let your women k^cp ftlence in the Church, for it is a/hamefor ivo- 
men to fpeak^ in the Church. 

So Adt. II. 26. A irholeyear they ajfcmbled themfelvcs ivitb the Church, and 
taught much people. 

Adt. 14. 27. When thc\ tvcre come, and had gatlxred the Church together, tlxy 
rehear fed all that Cod had done by them. 

Adl. 15.3. And they rvere brought on their way by the Church,'] which muft 
fignihe fuch a number as might be called the Church, when part was but for 
the whole, at leall. 

Ad. 3.1. T'hey n-cre all rvith one accord in one place ; which it's like was all 
the Church with the Apoftles. 

Verf 44. 46. And all that believed rt>ere togetlxr. And they continuing daify 
rrith one accord in the Temple, Scc. 

Ad. 4. 31, 32. And the place rvat (haken rvhere they vfcre affembled together^ 
And the multitude of them that believed rvere of one heart, and of one foul. 

Ad. 5.12. And they were all with ont accord in SolomonV Torch-) and of the 
reji durji no manjoyn himfclfio them, . 


if any here fay that fo many thoiifands could not be of one AiTembly, I have 
an fwered it before, i. I have preached ( as was fuppofed J to ten thoufand 
at once. 2. Some of our Parilhes that have but one Church, are thirty thou- 
fand, fome forty thoufand, fome fifty thoufand. 5. There were llrangers at 
Jerufjlem from all parts. 4. The next Verfe faith [^Ihre came alfo a mtlti- 
tude out of the Cities round about wito Jcmfikm.] 5. The multitude were not 
■yet perfedly embodied, and were quickly fcattered. 

Col. 4. 16, If^hen th'u Efifile U read among you, caufe that it be read alfo in the 
Church of the Laodiceans-, &c. It is not [_ to the Church ~\ for then you might 
have faid that fo it may be if the Church confilkd of many Afferablies : But it 
is [ /■;/ the Church~\ which intimateth that the Church was but one Alfembly. 
And fo that of Colojfe anfwerably. 

All thcfe Texts and others fuch plainly tell us whether a Church there was 
one AiTembly or many hundred. 

3 . This is made yet much more evident,by the Scriptures defcription of a Bi- 
(bops work ■■, even fuch as the Apoltles then appointed over every Church. 
I. They were to be the ordinary publick prefent teachers of all the Flock 
which they did overfee. i Theff. 5. 12, 13. Knoiv them rvhich labour among 
you and are over you in the Lord, and ejieem them highly in love for their wori^ 
fak^e. Thofe then that were over every Church, were prefent with the Church, 
and laboured among them (which they could not do in one of our Dioceffes, fa- 
ving as a man may be faid to labour among a Kingdom, or the World, becaufe 
they labour in it.j 

Heb. 13. 8, 17, 24. Remember them tvhich have the rule over you, tvhich have 
fpsk^n to you the word of God. Obey them that have the Rule over you, and fub- 
viit your felves, for they watch pFyour fouls M tlhy that mu(i give- account. So 
that a Church was no bigger than the Bilhops could fpeal^ the word of Cod to, 
and could watch for their fouls. But I never faw the face of the Bilbop of the 
Diocefs where I live, and know but very few men in his Diocefs that ever did 
fee him. 

2. And this care was to extend to the particular perfons of the Flocks. AIL 

20. 20, 28, 3 1, / taught you publickly, and from houfe to houfe. T'ake heed to your 

felves, and to all the Flock^ over which the Holy Ghili hatb made yo-u Bijhops, to 

feed (or rule) the Church of God, &c. Remembor that by the jpace of three years 

I ceafed not to vcarn every one night and day with tears. 

I Pet. I. 2,, 3, Ihe Elders which are among you I exhort who am alfo an Elder, 
feed the Flacky of God which U among you, taking the overfigbt thereof, not by con- 
flraint, &c. that is, dithDoGtot Hammond [^^he Bijhops of your feveral Churches 
1 exhort, take care of your fevcral Churches, and govern them, not as Secular Rulers 
by force, but as Pajiors do their Sheep by calling and going before them, that fo they 
may follow of their open accord.] See alfo Doftor Hammond's Annot. on Heb. 13. 
7, 17. I 7hejf. 5. 12, 13. And faith Doftor Jeremy Taylor, of Repent. Fr£f. 
\_1 am Jure we cannot give account of fouls of which we have no notice. '] (O ter- . 
rible word to the undertakers of fo many hundred Churches, and fo many 
thoufand or ten thoufand fouls which they never knew !^ 



This made Ignjiiuf (zs after ciced J fay, that The Bijhop muji lool^after or tjJ^ 
■account of each perfon iis much ai Servants and Maids. 

Objedt. But there may be more in a Fa,ljh than a Minijhr can k>'oa>. Anfrv. If 
a Parilh may be too large for a Billiops work, how little reafon have they to 
make a Church, and take the Paftoral Care of many hundred Parilhes? 2. VVe 
murt judge by the ordinary common cafe. In a Parifh a Minilkr may know 
every one, except it be fome few ftrangors or retired perfons, or except it be 
a Parilli or Church of too great a fwcllingbignefs : But in a Diocefs of many 
hundred Churches, it is not one of a hundred that the Bilhop will ever know. 
3, I know by experience what may be done, whatever llothful perfons fay ■■ , 
I had a Parifbof about three or four thoufand fouls ■•, ( A Market Town with 
twenty Villages) and except three or four F'amilics that refufcd to come to me, 
V whom yet I knew by other means) I knew not only the perfons but the mca- 
fures of all or almoll all their underliandings, in the Town, and n ^y aHiliants 
in the VillaRes knew the reft, by pcrfonal conference, each family coming to us 
Ijy turn s. 4. And where a Chuvdi is too large for one, there may be and 
iiiul\ be alTilbnt Miniliers, and that may be done by many, which cannot be 
done by one alone. ; 

Objcd. So may a Bijhnp and his Presbyters in a Diocfs. Anftv. In a Diocefs 
of many Churches, the Presbyters only know tlie people, and do tiie Mir.ille- 
rial Office for them, except in fome one or few Churches where the Bifhop 
dwells and fometimcs preachetli : But in the fame Churcli, all the Minirters 
preach to the fame perfons ordinarily, f/vr vices) and they all know them, 
and all watch over them, though they allilt each other in particular offices for 
tliem. There is much difference between a School-maftcr and his allillants in 
the fame School, and one School-madLr only with fcveral Ulhers in inany hun- 
dred Schools. As there is between a Mailer, Miftrifs, and Steward ruling the 
faiTx: F'amily, and one Mailer with Stewards ruling many hundred Families \ 
Cof which more anon.) 

3 . Another part of the Billiops work in thofe times was to Baptize : For 
it was part of the Apolllcs work. Matth. 2S. 19,20. And how great a work 
that was, to try the peoples due preparations, and to fee that they did under- 
fhndingly and ferioully what they did, I delire no other proof than the great 
care taken in all the ancient Churches ot tliis bullncfs, which brought up the 
Cultom of baptizing but twice a year. 

Objed. Ihe Apnjiles baptized three thnifand at or.ce. Anfiv. The Jews were 
fuppofcd to be bred up in the knowkdgc of other parts of Religion, and wan- 
ted only the knowledge of the true Mcifiah, and his Salvation, which might 
be taught them in a lliortcr time than the Gentiles could be tauglit tlie whole 
fubrtance of Religion, that knevv but little : Therefore as foon as the Jews 
were convinced of the true MelViah and the righteoufncfs of Faith, and con- 
fentcd to the Covenant, they might be baptized. 2. The extraordinary ctfu- 
lions of the Spirit in that time, did make a Ihurter preparation fufficient. At 
Icaft Baptizing muit be an addition to the Biihops work, 

B 4. As 

4. A? the Apoftles laid hands on Belipvcrs to convey the Holy Ghofr, fo 
the Prclatirts think tliat the Bifhops then Conjii-mcd Bdhvcrs with Impolition of 
hands, (2k\\ Dodtox Hammond on Hcb. i^.a. 'to teach, exbfrt, confirm and im- 
pofe'hahdf, all tvbicb jvere the B/Jho[>s office in thatplacc,~\ Aiid O what a work 
it Is t§ know the pcrfons of many hundred Parillies to be capable of Confirma- 
fioii, and fo to conHrm them f of wlucii more afterward.) 

5. I need not prove that the Bifhops then were the Mafters of the AfTem- 
bdies, and called them, appointing time and place, as the P\.iilers of the Sy- 
nagogues did : which llieweth that they were prefcnt with the Ghnrch A{- 

6^ The BilTiops adminiftred the Lords Supper fas all confefs) and therefore 
muft have fome Paftoral notice of the Htiiefs of all the Church to receive it : 
which intimateth fufficiently the extent of the Church- 
. 7. They went before the Affemblies ufually in performance of the publick 
WOrfhip : Tliey prayed with thern, and praifed God 1 And Dodior Ham»nond 
thinks that in all this in Scripture timeSj they had not fb much as a Presbytes 
to afiirt them. 

8. They admoni(hed tlie unruly and diforderly, and received Accufatlons, 
and openly reproved and excommunicated the Impenitei\t. And O, how great 
a work is it to deal with one SouLaright as muft be done, before it cometh to 
Excommunication ! Much more with all in a Pariih. Much more in many 
hundred PariChes. ' 

p. It is confcfled that' it was the Bifhops work to abfolve the penitent pub- 
lickly. And then he muft judge of their Repentance : and thfen he muft try 
it : And for how many thoufand can a Bifhop do this, with the reft ? 

10. The Bithop did difmifs the Congregation with a Benediction C as is 
rn'aintairied by thofe tliat wc difpnte with ) and therefore muft be preferrt; 
in it. . ■■ 

11. They were to vifit and pray with the fick, and hU the fick^to fend for 
them to that end. Jam. 4.14. If any l>e fic!^ among ycnt let him call far the Elders 
(if the Church., and let them pray over him ~\ faith Doftor Hdmmorid \_ Bccaitfc there 
ii no evidence whereby thefe ( inferior Presbyters) may appear to have been brought 

■ into the Church fo early , And bkaufe the vifiting of the fich^ is anciently mentioned 
as one branch of the office of Bijhops '-, therefore it may very reafanably be refolved., 
that the Bifliops of the Church, one in each particular Church, but many in the uni- 
verfal, are here meant.'] Though I am far from believing him that the fick per- 
fon is bid to fend but for one, when the term is plural, or that he muft fend 
for many oiit of other Churches, I will take his conceiTion that this was the 

Bilhopswork. . 

12.- Laftly, They were to take care of the poor, and 'of the Contribntiorrs 
and Church ftock, faith D'"".i'- Hjmmdnd on 1 Cor T 2:. 28. ihe'pffrcine kiit^ 
and charge tViK referved-to the Ar-'\:Us and-BijJ^opsoftl^ Cbukh. So in thel{m. 
Canon (f the Apnfths, the'BiJhop 7)aill bkve the care 'dftJje!fiioniys,f) tixit by bis 
power all be difpmftd to the poor by \J\' Presbyters and Deacons ", and jve cbmmand 
that he have in his power the Church. Goods, So Juflin Martyr, Apol,2, that 

^- ' -r vphicb 


rvhicb is gathered is depopted by the Frafeli or Bifhop, and Ik Jxlpeth or rdieveth the 
Orphans and JFidofPS, and becometh the Otrator and Guardian of all abfolutcly 
that be in xvant. So Ig/iatilis to Polycarp^ After the Lord thou floalt be the Cura- 
tor of the Widows. And Pulycarp himfeljf fpcaking of the Elders or Eijhops, They 
vifit md tah£ care of all that are fick^^ not neglcHing the IVidows^ the Orphans 
and the Poor. ] So far Dodlor Hatntnond. 

So that by this time it is cafie to fee how great the ancient Churches were i 
yea, and how great tliey were to be continued i when all this is the Bi(hops 
Office and Work. We arc willing tliat they have DiocciTcs as bi^ as they caii 
do this work in, even with a Confcffiis of atVUiincn Presbyters . There is no one 
of all thcfe twelve alone that a Bidiop can do for a Diocefs of many fcore or 
hundred Churches. How much Icfs all thefe fet together ? Nay, what one 
confiderable Parilh would not find a Bilhop with divers aiTilbnts work enough 
in all thefe kinds, if it be faithfully done?* 

As for the doing of it per fe atit per alimu, I have fo far confuted it before, 
as that I may be bold to tell them now, that they may alfo receive the reward 
infe ant in alio : And if he that will not work lliould not cat, qture whether 
they (hould cat^cr alium. 

I addj Jf all this as Dodlor Hammond maintaineth was rnadc by the Spirit 
in the Apolllcs the Bifliops work, if they may make new Church-Officers to 
commit part of their work to, there may be twelve forts of Officers made by 
them for thefe twelve parts of their work. And then we ffiall better undcr- 
lland them. 

Whatever is the work of a Bifliop as a Presbyter, every Presbyter may and 
muft do, according to his ability and opportunity : But whatever bclongcth 
to a Bilhop as a Biffiop, cannot be done by another, eitlier Lay-man or Picsby- 
ter. Therefore let us Iiave but Bilhops enough to do it, or elfc confcfs that it 
is no neceflary work. 

So great a truft as the Gofpel and mens fouls which Chrift hath committed 
to Biffiops, may not be call upon others without his confent that did commit it 
to them. But they can lliew no confent of Chrill to make new Officers to do 
their work by. limothy was to commit the fame to others which he had re- 
ceived, 2 liin.2,2. The thingsthou hall hcardof me aniongnianyn-itneJfcs-,thc fame 
commit thou to faithful men, tvho Jhall be able to teach others alfo. And who 
knoweth not that if a Tutor commit his work ftatcdly to another, he inaketh 
that other a Tutor ? And fo if a Phylician commit his work Ibtcdly to another, 
or a Pilot, or the Mailer of a Family, he maketh the other a Piiyfician, a Pi- 
lot, a Marter ? And fo if a Bifliop or Presbyter commit his work Ibtedly toa- 
nothcr, he maketh that other a Bifliop or Presbyter. And then that Bilhop or 
Presbyter fo made is himfclt obliged as well as cmpoirred^ and the work that he 
doth is his own work, and not his that delivered him his Commiffion. So 
that this doing thcfe twelve parts of a Billiops work per aJii/m is a nicer mocke- 
ry, unlefs they fpcak unfitly, and mean the making of all thofe to be Billiops 
as they are, orelfeby pevtidious ufurpation calling their trult and work yn 
ethers. For if they could prove that God himfclf had inftitutcd the Species 

B 2 of 

cTSiih-preshytcrf., ic would be to do their omi iro)\^ and not another mans. 

My next proof of the limitation of Churches in Scripture times is, that 
Deacons and Biiliops were diftinft Officers appointed to the fame Churches. 
T!-ie Church which the Deacon was related to, was the very fame, and of the 
faiTie extent, with the Church which the Bi(hop was related to v as is plain in 
all Texts where they are defcribcd \ Ad, 6, i Ttm.:^. Tit. 7. d'"c. But it is 
moftcharthat no Deacon then had the charge of many hundred Churches, 
or more than one fuch as 1 have defcribed ; Therefore neither had the Bifhop 
-£)f thatuChiu-cli. _ . . _ . 

Tiicy that hav£ rww, extended the Office of the Deacons further, and have 
alienated them from their firft works, of attending at the Sacred Tables, and 
taking care of the Poor, cannot deny but that this was at leaft a great part of 
their work in the Scripture times and fome Ages after (at lead when Jerome ad 
Svagf. defcribed the Offices of the Presbyters and Deacons.) And was any 
man then made a Deacon to a Diocefs ? or to many hundred Churches ? or to 
more than one ? Did he attend the Tables of many Churches each Lords day 
at the fame time? If you fay that there were many Deacons, and fome were 
in one Church and fome in another, it is true : that is, They were in feveral 
AflTemblieSj which were every one a true Church, and they were oft many in 
one Affembly : But there was no one that was related to Many ftated Church 
AlTemblies i nor to a Church of a letter fi2e or magnitude than the Bifhop 

5. And that there was no Church then without a Bifhop foneormore) 
is evident from ACi. 14. 23. They ordained them Elders in every Church i com- 
pared with other Texts that call them Bilhops : And Dodor Hammond fhew- 
cth that thefe Elders were Bifhops. And indeed it was not a Church ( in a 
proper political fenfe) that had no Bifnops formally or eminently. No more 
than there can be a Kingdom without a King, a School without a School-ma- 
ftcr, or a family without a Mafter. 

Objed:. 'They are called Churches Ad. 14. 23. before they had ordained Elden. 

Anfrr. I. It is not certain from the Text, for the name might be given 
from their itate //; fieri or which they were now entring into. 2. If it were fo, it 
is certain that the appellation was equivocal, as it is ufual to diftinguilli the 
Kingdom from the King, the School from theSchool-mafter, the Family from 
the Mafter, but not in the firid political fcnfe of the word's, for that compre- 
hendeth both. 3. The truth is, they were true political Churches before. 
For they had temporary unfixed Bifliops, even the Apofflcs and Evangelifts, 
that converted them, and officiated among them. Otherwife they could have 
held no Sacred Affemblies for holy Communion and the Lords Supper, as hav- 
ing none to adminifter it. The hxing of peculiar Bilhops did not make them 
firll Churches, but made them fctled Churches in fuch an order as- God would 

6. Laftly, The fetling of Churches with Bifhopsin every- City^ Tit.i.^. 
doth (hew of what magnitude the Churches were in the Scripture times. For, 
J, It is known that fmall Towns in Jitdea were called Cities. 2, And. thjit 



Crectc which Was called Hecaimpolii, as having an hundred Cities, muft needs 
tlicn have fmall ones, and near together. 3. And it is a confeffed tiling that 
the number of Converts was not then fo great, as to make City Churches fo 
numerous near as our Parifhes are. 

And if the coniideration of all this together, will not convince any, that tiie 
Churches that had Biftiops in Scripture times, confirted not of many ftated Af- 
femblies as afore defcribed, but of one only, and were not bigger than our 
Pariflies, let fuch enjoy their error ftill. 


The fame proved by the Cojiceffio?i of the mofi Learned 
defenders of Viocefane Prelacy. 

T Hough the Scripture Evidence be moft fatisfadory in it felf, yet in con- 
troverfie it much eafeth tiic mind tliat doubtctli, to Hnd the Cauie ful- 
ly and exprclly granted, by thofc that molt learnedly defend thofe confequcnts 
which it overthrows : And if I do not bring plain Conceffions here, I will not 
deprecate the Readers indignation. 

I. Among all ClirilVians, the Papifis are the higheft Prelatifts i And among i. FetavK 
all Papills the Jefuits \ and among all the Jefuits Pctaviut, who hath "'• 
written againrt Salmafms^ &c. on this Subjcd-. Fctavius, Viffcrt. Ecdcfi-jfl. 
fie EpiCc'f' fliiinit, & ]urifd. /'. 22. concludeth his firll Chapter in which iic had 
cited tiie chi^fcll of the Fathers •, [ Hjdcnin igitiir ex antiquontm autl.witate con- 
fcitur primis Icmporihiif, Pi cshytcromm & Efifcoponwt noii tantum appeVaticnes-, 
fed ctivn ordincf, in ejfJem c>n:ciirriffc pn-fniijf^ iiclcm ut cjfoit utriqne- ]] i. e. Hi- 
ihertn it is proved by the Aiith.^rityif the Anciaus^ i hit in the firjt timet, net only 
the Niintes, but the Orders, nf Trahyters and Bijhops did concnrr into the fame fer- 
fonSffo that hoih were the fame mcn.'\ And if fo,I (hall (hew the confequents anon. 

And/?jg. 23, He thus bcginncth his third Chapter, as opening the onlyne- 
ccfTary way to avoid the Scripture Arguments againfi Epifcopacy, \_Si qu'n 
tmnia ilia fcriptur£ loca diligenur expendat, id /lecejjario confequens ex ilTvs ejfe jlalH- 
f *, eof ipfiif, qui ihi Trcshyteri voeaniur, phif aViquid gxam fimpliecf fuijfe preshy- 
teros, cujufmodi hodicqite fwit : nee duhitabit, ejuin Epifeopi fuerint iidem, tion voca' 
btilo tantum, fed re Uiam & potellate.'] i. C. [_ If any one will diligently weigh all 
th:>fe places of Sa-ipliire^ he will conclude that thit vs the neccffaryconlequent of them, 
that ihofe that are there called Presbyters rvere fomcwhat more thanfwtplc Presbyters, 
and fuch as now they arc : and he will not doubt but the fame men were Bifl?ops, not 
*nly in name-, but in detd ami in Jiowerfl 

T "■ P£g. 


Pag. 2 4. Q Exifiiino Prcshytem vel onines^ vel eoriim pUrofque fic ordinatos ejje 
■ftt Epifcnpi pjriter ac presbyteri graditm obtinercnt. ^ I tbi)\ that either all or tru^l 
of the Presbyters n-ere fo ordained, as that they obtained both the degree of Bijhop 
and of Presbyter. ] Which he procecdeth to ihew that he thinks was done that 
there miglit be a ftore of Bilhops prepared for all Countries. Pag. 2 5. he thus 
far differs from Doftor Hammond., but not from the truth, as to hold, that 
{_ P lures in eadem Ecclefia velut Epbifina Epifcopi fucre.'] [^7here n-cre many Bi- 
jhsps in one Church., as in that of Ephefus. ] Which he taketh for a particular 
Church, and not a Province ; and faith, tliat the fimple manners of the Church 
would then bear this, till Ambition had depraved men, and Charity and Hu- 
mility and the imitation of Chrill waxed cold : then came that which Hierome 
fpeaketh of, that For a remedy of Schifm one reas cl^fen out of the company of 
Presbyters, and fet above the reft. 

So Pag. 26. In eadem capiti^ajfim ambo confercbantur. And p. 27. Hoc fv it a 
efi, quid aliud reftat nifi ut penes eofdcm (Nam plures una in Ecclefia fuijje tales, 
'^'iifdcm ex lock argmnentum ducitur) tam nomen Hind duplex, quam conveniens no- 
mini potefttK & authority utraque fuijfe dicatur,'] that is [_If this be fo, what elfe 
remaineth, but that both the double name, and the agreeable double porver and au- 
thority, be faid to have been in the fame perfins (for that there were many of them 
in one Church, may be proved from the fame places.) 

And P^g.p5,pt5,P7,p8,pp. he llieweth out of y///h/2 Martyr, firft, [77ut 
all things in the f acred Affcmblies and Sacraments were done by the Bijhop alone i 
and that he was the Curator and Moderator both of the Sacraments to be adminiftred, 
and of teaching the people, and of the Churches money. 'Ihe Bijhop confccratcd the 
Sacraments, and by the Deacons adminijlred them to the people. He prayeth and 
preacheth. He had the care,of the Churclj-moneyis, and kept them with it \ he relieve 
ed the Orphans, Widows, Sick^, Prifoners, 1 raveilers, &c. And from "tertnllian, 
that the Chriftians received not the Sacrament from the hands of any but the Bijhops. 
(Were there not then as many Bilhops as Church-Affcmblies ? ; And that they 
chiefly did baptize. 

And p. 112. heciteth the Can. y.& S.Concil. Gangrenfu, which anathemati- 
zeth thofe that without the Bifliops confent durft give or receive the Church Obla- 
tions, &c. And p. 141. out of Profpcr de vita contempt, c. 20. that a Bilhop 
muft excel in knowledge, that he may injbuli thofe that live under him. And 
p. 144, 145, 147. he citeth Can. 3. Concil. Arelat. ^.an.St^. [^"that every Bi- . 
jhop in his own Parijh do perfedly and jiudioujiy teach the Presbyters and all the 
j>eople, and not ncgk& to injim& them.^ And Concil. Turonenf. 3. Can. 4. Let 
every Bijhop diligently ft udy by facred preaching to inform the fbck^committed to him., 
what they mujl do, and what they muft avoid. And Concil. Rhcmcnf, 2. Can. 14. 
7hat Bijhops preach the Word of God to all. And Concil. Cabilonenf. 3 . Can. 1 . 
[_7hat Bijhops be ddigent in reading, and fc arch themyfteries of Gods Word, that: 
they may Jhine by the brightnefs ofDo^rine in the Clmrch, and ceafe not to fatiate 
the finis Jubjetf to them, by nutriment of Gods Words.'] And p. 1 47. That in the 
formula by which the Kings oi France committed Epifcopacy to any, it is (aid, 
loHJliall ft udy by daily Sermons to edifie, or polijh, the people committed to yott, ac- 
cording to Canonical Injiitution. And 


And ibid. Can. ip. 'Concil. Coiiflant. in Trullo, [ The Church Prefidenfs mt^jvcry 
day, but efpccially the Lords day^ teach all the Clergy and people^ the things that 
belong to piety , gathering from the Scriptures the fentences and judgments of 
verity. J 

Andp. I4P. he dteth Concil. Lateran.fiib Innnc. ^. c, 10. allowing Bifliops 
to take helpers in preaching when bufinefs or fickncfs hindrcd thciu. And 
p. 150,152, 153. he mentioned! it as fomewhat rare, that at ^/f.'vjWW.j Pref- 
byters preadied, and at Antioch Chryfolbm., and at Hippo /iitgujiine, while Fla- 
I'ianits and Valerius were Bilhops. 

I do not cite all this now as to prove the fenfe of Antiquity, but the fen(e 
of Petavins, who plainly intiinatcth that the Churches were no larger of a long 
iimc, than that a Billiop might preach to all the Clergy and People every 
Lords day ', and that in Scripture times all or near all the Presbyters were Bi- 
fliops (which is it that we contend for ■■, ) and confequently you may judge 
what the Churches were. 

And though it IHU look much farther than Scripture times, I will fliew you 
what Petaviuf tliought of the Magnitude of City-Churches, even near four 
hundred years after Chrill, in Epiphjnii<s''s days, in his Animadverf. on Epi- 
pban. ad Hjer. 6p. p,2j6. I^Singuliroft time temporU Alexandria morem huncfuiffe^ 
vel faltem paiicis in Ecclcfiii tifurpatmn, &c. i.e. Ihat thU rvM a ftngtdar cuiiom 
e/ Alexandria, or at Icaji tifed in fere ChurcheSf^^'oii may hence cnnjedure., becaufe 
he fo (xprejly mentioneth this cujiom as ^eculisr to the Alexandrian Church : to rvit, 
that in the fame City there fljould be many Jitles., to each of which fhould be affign- 
ed a proper PiYj/ytrr, who (fiould there perform tlye Church Offices. But yet the 
fame tras formerly clferpljere injiittited '■, that /V, at PvOme : where the Presbyters did 
rjer\ one rule his oivn people, being distributed by 7«/c/ (that is, fctled Sub-Af- 
fcmblies. "to them the Bijhops on the Lords days fent L^j7'eii, or hallorved Bread in 
token of Communion.'] See what a fhift they were at rirll: put to, lelt the fcveral 
Alieitiblics lliould feem feveral Churches. For it is not to be imagined that this 
was done to tls^nifie tliat common Chrirtian Communion which they had with 
all other Chrillian Churches, but that neareft Communion which bdongeth to 
thofc that are embodied under one Paftor, or the fame Paftor in Common, 
that is one particular Church Even as it thefe divers Altars or Tables were at a 
dillaoce in the fame Church,and the Bifhop would ligniriethe Union of the fe- 
veral Companies in the fame Society, by fending fomeof the Bread which he 
had Wcfled to them all. 

Bat Pitniuf proccedcth [ N.m duhito majoribm dtmtaxat in urbibw., &c. I 
doubt n 't but that it n^as in the Greater Cities only that there rvere more (than one) 
7itlcs mihin the bounds (or Liberties) rvhen rvithin the fame WaVs, they rvould 
not be contained and meet together i and fo had Prabyters put on the frjeralChurches. . 
Bilt in ihe fmaller and lefs frecjittiiteJ Cities, thre rvas one only Church, into which 
thy all did come together. Of which firt were the Cities of Cyprus. And there- 
fore EjMphaniiis nJteth the cttjhm ijf Alexandria, as a thing jirange to his Country- 
»hV7 and unufual. Hence wJS the original of Paripes ■■, which word was transfored 
fmn tht^Coumry Chm-chcs to the City Churches. And adding the Tra/oi with 

their Billiops or Curators fetied in Rome by Smim TuHitts lie faith, ^ihtii 
Chrijiijiwrum in agnsVarxcix qnam fxinillm£ fiia-Mn \ Nam 6" il'/c iifisMTroi, 
&c. 'to rvh'tch the Y.mflhs of the Chn\lians in the C oimtrks rvcre niyfl lik^ : For 
there alfo n\re Bijl}'<ps-, or rather ( Chore fifco^i) rin-al B/Jhaps placed of eld : which 
fame Latine interpretations of the Canons call the Vicars of the Bijhops, but others 
far more rightly than they., the Country., or Village (Bijfjops) (of which more 

So that you fee in Tetiwim opinion, even wlicn Epiphanius wrote, the ordi- 
nary Cities of the World had but one Afleinbly in each City and Suburbs •, 
And only fome extraordinary Cities (of which only Alexandria could be named 
by Epipha!iiiif.,and Rowe alfo by Petaviui^^nd no more by any other Author) had 
divers fetied Titles under their feveral Presbyters : And even thofe Titles in 
thofe two Cities were but Chappels, like our Parifh Chappels, received confe- 
cratcd Bread from the Bifhops Church, left they [hould think that they were a 
dilHnd body of themfelves. Yea, and that the Villages that had Aflemblies 
had their proper Bilhops. And fo I difmifs Petavim with thanks, for his free 

2. E/>«p 2. My next Witnefs is Bifhop Vonviame., the ftrongeft that hath written a- 

Downamc gajnft Parilh Billiops for Diocefanes i who, lib. i. ca^. i. (before recited) 

laith, [_ Indeed at the very frft Qmverfwn of Cities., the vf hole number of the people 

V converted., being fomervhere not muw greater than the number of Presbyters placed a- 

mong than., rpere able to make but a fmall Congregation. '] And cap. 6. pag. 104, 

\_ At the firji, and namely the time of the Apoftle Paul, the mofi of the Churches, fo 

foon after their Converfwa, did not each of them, exceed the proportion of a populous 

Congregation.'] Though this reach not fo low as Petavius Conceffion, it is as 

much as I need. to the prefent bufinefs. 

5. Mufisi/ 3. 'My third Witnefs (hall be that learned moderate man, Mr. Jofeph Mede, 
Mede. yi^ho in his difcourfe of Churches, pag. 48, 49, 50. faith, [ Nay more than this, 
it jhojtld feem that in thofe firji times before Viocejfes rcere divided into thofe leffer and 
fubordznate Churches xs>hich we norv call Parijlies^and Presbyters aligned to them, they 
had not only one Altar to a Church or Vominicum, hut one Altar to a Church, tak^ 
ing Church for the Company or Corporation of the faithful united under one Bijlwp or 
Pajior : and that was in the City or place where the Bijhophad his See and Keftdence. 
Lik^ its the Jews had but one Altar and 7emple for the whole Nation, united tinder 
one High PriLJ}. And yet, as the Jews had their Synagogues, fo perhaps might they 
have more Oratories than one though their Altar were but one, there namely where the 
Bi/hop was. DiefolU, faith Juftin Martyr, omnium qui vel in oppid'n vel ruri de- 
gunt in eundem locum ConventKs fit. Namely as he there tells us to celebrate, and 
participate the l^oly Euchariji. Why was this ? but becaufe they bad not many pla- 
ces to celebrate it in. And itnlefs this werefo, whence came it elfe that a Schifmati- 
cal Bijhop was faid, Conjiituere or collocare aliitd altare ? And that a Bijhop and 
an Altar are made correlatives ? See St. Cyprian, Epiji. 40, 72, 73. ^e mit. Ecclef. 
&c. So that Mr. Mede granteth that every Church that had a Bifhop, had no 



more 'peojJle than communicated at ore Altar. To which purpofe he goeth 
on further to Ignatius Tc^imony, of which anon. 

4. Bifliop Bi//S«'s. Teftittiony, Fttf*Gov. cap. i^.pag.2^6. See after- 4- Eil'o"' 
ward. . '■ . (■i-.«r.\V ".i..: ■ ^^• '"' ' '. ' ' ' 

^. Gro*?«f is Wge (in his endeavours to prove, that not only every Gity had ^.Grotius. 
a Bilhop, but alfo every liated Afllmbly, of which there were divers in one 
and the fame City> and that the Government w'as not fuited to the Temple 
vi^ay, but to the Synagogues ■, and as every Synagogue had its chief Ruler, of 
which there were many in a City, fo had every Church in a City its Biftiop v 
and that only the Church of Alexandria hjiJ the ctijhm ofhainng hta one B{fhop in 
thc' whole City. ThSshede />»;/>?>•. 5;/(«. Pof.;>. 355, 35^, 357. And in his 
Amot.in 1 lint. 5. 17. \_ Sed nptanfit4m efi wu itrhe., ftciit f litres Syfi.iff<^jf, it a &• 
tliires fuijje Eccjcfus, id eli conventus Cl^rijh.tnorum : &• cuifinc F,cchfi£ f"'Jf^ f"' 
um po£fidcni^ qui pnpulum alloqutrctrtr & Prcshylerfls Preiin.trct : Alexandria tM'.tum 
eitm fullfe rnorcm-, ut unm ejfct in t(Jta tfrhe pi-fftr qui ad di'cendnm Frfshyteros per 
urbeni dilh-ibuent, docct nns Snznmcnuf^ /. i. c. 14- & "Epphar.ius^ •C'^r.! 

Thus Crntiw: thought that of old every ftated Affembly had a Bi'hop that had 
power of Ordination. I confefs 1 interpret not Zoz'^men nor Wpifhanius as' Grd- 
tiiif doth, nor believe I that he can bring us frequent proof ot two Churches 
with Biihops in one City (much lefs many •, ) unlefs in Dodtor Hammond'^ in- 
ftance before and after mentioned. But the leli I accept. 

6. Eiftop 
6. I may take it for a full ConcefTion from Bifhop Je^-cmy Tailor, which is /«>;"«> 

before cited, though in few words ; Pnfi Treat. nfBerei:*. \_I am fim rre can- ^•"•'"'' 
not giiv account of jimls if rvhich rve hne n» )r'itice.~\ And 1 am fure a full Pa- 
ri(h is as many as a more able and diligent man than ever I Was, can tikefuch 
notice of as to do the Palters Office to them. 

7. Doflor 
• 7. But thelaft'andgveatcrt Champion for Dioccfancs isDo<fl:or W/wwWihis Hjwwi);;^. 
Conccflions are mentioned before i but now are purpofely to be cited : But re- 
member ftill that we are yet fpcaking but of the matter of FaA. 

In his Annot. in AVi. il. 30. he faith, [^ Although thisTitk ofX\^is(i>\iTi^ci 
Elders-, hai'e been alfo extended to a fecond Order in the Church, and non- ii only in 
ufe for them under the name of Presbyters, yet in the ScrijHtire times it Inlmged 
principally, if not atone to Bifjops, there thing no evidence that any of the fccond or- 
der irere then injiituted ■-, ihDugh foon after before the writing of Ignatius E^ftj 
there ivercfuehinliituted in all Churches. ^ ^ 

' (Though fo fuddain a change be unlikely, I pafs it'byl)' In hh t^ijfrtf. ioS, 
■ 209, ll« cap.^o. fe&. 19,20,21. d^ 11. feU. 2.&(\ he faith, |^P/iit< rtffh t^- 

tjuetjuaque verwn ((fe quod pro concejfa furuitur (in una eivit.ite non frrrjfe phrres E- 
pifcopos.) i^uann'n enim in una Ecchfia aut ca-tu plures fimul Epffcopi winqutm 
fuerint, nihil t amen ohft are, quin in eadem ciiitate dtf) ahqitando drfhrminati fT- 

tUf fuerint, a dkobiU Aprj^ln ad fdem addtiUi^' &c. a^ 1 nave before more Ibr^- 

ly cited him. C Yta, 


Yea, D/Jfert. 'Epi^.Stti, 50,31. he will have the queftion ftated only of a 
Bifhop \_in fngulari Ecclejia'] & [jn fwgulari c«tit.'\ "Ihecontroverftc U not, ^«'- 
bi<f dcmum iiominibtK cognitifiicrint Ecclcjiamm reUores j fed an ad mmm in fmgu- 
lari Ecclefia, an ad plures poteJiM ifia devenerit ? Nos ad mmm fingularem prjefe~ 
aum, (jiecm ex famojinre Eccleji£ ufe(, Eprfcopmn vtdgo dicimuf, potejiatem ijiam in 
fingulari cxtii ex Chrifli & Apnjiolorum iiiftitiilinne^ mmquam non pertinuiffc affir- 
mjmw. So that it is a Biftiop of one Affeiiibly or Church which Dodlor Ham- 
nwid will have the queftion flatcd about. 2. And fuch a Church or Affembly 
as great Cities a while had divers of, and fo divers Bifhops. 3, And this was 
after the Scripture tinries i for they had divers Bifhops with a divers Clergy. 
4. But that in Scripture times, the Order of Sub- Presbyters cannot be proved 
V inftituted. 5. And in his Annotations he expoundeth all the Texts of the 

New Tellaincnt of Billiops that mention Presbyters. 6. "But in his Anfwer to 
the LWo« Minifters, not daring yet to hold that they were of Humane and 
not of Divine Inftitution, he holds that they were inftituted in the end of 
St. John's days after all the Scripture was written (which was about two or 
three years before his death) and fo were of Divine Inftitution, though all the 
left of the Apoftles were dead. 

Before I apply this I will fubjoyn his words of more numerous WitnefTes to 
our opinion with himfelf, for he faith. 

i.AUthi 8. DoAor Hammond o( the Te!\, Vindication agai>ift London Minflerr, pag. 

Vivniesin jQ^_ ^ y^nd though I might tmly fay that for thofe more minute confiderations or 

Caufi. conje&ures., rvherein this DoHor differs from fame others.^ he hath the fuffrages of 

many of the learned\i men of this Church at this day-, and as far as he kpoioetb of all 

that embrace the fame Caufe with him.~\ . 

Ipurpofely pafs by fuch Bifhops as Cranmer, Jewel, &c, aiidfuch conform- 
able Divines as Doflor Whitak^r, Fidh^, &c. as being not high enough to be 
valued by thofe that I have now to do with. As Jeveel, Art. i\.p. i-ji. Qiew- 
cth. that every Church muft have one Biftiop and but one, and out of Cyprian 
that the Fraternitas tmiverfa was to chufe hin) > Et tpifcopiu dekgatur plebe pr£- 
.fente — de univerfx fraternitatis fiifl'ragio, Epifcopatus ei ( S abino) dcfcrrctm : And 
mentioneth the KcCcxipt of Honorim the Emperor to Boniface, that \_If two 
Bijhops through divifwn and contention happen to he chnfin, we will that nei- 
ther of them he allowed as Bifhop ; hut that he only remain in the Apoftolicl\_ Seat, 
whom out of the number of the Clergy, Godly difcretion, and the confent of the 
whole Brotherhood, Jhall chufe by a new EleiUon.^ How big yet was the Church 
even then ? 

Now all this being aflerted, i. It is evident that they hold that in Scripture 
times, no Church coniifted of more than one ordinary ftatcd worfhipping Af- 
fembly. 2. And that every fuch Affembly had a Bilhop. For if there were 110 
Presbyters, there could be no Affembly but where a Bifhop was prefent : for 
the Lords days were then ufed for publick Worftiip ; and the people could not 
. dp that without a Minifter, for they had Communion in the Lords Supper 
, , 1' every 



every Lords day : And therefore they muft have a Bidiop, or have no fuch 
VVorlhip. And Dodor Hammond departech from Fetavius in holding that no 
Church had more Bilhops than one : So that dc fa^o he granteth all that I dc- 
firc, I. That the Churches were butfonunyAlTemblies having cacha Bidiop. 
2. And that no Sub-Presbyters were inftituted in Scripture times. And by what 
right the change was made we Ihall enquire anon. 

The fame f rove J by the full Tejl'unony of Antiquity. 

THat the particular Churches, iiifim£ fpcciei vcl ordinis., (of which combined 
Affociatcd Churches were conrtitutcd) were no larger than is before de- 
fcribcd, and had but Vmtm Altare^ I lliall prove Hirtorically from Antiijuity. 

1. And Order requireth that I begin with Clemens Komanus. 

But let the Reader (lill remember that while I cite him and others oft cited 
heretofore by many, I do it not to the fame end, as they who thence prove 
that Bilhops and Presbyters were then the fame ■■, but to prove the Churches to 
be but fuch fingle Congregations as are fore-defcribed, Ep. ad Cor. pag, 54, 55. 
[KaTixx«'?«5 5ii yly 7rdA«s H.iiguJtrovTtj, v.x^'t<^ovToii oLnaqxccs aur^'", o^om- 
/u«JavT£s TCfi TTHi/^uaTi &is tTrnntoTrou^ itj <Aian.o'vous -r ^jLiKKovrav ifi^iiiiv.y.c. 
Per rcgiones igitur & ttrbes vcrbtim pr£dic.intef, primiiias enrum fpiritu probanteiy 
Epifiopos & Viaconos corum qui credituri erant conjiiiuerunt.^ Here are tliefe con- 
current evidences to our purpofe. i. In that he fpcaketh only of Bifhops and 
Deacons, and neither here nor elfewhere one fyllable of any other Presbyters 
but Biflrops, it is apparent that in thofe times there were noSubjedt-Presbyters 
dillind from Bifliops in being : Nor could Dodor Hammond any other way 
anfwer Blondel here, but by confclVmg and maintaining this, and fo expound- 
ing Clemens as fpeaking of Bilhops only before other Presbyters were in the 
Church. And if fo, then there could be none but Churches of fingle Aflcm- 
blies then, or fuch as one man could officiate in : becaufe there was then no 
more to do it. 

2. In that Cities and Countries are made the Seats of thefe Bifhops : for 
though fome would make them to be mentioned only as the places where the 
ApolUcs preached, the obvious plain fenfe of the words is connexive of preach- 
ing and conftituting Bifhops : by preaching they made believers in Cities and 
Countries,and over thofe believers they placed Bifliops and Deacons i which im- 

Elieth it to be in the fame places. And whereas feme would ihain the word 
\.&£5ts]] tofignihe Provinces, and not Country Vil'agcs-, it murt then, as diltindl 
trom Cities, have meant \_mjnyCitics~\ andfo havefetlcd Bijljops and Arch- 

C 2 Bijhops., 


BifJ-.'Opf^ intimating Subjefl-Presbyters under tbcm : But here Is no fuch word 
or intinnation: Yea, when theC(w/;<Wfr are made Hrft the Place of the Apoftles 
p-ejchwz (as they confcfs) let any imparri al man judge whether this be like to 
be thefenfe [TfcfV/T.WW in F.-ovinccs, that is, in the Chief of Frovhiccs^ and. 
in Cities.] And if there were Country Churches and Bilhops fetled by the 
Apoftle's, its eafic to fee that each particular Church-Aflembly had a Bifhop, 
when even the City Churches themfelves were no bigger than Tetavtiis and o- 
thers mention. i_..^... 

3. Adhomimm^ Though I believe that the [tSv lUt-Vvo'vT&v Trireue^v") eo- 
rnm qui cndituri crant, be intended only to iignihe the fubfequence of believing 
to their preaching, yet waving that, tp them tliat fuppofc it to intend the fubfe- 
quence of believing to making Bif^.wps^ it mult needs imply that the Churches then 
coni^ifted but of few, and were yet to be iilled up ; But whether one Biihop to 
have many Churches is a qucftion which mult be otherwife and aliunde de- 

4. The magnitude of the Churches is plainly intimated, when he faith.^. 57. 
\_ lii «v K«Tac-«!Sei'Ta9, &c. Conjiitirtos itaqm ah iltis vel deinceps ab aliis vi- 
ris celcbribits cum confenfu wiive/'fji Ecchfik qra incjtlpate avili Chnfli infirvicrunt., 
&C.'] IftheBifhpps were thofen by the Co«/rnt of all the Cimrcb, it was nO 
greater a Church than would and did meet tp fignifie their ccnfent •, and not 
fuch asoLir Diocelfcs novvare. ■ ' 

^.; Alfo tite fame is intimated by p.tg. dp. ]^If it be for me thtt Contejitioa, 
Stdition and Sclvfms ariji^ I will depart^ I vrill be g/>ne reNther yon mil, and will 
do 'rA)at-{halthy the people he ■appointed j only let tb: Sheep-fold of Chrifl live in peace 
reith the Vresbyters appointed over it. By which words it is evident, that it was 
fuch a particular Ovikox Church, where the Will of the people might be decla- 
red as a matter that bore much fway. But who can think, that this is fpoken 
of many Congregations, where the peoples Will could not eafily be iigni- 

And it is farthe* ma-liifeft in thatit was but for the fake of one or two that the 
Church of Cww?/j moved this fedition againft the Presbyters ("called alfo Bi- 
ihops,) fag. 62. Now how many Congregations that Church confilled of^ 
where the intereft of one or two was either fo far concerned or (0 powerful, it 
is ealie to conjediure \ fee all thefe together, and judge impartially. 

I add ('though out of feafon ) that it was none of the Apoftles meaning that 
thofe whom they made Bilhops of fuch hng'e Churches, without a fubjedt Or- 
der of Presbyters, fhoukl make fuch an Order of fubjed Presbyters, and make 
feiTifelves the Bifhops of a Dioccfane Church without any Bifhops under them. 
For pag. 57. he faith, [ And our Apnfilesby our Lord Jefnr Chnfi k^erc, that can- 
tention reonld arife about the name of Epifcopacy ■, and for this canfe being endued 
with perfect fore-knowledge^ they appointed them aforefaid-, and left the Courfes (or 
Orders) of After-Miniflers and Offices defcrihed, that other approved men might fuc- 
cved in the place of the deceafed^ and might execute their Offices^ So that it was 
the fame places and the fame Offices which thofe ordained by the Apoftles had, 
in which others muft fucceed them, which therefore were defnibed by the A- 
pollks, and not into others,- To. i 


To confirm my Expofition oiCkmcns, note, that Grotm himfelf Ttftfl. 182. 
ed Bignon. giveth this as a reafon to prove this Epiftle of C/m^j to be genuine. 
$lHod mifqMam mmiiiiit rxortis illius Epfcoporum autlwitatis^ que Ecchfiji coiifm- 
tndiiiefoft Marci mortem AkxandrU^ attjueeocxemplo alibi introdHci capt:fcd plane 
m Patilm Afoftolus cjiendit, Ecckfus commwu Frcsb^'teronim^ qui iidan omnes & 
Et>ifcopii confiliofiajje gubiTfutas.'] that is, Bccatifc he no where makcih mentinn of 
that excelling authority of Bi(hops rehich began to be intrduoced at Alexandria by the 
ciiftom of the Church, after tlx death ofMark, and in other places by that exanrple: 
But he plainly Jhewcth, as the Apofile Paul doth^ that the Clmrches rvere gcvoncd 
by ike Comnion Council of Presbylers-, ivh were alfo Bi(J}ops.~\ 

Note alfo, as aforefaid, that Doftor Hanvmnd in Pijfert. grantcth as to 
matter of facfV, that Clemens fpcakcth but of tlic Bilfiops of Iniglc Congregati- 
ons, whom he alfo calleth Presbyters, there being no other in the Church of 

II. My next Witncfs is Pius Bifhon of Rome, in Epift. Juih Epifcopo ■■> in 
Biblimh. Patr. torn. ^.pag. 1 5. mentioning only Bilhops and Deacons : ofwhich 
Dodor Hammond iriaking the fame Conceflion, Ihll grantetli that hitherto Bi- 
lliops had but fingle Churches. (Of this move anon.^ 

III. My next and grcateft Witnefs is Ignatius^ in whom ftomy admiration) 
the Dioccfancs fo much conridc, as that quaft pro ar'n & forcii they contend for 
the authoritv of his Epif ties. I am as loth to lofe him as they are : therefore I 
will not meddle in BlondeCs controverfie (againd whom they fay Dodtor Pier- 
fon is now writing.) In his Epillle to the Philaddphians he faith, \^'^v Svaia.- 
crufjov ■r.i.zvi lyj fcnK,\iwinf,>t, Ms 'i.i\i(j}tOTT^j^ xf<c< too Tr(£fl6u7t^ti),;f^ To7? S^ix- 
Koi'"j; Tok (n'»J\a\oi9 /xS.]] £ There ii to every Clmrch one Altar, and one Bi(l)op^ 
vrith the Presbytery and the Deacons viy f-Votv f«rvairtsr\ \ am not able to de« 
vifc apter words to exprefs my fcnfe in. He faith not this of fomc one Church, 
but ofalU nor yet as of an accident proper to thofe times of the Churches mi- 
nority ■> but as of the Notes of every Churches Individuation or Hxcccity as 
they fpeak. The Unity of the Church is charaderilcd by Oee Altar, and One 
Eifhop with the Presbytery and Deacons. If [^nxsyf lii tn.v.K»ci(^, ~\ were out, 
it would not alter the fcnfc, being plainly implied. Eifhop Pow/MWt's Expofi- 
tion of SuMxcy^ov as if it ligniried Chriji, is fo forced and contrary to the 
evidence of the Text, that his own party quite forfake him in it, and he necd- 
cth no confutation. For who Cycr before dreaiiied that the Vnity or Indhi- 
diution of each particular Ciuirch, s^ontillcd in having one Chrij}^ who is the 
common Head of all Churches ? 0/^ Chriji to ei'ery Chitrch and one Bijl.'op, 
would fignihe that every Church mult have one feveral Chrilt, as well 
as one feveral Bilhop. Nor is 3ui3i.y-cii^)v fo ufcd by the Ancients, ex- 
cept when the Context (heweth that they fpeak by alluiie)n of Chrilt. MalKr 
Mead's plain and certain £xpoliticn and Collcdion I gave you before ; the 
fan)e with ourj. 



As for them that fay that many Congregations might per vices come to one 
Altar to communicate, I anfwer, i. Let them make Churches as big ascaa 
thus communicate and fpare not •, though there be neceflary Chappds or Ora- 
tories befides. 2. But remember that every Church ufed to worlhip God pub- 
lickly and to communicate, at leaft every Lords day i and that there was but 
0/ie Altar to each Church, and therefore but one Communicating Congre- 
gation, Dodlor Stillingflect in his Schifmatical Sermon is for my Expofition. 

Objecft, It if meant of one Species of Altars^ and not one Individual. 

Anfre. Then it is meant alfo of one Species of Bilhops in each Church, and 
not of one Individual. 

Objedl. T/jl' pra&ice of the Churches after fherveth that they too\ it not for a fin^ 
cr Schifm^ to have fever al Altars in a Church, 

Anfw. I talk of nothing but matter of fa& '-, it was the r)Ote o{ One Chttrch 
when thofe Epiftles were written : whether the Author was miflakcn de jure^ 
or whether after Ages grew wifer, or rather had fewef Bifhops and more Al- 
tars tor the fake of Carnal Intereft, I judge not. 

The fame Author Epifi. ad Smyrn. faith \_Vbi tttique apparct Epifcopus^ ibi 
& miiltitjtdo fit : qHcmadmodum utiqite ubi eji Chrijiiu Jefuf-, tUic Catholica Eccle- 
fi.t:~\ zs Vfper's Lat.'Tranf. or [^-rroisx is^:i(^ ^zO(-Tix~\ omnU exercitus cxk- 
ftis. And the Context (heweth that this nmltitudo or pkbs is the Church which 
the Bilhop overfeeth. Therefore ubi Efifcopm ibi Ecclefiafnit, and fo every 
Church had a prefent Bilhop. 

So in Epifi. ad Magnef. he bids them [ All tmitedly (or as one) run together 
to one Temple of God^ ,K to one Altar^ to one Jefiis Chrifi7\ So that every Church 
had one temple and one Altar to which (as a note of their Union in Chrift^ 
the whole Church muft unanimoufly come. 

So in Epifl. adTrull. he faith \_Et Epifcopiu typuin Dei Patris omnium gerit > 
Tresbyteri veru fmit confejfits quidam^& conjundlif Apnjiolontm cxtus ■, fine his Eccle- 
fia Ele&a non efi : Nulla fine his San&orum Congregatio ■■, nulla Sanliorum Colledio, 
Et pojiea, ^id vera alitid Sacerdotium eft (vel Tresbyterium) qttam facer coetus, 
Conciliarii & ajfcjfores Epifcopi ? ^id Viaconi, &c.'] So that it is hard m.ore 
plainly to exprefs a thing in words, than this Author expreifeth,that not only 
defado every Hated worlhipping communicating Congregation had their Bi- 
fhop,Presbyters and Deacons, but that dejure it ought to be fo : And that there 
was no lawful >-.hurch AiTembly for Worfhip, without the Bilhnp and his 
Presbyters ordinarily •, and one Altar and one Bilhop were the Notes of one 
.. Church. 

And Epifi. ad Polycarp. \_S£pe Congregationes fiant : ex nomine omnes q»£re : 
fervos & ancillas ne defi>ici,is (ut "Tranf. Lat. Vfiy.) i. e. Keep often Congregations : 
Enquire (or lo)]^ after) all (or every one) by name : defpife not the Servants and the 
MaidsJ] And how many Congregations at once that Church then had,or how 
great it was, when the Bilhop himfelf was to look after every one by name, 
even the Men- fervants and the Maids, I leave to their judgments who are wil- 
jing to underftand the truth. 


' (23) 
Since the wriring of this fabouf thirteen years) I have feen Jfaac VoSim his 
Flonntine Ignatius-, Edit. 2. andalfo had fome fpeech with Bifliop Gunning, 
confidently denying that by 'iv SuH'iafMg/ov is meant one material Altar or 
place of Communicating : I will therefore review the Texts of Ignatius accor- 
ding to Ifaac Vofpiif, and anfwer this Bilhops confident aflertion. 

1. Epilh ad Smyr/!. p. 4. Xlxv^is TUiTtKntOTrits i\i.oK^3^7i, &c. Omnei E- 
pifcopim fequtmini ut Jefiis CImfius Patrcm ■, & Preshytoiitm ut Apqjiolos , Dw- 
conos atttcm rcvcreamini ut Dei mandattim. "Nullm fine Epifcapo aliquid operetur co- 
mm cj!i£ cpnveninntin Ecclcfiam : Ilia firma Cratiantm adio (tvxo'.PJ.'^ix) repute- 
tm\ qu£ fuh ipfo eft, vd qtiam utiijue ipfe conccjfcrit : uhi utique appant Ep/fcopuf, 
illtc mult it udo fit ; quemadmodum utique ttbi eft Jefuf Chriftus it lie CatMica Ecck* 
fia : Non licit um ft fine Epifcopo neqite baptizare, neque agapcn fitccrc. 

Here it is evident, i. That by t5 vrAiiB©^, the Multitude.,'] is meant thea& 
fcmbling multitude, and not dilbnt people many miles off. 

2. That by cpctvvi apparet, is meant the perfonal vifiblc appearing prcfencc 
of the Bi(hop. And fo that every Church-Affembly had a prcfent Bilhop or>- 

•5. That by tuxa^'tci'*, is meant the Churches joyful laudatory Commu- 
nion, of which the Lords Supper was a cliief part. And fo tliat the Fuckiriii 
■was ufualiy celebrated with and by the Bilhop, and never but by his particular 
allowance to the Presbyters ; not only a general allowance to do it commonly 
as Parilh Priells do without him, but to do it in his Affembly either in cafe of 
his abfence, or need, or as allilling him. 

4. That by t y\')'iM\]G)v e^s tuv iMiKvtaixv is meant the mttto-j and perfonf of 
the particular Affembly : And fo that every fuch Aflbmbly iiad a prefcnt Super- 
vifor or Bilhop. 

5. That by ii«.oA»S&t'T«, is meant a local going whither he gocth, and an i- 
mitation of him as prcfent ■■, and fo that they hjd his vifible prcfence. 

6. That the prohibition of baptizing and holding their Love-feailing Meet- 
ings without hiin, figniticd not only \_ivithout h'n general licence at a dftancC','] 
but as no Servants mult do great matters in the houfe without the Malicr, fo it 
implieth here his ordinary prcfencc and particular approbation of the lingle 
perfons fitnefs for Baptifm, and his condjjdt of their Love-fealls, and his al- 
lowance in cafe of neccilary abfence. 

7. That the fame Alfemblies had a Bifhop, Presbyters and Deacons. For 
the fimc multitude is to follow the fame Bifhop, Presbyters and Deacons: And 
how could one Parilh follow all the Presbyters of all other Parilh Churches of a 
Dioccfs whom they never knew? And it is certain that it was the fame Church 
that the Ptrrhytery and Deacons here mcntit-nicd had : But Deacons were appro- 
priated only to fmglc Churches, and the people of one Parilli-Affemblyj were 
not to follow or obey the f^cacons of all other diftant Parilh Churches. 

8. And after he faith, l_Salutoi eodignum Epifcop/wt, & Deo dccens Ti;s- 
bytaium , & confcrvos mos D/aconos &" finziHttim & comniuniitr om'ies.^ 
Which plainly Jigniheth that it was the fame City Church in Sr>.yiia 


that had a Bldiop, Presbytery and Deacons: For the fcattered Presbyters 
of many dillant Parifhes cannot be meant by the Presbytery which is fuppofed 
prcfent with the Bilhop and Deacons. 

II. Tlie next in the Florentine Copy is the Epiftle to Folycjrpe^ where he 
faich to the Bilhop, {_'■' Let not the JFidnvs be ricgkcied : Next after the Lord., 
" be thou the Curatm- of them : Let nothing he done without thy Sentence. : and do 
'•'• thou nothing n-Hhotn God : and whdttboK dojl let it be well]} able : Let Congre- 
*' gations be often made : feek^ all by nana : dejpife not Semants and Maids : jpeak^ 
" to my Sijieri to love the Lord^ and be fiibjcci in flejh and Ipirit to their Husbjnds-, 
"■ and to the men to love their Wives. And the Men that marry, and the Women that 
"■ are married., mufi makg their union xvith the fentence of the Bijhnp, &c.] 

Here it is evident, i. That it was a Church of which Widows were a part 
that is here meant : But Widows then were fpccial parts of particular Pariili- 
Churches, and not common to a Diocefs of many fuch. 

2. It was fuch a Church where the BiQiop himfelf was to take care of all the 
Widows, and fee that they were not negleded : And that could not be done 
to a Diocefs of many fcore or hundred Parilhes. 

3. It was a Church where the Bifhop as prefent could fee to all that was 

4. It was a Church that was oft to afTemble or be congregate : which a Dio- 
cefs never doth : For it is frequent Congregations of the fame perfans that is here 
commanded or defired. 

5. It was a Church fo afTembled that the BilTiop could by name take an ac- 
count who was abfent by his own eye : Yea, even of the Servant-men and 
Maids. . ■ 

6. And fuch as the Bifliop could himfelf marry all that were married in it, 
or at leart be their particular Counfellor therein : And exhort all Husbands and 
Wives to their duties. 

7. He after faith, [] " I am of one foul with them that are fuh)eti to the Bifhop, 
" Presbyters and VeaconsJ] Signifying that thefe three were the prefent Officers 
of one and the fame particular Church. 

III. The next is the Epiftle to the ^p/^e^j;;/ i where, i.Pag.iy. he willeth 
them to love their Bilhop, and all of them to imitate /)/w;which fuppofeth that they 
knew him (and fo doth not one in an hundred in moft of our Diocefles, nor 
ever fee his face. ) 

2. Tag. ip. He tells them that [ " 7hey agree in the Sentence of the Bijhop, 
" andfo doth the worthy Presbyters agree with him, as the firings of a Harp > and 
" therefore in their confent and confounding love Jefus Chriji pi fung : and ttjcy are 
" all made a Chore., that being confonant in confent, receiving in unity dtvine melody^ 
" they might with one voice ftng by Jefus Chrifi to the Father that he may hear them, 
" and k^iow by whom they do goodJ] Where it is moft plainly iigniried that it 
was a Church which fung to God by Chrift in one Chore, in unity of conccnt- 
ing voice, under one Bilhop and his Presbytery and Deacons prcfent and con- 
■du(^ing them. 5. After 

(2 5) 

3. After pag. 20. he praifetli them for being \_cmfmant in Vnity with the 
Bi(hop, " For if any be not tvithin the Altar^ he is deprived of the Pread of God : 
" For if the prayer of one or trvo have fo great /<»•«, hare much more that xvhich is of 
" the Bijhop and all the Church ? He therefore that comcth not to the fame, is proud 
" and condemneth himfdf. And by horv much you fee the Bijhop filent, reverence him 
" the more : for rve mull receive every one that the Lord of the houfe fendeth^ as htm 
" that fent him : you muji therefore look^upon the Bifhop manifeft ( or vifbly prefent ) 
*' Of to the Lord. Onelinius praifeth your Divine Order.'] 

Here it is plain that it was a Church where many, yea all the Church joyned 
prefentially in prayer with the Bilhop, which a thoufand Paridies- (nor two) 
do not. 

4. It was a Church where the Bi(hop was fecn by all when he was filent -, 
and fo reverenced for his lilcnt prefencc. 

5. It was a Churcii, whicii they that wilfully abfcnted thcmfelves from 
were fclf-condcmned : But a man can be but in one Parilh at once. 

6. It was a Church where they might all fee To» iKitncoitcr cIVm\ov, the Bi- 
lhop tmnifiji, that is, Perfiicuum, vifible. 

7. It was a Church where all that had the Sacred Bread were [ within the 
Altar,"] that is, the one Sacrarium., or place of communicating in tlic Eu- 

8. And this was their tuTafiat, the Order of their AlTembly. 

After pag. 25. he faith \_ *' Hajhn therefore to affemble frequently, for the Ew 
" charift (or thanksgiving) of Cod, and for Clory : For rvhen you oft meet for the 
'■'■fame thing,the powers of Satan are de{iro^<ed, and hU perdition loofed in the concord 
" of your faith^ 

p. Here it is plain that it was a Church that ufed to meet together for the 
Eucharift i manifcfting therein the concord of the faith of all the Church. 

And after pag. 2p. he faith, [ " Becaufc they n-ho according to Alan, do all by 
" name meet commonly in Grace in one faith, and in Jefus Chriji, in your obeying the 
" Bifl^op, and Treshytcry, rvitb an undivided mind, breaking one bread, &c.[] 

10. Here itisiigniried that the Bilhop and Picsbytery were all prcfent as 
Guides in one AlTenibly, which was that 'Church which they fupervifcd. 

11. And that it was fuch a Church that brake one Bread, profciling one 
faith, in prefence, with undivided minds. So plainly doth this Epilllc decide 
our controverlic. 

IV. The next Epiftle is Ad Magncfm. In which he faith, " Canto Ecclcfus 
" in quibus Vnionem oro Carnii & Spiritus. Vnion of Fkjh fignifeth local Com- 
" munion. 

2. Fag. 31. he faith, [ " ^ am dignified to fee you by Dama your Bijhop wor- 
" '''J' "/ ^°d, and the worthy Prcibyteri Bafliis and ApoUonius, and my fclloiv 
" Servant Sotion the Deacon, whom I enyy bccaufe he is fubjeci to tlx BiJhop and 
" Presbytery, & c] 

By which words it is plain that this Church which had a Bipop, Presbytery 
and Deacon, was a Parochial Church that had prcfcntial Communion with 
them, and not as our Dioccfles. D ^ *S- Fag. 


3. P^?. 33> Having mentioned the Bifhop he faitli, [ " Bccanfe in the afore 
'■'■ faifi perfons I behold .iH the multitude, in faith and love I rvarn yott^ (iudy to do 
" all in the concord of God^ the Bifljop prcfiding in the place of Cod} and the Presby- 
" ters in the jiead of the Confeffion of the /4pojilef^ and the Deacons, &c. 

Which flieweth that it was a Church where Bilhop, Presbyters and Deacons 
fate together in prefcnce. 

4. And after it's faid, \_ '' Let there be nothing amongyou vehich may divide (or 
'■^ fcparate) yoH v hirt be united to the Bij^jop and Prefidents, &c. Which Cbeweth 
the fame prefent Prefidency as aforefaid. 

5. Pag. 33. Herepeateth \_ir/tboi{t the Bifhop and Presbyters do nothing'] which 
no reafon can interpret of any Presbyters but the prefent. 

So 6. Pag. 34. £" Let nothing elje fern reafonable proper to your felves i but 
" one Prayer fur the fame thing-, one deprecation, one widerjianding, one hope in love 
" and undefled joy.] 

Which importeth their prefent Communion in Prayer and Profeffion. 

7. He addeth, [_'■'■ All of you run (or meet) together into one Temple of Cod-, 
" M to one Altar.^ This needeth only an impartial Reader, and it's plain. 

8. And pag'S?' [_'''' f^ith your tvorthily honoured Bijhop-, and the rvorthily 
" Comphxe Spiritual Croren of your Presbytery, and the Deacons, &c.]] Where 
no Presbyters are mentioned but the BiQiops Presbytery which fate about him 
in the Church, called the Complexe Corona. 

p. He addeth ut unto fit carnalu & fpiritualU, that is, of prefent bodies and 
of minds, 

V. The next is the Epiftle to the Philadelphians : where praifing them f»r 
their union with their Bilhop as the firings of a Harp, he faith, [ " Study there- 
'■'■ fore to ufe one Euchdri{i (ox Thankfgiving) that is, to joyn all together in the 
" Euchariflical Communion;) For there is one Fhjh of our Lord Jtfus ClmJ}, 
" and one Ci/p (that is, which is there Sacramcntally reprefented and given) /;;- 
" to Union of his Blood-, one Altar, and one Bijhop, with the Presbytery and the 
" Deacons myfdloie Servants \ that irh.ttyou do, you may do according to God^ 

Here one Church is notified in its Unity by thefe marks. 

1. "That they all jnyn in one AJJ'embly fur the Euchar/Jl. Which fignifieth one 
Body and Blood of Chrirt. 2. And that there be one Altar for this Commu- 
nion. 3. And one Bifhop. 4. And one Presbytery with his Deacons with 

But here Bifhop Gunning faith, It is not meant of one material Altar, 
Anfrv. I. It muft be noted that (as Matter Mv/e and others have obferved) 
5uffiar;'g/ov is ufed in Church Writers for the Chancel, Sacrarium, or place 
where the Altar Hood, as well as for the Altar it felf : Ipto which place the 
GoiTHTiunicants only were admitted ; to which form our Chancels are made. 

2. And to be wjtra ^/*i?r« is ufually meant of being one admitted to that Ett- 
chariflical Communion, 3. And though as we give the Sacram.cnt in private 
houfes to the fick, and have Chappels for the weak and dillant, fo miglit fome 
great Chmches then, and yet have but one Chancel, Altar or place for the 



Communion of the whole Church i 4. The exprefs words, and the Context 
and fenfe fuHy (Iiew that it is perfonal prefent Ccmmunion that is here fpokeii 
of, and therefore in one place. 5. The common ufe of the word in other 
Writers, (heweth it, (as being imra vd extra Altve, and fetting up /iltarc con- 
tra Altare^ that is feparated Affemblies for fuch Communion. (6. Tiie moft 
learned and fam.ous Expofitors fo expound it i fuch as Mafter Mcde before ci- 
ted, and Arch-Billiop Vjhcr and others. 7. The ContradiAors can feign no 
other probable fenfe. For, 

1. If by tlie Altar they fay is meant [ One Chriji,'] 2. or one Specks of Al- 
tars^ thefe are before confuted, and are palpably falfe. He that is in another 
part of the World may come to an Altar of the fame fpecies, which is nothing 
to the unity of a particular Church here fpoken of. 3. If they fay, It U called 
one Altar bccaufe under one BifJ^ip., this maketh not many to be one, no more than 
many Temples. And if tropically it were fo meant, it would be but a vain 
repetition. One BifJjop being mentioned bcfidcs. And it is an Altar which the 
Bilhop with his Presbytery is fuppofcd to be prefent at, which cannot be All in 
a Dioccfs called One. Partiality can give no other probable fenfe. 

Objedl. I. One Church it U Iqwivn bad many Altars. 

j4nf)v. Not then i no nor long after except at Rome and Alexandria : and 
then they were but as parts of Chappcls, and not of Churches. 

Objed:. 2. It is faid alfo, Ihcrc is one Body of C/v/Vf and one Ctip, tvhich caii' 
rot he meant litcraV)'. 

Anfw. It is well called One agreeably to our prefent fence : For, i . It is 
one and the fame Bread, though not one piece, which is there prefent, confe- 
crated and divided to them all ; and one Cup or prefent quantity of Wine 
which is there diftvibutcd among them. 2. And it is 0«c body and blood ot 
facrihced Chrid, which is in every Church rcprefented and offered by One Bi- 
Jhop at one Altar. Tliis doth but confirm our Expofition. But what can bc 
fo plain as to convince the prejudiced and unwilling ? 

2. P./g. 45. he willeth \_'-'- the Church to fend a Deacon /o Antioch «j- other 
tieighboHr Churches fent B/Jhopr, and fomc Fresbyters and Vea'cons.'] And can 
any man tliink that a Dioccfs met to chufe a Deacon to go on a vil'it,or that it 
was a Diocefane Billiop that was fent by aDiocefs, yea that all thefc neighbour 
Churches that fent them were fo many Dioceffcs ? 

VI. The next is the Epiftle ./'/ frallcfios. Where he faith of the Bidiop that 
came to him, \_that he fan> all the muhitude in him ■,'] that is, the AiTembly. 
And as before he bids them, [Do nothing without the Bijhop, and befubjeti to ilte 
Presbytery ■-, and that at to the Ccttnfel of Cod, and Conjundion of Apojiles'] ad- 
ding, I'For rvitlmtt thefe the Church is not called: ] what can be plainer to 
(hew that it was a Church that had a prefent Bijhop and Conned of fresbyters 
conjun&, mthotft n-hom the Church was not hnfully called together ? So that eve- 
ry Church had fuch. 

2. And fig. 50. he faith again, [Not inflated, butbeinginfeparahk from God,. 
Jefuf Chri!}, and the Bifm and the Orders of the Apofxles (that is, ■ the Confeis of 

D 2 Presbyters; 


Presbyters) He that is within the Altar is clean \ ani be that is without the Altar 
is not clean; that is y he that doth any thing (m the Church) without the Bijhop^ 
Presbytery and Deacon., is not clean in Confcience : which plainly (hevveth that e- 
very Cburch-Affcmbly had a guiding Bifhop, Presbytery and minirtring Dea- 

3. Tag.'^i. he faith, \_I falute ym from Sm^xm with the Churches of God, 
which are prefent with me ; 1 He had not then the prefenceof many Diocefles v 
nor were Billiops alone ufed then to be called Churches : Therefore they were ■ 
Church-Affemblics which he vifited, and were with him, and about him. 

4. Again he repeateth, \_ Be fuh'jeU to the Bijhop and Treshytery, and love one 
angther with an infeparabk heartr\ Which hath the fenfe aforefaid. 

VII. In the Epiftle to the Tiomans, the words of the Church prefiding in lo- 
cho chori Komanoritm is much fpoken of already by many. 

The Epiftles afcribed to him have much of the like kind > as Epft. ad lar- 
fenfes, fag.^O. Ad'Antiochenos^pag. 85, 87, 88. T'he Spifl. ad Heroum Diaconum 
calleth the Presbyters of Antioch Bifliops who baptize, facritice and impofe. 

So Efifl. ad Fhilippenfes, pag. 1 1 2. 

If after all this evidence from Ignatius any will wrangle, let him wrangle r 
what words can be plain enough for fuch ? And what a blind or blinding pra- 
ftice is it, which too maay Writers for Prelacy have ufed ? to pretend Igna- 
tius to be for them, who is fo much and plain againft them ? And to tofs about 
the name of a Bifhop and Presbytery, as if all that was faid for a Parochial Bi- 
fhop and Presbytery(that is,in a Church affociated for perfoiial prefential Com- 
munion) were fpoken for fuch a Diocefane Prelacy as putteth down and deftroy- 
eth all fuch Churches, Bi(hops and Presbyteries. 

And whatfallliood is it to perfwade the World that we are againfl: Epifcopa- 
cy becaufe we would have every Church to have a Bifhop, and would not have . 
all the Churches in England except Diocefane, to be unchurched and turned info 
Chappels or Oratories ? When yet we refufe not to fubmit to more general 
Overfeers of many Churches, to fee that the Paftors do their duty, and coun-. 
fel and exhort them to it, whether appointed hereto by the Magiftrate, or the.^ 
confcnt and choice of many Churches.. 

IV. Juftin Martyrs Teflimony is trite, but moft plain, and not to be eva- 
ded. 'hml]oL-ii^as<pi^<i\(xi, &c. Fojiea fratrum prxpofito panis & poculum offcr- 
tur — Fofiquam prapoftus grati,fs eg't totufque populm faufta omnia acclamavit ; 
^ui inter nos Viacani vocantur dant unicttique partem panii & calicis diluti/uper quos 
faUaeji gratiarum actio, atqueetiam deferre fviunt abfentibiu — Vie foils Mrbano- ■ 
rum ac rufticanorum ccetm fimt, ftbi Apoftolorum propheurumque liter£ quoad fieri, 
poteft pr£legttntitr : Ceffante Le&ore Pr£pofitus verba facit adhortatoria — Fofthec 
eonfurgmit omnes & preces offerimiis : quibm finitii profertttr panis^vinmn & aqua : 
lumpripofitm quantum poteft preces offert, & gtathrum adiones : flebs vera A- 
nun accinH, hide confecrata diftribmntur fvigulis, & abfentibia mittuatttr per Via— 

tmos :. 

coiios : V'lUoresfi liheat pro jua quifqite voht/itale confcmirt : Colletta dcponrntur ' 
apnd pr£pofitum : h fubvenit pHpilUs, viduis, & propter morbum aliamve mccft- 
tatem egentibus^ vinllis quoque & peregrinis, & in fumma curator fit omnium ino- 
pitm. Thus Juftin Apolog. 2. VVIiere he defcribeth the Church State and 
Worftiip which we defire, as plainly as we can fpeak our felves. Note here, 
I. That whether the Country-men and Citizens had fevcral Churches or met 
in one City Church, it fheweth that they were but llngle Congregations. P^or 
every Churcli had a prefent Bilhop : (For Dodtor H^www/i maintaineth that 
by the Pr-epofitits here is meant the Billiop, and fo do others of them.) 2. This 
Bilhop performed the Offices of tlie day, every Lord's day, praying, preach- 
ing and adminilhing the Lord's Supper, 6^c. 3. All the Alms of the Church 
was committed to the Bilhop at prefent, (and therefore he had not many hun- 
dred or any other Churches under him where Presbyters did all receive thd 
AlmsO 4. He was the common Curator of all the Poor, Orphans, Sick, 
&c. which could not be for more than one of our Parifhes : CAn4 let the Bi- 
(hops take as big a Ciuuvh as they will do all this for, and fparc not.) 5. And 
the Deacons bringing the confccrat^d Bread and Wine to the abfent in token of 
Communion with the fame Church and Bilhop, fheweth tliat there were not 
under him many other abfent Congregations, that had no other Bifliop of 
their own : Nor did the Deacon carry it to fucli Congregations through the 
Dioccfs. In a word, here is a full dcfcription of a Congregational Church and 

Saith Matter Mcdc before cited, of thefe words, [ j4x the Jews had their Sy- 
nagogues-, fo perhaps might they have more Oratories than one ■> thoi^} their Altar 
were but one^ tlvre namely xvhere the B/Jhop.tv.K. Die folis omn^^^c. (here hc 
cites thcfe words,) Namely as he there tells us, to celebrate ant^prticipate of the 
Holy Euchjrijh Why was this f" but becaufe they had not many places to cele- 
brate /'/?.] 

V. Tirtullian is as plain and full : Apol. c. 3 p. Corpus fnmus de confcientia reli- 
gionis-, & difciplin£ imitate^ & fpei fxdere : Coimus in Cxtum., & Congregatio- 
nem, ut ad Demn quafitnanu fada prccationibus amhiamus orantes — Cogimur ad 
divinarum I iter arum ammcmorationem.- Certe fidem fanUis vocibus pafcimus : 
fpem erigimitSi fiduciam figimus., difciplinam precept arum nihilominus inculcatiouibus 
difijamus. Ibidem ctiam cxbortationes-, cajiigationes, & cenfura divina. Nam t^ 
judicalur magr.o cum pondere-, tit apud ca-tos de Vet conjpedtt '■> fmimumque futuri 
judicii prj!Judicium eji-, fiquis ita deiiquerit., ut a Communicatione orationis & Con- 
ventus & omnis SanCii Commcrcii rclcgatur : Prsfidcnt probati quique SenioreS) &c. 
And de Corona Milit. cap, 3 . Eucharijii^ Sacramcntum, & in tempore vithts., &" . 
omnibus mjndatum a domino, etiatn antelucanis axtibits ', nee de aliorum ma/iu. 
quam prjefidentium fumimus. 

And further, [_ Aquam adituri itidcm^ fed & aliquando frius in Eeclefa fub 
antifiitis mamt conteilawur, nos renwiciare Viabolo & pomp£ & angelis ejus.'] 

In all thefe words (and many more fucli in Tcrtullian) it is evident, i. That. 
then a Church was a Congregation met for iioly Worlhip, and not many hun- 


ilrcd Congregations making one Church /'i/w.^ m-(/i«//. 2. That this Church 
had ordinarily a Bilhop prcfcnt (not prcfent in one Congregation and many 
hundred without.; 3. That the Bilhop baptized, and toolt the Confdrions of 
t lie Baptized, and pertbrmed the ordinary Worlhip, and ad minilired die Lords 
Supper. (■ Dodor HMmiand liimfelf maintaincth that it is the Billiop that 
Tertullian fpealieth ofj 4. That Difcipline was exercifed in thofe Church AC- 
femblies, and therefore the Biftiop was prefent. 

5 . Tliey took the Sacrament from none but the Bifhops hand Cfave tliat the 
Deacon diiuibuted it as from himj which proveth that the Bithop was prefent, 
when ever the Sacrament was adminil\red. 6. Tliey had thefe AlTemWies eve- 
ry Lords day. All which fet together plainly (hewecli that then every Church 
had a prefent Bilhop, fordinarily) and was no more than one Congregation, 
met for fuch Communion as is defcribed, 

Cyprian Vl. And even in Cyprians time the alteration was not great : Epiji. 6S. 
in the Se- ^Edit, GoMlart.) p. 201, he faith, [ Fropter quod plebs obfcqums pr£ceptis domini- 
F^Ti'-'iff "^ ^ 'Diitm metums^ &c^ i. e. [ For rvbich caiife the people that are obedient to 
and five " '^•''^ Lords Commands and fear God, ought to ftparate themfches from a fwful Prc- 
Presbyers " late ('or BiQlop J and not to be prefent, at the Sacrifices of a Sacrileginus Prieft j 
Epift. 44. « feeing tliey have the greateft power either of chufing worthy Prielts, or of re- 
pae ci" " ^^'^'^0 ^'^^ unworthy : which very thing we fee coming down by Divine Au- 
faithSDe- " Aority, that the Prieft, the people being prefent,be chofen for appointed J be- 
us mils & " fore the eyes of all, and by the publick judgment and teftimony be approved 
chri(i!is " worthy and fit. And fo going on to prove the Divine Right hereof lie ad- 
wt'i^'cle- ^^'^^ " wl^'^^^s before done fo diligently and cauteloufly, the people being 

fii " all called togWier, left any unworthy perfon fliould creep into the Miniftry 

/itiiid Al- " of the Altar, or the place of Priefthood. For that the Unworthy are fome- 

tare con- " times ordained, not according to the Will of God, but according to the pre- 

slurdor " ^'^™Pf'°''' of Man ■■, and that thefe things are difpleallng to God which come 

urn novum " ""^^ of legitimate and juft Ordination, God himfelf doth manifeft by the 

fieri frit- " Prophet Ofee, faying, "fhey made themfelves a King-, but not by me : And there- 

ter unum " fore it is diligently to be obferved, and held of Divine Tradition and Apo- 

^/f«rf & St ftolical Obfervationj which with us alfo and almoft all the Provinces is held, 

cerdotim " ^^^^ ^^^ ^^'^ ^'S^t celebrating of Ordinations, all the next Biihops of the fame 

noa potejl. " Province do come togctherjto that people over whom the Bilhopfor Prelate^ 

" is fet, and that the Bilhop be appointed them. Cor ailigned J the people being 

" prefent who fuUyell know the life of every one, and have throughly feen the 

" adt of every ones Converfation : which alfo we faw done with you in theOr- 

" dination of Sabinus our Colleague, that the Office of a Bifhop was given 

" for delivered J him, and hands impofed on him, in the place of BafiUdes^ 

'■'' by the fuffrage of the whole Fraternity, and by the judgment of the BiQiops 

'' that had met together and had fent you Letters concerning him. 

And before iSefl. 4. Dens >>ijiniit, &c. '■'■God injirucieth and Jheroeth that 
" the Ordinations of Pricjis (that is, BilhopsJ ought not to be done but under the 
"f; Confcknce f that is, prefent fight andconfcntj of the apjiing people, that the 



^' Laity being prefe»t, either the crimes of the bad may be detedled, or the me- 

" rits of the good predicated, an4 that OrJimtio)i be jiiji znd legitimate, which 

" was examined by the fiiflfragc and judgment of aU.-- 

The Cafe is fo plain in Cyprun that TamcUus himfelf is forced thus to confefs 

[_Nnn mgamus vmran Eleciwnis Epifcopomm ritum^ quo plcbc frsfcntc, irnmo & 
fffff>'<'giis pubis cligi folent. Nam in Africa iUum obfervatwn conftat ex cleUione 
Endi'i fmcejjhris D.Augultini dcqitoextjt Epiftola epis vio. IH Grxch £tatc 

Ghryfoflonii ex lib. ^. </e Saccrd(rt. In Hifpaniis fx /'oc Cypriani /oro, df lit- 
dor. /ib. (k Officiif. In Galliis ex Eprfi. Cclcfttni, p. 2. Roma;, exits <ju£ /«- 
pra diximits Epijt. ad Antoniam. Vbiqne etiam alibi ex Epiji, Lconis 87. Et 
perdui-.tffe e.tm co,;fnetu'linem ad Grcgor.i. ifjquc cxc'ytsEpifiolis \ Imino ad tempora 
nfque Caroli & Ludovici Itttperat. ex i . lib. C.ipitulontm corundan [mis emflat \ Ve- *vl 
rum Plcbi fola ftiffragia concejfa^ non ckUio qH£ per fuhfcriptionem fieri fokt,— Hoc 
tnim potiftmwn tunc agehatur^ iit invito pUbi ndn djrciur tpifcnpus.- 

From hence now the quantity of their Churches 'may eafily be gathered. 
I . The people mui\ be prefcnt. 2 . And this muft be All the people^ the whole 
Laity of the Church. ^. They give tlieir telHmony of the life of the ordained. 
4. Thcy^are fuppofed all to know his convcrfation. 5. This is the commoo 
cuftom of the Ciiurches, in ylfric.t and all other Countries. 

Now I leave it to the confideration of fober minds how many Churches, or 
Congregarions could do all this > Whether it was many hundred Ciiurches 
that never faw the pcrfon, 4ior one another, that were to meet in one Church 
or place, to do all this ? Or rather the Inhabitants of a Vicinity, uling to af- 
femble for Communion, when even our Greater Variflns now are more than 
can thus meet and do all this ? 

2. Note alfo that when Cyprian impofeth it on thii fame people that chufe 
their Bilhop, alfo to fcparatefrom one that is nv'cJ^t-^.-and not-communicate with 
him in the Sacrament, it is moll evident to him that is willing to undcrlland, 
that tliis Billiop was to be the Teacher of all the-people of that Church, and 
was to adminifter the Sacrament to them in the Congregation, and they had 
ordinary communion witli him ; For how elfe Ihould they be called on tofe- 
parate from him, in the Sacrifice (as it's called.) Doth he command a thou- 
fand or a hundred diltant Churches to feparate from the Sacrifices of that Bi- 
fliop, who never had local Communion with him Cunlefs perhaps once in 
their lives as with a ftrangcr.) The Impartial can hardly read thefe words, 
and not underlland them. 

Two Ob jedtions are here made. I. Obj. All the Fcople ii put for aV prefcntj 
which if a part. 

ty4nfn\ By fuch interpretations let God or Man fay what they will, it will 
(Ignifie but what the Reader pleafc. The Context and ir.any concurrent cx- 
prclTions Ihcw thatfthough bulinefs or ficknefs might hinder fome Individuals^ 
it was the main boily of the Congregation which is called Pkbs Vniverfa, or 
clfe it will be nonfenfe. 

2. Objedt. But if tk fame rverc the cuflom till the days r/f Charles and Lodo- 
tick, then it could not be all the people, for then it^s k^nonvi that tlx Viocefs mre 
larger : therefore it muji be but all that belonged to tlx Cathedral. Mftt* 


. ..A/5v. I. -Even till tlieir days Chriftianity had not been received by the 
whole Cities or Parilhes, in the greatcll part of the Empire ; but faccordine 
to the liberty tlien given when none were forced to be Chriliiansj the Chrifti- ^ 
aus were but few in many great Countries. It was long ere they were the 1 
greater number of the Inliabitants in France and Flanders ■■, longer in Fnshnds * 
and longer in Gmtiany, and Hmigaiy, and Poland ■■, and longer in Sxveden and 
Venmark^, &e. 2 . Tiiat it was no Cathedral Society diftind from other Con- 
gregations under the fame Biihop in Cyprians time, is moft evident : There be- 
ing no fuch dWindtion intimated, but contrarily all the Biftops Church or 
Fleck isfpoken to : And how (hould one part of the Church come to have a 
right to chufe and refufe the Bifhop more than all the reft > And in all ordi- 
nary Diocefes it was folong after : But it is true that at Rome, Akxandrit and 
the greater Churches, where the cuftom was continued, and yet the multitude 
of the people was fo great that they could not half meet in one place -, thofc 
rfut were forwardeft crowded together, and oft committed Riots and Mur- 
ders I'as at the Ele(aion of r>^OT^/i<^, and others,) till by this, the cuftom was 
changed to avoid fuch tumults i and thofe that would not be in the CrowU 
flayed at home : And the neareft Neighbours commonly were they that met 

Objed. But do not rve fee that a vphole County can meet to chufe Parliament 
Mm ? 

Anfn^.i.No :lt is only the Freeholders who are comparatively but a fmall part 
of the County. 2. It is in a Field, or Streets, and not in a Church. / It 
is commonly to judge of their Suffrages by comparing by the eye, the magni- 
tude of the diftind Companies when they feparate, or elfe by taking their Votes 
Man by Man in a long time, and not to do all in their hearing, and by their 
Counfel, as in this Cafe. 4. I have been at g reat AiTemhl Jes for Hirh p i^/q-j- 
ons of Parliament, in the Fields ; and I never faw more tog ether rj^n hV.t 
heard me preach in one AHembly, nor halt fo many as iome London PlTifWI o 
contain : much lets as a Diocel s- ' ~ ' ' — -^ 

Ihere is a great deal more in Cyprian to prove the thing in queftion Epill 
5,6,10,11,13,14,2^,27,28,31,33,40. which would be tedious 'to the 
Reader (hould I recite it. J pimordio Eptfcopatm met flatuerim nihil fine confilio 

veftro & fine confafu plebis me£ frivata fententia gerere Prohibeantur offerre 

aHuri apud nos, & apud confejfores ipfos, & apud plehem mive-rfam caufam fuam.l 
H^cfingulorum tra&andafit & Innanda plenim ratio, nan t ant urn cum Colkgis meis 
fed & cum plcbe ipfa univcrfa. — Vix plehi perfuadeo, immo extorqueo, ut tales pati- 
antur admitti— Secundum vejlra divina fujfragia, Coyurati & fcelerati de Feck- 
fiafpontefepcl!erent.-~\ By thefe and many fuch paffages it is evident that c'~ 
ven the famous Churcli of Carthage, under that famous Bi[hop was no greater 
than that all Church Affairs might be treated of in the hearino- of all the Laity 
and managed by their confent, and the Quality of each Presbjter and Commu- 
xiicant, and their faults fell under the Cognizance of the whole Church ; not 
as Governors, but as interelfed for their own welfare, as the words declare. 

Vir. And 

(33) ^ 

VII. And here I think I may feafon;^bly cite the Conftitiitions called Apo- 
ftolical i which if not written by Clernent, were certainly for the mofi part of 
them very ancient, as being before Atbaiiafius who mentioneth them. And 
the Learned and Sober Albajfiinem^ Obpro. Lib. i. p. 38. faith, [Ve cmjiimti' 
ombus ijiif nemiiii dubiuin ejfe debet ^ quin p-obus juxta & antiquns liber fit ; ccrto- 
qttc affirmare pnjfum trecentU primii eo ecckftam GraJcam, tanquam rituali & Fonti- 
fjcali ufam ejfe i Quique ex attente legerity cadem de illW qu£ de canonibus jitdi- 
cabit, additJfi viz. decwfu tempnmm primU novas, qncmadmodum & nov£ leges & 
conjliiHtiones in regimine Ecclcfu, mvis occafionibtu outU, faci£ fttiit.'] that though 
they Wfie not written by Clement or tiK Apoftles, yet they were that Summa- 
ry of Apoftolical or Chrirtian Difcipline, which the Gw;^ Churches much ufed 
for the hrft three hundred years ■-, and that Additions were made by degrees. 
But I cite them for nothing but the Hiftory, wlierein they are of great account 
to acquaint us with the ftate of the Church in thofe times. 

Lib. 2. cap. 18. It is faid, that \_Omnium Epijcopns cttram habeat, & eomm 
qui non peccjmnt, ut non pcccent, & eomm qui in peccatif funt, ut pcccajfc pxiiitcat : 
ait eniiH Dominits, Videtc ne contcmnatii umun ex pufiUis ijtis. Item pxnitcnttbus 
condonare oportet peccata.— ^Hocirca euram omnimtt fiifcipe tanquam rationem de 
pluiibus rcdditiims : Ac fanoi qtiidem conferva, lapfos vera mone, & qui in jcjti' 
nio premens, Icja in rwiiffione, & eum qui Ittxit recipe, cunifa Ecclefia pro eo defre- 
cante^ &c.^ And mucii more works he adds : Whereby it appeareth that the 
Billioprick was no greater than that he could take a pcrfonal care of every mem- 
ber, over the meanelt, found and unfound : And that it was one Aflembly 
where all did intercede for the rcftoring of the Penitent. 

So cap. 20. opening the Billiop's duty to the Laity, he repeateth, Omnes 
monens, omnes increpans, &c. And ibid. Medice ergo Ecclefi£ Domini adbibe me- 
dicinam cttique ^grotantium convenicntcm : Omnibus modis cura, fana, faVtos ftuos 
redde Ecclcfue \ pafcc gregcm, non per vim, neqtte impcrinf, cum ludibno & dejpedu 
quafi domination tendtf, fed tanquam bonus paftm- in fvittm ac complcxiim agnos 
congrega & oves gravida hortarc. 

And it concerncth thein to know well what they do, for cap. 2. Scitote quod 
qui eum, qui injuriam non fecit, cjicit, attt qui fe ccnvertit non recipit, frairem fuwn 
occidit, & fanetiinem r]us fudit, ficut Cain fanguinem fatris fui fiidit ■-, citjus 
fanzttis, qui tid Veum clamat, requiretur. - Similiter rjcniet ei qui ab Epifcopo ftta 
fvic]ulia caufafuerit excnrnmiinicattis : ^i tanqu.nn pejlifcrum ejicit cmn qui eji ex- 
tra culpam, is quidem fevinr e(i interfetme.— Viokntior eji ipfo homicida qui corpus 
perimit,ts qui innocentem ex ecclefia ejicit. 

Et cap. 25. Oportet ut qui in Ecclefia affidui funt cos Ecclefia al.il (viz Tonti^- 
cem, Sacerdotes, Levitas.) where the Affcmbly is the Church which maintain- 
cth the Bilhop and Presbyters. 

And cap. 2d. It is the Bilhop that to all the Church is, Minijhr JWbi, fci- 
ent!£ cujlos. Mediator Dei & vejirum in us qu£ ad eum cohndwn pertinent Cthat is, 
otticiateth in Church Worlhip;) bic cjl magilhr pictaiis ac rcl/gionis; hiccjife- 
atnditm Deum pater vejhr, qui vos per aqii.im & Spiritum fanlhtm rcgencravit, &-c. 

E ^ij- 


Elnfcofu! igitur vohis pr^fiJcjt, ut dignitjie "Dei cohonejlatttf, <^ua clcnm fuhpott- 
Ihtc/u.i tenet, & toti populo prtecfl, Vijcpiius tcto ajjljitt haic^ &c. So tfiat a 
Bi:hops Cluirch was no greater than that he could be the conllant Teacher, 
Guide, Baprizer, &:c. of them all. 

And f.j/'. 27. All the Oblations were to be brought to the Bifliop himfelf, 
by themfch'es that offered, or by the Deacons. Imnw primitijs (juotjue & tUci- 
ttijs & qii£ fponte nfcrunii/r ■, it cnim probe novit affiUos & ciiiqtie trilmit, ut con- 
gruit •> >ie quis e.iJein die attt eadon hcMom.ide his jut fx'pim accipijt, alius zero 
ribil pe/iiius. So that tlic rcafon why all the Ortcrings, Tythcs and Gitts in 
his whole Diccefs were brought to the Bilhophin;fcU was, bccaufc he was well 
acquainted with all the Poor of his Dioccfs, and was every day to rcliwre thcin, 
and fee that one did not receive twice the fame day,or the fame \V'eek,3nd ano- 
ther have none. How many hundred Churches tiiink you had a Church then 
in the Belly of it ? and how large was fucii a Diocefs ? 

And cap. 28. In their Love-Fcalls the Eilliop was to have always his ff>ecial 
part of the Feaft, even fcnt him if he were abfenr. Sure if his Diocefs had fix 
hundred or a thoufand Parifhcs and as many Fealls, and fomc of them as far 
cfFasIamfrom the Cathedral Church (about fourfcore Miles) it will coft 
more tiie Carriage of the Bilhop's Supper than it is worth , and it will be cold, 
and it is well if it (link not by the way. And the Presbyters that were all to 
have a double portion alfo of the Feaft, are called tanquam Confiliarit Epifcopi & 
Ecclefi£ Corona, fitnt eniin Qnfilittm & Senatus Ecclifm, So that it was but one 
City Congregation yet that had Bilhops and Presbyters and Deacons, &c. 

And in cj/). 30. and many Chapters there is mentioned often the Bilhops 
doing all without any help fave the Deacons, which would make one think 
that dcfaao Dod^or Hammond was in the riglic, and that fome of the Confti- 
tutions were written when in moft Churches there was no Presbyters with the 
BillTop but Deacons only. 

Cap. 32, If the Deacon knew any to be poor, he muft tell the Biiliop, and 
do nothing without him. How large was this Diocefs ? cap. 34. This Birtiop 
muft be loved as a Father, feared as a King, honoured as a God, offering him 
our P'ruits and the works of our hands for his Blelling •, giving him as God's 
Prieft our Firll-fruits, Tythes, Firft-fruits of Corn, Wine, Oyl, Apples, 
Wool, and all that God Ihall give us.] Was all this carried him from many 
hundred Parilhes, many fcore Miles ? 

And cap. 36. The Bilhop's Church was no farther ofi'than that all the Mem- 
bers were to come to it in the morning before they vventto any work, and at 
Evening when tiicy had done. How big was this Diocefs ? 

Cap. 44. The Deacon is to be the Bilhop's Eye, and Ear, and Mouth, and 
to help him,that he may not be overwhelmed with his work : If he had a thou- 
fand fubjedt Presbyters, one Deacon's help only would not have been named. 

Cap. 56. The. Bilhop is to fee that this Deacon fpcak Peace to every one 
that entreth into the Church to worlhip. Which implyeth that he was pre- 
fent in the Church, 

Cijp. 57. The defcriptionofa Church Order is, that the Bilhop's Seat be in 



the midft,and that the Presbyters fit on each fide of him,and fo for the reft. And 
■ the Order of Officiating was, [ that (the Deacons feeing all orderly keep their 
Seatsy the Reader Hrft read the old Scriptures, and the Deacon or Presbyters 
the Gofpels ■■, then that the Presbyters exhort the people, not all afonce, but 
one by one, and laft of all the Biiliop, &c.'] Thefe were then the Churches i 
where every Altar had a BilTiop. 

So cap. 50. Cum doccs Epifcope^jitbe &monepopulumfrequentarcqmtidie Eccfe- 
fiam mane & vejjtere, ut omiiimabcffe nolity immo ajJiJue cnnveniat^ neque VJIw fub- 
ducaido fe Icchfiam tnutilam fac/at^ & a corpore ChrijH unum mcmbrtim decerpjt : 
Najuc mint defolps Sacerdotibm diCtum cfi, fed potiuf quifque Lakw^ &c. So that 
a Billiop's Diocefsor Church was fo great, as that no one Lay Member (hould 
be abfent Morning or Evening. 

Lib, 4. cap. The Biihop had the particular care of all the Pupils, Widows, 
Labourers, Weak, Naked, Sick, Virgins, &c. And cap. 5. He is to know 
well who they be that offer all the Oblations s and is to rejecft the Oblations of 
all the Wicked : For cap. 7. Let the Poor have never fo much need, it's bet- 
ter perifti by Famine, than receive anything from the Enemies of God, which 
may be contumelious to his Friends.] 

Lib 8. cap. 4. The Ordering of a Bi(hop mull be (de quo nulla cjl querela i 
& qui fit a cun&o populo ex optimii quibufque cledus^ quo noniinato & placente pnpu- 
lus in unum congregatuf, una cum FresbytcrU & EpifcopU prsfcntibus^ die Vomi- 
rico, confcntiat. ^ui vcro inter reliquos princeps Epifcopui-, pcrcontetur Epifcopos &■ 
populum., an ipfe fit quern prxeffe petunt .<' &c. So that all the people of the 
Churcli came together to chafe and confcnt to the Bilhop : no greater at that 
time was a Dioccfane Churcli. 

Cap. 12. His pcraliii dextram & I.evam ems ut difcit>uli Magiflro afftjlant. — . 
This is part of the Common Kubrick (ot the beft and eldell Liturgy that I 
know of recorded by Church Hiftory; for the celebrating the Sacrament. So 
that it fuppofeth a Bi(hop to be tlien prefcnt in all Churches that had an Altar 
and Sacrament. The reft of the Liturgy, lib. 8. fuppofeth ftill the fame pre- 
tence of the Bifhop. Cap.^'j. CongrcgabU Epifcope Ecchfutm ad vcfpcram^ &c. 
It would be too long to recite all the Billiops part in the ordin.ary Offices of the 
Affembly. It is hence plain that in thofe Ages (unlefs it were very tew ■, per- 
haps only Rome and Alexandria) no Bilhops had more ftatcd Affemblies or 
Churches that had Altars, ot communicated, tlian one. 

VIII. The Canons called the Apoftles run juft in the fame firain with the 
Conftitutions : And thougli by fome of them it is apparent that Cat leaftj all 
of them are not foold as many think, C As that which intimateth that Ruljrs 
fet up Clergy-men,- &c.) yet they were elder than our Compound Dioccfane 
Churches. For Can. 5. It is faid. \_Omnium aliorum primitije Ep/Jcnpo & Pref- 
hyterU domum mittiintur \ non fuper altare : Manifeftiim cjl autem miod £pif- 
copus & Presbyteri inter Viaconos & reliquos Clericos c.« dnidiint.'] By whicii 
and many fuch paJfages it is evident tliat there was then but one Akar 
and one Bilhop with his Presbytery and Deacons in a Church , as in 

E 2 Ignaiius's 


J^n.jt'nis's time : and that they all lived on the fame Altar, together with the 
icil of the Gifts of the Church, FiJ. & Can. 58. 

The Can. 32. faith, [ Siqms Preshytei- contmmeiis Epifcojwn fiam, Jeorfmcol- 
Icscrh & alt arc aliud crcxait, nihil babcns quo reprche/idaf Epifiopiim in cjufa pie- 
l.ilif-, ant jnjliti£., dcponatur, (]uafi principatus amator exijhiis. — H£c autem pojl 
iinam & fccnnrlam & ia-ti.wt Epifcopi ohfccralioncm flirt coimiiiat.'] The fame is 
in tlie Can. 5. Concil. Antioch. And to fet up aliiid A It are, & Alt arc contra Al' 
tare is the Plirafe ufed then by many Writers, and Councils, to lignifie a di- 
viding and fcparating from the Church, and fetting up an Antichurch •, All 
which (heweth that then a BiQiops Church had but one Altar. 

IX- Vionvfuis rwhoevcr or whenever he wrote) doth fodefcrlbe the Bifhops 
work as [heweth that he had but one Church and Presbytery to alTiil: him. Cap, 
4. de Ecckf. Hicr. hetellsusthat \_7he Pnfccl did baptize thofe that rvcre con- 
verted,'] and the Presbyters and Deacons did butalM him : And it is a very 
long manner of baptizing which he there dcfcribeth, and all the Church were 
called together to it, and joyned in it. And this was in times when the Intidels 
were to be brought in, and converted, and baptized at Age, where Examina- 
tions, Profethons and Circumftances made it fo long a work, as this alone 
would have proved his Church to be no greater than aforcfaid : much more 
with the reft of the work which he dcfcribeth. 

X. But Councils give the furcft teftimonies to fuch matter of fad : Con- 
cil. Agath. Can. 4. Sicjtus etiam extra FarochiM, & itbi legitimus eji ordinari- 
nfque conventus, Oratorium habere volmrit, reliqiiis fcfiivitatibus ut ibi mif- 
fam atidiat, propter fatigationem familix, jnjia ordinatione permittimus. Faf- 
cha vcro, Natali Domini, Epiphania, Afcenfione Domini, Tentecnjie, ^ natali 
Sandi Johannis Eapiiji^, & fiqiti maxime dies, in fefiivitatibus habentjtr, non 
fiifi in civitatibus, aut Farochiis andiant. This being decreed fo late, when 
Chrilhans were increafed in the Countries, alloweth them, to avoid wearinefs 
in travelling with their Families too far, to have Chappels or Oratories in the 
remote parts of the Country (but fo that they come all to the City or Parifh 
Church on all the greatell: Feftivals.) Which Iheweth that then the. Church 
was but one Affembly which all could joyn in to hear the word. 

And that each of thefe City and Parilh Churches had a Bifliop of their own, 
is apparent in what followeth, [ Can. 30. Benedidionem fiipcr plcbem in Ecclejia 
fundire aut pxnitentem in Ecclefta benedicere, Presbytero penitm non licebit ; that is, 
j] Itjhall not at al! be lawful for a Presbyter to pronounce the Blejfing on the people in 
the Church, or to blefs a Penitent in the Church.'] Now thcfe being for one at 
leaft) performed in every Church AlTembly, wlien a Presbyter is forbidden to 
do them, it is implied that a Biihop was prefent to 'do it himfelf : and fo that 
every communicating Affembly had a Bifhop. 

And it's faid, C^«.3i. Mijffs die Dominicofecularibus iotnf aiidire fpeciali ordine 
prxcipimus ', ita ut aiHe benedtCiionem facerdotU egredi pop7tlns non prafumat, quod 
fifecerit, ab Epifcopo publice confandatur. So that there mult be a daily pronun- 



ciation of the Blelling each Lords day, and that not by the Presbyters bat the 
Bifhop, who muft rebuke them that go out before it i which (heweth that each 
Church had a Bilhop. 

And after, [ ^d fnkmnitatiirH-, id eft Tafchx & natalU domini vel Fentecofiej 
ftfth'itatibiK-, cum Epifcopis intereffe negkxcrint, qtmm in civitMibus communionli vel 
bcmdidiomi accipiend£ cairfi pnfitnf fe iinjfc dcbcant^ tricmiitt commwiione p-iventur 
I'cc/f/j.f.] By which it appcareth that in a City there were no more Chrifti- 
ars or Church-members, than could congregate with tlie Bidiop on the Fefti- 
vals for Communion i when all the ncglcders were to be deprived of the Com- 
munion for three years. 

XI. The Council at E/;7'o-wB^//c/^«.3 05. had nineteen Bifhops, twenty fix 
Presbyters, and the Deacons, & oniim Plebs Itood by : which intimateth that 
thefe twenty fix Presbyters and the Deacons were tlie main body of tlie Clergy 
under the nineteen Bilhops ', which was not two Presbyters to a Bilhop ; why 
elfe lliould the Deacons and all the Laity be there, if not all the Presbyters? 
And fuppofingthat Plebs (mmU here lignitie not llridly all the Laity, yet it inti- 
mateth tlut the Churches were no greater than that fo great a part of their 
Laity was there, as that Phra(c might be well ufed of i which cannot be of our 
Compound Diocefs. 

XII. CnncH. Gangrmf.cjp. 7. No onerv.ti to receive the Obl.itions of Fmitf, and 
the Firji-fruiis-, due to the Church, out nf the Church. And c. 7^. 8. None n\is to 
receive them but the Bijhop, or he rvhom the Bipop appointed. Tliis Iheweth 
the quantity of the Diocefs, and that every Church had one Altar and one 

XUI. In a Roman Council fub Silveft. it's faid, \_j1bomm "EccUfia eliga- 
tur coiifccranduf Ep/fcopUf, imllo de mcmbrif Ecchfi£ intcrcedcntc, & omni Ecclcfia 
convcnicntc : & niili EpiJ'copo liccal f;nc cuncui Ecchfui a mK'ifpmo gradu nfquc ad 
primnm ordinare Neophytion Silvefter Papa dixit, A nobii incipientes wodcramine /c- 
mtatis jitdicare, commonemm ut nuUEpijcopo liccat qiumlibct gradmn Clerici ordi- 
tiare ant ovifccrarc, nifi cum omni adunata Ecchfia, ft placet : &• dixermit Epif- 
ropi, placet. Wliat can be more tully faid, [ Let the Btfltop to be ordained be cho- 
fen by all the Church, no one of the Members of the Church being wanting, and aU 
the Church meeting together. Let it be lanf/tlfor no Bifhop n-ithont the rfhole Church 
to ordain. Not to ordain or confccrate any degree of Clergy-Man, but with the 

whole Church tognhcr in one. And iiow great then were the Churches, when 
even at Rome and all about it, Ihe whole Church united, and r.'ery member could 
meet together at a'ery Ordination and Conficration .<' I fcarce know how a tcltimo- 
ny can be plainer. 

XIV. The Concil. Sardic. which firft began to befriend the Grandeur of tlie 
Rottian Billiop, was it that hrft forbad Eilhops to be ordained in fmall Villages : 
yet note that even there it was not abfolutcly forbidden to all Villages < but 


■ (38) 

only to fuch Villages and fmall Cities where one Fresbyter was enough : But 
they allowed a Bilhop to the Cities. [ ^ji Epifiopns habucnvn^ & fiqua tarn 
popidofa cji CivitM vd Locuf fmark Lociif as diliind from Cnitai) qui mereatur 
habere Epifcop:tm.'] So that if there were but people enough for more than one 
Presbyter, they allowed them a Bilhop. 

And Can. 14. It is decreed that, [_ As no Lay-man muft be above thee IVeekj 
from Church, fo no Bipop from Im own Chmch at another place-'] Whereas if a 
Bifhop have many Churches, or many hundred, or a thoufand, he could be 
but at one in a Year, or two, or three, or more, if he did nothing but travel 
from parifh to Parifh. Only in the next Canon, thofe that have Farms or 
Lands in the Country are difpenfed with for three Weeks to be abfent from 
their own Churches, fo they go to another. 

XV". In the Epiftle of the i,Concil.Nic. ad Ecclef. ^gypt, (inCrab.pag. 
262. T. 1.) Presbyters were to be made, \_Solnmmodo fivideantur digni,& po- 
puluf eof elegerity condecernente fimul & depgnante maxime Alexandria? ChitatU 
Ep/fcopo.'] Still the people that had the choice were no more than could meet 
to chufe. 

And even in the Arabick^dnous afcribed to this Council by fome of late it's 
faid,C^«.72. Sic Epifcopi & Sacerdotesfi Civitatesfuas & Alt aria propter alia ma- 
jorarelinquerent^ male facereiit •, which (hews that each City even then had but one 
Altar or Meeting for Sacramental Communion : though when thefe were writ- 
ten, there were other Churches in Villages that had Altars. 

And in Fifan. Can. 57. Archi-presbyter in abfentia Epifcopi honoretur tanquam 
EpifcopiK., quia eji loco ejiK^ & (it caput Sacerdotum qui fnb potejlate ejuf funt in Ec- 
clefta. The Bifliop then was but fuch a Head of Prietts in the fam-e Church, 
as an Arch-Presbyter might be in his abfence. 

And Cap. p. The Vote of the whole Diocefs without the Arch-bifhop fliall 
not ferve to chufe a Bifliop, though all gathered together. 

XVI. The Concil. Vafenfe granted leave for Presbyters to preach and Dea- 
cons to read Homilies in Country Parithes, which (heweth both that Bifhops 
were the ordinary Preachers to their whole Flocks before, and that thefe Pa- 
rifhes were yet but new, and perhaps but Chappels that yet had not Altars and 
the Lord's Supper. 

XVII. Binnim in Concil. Ephef. i. To. 2. cap. 20. faith, (^Dalmatius told 
the Emperor that there were fix thoufand Bifhops under the Metropolitan fent to the 
Council that tvere againji Neftorius i ] And there was a great number on the o- 
ther tide with Johan. Antiochen- who caft out Cyril and Memnon. How great 
think you were thefe Biihops Diocefes ? 

XVIII. Concil.Carth.^.cap.^p. & 40. (in Crab) Come would have had many 
(twelve) Bifhops at each Bifhop's Ordination ; but Aurelius dellred it might be 
but three, becaufe [Cnbro & peneper diem Vomimcum ordinationcs habemm^ they 



had Ordinations almoft every Lord's day, and Tripoli had but five Bilhops. 
How big were thefe Diocefes where the Bifhops could meet almoll every 
Lord's day for Ordinations ■, and five under Tripoly was an exceeding fmall 

•And cap. 40. If a Bifhop were accufcd at his Ordination, the Caufe was to 
be tried. In eadcm plebe citi ordinandus eji ■■, And furely it was not to be in many 
hundred Congregations at once or per rices. 

XIX. Concih Aiuioch. Cbcfore this) Can.'). Cpjg.^2i.inCrab) Siqm Presbyter 
aiit Vi.iconiii Epifocpimi propium conteninens, fe ab Ecchfu fegregaverit & feorfum 
coUigens Altare con\iittm (vel in femnda edit. & priv.jtim apitd fe coMUs populis 
Altare cri7.crc aufiu fiierit^ &c.) This Ihewetli, i. That the Presbyters then 
joyned with the Bilhop in tlie fame Churcli. 2. And that then each Church 
had but one Altar, and to eredV another Altar eKcwhere, was to fet up another 

ClVI. 8. Tresbyteri qui fitnt in agrU Canonic-tf Epijloliif dare non pnffnnt Chorc- 

pifcopiantem — darepojfunt This flicweth that then the Country Villages 

had Chorepifcopos with Presbyters. 

Can. I o. Bl»i '" ^'i'^i^ ^'<:i pojfcfftonibuf Chorepifcopi nominantur quamvis manus 
impofitioncm Epifcoporum percepcrint^ &• ttt Epifcopi confecrati fi'it-, tamen S anils Sy- 
nodo pLiciiit, ut mod/on propritmi recognoj'cant, ut gitberncnt fihi ftthjcdas Eccleji- 
as e.mimquc moderamine ciiraque contenti fint. This (he wcth that then tlic Ciiurchcs 
in Villages had their Bifhops, tiiough under the City Bilhops. 

Can. \6. A Bilhop that put \\ur\^c\i into a vacant Chio-cb without the con(ent 
of a perfedt Council, where mull be the Metropolitanc, mufl be caft out, et- 
fi eunUits pflpnlm qticm diripuit cum habere dclegn-it : whidi Iheweth that the 
whole people were no more than could meet to chufc him. 

Can. 17,18,21. imply the fame-, Epifcopus ab alia Tjyochij non migret ad 
aJiant, ncc jpontc jita inftlicns-, ncc li coaDiif a popuh, ncc ab Epifcopps necejfitaie 
compulfm : Maneat ant em in Ecclefta qttam primitus adeo fort it id eji. A Churcli 
and a Parifii are here the fame i and no greater than that the people could be the 
compellers, which implictli their concurrence, whicli could not be in a Diocefs 
of many hundred Churches '■, but in one only. 

Can. 25. The Goods of the Church are faithfully to be k^pt : rvhich alfo an to be 
dijfenfed by the Judgment and Porver of the Bifljop, to rvhom is committed the people^ 
and the fouls that are congregated in the Church: and it^s marafji what things be- 
long to tlv Churchy with the k»nvledge of the Presbyters and Deacons that are about 
him., who cannot but k>iotv what are the Church Goods., &c. Here I . The Church 
contained only the fouls that were congregated in it, and not many Congrega- 
tions, 2. All the Church Goods were known to the Presbyters and Deacons, 
fo that the Bilhop did difpofe of them while he lived, but could alienate none at 
his death : which Iheweth that it was but one Church or Congregation, where 
tlie Bilhop and Presbyters joyned in the Minillry. 

Cap. 25. hath the fame Evidence : The BilTiop difpenfeth all theGoodsand 
Lands of the Church, to all that need, but muft not appropriate them to his 
Kindred, &c. but ufe them by the confent of his Presbyters and Deacons. 

XX. Concil. Carthag. 4. cap. 14. The Bi(hop's dwelling was to be near the 
Ciiurch. (But if he had many Churches,they would have told which.) Can.17. 
The Billiop was to exercife the care of Government of Widows, Orphans, and 
Strangers by his Arch-Presbyter and Arch-Deacon (which (heweth that they 
had not many Churches > where each appropriate Presbyter and Deacons 
did itO 

Can. 22. The Peoples confent and teftimony was neceflary to every Clerk 
ordained : (which (heweth how large the Churches or People were.) 

Can. 35. The Bilhop is ordered to fit above the Presbyters in the Church, 
and in their Confefs i but at home to know himfelf to be tlieir Colleague : 
which [heweth that they were all belonging to one Church, and not to many 
far from each other. 

XXI. Concil. Laodk. Presbyters muft not go into the Church (or Sacrarmm 
as the other Ed.) before the Bilhop, nor fit in the Seats, but mttjl go in mth 
the BiJJ^fop, or fit in louver Seats (till becomes.) Which (heweth that they were 
all in one Church. And if there had been many Churches diftant where there 
were no Bilhops but Presbyters only, it's like that Cafe would have been ex- 
cepted, as well as is the Cafe of the Bi[hop's [ Sick^nefs and Peregrination.^ See 
Binnim three Verfions, To. I. pag. 2p2. and Grains two Vol. i. pag. 310. 

Can. 28. Forbidding the Agap£^ or Church Fea(h to be made in the Church, 
implieth that other Houfes could contain the Church Members. And Can. 58. 
Forbidding Oblationes fieri vel celebrari in domihus ab Epifi:opU vel Presbyteris-, 
doth (hew that till they built Chappels there was but one Congregation in a 
City, which was where the Bilhop was. 

XXII. Vecretimt Innocent. I. P.Kom. ( in Crab, Vol. i, pag.^")).) Bicit, 
T>e confignandis infantibiis manife{ium eji non ab alio, qttam ab Epijcopis fieri Hcere : 
Nam Presbyteri licet fvit Sacerdotes-, Pontificatus tamcn apicem non habent, &c. 
And for how many one Bifhop can do this with all his other work alfo, you 
may judge. 

XXIII. ( To look back, ) Concil, Carthag. 2. Can ^. decreeth, \_Clrrifmatis 
confcCtio, & pueVarmn confecratio a Presbyteris non fiant : Vel reconciliare qitenquam 
in publica mififa, Presbytero non licere.~\ (Crab. pag. 424.^ But this being an or- 
dinary publick work, this fuppofeth the Bilhop ftill prefent in every Cliurch 
to do it, and to have a Church no more numerous than he could do it for : 
whereas if Difcipline were but moderately exercifed according to the ancient 
Canons^ there could not be fewer than many hundreds in a day for the Bilhop 
either to ^xcom.municate or abfolve in this Diocefs where I live. Leg. Albajfin. 
Not. pag, 2(58. And the fourth Can, fortitieth this by this exception, Si quif- 



(juam in periculo ftcerit conflitittm &fe reco/icili.iri divinis aUaribuf peticrh^ ft Eft- 
fcopus ahfensfuerit, debet utique Presbyter confulere Epifcspmi, & f,c perklitantcm 
mm p-jicepto rccoiiciliare. Where note that rcconciluri altaribus is the Phiafe for 
being reconciled to the Churches ; And that no Presbyter might do it but in 
cafe of the perfons danger, the Bifhops abfence, and with the Billiops Com- 
mand : VVhicIi IHU fhewcth that the Bifhop was ufually prcfent. And as Al- 
ba§mm noteth, a Presbyter might not do it for a dying Man, till he had con- 
(ulted the Bi(hop, and told him all the ca(e, and had his Command : Wliich 
fuppofeth him near (for tlie man may be dead before our Minilters can ride to 
the Billiop and have his CommilTion; and fuppofeth the Church to be but 

XXIV. To make (hort, and leave no place for doubting, I will joyn feveral 
Canons which decree that [ No Man (ball be a Clerk to two Churches, nor an 
Abbot to two Monafterics, nor ■x Bifhop to two Cities or Churches.] 

So Concil. Oecumcn. Nic. 2. Can. 15. (in Bin. pag. 3<;40 Ckricm ab hoe 
deinceps tempore, in duabuf Ecclcftii non collocetur. Ab ipfa cnim domini voce attdi- 
vimuf) non pojfe qiienqiiMi duobus dominU fervire. 

And Concil. Chalccdon.Can, 10. ']nxtj Dionyf. Hon licet Clericitm confcribi in 
diiabiif fmiul Ecclcftif. And though then the Can. 17. (hewcth that there were 
Singidarum Ecclcfiamnt Kitjiicie Parochia vel poffcffioncs, yet thefe were but like 
our Chappels, and not called Churches, but only the Bilhop's Church. And 
if the Secular Power made any place a City, it was thereupon to follow the Se- 
cular Order. So of Abbots, Coned. Venct. Can. 8. (in Crab, pag. 948.^ no 
one was to have two Monafterics i Vid. Concil. Agath. C<7/j. 38. 

hv\^ Pbotim & Balfainon Nomocan.Tit. 1. cap. 20. pag. 21. Kc in una Pro- 
vincia duo Mctropolitani, ant in una Civitatc duo Epifcopi, aut in duabiu Civitati- 
htif unuf Clcricus Ncque in duabm Civitatibus qmi potcjl t(fc Epifcopu<.~] Ex- 
cepting only (even then) Epifcopum Tomenfcm : lUe cnim reliquarum Ecdcfia- 
rum Scythian curam gcrit, ( Becaufc tlie ChrilHans were few, and from under 
the Roman Power.) \_ Et Leontopolis Ifauris/i/t Epifcopo Ifauropolis eli'] He 
addeth, [_Porro ^^ Conji. tit. ^. I. 1. Cod. c. ^. &c. ait, \_E.utn qui quamcun- 
que vetercni aut recens conditam civitatcm, proprii Epijcopatiu jure, aliove prhilcgio 
privat, tamctfi Principii pentiijfu idfaciat, infamia notat, muUiatque bonis conjiitu- 
tio \ ac fimul inceptum irritum facit.~\ So that no City new or old might be 
deprived of its Privilege of having a Bilbop. Now feeing Corporations and 
Market Towns are in the old fenfc Cities, and feeing Parilh Churches fuch as 
ours arc true Churches (as Communities) how mawy Cities, and how many 
hundred Churches have manyBifliops now? He addcth,C.M.i5.''w;c.7.and faith 
\_Si non pcrmittitur cuiquam in duabiis Ecckfiis Clericwn fieri, tmilio magi< pr£ful 
duo Manajhria non moderabitur s ^tanadmodum ncque unum caput duo corpora. 
Therefore by parity of reafon tnuch lels Ihould one Chuvch-man or Bilbop be 
the head of many hundred or a thoufind Bodies, without any fubordinate Head 
cr Bifhop under him. Why may not an Abbot as well rule a thoufand Mona- 
fterics, per alios non Abbates-, as a Bilhop a thoufand Cluuclics per alios non £- 
pifcopos ? F ^/w 


More TeJiimo?nes of Councils added to the fowter 

Chap. 5. 

TJPon the Review, finding fome confiderable Evidences from Councils bc« 
fore omitted, fome fliall be here added. 

I. The Kowj« Clergy called a Council at Kowf, Bi/J. p^g. 158. &c. faith, 
that in the Intmegnum they had the charge of the Univcrfal Church : and Cy- 
prian wrote to them as the Governors of the Church of Rowf, when they had 
been a year or two without a Billiop. And their Adions were not null. 
Cypr. /.I. 2. A Carthage Council with Cyprian condemn even a dead tnaii called Vi&or^ 
£p,66. becaufe by his Will he left one Fanflhim a Presbyter the Guardian of his Sons, 
and fo called him off his Sacred Work to rnind Secular things. Did this favour 
of Bi(hop's Secular Power, Magiftracy or Domination ? 

3. How came the Carthage Councils to have fo many hundreds in fo nar- 
row a room or fpace of Land, but that every ttoKr, Corporation or big Town 
had a Bifhop ? Anno 308. at a Cartijage Council the very Donatifts had two 
hundred and feventy Bifliops. And at Arks two hundred Bifhops heard the 
Donatifts Caufe. 

4. The Laodicean Council decreed, Can. 45, that the Bapti-zed (hould learn 
the Creed, and on Friday repeat it to the Bithops or Presbyters : ] which im- 
plicth that a Bifhop was prefent with every Church. 

And Cap. 57. It is ordained that thenceforth | Eijhops Jhould not be ordained 
in fmall Villages and Hamlets, but Vifiters Jhould be appointed them : But fuch 
(BiJhopsJ as had heretofore been there ordained flipuld do nothing without the Confci~ 
ence of the City Bijhop!] Which implieth, I. That every big Town had a Bi- 
Ihop. 2. And Villages before. 

5. Epiphaniiis, H^er.eS. pag.yiy. &c. faith, That Teter feparated from 
Meletius in the fame room, and as Mdetius went to the Mines, he made nemx 
Bijhops^ and gathered ?teiv Churches '-, fo that in feveral Cities there were two (Bi- 
fhops and Churches O Which implieth that they were Congregations for Per- 
fonal Communion. 

6. The Kicmc Council, cap. 8. alloweth Rural Bifhops then in ufe, (whom 
Teiavius proveth to have been true Bifhops.J 

7. Greg. Nazianz. pag. 528. ^c. fheweth how Churches were enlarged and 
changed when the firife began between Mca & 7ua, Antiqua & Nova., Nob/lior 
& Ignobilior, Multitudine Opulentior ant T^enuior. 

8. After Lucifer Calaritmus ordained Faiilimis-, Antioch had long two Bi- 
fhops, half being his Flock, and half cleaving to Me/eti^J-. 

9. Nazianzen had in the great City of Conliantinople but one of the fmall 
Churches, ('the Arians having the greaterj till Lheodofms gave him the greater : 
And thofe Hearers he was Bilhop over. 10. A 


10. A Council at C^/i/u ordered that both the BKhops Flocks in Antioch 
(under Evagriw and Flavian) (hould live together in Love and Peace. 

11. Many Cities tolerated Novatian Bilhops and Churches among them, and 
oft riiany other DifTcnters. Which ftiewcth that but part of the City were one 

12. The Council at Carthage (called the laft by Bmiuf) decreed that [ Re 
conciliation of Penitents (as tvel! as Chrifme and confccrating Virgins) is to be done 
only hy the BifJ.wps, except in great nccejjity : ( For how many Parishes can a Bi- 
fliop do all this and all the relt of his Office ? ) And when Chrijlians were multi' 
plied they that defired a Bifhop where wJS none before-, might hai'e one. But elfe aliud 
Altare is again forbidden to befet up. 

1^. Another C^rt/^jge Council decreeth, Can. 15. That the Bifhop have but 
vile or cheap Houjhold-jiujf and a poor Table and Viet, and feek^ Authority or Vig' 
tiity by his Faith anddefert of Life. Can. ip. That he contend not for tranfitoiy 
things though provoked. Can. 23. Ihai he hear no Caufe but in the prefence of bit 
Presbyters: clfeit Jhall be void that is fcnteneed jvithout them, tmlefs con^rmed by 
their prefence. (Note, this being a conftant work required a conftant prefence : 
and it is not a felcdled Chapter of Presbyters that is named : And muft thofc 
of many hundred Parilhes dwell in the City, or travel thither for daily Caufes 
of Offenders ? &c. ) Can. 28, t^30. Bilhops unjuft Sentence void: and 
Judgment againft the abfent. 

14. A Council at ^gjf/)«»;. Can. ^. faith, \_IfBiJhops wrongfully excommu- 
nicate one, any other Bifliop Jl.'all receive him :~\ Which implicth that the wronged 
perfon lived witliin reacli of a Neighbour Billiop's Parilh : For it doth not bind 
him to remove his Dwelling : And leave to go daily twenty or forty Miles to 
Church is a fmall kindncfs. 

And I have already cited. Can. 6^, If any Citizens on the ^at Solemnities., 
Eafter, the Lord's Nativity or WhhCimtldc, JhaV negle& to meet where the Bijhops 
are (feeing they arc fct in the Cities for BenediBion and Communion ) let them for 
three Tears be deprived of the Communion of the Church.'^ So that even when 
Churches were enlarged, yet you fee how great a part of them met in one 

15. Divers Canons give the Bi(hopa third or fourth part of all the Church 
Profits ■■, And if thofc Churches had been as big as our Diocefes, it would have 
been too much of all Confcience. 

16. A Synod at CarpentoraUe decreed, that the Biftiop of the City fhall not 
take all the Country Parifli Maintenance to himfelf : Which iinplictli as the for- 
mcrj that his Country Parilh was fmall. 

17. A Council at Orleance, Jmio tf.\o. decree, Can. ^. about ordaining a 
Bilhop, that [ §lui pi£ponendus eft omnibm, ah omnibus eJigMur^ Tlie Diocefes 
yet were not fo large, but that AU met to chufe. 

18. So Concil. Byzazen. faith, itmultbe |_ By '^-"f E^f""'« '/'^''•l 

ip. Another at Or/fi7««, Anno 545. laith, \_Nii Citizen muft celebrate Ea.Rcr 

out of the City, bccaufc they muft k^cp the principal Feftiiities in the prefence of the 

'Bipfp, where the holy Afembly muft be k^pt. ~ But if any have a necefity toga 

F 2 abroadf 


abroad, let him ask^ leave of the Bifljop.'] Here is but one City AfTembly, and 
Individuals niuft be known to the Bifliop, and ask his leave to go abroad. 

And Can, 5. faith, \_A B/fl-jop wiiji b: ordained in his onvi Church ivhich he it 
to overfeed] Which impUcth that he had but one Church and Country Chap- 

20. Another Or/MWfc Council hath the like, depofingall Bifhops that come 
not in by common confcnt : And requiring them both in their Cities and Ter- 
ritories to relieve the Poor from the Church-Houfe.] Let us have fuch Diocefes 
as the Bifliop can do this for, and we confent. 

21. A Synod at TarUj Can. 8. fays, {Let no Man he ordained a Bijhop againft 
the J fill of the Citizens^ nor any hut whom the Ele&ion of the People and Clerk/ Jf^taU 
feek^trith plenary Will : None jh all be put in by the Command of the Trince.~\ &c. 

22. King C/o^(?»ew called a Synod zt Cabilone, which Can. 10. decreeth, 
[ That all Ordination of Bifhops be null that was otherwife made than by the 
Ele<ftion of the Comprovincials, the Clerks, and the Citizens.] 

23 . The Confl. Trirl. Can. 38. (heweth how the unhappy changes were made, 
decreeing, [ 7J>at rvhatever alteration the Imperial Torver pall mal^ on any City, 
the Ecchfiajtical Order pall folkrv it^ And fo if the King will make every 
Market Town a City, it fhall have a Biihop : And if he will make but one or 
two cities in a Kingdom, there [hall be but one or two Bifliops : And if he 
will make one City Regent to others, that Bifhop (hall be fo. Thus Kome, 
Conftantinople^ &c. came by their Superiority. But Hierome telleth us the con- 
trary i that the Bifliop of "Tanaii, or any fmall City (Kke our leaft Corporations) 
was of equal Church-Dignity with F-ome (ct the greateft.) 

24. The fame Council, Can.-jS, repeateth that, [/ill the Illuminate (that 
is, Bapti7ed J mitji learn the Creed, and every Friday fay it to the Bifliop and Tref- 
hytersi^ I hope they did not go every Friday fuch a Journey as Lincoln, Torkjot 
'Norxvich Diocefe, ( no nor the leaft in tngland) would have put them to s 
nor that the Bifliop heard as many thoufands every Friday^ as fome of ours by 
that Canon fliould have heard. 

25. Anno 6$^. at a 'toletane Council, King Eglca writeth a Sermon for 
them, and therein tells them, that \_ Every Parijh that hath twelve Families mufi 
have their proper Governor (not a Curate that is noGovernor.) Bnt if it be leff, 
if mufi be part of another s Charge.~\ 

7.6, Anno"] 1^6 . Pipn called a Council in France, whofe Can. i. is, that 
[^ Every City mufi have a Bijhop^ And (as is beforefaid; every Corporate Town 
was a City, 

27. In the Epitome of the old Canons fent by Pope Adrian to Carolus Mag- 
tittS) publiflied by Canifius, the eighth Antioch Canon is, [ Country Presbyters 
tnay not give Canonical Epifiles, but the Chorepifcopi.] By which it appeareth 
that the Chorepifcopi were Bifliops, as Petavius proveth (in Epiphan. Arriiu.) 1 

And Can. 14, 15. That { No Bijhop be above three Weelq in another City, nor 
'above two Week/ from his ami Chureb.'] Which intimateth that he had one 
Cngle Church, 



AndCtfW. ip. That when a place wants a Biihop, he that held them mull 
not proudly hold them to himftlf, and hinder them from one \ clfe he mull 
lofe that which he hath. 

28. The fame Canons fay (Cjn. c,^.) If a Bifl.'op, f,x Months after Admnni- 
tion of other Biffjops-, ncgldl to nuk^ CatboUcks of the people belonging to his Scat ^ 
any other fl'ull obtain them th.it jhall deliver them from their Hercfie.'] So tliat, 
1 . The Churches were not fo big b-.it that there might be divers in one 
Town. 2. And converting the People is a better Title, than Parilh Bounds. 

2p. It is there alfo decreed, [T/uf nj Bifijop ordain or judge in another's Pa- 
rip : clfe it (liall be void : ] And they forbid [ Foreign Judgments, becaufe it is 
unmeet that be fjoiild be judged by Strangers-, xicbo ought to hafc Judges oftlx fame 
Province cbofen by hinifelf.'] But our Diocefanes are Strangers to almolt all .the 
People, and are not chofen by them. See the reft. 

Alfo another is, that every Election of Bilhops made- by Magillrates be void : 
yea, all that ufc the Secular Magiltrate to get a Cluncli mult be depofed, and 
feparated, and all that joyn with him : Alfo if any exadt Money •, or f'r affe- 
ction of his oivn^ drive any jrom the Minijlry, or fcgrcgate any of his Clergy, or 
Ihut tlie Temple. 

30. A Council at Chalone under Carol. Mign. the Can. 1 5. condemnerh 
Arch-Deacons that exercife Domination over Parilh-Presbyters, and take Fees 
of them: as matter of lyranny, and not of Order and Keditttde. And C^«. 13. 
faith, \_ It is reported offme IWetbren (Bilhops) that they force them rvhom they are 
about to ordain tofivear that they are n^otihy, and xrill not do contrary to the Ca- 
tions, and ivill be obedient to the Bijhop that ordaineth them, and to tin Church in 
n^hich they are ordained : Which Oath, hecaufe it is very dangerous rve all agree 
Jhall be fn-bidden,'] By which it appcareth that, i . The Diocefcs were not 
yet fo large as to need fuch fubordinate Governors as ours have : Nor 2. Were 
Oaths of Canonical Obedienci: to the Bilhop and Church yet thought lawful, 
but forbidden as dangerous. 

3 1. A Council at Ai]uifgrane, under Ludov. Tius, wrote an excellent Treatife 
gathered out of the Fathers, to teach Bilhops the true nature of their Office, 
which hath much to my prefent ufe, but too long to be recited. 

32. Upon EW^;/ Flight that depofed Lud. Pius, the Arch-Bi(hoprick of 
JLhemes was void ten Years, aiid ruled by two Presbyters, Ftdk^ and Hotho : 
who were not then uncapable of governing the Flock : but it is not like tlut 
they governed Neighbour Bilhops. 

3 3 . Canifius tells us of a Concilium Kcgiaticimtm, and Can. 6. is, [ That the 
Arcl^-Presbyter examine every Majler of a Family perfonally, and tak^ account of 
their Families and Lives, and receive their Cqnfeffions : And Can. 7. That a Pnf- 
byter in the ahfencc of the Bifjop may reconcile a Penitent by his Command, &cc.'\ 
Whicii flicw that yet Diocefes were not at the largeft. 

34. A Council at Pj/7m, Annoi'y'j. order yet, [^Tbat the Clergy atid People 
ehufe the Bijhops : and yet that the Laity on pretence of their eleSing porver trample 
not on the Arclj-Presbytcr, and that Great Men's Chappels empty not Churches. 

35. Yea, 


55. Yea, Pope A^khobs, fit. 8, c. i. decrecth that no Billiops be ordained 
but by the Eledion or Confent of the Clergy and People.] When they be- 
came uncapablc of the ancient Order, yet they kept up the words of the old 

3d. This is intimated in the old Canons repeated at a Koman Council, Anno 
8d8. [ 7'hjt if Bif}:ops excommunicate any v^rcngfuUy^ or fm- light Caufcr, and 
not rcjiore them^ the Neighbour Bilhops Jhall tjkc fitch to their Communion till the 
next Synod:'] Which was the Bimop of the next Parilh or Corporation, and 
not one that dwelt in another County out of reach. » 

And Can.'JZ. Bccaufe the Bijhops hindred by other b/ifinefs^ cannot go to all the 
Sicl^^ the Presbyters (or any CImflians) may anoint them. How big was the 
Diocefs when this Canon was firft made ? Who would give his bujinefi, 
rather than Vijhnce, and Numbers, and ImpoJJrbility, as the reafon why the 
Bilhop of London^ Lincoln-, Normch, &c. vifit not all the Sick in their Dio- 
cefes ? 

37. AnnoSdp, till Syp. was held a Council called General at Cwj/?i7«/«of/c. 
The Can. 8. is, [ Whereas it is reported that not only the Heretical and Vfiwpers., 
but fame Orthodox Patriarchs alfo, for their oxen fecitrity have made men fubfcribe^ 
(that is, to be true to them^ the Synod judgcth that it Jhall befo no more ■, fave only., 
that Men rphen they are made Bijhops be required as ufiial to declare the found- 
nefs of their Faith: He that violateth this Sandion, let him' be dep-ived of his 

But thefe later inftances only (hew the Relicfts of Primitive Purity and Sim- 
plicity, more evidently proved in the three firll Centuries. 

38. And he that will read the ancient Records of the Cuftoms of Burying, 
will thence perceive the extent of Churches : Dodtor "tillefy (after cited) af- 
fitmeth (pag. i-Jp. againft 5eWe«J thitlhe Right of Burial place did firji belong 
to the Cathedral Churches : ] And Parifh Churches began fo lately fas now un- 
der(lood,having no Bilhops, and diftin(ft from Cathedrals) that they could not 
be there buried, before they were built and in Being ■■, which faith Selden, be- 
gan in England feven hundred years after Chriil i here one and there one^ as a 
Patron ercded it : Selden of Tythes, pag. 267. Yea, in feven hundred 
he findeth but one of Earl Puch in Beda i and in Anno 800. divers appropriate 
to Crowland ; and fo after. And it was the Chara(2:er of a Parith Church to 
have Baptifterium & Scpulturam, (pag. 262.) So that before a Bilhop's Church 
however called, had but one place that had Baptijhrittm & Sepulturam : Yea, 
long after that Parilhes, had very few Members in moft places, -fo long was it 
e'er the People were brought to Chriftianity ; And they were then, as our Bi- 
lhops make them now, not proper Churches, but Chappels of Eafe. Selden, 
(ibid. pag. 26"].) tells you that Kalph Nevil Bifhop of Chicheficr and Chancellor 
oi England requeued of the King that the Church of Saint Peter m Chichejier 
might be pulled down, and laid to another Parifh, becaufeit rvas poor, having 
but tn-o Parifhioners. Sure it was never built for two Perfons : But it's like 
many were Heathens: Or if not fo then, in the Years 700 and 800 they 
were fo, (Jiiough Mafter Thomas Jones hath well proved that the Brittifl} 



Churches were far extended before Gregory fent Jufihic, and that our Bi(hcp5 
and Religion "are derived from them : ) Even at tmtrs in France in the days of 
Saint Mirfw, notwithftanding all his Miracles, the ChrliHans were not fo ma- 
ny as the Heathens, at leaft till one publick Miracle towards his later time 
convinced Ibme. 


The fa??ie further conjirmed by the Aficie?its. 

I. ^Vfchins'Dcmoniirst.EvMgcl. pag. \^%. faith, [^ When he confidcrcd the 
C Power ofChr'ft's Word, how it perfwaded innumerable Congregati- 
ons of Men, and by thofe If-,noble and Ru(>ick Difciplcs ot Jcfus, jwuf/xvcA^oi 
EKM.\it^/iX( tmmrr ifijfiine Ecchf.ji were conllituted, not in certain unknown and 
obfcure places, but ereded in the moft faitious Cities, ( 'Rome^ Alexandria and 
Antioch) tiirough all Egy^t and Lvc/j,through Europe and Afia-, 't>1c. K<i),uoti<r Tt it, 
X&e5' > ^j 7r«vToioi9 tt «■( — in Villages and Countries or Regions and all forts 
of Nations.] By this it appcarcth that Villagcs-liad Churches then. 

II. Though of liter date, coiifider the Hiftory of FjtriclCs Plantation of 
Churches in L-cIj J: who is faid hinifclfinhis own time tohavethree hundred 
fixty rive Churches, and as many Bilhops, and three thoufand Presbyters i as 
Niiiiia reportcth. Not only 71.wndikf takcth notice of this, but a better Au- 
thor, Vjher dc Ecclcf. Brit. Friniord. pa, 950. And Sclden in his Comment on 
Eittjchim Oi-igiiKS Alex. pag. 86. from Antoninm and llnccntiuf, tluis mention- 
eth it, [_ Ccrie tantum in orbe urramm tunc tcmporii Epifcopontm fegctem mirar't 

forfan deftmt, quipjuii crediderit, quod de B. Patrrcio Hibomrifi Antoninus & Vin- 
centiuf tradunt \ Ettin j'cilicci folum Ecchfuis fundajfe 365. totidemque Epifcopos 
ordinajfe, prater Vrcshytcromm 3000. ^ade re confiil.ts plura apud prtjlantiffi- 
mum viriim Jacobum Uffcrium, &c.~\ So that here was to every Church a 
Bilhop and near ten Presbyters. ( No Man will doubt but the Eilhops them- 
fclvcs were taken out of the better fort of tlie Laity, and the Presbyters of the 
fecond fort ■■, and all below many private Chril^ians now among us.) 'And 
were there three iuindrtd llxty five Cities think you in Ireland Z Yea, or 
Corporations cither ? It's cafie to conjefture what Churches thefe were. 

III. All Hirtory, Fathers, and Councils confent, that every City was to have 
a Bilhop and Presbytery to govern and teach the Chrilhans of that City and 
tiie Country people near it •% which is but a Parifli or Presbyterian Church. 
For the word 7;d\(s ligniHcth in the old common ufe, any big Town, ua 



little Towns that were diftindt from Country Farms and fcattering Villages : 
fo that all our Corporations and Market Towns are Oppida and fuch Cities as 
TToAis fignitied. Therefore even by this Pvule we Qiould have a Bilhop to every 
fuch Town. 

1. Crete was called HccatomfolU-, as having an hundred Cities, as Homer 
faith it had. And what kind of Cities were thofc? Which were to have an 
hundred Churches and Bifliops (in a fmall Ifland ">) 

2. Tlxorritus Idyl. 1^. delaudibufPt0lcm.vcrf.S2. faith, that he had under 
his Government thirty three thoufand three hundred and thirty 7ro\tjs, Cities : 
And if fo, they muft be as fmall as our Borouglis, if not fome Villages : cer- 
tainly he had not above twice the number of Cities eminently fo called that 
Stephaniii Byzantinui could find in the whole World, in his Book, vrtgyd 

Tir. I. 5. 3* He that will perufe and compare the Texts in the New Tcftament that 
Ordiin ufe the word Tro'Ais (above fixfcore times) and fee Grotius on Ln]^ 7. 1 1 . &c. 
Elders in (hall foon fee that the word is there ufed for fuch Towns as I am mentioning, 
iverycitj. jfnotlefs. 

IV. Sozomen, lib. ^. cap. 3. tells us, thzt Majtma v/hkh was Naz:ile Gaz£., 
being as part of its Suburbs, or the adjoyning part but twenty Stadia diftant, 
was, becaufe it had many Chriftians, honoured by Conftantine with the name 
of a City, and had a Bi(hop of their own. And Julian in malice took from 
them the honour of being a City, but they kept their Bilhop for all that. It 
had the fame Magiftrate with Gaza^ and the fame Military Governors, and 
the fame Republick i but was diverfified only by their Church-State. For, 
faith he, each had their own Bifhop, and their own Clergy, and the Altars 
belonging to each Billioprick were diftinft : And therefore afterward the Bilhop 
of Gi?zj laboured tofubjeft the Clergy of A/jj«/kj! to himfelf, faying, that it 
was unmeet that one City fhould have two Bilhops : But a Council called for 
that purpofe, did confirm the Church-Right of Majmia. 

V. Gregory Neoc£faric)ifis called 'Ihanmat7irgus^ was by force made Bifhop of 
that City, vvhere all the ChrilUans were but feventeen at his Ordination : fuch 
was the Bifhop's Church. And when he had preached and done Miracles 
there till his Perfecution, there is no mention of any Presbyter he had with 
him •, but of his Deacon Mnfonim \.\\3.i tied with him. (Though when he died 

... he left but feventeen unconverted.) 
fiithEu- ' ^""^ when he had converted fome at Comana-, a fmall Town near him, 
feb.l.j.c, he did not fet a Presbyter over it, and make it part of his own Diocefs, but 
16. Vid. appointed Alexander (the Collier) to be their Bilhop i and that over a Churclr 
Earon.an. ^^i^ ^^^^ ,^q j^pj.^ t].)^,^ ^^^^ ^.^j debated the Cafe of his Election and Rece- 
''■ ''°' ption. See Greg. Nyjfen. inOrat. inGreg.Thaimat. & Bafil de Spirit. Sando, 
cjp. ip. & Bnviar. Koman. die 15 Novemb. & Menolog. Grxc. 

VI. Concil. 


- VI. Cancr/. Mc. OccuiHii. Can.i^. dcctccdi. that every one that before 
death dcfireth the Sacrament, was to have it from the Bi(hop : One Ed. in 
Crab faith, Gcneraliter omni aiilibct in exitu pofito., & fofcaiti fiki CommunionU gra- 
tiam tribuii Epifcopm probabilitcr ex oblatione dare dcbebit. The other Ed. faith 
[Et cxra & probatiojit Epifcopi.'] We are content that the Diocefs be as great 
as the Bilhop will perform this for, to examine all fuch dying men, and give 
them the Sacrament, or fend it them after his dilhn<Jt Examination. 

VII. Cregor. Nazianz. Epift. 22. pag. 78^. Ta. i. perfwading the Church 
of C<efarea to chufe Bafil for their Bilhop, (endetli his Letters to the Presbyters, 
the Monks, the Magiliratcs, and the whole Laity.] And though I doubt not 
but by that time there were Country Congrcgitions, by this the magnitude of 
the City Church may be gathered, where the whole Laity could bcconfuked, 
and could chufe. 

And Bafd made this Gregory his chief friend Bifhop of Safirm, a fmall poor 
dirty Town : And yet Gregory himfelf it feems had in fome near Village a Cho- 
repifcopttf with Presbyters and Deacons i as in Glycerins his Cafe appearethj £- 
ptfi. Greg. 205. pag. poo, poi. 

And Nazianztitn where lie plaid the Biihop under his Father ("two Bifhops 
at once, one in Title, the other in Pradice without Title j was but a fmall 

VIII. Baft! an Arch-Bi(hop was fo much againft enlarging Diocefes, and 
taking in many Churches to one Biihop, that he taketh the advantage of the 
difference between him and Amhymiuf to make many Bilhops more in his Dio- 
cefs over fmall places : yea, it fccmcth fome places were fo fmall as that they 
never before had any Pallors at all : as appearcth by Gregory Naziaiizene, 
Epijh 28. 

iX. "Theodoret tells us, lib. 4. cap. 2 0. Hifl. Ecclcf. that even in the great 
'Alexandria the Presbyters and Deacons were all but nineteen when Lucius 
came to banifh them to Heliopolis., a City of Fhmicia •, which Cicy had not 
one Chrillian in it. By which it appeareth, that even then under Chriftian 
Emperors, Chriftianity was not received by the multitude, when fome Cities 
had not a Chriftian. 

X. Iheodor. ib. I. 4. c. 16. faith, that when Eulogius and Froiogcncs., the 
Presbyters of Edejfa., were banilhcd to Aniiomne in Thebaif, they found the 
moft of the people Heathens, and but few of the Church ^ yet had that little 
number a Biihop of their own. 

XL Id. 1. 4. c. 20. In Tetcr Biihop oi^ Alexandria's Epiftle ("wherein he 
fhcwethfuch adions then done by the Soldiers in (corn of the Godly, pro- 
claiming Turpitude not to be named under the name of fcornful Preaching, as 

G have 

hare been done by others lately among us) it's faid of Luciut, L^' pMes 
lupi nequhia & rmpfobe faSU ag&e imfenfe ftudebat, pulque ipifcopat'tmiy noii cbn' 
/ijifit Epjcoporum OfthodoXoiwn in ttnurn comenii'ntiiim, non fuffrapis vere Clerico*- 
riim^ non p.ijbilatione Popnii., nt fjcri' Ecc!tfi£ Canones pr£fcribmt.'] So that great 
Patriarch himfelf was chofen Polbfl.itione Popfili, as ihewing the cuftom of alJ 
the Churches ', which beginning when the people were but one Congregation, 
continued as it could in fome degree when tiiey came like a Presbyterian 
Church ( for even then it "^as ilo otherwife ) to have many Congregations. 

Xlf. IJ. c 22. fa;ith that \_Valen/ found the Orthodox even in the great 
Patriarclial City of Amkch^ in pofleffion but of one Church, which good Jo- 
linian the Emperor had given them-, of which he difpoflefled them. And 
when they met afterwards to worfhip God at a Hill near the City, Valair fent 
to difturb them thence.] And Cap. 2 3 . Flarianm and Vindmif Presbyters (Me- 
IctiiK the Bilhop being banifhcd J led them to a River iide, where they congrc- 
gatcd,till they vvere thence alfo driven by the Emperor. And Flavianiis when he 
could not preach, colled:ed Matter, Reafons and holy Sentences, (as Sermon- 
Notes) for others to preach (in the Gymnafmm Bellicum) where they refolved to 
meet whatever came on it. Then Aphraates a Monk taught them, and when' 
Vakns told him that Monks muft pray in private, and not preach in publick, 
Aphraates told the Emperor that he had fet the Houfe of God our Father on 
fire, and troubled the Church, and therefore he was called to its publick help 
(to (hew how far they obeyed a filencing Emperor.) By all which it appear- 
eth that even then the Orthodox Patriarchal Church oi Ant ioch wdiS but one 
Affembly which met in one only place at once. 

XIII. Id. 1. 4. c. 29. When 'tmntius the Emperor's vidorious General, 
(being Orthodox) vvas bid by the Emperor to ask what he would of him as a 
Reward, he asked but One Church for the Orthodox, and was denied it, 
which intimateth their numbers. 

XIV. Volkha where Eufebius made Marls Bifhop, was Parvum Oppidim, a 
Httle Town and infefted with Arianifm,) where an Arian Woman killed Eu- 
fcbiiis with a Tile when he went to ordain Mar'n Bilhop. "Theodor. lib. 5, 
cap. 4. ■'"■'•■■■'' i-J-'^i^i 

XV. Eufeb. Ecclef. Hij}. /. 5. c.i6. tells us that ^fffZ/on/;^/ faith o{ Alexan-^ 
Mr a Montanift Bilhop, that the Congregation whereof he wasPaftor, becaufe 
he was a Thief, would not admit him.J By which it appeareth that his Church 
was but one Congregation. 

And /. 7. c. 2p The Synod of Antioch fay of T>ionyfms Akxandr. that he 
wrote nor to the pcrfon of Paidus Samcfatenus ', but to the whole Congregation 
(that is, his Church. ; And they fay [ He licenfed the Bifhops and Minifters of 
the adjoyning Villages and Cities to preach to the People.] Which Iheweth 
what biocefes and Churches then were. 

XVI. Socratu. 


XVI. Soeraies, 1. 1. c. 8. tells us that SphiJion was at the fame time a Bi- 
fliop and a Shepherd.] And whether his Parifh was one Church or many hun- 
dred you may eafily judge, when fo holy a Man could fpare time all the Week 
to keep his (heep. 

XVII. When Conjijnf the Emperor affrighted Cor^lantius toreftore Athana- 
fius^ Conjtantiui craved of Athanafius that the Arrians in Alexandria might have 
one Church to themfelves : Athsnafms told him, It was in his power to com- 
mand and execute •, but craved alfo a requeft of him, which was that in all Ci- 
ties there might alfo be one Church granted for them that communicated not 
with the Arrians ; But the Eaftern Arrian Bilhops hearing that, put off the de- 
cifion of both the Requefts.] By which a willing perfon may conjedure at 
the quantity of the Epifcopal Churches in thofe times. 

XVIII. Even in Amhrofes days the great Church of Milan was no greater 
than could meet in one Temple to chufe a Bifhop : And Ambrojl was chofen 
by them. Socrat. /. 4. c. 25, 

And BamiiuT, hi Vita Ambrofii ex Paulino, faith, fp"^' 9') L ^odfoli- 
ttts erat circa BaptizanJns fotus implnx^ quinque pnflea Epifcopi tempore qm dcceffit 
vix implerciit.'] What then was all the reft of his work ? and how many 
Churches could he thus overfee ? 

And the Arrians, for whom the Emperor made all that Air with Ambrofe., 
were fo few in Milan, that when the Emperor would have had one Church for 
them, and could not get it by tair means or force, Ambrofe thus jclkth at the 
Emprefs and tlie Arrian Gothcs s ^libns m olim plauftnim fedes crat, itt tiwic 
platfjhttm Ecclejia efi ; ^uocnnque fxmina ilia prPcefferity fecum fuos orwics cxtki 
rehit.'] Her Coach is their Church i and which way (beverihe goeth, (he car- 
ricth all her Congregations with her. 

Ambrnf. de Offic. To. 4. c 1. (heweth that teaching his Church is the Bi- 
fhop's Office : And de initiandif, c. 2, />. 163. To. 4. lie faith to the baptized 
perfon, [ Vidijii illic (in Sacrario) Lcr'itam, vidijii Sacerdotcm, vidifii fwnnmin 
Sacerdotem."] In which he intimatcth that the Bilhop ( as the Chief Prieft ) 
was prefent in the Church with his Presbyters at Baptirings. Which fheweth 
that they had not a multitude of Churches without Bilhops. And de Sacram. 
/.I. f. I. how the Birtiop himfclf mull touch with Oyl the Noftrils ot all th.at 
were baptized, with other Ceiemonies after mentioned, (heweth that he was 
ufually prefent at every Raptifm. 

And de Sjcram, /. 3. c, i. he giveth thereafon why he did wafh (he P'eetof 
all that were baptized, and the Church ot Rome did not. Vide ne forte pmptrr 
mitUitudinem declinarit.'] [^Perhaps they decline it becaufe of the multitude.] 
But all the Dioccfs of Milan (as a Bilhoprick, not as an Arch-Bilhoprick ) had 
no fuch multitudes, but that betides all his other work, Ambrofe could have 
time to walh the feet of every one that was baptized. 

G 2 And 


And cjp. 3. ^cchfix contnitii & confideratme tc ipfe commenda — The Church 
was pre fent lohen; Ardto fhew by his work what his Church was, he cele- 
brated the Sacrament daily : Accip quotidie quod quotidk tibi profit : fie vive ut 
qstotidk nicrearis acdpm : ^/d twnmerettir qmidje acciferCi mnmtretur pfi an- 
num acdpcre. ,' ijiWll'A- 

And how he difcharged all this you may perceive,</e "Digmt. Sacerdot. cap. 3. 
'Efifcop'.s mnialhui'mfii.fif:'Pp4tia Optra dtfjgnat., ut tx bono opm fnagis qtum 
prefejjtom ncfcatitr-, phfinnritiiejfi Epifcopumquam quod nontffn ^ vometur, ^ ^w 
ficiit mhil ejfe diximus Epifcopo excelieiuim, fic nihil eji tnifcrabiliMs fi de faniia vi- 
ta Epifcopus periclitctur i fi Sacerdos in crimim tmeatur. ( He thought not as too 
many now do, that the Name and Seat of BiQiop or Prieft can do more to 
halbw Perfecutions, Worldlinefs and qthejf , Crinjes, thaij th^fy'mQ.s,](id^ dp 
to unhallow the Bifhop or Prieft.) . t]},\;, •<^\ '{'.-My-i'^i'A v,h Av-'A'^-y rt-.tih 

And lib. 5. To. 4. ^jg, 180. hayirjgmentipned; \jhe HuibandofoneW'iff^ 

he addcth, \_ Si vera ad ctltiorem fenfum confcoidirnus., inh'ibct^ dit^K vfurbare Ec- 

defiitf.^ A Bilhop rtiuft no more have two Churches than a Husband+iave two 
Wives. But fome Bifliops imitate Solomon sLixti. rather than hisWifdom, and 
will have above a thoufand Churches, as Wives or Concubines. 

Adding, ^nijlipchdiis tantum contcntus Ecckfiie.fu£-, ^enitusnon ambiat qux 
novit ejfc fitperfiua. Co vetoufnefs hath enlarged Diocefes. ■. ^ 

And cap. 5- Cum domnatur popuUs^ & anima fen'it V^moni. When Jie 
Lords it over the people, his own Soul is a Slave to the Devil. 

And cap. 6.pag. 18. Nam quidaliud inierpMatur Epifiopits nifi Juperinfpe^or ? 
Maxime cum folio edition in Ecclefia rcfideat ut it a cuniios rc^ieiat,, ut &. cunao- 
rum oculi in ipfum refpiciant.'j So that it is from the overlight of one Congre- 
gation where, he fits among and above the Presbyters, that he is called a Bi- 
fiiop, I and not from CJiurches which he overfeeth indeed, but feeth not, and 
might well be faid to be an Overfeer in our vulgar fenfe, as it fignifics one that 
overlooketh or obferveth not, were he, as many now. 

And of fo fmall a place as Forum Corndii^ infiead of committing it to a fub- 
■jeft Presbyter, he faith, (Epifl. 6^. p. iii. ad Conjiant. Arauficoritm Epifco- 
pum) Commendo tibi fili Ecclefiam, qu£ eft ad forum Coindii.) quo earn . de pro- 
ximo itivijas fi-equentiuf, donee ei ordinetuf Epifcopus. 

And pag. 1 17. Ad Eeclef. Vercelknf, pojl obitum Eufebii Epift. he writeth to 
them thus to chufe another, Quanta magis ubi plena eji in nomine domini Congrf- 
gatio 't ubi Vniverforum Toftulatio congrnity ditbitare vos nequaquani oportet^ ibi do- 
minum Jefum & vokmtatis authorem^ & pctitionit arbitrum fore, & ordinationis 
^r£fulem, vel largitorem grati£.~\ So that this famous Church was no greater 
than that all the people could, meet and agree in the Choice or Poftulation of a 
\. . So 70.4. deTcenitent. l.'y^ C.I'), "tota Ecclefia fufcipit onus peccatoriscui com- 
patiendum & fietu^ & oratiom & dolore eji. By which it feems that all the 
Gimrch ( that is, fb great a part as might be called allj was ufed to be prefent 
■each meeting when Penitents lamented their fui. 

I .. And 


And in To. 3. /». 183. in i Cor. 11. he faith, that the Angels before whom 
the Women in the Church mu/t be veiled, are the Biftiops as God's Vicars ? ] 
which intimateth that ordinarily every Church-AiTembly was to have a BiQiop 

And ibid. Hoc notat qui ftc in Ecchfiam convenicbant-, ut mwtera fua vfferentcs 

. advenientibm Presbytew^ quia adhuc redores EccUfw non omnibus locit fuerant con- 

Jiituti, &c. And p. 161. in Rom. 1.2. Propterea EccUpte fcribit, quia adbuc 

(viguhi Ecchfiis KcUorct non ei-ant inflituti. By which you may conjeAure what 

he riiought of the magnitude of Churches then. 

Tom. ^. p.^9. He fo far acknowlcdgcth the People to have cletS^ed him, 
that he calletli them on that account his Parents^ who in other rcfpeds were 
his Children, (m Ln\.i%,) Vos mihi cjlis Parentes, qui Saardotium iulijiis : 
Vos inquam Filii-, vcl Pjtrntcs : Filii finguliy Vniverfi Parentes. ( Like f/tfo/^fr's 
Singulis Major, Vniverfu Minor.) Where you fee, that the whole Church 
(and not a thoufendth part J did chufe him Bilhop. 

And Tf). 3. p. 180. in i Cor. 14. Vawn eft, quia in Ecchfia (that is in every 
Clwrch) Vjiuf eft Epifcopw (not in hundreds of Churches.) For he faith, 
ibid, in l Cor. 12. Et quLi ab una T>eo Patre funt oimij^ ftngulos Epifcopos fv;gH- 
lis Eccleftis prxcjfe dccrez'it.'] He decreed that there Ihouldbe to' every Church 

When I cite all this of the Ikteof that famous Church of Milan, where the 
Emperor himfclf did oftreftde, and which prefumcd to differ in Cuftoms from 
Home, I leave you to gather how it was before Chril^ian Emperors, and in all 
the ordinary Churches. 

XIX. Auguftine wos.chofcii by the people, and brought to the Bifhop to be 
ordained. Vit. cap. 4. And cap. 5. Valerius the Billiop gave him power to 
preach before him contrary to the ufe of the African Churches, but according 
to the cuftom of the Ealiern Churches.] Which Ihcweth that Auguftine while 
Presbyter (and fo other Presbyters ordinarily) was in the fame Congregation 
with the Bifhop, and not in another. And upon tliis other Churches took up 
the fame cuftom. 

And cap. 3 l. it's faid. [ hi Ordinandi! Faccrdotibm & CLricis Confcnfum irux- 
jorcm ChriftiaUOrum, & conjimudinan Ecchfix fiquendam cjfe arbitrahatur : — And 
cap. 25. Cum ipfi J'emper Cterici una ttiain domo & mcnfa, fxmptihufque commwu- 
huf ahbantur, & vefttchaniur. Yca, he ordered jull how many Cups in a day 
his Clergy-meii with him Ihould drink ■■, and it any fware an Oath he loft cmc 
of his Cups. ( Through God's Mercy fobcr Godly Miniftcrs now need no 
fuch law.) By this it evidently appcareth tlut the Church which he and his 
Presbyters ruled, was not many hundred, but one Congregation, or City- 
Church : There being no mention of any Country Presbyters that he had elfe- 
where, as far as 1 remember. • 

And when Auguftine was dying, the People with one confent, accepted of 
his choice of E)W/«f to be his SucctlTor-, Epift. no.pag. ipj. To recite all 
that is inJuftins Works intimating thefc Church-limits, would be tedior.s. 

XX. Epi- 

' (54) 

XX Epiphanius's Teftimony I have before mentioned, as produced by Teta' 
tm, that there were few Cities, if any bcfides Alexandria in thofe Countries 
that had more than one Congregation i and particularly none of his own. 
And Dodor Hammond trufleth to him and Iwi£us to prove that the Apoflles 
fctled fingle Bi(hops in fingle Congregations io many places without any Sub- 

XXI. Socrates, l.$.c.2i. faith, ([The Church o( Antioeh in Syria is fi- 
tuate contrary to other Churches ; for the Altar ftands not to the Eall, but to 

Which Speech implieth that (befides Chappels if any) there was 
lurch that was notable in Antkch v while he calleth it [The Church 

the Weft._ 
but one C 
at Antioch^ without difiindlion from any other there. 

XXII. Socrates., I. 'J. c. 5. tells us a notable ftory of Theodojiiif Blfhop of 
Synada, who went to Conftantinoph for Power to perfecute Agapetits the Mace- 
donian Bi(hop in that City. But while he was abfent Agapetus turned Ortho- 
dox, and his Church and the Orthodox Church joyned together, and made 
Agapetus Bifhop, and excluded theodofim : who made his Complaint of it to 
Atticm the Patriarch of Conjiantinople fa wife and peaceable Man) who defired 
Theodofius to live quietly in private, becaufe it was for the Churches good.] 
CMayfuch caufes oft have fuch decifions, and Lordly troublefome Prelates 
fuch fuccefs.) By which itory you may guefs how many Congregations both 
Parties made in Synada. 

XXIII. Socrates, I. 7. c. 26. tells us that Sifinnius was chofen Bi(hop of 
Conjiantinople by the Laity againft the Clergy. And cap. 28. Sifinnius fent Pro- 
cIhs to be Bifhop of Cyzicum i but the People chofe Valmatius and refufed him.] 
And this cuftom of the People's Choice-, mufl: needs rife at hrfi: from hence, that 
the whole Church being but one Congregation was prefent : For what Right 
can any one Church in a Diocefs have to chufe a Bifhop for all the reft, any 
more than the many hundred that are far off, and uncapable to chufe ? 

XXIV. Sozomen^s Teftimony (even fo late) is very obfervable ■■, lib. 7. cap, 
15. who mentioning the differences of the Eaft and Welt about Ealier, and in- 
ferring that the Churches fhould not break Communion for fuch Culioms, 
faith, \_Frivolmn cnim & merito quidem judicarunt, confmtttdinU gratia a fe mtt- 
titofcgregari eos qui in pr£cip2iis KeligionU capitibus confentirent : Neque enim eaf- 
dcm traditiones per omnia fimiles in omnibus Ecclefus quamvpi inter fe confentientes, 
repcrire poJfes.~\ And he inftanceth in this, \_Et enim per Scythhm cum fint Ci- 
'vitates mult£, unum duntaxathxomnes Epifcopum habent(\ told you the reafbn of 

this Rarity before ) Apud ali.K vera nationes reperiai nbi & Tagis Epifcopi ordinan- 
tur : Sicut apud Arabes & Cyprios ego comperi. J He fpeaketh of his own 
knowledge : No wonder then if Epipljanius be to be interpreted as Petavius . 
doth, when in Cyprus not only the Cities had but one Church, but alfo the 



Villages had Bifliops. To theft he addeth the Novatians and the TJjrygii>f 
Montanifts. And let none think their inftances inconfiderable. For the Mon- 
tanifts were for high Prelacy, even for Patriarchs, as in ttrfnl'ian appeareth. 
And the Novatians were for Bilhops, and had many very G(-dly Bilhops, and 
were tolerated by the Emperors even in Conjianunopk^ as good People and Or- 
thodox in the Faith : And Novatur was martyred in Valerians Perfecution, ae 
Socrates, /. 4. c. 23. faith. 

XXV. Even Clemens Roman, or whoever he was that wrote in his name, 
tpili. :}. (hewcth that Teaching the People is the BiChop's Office, and conclu- 
deth (in Crab, p. 45. J Andire (Epifcopum) attentius oportct & ab ipfo fitfcipn-c 
dortrinam fiJci ; Monit.t autctn ih<e a TresbytcrU inquire-, a T>iaconH vero O'dinem 
Difciplin£ : By which Partition of Offices it is evident, that the Bilhop only 
and not the Presbyters then ufcd to preach to the Church, and that the Fref- 
byters fthough ejnfdcm ordmif-, and not Lay-EUcrs) ufcd to inrtrudt the People 
pcrfonaRy, and give them Monits vine : and that they were all in one Church 
together, and not in feveral diftant Churches. 

XXVI. Fattl himfcif telleth us that Cenchrea had a Church, and the Scri- 
pture fciitli. They ordained Elders in every Cinirch : And thougli T>otvname 
without any proof obtrude upon us, that it was under the Bilhop of Ccr//;/ A,and 
had a Presbyter of his to teach them •, yet of what Authority foever (in other 
refpcds^ the Confiitutions called Clements or the Apoftles be, they are of more 
than his in this i where lib. 7. cap. \6. in that old Liturgy, Lucius is faid to 
be Billiop of Cenchrea, ordained by the Apoftles. 

XXVII. Gcnnadius dt virit illttfir, /. i. c. 10. faith, that Afckpim was Vict 
noiigrandis Epfcopts, Biftiop of a Village not great. 

XXVIII. Saith CdT/rpnij/'t, Four or five of the Towns which were Seats of 
the Biihops of the Concil. Carthag. which Cyprian mentioneth, are fo inconfide- 
rable that they are not found in the Geographical Tables. 

XXIX. And faith Alt arc Vamafcc/i. />. 294. Oppidum triiim Tabernarum 
Velitris vicinum was a BidvDp's Seat for all the nearnefs and fmallnefs of the 
Towns : And Grcgor. lib. 2. Epiji.^^. laid the Relids of the wafted Church 
to the Bi(hoprick of Veliterno. 

Cajhum Lumanwn had a Bilhop till Gregory joyned it to Bencvatus Bifhop of 
MiceiuK : (and fo had many Ca'frj ordinarily.) 

Remigius did appoint a Bifhop within his own Diocefs when he found that 
the number of perfons needed it ; Viz. apud Lattdunum ctavatum Cajirtim fit£ 
Victeefeos. Of Spiridion the Biihop of Trtmithantis 1 fpakc before. 

XXX. 7heopI}. Alcxand. Epijl. Tafch. 3. in BibL Fat. To. 3. concludeth thus, 
£ Pro dcfunUis Epifcops in hcis fiiigiilorum conjiituti. In urbt Nichio pro Theo- 

pen pto 


pempto Thcodofius •, r« Tcrenuthide Aifinthiusi In oppi J o Ger^s pro E\iiz' 
mone Piiozus •, I« Achsis ;)ro Apolline Mufsusi /« Atlirivide /-jj TMoro A- 
thanafius i In Cleopatride Offellus i I/i Oppido Lato, pro Timotheo Apdles. 
And the nearnefs and fmalbefs of fome of thcfc (heweth t!ie Diocefes fmlll. 

The fame 'thcoph. Alex, faith, Epijl. Canon. Can. 6. [ De iis qui ordinandi 
fynt h£c crit forma, tit qidcquid eft Saccrdotalis ordinis confentiat & eligat, & tunc 
Epifcopus cxaminet.vcl ci etiam ajfentiente Sacerdotali ordine in media Scckfta ordinet 
pr£fente populo, & Epifcopo alloquenU-, an etiam pojfet ei populus fern teflimonium : 
Ordinatio antem non pat clanculum : Ecchfia enim pacem habente decet prtfentibut 
Qindis ordinationef fieri in Ecchfia.'] Undoubtedly, as Balfamon., noteth by 
[Saints] is meant fidekx, the People. Here then you fee that the Churches 
then were fuch where all the Clergy were prefent with the Bi(hop, who or- 
dained Minifters to a fmgle Church where all the people could be prefent to be 

'.XXXI. In the Life of Fulgentius it is faid, that Flebs ipfius loci uUfuerat 
Monallerium conftitutum differrefuam prorfus Eleclionem, donee invenirct B. Ful- 
gentitm, cogitabat (where, theBilhops refolved to ordain, though the King for- 
bad it thena.) And though the King perfecuted them for it, it is added, £Rc- 
pleta jam f Herat Provincia Bizaccna novis Sacerdotibiis, & pene vix paucarum ple- 
bimn Cathedrd remanferant deflitut£.'] And the Phrafe [/'/eZ'w/w Cathedra"] 
doth fignifie a BilTiop's Seat in one Congregation of People. One Flebs was 
one Congregation i and had its proper Cathedram. 

XXXII. Sozomen ("after Socrates) mentioning the diverfity of Church Cu- 
ftoms fas aforefaidj /.-y. c. ip. faith, that at Alexandria ihc Arch-Deacon 
only readetli the Holy Scriptures, in other places only the Deacons, and in ma- 
ny Churches only the Priefts, and on folemn days the Bifhops.] By which 
words it appeareth that then every Church was fuppofed to have a Bifliop, 
Priefts and Deacons prefentin their publick Worfhip. For the Bithop on his 
folemn days could not be reading in many Churches fmuch lefs many hun- 
dredj at once. 

XXXIII. Hiflor, Tripartit. I. I. c. jp. fout of Sozomen, I. i. c. 14. Edit. 
Lat. Bafil. p. 1 587. J telleth us, how Arius feeketh ("as from the Bithynian Sy- 
nod J to Paulinus of Tyre, Eufeb. Cafar, & Patroph. Scytbopol. ut una cum fuis 
yiberetur cum popitio qui cum co erat-, folennia Sacramcnta Ecclefu cclebrare, — • EJfe 
dicens confuetudinem in Alexandria ( ficut etiam nunc ) ut una exijiente fuper 
omnes Epifcopo, Presbyteri forfim Ecclepas obtinerent, & populus in eis CoUedasfo- 
hmniter cekbraret. — J \_Twic illi una cum aliis Epifcopis, &c,'\ By this (with 
what is faid before out of Epiphanins) it is undeniable that this (gathering of 
Affemblies by the Presbyters in the fame City, and adminillring the Sacrament 
to them befides the Church where the Bithop was} was taken to be Alexandria's 
fii^gularity, even as low as Sozomen s time. And yet note that here is even at 
'Alexandria no mention of many Churches in the Countries at a diftance, much 



lefs hundreds, thus gathered,^ but only of fome few in that great City. And 
if even in a great City, and in Epiphan. and in Sozomcn's days a Presbyter's 
Churcli was an Akxandrian Rarity, what need we more Hiltorical Evidence 
of the Cafe of the Churches in thofe times ? 

XXXIV. Fmanduf VhcoiiHf, in Epijl. de 5. ^i^jl. faith to Fnlgmhts, 
£ SanBos Tnsbytcros , Visconos , beatamque Congregationem ( which was liis 
Chmch) falttto,'] 

And that you may again fee what Congregation or Church that was, //; vita 
Tulgentii^ cap.ij. pag- 8. it is faid, that the Plehs fought and cbnfe him (and that 
in dcfpight of Fcel/x the ambitious Deacon, who fought the place, and fought 
the life of Fulgmtius.) Pepulus ft<pcr fuam Cathedram atm coUocjvit : Celebrate 
funt codan die T)ivina jolmnitcr Sacramcnta, & de tnjnibm Fulgcntii Comnmni- 
cans omnU populusUuis difccjfit.^ And if in the noble City oiKujfe^ fo late as 
the days of Fttlgcntius^the Bidiop's Church-members were no more than could 
chufc him, fet him on his feat, and all communicate that day at his hands, it 
is cafie by this to judge of moll other Churches. 

XXXV. Concil. PariftenC. i. ('" Cara>:z.pag.2^^. Cm:. •).) faith, [NhIIus it is thi 
civibiis invitii ordinctur Fpifcopus^ nifi quern Popttli & Clericoritm EkBio pkr.ijjima tiihth 
tjiixficrit ivlitntate > Non principii impmo^ tuque per qtismlibet conditionem Mctrapo- c^"'' jx 
lii volitntate Epifcoporum Comprmincialium iiigeratm: ^itod fi per ordimtioncm ' ' 
Kegiam honor'n fiii culmen pervadcrc aliqidi nimia temyitate pr^fumpferit, a Compro- 
I'inciaJibus loci ipfuis Epifcopii recipi ntdlatenus mereatttr, quern indebitc ajfumptttm 
agnofatnt. Siquii de Comprai'incialibus recipere eum contra indiila prxjhnpfcrit^ 

fit a fratribus omnibns fcgregatm^ & abipforum omnium Chjritatc remotm.'] Here 
again you fee liow late all the Church was to chufe every Billiop ■, pleriffima vc- 
luntate i and confcqucntly liow great tlie Church waS. And were this Canon 
obeyed, all the people iniift feparate from all the BilTiops of England-, as here 
all are commanded to do from all thofe Bilhops that do but receive one that is 
put in by the King, and not by the free choice of all the Clergy and People of 
his Church. Note that Cvjt (Vol. 7.. pjg. i.^\.) hath it, [_cflntra MetropoHi 
voUintatcm :~\ But both that, and C»r.z«s,i's Reading, who omittcth [cfi«frj] 
fcem contrary to the fcope-, and it's moft likely that it (liould be read [^Mctrc- 
polii voluntate, contra Epifcoporum comprov.^ Jcilicct voUtntatcm, 

XXXVI. Lro.i. P. Kom. EpIJl. 8p. pag. (mihi) t6o. damning Saint Hil- 
lary Magifterially, yet faith, f Expcciarentur certe vota Civium, tejlimonia populo- 
rum, quxreirtur bonoratorum arbitrmm-, Eledio Clericorum, qu£ in Sactrdot/rmfo' 
lent ordinationibus, ab hii qui norunt patrum rcgul.K, cujlodiri., ut Ap^fftolicx atttho' 
ritatis norma in omnibw fcwarettir., qua pr£cipitur ut Sacerd'U F.ccleft£ prsfuturuf., 
lion folum attcjhtione fdclinm, &c. Et pojlea^Tcncatur fubfcriptio Chricerum^ /;<>• 
noratortmi tcfiimoninm^ ordinU confenfii{ & Fkbif : Qui p-xfuturm eji omnibus^ ab 
omnibus tltz,aUir.'\ And how great muft tliat Diocefs be, where all the Laity 
muft chu^c and vote ? &c. It's true that Fpi^h S7. c. 2. />. 158. he would 

H not 


not tiave little Congregations to have a Billiop, to whom -one Presbyter k 
enuugli i and no wonder at that time, that this great Bilhop of Rowc, Cthe 
Hrft that notably contended for their undue Supremacy in the Empire] was of 
that mind ■ who alfo if)'{,'?.88. faith of the Choi-ej>tfcopi,{^i jnxta Cjn.Neocsefar. 
five fcciindmn jlicriitn dccntj patrmn iidcm funt qui & Pnsbyteri.) The falfehood 
of which being too plain, Fetavius in Epipbjiu ad Hxrcf. 74. p. 278. judgetli 
that thefe words being in a Parenthefis are imptitious.) And ibid. EpijL 88. 
he faith that by the Can. all thefe things following are forbidden the Cborcpifc. 
and Presbyter, [Fresbyterortmi., Viaconomm, aiit Virginum coiifecratio, ficut con- 
ftitutio Ahari!., ac bencdi&io vel wicfio : Siquidem ikc erigcrc m Altaria, nee Eccle- 
fi.K vcl Aliaria conficrare licet., mc per impofitioms mantmm fdclibiis baptizandit 
vel converts ex h^refi Tarackium Spiritum SMiUum ti\ido:e., mc Cbrifma conficere, 
>iec Chrifmate Baptizatornni fro/itcs fignarey mc publicc qiiidan in Miffa quemqitam 
pxnitoitem reconciHare^ mc formaus citilibet EpiiioLu mittcrc."] By which it ap- 
peareth how big that Man's Diocefs muft be, who befides all his other work, 
niurt be prefent to fign every baptized perfon, and reconcile every Penitent in 
every Congregation. And it's worth the noting what kind of works they be 
that the Bilhop's Office is maintained for. 

XXXVII. From the great Church o[ Rome (it its firft Tide time) let us 
look to the great Church oi Gonftantinopk 5 even in the days of a better Bilhop, 
Cbryfojlom : Befides that they had long but one Temple, (of which anon) 
Cbi-yfojinm faith in i T^bef. 5. 12. Orat, 10. -n^Ziov jUtv, &c. Et prinrnm debet 
impcrarc & pr£ejfe volenlibns & htbentibiis., qui ci gratiam babent quod imperet^ 
(p. i^'J2, & p. 1 473 .J S acerdos in boc fuum contulit mgotiiwi : NuHa eft ei alia 
vita qitam M verfetur in Ecclefia— ^{i Cbrijhtm diligit^ cu]ufmodiciinque fit Sa- 
cerdos atm diliget., quod per cum fit veneranda ajfecutui SacrameMa > ( And Doctor 
Hammond faith, this Text fpeaketh only of Bittiops, ilbef.'j. 12.) Et ibid. 
\_Pro te precatitr, & dono quod per Baptifmum datwtibi infervit., vifitat^ hortatur 
&monet, & media noUe fi vocaveris vcnit7\ And how many Parilhes can a Bi- 
lhop thus ferve ? And how many fcore miles will they fend and he go to vilit 
the S'lck at midnight ? 

And Cbryfift. in 1 Cor. 14. p. ^53. faith, Conveiiiebant oUm^omnes pfallebant 
commuKiter. Hoc nunc quoquc facimof-, ( Tliey had no feparating Chorilkrs ) 
fed tunc in omnibtu erat una anima & cor unum : Nunc autem nee una quidem ani- 
tna illam concordiam videris &■ confeiifmn i fed ttbique magnum eft Bellum, Tacem 
nunc quoque precatur pro omnibuf, is qui prxeft Ecchfis., tft qtfi in domum ingrcditur 
patcrnam, fed.ht^Ui pads nomen quidem eft fcqiuns^ res auieni nufquam. Tunc 
etiam domiK erant Ecclefia ( though called Conventicles : ) Nunc autem Ecclefia - 
eft domus, velpotius quavis dome deierior. When Churches grew to be Diocefes 
they grew worfe than when they were in houfes : But he that liere is faid pr^' 
effe Ecclefi£ is he alfo that pronounccth Peace to them. 

XXXVIII. Gregory Nyfen. fpeaking of the gathering of true Cbtirchcs by 
jpieathing, faitij (in Ecchfiaft. Horn, i . p. (mihij p^.) {_He is the true Preacher, 



n>bo gathemh the difperfed into one Affemhly.and briiigeth thofe together into one Con-^ 
gregation (or Convention) rvho by various Errors are varioujly fcdnced. 

XXXIX. He that readeth impartially Bedas Ecclefiaftical Hirtory (hall find 
that in England between fix and feven hundred years after Chrift they were but 
Ungle Churches that had Bifhops : For indeed the famoufeft and holiert of them 
in the Kingdom o[ Northnmberla?id, were hut Scots Presbyters, and fuch as 
were fcnt by them without any Epifcopal Ordinations (Aidan^ Finan,6^c.) 
And though they did Apoftolically preach in many places to convert the Hea- 
then Inhabitants, yet their Churches of Chriftians were fmall : yet prcfently 
the Roman Grandeur and Ceremonioufnefs here prevailed, and fo by degrees 
did their Church-form. Yet faith Camhden, Brit. ed. Frank- p. too. When 
the Bifhops at Rome had afligned fcvcral particular Churches to feveral Presby- 
ters, and had divided Parifhes to them, Honorius Arch-Bifliop of Canterbury 
about the Year 63 <5. firft begun to i'liWihutc England into Parilhes, as is read 
in the Canterbury Hiftory.^ But it's plain in Bcda-, if he did then begin it, he 
went but a little way with that divilion. 

The fame Cambdcn alfo tells us, that the Biflioprick of Ljr/^^devoured fevcn 
Bilhopricks, and the Billioprick of Lincoln more, &c. Some Seats were but 
removed, but many Bifhopricks were dilTolvcd and turned into one, which 
yet were eredJcd when Chrilhans were fewer, faith Ifaackfon Chronolog. There 
was one at Wilton^ the See at Ramesbury, one at Crcditon, one at St. Patricias 
tit Bodmin in CornivaU^ and after at St. GtTw.w;/, on€ at -^fZ/f)' Ifland, one at 
Dunjvich^ one at Helmham^ and after at Thetford^ one at Sidnacelhr or Lindii, 
one at Ofney, one at Hexham, &c. And at this day Landaff, St. Afaph\ Ban- 
gor, St. David's arc no Cities, where wc have Bilhops Seats, as notices of the 
old way. 

XL. Iftdoruf Tcleufwta, lib.]. Spijhi^p.to BifhopTtv/wwj/wj- diftinftly nam- 
cth tlic Bilhop's Charge, and the calamity, if he be bad, that will befall himfelf 
firll, and then the wlwle Church : Himfelf for undertaking and not perform- 
ing, and the whole Church, oTi TOjcuTii) ItgcoTUMr ocva^ia? iTriS^awx.'', §^id 
hujufmodi viro Sacerdotium indigne mandavit. The; whole Church then was 
no bigger than to chufe tlie Bi(hop and be under his prcfcnt infpedion, as he 

And Epift. 315. to Eilliop I contius ■■, [ If thou tookcft on thee the care of the 
Church, againrt thy \Vill,and art ciMifiramcd by the Suffrages, and the Conten- 
tions and Hands of the People, God will be thy helper.—— But if by 
Money &c. 

Lib. 5. Ep. 2 1(5. p. 342. He rcckoncth up fuch and fo much work as nc- 
ceflarytora Bilhop as no man living can do for above one ordinary Parifli. 
And frequently he dcfcribeth the City and Congregation at Ttlnfum as the 
place where the wicked Bilhop and his wicked Priclls together dclhoycJ the 
intcrcft of true Religion, 

Hi XLI. I 

XLI. I conclude this with the words of Etifebius with the CoIIedion of P<i- 
ptiits Maffonm^ a Writer of the Popes Lives. [ Fabianits ab in ele&m efl ad 
EfifcopatHm urbU : Ac forte evenit ut in locum ttU convenerant CoUtmba, e fubUmi 
Tolans caplti eJM hifideret. Id pro fielici jigno accipk/ites magna coiifenfu & alacritatt 
animorum ipfum ehgcrunt : H£c Eufebius, Hiji. I. 6. Ex qno loco coVegimus Elc- 
Rionem Epifcopi Komani^ non ad paucns, fed ad omiics olim potimtijfe. Pap. Maf- 
foii. in vita Fabiani, fol. i8 col. 2.] And if all the whole People of the great 
Church of Ktfwe, were then no more than could meet in one Room to chufe 
their Bifhop, what were the reft of the Churches in the World ? and how ma- 
ny Congregations did they contain? 


More Proofs of the aforefaid Li?7nts of Churches. 

THe thing that we are proving is that every Bidiop fhould have but one 
Church ( fuppofing him to be no Arch-Bifliop ) and that this Church 
fhould be fuch and fo great only as that there may be perfonal Communion in 
publick Worlhip and holy Converfation between the Members : and not fo 
great as that the Members have only a Heart-Communion, and by Delegates 
or Synods of Officers. 

As to our Hiftorical Evidence of the matter of fadt, it runs thus : i. That 
in the firft ftate of the Churches, it cannot be proved that any one Church in 
all the World confifted of more Hated Com.municating Aflemblies than one, or 
of more Chrilhans than our Parilhes. But though through Perfecution they 
might be forced (as an Independant Church now may do J) to meet by parcels in 
feveral Houfes fometimes in a danger, yet their ordinary Meetings when they 
were free was all together' in one place : And Vnimi Altare was the note of 
their Individuation, with Vnm Epifcoptts, when Bilhops grew in falhion in the 
eminent fenfe. 

2. That the firft that broke tliis Order and had divers AfTemblies and Altars 
under one BiOiop were Alexandria and Howe, and no other Church can be pro- 
ved to have done fo, for about three hundred Years after Chrift or near i nor 
moft Churches till four hundred,, yea-hve hundred Years after, 

5. That when they departed from this Church temperament, tliey proceed- 
ed by thefe degrees.. 1. They (et up (bme Oratories, orChappels (as are in 
our PanfhesJ which had only Prayers and Teachings without an Altar, Obla- 
tions or Sacramentsin the City, Suburbs or Coantry Villages near, the People 
coming for Sacramental Commuiiion to the Bilhop's Church. 2, Afterward 



thefe Chappels were turned into Communicating Churclies : But fo as that at 
firlt t!ie Bilhop's Presbyters Cwho lived fomctimes in the fame Houfe with him, 
and always near him in the fame City, and were his Colleagues) did preach 
and officiate to tlicm indifferently, that is, he whom the Bifhop fent ; and af- 
ter that a particular Presbyter was ailigned to teach a particular Congregation i 
yet fo, as that more of the Bilhop's Presbyters commonly had no (vich Con- 
gregations, but the moft of them liill attended the Bilhop in his Church, and 
(ate with him on each iiand in a high raifcd Seat, and whilfl he did ufually 
preach and adminifter the Sacramau, they did but attend him and do nothing, 
or but foine by aififting Adi : as Lay-Elders do in the Presbyterian Churches > 
principally employed in pcrfonal overlight, ^nd in joyning in Government 
with the Biihop. And thofe fame Presbyters who had Congregations, joyned 
with the reft in their Weekly Work, and made up the Confrffm or College of 
Presbyters. 3. And next that (and in fomc places at the fame time) Com- 
municating Congregations were gathered in the Cou>itry Villages, fo far ofF 
the City, as that it was found meet to leave a "Presb^'ter Relidcnt among them -, 
but under the Government of the City Bifhop and Presbytery, of whom he 
was one when he came among them. And all this while the Churches were 
but like our greater Parilhes which have divers Chappcls, where there is liberty 
of Communicating. 4. After this when tlie Countries were more converted, 
there were more Country Parilh-Congregations fct up i till they attained the 
form of a Presbyterian Church, differing only in the Bilhop i that is, a certain 
number ot the Neighbour Country Parilhes in one Conlillory (but with a Bi- 
lhop^ did govern all thefc Parilhes as one Church s that is, It was many IFor' 
fflyipping Churches (as iix, eight, or ten, or twelve,) joyning to make up one 
governed Church. But at the fame time many Pallois and People being con- 
vinced of the Church-form which they had before been u^ider, and of their 
own ncceffity and privileges, did require the fame Order among themfclves as 
was in City Churches, and (i) had tlicir proper Bilhops, wlio were called Cho- 
nfifcft, or Country 'Bilhops. But thcfe Country- Bilhops living among the 
poorer and fniallcr number of Chrifiians, had not lb many Presbyters to attend 
them as theCity-Eilhops had:So that fome Country Congregations had Bilhops 
and fomc had ncne. And the Churches being ciiietly governed by the Synods-, 
who met for obliging Concord) to avoid Divilions; thefe Synods b^ingmadc 
up of the City-Billiops at hrft, they there carried it by Vote to make all the 
Country-Bilhops under them, and refponiible to them : Which they the ra- 
ther and theeafilier confcntcd to, becaufemany obfcurc and unworthy Fellows 
did inlinuate into the elkem of the Country-Chriliians, who had no Bilhops 
near them to advife thtm better ■■, and fo became tlic Corrupters of Doitrir.e, 
and the Mailers of ScSts and Herelics. 
• By this time one, part of the Countiy Churches had Bilhops of their o^vn, 
and the other had none, but only Presbyters under the City-Biihops and Pief- 
bytery. But yet it was but few Neighbuur-Parilhcs, like our Market-Towns 
and the Villages between them that were thus under the City-Bilhop. For 
tvery.fuch luwn was tlun. called a City in the larger feufe as it iignihedi 


Opj>idum, and moft fuch Towns had City-privilcgcs too, which was no inore 
than to be Corporations, and not to have a Nominal Eminency, as now fomc 
Imall places have above greater (as Bath rather than tlhnottth^ Ipfwicb, Shrcwf- 
biii-y^ &c.) 

Next to this, the Emperors being Chriftians, and defiring without force to 
draw all the People from Heathenifm to Chriftianity, they thought it the beft 
way to advance the ChrilHans in worldly rcfpeds, which ever win on com- 
mon minds. And fo they endued the Churches and Biftiops with fuch Ho- 
nours and Powers licretotore defcribed as were lilie to the Honour and Power 
of the Civil Governors in their kind. And the Bithops being thus lifted up, 
did Hrft enlarge their own Diocefes as far as they could, and advance their 
Power i and the World came unchanged into the Church, both in Cities and 
Villages, (where the Chriftians were before fo few, that many think the Hea- 
thens were called Tagani in dillindiion from the Citiiens, who were Chri- 
ftian.) And then the Bilhops put down the Chorepifiopi, as prefuming too 
much to imitate their Power : And next to that, left every Corporation or 
Market-Town having a Billiop, their Diocefes fhould not be great enough, 
znd tie z'/lffccm nomcn Epifcopi, left a Bilhop's Name fliould not be honoured 
enough, but become cheap by reafon of the number, and of the fmallnefs of his 
Church,they firft ordered that no fuch fmall Cities or other places as had People 
enough for but one Presbyter,niould have a Bifliop , and afterward by degrees 
put down many fmaller Bilhops Churches, and joyned them to their own : 
And fo proceeded, by the advantage of Civil Alterations on Cities Names and 
Privileges, to bring themfelves to the ftate that they are in, wherein one Bi- 
(hop infimi ordiim (that is no Arch-BilhopJ hath many hundred or above a thou- 
fand Churches and multitudes of Cities, called now but Corporations, Bur- 
roughs or Market-Towns. 

I have repeated fo much of the Hiftory, left the Reader forget what it is 
that I am proving i and that he may note, that if [ prove now that in later 
Ages they kept but the Vcjiigia , or Reliques of the former to prove how 
it was before their times, and if I prove but a Church of Presbyterian 
Magnitude to have fo long continued, it fufficeth againft that which we now 
call a Diocefs : And that we do not play with Names, nor by a Diocefane 
Church, mean the (ame thing with a Parochial or Presbyterian ■■, but we 
mean fuch as cur Diocefes now are, where a Bilhop alone witli a Lay-Chan- 
cellor's Court, or with fome fmall help of an Arch-Deacon, Surrogate, or 
Dean and Chapter, without all the Parilh-Minifters befides, doth rule a mul- 
titude of diftant Congregations, who have no proper Bilhop under him. And 
now I proceed. 

I. The Chorepifcopi which were at iirft placed in Country Churches where 
were many ChrilHans, do fbew what extent the Churches were then of : That 
thefe were really Bilhops at firft (whatever the aforefaid Parenthefis in Leo or 
Vamajhs lay) moft Writers for Epifcopacy, Papifts and Proteftants do now 
grant i and therefore I may fpare the labour of proving it ; And whereas it is 



faid that they were but the Bidiop's Depirtks : I anfwer, even as Biftiops are ^-^^ ^^^^^ 
"the Arch-Bi(hops Deputies i that is, they were under them, but were really „vi, in' 
Bifhops themfelves : For if a Biftiop may depute one that is no Bilhop to be his Epip.'hf- 
Dcputy, either a Presbyter alfo may depute one that is no Presbyter to admi- rcf. dp. p. 
niftcr the Sacraments, or not. If yea, then Lay-men ihall come in and all be ^jf'^"'* 
levelled, (For a Deacon alfo may depute his Office.) If not, then either a Bi- jl„ ^;„yy 
fhop cannot do it, or elfe the Presbyter's Oliice is much holier than the Bi- chmpion 
Qlop^S. oj PrtUcj 

And that thefe Chorefifca^ Countjcy-Bilhops w«e not finch Rarities as to in- ^'^Hf^l 
validate my Proof, but very common, befides what is before faid, is evident ^^,^^ j^, 
by the Subfcriptions of many Councils, where great ilore cf C^wfp//c(7^» arc chorepif- 
found. And bcfidcs the names in our common Collcdicns of the Councils, copi ^"' 
how it was in the Egyptian and Neighbour Chiucli^s at leaft Cif riot how it 'J"^ ^'* 
was at Nice) you may fee in tlie Arabick^ Subfcriptions publilhcd by Sddai in * 
his Comment on 'Emych.Ong, AUx. pa;:,. 95,94, 95- &c. Num. 29, 31, 55, 
^-l-, (58,119,122, 1 28," 1 3 1, 1 79, 193, 2i«j, 237, 241,278. There are feventeen 
named. And tlie Canons made to curb and fupprefs them, fhew that they 
were ordinary before \ as, Concil. Laodic. Cjii, 57, But they Ihould rather 
have incrcafcd them, that Bifliops might have multiplied as Churches or Chri- 
fiians incrcafed, which was decreed here in EngLwid in the cjp. 9. of the 
Council at Hertford, per Thcodor. C^tiur. tvfcrviie Bids, lib. 4, Hiji. Ealifi ■ 
■cap. 5. 

II. The very name Ecckfu which was firft ufcd before Varodjis or Vixccjis, 
and ftill continued to tliis day-, doth thew what the form of a Church then 
was, cfpecially; if you withal confidcr, that the name was communicated to 
the Temples or facred Meeting- Places, which are alfo ordinarily calkxl Ecchft£i 
wliich no Man doubteth was in a fccondary fenfc, as derived from the People, 
who were the Ecckfu in the primary fenfc. And fo even in our Tongue, the 
word Church is ufcd for both to this day, as it is in many other Languag/cs. 
Now it is certain that a part, cfpecially a fmajl part, (a hundredth or a thou- 
fandth part) of the Church is not the Church (unlefs equivocally.^ Why 
then Ihould the Temple be io called from the Church, when noCluirch at all, 
but a Particle only of a Church doth meet there ?( For that the woxiX^Cburch']m 
our Qacltioo is' not taken for ;^ny Community or Company of Chriftians, but 
for a governed Society eonfifting of the governing and governed part, 1 have 
before (hewcd.J But, i. A Church in its iirll and proper Notion being Ca- 
im Evocatiis., An AlTcmbly, or Convention or Congregation s t as dittinguilli- 
cd: from the Univafal Cliurch, which is fo called bccaufe it is called out o( the 
World to Chrifl the Head, and with him (hall make one glorious Society J 
how are thofetwcnty or an hundred Miles off, any more a part of the Aifein- 
bly where I live, than thof; at the AMipodci inay be ? If you fly to one Go- 
vernor, I anfwer i i . So the Pbpe cUinieth a Government at the Antipodes. 
a. A Governor of niany Aifcmblics imy make thcro one Society, as to Go- 
"Vcr.nmcnt, but not pnc Aflaiiyy. 

2. Aud. 


2. And certainly when Temples were firft named Cburchef^ it was not be- 
caufe thofe met there that were iio Churcber, but only Members of Churches ; 
Nor is this Parilh Church called a Church becaufe f6me meet here that belong 
to the Church at Pojhn^ Lincoln or Grantham ■■, But to this day we cannot dif- 
■■ ufeour felvesfrom faying, tlie Church o( Barnct, the Church of Si. Albans^ 

' of Hatfield, &c. yea, in the fame City, we denominate the feveral Temples 
fiill feveral Churches. 

Hcfychm explaineth Ecclcfia, by no other words than thefe three, (tuvocRo?-, 
evvx^ay^ & Traviiyug/?, which all fignifie the Meetings of the People, and 
not Men that never fee each other, only becaufe one Man ruleth them. 

Mr. /l<fede in his Exercitat. of Temples proveth largely that the places of 
Meeting are ordinarily by the Ancients called Churches, even in f.veral Cen- 
turies. Eufeb. lib. 8. cap, I. faith, in every City they built fpacious and ample 
Churches. And Tbeopbil. Antiochcn. Antol. faith, \_ Sic Veuf dcdit ntmido, qui 
** Leg. Al- pcccatomm tcmpejiatibus &" tiaufragiii 'jaCiatur, Synagogns-, quas Yccl^uK fanSttf 
tare ^^^' . „gfr,inamw, in quibm vcritatis ddirinafenet, ad qim conftiginnt veritatU fludiofty 
Sjfw; i>. ' (Jfotfjuot fjlvari, Dcique judicium & iratn rdtai'e vohtnt.~\ 

Field,1.5. So 'Tertidlian-, de IdnloLit. cap. J. pag. iji. Iota die ad banc partem zeliif fidei 
c. 28. In ingenuum Chrijliamim ab Idolis in Ecclcfiam venire-, de adverfaria Officina in domttm 
'^%"^''-'lh ^" venire, &c. The very Name there oiz Church, and the naming of a lingle 
"intiined Tcmpk thencc doth fignifie our fuppofition. 
the citi- 

%m, and in. To this I may add the Name and ^ Fr'miitive Senfe of Tru^omoc. For it 
B derr fig'ii'i^fli a Fictt/t)', znd Parochns Vicinus, a Cohabitant or Neighbour, as well 
as drvtlt ^s inquilinui, and is ufed in all the ancient Church-Writers as noting both a 
near, and Sojourner fas Chriftians are in the WorldJ and a Neighbour,- h conftantly in 
refaired to x[-m\it&x fenfe, not excluding the former. Elfe Men of feveral parts of the 
'ch h ^^^"-'^ might have been laid to be TrajniRoi, becaufe inquilini, had it not alfo 
citr-ADi- ^'""^ Specially fignified Vicinity. To avoid tedioufnefs of Citations, I refer the 
ocefs both unfatisfied Reader but to Gerf. Bucer againft Dojrnam, and the Bafil Lexicon oi 
then and Henr. Pet, in the word wagcjRO^. And though the cullom of calling a Church 
now m- jjy jj^g name itaoamoc continued when the Church was altered in magnitude 
ViUages ^'^ ^ \^x%^ Dlocefs, yet that is fo far from proving that this was the Hrlt and 
& church- old fignification, as that the word rather plainly leadcth us up to the thing and 
es dif^irfsd j}f,j} which firft it fignified. And therefore to this day, Etymology teachcth us 
in divers niore wit than in Englifh to call a Diocefs a P^ri/^, but only a Vicinity of 
linthe "ri- Chrillians : And when the a Vicinity is the Englilh of the Word, why (hould 
^imcnt of Strangers that we (hall never fee or have to do with, any more than thofe 
onetilhof] in the uttermoft part of the Land, be called our Parilhioners or Neigh- 

f^''^/'"V hours ? 
true uje of 

the words, 

againjl IV. Another clear Evidence of the truth in queftion is the Paucity of 

vchit Churches ( or confccratcd Meeting-Places ) for many hundred Years after 
ani'others ^^"^'^^ • ^°^^ before they were called Temples and after. Not that occafional 
*{aend. Meeting-places were few (Houfes, Fields, &c,) but appropriated confecrated 


places called Churches, where there were Altars, or ordinary Church-Commu- 
nion in the Lord's Supper. ( Or rather it is doubtful wiiether the name of Al- 
tars with the form were introduced till two hundred Years after Chrifl, which 
maketh fome the more queftion the Antiquity of Ignatius and Ckm. Conji. and 
Can. ApojhJ I yield to Baroniiif (ad Jn.'yj.) that theChrilUans had Churches, 
that is, places confecrated for Church-AlTcmblies, under thofe peaceable Em- 
perors that went before Viockfian : For Eufcbius (befides others) exprefly tcl- 
leth us fo : Spaciof,K & ampLif con}hnx(rnr.t Ecclefias : But I dcfue the Reader 
to mark his words. " Lib. 8. cap. i. [ A man might then have fcen the Bi- 
" fliops of all Churches in great reverence and -favour among all forts of Men, 
" and with all Magiftrates : Who can worthily defcribe thofe innumerable heaps 
" and flocking multitudes through all Cities and famout Affcmblics frequenting 
"the places dedicated to Prayer ? Becaufe of which Circumftances, they not 
" contented with the old and ancient Buildings, which could not receive them, 
" have through all Cities buildcd them from the Foundation wide and 
"ample Churches.^ Here note, i. That here is no mention of any more 
Churches than one in each City : Cities and AJfeniblies are numbered together. 
2. That thefe Buildings are called Churches, 3. That thefc Churches were 
built greater than the old ones anew from the Foundation, becaufe the old 
ones were too narrow to contain the People : But not fuperadded to the old 
ones. 4. Tliat the Bilhops are called I he Bifhops of all Chmxhes in relation to 
the fame kind of Churches as are here defcribed. So that then a Bilhop's 
Church met in one enlarged place. 

Yet all thefe were no Temples , but fuch as the filenced Minifiers have of 
late built in fome parts of Londmi i for the ChrilHans were in continual dan- 
ger of the demolilhing of them : which fell out in D;Wt;^j/;'s time. But till 
this Cslin whicli Euj'cbim here defcribcth, tor about two hundred and fifty 
Years after Chrid, the Chrillians oft n\et in Vaults and fecret places, where 
they might be hid, and not in open Churches, unlefs now and then in a Calm 

Tlatina in tit. Xijii, tells us, that even at Rome it felf about the Year 120. 
there were few found that durft profefs the Name of Chrirt. And fee what 
lie faith. In Vita Clement. I. & Anacht. & Mantuan. lib. \. fjlhr. Ac Clem. A- 
nacl.Evarij}. Alex. Xtji.C.iJijl. Urban. &c. In whofe times, Killing, Banilh- 
ing and Perfecuting caufed Scatterings, hidings, and as flmy tells us many A- 
poltafies. See what Cerf.Bucer im\\ fag. 221,222,223. of all the Ages 
now in quelhon about this matter : As Tertul'ian faith, Apol.c, 3. adeoinho- 
viinibus inmicuU., nomen innociium erat odio : Did the Rabble but fee or hear the 
ChrilHans, they were raged againll them, and cried to the Judges, jMie 

Saith Folydor. Virgil, de invent, rer. I. 5. c. 6. Ro»L£ tion reperij ouid fciam 
aliud antiquiui templimi tcdijicstum jut dicatum, vel ad nfum Sacrorum fuiffi con- 
verfum, quam Ihermas Novjti in vico patricio, qias Fim Pontifex Praxidis tximia 
fanaitatU fxmin£ ri>s,.itu.,dn'£ Pudentian^ ejus Sorori confca-aiit '■, quifuit annu< cir- 
citer 1 50. But ti:e name Janphim here is not ufed by Polydore as by tlie An- 

1 cients. 


cients, for a large and comely Fabrick. For, faith 'fertullian, after that, Apol. 
c. 37. Clmjlijnf leave "Temples to the Heatlxns. And faith Pope Nichol.K, in 
Epiji de depofitio/ie Zachariit & Rodoaldi Epifc. (recited in his Life by Pjpir. 
Majfonuf, Fol.17,2. Col. 2,) [^Veinde propter frigidiorcmloatm in Ecclefia Salva- 
torii^ qn£ ab Antbore vacatur Conllantimaiu, & qti£ prima in toto terrarum orbe 
conflmda cjh'] You fee that by this Pope's own Teftimony, there was no 
church in the whole World built before this one at Rome by Conftantine. The 
meaning is, no large (umptuous place called a Temple, but only commodious 
meaner Rooms or -Buildings. 

And the fame Pap. Miffon. in Vita Bonifacii^fol.'^ 5. noteth that Hia'om even 
in his time ffo late) Bafilicas Chriflianorum trcs tantum commemorate. 

When upon the great increafe of Chriftians, but one odd Idol Temple even 
in Alexandria^ was begged of the Emperor for the Chriftians, Kuffin. lib. 2, 
cap. 22. and divers Others tell us what tumult and ftir it caufed. And when 
Etifeb. deVitaConjlant. lib. ^. c. 49,50. tells us of his building ofCliurches 
except Coiijiantinople, it is but one in a City,- even the great Cities, Nicomedia 
mBythifiia^ and Antioch. And Socrat. lib. 1, cap. 12. faith that even in Co«- 
ftantinnpk (which he made fo great and beautiful that it was no whit inferior 
to Kome, and by a Law engraven on a Pillar, commanded that it be called 
Second Bome^) he built from the Foundation (but) two Churches, PacU & 

I could find in my heart, were it not tedious, here to tranflate all Ifidor. 
Peliifi0ta''s Epiji. 2i\6. lib. 2. in which heopeneth the difference between Tem- 
plmi and EccUfia, and inveigheth againft that Bi(hop as no Bilhop, wlio cried 
up the Temple as the Church, while he perfecuted and vexed the Godly who 
are the Church indeed •, and againil them that are for fumptuous Temples and 
unholy fcandalous Churches \ and tells us he had rather have been in the 
times when Temples were lefs adorned, and the Churches more adorned with 
Heavenly Graces, than in thofe unhappy times when Temples were too much 
adorned, and Churches naked and empty of Spiritual Graces. 

So that when there was but one Temple in a City, (except two or three) 
and when that was called the Churchy becaufe it contained the Churchy it's evi- 
dent what the Churches then were. 

V. The ancient Agapte (hew how great the Churches tlien were, wlien 
as all the Church did feaft together : and thefe continued in lertnUians time, 
in fome pbces at leaft : And feveral Church-Canons mention them after that. 
And Chryfiji. faith (Homil. de Oportet hxref. ejfe p. (mibi) 20, 21. that in the. 
Primitive times, there was a cullom that after Sermon and Sacrament, tliey 
all fealled together in the Church, which he highly praileth. (But it was not 
many hundred Churches that fealied in one Room.J And after he faith, [The 
Church IS like Woa^'s Ark, but Men come in Wolves, and go out Lanibs, &c.] 
(hewing that by the Church he meant the Affcmhly. And after, [All have the 
fame Honour, and the fame Accefs, till all have' communicated and partaked 
of the fame Spiritual Meat, The Prielts Handing expett them all, even the 



pooreft Man of all,] (Ey this he flicweth what Church he meant, and how ^^'"'"' 
great the Church was.; Et Smn. 21. pjg.^ 13. Kodundat injnria in loam il- Alba'fpi' 
[itm ■, Ecckftam ciiim tntam coiitemnis : Proptcrca eniin Ecclcfra dicitttr^ quia ommtt- naus U' 
niter omius accipit. This doth not only fhew what Church he meanedi, but bourtth to 
fully confirmeth what I faid before : that [ 7he whole Chuirh jv.k in that place : P''"'^' ''''" 
and that iln place Uihercfore called the Churchy hecanfe it commonly receiveih all.'] ^^j^^^f* 
But note that this was not preach'd at Co/ijlanti/wple, but yet at the great Patri- at the U- 
archal Church of Antioch. crament. 

And I may add as to the former Evidences', T^o. 5. Serm. 52. pag.']o<,. when ''"dinthit 
he had fhewed that in the Church there muft be no divifion, he cxpoundetli it \l^l\JJtfi, 
by [ofit'v Toi Tvi? ffuvo'tA^ Taurus- Ixutov (iwopp,<|a5.] [^" feipfum ah hoc con- thitthcy 
Tcntti fejwixerit.'] So that the AflTenibly was the Churcli, and not a thoufandth wen mat- 
part of the Church only. i'>i' »/''" 

See more of the Churches feafting together in Baronim ad an- 57. i^ag. (td. "^frnity' 
Tlant.) 543. to fpare mc more labour about this. arid. it\ 

li^t no 

VI. Another Evidence of the Limits of the ancient Churches is fthat which *""•/"' "'•*'" 
I oft mentioned in the particular Teftimonies) that every where all the People '^^''t^fn^l,] 
either chofc^ or exprefly confcnted to their Bifliops, and they were ordained over church- 
them in their fight. And this no more could do than could meet in one place ; houfi, ft 
and one part of a Church hath no more right to it than all the reft. The Con- '^'"j^ '*" 
fequence is evident : And for them that fay, that it was only the Parilliioners J//ft"j^" 
of the Cathedral Church that voted v I anfwer, Now Cathedrals have no Pa- 
riflies, and heretofore the Cathedral Parifh was the tvhok Chitrch. The Tefti- 
monies fully prove that it was All the Church or People that were the Eilhop's 
Finely: And for fomc hundreds of Years there were no Parifhes in his Diocefs 
but one, and therefore no fuch diftindion. Pamdiiiis heap of Teftlmonies, 
and many more, for the matter of fadt I have already cited : And however 
fomc talk now to juftifie tlie contrary courfc of our times, it is fo clear and full 
in Antiquity that the People chofe their Billiops, at firft principally, and after 
fecondarily after the Clergy, having a Negative Voice with them, and their 
Confent and Teftimony everneceffary, even for eight hundred Years atleaft, 
that it would be a necdlefs thing to cite any more Teftimonies of it to any ver- 
fed in the Ancients. Papifts and Protcftants arc agreed defado that fo it was. 
See Cyprian., lib. 4. Epiil. 2. of Cornelius '•, lib. i. Epiji. 2. ot Sabiniif ■, and 
lib. I. Epiji. 4. Ettfeb. Hij}. lib. 6. cap. 2p. tells us that Fabian by the People 
was chofen to fucceed Antcnts. And Cyprian faith it was Iraditione Ap'jiol/ca., 
vid, & Socrat, lib. 4. cap. i\. & lib. 2. cap. 6. & lib. 7. cap. 35. 0" Sozomen. 
lib. 6, cap. 24. & lib. 8. cap. 2. oi' Chryfojlom ■-, & lib. 6. cap. 15. vid. & An- 
gnjiin. E-piji. 110. & Theodorct, Hill. lib. I. cap. p. in E-pilh Concil. Niaeni 
ad Alexandr. The Bloodllicd at the Choice of Vamafus was one of the Hrlt 
occafions of laying by that cuftom at Kome. And yet though they met not fo 
tumultuoufly, they muft confent. Lro's Teftimony I gave you before with ma- 
ny more. Ihcodor. lib. 5. cap. p. of Ne&arius ftieweth tliat Billiops were then 
chofen, Plebe pnefente & univcrfa fraternitate., as Cyprian fpeaketh of Sabinns. 

1 2 So 


So the Gvicih PM-/fie>i. even an. 559. But for more plentiful proof of this fee 
M. A. SfalaWif. de Kep. Ecdff. lib. i. cip. 22. ii. 10. & lib 6. cap. 7. & lib. 
3. cap. 3 «. 12. &c. & Btondel de Jme plebU., more ccpioully, and de 'Epij'.i^ 
Frefbyt. & fiilfim prrpct. Gofer/:, cap}")- & lib. of Chiiftian Subjed-ion oft. 

And it is to be noted that when tlie People's Confulion had made tiiem fcem 
uncapabk any longer to chufe : i. This was long of the Prelates thcmfelves, 
who by that time "had fo far enlarged their Churches, that the People were nei- 
ther capable of doing their ancient Work and Duty, nor yet of being ruled by 
the Clergy aright. 2. And when' the People were retrained from the Choice 
by Meetings and Vote, the Magirtrates in their Itcad did undertake the Pbwen 
3. And when it fell out of the People's hands into Great Mens, the Proud and 
Covetous who could beltfeek and make Friends did get the Bifliopricks, where- 
upon the Churches were prefently changed, corrupted and undone. 4. And 
the fenfe of this moved the few good Bilhops that were left to make Canons 
againll this Power and Choice of Princes and great Men, decreeing that all Bi- 
ftops obtruded by them on the Churches lliould be as none, but be avoided, 
and all avoided that did not avoid them. And the KoWiW and Patriarchal 
party cunningly joyned with thefe honeft Reformers to get the Choice out of 
the Magirtrate's hands that they might get it into their own ; and fo 
Chrid's Church was abufed among ambitious Ufurpers. The Decrees 
againit Magiftrates Choice of Billiops you may fee. Can. Apnfl. ^i. & Ve- 
cret.\y, q.y. c. jiqm Epi/c. Sept. Synod, c. 3. Dccret. 16. q. 7. Oc?. Synod, c. 12. 
& AS. 1. & c. 22. Decret. 16. q. 7. Nicol. i. Epi^i. 10. & Epifi. 6^. with 
more which you may find cited by Spalatenf. lib. 6. cap. 7. pag. 575, 

And it is to be noted that Cthough ftill tlie Clergy had a Negative or firfi: 
Choice, yet) when they procured C/^^^r/fj- the Great (who was to rife by the 
Papal help) to refign and renounce the Magiltrates Eledlion , he reliored 
the Church to its Ancient Liberties, as far as enlarged Diocefes and ambitious 
Clergy-men would permit it. His words are thefe, \_Sacrornm Canonum non 
ignariut inVci nomine Sanda Ecclefra fno liberiiu potiretur ijonore^ajfe/ifianordini Ec- 
ckfjafiico pr£bifimnf^ Kt fcilicet Epifcopi per Ekilionem CLERI & POPVLI fe- 
atndftm jiatnta Canonum de PROPRIA VIOECESI., remota perfonarmn & mit- 
mrum acceptione., ob vit£ merit itm &• fapientix donnm^tcligantur. ut exeniplo &• ver~ 
bU fibi fnb]e[lii ujquequaque prodcjfe valeant. ~\ Vid. Baron. To. 1 1 . ;/. 2 6. 
Vecrct. Diji. 6^. c Sacrorum. Where note that, i. he includeth the People of 
the whole Piocefs. 2. And -doth tliis as according to the facred Canons. So 
that for Men to dream that only the Pariihioners of a Cathedral Church 
Cwhich had no proper Parifh J or the Citizens only, were to chufe, is to feign 
that which is contrary to notorious Evidence of Laiv and Faa^zs- well as of the 
reafon of the thing. For where all are the Bijhops Flock,, and chufe as hit 
Flock^, there all the Flock^ muft. cl;ufe, and a parcel can claim no privilege 
above ali tlie reft. 

VJI. Tlie 


VII. The Yitxt Evidence is this : In the firft Age, it is very fairly proved by 
Dodt.r Hjmmond^ that there were by the Apoftles more BiChops and Churclies 
than one in many Cities thcmfi^Ives : And i( one C/';y had more than one 
Church and Buhop, then much more many diftant places, in Towns and 
Countries. That one City had more than one he Ihjweth by the di'tint^ion 
of Javs and Gentiles Churches : As Peter was appointed qjiicfly for tlic Jews,, 
and Paul chiefly for tlie Gentiles, fo he fheweth it vei7 probable, tliat at Romcy 
Antioch^ and other places they had feveral Churches. An! rhu5 he reconcileth 
the great differences about Linw^ Clemens and Cletiif ovAn.tclet.es. And efpe- 
cially on- this reafon, tliat they had not the fame Language. And indeed when 
in great Cities there are Chrillians of divers Languages, it isneccfTiry that they 
be of divers Congregations, unlefs you will have them Hear, as the Papills' 
will iiave them Pa/v, they know not what. And thougli (bme might fay, that" 
though they be of divers AflTemblics, yet they might have onely OrrBiJJwp 
to R///c them : I anfwer, i. Dr. H.j'mwW is ttiore ingemtous, and acknow- 
ledges tliat the divcrlitics of congregations and languages inferred a divcrfity 
of Churches and Bilbopsvvith their diltind: Clergy. 2. And all Antiquity 
made Preaching or Teaching his flock as efl^ential to the Billiops office as Go- 
verning them C of which next: ) But he could not, teaclv feveral Chifrches 
whofc language he underllood not. 

YIU. Antiquity made the three parts of the Bitliops office Tf.Tc/w;^, If^oyf.'i^" 
png-, and Gmerii/ng,to be of the fame extent as to the fubjed fociety under him. 
It was one and the fame Church wiiich he was ordinarily to Tcjch, to .guide 
in ivnrlhfp ( prayers, praifc, facramcnt ) and to Ruleby difcipline ( fuppoling 
ftill that we fpeak of ameer Bilbopand not an Archbilhop ) I ihould weary the 
Reader to cite numerous tclHmonics for fo notorions a thing. But it is known 
that the faid Billiop ncitlicris nor can be the Orrlhriry 'Teacher., ^nAGttiJe 
in worfh p to a Diocefe of a multitude of Churches, but to one or few at 
moll. And he that perufeth ancient writers, lliall find that the Bifhop was 
not only to be a rare or extraordinary Teacher of his whole flock, but the 
Ordinary ov\z : not only to (end others, but to do it himfelf i till the enlarge^ 
ment of Diocefes changed the cuflome. 

IX. Another evidence is this : In the firft two Centuries, Deacons and 
Biihops were ever ofticcrs in the fame Church : But Deacons were never then 
oflicers in more Churches ( or Hated aifemblies that had Sacramental Com* 
munion ) than one: tiieretore Bilhops were not officers in more. No proof 
can be given of any Deacon? tliat had tlie care ( in their places ) ot many 
Churches, Parilhes, or Societies of Chriftians. And when Diocefes vverc 
enlarged, it is notable that the Presbyter tliat was the pckLts Epifcopi in the 
Diocc(e is called the Archdeacon: Becaufe originally he was but indeed a Dea- 
con, the chief Deacon who was with the Bith>p in one and the fan.e Churclv, 
•It being then inoftdiium for a Deacon to belong to nianyi 

X. Another 


. X. Another evidence is. The Great. number of BiQiops who out ofa narrow 
fpacc of ground, did ufually afTemble in die ancient Synods. I told you befote 
out of Crab of Sylvejkrs number at Rome. B'tniiu alfo hath the Hke words 
[ Sylvcjler collegit in grcmia fedis fii£ 2%^ Epfcopos ] and that 139 of them were 
ex urbc Roma vd mi longc ab ilia. A hundred thirty nine Biftiops in Rome and 
not far from it, had not fuch Diocefcsas now. 

Cvf-v-zw faith, lib. I. E/?. 3. that Prnvm// was condemned ia ^j'/Wy L^/wie- 
fitana by QO Bifliops which was before Chril^ianity was countenanced by Em- 
perours , and were under perfccution, yea, long before Cyprian wrote that 

For tlie examining of every ordinary caufe of an accufed Presbyter, fex 
Epfcopi ex viciiiis locii, fix Biftiops from the neighbour places, C "^t from 40 
or fourfcore miles diftance ) were to hear and determine, and three Bifhops 
for the caufe of every Deacon, Concil. Afric. Can. 20. fo that no doubt but 
their Bifliops were as near as our Market Towns at leaft, even when fo few of 
the people were Chriftians as that all that fpace afforded but one great Con- 

The iixth provincial Council z.t Carthage \\^^ 217 Bifliops (whereas the 
General Council at 7rent had long but 40. 3 

A Council of Donatifts ( Hereticks not fo numerous fure as the Catbolicks) 
at Carthage, mentioned by Augu\}ine, Epijh6S. f about an. 308 ) had 270 
Bifliops. And when there were fo great a number of Heretick Bifliops, how 
many were there of the Catholicks and Donatifts and all other feds fet toge- 
ther? This one herefie had enow to become pcrfecutours of the Catholicks, 
( beating them with clubs, putting out the peoples eyes by cafting vineger 
mixt with lime into them, dragging them in the dirt) And yet they were the 
fmaller number , and complained of pcrfecution ■■, and fome Circumcellions 
killed themfelves to make the Catholicks odious as perfecutors ( Occifos aufe- 
runtltici, viv'a anfentnt Ittcem — . ^gd nobk faciunt fibi non imputant : & quod 
fibi faciunt >iobi6 imputant inqtuwit, Clerici Hippon. ib. ad Januarium. ) Certainly 
here were Churches no bigger then, than our fmaller Pariflies. 

And Atigtiftine cont. Gaudentium faith, there were innumerable Bifliops in 
Africa that were Orthodox. ( And it was but a corner o( Africa that were 
Chriitlans, and in the Roman Empire here meant. ) 

ViBor Vticenfis in perfecjtt. Vandal, flieweth that in that part of Africa 660 
Bifliops fled.-, befidesthe great number murdered, imprifoned, and many to- 
lerated. The like may be faid of Fatrickj Irifli Bifliops before mentioned, and 
many others, who plainly were Parochial Bifliops. 

XI. Another evidence is. The way of Strangers communicating then 
by way of Communicatory Letters, or Certiticates from the Church 
whence they came, which were to be fliewed to the Bifliop of the Church 
where they defired to communicate : But was it many hundred Churches that 
they mult thus fatisrie? or mult tiiey travail to the Bifliop with their Certifi- 
cate, before they mulf communicate in anyone Church within 20. 30.40. 



pr 50. miles of liim ? Doubtlefs an impartial Reader will think, that it was 
but a Bifhop of the fame City-Church which he defired Communion witli, 
to whom the Certificate was to be fliewn. See what Albafpin£us faith of thefe 
Letters, ex Concil. Laodk,c.\i. Concil. Antioch.c.i. Condi. Agath. cj/;. 52. 
Concil. Eliber. c. 58. in hisobfervat. p. 254, 255. 

XII. Another evidence is the ancient phrafc defcribing 3. Sch\Cmhy A It are 
aliud crigere^ to fct up another Altar^ or to fct up Altar againft Altar. And to 
fcparate from that Akar was to feparatc from that Church: which implyeth, 
that there was but one Altar in a Church i and multiplying Altars was multi- 
plying Churches. 

XIII. Another evidence was the late divifion of Parifhcs : The idle ftory oi'soSr.^en. 
Evarijlus dividing Parilhes at Rome ., GcrJ'.Bttccr hath fully confuted. It is Spelman 
inoft certain that except at Alexandria and Rome, it was long before they were ^°"cil. p. 
divided. Sir Rojr. Twifden H/jfni: Vindicat. c, g./-. p, 10. faith that it was under H^^ ^'J^,^' 
Theodore A. B, C. that Parochial Churches began ( mark Began ) to be eredted time about 
here m England, and the Bilhop of Kuwr greatly reverenced in this nation (j"c. An ^72. 
out of a MS. in Trinity Hall Cambridge. And it was 66S as Beda tells us ^'p^' f'' 
before Theodore was Ordained Bilhop. The evidence in hillory of the Latenefs tig'7.'"' 
of Parilh divilions is part doubt. Scld. of 

And whereas the ufual anfwer is, that there may be Dioccfcs without Pa- Xttf^np'o- 
rifhes ; I anfwer, It is not the Name [ Diocefe ] that is the thing in qucllion, '"t'^J^l'^^^ 
but the Church-lhte. While there was but one Altar, there was but one place oHofpli'' 
of ordinary Churcli Communion in the Lords Supper. And when there rl/ha in 
were more places with Altars ercAcd, they could not be, nor were long with- England 
out their proper affixed Presbyters fas Ariits his Cafe (licweth and as is con- '^•"' *"' 
feflcd ) And when that was done, they were Parilhes in our fenfe : And till yfj^ J^°f 
tiiat was done, fome one Presbyter was fcnt from the Bifliop as he plcafcd ■> chrifi. 
and then all the Parilhes in the Diocefe mull: needs "be under one Presbytery as -^.'"^ Dr. 
well as one Bilhop. There were no fetlcd Congregations for ordinary Church T''i^ ^^ 
Communion, bcfides the Bilhops Church-meeting, till Parillies were divided > iif,y]lt 
if not byfpace of ground, yet by the diliinclion of Temples and People, which is timi, but ■ 
the thing intended. There could be no fuch thing as a Dioccfane Church 'hmt^tth 
in the fenfe that \vc oppofe it in, that is, One Church with a Bilhop infimi '^"""'"i'' 
ordmli ( having none under him ) made up of a multitude of Communicating rj^seldcn 
Churches with their Subpresbyters, yea fuch as are no part of the Bilhops Cun- fiith ) 

jeffus or Presbytery fouthe (jovernment of that Church. 1 might pro- 

» bibly be- 

XIV. The next evidence is, the ancient cuftom of All his Presbyters ftting ptii'i'hn'>s 
in one feat ivith the Bipop in a femi-circle in loco eminentiore on each hand of him iifo hsia 
and the Deacons jiandmg under or below them : which is fo ordained by Councils '-'■»»'' '>* /»'. 
( asCarth.^. Can. 3 5. &c. ) And the thing is commonly reported in the anci- 
ents. And this being put ufually as of his Presbyters in common, who were* 

his atfiiiants and colleagues , and with whom he Governed the Churches, 


withoiit mentioning any excepted Presbyters belonging to dirtant Paridiesjt is 
apparent that the Billiop then liad ordinarily but one aflembly. The fame I 
may fay of the many Canons, that Ihew what the Presbyters are to do in the 
Church, which imply hisprcfence: But I have mentioned many of them 

XV. Another evidence is , the cuftom of the Presbyters dwelling in the 
fame houfc with the Bifliop (fingle) as in a Colledge i which not only in 
Hippo^ but in very many other places was then ufed : and they dwelt near the 
Church , where that was not ufed C As when they had wives, or the Bifliop 
had his Epifcopam as the" Concil. Turon. 2. calleth her, and alloweth it. ) 

7oht himfelf, di Saca-dotio lib. 5. cap. 4. >i. 15. pag. 722. confefieth this 
faying, [_ In Ecckfia Primitiva tifqitc ad tcmpwa Augujiim & Hieron. Epifcopum 
€5" Clmtm folitos vivcre in communi : undehona ejnx vcl ex decimis, vel cxfidelium 
devotionc offcrebantur^ erant indit'ifa., & fubdebantur d/jhibntioni Epifcopi., qu£ 
partim /J>fi, pariim Clcro-, partim fabrics , panim paitpmhm obvenicbant. Fnjiea 
rcro quando qitifque per fe vixit, talia bona divifa jiint in qujtuor partes.^ prima 
Epifcupo fervata , feciinda Clero, tenia fabrics^ quarta pauperibus. ~\ And fure 
that Church theii was no bigger than that Colledge did officiate to. 

XVI. And that which thefe words of "tnlct recite, is the next evidence> viz. 
The way of »2(ii«nHJiicc in thofe tiities. i. They lived on Oblations moftly: 

Of this fie y\,ij ti^^fg oblations are ever mentioned as offered but upon One Altar. 

I'mrrak ^' Thefe Oblations were all brought to the Bifhops hands, anddilWbuted by 

of church him or his appointment- 3. The Firlt- fruits, and Tythe that came next were 

iiemfices, alfo in his hands. 4. And fo were all the Gifts, and all the Prsdia or 

^ ^^^- . church glebe. 5. All thefe are mentioned as given to One Church only, 

tranfllted '^"'^ "^'- tn^ny. 6. The dillribution was asatorelaid, fome fourfold, fome- 

byDr.D' n- time three-fold i of which Spalatmfis recitctii the decrees fo fully, that I will 

ton covfir- not tire the reader with reciting them. 7. And it was the Fjfcvcj of One 

ming many cbitrch only that the Bifhop was to give the fourth part to maintain C And 

hrefiid.' ^^^^ many hundred fabricks more forgotten ? ) 8. And it was aprefent Clergie^ 

and not men fetled along way off, that he was to make diltribution to. p. And 

when he was to have the firll: fourth part himfelf", who can think that this is 

meant that men muff cany the fourth part of the Hay, and Corn, and Wood, 

and Pigs, &c. from all the Parilhes through fuch Diocefes as ours', and the 

fourth part of all the Glebe rents v This would make the Bifhoprick indeed 

fecm to worldly minded men to be worth the venturing of their fouls for ; 

And they muft havefo many fcore. or hundred barns full, as might tempt them 

to fay, Svul take thine eafe, cat drink^and be merry, &c. But the evidence fpeak- 

eth plainly. 

XVII. Another evidence is this ; That when firfi new Communicating Af^ 
femblics were ercded even in the fame Cities with the Bilhops, thefaid Biihops 
did devife this new trick of their own headsjto fend to thatAfiembly fbme Bread 




hallovved by themfclves i And this was firft to comfort ( as they faid ) the 
Presbyters and new Congregation, left they (hould think thcmfelves cut ort' 
from their Bifhops Church and Communion. 2. To hold their intcreft in the 
people by this handle of their own making. Of thefe Enlogite the Can. Concil. 
Laodic.i^. fpeaks, zs Pet aviiif and others think: Petav. in Epifhan.ad h^rej". 6p. 
pag. 2j6, faith, £ KwM<f, ubi per titulos d/lhibuti presbyteri funs (jiticjuc topuhs 
regebaiit : Ad eos Epifcopi VominicU dkbtis fmnwAum five benediaiiin pancm in 
Commtinionif fymbolum mittcrc confuevcrant. ^ And the paflage which he citeth 
owx. oi^ Innocait ad Dccentutm cjp.<). is vcjy full, [_De fa-mento va-o (jmd die 
Dowiiiico per lituhs tnittimiis^ fuperflne nos confitkre voluitfi : cum omncs Ecchfie 
7vftr£ intra civitatem fiiit conjiiint£ : ^tarum Pretbyteri quia die ijh propter plebent 
fibi commiffam nohifcum convenire nnn poffimt^ idea fermentMin a nobis coiifethim per 
acolythos accipiunt^ ut fe a iioftra commnnione, maxima ilia die nonjitdiccnt fepara- 
tos. 3 That Melchiades ordained this, Vamafus his pontitical book faitli ; 
which was about An. 313. But Baroniiif ad An. 313. largely opcneth all the 
bufincfs, and flieweth that this /fnHi-«fK/w was hallowed kvencd' bread, which 
was not the Eucharift , but a dcvifed facrament ( as Innocent callcth it ) of 
Union and Communion : confirming this which 1 have faid : And ex Can. 14. 
Concil. Laod. &c. he Qiewcth that it was ufcd alfo in tlic Ealt : And to this 
notable paffage oi Innocent [_ Omncs ccckfix noflne infra ciiitatem funtconiiiiuta 1 
all the Popes Churches were within the city, he faith, ( p-pj.) [^JDctitnhf 
tantum intcUi git ^ ad quos ferment um miitifolei'et-, non quidem quod nonejjent infnb- 
Jirbiis ali£ complurcs ccclefix atqtie ftnaormn mcmorije., fed nulla prorfus 7itu!aris, in 
qtiam populus coHigi confunerit. Cujus ret cattfa ait fe nonmittere fermentumad 
Presbytcros per dirn-Ja ccemetaia conftitntos , quod illi pkbcm fibi fubditam quam 
colligerent^ non haberent.'] 

Here you fee, i. That there were more Temples than Congregations, or 
Parilhes, being credted as Monuments in honour of the Martyrs. 2. That 
there were no Congregations or Parilhes, but within the City. 3. That 
this device of holy bread came upon the divilion of Parilhes \ and therefore as 
one vvas new then, fo the ether could not be old. 

XVIII. Another evidence is the flate of Cathedral Churches, which as ma- And it u 
ny Epifcopal Antiquaries fay, were tirft the fole Churches of the Bilhops " "^/'••='- 
Charge or Diocefc •, and that Parilh Cluirches were fince built one after ano- \'.},iXp;^ 
ther, as Chappcls be in Parilhes, by thofe that could not come fo far*: And Tillcflcy * 
that the prefent Government of tlie Cathedral by the Dean and Chapters, agiin^t 
under th^ Bilhop, is the evident rclid: of the old Epifcopal Government, and ScMen 
truly tclleth us what it was : To pafs by many others, I will now recite but jJj/^,,, 
the words oi Holmgflicad our Hillorian, a Clergy-man, Chron. Vol. i. p. 135. „-^/jf „j ^ 

Col, I. [ "Thofe Churches are called Cathedral, bccaufc the BiHiops dwell Burinl 

pljct did 
firflbilong to the athedral church'] end heriin the ciiflome of cur KJiidtm axd otbert tras n''t drffaoit. 
And ij ibl Dlicifi rras fuch as ihut all tvtre to be biiryed at the Cathedral, it rv.u not fo tig as n^any 
of our Varices in London, vrhich arefjtintota^e other ground jor buryai; and their Churchvili net hald 
the tenth ptrtoj the liiing as auditors, 

K near 


"near them. At firft there was but ONECHUPvCH in every JuRlS- 

"DICTION, whereinto no man entered to pray, but with fome ob ation 

" towards the maintenance of the Pallor — And for this occallon they were 

" built very huge and great : for other wife they were not capable of fuch mul- 

" titudes as came daily to them, to hear the word and receive the facramcnts: 

'' But as the number of Chriliiar.s increafcd, fo tirft Monalkries, then hnaljy 

" Parilh Churches were builded, in every jurifdidrion , from which I take our 

" Deanry Churches to have their original, now called Mother Churches, and 

" their Incumbents Archpriells i And the reft being added fince the Conque/t, 

" either by the Lords of every Town, or zealous men loth to travail far, 

"and willing to have fome eafe, building them near hand unto thefe Dean- 

" ry Churches, all the Clergie in old time of the fame Deanry were appoin- 

" ted to repair at fundry feafons, there to receive wholfome ordinances, and 

" to confult of the neccffiry affairs of the whole jurKdidtion, if necelTity fo 

" required : And fome image thereof is yet to be feen in the North parts. But 

" as the number of Churches increafed , fo the repair of the faithful to the Car 

''thedral, did diminilh, whereby they are now become, efpedally in their 

" nether parts, rather Markets and (hops for merchandiie, than folemn places 

"of prayer, whereunto they were rirfi: eredted. ] I need to fay no more 

of this. 

XlX. The next evidence is, That when Churches firft became Diocefane 
( in the fcnfc oppofed j they were fitted to the form of the Civil Govern- 
ment i And Diocefes and Metrcpolitanes, and Patriarchs, canie in at the fame 
door : The very name (Ajoiaiffis was long unknown in a facred lenfe, and 
was after borrowed from the Civil divifions, when the Church was formed 
according to them. And as /iltare Vamajc p. 2po. faith, Vux JVic^^wais 
ftt refirtur ad pfcopum^ignnta fuH Et/febio & fitperioribiiffeciilis : And the word 
Panjh was alfo before ufed in our narrower fenfe, for a vicinity ot Ciiriltians. 
And as Gryn£us faith in £tifeb.p. i. not.'^, Eitfeb.promijcue ttfttrpat b£c duovo- 

And that a Diocefane as fuch ("thus formed to the Komane Civil form) and a 
Metropolitane a*nd Patriarch, yea, and the Pope as the Prime Patriarch in the 
Empire, areaU ot Humane inlfitution, and all of the fame original and right, 
there are few Protelf ants that do deny, i . The reafon of the thing plainly ihc w- 
eth it. * 2. Their beginning at once Iheweth it. 3. And that they were never 
any of them fetkdoutoftheKflwj;; Empire, where that form obtained, except 
that they fetled here and there one on the verge of the Empire to hJve Ibme 
care of the neighbour countreys, till after that the Koman name and power in- 
vited fmall countreys adjoyning to them to imitation. And Bilhop Bilfoii of 
Chr. SHbjeci. often tells us that Metropolitans and Patriarchs are of Humane in- 

Godn-hi a Eifliop, in the Lives of tlie Englijh Bifhops, de Converf. Brit.c.^. p-$o, 
faith, §^is tarn jmperitits eft ut non iiitclligat^ ppji mortem liberii fluxiffi multos 
^nnos, lie dicam jeculiim uimm aui altemm jprhijquam Cardiiialis, Patrrarcb£, 



aut Metropolitani nomenin Chrifiianoruin ccckfiis ^W/Vwwr/?'] He might have added, Leg-'plu- 
atit Diocefani, for they were builcbv the fame hand on the fame foundation, ^q^^^cit 
I do not mean that an Apolbhcal General Minilky was fo new, bat a Dio- pae.2ji ^ 
cefane of many Churches, as EpifcopHs infimi gradiis- Multitudes of Papills 252, 2??, 
and Proteftants attcft the novelties of thefe forefaid ranks. Two teftimonies 2J4) 23S> 
of the Papiits are fo notable, as that I will not pafs them by. 

Cardinal Cnffmis ( that Learned Prelate, and proud enough ) //'. dc Con- 
cord. /. 2. c. 13. faith, \_ Omnes grjidits M.tynitatis & hTinoritatis in ccclefu ju- 
ris pffnivi ejfr. ] And therefore concluded that the Papacy is removeablc from 

Nay the very Canon Law it felf, faith, Decnt. Par. t. dif, 22. c. i. c, omncs^ 
r Omntsfivc Patriarchii ciquflihct apices., five M.-trofak'iin primatns, ant Epifcopa- 
tuttm Cjih:dras^ vcl ecchfumnt cnjrifcitnqua ordinis dignitJtes, inlhtifit Rontana 
eccLfr.i. ] what need we more vvitncfs ? It is from P. NicoljHs his decretal. 
And though a man might fufpcdt that he meant only of the pcrfonal Inllitution 
of the particular Patriarchs, Metropolitans, 6cc. yet the context iheweth the 
contrary ,3nd that it is tlie fpecies,officc or place that he fpeaketh of iBecaufc the 
oppolite alTcrtion is,that the Romn Churches dignity was founded by God him- 
felf: And the next Cap. 2. is thit, not the A^oliles, hut the Lord himfelf gave the 
Koman Church its primacy, 

XX. The next evidence is, That we rarely read of any Bifhops preaching 
in any Church but One, unlefs he was driven out of it by perfecution, orun- 
lefs it were in another Biihops Church. If I llioulj except only the great 
Patriarchal Churches out ot all the world, and that only as late as 4.00 or 500 
years after Chnii:, when E(r)perours had hclpt to increafe the Churches, no 
impartial man would take that for any debilitation of my proof. And yet I 
(hall not eaiiiy yield to that exccptioo. In Antiocb and Jcrufakm I think if 
will hardly be affirmed, that the Bilhop ufed to preacli to any Congregation 
but One : In Great Conjiantiimple ( cqiuWcd to Rmnc ) vvhen rind you C/:)ry- 
/';/f(;wc any where but in one Church, except when violence hindred him, and 
then the fame Congregation followed hnii? Indeed the Nn\aijns had a Church 
there, and perhaps there was fome bye Congregation br two of Lhriftians, 
who all communicated in the Biihops Church, and thcrcfor-c were but as Chap- 
pels. But go into all the rcll of th. world, and the cafe will be plainer, (ex- 
cept Rmnc and Ahxtndria. ) Even Ti.tfil an Archbifhop is not found a Teacher 
ordinarily any where but to his Church at Cefarca i nor Grrg-'i^'but at Nuzi.m- 
ztim ( when lie went from Conjhntnwplczud from Safimis i J and G) of the reft, 
no not Amhrofe in the great city of hLIan : And let it move none that Mdan and 
fome other Cities had more Temples than one,, for as B.j)w;/«xbetorc cited tells 
us, there were then many Temples built as Monuinents in honour of.Jthe 
Mavtyjs, tiiat were not 7/JM//,.nor had any Parilli or Congregation. belonging 
to them. iV'hen hnd you Angufiine teaching in any Church but one fju 
fl//)/)(j J aspart ofhis charge? Of Epiph.mus I need not fpeak, feeing it is 
confcll that in Cy^rwx no City had two Churches in his days, and that it was 

K 2 their 



riieir cufiome to place BiQiops in villages, C as Socrjtes^ Sozomcn, and NkcpLv- 
ruf agree. ) So that the matter of fad is certain : except four or live Churches 
( if fo many ) in all the world 400 year^ after Chrift, and except but two or 
three hundred years after Chrilf, you will find no Biftiop in any Church but 
one, as part of his own Cliarge. 

But the confequence inferred hence will be denied, becaufc the other Pa- 
lifhes might be taught by Subpresbyters without him. ^nfivrEutl would ask, 
J. Whether all the -red of the Parfllies were not the Bifheps Charge? yea 
part of his Church, yea equally with the other part ? As to what Omphrius 
and others fay of the Nations, and the Billiops going from Church toChurch, 
I. Itwas fcarce any wherebut inKow? : 2. It wasof later times : •3. It was 
only in the City : 4. It was- commonly the fame auditors that followed him 
to feveral Churches. 

And it's true that other Bidiops went to the memorials of die Martj'rs oft, 
and had as monuments more Churches than aflemblies. And it's true that of 
later times, certain Canons bind the Bifhops to vifit all their Parifhes: And the 
eldclt oblige him to vifit all the people : which flieweth that yet his Docefe 
was not great. 

If he be the Bifliop of the Church, and the office of aBifhop be to guide the 
Church, in Worjhip^ and by Vifcipline, then he is bound to do this to all the 
Church : indeed if you make but a mecr Presbyter of him, then as many may 
dividethe work between them, fo each might know his proper part, (as things 
flood when Parillies or Chappels were divided J But if a Bilhop, as fuch, be 
the uniting head as the King of a Kingdom, he muft be equally related to the 

But if it were not equally^ who can believe that there was fo great a difference 
in the parts of the fame Church, as that one parcel of them only (hould have 
right to their Billiops prcfencc, teaching, worlhipping, and perfonal guidance, 
and ten, twenty, an hundred, a thoufand other parcels have no right at all ? 
What ! a Bilhop of a whole Church, not at all obliged to Teach, or Guide in 
perfonal worlhipping, any part of that Church but one ? Some great change 
was made in Churches before men could arrive at fuch a conceit ? Even now 
among us, a Bilhop taketh himfclf ( by the conllraining Law of man, which 
is his Rule) to vifit his Diocefe once in three years ; ( I do not mean one 
Church of fourty or an hundred in his Diocefe, much lefs to preach himfelf 
ufually in thofe few Towns he comes to i but to call his Curate Prielts to- 
gether, and to fet one of tlicm to preach his Vifitation Sermon. J But where 
find you this done by three Billiops in the world for 300 years after Chrilf, 
unlefs that Archbifhops vifited the Bifhops Churches under them ? Now they 
fay there have been Billiops in England who have once jn three years confirmed 
fome children abroad throughout their Diocefe ( I do not mean one of two 
hundred ) but where find you that then 'the Bilhop went,out of" his City to do 

2. My nextqueflion therefore is, Whether the Bifhops of thofe times were 
3jot at leaft as confcionable and careful and laborious in their offices, as any now 



are, if not much more? What! not a. Gregory, zBafd, diC!.r,yf>jhme, znAn- 
gujiimy a Fulgoit'm, a Biliary, &c. What ! not they that preaclied almost 
daily ? They that write fo ftridtly of the labours of the Miniftery ? They that 
lived fo auftercly, and favoured not the fle(h •, that fpcak fo tenderly of the 
worth of fouls ? And would all thefe, think you, undertake to be Biftiops of a . 
whole Church, and yet fo leave the whole work upon others, as never to come 
among them and teach them, and examine them, nor give them the Sacra- 
ment in all the Parillies of the Diocefc fave one •• This is not credible. 

If you fay that in Alexandria it was certainly fo, that dillind congregations 
were committed to the Presbyters, I anfwer, i. Yet fo as that they might 
any part of them ( as livingin the fame city ) comcand hear the Billiop when 
they would : 2. They might communicate with him per vices if they would : 
3. They were all bound to do fo at the great fedivals of the year: 4. They 
were all pcrfonally governed by the difcipline of the Bilhop and Presbyters 
conjundl in Council : -But of this next. 

XXI. Another evidence is that the whole Thbi or people of the Bidiops 
charge ( till Chirrehes were fetled under Presbyters far off in the countreys ) 
were bound by tlic Canons to come to the Cathedral Ch.urch, and communi- 
cate with the Billiop at Eaftcr, VVhitfuntidCj and fomc other fuch fefitvals, 
even after they were diftinguilhed into feveral Auditories and Communicating 
AfTemblies under Presbyters i which I have before proved from the particular 
Canons : which certainly provctli that the Dioccfes were no more than could 
alTemble in one place. 

XXII. Another evidence is that Presbyters-did but rarely preach in the two 
or three hrfi ages C except in Akxar.dria, or in fbme few Churches which had 
got fonie extraordinary men ■•, Chryfojiome^s preacliing at Antincb, Anguftins at 
Hippn, while they were but Presbyters, are noted as unufual things. And it 
xitixAoi Augtifline ( as forecited J that it being not ufual in other Churches, 
for the Presbyters to preach in the Bilhops prefcnce, the example of that Church 
( by the humility of the honcll Bilhop who preferred his abler Presbyter before 
himfelf) did lead many other Churches into the fame pradice. Spjlatenfis ^^jy^j^^ 
and many others have given large proofs, that the Bilhops and not the Presby- alfo as 
ters were the ordinary preachers in their Church. * Filefaats Qixth, VeEpij'cop. <'^i'>J>' 
anthorit. cap, 1 5. Sed. 1-pag. 344. [ EpifcnpDs cmfneiijfe ex amhtm verba facere, '^\^^^^ ^^,i 
nfert Coiicit. latcran.fnh Martinn, & Cnncil. Jrull.c. 33. Fermiffum deitide f*"'/' (,fg/««j«j» 
byteris, quanqnam non paffim, nee in quibuflibet ccclcfns : DiaconU olimid concef- fsr acar.ji- 

timi, CoiflmitioH wis chfely joyncdto Hiftifm,, and therefore ordimrily note wire f.aptixtd bin hi a. cm- 
firmer, or :n hisprefence : Andthe Bijbofs fjy, tint only Bi;hips did coufi'm: And ijf"-, thin Itt it be con- 
fidered, to how Ur^e a. Viocefe a Bi;hop could be prefent at every Siptiim : Tea i\Ctnfrmition had inen it 
agriater diliiKCi, {tiing all thitvetre bjptl\cd were confirmed, it iseafi to l^now for how marif one ni,lop 
cannot do this. Did our Eijhops life it they would l^now. 1 do net thin^ thdt in this city one perfiin 9/50 
cr ICO is confirmld though the hi Imp dwtil amoni (hem. Perhaps in jomt Piocefrs mt one o\ icco for ivf 
ranly hear ej aay at all- 

fiim, . 

fum, fed rJi'o - ' ' — c^* />• 3 5 1 « itit-, \_Bjlfamon jum GrecO'Komani U i.cap.cf, 
in Alxii Coninem Bui I is \ Fopilum docerc folii eji datum Epfcofis : & niagim 
cccLfu VoHorcs ? atnafch£ jure dncciit. ] Thefe were like our Canons as he ftiews 
at large i and this was in later ages when a Bifliop might teach per alium. — And 
/'• 35 '' 352* ^o'"^'^- T^rn^' c* <^4' docct ex Gng. NaziMiz- folis Spifcnpis conve- 
>iire coiicioihiri & [antlas faipturjs intcrpmari i Fresbyteris vero non nifi Epifcopo- 
rum cimccfwie. Of the Biftiops teaching fee the numerous citations in File- 
fjcm cap. 1 . 

And if any be ftumbled at the name Prcshyteri Parochiani ufual in the Coun- 
cils and Fathers, as if they were Countrey Presbyters, who preached then in 
other Churches ? I have before cited a Canon which gave leave to Presbyters to 
preach in the countrey villages, intimating it was rare heretofore. 2. Filefa- 
cus faith, ibid. p. 562, 563. £ Scdut quodns eji libcre eloqua)\ & iHo £vo & an- 
tcriore., cum Pjrochi£ vox vulgo eti^mpro'Dixcifi iifurpatur ( tliat is for all the 
BilTiops Cliarge ) credo Preshyteros Pamchianos dicios f/iijfe-, non aliter ac fiquis 
Dixccfj/ins pronitncia'ret, hoc eji^ In hac Paruchia fat Viarcfi ordinatos & titiilatos.~\ 

But furely whilli Presbyters rarely preached, there were cither Churches that 
had no preaching ( which cannot be proved ) or elfe few Aflemblies that had 
not Bi (hops. 

Obj. But then you mak^ Lay "Elders of the Presbyters. 

Anf. They were the abler fort of Chriftians ordained to the fame Minifterial 
or Sacerdotal Office as all true Minillers are : But few of them being Learned 
men, and able to make long Sermons, were imployed only as the Biihups 
affilhnts, as ciders are among the Presbyterians : who if they would but ordain 
thofe Elders, and let them have power over the word and Sacraments, though 
only to exercifcit under the Bilhops or chief Pallors guidance, when there was 
caufe, they would come nearelt to the ancient ufe. 

XXIII. And it fcemeth to rrc an evidence that the Churches then were 

C ufually ) but as narrow as I affert, that fhe Presbyters were to abide with the 

Bidiop, and attend him in his City Church. For if you fuppofe them able to 

Teach or guide a flock themfelves, ( as feme were fuch, as Augujiine^ Macarim, 

Ephrem Synts-, Tirtidlian^ &c. ) it is fcarce credible to me that the Bifhop 

"■jnthefub- would fuffer fuch worthy perfons to fit among his Auditors , when there were 

fcr ptions many countrey congregations that needed their help. For that the Church was 

of councils {q fupplied with Preachers as that beiidcs all thefe Presbyters in the Billiops 

^Mkm ^'^"'f'^h, there were enow for all the reli of the countrey Parifties as now, is 

time a ' contrary to all the intimations of Church-Hillory. And therefore when we 

Bifhnp and read of fo many Presbyters with the Bilhop, before we read of many or fcarce 

oi!eveace>i,2.ny eKcv/hcxe, furely there were no people that needed them. " 

fomnimt a. 

anddPrif- XXIV. And yet ( though great Cities had many with the Bifhop) I may 
hytsr.nsdt add that the ^paucity of Presbyters under the generality of Bilhops,nieweth that 
Aries,' id. their Dioccfcs then were but like Parifh Cliurchcs with their Chappels : Or 
P.'az""'"' <-^^^ ■^f^'^lii'-i and the other Bilhops in the C^/f/;a£e Council needed not have 



been in doubt whether thofe Bifhops that had but one or two Presbyters,(liouId 
have one taken from them to make a Bilbop of, which was yet aftirmatively 
decreed, becattfe there may be more found fit to mak^ Presbyters of, rphere it^s hard 
to find any fit to be Bijhops. 

I will fpeak it in the words of the learned Bifhop Bilfojis Ferpet. Govmi.c. 13. 
p. 256. [ "In greater Churches they had great nurrjbcrs of Presbyters : In 
" fmaller they had often two, fomewheie one, and fometimes none. And 
" yet for all this defcd of Presbytas, the Billiops then did not refrain to im- 
" pofe hands without them. The number of Presbyters in many places were 
"two in a Church, :Li /tmhrofc writtth on iTim.^. f ;metimcs but one. In 
" the third Council Cjrth.ig. when it was agreed that the Primate of that City 
" might take the Presbyters of every Diocefc and Ordain them Bilbops for fuch 
" places as dcilred them, though tlie Bilhop under whom the Presbyter before 
" lived were unwillingto fparc him, Pnflhiimijnus a Bilhop demanded, [what 
" if^a Bilhop liavc but one only Presbyter, mull that one be taken trom him ?3 
" Aitiyliuf the Bilhop of Carthage anfwered, One Bilhop may Ordain inaiiy 
"Presbyters, but a Presbyter Ht for a Bi'hoprick is not eafily found ; where- 
" fore if a man have but one only Presbyter,and fit for the room ot a Bilh(~^p, he 
"ought to yield tiiat one to be Ordained. ?o\}lMni'hinm replied. Then if ano- 
"ther Bilhop have a number of Clerks, that others (lore Ihould relieve him. 
'■'■ Aiirclim anfwered. Surely as you helped another Church, fohc that hath 
" many Clerk's * (hall be driven to fparc you one of them', to be ordained by * not many 
" you ] A Diocefe fuch as is intimated here, we do not rtrive againll. chwchtu 

XXIV. Another evidence is that when ever wc read of perfecution turning 
thcChrilhans out of their Churches, you ever Hnd them gatliered into one Con- 
gregation, when they could have leifuve and place to meet m, and ufually a 
Bilhop with thern s unlefs he were banilhcd, imprifoned, or martyred, and 
then f >me Presbyter fupplied tlic place : or unlefs they were kattered into 
many little parcels And you find no talk of the pcrfecutiein of multitudes 
of Countrey Presbyters afar off, but of the Bilhop with his City Presbyters and 
Church. To which add that it was Okc Church Ihll, which rcjedcd, obtru- 
ded Biihops, and refufed to obey tlie Empcrour vviioimpofcd tlicm. All this 
is nunifelt in Gregory Ncnc^fjr. his fligh.t wiili Mufnins^ and the tlatc ot his 
Church: In the Cafe ot' Bjj9/ s and vi Lucim the obtruded Bilhop at -(4/.-.yj;;- 
r/r/i, and in the Cafe of /^«rMc/.> before dcferibcd, and of Kowc it felf. It's,- 
tedious to cite numerous telhmonies in a well known cafe. \i Akxandrix 
was in fuch a cafe, or near it, I hope you will doubt of no other Churclies. 
Aixl that with this you may feC what Canventicks the ClirilHans kept wlien the 
Kmperours forbad them, and how refolutely the Bilhi fs preached when the 
Kmpcrours filenced 'rhem,I will recite the words o\ B.irani:if himfelt,3nd in him 
ot IHi>n){ut< AUxJiirlr. .ij'ud EnfcbJib. 7. c. 10. d^ c. 17. and Cyprian ep,-). &c. 
in Emm. .id an. 57. f. 542. that thofe who cry out againll Preaching andCon- 
vent'cles, vvhen they are but llrong enough to drive others out of the Temples, 
may better underlhnd tiicmfislves. 

Siqitaitda > 


\_S./auiidv, &c. -If at anytime fo vehement aperfecution did a rife, that the 
"Cliriitians by the Emperoursedifls, were utterly excluded from theChur-ches 
'' and aflemblies, notwithlhnding, little regarding fuch things, they^forbore 
''not to come tngether in 0/ie^ in holy aflemblies, whitherfoever there was op- 
" portunity. This Vin/iyf. Akxand. Bifhop witnefllth writing to Germanm 
■•' when he mentioneth the Edids of Valerian forbidding the Affemblief. [ But 
" we by Gods allilhnce, have not abllained from our accullomed Aflemblies 
" celebrated among our felves. Yea, 1 my f:!t did drive on certain brethren to 
" keep the aflemblies diligently, as if I hadconverft among them.] And he 
"^ wriicth the fame alfo to Hierax when he was banilbed [_ When we wereper- 
"■fecuted by all and put to death we celebrated the Fealt with joyful minds •, 
" and any place appointed us for feveral forts of (ufferings, fas the woods, the 
" defert folitudes, thetoflTed (hips, the cominon Innes, the horrid prifon ) did 
" fecm fit to us in which we might keep our folemn Afli^nblies with the grcat- 
" cll joy. ~\ That they held their Aflemblies and olTercd facrihce ufually C when 
"it was permitted them ) in the prifons, Cyprian witnefleth : But the Ads of 
" the holy Martyrs dofuUier fignilie it i efpccially thofe moft faithful ones called 
" Pro-Coiifitlar , which were taken by the publick Notaries. Certainly the 
"Gravel-pits alTdrded them advantage for the celebrating of their publick Af- 
" femblies, in the time of perfecution, efpccially at Rome, where in the dig- 
" ged gravel there remain many fubterrancous ample receffes : Though when 
" the perfecution was vehement, they were thence alfo excluded ■,' as the letters 
" F. Corndii ad Lufic. Epifc. Vien. tefiifie, faying , \_ Chriftians may not mijf,K 
" agere, keep their meetings for Church worQiip publickly, no not in the vaults, 
" ( or pits ) So much of the Churches and publick alfemblies of the Chriftians 
" e5>c. faith Baronius. 

Which Fnlyd. Virgil fecondeth c. 6. yea the Bifhops durft fcarce be feen in 
the firects fo hot were the perfecutions, as Eufeb. lib. 6. cap. 31. Therefore, as 
I before noted, they had yet no capacious Temples, as Illyriais well gathereth. 
Catalog. Tejii. verit, p. 1 1 2 . But they began to have days of peace and liberty 
undci Jlexand. Severiis, Cordian. Philip-, Galiams, Flaviiii, Claudius, Aiireli' 
anus, Frohis, and then they did enlarge their too fmall rooms, to that defcri- 
bed by Eufcb. lib. 8. c. i. 

XXVI. Another evidence is, that Monafteries were built before Chappels 
and Countrey PariiTi Churches, and far more numerous , fo that we frequent- 
ly read of Monafleries under a Bilhop with their Abbot, or Presbyter, when 
we read little or nothing of Pariih Churches in the Countries, under him. 
And if thefe had been as common, why are they not as much mentioned in 
the ancient records of the Church ? The Egyptian Monks, and thofe in Jttdxa, 
and thofe in Britain, in Bida^ and the life of Hicrome, Fulgenfiiif, and abun- 
dance fuch witnefs tliis. 

XXVII. Another 


See Leo i. 

XXVII. Another evidence is the Canons, that none but a BilTiop muft pub- ^P'C-^S- 
lickly reconcile a penitent, nor pronounce the blcffing in the Church, &c. Of ^'ilfcgj' 
which before in particular Canons, un'tid"' 


XXVIII. Another evidence is that Presbyters or Bifliops were not to remove ^'""''- "» 
from the Places they were Ordained in : But thofe places of old were fingle ^P^™'"' 
Churchcsi fufually in Cities with the tiburbs thatcouldcome tothe fame 
Church, as Dr. Field faith. ) Concil. Ardat. i. cited by Spclman, fag. 40. conctl. A- 
( becaufe we had 3 Brittifli Bilhops there ) | In quihufcmqtte locU ordinjti fuc- "'"'• »• 
rint Aiiniflru, in iffis locK pcrfa'croit ~\ And tpfc Lkik was not a circuit of 40 or ^' ^'" 

50 or 100 miles long,butthe Bilhops Parilh or Vicinity. Of the Bilhops not re- 
moving ( without a Synod ) many Councils fpeak. 

XXIX. Another evidence is that the Canons which take down the Chorepi- 

fcopi and turn them topcriodcma Fifitors., or Itinerants, and which forbid the (^'i^-^"^- 
niakingof Bilhops in fmall Cities, or villages, i. Were of late date, 2. And ^' "" 
were in afpiring times, and had a reafon anfwerablc, ne vihfcat nomcn Epifcj- 
pi\ 3. And therefore intimate that it was otherwifc before ( as I have before 
Ihewcd. ) 

XXX. A Separatift or Schifmatick was then known by his witlidrawing ^ 
from his proper Church ■, and fo was an Apoftatc or dirfcrter : And he that 
flayed away certain days was to be excommunicate i And they that fall into 
fins and never prefent themfelves »o the Church, to (hew their penitence, even 
when they fall lick and delire Communion,lliaU not have it till they Ihcw fruits 
worthy of repentance, faith Concil. Ardat. 1. Can. 22. But i. inourwiy, 
when the Church that I am of is an hundred miles long and hath aboveathou- 
fand Parilhcs, who can tell when a man is at the Church, and wiicn he is not, 
unlefs you make half a years work to examine the matter in a thoufand AlTein- 
blies ? 2. And a man may wander, and never be in the fame AJTcmbly once in 
three years, and yet be llill in his own Church becaufe the Docefe is the 
Church : -5 Unkfs the Bilhops prcfence as well as remote relation be ncccfTiry ; 
And then no iTun comech to Church, but he that cometh wlicrcthe Bi.hop is, 
for nbi Epifcopiis ibi Ecdefu : And the Parilh Church is with them no Churcli, 
unkfs equivocally as a Community. For as Learned Dr. t'idd faith, ( and 
they mull all fay ) [^None arc to be ordained^ but tojcrvc infomc C 'U>xh : .ind mvie 
have Churdxs but Bifhnps s all otlxr being but ajfjjijnls to tlxmin th^ir Cburd?cs- ] 
Lib. 5. c. 27. p. ijp. Therefore they call the Parilh Piielts the Biih ^s Cu- 
rates ■, and Dr. Field maketh the Bilhops Churcli or Diccefc and a p.irticulaf 
Church all o*. If then one Parilh priclt of a thoufind be an Ariun, An- 
tinomian, Socinian, Papill, Seeker, &c. lie that fcpavatcth not from that oiic 
Pried and Parilh meeting, fcparatcth not from his BillioDS Churcli, nor any 
particular Church : For his Churcli is a countrey,wliich while he is in, he is no 
Separatift, if h; jovn with any part ot it. 

L XaXI. 

( 82) 

XXXI. ,Eiit my greateft evidence which I truft toabove all the reft is, The 
greatnefs of the Bilhops work, which no mortal man can truly and faichfull^' 
difcharge and do for a Diocefc in the oppofed fence, nor for more than one 
of our greater Parifhes. I have recited fome of the particulars before, and I (hall 
again have occalion to do it more at large : 1 now only name thefe parts. 

I. To be the ordinary Baptizer, o'r ilill prefent with all that are Baptized, 
Cto anoint their noftrils, &c. as aforefaid. ) 2. To be the Coniirmer of all the 
• bapti-zed in all the Diocefe. 5'. To be the ordinary preacher to his flock, and 
to expound the Scriptures to them. 4. To be the only publick reconciler or 
abfolver of all penitents. 5. To be the publick Priell, to be the Guide of the 
people in publick vvor(hip, and to adminificr the Lords Supper. 6. To take 
particular account and care of all the peoples fouls, and admonilh, teach, and 
exhort them as there is fpecial need. 7. To be the Excommunicator of the 
impenitent (or ever one and the chief.) 8. To Ordain all Minifters and 
Subminifters. p. Tooverlee and rule the Clergy. lo. To receive all Oblations, 
Tithes, Gifts, and Glebes,and be the dillributer of them. 1 1. To vifit the fick 
in all his flock. 12 . To take a particular care of all the poor, the fick, the ftran- 
gerSj the imprifoned, cf^c. as their Curator. 13. To keep almoft daily, but 
conftantly weekly Afl^emblics for all the publick offices. 14. To keep Synods 
among his Colleagues,Bilhops,and Presbyters. 15. To try and hear Caufeswith 
. the Bilhops, and Synods, and with his Presbyters at home,about all fcandals, &c. 
that come before him, ( of which one Town may find him work enough, the 
convincing and gentle reproof and exhortation will take up fo much time. ) 
i^.The looking after and convincing or confuting Hereticks. ly.The reconci- 
ling difagreeing neighbours. 18. The confeding of oyl and holy bread, e^c. to 
furnilTi all his Presbyters with. ip. The Benedidtibn of Marriages, and So- 
lemnizing of Funerals i with a multitude of other Ceremonies. 20. Andbe- 
lidesall this, the right government of his own houfe ( And if he had Chil- 
dren, the education of them ) 21. Tha overfight of all the Schools and edu- 
catingyoung men forthe Miniftery (there being then no Univerlities to do k.) 
(That the Schools were under his care, you may fee proved in Fi/c/icw 3 
22. The Confecratingcf devoted Virgins ( to fay nothing of Altars and other 
utenfils J 23. The overfight of the Monafteries. 24. The writing of Cano- 
nical Epiftles (as they called them J to Great men, to other Churches, &c. 
25. The granting of Com^municatory Letters. • I have named all that come 
fuddenly to my memory, but it's like not all. And how many Parilhes, how 
many hundred thoufand fouls can one man do all this for, think you ? 

I Will nor tire you with citing out of J^^sA', 'Grcgoryi, Amhrofe-, Chr)>fo{i. &•€, 
the ftrid; Charges terribly laid on Bifhcps, but only now recite the Preachers 
words whofe Oration Eufbim giveth us, at the dedication off'new Church, 
Kiftor. Eccl. I. 10. c. 4. It is Taifl/niu B\(hop oi'Tyre. In which he tells them 
that it is the work ot Bilhops [ Lnini.-e aiihumm veftrarny-^ theorix vie/ere & 
introfpkerc, uhi experie/itia &" iempdris frclixitate itnuntQitemqu:- vcjhum exa&e hi' 
quifivit-) ftud'ioqHc & aira cwiclos vos koneftate & do^irina qa c jccutidiiiji pietatem 


eft, inflruit.^ It was then thought a Bifhops duty to be intimately acquainted 
with the minds of his flock, and exactly enquire after everyone of them, even 
menfervants and maidfervantsby name, lz\th Ignatiuf, as cited before. 

All this was then tlie Bifhops work : Almoft all this C except the Ceremo- 
nies') Dt, Hammond proveth induftrioufly belonged to the Biihop. Let 
him faithfully do it all, and let hisDiocefe then be as big as he p'.cafe. 

I might have added ConcilArclat. i.e. \6, that people are to be abfolved in 
the fame place where they were Excommunicated, which intimateth it muft 
be only in the Biftiops Churcii, And in Synod. Hyhenric. Pjtr/di ( in Spebnaa 
p. ')2. ) All that was more than neceflfary to a poor man that had a Collecti- 
on was to be laid on the Bifhops Altar, ] which implyeth that each Church 
had one Bifliop and one Altar. And c. 21. [ 6'^ non in EccLfum nt ibi eX' 
aminetttr cartft'] And c, 25, 2d, 27. no Clergy-man but the Biihop to di<po(e C 4) $• 
of Church offerings v & Clericiif Epifcopi in Plcbe novuf ingn'jfoi\ b.iptizttre & 
offcrre nnn licet., &c. with much more which intimateth what Churches were of 

But fo much (hall fuffice for proof of the Minor of the hrrt j'\rgument, that 
our Diocefanc Form, i. takcth down the Church Form of Gods Inltitu- 
tion, and the primitive Churches polTclIion : 2. Andfetteth up a humane form 
in its ftead, yea one only Church inikad of a thoufand or many hundred. 
And therefore I add 


That the VIocefa/is caufe the errour of the Separatijisy 
who avoid our Churches asfalfe in their Conjiitutiofi 5 
and vpouU utterly difahle us to confute them. 

WHen the Browmfif fay that our Cliurclies are no true Churches, they 
do not mean that they are not Societies of mens deviling i but that 
they are not Societies of Gods Inftituting. And^his they prove upon the prin- 
ciples of the Diocefans thus : If your Churches be of Gods Inftitution (dcfpe- 
cie ) it is cither the Parilh Churches, or the Dioccfane Churches that are £0 : 
But neither the Parilh-Clunches, nor the Dioccfane: Er^\ 

I. That the Parifh Churches are not fuch, they prove becaufeby the Dio- 
cefans own confeflion, they are no Churches at all, except equivocally fc called : 
It is one of their own principles, ( and we grant it ) that Epifcopm & Flchs 
ConlUtHte a Church, as a King and SuhjeCis conftitute a Kingdom, and as a 

L 2 Schoclmaftcr 


Schoolniflfter and Scholars make a School : and as a Mafter and houfbold make 
a Family. And that ubi(jl Epifcopus (as Cyprian faith J ibi eji Ecclefia > which 
is nothing but Plcbs pajiori aduiuta. And that a people without a Bilhop 
C truly fo called ) are but a Church equivocally, as Scholars without a Mafter 
are a School, or as a company of Chrillians in a fhip or houfe accidentally met 
and praying together are a Church, &c. And as Dr. Fidd before cited, faith 
None but a Bijfjop hath a Church : all others are but hU ajjtflants, or as commonly 
called his Curates. Therefore when a Prelatiit pleadeth that our Parilh 
Churches are true Churches ( either of Gods or mans inftitution ) they do 
forfake the principles of their party ( as now maintained ; or they conttadid 
themfelveSj or they play with equivocations and ambiguities. 

II. And that a Diocefane Church, which is one compofed of the carcafes of 
multitude of mortihed Churches,is not jwre ^/w/wjiaving faid fo much to prove 
my fcif, I will not ftay to tell you how eafily the Separatifts may prove it. So 
that for my part as much as I have written and done againft them, I profeG I 
am not able to confute them on the Diocefane grounds, but would be one of 
them if I had no better. 

Quefl. How. then miiji they be confuted} 

AnJ. Thus or not at all by me. A Presbyters office is not to be judged of 
by the Bilhops will or defcription,but by God's the inliitutor. As if the King 
defcribe the Lord Mayors office in his Charter j If the Recorder or whoever 
giveth him his oath, and inltalleth him, (hall mifdefcribe the office, and limit 
it, and fay falfly you have no power to do this or that •, This will not at all 
diminifh his power, as long as it is the Charter that they profefs to go by. 
He (hall have the power which theKing givetli,and not which the invel^ing Mi- 
nifter defcribeth.If a Parfon prefented to a Benefice, fhall be told by the Bilhop 
at his inifitution, the Tithes or Glebe are but half yours, this (hall not diminilh 
his Title to the whole. So when God hath defcribcd the Mmilkrs office, it 
(hall be whztCod faith it is, and not what the Ordaincr faith it is. And God 
maketh the Pallors of each particular body of hxed Communicants, united as 
aforcfaid, to be really a Bilhop C or at leaft the chief of thefe Partors, or the 
fole Pafior: ) And therefore the Church to be truly and univocally a Church 
of Divine inllitution : Though it were never fo much granted that Aichbilhops 
were over diem, as the ApolUes were overtliofe AUs 14. 23. 

And then when the Parilh Churches are once proved true Churches, whether 
the Diocefane be fo or not, is nothing to our controverfic vvith the Separatifts. 
But for- my part I cannot confute the lawtulnefs of a Diocefe as confilting of 
many particular Churches with their Billiops, as I can a Diocefe wliich hath, 
put them all down. 



C H A p. IX. 

Thefecofid Argument : from tJ>e Depofitiori of the pimi- 
tivefpecies of BiJhopSy and the ereHing of a humane 
inconfiftent fpecies in their JleaJ: A fpecijick^Jiffe' 
rence prove J, 


' /L Humane inconfiftent fpccics of Bifhops crcAcd inftcad of the Divinely- 
x\. inftituted fpecies thereby dcpofed, is unlawful. But fuch is the Uioccfan 
fpecies now oppofcd — Ergi\ 

I have hitherto charged it with the changing of the CWct Form : Now of 
the form or fpecies ot Bilhops. And here I netd not add much to the former, 
becaufe they are coincident, and in proving the one I have already proved 
the other. 

A Bilhop of one Church united for Individuals Communion, and a Bifhop 
of one Church united only for Communion in ffeck aSionum^ arc not the fame. 
But becaufe I iitar many fay that Mj^f & hhnuf non v-niani Jpcckm, And that 
a Greater and a LcfTcr Diocefe mak^e neitlier the Churcli, nor Bilhop to be of a 
different ypfaVj-, 1 am here to prove the contrary. 

And ririt let it be remembred in what predicament the tilings in queftion are, 
a Church and a Bilhop : That is, They are rtlationr. Then let it be remem- 
bred wliat gocth to the cflence and definition of a Relation, that is. The Re- 
late, tlie Correlate, the Subjt(f1:, the Fundatnentum ( or as fome fpeak the 
"Ratio fundandi alfo ) and the 7erminu'. Now where thefeare not the fame, 
orany ofthefc, then the Relation is not the fame : becaufe where an cfTential 
tngitdient is wanting, the tffence is wanting. 

Again it mull be remembred tliat many Natural Relations are fo founded 
in an ad palf, that the Relation refulteth from it without depending on any 
thing future. As God is Creator quia jam cremit , Vatcr eft qiti gcniiit. But 
there arc other Relations which are founded in meer Vndirtakjng^ Mjitdjte au- 
ihor'ity-, and ohligation x.o future adioiis : As he is a Tutor, a Schoolmafler, a 
Judge, a Chancellor, a Pilot, a Bilhop, a Husband, c^c. who by w W<i/e and 
Miidcrtiik^>:(r is authrizcd and nbUged to fuch and fuch works, implycd in the 
names. And in thefe cafes, there is nothing mor^;fpccifieth the olhccs than the 
frm\ of the cfficc, which is, its neanji End. And thefc nearcll ends are ever 
cfltntial to fuch R(.!ations i whether you will call them the l.rmini or End^ or 
by what other najne, we contend Hot, . 



Aqu. I. 2. 
q. ! 8- "rt, 
^.^.& ic- 
i&q. 72. 
an. 9. & 
Cajet. ci~ 
Medio. /i'. 

And tlicrefcre Acjuiim and all, 1.2. (7. 18. art. 2. and others commonly 
agree, that tljc Ob)c£l and the End do fpccitie humane a6is. 

But rfwofe ends may be the fame in Adts, ( and fo in Offices ) of the fame 
fpecies i It proving but a Generical agreement ( which yet may be iufptxk fub- 
alterna. ) AllhuiTianey^ds fnould have the fame ultimate end, that is, The 
pkafingof God in the refplcndency of his Glory, and the felicity of man. Yet 
this maketh them not all of the fame infintjs fpcdd. All Government intendeth 
the common good ; and yet there are different fpecies of Government. All 
Ciiurch Government is for the good of the Church, and for the killing of iln, 
and the promoting of faith and holinefs : And yet there are different fpecies of 
Church Governours. 

But btfidesthe Objc^ and End, (which all agree toj there are by Schoolmen 
and Cafuifts, faid to hccircnmjlances, which may a.Ko fpecifie Moral ads. The 
feven named by Oc.w in 2v/;efoi-. are, ^^m, Qjtid. Vbi, ^ubm aaxiliis, Cu,\ 
^uomodo^ ^ujiidu : And Aqaiuas and others tell us that thefe circumftances 
communicate fpecial Goodnefs or evil to actions. Vid. P. Soto in reU&. 5? hi 
fine de bonk. & mal. aS. Greg, de Valent. torn, 2. qa. l^.punUo 4.. J of. Angles in 
Florib. 2.fcht. d.^y.(].^-a.'y.p.2. 

Greg. SayrHi in Clav.Regia Lib. 2. Cap, j-pag.'^^. giveth us the(e two notes 
to know when circumftances fpecitie a6i:ions. 

I . ^ando CircHmjlantia novam conformitatcm, aut deformitatem aUni tribuit j 
ita ut peculiariter conveniat vel rcpttgnct reDie rationi^ novam fpecicm conjiituit : 

Rat. ^iiiii in hoccafu circumjlantia tranfit in rationcmobje^fi 2. ^totiefatn- 

que circHmJiantia non nfpiat fpeciakm ordinem rationU in bono vd malo nifi prafup- 
pofita alia circumftantia a qua a&iM moralU habet fpecicm boni vcl mali quamfblam 
intra eandem fpecicm auget, vel diminuit, reddendo adum lUum meliorem aut pejo- 
rem,totics circumliantia ilia aggravans vet diminuens, non autemfpeciem mHtans-^cen- 
fendaeji: ut quant it as v. g. magna vel parva in furto. 

Note alfo that though Re/rff/o z«/(;rwj rcbtionps-, non rccipit magii & minus y 
€. g. Titins non eft magk' Pater quam Scmproniuf ■> Yet quoad fubjedum, & aliquando 
quoad fund amentum & correlatum^ it may rccipere magis & minuf, fo that magis 
vel minus Ihall change ihc fpecies. This is in fuch cafes, wherein the alteration of 
Quantity altereth the Capacity oi the {i\h]cdc quoad pnemejfentialem. For as in 
Phyficks, befides the Matter, the Vifpnfitio materia ( wliich Ariftotk calls Pri- 
vation ) is neceffary adformam recipiendam ( which is comonly called A third 
Principle ", but I would call it, the Conditio neceffaria oi the Material Principle V ) 
fo in Relations there mud be tlic Vifpofitio nece(faria fuhjeiii, or elfe there can 
no relation refult. E. g. to the being of a houfe, fome quantity is necelTary to 
the End, that is, habitation ■■, And therefore it is no houfe, except equivocally 
which is no bigger than an egg-lhell : So to the being of a Ship, of a Church, 
&c that which is no bigger than a nutfliel is no Ship or Church, though you 
■ call it foor Confecrateit, &c. And on the other tide. It is not a fpoon, a dilh, 
a ladle, a pen, which is as big as a Church, a Ship, a Houfe. Yea a Ship and 
a Boat do differ in fpecie, though both have the fame End, ( fate pafTage over 
the waters by portage ) by the citcumftantial differences of the End andSubjed. 



So alfo in Societies ; the whole world, or a Kingdom is too big to be a Fa- 
mily : And a Family is too little to be a Kingdom. ?agnf,Vkii<, Civim, Re^- 
nitm differ principally in their Ends^ and next in their Quantity of the fubje<a 
matter, becaufe every quantity is not capable of the famcEffcntial End. 

Thcfe things being premifed, for the ufe of fuch ignorant Lads only as know 
them not, who may poilibly Itudythecontroyerfie, I proceed to my proofs. 

I. And I will begin ( though it be weakeft in it felf ) with an Argument 
adhominem i For with the men that I now deal with, I (hall take that to be the 
moll cifcdual argument, which is fetcht from their interell, and titted to their 
wills. I remember that once when an Army was refolvcdfor Liberty of Con- 
fcience, for all that protlfild tlie fundamentals of faith m Cod by Jcfiis Chrifi^ 
and the Parliament appointed fome of us to draw up a Catalogue of funda- 
mentals, C which I thought was belt done by giving them the Sacramental Co- 
venant, the Creed, Lords Prayer, and Decalogue ) a good man, f with o- 
thers of his mind ) would needs have many more fundamentals, than I was 
for, and arnong others, C fkit to allow our fdvcs or others in known fvi^ U iiicon- 
fijicnt rvith falvation C or is damnable ) I told him that 1 would not difpute 
a^Xinll it, but undertake to make him call it by vvithout difpute : And wheii. 
tlicy" wouVd"not believe the, but went on, I did all that I promifed prefentlj^ 
witinclirng them, You know that the Parliament takelndcpendency to be afini 
an"d"tliey will fay. If we allow or tolerate them, they here pronounce the fen- 
tcnce of damnation on us under thuir own hands] ViUum faUiim i we had no* 
more of that fundamental. 

I have greater confidence of prevailing with Diocefansby fuch an argument: 
In taking the Covenant, in the If^clhni/ijkr Aflembly,it would not pafs till the 
parcntluiii defcribing the Englilh //'it/Vj- of Prelacy was inferted '-, becaufe many 
devlarcd that they were not againll all Epifcopacy, but only the prefent Englilh 
/pecies. , Accordingly thofe that took the Covenant in that fenfe, take not 
thcmfelves bound to endeavour the extirpation of all Epifcopacy but only of 
that//\T/fj- : And they that would have conformed on the terms of the Kings 
Declaration about Eccieliallical Affairs, went on this fuppolition that thcy/'nr/cj 
of Prelacy was altered by it. Now I put thefe queltions to the Diocefans. 
^cfi. 1. IfaUUirper by power mould take down all the Diocefans C^nd their 
lands, Lordlhips, and Courts ) and turn them into Parilh Biihops, and fiy, I 
alter not thcfpccics but the degree, would they believe him ? ^fcji. 2. If one 
that thinketh himfelf obliged by the Vow or Covenant agajnft {h\s Tpccics only, 
(hould tliink that heanfwereth his obligation, it he procure no other alteration 
than is made in the Kings furtnamed Declaration, would they tell iiim, You 
alter not the fpccu's unltfs you totally extirpate Epifcopacy : (' fuppofmg that 
he had power to do it.) ^ijh 3. Seeing moll that we fpeak with who con- 
form, and who take or pkad tur the Oxfrd Oath [ Neva- ts endeavour any al- 
teration of Church Government ] do tell us that the meaning is only that we will 
not endeavour to alter the prefent //"caVj-, which is Epifcfacy, and not the ap- 
purtenances, as Chancellors, &c. I ask, it it ihould plcafe th: King to take 



^own all Dioccfancs, and to fetuponlya Bifliopin evefy ParilTi or Independent 
Church.,& fay,I change not the fiecies i or if I believed tiiat this were a Change 
ef the Ef)g\\(\n [pedes of Church Government I would not do it : what anfwer 
would they give to this ? ^/f/f. 4. If a Conformift or one that hath taken that 
Gath, fhairfay, I did fubfcribe and (wear only not to endeavour an alreration 
ofthey/'ec/fj, but not of the degree: Therefore I will do all that lean to take 
down Diocefans, and to fet up Congregational or Parochial Billiops in their 
fteadj will you tell this man that indeed by fo doing he endeavourethnot to 
change the y/jfcie/ ? Qticjl. 5. Seeing many of the greateft oppofers of Pre- 
lacy, do confent to a Congregational or Parochial Bilhop, will you grant that 
riicfe are not at all yoiTr advcr&ries as to the fpecies of Church Government, but 
only as to the degree or extent of Diocefes ? Thefe cafes are pradtical : There- 
fore take heed how you refolve them, kit you do that which you are unwilling 
of. ^cli. 6. And 1 may ask, Why is it that many deny that it was a Parlia- 
tnent ofEpifcopalmen, that raifed the Army againll the King, only becaufc 
in thePropofition fentto Noiti/igham they would have had Epifcopacy reduced 
to what is there intimated, and would have had their power Ihortned ? Come, 
come, deny not the plain truth. If magk &• miniu non variant fpecicnt, Parji- 
pmcnt men, yea, and the Learncdeil: part of that Synod who took down 
Eifhops, were Episcopal men, yea, Prelatilb a s you are, for they were but fo r 
a Gradual alteration at the begin nin g of their war, till they were carried fur - 
ther by neceltity and '"terefl:. '^njiTj'. And I ask you alio, why, and with 
what front do you call us all Presbyterians, who offered Bilhop VJh:rs Model 
to the King and you in \66o. as the terms of Concord ? Is it againft your 
Confciences meerly to make us odious with you know whom ? what can it be 
better, ifyou grant that we are not only for Epifcopacy in genere, but even for 
the fame /pfc/fj- with your felves? Yea, thofe that are againft Bilhop Z^yfe^rj- 
Model, and are only for Congregational or Parilh Billiops, are it feemeth even 
for your y/'eciej- : And are they not then Epifcopal as well as you ? So much ad 
hominem > now ad rem. 

II. Where the fpecifying "Ends differ , there the Species of Kelations differ. 
But in the Churches and the B/Jhops in tjuefiion the fpec/fying Ends differ : Ergo &c. 

I will firlt manifcll the truth of the Minor (for tne Major is unqueftionable) 
c{ Churches^ and next of Billiops. 

I. The ends of a particular Church as defcribcd by us arethefe ; 1. Com- 
munion fenlibleand external i 2. And that local or prefentiaU 3. And that 
perfonal by all the body of the Church •, 4. And that in the fame Individual 
adts of Gods publick worlhip. 5. In watching over, or helping each other 
towards Heaven, by provoking each other to love and to good works, and if 
a brother offend to tell him of his faulty to comffirt each other, and to live to- 
gether in holinefs, love and peace. 6. To be related to the fame Pallors, as 
thofe that are their Ordinary Teachers, Governours and Guides in publick 
worlhip, as labouring amongd them and being enfamples to the flock. 7. To 
hold a diftant Communion with the neighbour aflbciated concordant Churches, 



and particularly with thofeneareA thciij of the hrft order of Conipofitionj; of 
which aflbciation this particular Church is a part, Ibr Communion of C!)urche§ 
as they are thcmfdves a Society for Communion of Individual Chriitiins' in a 
Inigle Church. 

2. Now the ends of our Dioccfane Churches are not one of all thcfe. For 
I. Their Communion is internal in Faith and Love i fuch as \vc have with the 
Abaflincs. 2. It isdiftant only, and not prcfcnrial at all ,: For as Diocefane we 
never fee each other it's like in our whole lives. 3. If is not^i);//vw/ (asex^ 
tcrnalandrcnlibk'> but only by the intervention of Delegates, Mcrtengers, Ot'-^ 
ficCrs or Synods ol fudi. 4. It is only in cjJcmJjtccie of publick worlhip andi 
facred adions that we have Coniiriunion, but not in tlic fame Individual ani- 
ons of worfhip : Antlfo we may have Communion vviiii the Aiuipodcs^ while 
we bi-lievc the fame Scriptures and Creed, and ufc the fame Sacraments, c>e. in 
j'peck, 5. We have no convcrfe vvith one another at all as Dioctfanc : 1 though 
as Parochial we inay ) we never meet together, pray together, hear together, 
exhort or watch over or help each other : If a Brother trefpafs we. tell him not 
of his fault, d^c. for we never know one of five hundred in tlic Diocefc, no 
more than men of another Countrcy. 6. We hear not the fame Teachers i 
we have not the fame Guides to refulve our doubt?, and to inllrufn: us as wc 
need ■■, We have not the fame Priells to jcsyn vvith in Gods publick worlhip : 
But he that Tcachetliandofficiatethin one Church, hath no power in another; 
Only we have the fame Bifhop to call ( not the people before hira tq teach 
and warn and comfort them, but ) tiie Parfon and Churchwardens i or ri- 
ther the lame Lay-Chancellor and his Court, and the fame Canons ("for filen- 
cingour Minilkrs, Excomniunicaiing many confcionable Nonconformifts, &c.) 
which not only all the Diocefc hath, but all the Land. Not one of many hun- 
dreds of tlic Diocefc ever fecth the Bilhop in all his life, 7. A Diocefc is it felf 
a compound of particular Churches allociated* ( Though mortified quantum in 
Vioccfumi ; ) And therefore cannot be a conftitutivc part of fuch a firlt 
order of AiTociation, as a particular Church may be or is. , Thcfcarc the diffe- 
rences in the Ends. 

Now lay all thcfe together, and try, whether the differences in fo many parts 
of the Ends of the Society, make not a Specitick difference in Societies. Whe- 
ther [a company of Chriifians affociatcd with the fame prefcnt Pallors,for pre- 
fcntial perfonal Comtnunion in Gods publick worlliipj Sacraments, Teaching, 
and Guidance, and for mutual allilhncc in holy convcrfe and living, &c. and 
cohabiting in a vicinity capable ot this convcrle and Comtnunion j be a So- 
ciety of the fame (pecies with [ A company of Congregations affociatcd ( or 
rather never affociatcd ) to hold a diliant Communion in the {iiwcfpcacs of Be- 
lief, Prayer, Sacraments, c^c under fcveral appropriate Pallors, not living (wt 
Fjrnchiani ) in any fuch vicinity as may miJcr them capable of any of the tbre- 
faid prefent affillances er Communion : ( unkls in travail men accidentally 
come together as,we may do with men of other lands.J J It is notorious that 
thefe Ejjintiating Ends ot the two forts of Societies arc diftind i and therefore 
the Societies are effentiallv diltmd. 

M Evert 



Even as a City, Bunough, or Corporation, are part of a Kingdom, and 

' arefpecitically diCtind focietics from the Kingdom. ( For the Parts may have 

a proper fubordinate fpccitication, which all fet together may conrtitute one 

more comprehenlivey^t'c/t'j : As a Clock, and the feveral wheels and parts ot 

that Clock may differ in _y^fa>, though not as coord inate_fp<'aVj-) A Kingdom 

may pofTibly be no bigger than a City : But yet the form of a Kingdom and of 

a City do differ in the Ends o( the Societies. So a Family in^wVdifferethfrom 

a City,vvhich is compact: of many Families : fo a Troop differeth in fpecie from 

a Regiment, and a Regiment from an Army, aColledgefroman Univerfity, 

a bed-chamber which is part of an houfefrom an houfe, though yet it's poirible 

that a houfe may be but one room, and an Univerfity but one Colledge, and 

an Army but one Regiment, &c. 

Now let us enquire whether de jure divino there ought to be fuch a Society as 
I have defcribed, aflbciating for perfonal prefent Communion and aHiftanccas 
aforefaid. And this I have fully proved before Chap. 3. ^fif/14. 23. T/^i, 
crdaimdthan "Elders in every Church. I Ihef. 5. 12, 13. Knoiat them that la- 
bour among and are over you in the Lord-, and highly ejieem them in love for t heir 
rvorkj fak§ '• and be at peace among your felves. Heb. i^. y. ly. Rcmentber them 
which have the rule over you, who have Jpok^n to you the word of God. ACi. 2 o. 2 8. 
"Takf heed to your felvcs and to all the flock^, &c. v.^i. I ceafed not to rvarn every 
one night and day with tears. 20. piblickly and houfe by hufi. i Pet. 5. 1,2,3, 
The Elders that are amongyoH,&c. feed the flacky fnot a particle of the iiock JMat, 
J 8. 1 5. If thy brother trefpafs againji thee^ tell him his fault between thee and him ■, 
If he hear thee not, tah^ two — If he hear not them, tell the Church— If witli S el- 
den, de Synedr. and the Erafiians by the Church were meant the Sanhedrim, 
it would tend to the confirmation of what we plead for •, confidering how thin 
both Council ( and Synagogues ). were, and in how fmall places. But againfl; 
that fence, kc Galafpies Jarons Rod, &c. 

Heb. 10. 22. &c. Forfake not the ajfemblingvfyourfelves together. But exhort 
cnc another '<••»» i Cor. 11. When ye comt together in the GIntrch, l Cor. i.^,&Ci 
See the Text as forccited Chap. 3. 

It is then manifeft that Churches afTociated for fuch prefent Communion 
bf Chrilfens, is of Gods appointment,which Ihorndik^ in 5 fet Treatife proveth 
to bethcgroundofDifcipline. ' 

'' 2. Next I will fliew that the Bifhops of fuch a particulai? Church and of a. 
toinpound Diocefeare offices fpecitical'y different ( afnibiis. ) 

1. The Birtiop of a particular Church is related to another Correlate, fpeci- 
fically diftindl from the faid Drocefane : Therefore his office is fpecihcally 
diRin6t. The Antecedent is before proved, and the Confequence no fober 
man will queftion. 

2. And their works are fpecifically dirtin<3'. 

I. The work of the one is, i. To be the ordinary publick Teacher of the 
Church •, 2. To Congregate the Church i 5. To be their Guide in prefent 
worihip-, 4. To give them the Lords Supper s 5. To watch over and guide them 
geilbnallyin their conveifation •, and fo of the reft forcnamcd. 

2. Tie 



2. The work of the Other is, r. To (end Curates to be tlieoruimr>' Teach- 
er, and GLiides,ancl Priclb to the people ieven to each Pariih one. 2. To have 
a LayChancellors Court to trouble them in a fecular modc,and to judge men to 
excommunication and abfolution. 5. To villtfbme Towns in his Dioccfe,an(l 
there to call together the Clergy and Churchwardens, once in three years, (or 
a yearifhepleafe. J 4. To have an Archdeacon to keep fome kind of Courts 
under him in certain places, by himfclfor his official. 5. To grant Licences to 
Marry : 6. And to preadi : 7. And to eat flefti in Lent. S. To fufpcnd or 
lilence Preachers, p. To lay liis hands on Children or others, tor the Cere- 
mony of Confirmation ; perhaps on the thoufandth or five hundredth part of 
iiis Diocefe, (thougii dejuir he Ihoulddo it to every one J 10. To preach as 
oft as he pleafein his Cathedral, or wiierehe will. 

But as for the aforefaid work of a Bilhop of a partiailar Church, he is not 
to do it, nor any one part of it, that I know of. For whereas the t>-kc office of 
fuch a Billiop is fas Dr. Hammand in his Annotat. well defcribeth it } by a Mi- 
ni/lerial participation to fubferveChrili to his whole flock in the threefold work 
of a teacher, aPriell, and a Pvulcr, he doth no ojie part of all. i. Inikad of 
Teaching his ftoch^^ he ( if he be one of the extraordinary bell) doth only pub- 
lickly preach once or twice a week to the thoufandth or hve hundredth or hun- 
dredth part of his flock : (But {^ do very few of them, but fome it may bs 
once in a month or a year) And as to the perfonal care of their Souls, he hath 
not one Pariih that he taketh the care of,to teach them perfonally. 2.Hefeldoin 
doth officiate in publick Prayer, Praife,and Sacrament to any part of his flock: 
And when he doth, it is but to a particle of the forefaid proportion : But when 
others doit, he faith, He doth it by them. 3. He doth not at all govern his 
flock with that which is the true Paltoral Government i wliich is in perfon 
among them to guide them, and rcfolve their doubts, and admit thole to Com- 
munion that are tit, and refufe tlie unfit i To admonilh all the fcandalous and 
unruly, as perfonally known to him, to watch over them and conflrm the weak, 
and rcfcl fcducers when they come among them. But inltead of this, he never 
fecththem, f as to the main body of his flock ) nor knoweth them, but fum- 
moncth their Teachers and Church-wardens, ( and fuch as others that dwell 
among them, or his Apparitors will accule to him ) to come before his Lay- 
Chancellours Court, as aforefaid, and in his Vilitation to meet him .- fothat 
here is none of the fame work no nor Governinent it felt, but another kind of 

And here note, i. That the forefaid three parts of the oflicc ( Teaching, 
Worlhipping, and Ruling) are all Ejfcniial to the office-, fothat if he 
wanted but any One of them, he were not an Officer of the fame fpcc/cx with 
thofe that have them all, much more if he have but One, yea, not One of 

2. That the fl'ii\ox Chitrch is not to be denoininatcd from a fmall or incon- 
ildcrablcpart ot it,but from tiie main Body. Ihcrclore he that is the Teacher 
but of one Congregation ot a thoufand, or many hundreds, or fcores, is not 
to be therefore called, the Teacher of chat Church or Flock, wliich conlifteth of 

M 2 fo' 


fb many Congregations: And fo alio for Worfliip and Pcnfonal conJud, He 
is not a Priell to that flockje^f'c.Much Icfs when he undertaketh not one Paii(h. 

Obj. Soyoumayfjy of one of the old City Churches^ fuch M Alexandria where 
the B/Jhop preached hut to one Congregation V or of our Farifhes that haze Chappeli^ 
xphere the Cwate teachcth in the Chappeh i or tvha-ever there are many Presbytns to a 
Gen^regittion : AH do not preach., at k.tji to all the people. 

■'" Anf.T. 1 doubt not but Alexandria and allfuch places.fhould have had many 
Churches and Bi(hops,as tlieChriftians grew too many to be in and under one. 

2. But vet when they had feveral Churches and Pi c?byters, the people were 
not'at all tyed to their own Parifhcs, but might come to hear and joyn with the 
Bilhop as oft as they plealed .- which though they could not do all at once, they 
might do by tarns^ fonie one day and fome another ; And fo they did. So that 
fiill they hadperfonal Communion with him,though not every day. 3. And 
they lived in Vicinity, where they were capable of Converfe, and perfonal 
notice, and private help from one another. 4. And the Presbyters all joyned 
in perfonal overiTght or Government of the whole flock, and were each one 
capable of perfonal admonition and exhortation to any member. 5. And 
thofethat attended the Bilhop and did not frequently officiate in the chief adi- 
ons, yet were prefent with the Church.and allilkd him in officiating, and were 
ready to do the reft when ever he appointed them or there was need / fo that 
though (j^WfAr^rato/w they did not the chief parts of the work everyday, or 
ufually, yet, i. it was all the three parts of the Piiffor?/ o^ce which they did, 
and undertook to do, in feafon ; 2. And that to the fame Church in pcrfon 
by themfelves. So that though Churches that fwell to a diibrdered bulk, are 
not in that perfe(fi- order as more capable Societies may be ; yet whilell their 
Communion is perfonal, prcfcnt, as aforefaidj the Church^eciej is not altered 
as in our Diocefes it is, 

III. A divers fundamentmn vel ratio fundandi, proveth a diverfuy of Relations". 
But a true Parijh Bijhop and our Diocefanes have fundamenta that are in fpecie 
divers i Andfi have a particular Church and a Vioccfane Church : S'rgo, a Pari'.h 
Church and Bilhop, and a Diocefane Church ar.d Bilhop are j/raV divers. 

The Major is undeniable. The Minor I prove by Ihewing the diverfity. 

I. The F«;ia?JWfnfKw of the Relarion of a Particular Church, is either i.Of 
the Relation of the Church to God; 2. Or their relation as fellow members 
one to another: 3. Or of their joynt relation to their Paltors or Bilhops; 
4. Or of their Bifhops or Paftors relation to them. For certainly a Church is 
rot only compounded of various Materials, but its form is a compounded of 
thefe Ffl«r Relations let together, and every one is Effential to it (And he that 
cannot dirtinguifh cannot undcrliand. ) Now everyone ot ail thcie compound- 
ing Relations, is founded in a mutual confent. 

I. The Relation of the Members, Paftors, and the whole Church to 
God is founded in Go^/ confent and theirs : Gods is I7gnihed i. By his Scrip- 
ture Inltitution and Command .- 2. By !iis qualifying and difpolingthe per- 
foirs; 5. By his providential giving then, opportunity ; j^ Ani ad ordine^n 


where it can be had, by the Ordauieri; C as to 'the Paftovs relation ) w!io are 
Gods miniikrs to inveft them in the office i 5. And by his moving the hearts 
of tiie People to confent f which belongetli to the giving of opportunity.) 

The Relation ofallthefeto God, is fecondarily founded in their own con- 
fent (that it may be a Contrjci: ) The Pallors exprefs theirs, in their Ordi- 
nationin general, and in thm Indrdrijii or fixing in that particular Church, to 
the Ordainers, and to the people. The members exprefs f/A-/r ro/i/iv.f, either 
plainly in a ContraA, or impliedly by adtual convention and fubmiflion, and 
performing of their duties. 

2. The Relation ot' the members to each other, is founded in their faid 
Explicite or Implicite confent among themfelves, joyned to their forefeid con- 
fent to God. 

3. The Relation of the Members to their Paflors, is founded Remotely in 
the faid fignitication of Gods will, by his J'Tard a.nd Providence, and by thcOr- 
dainers-, ( for they are but Miniikrs, and operate but by fignifying Gods 
will. ) And nextly , by the mutual confent of tlie People and the Paftors. 

4. 1 he Relation of the Pallors to the flock is accordingly founded, i. Re- 
motely in the faid iignihcation of Gods will by his Word., Gifts, T>ifpofition^ 
Oppo)trtnit)\ and by die Minijlay of the Ordainers : 2. And nextly by the con.- 
fent of Pallors and People. Thus is a paiticular Church-relation founded, 
and all thcfe parts arc necelTary thereunto. 

But as for our IJiocelane Churches, which have no particular Churches un- 
der them, nor Bilhops, but only Congregations with feveralCurateSjbiingnoc 
politically ind properly Churches, ( For I meddle not with fuch A. Bilhops Dio- 
cefes as confili of many true Churches with their proper Bilhops ) kt us fee 
from what foundation they reftilt. 

1. As to their Relation to God, he never expreffed his Con/ent, nor onmeth 
them ( that ever I could hear proved ) And therefore the Fundamental Con-- 
traft is wanting. Thofethatgo Dt. Stilling flvet\ andBihop Kn/w/i's way, 
and fay. No F"orfn of Government is of Gods appointment, do grant that the 
Diocefane form is not : But that the Congregational form is, I have fully pro- 
ved. Therefore they have not the fame Foundation. 

2. And as to the Relation of the Members of a Diocefe to one another, there 
is no mutual confent truly nor feemingly figniticd by them : wiiat ever fomc 
icwmaydoj who are not the Diocefe, it is certain that the Diocefe as fuch du 
neither Explicit ely nor Impliedly by word or deed exprcls any fuch Church 
confent, but rather the clean contrary. For i. Their Dn-cling in the Diocefe 
is no more a profclVion of con lent, than the Chrillians dwelling in Corjuntinopk 
iheweth them to be Maliometans : For their Ancelbrs there livedjand they Vavc 
no other dwelling. 

2. Their chooimg a Parliament who confent is no proof of their confent. 
1. Becaufe it is not pall a llxrii or tentli or twentieth part" of the Members that 
(hoofe Parliament men.2.BccJu(ethey never intend to choofe them for any Inch 
life as to be the choofcrs of their Religion, orChurch, and to difpofe of their " 
SjuIs: But only to regulate Churcli matters accortling- to Gods word, which 



when they go againft, they gabcyond, and againfttiie peoples confcnt. As in 
chooiing Parliament men, we do not trull thenuo choofe husbands and wives 
and Mailers and fervants for all the people : Nor can we commit that trurt 
( tor the choice of our Religion or Church ) to others llatedly, which Gods 
Word and Nature have bound us to ufe our fclves. Or if fuch mifchoofe tpr 
lis, they difoblige us from accepting their choice. I am fure tlie Papilts thinl\ not 
that they choofe Parliament men to choofe a Churcli for them : Nor would the 
Prelatills think fo, if the Parliament Ihould prove Presbyterian, Independent, 
Anabaptifts, or Papifts. 

3 . The Diocefe doth not fignifie Confcnt to a Church relation, by the Church- 
wardens or accufed perfons coming to the Chancellors --or Bifhops 
Courts. Fori. It is but a fmall number comparatively that do fb. 2. They 
are compelled , and are well known to come full forely againll their wills.: 
They are undone if they refufe : And fubmiilion and patience, are not fub- 
jedlion nor confent. 3. They moll commonly profefs to come to thefe 
Courts in obedience to the King, and as they are empowered Wy him, and 
itrengthened by his fword : And not at all as Church-Paflors empowered by 
Chrill : For who taketh the Chancellor to be fuch ? 

4. The appearance of the Clergy at the Bifhops Vifitation , and theiv 
Conformity, is no proof of the peoples confent. For the Minifters are diltind: 
perfons, and have a dillind interefi, and are no way empowered to fignirtc the 
peoples confent. 

5. Yea, they Ihew their diffent, i. By being fo backward to be made 
Church-wardens: 2. So backward to take their Oaths : 3. So backward to 
prefent : 4. So backward to appear at their Courts. 5. Doing it on a civil 
account as obeying the Kings Officers. 6. So few of them ever coming to a 
Biihop to be inlirudted, refolved, yea or for the ceremony of Conrirma- 

So that the people can never be proved to confent to a Diocefane Church 

And if they had, that is not the fame as a confent to a Congregational or 
Parilh Church State. 

g. The fame I need not fay over again as to the Diocefane Bifhop, Chan- 
cellor and Archdeacon : They confent to the Parilh Minillers where they are 
tolerable, by word or daily attendance in Godsworihip : But I know Englmd 
fo well as that I know that as they never choofe their Billiops, orCiiancellors, 
( but the King choofeth them, and a Dean and a few VxthtnAi j>ro forma con- 
fent ) fo they are never called to exprefs their confent, nor do any confidera- 
ble part of the Diocefe ufually confcntindeed ; fome never mind fuch matters : 
others fay, the King may put in whom he will i it is no ad: of theirs : others 
had rather have a good one than a bad onc,buthad rather yet have none at all, 
efpccially of late lirftre fo many hundred Minillers are iilcnced.And fome would 
have Bilhops to filcnce the Minillers, and fome are for them on a better ac- 
count. But it's no confiderable part of the Diocefe that figniheth Confent. 
And as for the formal demand to the Icanders by at the Confecration, whetiier 



any of them have any thing againft the Bilhop, it's a ceremony fitter for a ftagf, 
than to come here into an Argument. 

4. And as for the Bilhops and Cliancellors relation to the People, when k 
wants the word of God, and his confcnt, and the peoples confent, and hath 
but the Kings collation, the Deans and Chapters formal confent, and the Pre- 
lates and ConformiR Minilkrs confent, 1 may well conclude that here is not 
the fame Fwidaincntum as is of tlic Parochial and Paftors Church relation. 

IV- And where there is not the fame Relate and- Correlate, there is nottlie 
(ame Pvelation. But a Parochial Church and Paftor, and a Diocefane Church 
and Palior^ arc not the fame Relate and Correlate. Ergo, 

If they be, let them become Parochial Bilhops and be ftill the fame. But 
what I have faid of the difference of Ends and Fomdations proveth this i a Com- 
bination of ChrilHans into one Churcli frimi rrdinis for perfonal Communion, 
is not the fame with a Combination of Congregations forCommunion mental 
ur by delegates only. And fo of the Bilhops of thefe fcveral Churches. 

V. If a Congregational Church or Paftor be of the (amey^cc/f/ with our Di- 
ocefane Churches and Prelates, then a Church thatextcndeth tiirough all the 
Kingdom, yea to many Kingdoms, yea to the Eaftand Weft Indies or Anti- 
podes may be of the fame /^fc/c/ alfo ( and fo its Pallor.) And (o the Pope and 
his Church may be of the fame,( as to the magnitude) But the confequent is 
falfe : f r^.', fo is the antecedent. 

The confequence in tiie Major is evident, becaufe there is cadem ratio i For 
their reafiin ot denominating a Churcli One is becaufe it hath One Bilhop ■•, and 
by their Principles there may be onz Bilhop to a Province, to a Kingdom, to 
an Empire, to the World. 

When all the fubordinate Bifhopricks were taken down fo make up this 
Diocefane Church oi Lincoln which I live in, the Churdi was Ow, which be- 
fore was many. And if all the Bilhops were taken down except the two 
Archbifliops, the two remaining Churches I confcfs would be of the fame ffc~ 
«(•/ with a Dioccfe. Yea, if there were but One Church and Bilhop in the 
Land. And wiiy might not all Emopc on thefe terms make one particular 
Church ? If you fay, Becaufe they are not under one King, 1 anfwer, i. That's 
HO reafon ; A King is a Civil c xtrinfick Accidental head of a Church as a 
Church ■, and not a Conflitutive Head : But a Bilhop is an Intrinfecal, Eccle- 
lialhcal Conllitutive head, without wlioin it is no Church ( unlefs equivo- 
cally.) 2. Ten Kings may agree to give way to One Bilhop in all tiieir King- 
doms C as they have done to the Papacy. ) 3. The Roman Empire was bigger 
than Eumpc : \Vhy then might not that have been one only Ciiurch of the lame 
Sfecicy witli a Dioccfe ? 

If they fay that it is becaufe one man is not capable of doing the work of a. 
Billii^p for fo many Countrcys. 1 Anfwer, Per fe^ he cannot do it for the hun- 
dredth part of a Dioccfe ; Ter alios he may do it for all Europe : It is but ap- 
pointing fomc who (hill appoint others, who (hill appoint others, ( and fo to» 



tlie end of the chapter ) to do it. There is but one Ahiina in MjJJij to Ordain, 
f though numerous Bifhops,wlio have not the Generative faculty ■■, which Epi- 
fhanitii makes to be the dirtercnce between a Bithop and a Presbyter, tliat the 
one begets Fathers and the other but Sons ; Their Countrey was converted by 
an Eunuch. }It would be a notable difpute whether all the rcll be true Bilhops or 
not ( 1 think Yea i thePrclatills muli think Nay. j And yet B/vVm-oW faith that 
Ahajfia ( after all its great diminutions ) is as big as Italy^ France^ Spain, and 
Germany. And dotli not the Pope govern pa- alms yet far more, and pretend 
to govern the whole Chriftian World? while he fendeth one to Goj, another 
to Mexico^ (and Oviedo to Abaffia, would they but have received him.) 

Olj. But he hath other BilHops under hitn, therefore he is not ejufclmfpc- 
tuL as a Dioccie. Anfiv. But the Abima hath no Ordainers under him. And 
the Bifhop hath Chancellors, Deans, Arch-deacons, Surrogates, Officials, and 
fometimes in the days of old had Siiffi-agant too, under him. ( Ojicjh Was a 
Diocefe then. One Church, or two ?J And what if a Patriarch or Pope put down 
all Bifliops under him, and exercife his power only by other forts of officers ? 
(They that can demife, grant, let,, what parts they pleafeof their own office, 
may devife enow. ) 

And feeing it would not alter the fpecies, what if it fhould pleafe the King 
and Parliament to put down all the Biihops of England fave One ? I hope 
the Bifliops would not take that to be againft the Canon of 1640. 
nor againft the Oxford Oath \_ of never endeavouring to Cenfent or Alter 
ttie Cktrch Covcrnment'] (li it could have been paii to be taken by the Parliament J 
Becaufe the /pedes is not altered ; And they tell us Nonconformifts to draw us 
to Swear, that they mean but the fpecies. I make no doubt but at the rates of 
our prefent Ordinations, One Bilnop or Abiina with Chaplains enow, inay 
Ordain Priefis enow, fand too many of all confciencej for all the Kings Do- 
minions y and m.ay lilcnce preachers enow, and may fet up Chancellors, Sur- 
rogates, and Arch-deacons enow to do the prefent work. And it's pity that 
the land fhould be troubled with fo many when one would ferve. 1 confefs I 
would either have more ox fewer had I my vvilb. 

And as for my Minor propofition, let him that thinketh it wanteth proof, 
when he hath conlidercd what is beforefaid, and how perfonal prefent Commu- 
nion in all Gods Church-wor(liip,differeth from the Communion of aiTociatcd 
Congregations by meffengers, &c, think fo iVill, if he be able fo cgregioully to 

But I muft not fo leave our Prelatifis. I know that it is the common trick 
of Sophifters, when they cannot make good an ill caufe, to carry it into the 
dark, or fiart a new controverfie, and then they are fafe. A Papitt will wheel 
about into the wildernefs or thickets of Church hiliory, and ask yeu what 
names you can give of your Religion in all Ages, that one propolition of your. 
Syllogifm may contain much of a Horfe load or a Cart load of Books, and 
then I trow he hath done his work, if woitien be the judges. And others ufe 
Xo carry the qucliion a rthus ad verba : And fo it is in the cafe in hand. But it 
is not the name of a SPECIES that (hall feivc your tun:. Wc know how hard 



it is in Phyficks, to determine what it isthatfpecifieth s and much more in Mo- 
rals, Politicks and other Relatives. Bat Let the Logical notion of 3 fptcies lie 
at your mercy ; It (hall fuffice us, that you may not make fo great a change of 
the Church-crders and Government of Gods inrtitution, as to turn a thou- 
fand or hundred Churches into one v and to deprive all Parilhcs orCiiurchcs 
Confociatc for prefential Communion, of the priviledgc of having a Billiop of 
their own to Teach, VVorlliip, and Govern them prefcntially aiwl per fc. As if 
all the Arch- biQiops in the R.onan Empire had put down all the Bilhops, and 
■called themfelves the Bilhops of the Churches. Of which more anon. 


Whether a?iy form of Church Goverwuent be i?iflituteJby 
God as Jiecefary ? or all left to humane piuience ? 

Obj. Ty^t VoSor Stillingfleet hath invincibly proved that God hath made no 
XJ one form of Church Government neccjfary, but left the choice to 
humane prudence, 

Anfiv. I. Iffo, Why (houldwcall fwcar to this one f rut, that we will 
never endeavour to ah(r it ? or (as the & c£tcra Oath J never awfciit to the 
alteration of it, when we know not but the King may alter it, or command us 
to endeavour it ? Mull there be Cuch frvearing to the perpetuating an alterable 
unnecefTary thing ? 

IL The word [ Form ~\ fignificth either the eflentials of Church policy, or 
thcIntegrals,or accidents which Chrirt himfelf hath fctled : Orelfe it llgnitieth 
only fome mutable accidents or modeS^ which God hath left to hun\ane pru- 
dence. Of the tirlt we deny mans power to change them. Of the later we 
grant it. ^5' ^ ''4 

I. It is undeniably of Divine infticution that there be ordinary publick Af- Hei)"[Vot ' 
femblies for Gods folemn worfhip, and the peoples edification. 2, And that 22,8ec. & 
MiniRers of that oHice which Chrill irath iniUtuted, be the oftciating Guides in i?-7> i7> 
thefe Aflemblies. 3. And that Cohabiting Chrillians be the ordinary ilated ^•^1 
bodies of thefe a(remblies,and notlive loofely to goevery day as they plcafe frorti s-.jt ^it. 
Church to Church, but ordinarily when they can, be fetlcd members offoiiit 2^, 
one Church ( To which cohabitation or vicinity, is one difpofnio m.uerie ) i Thef. 5. 
4. And that each ot thefe Churches have their proper fixed Pallors, and fhould ' ^' ' ?• 
not take up with unfixed various pailing Minilters, unlefs in cafes of •nccclTary i^.^,';],,-. 

N unfetlcdncfs. 


1 Pet. J. iinfetldneG. 5. And that thefe fetled Paftors fhoukl live arttong the People, 

^'t' \ ^"<^ watch over them perfonally, and know them, and be known of them in 

& Tic. I." dodrine and enfample, as to the main body of the flock. 6. That thefe Re- 

5, &c. lations and Communion be by mutual confent of the Paftors and the body of 

1 Cor. i5. the flock. 7. That thefe mutual Ftclations of Gods appointment and their own 

'' *• confent do conititute them a fpiritual fociety of Divine infiitution. 8. That 

Mat. 28. ' ^'"^ Communion muft be ( as our Creed calleth it J a Communion of Saints-: 

19,20. that iSj ofmen profeirmg Chrill:iaiiityand Holinefs, and feeming fuch : And 

Mat.18.15 mull extend to a free Communication to each other, for the fupply of corporal 

Tit.3. 10. neceiTi'.ies ■, And to a mutual alTiltance of each other in holy living, p. That 

therefore there muft be fome to difcern and judge whether the perfons that 

would enter this Society and Communion, be Profefled feeming Chriiiians 

and Saints or not ? And whether they revolt by Herefie or wicked lives from 

their proftifion ? And whether they be impenitent in thefe revoltings ? And 

therefore having opportunity by prefence or nearnefs to know them and the 

witnefTes, muft judge of the credibility of reports or accufations ? And mult 

admonifh the offenders, and feek by all poffiblc convidri.on and exhortation, 

•with patience to draw them to Repentance : And if no perfwafion will prevail, 

torefufeto admit them to the Communion of the Church, and to deliver them 

the Sacrament of Communion, and to tell them openly of their fmand danger, 

and pronounce them lyable to Gods wrath till they do repent, and to charge 

the Church to avoid Communion with them, 10. It is the particular Pafiors 

of thofe Churches, to whofe office all this belongeth. ir. If that Church ha v£ 

more Paftors than one, they mufl do all this work in concord, and not divide 

nor thwart each other. So that as many Phyficians undertake one Patient, 

aseachonelingly of the fame office, and yet muft do all by agreement, unlefs 

fome onefeethat the reft would kill the patient •, fo it is in thiscafe. 12. All 

thefe particularChurches muft in their vicinities and capacitiesjiivc in Concord, 

and hold fuch a correfpondcncy, and Communion of Churches for mutual 

ftrength and edification, as tendeth to the common good of all : The means 

of which arc MelTengers, Letters, and Synods as there is occalion. All thefe 

twelve particulars 1 doubt not but fo judicious and worthy a man as Dr. 

Siillingflcct will eafily concede. And indeed the fumme of them is granted in 

Ills book. And then whether you will call this a Form of Government or not, 

liow little care I for the meer name ? 13. I may add this much more, that 

All thefe Congregations are under the extrinfick Government of the Ma- 

giftrate, as Phyficians are : And he only can rule them by the fword and 


But then we will agree with Dr. Stil'bigficct or any man, that God hath left 
all thefe things following without a particular determination to be determined 
according to his General Laws. i. Whether this Parochial or Congregational 
Church (hall always meet in one and the fame place •, or in cafe of pcrfccution 
or want of room, or by reafon of the Age, Weaknefs, and diftance of fome 
Members, may have feveral houfes or Chappels of eafe, where fome parcels 
raay fometiines meet, who yet ( at leaftj^o- vices ) may have petfonal prefent 

Cumnuuiion . 


Communion with the reft. 2. Whether a Church (liall be great or fmall, that is, 
ot what number it Ihall confift,fuppofingthat it be not fo grcjt or jofnijH as to 
be inconfiftent with the end. 3. How many Palters each Church Ihall have. 
4. Whetheramong many One (hall be a Chief, and upon fuppotition of his pre- 
eminence in Parts, Grace,Age,and Experience, (lull voluntarily be fo far fubmit- 
ted to by the re(i, as may give him a Negative voice. 5. Whether fuch offi- 
cers of many Churches, (lull confociate fo as to joyn in ChlTesor Synods llated 
for number, time and place. And whether their meetings lh.ill be confFant, or 
occalional ;vo renata. 6. Whether One in thefe meetings (hall be a ftated Mo- 
derator, or only pro tempore^ and (hall have a Negative voice or not, in the 
circumlkntials of their Synodical work. 7. Whether certain Agreements 
called Canons, (hall be made voluntarily to bind up thefeveral Members of the 
Synods to one and the fame way in undeterinincd circumilances of their call- 
ings i or as an agreement and fecondary obligation to their certain duties. 
8. Whether thefe AiTociations or Synods (lull by their Delegates conftitute 
other provincial or larger alTociations for the fame Ends : Wlio thofe Delegates 
Ihall be. Whether one in thofe larger Synods alfo ihall have fucli a Negative as 
aforefaid. All thcfc and fuch like we grant to be undetermined : And if they 
will call only fuch Humane modes and circumftanccs by the name of Forms of 
Government, we qparrel not de notnine, but de re do grant that fuch kind of 
Forms or P'ormalitics are not particularly determined of in Gods word. 

,9..Avvd.belul36all thefe, whether fuccclTors of the Apollles in the ordinary 
pait of their Avork , as A. Bilhopsor General Minilkrs having the careofmany 
interiour Bilhops and Churdics , be not Ljivfii!, yea, of Pivi/ie right, or whe- 
ther they be unlawful is a quellion which all NoncontbrmKb are not agreed 
on among themftrvcs, fo great is the difficulty of it. But for my own part, 
being unfatisried in it, I never prcfumcd to meddle in any Ordinations, leftit 
lliould belong to Apollolical A. Bilhops only ■■, and Irefolvcd to fubmit herein 
to the order of the Church wherever 1 ihould Uve. 

111. But if y>-«r.hold that D<c. SiiHiiizflcct, Billiop Keynoldf, and all thofe 
Conlbrmills who fay that no Church tbrm is jure divino nccrjfjrio, do extend 
{his C as exprefly they do ) to the Diocefane Form, Let it be obfervcd, i . That 
we plead for no more than we have proved, ( a>id they will confcfs I think } 
to be jure diiinc 2. And that we pkad againll/ircjr/«(Tand/«/;/o7i<Hc; to no- 
thing but what they themfelvcs fay is not of Gods inllitution. 3. That the 
proper Prelatilis aftirm it to be of Divine Inllitution, or clfe they will renounce 
it. 4. That the preface of the book ot Ordiiution to whicli we mull fubfcribc 
or declare Afl'ent and Confcnt, doth make this Epifcopacy to be a dilhndt Or- 
der from Presbyters, as a thing certain by Gods word. This therefore 1 won- 
der how they can fubfcribc to, who fay no Form is jifK dh'ino : I am fure they 
po-rnWf 7K not to (ubicribe it, while they dilpw^ve it. 

; And I would have leave to debitc the Cafe of the Church o^ England a little 
with thefe Hiimanirts, and to ask them. If no Church Form be of Gods ma- 
king, ,1. Wliy may, oot the. King and Parliament put it dov^n as aforelaiJ ? 

N 2 2. But 


2. But fpecially who made the Form of the Chvixch oC England which we muft 
fwcar to — ~ If another Church, then that other was not of the faine Form v 
othcrwife that Form was made before, which is a contradi(ftion. If it was of 
another Form, I ask, what it was? and who made the Form of tliat other 
Church which made this Church Form ? and fo to the Original ? It Bifhops 
or Synods made it, i\\\\ they were parts of a Church, or of no Church If of 
no Church, what Bilhops were thofc, and by what power didihey make new 
Church Forms that were of none themfelves ? If an Emperor or King tirft 
made them, either he was himfelf a member of a Church, or of no Church. If 
of a Church, what form had that Church ? And why fhould not that firftform 
ftandi And who made that form ? znd ib ad originem. If he was of w CAwc/fr, 
how came he by power to make Church forms, that was of none himfelf > 
NeiHi) dat qmd non habet. It's no honour to Prelacy to be fo made. And were 
they Chriltians or no Chriltians that made the Diocefane Form ? If Chriftians, 
were they orj/tr/y Chriltians, or rebellious ? If orderly, how happened it that 
they were of no Church themfelves, when the Apoftles fetled fo much of 
Church Form and Order, as I have before named ? If rebelUous,thcy were a dif- 
honourable original of Diocefanes. 

And if the Church Form be not of Divine infiitution^ then ^the Church it felf is 
not. Vox forma dat nomen & ejfe. And fo the caufe is given up to the Brnwnijh 
by thefe Learned moderate men, fo far as that there is no Church in England 
oi Divine infiitution. Were it not that when in general they have faid that no 
Church Form of Government is fo Divine, they again fo far urifay it, ag to 
confefs the Parith Churches or Congregations with their Paftors tO' be of Divine 
inftitution and of continued neceffity. ' "" 

All that is to be faid by and for them is this, That the Apbftles were the 
makers of the Englilh or Diocefane Form, but not of that only, but of the 
Presbyterian ( and IndepcndentJaKb ; and fo made no one neceifary but left 
all indifferent: Or that they made one of thefe Forms as mutable, allowing 
men to change it. 

Anfjv. But I. I have proved what they made •, Let them prove that they 
made any other, of a di&rent fort, not fubordinate or fupraordinate, if they 
can. 2. And let them prove the mutability of that which they made, and 
their power to change it, which they affcrt. Till one of thefe is proved, w-e 
are or (hould be in poffeffionof that which was certainly hrft made. 
' I am bold to conclude this argument with the fpeech of a W-^ but a wife and 
holy man, Joh, Chryfojiome de Sacerdotio lib.'^. p.ig. (mihi) 48. cap. 15. 
£ And whenfome { Bilhops J have obtained that prefcclure of a Province not belong- 
ing to them-, aifd others of one FAR GREATER THAN THEIR 

hulent changeling thing) • & pag. s,^. AND DO-NOT THESE 




THAT IS FAR MORE GRlEVOUS. ] Forgive the words, my Lords i 
They are not mine but CArj/nff^wf's : or if you will not forgive the citing of 
them, I will bear it as he did the like. Only I will abate you in my prognofti- 
cation, or fentcnce, that /.«• fnrcr hell fire than the Scripture threatneth, fup- 
podng tiiis will be iharp enough, even for the moll difperfing, lilcncing per- 
fecuting Prelate-, and imputing thofe words to honed Chryfojiomc^s vehement 
Oratory. And I'le tell you what went next before thefe words, [^Jnd they do 
not niily taks in the uriivorthy ( into the Priefth(X)d ) bi/t they caji out the rvorthy: 
For ar if they had agreed both tvays to fpoil the CImrch of God ^ and the firjh cauji 
rvere not enough to kjndle the rvrath ofGod^ they add the fecond, or tvorfe, to the 
former. For 1 judge it etjuaHy pefiUcni to drive out the Profitable, and to taks in the 
unprofitable : rt'hich certainly they do, that the flock^ of Chrijl may from no part 
either find confi)lation, or be able to tak^brcaih j O what would this manhava 
faid had he lived now in England ! 

C H A P. XL ^ ' 

Argiwient 3. From the deflru^iofi of the order of Pre S' 
byters of Divhie Injiitutiori, and the Invention of a 
new order of Sub-half-Preshyters i?i their Jiead, 


THe office of Vresbyters inlhtuted by the Holy Ghofl containeth an Obligation and 
Authority to Guide by DnUrine, IVorJhip, and Vifciplinc the flockj committed 
to their care: But the office of a Viocefane, being one only'BiJhop over many fcore 
sr hundred Congregations, is deJiruDive of that office of Presbyters, which containeth 
an obligation and authority to Guide by DoUrine, H^orfhip, and Difipline, ( or 
the exercife of the Church keys ) the flocks committed to their care. Therefore tin 
tfficcoffucha Viocefaneii de^miiive of the office of Presbyters injiitutcdbythe tMy 

Tlie Major is thus proved by the Enumeration of the Ads which contain 
the general office, and by the proof of the General power extending to thofc 
Ads; viz. 

I. They 


'I. They that had the Authority and Obligation to exercife the Church 
keys in the Scripture fence, had the authority and obligation to Guide their 
flocks by Dodrine, Worfhip, and Difcipline. But the Presbyters of the Holy 
Ghofts inrtitution had the authority and obligation to exercife the Church 
keys, in the Scripture fence : Ergothc)' had authority and obligation to Guide 
their flocks by Dodrine, Worlhip, and Difcipline. 

2. Again : The office which contained an Antlmity and Obligation to Teach, 
Exhort, Rebuke, publickly and privately, to judge of perfonsbaptizable and 
to baptize them, to Pray, Praife God, and adminifter the Lords Supper to 
the Church, and to judge of tliem that are to receive it, to watch over them 
privately, and publickly to Excommunicate the obitinately impenitent, asd 
abfolvethe penitent, doth contain authority and obligation to Guide that flock 
by Dodrine, Worfhip, and Difcipline. But fuch is the Office of Presbyters as 
inftituted by the Holy GholL —Ergo — &c. 

Here note i . That I am not now medling with the Queftions, Whether 
fuch Presbyters hold this power in fubordination to any fuperiour Billiops > 
nor whether there lie any appeal from them to a higher power in the Church ? 
2. Nor am I now queftioning , Whether in Scripture fence Bifliops and Pres- 
byters are all one in Name or thing. 

3. But that which I maintain is, i. That there is no proof in Scripture 
that God ever inliituted any order of Presbyters which had not the forcmen- 
tioned power of the keys. 2. And that God did inflitutefuch an Order of 
Presbyters as /jj,:/ that power, de nomine & de re. And 3. That the Diocefane 
Office deftroyeth fuch, and fetteth up others in their ftead. What God in- 
ftituted I will prove i. Out of the Scripture records, 2. Out of the Hiftory 
cf the Church which long retained them, in fome degree. 




That GoJ iiiftituted [uch Presbyters a^ had the for ef aid 
power of the Keys^ in Do^ri?je, If'^orjhip, andDifci- 
fli?ie 3 arid ?io other, proved by the Sacred Scriptures.. 

THat God inftitiited fucli Presbyters and no other, I (hall prove ty the 
enumeration and penUal of all the Texts of Scripture which mention 
them, ( xiz. as inlHtutcd in the New Tellament, and now in force. J 

' Ati. H- 23. jyi^en they hjd OrdMncd them Elders in ivcry Church — Compa- 
led with lit. I. 5. T.laat thou Jhouldcji Ordain Eldtrs in ncry City, as I had ap' 
pointed tixe — 7. For a Bijhop ntuH he blamelefs x the jiercard rf Cod. And his 
^ow.T is dcfcribcd v. 11, 13. Ch.2. 1,7,15. and 3. 10. intimate it. Com- 
pare this with I 'liin. 5. I, 2, 5, 6. 

1 'tim. 5.17. Let the Elders that rule rvell be counted worthy of double honour '■> ejpe- 
ciaVy they who labour in thcWordand Vonrine: compared with i Cor.p.jt^.Gal. 
6. 6. which Ihew that preaching the Gofpel was their work, as well as Ruling 
the Churches under them, as i Cor. 12. 2S, Eph.^ 11, 12. Kom. 12.7,8. 

Jifs 20. 17, 28. Hefent to Epkfus and called the Elders ofthcClyurch — 7ak^ 
heed to your felves and to all the floc]^ over the which the Holy Gbi^i hath made you 
fjerfeers, ( or Bifhops ) to feed ( or rule ) the Church of God which he hath pur- 
chafed rvith hit orrn bloud. v. ^1. Therefore watch &CC. £'.35. So labouring^ ye 
ought tofupport the weak^. 

AOs 1 1. 30. they fent it to the Elders by the hands of Barnab.K and SauL 
Alls 15. 2. tf. 22,23. I'o the ApojUes and Elders — And the Ap(jiles and El- 
ders came together to confider then pleafed it the Ap jiles and Elders with 

the whole Chiirch 7he Apojiles, Elders., and Brethren fend greetings— 

Sec V. 25,28. 

Ails 16. 4. The decrees which were ordained of tlx Apoflks . and Elders which- 
were at Jerufjlem. 

ACts 21. 18. rbe dity following Paul went in withttf unto James, and all the 
Elders were prefent — 

I 7<>K. 4. 14. NeglcH not the gift which ii in thee, wJiich was given tlyce by pro- 
phccy, with the laying on of the hands of the Fresbytery — 

I Pet. 5. I. The Elders which are among you I exhort, who alfo am an Elder, 
• — Feedtbeflock^ofGod ivhich U among you^ t-^kjng the overfight (or Epifcopacy ) 
thereof, not by conjirai/it but willingly — Neither as being Lords over Cods heritage, 
but being enfamplcs to tlx flock^. And when tin chief Shepherd fljall appear — 

2 Jolh^. 

2 Joh. f . the Elder to the E/c(f? Larly 

Whether thofe Texts, i 77w. 5. i. Rchnl^iwt an Elder, v.ip. Receive not an 
acctifatinn againjl an Eldcrl fpcak of an Elder by Office or by Age, is uncer- 
tain ■, if it be by Office, the other Texts dcfcribe them. 

Jam. 5.14. Is any man fick^F Lei him call for the Elders of the Church. AH 
thefe Texts Ihew that every Church had Elders by the inftitutioii of the Holy 
Ghoft : That they were the Teachers, Worlbippers, Rulers, and were among 
thepeople, prefcnt with their flock, perfonally doing their Offices, d^c. And 
the Scripture mentioneth no other that I can find. 

, And of this I have Di.Hammonds full conk\Twn,Amtotat. in A^.i i . & differt. 
before cited : with all thofe whom he mentioneth of his party and mind. And 
as for them of the contrary opinion, they tell us that in Scripture times the 
Names Presbyter & Bilbop werecommon : And that the word [Bilbops] fomc- 
times fignified all the Presbyters ( theBifhops as Presbyters and the Subpresby- 
ters ) as in ?hil. 1. 1,2. And that the word 1 Presbyters3 fometimes lignifieth 
theBiftiops only, and fomctime both conjunftly : But they are none of them 
able to give us anyone inftance with proof, of a Text which fpeaketh ofSub- 
jedl Presbyters ? ( I mean fubjed in Order or degree to Bifliops of thefinglc 
Churches, and not fubjed to the Apoftles and General officers. ) And while 
we prove that God appointed fuch entire Presbyters as are here defcribed, and 
they cannot prove againft ( Dr. Hammond or us ) that any one text fpeaketh 
ofa lower order or rank, I think we need no other Scripture evidence. 


Tlye fame conjirmed by the A?icie?its. 

AS for Humane teftimony, the heap is fo great brought in by Dav. Blondcf, 
that I have the lefs mind to fay any more of it ■■> But fhall only C befides 
all that is faid before on the by ) recite a few of thofe telltmones which moll 
convinced my own underftanding in the reading of them.in the Authors them- 
ielvesjleaving others to take what they fee bell out of Blpndels llore. 

I. I know that fomewhat may be faid againft what I (hall firft cite, but I 
think notoffufficient force. I begin with it, though not hrllin time, bccaufe 
firft in Authority. The i.Cnncil. Nic£n, in their Epilile to the Church of 
^lexand. and all the Churches of Egyp, Libya, and Pentapolkt, thus decree 
concerning thofe that were Ordained by Ucletius., ( OiS Socrat. lib. J. c.6. 
Iranllaced by Giyaxm ) Hi ant cm qui Vci gratia &vejhpf precious ad jut i ad nitl- 



limfch/fma dtflexijfe comperti funt, fed intra Cathotic£ & A^njioUc£ Fcclefi^jinet 
aberrom labe vacuosfe contintterint^ author it atern habcant turn Minijlros ordinandi^ 
turn (OS qui clero digni fuerint nnminandi^ turn deniqm omnia ex lege & inftituto 
Ecclcfuiftico libere exequendi ] Now ordaining Minifters and non'iinating men 
for the Clergy, are ads which, if any, (hew Presbyters to be Rulers in the 

Obj. I. Perhapi it u 'Bifliops ordained iyMeletius that are here fpoken of : or 
Bi(f}ops with the Presbyters refpeUively. 

Anfiv. There is no more in the Text but this, [ Tijey decreed further touching 
fuch Of were entred into holy Orders by hit laying on of hands^ that they, after con- 
firmation vfith more myjlical laying on ofhandsfjotddbc admitted into the fellon>fhip 
of the Churchy vriththif condition that they fl)ould enjoy their dignity and degree of 
Minijiry, yet that they be inferiour to all the Pajlors throughout ei'ery province and 

Church Moreoi'er that they have no authority to elcCi the A'tinijlcrs approved by 

their cenfures^no not fo much of to nominate them which are to execute the Ecclefiajlical 
fundions, nor to intermeddle with any thing touching them that are within Alexan- 
ders yw//2/«flw/7, without the confent of the Bifiop of the Catholick^Church, ] And 
then they add as afore, that thofe that fell not into Schifm C as they did ^, , 
ff-jall have authority to Confecrate Minifters, and nominate fuch .fi f.\i!l be thought „j( ,;;^t 
worthy of the Clergy. Now that it is Presbyters and not Bilhops that are here thtj vrtrt 
fpoken of appeareth i . In that it is without any note of eminency faid to be ""' '" C"'* 
\_fuch Of were entred into Holy Orders. ~] 2. In that it is fuch as fo entred by the-''?a^"'^* 
Laying on of Mf/rt/w's hands : Whcrereas a Bilhop mud be ordained by the /^^^/tj^t 
hands of r/7)-fc -B//fe<7/'/. And thcSchifinof one of the three, would not have f be B»"|/jof. 
frurtrated the Ordination, if thcother two flood firm in the Catholick Union. 

3. Becaufe it is the priviledgc of Presbyters tliat is denycd them : Though they 
be not degraded, they are to be below all other Paltors in every Church : 
which cannot be , that they ihall be Bilhops below all Presbyters. 

4. Becaufe the confent of the Biftiop of the Catholick Church 
( where they (hall come ) is ncccffary to their officiating. But if it could have 
been proved that Bilhops had been here included, yet while Presbyters alfo are 
included, it will not invalidate the teltimony. Btit indeed here is no fuch . 
proof I confefs that A7ff//wrK^ C a lefs credible Author ) fecmcth to apply it 
to Bifhops Ordained by Meletius : But no fuch thing can be gathered out of So- 
zomen, either Iripart. lib. i. c. 18. where he defcribcth Meleiiuf and his party, 
01 Tripart lib. 2. c.i2. where he reciteth the fame Epilile that 5ccTJ/fj doth. 
But I would pretend to no more certainty than is evidegt. 

11- Piuf Epifcop. Roman, in Bibliotb. Pat, "torn. ^.p. 15. Epiii. Julio Epifcopt 
inquit, \_ Presbytcri & Viaconi non ut Majorem^ fed ut Minijtrum Chrijii te obfer- 

vcnt falutat tc fenatuf pauper Cbrifii apud Rcmam conltitntw : faluta omne 

Collegium fratrum qui tecum funt in Domino And epiCt. prima eidem Jufto, he 

reckoneth Timothy and Mark^ with the Pnsbyters educated by the Apojiles. 
Now if they were of the Senate, the C()//t'(/c;i',-and the fame name Presbyters z^ 
Bilhops had,wc have no vcafon to think that they had not the power of the kcvs. 

O III. Tertullun 


III. fe^-tullian de pxnit. to caft himfelf d/ojrn at the/ert o^t\\i?mbyten\ 
which implyeth that they had the power of the keys for Abfolution .• And thofe 
whom he calleth [Seniores ^ Jjiolog. managed the Difcipline, and that not in 
a Chancellors Court, but in the fame Congregations where and when they 
AfTcmblcd for publick vvorfhip. If any will fay that Billiops are here included, 
I will not deny it •, But if they will fay that when he nameth the Seniors and 
Presbyters without diftindion,that he excludethM fave the Bilhop alone, I (hall 
not believe that TcrttiUian fpeaketh fo un-intelligibly. Unlefs they will follow 
Dr. Hammond and believe (" as I do not ) that there was yet but One Presbyter, 
who was the Biftiopin a Church, or in moft Churches ; which dc f ado would 
be for us. 

IV. The Teftimonies of C/cw. Kowjn. Ignat. Juftin Martyr, may be gathered 
out of the words foreciced. Hierom^s Teftimony in this cafe is fo plain and full, 
and trite hi every writing CE^i/f ad Evagr. & pajjim, making them \ht Apn}lkT 
Smccffors, and the fame with the Bilhops, except only in ordination ) that I 
will not trouble you with reciting it. 

Epift. 2?. V. Cyprian neither would nor could govern his Church without the con- 

p.64,Edit. currence of the Presbyters ; ( before cited ) De Gaia defideraftis ut de Philume' 

' no & Fortunato hypodiaconU & Favorino acolutbo^ refcribam : cut rei non potui me 

fohan judicem dare i cum multi adhuc de Clero abfentes fint '■, nee Inum fmtrn vel 

fero repetendwn putaverint, & h<ec fwgulorjtm traCfanda fit & limanda pleniw ratio i 

»on t ant um cum colleges tneis, fed& cum plehe ipfa univerfa. Epiji.^^d. (edit. 

Coulurt.) He iheweth that it is the Clergies duty, to take care of the widows, 

the lick, the poor, the Grangers : ( he the Bifhop was then abfent. ) 

SoalfoE/).37.And Fpift.io.ho. reprehcndeth the Presbyters for reconciling and 

abfolving the Lapfed overhaftily and withnegledl and contempt of the Bilhopi 

but not as if the work were not their office work to do ; Nay he giveth us 

this full plain teihmohy, that even in this publick Abfolution in foro extcriore, 

the true cufiom of the Church was tor the Bifhop and his Presbyters together 

to impofe hands on the penitent and fo abfolve them, receive them, and 

give them the Sacrament. Pag. 30. faith he, Nam cum in minorihiis peccat'n 

Vlintxt agant peccatores poenitentiam JMJh tempore., &• fecundiim dijciplin£ ordincm^ ad ex~ 

■lorthto "^"^"^(fi" vcniant, & per impvfitionem manus Epifcnpi & Cla-i jus- Communionis 

kenado^ accipiant ; Nunc crndo tempore., perfecittione adbu-cperfeverante., nondum reliituta 

Alt thit Ecclcfi£ ipfilif pace., ad Communicationcm admittunutr., & offcrtur nomen eoritm., 

fuffir pr fi^ Kondum poenitentia acla^ nondum exomologcfi fa&a^ nondummanu cps ab Epijcopo 

to tiiB ^ Clcro imfofita., Eucharijiia illii datur, ~\ 

tiitmj'rom Epifl. 5. p. 1 5. He writeth to the Clergy in his abfence to do the work of 
pride, im- Difcipline, even their own part and his, and ( as no man doubteth but 
ruUmfs, ti^ey dij ti^e whole work in the publick affcnibly when he was abfent fo long 
d'at atTr ^''^^^? ^° f that you may fee what kiiv.l of Chappcl meetings they had ) 
ht'bt s. '■^ beini^ the culf ome for encouragement of futfercrs, tb go to the Gonfeffors- 



and vifit them and there celebrate the Sacrament,) lie perfwadeth them that 
the people may not go crowding by great companies at once, left it ftirup 
envy, and they be denied entrance ( it's like they were in Prifon ) and lofe 
all while they are infatiable to get more : But that one Presbyter and one 
Deacon go one day, and another another day by turns, bccaiife the Change 
of perfons, and viciflitude of mceters would break the envy : and aU Ihould 
be done in meeknefs and humility. 

But the words I infill on are, [ Peto vos pro ^dc & rclighne vejira, fungami- 
«/ illic & Vellris partibus &: meis, ut nihil vd ad difcifliuam vcl ad diligaitiam 
dtftt. ] And if the whole work of Difcipline be fuch as is partly their own 
part, and partly what they may do in the Bilhops abfencc in his Head, it is 
within the power of their fundion : For a Lay-man or a Deacon cannot do all 
the Presbyters work in his abfence. 

And Epijh 6. p. ij. Having exhorted the fulFercrs or confcflTors not to 
grow proud by it, and lamented that fome after fufferings grew infolent and 
were a fhame to the Cliurch, he addeth ( Nee a Diaconii ant ?resb\tcns regi 
pajfc^ ~\ Shewing that even the Government of the Confeffors bL-longed to 
them botli in their places: And of himfelf he faith to his Presbyters, Solus 
rcfcribere nihil potu'iy quando a primordio Spifcopatuf mei jiatucrim nihil fine confilio 
7'eJlrOy &• five Cmifenfu Flebk mete , privatj fententia gerere — fed ami venero — — 
in Commune tra&^bimuf • ■■ As to them that fay. This was only Cvprianf 

arbitrary condefcenfion, I anfwer, i. He (i\th Non potui, And 2. he clfe- 
whcre fpeaketh of it as due, 3. Itagrecth with the Canons and culfomcs of 
thofc times ; 4. Cyprian pleadeth fo much for the Bilhops prerogative, that 
we have little realon to think him both fo fubmilfive and imprudent, as to 
bring up ill cuftomes , and teach the Minifters and people to cxpeft 
that as their part which belonged not to them, and fo to corrupt the 

And in the Ep. 11. />. 32. again he faith [_ Ante exomologefin grrdipmi & 
rxtremi deliSi fa&am, ante manum al> Epifcopo & Clcro in pxnitcntcm iittpofitamy 
offerre Lipfis pacem & Eucbarijiiam dare, id eji fanHtwt Vomini corpus prof snare 

The fame he hath again Ep. 12. p. 37. ( v/kh zn examinMoitar fingtda 
prjifcntibm & judicantibuf vobif ( that is, the people, to thew how great the 
Church was.) 

Afterward Ep. 14. hcdiredteth the Presbyters to abfolve thofe by Impofiti- 
cn of hands themfelves without him that arc infirm and in danger, but that 
the reft mull be publickly reconciled in the Church pr£fente& jiantium plebc. To 
recite all of this nature in C\'pni»«,would be too long. 

VI. I will add next a General Teftimony riz. the conftant cufiomc of all 
Chuiches, even linmcit felf, where the Presbyters have Governed without a 
Eilhop in the intervals, when after one Bilhops death another was not chofen. 
As bclbre the choice of Fabians fucccffor you may -fee by the Epiftles of the 
Koman CUrgy to Cyprian. Mirci.n was expelled by the Kcwmi Presbytcs 

O 2 fede 


CIS in 
Blondil. § 

37-13 3, 

fedevacante, Epiphjiu H<ei-cf. ^2. And if they had the power over one another, 
more over the flock. 

And I need bring no particular proofs of this : For when Bi(hops have been 
?"/?f'*"' binilhed, imprifoned, dead, and the feat vacant a year, yea, divers years to- 
gether Cas it hath been at Rome ) was the Church no Church all that time > 
Had it no Governn^ent? Was there no power of the Keys? Was tlie Church" 
laid common to alP This inibnce is fo full as nothing can be faid againA it,, 
but that it was in Cafe of Necefity.^\t that only proveth that it is thePre?bytcrs 
office work, though out of a cafe of neceiTity th<.y mult do it with the Biftiop, 
and not without him. But a Lay-man may not do a Presbyters proper work 
on fuch a pretence. However the Church by this practice hath declared it's 
judgment in the cafe. 

Vn. Conc/1. Caithag. \. Can. 23. w \_Vt Epifcofiu mtHm caitfam andut 
abfque prjefeiiiia Clericormnfitorum ; Alioqttin irrita erit fententia Epifcopi^ niftCle~ 
rkomm pnfentia confrmititr. If it be faid that here is no mention of their Con- 
fent, but of their Prefeiice only, I anfwer. It is a prefence neceffary to the Con- 
firmation of the Bifhops fentence : and the prefence of Diflenters would rather 
injirm the fentence ( more than their abfence ) than confirm it. And the con- 
jund Canons Ihew that it is Confent that is meant. For, 

Can. 32. it's faid [_ Irrita erit donatio Epifcoporitm^ vel venJitio, vel commnta- 
tio rei Ecclcftafiic£, abfque conniventia & ftibfcriptione Clericorttm : where fuch 
z Connivence is meant as is joyned with fubfcripHon, And if jubfcription of the 
Presbyters was neceffary inthefe cafes, no \ds thin. Confent is meant in the 

Which is yet more apparent by thofe following Canons, which forbid the 
Biftiop to Ordain without his Clergy, or to accufe any of them but by proof 
in a Synod, or to fuffer a Presbyter to (land while he fitteth. And the Ca- 
nons that place the Bifhop in confeffit Tresbyteromm , and fet him in the mid ft 
of them m the fame feat in the Church, and call hira their Colleague : The 
Canons which make the Presbyters Governours of the Rural Churches, and 
inake the Deacons fervants to them, of which the number is too great to be 
now recited 

Even here Can, 22. it's faid \_ Epifcopm fine ConcilioCkrimumfmrumCleri- 
- cos non ordinet : Ita ut Civium ajfenfwn & conniventiam & teftimonium qu£rat. ~\ 
And if not fine concitio * then not contra cohfiliutn. And if the content of the 
Laity be neceffary, fure the Clergies is fo too. 

• Can. 2^, Epifcopnf fi Clerico vel Laico crimen impofuerity deducattir ad proba' 
tionem in Synoditm. Can. 30. Caveant Jndices Ecchfite n; abfente eo cu'jm caufa 
vcni/latiir fententiamproferant'-, quia irrita erit^ imo & caitfam in Synodo pro faSto 
dabunt. And if a Bilhop mull not fo much as acaife but in a Synod on proof, 
much Icfs might he be judge alone. 

Can. 33. appointeth that Bilhops or Presbyters [hall be invited to preach, 
and confecrate the Oblation, when they come into ftiange Churches ^ So far 
there was no difference. — 


N«tf it is 
not confi 
lio but 

Can. 54. Z't Epifcopuf in qml^het hcofedeiU) flare TrcsbyUmm nonpathtitr. 

55. Vt EpifcopMin Ecchfia & ifi coiifejfu Presbyterorumfiiblimiorfee/eat. Intra 
domum veroCnllegam Trcshytcroritm fc ejfc cognofcat. 

Can. 3 6. Presbytcri qui per Vixccfes t cdefiof reguiit^ &c. 

Can ^7. Viaconm ita fe Freshyteri, ut Epifcopi minijirum cjje cognnfcjt. zitf. 
&Can. 38, 3 p, 40. 

Yea even in Ordination it is fai3, Can.2.Vr(shytn-(jHum Ordithttw\Epifcnpn aim 
hencdiccnte^ & mamim fupcr ejm tenente , etiam omncs Pnsbyttri qui pr^fcntes 
fitnt manw fitM juxtj manian Epifcopi^ fupcr Capnt iUius t meant, Et Can, 5. 
Diacontif r.Hiim ordinaiur folus Epijcnpuf^ qui mm bencdicit, i:r.vm fupcr caput lUim 
ponat : quia no/i ad S.ic:i-dotiHm fed ad miriflcrium confecraiur~] So that Priellhooi 
was to be conferred by the hands of Prieils, and the Billiop's alone was not 
enough •, But Deacons might be Ordained by a Bilhop without Presbyters, ] 

What need I tire the Reader witli otlicr Councils tcllimonies ? when this, 
though called Provincial having 214 Biihops, and among them Aureliifr^ 
Augujiinc^ Tr c. is no !cls valuable tlian any General Council in the volumes c4' 
the Councils. 

VIII. Ill the Arabick Canons ot the Concil. Nic. r. ( which I cite not for 
their jullitication, but as teltifying the matter of fadt in the times of which 
they were written wlicnfocver it was ) it's faid, Can.^-J. After one Birtiopis 
forbid to abftilvc him. that another iiath Excommunicated [ Eadem Lex erit dc 
Saccrdjte^ id efl, Vt nullui Sacerdos folvat aut ligct quern aliUf Sacerdos folverit 
attt ligaverit, quamdiu ilk qui folvit out ligaiit vixerit : Pofi mortem vera fucceffor 

tyi6 fotvet cu-m mnrUfMsligavit : Jed debet Epifcopuf pr^eeffe hihcnegotio Nequt 

tonvcnit ut EpifenpUf lUtt Ardjtepifcopm folvat aut ligct atm, qui dieiie a Sacerdote 
folutitf aut UgatUf. fun, quamdiu ille qui folvit aut ligaiit vixerit."^ Here you fee 
the Priell may b nd and loofe, and that inforo Scclefiaflico : yea fo falf that no 
Bilhop or Archbihopmay loofe or bind contrarily during his life. ThenPresr 
byters lud tlic Keys. 

And Can 57. (according to other Canons cited before,^ they fay.[^The Arch- 
Prcsbyter in the Biihops abfence (hall be honoured as the Bilhop, bccaufe h^ is 
in Iiis place s and let him be the Head of the Pricfts, who are under his power 
in the Church, with all that the Archdeacon is over. 3 And if one Presbyter 
may Rule the rcll as a Bilhop, the Government of the flock is not above their 
Order or place. If it be faid that he doth it as the Biihops Dcpi\ty, it is an- 
fvvcred oft enough before. Spiritual Power for Palloral) is deputable to 
noiic but fuch as are of the fame Order: which is not properly a depLitation. 

IX. Presbyters had power to Baptize and to celebrate the Lords Supper, 
Theretore they iiad power to judge wiio were Baptizable, and who were ca- 
pajie of the Lords Supper ; For 1 . Elfethey wpuld not do it as Chrifts Mi- 
nillcrs, but as the executioners of auothers judgment. And if fo, they may 
give both Sacraments to Turks aiid Irihdtls if they be bid. And then 
indeed thetridt is not the Baptizer or Confcaateit MoralIy,but the Bilhop doth 



it by the Prieft : All which arefalfe. And a Presbyter may preach and Bapti2e 
in any Infidel Kingdom, where no Bifliop hath any Dioce{e, and this as 
an ordinary cafe ( in 7ur\y^ Tartary^ China^ Japan, &c. ) And what Bilhop 
Hull there tell him r>;hom to Baptize where there is no Bilhop ? And the power 
of: Baptizing is the hrit and greateft Key of theChurch, even the Key ofad- 

And they that do among us deny a Presbyter the power of judging whom 
to Baptize and give the Lords Supper to, do not give it to the Bilhop ( who 
knoweth not of the perfons ) But the Direitive part they commit to a Convo- 
cation of Biihops and Presbyters ■■> and the Judicial partly to the Prieft, and 
partly to a Lay-Chancellor. 

X. Epfphaniiii Hxref.'J'^. faith, [ The Acoftles did not fet allin full order 
at once ; And at hrft there was need of Presbyters and Deacons ■, by whom 
both Eccleliartical affairs may be adminifired : Therefore where no man was 
found worthy of Epifcopacy, in that place no Bi(hop was fet ] By which it 
appeareth that he thought that for fome time fome Churches were Governed 
without Bifhops .• And if fo,it there belonged to the Presbyters office to govern. 

Whereto we may add the opinion of many Epifcopal men, who think that 
during the Apoftles times, they were the only Biihops in molt Churches them- 
felves. And iffo, Then in their long and frequent abfence the Presbyters 
tnuft be the governours. 

XI. That many Councils have had Presbyters, yea many of them is pafl 
doubt .• Look but in the Councils fubfcriptions and you will fee it. A Synod 
of fome Biihops and more Presbyters and Deacons gathered at Rome., decreed 
the Excommunication oiNovatiannf and his adherents, 'Eitfeb. lib. 6. c.43. 

Noetus was convented, judged, expelled by the SelTion of Presbyters, Epi- 
phan. Heref. 47. c. i . 

See a great number of inftances of Councils held by Biihops with their Pres- 
byters in Blonde!, dc Epifc. felf.^.p, 202. Yea one was held at Rome prsfiden- 
tibtis mm. Joanne 12 Presbytem., An. 964. vid. Blond. p. 20^, 206, 207, 

Yea they had places and votes in General Councils; Not only «t aliorum 
procuratores, as Fiaor and Vincentius in Nic. i. but as the Pafiors of their 
Churches, and in their proper right. I need not urge Seldens Arabick Cata- 
logue in Eittych. Akx. where there were two perfons for divers particular 
places .• or ZonarM who faith, There were Priefts, Deacons and Monks ■-, nor 
Athanixfius a Deacon's prefcnce; Evenof late the Council oiBafil is a fufficient 

XII. The forefaid Canons of Carthage which are fb full, are inferted into 
■the body of the Canon Law, and in the Canons of Egbert Archbifhop of lork, 
as Bilhop Z'Jhcr and others have obferved. 

XIII. Hkrctns 

XXTTT. BinonCs \_Commwii Trahytcrmm Concilio Ecclcfi£ gjihcrtiabanfttri "} 
feconded by Chryfojionte and other Fathers, is a trite, but evident telUmony. 

XIV. That Presbyters had the Power of Excommunications fee fully proved 
by Calderrvood, Altar. Vaiyafc. p. 273. 

XV. Bafirs, Anaphora Bibl. Pat. Tom. 6. p. 22. maketh every Church to 
have Archprcsbyters, Presbyters, and Deacons, making the Biftiop to be but 
the Archpresbyter. 


The Confeffio7is of the great eft: and LearneJeft Trelatifts, 

I. "TpHe Church of England doth publickly notific her judgment , tha^ 
X Church Government, Difcipline, and the power of the Keys is not a 
thing aliene fromor above the Order of the Presbyters, but belongcth to their 
office. I. In that they allow Presbyters to be members of Convocations (and 
that as chofen by the Presbyters. ) And whereas it is faid, that the Lower 
houfe of Convocation are but Advifcrs to the Upper, I anfwer, All together 
have but an advifing power to the King and Parliament ; But in that fort of 
power, the lower houie hath its part, as experience Iheweth. 

2. There arc many exempt Jurifdidions in England., ( as the Kings Chap- 
pel, The Dcanvy of i^'i/idfa; and If^olvcrhampton, Bridgenorth, ( where fix Pa- 
rilhes are governed by a Court held by a Presbyter ) and many more, which 
fhew that it is conlillcnt with the Presbyters office. 

3. The Archdeacons who are no Bifhops cxcrcifefomc Government ; And 
fo do their Officials under them. The Objedion from Deputation is an- 
fwered . 

4- Thb Surrogates of the Billiops, whether Vicar General, Principal Offi- 
cial, or Commiffaries, are allowed a certain part of government. 

5. They that give Lay-Chancellors the power of Judicial Excommunication 
and Abfoiiition, cannot think a Presbyter uncapablc of it. 

6. A Presj\tcr pro forma, oft paflcth tlie fcntencc of Excommunication and 
Abfulution in the Chancellors Court when he hath judged it. 

7. A Presbyter in the Church mull publilh that Excommunication and Ab- 

8. By allowing Prcibyteis to baptize, and to deliver the Lords Supper, and 


to keep fome back for that time, and to admit them again if they openly pro- 
fefs to repent and amend their naughty lively and to abfol ve the fick, they intimate 
that the' Power of the Keys belongeth to them, though they contradid them- 
felves otherwife by denying it them. 

' p. And in Ordination the Presbyter is required to cxercife difcipline: And 
the words of AVt. 20.28. were formerly ufed tathem \_Take heed to your 
felves and to all the flock^, overrvhich the Holy Ghofi hath made you Overfecrs '( Ot 
Bi(hops ) to feed ( ox Ku\t) the Church of God : Whence Bifliop X^e/ gather- 
eth that the Churches fence was that the Presbyters had a joynt power with 
the Bilhop in Church Government. And though htdy Jnno 1662. this be 
altered,and thofe words left out, yet it is not any fuch new change that can dif- 
prove this to have been the meaning of them that made the book of Ordination, 
and that ufed it. 

II. Archbifhop Cranmer with the reft of the CommifTioners appointed by 
King Edward the Sixth for the Reformation of Ecdefiaftical Laws, decreed 
the adminiftring Difcipline in every Parilh by the Minifter and certain Elders i 
Labouring and intending by all means to bring in the ancient difcipline. Vid. 
'B-eform. Leg. Ecclef. tit. de Divinis Officiii cap. 10. And our Liturgy wilheth 
this Godly Vifcipline reftored, and fubftituteth the Curfes till it can be done. 
And the fame Cranmer was the iirft of \6 who in the time of King Henry the 
Eighth affirmed f in a book called Ihe Bijhops Book^^ to be feen in Fox's -J 
Martyrology,)that the difference of Billiops was a device of the ancient Fathers, * 
and not mentioned in Scripture. And of the opinion of Cr«nwf«" with others in 
this point, his own papers publifhed by Dr. Sullingfleet Ire/iic.p. ^90^^$i-^&c. 
are fo full a proof, that no more is needful. 

III. Dr. Hichard Cofws in his Tables (heweth how Church Difcipline J 
is partly exercifed by Presbyters, and by the Kings Commillion may be much a 
more. And it is not aliene to their office. 

• IV. Hooker Ecclef. Pol. lib. 5. pleadeth againft the Divine fettlcment of 
one form of Government ; And lib. 7. Sell. 7. p. 17, 18. he (heweth at large 
that the Bifhops with their Presbyters as a Confcis governed the Churches: ■ 
And that in this refpe<5, \_It is mofl certain truths that the Churches Cathedral 1 
and the Bijhops of them are as glaffes rvherein the face and very countenance of Apo- 
jhlical antiquity remainethyct t-o befeen^notrvithjianding the alterations rvhich trail of 
time and courfe of the rvorld hath brought. And much he hath ' elfe- 
where, which granteth that the Presbyters are Church governours, though not 
in equality with the Bilhops. 

V. Dr. F/eW, lib. 5. c.27. (hewing how the Apoftles hrft limiting and 
Skiing of Paliors to particular Churches, was a giving them Jurifdidiion, 
faith, \tlns aligning to men having the pojver of order ^ the perfons to ivhom they were 
Uj tisiniji^"' boly things , and of whom .they rpere to take the care-, and the fubjeiJing 



of filch pofons to thetn , gave them the potvcr of JwifH&hn which they hud not 
before. ~\ ' . 

And [ As another of my Rank^ cannot hai's that JtmfJiShn tcithin^ my 
Church as I havC) but if he voill have any thing to do there., be mnji be inferiottr 
in depxe to mc s fi ree read in the Ka'clation, of the /fn^cl of the Church of 
Ephefus, &c. '] So that with him a Billiop is but one of the Presbyters, of the 
fame Rank, having the Hrll: charge of the Church, (as every Incumbent in 
rcfpedl to his Curates ) and fo above his Curates in Degree. '] 

And [^ As the Presbyters may do nothing Trithont the Biflfop^ fo he may do no- 
thing in matters of greatefi moment rvitboln their prefence and advice. Cone. 

Cart hag. 4. c. 23. It therefore tmjl falj'e that Bcllarmine faith , that 

Presbyters have no potver of Jurifdiciion For it it tH(^i clear and evident., 

that in all Provincial Synods Presbyters did fit., give voices., tvid fttbfcribe gf well 

as BiJJjops : And the Eifiops that rrer.epreftnt (in General Councils ) bring- 

tng the refolutifiu and confent of the provincial Synods of thofe Churches from 
xchence they came., in which Synods Presbyters had their voices, they had a kjnd of 
confent to the decrees of General Councils alfo : and nothing was pajfcd in them with- 
out their concurrence. 

And Chap, 4p, \_the Pap/jls thinks that this is the peculiar right ofBiJhopt: jinde.^o. 
But they are clearly refuted by the ttniverfjl practice of the whole Church, from he jhetetth 
the beginning : For in all Provincial and National Synods, Presbyters did ever i''ll^'>i:t^ 
give voice and fubfcribe in the very fame fart that Bijhops did i whether tl>ey were 'f^'^^^^ ' 
ajfembled to make Canons ofDifcipline., to heai- Caufes, or to define dmbtfu'l points jor. f._* 
of deiirine : And that they did not anciently fit and give decifive voices in Central Tariac. 
Councils, tlx re.ifon was, not becaufe they have no mtcreji infuch deliberations and f-. i^Con- 
refolutions, but becaufe feeing all cannot meet in Councils that have interejl in fuch J^^^^' 
bufmefs, }but fame mujlbe deputed for and authorized by the reft, it was thought fit Gregor I 

that tlx Bijhops ] So here are Billrops j«t/;mz;ei by Presbyters as tlicir 4. ep.88.' 

Deputies in thegreatcft affairs in General Councils. • Synod. E- 

He proceedcthto prove this by inlbnccs, Concil. Later, fttb Iniwc. 3. &c. ^^^^' ^tc* 

VI. Even Archbilliop Whitgift maintaincth C as Dodor StiHingfleet hath ^^^^j^y. 
colledtcd, Iren. pag. ^^if. ) that \_No l^nd of Government is exprejfed in '/jclow, e». * 

word, or can necejfarily be concluded thence : No form of Church Goz'crnment bridges, 

is by the Scriptures commanded to the Church of God ( or prefcribed. ) 3 And Cofins, 
Dodor Stillingflcet there citeth ^ many tcflimonies, to prove this the judgment?," J^^' 
of the Church of England: And if fo, it muft be only men and not God, thorp 
who make any difference between a Presbyter and a Bifhop in the point of Ju- Hales, 
lifdidion.- ' Chilling-' 


VII, Billiop Bilfon Perpct. Govern, p. 16. c. 391. (aith, \_'I'hc Synod ofchemni- 
Antioch which depofed Paulus Samofat. as Eiijehiuf jheweth lib."], c.38, &in.i\\iiand 
Concil Etiber. about the time of the frji Nicene Council fate Bijhops and Presby- '"""y ^''' 
teis, even ^6. In the fecond Concil. Arclat. About the fame time fxbfcribed ' ji"]-: 
twelve Presbyters befidts Deacons. So in Concil. Rom. fub Hilario & Cregor. ,;^^_ 

P where 


i^tbre 34 ^cfhyters fuhfcrihed after 22 B/Jhopf. And in the j\rji fub Symmach. 
ivhere after "JZ Bipops fibfcribed 6y Fresbyters : So in the thirds fifth, and fixth, 
under tl)e fame SymmacbiK^ Felix had a council of 43 Biffops and"/^ Presbyters, 
The Concil. Anttfiod. c 7. faith, Let all the Presbyters being called come to the Synod 

Yi/thiDi- ^o""^' T^olet.'^. c.3. faith,Lft the Bijhops affemUedgo to the Church together and 
fctft real, fi^ according to the time of their Ordinal inn : After all the Bifhops are eiitred and 
fet , let the Presbyters be called-, and the Bijhops fitting in a compafs let the Presbyters 
ft behind them., and the Deacons jland before them. Even in the General Council at 
Later an fttb Innoc.^. rfcre 4S2 B/Jhop.)andZQO Abbots and Priors convent if at, faith 
tlatind. ] Thus Bilfon and more. 

VIII. To the fame purpofe writeth the Greatefi Defender of Prelacy 
^[(hop VorvnatHj Vef. lib. i. c. 2. fell. 11. pag. 45, 44. and the placesbefore 
cited out of him , profeiling that the Bilhop hath but a chief and not fok 

IX. Bifhop Vpers judgment is fully opened in his Model which we oiTered 
to the King and Bithops in vain, and which he owned to me with his own 

,.. mouth. 

X. Becaufethe citing of mens words is tedious, I add, that All thofe whom 
I cjted Chriji. Concord, p. 57, &c. to fhew that they judge the Presbyters 
Ordination may be lawful, and valid, do inuch more thereby infer that they 
are not void of a Governing power over their own flocks, viz. i. Dr. Field 
lib.^. f, 32. 2. Bilhop Doivnam Vef. lib. ■^. c.-^-p-ioS. 3. Eiihop Jervel 

'' Vef. of Apol. Part 2. p. 1^1. 4. Sararia Ve diverf. Min. Grad, cap. p- 10, 11. 
5. Bifhop Alley Poorinans Libr. Prclecf. ^, & 6. p. p-^^'pd. 6. Bilhop ?/7- 
kj'igton. 7. Bilhop ^r/Vgfj-. 8. Bilhop Bilfon, Of Subject. />. 540, 541, 542, 
233, 234, c^c. p. Alex.Norvel. lO. Grotius de impcr. 11. Mi. Chifenhall. 
12. Lord P/giy ( then a Protelknt. ) 13. B\(hop Vavenant Veterm.'§^^2. 
p. ipi, ip2. 14. hi[}\op Prideaux,cont. deVifciplin.Ecckf p. 2 i\9. 15. Bilhop 
Andrervs. 16. Chillingtvorth. To which I add 17. Billiop B/-t?w/;^// in his 
Anfwer to Mileterim's Epiffle to the King. 18. Dr. 5/fn.'^r^:/'s- Anfwer to 
Fountains Letter. 15?. Dr. Ffr«. 20. Mafon zx large. 21. Bilhop' Mj,'/(J/j 

XT. Spalatenfis is large to prove the power of the Keys to belong in 
common to Presbyters asfuch. 1 cited the words before, L/A 5. c.p. n.2, 
& c, 2. n. 483 &c, 

XII. Even Grfl^/rrw the Papifr pleadeth in the Council of Trr/ii for the re- 
ftoring of Synods of Presbyters inllead of Officials, fthe thing fo much detelted 
in England, as that all we undergo mult rather be endured ) yet faith Groppt- 
rtis I Reilore theSyiwdals rvhich are not fiibjcci to fo great corruption, removing 


ihofe Officers by whom the world Ufo much fcandalized-, bceaufe itU notfojfibk that 
Ccrmj/iy fhoitld endive them. "] the Sjjjniards and Duub-r^en n-iUiiigly heard this, 
but not the refi. Hiji.p. 334. lib. 4. 

XIII. Tlie opinion of Pj///«^ himfclf, the author of that Hiftcry, is fo fully 
and excellently laid down, of the Original of the BiQiops grandeur, and of 
the manitcr of introducing the Ecclefiallical Courts by the occafion of Pacifi- 
cations, Arbitrations, and Conftantines Edid, as that I intreat the Reader to 
turn to and pcrufc /'•330j33I-)332,333. 

XIV. Filefacuf (' a Learned Papift J copioufly proveth from Councils that 
Presbyters were called the ivfd?or/ of the Churches, pag. •)6o. And more than 
fo. that they were called Hierarchici and Prelatey, and had place in Councils, 
efpecially Provincial, p. 576, 577, 578. Pag. 574. he citeth Coiidl. Aquifgr. 
{"aying, Tresbyteri qui prtefwit Ecchfiii, dc omnibm hominibus qui ad corum Uc- 
clefum pertinent, per omnia curam go- JHf' Pj^. 576. he proreth they were cal- 
led Prelates abundantly. P.^^. 577. Ep>iJcoporum injlar fuam habebant plebem 

XV. Mr. H Tljorndike is (6 large in defending the Presbyters Governing 
.power, and that as grounded on the power of Congregating, in his Form of 
Trimit. Gov. Mid Right j^ Church, &c. that it would be tedious to recite his 
words. Pag. p8. he faith, \_ the p.mier of the Keys belengetb to the. Prcshytas 
and U convertible with the power of celebrating the Euchariji, and that's the Reafon 
why it belongeth to them ( Nothing could be fpok^n plainer to our ufe. J 

And p. 128. "The power of the Keys, that i^, Jhc vcholepoxver of the Church, 
whereof that power is the root and fource, ii co»wion to B/jJjops and Presbyters. ] 

And Right of Ch. p. 126, 1 2p, 130, 131. he feith much more to confirm 
this by tclUmonies ana inllan^es of antiquity. 

XVI. The great 70. Gfr/(;« is cited to your hand by the fame Filefacm zs 
(hewing that Curates were Hierai-chical, ^da eadcm opera Hierarchica eii incum- 
bunt qu£ & Epijcopk ; And more out of Ccrfon, dc Concil. Evangel. & dejiat» 
Ecclefiajiic. tit. dejiatu Curat orum confid. 1.& \, &c, 

XVII. I will end all in the fulleft tcftimony for thefe times. His Majefties 
Declaration concerning EcclclialHcal Aftairs, before the palTing of which it was 
examined by his Majelty and the Lord Chancellor, before Dukes, Lords, 
Bilhops, Dodors of their party, and many of us alfo that are now filcnced, and 
after all two great Billiups with Bilhop Reynolds and Mr. Caljwy appointed by 

the King to joyn witli two Lords to fee tliatit were worded according to the *Bvt no 
Kings cxprelTed fenfe. And it faith />. 11, 6"-c. l_Becaufethe Vtocefes, efpecially ""^ '" "f 
fime of them are thought to be of too large extent, we will appoint fuch a ntunber of ^ ^^ ^„, 
Suffragan Bifwps in every Viocefe as piaH be fufficient for the due performance of pointed to 
their work^^.' 3. No Btjljoppall Ordain or excrcij'c any part of'ytr'ifdiUion tvhich tkts day. 

P 2 appertaineth 

appert.tincth to the eenfimr of the Church without the advice and afjjflance of the 
Presbyters : And no Chancellors, Comniijfjrics or Officials as fitch, Jhall exercife 
any all of Spiritual JurifdiCtion, in thcfe cafes, viz. Excommunication, Abfolution, 

Sicc. \_ As to Excommunication our will and pleafure if, that no Chancellor, 

Commiffary, or Official Decree any Sentence of Excommunication or Abfolution — 
'Nor (hall the Archdeacon exercife any Jurijdiliion rvithout the a^iice and afviance 
affix Miniflers ofhU Archdeaconry, whereof three to be nominated by the B/Jhop, and 
three by the ekSien of the mjjor pan of the Presbyters within the Archdeaconry. 
4. To the end the Dean and Chapters may the better be fitted to afford coimfel and 
efjijiance to the Bijhops bjth in Ordination and other offices mentioned before. Sec. — 
Moreover an equal rtumber to thofe of the Chapter of the mojl learned, pious, and 
■difcreet Presbyters of the fame Diocef annually chofen by the major Vote of all the 
Presbyters of that Diocefe p-efent at the Eledion, (hall be always advifn^ 
and ajjijling together tvith thofe of the Chapter in all Ordinations and 
■£iiery part of Jurifdidion which appertains to the cenfure of the Church, and 
at all other folemn and important aiiions in the exercife of the Ecclcfiajiical Jw 
rifdi^ion wherein any of the Miniflery are concerned. — And our IHll is that the 
great work^ of Ordination be conjiantly and folemnly performed by the Bifhop and 

his aforefaid Presbytery 5- ^^^ will take care that confirmation be rightly 

and folemnly performed by the inform jtion and with the confent of the Mitiiflcr of 
theplace : IFho Jhall admit none to the Lords Supper till they have made a credible 

profejfion of their' faith,' and promifed obedience, &c. Befides the Suffragans 

and their- Presbytery, every Hwal Dean together with three or four Mini- 
flers of that Deanry chofen by the major part of all the Miniflers within the fame, 
jhall meet once in every month, to receive fuch complaints as Jhall be prcfented 
to them by the Minijiers and Cbm-ch-wardens of the refpe&ive parijhes, and alfo 
to campofe allfuch differences between party and party, as Jhall'be referred to them 
hy way of Arbitration^ and to convince offenders, and reform all fuch things as 
they find amifs, by their Pajloral Reproofs and Admonitions, if thy may be fo 
reformed. And- fuch matten as they cannot by thU Pafloral and perfvafive.way 
compofe and reform, are by them to be prepared for and prefentedto the BiJJ-Jop; 
At which meeting any other MiniJhrs of the Deanry may if they pleafe be prefenl 
*andaffiji. Moi-eover the Rural Dean and his AJfifl ants are in their refpedive di- 
tifions to fee that the children- and younger fort be carefully injirucled by tl^refpeiiive 
Aiinijlers, Sec. ] See the reft. 

This was the judgment of his Majefty, &c. i66o. And on thefe terms 
we were ready to have Conformed and United with the Prelatifts fo far as 
to go in the peaceable performance of our Offices. But that very Parlia- 
ment who gave his Majefty thanks for this his Declaration , did lay it 
by , fo that it was never done , but other Laws eftdblilhed which we 

Obj. Toudo but obtrude on iisyo'ur own opinions: For when you had di-awn up 
moft of tb.fe words, his NIafjiy w,h fain tofeemfor the prejent to grant them you, 
for the qitieting of you. 




\^nftv. I. If we did offer fuch things, let the world' judge what we fought 
by them. 2. Thcreismoft of that about Piural Deanrics put in ( I fuppofe by 
the Bi(hops confent who were to word it ) after it went from us, and after 
the King had done with it, on Cdober 22. 1660. 3. Whoever motioned or dc- 
tlred it, by this it appcareth that his Majefty and thofe that counfelled him, 
did not then think the work of Jurifdidion, Excommunication, Abfolnti- 
on, no nor Ordination, to be aliene to or above the office of the Presbyter. 
And if that be no part of his Paftoral work, they would not Iiave appointed 
it him. 

Yet finally let the Reader note, that though my proofs have readied as high 
as the power of Canon- making, Jurifdidlion, Court-excommunications and 
Ordination i Yet it is no more than the power ofPaftoral CiiiJjnce o( ovx 
particular Parifh Churches, and not to be forced to adminillcr all holy things 
( Sacraments, Abfolutions,e^c.) contrary to cur confcicnccs, at other mens will 
who know not our people, and not to thofe that wc know to be utterly Igno- 
rant, Infidels, Scandalous, and Impcnitcntjthat 1 am here pleading for. 

I conclude therefore boldly after all this proof, that the Pnrbyters office 
rvhich rv<K hijiitntcd by God, and ufcd by the ancient Chttrchcf, contained an ob- 
ligation and Authority not only to "Teach and IFbriJ^ip, but alfo the rejl of tlK 
Power of the Keys, to Rule the Churches committed to tlxir care, ( not by the 
fwerd or force, but ) by a pajloral perfwafwe potver, judging who is to be takpi 
in and put out, and what pcrfons are fit objcds for the rcfpcdive cxcrcifes of then 
awn Mini(lerial aUs : ( which was the tiling I was engaged to make goodO 


Whether this GovervvieJit heloriging to the office of Pref- 
byters, be in tbro Ecclcfia: 6c cxtcnorc, or o?ily ui 
foro Confcientia; ts: imeriorc. 

THc Ia(\ fhift that fome Prelatifls have, is to diftingnilli between the /orw« 
internum Confcientije , pxnitentiale, and the forum externum EcckfiajiicHm, 
and to«tell us that indeed Frcsbytcrs have the Power of the Keys in private orin the 
hrftfcnfe, but not in Publick^or in the fecond. 

Anjw. i'. Note that the quelHon is not wlicther they have the fole power, 
or the chief power, or with what limitations it is fit for them to exercife it, 
nor what appeals there (hould be from them ; But Vvhether the power of the 
Keys be part oftheirofficev 

2. That 


2. That the qaeftion is not of thepowerof Governing the Church by the 
fword, which belongeth to the King, and is Extrinllcli to the Paftoral office, 
and to the being ot the Church ( As protecting the Church,punilhingChurch- 
oftenders corporally, &c. ) For this is proper to the Magiilrate, and belong, 
eth neither to BiQiops nor Presbyters as fuch. We claim no part with the 
Prelates in any fuch fecular Government as their Cowrt/ ufe, except when they 
come to Excommunication and Abfolution : At kaft no coercive power 

3. An the queftion is of the power of the Keys of Admitlion, CondudV and 
Exclulion v of judging who (hall have Sacraments, and Church-Communion 
with our afTemblies ? that is, Who (hall be pronounced tit or unfit for it, by 
•our felves ? 

And that this belongetli to Presbyters inforo publico Ecdcfi£, I prove, 

1. Becaufe they are Tiiblick^officers-, or Pajiors over that Church, and there- 
fore their power of the Keys is a publick Church power, clfe they had none 
of theKeysas Paftors of that Church at all : For the Keys are to Let in 
and put out •, They are the Church Keys ; and he that hath power only to 
Ipeakfecretly to a fingleperfon, doth not thereby take in to the Church or put 
any out, nor Guide them publickly. A man that is a Minilier ( at leaft) may 
<:onvince, fatisfie^ comfort any m«ns confcience in fecret, of what Church fo- 
■ ever he be, even as he is a member of the Univerfal Church. But he that is 

a publick Officer anu Governour of the Church may publickly Govern the 
Church. But a Presbyter is a publick officer and Governour : Ergo. 

2. The refl: of his office may be publickly performed. Coram Ecckfia, and 
not in fecret only ; He may Preach to the Church, Pray with the Church, 
Praife God with them. Give them the Sacrament : Therefore by parity of Rea- 
fon he may publickly exercife difcipline, unlefs any by-accident pro tempore 
forbid it. 

3. Elfe he mull be made a meer Inflrument of another,and not a rational free 
Agent and Minilkr of Chrift : Yea perhaps more like to an AiTe who may carry 
Bread and Wine to the Church, or like a Parrot that may fay what he is bid, 
-than a man who hath a difceming judgment what he is to do.. I mull pub- 
lickly baptize, and publickly preach and pray, and publickly give the Lords 
Body and Bloud: And if I mufl: be no Judge my felf to whom 1 mufl: do this, 
then, I. Either I may and mufl do it to any one ( without offending God ) 
to whom the Bifhop bids me do it; And if fo, [ may Excommunicate the 
faithful and curfe Gods children, and abfolve the molt notorioufly wicked, 
if the Bilhop bid me. And how come they to have more power than King 
'Balah^ had over E.iLiam ? or than a Chriltian Emperour had over Cbiyfojlom ? 
He that faith to the wicked, Thou art righteous. Nations flull curfe l>im, feu- 
fkfljall abhor him, Prov. 24. 24. Wo to them that call evil good and good 
evil ! But wliat if the Bithop bid them ? If I may not preach Hes or heieiies 

• ifthe Bidropbid me, then I may not lyingly curie the faithful norbkfsthe 
wicked if he bid me. If I may not forbear preaching the Gofpel meerly for the 
will ot man, when God calleth me to it, much le^s may ,1 fpeak llanders, yea 



and lie in the name of God, when men bid me. The French Prieftdid wifclicr 
than fo, that being bid from the Pope to Curfe and Excommunicate the Empe- 
rour, faid, hkliorv iwt rvho it U that is in the right, and tvho is in.thc irrong, but 
I do Excommunicate him th.it is in the rvrong whoever he be. 

2. Or clle, it will follow that I am bound to fin and damn my foul there- 
by, whenever the Bilhop will command me ; which i«acontradi(ftion. 

3. Or elfe it will follow that I am a bcall, that am not to judge or know 
what I do, and tiierefore my aAs are neither fin nor duty. 

4. If he have not the Keys to ufe publickly infiro "Ecchfit he hath no 
power of Excommunication and Rel'titution at all : For to Excomniuni- 
cater is publickly to notitie to the Church, that this pcrfon is none of them, 
nor to be communicated with, and to cliarge them to avoid his company. 

5. Tlie Biihops thcmfelvcs put the Presbyters to proclaim or read the Ex- 
communication : and if this be any Miniftcrial or Paftoral a(fV, certainly it is 
inforo Ecchfue. 

6. Moll of the A(9's before named as their concclTions, as to be in the CotTvo- 
cation, t^-c. ixczii^ in faro publico. 

7. The full proofs before brought from Antiquity, of Presbyters fitting in 
Councils, Judging, Excommunicating, drc. are oi ptthlick^, not private cxer- 
cilc oftheKeys. 

8. They are the fame Keys or Office power which Chrift hath committed 
to the Pallors, even the Guidance of his Church, to feed his lambs : hnd ubi 
Lex nnn dijUugHtt non rji dijlingncndnm. WUetc doth Chrillor Scripture {ay. You 
(hall I fe the Keys of Church-power privately, but not in the Church, .or pub- 
lickly > 

p. All this driving againfl Porver in the Miniflers of Chrifl, is but driving 
agilnll xhc'n duty., n^orl^. and ihccnds and benefit f of it : He that hath no Porrer 
forpublick difciplinc,hath no ohiig.itim to ufe it \ and fo he is to n^Ic<fl it : And 
this is it that the Devi! would have, to kesp a thoufar.d or many hundred 
Pallors in a Dioccfe from doing the publick work of Difcipline : And as if he 
could con hue Preaching to Dioccfans only (And I verily believe they are better 
of the two at Preaching, tlian at Difcipline ) he knowcth tiiat it is but few fouls 
of many thoufandsthat woukl be taught : Even fo when he can confine Church 
difcipline to the Diocefanes, he knoweth how little of it will be done. And 
who will ufe his wit, learning and 7eal, to plead his caufe, and his parts and 
office thus to icrve his dcli;;ns and gratihe him, wlro conlidercth what it i?tc> 
be a Bilhiip, a Cluiltian, or a man ? 

C H A P. 



lljat the Englijh Diocefane Gover?imejit doth change this 
office of a Presbyter of Gods iiifiitution 'uito another 
( quantum in fe ) of humane inventmi. 

I Come now to prove the Minor propofition of my Argument •■, That the 
Diocefane Government depofeth the Office of Presbyters which God hath 
inlfituted ( as much as'ln them licth ) By which limitation I mean, that if we 
would judge of the Power and Obligation of Presbyters, as the Prelatical 
conftitution dz fa&o doth defcribc it, and not as God defcribeth it contrarily, 
we mud take it for another thing. 

For the proof of this it muft _i . be confidered what is ElTential to the office, 
and 2. How fomewhat EiTential is taken from them. 

1. And I. we grant ("as before^ that no Adlion whatfoever, as per- 
formed at the prefent, or for fome excepted feafon, is Effential to the Paftoral 
office : A man ceafeth not to be a Preacher or Paftor, as foon as the Sermon 
is done and he is out of the Church. When a man is afleep or in a journey, 
he endcth not his office : Nor yet when he is interrupted by bufineis, ficknefs, 
or perfecution. Yea, if he were fo fickj as to be fure never to exercife 
his office more, he keepeth the Title with refped to what he hath already 
done. • , — ^ 

2. Yet Exercife as Intended and as the Relative end or T'erminuf of the Ob- 
ligation and Antbority, is Eflentia-1 to the Office : For when it is a Pvelation 
which we queftion, and that confifteth in Obligation and Authority.^ there is no 
doubt but it is ad aliquid-, and is fpecified by the Adion or Exercife to which 
men are Obliged and Authorized. ( As a Judge, a Souldrer, a Phylician, are ) 
And it being a Calling which we fpeak of, and tha-t durante vita & capacitate., 
it muft be fuch ABion as is intended to be Ordinary, and Conjiant. He that 
Confenteth not to do the work of a Minilier, and that for more than a trial 
or .a prefent occalion , and is not Obliged and Authorized to that work, at 
lead ftatedly as his intended ordinary courfe of life, is no Minifter of Chrill : 
which Paul well expreiTeth by that phrafe Kom. i. i. Separated to the Gofpel 
.of God. * 

3. As God in creating man made him in his own Image, fo did Chrill in 
niakinc, Church Paftors ; Therefore he faith, As.my F ather fent me^ fo fend I 
^it : And he that nceii'cth you receiiKth me., and hi tint drfpijcth you dtfpifth 


me^ and — ^ him that fent me^ Luke 10.16. And they are Embjjfadmrt tohe- 
feed) men in hUname and jiead to be reconcikdto God, 2 Cw.5.ip,2C. AndChrift 
himfelf is called the Angel of the Covenant, and the Apoftle and high Priell 
of our ProfelTion, and the Great Prophet, and the Bifhop of our Souls, and 
the good Shepherdj and the great Shepherd or Paftor of the flock, and the 
Minilter of the Circumcilion : And lie was a Preacher of the fame word of 
life as we are : And he adminillred the fame Sacrament of Communion as 
we do. 

Now as the Office of Chrifi; had thcfe three EiTential parts, viz. to be the 
Teacher^ the HighPricji, and the Kjtlcr of the Church i Co hath (not only the 
ApolUes, but j every true Paftor in his place ( as is proved ) this threefold 
fubferviency to Chriih i. They will confcfs themfelves, that He is no true 
Palior who hath not Authority and Obligation ( which fet together are called 
a Commifjion ) to be a Teacher of the Cburch. For tliough fomc men may be 
fo weak as that they can Teach but by Reading, Catechizing, Conference, 
or very lliort dckCtivc immethodical Sermons : And though where a Church 
hath Many., the Ableft may be the ufual publick Preachers, and the reft be but 
his aflfiftants : Yet I never found any proof of Elders that were not Teachers 
by office as well as Rulers, and had not Commillion to Teach the flock ac- 
cording to their abilities, and might not Preach as the need of the Church 
required it, however the weaker may give place to the abler in the exercifc 
of his office. Bccaufe his office is an Obligation and Authority to exercifc his 
Gifts as they are, for the Churches greateft edification. 

2. And it will be confeflcd that he is no Minirter or Paflor who is not Com- 
millioned by Chrift to be the Churches Guide in publick Worlhip, in Prayer, 
praife, and Sacrament of Communion; However where there are many, all 
cannot officiate at once. 

3. Therefore all the doubt remaineth whether the power of the Keys for 
Church Government, fuch as bclongeth to Paftors, be not as Effential as the 
reft ", I fay the Commi^on., the Authority, and the Obligation, ( though violence 
may much hinder the exercifc ) And this I have proved before and muft not 
(lay to repeat it. Only i. God doth not diilinguiffi, when he giveth them 
the Keys and office. Therefore we murt not dillinguifh. 2. The very fig- 
nitication of the words [ Kcyi, Falhr, Presbyter, Overfeer, Stervard, &c. ] 
do not only import this Guiding, Ruling power, but notably iignifie it, 
as moll think more notably ih^n the Jf^orjhipping part of their office. 3. Dr. 
Hammond and all of his mind confefs that in Scripture thefe words are applyed 
to no one perfon or oPiicc, that had not tlie Governing as well as the 
Teaching and Worfliipping power. 4. The truth is, the Teaching, and Ru- 
ling, and VVorlhipping power, are infeparably twilled together. Ruling is 
done ( not by the fword here, but ) in a Teaching way by the Word : As 
a Phylician may i. read a Ledure of health to his Patients, 2. and give 
every one particular direftions for his own cure i and this lafl is called Go- 
verning them : So when tlic fame Pallor who Tcachcth all generally by 
Sermons, doth make his applications to mens petfons and cafes particularly, 

Q. it 

( 122) 

it is Governing the Churcli : as when a man is impenitent, he doth Ex- 
communicate him only by teaching him and the Church, that fuch perfons 
as are fo impenitent are under the wrath of God, and uncapabic of Church 
Communion, and therefore requiring the Church as from Chrilf, to avoid 
that perfon, and declaring him to be under the wrath of God till he repent, 
and requiring him to forbear Comniunicn with the Church. And fo in other 
ads of Government. And as in Worlliipping, the Pallor ddivmth the Sa- 
crament of Communion, fo it mufi belong to him to Give it or Deny it. 
5. And indeed the ancient Churclies had ufually more Pallors than Aflem- 
blies, by which means every Presbyter could not daily preach and officiate. 
But yet they were fo conilant Affiftantsin the Government, as hath occalioned 
to many to think that it was mere Ruling Elders who joyned with the 
BiQiops in thofe times. And P^«/ himfelf faying 1 lim: $' i^J , %l}( jLldcrs 
that fith jvell are worthy of double honour^ efpccially they that labour tn the word 
and doihine^ doth plainly imply that there were /.)«?£■/• who were thus L*?- 
hourers in the ivord ^r)d dodrine than thzt Ruled well. For indeed the follow- 
ing practices of the Churches expoundeth this Text, when the Churches ha- 
ving few Learned or able Speakers, he that could fpeak or preach belt, did 
preach ordinarily, and was made Chief or Bilhop, and the reft helped him in 
Government, and other offices, and taught the people more .privately, and 
preached feldomer when the Bilhop bid them and there W2s need: ( licing yet 
of the fame office. ) . ..■ 

Obj. JFhy then may they not now be forbidden pullickGovcrnnantitx foro Ec- 

ji?ifrv. I. Our queftion is not chiefly what part of the exercife of their pro- 
per office may be retrained on juft occafion ■■, But what it is which truly 
belongeth to their office. 2. It is one thing to forbid it them ^i!)/-fw/>ore,i 
and another ftatedly ( for this changcth the Office. J 5. It i^DnethijTg to 
forbid a man Preachings Prayings ox 'Exercife of Dtfcipli/ie in a Church wiierc 
there are many, and all cannot fpeak at once, and his reflraint is. tor the 
better doing of the work, and the avoiding of confulion : And another thing 
to forbid a lingle Paftor of a Parilh Church, with all his Curates., to do it, 
when there is no other there, nor near the place, that knoweth the people, 
to do it i but it muft be undone. 4; And indeed the cafe of .Difcipline:in this 
differeth from Preaching and officiating in VV'orlhip : .Twotneti cannot do 
the later at once in the fame Congregation, without confutinn and hin- 
derance of Edification: But ten men or twenty may confult and confent to 
the ads of Difcipline. So that by Pveafon, Scripture, and Antiquity it is clear, 
that if any one part were more effential to the Presbyters office than therell, it 
would be the Authority and Obligation to Rule theflockJbY ^^ word of God, and 
exercife the Church Keys of Difcipline. 

II. Now that this power is here taken from them fnotwithfianding 
all the forecited Conceffions or ConfeflSons that it is due to tliem J I 

I, IiTiiiih.t. 


, I. I miglit premife, that Vbi mn cfi idem fundamcntum, non cji cadan re' 
hth : At^&c, There is not the (a.mc foundation, therefore not the fam Kd^- 
tio.'i. For I. Here is not the fame ElcUm, no nov Confoit. I opened this 
befote. Though all Antiquity gave the Ciiurch the EUiiion of her own 
Paftors, yet we make not that neceffary to the- bcii:^ of the ctficc, or relation 
to them: So there be but Confait. But wc cake Con/raf of the Church to be 
ueceffary to any mans Paftoral Relation to that Church ( though not to the 
Miniftcry in general as unfixed. ) For feeing it is not polTible to Exercife the 
office without the peoples Confait^ it cannot be ajfumcd as over them without 
th?ir Confent : Becaufe that which cannot be Ext-ra/Ivi fhould not be under- 
taken to be exercifed. But witii us, commonly, the Fjtron chxf(tl\ and the 
B.Jhop approvcth^ jiijiitutcth^ andgivethhim indudion, and fohe is fully fetled 
in title and pofTcffion in their way, without any of the peoples knowledge or 

Obj. Tou choofe Parlument men xeho nuh^ thcfc lajvs, and your Anccfiottrs confen^ 
ted to Patrons poxpo' : Therefore you coiifoit. 

Anfv. This feemeth a jeft", but that the bufinefs and execution make it a 
ycr/ffw matter to us. i. It cannot be proved that all the Churches or people 
gave the Patrons that power. 2. We never intended to confent that Par- 
liaments Ihould do what they lilf, and difpofc of our Souls , or of 
that which is ueceffary to the faving of our Souls. 3. Elfc you raay 
as well fay that we confent to be Eapti7ed and to receive the Sacraments, 
becaufe the Parliament whom we chofe confcntcth to it: Andfowcmay 
baptize Infidels becaufe their great grandfathers confentcd that all their po; 
fterity fhould be Chrirtians: And you need no difcipline to keep men from 
the Sacrament, if Noah confentcd that all his pollerity fliould fear God and 
ferve him and fo be faved. Many men are jelkd wf of their faith and fal- 
vation, but none are thus jeflcdinto it. Sin is a mockery, but fo is not piety. 
4. Uur forefathers had no power to reprefcnt us by fuch confenting. If 
tliey could oblige us to Duty by their Authority, they cannot be oi« fubfti- 
tutes for the performance of duty, any more than for the poffcffion of the 
reward. 5. What God himfelf hath laid upon the Terfon or exiftent Churchy 
they cannot commie to another if they would themfelves, becaufe tiie obli- 
gation was pcrfonal,and they have not Gods confent for the tranfinutation.We 
cannot ferve God by proxy, nor be happy by proxy. 

Obj. But how unjit arc the common people to choofe their Pajhrrs : Ihcy are igno- 
rant, and partial-, and tumult uoiif. JDothe children beget their onvi father, ortiK 
fhcep choofe their ownjhcphcrd ? 

Anfw. I. No: but wives choofe their own husbands, and Patients choofe 
their own Phylicians, and Clients tlieir own Advocates^ and fervants 
their own mailers, e^-c. Similitudes run not on four feet. If all the Ciiurch 
of Chrill befides the Prelates and tlieir Curates, be as brutilh as fhecp and as 
filly as infants fin comparifon of them ) then they have talkt reafcn in their 

funilitude. Elfe ■ 2. Is it not notorious in England that no Congrc- 

Q_2 gations 


gations have had more Learned and holy Paftors, than where t!ie People have 
had their choice ? 1 defire London but to coniider it ( nay they know it by 
great experience J what men hath /Hdirnunhufy had, Mr. Calantyi, Dr. Stottgh- 
ton. Dr. 7aylor, and fo before ? What men hath Blackfrycrs had, Mr. Gibbons, 
Dr. GoMgc^ and many formerly ? So alfo AntboUns^ Lincolnr-lm, Greys-hw, 
the Temple., &c. But the truth is, that is an excellent perfon to us, who is an 
odious or contemptible perfon to the high Prelatifts. If he will preach as 
He)'lm writcth, and make the people believe that Presbyterians are Rebels, 
and Difciplinarians are feditious brainfick fellows, and llridt living is hypo- 
crifie, and praying without book and much preaching is Fanaticifm, and that 
rone are worthy to preach the Gofpel who will not fwear to be true to this 
Prelatical intereft : that drunkennefs in a Conformable man is a tolerable in- 
firmity, and their ignoranteft nonfence is fitter to fave fouls or Edihe the 
Church, than the labours of a Learned Holy Nonconformift i that Calvin was 
a Rogue, and Carttwigl^t, AmcfiUf and allfuch as they, difcontented fadious 
Schifmaticks, unworthy to preach or to be endured i This is afonofthe 
Church, and an excellent perfon with the men in queftion. But it isthe man 
that Learnedly and Judicioufly openeth the word of life, that clofely and 
skilfully and ferioufly applyeth it, that is an example of Holinefs, Sobriety, 
Love, Meekneft, Humility, and Patience to the flock, who fpareth no labour 
or coft or fuffering for thefaving of mens fouls, who is for. the wifdom which 
is firft pure and then peaceable, &c. This is the Paftor that is excellent in 
our eyes. And of fuch I have oft wondred that the common peop le (hould 
V j^fually choofe far better than the Prelates do.. But the truth is, Wifdom and 
Goodnefs have their w i tnefles evenin the confcien ces of natural men, which 
Fa&ion ^ Pride, and Flef^Ay interefi dothl&ribe orfilence, and cannot endure . "~ 

5. But what's all this to us ? We plead not now for the neceffity of the 
peoples Eledions, but only for their co;;/«Jt : If the Patrons as now, or the 
Clergy as formerly be the Nominators, or Eledors, yet (hould the peoples ««- 
fent be acknowledged neceffary in the fecond place. 

4. For who is fitter to choofe, or refiife., or confent zt leaft, than' he whofe 
cverlafting intereft lieth at theftake ? It is thcir-own foul that mufi be faved or 
damned ? And in good fadnefs do thefe Diocefans love the fouls of all the 
people better than they love their own ? Do you make them believe this, by 
not feeing one of a thoufand or many hundred of your flock once in ali the 
time of your lives ? Doth the filencing of fo many Minifters fhew it ? Chrift 
will have all men at age in Covenanting, Baptifm,and the Lords Supper, to be 
Chufers or Refufers for themfelvesjbecaufe fas Clem. Akxandr.Strom.\. faith,^ 
they have free will, and it is themfelves that mult have the gain or lofs, that 
muft be in heaven or hell forever. What if a Prelate, aParliament, a Patron, 
or a forefather, chufe Mafsprieils or Hcreticks for us, muft we accept the 
choice? Is this OUT bavari/ig of falfe prophets., and of the Udvenof the Tbarifees, 
and our trying all things, and letting no man deceive ?«■, &e. 

.5. But . hovY unfit is this ohjedtion for a, Pj:clates mouth or pen ? Are 


(.2 J) 

you the Church Governours ? Is all this contention that you may have the 
Keys alone, without the parifh Minifters ? And is this the fruit ot" all your 
Government, that the common Church members are fo mad, fo bad, fo un- 
tradable, that they are not fit to be free Confenters to them that arc to Tcaclv 
and Guide them to falvation ? Who then is thisChurch Ruine and Abomina- 
tion long of but your felves, who have :xnd oo\y rvil} have the Keys? Have 
you not fine Churches and members, that are not iit to choofe no nor con- 
fent to their own Guides ? Why do you not take care that the Churches by^ 
difcipline may be better conftitutcd ? As none Ihould be Paftors who are not 
fit for the duty of Paftors, fo none fliould be members who are not fit 
for the duty of members. It's excellent Government inded to keep fuch 
in the Church as are unfit to be there, and then fetch an argument firom 
their unfitn^fs for their ncglcd of their duty, and your depriving them o£ 
their power ? As if you fliould choofe none but ideots C or moft fuch ) to be 
Jury men, and then argue thence, that they are unfit for fo great a truft, and fo 
the people mulUofe their liberties. 

6. There are among the ignoranter fort of the people, ufually divers fobe» 
and good men, and the reftuie much to hearken to them. 

Obi.Bw/ trhat if the people iriUnnt confert to any but a Heretickj>r intolerahltperjon* 
Anfiv. I. The former anfwers ferve to this : You do fairly to keep fuch 
people in the Church? But as the Foreigner wondered in Henry the Eighth's 
days, to fee at once fome hanged for being Papills, and fome burnt for be- 
inf^ Froieltants, and cried out Vii bout (jim^nodo gentcs hie viiitnt ! So It is 
fuch another cafe to fee at once the fame Prelates forcing the unrviHing into the 
Church and to the Sacrament, as if this would or could favc them ( if thcit 
Church be falvation J in dcfpight of them , even on pain of undoing, and 
perpetual imprifonment s And yet Excommunicating and carting out thofe 
that are ipiHing to ftay in i As . ii Confent were a mark of an aliene and a re« 
probate, and unwillingnefe the mark of worthinefs. 

7. Such as you here defcribe are ix)t fit to be members of a Church. If 
they will not Confent to Church privilcdgcs and duties, they (hould be with- 
out the doors. And you may force them to hear Teach'vig whether they 
are tvillinT or not •. But ycu cannot make them Godly nor bring them to 
heaven, nor give them right to Church Communion and Sacramaits whether 
they will or not. So much ot Elcdion and Confent. 

2. Moreover the On^f/Vwi/wj ditfereth from that of Gods inftitution. For 
Presbyters are now Ordained commonly neither by ArchbiLhops, Bllhops or 
Presbycirrs of Chrifts inllitution ( in their way. ) 

I. Tlie Bilhops themfelvcs profefs that they Ordain not as Presbyters. 
For they fay fuch have no power of Ordination. 2. They are not Bilhops of 
Chrilh inllituiion as is before proved i but of another /pcdcj-, which half 
thcmfelves confefs to be but humane. 3. They are not Archbifhops, becaufe 
they have no Bilhops under them. And fo havuig not their power ofOrdina- 
tion as Oihceis of Gods making, they have no power from him to Ordain. 


- Ck>]. By thfclinroIi^'tlifmKctiiynitreoitJigii'c ffpthCur/Je io the ScparaU\}t. 
Affw, The Piehtirts dofo i but' Ibiio no'fwc: i. Becaufe whether the 
~Prel:rt<iS Will or jx>t, ■ t\\k people exfcfifaiio do Confan to evEtyJworthy Paftor. 
2 "Becaufe we judge of Parhh Minilkrs as God defcribeth tiietn, and therefore 
as true Bifhops ; and ccnftqaently take the Prelates for a kind of Ai^hbilhops 
whatever tl^y call thanfclves. 3. And there is no honelt Minilkr but hath 
the Confent of fome i->eighbour Miniftcrs and of the Fenpk : And though im- 
polition of hands be a laadable Ceremony, yet it is not that, but mmujl Coitfcnt 
ofthemjih'es and the Piiji^grs snd Fcoplein Which theirexternal call conlllteth, as 
is before (aid. 

II. Tlie different Correlates and 'tertnini inakc different Relations. The 
Churches which the ancient Presbyters were related to, were true entire 
Chwtchcsj^however their work n-iight be parcelled among the members. J) But 
a(*c6rding to the Prelates platform, each Presbyter hath his charge over no 
Church of Chrift at all, but only over a hundredth, lix hund-redth or thou- 
fahdth part of aChuKh, having n& more to do with all the reft than if they 
were of another Diocefe. 

III. But I come to the point intended ; That they take from the Presbyter 
his eflcntial Obligation and Authority appeareth, 

1 . In general, they commonly aflirm, that the Governing power belong- 
eth not to them ■-, and that they are but the Billiops Curates : By which 
they mean not only that the Eiftiops rule them ; but they fay that the Bilhop 
doth Tcjch all his Diocefe per «/wi-,"even by thefe his Curates. And accor- 
dingly they have lately blotted out of their Litany [ Eijkops, Pajhrs^ andMi- 
rijia's of the Chm-ch 1 and have fubftituted [ Bijhops, Priejls^ aiid Deacons ] 
left the Priefts fliould be fuppofed Paftors. But they altered not the Colle(i 
for all BiJJ-jops and Curates. And tiisy have put out ot the Office for Grdf- 
iiation of Prieffs, Act. 20. 28. Now what a Presbyter Hoth in the pcrfm of 
the Bifhop and as his inftrument, that he doth not in the diftincft perfon of a 
Presbyter : He that payeth money or delivereth poffeffion in his Mafbrs name, 
doth it not in his own. So that if really they mean as they fay, that quoad 
perfonam legalem qitamiis non naturalem., it be the Biftiop that doth 7each and 
Off.ciaie per alios., then no Presbyter is indeed endued with any power of 
Teaching, Officiating, or Ruling in the perfon of a Presbyter, but only to be 
theServant and Inftrument of the Diocefane. 

2. No Presbyter hath power to judge whom he (hall Baptize., or whom to 
refufej but is to Baptize all without any exception that have Godfathers and 
Godmothers, who will but fay the words in the book. The Canon "j^. is 
\J\o Minificr fl)all rtfiife or delay to Chrijien any Child according to the hool^ of Com- 
mon prayer-, that is brought to the Clmrch to him upon Sundays or Holidays to he 

Chrijiened Elfe fufpcnded three months from hif Minijiry. ( Yea, that is it 

xhat pays for all. ) So Can, 79. he is bound to do in houfes in cafe of dangler. 


YctCac 39. N« Pfftit. Jhfll he urged toUFF-ES ^ii:!" nvbe adDpttd u 
atifmr at Godfather f^^r his own cbiQ. ' Now ' the Xftui^y KquiKth not any 
Godfiithcr to Adopt the Child, and take it For his orvn : Nordoth it allow 
us to reftjfe the Children of Turks, Jews, crHcithcns v. And ifchefw God- 
fathers be known Atheills, Turks, Jews or Heathens, or the tildiidV Adul- 
terers or-wicked pcrfons, if they did ever in their lives receive^ t^ic Sactaimeiit, . 
and. will fay is n\vi Bo>ik bids.tliein, the Pricli cannot ictlifJ tlieCIiildi Bui: 
if the godlicll Parent can get none to be fiich Godtathcrs or GodnotherS, his 
Child muft not be Bapti7ed. I told the Bilhops my felf tliat 1 had a nctorioug 
Inhdcl boalted that he would brin^ his Child to be baptiz.d, and fay the 
words of (he Ixxik, and ti.e who du r li retufe it s And I was ai'J'wcred tliat if 
the Child had Godfathers, there was no fcruple but I Ihculd Eaptiie him ; 
But when 1 ask, what if thefc_ Inridels ( proftffcdly fu di ; be the G(>df^ 
ihcrs, aiul tay bctorc-hancl / |^ . I will jav~thofe words aix l rcfufe tne iLlQW 
dare "] they have not hing to iay, that common rcafon ^ould regard. Now 

he tliat is but lent to Baptizethofe ( even all whomfoevcr ) That others bid 
him baptize, and hath no more difcerning or judging power of the pcrfoiis ca- 
pacity, than a Lay-man hath, is in this no Presbyter, but a Prelates meffcngej 
or (^ivant. 

' 3. They have no power to inftruA, admonifh, or reprove |p£ccret or pul>- 
lick'orin their ownhoufes, any .one Ignorant Heretical Inhdcl, Achciltical or 
Ifiandalous wicked nun, that will but rtfufe to fpcak with them or to hear 
them. And yet he nmlf give this perfon the Sacrament, at Icalf till he prove 
that by him which his ret'ufal to fpcik to him maketh impolTiblc to be pub- 
lickly proved. It I have great rcafon by fome private ojcafional fpccch or 
report to believe, that many ot the Parilfi know no more of Chrilt than 
Pagans do > or that they among their own crmpanions ( who will not accuie 
them ) profefs Atheifm, Intidclity, or H,.rtli;.- ', or if after fcandalous fames I 
would admoniih them to repent i I f they refufc to fpcak with me, or futferme 
notto'comeai.d fpcak to thun,I h a ve no remedy > but iiiultliill continue theai 
in the Communion otthe Church. 

Ob). Toil ivduld not haicjucb wen fotccdyJU)- fdf. 

Anjn'. But I would not hcfiit^d then my fclf, to give him the Sacrament of 
Co;ianumon as his Paltor, who retxifcth to fpcak with me or to liear me as his 
Paftor i but would have power torcfuiethat Paltoul admin ilbation to liimthat 
rcfufeth the refr. 

4. They have no power to judge of the fitncfs of any one for the Sacra- 
ment of the Lords Supper, in point of iywu-Wg;?, faith, cr Covenanting with 
God, nor whether he underliand vvlpac the Sacrament is, any more than an In- 
Hdel or id^ot v fo be it the Bi:hop do but contirin him f in his childhood J or 
he will lay that he is ready to be contirmed. I ndeed all are required to fend 
their chilJren tube CatechiiLa , Kut I. few Miniucrs ufe it; 2. fcw perfons 
in a parilh come. ^. If tl'iCy refufc, we eaur.ot pie vent thcii turther cotnnuinr - 
catins. 4^ I^ is but to fay over the vyords oi tliat Catecliiim which they ate 
• ^ ' = ^ Eallid 


called to •, which experience tells us children will do like Parrots, without 
underftanding what they fay : And we mui: not ask them any other quelU- 

It is true alfo that they who are confirmed by the Bifhop (hould bring a 
Certificate from the Minifter that they can fay the Creed, Lords prayer. Com- 
mandments, &c. But they may choofe, and not one of many doth it. 1 went 
tny felf at thirteen years of age or fourteen, to the worthy Biftiop Morton with 
the reft of the School-boyes without any Certihcate, and without any exami- 
nation he haftily faid as he paffed on three or four lines of a prayer over us , 
wheni knew not-what-heia id: And after this, no Mini fter can re mfe any one 
at age the Sacramen t.The Kubrick faith,They (hould openly own their Baptifm, 
&c. 13ut few doit, and -none can be refufed for not doing it. -Andfo the 
•tranfition from the number of Infant members into the number of the adult, is 
■made without the Minifters Confent ( Though the Kings Declaration once 
yielded to the contrary ) And Communicants croud upon him in utter ig- 
•norance, becaufe they were Baptized in Infancy : Nay few in a Parifh ( not 
one of many hundred of my acquaintance ) is ever confirmed by the Biflaop 
■at all, fo much as ceremonioufly, or regard it. 

5. Tliey have bo power to choofe what Chapter they will read to the 
Church in publick C though a word before the Homilies /ik 2 . feemed once 
to allow it them) But every day in the year even week-days and Holidays they 
are tyed up to the Chapters impofed on thcm,though Bel! and the Vragon^Judith^ 
Sufanna, Tobit, and other Apocryphal writings be appointed for Leflbns, even 
about 106 Chapters of the Apocrypha in two months : And though any 
fcandal or other occafion in his Church would dired; him, to choofe fome 
other fubjed: for the peoples good. 

d. He hath no power to choofe what words to ufe in his publick prayers to 
God : no not to ufe any that are not written for him to read out of the book. 
And though cuftom hath fo ufcd Miniikrs to pray without book in thepulpit ^ 
yet this is but conni ve d at becaufe it cannot eatily be remedi ed ; One of them 
wrote a book againft it, as anfwering that part of our Savoy Reply 1 660 : 
Dr. Heylin hath largely laboured to prove that it is contrary to the Canon, 
which indeed doth feem exprefs againft it ; And tliat's not all v However their 
Confciences digeft it, all the Conformilts in England do fubfcribe as ex animo 
a covenant or promife \_ that they reill ufe the form in the faid book, p-efcribed in 
publick^ prayer and adminiftration of the Sacraments^ and no other. ^ Canon. 3d. 
Mark, No other : And the Bifhops that endure this are forced to fay, that 
thele Pulpit prayers are not the Churches prayers but our oivn : But yet they 
are \_THblick^prayers~\ and therefore I doubt a breach of the Canon-Co- 

7. A Presbyter as fuch hath no power to preach the Gofpel. The words 
of his Ordination do but give him power to preach when he (hall be lan^fully 
■called: yea hisPrefentation, Infhtuticn, Indudion and poiTelfton ofaPaito- 
-lal Charge, do not all make up this Lareful call , nor may he preach one 



Sermon after all this, till lie have a particular Licenfing Inftrumcnt from the 
Bifhop. So that he preacheth not mealy as a Presbyter nor as a pofTcflcd In- 
cuiTibent, but as Lkcnfed by the Billiop. 

8. When he villteth the Ikk, he hath no Totva- left him to judge. Whether ^^ ''".«» 
the perfon be penitent and Ht to be Abfolvcd or not ? But if the wickedeli ^Jddtd^Xi 
Jivcr will but fay or fwear that he rcpenteth of Swearing, of Adultery, of Per- he hum- 
jury, though fuch exprelVions or circumlhnces be fuch as plainly tell a prcfent biy and 
Minilkr, that he hath nothing like to a ferious repentance, yet muft this Mi- h^-rtily 
nilkr be forced even in Ablolutc words to Abfolve liim from all his fins; p' J" ^ I' ^ 
When a Popi(h ConftfTor would require more. I do not in all this lay the m-v/L/ 
fault that this Miniltcr hath not power to keep awjy any of thefe perfons, from f^yfo, tht 
Baptifm , Confirni.itinit^ the Lords Tahlc-, Abfolntioii ^ &c. but only that he tf'th""'!^ 
hath no PonYv to forbear his fln-vji/drw; and application, and leave them toothers ""^^''^i'- 
that arc fatisfied to do it : Nor not fo much as to delay till he give a reafon of 
his doubt to his Lord Bifhop. 

p. When he buryeth the dead, he hath no power to judge Co far as 
to the performing or reftraining of his own adl , whether the deceafed 
perfon muft needs be declared and pronounced blcflfcd. Three forts of per- 
ibns he muft deny Chrirtian burial to. i. Thofe that die unbaptizcd, Cthougli 
they be the Children of the holielt Parents J 2. Thofe tha t kill the mfelves 
C though they be the faithfullel t perfons of godly and blan^clcfs lives, w ho do 
it, in melancholy , deliration, a ph renzy, fc av er, or diHra dion. ) 3. All 
that are Excommunicate, Cthough by a Lay Chancellor,) for not paying their 
fees, or though it be becaufe they durrt not take the Sacrament from the hands 
of an ignorant, ungodly, drunken Prielt, to whofc minillery neither they 
nor other of the Parilh did ever confent ■■, or that it be the Learncdell Godly 
Divine that is excommunicate for diflentingfrom the Prclatifts. 

But all others without any exception that arc brought to Church, they muft 
bury with a publick Declaration that they are faints, viz. [^ 7hatGodin mercy 
hath tjksn to himfelftlx foul of thif oitr dear brother'] ( And without Holinefs 
no man Itiall fee God. ) (So great difference in Holinefs there is between 
the Holy Church of Rome and ours, that they Canonize one Saint in an age 
by the Pope, and wc as many as arc buryed by the Priell. ) Though it was the 
moft notorious Thief or Murderer, or the molt notorious Atheilf, or Inridel, 
or Hcretick, who cither writcth, or preacheth or difputcth that there is no 
God or no life to come, or ufeth in his ordinary talk to mock at Chrifi as 
a deceiver, and to fcorn the Scriptures as nonfcnce and contradidion, or 
though it be a Jew who profcflcth enmity to Chrill ? Much more if it be a 
common blafphemer, perjured perfon, adulterer, drunkard, a fcorner at a 
godly life, &c. who never profcfled repentance, but dcfpifcd the Minilkr and 
his counfel to the lalt breath, yet if he be brought to the Church for buryal, 
the Pricrt mull pronouncehim f JitW in the atorefaid words, fo be it he be not 
Excommunicate ( of which fovt of late rlicre arc too great numbers rifcn up, 
in fo mi)«;h that the fobcr Prclatilts themfelves cry out of the growth and peril 

R of 

cfAtheirm,Tnfidelity,andmoft horrid filthincfs, and profanenefs. ) The words 
of the Canon are (Can6S.) \_ No Minijier Jball refufi er delay to bitty any 
corps that U brought to the Church or Churclyard ( convenient rvarning being given 
thereof before ) infuch manner and form as w prefcribed in the book of Common 
Prayer. Jnd if he Jhall refuje — except the party deccafcd were denounced Excom' 
municated Excommunicatione majori for fome grievotis and notoriow crime , 
C and no man able to tejiife of hU repentance) he/hall befufpended by the Bijhop 
ffthe Dioccfe from his Minijity by the fpace of three months 3 But the New Ku- 
brick in the Liturgy faith, [_ Ihe office enfuing U not to be ufedfor any that die 
nnbjpt/zed^ or Excommunicate, or have laid violent hands on themfelves. ] The 
Office faith, \_ Forafmuch at it hath pleafed Almiglny God of his great mercy to 
takg unto himfelf the Soul of our dear brother here departed, &c.'\ And £ Tff g/Ve 
thee hearty thanks that it hath ^leafed thee to deliver this our brother out of the mi- 
feries of this finful vporld.'\ 

And yet as felf-contradiders and condemners, if any man do but fay of 
one that hath been openly againft the Prelates or Confornaity, that he was a 
godly honefl: man, ( much more one that was againft the King, and efpe- 
cially a downright Traitor who fo lived and died impenitently J they take it 
for a heinous crime, ( as in the latter cafe they well may do ) And yet C ex- 
cept thofe whofe quarters they fet up upon the gates, or deny Chriftian bu- 
rial to by the Magiftrate, ) the poor Prieft muft pronounce them all at the 
Grave to be the Biftiops dear brethren and faved as afbrefaid. 

lo. They have no Power to give the Sacrament of Communion with 
Chrift and his Church, to any the moft Learned holy Chriftian, who dare 
not receive the Sacrament kneeling, ( for fear of bread-worlhip in appea- 
rance, &c. ) wliich C though I think is unwarrantably fcrupled, yet^ hathfo 
much of Univerfality and Antiquity as maketh it ill befeeming thofe fame men 
who cry up the Church Councils-, Cufiomes, and Antiquity, to caft out of Com- 
munion thofe that conform to all thefe, for fo doing. For who knoweth 
not by Can. 20. of Concil. Nic. i. and the confent of Antiquity, that they 
took it for a cuftome ? and tradition and Canon for the Univerfal Church, 
that none Qiould at all adore God kneeling on any Lords day in the year, nor 
en any week-day between Eafter and Whitfunday. 

ir. They have no power to forbear denying the Sacrament of Communi- 
on to any how faithful and holy foever, wiio is againft the Diocefanes Con- 
tirmation, and is unwilling that thofe whom he taketh to be no true Biftiops 
(hould ufe that which he taketh C as ufed by them ) to be no true Ordinance 
of God, but a taking of his name in vain •, or if on any other account he 
be unwilling of it ; For the new Kubrick is, [ There pall none be admitted to 
the holy Communion., until fuch time as be he Confirmed, or be ready and defirons 
to be Confirmed. ] So that it is not aftual confirmation which they think ne- 
celiary. But [ a Vcfire af Confirmation 1 by the impoiition of the Diocefanes 
iiands, is made a thing neceffary to Chriftian Church Communion. 

12. As it is before faid that he hath no power to judge who (ball be Con- 


firmed, and admitted into the Rank of Communicating members, fo he 
hath no power at all cflFedually to keep away the groflTell offenders, or to 
forbear his own adual putting the Sacrament into their hands. For 
though the Canon feem to favour his power, and the Kubrick fay fome- 
what the fame way, yet it is to be noted, i. That whereas the Kubrick 
allowetli him to advcrtifc the fcandalous not to conic to the Sacrament, yet it 
is only the contentious that have injured others and are not feconciled, 
wiiom he is plainly enabled to refufe. 2. Among thofe tliathe may advcrtifc 
not to come, the grolly ignorant ( who know not what Chrill or th>." Sacra- 
ment is ) the Atheilt, Inlidel and Herctick are not numbred at all i but 
[ an open and notonom ail liver, or that hath done tvroiig to his neighbours ] 
3. Ana if he be never Co wicked, yet unlefs alfo \_7he Con^-cgation he ttyereby 
ofended'] the Curate cannot hinder him, or lo much as advcrtifc him not to 
come. And fo if only a few Godly perfons be offended, they arc not the 
Congregation ■■, or if the Minor part be offended, they are not the Congre- 
gation : And how fliall the Minilkr know whether th: Major part be of- 
fended : For he hath no power to ask them, much kfs to put it to the 
Vote : And the Major part will never come to him nor be accufers ? And 
if the Major part ( which is no wonder ) be thcmfelves (o Ignorant, Heretical, 
or ungodly as not to be offended, but rather to take the Sinners part, then the 
Curate mufl give them all the Sacrament, and hath no remedy. 4. And he 
that muft not live in Taverns, Alehoufes, Play-houfes, or other places of 
wickednefs ( fpecialiy if he live as Chryfojlome did, who never did fo 
much as eat with any one in his own houfe j may have mort of his Com- 
municants to be abominable and flagitious, before it will be Notorious to 
him : for C as is faid ) He hath 1:0 power to call any to witnefs any 
thing, that arc unwilling. And few will be willing to enrage their neigh- 
bours, when they foreknow that it will do more hurt than good. 5. And 
if he do refufe any one, he is bound to become an Informer, and to give an 
account of tlx fame to tlx Ordinary rvithin fouteen days at the fjrthcji.~\ 
VVhcnas, i. Perhaps he may dwell many fcore miles offi 2. And have 
his ftudies and all other bulinefs on his hands: 3. And murt then bring 
his proofs, when he is not enabled to examine any witnefs nor take proof 
of that which to all others is notorious. 4. It is a great doubt whether the 
Sinner have not his remedy at Law againft him to his undoing, if he lay not 
by all his other bufinefs to profccute the proof to the utmoli;. And if he 
do lay by the rcl't of his work that while, the Biihop may undoe him or 
fufpend him. 5. By this means he Ihall more exafpcrate the Sinners ( by 
profccuting them to fuch a Court as the Prdirts^ and harden them againll 
all profiting by his Miniliry, than if by his r'ii&f^l office he had himfclf tirli 
lovingly convinced them, and fufpended them only tilt they repent. 6. WK'Cn 
he hath all done, if the liiincr pay his fees and fay, He repcntcth, the Chan- 
cellor is to Abfolve him : And fo the Curate doth only to his own vexation 
and the Sinners hurt, deny him the Sacrament but once. And if the wrath 

R 2 or 


or fcoms of the Sinner (hew that lie was far from true Pvcpentance , the 
Curate cannot deny him the Sacrament the next day, nor ever after, till he 
not only again commit the fame fin f Adultery, Perjury, Drunkcnnefs, &c.) 
but till it be again notorious, and lie will be again at the fame trouble in 
the profecution. 7. And there are few great Parilhes in England where there 
are no Swearers, Drunkards, Pvailers, Fighters, Fornicators, Adulterers, and 
fuch like enow, to hold a Curate work through the whole year to profe- 
cute them , though he lay by almoll; all his other work ; fo that by this 
way, if he keep fuch from the Sacrament, he muft keep all away by ceafing 
his Miniftcrial work, 8, The Curate cannot refufe him till he hath called 
and advertifed him i whereas the perfon may refufe to come to him, at 
leaft by pretending bufinefs and other excufes. All thefe things make this 
which feemethhis moll: confiderable power, to be in effed but next to none. 

13. The Curate hath no power when any perfon is obftinate and impeni- 
tent in the moft notorious fcandal or herefie, or endcavoureth to pervert others, 
to admoniih him before all, that others may beware, nor to call hini openly 
to Repentance. 

14. Nor hath he any power to judge who fhall be Excommunicated as 
impenitent, be the crime never fo heinous or notorious : no not fo much as 
to concur in this power with any Bilhop , Chancellor or Presbyters •> any 
more than any Lay-man hath. He can but Accufe them, and fo may an 
Apparitor or Church-warden ; or Read the Bilhops or Chancellors Ex- 
communication, as he doththe Kings Proclamations, or as the Clerk doth other 

15. He hath no power to abfolve ptblickjy any perfon Excommunicated, 
no more than a Lay man ■■, but as aforefaid to read the Abfolution. 

i<5. He hath no power to forbear his own ad of Reading an Excommu- 
nication againd the faithfulleft and moft religious perfons in his Parilh, whom 
it (hall pleafe the Bifhop or Chancellor to Excommunicate, C that is, ufually,' 
a Nonconformitt, or a Churchwarden who dare not fwear to their large books 
of Articles, to perfecute the Nonconformifts, &c. or one that appeareth not at 
their Courts, or a poor man that doth not pay their fees, &c. ) The poor Cu- 
sate muft read the Curfe againft them. 

17. He hath no power himfelf to forbear the open Reading of an Abfolu- 
tion of the mof( impenitent wicked man, whomic fliall pleafe the Chancellor 
to abfolve- And how eafily that is procured for any man, that is but Rich and 
Conformable, is well known. 

18. The Curate hath no power fo much as to Baptize the holieft belie- 
-tfer or the Child of fuch, as do but fear left it be a Sin to ufe the 
Tranfient Image of the Crofs, as a humane fymbol of Chriftianity, and an 
engaging dedicating tign, that he \_ will not be a(hamed to profefs the 
foith of Chrift crucified, and manfully to fight under his banner againft the 
Devil, the world and the fiefh, and to continue Chrifts faithful fervant and 
fouldicr to his lifes end. T If the perfon to be baptized were a Turk, or 

a Jew, 

a Jew, who both hate Idolatry, and (hould be Co fcandalized at this Traii" 
ficiit Image and humane Symbol, as that they would rather never be Chri- 
ftians or be Baptized, than receive it ; yet mart the poor Priell let them 
go without Chriftianity, ratlier than Baptize them without this Image of 
a Crofs, unlefs he will be fi.fpcnded from preaching Chrilts Gofpel to the 
ignorant that they may be favcd. But if he will hear t/w/,he may do what he 
will i that fo poor fouls inay be the lofcrs. 

ip. If the commoneft whore or wicked woman come to be Churched, 
as they call it, after child-bearing, the Pricft mull ufe all the Office of thankf- 
giving,without firft expedling her repentance, as if fhe were the chartcft perfon : 
And mijft give her the Sacrament. 

20. To conclude, no Priclt as fuch ( till Licen fed ) hath power \^ to take 
upon them to expound in his otvn Cure-, or elfcxvbcrc ( and therefore not to his 
family, or any one of his ignorant neighbours ) any Scripture, or matter, or 
Vodrinc ; But fliall only ftudy to Read plainly and aptly, without gloffjng or 
adding the Homilies, &c. J Arc thefe Authorized Paiclis, that may not fo 
much as tell a Child the meaning of his Catcchifm, or any Article of the 
F'aith ? No though an ignorant perfon ask him ? The Priclb lips lliould 
prefervc knowledge , and the Law (hould be enquired of at his mouth, 
for he is the mclTenger ot the Lord of holis. But an Englilh Prieli may 
not expound any Matter, Scripture, or Doifrine but barely Read, till tlie 
Bifhop Licenfe him. 

Obj. If thy he not able, it will do more harm than good. 

Anfrp. Will the righteous God be always mocked ? and fuffer mm to 
make mcrchandice of Souls, and to viliHc them and fet them at cheaper 
rates than they would do a goofe, a pig, or a dog ? Is this a fit anfwcr 
for thofe that are their Ordainers ? under whofc examination and hands 
all men enter into the Minilkry ? Will they fay that they can get no bet- 
ter ? What, not when they have made fo many Canonical Engines to 
keep out better ? What, not when fuch as Carttvri^H, Uildcrfliam, Amcfxm^ 
'Tarkrr, Dod, Ball, &c. are call out as unworthy ? When fo many hundred 
were iilenced in Queen Elizabeth and King James's days ; and Eighteen 
Hundred of us now ? When the Bilhops 1iavc got fo many Laws to hin- 
der us from Preaching in publick and private, and to banilh us five miles 
from all Cities, Corporations, and places where we have preached ? When 
none but their ftvorn Curates, Subfcribcrs, Declarers, &c. may preach, yat 
can they get no better? Will they keep up a Minil'try whom they will 
themfclves fo ignominioufly ftigmatize, as to tell the world, that none of 
them all, as Presbyters, may be endured to expound any Scripture, VoUrinCy 
or Matter, but barely to Read ? Yea as if they would dilTwadc them from 
all Learning ot" Humanity or Divinity as needlefs or hurttul things, they fay 
[ hefhall onlyjindy to Read plainly and aptly. ] So that he that liitdicth for any 
more than to Read, doth break the Canons of the Prelatical Church. 


Alfo a Prieft as fuch hath no power to judge what Garments he (hall wear, 
nor of what colour at home or abroad. 

He hath no power to judge in what houfe he may inftruft or pray with 
any of his flock : nor when fo much as with his Church in publick, 
or with any fick or afflidted neighbour in private , to Faji and Prj)> : 
But they are all Itraitly forbidden to preach or adminiiter the Sacra- 
ments, f except to the fick ) in private houfes ; To preach or officiate in 
any room fave a Confecrated Chappel, even in a Noblemans houfe ■, To keep 
publick or private fafts i To give the Sacrament to any that are not of 
their own Parifh, at leaft if they go from their own Prieft, bccaufe he 
never fiudied more than to Read : They have not power to admit any 
other , how Learned and Holy foever, to preach in their Churches, as 
Presbyters, without Licence. All thefe (hew their Priefily power. 

Obj. But a Surrogate may Excommunicate. 

An^rv. I. That is but ludicrous ^ro forma, 2. Or elfe it is but their 
felf-condemnations while they allow one Presbyter of a thoufand, to do that 
which all the reft are forbidden. The fame I fay of Arch-deacons, and per 
culiar Ordinaries. 

Objedt. 'tiny mak^ Canons in Convocationt , and choofe Convocation Priefis. 

Anfxv. I. It is but two Priefls of many hundred that are in a Convocati- 
on : And what's that to all the reft. 2. Choofing is not a Governing ad. 
Where the people choole Kings and Parliament men, it proveth not that 
they have any Government themfelves. The Laity ever formerly chofe 
their Bifhops, and yet were no Bi(hops nor Church Rulers. 3. It is in 
the Bifhops power to fruftrate their choice. . For when they have cho- 
fen four, he may put by two of them. In this pgreat Convocation whic h 
hath new moulded our Liturgy , which hath formed the Engines that 
have done what is done, the great and famous City of London had not 
one chofen Clerk in the ConV(ic3tion. CNo wonder then if they Con - 
forrn not, as not being bound by their own Confent ) For when they 
chofe Mr. Calami and my felf , the Ei(hop refufed us both ( which I am 
fo far from mentioning in difcontent, that I take it to have been a greate r 
Mercy than I can well exprefs ) 4. I take not Canon-making to be an y 
conilderable part of the Paftoral 0(fice. If two of many hundred, hav e 
power to pleafe the Plural Number of Prelates, Deans, and other Dign i- 
taries ( whom they cannot over-vote ) by fcrving them againft the Churc h 
and their Breth ren, doth that prove t hatPresbyters as fuch have t he Govern - 
ing_powcr of their flock s ? 

1 am not ftriving for a power of Ruling one another, much lefs of Ex- 
fommunicating Kings and Magiltrates, nor a power of making Laws, or 



Ruling Neighbour Churches : But only a power of Guiding their own 
flocks, and judging of their orrw adions. Yea, and that not as Ungovemed 
or without Appeals : But as Ruled by Magiftrates, confociated for Con- 
cord with other Paftors, and Ruling Volunteas. And if Archbifhops alfo 
Rule them by Gods Laws, we (hall fubmit. 


That the great cha?ige of Government hitherto defcri- 
bed ( the making of new fpecics of Churches^ a 
new Epifcopacy-, and a new fort of half-fub-fresbyters^ 
fpith the Depofition of the o/dy was fi?i fully done ^ and 
not according to the intent of the Apofiles. 

THcre are two pretences ( and no tnore that I know of) made to juftifie 
all this foredcfcribgd change. The hrlt is by Dr. Hammond when he 
was hard put to it at laft, in anfwer to the London Minifters, which is, That 
Subpreshytcrs were Ordained in Saint John'/ time, and therefore by him. The 
fecond is ordinary, that though dc fadto the ApojHes fetled but fingh Taftors 
C tvithout Spib-preihyters at leaji ) ha-fingk Cfntrches or Affimblies, yet thU n>ar 
not done with an Obligatory ptrpnje, for the fo fixing of it ; Bnt only de h&o, 
pro tempore, as a State of immaturity, with a pur^ofe and intent, that itjhould 
grow up to the cbcuigt of this maturity. 

I. To the firft Pretence I anfwer. i. What probability is there that one 
Apoftle when all the relt were dead, (hould make fo great a change in their 
Church Orders? Either it was part ot the Apoftolical Commillion and 
work to fettle Church Offices and orders for Government, or not. ( as to 
the fpeci:s , if Chrill had not before done it ; or to fettle it by revealing what 
Chrill did command them ; either from Chriji's mouth, or the Spirits in- 
fpiratioii, to fettle the Catholick Church, as Mofes did the Jewilh. ) If it 
were none of their Commifioned Office rvork^, then it was none of John^s : 
And then it is done fo as may be yet undone. But it" it were Johns work it 
was Theirs j And if theirs, why did they not perform it ? Even while they 


^ (13^) 

had that promife, Mjtth. 15.20, 21. TVhere trvo or three are gathered tot^e- 
ther inmyName,&c. And, Iftiero of you agree of a things &c. If you Tay 
that there w.is no need till they rverg all dead, I anfwer. It is a Fidion. The 
greateft numerous Church at Jcrufakm, had more need of more than One 
to officiate among them, ( and fo had Ephefuf, Antioch, Coritn'.'^ &c. ) than 
mod Churches elfe had in St. John's days. And were all the Apollles fo negli- 
gent and forgetful ? 

2. What proof is there that St. John did make this change ? It is either by 
Scripture that it is proved, OThyHiJhry. 1. Not by Scripture; For i. No 
Scripture mentioneth S. yarn's doing it. 2. Dr. HjfMwowi/ and his followers 
confefs that it was not done ( as can be proved ) in Scripture times. And 
Chronologers fuppofe that there was but a year or two, between his death, 
and the end of Scripture times, that is, the writing of his Apocalypfe. And 
is it probable that he began fo great a Change the laft year of his 

2. And Hiftory maketh no mention of it at all, (Fori amafhamed to 
anfwer their nonconcluding reafon, from St. John's bringing a young pro- 
digal to a Presbyter to be educated, or his Ordaining Presbyters, when it is 
no more than is faid of the other Apoftles. ) Let them give us, if they can, 
any Satisfactory proof, that S. John alone, a year or two ere he died, made this 
new J/'cc/Vx of Presbyters and Churches, that we may believe it to be of God. 
But blind prefumptions we dare not truft. 

3. None of the Ancient Churches, Councils or Dodors C that ever I could 
find ) did ever hold that Subpresbyters were inftituted by St. John alone, and 
thefe changes made by him: How then (hall we think that men of yefterday 
can tell us without them, and better than they, and contrary to them, the hifto- 
ry of thofe times ? ,• /'. ,- 

4. By as good a courfe as this, what humane corruption may not be de- 
fended, and Scripture fuppofed infufficient to notihe Gods Church-inftitutions 
to us ? When there is nothing faid in Scripture for them, the Papifts or others 
may fay tliat S. John made this or that Change when all the rell were dead : But 
why mull we believe them ? 

5. And the Church hath rejected this plea already long ago. When Pa- 
fus pleaded that he had the Millenary Docftrine from St. John himfelf, and 
when the Eaftern Churches pretended his Authority for their time of Eajlers 
obfervation i here was incomparably a fairer ihew of St. Johns Authority than 
is produced by Dr. H. in the prefent cafe: And yet both were over-ruled by the 
.Confent of the Churches. 

II. And that it cannot be proved to be the Apollles intentions that their 
ellaWKhment herein lliould be but temporary, and left to the will of man to 
dfhange, I have largely proved in my Difptt. i, of Church Government 
iong ago. 1 now only fay, 

I. That 


1. That which the Apofiles did in execution of a Commiirion ofChrift, 
tor which he promifed and gave them his infallible Spirit, was the work of 
Chrill himfelt and the Spirit, and not to be changed but by an Autliority .equal 
to that which did it. But fuch wastiie fetling of the fpcacs of Churches and. 
Elders. E)%o — &c. The CommilTion is before recited from Scripture, and fo 
is thepromiieand gift ot the Spirit to perform it, 

2. Where there is full proof of a Divine Inftitution by the Apoftles, and 
no proofof a purpofe that men Qiould afterward change it, or that this in- 
ftitution Ihould be but for a time, and tlien ceafc ■■, there that Inllitution is 
to be fuppofed tolbnd in force, and the repeal, ceflation, cr allowed muta- 
tion to be feigned. But there is full proofof a Divine inftitution by the Apo-^ 
Jtles that Preesbytcrs with the power ot Government were placed over fingle 
Churches ( and no other faitli Dr. H. ) And there is no proof brought us 

at all, of cither Repeal, Ceifation, or Allowance for mutation Ergo &c. 

— — They confefs dcfado all that we dellre, viz. i. That there was then 
none but fwgle Churches or Congregations under one Bilhop. 2. That 
there were no Subpresbyters. Let them now prove the Allowance of a 

3 . That fuppofition is not to be granted which Icavcth nothing fure in the 
Chrirtian Churches and Religion; But fuch is the fuppofition of a change of 
the ApolHes Orders in thcfc points. Ergo. 

If the after times may change thefe Ordersjwho can prove tliat tliey may not 
change all things elfe of fupernatural inllitution ? As the Lords day, Baptifm, 
the Lords Supper,the Bible, the Minilhy yet remaining, &c. And if fo,nothing 
is fure. 

Objeft. CImjl himfelf inflitutcd ihtfe, and therefore they may not be chan- 

Anftv. 1. It was not Chrifl Iiimfclf that wrote the Scripture, buthisler- 
vants by his Spirit. 2. Chril\ himfelf did that wr^j'w/f/y which his Apoftles 
did by his Mandate and Spirit. Matth. 28. 20. The Spiiit was given them 
to bring all things to their remembrance which he had fpoken to them. And 
to cauie them to Teach the Churclies aH things which Chrill had commanded 
them. And as Chrill made the Sin againll the Holy Choll to be greater than 
that which was but diredly againll his humanity, and as lie promifed his 
Difciples that by that Spirit they Ihoukl do greater works than his,fo that which 
his Spirit in them dideliablilh, was of no Icfs authority, than if Chrilt hadper- 
fonally eftablithed it. 

4. By this rule the Prelates themfclves may be yet taken down by as good 
authority as the ApolUes other fcttlcment was changed : for ifit was done 
by Humane Authority, there is yet as great Humane power to make that 
further change; Wherever they place it, in Kings, Bilhops, or Councils, 
they may yet put down Bithops, by as good authority as they put down what 

the ApolUes fet up > and may (It up iiioic new orders lUU, by as good autho- '^ 

S rity 



rity as they fet up thefe half-presbyters ; And fo the Church (hall change as 
the Moon. 

5. That which is accounted a reproach to all Governours is not without 
proof to be imputed to God, and his infpired Apoftlcs. But to make oft and 

• fuddea changes of Government, is accounted a reproach to all Governours : 
Ergo — 

For it is fuppofed that they wanted either forefight and wifdom to know 
what was to be done, or Power to maintain it. To make Laws and Cct up 
Churches, Officers, and Orders, this year, and to take them down, and fet up 

. new ones a few years after, feemeth levity and mutability in man : And there- 
fore muft not without caufc and proof be afcribed to God. And the rather 

•becaufe that Mofes Laws had flood fo long, and the taking down of them was 
a fcandal very hardly born'; And if the Apodles that did it, (hould fet up by 
the Spirit others in their ftead, to continue but till they died, this would be 
more ftrange and increafe the offence. 

6, There was no fufficicnt change of the Kejfon of the thing, Therefore 
there was no fufRcient reafbn to change the thing it felf ( if Prelates had had 
Authority to do it. .) If you fay, That in Scripture times there were not 
worthy men enow, to make Subpresbyters and Bifhops both of: I anfwer, 
It is notorioufly falfe, by what Scripture fpeaketh, i. Of the large pourings 
out of the Spirit in thofe times: 2. Of the many Prophets, Teachers, In- 
terpreters, and other infpired fpeakers which were then in one Congregati- 
on, Ad. 13. I, 2. And I Cor. 14. Infomuch that at Corinth Paul was put 
to limit them in the number of^ fpeakers, and the exercife of their gifts.. 
2T And it's known by hiflory and the great paucity of Writers in the next 
age, that when thofe miraculous gifts abated, there was a greater paucity of 
"fit Teachers, proportionably to the number of Churches, than before. 3. And 
who can prove that if there had been more men , the Apoflles would 
have made a new Order of Presbyters, and not only more of the fame 

2. Obj. But the Churches grerc greater after than before ^ 

Anjrv. I. Where was there three Churches in the whole world for 300 
years fo numerous as the Church at Ja-nfalem is faid to have been in Scri- 
pture ^ 2. If the Churches were more numerous,- why might they not have 
been diftributed into more particular Churches ? 3. Or how prove 
you that Presbyters fliould not rather have been increa fed in the number of 
the fame Order, than a new Order invented ? 4. This contradidls the for- 
mer objedion : For if that Churches were fo fmall and few before, it's like • 
there might have been the more gifted perfons fparcd to have made two 
Orders in a Church. 5. And what if in Conjiantine's days the Churches grew 
yet grc-ater, than they did in the fccond, or third age compared to the Apo- 
iiks ? will it follow that ftill more new Orders may be devifed, as Subprielis 

7. There 

7. There are worfcr reafons of the change too vifible : And therefore it 
is not to be imputed to a fecret unproved mental intention of the Apodlcs. 
In Chrilis own time, even the Apollks themfelvcs ftrove , who Ihould 
be the greateli. Falfe Aportles afterward troubled Taul by Ihiving 
for a fuperiority of reputation. Vhtrcphcs loved to have the preeminence. 
Sedt-maliers rofeup in the Apoftles days : ^ds 20. 30. Of ynnr omi fches 
Jhall men arife, fpejk^"^ perverfe things^ to draw away difciplei ajhr thctn. Some 
caufed Divifions and Offences contrary to the Dodtrine which they had 
learned, Kam, 16. 17, In Clem. Rom. time the Church of Cm-imh was con- 
tending about Epifcopacy and fuperiority, even Lay-men afpiring to the 
chair. Tctn fcemcth to forefce what Pallors would do, when he forewarn- 
eth them not to Lord it over Gods heritage, i Tct. 5. i, 2, 3. J'iSor 
quickly pradifed the contrary when he Excommunicated the /f/i j« Bi(hops. 
See Grotiuf his complaint of the early and ancient pride, contention, and 
tyranny of the Bithops, De Impcr.fiim. Tot. ^.5(50,361. Noi^atianvi'vh No- 
vate quickly (hewed this fpirit ( if they be jiot wronged ) at Kome and 
Carthage \ and lb did Felicifimiu and his partners againfl Cyprian. What 
ftirrs were there for rtiany ages between the Ceciliant and the Donatiiis ? 
What horrid work was there at the Concil. Ephef. 1 . And Cmcil Chalcedon. 
& Concil. Eph. 2. between the contending Bilhops on each lidc ? The reading 
of the Adls would make a Chriflians face to blulh. What ikife between An- 
thymim and Bafil for a larger Dioccfe ? What work againll Nazianzen to 
calt him out of Conjiantinopk .«' What fad exclamations maketh he againil 
Synods, and againfl thefe Names and Titles of preeminence and higher feats, 
wilhing the Church had never known them ? And yet he was angry with 
his friend Bafil for placing him in fo fmall a Bilhoprick as Sofimii. What 
abundance of Epirtles doth Ifxdore Pelufiota write to Eufchiiif the Bilhop and 
Sofimiif and the other wicked Pricfis, dctedling and reproving their malignity, 
drunkennefs, and horrid wickednefs ? And how Iharply doth he lament that 
a faithful Miniftry is degenerate into carnal formal Tyranny , and that 
the Bilhops adorned the Temples under the name of the Churchy while they 
maligned and perfecuted the Godly who arc the Church indeed ? How la- 
mentable a defcription doth Stilpit. Scvcrus give of the whole Synods of 
Bilhops that followed Ithaciur and Idaciitf ? And in particular of Ithaciuf 
himfelf, as a fellow that made no confciencc of what he faid ; And what did 
Martin think of them who avoided all their Communions to the death, and 
would never come to any of their Synods ? Efpecially becaufe by liirring up the 
Magiftrate againft the Prifcillianilis, they bad taught the vulgar fury to abufe 
and reproach any man that did but read, and pray, and fart, and live rtridly, 
as if he were to be fufpedcd t( PrifciHianifm( which Hooker himfeU complaineth 
of. Pit/. J And Amhrofe alfo did avoid them. What bloody work did C>r/i 
and his party make at Alexandria ? What a man was Tbeophiluf after him * 
What work made he againrt Cbr\{ii\iom !" What a Charadcr doth Socrates s^ie. 
othim ? What infolence and furious zeal did Epiphaniitf flievv in the fame 

S 2 caufe^ 


caufe, in ttirurtinghimfelf into the Church o£ Chryfopm to ftir up his hearers 
toforfake him ? Hierom had a finger in the fame caufe ; His quarrels with 
Johan Hierofol. with RtrffifiUf, his abufive bitternefs againft Vigilantiu!, &c. are 
well known. The multitudes of Canons for preferving the grandeur of Pa- 
triarchs, and Metropolitanes, and Prelates, on one fide, and for keeping 
fmall Cities without Bifhops, ne vile/cat nomen Epifcopi, and for reftraining Pride, 
' felf-exaltation, enlargement of Diocefe, encroachment on each other, on the 
other fide, do all (hew the difeafes that needed fuch a Cure, or that had fuch 
a vent. In a word the Biftiops never ceafed contending, partly for their fe- 
veral opinions and errours i and partly for preeminence and rule, till they had 
brought it to that pafs as we fee it at this day, between Rome and Conjianti- 
mple, and the moll of the Chriftian world. From all which it is moft appa- 
rent tha'. Pride and Contention were cured but in part in the Paftors of the 
Churches : And that the remaining part was fo ftrong and operative, as ma- 
kethit too credible that there were ill caufes enow for enlarging of Diocefes 
and getting many Churches into one mans power, and fetting up a new 
Order of half- fubpresbyters •, And that the event of fuch a change is no proof 
that it was the Intent of the Jpojiles, that this change (hould be made when they 
were dead ■, no more than you can prove that all this turbulent pride and Jlrife 
was intended by them. 

If any fay, that it is not probable that fo foon after the Apoftles all the 
Churches would confpire in fuch an error : I anfwer, If all thefe things before 
mentioned were not done, or if matter of known fad may be denied as 
improbable, then that objedion hath fome fence. To which I add, 

8. I have proved that this change was not made at once, but by flow 
clegrees ; No nor made fo foon as is pretended, nor fo univerfally, but in 
long time, except at Alexandria and Rome v It was long before the Churches 
knew it. 

p. And I think none will deny but other things were taken upas the Tradi- 
tions of the Apoftles, and all the Churches cultomcs, which yet are now re- 
jedcd as no fuch thing. To fay no more -o{ Eajier and the Millenniim, tliere 
were five ceremonies which were accounted the Churches univerfal cuftomes, 
and traditions, and none was to omit, viz. not kneeling in adoration on the 
Lords days. Adoring towards the Eaft, the White Garment, the Milk and 
Honey and the Chrifm to the Baptized : But were thefe fuch ? Socrates, So- 
zotne)t, and Niccphorm tell us great Reafons to believe that ( whatever fome 
fay ) the time of Eafter, the Fait of Lent, and many other obfervances, and 
among cthersthe largeacfs or fmallnefs of Diocefes, were no Laws of God or 
the Apoftles, but ufages voluntarily and divcrfly taken -up, in feveral places, 
in which no Chriftians (hould condemn each other, but allow a liberty of dif- 
fentand diiference, without breach of Charity or peace. 

I o. Moreover it is a clear proof that the Apoftles intended no fuch change, 
in that theyleft no Rule, Inftruftions or Diredions for it, nor for the calling 
ofthensw. fort of Presbyters, nor for their pertormanoe of their places, TJiey 



left full diredtionsforthe Ordination and Regulation of Biflhops, called Pesbyters, 
and for Deacons,not leaving out fo much as DeaconefTes •, And would they have 
wholly omitted all inftrudlions for the new order of Presbyters, and Prelates, 
&c. if they had intended them ? 

1 1. To put all out of controverfie, God hath told us that his fetled orders 
are for continuance. Eph. ^. 11,12, i^. Such Offices as Chrift hath given to 
the Church, are for the perfeding of the Saints, for the work of the Miniflry, 
for thecdifying of the Body of Chrift, till we all come to the unity of theFaith, 
and the knowledge of the Son of God, to a perfeA man,d^c. If God do give 
fome to lay the foundation, and fome to build thereon, yet he leaveth not men 
to make new Officers befides all thefe, to do his appointed work. Timothy 
had charge to propagate the fame Dodtrine,and the fame Church orders, even 
to the coming of Chrid, i T/w. 5. 13,14. 2 7/w. 2. 2. and i Tim.'}. T/f. 1.5. 
Heb. 10. 25, 24, 25. But of this I defirc the Reader to fee full proofs in my 
2. (licet for the Minillry. 

12. Lallly, the holy Scripture isa perfcdV Handing Rule for all things neceG- 
fary toSalvation,and Divine Faith and duty, and to Church worfhip and Com- 
munion. If not, what is? And where (hall we find it ? And what Hop (hall 
we make of our additions, if there be no Law or Rule to govern the univerfal 
Churcli ? And who are they that have power to Rule the Church univerfal ? 
See my Key for Catholic!^-, ac^ainji the claim of Pope and General Councils. But if it 
be,tlicn the adding and altering is prefumption,except in circumlhntials which 
God luth left to mans determination : And then why muH we fwearnever to 
alter unncceflary circum(tances, were they fuch ? 




The fourth Argument, From the Imfojfihility of their 
■performance of the Epfcopal Office, in a Diocefane 
Church 3 And the certain exclufion and defiru^ion of 
true -particular Church Gouernment, while one man 
oily will undertake a work, too great for many hun- 

r A LI that I have faid hitherto is far fhort of this one Argument, from the 
x\. notorious unqueftionable mifchiefs which the oppofed frame of Prelacy 
doth infer > not probably, but certainly i not only where Bifhops are bad, but 
with the bell: i not in fome Churches, but in all. 


'that form of Prelacy U not lawful and to be fwom to, which maketh the Epifco- 
pal Office tmpoffible to be performed, and certainly deflroyeth and nuVi^eth true par- 
ticular Church Government wherever it obtaineth. But fuch is the oppofed frame. 

None will deny the Major but the Eraftians, who think that the Magiftrate 
only is the Church Governour (which as to forcing Government is true J And 
they that fo think, muft needs be againft Bifhops otherwife than as they are 
Preachers ot Magijlrates. Therefore I may let them pafs, ' 

The Minor 1 am to prove by parts. 

It muft be remembred, that I have (hewed how great the Diocefes are, and 
that no work proper to the Office of a Bifhop can be done by a Lay-man, or 
any but a Bifhop. And have prevented the pretence of doing it per alios. 
And now I mult (hew more fully than in the former breviate, what the work 
of a Bi(hop is-, And then you (hall fee whether it be not impoiTible. And led: 
you think I precifely feign more work than God hath put upon them, I will 
take it out of Scripture and Dr. Hammonds Annotations. 

I. The Teaching of the Flock. II. The Prieftly worfhipping of God with 
ihcm. III. The Government of them by Difcipline, arc the three parts of the 
Bifhops Orticc, as hach been proved. 

. L The 



I. The Teaching of the Flock is, r. Publick^Tcaching them m their Sieved 
AfTemblics, by expounding and applying the word of God. i Pt/. 5. 2,5, 
Feed the flock^ of God which is amnng you, taking the ai'erfight thereof^ &c. faith 

Dr. tijmmond, [_ The Bilhops of your fcveral Churches, 1 exhort take 

care of your feveral Cliurchcs and govern them, &c, ~\ 

Heb. 13. Kcmembcr them which have the rule over you^ who hare fpol^n to yojt 
the voordofGod. Dr. H. [ Set before your eyes the Bilhops and Governours 
that have been in your Cliurchand preached thcGofpel to you — ] j4cts 20.7. 
Vpon thejirji day of the tyeel{Tvhen the Difciples came together to brcak^bread^ Pattl 
preached to thetn — "] Mjtth. 24. 45, 46. IVho then w a faithful and wife fer- 
■vant rehom his Lord hath nude rulo- over his houfl^old togiie them meat in dm 
feafon. 1 

I TbiJ. 5. 12, Webefeechynu brethrcH-to hjiowtlmn that labottr amongyoti and 
are over yoH in the Lord and admonijh you, and to ejieem them very highly i)i love for 
their reorkj fake- '] D. H. [ Pay ( your Bilhops ) as great a rcfpe(fi as is poifi- 
ble for the pains they have taken among you. ] 

1 Tim. %• 1 7- The Elders that rule rrell arc rrorthy of double Iwnour, efpecially 
they that labour in the ivord and dodrine.'\ D. H. \_ Let the Bilhops */)ar ijt^e 
difcharged that fundlion well, receive for their Reward twice as much as 
others have, efpecially thofe that preach the Gofpel to whom it was news, 
and alfo continue to inllrud: congregations of Chriltians in fetled Churches. 3 

I Tim. 3. 2. A Bifiiop mult be apt to teach. ~\ D. H. [One that is able 

and ready to communicate to others the knowledge that himfclt liath. ~\ 

2 lim. 4.1,2. I charge ihcc before Cod and the Lord Jefm Chriji who fhaU 
judge the quicl^and the dtad at his appearing, and his kingdom, preach tlxword, 
be injiant in feafon^ out of feafon, reprove, rebttkc) exhort with all long-fufferin^ 
and doBrine. 3 See Dr. H, Annot. 

And can one Bilhopbc the publick Teacher of a thoufand, a hundred, or 
many Churches : Can he feed them, and give them their meat in due feafon ? 
wlicre one of a thoufand never heard his voice nor faw his face ? Is the fiock^ 
with tlicm or among (hem ? Can you fay to his Diocefe, 1 befeechyou know 
the Bijh^p that lahoureth anivig you and adtnonijhethyou^ and clieetn him highly in 
love for hii works f ike ■'' ^^''^ ^'^^V "^'^ ^^V "S^^ mock them, and that they cannot 
kpntr him wliom tliey never faw i nor love him for his work and admonition 
amongthcm, that never was among them, that never workt with them, that 
never admoniilit them i but only that one of many hundred faw him, and 
heard a Vifitation Sermon in one City or market Town once in tiiree years,or 
a year at moll. Murt many iumdrcd Congregations that never heard him, give 
him double honour that preachcth fometime to one Congregation a hundred 
or twenty miles from them, and this as their Inlhudting Lldcr ? Judge of the 
polVibility of this. 

2. The Bilhops are alf ) bound to private lulps, inftrudion, counfel, and 
to watch over all the flock, and every particular mc.nbcr of them - as a Fathcj 



iTiuft look to every Child, and a (hcphcrd to every flieep, and a Phyfician to 
every Patient. 

Ads 20. 2 o, 2 8, 3 I . I taught you pnhlkkly and from hoiife to honfe "Tak^e 

heed therefore toysitr f elves and to all the floc]^ over xvhich the holy Ghn^l hath made 
yOH Overfeers, to feed the Church of God., which he hath ptrchafed with his own 

blond "therefore n-atch, and remember that by the ff ace of thee years., 1 ceafed 

not to warn every one night and day rvitb tears ] D. H. [^ I/ijimding both in the 
•Synagogues, and in private Schools, and in your feveral houfes vvhither I alfo 

came Wherefore ye that are Billiops or Governours of the leveral Churches, 

look to your felves and the Churches committed to your truli;, to rule 

and order all the faithful Chriifians under you.] 

Ci.'/. 1.28. IFhom JVC preach, tvarning every man., and teaching every man in all 
n-ifdom, that n\ may p-efcnt every man prfeU in Chri\l Jefm.~\ Heh. I^.iy. Obey 
them that have the rule over you and fitbm it your felves., for they ivatch for yottr fouls 
us thofe that mufl give account, "] D. H. [ Obey thofe that are fet to Rule over 
-your feveral Churches, the Bilhops, whofe whole care is fpent among you, 
as being to give an account of your proficiency in the Gofpel. ] 

I before cited Ignatius telling the Bifhop that he mull enquire after every one 
byname, even fervants and maids. And Dr. Jer.laylor who faith. No man 
can be accountable for them that he knoreeth not ( or cannot k>jon:_) 

Now is it poiTible for a Billiop to do this ; To infl:ru(ft,overfee, counfel, one 
of many hundreds of the flock? who know him no more than one in ano- 
ther kingdom ? Is this pailoral teaching of particular Souls, to have an Appa- 
ritor call one of athoufand when he Conformeth not, or offendeth,to a Chan- 
cellors Court j How little know they what the work of a Pallor is that 
think fo !* 

3. Biffiops mufi teach the flock by their own vifihle example -■> By holy 
fpeaking and holy living before their flocks. Heb.i^, 7. [ Kememkr them 
rehich have the rule over you., robo have fpoken to you the word of God., vehofe- faith 
folloip., confideringthe end of their conveffations. J D .f/. [ Set before your eyes 

the BiQiops obferve their manner of living. ] If it were the Pope at 

Jlowc, we might caftaconjefture by the report of that great \\d.t fame., Becaufe 
it is a place that we hear often from in the Curranto's and Gazets : But no Ga- 
zet tellethus of the life of our Biihop. And how fhall thofe ohjo-ve their manner 
of living, who know not whether they be alive or dead, till aMinilier is to be 
iilenced, or a new Biihop doth fucceed the old ? You may as well bid us ob- 
ferve how they live in the Weji-hidies. 

.1 Fet. I. 5. 3. Neither as being Lords over Gods Heritage ( or haviiigdominion 
ove-r yiiir charges ) but being eifamples to the I'lock^'] D, H. [ Walking Chri- 
llianly and exeniplarily before them. | What ! before them that never faw 
or heard them f Before men ot another Countrey , that may fwcar and i^.ot 
repent with Veicr., JFek>ioivnot the man} What ! be examples to them that are 
out of the notic; of their words and lives > But if really you think thatfanieis 
iuflicienr, 1. It mull be of perfons and thin^^^s not too far olT. 2. It mult be 

. in 


in a CoWcn age or another world, where good men are not hated and calum- 
niated, and where bad men it" Great are not extolled, and where falfe reports 
be not ealily believed and reported i where a vile p;rfon is contemned, and 
thofe that fear the Lord are honoured i Wlicre the taitiifuiicrt Paltors are not 
tiie objed oi Great mens jealoulic, of bad mens malice, of dilTentcrs and con- 
tentious mens backbitings and reproch, and are not made the drunkards fong, 
nor the fcom and oiT-fcouring of all things, and where he that reprovcth or 
departeth from evil, doth not makehimielfa prey:, or at leal! where malig- 
nity, worldlincTs, and lying aie not the prcdominai-.t humours of the Age. 
When you have fecured lis of a true fame, we will make the example of a 
flrangcr of another land or Diocefe,(as foonasone of this Dioccfe as ftrange to 
us ) the exemplar of our lives. 

4. Another part of the Bilhops work is to preach to thofe without that arc 
uncalled, as he hath opportunity; Tobbour in the nvrd and Do,flrine, i TimJ 
5.17. faith Dr. H. I'd proch the Gnjj'cl to tvl^oin it tvas news : which mads 
Dr. Dmvuin and other Prclatills fay That the City and Territories are their 
Dioccfe even when few of them are converted, that they may rirll convert 
them and then govern them i and Dr. H. to Noteout ofC/.w.Kow. thatthey- 
are made Billiops over the Intidels that Ihould after believe. And doubtlcfs they 
mull do their bell to call the unbelieving and impenitent to CliritL 

And how much of this will a Bilhop have time to do, that hath the work of 
3 Diocefe ofChriliians on his hands? 

5. It is the work of a Bilhop to Baptize, or at leaft to judge of thofe that are 
to be Baptized, M.itth.2S.ip, Go and dil'cipkuie all nations baptizing them. And 
Dr. H. thinketh that no Prcsbyter,but Bilhops baptized in Scripture time, be- 

caufe there were then no other exitlent. And it is too evident in Antiquity -v 

( liy what I before cittd ) that no child or aged perfon was ufiully baptized +, • ''•''> • y '**"" 
xvithout a Bilhopf wlun Bilhops canre up,) at lead they ufcd to anoint their no- *^^w '. Ka 7 
ihils,c^'c.with holy oyl.Anddoubtlefs they that Baptized or admitted to baptifm, 
did examine them ot their faith, and refolutions,before they took them into the 
Covenant and Vow of God. And htiw many hundreds in a year em the Bilhop 
do this for, befidcs all his other work ? 

6. It is by the EngUlli Canons and P\.ubrick the Bilhops duty to confirm all 
that were baptized ; many think it is meant in H.b. 6.1,2. Our Bishops take it 
for a proper part of their work. And they tlut mull confirm them according to 
our Liturgy, niull know their underllanding, and receive their profellion of 
their faith, and Handing to their Eaptifmal Covenant, which rcquireth fome 
time and labour witli each one, for him tliat will not make a mockery of 
it. Look into the Bills of London^ which tell you Imw many are born every 
week i and thence conjctSure how many hundreds in a year the Bilhop hath 
in that Dioccfe to Confirm, and confequcntly in other Diocefes proportionably? 
Or if that will not inform you, try over EnolMd where you come, how many 
aic (thoufiii but cuvtorily as a hafty ceremony J contiru.cdat all? Whether it 
be one of many hundreds? And fettliis to therel't of the Bilhops work. 

♦ 7. It i>the Bilhjps worktod^tend the truth againli giinfayers, to confute 

T aiid 



and flop the months of Hereticks and contradiders, and confirm the troubled 
and wavering minded in the fluth ; not by fire and fword, nor by a quick 
prohibition of others to preach \ but by fober conferences, and weight of evi- 
dence, and by Epiftlcs as Fan! did, when they are not at hand, yea even to 
other Churches ; and as one that is gciitle to all men., apt to teach, patient, in 
mcekiteff injini^Htig them that oppnfc thcmfelvss, if God peradveWm rvili girc them 
repentance to the ackiiorvledging of the truth, 2 T'im. 2 . 2 4, 2 5. And Ihall the Bifhop 
do this for many hundred Churches ? While he is defending the poor flock 
againrt Papifts, Qiiakers, Arrians, Socinians, Infidels ( alas how numerous 
^rc the deceivers ! ) at Nexvark^, or Gahisborough,ot Bojion,whzt (hall they all do 
■b'etvveen that and Bamet-} or the remotelt part oi Bttckinghamffme } 

II. Thi fecond part of the Bilhops office is to be the peoples ?nefi:ly guides m 
Gods' woirfhip ; prii^cipally in the publick Afiemblies, and oft in -private, viz. 

1. To confcfs the peoples fins and their own : To be their ownandtlie 
Churches mouth in prayer, thankfgiving and the praifes of the Lord. 
And in how many hundred Congregations at once will they do this J* ■ 

2. To confecrate and diftribute the Sacrament of Communion •,: and confc- 
quaitly to difcern who are fit for it. And in how many Churches at once will 
he do this ? 

3 . To blefs the Congregation at the end of every iTieeting. . All thefe I have 
before proved that the ancient Bithopsdidi :m6i'Dx, Hammond idSth, No other 
in Scripture times i And what Ubiquitary (hall do this. 

4. And in private it is the Bifliop that mtifl vifn the fick, that muft be fent 
for by them all, and muft pray with them. As Dr. H. at large proveth,^OT(?f. 
in Jam. 5. 1 have told you before how well and for how many he is able to do 
this, in one of our Diocefes. If that (erve not turn, I pray you if you arc 
foreigners, ask Englifh men what number it is of fick men in a Diocefe that 
are vifited and prayed with by thcBi(hop?Compare them with the Bills of Mor- 
tality in London, and judge proportionably of the reft, whether he viiit one of 
many thoufands of fuch as die, to fay nothing of all the fick that do recover, 

5.. And it is the Bilhops work to receive all the offerings, firft-fruits, tythes, 
and other maintenance of the Church, as the Canons before cited fay. And fee 
Dr. H.onAd. 2. e. and Ad.^, ^^,^i\.,^%&c. 

6.. It was the Bifliops work to take care of all the Poor, Orphans, Widows, 
Strangers, as the Canons cited (hew ; And Dr. K. on i Cor. 12. 28. c. faith 
1^ The fttpreme truji amd charge rvai rcfened to the Apofiles and Bijhops of the 
Church.] So'mCarr.'^J. Apnji. A Bilhop muft have the care of the moneys, 
fo that by his power all be cfifpenfed to the poor, &c. where he citeth Jftji: 
Mart, and Polycarp. for a particular care. I have before told you that if the poor 
of every parilh be not relieved til! the Bifnop take notice of them, few of the 
poor in England would be any more for Bilhops, than for famine, nakcdnefs, 
-and death. 

III, But the principal thing which I reckon impolTible, and is, and mufl be 
deftroyed by Diocefancs, is the Government nfal! the pariicitlar Churches, ( or 
Pariihes j in the Dicccfc. Where 



Where note, r. That I fpeak not of the Magillrates Government, 2. Nor 
of that General [nfpedttonby which an Archbilhop or General Pallor overfceth 
tlie inferiour Bitliops with their flocks, as a general Officer doth the Regiments, 
and Troops in his Army, which haveColoncls and Captains of tlicir o\vn.' 
But I fpeak of the particular Church Government of the Bilhops of fingle 
Churches, like that of Captains over their own troops, or rather Schoolmafters 
in their feveral Schools. 

And I the rather mention thisbccaufe Bifliops making it more proper to thcm- 
felves, than 'Teaching oi ff^otjh/p^ mudhold, ( were they cor.fillent with them- 
felvcsj that they can Icfs delegate it to otliers. 

The exercife of tlic Keys are i. For entrance by Baptifm. 2. By confirmati- 
on (rightly understood, as in a peculiar Treatife I have opened it ) 3. By Re- 
proof, Confoiation, Excommunication, and Abfolution of particular per- 
lons, which I am now to fpeak of. 

Where diliindly note I. What the work is Materially, II. In what man- 
ner it muft be done, 111. On how great a number of perfons. 

1. I . To receive accufations and informations of all the great and perilous 
herefies, crimes, and fcandals in the Diocefe. 

2. To judge of the credibility of the witnefTcs ( hardly doiKby a firangcr ) 
and of the